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Full text of "Columbia Theological Seminary Bulletin"



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Bulleti 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY BULLETIN 

Volume 60 December, 1967 No. 5 



Published five times a year by Columbia Theological Seminary, Box 520, 
Decatur, Georgia 30031. Entered as second-class matter, May 9, 1928, at 
the Post Office at Decatur, Ga., under the Act of Congress of August 24, 
1912. Second-class postage paid at Decatur, Georgia. 



CONTENTS 

Page 
FOREWORD — By J. McDowell Richards 3 

ARTICLES 

"The Reverend James Benjamin Green" 4 

... By J. McDowell Richards 

"In Response to Recognition by the Alumni" 7 

... By William Childs Robinson 

"Let Us Go On" 10 

... By Ludwig R. M. Dewitz 

"The Problem of Evil" 13 

. . . By O. H. Lyon 

"The Place of Preaching, Sacrament, and Pastoral Care in the 

Experience of the Reformation" 19 

... By Ronald S. Wallace 

REVIEWS 30 

SHORTER REVIEWS 45 

BOOKS ALSO RECEIVED 63 



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FOREWORD 

In several respects this issue of the Faculty Bulletin is one of farewells. 
It is the last such bulletin which will be issued under the direction of Dr. 
S. Barton Babbage, who for the past three years has served ably and well 
as its Editor. On November the 15th, Dr. Babbage was installed as the first 
President of the Conwell School of Theology in Philadelphia and will assume 
full-time responsibilities at that institution in the immediate future. We 
would record here our gratitude for the significant service he has rendered 
at Columbia Seminary, and our heartfelt best wishes for his increasing 
success and usefulness in the new work to which he goes. 

In early September, Dr. J. B. Green, Professor Emeritus of Theology, 
was promoted from the Church Militant to the Church Triumphant. We do 
not mourn his death at the age of 96, but we thank God for him and for his 
work. The brief and inadequate memorial remarks included here are but 
a faint expression of what is in the hearts of his former students as they 
remember him. 

At the end of this quarter, Dr. William C. Robinson will retire from 
the Columbia Faculty after serving here for forty-one years as Professor of 
Church History, Church Polity and Apologetics. On October the 24th he 
was honored by the Alumni of the seminary who presented him with a Dodge 
Polara Sedan and announced plans for the publication of a book in his 
honor which will contain essays by nine distinguished theological scholars. 
At our request Dr. Robinson has put into written form the significant and 
moving remarks in which he made his response, and these are presented 
here for a larger audience. It is good that Dr. Robinson will continue to make 
his home near our campus, and we may be sure that he will find continued 
opportunities to write, to teach, and to preach the Gospel. 

Other articles in this issue are of varied nature. In "Let Us Go On" we 
print the address delivered by Dr. Ludwig Dewitz at the opening of this 
school year. While directed originally to seminary students and faculty, 
it contains a continuing challenge for other Christians as well. 

In "The Problem of Evil," Dean Olof Halvard Lyon briefly explores 
some of the many ways in which men have sought to explain this mystery of 
sin and tragedy which confronts us all. Recognizing that we cannot solve 
the question here, he points to the answer in Christ. 

"The Place of Preaching Sacrament and Pastoral Care in the Experience 
of the Reformation" is set forth and interpreted by Dr. Ronald S. Wallace, 
not primarily for its historical value but as a reminder to the ministry of 
our day. We commend it to the careful attention of our readers as containing 
truths which we neglect at our peril. 

J. McDowell Richards 



THE REV. JAMES BENJAMIN GREEN 

(Remarks made by Rev. James McDowell Richards at the 
funeral service of Dr. Green conducted in the Decatur Pres- 
byterian Church, Decatur, Georgia on the afternoon of Sep- 
tember 9, 1967) 

It is not our custom today to pronounce eulogies upon the dead. This in 
itself is both right and proper. A funeral is not a time for sentiment and for 
empty words in praise of one who has departed; it is not an occasion on 
which to exalt a person, but rather to magnify our Maker. 

There are times, however, when it is a good thing for us to pause at the 
close of some great life and to ask ourselves the secret of its meaning. At 
such a time we seek to emphasize the lessons which have been taught in 
that life and to pay tribute to the God of Grace and of Glory, who is willing 
to use a life dedicated to Him, and who yet speaks to us through his servants. 

Such a day has come in our experience. The Second Book of Samuel 
records the fact that when David was mourning the death of his captain, 
Abner, he spoke to his servants and said, "Know ye not that there is a 
prince and a great man fallen this day in Israel?" So is it with us today, for 
the one whose earthly career is ended was indeed a prince and a great man 
in the life of our Church. It is entirely fitting that we should pause to ask 
ourselves what God has been doing and saying through this life, and what 
God is saying to us at this hour. 

It has been remarked by Dr. Davison Philips that in some sense the end 
of Dr. Green's life marks the close of an era, and this is true. Here is a life 
which spanned a large part of two centuries and covered a period of 96 full 
years. Dr. Green was born in Lexington, Alabama on May 10, 1871, and 
was 29 years of age before the end of the nineteenth century. Incidentally, 
it might be remarked that he was born in a log cabin, that he had few initial 
advantages in the way of worldly possessions or position, and that he had 
to overcome real difficulties in preparing himself for service. In this respect 
his life was an exemplification of the American dream. It is likely that not 
many more of those who rise to places of distinction in this country will be 
born in log cabins, although doubtless many will continue to come into the 
world in humble circumstances. 

The last 67 years of this man's life were spent in the Twentieth Century, 
and the close of his pilgrimage found men launching their satellites into 
space, probing their way toward the moon and the planets, and threatening 
themselves with destruction through the hydrogen bomb. Dr. Green was a 
real part of both centuries. It has recently been remarked by one who knew 
him well that he was also very much at home in the First Century. 

Insofar as Columbia Theological Seminary is concerned, Dr. Green's 
death assuredly marks the end of an era. He was the last of the distinguished 
and faithful men who taught in the old Columbia Seminary located in 
Columbia, South Carolina, and who then came to teach on the new campus 
and in the more adequate buildings provided in Decatur. He is also one of 
the last of that little group of professors who carried forward the work of 
the Institution during the depression years of the early Thirties, laboring 
under discouraging circumstances, at tremendous personal sacrifice and at 
a salary so small that I prefer not to mention it in public today. 



In 1936, when salaries were still at almost their lowest level, when the 
student body was very small, and when the prospect of the future was highly 
uncertain, a renewed invitation came from Union Theological Seminary in 
Virginia for Columbia Seminary to merge with that Institution in Richmond. 
The way before this school was so uncertain that it seemed necessary to give 
careful consideration to the invitation. Indeed, the Board of Directors felt 
that it would have to accept the offer of a merger unless a considerable sum 
of money for those days could be raised by the Presbyterians of Atlanta — 
an undertaking which fortunately was successfully completed a few months 
later. At the time the question of merger was under consideration, and even 
though such a move would have brought many personal advantages to Dr. 
Green, he was unshakeable in the conviction that Columbia Seminary should 
remain where it is. He said that too much prayer had been offered for guid- 
ance before the decision was reached to move from Columbia to Decatur 
for God to have let his servants make a mistake, and that he was sure God 
did not mean for the decision to be altered in 1936. We believe the events 
of these later years have proven how right he was in that conviction. 

It is not our intention to speak in detail concerning the life of Dr. Green. 
Much might be said about his personal and his family life, for he was a 
Christian gentleman in the fullest sense of the word, and a devoted husband 
and father. He was also the faithful and much loved pastor of congregations, 
and an expository preacher of such faithfulness and power that he had few 
peers and perhaps no superiors in that respect during our time. 

It is of Dr. Green's work as a professor that I would speak particularly, 
however, for here his greatest service was rendered. In 1921, he was called 
from the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church of Greenwood, S. C. to 
become Professor of Systematic Theology at the Old Columbia. Because he 
remained vigorous in mind and body until a comparatively few months be- 
fore his death, and because the retirement policy of the Seminary had not 
been so strictly defined at that time as it is now, he continued his service in 
the classroom until 1951, when he was 80 years of age. He was a teacher of 
great ability. Although his principal work was in the field of Systematic 
Theology, Dr. Green also taught Homiletics, Ethics and the English Bible. 
He found particular delight in setting forth the Word of God and, as we 
were reminded earlier, he had an especial fondness for the Psalms which 
enabled him to interpret them superbly for his hearers. Probably few of the 
courses taught by Dr. Green were more greatly appreciated than those in 
which he led his students in a study of the Psalms during his later years in 
the classroom. 

This man had been entrusted by God with a clear and logical mind, and 
he used his talents faithfully and well in the task to which he was assigned. 
He had an unusual ability to analyze, to synthesize, to condense, and to 
present the content of his subject with clarity and with force. He was a 
master of alliteration, making use of this device so constantly and effectively 
that it became both a source for delight and the occasion for much affec- 
tionate humor on the part of his students. His teaching was characterized by 
remarkable clarity of outline and was often enriched by the use of memor- 
able and epigrammatic phrases. 

This teaching was marked always by sincerity and earnestness. Perhaps 
the conviction with which he taught was all the greater because he was not 
born into a Presbyterain home. He had come to mature years before he 
made his profession of faith in Christ, and he became a member not of the 



denomination of his fathers but of the Presbyterian Church. Hence, for him 
Presbyterianism was not an inherited tradition but a freely chosen faith. This 
fact had its inevitable effect upon the witness which he bore in the class- 
room and in the pulpit. 

Dr. Green was a man of genuine humility and often seemed surprised 
by the appreciation and affection accorded him. To him the man was noth- 
ing, but the message which he bore was of transcendent importance. He was 
a man of the Book, whose message was based upon and centered in the 
Word of God. We have spoken already of his ability as an expository 
preacher and as a teacher of the Bible. 

This was a man of faith, who knew that "the effectual fervent prayer 
of a righteous man availeth much." His praying was marked particularly by 
the spirit of praise and thanksgiving even to the end of his life. He was 
gifted in public prayer because he prayed much in private, and because he 
did not approach this exercise of worship lightly. Students who sat in his 
classroom do not easily forget the earnestness and the edifying nature of 
the prayers with which, according to the practice of the Institution, he 
customarily opened each period of instruction. Indeed, it is likely that on 
many occasions they derived far more benefit from the prayers than from 
the lectures which followed, able though the latter were. 

As a Christian, Dr. Green was a man who knew what he believed, but 
whose convictions were held in charity. He was able and willing to contend 
for the positions which he held, but there was about him no spirit of bitter- 
ness or of ill will. 

Dr. Green was an author of distinction and his two principal works, 
"Studies in the Holy Spirit" and "A Harmony of the Presbyterian Standards 
with Explanatory Notes," continue to have a wide circulation. Through them 
he still speaks, but his influence in the life of the church is felt still more 
strongly through the lives of hundreds of men who sat in his classes and 
received instruction from him. Because his teaching was done with sincerity, 
because it put iron in their blood, because they remember him as a man of 
deep reverence for the Word who magnified the Church, and who ex- 
alted Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, these men rise up with his family 
and his friends today to call him blessed. 

In love and in gratitude the Alumni of the Seminary years ago initiated 
and carried out a successful movement to endow the Chair of Systematic 
Theology at Columbia Seminary in his name. For the same reason, some of 
his former students quietly initiated steps to have him nominated as Mod- 
erator of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, U. S. — an 
office to which he was elected in 1946. Perhaps no single incident will serve 
better to illustrate the spirit of the man than one which occurred in this 
connection. 

On the day when Dr. Green first learned of plans to have him nominated 
as Moderator, he was encountered by one who loved him, pacing up and 
down behind the residence which he occupied on the campus of Columbia 
Seminary. He was obviously agitated and was weeping. When asked the 
reason for his distress he replied: "I have just learned that I am to be 
nominated as Moderator of the General Assembly, and I am not worthy of 
the office." Such was the spirit of the man whom God gave to serve Co- 
lumbia Seminary and our Church for so many years. 

There are two words from Scripture which seem to me to be highly 
appropriate on this occasion, and with them I would close. The first is 



found in Proverbs 4:18 — "The path of the just is as the shining light, that 
shineth more and more unto the perfect day." The other is from Ephesians 
3:8 and I Corinthians 15:10. It consists of statements made by the Apostle 
Paul which Dr. Green had appropriated for himself, and which he echoed in 
his life: "Unto me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace 
given, that I should preach. . . . the unsearchable riches of Christ. ... By 
the grace of God I am what I am: and his grace which was bestowed upon 
me was not in vain." 



IN RESPONSE TO RECOGNITION BY THE 

ALUMNI 

William Childs Robinson 

Mr. Chairman, Mr. Pastor, Mr. President, Alumni, Family and Friends — 

This is far beyond my fondest expectations. I am overcome. What can 
one say in appreciation of your manifold kindness? In listening to the 
gracious words of President Richards and of Dr. Phillips, I could not help but 
recall the old story that comes from the time when it was customary to 
eulogize the departed. The widow listened as the Parson waxed eloquent 
over the alleged virtues of her departed husband until she could stand it no 
longer. Pulling her son closer, she whispered to him, "Johnny, you go open 
that lid and see if the man in that box is your Pa." 

Yet Dostoievski does tell us, in The Brothers Karamazov, that, "in the 
heart of every man is both Sodom and the Madonna," and the Apostle re- 
minds us that we have this treasure in earthen vessels. Compared with the 
pricelessness of the divine treasure the earthiness of the human vessel over- 
whelms one. 

Perhaps the generous gift of this magnificant automobile is a reminder 
of our first Christmas as professor at Columbia. That year we had been 
buying furniture and several times the car ran out of gas. So when Christmas 
came and the students took the faculty to task, they humorously complained 
that Dr. Robinson ran out of money by the middle of every month and the 
students had to push him around to the first. If our fourteen-year-old DeSoto 
has looked like it needed replacement, my defense is that this year we have 
been buying a house into which to move as we retire from the faculty home 
provided for us while we teach. 

In any case I can only remember the Apostle's lovely letter of thanks 
in his Epistle to the Philippians. Perhaps my Philippians are Harry and 
Davidson Philips, the President and all those Columbia alumni and friends 
for whom they spoke. "I thank God for every remembrance of you from 
the first day until now" and, "my God shall supply all your needs according 
to His riches in glory in Christ Jesus." We cannot thank you enough. 

Nor can I ever sufficiently express my gratitude to my junior colleagues 
for their kind offices in honoring my seventieth birthday with a volume of 
essays by distinguished scholars. Soli Deo Gloria, the title they have selected, 
is precious to every Christian's heart. Abraham believed giving glory to God. 



As spiritual heirs of the father of the faithful, we give to God — Father, 
Son and Holy Spirit — all the glory of saving us sinners. 

The President has kindly eased the large number of my years by placing 
his along with mine. But it would make him a bit too old to press this 
parallelism. True he entered Old Columbia as a student the year I did as a 
professor. But I entered as a student just fifty years ago this fall. And behind 
that were the years when I was a member of the Woodrow Memorial Church, 
named for a former professor of Columbia, and staffed most of its years 
by professors and students of the Seminary. Moreover, this congregation 
grew out of the Waverley Sunday School. Some sixty years ago a tall dis- 
tinguished looking gentleman attended that Sunday School. The Secretary 
announced that the Superintendent, the Assistant Superintendent and the 
Secretary were all present. The dignified gentleman, Professor R. C. Reed, 
turned to my Father and asked, "Just who is the Superintendent of this 
Sunday School." "Why you are," answered the Assistant Superintendent. So 
from early years I have lived in the shadow of Columbia Theological Semi- 
nary. And through the kindness of the institution's president I own the un- 
used part of a lot in Elmwood Cemetery in Columbia around which there 
is a small coping stone with the words COLUMBIA SEMINARY cut into 
it. So I hope, in due time, to sleep beneath the shade of Columbia. 

Our first years in Decatur were precarious ones. The depression struck 
before we had our roots firmly planted. It was thought that four seminaries 
were more than the Church could support. One week there were reports that 
we were to be moved to Richmond, the next that we would go to Memphis 
to be merged there with Louisville and Austin, a third that we would simply 
be folded up. At his funeral, it was properly noted that Dr. J. B. Green 
declared his determination to stay here in Decatur. I expressed a like de- 
termination by sinking some anchor stones. At that time there were no side- 
walks and the dirt stretch from the street curb to our front walk was a bit 
over ten feet. One day a wagon came by with several granite blocks from 
Stone Mountain. I bought them and got the driver to help me sink them, 
reaching from the curb to the walk as my anchor stones. When a sidewalk 
was finally laid along Columbia Drive the stones were no longer needed 
there, so I had them moved to the rear of the house where they serve as 
stepping stones from the back steps to the parking area. And they are still 
anchor stones . . . now attached to the stern as formerly they were to the 
prow of 5 1 1 Columbia Drive. 

But some of you are asking, "What do you need with anchor rocks, aren't 
you an anchor yourself?" Years ago when I met Dr. Ernest Thompson, then 
Pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Charleston, W. Va., and father 
of the distinguished professor who was leading the progressive forces of the 
Assembly, the good pastor remarked, "Well we must also have conservatives 
in the Church." May I indulge the hope that the liberals of our day will be 
as broad in their outlook as was Dr. Ernest Thompson and recognize that 
the conservatives also have a place in the Church. 

Augustine declared that this was his faith because it was the catholic 
faith. 1 Then he advised the Augustinian reader not to love him more than 
the catholic faith, and warned his critic not to love himself more than the 
catholic truth. "To the one, I say be unwilling to yield to my writings as to 



1 Haec et mea fides est, quando haec est catholica fides, Augustine De Trinitate, 
I. IV 7. 



the canonical Scriptures . . . Likewise I say to my critic: Be unwilling to 
change my writings by your own opinion on contention, but correct them 
only from the divine text or by unanswerable reason." 2 

Perhaps, we are not accustomed to phrase ourselves exactly as Augustine 
did. We are more likely to speak of the biblical revelation of God as it 
focuses upon Christ Jesus. For all the light of sacred story gathers around 
His head sublime — around the Head once crowned with thorns, and 
crowned with glory now. But we are dedicated to Augustine's position. We 
are opposed to heteronomy, that is, to the rule of ourselves or of other men. 
But we do not oppose heteronomy in the interest of autonomy. When every 
man does what is good in his own eyes, even though it be under the pleas 
of acting according to his own conscience, then we have anarchy. Reject 
the rule of any other man, but do it in the interest of Theonomy. Reject 
my authority in so far as my teaching differs from God's Word; hold to 
what I have taught in so far as it is His; and do so because it is His and 
mine only as I have all too faintly echoed His. John Robinson was right 
that God has more truth to break forth from His Word. This week's lectures 
are making that plain. Whether one be an old teacher, or a young lecturer 
may his words help you bring every thought into captivity to Christ. For He 
is the Word incarnate in a human life, the Heart of the Father made mani- 
fest in a historical involvement that issued in crucifixion and could be vin- 
dicated only by His Resurrection. We have one Lord, the crucified, risen, 
reigning, interceding Lord Jesus Christ. 



Verumtamen sicut lectorem meum nolo mihi esse deditum ita correctorem nolo 
sibi. Hie me non amet amplius quam catholicam fidem, iste se non amet am- 
plius quam catholicam veritatem. Sicut illi dico, Noli meis litteris quasi Scrip- 
turis canonicis inservire ... Ita illi dico: Noli meas litteras ex tua opinione vel 
contentione, sed ex divina lectione vel inconcussa ratione corrigere. Augustine 
De Trinitate, in, praef. 2. 



"LET US GO ON . . ." 

Ludwig Richard Max Dewitz 

There is always something exciting about the opening of a new school 
year. We all know that we are booked for the grand tour of spiritual and 
intellectual travel through theological regions which, we trust, will bring us 
to the promised land of fruitful ministry in the service of Jesus Christ. 

As we look at the itinerary some questions may arise, trivial ones as well 
as weighty ones. Somebody is sure to ask why we must pass through such 
an uninviting place as "Essentials of Hebrew Grammar" or why other spots 
with interesting names are apt to turn out so much less exciting that one 
had hoped. Others may even wonder if our journey is really necessary, since 
— so it is rumored in certain circles — this seminary travel plan will take 
all the enthusiasm out of your urge to preach the Gospel and threatens to 
leave you confused in the end with lots of problems and no solutions. 

Then there is the matter of tour conductors and fellow travelers. It could 
be heavy going when the leader wishes to forge ahead, but the travel group 
is afraid of terra incognita, wishes to stay all the time in the well known 
places where it is good to rest, to build tents and to sing together with no 
discordant note to disturb, or, worse, some may even worry all the time 
whether the tour conductor is a real bona fide agent of the agency and per- 
sonally acquainted with the journey from the city of destruction to the 
celestial city. 

Then, what about this conducted tour? Will it cripple our initiative? 
After all, some of us have preached pretty good sermons — so we think — 
and now we may be told to scrap them just because they do not run on 
seminary approved homiletical lines. 

Furthermore, will the tour conductors be acquainted with some of the 
changes that have occurred along the way, or will they simply point out the 
old landmarks without realizing that, while the direction of the road is the 
same, the means of transport and the crowd one meets on the way look 
different from that of a generation ago? 

But it is not only the travellers who may worry about the tour conductors; 
the leaders, on their part, may be discouraged about some members of their 
travel group. It would not be very conducive to a happy start on Barth, 
Bonhoeffer and Tillich, if the sentiment is that Hodge should really be 
considered as the terminal station of reformed thought . . . vice versa, some 
eager beavers may be so interested in modern religious experiment that it 
will be difficult to keep them on the hallowed and correct road. Going 
through Hebrew grammar is not made any more cheerful when after five 
hours of patient plodding it is discovered that some member of the group 
does not even know what a vowel is in contrast to a consonant. 

But in spite of all these and related problems there is every reason to 
sound a fanfare in the major key to start us on our journey aright; there is 
no need for fearful apprehension, for if we can say "I believe in God — I 
believe in Jesus Christ — I believe in the Holy Spirit" — and it is really 
under those auspices that we travel — students and professors alike — then 
our excitement about being privileged to go together through another year 
of academic pursuit in the things of the Spirit should fill us with joyous 
anticipation. 

M) 



The notes of the fanfare are crisp and clear : 

"Let us go on unto perfection!" It is an ancient word of Christian en- 
couragement for fellow travellers such as we are. The actual phrase comes 
from an unknown writer in the 1st century A.D. who was anxious to 
convince a group of Christians whose roots lay deep in Judaism that they 
should take courage to move ahead, for the present and the future had 
better things to offer than the past. He viewed all the previous experiences 
of God's pople as mere preparation for the real drama of faith — that grand 
relay race of the eleventh chapter of the Epistle to the Hebrews culminating 
in the today and the tomorrow! "Let us go on unto perfection!" That was 
splendid advice to Christians in the first century A.D. and so it is so for us. 

As a matter of fact, this green light urging us to go forward is God's 
word to His people from the beginning. It was my privilege to be at Ur of 
the Chaldees in Southern Iraq just as 1966 turned into 1967. Looking at 
the silhouetted shadow of the mighty ziggurat, that ancient temple tower of 
Ur, I was filled with wonder as I thought of that word "go" given once to 
Abram, and all that has gone on ever since that imperative was first uttered. 
It has rightly been pointed out that Biblical faith is grounded in God reveal- 
ing Himself in history which means that it is not valid merely as a system 
of revealed ideas about God, but always manifests itself as an expression of 
life going on through the ages. Abram's faith is focussed on God's giving of 
Isaac, the life of the heir, and our faith is centered in God's living son, the 
heir of all things, Jesus Christ. 

