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Full text of "Columbian memorial songs, historical geography and maps"







^ 8LANCHARO ft CO. 
i7i Randolph Street. 
CHICAGO. ILL. 
1892. 



I 




'ORIG 
GEO-GRARH MAPS. 



CHICAGO. 

BLANC CO 

171 Randolph Si. 




fatj& 













NOTES TO POKTEAIT. 



The portrait of Columbus, given in this work, is engraved from a bust 
executed by Peschiera, a celebrated Genoese sculptor, in 1821. In a mem- 
oir of Columbus by D. Gio. Batista Spotorno of the Royal University of 
Genoa, the following is translated from the Italian and copied to show 
the sources from which the portrait is taken. The reason given why 
Peschiera did not model the bust from some of the many oil paintings of 
Columbus, was because he found no satisfactory proof that any of them 
had been painted from life. Says tho memoir: 

" Signor Peschiera was bound, in executing the bust in marble, to copy 
none of the portraits hitherto published. Nor was it, therefore, meanc 
that he should model an ideal head of the hero, but that, having before 
him a true resemblance, not painted by the lines of the designer, but for- 
cibly expressed in the words of accurate writers, who had lived with 
that wonderful man, he should form a true effigy of Columbus, \yhich 
should serve as a model for all future protraits, whose object should be to 
represent, not ideal features, but the real countenance of the Genoese 
hero." 

We now come to the description left by Ferdinand Columbus, who 
was above sixteen years of age when he lost his father. " He was 
a man of good figure, rather above the middle stature, with a long vis- 
age, and rather high cheek bones; neither fat nor lean; he had an. aqui- 
line nose, and light eyes ; fair, and very fresh coloured. In his youth he had 
light hah*, but after he arrived at the age of thirty it became quite grey." 

In the old collection entitled Paesi nuovamente trovati, reprinted at 
Milan, in 1512, is the following description, taken from a long narrative 
of a companion of Columbus. "Christopher Columbus, a Genoese, a 
man of tall and large stature, ruddy, of great understanding, and long 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



SONGS. 

PAGE 

International Hymn 9 

The Ocean 18 

Columbian A uld Lang Syne 13 

Our Flag 14 

National Hymn 16 

William and Genette 17 

Chicago Soliloquy 18 

Brother Jonathan 2 

Social Life 22 

Chicago Massacre 2 

Lake Michigan 26 

The Centennial Year , 28 

Chicago's Name 29 

Four Hundred Years Ago 30 

Amanda and Le Clair 31 

Childhood 3S 

Morning in Chicago 40 

To the Winds 41 

Chicago's Greeting...... 42 

A Mythological Fable 46 

The Stars and Stripes 57 

Progress 59 

To the Ocean 62 

Invocation Hymn..; 63 

Flying- 65 

The Star of Empire 67 

Empire's Wave 68 

Brother Jonathan's Courtship 70 

Our Country 74 

Evolution 75 

Chicago's Trust 78 

Acrostic 81 

Poetry .' 82 

New York's Inaugural Greeting 84 

Merit 85 

The Name of America 87 

Burial of Columbus...., .. 88 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

PAGE 

Homer -. 94 

Herodotus 97 

Naming of Europe 98 

Naming of Asia 99 

Naming of Africa 99 

Greece 100 

The Phoenicians 100 

Egypt 101 

Alexandria 101 

Hipparchus ." 104 

Ptolemy 106 

Copernicus 1 ( 6 

The Roman Empire 108 

The Normans 109 

Constantinople 109 

Discovery of Iceland 110 

Portugal Ill 

Overland Trade to India Ill 

Columbus' Discovery of the New World 113 

Death of Columbus 113 

John Cabot 114 

The St. Die Pamphlet 116 

Americus 117 

How America was Named 117 

Schoner's Globe 18 

Charles V :. 118 

M creator's Map 1 8 

Spanish Colonies 120 

Hispaniola 120 

Balboa Discovers the Pacific Ocean 121 

Diego Colon 121 

Pedrarias 122 

Juan de La Cosa 121 

English and French Colonization 124 

Decline of Spanish Power 125 

The United States 125 



PREFACE. 



Tin- World's Columbian K.\po>ition is designed to <,-i.-brate ai: 

. importance, any other stnd\ D of man that 

>rds. 

nturie-, tin- theory on which Columbus based his calculations 
understood by philosophical minds, but no one stepped into the 
crucial arena, pent up as it then was. by religious restrictions and regal 
-l it. till four hundred years ago, when the- Imur came and 
tlit- man. Nt-v.-r before had been one so shackled with derision in formu- 
latii- -.alu-d with praise in bringing them to a succ*- 

result. or so victimized with malicious envy, after others began to reap 
tin- harvest of his genius, as Columbus. 

He died in despair, but a recoil came, to do honor to the memory of 
one whose victory over the ignoble purposes of mankind was not less 

6 than over the barriers of nature. 

ither drama nor romance nor poetry can render a just tribute to the 
subject ; but this is no reason why the attempt should not l>e made to do 
honor t<> a cause now en.uimiiiL: the attention of the world, 
('hicapi. the -Teat frontier city, in her youthful fecundity, in t eniiiiu r 
- taken UJHUI herself the responsibility of -doin.u this: and 
it h-;ioov-s her riti/ens to share this obligation. To this end the follow- 
aiv dtf, -red to the public, and the historical ); :i pa living 

them, which the writer hopes will add to their value, and en'iance their 
inti-reM. by noting th- p : historical gi-ography, and the scienee 

of inap-makin. -p.-d its way through the primith- 

with (;re<-iaii philosophy. 

The hi-torv of naming America i> to b- told in this detail. 

KUFL'S BLANCHAKD. 



DEDICATION. 



To you, who wreathed in laurels, green. 
For flowing numbers smooth and keen, 
Who've blessed the world with measured song, 
The right to praise, and fight the wrong. 



To you, whose imagery divine 

Reflect the passions of the nine; 

To you, whose lines so oft inspire 

The spirit crushed to actions higher; 

To you, who make the higher law 

In justice strong without a flaw; 

To you, who sound the passion's depths 

That prudence often intercepts; 

To you, who search the vestal throne 

Sacred to virgin love alone; 

To you, who lift the shadowy veil, 

That covers aught in man that's frail; 

To you, who weigh in even scales, 

Tenacious that the truth prevails. 

These lines I have inscribed to you, 

Whose charity is ever due 

To humbler poets, though their fire 

May fall below your model lyre. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



PAGE, 

Columbus in Sight of rho X'\v World - - Front i^ 

i it of Columbus - :'. 

Irraft's View of Chira-o in 1'J1 - Facing | 

Autograph Letter of Columtms 90 

Anns of Columbus 

An icnt Ideal Map of the World 

Map of the World According t Herodotus 

Map of the Dominions of Alexander l*j 

Map of the Roman Empire 103 

Portrait of Ptolemy lr, 

Ptolemy's Map of the World 107 

Thorfin and Gudrida at Markland Facing p. 1 1<> 

[COB - .--ing p. 1 PJ 

ring on CViliimbus' Burial Ca 114 

Marble Slab in Memory of Columbia at Havana - ]!"> 

p of Ameri 

Peter M Map. i:.!l 

Cosa's Map of the Indies, 1500 .... 12 1 



mar***jU 



INTERNATIONAL HYMN. 

Air : "AMERICA." 
Oh thou who ruFst the spheres 
That roll through endless years, 

To thee we sing; 
To thee let nations bow 
Whose grateful voices now 
Renew the plighted vow, 

To thee our King. 

"While now assembled here 
To celebrate the year 

Centennial; 

When o'er the rolling tide 
Columbus' fleet did ride, 
And joined the western bride, 

Hymenial. 

The new world to the old, 
Sealed with a ring of gold 

In nuptial tie; 
Together thence to live, 
And to each other give 
What science may achieve, 

Or art supply. 
(9) 



10 COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

The world is our field. 
Since science has revealed 

Her radiant light, 
O'er virgin fields to gleam, 
And bring a new regime, 
Where human footsteps teem 

In centuries' flight. 

Roll on, ye centuries old, 
Roll on through time untold, 

In changing years; 
Leaving the fame behind, 
That all the world combined 
In council have designed, 

By rival peers . 

In all the arts of peace 
That on our hands increase, 

And multiply, 
To make our living age 
The minds of men engage 
To garnish history's page, 

Before they die. 

Millions have gone before 
And passed the open poor, 

Of times demise, 
Whoso work was just be^un 
And left from sire to son 
As life with them was done, 
Mce. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIA1 1J 

That knew no narrow aim 
Nor any better claim 

Upon its mind, 
Than truth and love reveal 
To honor public weal 
With charity and zeal, 

The two combined. 

O'er broad creation's heath 
Let the gay laurel wreath 

Be intertwined 
Around the manly breast 
Whose heart shall be possessed 
Of love in man's behest, 

In truth divined. 

Four centuries now have fled 
Since first Columbus led 

His little fleet 
Across Atlantic's tide, 
With mystery allied 
That man had yet defied 

From her retreat. 

Since then the world of thought 
Hath many a conflict fought 

With victory crowned. 
Reason alone must wield 
The sceptre and the shield, 
Since science hath revealed 

The ocean's bound, 



12 COM MI-; i \\ MI M'.IM \j,. 

P.nt Providence h;is smiled 
I" IIMFI tin- Western wild, 

A nation horn; 
Unknown to man before, 
I IMS spread from shore to shore, 
fVtween two oceans roar, 

Still in its morn. 

Born in a world anew, 
This youthful nation grew 

In strength apace, 
Unshackled by the toils 
That older states encoil 
And of their growth despoil 

In grandeur's race. 

A scion from the tree 
That grew across the sea, 

Old England's shore*. 
A rival of her fame 
That honors still the name 
( >f her historic dame 

Forevenriore, 



6 and free ^ood will 
< >ur cup of friendship fill, 

And wo will drink 
And drink and drink a^ain, 
With nations o'er the main, 
Till friendship's golden chain 

Our -hall link. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. lo 

Be thou, O, God most high, 
Exalted to the sky, 

So let it be; 

Be thine own will obeyed 
Through worlds that thou hast made 
As in the Heavens displayed 

Eternally. 



THE OCEAN. 

Air : " OLD HUNDRED." 
Within thy rolling surges laid 
The mysteries that nature made 
For human genius to reveal 
In service of the public weal. 



COLUMBIAN AULD LANG SYNE. 

Air: "Aur/D LANG SYNE." 
Shall olden grandeurs be forgot 

And never brought to mind. 
And all their worth remembered not, 

Dear days of auld lang syne ? 

Shall we forget the wondrous tale 

That poesy has sung 
Of him who lifted up the vail 

That o'er the ocean hung ? 



14 COLUMBIAN MKMoKlAL. 

Then let us tune our voices high 
To sing the sweet refrain, 

To cherish still, as centuries fly, 
Their glories o'er again. 

Forgetting not that since those days 
The pleasures of lang syne 

Have oft been sung in measured lays . 
Of poetry and rhyme. 

And when within the social spin-re 
That crowns our happiest days, 

In auld lang syne we will revere 
The goody olden days. 

And as the centuries fly around, 

Each to its requiem, 
Then let Columbus' name be crowned 

With honor's diadem. 



0[TR FLAG. 

Air : " HOMK. SWF.FT Hour." 
"Rer.onth the bi-iu-lit skies of tho beauteous west 
hoi^e witli contentment possessed, 

Where the oce;i n's soft /.epliyrs breathe over the lea 
Tn the voices of nntur< 4 in cli;inne<l melody; 
This lioino of our birth tluit BO dearly we pri/o. 

lie earth's brightest jewel heneath her blue skies, 
But silent it slumbered till Colon arose 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 15 

And pointed the way to its hidden repose; 

Kepose, repose, its hidden repose 

.On the breast of the ocean till Colon arose. 

give me a Nation with young blood possessed 
Unshackled with titles of royal behest 

With muscle of limb and with courage of heart 
With genius invested in science and art 
" An exile from home splendor dazzles in -vain," 
(.) give me the flag of my country's domain 
While under its shadow I'll shelter content 
And bask in the sunshine of freedom unspent 
Freedom, freedom, of freedom unspent 

1 will bask in the sunshine of freedom unspent. 

As it waves in the wind from -its folds may be seen 

The little red school house in beautiful sheen; 

The fireside joys of the family home 

From ocean to ocean, wherever we roam. 

The plowboy's shrill whistle is heard on the farm, 

The song of the milkmaid the twilight doth charm, 

And sunburnt and hale is the husbandman's face 

While the wife and the daughters in actions are grace. 

Our flag, our flag from its standard unfurled, 

Tho freest and grandest ere known in the world. 



COLfMBIAN Ml M-.KIAL. 

NATIONAL IIVMX. 

Ail 1 : " Tin: M.\i>i n.i 
us of earth awake to glory ! 
Tin- tramp of centuries siiiiinions you 
As time repeats the olden storv 
Of Colon venturing oVr the blue; 
Of Colon venturing o'er the blue; 
Awake and eelelrate the hour 
When Colon torn-lied the western shore 
An, I did its mysteries explore 
An ! science crown with living power 

Chorus. 

Salute, salute the day, 
i-oiir hundred years gone by. 
Amen, amen, your tribute pay 
To genius, destiny. 

Four hundred years have wrought their changes, 

New nations have sprung into life. 

While liberty takes broader range.; 

Amidst the din of battle's strife; 

Amidst the din of battle's strife: 

!' rom o'er the otvan (irecian learning 

Has been transplanted to our land. 

Flowing west from strand to strand, 

1'ierian springs are upward turning. 

( 'hums. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 17 

Flow on, flow on, ye streams of science 
Till ignorance is in the flood 
Till nations rule by just compliance, 
To what is best for human good, 
To what is best for human good; 
Then every man shall be our brother 
Only a rival in what's best, 
Omnipotence will do the rest 
To cherish interests with each other. 

Chorus. 
Salute, salute, etc. 



WILLIAM AND GENETTE. 

Air : " BONNIE DOON." 
'Twas at the hour of eventide 
A Avitching hour, so lovers say, 
When worldly cares are laid aside, 
And romance holds the heart at bay, 
When William chanced to meet Genette 
Amidst the din of katy-dids : 
In love each was a novice yet, 
And thoughts came up that tongue forbids. 

But in these toils the heart takes fire 
When youthful blood is all aglow, 
And music played on Cupid's lyre 
Is tuned to voices soft and low. 



18 COLUMKIAN MKMOKIAL. 

While in this mood from William's tongue, 
There came some whispers to the maid, 
That fell upon her ears among 
The glittering shadows of the glade. 

The day was set for them to wed, 
Propitious to their start in life, 
When William to the altar led, 
And made the bashful girl his wife. 
When opened the Chicago fair, 
'Midst strains of music ravishing, 
With many hands assembled there 
Their choicest offerings to bring. 

There is a moral in this tale, 
That they who best can see and feel, 
Whos/ sentiments and thoughts prevail, 
Most to promote the public weal. 
When Nations meet then pleasures teem, 
As the Columbian fair will prove, 
Where all the World in brief regime, 
Inspires the sentiments of love. 



CHICAGO'S SOLILOQUY ON HEE CHILDHOOD. 

Air: u Tm: OLD OAKKN BUCKET." 
" How dcai- to my heart are the scenes of my childhood 

When fond recollection recalls them to view," 
The prairie irmsses and river bank wild wood 

" And all the loved scenes that my infancy knew." 





-S&^' : 




I 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 19 

How oft bave I breathed the sweet air of the ocean, 
That blushing and dimpling my young form caressed, 

The great inland ocean, forever in motion, 
Whose silvery vapor enveloped my breast. 

Like the flash of a meteor, my childhood has vanished. 

It came and it went like a summer night's dream, 
And swiftly as thought has maturity banished 

The dalliance of childhood that did intervene. 

Good bye to those gambols, to come again never, 
Good bye to the sand drifts of beautiful sheen, 

Good bye to my swift fleeting childhood forever 
That came with the dalliance that did intervene. 

The chirp of the quail in my ear is still ringing, 

So brief has it been since her callow brood came, 
But briefer the changes that progress is bringing 

To clothe me with manhood, and honor my name. 
i 

To clothe me in manhood's becoming attire 

Of urban devices in towers and domes, 
And sky piercing buildings, that higher and higher 

Rise up and o'ershadow our beautiful homes. 

