COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BULLETIN
Volume 60 December, 1967 No. 5
Published five times a year by Columbia Theological Seminary, Box 520,
Decatur, Georgia 30031. Entered as second-class matter, May 9, 1928, at
the Post Office at Decatur, Ga., under the Act of Congress of August 24,
1912. Second-class postage paid at Decatur, Georgia.
FOREWORD — By J. McDowell Richards 3
"The Reverend James Benjamin Green" 4
... By J. McDowell Richards
"In Response to Recognition by the Alumni" 7
... By William Childs Robinson
"Let Us Go On" 10
... By Ludwig R. M. Dewitz
"The Problem of Evil" 13
. . . By O. H. Lyon
"The Place of Preaching, Sacrament, and Pastoral Care in the
Experience of the Reformation" 19
... By Ronald S. Wallace
SHORTER REVIEWS 45
BOOKS ALSO RECEIVED 63
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In several respects this issue of the Faculty Bulletin is one of farewells.
It is the last such bulletin which will be issued under the direction of Dr.
S. Barton Babbage, who for the past three years has served ably and well
as its Editor. On November the 15th, Dr. Babbage was installed as the first
President of the Conwell School of Theology in Philadelphia and will assume
full-time responsibilities at that institution in the immediate future. We
would record here our gratitude for the significant service he has rendered
at Columbia Seminary, and our heartfelt best wishes for his increasing
success and usefulness in the new work to which he goes.
In early September, Dr. J. B. Green, Professor Emeritus of Theology,
was promoted from the Church Militant to the Church Triumphant. We do
not mourn his death at the age of 96, but we thank God for him and for his
work. The brief and inadequate memorial remarks included here are but
a faint expression of what is in the hearts of his former students as they
At the end of this quarter, Dr. William C. Robinson will retire from
the Columbia Faculty after serving here for forty-one years as Professor of
Church History, Church Polity and Apologetics. On October the 24th he
was honored by the Alumni of the seminary who presented him with a Dodge
Polara Sedan and announced plans for the publication of a book in his
honor which will contain essays by nine distinguished theological scholars.
At our request Dr. Robinson has put into written form the significant and
moving remarks in which he made his response, and these are presented
here for a larger audience. It is good that Dr. Robinson will continue to make
his home near our campus, and we may be sure that he will find continued
opportunities to write, to teach, and to preach the Gospel.
Other articles in this issue are of varied nature. In "Let Us Go On" we
print the address delivered by Dr. Ludwig Dewitz at the opening of this
school year. While directed originally to seminary students and faculty,
it contains a continuing challenge for other Christians as well.
In "The Problem of Evil," Dean Olof Halvard Lyon briefly explores
some of the many ways in which men have sought to explain this mystery of
sin and tragedy which confronts us all. Recognizing that we cannot solve
the question here, he points to the answer in Christ.
"The Place of Preaching Sacrament and Pastoral Care in the Experience
of the Reformation" is set forth and interpreted by Dr. Ronald S. Wallace,
not primarily for its historical value but as a reminder to the ministry of
our day. We commend it to the careful attention of our readers as containing
truths which we neglect at our peril.
J. McDowell Richards
THE REV. JAMES BENJAMIN GREEN
(Remarks made by Rev. James McDowell Richards at the
funeral service of Dr. Green conducted in the Decatur Pres-
byterian Church, Decatur, Georgia on the afternoon of Sep-
tember 9, 1967)
It is not our custom today to pronounce eulogies upon the dead. This in
itself is both right and proper. A funeral is not a time for sentiment and for
empty words in praise of one who has departed; it is not an occasion on
which to exalt a person, but rather to magnify our Maker.
There are times, however, when it is a good thing for us to pause at the
close of some great life and to ask ourselves the secret of its meaning. At
such a time we seek to emphasize the lessons which have been taught in
that life and to pay tribute to the God of Grace and of Glory, who is willing
to use a life dedicated to Him, and who yet speaks to us through his servants.
Such a day has come in our experience. The Second Book of Samuel
records the fact that when David was mourning the death of his captain,
Abner, he spoke to his servants and said, "Know ye not that there is a
prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" So is it with us today, for
the one whose earthly career is ended was indeed a prince and a great man
in the life of our Church. It is entirely fitting that we should pause to ask
ourselves what God has been doing and saying through this life, and what
God is saying to us at this hour.
It has been remarked by Dr. Davison Philips that in some sense the end
of Dr. Green's life marks the close of an era, and this is true. Here is a life
which spanned a large part of two centuries and covered a period of 96 full
years. Dr. Green was born in Lexington, Alabama on May 10, 1871, and
was 29 years of age before the end of the nineteenth century. Incidentally,
it might be remarked that he was born in a log cabin, that he had few initial
advantages in the way of worldly possessions or position, and that he had
to overcome real difficulties in preparing himself for service. In this respect
his life was an exemplification of the American dream. It is likely that not
many more of those who rise to places of distinction in this country will be
born in log cabins, although doubtless many will continue to come into the
world in humble circumstances.
The last 67 years of this man's life were spent in the Twentieth Century,
and the close of his pilgrimage found men launching their satellites into
space, probing their way toward the moon and the planets, and threatening
themselves with destruction through the hydrogen bomb. Dr. Green was a
real part of both centuries. It has recently been remarked by one who knew
him well that he was also very much at home in the First Century.
Insofar as Columbia Theological Seminary is concerned, Dr. Green's
death assuredly marks the end of an era. He was the last of the distinguished
and faithful men who taught in the old Columbia Seminary located in
Columbia, South Carolina, and who then came to teach on the new campus
and in the more adequate buildings provided in Decatur. He is also one of
the last of that little group of professors who carried forward the work of
the Institution during the depression years of the early Thirties, laboring
under discouraging circumstances, at tremendous personal sacrifice and at
a salary so small that I prefer not to mention it in public today.
In 1936, when salaries were still at almost their lowest level, when the
student body was very small, and when the prospect of the future was highly
uncertain, a renewed invitation came from Union Theological Seminary in
Virginia for Columbia Seminary to merge with that Institution in Richmond.
The way before this school was so uncertain that it seemed necessary to give
careful consideration to the invitation. Indeed, the Board of Directors felt
that it would have to accept the offer of a merger unless a considerable sum
of money for those days could be raised by the Presbyterians of Atlanta —
an undertaking which fortunately was successfully completed a few months
later. At the time the question of merger was under consideration, and even
though such a move would have brought many personal advantages to Dr.
Green, he was unshakeable in the conviction that Columbia Seminary should
remain where it is. He said that too much prayer had been offered for guid-
ance before the decision was reached to move from Columbia to Decatur
for God to have let his servants make a mistake, and that he was sure God
did not mean for the decision to be altered in 1936. We believe the events
of these later years have proven how right he was in that conviction.
It is not our intention to speak in detail concerning the life of Dr. Green.
Much might be said about his personal and his family life, for he was a
Christian gentleman in the fullest sense of the word, and a devoted husband
and father. He was also the faithful and much loved pastor of congregations,
and an expository preacher of such faithfulness and power that he had few
peers and perhaps no superiors in that respect during our time.
It is of Dr. Green's work as a professor that I would speak particularly,
however, for here his greatest service was rendered. In 1921, he was called
from the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church of Greenwood, S. C. to
become Professor of Systematic Theology at the Old Columbia. Because he
remained vigorous in mind and body until a comparatively few months be-
fore his death, and because the retirement policy of the Seminary had not
been so strictly defined at that time as it is now, he continued his service in
the classroom until 1951, when he was 80 years of age. He was a teacher of
great ability. Although his principal work was in the field of Systematic
Theology, Dr. Green also taught Homiletics, Ethics and the English Bible.
He found particular delight in setting forth the Word of God and, as we
were reminded earlier, he had an especial fondness for the Psalms which
enabled him to interpret them superbly for his hearers. Probably few of the
courses taught by Dr. Green were more greatly appreciated than those in
which he led his students in a study of the Psalms during his later years in
This man had been entrusted by God with a clear and logical mind, and
he used his talents faithfully and well in the task to which he was assigned.
He had an unusual ability to analyze, to synthesize, to condense, and to
present the content of his subject with clarity and with force. He was a
master of alliteration, making use of this device so constantly and effectively
that it became both a source for delight and the occasion for much affec-
tionate humor on the part of his students. His teaching was characterized by
remarkable clarity of outline and was often enriched by the use of memor-
able and epigrammatic phrases.
This teaching was marked always by sincerity and earnestness. Perhaps
the conviction with which he taught was all the greater because he was not
born into a Presbyterain home. He had come to mature years before he
made his profession of faith in Christ, and he became a member not of the
denomination of his fathers but of the Presbyterian Church. Hence, for him
Presbyterianism was not an inherited tradition but a freely chosen faith. This
fact had its inevitable effect upon the witness which he bore in the class-
room and in the pulpit.
Dr. Green was a man of genuine humility and often seemed surprised
by the appreciation and affection accorded him. To him the man was noth-
ing, but the message which he bore was of transcendent importance. He was
a man of the Book, whose message was based upon and centered in the
Word of God. We have spoken already of his ability as an expository
preacher and as a teacher of the Bible.
This was a man of faith, who knew that "the effectual fervent prayer
of a righteous man availeth much." His praying was marked particularly by
the spirit of praise and thanksgiving even to the end of his life. He was
gifted in public prayer because he prayed much in private, and because he
did not approach this exercise of worship lightly. Students who sat in his
classroom do not easily forget the earnestness and the edifying nature of
the prayers with which, according to the practice of the Institution, he
customarily opened each period of instruction. Indeed, it is likely that on
many occasions they derived far more benefit from the prayers than from
the lectures which followed, able though the latter were.
As a Christian, Dr. Green was a man who knew what he believed, but
whose convictions were held in charity. He was able and willing to contend
for the positions which he held, but there was about him no spirit of bitter-
ness or of ill will.
Dr. Green was an author of distinction and his two principal works,
"Studies in the Holy Spirit" and "A Harmony of the Presbyterian Standards
with Explanatory Notes," continue to have a wide circulation. Through them
he still speaks, but his influence in the life of the church is felt still more
strongly through the lives of hundreds of men who sat in his classes and
received instruction from him. Because his teaching was done with sincerity,
because it put iron in their blood, because they remember him as a man of
deep reverence for the Word who magnified the Church, and who ex-
alted Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, these men rise up with his family
and his friends today to call him blessed.
In love and in gratitude the Alumni of the Seminary years ago initiated
and carried out a successful movement to endow the Chair of Systematic
Theology at Columbia Seminary in his name. For the same reason, some of
his former students quietly initiated steps to have him nominated as Mod-
erator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. — an
office to which he was elected in 1946. Perhaps no single incident will serve
better to illustrate the spirit of the man than one which occurred in this
On the day when Dr. Green first learned of plans to have him nominated
as Moderator, he was encountered by one who loved him, pacing up and
down behind the residence which he occupied on the campus of Columbia
Seminary. He was obviously agitated and was weeping. When asked the
reason for his distress he replied: "I have just learned that I am to be
nominated as Moderator of the General Assembly, and I am not worthy of
the office." Such was the spirit of the man whom God gave to serve Co-
lumbia Seminary and our Church for so many years.
There are two words from Scripture which seem to me to be highly
appropriate on this occasion, and with them I would close. The first is
found in Proverbs 4:18 — "The path of the just is as the shining light, that
shineth more and more unto the perfect day." The other is from Ephesians
3:8 and I Corinthians 15:10. It consists of statements made by the Apostle
Paul which Dr. Green had appropriated for himself, and which he echoed in
his life: "Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace
given, that I should preach. . . . the unsearchable riches of Christ. ... By
the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon
me was not in vain."
IN RESPONSE TO RECOGNITION BY THE
William Childs Robinson
Mr. Chairman, Mr. Pastor, Mr. President, Alumni, Family and Friends —
This is far beyond my fondest expectations. I am overcome. What can
one say in appreciation of your manifold kindness? In listening to the
gracious words of President Richards and of Dr. Phillips, I could not help but
recall the old story that comes from the time when it was customary to
eulogize the departed. The widow listened as the Parson waxed eloquent
over the alleged virtues of her departed husband until she could stand it no
longer. Pulling her son closer, she whispered to him, "Johnny, you go open
that lid and see if the man in that box is your Pa."
Yet Dostoievski does tell us, in The Brothers Karamazov, that, "in the
heart of every man is both Sodom and the Madonna," and the Apostle re-
minds us that we have this treasure in earthen vessels. Compared with the
pricelessness of the divine treasure the earthiness of the human vessel over-
Perhaps the generous gift of this magnificant automobile is a reminder
of our first Christmas as professor at Columbia. That year we had been
buying furniture and several times the car ran out of gas. So when Christmas
came and the students took the faculty to task, they humorously complained
that Dr. Robinson ran out of money by the middle of every month and the
students had to push him around to the first. If our fourteen-year-old DeSoto
has looked like it needed replacement, my defense is that this year we have
been buying a house into which to move as we retire from the faculty home
provided for us while we teach.
In any case I can only remember the Apostle's lovely letter of thanks
in his Epistle to the Philippians. Perhaps my Philippians are Harry and
Davidson Philips, the President and all those Columbia alumni and friends
for whom they spoke. "I thank God for every remembrance of you from
the first day until now" and, "my God shall supply all your needs according
to His riches in glory in Christ Jesus." We cannot thank you enough.
Nor can I ever sufficiently express my gratitude to my junior colleagues
for their kind offices in honoring my seventieth birthday with a volume of
essays by distinguished scholars. Soli Deo Gloria, the title they have selected,
is precious to every Christian's heart. Abraham believed giving glory to God.
As spiritual heirs of the father of the faithful, we give to God — Father,
Son and Holy Spirit — all the glory of saving us sinners.
The President has kindly eased the large number of my years by placing
his along with mine. But it would make him a bit too old to press this
parallelism. True he entered Old Columbia as a student the year I did as a
professor. But I entered as a student just fifty years ago this fall. And behind
that were the years when I was a member of the Woodrow Memorial Church,
named for a former professor of Columbia, and staffed most of its years
by professors and students of the Seminary. Moreover, this congregation
grew out of the Waverley Sunday School. Some sixty years ago a tall dis-
tinguished looking gentleman attended that Sunday School. The Secretary
announced that the Superintendent, the Assistant Superintendent and the
Secretary were all present. The dignified gentleman, Professor R. C. Reed,
turned to my Father and asked, "Just who is the Superintendent of this
Sunday School." "Why you are," answered the Assistant Superintendent. So
from early years I have lived in the shadow of Columbia Theological Semi-
nary. And through the kindness of the institution's president I own the un-
used part of a lot in Elmwood Cemetery in Columbia around which there
is a small coping stone with the words COLUMBIA SEMINARY cut into
it. So I hope, in due time, to sleep beneath the shade of Columbia.
Our first years in Decatur were precarious ones. The depression struck
before we had our roots firmly planted. It was thought that four seminaries
were more than the Church could support. One week there were reports that
we were to be moved to Richmond, the next that we would go to Memphis
to be merged there with Louisville and Austin, a third that we would simply
be folded up. At his funeral, it was properly noted that Dr. J. B. Green
declared his determination to stay here in Decatur. I expressed a like de-
termination by sinking some anchor stones. At that time there were no side-
walks and the dirt stretch from the street curb to our front walk was a bit
over ten feet. One day a wagon came by with several granite blocks from
Stone Mountain. I bought them and got the driver to help me sink them,
reaching from the curb to the walk as my anchor stones. When a sidewalk
was finally laid along Columbia Drive the stones were no longer needed
there, so I had them moved to the rear of the house where they serve as
stepping stones from the back steps to the parking area. And they are still
anchor stones . . . now attached to the stern as formerly they were to the
prow of 5 1 1 Columbia Drive.
But some of you are asking, "What do you need with anchor rocks, aren't
you an anchor yourself?" Years ago when I met Dr. Ernest Thompson, then
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Charleston, W. Va., and father
of the distinguished professor who was leading the progressive forces of the
Assembly, the good pastor remarked, "Well we must also have conservatives
in the Church." May I indulge the hope that the liberals of our day will be
as broad in their outlook as was Dr. Ernest Thompson and recognize that
the conservatives also have a place in the Church.
Augustine declared that this was his faith because it was the catholic
faith. 1 Then he advised the Augustinian reader not to love him more than
the catholic faith, and warned his critic not to love himself more than the
catholic truth. "To the one, I say be unwilling to yield to my writings as to
1 Haec et mea fides est, quando haec est catholica fides, Augustine De Trinitate,
I. IV 7.
the canonical Scriptures . . . Likewise I say to my critic: Be unwilling to
change my writings by your own opinion on contention, but correct them
only from the divine text or by unanswerable reason." 2
Perhaps, we are not accustomed to phrase ourselves exactly as Augustine
did. We are more likely to speak of the biblical revelation of God as it
focuses upon Christ Jesus. For all the light of sacred story gathers around
His head sublime — around the Head once crowned with thorns, and
crowned with glory now. But we are dedicated to Augustine's position. We
are opposed to heteronomy, that is, to the rule of ourselves or of other men.
But we do not oppose heteronomy in the interest of autonomy. When every
man does what is good in his own eyes, even though it be under the pleas
of acting according to his own conscience, then we have anarchy. Reject
the rule of any other man, but do it in the interest of Theonomy. Reject
my authority in so far as my teaching differs from God's Word; hold to
what I have taught in so far as it is His; and do so because it is His and
mine only as I have all too faintly echoed His. John Robinson was right
that God has more truth to break forth from His Word. This week's lectures
are making that plain. Whether one be an old teacher, or a young lecturer
may his words help you bring every thought into captivity to Christ. For He
is the Word incarnate in a human life, the Heart of the Father made mani-
fest in a historical involvement that issued in crucifixion and could be vin-
dicated only by His Resurrection. We have one Lord, the crucified, risen,
reigning, interceding Lord Jesus Christ.
Verumtamen sicut lectorem meum nolo mihi esse deditum ita correctorem nolo
sibi. Hie me non amet amplius quam catholicam fidem, iste se non amet am-
plius quam catholicam veritatem. Sicut illi dico, Noli meis litteris quasi Scrip-
turis canonicis inservire ... Ita illi dico: Noli meas litteras ex tua opinione vel
contentione, sed ex divina lectione vel inconcussa ratione corrigere. Augustine
De Trinitate, in, praef. 2.
"LET US GO ON . . ."
Ludwig Richard Max Dewitz
There is always something exciting about the opening of a new school
year. We all know that we are booked for the grand tour of spiritual and
intellectual travel through theological regions which, we trust, will bring us
to the promised land of fruitful ministry in the service of Jesus Christ.
As we look at the itinerary some questions may arise, trivial ones as well
as weighty ones. Somebody is sure to ask why we must pass through such
an uninviting place as "Essentials of Hebrew Grammar" or why other spots
with interesting names are apt to turn out so much less exciting that one
had hoped. Others may even wonder if our journey is really necessary, since
— so it is rumored in certain circles — this seminary travel plan will take
all the enthusiasm out of your urge to preach the Gospel and threatens to
leave you confused in the end with lots of problems and no solutions.
Then there is the matter of tour conductors and fellow travelers. It could
be heavy going when the leader wishes to forge ahead, but the travel group
is afraid of terra incognita, wishes to stay all the time in the well known
places where it is good to rest, to build tents and to sing together with no
discordant note to disturb, or, worse, some may even worry all the time
whether the tour conductor is a real bona fide agent of the agency and per-
sonally acquainted with the journey from the city of destruction to the
Then, what about this conducted tour? Will it cripple our initiative?
After all, some of us have preached pretty good sermons — so we think —
and now we may be told to scrap them just because they do not run on
seminary approved homiletical lines.
Furthermore, will the tour conductors be acquainted with some of the
changes that have occurred along the way, or will they simply point out the
old landmarks without realizing that, while the direction of the road is the
same, the means of transport and the crowd one meets on the way look
different from that of a generation ago?
But it is not only the travellers who may worry about the tour conductors;
the leaders, on their part, may be discouraged about some members of their
travel group. It would not be very conducive to a happy start on Barth,
Bonhoeffer and Tillich, if the sentiment is that Hodge should really be
considered as the terminal station of reformed thought . . . vice versa, some
eager beavers may be so interested in modern religious experiment that it
will be difficult to keep them on the hallowed and correct road. Going
through Hebrew grammar is not made any more cheerful when after five
hours of patient plodding it is discovered that some member of the group
does not even know what a vowel is in contrast to a consonant.
But in spite of all these and related problems there is every reason to
sound a fanfare in the major key to start us on our journey aright; there is
no need for fearful apprehension, for if we can say "I believe in God — I
believe in Jesus Christ — I believe in the Holy Spirit" — and it is really
under those auspices that we travel — students and professors alike — then
our excitement about being privileged to go together through another year
of academic pursuit in the things of the Spirit should fill us with joyous
The notes of the fanfare are crisp and clear :
"Let us go on unto perfection!" It is an ancient word of Christian en-
couragement for fellow travellers such as we are. The actual phrase comes
from an unknown writer in the 1st century A.D. who was anxious to
convince a group of Christians whose roots lay deep in Judaism that they
should take courage to move ahead, for the present and the future had
better things to offer than the past. He viewed all the previous experiences
of God's pople as mere preparation for the real drama of faith — that grand
relay race of the eleventh chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews culminating
in the today and the tomorrow! "Let us go on unto perfection!" That was
splendid advice to Christians in the first century A.D. and so it is so for us.
As a matter of fact, this green light urging us to go forward is God's
word to His people from the beginning. It was my privilege to be at Ur of
the Chaldees in Southern Iraq just as 1966 turned into 1967. Looking at
the silhouetted shadow of the mighty ziggurat, that ancient temple tower of
Ur, I was filled with wonder as I thought of that word "go" given once to
Abram, and all that has gone on ever since that imperative was first uttered.