If Genesis initiates its dynamic with God's word "go" to Abram, Exodus 
echoes it with its repeated: "Let my people go!" And so we could go on a 
long time: the call to Joshua "Go, pass over this Jordan"; the first psalm 
which speaks of the walk of those who trust God; the prophet Jonah who is 
commanded to go to Niniveh to preach in the regions beyond. 

The history of faith is one of progress. From the God of the Fathers we 
move to the great revelation of the name of Yahweh to and through Moses. 
The concept of the land develops into that of the kingdom in the time of 
David, and the temple, not known before, becomes the new center of the 
worship of God. Yet it is destroyed, and the way into the exile must seem 
to be the end of the road — it is indeed the end of the way of a sinful 
nation, but not the end of God's way with sinful people. Deutero-Isaiah 
flashes the green light once more by the inspiration of God: and there is 
the highway through the desert by which the people return. Go into the 
future with God, that is the prophet's constant theme, for the best is yet 
to come: God's perfect servant, "a light to lighten the Gentiles and the glory 
of thy people Israel." As history is marching on, God is ever in front of it. 
When the time was fulfilled Jesus was born, but even this fulfillment, this 
climax to a long period of history which, in a real sense, is the finale to 
Old Testament expectation, is in reality only an overture to challenge the 
world at large. Not on the temple mount, nor anywhere else in Jerusalem 
would worship be centered, but where the name of Jesus Christ is acknowl- 
edged in spirit and truth! The limits of the kingdom of David proved too 
narrow, now it must be: "Go ye into all the world!" 

Little wonder that a good many people were frightened; it was all so 
new, so unaccustomed. Compared with the assured past, the future looked 
so open, so uncertain, but into this frightening prospect the encouraging note 
is sounded: "Let us go on unto perfection!" 

11 



We rightly regard the Reformation as another instance of a step forward 
by the grace of God, when, at the time, many must have felt that the very 
foundations of the church were shaken. 

The anxiety and bewilderment of many must have been great for things 
hallowed to them for centuries by — to be sure — a false tradition were 
suddenly removed for the forward march of the church. The reformers went 
forward at that critical period undaunted, because they knew on the basis 
of the gospel that the future belonged to God. 

Would it be an exaggeration to say that the crisis of first century and 
sixteenth century Christianity finds a parallel in our own times? There are 
pressures from without as well as from within which make us realize that 
we cannot escape the new shape of things. We might use the words of a 
political observer who pointedly said: "There is drama ahead, even if the 
plot is not quite plain to us." Yet our watchword can only be: "Let us go 
on unto perfection!" 

The specific problem for us is how to do this at the present moment. 
Philosophers have interesting theories of time: after all, the present is a 
rather elusive concept. When we think we have this moment of time in our 
hands, it is passed already, and we must replenish it by taking afresh from 
the future before us. Thus the present is always the point of crisis where 
past and future meet. 

There is the temptation to shrink from the future and to fill the present 
merely with the treasures of the past. To vary our theme, some would wish 
us to read: "Let us go back unto perfection!" — and, of course, the ref- 
ormation is in some people's minds just that: going back to the foundations 
of the Gospel. But that going back was not in order to restore some museum 
piece, but to gain the right direction for building the new church. The 
Augsburg Confession as well as the Heidelberg catechism and the West- 
minster Confession of Faith were modern restatements of the faith for their 
particular time, meant to guide the church into the future. "Let us go on 
unto perfection," means then, let us go, not just anywhere, but with the 
thrust that we have from such fundamental doctrines as faith in God and 
repentance from dead works, resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment, 
let us go forward. Of course, only if we are sure of those foundations can 
we go forward to build further. 

Thus it is not a matter of simply restating well known doctrines, but 
our task is to grasp intellectually their significance for our times through 
our work in the Seminary. When the first century writer admonished his 
fellow believers to go on unto perfection, his stress was not so much on 
ethical as on intellectual progress; it was not a matter of simply repeating 
in so many words the facts of the Gospel, but of working out those truths 
intellectually in the interplay of philosophical and theological thought, of 
applying them to a view of history, both in relation to their social implica- 
tions as well as in relation to the believer's life of holiness. That is a big 
order, and we might be inclined to shrink from such a task of thinking out 
the implications of the Christian faith desiring to state simply over and over 
again what we believe to be the foundations of our faith. But let us not do 
with our faith what the Bphesians of old once did with theirs when they 
went around for hours saying: "Great is the Diana of Ephesus." It is not 
enough simply to say: "Jesus is Savior and Lord," without pondering the 
content and implications of this tremendous truth, especially at the Seminary 

12 



where it is our privilege to affirm this truth as our starting point, taking our 
direction from it and then "going on unto perfection!" 

The thing to remember, however, is the fact that it is not so much the 
way in which we carry on, but the mode by which we are carried forward, 
for the Greek "pherometha" which is translated "let us go on" can with 
equal justification be rendered "let us be carried on," for it is a question 
whether we have here a middle or a passive form before us. This ambiguity 
is thought provoking, however, for it keeps us humble in preventing us from 
undertaking a "do it yourself" theology, since only through the moving of the 
Holy Spirit can we be effectively advanced. Ours should be the resolve to go 
unto the end. The Holy Spirit puts us on the road to perfection, and this, 
more likely than not, will involve suffering, for going on unto perfection also 
means to go "unto Him outside the camp," to the cross. Thus the price of 
perfection entails suffering. If not suffering, at least work, for we cannot go 
on by standing still doing nothing. Thus the process of going on involves 
students and professors alike. This means that we professors may have to 
rework those old lectures which we have given for years, for surely we must 
have matured in the meantime. But students should, at the same time, ap- 
proach their teachers with an attitude which might be described by a kind of 
paraphrase as: "Professor, I know, help thou my ignorance!" 

So the grand tour is about to start. Let ours thsn be what Moltman 
has so aptly described as a theology of hope. We have a Good Shepherd 
indeed: in the past, yet the eternal present, He gave His life that we 
might live; for our present He has promised to go before the sheep, and 
the future is to be seen in the light of his coming when the consummation 
of all things will take place in righteous judgment. Let us praise God that 
he has brought us to the right way, but let us resolve not to sit down on 
the road, but to go on unto perfection. 



THE PROBLEM OF EVIL 

Olaf Halvatd Lyon 

Our topic is "The Problem of Evil," not "A Solution to the Problem 
of Evil." We do not presume to solve this enigma of human existence. 

Why, then, do we deal with this problem at all? Simply because a failure 
to realize the large dimensions of this problem results in a flatness and 
shallowness in theological thought. Our American religionist enterprise in 
particular, has been criticized, and rightly so, we believe, on just such 
grounds. Here in this country, because of our geographical location, ex- 
panding economy and the optimism that goes along with it, we have been 
largely isolated from the desperation of war, famine and wholesale senseless 
suffering. The rest of the world, however, has always lived within the 
midst of these convincing evidences of evil as a present, malignant and 
terrible reality. Continental and Eastern philosophy and theology has al- 
ways reflected on this problem in a way that has been quite foreign to us, 
with certain notable exceptions (particularly Reinhold Neibuhr). One 
minister, perhaps, spoke for the majority of us when he said: "I never 

13 



realized that there was a "problem" concerning evil. I just never thought 
of it in that way. I kind of took it for granted. To tell you the truth, I 
never thought of it at all." 

From one point of view it can be rightly said that all philosophy and 
theology is an attempt to find an answer to the problem of evil. The 
problem itself can be stated quite simply. How does one justify the char- 
acter of a good, creative and responsible God in the face of such doubts as 
arrive by the fact of evil? If God is good, why does evil exist? The logician 
poses the problem in this way: if God is good, then he cannot be all- 
powerful; if he is all-powerful, he cannot be good. As we have already said, 
if we push these questions aside and dismiss them too flippantly and 
casually, we certainly do it at the peril of a superficiality that will show 
itself most disastrously precisely in that moment when we try most 
seriously to preach that Jesus the Christ is Lord of all creation and Savior 
of mankind. 

I 

This subject, like all subjects, can be approached from many sides. We 
have chosen to approach it by looking at the various ways man has 
sought to account for and answer the problem. The question is not new to 
our day; it has always stared man in the face: "How shall we account for 
all of the senseless suffering, the impersonal natural disasters and the cruel, 
pitiless tragedies that defeat man's noblest attempts?" 

Homer, the great epic poet of Greece, answers it by telling the stories 
used by the ancient pre-philosophic Greeks. The gods, those superhuman 
deities dwelling on Mount Olympus, cause all the evil that invades the life 
of man. Ruling earth, sky and underworld, the gods had passions exactly 
like human beings. They warred, lusted, coveted, loved and hated among 
themselves just as we human beings do. Their behaviour and misbehaviour 
are the cause of all the happenings of earth and sky and create the rumblings 
and eruptions of the underworld. Cruelty of nature, all forms of destructive- 
ness and violence, suffering and death become the inevitable and usually 
senseless fate of man ordained by the gods. Now, however such beliefs 
may lend themselves to great epic poems like the Illiad and the Odyssey 
and however filled with primitive psychological insight they may be, they 
result in vast supers titution among the people. 

Comparable, in a sense, but far more profound and developed theo- 
logically was the Eastern, or Persian, account systematized in the 6th 
Century B.C. (or as early as the 10th) by Zarathustra and known as 
Zoroastrianism. Here a dualistic struggle between eternal good and eternal 
evil is pictured within a cosmological frame of reference and is symbolized 
by an eternal warfare between the god of light (the good god) and the 
god of darkness (the evil god) with their hosts of angels and demons. 
Man must choose between light and darkness, truth and falsehood, moral 
right and wrong, and thus gain either eternal bliss or agony. This doc- 
trine had a later, although indirect, influence on post-exilic Hebrew 
thought. It has survived to this day and at various times in history has 
flourished, even within the Church. In the 3rd Century A.D. a Persian 
prophet by the name of Mani converted to Christianity and sought to ac- 
commodate this dualistic tradition to Christian doctrine. The resulting 
Manicheism became a strong opponent to Orthodox Christianity. It was 
revived once more in the West during the Crusades by the Cathari, who 
were cruelly and ruthlessly destroyed by the Inquisition. Many Christians, 

14 



even Presbyterians, really have this kind of dualism at the core of their 
thought. God is the Good God and Satan is the evil god. This is a very 
uncomplicated, convenient, simple, black-and-white way to imagine things 
and it is not strange that this has been a living tradition down through 
the centuries. 

Now we come to the still more reasoned philosophical and theological 
attempts to explain and account for the enigma of evil in human existence. 
The earliest Greek philosophies arose as an attempt to correct the popular 
superstitions we described and to give a more rational and "scientific" 
account of the problem of evil in life and death. We will examine how 1) 
"the materialistic tradition" and 2) "the Platonic tradition" have dealt with 
our problem. Finally we will examine the Hebraic-Christian tradition. 

II 

We might say "the materialistic tradition" begins with Democritus, 
the Greek phiosopher (c460 B.C.). He was the father of the "atomistic" 
theory of matter and of existence. He said that all that exists is material 
(including body and soul), and is made up of uncreated, naturally and 
eternally moving atoms, which are the smallest, indivisible and indestruct- 
ible units of matter. As these atoms fall through empty space they collide 
and come together in some necessary, but purposeless and designless, 
arrangement. Then, being in eternal motion, they change into new ar- 
rangements, creating new objects within the realm of existence. All that 
happens, or exists, therefore, is accounted for by the eternally necessary, 
but purposeless and designless, changing results of colliding atoms of 
matter in space. 

This is a far cry from using mythological stories to account for evil. 
Within this thoroughgoing materialism there are no gods and evil does not 
exist except as a name given to a subjectively undesirable collection of col- 
liding atoms. 

With major variations this materialistic tradition was absorbed into the 
thought of the Stoics (who so greatly influenced Calvin), into Spinoza's 
"pantheistic" system, is living in our day in Communist philosophic theory, 
and is basic to Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialism as well as to modern day 
logical positivism. 

The rigidly materialistic Communist theory is in its essence an attempt 
to answer and deal with the problem of evil. This strange, paradoxical 
theory is both violently anti-metaphysical and fervently eschatological. All 
existence is to be explained in terms of matter alone; no god or gods exist. 
This god-less material existence, however, is nevertheless moving toward 
a necessary and irresistible destiny (a view based on a scientific study and 
understanding of history claimed by the Communists). This destiny con- 
sists for mankind in a classless society. Evil is that which impedes or blocks 
movement toward this destiny; thus the Communist unhesitatingly and 
with fanatic fervor makes himself the sworn enemy of all class distinctions 
and of any ownership of property that can possibly give one man the 
opportunity to be the exploiter of another. Communism (a more profound 
philosophic theory than we think - albeit wrong), through Karl Marx, has 
absorbed a great deal of the prophetic, eschatological elements of the 
Hebraic- Christian tradition. Communism, within this materialistic tradition, 
takes the problem of evil with great seriousness, has accounted for and 

15 



identified it, and has an unrelenting strategy for fighting and eliminating 
it. 

The materialistic existentialism of Sartre deserves this further mention. 
His frank atheism and denial of all transcendent values destroys any real 
distinctions between good and evil. Life in its essence has no meaning. Life, 
in fact, has no essence except as we give it an essence. Meaning is solely 
the creation of any man's decision to give life a meaning. There is no 
destiny to anything, each man being left to create his own by decisions 
here and now. Each man, without any help from any kind of god (be- 
cause no god exists), must carry on his own lonely struggle with life as 
best he can and face his own problem with death. Without a God and with- 
out any transcendent values, each man is finally and essentially alone. Good 
and evil are non-existent realities, are at best only terms to be used or 
thrown aside as may be convenient to the individual. 

Ill 

Now we come to "the Platonic tradition." Plato reasoned metaphysic- 
ally and concluded that there is a God who is good and in whom no evil 
dwells. It was obvious to Plato, however, that we live in a very imperfect 
world where evil is present and active. His problem was to account for 
this evil world and still maintain the integrity of a good God. A God who 
was good could not possibly be held responsible for this world. Therefore 
Plato developed a dualism of his own. Opposite to the good, uncreated and 
sternal God there was also an eternal and uncreated chaotic and formless 
matter, which has as its insistent nature to resist being in any other than its 
original chaotic and unformed state. A demiurge, or artificer, which was 
itself imperfect and actually a bungler, is held to be the creator of this 
world in Plato's thought. The demiurge took this resistant, chaotic and 
unformed matter and fashioned the world from it, making a mess of the 
whole thing. So we account for evil in Plato's thought and maintain the 
integrity of the Good God on this basis : 1 ) a bungler did the creating and 
thereby introduced imperfection (evil); and 2) the bungling demiurge was 
working with a chaotic material that resisted every attempt to fashion it 
into anything good. 

A further step in this Platonic tradition is found in Plotinus of the third 
century A.C. (205-270). Plotinus' system is a thorough going attempt 
to answer the problem of evil. He built along the lines of Plato's thought, 
but with a much more reasoned system than Plato in this respect. Plotinus 
too has the idea of a Good God who is utterly transcendent and above the 
created world. It is of this God's essence that he is a Pleroma (fullness that 
overflows). At the opposite extreme to this divine source of all goodness 
there is matter which again in his thought is chaotic and resistant of all good 
and is therefore said to have no real existence. As this divine source of 
goodness overflows, or emanates, many lesser entities come into being. The 
farther these entities fall away from the source of divine goodness the more 
they become mixed with chaotic matter (non-being, non-reality). Man 
(human existence) exists in an ennead far from the source of divine good- 
ness and consists of a spark of emanated divinity fallen off from the source 
of divine goodness that has been caught and imprisoned in a house of flesh 
(matter). The real or true man consists of the "soul" of him, that is, of the 
spark of divinity in him. The flesh of him is to be abhorred and escaped. 
Man's finest hour comes when this spark of divinity is separated from the 

16 



body of flesh and with the help of a mediator is able to journey back to the 
source of divine goodness and there to be rejoined with it forever. 

St. Augustine, the leading teacher of the Western Church, was a careful 
student of Plotinus (Neo-Platonism) and incorporated many of the features 
of this thought into Christian theology. Thus it is (among other reasons) 
that today many Christians think in terms of an antagonism between the 
physical body and the soul of man. The appetites of the body in and among 
our Christian constituency are most often looked upon as being evil; par- 
ticularly sex is considered to be inherently evil. It is commonly considered 
even among Presbyterian ministers, that the "real" man is his soul and that 
the body is a kind of evil and undesirable prison from which man is lucky 
to escape. Unfortunately Calvin has given aid and comfort to this point of 
view (cf. Inst. I. 15.2). Neo-Platonism is so entwined in the thought of us 
all that it is very difficult to effect a separation. 

IV 

Now we will consider the "Hebraic-Christian tradition." If we cannot 
say that the Hebraic-Christian tradition is born of a human attempt to solve 
the problem of evil, certainly it is our confession that it is the recitation of 
the divine attempt to solve the problem of evil ... a problem that even 
Christian man has never been able to comprehend and which remains within 
his tradition so mysterious and such an enigma that it is a constant stumb- 
lingblock in his thought. 

In the Genesis account of creation (a didactic, religious, non-scientific 
account) the conviction of the Hebraic-Christian tradition is developed. 
It is a radical (and, we believe, conscious and deliberate) break with all 
other traditions. First, there is the claim for God himself; second, there is 
the claim that God himself is the creator of all that exists; and, third, there 
is the claim that God's creation is a good creation and that we may not 
say that matter and creation are inherently evil. Evil is accounted for in this 
theological recitation but it is not the kind of an account that tells us 
anything satisfactory about the origin of evil. The serpent simply appears 
and tempts man, but there is no clue as to where the serpent comes from. 
Throughout pre-exilic Hebrew thought there is no hesistancy about 
making God the author of that which we would call evil. God is the author 
of good and evil alike. In the Psalms we find the conviction promoted that 
God visits good upon the righteous and evil upon the unrighteous. Each 
man gets what he deserves. This however is so altogether unsatisfactory 
that we need not be surprised to find the book of Job as a challenge to this 
idea. The book of Job seeks to remove evil itself from the initiative of 
God, but not from the control of God. The Satan is posed as one of God's 
servants who acts as a prosecuting attorney in the heavenly courts. He not 
only is man's accuser when man does wrong, but he also has it as his voca- 
tion to tempt man to do wrong (this all from a servant of God!). Al- 
though the book of Job convincingly destroys the idea that evil only comes 
upon the unjust and that evil is always a just punishment for the sins of the 
individual, it still provides no solution to the problem of evil. The best 
that Job can do is to bow before its mystery and still maintain a trust in 
God. 

Post-exilic Hebrew thought is greatly influenced by Persian thinking 
and reflects the Eastern tradition of more and more removing God away 
from the events of this world into a transcendent heaven with angels and 

17 



even demons as his intermediaries. Finally demons become the servants 
of the Evil One so that we practically have in very late Hellenistic Jewish 
thought the concept of a Good God and an Evil God. 

The Hellenistic world, which is the setting for the birth of Christianity, 
envisions itself as being in the grip of and enslaved by demonic forces. The 
great problem of human existence was to be loosened from and saved from 
the destructive power of these demonic forces. The work of our Lord is 
described in terms of his saving and loosing and healing power which is 
proved by his resurrection in particular to be greater than the power of the 
Evil One and his demonic forces. The power of Jesus Christ given to man 
as a saving gift from God is an answer to the problem of evil. Although 
man's question as to where evil comes from and how this impossible possi- 
bility could have ever come about in the first place is not answered, it 
makes no difference ... it is enough that man is rescued from the "power" 
of evil. 

We stand within the tradition of believing that mankind has been 
rescued from the "power" of evil. (The theological explanation of this 
rescue is outside the province of this paper) . Within this tradition we resist 
all attempts to call this world worthless; rather we affirm it to be a thing 
of great value, which God loves and for which Christ died. In the most 
radical kind of way we further confess that this good creation of God has 
inexplicably fallen, has become possessed by the demonic and yet we 
also radically affirm that the evil which has possessed us and which spoils 
our lives and all creation is not outside God's sovereignty. Evil (which the 
Christian tradition is careful not to attribute to God) still exists and 
carries on its struggle against God within God's hand. For evil, like God's 
creation, exists and struggles within his sovereignty. Outside of God there 
is no thing; this we must certainly say. We also resist the idea introduced 
into Christian theology by St. Augustine with the Neo-Platonic tradition, 
that evil is nothing more than the absence of good, that evil is a passive 
non-entity. Rather we affirm with biblical thought that evil is a malignant, 
active, aggressive reality. Just as a cancer is not merely the absence of 
healthy tissue but is a growing, aggressive, malignant, foreign reality within 
the cells of the body, so is evil within God's creation and our human exist- 
ence. Finally we live within the eschatological expectation that one day evil 
will be destroyed and God's good creation restored to its original intent and 
perfection and in that day "every knee shall bow and every tongue confess 
that Jesus Christ is Lord." 

All that we have said in summary here involves serious logical contra- 
dictions that we cannot resolve. We must simply rest with the fact that our 
Christian faith has some very paradoxical elements in it. We are left where 
we began. Where does evil come from? If God is good and all powerful, 
how can it exist? 



18 



THE PLACE OF PREACHING, SACRAMENT, 

AND PASTORAL CARE IN THE EXPERIENCE 

OF THE REFORMATION 

Ronald S. Wallace 

The Word of God in the Reformation Experience 

In the preface to his commentary of the Psalms, Calvin mentions that 
during his career as a student he underwent an experience of conversion. 
Wisely and characteristically he tells us very little about the actual experience 
itself. He calls it "sudden." He informs us that his mind which, "considering 
his age," had been "far more hardened than it should have been" in its ad- 
herence to "the superstitions of the Papacy," was "subdued" and "made 
teachable." All this seems to imply that a new conviction of the truth of 
the Gospel came to him at one point of his life with the remarkable clarity 
and strength of an almost visionary experience. At the same time his mind 
had been so deeply committed to a whole incompatible outlook, that any 
change in the direction of the new truth was bound to begin with violent 
and deeply emotional psychological accompaniments. 

About the same time as this "sudden conversion" there began a much 
more gradual conversion of Calvin from humanistic to Biblical study, and 
from a humanistic to a Biblical outlook. In his younger days he had found 
himself caught up in the powerful contemporary currents of Renaissance 
intellectual and emotional excitement, and had given himself avidly to 
the pursuit of Humanism. His early commentary on Seneca's De dementia 
shows that he was ambitious to have some rank in the estimation of the 
great classical scholars of his day. He was also undoubtedly inspired by a 
genuine reverence for what was both human and great. Though he had later 
to give up this ambition he never renounced this first love. His mature writ- 
ing contains no expression of abhorrence over wasted loyalty or misspent 
devotion. On the contrary he looks back almost wistfully, over at least one 
aspect of his youth that had been well worthwhile. But if there was no re- 
vulsion against the world of humanistic study that had so engaged his 
devotion, there began from the very moment of his conversion experience 
a growing sense of detachment from this world. What brought about 
this change of attitude was undoubtedly his deepening and growing ex- 
perience of what he calls the "peculiar power" of Holy Scripture as he 
was drawn to a growing degree to open his mind and heart to it. At 
the time of his sudden experience he tells us he "received some taste and 
knowledge of true godliness" which "inflamed him with an intense desire 
to progress." One of the results was that although he "did not altogether 
abandon" his other studies he had "much less interest in pursuing them." 
Another of the results was that having given himself up to the study of the 
Scriptures, he soon found himself surrounded by those who were hungry 
for the new Biblical teaching. He found himself surrounded by people who 
"had some desire for purer doctrine" coming to him to learn, so that all 
his retreats became like public schools." 