My ambitious dreams from the boy to a peer, 
Among the great cities that honor the earth 

Have exceeded the measure of prophet and seer, 
And honored the Kation that gave to them birth. 

International now is my trusted vocation, 
A tribute to bring to the fourth century past, 

That gave an incentive to every Nation, 
Their laws to" remodel, their theories recast. 



COLUMBIAN MF.MoKIAL. 

BROTH Kit JONATHAN. 

AIR: "YANKEE DOODLK." 

Our Jonathan a brother is 

To every earthly nation; 
In peace In- wears a smiling phiz, 

In war he beats creation. 

Oh Jonathan, our brother dear! 

We're safe in your embraces. 
We'll drink to thee a hearty cheer, 

( 'ontentment in our faces. 

When only in his swaddling clot. 

He had a little pop-gun; 
It was a terror to his 1< 
Especially his shot-gun. 

At Lexington he showed his teeth. 
When first he pulled the trigger, 

And won his infant laurel wreath 
By cutting such a figure. 

For 'twas a delicate a flair, 

To face the British lion 
While crouching in his sheltered lair 

( )f royalty the scion. 

When victory the field had crowned 

Along Atlanta .11, 

Twas then ambition had no bound 

On nature's wilds enlarging. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 21 

As long as land the ocean met 

On our Pacific border 
And Yankee faces we ;^ ward set, 

Annexing was in order. 

Now Jonathan is growing fast, 

And rapidly maturing. 
Young as he is his die is cast; 

His fame will be enduring. 

Forgetting not the honor due, 

While centuries are flying, 
To him who o'er the ocean flew 

And left a fame undying. 

A banquet here to all is spread, 

Says Jonathan, in greeting 
The world, by education bred, 

Come, rally at our meeting. 

Come, lay aside your busy care, 

In fellowship assemble; 
Let hallelujahs rend the air 

Till earth itself shall tremble. 

When next the century comes ahoy 

To celebrate, why let it 
Be known that I'm your willing boy 

To help, don't you forget it. 



22 COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

SOCIAL LI IK. 

Air : "Ai i.i> LAN., SYNE." 
Since Joseph, into Kirypt sold, 

A -sinned the royal rrown. 
As l>y the ancient prophets told, 

Of Biblical renown; 

Ne'er came an episode so grand, 

So sweeping in its train, 
As that the mind of Colon planned 

To live through time's refrain. 

Genius was lifted to the skies, 

Ambition fired the heart, 
And dormant energies did rise 

To take an active part, 

In the amenities of life, 

To social circles dear, 
That in our day are blithe and rife 

When friendship is sincere. 

Gude auld lang syne would ne'er have raised 

Its throne in every heart. 
Unless his deeds that all have praised 

In romance played a part. 

For romance is the happiest dream 

That we with life entwine, 
And real life will sweeter seem 

When mixed with auld laug syne. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 23 

The homes that in the western sphere. 

Through Colon's thought divine, 
Grew into being, ever dear, 

And with them auld lang syne. 



CHICAGO MASSACEE. 

Lake Michigan ne'er " born to blush unseen, 
Nor waste its sweetness on the desert air," ' 
In nature's negligence was laid between, 
Two sylvan shores, a tuneful solitaire, 
Till hither came the watchful pioneer, 
To reconnoiter on the wild frontier. 

Here was an Empire held in nature's hands, 
A wilderness of waves and fallow lands, 
Peopled with native tribes who ne'er had known, 
The servile homage, due a regal throne. 

These braves were pleased, when first the pale face came, 
To smoke the Calumet, and share their game; 
And when Fort Dearborn stood upon their shore, 
'Twas just a trading post and nothing more. 
Thus to its gate their offerings they brought, 
And blankets, guns and fire-water bought. 

These friendships sometimes grew by social tic, 
And Cupid's darts from charmed quivers fly, 
For Eros may invade the color line, 
To lend variety to love's design. 



24 OOLl Ml'.l V N Ml 

Thus smoothly run these Touves of harmony, 
When suddenly there came tVoui o'er tin- W 
< )f war's alarms, the distant hattle cry. 
Whose echoes wafted through a frowning sky. 

'Twas Jonathan and .Johnny Hull, at odds, 
Kaeli had unloosed of war the spiteful dogs; 
* Each vied with each, their suhtle arts to ply, 
To priii the Indian bra VPS for his ally. 

In this attempt our fathers p>t the I 

And Indian war-whoops ran^ throughout the West, 

Tecmnseh came to bp a bripidier, 

And honored well his epaulets 'tis clear. 

Hull at Detroit was pressed by Proctors fleet, 
And (ieneral Tecuiuseh cut off his retreat. 
IVndinir this interim of dread suspense. 
Retreat was ordered from Fort Dearborn, whence 
Left Its garrison alonr the shore, 

When suddenly the braves a volley pour 
Into their ranks, and now the drifting sand 
Was stained witli bloody conflicts, hand to hand, 
A proof which side the Indians had espoused, 
Shown in their flights of an^er. so aroused. 

Though overwhelming numbers take the iield, 
The pi Ma nt soldiers still refuse to yield; 
In vain they charp' upon the swarthy foe, 
In vain their little band <rive blow for blow. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 25 

Now dashes Captain Wells along the front, 
And in the bloody battle shares the brunt, 
And ev'n the women from the sheltered rear 
Intent on victory, and unknown to fear, 
Fight bravely as the men, the day to save, 
And shield their children from a soldier's grave. 

Thus Mrs. Holt, while mounted on her steed, 
Honored the field by many a valorous deed, 
Brave woman ! Shouted the admiring foe, 
Who inadvertently their praise bestow, 
As she so bravely struck from side to side, 
And right and left the enemy defied. 

'Twas now amidst the war-whoop's awful sound, 
The unloosed darts of Cupid fly around; 
Black Partridge a bold and honored chief, 
Whose savage breast essayed to find relief; 
Behold him quickly seize his charming fair 
While writhing in the tortures of despair, 

And in this mood he bore her trembling frame 

To Michigan's waves, and there confessed his flame, 

Love thus disguised, by outward show to drown, 

Gave this aspiring chief deserved renown, 

Since notwithstanding his rejected plight, 

He still protected his fair captive's right. 

For sure it was no crime for him to love, 
If honor's bonds his fruitless suit approve, 
And let us not forget that nature's creed 
Makes no distinctions whither love may lead. 



COLUMBIAN MKMoRIAL. 

No Mush would ripple o'er an Indian face, 

Though brought before tin- mightiest SON ereign grace; 

The captive lived to memorize tin- day 

On history's page to live through time's decay. 



LAKE MICHIGAN. 

Our beautiful inland sea, 

Our beautiful inland sea. 
When shines the sun o'er its billowy breast, 
Reflecting tints fron its shadowy crest, 
In rainbow colors o'er the main, 
Vanishing but to live again, 

All over the deep, all over the deep, 

All over the deep blue sea. 

When blows the swelling breeze, 

When blows the swelling bn 
Pressing the sail of the swimming keel, 
That through the limpid waters reel, 
And the shining shore, the billows lave, 
That smooth and white the pebbles pave. 

From over the deep, from over the deep, 

From over the deep blue sea. 

When shines the yellow moon, 
When shines the yellow moon, 
Sputtering bright its golden hue 
In glittering streaks before <>ur view, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 27 

That tender thoughts our heart inspire 
Of her at home we most admire, 

While over the deep, while over the deep, 

While over the deep blue sea. 

Along its rolling lea, 

Along its rolling lea, 
Chicago stands a peerless queen 
Twixt land and sea to intervene, 
Her rising towers and shining domes 
O'er shadowing her happy homes 

Beside the sea, beside the sea, 

Beside the deep blue sea. 

We invite you all to come, 

We invite you all to come, 
Come to the honored World's Fair here, 
That's held in the four hundredth year; 
Since westward came the Genoese 
The ocean secrets to release, 

From over the sea, from over the sea, 

From over the deep blue sea. 



28 I Mia \N Ml MOKIAI.. 

TIIK CENTENNIAL VKAU. 

Air: " TIIK STAR SI-AM, I.I.D UANNKH/' 

Oil. say. what has caused sucli ;i grateful emotion 
Throughout every hind that lies over the ocean, 
From the Aivtic confines, to the sunnier clii 
To tin- eaiise of our trust, comes the voice of devotion. 

the centennial year that we celebrate here. 
The date that <:ave hirth to the new heinisph- 

And proudly our banners in triumph we'll raise. / j> , lt 

The fame of Columbus to honor and prai^-. 

Let our trihntes he paid to the glories, then castinir 
Their shadows before them, in <rrandenrs so lasting 
"With the voice of the Nations, with hearty ovati- 
The world's handiwork, in convention contrasting 
In the centennial year that is ever held, dear. 
While science pervades the terrestrial sphere 
With the flairs of all Nations in union united, / 
In the interests of peace, in fidelity plighted. * 

The fla^-s of all Nations o'er the ocean are streaming. 
And the li^-lit of proud science is everywhere ti-leaininir. 
The mind's on a strain, by invention to ^ain 

v triumphs in science, for which the world's dn aminir. 
While the centennial year, we in honor revere 
With its glories rellected. through times old anvar. 
Then let all our banners he thrown to the bree/.e. ,, ( ^ it . 
( Mir guests to bid welcome from over the seas. ) 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 29 

CHICAGO'S NAME. 

Chicago thy name is venerable with years, 
So say traditions from the red man's tongue 

Inherited from olden time's arrears, 

That in their vortex have the centuries flung. 

When Romulus and Remus sustenance drew 
From Lupus' hairy but maternal breast, 

Who ne'er the lullaby of mothers knew 
To hush their heroic infancy to rest; 

In speculation's fancy, we may say, 

That even then the Indian warrior braves, 

Ornate with paint, and plumed with feathers gay, 
Paddled their barks along the rippling waves, 

That washed the shore, where now Chicago stands; 

And here the lassie gave her nuptial plight 
Under the stars upon the drifting sands, 

To her liege lord beneath their twinkling light. 

While promising in troth, through good or ills, 
To be his faithful squaw, and share his fate, 

And neatly ornament with porcupine quills 
The buckskin leggins of her lordly mate. 

Here by the river side luxuriant grew 
The onion wild, the tangled grass among, 

Named by these ancient tenants, Chicagou, 

Time honored thus, the name from nature sprung. 



30 COU'M P.IAN MI.MnniAL. 

I OIU HUNDRED YEARS AGO. 

Hetween two oceans everlasting tides, 

Through valleys, ]>lains and lofty mountainsides 

The Indian lived, and only God he knew, 

As the givat spirit his kind Manitou; 

Clear \vere the Heavens, Ghezhigneen wateen,* 

Was his Hosanna, with a conscience clean, 

Kind Heavens reward, through goodness here below 

W;is his firm faith, four hundred years 



The shining rivers seamed the forest then, 

The morning zephyrs whispered through the glen, 

And midst the amplitudes of nature's smiles 

The native in his sports the time beguiles 

In listless musing, in the narrow field, 

That nature parsimoniously had revealed, 

And limited for him to see and know 

As best he could, four hundred years ago. 

In Europe, regal reign by right divine 

Fulfilled the measure of each king's design, 

And second only to a papal gown 

Was regal power, from beneath a crown; 

For sure a leverage beyond the skies 

Made aught on earth to it a saerilir 

And this sharp line between the high and low, 

In Kin-ope siod, four hundred years ago. 



In the Algonquin language, " My sky is clear.' 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 31 

The longest lane may lastly take a turn, 

The smothered fires of thought are bound to burn, 

Nature's enchanted voice is never dead 

When, by the heart's desire its fires are fed. 

Then superstition's rubbish must be burned 

Till evolutions destined wheel is turned, 

And truth has triumphed over every foe 

As Europe showed, four hundred years ago. 

To thee Columbus is the honor due, 
Whose cosmic thought imparted light anew 
To pioneer the way o'er western seas, 
To reach the rolling globe's antipodes; 
And in your path has Empire's rising star 
To Europe waved a welcome from afar, 
And while the west reflects its dazzling glow 
We'll sing thy worth, four hundred years ago. 



AMANDA AND LE CLAIR. 

A ROMANCE. 

'Twas in the summer morning haze. 

The shadows shorter growing; 
The flocks were on the hills to graze, 

The boys the corn were hoeing, 

The forests clad in living green, 

In emerald colors vernal, 
The brooks were babbling through the sheen 

In nature's voice eternal, 



I MIIIA.N 

The clover reddened broad the ht-ath, 
The fern adorned the valley, 

AVhile nature's evanescent wreath 
AVith summer's hues kept tally. 

Amanda sat beside her wheel. 

Ilei- loot was on the treadle. 
And lively rocked her limber heel 

To win the silver medal. 

The case was this, a medal rare 

( )t sterling silver metal, 
Had just been offered by Le ('lair 

To her who flew the shuttle. 

A linen towel was the strife, 
To see who best could make it, 

From flax around the distaff rife, 
As buzzing spindles take it. 

Amanda pondered in her heart 
The prize, but more the giver, 

A rustic youth of iruileless art, 
Unused to Cupid's quiver. 

At least, the bashful youth had ne'er 
Kmbarked on love's wild ocean, 

On which his novice bark to steer, 
To coiujuer by devotion. 

Not so witli sweet Amaiula's heart, 

For she with love's ideal 
Was plyiiiLi all her winning art 
To make the romance real. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

And thinking over in her mind, 
While swift the wheel was running, 

A neat device, unique in kind, 
If wrought by fingers cunning, 

To weave the name of young Le Clair 

Into the web of linen, 
With deftly color, debonair, 

In threads that she was spinning. 

Invention now was on the rack 
To make her scheme alluring; 

But she was good at bric-a-brac, 
With love new plans maturing. 

A happy thought now crossed her brain, 
'Twas of her crimson liowing; 

To lance her arm, be love the pain, 
And draw a color glowing. 

'Twas Eros who inspired this thought, 
Meanwhile the maid assured, 

That blood would win the object sought 
By this device allured. 

The thread thus dipped in sanguine dye 
Was coiled within the shuttle, 

The reed was set to weave the ply, 
Her foot was on the treadle. 

But while she sat beside the loom, 

To weave the loving token, 
Le Clair came gently in the room, 

She blushed, but naught was spoken, 



COLOMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

And threw her apron on the woof, 
In which his name was blended, 

But not quite quick enough forsooth, 
To hide what she intended. 

And now they each in concert blush, 

And each became embarrassed, 
Eacli lirurt beat loud, each tongue was hush, 

AVhile eyes could talk though harassed. 

The day was set for them to wed, 

I wonder they could do it, 
And soon he to the altar led 

The maid, and not to rue it. 

"Who now the silver medal took 

Was but a question trivial; 
Amanda with contentment's look 

Said give it to my rival. 

Not for your heart, my dear Le Clair, 

The happy bride insisted, 
1 never had a rival there 

Ere you and I enlisted. 

Long years since in their graves did rest 

The pair that thus united. 
A grandchild who the gem possessed, 

From which their vows were plighted 

Displayed it at Chicago's fair, 

To show the world a sample 
Of handiwork, to late compare 

In rivalry's example; 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 19 

How oft bave I breathed tbe sweet air of tbe ocean, 
Tbat blusbing and dimpling my young form caressed, 

The great inland ocean, forever in motion, 
Whose silvery vapor enveloped my breast. 

Like the flash of a meteor, my childhood has vanished. 

It came and it went like a summer night's dream, 
And swiftly as thought has maturity banished 

The dalliance of childhood that did intervene. 

Good bye to those gambols, to come again never, 
Good bye to the sand drifts of beautiful sheen, 

Good bye to my swift fleeting childhood forever 
That came with the dalliance that did intervene. 

The chirp of the quail in my ear is still ringing, 
So brief has it been since her callow brood came, 

But briefer the changes that progress is bringing 
To clothe me with manhood, and honor my name. 

To clothe me in manhood's becoming attire 

Of urban devices in towers and domes, 
And sky piercing buildings, that higher and higher 

Rise up and o'ershadow our beautiful homes. 

My ambitious dreams from the boy to a peer, 
Among the great cities that honor the earth 

Have exceeded the measure of prophet and seer, 
And honored the Nation that gave to them birth. 