It has rightly been pointed out that Biblical faith is grounded in God reveal-
ing Himself in history which means that it is not valid merely as a system
of revealed ideas about God, but always manifests itself as an expression of
life going on through the ages. Abram's faith is focussed on God's giving of
Isaac, the life of the heir, and our faith is centered in God's living son, the
heir of all things, Jesus Christ.
If Genesis initiates its dynamic with God's word "go" to Abram, Exodus
echoes it with its repeated: "Let my people go!" And so we could go on a
long time: the call to Joshua "Go, pass over this Jordan"; the first psalm
which speaks of the walk of those who trust God; the prophet Jonah who is
commanded to go to Niniveh to preach in the regions beyond.
The history of faith is one of progress. From the God of the Fathers we
move to the great revelation of the name of Yahweh to and through Moses.
The concept of the land develops into that of the kingdom in the time of
David, and the temple, not known before, becomes the new center of the
worship of God. Yet it is destroyed, and the way into the exile must seem
to be the end of the road — it is indeed the end of the way of a sinful
nation, but not the end of God's way with sinful people. Deutero-Isaiah
flashes the green light once more by the inspiration of God: and there is
the highway through the desert by which the people return. Go into the
future with God, that is the prophet's constant theme, for the best is yet
to come: God's perfect servant, "a light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory
of thy people Israel." As history is marching on, God is ever in front of it.
When the time was fulfilled Jesus was born, but even this fulfillment, this
climax to a long period of history which, in a real sense, is the finale to
Old Testament expectation, is in reality only an overture to challenge the
world at large. Not on the temple mount, nor anywhere else in Jerusalem
would worship be centered, but where the name of Jesus Christ is acknowl-
edged in spirit and truth! The limits of the kingdom of David proved too
narrow, now it must be: "Go ye into all the world!"
Little wonder that a good many people were frightened; it was all so
new, so unaccustomed. Compared with the assured past, the future looked
so open, so uncertain, but into this frightening prospect the encouraging note
is sounded: "Let us go on unto perfection!"
We rightly regard the Reformation as another instance of a step forward
by the grace of God, when, at the time, many must have felt that the very
foundations of the church were shaken.
The anxiety and bewilderment of many must have been great for things
hallowed to them for centuries by — to be sure — a false tradition were
suddenly removed for the forward march of the church. The reformers went
forward at that critical period undaunted, because they knew on the basis
of the gospel that the future belonged to God.
Would it be an exaggeration to say that the crisis of first century and
sixteenth century Christianity finds a parallel in our own times? There are
pressures from without as well as from within which make us realize that
we cannot escape the new shape of things. We might use the words of a
political observer who pointedly said: "There is drama ahead, even if the
plot is not quite plain to us." Yet our watchword can only be: "Let us go
on unto perfection!"
The specific problem for us is how to do this at the present moment.
Philosophers have interesting theories of time: after all, the present is a
rather elusive concept. When we think we have this moment of time in our
hands, it is passed already, and we must replenish it by taking afresh from
the future before us. Thus the present is always the point of crisis where
past and future meet.
There is the temptation to shrink from the future and to fill the present
merely with the treasures of the past. To vary our theme, some would wish
us to read: "Let us go back unto perfection!" — and, of course, the ref-
ormation is in some people's minds just that: going back to the foundations
of the Gospel. But that going back was not in order to restore some museum
piece, but to gain the right direction for building the new church. The
Augsburg Confession as well as the Heidelberg catechism and the West-
minster Confession of Faith were modern restatements of the faith for their
particular time, meant to guide the church into the future. "Let us go on
unto perfection," means then, let us go, not just anywhere, but with the
thrust that we have from such fundamental doctrines as faith in God and
repentance from dead works, resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment,
let us go forward. Of course, only if we are sure of those foundations can
we go forward to build further.
Thus it is not a matter of simply restating well known doctrines, but
our task is to grasp intellectually their significance for our times through
our work in the Seminary. When the first century writer admonished his
fellow believers to go on unto perfection, his stress was not so much on
ethical as on intellectual progress; it was not a matter of simply repeating
in so many words the facts of the Gospel, but of working out those truths
intellectually in the interplay of philosophical and theological thought, of
applying them to a view of history, both in relation to their social implica-
tions as well as in relation to the believer's life of holiness. That is a big
order, and we might be inclined to shrink from such a task of thinking out
the implications of the Christian faith desiring to state simply over and over
again what we believe to be the foundations of our faith. But let us not do
with our faith what the Bphesians of old once did with theirs when they
went around for hours saying: "Great is the Diana of Ephesus." It is not
enough simply to say: "Jesus is Savior and Lord," without pondering the
content and implications of this tremendous truth, especially at the Seminary
where it is our privilege to affirm this truth as our starting point, taking our
direction from it and then "going on unto perfection!"
The thing to remember, however, is the fact that it is not so much the
way in which we carry on, but the mode by which we are carried forward,
for the Greek "pherometha" which is translated "let us go on" can with
equal justification be rendered "let us be carried on," for it is a question
whether we have here a middle or a passive form before us. This ambiguity
is thought provoking, however, for it keeps us humble in preventing us from
undertaking a "do it yourself" theology, since only through the moving of the
Holy Spirit can we be effectively advanced. Ours should be the resolve to go
unto the end. The Holy Spirit puts us on the road to perfection, and this,
more likely than not, will involve suffering, for going on unto perfection also
means to go "unto Him outside the camp," to the cross. Thus the price of
perfection entails suffering. If not suffering, at least work, for we cannot go
on by standing still doing nothing. Thus the process of going on involves
students and professors alike. This means that we professors may have to
rework those old lectures which we have given for years, for surely we must
have matured in the meantime. But students should, at the same time, ap-
proach their teachers with an attitude which might be described by a kind of
paraphrase as: "Professor, I know, help thou my ignorance!"
So the grand tour is about to start. Let ours thsn be what Moltman
has so aptly described as a theology of hope. We have a Good Shepherd
indeed: in the past, yet the eternal present, He gave His life that we
might live; for our present He has promised to go before the sheep, and
the future is to be seen in the light of his coming when the consummation
of all things will take place in righteous judgment. Let us praise God that
he has brought us to the right way, but let us resolve not to sit down on
the road, but to go on unto perfection.
THE PROBLEM OF EVIL
Olaf Halvatd Lyon
Our topic is "The Problem of Evil," not "A Solution to the Problem
of Evil." We do not presume to solve this enigma of human existence.
Why, then, do we deal with this problem at all? Simply because a failure
to realize the large dimensions of this problem results in a flatness and
shallowness in theological thought. Our American religionist enterprise in
particular, has been criticized, and rightly so, we believe, on just such
grounds. Here in this country, because of our geographical location, ex-
panding economy and the optimism that goes along with it, we have been
largely isolated from the desperation of war, famine and wholesale senseless
suffering. The rest of the world, however, has always lived within the
midst of these convincing evidences of evil as a present, malignant and
terrible reality. Continental and Eastern philosophy and theology has al-
ways reflected on this problem in a way that has been quite foreign to us,
with certain notable exceptions (particularly Reinhold Neibuhr). One
minister, perhaps, spoke for the majority of us when he said: "I never
realized that there was a "problem" concerning evil. I just never thought
of it in that way. I kind of took it for granted. To tell you the truth, I
never thought of it at all."
From one point of view it can be rightly said that all philosophy and
theology is an attempt to find an answer to the problem of evil. The
problem itself can be stated quite simply. How does one justify the char-
acter of a good, creative and responsible God in the face of such doubts as
arrive by the fact of evil? If God is good, why does evil exist? The logician
poses the problem in this way: if God is good, then he cannot be all-
powerful; if he is all-powerful, he cannot be good. As we have already said,
if we push these questions aside and dismiss them too flippantly and
casually, we certainly do it at the peril of a superficiality that will show
itself most disastrously precisely in that moment when we try most
seriously to preach that Jesus the Christ is Lord of all creation and Savior
This subject, like all subjects, can be approached from many sides. We
have chosen to approach it by looking at the various ways man has
sought to account for and answer the problem. The question is not new to
our day; it has always stared man in the face: "How shall we account for
all of the senseless suffering, the impersonal natural disasters and the cruel,
pitiless tragedies that defeat man's noblest attempts?"
Homer, the great epic poet of Greece, answers it by telling the stories
used by the ancient pre-philosophic Greeks. The gods, those superhuman
deities dwelling on Mount Olympus, cause all the evil that invades the life
of man. Ruling earth, sky and underworld, the gods had passions exactly
like human beings. They warred, lusted, coveted, loved and hated among
themselves just as we human beings do. Their behaviour and misbehaviour
are the cause of all the happenings of earth and sky and create the rumblings
and eruptions of the underworld. Cruelty of nature, all forms of destructive-
ness and violence, suffering and death become the inevitable and usually
senseless fate of man ordained by the gods. Now, however such beliefs
may lend themselves to great epic poems like the Illiad and the Odyssey
and however filled with primitive psychological insight they may be, they
result in vast supers titution among the people.
Comparable, in a sense, but far more profound and developed theo-
logically was the Eastern, or Persian, account systematized in the 6th
Century B.C. (or as early as the 10th) by Zarathustra and known as
Zoroastrianism. Here a dualistic struggle between eternal good and eternal
evil is pictured within a cosmological frame of reference and is symbolized
by an eternal warfare between the god of light (the good god) and the
god of darkness (the evil god) with their hosts of angels and demons.
Man must choose between light and darkness, truth and falsehood, moral
right and wrong, and thus gain either eternal bliss or agony. This doc-
trine had a later, although indirect, influence on post-exilic Hebrew
thought. It has survived to this day and at various times in history has
flourished, even within the Church. In the 3rd Century A.D. a Persian
prophet by the name of Mani converted to Christianity and sought to ac-
commodate this dualistic tradition to Christian doctrine. The resulting
Manicheism became a strong opponent to Orthodox Christianity. It was
revived once more in the West during the Crusades by the Cathari, who
were cruelly and ruthlessly destroyed by the Inquisition. Many Christians,
even Presbyterians, really have this kind of dualism at the core of their
thought. God is the Good God and Satan is the evil god. This is a very
uncomplicated, convenient, simple, black-and-white way to imagine things
and it is not strange that this has been a living tradition down through
Now we come to the still more reasoned philosophical and theological
attempts to explain and account for the enigma of evil in human existence.
The earliest Greek philosophies arose as an attempt to correct the popular
superstitions we described and to give a more rational and "scientific"
account of the problem of evil in life and death. We will examine how 1)
"the materialistic tradition" and 2) "the Platonic tradition" have dealt with
our problem. Finally we will examine the Hebraic-Christian tradition.
We might say "the materialistic tradition" begins with Democritus,
the Greek phiosopher (c460 B.C.). He was the father of the "atomistic"
theory of matter and of existence. He said that all that exists is material
(including body and soul), and is made up of uncreated, naturally and
eternally moving atoms, which are the smallest, indivisible and indestruct-
ible units of matter. As these atoms fall through empty space they collide
and come together in some necessary, but purposeless and designless,
arrangement. Then, being in eternal motion, they change into new ar-
rangements, creating new objects within the realm of existence. All that
happens, or exists, therefore, is accounted for by the eternally necessary,
but purposeless and designless, changing results of colliding atoms of
matter in space.
This is a far cry from using mythological stories to account for evil.
Within this thoroughgoing materialism there are no gods and evil does not
exist except as a name given to a subjectively undesirable collection of col-
With major variations this materialistic tradition was absorbed into the
thought of the Stoics (who so greatly influenced Calvin), into Spinoza's
"pantheistic" system, is living in our day in Communist philosophic theory,
and is basic to Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialism as well as to modern day
The rigidly materialistic Communist theory is in its essence an attempt
to answer and deal with the problem of evil. This strange, paradoxical
theory is both violently anti-metaphysical and fervently eschatological. All
existence is to be explained in terms of matter alone; no god or gods exist.
This god-less material existence, however, is nevertheless moving toward
a necessary and irresistible destiny (a view based on a scientific study and
understanding of history claimed by the Communists). This destiny con-
sists for mankind in a classless society. Evil is that which impedes or blocks
movement toward this destiny; thus the Communist unhesitatingly and
with fanatic fervor makes himself the sworn enemy of all class distinctions
and of any ownership of property that can possibly give one man the
opportunity to be the exploiter of another. Communism (a more profound
philosophic theory than we think - albeit wrong), through Karl Marx, has
absorbed a great deal of the prophetic, eschatological elements of the
Hebraic- Christian tradition. Communism, within this materialistic tradition,
takes the problem of evil with great seriousness, has accounted for and
identified it, and has an unrelenting strategy for fighting and eliminating
The materialistic existentialism of Sartre deserves this further mention.
His frank atheism and denial of all transcendent values destroys any real
distinctions between good and evil. Life in its essence has no meaning. Life,
in fact, has no essence except as we give it an essence. Meaning is solely
the creation of any man's decision to give life a meaning. There is no
destiny to anything, each man being left to create his own by decisions
here and now. Each man, without any help from any kind of god (be-
cause no god exists), must carry on his own lonely struggle with life as
best he can and face his own problem with death. Without a God and with-
out any transcendent values, each man is finally and essentially alone. Good
and evil are non-existent realities, are at best only terms to be used or
thrown aside as may be convenient to the individual.
Now we come to "the Platonic tradition." Plato reasoned metaphysic-
ally and concluded that there is a God who is good and in whom no evil
dwells. It was obvious to Plato, however, that we live in a very imperfect
world where evil is present and active. His problem was to account for
this evil world and still maintain the integrity of a good God. A God who
was good could not possibly be held responsible for this world. Therefore
Plato developed a dualism of his own. Opposite to the good, uncreated and
sternal God there was also an eternal and uncreated chaotic and formless
matter, which has as its insistent nature to resist being in any other than its
original chaotic and unformed state. A demiurge, or artificer, which was
itself imperfect and actually a bungler, is held to be the creator of this
world in Plato's thought. The demiurge took this resistant, chaotic and
unformed matter and fashioned the world from it, making a mess of the
whole thing. So we account for evil in Plato's thought and maintain the
integrity of the Good God on this basis : 1 ) a bungler did the creating and
thereby introduced imperfection (evil); and 2) the bungling demiurge was
working with a chaotic material that resisted every attempt to fashion it
into anything good.
A further step in this Platonic tradition is found in Plotinus of the third
century A.C. (205-270). Plotinus' system is a thorough going attempt
to answer the problem of evil. He built along the lines of Plato's thought,
but with a much more reasoned system than Plato in this respect. Plotinus
too has the idea of a Good God who is utterly transcendent and above the
created world. It is of this God's essence that he is a Pleroma (fullness that
overflows). At the opposite extreme to this divine source of all goodness
there is matter which again in his thought is chaotic and resistant of all good
and is therefore said to have no real existence. As this divine source of
goodness overflows, or emanates, many lesser entities come into being. The
farther these entities fall away from the source of divine goodness the more
they become mixed with chaotic matter (non-being, non-reality). Man
(human existence) exists in an ennead far from the source of divine good-
ness and consists of a spark of emanated divinity fallen off from the source
of divine goodness that has been caught and imprisoned in a house of flesh
(matter). The real or true man consists of the "soul" of him, that is, of the
spark of divinity in him. The flesh of him is to be abhorred and escaped.
Man's finest hour comes when this spark of divinity is separated from the
body of flesh and with the help of a mediator is able to journey back to the
source of divine goodness and there to be rejoined with it forever.
St. Augustine, the leading teacher of the Western Church, was a careful
student of Plotinus (Neo-Platonism) and incorporated many of the features
of this thought into Christian theology. Thus it is (among other reasons)
that today many Christians think in terms of an antagonism between the
physical body and the soul of man. The appetites of the body in and among
our Christian constituency are most often looked upon as being evil; par-
ticularly sex is considered to be inherently evil. It is commonly considered
even among Presbyterian ministers, that the "real" man is his soul and that
the body is a kind of evil and undesirable prison from which man is lucky
to escape. Unfortunately Calvin has given aid and comfort to this point of
view (cf. Inst. I. 15.2). Neo-Platonism is so entwined in the thought of us
all that it is very difficult to effect a separation.
Now we will consider the "Hebraic-Christian tradition." If we cannot
say that the Hebraic-Christian tradition is born of a human attempt to solve
the problem of evil, certainly it is our confession that it is the recitation of
the divine attempt to solve the problem of evil ... a problem that even
Christian man has never been able to comprehend and which remains within
his tradition so mysterious and such an enigma that it is a constant stumb-
lingblock in his thought.
In the Genesis account of creation (a didactic, religious, non-scientific
account) the conviction of the Hebraic-Christian tradition is developed.
It is a radical (and, we believe, conscious and deliberate) break with all
other traditions. First, there is the claim for God himself; second, there is
the claim that God himself is the creator of all that exists; and, third, there
is the claim that God's creation is a good creation and that we may not
say that matter and creation are inherently evil. Evil is accounted for in this
theological recitation but it is not the kind of an account that tells us
anything satisfactory about the origin of evil. The serpent simply appears
and tempts man, but there is no clue as to where the serpent comes from.
Throughout pre-exilic Hebrew thought there is no hesistancy about
making God the author of that which we would call evil. God is the author
of good and evil alike. In the Psalms we find the conviction promoted that
God visits good upon the righteous and evil upon the unrighteous. Each
man gets what he deserves. This however is so altogether unsatisfactory
that we need not be surprised to find the book of Job as a challenge to this
idea. The book of Job seeks to remove evil itself from the initiative of
God, but not from the control of God. The Satan is posed as one of God's
servants who acts as a prosecuting attorney in the heavenly courts. He not
only is man's accuser when man does wrong, but he also has it as his voca-
tion to tempt man to do wrong (this all from a servant of God!). Al-
though the book of Job convincingly destroys the idea that evil only comes
upon the unjust and that evil is always a just punishment for the sins of the
individual, it still provides no solution to the problem of evil. The best
that Job can do is to bow before its mystery and still maintain a trust in
Post-exilic Hebrew thought is greatly influenced by Persian thinking
and reflects the Eastern tradition of more and more removing God away
from the events of this world into a transcendent heaven with angels and
even demons as his intermediaries. Finally demons become the servants
of the Evil One so that we practically have in very late Hellenistic Jewish
thought the concept of a Good God and an Evil God.
The Hellenistic world, which is the setting for the birth of Christianity,
envisions itself as being in the grip of and enslaved by demonic forces. The
great problem of human existence was to be loosened from and saved from
the destructive power of these demonic forces. The work of our Lord is
described in terms of his saving and loosing and healing power which is
proved by his resurrection in particular to be greater than the power of the
Evil One and his demonic forces. The power of Jesus Christ given to man
as a saving gift from God is an answer to the problem of evil. Although
man's question as to where evil comes from and how this impossible possi-
bility could have ever come about in the first place is not answered, it
makes no difference ... it is enough that man is rescued from the "power"
We stand within the tradition of believing that mankind has been
rescued from the "power" of evil. (The theological explanation of this
rescue is outside the province of this paper) . Within this tradition we resist
all attempts to call this world worthless; rather we affirm it to be a thing
of great value, which God loves and for which Christ died. In the most
radical kind of way we further confess that this good creation of God has
inexplicably fallen, has become possessed by the demonic and yet we
also radically affirm that the evil which has possessed us and which spoils
our lives and all creation is not outside God's sovereignty. Evil (which the
Christian tradition is careful not to attribute to God) still exists and
carries on its struggle against God within God's hand. For evil, like God's
creation, exists and struggles within his sovereignty. Outside of God there
is no thing; this we must certainly say. We also resist the idea introduced
into Christian theology by St. Augustine with the Neo-Platonic tradition,
that evil is nothing more than the absence of good, that evil is a passive
non-entity. Rather we affirm with biblical thought that evil is a malignant,
active, aggressive reality. Just as a cancer is not merely the absence of
healthy tissue but is a growing, aggressive, malignant, foreign reality within
the cells of the body, so is evil within God's creation and our human exist-
ence. Finally we live within the eschatological expectation that one day evil
will be destroyed and God's good creation restored to its original intent and
perfection and in that day "every knee shall bow and every tongue confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord."
All that we have said in summary here involves serious logical contra-
dictions that we cannot resolve. We must simply rest with the fact that our
Christian faith has some very paradoxical elements in it. We are left where
we began. Where does evil come from? If God is good and all powerful,
how can it exist?
THE PLACE OF PREACHING, SACRAMENT,
AND PASTORAL CARE IN THE EXPERIENCE
OF THE REFORMATION
Ronald S. Wallace
The Word of God in the Reformation Experience
In the preface to his commentary of the Psalms, Calvin mentions that
during his career as a student he underwent an experience of conversion.
Wisely and characteristically he tells us very little about the actual experience
itself. He calls it "sudden." He informs us that his mind which, "considering
his age," had been "far more hardened than it should have been" in its ad-
herence to "the superstitions of the Papacy," was "subdued" and "made
teachable." All this seems to imply that a new conviction of the truth of
the Gospel came to him at one point of his life with the remarkable clarity
and strength of an almost visionary experience. At the same time his mind
had been so deeply committed to a whole incompatible outlook, that any
change in the direction of the new truth was bound to begin with violent
and deeply emotional psychological accompaniments.
About the same time as this "sudden conversion" there began a much
more gradual conversion of Calvin from humanistic to Biblical study, and
from a humanistic to a Biblical outlook. In his younger days he had found
himself caught up in the powerful contemporary currents of Renaissance
intellectual and emotional excitement, and had given himself avidly to
the pursuit of Humanism. His early commentary on Seneca's De dementia
shows that he was ambitious to have some rank in the estimation of the
great classical scholars of his day. He was also undoubtedly inspired by a
genuine reverence for what was both human and great. Though he had later
to give up this ambition he never renounced this first love. His mature writ-
ing contains no expression of abhorrence over wasted loyalty or misspent
devotion. On the contrary he looks back almost wistfully, over at least one
aspect of his youth that had been well worthwhile. But if there was no re-
vulsion against the world of humanistic study that had so engaged his
devotion, there began from the very moment of his conversion experience
a growing sense of detachment from this world. What brought about
this change of attitude was undoubtedly his deepening and growing ex-
perience of what he calls the "peculiar power" of Holy Scripture as he
was drawn to a growing degree to open his mind and heart to it. At
the time of his sudden experience he tells us he "received some taste and
knowledge of true godliness" which "inflamed him with an intense desire
to progress." One of the results was that although he "did not altogether
abandon" his other studies he had "much less interest in pursuing them."