Here we are obviously at the heart of the Reformation experience. We 
often think of it, especially as we study Luther, as an experience of justi- 
fication by faith alone, but it fits the general pattern of what went on at 

19 



the time if we think of it, rather, as an experience of the power of the 
Word of God to thrust itself into the center of a man's life and affec- 
tions, and to transform all things, beginning there in the mind and heart. 
Calvin is describing this, and is undoubtedly looking back on his own pre- 
and post-conversion experiences in a passage in the Institutes: "Now this 
power which is peculiar to Scripture is clear from the fact that of human 
writings, however artfully polished, there is none capable of affecting us 
at all comparably. Read Demosthenes or Cicero; read Plato, Aristotle, 
and others of that tribe. They will, I admit, allure you, delight you, move 
you, enrapture you in wonderful measure. But betake yourself from them 
to this sacred reading. Then, in spite of yourself, so deeply will it affect 
you, so penetrate your heart, so fix itself in your very marrow, that, com- 
pared with its deep impression, such vigor as the orators and philosophers 
have will nearly vanish. Consequently it is easy to see that the Sacred Scrip- 
tures, which so far surpass all gifts and graces of human endeavor, breathe 
something divine." (1:8:1). 

The Priority of Preaching 

It was when they preached the Word, or listened to its being preached 
that men at the time of the Reformation became most conscious of its 
"peculiar" power. It had been by no means unusual in the history of the 
Church for preaching to become a powerful factor in converting individuals 
and communities, in changing social customs and moving men to political 
action. We can think, for example of Augustine's remarkable account of 
how his preaching at Caesarea in Mauritania subdued the wild community 
there and moved them permanently to abandon their customary annual 
periods of infra-family murder. 

The Middle ages was not lacking in preachers of exceptional power and 
influence. But at the time of the Reformation all this was heightened in a 
dramatic way. What had before been occasional, and even rare, seemed 
to become for a time a common experience within the normal life of the 
Church. No analysis of the forces at work in bringing about the Reforma- 
tion could be accurate if it did not give due weight to the strange constraint 
that men felt, to listen and learn through the Word of God as it was preached 
to them, and to give it fresh obedience and free and living proclamation. And 
at the heart of the success of the whole movement such preaching constituted 
an important factor. Quite often the preacher's influence in his community 
was a subtly pervasive force, difficult to trace in its precise workings. But 
quite often preaching is the obvious immediate cause of important changes 
in attitudes and temperatures at critical periods in the whole struggle — 
as, for example, in Luther's sermons at Wittenberg in 1522, or John Knox's 
sermon at Perth at a critical time in the Scottish Reformation. The Re- 
formers themselves were conscious of the massive, subtle and widespread 
influence they exerted through their preaching. Luther was quite confident 
that he could resist and overcome the "ungracious lords and angry nobles," 
as he had resisted and overcome "their idol, the pope" with words alone. 
John Knox writes in a letter in 1559 of how "for forty days or more, God 
hath used my tongue in my native country to the manifestation of his glory" 
and he was confident enough to tell Cecil in the same year that "perpetual 
concord between England and Scotland might be effected by the preaching 
of Jesus Christ crucified." 

The accounts of the time indicate that there was an unusual hunger on 
the part of the common people to hear the preaching of the Word of God. 

20 



We have noted already Calvin's early experience of finding himself sur- 
rounded constantly by those who had a thirst for sound teaching, and we 
must remember that in spite of all the differences and tensions in Geneva, 
the people and authorities of Geneva wanted Calvin more than Calvin 
wanted them. The demand for pastors who could preach the Word was 
intense all over the Reformed world. When we read that in Geneva in 1 549 
the council ordered the preachers to give a sermon every morning of the 
week instead of every other morning, and that the first book of discipline 
in Scotland in 1560 ordered that "in every notable town, one day besides 
Sundays be appointed for sermon and prayer" we need not imagine that 
behind such ordinances we have an aggressive, self-important clergy ensuring 
for themselves and their views a dominating position of influence in the 
community. The initiative here came from a laity who wanted even more 
than many of their pastors could give.* John Knox's letter from St. Andrews, 
24th June 1559, may again be quoted: "The thirst of the poor people, as 
well as of the nobility here is wondrous great, which putteth me in comfort, 
that Christ Jesus shall triumph here in the North and in the extreme parts 
of the earth for a space." A similar testimony is given from England in a 
letter from Hooper to William Cecil: "You and I, if we shall kneel all the 
days of our life could not given condign thanks to God for that he hath merci- 
fully inclined the hearts of the people to wish and hunger for the Word of 
God." (A. G. Dickens, English Reformation, p. 243). 

It could, of course, be argued that at a time when there was no popular 
newspapers, sermons were the people's source of information about affairs 
in the world and were focal points for the expression and discussion of public 
opinion — having therefore much of the popularity that the press and tele- 
vision have today. It could also be argued that at the Reformation the sermon 
replaced the confessional as a source of guidance in the problems of life. 
We cannot deny that such reasons for going to the sermon were operative, 
but basically there was the Word of God, and the hunger for it. Hugh 
Latimer in his own way describes what brought and held people to Church 
services that were largely sermons: "So from that time forth, I began to 
smell the Word of God, and forsook the school doctors and such fooleries," 
again taking us to the heart of the Reformation experience. 

Preaching as the Word of God 

It was because of the priority that preaching took for itself in the Re- 
formation life and experience that the Reformers had no hesitation in apply- 
ing the phrase, "The Word of God" to preaching, and in making out the 
implications of this in their doctrine. 

In his Biblical exegesis in this area Calvin noted the passages where the 
dynamic active character of the Word of God is stressed. The Word of 
God was event before it was book. It was something that came and hap- 
pened, confronting and challenging men in living encounter. It was met in 
the person and preaching of Jesus Himself. It was embodied in the Gospel 
events. It was active in the powerful preaching of these events, which was 
the origin and source of life of the early church. Therefore they dared to 
call their own preaching "The Word of God" even though they also realized 



*Cf. Fuller's account of Lawrence Chaderton's preaching, who, after holding 
forth two hours, proposed to trespass no more on his hearers patience. "The 
auditory cryed out, (wonder not if hungry people craved more meet) 'For God's 
sake, Sir, Go on, go on!" 

21 



that Jesus Christ Himself as the eternal Word who became flesh to save 
men, had alone the full right to this title. They often gave the preached Word 
priority over the written Word. They never forgot that long before there 
was any final form of Scripture, there was the other form of the Word — 
the living oral word that gave birth both to Church and Scripture. They 
acknowledged that the "Word of God" which they claimed to be called to 
preach, did not come apart from the Scriptures. It continued to happen only 
as they turned to the book and used the book. So closely was it associated 
with the book that they were prepared to face all the problems of calling 
the book, the Word of God. They considered the possibility that the right 
of the Bible to be called the Word of God might derive from some of its 
inherent qualities, but they were certain that it mainly derived from the 
fact that in preaching it came alive, in a marvellous way, as no other book. 

Calvin noted these passages in the Bible where God sends His Word to 
call Israel His Old Testament Church apart from the world to be a servant 
nation, electing them afresh and assuring them afresh of his gracious and 
eternal covenant in every generation. He noted how Jesus Himself called 
through the power of His own voice in the New Testament whomever He 
would, gathering together again through the Word of God a people who are 
to be prepared for His service. He noted how the preaching of the Apostles 
sent forth by Jesus was the means of calling into the elect people of God 
those in every city who would hear the voice of the Good Shepherd. All 
these things, Calvin affirmed, were now being repeated in the Church of his 
own day through the preaching of the pastors by which the Church was 
being renewed and reformed and made fit for the service of God. 

Calvin noted that throughout Holy Scripture the Word of God is shown 
as having an often immediate and concrete effect on the fortunes or affairs 
of those to whom it is sent. It often altered individual lives and had vast 
social effects. It could bring weal or woe to the nation. Whatever it was 
given to proclaim was brought to pass in the course of history. He noted, too, 
that when the prophet spoke a word it was never in vain. When Jesus Him- 
self spoke, His word was creative and powerful bringing to pass immediately 
whatever He willed. So it was with the preacher, if he preached the Word 
of God. "If anyone thinks that the air echoes with an empty sound when the 
Word of God is preached, he is making a great mistake . . . because it is not 
His will to scatter His words in vain, either to fade away or to fall neglected 
to the ground, but effectively to challenge the consciences of men so as to 
bring them under his rule". The preached Word not only works as a force 
in the individual life, it also creates social change and political upheaval. 
When Calvin wrote to Farel "I have broken ground on the subject of the 
internal affairs of the city in ten sermons," there is obviously the implication 
that the preached Word works inwardly through "spiritual and inward gov- 
ernment" of the minds and hearts of men, before it affects what Calvin 
often called the external, or civil, government. But it is also obvious that 
Calvin the preacher had an eye on influencing the whole state of Geneva in 
all its aspects through the ten sermons referred to. 

The preaching of the Word of God not only affects the immediate situ- 
ation surrounding the preacher, it also affects the whole course of human 
history. Christ through preaching "subdues the world to Himself", and de- 
stroys the domination of the devil. The movement of Christ outwards from 
the Church to His rule amongst all nations takes place through the preaching 
of the Word. "When Jesus Christ causes His Gospel to be preached in a 

22 



country, it is as if He said 'I want to rule over you and be your king'." For 
Calvin, as for Luther, the preaching of the Gospel is to be the means through 
which God sets in motion and fulfils his plan for the course of the history 
of the world, which is to find its climax in the second coming, and in the 
renewal of the whole creation. 

Everything for Calvin, depends on the fact that the Word of God in 
preaching is none other than Jesus Himself in the midst of His Church. 
"When you see a dying man standing in the pulpit, then, provided that he 
is faithfully fulfiling his office and is clearly proclaiming what he has receiv- 
ed from the Lord, you will know that Jesus Christ is in the midst of us." 
Preaching is not a word about a far-off God, but a word about One who 
is present as He is spoken about, and present in a form of such humility and 
grace and forgiving love that sinners can now come to him freely and with 
confidence. As T.H.L. Parker put it: "If God showed Himself visibly to 
men, they would be overcome with fear, and so far from coming to Him 
would rather seek to fly from Him lest they should be consumed by His 
majesty. But in preaching God graciously allures men to Himself. His 
presence is, so to speak, refracted through the agency of a commonplace 
occurrence, a man talking." 

This is why preaching is in the fullest sense of the Word of God. The 
preacher is not simply the ambassador representing an absent ruler, but the 
court secretary reading out the verdict of the one who is seated present 
in the midst. In deed Christ acts through the preachers in such a way "that 
He wishes their mouth to be reckoned as His mouth, and their lips as His 
lips." In preaching then "the glory of God shines in the face of Jesus Christ", 
and God "consecrates the tongues of men so that his voice may resound in 
them." 

Preaching and the Sacraments 

The recovery of the significance and power of preaching at the center 
of the life of the Church led to the discovery of a new meaning in the sacra- 
ments. It is true that the sacraments had always retained a place at the 
center of the worship of the Roman Church. But they had lost their mean- 
ing. Their form had become distorted through attempts to improve upon 
them by elaborations and additions. Their use had been perverted, and they 
had become a means by which an imperial institutional Church dispensed 
impersonal grace, and tried to manipulate God's goodness and power for its 
own self-centered ends. The Word of God enabled the Reformers to bring 
a devastating criticism to bear upon this whole process. 

At the same time, they saw that it was only through maintaining a proper 
relationship to Baptism and the Lord's Supper that preaching could maintain 
also its full effectiveness as a powerful reality within both the Church and 
human life in general. We have seen that for the Reformers the Word of 
God was never an empty word merely outlining doctrines, or sketching 
ideas or expressing subjective feelings. It proclaimed the concrete will of 
God, and brought into effect what it proclaimed, as it entered through 
men's minds and hearts into every aspect of men's concrete existence. It 
always sought to be a powerful factor in the re-orientation of the direction 
and attitude of men's hearts, and in the transformation of men's ways of 
living on earth. It sought to constrain a response from the people of God 
to its demands and promises. It was the seed through which the living, and 
inevitably growing, Kingdom of God was implanted into the world's life 

23 



as a powerful factor in the alteration of human history. The Reformers 
felt therefore that the Word required to be accompanied by signs that it was 
neither phoney nor idealistic, nor purely psychological, nor even purely 
"spiritual" in its effect. 

The living Word of God as seen in the Bible had always been accom- 
panied by such signs. In this context Calvin, for instance, thought out reasons 
why Jesus' own Word was accompanied by miracles. In doing His miracles 
Jesus was deliberately seeking to reveal to all men the concrete power and 
authority of the Word of God that He had come to preach, and by which 
He was establishing God's Kingdom in the midst of the life of His age. 
These miraculous deeds were not simply proofs of Jesus's own divinity. 
They were, rather, occasional manifest signs that His preaching was always 
accompanied by concrete power and effectiveness within the flesh of the 
world's heart and life. His Word was therefore to be regarded as never lack- 
ing this hidden power of the Kingdom of God present and active in the 
midst of history. 

At the beginning of the history of the Apostolic Church Jesus gave to 
the Apostles also the power to accompany their preaching with miraculous 
signs. But later He gradually removed miracles from the scope of the 
Church's power as accompaniments of the Word. The Church, however, 
was not left with only a bare Word to preach. Though Christ removed these 
outwardly miraculous concrete signs, He nevertheless left the Church with 
two far more powerfully significant inwardly miraculous signs in their place. 
Under the permanent conditions set up for the continuing life of the Church 
into the ages, the two Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's Supper were 
meant to serve the preached Word of God as the other passing miracles 
and signs had served the Word of God in former generations. Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper, therefore, were meant to serve, no less than the former 
miracles, as visible points, demonstrating the entry of the Word with power 
into the flesh of man's life. They were to act as visible vehicles of the Word 
as it incorporated itself into the life of men, and as it sought to consecrate 
the people of God in all their bodily connections of flesh and blood, and 
with all their resources, to the sacrificial service of Jesus Christ in union 
with the one Body of Christ, and in response to the one great sacrifice. Both 
Luther and Calvin saw clearly what has been recently expressed by Oscar 
Cullmann: "As the Church settles down to normality, miracles as accompani- 
ments of the Word are removed, and the sacraments take their place." For 
the Reformers, the Sacraments are events of the Word no less important 
than any of the significative events recorded in the Bible. They are given 
to the Church by Christ to assist the Word in fulfilling the purpose for which 
it is sent, and, in assisting the Word thus, they help to reveal the true purpose 
of the Word. The Reformers recognized that the Sacraments carried with 
them miraculous content and supernatural effect. But the miraculous element 
in the Sacraments, in contrast to the visible miracles, is hidden beneath a non- 
miraculous and, indeed, very ordinary outward form. 

The preached Word requires the sacraments not only in order to assist 
it in its full effective entry into the flesh of human life, it also requires the 
sacraments in order that men might see as clearly as possible the kind of 
effect it is meant to have in the midst of the Church and the world. For 
Calvin, even the outward forms of both Baptism and the Lord's Supper are 
important because of the deep "spiritual" meaning they convey to those who 
subject their minds to them. The sacraments can be through of as models 

24 



showing the effect of the word. They show in a vivid way how the re- 
cipient of Christ's grace, when he hears and believes the Word of God, 
becomes united with the personal life of the living Christ, or with His whole 
humanity, and is enabled to make that humanity the deepest and strongest 
influence in the transformation of his own earthly being and existence. 
They are signs of the deep and mysterious union which takes place between 
Christ and His people when they hear His Word, receive it, and believe in 
Him. The sacraments constantly proclaim that the union which they them- 
selves help to effect between Christ and His Church is intensely personal, 
indescribably close, powerfully life-giving, irreversible and growing. Calvin 
himself constantly dwelt on the importance of this "mystical union" between 
Christ and His Church, as he called it. Because it is so difficult for our 
ordinary human understanding to conceive of its nature or grasp its reality, 
God has given us a clear visible representation of it in the Lord's Supper. 

Preaching, therefore, must be understood in the light of the sacraments 
which accompany it. Preaching is given in order to effect what the sacra- 
ments show to be its true aim. It is given in order that the preacher may 
present Christ in His flesh and blood, point to His Cross, proclaim His risen 
presence so that the congregation may receive Him, there and then, into 
the midst and "feed on Him." But the aim and end of all this is that, in 
union with His body and His once-for-all sacrifice, His people may be 
constrained to offer their bodies as a living sacrifice for the service of His 
Kingdom. This aspect of preaching is bound to be lost sight of unless it is 
done constantly in the context of the sacraments. Both sacraments, in the 
form in which they have been given to us, constantly remind us that the 
Gospel has at its heart a hard core — an event-character which can never 
be witnessed to adequately merely by outlining doctrines, or by describing 
subjective experiences, or by bringing men to a new understanding of them- 
selves. Preaching that is focused constantly on Baptism will draw the atten- 
tion of the people of God to the full implications of the One Baptism of 
Jesus which finds its content in the complete story of His life, death and 
resurrection. Preaching that is focussed constantly on the Lord's Supper 
"shows forth the Lord's death till He come," and points to His continual 
coming "into the midst" of His people. The sacraments remind the preacher 
that his words from the pulpit are meant to serve the same purpose as his 
actions with the elements — to serve the sacramental purpose of pointing 
above and beyond what is present and visible and audible to Jesus Christ 
Himself in His crucified and exalted humanity. Unless Christ Himself fills 
the sacraments with content then, no matter how correct the ritual, or how 
impressive the liturgy, all that results is the mere receiving of a little portion 
of bread and wine and the manipulation of a few drops of water. So also 
with preaching — unless Christ Himself fills the preaching with the content 
of His presence, then no matter how dedicated the preacher may be, or how 
correct and relevant and wise his words, it is all equally in vain. 

It was therefore not simply for the sake of correctness and faithfulness 
in observing Christ's ordinances, that the Reformers stressed the necessity 
of giving the sacraments prominence in the life of the Church. They believed 
firmly that the Word itself could not function adequately unless the sacra- 
ments were there by its side always visible as its appointed signs and seals. 
Any neglect of the sacrament was bound to lead to a distortion of the truth 
preached, to an over intellectualization of the Gospel, an over emphasis on 
the spiritual at the expense of the material and social, on feeling at the 

25 



expense of action. To them it was derogatory to the majesty and power of 
the Word that it should not be accompanied by such meaningful signs of its 
own mighty power in human life. We must ask ourselves if we agree with 
them. Is our present use of the Lord's Supper an adequate expression of our 
gratitude to God for giving to His Church such a wonderful gift? Is the 
place we give to Baptism in our liturgy, our thought and our preaching, at 
all commensurate with the intention of Christ in giving the Church this 
ordinance and with the place it has in the New Testament thought and life? 
Certainly there is an unfortunate tendency in some quarters, now to lay em- 
phasis on the sacraments at the expense of the Word. Some are so con- 
cerned to make the sacraments central that they are calling for less em- 
phasis on preaching, less preaching, and sometimes for no preaching at all. 
Such a program is going to help neither sacrament nor preaching. The 
proper Reformed emphasis was the centrality of both Word and Sacraments, 
but it was always understood that the sacraments were there to serve the 
Word of God. However things may be at present, it is certain that no Church 
that has to live by a Word that is not anchored in its sacramental activity 
can ever have the fullness of life and witness intended for it by God. 

Preaching and Pastoral Care 

The restoration of the Word to its rightful position and authority within 
the Reformed Church also led to a restoration of true pastoral care. In 
the Roman Church the perverted sacraments, divorced from the Word and 
subordinated to the power of an imperial Church, had been used as a means 
for the exercise of the "tyranny of Antichrist." The confessional was made 
an occasion for gaining power over the individual, and for selling absolu- 
tion as an access to the varying quantities and forms of grace that were re- 
quired to meet man's needs from the cradle to the grave. The Church which 
should have loosened the consciences of men through its pastorate, had 
bound them in the snares of its law. 

From this bondage the Reformation sought to free the individual. "This 
is not the least important part of providence," wrote Calvin, " — to have 
due regard for individuals." With all his stress on relevant preaching, ad- 
herence to Scripture, and the right administration of the sacraments, he real- 
ized that the Word could never be effectively preached, nor the sacraments 
rightly administered and used unless they were both supplemented by pastoral 
care. The Word, no matter how well and earnestly preached, even in the 
power of the Spirit, would leave the individual still too much at the mercy 
of his own inclinations unless it were "accompanied by private admonitions 
and reproofs to enforce doctrine." He kept constantly in mind that Paul 
could declare himself "free from the blood of all men," only because he 
did not cease to admonish "both publicly and from house to house (Acts 
20:20)", and in a letter to Bullinger he laments that the ministers of his day, 
including himself, were being prized and sought after more on account 
of their oratory than on account of their being pastors of souls. 

Of course, the preacher of the Word, even in the pulpit, must make the 
Word not only public but pastoral. "It is not enough that a pastor in the 
pulpit teach, if he does not also add particular instruction". The minister 
therefore should have an intimate knowledge of those he is speaking to, of 
their particular needs and concerns and failings, and the preparation as well 
as the delivery of the sermon must be undertaken as in this context. But 

26 



no sermon can be sufficiently relevant or pointed* to meet all the pastoral 
needs of the congregation, and it is not enough for the minister to attempt 
to be pastoral only from the pulpit. "It not seldom happens that he who 
hears general promises which are intended for the whole congregation of 
the faithful remains somewhat in doubt, and is still disquieted in mind as if 
his own remission were not yet obtained." 

Even Pastoral preaching, therefore, requires to be supplemented by the 
pastoral interview. The individual who especially feels his need should be en- 
couraged to seek out his pastor, and "should this individual lay open the 
secret wound of his soul to his pastor, and hear the words of the Gospel 
specially addressed to him, Son be of good cheer, thy sins be forgiven 
thee (Matt. 9:2), his mind will feel secure and escape from the trepidation 
with which it was previously agitated". Calvin felt that it was particularly 
appropriate that this interview between pastor and individual Church mem- 
ber should take place regularly before each celebration of the Lord's Supper. 

The pastoral interview was bound to deal with all the ills that plague 
the human heart and existence. Calvin always reveals an acute sense of the 
pathos of the life of his day, the severity of the trials to which life sub- 
jected men, and the intensity of the struggle they had to maintain. He saw 
all this, too, against the background of eternity with its pressing issues. 
There is something almost Shakespearean about the famous passage in the 
Institutes beginning: "Innumerable are the evils that beset human life: in- 
numerable, too, the deaths which threaten it . . ." (1:17:10). He himself 
was constantly harassed by half a dozen physical complaints at once, any 
one of which would have been enough to hospitalize some of us today. His 
instructions about the pastoral care of the sick are therefore meticulous, 
and he was deeply concerned that these should not be denied the Lord's 
Supper. He recognized their need to be assured of God's gracious providence 
in all things. But the worst evil felt by nearly all men in Calvin's time was 
the tormented conscience. Men, he felt, must not be allowed to face either 
life or death deprived of peace with God. 

In the pastoral interview, the person dealt with is encouraged to express 
himself. Calvin believed in the expression of the heart. In his teaching on 
prayer he urges a healthy "pouring out of the heart" to God. This seems to 
mean the free acknowledgment of the inward feeling and attitude, in pray- 
ers expressing repentance, and the free expression of the desires and needs of 
the heart in petition and intercession, as well as the expression of gratitude 
in thanksgiving. He himself found the prayers of the psalmists with their 
varied moods an echo of the liturgy of his own heart. Though in much of 
his writing he was extremely reserved about himself, occasionally, especi- 



*The recent incident of an almost too pointed pastoral sermon involving Presi- 
dent Johnson prompts me to quote an equally unfortunate example from 
Scottish history: Patrick Simson, preaching before King James on the text, 
"Where is Abel thy brother?", made reference to the murder of the Earl of 
Moray, brother of the first Regent by Huntly, and said to the King before the 
congregation, "Sir, I assure you in God's name, the Lord will ask you, "where 
is the Earl of Moray, your brother?" "The King replied before all the congre- 
gation: "Mr. Patrick, my chalmer door was never steeked upon you. Ye might 
have told me anything you thought in secret". He replyed: "Sir, the scandall 
was publict". And after, being sent for to the Castell, went up with the Book 
under his oxter, affirming that he would plead for him. (Quoted from Row's 
History by W. S. Provand Puritanism and the Scottish Church p. 69). I think 
the King was in the right here and that the preacher should have used the "cham- 
ber door" before he used the pulpit. 