International now is my trusted vocation, 
A tribute to bring to the fourth century past, 

That gave an incentive to every Nation, 
Their laws to remodel, their theories recast. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

imoTHKK JONATHAN. 

AIR : " YANKEE DOODLE." 

Our Jonathan a brother is 

To every earthly nation; 
In peace he wears a smiling phiz, 

In war he beats creation. 

Oh Jonathan, our brother dear ! 

We're safe in your embraces. 
We'll drink to thee a In-arty cheer, 

Contentment in our faces. 

When only in his swaddling clothes 

He had a little pop-gun; 
It was a terror to his foes, 

Especially his shot-gun. 

At Lexington he showed his teeth, 
When first he pulled the triij 

And won liis infant laurel wreath 
Uy cutting such -i figure. 

For 'twas a delicate a Hair, 

To face the British lion 
While crouching in his sheltered lair 

Of roalt the scion. 



\ ietory the field had 
Along Atlantic's margin, 
Twas then ambition had no bound 
On nature's wilds enlarging. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 21 

As long as land the ocean met 

On our Pacific border 
And Yankee faces we vi \vard set, 

Annexing was in order. 

Now Jonathan is growing fast, 

And rapidly maturing. 
Young as he is his die is cast; 

His fame will be enduring. 

Forgetting not the honor due, 

While centuries are flying, 
To him who o'er the ocean flew 

And left a fame undying. 

A banquet here to all is spread, 

Says Jonathan, in greeting 
The world, by education bred, 

Come, rally at our meeting. 

Come, lay aside your busy care, 

In fellowship assemble; 
Let hallelujahs rend the air 

Till earth itself shall tremble. 

When next the century comes ahoy 

To celebrate, why let it 
Be known that I'm your willing boy 

To help, don't you forget it. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

\{ ' I \ F I I IV I/ 
DUvyl-A-lj IjLr Hi. 

Air : "Ari.n LAN., S\ \E." 
Since Joseph, into K-ypl -old, 

Assumed the royal crown, 
As by the ancient prophets told, 

Of Biblical renown; 

Ne'er came an episode so grand, 

So sweeping in its train, 
As that the mind of Colon planned 

To live through time's refrain. 

Genius was lifted to the skies, 

Ambition fired the heart. 
And dormant energies did rise 

To take an active part, 

In the amenities of life, 

To social circles dear, 
That in our day are blithe and rife 

When friendship is sincere. 

Gude auld lang syne would ne'er have raised 

Its throne in every heart. 
Unless his deeds that all have praised 

In romance played a part, 

For romance is the happiest dream 

That we with life entwine, 
And real life will sweeter seem 

When mixed with auld laiii: ^\ lie. - 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 23 

The homes that in the western sphere. 

Through Colon's thought divine, 
Grew into being, ever dear, 

And with them auld lang syne. 



CHICAGO MASSACEE. 

Lake Michigan ne'er " born to blush unseen, 
Xor waste its sweetness on the desert air," 
In nature's negligence was laid between, 
Two sylvan shores, a tuneful solitaire, 
Till hither came the watchful pioneer, 
To reconnoiter on the wild frontier. 

Here was an Empire held in nature's hands, 
A wilderness of waves and fallow lands, 
Peopled with native tribes who ne'er had known, 
The servile homage, due a regal throne. 

These braves were pleased, when first the pale face came, 
To smoke the Calumet, and share their game; 
And when Fort Dearborn stood upon their shore, 
'Twas just a trading post and nothing more. 
Thus to its gate their oiferings they brought, 
And blankets, guns and fire-water bought. 

These friendships sometimes grew by social tie, 
And Cupid's darts from charmed quivers fly, 
For Eros may invade the color line, 
To lend variety to love's design. 



Jt OOLTOiBI \\ MI MORTAL. 

Thus smoothly ran these grooves of harmony, 
When suddenly there c;im<- from o'er the sea, 
Of war's alarms, tin- distant battle cry, 
Whose echoes wafted through a frowning sky. 

'Twas Jonathan and Johnny Hull, at odds, 
Kaeh had unloosed of war the spiteful dogs; 
Each vied with eaeh. their subtle arts to ply, 
To gain the Indian braves for his ally. 

In this attempt our fathers got the best. 

And Indian war-whoops rang throughout the West, 

Tecumseh came to be a brigadier, 

And honored well his epaulets 'tis clear. 

Hull at Detroit was pressed by Proctor's fleet, 
And General Tecumseh cut oif his retreat. 
Pending this interim of dread suspense. 
Retreat was ordered from Fort Dearborn, whence 
Left its garrison along the shore, 

When suddenly the braves a volley pour 
Into their ranks, and now the drifting sand 
Was stained with bloody conflicts, hand to hand. 
A proof which side the Indians had espoused, 
Shown in their flights of an^er. so aroused. 

Though overwhelming numbers take the Held, 
The gallant soldiers still refuse to yield; 
In vain they charge upon the swarthy foe, 
In vain their little band give blow for blow. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 25 

Now dashes Captain Wells along the front, 
And in the bloody battle shares the brunt, 
And ev'n the women from the sheltered rear 
Intent on victory, and unknown to fear, 
Fight bravely as the men, the day to save, 
And shield their children from a soldier's grave. 

Thus Mrs. Holt, while mounted on her steed, 
Honored the field by many a valorous deed, 
Brave woman ! Shouted the admiring foe, 
Who inadvertently their praise bestow, 
As she so bravely struck from side to side, 
And right and left the enemy defied. 

'Twas now amidst the war-whoop's awful sound, 
The unloosed darts of Cupid fly around; 
Black Partridge a bold and honored chief, 
Whose savage breast essayed to find relief; 
Behold him quickly seize his charming fair 
While writhing in the tortures of despair, 

And in this mood he bore her trembling frame 

To Michigan's waves, and there confessed his flame, 

Love thus disguised, by outward show to drown, 

Gave this aspiring chief deserved renown, 

Since notwithstanding his rejected plight, 

lie still protected his fair captive's right. 

For sure it was no crime for him to love, 
If honor's bonds his fruitless suit approve, 
And let us not forget that nature's creed 
Makes no distinctions whither love may lead. 



MI: IAN MK MORTAL. 



No Mush would ripple o'er an Indian face, 
Though brought before the mightiest sovereign j; 
The captive lived to memori/e the day 
( >n history's page to live through time's decay. 



LAKE MICHIGAN. 

Our beautiful inland sea, 

Our beautiful inland sea, 
When shines the sun o'er its billowy breast, 
Reflecting tints fron its shadowy crest, 
In rainbow colors o'er the main, 
Vanishing but to live again, 

All over the deep, all over the deep, 

All over the deep blue sea. 

When blows the swelling breeze. 

When blows the swelling bree/e. 
Pressing the sail of the swimming keel, 
That through the limpid waters reel, 
And the shining shore, the billows lave, 
That smooth and white the pebbles pave. 

From over the deep, from over the deep, 

l-'roin over the deep blue sea. 

When shines the yelluw moon, 
When shines the yellow moon, 
Spattering bright its golden hue 
In glitteriiiLT streaks be lore our view, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 27 

That tender thoughts our heart inspire 
Of her at home we most admire. 

While over the deep, while over the deep, 

While over the deep blue sea. 

Along its rolling lea, 

Along its rolling lea, 
Chicago stands a peerless queen 
Twixt land and sea to intervene, 
Her rising towers and shining domes 
O'er shadowing her happy homes 

Beside the sea, beside the sea, 

Beside the deep blue sea. 

We invite you all to come, 

We invite you all to come, 
Come to the honored World's Fair here, 
That's held in the four hundredth year; 
Since westward came the Genoese 
The ocean secrets to release, 

From over the sea, from over the sea, 

From over the deep blue sea. 



28 IttMOMAL. 

TIIK < KNTKNNIAL YKAR. 

Air:--" TIN-: STAR SI-AN<,U:I> HANM-.I:." 

Oh. say. what lias caused such a grateful emotion 

Thi'oughout every laud that lies over the ocean, 

Fnmi the Arctic confines, to the sunnier climes, 

To the cause of our trust, comes the voice of devotion. 

"Pis the centennial year that we celebrate here. 

The date that <r ; , V e birth to the new hemisphere; 

And proudly our banners in triumph we'll raise, / y> p 0a t 

The fame of ( 'olumbus to honor and praise. * 

Let our tributes ho paid to the glories, then casting 
Their shadows before them, in grandeurs so lasting 
With the voice of the Nations, with hearty ovations, 
The world's handiwork, in convention contrasting 
In the centennial year that is ever held. dear. 
While science pervades the terrestrial sphere 
With the flags of all Nations in union united, t 
In the interests of peace, in fidelity plighted. ' 

The flags of all Nations o'er the ocean are stream in. "\ 
Aud the light of proud science is everywhere gleaminir. 
The mind's on a strain, by invention to gain 

v triumphs in science, for which the world's dreaming, 
While the centennial year, we in honor revere 
With its glories reflected, through times old arrear. 
Then let all our banners be tin-own to the lnve/.e. - . (< 
Our guests to bid welcome from over the seas. ) 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 29 

CHICAGO'S NAME. 

Chicago thy name is venerable with years, 
So say traditions from the red man's tongue 

Inherited from olden time's arrears, 

That in their vortex have the centuries flung. 

When Romulus and Remus sustenance drew 
From Lupus' hairy but maternal breast, 

Who ne'er the lullaby of mothers knew 
To hush their heroic infancy to rest; 

In speculation's fancy, we may say, 

That even then the Indian warrior braves. 

Ornate with paint, and plumed with feathers gay, 
Paddled their barks along the rippling waves, 

That washed the shore, where now Chicago stands; 

And here the lassie gave her nuptial plight 
Under the stars upon the drifting sands, 

To her liege lord beneath their twinkling light. 

While promising in troth, through good or ills, 
To be his faithful squaw, and share his fate, 

And neatly ornament with porcupine quills 
The buckskin leggins of her lordly mate. 

Here by the river side luxuriant grew 
The onion wild, the tangled grass among, 

Named by these ancient tenants, Chicagou, 

Time honored thus, the name from nature sprung. 



30 COM' Mill AX 

HUNDIJKI) YEARS AGO. 



two oceans everlasting tides, 
gh valleys, plains and lofty mountainsides 
The Indian lived, and only God he knew, 
As the Hi-cat spirit his kind Manitou; 
rl-ar were the Heavens, Ghezhigneen wateen,* 
Was his Hosanna, with a conscience clean, 
Kind Heavens reward, through goodness here 
Was his firm faith, four hundred years ago, 

The shining rivers seamed the forest then, 
The morning zephyrs whispered through the glen, 
And midst the amplitudes of nature's smiles, 
The native in his sports the time beguiles 
In listless musing, in the narrow field, 
That nature parsimoniously had revealed, 
And limited for him to see and know 
\> b.-st he could, four hundred years ago. 

In Europe," regal reign by right divine 
Fulfilled the measure of each king's design, 
And second only to a papal gown 
Was regal power, from beneath a crown; 

Fr sure a leverage beyond the skies 

Made aught on earth to it a sarrilier; 

And this sharp line between the high and low, 

In Europe stood, four hundred years ago. 



* In the Algonquin language, " My sky Is clear.' 



COLUMBIAN MEMOEIAL. 31 

The longest lane may lastly take a turn, 

The smothered fires of thought are bound to burn, 

Nature's enchanted voice is never dead 

When, by the heart's desire its fires are fed. 

Then superstition's rubbish must be burned 

Till evolutions destined Avheel is turned, 

And truth has triumphed over every foe 

As Europe showed, four hundred years ago. 

To thee Columbus is the honor due, 
Whose cosmic thought imparted light anew 
To pioneer the way o'er western seas, 
To reach the rolling globe's antipodes; 
And in your path has Empire's rising star 
To Europe Avaved a welcome from afar, 
And while the west reflects its dazzling glow 
We'll sing thy worth, four hundred years ago. 



AMANDA AND LE CLAIR. 

A ROMANCE. 

'Twas in the summer morning haze. 

The shadows shorter growing; 
The flocks were on the hills to graze, 

The boys the corn were hoeing, 

The forests clad in living green, 

In emerald colors vernal. 
The brooks were babbling through the sheen 

In nature's voice eternal, 






Tilt- clover reddened broad tin- heath, 

The fern adorned the valley, 
While nature's e\ am-scent wreath 
With summer's hues kept tally. 

Amanda sat beside her wheel. 
Her foot was on the treadle. 
And lively rocked her limber heel 
To win the silver medal. 

The case was this, a medal rare 

( )!' sterling silver metal. 
JIad just heen oil e red by Le Clair 

To her who flew the shuttle. 

A linen towel was the strife, 
To see who best could make it, 

From llax around thedistatf rife, 
AJ bu//ino- spindles take it. 

Amanda jjondered in her heart 
The prize, but more the giver, 

A rustic youth of ^uilelos art, 
Unused to Cupid's (juiver. 

At least, the bashful youth had ne'er 

Embarked on love's wild ocean. 
On which his no\ ice hark to steer, 
To comjuer by de\..tiun. 

Not SO with Amanda's heart, 

For she with love's ideal 

all her winning ait 
make the romance real. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 33 

And thinking over in her mind, 

While swift the wheel was running, 
A neat device, unique in kind, 

If wrought by fingers cunning, 

To weave the name of young Le Clair 

Into the web of linen, 
With deftly color, debonair, 

In threads that she was spinning. 

Invention now was on the rack 

To make her scheme alluring; 
But she was good at bric-a-brac, 

With love new plans maturing. 

A happy thought now crossed her brain, 

'Twas of her crimson flowing; 
To lance her arm, be love the pain, 

And draw a color glowing. 

'Twas Eros who inspired this thought, 

Meanwhile the maid assured, 
That blood would win the object sought 

By this device allured. 

The thread thus dipped in sanguine dye 

Was coiled within the shuttle, 
The reed was set to weave the ply, 

Her foot was on the treadle. 

But while she sat beside the loom, 

To weave the loving token, 
Le Clair came gently in the room, 

She blushed, but naught was spoken, 



COLOMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

And threw her apron on the woof, 
In which his name was blended, 

But not quite quick enough forsooth, 
To hide what she intended. 

And now they each in concert blush, 

And each became embarrassed, 
Each heart brat loud, each tongue was hush, 

While eyes could talk though harassed. 

The day was set for them to wed, 

I wonder they could do it, 
And soon he to the altar led 

The maid, and not to rue it. 

Who now the silver medal took 

Was but a question trivial; 
Amanda with contentment's look 

Said give it to my rival. 

Not for your heart, my dear Le Clair, 

The happy bride insisted, 
1 never had a rival there 

Ere you and I enlisted. 

Long years since in their graves did rest 

The pair that thus united. 
A grandchild who the gem possessed, 

From which their vows were plighted 

Displayed it at Chicago's fair, 

To show the world a sample 
Of handiwork, to late compare 

In rivalry's example; 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 51 

Where lives the spirit great, in sacred shade, 
Ideal only in the mortal mind, 
Whose faith in him is absolute and blind, 
Untempered with imagination blent 
That men and gods in unison invent. 

Thus Hercules to gods in councils spoke, 
But vain he tried their councils to revoke, 
And 'twas in vain that he opposed their plan 
To open fields anew for God and man, 
Wherein the learning taught by ancient Greece 
Should in a new found world with time increase. 

Xeptune was armed to forward this design, 

And clothed with power that sea and land combine. 

The plan was this to pass the guarded gate 

Of Hercules, while he in love should wait 

For Juno's promised advent to his throne, 

On Gibralter's heights, to meet alone. 

The artful Juno undertook the case, 
But first secured indulgences and grace 
To guard her honor, though she secret met 
With Hercules, where he his vigils kept. 
Then with her peacocks harnessed to her car, 
Above the clouds she cleaves the limpid air 
'Till Hercules' abode she hovers round, 
Lowers her flight and reaches safe the ground. 

The god extends a welcome to his guest, 
For gods and jnen are both of love possessed. 
Such the divinities the Greeks conceived, 
If their mythology Ciin be believed. 



52 . IMKIAN MI M..IMAF.. 

This happy god beneath sweet Juno's smiles, 
Unconscious of the goddess's subtle wiles. 
That like a nymbus gather round his head. 
AVhile yearns his In ait. with tender passion fid. 