Another of the results was that having given himself up to the study of the
Scriptures, he soon found himself surrounded by those who were hungry
for the new Biblical teaching. He found himself surrounded by people who
"had some desire for purer doctrine" coming to him to learn, so that all
his retreats became like public schools."
Here we are obviously at the heart of the Reformation experience. We
often think of it, especially as we study Luther, as an experience of justi-
fication by faith alone, but it fits the general pattern of what went on at
the time if we think of it, rather, as an experience of the power of the
Word of God to thrust itself into the center of a man's life and affec-
tions, and to transform all things, beginning there in the mind and heart.
Calvin is describing this, and is undoubtedly looking back on his own pre-
and post-conversion experiences in a passage in the Institutes: "Now this
power which is peculiar to Scripture is clear from the fact that of human
writings, however artfully polished, there is none capable of affecting us
at all comparably. Read Demosthenes or Cicero; read Plato, Aristotle,
and others of that tribe. They will, I admit, allure you, delight you, move
you, enrapture you in wonderful measure. But betake yourself from them
to this sacred reading. Then, in spite of yourself, so deeply will it affect
you, so penetrate your heart, so fix itself in your very marrow, that, com-
pared with its deep impression, such vigor as the orators and philosophers
have will nearly vanish. Consequently it is easy to see that the Sacred Scrip-
tures, which so far surpass all gifts and graces of human endeavor, breathe
something divine." (1:8:1).
The Priority of Preaching
It was when they preached the Word, or listened to its being preached
that men at the time of the Reformation became most conscious of its
"peculiar" power. It had been by no means unusual in the history of the
Church for preaching to become a powerful factor in converting individuals
and communities, in changing social customs and moving men to political
action. We can think, for example of Augustine's remarkable account of
how his preaching at Caesarea in Mauritania subdued the wild community
there and moved them permanently to abandon their customary annual
periods of infra-family murder.
The Middle ages was not lacking in preachers of exceptional power and
influence. But at the time of the Reformation all this was heightened in a
dramatic way. What had before been occasional, and even rare, seemed
to become for a time a common experience within the normal life of the
Church. No analysis of the forces at work in bringing about the Reforma-
tion could be accurate if it did not give due weight to the strange constraint
that men felt, to listen and learn through the Word of God as it was preached
to them, and to give it fresh obedience and free and living proclamation. And
at the heart of the success of the whole movement such preaching constituted
an important factor. Quite often the preacher's influence in his community
was a subtly pervasive force, difficult to trace in its precise workings. But
quite often preaching is the obvious immediate cause of important changes
in attitudes and temperatures at critical periods in the whole struggle —
as, for example, in Luther's sermons at Wittenberg in 1522, or John Knox's
sermon at Perth at a critical time in the Scottish Reformation. The Re-
formers themselves were conscious of the massive, subtle and widespread
influence they exerted through their preaching. Luther was quite confident
that he could resist and overcome the "ungracious lords and angry nobles,"
as he had resisted and overcome "their idol, the pope" with words alone.
John Knox writes in a letter in 1559 of how "for forty days or more, God
hath used my tongue in my native country to the manifestation of his glory"
and he was confident enough to tell Cecil in the same year that "perpetual
concord between England and Scotland might be effected by the preaching
of Jesus Christ crucified."
The accounts of the time indicate that there was an unusual hunger on
the part of the common people to hear the preaching of the Word of God.
We have noted already Calvin's early experience of finding himself sur-
rounded constantly by those who had a thirst for sound teaching, and we
must remember that in spite of all the differences and tensions in Geneva,
the people and authorities of Geneva wanted Calvin more than Calvin
wanted them. The demand for pastors who could preach the Word was
intense all over the Reformed world. When we read that in Geneva in 1 549
the council ordered the preachers to give a sermon every morning of the
week instead of every other morning, and that the first book of discipline
in Scotland in 1560 ordered that "in every notable town, one day besides
Sundays be appointed for sermon and prayer" we need not imagine that
behind such ordinances we have an aggressive, self-important clergy ensuring
for themselves and their views a dominating position of influence in the
community. The initiative here came from a laity who wanted even more
than many of their pastors could give.* John Knox's letter from St. Andrews,
24th June 1559, may again be quoted: "The thirst of the poor people, as
well as of the nobility here is wondrous great, which putteth me in comfort,
that Christ Jesus shall triumph here in the North and in the extreme parts
of the earth for a space." A similar testimony is given from England in a
letter from Hooper to William Cecil: "You and I, if we shall kneel all the
days of our life could not given condign thanks to God for that he hath merci-
fully inclined the hearts of the people to wish and hunger for the Word of
God." (A. G. Dickens, English Reformation, p. 243).
It could, of course, be argued that at a time when there was no popular
newspapers, sermons were the people's source of information about affairs
in the world and were focal points for the expression and discussion of public
opinion — having therefore much of the popularity that the press and tele-
vision have today. It could also be argued that at the Reformation the sermon
replaced the confessional as a source of guidance in the problems of life.
We cannot deny that such reasons for going to the sermon were operative,
but basically there was the Word of God, and the hunger for it. Hugh
Latimer in his own way describes what brought and held people to Church
services that were largely sermons: "So from that time forth, I began to
smell the Word of God, and forsook the school doctors and such fooleries,"
again taking us to the heart of the Reformation experience.
Preaching as the Word of God
It was because of the priority that preaching took for itself in the Re-
formation life and experience that the Reformers had no hesitation in apply-
ing the phrase, "The Word of God" to preaching, and in making out the
implications of this in their doctrine.
In his Biblical exegesis in this area Calvin noted the passages where the
dynamic active character of the Word of God is stressed. The Word of
God was event before it was book. It was something that came and hap-
pened, confronting and challenging men in living encounter. It was met in
the person and preaching of Jesus Himself. It was embodied in the Gospel
events. It was active in the powerful preaching of these events, which was
the origin and source of life of the early church. Therefore they dared to
call their own preaching "The Word of God" even though they also realized
*Cf. Fuller's account of Lawrence Chaderton's preaching, who, after holding
forth two hours, proposed to trespass no more on his hearers patience. "The
auditory cryed out, (wonder not if hungry people craved more meet) 'For God's
sake, Sir, Go on, go on!"
that Jesus Christ Himself as the eternal Word who became flesh to save
men, had alone the full right to this title. They often gave the preached Word
priority over the written Word. They never forgot that long before there
was any final form of Scripture, there was the other form of the Word —
the living oral word that gave birth both to Church and Scripture. They
acknowledged that the "Word of God" which they claimed to be called to
preach, did not come apart from the Scriptures. It continued to happen only
as they turned to the book and used the book. So closely was it associated
with the book that they were prepared to face all the problems of calling
the book, the Word of God. They considered the possibility that the right
of the Bible to be called the Word of God might derive from some of its
inherent qualities, but they were certain that it mainly derived from the
fact that in preaching it came alive, in a marvellous way, as no other book.
Calvin noted these passages in the Bible where God sends His Word to
call Israel His Old Testament Church apart from the world to be a servant
nation, electing them afresh and assuring them afresh of his gracious and
eternal covenant in every generation. He noted how Jesus Himself called
through the power of His own voice in the New Testament whomever He
would, gathering together again through the Word of God a people who are
to be prepared for His service. He noted how the preaching of the Apostles
sent forth by Jesus was the means of calling into the elect people of God
those in every city who would hear the voice of the Good Shepherd. All
these things, Calvin affirmed, were now being repeated in the Church of his
own day through the preaching of the pastors by which the Church was
being renewed and reformed and made fit for the service of God.
Calvin noted that throughout Holy Scripture the Word of God is shown
as having an often immediate and concrete effect on the fortunes or affairs
of those to whom it is sent. It often altered individual lives and had vast
social effects. It could bring weal or woe to the nation. Whatever it was
given to proclaim was brought to pass in the course of history. He noted, too,
that when the prophet spoke a word it was never in vain. When Jesus Him-
self spoke, His word was creative and powerful bringing to pass immediately
whatever He willed. So it was with the preacher, if he preached the Word
of God. "If anyone thinks that the air echoes with an empty sound when the
Word of God is preached, he is making a great mistake . . . because it is not
His will to scatter His words in vain, either to fade away or to fall neglected
to the ground, but effectively to challenge the consciences of men so as to
bring them under his rule". The preached Word not only works as a force
in the individual life, it also creates social change and political upheaval.
When Calvin wrote to Farel "I have broken ground on the subject of the
internal affairs of the city in ten sermons," there is obviously the implication
that the preached Word works inwardly through "spiritual and inward gov-
ernment" of the minds and hearts of men, before it affects what Calvin
often called the external, or civil, government. But it is also obvious that
Calvin the preacher had an eye on influencing the whole state of Geneva in
all its aspects through the ten sermons referred to.
The preaching of the Word of God not only affects the immediate situ-
ation surrounding the preacher, it also affects the whole course of human
history. Christ through preaching "subdues the world to Himself", and de-
stroys the domination of the devil. The movement of Christ outwards from
the Church to His rule amongst all nations takes place through the preaching
of the Word. "When Jesus Christ causes His Gospel to be preached in a
country, it is as if He said 'I want to rule over you and be your king'." For
Calvin, as for Luther, the preaching of the Gospel is to be the means through
which God sets in motion and fulfils his plan for the course of the history
of the world, which is to find its climax in the second coming, and in the
renewal of the whole creation.
Everything for Calvin, depends on the fact that the Word of God in
preaching is none other than Jesus Himself in the midst of His Church.
"When you see a dying man standing in the pulpit, then, provided that he
is faithfully fulfiling his office and is clearly proclaiming what he has receiv-
ed from the Lord, you will know that Jesus Christ is in the midst of us."
Preaching is not a word about a far-off God, but a word about One who
is present as He is spoken about, and present in a form of such humility and
grace and forgiving love that sinners can now come to him freely and with
confidence. As T.H.L. Parker put it: "If God showed Himself visibly to
men, they would be overcome with fear, and so far from coming to Him
would rather seek to fly from Him lest they should be consumed by His
majesty. But in preaching God graciously allures men to Himself. His
presence is, so to speak, refracted through the agency of a commonplace
occurrence, a man talking."
This is why preaching is in the fullest sense of the Word of God. The
preacher is not simply the ambassador representing an absent ruler, but the
court secretary reading out the verdict of the one who is seated present
in the midst. In deed Christ acts through the preachers in such a way "that
He wishes their mouth to be reckoned as His mouth, and their lips as His
lips." In preaching then "the glory of God shines in the face of Jesus Christ",
and God "consecrates the tongues of men so that his voice may resound in
Preaching and the Sacraments
The recovery of the significance and power of preaching at the center
of the life of the Church led to the discovery of a new meaning in the sacra-
ments. It is true that the sacraments had always retained a place at the
center of the worship of the Roman Church. But they had lost their mean-
ing. Their form had become distorted through attempts to improve upon
them by elaborations and additions. Their use had been perverted, and they
had become a means by which an imperial institutional Church dispensed
impersonal grace, and tried to manipulate God's goodness and power for its
own self-centered ends. The Word of God enabled the Reformers to bring
a devastating criticism to bear upon this whole process.
At the same time, they saw that it was only through maintaining a proper
relationship to Baptism and the Lord's Supper that preaching could maintain
also its full effectiveness as a powerful reality within both the Church and
human life in general. We have seen that for the Reformers the Word of
God was never an empty word merely outlining doctrines, or sketching
ideas or expressing subjective feelings. It proclaimed the concrete will of
God, and brought into effect what it proclaimed, as it entered through
men's minds and hearts into every aspect of men's concrete existence. It
always sought to be a powerful factor in the re-orientation of the direction
and attitude of men's hearts, and in the transformation of men's ways of
living on earth. It sought to constrain a response from the people of God
to its demands and promises. It was the seed through which the living, and
inevitably growing, Kingdom of God was implanted into the world's life
as a powerful factor in the alteration of human history. The Reformers
felt therefore that the Word required to be accompanied by signs that it was
neither phoney nor idealistic, nor purely psychological, nor even purely
"spiritual" in its effect.
The living Word of God as seen in the Bible had always been accom-
panied by such signs. In this context Calvin, for instance, thought out reasons
why Jesus' own Word was accompanied by miracles. In doing His miracles
Jesus was deliberately seeking to reveal to all men the concrete power and
authority of the Word of God that He had come to preach, and by which
He was establishing God's Kingdom in the midst of the life of His age.
These miraculous deeds were not simply proofs of Jesus's own divinity.
They were, rather, occasional manifest signs that His preaching was always
accompanied by concrete power and effectiveness within the flesh of the
world's heart and life. His Word was therefore to be regarded as never lack-
ing this hidden power of the Kingdom of God present and active in the
midst of history.
At the beginning of the history of the Apostolic Church Jesus gave to
the Apostles also the power to accompany their preaching with miraculous
signs. But later He gradually removed miracles from the scope of the
Church's power as accompaniments of the Word. The Church, however,
was not left with only a bare Word to preach. Though Christ removed these
outwardly miraculous concrete signs, He nevertheless left the Church with
two far more powerfully significant inwardly miraculous signs in their place.
Under the permanent conditions set up for the continuing life of the Church
into the ages, the two Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper were
meant to serve the preached Word of God as the other passing miracles
and signs had served the Word of God in former generations. Baptism and
the Lord's Supper, therefore, were meant to serve, no less than the former
miracles, as visible points, demonstrating the entry of the Word with power
into the flesh of man's life. They were to act as visible vehicles of the Word
as it incorporated itself into the life of men, and as it sought to consecrate
the people of God in all their bodily connections of flesh and blood, and
with all their resources, to the sacrificial service of Jesus Christ in union
with the one Body of Christ, and in response to the one great sacrifice. Both
Luther and Calvin saw clearly what has been recently expressed by Oscar
Cullmann: "As the Church settles down to normality, miracles as accompani-
ments of the Word are removed, and the sacraments take their place." For
the Reformers, the Sacraments are events of the Word no less important
than any of the significative events recorded in the Bible. They are given
to the Church by Christ to assist the Word in fulfilling the purpose for which
it is sent, and, in assisting the Word thus, they help to reveal the true purpose
of the Word. The Reformers recognized that the Sacraments carried with
them miraculous content and supernatural effect. But the miraculous element
in the Sacraments, in contrast to the visible miracles, is hidden beneath a non-
miraculous and, indeed, very ordinary outward form.
The preached Word requires the sacraments not only in order to assist
it in its full effective entry into the flesh of human life, it also requires the
sacraments in order that men might see as clearly as possible the kind of
effect it is meant to have in the midst of the Church and the world. For
Calvin, even the outward forms of both Baptism and the Lord's Supper are
important because of the deep "spiritual" meaning they convey to those who
subject their minds to them. The sacraments can be through of as models
showing the effect of the word. They show in a vivid way how the re-
cipient of Christ's grace, when he hears and believes the Word of God,
becomes united with the personal life of the living Christ, or with His whole
humanity, and is enabled to make that humanity the deepest and strongest
influence in the transformation of his own earthly being and existence.
They are signs of the deep and mysterious union which takes place between
Christ and His people when they hear His Word, receive it, and believe in
Him. The sacraments constantly proclaim that the union which they them-
selves help to effect between Christ and His Church is intensely personal,
indescribably close, powerfully life-giving, irreversible and growing. Calvin
himself constantly dwelt on the importance of this "mystical union" between
Christ and His Church, as he called it. Because it is so difficult for our
ordinary human understanding to conceive of its nature or grasp its reality,
God has given us a clear visible representation of it in the Lord's Supper.
Preaching, therefore, must be understood in the light of the sacraments
which accompany it. Preaching is given in order to effect what the sacra-
ments show to be its true aim. It is given in order that the preacher may
present Christ in His flesh and blood, point to His Cross, proclaim His risen
presence so that the congregation may receive Him, there and then, into
the midst and "feed on Him." But the aim and end of all this is that, in
union with His body and His once-for-all sacrifice, His people may be
constrained to offer their bodies as a living sacrifice for the service of His
Kingdom. This aspect of preaching is bound to be lost sight of unless it is
done constantly in the context of the sacraments. Both sacraments, in the
form in which they have been given to us, constantly remind us that the
Gospel has at its heart a hard core — an event-character which can never
be witnessed to adequately merely by outlining doctrines, or by describing
subjective experiences, or by bringing men to a new understanding of them-
selves. Preaching that is focused constantly on Baptism will draw the atten-
tion of the people of God to the full implications of the One Baptism of
Jesus which finds its content in the complete story of His life, death and
resurrection. Preaching that is focussed constantly on the Lord's Supper
"shows forth the Lord's death till He come," and points to His continual
coming "into the midst" of His people. The sacraments remind the preacher
that his words from the pulpit are meant to serve the same purpose as his
actions with the elements — to serve the sacramental purpose of pointing
above and beyond what is present and visible and audible to Jesus Christ
Himself in His crucified and exalted humanity. Unless Christ Himself fills
the sacraments with content then, no matter how correct the ritual, or how
impressive the liturgy, all that results is the mere receiving of a little portion
of bread and wine and the manipulation of a few drops of water. So also
with preaching — unless Christ Himself fills the preaching with the content
of His presence, then no matter how dedicated the preacher may be, or how
correct and relevant and wise his words, it is all equally in vain.
It was therefore not simply for the sake of correctness and faithfulness
in observing Christ's ordinances, that the Reformers stressed the necessity
of giving the sacraments prominence in the life of the Church. They believed
firmly that the Word itself could not function adequately unless the sacra-
ments were there by its side always visible as its appointed signs and seals.
Any neglect of the sacrament was bound to lead to a distortion of the truth
preached, to an over intellectualization of the Gospel, an over emphasis on
the spiritual at the expense of the material and social, on feeling at the
expense of action. To them it was derogatory to the majesty and power of
the Word that it should not be accompanied by such meaningful signs of its
own mighty power in human life. We must ask ourselves if we agree with
them. Is our present use of the Lord's Supper an adequate expression of our
gratitude to God for giving to His Church such a wonderful gift? Is the
place we give to Baptism in our liturgy, our thought and our preaching, at
all commensurate with the intention of Christ in giving the Church this
ordinance and with the place it has in the New Testament thought and life?
Certainly there is an unfortunate tendency in some quarters, now to lay em-
phasis on the sacraments at the expense of the Word. Some are so con-
cerned to make the sacraments central that they are calling for less em-
phasis on preaching, less preaching, and sometimes for no preaching at all.
Such a program is going to help neither sacrament nor preaching. The
proper Reformed emphasis was the centrality of both Word and Sacraments,
but it was always understood that the sacraments were there to serve the
Word of God. However things may be at present, it is certain that no Church
that has to live by a Word that is not anchored in its sacramental activity
can ever have the fullness of life and witness intended for it by God.
Preaching and Pastoral Care
The restoration of the Word to its rightful position and authority within
the Reformed Church also led to a restoration of true pastoral care. In
the Roman Church the perverted sacraments, divorced from the Word and
subordinated to the power of an imperial Church, had been used as a means
for the exercise of the "tyranny of Antichrist." The confessional was made
an occasion for gaining power over the individual, and for selling absolu-
tion as an access to the varying quantities and forms of grace that were re-
quired to meet man's needs from the cradle to the grave. The Church which
should have loosened the consciences of men through its pastorate, had
bound them in the snares of its law.
From this bondage the Reformation sought to free the individual. "This
is not the least important part of providence," wrote Calvin, " — to have
due regard for individuals." With all his stress on relevant preaching, ad-
herence to Scripture, and the right administration of the sacraments, he real-
ized that the Word could never be effectively preached, nor the sacraments
rightly administered and used unless they were both supplemented by pastoral
care. The Word, no matter how well and earnestly preached, even in the
power of the Spirit, would leave the individual still too much at the mercy
of his own inclinations unless it were "accompanied by private admonitions
and reproofs to enforce doctrine." He kept constantly in mind that Paul
could declare himself "free from the blood of all men," only because he
did not cease to admonish "both publicly and from house to house (Acts
20:20)", and in a letter to Bullinger he laments that the ministers of his day,
including himself, were being prized and sought after more on account
of their oratory than on account of their being pastors of souls.
Of course, the preacher of the Word, even in the pulpit, must make the
Word not only public but pastoral. "It is not enough that a pastor in the
pulpit teach, if he does not also add particular instruction". The minister
therefore should have an intimate knowledge of those he is speaking to, of
their particular needs and concerns and failings, and the preparation as well
as the delivery of the sermon must be undertaken as in this context. But
no sermon can be sufficiently relevant or pointed* to meet all the pastoral
needs of the congregation, and it is not enough for the minister to attempt
to be pastoral only from the pulpit. "It not seldom happens that he who
hears general promises which are intended for the whole congregation of
the faithful remains somewhat in doubt, and is still disquieted in mind as if
his own remission were not yet obtained."
Even Pastoral preaching, therefore, requires to be supplemented by the
pastoral interview. The individual who especially feels his need should be en-
couraged to seek out his pastor, and "should this individual lay open the
secret wound of his soul to his pastor, and hear the words of the Gospel
specially addressed to him, Son be of good cheer, thy sins be forgiven
thee (Matt. 9:2), his mind will feel secure and escape from the trepidation
with which it was previously agitated". Calvin felt that it was particularly
appropriate that this interview between pastor and individual Church mem-
ber should take place regularly before each celebration of the Lord's Supper.