27 



ally in his letters, we are allowed to see what he had constantly to hold 
back in order to be able to live with men at all, and there are a number of 
passages that vibrate with intense and often vehement human feeling, with 
a frank acknowledgment of utter failure — "more true confession of sin", 
comments Wernle, "than Calvin was conscious of in writing them". 

This expression of the heart can lead to the pastoral interview becoming 
one of private confession and absolution, as has been already indicated in 
an above quotation. But there is no general rule laid down by Calvin here, 
nor is any general advice given that this might be even desirable in many 
cases. The general principle is that sins are to be confessed to God. Minister 
and fellow men can be helpful. They are ordained as "witnesses and pledges" 
to assure consciences of the remission of sins. Calvin was obviously afraid 
that pastoral care might at any time assume the form of a new tyranny by 
the strong and ruthless over the weak. The memory of the abuse of pastoral 
care within the Roman Church made him urgently concerned to avoid even 
the possibility of a revival of its practices. Therefore even when he states 
his opinion that it would be a good thing within the Church if before every 
celebration of the Lord's Supper the pastor should have a private interview 
with each of his flock, he adds the proviso: "proving always no countenance 
be given to tyranny or superstition". 

Within the pastoral conversation, then, the Word of God must be given 
priority, and the whole conversation must aim at directing the individual 
back to the Word and Sacraments, for in Calvin's mind, it is normally 
through listening to the sermon, receiving the bread and wine at the Supper, 
and finding fresh meaning in Baptism, that forgiveness becomes most real 
to men. The pastor, in the interview, can help greatly by showing that he 
himself accepts his brother before him. He can with skill seek to enable him 
to understand himself better and to express himself better with true openness 
and penitence. But no pastor must ever imagine, or suggest that the other 
should imagine, that his own acceptance of anyone could possibly be taken 
as God's acceptance. That would be to perpetuate the mistake of the Roman 
Church in another form. The true pastor knows that the light of another 
judgment, greater than his own, and independent of his own, must be 
allowed to fall on the situation, and that he must direct his brother above 
and beyond all these things to the word of God, and to the judgment and 
grace of God Himself. 

Calvin was concerned with bringing men to a true state of true repent- 
ance. "Only those afflicted with the awareness of sins can sincerely invoke 
God's mercy," he wrote. But even at this point of repentance the sinner 
must never be left with only his feelings of repentance. He must be directed 
entirely away from himself. No one must be allowed to find comfort simply 
in having the right psychological or ethical attitude. "Repentance is not the 
cause of forgiveness of sins. Moreover we have done away with those tor- 
ments of souls which they would have us perform as a duty. We have taught 
that the sinner does not dwell upon his own compunction or tears, but fixes 
both eyes upon the Lord's mercy alone." 

Ultimately all this means for Calvin that the counselee must be directed 
away from all pastoral counselling, back to the community and the Word 
which impelled him to seek the pastor. In a letter to one of his own coun- 
selees, Luther wrote: "Dear Sister, I see from your letter to me how earnestly 
your heavy laden conscience longs for an evangelical sermon of consolation, 
and, if possible, in your own church at Rossla." The Reformers had no doubt 

28 



about where burdened and weak souls must ultimately be directed in order 
to be most certain of finding rest. Forgiveness, according to Calvin, "is 
dispensed to us through the ministers of the Church, either by the preaching 
of the Gospel, or by the administration of the sacraments; and herein lies the 
power of the keys which the Lord has conferred on the society of believers. 
According let each one of us count it his own duty to seek forgiveness of 
sins only where the Lord has placed it." The pastoral care, then, which is so 
necessary a part of the discipline of the Church, and so vital an adjunct to 
the preaching of the Word, is in itself meaningful only as it serves the Word. 
As Thurneysen says, it is a "means of leading the individual to sermon and 
sacrament, and thus to the Word of God, of incorporating him within the 
Christian community and of preserving him in it." (Theology of Pastoral 
Care, p. 32) 



29 



REVIEWS 



The New Testament and Criti- 
cism, by George Eldon Ladd: 
William B. Eerdmans. 222 pp. 
$3.95. 

Dr. Ladd, professor of New Testa- 
ment at Fuller Theological Seminary, 
has produced a very interesting and 
well written book seeking to show that 
the true evangelical has nothing to 
fear from a reverent use of the disci- 
plines of biblical criticism. He has a 
high view of the inspiration of the 
Bible as "the word of God, our in- 
fallible rule of faith and practice." 
But he believes that God's Spirit made 
use of men as His human authors, 
and that He addressed His message to 
the minds of the men to whom it 
was originally sent. The evangelical 
scholar must know and use all of the 
techniques now available to enable 
him to come to as full and correct an 
understanding as he possibly can. The 
author recognizes that much of the 
work in the fields of criticism has 
been done by scholars with a radical 
theological background, and he quite 
properly warns against some of the 
conclusions drawn by such men. But 
the evangelical scholar can use all of 
the good which has been found, and 
he has the positive obligation to do 
work in the field for himself, both to 
be able to defend his own position 
and to enrich his understanding of it. 

Many evangelical scholars have 
been doing this for some time, though 
some have considered them heretics 
for doing it. Those who are suspicious 
of all criticism of the Bible ought to 
read this book from Fuller Seminary. 
Samuel A. Cartledge 



Contemporary Continental Theo- 
logians, by S. Paul Schilling: 
Abingdon Press. 288 pp. $5.00. 

It is refreshing to come across a 
book in which the author succeeds in 



expounding the thought of modern 
theologians in a manner that is both 
clear and interesting. Such a book is 
Dr. Paul Schilling's Contemporary 
Continental Theologians. It is devoted 
to the study of eleven such theolo- 
gians: eight of them Protestant, two 
Roman Catholic, and one Eastern 
Orthodox. The Protestants are classi- 
fied in three sections: I, Theologies 
of the Word of God, comprising Karl 
Barth of Basel, Hermann Diem of 
Tubingen, and Josef Hromadka of 
Prague; n, Theologies of Existence, 
comprising Rudolf Bultmann of Mar- 
burg, Friedrich Gogarten of Gotting- 
en, and Gerhard Ebeling of Turbing- 
en; and III, Neo-Lutheran Theolo- 
gies, comprising Edmund Schlink of 
Heidelberg and Gustaf Wingren of 
Lund. The Roman Catholics are rep- 
resented by Yves Congar of Stras- 
bourg and Karl Rahner of Munich, 
and the Eastern Orthodox by Nikos 
Nissiotis, who is now assistant direc- 
tor of the Ecumenical Institute at 
Bossey in Switzerland. This, of course, 
is a selection from a wide field, and 
it must be accepted as such without 
carping complaints over the omission 
of other names that might perhaps 
equally well have been included. Dr. 
Schilling's book is offered as "an in- 
terpretation of the main trends of 
systematic theology on the Continent 
of Europe today." His method is in 
each case the same: first, the objec- 
tive presentation of the principal lines 
of thought of the theologian under 
discussion, and, second, a critique 
setting forth briefly both the values 
and the difficulties or deficiencies in 
his system. A final chapter attempts 
to place these different movements 
of thought in perspective by compar- 
ing them with each other. 

The critique offered by Dr. Schil- 
ling at the end of each chapter is 
intelligent and penetrating. One's only 
complaint is that it is so brief. The 



30 



proportions of the volume demanded 
brevity, no doubt, and the criticisms 
have real worth as seed-thoughts or 
guide-posts which will stimulate the 
reader to fuller reflection and more 
detailed appraisal. With reference to 
Karl Barth, for instance, it is objected 
that "his controlling christological per- 
spective tends to obscure the differen- 
tiations within the divine unity, re- 
sulting in a contraction of trinitarian 
faith"; and it is questioned "whether 
the incarnational center of Barth's 
theology does not itself invalidate his 
rejection of natural theology," for if 
Barth's premiss that God's grace as 
disclosed in Jesus Christ is operative 
in all men, "there is no such thing 
as the 'natural man,' in the sense of 
a man left wholly to his unaided 
intellectual and spiritual resources," 
and "then the ground for Barth's de- 
valuation of natural theology disap- 
pears." Rudolf Bultmann is taxed 
with having changed the character of 
the Biblical message by recasting it 
in a foreign mold, and is accused of 
breaking "the essential continuity be- 
tween the earthly Jesus and the Christ 
believed and proclaimed by the primi- 
tive church, thereby raising grave 
doubts regarding the rootage of the 
kerygma in historic events"; indeed, 
of reducing the original Jesus to an 
unknown X and dissolving the faith 
aroused by Him into abstraction and 
subjectivity. These two examples serve 
to illustrate Dr. Schilling's desire to 
investigate, though always in an iren- 
ical spirit, in what respects a particu- 
lar theologian may be inconsistent or 
self-contradictory in his own thought, 
and also the degree to which his ideas 
are "in accord with the central thrust 
of the Biblical witness to the salva- 
tion offered to man by God in Jesus 
Christ." 

Precisely because it is critical, in- 
dicating not merely the points of con- 
tact but also the points of difference 
and divergence between the theolo- 
gians considered, Dr. Schilling's work 



is a worthy contribution to ecumeni- 
cal theology. 

Philip Edgcumbe Hughes 

The Epistle of James, by C. 
Leslie Mitton: William B. Eerd* 
man's. 255 pp. $6.95. 

Luther, we all know, dubbed the 
Epistle of James an "epistle of straw." 
It contains, he bluntly alleged, "noth- 
ing evangelical." C. Leslie Mitton ar- 
gues that this judgment was unneces- 
sarily hasty, and that we neglect this 
Epistle to our own hurt. "It is true 
that James was not written with the 
primary purpose of converting unbe- 
lievers ... It was written for those 
who had no doubt they were Chris- 
tians, but needed to have their un- 
derstanding of the word 'Christian' 
greatly deepened and widened." 

This commentary (by the distin- 
guished Editor of the Expository 
Times) is, as one would confidently 
expect, a model of careful and exact 
exegesis. The author has a happy gift 
for correlating relevant Scripture in 
order to illustrate a phrase or a 
theme. This commentary is no arid 
technical study of critical niceties; 
on the contrary, it is a rich and re- 
warding exploration of the deep things 
of God. Indeed, it is a model of what 
an expository commentary ought to 
be. There is a genuine wrestling with 
the Word of God. Critical questions 
are neither ignored nor neglected; 
they are relegated (as is appropriate) 
to the decent obscurity of an Ap- 
pendix. 

This is an outstanding addition to 
The New International Commentary 
on the New Testament. 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



The Guilt of the Templars, by 
G. Legman: Basic Books. 308 

pp. $8.50. 

This handsomely produced book 
contains a great deal of recondite 



31 



information and esoteric learning. 
Jacques Barzun, in a Prefatory note, 
speaks of the author's "encyclopaedic 
knowledge of popular and high-brow 
literature," and praises "the triumph- 
ant restlessness of his search among 
facts." But the author's knowledge, 
if encyclopaedic, is not infallible. 
The lengthy section quoted from 
Henry Charles Lee's History of the 
Inquisition of the Middle Ages (1888) 
is not " a rare and remarkable docu- 
ment": the entire work (in three vol- 
umes) was reprinted by S. A. Russell 
of New York in 1955 and again in 
1956; "the long-out-of-print" article 
by Thomas Wright was reprinted by 
the Julian Press of New York in Sex- 
ual Symbolism (1957, reprinted in 
1961); and R. H. Tawney's classic is 
incorrectly quoted as Religion and 
the Rise of the Middle Class. 

The Templars had aroused the cu- 
pidity and jealousy of the powers, 
secular and ecclesiastical; neverthe- 
less, it was ostensibly for sacrilege, 
idolatry and perversion that the Tem- 
plars were condemned. Legman seeks 
to substantiate the truth of these 
charges. Despite the superficial im- 
pression of massive documentation, 
the final verdict must be: "Not 
Proven." 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



Sex Offenders: An Analysis of 
Types, by Paul H. Gebhard, John 
H. Gagnon, Wardell B. Pomeroy, 
and Cornelia V. Christenson: 
Harper & Row, and Paul B. Hoe- 
ber, Inc., Medical Books. 923 
pp. $12.50. 

This analysis of male sex offenders 
is one in a series of research studies 
published by the Institute for Sex 
Research, Incorporated, to determine 
if and how persons convicted of vari- 
ous sex offenses differ from persons 



not convicted. Some of the specific 
questions asked were: "Are the sex- 
ual histories or social backgrounds of 
sex offenders different from those 
of non-offenders? Do men with the 
same sort of illegal sexual behavior, 
whether convicted or not, have simi- 
lar sexual and social histories? What 
behavior is associated with sex of- 
fenses? How are drugs and alcohol 
related to sex offenses?" 

The study is based on case histories 
obtained from three different groups: 
1) a prison group convicted of a 
wide variety of sex offenses; 2) a 
prison group not specifically charged 
with sex offenses; and 3) a "normal" 
group drawn from among cases on 
file at the Institute and not convicted 
of any charges. 

Sex offenders were divided into 
fourteen logical categories for pur- 
poses of analysis and discussion, e.g., 
heterosexual offenders vs. children, 
heterosexual offenders vs. minors, 
heterosexual offenders vs. adults, and 
similar categories. The first three 
chapters describe study methods and 
sampling techniques. The subsequent 
fourteen chapters discuss each of the 
sex offenses' categories under con- 
sistent general headings such as early 
life, sex dreams, heterosexual petting, 
etc. At the end of each chapter the 
significant differences between the 
three groups are discussed. These 
summaries are particularly helpful 
since the reader may obtain the core 
of the study and results without read- 
ing the detailed and technical infor- 
mation which is more pertinent to 
the more psychologically sophisticated 
reader. 

Chapters 19 through 36 discuss 
"sex offenders" in general, drawing 
from data of all three groups and 
presenting differences in family and 
general backgrounds, prepubescent sex 
life, early sex knowledge and similar 
categories. These chapters provide 
what the authors believe to be the 



32 



more important dimensions and dy- 
namics of sex offenders as indicated 
by their data. 

Generally speaking, the book is a 
forthright presentation of research. 
Usually no attempt is made to justify 
the normality of behavior considered 
abnormal in our society. However, 
at times underlying assumptions and 
biases do appear, and the reviewer 
feels that an attempt is made to just- 
ify or to mitigate the seriousness of 
some of the offenses. The view of 
man as a higher and more compli- 
cated animal sometimes is used to 
justify these conclusions. 

Although one may not agree with 
some of the arguments and implied 
conclusions, the presentation and ar- 
guments are provocative. This book 
can be a valuable aide to a minister. 
Undoubtedly, many ministers counsel 
persons who present the sexual prob- 
lems and behavior discussed in this 
book. The information on family 
background and other significant data 
should be helpful to the pastor in 
his role as minister-counselor. Their 
discussion should assist the minister 
in understanding more fully the "point 
of view" of the sex offender, which is 
important if one is to relate and 
communicate with such a person and 
be of help to him. 

Of particular interest to ministers 
or Christian readers is the fact that 
the authors discuss the religious con- 
victions, or lack of them, and the 
relationship of this factor to sex at- 
titudes. In general, the more devoutly 
religious are not found among sex 
offenders. However, this varied among 
the sex offender groups. For exam- 
ple, as a group the "incest offenders 
vs. adults" were "the most religious" 
of all the offender groups. 

Charles C. Bovee 



Jesus of Nazareth: Saviour and 
Lord, by Carl F. H. Henry: Wil- 
liam B. Eerdman's. 277 pp. 
$5.95. 

Again the Evangelical is indebted 
to Carl Henry for a useful series of 
vigorous testimonies by able scholars. 
Here is a fine emphasis on the fact 
that "the God of the Bible not only 
acts but speaks," "that the Biblical 
revelation has an apprehensible fac- 
tual content." There is communication 
as well as communion, S. B. Ger- 
hardsson, K. S. Kantzer. Again God 
has acted in history, in particular in 
raising Jesus our Lord from the tomb 
on the third day, F. F. Bruce and 
C. H. Pinnock. Leon Morris shows 
the increasing recognition of the his- 
torical character of the Fourth Gos- 
pel. We are particularly pleased with 
Paul Althaus' treatment of fact and 
faith in the Kerygma. With M. Kahler 
he recognizes Matthew, Mark, Luke 
and John as gospels written from 
faith for faith, not as secular biog- 
raphies. He properly insists however 
that faith is not the foe of fact. God 
has revealed Himself through these 
"Gospels of Jesus Christ." 

Naturally there are details in such 
a wide compass with which one may 
differ. It is not clear to this reviewer 
that the account of the tilt between 
Barth and Henry (p. 11) either en- 
hances or corrects their images. Barth 
teaches that the appearances of the 
risen Christ came before they believed 
and led the unbelieving disciples to 
faith in their resurrected Lord. The 
statement that "those who inherit the 
kingdom enter it only by the resur- 
rection" (p. 143) fails to take account 
of believers living at the Parousia. 
But these minutia scarcely disturb a 
great testimony. 

Wm. Childs Robinson 



33 



Voluntary Associations: A Study 
of Groups in Free Societies. 
Edited by D. B. Robertson: John 
Knox Press. 448 pp. $9.75. 

During his career at the University 
of Chicago and at Harvard Divinity 
School, James Luther Adams, Pro- 
fessor of Christian Ethics at Harvard 
Divinity School, influenced many the- 
ologians. The essays in this volume 
in honor of his sixty-fifth birthday 
are a tribute to his influence. Tribute 
is also given to Adams in the Fore- 
word by Paul Tillich. 

After a brief discourse about the 
nature of voluntary associations, the 
reader is treated to a section of es- 
says concerning the theory and prac- 
tice of associations in history, a 
section of essays concerning the vol- 
untary church and other associations 
today, and a final section which in- 
cludes a biographical and intellectual 
sketch of Adams, his theory of vol- 
untary associations as a key to his- 
tory, and a Bibliography of his 
writings. 

The high points of the volume are 
the essays of W. Alvin Pitcher, Gab- 
riel Fackre, and James M. Gustaf- 
son. Pitcher discusses the mass society 
model of William Kornhauser; Fackre 
attacks much of the sociological criti- 
cism of the church in society today 
and brings into focus the dominant 
issues; and Gustafson is concerned 
with the problems of the voluntaris- 
tic aspect of Protestantism in the 
United States today. 

There are weaknesses, however. 
First, the title is misleading; there is 
much questioning of this actual free- 
dom of individuals to participate in 
groups and whether or not any free- 
dom exists in the groups. Decisions 
in most organizations are not made 
from the bottom up but rather from 
the top down. In addition, all groups 
in a free society are not voluntary; 
individuals find themselves involun- 



tarily participating in many groups. 
Secondly, in only one instance (p. 
313) is passing reference made to 
the fact that the church is not a 
voluntary democratic association but 
involves in some way individuals who 
are called. Thirdly, the general idea 
is presented that man is redeemed in 
and through society; e.g., "Recent 
New Testament studies, on angelol- 
ogy and the doctrine of the kingship 
of Christ, have born out Adams' con- 
tention that redemption as conceived 
in the Gospels included the institu- 
tions of society as a whole." (p. 362) 
The publisher's blurb states, "This 
collection makes a substantial contri- 
bution to a subject of growing im- 
portance in the field of scholarship." 
However, the historical works are 
pedantic and the essays concerning 
contemporary thought and institutions 
deal largely with ground covered else- 
where. 

R. E. Sanner 



The Marian Exiles: A Study in 
the Origins of Elizabethan Puri- 
tanism, by Christina Hallowell 
Garrett: Cambridge University 
Press. 388 pp. $8.50. 

The accession of Mary to the 
throne of England, and the conse- 
quent re-establishment of Roman 
Catholicism, precipitated a Protestant 
exodus to the continent. This was 
not, the author argues, a panic flight; 
on the contrary, it was all part of a 
carefully organized, premeditated plan. 
After five years of exile, on the death 
of Mary, the refugees returned to 
play an aggressive role in the life of 
the Elizabethan Church. 

The author provides us with an 
account of what she calls "the embryo 
of the puritan party." "Not since 
1574, when William Whittingham first 
published at Zurich his polemical 
pamphlet under the suggestive title 
of The Troubles at Frankfort," she 



34 



accuses, "has anyone cared to pene- 
trate below the surface of the in- 
genious legend with which the fugi- 
tives cloaked the real purpose of 
their enterprise." Miss Garrett speaks 
slightingly of the Marian exiles as "a 
cabal" and she describes their subse- 
quent influence on the Elizabethan 
Church as "sinister." 

This study (despite its bias) is a 
valuable mine of information. It con- 
tains a wealth of important material, 
and, in the biographies of the "472 
self-exiled Englishmen," statistical in- 
formation of the most useful kind. 

This book first appeared in 1938. 
It is now reprinted as a volume in 
"The Cambridge University Press Li- 
brary Editions" as an out-of-print 
standard work. 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



Scripture in the Westminster 
Confession, a problem of His- 
torical Interpretation for Ameri- 
can Presbyterianism, by J. B. 
Rogers: William B. Eerdman's. 
pp. 475. Price not listed. 

This is a doctoral thesis for the 
University of Amsterdam and as such 
shows the intensive work one would 
expect from a student under Professor 
G. C. Berkouwer. The writer main- 
tains the thesis that the Westminster 
Standards belong to the age of the 
Reformation, not to that of the age 
of orthodoxy, which in his opinion 
followed very quickly the period of 
the Westminster Standards. As a result 
he urges that the UPUSA Church 
regards Westminster somewhat more 
highly than their scholars are cur- 
rently inclined to do. In particular 
Rogers urges that the Confession be- 
gins with general revelation rather 
than natural theology, that it stresses 
the testimony of the Holy Spirit and 
finds the content of the Scriptures in 
Jesus Christ as the Gospel of salva- 
tion. The books presents a lower doc- 



trine of inspiration than that which 
Warfield found in the Westminster 
divines. Rogers holds that Warfield 
used these fathers in general while 
he seeks to use only those who shared 
in the actual writing of the docu- 
ments. This, and Rogers' interpretation 
of "the light of nature," will require 
further study. Your reviewer would 
remind the reader that Warfield him- 
self made the God of grace, God in 
Christ, the primary object of faith 
and used promises, propositions, and 
even mighty acts of God as secondary 
to this trust in God our Saviour. 
Wm. C. Robinson 



Nothing But the Gospel, Radio 
Messages Presented by Peter H. 
Eldersveld: William B. Eerd- 
mans. 162 pp. No price listed. 

As this volume makes clear, the 
enduring excellence of the radio 
preaching on The Back To God Hour 
was due for two decades to Dr. Peter 
H. Eldersveld, the Radio Minister of 
the Christian Reformed Church. At 
the time of his early death at 54 in 
1964, Dr. Eldersveld was known as 
one of the foremost spokesmen for 
historic Christianity as it is interpreted 
in the great confessions of the Re- 
formed faith. His weekly broadcast 
was carried to 3,000,000 people every 
Sunday by 300 radio stations in the 
United States, Canada, and foreign 
countries. He was peripatetic in per- 
sonal speaking tours from coast to 
coast, tireless in editing devotional 
booklets and maintaining a volumi- 
nous correspondence with many lis- 
teners. 