He 1 lows, as gods to goddesses should bow, 
When love and passion both their hearts endow; 
I Jut Morpheus, unseen at J lino's nod, 
Let loose his charms to put to sleep the god. 

Next she repaired to Neptune, whose swift Heel 
Spread sails to pass the straits, the ocean meet, 
While Hercules, entranced by Juno's charm, 
Prostrate his strength and paralyzed his arm. 

Meantime a friendly god the charm dispelled, 
That Juno's cunning art on him had held, 
And now restored, he in an inkling 
Harnessed two soaring falcons, fleet of Aving, 

To his light car, to o'er the ocean reel, 

Along the wake of Xeptune's freighted keel, 
And as his car was Hying through the skies 
Far in the distance he, his object, spies. 

Hard the pursued now crowd the Mowing sail, 
Hut vain the effort, naught could he avail 
In flight before the soaring falcons wing, 
I'nless some other (MM! a rescue bring. 

Fair Juno now with charms and wit beset 
K.-snhed to play the flexible coquette, 
And in a trice she plies a peacock's wings 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 53 

With both her hands, and into ether springs. 
Quickly she meets the car of Hercules 
In his pursuit above Atlantic's seas. 

When he beheld the goddess coming near, 
Arrayed with smiles and on her cheek a tear, 
His heart relented, and his love returned, 
That from the first within his bosom burned. 
By his command the flying falcons rest, 
While Hercules receives his treacherous guest. 

But still she looked so penitent the while, 

As through her tears she casts a heartless smile, 

And while her honied words appeased his might, 

Unseen she sent a dove in airy flight 

Back to Olympus where the thunderer stood. 

Waving his trident o'er the distant flood. 

Prompt he responded to the goddess' call 
And o'er the heavens spread a sable pall, 
Till thunder clouds in darkness veiled the light, 
As he beheld the strain of Neptune's flight, 
When Neptune tacked and to the larboard hied 
While Hercules kept on across the tide, 
So sweetly entertained with Juno's grace 
While transient smiles adorn her beauteous face. 

Missing his object on the ocean's main, 
Lost in the clouds he loath returned again; 
The artful Juno waved a sweet good bye, 
And left him in profound soliloquy, 
A victim to an evanescent smile, 
To hide a secret or a plan beguile. 



r \ir.i \\ MEMORIAL, 



Sure pairan irods these attributes 

Else how could they in mortal souls invest 

The faith that in their natures lived and grew, 

To lead their action to be just and time. 

E'en false religion in that early age 

Was not without its moralist and sage. 

The danger parried, Neptune gained the lea, 
The Occident, that studs Atlantic's sea. 
His mission thus propitiously begun, 
He took his course towards the western sun, 
And wisely now relinquished his command, 
To reach the chain of lakes across the land, 
To good Minerva, who the classics say 
Taught how the threads within the loom to lay, 
And set the reeds to weave the linen web, 
To clothe the human form, to virtue bred. 

This goddess representing chastity, 
With Xeptune sailed across Atlantic's sea; 
And now she stretches forth her gentle hand, 
To lure two turtle doves beneath her wand. 

e birds when harnessed to her airy train, 
Flew westward from the ocean's watery main, 

1 safe the gods and goddesses conveyed, 
To where the western chain of waters laid. 

lleiv Neptune now again assumed command, 
And (juick a sailing craft was fully manned. 
Along the shining- lakes they quickly speed, 
And at Chicago's portage plant a seed, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 55 

To bear its fruit in eighteen ninety-three 
The fourth centennial in chronology, 
Since first Columbus followed o'er the sea, 
Where gods had been before by Jove's decree. 

You who perchance may read this fabled dream; 
Consider how events through ages teem, 
Nor can they vary from what is to be, 
Known or unknowing mortals can not see. 

But metaphysics never need decry, 
Our actions, if we keep our powder dry, 
As said the Puritans, whose faith and creed 
Took care their persons to defend and feed. 

'Tis pleasant sure to feel to us allied 

A destiny in favor of our side. 

It is no myth that what we wish to gain, 

Must come through labor of an active brain. 

The sages round the Mediterranean sea, 
First taught the science of astronomy. 
They understood the model of the earth, 
But knew not how its circling form to girth. 
And let us not the pagan rites accuse, 
Of any act that science might abuse. 

Columbus dared their theory to test, 
And set his spreading sails toward the West, 
And soon a scientific world of thought, 
Beheld the wonder that his genius wrought. 



56 ( "UMIUAN MI-.MMKfAL. 

It was no transient thought that crossed his brain, 
That made him venture on the untried main. 
The instrument that Greek philosophy 
Had careful nurtured to maturity. 

Ne'er did a planted seed produce such fruit, 
Nor such a simple truth such creeds dispute, 
Nor by its subtle strength , thus undermine 
Such theories false, that priests had called divine. 

Of all beliefs with which the world is curst, 
The most tenacious always is the worst; 
Whose advocates are wont to hypnotize 
Their victims for a mental sacrifice; 
While metaphysics plants a living truth, 
To live robust in a perennial youth. 

Asia thou Alma Mater of mankind, 
Whence came the science that the fertile mind, 
Of Greece or Egypt gave a rising world, 
To Europe first, then o'er the Atlantic hurled, 
When died the fifteenth century away, 
In fame and grandeur never to decay ? 
Hoary with years thine ancient tablaturo 
Became the germ of Europe's literature. 

Could we but lift the vail that time has cast, 
O'er empires born to die in centuries past, 
Whatever else our wondering eyes might see, 
Behind would vanish an eternity. 
But we're admonished now to look ahead, 
While not unmindful of the noble dead. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 57 

With grateful hearts we celebrate the year 
That all the world of progress holds so dear, 
The year sublime with inspiration fraught, 
Revealing truths that " Credo " changes not. 

To thee, Columbus^ be all honor paid ! 

You proved a law that -all the world obeyed; 

While Plato, Strabo, Hanno, Ptolemy 

Pointed to you the way across the sea, 

All honor to those sages of the past, 

Whose souls upon a vestal throne are cast, 

The inspiration of our living age, 

Peerless their fame on learnings honored page. 



THE STARS AND STRIPES. 

Air : " SWEET HOME." 

The flags of all Nations that shadow the seas, 
To our shores we will welcome, and fling to the breeze, 
For to Jonathan's hearthstone, each one is a guest, 
And to them will our flag touch the blue water's crest. 
The path of the ocean shall ever be free 
To sails that are set for America's lea, 
When they bring us the tidings of friendship sincere, 
Then our flag will respond with a National cheer. 

Chorus. 

The stars, the stars on a blue ground designed, 
The red and the white streamers flung to the wind. 



58 COM'M' \L. 

Tho world on our fair has a claim from the past, 

< )f the four hundred years, and the blessings they've - 

Improving and raising the grade of mankind, 

Far more than Columbus himself ere divined. 

And now let the flags of all Nations combine, 

I n the aegis of peace, at the sacredest shrine, 

Krc- erected to honor the great Genoese, 

Whose memory shall live as the centuries increase. 

Chorus. 
The stars, the stars, etc. 

I low many sweet homes have grown up in the land. 
That grew from the work of his thought and command, 
The homes that are sheltered, the old flag beneath. 
What more could we ask its broad folds to bo<jueath ( 
While the stars of the finnanent twinkle to earth, 
Let the stars of our flag ne'er dishonor their birth. 
Let it ever be said that the white red and blue 
T< justice and honor will ever be true. 

Chorus. 

The stars, the stars, etc. 

While the mists of the mountains in silvery hue, 
In ne^li-rencc dance in the Welkin's soft blue, 
While the circlini: tides rise and fall on the lea, 
Circumvolving the lnvast of the billowy sea. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 50 

Let the glorious memories that hallow our fair, 
Be consigned to the light of eternity's care, 
To live while our flag shall in triumph arise; 
Commingling its blue with the azure-tint skies. 

Chorus. 
The stars, the stars, etc. 



PKOGKESS. 

The curtain fell on time's demise, 
E're Egypt came upon life's stage, 

Who knows what empires took their rise 
Within that prehistoric age. 

The germ from which all Nations grew, 
Or Egypt's fame, or India's lore 

Has filled the world both old and new 
With thoughts that sages thought before. 

There's nothing new beneath the sun, 
Said Solomon with wisdom fraught, 

And ever since the world begun, 
A school of morals has been taught, 

In literature sacred deemed, 
From ancient or medieval writ, 

Through which our social laws are gleaned, 
And modified our age to fit. 



60 COLUMBIAN MI-M KIAL. 

Long since that mystic age has past, 
From grand Olympus' giddy heights 

Did Jupiter his thunders cast 
The god of gods in power and might. 

Yet Homer wrote beneath that wand, 
That universally then reigned, 

In numbers smooth and rhythm grand 
An idyl, that his age has framed. 

" Greece nurtured in her glory's time " 
Grew up the germs of literature, 

That English classics made sublime, 
To live, while Nations shall endure. 

" When liberty from Greece withdrew, 

And o'er the Adriatic flew," 
Then Eome assumed the royal role, 

And empires held in her control. 
Carthage by her was swept away, 

While Nations faltered in decay. 

Then rose the star of Bethlehem, 
When old religions were effete, 

And to the blest Jerusalem, 
The Christian made his loved retreat, 

Then history's variegated page 
Ornate with evolution's brand, 

Was marked with change and battle's rn^o. 
All round the Mediterranean's strand. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 61 

The Roman empire in decay 

Became the field for conquering swords; 
Mahomet rose and in his day 

O'erran Arabia with his hordes. 

The soil of Europe stained with blood 

And bootless conquest, in its train 
Made rivalry, where brotherhood 

Might otherwise have had its reign. 

But lo ! Another world was found, 

Where neither tyranny nor creeds 
Were planted in its fallow ground, 

To hedge the way that virtue pleads. 

Then grew to life the pioneer 

The grandest type of human kind 
The class unused to servile fear, 

Nor to the faults of rulers blind. 

To these, is due our country's fame, 
Whose flag is raised in freedom's name, 

Whose constitution knows no creed, 
But covers all its subjects need. 

Its spirit animates the world 

Whereon our flag has been unfurled. 
J Tis there the laws are modified; 

To human rights are they allied, 
The germ of which Columbus gave, 

When he first crossed Atlantic's wave. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

TO Til K OCEAN. 

Give me the ocean in repose, 
Far o'er its ever dimpling face, 

I .lushing, as may a dew-tipped rose 
In nature's captivating grace. 

Each nation of the teeming Earth, 
On its domain their interest share, 

Inherited by right of birth, 
The boon, unchallenged, everywhere. 

And to all Nations now we say, 

This highway passes by your gates, 

And by these presents here we pray, 
That you all join the world's great States 

To celebrate the eventful year, 
That o'er the sea Columbus sailed, 

Buoyant in hope, unknown to fear, 
Eureka ! lo his plan prevailed. 

Smile on ! Fair ocean deep and blue, 
AYhile all the Nations far and near, 

Join hands with us in homage true, 
To him whose memory we revere. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 63 

INVOCATION HYMN. 

Air : AMERICA. 
God of creations plan, 
Thy humble servant man, 

Invokes thy care; 
Before thy throne we bow, 
And pray thee to endow 
Us with thy blessings now, 

And hear our prayer. 

The world's great heart is moved, 
Its conscience has approved 

By sentient thought, 
Our celebrating here, 
The work that all revere 
So great, so vast, so dear, 

Columbus wrought. 

Four hundred years are spent. 
Since inspiration sent 

Columbus west, 
In fame to lead the van, 
The ocean's breadth to span. 
Its virgin path to scan, 

O'er its wild crest. 
With one united voice, 
(Subjects and kings rejoice; 

The vail is turned 
That lifts ambition higher, 
That stimulates desire, 
And fans to flame the fire, 

That in them burned. 



64: COU'MHIAN MKMnKIAL. 

Behold a tempting prize, 
That o'er the ocean lies, 

Was first the thought, 
That royal minds possessed, 
Who divanm! that empires \vest, 
Beneath their crowns should rest, 

With strength distraught. 

But evolutions hand, 

The fate of nations planned, 

In broader type. 
New governments arise, 
That freemen improvise, 
Imperialism dies 

Before the light. 

Could we prophetic scan 
The destiny of man, 

By science wrought. 
The curtain that would rise 
Would blind belief surprise, 
As truth with science flies 

To objects sought. 

Of kings the sacred gem, 
Set in each diadem, 

Was right divine. 
But in the western plain, 
Jleyond the (x-ean's main, 
Where freedom held the reign, 

A new design, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 65 

On Europe soon recoiled, 
That tyranny despoiled, 

Spontaneous grew; 
And common law construed 
Each royal mandate stood, 
For universal good, 

Each nation knew. 

Now, on one common plain, 
The world can meet to gain, 

By peaceful arts, 
New flights in learning's ways, 
That in the future lays, 
Throughout each coming phase, 

That change imparts. 

Where rests the unsheathed blade, 
That cuts the tangled braid, 

By ignorance spun ? 
Who now can play the seer, 
To in the future peer, 
And bring the object near, 

In search begun ? 



FLYING. 

Air : AMERICA. 
What may our future be, 
By genius's decree, 
Invests our brains 



66 < "I 1 MM \N 



To cleave the vault of blue, 
As birds their flights pursue. 
Is this for us in lieu 
Of railroad trains? 

Are we to soar above, 
To imitate the dove 

And birds that sing? 
Are we by easy i light 
To reach the giddy height, 
And wed our heart's delight 

While on the wing ( 

"With parson, book in hand, 
Robes fluttering in the wind, 

To join the two; 
And then the happy bride, 
Her lover by her side, 
To angels' grace allied, 

Responds, " I do.." 

Then, like an angel fair, 
She cleaves the cloudless air, 

Her groom beside; 
And with her troubadour 
Together they explore, 
As on the wing they soar, 

The world, world wide. 

Pray tell us. at the Fair, 
Who will assemble there, 
Js this to be ( 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 67 

What else, for us in store, 
Lies through the open door 
That genius may explore ? 
We'll wait and see. 



THE STAK OF EMPIEE. 

Astrology once ruled the world around 
The Mediterranean Sea, for fame renowned, 
Where first Phoenician vessels dipped their keel, 
In its salt waves before the wind to reel. 

'Twas then the Arabians, in their mystic light, 
Saw visions in the stars that rule the night, 
And in their twinkling maze, stern fate's decree 
Foreshadowed men's and nations' destiny. 

The hidden secrets of the milky way, 
That belts the Heavens, in its dim display, 
Was suited to the Arab's magic lore, 
That opened to futurity the door. 

And in this vein there runs a legend old, 

That seers in futurity have told 

A motto suited to the present day, 

" Westward the Star of Empire takes its way." 

'Twas in the Orient, this star arose, 
Where lived our ancient mother in repose, 
From whose prolific womb was Europe stocked, 
Its early nations, in her cradle rocked. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

Atlantic's waves could not their progress stay; 
' Westward the Star of Empire takes her way." 
( 'olumbus destined first to lead the van, 
The Star of Empire leaped Atlantic's span. 

And when began the work of founding states, 
Above the rights of kings, the impending fates 
Appeared upon the ever changing scene, 
To settle issues that might intervene, 

Ere independent nations had their birth, 
To rank among the empires of the earth. 
And what these fates ordained has been fulfilled. 
Less by the sword than by good fortune willed. 



EMPIRE'S WAVE. 

Asia, thou alma mater of mankind, 
From whose prolific womb was Europe stocked, 
( )lder than history are thy time worn days. 
Was ancient (ireece one of thy cherished sons, 
Ami did the poet Homer wisdom learn 
From olden Hindu lore of antique fame? 
Or did llelenie ( i reece. to ghry rise. 
Without instructions from its sacred book- '. 

Whence came the light that bla/ed around the --! 

of Mediterranean's Eastern sea, to shine 

Through Europe's broad domain in futur. 

To \\ake its nations to a higher life ( 

Whence did 1'hu-nieian grandeur take its flight, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 69 

And Egypt, thou of venerated fame, 
Whose patent antedates the sculptured walls 
Of Thebes in ruins mouldering into dust 
The sport of fancy's dream and listless thought, 
Ere rose the guiding star of Bethlehem ? 

Out of these glories, Rome and Carthage grew, 
But buried in their turn in times recoil, 
Have still their records left upon its page, 
As landmarks on the hidden path that traced 
The western sun on its diurnal way, 
Towards the Occident's extreme confines. 