The pastoral interview was bound to deal with all the ills that plague
the human heart and existence. Calvin always reveals an acute sense of the
pathos of the life of his day, the severity of the trials to which life sub-
jected men, and the intensity of the struggle they had to maintain. He saw
all this, too, against the background of eternity with its pressing issues.
There is something almost Shakespearean about the famous passage in the
Institutes beginning: "Innumerable are the evils that beset human life: in-
numerable, too, the deaths which threaten it . . ." (1:17:10). He himself
was constantly harassed by half a dozen physical complaints at once, any
one of which would have been enough to hospitalize some of us today. His
instructions about the pastoral care of the sick are therefore meticulous,
and he was deeply concerned that these should not be denied the Lord's
Supper. He recognized their need to be assured of God's gracious providence
in all things. But the worst evil felt by nearly all men in Calvin's time was
the tormented conscience. Men, he felt, must not be allowed to face either
life or death deprived of peace with God.
In the pastoral interview, the person dealt with is encouraged to express
himself. Calvin believed in the expression of the heart. In his teaching on
prayer he urges a healthy "pouring out of the heart" to God. This seems to
mean the free acknowledgment of the inward feeling and attitude, in pray-
ers expressing repentance, and the free expression of the desires and needs of
the heart in petition and intercession, as well as the expression of gratitude
in thanksgiving. He himself found the prayers of the psalmists with their
varied moods an echo of the liturgy of his own heart. Though in much of
his writing he was extremely reserved about himself, occasionally, especi-
*The recent incident of an almost too pointed pastoral sermon involving Presi-
dent Johnson prompts me to quote an equally unfortunate example from
Scottish history: Patrick Simson, preaching before King James on the text,
"Where is Abel thy brother?", made reference to the murder of the Earl of
Moray, brother of the first Regent by Huntly, and said to the King before the
congregation, "Sir, I assure you in God's name, the Lord will ask you, "where
is the Earl of Moray, your brother?" "The King replied before all the congre-
gation: "Mr. Patrick, my chalmer door was never steeked upon you. Ye might
have told me anything you thought in secret". He replyed: "Sir, the scandall
was publict". And after, being sent for to the Castell, went up with the Book
under his oxter, affirming that he would plead for him. (Quoted from Row's
History by W. S. Provand Puritanism and the Scottish Church p. 69). I think
the King was in the right here and that the preacher should have used the "cham-
ber door" before he used the pulpit.
ally in his letters, we are allowed to see what he had constantly to hold
back in order to be able to live with men at all, and there are a number of
passages that vibrate with intense and often vehement human feeling, with
a frank acknowledgment of utter failure — "more true confession of sin",
comments Wernle, "than Calvin was conscious of in writing them".
This expression of the heart can lead to the pastoral interview becoming
one of private confession and absolution, as has been already indicated in
an above quotation. But there is no general rule laid down by Calvin here,
nor is any general advice given that this might be even desirable in many
cases. The general principle is that sins are to be confessed to God. Minister
and fellow men can be helpful. They are ordained as "witnesses and pledges"
to assure consciences of the remission of sins. Calvin was obviously afraid
that pastoral care might at any time assume the form of a new tyranny by
the strong and ruthless over the weak. The memory of the abuse of pastoral
care within the Roman Church made him urgently concerned to avoid even
the possibility of a revival of its practices. Therefore even when he states
his opinion that it would be a good thing within the Church if before every
celebration of the Lord's Supper the pastor should have a private interview
with each of his flock, he adds the proviso: "proving always no countenance
be given to tyranny or superstition".
Within the pastoral conversation, then, the Word of God must be given
priority, and the whole conversation must aim at directing the individual
back to the Word and Sacraments, for in Calvin's mind, it is normally
through listening to the sermon, receiving the bread and wine at the Supper,
and finding fresh meaning in Baptism, that forgiveness becomes most real
to men. The pastor, in the interview, can help greatly by showing that he
himself accepts his brother before him. He can with skill seek to enable him
to understand himself better and to express himself better with true openness
and penitence. But no pastor must ever imagine, or suggest that the other
should imagine, that his own acceptance of anyone could possibly be taken
as God's acceptance. That would be to perpetuate the mistake of the Roman
Church in another form. The true pastor knows that the light of another
judgment, greater than his own, and independent of his own, must be
allowed to fall on the situation, and that he must direct his brother above
and beyond all these things to the word of God, and to the judgment and
grace of God Himself.
Calvin was concerned with bringing men to a true state of true repent-
ance. "Only those afflicted with the awareness of sins can sincerely invoke
God's mercy," he wrote. But even at this point of repentance the sinner
must never be left with only his feelings of repentance. He must be directed
entirely away from himself. No one must be allowed to find comfort simply
in having the right psychological or ethical attitude. "Repentance is not the
cause of forgiveness of sins. Moreover we have done away with those tor-
ments of souls which they would have us perform as a duty. We have taught
that the sinner does not dwell upon his own compunction or tears, but fixes
both eyes upon the Lord's mercy alone."
Ultimately all this means for Calvin that the counselee must be directed
away from all pastoral counselling, back to the community and the Word
which impelled him to seek the pastor. In a letter to one of his own coun-
selees, Luther wrote: "Dear Sister, I see from your letter to me how earnestly
your heavy laden conscience longs for an evangelical sermon of consolation,
and, if possible, in your own church at Rossla." The Reformers had no doubt
about where burdened and weak souls must ultimately be directed in order
to be most certain of finding rest. Forgiveness, according to Calvin, "is
dispensed to us through the ministers of the Church, either by the preaching
of the Gospel, or by the administration of the sacraments; and herein lies the
power of the keys which the Lord has conferred on the society of believers.
According let each one of us count it his own duty to seek forgiveness of
sins only where the Lord has placed it." The pastoral care, then, which is so
necessary a part of the discipline of the Church, and so vital an adjunct to
the preaching of the Word, is in itself meaningful only as it serves the Word.
As Thurneysen says, it is a "means of leading the individual to sermon and
sacrament, and thus to the Word of God, of incorporating him within the
Christian community and of preserving him in it." (Theology of Pastoral
Care, p. 32)
The New Testament and Criti-
cism, by George Eldon Ladd:
William B. Eerdmans. 222 pp.
Dr. Ladd, professor of New Testa-
ment at Fuller Theological Seminary,
has produced a very interesting and
well written book seeking to show that
the true evangelical has nothing to
fear from a reverent use of the disci-
plines of biblical criticism. He has a
high view of the inspiration of the
Bible as "the word of God, our in-
fallible rule of faith and practice."
But he believes that God's Spirit made
use of men as His human authors,
and that He addressed His message to
the minds of the men to whom it
was originally sent. The evangelical
scholar must know and use all of the
techniques now available to enable
him to come to as full and correct an
understanding as he possibly can. The
author recognizes that much of the
work in the fields of criticism has
been done by scholars with a radical
theological background, and he quite
properly warns against some of the
conclusions drawn by such men. But
the evangelical scholar can use all of
the good which has been found, and
he has the positive obligation to do
work in the field for himself, both to
be able to defend his own position
and to enrich his understanding of it.
Many evangelical scholars have
been doing this for some time, though
some have considered them heretics
for doing it. Those who are suspicious
of all criticism of the Bible ought to
read this book from Fuller Seminary.
Samuel A. Cartledge
Contemporary Continental Theo-
logians, by S. Paul Schilling:
Abingdon Press. 288 pp. $5.00.
It is refreshing to come across a
book in which the author succeeds in
expounding the thought of modern
theologians in a manner that is both
clear and interesting. Such a book is
Dr. Paul Schilling's Contemporary
Continental Theologians. It is devoted
to the study of eleven such theolo-
gians: eight of them Protestant, two
Roman Catholic, and one Eastern
Orthodox. The Protestants are classi-
fied in three sections: I, Theologies
of the Word of God, comprising Karl
Barth of Basel, Hermann Diem of
Tubingen, and Josef Hromadka of
Prague; n, Theologies of Existence,
comprising Rudolf Bultmann of Mar-
burg, Friedrich Gogarten of Gotting-
en, and Gerhard Ebeling of Turbing-
en; and III, Neo-Lutheran Theolo-
gies, comprising Edmund Schlink of
Heidelberg and Gustaf Wingren of
Lund. The Roman Catholics are rep-
resented by Yves Congar of Stras-
bourg and Karl Rahner of Munich,
and the Eastern Orthodox by Nikos
Nissiotis, who is now assistant direc-
tor of the Ecumenical Institute at
Bossey in Switzerland. This, of course,
is a selection from a wide field, and
it must be accepted as such without
carping complaints over the omission
of other names that might perhaps
equally well have been included. Dr.
Schilling's book is offered as "an in-
terpretation of the main trends of
systematic theology on the Continent
of Europe today." His method is in
each case the same: first, the objec-
tive presentation of the principal lines
of thought of the theologian under
discussion, and, second, a critique
setting forth briefly both the values
and the difficulties or deficiencies in
his system. A final chapter attempts
to place these different movements
of thought in perspective by compar-
ing them with each other.
The critique offered by Dr. Schil-
ling at the end of each chapter is
intelligent and penetrating. One's only
complaint is that it is so brief. The
proportions of the volume demanded
brevity, no doubt, and the criticisms
have real worth as seed-thoughts or
guide-posts which will stimulate the
reader to fuller reflection and more
detailed appraisal. With reference to
Karl Barth, for instance, it is objected
that "his controlling christological per-
spective tends to obscure the differen-
tiations within the divine unity, re-
sulting in a contraction of trinitarian
faith"; and it is questioned "whether
the incarnational center of Barth's
theology does not itself invalidate his
rejection of natural theology," for if
Barth's premiss that God's grace as
disclosed in Jesus Christ is operative
in all men, "there is no such thing
as the 'natural man,' in the sense of
a man left wholly to his unaided
intellectual and spiritual resources,"
and "then the ground for Barth's de-
valuation of natural theology disap-
pears." Rudolf Bultmann is taxed
with having changed the character of
the Biblical message by recasting it
in a foreign mold, and is accused of
breaking "the essential continuity be-
tween the earthly Jesus and the Christ
believed and proclaimed by the primi-
tive church, thereby raising grave
doubts regarding the rootage of the
kerygma in historic events"; indeed,
of reducing the original Jesus to an
unknown X and dissolving the faith
aroused by Him into abstraction and
subjectivity. These two examples serve
to illustrate Dr. Schilling's desire to
investigate, though always in an iren-
ical spirit, in what respects a particu-
lar theologian may be inconsistent or
self-contradictory in his own thought,
and also the degree to which his ideas
are "in accord with the central thrust
of the Biblical witness to the salva-
tion offered to man by God in Jesus
Precisely because it is critical, in-
dicating not merely the points of con-
tact but also the points of difference
and divergence between the theolo-
gians considered, Dr. Schilling's work
is a worthy contribution to ecumeni-
Philip Edgcumbe Hughes
The Epistle of James, by C.
Leslie Mitton: William B. Eerd*
man's. 255 pp. $6.95.
Luther, we all know, dubbed the
Epistle of James an "epistle of straw."
It contains, he bluntly alleged, "noth-
ing evangelical." C. Leslie Mitton ar-
gues that this judgment was unneces-
sarily hasty, and that we neglect this
Epistle to our own hurt. "It is true
that James was not written with the
primary purpose of converting unbe-
lievers ... It was written for those
who had no doubt they were Chris-
tians, but needed to have their un-
derstanding of the word 'Christian'
greatly deepened and widened."
This commentary (by the distin-
guished Editor of the Expository
Times) is, as one would confidently
expect, a model of careful and exact
exegesis. The author has a happy gift
for correlating relevant Scripture in
order to illustrate a phrase or a
theme. This commentary is no arid
technical study of critical niceties;
on the contrary, it is a rich and re-
warding exploration of the deep things
of God. Indeed, it is a model of what
an expository commentary ought to
be. There is a genuine wrestling with
the Word of God. Critical questions
are neither ignored nor neglected;
they are relegated (as is appropriate)
to the decent obscurity of an Ap-
This is an outstanding addition to
The New International Commentary
on the New Testament.
Stuart Barton Babbage
The Guilt of the Templars, by
G. Legman: Basic Books. 308
This handsomely produced book
contains a great deal of recondite
information and esoteric learning.
Jacques Barzun, in a Prefatory note,
speaks of the author's "encyclopaedic
knowledge of popular and high-brow
literature," and praises "the triumph-
ant restlessness of his search among
facts." But the author's knowledge,
if encyclopaedic, is not infallible.
The lengthy section quoted from
Henry Charles Lee's History of the
Inquisition of the Middle Ages (1888)
is not " a rare and remarkable docu-
ment": the entire work (in three vol-
umes) was reprinted by S. A. Russell
of New York in 1955 and again in
1956; "the long-out-of-print" article
by Thomas Wright was reprinted by
the Julian Press of New York in Sex-
ual Symbolism (1957, reprinted in
1961); and R. H. Tawney's classic is
incorrectly quoted as Religion and
the Rise of the Middle Class.
The Templars had aroused the cu-
pidity and jealousy of the powers,
secular and ecclesiastical; neverthe-
less, it was ostensibly for sacrilege,
idolatry and perversion that the Tem-
plars were condemned. Legman seeks
to substantiate the truth of these
charges. Despite the superficial im-
pression of massive documentation,
the final verdict must be: "Not
Stuart Barton Babbage
Sex Offenders: An Analysis of
Types, by Paul H. Gebhard, John
H. Gagnon, Wardell B. Pomeroy,
and Cornelia V. Christenson:
Harper & Row, and Paul B. Hoe-
ber, Inc., Medical Books. 923
This analysis of male sex offenders
is one in a series of research studies
published by the Institute for Sex
Research, Incorporated, to determine
if and how persons convicted of vari-
ous sex offenses differ from persons
not convicted. Some of the specific
questions asked were: "Are the sex-
ual histories or social backgrounds of
sex offenders different from those
of non-offenders? Do men with the
same sort of illegal sexual behavior,
whether convicted or not, have simi-
lar sexual and social histories? What
behavior is associated with sex of-
fenses? How are drugs and alcohol
related to sex offenses?"
The study is based on case histories
obtained from three different groups:
1) a prison group convicted of a
wide variety of sex offenses; 2) a
prison group not specifically charged
with sex offenses; and 3) a "normal"
group drawn from among cases on
file at the Institute and not convicted
of any charges.
Sex offenders were divided into
fourteen logical categories for pur-
poses of analysis and discussion, e.g.,
heterosexual offenders vs. children,
heterosexual offenders vs. minors,
heterosexual offenders vs. adults, and
similar categories. The first three
chapters describe study methods and
sampling techniques. The subsequent
fourteen chapters discuss each of the
sex offenses' categories under con-
sistent general headings such as early
life, sex dreams, heterosexual petting,
etc. At the end of each chapter the
significant differences between the
three groups are discussed. These
summaries are particularly helpful
since the reader may obtain the core
of the study and results without read-
ing the detailed and technical infor-
mation which is more pertinent to
the more psychologically sophisticated
Chapters 19 through 36 discuss
"sex offenders" in general, drawing
from data of all three groups and
presenting differences in family and
general backgrounds, prepubescent sex
life, early sex knowledge and similar
categories. These chapters provide
what the authors believe to be the
more important dimensions and dy-
namics of sex offenders as indicated
by their data.
Generally speaking, the book is a
forthright presentation of research.
Usually no attempt is made to justify
the normality of behavior considered
abnormal in our society. However,
at times underlying assumptions and
biases do appear, and the reviewer
feels that an attempt is made to just-
ify or to mitigate the seriousness of
some of the offenses. The view of
man as a higher and more compli-
cated animal sometimes is used to
justify these conclusions.
Although one may not agree with
some of the arguments and implied
conclusions, the presentation and ar-
guments are provocative. This book
can be a valuable aide to a minister.
Undoubtedly, many ministers counsel
persons who present the sexual prob-
lems and behavior discussed in this
book. The information on family
background and other significant data
should be helpful to the pastor in
his role as minister-counselor. Their
discussion should assist the minister
in understanding more fully the "point
of view" of the sex offender, which is
important if one is to relate and
communicate with such a person and
be of help to him.
Of particular interest to ministers
or Christian readers is the fact that
the authors discuss the religious con-
victions, or lack of them, and the
relationship of this factor to sex at-
titudes. In general, the more devoutly
religious are not found among sex
offenders. However, this varied among
the sex offender groups. For exam-
ple, as a group the "incest offenders
vs. adults" were "the most religious"
of all the offender groups.
Charles C. Bovee
Jesus of Nazareth: Saviour and
Lord, by Carl F. H. Henry: Wil-
liam B. Eerdman's. 277 pp.
Again the Evangelical is indebted
to Carl Henry for a useful series of
vigorous testimonies by able scholars.
Here is a fine emphasis on the fact
that "the God of the Bible not only
acts but speaks," "that the Biblical
revelation has an apprehensible fac-
tual content." There is communication
as well as communion, S. B. Ger-
hardsson, K. S. Kantzer. Again God
has acted in history, in particular in
raising Jesus our Lord from the tomb
on the third day, F. F. Bruce and
C. H. Pinnock. Leon Morris shows
the increasing recognition of the his-
torical character of the Fourth Gos-
pel. We are particularly pleased with
Paul Althaus' treatment of fact and
faith in the Kerygma. With M. Kahler
he recognizes Matthew, Mark, Luke
and John as gospels written from
faith for faith, not as secular biog-
raphies. He properly insists however
that faith is not the foe of fact. God
has revealed Himself through these
"Gospels of Jesus Christ."
Naturally there are details in such
a wide compass with which one may
differ. It is not clear to this reviewer
that the account of the tilt between
Barth and Henry (p. 11) either en-
hances or corrects their images. Barth
teaches that the appearances of the
risen Christ came before they believed
and led the unbelieving disciples to
faith in their resurrected Lord. The
statement that "those who inherit the
kingdom enter it only by the resur-
rection" (p. 143) fails to take account
of believers living at the Parousia.
But these minutia scarcely disturb a
Wm. Childs Robinson
Voluntary Associations: A Study
of Groups in Free Societies.
Edited by D. B. Robertson: John
Knox Press. 448 pp. $9.75.
During his career at the University
of Chicago and at Harvard Divinity
School, James Luther Adams, Pro-
fessor of Christian Ethics at Harvard
Divinity School, influenced many the-
ologians. The essays in this volume
in honor of his sixty-fifth birthday
are a tribute to his influence. Tribute
is also given to Adams in the Fore-
word by Paul Tillich.
After a brief discourse about the
nature of voluntary associations, the
reader is treated to a section of es-
says concerning the theory and prac-
tice of associations in history, a
section of essays concerning the vol-
untary church and other associations
today, and a final section which in-
cludes a biographical and intellectual
sketch of Adams, his theory of vol-
untary associations as a key to his-
tory, and a Bibliography of his
The high points of the volume are
the essays of W. Alvin Pitcher, Gab-
riel Fackre, and James M. Gustaf-
son. Pitcher discusses the mass society
model of William Kornhauser; Fackre
attacks much of the sociological criti-
cism of the church in society today
and brings into focus the dominant
issues; and Gustafson is concerned
with the problems of the voluntaris-
tic aspect of Protestantism in the
United States today.
There are weaknesses, however.
First, the title is misleading; there is
much questioning of this actual free-
dom of individuals to participate in
groups and whether or not any free-
dom exists in the groups. Decisions
in most organizations are not made
from the bottom up but rather from
the top down. In addition, all groups
in a free society are not voluntary;
individuals find themselves involun-
tarily participating in many groups.
Secondly, in only one instance (p.
313) is passing reference made to
the fact that the church is not a
voluntary democratic association but
involves in some way individuals who
are called. Thirdly, the general idea
is presented that man is redeemed in
and through society; e.g., "Recent
New Testament studies, on angelol-
ogy and the doctrine of the kingship
of Christ, have born out Adams' con-
tention that redemption as conceived
in the Gospels included the institu-
tions of society as a whole." (p. 362)
The publisher's blurb states, "This
collection makes a substantial contri-
bution to a subject of growing im-
portance in the field of scholarship."
However, the historical works are
pedantic and the essays concerning
contemporary thought and institutions
deal largely with ground covered else-
R. E. Sanner
The Marian Exiles: A Study in
the Origins of Elizabethan Puri-
tanism, by Christina Hallowell
Garrett: Cambridge University
Press. 388 pp. $8.50.
The accession of Mary to the
throne of England, and the conse-
quent re-establishment of Roman
Catholicism, precipitated a Protestant
exodus to the continent. This was
not, the author argues, a panic flight;
on the contrary, it was all part of a
carefully organized, premeditated plan.
After five years of exile, on the death
of Mary, the refugees returned to
play an aggressive role in the life of
the Elizabethan Church.
The author provides us with an
account of what she calls "the embryo
of the puritan party." "Not since
1574, when William Whittingham first
published at Zurich his polemical
pamphlet under the suggestive title
of The Troubles at Frankfort," she
accuses, "has anyone cared to pene-
trate below the surface of the in-
genious legend with which the fugi-
tives cloaked the real purpose of
their enterprise." Miss Garrett speaks
slightingly of the Marian exiles as "a
cabal" and she describes their subse-
quent influence on the Elizabethan
Church as "sinister."
This study (despite its bias) is a
valuable mine of information. It con-
tains a wealth of important material,
and, in the biographies of the "472
self-exiled Englishmen," statistical in-
formation of the most useful kind.
This book first appeared in 1938.
It is now reprinted as a volume in
"The Cambridge University Press Li-
brary Editions" as an out-of-print
Stuart Barton Babbage
Scripture in the Westminster
Confession, a problem of His-
torical Interpretation for Ameri-
can Presbyterianism, by J. B.
Rogers: William B. Eerdman's.
pp. 475. Price not listed.
