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Full text of "Columbia Theological Seminary Bulletin: Course Catalog 1913-1914"

SMYTH LIBRARY 

COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

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ANNUAL CATALOGUE 



OF THE 



OFFICERS AND STUDENTS 

OF 

Columbia Theological 
Seminary 



Under the Control of the Synods of South Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama and Florida 






COLUMBIA, SOUTH CAROLINA 
1913-1914 



CALENDAR. 

1914. 

Tuesday, February 3 — Second Term Begins. 

Wednesday, February 25 — Day of Prayer for Youth in 
Schools and Colleges. 

Thursday, April 30 — Final Examinations Begin. 

Sunday, May 10 — Baccalaureate Sermon, 11 :15' A. M., by 
Rev. H. M. Edmonds, D. D., Birmingham, 
Alabama. 

Sunday, May 10 — Missionary Address, 8 :30 P. M., by Rev. 
S. L. Morris, D. D., Atlanta, Georgia. 

Tuesday, May 12 — Meeting of the Board of Directors, 
12 M. ; Meeting of Alumni Association, 5 
P. M., with Address to Alumni by Rev. J. C. 
Rowan, Camden, South Carolina. 

Wednesday, May 13 — Closing Exercises of the Seminary, 
beginning at 8 :30 P. M., with the Chairman 
of the Board as Presiding Officer; Presenta- 
tion of Diplomas and Certificates; Address 
to the Graduating Class by Rev. D. A. Planck, 
D. D., Mobile, Alabama. 

Thursday, May 14 — Final Meeting of the Board of 
Directors. 

Wednesday, September 23. — Session of 1914-1915 Be- 
gins ; Address by Rev. R. C. Reed, D. D., at 
5 P. M. ; Matriculation of Students. 



4 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



Thursday, November 26— Thanksgiving Day. 
Friday, December 25 — Christmas Day. 

1915. 

Thursday, January 21— Intermediate Examinations 

Begin. 
Saturday, January 30— Close of First Term. 
Tuesday, February 2— Second Term Begins. 

Thursday, February 25— Day of Prayer for Youth in 
Schools and Colleges. 

N. B. It is of the greatest importance that all students 

in all classes be present on the opening day, since recitations 
begin in all classes on the second day of the session, and the 
first few recitations 'determine and base the work of the 
entire session. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 



South Carolina. 

Rev. B. P. Reid,* Reidville, S. C 1914 

John McSween, Esq., Timmonsville, S. C 1914 

Rev. J. G. Richards, D. D., Blenheim, S. C 1915 

Col. W. W. Lewis, Yorkville, S. C 1915 

Rev. W. J. McKay, D. D., Sumter, S. C 1910 

W. H. Townsend, Esq., Columbia, S. C 1916 

* Georgia. 

J. T. Brantley, Esq., Blackshear, Ga. . 1914 

Rev. E. L. Hill, D. D., Athens, Ga 1915 

Rev. A. A. Little, D-. D., Atlanta, Ga 1916 

Rev. F. K. Sims, Dal'ton, Ga 1916 

Alabama. 

Rev. Thomas P. Hay, D. D., Birmingham, Ala 1914 

Hon. J. H. Miller, Birmingham, Ala 1915 

Rev. D. A. Planck, D. D., Mobile, Ala 1916 

Florida. 

Rev. J. F. McKinnon, Sanford, Fla 1914 

Christopher Matheson, Esq., Gainesville, Fla. ...1915 



'Deceased. 



6 CO LUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Officers of the Board. 

President of Board— Rev. W. J. McKay, D. D. 
Vice-President of Board— Rev. T. P. Hay, D. D. 
Secretary of Board— W. H. Townsend, Esq. 
Treasurer of Board— T. S. Bryan, Esq. 

Standing Committees. 

Executive Committee— W. H. Townsend, Esq., Rev. T. P. 
Hay, J. T. Brantley, Esq., Rev. F. K. Sims, John 
McSween, Esq., Hon. J. H. Miller. 

Committee on Material Property— Run. Thornton Whal- 
ing, "W. H. Townsend, Esq., Rev. R. C. Reed. 

Examining Committee— -Rev. J. G. Richards, Rev. A. A. 
Little, Rev. F. K. Sims. 

Investing Committee— -W. H. Townsend, Esq., W. A. 
Clark, Esq., W. B. Lowrance, Esq., O. E. Thomas, 
Esq., John McSween, Esq., R. A. Lancaster, M. D. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



FACULTY. 



THORNTON WHALING, D. D., LL. D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE SEMINARY, 
PROFESSOR OF DIDACTIC AND POLEMIC THEOLOGY. 

WILLIAM M. McPHEETERS, D. D., LL. D., 

PROFESSOR OF OLD TESTAMENT LITERATURE AND EXEGESIS. 

HENRY ALEXANDER WHITE, Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 

PROFESSOR OF NEW TESTAMENT LITERATURE AND EXEGESIS. 

RICHARD C. REED, D. D., LL. D., 

PROFESSOR OF ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY AND CHURCH 

POLITY. 

JAMES O. REAVIS, D. D., 

INSTRUCTOR IN HOME AND FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

PATTERSON WARDLAW, A. B., LL. D., 

INSTRUCTOR IN THE PEDAGOGY OF THE SUNDAY SCHOOL. 

ROY Z. THOMAS, A. M., Ph. D., 

INSTRUCTOR IN THE ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING. 

*. 

PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE AND HOMILETICS. 

PERKINS PROFESSORSHIP OF NATURAL SCIENCE IN CONNEC- 
TION WITH REVELATION, AND CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS. 

The duties of this Chair are distributed among the mem- 
bers of the Faculty. 

Faculty Officers. 

Chairman — Thornton Whaling. 

Librarian — Richard C. Reed. 

Secretary of Faculty — Henry Alexander White. 



*To be elecfcd by the Board of Directors in May, 1914. 



8 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



ANNUAL SERIES OF LECTURES ON THE 
THOMAS SMYTH FOUNDATION. 