Out of this wreck of empire's fallen thrones, 

To the arena, nations new arose, 

With youthful pith and vigor in their limbs, 

As when the frost of winter kill the stalk, 

The warmth of spring its vigorous growth renews, 

Till autumn sears it with its fatal touch. 

Lo, from the west creations new arise, 
As empire o'er the ocean quickly flies, 
To verify of science's claim the dream 
Now realized in our new regime, 
Chicago has the honor now to celebrate, 
The great event, that oped the book of fate. 



70 COI.r.MUIAN MKMoItlAL. 

TIIK LORD'S PRAYBK IN METRE. 

Air : ( )i.i> II IM>KI:I>. 
Our father, who in Heaven doth reign, 
Thy name he hallowed in refrain, 
Thy kingdom conic, thy will he done 
On earth, as 'tis in Heaven hegun. 
If others may against us sin. 
As we forgive them from within, 
Grant us a like reprieve, O Lord, 
According to thy promised word. 
Not tempted, hut from evil led, 
Give us each day our daily bread; 
Thine he the kingdom, glory, power, 
Amen, amen forevermore. 



Thus, we invoke thy Heavenly care, 
Abiding with us at our fair; 
Inspire the world in rivalry, 
With peace and magnanimity. 



BROTHER JONATHAN'S COURTSHIP. 

Air : " YANKEE DOODLE." 
'Twas in the month of early June 

When Nature 's decked in flowers; 
When birds their tenor voices tune. 

To cheer the dawning hours. 
When in the east the coming sun 

The vaulted welkin shaded, 
A prelude to the day begun, 

When Luna's liV>t had faded. 



COLUMBIAN MEMOBIAL. 71 

'Twas at this evanescent brief, 

That Ruth awoke from dreaming, 

Leaped from her couch and o'er the heath, 
Along her way was teeming. 

Her path laid o'er the fallow lawn 
Where sedge and grasses blended, 

And laurel shrubs the hills adorn, 
For nature's grace intended. 

But nature on the landscape spread, 
Had naught compared in beauty, 

To agile Ruth, as on she sped 
Of Eros' spoils, the booty. 

On went the maid, she knew not where, 

As if a fairy bound her, 
To trace these vales a solitaire, 

Amidst the charms around her. 

When lo ! a voice came through the air, 

As soft as zephyr's chiming, 
Through piny foliage, here and there, 

In rhythmic cadence rhyming. 

'Twas muffled through the laurels dense, 

As in her ear it chanted 
The name of Ruth, in love's suspense 

Till his fond wish was granted. 

Ruth knew the voice, and felt the dart 

That flew from Cupid's quiver, 
For now she knew her yielding heart, 

Its fortress must deliver 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

To him, who, like herself, did roam 

In (jucst of nature-, smiling, 
On youthful hearts of love, the home 

Uncertainty beguiling. 

" Tome to my arms my Jonathan," 

Cried Ruth to her fond lover; 
The lad, astonished, thither ran, 

"While blushing to discover, 

1 1 is fa ithful heart's and soul's desire; 

And then in sweet caresses. 
Their vows they plight, with Nature's lyre 

To chant the charmed duresses. 

The sun peeped o'er the distant gray, 
And streaked the heather olden, 

Prophetic of the nuptial day, 

To make their hearthstone golden. 

In seventeen hundred seventy-six, 

In Philadelphia's keeping, 
The wedding party met to fix 

A declaration greeting. 

That here, upon their nuptial day, 

Among the world of nations. 
They raise their standard here to pray, 

For recognized relations. 

France first the invitation graced, 

And Jonathan saw glory. 
In future pride not yet effaced 

By time's repeating story. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

The beauteous bride that shared the nest 

In Jonathan's new mansion, 
Bore children for the distant West 

For national expansion. 

First thirteen children made the group, 
Their fireside home to brighten, 

But now a gay and festive troupe, 
The Nation's prestige heighten. 

Full forty -four, their number, knows, 

Around our flag to hover, 
A tower of strength, who dare oppose 

Born of a cherished mother. 

From Asia's shore to Europe's coast, 

A half way goal comprising. 
Where freedom makes no empty boast, 

Inventions improvising. 

Four hundred years of time unrolled 
From centuries' wheel in motion, 

Have now revived the memories old 
How Colon crossed the ocean. 

And how the genesis of man 

Has westward since been teeming, 

Till sentient thought the earth can span. 
Like light electric gleaming. 



7i COLUMBIAN MT M<> RIAL. 

OUR COUNTRY. 
Air : " OLD OAKEN BUCKET." 

( >ur country still clad in the robes of its childhood, 

Klastic and gay, in its vigor and prime, 
Ornate \vith the beauty and charm of the wild wood, 

And fanned by the winds of its genial clime. 

While now in the days of its halcyon pleasir 
I n ample profusion spread out to its hands, 

In the mountain's and valley's unlimited treasur- 
And in the broad plains of its verdure-clad lands. 

And now at the end of four centuries fleeting, 
Since first did Columbus the Ocean explore, 

In friendship, extends to the nations a greeting 
To visit our Fair upon Michigan's shore. 

Our broad inland sea, with its bosom e'er heaving, 
Like the tide-swelling Ocean, dilating its breath, 

Like the heart of the continent, living and breathing 
The air of Dame Nature, that's never at rest. 

The Old Oaken Bucket, whose memories we cherish 
We'll hang from the curb of Lake Michigan's well 

i childhood's bright emblem, that never can perish, 
But live in the heart, the old story to tell. 

Now venerable fathers, who live o'er the ocean, 
Thy children invoke, and invite you again, 

To come to our aid in this work of devotion, 

To honor the one who first crossed the wild main. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 75 

EVOLUTION. 

" Many a vanquished year and age 
Of tempest's breath and battle's rage," 
Have overspread the changing earth 
Since mystic nature gave it birth, 
And writ its history in the rocks, 
Upturned to sight by earthquake shocks. 
The age that carved on monuments, 
In nature's touch that ne'er relents, 
The mysteries of chronology, 
In every spot above the sea, 
From height to depth, on every hand, 
Replete with evolution's brand. 

Each continent that studs the main, 

Redeemed from ocean's broad domain, 

In varied outlines, has been wrought 

That wind, and tide, and time have brought, 

But powers that held the book of fate, 

Since time began to formulate 

The ocean's bounds, the land's reserve, 

The mountain's chain, the river's curve, 

Decreed, that in the rising West, 

The grandeur of the world should rest. 

Here inland seas have been outspread 
By living springs and rivers fed, 
And on their verge a city made 
A center to the world of trade. 
Chicago is its name, well known, 
Throughout the earth's remotest zone; 



COLUMBIA!! MKMoKIAL. 

Peerless she stands and world renowned 

rnrivaled in her laurels crowned. 

Then wliy should not the nations in 

To lay their tributes at her feet. 

She who these honors will repay 

AVith interest at no distant day, 

In the necessities of life 

For which the world's in endless strife. 

In science a novitiate, 

She bows with reverence to each State, 

AVI iose deputies shall honor her, 

In grateful council to confer, 

And celebrate the passim: year. 

That all the world has held so dear. 

The year that o'er the trackless wave, 

Unto the world Columbus <ravo 

The charm that ignorance oYrturned, 

As all mankind the secret learned 

Of the new world, that crowned the AVest, 

That all the wants of man possessed, 

AVith superstition left behind. 

That had so long enslaved the mind. 

There was a pa<re immaculate, 

AVhere rivalry could emulate. 

And share the genius of the , 

In which all thinking minds cuira^e. 

Then new inventions filled the world. 
New nations' banners were unfurled. 
Youn<: blond, infused in youthful veins 
Soon stimulated human brains, 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 77 

And high ambition mounted higher, 
For Avhere shall rest the heart's desire, 
When tempted by the gates ajar, 
That open where new glories are, 
Within the wilds and solitudes 
Of nature's boundless amphitudes, 
O'erspread with sylvan shadows hung, 
The mountain, glen and vales among, 
Enriched by many an autumn dress 
Of leaf mould, in the wilderness. 

Or where the emerald prairie maze 
Has vanished in the summer haze, 
And with the distant welkin blue 
Is lost in a dissolving view. 

Lo ! from the ocean's billowy breast, 

A fleet is coming to the West. 

It bore a score or two of men 

A mighty sword, a mightier pen 

The first installment of a tide 

To human destiny allied. 

It pierced the wilderness of waves, 
Whose everlasting motion laves 
The wilderness of virgin shore, 
That never had been known before. 

Westward the tide of progress goes, 
To conquer all \vlio may oppose 
The fiat of the sword unsheathed, 
To gain the right by might bequeathed. 



78 OOI.fMIHAN 

Survive tlif litte.st. was the rule. 
Adopted in the invader's school 
And "lo the Indian whoso mind 
Sees God in clouds or in the wind," 
Vanished before the conquering sword 
And left behind an empty void. 

Now all things must he built anew; 

States were mapped out, large cities grew, 

And multiplied from sea to 

As if intent on rivalry; 

The western world against the old, 

The stalwart youth becoming bold 

Away from the paternal roof, 

While laboring for his own behoof. 

Now, dear old world where we've begun, 

Started from that, which you have done, 

And in our emulating strain 

( n.od fellowship IKIS held the rein, 

Fm-evennore, so let it be, 

As long as tides roll o'er the sea. 



CHICAGO TRl'ST. 
Air: "<).s LIM-KN \Vin:.\ iiii;Sr.\ \V 



\ . >: \< [ ithin the past, 

Time's transient shadows Hying past, 
Upon a wilderness were ca 
That now is called Chicago. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 79 

Ev'n then the place this name possessed, 
A wild on Michigan's heaving breast, 
A landscape in the distant west, 
A portage of tradition. 

"Where reverence for the Manitou, 
The only God the Indian knew, 
Was his protection, ever true, 
In nature's lone amenities. 

But lo ! There came a new regime 
In civilization's dawning gleam, 
As westward ho ! its votaries teem 
To occupy Chicago. 

The Indian vanished from the place, 
And followed West his wandering race, 
And of his blood left but a trace 
Among the new invaders. 

No marks by him were left behind, 
No monuments by him designed, 
No one to mourn his ill starred wind, 
That canceled his inheritance. 

He played his part upon life's stage, 
Who knows how long his golden age, 
That smoothly ran in his presage 
In nature's tranquil dalliance. 

When Moses in the rushes smiled, 
And Pharaoh's daughter took the child, 
And through her love the deed beguiled, 
Who then lived at Chicago. 



MI.M..I:! A i . 

Who else hut them could here invest, 
Their all in such a wildern. 
( )r who hut them abide the test, 
< )f such a life enduring. 

The fin-tains raised, and changed the scene, 
Tin 1 Indian fled, the acts bet \veen. 
The tiller plows the heather green, 
And city building follows. 

Who questions evolution's reign. 
Its tide of justice, though not plain, 
Must ever follow in their train. 
Survive the fittest substitute. 

Such is the rule that here applies, 
AVhere all our love of country lies, 
And where our dearest social ties, 
Are blended in alliance. 

The world to us is growing near. 
From east and west it meets us here, 
And sentient thought that all revere, 
Heroines our inspiration. 

While fruitage from its stock mature, 
Shall with the Nation's life endure, 
And in its heart shall rest secure, 
Its cherished souvenirs. 

Chicago! this to \ oil in trust, 
Is given to \oiir keeping first, 
To honor him wliuse Mesh is dust, 
Whose soul shall live eternal. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 81 

And as the future centuries run, 
Let this good work, that we've begun, 
Through every land beneath the sun, 
Rehearse Columbus' memory. 



ACROSTIC. 

Tell me the tales of the olden time, 

How the seamew screamed his weird chime, 

Ever in distance, where the sea mists dance, 

What a will of the wisp, with a sea muffled lisp, 
Over the ocean, a mystery spread, 
Revealing no clue, to the place where it led, 
Letting no light from its shrouded crest 
Divine the ne\v continents, in the far west, 
Since geology raised them above the blue sea. 

Crowning each coast with a sea beaten lea, 

Oh, the mystery that lurked in the wilderness ocean, 

Little was known, of its tides or its motion, 

Ubiquitous ever, its sources or bounding, 

More especially, the Avail that dammed up its surrounding; 

But theories multiplied, about what they knew naught, 

Inasmuch as their knowledge respecting it grew not, 

And never went farther than doubtful belief, 

Nor ever came aught that could bring a relief, 



82 COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

Enough to substantiate logic or science. 
Xerxes the Persian then bid Greece defiance : 
Persia thus worsted in battle retreated 
O'er the ^Egaegan sea, dejected, defeated; 
> she never made war on the Grecians again, 
In the age of their triumph on Platea's plain. 
The sum of the matter, may now be related, 
In the days that Columbus' time antedated, 
Of all that was known, ere the age of his birth, 
No one had discovered the wav round the earth. 



POETKY. 

Some say the age of poetry is past, 

Would such a wish be father to the thought ? 

Must prosy words imagination blast, 

That charm the heart, in tender passion wrought i 

Must youth's volition measured be in mail ! 

And all our aspirations hedged around 
With toils inflexible, by which to veil 

Ideal views of pleasure's sunny ground ? 

The man who measured numljers may despise, 

Let him. not throw a wivatli on Shakespeare's shrine, 
Let him not smile upon the sunset skies, 
praise the beauty of unique design. 

Nor in the poetry of motion dance 

The ravishing quadrille, to music's swell, 

Nor in the social walks of life advance 

Beyond the limits where a prude may dwell. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. S3 

And when he to the altar leads a maid, 

If he a victim finds for sacrifice, 
'Twill be a business venture, like a trade 

In stocks or bonds, at marketable price. 

His heart impervious to sentiment, 

He offers her his nuptial vows to share, 
She measures out a business like consent, 

The match negotiated on the square. 

Nor song nor music need his balance tempt, 
'Twould be a lavish waste of precious pearls, 

From such eccentric pastime he's exempt, 
'Twould not be business to such chronic churls. 

Let him not visit the Chicago Fair, 

Lest his tenacious vigils may be shocked; 

But let him stay at home, a solitaire, 
By tuneful poetry and romance mocked. 

Let no poetic tribute mark his tomb, 

When back to dust his body shall return; 

Let not the flowers shed their sweet perfume, 
Nor zeplwrs sigh, nor drooping willows mourn. 

Ah ye! who have not felt the sacred charm 

Of poetry to lift your standard higher, 
To in the hearts of loving ones embalm 

The memories of sanguine youthful fire; 

What have you lived for, in your pilgrimage 
Through life's eventful and dissolving vu-\v: 

What lasting tribute made in life's presage 
To make a graceful monument prove true. 



84 cou'Mr.iAN MI:M<>KIAL. 



NKW YORK'S [NAUGUBAI GREETING. 

Air " Star Spanirh'd Manner." 

iv what has caused such a wonderful charm, 
Throughout every land, by the broad ocean hounded, 
From the school house, the forum, the mill and the farm, 
In grateful emotion, the voice has been sounded. 
'Tis the four hundredth year, since the bold pioii. 
So buoyant with hope, and undaunted by lea;-, 
On Atlantic's broad bosom set sail for the AV- 
On the wilderness path of its billowy breast. 

On the twelfth of October New York leads the van, 

To honor Columbus, in truth and devotion, 

AVhere in the wide world, could the day and the man. 

lie honored so highly, this side of the ocean; 

There our standards shall rise, till beneath the blue skies, 

They shall tell to the world, where the true honor 1: 

For lifting the veil, that hung over the west, 

That had hidden the land, on the ocean's broad breast. 

Around our fair city a landscape is spread, 
Ornate in the beauties of nature reposing, 
\Vith our beautiful river, eternally fed, 
T,v the springs from the mountains, its valley inclosing 
And our commerce clad bay. with its tidal washed 1< 
From the waves of the sea, to the Nation is 1 ': 
These grandeurs were hid, till Columbus made known, 
world of the west, where they slumbered alone. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 85 

Let thousands of voices united then sing, 
The day to make glad, with a festive thanksgiving, 
For the blessings of freedom and comfort they bring, 
To the genial world of amenities living, 
New York is its center, acknowledged to be, 
Where the flag of the free, on Atlantic's bold lea, 
So gallantly waves, to the world a good cheer, 
From our mast heads a generous welcoming here. 