The Radio Committee of The Back 
To God Hour provides for us in this 
book 19 sermons of Dr. Eldersveld, 
all written in the last four years of 
his life, all representative of his 
maturest thought and finest skill. 
The sermons in discussing the cross, 
faith, grace, or ecumenics, religion in 



35 



schools, and the right to work repre- 
sent a vital Calvinism. Dr. Elders- 
veld's ring of clarity and simplicity 
are reminiscent of Calvin himself. 
Don M. Wardlaw 



Images of the Negro in American 
Literature, edited by Seymour L. 
Gross and John Edward Hardy: 
The University of Chicago Press. 
321 pp. $6.50. 

"The Negro in American literature 
. . . has been depicted more as a 
stereotype than as a human being," 
Seymour Gross writes. "The vast bulk 
of American literature," he points 
out, "has incarcerated the literary 
Negro in such tightly restricted cate- 
gories as, The Contented Slave, The 
Brute Nigger, The Comic Negro, The 
Tragic Mulatto, and, The Exotic 
Primitive." Of recent years, however, 
there has been a dramatic reversal of 
roles. No longer is the Negro a stere- 
otype, today he is an archetype, what 
Robert Penn Warren calls "an image 
of man's fate." "The history of the 
Negro in America," in Richard 
Wright's searing words, "is the his- 
tory of America written in vivid and 
bloody terms; it is the history of 
Western Man writ small . . . The 
Negro is America's metaphor." 

This book consists of two parts: 
the first, a series of essays on the 
image of the Negro at different pe- 
riods of history; the second, an analy- 
sis, in depth, of the more significant 
works portraying Negroes. Of par- 
ticular relevance is the revealing dis- 
cussion of James Baldwin: rebellion 
has led him, Robert Bone suggests, 
"to build a palace on the ramparts of 
Hell and call it Heaven." 

The importance of this scholarly 
study (with its excellent Bibliogra- 
phies) is not merely literary but 
sociological and religious. 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



Luther's Works: The Christian in 
Society, edited by James Atkin- 
son: Fortress House. 417 pp. 
$7.00. 

In this collection (Volume 44) we 
have works dating from 1519 to 
1521: a Sermon on the Estate of 
Marriage (in the course of which 
Luther likens marriage to a God- 
given hospital in which incurables are 
preserved from falling into graver 
sin!); a Treatise on Good Works (in 
which he declares that "there is no 
better mirror in which to see your 
need than the Ten Commandments, 
in which you will find what you lack 
and what you should seek"); an Ad- 
dress to the Nobility of the German 
Nation (in relation to the needed re- 
form of the Church); and a Judg- 
ment on the Validity of Monastic 
Vows. 

These are important documents re- 
lating, as they do, to that period when 
Luther was driven, by ineluctable 
circumstances, to radical opposition. 
It is difficult not to feel the anguish 
of his repudiation of the Church of 
Rome: "And now farewell, unhappy, 
hopeless, blasphemous Rome! The 
wrath of God has come upon you in 
the end, as you deserved, and not for 
the many prayers which are made on 
your behalf, but because you have 
chosen to grow more evil from day 
to day! We have cared for Babylon 
and she is not healed. Let us then 
leave her that she may be the habita- 
tion of dragons, spectres, ghosts, and 
witches, and true to her name of 
Babel, an everlasting confusion, an 
idol of avarice, perfidy, apostasy, of 
cynics, lechers, robbers, sorcerers, and 
endless other impudent monsters, a 
new pantheon of wickedness." 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



36 



Understanding God: The Key Is- 
sue in Present-Day Protestant 
Thought, by Fred Herzog: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 191 pp. 
$4.50. 

When a professor of Systematic 
Theology (Duke University Divinity 
School) attempts a survey of the 
present theological situation, with its 
confusing antecedents and ramifica- 
tions, the reader should be prepared 
for a book that will not be easy, but 
in Understanding God he will find a 
volume that makes rewarding reading 
and invites careful study. 

Frederick Herzog's survey practi- 
cally ignores Karl Barth since he is 
concerned with a problem which has 
arisen "since Barth," that of the new 
hermeneutic, in the sense defined by 
James M. Robinson and John B. Cobb, 
Jr. Herzog is not ready to announce 
the death of God or to give up sys- 
tematic theology; instead he believes 
that the newly broadened tool of 
"hermeneutic" should be applied to 
the basic problem of theology which 
is the understanding of God. In de- 
veloping his thesis Herzog refers to 
more than 300 books and articles, and 
focuses on key expressions in a great 
many of these, offering pertinent com- 
ment of his own as well as pointing 
out the limits within which the origi- 
nal statement was made. Since most 
of the material referred to was pub- 
lished in the fifties and sixties, this 
volume offers the reader an almost 
up-to-the-minute review of recent de- 
velopments in theological discussion. 

In addition it offers a serious sug- 
gestion for the continuing discussion 
by defining two foci which must con- 
trol the programmed quest for an un- 
derstanding of God. The one is the 
philosophical problem of ontology, 
the nature of being; the other is the 
problem of meaning in history, spe- 
cifically the history which centers in 
the life, death and resurrection of 



Jesus. In regard to both today's theo- 
logian — or today's man — stands 
in "aporia" — Herzog's technical 
term for the present lack of under- 
standing of God and of the historical 
Jesus. Herzog declares that this aporia 
must be presupposed in any ongoing 
theological discussion. 

Opposing current tendencies to cen- 
ter on one or the other of the two 
foci, Herzog urges that discussion 
should take the form of a historico- 
ontological hermeneutic, and he sees 
preaching or proclamation as an at- 
tempt to recapture the needed meth- 
od. Briefly he develops the basic con- 
tent of proclamation in terms of the 
"Wordpresence" of God which finds 
expression in costly love, and this 
leads logically (but not automati- 
cally) to a development of a Chris- 
tian ethic. Finally in tentative lan- 
guage Herzog concludes a chapter on 
the present-day task of Systematic 
Theology with the suggestion: "Per- 
haps we are seeking for a new ar- 
ticulation of the Name we have 
known all along." (p. 140) 

Although the discussion returns to 
the familiar language of "a strangely 
trinitarian 'beat'," Herzog clearly 
feels that it is necessary to explore 
thoroughly the aporia of the present 
situation before making easy pro- 
nouncements of good news in the 
midst of today's language difficulties. 
The fundamental lesson should be ob- 
vious — that the interpretation of a 
divine Wordpresence can only be suc- 
cessful as the interpreter is fully 
aware of the difficulties of the lan- 
guage situation to which he would 
speak — but Herzog's book should 
help to clarify this point. 

James H. Gailey, Jr. 



The New England Conscience, by 
Austin Warren: The University of 
Michigan Press. 231 pp. $6.00. 

The author sets out to explore what 
he calls the "pathology" of the New 



37 



England conscience and he does this 
by a means of a series of "case his- 
tories." "The moral of my book is 
. . . the pathological character of the 
sick conscience which is proud of its 
sickness." 

This is a suggestive study. Never- 
theless it is a question to what extent 
the author really understands the sub- 
ject matter of Puritan theology. The 
Puritans, for example, did not speak 
of venial and mortal sins; they spoke 
of having a conscience void of of- 
fense before God and man. Neither 
did they say that Old Testament types 
found their fulfillment in the anti- 
types (sic!) of the New; on the con- 
trary they said that the ante-types of 
the Old Testament found their ful- 
fillment in the New. What vitiates 
this ambitious study is the author's 
tendency to interpret Puritanism in 
terms of traditional Roman Catholic 
moral theology rather than in terms 
of the Bible. 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



The New Scofield Reference 
Bible: Oxford University Press. 

$7.25. 

This handsome edition, newly re- 
vised, is an impressive publishing 
achievement. (It is not without in- 
terest to learn that "The Scofield 
Reference Bible," in 1904, was the 
first important publication of the 
American Branch of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Press.) Dr. Scofield's original 
interpretive system is retained: the 
text is basically that of the King 
James version (with the omission of 
certain archaisms); the chronology, 
however, has been revised. 

Dr. C. I. Scofield was ordained in 
the Congregational ministry, but after 
twenty years' ministry, he transferred 
to the Presbyterian Church, United 
States. He attended neither University 
nor Seminary. 

There is no denying that the Sco- 
field Reference Bible has moulded 



the thought of countless numbers of 
evangelical Christians. If interest and 
demand are any criteria, the Scofield 
Bible has met a need. 

It is impossible not to admire the 
dedication of the Committee in rela- 
tion to the onerous task of revision. 
One may regret, however, the con- 
tinued stress upon dispensationalism. 
It was a wise instinct which led the 
Puritans at the Hampton Court Con- 
ference in 1604 to request King James 
I to issue one uniform translation of 
the Scriptures, without notes. 

Stuart Barton Babbage 



Between Faith and Thought: Re- 
flections and Suggestions, by 
Richard Kroner: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. 203 pp. $4.95. 

Dr. Kroner writes that he does not 
intend to present a system of thought, 
but rather "a series of essays more 
or less loosely connected with one 
another, though shedding light on the 
same focus." These essays include ex- 
cellent analyses of the thought of such 
philosophers as Hegel, Heidegger, 
Kant, and Tillich, and excellent dis- 
cussions of such topics as the relation- 
ship between speculation and revela- 
tion, good and evil, and the ineffec- 
tiveness of form-criticism to shed 
light on the actual happenings in the 
first century. 

The theological value of this work, 
however, is negated by Kroner's in- 
terpretation of Christianity. He states 
that revelation requires no theological 
knowledge; but is revelation not the- 
ological knowledge in itself? He states 
that God cannot be conceptualized 
without being falsified; is Christ not 
the means by which we conceptualize 
God? But Kroner would not allow us 
to think that Christ is the Son of God, 
for he believes that such terms as Son 
of God, incarnation and virgin birth 
are simply metaphorical titles. Not 
surprisingly, Kroner holds an adop- 



38 



tionist Christology and believes that 
the image of God in man is that part 
of man which is divine. Every man 
has a bit of the divine in his soul and 
can find God by concentrating on 
this aspect of his existence. 

Kroner tells us that faith has the 
primacy over thought because it con- 
cerns the spiritual totality of the self 
whereas thought separated from faith 
can satisfy only the intellect. But the 
faith of which Kroner speaks is not 
the faith of Scripture. He does not 
define but rather describes faith in a 
way which appears to regard faith as 
a means to knowledge of the absolute 
through perception of the spiritual. 
And, he states, ". . .we live by faith 
to the degree to which we live by 
hope and we cannot help living by 
hope, since we do not know what will 
happen tomorrow or after tomorrow." 
On the other hand, Christianity does 
not set up faith in contrast to thought; 
faith can lead to knowledge of God 
(the absolute in Kroner's terminol- 
ogy) by committal to Christ, not by 
contemplation of the divine in our 
souls. Christianity does not ask any- 
one to believe that which his intellect 
tells him to reject. The hope inherent 
in the faith by which Christians live 
is not a hope based upon uncertainty 
and chance, but a hope based upon 
certainties sealed by our Lord's death 
and resurrection. 

R. E. Sanner 



The Worship of the Reformed 
Church, by John M. Barkley: 
John Knox Press. 132 pp. Paper, 
$2.45 

The Font and the Table, by 
Elmer J. F. Arndt: John Knox 
Press. 88 pp. Paper, $1.95. 

The Joy of Freedom, by Paul 
Verghese: John Knox Press. 91 
pp. Paper, $1.95. 



The Worldliness of Worship, by 
James F. White: Oxford Univer- 
sity Press. 181 pp. $5.00. 

The first three of these works are 
numbers fifteen, sixteen and seven- 
teen of the Ecumenical Studies in 
Worship. They are profitable for pas- 
tors. Barkley's volume exposes and 
critically analyzes the theology of the 
Scottish, English- Welsh, and Irish Re- 
formed liturgies. His method of study 
is alone worthy of the attention of 
any Presbyterian seriously consider- 
ing the Book of Common Worship: 
Provisional Services. 

Arndt's study calls for reappraisal 
of sacramental teaching and practice 
in the light of the gospel. From the 
stance of Biblical Theology he seeks 
Scriptural norms and New Testament 
interpretation of baptism, the Lord's 
Supper, and the presence of Christ. 
Seminal, not summary, his mono- 
graph should stimulate a generation 
of new studies. 

We are introduced to the worship 
of the Eastern Church by Paul Verg- 
hese. His book is designed for the 
general reader rather than the scholar. 
The Eastern concept of history as a 
form of memory that is more than 
mental, as a reliving of a past ex- 
perience in joy, is a concept that can 
help us in the West restore meaning- 
ful praise in our worship. 

Laymen will be particularly inter- 
ested in the book by James White, 
Associate Professor of Worship, Perk- 
ins School of Theology, Southern 
Methodist University. He interprets 
carefully, clearly, and interestingly 
the present-day problems in worship 
that lead frequently to new prac- 
tices in churches and to reactions 
from startled and confused Chris- 
tians. Adult study groups will find 
him informative, incisive and pro- 
vocative. 

Hubert V. Taylor 



39 



Forerunners of the Reformation: 
The Shape of Late Medieval 
Thought Illustrated by Key Docu- 
ments, by Heiko Augustinus 
Oberman: Holt, Rinehart and 
Winston. 333 pp. $7.95. 

"The purpose of this book," says 
the author who was Winn Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History at Harvard 
University, "is to transfer the dis- 
cussion of late medieval Christian 
thought from the private studies of 
the specialists to the carrels and sem- 
inars of college and university stu- 
dents." 

Mr. Oberman suggests the religious 
crosscurrents of the period between 
the High Middle Ages and the Ref- 
ormation, offering to the reader such 
key themes as conciliarism, curialism, 
mysticism, various types of scholasti- 
cism, the spirituality of the Devotio 
Moderna, and the impact of Renais- 
sance humanism. Much of the mate- 
rial presented here can be of service 
to those seeking Christian unity. 

The author thinks that a separation 
of medieval and reformation periods 
is unhistorical. Without a grasp of 
the 14th and 15th centuries, Profes- 
sor Oberman argues, the medieval 
history of Christian thought is left 
incomplete, and both the Reforma- 
tion and Counter-Reformation seem 
to emerge without preparation. 

The source material in this book, 
translated by church historian Paul 
Nyhus, includes selections from the 
works of Jan Hus, Pius II, John 
Brevicoxa, Gabriel Biel, Johann von 
Staupitz, Cardinal Cajetan, Cornelisz 
Hoen, Jacobus Faber Stapulensis, and 
Desiderius Erasmus. 

Paul T. Fuhrmann 



various universities. He travelled ex- 
tensively in India and lectured there 
in 1964. 

If religion is largely founded on 
faith, and faith on revelation, which 
of all the revelations are we to be- 
lieve? Why make the Christian leap 
of faith, rather than the Muslim or 
Buddhist one? Very different an- 
swers to such questions would be 
given in different parts of the world. 
And in imaginative form, this con- 
versation between a Christian, a Jew, 
a Muslim, and two Buddhists (from 
Ceylon and Japan) shows how the 
most influential creeds differ and 
agree. The protagonists exchange their 
fundamental beliefs about God and 
the Trinity, salvation, incarnation, 
good and evil. Paradoxically the au- 
thor concludes that he will remain a 
Hindu Christian! 

Paul T. Fuhrmann 



World Religions: A Dialogue, by 
Ninian Smart: Penguin Books, 
154 pp. $1.25. 

Ninian Smart was born in 1927 at 
Cambridge. He studied and taught in 



Myth and Symbol, Edited by F. 
W. Dillistone: S.P.C.K. 112 pp. 
16s.6d. 

The central contention of this col- 
lection of essays is: "Only through 
symbols can the realm of mystery be 
livingly attested." Under the editor- 
ship of F. W. Dillistone such for- 
midable men as Paul Tillich, Mircea 
Eliade, David Cox, Antony Bridge, 
Ian T. Ramsey and Michael Stancliffe 
have blended their differing perspec- 
tives toward this central contention 
with admirable clarity. 

The value of this collection is not 
only in helping one get straight the 
meaning of the mythic or symbolic, 
but also in assaying practical impli- 
cations for effective communication. 
A Symbol, notes Michael Stancliffe 
in his contribution on "Symbolism 
and Preaching," "... speaks in a 
universal language, it opens the eyes 
of both the preacher and his hearers 
and it goes on working on their minds 
long after the spoken words have died 
away and been forgotten." 



40 



The challenge of Myth and Symbol 
is the realization that man — devoid 
of symbols is dehumanized. "What is 
needed," according to Antony Bridge, 
"is radical honesty in preaching and 
teaching, faith in the intelligence and 
sensitivity of mankind and the ap- 
parently inexpedient courage to af- 
firm that any true evangelism must 
be rooted in the works of the Evan- 
gelists who often interpret the reality 
of history in terms of myth and sym- 
bol because the fullness of that real- 
ity cannot be described merely in 
terms of local episode and material 
event." 

Dillistone concludes the book by 
noting that some symbols need to be 
"rediscovered and retranslated into 
modern forms if they are to be ef- 
fective as symbols in contemporary 
life: some may be obsolete and im- 
possible to revivify . . . But in the 
Christian world view, one symbol oc- 
cupies the place of primacy and su- 
premacy." This, of course, is the 
Christ. 

The material presented in these es- 
says will not be appreciated by all, 
but it is material that should be 
wrestled with by any who desire to 
understand more fully, and communi- 
cate more clearly, the mysteries of 
God. 

Alvin S. Jepson 



Melanchton: The Quiet Reform- 
er, by Clyde Leonard Mans- 
chreck: Abingdon Press. 350 pp. 
$6.00. 

Dr. Manschreck, associate profes- 
sor of Religion at Duke University, 
North Carolina, is in the forefront 
of authorities on the life and work 
of the great German Reformer Philip 
Melanchthon. In this book he pro- 
vides us with a first-rate biographical 
study of Luther's colleague, based on 
serious research, sympathetically pre- 
sented, and admirably written. Me- 



lanchthon's gentle and serene nature 
served as a perfect counterpart to 
Luther's more explosive genius. Dif- 
ferences of temperament and even 
differences of theological understand- 
ing, such as that over the doctrine 
of the Lord's Supper, were never al- 
lowed to interrupt the constancy of 
their friendship. "This man, sinful 
and feeble though he be," Luther 
wrote to Jonas in 1527, "is exalted 
above many, yea, thousands like Jer- 
ome, Hilary, and Macarius, who are 
altogether unworthy to unloose the 
shoe laces of my Philip." And in the 
sermon he preached at the funeral 
of his fellow-Reformer, Melanchthon 
said: "Luther brought to light the 
true and necessary doctrine. . . . 
Many of us witnessed the struggles 
through which he passed in estab- 
lishing the principle that by faith are 
we received and heard of God. Hence 
throughout eternity pious souls will 
magnify the benefits which God has 
bestowed on the Church through 
Luther." 

In the pages of this excellent vol- 
ume Melanchthon is ably portrayed 
as the brilliant scholar and systematic 
theologian of the German Reforma- 
tion, the Wittenberg professor and 
pioneer of liberal education (of which 
for him the Biblical revelation was 
always the basis), the unremitting 
mediator and ecumenical figure whose 
labours were all too often unreward- 
ing, and the devoted friend and fam- 
ily man. His appreciation of the 
many-sidedness of truth and the limi- 
tations of the human intellect, and 
his willingness to make concessions in 
the interests of peace where matters 
which he considered of secondary im- 
portance were of concern caused him 
to be misunderstood by some and to 
be unjustly accused of compromise. 
Melanchthon, like other mortals, 
made his mistakes and his judgment 
was no more infallible than that of 
other men; but his grasp of the 



41 



Gospel was clear and firm and his 
theological thought was precise and 
penetrating. Always, however, the 
glorious thing about those whom 
God has used greatly for the blessing 
of the Church is not their own abil- 
ity or their own achievement, but the 
magnification of the grace and the 
power of God through their frailty. 
This book will do much to dispel the 
fog of suspicion which, in the minds 
of some, still hangs over the name of 
Philip Melanchthon. 

Philip E. Hughes 



The Future of Belief: Theism in 
a World Come of Age, by Leslie 
Dewart: Herder and Herder. 223 
pp. $4.95. 

According to our author, the tradi- 
tional Christian idea of God is a 
result of the hellenization of the early 
Christian outlook in an age that was 
still patriarchal. Modern men, how- 
ever, have become of age: they are 
no longer in a condition to under- 
stand and to accept a childish and 
archaic Church theology; hence an 
increasing number of thinkers turn to 
atheism. Dr. Dewart therefore sug- 
gests that our divine doctrine ought 
to be recast in terms that contem- 
porary men can truly understand and 
live. 

I esteem Professor Dewart (who 
teaches in Canada) for his courage 
in bringing forward several problems 
before the Church. I think, however, 
that contemporary atheism has also 
other roots: some people reason as 
follows: A God who was all-power- 
ful but left much misery in the world 
would not be all-benevolent. An all- 
benevolent God in a world contain- 
ing such misery would not be an all- 
powerful God. A world containing a 
God who was both all-powerful and 
all-benevolent would contain no such 
great misery. The God of the Church 
therefore does not exist. Another root 



of atheism is the charge that the 
clergy have always stood for the rich, 
have always kept the poor down and 
have never done a thing for the 
emancipation and uplifting of the 
lower classes, offering them instead 
a future heaven as a compensation 
for their present sufferings and threat- 
ening them with hell if they do not 
behave properly. 

I hope that Dr. Dewart will con- 
tinue his task and work out a warm, 
comprehensive and intelligent theism 
for the days ahead. 

Paul T. Fuhrmann 



God and History in Early Chris- 
tian Thought, by Lloyd G. Pat- 
terson: Seabury. 180 pp. $5.50. 

This is the second volume of studies 
in patristic thought under the general 
editorship of Dr. R. A. Norris, Jr. 
Professor Patterson begins with the 
contrast between the Greek thought 
of history as an inquiry into the rec- 
ord of human happenings and the 
Christian claim of a final interven- 
tion in human affairs by the God 
who had acted in Israel's past. The 
Lord's resurrection from death, his 
vindication by God after his rejection 
by men became for his disciples the 
central witness to the truth of his 
message. The Christian fathers from 
Justin Martyr through Gregory the 
Great give their several interpreta- 
tions of how God's judgments earth- 
ward move. This is an invaluable 
study for those studying the bearing 
of patristic thought upon the mean- 
ing of history. 

Wm. G. Robinson 



Man in Search of God, by James 
J. Cavanaugh: Paulist Press. 109 
pp. $1.25. 

In this brief book Father Cava- 
naugh reminds us that much of the 
certainty which once characterized 



42 



Christian faith has now passed away. 
Therefore, he feels that many of the 
traditional answers which seemed so 
convincing to those of former gen- 
erations will never again satisfy the 
minds of men now alienated from 
faith. Nevertheless he insists that 
multitudes both within and without 
the church are truly in search of God. 
There is here, however, little empha- 
sis upon the greater truth that God 
is in search of man. The author, a 
Roman Catholic, is greatly encour- 
aged by the spirit of Vatican II and 
quotes freely from its actions. He 
rightly urges that the many who are 
now alienated from faith can be won 
to it only when the Christian com- 
munity itself begins to live the love 
it professes to have found in Christ. 
P. D. Miller 



Vietnam: Crisis of Conscience, by 
Robert McAfee Brown, Abraham 
J. Heschel, Michael Novak: As- 
sociation Press. 127 pp. $.95. 

The Vietnam War: Chrisian Per- 
spectives, edited by Michael P. 
Hamilton: Wm. B. Eerdmans. 
140 pp. $3.50. 

At a time when the American pub- 
lic and private conscience is increas- 
ingly troubled by the complex conun- 
drum of U. S. involvement in Viet- 
nam, these two books appear as valu- 
able aids for gaining perspective. 

Vietnam: Crisis of Conscience, is a 
clear, hard hitting, ecumenical voice 
of disapproval of how the U.S. has 
been and is involved in Vietnam. 
Brown and Novak, Protestant and 
Roman Catholic professors respect- 
fully of Stanford University, combine 
with Rabbi Heschel of the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America to 
call upon citizens of the three major 
faiths to seek ways to stop the war in 
Vietnam. What impresses the reader, 



particularly, is the careful and re- 
spected documentation undergirding 
Novak and Brown's contributions. 
With clear facts and clean logic the 
theologians show how miscalculations 
in the past and misjudgment in the 
present add up to U.S. folly in Viet- 
nam. More than a wringing of hands 
over present chaos, this small volume 
offers convincing alternatives to pres- 
ent policy, choices often obscured by 
the popular press. This book is "must" 
reading for anyone stricken in con- 
science by Vietnam. 

The second book, The Vietnam 
War: Christian Perspectives, is a com- 
pilation of nine sermons and two 
addresses, edited by Michael Hamil- 
ton, Canon of Washington Cathedral. 
Although the stated intent of the book 
is to provide informed and represen- 
tative voices from the broad spectrum 
of pulpit-opinion about Vietnam both 
at home and abroad, most of the 
utterances are to the left of official 
U.S. policy. In spite of the uneven 
quality in this, as in most, collections 
of sermons, the volume is worth the 
price for the sake of contributions of 
Paul Ramsey, Martin Luther King, 
and Eugene Carson Blake alone. 

Don Wardlaw 



New Testament Word Lists, by 
Clinton Morrison and David H. 
Barnes: William B. Eerdmans. 
125 pp. $2.95. 

There is no get-rich-quick way of 
learning Greek, and I am very sus- 
picious of many of the books pur- 
porting to be short cuts to an easy 
mastery of New Testament Greek. 
But I can commend this particular 
book most highly. It is a thoroughly 
legitimate and highly useful aid. We 
are recommending it to our students 
in our Greek classes in seminary, and 
I can equally well recommend it to 
all ministers who wish to keep their 



43 



Greek as a working tool for their 
study of the New Testament. 

In an appendix the authors list all 
the words used ten or more times in 
the New Testament. The student must 
get to know them, using a lexicon if 
he does not already have them in his 
mind. But all the other words in the 
New Testament are listed chapter by 
chapter, for quick and easy reference. 
The basic grammatical information is 
given and one or two simple mean- 
ings for each word. This is a tremen- 
dous help for rapid reading. When 



the reader wishes to make a detailed 
study of the more significant words, 
he must go to one of the fuller lexi- 
cons, such as the old Thayer or the 
new Arndt and Gingrich, or Kittel, 
or to the critical commentaries. 

These lists were used in mimeo- 
graph form for some years at Mc- 
Cormick Seminary, but they have now 
been put into printed form and made 
available to a wider public. I would 
say with all emphasis, "Get this book 
and use it." 

Samuel A. Cartledge 



44 



SHORTER REVIEWS 



Religious Strife on the Southern 
Frontier, by Walter Brownlee Posey: 
(Louisiana State University Press). 
112 pp. $4.00. 

This volume contains the Walter 
Lynwood Fleming Lectures delivered 
in 1963 at Louisiana State University 
by Dr. Walter B. Posey, Professor of 
History at Agnes Scott College. The 
author presents a depressing but well 
authenticated record of conflict and 
rivalry between the principal Protes- 
tant Denominations and later between 
Protestants and Roman Catholics in 
the latter part of the 18th and first 
half of the 19th Century. Christians 
were apparently more interested in 
attacking one another than in preach- 
ing Christ. Bitterness rather than love 
was the prevailing spirit. One is con- 
strained to feel that church leaders 
have made real progress in their at- 
titudes toward one another since that 
period. Nevertheless, after reading the 
book, one is constrained to wonder 
how many of our present controver- 
sies will look to historians a hundred 
years hence. 

The Theology of Martin Luther, by 
Paul Althaus: (Fortress Press). 463 
pp. $8.00. 

We would normally be suspicious 
of a single volume of 463 pages, 
claiming to be a "Theology of Mar- 
tin Luther," unless we were certain 
that the author really had mastered 
the voluminous and unsystematic writ- 
ings of the Reformer, and also un- 
derstood his complex development as 
a man. But Paul Althaus is obviously 
one of those who knows his Luther, 
and who has the instinct for selecting 
precisely what is relevant and signifi- 
cant in the field of theology. This 
volume is bound to be helpful to 
those who cannot go constantly to 
the original sources, but who want 
to be able to find out what Luther 



thought. It is carefully arranged. Its 
scope ranges over the whole field of 
dogmatics. It contains a multitude of 
copious citations with exact refer- 
ences, and will serve the scholar as 
well as the ordinary reader. 

No Ivory Tower, by A. C. McGiffert, 
Jr.: (The Chicago Theological Semi- 
nary). 324 pp. $5.00. 

This is a well written and stimu- 
lating history of Chicago Theological 
Seminary from its establishement in 
1958 to 1965. In reading it one finds 
a valuable account of the ways in 
which one seminary has met most of 
the problems common to theological 
institutions and made its particular 
contribution to the life of American 
Protestantism. 

In Remembrance of Me, by David 
Cairns: (Geoffrey Bles, London). 96 
pp. 12s. 6d. 

This devotional treatment of the 
Lord's Suppper contains the substance 
of five addresses delivered in St. Giles 
Cathedral, Edinburgh during Holy 
Week Services. Its substance is well 
suggested by the titles of its Chap- 
ters: The Lord's Supper as Memorial; 
The Presence and the Gift in the 
Lord's Supper; Fellowship in the 
Lord's Supper; Sacrifice and Inter- 
cession in the Lord's Supper; and the 
Lord's Supper as a Sign of Hope. 
Lay readers will find helpful instruc- 
tion here, and ministers will find 
many suggestions for their own com- 
munion sermons. 

Archaeology, Historical Analogy, and 
Early Biblical Tradition, by William 
F. Albright: (Louisiana State Uni- 
versity Press). 69 pp. $2.75. 

In these Lectures the author de- 
votes particular attention to the story 
of Abraham and the role of Samuel. 
What he does, by the judicious use of 
historical analogy, is to rehabilitate 



45 



the essential historicity of the Biblical 
tradition. In the case of Samuel, he 
suggests a convincing reconciliation of 
apparent contradictions. 

The importance of this book is out 
of all proportion to its size. It repre- 
sents a devastating attack on current 
reconstructions of the traditional nar- 
rative. 

The Furious Passage of James Bald- 
win, by Fern Marja Eckman: (M. 
Evans and Co.). 254 pp. $4.50. 

"Baldwin will be remembered," the 
author writes, "as the writer who 
forced upon the consciousness of 
white America the terror and the 
wrath of being Negro in the United 
States." 

Concerning Martin Luther King, 
James Baldwin says: "King really 
loves the people he represents and 
has — therefore — no hidden, in- 
terior need to hate the white people 
who oppose him." Concerning him- 
self, Baldwin confesses: "I'm vehe- 
ment and indignant." 

Interestingly enough, Baldwin enu- 
merates as formative literary influ- 
ences "the King James Bible, the 
rhetoric of the store front church, 
something ironic and violent and per-* 
petually understated in Negro-speech 

— and something of Dicken's love of 
bravura." 

Baldwin splutters with passionate 
and polemical fury. He is, the author 
says, "a hot blue flame licking at the 
nation's collective guilt." 

This luminous biography helps us 
to understand some of the factors — 
psychological as well as sociological 

— that have made him what he is. 

Come Out of the Wilderness: The 
Story of East Harlem Protestant Par- 
ish: by Bruce Kenrick: (Harper and 
Row). 220 pp. $1.60. 

"Social involvement and holiness. 
Set them apart, and religion is de- 
filed. Unite them, and it is pure." 
This factual, unpretentious documen- 



tary report is an account of how the 
East Harlem Protestant Parish has 
sought to achieve these twin objec- 
tives. The result is a challenging testi- 
mony to the efficacious power of 
faith and works. Graphically illus- 
trated with pen and ink drawings. 

A Religion Against Itself, by Robert 
W. Jenson: (John Knox Press). 127 
pp. $1.95. 

The trouble with the term, "reli- 
gionless Christianity," is that it is as 
vague at it is vogue. Robert W. Jen- 
sen, chairman of the philosophy de- 
partment of Luther College in Iowa, 
attempts, in this brief book, to put 
flesh on the term, to help us see 
religionless Christianity come alive in 
theology, worship, ethics, parish struc- 
ture, missionary motivation, and faith. 
The discussion is set on the antithesis 
of the Gospel and "religion." The 
author unfolds the radical nature of 
the Gospel-at-work which challenges, 
threatens, cajoles, and revolutionizes 
the religion-encrusted Church. 

Emerging Shapes of the Church, by 
David S. Schuller: (Concordia Pub- 
lishing House). 84 pp. $2.00. 

How can a parish church oast its 
historic Biblical functions in viable 
forms today? David S. Schuller, As- 
sociate Professor of practical theol- 
ogy at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, 
says flexibility is the only answer. Not 
that the parish church is outdated, but 
that the parish people have so many 
exciting possibilities as a mobile army 
for Christ in secularity and service. 
Pastors and laymen concerned for 
new mobilization will find numerous 
practical suggestions along with a 
penetrating theological and sociologi- 
cal analysis. 

Moral Problems and Christian Per- 
sonalism, by Franz Bockle: (Paulist 
Press). 183 pp. $4.50. 

The winds of change are blowing 
through the Catholic Church centered 



46 



at Rome, and this collection of arti- 
cles contained in Volume 5 of CON- 
CILIUM: THEOLOGY IN THE 
AGE OF RENEWAL indicate some 
of the changes in the area of ethics. 
Distinguished European scholars of 
that communion write on such con- 
temporary problems as morality and 
compromise, pacifism and legitimate 
defense, birth control, natural law, and 
the theology of marriage. Though 
oriented primarily toward Catholic 
thought and life in Europe, the dis- 
cussion frequently parallels the strug- 
gles among ethicists in America and 
among Protestants. The flavor of the 
book may be summarized by the fol- 
lowing quotation: "Morality becomes 
personal and dynamic, and so loses 
its oppressive negative quality . . . 
The sorrowful frowning negative head- 
shake is replaced by a glad and posi- 
tive acceptance, which express our 
growth toward generosity and love." 
(P. 37) 

John Keats: His Life and Writings, by 
Douglas Bush: (The Macmillan Com- 
pany). 244 pp. $4.95. 

Douglas Bush, in a disarming pref- 
ace, describes his work as "a skiff 
sailing in the wake of W. J. Bate's 
richly laden ship, John Keats (1963)." 
It would be a mistake, however, to 
underestimate the nature of Dr. Bush's 
own achievement. What he has given 
us, in this work of rare distinction, is 
a careful critical examination of the 
poet's life and work. Keats was, he 
concludes, a Deist. There's almost 
unbearable pathos in Keats' dying 
words: "I cannot believe in your 
book — the Bible — but I feel the 
horrible want of some faith — some 
hope — something to rest on now — 
there must be such a book . . ." 

The Newman Brothers: An Essay in 
Comparative Intellectual Biography, 
by William Robbins: (Harvard Uni- 
versity Press). 202 pp. $6.00. 

Each of the Newman brothers ex- 
perienced an evangelical conversion, 



and yei each, in his own way, dt 
cisively reacted against his early evan- 
gelicalism. The older brother became 
a representative of "superstitious Rit- 
ualism" (to quote the language of 
a contemporary); the younger, of 
"sceptical Rationalism." 

Of Cardinal Newman, Bishop Thirl- 
wall acutely observed: "I believe him 
to be at bottom far more sceptical 
than his brother Francis; and the ex- 
travagant credulity with which he ac- 
cepts the wildest Popish legends is, as 
it appears to me, only another side 
of his bottomless unbelief." F. D. 
Maurice lamented Frank's "emascu- 
lated Eclecticism," and asked who 
would not prefer the "keen air" of 
Calvinism. 

In this fascinating biographical 
study we have a vivid reminder of 
the perennial dangers that beset an 
effete evangelicalism. 

Eugene O'Neill, by John Gassner: 
(University of Minnesota Press). 48 
pp. 65£. 

This monograph is a notable addi- 
tion to the University of Minnesota 
Pamphlets on American Writers. "In 
all his major work, O'Neill traced the 
course of a modern dramatist in 
search of an aesthetic and spiritual 
center ... He did not, it is true, 
find any comforting assurances in the 
world, but he had the integrity to 
acknowledge his failure and the per- 
sistence to dramatize it with much 
penetration into human nature." O' 
Neill's drama, the author asserts, "de- 
rived from the loss of religious faith 
that was traumatic." 

The Acts, by R. P. C. Hanson: (Ox- 
ford University Press). 262 pp. $5.00. 

This is the third volume which has 
appeared in The New Clarendon Bi- 
ble series of commentaries. The au- 
thor is professor of theology at the 
University of Nottingham. After 56 
pages of introductory material, we 
have the commentary with the text of 



47 



the R.S.V. at the head of each page. 
The author, of course, knows his 
Greek and makes considerable use of 
it in the commentary. He is well 
aware of the current literature in the 
field. He is typical of the highest 
type of British scholarship. He avoids 
the extremes from the right and from 
the left and presents positions which 
should be taken seriously by all con- 
cerned scholars dealing with Acts. 
The use of small type in the notes 
make it possible for him to pack a 
tremendous amount of material into 
a relatively small book. 

Flannery O'Connor: A Critical Essay, 
by Robert Drake: (William B. Eerd- 
mans). 48 pp. $.85. 

This further monograph in the se- 
ries, "Contemporary Writers in Chris- 
tian Perspective," is devoted to an 
examination of the work of one who 
made no secret of her emphatic com- 
mitment to the Christian faith. "I see 
from the standpoint of Christian or- 
thodoxy," Miss O'Connor said. "This 
means that for me the meaning of 
life is centered in our redemption by 
Christ and that what I see in the 
world I see in its relation to that." 
Thus the author of this study can 
say: "Jesus Christ is finally the prin- 
cipal character in all Miss O'Connor's 
fiction, whether offstage or, in the 
words and actions of her characters, 
very much on. And this encounter 
with Him is the one story she keeps 
telling over and over again." 

The value of this monograph is 
that it helps to introduce evangelicals 
to a writer whose achievements are 
insufficiently known. 

Ernest Hemingway: A Critical Essay, 
by Nathan A. Scott, Jr.: (William B. 
Eerdmans). 46 pp. $.85. 

Scott finds at the center of Hem- 
ingway's life "the sense of the con- 
solatory and redemptive glory of the 
earth, the consequent sense of a cer- 
tain pietas as forming one of man's 



principal obligations; then the black- 
ness, the nata, the nothingness, which 
contradicts the glory, and the conse- 
quent necessity both for the artist 
and the human being of steeling one- 
self against chaos through rigorous 
and austere disciplines of mind and 
spirit; and finally, the dream of the 
possibility of transcendence — through 
love . . ." "He was," Scott reiterates, 
"at bottom, a 'spiritual' writer, for 
the drama being enacted just beneath 
the clenched surfaces of his fiction 
is that of the soul's journey in search 
of God." 

Scott tends, perhaps, to over-write; 
nevertheless, in this illuminating mon- 
ograph, he provides a useful correc- 
tive to some popular misconceptions 
concerning the nature of Hemingway's 
achievement. 

Questions of Religious Truth, by Wil- 
fred Cantwell Smith: (Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons). 127 pp. $3.95. 

Dr. Smith's 1963 Taylor Lectures 
at Yale Divinity School concern the 
Qur'an as the word of God, the ques- 
tion "Can Religions be True or 
False?" and the use of the word 
"Christian" as noun or adjective. The 
lecture concerning the death of God 
controversy was also delivered as the 
Charles Strong Memorial Lecture in 
Australia in 1966. He concludes that 
the Qur'an is the word of God be- 
cause it speaks truth to individuals 
in concrete situations and all truth 
comes from God, that religions are 
true or false only as they exist to an 
individual, and that individuals are 
Christian only in so far as they live 
as Christian. 

The religious thought discussed in 
this book can be described as eclectic, 
syncretistic, and subjectivistic. The 
value in this book lies in the fact 
that it is at the points of similarity 
between Christianity and other reli- 
gions that the uniqueness of Chris- 
tianity can best be seen. 



48 



Justin Martyr: His Life and Thought, 
by L. W. Barnard: (Cambridge Uni- 
versity Press). 194 pp. $8.50. 

The Apologists were concerned not 
only to rebut pagan calumnies and 
false accusations; they were also con- 
cerned to defend the essential reason- 
ableness of the Christian faith. Soc- 
rates, in his famous trial before the 
people of Athens, had done more 
than defend himself; he had sought to 
show the rationality of his position. 
The Apologists had a like desire. 
They were eager to demonstrate that 
Christianity is the embodiment of the 
noblest conceptions of Greek philos- 
ophy and the truth par excellence. 

In this painstaking study (marred 
only by some repetitiousness), the 
author discusses, in the first place, 
Justin's philosophical antecedents and 
then analyses, in relation to particular 
themes, the Apologies and The Dia- 
logue with Trypho. His writings re- 
flect, the author demonstrates, the 
eclectic Middle Platonism of his day. 
In relation to his apologetic he did 
not attempt to conflate Platonism and 
Christianity; he regarded Platonism 
as a preparation for the Gospel. It 
was this which made him, as the 
author rightly recognizes, a pioneer 
in the field of the Greek apologetics. 

Saint Thomas More: A Dialogue of 
Comfort Against Tribulation. Edited 
by Leland Miles: (Indiana Univer- 
sity Press). 301 pp. N. P. 

The deserved popularity of the film, 
A Man for All Seasons, has given the 
works of Sir Thomas More an intense 
topicality. A few years ago, G. K. 
Chesterton ventured the opinion that 
"in about a hundred years," More 
"may come to be counted the great- 
est Englishman, or at least the great- 
est historical character in English his- 
tory." It is not without interest that, 
since these words were written, the 
Roman Church has decreed his can- 
onization (1935). 



What we have in More's work is 
a discussion (in dialogue form) of 
the subject of temptation in relation 
to suffering and sudden death. Writ- 
ten in expectation of tortuous death 
(either by beheading or disembowel- 
ment). More sought to stay himself 
upon God. 

It is a boon to have this spiritual 
classic newly reprinted, together with 
an erudite introduction by the editor. 
The editor has done his work well. 

The Child's Story Bible, by Catherine 
E. Vos: (William B. Eerdmans). 436 
pp. $6.50. 

The text of this established classic 
(first published in 1936 under the 
sponsorship of the National Union of 
Christian Schools) has been exten- 
sively revised by the author's daugh- 
ter. The publishers have added to the 
text bold and arresting pictures in 
startling colour. The book is hand- 
somely bound, and the general im- 
pression created is one of cheerful 
contemporaneity. As an introduction 
to the narrative stories of the Bible 
it is excellent: it successfully avoids 
heavy-handed didacticism on the one 
hand and sentimentality on the other. 
The emphasis is theological rather 
than moralistic. 

A good buy. 

Old and New in Interpretation: A 
Study of the Two Testaments, by 
James Barr: (Harper and Row). 215 
pp. $5.50. 

In this profound book, James Barr 
engages first one and then another 
theological Goliath. He explores the 
"multiplex" nature of the Old Testa- 
ment Tradition, examines the ques- 
tion of distinctiveness in a chapter 
entitled, "Athens or Jerusalem?" and 
discusses at length the questions of 
history and revelation, of typology 
and allegory. The discussion is hard 
going, but the author is wrestling 
with some of the major concerns of 
contemporary theological discussion. 



49 



Once again, it is difficult not to 
feel that Barr is frequently right in 
what he denies and wrong in what 
he affirms. 

The Reluctant Pilgrim: Defoe's Em- 
blematic Method and Quest for Form 
in Robinson Crusoe, by J. Paul 
Hunter: (The Johns Hopkins Press). 
227 pp. $6.50. - 

"The first major early English 
writers of prose fiction were steeped 
in Puritan tradition, and the novel 
as an art form owes a great deal to 
Puritan modes of thought." The au- 
thor substantiates this conclusion by 
a close and careful examination of 
Robinson Crusoe. Defoe's classic, he 
demonstrates, "is structured on the 
basis of a familiar Christian pattern 
of disobedience — punishment — re- 
pentance — deliverance ... On the 
first page Crusoe plunges himself, 
through disobedience by reason of 
pride, into the universal predicament 
of fallen man; the remainder of the 
narrative describes that predicament 
in detail and dramatizes Crusoe's at- 
tempt to confront his world — and 
his God." The author, in this grace- 
ful work of sympathetic scholarship, 
shows that Robinson Crusoe can only 
be fully understood in relation to 
the "guide literature" of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The New Theologian, by Ved Mehta: 
(Harper and Row). 217 pp. $5.95. 

This is an impressionistic book by 
a professional journalist. Intrigued by 
the success of Bishop Robinson's best- 
seller, Honest to God, Ved Mehta set 
out to interview those theologians to 
whom Robinson acknowledged him- 
self indebted. The recorded conversa- 
tions are agreeably gossipy. "There 
are a lot of people teaching in the 
religion departments of colleges," 
Kenneth Hamilton confided, "who 
do not believe in God — it's not a 
problem . . . But I am beginning to 



feel that the time has come for me 
to put up or shut up, for me to be 
an in or an out." Van Buren simi- 
larly commented: "About my being a 
clergyman — well, I don't pray. I 
just reflect on these things. I am or- 
dained, but when I am asked to 
preach or perform services, I usually 
say I would rather not. I would ask 
to be defrocked, if that could be done 
in a quiet, unoffensive way, but it 
can't be." 

For those who like reportage of 
this kind, here are vividly etched 
vignettes of the more significant the- 
ologians at present influencing thought 
in America, England and Europe. 

Henry VIII and the Lutherans, by 
Neelak Serawlook Tjernagel: (Con- 
cordia). 326 pp. $6.95. 

This carefully documented work is 
a study in depth of one particular 
aspect of the Reformation: the im- 
pact of Lutheranism on England dur- 
ing the reign of Henry VIII. It began 
with Henry's defense of the seven 
sacraments (for which the Pope con- 
ferred on him the title "Defender of 
the Faith"); Luther promptly wrote 
a work bitterly attacking the King. "It 
is right for me," he said, "to spatter 
his Anglican royal highness with his 
own mud and filth." It is not sur- 
prising that subsequent relationships 
were strained and difficult. Neverthe- 
less, it is an incontrovertible fact that 
the subsequent influence of Lutheran- 
ism on the development of the Eng- 
lish Revolution was considerable. 

This is an historical work of unus- 
ual interest and importance. 

On Iniquity, by Pamela Hansford 
Johnson: (Charles Scribner's Sons). 
142 pp. $3.95. 

This book (subtitled, "Some Per- 
sonal Reflections Arising Out of the 
Moors Murder Trial") is a passion- 
ate cri de coeur. How do we explain 
acts of such atrocious sadism perpe- 
trated against little children? 



50 



The accused, it was revealed, were 
avid readers of pornography. Pamela 
Hansford Johnson points out that we 
do not allow people to purchase poi- 
sons; why, she asks, should we allow 
floods of pornography to pollute our 
bookstores? 