This is a doctoral thesis for the
University of Amsterdam and as such
shows the intensive work one would
expect from a student under Professor
G. C. Berkouwer. The writer main-
tains the thesis that the Westminster
Standards belong to the age of the
Reformation, not to that of the age
of orthodoxy, which in his opinion
followed very quickly the period of
the Westminster Standards. As a result
he urges that the UPUSA Church
regards Westminster somewhat more
highly than their scholars are cur-
rently inclined to do. In particular
Rogers urges that the Confession be-
gins with general revelation rather
than natural theology, that it stresses
the testimony of the Holy Spirit and
finds the content of the Scriptures in
Jesus Christ as the Gospel of salva-
tion. The books presents a lower doc-
trine of inspiration than that which
Warfield found in the Westminster
divines. Rogers holds that Warfield
used these fathers in general while
he seeks to use only those who shared
in the actual writing of the docu-
ments. This, and Rogers' interpretation
of "the light of nature," will require
further study. Your reviewer would
remind the reader that Warfield him-
self made the God of grace, God in
Christ, the primary object of faith
and used promises, propositions, and
even mighty acts of God as secondary
to this trust in God our Saviour.
Wm. C. Robinson
Nothing But the Gospel, Radio
Messages Presented by Peter H.
Eldersveld: William B. Eerd-
mans. 162 pp. No price listed.
As this volume makes clear, the
enduring excellence of the radio
preaching on The Back To God Hour
was due for two decades to Dr. Peter
H. Eldersveld, the Radio Minister of
the Christian Reformed Church. At
the time of his early death at 54 in
1964, Dr. Eldersveld was known as
one of the foremost spokesmen for
historic Christianity as it is interpreted
in the great confessions of the Re-
formed faith. His weekly broadcast
was carried to 3,000,000 people every
Sunday by 300 radio stations in the
United States, Canada, and foreign
countries. He was peripatetic in per-
sonal speaking tours from coast to
coast, tireless in editing devotional
booklets and maintaining a volumi-
nous correspondence with many lis-
The Radio Committee of The Back
To God Hour provides for us in this
book 19 sermons of Dr. Eldersveld,
all written in the last four years of
his life, all representative of his
maturest thought and finest skill.
The sermons in discussing the cross,
faith, grace, or ecumenics, religion in
schools, and the right to work repre-
sent a vital Calvinism. Dr. Elders-
veld's ring of clarity and simplicity
are reminiscent of Calvin himself.
Don M. Wardlaw
Images of the Negro in American
Literature, edited by Seymour L.
Gross and John Edward Hardy:
The University of Chicago Press.
321 pp. $6.50.
"The Negro in American literature
. . . has been depicted more as a
stereotype than as a human being,"
Seymour Gross writes. "The vast bulk
of American literature," he points
out, "has incarcerated the literary
Negro in such tightly restricted cate-
gories as, The Contented Slave, The
Brute Nigger, The Comic Negro, The
Tragic Mulatto, and, The Exotic
Primitive." Of recent years, however,
there has been a dramatic reversal of
roles. No longer is the Negro a stere-
otype, today he is an archetype, what
Robert Penn Warren calls "an image
of man's fate." "The history of the
Negro in America," in Richard
Wright's searing words, "is the his-
tory of America written in vivid and
bloody terms; it is the history of
Western Man writ small . . . The
Negro is America's metaphor."
This book consists of two parts:
the first, a series of essays on the
image of the Negro at different pe-
riods of history; the second, an analy-
sis, in depth, of the more significant
works portraying Negroes. Of par-
ticular relevance is the revealing dis-
cussion of James Baldwin: rebellion
has led him, Robert Bone suggests,
"to build a palace on the ramparts of
Hell and call it Heaven."
The importance of this scholarly
study (with its excellent Bibliogra-
phies) is not merely literary but
sociological and religious.
Stuart Barton Babbage
Luther's Works: The Christian in
Society, edited by James Atkin-
son: Fortress House. 417 pp.
In this collection (Volume 44) we
have works dating from 1519 to
1521: a Sermon on the Estate of
Marriage (in the course of which
Luther likens marriage to a God-
given hospital in which incurables are
preserved from falling into graver
sin!); a Treatise on Good Works (in
which he declares that "there is no
better mirror in which to see your
need than the Ten Commandments,
in which you will find what you lack
and what you should seek"); an Ad-
dress to the Nobility of the German
Nation (in relation to the needed re-
form of the Church); and a Judg-
ment on the Validity of Monastic
These are important documents re-
lating, as they do, to that period when
Luther was driven, by ineluctable
circumstances, to radical opposition.
It is difficult not to feel the anguish
of his repudiation of the Church of
Rome: "And now farewell, unhappy,
hopeless, blasphemous Rome! The
wrath of God has come upon you in
the end, as you deserved, and not for
the many prayers which are made on
your behalf, but because you have
chosen to grow more evil from day
to day! We have cared for Babylon
and she is not healed. Let us then
leave her that she may be the habita-
tion of dragons, spectres, ghosts, and
witches, and true to her name of
Babel, an everlasting confusion, an
idol of avarice, perfidy, apostasy, of
cynics, lechers, robbers, sorcerers, and
endless other impudent monsters, a
new pantheon of wickedness."
Stuart Barton Babbage
Understanding God: The Key Is-
sue in Present-Day Protestant
Thought, by Fred Herzog:
Charles Scribner's Sons. 191 pp.
When a professor of Systematic
Theology (Duke University Divinity
School) attempts a survey of the
present theological situation, with its
confusing antecedents and ramifica-
tions, the reader should be prepared
for a book that will not be easy, but
in Understanding God he will find a
volume that makes rewarding reading
and invites careful study.
Frederick Herzog's survey practi-
cally ignores Karl Barth since he is
concerned with a problem which has
arisen "since Barth," that of the new
hermeneutic, in the sense defined by
James M. Robinson and John B. Cobb,
Jr. Herzog is not ready to announce
the death of God or to give up sys-
tematic theology; instead he believes
that the newly broadened tool of
"hermeneutic" should be applied to
the basic problem of theology which
is the understanding of God. In de-
veloping his thesis Herzog refers to
more than 300 books and articles, and
focuses on key expressions in a great
many of these, offering pertinent com-
ment of his own as well as pointing
out the limits within which the origi-
nal statement was made. Since most
of the material referred to was pub-
lished in the fifties and sixties, this
volume offers the reader an almost
up-to-the-minute review of recent de-
velopments in theological discussion.
In addition it offers a serious sug-
gestion for the continuing discussion
by defining two foci which must con-
trol the programmed quest for an un-
derstanding of God. The one is the
philosophical problem of ontology,
the nature of being; the other is the
problem of meaning in history, spe-
cifically the history which centers in
the life, death and resurrection of
Jesus. In regard to both today's theo-
logian — or today's man — stands
in "aporia" — Herzog's technical
term for the present lack of under-
standing of God and of the historical
Jesus. Herzog declares that this aporia
must be presupposed in any ongoing
Opposing current tendencies to cen-
ter on one or the other of the two
foci, Herzog urges that discussion
should take the form of a historico-
ontological hermeneutic, and he sees
preaching or proclamation as an at-
tempt to recapture the needed meth-
od. Briefly he develops the basic con-
tent of proclamation in terms of the
"Wordpresence" of God which finds
expression in costly love, and this
leads logically (but not automati-
cally) to a development of a Chris-
tian ethic. Finally in tentative lan-
guage Herzog concludes a chapter on
the present-day task of Systematic
Theology with the suggestion: "Per-
haps we are seeking for a new ar-
ticulation of the Name we have
known all along." (p. 140)
Although the discussion returns to
the familiar language of "a strangely
trinitarian 'beat'," Herzog clearly
feels that it is necessary to explore
thoroughly the aporia of the present
situation before making easy pro-
nouncements of good news in the
midst of today's language difficulties.
The fundamental lesson should be ob-
vious — that the interpretation of a
divine Wordpresence can only be suc-
cessful as the interpreter is fully
aware of the difficulties of the lan-
guage situation to which he would
speak — but Herzog's book should
help to clarify this point.
James H. Gailey, Jr.
The New England Conscience, by
Austin Warren: The University of
Michigan Press. 231 pp. $6.00.
The author sets out to explore what
he calls the "pathology" of the New
England conscience and he does this
by a means of a series of "case his-
tories." "The moral of my book is
. . . the pathological character of the
sick conscience which is proud of its
This is a suggestive study. Never-
theless it is a question to what extent
the author really understands the sub-
ject matter of Puritan theology. The
Puritans, for example, did not speak
of venial and mortal sins; they spoke
of having a conscience void of of-
fense before God and man. Neither
did they say that Old Testament types
found their fulfillment in the anti-
types (sic!) of the New; on the con-
trary they said that the ante-types of
the Old Testament found their ful-
fillment in the New. What vitiates
this ambitious study is the author's
tendency to interpret Puritanism in
terms of traditional Roman Catholic
moral theology rather than in terms
of the Bible.
Stuart Barton Babbage
The New Scofield Reference
Bible: Oxford University Press.
This handsome edition, newly re-
vised, is an impressive publishing
achievement. (It is not without in-
terest to learn that "The Scofield
Reference Bible," in 1904, was the
first important publication of the
American Branch of the Oxford Uni-
versity Press.) Dr. Scofield's original
interpretive system is retained: the
text is basically that of the King
James version (with the omission of
certain archaisms); the chronology,
however, has been revised.
Dr. C. I. Scofield was ordained in
the Congregational ministry, but after
twenty years' ministry, he transferred
to the Presbyterian Church, United
States. He attended neither University
There is no denying that the Sco-
field Reference Bible has moulded
the thought of countless numbers of
evangelical Christians. If interest and
demand are any criteria, the Scofield
Bible has met a need.
It is impossible not to admire the
dedication of the Committee in rela-
tion to the onerous task of revision.
One may regret, however, the con-
tinued stress upon dispensationalism.
It was a wise instinct which led the
Puritans at the Hampton Court Con-
ference in 1604 to request King James
I to issue one uniform translation of
the Scriptures, without notes.
Stuart Barton Babbage
Between Faith and Thought: Re-
flections and Suggestions, by
Richard Kroner: Oxford Univer-
sity Press. 203 pp. $4.95.
Dr. Kroner writes that he does not
intend to present a system of thought,
but rather "a series of essays more
or less loosely connected with one
another, though shedding light on the
same focus." These essays include ex-
cellent analyses of the thought of such
philosophers as Hegel, Heidegger,
Kant, and Tillich, and excellent dis-
cussions of such topics as the relation-
ship between speculation and revela-
tion, good and evil, and the ineffec-
tiveness of form-criticism to shed
light on the actual happenings in the
The theological value of this work,
however, is negated by Kroner's in-
terpretation of Christianity. He states
that revelation requires no theological
knowledge; but is revelation not the-
ological knowledge in itself? He states
that God cannot be conceptualized
without being falsified; is Christ not
the means by which we conceptualize
God? But Kroner would not allow us
to think that Christ is the Son of God,
for he believes that such terms as Son
of God, incarnation and virgin birth
are simply metaphorical titles. Not
surprisingly, Kroner holds an adop-
tionist Christology and believes that
the image of God in man is that part
of man which is divine. Every man
has a bit of the divine in his soul and
can find God by concentrating on
this aspect of his existence.
Kroner tells us that faith has the
primacy over thought because it con-
cerns the spiritual totality of the self
whereas thought separated from faith
can satisfy only the intellect. But the
faith of which Kroner speaks is not
the faith of Scripture. He does not
define but rather describes faith in a
way which appears to regard faith as
a means to knowledge of the absolute
through perception of the spiritual.
And, he states, ". . .we live by faith
to the degree to which we live by
hope and we cannot help living by
hope, since we do not know what will
happen tomorrow or after tomorrow."
On the other hand, Christianity does
not set up faith in contrast to thought;
faith can lead to knowledge of God
(the absolute in Kroner's terminol-
ogy) by committal to Christ, not by
contemplation of the divine in our
souls. Christianity does not ask any-
one to believe that which his intellect
tells him to reject. The hope inherent
in the faith by which Christians live
is not a hope based upon uncertainty
and chance, but a hope based upon
certainties sealed by our Lord's death
R. E. Sanner
The Worship of the Reformed
Church, by John M. Barkley:
John Knox Press. 132 pp. Paper,
The Font and the Table, by
Elmer J. F. Arndt: John Knox
Press. 88 pp. Paper, $1.95.
The Joy of Freedom, by Paul
Verghese: John Knox Press. 91
pp. Paper, $1.95.
The Worldliness of Worship, by
James F. White: Oxford Univer-
sity Press. 181 pp. $5.00.
The first three of these works are
numbers fifteen, sixteen and seven-
teen of the Ecumenical Studies in
Worship. They are profitable for pas-
tors. Barkley's volume exposes and
critically analyzes the theology of the
Scottish, English- Welsh, and Irish Re-
formed liturgies. His method of study
is alone worthy of the attention of
any Presbyterian seriously consider-
ing the Book of Common Worship:
Arndt's study calls for reappraisal
of sacramental teaching and practice
in the light of the gospel. From the
stance of Biblical Theology he seeks
Scriptural norms and New Testament
interpretation of baptism, the Lord's
Supper, and the presence of Christ.
Seminal, not summary, his mono-
graph should stimulate a generation
of new studies.
We are introduced to the worship
of the Eastern Church by Paul Verg-
hese. His book is designed for the
general reader rather than the scholar.
The Eastern concept of history as a
form of memory that is more than
mental, as a reliving of a past ex-
perience in joy, is a concept that can
help us in the West restore meaning-
ful praise in our worship.
Laymen will be particularly inter-
ested in the book by James White,
Associate Professor of Worship, Perk-
ins School of Theology, Southern
Methodist University. He interprets
carefully, clearly, and interestingly
the present-day problems in worship
that lead frequently to new prac-
tices in churches and to reactions
from startled and confused Chris-
tians. Adult study groups will find
him informative, incisive and pro-
Hubert V. Taylor
Forerunners of the Reformation:
The Shape of Late Medieval
Thought Illustrated by Key Docu-
ments, by Heiko Augustinus
Oberman: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston. 333 pp. $7.95.
"The purpose of this book," says
the author who was Winn Professor
of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard
University, "is to transfer the dis-
cussion of late medieval Christian
thought from the private studies of
the specialists to the carrels and sem-
inars of college and university stu-
Mr. Oberman suggests the religious
crosscurrents of the period between
the High Middle Ages and the Ref-
ormation, offering to the reader such
key themes as conciliarism, curialism,
mysticism, various types of scholasti-
cism, the spirituality of the Devotio
Moderna, and the impact of Renais-
sance humanism. Much of the mate-
rial presented here can be of service
to those seeking Christian unity.
The author thinks that a separation
of medieval and reformation periods
is unhistorical. Without a grasp of
the 14th and 15th centuries, Profes-
sor Oberman argues, the medieval
history of Christian thought is left
incomplete, and both the Reforma-
tion and Counter-Reformation seem
to emerge without preparation.
The source material in this book,
translated by church historian Paul
Nyhus, includes selections from the
works of Jan Hus, Pius II, John
Brevicoxa, Gabriel Biel, Johann von
Staupitz, Cardinal Cajetan, Cornelisz
Hoen, Jacobus Faber Stapulensis, and
Paul T. Fuhrmann
various universities. He travelled ex-
tensively in India and lectured there
If religion is largely founded on
faith, and faith on revelation, which
of all the revelations are we to be-
lieve? Why make the Christian leap
of faith, rather than the Muslim or
Buddhist one? Very different an-
swers to such questions would be
given in different parts of the world.
And in imaginative form, this con-
versation between a Christian, a Jew,
a Muslim, and two Buddhists (from
Ceylon and Japan) shows how the
most influential creeds differ and
agree. The protagonists exchange their
fundamental beliefs about God and
the Trinity, salvation, incarnation,
good and evil. Paradoxically the au-
thor concludes that he will remain a
Paul T. Fuhrmann
World Religions: A Dialogue, by
Ninian Smart: Penguin Books,
154 pp. $1.25.
Ninian Smart was born in 1927 at
Cambridge. He studied and taught in
Myth and Symbol, Edited by F.
W. Dillistone: S.P.C.K. 112 pp.
The central contention of this col-
lection of essays is: "Only through
symbols can the realm of mystery be
livingly attested." Under the editor-
ship of F. W. Dillistone such for-
midable men as Paul Tillich, Mircea
Eliade, David Cox, Antony Bridge,
Ian T. Ramsey and Michael Stancliffe
have blended their differing perspec-
tives toward this central contention
with admirable clarity.
The value of this collection is not
only in helping one get straight the
meaning of the mythic or symbolic,
but also in assaying practical impli-
cations for effective communication.
A Symbol, notes Michael Stancliffe
in his contribution on "Symbolism
and Preaching," "... speaks in a
universal language, it opens the eyes
of both the preacher and his hearers
and it goes on working on their minds
long after the spoken words have died
away and been forgotten."
The challenge of Myth and Symbol
is the realization that man — devoid
of symbols is dehumanized. "What is
needed," according to Antony Bridge,
"is radical honesty in preaching and
teaching, faith in the intelligence and
sensitivity of mankind and the ap-
parently inexpedient courage to af-
firm that any true evangelism must
be rooted in the works of the Evan-
gelists who often interpret the reality
of history in terms of myth and sym-
bol because the fullness of that real-
ity cannot be described merely in
terms of local episode and material
Dillistone concludes the book by
noting that some symbols need to be
"rediscovered and retranslated into
modern forms if they are to be ef-
fective as symbols in contemporary
life: some may be obsolete and im-
possible to revivify . . . But in the
Christian world view, one symbol oc-
cupies the place of primacy and su-
premacy." This, of course, is the
The material presented in these es-
says will not be appreciated by all,
but it is material that should be
wrestled with by any who desire to
understand more fully, and communi-
cate more clearly, the mysteries of
Alvin S. Jepson
Melanchton: The Quiet Reform-
er, by Clyde Leonard Mans-
chreck: Abingdon Press. 350 pp.
Dr. Manschreck, associate profes-
sor of Religion at Duke University,
North Carolina, is in the forefront
of authorities on the life and work
of the great German Reformer Philip
Melanchthon. In this book he pro-
vides us with a first-rate biographical
study of Luther's colleague, based on
serious research, sympathetically pre-
sented, and admirably written. Me-
lanchthon's gentle and serene nature
served as a perfect counterpart to
Luther's more explosive genius. Dif-
ferences of temperament and even
differences of theological understand-
ing, such as that over the doctrine
of the Lord's Supper, were never al-
lowed to interrupt the constancy of
their friendship. "This man, sinful
and feeble though he be," Luther
wrote to Jonas in 1527, "is exalted
above many, yea, thousands like Jer-
ome, Hilary, and Macarius, who are
altogether unworthy to unloose the
shoe laces of my Philip." And in the
sermon he preached at the funeral
of his fellow-Reformer, Melanchthon
said: "Luther brought to light the
true and necessary doctrine. . . .
Many of us witnessed the struggles
through which he passed in estab-
lishing the principle that by faith are
we received and heard of God. Hence
throughout eternity pious souls will
magnify the benefits which God has
bestowed on the Church through
In the pages of this excellent vol-
ume Melanchthon is ably portrayed
as the brilliant scholar and systematic
theologian of the German Reforma-
tion, the Wittenberg professor and
pioneer of liberal education (of which
for him the Biblical revelation was
always the basis), the unremitting
mediator and ecumenical figure whose
labours were all too often unreward-
ing, and the devoted friend and fam-
ily man. His appreciation of the
many-sidedness of truth and the limi-
tations of the human intellect, and
his willingness to make concessions in
the interests of peace where matters
which he considered of secondary im-
portance were of concern caused him
to be misunderstood by some and to
be unjustly accused of compromise.
Melanchthon, like other mortals,
made his mistakes and his judgment
was no more infallible than that of
other men; but his grasp of the
Gospel was clear and firm and his
theological thought was precise and
penetrating. Always, however, the
glorious thing about those whom
God has used greatly for the blessing
of the Church is not their own abil-
ity or their own achievement, but the
magnification of the grace and the
power of God through their frailty.
This book will do much to dispel the
fog of suspicion which, in the minds
of some, still hangs over the name of
Philip E. Hughes
The Future of Belief: Theism in
a World Come of Age, by Leslie
Dewart: Herder and Herder. 223
According to our author, the tradi-
tional Christian idea of God is a
result of the hellenization of the early
Christian outlook in an age that was
still patriarchal. Modern men, how-
ever, have become of age: they are
no longer in a condition to under-
stand and to accept a childish and
archaic Church theology; hence an
increasing number of thinkers turn to
atheism. Dr. Dewart therefore sug-
gests that our divine doctrine ought
to be recast in terms that contem-
porary men can truly understand and
I esteem Professor Dewart (who
teaches in Canada) for his courage
in bringing forward several problems
before the Church. I think, however,
that contemporary atheism has also
other roots: some people reason as
follows: A God who was all-power-
ful but left much misery in the world
would not be all-benevolent. An all-
benevolent God in a world contain-
ing such misery would not be an all-
powerful God. A world containing a
God who was both all-powerful and
all-benevolent would contain no such
great misery. The God of the Church
therefore does not exist. Another root
of atheism is the charge that the
clergy have always stood for the rich,
have always kept the poor down and
have never done a thing for the
emancipation and uplifting of the
lower classes, offering them instead
a future heaven as a compensation
for their present sufferings and threat-
ening them with hell if they do not
I hope that Dr. Dewart will con-
tinue his task and work out a warm,
comprehensive and intelligent theism
for the days ahead.
Paul T. Fuhrmann
God and History in Early Chris-
tian Thought, by Lloyd G. Pat-
terson: Seabury. 180 pp. $5.50.
This is the second volume of studies
in patristic thought under the general
editorship of Dr. R. A. Norris, Jr.
Professor Patterson begins with the
contrast between the Greek thought
of history as an inquiry into the rec-
ord of human happenings and the
Christian claim of a final interven-
tion in human affairs by the God
who had acted in Israel's past. The
Lord's resurrection from death, his
vindication by God after his rejection
by men became for his disciples the
central witness to the truth of his
message. The Christian fathers from
Justin Martyr through Gregory the
Great give their several interpreta-
tions of how God's judgments earth-
ward move. This is an invaluable
study for those studying the bearing
of patristic thought upon the mean-
ing of history.