MERIT. 

Four hundred years have now their coil unrolled, 
From off the wheel of times' ne'er ending chain, 
Since the grand landmark that Columbus made, 
Has set its seal upon the continents. 

Toward the path that only honor knows, 
Can all mankind now turn their willing feet, 
]STo dogmas now can block the open way, 
Or cramp the aspirations of the mind, 

In new inventions made for human weal, 
Whether or not they tally with belief, 
Or break the fallow ground of sentient thought, 
Or walk in paths, not trod by man before. 

J Tis fitting now that in this teeming age, 
We call a halt, and take a breathing time; 
In the far depths of North America, 
Is the spot named for our rendezvous. 



86 COUMMXN IOEMOBIAL. 

Y who best represent the busy world. 
Your grateful tributes at its scepter lay, 
That shadows here its pare immaculate, 
On which to write degrees of genius found. 

.Nations! To what grand heights have you attained, 
In rivalry, where science led the way 
That arbiter, to which the world unbends, 
That throne, majestic and imperial. 

And in the rising arts mechanical, 
What progress have you made with study fraught, 
In the great path, that flying centuries tread, 
With steady pace toward infinitude. 

Pierian waters rolling on their way, 
The dawn of light, revealing a new day, 
Perfunctory education in decay. 

Have followed evolution's swelling tide, 
That will the destinies of man decide. 
When liberty and knowledge are allied. 

Be this the fruitage of Chicago's Fair, 

AVhere may an honest world their notes compaiv, 

AVith justice blindfold, sitting in the chair. 

Whereof, of kindred man the brotherhood 
Shall lie the only watchword understood, 
Merit the claim, for everlasting good. 



COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 87 

THE NAME OF AMEEICA. 

" The rose by any other name would smell as sweet." 
Columbus, 'tis a tribute to your worth, 
That lays our humble offerings at your feet, 
To thee, whose living fame has filled the earth. 

What if thy name marks not the land you gave, 
It is emblazoned on the temples there, 
To live, when empires sink beneath the wave, 
Their cities lain in ruins everywhere. 

Still will survive all these, the magic thought 
That on a wondering world so subtly fell, 
And to its hungry soul the knowledge brought, 
That superstitious dogmas did dispel. 

America, the nations gather at your shore, 
But not in honor's homage to your name; 
But unto him who opened first the door, 
That of the world of progress lit the flame. 

You sought for India o'er the watery west, 
A simple thought, that truth would justify; 
You found a world reposing on its breast, 
Beneath your own familiar star-lit sky. 

You pierced the vestal throne of cosmic thought, 

Beneath the rubbish of inertia laid; 

You tested that which theories had taught, 

You showed the way 1 You spoke 1 The world obeyed ! 



88 COLUMBIAN MEMORIAL. 

BUKIAL OF COLUMBUS. 

Air: Nor A DRUM WAS HEARD. 
"Weary and sadly he went to his grave, 

His fame and ambition resigning, 
As visions of glory from over the wave 

Had vanished, as years were declining. 

Quiet and silent they laid him to rest, 

When the light of his life had ceased burning; 

To his own mother earth, his consoling behest, 
Unto dust his frail body returning. 

Oh bury, oh bury me o'er the wild wave, 
Was the wish of our hero when dying, 

Let me rest where the Occident's waters shall lave 
The shore where my bod}' is lying. 

On a green western* island his body now lays, 

To honor his dying desire, 
While nations unite in rehearsing his praise. 

With song and with harp and with lyre. 

And the light that once burned in this casket of clay 
Shines brighter and brighter before us, 

As time rolls along on its track of <leeny 
To leave brighter visions before us. 

IIo! Ye nations assembled to honor his name. 
Who have reaped of his genius the fruiting, 

Wreath his memory with laurels of honor and fame. 
That eternity's hand is recruiting. 



AUTOGRAPH LETTER 
OF 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

ADDRESSED TO 
THE EMBASSADOR, MR. NICOLO ODERIGO. 



SIR: It is impossible to describe the solitude which your departure 
has caused among us. I gave the book of my privileges to Mr. Frco. di 
Rivarolo, in order that he might forward it to you along with a copy of 
the missive letters. I beg of you, as a particular favour, to write to Don 
Diego, to acknowledge their receipt, and to mention where they are de- 
posited. Another copy shall be finished, and sent to you in the same 
manner, and by the said Mr. Fr . You will find another letter in it, in 
which their Highnesses have promised to give me all that belongs to me, 
and to put Don Diego in possession of it, as you will see. I am writing 
to Signor Gian Luigi, and to the Signora Caterina, and the letter will 
accompany this. I shall depart in the name of the Holy Trinity with 
the first favourable weather, with a considerable equipment. If Girolamo 
da Santo Stefano comes he must wait for me, and not entangle himself 
with any one, for they will get from him whatever they can, -and then 
leave him in the lurch. Let him come here, and he will be received by 
the King and Queen until I arrive. May our Lord have you in his holy 
keeping! March 21, 1502, in Seville. 

At your Commands. 

S. 

8. A. S. 

X. M. Y. 

X Po FERENS. 
A /etc simile of the above letter will be found on pages 90 and 91. 

89 



I 




il- 




V 








UJ 



IH 




< 



EXPLANATIONS OF COLUMBUS' AUTOGRAPHS. 



The initials of the signature in this letter are supposed to stand for 
either the Latin name- - supplex Altissimi Salvatoris, or the 

Spanish words, Servidor sus Altezas Sacras, both of which have the 
same meaning. 

M. Y. stands for 

Xristos. Maria, Yosephus 

or 

Ysabel. 

X po FERENS is the Spanish of Christopher. 

There are but few copies of Columbus' letters to be found in literature 
and consequently but few of his autographs. The foregoing is a trans- 
lation of the preceding fac simile of his letter, taken from a collection of 
authentic documents from original manuscripts, published in Genoa, and 
translated and reprinted in London in 1 




ARMS OF COLUMrV 

AJTEB HAVING RECEIVED HI? TITLE. ADMIRAL OF THE OCEAN. Virr 
AM) GOVEBN' L OF THE EAST INDIES, ETC. 

02 



The history of Asia, the mother of nations, and of Egypt, is too old for 
our chronology. That of Europe is so modern compared to it that America 
seems like her next youngest sister learning her A. B, C, from the same 
horn-book, and her civilization from the same fountain head. Here was 
the goal we started from, and from this European foundation let us build 
up the Historical Geography in our own continent. 

Here came the Spanish, the French, the English and the Dutch, assert- 
ing their respective claims to it, backed by the swonL Europe was up in 
arms to fortify and adjust these trans- Atlantic claims; but the issue was 
finally settled by very eccentric turns in the fortunes of war. 

As the English colonies gradually took on the forms of nationality. 

new questions vexed the brains of kings, and new issues complicated the 

situation till the thirteen English colonies found themselves confederated 

:her by a political destiny that self-preservation had made necessary. 

The seedling stalk had now become the trunk. It bent before the 
storm that assailed it, but did not break, and here began the political 
history of North America, released from the toils of effete political bonds. 
The shackles to American progress were cast off, and thrown into the 
ocean, that was strewn with the wrecks of royal ambition. 

From this time forward the United States transcended the influence of 
foreign powers on North American soil, and its geographical changes 
were largely fashioned by her sword or controlled by her diplomacy. 

Geography is the father of History. In prehistoric times Asia emptied 
her teeming population into Europe. It was the Mediterranean sea that 
enticed this migration, and on its friendly shores a new civilization was 
created, that never could have grown into being in Asia, There was no 
other sea iu the world that bisected the lands of a hemisphere, and rolled 
its tide against two continents, all the way through a rone of mildness. 

When this human wave moved along its northern shore, the lakes, 
rivers and valleys of Europe, possessing the elements necessary for the 



EH8TQRICAL I PHY, 

growth of nations here they began, and under new conditions have 
come up to their present standard in law and religion, essentially differ- 
nt from that of Asia. 

The next great human wave crossed the Atlantic, say three thousand 
n later than that which came from Asia to Europe, where it found a 
continent equally propitious to national growth, but without as many 
i u] hical subdivisions suited to the wants of separate nations asbound- 
I. For this reason America has now, and ever must have, a less 
number of nations than Europe, compared to its area, for want of geo- 
graphical limits to each, if for no other cause. 

Let us commence with the dawn of geographical science, and briefly 
follow its slow progress as it discovered its path by the light of tin- 
fro m place to place over the wilderness, plains of unknown lands and the 
wilder domain of the ocean. 

Greece is the spot to begin at, for whatever Egypt, Phoenicia, Arabia, 
Persia or India knew before its time, such knowledge was a sealed book 
to Europe till she (Greece) had produced a new edition of the work, 
enlarged and improved. 

Homer, who lived in the tenth or ninth century before the Christian 
era, traveled through Greece, the island of Crete, and along the Phoeni- 
cian coast of the Mediterranean sea, which countries he described with 
comparative accuracy. Beyond these, on every hand, were the creations 
of fancy, told in poetry and mythology by others before him, as well as 
himself and some who succeeded him. 

To illustrate the geography of his time this accompanying map has 
been inserted. No map had ever been made at so early a period, and 
this has been distorted to represent with as much fidelity as possible \vhat 
Homer, Hesiod and others described* The distortion of the porti 
pied by Greece, Phoenicia and Egypt mi^lit si"-m un 
made in accordance with some of the earliest iu,<; >untry. 

of which have 'een prc^-rved. No positively accurate map- of am 
of the European world - previous to th' -try. 

and none of the western world, fora century or mre lat<-r. 

The eastern portions of tl !' Mediterranean sea are aH the parts of the 

lii-re presented which can be recogni/.'- 1 U approaching .-orrcri 
Beyond this then known part of the world, in every direction \\ 
for romance and mythology only, as will l readily se. n, and -till I- 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



95 



these lands of fabled wonders rolled the ocean around them, to whose 
limits no bounds had been set, even in imagination. 

This map is based on the popular idea at that time that the earth was 
a plain, circular in form, of which Greece occupied the center. Beneath 
its surface were the infernal regions, where the wicked were punished, 




and the entrance to this abode was located near the western extremity 
of the borders of night, where the Cimerians dwelt, a happy people, 
though enveloped in perpetual twilight or under a clouded sky, but prob- 



96 HISTORI' KU'IIY. 

ably, not total darkness, as some writers assort to have been the supposi- 
tion. 

TIIK NAMK im-KKISOKEANS 

Has a signification on which much has been written in ancient cla- 
Tli. .irk-in of the liiiinan race has 1* -en trac,-.l from tin-in in speculative 

y. fortified by the wdl known fact tliat northern peoples have 1 
infusing fresh blood into the veins of southern nations, ever since the 
Is of history hciran; hence, tliis people were supposed by the ancients 
to enjoy an iniinunity from the cares and iUs of ordinary mortals, and 
the term of their lives was set at a thousand years. 

THE I^ESTRYOONES 

Were a giant race of cannibals, according to the mythology of that age. 

THE KLYSIAN ISLANDS, 

Whose name suggests their signification, were located on the western 
borders of the world, and guarded by nymphs of the river ocean. 
THE LOTOPHAGI 

were a race of people who lived on a plant called the lotus. The names 
Cyclops, Cave of u3olus, Pigmies and Amazons are classical and mytho- 
logical. Other names on the map need no explanation as they are 
approximately correct as to their locality and well known to history. 

Tha'.es and Anaximander, who lived in the fifth century, B. C., were 
the first Europeans to take up the subject of geography on scientific 
principles, 

Thales studied astronomy at Memphis, in Egypt, and could calculate 
eclipses, but not their exact day or hour. He corrected the Egyptian 
calendar from 360 to 365 days to the year, but this correction was not 
immediately adopted by the Kgyptians. 

Anaximaiider, his pupU, was the first one to map out the earth, or 
latlu-r such parts of it as were then known.* 

the second one entrusted with the care of the A! 

(lri; ; n library, says: " The chief ,1,-i-n of this map was to make a mathe- 
matical division of the whole earth, rather than a delineation of the land 



* Previous to this, maps of sjieci.-il localities had been made by the 
before the Helenic Age of Greece, for a description 
iiirh see ( '. P. I alv's address of 1879 before the American Geograph- 
ical S<n-i.-t\ 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 97 

and water on it." It was called a sphere by some of the early writers, 
and said to have been made on metal. The description of it by Eratos- 
thenes would favor this inference. 

Hecataeus, who was born 549 years B. C., wrote a book of " Travels 
Round the Earth," giving a description of the Mediterranean sea and 
Southern Asia, as far as India. He also made a map which improved 
Anaximander's map, inserting in it, besides other matter, the rivers and 
stations from the eastern coast of the ^gean sea to Susa, at that time 
the capital of the Persian empire, situated one hundred miles north of 
the extremity of the Persian gulf. Long since it has been lying in rums. 
This map was taken to Sparta by Aristagones, a Grecian historian, and 
presented to King Cleomenes for examination previous to the Ionian 
Revolt, whence no trace of it has come to light, but in The Lan. & Lit. 
of Ancient Greece, by Mure, Vol. IV., a copy of it is inserted, drawn 
from recorded descriptions. 

Thales, Anaximander and Hecatseus were all of Grecian stock, born at 
Miletus, the capital of Ionia, colonized from Crete. 

Herodotus, who was born B. C. , 484, at Halicarnasus, a Dorian city of 
Greece, was the next to contribute to the still very small knowledge of 
geography then current at the literary emporium of Europe. He pub- 
lished a map of the travels he made, a fae simile copy of which, is here- 
with reproduced, taken from the geography of Herodotus. It only shows 
the countries he visited, and not the names of the hundreds of cities and 
many rivers, etc. , which his books describe. 

By comparing this map with that of what was known of the world in 
Homer's time, it will be seen that discoveries had been made in every 
direction. On the west was the Pillars of Hercules, on the south, the 
Great Desert of Africa, the Red sea and the Arabian sea, which he calls 
the Erythraean sea. On the east was India and the rivers Indus, Tigris 
and Euphrates, and the Caspian sea, and on the north the Black sea, which 
he calls the Euxine, and many towns which the geography of Herodotus 
mentions, that are not put down on the map here shown.* 

Herodotus was an accomplished writer, much quoted, but was not a 
profound scholar, like his predecessors who had established scientific 



* This map is a fac simile of Bokirk's which he published to illustrate 
ancient geography. It was reproduced by T. Talbot Wheeler, and from 
the latter copied for this work. 



HISTORICAL 



principles in geography. \\hile In- had only described countries. He evi- 
dent ly h;ul no just conceptions of the spherical form of tho earth. 

He says: " The (Jn-eks on tin- I'oiitus say tiiat the i r. logins 

at the place where the sun rises, and that it flows round the whole 
earth, hut they do not prove it. * * * The IM-I-SOM 11 catBBUB, who 
speaks about the ocean, since he has referred \;\< account to some obscure 
fable, produces no conviction. I know of no such river at all. Homer, 
p -rhaps, or some other of the earlier poets, finding the name, introduced 
it into poetry." 



SKETCH OF THE ANCIEMT WORU) 

ACCORDING TO 

HERODOTUS 




(IeoLT:i]>liy as a scienc<> had now pi-o-r.-s. -d sufficiently to cause spec- 
ulation as t<> -rand divisions of the world, and names for each. 

The most imjMirtant of these to the (Jrecians was the one on which they 
Its inhal'itants were wliivr than tin- Ivryptians and ( 'artha^'mansj 
on the south side of the Mediterranean sea, and they named it 

: >PE, 

i oml i.m word. Urappa. which si.Liiilies "The land of fair 

ftme \\;is tiiVi ap]lied. on'y t<> theii ii\: and as 

:ill Europe 
divided tr I then kno\\TL, 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY* 99 

Another derivation of the name is from Europa, daughter of the King 
of Tyre, of Phoenicia, whose fame is invested with classic in) thology. 
The name 

ASIA 

Has an earlier origin than that of Europe. Homer derives it from a city 
of Lydia, of that name, where ancient geography was studied. 

Herodotus says: " According to the Lydians, Asia was called after 
Asius; hence a tribe in Sardis was called the Asian tribe." There was a 
Lydian poet of that name (Asius). Did Herodotus mean him? 