Lecturer during the Session 1913-1914, Robert A. Webb, 
D. D., LL. D., Louisville, Ky. 

Subject of Dr. Webb's Lectures on the Smyth Founda- 
tion delivered at the Columbia Theological Seminary, Feb- 
ruary 2-8, 1914: The Doctrine of the Christian Hope. 

This general subject was presented in six lectures, as fol- 
lows : 

1. Christianity the Religion of Hope. 

2. The Christian Hope Concerning Immortality. 

3. The Christian Hope Concerning the Resurrection. 

4. The Christian Hope Concerning the Cause of Chris- 
tianity. 

5. The Christian Hope Concerning the Earth. 

6. The Christian Hope Concerning the Second Coming of 
Christ. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



ROLL OF STUDENTS. 



Junior Class. 

Corbett, Henry Dickson, B. S. Davidson College. 

Mayesville, S. C. Harmony Presbytery. 

Garner, James Samuel, Jr., A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Darlington, S. C. Pee Dee Presbytery. 

Green, Daniel Brown, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Lancaster, S. C. . Bethel Presbytery. 

Head, Homer Wood, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Atlanta, Ga. Atlanta Presbytery. 

Montgomery, James Nelson, A. B., 

Washington and Lee University. 
Birmingham, Ala. North Alabama Presbytery. 

Nickles, George Andrew, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 

Hodges, S. C. South Carolina Presbytery. 

Phillips, Rufus Martin, B. S., Davidson College. 

Sanford, N. C. Fayetteville Presbytery. 

Middle Class. 

Beckett, Theodore Ashe, Jr., A. B., Davidson College. 

John's Island, S. C. Charleston Presbytery. 

Carmichael, Herbert Corwin, B. S., Davidson College. 

Fork, S. C. Pee Dee Presbytery. 

Clayman, Robert Franklin, A. B., King College. 

Bristol, Va. Holston Presbytery. 

Fulton, Charles Darby, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 

Kobe, Japan. Enoree Presbytery. 



10 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Lemmon, John Mills, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Winnsboro, S. C. Bethel Presbytery. 

Ligon, John Frank, Fredericksburg College. 

Iva, S. C. Piedmont Presbytery. 

Scruggs, Perry, Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Columbia, S. C. Enoree Presbytery. 

Stork, John William, University of South Carolina. 
Columbia, S. C. Charleston Presbytery. 

Watts, Thomas G., 

Goodwater, Ala. North Alabama Presbytery. 

Wicker, Charles Leonidas, 

Raeford Institute, Union Theological Seminary. 
Roberdell, N. C. King's Mountain Presbytery. 

Senior Class. 

Bailey, Charles Robert, A. B., Furman University. 
Greenville, S. C. Enoree Presbytery. 

Hay, John Richards, A. B., Davidson College. 

Farm School, North Carolina. Bethel Presbytery. 

Latham, William Luther, A. B., 

Presbyterian College of South Carolina. 
Sharon, S. C. Bethel Presbytery. 

Special Students. 

Cates, Alton Riley, University of South Carolina. 

Memphis, Term. King's Mountain Presbytery. 

Epperson, William Sherman, A. B., 

Fort Worth University. 
Stuart, Va. Charleston Presbytery. 

GuERRANT, William U, Central University, Kentucky. 
Wilmore, Ky. East Hanover Presbytery. 

Harden, William Sumner, 

Cordele, Ga. Macon Presbytery. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 11 

Hutchinson, W. S., University of South Carolina. 

Rock Hill, S. C. 

Kennedy, Rev. Arthur B., 

Columbia, S. C. Richland Association. 

Perry, Herbert J., A. M., B. D., Colgate University. 

Columbia, S. C. 

Shankel, Bruce Bridwell, King College. 

Bristol, Tenn. Holston Presbytery. 

Whilden, Frank F., 
Columbia, S. C. 

Summary. 

Junior 7 

Middle 10 

Senior 3 

Special Students 9 

Total 29 



GRADUATES IN DIVINITY. 



Class of 1913. 

Full graduates who received the Degree of Bachelor of 
Divinity : 

Holland, Charles Dean, A. B., B. D. Georgia. 

McSween, John, Jr., B. S., B. D., South Carolina. 

Riddle, Franklin Ray, A. B., B. D., South Carolina. 

Members of the class who received certificates of gradu- 
ation in some of the departments of instruction in the 
Seminary : 

Chandler, William Bratton, B. S., South Carolina. 
Pullen, Ovid, North Carolina. 



12 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



REPRESENTATION. 



Institutions. 



Davidson College 5 

Presbyterian Col. of S. C. 8 

University of S. C 3 

Fredericksburg College . . 1 

Central University, Ky . . 1 

Fort Worth University . . 1 



Colgate University 1 

Furman University 1 

King College 2 

Washington and Lee Uni . 1 
Raeford Institute 1 



Atlanta 1 

Bethel 4 

Charleston 3 



Presbyteries. 

Holston 2 

King's Mountain 2 

Macon 1 



East Hanover . 1 North Alabama 2 



Enoree . . . 
Fayetteville 
Harmony . 



3 Pee Dee 2 

1 Piedmont 1 

1 South Carolina 1 



States. 

South Carolina 16 Virginia 2 

Georgia 2 Tennessee 2 

North Carolina 3 Kentucky 1 

Alabama 2 Japan 1 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 13 



COURSE OF STUDY. 



Junior. 

(Twenty hours a week.) 

Old Testament. — Hebrew, Orthography, Etymology, 
Vocabulary, Syntax of the Verb, and Translation at 
Sight in Genesis ; Archaeology .■ 5 

New Testament. — Translation and Interpretation of 
Greek of the Four Gospels, Essentials of Greek 
Grammar, Life of Christ; Canon and Textual Criti- 
cism ; General Introduction 5 

Ecclesiastical History. — Sacred History from the Crea- 
tion to the End of the Old Testament Period; 
Ancient Geography ; Archaeology and Chronology . . 2 

Sacred Rhetoric. — Outline of Sacred Rhetoric ; Exercises 
in Reading the Scriptures and Hymns 1 

Missions. — Bible Teaching, Bigoraphy, Geography and 
Ethnology 1 

Theology. — Theology, Philosophy and Religion; Chris- 
tian Apologetics 2 

English Bible 2 

Sunday School Pedagogy 1 

Elocution 1 

Middle. 

(Eighteen hours a week.) 

Old Testament. — Drill in Exegesis, and in Hebrew Syn- 
tax; Translation of Extended Passages; Introduc- 
tion 3 



14 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

New Testament. — Translation and Exegesis of Acts of 
Apostles and Early Epistles; Apostolic History; 
Special Introduction 3 

Ecclesiastical History. — From the Apostolic Period to the 
Reformation Period 3 

Sacred Rhetoric. — Outline Completed ; Written Exercises 
for Criticism. . 1 

Missions. — Chronological History of Missions; the 
World Religions; Kinds of Mission Work; Qualifi- 
cations and Methods ; Incidental Value 2 

Theology. — The Theology of Natural Religion 3 

English Bible 2 

Elocution 1 

Senior. 

(Seventeen hours a week.) 

Old Testament. — Exegetical Work in Connection with 
Selected Portions of the Old Testament; Introduc- 
tion 3 

New Testament. — Exegesis of Romans and Later Pau- 
line Epistles; Epistle to Hebrews, and Revelation; 
Studies in the Doctrine of the Apostles; Special 
Introduction 2 

Ecclesiastical History. — Modern Period; History of the 
Presbyterian Church and Church Polity 3 

Pastoral Theology and Homiletics. — A Course of Lec- 
tures ; Exercises in the Composition of Sermons . . 1 

Missions. — Lectures on Mission Topics 1 

Theology. — The Theology of Redemption 3 

English Bible 3 

Elocution 1 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 15 



THE DEPARTMENTS OF INSTRUCTION. 



Old Testament Literature and Exegesis. 
Professor McPheeters. 

The aim of this department is to put the student in a posi- 
tion that will enable him to use to advantage the original 
Hebrew in his efforts to interpret the Scriptures of the Old 
Testament. Special emphasis is laid upon the mastery of 
the principles of Hebrew Etymology and Syntax; the 
acquisition of a copious vocabulary ; the formation and culti- 
vation of those mental habits which condition a correct 
exegesis; and the acquiring of sound principles of interpre- 
tation and of a knowledge of the several branches of inter- 
pretation. 

The work attempted is determined by the end in view. 
In the Junior Class the emphasis is laid upon securing a 
working vocabulary, a thorough grounding in etymology, 
and an initial acquaintance with the syntax of the verb. In 
the Middle and Senior Classes the object chiefly aimed at is 
to perfect the student's knowledge of syntax, and to ground 
him in the knowledge and drill him in the application of 
sound principles of interpretation. 

The matter and the extent of the courses in the Middle 
and Senior Classes vary somewhat from year to year to meet 
the varying needs and attainments of different classes. 

The leading topics of General Introduction, such as the 
Canon, the Text and Archaeology, are taken up and dis- 
cussed in their connections; as are also such subjects as the 
Higher Criticism, Prophecy, and Old Testament Theology. 

Upon request, detailed information will be furnished to 
anyone desiring it, as to what will be the special features 
of the work to be done in any of the classes for the coming 
session. 



16 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

New Testament Literature and Exegesis. 

Professor White. 

In the study of the New Testament it is assumed that each 
student who enters the Seminary has acquired a knowledge 
of the grammatical forms and structure (syntax) of the 
Greek language, and that he can translate simple Attic prose 
at sight. All of those who propose to enter this field of 
work in the Seminary are advised to add to their knowledge 
of classical Greek an acquaintance with some of the nar- 
rative portions of the Greek New Testament. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

The work in this class is based upon a careful study of the 
Greek text of the four Gospels. Special attention is given 
to the principles of Greek Etymology and Syntax, and the 
application of these principles in connection with the inter- 
pretation of the text. In connection with this the class 
studies the life of Christ on the basis of the Gospels, atten- 
tion being given to their characteristics and the harmony of 
their narratives. The student is expected to read the 
biographies of Christ by Hanna, Andrews, Edersheim and 
others. The subjects connected with General Introduction, 
the Canon, the Greek Text of the New Testament, and the 
principles of textual criticism, are taught in a series of 
lectures. Each student is expected to use the working 
library of the Seminary in the preparation of papers upon 
assigned topics. 

MIDDLE CLASS. 

The work of the Middle Class begins with the exegesis of 
the Greek text of the Book of Acts. The class makes a 
careful study of the principles involved in the planting of 
the Christian Church, and the doctrines set forth in the 
early discourses of the Apostles. In this work is included 
the exegesis of the Epistle of James. This is followed by 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 17 

a critical interpretation of selected portions of First and 
Second Thessalonians, Galatians, and First and Second 
Corinthians, with Special Introduction to Acts and to the 
early epistles. The working library is used by each mem- 
ber of the class in the preparation of special papers. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

The doctrinal teaching of the Apostles is the principal 
subject of study in the Senior Class. This includes the 
translation and critical exegesis of the later epistles of the 
Apostle Paul, beginning with a careful and extended study 
of the Epistle to the Romans. This is followed by a study 
of selected portions of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the 
Epistles of the Apostle Peter and the Epistles and the 
Revelation of the Apostle John. The subjects connected 
with Special Introduction are treated in a series of lectures. 
In addition to this work, the class enters upon the discussion 
of some of the subjects embraced in the Biblical Theology of 
the New Testament. Special papers prepared by the mem- 
bers of the class are made the subject of discussion in the 
classroom. The Greek New Testament is used as a text- 
book in the classroom in each of the three classes through- 
out the session. Each student is expected to become familiar 
with the various commentaries found on the shelves of the 
working library. 



Didactic and Polemic Theology. 

Professor Whaling. 

The study of Systematic Theology is begun in the Junior 
year, and prosecuted through the Middle and Senior years. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

This class is occupied with the philosophic postulates 
which underlie Systematic Theology. The first term is 
devoted to the philosophy of religion as exhibited in the 



18 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Biblical psychology and metaphysics. The relation of rea- 
son and faith, of knowledge and belief are carefully pre- 
sented. The second term is used for the study of apolo- 
getics, in which theism as opposed to anti-theistic theories 
is established. The arguments from Christian experience, 
the historic effects of Christianity and the unique conscious- 
ness and character of Jesus are elaborated and the internal 
evidence offered by the Christian Scriptures themselves is 
expounded. The method of teaching is by textbook, lecture 
and recitation. The textbooks for the next year are Perry's 
Philosophical Tendencies and Mullin's Why is Christianity 
True? 

MIDDLE CLASS. 

The Middle Class begins with Introductory Theology, 
embracing the definition of theology, and the method of its 
distribution, the source of theology or the rule of faith and 
duty and the inspiration of the Scriptures. The class then 
passes to the Theology of Natural Religion, comprising such 
topics as the names, nature and attributes of God, the trinity, 
the decrees, creation, providence, angels, man, the will of 
man in innocence, the covenant of works, the fall, original 
sin, the pollution and guilt of sin. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

The Senior Class studies the Theology of Redemption, 
comprising such topics as election, the mediator, the cove- 
nant of grace, the person of Christ, the mediatorial offices 
and estates, vocation, grace, regeneration, faith, justifica- 
tion, repentance, adoption, sanctification, prayer, the moral 
law of Christian ethics, and the last things. 

The textbooks are the Westminster Symbols and Hodge's 
Theology. During the course every statement of the Con- 
fession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms is 
examined in the classroom. The method of teaching is by 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 19 

recitation, textbook and lectures, combined with written 
digests furnisbed by the student upon the professor's request. 

CHRISTIAN ETHICS. 

An elective course in the Biblical Theology of the New 
Testament has been offered this year, which has been taken 
by quite a number of students, and the entire field of New 
Testament Biblical Dogmatics has been covered by this class. 
For the year 1914-15 an elective course in Christian Ethics, 
including the study of Christianity and the Social Order, will 
be offered. 

The method of study will consist of textbook and lectures 
by the professor. 



Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 

Professor Reed. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

This year is given to the study of Sacred History, or the 
history of the Church as contained in the Old Testament 
Scriptures. As auxiliary to this, the class begins with a 
short course in Biblical Geography, the object of which is 
to acquire a familiar knowledge of the lands in which the 
ancient people of God dwelt. The class devotes the 
remainder of the year to the history of God's dealings with 
the race, and especially with His chosen people, from the 
beginning to the birth of Christ. Use is made of the results 
of recent excavations in Bible lands. 

MIDDLE CLASS. 

During this year the class studies the General History of 
the Christian Church from the beginning of the Apostolic 
Age, through the Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. 
An effort is made to gain a clear knowledge of the suc- 
cessive steps by which the simple organization of the primi- 



20 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

tive Church was transformed into the elaborate hierarchy 
of the papacy. Close attention is given to the history of 
doctrine, especially the controversies out of which emerged 
the different creeds and systems of theology. The method 
of teaching is by textbooks, supplemented by occasional 
lectures. 

From the middle till the close of this session the class 
meets the professor an hour each week in the study of 
Church polity. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

The class completes the general history of the Church 
before the middle of the term. Then follows a course in 
Christian missions, with special reference to the present-day 
mission work of the various churches of Protestant Chris- 
tendom, the present conditions of the heathen world, and 
the urgent need of a more fervent missionary spirit. 

The latter part of the session is given to the study of the 
Presbyterian Churches of the world. 



Natural Science in Connection with Revelation and 
Christian Apologetics. 

This chair is vacant for the present. Its field is partially 
covered by Professor Whaling in Mental Philosophy and 
Apologetics, and Professors White and McPheeters in 
Introduction and Criticism. 



Pastoral Theology and Homiletics. 

Professors Reed and Whaling. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

One hour a week is given throughout the entire session 
to Homiletics under Professor Reed. When the class has 
acquired some theoretical knowledge of sermonizing from 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 21 

the textbook, they are required to put the knowledge into 
practice in making briefs of sermons. The briefs are sub- 
mitted to the professor and he gives the class the benefit of 
his criticism. 

MIDDLE CLASS. 

The course in Homiletics is continued with substantially 
the same method of instruction as in the Junior year, until 
the textbook is completed. 

SENIOR CLASS. 

During the year Pastoral Theology in all of its branches 
and the Sacraments are taught by Professor Whaling. 



English Bible. 

The object in this course is to teach the theology and the 
ethics of the sacred scriptures, and to present them in the 
form in which they are developed in the word of God. The 
mastery of the doctrinal and ethical contents of the divine 
revelation is the ideal pursued. The principle which lies 
at the base of this study is that there can be no substitute 
for the Biblical Theology and the Biblical Ethics which 
furnishes the substance and material of the minister's mes- 
sage. 

JUNIOR CLASS. 

The Pentateuch and historical books of the Old Testa- 
ment are studied in the American Revised Version. The 
method is by lecture, syllabus of the professor, and the Bible 
itself as the textbook. The class meets two hours per week 
both terms. 

MIDDLE CLASS. 

The Psalms, the Wisdom literature, the major and minor 
Prophets are studied by the use of the same methods that are 



22 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



employed in all the classes. Class meets two hours per week 
both terms. 

THE SENIOR CLASS. 

The Gospels, Acts of Apostles, the Epistles and the 
Apocalypse are all studied in order to lead each student 
to formulate for himself their doctrinal and ethical contents. 
The class meets three hours per week. 



The Pedagogy of the Sunday School. 
Professor Wardlaw. 

The aim of this course is to adapt the general principles 
of education to the special teachings of the Sunday School. 

After a survey of the historical bearings of the Sunday 
School, the nature of the pupil is studied with some fullness. 
Then the following topics are treated : The curriculum, the 
principles of method as applied to the Sunday School, the 
organization, management, government, program, external 
relations and general means of success of the Sunday School. 

Textbooks : Haslett, The Pedagogical Bible School ; Cope, 
The Modern Sunday School in Principle and Practice. 



Missions. 
Professor Reavis. 



This course in Missions is designed to accomplish the 
twofold purpose, first, of preparing future missionaries to 
understand the history, problems and philosophy of Mis- 
sions so as to be practically and wisely guided in their serv- 
ice in the foreign field ; and second, to prepare those stu- 
dents whose ministerial work is to be at home for co-opera- 
tion in all the forms of the Mission enterprise. The course 
covers the history of Missions, the present condition and 
problems presented on the field, and the relation of the 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 21 

Church at home to the work. In addition, the subject of 
Comparative Religion is expounded and Christianity is 
proved to be the absolute religion in contrast with Buddhism, 
Confucianism, Mohammedanism and other false systems. 

The method of teaching is by lecture, textbook, recitation, 
and written digests made by students. 

Textbooks for current year: Williams's "In Four Conti- 
nents;" Mott's "Decisive Hour of Christian Missions;" 
Speer's "Missions and Modern History;" Morris's "At Our 
Own Door;" Weatherford's "Negro Problem in the South." 
Comparative Religion taught by lectures exclusively. 



The Art of Public Speaking. 
Professor Thomas. 

A course of training in public speaking is given to each 
of the three classes in the Seminary. In this course a thor- 
ough study is made of breathing, pronunciation, articula- 
tion, flexibility, smoothness and purity of tone, phrasing or 
grouping of words, proper use of emphasis, gesture, and 
the overcoming of vocal defects. 

The aim of the instructor is to help the student to become 
a polished, pleasing and convincing public speaker. Near 
the close of the session some instruction is given on the sub- 
ject of parliamentary rules of order. 



Annual Course of Lectures on the Thomas Smyth 
Foundation. 

Through the generosity of the late Thomas Smyth, D. D., 
of Charleston, S. C, a lectureship has been established 
called the Thomas Smyth Foundation. In accordance with 
the conditions of the bequest, some person who is of worthy 
character and distinguished for learning and ability is 



24 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

chosen each year by the Board of Directors and the Faculty 
of the Columbia Theological Seminary to deliver a course 
of lectures before the students of the Seminary. This series 
of discourses will deal from year to year with the funda- 
mental principles of the Christian faith. 

Post-Graduate Work. 

For those who desire to continue their course of study for 
a longer time than the regular period of three years, or for 
those who wish to take special studies, no fixed curriculum is 
prescribed, but each student is free to devote himself to those 
branches which he wishes specially to pursue. Such students 
may attend any of the regular classes, or they may pursue 
advanced courses of study and conduct original investiga- 
tion under the guidance of the several professors in the 
Seminary. 

Optional Courses. 

i 

No regular recitations are conducted on Mondays. This 
makes it convenient to introduce optional courses for 
students who wish to equip themselves in a manner more 
complete and thorough than that which is permitted by the 
regular curriculum. On request, such courses will be pro- 
vided by the professors of the several departments. 

The professor will reserve the right to say whether any 
applicant shall take a desired course, basing his judgment 
upon the recognized ability of the student and the proba- 
bility of interference with his regular work. He reserves the 
further right to determine, from the number making appli- 
cation, whether the course shall be offered. 

The University of South Carolina is located in the city 
of Columbia. This large institution extends to the students 
of the Columbia Theological Seminary the privilege of 
pursuing any of the courses of study offered in the univer- 
sity without payment of tuition or other fees. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 2': 

Elocution. 

There is a special fund, the proceeds of which are avail- 
able to provide for i on in Elocution by a proficient 
teacher. 

Examinations. 

At the close of each term written examinations are held 
upon all the subjects studied during the term. The written 
examinations are submitted to the synodical examiners and 
to the Board for their inspection, and are then transmitted 
to the Presbyteries. "No member of the Seminary shall be 
at from the examination of - ss and. in case of 
the absence of any student, he shall be examined by the 
'ty at the commencement of die next term: and if his 
examination be not sa: he shall be required to 

make up the deficiency, otherwise he may not proceed with 
the class." — Constitution. 

On a scale of 100, 75 is the minimum required in each 
subject to pass from a lower to a higher class, and also for 
graduation. 

Reports to Presbyteries. 

Report; are ::::: semi-annually to Presbyteries concern- 
ing the attendance of the students upon the exercises of the 
Seminan.-. and concerning their general deportment, dili- 
gence and standing in study. 

Rhetorical Exercises. 

In addition to the regular instruction in sacred Rhe: : 
exercises in preaching and in debate are held under the 
direction of the Faculty. 

Once a fortnight, original sermons of about fifteen min- 

in length are delivered in the presence of the Faculty 

and students. Criticism is invited from all present, the 

purpose of which is to remove blemishes of matter, manner 

and style. Usually I sf i ie::: ; speak at each meeting. 



26 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Once a month there is a debate upon some subject chosen 
by the students, the aim of which is to cultivate originality 
of thought and readiness of speech. The Faculty is present 
during the debate, and one of the members of the Faculty 
presides. 

Religious Culture. 

Chapel. — Daily prayers, which every student is required 
to attend, are conducted in the chapel every morning by a 
member of the Senior Class, and in the afternoon by a 
member of the Faculty. 

Weekly Conference. — Each Friday afternoon, begin- 
ning at 5 o'clock, the Faculty and students meet in the 
Seminary chapel and engage in devotional exercises, con- 
ducted by a member of the Faculty. This preliminary 
service is followed by preaching or by a debate on the part 
of some of the students ; on the fourth Friday in each 
month, however, an address is made by a member of the 
Faculty upon some subject connected with personal piety, 
methods of study, Biblical interpretation, or Church life 
and doctrine. 

Sessions. 

The Seminary year begins on Wednesday after the third 
Monday in September, and ends on the second Thursday in 
May. For the convenience of some of the classes and for 
presbyterial reports, the session is divided into two terms, 
the first of which ends on the last Saturday in January, and 
the second begins on the following Tuesday. 

Terms of Admission. 

The Seminary is open to students of every evangelical 
denomination. Every student entering the Seminary is 
required to present a statement from his Presbytery, to the 
effect that he has permission to enter the Seminary, and 
specifying the course he is expected to take. Otherwise he 
must furnish the Faculty with satisfactory testimonials of 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 27 

being in full communion with some Christian Church, and 
of having" been regularly educated at some college or uni- 
versity ; or, in the absence of such testimonials, he must 
satisfy the Faculty, by examination, that he is qualified to 
enter upon a course of study in preparation for the Gospel 
ministry. 

All students, on entering the Seminary, are required to 
subscribe to the following" declaration: "Deeply impressed 
with a sense of the importance of improving in knowledge, 
prudence and piety, preparatory to the Gospel ministry, I 
solemnly promise, in reliance on divine grace, that I will 
faithfully and diligently attend to all the instructions of this 
Seminary, and that I will conscientiously and vigilantly 
observe the rules and regulations specified in the Constitu- 
tion, and also obey all the lawful requisitions, and readily 
yield to all wholesome admonitions of the professors of the 
Seminary, while I shall continue a member of it." 

It is desirable that Presbyterian students should connect 
themselves with a Presbytery before coming to the Semi- 
nary. Students from other seminaries will be admitted ad 
cundem on presenting a regular certificate of dismission 
from the seminary previously attended. 

Society of Missionary Inquiry. — This society meets 
twice a month, on alternate Monday evenings, and holds a 
separate business meeting once a month. It proves a power 
in awakening and sustaining interest in missions, and takes 
practical oversight of local mission work. 

Mission Work. — The city of Columbia offers many 
opportunities for religious work and training. There are 
two mission churches in the suburbs. There are three cot- 
ton mill villages, where mission work may be conducted. 
There is abundance of opportunity for teaching and preach- 
ing among the colored people. Prayer meeting, house-to- 
house visitations, Sunday Schools and preaching services 
are conducted by the students in various parts of the city 
and adjacent country. 



28 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Regular Preaching. — Students of the Middle and 
Senior Classes are allowed, with the consent of the Presby- 
teries concerned, and when it does not conflict with their 
Seminary duties, to supply vacant churches in the State of 
South Carolina, every part of which is easily accessible to 
Columbia. 

Location and Buildings. 

The Seminary is located near the center of the city of 
Columbia, the capital of South Carolina. The city, with a 
population of about 50,000, is situated on heights overlook- 
ing the Congaree River, and is noted for the beauty of its 
site, its broad and well-shaded streets, its excellent natural 
drainage, its quiet and refined society. It is a railroad and 
educational center, having besides a number of lower 
schools and institutions, the University of South Carolina, 
the Lutheran Theological Seminary, the Presbyterian Col- 
lege for Women, the Methodist Female College and several 
Business Colleges. In recent years Columbia has entered 
upon a career of steady, if not, indeed, phenomenal develop- 
ment. The establishment of large manufacturing enter- 
prises in the various suburbs of the city means not only 
increased material prosperity for the city, but enlarged 
opportunities for mission work by the students of the Semi- 
nary. 

Columbia is one of the leading winter resorts of our 
country. It is located in the same great pine belt in which 
Camden and Aiken, famous winter resorts, are situated. 
The climate is one of the most delightful in the world. 

The Seminary occupies a beautiful square of four acres 
in the heart of the residence portion of the city. Just across 
the street from the Seminary stands the College for Women. 
Only one square from the Seminary stands the handsome 
new tourist hotel, The Colonia. 

The main floor of the central building on the Seminary ' 
grounds is used for lecture rooms, the second floor for the 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 29 

library. This building is flanked by the two dormitories, 
Law Hall and Simons Hall. Each of these dormitories 
has twenty-four rooms, commodious, well ventilated and 
lighted. The rooms are kept in a thoroughly cleansed and 
wholesome condition, and are supplied with a complete suite 
of furniture, carpet, and necessary linen and bedding. The 
Ladies' Society of the First Church, Columbia, with the aid 
of other churches in the four Synods, has fitted up with new 
and handsome furnishings a number of the rooms in Simons 
Hall. The Chapel is the small brick building on the east 
side of the square; the Dining Hall is on the west side — a 
new two-story brick building. 

Historical Sketch. 

The Columbia Seminary was founded in 1828 by the 
vSynod of South Carolina and Georgia, which occupied the 
territory now embracing the three Synods of South Caro- 
lina, Georgia and Florida, so that these other Synods when 
they were formed assumed for themselves the covenant 
relations entered into by their forefathers. The Synod of 
Alabama entered into the same compact in 1857. Dr. 
Thomas Goulding, of Georgia, was elected the first professor 
in 1828. In January, 1830, he and his students removed 
from Georgia to Columbia. In January, 1831, the present 
central building was occupied and Dr. George Howe was 
elected his associate in the Faculty. Twc years later 
(1833), Dr. A. W. Leland was appointed to the Chair of 
Theology. In 1834, Dr. Goulding retired and his chair, 
that of Ecclesiastical History and Polity, was filled by the 
election of Dr. Charles Colcock Jones (1836). A few 
years afterwards, Dr. Benjamin M. Palmer was appointed 
to the work of teaching Ecclesiastical History and Polity 
(1853), and Dr. James H. Thornwell was assigned to the 
chair of Didactic and Polemic Theology (1856). During 
these years of early growth, a generous fund for the endow- 
ment of the Seminary was contributed by the supporting 



30 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Synods. In 1854, Simons Hall was erected through the 
liberality of Mrs. E. L. Simons, of Charleston, and in 1855, 
Mrs. Agnes Law, of Columbia, provided for the erection of 
the dormitory that bears her name. 

The establishment of this Seminary in Columbia, in 1828, 
was the practical recognition, by the fathers of that day, of 
the fact that they owed something to their generation and 
something also to those who were to come after them. 
Looking around them, they saw fields white to the harvest. 
An increasing population with pressing spiritual needs was 
filling the boundaries of both South Carolina and Georgia. 
Looking ahead of them into the future, the fathers of that 
day foresaw that time would make the call for efficient 
laborers in this field only the more urgent. Their children, 
even then, had begun to turn their eyes westward. The 
States of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana were being 
settled by those whose antecedents were in South Carolina 
and Georgia. The Christian people of these two States 
followed with eager interest not only the material, but also 
the spiritual progress of those who had gone out from 
them, and were still of them. 

In the narrative of the Synod of South Carolina and 
Georgia for the year 1832, four years after the Seminary 
opened its doors, the following statement occurs: 

"It is to be hoped that the period is not far distant when 
this school of the prophets to which principally our Churches 
look for the successors of those who are removed from the 
Ministry by death — for the pastors who arc to break the 
bread of life among our numerous unsupplied Churches, 
shall be so amply furnished by Christian liberality with the 
means of imparting a complete Theological Education, that 
it shall not be behind similar institutions to which the 
Churches in other parts of our land look for their spiritual 
guides." 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 31 

Library. 

The Library contains about 25,000 volumes, mostly theo- 
logical. In it are incorporated the larger parts of the 
libraries of Rev. Thomas Smyth, D. D., Rev. John Doug- 
lass, Rev. George Howe, D. D., and Rev. S. Beach Jones, 
D. D. New books are being continually added from a 
rather small fund for the purpose, as well as by gift. The 
libraries of the professors, amounting to several thousand 
volumes, are accessible to the students. 

The Smyth Reference Library Rooms, located in Simons 
Hall, have been fitted up in handsome style by Miss Sarah 
Ann Smyth and the Ladies' Society of the Second Church, 
Charleston. In one of these rooms are kept the books 
needed for daily reference. In the other are found some 
of the daily newspapers, with a number of the leading 
monthly magazines. The rooms are furnished with electric 
lights. 

The Society of Missionary Inquiry holds its regular meet- 
ings in the J. Leighton Wilson Memorial Room. This 
room contains a small library of books on missions, and an 
interesting collection of curios from heathen lands. 

Expenses. 

There are no tuition fees and no charges for room-rent. 
The Seminary furnishes tableware and linen, and pays the 
salary of the Matron. The cost of good board is reduced 
to a minimum, under the careful supervision of the Matron, 
Miss Mary Frazee, and ranges from $10 to $12 per calen- 
dar month. 

By a special arrangement books are purchased at a rea- 
sonable rate, directly from the publishers. Some text- 
books can be obtained from the Library. Washing can be 
had at $1.25 per month. Traveling expenses of students, 
upon first entering the Seminary, are paid when necessary; 
and further assistance is given to students from scholar- 
ships, and from the students' fund, so far as it will allow. 



32 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

The student requiring such assistance must bring from the 
chairman of education in his Presbytery a written statement 
of the amount he will need for the session to supplement 
what he has available for his support. 

Donations and Special Objects. 

For support of students: 

Ladies' Society, Second Church, Charleston, S. C. . . $300.00 
Ladies' Society, First Church, Charleston, S. C. . . . 150.00 

Ladies' Society, First Church, Columbia, S. C 50.00 

Independent Presbyterian Church, Savannah, Ga.. 100.00 
Westminster Church, Charleston, S. C 50.00 

For minor improvement and incidental expense fund : 

The following Ladies' Societies have generously contrib- 
uted the amounts following their respective names towards 
a fund that seeks to provide for certain constantly recurring 
incidental expenses, and certain minor improvements in con- 
nection with the Seminary grounds and buildings, or for 
special aid to some deserving candidate for the ministry. 

Greensboro Presbyterian Church, Greensboro, Ga. . .$ 5.00 

Abbeville Presbyterian Church, Abbeville, S. C 10.00 

Orangeburg Presbyterian Church, Orangeburg, S. C. 10.00 

Greenwood Presbyterian Church, Greenwood, S. C . . 6.25 

Lancaster Presbyterian Church, Lancaster, S. C. . . . 10.00 

Moultrie Presbyterian Church, Moultrie, Ga 5.00 

Gainesville Presbyterian Church, Gainesville, Fla ... 5 . 50 

Flemington Presbyterian Church, Flemington, Ga. . 5.00 

Macon Presbyterian Church, Macon, Ga 5.00 

Opportunities for Liberality. 

1. There is need of a fireproof Library building. 

2. There should be a larger and more commodious Chapel 
of brick or stone. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 33 

3. The Students' Fund should be largely increased, or a 
number of scholarships, yielding at least $100 each per 
annum, should be added. 

4. There is room for a variety of lectureships. 

5. In a smaller way, gifts of books, maps, charts, casts 
for the Library and Lecture-rooms, and of supplies for the 
Boarding Hall are always gratefully received. 

Form of Bequest. 

The proper form of a bequest is as follows : 

"To the Board of Directors of the Theological Seminary 
of the Synods of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and 
Florida of the Presbyterian Church in the United States, to 
them and their successors, I give and bequeath the sum of 

(or I devise a certain parcel or tract of 

land, etc.), to be applied by them to the uses and benefit of 
said Seminary, as follows, etc." 




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COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 35 



APPENDIX. 



Members of the Faculty of the Columbia Seminary, 
1828-1914. 

Accessns. Exit us. 

1828 Thomas Goulding,* D. D., Professor of 

Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 1834 

1S31 George Howe,* D. D., LL. D., Professor of 

Biblical Literature. 1883 

1S33 A. W. Leland,* D. D., Professor of Chris- 
tian Theology. 1856 

1836 Charles Colcock Jones,* D. D., Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church 
Polity. 1838 

1848 Charles Colcock Jones,* D. D., Professor 
of Ecclesiastical History and Church 
Polity. 1850 

1852 Alex. T. McGill,* D. D., Professor of 

Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 1853 

1853 B. M. Palmer,* D. D., LL. D., Provisional 

Instructor in Ecclesiastical History and 
Church Polity. 1853 

1854 B. M. Palmer,* D. D., LL. D., Professor of 

Ecclesiastical History and Church Polity. 1856 
1856 A. W. Leland,* D. D., Professor of Sacred 

Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology. 1871 

1856 J. H. Thornwell,* D. D., LL. D., Pro- 

fessor of Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1862 

1857 J. B. Adger,* D. D., Professor of Ecclesias- 

tical History and Church Polity. 1874 

•Deceased. 



36 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



Accessus. Exitus. 

1861 James Woodrow,* Ph. D., D. D., LL. D., 
Perkins Professor of Natural Science in 
Connection with Revelation. 1886 

1867 William S. Plumer,* D. D., LL. D., Pro- 
fessor of Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1875 

1870 Joseph R. Wilson,* D. D., Professor of 
Pastoral and Evangelistic Theology and 
Sacred Rhetoric. 18 7± 

1875 William S. Plumer,* D. D., LL. D., Pro- 

fessor of Pastoral, Casuistic and Historic 
Theology. 1880 

1876 J. L. Girardeau,* D. D., LL. D., Professor 

of Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1886 

1882 Chas. R. Hemphill, D. D., Associate Pro- 
fessor of Biblical Literature. 1883 

1882 Wm. E. Boggs, D. D., Professor of Ecclesi- 

astical History and Church Polity. 1885 

1883 Chas. R. Hemphill, D. D., Professor of 

Biblical Literature. 1885 

1885 Jas. T. Tadlock,* D. D., LL. D., Professor 

of Ecclesiastical History and Church 
Polity. 1898 

1886 J. L. Girardeau,* D. D., LL. D., Professor 

of Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1895 

1887 Chas. C. Hersman, D. D., Professor of 

Biblical Literature. 1888 

1888 Francis R. Beattie,* Ph. D., D. D., 

Perkins Professor of Natural Science in 
Connection with Revelation, and Christian 
Apologetics. 1893 

1888 William M. McPheeters, D. D., Professor 

of Biblical Literature. 1893 



'Deceased. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 37 

Accessus. Exitus. 

1892 Daniel J. Brimm, A. M., Associate Pro- 

fessor of Biblical Literature. 1893 

1893 William M. McPheeters, D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Old Testament Literature 
and Exegesis. 

1893 Daniel J. Brimm, D. D., Professor of New 

Testament Literature and Exegesis. 1900 

1893 Samuel S. Laws, A. M., M. D., LL. D., 
D. D., Perkins Professor of Natural 
Science in Connection with Revelation, 
and Christian Apologetics. 1898 

1895 William T. Hall,* D. D., LL. D., Pro- 
fessor of Didactic and Polemic Theology. 1911 

1898 Richard C. Reed, D. D., LL. D., Profes- 
sor of Ecclesiastical History and Church 
Polity. 

1900 John W. Davis, D. D., Professor of New 

Testament Literature and Exegesis. 1902 

1901 Samuel C. Byrd, A. M., Adjunct Professor 

in the Chair of Pastoral Theology, Homi- 
letics, and the English Bible. 1902 

1902 Henry Alexander White, Ph. D., D. D., 

LL. D., Professor of New Testament Lit- 
erature and Exegesis. 

1911 Thornton Whaling, D. D., LL. D., Presi- 
dent of the Seminary and Professor of 
Didactic and Polemic Theology. 

1911 R. G. Pearson,* D. D., Professor of the 

English Bible. 1913 

1911 Patterson Wardlaw, A. B., LL. D., 
Instructor in the Pedagogy of the Sunday 
School. 

♦Deceased. 



38 COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Accessus. Exitus. 

1911 James O. Reavis, D. D., Instructor in 
Missions. 

Special Lecturers. 

1898 Samuel M. Smith,* D. D., Lecturer on Pas- 
toral Theology and Homiletics. 1899 

1898 Samuel C. Byrd, A. M., Lecturer on English 

Bible. 1901 

Lecturers on the Thomas Smyth Foundation. 

1911 Francis Landey Patton, D. D., LL. D., 

Princeton, New Jersey. Subject : "The 
Theistic View of the World." 

1912 Caspar Rene Gregory, D. D., LL. D., 

University of Leipsic, Germany. Sub- 
ject: "Theological Movements in Ger- 
many During the Nineteenth Century." 

1913 Robert E. Speer, LL. D., New York City. 

Subject : "Some Missionary Problems 
Illustrated in the Lives of Great Mission- 
ary Leaders." 

1914 Robert A. Webb, D. D., LL. D., Louisville, 

Kentucky. Subject : "The Doctrine of the 
Christian Hope." 

Tutors in Hebrew. 

1851 BazilE E. Lanneau, A. M. 1855 

1856 James Cohen,* A. M. 1862 

1872 Chas. R. Hemphill, A. M. 1878 

1889 Daniel J. Brimm, A. M. 1892 

1892 Samuel C. Byrd, A. M. 1893 

1893 Evander D. Brown, A. M. 1894 

1894 Charles M. Richards, A. B. 1896 

^Deceased. 



COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 39 

Accessas. Exitus. 

1896 William H. Mills, A. B., B. D. 1898 

1898 Melton Clark, A. B. 1898 

1898 Samuel C. Byrd, A. M. 1902 

1902 Ernest N. Bradshaw, B. D. 1904 

1904 James B. Branch, A. B., B. D. 1905 

Tutors in Greek. 

1894 Alfred L. Patterson, A. B. 1895 

1905 Edgar Davis Kerr, A. B. 1907 
1909 Samuel A. Linley,* A. B. 1910 



•Deceased. 




SMYTH LIBRARY 
COLUMBIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 

Shelf No. 



Gift of 




ACCESSION No,... 




D*« 





JOHN BULOW CAMPBELL LIBRARY 



1829 0210272 8