Wm. G. Robinson
Man in Search of God, by James
J. Cavanaugh: Paulist Press. 109
In this brief book Father Cava-
naugh reminds us that much of the
certainty which once characterized
Christian faith has now passed away.
Therefore, he feels that many of the
traditional answers which seemed so
convincing to those of former gen-
erations will never again satisfy the
minds of men now alienated from
faith. Nevertheless he insists that
multitudes both within and without
the church are truly in search of God.
There is here, however, little empha-
sis upon the greater truth that God
is in search of man. The author, a
Roman Catholic, is greatly encour-
aged by the spirit of Vatican II and
quotes freely from its actions. He
rightly urges that the many who are
now alienated from faith can be won
to it only when the Christian com-
munity itself begins to live the love
it professes to have found in Christ.
P. D. Miller
Vietnam: Crisis of Conscience, by
Robert McAfee Brown, Abraham
J. Heschel, Michael Novak: As-
sociation Press. 127 pp. $.95.
The Vietnam War: Chrisian Per-
spectives, edited by Michael P.
Hamilton: Wm. B. Eerdmans.
140 pp. $3.50.
At a time when the American pub-
lic and private conscience is increas-
ingly troubled by the complex conun-
drum of U. S. involvement in Viet-
nam, these two books appear as valu-
able aids for gaining perspective.
Vietnam: Crisis of Conscience, is a
clear, hard hitting, ecumenical voice
of disapproval of how the U.S. has
been and is involved in Vietnam.
Brown and Novak, Protestant and
Roman Catholic professors respect-
fully of Stanford University, combine
with Rabbi Heschel of the Jewish
Theological Seminary of America to
call upon citizens of the three major
faiths to seek ways to stop the war in
Vietnam. What impresses the reader,
particularly, is the careful and re-
spected documentation undergirding
Novak and Brown's contributions.
With clear facts and clean logic the
theologians show how miscalculations
in the past and misjudgment in the
present add up to U.S. folly in Viet-
nam. More than a wringing of hands
over present chaos, this small volume
offers convincing alternatives to pres-
ent policy, choices often obscured by
the popular press. This book is "must"
reading for anyone stricken in con-
science by Vietnam.
The second book, The Vietnam
War: Christian Perspectives, is a com-
pilation of nine sermons and two
addresses, edited by Michael Hamil-
ton, Canon of Washington Cathedral.
Although the stated intent of the book
is to provide informed and represen-
tative voices from the broad spectrum
of pulpit-opinion about Vietnam both
at home and abroad, most of the
utterances are to the left of official
U.S. policy. In spite of the uneven
quality in this, as in most, collections
of sermons, the volume is worth the
price for the sake of contributions of
Paul Ramsey, Martin Luther King,
and Eugene Carson Blake alone.
New Testament Word Lists, by
Clinton Morrison and David H.
Barnes: William B. Eerdmans.
125 pp. $2.95.
There is no get-rich-quick way of
learning Greek, and I am very sus-
picious of many of the books pur-
porting to be short cuts to an easy
mastery of New Testament Greek.
But I can commend this particular
book most highly. It is a thoroughly
legitimate and highly useful aid. We
are recommending it to our students
in our Greek classes in seminary, and
I can equally well recommend it to
all ministers who wish to keep their
Greek as a working tool for their
study of the New Testament.
In an appendix the authors list all
the words used ten or more times in
the New Testament. The student must
get to know them, using a lexicon if
he does not already have them in his
mind. But all the other words in the
New Testament are listed chapter by
chapter, for quick and easy reference.
The basic grammatical information is
given and one or two simple mean-
ings for each word. This is a tremen-
dous help for rapid reading. When
the reader wishes to make a detailed
study of the more significant words,
he must go to one of the fuller lexi-
cons, such as the old Thayer or the
new Arndt and Gingrich, or Kittel,
or to the critical commentaries.
These lists were used in mimeo-
graph form for some years at Mc-
Cormick Seminary, but they have now
been put into printed form and made
available to a wider public. I would
say with all emphasis, "Get this book
and use it."
Samuel A. Cartledge
Religious Strife on the Southern
Frontier, by Walter Brownlee Posey:
(Louisiana State University Press).
112 pp. $4.00.
This volume contains the Walter
Lynwood Fleming Lectures delivered
in 1963 at Louisiana State University
by Dr. Walter B. Posey, Professor of
History at Agnes Scott College. The
author presents a depressing but well
authenticated record of conflict and
rivalry between the principal Protes-
tant Denominations and later between
Protestants and Roman Catholics in
the latter part of the 18th and first
half of the 19th Century. Christians
were apparently more interested in
attacking one another than in preach-
ing Christ. Bitterness rather than love
was the prevailing spirit. One is con-
strained to feel that church leaders
have made real progress in their at-
titudes toward one another since that
period. Nevertheless, after reading the
book, one is constrained to wonder
how many of our present controver-
sies will look to historians a hundred
The Theology of Martin Luther, by
Paul Althaus: (Fortress Press). 463
We would normally be suspicious
of a single volume of 463 pages,
claiming to be a "Theology of Mar-
tin Luther," unless we were certain
that the author really had mastered
the voluminous and unsystematic writ-
ings of the Reformer, and also un-
derstood his complex development as
a man. But Paul Althaus is obviously
one of those who knows his Luther,
and who has the instinct for selecting
precisely what is relevant and signifi-
cant in the field of theology. This
volume is bound to be helpful to
those who cannot go constantly to
the original sources, but who want
to be able to find out what Luther
thought. It is carefully arranged. Its
scope ranges over the whole field of
dogmatics. It contains a multitude of
copious citations with exact refer-
ences, and will serve the scholar as
well as the ordinary reader.
No Ivory Tower, by A. C. McGiffert,
Jr.: (The Chicago Theological Semi-
nary). 324 pp. $5.00.
This is a well written and stimu-
lating history of Chicago Theological
Seminary from its establishement in
1958 to 1965. In reading it one finds
a valuable account of the ways in
which one seminary has met most of
the problems common to theological
institutions and made its particular
contribution to the life of American
In Remembrance of Me, by David
Cairns: (Geoffrey Bles, London). 96
pp. 12s. 6d.
This devotional treatment of the
Lord's Suppper contains the substance
of five addresses delivered in St. Giles
Cathedral, Edinburgh during Holy
Week Services. Its substance is well
suggested by the titles of its Chap-
ters: The Lord's Supper as Memorial;
The Presence and the Gift in the
Lord's Supper; Fellowship in the
Lord's Supper; Sacrifice and Inter-
cession in the Lord's Supper; and the
Lord's Supper as a Sign of Hope.
Lay readers will find helpful instruc-
tion here, and ministers will find
many suggestions for their own com-
Archaeology, Historical Analogy, and
Early Biblical Tradition, by William
F. Albright: (Louisiana State Uni-
versity Press). 69 pp. $2.75.
In these Lectures the author de-
votes particular attention to the story
of Abraham and the role of Samuel.
What he does, by the judicious use of
historical analogy, is to rehabilitate
the essential historicity of the Biblical
tradition. In the case of Samuel, he
suggests a convincing reconciliation of
The importance of this book is out
of all proportion to its size. It repre-
sents a devastating attack on current
reconstructions of the traditional nar-
The Furious Passage of James Bald-
win, by Fern Marja Eckman: (M.
Evans and Co.). 254 pp. $4.50.
"Baldwin will be remembered," the
author writes, "as the writer who
forced upon the consciousness of
white America the terror and the
wrath of being Negro in the United
Concerning Martin Luther King,
James Baldwin says: "King really
loves the people he represents and
has — therefore — no hidden, in-
terior need to hate the white people
who oppose him." Concerning him-
self, Baldwin confesses: "I'm vehe-
ment and indignant."
Interestingly enough, Baldwin enu-
merates as formative literary influ-
ences "the King James Bible, the
rhetoric of the store front church,
something ironic and violent and per-*
petually understated in Negro-speech
— and something of Dicken's love of
Baldwin splutters with passionate
and polemical fury. He is, the author
says, "a hot blue flame licking at the
nation's collective guilt."
This luminous biography helps us
to understand some of the factors —
psychological as well as sociological
— that have made him what he is.
Come Out of the Wilderness: The
Story of East Harlem Protestant Par-
ish: by Bruce Kenrick: (Harper and
Row). 220 pp. $1.60.
"Social involvement and holiness.
Set them apart, and religion is de-
filed. Unite them, and it is pure."
This factual, unpretentious documen-
tary report is an account of how the
East Harlem Protestant Parish has
sought to achieve these twin objec-
tives. The result is a challenging testi-
mony to the efficacious power of
faith and works. Graphically illus-
trated with pen and ink drawings.
A Religion Against Itself, by Robert
W. Jenson: (John Knox Press). 127
The trouble with the term, "reli-
gionless Christianity," is that it is as
vague at it is vogue. Robert W. Jen-
sen, chairman of the philosophy de-
partment of Luther College in Iowa,
attempts, in this brief book, to put
flesh on the term, to help us see
religionless Christianity come alive in
theology, worship, ethics, parish struc-
ture, missionary motivation, and faith.
The discussion is set on the antithesis
of the Gospel and "religion." The
author unfolds the radical nature of
the Gospel-at-work which challenges,
threatens, cajoles, and revolutionizes
the religion-encrusted Church.
Emerging Shapes of the Church, by
David S. Schuller: (Concordia Pub-
lishing House). 84 pp. $2.00.
How can a parish church oast its
historic Biblical functions in viable
forms today? David S. Schuller, As-
sociate Professor of practical theol-
ogy at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis,
says flexibility is the only answer. Not
that the parish church is outdated, but
that the parish people have so many
exciting possibilities as a mobile army
for Christ in secularity and service.
Pastors and laymen concerned for
new mobilization will find numerous
practical suggestions along with a
penetrating theological and sociologi-
Moral Problems and Christian Per-
sonalism, by Franz Bockle: (Paulist
Press). 183 pp. $4.50.
The winds of change are blowing
through the Catholic Church centered
at Rome, and this collection of arti-
cles contained in Volume 5 of CON-
CILIUM: THEOLOGY IN THE
AGE OF RENEWAL indicate some
of the changes in the area of ethics.
Distinguished European scholars of
that communion write on such con-
temporary problems as morality and
compromise, pacifism and legitimate
defense, birth control, natural law, and
the theology of marriage. Though
oriented primarily toward Catholic
thought and life in Europe, the dis-
cussion frequently parallels the strug-
gles among ethicists in America and
among Protestants. The flavor of the
book may be summarized by the fol-
lowing quotation: "Morality becomes
personal and dynamic, and so loses
its oppressive negative quality . . .
The sorrowful frowning negative head-
shake is replaced by a glad and posi-
tive acceptance, which express our
growth toward generosity and love."
John Keats: His Life and Writings, by
Douglas Bush: (The Macmillan Com-
pany). 244 pp. $4.95.
Douglas Bush, in a disarming pref-
ace, describes his work as "a skiff
sailing in the wake of W. J. Bate's
richly laden ship, John Keats (1963)."
It would be a mistake, however, to
underestimate the nature of Dr. Bush's
own achievement. What he has given
us, in this work of rare distinction, is
a careful critical examination of the
poet's life and work. Keats was, he
concludes, a Deist. There's almost
unbearable pathos in Keats' dying
words: "I cannot believe in your
book — the Bible — but I feel the
horrible want of some faith — some
hope — something to rest on now —
there must be such a book . . ."
The Newman Brothers: An Essay in
Comparative Intellectual Biography,
by William Robbins: (Harvard Uni-
versity Press). 202 pp. $6.00.
Each of the Newman brothers ex-
perienced an evangelical conversion,
and yei each, in his own way, dt
cisively reacted against his early evan-
gelicalism. The older brother became
a representative of "superstitious Rit-
ualism" (to quote the language of
a contemporary); the younger, of
Of Cardinal Newman, Bishop Thirl-
wall acutely observed: "I believe him
to be at bottom far more sceptical
than his brother Francis; and the ex-
travagant credulity with which he ac-
cepts the wildest Popish legends is, as
it appears to me, only another side
of his bottomless unbelief." F. D.
Maurice lamented Frank's "emascu-
lated Eclecticism," and asked who
would not prefer the "keen air" of
In this fascinating biographical
study we have a vivid reminder of
the perennial dangers that beset an
Eugene O'Neill, by John Gassner:
(University of Minnesota Press). 48
This monograph is a notable addi-
tion to the University of Minnesota
Pamphlets on American Writers. "In
all his major work, O'Neill traced the
course of a modern dramatist in
search of an aesthetic and spiritual
center ... He did not, it is true,
find any comforting assurances in the
world, but he had the integrity to
acknowledge his failure and the per-
sistence to dramatize it with much
penetration into human nature." O'
Neill's drama, the author asserts, "de-
rived from the loss of religious faith
that was traumatic."
The Acts, by R. P. C. Hanson: (Ox-
ford University Press). 262 pp. $5.00.
This is the third volume which has
appeared in The New Clarendon Bi-
ble series of commentaries. The au-
thor is professor of theology at the
University of Nottingham. After 56
pages of introductory material, we
have the commentary with the text of
the R.S.V. at the head of each page.
The author, of course, knows his
Greek and makes considerable use of
it in the commentary. He is well
aware of the current literature in the
field. He is typical of the highest
type of British scholarship. He avoids
the extremes from the right and from
the left and presents positions which
should be taken seriously by all con-
cerned scholars dealing with Acts.
The use of small type in the notes
make it possible for him to pack a
tremendous amount of material into
a relatively small book.
Flannery O'Connor: A Critical Essay,
by Robert Drake: (William B. Eerd-
mans). 48 pp. $.85.
This further monograph in the se-
ries, "Contemporary Writers in Chris-
tian Perspective," is devoted to an
examination of the work of one who
made no secret of her emphatic com-
mitment to the Christian faith. "I see
from the standpoint of Christian or-
thodoxy," Miss O'Connor said. "This
means that for me the meaning of
life is centered in our redemption by
Christ and that what I see in the
world I see in its relation to that."
Thus the author of this study can
say: "Jesus Christ is finally the prin-
cipal character in all Miss O'Connor's
fiction, whether offstage or, in the
words and actions of her characters,
very much on. And this encounter
with Him is the one story she keeps
telling over and over again."
The value of this monograph is
that it helps to introduce evangelicals
to a writer whose achievements are
Ernest Hemingway: A Critical Essay,
by Nathan A. Scott, Jr.: (William B.
Eerdmans). 46 pp. $.85.
Scott finds at the center of Hem-
ingway's life "the sense of the con-
solatory and redemptive glory of the
earth, the consequent sense of a cer-
tain pietas as forming one of man's
principal obligations; then the black-
ness, the nata, the nothingness, which
contradicts the glory, and the conse-
quent necessity both for the artist
and the human being of steeling one-
self against chaos through rigorous
and austere disciplines of mind and
spirit; and finally, the dream of the
possibility of transcendence — through
love . . ." "He was," Scott reiterates,
"at bottom, a 'spiritual' writer, for
the drama being enacted just beneath
the clenched surfaces of his fiction
is that of the soul's journey in search
Scott tends, perhaps, to over-write;
nevertheless, in this illuminating mon-
ograph, he provides a useful correc-
tive to some popular misconceptions
concerning the nature of Hemingway's
Questions of Religious Truth, by Wil-
fred Cantwell Smith: (Charles Scrib-
ner's Sons). 127 pp. $3.95.
Dr. Smith's 1963 Taylor Lectures
at Yale Divinity School concern the
Qur'an as the word of God, the ques-
tion "Can Religions be True or
False?" and the use of the word
"Christian" as noun or adjective. The
lecture concerning the death of God
controversy was also delivered as the
Charles Strong Memorial Lecture in
Australia in 1966. He concludes that
the Qur'an is the word of God be-
cause it speaks truth to individuals
in concrete situations and all truth
comes from God, that religions are
true or false only as they exist to an
individual, and that individuals are
Christian only in so far as they live
The religious thought discussed in
this book can be described as eclectic,
syncretistic, and subjectivistic. The
value in this book lies in the fact
that it is at the points of similarity
between Christianity and other reli-
gions that the uniqueness of Chris-
tianity can best be seen.
Justin Martyr: His Life and Thought,
by L. W. Barnard: (Cambridge Uni-
versity Press). 194 pp. $8.50.
The Apologists were concerned not
only to rebut pagan calumnies and
false accusations; they were also con-
cerned to defend the essential reason-
ableness of the Christian faith. Soc-
rates, in his famous trial before the
people of Athens, had done more
than defend himself; he had sought to
show the rationality of his position.
The Apologists had a like desire.
They were eager to demonstrate that
Christianity is the embodiment of the
noblest conceptions of Greek philos-
ophy and the truth par excellence.
In this painstaking study (marred
only by some repetitiousness), the
author discusses, in the first place,
Justin's philosophical antecedents and
then analyses, in relation to particular
themes, the Apologies and The Dia-
logue with Trypho. His writings re-
flect, the author demonstrates, the
eclectic Middle Platonism of his day.
In relation to his apologetic he did
not attempt to conflate Platonism and
Christianity; he regarded Platonism
as a preparation for the Gospel. It
was this which made him, as the
author rightly recognizes, a pioneer
in the field of the Greek apologetics.
Saint Thomas More: A Dialogue of
Comfort Against Tribulation. Edited
by Leland Miles: (Indiana Univer-
sity Press). 301 pp. N. P.
The deserved popularity of the film,
A Man for All Seasons, has given the
works of Sir Thomas More an intense
topicality. A few years ago, G. K.
Chesterton ventured the opinion that
"in about a hundred years," More
"may come to be counted the great-
est Englishman, or at least the great-
est historical character in English his-
tory." It is not without interest that,
since these words were written, the
Roman Church has decreed his can-
What we have in More's work is
a discussion (in dialogue form) of
the subject of temptation in relation
to suffering and sudden death. Writ-
ten in expectation of tortuous death
(either by beheading or disembowel-
ment). More sought to stay himself
It is a boon to have this spiritual
classic newly reprinted, together with
an erudite introduction by the editor.
The editor has done his work well.
The Child's Story Bible, by Catherine
E. Vos: (William B. Eerdmans). 436
The text of this established classic
(first published in 1936 under the
sponsorship of the National Union of
Christian Schools) has been exten-
sively revised by the author's daugh-
ter. The publishers have added to the
text bold and arresting pictures in
startling colour. The book is hand-
somely bound, and the general im-
pression created is one of cheerful
contemporaneity. As an introduction
to the narrative stories of the Bible
it is excellent: it successfully avoids
heavy-handed didacticism on the one
hand and sentimentality on the other.
The emphasis is theological rather
A good buy.
Old and New in Interpretation: A
Study of the Two Testaments, by
James Barr: (Harper and Row). 215
In this profound book, James Barr
engages first one and then another
theological Goliath. He explores the
"multiplex" nature of the Old Testa-
ment Tradition, examines the ques-
tion of distinctiveness in a chapter
entitled, "Athens or Jerusalem?" and
discusses at length the questions of
history and revelation, of typology
and allegory. The discussion is hard
going, but the author is wrestling
with some of the major concerns of
contemporary theological discussion.
Once again, it is difficult not to
feel that Barr is frequently right in
what he denies and wrong in what
The Reluctant Pilgrim: Defoe's Em-
blematic Method and Quest for Form
in Robinson Crusoe, by J. Paul
Hunter: (The Johns Hopkins Press).
227 pp. $6.50. -
"The first major early English
writers of prose fiction were steeped
in Puritan tradition, and the novel
as an art form owes a great deal to
Puritan modes of thought." The au-
thor substantiates this conclusion by
a close and careful examination of
Robinson Crusoe. Defoe's classic, he
demonstrates, "is structured on the
basis of a familiar Christian pattern
of disobedience — punishment — re-
pentance — deliverance ... On the
first page Crusoe plunges himself,
through disobedience by reason of
pride, into the universal predicament
of fallen man; the remainder of the
narrative describes that predicament
in detail and dramatizes Crusoe's at-
tempt to confront his world — and
his God." The author, in this grace-
ful work of sympathetic scholarship,
shows that Robinson Crusoe can only
be fully understood in relation to
the "guide literature" of the seven-
The New Theologian, by Ved Mehta:
(Harper and Row). 217 pp. $5.95.
This is an impressionistic book by
a professional journalist. Intrigued by
the success of Bishop Robinson's best-
seller, Honest to God, Ved Mehta set
out to interview those theologians to
whom Robinson acknowledged him-
self indebted. The recorded conversa-
tions are agreeably gossipy. "There
are a lot of people teaching in the
religion departments of colleges,"
Kenneth Hamilton confided, "who
do not believe in God — it's not a
problem . . . But I am beginning to
feel that the time has come for me
to put up or shut up, for me to be
an in or an out." Van Buren simi-
larly commented: "About my being a
clergyman — well, I don't pray. I
just reflect on these things. I am or-
dained, but when I am asked to
preach or perform services, I usually
say I would rather not. I would ask
to be defrocked, if that could be done
in a quiet, unoffensive way, but it
For those who like reportage of
this kind, here are vividly etched
vignettes of the more significant the-
ologians at present influencing thought
in America, England and Europe.
Henry VIII and the Lutherans, by
Neelak Serawlook Tjernagel: (Con-
cordia). 326 pp. $6.95.
This carefully documented work is
a study in depth of one particular
aspect of the Reformation: the im-
pact of Lutheranism on England dur-
ing the reign of Henry VIII. It began
with Henry's defense of the seven
sacraments (for which the Pope con-
ferred on him the title "Defender of
the Faith"); Luther promptly wrote
a work bitterly attacking the King. "It
is right for me," he said, "to spatter
his Anglican royal highness with his
own mud and filth." It is not sur-
prising that subsequent relationships
were strained and difficult. Neverthe-
less, it is an incontrovertible fact that
the subsequent influence of Lutheran-
ism on the development of the Eng-
lish Revolution was considerable.
This is an historical work of unus-
ual interest and importance.
On Iniquity, by Pamela Hansford
Johnson: (Charles Scribner's Sons).
142 pp. $3.95.
This book (subtitled, "Some Per-
sonal Reflections Arising Out of the
Moors Murder Trial") is a passion-
ate cri de coeur. How do we explain
acts of such atrocious sadism perpe-
trated against little children?
The accused, it was revealed, were
avid readers of pornography. Pamela
Hansford Johnson points out that we
do not allow people to purchase poi-
sons; why, she asks, should we allow
floods of pornography to pollute our
Miss Hansford says that we have
succeeded in creating a climate of
opinion which is fundamentally anti-
pathetic to the Christian faith. "The
error of the liberal humanists," she
bluntly accuses, "is that they have
been unable to offer an alternative
faith to the one they have renounced,
except for faith in the beneficial ef-
fects of total permissiveness in every
form of culture. This faith is a ro-
mantic one, even more romantic than
Rousseau's. Once they ceased to be-
lieve even in the possibility of sheer
iniquity and replaced this by a belief
in Freud, they tore up the very stones
of self-discipline and moral respon-
Miss Hansford calls us, with shrill
urgency, to re-examine some of our
accepted liberal presuppositions and
to think again.
Toward an Undivided Church, by
Douglas Horton. Witht a Foreword
by Richard Cardinal Cushing: (As-
sociation Press and University of
Notre Dame Press). 96 pp. $2.50.
This book by the retired dean of
Harvard Divinity School faces the
principal issues that separate the
world's Christians — infallibility, the
veneration of saints, transubstantia-
tion, birth control, the papacy, and
more — and then points the way to
the possibility of reconciliation. Part
II of the book contains the messages
directed to the official Protestant and
Orthodox guests and observers during
the four sessions of the Second Vati-
can Council. These begin with Pope
John's greetings to the guests and
observers in 1962, and end with the
final address of Pope Paul at a
"prayer service" in 1965. Added are
Cardinal Bea's messages. Pope Paul's
request for forgiveness if the Roman
Catholic Church has been guilty of
causing any division of Christendom,
The Art of Oscar Wilde, by Epifanio
San Juan, Jr.: (Princeton University
Press). 238 pp. $6.50.
The author, in this work of grace-
ful scholarship, analyzes the literary
qualities of Oscar Wilde's work. He
was, as every schoolboy knows, the
supreme master of astringent wit,
irony, and paradox. But his purpose
was not mere entertainment: he was
also concerned about the relationship
of art to life. The fact that he did not
perfectly realize his intentions was
due, the author argues, to the disorder
of his own life. "Right from the start
of Wilde's career, we perceive con-
science and passion warring in his
consciousness. His life proceeded from
one succes de scandale to another,
culminating in the trial and chastise-
ment of the willful aesthetic ego; he
played with romance and reality, the
victim and hero of the legend he
created, embodying the conflicts of
his life and his works."
This is a careful and rewarding
study of sensitivity and insight.
Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories,
by C. S. Lewis: (Harcourt, Brace and
World). 148 pp. $3.95.
We are given, in this posthumous
collection of miscellaneous papers,
Lewis' views on children's stories and
science fiction. We also have the
transcribed record of a taped discus-
sion between C. S. Lewis, Kingsley
Amis and Brian Aldiss on the subject
of science fiction. Addressing Lewis,
Amis said: "Would you agree that
to write a religious novel that isn't
concerned with details of ecclesiasti-
cal practice and the numbing minutiae
of history and so on, science fiction
would be the natural outlet?" Lewis
readily agreed: "If you have a reli-
gion it must be cosmic; therefore it
seems to me odd that this genre was
so late in arriving."
It is of very great interest to have
this revealing account of Lewis' own
thoughts on one aspect of his enter-
prise together with information about
the manner of his Working. The latter
part of the book consists of chapters
from an unfinished novel.
Tragic Meanings in Shakespeare,
by Thomas McFarland: (Random
House). 179 pp. $1.95 (Paperback).
The author successfully employs
the insights of theology and existen-
tialism to explore the deeper levels
of meaning in Shakespeares' tragedies.
The polarities of Hamlet, he suggests,
are conscience and responsibility, of
Anthony and Cleopatra, love and the
world, of Lear, meaning and noth-
In a well-worked field, the author
performs the difficult feat of opening
up new avenues of fruitful explora-
tion. This is a brilliant pioneer study.
Biblical Studies Today: A Guide to
Current Issues and Trends, by Edgar
Krentz: (Concordia). 80 pp. Paper.
The author is professor of New
Testament at Concordia Theological
Seminary. After an introductory chap-
ter, the book deals with The Histori-
cal Method, Source and Form Criti-
cism, The New Quest for the Histori--
cal Jesus, The Bible in the World of
Its Day, and Historical and Her-
meneutical Issues. We have an ex-
cellent survey of the major problems
before the world of Biblical scholar-
ship, but the author makes no attempt
to evaluate them. It is manifestly im-
possible in a book of 80 pages to do
more than hit the high spots, though
well selected Bibliographies will make
it possible for the interested reader to
go as deeply as he might wish into
any of these areas. The book would
be largely meaningless to the lay
reader, but it could be very helpful
to a minister who would like to bring
himself up to date in these technical
Mandate for White Christians, by
Kyle Haselden: (John Knox Press).
127 pp. $3.00.
The editor of The Christian Cen-
tury insists that "from the beginning
of slavery to our time the relation of
white Christians to Negroes has been
one of ambivalence and vacillation."
Martin Luther King, Jr., in a Fore-
word, describes the book as "prob-
ingly analytic and compellingly in-
spiring." The book (originally given
as lectures at Union Theological Sem-
inary, Richmond) is a passionate plea
Dostoievsky, by A. Steinberg: (Hilary
House). 126 pp. $3.00.
This is a useful study of various
facets of Dostoievsky's thought, rather
than a discussion of either his life or
his work. "There was only one cause
which inspired Dostoievsky both as
artist and thinker," the author insists.
"This was the fate and future of
Christian civilization." This helps to
explain why it is that the Soviet gov-
ernment has felt it so necessary to
show him up as a 'reactionary,' an
'anarchist' and above all, as an in-
"The whole world of Dostoievsky,"
the author affirms, "can be described
as one vast laboratory of experimen-
tal philosophy." There is, he suggests,
a striking similarity between the world
of Dostoievsky and that of Plato,
whose Dialogues are constantly con-
cerned with the exploration of meta-
physical problems, the difference be-
ing that Dostoievsky's characters are
living human beings whose lives are
not only the embodiment but also
the expression of their respective phil-
Introduction to the Psalms, by Chris-
toph Barth, translated by R. A. Wil-
son: (Charles Scribner's Sons). 87
This book is exactly what its title
claims for it. It is not a commentary
on individual Psalms. It contains a
wealth of material in a relatively
brief space. Besides giving necessary
technical information in clear and
readable terms, it relates the Psalms
to the message of the New Testament
and calls for a renewed interest in
them as a source not only of liturgy
but also of teaching and preaching.
The Apostolic Fathers: A New Trans-
lation and Commentary, Volume 4:
Ignatius of Antioch, by Robert M.
Grant: (Thomas Nelson and Sons).
142 pp. $5.00.
Ignatius of Antioch, the author sug-
gests, has suffered from a bad press.
He had been accused of everything
from neuroticism to Gnosticism. Rob-
ert Grant, in a sympathetic introduc-
tion, agrees that Ignatius was per-
haps excessively authoritarian. He
also, Grant suggests, gave insufficient
attention to the work of the Holy
Spirit. "He provides us with an ex-
ample of an impassioned Christian
bishop-martyr," he concedes, "but not
with a model for Christian life in its
The Crisis of Culture Change, by
Myron B. Bloy, Jr.: (Seabury Press).
139 pp. Paper. $1.65.
At Massachusetts Institute of Tech-
nology Episcopal Chaplain Bloy chose
involvement with, rather than retreat
from, leaders of the technological
revolution. Affirming Jesus Christ as
Lord of all life — past, present, and
future — and as the model of what
it means to be human, Bloy calls for
sensitivity to the new technological
culture's character and for intelligent
participation in the shaping of that
culture. He seeks recognition of God's
activity in contemporary struggles and
movements and scorns idolatry of any
past or present philosophy, political
form or cultural value. Traditionalists
will reject his conclusions, perhaps,
but all will find his analysis incisive
and his challenge disturbing.
Hymns and Human Life, by Erik
Routley: (William B. Eerdman's).
346 pp. $3.95.
This American printing of the sec-
ond edition of Routley's informative
and readable volume should circulate
through church libraries among those
curious about poets who gave us our
hymns, periods in which they lived,
places in which they wrote. Routley's
delightful style always attracts the eye
and sometimes seems to bear an Edin-
burgh accent to the ear. His story
majors upon the British scene from
which much of our American hymn-
ody has come. A copious index makes
the volume a handy reference com-
panion to any standard hymnal.
William Golding, by Samuel Hines:
(Columbia University Press). 48 pp.
Golding is concerned (the author
says), "to show man his image sub
specie aeternitatis." Speaking of his
role as a writer, Golding insists: "I
am very serious, I believe that man
suffers from an appalling ignorance
of his own nature."
Samuel Hines, in this admirable
monograph, indicates the way Gold-
ing illumines our human situation.
The Library of Christian Classics:
English Reformers, Volume XXVI,
Edited by T. H. L. Parker: (The
Westminster Press). 360 pp. $6.50.
The Library of Christian Classics
has been enriched by the publication
of this new volume with selections
from the works of the English Re-
formers. Here is Jewel's Apology, se-
lections from Foxe, Tyndale, Hooper,
Ridley, and Taverner, and sermons by
Cranmer and Latimer. It is a gratify-
ing sign of the times that there is a
new interest in the actual documents
that are the essential stuff and sub-
stance of church history. Here we
have a representative selection of
some of the significant products of
the English Reformation. They amply
demonstrate that the English Refor-
mation cannot be dismissed as a mere
product of Henry VIII's matrimonial
exigencies. "We may define the Eng-
lish Reformers," the Editor writes, "as
these Englishmen who, in the half
century that began about 1520, con-
fessed that Jesus Christ is the com-
plete and only mediator between God
and men, and who therefore endeav-
ored so to shape the doctrine and
practice of the Church that her earth-
ly existence should correspond to the
truth of his existence."
Letters of St. Paulinus of Nola,
Translated and Annotated by P. G.
Walsh, Volume I: (The Newman
Press). 277 pp. $4.75.
The Newman Press has undertaken
the formidable task of sponsoring a
new scholarly edition of Ancient
Christian Writers. The present vol--
ume, translated by P. G. Walsh of
the University of Edinburgh, is num-
ber 35 in the series.
Paulinus established a monastery
near Naples about 395. His letters
(he was a prolific correspondent)
vividly illustrate various aspects of
monastic life and his concept of Chris-
tian truth. The translator's notes and
commentary are all that could be
Karl Barth: How I Changed My
Mind, Introduction and Epilogue by
John D. Godsey: (John Knox Press).
96 pp. $3.00.
The body of this work consists of
three articles, contributed to The
Christian Century over a period of
three decades, relating to the periods
1928-38, 1938-48, 1949-58. Godsey
provides a useful biographical sketch
and includes some good stories. "Like
most truly great men, there's a hum-
bleness and an openness about Barth
that is disarming and a refusal to
take himself too seriously that is re-
freshing." Asked to comment on the
fact that the thirteenth volume of the
Dogmatics has not appeared, Barth
replied by comparing his unfinished
work to Strasbourg Cathedral, which
has only one tower although the plan
called for two, adding: "There is a
certain merit to an unfinished dog-
matics; it points to the eschatological
character of theology!"
American Drama and its Critics: A
Collection of Critical Essays, Edited
by Alan S. Downer: (The University
of Chicago Press). 258 pp. $2.45.
Robert Brustein, in an iconoclas-
tic essay, entitled, "Why American
Plays Are Not Literature," writes:
"The typical American playwright is
encouraged to write, not by the pull
of literary ideals, but by the stimulus
of successful Broadway plays, and it
is unusual when he develops beyond
a hackneyed imitation of what is cur-
rent and fashionable." If drama is
practically monopolized by commer-
cial playwrights, he accuses, theatre
criticism has fallen into the hands of
The articles reprinted in this sym-
posium (with the conspicuous excep-
tion of those by Arthur Ganz and
Henry Popkin) justify Brustein's harsh
and summary verdict. Dramatic criti-
cism, by and large, tends to be (as
these articles reveal) shallow and im-
Religious Controversies of the Nine-
teenth Century: Selected Documents,
Edited by A. O. Cockshut: (Univer-
sity of Nebraska Press). 265 pp.
The Editor chooses, for his open-
ing selection, in this useful collection
of documents, a representative passage
from William Wilberforce's classic
of evangelical literature, A Practical
View of the Prevailing Religious Con-
ceptions of Professed Christians in
the Higher and Middle Classes in this
Country Contrasted with Real Chris-
tianity. ("Few schools of religious
thought," the Editor notes, "have had
a worse press; and Wilberforce, per-
haps the greatest of the school, should
be read carefully to redress the bal-
ance.") He concludes with a selection
from Frederick Temple, The Rela-
tions Between Religion and Science.
These selections form an admirable
introduction to the religious contro-
versies that troubled and tormented
nineteenth century England.
The Council: The Second Vatican
Council, by Lothar Wolleh: (The
Viking Press). $35.00.
It is some measure of the signifi-
cance of Vatican II that its conclu-
sion should be celebrated, among
other things, by the publication of this
de luxe volume (12Vi x 16Vi inches).
It consists of a collection of superb
color photographs on superfine pa-
per, together with an introduction by
Cardinal Spellman. It is essentially a
prestige production. The photographs
depict Cardinals and Bishops, gorge-
ously arrayed, participating in prayer
and debate, in the ornate precincts of
The Roman Catholic Church knows
well how to use pageantry and drama
in the service of religion, and this rec-
ord reveals how it is done. The accom-
panying script outlines the achieve-
ments of the Council, and there are
several useful appendices with lists of
participants and observers. A collec-
Religious Thought in the Nineteenth
Century: Illustrated from Writers of
the Period, by Bernard M. G. Rear-
don: (Cambridge University Press).
406 pp. $11.00 (hardback), $3.95
The writer has divided his material
into two parts: the first, consisting
of selections from European think-
ers (Schleiermacher to Solovyon);
the second, of selections from Ameri-
can thinkers (Coleridge to William
James). What the Editor has provided
is an impressive body of source mate-
rial, each author being introduced by
a valuable biographical sketch, the
collection being prefaced by an ex-
tended essay relating to the religious
thought of the whole period.
This is a highly competent produc-
tion. The Editor's essay and introduc-
tory notes are a model of urbane
John Wesley: His Puritan Heritage,
by Robert C. Monk: (Abingdon).
286 pp. $5.50.
Wesley's "helpers" were strictly en-
joined to spend at least five hours a
day in study. "Reading Christians,"
he explained, "will be knowing Chris-
tians." During the years 1749-55, to
further this objective, Wesley edited,
in fifty volumes, A Christian Library.
The author of this painstaking study
demonstrates that the majority of the
works chosen by Wesley for inclusion
in the Library were standard Puritan
works. Wesley, however, was not
content to condense his sources: he
proceeded arbitrarily to correct his
sources. Thus, he boldly eliminated
from the Westminster Shorter Cate-
chism, for example, the questions
dealing with election and predestina-
tion, effectual calling, and the decrees.
If Wesley stood in the main stream
of English Puritanism (as the author
argues), we are bound to add that it
was a stream which had been forcibly
diverted through the clogging chan-
nels of Arminianism.
A System of Biblical Psychology,
by Frank Delitzsch: (Baker Book
House). 585 pp. $8.95.
C. S. Lewis, in his preface to a
new edition of Athanasius' De Incar-
natione Verbi Dei lays it down, as a
sound principle, that after having read
a new book, one should read an old
one. Unhappily, we live in an age
which is brashly impatient of the past.
We think our fathers fools, so
wise we grow,
Our wiser children, no doubt,
will think us so.
The reprint of Delitzsch's classic is
a reminder of the rich wisdom which
is to be found in the works of the
past. A converted Jew, Delitzsch was
a gifted Biblical exegete. In this work
(a monument of careful erudition)
Delitzsch seeks to provide "a scien-
tific representation of the doctrine of
Scripture on the physical constitution
of man as it was created, and the
ways in which this constitution has
been affected by sin and redemption."
The Dynamism of Biblical Tradition,
Edited by Pierre Benoit, Roland E.
Murphy, and Bastiaan van Iersel:
(Paulist Press). 213 pp. $4.50.
The purpose of the essays in this
volume (No. 20 in the Concilium
series by Roman Catholic scholars
from many different countries) is to
show that Biblical tradition is vital
and dynamic, not something static
and impassive. The streams which
flow together to form Biblical tradi-
tion belong to the sphere of history,
which is the scene of the action of
God Himself among and for men, and
have developed in diverse and ever-
changing situations. Not only arising
in dynamic historical and cultural
situations, but also passing down
through new historical and cultural
situations, and having to be applied
to our own dynamic historical and
cultural situation, Biblical tradition is
truly dynamic. "It is clear," the edi-
tors say, "that it is not only what the
Scriptures say that is important for
our faith, but also the way in which
they were written. This insight will
affect our formulation of the faith,
our preaching, our proclamation and
James Bond's World of Values, by
Lycurgus M. Starkey, Jr.: (Abingdon
Press). 96 pp. $1.45.
The novels of James Bond have
been translated into ten languages and
have sold in the neighborhood of
eighteen million copies. Even the late
President Kennedy confessed to being
a James Bond fan. "Some ethical ap-
praisal from a Christian point of view
is needed," the author writes, "to sort
out the value system so strongly sus-
tained throughout the Bond cycle/'
It is not difficult for the author to
show that these thrillers rely heavily
on a compound of sex and sadism.
Engaged and Disengaged, by Douglas
Bush: (Harvard University Press).
251 pp. $4.75.
"Although the freedom of utterance
that came with or brought about the
decay of censorship was hailed as
the arrival of American adulthood,*"
Douglas Bush mordantly observes, "a
frequent result has been a regression
to adolescence." "Nowadays," he con-
tinues, "affairs are as automatic in a
novel as corpses in a detective story;
the only question is how many are
The author's colleagues at Harvard
were responsible for the collection
and publication of these essays. "In
their wit and wisdom and felicity,
these essays," they testify, "do cele-
brate a good man and an illustrious
career." We heartily concur.
The Triumph of Suffering Love, by
Kenneth Cauthen: (Judson Press). 78
The author is professor of theology
at Crozer Theological Seminary. The
little book is a collection of brief
sermons on the general theme of the
redemptive love of God, exhibited
supremely in the death and resurrec-
tion of Jesus Christ. The author rec-
ognizes realistically the facts of the
universe, with its immensities and its
tragedies, but goes on to show how
God's redeeming love gives meaning
to it all. The book is well written and
suggestive in its insights.
Steinbeck and His Critics: A Record
of Twenty-five Years, by E. W. Ted-
lock, Jr. and C. V. Wicker: (The
University of New Mexico Press).
310 pp. $6.00.
This is the third reprinting of a
book first published in 1957. What
the editors give us, in this useful
anthology, is a collection of major
critical studies on Steinbeck during
the past twenty-five years. "The com-
edy of critical disagreement is not
peculiar to any one author," they
sagely observe, "and it has the ad-
vantage of permitting the reader to
make up his own mind." Since the
publication of this book Steinbeck
has been awarded the Nobel Prize
for Literature, but his literary achieve-
ment is still a matter of heated de-
bate. This collection of essays will
materially assist the task of critical
evaluation. Biographical information
about Steinbeck is hard to come by,
but it is of interest to learn that he
has always had a steady interest in
the Bible and Apocryphra, the litera-
ture of ancient India, Goethe, Dante,
the church fathers, and the Greeks.
Several contributions discuss Stein-
beck's suggestive use of Christian
Five Years, by Paul Goodman: (Brus-
sel and Brussel). 257 pp. $5.00.
The author of Growing Up Absurd
(that profoundly disturbing analysis
of our contemporary society) offers
us, in this book, an autobiographical
fragment. The material is loosely or-
ganized under various headings: "Peo-
ple, Places, Things"; "Psychology";
"Myself"; "God." The author does
not extenuate his abberrant behaviour.
"In God's creation," he writes, "I'm
a kind of juvenile delinquent, a little
Manfred . . . When long ago I threw
in my lot with Cain and Ishmael be-
cause they were able to get to talk
to God, I little realized that I was
dooming myself to become a pillar
of humane society." A sad, depressing
Melanchthon, by Robert Stupperich:
Translated by Robert H. Fischer
(Lutterworth Press). 175 pp. 25s.
The professor of church history at
the University of Munster provides a
sympathetic introduction to that Re-
former traditionally designated "enig-
matic." "His humanistic attitude," his
biographer charges, "misled him into
pursuing the illusion that there was
a middle road upon which all 'well-
intentioned and learned men' could
meet." And yet Melanchthon rendered
doughty service to the cause of the
Reformation. Although only a lay-
man, he was the chief author of the
Augsburg Confession, and Luther's
articulate spokesman at innumerable
conferences. He was also, among
other things, the chief architect of
Germany's school system. Preeminent-
ly the scholar, he disliked contention
and strove for peace.
This modest biography sets Me-
lanchthon firmly in the context of his
times. In an informative postscript
the author describes the present stat-
us of Melanchthon studies. (It was
Ritschl's categorical judgment that
Melanchthon was the corrupter of
Luther's theology that set Melanch-
thon studies back for many a decade).
The appended selected Bibliography
(listing works in English) is all that
could be desired.
John Milton: Poet and Humanist, by
James Holly Hanford: (The Press of
Western Reserve University). 286 pp.
Every student of Milton knows
Hanford's indispensable introduction,
A Milton Handbook. It has been re-
printed again and again. Now, in this
handsome volume, we have a com-
pendious collection of Hanford's ma-
jor articles from the years 1910 to
1925. They still read well. They are
works of polished scholarship, and
indicate well the author's astonishing
After the Restoration Puritanism
became divorced from poetry and
art, and narrowed and hardened into
the sermon, the tract, and the didac-
tic allegory. Milton, Hanford argues,
belonged to an earlier period: a pe-
riod when Renaissance humanism
was happily married to Reformed
These are luminous studies by one
who believed that in Milton we have
"a powerful voice of guidance amid
the chaos of the present day."
Symbolism in Religion and Literature,
Edited by Rollo May: (George Bra-
ziller). 250 pp. $5.00.
Several of the essays in this dis-
tinguished symposium were originally
published in Daedalus (the Journal
of the American Academy of Arts
and Sciences). They were republished
in 1960, together with some additional
material: in particular, a notable es-
say by Nathan A. Scott, Jr., on "The
Broken Center: A Definition of the
Crisis of Values in Modern Litera-
ture." The impact of the Enlighten-
ment (in the realm of literature as of
faith) was, Nathan Scott suggests,
iconoclastic. Keats was conscious of
"the touch of cold philosophy"
Wordsworth, of "the weight of all
this unintelligible world."
Rollo May, in a masterly introduc-
tion, argues that symbols are not
archaic and regressive, rightly under-
stood, they are progressive and inte-
Vital Words of the Bible, by J. M.
Furness: (William B. Eerdman's).
128 pp. Paper. $2.25.
The author describes his book as
"an elementary and introductory study
of some of the great words of the
Bible, and an attempt to draw out
the important religious truths which
they contain." He deals well, though
briefly, with fifty significant words.
Hebrew and Greek words are trans-
literated, so the book can be used by
an intelligent layman. There is sound
British scholarship back of the book.
If a minister does not have access to
the larger works in the field, espe-
cially Kittel, he might find this little
book of real profit.
Saved — From What? by E. Ashby
Johnson: (John Knox Press). 79 pp.
The author is professor of philoso-
phy and religion at Florida Presbyte-
rian College. His little book is di-
rected at the popular audience, though
the professional theologian will find
it interesting and suggestive. Dr. John-
son seeks to dispel various ideas as
to what salvation is supposed to save
from, and to present a worthy, posi-
tive idea — "God is for me rather
than against me or indifferent to me."
He plays down eschatology and spe-
cial revelation and magnifies the pres-
ent life and concepts derived from
general revelation. He has some ex-
cellent words concerning the use of
figurative language in dealing with
spiritual concepts. All in all, it is a
very fine little book.
The Greatest of These Is Love, by
A. A. van Ruler: (William B. Eerd-
man's). Ill pp. Paper. $1.45.
The author is professor of theology
in the University of Utrecht, The
Netherlands. The little book is a
series of devotional and exegetical es-
says on the 1 thirteenth chapter of First
Corinthians. There is sound exegetical
work and theological perspective com-
bined with an excellent ability to
make ancient truths relevant to mod-
ern situations. The book could be
used as a devotional guide or as a
primer of the pump for one or a
whole series of sermons on this most
Creeds in the Bible, by Fred Danker:
(Concordia). 64 pp. Paper. $1.50.
Professor Danker of Concordia
Theological Seminary has written a
very fine, brief book on some of the
most important creeds found in the
Bible itself: Gor is One, Jesus is the
Christ, Jesus is the Son of God, Jesus
is the Lord, Jesus Died and Rose, and
Jesus is Savior.
The Shared Time Strategy, by Anna
Fay Friedlander: (Concordia). 87 pp.
Shared time allows students from
nonpublic schools to take some
courses (usually science, languages
and vocational training) at public
schools during the school day. This
book is a helpful summary of laws,
practices and feelings about shared
Church, State, and the American In-
dians, by R. Pierce Beaver: (Con-
cordia). 230 pp. $6.75.
This volume will prove interesting
reading for those who insist that
there is a wall of separation between
Church and State in America. It
shows that for two and a half cen-
turies there has been a partnership in
missions to the Indians between Prot-
estant Churches and the Government,
that is, from approximately 1640 to
1890. It is also interesting to note
that the Baptist denomination, which
has proclaimed most vigorously the
separation of Church from State, is
just the one whose fine missionary to
the Indians, Dr. Isaac McCoy, called
the loudest for funds from the Fed-
eral Government to support his de-
nomination's educational and mis-
sionary work for the Indians. The
sordid story of our removal of the
Indians from North Georgia is pre-
sented in considerable detail. The
A.B.C.F.M. took a courageous stand
for the Cherokees, and the Supreme
Court concurred; but President An-
drew Jackson refused to enforce its
New Horizons in Biblical Research,
by William F. Albright: (Oxford
University Press). 51 pp. $1.70.
In these brilliant lectures (The
Whidden Lectures for 1961), which
have only now been made available
(owing to the illness of the author)
we have an illuminating evaluation of
the significance of recent archeologi-
cal discoveries. Dr. Albright possesses
a devastating ability to demolish ac-
cepted assumptions. He supports, for
example, the Pauline authorship of
the Pastorals, a date in the late 70's
or early 80's for the Gospel of John,
and he argues that Luke was a Jew.
The title of the book is aptly de-
American Playwrights on Drama, ed-
ited by Hurst Frenz: (Hill and
Wang). 174 pp. $1.65.
"If," writes Elmer Rice, "the drama
is at a lower spiritual and intellectual
level than we would wish it to be it
is because we live in a time of anti-
intellectualism and spiritual negation."
The merit of this revealing symposium
is that it enables us to listen to what
playwrights themselves are saying
about the nature' of their work. The
editor, in a masterly introduction,
makes this observation: "The interest
in psychology is perhaps the most
important phenomenon of contempo-
rary American drama, and it reflects
the intellectual confusion of the last
George Abbot Archbishop of Canter-
bury 1562-1633: A Bibliography, by
Richard A. Christophers: (The Unn
versity Press of Virginia). 211 pp.
This Bibliography is limited to
printed books and other writings by
and about George Abbot. It therefore'
supplements Dr. Paul Welsby's recent
biography. The Bibliographical infor-
mation is impressively meticulous. Ab-
bot was probably the last Oalvinist to
occupy the See of Canterbury.
/ Stand By the Door: The Life of
Sam Shoemaker, by Helen Smith
Shoemaker: (Harper and Row). 220
This is a highly personal biography.
Sam Shoemaker loved to quote Emil
Brunner's great saying: "The church
exists by mission as fire exists by
burning." He' was, his wife testifies,
a zealous personal worker and a
fervent evangelist. This book indicates
the varied ramifications of his minis-
try through the Oxford Group, Alco-
holics Anonymous, Faith at Work,
and the Pittsburgh Experiment.
Evangelicalism in America, by Bruce
L. Shelley: (William B. Eerdman's).
134 pp. $3.50.
An illuminating and informative
discussion of the history of evangeli-
calism in America, with particular
reference to the work and witness of
"The National Association of Evan-
gelicals." "If the theology of the
fundamentalists was oversimplified,"
the author suggests, "that of the lib-
erals was overse'cularized. If the lib-
erals had a point in insisting that
Christianity's survival depended upon
its speaking to modern men, funda-
mentalists were right in demanding
that it declare the apostolic message."
The Pattern of Christ, by David H. C.
Read: (Charles Scribner's Sons). 94
"The qualities of which Jesus
speaks," the author acutely observes,
(in these sermons on the Beatitudes)
"cannot be isolated from the Gospel
that he brings. This life is his life,
and it can only be ours as he brings
it to us, and lives it in us. We don't
become like this by admiring a distant
teacher. We are transformed from
within by contact with the living
These sermons represent preaching
of a high order. They have the su-
preme (and unusual!) merit of being,
at one and the same time, contempo-
rary and Ghristological.
Reformed Confessions of the 16th
Century, Edited, with Historical In-
troductions by Arthur C. Cochrane:
(Westminster Press). 336 pp. $3.50.
This book offers in English the
twelve principal Confessions of Faith
of the Reformed Churches of the
16th century beginning with Zwingli's
Sixty-seven Article's of 1523 to the
Second Helvetic Confession (1566).
Here the reader will find the early
content, form and nature of the teach-
ings of the Reformed Churches. This
volume is also a contribution to the
current ecumenical dialogue between
Change and Habit: The Challenge of
Our Time, by Arnold J. Toynbee:
(Oxford University Press). 240 pp.
In this wise and humane and reflec-
tive work, Toynbee contends that, in
this Atomic Age, mankind has to
choose between political unification
and mass suicide.
Again and again one is impressed
by Toynbee's astonishing range of
mind, his ability to illustrate themes
by the use of the most disparate ana-
logies, his gift for synthetic interpre-
Toynbee is hostile to dogma and
argues (on the basis of humanistic
presuppositions) that "a plurality and
variety of religions is desirable."
Variety of Men, by C. P. Snow:
(Charles Scribner's Sons). 270 pp.
C. P. Snow confesses that he wrote
this book for sheer enjoyment. "The
real fun," he explains, "was in the
variety of human beings." In these
scintillating sketches he analyses and
assesses nine different men: three
scientists (Rutherford, G. H. Hardy
and Einstein), three politicians (Lloyd
George, Winston Churchill, and Sta-
lin), two writers (H. G. Wells and
Robert Frost) and Dag Hammar-
skjold, the "classical narcissist."
"Very few of them," he notes par-
enthetically, "had any of the consola-
tions of religion: they believed, with
the same certainty that they believed
in Rutherford's atom, that they were
going, after this life, into annihila-
C. P. Snow knew all these men per-
sonally, with the exception of Stalin.
He* says that Einstein "never got used
to American parties, where people
drank hard and didn't want to argue
His account of Frost is candid and
deflating. "He was neither magnani-
mous nor serene ... He was both
complex and extravagantly devious . . .
He was sometimes a bit of a fraud."
C. P. Snow gives us a vivid insight
into the human characteristics of these
famous men — whether in petty weak-
ness or preeminent achievement.
Franz Kafka: Parable and Paradox,
by Heinz Politzer: (Cornell Univer-
sity Press). 398 pp. $2.95.
A revised and expanded paperback
edition of an authoritative study first
published in 1962.
Kafka's importance is incontrover-
tible. His stories, Politzer comments,
"were hallucinations anticipating, at
times with astonishing clairvoyance,
the reality of things to come." "In
his fantastic visions," he continues,
"he anticipated the waste land as the
landscape of modern man."
This is a work of careful and sen-
sitive scholarship. Kafka's parables,
Politzer points out, are "multi-lay-
ered" as well as "multi-faceted." This
meticulous^ study explores, with illumi-
nating insight, the elusive and enig-
matic quality of Kafka's thought.
The Word of Reconciliation, by H. H.
Farmer: (Abingdon). 105 pp. $2.75.
An odd, old-fashioned book by the
emeritus professor of divinity at Cam-
bridge University (England).
What are we to make, for example,
of the renewed assertion that "Christ
fulfills his vocation as the Reconciler,
as the source of our reconciliation and
peace, by virtue of the fact that he is
himself the perfectly reconciled one"?
Christ, Farmer explains, was the per-
fectly reconciled one by the achieve-
ment of "empathetic self-identification
in agapeistic love." This, of course, is
simply a resurrection of R. C. Mo-
berley's unsatisfactory doctrine of vi-
Hopkins: A Collection of Critical Es-
says, Edited by Geoffrey H. Hartman:
(Prentice-Hall). 182 pp. $3.95.
This is a further volume in a nota-
ble series entitled, "Twentieth Century
Views." Each volume consists of a
collection of articles — technical, lit-
erary, interpretive — on a particular
Hopkins is notoriously difficult, but
he is also exceptionally rewarding.
"Like Jacob struggling with the angel
for his rightful name, Hopkins strug-
gled with language itself for words
to match his vision." As a Christian
poet he belongs to a select company
which stretches from Donne to Eliot.
Nicolas Berdyaev: Man of the Eighth
Day, by M. M. Davy: (Geoffrey
Bles). 149 pp. 21s.
Berdyaev defies easy categorisation.
Expelled from the Chair of Philoso-
phy in the University of Moscow for
ideological reasons, he spent the rest
of his life in exile, mainly in Paris,
Perhaps it would be true to say
that Berdyaev was a mystic and a
Gnostic. To quote one of this gnomic
sayings: "A human being is required
to perpetuate creation, his work is, as
it were, the eighth day task; his des-
tiny is to be lord and master of the
Mile, Davy, a personal friend, has
attempted, as a work of piety, the task
of elucidating the complex ideas of
this tortuous thinker.
The Story of the Bible, by Sir Frederic
Kenyon, with a new chapter by F. F.
Bruce: (William B. Eerdman's). 150
pp. Paperback, $1.95.
This popular little* book was first
published in 1936, and it ran through
a number of impressions and a second
edition. It has now been issued in
paperback with a long chapter by
Professor Bruce to bring it up to
1967. Unfortunately, quite a few state-
ments of the text are made obsolete
by the material in the chapter by
Bruce, and the reader will be con-
fused somewhat. A complete rewriting
would have been better — but also
more expensive. The present volume
is still to be highly commended for
those who would like to have a popu-
larly written survey of the' work of
textual criticism and English transla-
tion of the Bible.
The Lord's Prayer and the Lord's
Passion, Lenton Sermons by Paul G.
Lessmann: (Concordia). 109 pp.
A phrase from the Lord's Prayer
and a passage from the gospel ac-
counts of the passion week form the
text for each of nine sermons. The
idea is good and the sermons have
their strong points but overfall it is
just another book of sermons.
The Illustrated Bible and Church
Handbook, edited by Stanley J. Stu-
ber: (Association Press). 532 pp.
A compilation of information of
varying helpfulness about the Bible,
Church history, hymns and hymn
writers. The ilustrations add little and
give a juvenile' appearance.
Interpreting the Atonement, by Robert
H. Culpepper: (William B. Eerd-
man's). 170 pp. Paper. $2.45.
This careful study has several good
insights. The atonement is central and
God acts in it. The author studies
both the Old and New Testament
presentations and the exposition
through the history of doctrine. Un-
fortunately he permits "the moral
sensibilities of modern man," to mod-
ify his interpretations, particularly
with reference to the meaning of
blood in sacrifice and penal substitu-
tion. Against these errors, J. Jere-
mias rightly shows, in the Eucharistic
Words of Jesus, that blood refers to
His sacrifical death; likewise Paul
equates "justified by His blood" with
"reconciled by His death," Romans
5:9-10. Against Culpepper's other er-
ror, A. M. Hunter, The Work and
Words of Jesus, holds that the sayings
of Jesus seem best to agree with the
theories which de*al in "satisfaction"
or "substitution" or make use of "the
sacrificial principle," or that Christ's
sufferings were what we can only call
(Mention here neither implies nor precludes subsequent comment.)
Berkhof, Hendrikus: Christ the Meaning of History. John Knox Press. 224
Brandt, Leslie F.: God Lord, Where Are You? Prayers for the 20th Century
Based on the Psalms. Concordia. 66 pp. $1.75.
Braybrooke, Neville: T. S. Eliot: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850.
Diem, Hermann: Kierkegaard: An Introduction. John Knox Press. 124 pp.
Earnshaw, George L.: Serving Each Other in Love. Judson. 125 pp. $1.50.
Ekola, Giles C: Town and Country America. Concordia. 123 pp. $1.25.
Esslin, Martin (ed.): Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays. Pren-
tice Hall. 182 pp. $3.95.
Every, George: Misunderstanding Between East and West. John Knox Press.
70 pp. $1.75.
Fitch, William: God and Evil: Studies in the Mystery of Suffering and Pain.
Eerdmans. 183 pp. $2.65.
Gaebelein, Frank E.: A Varied Harvest. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 198 pp. $4.95.
Genet, Jean: The Miracle of the Rose. Translated by Bernard Frechtman.
Grove Press. 344 pp. $7.50.
Glock, Charles Y., Ringer, Benjamin B. and Barrie, Earl R.: To Comfort
and to Challenge: A Dilemma of the Contemporary Church. University
of California Press. 268 pp. $5.75.
Heick, Otto W.: A History of Christian Thought. Volume II. Fortress. 517
Heijeman, Eugene P.: The Reluctant Worker — Priest. Eerdmans. 106 pp.
Hollis, Michael: The Significance of South India. John Knox Press. 82 pp.
Jellema, Roderick: Peter Devries: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850.
Jolivet, Regis: Sartre: The Theology of the Absurd. Newman Press. Ill pp.
Keen, Sam: Gabriel Marcel. John Knox Press. 51 pp. $1.25.
Kermode, Frank: The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction.
Oxford University Press. 187 pp. $5.75.
Latourette, Kenneth Scott: Beyond the Ranges: An Autobiography. Wm. B.
Eerdmans. 161 pp. $3.95.
Lavemder, John Allan: Why Prayers Are Unanswered. Judson. 78 pp. $2.95.
Leech, Clifford: Shakespeare: The Tragedies. University of Chicago Press.
256 pp. $2.45.
MacQuarrie, John (ed.): Dictionary of Christian Ethics. Westminster. 366
Mills, Ralph J.: Edith Sitwell: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850.
Montgomery, John Warwick: Crisis in Lutheran Theology. Baker Book
House. 133 pp. $1.50.
Moody, Dale: Baptism: Foundation for Christian Unity. Westminster. 317
Moseley, Edwin M.: F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp.
Pelikan, Jarosliv: The Finality of Jesus Christ in an Age of Universal His-
tory: A Delemma of the Third Century. John Knox Press. 71 pp. $1.75.
Ramm, Bernard: A Handbook of Contemporary Theology. Wm. B. Eerd-
mans. 141 pp. $1.95.
Reiniboth, Oscar H. (ed.): Calls and Vacancies. Concordia. 70 pp. $1.00.
Rodger, Patrick C. (ed.) : Ecumencial Dialogue in Europe. John Knox Press.
83 pp. $1.95.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich: Christmas Eve: Dialogue on the Incarnation.
Translated, with Introduction and Notes, by Terrence N. Tice. John
Knox Press. 92 pp. $1.75.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich: Brief Outline of the Study of Theology. Trans-
lated, with Introduction and Notes, by Terrence N. Tice. John Knox
Press. 132 pp. $2.50.
Schultz, Hans Jurgen: Conversion to the World. Abingdon. 123 pp. $3.50.
Sklar, Robert: F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Last Laocoon. Oxford University
Press. 376 pp. $8:50.
Smith, R. G.: Martin Buber. John Knox Press. 45 pp. $1.25.
Strand, Kenneth A.: Early Low-German Bibles. Eerdmans. 48 pp. $4.00.
Tedlock, E. W., Jr.: D. H. Lawrence: Artist and Rebel. University of New
Mexico. 242 pp. $5.00.
Turnell, Martin: Graham Greene: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850.
Beckwith, Isbon T.: The Apocalypse of John. Baker Book House. 794 pp.
Chad wick, Owen: The Mind of the Oxford Movement. Stanford University
Press. 239 pp. $2.65. (Paperback).
Connolly, James L.: John Gerson: Reformer and Mystic. Wm. C. Brown
Reprint Library. 408 pp. $14.00.
Davies, W. D.: Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. Revised Edition. Harper Torch-
books. 392 pp. $2.75.
Driver, Tom F. : The Sense of History in Greek and Shakespearean Drama.
Columbia University Press. 231 pp. $2.25. (Paperback).
Eliade, Miroea: Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries. Harper Torchbooks. 253 pp.
Guerard, Albert L.: Art for Art's Sake. Schocken. 349 pp. $1.95. (Paper-
Hoffman, Frederick J.: The Mortal No: Death and the Modern Imagination.
Princeton University Press. 507 pp. $2.95. (Paperback).
Holloway, Mark: Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America,
1680-1880. Second Edition. Dover. 246 pp. $1.75. (Paperback).
Julian of Norwich: Revelations of Divine Love. Translated by Clifton Wol-
ters. Penguin. 213 pp. $1.45.
Kelley, Cornelia Pulsifer: The Early Development of Henry James. Revised
Edition. University of Illinois Press. 318 pp. $1.95. (Paperback).
Kierkegaard, Soren: Johannes Climacus. Translated by T. H. Croxall. Stan-
ford University Press. 196 pp. $1.95. (Paperback).
Locke, John: The Reasonableness of Christianity. Edited by I. T. Ramsey.
Stanford University Press. 102 pp. $1.45. (Paperback).
Marsilius of Padua: The Defender of Peace: The Defensor Pads. Translated
with an Introduction by Alan Gewirth. Harper Torchbooks. 449 pp.
Osgood, Charles Grosvenor: The Classical Mythology of Milton's English
Poems. Wm. C. Brown Reprint Library. Ill pp. $7.00.
McNeill, William H.: The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Com-
munity. The University of Chicago Press. 829 pp. $12.50.
Pelikan, Jaroslav: The Shape of Death: Life, Death, and Immortality in the
Early Fathers. Abingdon. 128 pp. $1.25. (Paperback).
St. Francis De Sales Introduction to the Devout Life. Translated and Edited
by John K. Ryan. Second Edition. Revised. Harper Torchbooks. 258
Stringfellow, William: Free in Obedience: The Radical Christian Life. Sea-
bury. 128 pp. $1.45. (Paperback).
Swete, Henry Barclay: The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church. Baker Book
House. 429 pp. $6.95.
Thompson, Lawrance: Melville's Quarrel with God. Princeton University
Press. 474 pp. $2.95. (Paperback).
Unger, Leonard: T. S. Eliot: Movements and Patterns. University of Min-
nesota Press. 196 pp. $1.95. (Paperback).
Valdes, Mario J.: Death in the Literature of Unamuno. University of Illinois
Press. 173 pp. $1.25. (Paperback).