Other Greek authors give Asia, the daughter of Oceanus and Thetis, as 
the origin of the name. A mythological source, but not necessarily an 
improbable one. 

The Greeks gave the name Libya to the country south of the Mediter- 
ranean, but not without discussion, whether the Nile or the Arabian gulf 
was the dividing line between it and Asia; that is, before the true mag- 
nitude of this gulf was made known to them by Herodotus. Hitherto 
they had only seen its northern extremities, which were jagged inlets, 
and knew nothing of the watery belt which these inlets formed to the 
ocean. Subsequently they gave the name Africa Propria to Caitliage, 
and later still Caesar gave the name 

NEW AFRICA 

To Numidia, a province adjoining the then Roman Province of Car- 
thage. Ultimately the name designated the whole peninsular continent. 

The Punic word Feric an ear of corn has been given by linguists as 
the origin of the name, which seems consistent with the fame of Egypt, 
its northern part, for producing cereals. 

In this age of rapid transit from one part of the world to another and 
equally rapid exchange of ideas, it seems almost incredible, that (hvere 
alone was the great dispensatory to Europe of learning and philosophy, 
when Egypt, Phoenicia and Carthage, all situated on the shores of the 
same sea, had for ages, even before the days of Homer, enjoyed a high 
state of civilization and learning. 

While Greece had been emerging from barbarism and making advances 
in civilization, the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Sidon had explored the 
entire shores of the Mediterranean sea with their trading vessels, in doing 
which they had founded the city of Carthage, the lirst great rival of 
Rome. They also founded Marseilles, of France, and Cadiz, of Spain, 



HlsioKirAI. 01 OGBAPHY. 



both of which have survived the changes tlirou-li which the countries in 
which they are situated h;i\. - ed tlieir identity to the 

pre-M-m l;iy. Marseilles was called by its founders Massalia, Cadiz they 
called (Jades, from < iaddin. the m-'anin-of which in the Pho-nician 
language was the western extremity of the world. 

This name was alx. applied by them t- the Straits of Gibralter, called 
the Pillars of Hercules by the ancient Grecians, as well as the 
Phoenicians before them, 

Lempricre says that the Plio-nicians dedicated a temple to Hercules on 
the Island of (lades, beyond the straits, which is conclusive evidence, 
that the (irecians inherited this divinity from them, as it was before the 
days of Homer, when (lades wa> di~ ;> overed, and received its name from 
the Plneniciaiis. 

After the Pho-nicians had passed through this " jumping off place," 
and unveiled its inyMvries. t!ie Carthage-mans followed, and in tlieir 
wanderings down the cua.-t of. Africa discovered the Fortunate Islands. 
now the( . nai i s. To the Ph<-nicians traded with the ancient 

Britons, exchanging the precious wares of Sidon for the tin of Cornwall. 

These i were unknown to the Greeks, who had all the while- 

been speculating in geographical science, like a young student without a 
master. 

She, like all the rest of Europe, in her earliest days, was uncivilized 
and unlearned, but there was something in her geographical positi. >: 
well as in her blood that stimulated her to improve her condition. 

She iK'ver IK came a wealthy state like Phoenicia or Persia, to the ca.-t 
of her, but she rose to a far hi-her grade of civilization than any of h r 
older but elfete neighbors, who lived in luxurious palaces while she. ten- 
anted in hum study from the groat hook of nature, 

and continued her researches till she became the fountain head, wh 
the learning. fir>t of Rome, and subsequently all Europe began, and grew 
t. its perfection in the sixteenth century. 

Thoii-h I' >-ian literature is not offensive to the sentiment of 

the ninet. nth century: but indispensable to the wants of its institu; 
of learnin . as \\.-ll as il^ >tate policy and its morals. 

Only brii f accounts of 1'ho-nician and ( 'artha.ueiiian discoveries have 

1. After their ships had passed the Pillars of lleivults, 

ian literature informs us that they continued their discoveries till 

ll iev had visited tli- : the ancient Britons OB the north, and south- 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 101 

wardly had followed the coast of Africa nearly to the equator, but their 
discoveries were not followed by any practical results. They took pains 
to preserve their secret from other nations, lest their monopoly of the 
commerce of the then known world should be broken, and its profits 
shared by commercial rivals. 

Pending this inert regime, Alexander, the great Macedonian, carried 
his conquests through Asia Minor to the river Indus, and as Strabo justly 
observes, "made known the East." 

He was the first European to open commercial relations on a grand 
scale with the country that is now British India. 

THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA 

Was built at the deltas of the Nile, as the commercial emporium of the 
Mediterranean, in which to concentrate trade from the far East. Mer- 
chandise was transported from India up the Red sea, thence over-land 
to the Nile, and down its waters to Alexandria, thence to countries 
toward the west. 

This route had less land carriage than that which the Phoenicians and 
Carthagenians hitherto had used; and Alexandria soon became the princi- 
pal commercial emporium of Europe. The map herewith, which is copied 
from Freeman, shows the countries conquered by Alexander, and also 
the Indies, whose trade was so coveted by the ancients. It is worthy of 
mention that his conquests covered the present territory of British India, 
that grand old country whence came the sacred books of the prehistoric 
ages. They also embraced Egypt, not less distinguished for her ancient 
learning. 

Macedon was not geographically suited to enter into this trade, but 
Egypt had an advantage over all the other nations along the shores of 
the Mediterranean in water carriage to India, and this natural facility 
did not escape the eye of Alexander, who even in his military fame did 
not lose sight of the practical. 

This map does not extend far enough east to show Carthage, but it ccn 
be seen on the one following it. 

The dynasty of the Ptolemies in Egypt was begun by one of Alexan- 
der's generals, and continued till R. C. 30, when this kingdom waj 
reduced to a Roman province by Augustus. 

During all this time Egypt was a resort for the literati of the then 
known world, to consult the Alexandrian library, which had been estab- 
lished there by Ptolemy Philadelphins, about B. C. 280. Euclid, the 
father of geometry, was his tutor. 




The map herewith shows the Roman Empire in its greatest extent, its 
limits being indicated by a dotted line and by rivers. Britain, all but the 
Northern part, the land of Picts and Scots, was included in it. 



HI- -i:\PHT. 

NOTES. In themapof the donihrons of Alexander it will be snrn thnt 
bis empire extends much farther to tin- ea-t than that .f | k '..ii,' 

in the map of the Roman Kmpire. IJoth empires included <Ji> 

it and the countries on the eastern borders of tin Mediterranean 
and Black seas. 

Neither empire ever extended mueh north of the Danube. Here 
the tribes, who, savage and uncivili/ed as they were, wen- the fathers 
of tin' present nations of Central Kurope, through a line of inheritance, 
too intricate to unravel without a lifetime of study. Nor is it m < -ary 
to trace this thread of European history, in order to note the pro. 
of geographical science, from its begmningB, on the shores of the Medi- 
terranean sea. to its growth and development on the continent of North 
America, The maps herewith, while they illustrate the pi 
geography, do not by any means illustrate ancient hi>tory. The I., -t 
epitome and the best map illustrations of that intricate subied may be 
found in Labberton's Historical Atlas, the merits of which chall- 
honorable mention in these columns. 

Though the Normans or Scandinavians were hardly known in hist<>ry 
A. D. 117, the era represented by the map of the Roman Kmpin 
their country is located to show when- they subsequently came from. 
and made their power felt throughout Europe, from their native land. 
so remote from the more effeminate, though aggressive nations of its 
Southern borders. Except these Norman names this ma}) is a copy of 
Freeman's. 

The map of the dominions of Alexander is also copied from Freeman, 
which shows the country as it was K C. :W5. Hut it ou;;ht. in justice 
to Mr. Freeman, to be stated, that the name Pluenicia. at the eastern 
extremity of the Mediterranean sea. has been added, not to give the pn m- 
i.-c, that the Phoenicians were ]>ositively there at that time in th'ir 
glory, but to show where they bad been, when they \\ . n the great 
power on this " Great Sea," as it was then called. 

HIPPARCHUS, 

A native of Nicse, of Macedonian stock, made great improvements to the 
astronomy of Thales. He was the first to observe that the summer 
interval between the vernal and autumnal equinox, wa^ seven day- 
longer than the winter interval between the autumnal and the vernal; 
hence, the elongated or eccentric form of the earth's orbit. 

He divided the starry firmament into forty-nine constellations, and 
gave many names to stars. Ho also divided the globe into sections by 
parallels of latitude and longitude, reckoning longitude from the Canary 
Islands, the same as we reckon from ( Ireenwieh. 

"Without mentioning th- iphtin who 

wrote on g.-.::raphy and aMnmomv previous to the age of Ptolemy, 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



105 




!'"' HISTORIC M. GBOQI \1'HV. 

let us con-id. T flic \v..rl.s of thi.- raphers of ancient 

date. He was horn at I'elusium, on t he Nile, in the lii>t century. Ili^ 
name would indicate that In- was of Macedonian origin. The Ptolemy 
map. herewith shown, is a reduction of his map published by (Jio Malom- 
Itra. in Venice in 1571, with the mountains left out to give more room 
for the names. 

A few names have been added, but the main features of it are 
work of the great originator himself. 

It is an older copy than the writ'-r has hitherto seen reproduced j n 
Kn-lish literature, and consequently the most valuable, as it nppr 
mates nearer to the lirst design of its author. 

In offering this map to the public he calls it, as translated literally, 
" \\~cnj "/ iiKDiucr of making thr description of the world <m a plane 
which trill hnrc proportionate measure and correspondence u-ith that 
jrliicJi /s round <>r xphrrical form.' 1 

Again he says : " The whole of the globe which tJie rarfh fntd tlir 
wiiti-r miHprisrs is divided into 360 degrees."" As his map shows. In- 
only gives Europe, Asia and Northern Africa, and from reading his 
geography, an impression prevails that the side antipodal to these con- 
f water. 

Southern Africa he does not attempt to show, as it was not known in 
his time. 

In his book entitled " Great Construction," he gives the position of 
! fixed stars, placing the earth in the center of them. in of 

ii i\ was the accepted one, till that of 

COPER M 

Had substituted it in the sixteenth century. We have now very briefly 
followed fche pro.uTe-s ,,f geography and astronomy down to the first 
century of the Christian era, and even then how little was known in 
detail of the world. 

All A-ia. except the southwestern }>ort ion. all Africa. -xc,-pt th B\ 
of the M. (liirrraneaii and Red seas, the northern j>ortion of Kurop.- and 
the entire western hemi^pher j b. hind the veil which geograph- 

ical and a-tronomi re defined tolift. 

The ronijiir-N of Rome hud B] i' the known world, alii 

the aecoinpanying map copied from Kn-eman will show. Arabia had 
not lii-en mHnded ii, it 63 rthi-rn V( 

'anil and Si-andinavia h 1 it. 



108 BttTOBIOAI ' 'HY. 

!M. AN \TIM\S. The names on tliis map are in Latin, ns will he 
The h-;ivy line running through Indieum Marc (the Indiai tli" 

e|uator. 'Tin- left hand column running north and south of this line 

3 temperature by nunil>-rs, the equator being number. <1 1'J, the 
numbers increasing by fractious and integers, both northwardly and 
southwardly, oil" the" coast of l.ybia lie gives the name, Mare Atlanti- 
cuin (Atlantic Ocean), and south of this name he gives the ( 'anary 
Islands, then called Fortunate Inlands, and put down by him Fortunate. 
To the north he gives 1 1 ihernia ( Ireland* and Albion (England), across the 
channel from which is(Jallia (France) and Hispania (Spain). The < 

the Mediterranean) he does not name, but gives names of islands in 
it familiar to our present geography. Many other names to the east on 
this map may readily he identified with present names. In his 1. 
line both on the north and on the south, he numbers the longitudinal 
lines as we do now. hut gives only 180 degrees, which shows that he 
intended that his map should represent only one-half of the globe. In 
the right hand column he numbers the parallels of latitude, from which 
it will readily be seen, that his map stopped on the north at 68 
not attempting to show to UO degrees at the pole, and on the south stopped 
at I") degi 

ROME, 

Even in the zenith of her glory, did not venture to attack these nations. 
or rather tribes, whose poverty did not tempt invasion, or if it did, whose 
ferocity forbade it. But when Rome had reached these limits her ag- 
gressive policy began to tone down to a defensive one. 

Ca?sar invaded Ancient Briton to strengthen his Gallic possessions, 
but he did not venture far into the island. The real conquest of Britain 
wu- mad-' by Agricola, A. D. 6t. 

It is now an un>olved problem what portion of the fathers of the pres- 
ent English race succumbed to the Roman arms, but the best ethnologi- 
cal research credits but a small one. giving by far the great"]- portion to 
the Saxons, who inhabited the country across the North sea. on the Elbe 
and the \Veis--r. and to the Normans of Scandinavia, who then as now 
inhabited Norway. Sweden ami Denmark. 

1> .-line ami fall of thu Roman Empire dates from its division under 
; . \. D. 302, to the taking of Constantinople by Mahomet. II. 
Ma\ '.".'. A. D. l-l'ill. To this place the seat of tin- Roman Empire had 
been removed by Constaiitine. A. D. :'>>. and here (Ireeian and Roman 
literature had been preserved, through all the centuries of destructive 
warfare that had been visited upon the empire during its decline. 

Down to the tic tantine Rome had been 1'agan. He embraced 

ChriMianity, and as a prudential measure felt the necessity of trar, 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 109 

ring the seat of government to another place. The selection was the 
best which Europe afforded, in a commercial point of view. 

It had long been known in classic poetry and history as Byzantium, 
and to this day, European nations look upon it with covetous eyes, 
none of which are allowed to take it from Turkey, lest so valuable an 
acquisition, in the hands of a thrifty nation, would give it a dangerous 
vantage ground over the rest of Europe. 

The Ottoman conquest, which crushed out the last vestige of Roman 
power at the taking of Constantinople, together with other wars in those 
eventful centuries, brought to light the general geography of Europe, 
but less by the aid of science, than by the practical work of invading 
armies, and the exodus of nations, or rather tribes, from one locality to 
another. 

This work went on till nearly all Europe was changed from the tran- 
sient abiding places of peoples, bound together only by confederated 
compacts, to its present conditions of nationalities, whose respective coun- 
tries are sharply defined by limits; and whose state policy is under con- 
trol of an emperor, a king or a constitution. 

While other nations had done the rough hewing for this work, it was 
reserved for the Normans to give it its finishing touches. 

In speaking of this people, says Macaulay, referring to their establish- 
ing themselves in Normandy, France, in 912 : " Their valor and ferocity 
had made them conspicuous amongst the rovers whom Scandinavia had 
sent forth to ravage western Europe. * * * At length one of the 
feeble heirs of Charlemagne ceded to the strangers a fertile province 
(Normandy). In it they founded a mighty state. * * * The Nor- 
mans rapidly acquired all, and more than all, the knowledge and refine- 
ments which they found in the country where they settled. Their cour- 
age secured their territory against foreign invasion. They established 
internal order, such as had long been unknown in the Frank empire. 
That chivalrous spirit which has exerted so powerful an influence on the 
morals and the manners of the European nations, was found in its exul- 
tation among the Norman nobles." 

This race was of gothic extraction, and had wandered in prehistoric 
tunes to the extreme north of Europe, there to harden up, ready to take 
a hand in the remodeling of the continent, after the waste that had 
marked the fall of Rome. 

In the twelfth century they founded the kingdom of The Two Sicilies in 



11" MY. 

the heart of the Roman Krnpire, and put to flight the Roman armies who 
! sentinels over this provinee. But ere they had dom- this, aiul ere 
they had established their dynasty in Great Britain, their niarin.Ts had 
turned the bows of their small vessels westwardly and dix ,,\ en-<l 
land in A. D. Win. In s7( a Norwegian colony was planted there, and 
has held tho country ever since. In 'jsr, ( In-enland was di-e,vered and 
coloni/ed by them. In A. D. 1000 Hiorn was driven by a prolonged 
from the coast of Greenland within si^lit of an island off tin- CO.-M of 
North America, whence he returned with the first favorable wind. 
Induced by his report of western lands, Eric the Red, in 100'J, sailed 
with thirty -five men to make discoveries in the same direction. He 
reached the coast seen by Biorn, and steering along it in a southerly 
direction, he came to a heavily wooded shore which he named Markland 
(the country of wood). Farther along he found a p\> liore with 

safe anchorage, where he landed and built huts. The country abounded 
in grapes, for which reason he named it Vineland. 