Miss Hansford says that we have 
succeeded in creating a climate of 
opinion which is fundamentally anti- 
pathetic to the Christian faith. "The 
error of the liberal humanists," she 
bluntly accuses, "is that they have 
been unable to offer an alternative 
faith to the one they have renounced, 
except for faith in the beneficial ef- 
fects of total permissiveness in every 
form of culture. This faith is a ro- 
mantic one, even more romantic than 
Rousseau's. Once they ceased to be- 
lieve even in the possibility of sheer 
iniquity and replaced this by a belief 
in Freud, they tore up the very stones 
of self-discipline and moral respon- 
sibility." 

Miss Hansford calls us, with shrill 
urgency, to re-examine some of our 
accepted liberal presuppositions and 
to think again. 

Toward an Undivided Church, by 
Douglas Horton. Witht a Foreword 
by Richard Cardinal Cushing: (As- 
sociation Press and University of 
Notre Dame Press). 96 pp. $2.50. 

This book by the retired dean of 
Harvard Divinity School faces the 
principal issues that separate the 
world's Christians — infallibility, the 
veneration of saints, transubstantia- 
tion, birth control, the papacy, and 
more — and then points the way to 
the possibility of reconciliation. Part 
II of the book contains the messages 
directed to the official Protestant and 
Orthodox guests and observers during 
the four sessions of the Second Vati- 
can Council. These begin with Pope 
John's greetings to the guests and 
observers in 1962, and end with the 
final address of Pope Paul at a 



"prayer service" in 1965. Added are 
Cardinal Bea's messages. Pope Paul's 
request for forgiveness if the Roman 
Catholic Church has been guilty of 
causing any division of Christendom, 
is remarkable. 

The Art of Oscar Wilde, by Epifanio 
San Juan, Jr.: (Princeton University 
Press). 238 pp. $6.50. 

The author, in this work of grace- 
ful scholarship, analyzes the literary 
qualities of Oscar Wilde's work. He 
was, as every schoolboy knows, the 
supreme master of astringent wit, 
irony, and paradox. But his purpose 
was not mere entertainment: he was 
also concerned about the relationship 
of art to life. The fact that he did not 
perfectly realize his intentions was 
due, the author argues, to the disorder 
of his own life. "Right from the start 
of Wilde's career, we perceive con- 
science and passion warring in his 
consciousness. His life proceeded from 
one succes de scandale to another, 
culminating in the trial and chastise- 
ment of the willful aesthetic ego; he 
played with romance and reality, the 
victim and hero of the legend he 
created, embodying the conflicts of 
his life and his works." 

This is a careful and rewarding 
study of sensitivity and insight. 

Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories, 
by C. S. Lewis: (Harcourt, Brace and 
World). 148 pp. $3.95. 

We are given, in this posthumous 
collection of miscellaneous papers, 
Lewis' views on children's stories and 
science fiction. We also have the 
transcribed record of a taped discus- 
sion between C. S. Lewis, Kingsley 
Amis and Brian Aldiss on the subject 
of science fiction. Addressing Lewis, 
Amis said: "Would you agree that 
to write a religious novel that isn't 
concerned with details of ecclesiasti- 
cal practice and the numbing minutiae 
of history and so on, science fiction 



51 



would be the natural outlet?" Lewis 
readily agreed: "If you have a reli- 
gion it must be cosmic; therefore it 
seems to me odd that this genre was 
so late in arriving." 

It is of very great interest to have 
this revealing account of Lewis' own 
thoughts on one aspect of his enter- 
prise together with information about 
the manner of his Working. The latter 
part of the book consists of chapters 
from an unfinished novel. 

Tragic Meanings in Shakespeare, 
by Thomas McFarland: (Random 
House). 179 pp. $1.95 (Paperback). 

The author successfully employs 
the insights of theology and existen- 
tialism to explore the deeper levels 
of meaning in Shakespeares' tragedies. 
The polarities of Hamlet, he suggests, 
are conscience and responsibility, of 
Anthony and Cleopatra, love and the 
world, of Lear, meaning and noth- 
ingness. 

In a well-worked field, the author 
performs the difficult feat of opening 
up new avenues of fruitful explora- 
tion. This is a brilliant pioneer study. 

Biblical Studies Today: A Guide to 
Current Issues and Trends, by Edgar 
Krentz: (Concordia). 80 pp. Paper. 

$1.75. 

The author is professor of New 
Testament at Concordia Theological 
Seminary. After an introductory chap- 
ter, the book deals with The Histori- 
cal Method, Source and Form Criti- 
cism, The New Quest for the Histori-- 
cal Jesus, The Bible in the World of 
Its Day, and Historical and Her- 
meneutical Issues. We have an ex- 
cellent survey of the major problems 
before the world of Biblical scholar- 
ship, but the author makes no attempt 
to evaluate them. It is manifestly im- 
possible in a book of 80 pages to do 
more than hit the high spots, though 
well selected Bibliographies will make 
it possible for the interested reader to 



go as deeply as he might wish into 
any of these areas. The book would 
be largely meaningless to the lay 
reader, but it could be very helpful 
to a minister who would like to bring 
himself up to date in these technical 
areas. 

Mandate for White Christians, by 
Kyle Haselden: (John Knox Press). 
127 pp. $3.00. 

The editor of The Christian Cen- 
tury insists that "from the beginning 
of slavery to our time the relation of 
white Christians to Negroes has been 
one of ambivalence and vacillation." 
Martin Luther King, Jr., in a Fore- 
word, describes the book as "prob- 
ingly analytic and compellingly in- 
spiring." The book (originally given 
as lectures at Union Theological Sem- 
inary, Richmond) is a passionate plea 
for involvement. 

Dostoievsky, by A. Steinberg: (Hilary 
House). 126 pp. $3.00. 

This is a useful study of various 
facets of Dostoievsky's thought, rather 
than a discussion of either his life or 
his work. "There was only one cause 
which inspired Dostoievsky both as 
artist and thinker," the author insists. 
"This was the fate and future of 
Christian civilization." This helps to 
explain why it is that the Soviet gov- 
ernment has felt it so necessary to 
show him up as a 'reactionary,' an 
'anarchist' and above all, as an in- 
veterate 'mystic' 

"The whole world of Dostoievsky," 
the author affirms, "can be described 
as one vast laboratory of experimen- 
tal philosophy." There is, he suggests, 
a striking similarity between the world 
of Dostoievsky and that of Plato, 
whose Dialogues are constantly con- 
cerned with the exploration of meta- 
physical problems, the difference be- 
ing that Dostoievsky's characters are 
living human beings whose lives are 
not only the embodiment but also 



52 



the expression of their respective phil- 
osophical systems. 

Introduction to the Psalms, by Chris- 
toph Barth, translated by R. A. Wil- 
son: (Charles Scribner's Sons). 87 
pp. $2.95. 

This book is exactly what its title 
claims for it. It is not a commentary 
on individual Psalms. It contains a 
wealth of material in a relatively 
brief space. Besides giving necessary 
technical information in clear and 
readable terms, it relates the Psalms 
to the message of the New Testament 
and calls for a renewed interest in 
them as a source not only of liturgy 
but also of teaching and preaching. 

The Apostolic Fathers: A New Trans- 
lation and Commentary, Volume 4: 
Ignatius of Antioch, by Robert M. 
Grant: (Thomas Nelson and Sons). 
142 pp. $5.00. 

Ignatius of Antioch, the author sug- 
gests, has suffered from a bad press. 
He had been accused of everything 
from neuroticism to Gnosticism. Rob- 
ert Grant, in a sympathetic introduc- 
tion, agrees that Ignatius was per- 
haps excessively authoritarian. He 
also, Grant suggests, gave insufficient 
attention to the work of the Holy 
Spirit. "He provides us with an ex- 
ample of an impassioned Christian 
bishop-martyr," he concedes, "but not 
with a model for Christian life in its 
totality." 

The Crisis of Culture Change, by 
Myron B. Bloy, Jr.: (Seabury Press). 
139 pp. Paper. $1.65. 

At Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology Episcopal Chaplain Bloy chose 
involvement with, rather than retreat 
from, leaders of the technological 
revolution. Affirming Jesus Christ as 
Lord of all life — past, present, and 
future — and as the model of what 
it means to be human, Bloy calls for 
sensitivity to the new technological 



culture's character and for intelligent 
participation in the shaping of that 
culture. He seeks recognition of God's 
activity in contemporary struggles and 
movements and scorns idolatry of any 
past or present philosophy, political 
form or cultural value. Traditionalists 
will reject his conclusions, perhaps, 
but all will find his analysis incisive 
and his challenge disturbing. 

Hymns and Human Life, by Erik 
Routley: (William B. Eerdman's). 
346 pp. $3.95. 

This American printing of the sec- 
ond edition of Routley's informative 
and readable volume should circulate 
through church libraries among those 
curious about poets who gave us our 
hymns, periods in which they lived, 
places in which they wrote. Routley's 
delightful style always attracts the eye 
and sometimes seems to bear an Edin- 
burgh accent to the ear. His story 
majors upon the British scene from 
which much of our American hymn- 
ody has come. A copious index makes 
the volume a handy reference com- 
panion to any standard hymnal. 

William Golding, by Samuel Hines: 
(Columbia University Press). 48 pp. 
$.65. 

Golding is concerned (the author 
says), "to show man his image sub 
specie aeternitatis." Speaking of his 
role as a writer, Golding insists: "I 
am very serious, I believe that man 
suffers from an appalling ignorance 
of his own nature." 

Samuel Hines, in this admirable 
monograph, indicates the way Gold- 
ing illumines our human situation. 

The Library of Christian Classics: 
English Reformers, Volume XXVI, 
Edited by T. H. L. Parker: (The 
Westminster Press). 360 pp. $6.50. 

The Library of Christian Classics 
has been enriched by the publication 
of this new volume with selections 



53 



from the works of the English Re- 
formers. Here is Jewel's Apology, se- 
lections from Foxe, Tyndale, Hooper, 
Ridley, and Taverner, and sermons by 
Cranmer and Latimer. It is a gratify- 
ing sign of the times that there is a 
new interest in the actual documents 
that are the essential stuff and sub- 
stance of church history. Here we 
have a representative selection of 
some of the significant products of 
the English Reformation. They amply 
demonstrate that the English Refor- 
mation cannot be dismissed as a mere 
product of Henry VIII's matrimonial 
exigencies. "We may define the Eng- 
lish Reformers," the Editor writes, "as 
these Englishmen who, in the half 
century that began about 1520, con- 
fessed that Jesus Christ is the com- 
plete and only mediator between God 
and men, and who therefore endeav- 
ored so to shape the doctrine and 
practice of the Church that her earth- 
ly existence should correspond to the 
truth of his existence." 

Letters of St. Paulinus of Nola, 
Translated and Annotated by P. G. 
Walsh, Volume I: (The Newman 
Press). 277 pp. $4.75. 

The Newman Press has undertaken 
the formidable task of sponsoring a 
new scholarly edition of Ancient 
Christian Writers. The present vol-- 
ume, translated by P. G. Walsh of 
the University of Edinburgh, is num- 
ber 35 in the series. 

Paulinus established a monastery 
near Naples about 395. His letters 
(he was a prolific correspondent) 
vividly illustrate various aspects of 
monastic life and his concept of Chris- 
tian truth. The translator's notes and 
commentary are all that could be 
desired. 



Karl Barth: How I Changed My 
Mind, Introduction and Epilogue by 
John D. Godsey: (John Knox Press). 
96 pp. $3.00. 

The body of this work consists of 
three articles, contributed to The 
Christian Century over a period of 
three decades, relating to the periods 
1928-38, 1938-48, 1949-58. Godsey 
provides a useful biographical sketch 
and includes some good stories. "Like 
most truly great men, there's a hum- 
bleness and an openness about Barth 
that is disarming and a refusal to 
take himself too seriously that is re- 
freshing." Asked to comment on the 
fact that the thirteenth volume of the 
Dogmatics has not appeared, Barth 
replied by comparing his unfinished 
work to Strasbourg Cathedral, which 
has only one tower although the plan 
called for two, adding: "There is a 
certain merit to an unfinished dog- 
matics; it points to the eschatological 
character of theology!" 

American Drama and its Critics: A 
Collection of Critical Essays, Edited 
by Alan S. Downer: (The University 
of Chicago Press). 258 pp. $2.45. 

Robert Brustein, in an iconoclas- 
tic essay, entitled, "Why American 
Plays Are Not Literature," writes: 
"The typical American playwright is 
encouraged to write, not by the pull 
of literary ideals, but by the stimulus 
of successful Broadway plays, and it 
is unusual when he develops beyond 
a hackneyed imitation of what is cur- 
rent and fashionable." If drama is 
practically monopolized by commer- 
cial playwrights, he accuses, theatre 
criticism has fallen into the hands of 
newspaper reviewers. 

The articles reprinted in this sym- 
posium (with the conspicuous excep- 
tion of those by Arthur Ganz and 
Henry Popkin) justify Brustein's harsh 
and summary verdict. Dramatic criti- 
cism, by and large, tends to be (as 
these articles reveal) shallow and im- 
perceptive. 



54 



Religious Controversies of the Nine- 
teenth Century: Selected Documents, 
Edited by A. O. Cockshut: (Univer- 
sity of Nebraska Press). 265 pp. 
$5.50. 

The Editor chooses, for his open- 
ing selection, in this useful collection 
of documents, a representative passage 
from William Wilberforce's classic 
of evangelical literature, A Practical 
View of the Prevailing Religious Con- 
ceptions of Professed Christians in 
the Higher and Middle Classes in this 
Country Contrasted with Real Chris- 
tianity. ("Few schools of religious 
thought," the Editor notes, "have had 
a worse press; and Wilberforce, per- 
haps the greatest of the school, should 
be read carefully to redress the bal- 
ance.") He concludes with a selection 
from Frederick Temple, The Rela- 
tions Between Religion and Science. 

These selections form an admirable 
introduction to the religious contro- 
versies that troubled and tormented 
nineteenth century England. 

The Council: The Second Vatican 
Council, by Lothar Wolleh: (The 
Viking Press). $35.00. 

It is some measure of the signifi- 
cance of Vatican II that its conclu- 
sion should be celebrated, among 
other things, by the publication of this 
de luxe volume (12Vi x 16Vi inches). 
It consists of a collection of superb 
color photographs on superfine pa- 
per, together with an introduction by 
Cardinal Spellman. It is essentially a 
prestige production. The photographs 
depict Cardinals and Bishops, gorge- 
ously arrayed, participating in prayer 
and debate, in the ornate precincts of 
St. Peter's. 

The Roman Catholic Church knows 
well how to use pageantry and drama 
in the service of religion, and this rec- 
ord reveals how it is done. The accom- 
panying script outlines the achieve- 
ments of the Council, and there are 
several useful appendices with lists of 



participants and observers. A collec- 
tor's piece. 

Religious Thought in the Nineteenth 
Century: Illustrated from Writers of 
the Period, by Bernard M. G. Rear- 
don: (Cambridge University Press). 
406 pp. $11.00 (hardback), $3.95 
(paperback). 

The writer has divided his material 
into two parts: the first, consisting 
of selections from European think- 
ers (Schleiermacher to Solovyon); 
the second, of selections from Ameri- 
can thinkers (Coleridge to William 
James). What the Editor has provided 
is an impressive body of source mate- 
rial, each author being introduced by 
a valuable biographical sketch, the 
collection being prefaced by an ex- 
tended essay relating to the religious 
thought of the whole period. 

This is a highly competent produc- 
tion. The Editor's essay and introduc- 
tory notes are a model of urbane 
learning. 

John Wesley: His Puritan Heritage, 
by Robert C. Monk: (Abingdon). 
286 pp. $5.50. 

Wesley's "helpers" were strictly en- 
joined to spend at least five hours a 
day in study. "Reading Christians," 
he explained, "will be knowing Chris- 
tians." During the years 1749-55, to 
further this objective, Wesley edited, 
in fifty volumes, A Christian Library. 

The author of this painstaking study 
demonstrates that the majority of the 
works chosen by Wesley for inclusion 
in the Library were standard Puritan 
works. Wesley, however, was not 
content to condense his sources: he 
proceeded arbitrarily to correct his 
sources. Thus, he boldly eliminated 
from the Westminster Shorter Cate- 
chism, for example, the questions 
dealing with election and predestina- 
tion, effectual calling, and the decrees. 

If Wesley stood in the main stream 
of English Puritanism (as the author 



55 



argues), we are bound to add that it 
was a stream which had been forcibly 
diverted through the clogging chan- 
nels of Arminianism. 

A System of Biblical Psychology, 
by Frank Delitzsch: (Baker Book 
House). 585 pp. $8.95. 

C. S. Lewis, in his preface to a 
new edition of Athanasius' De Incar- 
natione Verbi Dei lays it down, as a 
sound principle, that after having read 
a new book, one should read an old 
one. Unhappily, we live in an age 
which is brashly impatient of the past. 
We think our fathers fools, so 

wise we grow, 
Our wiser children, no doubt, 
will think us so. 

The reprint of Delitzsch's classic is 
a reminder of the rich wisdom which 
is to be found in the works of the 
past. A converted Jew, Delitzsch was 
a gifted Biblical exegete. In this work 
(a monument of careful erudition) 
Delitzsch seeks to provide "a scien- 
tific representation of the doctrine of 
Scripture on the physical constitution 
of man as it was created, and the 
ways in which this constitution has 
been affected by sin and redemption." 

The Dynamism of Biblical Tradition, 
Edited by Pierre Benoit, Roland E. 
Murphy, and Bastiaan van Iersel: 
(Paulist Press). 213 pp. $4.50. 

The purpose of the essays in this 
volume (No. 20 in the Concilium 
series by Roman Catholic scholars 
from many different countries) is to 
show that Biblical tradition is vital 
and dynamic, not something static 
and impassive. The streams which 
flow together to form Biblical tradi- 
tion belong to the sphere of history, 
which is the scene of the action of 
God Himself among and for men, and 
have developed in diverse and ever- 
changing situations. Not only arising 
in dynamic historical and cultural 
situations, but also passing down 



through new historical and cultural 
situations, and having to be applied 
to our own dynamic historical and 
cultural situation, Biblical tradition is 
truly dynamic. "It is clear," the edi- 
tors say, "that it is not only what the 
Scriptures say that is important for 
our faith, but also the way in which 
they were written. This insight will 
affect our formulation of the faith, 
our preaching, our proclamation and 
our theology." 

James Bond's World of Values, by 
Lycurgus M. Starkey, Jr.: (Abingdon 
Press). 96 pp. $1.45. 

The novels of James Bond have 
been translated into ten languages and 
have sold in the neighborhood of 
eighteen million copies. Even the late 
President Kennedy confessed to being 
a James Bond fan. "Some ethical ap- 
praisal from a Christian point of view 
is needed," the author writes, "to sort 
out the value system so strongly sus- 
tained throughout the Bond cycle/' 
It is not difficult for the author to 
show that these thrillers rely heavily 
on a compound of sex and sadism. 

Engaged and Disengaged, by Douglas 
Bush: (Harvard University Press). 
251 pp. $4.75. 

"Although the freedom of utterance 
that came with or brought about the 
decay of censorship was hailed as 
the arrival of American adulthood,*" 
Douglas Bush mordantly observes, "a 
frequent result has been a regression 
to adolescence." "Nowadays," he con- 
tinues, "affairs are as automatic in a 
novel as corpses in a detective story; 
the only question is how many are 
required." 

The author's colleagues at Harvard 
were responsible for the collection 
and publication of these essays. "In 
their wit and wisdom and felicity, 
these essays," they testify, "do cele- 
brate a good man and an illustrious 
career." We heartily concur. 



56 



The Triumph of Suffering Love, by 
Kenneth Cauthen: (Judson Press). 78 
pp. $1.95. 

The author is professor of theology 
at Crozer Theological Seminary. The 
little book is a collection of brief 
sermons on the general theme of the 
redemptive love of God, exhibited 
supremely in the death and resurrec- 
tion of Jesus Christ. The author rec- 
ognizes realistically the facts of the 
universe, with its immensities and its 
tragedies, but goes on to show how 
God's redeeming love gives meaning 
to it all. The book is well written and 
suggestive in its insights. 

Steinbeck and His Critics: A Record 
of Twenty-five Years, by E. W. Ted- 
lock, Jr. and C. V. Wicker: (The 
University of New Mexico Press). 
310 pp. $6.00. 

This is the third reprinting of a 
book first published in 1957. What 
the editors give us, in this useful 
anthology, is a collection of major 
critical studies on Steinbeck during 
the past twenty-five years. "The com- 
edy of critical disagreement is not 
peculiar to any one author," they 
sagely observe, "and it has the ad- 
vantage of permitting the reader to 
make up his own mind." Since the 
publication of this book Steinbeck 
has been awarded the Nobel Prize 
for Literature, but his literary achieve- 
ment is still a matter of heated de- 
bate. This collection of essays will 
materially assist the task of critical 
evaluation. Biographical information 
about Steinbeck is hard to come by, 
but it is of interest to learn that he 
has always had a steady interest in 
the Bible and Apocryphra, the litera- 
ture of ancient India, Goethe, Dante, 
the church fathers, and the Greeks. 
Several contributions discuss Stein- 
beck's suggestive use of Christian 
symbolism. 



Five Years, by Paul Goodman: (Brus- 
sel and Brussel). 257 pp. $5.00. 

The author of Growing Up Absurd 
(that profoundly disturbing analysis 
of our contemporary society) offers 
us, in this book, an autobiographical 
fragment. The material is loosely or- 
ganized under various headings: "Peo- 
ple, Places, Things"; "Psychology"; 
"Myself"; "God." The author does 
not extenuate his abberrant behaviour. 
"In God's creation," he writes, "I'm 
a kind of juvenile delinquent, a little 
Manfred . . . When long ago I threw 
in my lot with Cain and Ishmael be- 
cause they were able to get to talk 
to God, I little realized that I was 
dooming myself to become a pillar 
of humane society." A sad, depressing 
book. 

Melanchthon, by Robert Stupperich: 
Translated by Robert H. Fischer 
(Lutterworth Press). 175 pp. 25s. 

The professor of church history at 
the University of Munster provides a 
sympathetic introduction to that Re- 
former traditionally designated "enig- 
matic." "His humanistic attitude," his 
biographer charges, "misled him into 
pursuing the illusion that there was 
a middle road upon which all 'well- 
intentioned and learned men' could 
meet." And yet Melanchthon rendered 
doughty service to the cause of the 
Reformation. Although only a lay- 
man, he was the chief author of the 
Augsburg Confession, and Luther's 
articulate spokesman at innumerable 
conferences. He was also, among 
other things, the chief architect of 
Germany's school system. Preeminent- 
ly the scholar, he disliked contention 
and strove for peace. 

This modest biography sets Me- 
lanchthon firmly in the context of his 
times. In an informative postscript 
the author describes the present stat- 
us of Melanchthon studies. (It was 
Ritschl's categorical judgment that 
Melanchthon was the corrupter of 



57 



Luther's theology that set Melanch- 
thon studies back for many a decade). 
The appended selected Bibliography 
(listing works in English) is all that 
could be desired. 

John Milton: Poet and Humanist, by 
James Holly Hanford: (The Press of 
Western Reserve University). 286 pp. 
$6.00. 

Every student of Milton knows 
Hanford's indispensable introduction, 
A Milton Handbook. It has been re- 
printed again and again. Now, in this 
handsome volume, we have a com- 
pendious collection of Hanford's ma- 
jor articles from the years 1910 to 
1925. They still read well. They are 
works of polished scholarship, and 
indicate well the author's astonishing 
versatility. 

After the Restoration Puritanism 
became divorced from poetry and 
art, and narrowed and hardened into 
the sermon, the tract, and the didac- 
tic allegory. Milton, Hanford argues, 
belonged to an earlier period: a pe- 
riod when Renaissance humanism 
was happily married to Reformed 
theology. 

These are luminous studies by one 
who believed that in Milton we have 
"a powerful voice of guidance amid 
the chaos of the present day." 

Symbolism in Religion and Literature, 
Edited by Rollo May: (George Bra- 
ziller). 250 pp. $5.00. 

Several of the essays in this dis- 
tinguished symposium were originally 
published in Daedalus (the Journal 
of the American Academy of Arts 
and Sciences). They were republished 
in 1960, together with some additional 
material: in particular, a notable es- 
say by Nathan A. Scott, Jr., on "The 
Broken Center: A Definition of the 
Crisis of Values in Modern Litera- 
ture." The impact of the Enlighten- 
ment (in the realm of literature as of 
faith) was, Nathan Scott suggests, 



iconoclastic. Keats was conscious of 
"the touch of cold philosophy" 
Wordsworth, of "the weight of all 
this unintelligible world." 

Rollo May, in a masterly introduc- 
tion, argues that symbols are not 
archaic and regressive, rightly under- 
stood, they are progressive and inte- 
grative. 

Vital Words of the Bible, by J. M. 
Furness: (William B. Eerdman's). 
128 pp. Paper. $2.25. 

The author describes his book as 
"an elementary and introductory study 
of some of the great words of the 
Bible, and an attempt to draw out 
the important religious truths which 
they contain." He deals well, though 
briefly, with fifty significant words. 
Hebrew and Greek words are trans- 
literated, so the book can be used by 
an intelligent layman. There is sound 
British scholarship back of the book. 
If a minister does not have access to 
the larger works in the field, espe- 
cially Kittel, he might find this little 
book of real profit. 

Saved — From What? by E. Ashby 
Johnson: (John Knox Press). 79 pp. 
Paper. $1.00. 

The author is professor of philoso- 
phy and religion at Florida Presbyte- 
rian College. His little book is di- 
rected at the popular audience, though 
the professional theologian will find 
it interesting and suggestive. Dr. John- 
son seeks to dispel various ideas as 
to what salvation is supposed to save 
from, and to present a worthy, posi- 
tive idea — "God is for me rather 
than against me or indifferent to me." 
He plays down eschatology and spe- 
cial revelation and magnifies the pres- 
ent life and concepts derived from 
general revelation. He has some ex- 
cellent words concerning the use of 
figurative language in dealing with 
spiritual concepts. All in all, it is a 
very fine little book. 



58 



The Greatest of These Is Love, by 
A. A. van Ruler: (William B. Eerd- 
man's). Ill pp. Paper. $1.45. 

The author is professor of theology 
in the University of Utrecht, The 
Netherlands. The little book is a 
series of devotional and exegetical es- 
says on the 1 thirteenth chapter of First 
Corinthians. There is sound exegetical 
work and theological perspective com- 
bined with an excellent ability to 
make ancient truths relevant to mod- 
ern situations. The book could be 
used as a devotional guide or as a 
primer of the pump for one or a 
whole series of sermons on this most 
important chapter. 

Creeds in the Bible, by Fred Danker: 
(Concordia). 64 pp. Paper. $1.50. 

Professor Danker of Concordia 
Theological Seminary has written a 
very fine, brief book on some of the 
most important creeds found in the 
Bible itself: Gor is One, Jesus is the 
Christ, Jesus is the Son of God, Jesus 
is the Lord, Jesus Died and Rose, and 
Jesus is Savior. 

The Shared Time Strategy, by Anna 
Fay Friedlander: (Concordia). 87 pp. 
$3.25. 

Shared time allows students from 
nonpublic schools to take some 
courses (usually science, languages 
and vocational training) at public 
schools during the school day. This 
book is a helpful summary of laws, 
practices and feelings about shared 
time plans. 

Church, State, and the American In- 
dians, by R. Pierce Beaver: (Con- 
cordia). 230 pp. $6.75. 

This volume will prove interesting 
reading for those who insist that 
there is a wall of separation between 
Church and State in America. It 
shows that for two and a half cen- 
turies there has been a partnership in 
missions to the Indians between Prot- 



estant Churches and the Government, 
that is, from approximately 1640 to 
1890. It is also interesting to note 
that the Baptist denomination, which 
has proclaimed most vigorously the 
separation of Church from State, is 
just the one whose fine missionary to 
the Indians, Dr. Isaac McCoy, called 
the loudest for funds from the Fed- 
eral Government to support his de- 
nomination's educational and mis- 
sionary work for the Indians. The 
sordid story of our removal of the 
Indians from North Georgia is pre- 
sented in considerable detail. The 
A.B.C.F.M. took a courageous stand 
for the Cherokees, and the Supreme 
Court concurred; but President An- 
drew Jackson refused to enforce its 
decree. 

New Horizons in Biblical Research, 
by William F. Albright: (Oxford 
University Press). 51 pp. $1.70. 

In these brilliant lectures (The 
Whidden Lectures for 1961), which 
have only now been made available 
(owing to the illness of the author) 
we have an illuminating evaluation of 
the significance of recent archeologi- 
cal discoveries. Dr. Albright possesses 
a devastating ability to demolish ac- 
cepted assumptions. He supports, for 
example, the Pauline authorship of 
the Pastorals, a date in the late 70's 
or early 80's for the Gospel of John, 
and he argues that Luke was a Jew. 
The title of the book is aptly de- 
scriptive. 

American Playwrights on Drama, ed- 
ited by Hurst Frenz: (Hill and 
Wang). 174 pp. $1.65. 

"If," writes Elmer Rice, "the drama 
is at a lower spiritual and intellectual 
level than we would wish it to be it 
is because we live in a time of anti- 
intellectualism and spiritual negation." 
The merit of this revealing symposium 
is that it enables us to listen to what 
playwrights themselves are saying 



59 



about the nature' of their work. The 
editor, in a masterly introduction, 
makes this observation: "The interest 
in psychology is perhaps the most 
important phenomenon of contempo- 
rary American drama, and it reflects 
the intellectual confusion of the last 
decades." 

George Abbot Archbishop of Canter- 
bury 1562-1633: A Bibliography, by 
Richard A. Christophers: (The Unn 
versity Press of Virginia). 211 pp. 
$6.00. 

This Bibliography is limited to 
printed books and other writings by 
and about George Abbot. It therefore' 
supplements Dr. Paul Welsby's recent 
biography. The Bibliographical infor- 
mation is impressively meticulous. Ab- 
bot was probably the last Oalvinist to 
occupy the See of Canterbury. 

/ Stand By the Door: The Life of 
Sam Shoemaker, by Helen Smith 
Shoemaker: (Harper and Row). 220 
pp. $4.95. 

This is a highly personal biography. 
Sam Shoemaker loved to quote Emil 
Brunner's great saying: "The church 
exists by mission as fire exists by 
burning." He' was, his wife testifies, 
a zealous personal worker and a 
fervent evangelist. This book indicates 
the varied ramifications of his minis- 
try through the Oxford Group, Alco- 
holics Anonymous, Faith at Work, 
and the Pittsburgh Experiment. 

Evangelicalism in America, by Bruce 
L. Shelley: (William B. Eerdman's). 
134 pp. $3.50. 

An illuminating and informative 
discussion of the history of evangeli- 
calism in America, with particular 
reference to the work and witness of 
"The National Association of Evan- 
gelicals." "If the theology of the 
fundamentalists was oversimplified," 
the author suggests, "that of the lib- 
erals was overse'cularized. If the lib- 



erals had a point in insisting that 
Christianity's survival depended upon 
its speaking to modern men, funda- 
mentalists were right in demanding 
that it declare the apostolic message." 

The Pattern of Christ, by David H. C. 
Read: (Charles Scribner's Sons). 94 
pp. $2.95. 

"The qualities of which Jesus 
speaks," the author acutely observes, 
(in these sermons on the Beatitudes) 
"cannot be isolated from the Gospel 
that he brings. This life is his life, 
and it can only be ours as he brings 
it to us, and lives it in us. We don't 
become like this by admiring a distant 
teacher. We are transformed from 
within by contact with the living 
Lord." 

These sermons represent preaching 
of a high order. They have the su- 
preme (and unusual!) merit of being, 
at one and the same time, contempo- 
rary and Ghristological. 

Reformed Confessions of the 16th 
Century, Edited, with Historical In- 
troductions by Arthur C. Cochrane: 
(Westminster Press). 336 pp. $3.50. 

This book offers in English the 
twelve principal Confessions of Faith 
of the Reformed Churches of the 
16th century beginning with Zwingli's 
Sixty-seven Article's of 1523 to the 
Second Helvetic Confession (1566). 
Here the reader will find the early 
content, form and nature of the teach- 
ings of the Reformed Churches. This 
volume is also a contribution to the 
current ecumenical dialogue between 
all churches. 

Change and Habit: The Challenge of 
Our Time, by Arnold J. Toynbee: 
(Oxford University Press). 240 pp. 
$5.50. 

In this wise and humane and reflec- 
tive work, Toynbee contends that, in 
this Atomic Age, mankind has to 
choose between political unification 
and mass suicide. 



60 



Again and again one is impressed 
by Toynbee's astonishing range of 
mind, his ability to illustrate themes 
by the use of the most disparate ana- 
logies, his gift for synthetic interpre- 
tation. 

Toynbee is hostile to dogma and 
argues (on the basis of humanistic 
presuppositions) that "a plurality and 
variety of religions is desirable." 

Variety of Men, by C. P. Snow: 
(Charles Scribner's Sons). 270 pp. 
$5.95. 

C. P. Snow confesses that he wrote 
this book for sheer enjoyment. "The 
real fun," he explains, "was in the 
variety of human beings." In these 
scintillating sketches he analyses and 
assesses nine different men: three 
scientists (Rutherford, G. H. Hardy 
and Einstein), three politicians (Lloyd 
George, Winston Churchill, and Sta- 
lin), two writers (H. G. Wells and 
Robert Frost) and Dag Hammar- 
skjold, the "classical narcissist." 

"Very few of them," he notes par- 
enthetically, "had any of the consola- 
tions of religion: they believed, with 
the same certainty that they believed 
in Rutherford's atom, that they were 
going, after this life, into annihila- 
tion." 

C. P. Snow knew all these men per- 
sonally, with the exception of Stalin. 
He* says that Einstein "never got used 
to American parties, where people 
drank hard and didn't want to argue 
about ultimates." 

His account of Frost is candid and 
deflating. "He was neither magnani- 
mous nor serene ... He was both 
complex and extravagantly devious . . . 
He was sometimes a bit of a fraud." 

C. P. Snow gives us a vivid insight 
into the human characteristics of these 
famous men — whether in petty weak- 
ness or preeminent achievement. 



Franz Kafka: Parable and Paradox, 
by Heinz Politzer: (Cornell Univer- 
sity Press). 398 pp. $2.95. 

A revised and expanded paperback 
edition of an authoritative study first 
published in 1962. 

Kafka's importance is incontrover- 
tible. His stories, Politzer comments, 
"were hallucinations anticipating, at 
times with astonishing clairvoyance, 
the reality of things to come." "In 
his fantastic visions," he continues, 
"he anticipated the waste land as the 
landscape of modern man." 

This is a work of careful and sen- 
sitive scholarship. Kafka's parables, 
Politzer points out, are "multi-lay- 
ered" as well as "multi-faceted." This 
meticulous^ study explores, with illumi- 
nating insight, the elusive and enig- 
matic quality of Kafka's thought. 

The Word of Reconciliation, by H. H. 
Farmer: (Abingdon). 105 pp. $2.75. 

An odd, old-fashioned book by the 
emeritus professor of divinity at Cam- 
bridge University (England). 

What are we to make, for example, 
of the renewed assertion that "Christ 
fulfills his vocation as the Reconciler, 
as the source of our reconciliation and 
peace, by virtue of the fact that he is 
himself the perfectly reconciled one"? 
Christ, Farmer explains, was the per- 
fectly reconciled one by the achieve- 
ment of "empathetic self-identification 
in agapeistic love." This, of course, is 
simply a resurrection of R. C. Mo- 
berley's unsatisfactory doctrine of vi- 
carious penitence. 

Hopkins: A Collection of Critical Es- 
says, Edited by Geoffrey H. Hartman: 
(Prentice-Hall). 182 pp. $3.95. 

This is a further volume in a nota- 
ble series entitled, "Twentieth Century 
Views." Each volume consists of a 
collection of articles — technical, lit- 
erary, interpretive — on a particular 
author. 

Hopkins is notoriously difficult, but 
he is also exceptionally rewarding. 



61 



"Like Jacob struggling with the angel 
for his rightful name, Hopkins strug- 
gled with language itself for words 
to match his vision." As a Christian 
poet he belongs to a select company 
which stretches from Donne to Eliot. 

Nicolas Berdyaev: Man of the Eighth 
Day, by M. M. Davy: (Geoffrey 
Bles). 149 pp. 21s. 

Berdyaev defies easy categorisation. 
Expelled from the Chair of Philoso- 
phy in the University of Moscow for 
ideological reasons, he spent the rest 
of his life in exile, mainly in Paris, 
writing prolifically. 

Perhaps it would be true to say 
that Berdyaev was a mystic and a 
Gnostic. To quote one of this gnomic 
sayings: "A human being is required 
to perpetuate creation, his work is, as 
it were, the eighth day task; his des- 
tiny is to be lord and master of the 
earth." 

Mile, Davy, a personal friend, has 
attempted, as a work of piety, the task 
of elucidating the complex ideas of 
this tortuous thinker. 

The Story of the Bible, by Sir Frederic 
Kenyon, with a new chapter by F. F. 
Bruce: (William B. Eerdman's). 150 
pp. Paperback, $1.95. 

This popular little* book was first 
published in 1936, and it ran through 
a number of impressions and a second 
edition. It has now been issued in 
paperback with a long chapter by 
Professor Bruce to bring it up to 
1967. Unfortunately, quite a few state- 
ments of the text are made obsolete 
by the material in the chapter by 
Bruce, and the reader will be con- 
fused somewhat. A complete rewriting 
would have been better — but also 
more expensive. The present volume 
is still to be highly commended for 
those who would like to have a popu- 
larly written survey of the' work of 
textual criticism and English transla- 
tion of the Bible. 



The Lord's Prayer and the Lord's 
Passion, Lenton Sermons by Paul G. 
Lessmann: (Concordia). 109 pp. 
$1.75 (paperback). 

A phrase from the Lord's Prayer 
and a passage from the gospel ac- 
counts of the passion week form the 
text for each of nine sermons. The 
idea is good and the sermons have 
their strong points but overfall it is 
just another book of sermons. 

The Illustrated Bible and Church 
Handbook, edited by Stanley J. Stu- 
ber: (Association Press). 532 pp. 
$5.95. 

A compilation of information of 
varying helpfulness about the Bible, 
Church history, hymns and hymn 
writers. The ilustrations add little and 
give a juvenile' appearance. 

Interpreting the Atonement, by Robert 
H. Culpepper: (William B. Eerd- 
man's). 170 pp. Paper. $2.45. 

This careful study has several good 
insights. The atonement is central and 
God acts in it. The author studies 
both the Old and New Testament 
presentations and the exposition 
through the history of doctrine. Un- 
fortunately he permits "the moral 
sensibilities of modern man," to mod- 
ify his interpretations, particularly 
with reference to the meaning of 
blood in sacrifice and penal substitu- 
tion. Against these errors, J. Jere- 
mias rightly shows, in the Eucharistic 
Words of Jesus, that blood refers to 
His sacrifical death; likewise Paul 
equates "justified by His blood" with 
"reconciled by His death," Romans 
5:9-10. Against Culpepper's other er- 
ror, A. M. Hunter, The Work and 
Words of Jesus, holds that the sayings 
of Jesus seem best to agree with the 
theories which de*al in "satisfaction" 
or "substitution" or make use of "the 
sacrificial principle," or that Christ's 
sufferings were what we can only call 
"penal." 



62 



BOOKS RECEIVED 
(Mention here neither implies nor precludes subsequent comment.) 

Berkhof, Hendrikus: Christ the Meaning of History. John Knox Press. 224 
pp. $5.50. 

Brandt, Leslie F.: God Lord, Where Are You? Prayers for the 20th Century 
Based on the Psalms. Concordia. 66 pp. $1.75. 

Braybrooke, Neville: T. S. Eliot: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850. 

Diem, Hermann: Kierkegaard: An Introduction. John Knox Press. 124 pp. 
$3:50. 

Earnshaw, George L.: Serving Each Other in Love. Judson. 125 pp. $1.50. 

Ekola, Giles C: Town and Country America. Concordia. 123 pp. $1.25. 

Esslin, Martin (ed.): Samuel Beckett: A Collection of Critical Essays. Pren- 
tice Hall. 182 pp. $3.95. 

Every, George: Misunderstanding Between East and West. John Knox Press. 
70 pp. $1.75. 

Fitch, William: God and Evil: Studies in the Mystery of Suffering and Pain. 
Eerdmans. 183 pp. $2.65. 

Gaebelein, Frank E.: A Varied Harvest. Wm. B. Eerdmans. 198 pp. $4.95. 

Genet, Jean: The Miracle of the Rose. Translated by Bernard Frechtman. 
Grove Press. 344 pp. $7.50. 

Glock, Charles Y., Ringer, Benjamin B. and Barrie, Earl R.: To Comfort 
and to Challenge: A Dilemma of the Contemporary Church. University 
of California Press. 268 pp. $5.75. 

Heick, Otto W.: A History of Christian Thought. Volume II. Fortress. 517 
pp. $7.75. 

Heijeman, Eugene P.: The Reluctant Worker — Priest. Eerdmans. 106 pp. 
N.P. 

Hollis, Michael: The Significance of South India. John Knox Press. 82 pp. 
$1.95. 

Jellema, Roderick: Peter Devries: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850. 

Jolivet, Regis: Sartre: The Theology of the Absurd. Newman Press. Ill pp. 
$3.50. 

Keen, Sam: Gabriel Marcel. John Knox Press. 51 pp. $1.25. 

Kermode, Frank: The Sense of an Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction. 
Oxford University Press. 187 pp. $5.75. 

Latourette, Kenneth Scott: Beyond the Ranges: An Autobiography. Wm. B. 
Eerdmans. 161 pp. $3.95. 

Lavemder, John Allan: Why Prayers Are Unanswered. Judson. 78 pp. $2.95. 

Leech, Clifford: Shakespeare: The Tragedies. University of Chicago Press. 
256 pp. $2.45. 

MacQuarrie, John (ed.): Dictionary of Christian Ethics. Westminster. 366 
pp. $7.50. 

63 



Mills, Ralph J.: Edith Sitwell: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850. 

Montgomery, John Warwick: Crisis in Lutheran Theology. Baker Book 
House. 133 pp. $1.50. 

Moody, Dale: Baptism: Foundation for Christian Unity. Westminster. 317 

pp. $7.95. 

Moseley, Edwin M.: F. Scott Fitzgerald: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 
850. 

Pelikan, Jarosliv: The Finality of Jesus Christ in an Age of Universal His- 
tory: A Delemma of the Third Century. John Knox Press. 71 pp. $1.75. 

Ramm, Bernard: A Handbook of Contemporary Theology. Wm. B. Eerd- 
mans. 141 pp. $1.95. 

Reiniboth, Oscar H. (ed.): Calls and Vacancies. Concordia. 70 pp. $1.00. 

Rodger, Patrick C. (ed.) : Ecumencial Dialogue in Europe. John Knox Press. 
83 pp. $1.95. 

Schleiermacher, Friedrich: Christmas Eve: Dialogue on the Incarnation. 
Translated, with Introduction and Notes, by Terrence N. Tice. John 
Knox Press. 92 pp. $1.75. 

Schleiermacher, Friedrich: Brief Outline of the Study of Theology. Trans- 
lated, with Introduction and Notes, by Terrence N. Tice. John Knox 
Press. 132 pp. $2.50. 

Schultz, Hans Jurgen: Conversion to the World. Abingdon. 123 pp. $3.50. 

Sklar, Robert: F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Last Laocoon. Oxford University 
Press. 376 pp. $8:50. 

Smith, R. G.: Martin Buber. John Knox Press. 45 pp. $1.25. 

Strand, Kenneth A.: Early Low-German Bibles. Eerdmans. 48 pp. $4.00. 

Tedlock, E. W., Jr.: D. H. Lawrence: Artist and Rebel. University of New 
Mexico. 242 pp. $5.00. 

Turnell, Martin: Graham Greene: A Critical Essay. Eerdmans. 48 pp. 850. 



REPRINTS 

Beckwith, Isbon T.: The Apocalypse of John. Baker Book House. 794 pp. 

$8.95. 

Chad wick, Owen: The Mind of the Oxford Movement. Stanford University 
Press. 239 pp. $2.65. (Paperback). 

Connolly, James L.: John Gerson: Reformer and Mystic. Wm. C. Brown 
Reprint Library. 408 pp. $14.00. 

Davies, W. D.: Paul and Rabbinic Judaism. Revised Edition. Harper Torch- 
books. 392 pp. $2.75. 

Driver, Tom F. : The Sense of History in Greek and Shakespearean Drama. 
Columbia University Press. 231 pp. $2.25. (Paperback). 

Eliade, Miroea: Myths, Dreams, and Mysteries. Harper Torchbooks. 253 pp. 

$1.75. 

64 



Guerard, Albert L.: Art for Art's Sake. Schocken. 349 pp. $1.95. (Paper- 
back). 

Hoffman, Frederick J.: The Mortal No: Death and the Modern Imagination. 
Princeton University Press. 507 pp. $2.95. (Paperback). 

Holloway, Mark: Heavens on Earth: Utopian Communities in America, 
1680-1880. Second Edition. Dover. 246 pp. $1.75. (Paperback). 

Julian of Norwich: Revelations of Divine Love. Translated by Clifton Wol- 
ters. Penguin. 213 pp. $1.45. 

Kelley, Cornelia Pulsifer: The Early Development of Henry James. Revised 
Edition. University of Illinois Press. 318 pp. $1.95. (Paperback). 

Kierkegaard, Soren: Johannes Climacus. Translated by T. H. Croxall. Stan- 
ford University Press. 196 pp. $1.95. (Paperback). 

Locke, John: The Reasonableness of Christianity. Edited by I. T. Ramsey. 
Stanford University Press. 102 pp. $1.45. (Paperback). 

Marsilius of Padua: The Defender of Peace: The Defensor Pads. Translated 
with an Introduction by Alan Gewirth. Harper Torchbooks. 449 pp. 

$3.45. 

Osgood, Charles Grosvenor: The Classical Mythology of Milton's English 
Poems. Wm. C. Brown Reprint Library. Ill pp. $7.00. 

McNeill, William H.: The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Com- 
munity. The University of Chicago Press. 829 pp. $12.50. 

Pelikan, Jaroslav: The Shape of Death: Life, Death, and Immortality in the 
Early Fathers. Abingdon. 128 pp. $1.25. (Paperback). 

St. Francis De Sales Introduction to the Devout Life. Translated and Edited 
by John K. Ryan. Second Edition. Revised. Harper Torchbooks. 258 
pp. $2.45. 

Stringfellow, William: Free in Obedience: The Radical Christian Life. Sea- 
bury. 128 pp. $1.45. (Paperback). 

Swete, Henry Barclay: The Holy Spirit in the Ancient Church. Baker Book 
House. 429 pp. $6.95. 

Thompson, Lawrance: Melville's Quarrel with God. Princeton University 
Press. 474 pp. $2.95. (Paperback). 

Unger, Leonard: T. S. Eliot: Movements and Patterns. University of Min- 
nesota Press. 196 pp. $1.95. (Paperback). 

Valdes, Mario J.: Death in the Literature of Unamuno. University of Illinois 
Press. 173 pp. $1.25. (Paperback).