In three years this force returned to Greenland. In 1007 a wealthy 
Greenlander, named Thorfin, sailed for Vineland with sixty follo\< 
among whom were his wife Gudrida and five other women. These 
adventurers traded with the natives three years, when Thorfm. with his 
wife and their son Snorra, the first white child born in th> 
hemisphere, returned to Iceland, where Thorfin died a fe^ 

The wido w, after the death of her husband, made a pilgrimage to 
Rome, as a pious rite, returned to Iceland and died'in a cloister which 
her son had established there. 

Other adventurers followed to visit Vineland, but could pt no ti i 
from the colony. It had doubtless been destroyed by the nati\ 
tured and adopted by them into their ti 

Adam, a German chronicler, who came from Sa\-n\ to I-nin.'n in 

lies this Icelandic account, and other p*.d authorit 
same, 

!>* were the result more of accident than sHen.-.. 
they been made when Kurope was bent on opening a trade with I- 

i Columbia' time, they would not have been forgot t.-n. but follow. -d 
up and utilized. 

Since their date tlie waves of invasion have rolled and 

iickencd the ambition of its nations: -ave them id 
it in practice in the twilight of the fifteenth century, when now 



HISTORICAL GEOGKAPHY. Ill 

and untrodden paths were to be opened for human industry on the anti- 
podal portions of the then known world. 

At the commencement of the fifteenth century, the little state of 
Portugal made herself famous among the nations of Europe, by explor- 
ing the western coast of Africa, with a view of finding a passage to India 
by water. 

Her geographical location was admirably adapted to facilitate such an 
undertaking, she being nearer by sea to this coveted goal than any other 
nation of Europe. 

Repeated attempts in this direction, chiefly under the guidance of 
Prince Henry, resulted in the doubling of the southern extremity of the 
continent in 1487, but not till after the death of the prince. The name 
Cape of Good Hope was given to this point of land a few years later by 
the king, his father. 

This discovery produced a profound sensation among the mariners of 
the Mediterranean, and made Portugal a resort for amateurs in this new 
and important industry. 

Prominent among these was Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa. 
He had been educated in geometry and astronomy, and had seen much 
service in his youth as a sailor, ever since the age of fourteen, says Dr. 
Roberston. 

In 1477 he visited Thule, Iceland, and in this voyage explored the 
Northern Ocean as far as the 73d degree. 

After having served in a naval warfare against the Venetians, he went 
to Lisbon, enlisted in the Portuguese service, and while thus employed 
married the daughter of Bartholomew Prestrello, a mariner who had 
discovered the Madeira Islands during their explorations down the Afri- 
can coast. 

Of the cosmographers of that age, Columbus was not alone in his con- 
victions that India could be reached by sailing westwardly. 

The Phoenicians, Egyptians, Macedonians and Venetians had carried 
on an overland trade with India, in the order in which they are men- 
tioned, ever since the grandeur of Tyre and Sidon had been proverbial,* 
both in civil and canonical history ; and how to reach this oriental source 
of wealth by water, was the problem to be solved. In the solution of 
this question speculations as to the dimensions of India, and how near 



See Robertson's Hist, of India. 



112 HISTORICAL <;]:< ;i;.\ I'll Y. 

it was to the western shores of Africa were of the first importance- 
Paul of Florence, a man of great learning, entirely coincided with 
Columbus, that the westward course to reach India was the nenr 
Ancient Creek antliorities were consulted, and it was found that Aristotle 
had expressed .-HI opinion that the Pillars <,f 1 lercules were not very dis- 
tant from the eastern coast of India. Seneca, the Roman moralist, mans 
centuries since his time, had expressed the same opinion. 

It is said by ( '. Edwards Lester, in his work on America, that Colum- 
bus conferred with Americas Vespucius on the subject, and that 
latter expressed an opinion that India might be readied from the v- 
if a continent then unknown did not intervene.* 

But whatever either the ancient or modern scientists thought on the 
subject, Columbus was the only one whose zeal led him to combat popu- 
lar prejudice, and take up the matter in a practical way. 

His great designs were fulfilled when his three little vessels dro] 
their anchors on the coast of an island in the western world, on the 
12th of October, 1492, whose native name was Guanahani. 

HE NAMED IT SAN SALVADOR. 
Queen Isabella, of Spain, after much persuasion from Juan Perez, a 

scientific ecclesiastic, Louis de Sant angel, minister of the crown for Arra- 
gon and Quintanilla. minister of the crown for Castile, yielded to the 
overtures of Columbus, gave his undertaking her royal sanction, and 
offered to pawn her jewels to defray its expei 

P>ut Saiitangel, in a transit of gratitude to the queen, kissed her 
hand, and to save her such a humiliation, advanced seventeen thousand 
florins from the treasury, while Perez, the good ecclesiastic, obtained 

riptions among his parishioners, to furnish one-eighth of the exp 
of the outfit, which was the portion Columbus himself had agreed to 

BfdVfU 

He visited several islands on his first voyage t the We.-tern "World, and 
supjH)sed them to be adjacent to the coast of A>ia. 

To this opinion all Kurope at first inclined, and for this reason the 
whole ^ronp were called the West India Islands on Enciso's geography 
of iril'.i. tlie first Spanish work to map the whole of what was then known 
in the 



thered the materials for his Imok during his official Ben [08 
in Spain under the I nit.d Stal im< nt. aUuit U 




AMERICUS VESPUCIUS. 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



115 



that Columbus had discovered islands in the western hemisphere. The 
above date precedes that of Columbus' discovery of South America, and 
whether it was an island or a continent that was first seen is a matter of 
indifference, as to the merit of originality in the principle involved. 

Cabot did not stain his record by unjust pretentious, and magnani- 
mously acknowledged this truth by claiming, only a secondary place to 




E5S.iWiu.ii 



VIEW OF MARBLE SLAB EEEOTED AT HAVANA IN 
HONOB OF CHBISTOPHEB COLUMBUS. 

Columbus, who, as he wrote, " had done a thing more divine than 
human to saile by the west into the easte where spices grow, by a intijt 
that was never knowne before." 

He was the first to express doubts as to the lands discovered being the 
Asiatic coast. Others might have speculated and doubted, but all the 
theories on the subject, and all the maps published previous to 1515, and 
many later than that, were based on the supposition, that the newly 
known lands belonged to the Asian coast. 

Western discoveries had four classifications, Quattuor Navigationes. 
Those of Columbus consisted of the West India Islands, of which was 
Cuba, at first supposed to be a part of the Asian coast, and the northern 
coast of South America. 



1 1 S HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

ami even as such unjustly, was ultimately made to cover the two con 
t incuts of the western world. 

The name America first appeared on Schoner's Globe of 1520, fac-sim- 
iles of which have heen reproduced in several works on American his- 
tory. The North American locality of this map is a conjectural drawing, 
and named Cuba, which shows that its projector was behind the record, 
('ul)a having been sailed around, and proven to be an island in 1508. 
The name America appeared on several other maps soon afterward, 
some of whose projectors protested against its injustice. 

The fame of Columbus had been clouded by a lack of official patron 
age. He had died in comparative obscurity. Americus stood high in 
popular favor, not only on account of his literary associations, but of his 
connection with a commercial house in Seville of great wealth and 
influence, that furnished outfits for exploring expeditions. Under these 
time serving influences, his name received a momentum, that sent it 
beyond the limits, whence justice could recall it. 

In 1541, the first globular map of the celebrated Mercator came out, 
the western part of which is herewith produced. It was the first radical 
change from the old (but grand for its time) system of Ptolemy. On his 
map, the name America appeared, half on North and the balain on 
South America. 

He was a pet of Charles V. Why did not that mighty monarch 
influence him to put the name Columbia, instead of America, on his 
map, which immediately became famous, and carried such weight and 
influence with it? 

Mercator's map was the first that showed the two continents connected 

I ier without intervening inlets. It delineated the general oont< mr of 

both, with a reasonable approximate to correctness. But yet nearly 

another century passed before explorers relinquished the search for an 

inlet, through \vhicli a western passage to the Indies could be made. 

The Straits of Magellan, which its hardy discoverer enter, d in IfilJ), 
are shown on this map, to which Mercator gave a choice of names. cither 
that, or I'ati.^onieum, after the giant race of natives, that lived on its 
borders. Magellan gave the name to the Pacific Ocean, whose waters 
he was the first to sail over. It will be obsen ed that the name lli>pania 
Major is placed in th- centre of the continent of North America indicat- 
ing that its entire area \\ -as < -1 aimed by Spain. Haccalearum Regio, to the 
north. Florida and HH'nnia Nova to the south, being subdivisions of it. 



BH&jfZEoatm 

frfc/as 



A M E 



&15.FAN/A tfAJd*- 
HAPJA A/v/v<? 
fsaa 

^ 




120 HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

Haeealearnm Ivegio, meant by tin- Spaniards, the realms from Florida to 
Labrador. 

Thus far the progress of geographical science has been followed from 
its dawn on the Mediterranean sea to what may justly be called its 
meridian on the shores of North America. Of its fundamental princi- 
ples nothm^ was left to be learned, when the ehann was dispelled that 
ded the Wotern World to light, and released thinking minds from 
a heavy strain, to demonstrate truth on false premiss. 

Ever since the second century the geography of Ptolemy had been the 
basis on which that of the entire earth had been established, an improve- 
ment on which, was presumed to be impossible, till practical experiments 
had enforced convictions that logic had failed to do. Even for many 
re after the discovery of the Western World cartographers, instead of 
making new projections for maps, had made various emendations and 
additions to Ptolemy's maps, as already alluded to. 

What was this Western World, of which only glimpses of its coast had 
been seen ? Was it Asia, a group of large and small continents and 
islands besprinkled over the ocean by the forces of nature, or was it an 
entire new continent with adjacent islands? 

The colonial system of Spam in the Western World was begun on the 
island of Hispaniola, St. Domingo. Columbus was its first governor. 
There was 110 wealth there except such as could be obtained from the 
soil by agriculture, at least before its mineral resources had been dis- 
covered. The colonists were a wretched, jaundiced set of nondescripts, 
vainly toiling against fate. They had expected to find gold, but many 
had found graves. 

Discontent grew into open mutiny. Their complaints were laid before 
King Ferdinand. He, too, was disappointed with the results of Colum- 
bus' discoveries. 

They did not pay expenses. The admiral (Columbus) was not fit for 
governor, so the malcontents said. Under this strain, the king sent Fran- 
cis de Bovadilla to take his place. Thither he went, arrested Columbus, 
kledhim and sent him to Spain. Tlie captain of the vessel on which 
he was thus ignominiously placed, received his distinguished prisoner 
with concealed emotion, put to sea, was soon out of sight of the new 
rnor and beyond his influence. Under this immunity from censure, 
he offered to remove the chains from him. But no! The tenacious 
admiral determined to wear them till removed by the order of the king. 



HISTORICAL GP:OGRAPHY. 121 

On his arrival at Spain the news reached the king's ears, and orders 
promptly came to set the prisoner at liberty. Columbus demanded a 
restoration to his governorship of Hispaniola, but this was refused. 
Bovadilla was soon removed, and Ovadno put in his place, but discontent 
continually arose in the general turmoil of the time. 

Hispaniola was the original center of Spanish power in the New 
World ; whence issued expeditions to make discoveries and conquests, to 
christianize the natives, as claimed, to search for gold, and to annex new 
realms to the crown, or rather to extend Spanish rule over the entire 
Western World, all of which Spain then claimed as her own. 

This monstrous pretension had already received the sanction of the 
pope, and he was a bold prophet who dared to peer into futurity far 
enough to call it in question. 

Diego Colon, the son of Columbus, was appointed governor of Hispan- 
iola in 1509. Next year the conquest of Cuba was effected by 300 men 
under Velasquez, by order of the governor. Not a Spaniard had been 
lost in this expedition, which annexed a province to Spain, still bearing 
its native name, which, with Porto Rico, are all she now retains of her 
once universal empire in the Western World. 

This easy conquest was an incentive to undertake others. Attention 
was now turned toward what ultimately proved to be the main land, but, 
though its coasts had already been seen by navigators, but a vague idea 
was entertained of them. 

Among the adventurers who had come to the newly discovered islands 
was Vasco Nunez, better known as Balboa, a man of good Spanish blood, 
but a spendthrift who had exhausted his fortune, and was unable to pay 
his debts. To escape the vigilance of his creditors, he caused himself to 
be headed up in a cask, and sent as freight aboard a vessel bound for St. 
Domingo. When fairly at sea the mysterious cask burst open at the 
astonished view of the passengers, and Balboa walked forth on the deck 
of the vessel with the air of a relieved bankrupt. 

Like many men of our own time he was not fitted for the sharp rivalry 
of trade. Though modest and unassuming by nature, he was strorg 
in council and an able commander, who knew how to seour? the ivsp; < t, 
and even the affection of his subordinates. 

The work of colonizing the mainland had already been put in cours<> of 
preparation by Juan de la Cosa, whose map is herewith shown, but no 
success had yet been attained. It was easy to rob gold from the natives, 



ll j - HISTORICAL (J! "(.KAI'HY. 

hut a. slow and toilsome work to enforce wealth from the soil, especially 
of the torrid /.one of tin- isthmus. 

A settlement had a In ady leen made at San Sebastian, but nota perma- 
nent one. Over sixty Spaniards had been killed already by the poisoned 
arrows of the natms, amon^ ; whom was Cosa himself. 

I'.; ill...; i ^;i> here, and at his suggestion the colony crossed the inlet 

(Julf of rraba to a spot known as Darien,and there established the town 

of Santa Maria, the first permanent foothold of the Spanish on the conti- 

nent. Balhoa givw to favor in the estimation of the colonists, and soon 

lie its piv mor, but his great achievement was his discovery of the 

it- ocean when at the head of sixty-seven men he pioneered his way 

the isthmus, and on the 25th of September, 151 3, beheld these waters. 

Transported with the grandeur of the scene before him, he named them 

the Smth sea, ;;nd took solemn possession of them in the nameof his 

master, the King of Spain, claiming for him dominion over them. 

His discovery was the admiration of Europe, but through the jealousy 
of other Spanish officials, plots were formed against him, and in an evil 
hour Charles V, under the strain of them superseded him by the appoint- 
ment of Pedrarias, as governor of the Darien colony. He was a man of 
immobility, as far as sentiment or passion was at stake, except the pas- 
sion of envy. Pending his official term, Balboa had made many suc- 
cessful incursions among the natives, and secured large amounts of gold, 
and had made himself very popular among his soldier colonists. A Span- 
ish colonist always meant a soldier, and a soldier meant a defender of 
"the faith." But when Pedrarias am ved on the ground with his au- 
thority to displace him, Balboa retired with due obedience to the man- 
date of the king, which was not to be called into question. 

And now he set about new plans of invasion, destined never to be put 

in execution. Pedrarias hated him. His talents were too great as an 

explorer and military leader to play the subordinate with consistency, 

but Balboa, always fertile in plans, conceived the idea of marrying his 

daughter, and thus allay his malicious envy. Pedrarias consented, and 

all went smooth for a time; but at last even this tie was insufficient to 

dousy, which kejit pace with the growing popular favor 

of Balboa; and Pedrarias arrested him under a charge of conspiracy to 

It, tried him by false evidence, condemned aoid executed him with 

-pite of a demon: feasting hi the red stream that poured 

from his body. a> its h.-ad rolled from the block of the executioner. 



HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. 



123 



H 




LIST OF RARE WORKS, 

FOR THE PRESERVATION "OF 

CHICAGO HISTORY. 

Blanchard'S History of ' - T2>- 

pp., 8 vo. HalfMor. 
Blanchard's Historical Map of ]1; 

with ftf 



Hurlburt'S Antiquities of Chicagr 
pp., octavo. 

The above are now out of j. nly a 

very 3 are left. 

Map < i 1834, (:i eopy) in 

Aior. C 

Photographic 

from the Court Ho. 
l>\- HVsh 

Photographic Vi( ruins? 

r the fire of 1 

View of Wolf s Point, the local' 
the fork of the Chicago Ri 
taken from Nature by Gr 
Davis, in I 



: 

1T1 RANDOM- n Si . , ('n: