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Full text of "Combined history of Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash counties, Illinois. With illustrations ... and biographical sketches of some of their prominent men and pioneers"

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111. Hist. Surv. 







ir llroramenl l^n anh 








\HE publishers desire to return their sin- 
cere thanks to those who have aided in 
making this ^vork thorough and com- \ 
plete. For the incidents relative to the early settle- 
ment of these counties, we are indebted to a few 
early pioneers, who have seen a wild frontier 
country develop into a wealthy and populous com- 
munity; especially are we under obligations to the 
writings of George Flower and Morris Birkbeck, 
whose graphic articles shed much light on the 
early settlements in this section of the state. For 
other facts we are under obligations to a class 
of intelligent men, who, amid the ordinary pur- 
suits of life, have taken pains to thoroughly in- 
form themselves in regard to the past history 
and resources of their county. Among those who 
have specially contributed to the history of Ed- 
wards county are: Charles Churchill, Alexander 
Stewart, Jesse Emmersott, John Woods, John Tribe, 
Philander Gould, Ansel A. Gould, George Lapp, 
Enoch Greathouse, Benjamin Ulm, Francis Great- 
house, Thomas Coad, George Michcls, Elisha Chism, 
and Dr. F. B. Thompson. 

The gentlemen who have assisted us in Law- 
rence county are :J W. Crews, David D. Lantcr- 
man, J. M, Miller, Samuel Sumner, A. I. Judy, 
George Me Cleave, Dr. W. M. Garrard, Richard 
King, Francis Tongas, Renick Heath and William 

In the preparation of the history of Wabash coun- 
ty we have been materially assisted by Judge Robert 
Bell, James M. Sharp, Judge E. B. Green, Dr. Jacob 
Schneck, Joseph Compton, Dr. James Harvey, John 
Dyar, E B. Keen, Thompson Blackford, Henry Lov- 
ellette, Dr. A. J. Mclntosh, J. J. Smith, Win. Ulm, 
Thomas A'. Armstrong, Ira Keen, John Kigg, D. L. 
Tillon, A. B. Cory, J. Zimmerman, Mrs. Elizabeth 
Litherland, John } \ 'ood and John Higgins. 

To the county officials of the respective counties we 
extend our thanks for the many courtesies extended, 
during the compilation of this work. 

Among the chapters most fruitful in interest to 
a great number of our readers, will be found 
those which treat of the early history of the 
churches. Many persons are now living whose 
fathers and grandfathers, in the humble log cabin, 
which was then the only house of worship, assisted 
in founding organizations which have been of the 
greatest good to subsequent generations. To the 
clergymen of the different denominations, and to 
many of the older members of these societies, we 
are indebted for much valuable information. The 
editors of the several newspapers have also rendered 
assistance in that prompt and cheerfid manner so 
characteristic of the journalistic profession. 

We have endeavored, with all diligence and care- 
fulness, to make the best of the material at our 
command. We have confined ourselves, as nearly 
as possible, to the original data furnished. The sub- 
ject matter has been carefully classified, and will be 
a great help to the public as a book of reference con- 
cerning the past history of the county. The facts 
were gathered from many different sources, and de- 
pend largely, not on exact written records, but on the 
uncertain and conflicting recollections of different 
individuals! We have tried to preserve the inci- 
dents of pioneer history, to accurately present the 
natural features and material resources of this por- 
tion of the state, and to gather the facts likely 
to be of most interest to our present readers, and 
of greatest importance to coming generations. If 
our readers will take into consideration the diffi- 
culties of the task, we feel assured of a favorable 
verdict on our undertaking. 







Geographical Position, 9 ; Early Explora- 
tions, 9 ; Discovery of the Ohio, 15 ; 
English Explorations and Settle- 
ments, 16; American Settlements, 22; 
Division of the North- West Territory, 
23 ; Present Condition of the North- 
West, 24 9-25 


French Possessions, 25 ; The first Settle- 
ments in Illinois, 26; Founding of 
Kaskaskia, 27; As a part of Louisi- 
ana, 27 ; Fort Chartres, 28 ; Under 
French rule, 29 ; Character of the Early 
French Settlers, 30; A Possession of 
Great Britain, 30 ; Conquest by Clark, 
32; The "Compact of 1787," 32; Land 
Tenures, 34 ; Physical Features of the 
State, 35 ; Progress and Development, 
35; Material Resources of the State, 
36 ; Annual Products, 36 ; The War 
Record, 38; Civil Government, 39; 
Territorial and State Officers, 40 ; Mis- 
cellaneous Information 25-45 


46 ; WABASH COUNTY, 47. Railroads, 
Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, 48; 
Ohio and Mississippi, 49; Louisville, 
Evansville and St. Louis, 49 ; Peoria, 
Decatur and Evansville, 49 ;. . . 46-50 



51 ; LAWRENCE COUNTY, 53. . . . 50-54 


List of Native Woody Plants, Grasses, 

etc., etc 56, 56 



Treating of the Various Families of Ani- 
mals and Birds that have existed in 
these counties 56-58 



HOWARDS COUNTY, First Settlers, 58 ; Early 

Marriages, 66 ; The Deep Snow, 67 ; 

The Sudden Freeze, 67. LAWRENCE 

COUNTY, First Settlers, 68 ; WABASH 

COUNTY, First Settlers, 73 ; Pioneer 

Mills, 77 ; The Cannon Massacre, 78 ; 

Habits and Modes of living in Pioneer 

times, 78 58-80 



CDWARDS COUNTY, Act creating the Coun- 
ty, 80 ; County Government at Pal- 
myra, 81 ; Second Court, Third Court, 
Justice's Court, 84 ; First and Second 
Commissioner's Court, 85 ; County 
Government at Albion, County Com- 
missioner's Court from First to Four- 
teenth, 86-88 ; County Courts, from 
First to Seventh, 89, 90 ; Boards of 
County Commissioners, 90, 91 ; Pub- 
lic Buildings, 91 ; Taxable Property, 
92 ; Circuit Courts, First Murder Trial, 
93; Second Murder Case, 94; First 
Naturalization, Judges of Circuit 
Court, First Probate Business, The 
First Will, Probate Judges, 95 ; First 
Deed Recorded, Delegates to Constitu- 
tional Convention, The County in the 
General Assembly 96 ; County Officers 97. 

LAWRENCE COUNTY, 97; County Gov- 
ernment, 100; Militia Districts, 101 ; 
Public Buildings, The First Court- 
house, 102; Early Ferries, Early 
Revenue, Fiscal Statement of De- 
cember 6, 1827, 105; Election Pre- 
cincts, 104-106 ; County Finance since 
1827, 106-108 ; Circuit Courts, 1821 to 
1848, 108-110; United States Census 
1850, County Government from 1849 
to 1883, Swamp Lands, 110 ; Finan- 
cial Notes 1849 to 1883, 111 ; Officers 
Representing and Serving Lawrence 
County, 111-115. 

WABASH COUNTY, Organization, etc., 115- 
120 ; Public Buildings, 120-123 ; Tax- 
es and Debts, 1825 to 1850, 123, 124 ; 
Railroad Debts, 124 ; Officers Repre- 
senting and Serving the county, 125- 
127 80-127. 


Circuit Judges & Non-resident lawyers, 128. 
EDWARDS COUNTY, Former Resident Law- 
yers, 129; Present Bar, 129. LAW- 
BENCE COUNTY, Former Resident Law- 
yers, 130; Present Bar, 130; WA- 
BASH COUNTY, Former Resident Law- 
yers, and Present Bar, 132. ; . . 127-133 



Giving the Names of all the News- 
papers that have been printed in each 
of the Counties 133-137. 



Black Hawk War, 137-141 ; War of 
the Rebellion, 141 ; A List of Names 
of the volunteers from each of the 
Counties, with a short historical 
Sketch of the Regiments to which 
they belonged 137-156 


The School Systems of the State their 
Growth, Resources and Management 
etc., 150 ; EDWARDS COUNTY, 159 ; 
CDI-VTY It! lot) lb'3 

Foster Blashel 


Rice Cyrus 


. . 220 
. . 323 
. .260 
. . 309 
. . 218 
. . 257 
. . 310 
. . 256 
. .245 
. . 244 
. . 310 
. . 258 
. . 222 
. . 306 
. . 297 
. .218 
. . 255 
. . 309 

. .307 
. .324 


Foster, William F 
Fox Jeremiah 

.... 224 


Rigg, Henry H 
Rigg James W 

Frazcr, Dr. Milton D 
Freeman, Samuel 
French, Dr. Zeba D 
Friend, Dr. William 
Frost, James P 

.... 330 
.... 324 
.... 21)!! 
.... 310 
.... 275 
.... 274 
.... 225 
.... 262 
.... 314 
.... 314 
.... 300 
.... 249 
.... 322 
.... 224 
. . . .217 
. ... 261 
.... 253 
. ... 308 
. ... 267 

Rodgers, Augustine J 
Rude, David S 
Samoniel Brothers 
Schaefer, Dr. H. M 
Schneck, Dr. J 
Schrodt, John 
Sears, Dr. Paul 
Seibert. Charles 
Scitz, Jr., William 
Sentance, John 
Shearer, Joseph B 
Smith, Dr. James E 
Smith, John 
Smith, Valentine 
Smith, Rozander 
Stewart, Alexander 
Stoltz, George 
Strahan, John (deceased) 
Tribe William B 

EDWARDS COUSTT. Methodist Church, 163 ; 
Protestai.t Episcopal, 165; Baptist, 167; 
ChurcU of Christ, 268; Cumberland 
Presbyterian, 172; United Brethren, 
176; Evangelical Association, 179; 
LAWRENCE C o u N T Y .-Presbyterian 
Church, 181 ; Christian Church, 182; 
United Brethren, 200; Disciples of 
Christ, 183; Methodist Protestant, 
184 ; Methodist Episcopal, 185. WA- 
BASH COUNTY. Christian Church, 186; 
M. E. Church, 189; Presbyterian, 192; 
Evangelical, 195 ; Catholic, 198 ; Ger- 
man Lutheran, 198 ; Evangelical As- 
sociation of N. A., 199 ; United Breth- 
ren in Christ, 200 163-202 

Glaubensklee, Henry 
Gordon, Robert S 
Gould, Ansel A 
Gould, Philander 
Gray, Dr. F. S 
Green, Hon. Edward B 
Groff, Hon. John 
Hallam, John 
Harris, Gibson 
Harrison, John M 
Havill, Frank W 
Higgins, John 
Hoopes Caleb 

Ulm, Captain William 
Utter, Abraham (deceased) 

. . 246 

. .288 
. . 309 
. .283 
. .284 

Joy, Thomas L 
Kamp, Louis 
Keen, Hon. E. B 
Keen, George W 

. . . .261 
. ... 263 
.... 335 
. ... 306 
. ... 258 
. ... 299 

Vandermark, Simon 
Vandermark, Cyr,us 
Waller, Dr Fay K 
Wilkinson, Thomas 
Wilkinson, Hon. William R 

Adams, David 300 

Keniepp, Captain G. M 
King, Henry (deceased) .... 
Landes Hon Silas Z 

Armstrong, Thomas N 298 
Armstrong, Berkley (deceased) 297 
Bear, James 220 
Bell, Hon. Robert 247 

Lescher, Dr. Jacob 
Lewis, Harlie V 

. ... 259 

Woods, Thomas T." 
Wood Hon William (deceased) 

. .227 

Low, Dr. Lyman W 
Manley, Alfred P 
Manley Frank C k 

. ... 219 
. ... 257 

Zimmerman, Hon. Jacob 


. . 248 

. .276 
. . 319 

Belles, Philip 330 
Berninger, Isaiah 307 
Blood, John M. (deceased) 276 
Bockhouse, William 325 
Bower, George . ^ . . 228 
Brause, August 302 
Briggs, Jonathan 216 
Burkett, JohnT 262 
Campbell, Joseph M. , 226 
Churchill, Joel 215 
Colyer, Walter . . 26 

Manley, Dr. Paul G 
Mayo, Walter L 
Marx, Samuel 
Marx, Philip H 
McClane, Dr. C. T 
McClurkin, Dr. John C 
McDowell, Dr. James 
Mclntosh, Dr. Andrew J 
McJilton, Dr. Edward L 
Medler, William H 
Michels, George 
Miller, Edward 

. ... 336 
. ... 221 
. . . . 307 
. ... 308 
.... 324 
.... 268 
.... 296 
.... 308 
.... 225 
.... 214 
.... 254 

City and Precinct of Albion 
City and Township of Lawrenceville . 
b/City and Precinct of Mt Carmel 

. .327 
. . 203 
. . 228 


. . 264 


. . >:. 

Compton, Van Bureu 298 
Curdling, Robert W ........ 227 
Dalby, Samuel Nelson 214-n 
Dickson, Dr. Henry I, 224 
Edwards, Eld. Caleb 227 
Emmerson, Morris 226 
Kw:iM, George C 323 
HIM, Id-. Chesterfield 22ti 
Flower, George 212 
Kluwci-. Mrs. Eliza Julia -j] | v 
"owe-.'. R.C 224- A 

French Creek 

. . 337 

Morgan, Maxwell W 
Murphy, Dr. Hugh A 
Parkinson, Robert (deceased) . . 
Parmenter, Henry 
Petty, G. \V 
Pixley, Asa (deceased) 
Price, Isaac K 
Putnam, Samuel R 

.... 218 
.... 267 
.... 260 
.... 326 

. ... 208 
. ... 316 

. . . . 2"iii 
. . . . .V, 

/Lick Prairie 

. . 303 
. . 340 
. . 301 

. . :;i7 
. . m 

. . 311 

. . 272 
. . 2!1 






Landes Mrs lietw 

en IMS -IMH 


Mauley, Dr. P. G 

Facing 332 

Armstrong, Berkley 

. Facing 290 

Adams, David (deceased) 

Facing 808 

Map ot Counties 

Facing ', 

Blood, John M. (dec'd) .... 

Facing 270 

Armstrong, Berkley 

Facing 2'JO 

Medler, Win. H 

Facing 272 

Churchill, Joel 

... .216 

Bear, James W 

Facing 342 

Miller, Edward 

|-:u-i,, K 888 

Flower, George 

.... 212 

Blood, Mrs. A 

Facing 204 

Parmenter, Henry 

Facing 336 

Flower, Mrs. Eliza Julia . . . . 

. . . 214-A 

Bond, L. C 

Facing 226 

Pixley, A., Jr 

Facing 310 

Flower, K.C 

. . . 224-A 

Buxton, Dr. W. E 

Facing 204 

Public Buildings, Edwards County . 

Facing 84 

Foster, Blashel 

.... :!!,") 

Churchill Bros.' Business Block . . 

Facing 208 

Public Buildings, Lawreuceville . . 

Facing 232 

Frost, James P 

. . . . 276 

Churchill, James, Residence . . . 

Facing 20 

Rigg, H. H 

Facing 280 

Gill, Thomas 

. . . .274 

Churchill, Mrs. Joel, Residence . . 

Facing 208 

Kigg, J. W 

Facing 256 

Gould, Philander, 

. Facing 314 

Couit-House, Mt. Carmel . . . . 

Facing 120 

Sears, Dr. Paul Betw< 

en 248-249 

Gould, Martha L 

. Facing 314 

Curtis, John 

Facing 268 

Seibert, Charles 

Facing 304 

liouM, Mrs. Sarah (dec'd) . . . 

. Facing 314 

Dreibelbis, F. and J. Mill .... 

Facing 232 

Seller, Jacob 

Facing 236 

Gould, Ansel A 

Facing 314 

Ewald, George C 

Facing 284 

Sentance, J. and Son 

Facing 226 

Gould, Chloe S 

. Facing 314 

Foster, Blashel 

Facing 326 

Smith, Rozander 

Facing 308 

Groff, John and Wife 

. Facing 322 

Frost, James P 

Facing 272 

Smith, James N 

Facing 274 

Harris Gibson 

.... 217 


Facing 284 

Tribe, R. M 

Facing 2bO 

Lescher, Dr. Jacob 

.... 269 

Gill, Thomas 

Facing 274 

Tribe, W. B 

Facing 226 

Low, Dr. Lyman W 

.... 219 

Glaubensklee, Henry and Sanih . 

Facing 220 

Utter, Abraham (deceased) . . . . 

Facing 247 

Mayo, Walter L 

.... 221 

Gould, Deuel 

Facing 204 

Wood Joseph 

Facing 216 

Pixley, Asa (dec'd,) 

. Facing 316 

Gould, Ansel, Jr 

Facing 288 

Wood, Oliver II 

Facing 280 

Rice, Cyrus 

. Facing 220 

Gould, Philander Betwe 

en 312-313 

Wood, Thomas 

Facing 342 

Rude, David S. (dec'd) .... 

. Facing 218 

Gould, Ansel A Betwe 

en 318-319 

Wright, David P 

Facing 256 

Sears, Dr. Paul 

.... 244 

Groff, John Betwe 

en 320-321 

Stewart, Alexander 
Utter, Abraham (deceased) . 

. . . .223 
.... 240 

Kamp's Mill 
Keen E B 

Facing 240 
Facing 298 

Partial List of Patrons 

Constitution of Illinois 

. . . 345 
. 360 

Utter, Mrs. Elizabeth 

.... 246 

Keen, G. W 

Facing 308 

Declaration of Independence . . 

. . . 872 

Wood, Hon. William (dec'd) . . 

. Facing 250 

Keen, W. E 

Facing 332 Constitution of the United States 

. ... 373 

Wood, Joseph (dec'd) 

. Facing 210 

King Henry (deceased) 

Facing 300 

Amendments to Constitution of U. 

5. ... 376 





T.+ N\ 



W F O ft D 

_./?. H 







-|-4- : - 







,N 1784 the North Western Territory was 
ceded to the United States by Virginia. 
It embraced only the territory lying be- 
tween the Ohio and Mississippi rivers; 
and north, to the northern limits of the 
United States. It coincided with the area 
now embraced in the states of Wisconsin, 
Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, and 
that portion of Minnesota lying on the 
east side of the Mississippi river. On the first day of March, 
1784, Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee, and 
James Monroe, delegates in Congress on the part of Vir- 
ginia, executed a deed of cession, by which they transferred 
to the United States, on certain conditions, all right, title 
and claim of Virginia to the country known as the North- 
western Territory. But by the purchase of Louisiana in 
1803, the western boundary of the United States was ex- 
tended to the Rocky Mountains and the Northern Pacific 
Ocean. It includes an area of 1,887,850 square miles, 
beiug greater than the united areas of the Middle and 
Southern states, including Texas. Out of this magnificent 
territory have been erected eleven sovereign states and eight 
territories, with an aggregate population at the present time 
of 13,000,000 inhabitants, or nearly one-third of the entire 
population of the United States. 

Its rivers are the largest on the continent, flowing thous- 
ands of miles through its rich alluvial valleys and broad, 
fertile prairies. 

Its lakes arc fresh-water seas, upon whose bosom floats 
the commerce of many states. Its far-stretching prairies 
have more acres that are arable and productive than any 
other area of like extent on the globe. 

For the last quarter of a century the increase of popula- 

tion and wealth in the north-west has been about as three to 
one in any other portion of the United States. 


In the year 1512, on Easter Sunday, the Spanish name 
for which is Pascua Florida,* Juan Ponce de Leon, an old 
comrade of Columbus, discovered the coast of the American 
continent, near St. Augustine, and in honor of the day and 
of the blossoms which covered the trees along the shore, 
named the new-found country Florida. Juan had been led 
to undertake the discovery of strange lands partly by the 
hope of finding endless stores of gold, and partly by the 
wish to reach a fountain that was said to exist deep within 
the forests of North America, which possessed the power of 
renovating the life of those who drank of or bathed in its 
waters. He was made governor of the region he had visited 
but circumstances prevented his return thither until 1521 ; 
and then he went only to meet death at the hands of" the 

In the meantime, in 1516, a Spanish sea-captain, Diego 
Miruelo, had visited the coast first reached by Ponce de 
Leon, and in his barters with the natives had received con- 
siderable quantities of gold, with which he returned home 
and spread abroad new stories ^f the wealth hidden in the 

Ten years, however, passed before Pamphilo de Narvaei 
undertook to prosecute the examination of the lands north 
of the Gulf of Mexico. Narvaez was excited to action by 
the late astonishing success of the conqueror of Montezuma, 
but he found the gold for which he sought constantly flying 
before him ; each tribe of Indians referred him to . those 
living farther in the interior. And from tribe to tribe he 
and his companions wandered. They suffered untold priva- 
tions in the swamps and forests ; and out of three hundred 
followers only four or five at length reached Mexico. And 
still these disappointed wanderers persisted in their original 
fancy, that Florida was as wealthy as Mexico or Peru. 

Pascum, the old English "Pash" or Passover; " Pascua Florida" 
is the " Holyday of Flowers." 



Among those who had faith in that report was Ferdinand 
de Soto, who had been with Pizarro in the conquests of Peru. 
He asked and obtained leave of the King of Spain to con- 
quer Florida at his own cost. It was given in the year 1538. 
With a brilliant and noble band of followers he left Europe 
and in May, 1538, after a stay in Cuba, anchored his vessels 
near the coast of the Peninsula of Florida, in the bay of 
Spiritu Santa, or Tampa bay. 

De Soto entered upon his march into the interior with a 
determination to succeed. From June till November of 

1539, the Spaniards toiled along until they reached the 
neighborhood of Appalachee bay. During the next season, 

1540, they followed the course suggested by the Florida 
Indians, who wished them out of their country, and going 
to the north-east, crossed the rivers and climbed the moun- 
tains of Georgia. De Soto was a stern, severe man, and 
none dared to murmur. De Soto passed the winter with his 
little band near the Yazoo. In April, 1541, thfc resolute 
Spaniard set forward, and upon the first of May reached 
the banks of the great river of the West, not far from the 
35th parallel of latitude.* 

A month was spent in preparing barges to convey the 
horses, many of which still lived, across the rapid stream. 
Having successfully passed it, the explorers pursued their 
way northward, into the neighborhood of New Madrid ; 
then turning westward again, marched more than two hun- 
dred miles from the Mississippi to the highlands of White 
river; and still no gold, no gems, no cities only bare prai- 
rie?, and tangled forests, and deep morasses To the south 
again they toiled on, and passed their third winter of wander- 
ing upon the Washita. In the following spring (1542), De 
Soto, weary with hope long deferred, descended the Washita 
to its junction with the Mississippi. He heard, when he 
reached the mighty stream of the west, that its lower portion 
flowed through endless and uninhabitable swamps. 

The news sank deep into the stout heart of the disap- 
pointed warrior. His health yielded to the contests of his 
miud and the influence of the climate. He appointed a 
successor, and on the 21st of May died. His body was sunk 
in the stream of the Mississippi. Deprived of their ener- 
gatic leader, the Spaniards determined to try to reach Mexico 
by land. After some time spent in wandering through the 
forests, despairing of success in the attempt to rescue them- 
selves by land, they proceeded to prepare such vessels as 
they could to take them to sea. From January to July 
1543, the weak, sickly band of gold-seekers labored at the 
doleful task, and in July reached, in the vessels thus built, 
the Gulf of Mexico, and by September entered the river 
Paunco. Ode-half of the six hundred f who had disem- 
barked with De Soto, so gay in steel and silk, left their bones 
among the mountains and in the morasses of the South, from 
Georgia to Arkansas. 

De Soto founded no settlements, produced no results, and 
left no traces, unless it were that he awakened the hostility 
of the red man against the white man, and disheartened 

* De Soto probably was at the lower Chickasaw bluffs. The Spaniards 
called the Mississippi Rio Grande, Great River, which is the literal 
meaning of the aboriginal name. 
> t De Biedna says there landed G20 men. 

such as might desire to follow up the career of discovery for 
better purposes. The French nation were eager and ready 
to seize upon any news from this extensive domain, and 
were the first to profit by De Solo's defeat. As it was, for 
more than a century after the expedition, the west remained 
utterly unknown to the whites. 

The French were the first Europeans to make settlements 
on the St. Lawrence river and along the great lakes. Quebec 
was founded by Sir Samuel Champlain in 1608,* and in 1609 
when Sir Henry Hudson was exploring the noble river 
which bears his name, Champlain ascended the Sorrelle 
river, and discovered, embosomed between the Green moun- 
tains, or " Verdmont," as the chivalrous and poetic French- 
man called them, and the Adirondacks, the beautiful sheet 
of water to which his name is indissolubly attached. In 
1613 he founded Montreal. 

During the period elapsing between the years 1607 and 
1664, the English, Dutch, and Swedes alternately held pos- 
session of portions of the Atlantic coast, jealously watching 
one another, and often involved in bitter controversy, and 
not seldom in open battle, until, in the latter year, the 
English became the sole rulers, and maintained their rights 
until the era of the Revolution, when they in turn were 
compelled to yield to the growing power of their colonies, 
and retire from the field. 

The French movements, from the first settlement at 
Quebec, and thence westward, were led by the Catholic 
missionaries. Le Caron, a Franciscan friar, who had been 
the companion and friend of Champlain, was the first to 
penetrate the western wilds, which he did in 1616* in a 
birch canoe, exploring lake Huron and its tributaries. 
This was four years before the Pilgrims 

"Moored their bark on the wild New England shore." 

Under the patronage of Louis XIII, the Jesuits took the 
advance, and began vigorously the work of Christianizing 
the savages in 1632. 

In 1634, three Jesuit missionaries, Brebeuf, Daniel, and 
Lallemand, planted a mission on the shores of the lake of 
the Iroquois, (probably the modern Lake Simcoe), and also 
established others along the eastern border of Lake Huron. 

From a map published in 1660, it would appear that the 
French had at that date, become quite familiar with the 
region from Niagara to the head of Lake Superior, includ- 
ing considerable portions of Lake Michigan. 

In 1641, Fathers Jogues and Raymbault embarked on 
the Penetanguishine Bay for the Sault St. Marie, where 
they arrived after a passage of seventeen days. A crowd 
of two thousand natives met them, and a great council was 
held. At this meeting the French first heard of many 
nations dwelling beyond the great lakes. 

Father Raymbault died in the wilderness in 1642, while 
enthusiastically pursuing his discoveries. The same year, 
Jogues and Bressani were captured by the Indians and 
tortured, and in 1648 the mission which had been founded 
at St. Joseph was taken and destroyed, and Father Daniel 
slain. In 1649, the missions St Louis and St. Ignatius 


were also destroyed, and Fathers Brebeuf and Lallemand 
barbarously tortuivd by the same terrible and unrelenting 
enemy. Literally did those zealous missionaries of the 
Romish Church "take their lives in their hands," and lay 
them a willing sacrifice on the altar of their faith. 

It is stated by some writer that, in 1G54, two fur traders 
accompanied a band of Ottawas on a journey of five hun- 
dred leagues to the west. They were absent two years, and 
on their return brought with them fifty canoes and two 
hundred and fifty Indians to the French trading posts. 

They related wonderful tales of the countries they had 
Been, and the various red nations they had visited, and 
described the lofty mountains and mighty rivers in glowing 
terms. A new impulse was given to the spirit of adventure, 
and tcouts and traders swarmed the frontiers and explored 
the great lakes and adjacent country, and a party wintered 
in IGoO-GO on the south shore of Lake Superior. 

In 1GGO Father Mesnard was sent out by the Bishop of 
Quebec, and visited Lake Superior in October of that year. 
While crossing the Kecweenaw Point he was lost in the wilder- 
ness and never afterwards heard from, though his cassock 
and breviary were found long afterwards among the Sioux. 

A change was made in the government of New France in 
1G65. The Company of the Hundred Associates, who had 
ruled it since 1632, resigned its charter. Tracy was made 
Viceroy, Courcclles Governor, and Talon Intendent.* This 
was called the Government of the West Indies. 

The Jesuit missions were taken under the care of the new 
govcnmcnt, and thenceforward became the leaders in the 
movement to Christianize the savages. 

In the same year (1GG5) Pierre Claude Allouez was sent 
out by way of the Ottawa river to the far west, via the Sault 
St. Marie and the south shore of Lake Superior, where he 
landed at the bay of Chegoimegon. Here he found the 
chief village of the Chippcwas, and established a mission. 
He also made an alliance with them and the Sacs, Foxes and 
Illinois,^ against the formidable Iroquois. Allouez, the next 
year (1GGG) visited the western end of the great lake, where 
he met the Sioux, and from them first learned of the Missis- 
sippi river which they called "Mcssipi." From thence he 
returned to Quebec. 

In 1GG8 Claude Dablon and Jacques Marquctte estab- 
lished the mission at the Sault called St. Marie, and during 
the next five years Alloiicz, Dablon and Marquette explored 
the region of Lake Superior on the south shore, and ex- 
tending to Lake Michigan. They also established the mis- 
sions of Chegoimegon, St. Marie, Mackinaw and Green Bay. 

The plan of exploring the Mississippi probably originated 
with Marquctte. It was at once sanctioned by the Inten- 
dent, Talon, who was ambitious to extend the dominion of 
France over the whole West. 

In 1G70 Nicholas Perot was sent to the West to propose a 
congress of all the nations and tribes living in the vicinity 
of the lakes ; and, in 1G71, a great council was held at Sault 
St. Marie, ct which the Cross was set up, and the nations of 

* The duties of Intcmlent included a supervision cf t'.ic policy, justice, 
taj finance of the province. 

| The meaning of this word b said to be " Men." 

the great North-west were taken into an alliance, with much 
pomp and ceremony. 

On the 13th of May, 1G73, Marquctte, Joliet, and five 
voyageurs, embarked in two birch canoes at Mackinaw and 
entered Lake Michigan. The first nation they visited was 
the " Folles-Avoines," or nation of Wild Oats, since known 
as the Menomonies, living around the " Baie des Puans," or 
Green Bay. These people, with whom Marquette was some- 
what acquainted, endeavored to persuade the adventurers 
from visiting the Mississippi. They represented the Indians 
on the great river as being blood-thirsty and savage in the 
extreme, and the river itself as being inhabited by monsters 
which would devour them and their canoes together.* 

Marquctte thanked them for their advice, but declined to 
be guided by it. Passing through Green Bay, they ascended 
the Fox River, dragging their canoes over the strong rapids 
and visited the village, where they found living in l.armony 
together tribes of the Miamis, Mascoutens f tMilKika.bea.ux 
or Kickapoos. Leaving this point on the 10th of June, they 
made the portage to the " Ouisconsin," and descended that 
stream to the Mississippi, which they entered on the 17th 
with a joy, as Marquette says, which he could not express."! 

Sailing down the Mississippi, the party reached the Des 
Moines River, and, according to some, visited an Indian 
village some two leagues up the stream. Here the people 
again tried to persuade them from prosecuting their voyage 
down the river. After a great feast and a dance, and a 
night passed with this hospitable people, they proceeded on 
their way, escorted by six hundred persons to their canoes. 
These people called themselves Illinois, or Illini. The name 
of their tribe was Peruaca, and their language a dialect of 
the Algonquin. 

Leaving these savages, they proceeded down the river. 
Passing the wonderful rocks, which still excite the admira- 
tion of the traveller, they arrived at the mouth of another 
great river, the Pekilan"ni, or Missouri of the present day. 
They noticed the condition of its waters, which they described 
as " muddy, rushing and noisy." 

Passing a great rock, they came to the Ouabouskigon, or 
Ohio. Marquette shows this river very small, even as com- 
pared with the Illinois. From the Ohio they passed as far 
down as the Akamsca, or Arkansas, where they came very 
near being destroyed by the natives; but they finally paci- 
fied them, and, on the 1 7th of July, they commenced their 
return voyage. 

The party reached Green Bay in September without loss 
or injury, and reported their discoveries, which were among 
the most important of that age. Marquctte afterwards 
returned to Illinois, and preached to the natives until L<75. 

On the 18th of May of that year, while cruising up the 
eastern coast of Lake Michigan with a par!y of boatmen, 
he landed at the mouth of a stream putting into the lake 
from the east, since known as the river Marquette. He 
performed mass, and went a little apart to pruy, and being 

* See hgend of the p-eat bird, the terrible " Plata," t.'iru devoured men 
and was only overcome by the sacrl5ec cf a bruvi.youn ; chief. The 
rocks above Alton, Ill.aois, have como rude rci>SB^gU.or. i ci" this 

| Prair'c 


* XIarquctte's journal. { The ^rand tD 



gone longer than his companions deemed necessary, they j 
went in search of him, and found him dead where he had j 
knelt. Thefburied him in the sand. 

While this distinguished adventurer was pursuing his 
labors, two other men were preparing to follow in his foot- i 
step, and make still further explorations, and, if possible, | 
more important discoveries. These were the Chevalier | 
Robert de la Salle and Louis Hennepin. 

La Salle was a native of Rouen, in Normandy. He was 
educated at a seminary of the Jesuits, and designed for the 
ministry, but, for reasons unknown, he left the seuiinary and 
came to Canada, in 1GG7, where he engaged in the fur trade. 

Like nearly every intelligent man, he became intensely 
interested in the new discoveries of the West, and conceived 
the idea of exploring the passage to the great South Sea, 
which by many was believed to exist. He made known his 
ideas to the Governor-General, Count Frontenac, and de- 
sired his co-operation. The Governor at once fell in with 
his views, which were strengthened by the reports brought 
back by Marquette and Joliet, and advised La Salle to 
apply to the King of France in person, and gave him letters 
of introduction to the great Colbert, then Minister of 
Finance and Marine. Accordingly, in 1675, he returned 
to France, where he was warmly received by the King and 
nobility, and his ideas were at once listened to, and every 
possible favor shown to him. 

He was made a Chevalier, and invested with the seigniory 
of Fort Catarocouy, or Frontenac (now known as Kingston) 
upon condition that he would rebuild it, as he proposed, -of 

Returning to Canada, he wrought diligently upon the fort 
until 1677, when he again visited France to report progress. 
He was received, as before, with favor, and, at the instance 
of Colbert and his son, the King granted him new letters 
patent and new privileges. On the 14th of July, 1678, he 
sailed from Rochelle, accompanied by thirty men, and with 
Tonti, an Italian, for his lieutenant. They arrived at 
Quebec on the 13th of September, and after a few days' 
delay, proceeded to Frontenac. Father Lewis Henuepin, a 
Franciscan friar, of the Recollet sect, was quietly working 
in Canada on La Salle's arrival. He was a man of great 
ambition, and much interested in the discoveries of the day. 
He was appointed by his religious superiors to accompany 
the expedition fitting out for La Salle. 

Sending agents forward to prepare the Indians for his 
coming, and to open trade with them, La Salle himself era- 
barked, on the 18th of November, in a little brigantine of 
ten tons, to cross Lake Ontario. This was the first ship of 
European build that ever sailed upon this fresh-water sea. 
Contrary winds made the voyage long and troublesome, and 
a month was consumed in beating up the lake to the Niagara 
River. Near the mouth of this river the Iroquois had a 
village, and here La Salle constructed the first fortification, 
which afterwards grew into the famous Fort Niagara. On 
the 2Cth of January, 1G79, the keel of the first vessel built 
on Luke Erie was laid at the mouth of the Cayuga Creek, 
on the American side, about six miles above the falls. 

In the meantime La Salle had returned to Fort Frontenac 

to forward supplies for his forthcoming vessel. The little 
barque on Lake Ontario was wrecked by carelessness, and a 
large amount of the supplies she carried was lost. On the 
7th of August, the new vessel was launched, and made ready 
to sail. She was about seven tons' burden. 

La Salle christened his vessel the " Griffin," in honor of 
the arms of Count Frontenac. Passing across Lake Erie, 
and into the small lake, which they named St. Clair, they 
entered the broad waters of Lake Huron. Here they en- 
countered heavy storms, as dreadful as those upon the ocean 
and after a most tempestuous passage they took refuge in 
the roadstead of Michillimackinac (Mackinaw), on the 27th 
of August La Salle remained at this point until the middle 
of September, busy in founding a fort and constructing a 
trading-house, when he went forward upon the deep waters 
of Lake Michigan, and soon after cast anchor in Green Bay. 
Finding here a large quantity of furs and peltries, he deter- 
mined to load his vessel and send her back to Niagara. On 
the 18th of September, she was sent under charge of a pilot 
while La Salle himself, with fourteen men,* proceeded up 
Lake Michigan, leisurely examining its shores and noting 
everything of interest. Tonti, who had been sent to look 
after stragglers, was to join him at the head of the lake. 
From the 19ih of September to the 1st of November, the 
time was occupied in the voyage up this inland sea. On the 
last-named day, La Salle arrived at the mouth of the river 
Miamis, now St. Joseph. Here he constructed a fort, and 
remained nearly a month waiting for tidings of his vessel; 
but, hearing nothing, he determined to push on before the 
winter should preventhim. On the 3d of December, leaving 
ten men to garrison the fort, he started overland towards the 
head-waters of the Illinois, accompanied by three monks 
and twenty men. Ascending the St. Joseph River, he 
crossed a short portage and reached the The-a-ki-ki, since 
corrupted into Kankakee. Embarking on this sluggish 
stream, they came shortly to the Illinois, and soon after 
found a village of the Illinois Indians, probably in the 
vicinity of the rocky bluffs, a few miles above the present 
city of La Salle, Illinois. They found it deserted, but the 
Indians had quite a quantity of maize stored here, and La 
Salle, being short of provisions, helped himself to what he 
required. Passing down the stream, the party, on the 4th of 
January, came to a lake, probably the Lake Peoria, as there 
is no other upon this stream. Here they found a great 
number of natives, who were gentle and kind, and La Salle 
determined to construct a fort. It stood on a rise of ground 
near the river, and was named Oreve- Cceur f (broken-heart), 
most probably on account of the low spirits of the com- 
mander, from anxiety for his vessel and the uncertainty of 
the future. Possibly he had heard of the loss of the " Griffin," 
which occurred on her downward trip from Green Bay ; 
most probably on Lake Huron. He remained at the Lake 
Peoria through the winter, but no good tidings came, and 
no supplies. His men were discontented, but the brave 
adventurer never gave up hope. He resolved to send a 
party on a voyage of exploration up the Mississippi, under 

* Annals of the West. 
t Th site of the work is at present unknown. 


the lead of Father Hennepin, and he himself would proceed 
on foot to Niagara and "Froutenac, to raise more means and 
enlist new men ; while Tonti, his lieutenant, should stay at 
the fort, which they were to strengthen in the meantime, and 
extend their intercourse with the Indians. 

Hennepin started "on his voyage on the last day of Febru- 
ary, 16SO, and La Salle soon after, with a few attendants, 
started on his perilous journey of twelve hundred miles by 
the way of the Illinois River, the Miami, and Lakes Erie 
ind Ontario, to Frontenac, which he finally reached in 
safety. lie found his worst fears realized. The "Griffin" 
was lost, his agents had taken advantage of his absence, and 
his creditors had seized his goods. But he knew no such 
word as fail, and by the middle of summer he was again on 
his way with men and supplies for his band in Illinois. A 
sad disappointment awaited him. He found his fort deserted 
and no tidings of Tonti and his men. During La Salle'a 
absence the Indians had become jealous of the French, and 
they had been attacked and harassed even by the Iroquois, 
who came the long distance between the shores of Lake 
Ontario and the Illinois River to make war upon the more 
peaceable tribes dwelling on the prairies. JJncertain of any 
assistance from La Salle, and apprehensive of a general 
war with the savages, Tonli, in September, 1G80, abandoned 
his position and returned to the shores of the lakes. La 
Salle reached the post on the Illinois in December, 1C80, or 
January, 1681. Again bitterly disappointed, La Salle did 
not succumb, but resolved to return to Canada and start 
anew. This he did, and in June met his lieutenant, Tonti, 
at Mackinaw. 

Hennepin in the meanwhile had met with strange adven- 
tures. After leaving Creve-Cceur, he reached the Missis- 
sippi in seven days ; but his way was so obstructed by ice 
that he was until the llth of April reaching the Wisconsin 
line. Here he was taken prisoner by some northern Indians, 
who, however, treated him kindly and took him and his 
companions to the falls of St. Anthony, which they reached 
on the first of May. These falls Hennepin named in honor 
of his patron saint. Hennepin and his companions remained 
here for three months, treated very kindly by their captors. 
At the end of this time they met with a band of French, 
led by one Sieur de Luth,* who, in pursuit of game and 
trade, had penetrated to this country by way of Lake Su- 
perior. With his band Hennepin and his companions re- 
turned to the borders of civilized life in November, 1G80, 
just after La Salle had gone back to the wilderness. Ilen- 
nepin returned to France,' where, ia 1684, he published a 
narrative of his wonderful adventures. 

Robert De La Salle, whose name is more "closely connected 
with the explorations of the Mississippi than that of any 
other, was the next to descend the river in the year 1682. 
Formal possession was taken of the great river and all the 
countries bordering upon it or its tributaries in the name of 
the King. 

La Salle and his party now retraced their steps towards 
the north. They met with no serious trouble until they 
reached the Chickasaw Bluffs, where they had erected a fort 

From this man undoubtedly come: the name of Eruluth. 

on their downward voyage, and named it Frudhomme. 
Here La Salle was taken violently sick. Unable to proceed, 
he sent forward Toiiti to communicate with Count Fronte- 
nac. La Salle himself reached the mouth of the St. Joseph 
the latter part of September. From that point he sent 
Father Zenobe with his dispatches to represent him at court, 
while he turned his attention to the fur trade and to the 
project of completing a fort, which he named St Louis, 
upon the Illinois River. The precise location of this work 
is not known. It was said to be upon a rocky bluff two 
hundred and fifty feet hi^h, and only accessible upon one 
side. There are no bluffs of such a height on the Illinois 
River answering the description. It may have been on 
the rocky bluff above La Salle, where the rocks are perhaps 
one hundred feet in height. 

Upon the completion of this work La Salle again sailed 
for France, which he reached on the 13th of December, 
1683. A new man, La Barre, had now succeeded Fronte- 
nac as Governor of Canada. This man was unfriendly 
towards La Salle, and this, with other untoward circum- 
stances, no doubt led him to attempt the colonization of the 
Mississippi country by way of the mouth of the river. Not- 
withstanding many obstacles were in his path, he succeeded 
in obtaining/ the grant of a fleet from the King, and on the 
24th of July, 1684, a fleet of twenty-four vessels sailed from 
Rochelle to America, four of which were destined for Lou- 
isiana, and carried a body of two hundred and eighty 
people, including the crews. There were soldiers, artificers, 
and volunteers, and also " some youisg women." Discord 
soon broke out between M. de Beaujcu and La Salle, and 
grew from bad to worse. On the 20th of December they 
reached the island cf St. Domingo. 

Joutel* was sent out with this party, which left oa the 
5ih of February, and traveled eastward three clays, when 
they came to a great stream which they could not cross. 
Here they made signals by building great fires, and on the 
13th two of the vessels came in sight. The stream was 
sounded and the vessels were anchored under shelter. But 
again misfortume overtook La Salle, and the vessel was 
wrecked, and the bulk of supplies was lost. At this junc- 
ture M. de Beaujeu, his second in command, set sail and 
returned to France. La Salle now constructed a rude 
shelter from the timbers of his wrecked vessel, placed his 
people inside of it, and set out to explore the surrounding 
country in hope of .finding the Mississippi. He was, of 
course, disappointed : but found on a stream, which is, 
named the Yachcs, a- good site for a fort. He at once re- 
moved his camp, and, after incredible exertions, constructed 
a fortification sufficient to protect them from the Indians. 
This fort was situated on Matagorda Bay, within the present 
limits of Texas, and was called by La Salle Fort St. Louis. 

Leaving Joutel to complete the work with one hundred 
men, La Salle took the remainder of the company and em- 
barked on the river, with the intention of proceeding as far 
up as he could. The savages toon became troublesome, and 

sjoutcl, historian of the voyage, accompanied La Salle, and subse- 
quently wrote h;s " Journal Historique," which was published in Paris, 



on the 14th of July La Salic ordered Joutel to join him 
with his whole force. They had already lost several of their 
best men, and dangers threatened them on every side. It 
would seem from the historian's account of the expedition 
that La Salle began to erect another fort, and also that he 
became morose and severe in his discipline, so much so as to 
get the ill will of many of his people. He finally resolved 
to advance into the country, but whether with the view of 
returning to Canada by way of Illinois, or only for the pur- 
pose of makiiig further discoveries, Joutel leives in doubt. 
Giving his last instructions, he left the fort en the 12th day 
of January, 1687, with a company of about a dozen men, 
including his brother, two nephews, Father Ana&tasius, a 
Franciscan friar, Joutel, and others, and moved north-east- 
ward, as is supposed, until the 17th of March, when some 
of his men, who had been cherishing revengeful feelings for 
some time, waylaid the Chevalier and shot him dead. 
They also slew one of his nephews and two of his servants. 

This deed occurred on the 20th of March, on a stream 
called Cenis. 

In 1C87, France was involved in a long and bloody war. 
The League of Augsburg was formed by the Princes of the 
Empire against Louis XIV., and England, Spain, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, and Savoy took up arms, and Louis 
found himself battling with nearly the whole of Europe, and 
only Turkey for an ally. This war ended with the peace of 
Ryswick in 1697. 

No material change took place in America, but the colo- 
nists were harassed and many of their people killed or car- 
ried captives to the Canadas. In 1688, the French posses- 
sions in North America included nearly the whole of the 
continent north of the St. Lawrence, and the entire valley 
of the Mississippi ; and they had begun to establish a line 
of fortifications extending from Quebec to the mouth of the 
Mississippi, between which points they had three great lines 
of communication, to wit : by way of Mackinaw, Green 
Bay, and the Wisconsin Eiver ; by way of Lake Michigan, 
tlie Kankakee and Illinois Rivers ; and by way of Lake 
Erie, the Maumee and Wabash Rivers, and were preparing 
to explore the Ohio as a fourth route. 

In 1699, D'Iberville, under the authority of the crown, 
discovered, on the second c f March, by way of the sea, the 
mouth of the " Hidden River." This majestic stream was 
called by the natives " Malbouchia," and by the Spaniards, 
' La Palissade," from the great number of trees about its 
mouth. After traversing the several outlets, and satisfying 
himself as to its certainty, he erected a fort near its western 
outlet, and returned to France. An avenue of trade was 
now opened out, which was fully improved. 

At this time a census of -New France showed a total 
population of eleven thousand two hundred and forty-nine 
Europeans. War again broke out in 1701, and extended 
over a period of twelve years, ending with the treaty of 
Utrecht, in 1713. This also extended to the American Colo- 
nits, and its close left everything as before, with the excep- 
tion that Nova Scotia was captured in 1710. 

In 1718, New Orleans was laid out and settled by some 
European colonists. In 1762, the colony was made over to 

Spain, to be regained by France, under the consulate of 

In 1803, it was purchased by the United States, for the 
sum of fifteen million dollars, and the territory of Louisiana 
and the commerce of the Mississippi river, came under the 
charge of the United States. Although La Salle's labors 
ended in defeat and death, he had not worked and suffered 
in vain. He had thrown open to France and the world an 
immense and most valuable country. Had established 
several ports, and laid the foundation of more than one 
settlement there. " Peoria, Kaskaskia and Cahokia arc to 
this day monuments of La Salle's labors; for, th-ugh he 
had founded neither of them (unless Peoria, which was built 
nearly upon the site of Fort Crevecoeur), it was by those he 
led into the west that these places were peopled and civil- 
ized. He was, if not the discoverer, the first settler of the 
Mississippi Valley, and as such deserves to be known and 

The French early improved the opening made for them, 
and before 1693, the Reverend Father Gravier began a 
mission among the Illinois, and became the founder of Kas- 
kaskia. For some time it was merely a missionary station, 
and the inhabitants of the village consisted entirely of 
natives ; it being one of three such villages, the other two 
being Cahokia and Peoria. This we learn from a letttr 
written by Father Gabriel Marest, dated " Aux Cascaskias, 
Autrement dit de I'lmmaculee concepcion de la Saiute 
Vierge, le 9 Novembre, 1712." In this letter, the writer 
tells us that Gravier must be regarded as the founder of the 
Illinois mi sions. Soon after the founding of Kaskaskia, the 
missionary, Pinet, gathered a flock at Cahokia.f while 
Peoria arose near the remains of Fort Crevecreur J 

An unsuccessful attempt was also made to found a colony 
on the Ohio. It failed in consequence of sickness. 

In the north, De La Motte Cadillac, in June, 1701, laid 
the foundation of Fort Poutchartrain, on the strait, (le De- 
troit), || while in the southwest efforts were making to realize 
the dreams of La Salle. The leader in the last named en- 
terprise was Lemoine D'Iberville, a Canadian officer, who 
from 1694 to 1697 distinguished himself not a little by 
battles and conquests among the icebergs of the " Baye 
D'Udson or Hudson Bay." 

The post at Vincennes, on theOubaehe river, (pronounced 
Wa-ba, meaning summer cloud moving swiftly), was estab- 
lished in 1702. It is quite probable that on La Salle's last 
trip he established the stations at Kaskaskia and Cahokia. 
Until the year 17.30, but little is known of the settlements 
in the northwest, as it was not until this time that the atten- 

The authorities m relation to La Salle are Hennepin : a narrative pub- 
lished in the name of Tonti, in 1697, but disclaimed by him (Charlevoix 
III, 365. Lettres Edifiantes. 

t Bancroft, iii. 196. 

J There was an Old Peoria on the northwest shore of the lake of that 
name, a mile and a half above the outlet. From 1778 to 1796 the inhabi- 
tants left this for New Peoria, (Fort Clark) at the outlet. American 
State Papers, xviii. 476. 

I Western Annals. 

Chnrlevoix, ii. 284. Le Detroit was the whole strait from Erie to 
Huron. The first grants of land at Detroit, t. ., Fort Pontchartrain, 
were made in 1707. 



tion of the English was called to the occupation of this por- 
tion of the new world, which they then supposed they 
owned. Vivier, a missionary among the Illinois, writing 
" Aux Illinois," six leagues from Fort Chartres, June 8th, 
1750, says : " We have here whites, negroes, and Indians, to 
say nothing of the cross-breeds. There are five French 
villages, and three villages of the natives within a space of 
twenty-one leagues, situated between the Mississippi and 
another river, called the Karkadiad, (Kaskaskia). In the 
five French villages are, perhaps, eleven hundred whites, 
three hundred blacks, and some tixty red slaves or savages. 
The three Illinois towns do not contain more than eight 
hundred souls all told.* Most of the French till the soil. 
They raise wheat, cattle, pigs and horses, and live like 
princes. Three times as much is produced as can be con- 
sumed, and great quantities of grain and flour are sent to 
New Orleans." 

Again, in an epistle dated November 17th, 1750, Vivier 
says : " For fifteen leagues above the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi, one sees no dwellings * * * * New Orleans contains 
black, white and red, not more, I think, than twelve hun- 
dred persons. To this point come all kinds of lumber, 
bricks, salt-beef, tallow, tar, skins, and bear's grease ; and 
above all pork and flour from the Illinois. These things 
create some commerce, as forty vessels and more have come 
hither this year. Above New Orleans plantations are again 
met with ; the most considerable is a colony of Germans, 
some ten leagues up the river. At point Coupee, thirty-five 
leagues above the German settlement, is a fort. Along here, 
within five or six leagues, are not less than sixty habitations. 
Fifty leagues farther up is the Natchez post, where we have 
a garrison." 

Father Marest, witing from the post at Vincennes, makes 
the same observation. Vivier also says, " Some individuals 
dig lead near the surface, and supply the Indians and Can- 
ada. Two Spaniards, now here, who claim to be adepts, 
say that our mines are like those of Mexico, and that if we 
would dig deeper we would find silver under the lead ; at 
any rate the lead is excellent. There are also in this coun- 
try, beyond doubt, copper mines, as from time to time, large 
pieces have been found in the streams."f 

At the close of the year- 1750, the French occupied in ad- 
dition to the lower Mississippi posts and those in Illinois, 
one at Du Quesne, one at the Maumee, in the country of the 
^lamis, and one at Sandusky, in what may be termed the 
Ohio Valley. In the northern part of the north-west, they j 
had stations at St. Joseph's on the St. Joseph's of Lake 
Michigan, at Fort Pontehartrain (Detroit), at Michilli- j 
mackinac or Massillimacinac, Fox River of Green Bay, and \ 
at Sault Ste. Marie. The fondest dreams of La Salle were I 
now fully realized. The French alone were possessors of | 
this vast realm, basing their claim on discovery and settle- | 
ment. Another nation, however, was now turning its 
attention to this extensive country, and learning of its 
wealth began to lay plans for occupying it and for securing 
the great profits arising therefrom. 

c Letlrcs Ediffantcs (Paris, 1731), vii. 97-106. 
t Western Annals. 

The French, however, had another claim to this country, 
namely, the 


The largest branch of the Mississippi river from the east, 
known to the early French settlers as la belle riviere, called 
"beautiful" river, was discovered by Robert Cavalier de 
La Salle, in 1669. While La Salle was at his trading-post 
on the St. Lawrence, he found leisure to study nine Indian 
dialects, the chief of which was the Iroquois. While con- 
versing with some Senecas, he learned of a river called the 
Ohio, which rose in their country and flowed to the sea. 

In this statement the Mississippi and its tributaries were 
considered as one stream. La Salle, believing as most of 
the French at that period did, that the great rivers flowing 
west emptied into the Sea of California, was anxious to em- 
bark in the enterprise of discovering a route across the 
continent. He repaired at once to Quebec to obtain the 
approval of the Governor and the Intendent, Talon. They 
issued letters patent, authorizing the enterprise, but made 
no provisions to defray the expenses. 

At this juncture the seminary St. Sulpice decided to send 
out missionaries in connection with the expedition, and La 
Salle offering to sell his improvements at La Chive to raise 
the money, the offer was accepted by the Superior, and two 
thousand eight hundred dollars were raised, with which La 
Salle purchased four canoes and the necessary supplies for 
the outfit. 

On the 6th of July, 1689, the party, numbering twenty- 
four persons, embarked in seven canoes on the St. Lawrence. 
Two additional canoes carried the Indian guides. 

In three days they were gliding over the bosom of Lake 
Ontario. Their guides conducted them directly to the 
Seneca village on the bank of the Genesee, in the vicinity 
of the present city of Rochester, New York. Here they 
expected to procure guides to conduct them to the Ohio, but 
in this they were disappointed. After waiting a month in 
the hope of gaining their object, they met an Indian from the 
Iroquois colony, at the head of Lake Ontario, who assured 
them they could find guides, and offered to conduct them 
thence. On their way they passed the mouth of Niagara 
river, when they heard for the first time the distant thunder 
of the cataract. Arriving among the Iroquois they met 
with a friendly reception, and learned from a Shawnee 
prisoner that they could reach the Ohio in six weeks.- - De- 
lighted with the unexpected good fortune, they made ready 
to resume their journey, and as they were about to start they 
heard of the arrival of two Frenchmen in a neighboring 
village. One of them proved to be Louis Joliet, afterwards 
famous as an explorer in the west. He had been sent by 
the Canadian government to explore the copper mines on 
Lake Superior, but had failed and was on his way back to 

On arriving at Lake Superior, they found, as La Salle 
had predicted, the Jesuit fathers, Marquette and Dablo;:, 
occupying the field. After parting with the priests, I ,-\ 
Salle went to the chief Iroquois village at Onondago, ivhrre 
he obtained guides and passing thence to a tributary of the 
Ohio south of Lake Erie, he descended the latter as far as 



the falls of Louisville. Thus was the Ohio discovered by 
La Salle, the persevering and successful French explorer of 
the west in 1069. 

When Washington was sent out by the colony of Virginia 
in 1753, to demand of Gordeur de St. Pierre why the French 
had built a fort on the Monongahela, the haughty com- 
mandant at Quebec replied : " We claim the country on the 
Ohio by virtue of the discoveries of La Salle, and will not 
give it up to the English. Our orders are to make prisoners 
of every Englishman found trading in the Ohio valley." 


We have sketched the progress of French discovery in 
the valley of the Mississippi. The first travelers reached 
tha* river iu 1G73, and when the year 1750 broke in upon 
the father of waters and the great north-west, all was still 
except those little spots upon the prairies of Illinois and 
among the marshes of Louisiana. 

Volney, by conjecture, fixes the settlement of Vincennes 
about 1735.* Bishop Brute, of Indiana, speaks of a mis- 
sionary station there in 1700, and adds: "The friendly 
tribes and traders called to Canada for protection, and then 
M. De Vincennes came with a detachment, I think, of 
Cariguan, and was killed in 1735. ''f Bancroft says a mili- 
tary establishment was formed there in 1716, and in 1742 a 
settlement of herdsmen took place.J In a petition of the 
old inhabitants at Vincennes, dated in November, 1793, we 
find the settlement spoken of as having been made before 
1742. And such is the general voice of tradition. On the 
other hand, Charlevoix, who records the death of Vincennes, 
which took place among the Chickasaws, in 1736, makes no 
mention of any post on the Wabash, or any missionary 
station there. Neither does he mark any upon his map, 
although he gives even the British forts upon the Tennessee 
and elsewhere. Such is the character of the proof relative 
to the settlement of Vincennes. 

Hennepin, in 1663-4, had heard of the " Hohio." The 
route from the lakes to the Mississippi, by the Wabash, was 
explored 1676,|| and in Hennepin's volume of 1698, is a 
journal, said to be that sent by La Salle to Count Frontenac 
in 1682 or '83, which mentions the route by the Maumee^f 
and Wabash as the most direct to the great western river. 

In 1749, when the English first began to think seriously 
of sending men into the west, the greater portions of the 
states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota were yet under the dominion of the red men. 
The English knew, however, of the nature of the vast 
wealth of these wilds. 

In the year 1710, Governor Spotswood, of Virginia, had 
matured a plan and commenced movements, the object of 
which was to secure the country beyond the Alleghenics to 
the English crown. In Pennsylvania, also, Governor Keith 
and James Logan, Secretary of the Province from 1719 to 

Volney's View, p. 336. 

t Butler's Kentucky. 

J History XJ. S. iii. 340. 

\ American State Papers, xvi. 32. 

| Histoire General Des Voyages iiv., 758. 

TNow called Miami. 

1731, represented to the powers of England the necessity of 
taking steps to secure the western lands. Nothing, however/ 
was done by the mother country, except to take certain 
diplomatic steps to secure the claim of Britain to this unex- 
plored wilderness. England had from the outset claimed 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, on the ground that the dis- 
covery and possession of the sea coast was a discovery and 
possession of the country ; and as is well known, her grants 
to Virginia, Connecticut, and other colonies, were through 
from " sea to sea." This was not all her claims ; she had 
purchased from the Indian tribes large tracts of laud. Thij 
was also a strong argument. 

In the year 1684, Lord Howard, Governor of Virginia, 
held a treaty with the five nations at Albany. These wero 
the great Northern Confederacy, and comprised at first the 
Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. 
Afterward the Tuscaroras were taken into the confederacy, 
and it became known as the six nations. They came under 
the protection of the mother country, and again in 1701 they 
repeated the agreement. Another formal deed was drawn 
up and signed by the chiefs of the National Confederacy in 
1726, by which their lands were conveyed in trust to Eng- 
land, " to be protected and defended by his majesty, to and 
for the use of the grantors and their heirs." The validity 
of this claim has often been disputed, but never successfully. 
In 1774, a purchase was made at Lancaster of certain lands 
within the " colony of Virginia-," for which the Indians 
received 200 in gold and a like sum in goods, with a 
promise that as settlements increased, more should be paid. 
The commissioners from Virginia at the treaty were Col. 
Thomas Lee and Col. William Beverly. 

As settlements extended, and the Indians ./egan to com- 
plain, the promise of further pay was called to mind, and 
Mr. Conrad Weiser was sent across the Alleghenies to Logs' 
town. In 1784, * Col. Lee and some Virginians accom- 
panied him, with the intention of ascertaining the feelings 
of the Indians with regard to further settlements in the west, 
which Col. Lee and others were contemplating. The object 
of these proposed settlements was not the cultivation of the 
soil, but the monopoly of the Indian trade. Accordingly 
aftef Weiser's conference with the Indians at Logstown, 
which was favorable to their views, Thomas Lee, with 
twelve other Virginians, among whom were Lawrence and 
Augustine, brothers of George Washington, and also Mr. 
Hanbury, of London, formed an association whLh they 
called the "Ohio Company," and in 1748 petitioned the 
king for a grant beyond the mountains. This petition was 
approved by the English government, and the government 
of Virginia was ordered to grant to the petitioners half a 
million of acres within the bounds of that colony beyond 
the Alleghenies, two hundred thousand of which were to be 
located at once. This portion was to be held for ten years 
free of quit-rent, provided the company would put there one 
hundred families within seven years, and build a fort suffi- 
cient to protect the settlement. The company accepted the 
proposition, and sent to London for a cargo suited to tho 
Indian trade, which should arrive in November, 1749. 

* Plain Facts, pp. 40, 120. 


Other companies were also formed about this time in Vir- 
ginia to colonize the west. On the 12th of June, 1749, a 
grant of 800,000 acres from the line of Canada, on the 
north and west, was made to the Loyal Company, and on 
the 29th of October, 1751, another of 100,000 acres to the 
Greenbriar Company. * 

The French were not blind all this time. They saw that 
if the British once obtained a stronghold upon the Ohio, 
they might not only prevent their settlements upon it, but 
in time would come to the lower posts, and so gain posses- 
sion of the whole country. Upon the 10th of May, 1744, 
Vandreuil, the French governor, well knowing the conse- 
quences that must arise from allowing the English to build 
trading posts in the north- .vest, seized some of their frontier 
posts, to further secure the claims of the French to the 
west. Having these fears, and seeing the danger of the 
late movements of the British, Gallisouiere, then Governor 
of Canada, determined to place along the Ohio evidences of 
the French claim to, and possession of, the country. For 
that purpose he sent, in the summer of 1749, Louis Celeron, 
with a party of soldiers, to place plates of lead, on which 
were written out the claims of the French, in the mounds 
and at the mouths of the rivers. These were heard of by 
Willliam Trent, an Indian commissioner, sent out by Vir- 
ginia in 1752, to treat with and conciliate the Indians, 
while upon the Ohio, and mentioned in his journal. One of 
these plates was found with the inscription partly defaced. 
It bears date August 16th, 1749, and a cop^ of the inscrip- 
tion, with particular account, was sent by De Witt Clinton 
to the American Antiquarian Society, among whose journals 
it may now be found. These measures did not, however, 
deter the English from going on with their explorations. 

In February, 1751, Christopher Gist was sent by the 
Ohio Company to examine its lands. He went to a village 
of the Twigtwees, on the Miami, about 150 miles above its 
mouth. From there he went down the Ohio River nearly 
to the falls, at the present city of Louisville, and in Novem- 
ber he commenced a survey of the company's lands. In 
17.31, General Andrew Lewis commenced some surveys in 
the Greenbrier country, on behalf of the company already 
mentioned. Meanwhile the French were busy in preparing 
their forts for defence, and in opening roads. In 1752 
having heard of the trading houses on the Miami River, 
they, assisted by the Ottawas and Chippewas, attacked it, 
and, after a severe battle, in which fourteen of the natives 
were killed and others wounded, captured the garrison. 
The traders were carried away to Canada, and one account 
gays several were burned. This fort, or trading house was 
called by the English writers Pickawillany. A memorial 
of the king's ministers refers to it as " Pickawellanes, in the 
centre of the territory between Ohio and the Wabash." 
This was the first blood shed between the French and 
English, and occurred near the present city of Piqua, Ohio. 
The English were determined on their part to purchase a 
title from the Indians of lands which they wished to occupy, 
and in the spring of 1752, Messrs. Fry,f Lomax and Pat on 

* Revised Statutes of Virginia. 
t Afterwards Commander-in-chief 
ment of the French War of 177:,. 

Washington, at the commence- 

were sent from Virginia to hold a conference with the 
natives at Logstown, to learn what they objected to in the 
treaty at Lancaster, and to settle all difficulties. On the 
9th of Juno the commissioners met the red men at Logs- 
town. This was a village seventeen miles below Pittsburgh, 
upon the north side of the Ohio. Here had been a trading 
post for many years, but it was abandoned by the Indians 
in 1750. At first the Indians declined to recognize the 
treaty of Lancaster, but the commissioners taking aside 
Montour, the interpreter, who was a son of the famous 
Catherine Montour, and a chief among the six nations, 
being three-fourths of Indian blood, through his influence 
an agreement was effected, and upon the 13lh of June they 
all united in signing a deed, confirming the Lancaster treaty 
in its fullest extent. Mean while the powers beyond the seas 
were trying to out-mano3uver each other, and were professing 
to be at peace. The English generally outwitted the Indians, 
and secured themselves, as they thought, by their polite 
conduct. But the French, in this as in all cases, proved that 
they knew best how to manage the natives. While these 
measures were taken, another treaty with the wild men of 
the debatable land was also in contemplation. And in Sep- 
tember, 1753, William Fairfax met their deputies at Win- 
chester, Virginia, where he concluded a treaty. In the 
month following, however, a more satisfactory inter view took 
place at Carlisle, between the representatives of the Iroquois, 
Delawares, Shawnees, Twigtwees, and Wyandots, and the 
commissioners of Pennsylvania, Richard Peters, Isaac Norris, 
and Benjamin Franklin. Soon after this, no satisfaction 
being obtained from the Ohio, either as to the force, position, 
or purposes of the French, Robert Dinwiddie, then Governor 
of Virginia, determined to send to them another messenger, 
and learn if possible their intentions. For this purpose he 
selected a young surveyor, who, at the age of nineteen had 

I attained the rank of major, and whose previous life had 
inured him to hardships and woodland ways ; while his 
courage, cool judgment, and firm will, all fitted him for such 

' a mission. This personage was no other than the illustrious 
George Washington, who then held considerable interest in 
western lands. He was twenty-one years old at the time of 

! the appointment.* Taking Gist as a guide, the two, accom- 
panied by four servitors, set out on their perilous march. 

! They left Will's Creek, where Cumberland now is, on the 
15th of November, and on the 22d reached the Monongahela, 

| about ten miles above the fork. From there they went to 

i Logstown, where Washington had a long conference with 
the chiefs of the six nations. Here he learned the position 
of the French, and also that they had determined not to come 
down the river until the following spring. The Indians were 
non-committal, they deeming a neutral position the safest. 
Washington, finding nothing could be done, went on to Ve- 
nango, an old Indian town at the mouth of the French 
Creek. Here the French had a fort called Fort Machault. 
On the llth of December he reached the fort at the head of 
French Creek. Here he delivered Governor Dinwiddie's 
letter, received his answer, and upon the 16th set out upon 
his return journey with no one but Gist, hia guide, and a few 

Sparks' Washington, Vol. ii., pp. 42S-447. 



Indians, who still remained true to him. They reached home 
in safety on the Gth of January, 1754. From the letter of 
St. Pierre, Commander of the French fort, sent by Washing- 
ton to Governor Diuwiddie, it was perfectly clear that the 
French would not yield the West without a struggle. Active 
preparations were at once made iii all the English colonies 
for the coming conflict, while the French finished their fort 
at Venango and strengthened their lines of fortifications to 
be in readiness. The Old Dominion was alive. Virginia 
was the center of great activities. Volunteers were called 
for, and from neighboring colonies men rallied to the conflict, 
and everywhere along the Potomac men were enlisting under 
Governor's proclamation, which promised two hundred 
thousand acres on the Ohio. Along this river they were 
gathering as far as Will's Creek, and far beyond this point, 
whither Trent had come for assistance, for his little band of 
forty-one men, who were working away in hunger and want, 
to fortify that point at the fork of the Ohio, to which both 
parties were looking with deep interest. The first birds of 
spring filled the fjrest with their songs. The swift river 
rolled by the Allegheny hillsides, swollen by the melting 
snows of spring and April showers. The leaves were appear- 
ing, a few Indian Scouts were seen, but no enemy seemed 
near at hand, and all was so quiet that Frazier, an old In- 
dian trader, who had been left by Trent in command of the 
new fort, ventured to his home at the mouth of Turtle Creek, 
ten miles up the Monongahela. But though all was so quiet 
in that wilderness, keen eyes had seen the low entrenchment 
that was rising at the fork, and swift feet had borne the news 
of it up the valley, and on the morning of the 17th of April, 
Ensign Ward, who then had charge of it, saw upon the 
Allegheny a sight that made his heart sink; sixty batteaux 
and three hundred canoes, filled with men, and laden deep 
with cannon and stores. The fort was called on to surren- 
der : by the advice of the Half-King, Ward tried to evade 
the act, but it would not do. Contrecceur, with a thousand 
men about him, said ' Evacuate,' and the ensign dared not 
refuse. That evening he supped with his captor, and the 
next day was bowed off by the Frenchman, and, with his 
men and tools, marched up the Monongahela." The French 
and Indian war had begun. The treaty of Aix la Chapelle, 
in 1748, had left the boundaries between the French and 
English possessions unsettled, and the events already narra- 
ted show that the French were determined to hold the coun- 
try watered by the Mississippi and its tributaries : while the 
English laid claim to the country by virtue of the discoveries 
by the Cabots, and claimed all the country from New Found- 
land to Florida, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
first decisive blow had been struck, and the first attempt of 
the English, through the Ohio Company, to occupy these 
lands had resulted disastrously to them. The French and 
Indians immediately completed the fortifications begun at 
the fork, which they had so easily captured, and when com- 
pleted gave to the fort the name of Du Quesne. Washing- 
ton was at Will's Creek, when the news of the capture of the 
fort arrived. He at once departed to recapture it. On his 
way he entrenched himself at a place called the " Meadow*," 
where he erected a fort called by him Fort Necessity. From 

there he surprised and captured a forco of French and Indi- 
ans marching against him, but was soon after attacked by a 
much superior force, and was obliged to yield on the morn- 
ing of July 4th. He was allowed to return to Virginia. 

The English Government immediately planned for cam- 
paigns, one against Fort Du Quesne, one against Nova Sco- 
tia, one against Fort Niagara, and one against Crown Point. 
These occurred during 1755-6, and were not successful in 
driving the French from their possessions. The expedition 
against Fort Du Quesne was led by the famous Braddock, 
who, refusing to listen to the advice of Washington and those 
acquainted with Indian warfare, suffered an inglorious de- 
feat. This occurred on the morning of July 9th, and is gen- 
erally known as the battle of Monongahela or " Braddock's 
defeat." The war continued through various vicissitudes 
through the years 1756-7, when, at the commencement of 
1758, in accordance with the plans of William Pitt, then 
secretary of state, afterwards Lord Chatham, active prepa- 
rations were made to carry on the war. Three expeditions 
were planned for this year : one under General Amherst, 
against Louisburg; another under Abercrombie, against 
Fort Ticonderoga ; and a third under General Forbes, against 
Fort Du Quesne. On the 26th of July, Louisburg surren- 
dered after a desperate resistance of more than forty days, 
and the eastern part of the Canadian possessions foil into the 
hands of the British. Abercrombie captu red Fort Fronte- 
nac, and when the expedition against Fort Du Quesne, of 
which Washington had the active command, arrived there, 
it was found in flames and deserted. The English at once 
took possession, rebuilt the fort, and in honor of their illus- 
trious statesman, changed the name to Fort Pitt. 

The great object of the campaign of 1759, was the reduc- 
tion of Canada. General Wolfe was to lay siege to Quebec ; 
Amherst was to reduce Ticonderoga and Crown Point ; and 
General Prideaux was to capture Niagara. This latter place 
was taken in July, but the gallant Prideaux lost his life. 
Amherst captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point, without a 
blow ; and Wolfe, after making the memorable ascent to the 
plains of Abraham, on September 13th, defeated Montcalm, 
and on the 18th the city capitulated. In this engagement, 
Montcalra and Wolfe both lost their lives. De Levi, Mont- 
calm's successor, marched to Sillery, three miles above the 
city, with the purpose of defeating the English, and there, 
on the 28th of the following April, was fought one of the 
bloodiest battles of the French and Indian war. It resulted 
in the defeat of the French, and the fall of the city of Mon- 
treal. The Governor signed a capitulation by which the 
whole of Canada was surrendered to the English. This 
practically concluded the war, but it was not until 1763 
that the treaties of peace between France and England 
were signed. This was done on the 10th of February of that 
year, and under its provisions all the country east of the 
Mississippi and north of the Ibervill river in Louisiana, were 
ceded to England. At the same time, Spain ceded Florida 
to Great Britain. 

On the 13th September, 1760, Major Robert Rogers was 
sent from Montreal to take charge of Detroit, the only re- 
maining French post in the territory. He arrived there on 


the ( Jth of November, and summoned the place to surrender. 
At first the commander of the post, Beletre, refused, but on 
the 29th, hearing of the continued defeat of the French army, 
surrendered. The North-west Territory was now entirely 
under the English rule. In 1762, France, by a secret treaty, 
ceded Louisiana to Spain, to prevent it falling into the hands 
of the English, who were becoming masters of the entire 
West. The next year the treaty of Paris, signed at Fou- 
tainbleau, gave to the English the dominion iu question. 
Twenty years after, by the treaty of peace between the United 
States and England, that part of Canada lying south and 
west of the great lakes, comprising a large territory, was 
acknowledged to be a portion of the United States. In 
1803 Louisiana was ceded by Spain back to France, and by 
France sold to the United States, By the treaty of Paris, 
the regions east of the Mississippi, including all these and 
other towns of the north-west, were given over to England ; 
but they do not appear to have been taken possession of until 
1765, when Captain Stirling, in the name of the Majesty in 
England, established himself at Fort Chartres, bearing with 
him the proclamation of General Gage, dated December 
30th, 1764, which promised religious freedom to all Catho- 
lics who worshiped here and the right to leave the country 
with their effects if they wished, or to remain with the priv- 
ileges of Englishmen. During the years 1775 s.nd 1776, by 
the operations of land companies and the perseverance of 
individuals, several settlements were firmly established be- 
tween the Alleghenies and the Ohio river, and western land 
speculators were busy in Illinois and on the Wabash. At a 
council held in Kaskaskia, on July 5th, 1773, an association 
of English traders, calling themselves the " Illinois Land 
Company," obtained from the chiefs of the Kaskaskia, Ca- 
hokia, and Peoria tribes two large tracts of land lying on the 
east side of the Mississippi river south of the Illinois. In 
1775 a merchant from the Illinois country, named Viviat, 
came to Post Vincenncs as the agent of the association called 
the " Wabash Land Company." On the 8th of October he 
obtained from eleven Piankeshaw chiefs a deed for 37,497, 
600 acres of land. This deed was signed by the grantors, 
attested by a number of the inhabitants of Vincenues, and 
afterward recorded in the office of a Notary Public at Kas- 
kaskia. This and other land companies had extensive 
schemes for the colonization of the West ; but all were frus- 
trated by the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. On 
the 20th of April, 1780, the two companies named consoli- 
dated under the name of the " United Illinois and Wabash 
Land Company ; " they afterwards made strenuous efforts to 
have these grants sanctioned by Congress, but all signally 
failed. When the war of the Revolution commenced, Ken- 
tucky was an unorganized country, though there were several 
settlements within her borders. 

Iu Ilutchins' Topography of Virginia, it is stated that at 
that time Kaskaskia contained 80 houses, and nearly 1,000 
white and black inhabitants, the whites being a little the 
more numerous. Cahokia contained fifty houses, 300 white 
inhabitants, and 80 negroes. There were east of the Missis- 
sippi river, about the year 1771 when these observations 
wcro made" 300 v.hitc men capable of bearing arms, and 

233 negroes." From 1775 until the expedition of Clark, 
nothing is recorded and nothing known of these settlements, 
save what is contained iu a report made by a committee to 
Congress in June, 1778. From it the following extract is 
made : " Near the mouth of the river Kaskaskia, there is a 
village which appears to have contained nearly eighty fam- 
ilies from the beginning of the late Revolution ; there are 
twelve families at a small village at La Prairie Du Rochers, 
and nearly fifty families at the Cahokia village. There aro 
also four or five families at Fort Chartres and St. Philip's, 
which is five mibs further up the river." St. L >uis had been 
settled in February, 1764, and at this time contained, inclu- 
ding its neighboring towns, over six hundred white and one 
hundred and fifty negroes. It must be remembered that all 
the country west of the Mississippi was under French rule, 
and remained so until ceded back to Spain, its original owner, 
who afterwards sold it and the country including New Or- 
leans to the Uuited States. At De'roit, there were, accord- 
ing to Captain Carver, who was in the north-west from 1768 
to 1776, more than one hundred houses, and the river was 
settled for more than twenty miles, although poorly cultiva- 
ted, the people being engaged iu the Indian trade. 

On the breaking out of the Revolution, the British held 
every post of importance in the West. Kentucky was 
formed as a component part of Virginia, and the sturdy 
pioneers of the West, alive to their interests, and recog- 
nizing the great benefits of obtaining the control of the 
trade iu this part of the New World, held steadily to their 
purposes, and those within the commonwealth of Ken- 
tucky proceeded to exercise their civrl privileges of electing 
John Todd and Richard Gallaway burgesses, to represent 
them in the assembly of the present state. The chief spirit 
in this far-out colony, who had represented her the year 
previous east of the mountains, was now meditating a move 
of unequalled boldness. He had been watching the move- 
ments of the British throughout the north-west, and under- 
stood their whole plan. He saw it was through their 
possession of the post at Detroit, Vincennes, Kaskaskia, and 
other places, which would give them easy access to the vari- 
ous Indian tribes in the north-west, that the British intended 
to penetrate the country from the north and south, and 
annihilate the frontier fortresses. This moving, energetic 
man was Colonel, afterwards General George Rodgers Clark. 
He knew that the Indians were not unanimously in accord 
with the English, and he was convinced that, could the 
British be defeated and expelled from the north-west, the 
natives might be easily awed into neutrality ; by spies sent for 
the purpose, he satisfied himself that the enterprise against 
the Illinois settlements might easily succeed. Patrick Henry 
was Governor of Virginia, and at once entered heartily into 
Clark's plans. The same plan had before been agitated in 
the Colonial Assemblies ; but there was no one until Clark 
came who was sufficiently acquainted with the condition of 
affairs at the scene of action to be able to guide them. 

Clark, having satisfied the Virginia leaders of the feasibility 
of his plan, received on the second of January two sets of 
instructions: one secret, the other open. The latter authoriz- 
ed him to proceed to enlist seven companies to go to Ken- 


tucky, subject to his orders, and to serve three months from 
their arrival in the west. The secret order authorized him 
to arm the troops, to procure his powder and lead of General 
Hand, at Pittsburg, and to proceed at once to subjugate the 

With these instructions Clark repaired to Pittsburg, choos- 
ing rather to raise his men west of the mountains. Here he 
raised three companies and several private volunteers. 
Clark at length commenced his descent of the Ohio, which 
he navigated as far as the falls, where he took possession of 
and fortified Corn Island, between the present sites of Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, and New Albany, Indiana. Remains of 
this fortification may yet be found. At this place he ap- 
pointed Col. Bowman to meet him with such recruits as had 
reached Kentucky by the southern route. Here he an- 
nounced to the men their real destination. On the 24th of 
June he embarked on the river, his destination being Fort 
Massac or Massacre, and then marched direct to Kaskaskia. 
The march was accomplished and the town reached on the 
evening of July 4. He captured the fort near the village, 
and soon after the village itself, by surprise, without the 
loss of a single man or killing any of the enemy. Clark 
told the natives that they were at perfect liberty to worship 
as they pleased, and to take whichever side of the conflict 
they would, and he would protect them from any barbarity 
from British or Indian foes. This had the desired effect) 
and the inhabitants at once swore allegiance to the Amerr 
can arms, and when Clark desired to go to Cahokia on the 
6th of July, they accompanied him, and through their in- 
fluence the inhabitants of the place surrendered. Thus two 
important posts iu Illinois passed from the hands of the Eng- 
Hsh into the possession of Virginia. During the year 
(1779) the famous " Land Laws " of Virginia were passed- 
The passage of these laws was of more consequence to the 
pioneers of Kentucky and the north-west than the gaining 
of a few Indian conflicts. These grants confirmed in the 
main all grants made, and guaranteed to actual settlers their 
rights and privileges. 

After providing for the settlers, the laws provided for sell- 
ing the balance of the public lands at forty cents per acre. 
To carry the Land Laws into effect, the Legislature sent 
four Virginians westward to attend to the various claims 
over many of which great confusion prevailed concerning 
their validity vote.* These gentlemen opened their court on 
October, 13, 1779, at St. Asaphs, and continued until April 
26, 1780, when they adjourned, having decided three thou- 
sand claims. They were succeeded by the surveyor, George 
May, who assumed the duties on the 10th day of the month 
whose name he bore. With the opening of the next year 
(1781) the troubles concerning the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi commenced. The Government of Spain exacted such 
measures in relation to its trade as to cause the overtures 
made to the United States to be rejected. The American 
Government considered they had a right to navigate its 
channel. To enforce their claims, a fort was erected below 
the mouth of the Ohio on the Kentucky side of the river. f 

Butler's Kentucky. 

t American Stati- Papers. 

The settlements in Kentucky were being rapidly filled by 
emigrants. It was during this year that the first seminary 
of learning was established in the West in this young and 
enterprising commonwealth. 

The settlers did not look upon the building of the fort in 
a friendly manner as it aroused the hostility of the Indians. 
Spain had been friendly to the colonies during their struggle 
for independence, and though for a while this friendship ap- 
peared in danger from the refusal of the free navigation of 
the river, yet it was finally settled to the satisfaction of both 
nations. The winter of 1779-80 was one of the most unusu- 
ally severe ones ever experienced in the West. The Indians 
always refered to it as the " Great Cold. " Numbers of wild 
animals perished, and not a few pioneers lost their lives. 
The following summer a party of Canadians and Indians, 
attacked St. Louis, and attempted to take possesion of it in 
consequence of the friendly disposition of Spain to the revolt- 
ing colonies. They met with such a determined resistance 
on the part of the inhabitants, even the women taking part 
in the battle, that they were compelled to abandon the con- 
test. They also made an attack on the settlements in Ken- 
tucky, but, becoming alarmed in some unaccountable man- 
ner, they fled the country in great haste. About this time 
arose the question in the Colonial Congress concerning the 
western lands claimed by Virginia, New York, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut. The agitation concerning this sub- 
ject finally led New York, on the 19th of February, 1780, to 
pass a law giving to the delegates of that State in Congress 
the power to cede her western lands for the benefit of the 
United States. This law was laid before Congress during 
the next month, but no steps were taken concerning it until 
September 6th, when a resolution passed that body calling 
upon the states claiming western lands to release their claims 
in favor of the whole body. This basis formed the Union, 
and was the first after all of those legislative measures, 
which resulted in the creation of the States of Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois,Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. In December of 
the same year, the plan of conquering Detroit again arose. The 
conquest might easily have been effected by Clark, had the 
necessary aid been furnished him. Nothing decisive was 
done, yet the heads of the Government knew that the safety 
of the North- West from British invasion lay in the capture 
and retention of that important post, the only uuconquered 
one in the territory. 

Before the close of the year, Kentucky was divided into 
the counties of Lincoln, Fayette, and Jefferson, and the act 
eetablishicg the town of Louisville was passed. Virginia in 
accordance with the resolution of Congress, on the 2d day 
of January, 1781, agreed to yield her western lands to the 
United States upon certain conditions, which Congress would 
not accede to,* and the Act of Cession, on the part of the Old 
Dominion, failed, nor was anything farther done until 1783. 
During all that time the colonies were busily engaged in the 
struggle with the mother country, and in consequence thereof 
but little heed was given to the western settlements. Upon 
the 16th of April, 1781, the first birth north of the Ohio 
River of American parentage occurred, being that of Mary/ 

* AmiT>:m State Papers. 


Heckewelder, daughter of the widely known Moravian Mis- 
sionary, whose baud of Christian Indians suffered in after 
years a horrible massacre by the hands of the frontier settlers, 
who had been exasperated by the murder of several of their 
neighbors, and in their rage committed, without regard to 
humanity, a deed which forever afterwards cast a shade of 
shame upon their lives. For this and kindred outrages on 
the part of the whites, the Indians committed many deeds of 
cruelty which darken the years of 1781 and 1782 in the his- 
tory of the North-west. During the year 1782 a number of 
battles among the Indians and frontiersmen occurred, and 
between the Moravian Indians and the Wyandots. In these, 
horrible acts of cruelty were practiced on the captives, many 
of such dark deeds transpiring under the leadership of fron- 
tier outlaws. These occurred chiefly in the Ohio Valleys. 
Contemporary with them were several engagements in Ken- 
tucky, in which the famous Daniel Boone engaged, and who, 
often by his skill and knowledge of Indian warfare, saved 
the outposts from cruel destruction. By the close of the 
year victory had perched upon the American banner, 
and on the 30th of November, provisional articles of 
peace had been arranged between the Commissioners of 
England and her unconquerable colonies ; Cornwallis had 
been defeated on the 19th of October preceding, and the lib- 
erty of America was assured. On the 19th of April follow- 
ing, the anniversary of the' battle of Lexington, peace was 
proclaimed to the Army of the United States, and on the 3d 
of the next September, the definite treaty which ended our 
revolutionary struggle was concluded. By the terms of thai 
treaty, the boundaries of the West were as follows: On the, 
north the line was to extend along the centre of the Great 
Lakes ; from the western point of Lake Superior to Long 
Lake, thence to the Lake of the Woods ; thence to the head of 
the Mississippi River ; down its center to the 31st parallel of 
latitude, then on that line east to the head of the Appalach- 
icola River; down its center to its junction with the Flint ; 
thence straight to the head of St. Mary's River, and thencj 
clown along its center to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Following the cessation of hostilities with England, several 
posts were still occupied by the British in the North and 
West. Among these was Detroit, still in the hands of the 
enemy. Numerous engagements with the Indians through- 
out Ohio and Indiana occurred, upon whrse lands adventur- 
ous whites would settle ere the title had been acquired by the 
proper treaty. To remedy this evil, Congress appointed 
Commissioners to treat with the natives and purchase their 
lands, and prohibited the settlement of the territory until 
this could be done. Before the close of the year another 
attempt was made to capture Detroit, which was, however, 
not pushed, and Virginia, no longer feeling the interest in 
the North-west she had formerly done, withdrew her troops, 
having on the 20th of December preceding, authorized the 
whole of her possessions to be deeded to the United States. 
This was done on the 1st of March following, and the North- 
west Territory passed from the control of the Old Dominion. 
To General Clark and his soldisrs, however, she gave a tract 
of one hundred and fifty thousand acres of land, to be situ- 
ated anywhere north of the Ohio wherever they chose to 

locate them. They selected the region opposite the falls of 
the Ohio, where is now the village of Clarksville, about mid- 
way between the cities of New Albany and Jeffersonville, 

While the frontier remained thus, and General Haldi- 
mand at Detroit refused to evacuate, alleging that he had no 
orders from his king to do so, settlers were rapidly gather- 
ing about the inland forts. In the spring of 1784, Pittsburg 
was regularly laid out, and from the journal of Arthur Lee, 
who passed through the town soon after on his way to the 
Indian council at Fort Mclntosh, we suppose it was not very 
prepossessing in appearance. He says, " Pittsburg is in- 
habited almost entirely by Scots and Irish, who live in paltry 
log houses, and are as dirty as if in the North of Ireland, or 
even Scotland. There is a great deal of trade carried on, 
the goods being brought at the vast expense of forty-five 
shillings per hundred Ibs. from Philadelphia and Baltimore. 
They take in the shops flour, wheat, skins and money. There 
are in the town, four attorneys, two doctors, and not a priest 
of any persuasion, nor church nor chapel." 

Kentucky at this time contained thirty thousand inhabi- 
tants, and was beginning to discuss measures for a separation 
from Virginia. A land office was opened at Louisville, and 
measures were adopted to take defensive precaution against 
the Indians, who were yet, in some instances, incited to deeds 
of violence by the British. Before the close of this year, 
1784, the military claimants of land began to occupy them, 
although no entries were recorded until 1787. The Indian 
title to the Northwest was not yet extinguished, they held 
large tracts of lands, and in order to prevent bloodshed Con- 
gress adopted means for treaties with the original owners 
and provided for the surveys of the lands gained thereby, as 
well as for those north of the Ohio, now in its possession. 
On January 31, 1786, a treaty was made with the Wabash 
Indians. The treaty of Fort Stanwix had been made in 
1781, that at Fort Mclntosh in 1785, and through these 
vast tracts of land were gained. The Wabash Indians, how- 
ever, afterwards rfused to comply with the provisions of 
the treaty made with them, and in order to compel their 
adherence to its provisions, force was used. 

During the year 1786, the free navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi came up in Congress, and caused various discussions, 
which resulted in no definite action, only serving to excite 
speculation in regard to the Western lands. Congress had 
promised bounties of land to the soldiers of the Revolution, 
but owing to the unsettled condition of affairs along the 
Mississippi respecting its navigation, and the trade of the 
Northwest, that body, had in 1783 declared its inability to 
fulfill these promises until a treaty could be concluded be- 
tween the two governments. Before the close of the year, 
1786, however, it was able, through the treaties with the 
Indians, to allow some grants and settlements thereon, and 
on the 14th of September Connecticut ceded to the general 
government the tract of land known as the " Connecticut 
Reserve," and before the close of the year a large tract of 
hind was sold to a company, who at once took measures to 
settle it. By the provisions of this grant, the company were to 
pay the United States one dollar per acre, subject to a de- 


duction of one-third for bad lands and other contingencies*, 
they received 750,000 acres bounded on the south by the 
Ohio, on the east by the Seventh range of townships, on the 
west by the Sixteenth range, and on the north by a line so 
drawn as to make the grant complete without the reservation. 
In addition to this Congress afterward granted 100,000 acres 
to actual settlers, and 214,285 acres as army bounties under 
the resolutions of 1789 and 1790. While Dr. Cutler, one of 
the agents of the company, was pressing its claims before 
Congress, that body was bringing into form an ordinance 
for the political and social organization of this Territory. 
When the cession was made by Virginia, 1784, a plan was 
offered, but rejected. A motion had been made to strike from 
the proposed plan the prohibition of slavery, which prevail- 
ed. The plan was -then discussed and altered, and finally 
passed unanimously, with the exception of South Carolina. 
By tliis proposition the Territory was to have been divided 
into ten States by parallels and meridian lines. There were, 
However, serious objections to this plan ; the root of the diffi- 
culty was in 'the resolution of Congress passed in October, 
1780, which fixed the boundaries of the ceded lands to be 
from one hundred to one hundred and fifty miles square. 
These resolutions being presented to the Legislatures of Vir- 
ginia and Massachusetts they desired a change, and in July 
1786, the subjeet was taken up in Congress and changed to 
favor a division into not more than five Spates, and not less 
than three; this was approved by the Legislature of Virginia. 
The subject was again taken up by Congress in 17S6, and 
discussed throughout that year, and until July 1787 when 
the famous " compact of 1787 " was passed, and the founda- 
tion of the government of the Northwest laid. This compact 
is fully discussed and explained in the sketch on Illinois in 
this book, and to it the reader is referred. The passage of this 
act and the grant to the New England Company was soon 
followed by an application to the Government by John Cleves 
Symtnes, of New Jersey, for a grant of land between the 
Miamis. This gentleman had visited these lands soon after 
the treaty of 1786, and being greatly pleased with them, 
offered similar terms to those given to the New England 
Company. The petition was referred to the Treasury Board 
with power to act, and a contract was concluded the follow- 
ing year. During the autumn the directors of the New 
England Company were preparing to occupy their grant 
the following spring, and upon the 23d of November made 
arrangements for a party of forty-seven men, under the 
superintendency of General Rufus Putnam, to set forward. 
Six boat-builders were to leave at once, and on the first of 
January the surveyors and their assistant', twenty-six in 
number, were to meet at Hartford and proceed on their 
journey westward, the remainder to follow as soon as possi- 
ble. Congress in the meantime, upon the 3d of October, 
had ordered seven hundred troops for defense of the western 
settlers, and to prevent unauthorized intrusions, and two 
days later appointed Arthur St. Clair Governor of the Ter- 
ritory of the Northwest. 


The civil organization of the Northwest Territory was 
now complete, and notwithstanding the uncertainty of In- 

dian affairs, settlers from the east began to come into the 
country rapidly. The New England Company sent their 
men during the winter of 1787-8, pressing on over the Alle- 
ghenics by the old Indian path which had been opened into 
Braddock's road, and which has since' been made a national 
turnpike from Cumberland, westward. Through the weary 
winter days they toiled on, and by April were all gathered 
on the Youghiogheny, where boats had been built, and a 
once started for the Muskingum. Here they arrived on the 
7th of that mouth, and unless the Moravian missionaries be 
regarded as the pioneers of Ohio, this little band can justly 
claim that honor. 

General St. Clair, the appointed Governor of the North 
west not having yet arrived, a set of laws were passed, writ- 
ten out, and published by being nailed to a tree in the 
embryo town, and Jonathan Meigs appointed to administer 
them. Washington in writing of this, the first American 
settlement in the Northwest said : " No colony in America 
was ever settled under such favorable auspices as that which 
has just commenced at Muskingum. I know many of its set- 
tlers personally, and there were never men better calculated 
to promote the welfare of such a community." On the 2d 
of July a meeting of the directors and agents was held on 
the banks of the Muskingum, " for the purpo.e of naming 
the new born city and its squares." As yet the settlement 
was known as the " Muskingum," but was afterwards changed 
to the name, Marietta, in honor, of Marie Antoinette. 
Two days after, an oration was delivered by James M. Var- 
num, who with S. H. Parsons and John Armstrong had been 
appointed to the judicial bench of the territory on the ICth 
of October 1787. On July 9, Governor St. Clair arrived j 
and the colony began to assume form. The act of 1787 pro- 
vided two distinct grades of government for the Northwest, 
under the first of which the whole power was invested in the 
hands of a governor and three district judges. This was 
immediately formed on the governor's arrival, and the first 
laws of the colony passed on the 25th of July : these provid- 
ed for the organization of the militia, and on the next day 
appeared the Governor's proclamation, erecting all that 
country that had been ceded by the Indians east of the 
Scioto River into the county of Washington. From that 
time forward, notwithstanding the doubts yet existing as to 
the Indians, all Marietta prospered, and on the second of 
September the first court was held with imposing ceremonies. 

The emigration westward at this time was very great. 
The commander at Fort Harmer, at the mouth of the Musk- 
ingum reported four thousand five hundred persons as having 
passed that post between February and June 1788, many of 
whom would have purchased of the " Associates," as the 
New England Company was called, had they been ready to 
receive them. On the 26th of November 1787 Symmes 
issued a pamphlet stating the terms of his contract and the 
plan of sale he intend.ed to adopt. In January 1788, Mat- 
thias Denman, of New Jersey, took an active interest in 
Symmes' purchase, and located among other tracts the sec- 
tions upon which Cincinnati has been built. Retaining one- 
third of this locality, he sold the other two-thirds to Robert 
Patterson and John Filson, and the three about August 


commenced to lay out a town on the spot, which was desig- 
nated as being Licking River, to the mouth of which they 
proposed to have -a road cut from Lexington ; these settle- 
ments prospered but suffered greatly from the flood of 1789. 
On the 4th of March 1789, the Constitution of the United 
States went into operation, and on April 30th, George 
Washington was inaugurated President, and during the next 
summer an Indian war was commenced by the tribes north 
of the Ohio. The President at first used pacific means, but 
these failing, he sent General Harmer against the hostile 
tribes. He destroyed several villages, but was defeated in 
two battles, near the present city of Fort Wayne, Indiana. 
From this time till the close of 1795, the principal events 
were the wars with the various Indian tribes. In 1796, 
General St. Clair was appointed in command, and marched 
against the Indians ; but while he was encamped on a stream, 
the St Mary, a branch of the Maumee, he was attacked and 
defeated with a loss of six hundred men. General Wayne 
was then sent against the savages. In August, 1794, he met 
them near the rapids of the Maumee, and gained a compkte 
victory. This success, followed by vigorous measures, com- 
pelled the Indians to sue for peace, and on the 30th of July, 
the following year, the treaty of Greenville was signed by 
the principal chiefs, by which a large tract of country was 
ceded to the United States. Before proceeding in our nar- 
rative, we will pause to notice Fort Washington, erected in 
the early part of this war. on the site of Cincinnati. Nearly 
all the great cities of the-North-west, and indeed of the whole 
country, have had their nuclei in those rude pioneer struc- 
tures, known as forts or stockades. Thus Forts Dearborn, 
Washington, Ponchartrain, mark the original sites of the 
now proud cities of Chicago, Cincinnati and Detroit. So of 
most of the flourishing cities east and west of the Mississippi. 
Fort Washington, erected by Doughty in 1790, was a rude 
but highly interesting structure. It was composed of a num- 
ber of strong'y-built hewed log cabins. Those designed for 
soldiers' barracks were a story and a half high, while those 
composing the officers' quarters were more imposing and more 
conveniently arranged and furnished. The whole was so 
placed as to form a hollow square, enclosing about an acre 
of ground, with a block house at each of the four angles. 
Fort Washington was for some time the headquarters of both 
the Civil and Military governments of the North-western 
Territory. Following the consummation of the treaty vari- 
ous gigantic land speculations were entered into by different 
persons, who hoped to obtain from the Indians in Michigan 
and northern Indiana, large tracts of lands. These were 
generally discovered in time to prevent the schemes from 
being carried out, and from involving the settlers in war. 
On October 27, 1795, the treaty between the United States 
and Spain was signed, whereby the free navigation of the 
Mississippi was secured. No sooner had the treaty of 1795 
been ratified than settlers began to pour rapidly into the 
west. The great event of the year 179G, was the occupa'ion 
of that part of the North-west including Michigan, which 
was this year, under the provisions of the treaty, evacuated 
by the British forces. The United States owing to certain 
conditions, did not feel justified in addressing the authorities 

in Canada in relation to Detroit and other frontier posts. 
When at last the British authorities were called upon to give 
them up, they at once complied, and General Wayne who 
had done so much to preserve the frontier settlements, and 
who before the year's close, sickened and died near Erie, 
transferred his headquarters to the neighborhood of the lakes, 
where a county named after him was formed, which included 
the north-west of Ohio, all of Michigan, and the north-east 
of Indiana. During this same year settlements were formed 
at the present city of Chillicothe, along the Miami from 
Middletown to Piqua, while in the more distant West, settlers 
and speculators began to appear in great numbers. In Sep- 
tember the city of Cleveland was laid out, and during the 
summer and autumn, Samuel Jackson and Jonathan Sharp- 
less, erected the first manufactory of paper the " Redstone 
Paper Mills" in the West. St. Louis contained some 
seventy houses, and Detroit over three hundred, and along 
the river, contiguous to it, were more than three thousand 
inhabitants, mostly French Canadians, Indians and half- 
breeds, scarcely any Americans venturing yet into that part 
of the North-west. The election of representatives for the 
territory had taken place, and on the 4th of February, 1799, 
they convened at Losantiville now known as Cincinnati, 
having been named so by Gov. St. Clair, and considered the 
capital of the territory, to nominate persons from whom the' 
members of the Legislature were to be chosen in accordance 
with a previous ordinance. This nomination being made, 
the Assembly adjourned until the 16. h of the following Sep- 
tember. From those named the President selected as mem- 
bers of the council, Henry Vandenburg, of Vincennes, Robert 
Oliver, of Marietta, James Findley, and Jacob Burnett, of 
Cincinnati, and David Vance, of Vance ville. On the 16th 
of September, the Territorial Legislature met, and on the 
24th, the two houses were duly organized, Henry Vanden- 
burg being elected President of the Council. The message 
of Gov. St. Clair, was addressed to the Legislature Septem- 
ber 20th, and on October 13th, that body elected as a dele- 
gate to Congress, General Wm. Henry Harrison, who re- 
ceived eleven of the votes cast, being a majority of one over 
his opponent, Arthur St. Clair, son of General St. Clair. 
The whole number of acts passed at this session and approved 
by the Governor, were thirty-seven eleven others were 
passed but received his veto. The most important of those 
passed related to the militia, to the administration, and to 
taxation. On the 1 9th of December this protracted session 
of the first Legislature in the West closed, and on the 30lh 
of December the President nominated Charles Willing Byid, 
to the office of secretary of the Territory, vice Wm. Henry 
Harrison, elected to Congress. The Senate confirmed his 
nomination the next day. 


The increased emigration to the north-west, and extent of 
the domain, made it very difficult to conduct the ordinary 
operations of government, and rendered the efficient action 
of courts almost impossible ; to remedy this it was deemed 
advisable to divide the territory for civil purposes. Coil- 


gross, in 1800, appointed a committee to examine the ques- 
tion and report some means for its solution. 

This committee on the 3d of March reported : " In the 
western countries there had been but one court having cog- 
nizance of crimes, in five years, and the immunity which 
offenders experience attracts, as to an asylum, the most vile 
and abandoned criminals, and at the same time deters useful 
citizens from making settlements in such society. The 
extreme necessity of judiciary attention and assistance is 
experienced in civil as well as in criminal cases. * * * * 
To remedy this evil it is expedient to the committee that a 
division of said territory into two distinct and separate 
governments should be made, and that such division be 
made by beginning at the mouth of the Great Miami river, 
running directly north until it intersects the boundary 
between the United States and Canada." 

The report was accepted by Congress, and, in accordance 
with its suggestions, that body passed an act extinguishing 
the north-west territory, which act was approved May 7th. 
Among its provisions were these : 

" That from and after July 4 next all that part of the 
territory of the United States north-west of the Ohio river, 
which lies to the westward of a line beginning at a point 
opposite the mouth of the Kentucky river, and running 
thence to Fort Recovery, and thence North until it shall 
intersect the territorial line between the United States and 
Canada, shall for the purpose of temporary government, 
constitute a separate territory and be called the Indian 

Gen. Harrison (afterwards President), was appointed 
governor of the Indiana Territory, and during his residence 
at Vincennes, he made several important treaties with the 
Indians, thereby gaining large tracts of land. The next 
year is memorable in the history of the west for the purchase 
of Louisiana from France by the United States for 815,000,- 
000. Thus by a peaceful manner the domain of the United 
States was extended over a large tract of country west of 
the Mississippi, and was for a time under the jurisdiction of 
the north-western government. The next year Gen. Harri- 
son obtained additi >nal grants of land from the various 
Indian nations in Indiana and the present limits of Illinois, 
and on the 18th of August, 1804, completed a treaty at St. 
Louis, whereby over 51,000,000 acres of land were obtained. 

During this year, Congress granted a township of land 
for the support of a college and began to offer inducements 
for settlers in these wilds, and the country now comprising 
the state of Michigan began to fill rapidly with settlers 
along its southern borders. This same year a law was 
passed organizing the south-west territory, dividing it into 
two portions, the territory of New Orleans, which city was 
made the seat of government, and the district of Louisiana, 
which was annexed to the domain by General Harrison. 

On the llth of January, 1805, the territory of Michigan 
was formed, and Wm. Hull appointed governor, with head- 
quarters at Detroit, the change to take effect June 30th. 
On the llth of that month, a fire occurred at Detroit, which 
destroyed most every building in the place. When the 
officers of the new territory reached the post, they found it 

in ruins, and the inhabitants scattered throughout the coun- 
try. Rebuilding, however, was commenced at once. While 
this was being done, Indiana passed to the second grade of 
government. In 1809, Indiana territory was divided, and 
the territory of Illinois was formed, the seat of government 
being fixed at Kaskaskia, and through her General Assem- 
bly had obtained large tracts of land from the Indian tribes. 
To all this the celebrated Indian Tecumthe, or Tecumseh, 
vigorously protested,* and it was the main cause of his 
attempts to unite the various Indian tribes in a conflict with 
the settlers. He visited the principal tribes, and succeeded 
in forming an alliance with most of the tribes, and then 
joined the cause of the British in the memorable war of 1812. 
Tecumseh was killed at the battle of the Thames. Tecum- 
seh was, in many respects, a noble character, frank and 
honest in his intercourse with General Harrison and the 
settlers ; in war, brave and chivalrous. His treatment of 
prisoners was humane. In the summer of 1812, Perry's vic- 
tory on Lake Erie occurred, and shortly after, active pre- 
parations were made to capture Fort Maiden. On the 27th 
of September, the American army- under command of 
General Harrison, set sail for the shores of Canada, and, in 
a few hours, stood around the ruins of Maiden, from which 
the British army under Proctor had retreated to Sandwich, 
intending to make its way to the heart of Canada by the 
valley of the Thames. On the 29th, General Harrison was 
at Sandwich, and General McArthur took possession of 
Detroit and the territory of Michigan. On the 2d of Octo- 
ber following, the American army began their pursuit of 
Proctor, whom they overtook on the 5th, and the battle of 
the Thames followed. The victory was decisive, and practi- 
cally closed the war in the north-west. In 1806, occurred 
Burr's insurrection. He took possession of an island in the 
Ohio, and was charged with treasonable intentions against 
the Federal government. His capture was effected by 
General Wilkinson, acting under instruction of President 
Jefferson. Burr was brought to trial on a charge of treason, 
and, after a prolonged trial, during which he defended him- 
self with great ability, he was acquitted of the charge of 
treason. His subsequent career was obscure, and he died 
in 1836. Had his scheme succeeded, it would be interesting 
to know what effect it would have had on the north-we-tern 
territory. The battle of the Thames was fought October 
6th, 1813. It effectually closed hostilities in the north-west, 
although peace was not restored until July 22d, 1814, when 
a treaty was made at Greenville, by General Harrison, be- 
tween the United States and the Indian tribes. On the 24th 
of December, the treaty of Ghent was signed by the repre- 
sentatives of England and the United States. This treaty 
was followed the next year by treaties with various Indian 
tribes throughout the north-west, and quiet was again 


In former chapters we have traced briefly the discoveries, 
settlements, wars, and most important events which have 
occurred in the large area of country denominated the 

* American State Papers 




north-west, and we now turn to the contemplation of its 
gro\vth and prosperity. Its people are among the most 
intelligent and enterprising in the Union. The population 
is steadily increasing, the arts and sciences are gaining a i 
stronger foothold, the trade area of the region is becoming j 
daily more extended, and we have been largely exempt from 
the financial calamities which have nearly wrecked com 
munitties on the seaboard, dependent wholly on foreign com- 
merce or domestic manufacture. Agriculture is the leading 
feature in our industries. This vast domain has a sort of I 
natural geographical border, save where it melts away to ; 
the southward in the cattle- raising districts of the south- i 
west. The leading interests will be the growth of the food 
of the world, in which branch it has already outstripped all 
competitors, and our great rival will be the fertile fields of 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, Texas and New Mexico. 

To attempt to give statistics of grain productions for 1880 
would require more space than our work would permit of. 
Manufacturing has now attained in the chief cities a foot- 
hold that bids fair to render the north-west independent of 
the outside world. Nearly our whole region has a distribu- 
tion of coal measure which will in time support the manu- 
factures necessary to our comfort and prosperity. As to 
transportation, the chief factor in the production of all articles 
except food, no section is so magnificently endowed, and 
our facilities are yearly increasing beyond those of any 
other region. 

The principal trade and manufacturing centres of the great 
north-west are Chicago, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, 
Detroit, Cleveland and Toledo, with any number of minor 
cities and towns doing a large and growing business. The 
intelligence and enterprise of its people ; the great wealth of 
its soil and minerals ; its vast inland seas and navigable 
rivers ; its magnificent railroad system ; its patriotism and 
love of country will render it ever loyal in the future as in 
the past. The people of the Mississippi Valley are the key- 
stone of the national union and national prosperity. 


:EGINNING the history of this great State j 
we direct attention briefly to the discovery . 
and exploration of the 3Iigsissippi. Hernando 
.De Soto, cutting his way through the wilder- 
ness from Florida, had discovered the Missis- j 
sippi in the year 1542. Wasted with disease | 
and privation, he only reached the stream j 
to die upon its banks, and the remains of j 
the ambitious and iron-willed Spaniard found 
a fitting resting-place beneath the waters of the great river. 
The chief incitement to Spanish discoveries in America was 
a thirst for gold and treasure. The discovery and settle- 
ment of the Mississippi Valley on the part of the French 

must, on the other hand, be ascribed to religious zeal. 
Jesuit missionaries, from the French settlements on the St. 
Lawrence, early penetrated to the region of Lake Huron. 
It was from the tribes of Indians living in the West, that 
intelligence came of a noble river flowing south. Marquette, 
who had visited the Chippewas in 1668, and established 
the mission of Sault Ste. Marie, now the oldest settlement 
within the present commonwealth of Michigan, formed the 
purpose of its exploration. 

The following year he moved to La Poiute, in Lake 
Superior, where he instructed a branch of the Hurons till 
1670, when he removed south and founded the mission at 
St. Ignace, on the Straits of Mackinaw. In company with 
Joliet, a fur-trader of Quebec, who had been designated by 
M. Talon, Intendent of Canada, as chieftain of the explor- 
ing party, and five French voyageurs, Marquette, on the 
10th of June, 1673, set out on the expedition. Crossing 
the water-shed dividing the Fox from the Wisconsin rivers, 
their two canoes were soon launched on the waters of the 
latter. Seven, days after, on the 17th of June, they joy- 
fully entered the broad current of the Mississippi. Stopping 
sis days on the western bank, near the mouth of the Des 
Moines River, to enjoy the hospitalities of the Illinois 
Indians, the voyage was resumed, and after passing the 
perpendicular rocks above Alton, on whose lofty limestone 
front were painted frightful representations of monsters, 
they suddenly came upon the mouth of the Missouri, known 
by its Algonquin name of Pekitanoni, whose swift and 
turbid current threatened to engulf their frail canoes. The 
site, of St. Louis was an unbroken forest, and further down 
the fertile plain bordering the river reposed in peaceful 
solitude, as, e.irly in July, the adventurers glided past it. 
They continued their voyage to a point some distance below 
the mouth of the Arkansas, and then retraced their course 
up the river, arriving at their Jesuit Mission at the head of 
Green Bay, late in September. 

Robert Cavalier de La Salle, whose illustrious name is 
more intimately connected with the exploration of the 
Mississippi than that of any other, was the next to descend 
the river, in the early part of the year 1682. La Salle was a 
man of remarkable genius, possessing the power of originating 
the vastest schemes, and endowed with a will and a judgment 
capable of carrying them to successful results. Had ample 
facilities been placed by the king of France at his disposal, 
the result - of the colonization of this continent might have 
been far different from what we now behold. He was born 
in Rouen, France, in 1643, of wealthy parentage, but he 
renounced his patrimony on entering a college of the Jesuits 
from which he separated and came to Canada a poor man 
in 1666. The priests of St. Sulpice, among whom he had a 
brother, were then the proprietors of Montreal, the nucleus 
of which was a seminary or convent founded by that order. 
The Superior granted to La Salle a large tract of land at 
La Chine, where he established himself in the fur trade. 
He was a man of daring genius, and outstripped all his 
competitors in exploits of travel and commerce with the 
Indians. In 1669 he visited the headquarters of the great 
Iroquois Confederacy, at Ouondaga, in the heart of New 



York, and obtaining guides, explored the Ohio River to the 
falls at Louisville. 

In order to understand the intrepid genius of La Salle, 
it must be remembered that for many years prior to his 
time the missionaries and traders were obliged to make their 
way ts the North west by the Ottaway River (of Canada), 
on account of the fierce hostility of the Iroquois along the 
lower l^kes and Niagara River, which entirely closed this 
latter route to the Upper Lakes. They carried on their 
commerce chiefly by canvas, paddling them through the 
Ottaway to Lake Nipissing, carrying them across the port- 
age to French River, and descending that to Lake Huron. 
This being the route by which they reached the North-west, 
accounts for the fact that all the earliest Jesuit missions 
were established in the neighborhood of the Upper Lakes. 
La Salle conceived the grand idea of opening the route by 
Niagara River and the Lower Lakes to Canadian commerce 
by sail vessels, connecting it with the navigation of the 
Mississippi, and thus opening a magnificent water communi- 
cation from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico. 
This 'truly grand and comprehensive purpose seems to 
Lave animated him in all his wonderful achievements and 
the matchless difficulties and hardships he surmounted. 

As the first step in the accomplishment of this object he 
established himself on Lake Ontario, and built and gar- 
risoned Fort Frontenac, the site of the present city of 
Kingston, Canada. Here he obtained a grant of land from 
the French crown and a body of troops by which he beat 
hack the invading Iroquois and cleared the passage to 
Niagara Falls. Having by this masterly stroke made it 
safe to attempt a hitherto untried expedition, his next step 
as we have seen, was to advance to the falls with all his 
outCt for building a ship with which to sail the lakes. He 
was successful in this undertaking, though his ultimate pur- 
pose was defeated by a strange combination of untoward 
circumstances. The Jesuits evidently hated La Salle and 
plotted against him, because he had abandoned them and 
co-operated with a rival order. The fur traders were also 
jealous of his superior success in opening new channels of 
commerce. At La Chine he had taken the trade of Lake 
Ontario, which but for his presence there weuld have gone 
to Quebec. While they were plodding with their bark 
canoes through the Ottaway he was constructing vessels to 
command the trade of the lakes and the Mississippi. These 
great plans excited the jealousy and . envy of the small 
traders, introduced treason and revolt into the ranks of his 
own companions, and finally led to the foul assassination by 
which his great achievements were prematurely ended. In 
1082, La Salle, having completed his vessel at Pcoria, 
descended the Mississippi to its confluence with the Gulf of 
Mexico. At its mouth he erected a column, and decorating 
it with the arms of France, placed upon it the following 
inscription : 


Thus France, by right of discovery, lay claim to the 
Mississippi Valley, the fairest portion of the globe, an 

empire in' extent, stretching from the Gulf to the Lakes, 
and from the farthest sources of the Ohio to where the head 
waters of the Missouri are lost in the wild solitudes of the 
Rocky Mountains. La Salle bestowed upon the territory 
the name of Louisiana, in honor of the King of France, 
Louis XIV. 

The assertion has been made that on La Salle's return up 
the river, in the summer of 1682, a portion of the party 
were left behind, who founded the village of Kaskaskia and 
Cahokia, but the statement rests on no substantial foun- 


The gentle and pious Marquette, devoted to his purpose 
of carrying the gospel to the Indians, had established a 
mission among the Illinois, in 1675, at their principal town 
on the river which still bear stheir .name. This was at the 
present town of Utica, in La Salle County. In the presence 
of the whole tribe, by whom, it is recorded, he was received 
as a celestial visitor, he displayed the sacred pictures of the 
Virgin Mary, raised an altar, and said mass. On Easter 
Sunday, after celebrating the mystery of the Eucharist, he 
took possession of the land in the name of the Saviour of 
the world, and founded the "Mission of the Immaculate 
Conception." The town was called Kaskaskia, a name 
afterwards transferred to another locality. The founding 
of this mission was the last act of Marquette's life. He 
died in Michigan, on his way back to Green Bay, May 18, 

La Salle, while making preparations to descend the 
Mississippi, built a fort, on the Illinois River, below the 
Lake of Peoria, in February, 1680, and in commemoration 
of his misfortunes, bestowed upon it the name of Crevecceur, 
"broken-hearted." Traces of its embankments are yet dis- 
cernible. This was the first military occupation of Illinois. 
There is no evidence, however, that settlement was begun 
there at that early date. 

On La Salle's return from this exploration of the Missis- 
sippi, in 1682, he fortified " Starved Rock," whose military 
advantages had previously attracted his attention. Fronj 
its summit, which rises 125 feet above the waters of the 
river, the valley of the Illinois speeds out before the eye in 
landscape of rarest beauty. From three sides it is inacces- 
sible. This stronghold received the name of the Fort of 
j3t. Louis. Twenty thousand allied Indians gathered round 
it on the fertile plains. The fort seems to have been aban- 
doned soon after the year 1700. 

Marquette's mission (1675), Crevecceur (1680), and the 
Fort of St. Lauia (1682), embrace, so far, all the attempts 
made towards effecting anything like a permanent settle- 
ment in the Illinois country. Of the second few traces 
remain. A line of fortifications may be faintly traced, and 
that is all. The seed of civilization planted by the Jesuit, 
Marquette, among the Illinois Indians, was destined to pro- 
duce more enduring fruit. It was the germ of Kaskaskia, 
during the succeeding years of the French occupation the 
metropolis of the Mississippi Valley. The southern Kas- 
kaskia is merely the northern one transplanted. The 
Mission of the Immaculate Conception is the fame. 




On the death of Marquctte, he was succeeded by Alloiicz, 
and he by Father Gravier, who respectively had charge of 
the Mission on the Illinois River Gravier is said to have 
been the first to reduce the principles of the Illinois lan- 
guage to rules. It was also he who succeeded in trans- 
ferring Marquette's Mission from the banks of the Illinois 
south to the spot where stands the modern town of Kas- 
kaskia, and where it was destined to endure. The exact 
date is not known, but the removal was accomplished some 
time prior to the year 1685, though probably not earlier 
than 1082. 

Father Gravier was subsequently recalled to Mackinaw, 
and his place was supplied by Bineteau and Pinet. Pinet 
proved an eloquent and successful minister, and his chapel 
was often insufficient to hold the crowds of savages who 
gathered to hear his words. Bineteau met with a fate 
similar to that which befell many another devoted priest in 
his heroic labors for the conversion of the savages. He 
accompanied the Kaskaskias on one of their annual hunts 
to the upper Mississippi, that his pastoral relations might 
not suffer intermission. His frame was poorly fittfd to 
stand the exposure. Parched by day on the burning 
prairie, chilled by heavy dews at night, now panting with 
thirst and again aching with cold, he at length fell a 
victim to a violent fever, and " left his bones on the wilder- 
ness range of the buffaloes." Pinet shortly after followed 
his comrade. 

Father Gabriel Morrest had previously arrived at Kas- 
kaskia. He was a Jesuit. He had carried the emblem of 
bis faith to the frozen regions of Hudson's Bay, and had 
been taken prisoner by the English, and upon his liberation 
returned to America, and joined the Kaskaskia Mission. 
After the deaths of Bineteau and Pinet, he had sole charge 
until. joined by Father Mermet shortly after the opening of 
the eighteenth century. 

The devotion and piety of Mermet fully equalled those of 
his companion. He had assisted in collecting a village of 
Indians and Canadians, and had thus founded the first 
French port on the Ohio, or, as the lower part of the river 
was then called, the Wabash. At the Kaskaskia Mission 
his gentle virtues and fervid eloquence seem not to have been 
without their influence. " At early dawn his pupils came 
to church dressed neatly and modestly, each in a large deer- 
skin, or in a robe stitched together from several skins. 
After receiving lessons they chanted canticles; mass was 
then said in presence of all the Christians in the place, the 
French and the converts the women on one side and the 
men on the other. From prayer and instruction the mis- 
sionaries proceeded to visit the sick and administer medicine, 
and their skill as physicians did more than all the rest to I 
win confidence. In the afternoon the catechism was taught 
in the presence of the young and the old, when every oue, ' 
without distinction of rank or age, answered the questions of 
the missionary. At evening all would assemble at the 
chapel for instruction, for prayer, and to chant the hymns 
of the church. On Sundays and festivals, even after vespers 
a homily was pronounced ; at the close of the day parties 

would meet in houses to recite the chaplet in alternate 
choirs, and sing psalms until late at night. These psalms 
were often homilies with words set to familiar tunes. Satur- 
day and Sunday were days appointed for confession and 
communion, and every convert confessed once in a fortnight. 
The success of the mission was such that marriages of 
French immigrants were sometimes solemnized with the 
daughters of the Illinois according to the rites of the 
Catholic Church. The occupation of the country was a 
cantonment of Europeans among the native proprietors of 
the forests and the prairies.* A court of law was unknown 
for nearly a century, and up to the time of Boisbriant there 
was no local government. The priests possessed the entire 
confidence of the community, and their authority happily 
settled, without the tardy delays and vexations of the courts, 
the minor difficulties which threatened the peace of the 
settlement. Of the families which formed part of the 
French population in the early history of Kaskaskia, there 
is some uncertainty. There is, however, authority for 
believing that the following were among the principal 
settlers: Bazyl La Chapelle, Michael Derouse, (called St. 
Pierre), Jean Baptiste St. Gemme Bcauvais, Baptiste Mon- 
treal, Boucher de Moutbrun, Charles Danie, Franc.ois 
Charlesville, Antoine Bienvenu, Louis Bruyat, Alexis Doza, 
Joseph Paget, Prix Pagi, Michael Antoyen, Langlois De 
Lisle, La Derrou te and Nova!- 


The settlements of Illinois had been a separate depend- 
ency of Canada. In 1711, together with the settlements on 
the Lower Mississippi, which had been founded by D'lber- 
ville and Bienville, they became united in a single province 
under the name of Louisiana, with the capital at Mobile. 

The exclusive control of the commerce of this region, 
whose boundless resources, it was believed, were to enrich 
France, was granted to Anthony Crozat, a merchant of 
great wealth. "We permit him," says the king in his 
letters patent, " to search, open, and dig all mines, veins, 
minerals, precious stones and pearls, and to transport the 
proceeds thereof into any part of France for fifteen years." 
La Motte Cadillac, who had now become royal Governor of 
Louisiana, was his partner. Hopes of obtaining great 
quantities of gold and silver animated the proprietors, as 
well as agitated France. Two pieces of silver ore, left at 
Kaskaskia by a traveler from Mexico, were exhibited to 
Cadillac as the produce of a mine in Illinois. Elated by 
this prospect of wealth, the Governor hurried up the river 
to find his anticipations fade away in disappointment. ''Iron 
ore and the purest lead were discovered in large quantities 
in Missouri, but of gold, and silver, and precious stones not 
a trace was found. After Crozat had expended 42.3,000 
livres, and realized only 300,000, he, in 1717, petitioned the 
king for the revocation of his charter. The white popula- 
tion had slowly increased ; and at the time of his departure 
it was estimated that the families comprising the Illinois 
settlements, now including those on tho AVabash, numbered 
three hundred and twenty souls. 

* Bancroft. 


The commerce of Louisiana was next transferred to the 
Mississippi Company, instituted under the auspices of the 
notorious John Law. The wild excitement and visionary 
schemes which agitated France during Law's connection 
with the Cumpany of the West, and while at the head of 
the Bank of France, form the most curious chapter in the 
annals of commercial speculations. These delusive dreams 
of wealth were based mainly upon the reports of the fabu- 
lous riches of the Mississippi Valley. Attempts to colonize 
the country were conducted with careless prodigality. 
Three ships landed eight hundred emigrants in August, 
1718, near Mobile, whence they were to make their way 
overland to the Mississippi. Bienville, on the banks of that 
river, had already selected the spot for the Capital of the 
new Empire, which, after the Regent of France, was named 
New Orleans. From among the emigrants, eighty convicts 
from the prisons of France were sent to clear away the 
coppices which thickly studded the site. Three years after 
in 1721, the place was yet a wilderness, overgrown with 
cauebrakes, among which two hundred persons had en- 

Phillip Renault was created Director-General of the 
mines of the ne>v country, and an expedition was organized 
to work them. Renault left France, in 1719, with two 
hundred mechanics and laborers. Touching at San Domingo 
he bought five hundred negro slaves for working the mines. 
On reaching the Mississippi, he sailed to Illinois, the region 
in which gold and silver were supposed to abound. A few 
miles from Kaskaskia, in what is now the south-west corner 
of Monroe County, was the seat of his colony. The village 
which he founded received the name of St. Phillip's. From 
this point various expeditions were sent out in search of the 
precious metals. Drewry's Creek, in Jackson County, was 
explored; St. Mary's, in Randolph; Silver Creek, in 
Monroe ; and various parts of St. Clair County, and other 
districts of Illinois. On Silver Creek, tradition has it that 
considerable quantities of silver were discovered and sent to 
France, and from this the stream has its name. By the 
retrocession of the territory to the crown, Renault was left 
to prosecute the business of mining without means. His 
operations proved a disastrous failure. 


Meanwhile war had sprung up between France and Spain 
and to protect the Illinois settlements from incursions of 
Spanish cavalry across the Great Desert, it was thought 
advisable to establish a fort in the neighborhood of Kas- 
kaskia. A Spanish expedition had, indeed, been fitted out 
at Santa Fe, but their guides, leading it by mistake to the 
Missouri Indians, instead of the Osages, enemies instead of 
friends, the whole party was massacred, with the exception 
of a priest who escaped to relate the fate of his unfortunate 
comrades. Previous to this La Salle, on the occasion of his 
visit to Paris, had shown the necessity of building a chain 
of forts from Canada to the Gulf, in order to secure the 
territory to the crown of France. In 1718, Buisbriant was 
despatched to Illinois. He began the building, of Fort 
Chnrtres, long the strongest fortress on the Western Conti- 

nent, and of wide celebrity in the subsequent history of 

Fort Chartres stood on the east bank of the Mississippi, 
seventeen miles north-west of Kaskaskia, and between three 
and four miles from the location of the present village of 
Prairie du Rocher. The Company of the West finally built 
their warehouses here. In 1721, on the division of Louisi- 
ana into seven districts, it became the headquarters of Bois- 
briant, the first local Governor of Illinois. Fort Chartres 
was the seat of the Government of Illinois, not only while 
the French retained possession ot' the country, but after it 
passed under English control. When the fort was built, it 
stood about one mile distant from the river. In the year 1724 
an inundation of the Mississippi washed away a portion of 
bank in front of the fort. 

Captain Philip Pitman visited Illinois in 1766. He was 
an engineer in the British army, and was sent to Illinois to 
make a survey of the forts, and report the condition of the 
country, which had recently passed under British control. 
He published in London, in 1770. a work entitled, " The 
present State of the European Settlements on the Missis- 
sippi," in which he gives an accurate description of Fort 
Chartres : 

" Fort Chartres, when it belonged to France, was the seat 
of the government of the Illinois. The headquarters of the 
English commanding officer is now here, who, in fact, is the 
arbitrary governor of the country. The fort is an irregular 
quadrangle. The sides of the exterior polygon are four hun- 
dred and ninety feet. It is built of stone, and plastered over, 
and is only designed for defence against the Indians. The 
walls are two feet two inches thick, and are pierced with 
loopholes at regular distances, and with two port holes for 
cannon in the facies, and two in the flanks of each bastion. 
The ditch has never been finished. The entrance to the fort 
is through a very handsome rustic gate. Within the walls 
is a banquette raised three feet, for the men to stand on'when 
they fire through the loopholes. The buildings within the 
fort are, a commandant's and a commissary's house, the 
magazine of stores, corps de garde, and two barracks., iThese. 
occupy the square. ' Within the gorges of the bastion are a 
powder-magazine, a bake-house, and a prison, in the floor of 
which are four dungeons, and in the upper, two rooms and 
an out-house belonging to the commandant. The command- 
ant's house is thirty-two yards long and ten broad, and con- 
tains a kitchen, a dining-room, a bed-chamber, one small 
room, five closets for servant?, and a cellar. The commis- 
sary's house is built on the same line as this, and its propor- 
tion and the distribution of its apartments are the same. 
Opposite these are the store-house, and the guard-house, each 
thirty yards long and eight broad. The former consists of 
two large store rooms, (under which is a large vaulted cellar), 
a large room, a bed-chamber, and a closet for the storekeeper. 
The latter of a soldiers' and officers' guard-room, a chapel, 
a bed-chamber, a closet for the chaplain, and an artillery 
store-room. The lines of barracks have never been finished. 
They at present consist of two rooms each for officers, and 
three for soldiers. They are each twenty-five feet square, 
and have betwixt a small passage." 



Such was Fort Chartres, believed at the time to be the 
most convenient and best built stronghold in North America ! 
Just before the French surrender, forty families lived in the 
neighboring village, in which stood a parish church, under 
the care of. a Franciscan friar, and dedicated to St. Anne. 
At the time of the surrender to the English, all, with the 
exception of three or four families, abandoned their homes, 
and removed to the west bank of the Mississippi, preferring 
the government of La Belle France to the hated English 
rule, ignorant that by secret treaty the territory west 
of the Mississippi had been ceded to Spain, even before 
the transfer of the region eastward was made to the 

But the glory of the old fortress soon departed! In 1756 
nearly half a. mile intervened between Fort Chartres and the 
bank of the Mississippi. A sand bar, however, was forming 
opposite, to which the river was fordable. Ten years later 
the current had cut the bank away to within eighty yards of 
the fort. The sand-bar had become an island, covered with 
a thick growth of cottonwoods. The channel between it 
and the eastern bank was forty feet in depth. In the great 
freshet six years after, in 1772, in which the American Bot- 
tom was inundated, the west walls and two of the bastions 
were swept away in the flood. It was abandoned by the 
British garrison, which took up its quarters in Fort Gage, 
on the bluff opposite Kaskaskia, which then became the seat 
of government. From this date its demolition proceeded 
rapidly. InT^O the south-east angle was still remaining. 
Only vestiges of the old Fortress can now be traced. Much 
of the stone was carried away, and used for building pur- 
poses elsewhere. Trees of stately growth cover the founda- 
tions. The river has retreated to its original channel, and 
is now a mile distant from the ruins. A growth of timber 
covers the intervening land, where less than a century ago 
swept the mighty current of the Father of Waters. 


During the few years immediately succeeding the comple- 
tion of Fort Chartres, prosperity prevailed in the settlements 
between the Kaskaskia and the Miss'ssippi rivers. Prairie 
du Rocher, founded about the year 1722, received consider- 
able accessions to its population. Among the earliest French 
settlers to make their homes here were Etienne Langlois, 
Jean Baptiste Blais, Jean Baptiste Barbeaux, Antoine 
Louvier, acd the La Compte and other families, whose de- 
scendants are still found in that locality. New settlements 
sprang up, and the older ones increased in population. At 
Kaskaskia, the Jesuits established a monastery, and founded 
a college. In 1725 the village became an incorporated town, 
and the king, Louis XV., granted the inhabitants a com- 
mons. The Bottom land, extending upward along the Mis- 
sissippi, unsurpassed for the richness of its soil, was in the 
process of being rapidly settled by the larger number of new 
arrivals in the colony. Fort Chartres, the seat of govern- 
ment and the headquarters of the commandment of Upper 
Louisiana, attracted a wealthy, and for Illinois, a fashionable 

After having been fourteen years under the government 

of the Western Company, in April, 1732,. the king issued a 
proclamation by which Louisiana was declared free to all hU 
subjects, and all restrictions on commerce were removed. 
At this time many flourishing settlements had sprung up in 
Illinois, centering about Kaskaskia, and the inhabitants were 
said to be more exclusively devoted to agriculture than in 
any other of the French settlements in the West. 

M. D'Artaguette, in -1732, became commandant of Fort 
! Chartres, and Governor of Upper Louisiana. Between New 
i Orleans and Kaskaskia the country was yet a wilderness. 
j Communication by way of the Mississippi was interrupted 
by the Chickasaws, allies of the English and enemies of 
France, whose cedar barks shooting boldly out into the cur- 
rent of the Mississippi, cut off the connection between the 
two colonies. It was in an attempt to subdue these that 
M. D'Artaguette, the commandant, lost h ; s life. An officer 
arrived at Fort Chartres from M. Prerrier, Governor-General 
at New Orleans, in the year 1736, summoning M. D'Arta- 
guette, with his French soldiers, and all the Indians whom 
he could induce to join him, to unite in an expedition against 
the enemy. With an army of fifty Frenchmen, and more 
than one thousand Indians accompanied- by Father Senat 
and the gallant Vincennes, commandant of the post on the 
Wabash, where now stands the city bearing his name, 
D'Artaguette stole cautiously in the Chickasaw country. 
! His Indian allies were impatient, and the commander con- 
i sented, against his better judgment, to an immediate attack. 
One fort was carried another and then in making the as- 
sault on the third, the young and intrepid D'Artaguette fell 
at the head of his forces, pierced with wounds. The Indian 
allies made this reverse the signal for their flight. The 
Jesuit Senat might have fled, Vincennes might have saved 
his life, but both preferred to share the fate of their leader. 
The captives afterward met death at the stake under the slow 
torments of fire. 

La Buissoniere succeeded as commandant at Fort Chartres. 
In 1739 a second expedition was undertaken against the 
Chickasaw country. La Buissoniere joined Bienville, then 
; Governor-General of Louisiana, with a force of two hundred 
! Frenchmen and three hundred Indians. The whole force 
I under Bienville was twelve hundred French and five hun- 
j dred Indians and negroes. His men suffered greatly from 
malarial fevers and famine, and returned the following 
spring without conquering the Chickasaws, with whom after- 
ward, however, amicable relations were established. 

The period from 1740 to 1750 was one of great prosperity 
for the colonies. Cotton was introduced and cultivated. 
Regular cargoes of pork, flour, bacon, tallow, hides and 
leather, were fl >ated down the Mississippi, and exported 
thence to France. Frsnch emigrant* poured rapidly into 
the settlements. Canadians exchanged the cold rigors of 
their climate for the sunny atmosphere and rich soil of the 
new country. Peace and plenty blessed the settlements. 

La Buissoniere was followed, in 1750, by Chevalier Ma- 
carty as Governor of Upper Louisiana, and Commandant of 
Fort Chartres. Peace was soon to be broken. The French 
and English war, which terminated in 1759 with the defeat 
of Montcalm on the plains of Abraham, and the capturo of 


Quebec, began with a struggle for the territory on the Upper 
Ohio. Fort Chartres was the depot of supplies and the place 
of rendezvous for the united forces of Louisiana, and several 
expeditions were fitted out and dispatched to the scene of con- 
flict on the border between the French and English settle- 
ments. But France was vanquished in the struggle, and its 
result deprived her of her princely possessions east of the 


The early French inhabitants were well adapted by their 
peculiar traits of character for intercourse with their savage 
neighbors of the forest, with whom they lived on terms of 
peace and friendship. For this reason, the French colonists 
almost entirely escaped the Indian hostilities by which the 
English settlements were repressed and weakened. The 
freest communication existed between the two races. They 
stood on a footing of equality. The Indian was cordially 
received in the French village, and the Frenchman found a 
safe resting-place in the Iodg3 of the savage. In see ies of 
social pleasure, in expeditions to remote rivers and distant 
forests, in the ceremonies and exercises of the church, the 
red men were treated as brothers, and the accident of race 
and color was made as little a mark of distinction as possi- 
ble. Frequent intermarriages of the French with the In- 
dians strongly cemented this union. For nearly a hundred 
years the French colonists enjoyed continual peace, while the 
English settlements on the Atlantic coast were in a state of 
almost constant danger from savage depredations. 

It was doubtless greatly owing to the peculiar facility with 
which the French temperament adapted itself to surround- 
ings, and the natural address with which Frenchmen ingra- 
tiated themselves in the favor of the savages, that this happy 
condition of affairs existed. But something must be ascribed 
to the differences of character between the French and Eng- 
lish in regard to their aggressiveness. The English colonists 
excited the jealousy and fear of the Indians by their rapid 
occupation of the country. New settlements were constantly 
being projected, and the white population pushed farther 
and farther into the wilderness. When the Indians saw 
their favorite haunts broken up, and their hunting grounds 
invaded, a natural feeling of distrust and jealousy led them 
to warfare against the English. With the French it was 
different. There was but little disposition to found new 
settlements, or occupy the wilderness. They were essentially 
a social people, and the solitary life of a pioneer in the forest 
was repugnant to their disposition. They lived in compact 
villages. Their houses were in close proximity. With 
abundant room for spacious streets, they yet made them BO 
narrow that the merry villagers could converse with ease 
across the street, each from his own cottage. Hunting was 
a favorite pursuit, and the chief means of support. With 
this mode of life the French were content. Ambition failed 
to incite them to conquer the wilderness, and push their set- 
tlements to unknown regions, and avarice was wanting to 
lead them to grasp after great possessions. The development 
of the "territorial paradise," as La Salle had called the re- 
gion through which he passed on his first voyage down the 
Mississippi, was to be accomplished by another race. 


By the treaty of Fountainbleau,1762, the vast possessions 
of France, east of the Mississippi, with the exception of the 
island of New Orleans, passed under British control. Fort 
Chartres and the other Illinois posts were surrounded by an 
impenetrable barrier of hostile savages, friends to the French 
| and enemies to the English, and the French officers were 
authorized t) retain command until it was found pos.-ible for 
the English to take possession. M. Neyon de Villicrs was 
commandant of Fort Chartres, and upon his retiring in 1764, 
St. Ange d'Bellerive took upon himself the duties of that 
position. It was the time of Pontiac's conspiracy, when the 
Indian tribes, inflamed by the savage spirit of that warrior, 
were precipitating themselves on. the English settlements 
from Canada to Carolina. The French commandant of Fort 
Chartres was besieged for arms and ammunition to be used 
against the English. The French flag was still flying over 
the Fort, and the fact of the territory having been ceded to 
Great Britain was not generally known except to those in 
authority. The commandant was visited by embassies from 
the Illinois, the Delawares, Shawnees and Miamis, and 
finally Pontiac himself, at the head of four hundred warriors, 
entered the council hall. St. Ange d Bellerive, unable to 
furnish arms, offered instead his good will. The reply was 
received with dissatisfaction. The Indians pitched their 
lodges about the Fort, and for a time an attack was seriously 
apprehended. Finally Pontiac dispatched a chosen band of 
warriors to New Orleans to obtain from the Governor there 
the assistance St. Ange refused to grant. 

Pontiac was killed a few years after. Disappointed by 
the failure of his plans against the English, he retired to the 
solitude of the forests. In the year 1769, he suddenly made 
his appearance in the neighborhood of St. Louis. Arrayed 
in the French uniform given him by the Marquis Montcalm 
a short time previous to the latter's death on the Plains of 
Abraham, he visited St. Ange d'Bellerive, who at that time 
had removed from Fort Chartres to St. Louis, where he had 
become one of the principal inhabitants and commandant of 
the Spanish garrison. While at St. Louis, he crossed the 
Mississippi to attend a social gathering of Indians at Cahokia. 
Becoming intoxicated he started to the neighboring woods, 
when an Indian of the Kaskaskia tribe, bribed by an Eng- 
lish trader with a barrel of whiskey, stole up behind him and 
buried a tomahawk in the brain of the renowned warrior. 
St. Ange procured the body, and buried it with all the honors 
of war near the fort under his command in St. Louis. The 
tramp of a great city now sweeps over his grave. 

Two attempts, on the part of the English, to take posses- 
sion of Illinois and Fort Chartres, had been made by way of 
the Mississippi, but hostile Indians on the banks of the river 
had driven back the expeditions. Meantime a hundred 
Highlanders of the Forty-second Regiment, those veterans 
" whose battle cry had echoed over the bloodiest fields of 
America,'' had left Fort Pitt, now Pittsburg, and descending 
the Ohio, appeared before Fort Chartres while the forests 
were yet rich with the varied hues of autumn. St. Ange 
yielded up the citadel. It was on the tenth day of October, 
17(55, that the ensign of France on the ramparts of the Fort 


gave place to the flag of Great Britain. Kaskaskia had now 
been founded more than three-fourths of a century. 

Ou the surrender of Fort Chartres, St. Ange with his gar- 
rison of twenty-one soldiers retired from the country, and 
became commandant at St. Louis, an infant settlement just 
founded. A large number of the French residents of Kas- 
kaskia and other settlements refused to live under English 
rule. Many of the wealthiest families left the country ; some 
removed across the Mississippi, to the small village of Ste. 
Genevieve, under the impression that on the west bank of the 
Mississippi they would still find a home under the govern- 
ment of France, while in truth that territory had been ceded 
to Spain by a secret treaty in 1762. Others joined in found- 
ing the city of St. Louis. The French settlements in Illinois, 
at a period immediately preceding this date, were at the 
zenith of their prosperity. From that day the French in- 
habitants have declined in numbers and influence. In 17C5, 
the population -of the Illinois settlements was computed as 
follows : White men able to bear arms, seven hundred ; white 
women, five hundred ; white children, eight hundred and 
fifty ; negroes, nine hundred ; total, two thousand nine hun- 
dred and fifty. One-third of the whites, and a still larger 
proportion of the blacks, removed on the British taking pos- 
session. A population of less than two thousand remained. 
Few English, or Americans, with the exception of the British 
troops, were in the country. 

Captain Stirling, who now had command of the Fort, issued 
a proclamation guaranteeing the inhabitants the liberty of 
the Catholic faith, permission to retire from the country, and 
enjoyment of their full rights and privileges, only requiring 
an oath of fidelity and obedience to His Majesty, the English 
King. Captain Stirling died some three months after his 
arrival. In the period that elapsed before the coming of his 
successor, St. Ange d'Bollerive returned from St. Louis, and 
discharged the duties of commandant. Major Frazier, from 
Fort Pitt, exercised for a time an arbitrary power, and his 
successor, Col. Reed, proved still worse. He held the office 
eighteen months, and during that time aroused the hatred of 
the settlements by his oppressive measures. Lieutenant Colo- 
nel Wilkins assumed command in 17G8. 

Captain Pitman, to whose book on " The Present State of 
the European Settlements on the Mississippi " reference has 
already been made, gives the following description of Kas- 
kaskia, as it appeared in 1766. 

The vi'lage of Notre Dame de Cascasquias is by far the 
most considerable settlement in the country of the Illinois, 
as well from its number of inhabitants as from its advan- 
tageous situation. 

" Mons. Paget was the first who introduced water mills in 
this country, and he constructed a very fine one on the river 
Cascasquias, which was both for grinding corn and sawing 
boards. It lies about one mile from the village. The mill 
proved fatal to him, being killed as he was working 
it, with two negroes, by a party of Cherokees, in the 
year 1764. 

" The principal buildings are the church and the Jesuits' 
house, which has a small chapel adjoining it; these, as well 
as some of tho other houses in the village, arc built of stone, 

and, considering this part of the world, make a very good 
appearance. The Jesuits' plantation consisted of 240 arpents 
(an arpent is 85-100 of an acre) of cultivated land, a very 
good stock of cattle,, and a brewery which was sold by the 
French commandant, after the country was ceded to tho 
English, for the crown, in consequence of the suppression of 
the order. 

" Mons. Beauvais wa^ tiio purchaser, who is the richest of 
the English subjects in this country; he keeps eighty slaves; 
he furnishes 86,000 weight of flour to the King's magazine, 
which was only part of the harvest he reaped in one year. 
Sixty-five families reside in this village, besides merchants, 
other casual people, and slaves. The fort which was burnt 
down in October, 1766, stood on the summit of a high rock 
opposite the village and on the opposite side of the river. 
It was an oblong quadrangle, of which the extreme polygon 
measured 290 by 251 feeL It was built of very thick square 
timber, and dove-tailed at the angles. An officer and twenty 
soldiers are quartered in the village. The officer governs 
the inhabitants under the direction of the commandant at 
Fort Chartres. Here are also two companies of militia." 

Of Prairie du Rocher, Pitman writes that " it is a small 
village, consisting of twenty-two dwelling-houses, all of which 
are inhabited by as many families. Here is a little chapel, 
formerly a chapel of ease to the church at Fort Chartres. 
The inhabitants are very industrious, and raise a great deal 
of com and every kind of stock. The village is two miles 
from Fort Chartres. It takes its name from its situation, 
being built under a rock that runs parallel with the Missis- 
sippi river at a league distance, for forty miles up. Here is 
a company of militia, the captain of which regulates the 
police of the village. " 

In describing the distance from Fort Chartres, the author, 
doubtless, refers to Little Village, which was a mile or more 
nearer than Prairie du Rocher. The writer goes on to de- 
scribe "Saint Philippe" as a "small village about five miles 
from Fort Chartres on the road to Kaoquias. There are 
about sixteen houses and a small church standing ; all of tho 
inhabitants, except the captain of the militia, deserted in 
1765, and went to the French side (Missouri ) The captain 
of the militia has about twenty slaves, a good stock of cattle, 
and a water mill for corn and planks. The village stands 
on a very fine meadow about one mile from the Mis- 

From the same authority we learn that the soil of the 
country is in general rich and luxuriant. It was favorably 
adapted to the production of all kinds of European grains 
which grew side by side with hops, hemp, flax, cotton and 
tobacco. European fruits arrived to great perfection. Of 
the wild grapes a wine was made, very inebriating, and in 
color and taste much like the red wine of Provcac?. In tho 
late wars, New Orleans and the lower parts of Louisiana 
were supplied with flour, baef, wines, hams, and other pro- 
visions, from this country. At present, its commerce is 
mostly confined to the peltry and furs which are got in traf- 
fic from the Indians ; for which are received in turn such 
European commodities as arc necessary to carry on that com- 
merce and the support of its inhabitants." 




On the breaking out of the War of the Revolution, it is 
probable that the British garrison (removed in 1772 from 
Fort Chartres to Fort Gage, opposite Kaskaskia,) had been 
withdrawn. Illinois was remote from the theatre of action, 
and the colonists were little disturbed by the rumors of war 
which came from the Atlantic coast. The French inhabitants 
were rather in sympathy with the Americans than the Eng- 
lish, but probably understood little of the nature of the 
struggle. Illinois belonged to the jurisdiction of Virginia. 
George Rogers Clarke, who visited Kentucky in 1775, seems 
to have been the first to comprehend the advantages which 
would result from the occupation of Illinois by the Ameri- 
cans. He visited Virginia, where he laid his plans before 
Patrick Henry, the Governor of the State. Clarke received 
his instructions, January, 1778, and the following month set 
out for Pittsburg His instructions were to raise seven com- 
panies of men, but he could only succeed in enlisting four 
commanded by Captains Montgomery, Bowman, Helm, and 
Harrod. On Corn Island, opposite Louisville, on the Ohio, 
Clarke announced his destination to the men. At the mouth 
of the Tennessee, a man named John Duff was encountered, 
with a party of hunters, who had recently visited Kaskaskia, 
and also brought the intelligence that one Rocheblave, a 
French Canadian, was in command at that point, that he 
kept the militia well drilled, and that sentinels were posted 
to watch for the " Long Knives," as the Virginians were 
called, of whom the inhabitants were in terror. Securing his 
boats near Fort Massacre (or Massac,) Clarke undertook the 
journey across the country, one hundred and twenty miles, 
to Kaskaskia. It was accomplished with difficulty. On the 
afternoon of the fourth of July, 1778, the exhausted band of 
invaders came to the vicinity of Kaskaskia, and concealed 
themselves in the hills to the east of the town. After dark 
Clarke proceeded to the old ferry-house, three-fourths of a 
mile above the village, and at midnight addressed his troops 
on the banks of the river. He divided his force into three 
parties. Two were to cross to the west side of the river, and 
enter the town from different quarters. The third, under the 
direction of Clarke himself, was to capture the fort on the 
east side. Kaskaskia at that time was a village of about two j 
hundred and fifty houses. The British commander last in j 
charge had instilled in the minds of the people the impres- ! 
sion that the Virginians, otherwise the " Long Knives," were I 
a ferocious band of murderers, plundering houses, slaughter- ! 
ing women and children, and committing acts of great atro- j 
city. Clarke determined to take advantage of this, and so j 
surprise the inhabitants by fear as to induce them to submit | 
without resistance. Clarke effected an entrance to the fort 
without difficulty. The other parties at a given signal en- | 
tered Kaskaskia at the opposite extremities, and with terri- 
ble outcries and hideous noises, aroused the terrified inhabi- 
tants, who shrieked in their alarm, "The Long Knives!' 
" The Long Kuives are here!" The panic stricken towns- j 
men delivered up their arms, and the victory was accom- \ 
plished without the shedding of a drop of blood. M. Roche- 
blave, the British commandant, was unconscious of the pres- 
ence of the enemy, till an officer of the detachment entered 

his bed-chamber, and claimed him as a prisoner. ' In accord- 
ance with his original plan of conquering the inhabitants by 
terror, and then afterward winning their regard and grati- 
tude by his clemency, Clarke, the next day, withdrew hia 
forces from the town, and sternly forbade all communication 
between it and his soldiers. Some of the principal militia 
officers, citizens of the town, were next put in irons. The 
terror now reached its height. The priest, and a deputation 
of five or six elderly men of the villige, called on Clarke, 
and humbly requested permission to assemble in the church, 
to take leave of each other and commend their future lives 
to the protection of a merciful Gjd, since they expected to 
be separated, perhaps never to meet again. Clarke gruffly 
granted the privilege. The whole population convened at 
the church, and after remaining together a long time, the 
priest and a few others again waited upon the commander of 
the American forces, presenting thanks for the privilege they 
had enjoyed, and desiring to know what fate awaited 

Clarke now determined to lift them from their despair, and 
win their gratitude by a show of mercy. " What!" said he; 
" do you take us for savages ? Do you think Americans will 
strip women and children, and take bread from their mouths? 
My countrymen disdain to make war on helpless innocents." 
He further reminded them that the King of France, their 
former ruler, was an ally of the Americans, and now fighting 
their cause. He told them to embrace the side they deemed 
best, and they should be respected in the enjoyment of their 
liberty and the rights of property. 

The revulsion of feeling was complete. The good news 
spread throughout the village. The church-bell rang a 
merry peal, and the delighted inhabitants gathered at the 
chapel, where thanks were offered to God for their happy 
and unexpected deliverance. The loyalty of the inhabitants 
was assured, and ever after they remained faithful to the 
American cause. The French inhabitants of Kaskaskia 
were readily reconciled to a change of government. In 
October, 1778, the Virginia Assembly erected the conquered 
'territory into the County of Illinois. This County embraced 
all the region north-west of Ohio, and five large states have 
since been formed from it. Colonel Clarke was appointed 
military commander of all the western territory north and 
south of the Ohio, and Colonel John Todd, one of Clarke's 
soldiers, who next to Clarke had been the first man to enter 
Fort Gage, was appointed lieutenant-commander of Illinois. 
In the spring of 1779, Colonel Todd visited Kaskaskia, and 
made arrangements for the organization of a temporary 
government. Many of the French inhabitants of Kaskaskia, 
Prairie du Rocher, and the other settlements, readily took 
the oath of allegiance to Virginia. Colonel Todd was killed 
at the famous battle of Blue Licks, in Kentucky August, 
1782, and Timothy deMontbrun, a Frenchman, succeeded 
him as commandant of Illinois County. Of his administra- 
tion but little is known. 


In 1632 Illinoi? became a possession of the French crown, 
a dependency of Canada, and a part of Louisiana. In 17C5 
the English flag was run up on old Fort Chartres, and 


Illinois was counted among the treasures of Great Britain. 
In 1779 it was taken from the English by Col. George 
Rogers Clark : this man was resolute in nature, wise in coun- 
cil, prudent in policy, bold in action, and heroic in danger. 
Few men who have figured in the early history of America 
are more deserving than he. Nothing short of first-class 
ability could have rescued " Vincins " and all Illinois from 
the English, and it is not possible to over-estimate the in- 
fluence of this achievement upon the republic. In 1779, 
Illinois became a part of Virginia. It was soon known as 
Illinois county. In 1784 Virginia ceded all this territory 
to the general government to be cut into states, to be republi- 
can in form, with " the same right of sovereignty, freedom 
and independence as the other states." 

In 1787 it was the object of the wisest and ablest legisla- 
tion found in any merely human records. No man can 
study the secret history of The Compact of 1787 and not 
feel that Providence was guiding with sleepless eyes these 
unborn states. The ordinance that on July 13, 1787, finally 
became the incorporating act, has a most marvelous history. 
Jefferson had vainly tried to secure a system of government 
for the north-western territory. He was an emancipationist 
of that day, and favored the exclusion of slavery from the 
territory Virginia had ceded to the general government, 
but the south voted him down as often as it came up. In 
1787, as late as July 10, an organizing act without the 
anti-slavery clause was pending. This concession to the south 
was expected to carry it Congress was in session in New 
York city. Oi July 5, Rev. Dr. Manasseh Cutler, of 
Massachusetts, came into New York to lobby, on the north- 
western territory. Everything seemed to fall into his hands. 
Events were ripe : the state of the public credit, the growing of 
southern prejudice, the basis of his mission, his personal 
character, all combined to complete one of those sudden and 
marvelous revolutions of public sentiment that once in five 
or ten centuries are seen to sweep over a country like the 
breath of the Almighty. Cutler was a remarkable man ; a 
graduate of Yale, he had studied and taken degrees in the 
three learned professions, law, divinity and medicine, Har- 
vard had given him his A. M., and Yale had honored herself 
by adding his D. D. He had thus America's best literary 
indorsement. He had published a scientific examination of 
the plants of New England. His name stood second only to 
that of Franklin as a scientist in America. He was a courtly 
gentleman of the old style, a man of commanding presence, 
and of inviting face. The southern members were captivated 
by his genial manners, rare and profound abilities. He 
came representing a company that desired to purchase a 
tract of land now included in Ohio, for the purpose of plant- 
ing a colony. Government money was worth eighteen cents 
on the dollar. This Massachusetts company had collected 
enough to purchase 1,500,000 acres of land. Other specu- 
lators in New York made Dr. Cutler their agent ; on the 
12th he represented a demand for 5,500,000 acres. This 
would reduce the national debt. Jefferson and Virginia 
were regarded as authority concerning the land Virginia 
had just ceded. Jefferson's policy wanted to provide for the 
publio credit, and this was a good opportunity to do some- 

thing. Massachusetts then owned the territory of Maine, 
which she was crowding on the market. She was opposed 
to opening the north-western region. This fired the zeal of 
Virginia. The South caught the inspiration, and all exalted 
Dr. Cutler. The English Minister invited him to dine with 
some of the Southern gentlemen. He was the centre of in- 
terest; the entire South rallied around him. Massachusetts 
could not vote against him, because many of the constituents 
of her members were interested personally in the western 
speculation ; thus Cutler, making friends with the south, and 
doubtless using all the arts of the lobby, was enabled to 
command the situation. True to deeper conviction, he 
dictated one of the most compact and finished documents of 
wise statesmanship that ever adorned any human law book ; 
he borrowed from Jefferson the term " Articles of Compact," 
which preceding the federal constitution, rose into the most 
sacred character. He then followed very closely the constitu- 
tion of Massachusetts, adopted three years before, its most 
marked points were : 

1st. The exclusion of slavery from the territory forever. 

2d. Provision for public schools, giving one township for 
a seminary, and every section numbered 16 in each town- 
ship ; that is, one thirty-sixth of all the land for public 

3d. A provision prohibiting the adoption of any consti- 
tution, or the enactment of any law that should nullify 
pre-existing contracts. 

Be it forever remembered that this compact declared 
that " Religion, morality, and knowledge being necessary 
to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools 
and means of education shall always be encouraged." Dr. 
Cutler planted himself on this platform and would not yield. 
Giving his unqualified declaration that it was that or nothing 
that unless they could make the land desirable they did 
not want it he took his horse and gig and started for the 
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. On July 13, 
1787, the bill was put upon its passage, and was unanimously 
adopted, every Southern member voting for it, and only one 
man, Mr. Yates of New York, voting against it, but as the 
States voted as States, Yates lost his vote, and the compact 
was put beyond repeal. Then the great States of Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin a vast empire, 
the heart of the great valley were consecrated to freedom, 
intelligence, and honesty. In the light of these ninety-five 
years, it is evident to all that this act was the salvation of 
the republic and the destruction of slavery. Soon the south 
saw their great blunder, and tried to repeal the compact. 
In 1803 Congress referred it to a committee, of which John 
Randolph was chairman. He reported that this ordinance 
was a compact, and opposed repeal. Thus it stood a rock 
in the way of the on-rushing sea of slavery. With all this 
i timely aid it was, after all, a most desperate and protracted 
! struggle to keep the soil of Illinois sacred to freedom. It 
was the natural baltlc field for the irrepressible conflict. In 
the southern end of the State slavery preceded the compact. 
It existed among the old French settlers, and was hard to 
eradicate. The southern part of the State was settled froni 
1 the slave States ; and this population brought their laws, 


customs, and institutions with them. A stream of popula- 
tion from the North poured into the northern part of the 
State These sections misunderstood and hated each other 
perfectly. The Southerners regarded the Yankees as a skin- 
ning, tricky, penurious race of peddlers, filling the country 
with tinware, brass clocks, and wooden nutmegs. The 
Northerner thought of the Southerner as a lean, lank, lazy 
creature, burrowing in a hut, and rioting in whisky, dirt 
and ignorance. These causes aided in making the struggle 
long and bitter. So strong was the sympathy with slavery 
that in spite of the ordinance of 1787, and in spite of the 
deed of cession, it was determined to allow the old French 
settlers to retain their slaves. Planters from the slave 
States might bring their slaves, if they would give them a 
chance to choose freedom, or years of service and bondage 
for their children till they should become thirty years of age. 
If they chose freedom they must leave the State in sixty 
days or be sold as fugitives. Servants were whipped for 
offences for which white men are fined ; each lash paid forty 
cents of the fine. A negro ten miles from home without a 
pass was whipped. These famous laws were imported from 
the slave States, just as they imported laws for the inspec- 
tion of flax and wool when there was neither in the State. 
These black laws are now wiped out. A vigorous effort was 
made to protect slavery in the State Constitution of 1818 ; it 
barely failed. It was renewed in 1826, when a convention 
was asked to make a new constitution. After a hard fight the 
convention was defeated ; but slaves did not disappear from 
the census of the State until 1850. There were mobs and 
murders in the interest of slavery. Lovejoy was added to 
the list of martyrs a sort of first fruits of that long line of 
immortal heroes who saw freedom a3 the one supreme desire 
of their souls, and were so enamored of her that they pre- 
ferred to die rather than survive her. 


The early French settlers held the possession of their land 
in common. A tract of land was fixed upon for a Common 
Field, in which all the inhabitants were interested. 

Besides the Common Field, another tract of land was laid 
off on the Commons. All the villagers had free access to 
this as a place of pasturage for their stock. From this they 
also drew their supply of fuel. 

Indiv : dual grants were likewise made. Under the French 
system, the lands were granted without any equivalent con- 
sideration in the way of money, the individuals satisfying 
the authorities that the lands were wanted for actual settle- 
ment, or for a purpose likely to benefit the community. The 
fir.-t grant of land, which is preserved, is that made to Charles 
Danie, May 10th, 1722. The French grants at Kaskaskia 
extended from river to river, and at other places in the Bot- 
tom they commonly extended from river to bluff. Grants of 
land were made for almost all the American Bottom, from 
the upper limits of the Common Field of St. Phillip's to 
the lower line of the Kaskaskia Common Field, a distance 
of nearly thirty miles. 

The British commandants, who assumed the government 
on the cession of the territory by France, exercised the pri- 

vilege of making grants, subject to the approval of his Ma- 
jesty, the King. Colonel Wilkins granted to some merchants 
of Philadelphia a magnificent domain of thirty thousand 
acres lying between the village of Kaskaskia and Prairie du 
Kocher, much of it already coven d by French grants pre- 
viously made. For the better carrying out their plans, the 
British officers, and perhaps their grantees, destroyed, to 
some extent, the records of the ancient French grants at 
Kaskaskia, by which the regular claim of titles and convey- 
ances was partly broken. This British grant of thirty 
thousand acres, which had been assigned to John Edgar, 
was afterward patented by Governor St. Clair to Edgar and 
John Murray St. Clair, the Governor's son, to whom Edgar 
had previously conveyed a moiety by deed. Although much 
fault was found with the transaction, a confirmation of the 
grant was secured from the United States government. 

When Virginia ceded Illinois, it was stipulated that the 
French and Canadian inhabitants, and other settlers, who 
had professed allegiance to Virginia, should have their 
titles confirmed to them. Congress afterwards authorized 
the Governor to confirm the possessions and titles of the 
French to their lands. In accordance with this agreement, 
Governor St. Clair, in 1790, issued a proclamation directing 
the inhabitants to exhibit their titles and claims of the lands 
which they held, in order to be confirmed in their possession. 
Where the instruments were found to be authentic, orders of 
survey were issued, the expense of which was borne by the 
parties who claimed ownership. The French inhabitants 
were in such poverty at this time that they were really una- 
ble to pay the expenses of the surveys, and a memorial 
signed by P. Gibault, the priest at Kaskaskia, and eighty- 
seven others, was presented to Governor St. Clair, praying 
him to petition Congress for relief in the matter. In 1791, 
Congress directed that four hundred acres of land should be 
granted to the head of every family which had made improve- 
ments in Illinois prior to the year 1788. Congress had also 
directed that a donation be given to each of the families then 
living at either of the villages of Kaskaskia, Prairie du 
Rocher, Cahokia, Fort Chartres, or St. Phillips. These were 
known as the " bead-right " claims. 

At an early date, speculation became active in the land 
claims of different kinds; bead-rights, improvement rights, 
militia right', and fraudulent claims were produced in greet 
numbers. The French claims were partly unconfirmed, 
owing to the poverty of that people, and these were forced 
on the market with the others. Tne official report of the 
commissioners at Kaskaskia, made in 1810, shows that eight 

| hundred and ninety land claims were rejected as being ille- 
gal or fraudulent. Three hundred and seventy were 
reported as being supported by perjury, and a considerable 

j number were forged. There are fourteen names given of 
persons, both English and French, who made it a regular 
business to furnish sworn certificates, professing an intimate 
knowledge, in every case, of the settlers who had made cer- 
tain improvements upon which claims were predicated and 
when and where they were located. A Frenchman, clerk 
of the parish of Prairie du Rocher, " without property and 
fond of liquor," after having given some two hundred -depo- 


sitions iii favor of three land claimant speculators, " was 
induced,'' in the language of the report, " either by compen- 
sation, fear, or the impossibility of obtaining absolution on 
any o<her terms, to declare on oath that the said depositions 
were false, and that in giving them he had a regard for 
something beyond the truth." 

The report of the commissioners raised many doubts in 
regard to the validity and propriety of a number of confir- 
mations by the Governors, and much dissatisfaction among 
the claimants ; and in consequence, Congress in 1812, passed 
an act for the revision of these land claims in the Kaskaskia 
district. The commissioners under this law were Michael 
Jones, John Caldwcll, and Thomas Sloo. Facts damaging 
to persons who occupied positions of high respectability in 
the community, were disclosed. They reported that the 
English claim of thirty thousand acres confirmed by Gover- 
nor St. Clair to John Edgar and the Governor's son, John 
Murray St. Clair, was founded in neither law or equity ; that 
the patent was issued after the Governor's power ceased to 
exist, and the claim ought not to be confirmed. Congress, 
however, confirmed it. 

For a period of several years, emigration was considerably 
retarded by the delay in adjusting laud titles. The act of 
Congress passed in 1813, granting the right of pre-emption 
to settlers, was influential in bringing the public lands into 
market. Emigrants poured into the country, and improve- 
ments were rapid'y made. 


In area the State has 55,410 square miles of territory. It 
is about 150 miles wide and 400 miles long, stretching in 
latitude from Maine to North Carolina It embraces wide 
variety of climate. It is tempered on the north by the great 
inland, saltless, tideless sea, which helps the thermometer 
from either extreme. Being a table-land, from 690 to 1,600 
feet above the level of the sea, one is prepared to find on the 
health maps, prepared by the general government, an almost 
clean and perfect record. In freedom from fever and mala- 
rial diseases and consumptions, the three deadly enemies of 
the American Saxon, Illinois, as a State, stands without a 
superior, ' She furnishes one of the essential conditions of a 
great people sound bodies; we suspect that this fact lies 
back of that old Delaware word, Illini, superior men. The 
great battles of history have been determinative; dynasties and 
destinies have been strategical battles, chiefly the question of 
position ; Thermopylae has been the war-cry of freemen for 
twenty-four centuries. It only tells how much there may be 
in position. All this advantage belong to Illinois. It is in 
the heart of the greatest valley in the world, the vast region 
between the mountains a valley that could feed mankind 
for a thousand years. It is well on toward the centre of the 
continent. It is in the great temperate belt, in which have 
been found nearly all the aggressive civilizations of history. 
It has sixty-five miles of frontage on the head of Lake Michi- 
gan. With the Mississippi forming the western and south- 
ern boundary, with the Ohio running along the south-eastern 
line, with the Illinois river and Canal dividing the State 
diagonally from the lake to the Lower Mississippi, and with 
the Rock and Wabash rivers furnishing altogether 2,000 

miles of water-front, connecting with, and running through, 
in all about 12,000 miles of navigable water. But this is 
not all. These waters are made most available by the fact 
that the lake and the State lie on the ridge runnin<; iuto the 
great valley from the east. Within cannon-shot of the lake 
the water runs away from the lake to the gulf. The lake 
now empties at both ends, one into the Atlantic and one into 
the Gulf of Mexico. The lake thus seems to hang over the 
land. This makes the dockage most serviceable ; there are 
no steep banks to damage it. Both lake and river are made 
for use. The climate varies from Portland to Richmond. 
It favors every product of the continent including the tropics, 
with less than half a dozen exceptions. It produces every 
great nutriment of the world except bananas and rice. It 
is hardly too much to say that it is the most productive spot 
known to civilization. With the soil full of bread and the 
earth full of minerals; with au upper surface of food and an 
under layer of fuel; with perfect natural drainage, and 
abundant springs and streams and navigable rivers; half 
way between the forests of the North and the fruits of the 
South ; within a day's ride of the great deposits of iron, coal, 
copper, lead and zinc: containing and controlling the great 
grain, cattle-, pork, and lumber markets of the world, it is 
not strange that Illinois has the advantage of position. This 
advantage has been supplemented by the character of the 
population. In the early days when Illinois was first admit- 
ted to the union, her population were chiefly from Kentucky 
and Virginia. But, in the conflict of ideas concerning sla- 
very, a strong tide of immigration came in from the East, and 
soon changed this composition. In 1880, her now native 
population were from colder soils. New York had furnished 
143,290: Ohio gave 172,623: Pennsylvania 108,352: the 
entire South gave us only 216,734. In all her cities, and in 
all her German and Scandinavian and other foreign colonies, 
Illinois has only about one-fifth of her people of foreign 


One of the greatest davelopments in the early history 
of Illinois, is the Illinois and Michigan canal, connecting the 
Illinois and Mississippi rivers with, the lakes. It was of the 
utmost importance to the State. It was recommended by 
Governor Bond, the first governor, in his first message. Two 
bright young engineers surveyed it, and estimated the cost 
at $600,000 or $700,000. It finally cost $8,000,000. In 
1825, a law was passed to incorporate the canal company, 
but no stock was s~ld. In 1826, upon the solicitation of 
Daniel P. Cook, ctmgress gave 800,000 acres of land on the 
line of the work. In 1828, another law-commissioner was 
appointed, and work commenced with new survey and new 
estimates. In 1834-35, George Farquar made an able 
report on the whole matter. This was, doubtless, the 
ablest report ever made to a western legislature, and it be- 
came the model for subsequent reports and action. From 
this the work went on until it was finished in 1848. It cost 

! the State a large amount of money ; but it gave to the indus- 
tries of the State an impetus that pushed it up into the first 

j rank of greatness. It was not built as a speculation. But 
it has paid into the Treasury of the State an average annual 


nett sum of over 111,000. Pending the construction of the 
canal, the land and town- lot fever broke out in the state, in 
1834-35. It took on the malignant type in Chicago, lifting 
the town up into a city. The disease spread over the entire 
State and adjoining States. It was epidemic. It cut up 
men's farms without regard to locality, and cut up the purses 
of the purchasers without regard to consequences. There 
was no lack of buyers ; speculators and money swarmed into 
the country. This distemper seized upon the Legislature in 
1836-37, and left not one to tell the tale. They enacted a 
system of internal improvement without a parallel in the 
grandeur of its conception. They ordered the construction 
of 1,300 miles of railroad, crossing the State in all directions. 
This was surpassed by the river and canal improvements. 
There were a few counties not touched by either railroad or 
river or canal, and those were to be comforted and compen- 
sated by the free distribution of $200,000 among them. To 
inflate this balloon beyond credence it was ordered that work 
should be commenced on both ends of each of these railroads 
and rivers, and at each river-crossing, all at the same time. 
The appropriations for the vast improvements -were over 
$12,000,000, and commissioners were appointed to borrow 
money on the credit of the State. Remember that all this was 
in the early days of railroading, when railroads were luxu- 
ries ; that the State had whole counties with scarcely a 
cabin, and that the population of the State was less than 
400,000, and you can form some idea of the vigor with 
which these brave men undertook the work of making a 
great State. In the light of history it appears that this was 
only a premature throb of the power that actually slumbered 
in the soil of the State. It was Hercules in the cradle. - At 
this juncture the State bank loaned its funds largely to 
Godfrey Oilman & Co., and other leading houses for the 
purpose of drawing trade from St. Louis to Alton. Soon 
they failed, and took down the bauk with them. In 1840, 
all hope seemed gone. A population of 480 000 were load- 
ed with a debt of $14,000,000. It had only six small cities, 
really only towns, namely : Chicago, Alton, Springfield, 
Quincy, Galena and Nauvoo. This debt was to be cared 
for when there was not a dollar in the treasury, and when 
the State had borrowed itself out of all credit, and when 
there was not good money enough in the hands of all the 
people to pay the interest of the debt for a single year. Yet 
in the presence of all these difficulties the young State 
steadily refused to repudiate. Gov. Ford took hold of the 
problem and solved it, bringing the State through in triumph. 
Having touched lightly upon some of th$ most distinctive 
points in the history of Illinois, let us next briefly consider 


It is substantially a garden four hundred miles long and 
one hundred and fifty wide. Its soil is chiefly a black sandy 
loam, varying from six inches to six feet thick. On the 
American Bottoms it has been cultivated for over .one hun- 
dred and fifty years without renewal. About the old French ! 
towns it has yielded corn for a century and a half without 
rest or help. It produces nearly everything green in the tet 
perate and tropical zones ; she leads any of the other Stat 

in the number of acres actually under plow. Her products 
from 25,000,000 acresare incalculable. Her mineral wealth 
is scarcely second to her agricultural power. She has coal, 
iron, lead, copper, zinc, many varieties of building stone, 
fire clay, cuma clay, common brick and tile clay, sands of 
all kinds, gravel, mineral paint, everything needed for a 
high civilization. Left to herself, she has the elements of 
all greatness. The single item of coal is too vast for an 
appreciative handling in figures. We can handle it in gene- 
ral terms, like algebraical signs but long before we get up 
into the millions and billions, the human mind drops down 
from comprehension to mere symbolic apprehension. Nearly 
four-fifths of the entire State is underlaid with a deposit of 
coal more than forty feet thick on the average, including all 
strata (now estimated by recent surveys, at seventy feet 
thick). You can get some idea of its amount, as you do of the 
amount of the national debt. There it is, 41,000 square 
miles, one vast mine into which you could bury scores of 
European and ancient empires, and have room enough 
all round to work without knowing that they had been 
sepulchered there. Put this vast coal-bed down by the 
other great coal deposits of the world, and its importance 
becomes manifest. Great Britain, has 1 2,000 square miles 
of coal; Spain 3,000; France 1,719; Belgium 578; Illi- 
nois about twice as many square miles as all combined. 
Virginia has 20,000 square miles; Pennsylvania, 16,000; 
Ohio, 12,000; Illinois has 31,000 square miles ; one-seventh 
of all the known coal on this continent is in Illinois. 

Could we sell the coal in this single State for one-seventh 
of one cent a ton it would pay the national debt. Great 
Britain uses enough mechanical power to-day to give each 
man, woman and child in the kingdom the help and service 
of nineteen untiring servants. No wonder she has leisure 
and luxuries. No wonder the home of the common arfisan 
has in it more luxuries than could be found in the palace of 
good old King Arthur. Think, if you can conceive of it, of 
the vastarmy of servants that slumber in Illinois, impatient- 
ly awaiting the call of genius to come forth to minister to 
our comfort. At the present rate of consumption England's 
coal supply will be exhausted in 250 years. At the same 
rate of consumption (which far exceeds our own) the deposit 
of coal in Illinois will last 120,000 years. Lst us now turn 
from this reserve power to tho 


of the State. We shall not bo humiliated in this field. Here 
we strike the secret of our national credit. Nature provides 
a market in the constant appetite of the race. For several 
years past the annual production of wheat in Illinois has 
exceeded 30,000,000. That is more wheat than was raised 
by any other State in the Union ; with corn, she* comes for- 
ward with 140,000,000 bushels, twice as much as any other 
State, and one-sixth of all the corn raised in the United 
States. She harvested 2,767,000 tons of hay, nearly one- 
tenth of a. 1 the hay in the Republic. It is not generally 
appreciated, but it is true, that the hay crop of the country 
is worth more than the cotton crop ; the hay of Illinois equals 
the cotton of Louisiana. 


The valuation of her farm implements is 8230,000,000, 
and the value of her livestock, is only second to the great 
State of New York. She raises from 25,000,000 to 30,000,- 
000 hogs annually, and according to the last census packed 
about one half of all that were packed in the United States. 
This is no insignificant item. Pork is a growing demand of 
the old world. Illinois marked $64,000,000 worth of 
slaughtered animals ; more than any other State, and one- 
seventh of all the States. 

Illinois is a grand and wonderful State, peerless in the fer- 
tility of her soil, and inexhaustible resources. She is fast 
marching on towards her predestined place as first among the 

We subjoin a list of the things in which Illinois excels all 
other States. 

Depth and richness of soil ; per cent, of good ground ; 
acres of improved land ; large farms number of farmers ; 
amount of wheat, corn oats, and honey produced ; value of 
animals for slaughter; number of hogs; amount of pork; 
and number of horses. 

Illinois excels all other States in miles of railroads and in 
miles of postal service, and in money orders sold per annum, 
and in the amount of lumber sold in her markets. She pays 
a larger amount of internal revenue to the general govern- 
ment than any other state. 

Iilinoisas only second in many important matters. This 
sample list comprises a few of the more important: 

Permanent school fund (good for a young State) ; total 
income for educational purposes ; number of publishers of 
books, maps, papers, etc. ; value of farm products and im- 
plements, and of live stock ; in tons of coal mined. 

The shipping of Illinois is only second to New York. Out 
of one port during the business hours of the season of navi- 
gation she sends forth a vessel every ten minutes. This does 
not include canal boats, which go one every five minutes. 
No wonder she is only second in number of bankers and 
brokers or in physicians and surgeons. 

She is third in colleges, teachers and schools ; cattle, lead, 
hay, flax, sorghum, and beeswax. 

She is fourth in population ; in children enrolled in public 
schools, in law schools, in butter, potatoes, and carriages. 

She is fifth in value of real and personal property, in theo- 
logical seminaries and colleges exclusively for women, in 
milk sold, and in boots and shoes manufactured, and in book- 

She is only seventh in the production of wood, while she is 
the twelfth in area. She now has much more wood and 
growing timber than she had thirty years ago. 

A few leading industries will justify emphasis. She man- 
ufactures $210,000,000 worth of goods, which place her 
nearly equal to New York and Pennsylvania. 

In the number of copies of commercial and financial news- 
papers issued, she is only second to New York, and in her 
miles of railroads she leads all other States. More than two- 
thirds of her land is within five miles of a railroad and less 
than two per cent, is more than fifteen miles away. 

The Religion and Morals of the State keep step with her 
productions and growth. She was born of the missionary 

spirit. It was a minister who secured her the ordinance of 
1787, by which she has been saved from slavery, ignorance, 
and dishonesty. Rev. Mr. Wiley, pastor of a Scotch congre- 
gation in Randolph County, petitioned the Constitutional 
Convention of 1818 to recognize Jesus Christ as King and 
the Scriptures as the only necessary guide and book of law. 
The Convention did not act in the case, and the old cove- 
nanters refused to accept citizenship. They never voted 
until 1824, when the slavery question was submitted to the 
people. But little mob violence has ever been felt in the 
State. In 1817 the regulators disposed of a band of .horse 
thieves that infested the territory. The Mormon indignities 
finally awoke the same spirit. Alton was also the scene of a 
pro-slavery mob, in which Lovejoy was added to the list of 
martyrs. The moral sense of the people makes the law 
supreme, and gives the State unruffled peace. With about 
823,000,000 in church property, and 4,321 church organiza- 
tions, the State has that divine police, the sleepless patrol of 
moral ideas, that alone is able to secure perfect safety. Con- 
science takes the knife from the assassin's hand and the blud- 
geon from the grasp of the highwayman. We sleep in safety 
not because we are behind bolts and bars these only de- 
fend the innocent ; not because a lone officer sleeps on a 
distant corner of the street; not because a sheriff may call 
his posse from a remote part of the county; but because con- 
science guards the very portals of the air and stirs in the 
deepest recesses of the public mind. This spirit issues within 
the State 9,500,000 copies of religious papers annually, and 
receives still more from without. Thus the crime of the 
State is only one-fourth that of New York and one-half'that 
of Pennsylvania. 

Illinois never had but one duel between her own citizens. 
In Belleville, in 1820, Alphonso Stewart and William Ben- 
nett arranged to vindicate injured honor. The seconds 
agreed to make it a sham, and make them shoot blanks. 
Stewart was in the secret. Bennett mistrusted something, 
and, unobserved, slipped a bullet into his gun and killed 
Stewart. He then fled the State. After two years he was 
caught, tried, convicted, and, in spite of friends and political 
aid, was hung. This fixed the code of honor on a Christian 
basis, and terminated its use in Illinois. The early preachers 
were generally ignorant men, who were accounted eloquent 
according to the strength of their voices. Gov. Ford says, 
" Nevertheless these first preachers were of incalculable ben- 
efit to the country. They inculcated justice and morality. 
To them are we indebted for the first Christian character of 
the Protestant portion of the people." 

In Education, Illinois surpasses her material resources. The 
ordinance of 1787 consecrated one thirty-sixth of her soil to 
common schools, and the law of 1818, the first law that went 
upon her statutes, gave three per cent, of all the rest to Educa- 
tion. The old compact secures this interest forever, and by its 
yoking together morality and intelligence it precludes the 
legal interference with the Bible in the public schools. With 
such a start it is natural that we should have about 11,500 
schools, and that our iliteracy should be less than New York 
or Pennsylvania, and about one-half of Massachusetts. What 
a grand showing for so young a State. These public schools 


soon made colleges inevitable. The first college, still flour- 
ishing, was started in Lebanon in 1828, by he M. E. Church, 
aud named after Bishop McKendree. Illinois college at 
Jacksonville followed in 1830, supported by the Presbyterians. 
In 1832 the Baptists built Shurtleff college at Alton, and 
Knox college at Galesburg followed in 1838, and Jubilee 
college at Peoria in 1847, and the good Catholic missionaries 
long prior to this had established in various parts of the State, 
colleges, seminaries and parochial schools. After these early 
years colleges have rained down. A settler could hardly 
encamp on the prairie but a college would spring up by his 
wagon. The State now has one very well endowed and 
equipped university, namely the North-western University, 
at Evanston, with six colleges, ninety instructors, over one 
thousand students, and $1,500,000 endowment. Rev. J. M. 
Peck was the first educated Protestant minister in the State. 
He settled at Rock Spring, St. Clair County, about 1820, and 
has left his impress on the State. He was a large contribu- 
tor to the literature of that day in this State ; about 1837 he 
published a Gazetteer of Illinois. Soon after John Russell, 
of BlufTdale, published essays and tales showing genius. 
Judge James Hall published the Illinois Monthly Magazine 
with great ability, and an annual called The Western Sou- 
venir, which gave him an enviable fame all over the United 
States. From these beginnings, Illinois has gone on till she 
has more volumes in public libraries even than Massachu- 
setts, and of the 44,500,003 volumes in all the public libra- 
ries of the United S:ates, she has one-thirteenth. 

In 1860 she had eighteen colleges and seminaries ; in 1870 
she had eighty. 

That is a grand advance for the war decade. Her growth 
in the last ten years has been equally marvellous. 

This brings us to a record unsurpassed in any age. 


We hardly know where to begin, or how to advance, or 
what to say, as we can at best give only a broken synopsis 
of her gallant deeds. Her sons have always been foremost 
on fields of danger. In the war of 1812 she aided in main- 
taining national sovereignty. In 1831-32, at the call of 
GJV. Reynolds, her sons drove Blackhawk over the Missis- 

When the Mexican war came, in May, 1846, 8,370 men 
offered themselves when only 3,720 could be accepted. The 
fields of Buena Vista, Chapultepec and Vera Cruz, and the 
storming of Cerro Gordo, will perpetuate the bravery and 
the glory of the Illinois soldier. But it was reserved till 
our day for her sons to find a field and a cause and a foe- 
man that could fitly illustrate their spirit and heroism. 
Illinois put into her own regiments for the United States 
government 256,000 men, and into the army through other 
states enough to swell the number to 290,000. This far ex- 
ceeds all the soldiers of the federal government in all the 
war of the revolution. Her total years of service were 
600,000. She enrolled men from eighteen to forty-five 
years of age when the law of Congress in 1864 the test 
time only asked for those from twenty to forty-five. Her 
enrollment was otherwise excessive. Her people wanted to 

go and did not take the pains to correct the enrollment. 
Thus the basis of fixing the quota was too great, and then 
the quota itself, at least in the trying time, was far above 
any other State. Thus the demand on some counties, as 
Monroe, for example, took every able-bodied man in the 
county, and then did not have enough to fill the quota. 
Moreover, Illinois sent 20,844 men for ninety or one hundred 
days, for whom no credit was asked. When Mr. Lincoln's 
attention was called to the inequality of the quota compared 
with other states, he replied, " The country needs the sacri- 
fice. We must put the whip on the free horse." In spite 
of these disadvantages Illinois gave to the country 73,000 
years of service above all calls. With one-thirteenth of 
the population of the loyal States, she sent regularly one- 
tenth of all the soldiers, and in the peril of the closing 
calls, when patriots were few and weary, she then sent one- 
eighth of all that were called for by her loved and honored 
son in the White House. HeT mothers and daughters went 
into the fields to raise the grain and keep the children to- 
gether, while the fathers and older sons went to the harvest 
fields of the world. What a glorious record there is treas- 
ured up in the history of this great country for the patriotic 
Illinois soldier. Her military record during the Rebellion 
stands peerless among the other States. Ask any soldier 
with a good record of his own, who is thus able to judge, 
and he will tell you that the Illinois men went ui to win. 
It is common history that the greater victories were won in 
the West. When everything else was dark, Illinois was gain- 
ing victories all down the river, and dividing the confederacy, 
Sherman took with him on Lis great march forty-five regi 
ments of Illinois infantry, three companies of artillery, and 
one company of calvary. He could not avoid going to the 
sea. Lincoln answered all rumors of Sherman's defeat with 
" It is impossible ; there is a mighty sight of fight in. 100,- 
000 Western men." Illinois soldiers brought home 300 
battle-flags. The first United States flag that floated over 
Richmond was an Illinois flag. She sent messengers and 
nurses to every field and hospital, to care for her sick and 
wounded sons. When individuals had given all, then cities 
aud towns came forward with their credit to the extent of 
many millions, to aid these men and their families. Illinois 
gave the country the great general of the war Ulysses S. 
Grant since honored with two terms of the Presidency of 
the United States. 

One other name from Illinois comes up in all minds, 
embalmed in all hearts, that must have the supreme place 
in this story of our glory and of our nation's honor : that 
name is Abiaham Lincoln, of Illinois. The analysis of Mr. 
Lincoln's character is dilHcult on account of its symmetry. 
In this age we look with admiration at his uncompromising 
honesty. And well we may, for this saved us thousands 
throughout the length and breadth of our country who knew 
him only as "Honest Old Abe," and voted for him on that 
account; and wisely did they choose, for no other man could 
have carried us through the fearful night of the war. 
When his plans were too vast for our comprehension and 
his faith in the cause too sublime for our participation, 
when it was all night about us, and all dread before us, 


and all sad and desolate behind us : when not one ray shone 
upon our cause ; when traitors were haughty and exultant 
at the south, and fierce and blasphemous at the North ; 
when the loyal men here seemed almost hi the minority ; 
when the stoutest heart quailed, when generals were defeat- 
ing each other for place, and contractors were leeching out 
the very heart's blood of the prostrate republic: when 
everything else had failed us, we looked at this calm, patient 
man standing like a rock in the storm and said, " Mr. Lin- 
coln is honest, and we will trust him still." Holding to this 
single point with the energy of faith and despair we held 
together, and, under God, he brought us through to victory. 
His practical wisdom made him the wonder of all lands. 
With such certainty did Mr. Lincoln follow causes to their 
ultimate effects, that his foresight of contingencies seemed 
almost prophetic. He is radiant with all the great virtues, 
and his memory shall shed a glory upon this age that shall 
fill the eyes of men as they look into history. Other men 
have excelled him in some points, but taken at all points, all 
in all, he stands head and shoulders above every other man 
of six thousand years. An administrator, he served the 
nation in the perils of unparalleled civil war. A statesman, 
he justified his measures by their success. A philanthropist, 
he gave liberty to one race and salvation to another. A 
moralist, he bowed from the summit of human power to the 
foot of the Cross, and became a Christian. A mediator, he 
exercised mercy under the most absolute obedience to law. 
A leader, he was no partizan. A commander, he was un- 
tainted with blood. A ruler in desperate times, he was 
unsullied with crime. A man, he has left no word of pas- 
sion, no thought of malice, no trick of craft, no act of 
jealousy, no purpose of selfish ambition. Thua perfected, 
without a model and without a peer, he was dropped into 
these troubled years to adorn and embellish all that is good 
and all that is great in our humanity, and to present to all 
coming time the divine idea of free government. It is not 
too much to say that away down in the future, when the 
Republic has fallen from its niche in the wall of time; when 
the great war itself shall have faded out in the distance like 
a mist on the horizon ; and when the Anglo-Saxon language 
shall be spoken only by the tongue of the stranger, then the 
generation looking this way shall see the great President as 
the supreme figure in this vortex of hist ry. 


The history of Illinois has been traced while a possession 
of France, and when under the British government ; and 
the formation of Illinois as a County of Virginia has been 
noted. The several States afterwards agreed on the adop- 
tion of Articles of the Confederation, to cede their claims to 
the western land to the General government. Virginia 
executed her deed of cession March 1st, 1784. For several 
years after, there was an imperfect admistration of the law 
in Illinois. The French customs partly held force, and 
affairs were partly governed by the promulgations of the 
British commandants issued from Fort Chartres, and by the 
regulations which had subsequently been issued bv the Vir- 
ginia authorities. 

By the ordinance of 1787, all the territory north-west of 
the Ohio was constituted into one district, the laws to be 
administered by a governor and secretary ; a court was insti- 
tuted of three judges. A general assembly was provided 
for, the members to be chosen by the people. General 
Arthur St. Clair was selected by Congress, as Governor of 
the north-western territory. The seat of government was at 
Marietta, Ohio. 

In the year 1795, Governor St. Clair divided St. Clair 
County. All south of a line running through the New 
Design settlement (in the present County of Monroe) was 
erected into the County of Randolph. In honor of Edmund 
Randolph of Virginia, the new county received its name. 

Shadrach Bond, afterwards the first Governor, was elected 
from Illinois, a member of the Territorial Legislature which 
convened at Cincinnati, in January, 1799. In 1800 the 
Territory of Indiana was formed, of which Illinois consti- 
tuted a part, with the seat of government at Vincennes. 
About 1806, among other places in the West, Aaron Burr 
visited Kaskaskia in an endeavor to enlist men for his 
treasonable scheme against the government. In 1805, 
George Fisher was elected from Randolph County a mem- 
ber of the Territorial Legislature, and Pierre Menard was 
chosen member of the Legislative Council. 

By act of Congress, 1809, the Territory of Illinois was 
constituted. Ninian Edwards was appointed Governor of 
the newly organized Territory, and the seat of government 
established at Kaskaskia. Nathaniel Pope, a relative of 
Edwards, received the appointment of Secretary. 

For nearly four years after the organization of the Terri- 
torial Government no legislature existed in Illinois. An 
election for representatives was held on the eighth, ninth, 
and tenth of October, 1812. Shadrach Bond, then a resi- 
dent of St. Clair County, was elected the first Delegate to 
Congress from Illinois. Pierre Menard was chosen -from 
Randolph County member of the Legislative Council, and 
George Fisher of the House of Representatives. The Legis- 
lature convened at Kaskaskia on the twenty-fifth of Novem- 
ber, 1812. 

In April, 1818, a bill providing for the admission of Illi- 
nois into the Union as a sovereign State was passed by Con- 
gress. A Convention to frame a Constitution assembled at 
Kaskaskia iu the following July. The first election under 
the Constitution was held in September, 1818, and Shadrach 
Bond was elected Governor, and Pierre Menard, Lieutenant 
Governor. Illinois was now declared by Congress admitted 
to fhe Union as on an equal footing iu all respects with the 
original States. The Legislature again met at Kaskaskia ia 
January, 1819. This was the last session ever held at Kas- 
kaskia. Vandalia, the same year, was selected as the Capital 
of the State. It was stipulated that Vandalia was to be the 
Capital for twenty years. At the end of that period it was 
changed to Springfield. Bjlow we give list of governors 
and staff officers of Illinois. 

Illinois was constituted a separate Territory by act of Con- 
gress February 3d, 1809. The boundaries were described 
as follows : 




FROM 1809, 

TO 1882. 

* " That from and after the first day of March next, all 
that part of the Indiana Territory which lies west of the 
Wabash river and a direct linedrawn from the said Wabash 
river and Post Vincennes due north to the territorial line 
between the United States and Canada, shall for the purpose' 
of temporary government, constitute a separate territory, and 
be called 'Illinois.'" 

The seat of government was fixed at Kaskaskia. 

The territorial government was continued under the first 
grade from 1809 until 1812, when by a vote of the people 
the second grade was adopted. 

Under the first grade, the Governor and Judges, who 
received their appointment from the President, constituted 
the Legislative Council, and enacted laws for the govern- 
ment of the people. The Governor possessed almost un- 
limited power in the appointment of officers ; the Secretary 
of the Territory being the only officer, not appointed by the 

Under the second grade, the people elected the Legisla- 
ture, which was composed of a Legislative Council and a 
House -of Representatives. The Legislative Council was 
composed of five members, and the House of Representatives 
of seven members. 

The Legislature enacted the laws for the government of 
the people, but the Governor was possessed of the absolute 
veto power, and was therefore in position to dictate the laws, 
if he chose to exercise the power. 

The people also elected the Delegate to Congress by popu- 
lar vote. 

Territorial Officer*. 

The following is a complete roster of territorial officers 
from 1809 until the organization of the State government 
in 1818: 


, March 7, 1809. Declined. 

April 24, 1809, to December 6, 1818. 

appointment was two years. Governor Edwards 
i time, as his term expired, and served through 

The term of the Governor's 
ros re-appointed from time t 
.he entire territorial governr 

, March 7,1809,1 

is, 1816, to April, 1S1T. 
1817, to August, 1817. 


IT. II. Maxwell 1812 to 1S16, 

Daniel P. Cook January IX, 1 

i;iaukwell April ;',, 

Elijah C. Berry August 88,1 


Benjamin II. Doyle July 24 1809, to December, 1809. 

John J. Critteud'eM December 30, 1809, to April, 1810. 

Thomas T. Crittvnden April 7, 110, to October, 1810. 

Beiijamin M. Piatt Ootoh, -r .".I, isiu, to June. 1S13. 

William Mears Iune23, 1813, to February 17, 1818. 

From Legislative Directory, published 1881. 

John Thomas 


Shadrach Bond 

Il.Mijamin stcphenson 

Nathaniel Pope 

Obadiah Jones, .................. 

Alexander Stuart .............. 

Jesse B. Thomas ............... 

Thomas Tow-lea 
Daniel Cook. (Wctern 
John Wurno.'k. (Wester 
John McLean. (Eastern 


1812 to 1818. 


December, 1812, to 18 

~ itember 2 
! to 1818. 

March 7,1809. 

.V.V."'.V.V.'.'.'...V.'.'.'......Ijuly 29, lilia. 

October -s, 'Sl.-i 

El las Kent Ka 

t.) February 17, 1818. 

u iiii-i!M .Mear-. fl-.astern circuit. I February 17,1818. 

Jeptha Hardiu. (Eastern circuit.) Mareh 3,1818. 


Elias Rector 

Robert Morrison 

Elias Rector 

Mav 3, 1809, to July 18, 1809. 

lillv IS, IVM;,, to M'av2, 1810. 

May W, 1*1".,,, October _>.% 181 

First Territorial Legislature 1812. 

askaskia on the 25th day of November, A. D. 1812. Adjour 

, . . 

nvened and adjourned 

Convened at Ka _ 

the 26th day of December, 1812. Second 
November 8, A. D. 1813. 


President Pierre Menard. 

Secretary John Thomas. 

Doorkeeper Thomas Van Swearingen. 


Randolph. Samuel Judy Madis 

...(iallatin. Thomas Ferguson Johns 

...St. Clair. 


Pierre Menard Tall>tt 
William Biggs 



George Fisher Randolph. Josh 

Alexander Wilson Gallat-n. Jaco 

. Gallatin 


. Greenu 
Van Swe 

Pt. flair 

..... St. 


Second Territorial legislature 1814. 


;d at Kaskaskia the 14th day of November, A. 
24, A. D., 1814. 

D. 1814. Adjourned 



President Pierre Menard. 

Secretary John Thomas. 

Doorkeeper Thomas Stuart. 


Pierre Menard Randolph. Samuel Judy Madison. 

William ISim?s t. Clair. Thomas Ferguson Johnson. 

Benjamin Talbott Gallatin. 


Sneaker Risdon Moore. 

Clerk William Mears. 

Doorkeeper Thomas Stuart 


Riadon Moore St. Clair. Phillip Trammel Gallatin. 

William Rabh Madis,,,,. Thomas C. Browne Oaltatln. 

James Lemon, Jr ft. Clair. Owe,, Kvans Johnson. 

James Gilbreath* Randolph. 

Second Territorial Legislature 18 5. 


,th day of December, A. D. 1815. 


President Pierre Mcnard. 

Secretary lohn Thomas 

Enrolling and Engroiiwa Clerk Wm. C. Greenup. 


Pierre Menard Randolph. Willis 

Samuel Judy Madison. Thorn 

Benjamin Talbott Gallatin. 






Spcak f r 

Risdon Moore. 

Under t 


Daniel P. Cook. 
Ezra Owen. 

nor and I 

Enrolling and Enjr^ 


Wm. C. Greenup. 

election re 

l:j -'l-.n Moore 


St. Clair. John G. Lofton.. 


the Speak 

Phillip Trammel 
Th asC. I-.rown,-".: 
Jarvis Ilazelton 

(iallatin. William Ual.l..... 
Hallatin. Jam.-- I..-m.-ii. . 

r St. Clair. 

open and j 
the Gener 

.:_* u_ii 

Third Territorial legislature 181O-1T. 


Convened at Kaskaskia the 2d day of December, A. D. 1816. Adjourned 
January 11, A. D. 1817. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL . 




HarmMenard Randolph. John Grammar John 

Thomas C. Browne ................. Gallati 

, G.Lofton Madison. 

Abraham Amo.i St. Clair. 


Speaker T. Oeor^' 1 i'i-h 


Georco Fisher .................... Randolph. 

C. R. Mathem- ....................... St. (flair. 

Win II l!r:idsliv .......... St. Clair. 

Nathan Davis ........................ Jackson. 

. . 
Ezra Owen 

eph Palmer ..................... Johnson. 

i.Jard .............................. Edwards. 

iin.'l oinelvcny ........................ I'ope. 

A. D. 1817. Adjour 


Third Territorial Legislature 


rened at Kaskaskia the. 1st day of December, 

' winjGtort 

Ezra Owen. 


Pierre Menard Randolph. John G. Lofton M 

Ai.rah.iin AT.OS Monroe. Thomas C. Browne G 

JolmGrimmar Johnson. 


Speaker George Fisher. 



George Fisher ......................... Randolph Wm. H. Bradsby 

M itheny .................. St. Clair. Joseph Pal 


[J. K. MrLuii>_rlilm. 
Ezra Owen. 



First Constitutional Convention. 


Assembled at Kaskaskia, July 1818. Adjourned August 26, 
1818. Thirty-three delegates. One member from Washington county 
ilird during the sitting of the convention ; name unknow 
tion mlopted in convention without being submitted to 
people. Approved by Congress, December 3, 1818. 

President ............................ ........... Jesse B. Thomas. 

Secretary ..................................... William C. Greenup. 


St. Glair Jesse B Tiiomas, John Mewinger, James Lemen, Jr. 

(ieor-o lusher, Elias Kent Kane. 

Mu'limn Benjamin Stephenson, Joseph Borough, Abraham Pri 

- - Michael Jones, Leonard White, Adolphua F. Hubbard. 
, Hc'7.ekiah West, Win MoKatridge. 
.! Gard, Levi Corapton. 
/,' illi* Hargrave, Win McIIcnry. 
-Caldweli Cams Enoch Moore, 
-Samuel Omelveny, Hamlet Ferguson. 
..-Conrad Will, James Hall, Jr. 
../-Joseph Kitchell, Edward N. Cnllom. 
#;/ -Thomas Kirk patrick, S;imm-l G. Morse. 

William KrhokJohiiWhiteaker. 
Waihingtnn Andrew Bankson. 
Franklin Iham Harrison, Thomas Roberts. 


Under the constitution of 1S18 the elective officers were the Gover- 
nor and Lieutenant-Governor, who held office for four years. The 
re transmitted by the returning officers, directed to 
the Speaker of the House of Representatives, whose duty it was to 
open and publish them in the presenca of a majority of each house of 
l Assembly. In case of a lie, the choice was made by a 
joint ballot of both houses. The first election for Governor and 
Lieutenant-Governor was held on the third Thursday of September, 
A. D. 1818. Thereafter the eleclions were held every four years 
on the first Monday of August. 

The Secretary of State was appointed by the Governor, with the 
advice and consent of the Senate. 

The Auditor of Public Accounts, Treasurer and Attorney- General 
were elected by the General Assembly, and held office for two years 

By the constitution of 1848, all these officers were made elective by 
the people, except the Attorney-General, which office was abolished . 
The term of office for each was four years, except the Trcasn n r, 
which was two years. 

The office of Attorney-General was again created by law, in 1867, 
and the term fixed at two years. The office was first filled by 
appointment by the Governor, and at the expiration of the term by 
election by the people. 

The constitution of 1870 provides that the Executive Department 
shall consist of a Gorernor, Lieutennnt-Governor, Secretary of State, 
Auditor of Public Accounts, Treasurer, Superintendent of Public In- 
struction, and Attorney-General, who shall each, with the exception 
of the Treasurer, hold office for four years from the second Monday in 
January next after election. The Treasurer holds office for two years, 
and is ineligible for re-election until the expiration of two years next 
after the end of his term. The first election under the constitution of 
1870 was held November 5, A. D. 1872. 

By a law passed in 1849 the Secretary of State was made ex-officio 
State Superintendent of Public Schools. In 1854 the law establish- 
ing a system of free schools created the office of State Superintendent, 
and provided for the appointment by the Governor, upon the taking 
effect of the law, of some person to hold office until the election in 
1855, when a State Superintendent should be elected, and every two 
years thereafter. 

..St. Ciair. 

The offices of Adjutant-General, State Geologist, and Entomolo- 


gist, are created by law, and filled by appointment of the Governor. 


igust 20, 


n county 

tc of the 


From what 

Nsme. ^ 





Shadraeh Bond 

Oct. 6, 1818 

St. Clair 


1-Mwurd Coles 

Dec. &, 182.!.... 



Dec. 6, 1S2C... 


John Reynolds 

Dec. 9, 1830,... 

St. Clair 

Re-iltneil Nov. IT,' 1834." 

n, Jr. 

Win. T,. 1). Ewing 

NOT. 17, 1834.. 


Elected ll.'p. to Congress. 
Vice Reynolds. 

m Pric- 


Thomas Carlin 

Dee. 3, 1834 
Dec. 7, 1838 



Thomas Ford 

Dee. 8, 1842 

Ogle '.'.'.'.'I 


Augustus C. French 
Augustus C. Frenuli 

Ian. ,s, Will 


iie-eiected "under"con'st'ii 
of 1847. 

Jan., is:,. 1 ! 


John Wood. '.'.".'.I..'.'.!!. 

Jim. ll', ls:,T.... 
Mar. 21, 180(1... 


~n.'.'<v(l'.lto theoffice vica 

Richard Yates 

Jan. 14,1801... 



Richard .!.< fleshy 
John M. Palm.-r 
Richard J. Oglesby 

John L. Bcverid.-e 

Jan. lr., l.s.;: 
Jan. 11. I8W... 

Jan. 13, INT::... 
Jan 23, 1873... 

Maeoiipin ... 


I'le.'tc.l IT. S.S.'irrtor. 
Succeeded to office, rico 

Shelby M. Cullom 
SU.-li.y M. Cullom 

Jan 8.18T7... 
Jan. 10, 1881.... 


Oglosby resigned. ' 



Fr^m what 





Pierre Menard 
Adolphus, F. Hul.l.ard.. 

Oct. 6, 1818.. 
Dec. 6, 1822.. 



rr-- -:.=.: 

Zadok'casov"' J ""." 
Wm.L.D. Ewing 

Dec! 9^ 183(1.. 
Mar. 1, 1833.. 


Resigned' March "i, TssS. '" 
Presidentof Senate and Act- 
ing Lieut-Governor. 

Alex. M. Jenkins 

Dec. 5, 1834.. 



Wm. H. Davidson 

Dec. 9, 1836.. 


President of Senate and Act- 

ing Lieut-Governor 

Stinson H. Anderson... 

Dec. 7, 1838.. 


John Moore 

Dec. 8. 1842.. 


Joseph B. Wells 

Dec. 9, 1846.. 

Jan. 8, 1849.. 

John Wood !!'.".'.'.'."'. 

Jan. 1853.. 
Jan. 12, 1857.. 

f t j a [g ir 

-<uoeeeded to ofnV-e of (n.v 

vice Bissell dec'd Mar. 21, 


Thomas A. Marshall 

Jan. 7, 1861.. Coles 

President of Senate and Act- 

ing Lieut-Governor. 

Francis A. Hoffman 

Jan. 14, 1861.. !Cook 

William Bross 

Jan. 16, 18G5.. 
Jan 11 186') 



'" ' 

John L. Beverfd'ge 
John Early 

Jan. 11, 1873.. 
Jan. 23, 1873.. 


Succeeded to ortiee of <iov. 
vice Oglesbyelec'dU.S Sen 
ft-esidentof Senate and Act- 

Archibald A. Glenn Jan. 8, 1875.. 

Andrew Shuman IJan. 8, 1877. 
John Hamilton Jan. 10, 1S81.. 


ing Lieut-Governor. 
President of Senate and Act- 
ing Lieut-Governor. 

Secretaries of State. 

Elias Kent Kane 

Samuel L>. Lnckwood.... 

Oct. 6. 
Do 18, 
\|.ril 2, 
Oct. 15, 

George Forquer Jan. 17, 

Alexander P. Field ' 

Stephen A. Don-las 

Lyman Trumbull >feo^27, 

Thompson Campbell.... Mar. 4, 
Horaces. CooK-v Do.; 2'i 

Horaces. Cooley !jan. 8, 

David L.Grcggs April 10, 

Alexander Starne Ian In 

Ozias M. Hatch Ian. 12 

OziasM. Hatch Ian. 14 

Shan.n Tvndale.. 
Edward Hummel 




Win.. Morgan 

,8H.. St. Clair 

1843.. JoDaviess ... 

IS If,. 








Resignoa Dec. 16, 1822. 

U.-<ii_-ii,-,l Jan. 15, 1825. 

Removed MarrTi 4. Isl'i. 

of 1848. Died April 2, 1850. 



From what 


Elijah C. Berry Oct. D, 1818.. 


Elijah C. Berry 'April 6, 1819.. 
Jwnes T. B. Stapp Aug. 27, Ml.. 
Levi Davis 'Nov. 16, 835.. 
James Shields Mar. 4, 841.. 


Wm. D. L. Ewing Mar. 26, 84:1.. 
Thomas H. Campbell...:Mar. 26, 816.. 
Thomas H. Campbell... Jan. 7, 847.. 


Vice Ewing, deceased. 

Jcsso K. Dubois [Jan. 12, 857.. 

Jesse K. Dubois ! Jan. 14. 861.. 

Orlinll. Miner 

( hailes E. Lii.pinooti. 
Charles E. Lippincott. 

Dec. 1 !, 864.. 
Jan. 11, 869.. 
Jan. 11. 871.. 

san K amon ".: i ......... ;.v.v.v.".v.v.".".".;::".~ .. 


Thomas B. Needles ! .Jan. 8, 877.. 
Charles P. Swigcrt .Jan. 10, 881.. 



Ninian W. Edwards M,-h. -j|, ls:,l.. Sancm.on... \,,point,.,l by the Governor 

Newton Bateman Jan'y. ,1871. 

Sam'l M. Etter ,Jn'y 11, 1876. 

Jawes P. Sladr Jan'y 13, 1879. 



^cZnt^'i Remark 

Thomas 1818. 

R. K. McLaugnlin 'Aug. 2, 1819. 

Abner Field Jan. 14,1821. 

James Hall 'Feb. 12. 1827. 

John Dement IFeb. 5, 1831. 

ry 'Dec. 5, 1836. 

side Meh. 4, 1837. 

ter !Mch. 6, 1841. 

lAllg. 14 1848. 

John Moore Dec. 16, 1850. 

James Miller Sjan. 12, 18S7. 

William Ilutler jSept. 3, 18M, 

William Butler Jan. 14, 1801. 

Alexander Starne 'Jan. 12, 1863. 

James H Beveridge jjan. 9, 1865. 

George W. Smith Jan. 10, 1867. 

Erastus N. Bates Jan. 11, 1869. 

Erastus N. Bates jNov. 8, 1870. 

Edward Kutz |jan. 13,1873. 

Thos. S. Ridgeway Jan. 11, 1875. 

Edward Rutz iJan. 8, 1877. 

I Jan. 13, 1879, 

|Jan. 10, 1881, 


nted vice G'arpent/i 


Daniel Pope Cook 

William Mears 

Sam'l D. Lockwood 

James Turney 


" Iwards.. 
Jesse B. Thomas, Jr.... 

Walter B. Scales 

Usher F. Linder 

George W. Ulney 

Wiekliffe Kitehell 

Josiali hamborn 

.lames A. Mrliounall.... 

David ii. Campbell 

Robert G. Ingersoll . ... 
Washington lluslmoll.. 

James K. Edsall 

James K. Edsall 

James McCartney 

Dec. 21, 1846.. Sangamon... 

Feb. 28, 1867.. Pooria 

Jan'y. 11, 1873.. LaSalle 

Jan'y 13, 1873.. Lee 

Jan'y. 8, 1877.. " - 

Jan'y. 10, 1881.. Wayne 

Resigned March 5, 1 

Resigned Dec'.'3,"i832.' 

Resigned Jan'y 8, 183G. 

liesi.nned D.-c. 2ii, ls:!i;. 
Resigned Juno 11, 1838. 


D B.Walsh !June 11, lsr,7.. Itock Island 

Wm. LoKarnm April 2, 187(1.. Kane 

Cyrus Thomas \pril M, l7- Jackson ' 

ah C.Berrv ................ .June 11 1821.. 

ios W. 11,-rrv .............. Ii-e. 19,1828.. 

es K. Anderson ....... Dec. in, i.s:::>.. 

Kim I'., liui'knor .......... \i>ril 3, ls:.7.. 

Wm.c;. Kennoy ............. \<l: :>, ls:,7.. 

Thomas S. Math.-,. ......... not. 2S. ls:.s.. 

Allen C. Killlor ................. Nov. II. lsi;l. 

Ishani X. Hiwni.i ........... .lan'v 1C, ISiir... 

Kdwanl P. Nilos .................... .' ..... . ......... 

i^H Remttrk3 ' 

Uesigiii'd .Nov7i'i','i839." 


Hubert DilKc-r Meh. 21, lxi.ii.. Sali'-am.m".'.'. 

Ivlwiti I. HI--M,- .l.mV.l, 1ST:!.. 

Edwin L. HiRstins 'July 1,1874.. 

Hiram HillianL.^'Z.'^ .InlV >', is::... c,...k 

1 Inly 2, 1877.. " 

Hiram Hilliard 

ice Kinney, deceased. 



Stat-mont showing the population of the State of Illinois by Counties, according to the United States census, from the year 1800 to the year 1S80, 
of organization and name o/County Seat: . 

Counties. 1800. j 1810. | 1820. j 1830. 





1880. | When organized. 

County Seats. 

Alexand, r 



14, 476 

26, 508 


56, 362 

69, 148 1 January 13, 1825 
14,80!) March 4, 1819 






11, 67f 

13 152 


14, S73 January 4, 1317 - 
11,527 March 4,1837 
13,044'February 1, 1839 


Ml. Sterling 

Bureau"".'"' 777..77777 777 777 777! 
Cass ! 

&fi"::.:::::::::z:::::::::::::::::::: :::::::::::::::.. 






' 475 


14, 629 
10, 492 

34; 415 

6, 562 
32, 737 
20, 363 
15, 875 
16 285 


40, 869 

February 28, 1837 Princeton 
January 10,182' Hardin 
Febuarv22, 1839 Mt, Carroll 
March 3, 1817 -, Virginia 
February 20, 18'tt Urbana 
February 15, 1.3:1:1 Tavlorville 
March 22, 1.319 Marshall 
December 23, 1324 Louisville ... 
December 27. 1.3-21 carlvle 

o8iw.77!.\7!7...7.!.7.777!.7.777 777 7.77 


14, 203 

25 235 

27 01.1 December 2.1, 18311 



1 2'Jl 

4: ' :;7 



607,719 January 11, 1J3I 


Crawford j ' 2,999 
Cumberland j ! 





13 889 
12 223 

16,190 December 31, 1816 

Majority Point 

DeKalb ! 



10, 820 


--,i7:i March 4, 183777777! Sycamore 
17 OulMarch 1,1839 CJinton 

D,F|^ ::;;:: ! 




15.S.17 February ri,1317 TusenU 
19 is? February 9. 1*1!) Wheaton 

^^577.77.7777777777777 777 "3,444 





10, WS 


7 316 

2l! 45? 


2jio04 January's, 1823 

1> Novem1,er23,1sl4 
IM^Fobruaryll, IR31 



Favette , 2,704 



11, !89 


23,213 February 14, 1821 




9, 103 

15 101 F,.bni..,rV.17, 13.19 

Kir ::::::::::::=::..:::::..:::::::::::::::::. .^ 

Gallatin ] 3155 



1 112 
1 760 


4 is 


12, 612 

16 i-.,,. January '2, 1818 
41,219 January 23, 1823 
12, si;-- September 14, 1312 

Lewisto \vn77.7.7.777 



1 951 429 



23,014 January 2;i, 1821 


Hancock. !7777777777.7.77777! 777 777 





9, 915 
29 061 

9 v!" 

13, 014 

16, 7.1.8 February 17, 1841 
16,712 February 8, 1821.1 
35 31 > January 18, 1825 
r, o,l March'2, 1839 



Henderson ' '.... : 


12! ,132 


January 20, 1841 



January n, 182.1 

C mbridge 

Iroquois , 
Jackson l,142j 1,828 



12^ 325 

2.% 782 



I'Ybrilary 26,1833 
January in, 1816 
-elirnaryll, 1831 




12, 965 



Mt. W Vern'on"77777.7 

jersey...7777777.7777777 777 777 : 




15, 054 

IS) 548 

February 28, 18:1!) 



Mil 1.596 



9, 342 


13, 079 

September H, 1^2 




30, 062 


44| 956 

annarv li 1 ., 1836 


15. 412 

2 1! 3.12 

24, 901 

1 1. ls.11 

Kankak'e'e 'cit7-.7!!7.7. 


13. 074 



Yorkville ". 




28, 663 







21^299 March I, i> : 


LaSaiie777. 777777.77777. 77!!! !!!!!!'.'.'.' 





70,420 January H. 1831.~~__ 

' Mtan.l 

Livinjorton !.... 

777; Y" 






27' 194 

January 16. 1821 Xawrenceville 
February 27, 183!) Dixon 
February.27, 1837 Pontiae 


:::!!!::: ::::7:::::!:: 



14, 272 



February!), 183!) 

, : 1.122 



13, 738 


30, 071 

Janna-y 19, 1829 


Madiso p n!..7...'.......'....!'.7.!7.'.7...!.!.7!7!!!!!!! !!! ih'," 6/221 

1 433 


31, 351 

32, 726 
44 131 


January 17, 1329 
September 14,1812 





12, 739 



January 24, 1823 


Mason 1 

i! 921 


K, 184 






10,' 443 j February 1843.777! 

McHenry 777 !!!!!!!!. 





22, OS,, 


23, 762 


Ianuary25, 1828 

lanuary 16,183i; 




28, 772 


m 115 

1) mher -. 


Mena?d.777:7.7.7.!77.7.7!777 777 7"7! 




11, -:;r. 

13 028 

February 15, 139 


Montgomery 1 


1*7 14 


1 ,'547 




6, 385 

28 463 


28, 016 


January 13, 1825 
June 1,1816. 

February 12, 1821 
January 31, 1823 
February! i, 1843 


Ogle i 479 





January' 16, 1836 




1.2).i; 222 




Januar'y 13, 1821 
January 29. 1827 

pike 77777777.7.' '." 777 77.7 7.7." ii.wi 'i 728 

KtoEEEE 77:77777 7;:::::: 7 m .... ( :!: 4 

Putnam mo, 13 
Randolph 1,101,7,275 3.-I92I 4429 944 






.6 I '?27 
a', 943 


21)' 855 

15,' 583 
IS 555 
25; 691 

January 27, 1841 Monticello 
January 31, 1821 Piltsfield 
April 1, 1816 (Jolcouda 
March 3, 1843 Mound City 
January 13, 1825 Hennepin 
April 28, 1809 .Chester 


^^!-"77777777!77!7 ::::::::! 7!7!7::77 


s-huyier ;;:;::..; 77; 







9, 331 

12. 803 
29, 733 
46, 352 

15, 546 
15, 9 

52, 902 

February 24, 1S41 

February 9, 1831 
February 21, 1847 
January 3o, 1821 
January 13, 1325 


Itoek Maud 





14, 613 

10, 530 
25, 476 

10,74.1 February 16, 1839 
30,282 January 23,1827 

Wincnester!.'.'!!!!!! 777.7 




10, 751 

ll,20!i March 2,1839 

*st. ciaYr7'7777777!7.7777j"i^55y'v;o7T'5,248 

7 07s 

1 631 


61 068 

f.1,850 April 28, 1809 


Stephenson ' 






21, 470 

27, 903 
16, 518 

31, 97n March 4, 1837 
M.U79 January 31, 1827 
18,UKl January 2. 1818 


verm n iiion'77.'.7.'.77.: .7.777.7 :;;;7:: :; ..::... 





7', 313 


23, 174 

41,' 600 January IS, 1326 
9, 94o|December27, 1824 
22,9to January 13, 1825 

Mt. Carmel 







17, M9 



January 2, 1818 

Fairfield .7.!'.7.'.'.V.V.'7!!.' 

whi,"77777 77.':.'." !!"! !7:7 

.i's - 




12 403 



December 9, 1815 

Wniteside. .......... 7 ' 

will ;..! 777.7.77777 777 ..7.7 777 77.77 

Wmn, -i,a';o 1 

.1 -1 361 
1 167 703 
457 216 
61 CJ 773 

18, 7S7 
21 491 

43, 013 
29, 301 

30,' 838 
53, 424 
19. 32f 
30, 518 

January 16,1836 
January 12, 1ST; 
February 28, 1839 
18. 1836 







21, 630 February 27, 1841 

Aggregate ' 2,318 12. ?82 55,162 157,445' 476, 183 851,470 

1,711,911 2,539, S91 


* St. Clair county was organized April 27th, 1790, by Arthur St. Cla r, then Governor and Commander-in-chief of " The territory of t 
west of the Ohio river, ' re-organized after Illinois had been established as a Territory, April 28th, 1809. 

-tales north- 



Secretaries of State. 

Secretaries of War. 






1 George Washington A (ml 30, 


17 John C. Calhoun Mar. 

IX James Buchanan Mar. 


22 William L. Marcy Mar. 0, 1845 
2:; George -. Crawford.. . Mnr. 8,1849 

4 Gideon Granger Nov. 28 
' Mar 


2 John Adams .'.'.'..Mar.' 4^ 


19 John M. Clayton Mar. 


24 diaries M. Conrad Am.'. 15, IS5O 

" " Mar' 

3 Thomas Jellerso i Mar 4, 
Mar. 4, 
4 James Madisoa Mar. 4, 


Daniel Webst-r July 2 
20 Edward Everett Nov. 
21 William L. Marev Mar. 



2.-, .lelterson Davis Mar. 5, 1853 
20 John B.FIovd Mar. 0.1857 
27 Joseph Holt Jan. 18, 1801 

6 Return J. Meigs, Jr Mar! 1 



22 Lewis Cass Mar. 


28 Sim.,,1 i am.-ron Mar. 5, 1801 

G John McLean '.......Iiine 2 

6 James Monroe...'.:'.:::::::::^!.;: 4_; 


23 Jeremiah S. Black Dec. 1 
24 William H. Si-ward Mar. 


2:i K'Uun M. Staiilon Ian. 15, 802 
" Mar. 4, Xi 5 

7 William T. Barry'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'..Mar'. i 


6 John Qiiinev Adams !!!! Mar! '4, 


" April 15, si;:, 


7 Andrew Jackson....... ....Ma, 4, 

April 1 
25 E. B. Wa-hburne Mar. 


U.S. Grant, ad infmi...Anir. 12, S07 
L Thomas, - " ...Feb. 21, xiix 

8 Amos Kendall Mav 


8 Martin Van Bnreri '.'.'.'.'.'.'..Marl 4' 
9 Win. ll.-nrv Harii-on....Mar. 4, 

- II 

20 Hamilton fish Mar. 1 
" Mar. 


in John M. Sehofield Mav 2s, xox 
II John A. Kawlim .Mar. 11, si!!) 

9 John M. Kiles May 2 
10 Francis Granger Mar. 

Is 1,1 

lo John Tvler April 0, 


27 William M. Evarts Mar. 1 

12 Wm. W. I'.elkliap Oet. 25, si,9 

' " Apiil 


*l James K. Polk Mar. 4, 

12 Zaeharv T.ivlor Mar. 5, 
13 Millard Filimore July In, 



2* .lamesti. Blaine Mar. 
29 Frelinghuysen, F. T Dec., 

xx i 


Mar. 4, 873 
;:: MphousoTaft Mar. 8,1870 

:\ .lames D. Cameron Mav 22, 1X70 

llChas. A. Wieklifle Sept. 1 
12 Cave Johnson Mar 
13 Ja-'ob Collamer Mav. 


Is 1:1 

14 Franklin Piei-.-e Mar. 4, 


',:, Geo. W. McCrary Mar. 12, 1877 

14 Nathan K. Hall July 23 

1', James lliieiiamm Mar. 4, 


30 Alexander Kunsev. Deo. In, 1H79 

15 Sam'l T). Hubbard Aug 3 

Is' 2 

16 Abraham Lincoln .Mar. 4, 


Secretaries of the Treasn 

37 Robert T. Lincoln Mar. 4, 1881 

10 James Campbell Ma?' 
17 Aaron V Brown M-ir 

17 Andrew Johnson, Auril 1% 
18 Ulysses S. Grant Mar. 4, 



1 Alex. Hamilton Sept. 1 
2 Oliver Wolcott...'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'..Feb. 


Secretaries of the Navy. 

IX Joseph Holt Mar. 1 
In Horatio Kini: Feb 1 
20 Montgomery Blair Mar. 


19 Rutherford R. Hayes ....Mar. 5, 
20 James A. GaHield Mar. 4, 

xx ! 

" " Mar. 
Samuol Dexter Jan. 



1 Benjamin Stoddert -May 21, 1798 

* !' '..'- Mar: < 


21 Chester A. Arthur Sept. 20, 


Albert GaHatin May 1 


2. RobertSmiih I'.'.'.'.'.'.'.jn'lv ir,\ ixol 

22 Alex. W. Randall ".'.'.'.'.'." July' L 


d t( ^J;| r - \ 


3. .1. Croivnin-hiold .Mai-. 3, 1SU5 

23 John A. J. Cresswell Mar. 


Geo. W. Carnpbeii'."!"!"!Feb] 

si ( 

4 Paul llamilt m Mar. 7, Mill 




Alexander J Dallas Get 
Wm. H. Crawford Oct. 22 

|s| 1 


5 Wi Ham Jones Ian. 12, 1813 
" " .. Alar 4 1X13 

24 Marshall Jewell Aug > 
25 James X. Tvner Julv 1 
-20 David M.-K Kev Mar. 1 


1 John Adams Tune 3, 

7s ' 

B. W. Orowninshield Dee. 19, 181 1 

" Dec. 2, 
2 Thomas Jefferson Mar. 4, 
3 Airon Burr Mar. 4, 


Richard Rush ...'"..'.'.'." .Mar 
Samuel D. In^ham Mar. 



Mar. 4, 1817 
7 Smith Thompson Nov. 9, 1818 
Mar. 5,1X21 

27 Horace Mavnard June 
28 Thomas L.' James Mar. 
29 Timothy O. Howe Dec., 



4 Goorce Clinton Mar. 4, 

1 Louis M, 'Lane Aug 

8 Samuel L. Southard Sept. lo. Is2:s 

" " Mar 4 
5 Eldridge Gerry "'.""'.'...'.'.'Mar.' 4, 
*John Gaillard Nov. 25, 

si 1 

1 William J. Diiane May 2 
1 Roger B. Tanoy Sept. 23 
1 Lovi Woo.lbnrv Juno! 

x:> ; 

Mar. 4. 182"> 
9 John Branch Mar. 9,1829 
in Lovi Woo.lbiiry May 23, lx:il 

6 Daniel D. Tompkins Mar. 4, 


" ' .' Mar. 


" ' Mar, 4, 1x33 

Mar. 5, 


14 Thomas En ing Mar. 

11 Malilon Diokerson lime :io, 

7 John C. Calhoun Mar. 4, 

s .,, 


IS 11 


is II 

12 James K. Paul ding".'.".'.'. June 25,' 1838 
13 Georue 10. Badger Mar. 5, 1841 
April G, 1841 

8 Martin Van Buren Mar. 4, 
9 Kiehard M. Johnson Mar. 4, 

10 John C. Spen. -or Mav. 
7 George M. Bibb luue 1 

1 Edmund Randolph Sept. 2fi 


10 John Tyler Mar. 4, 
*Samne'l L. Sou-hard Auril 0, 



x Kobert J. Walker Mar. 
19 Wm. M. Meredith Mar. 


14 Abel P. Upshur Sept. l:;,]sll 
15 David Hensliaw Inly 21, IS43 

2 William Bradford....'.'.'.'.'.' Jan' 2 

3 Charles Lee Dec. 


*Willie P. Mangum Mav 31, 


20 Thomas Corwin July 2 


10 Thomas W. (;i mer I'Vb. 15,1844 

11 George M. Dalla< Mar. 4, 
12 Millard Fillinonl Ma'. R, 
*William H. King July 11, 
13 William K.King Mar. 4, 
*David R. Atohison April is, 




-21 .James Gutlinc Mar. 
22 llowellCobb Mar. 
23 Philip F. Thomas Dec. 1 
24 John A. Dix Jan. 1 
2.i Salmon P. Chase Mar. 


1 s:,7 



17 John Y. Mason Mar. 14, 1S-U 
is Geo ire Bancroft Mar. Ill, 1X45 
Johu'V. .Mason Sept. !i, 1X40 
19 Uiiliuii 11. Preston Mar. 8,1841) 
20 William A. Graham Tilly 22,1850 

4 Theophilus Parsons !".".' Feb.' 2 

5 Levi I.ineoln Mar 
Kobert Smith Mar. 
7 John Breekiuridge Aug. 
8 ucsar A. liodney Jan. 


*.lesse D. Bright Dee. 5, 
14 John C. Breckinriilge... Mar. 4, 
i:, Il.-iiinibal llamlin...'. Mar. 4, 
16 Andrew Johnson Mar. 4, 

*l.afave-te S. Foster April 15, 
*B.-niamin F. Wade Mar. 2, 
17 Sehuvl-r Col fax Mar. 4, 
18 Henry Wilson Mnr. 4, 
Thomas W. Ferry Nov. 22 
19 William A. Wheeler Mar. 5, 
20 Chester A Arthur Mar. 4, 








20 Wm. Pin Fessenden lulv 
27 Hugh MeCalloeh Mar. 
April 1 
2S George R. Boutwell Mav. 1 
29 Wm. A liichavdson Mar 1 
30 Bcnj. II. Bristow June 
31 Lot M. Mori-ill luly 
32 John Sherman Mar. 
33 William Wi -mom Mar. 
34 Chas. G. Folger Dec., 






21 John P. Kenne Iv Inly 22, ls:>2 
22 .lam.-s C. Dobbin Mar. 7,1853 
23 Isaac Toueey Mar. o, 1857 
21 Gideon Welles Mar. 5,1801 
" Mar. 4, 1S05 
' April 15, is,;-, 
25 A.lolph E. Borie Mar. 5, IHiil 
2, Ceo. M. Kobeson June 25, ISi-.ll 
" Mar. 4 1X73 

27 b'ieh. w. Thompson Mar. 12, 1x77 
M Nathan Gofl; Jr. ton. 6,1881 

9 William Pinkney'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.Dec.' 1 

10 Kiehard Uush '.'.'..'.."'.>" 1 
11 WilMam Wirt.'.'.".'.'..V.'.'.'.'.'.':Nov: 1 

" ....... ......Mar.' 

12 John M. Jierrien Mar 
13 Roger B. Taney July 2 





s 'i 

.21 David Davis Oct. 13, 1881 


2:1 W. H. Hunt .Mar. 4, 1881 
30 W. E. Chandler April, 1882 

11 Benjamin F. Bufier!~!Ijio 1 


'Acting Vice-Presidcnt and PreFident 

Secretaries of War. 

i- F ,r" C d " ^'I'- 


pro tern of the Senate. 

Secretaries of the Interior. 

ll! Henry 'D. Gifpi[V...'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.!JaZ' 1 


1 Henry Knox ..Sept. 


1 Thomas Ewing Mar. 8, 1849 



Secretaries of State. 

Timoth y Pjckerin'g'':::.'.'.'jan.' 
James MeHenry Jan^, 2' 


2 Alex. H. Stuart Sept. 12, 1X50 
3 Robert MeClellaud Mar. 7 Is;,:; 

18 JJugh S. Legare Sept. 
19 John Nelson July 
"u John V Mason Mar 


1 Thomas Jefferson Sept. 20, 1789 
Mar. 4, 17W 

Samuel Dexter May ]: 
Uoger Griswold Feb. 

IS '] 

5 Caleb B. Smith Mar. 5, 1X01 
John P. Usher Jan. 8, 1803 

21 Nathan Clifford (let. 
22 Isaae Toueey lime 


2 Edmond Randolph Ian. 2 1791 
3 Timothy Piekering Dor. lo, I7'.r> 

4 John Marshall .'.".'.'.'.'.May 13,' 1800 
B James Madison Mai-. 5, ixm 

Henry Dearborn ..Mar. 

William Eustis...'..".'..'....".Mar'. 
John Armstrong Jan. 




7 James Harlan .'.'.'.'.'.'.. .'.'.'..'."Mav i\ I8H 
8 0. H. Browning Julv 27.lxoo 
11 Jacob D. Cox..! Mar. 6, 1809 

2:: Jonnson Mar. 
John J Crittenden July 
-21 Caleb Cu.hing Man 
25 Jeremiah 8. Slack Mar. 
20 Edwin M. Slanton Dec. 


s ,3 

Mar. 4, 1805 
G Robert Smith Mar. 6, 1809 

9 James Monroe Sept. 
10 Win. H. Crawford Aug. 

l -1 1 

M Columbus D.-hino Nov. 1,1870 
41 * Mar. 4, 1873 

27 Kdward Bates Mar. 
T. J. Coffey. nd int June 


7 James Monroe April 2, 1S11 
" Mar. 4, 1813 
8 John Quiney Adams Mar. fi, 1817 

11 George Graham nd Inter 
12 John C. Calhoun Oct. 
" " Mav. 


1- :l 

11 Zachariah Chandler Oet. I:>. 1X75 
I2<3arl Seburz Mar. 12,1877 
13 Samuel . I. Kirkwood Mar. 4, sxl 

28 James Speed Dee. 
" '.'.'..'.'.'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'. April 1. 



" " ' Mar. 5] 1x21 
9 Henry Clay Mar. 7, 1825 

13 James Barlx.ur Mav. 
14 Peter B. P.uter Mav 

1 128 

14 Henry M. Teller \pril, 1882 

20 llenrv Stanberv lulv 
3'i William M lOvarts July 



11 Martin Van Huron Mar. 0, 1X211 

5 John H. Eaton Mar. 


31 E. lioi-kwood Iloa- .Mar. 

11 Edward Livingston Mav 21, lx:ll 
12 Louis Mr-Lane Mav 29 1833 
13 John Forsyt.h June 27, Is:;-, 
Mar. 4 is::7 
14 Daniel Weh.ter Mar. 5, 1*41 

Lewis Cass Aug. 




32 Amos T. Akerman June 
33 George it. Williams liee. 1 

31 Edward Pi'-rropont...'.'..Aiiri'l 2t 
35 Alphonso Taft Mav 



17 Joel R Poius It Mar. 
18 John Bell Mar. 
" April 

1 Samuel Gsgood Sept. 26, 1789 
2Timolhy fiokering Ujg. 12.1791 
" Mar 4, 1793 

April fi, 1*11 

19 John C. Spencer Oct. 


3 Joseph Habersham F. b. 25, 17;i:> 

30 Charles Devens Mar 


5 Hugh S. Legare Mav 21, S!:' 
Abel P. Upshnv Ju:v 21. si: 

20 James M. PO-UT Mar. 
21 William Willdns, Feb. 1 

i -i:: 

Mar. 4. 1797 
Mar. 4. 1S01 

37 Wavue Mat'Vengh Mar 



F. A. Muhl.nberg Pennsylvania 
Jonathan Trumbull | Connecticut 
F. A. Milhlenberg Pennsylvania 

1st C -ngress 

2d Congress.... 

April 1, 1789, to March 4, 1791 

October 24, 1791. to March 4,171)3 
December 2, 1711.1, to March 4, 17D.1 




Jonathan Dayton 

New Jersey 

4th Congress 
5thCon|res, 7, 179,1 , t" .March 4, 1797 
.Mav i:>, 171)7, t" March :i, 1799 
December _'. 1791), to March 4, Isol 



Nathaniel Macon 

North Carolina 

sth Connress 

December 7. lx"l. to March 4, L8U3 
October 17, Iso:;, to -Mar.-h 1, lso.1 
December 2. Iso:,, i,, .March 1. INC 



Joseph B. Varnum 
Henry Clay '.'.'.!!!' 

Langdon Cheves!! !....! 
Henry Clay 

Kentucky ^^"VZZZ 

10th Congress 
IHli Congress 
12tli Congress 
l:!th Congress 
13th Congress 
11th Cotiuress 
15th Congress _ 

1-07, t., March 4, ismi 
Mav 22. 1 si in, to .March 4, isll 
November 4, 1811. to March 4, 1813 
May 24, isl. i, t., .human- 19.1x14 
lanuaiv 19, Ixl 1, to -Mai'vh 1, ixl.1 
December 4,, to M-rch I, 181.1 
ember 1, lsl7, to March 4, 1819 





Philip P. Barbo'u'r'."!.!'. '. '. !...'.'.'.'.'.'.!!. 
Homy Clay 
John W. Taylor 



10th Congress 
17th Coiinres* 
18th Congress 
lath Congress 
2(lth Congress 
21st Connress 
2-'d Congress 

November 15. I8a>, t" Mar.-h 4, 1821 
December 4, 1x21. to March 4. 1823 
December 1, 1x2:1, to March 4. 1825 
Dec. inbi'l-5. 1x2.1, I" March 4. 1x27 
December :i, 1x27, t" Mar, h 4, ]XL:' 
December 7, 1x29, to March 4. lx:il 
December-., lx:n. to March -li lx:;:i 






John Bell '."".'.'.'.'.'.'.!'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'."."'.'!!!.".!!!!. 
James K. Pol i 

Tennessee, 2d Session 

23d congress..'.'.'.'..!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 

_'4th Conmvss 
2.1th Congress 

1 i.-ce or L', ix:;:i. to June :>. IK'A 
June 2, 1834, to Mar. h 4, is:!:, 
December 7, 18:::,, to Maivh 4, lx:;7 
September.',, 18:',-. to March 4,1X39 



Robert M. T. Hunter 


December In. l.vls, to .Maivh 4, 1841 


John Woite 


Mav 31 1841, to March 4. Isl:! 


Jol,n\V. Jones 
John \V. Davis 


,'Sth Congress 
)th Congress 

December 4, 1x1:1, to March 4. Isl:. 
December 1, 1x4.1. to March 4, 1x17 



Robert C. \Vinthro|. ft 


December 0, 1817. to March 1. 1x41) 


Howeil C.,l,l, 
Linn lioyd 


H-t Congress 
!2.l CJongress 

!:id Congress 

Dccmb,r22, 1,819. to M,.r, 1,4,1851 
December 1, ls:i, to Mar.-h 4. 1 8.1:1 
December 5, I8S3, to March 1, 1-55 



Nathaniel P. Hanks Massachusetts 

Febril.-irv 2 Ix.lo, 10 Jla-ch 4, 1x57 


James L. Orr South Carolina 

), mber7, lx.17, to .Maivh 4, ls.19 


Wra. Pennington New Jersey 
Galusha A. Grow Pennsylvania 
Bohuyler Colfax Indiana 

)0th Congress 
17th C ngress -. 
i8th Congress 

February 1, Ism, t Maivh 4, 1801 
illy 4, isr.l, to March 4, Is.;.! 
lecetnber 7, Isi :i, to Maivh 4, Isr:, 



Kith Congress 

ilarch 4, 18(17, t., March 4, IMHI 

James G. Elaine 


larch 4, 18011, to March 4, 1871 


March -I, 1871, to Mai'.-h 1, 1x73 

Michael C. Kerr 
Samuel J. Ramlall 

Pennsylvania, 2d Session 

44th Congress 
44th Congress 

December 0, 1875, to August 20, 1870 
>e,'.cmbcr4. Is7n, to March 4, 1877 
Ictober 1.1. 1x77, to March 1, 1879 



46th Congress 

March 18, 1879, to 

nd Territories. 1790. 1800. I 181O. 1820. 1830. ] 


The Territories 

Total Population 






stone, as may be seen from the outcroppings along the 
banks. Between two seams of sandstone shale low vein 
of coal appears, and in an early day was taken out in 
small quantities by the blacksmiths for their forges at 

Soil and Agriculture. The soil on the rolling upland 
is a chocolate-colored clay loam, well charged with 
HE county of Edwards was erected in 1814, j humus from decomposed vegetable matter, and is very 
and was the sixth county formed in what is I productive, being specially adapted to the culture of the 

best quality of wheat, of oats, and the grasses. The 
bottom lands along Bonpas creek are heavily timbered, 
but when cleared and brought into cultivation are very 

now the State of Illinois. At its organi- 
zation it embraced nearly all the eastern 
portion of the territory of Illinois, and a part of the 

territories of Wisconsin and Michigan, 
boundary extending to Upper Canada. 

one of the smallest counties 

ts northern I productive, and constitute the best corn lands in the 
southern part of the State. At this time wheat is the 

the State, and is 

staple product of the county. In an early day, corn 

bounded as follows : On the north by Richland, east stood at the head of the list in acreage. A little later, 
by Wabash, south by White and west by Wayne \ pork became the leading product, and furnished the 
county. It is about twenty-one miles from north J greater revenue to the farming community. It should 
to south, and is eleven miles in width, and contains be noticed here that horticulture is among the leading 

industries. Both the soil and climate are admirably 
adapted to the culture of all kinds of fruit. 

Hydrography On account of most of the surface 

141,280 acres of land, about five-eighths of which is 
under cultivation. 

Population. The population of the county is com- 
posed mainly of people of English descent, and according j being more or less undulating, the natural drainage of 

to the census of 1880, numbered as follows : 


West Salem, 


French Creek and Dixon, 

. 3,301 
. 1,857 
. 1,521 

Albion, the capital of the county, is situated a little 
south of the centre, on the Louisville, Evansville, and 
St. Louis railway, and about four miles west of the line 

the county is necessarily good. The main water course is 
| the Bonpas, extending along the entire eastern boundary. 
In an early formed a means of transit for many of 
the products of Edwards and Wabash counties. Flat 
boats have been floated down this creek from as far 
north as west Salem ; and in about 1840, as many as 
twenty boats, within a year, have passed through the 
Bonpas, and thence down the Wabash and other rivers 
to the southern markets. The other streams of lesser 
note are the little Wabash in the northwest, Big creek 

of the Peoria, Decatur, and Evansville road. It is nicely j in the southwest, French creek in the south, and Bear 

located on high rolling ground, and the surrounding 
country is among the best in southern Illinois. At this 
writing, it contains a population of about one thousand 

Topography. The surface of the uplands is quite 
rolling, but there are some limited areas of rather flat 
timbered lands above the level of the creek bottoms, 
forming what is known as terrace lands. Originally 

creek in Shelby precinct. The latter discharges its 
waters into the little Wabash. Sugar creek, and the 
head waters of Fox river are also important factors 
of the drainage system iu the northwest part of the 
county. One point that the farmers of Edwards have 
not fully realized the value of, is that of surface drain- 
age by tiling. Experience has taught those who have 
tried it, that it matters not how much nature may have 

the main surface was covered with heavy timber, but [ done in the way of draining the soil, if one would reap 
interspersed here and there with prairie patches, ranging ! the greatest benefits from the farm, he must have it well 
iu area from one section to four or five square miles iu j underlayed with tile, which has the effect of keeping the 
surface. The largest of these is the Bold nghouse Prairie, j surface porous, warm, and alive. There is but little if 
situated a little south and west from Albion. A peculi- I any land in the county not susceptible of improvement, 
arity of some of these prairies is, that the soil is cold and I and fine farms and farm buildings are seen on every 
somewhat unproductive. The principal kind of timber j hand, forming a picture pleasant to behold, 
on the uplands is the white oak, but when once cleared j 
from the laud the black oak takes its place. On the low 
grounds, near the streams, may be found in large 
abundance the water-oak, sweet gum, ash, soft maple, 
and other varieties. There is but one point in the 
county where the surface rises to anything like high 


was organized in 1821, and was originally a part of 
Edwards. It embraces an area of upwards of 280 square 
miles, or 183,526 acres. The following is taken from 

bluffs, and this is on the Little Wabash in Shelby pre- j the assessor's report for 1882. Acres of wheat, 40,413 ; 
cinct. Here the banks are quite steep and rise to the I corn, 36,046 ; oats, 5,903 ; meadow, 10,596 ; other prod- 
height of about sixty feet. This is underlaid with sand- I ucts, 2,443. Acres inclosed in pasture, 24,076 ; in or- 


chard, 2,516; of woodland, 61,533, showing a total of 
183,526 acres. 

The county is bounded on the north by Crawford 
county, on the east. by the Wabash river, south by 
Wabash county, and west by Richland county. It lies 
nearly equidistant from St Louis and Indianapolis, the 
distance being about one hundred and twenty-five miles, j 
and forms one of the eastern tier of the counties. 

The Population is composed of various nationalities, 
and according to the census of 1880, was numbered 
13,633. The county is divided into nine townships, viz., j 
Christy, Lawrence, Allison, Denison, Lukin, Bridgeport, 
Petty, Bond, and Russell. 

Lawreneeville, the county seat, is situated on or near the 
west shore of the Embarras river, and is centrally located. 
The Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific railway extends 
through its territory from north to south, and the Ohio 
and Mississippi road passes about three-fourths of a mile 
south of town. 

Land Surface. The greater portion of the county j 
was originally covered with heavy timber, though there 
are a few small prairies in the south and northwest. 
The surface is generally rolling, but in no part is it 
sufficiently broken to be unfit for cultivation. The ele- 
vation above the water courses, is nowhere very great; 
on the uplands its altitude will range from fifty to one 
hundred feet. The most elevated lands are the Perkin's 
hills, situated in the north part of Christy's township. 

Drainage and Climate. The principal water courses, j 
besides the Wabash, are the Embarras river, traversing 
the northeast with its affluents, Brushy Fork and Indian 
creek, which drain the north and central portion, and 
Raccoon creek and the eastern fork of the Bonpas ; 
which drain the south. East of Lawreneeville, and 
situated between the Embarras and Wabash rivers j 
there is an extensive marsh from to two to four milts in 
width, and about ten miles in length, called Purgatory 
swamp. On the east and north of this low belt, there is 
quite an area of bottom prairie ; the northern or upper 
portion is known as Allison's prairie, and the lower por- 
tion as Russellville prairie. The climate is healthful and 
pleasant, being a happy medium between the extremes 
of heat and cold, and thus well adapted to the culture of 
fruits and the various kinds of cereals. 

Soil and Timber. The Wabash and Embarras rivers 
are skirted with broad alluvial bottoms and level 
table lands, ranging from two to four miles in extent, j 
Some portions of the latter are quite sandy, and con^ti- 
tute the terrace prairies between the Wabash and Pur- 
gatory swamp. During the seasons of high water, this 
portion of the county is more or less inundated ; the 
cultivation of the land is thus impeded, and the farms 
are therefore of less value in the market. The uplands 
are generally rolling, and in a state of nature, were 
heavily timbered, though at this time much of the land 
has been brought under a good state of cultivation. 
The principal products are: wheat, barley, corn, oats, 
and the grasses. 

Perennial Springs and artificial mounds are found in 
different parts of the county. At the foot of the Perkin's 
hills there are several of these springs, that furnish an 
abundance of excellent water. J. C. Foster, who resides 
in section 27, Petty township, utilizes them by convey- 
ing the water through pipes to his house and farm, situ- 
ated one-half mile away. One of these springs forms 
quite a branch, and when united with the wa er that 
flows from the surrounding springs, the discharge is 
borne away into Paul's creek. At what was known sev- 
eral years ago as the " clay-banks," east of the Embarras, 
in Lawrence township, there are also numerous springs, 
besides several Indian mounds, relics of a pre-historic 
race ; by excavating, it is found that the earth forming 
these mounds is of an entirely different composition to 
that of the land surrounding them, proving beyoi.d 
question that the mound-builders once inhabited this 


Was created in 1824, having formed a part of the 
great territory of Edwards county, and received its 
name from the river washing its eastern boundary. In 
area, number of population, and products, it closely re- 
sembles the present county of Edwards, being bounded 
as follows: on the north by Lawrence and Richland 
counties ; on the east and south by the Wabash river ; 
and west by Edwards county, Bon pas creek forming the 
boundary line between the two counties. It has an area 
of upwards of 140 000 acres of land, about half of which 
is under cultivation. The general outline of the county 
is in the form of a V ; its greatest length from north to 
south is twenty-two miles, and from east to west, sixteen 
miles. It embraces two full, and thirteen fractional parts 
of congressional townships, and is divided for political 
purposes into seven voting precincts, known as Wabash, 
Frieudsville, Lancaster, Lick Prairie, Bellmout, Mt. 
Carmel, and Coffee. ^ 

Population. According to the census of 1880, the 
population of the county numbered 9,908, composed of 
persons of English, German, IrUh, French, and African 
descent ; the English element largely predominating. 
Mt Carmel, the county seat, situated on the Wabash 
liver, is the largeSt town, having a population of 2,040 
in 1880. Bellmout, next in size, numbered 350 ; Allen- 
dale,- 290. 

Topography. The surface of the country is somewhat 
varied, and for general description may be readily divi- 
ded into the uplands and the bottoms ; the former con- 
stitute about two-thirds of the area. By looking on the 
map of Wabash county, it will be seen that the territory 
is nearly included or surrounded by two considerable 
water courses, the Wabash river and Bonpas creek ; each 
of these streams are embraced by a large body of bottom 
land, including nearly one-third the area of the county- 
These uplands are more or less undulating, while there 
are small areas of rather flat timbered land above the 
level of the river bottoms, forming a second bottom or 
terrace land. At Mt. Carmel there are quite prominent 


bluffs, the city being situated about one hundred and 
forty feet above the level of the river. 

Hydrography. The county is well supplied with water 
courses, the whole eastern and southern boundaries being 
washed by the Wabash, and the entire western portion 
drained by Bonpas creek and its tributaries. Raccoon 
creek empties into the Wabash from the northeast, and 
the Little Bonpas discharges its waters into the Bonpas 
from the northwest. Besides the foregoing, there are 
several smaller branches, the principal of which are : 
Coffee, Greathouse, Crawfish, and Jordan creeks. 

Soil and Agriculture. In the vicinity of the Wabash 
bluffs the clayey soil peculiar to the uplands is modified 
by the sandy marls of the Loess upon which it rests; yet 
these soils are quick and productive, yielding large crops 
of all the cereals cultiva'ed in this climate. The soil of 
the uplands is of a chocolate-colored clay loam, similar 
in all respects to the upland soil of Edwards county, and : 
it is upon this land that the best quality of wheat is | 
produced. In a state of nature it was but meagerly j 
covered with timber, and was therefore not considered 
valuable, but by good cultivation it has been found to | 
be, fur certain agricultural purposes, the best land in ; 
the county. The bottom lands along the Wabash and 
Bonpas are tracts of heavy timber, the land being a deep 
alluvial soil, with sandy subsoil ; when cleared and ; 
placed under good cultivation, it is the most productive 
land in the county, yielding most bountiful crops of 
maize, oats, and gras;es. 

Transportation Facilities. The first means employed 
for transportation of the surplus products of this part of I 
the country were rafts and rudely-constructed flat-boats, 
on the Wabash, along the eastern boundary of the then 1 
Edwards county. The first steamboat that navigated the 
Wabash as fjr north as Mt. Carmel was the ' : Commerce," 
in about 1819. It came from Cincinnati, and was comman- 
ded by Jacob Strader ; its farthest passage north w s to 
Terre Haute. Only now and then did steamers navigate 
the Whba&b, until 1832, when steam-boating on the river 
was conducted with much regularity. Prior tot! is, one 
boat during the year was about the extent of steam 
navigation. From 1832 until 1856 the river traffic was 
quite active, but as soon as the railroads commenced op- I 
erations, the business fell off, the railroads having almost ! 
the entire monopoly as common carriers. 

Railroads. Railroading is comparatively a new in- 
dustry ; many centuries have adrled their contributions 
to science, yet during only about fifty years have rail- 
roads been known. Scientists of all ages have grappled 
with the various problems of government and political 
economy, social life, and questions of demand and supply, 
and left the records of their labors for our instruction ; 
the accumulated wisdom of centuries furnishes much 
material from whence we can draw such knowledge, 
but railroads are institutions of to-day this is the " Iron j 
Age," wherein distance is virtually wiped out and "push" ! 
has become the watch-word of the nineteenth century. '* 

The first railway constructed in the Mississippi valley 

was in 1837, and WJS known as the Illinois and St. Louis 
railroad; it was built by Governor Reynolds, Vital 
Jarrot and a few others, and extended from the Missis- 
sippi bluffs on the east, at the old town of Pittsburg, to 
East St. Louis a distance of about six miles. It was 
constructed with a wooden rail, and the cars were moved 
by horse-power. It was only used for conveying coal 
from the mines at Pittsburg to the St. Louis markets. 

In 1837, under the popularly so-called Internal Im- 
provement scheme of Illinois, grading was commenced 
from Mt. Carmel, in Wabash county/westward, 'simul- 
taneously with like work from Alton, eastward, along 
the proposed line of the Illinois Southern cross road, 
which recognized Alton and Mt. Carmel as its termini, 
by Messrs. Bonham, Shannon, and Goforth, who had 
the contract from Mt. Carmel to Albion. They subse- 
quently associated with themselves in this work John 
Brisenden, Sr. They employed in all nearly four hundred 
hands. West from Albion, and in the limits of Edwards 
county, like work was done under a contract let to 
Messrs. Hall and Kiuner. 

The grading of near twenty miles of road was com- 
p'eted in 1839, and then the work was dropped. Ou 
the third of June, 1849, under act of the Legislature of 
the preceding session, the roadway was sold to the high- 
est bidder. General William Pickering bought it for 
the insignificant sum of three hundred dollars. It was 
not until 1871 that the property again attracted atten- 
tion, and became the route of the present Air Line. Iii 
February, 1872, } the first train crossed the Little 
Wabash into Edwards county, and a few weeks after- 
wards they were running into Albion, the county seat. 

What wonderful progress has been made in railroad fa- 
cilities and transportation since that time. In all parts 
of our land may now be heard the shrill whistle of the iron 
horse, but Illinois, the great Prairie State, leads the van in 
the number of miles of rail in this age of improvement. 

Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific, more widely and com- 
monly known as "The Wabash," has a greater number 
of miles of track in these counties than any other 
railroad. Through a system of consolidation, unpar- 
alleled in America, it has become the giant among 
railroads. This consolidation, it is estimated, has added 
over $50,000,000 to the value of bonds and shares of the 
various companies now incorporated in the Wabash sys- 
tem. The road takes its title from the river which 
forms the eastern boundaries of Lawrence and Wabash 
counties. The road extended through the above counties 
U now a part of the great Wabash system The follow 
ing is a brief history of this branch of the road. The 
northern portion was first known as the Paris and Dan- 
ville road, and was chartered March 23, 1869. It was 
put in operation from Danville to Paris, Illinois, in Sep- 
tember, 1872; from Danville to Robinson, August, 
1*7.5; from Danville to the Ohio and Mississippi junc- 
tion, May, 1876. It commenced running passenger 
trains to Vincennes, over the O. & M. railway track in 
May, 187(5 ; commenced running freight trains from the 


O. & M. Junction to St. Francisville, over the St. F. & | 
L. road, in April 1880, and commenced running all 
trains into Danville, over the Wabash railway track, ( 
from Tilton Junction to Danville, August 1, 1879. In 
August, 1875, a receiver was appointed, it operating un- 
der said management until June, 1879. October of the 
same year it passed into the hands of the Danville and 
Southwestern Railroad Company. The southern portion 
of this branch of the road, now in the hands of the Wa-' 
bash, was originally called the Cairo and Vincennes rail- 
road, and was organized under an act of the General 
Assembly of Illinois, approved March 6, 1867, which 
was amended by act approved February 9, 1869, grant- 
ing further powers to the corporation. The main line 
from Cairo to Vincennes, was opened for business De- 
cember 26, 1872. It was subsequently sold 1880. A 
traffic agreement between the purchasers and the D. & S. 
and St. F. & L. railways, was entered into May 1, 1880, 
for operation of the St. F. & L. railroad, extending 
from St. Francisville, on the C. & V. road, (o a junction 
with the D. & S. railway at Lawrenceville, a distance 
often miles. This was the status of these roads until 
within the last eighteen months the roads have been 
consolidated, and become a part of the Wabash, St. 
Louis and Pacific system. In the three counties it con- 
tains more than fifty miles of main track, passing through 
the towns ofGrayville, Mt. Carmel, St. Francisville and 
Lawrenceville, besides several smaller towns. 

Ohio and Mississippi. This roid extends from east 
to west nearly on an air line through the central part of 
Lawrence county, passing through Alison, Lawrence, 
Bridgeport and Christy township. The principal stations 
are Summer and Bridgeport. 

In 1848 the Legislature, of Indiana, passed an act in- 
corporating the Ohio and Mississippi railroad, empow- 
ering it to locate, construct and maintain a road leading 
from Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio river, to Vincenne.3, on 
the Wabash, and contemplating an eastern extension to 
Cincinnati, Ohio, and a western arm to East St. Louis, 
as soon as the States of Ohio and Illinois would grant 
the right-of-way. In 1849 the Ohio Legislature, and in 
1851 the Illinois Legislature extended the contemplated 
aid by acts of their respective bodies, and in 1857, the 
entire length of the road was opened through for busi- 

The panic of that year greatly affected the pros- 
perity of the road, so that in 1858, creditors brought 
suit for foreclosure of mortgages and sale of property, 
pending which, a receiver was appointed, under whose 
directions the road was maintained until its reorganiza- 
tion was effected. Parties desiring the establishment of 
the road on a firmer basis bought largely of its stock, 
organized a new company, and held control until 1874, 
when it again became embarrassed, and after much liti- 
gation, was placed in the hands of a receiver, John 
King, Jr., vice president of the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, acting in that capacity. Under its present 
management, the road has been put in excellent condi- 

tion ; the credit of the company has been maintained, 
and the floating debt has been materially reduced. 

Louisville, Evansville and St. Louis. This railroad ex- 
tends across the counties of Edwards and Wabash, nearly 
central from west to east, the principal stations being 
Albion, Bro'wns, (cr) Bellmont, and Mt. Carmel. The 
length of track in the counties is estimated to be, includ- 
ing sidings, about twenty-five miles. It is the consoli- 
dation of two divisions of road, known as the Indiana 
and Illinois divisions. This was among the first con- 
templated railroads in the State of Illinois, and first 
bore the name of the Alton, Mt. Carmel, and New Al- 
bany Railroad Company. It first presented itself in 
1857, and the county of Edwards took steps toward ap- 
propriating their swamp lands to aid in constructing the 
road. About this time a portion of the road-bed was 
made, but for the lack of funds and co-operation, on the 
part of the company, the road was abandoned. It is 
said that General Pickering came into possession of it at 
one time for the sum of a few hundred dollars. 

The Indiana division was organized under the general 
laws of the State, February 4, 1869, by the name of the 
New Albany and St. Louis Air Line Railroad Company, 
and on the first of July, 1870, its name was changed to 
the Louisville, New Albany and St. Louis Air Line 
Railroad Company. The Illinois division was organized 
July 14, 1869, under a special act, and known as the 
St. Louis, Mt. Carmel and New Albany Railroad Com- 
pany. Said two companies were consolidated July 24, 
1872, under the name of the Louisville, New Albany 
and St. Louis Railroad Company. Both divisions were 
, subsequently sold under foreclosure. They again reor- 
j gauized, the Indiana division in February, 1877, under 
: the name of the Louisville, New Albany and St. Louis 
Railroad Company. The Illinois division reorganized 
in January, 1873, by the name of the St. Louis, Mt. 
1 Carmel and New Albany Railroad Company. August 
15, 1878, these companies again consolidated under the 
name of the Louisville, New Albany and St. Louis Rail- 
j road Company, At this writing it is called the Louis- 
ville, Evansville and St. Louis Railroad Company, 
which name it assumed about eighteen months ago, but 
I is more fajniliarly known as the Air Line Railway. 
j Peoria, Decatur and Evansville. This road extends 
j through Edwards county from north lo south, passing 
j through the towns of West Salem, Browns and Grayville. 
I It has a length of track in the county, including switches, 
1 of about twenty-eight miles. 

The history ot this road is briefly as follows : About 
the year 1867, the Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur Rail road 
Company was organized. A preliminary survey was at 
once made, and in 1869, the line was located, and a 
contract made for its construction. Work was com- 
menced late in 1869, and the line from Pekin to Decatur 
' completed by October, 1871, at which time the Toledo, 
Waba h and Western Railway Company commenced 
I to operate it under a lease. August 1, 1876, it was 
taken out of the hands of the above road, on account of 


the non payment of iaterest, and ths corporation name 
chauged to Pekin, Lincoln and Decatur Railroad Com- 
pany. ID September, 1879, the company made arrange- 
ments to run into Peoria over the Peoria, Prkin and 
Jacksonville railroad track. November 17, 1879, it 
consolidated with the Decatur, M#ttoon and Southern 
Railroad Company. In February, 1880, it leased the 
Grayville and Mattoon road, and the July following 
bought said road. Since which time the line has been 
completed to Evansville, Indiana. Much of the road has 
recently been supplied with new steel rail, and all the 
equipments are of a character to indicate that it is in a 
prosperous condition, and that the managers propose to 
make and maintain it a first-class road. 



IN account of the similarity of the general for- 
mations and characteristics of Edwards 
and Wabash counties, we have seen fit to 
class them together in their surface descrip- 
tion and economical geology. They lie contiguous to 
each other, and are among the smallest counties in the 
State, their aggregate area being about four hundred 
and twenty-five square miles. Both counties,' originally, 
were covered with heavy timber, with small prairies 
interspersed within their territory. The surface of the 
uplands is generally rolling, but there are some limited 
areas of flat timbered lands above the river bottoms, 
which form what may be termed terrace lands. 


The outcrops of rock in this county are few and wide- 
ly separated. The prevailing rocks are the sand-tones 
and shales intervening between coal strata Nos. 11 and 
13. At the railroad cut near Albion, and on the small 
creek that intersects the town, the following beds may 
be seen : 

Feet. Inches. 

8hal and shaly sandstone with pebbly bed 20 to 25 

Sandstone, locally hard and concretionary 8 to 12 

Streak of bituminous shale 3 

Hard nodular limestone 2 

'Shale, with bands of argillaceous iron ore 4 to 6 

Hard shaly sandstone 3 to 4 

The main quarry rock here is concretionary sandstone, 
and it is sometimes quite hard and affords a very dura- 
ble material for foundation wall purposes. Above this 
there are some layers of even bedded sandstone, that 
when first quarried are of a soft nature, but harden 
after exposure, and thus become fair building stone. 

On the west bank of Bonpas creek, about four miles 
north of Grayville, the bluff rises to an elevation of 
about a hundred feet. In this is found a thin vein of 

* For much of the data of this chapter we are indebted to the State 
Geological Export of Professor A. U. Worthou, its editdr. 

coal at an elevation of about thirty-six feet above the 
bed of the creek, which is underlaid by sandy shales and 
sandstone. The coal is about eight inches thick, of good 
quality, and is underlaid by a light-colored fire-clay 
The sandstone and shale below this coal are the same as 
the beds above the fossiliferous shale in the Grayville 
section, and the fossil-bed of that locality would no 
doubt be found here a little below the creek bed. The 

| thin vein of coal found here has also been met with in 
sinking wells in the upper part of the town of Grayville. 

| The same beds outcrop again about a half mile above, 
and on the same side of the Bonpas. At the base of the 
bluff there is from ten to twelve feet of blue shales, 
which passes upwards into a sandy shale and sandstone 
twenty feet in thickness, with a partial outcrop of thin 
coal and bituminous shale still higher up. This coal 
probably corresponds to the ten-inch seam, No. 15, of 
the Coffee creek section. 

A coal vein was opened many years ago on Mr. Nail- 
or's farm, six miles northwest of Grayville, which was 
successfully worked for some time, the coal being used 
to supply the local demand. This is undoubtedly the 
same vein that is worked southwest of Mount Carmel. 
It is said to be about thirty inches thick, and the coal 
is very hard, partaking of the block character. 

At the ford, on the little Wabash, northwest of Albion, 
on the S. W. qr. of section 7, may be found an outcrop 
of this coal associated with the following beds: 

Feet. In. 
Brown ferruginous clay shales ........... II 

Brash coal ..................... 

Clay shale* .................... 

Brash soil .................... 

Shale with hands of iron ore ............ 

Gray sandy shale ................. 

7. Iron conglomerate ................. 

The shale of No. 5 of the above contains considerable 
' clay iron ore of fair quality, amounting to nearly one- 
; half the thickness of the bed. If the quantity of iron 
in this shale should prove continuous for some distance 
into the bluff, it would, perhaps, justify the establishing 
I an iron furnace in the vicinity. About a mile further 
up the river, at another ford, the same outcropping of 
coal may be seen. This is found in connection with a 
thin bed of nodular argillaceous limestone of a light 
gray color, turning to a yellowish-brown when exposed 
to the weather. 

The following section may be found on the northwest 
qr. of section 22, T. 1 S., R. 10 E , about five miles 
northwest of Albion. 

Sandy shale and thin-bedded 
Bituminous shale 
Nodular argillaceous li 

Feet. In. 
andstone . 10 to 12 

1 to 1 6 

2 to 3 

Gray sandy shale with bands of ironstone ...... 3 to 4 

Thin-bedded sandstone has been quarried here for 
wall purposes, and it has proven to be excellent material 
for such uses. 

On the east side of the town of Albion, at Hartman's 
mill, a boring for oil was made some years ago. The 
following is a reported section : 


The following section at Seal's mill on Blockhouse 
creek, in the east part of the county, is reported by Prof. 


Gray shale with clay iron ore . . 

Silicious iron ore 

Blue argillaceous shale 

Black bituminous shale 

Impure limestone 

Coal in the bed of the creek . . 

All the beds represented by the foregoing sections 
belong between coals Nos. 10 and 13, and do not attain 
an aggregate thickness to exceed two hundred feet. 


The geological formations of this county belong to the 
Quaternary and upper Coal Measures. The former is 
more fully developed along the bluffs of the Wabash 
than elsewhere, and consist of the buff and yellow 
marly sands and clays of the Loess, and a moderate 
thickness of the gravelly clays of the Drift formation. 
In the vicinity of Grayville, and in some of the valleys 
of the smaller streams, stratified clays appear at the 
lowest levels known, which may belong to an older de 
posit than the Drift. A heavy bed of this kind is re- 
ported to have been passed through in boring southwest 
of Mt. Carmel, but it was found to be overlaid with 
sandstone, and as no rock of this kind is known in the 
county of more recent age than the Coal Measures, the 
theory is placed in the scale of doubt. It is not impro- 
bable, however, that there are valleys along the Wabash, 
as well as the Mississippi and Ohio, that were filled, 
originally, with Tertiary or Cretaceous deposits, some of 
which still remain, and are now hidden by the more 
recent accumulations of Loess and Drift. For more 
than two hundred miles above St. Louis, evidences may 
be found to verify this theory. Indications of the exis- 
tence of such beds have been found on the Ohio as far 
north as Louisville, and on the Mississippi as above 
stated. The reported sandstone above the clay in the 
boring for coal, is most probably a Coal Measure bed, 
and the clay beneath it may be a soft clay shale of the 
same age. 

At Mt. Carmel the loess and drift clays are about 
thirty feet in thickness, being about the average depth 
in the vicinity of the river bluffs, while on the uplands, 
remote from the river, their average thickness is not 
more than fifteen or twenty feet, and at points, much 
leas. In Edwards county, the Quaternary beds present 
the same general character, and are considerably thicker 
in the bluffs on the lower course of the Bonpas, than in 
the central and western portions of the county, where is 
found from ten to twenty feet of buffer brownish gravel- 
ly clays overlying the bed rock. Near the town of 

Grayville, the creek banks show outcrops of five to ten 
feet of stratified clays of various colors, and seemingly 
derived from the decomposition of the clay shales of the 
Coal Measures, and above these are found twenty to 
thirty feet of loess, covering, possibly, a nucleus of 
gravelly drift clay. f To the north and west the loess is 
not conspicuous, and in well-digging, the bedrock is 
found after passing through ten or fifteen feet of brown 
drift clays. 

Coal Measures la the bluffs of the Wabash, at Mt. 
Carmel, there is an outcrop of sandstone forming the 
lower portion of the bluff, underlaid by a blue clay shale, 
but partially exposed. 


Loess and drift clays 30 

Soft, shaly, micaceous sandstone 13 

Massive sandstone, partly concretionary 20 

Blue clay shale, partial exposure 3to6 

Springs of water issue from the base of this sandstone, 
indicating the impervious character of the underlying 
beds. The base of the above section is some fifteen or 
twenty feet above the low water level of the river, and 
the intervening beds of which are probably shales, are 
not exposed. The following table of beds passed through 
in boring for coal was given to the State Geologist by 
Mr. J. Zimmerman. The bore was commenced just 
above the low water level of the river, and about fifteen 
I feet below the base of the foregoing section. 


ndstone . 

nd sandstone . 



Clay shale 


Micaceous sandstone . . . 
Hard, fine sandstone . . . 


Coal and bituminous shale 
Fire clay . . 
No. 10. Argillaceous 
No. 11. Blue shale* , 
No. 12. Fire clay . . 
No. 13. Calc. shale i 
No. 14. Calc. shale, with black str 

No. 15. Blue clay shale 

No. 16. Blue fire clay 

No. 17. Coal 

ire clay 

rgillaceous limestone . 
ard sandstone, pa-ting . 
ard gray limestone . . 
ard gray limestone . . 
ry hard limestone . . 

No. 24. Calcareous shale 

No. 25. Band of ironstone .... 
No. 26. Variegated shale .... 
No. 27. Hard gray limestone . . . 

No. 28. Variegated shale 

No. 29. Hard gray limestone . . 
No. 3. Variegated shale .... 
No. 31. Hard gray limestone . . . 

No. 19. 

No. 21. 
No. 22. 

This boring was commenced near the horizon of No. 
11 coal, and the beds passed thorough probably extend 
nearly to No. 7. The following is the report of a well 
sunk for oil, one mile and a half southwest of the court- 
house, commencing in a creek valley ; 


Feet. In. 

At Mr. Reed's place, on section 8, tp. 1 S., range 12, 



blue limestone at the foot of the hill, one foot thick, un- 


derlaid by a thin coal. Bluish shale and sandstone is 


Bituminous shale 

found in the hill, forty feet above. The well at the 




house passed through soil and drift ten feet, clay shale 



x Bituminous shale 


four feet, sandstone twenty-nine feet. 


Bituminous shale 

At Little Rock, on the Wabash, sec. 19, tp. 1 N., 




Bituminous shale 

range 11 VV. : 


Bituminous shale, showing oily soot 


Shale and covered slope 81) 
Sandstone.solid bed 30 


Very hard limestone 

The sandstone of this section is probably the same 


Bituminous shale 

strata as that found at St. Francisville, in Lawrence 


Coal No. 9 


No. 2* 


The following beds, one mile and a quarter north of 

No 21 Sandstone 

Friendsville, are reported by the state geologist from 

No. 22. Mixture of sand and limestone 
No. 23. Yellow shale 

memoranda furnished by Mr. J. Zimmerman : 

Ft. In. 

No. 24. Sandstone t 

No. 25. Clay shale, with pyrite 

Soil and clay 18 
Impure coal-probably bituminous shale 2 

No. 27. Bituminous shale 

Clay shale, with iron nodules 3 

No. 23. Sandy shale 

Gray sandstone, in even beds, four to eight inches thick 15 

No. 30. Micacious sandstone 
No. 31. Coal, No. 7. ? 

Sandy shales 11 
Hard sandstone in two layers 2 8 
Dark bituminous shale 3 

No. 34. Compact limestone 

Coal, said to be good 2 

No. 35. Bituminous shale 

The above section, is made from the sinking of Mr. 

No. 40. Bituminous shale 

McNair's well. Another well sunk in the same neigh- 

By comparing this section, with that made for the 
coal, it will be seen that there is a wide discrepancy in 
the descriptions given of the strata passed through in 
each. The oil well boring, was sunk to the depth of 
about seven hundred feet, yet no coal was reported 
below the three foot seam found at the depth of four 
hundred and fifty-five feet, which probably repr.sents 
coal No. 7 or 8 of the general section. The sandstone 
No. 2 of the oil well boring may be the same as No. 4 
in the other, but there is very little correspondence in 
the lower strata, considering that the distance between 
the two points is scarcely two miles. 

A few miles northeast of Mt. Carmel, at Hanging-rock, 
there is an outcrop of massive sandstone similar to that 
at the town, which projects into the bed of the river at 
low water, and rises above it to the height of 35 feet. 

An abandoned coal shaft, about three miles southwest 
of Mt. Carmel, on Mr. Simond's place, was reported to 
have a seam of coal averaging three feet in thickness, 
and located from 30 to 35 feet below the surface. The 
following is the reported section : 

Drift clay and soil . . . 5 6 

Argillaceous shale 30 

The following is reported by Prof. Cox : 

"On sec. 5, tp. 10, range 12, there is a bed of light 
blue clay, very plastic, exposed in the bank of Crawfish 
creek, as the following section shows : 

Soil, calcareous shale and limestone 


Blue Clay 

Sandstone in the bed of the creek 

borhood, after reaching the same strata of coal, a boring 
of nine feet below the coal was made, when a material 
of milk-white substance resembling fire-clay was ob- 

The following section is reported at Hamiker's old 
mill on the Bonpas, a little north of west from Allen- 


Soft, thin-bedded sandstone and shales 15 

Ferruginous conglomerate 3 to 4 

Hard black shale 2 to 3 

No coal is reported as laying beneath. 

Since the last report was made by the state geologist a 
shaft has beeu sunk about five miles west from Mt. 
Carmel, on the Air Line railway. The depth of shaft 
is forty feet, and the thickness of the vein is four feet. 
Through the kindness of Mr. J. Zimmerman, who is one 
of the Coal Company and a practical geologist, we are 
furnished the following interesting facts relating to 
the coal deposits in Wabash county. He says: "In 
addition to the coal seam above mentioned, there are 
others which indicate a possible great future for the 
mining interests of the county whenever energy, enter- 
prise and capital shall be directed to their development. 
An outcrop of twenty inches of coal (one half cannel- 
splint, the residue cubical), a short distance below 
the Wabash railway crosing at Sugar creek, thickens up 
within a half mile westward, to forty-two inches. This 
seam underlies most of the county, but the dip of rocks 
being in that vicinity twenty-eight feet per mile south- 
westward, it will be found only at considerable depths 
over most of the county. A boring for petroleum, near 
Mt. Carmel, commenced geologically below both these 
seams, disclosed at a depth of 420 feet, a seam of three 



feet thickness, and at 569 feet a seam of coal twelve feet 
in thickness. In same boring, at 325 feet, salt water was 
found, and another stratum of the same, a short distance 
above the twelve feet vein of coal. It has been flowing 
ever since." 


Coal. From the state geological survey we glean the 
following: The upper coal seam in the Coffee creek 
section was the only outcrop in either of the fore, 
going counties that promised to be of value for practical 
coal mining. The coal in this seam ranges from thirty 
inches to three feet in thickness, and probably underlies 
a considerable portion of the south part of Wabash 
county and the southwestern part of Edwards. Sev- 
eral shafts have been sunk about three miles south, 
west of Mt. Carmel, where coal was obtained from thirty 
to thirty five feet below the surface. This coal strata 
affords a hard, splinty or semi-block coal of fair quality. 
The roof seems to be good, and if the thickness of the 
vein should prove to be uniform, there is no reason why 
it might not be sucessfully mined. This is probably the 
same vein worked in the southeast part of Edwards j 
county several years since, for the supply of Albion and ; 
adjacent region. To reach No. 7, the lower seam, a j 
depth of probably from two to three hundred feet will 
have to be attained. Although these counties have not 
developed this vein, time will undoubtedly prove that it 
can be made a paying investment. 

Building Stone As indicated in the sections hereto- 
fore given, it will be sfeen that a fair quality of building 
stone may be obtained from the sandstone outcropping 
in various portions of these counties. The best is pro- ! 
bably that from the even -bedded sandstone above No. j 
11 coal, that is found in the central and northern portion 
of Edwards and north and northwest of Wabash. In | 
the latter county, in the vicinity of Oriole, quarries have 
been opened where a good, evenly-bedded rock is ob- 
tained, the thin layer affording a good flag-stone, and 
the thicker beds utilized for foundation walls, etc. This j 
ledge probably underlies all the highlands and ridges in 
the northwest part of the county. These will be de- | 
veloped as the demand for building-stone increases. The 
ledge in the river bed at Rochester has been but slightly 
quarried, and at Walden's place quarries have been I 
worked between this place and Mt. Carmel, where a fair 
quality of sandstone has been obtained from a bed that, 
in appearance, resembles the ledge in the Mt. Carmel 

Sandstone of a fair quality is obtained at several j 
points in the vicinity of Albion, some of which is con- j 
cretationary and very hard, yielding a durable stone. 
No lime-stone suitable for building purposes is found ! 
in either county, although that obtained at Rochester 
Mills, and at Mr. Reel's place, north of Mt. Carmel, 
has been used to some extent in the neighborhood of the 

Iron Ore. Bands of Argillaceous iron ore are found 
disseminated more or less throughout many of the shale 

beds, in these counties, but in such limited quantities 
that it can prove of but little value. Eight miles north- 
west of Albion, at the ford, on the S. W. qu. of Sec. 7, 
T. 1 S., R. 10 E. there is a better showing for this ore 
than found elsewhere in this region. The shale bed is 
four feet thick, and about one-half of this thickness is a 
clay iron ore of a fair quality. At the foot of the bluff 
several tons of ore may be collected from the debris, 
where it has been washed out of the shale by the river 
current. Twenty inches of coal of fair quality overlies 
ferruginous shale. 

Potter's Clay is found in the bank of Greathouse creek, 
near Mt. Carmel. This is said to be of fair quality, and 
could be worked with success. Good brick clay is 
abundant in nearly all localities, while sand suitable for 
all building purposes is found in the river bluffs and 
creek valleys. 


This county contains an area of about three hundred 
and sixty-two square miles. The surface is generally 
rolling, and is thus well prepared for natural drainage. 
Originally it was mainly covered with heavy timbers, 
interspersed here and there with small prairie belts. 
The elevation above the water courses is nowhere very 
great, the uplands ranging from fifty to about a hundred 
feet in altitude. 

Loess and Drift. At various places along the Wabash 
river may be found beds of brown clay and yellowish 
marly sands, averaging from ten to twenty f>-et in thick- 
ness. These probably represent the age of the Loess. 
They are underlaid by gravelly clays intermingled with 
small boulders, ranging in size from an inch to a foot or 
more in diameter. Away from the river bluffs, on the 
uplands, there may be found these gravelly clays from 
fifteen to twenty feet above the bed rock ; and in sink- 
ing wells, especially in the northern portions of the 
county, a sufficient supply of water can only be reached 
by goicg from ten to upwards of forty feet below the 
Drift clays into the shales or sandstone beneath. In the 
vicinity of Lawrenceville there is usually from five to 
six feet of brown gravelly clay resting upon the btd 
rock ; but before reaching this you pass through a strata 
of brown or buff-colored clay, quite free from gravel, 
and about twelve feet in thickness. 

Stratified .Roc/fo. All the formations that outcrop in 
this county below the superficial deposits heretofore 
mentioned, belong to the upper Coal Measure, and in- 
clude a vertical thickness not to exceed two hundred 
feet. At St. Francisville, on the Wabash, there appears 
an Outcrop of massive gray sandstone, which is believed 
to be the same as that found in Wabash county, at 
Hanging-rock bluff, and is the lowest rock seen in this 
county. The section here is as follows : 


Shale 8 

Impure iron ore 1 

Thin-bedded sandstone nnd sandy shale 16 

Massive gray sandstone 20 to 25 

Uneiposed to river level 10 to 13 


On the Embarras river, just below the dam at Law- 
renceville, may be found the following section : 


Brown and bluish-gray argillaceousShale 10 to 12 

Bituminous and partly calcareous shale with bands of 

iron ore and numerous fossils 4 to 5 

Black slaty shale 3 to 5 

Dark gray limestone in river bed 1 

A repetition of the above section is found two miles 
east of Lawrenceville, but the bluff is much higher and 
a larger thickness of strata is exposed, giving the follow- 
ing section : 


Mieaeious sand stone and shale 20 to 25 

Bluish-gray calcareous shale, with iron bands and 

fosssils 4 to 6- 

Black laminated shale, with concretions of blaek lime- 
stone 4 to 5 

Brittle dark-gray limestone Ij^to2 

Blue and brown shale, partly ar gillaceous and bitu- 

Two wells were sunk on Mr. Plummer's farm, in the 
S. E. qr. of Sec. 25, T. 5 N., R. 12 west. The one near 
his house, passed through eighteen inches of coal at a 
depth of eighteen feet. The other, located a quart* r of 
a mile to the north, was sunk to the depth of forty-three 
feet, rav-ingmistly through sandstone and shale. At Mr. 
Porter's place, which adjoins Mr. Plummer's on the 
south, a well was sunk to the depth of fifty-six feet, with 
the following showing : 


Drift clay, soil, etc 18 

Sandstone 11 

Blue shales, bituminous at the bottom 27 

The coal vein passed through in the well of Mr. 
Plummer must lay above the sandstone in the Porter 
well, which had probably been eroded away at that 
point by water currents during the Drift-epoch. At a 
well half a mile west of Mr. Plumraer s, a bed of cel- 
lular iron ore occurs in the sandstone near its base, and 
was passed through in this well about sixteen feet below 
the surface. The iron ore was reported to be two feet 
thick in the well, but at the outcrop, a quarter of a mile 
away, its thickness was only about six inches. But for 
its being so sandy it might be valuable for smelting pur- 

In the bluffs of the Embarras river, on the N. W- 
qr. of Sec. 33, T. f>, R. 12, a massive sandstone exposure | 
indicates the following section : 

Ft. In. 

Massive sandstone . 8 to 10 

Ferruginous conglomerate . . . . Zto3 

Coal (probably local) .' '8 

Slope covered to the river level 10 to 12 

A hundred yards above where this section is visible, 
the sandstone continues down the river level without 
indications of coal. It is probable that the thin coal 
vein, just over the line in Crawford county, on Brushby 
creek, is of the same formation as the above, and as it 
is there from forty to fifty feet above the creek level, it 
indicates a westerly deflection of the strata equal to 
about six or seven feet to the mile. On the Embarras j 
fjr sDme distance above this pjint, no rocks are known 

to outcrop, and below there is not much exposure be- 
tween this and the dam at Lawrenceville. 

On the south side of Indian creek, three miles south 
of Lawrenceville, and at several places in the neighbor- 
hood, a coal vein is found and worked sufficiently to 
supply the local demand for coal. The seam ranges 
from twelve to eighteen inches in thickness, and is mined 
by stripping along its outcrop in the banks of the small 

The following sections and notes have been reported 
by Prof. Cox : 

At Leed's quarry, on Indian creek, one mile west of 
St. Francisville road, is found the following section : 

Ft, In. 

Gray shale 6 

Carbonaceous shale C 

Shale 8 

Sandstone, in even beds 3 

This sandstone is suitable for good building stones, 
and was utilized in the brdge abutments on Embarras 
river. On the north bank of the above river, at Shaker 
mill, the following section was found : 


Soil and Drift 5 

Thin bedded Sandstone, 2 to 8 inches 8 

Massive Sandstone 13 

Section on Indian creek, three miles south of Law. 
renceville : 

Ft. In. 

Soil and Drift 10 

.Argillaceous shale, with iron bands 25 

Impure coal 8 

Fire-clay and grey shale 5 

Bluish sandstone in bed of creek ? 

The approximate section of rocks out-cropping in the 
county is as follows : 

Brawn and gray sandstone, the lower part in massive beds 60 10 75 

Coal, No. 12 1 to 1^ 

Shales, with bands of argillaceous iron ore 30 to 35 

Coal, No. 11 Oto 1 

Sandstone, t*p thin-bedded and shaly, bottom massive . . 30 lo 3.1 


Building Stone. In the foregoing section both the 
sandstones afford building stone of fair quality for cer- 
tain purposes, and large quarries have been opened in 
the upper seam, in the vicinity of Summer, for the use 
of the Ohio and Mississippi railroad. Small quarries 
are operated in various localities in the northern and 
central part of the county. Leed's quarry on Indian 
creek is probably in the lower bed, and the rock obtained 
there is in thin even beds, ranging from four inches to a 
foot in thickness. 

The limestone at Lawrenceville, and at the bridge two 
miles east on the Embarras, is somewhat argillaceous, 
and, therefore, is not to be depended upon where it is 
subjected to the section of frost and moisture. This is 
the only limestone developed in the county,', and is not 
adaped f >r either the lime-kiln or building purposes. 

Coal. On account of the thinness of the seams of 
coal reached in the county, it can ouly be mined by 
stripping. It is a very good quality, but worked only 
in a small way. 


Just north of the county line in the edge of Crawford 
county, at Nettle's coal mine, the vein is about 18 inches 
thick, aud is overlaid by about a foot or more of hard 
bituminous shale resembling canuel coal. The man- 
ner of mining it is by tunnelling into the bank along the 
line of outcrop, but no penuanaut entry was constructed, 
and when work stopped the roof caved in and filled the 
opening so that a new entry was required as often as the 
work was resumed. 

If the well sunk at Lawrenceville has been conducted 
by experts, and an exact record kept of strata passed 
through, the question would have been determined 
whether any thick vein of coal exists within four hun- 
dred feet of the surface, in the county. Nothing, how- 
ever, has been positively determined, further than the 
fact that two coal seams of uncertain thickness were 
found, one at a depth of about 340 and the other at 440 
feet below the surface. It is evident that deep mining 
is the only means of obtaining this fuel to any great ex- 
tent within the limits of this county; and if the coal de- 
mand would justify reasonable expenditure in sinking 
deep shafts, fair returns might reasonably be expected. 

Iron Ore. The shales intervening between coals 11 
and 12 contain numerous bands of argillaceous iron ore, 
but are of little practical value. At the base of the upper 
sandstone a ferruginous bed is frequently met with i 
sometimes appearing as a conglomerate of iron nodules 
in sandstone. In a well on section 25, T. 5 N., R. 12 
W., this conglomerate was reported to be two feet thick, 
aud consisted partly of a very good quality of brown 
hematite ore, but other portions were too much mixed 
to be of value for the production of iron. 



|lN speaking of the flora of these counties, it is 
not the purpose of this work to treat ex- 
haustively on the plants of the respective 
counties, but rather to give a list of the 
native trees and grasses found within their limits. 

" Mere catalogues of plants growing in any locality," 
says a popular writer, " might without a little reflection, 
be supposed to possess but little value ;" a supposition, 
however, which would be far from the truth. The care- 
ful and intelligent husbandman looks at once to the 
native vegetation as a sure indication of the value of 
uncultivated lands. The kinds of timber growing in a 
given locality will decide the qualities of soil for agri- 
cultural purposes. So too, the artisan in wood, will find 
what materials are at hand the best suited for his pur- 
poses. By the botanist, the state of Illinois is usually 
considered under three divisions ; the heavily timbered 
regions of the south, the flora which is remarkable for 

its variety ; the central portion, consisting mainly of 
prairie, and the northern section composed of both 
prairie and timber. Below we append a list of the 
native forest trees and shrubs of these counties. For 
this data we are indebted to the State report, the list of 
which was kindly furnished by Dr. J. Schenck of Alt. 
Carmel, Wabash county : 

Acer rubrum, L., red or swamp maple. 

Acer dasyc.irpum, Ehrhardt, white or sugar maple. 

Acer saccharinum, common sugur maple. 

Acer saccharinum, var nigrum, black sugar maple. 

Aesculus glabra, smooth or Ohio buckeye. 

Alnus serrulata, smooth alder. 

Amorpha fruticosa, false indigo. 

Asimina triloba, common paw paw. 

Betulalenta, cherry or sweet birch. 

Betula nigra, river or red birch. 

Oarpinus Americana, ironwood; hornbeam. 

Carya oliva'formis, pecan nut. 

Catalpa speciosa, Warder; Indian bean. 

Carya alba, shellbark or shagbark hickory. 

Carya microcarpa, small-fruited hickory. 

Carya Sulcata, Nutt; Western shellbark, hickory. 

Carya tomentosa, mockeruut; wliite-hearted hickory. 

Carya procina, pignut or broom hickory. 

Carya amara, bitternut or swamp hickory. 

Celtis occidental!*, hickory ; sugarberry. 

Cehis MisMssippiensis, Mis.-issippi hackberry. 

CvpbHlanthus occidental!*, button bush. 

Cercis Canadensis, red-bud ; Judas-tree. 

Cornus Florida, flowering dogwood. 

Cornus sericea, silky Cornell ; kmnikinnik. 

Cornus paniculatn, panicled Cornell. 

Corylus Americana, wild hazelnut. 

Corylus rostrata, beaked hazelnut. 

Crategus tomentosa, black or pear thorn. 

Crategus tomentosa var., Mollis. 

Cratcegus punctata, Jacq. 

Cra'cegus cordata Washington thorn. 

Crateegus Crus-galli, cockspur thorn. 

Diospyros Virginiana, common persimmon. 

Euonymus atropurpureus, burning-bush; wahoo. 

Euonymus Americanus, strawberry-bush. 

Fagus ferruginea, American beech. 

Fraxinus Americana, white ash. 

Fraxinus pubescens, red ash. 

Fraxinus viridis, green ash. 

Fraxintis quadrangulata, blue ash. 

Gleditschia triacanthos, honey-locust. 

Gleditschia monosperma, Walt; one-seeded or water locust. 

Gymnorladus Canadensis, coffee tree. 

Hydrangea arborescens, wild hydrangea. 

Hydtangea proliBcum, shrubdy St. John's wort. 

Ilex decidua, Walt. 

Juglans cineren, butternut. 

Juglans nigra, black walnut. 

Juniperus eommunis, common juniper. 

Lindera Benjoin, spice-bush; Benjnmin-bnsh. 

Liquidambar Styraciflua, sweet gum tree. 

Liriodendron Tulipifera, tulip-tree; poplar. 

Mortis ruba, red mulberry. 

Negundo aceroides, box-elder. 

Syssa multinors, Mack gum ; tupelo. 

Ostrya Virginica. hop-hornbeam, leverwood. 

Plalanus occidental!*, sycamore; plne-tree. 

Populus heterophylla, cottonwood; downy poplar. 

Populus moniiifera, necklace poplar ; cottonwood. 

I'oj.uliis tremtiloides, American aspen. 

jno&yerticillata, black elder; winterberry. 

Prunes Americana, wild yellow or red plum. 

Prunus insita. Bullace plum. 

Prunus serotinn, wild black cherry. 

Pyrus coronaiia, sweet-scented crab apple. 

Pyrus ingu tifolia. narrow-leaved crab apple. 

Ptclea trifoliata, wafer ash ; shrubby trefoil. 

Quorcus alta, white oak. 

Qucrcus ^tcllatii, Wans; post oak. 

Qtiercusanacrocarpa, burr or overcup oak. 

Quorcus macrocarpa, var. oliviformis; olive-fruitod overcup oak. 

Quorous lyrata, Wait. ; lyre-leuvod uuk. 



Quercus hicolor, var. Michmixii, Engelm ; Inrge-fruited swamp oak. 

Quercus muhlenberidi, Engelm ; chestnut oak. 

Qiiercua tincto. ia, blue'* or tanner's oak. 

Quercus coccinea, ocarlet oak. 

Quercus rubera, red oak. 

Queicus falcata, Michaux ; Spanish oak. 

QuercuH palu>tris, pin or water oak. 

Quercus nigra, black-jack or barren oak. 

Quercus phellos, willow oak. 

Quercus imbricaria, laurel or shingle oak. 

Rhus tophina, staghoru sumach. 

Rhus glabra. smooth sumach. 

Rhus copallin, dwarf sumach. . 

Salix tristis, dwarf gray willow. 

Salix discolor, glaucous willow. 

Salix criocephala, wooly-headed willow. 

Salix petiolaris, long-stalked green osier. 

Salix nigra, black willow. 

Salix rigida, stiff-leaved willow. 

Sambucus Canadensis, common elder. 

Sassafras otflcinale, sassafras. 

Spiraea opulifolia, L., nine barks. 

Spiraea salicifola, L., meadow sweet. 

Slaphylea trifolia, bladder nut. 

Symphoricarpus occidentalis, wolf or buckberry. 

Symphoricarpus vulgaris, Indian currant. 

Taxodium disticlium, American bald cypress. 

Tilia, American bas\vood . linden. 

Tilia heterophylia, white basswood. 

tlimus fulva, slippery elm. 

Ulmus Americana, American or white elm. 

Ulmus alata, winged elm. 

Viburnum prnnifolium, black haw. 

Viburnum iiudum, white rod. 

Zanthoxylum American, prickly ash. 

The plants are many and rare, some for beauty, 
while others are most valuable for their medi'-inal pro- 
perties. The pinkroot, the columbo, ginseng, boneset, 
pennyroyal, and others are utillized as herbs for me- 
dicine. Among the plants of beauty are phlox, the 
lily, the asclepias, the mints, golden rod, the eyebright, 
gerardia, and hundreds of other varieties which adorn 
the meadows, the timber, and the brook-sides; besides 
the above there are many varieties of the climbing and 
twining vines, such as the bitter-sweet, trumpet-creeper, 
woodbine, the clematis, the grape and others, which fill 
the woods with gay festoons, and add grace and beauty 
to many a decayed monarch of the forrest. 


In speaking of these we purposely exclude the grain 
plants, and confine ourselves to those valuable grasses 
which are adapted to the sustenance of the lower animals. 

Timothy grass or cat's tail, naturalized. 
Agrostus .ulgaris, red top or herb grass. 
- Muhlenbergia diflusa, nuniUe will. 
Calamgiastis Canadeusi-, blue joint. 
Dactylis glomerata, orchard grass. 
Poa Pratensis, Kentucky blue grass. 
Poa Compressa, true blue grass. 
Festuca Elator, meadow fescue. 
Bromus Leculinus, cheat chess; foreign. 
Phragmites Communis, the reed. 
Arundinaria Macrospei ma, or cane. 
Solium Perenni, perennial ray grass. 
Anthoxanthum Odoratum, sweet-scented vernal grass. 
Phalaris Arundinacea, reed canary grass. 
Paspalum Setaceum. 
Panicum Sanguinale, crab grass. 
Panicum Glabrum, smooth panicum. 
Panicum Capillare, witch grass. 
Panicum crusgalli, barnyard grsss. 
S. t:iria Glan.-a, foxtail. 
Setiiria Viridis, bottle grass. 
8el3t.iaIta.Hca, millet. 
AuJrunogim *:oparius, brown-beard grass. 

In the above lists we have given the botanical as well 
as the common terms, believing such a course best to 
pursue in the study of plants, and more beneficitl to the 
student or general reader. Some plants may have been 
omitted, yet we think the lists quite complete. 


F the ruminating animals that were indigenous 
to this territory, we had the American Elk 
(Cervus Canadensis), and still have the 
deer of two kinds ; the more common, the 
well-known American deer (Cervus Virginianus), and 
the white-tailed deer (Cervus Leucurus). And at a pe- 
riod not very remote the American Buffalo (Bos Ameri- 
canus), must I'ave found pastures in this portion of the 
state. The heads, horns and bones of the slain animals 
were still numerous in 1820. The Black Bear (Ursus 
American us) were quite numerous even in the memory 
of the older settlers. Bears have been seen in the counties 
within the last thirty years. The Gray Wolf (Cauis 
Occidentalis) and Prairie Wolf (Canis latrans) are not 
unfrequently found, as is also the Gray Fox (Vulper 
Virginianus), which still exists by its superior cunning. 
The Panther (Felis concolor) was occasionally met with 
in the earlier times, and still later and more common, 
the Wild Cat (Dynx rufus). The Weasel, one or more 
species ; the Mink (Putorius Vison) ; American Otter 
(Latra Canadensis) ; the Skunk (Mephitis Mephitica) ; 
the Badger (Taxidea Americana) ; the Raccoon (Pro- 
cyon Lotor) ; the Opossum (Didelphys Virginiana). The 
two latter species of animals are met with in every por- 
tion of the United States and the greater part of North 
America. The coon-skin, among the early settlers, was 
regarded as a legal tender. Of the Squirrel family we 
have the Fox, Gray, Flying, Ground and Prairie Squir- 
rel (Scirus Ludovicanus, Carolinensis, Volucella, Stria- 
tus and Spermaphilus). The Woodchuck (Arctomys 
Monax) ; the common Musk Rat (Fiber Zibethicus). The 
Bats, Shrews and Moles are common. Of the muridse 
we have the introduced species of Rats and Mice, as also 
the native Meadow Mouse, and the Long-tailed Jumping 
Mouse (Meriones Labradorus), frequently met with in 
the clearings. Of the Hare, the Lupus Sylvaticus (the 
so-called Rabbit) is very plentiful. Several species of 
the native animals have perished, being unable to endure ' 
the presence of civilization, or finding the food congenial 
to their tastes appropriated by stronger races. Many of 
the pleasures, dangers and excitements of the chase are 
only known and enjoyed by most of us of the present day 
through the talk and tradition of the past. The Buffalo 
and the Elk have passed the borders of the Mississippi to 
the westward, never more to return. 



Of Birds may be mentioned the following :* 
Among the Game Birds most sought after are the 
Meleagris Gallopavo (Wild Turkey), and Cupidonia 
Cupido (Prairie Hen), which afford excellent sport for 
the hunter and arc quite plentiful ; Pinnated Grouse 
(Bonasa Umbellus) ; Ruffled Grouse (Ortyx Virgini- 
anus) ; Quail (Philohela Minor) ; Woodcock (Galliuago 
Wilsonii) ; English Snipe (Macrorhamphus Griseus) ; 
Red-breasted Snipe (Gambetta 'Melanoleuca) ; Telltale 
Snipe (Gambetta Flavipes) ; Yellow Legs (Limosa Fe- 
doa) ; Marbled Godwit (Scolofax Fedoa, Wilson) ; Nu- 
menius L")ngirastris (Long-billed Curlew) ; Numenius 
Hudsonicus (Short-billed Curlew) ; Rallus Virginiauus 
(Virginia Rail) ; Cygnus Americauus (American Swan) ; 
Cygnus Buccinator (Trumpeter Swan) ; Anser Hvper- 
boreus (Snow Goose) ; Bermicala Canadensis (Canada 
Goose) ; Bermicala Brenta (Brant) ; Anas Boschas 
(Mallard) ; Anas Obscura (Black Duck) ; Dafila Acuta 
(Pintail Duck) ; Nettion Carolinensis (Green-winged 
Teel) ; Querquedela discors (Blue-winged Teel) ; Spatula 
Clypeata (Shoveler) ; Mareca Americana (American 
Widgeon) ; Aix Sponsa (Summer, or Wood Duck) ; 
Aythaya Americana (Red-head Duck) ; Aythaya Val- 
lisneria (Canvass-back Duck) ; Bucephala Albeola (But- 
ter Ball) ; Lophodytes Cucculatus (Hooded Merganser) ; 
(Pelecanus erythrorhynchiis), Rough-billed Pelican ; 
Colymbus torquatus), The Loon ; (Aegialatis vociferus) ; 
Killdeer Plover ; Ball Head, Yellow Legged and Up- 
land Plover; (Tantalus loculator), Wild Ibis, very rarely 
visit this locality ; Herodus egretta), White Heron ; 
(Ardea Herodus), Great Blue Heron ; (Botaurus lenti- 
ginosus), Bittern ; (Grus Canadensis), Sand Hill Crane ; 
(Ectopistes migratoria), Wild Pigeon ; (Zenaidura Caro- 
linensis), Common Dove; (Corvua carnivorus), American 
Raven ; (Corvus Araericanus), Common Crow; (Cyanu- 
rus cristatus), Blue Jay; (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), 
Bobo'link; (Agelaius Phoenicians), Red-winged Black 
Bird ; (Sturella magna). Meadow Lark ; (Icterus Balti- 
more), Golden Oriole ; (Chrysometris tristis), Yellow 
Bird ; (Junco hyemalis), Snow Bird ; (Spizella Socialis), 
Chipping Sparrow ; (Spizella pusilla), Field Sparrow ; 
(Melospiza palustris), Swamp Sparrow; (Cyanospiza 
cyanea), Indigo Bird ; (Cardiualis Virginianus), Car- 
dinal Red Bird ; (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Cheewink ; 
(Sitta Carolinensis), White-bellied Nuthatch ; (Mimus 
polyglottus), Mocking Bird ; (Minus Carolinmsis), Cat 
Bird ; (Harphorhynchus rufus), Brown Thrush ; (Trog- 
lodytes ifdon), House Wren; (Hirundo horreorum), 
Barn Swallow; (Cotyle riparia), Bank Swallow; (Progne 
purpurea), Blue Martin ; (Ampellis cedrorum), Cedar 
Bird ; (Pyrangra rubra), Scarlet Tanager ; (Pyrangra 
a.^tiva), Summer Red Bird ; (Tardus migratorius), Robin, 
came less than forty years ago ; (Sialia Sialis), Blue 
Bird ; (Tyrannus Carolinensis), King Bird ; (Sayornis 
fuscus), Pewee; (Ceryle alcyon), Belted Kingfisher; 
(AntroetomuB vociferus), Whippoorwill ; (Chordtiles 

popetue), Night Hawk; (Chtetura pelasgia), Chimney 
Swallow; (Trochilus colubris), Ruby-throated Humming 
Bird ; (Picus villosus), Hairy Woodpecker ; (Picus pu- 
bescens\ Downy Woodpecker; (Melanerpes erythroce- 
phalus), Red-headed Woodpecker ; (Colaptes auratus), 
Golden-winged Woodpecker; (Conurus Carolinensis), 
Carolina Parrot ; ( Bubo Virginianus), Great Horned wl ; 
Syrnium(nebulosum),barredowl; (Nycteanivea),Snowy 
Owl ; (Cathartes aura), Turkey Buzzard; (Falco colum- 
barium), Pigeon Hawk ; Nauclerus furcatus), Swallow- 
tailed Hawk; (IcteriaMississippiensis), Mississippi Kite; 
(Buteo boroalis), Red-tailed Hawk; (Haliatus leucoce- 
phalus), Bald Eagle; (Falco fulvius), Ring-tailed Eagle. 

We give the following classification of birds into 
three divisions, as found in the " Transactions of the 
Illinois State Horticultural Society " of 1876 : 

1st. Those of the greatest value to the fruit-growers in 
destroying noxious insects, and which should be encour- 
aged and fostered in every way. 

Blue Birds, Tit-mice or Chicadees, Warblers, (small 
summer birds with pleasant notes, seen in trees and 
gardens), Swallows, Vuros, (small birds called green 
necks). All birds known as Woodpeckers except sap, 
Suckers (Picus varius). This bird is entirely injurious, 
as it is not insectivorous, but feeds on the inner bark 
cumbium (and the elaborated sap) of many species of 
tree?, and may be known from other Woodpeckers, by 
its belly being yellowish, a large black patch on its 
breast, and the top of its head a dark bright red. The 
male have also a patch of the same on their throats and 
with the minor margins of the two central tail feathers 
white. This bird should not be mistaken for the two 
other most valuable birds which it nearly resembles, to 
wit : The Hairy Woodpecker (Picus Villiosii et vars) ; 
and the Downy Woodpecker, (Picus pubescens et vars). 
These two species have the outer tail feathers white or 
barred with black and have only a small patch of red 
on the back of the head of the males. The Yellow 
Hammer or Flecker (Colaptus auratus), is somewhat 
covered with yellow, and should not be mistaken for the 
sap-sucker. It is a much larger bird. The Red-headed 
Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus), sometimes 
pecks into apples and devours cherries, and should be 
placed in the next division (2d). The Wren, Ground 
Robin (known as Cherwick), Meadow Lark, all the fly- 
catchers, the King Bird or bee-catcher, Whippoorwill, 
Night Hawk or Goat Sucker, Nut-hatcher, Pewee or 
Pewit. All the Blackbirds, Bobolinks, Finches (Frin- 
gillidie), Quails, Song Sparrows, Scarlet Tanager, Black, 
White and Brown Creepers, Maryland Warblers, Indigo 
Birds, Chirping Sparrow, Black-throated .Bunting, 
Thrushes, except those named in the next class, and all 
domestic fowls except geese. 

2d. Birds of Doubtful Utility. 

Which include those which have beneficial qualities 
but which have also noxious and destructive qualities in 
the way of destroying fruits, and whose habits are not 
fully determined. Thus the Robin, Brown Thrush and 


Cat Bird are very valuable as cut- worm eaters, but also 
very obnoxious to the small fruit growers. The Jay 
(Blue Jay) not only destructive to grain and fruits, but 
very noxious in the way of destroying the nest eggs and 
young of smaller and better birds, Robin, Brown Thrush 
and Cat Bird, Shrike or Butcher Bird, Red-headed 
Woodpecker, Jay Bird or Blue Jay, Crow and the small 
Owls (Screech Owls), Pigeons and Mocking Bird. 

3d. Birds that should be Exterminated. 

Sap-sucker, or Yellow bellied Woodpecker (see above) ; 
Baltimore Oriole, or Hanging Bird, Cedar Bird, or 
Wax-wings (Ampelis cedrorum), Hawks and the larger 

The names, and a carefully prepared list of the animals 
of a country, state, or county, are always of interest to 
the inhabitants, and especially so to the scientist and 
student of natural history. After inquiring into the 
political and civil history of a country, we then turn 
with pleasure to the investigation of its Natural History, 
and of the animals which inhabited it prior to the advent 
of man ; their habits and the means of their subsistence 
become a study ; some were animals of prey, others were 
harmless, and subsisted upon the vegetable products of 
the country. The early animals of this part of the state 
ranged over a wide expanse of country, the habits of 
which will be fully found and set forth in all of our 
zoological treatises. 




|0 rescue from oblivion the incidents of the past, 
and to preserve the names of the hardy few, 
who in fact were the real instruments of paving 
the way toward making the wild forests habitable, is one 
of the main objects of the historian. In a little time the 
gray hairs of the pioneers, who still live as tottering 
monuments of the good old times, will be gathered to 
their fathers ; their children engrossed by the busy trans- 
actions of life, will neglect to treasure up the doings and 
recollections of the past, and posterity will search in vain 
for land-marks and memorials thereof. How necessary 
then that no time be lost in gathering together the frag- 
ments of our infant history, which still exist, and thus 
rescue it from entire forgetfuluess. 

A little less than three-quarters of a century ago this 
beautiful country was in a state of nature, and the only 
inhabitants were the uncivilized Indians and the wild 
game of the forest. The white man came, and lo! the 
transition ! Beautiful fields of grain wave in the gentle 
breeze, and neat villages and farm houses dot the land- 
scape. In that early day the means and facilities for 
tilling the soil would be considered a burlesque on farm- 

ing to-day. When they turned the sod with the old 
| wooden mould-board plow and gathered the harvest with 
the reap-hook, the threshing was as slow and laborious 
as the reaping, the process being by tramping out the 
I grain by the use of cattle, or beating it from the straw 
j with a flail. Presto change ; nearly seventy-five -years 
have glided by, and we cast 'our eye upon the landscape 
and what a transformation ! The old mould-board has 
given way to the elegant sulky plow ; the reap-hook is 
transformed into the wonderful mechanism known as 
the self-binder, and the tramping of the cattle, and the 
thud, thud of the flail have yielded to the steam engine 
and the hum of the gigantic thresher. It is thus that 
the results of the labors and hardships of the pioneers, 
combined with the efforts and genius of their children, 
are written not ouly in history, but more unmistakably 
engraved upon every highway in the land. Let the 
| reader stop for a moment and reflect, if he would do 
justice to those who have led the way and so nobly done 
their part. Do not chide or jeer them for their odd, 
old-fashioned ways, but keep in mind, that it is to 
them that we, " Young America," are indebted for the 
surrounding comforts which our land yields to-day. 
But a few years more, when we have grown gray and 
i feeble, shall we be pointed out by the busy, bustling 
throng of a more advanced age, as the old fogies, and 
as among those who have passed their days of useful- 


Tradition relates that the first white men to penetrate 
the wilds of Edwards county, were three brothers by the 
name of Daston, as early as 1800. They were great 
hunters, and spent most of their time in hunting and 
trapping. They made little or no improvements, and 
all that is known of them by the pioneers who made per- 
manent settlements, is that their cabins were left stand- 
ing in sections 10 and 15, in township 15, 1 north, range 
14 east, when the first permanent settlers came to the 
county. Prom whence they came or where they went, 
tradition is silent. 

The first families to make a permanent settlement in 
the county were those of Jonathan Shelby, Thomas 
Carney, John Bell, Lot Sams, and Isaac Greathouse ; 
these all made their advent here in 1815. Shelby and 
Carney came together with their families and located 
near each other in township 1 north, range 10, now 
Shelby precinct. They were from Tennessee, and made 
the long journey to Grayville with their families over- 
land, in wagons, the only method then for traveling. 
They halted at Grayville, where they remained one year, 
when they remov. d to the northern part of the county, 
as above stated. Mr. Shelby located in the northwest 
quarter of section 34, where he erected a cabin and 
commenced the life of the pioneer in the wilds of 
Edwards county. He was an active and energetic man, 


and in a few years had under cultivation several acres the Southern States, and located in the edge of Big 
of land, and was surrounded with the comforts of a ! creek timber, where he erected a small cabin and cleared 
good home. In 1831, he moved to section 18, on the a patch of land on which he raised a meager crop of 
Little Wabash, and four years later constructed a water corn sufficient for the wants of his family. His cabin 

grist mill on this stream, it being the first water-mill in 
Shelby precinct. He was one of the first justices of the 
peace in the county, which office he Ixeld for many years. 

was erected just in the margin of the timber overlooking 
quite a prairie belt, which subsequently received the 
name of Birk's Prairie. His family consisted of his 

He died about 1838. ! wife, four sons and three daughters, and their mode of 

Mr. Carney also located in section 34, and subse- I living was of the most primitive character. Their 

quently b?came one of the leading farmers of the times cabin contained but one room, which served the purpose 

of kitchen, eating and sleeping room. The family 
remained here but,s6out three years, or until about the 
time of the Errgfish colony settlement, as Mr. Birk was 
of the pu*e type of the backwoodsman and could not 
tolerate civilization. To use his own language as re- 
lated by one of the pioneers, "He did not wish to live 
where neighbors were so plenty ; that to see three neigh- 
bors within a day's ride was sufficient for him." 

Walter Anderson, who came about the same time, 
located in section 30, township 2 souih, range ten east. 

He had the confidence of the people, and in 1832, he 
was elected to the county commissioners' court, which 
position he held until 1838. Mr. Carney was always a 
public-spirited man, and to him belongs the honor of 
constructing the first mil! in his neighborhood. This 
was in 1832. The mill was propelled by horse-power, 
but it answered the wants of his neighbors. About 1844 
he moved with his family to the State of M ; ssouri, where 
he died a few years ago. 

John Bell was of German descent, but was born in 

South Carolina. In an early day he moved to Ken- j He had the honor of planting the first orchard in the 
tucky, and from thence to Tennessee. From this State county, on his little clearing, in 1817. He remained 
he enlisted in the war of 1812, where he served about but a few years, when' he moved to some other portion 
one year; and in 1815 he moved with his family to ', of the State. John Hunt located in the same settlement 
Illinois and settled in section 27, township 1 north, i and remained here until his death ; but one of his de- 
range 10 east, where he resided until his death. He i scendants is now living in the count)', a grandson, 
was a plain, unassuming man, and a good neighbor. James T., who resides about a mile from his grand- 
One son, H. C. Bell, resides in section 10. j father's old home. Others who lived in this settlement 

Lot Sams was a native of North Carolina, but had i were, Hugh Collins, Rollin and Joseph Lane, and Wil- 
been a resident of Kentucky aid Tennessee. He came Ham Ham. They were all natives of some of the 
with his family to Illinois in 1815, and located in sec- I Southern States, and remained only a few years after 
tion 35, township 1 north, range 10 east. His mode of coming. 

travel to this State was by pack horses ; upon these he 
made the whole distance with his little family. In 1821 

In the fall of 1816, quite a sensation was created 
among the few settlers of this part oi^he country, caused 

precinct, has the honor of bearing his name. 

Isaac Greathouse came from Kentucky in 1815, and 
with his family, located in this part of Illinois, where he 

he located in section 25, where he died in the fall of j by the killing and mutilating of the body of one Joseph 
1863. At his death he had accumulated considerable i Boltinghouse. He was a single man, the family then 
property, and the little hamlet of Samsville, in Shelby | residing in White county. In the fall, Joseph drove to 

the Big creek timber, quite a quantity of hogs to feed 
and fatten from- the mast, then so plenty in this part of 
the county. He built him a camp, a little south of the 

followed the pursuit of farming for a short time ; but | creek, on what is now the Churchill land. While here 
the Indian depredations drove him into one of the forts. : a band of Shawnee Indians prowling through the 
Being tired of the Indian warfare on the frontier he country espied his camp, and finding that he was alone, 
returned to his native State, where he remained several took him by surprise, and murdered him upon the spot. 
years. Again, in 1821, he moved to Illinois and settled When found his body was lying close to his camp in a 
permanently in the S. W.i of the N. W.} of section 13, j mutilated condition, and his head, which had been 
Salem precinct. He was a plain farmer, never aspiring j severed from the trunk, was suspended upon a pole near 
to office of public trust. He died at the old homestead, j by. Tradition relates that the murderers suffered dearly 
Enoch, the eldest of the pioneer children, is a wealthy for the crime. They were captured near the Wabash 
farmer residing in section 18, township 1 north, range ; river, stones were lashed to their bodies and they were 
1 1 east. Francis, another son, lives in section 13. The | sunk in the river. The following spring, James and 
father of Isaac was one, if not the first English settler Daniel, brothers of the above, moved to the county from 
in this part of the State, west of the Wabash river, a , Gallatin, now White county, and located in section 26, 
sketch of whom will be found in the chapter of Mt. township 2 south, range 10 east, a little south of Big 
Carmel precinct, and pioneer history of Waba>h county, creek, in the edge of the timber, overlooking the prairie 
In 18 1C a settlement was formed in the southwest part that subsequently took their name. Daniel was a man 
of the county on or near Big Creek, the first of whom of family, and his brother James resided with him. 
was " Captain" J eremiah Birk, who came from one of They cleared and improved a good farm, and became 


prominent citizens of the county. In about 1837, they 
all moved to the State of Arkansas. 

Thomas Riley, a native of Ireland, settled near the 
Boltinghouse's, the same year, 1817. Mr. Riley was then 
a single man, but subsequently married Sarah Morris, a 
daughter of one of the pioneers. He improved a good 
farm, where he resided until his death, which occurred 
about 1852. His father-in-law, Isaac Morris, came 
from the south and settled in section 5, township 3 south, 
range 10 east, in the same the above. He had a 
large family, and wasagenuine backwoodsman. Hespent 
the most of his time in hunting, and was noted for his 
exaggerated tales and hair-breadth escapes while in the 
woods. He remained in the county until his death, 
which occurred many years ago. His children are 
scattered to the many points of the West, none of his 
descendants being now residents of this part of the 

Another pioneer of 1817, was Clem Martin, who 
located in section 33, township 2 south, range 14 west. 
He came from the souther^ States, partaking of the 
spirit of emigration to the new Eldorado, then so popular 
with the poorer class of the south and southwest. Mr. 
Martin was what would be termed to-day, a man of 
eccentric for peculiar ways. He was outspoken and 
fearless in character, somewhat rough and uncouth in 
manners, and thus made enemies when he might have 
had friends. For some reason the family stood in rather 
bad odor in the new settlement ; this was undoubtedly 
due to the wild, unpleasant ways' of his children. He 
died in the county many years ago.. It is said that some 
of his descendants are living in White county. 

About this time, in 1817, a n.ew era dawned upon the 
settlements made in what is now Edwards county. 
Morris Birkbeck and George Flower, both well-to do 
Englishmen, made a tour of the west in search of the 
"beautiful prairies" they had heard and read about, 
in the new world, with the view of establishing a colony 
of their countrymen within the same, should the reports 
given meet their expectations. Mr. Flower crossed the 
Atlantic, landing on American shores in the spring of 
1816. He spent one year in making inquiries and be- 
coming acquainted with the people, country and insti- 
tutions of our republic. One year later Mr. Birkbeck 
and family came to the United States, and in company 
with Mr. Flower, they made a tour of the west. The 
country pleased them, and it was agreed between Mr. 
Flower and Mr. Birkbeck that the former should return 
to England and induce immigration to their chosen spot, 
Edwards county, while the latter was to attend to pro- 
curing the necessary lands, and otherwise to prepare for 
the reception of their countrymen. Of the first emigrants 
their names, time, and manner of coming, we quote from 
the account as given by Mr. Flower in his history of the 
English settlements in Edwards county. He says, 
" Early in March, 1818, the ship Achilles sailed from 
Bristol with the first party of emigrants, destined for our 
settlements in Illinois. Mr. Charles Trimmer, of Yeatly, 

Surrey, a young farmer, and a neighbor and acquaint- 
ance of Mr. Birkbeck, with forty-four men and one 
married woman, sailed in this ship. The men were 
chiefly farm laborers and mechanics from Surrey. Many 
of them had for years worked for Mr. Birkbeck, others 
were from his neighborhood, and were personally ac- 
quainted or knew him by reputation. This party was 
j under the special care and leadership of Mr. 
Trimmer. About an equal number, composed of 
London mechanics and tradesmen from various parts of 
| England, formed, another party that sailed in the same 
ship. These were under the guidance and direction of 
! Mr. James Lawrence, merchant tailor, of Hatton Gar- 
j den, London. Mr. Lawrence being a man of property, 
| a resident of the city, and well acquainted with the 
usages at the docks, custom-house, shipping, etc., became 
actually the head of the whole party." Another pro- 
minent p irty in this ship's company was Mr. Hugh 
Ranalds, from Hammersmith, near London. He was 
then a single man, but subsequently married Mary C 
Flower, a sister of George Flower. 

According to the account given by Mr. Flower, the 
emigrants landed at Philadelphia early in June, 1818. 
They made'their way to Edwards county overland, some 
in wagons, others on horseback over the mountains to 
Pittsburg, then descended the Ohio river in flat boats to 
Shawueetown, and from thence on foot, in wagons or on 
horseback, to Mr. Birkbeck's cabin, situated on Bolting- 
house prairie, the place being subsequently named Wan- 
borough, after Mr. Birkbeck's old home in England. 
He had received notice of their coming and had made 
the best preparation possible for their reception. A 
square of rough log houses had been erected, each cabin 
being supplied with two doors with a small sash window 
in each door. This hamlet was subsequently denominated 
" The Barracks," and was open to all new-comers. It 
was here that the first ship's company eighty-eight in 
number were accommodated, all men, excepting three 
women. Mr. Flower, in his reminiscences, says of this 
novel state of affairs in the new found land, " I mu>t 
leave to imagination the various feelings of its motley in- 
mates, some of whom were used to the refinements of 
civilized life; all to the comforts of a home however 
humble ; some without money, and all for a time, with- 
out occupation ; without vegetables ; corn bread and 
salt pork their only diet'; whisky their sole luxury and 
consolation, and some not able to get that. It was for a 
time a fermenting mass. Strange and conflicting emo- 
tions exhibited themselves in ludicrous succession. Some 
laughed and joked, some moped and sulked, while others 
cursed the fates that brought them there. All things 
worked out right in time. The activity and energy of 
the national character soon displayed itself, and all be- 
came fairly satisfied with the condition of things." 

Mr. Birkbeck had laid out the town of Wanborough 
in five-acre lots, and on these were built cabins, rented 
by some, and bought by others as the means of the im- 
migrants would permit. In a short time an ox mill was 


erected for grinding their corn, and the necessary black- 
smith shop was added to the village. This formed the 
nucleus of the neiv-founded colony. 

In April, 1819, another ship-load of emigrants swelled 
the numbers of the already prosperous little community. 
Of this accession Mr. Flower sayp, " My own immediate 
family and friends occupied the cabin, and my domestic 
servants and othor emigrants going out to join us, fille.l 
the steerage ; my live stock of cows, hogs and sheep 
from the choicest breeds of England, took all the spare 
room on deck." Among those who came in this ship 
were, Mr. and Mrs. Flower, parents of George Flower . 
the latter 's two bisters, his brother William, a mere lad' 
his two sons, Miss Fordham and the servants of Mr. 
FJower. These constituted the immediate family party 
of Mr. F. Prominent among others seeking the prom- 
ised land were Francis Rotch and brother, friends and 
acquaintances of Mr. Birkbeck ; an elderly gentleman 
of means, Mr. Filler ; Dr. C. Pugsley and family ; Adam 
Corrie ; John Wood, then a single man ; John Ingle and 
family ; David Bennett and Jamily ; Mr. White and 
family ; a carpenter and buildf r from London, and Cap- 
tain Stone and family. These, with some others, formed 
an emigrant party of upwards of sixty, who were bound 
fur the '' prairies " of Illinois. 

On arrival upon American shores, thty divided into 
parties preparatory for their long and tedious journey 
to the wilds of the west. Their manner of traveling was 
similar t f > those who had preceded them one year before. 
Mr. Fordham, under the instructions of Mr Birkbeck, 
had in the meantime been busy in preparing for the rer 
ception of the new emigrants. He had made frequent 
excursions into the prairies to assist in the preparatory 
arrangements, as well as making more distant journeys 
to Cincinnati and Louisville, for many articles needed 
by the settlers, which he loader! upon flat boats and sent 
down the Ohio river to be conveyed to the new settle- 
ment. The emigrants, for a time, were obliged to oc- 
cupy the log cabins of the hollow square of Wanborough, 
until other and better arrangements could be made. 
The increase of population far exceeded the privilege 
of comfortably receiving them, though all was done that 
could be for their comfort and convenience. It must 
be rembered that this part of the country was in a state 
of nature, and that buildings and improvements could 
not be made with the facilities they are to-day. Mr. 
Fordham had also built two cabins on the land of Mr. 
Flower, and it was at one of these cabins that Mr F. 
deposited his family after the long and tedious trip from 
the seaboard. We here give the language of Mr Flower 
relating to his arrival at his new-found home. He says, 
" I entered the praii ie with my carriage at the same 
spot from which we had, one year before, first seen it. 
The prairie grass completely enveloped my horses, and 
they lain rioiisly dragged the heavy-laden vehicle. The 
ciibin built for me hove in sight, which was to be our 
home in the new found land. It was well sheltered by 
wood from the north and east, with an arm of the 

praiiie lying south in a gently descending slope for a 
quarter of a mile, and was as pretty a situation as one 
could desire. The cabin, however, could boast of no 
comforts. It contained a clap-board roof, held down by 
weight-poles, a rough puncheon floor, and had neither 
door nor windows. Two door-ways were cut out, and 

\ the rough logs were scutched down inside. All the chips 
and ends of logs left by the backwoods' builders lay 
strewn upon the floor. We were now face to face with 

, the privations and difficulties of a first settlement in the 
wilderness." From Mr. Flower's statement it seems 
that one of their greatest privations was the lack of good 
water. A well had been sunk on his land, but it was a 
quarter of a mile away. He further says that, " The 

i floor of their cabin being cleared, a fire was kindled in 
a hole where a hearth was to be. One of us had a half 

; mile trip for water. Then for the first time we knew 
the blessing of an iron tea kettle. Our first meal was 
spread upon the floor from such provisions as the ' car- 

I riage afforded, cheese, crackers, tea, etc. The tea we 
drank alternately from one or two tin cups. Some sit- 
ting, some kneeling, some stretched at length, resting on 

! an elbow upon the floor ancient fashion, was the way 

I we*took our first meal. But then I was in my own house, 
on my own land, in a free and independent republic, 
and could cast my vote into a hollow tree for coon 'or 
'possum to be president of the United States if I so de- 
sired." It will thus be seen what privations and 
discomforts the pioneers underwent, although some of 

I them at the time of their settlement were accustomed to 

1 all the comforts of life that wealth could give. Mr. 

, Flower and Mr. Birkbeck both were representative men 

i in England, and each commanded quite a fortune when 

j they landed in this county. Whether their philan- 
thropic efforts have been fully appreciated, the present 
genera-ion of Albion and vicinity must answer. The for- 
mer lived to see the " prairies " and surrounding 

1 country largely populated with prosperous farmers of his 
own countrymen. The little colony which he had been 
accessory in planting, had become among the most pros- 
perous and independent of the great prairie State. After 
seeing and enjoying the results of his patriotic efforts, he 
passed the portals of this life at the city of Grayville, 
January loth, 1862. For some reasons, his and Mr. 
Birkbeck's relations in social or business matters were 
not altogether agreeable, but that is a personal matter 
and belongs to no part of history. Mr. Birkbeck dur- 
ing his life time looked well and took good care of the 
interests of his countrymen, who had virtually placed 
themselves and families under his care and advisement. 
Wanborough, for a time, grew and prospered as a town. 
Albion springing up and getting the precedent as a 
county seat, in 1821, was a death blow upon the little 
town of Wanborough, the parent town within the pres- 
ent limits of Edwards county. Mr. Birkbeck became 
one of the leading men of the State, and it is said that 
through his efforts, and a few others, Illinois never 
has had the stain if slavery placed upon its escutcheon. 



From his sound judgment and clear ideas with regard 
to governmental affairs, Governor Cole saw fit to choose 
him as his Secretary of State in 1824. This office he 
held but a short time, when he returned to his little 
colony. It was only about a year following that he met 
with a sudden and tragic death, the circumstances of 
which are so well and vividly portrayed in a journal of 
that day, that we copy the same for the readers of this 
history: " Oa June 4th, 1825, Mr. Birkbeck went to 
Harmony, Indiana, taking a packet of letters for us to 
Mr. Robert Owen, who being on the eve of departure to 
England, had kindly promised to deliver them. On Mr. 
Birkbeck's return occurred the melancholy circumstan- 
ces of his death. In attempting to cross Fox river, with 
his son Bradford, they found the " flat " on which 
they expected to be carried over, had been taken away. 
They, therefore, entered the stream with their horses 
with the intention of swimming the river. Bradford's horse 
plunged and threw him into the seething water. Being a 
good swimmer, he, although encumbered with an over- 
coat, besides being weak from a recent illness, had nearly 
reached the opposite shore, when he heard his father's 
voice calling for assistance; and turning himself around 
he saw him struggling in the middle of the stream, and 
returned to him. Upon reaching him his father 
caught hold of him, and they both sank together. Upon 
coming to the surface, Bradford desired his father to 
take hold of his coat in another place, which he did, and 
again they both sank. At this time only Bradford 
arose ; he finally reached the bank in safety, but he left 
his father beneath the waves. After some time his cries 
brought a person to his assistance who endeavored to re- 
cover the body of his father. It was all in vain, and 
it was not until the following day that the body was re- 
covered from the angry waters. When found his um- 
brella was grasped in his right hand, the position he 
held it when he went down. His body was taken to 
New Harmony, and there interred with every mark of 
respect that the living could give. So passed away the 
soul of one who had labored, faithfully, many years of 
his life, to benefit his fellow-man." 

A prominent pioneer of 1817, was Alan Emmerson, 
who was born in Kentucky. When a young man he 
emigrated to Indiana, where he married. Oa coming to 
this State he located in section 4, township 2 south, 
range 10 east. His family then consisted of his wife 
and four children. He built a snug little cabin on 
the quarter section of land he had entered, and here 
commenced the hard labors of the pioneer. In a short 
time he was elected justice of the peace, being among the 
first to hold that honorable position in what is now Ed- 
wards county. He served several terms upon the board 
of County Commissioners, and for several years was the 
p'esiding Judge of the county court. He was also 
elected County Treasurer and Assessor, and was otfe 
term in the State Legislature. In factfor many years prior 
to his death, he was almost constantly serving the peo- 
ple in some public capacity. He lived to a good old age, 

he and his wife both passing away in 1876, Centennial 
year. But one of the family is now living, Jesse, who 
resides in Albion, and is among the wealthy and influ- 
ential citizens of the town. 

Rev. John Depew came in the same year as Mr. Em- 
merson. He was an immigrant from the South, and on 
arriving in the county he located on land adjoining Mr. 
Emmerson. He was a zealous Methodist divine, and 
the first of that persuasion in this part of the country. It 
is remarked of him that he was a good neighbor, an 
! honest and conscientious man, and practiced what he 
preached. Being at a neighbor's house one dav, and 
asked to take dinner with the family, he refused one of the 
delicacies of the early times wild honey, as he had 
learned in the mean time that the Sabbath had been 
desecrated in felling the bee-tree. He remained here 
but a few years, when he moved to Marion county. 

In 1818, three months after Wanborough was 
established, Albion was founded. Mr. Flower, in his 
reminiscences says, that the emigrants were con- 
tinually flowing in, and it became necessary to furnish 
them with suitable and comfortable quarters. They 
would first visit Mr. Birkbeck, who had but small 
accommodations, and would then call upon Mr. Flower, 
who at the time, was Lss prepared to receive them than 
Mr. Birkbeck. At this stage, says Mr. Flower, "we 
were experiencing the many inconveniences of a popu- 
lation in the wilderness, in advance of necessary food 
and shelter. Do as you will, if you are the very first in 
| the wilderness, there are many inconveniences, privations, 
| hardships, and sufferings that cannot be avoided. My 
own family, one day, were so closely run for provisions, 
that a dish of tender buds and shoots of the hazle-brush 
was our only resort." 

Mr. Lawrence and Mr. Trimmer, who led the first 
ship's company, made their settlement in Village Prairie, 
so called from the Piankashaw Indians, who had for- 
merly located there. Other emigrants kept coming in, 
some on foot, some on horseback, and some in wagons. 
Some sought employment and accepted of such labor as 
I they could find. Others struck out on their own respon- 
i sibility and made small beginnings for themselves, while 
! others dropped back into the towns and settlement in 
Indiana. At this time Mr. Flower had been unable to 
~ prepare for the reception of the emigrants, his whole 
i time having been occupied in making his own family 
j comfortable. One evening, after he had completed his 
surroundings for the comfort of his family, Messrs. 
; Lawrence, Ronalds, and Fordham called at the cabin of 
] Mr. Flower. The question of making suitable prepara- 
tion for the incoming tide of emigration was discussed.and 
measures were to be adopted for the laying out and build- 
ing a town, as a center for the useful arts, and conven- 
iences necessary for a prosperous agricultural district. 
The subject was considered in all its various bearings, 
and there in the darkness of Mr. F's. cabin (they were 
then not even supplied with a candle) the village of 
Albion was located, built and peopled, iu imagination. 



But one day was suffered to elapse between the decision 
and execution of what had been purposed. The gentle- 
men, before mentioned, had remained over night with Mr. 
Flower, and it was decided in the morning that Messrs. 
Fordham and Flower should start north from the latter 's 
dwelling, while Lawrence and Ronalds were to go 
south from Village Prairie, at a given hour on the fol- 
lowing morning, and at their place of meeting should be 
the future town. Mr. Flower says : " We met the 
next day in the woods, according to appointment. The 
spot seemed suitable, the woods being rather open and 
the ground level." With one accord, it was decided 
that ths spot upon which they then stood should be the 
center of the town. They were then standing upon the 
ground now enclosed in the public square. It was thus 
that the town of Albion was born. The first building 
was a double log cabin, utilized for a "tavern," and 
was built by John Pitcher, who, with his family, consti- 
tuted a portion of the first emigrants in 1818. Among 
these emigrants were Abraham, Isaac and Jacob Pen- 
fold, all excellent mechanics. The second buildings in 
the town were a house and blacksmith shop for the fam- 
ily and use of Jacob Penfold, who was the first black- 
smith of Albion. These families have all passed away 
long ago ; one, a daughter of Abraham Penfold, is yet 
living in Albion, the wife of " Uncle Johnny Woods." 
She has lost her eyesight, but is active for one of her 

Another of the emigrants, of 1818, was Joel Church- 
hill, an intelligent and educated young man from Lon- 
don. He entered quite a large tract of land about 
five miles south of Albion, now Dixon precinct, built 
a log house, and commenced the life of a pioneer in 
the timber of Big creek. In 1824 he married Eliza 
Simpkins, from which union eleven children were born. 
Being of a business turn of mind, Mr. Churchill re- 
moved to Albion, and engaged in the commercial busi- 
ness. Here he erected a brick store-room, and built 
' a stone dwelling. By good business tact he had, 
in a few years, increased his mercantile affairs to consid- 
erable proportions, besides establishing a large manufac- 
tory for pressing and shipping castor oil. He died at 
Albion in 1872, having led a busy and prosperous life. 
His widow and two sons are prominent citizens of Albion. 
One of his sons, Charles, has had the honor of represent- 
ing the district in the State Legislature. 

John Tribe came from England one year later than 
Mr. Churchill. He was then a single man, and first 
located at Wanborough. He subsequently married, 
and reared a large family. In later years he moved to 
Albion, where he carried on the business of wool-carding 
until his death, which occurred in the summer of 1880. 
Mr. Flower, in his memoirs, says of him : " He has 
not made that accumulation of property that many men 
have, that came with as little as he, but this is probably 
because he has not given himself up to the one idea of 
acquisition and accumulation. As he has labored 
moderately through lite, he has always reserved a little 

time for observation, reflection, and reading. His house 
is small, his living plain and simple. He reserves a 
small room for himself, where he receives any friends 
who may call. On his table are placed writing materials, 
| books, periodicals and newspapers. In his garden are a 
i few of the choicest flowers, that would grace the 
j grounds of Buckingham palace. Is not a New York 
millionaire poor, compared to Mr. Tribe?" That he 
was a man of more than ordinary intelligence and 
reading, is fully attested by the evidences given by the 
citizens of Albion of to-day. Many a time has the 
writer in interviewing the old citizens of the town for in- 
| formation for this volume, heard them exclaim: "How 
! unfortunate that this book had not been written a little 
earlier, before the death of 'Uncle Johny Tribe;' he 
was a perfect walking encyclopedia, and could have told 
you all about it." Mrs. Tribe is yet living in Albion, 
and eight of the children are residents of the county ; 
one son, William B., is the present Circuit Clerk of Ed- 
wards county. 

John Woods, Sr., of Surrey, England, came in the fall 
of the same year as the above. He was a man of family, 
having a wife and five children. He settled at Wan- 
borough, where he remained for several years, when he 
moved to Albion, and thence to Shawneetown, where he 
died. One son, John Jr., is a merchant in Albion, 
and one of the oldest surviving settlers in the county. 
For nearly forty years he served as County Treasurer 
and Assessor, and is yet active for one of his years. 

As previously stated, Richard Flower and his wife, 
father and mother, of George Flower, came from Eng- 
land, with the latter in 1818. They stayed one year at 
Lexington, Kentucky, and the following spring moved 
to Albion. Mr. Flower was what would be called wealthy 
in those days, being worth between one and two hundred 
thousand dollars. He built a mansion much after 
the style and architecture of the farm-houses in England. 
Thirty acres of woodland were preserved in connection 
wilh the house, the under-brush was cleared away and 
the entire ground sowed with blue grass. This gave the 
grounds an appearance of a beautiful and commodious 
park. Hence, it received the name "Park House." 
Mr. Flower, in speaking of it, says : " Old Park House, 
near Albion, will long be remembered by old settlers 
and distant visitors for its social reunions and open- 
handed hospitalities. Here the family party of children 
and grandchildren met at dinner on Sundays. An Eng- 
lish plum pudding was a standing dish that had graced 
my father's dinner table from time immemorial. Here 
all friends and neighbors, that had any musical tastes 
or talent, met once a fortnight for practice and social 
enjoyment. Strangers and visitors to the settlement re- 
ceived a hearty welcome. It may be truly said that, 
for thirty years, ' Old Park House ' was never without 
its visitors from every country in Europe, and every 
i State in the Union." 

The following is a short sketch of some of the settlers 
in Albion and Wanborough, as given by Mr. Flower: 


Brian Walker and his friend William Nichols, from 
Yorkshire, came to Philadelphia in 1817, and to the 
settlement, at Albion, in 1818- Mr. Walker, when he 
landed at Philadelphia, had but one guinea in his pocket. 
How much there was left of that guinea when he arrived 
in Illinois, there is no record. He and his friend Nich- 
ols settled on land side by side, situated on the skirts of 
a prairie, one mile east of Albion. They worked hard, 
opened land, built their houses, married, reared large 
families and became possessed of abundance. They, 
with most of the other early settlers, have passed away. 

William Wood of Wormswold, Leicestershire, a small 
farmer, with his wife and one son, Joseph, left England 
for the prairies of Illinois in the spring of 1819. Ac- 
companying him were two young men, John Brissenden 
of Kent, and William Tewks, from Leicestershire; also 
Miss Mea, afterward Mrs. Brissenden, and Joseph 
Butler and family, from Kent. 'Ihe party kept together, 
and came the usual route from Philadelphia to Pitts- 
burg, and descended the Ohio in an ark. When near 
their journey's end Mrs. Wood was taken ill, and on 
reaching the mouth of the Wabash, died. On a point 
of land at the junction of the Ohio and Wabash, on the 
Illinois side, far from any settlement or habitation, her 
grave was made between two trees, on which her name 
and age were carved, and thus were her remains left 
alone in the wilds of a new country. Who can image a 
more melancholy situation for an old man, left virtually 
alone, just at the end of his toilsome and weary journey, 
to lose his life-long partner, just as the promised land 
they had so much doted on, was heaving in sight? Mr. 
Wood being a man of great vigor and good sense did not 
yield to discouragement as many might have done. After 
reaching his destination, Albion, he soon opened a good 
farm, planted an orchard, and lived for several years 
enjoying the fruits of his labors. His son Joseph, in 
after years, became one of the wealthiest and most thrif- 
ty farmers in the c lunty. 

John Brissenden, after working for a time, and having 
acquired a little money, settled on a tract of land by the 
side of his old friend Wood. His was the usual way to 
competency of the early settlers. He cleared his farm, 
married, reared a large family, and in time built a 
fine house, besides having an interest in a mercantile 
house in Maysville, Clay county. He died some years 
ago, leaving a good property to his heirs. 

William Tewk's career was simply a repetition of Mr. 
Brissenden's. For a time he was a carrier between 
Albion and Evansville, Indiana. He acted in the 
capacity of itinerant commission man between both 
places, making the purchases which his wagon brought 
home. He drove one of the wagons himself, and met 
with an accident, which proved fatal, about twenty years 

John Skeavington from Nottinghamshire, England, 
came in the same year and located on the prairie near 
Mr. Bri.*senden, and cultivated a good farm. Like his 
neighbors, he commenced with but little if any means, 

but before, his death, had amassed a good competency. 
Several of his descendants are good and respectable 
citizens of Edwards county. 

William Harris, also from England, came with the 

migrants of 1819. For many years he followed team- 

' ing with an ox team. Mr. Flower says of him : " William 

Harris' team was a sort of institution in the county for 

many years. I would charter Billy Harris' wagon for 

a loiig journey across the prairie. It, was strong, large, 

I well covered, and, when well fitted up with bedding 

and provender, was comfortable enough. Myself and 

family have taken many long and pleasant journeys in it. 

It was the best conveyance for our rough county at that 

I day no hill too steep, no bog too deep for Mr. Harris' 

! strong ox-team. Not railroad-like, but more indepen- 

j dent, and in some respects, more comfortable." In later 

| years Mr. Harris located on a farm near Albion, where 

he resided in peace and plenty. 

Samuel Prichard, who sailed in the Columbia in the 
spring of 1819, had a family consisting of his wife, four 
sons and four daughters He belonged to the society of 
Friends, possessed a good property, was liberal minded, 
and well educated. He was an acquaintance of 
Mr. Birkbeck's in England, and on coming to the county 
he located near Wanborough, on the road leading to 
Albion. He contracted a fever soon after coming, and 
lived but a short time. His descendants are yet living 

William Clark and family came about the same time 
as Mr. Prichard. Mr. Clark also belonged to the society 
of Friends, and was a valuable acquisition to the colony. 
He settled on one of the little prairies lying between Al- 
bion and the Little Wabash, and it was owing tohis capital 
and enterprise that the first wind-mill was constructed 
in the county. Three other parties came at the time of 
Mr. Clark, David and George Kearsum, and a Mr. 
Sampson, none of whom are now living at least none 
are residents of the county. 

Another early settler was William Hall, from Surrey. 
He had a large family, and located on the prairies west 
of Wanborough, where he improved a good farm. Mr. 
Hall was a well educated man, a close observer and one 
of more than ordinary intelligence. He kept a record 
of all important passing events, and it is to his journal 
and notes that Mr. Flower acknowledges indebtedness 
for many points obtained in the furtherance of his history 
of the English settlements. We here insert a 
letter written by Mr. Hall to a friend in England relat- 
ing to the sad death of one of his boys while engaged in 
hunting wild turkeys. He says : " Preserve this letter, 
dear John, as a monument of the instability of all human 
felicity. The very dav I wrote it, on the fatal morning 
of the 24th of April, 1822, I heard the sound of my two 
sons passing through the porch, into which my bed-room 
opens. One of them I knew by his light step and cheer- 
ful voice, to be my beloved Ned, the other was unfortu- 
nate Robert. About half an hour after, I heard the 
report of a rifle in the woods. I lay about a quarter of 


an hour longer, until it was light enough to dress. When 
I went out of the door it was just five o'clock. Upon 
going to the back of the house, where I heard most 
unearthly cries of distress, I saw po>r Robert rolling on 
the ground and writhing in the utmost agony. I im- 
mediately concluded he was dreadfully wounded, and it 
was some time before he could speak. He exclaimed, 
Oh, father, I have killed Ned, and I wish I was dead 
myself! I uttered an in voluntary exclamation, and sank 
down myself upon him. The noise brought out his 
mother, and the scene which followed cannot be described. 
Two of the neighbors, aroused by Robert's cries, assisted 
me in conveying him and his mother and laying them 
upon the bed. I went with them in search of the body, 
which was not found for some time. At length it was 
brought in, and buried in a spot which my poor boy had 
selected for his garden. It seems they had sighted a 
turkey, when Robert dispatched his brother one way, 
and lay down himself behind a log, to endeavor to call 
up the bird within gun shot, with his turkey-call. After 
a little while, he heard a rustling but a few yards away, 
and soon afterward saw what he concluded to be the 
turkey. He took aim, fired, and leaped up, shouting for 
Ned, and ran in triumph to p'ck up his game. Think 
of his feelings, when he found it to be the corpse of his 
brother weltering in his own blood." 

Mr. Hall died many years ago, and the family have 
moved to other scenes. One daughter, widow of Walter 
L. Mayo, it is said is now a resident of Leavenworth, 

The first English settlers in Village Prairie, were 
John Brenchly and wife, and John Lewis and family. 
In speaking of them Mr. Flower says : " Mr. Brenchly 
had been a distiller in the old country ; not a man 
of country habits, or possessed of much capital. Mr. 
Lewis was a man of excellent educalion, but with small 
pecuniary^means. These were both difficult cases for a 
new settlement. In a few months they both left their 
quarter sections in the prairie. For a year or two, Mr. 
Brenchly lived chiefly by his labors as accountant, etc., 
and finally moved to Philadelphia. Mr. Lewis remained 
longer, and for a time, rented the first brick tavern in 
Albion, built by Richard Flower, Senior. The family 
subsequently moved to Cincinnati. 

" Speaking of the Lewis's," says Mr. Flower, " reminds 
me of an accident that nearly proved fatal to one of 
the family. I had dismounted from my horse, and hitched 
him by the bridle to the handle of the well-windlass, 
that was situated near the kitchen door at the Park 
House, and had run over to my cabins about seventy 
yards distant. Soon afterward a servant came running 
in haste, exclaiming that Mary Lewis had fallen into 
the well. The child, about twelve years of age, had 
been standing on the well-top ; the horse became sud- 
denly frightened and pulled the windlass and curbing 
from the well, and the child had dropped in. The well 
was about forty feet deep and contained ten feet of 
water." Assisted by two or three parties at hand, the 

little girl was rescued from her perilous situation, 
though pretty well exhausted through fright and drown- 
ing. This well has a further history connected with it. 
It was of large diameter, the sides and bottom being of 
smooth sandstone. At the sinking of it, the digger, 
William Truscott, had nearly completed his work, and 
was engaged in sweeping at the bottom of the well, just 
preparatory to coming to the surface. Suddenly a dread- 
ful hubbub was heard in its vicinity the mingled voices 
of a man and beast in agony of distress came forth and 
attracted every one within hearing to the spot. The 
cause was at once apparent. A large, fat hog had 
strayed to the mouth of the well, and had slipped his 
hind feet over, and was struggling with might and main 
to recover himself. While in this position, squealing 
for aid, the man below looked up in terror and loudly 
roared for help. Seeing that the hog was gradually 
losing his hold, he flattened himself against the stone 
sides and waited the dread results. Down went the 
animal to his instant death ; for a moment all was silent. 
Shouts from the top were given, asking if the digger 
was hurt ? A faint voice said, " Oh, yes, do haul me 
up." The man was brought to the surface, nearly dead 
with fright. The hog was subsequently removed from 
the well, but was split open on the back from head to 
tail, as if the process had been performed with a sharp 

One of the great fears that the pioneers labored under at 
their coming, was that the place they had chosen would 
have to be abandoned on account of the inability to ob- 
tain good water. Wells were sunk to considerable 
depths, but no water could be obtained only as they 
filled by the surface flow. We are informed that to-day, 
water can be reached almost anywhere, at the depth of 
ten or fifteen feet. Science and theory has thus far 
failed to give any satisfactory or intelligent reason for 
this phenomenon. 

In 1820, Thomas Spring and his family, left Derby- 
shire, England, for the beautiful prairies of Illinois. 
The second son, Archibald, was left at a medical college, 
in Baltimore, to finish his studies. The family proceeded 
to Wheeling, Virginia, by laud, when Mr. Spring waa 
taken with a fever and died before reaching his destina- 
tion. His three sons, Henry, Sydney, and John came 
on with their mother, and located on Birk's Prairie. 
Sydney afterwards married here and reared a large 
| family He subsequently removed to Graysville, White 
j county. Henry, in after years, became a merchant in 
j Olney. Archibald, after completing his studies, came 
, to Edwards county, and for many years was a successful 
i physician in Albion, where he remained until his death. 
| Others who came about the same time were, James 
| Carter and family, Gilbert T._Pell JU Mr^Kenton, Mr. 
! Coles and family, Mr. Peters, Thomas Simpkins and 
family, Mr. Gillard, Henry Bowman, then a single man, 
Oswald Warrington and family, James and Robert 
Thread, Mr. Orange and family, Henry Birkett, Mr. 
Stanhope, Francis Hanks and family, J. B. Johnson 


William Hallnm, Thomas Shepherd, Henry, John and he served as Representative, from 1826 to 1828. Again 
Henry Cowling, Edward Coad and family, Joseph, | in 1832, he is sent to the State Senate, served one term, 
Thomas and Kelsey Crackles, John May, William Cave, and in 1838, is re-elected to the same position, where he 
Thomas Swale, Moses, John and George Michels, Ellis remained until 1840. He died at the old homestead, in 

Weaver, and many others. 

A prominent settler of 1821, was William Pickering, 
from Yorkshire. He came a single man, but subse- 
quently married Martha Flower, and first made his set- 
tlement at Village Prairie. He was an active and 
energetic man, and in a few years rose to distinction in 

the spriug of 1854. Three of his sons, born of his 
second marriage, are now living at the old farm. 

Benjamin Ulm was a native of Ross county, Ohio, 
and came to the county in 1820, and is one of the few 
survivors of the early settlers. He now resides in sec- 
tion 32, township 2 north, range 14 west, and has ever 

the State. Governor Washburn says of him : " Gen. been considered one of the staunch citizens of the 

William Pickering was a well-known man among the 
old Whig politicians of Illinois, of his day. He was 
a representative man in the party, in the southeastern 
part of the State. I often met him in conventions, 
and kuew him well in the Legislature. He had a con- 
tinuous service in the State Legislature, as the member 
from Edwards county, from 1842 to 1852, a service of 
exceptional length. He was a man of great intelligence 
and public spirit. He had a fine presence, and was 
thoroughly English in look and manner. He was an 
intimate friend of Mr. Lincoln, who, on his accession 
to the Presidency, appointed him Governor of Wash- 
ington Territory." Mr. Pickering died at his home, 
near Albion, about eight years ago. One sou is living 
at the farm a little west of Albion. 

James O. Wattles was another distinguished early 
settler. It is said that he was a good lawyer, and when 
engaged in reading his briefs or other papers, he did so 
with the paper upside down. This was caused by a 

peculiarity of the eyesight. He was elected Judge of I dollars a good price in those days. I built him a 
the fifth Judicial District of Illinois, by the General i forge, which he rented at first and afterwards purchased. 
Assembly, and commissioned January 19, 1825, and I With the proceeds of the horse, he purchased iron and 
was legislated out of office, January 12, 1827. He I went to work. This was the beginning of Alexander 
moved to New Harmony, Indiana, about the time of the j Stewart, who, after several years of labor and industry, 
settlement of Robert Owen, at that place. j added to his blacksmith shop a store. Business and 


One who figured very prominently, for many years in 
the civil matters of the county, was Walter L. Mayo. 
He was eltcted Clerk in 1831, and served continuously 
in this capacity until 1870. He was a genial, popular, 
whole souled man, and had the confidence of all who 
knew him. He amassed a good competency, and subse- 
quent to 1870, he moved with his family to Leaven- 
worth, Kansas. While returning to Olney, Illinois, to 
transact some business, he was way-laid, as supposed, in 
East St. Louis, and nothing has ever been heard of the 
cause of. his untimely and sudden death. 

Alexander Stewart, who has seen the town of Albion 
grow up almost from its infancy, is among the early 
prominent business men of the English settlement. 
Mr. Flower in speaking of him says : " Nearly forty 
years ago, (it is now nearly sixty) a young Scotchman 
in his teens, rode up to my house and wished me to pur- 
chase his horse, saddle and bridle, which I did for sixty 

Ex-Governor, Augustus C. French, also commenced 
his life in the west, at the town of Albion. He was a 
graduate from one .of the eastern colleges. On his ar- 
rival at Albion, he possessed but his education and wits 
to make a livelihood. He first taught school at two 
dollars a quarter for each pupil, and in the meantime 
commenced the study of law, in which profession he 
gained some reputation. Subsequently he was elected 
to the Legislature, and in 1846, was elected Governor of 
the State. Prior to this, however, he had removed to 
another part of the State. 

Henry I. Mills was a prominent settler of early times. 
He was a native of Ohio, but had for several years lived 
at Vineennes, Indiana, before coming to Illinois. He 
first located in section 28, on the prairie that bears his 
name. His family then consisted of his wife and two 

capital increasing, he soon went largely into the produce 
trade of the country, of which pork, corn a%d wheat, 
are the staples. He is also proprietor of a large flour- 
ing-mill at Graysville." 

It is but a short time .since the writer saw Mr. Stewart, 
who is yet living and enjoying the comforts and luxuries 
of a good home, the legitimate results of ardent, 
honest labor. He is now somewhat feeble, and has 
withdrawn from active life, yet is a living monument 01 
what frugality and industry may accomplish, as his 
possessions may be counted by tens-of-thousauds. 

One peculiarity of the ups and downs of the English 
colony is, that those who came with an abundance, died, 
after years of struggle with the various freaks of fortune, 
with far less than they brought with them, while those 
of little or no means have made comfortable homes, and 

children. He soon became popular among the early attained a degree of wealth which is commendable to 
settlers and as early as 1820, was promoted to the office j their many years of industry, 
of Sheriff, which position he held until 1826. In 1838, 
he was appointed School Commissioner, being the second 


The following list includes the marriage licenses grant- 

officer for this position in the county. Twelve years i e d in the county ' after its organization to 1817, as 
prior to this, we find him in the State Legislature, M here j appears upon the license record : 



Name. Pate of license. By whom married. Date of mrrge. 

J,vne"pholp\'u, tl January llth, 1815, William Smith, J. P. Jan. llth, 1815 

Jane Bathe. Feb. llth, 1815, 

James Shaw, Esq. 

Feb. 14th, 1815 

Ramnel Putnam to 

Relief Chafee, March 15th, 1815 

J. Mclntosh, J. C. C. 

Mar. 16th, 1815 

Joseph Robertson to 
Sally Barney, May 17th, 1815, 

Rev. Jm'h Ballard, 

May 18th, 1815 

Jam's Ford ice to 

Susnn (Jar.l, June 10th, 1815, 

" " 

June 29th, 1815 

John Barger to 
Catharine Minor, July 4th, 1815, 

Rev. Jno. Mclntosh 

Philip Plouzh to 

Sallic Arnold, July 6th, 1815, 

it it if 

July 7th, 1815 

Thomas Trueloek to 

Jemima Ramsey, July 8th, 1815, 

it ii it 

July 9th, 1815 

Havward Putnam to 

Otroltna James, July llth, 1815, 

Jeremiah Ballard to 
Elizabeth Barney.July 31st, 1816, 

Seth Gard, J. C. C. 

Aug. 2nd, 181 

Jarvis D:ilo to 

Francis Chafee, Dec. 2nd, 1815, 

" " " 

Dec. 3rd, 1815 

Daniel Keen to 

Mary Compton, Dec. 13th, 1815, 

ii ii it 

Dec. 14th, 1815 

.Toeph Ballard to 
Patty Putmau, Deo. 27th, 1815, 

.. .. 

Dec. 28th, 1815 

James Mr-Daniel to 
Martha Wesncr, Advertisement, 

Rev. Dvd. MeGahey 

, Dec. 13th, 1815 

George Miller to 
Elizabeth Shook, 

., .. 

Dee. 25th, 1815 

Nancy Beaton, without license 

James Shaw, J. P., 

Mar. 18th, 1816 

John Walder to 

Nancy Dawson, July 4th, 1816, 

Robert Baird, J. P. 

July 4th, 1816 

William Woodland to 

Mary Stepteford, July 18th, 1816, 

Gerv.Hazletoi.J. P 


John Flinn to 

El eta Payne, Aug. 21st, 1816, 

G. W. Smith, J. P., 

Aug. 22nd, 1816 

Gervaae Hazleton to 

Eliza Osgood, Aug. 22nd, 1816, 

G. W. Smith, J. P., 

Aug. 22nd, 1816 

Samuel Brinbery to 
Mary Jones, June 16th, 1816, 

Rev. Dvd. MeGahey, 

June 18th, 1816 

John Compton to 

Jane Barney, Sept. 4th, 1816, 

Rev. Jm'h Ballard, 

Sept. 4th, 1816 

Alpheus Peckard to 
Catharine Gray, Sept. 22nd, 1816, 

Rev. Dvd. MeGahey, 

Sept. 22nd, 1816 

Jeremiah McRinney to 

Catey Westner, Sept. 29th, 1816, 

it a ii 

Sept. 29th, I b 16 

Benjamin Imterson to 

Susan Decker, Sept. 30th, 1816 

G. W. Smith, J. P., 

Sept. 30th, 1816 

Charles Dubois to 

Sally Gollaher, Oct. 3lst, 1816, 

ii it *i 

Oct. 31st, 1816 

Ephraim Armstrong to 

Ruth Gard, Nov. 12th, 1816, 

ii it ii 

Nov. Hth, 1816 

James Baird to 

Martha Stenare Dec. 18th, 1816, 

ii it ii 

James Davidson to 

Elizabeth Young, Dec. 30th, 1816, 

ii i. ii 

Dec. 30th, 1816 

As early as 1815, it seems that parties who contem- 
plated matrimony could be required to give a bond to 
carry out in good faith, said intentions. The following 
is a copy of one of the bonds given in 1815 : " Know all 
men by these presents that I, John Ballard, am held and 
firmly bound unto Nathaniel Claypool, clerk of Edwards 
county and Territory of Illinois, in the just and full sum 
of five hundred dollars, by which payment well and truly 
to be made, I bind myself, my heirs and assigns for and 
in the whole, sealed with my seal, and dated this 31st 
day of July 1815. 

The condition of the obligation is such, that whereas 
the above bound John Ballard has this day made appli- 
cation for license to join together in bonds of matrimony 
with Miss Betsy Barney. Now if the said John Ballard 
does well and truly marry the said Betsy Barney without 
any fraud, partiality or illegality attending the said 

marriage, then this obligation to be void, otherwise to be 
and remain in full force and virtue in law." 
Bondsmen, Jeremiah Ballard and Seth Gard. 


The deep snow occurred in the winter of 1830-31. 
At that period this part of Illinois was sparsely settled. 
The roads were merely trails or bye-paths; and the 
houses of the settlers were log-cabins of a rude style 
of architecture, and the larder was not well supplied 
with sufficient provisions to carry the settler and his 
family through the winter. This being the case, much 
suffering occurred. The " deep snow " is one of the 
land-marks of the early settler. It is the mile-stone, so 
to speak, from which he counts in dating events. He 
sometimes relies upon it in recounting the date of his 
coming, his marriage, and the birth of his children. 
The deep snow was an important and very extraordinary 
phenomenon. Nothing has equalled it in this latitude 
for the last century if the Indians' traditions are cor- 
rect as to what occurred before the advent of the white 
man. The Indians had a tradition that about seventy- 
five years before, a snow fell which swept away the im- 
mense herds of buffalo and elk that then roamed over 
these prairies. This tradition was verified by the vast 
quantity of buffalo and elk bones found on the prairies 
in different localities when first visited by white men. 

The snow began falling early in autumn, and con- 
tinued at intervals, throughout the entire winter. The 
snow falls would be succeeded by heavy sleet, forming 
crusts of ice between the layers of snow, strong enough 
in many places to bear up the deer and hunter. Fre- 
quently for weeks the sun was not visible, and the cold 
was so intense that not a particle of snow would melt on 
the sides of the cabins facing the south. For weeks 
people were blockaded or housed up, and remained so 
until starvation compelled them to go forth in search of 
food. Great suffering, hunger and untold hardships 
were endured by the people. Game, such as deer, 
prairie chickens, quails, rabbits, &c., before that time 
had been abundant, but for years afterwards was very 
scarce, having perished in the snow. As the snow would 
thaw, deer were often caught and killed without the aid 
of fire arms, being unable to get through the snow or 
walk on top. Later in winter, when the mass of-snow 
or ice had become compact, fences that were staked and 
ridered were driven over with heavily loaded vehicles, 
and, in fact, the old settlers say in places could not be 
seen. The snow in many places, where not drifted, was 
three to five feet deep. In the spring, when this immense 
amount of snow melted, the river streams and marshes 
became flooded. 


The writer, in conversing with a lady, an old settler, 
elicited from her the following facts and recollections 
relative to the wonderful and extraordinary atmospheric 
phenomenon, which occurred a little after noon one day 
in January, 1836. The lady says, she and her family 


had finished their noon-day meal, and were sitting 
around aud in front of the old-fashioned large open fire- 
place, enjoying its generous warmth, chatting and dis- 
cussing the state of the weather, as during the morning 
it had been snowing and raining a little : presently the 
lady in looking from the window in her cabin, noticed a 
heavy black cloud lying off to the west, which seemed to 
be rapidly approaching. Needing some water she took 
a bucket and went to the well, at a distance of about 100 
yards, lowering the bucket with a long " sweep " then 
used in drawing the water, filled it, and started for the 
house. Before reaching the house the wind and rain 
struck her ; blew and upset a portion of the water on her 
clothing; the cold air seemed to cut like a knife, and 
before she reached the house, her dress and apron were 
frozen stiff in a solid sheet of ice. Ponds which a mo- 
ment before were free from the ice, were frozen in a 
few minutes. Many persons were frozen to death who 
happened to be caught away from home ; and many 
others, before they could get to a place of shelter, had 
their faces, ears, hands and feet frozen. Immediately 
preceding the storm, the ground had been slightly cov- 
ered with snow, which from rain falling in the morning 
had become "elushy." Cattle, that were in the fields, 
were held fast by the " slush" freezing about their feet; 
and it became necessary to cut away the ice to liberate 
them. Ducks and geese were imprisoned in the same 
way. It was scarcely ten minutes after the cold wave 
swept over the place, that the water and melting snow 
was hard enough to bear up a man on horseback. 

Thus have we briefly sketched a few of the incidents 
that occurred in the early history of the county. 


The French led the van in the settlement of the Illi- 
nois territory. Their primary object was commerce with 
the Indian tribes; and to this end they established 
trading posts, and manifested to the untutored savage 
initial evidences of civilization. Secondary to this, 
the French missionaries, by their pious devotion, their 
spotless character and their quiet, unassuming and dis- 
interested lives, gained the favorable attention and re- 
spect of the natives. The suavity of the manners of 
the French, and the softness of their outward bearing 
and presence, and moreover their compliance, to some 
extent, with the Indian modes of life, gained for them 
the rude respect of the aborigines and operated as a 
safeguard against that savage outrage which was often 
mercilessly visited upon the American and English 
settlers. In the early part of the seventeenth century a 
French settlement and trading post was established at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, then one of the great avenues 
from the St. Lawrence to the Illinois country. From 
this French colony the first settlements in Lawrence 
county originated. By a French rule settlers received 
allotments of land, which they located at pleasure. 
Many of them chose their portions in what is now the 

county of Lawrence. Little is known of them except 
their names on record. They were required to be resi- 
dent settlers prior to 1783. The following is a list 
of these grantees, mainly French but partly Anglo- 
American : 

J. B. Dumais, Francois Bosseron, Roux, Paul 

Gamelin, Pierre Barthe, Pierre Carnoyer, Francois 
Brouillat, Joseph Durharm, Joseph Huniot, Madame 
j Denoyon, Louis Denoyon, August Du Gal, J. B. Vil- 
i lery, Toussaint Denoyon, Francois Bosseron, Jr., Joseph 
I Tougas, Antoine Bardeleau, Luirent Bazadon, Alexis 
! Ladavont, Joseph Durocher, Madame Cornoyer, Francois 
i Pettier, Louis Raveilate, Philip Dejtan, Pierre'Grimayoe 
| Lezate Clairmout, Widow Maria, Heirs of Dubois, Jean 
Leguarde, Jean Baptist Culy, Pierre Godairie, Nic. Bal- 
lenjeau Alexander Valle, Jacques Lallemoille, Ambrois 
Degenet, Jacques Couteaux, Jean Sauvage, Baptiste 
Bonate, Joseph Tougas, Jacques Louis, Jean B. Vaudry, 
Louis Boisjean, Jean B. Racine, Jean C. Thiriot, Ga- 
i briel Boulon, Pierre Levriet, Etienne St. Marie and 
i Francois St. Marie; Jacob Howell, Hannah Dalton, 
Solomon Small, Lawrence Slaughter, John Bailey ; Moses 
Decker, Henry Speek, probably Germans ; Moses Henry, 
John Culberton, G. R. Clark, heirs of Ezekiel Johnson, 
Israel Ruland, Andrew Robinson, Francis Hamlin, V. 
T. Dutton, Thomas Hall, Christopher Wyatt and Nicho- 
las Varner. 

The title to the lands occupied by parties named in 
the foregoing list originated by donations made by 
; French commandants of Vincennes prior to 1764, also 
! by English commandants, 1764-1778, by Virginia im- 
provement rights, and lastly by grants of the United 
States, their so-called head of family rights and militia 
rights. Winthrop Sargent, acting as governor in place 
of Arthur St. Clair in 1790, granted small tracts of 
land to Luke Decker, Robert Buntin, Henry Vander- 
burgh and Samuel Bradley. The court at Vincennes, by 
| authority delegated to it by M. Le Gras.Col. John Todd's 
, lieutenant, about 1780, granted to Pierre Luerez, father 
' and son, ten leagues (30 miles) " deep," of which they 
i sold various tracts to other parties. Isaac Decker 
| bought 2000, John Powell 5000 and Thomas Flower 
20,000 acres of them. Pierrie Gamelin came in for a 
large share also, which enabled him to sell 27 000 acres 
to Nicholas Perrott and 41,000 acres to Thomas Flower. 
What may be termed modern settlement in Lawrence 
1 county dates back to the beginning of the present cen- 
I tury. The immigration and settlement prior to that 
time might, in most instances at least, more properly be 
j called speculation. At all events they were not " ac- 
i tual," in the moral sense of the term, so as to be 
! permanent, though they may have answered legal re- 
i quirement. But before proceeding to speak of the 
; modern settlements, it may be pertinent to add some- 
thing concerning the early marriages, performing as 
they did indirectly an important function in the settle- 
ment and development of the county. The records 
| show the following marriages solemnized in the county 



during the first years of its existence. A number of \ 
licenses issued at that time seem to have been wasted, | 
inasmuch as there is no evidence of the proper binding j 
of the nuptial knots in many instances : 

Squire Thomas Anderson solemnized the marriage of 
Mr. Benjamin Norton and Nancy Thorn, on the 20th of 
June, 1821. It is to be hoped that their path through 
life was freed from thorns, and strewn with roses 
instead. Andrew Cams and Nellie Anderson joined 
hands for life on the 27th of June, Squire Benjamin 
McCleave officiating. Thomas Gordon and Sarah But- 
ler, June 30, married by J. C. Clark, a minister of the 
gospel ; Samuel Mundell and Nancy Adams, July 19, by 
H. M. Gillhara, J. P. ; P. Bourdelon and Julia Aupin, 
July 31, by Rev. J. C. Clark ; Jetson Gowen and Nancy 
Morris, August 6, by James Westfall, J. P.; John Smith 
and Elizabeih Baird, September 9, by H. M. Gillham, 
J. P, ; Jonathan Phelps and Sally Gowen, by Daniel 
Travis, September 26 ; John Armstrong and Susannah 
Lemons, October 17, by Squire Anderson ; John Hun- 
ter and Mary Robinson, December 13, by same ; Wil- 
liam Martin and Syrithia Clark, December 13, by John 
Martin, M. G. ; Henry Jones and Ibby Lester, Dec. 20, 
by Joseph Baird, J. P. ; Aaron Wells and Catherine 
Vanosdall, Dec. 25, by Squire Anderson ; James Miller 
and Nancy McBeans, January 4, 1822, by 'Squire Baird ; 
Samuel V. Allison and Matilda Mills, Feb. 8, by same ; 
Joshua S. Johnson and Mary Gardner, April 23, by 
J. C. Ruark, J. P. ; Samuel Herron and Martha 
Leech, Sept. 14, by J. C. Clark, M. G. ; Robert Barney 
and Casiah Pargin, July 3, by Benjamin McClean, J. P. ; 
Jacob Parker and Peggy Dockery, September 2, 1822, 
executed by Squire McLean ; Henry Reineyking and 
Matilda Chenowith, September 21, by Squire Ander- 
son ; Joshua Dudley and Barbery Clark, October 19, by 
same ; Nathaniel Hysmith and Elizabeth Matthews, 
Nov. 11, by J. Baird, J. P. ; Oliver W. Phelps and 
Hannah Mason, January 4, 1823, by S. H. Clubb, J. P.; 
Elihu Cole and Letty Morris, Jan. 22, by Squire An- 
derson ; John Organ and Jane Gilbert, Feb. 4, by 
same; Peter Cisco and Eliza Chandler, Feb 11, by 
James Nabb, J. P. ; John Snider and Nancy Allison, 
March 17, by Joseph Baird, J. P.; Benjamin Sumner 
and Sally Laws, June 7, by S. H. Clubb, J. P. ; 
Charles Martin and Betsey Spencer, July 18, by Rev. 
Clark; Thomas Parson and Eliza Huston, July 28, by 
William Kinkard, J. P. ; Andrew McClure and Betsey 
Allison, September 24, by Joseph Baird, J. P. ; James 
Leeds and Judy Mattox, Oct.lo, by B. McCleave, J. P. ; 
Philip Lewis and Polly Craven, Nov. 12, by same; 
John Summers and Emily Woodrow, Dec. 4, by Squire 
Kinkade 13 marriages during the first half-year of the 
county's existence, 9 in the full year, 1822, and 13 
during the year 1823. 

Settlements for the purposes of permanent residence, 
improvement and agriculture were made along the Wa- 
bash opposite Vincennes, and principally at St. Fraucis- 
ville. These were made by French immigrants from Vin- 

cenes and Canada. An American settlement was formed 
at Russellville prior to 1812, and another atCenterville 
in 1815, called the Christian settlement, as most of that 
community were members of the Christian church. 
Those in the interior of the county were formed at a 
later date, after the storm of war had passed entirely 
away and the Indians had become reconciled to the 
advance of civilization. Although less characteristic 
and definite, they continued to be formed into neigh- 
borhoods, as acquaintanceship, agreement in religion, or 
color or eligibility of locality suggested. 

The negro settlement was in the vicinity of Pinkstaff 
station, and the Lackey neighborhood, some distance 
east of this locality. Charlottesville, on the Embarras, 
is the site of the Shaker colony formed in 1819. The 
Corrie purchase, resulting in the acquisition of a large 
tract of laud in Decker's prairie by John and William 
Corrie, of Scotland, was made in 1818; shortly after this 
date it was settled by the Corries and their connections. 
Ruark's prairie, in the southeastern part of Lukiu town- 
ship, was settled by a family of that name. 

The French settlement of St. Francisville contained 
within it the elements of permanence, both in respect of 
locality and the habits of its members. The native lan- 
guage is still used, interchangeably with the English, in 
many households. Joseph Tugaw, properly Tougas, 
was the pioneer and first permanent settler, not only of 
this vicinity, but also of Lawrence county ; he came from 
Vincenues, and located on the present site of St. Fran- 
cisville about the year 1803 or 1804 ; his two brothers, 
William and August Tougas, and John Longlois were- 
with him there, but soon moved to what afterward be- 
came Rochester, in Wabash county, and were the first 
settlers in that vicinity. About the year 1809 or '10, 
came Francis Tougas, another of the four brothers, who 
assumed a leading part in the pioneer life of Lawrence 
and Wabash counties. They immigrated from Vin- 
cennes, and were marvels of physicial strength and stat- 
ure ; Joseph was a leading spirit, and the center of in- 
fluence in the settlement of which he formed a part ; in 
1814 he was the only slave-owner, except John Stillwell, * 
in all that vast region, then known as Edwards county. 
In that year he was the only resident in said county 
who owned a " mansion house." Its taxable value was 
$300.00. In the year 1812 he constructed a picket or 
stockade fort for the protection of himself and his 
neighbors against the Indians ; it consisted of an enclo- 
sure formed by placing large stakes or pickets in the 
earth side by side. The enclosure was some twelve or 
fourteen feet high, and was a sort of city wall ; for within 
were a number of log dwellings, for the use of the fami- 
lies that sought protection there ; in two of the corners 
of the stockade were watch-houses, projecting beyond the 
enclosure, at the sides and at some distance above the 
ground, so as to command a view of the enemy that 
might be approaching. At night the heavy oaken doors 
were swung to and barred, the guards took their places 
in the watch-houses, and the drowsy inmates lay down 


to rest. Among the cabiqs within the enclosure was 
the negro hut, occupied by the slaves of Joseph Tugaw. 
Soon after his arrival, probably about 1805 or '06, Tu- \ 
gaw established a ferry on the Wabash, at St. Francis 
ville; the boat with which it was operated was sufficient | 
to carry two carts. The pioneer died at the home of ; 
his first choice, which afterward became the site of St. I 
Francisville, of which his widow, Frances, was the 
original proprietor. Francis Tugaw settled about a 
mile and a half north of the village. Joseph and Amab 
Potvine, nicknamed and usually called Arpas, came 
from Vincennes about 1804 or '05 ; the former had three 
children, the latter was a bachelor; they settled a short 
distance west of the village. About the year 1806 or 
'08 the French settlement was augmented by the immi- 
gration from Vincennes of Andrew and Charles Lacoste ; 
Pierre Gremore, L. Bonaut, Philip Deschaut, Andrew 
Godaire and Joseph Venve ; the latter settled south of 
St. Francisville, in the edge of Wabash county. At a 
little later date, but prior to 1813, the families of John 
Shirkey and Charles Moyes were added to the settlement. 
The latter received the pseudonym of Coy, meaning 
"spot." It originated from the circumstance that 
Moyes, on one occasion, went under the yoke from which 
Coy, his ox, had dropped dead, and assisted the other ox 
in hauling the load. Nearly all the early French set- 
tlers were familiarly known by some nickname, wnose 
history would explain a laughable circumstance in the 
simple lives of these early French pioneers. 

The settlement opposite Vincennes, at Wesport, never 
attained to much prominence, and was mainly accessory 
to the ferry established to accommodate travel to and 
from Vincennes, along the Cahokia and Kaskaskia 
traces. These highways from the Wabash to the Mis- j 
sissippi had been worked out by the Indians and buffa- ! 
Iocs long before the advent of civilization. The ferry I 
was operated, about the beginning of the present cen- j 
tury, by Joseph La Motte, a Frenchman and Indian 
trader, whose round log cabin stood alone and solitary on 
the west bank of the Wabash. On more than one occa- 
sion was he obliged, single-handed, to defend it and his 
family against the attacks of the Indians; one night 
they climbed upon the roof, and though he was the only 
male inmate, he frightened them away by directing, in 
a loud voice, a number of persons to assume certain po- 
sitions, and to do certain acts toward repelling the 
attack. But though the assailants left without doing 
material damage to the house, or bodily harm to its in- 
mates, they led away its owner's horse. On another oc- 
casion, in 1809 or '10, anticipating an attack by some 
Indians he observed cross the river to Vincennes, he sent 
his wife and children out into the wood, and stood ready, 
single-handed and alone, to defend his habitation and 
his life ; the looked-for onset was made, and the valor 
withw hich he defended himself and his home is sufficient- 
ly attested by the fact that, during the onset, he received 
seven bullet wounds; at day-break the Indians gave up 
the attack and left, but not without a number of injured 

in their ranks. Imagine the anxiety and horror that must 
have filled the souls of the wife and children as they sat in 
their solitary retreat, and listened to the sharp echoes of 
the rifles, as they sank to silence along the shores of the 
Wabash ! La Motte was afterward killed by the Indians 
on the creek and in the prairie that still bear his name, 
in Crawford county. After his death his widow opera- 
ted the ferry till about 1812, when it passed under the 
management of her fon-iu-law, James Gibson. Across 
the way from La Motte's lived a family named White. 
Also in that vicinity dwelt a family of Buntons, three 
of whom, the mother and two of three daughters, were, one 
afternoon, massacred; the remaining daughter, whose 
name was Jane, escaped and secreted herself in a corn- 
field till night, when she swam the Wabash to Vincennes. 
This brave girl, at the time of the massacre, was fortu- 
nately wearing on her head a handkerchief, after the 
manner of the French, whom the Indians were not wont 
to disturb, so long as they betrayed no affiliation with 
the Americans. If not suffered voluntarily to escape, 
she was probably reserved for more clemency of treat- 
ment, as captivity. About a mile below the ferry, at 
the "Ford," lived a French family, named Senette. 
Somewhere also, in this vicinity, was the home of Chas. 
Boneaut. Some distance above the ferry landing, on 
the bluff known as Dubois' hill, lived the family of that 
name ; they had three sons, Toussaint, Lawrence, and 
Killgore; the family became conspicuous in the civil 
and business affairs of the county. Toussaint was 
drowned while crossing Indian creek. On Dubois' hill, 
in troublous Indian days, lived an old negro, called 
"Billy o' the Bow," and his dusky conjugal companion, 
Seeley by name ; they lived together in a house not 
made with hands a hollow sycamore tree till their in- 
dependent life together was brought to a close by a bullet 
from the rifle of some lurking Indian. Going north 
along the river till the vicinity of Russellville is reached, 
the settlements are of a more recent date. 

This vicinity was settled about the year 1809 or "10 
by some Baptist families from Kentucky. Most con- 
spicuous among them were the Allisons, of whom there 
were four families, whose respective heads were Samuel 
and his two sons, Frederick and Ezra, and his brother 
Jonathan. Of these, the first possessed the element of 
pioneer the most prominently. He was fond of the pursuit 
of game, and frequently brought down, and dressed the 
saddles of as many as fifteen deer between sun and sun. 
When the redoubtable Tecumseh had impressed upon 
the remnant tribes in the Wabash valley, a sense of 
their supposed wrongs, and they began a career of de- 
predation and pillage, the necessity of some means of 
life and property became apparent. A stockade fort 
was accordingly built in the spring of 1812, on Samuel 
Allison's improvement, now within the northern corpor- 
ate limits of Russellville, called Fort Allison. The 
construction of this defensive arrangement was similar 
to that at St. Francisville, above described. Besides the 
Allisons, the families of Thomas Mills, William Stock- 



well, McBane, William Hogue, Daniel and Henry 
Kuykendall, and the colored families of Anderson, 
Morris, and Tannann were early inmates of the fort. 
Stockwell and Anderson were shot by the Indians, the 
former on returning from Fort La Motte, the latter 
somewhere in the neighborhood of Fort Allison. The 
wife of Anderson wanted a cannon mounted on Dubois 
hill to deal out indiscriminate slaughter among the 
Indians. During the days of " forting," 1812-1815, a 
party of thirteen Rangers, one rainy day, were passing 
from Fort La Motte to Fort Allison, and, when within 
half a mile of the latter, were fired upon by a number of 
Indians. They suffered no bodily harm or incon- 
venience, save that of the strange circumstance that the 
handkerchiefs they were wearing about their necks 
were, in two cases, shot away. The party on leaving 
Fort La Motte, discharged their guns, as a precaution 
against wet priming, and, when fired upon, were unable 
to return the attack. As Austin Tann was returning, 
one day, from Small's Mill on the Erabarras, with a sack 
of meal, he was pursued by a band of Indians on ponies. 
He was riding a large horse and took refuge in the 
marsh, southwest of Russellville. His pursuers were 
unable to follow him with their ponies, and he escaped 
with the loss only of his grist. The pious community 
that settled at Russellville, established the pioneer 
church of Lawrence county. It was organized in 1817, 
and built a house of worship, in 1821. It was named 
Little Village church, which name was also given to the 
burial place that lay adjoining it. " Little Village " was 
an Indian hamlet that stood on the site of Russellville. 
This vicinity was an important one in the rude un- 
written annals of savage life. This is shown by the ex- 
istence of mounds, commonly in groups, scattered along 
the river for the distance of a mile and a half from 
Russellville south. Investigation shows that they were 
burial places, but whether they were used for ordinary 
interments or designed as monuments to the memory of 
those who had distinguished themselves in council or 
in battle, may be treated as a matter of conjecture. 
Among the characters of note, buried in this vicinity, 
was Little Turtle, the sworn enemy of the pale face, and 
the father of Captain William Wills, who had been 
taken captive, when a child, and who was killed in the 
Chicago massacre, iu 1812. Around his neck, in life, he 
wore a neatly carved figure of the -animal, whose dame 
he bore, and when he died it was buried with him, and 
was a few years ago exhumed. Among the tribes, rem 
nants of whom, at the advent of the white man, roamed 
over the territory of the county, in savage sport and 
pastime, by marsh and stream, and river and timber- 
skirt, were the Miamis, Pottawotamies, Delawares, 
Shawnees and others. The latter through Tecuraseh, 
claimed the whole of the W abash valley, and endeavored 
to annul the title of government to such territory as it 
had acquired from other tribes. The dramatic interview 
between Ttcumseh and Gov. Harrison in this behalf, has 
passed into history, and was witnessed by Austin laun, 

an early colored pioneer. Communication between the 
east and west shores of the Wabash, in the vicinity of 
Russellville, was had at an early day by means of a 
terry established and operated by a man named Lana- 
fere. Though most of the early settlements were made 
along the Wabash, a few found their way into the in- 
terior, along the Cahokia and Kaskaskia traces, and the 
Euibarras river. On the banks of this stream, about a 
mile and a quarter above its mouth, in 1805 or 1806, 
settled John Small. Shortly after this date, he built a 
frame water mill, which became familiarly known as 
I Small's mill. After Small's death his widow married 
I a man named Brown, and the mill was, in laier years, 
called Brown's. It was among the very earliest, if not 
; the first frame building, in the territory of Lawrence 
! county. The dam was built of hewed logs, supported by 
j rock and earth. It was a most important economic in- 
stitution in those early days, and commanded trade from 
a wide extent of country. It was doubtless watched 
by the lurking Indians with an eye of unrest, as he read 
! in it the sad prophecy of coming events. Tradition tells 
of many adventures with the natives at this point. 
Tecumseh and his fifteen hundred warriors encamped in 
this vicinity during the war of 1812. Some distance 
I above the mill, in a little log cabin, at a locality called 
l " Muscle shoals,'' lived William Harriman with his wife 
| and Tour children. Seneca Amy, a young man, lived 
with them. Mrs. Harriman, for two successive nights, 
i dreamed that she saw her children hurribly butchered. 
] She told her husband that she regarded the dreams as 
prophetic of their fate, unless they sought some place of 
' safety. He endeavored to quiet her fears, but became 
himself apprehensive on account of a sulky disposition 
manifested by the natives whom he met, and yielded to 
her importunities. The family had gone to the 
river edge, when young Amy started back for a gun 
they had forgotten. He had not advanced far, when he 
saw the cabin surrounded by Indians, and, unobserved, 
dodged into the brush and escaped. They immediately 
followed in pursuit of the family, and shot Harriman 
seated in a pirogue, and tomahawked the mother and 
children. Tradition says there were also other victims 
of this massacre, which took place about the year 1812. 
The girls are said to have been beautiful, and to have 
had magnificent heads of long hair. Still farther up the 
river, it is said, another family fell victims to savage 
ferocity. One day two men left the. block-house, at the 
mill, and went down to the marsh to shoot duck. They 
I were attacked and one of them was shot and toma- 
hawked and scalped. John and Levi Compton, of the 
] timber settlement in Wabush county, and Israel Potvine 
and Francis Tugaw buried him at the foot of a white oak 
I tree, upon which they chopped a cross, yet to be seen. 
! In 1805 or 1806, Wil.iam Spencer built a double log 
i house, where the Cahokia trace crossed the Embarras. 
j It was subsequently moved farther down the river to 
Small's mill. Shortly after this, Nathan Rawlings settled 
on Indian creek, at the crossing of the trace. 



With the exception of these few outpost settlements, room, whfre Judge Wilson was presiding, and hallooed 
the interior of Lawrence county remained unbroken ! out: " Judge Wilson, Judge Wilson, adjourn the court. 
wildernes till 1815, when the storm of war having I A most grievous outrage has been committed ; a nigger 
passed away, immigration, which for three years had i has hit a white man with a rock ! " The negro settle- 
been entirely checked or confined to the fortifications j ment, in the course of time, worked its way further 

along the Wabash, set rapidly in. The doors of the 
forts were also thrown open, and their inmates went 
forth to the avocations of peace. In this year the 
" Christian neighborhood," now the vicinity of Center- 
ville, was settled by people of the New Light, afterward 
the Christian faith, principally from Tennessee. Among 
them were the Harrises, Howards, Rigses, Ashbrooks. 
Johnsons, Leneves, Turners, Andersons, Adamses, 
Lemons, Berries, and others equally worthy of mention. 
This was an important centre of industry, good neigh- 
borhood, and education in that early day. The " Cen- 
ter School-house," a double log building designed for 
school and church purposes, was put up in 1816 or '17, 
and in point of antiquity and importance, deserves a 
place at the head of educational and church efforts in 
the State of Illinois. Henry Palmer and Eli Harris, 
both of whom came to the settlement in 1815, were re- 
spectively the pioneer minister and teacher. The 
colored inmates of Fort Allison began a settlement in 
the neighborhood of Pinkstaff station, and as they were 
law-abiding like their fair-complexioned fellow-citizens, 
so they shared equally with them the blessings of pro- 
tection and civil liberty. The soil of Illinois as a State 
is free from the taint of slavery. The sentiments of her 
people, with their broad liberality, and respect for the 
rights of man could never tolerate an institution whose 
essential features were a violation of those rights ; rights 

south, and is now mainly within the northern confines 
of Lawrence township. 

The next important settlement was that of a colony of 
Shakers, on the Embarras river, formed in 1819. The tenets 
and regulations of the sect were strictly carried out by this 
community. In their mode of life they were communistic, 
and their affairs were managed by a board of three 
trustees. The colony numbered about forty individuals, 
male and female, who lived separate and apart from 
each other. Their most important act was the building 
of the old " Shaker mill," the particulars of whose his- 
tory may be learned ffom the chapter on Bond Town- 
ship. The breaking and washing away of the mill dam 
about two years after their settlement, was the signal at 
which they Left for other parts, principally Shakertown, 
Indiana, whence they came. The four years interven- 
ing between the return of peace, in 1815, and the forma- 
tion of the settlement just mentioned brought many 
home seekers to the shores of Lawrence county, who 
penetrated into the interior. Their names will be found 
in their appropriate places in the township histories. 
They were a brave and hardy set of men, and nobly 
triumphed over the difficulties incident to life in a new 
country. Disease lingered in the marshes, the wild beasts 
stood ready to pounce on the fold, and the Indian, though 
nominally at peace with the pale face, was a walking 
embodiment of latent hostility that made the home of 

whose sacredness depends not upon the character of the I the settler a place of constant anxiety and unrest. 
owner, but upon the character of the rights themselves. James Baird was shot by an Indian while working in 

Most of the immigrants who brought slaves with them 
to the territory of Illinois, liberated them, as though her 
broad lauds and spreading prairies were a moral rebuke. 
An effort was made, in 1816 or '17, by two Tennesseeans, 
William and John Leach, father and son, to establish a 
slave farm or plantation on an extensive fcale in the 
neighborhood of Little Raccoon creek. This germ of 
the dark institution was crushed by the admission of 
Illinois into the Union as a free State. Not only did 
she guarantee liberty to those within her own borders, 
but in after years by her most gifted son, to every one 
within the broad limits of .the United States. Though 
a feeling of equality, regardless of race or color, was a 
prevailing sentiment among the pioneers yet it is not 
btrange that something of prejudice should have per- 

his field south of Russellville, in 1815 or 1816. In 1819 
a family of McCalls settled some distance north of Law- 
renceville. At that time, or (shortly after, a party of 
Delaware Indians, from a camp on Brushy Fork, came 
to McCall's cabin and demanded whisky. He refused 
compliance with their demand, and they murdered him. 
Kill Buck, a chief, Captain Thomas and Big Panther 
were convicted of the crime, but from motives of policy 
were suffered to go unpunished. Some time subsequent 
to 1824, the wolves one night almost entirely devoured a 
cow and the calf she had just given birth to, belonging 
to Renick Heath, then residing at the old Shaker mill. 
Eight wolves were found gormandizing on their flesh in 
the morning, and were with some difficulty driven off. 
An amusing and instructive incident, bearing upon the 

vaded the minds of some individuals. And in this con- | habits of the panther, is related by Mr. Heath, one of the 
nection it may be pertinent to mention an incident re- few pioneers who yet remain to tell the romanticrstories 
lated by Hon. O. B. Ficklih, not only as illustrating this i of early life in Illinois. One night a wolf was heard 
point, but as throwing light upon the administration of I barking violently some distance off. It continued till 
justice in the county's infancy. During a wrangle at | daybreak, when Mr. Heath, gun in hand, went to inves- 
a drinking place in Lawrenceville, a negro hit a white j tigate. He saw the wolf at some distance jumping up 
man with a rock, and severely injured him. Knowledge | and from side to side, as it kept up a constant barking. 
of the affair came to the ears of one of the early resident I He continued to advance, and when within a short dis- 
justices of the place, who rushed headlong into the court I tance of the wolf, was greatly surprised to observe a pan- 



ther, which had been the object of so much ado, leap 
from a limb. Both animals made good their escape. 
Beneath the tree lay the fresh, partially devoured body i 
of a raccoon, upon which the panther is supposed to ' 
have been feeding, when the wolf rudely obtruded. The 
former animal, when attacked, is readily induced to j 
ascend a tree, less perhaps as a refuge from, than as a j 
convenient means of attacking, an adversary. Game, | 
in the days of which we are writing, was abundant j 
almost to an extent exceeding our belief. The wild [ 
fowls were so numerous, that while they were an abun- j 
dant and convenient supply of food, they were a serious 
drawback to early husbandry, not only as destroying 
the fruits, but as discouraging the efforts of labor. 
Wheat fields were frequently completely destroyed by I 
them. Hunting was an important pursuit, and supplied j 
directly or indirectly the luxuries as well as the neces- 
saries of life. Every man was either by choice or 
necessity a hunter. Conspicuous among the former 
were Samuel Allison and Peter Paragin. Allison was 
not only an expert hunter, but was also skillful in Indian 
warfare. A day's hunt would frequently yield him fif- 
teen saddles of deer. If not the first American settler 
in Lawrence county, he was among the most conspicuous. 
One of his daughters-in-law, an English lady, whose 
maiden name was Rebecca Moody, made bullets in an | 
old oven for the colonists at the battles of Bunker Hill ; 
and Cowpens. Paragin was the pioneer of the north- ! 
western part of the county. He pushed his way into , 
the wilderness far in advance of his fellows, and by his i 
triumphs over the beasts of the forest, lent two names ! 
to the geographical vocabulary of the county. " Paragin 
slough " commemorates the killing of two bears, and 
" Eagle Branch " is an epitome of the story of the cap- 
ture on that stream of an eagle of extraordinary size. 
Not only did the flesh of wild animils serve for the set- 
tler's table, but their skins supplied the necessity of cloth- I 
ing. A pioneer with buckskin breeches, a homespun i 
coat, and a coonskin cap was an embodiment of these 
lines of Pope : 

" Happy the man whose wish and care 
Content to breathe his native air 

An important early industry was bee-hunting. The 
destiny of the Indian is to recede before the approach of 
the white man ; it is the province of the honey-bee to act 
on the rever-e, and precede the advance of civilization. 
The approach of the honey-bee was always a sad har- 
binger to the Indians, for they knew the pale faces were 
not far behind. At an early period bees were very 
numerous in Illinois, in the groves and along the skirts 
of timber; hence the product of the hive became a 
desirable commodity in trade and commerce ; and when 
the farmer wished a little " land office " money, this was 
an article that would readily command it. They would 
take their beeswax, deer-skins and peltries to the water- 
courses, and descend in their canoes or improvised boats 

constructed for the purpose, to New Orleans and other 
markets. Bee-hunting excursions were an annual occur- 
rence. In the spring, when the wild flower unfolded its 
petals, the search would begin. It was not only an 
avocation, but it was a science or trade, and an expert 
bee-hunter could find ready employment. The principal 
early agricultural industry was cotton-raising. Allison 
Prairie was the cotton-field of the Wabash Valley. Its 
cultivation began some time prior to 1820, and con- 
tinued for several years. Cotton gins were not uncom- 
mon, and the spinning-wheel was in every cabin. The 
raising of cattle and hogs was likewise an important 
industry. Wild grass and mast for their sustenance 
were abundant. Illinois has always assumed an honor- 
able part in the matter of education, so materially con- 
cerning the welfare of a free people ; and as soon as an 
immigration set in the school teacher was abroad in the 

Among those who taught in the cftunty limits from 
1817 to 1819 were Mrs. Clark, Agnes Corrie, George 
Godfrey, I-aiah Lewis, Larkin Ryle, John Martin, Jas. 
Swainey, Borden and Fleming. The school teacher and 
the minister went hand in hand, and, in many instances, 
performed the same office. The same rude log structure 
served alike for the school and as a house of worship. 
The early resident ministers were : Revs. Blithe Mc- 
Corcle, Mr. Stone, John Clark, Richard B. McCorcle, 
William Ramsey, John Dollahan, Samuel Borden, Wil- 
liam Kincaid, Daniel Travis, and others, among whom 
was " Squealing Johnny " Parker, as he was called. He 
styled himself a " Two-see Baptist." Travelling preach- 
ers frequently came into the territory, and among them 
were James Hughes, John Rodgers, David McDonald, 
Elijah Gooden, Peter Cartwright and Lorenzo Dow. 
One of the most needed and poorly supplied blessings 
of pioneer life were mills. Long and hazardous journeys 
were necessary to secure the grinding of a bag of meal. 
Small's mill, on the Embarras, built in 1805 or 1806, 
was one of the earliest in the State of Illinois ; but, 
considering the difficulty of reaching it through dense 
forests and swollen streams, it was scarcely a convenience 
except to a few. 

We have thus set forth briefly the dangers and hard- 
ships of those who paved the way for whatever is 
grand in morals or government or magnificent in struc- 
ture in the county of Lawrence. Let the reader compare 
the present with the past, and then let him reflect how 
rapid has been the march of progress and how marvellous 
has been the change. 


The county of Wabash is an offspring of Edwards 
county ; yet the first settlements made within the vast 
boundaries of the latter were within the limits of what 
is now Wabash county. 

The first settlers were a few French families, who 
located on the Wabash river, near the point known as 


Rochester, in Coffee precinct. This was about 1800. families. In the time of the Indian troubles, at a pre- 
Prominent among these was the family of Tougas, also concerted signal, the families of the settlement would 
named Lavulette. This occured from Mrs. Tougas take refuge in the fort, where they would remain until 
marrying a man by the name of Lavulette, and some of it was pronounced safe to leave. In about 1817, Mr. 
the children of Mrs. Tougas, assumed the name of their ' Compton moved to township 2 south, range 14 west, and 
step-father. There were four brothers, August, William, i settled in section 13, where he spent the remainder of 

Joseph, and Francis. They were all well formed, athle- 
tic men, and possessed of such material as to brave the 

his days. He was a representative man, and had the 
honor of being a member of the first Constitutional Con- 

wilds of the frontier. The former is said to have been I vention in 1818. From 1818 to 1820, he was in the 
six and one-half feet in stature. During the Indian State Senate. He died about 1844, at the advanced 
troubles, they remained and trafficked with them. The I age of eighty years. One son, Joseph Compton, is a 
Indians both feared and respected them. The word of i citizen of Coffee 'precinct, and U said to be the first 
August among the treacherous Piankashaws was law, j white child born in the county. 

and it is said that he even went so far as to inflict pun Joshua Jordan was also from Virginia, and at his 
ishment upon some of the tribe for petty theft. An . coming had a family of four children. While a resident 
Indian is bound to respect and admire his superior in I of that State, for a time, he was a tenant of George 
strength. In this capacity, August had demonstrated j Washington, and was with the General at the memora- 
to their picked warriors, that he was their superior, by . ble Braddock's defeat. On coming to Illinois, he located 
friendly hand to hand, athletic sports with them. It i in section 12, near Mr. Compton. He remained here 
was through this means that they stood in such awe and several years, when he removed to Barney's prairie, 
fear of him. While others were massacred and pillaged, where he resided until his death. 

he was never disturbed. In 1838 he sold his posses- A pioneer of 1804, was John Stillwell, a native of 
sions at Rochester and moved to Mt. Carmel, where he ! Kentucky. He had a family of two sons, Samuel and 
engaged in the hotel business. He continued in this ! James. Besides his family he had a negro slave by the 
calling for several years, when he returned to Coffee pre- ! name of Armstead. From the records of 1822, we find 
cinct, where he died in 1849. His eldest daughter, that the slave was liberated in that year. Mr. Stillwell 
Mrs. Stewart, is now a resident of Texas. One daugh- j located on the southwest quarter of section 12, where 
ter, wife of Captain Sharp, lives in Mt. Carmel. William [ he improved quite a farm for those days. He con- 
was a man of a family when he moved from Vincennes structed a stockade during the Indian troubles, for the 
to the county, locating near the mouth of Coffee creek, protection of his family and stock. It is said that he 
with the rest of the family. He remained here a few I was a very eccentric man. Although one of the wealth- 
years, when he moved to the banks of Raccoon creek, j iest citizens among the early settlers, he took pleasure 
in Lawrence county. Two years afterward he removed j in wearing the poorest of clothes, and bearing the most 
to near Vincennes. After a short stay here he re- shabby of appearances. It is related of him, that at 
turned to Coffee precinct and permanently located in sec- j one time he lost his hat, and from that time forth he 
tion 10, township 2 south, range 13 west. This was about | went bareheaded, until such time as he said his hat should 
1816. He built and operated a horse mill, which was j have lasted. Many are the peculiarities related of him, 
one of the first in the county. He died on his farm at the j by those who knew him personally or by reputation, 
age of 75 years. Joseph and Francis Tougas, subse- [ Hemovidto Bellmont precinct in 1820, and perma- 
quently located at St. Francisville, in Lawrence county. \ nently located in section 21. 

Enoch Greathouse was a pioneer of 1804, and set- 
tled on the land now occupied by the city of Mt. 
Carmel. He was a native of Germany, and on coming 
to the States he first stopped in Pennsylvania, sub- 

The first American settlement was made in what is 
now Wabash precinct, in about 1802. Those having 
the honor of striking the first blow toward civilization 
in this part of the county, were Levi Compton and 

Joshua Jordan, brothers-in-law. The former was a j sequently moved to Kentucky, and from thence to 
native of Virginia, but as early as 1791, he moved to Illinois. He had a family of a wife and four children, 
Kentucky, and from thence to Illinois in the year above I also one grand-child. In 1817, he sold his property at 
stated. He then had a family of a wife and six chil- j Mt. Carmel, and moved to the now extinct town of Cen- 
dren. He first located on the Wabash river, in section j terville, where he died long ago, at the age of 110 years. 
26, township 1 north, range 12 west, where he constructed | Several of his descendants are citizens of this and 
a cabin and improved a few acres of land. Not liking | Edwards county. Mrs. Sylvester Greathouse, of Mt. 
the locality, he removed to section 12. It was here, in Carmel, is a great-grand-daughter. 
1814, that he built what was probably the first John Degan was one of the early French settlers of 
horse-mill in the county. A fort was also built here Coffee precinct, and came a short time after the Lavu- 
about 1810, which was known as Compton fort It was ; letts. He was originally from Detroit, Michigan, and 
enclosed with a palisade and contained dwellings, grana- in his movement westward he first stopped at Vincennes, 
ries, booths, etc., for the convenience of the inmates, and and from thence to the French settlement in Wabash 
was sufficient in size to accommodate about one hundred county. He first located at Rochester, his family then 



consisting of his wife and two sons, Henry and William, 
and a step-son, Frank Burway. Two years later he 
permanently settled in section 10, where he engaged in ' 
stock raising. He died here in 1848, leaving a family, 
some of whom are yet living at or near the old home. 

Joseph Burway and Joseph Pichinant were also early 
French settlers. In 1815, they were both killed by the j 
Indians in the Coffee bottoms. They had gone in search 
of their horses, and while tramping through the bot- \ 
toms, were surprised by the red-skins and massacred. ; 
Only one, Burway, carried a rifle, Pichinant being mar- 
ried. Three other pioneers were in the bottoms at the 
time, and heard the report of Burway's rifle, followed 
by a volley of several guns. They surmised the cause, 
and soon roused the settlement to action. On going to 
the point where the firing was heard, the dead and muti- 
lated bodies of the unfortunate men were found. The 
Indians were pursued, but were not overtaken. From ; 
the evidences on their trail, Burway had fought desper- ' 
ately before he was killed, as several dead Indians were 
found along the trail. 

Francis Degan, brother of John before mentioned, 
came with his family in about 1811, and settled on the ! 
bluff, a little below Rochester. He had two sons, 
Augustus and Francis, Jr. The latter is yet living, and 
is one of the prominent citizens of Coffee precinct. 

John Wood came from Kentucky, in the spring of 
1809, and erected a small cabin in section 36, township I 
1 north, range 13 west, now Friendsville precinct. He j 
then returned to Kentucky, and in the fall moved his 
family to his new made home. He soon cultivated a 
little farmland was one of the first to plant an orchard j 
in the county. A year latter, he and his few neighbors 
were obliged to erect a fort to protect their families 
against the marauding bands of Indians. The neigh- ' 
borhood was always on the sharp look-out for the red j 
skins, but strange to say, this settlement was never dis- 
turbed by them. John Wood Jr., is the only survivor 
of the pioneer family. He resides on the farm where 
his father first settled. Joseph Wood, a son of the latter, 
came here in an early day prior to his father, and set- 
tled in section 30, township 1 north, range 13 west, 
where he remained until his death, leaving quite a 

William Barney located in the same settlement about 
the same time as Mr. Wood. He was from Western 
New York, on the banks of the Genesee. He ex- ! 
changed his live stock for a raft of lumber at the Alle- ; 
gheny river, and upon this he and his family floated 
down to the mouth of the Wabash. Here he sold his ' 
raft, and purchased a keel boat and poled his way to 
Ramsey's rapids. The male members went overland 
through the timber toselect a site for a home. A broad 
stretch of prairie came to view, and it was here that they 
pitched their tent, and soon afterwards threw up a cabin. 
Since which time this part of the county has been : 
known as Barney's prairie. HU cabin was erected near 
where the Friendsville Academy now stands. Judge j 

Barney became an influential man in the county, and 
was always among the foremost in lending a hand to 
improve and develop the county. He was one of the 
three first County Commissioners, which position he held 
for several years. A fort was erected near his place in 

1811, which took the name of Barney's Fort. It was 
large and commodious, sufficient to accommodate all the 
families in the settlement. A well may yet beseen, which 
was dug within the fort, a relic of ye olden time. In 

1812, the fort was felt to be insecure, and all the parties 
moved over into Indiana and passed the winter in a 
block-house. In the spring they returned to their 
homes, and although the Shawnees were plenty and still 
hostile, yet the settlers of Barney's prairie were unmo- 
lested. Mr. Barney died many years ago, on his farm 
in section 23, a little southwest of Frieudsville. 

Shortly after Mr. Barney's advent here, his three 
sons-in-law moved into the settlement. They were Ran- 
som Higgins, Philo Ingraham, and Wilbour Aldridge. 
The former was a large athletic man, and possessed of 
more than ordinary courage. He built one of the first 
water-mills in this region of the country. It was sit- 
uated on Barney's Prairie creek, and was constructed 
as early as 1813. One of his sons was accidentally killed 
by one of the rangers while target shooting at Barney's 
fort. His remains were buried in the Friendsville cem- 
etery, and it was the first interment made there. 

Philo Ingrah'am located in section twenty, near Mr. 
Barney, where he lived until 1840, when he moved to 
Clay county. Mr. Aldridge settled on the northwest 
quarter of section 24. 

Nathaniel Claypole emigrated here in 1814, and set- 
tled in section thirty-two, Friendsville precinct. He 
was a prominent citizen, and very popular among his 
acquaintances. He was appointed the first County and 
Circuit Clerk after the organization of Edwards county, 
and died while in office, in 1815. Thomas Pulliam came 
in the same year as the above, and located in section 
thirty-two, township two north, range 12 west. His 
name appears upon the records as the assessor of Em- 
barras township as early as 1817. He lived here on his 
farm until his death, which occurred long ago. Near 
Pulliam 's lived John and Moses Decker. Their settle- 
ment was also made in 1814. The prairie upon which 
they located bears their name. 

One of the most prominent settlers of 1813 or '14 was 
Seth Gard, who came from Ohio, and permanently 
located in section twenty-eight, now Lick Prairie pre- 
cinct. The locality where he settled was known as 
Card's Point, and the post-office established there in an 
early day, is still known by that name. Judge Gard 
was a man of great force of character, and endowed with 
more than ordinary ability and cool judgment He 
possed a quiet vein of humor, a keen sense of the ridic- 
ulous, and thorough convictions of right and justice. 
He was a representative man in every sense of the word, 
and his counsel was sought on every hand by the early 
settlers When Edwards county was organized, he was 


chosen to represent its people in the Territorial Legisla- 
ture, which position he occupied until the admission of! 
the State, in 1818. He was appointed one of the judges j 
of the first County Court, and was one of the members 
of the Constitutional Convention at Kaskaskia, in 1818. ' 
In fact, he was in public life until he became too infirm 
to longer bear the responsibilities incurred thereby. 
Aaron Waggoner, a nephew of Judge Gard, came with \ 
him and located near his premises. He was a stone- j 
mason by trade, and proved a useful acquisition to the 
little colony. In the same year, Jacob Claypole settled I 
in section four, township one north, range thirteen west. 

William Jordan, Nathaniel Osgood, Benjamin Rey- i 
nolds, and Henry I. Mills settled in what is now Lan- 
caster precinct in 1814. The former was from Kentucky j 
and had a family of four children. In about 1818, he 
erected a large distillery on his premises. He remained 
on his farm until his death. The Osgood family came 
from Ohio. It consisted of a married son, Nathaniel, 
and four other children. Reynolds was from Kentucky, 
and had a family of three sons, John, Richard, and 
Harrison, and four daughters. In 1820 he built a j 
horse-mill and distillery on his farm. He lived here 
until his death. Col. Henry I. Mills remained here but | 
a few years, when he moved over into Edwards county, j 
a sketch of whom has already been given. John Ar- 
nold, son-in-law of William Jordan, came with the latter 
from Kentucky, and settled near his father-in-law. He 
was among the early Justices of the Peace, and in 1832, 
was commissioned captain in the Black Hawk war. 
He subsequently moved to Wayne county, where he died. 
Tarlton Borin was a settler of 1815. He permanently 
located in Lancaster precinct. In about 1828, he es- 
tablished a tannery, which was a great convenience to 
the settlement. One daughter, Mrs. Cunningham, re- 
sides in the precinct. 

John Mclntosh, an influential pioneer, was a native 
of Virginia, born of Scotch parents. As early as 1785, 
he emigrated from Kentucky, and from thence to Illinois, 
in 1814. He then had a family of six children. He 
first stopped in the Compton fort a few months, when he 
moved to section 23, Wabash precinct, where he re- 
mained but a short time, removing to Coffee precinct. 
Not liking this section of the country, he returned to 
Wabash precinct, where he made a permanent settle- 
ment in section 23. He was a representative man, and 
popular with the people. On the organization of Ed- 
wards county, he was appointed one of the three mem- 
bers of the County Court, which position he held for 
several terms. In 1816, he was selected counsel for that 
court in the place of Thomas C. Browne. He was a 
public spirited man, and did much in aiding to organize 
and regulate the affairs of the county. His death oc- 
curred at his farm in 1829. Some are residing 
in the county. Charles Garner, a son in-law 
of Judge Mclntosh, also came from Kentucky, in 
1814, and settled in section 23, Wabash precinct. Other 
settlers of this precinct, in 1815, were Benjamin Hul- 

bert, Henry Leek, Samuel Simcoe, John Armstrong, 
Joseph Gardner, and Peter Keen. The former came 
from New Jersey, having a large family of children 
when he made his advent here. He located in section 
13. Henry Leek was a son-in-law of Hulbert, and was 
noted as a great hunter, and a skilled mechanic. He 
remained but a short time, when he moved to other 
parts. Armstrong came from Tennessee, and settled in 
section 15. He had six sons, one of whom, Abner, was 
appointed the first sheriffof Edwards county. Another 
son, Thomas, represented Wabash county in the Legis- 
lature one term, and was also Judge of the County 
Court. Gardner settled in section 9. Peter Keen came 
to the county on a prospecting tour in 1814, when he 
returned to his family in Ohio. The spring following 
he came to the county, and after shifting about for a 
few years he permanently settled in section 14, town- 
ship 1 north, range 13 west. He remained here until 
his death in 1850. Two of the pioneer children 
are yet living, Shulamite and Ira. The latter resides at 
Friendsville, and is eighty two years of age. 

William Mclntosh settled in the north part of Mt. 
Carmel precinct, as early as 1814. He owned a large 
tract of land known as " Mclntosh " Reserve." He 
erected quite a large mansion, for those days, situated 
near the Wabash, at the foot of the rapids. He was a 
single man, but had colored servants to conduct his 
household affairs. He died many years ago. 

A prominent early settler was Henry Utter, who came 

! to the county in about 1814 or '15, and located in 
Friendsville precinct. He was elected a member of the 
Legislature in 1818, the year of the State's admission 

' into the Union. In 1824, he was again elected to fill 
the same position. In 1821, he was one of the members 

| of the county board. Some of his descendants are liv- 
ing in the county. Gervase Hazleton was one of the 
first settlers at old Palmyra. The first courts were held 
at his residence. He was the third County Clerk of 
what was then Ed wards county, serving from 1821 to 1823. 

I A settlement was formed at Campbell's Lauding, in 
Coffee precinct, as early as 1810. One of the most prom- 

| nent settlers was James Campbell, of Scotch descent. 
He came from Kentucky, and had quite a large family, 

I besides owning thirteen slaves, whom he set at liberty 
some time after coming to Illinois. It is said that eleven 
of them were subsequently kidnapped and sold back into 

i slavery. At one time the family was obliged to flee 
across the river to save being massacred at the hands of 
the Piafikashaws. Others of the settlement were, Henry 
Painter, Henry Gambrel, a man by the name of Parks, 
John Cannon, and his son in-law, John Starks, and John 
Grayson. The latter located in section 31. He was a 
man of push and enterprise, and was the first to erect a 
water-mill in this part of the county. Some of his de- 

i scendants are residing here. A portion of the Cannon 

! family were massacred by the Indians, an account of 
which will be found in this chapter. 

Daniel Keen and David Wright also located in this 



settlement iu about 1815. The former was a sou of 
Peter Keen, heretofore mentioned. He became an" in- 
fluential citizen iu the neighborhood, and was elected a 
member of the county board, which office he filled for 
several years. Wright came from Ohio. He was then 
a widower. He afterwards married Sarah Mclntosh, 
and settled in section 22, range 13 west. Robert E. 
Wright, a son, now r< siding at Mt. Oarinel. Other early 
settlers of Coffee precinct may be mentioned, Elijah 
Compton, Walter Garner, James Lansdowu, John 
Craddock, Charles P. Burns, who was one of the first 
Justice of the Peace ; Daniel Groves, John McCleary, 
Thomas Baird, Reuben Blackford, Henry Bignon, Jas. 
Chism, Elias Jordon, the Cowlings, James and John 
Gray, James Kennerly, John Nesler, and others. 

In 1816, quite a little colony left Alleghany county, 
New York, to make their homes upon the wild frontiers. 
Among these with their families, were George W. Hig- 
gins, John Higgios, Willis Higgins, Edward Brines, 
Henry Utter, Lemuel Haskins, David Moss, John 
Harrison, Benjamin Smith, and Levi Couch. They 
secured boats at the Alleghany river and floated down 
to the Ohio, and thence to Evansville. Here they pro- 
cured keel-boats and came up the Wabash, landing at 
Old Palmyra. Of this little band of emigrants, five 
families settled in Lancaster precinct, John Higgins, 
Couch, Moss, Harrison and Smith. The others located 
in Friendsville. Others of an early date who located in 
Lancaster precinct were, Isaac Harues, Henry Cusick, 
James McMullen, George and David Pugh, George and 
Andrew Knight, James Rollins, Jessie Jones, Geo. Glick> 
Elias Baily, Rozander Smith, Samuel Fisher and others. 

The first settlers of Bellmont precinct were John and 
Jacob Arnold, Staly D. McKlure, and a man by the 
name of Mpturey. This was in 1816 The latter settled 
in section 24, town 1 south, range 14 west. John 
Arnold came with his family from Kentucky. He was 
a distinguished hunter and had no fixed abiding place- 
He subsequently moved to Missouri, James, his brother, 
a single man, afterwards married and settled in 
section 5, township 2 south. McKlure was also from 
Kentucky. He located in section 28, towiship 1, range 
13 west, where he remained until his death. Other early 
settlers of Btllmont precinct were, William Wilson, 
George Wheeler, William Tanquary, Jonathan Gilkin- 
son, William Deputy, Robert James, and Samuel Riggs, 
Andrew T. Dyar, Joseph Ballard, Christ Ernsc, Samuel 
Fettinger, Rodarn Kenner, William Hunter, John 
Proctor, William Weir, A. W. Cory, Joseph Sloan and 
John Frair. 

Cornelius Vanderhoof was a settler of Wabash pre- 
cinct as early as 1816. S. E. Goff settled in section 14, 
of the same precinct at about the same time. Among 
others who made early settlements in this precinct may 
be mentioned, John W. Buchanan, William Johnson, 
Mrs. Margaret Filpot, Hugh Calahan, John Andrew, 
Joseph Wright, John Buchanon, John Snider, Thomas 
Cisel, Isaac Smith and James Payne. 

One of the prominent early settlers of Mt. Carmel 
precinct, was the Rev. Thomas S. Hinde, a native of 
Virginia. He came from Ohio to Illinois, in 1817, and 
in connection with others, founded the city of Mt. Car- 
mel. He was a man of strict moral convictions, and did 

i much good in the age which he lived Hediedat Mt Car- 
mel in 1846. Other early settlers of Mt. Carmel precinct 
were, Rev. William Beauchaimp, Hiram Bell, Joshua 
and James Beall, Isaac Ingersoll, Edward Ulm, Scoby 
Stewart, Aaron Gould, Joseph Jones, James Townshend, 
James Black, Abraham Russell, William Simonds, 
William Stone, Beauchamp Harvey, John Tilton, Capt. 
James Sharp and others. Capt. Sharp is yet living, and 
is a citizen of Mt. Carmel. 

John Dale settled in Friendsville precinct, in 1815, on 
section 20. He was a farmer and mechanic, and was 
noted for his cleverness in horse trading. In the same 
year, Henry McGregor located here not far from Dale. 
Among others of early times, who came to this precint 
were, John Smith Jr., William and James Pool, Josiah 
Higgins, Ephraim Reed, the Knapps, John Shadle, 
Charles and John McNair, the Osgoods, George Lither- 
land, William Brown, John White, Benjamin Taylor, 

I Z. Warner, David Daily and some others. 

Philip Hull settled iu Lick Prairie precinct, in 1815, 

I section 28. Ephraim Armstrong from Tennessee,, locat- 
ed in section 30, near Hall. Samuel Mundy, Louis 
Armstrong, William Ulm, James Wiley, Jacob Gupton, 
Calvin Morgan, Benjamin T. Hill, Adam Baird, Fred- 

j erick Miller and John Moore were also early settlers in 

! the precinct. 

Pioneer Mills. Among the first were the " band 
Mills." A description of one will not prove uninterest- 
ing. The plan was cheap. The horse power consisted 
of a large upright shaft, some ten or twelve feet in hight 
with some eight or ten long arms let into the main shaft 
and extending out from it fifteen feet. Auger holes 
were bored into the arms on the upper side at the end, 

! into which woooden pins were driven. This was called 
the '' big wheel," and was as has been seen, about twenty 
feet in diameter. The raw hide belt or tug was made of 
skins taken off of beef cattle, which were cut into str'ps 
three inches in width ; these were twisted into a round 
cord or tug, which was long enough to encircle the cir- 
cumference of the big wheel. There it was held in place 
by the wooden pins, then to cross and pass under a shed 
to run around a drum, or what is called a "trunnel 
head," which was attached to the grinding apparatus. 
The horses or oxen were hitched to the arms by means 
of raw hide tugs. Then walking in a circle the machin- 
ery would be set in motion. To grind twelve bushels 

! of corn was considered a good day's work on a band 

I mill. 

The most rude and primitive method of manufactur- 
g meal was by the use of the Grater. A plate of tin 

! is pierced with many holes, so that one side is very 
rough. The tin is made oval, and then nailed to a 

i board. An ear of corn was rubbed hard on this grater 


whereby the meal was forced through the holes, and fell 
down into a vessel prepared to receive it. An improve- 
ment on this was the Hand mill. The slones were 
smaller than those of the band mill, and were propelled 
by man or woman power. A hole is made in the upper 
stone, and a staff of wood is put in it, and the other end 
of the staff is put through a hole in a plank above, so 
that the hole is free to act. One or two persons take 
hold of this staff and turn the upper stone as rapidly as 
possible. An eye is made in the upper stone, through 
which the corn is put into the mill, instead of a hopper. 
A mortar, wherein corn was beaten into meal, is made 
out of a large round log three or four feet long. One 
end is cut or burnt out so as to hold a peck of corn, 
more or less, according to circumstances. This mortar 
is set one end on the ground, and the other up, to hold 
Ihe corn. A sweep is prepared over the mortar so that 
the spring of the pole raises the piston, and the hands at 
it force it so hard down on the corn that after much 
beating, meal is manufactured. 

The trials, inconveniences, dangers and hardships of 
the pioneers would fill volumes. As early as 1811, each 
settlement was obliged to have its fort or block-house to 
flee to at a moment's warning for protection from the 
marauding bands of Indians. Several of these forts 
have already been mentioned. The Greathouse fort was 
situated on Greathouse creek, in section 30, township 1 
south, range 13 west. From 1811 to 1815, this fort was 
occupied by more or less families. Tradition relates of 
an episode, that occurred at fort Ramsey in about 1812. 
In the most troublesome times the women and children 
were placed in the forts, while the men would work in 
the fields, gun in hand, ready for any emergency. Others 
were detailed to scout around and to keep a sharp look- 
out for the murderous red skins. One Ramsey was too 
fearless to go into the fort, declaring he could protect 
himself. The rangers had been out on a scout, and on 
return thought they would give him a scare, his cabin 
being not far from the fort, they gave a terrific war 
whoop, fired their guns, and came thundering toward 
the fort. Captain Higgins, inside, cried out, " The 
Indians, the Indians. Every man to his post! At this 
moment the ponderous gate swung open, and an army 
seemed to be entering. The women screamed, believing 
that they all would soon be scalped. Cries, prayers, and 
snatching of babies by women in undress continued for 
some time to the amusement of the Rangers. The joke 
turned out far more serious for the women than it did 
for Ramsey. The only means of grinding their meal in 
the forts, was by crushing it in a mortar. Families 
would take turns in performing this slow and arduous 
task, for it must be remembered these were times when 
a small army had to be fed. Harrison Ingraham, who 
died in Clay county, Illinois, a few years ago, in an ar- 
ticle of the Pioneer Times, published in one of the Mt. 
Carmel papers centennial year, says that he was born in 
Fort Barney, and that he has heard his mother relate 
that the day before he was born, she went to the fields 

and plucked, wheat, rubbed it out with her hands, 
crushed it in a mortar, and made a cake to set before her 
friends on that occasion. This was said to be the first 
wheat bread manufactured in Wabash county. 

A circumstance occurred in 1815, which threw the 
early settlers into a fever of fear and excitement. It 
was what has passed into history as 


The account of the sad affair as related by one of Mr. 
Cannon's daughters a few years ago, is substantially as 
follows : Mr. Cannon and his sons cajne across the Wabash 
from the Indiana side, and constructed a cabin near 
Campbell's Landing in Coffee precinct, on the ground 
where the Painter grave-yard is now located. No signs 
of Indians were seen while they were engaged in the 
work, and they supposed they had all left. After com- 
pleting the cabin, they crossed the river to bring over 
the family. Late in the afternoon of the same day, they 
all moved over and settled in their new home. While 
building their house, they had found a bee-tree, and after 
becoming fairly settled, the men went into the timber to 
cut it. While thus engaged a band of Indians suddenly 
j fell upon them. Mr. Cannon was instantly killed, and 
the others fled for their lives. Samuel, a son, was soon 
overtaken and dispatched by the murderous foe. They 
cut off his head and otherwise mutilated the body, leav- 
ing it where he fell. Mrs. Cannon, a daughter, and a son- 
in-law by the name of Starks, were captured and carried 
off by the Indians. They were, however, subsequently 
ransomed. Mr. Cannon and his son were buried by two 
neighbors, Samuel Mclntosh and Henry Gambrel. They 
were wrapped in a horse skin and placed in one grave. 
This was the first interment made in the Painter burial 


The pioneers were destitute of many of the conven- 
iences of life, and of some things that are now con- 
sidered necessaries ; but they patiently endured their lot 
and hopefully looked forward to better. They had 
plenty to wear as protection against the weather, and an 
abundance of wholesome food. They sat down to a rude 
table to eat from tin or pewter dishes ; but the meat 
thereon spread the flesh of the deer or bear; of the 
wild duck or turkey ; of the quail or squirrel was su- 
perior to that we eat, and had been won by the skill of 
the head of the house or of that of his vigorous sons. 
The bread they ate was made from corn or wheat of 
their own raising. They walked the green carpet of the 
grand prairie or forest that surrounded them, not with 
the air of a beggar, but with the elastic step of a self-re- 
spected freeman. 

The settler brought with him the keen axe, which was 
indispensable, and the equally necessary rifle ; the first 
his weapon of offense against the forests that skirted the 
water-courses, and near which he made his home ; the 


second that of defence from the attacks of his foe, the 
cunniug child of the forest and prairie. His first labor 
was to fell trees and erect his unpretentious cabin, which 
was rudely made of logs, and in the raising of which he 
had the cheerful aid of his neighbors. It was usually 
from fourteen to sixteen feet square, and never larger 
than twenty feet, and was frequently built entirely with- 
out glass, nails, hinges or locks. 

The manner of building was as follows: First large 
logs were laid in position as sills ; on these were placed 
strong sleepers, and on the sleepers were laid the rough- 
hewed puncheons, which were to serve as floors. The 
logs were then built up till the proper height for the 
eaves were reached ; then on the ends of the building 
were placed poles, longer than the other end-logs, which 
projected some eighteen or more inches over the sides, 
and were called " butting pole sleepers ; " on the project- 
ing ends of these was placed the " butting pole " which 
served to give the line to the first row of clap-boards. 
These were, as a matter of course, split, and as the gables 
of the cabin were built up, were so laid on as to lap a 
third of their length. They were often kept in place 
by the weight of a heavy pole, which was laid across 
the roof parallel to the ridge-pole. The house was then 
chinked, and daubed with a coarse mortar. 

A huge fire-place was built in at one end of the 
house, in which fire was kindled for cooking purposes, 
for the settlers generally were without stoves, and which 
furnished the needed warmth in winter. The ceiling 
above was sometimes covered with the pelts of the rac- 
coon, opossum, and of the wolf, to add to the warmth 
of the dwelling. Sometimes the soft inner bark of the 
bass wood was used for the same purpose. The cabin 
was lighted by means of greased paper-windows. A log 
would be left out along one side, and sheets of strong 
paper, well greased with coon-grease or bear-oil, would 
be carefully tacked in. 

The above description only applies to the very earliest 
times, before the rattle of the saw-mill was heard within 
our borders. 

The furniture comported admirably with the house 
itself, and hence if not elegant, was in most perfect taste. 
The tables had four leg*, and were rudely made from a 
puncheon. Their seats were stools having three or 
four legs. The bedstead was in keeping with the restj 
and was often so contrived as to permit it to be drawn 
up and fastened to the wall during the day, thus afford- 
ing more room to the family. 

The entire furniture was simple, and was framed with 
no other tools than an axe and auger. Each was his own 
carpenter; and some displayed considerable ingenuity 
in the construction of implements of agriculture, and 
utensils, and furniture for the kitchen and house. 
Knives and forks they sometimes had, and sometimes 
had not. The common table-knife was the pack- knife 
or butcher-knife. Horse-collars were sometimes made 
of the plaited husk of the maize sewed together. They 
were easy on the neck of the horse, and if tug traces 

were used, would last a long while. Horses were not 
used very much, however, and oxen were almost exclu- 
'. sively used. In some instances carts and wagons were 
constructed or repaired by the self-reliant settler ; and 
the woful creakings of the untarred axles could be heard 
at a great distance. 

The women corresponded well with the description of 

the virtuous woman in the last chapter of Proverbs, for 

they " sought wool and flax, and worked willingly with 

i their hands." They did not, it is true, make for them- 

i selves " coverings of tapestry," nor could it be said of them 

that their "clothing was silk and purple;" but they 

" rose while it was yet night, and gave meat to their 

household," and they "girded their loins with strength 

and strengthened their arms." They "looked well to the 

1 ways of their household, and eat not the bread of idle- 

! ness." They laid " their hands to the spindle and to the 

' distaff," and " strength and honor were in their cloth- 

| ing." 

I In these days of furbelows and flounces, when from 

| twenty to thirty yards are required by one fair damsel 

i for a dress, it is refreshing to know that the ladies of 

j that ancient time considered eight yards an extravagant 

amount to put into one dress. The dress was usually 

made plain with four widths in the skirt, and two front 

ones cut gored. The waist was made very short, and 

across the shoulders behind was a draw-string. The 

sleeves were enormously large, and tapered from shoulder 

to wrist, and the most fashionable for fashion, like love, 

rules like the " court and grove" were padded so as to 

resemble a bolster at the upper part, and were known as 

" mutton-legs," or " sheep-shank sleeves." The sleeve 

was kept in shape often by a heavily starched lining. 

Those who could afford it used feathers, which gave the 

sleeve the appearance of an inflated balloon from elbow 

1 up, and were known as " pillow-sleeves." 

Many bows and ribbons were worn, but scarcely any 
jewelry. The tow dress was superseded by the cotton 
I gown. Around the neck, instead of a lace collar or ele- 
j gant ribbon, there was disposed a copperas-colored 


! The women manufactured nearly all the clothing worn 

I by the family. In cool weather gowns made of "linsey 

woolsey " were worn by the ladies. The chain was 

of cotton and the filling of wool. The fabric was usually 

plaid or striped, and the differing colors were blended 

according to the taste and fancy of the fair maker. 

Colors were blue, copperas, turkey-red, light blue, etc. 

Every house contained a card-loom and spinning-wheels, 

which were considered by the women as necessary for 

' them as the rifle for the men. Several different kinds 

of cloth were made. Cloth was woven from cotton. The 

i rolls were bought and spun, on little and big wheels, 

j into two kinds of thread; one the "chain," and the 

other the " filling." The more experienced only spun 

the chain ; the younger the filling. Two kinds of looms 

: were in use. The most primitive in construction was 

called the " side-loom." The frame of it consisted of 


two pieces of scantling running obliquely from the floor 
to the wall. Later, the frame loom, which was a great 
improvement over the other, came into use. 

The men and boys wore "jeans" and linsey-woolsey 
shirts. The "jeans" were colored either light blue or 
butternut. , 

Many times when the men gathered to a log-rolling or 
barn-raising, the women would assemble bringing their 
spinning-wheels with them. In this way sometimes as 
many as ten or twelve would gather in one room, and 
the pleasant voices of the fair spinners were mingled 
with the low hum of the spinning-wheels. "Oh! golden 
early days!" 

Such articles of apparel as could not be manufactured 
were brought to them from the nearest store by the mail- 
carrier. These were few, however. The men and boys, 
in many instances, wore pantaloons made of the dressed 
skin of the deer, which then swarmed the prairies in 
large herds. The young man who desired to look capti- 
vating to the eye of the maiden whoni he loved, had his 
" bucks " fringed, which lent to them a not unpleasing 
effect. Meal-sacks were also made of buckskin. Caps 
were made of the skins of the wolf, fox, wildcat and 
muskrat tanned with the fur on. The tail of the fox or 
wolf often hung from the top of the cap, lending the 
wearer a jaunty air. Both sexes wore moccasins, which 
in dry weather were an excellent substitute for shoes. 
There were no shoemakers, and each family made its 
own shoes. 

The settlers were separated from their neighbors often 
by miles. There were no church-houses or regular ser- 
vices of any kind to call them together ; hence, no doubt, 
the cheerfulness with which they accepted invitations to 
a house-raising, or a log-rolling, or a corn-husking, or a 
bee of any kind. To attend these gatherings they would 
go ten and sometimes more miles. 

Generally with the invitation to the men went one to 
the women to come to a quilting. The good woman of 
the house where the festivities were to take place would 
be busily engaged for a day or more in preparation for 
the coming guests. Great quantities of provisions 
were to be prepared, for dyspepsia was unknown to the 
pioneer, and good appetites were the rule and not the 

At all the 1-g-rol lings, and house-raisings it was cus- 
tomary to provide liquor. Excesses were not indulged 
in, however. The fiddler was never forgotten. After 
the day's work had been accomplished, out doors and in, 
by men and women, the floor was cleared and the merry : 
dance began. The handsome, stalwart young men, | 
whose fine forms were the result of their manly outdoor | 
life, clad in fringed buckskin breeches and gaudily j 
colored hunting shirts, led forth the bright-eyed buxom ' 
damsels, attired in neat-fitting linsey woolsey garments, ! 
to the dance, their cheeks glowing with health, and j 
eyes speaking of enjoyment, and perhaps of a tenderer ! 

The amusements of that day were more athletic and 

rude than those of to-day. Among the settlers of a new 
country, from the nature of the case, a higher value is 
set upon physical than mental endowments. Skill in 
woodcraft, superiority of muscular development, accu- 
racy in shooting with the rifle, activity, swiftness of foot, 
were qualifications that brought their possessors fame. 
Foot racing was often practised, and often the boys and 
young men engaged in friendly contests with the Indians. 
Every man had a rifle, and kept always in good order ; 
his flints, bullet-molds, screw driver, awl, butcher-knife 
and tomahawk were fastened to the shot-pouch strap or 
to the belt around the waist Target-shooting was 
much practised, and shots were made by the hunters and 
settlers, with flint-lock rifles, that cannot be excelled by 
their descendants with the improved breech-loaders of 
the present day. 

At all gatherings jumping and wrestling were indulged 
in, and those who excelled were thenceforth men of no- 
toriety. Cards, dice, and other gambling implements 
were unknown. Dancing was a favorite amusement. It 
was participated in by all. 

At their shooting-matches, which were usually for the 
prize of a turkey, or a gallon of whisky, good feeling 
always prevailed. If disputes arose, they were settled 
often by a square stand-up fight, and no one thought of 
using other weapons than fists. 

The picture here drawn of the pioneers, their modes 
of living, their customs and amusements, while lacking 
entire completeness, we feel is not inaccurate and un- 




HE formation- of Edwards county dates back 
to 1814, and is the sixth county organized 
within the present territory of the State of 
Illinois. It embraced an immense area, in- 
cluding about one-third of the State, besides a large 
portion of the State of Wisconsin and a part of Michigan. 
As another writer said, " In the presence of the stupend- 
ous changes in this State, it is hard to imagine that 
sixty nine years ago, when Edwards county was organ- 
ized, neither Cook county or Chicago had any existence, 
but the present Cook county was in the jurisdiction of 
Edwards county, and its county seat at Palmyra at the 
falls of the Big Wabash, a town which has long since 
ceased to be." 

The following is a copy of the original paper prepared 
by the Territorial Legislature creating Edwards county . 
"An act for the division of Gallatin county. Sec. 1. Be 
it enacted by the Legislature, Council, and House of 
Representatives of the Illinois territory, and it is here- 
by enacted by the authority of the same, that all that 



tract of country within the following boundaries (to wit) : 
Beginning at the north of Borapast (Boupas) creek on 
the big Wabash, and running thence due west to the 
Meridan line, and due north till it enters the line of j 
Upper Canada to the line that separates this territory 
from Indiana territory, and thence with the said dividing i 
line to the beginning, shall constitute a separate county 
to be called Edwards, and the seat of justice for said 
county shall be at the town now called Palmyra, on the 
Wabash, provided the proprietor or proprietors of said 
land shall give to the said county, for the purpose of 
erecting the public buildings, a quantity of land at said 
place, not less than twenty acres, to be laid off into lots 
and sold for the above purpose. But, if such proprietor 
or proprietors refuse or neglect to make the donation 
aforesaid, then in that case it shall be the duty of the 
Court of Common pleas, who shall be appointed for said 
county, to fix up jn some other place for the seat of j 
justice as convenient as may be to the different sett e- 
ments in said county. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted that the Court of Com- j 
mon Pleas shall sit in said county at the following 
periods (to-wit.) The court for the civil and criminal 
business on the fourth Mondays of March, July, and 
November, yearly and every year, and three other 
courts shall be holden on the fourth Mondays of Jauu- ; 
ary, May, and September 4 yearly and every year. 

Sec. a. Be it further enacted that it shall and may be ; 
lawful for the governor of this territory immediately to 
constitute the militia in this county, thus laid off into 
one battalion, the commanding officer of which shall 
have the same power to order out the militia as is now 
proposed by the Lieutenant-Colonels of the respective 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted that the said county 
of Edwards is hereby entitled to one representative in 
the House of Representatives of this territory, who shall 
be elected agreeably to law and be entitled to all the : 
immunities, powers, and privileges prescribed by law to 
the members of the House of Representatives. And 
whereas the next general election for representatives to 
the legislature, will not take place before the month of 
September, in the year 1816, and in consequence thereof 
the said county will be unrepresented in the House of 
Representatives until the time for remedy thereof. 
An election is hereby directed to be held in the seat of 
justice for said county, on the first Thursday in March 
next, and continued open three days, and to be conducted 
in all other respects by the persons and in the manner 
prescribed by law, at which said election the persons 
entitled to vote, may elect a representative to the House 
of Representatives, who shall continue in office until the 
10th day of October, 1816, and shall during his con- 
tinuance in office be bound to perform the same duties, 
and entitled to the same privileges and immunities that 
are prescribed by law to a member of the House of Re- 

Sec. > r >. Be it further enacted that whereas the counties 
11 * 

of Gallatin and Edwards compose one district for the 
purpose of electing a member of the Legislative Council, 
the citizens of said county entitled to vote may at any 
election for a member of the Legislative Council to re- 
present said district, proceed to vote for such members ; 
and it shall moreover be the duty of the sheriff of the 
said county of Edwards, within ten days after the close 
of said election, to attend at the court-house of the 
county of Gallatin, with a statement of the votes given 
in the said county of Edwards, to compare the polls of 
the respective counties, and it shall be the duty of 
the sheriff of Gallatin county to attend at such time and 
place with a statement of the votes of Gallatin county, 
and upon counting the votes of the respective counties, 
it shall be the duty of the said sheriff of Gallatin and 
Edwards counties to make out and deliver to the person 
duly elected a certificate thereof. If the said sheriff, or 
either of them, shall refuse or fail to perform the duty 
required by this section, such delinquent shall forfeit 
and pay the sum of two hundred dollars, to be recovered 
by 'action of debtor indictment, one half to the use of the 
territory, and the other half to the person suing the 

Sec. 6. Be it further enacted that the citizens of said 
county of Edwards are hereby declared to be entitled, 
in all respects, to the same rights and privileges in the 
election of a Delegate to Congress, as well as a member 
to the House of Representatives of the territory, that are 
allowed by law to the other counties of this territory, 
and all elections are to be conducted at the same time 
and in the same manner, except as is excepted in this 
law as is provided for in other counties. This act shall 
commence and be in force from and after the passage 

Approved this 28th Nov., 1814. 

RISDON MOORE, Speaker of the House of Representa- 

BENJAMIN TALBOT, President of the Council, pro tern. 

NAT. POPE, Secretary of Illinois Territory. 

It will thus be seen that the grand old county of 
Edwards, which once contained many millions of acres 
within its boundaries, has become one of the smallest 
counties in the State. It received its name in honor of 
the Hon. Ninian Edwards, first territorial governor of 
Illinois territory. 


Palmyra, the county seat named in the act, was 
accepted by the county court as the proper point for 
establishing the capital of the county, upon the propri- 
etors of said town offering to donate twenty acres of 
ground for said purpose. The town of Palmyra was 
created the 22d day of April, 1815, by the joint act of 
Seth Gard, Peter Keen, Gervase Hazletou, Levi Comp- 
ton, and John Waggoner, which was known as Seth 
Gard & Co. It was situated at a sluggish bend on the 
river within the confines of two fractional lots, numbers 


four and five, in township 1 south of the base line, in 
range 12 west of the second meridian. For some reason 
the proprietors of the town withheld the deed of donation 
to the county until the 7th of May, 1816. 

From the county court's record of the February term, 
1815, we find the following in relation to the acceptance 
by the court, and the boundaries of the twenty acres 
donated to the county : " Ordered that the court accept 
the donation of twenty acres made by the proprietors, 
lying in the following manner, viz. : Beginning at the 
northwest corner of the public .square, and running north 
and west, so as to include a square of twenty acres. It 
is also ordered, that no person cut any timber off the 
said twenty acres except it be for public use." 

The subject is brought up again at the April term 
following, as the action of the court was not satisfactory 
to the donors of the land. The record reads, " Judge 
Card, as a branch of this court objects to the manner 
and form in which the donation was received by the 
court from the proprietors on the 6th February last. 
The objection was heard and agreed to by Judge Mcln- 
tosh ; therefore, it is ordered that the former donation 
made by the proprietors be made null and void, and 
agreeable to the act of the legislature in that case made 
and provided on the 28th day of November, 1814, it is 
ordered that the donation be, and is hereby rescinded in 
the following manner, viz. : Commencing at the north- 
west corner of the public square and running due north j 
forty-eight rods, three and a-half feet, thence west twenty- 
two rods, thence south parallel with the first line, thence 
at right angles east and north to the place of beginning, j 
so as to include the twenty acres ; and whereas one or 
more lots hath been given to Solomon Frear, etc., for 
building upon, the said proprietors bind themselves to 
give the court one to the same value, if the said Frear 
should build and hold the said lot." 

At the third meeting of the county court it was or- ; 
dered that N. Claypoole be appointed agent for the county 
of Edwards, to advertise and sell the lots that the court 
should think proper, for the use of defraying the ex- \ 
penses of the public buildings, on twelve months' credit, 
by taking bond and approved security, the sale to con- 
tinue until all lots were sold. At a subsequent meeting 
of the court an order ia made that the lots shall not be 
sold for less than $15 per lot. Palmyra was only a 
frontier town of the most primitive character, the build- 
ings being constructed wholly of logs, and the site was 
most unfortunately chosen. It was situated on low 
ground, surrounded by sloughs and marshes, and was 
therefore one of the most sickly portions of the West. It 
was for this reason, perhaps, that lots brought such a 
meager price in the market. 

The First County Court.* The following is a synopsis 
of the doings of the first county court, the session being 
held at the house of Gervase Hazleton, Monday, Jan. 2o, 
1815: " At a county court of Edwards county, begun 
and held in the town of Palmyra, the seat of justice of 

William Barney was one of the members of the county court, Kin was 
not i.reH..nt:.t it- fir-t -.s-i..,,. 

said county and territory of Illinois, agreeable to an Act 
of the Legislature passed at Kaskaskia November 28th, 
1814 Members present: 


: N. CLAYPOOLE, Clerk. SETH GARD, j Juages. 

After being duly sworn, the clerk and sheriff pro- 
duced their bonds with security, which was approved 
by the court, when they proceeded to business as fol- 
lows: The first order of the court was for the establish- 
ment of a ferry from the town of Palmyra across the 
Wabash river to the opposite shore, in the name of 
Hazleton & Co., the rates being fixed as follows : " Each 
wheel of a cart, carriage or wagon, 18?c. ; and each 
horse drawing the same, 12} cents. For every man and 
horse, from the first day of December until the last day 
of May inclusive, be 25 cents ; and from the first day of 
June until the last day of November inclusive, be 12} 
cents ; and for every footman and each head of cattle, 
6} cents; and each head of sheep and hogs, 3 cents." 

The second order reads : " That a road be reviewed 
from Palmyra for the nearest and best route to the 
county line dividing Edwards county and Gallatin; on 
a direct line to Shawneetown ; and that Levi Compton, 
Ransom Higgins and John Campbell be and are hereby 
appointed to review the same, and make return against 
the 6th day of February next." The next order pro- 
vides for a road to be reviewed from Palmyra to the 
nearest and best route to Vallies' Ford on the river 
Wabash. John Compton, Wm. B. Smith and Alex- 
ander AVood were appointed reviewers. The foregoing 
constituted the first day's business. On convening the 
court the day following, Robert Baird was appointed to 
" cess and take in all land and county tax in the county 
of Edwards." One of the most important actions of the 
court was the dividing of the great county of Edw.irds 
into two townships. The order reads : " That the 
county of Edwards be and is hereby divided into two 
townships, by a line running with the Embarras creek, 
and all that county above to be included in one town- 
ship, and be called Lamot township ; and all the country 
south of the said Embarras creek, to include the other 
township and called Palmyra township." It will be 
seen from the description of the foregoing boundaries, 
that Lamot township comprised a territory of very great 
dimensions, and was probably the largest township on 
record in this or any other state, as it embraced all thaf 
country between the eastern and western boundaries of 
Edwards county, and extending from the Embarras to 
Upper Canada. 

At the same session, Ransom Higgins and John Still- 
well were appointed supervisors of the poor for Palmyra 
township ; and Thomas Kennedy and James Baird for 
Lamot township. The court also ordered, " that the jail 
for Edwards county be let to the lowest bidder on Mon- 
day, the 6th day of February next, at 3 o'clock p. si." 
Until the completion of the jail, it would seem that the 
prisoners were confined under guard within certain 


limits, as the following action of the court would verify : 
" Ordered, that no person in the prison bounds go further ! 
than the southwest corner of Lot No. 3, in block M, and 
thence wiih an alley to the southeast corner of lot No. 5 ! 
in block B, and thence north to the northeast corner of ' 
lot No. 6 in block D, thence west with an alley to the ! 
corner of lot No. 2 in block O, thence south to the place 
of beginning." 

Subsequent Proceedings. At a special meeting of the 
court, held Feb 6, 1815, the reviewers of the road from 
Palmyra to the line dividing Edwards and Gallatin 
counties made their report, when the court decided that 
said road would be of public utility, and Joseph Wood 
was appointed supervisor of so much of the road as lay 
between Crawfish and Coffee Creeks, including the prai- 
ries Pulliam and Banker. August Laviolette (Lavu- 
lette) was appointed supervisor of that part of the road 
lying between Coffee creek and Boupas ; and Thomas 
Jjeavins, supervisor of that part between Bonpas and 
the county line. The reviewers of the road between 
Palmyra and Vallie's Ford also reported, which being 
accepted, Joshua Jordan was appointed supervisor of the 

The first license for the sale of spirituous liquors was 
granted to Robert Erwin, on payment to the county of 
the sum of two dollars ; the rate fixed for the sale was 
twelve and a-half cents per half pint. This was done at 
a special term, April 4th, 1815. At the same session, 
Francis Vallie was licensed to establish a ferry across 
the Wabash river, from his house to the opposite shore, 
the rates fixed as follows : For every man and horse, 25 
cents ; footman, 12J cents; for each wheel of cart, car- 
riage or wagon, 18J cents ; for each head of cattle, 6J 
cents ; for each head of sheep or hogs, 3 cents 

William B Adams was appointed constable for Pal- 
myra township; Thos. C. Browne was appointed prose- 
cuting attorney for EJ wards county; Robert Beard was 
recommended by the court to the territorial governor 
for county surveyor, and Gervase Hazleton was recom- 
mended for justice of the peace. 

The following are the rates of the first tax levy, as 
fixed by this court : " Each ferry, $8 ; each horse, mare, 
mule or ass, 50 cents ; each stud horse at the rate he 
stands the season ; every bond servant, $1.00, and 10 
cents for every hundred dollars worth of land." 

The first case before the court came up at the August 
term, 1815, and is 'thus placed of record : ' "Richard 
Easton, assignee of Andrew J. Walker, vs. John Wal- 
drup." The case was ordered to be continued until the 
next session of court. 

At the beginning of court session in February, 1816, 
it would seem that this honorable body had grown in 
importance and dignity, as the record reads : " Present 
The Worshipfuls John Mclutosh. Seth Card and Wil- 
liam Barney." As there is nothing in the records to 
show wherein this court received any emoluments for 
their services, we are led to infer that the title of" Wor- 
shipful " was the only compensation to which this august 

body was entitled The first business transacted was 
ordering an allowance of fifty dollars salary to the 
sheriff, Abner Armstrong, for one year's salary. 

On the petition of James Martin, he was licensed to 
keep a public house in the town of Palmyra, by paying 
the sum of one dollar for the use of the county. The 
" tavern " rates were fixed as follows : " For half pint 
of whisky, 12Jc. ; night's lodging, 12}c. ; for each diet, 
25c. ; horse to hay all night, 25c. ; each horse feed, 12Jc. ; 
each quart of cider, 121c. ; pint of rum, wine or brandy, 
50 cents." 

The same session Thomas C. Browne, prosecuting at- 
torney, was allowed ten dollars attorney fees for the 
county in the year 1815. Following the above is an 
order that Levi Cumpton, John Tome and Gervase 
Hazleton be appointed to contract for the building of a 
court-house in Palmyra, and that said commissioners 
take no action in the matter until further instruction. 
The first business on the following morning the commis- 
sioners, by an order from the court, are instructed to 
contract for the building of the house upon the best 
possible terms, and have the work done immediately. 
Later in the day the following appears : " Ordered that 
the order this day made directing the commissioners 
appointed to contract for the building of the court- 
house be set aside." 

John Shadle was allowed twenty dollars for putting a 
shingle roof on the jail, which was to be completed by 
the next term of court. 

" Ordered that the sum of eight dollars be allowed to 
Gervase Hazleton for the use of his house for the court's 
last year's session. 

'Ordered that the sum of $235 be allowed to David 
Wright, as full compensation for the building of a jail 
in Palmyra, and that the treasurer pay the same as soon 
and as fast as money comes into his hands, this being 
the senior claim against the county." 

Settlement was made with the county treasurer Feb- 
ruary 16, 1816, with the following showing: 

Amt. received by treasurer for 1815, including claims by sheriff 8179 62}$ 

Amt. rec'd from Seth Gar.l for purchs 
Amt rec'd from tavern license 

ey of lot in Palmyra 31 00 

At the May meeting of thia year Lamot township 
was divided with boundaries as follows : "Beginning at 
the Wabash river at the corner between townships Nos. 
5 and 6, and running with said line due west to the 
meridian line, thence with said line to the township line 
between Nos. 2 and 3, thence with the fifth township 
lines to the Wabash ; and that the same be known by 
the name of Embarras township." 

At the same session Abner Armstrong filed his bond 
as collector of the revenue of the county of Edwards. 

John Mclutire was appointed counsel for the court in 
the place of Thomas C. Browne, at the August'tern, 1816. 

The following appears on the record of the November 
term following : On the petition of Adam Gollahart and 


William Douglas, trustees to the Shakers, it is ordered 
that a writ of ad quod damnum be issued in their name 
to view a mill-seat on Erabarras river, on the southwest 
quarter of sec. 28, tp. 5, range 12, and that a writ be 
directed to the sheriff commanding him to summon 
twelve good and lawful men householders to meet on 
the premises Friday, the 8th day of November, 1816. 
The su bscquent action of the court granted the prayer of 
the peiitioners, and the mill was located on the river, in 
the southwest qr. of sec. 28, tp. 5, range 12, being the first 
water flouring mill authorized to be built in the county. 
A reward was offered at the rate of twenty five cents 
for male wolf scalps and two dollars for female scalps. 
George Barney received the first reward under this 
law. At the above session the record reads : " Ordered 
that the sum of one dollar and fifty cents be allowed 
George Barney for killing two wolves." 


John Mclntosh, William Barney, Robert Frazer, 
commissioners. At the February term, 1817, important 
charges were made in the subdivision of the county 
i nto townships. It was ordered that the county be di- 
vided and laid off as follows:" 1, township called Coffee 
township, to begin at the mouth of Bonpas creek, and 
running up the Wabash river to the line between towns 
one and two, and with that line to the meridian line, and 
all that part of the county south of the line between 
towns one and two compose township No. 1 ; and that 
part of the county between the upper boundary of Coffee 
township and the base line running west to the meridian 
line, compose township No. 2, called Palmyra township; 
and that part of the county Ijing between the upper 
boundary of Palmyra township, and the line between- 
towns one and two north of the base line running 
due west, compose township No. 3, called Prairie town- 
ship ; and that that .part of the county lying north of 
Prairie townthip to the northern boundary of the coiTnty, 
compose township No. 4, called Embarras township." 

Robert Frazer was appointed assessor in Coffee town- 
ship, Samuel Marshall in Palmyra township, ^"eth Gard 
in Prairie township and Thomas Pulliam in Embarras 

At the same session the rates of taxation were fixed 
as follows : 

Each mare, horse, mule or ass- ' $60 

Each stud-horse, the rates he stands the season 

Each bond-servant or >lave , 1 00 

Each young man not having taxable property to the amount of two 

hundred .1,, liars 1 00 

li.Mil..-ii .Ionian's ferry 1 00 

Samuel Marshall's ferry 1 no 

i alette-i terry 2 00 

<}*rvise Ha/.leton's ferry 400 

Francis Vallies' ferry 3 00 

Joseph LavuU-It.'V iVnv 2 00 

"All town lots, houses iu town, out-lots and mansion- 

houses in the country above the value of two hundred 
dollars and upwards, all water and wind-mills, at thirty 
cents on the one hundred dollars' worth." 

A peculiar feature appears in the record of this ses- 
sion, trom the fact that the clerk states : " At a county 
court begun and held at the court-house in Palmyra," 
etc., while there is nothing in the prior proceedings of 
the court to show that any court-house had ever been 
constructed, or any moneys appropriated for the same. 
At a subsequent day's meeting of the same session, the 
following appears : " Ordered that this court adjourn to 
the house of Gervase Hazleton, and that the house be 
considered the court-house for one year, and he ac- 
knowledges the receipt of six and one-fourth cents a full 
cousideration for the use of said house for the courts 
and elections, and the clerk and sheriff are to have the 
use of one room for their office in his house." 


William Barney and Samuel Marshall, 1817 to Spring 
of 1818. 

; There is nothing in the records of this term of court 

I to show that there were more than the above-named 

; members constituting it. It must be borne in mind that 

| the act of congress creating the state of Illinois was 
passed in April, 1818, therefore this court only had ju- 

i risdiction of public matters to that time under the "laws 
of the territorial government. While the affairs of the 
state stood in atatu quo from the time of the passage of 
the act until the adoption of the constitution and or- 
ganization of the state, the several justices of the peace 
within Edwards county constituted the county court, 
and transacted the affairs peculiar to that body. 

At the October meeting, 1817, the following order 
was made: "Ordered that the sura of fifty dollars be 
allowed to Levi Comptou, late treasurer of the county, 
for taking lists of land tax for the years 1815-16, and 
that 4 ie same be certified to the auditor of public 

, accounts. 

Three writs of ad quod damnum for the purpose of 
reviewing mill-seats were applied for at this session. 

; John Grayson desired to erect a mill on Bonpas creek, 
in the northwest quarter of section 34, township No. 2, 
range 14, west; Joseph Wright asked the privilege to 
build a mill on the Bonpas, in section 26, township 2 
south, range 14 west; Leonard White desired to con- 

1 struct a mill on the Little Wabash, in section 7, town- 

i ship 1, range 9. 

The Court ordered that all the hands living north- 

i west of the " Old Trace " and Indiana creek, who had 
been fined for not working on the road leading from 
Small's mill to the Beaver Holes, be exonerated from the 
payment of said fines. 

It was further ordered that it be certified that Wil- 
liam Bodger is a man of good demeanor and moral char- 

lecte<l. S.i lo.iiras thr jud 

ohapter one court, though ; 
may have been re-elected. 



and held f r the COUIlt y f Edwards > March 23 ' 
Present, Gervase Hazleton, Joseph Baird, Ran- 




som Higgius, William Smith, John Gravson, Samuel 
Newell, and James Martin. 

At this session five parties were granted license to ] 
vend domestic spirits, and the amount of twenty-eight 
dollars was allowed for wolf scalps. 

It was also ordered that the clerk of this court pro- 
cure such weights and measures aa the law directs. 

John Hunt, Robert Anderson, Daniel Keen, Robert 
Bell, and John Higgins, were recommended to his Ex- 
cellency, Ninian Edwards, for Justices of the Peace of 
Edwards county. 

Abner Armstrong, sheriff of the county, was allowed I 
fifty dollars for official services for the year 1817. 

At the July session the following order was made: 
" Ordered, that Guy W. Smith, John D. Wolverton and 
John Shadle, be agents, for this county, to contract for [ 
building a court-house, and selling the county lots in the \ 
town of Palmyra ; and that the county agents give pub- j 
lie notice in one of the Vincennes papers, and the paper 
published at Shawneetown, at least twenty days previous 
to the day of sale." At the following day's session, an 
order was passed that the county agents should not sell 
any lots for less than twenty dollars. Guy W. Smith 
was empowered to execute deeds to the said lots. 

The commissioners appointed to contract for the build- 
ing of a court-house were instructed as follows, relating 
to plans and specifications of the said building: "To 
be a frame, of good and sufficient timbers, 36 feet wide 
by 44 feet long, and 20 feet high from the foundation to 
the wall plates, and to be well weather-boarded, with 
good seasoned poplar plank of a proper thickness, a 
good and sufficient roof of good sound shingles, with a 
balcony eight feet square and twelve feet high, and a 
steeple 23 feet in height. The building to be let to the 
lowest bidder, who shall be bound in a bond with such 
security as the said commissioners may deem sufficient 
for the just and true performance of the contract, with- 
in six months from the first Monday in September next, 
when the building of said court-house is to be let." 

At the November session, on the application of Wm. 
Beauchamp, agent for Thos. Hinde and William Mc- 
Dowell, it was ordered that they be permitted to estab- 
lish a ferry across the Wabash at the mouth of White 
river from their land to the opposite shore. 

Augustus Tougas was permitted to keep tavern and 
vend spirits for one year, from the first of July, 1818, 
by paying a tax of two dollars. 

"Ordered, that Edward Burns be allowed the sum of 
seventeen dollars extra for building a bridge across 
Crawfish creek. 

At a special meeting of the court in April, 1819, the 
county was again sub-divided into townships having the 
following names : Enabarras, Palmyra, Coffee, Bon- 
pas and Prairie township. 

The judges of election for the several townships, were 
respectively as follows : John McClelland, Samuel New- 
ell, William Denison, Seth Gdrd, William Barney, 
Hezekiah Clark, Levi Compton, Elias Jordan, Philip 

Plough, Robert Anderson, Hugh Stewart, Alan Em- 
merson, James McMillan, Shadrach Ruark, Richard 
B. McCorkle. 


John Armstrong, Robert Frazer, John Higgins. 1819 

The court convened June 7, 1819, the only business 
of the day being the appointment of Jesse B. Browne, 
County Clerk, and William Beauchamp, County Treas- 
urer. On the following day the order for the appoint- 
ment of the latter was rescinded, and Scoby Stewart ap- 
pointed in his stead. 

Jesse B. Browne was allowed thirty dollars for ser- 
vices as County Clerk for the year 1818. 

Reuben T. Baker was licensed to keep a tavern, and 
to vend spirits in Mt Carmel ; John Pitcher was granted 
a like license in Albion. 

At the September term, 1819, John Small was allowed 
sixty dollars for making three seals for the county of 
Edwards, under the territorial government, he promis- 
ing, by his attorney, to alter the aforesaid seals to State 
seals when required. 

It was also ordered that the rates of toll across the 
Bonpas bridge should be as follows : 

Empty cart 

Loaded cart 

Empty wagon-two horses 

Loaded wagon " " 

Team of four horses wagon empty . 

Team of four horses wagon loaded 1 00 

Each neat head of cattle 6% cents 

Each head of sheep or hogs 3% " 

December 6, 1819, the proprietors of Albion petitioned 
to establish a mill on Bonpas creek in section 30, town- 
ship 1, range 14. The greater portion of the time of the 
court at this session was occupied in establishing new 
roads in various parts of the county. 

"Ordered, that John Youngman be allowed four dol- 
lars for the use of his house as a court-room, beginning 
the 25th day of March, 1819, and ending the same day 
and month, in 1820." 

At the March term, 1820, Guy W. Smith was allowed 
seventy dollars for taking the census of Edwards county, 
in the year 1818. Abner Armstrong was allowed eight 
dollars for furnishing four "ticket" boxes. The Clerk 
of the Court was allowed thirty dollars for his services 
for the year 1819. 


John Higgins, Henry Utter, William Clark. 1820 

John B. Griffith was allowed ten dollars for making 
fires and furnishing water for the court. At this session 
appears the first allowance to any member of the court 
for official services. The order reads: "Ordered, that 
John Higgins, Esq., be allowed the sum of five dollars 
for a part of his services as County Commissioner for 
the year 1819." The first petit jury appointed by the 


authority of this court, were as folltfws : George Field, 
Zeba French, John Phipps, Charles Garner, Aaron 
Gould, Enoch Greathouse, Daniel Greathouse, Seth 
Gard, Thomas Garder, John Gray, James Gray, John 
Grayson, Ransom Higgins, John Higgin?, John Han- 
nison, Asa Hannison, Gervase Hazleton, Lemuel Has- 
kins, Benjamin Halbert Isaac Harness, Ptlick Hull, 
Havilah Green, John Graves, and Daniel Graves. 


Henry Utter, George May. 18211822. 

For this term but two commissioners' names appear 
in the records of the proceediugs of the court. It was 
in this year that the county seat was located at Albion. 
Mu'ch bitterness of feeling sprang out of this change, and 
for a time a county war between the factions was im- 
minent. It is said that several companies of militia 
were raised and drilled in the eastern part of the county, 
and they were about to march on Albion and take pos- 
session of the records by force of arms. Before any 
overt act had been committed the matter was compro- 

No action of the court appears on the record book 
from March 7, 1821, to December third following. This 
discrepancy is explained by the fact that the court 
records were spirited away and hidden for a time while 
the warfare, relating to the removal of the county seat, 
was in progress. There were three rival towns besides 
Palmyra, that were clamoring for the seat of justice ; 
Albion, Wanborough, and Centerville. The following 
is the report made to the County Commissioners' Court to 
permanently locate the county seat : " To the Com- 
missjoners" Court of Edwards county, State of Illinois 
Pursuant to an act of the Legislature in the last session, 
dated February 1, 1821, entitled an act to provide for 
the removal of the Seat of Justice of Edwards county, 
having met agreeable to law, and fixed on Albion as the 
permanent Seat of Justice; and we also designate and 
appoint the Public Library room, in said town, as a 
temporary house to hold court until the public buildings 
are prepared. Given under our hands and seals this 
tenth day of April, 1821, 


A. G. L. WIGHT, 


On the same day, the commissioners appointed to as- j 
sess the damages to the town of Palmyra in consequence i 
of the removal of the county seat, made their report, i 
The judgment was one-hundred dollars damages, and 
that said amount be (qually distributed among the pro- j 
prietors of the town of Palmyra. (signed) 

A. G. S. WIGHT, 

The first session, held at Albion, was commenced the 
3rd day of December, 1821, and the following is the 
first action of the court : 

"Ordered, that although the report of the commis- 
sioners appointed to fix the county seat of this county 
was never properly made, received or recognized by this 
court; the report being in no particular in compliance 
with the law, yet as the proceedings of this court at Pal- 
myra have been decided by the judge of the Circuit Court 
to be illegal and void, refusing to latify the proceediugs 
thereof; therefore, to avoid the dilemma to which the 
people of this county may be reduced, the future sessions 
of this Court shall be held at Albion until the Legisla- 
ture determine otherwise." 

It was further ordered that that part of Edwards coun- 
ty lying on the east side of B jnpn creak, f jrm one p irt of 
election precinct to be called Palmyra, and that all elec- 
tions for said precinct shall be held at the town of Pal- 

Henry I. Mills, sheriff, was allowed four dollars, which 
sum he had paid to four men, for guarding James Mar- 
tin who had been convicted of larceny. 

Henry Cusiek was allowed three dollars and seventy- 
five cents for guarding James Allen to Crawford jail, 
who had been commited for horse stealing, 

At the June term, 1822, the following appears : 

" Ordered that Thomas Pulliam be allowed seventy- 
six dollars for keeping John Stratton, from the time he 
was sold (probably a pauper) at the court-house, until 
the first Monday in May, 1822. 


Cyrus Danforth, Samuel Munday, Ephraim Phor. 

It seems that at the convening of this court there existed 
a contest for the county clerkship, as this order appears 
upon the record. '' Whereas, Jesse B. Browne and Ger- 
vase Hazelton are at this time both executing the duties 
of clerk of the County Commissioners' Court of Edwards 
county, and the Commissioners of said county are not in 
possession of such legal evidence as that they can at this 
time determine which of the said persons are entitled to 
Hhe said office. It is therefore ordered by the court that 
Jesse B. Browne do perform the duties of clerk of the 
court until the same be legally determined." 

David Tade was allowed twenty dollars for twelve days 
services attending the legislature for the purpose of ob- 
taining an act to permanently locate the county seat of 
Edwards county. 

" Ordered, that Dr. Ezra Baker be allowed 8120.00 
for medical attendance on John L. Jones, a poor tran- 
sient person." 

At the July term in 1823, the certificate of Association 
of the " Albion Library Company " was ordered to be 
placed on record. The company was composed of twelve 
members, Richard Flower being the chairman. 

At the March term in 1824, William White was al- 
lowed thirty dollars for making a coffin, and erecting a 



gallows for the execution of Shadrach Perry, who had 
been accessory in the committing of a capital offence. 
Perry was subsequently pardoned by the govornor. 

June 7th, 1824, Henry I. Mills, sheriff, was allowed 
$38.25 for grand jury rooms and candles found and pro- 
vided for the Circuit Court in the years 1823-4. 

At the above session Hiram Bell, County Treaesurer, 
settled with the court for the year 1823, when it was 
found that he had a balance of $36 86 in his hands due 
the county. 


Elias Jordan, James Hunt, Moses Bedell, 1824-1825. 

At the first meeting of the court, the following action 
was taken relating to the county buildings : 

" It appearing to the court that the building com- 
menced for the court-house and gaol will be insufficient 
for the purpose intended, it is ordered that the same shall 
be raised two stories, with a cupola and pediment, and 
that a contract to that effect be made." 

September 7th, 1824, John B. Johnson was allowed 
$22.87 for services as coroner in viewing the body of \ 
Jones Hobson. 

" Ordered, that the lots remaining unsold, donated to 
the county of Edwards by the proprietois for the erec- ; 
tion of the public buildings, be offered for sale on the 
third Monday in Obtober, 1824." 


James Hunt, Joel Churchill, Alan Emmerson, 1825- 

The rate of taxation for 1825, was fixed as follows : , 
One half per cent, on all town lots, carriages for the con- ' 
veyance of persons, distilleries, stock in trade, horses 
three years old and upwards, neat cattle three years old 
and upwards, clocks, watches, sheep six mouths old and 
upwards, hogs one year old and upwards, leather, small 
wagons, road wagons, carts, household furniture, to wit ; 
bedsteads, bed curtains and bed furniture, tables, bu- 
reaus, side-boards, silver-plate ; libraries containing twen- 
ty-five books or more, whiskey beer, and rifle gins. 

Henry I. Mills was ordered to take the census for 
1825. - 

At this session John Robinson was allowed $1.60 for 
repairing the market-house for the convenience of hold- i 
ing the April term of -circuit court, 1825. The county ' 
revenue for this year was $832.92i. 

" Ordered, that Henry I. Mills be allowed the sum of 
$11:.62, for his services in the cases of Kennedy, Mere- 
dith and Bottinghouse for murder ; and in the cases of 
Joseph Toville, John Hall, William Wood, Daniel Or- 
ange, George Flower, Eliza Andrews, Wm. Orange, 
Campbell, et al, wherein, the people failed, and for other 
services rendered as per account presented." 


James Hunt, Alan Emmerson, Chas. Stennett, 1826- ; 
At the September term, 1826, the court ordered that 

the Circuit Court be next held in the building erected 
for a court-house, in the town of Albion. 

The 4th of December following, the coroner, Moseg 
Thompson, was allowed $14 98 for holding an inquest on 
the body of Richard Flower. The deceased came to his 
death by the crushing of his skull, caused by the throw- 
ing of a bone from the hand of one James Kennedy. 


James Hunt, James Hean, Chas. Stennett, 1828-1830. 

At the December term, 1828, James Gordan, Sheriff 
of Edwards county, was allowed $91.75, for services in 
the Circuit and County Commissioners' courts, and his 
commission in collecting the tax for 1828. On his set- 
tlement with the court for the revenue collected in the 
above year, he was found indebted to the county the sum 
of $428 89. 

James Hunt, a justice of the peace, reported a fine 
against John Crabtree for assault and battery. The fine 
was paid over to the court, but the clerk fails to state 
the amount of the fine in his record. 

From the following it will be seen that the court-house 
was utillized for boih school and church purposes. In 
the March term, 1829. "Ordered that Thomas Elton be 
permitted to keep a school in the court-room, he agreeing 
to glaze the windows, and when the roof shall be repair- 
ed to repair the plastering, and keep the same in repair 
during the time ha occupies it." 

' Ordered, that public worship be permitted to be held 
in the court-room on Sundays, and that Jesse B. Browne 
be authorized to take charge of the key and see that no 
damage is done." 

In 1830, the county comprised eight road districts 
with the following named persons as supervisors : First 
district, George Woodham ; second district, Robert 
Daugherty; third district, William Triscut ; fourth 
district, George Walser ; fifth district, Thomas Caruey ; 
sixth district, John Cowling; seventh district, John 
Elder; eighth district, Sidney Spring. 


James Hunt, Alan Emmerson, Charles Stennett in 

At the September term, 1830, Alexander Stewart 
was allowed $1.75 for making hand-cuffs and one 
night's guarding the jail. From the records of this 
session it would seem from the amounts allowed for 
guarding the jail, that either the jail was in a very poor 
condition or an extra number of criminals were confined 

At the same session Jesse B. Browne was allowed 
$3 25 for shoes and socks furnished Belle Tate, a run- 
away slave. James Jordan, Sheriff, was allowed $3.81 
for clothing furnished to the same party. 

" Ordered, that Joel Churchill be permitted to vend 
goods, wares and merchandise in the town of Albion for 
one year by paying fifteen dollars into the county 
treasury." Gibson Harris, Hugh Ranalds, and Moses 


Smith were also licensed to vend goods, etc. The 
commissioners appointed to adjust the finances between 
Edwards and Wabash counties in pursuance of the 
division of said counties in 1824, made their report to the 
County Commissioners' court, June 6th, 1831, and in 
substance was as follows : That the county of Wabash 
pay to the county of Edwards the sum of $787.83, it 
being the half of the debt existing at the time of the 
division of Edwards county. Commissioners, Joel 
Churchill and Abner Armstrong. 


James Hunt, Charles Stennett, Thomas Carney. 1832- 

Thomas Hunt was allowed two dollars for candles 
furnished the Circuit Court for year 1831-32. 

September 2d, 1833, George Flower was authorized to 
receive from the State Treasurer one hundred dollars, 
amount of an appropriation granted by the General 
Assembly to Edwards county for the purpose of building 
a bridge across Bonpas creek on section 22, town 1 north, 
range fourteen west. 

At the September term in 1834, Elias -Waver was 
allowed $135.00 for making, painting and hanging 
window blinds to each and every window in the court, 
Chouse at Albion, the same to be paid in specie. 

On the 7th of December, Sidney Spring was authorized 
by the court to act in conjunction with the county 
surveyor of White county to establish the southern 
boundary line of Edwards county, beginning at the 
southwest corner of section 18, township 3, south of range 
east, and from thence east along said line to the 
Wabash river as the case may be, and that said survey 
be made in pursuance of the statute in such cases made 
and provided. 

" Ordered, that Henry Bowman be and is hereby 
appointed commissioner and agent of the school lands 
situated in the county of Edwards." 

At the March term of court 1837, J oel Churchill was 
authorized to receive from the bank of Illinois the sum 
of six hundred dollars, the same being deposited there 
by the commissioner of the sale of the Gallatin saline 
land for the use of Edwards county agreeably to an act 
of the legislature, approved January 16th, 1836. 

The county treasury must have been in excellent 
condition in 1837, as the treasurer was authorized to loan 
several hundred dollars of the county money at the 
special May term of that year. 


James Hunt, Leonard C. Bond, John Tribe. 1838-40. 
Ed wards county not beingsupplied with a poor house, the 
paupers were let to the lowest bidder. The following order 
appears at the September term ; " Ordered by the court 
that Ann Hickson, a pauper of the county, be let to the 
lowest bidder for six months, and thereupon the coroner 
proceeded to cry her ofl', and Alviu R. Kenner agrees to 
feed, lodge and comfortably clothe the said Ann Ilickson 

for the sum of $1.35 per week, and the court agrees to 
pay the said sum quarterly in county orders." 


Leonard C. Bond, John Tribe, J. W. Stevenson. 1840 

At the September term of 1840, the clerk of the 
county court was ordered to notify the clerk of the Cir- 
cuit court that grand and petit jurors be allowed seven- 
ty-five cents per day for services, and that the clerk of 
the Circuit court may grant his certificates of allowance 
to the said jurors. 

The rate of taxation for the year 1841, was fixed at 
twenty cents on every hundred dollars worth of real or 
personal property. Charles P. Burns was allowed 
seventy dollars for assessing property for the above year. 
The total amount collected was $656 89 ; the amount of 
delinquent tax, $36.60. 


J. W. Stevenson, John Tribe, Britain Walser. 1842- 

At the special April term, 1843, the court 
ordered that the respective road supervisors cause each 
able-bodied male person between the ages of twenty-one 
and fifty years, to perform four days road labor. In 
this year the treasurer of the county was instructed to 
pay the State bank of Illinois, paper which had been 
collected for revenue up to that time, at the rate of fifty 
cents on the dollar. 

In 1847, the county constituted four precincts, Albion, 
Mills, Shelby and Boltinghouse precincts. Of the former 
Alan Eratnerson, Briant Walker, and Alexander West 
were appointed judges for the April election. Of Mills 
precinct, William A. Montgomery, John Contrecht, and 
Peter Hinkle. Shelby precinct, John Bell, John War- 
moth, and Niel Shelby. Boltinghouse precinct, James 
Hean, Simon Johnson and Laban G. Russell. 


Alan Emmerson, J. H. Stevenson, Matthew Rice. 

The greater portion of the time of the above 
court was occupied in regulating and adjusting the road 
officers of the county. 

The only important action of the commissioners was 
the authorizing of the Albion and Gray ville Plank-road 
company the right of way through the county on the 
highway commonly used in going from Albion to Gray- 
ville. This right of way was to continue for thirty 
years, with stipulations for toll over said road as follows : 
Not to exceed for a horse and rider, a half cent per mile ; 
one horse and vehicle, one cent and a half per mile ; 
four houses and vehicle, three cents per mile. The 
officers of the road were, President, John Brissenden ; 
Directors, Alan Emmerson, S. Thompson, Alexander 
Stewart, John Butler, Daniel Bulkley and John B. 



Alan Emmerson, judge, Matthew Rice, James Hunt, 
associate justices. 185'J-1853. 

At the June term a notice is placed on record 
wherein the clerk was ordered to post notices to 
the effect, that sealed proposals would be received 
until the tenth of June, 1851, for the build- 
ing of a frame court-house to be thirty-six feet square, 
and that for plan and specifications, parties were asked 
to call at the clerk's office. At a special term of the 
court held the 14th of June, 1851, the subject of build- 
ing a new court house was taken into consideration, 
when it was decided, that as the people had met and 
expressed themselves in favor of constructing a brick 
court-house, the court ordered that further action upon 
the same be postponed for the present. 

September 1st, 1851, the commissioners appointed to 
mark, view, and locate a state road from Albion to j 
Salem in Marion county, made their report, with plat of | 
the same. The road was subsequently opened, it being 
a distance of about fifty miles. 

The following is a table of the property assessed and 
the taxes charged in the county for the year 1852: 

Aggregate value of lands $358,002 

" " " personal property 177,461 

Total value of taxable property 535,463 

Amount of State tax $32>.r,2 

" County '.ax 1000.38 

Total tai 4837.00 

On the 5th of September, 1853, notice was given for 
the sale of the old court-house. It was to be sold at 
auction to the highest bidder. The purchaser, according 
to the conditions of the notice, was entitled to a credit of ' 
six months, and was required to remove the house from j 
the square within nine months from date of sale. Gen. j 
William Pickering subsequently became the purchaser, ! 
paying the sum of one hundred and thirty dollars. At i 
the special term of October following, the new court-house 
was examined and accepted by the court. 

Upon settlement of the county treasurer with the 
rturt at the December term, 1853, it was shown that , 
the county income for six months, plus the balance in 
the treasury, was $689.46 J ; and that the amount paid 
out for the same time was $689 3ji, leaving 11 Jc. in the i 


Alan Emmerson, judge; Matthew Rice, Jonathan 
Shelby, associate justices. 1853-1857. 

The most important matter brought befoae the court i 
in this term was the petition from 519 citizens of the 
county, that the honorable body pass an order at the < 
earliest day practicable to postpone the sale of all ; 
swamp lands unsold for the term of two years ; alleging 
in their prayer, that on account of the great scarcity of 
money among the farming population, caused by the 
failure of the corn crop of the preceding year, a large 
portion of the actual citizens were unable to purchase 

In the fall of 1849, the name of this body having county jurisdiction, 
was changed, and uniil 1873, was known as tlie County Court, having a 
president judge and two assmtiuu: JLL-tu:.:s. 


said lands, which being the case would render it easier 
for foreign speculators to secure all the best swamp 
lands at the lowest valuation. The petitioners further 
prayed that the court would invest all said lands in the 
Alton, Mt. Carmel and New Albany Railroad; and 
that the annual revenue arising from said in vestment be 
forever set apart for school purposes. The action of the 
court upon the petition was substantially as follows : 
That inasmuch as the court had not received the legal 
evidence of title to the swamp lands, as provided by an 
act of the legislature, the sale of said lands should be 
postponed ; but, should the inhabitants of the county 
desire to make such investment of the proceeds of the 
land after the proper evidences of title were had, and 
the expenses for surveying, draining, etc , were paid ; 
then it would not be the disposition of the court to con- 
travene the wishes of the people, provided sufficient 
evidence be given from said railroad company of its 
ability to build the road within a reasonable time; and 
provided further, that interest at the rate of six per cent, 
upon said investment be first secured, and that the same 
be applied to the school fund, to be paid semi-aunually 
in advance. 


Alan Emmerson, judge, Jonathan Shelby, Britain 
Walser, associate justices. 1857-1861. 

At the September term of court, 1858, the following 
petition was placed before the court, with 219 names 
attached : " To the honorable court of Edwards county. 
The undersigned, residents and legal voters of Albion 
precinct, respectfully request your honorable body not 
to grant any license in said precinct for the retail of 
spirituous or vinous liquors after the present license 
shall have expired, unless a majority of the legal voters 
of said precinct shall petition for such license to be 
granted." On considering the prayer of the petitioners, 
two of the members of the court voted against granting 
the prayer, and one was in favor of it. 

At a meeting of the citizens of Albion and vicinity, 
he'd on the llth of May 1861, a resolution was passed 
in substance as follows : That Alan Emmerson, judge 
of the county court, is hereby requested to convene a 
special term of the county court at the earliest day prac- 
ticable, for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
following resolution : " Resolved, That the honorable 
court of Edwards county are hereby respectfully re- 
quested to pass an order of their court, to pay out of the 
county treasury a sufficient sum of money to pay the 
cost of a full suit of uniform for the use of the Volun- 
teer Militia Company of Edwards county, now organized 
and ready for marching, and waiting for the orders of 
the governor of the State of Illinois. 

The court, upon considering the above request, passed 
an order in compliance with the resolution, one member 
dissenting on the ground, as he believed, that the court 
was not vested with such power. At the September 
term of the same year, an order was passed by the court, 
that five cents on each hundred dollars be assessed for 



the purpose of creating a fund to provide for the families 
of members of the miliiary companies that were then, or 
should be subsequently organized and mustered into the 
United States service. Jesse Emmerson, John Smith, 
and James R. Jacobs were appointed by the court to 
make distributions to said families, with stipulations that 
they exercise careful judgment in the discharge of their 

The valuation of real and personal property in the county 

for the year ISO), was $1,124,393.00 

State tax 7,533.45 

County tax, including school tax, ete 6135.78 

Acres "in cultivation,, tyKis ; com, l:\lli ; olher field 
products 9,607 


Samuel R. Hall, judge ; Jacob Kramer, Sanford Em- 
merson, associate justices. 1861-1865. 

According to the report of the county collector for 
1863, the delinquent tax was but $30 70. Only nine- 
teen names were reported as not paying their taxes, 
fifteen of whom had left the county three were not 
found, and one was reported dead. 

Nothing of an unusual character came before this 
court, its time being mainly occupied in regulating road 
and bridge affairs. 


Samuel R. Hall, judge; Andrew Huffman, Daniel 
P. Hunter, associate justices. 1865-1869. 

At the September term of court, 1865, the following 
petition, signed by fifty-seven of the legal voters of the 
county, was presented for the court's action : " The un- 
der.-igned, legal voters of Edwards county, do hereby 
respectfully petition your honorable body, that you will 
at your next meeting on the first Monday of September, 
submit to the voters of the county the question of town- 
ship organization, to be voted on, for or against, at the 
next general election. The court ordered that a vote 
should be so taken in the several voting prtcincts at the 
time specified in the petition. 

On the 3d December, 1866, Saywell Perkins'gave his 
bond as sheriff and ex-officio collector in the sum of forty- 
two thousand nine hundred and one dollars. 

At the March meeting of the court in 1868, a petition 
of the legal voters of the county was presented, request- 
ing that an election be called to ascertain if the citizens 
of the county were in favor of taking stock in the Gray- 
ville and Mattoon Railroad to the amount of $150,000. 
The court ordered an election to be held on the 28th 
day of March, 1868, with proper stipulations to protect 
the people against any non-performance of agreement or 
action on the part of the railrbad company. The vote 
resulted hi favor of subscribing for the above amount of 

December 10th of the same year another election was 
ordered to be htld on the 16th day of January, 1869, 
for the purpose of increasing the aforesaid amount to 
$180,000. The court, at a special session in the same 
month, rescinded the order made on the 10th inst., and 
substituted an order that an election should be held on 
the 23d of January, to vote for or against taking $40,- 

000 stock in the road, in addition to the $150 000 al- 
ready voted, making in all $190,000 stock for said 

On account of the order made by the court at the 
first election, giving only twenty-six days' notice, instead 
of thirty days as the law required, said appropriation 
became null and void, leaving but $40,000 stock voted 
for the road. From this fact and some other causes, the 
company built the road passing Albion four miles to the 
eastward. For the benefit of future readt-rs of history, 
we will here state that the road, at this writing, is known 
as the Peoria, Decatur and Evansville railway. 


Samuel R. Hall, judge; Andrew Huffman, Edward 
Handley, associate justices. 1869-1872. 

December 7, 1869, John B. Orange, a justice of the 
peace, made report that, in the absence of the coroner, 
he had held an inquest on the body of James Blackford, 
a non-resident of the county, who was killed at the house 
of John Carbaugh on the 21st of September, 1869, and 
that the deceased had no effects on his person ; therefore, 
the petitioner asked that his fees might be allowed by 
the court. 

At the March term in 1872, the court ordered that 
each owner of dogs in Edwards county be taxed for the 
year, 1872, as follows: "That one dog shall be exempt 
for the head of each family, and that all over and above 
one dog be taxed two dollars per head'' ; and it was 
further ordered that the proceeds of such tax be paid 
into the county treasury. 


Samuel R. Hall, judge ; Andrew Huffman and Alfred 
Brown, associate judges, 1872-1873. March 4. 1873, 
Jesse Emmerson was appointed agent of Edwards 
county, to sell all the swamp lands remaining unsoH 
the terms of sale to be one-half cash, and the balance on 
a credit of twelve months time, taking mortgage to 
secure the deferred purchase money. 


Josiah Dawes, chairman ; Andrew Huffman, Alfred 
Brown, 1873-1878. 

At the special December term, in 1873, George 
Michaels was appointed sheriffand ex-officio collector to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of Maxwell W. Morgan. 
On the 24th of March, 1874, the court passed an order that 
a reward of one hundred dollars be offered, to be paid 
at the county expense, for the capture of Christopher 
C. Hunt, a fugitive from justice, charged with 
killing one, William C. Mading, on the morning of the 
14th of March, 1874. Hunt was subsequently arrested, 
tried and acquitted. At the June term following, John 
Martin was allowed the sum of one hundred dollars, the 
amount of the reward offered for the arrest of said 


Josiah Dawes, chairman ; Alfred Brown, Francis 
Greathouse, 1878-1880. 



Josiah Dawes, chairman ; Francis Greathouse, Corap. 
ton Woodbam, 1880 1881. 

On the third of March, 1881, Doctors John C. 
MeClurkin and J. Cameron McClurkin entered into a 
contract with the court to furnish medical attendance to 
the paupers of Albion p ecinct for one year, commencing 
March 7, 1881, for the sum of seventy dollars. The 
same parties, on the same day, contracted to furnish 
medical attendance to the paupers of Dixon preciuct ; 
one year for nine dollars. For the same time, etc., 
George W. Gaddy agreed to furnish said attendance for 
the sum of thirty-six dollars to the paupers of Shelby 
precinct. Elisha Jenner for same services, etc , con- 
tracted to wait ou the paupers of Salem precinct, for the 
sum of forty dollars. The contract for French creek 
precinct was given to Dr. Loren Burdick for the sum 
of fifty dollars. 

At a special term, held in March, 1881, a compromise 
was effected between the county and the Louisville, New 
Albany, and St Louis railway, now Louisville, Evans- 
ville, and St. Louis railway, relating to back taxes of 
said road in the amount of $1951.55. The court upon 
due consideration accepted the proposition of the rail- 
road company, to-wit, that the company pay the State 
and school taxes due, upon conditions that the board 
make a rebate of the county and road taxes amounting 
to, including interest and printer's fees, the sum of 
$596.03, with this proviso, that the said State school tax 
be paid within six months from the passage of this I 


Josiah Dawes, Coraptou Woodham, Charles Walser, i 

The following order was passed by the board at the i 
June sessions, 1882 : " Ordered that the authorities of 
the village of Albion be permitted to use the room in the 
county jail, known as the debtor's room, for a calaboose, | 
when not required for county use ; provided, that the 
village of Albion pay all damages caused by prisoners 
who may be confined therein. All former orders of the 
c mnty board on this subject are hereby rescinded and 

of all the taxable property in the 


The total val 
188-', w 

Total n ..... i|,t~ f.,r the same 
Total county order* issued 
T tal jury certificates 
Amount in treasury after paying all indebtedness 

The salaries of the county officers, from and after the 
first Monday in December, were fixed as follow : County 
Judge, $500; County Clerk, $1200; Sheriff, $1200; 
County Treasurer, $500 ; County Superintendent of 
schools to employ, not exceeding seventy-five days, in 
the dischirge of his official duties. 


Compton Woodham, Charles Walser, Charles Clark, 

The last action of the board now spread upon the re- 
cords, made December 6, 1882, reads as follows: "Or- 
dered by the board that from and after this date road 
supervisors shall receive for their services, in attending 
to their official duties, required by law, the sum of $1 50 
for each day necessarily spent over and above the three 
days' labor, personally required of each ; provided, that 
the entire expenditures of such supervisors, shall iu no 
instance exceed the amount certified by the county clerk 
to each, unless such additional expenditure is made by 
consent of one or more of the county commissioners." 


As shown on a preceding page of this chapter, the 
first courts were held at the priva'e residence of certain 
citizens of Palmyra, and also that an order of the county 
court had been made for the letting and contracting for 
a court building, yet it all came to naught, perhaps on 
account of the agitation of the question for removing the 
capital of the county to some other point. Albion offered 
the greatest inducements for such a change, the pro- 
prietors of the town entering into a bond in the sum of 
$50,000 to deed to the county twenty acres of land for 
county use, besides binding themselves in the above 
amount to furnish for the erection of public buildings, 
70,000 bricks or perches of stone to the same amount ; 
also 20,000 feet of plank ; 20,000 feet of scantlings ; 
20,000 shingles ; also to furnish $500 worth of hand and 
team labor, and further, to fit up the market-house con- 
venient for holding court until the public buildings 
should be completed. This, no doubt, was the great 
incentive which induced the commissioners to locate the 
county seat at Albion. 

A contract was entered into July 9, 1823, between the 
court in behalf of the county, and John Robinson and 
William Wilson, contractors, to construct a court-house 
of certain material and dimensions for the sum of 
$1800. The building was to be of brick material, 
26x30 feet on the ground, one story high, and 
a gaol fitted up in the interior of the building. 
On the 24th of August, 1824, another contract was 
entered into between the court and contractors ( in sub- 
stance as follows : That whereas it now appears to the 
commissioners that the building heretofore contemplated 
will be insufficient, it is hereby agreed between the con - 
raissioners and contractors that the plan be so altered as 
to raise the building two stories, the brick work to be at 
least twenty feet high, and the building fifty by thirty 
feet in size, having a cupola enclosed with Venetian 
blinds, and a pediment in front. The main room on 
the first floor was to be divided by two partitions, making 
two rooms and a passage-way and stair-case leading to 
the second story. The two west and north rooms on the 
ground floor, were to contain fire-places. The second 
story was to contain a court-room thirty by forty feet, 
including walls, with a fire-place, seats, boxes, etc. The 
east part of the story was to be divided into a stair-case 
and a prison for debtors, also to be furnished with fire- 


place. The walls were to be plastered, and the doors 
were to contain panels, the whole to be finished in a work- 
manlifee manner. The huilding was to be completed 
by the first of May, 1825. The contractors were to re- 
ceive $1,200 additional for ihe change made in the plan, 
making a total cost of $3,000. It was situated in the 
southwest part of the public square, and on completion 
of the present building it was sold to General Pickering 
for one hundred dollors. 

The contract for building the present court-house was 
entered into the second of March, 1852. Elias 
Weaver was the lowest bidder, offering to con- 
struct the building according to the plan and 
tprcificatiors fixed by the court, for the sum of 
$3,600. It was to be built of brick, forty feet square, 
and two stories high, with s'one foundation. The walls 
of the first story were to be twelve feet high and eighteen 
inches thick ; the walls of the second story ten feet high 
and thirteen inches thick. The lower story was to con- 
tain eight windows, one large front door, on the south 
side of the building, with side lights and circular sash ; 
one door at the west, entering on the stair-case leading 
to the second story ; said story to contain four rooms, 
with a passage-way of eight feet wide, and to be supplied 
with ten windows. The sills for the doors and caps of 
the windows were to be of stone ; the window frames and 
side doors to be black wa'nut, the windows to be 
furnished with green Venetian shutters ; the walls to be 
lathed and plastered, all to be finished in workmanlike 
order. A cupola was to adorn the building similar in 
architecture to the cupola of the Carnai court-house. 
Half of the floor of the lower story was to be laid iu 
brick, the other half to be plank and raised ten inches 
above the former. The judge's bench, clerk's desk, and 
jury box were to be finished in similar manner to those 
of the courthouse at Mt. Carmel. The whole of the 
building was to be constructed of good material, and to 
be completed on or before the 15th of November, 1853. 

The first jail built in the county was at Palmyra, in 
1815. It was constructed of hewed logs, a puncheon floor, 
shingle roof, and cost the county $255. The second 
jail-room was located in the old court house at Albion. 
From 1853 to 1859, the county was without any build- 
ing wherein to confine their prisoners, and they were 
conveyed for safe-keeping to either Mt. Carmel or Carmi. 

The contract for the present jail was lei to Elias 
Weaver, the 30th day of April, 1859. The design was 
substantially as follows: The material for the walls 
was to be of brick ; the size, 42 by 24 feet and two 
stories high. A hall eight feet wide to extend through 
the center of the building both above and below. The 
lower floor to contain two rooms fifteen by twenty-two 
feet each ; second floor, four rooms eleven by fifteen feet 
each ; lower story 9} feet high ; upper rooms eight feet 
high. The main entrance to the hall was to be 
a single door with side and transit lights. The founda- 
tion was to be of blue stone, eighteen inches in the 
ground, and deeper where necessary, said foundation to 

extend one foot above the ground and to be eighteen 
inches in thickness. Oatside and partition walls were 
to be thirteen inches ; the rooms for the cells to be 
floored with brick after being raised to a sufficient 
height to prevent dampness ; the four windows of the 
cell rooms and debtor's room to be of iron gratin.', and 
all the windows of the building to be furnished with 
shutters with green Venetian blinds, the door leading 
into the cell room to be made sufficiently strong, of good 
sound oak ; the locks of cell and debtors' rooms to be 
sufficiently strong for jail purposes, and in general the 
whole building to be completed in a thoroughly work- 
manlike manner. For the completion of the building 
the contractor received $2,600. It is situated in the 
court-house square, just east of the. court-building. 



Of all the vast territory comprised within the bounda- 
ries of Edwards county, there were but two hundred 
and thirteen citizens who were subjected to taxation. 

The following is the listed personal property for the 
year 1815 : 

Saw Mills .......................... 1 

Mansion Houses .................... . 1 

Horses ........................... 324 

Studs do .......................... 4 

Neat cattle over three ye 

Bonded Servants and Slaves ................ 2 

Henry Beson owned the greatest number of horses, 
seven in number. The largest number of cattle owned 
by any one person was 40, August Tougas owner. 
John Stillwell and Augustus Tougas owned one slave 
each. The above mentioned "mansion house" was 
owned by Joseph Tougas, and was listed at $300. The 
saw mill was owned by John Small and William Spen- 
cer, and was assessed at $800. 

In 1816, there were twenty-three registered slaves in 
the county. From the register of that date we copy 
the following : Samuel Marshall has brought into this 
Territory a negro woman, of black complexion, about 
five feet three inches high, named Fanny and aged 
about 17 years, who this day acknowledged before me 
that she owed her said master, Samuel Marshall, fifty- 
nine years' service from this date. 

September 23, 1816. G. W. SMITH, Clerk. 

A few years later by the papers on file, it seems that 
the bonded slaves of Edwards county were given their 
freedom, by the common consent of their masters. One 
of these certificates placed on record reads as follows : 
" Whereas Armstead, otherwise called Arm, a young 
man of color, has this day produced to me a certificate 
of freedom and discharge, executed by John Stillwell, 
his former master and owner, and duly acknowledged 
before Moses Michels, Esq., one of the Justices of the 
Peace of Edwards county ; Now I do hereby certify to 
all whom it may concern, that said Arm tead about 
twenty-two years, of dark commplexion, about five feet, 
five inches high, is actually free and is permitted to set- 


tie in the State of Illinois pursuant to the statutes in 
such case made and provided. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
affixed the seal of Edwards county Commissioners' 
Court this 6th day of November, 1822. 



The first Circuit Court held in Edwards county was 
convened at Palmyra the llth of July, 1815, Judge 
Stanley Griswold presiding. The first business of the 
court was to appoint N. Claypole, clerk of the court. 
Judge Griswold then produced an allotment, desiring 
the same to be placed of record which was as follows : 
Territory of Illinois ss. Be it known that under an 
act of Congress entitled an act regulating and defining 
the duties of the United State Judges for the Territory 
of Illinois ; it is allotted to Jesse B. Thomas to preside 
in the first circuit ; to William Sprigg, in the second 
circuit, and to Stanley G -Uwjlrt in the third. Given 
under our hands and seals this 29th of May, 1815. 

Thomas C. Browne presented his commission from the 
Governor, as Prosecuting Attorney for the district con- 
sisting of the counties of Edwards, Gallatin and John- 
son. 'I he Sheriff, Abner Armstrong, presented the fol- 
lowing panel of Grand Jurors: John Wood (foreman), 
James Majors, William Arnold, John Neesler, Philip 
Plough, William Jordan. Spencer Wood, Hervy Crooks, 
Isaac Greathouse, Enoch Greathouse, Thomas Banks, 
John Waggoner, Thomas Thompson, Moses Decker, 
Thomas Pulliam, Reuben Blackford, George Goble and 
Joseph Lavulette; "eighteen good and lawful men, 
tried and sworn." The jury retired and found indict- 
ments as follows: John Stillwell, assault and battery; 
Samuel Stillwell, assault and battery ; Patsey and Han- 
nah Still well, assault and battery; George Antis, larceny; 
William Spence, using an estray. 

The first case tried was the United States vg. John 
Stillwell for assault and battery. The following jury 
was empaneled : Henry Crooks, John Neesler, Philip 
Plough, James Majors, William Arnold, John Arnold, 
Phil Hull, Thomas Banks, John Shadle, John Arnold, 
James Adams, and Charles Garner. The defendant's 
attorney moved to exclude all testimony tending to 
prove an assault committed on^any day except on the 
day mentioned in the indictment. The court overruled 
the motion. The jury found a verdict of guilty, whep 
the court assessed a fine of two dollars and payment of 
c sts of prosecution. It will be seen that the petit jury 
was composed mostly of the members of the grand jury 
who found the indictments. 

In the case of United States tv. Patsy and Hannah 
Stillwoll, after a trial by jury, the prosecuting attorney 
made a motion that the pro-ecutrix be exonerated from 
paying costs of suit. The Judge so ordered. The in- 
dictment against Samuel Stillwell, was quashed on the 
ground that the indictment should have been found for 
mayhem instead of assault and battery. On motion of 
the prosecuting attorney the court ordered that a capias 

be issued in the cases of Armsted, Antis, and Spencer, 
after which the court adjourned until court in course. 

At the July term of court, 1816, the following named 
applicants were admitted to practice law in this court: 
Adolphus T. Hubbard, Elias K. Kane, Thos. H. Baker, 
John McLean, Russell E. Heacock, and Jeptha Hardin. 


This case came up at the special term of court in Jan- 
uary, 1824, on the presentment of the grand jury of an 
indictment against Shadrach Perry for being accessory 
to the wantonly killing of one Jones Hobson. On mo- 
tion of the prosecuting attorney, the court ordered that 
the prisoner be brought forth for trial. On being ar- 
raigned to make his plea, the prisoner pleaded not guil- 
I ty, whereupon the following jury was empaneled to hear 
the case : John Hunt, Joseph Rodgers, William Cun- 
ningham, Daniel Lynch, Roland Layne, Stephen Sim- 
; mons, Thomas Hunt, William Stone, Jonathan Shelby, 
Benjamin Skinner, Christopher W. Wright, and James 
Stapleton. The trial occupied two days. The jury was 
out but two hours, when they returned to the court-room 
and pronounced a verdict of guilty. 

The counsel for Perry made a motion for a new trial, 
! which was overruled by the court. Perry's counsel then 
1 moved for an arrest of judgment on the ground that the in- 
dictment was defective; first, that it did not set forth the ve- 
1 uire in a proper manner, and that the names of the grand 
i jurors were not in the indictment, or the captain thereof, 
etc., which after being argued was also overruled. The 
! court then proceeded to pronounce sentence in the fol- 
j lowing language : " The judgment of the law, and the 
: court pronounces it, is that you be taken thence to the 
place of your confinement and from thence, on the 24th of 
' February next, to some convenient place within half a 
mile of the seat of justice of this county, and there, be- 
i tween the hours of eleven and three o'clock of that day, 
! be hanged by the neck until you are dead, and that the 
i sheriff execute this judgment." WM. WILSON, Judge. 

The evidence summed up in the case was subitantial- 
! ly as follows : That one Benjamin Clark engaged in an 
] altercation with the deceased, Jones Hubson, in a certain 
j saloon in the town of Albion, and while the two parties 
were clenched in a struggle upon the floor, the former 
[ gave Hobson a fatal stab with a butcher knife. Upon 
! the murderer's attempt to escape, Perry stepped forward 
: with his rifle in hand, saying that he would shoot any 
man who attempted the arrest of Clark, the homicide 
thus escaping from the hands of justice. It is said that 
the knife by which Hobson lost his life is among the 
rubbish in the present court-house. But it seems that 
I Perry was not born to be hanged. While confined un- 
der sentence of death, a " rough " by the name of Jack 
I Ellis who lived in Albion, had a conference with the con- 
i demned and proposed to him that for his rifle, he would 
1 attempt to obtain his pardon from Governor Cole. The 
bargain was made, and Ellis mounted his horse and rode 
seventy-five miles to Vandalia, the capital of the state, at 


that time. Here, by mingling with the rowdy element, 
and being profuse with calling out the drinks, he suc- 
ceeded in getting a long list of names to his petition for 
the pardon of Perry. On presenting it to the governor, 
the pardon was obtained. In justice to Governor Cole, 
it should be stated that he was ignorant of where or how 
the names to the petition were obtained, thinking, no 
doubt, that they were all representative citizens of Ed- 
wards county. It is said that a ludicrous scene occurred 
during the interview of Ellis and Perry, on the former's 
return with the pardon. Perry had been brought from 
a neighboring jail the day before the execution, and was 
chained to a beam in a house at Albion. When Ellis 
exhibited the pardon to the prisoner, he made a demand 
for the rifle, as per agreement. Perry flatly refused to 
give it up, when Ellis remarked, " Very well, no rifle, no 
pardon, here goes the paper into the fire ; " at the same 
time tossing it on to the ashes near the flames. Perry 
became very humble, and offered not only the lifle, but 
his ax, cow, and all he possessed for the precious bit of 
paper that was to save bis neck from the halter. The 
exchange was made and the criminal became a free 
man. A large concourse of people were present on the 
day named for execution, as it was not known he had 
obtained executive clemency. The gallows had been 
erected, a cottin made, and the rope procurtd for the 
purpose of the scene that was soon to be enacted. Af- 
ter liberation, Perry claimed the coffin and rope which 
the county had procured for his especial use. They 
were given to him, and the former became a fixture in 
his cabin as a corner-cupboard. 


This case came up at the August term of court, 1825, 
and was caused by the death of Richard Flower* Jr., 
who was killed at the hands, as alleged, of three parties, 
James Kennedy, William Meredith, and Dennis Bolt- 
inghouse. At the inquest the coroner's jury gave the 
following decision: We, the jury, empaneled, and 
sworn to examine the body of Richard Flower, deceased, 
do report that, in our opinion, his death was occasioned 
by a blow on the right side of his head, wilfully given 
by James Kennedy, William Meredith, and Dennis 
Boltiughouse, as an accomplice. Albion, July 13, 1825. 
J. W. Johnson, Archibald Spring, Oswald Warrington, 
Gibson Harris, Wm. Woods, John Robinson, John 
Dunn, William Burton, William Cooper, James Bur- 
ton, J Carter. An indictment was found against Jas. 
Kennedy and William Meredith for the commission of 
the crime, by the grand jury, in the following terms : 

State of Illinois, ) 
Edwards County. ) s 

Be it known that at a special term of the Circuit 
Court begun and holden at the court-house at Albion, 
in and for the said county of Edwards, on the eighth 
day of August, in the year of our Ljrd, one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-five, in pursuance of an act 
of the General Assembly, of said State of Illinois, 

entitled ' an act constituting and regulating the Supreme 
and Circuit Courts of this State, approved the 29th of 
December, A. D., 1824." The grand jurors of the people 
of the said State of Illinois, upon their oath, present that 
James Kennedy, late of the township of Bonpas, in the 
county of Edwards, aforesaid, laborer, and William 
Meredith, laborer, not having the fear of God before 
their eyes, but being moved and seduced by the instiga- 
tion of the devil, on the twelfth day of July, in the year 
of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and twenty- 
five, with force and arms, at the township aforesaid, in 
the county aforesaid, in and upon one Richard Flower, 
Jr., in the peace of God and of the people of the State 
of Illinois, then and there, being feloniously, wilfully 
and of their malice aforethought, did make an assault, 
and that the said James Kennedy with a certain bone of 
no value, which he the said James Kennedy, in his right 
hand, then and there hid and held, in upon the right sic'e 
of the head of him, the said Richard Flower, then aud 
there feloniously, wilfully and of his malice aforethought 
did cast and th.ow ; and that the said Richard Flower, 
in and upon the right side of the head of him, the said 
Richard Flower, then and there feloniously, wilfully of 
his malice aforethought, did strike, fracture, bruise and 
wound, giving to the said Richard Flower, by the cast- 
ing and throwing of the bone aforesaid, in and upon the 
right side of the head of him, the said Richard Flower, 
one mortal bruise, of which said mortal bruise, he, the 
said Richard Flower, from the twelfth day of July, in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-five, at the township of Bonpas, aforesaid, in the 
county of Edwards, aforesaid, did languish and lan- 
guishing did live, on which thirteenth day of July, in 
the year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and 
twenty-five, aforesaid, he, the said Richard Flower, at 
the township aforesaid, in the county aforesaid, of the 
said mortal bruise did die. And that the said William 
Meredith then and there feloniously, wilfully, and of 
his malice aforethought was present, aiding, helping, 
abetting, and comforting, assisting and maintaining the 
felony, and moreover aforesaid, in manner and form 
aforesaid to do and commit; and so the juors aforesaid 
upon their oath aforesaid, do say that the said James 
Kennedy and William Meredith-, the said Richard Flower 
then and there in macfter and form aforesaid, wilfully 
and of their malice aforethought, did kill and murder, 
contrary to the statute in such case made and provided 
and against the peace aud dignity of the people of the 
State of Illinois. Signed, 

JOHN ROBINSON, Circuit Attorney. 

The case was tried on the llth of August, 1825, and 
was submitted to the jury, when they retired to make up 
their verdict. The docket states that on the following 
morning, at six o'clock, they returned into the court- 
room aud pronounced a verdict of not guilty. The ex- 
tenuating circumstances in the case which came out in 
the evidence were, that the bone thrown by the hand of 


Kennedy, was cast at a dog, and uot with the intention of 
injuring Flower. 

The public whipping-post was resorted to in the early : 
da}*?, as the following from the docket of the June term, ' 
1821, will show. One James Martin, who had been com j 
victed of larceny, was sentenced to pay a fine of fifty 
dollars, and to receive twenty-five lathes upon his bare 
back, the sheriff being ordered to "execute the sentence 


The following was placed on record April 28, .819: j 
" This day Morris Birkbeck personally appeared in open 
court, and made declaration of his bonafide intention to 
become a citizen, and it appearing to the satisfaction of 
the court that the said Morris Birkbeck had taken his 
residence in the United States two years and more pre- j 
vious to this declaration, which is in words and figuresj 
following to wit: I, Morris Birkbeck, a native of Set- 
tle, in Ei'gland, of the age of fifty-three years, and now, 
or lately, owing allegiance to his Majesty, the King of | 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, do j 
hereby declare that it is bona fide my intention to be- 
come a citizen of the United States, and to renounce ! 
forever all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince> | 
potentate, State or sovereignty whatever, and particu- 
larly to renounce forever all allegiance and fidelity to j 
his said Majesty, King of the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Sworn to in open court." 


On the organization of the county in 1814, the State 
was divided into three circuits, Edwards county, forming 
a portion of the third judicial circuit, of which Stanley 
Griswold was judge, and presided over the first 
session of the Circuit Court until 1816. During the 
following year Thomas Towles presided. From 1817 
to 1818, Jeptha Hardin judge. From 1818 to 1819, 
Thomas C. Browne was on the bench. William Wilson 
presided from 1819 to 1825. James O. Wattles from j 
1825 to 1827. Thomas C. Browne again resumed the 
bench in 1827, and served one year. William Wilson 
served from 1828 to 1835. Justin Harlan from 1835 
to 1841. William Wilson again upon the bench from 
1841 to 1849. Justin Harlan from 1849 to 1851. Sam- j 
uel S. Marshall upon the bench in 1851, and resigned 
in 1854. Downing Baugh served one year, and resigned j 
1855. Edwin Btecher from 1855 to 1865. James M. 
Pollock from 1865 to 1873. The General Assembly, by i 
act of March 28, 173, divided the State into twenty -six 
judicial circuits, in each of which one judge was elected 
for the term of six years. Edwards county then formed ] 
a part of the 24th circuit, and Tazewell B. Turner was j 
elected judge of the circuit. In 1877, by an act of the i 
Legislature, the twenty-six circuits were consolidated, ' 
forming thirteen judicial circuits, the twenty-first and 
twenty-fourth constituting the second judicial circuit un- j 
der the new regime. Under this law three judges were 

required to preside in each district. John H. Halley, of 
Newton, was elected in 1877 to form the required num- 
ber of judges in this circuit; the bench then beingJudges 
Tazewell B. Tanner, James C. Allen, and John H. 
Halley. Since 1879, Chancey S. Conger, Thomas S. 
Casey, and William C. Jones have presided in this judi- 
cial circuit. 


From the records on file it appeals that no regular 
record was kept of the proceedings of the Probate Court 
until 1831, when Walter L. Mayo occurs as the first 
judge then presiding.all prior proceedings being simply 
the recording of wills. of various parties. The first 
estate regularly probated was that of David Robson, at 
a special term of court, held the 19th of August, 1831. 
Robert Mills was appointed administrator of the estate, 
and entered into a bond of one thousand dollars for the 
true and honest discharge of his duties, giving Robert 
Willis and Joel C. Churchill security for the due perfor- 
mance of the same. 


Was executed the 14th of September, 1815, by Edward 
Wilson. The following is a synopsis of said bequest: 
That Edward Wilson, of Edwards county, Illinois Ter- 
ritory, being weak in body, but of sound mind, do make 
and publish my last will and testament, to wit: that I 
bequeath, after my body be decently buried, to my 
daughter Susanna Bathe, wife of George Bathe, five 
shillings; also my daughter Mary Enlow, wife of James 
Enlow ; to my son John Wilson, to ray daughter, 
Elenor Enlow, wife of Jesse Enlow ; to my son Joseph 
Wilson ; also my son Isaac Wilson ; also my son James 
Wilson, the sum of five shillings each. I give and 
bequeath unto my grandson, Edward Wilson, one cow 
and three sows ; that I give and bequeath unto my 
grand-daughter Chiistiana Wilson, two cows on the 
following conditions: that the said John Wilson and the 
said Christiana Wilson continue to live with William 
Sampson or Jerry Wilson, obeying all reasonable com- 
mands until they are of age. I further bequeath that 
the remainder of my estate be equally divided between 
my daughter, Jane Sampson, wife of William Sampson, 
and my son Jeremiah Wilson. And I here nominate 
and appoint Henry Enlow, of Bourbon county, Ken- 
tucky, executor of my last will and testament, etc., 
hereby revoking all former wills by me made. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and 
seal the fourteenth of September, A. D. 1815. 

Witnesses, Smith Shaw, E. N. Cullom, Andrew Mont- 


Walter L. Mayo served as Judge of probate matters 
from 1831 to 1849. After the adoption of the constitu- 
tion of 1848, and the organization of the county court, 
the county judge was given jurisdiction of probate 
matters. Under this administration of affairs Alan 
Emmerson served the county as county judge from 1849 


to 1861. Samuel R. Hall was then elected, and filled 
the office to 1873. Under an act of the Legislature of 
1871, in pursuance of a provision of the new constitu- 
tion, the probate court was given concurrent jurisdic- 
tion with the circuit court in all law cases to a limited 
amount. Judge Hall served in this capacity to the end ' 
of his term, 1873. In the above year, Judge J. M. j 
Campbell was elected, and has ably filled the office to ! 
the present writing, 1883. 


The following is a synopsis of the first deed placed on ! 
record in Edwards county : It is dated the 7th day of 
January, 1815, the conveyors being Thomas Pulliam and 
Nancy, his wife, for and in considerateon of the sum of 
four hundred dollars, do convey to August Lavulette 
dit Tougas, all that tract of land lying in the county of 
Edwards, Illinois territory, it being the southeast quar- 
ter of section 24, township one north, range twelve west ! 
which the said Thomas Pulliam is entitled to by patent 
from the United States, bearing date the 30th day of ! 
July, 1812. This deed was signed and sealed in the j 
presence of Robert and Joseph Baird. 


In the constitutional convention held at Kaskaskia in ! 
1818, Seth Gard and Levi Corapton represented the | 
people of Edwards county. Alvin R. Kenner repre- ] 
sented the counties of Edwards and Wayne in the con- 
stitutional convention of 1847. At the convention of I 
18B2 R. P. Hanna represented Edwards and Wayne. | 
The constitution framed by this convention was rejected 
by the people. lu the framing of the present constitu- 
tion in 1870, Edwards and White counties constituted 
the fourteenth district, and was represented by Charles 
E. McDowell, of White county. 


On the organizing of the county in 1814, the act pro- 
vided for a special election to be held at the seat of 
justice in March, 1815, for the purpose of electing a rep- j 
resentative for the county to the territorial legislature > 
whereupon Seth Gard was duly elected, which position 
he held until the admission of the state into the Union 
in 1818. Guy W. Smith was the state senator in the 
first General Assembly, and Henry Utter was the first 
representative in the lower house. The second General 
Assembly, 1820-22. Robert Frazier was in the senate, 
and Alexander Campbell representative. Third Gtn- 
eral Assembly, 1822-24, Robert Frazier in the senate, j 
and Gilbert F. Pell representative. Fourth General 
Assembly, 1824-26, Stephen Bliss, senator, Henry Utter, j 
representative ; Fifth General Assembly, 1826-28, Ed- \ 
wards and Wabash counties formed one senatorial dis- 
trict which was represented by Stephen Bliss, Henry I. 
Mills, representative ; at the Sixth General Assembly, 
1828-30, Edwards, Waba-h and Wayne counties consti- 
tuted one senatorial district and was represented by 
Enoch Beach of Wayne county, Gilbert T. Pell, repre- 
sentative ; Seventh General Assembly, 1830-32, Enoch 

Beach was re-elected, James Jordan representative ; 
Eighth General Assembly, 1832-34, Henry I. Mills, 
senator, Thomas Hunt, representative. Both of the 
above were re-elected to the Ninth and Tenth General 
Assemblies, 1834-35, 36-38; Eleventh General As- 
sembly, 1838-50, Henry I. Mills, senator, Alan Emmer- 
sn, representative ; Twelfth General Assembly, 1840- 
42, Kigdon B. Slocum, senator, Alan Emmerson, repre- 
sentative ; Thirteenth General Assembly, 1842-44, 
Rigdon B. Slocum re-elected senator, William Picker- 
ing, representative; Fourteenth General Assembly, 
1844-46, Charles H. Constable, senator, William Pick- 
ering, re-elected ; Fifteenth General Assembly, 1846-48, 
Charles H. Constable, senator, William Pickering, rep- 
resentative. Prior to the convening of the Sixteenth 
General Assembly, 1848-50, the constitution of 1848 
.had been adopted which provided that the state be 
divided into twenty-five senatorial districts and fifty-four 
representative districts, the counties of Edwards, Effing- 
ham, Jasper, Clay, Richland, Lawrence, and Wabash 
forming the eighth senatorial district. Alfred H. Grass 
of Lawrence county was elected state senator to repre- 
sent this district; Edwards and Wabash counties formed 
the eighth Representative district, William Pickering of 
Edwards county, representative; Seventeenth General 
Assembly, 1850-52, Alfred H Grass, senator, William 
Pickering, representative; Eighteenth General Assembly, 
1852-54, Mortimer Kean of Jasper elected senator, Vic- 
tor H. Bell of Wabash, representative ; Nineteenth Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1854-56, Mortimer O'Kean, senator, C. C. 
Hopkins of Edwards, representative, changed to the 
tenth district ; Twentieth General Assembly, 1856-58, 
Mortimer O'Kean, re-elected, Charles P. Burns of Ed- 
wards, representative ; Twenty-first General Assembly, 
1858-60, Mortimer O Kean, senator, R. T. Forth of 
Wayne county, representative. (\Vayne county had 
been placed with the tenth representative district) 
Twenty-second General Assembly, 1860-62, Presley 
Frunkhouser of Effingham, senator, Nathan Crews of 
Wayne, representative. 

In 1861, the General Assembly made a general re- 
vision of the senatorial and representative districts, 
Edwards, Hamilton, Wabash, Wayne, Clay, Richland, 
White and Lawrence counties constituted the second 
senatorial district, and Edwards and White the four- 
teenth representative district. Hugh Gregg represented 
the former district in the Twenty-third General Assembly 
and Chauncy L. Congor of White county was in the 
lower house; Twenty-fourth General Assembly, 1864- 
66, John W. Wescott, senator, Jonathan Shelby, repre- 
sentative; Twenty-fifth General Assembly, 1866-68, 
John W. Wescott, senator, Patrick Dolan, representa- 
tive; Twenty-sixth General Assembly, 1868-70, J. J. 
R. Turney, senator, John Landrigan, representative. 

After the adoption of the new constitution another 
change was made in the districts. Twenty-seventh Gen- 
eral Assembly, 1870-72, John Landrigan of Albion, 
was in the senate, and Walter L. Mayo in the lower 



house; Twenty-eighth General Assembly, 1872-74, 
George W. Henry, senator, Isaac N. Jacquess, Robert 
T. Forth, and David W. Barkley. The senatorial dis- 
trict was numbered forty-fourth, the representative 
district being the same number. Twenty-ninth General 
Assembly, 1874-76, Goerge W. Henry, senator, Samuel 
R. Hall, Byron J. Rotan and John Landrigan, repre- 
sentatives; Thirtieth General Assembly, 1876-78, 
Robert P. Hanna, senator, Hiram H. Chesslry, Wm. 
R. Wilkinson and George D. Ramsey, representative. 
Thirty-first General Assembly, 1878-80, Robert P. 
Lanna, senator; Jacob Zimmerman, William Bower, 
and Charles Churchill representatives ; Thiny-second 
General Assembly, 1880-1882, John R. Tanner senator, 
Nathan Crews, James Keen, E. B. Kean, representa- 
tives. Present General Assembly, John R. Tanner, 
senator, E. Rowland, John S. Simonds, and Henry 
Studer, representatives. 


Nathaniel Claypoole, 1815. (Died shortly after 
appointment.) G. W. Smith, 1815-18 ; Jessie B. Brow- 
ne, 1818-21: Gervase Hazleton, 1821-23; Jesse B. 
Bro*ne, 1823-31 ; Walter L. Mayo, 1831-70 ; William 
B. Tribe, 1870-77 ; Charles Emmerson, 1877-83, present 


N. Claypoole was appointed first circuit clerk in 1815. 
(Died in 1815.) G. W. Smith, 1815-18; Jesse B. 
Browne, 1818-31 ; Walter L. Mayo, 1831-68 ; William 
B. Tribe since 1868. 

51 ; Cyrus Rice, 1851-!il ; Edgar W. Brandon, 1861- 
65 ; (Subsequent to this date the name of the office is 
changed to county superintendent of schools.) Lothrop 
T. Rude, 1865-G9; Levinus Harris, 1869 to present 


The first surveyor was Robert Baird, appointed in 
1815, and served for several years. It was not until 
1839, that it became an elective office, from which time 
the following is a roster of the county surveyors : Sidney 
Spring, 1839-43; Thomas R. Birkett, 1843-59; Joseph 
Phillips, 1859-61 ; Thomas R. Birkett, (re-elected) 1861 
-67 ; Francis W. Eberman, 1867-69 ; Thomas R. Bir- 
kett, 1869-79; Edward L. Chalcraft, 1879 to the 
present, 1883. 


John Tome, 1820-22. John Love, 1822-2J; (Re- 
signed.) Moses Thompson, 1824-26; Samuel Arthur, 
1826-32 ; John Skeavington, 18:j2-34 ; Henry Bowman, 
1834-36 ; James Carter, 1836-38 ; A. R. Kenner, 1838 
-40; James McDonald, 1840-46; James Kenner, 1846 
-48; Andrew Huffman, 1848-56; John Boyd, 1856- 
60 ; William W. Brown, 1860-62 ; F. B. Thompson, 
1862-64; Say well Perkins, 1864-66; H. H. Clark, 
1866-68; John Brown, 1868-71; F. B. Thompson 
elected in 1871, to fill vacancy, served until 1872; H. 
H. Clark, 1872-78 ; Henry C. Reno, elected in 1878, 
and failed to qualify; Alvin C. Low, 1879-80; J. C. 
McClurkin, 1880-82; Smith D. Low, 1882, and is pres- 
ent incumbent. 

Abner Armstrong, 1815-20 ; Henry I. Mills, 1820- 
26; James Jordan, 1826-30; Thomas Hunt, 1830-32 ; 
Henry Bowman, 1832-38 ; James Carter, 1838-42 ; A. 
R. Kenner, 1842-48 ; Jesse Emmerson, 1848-50 ; James 
Kenner, 1850-52 ; William Woods, 1852-58 ; William 
A. Montgomery. 1858-60 ; George Michels, 1860-62 ; 
Jesse Emmerson, 1862-64; William W. Brown, 18iii- 
66; Saywell Perkins, 1866-68; Lee Woods, 1868-70; 
Maxwell W. Morgan, 1870-73 ; (Died iu office.) George 
Michels was appointed to fill vacancy to 1874, when he 
was elected for two successive terms. Charles Hall, 
1878-80; Joseph Green, 1880-82 ; Frank Dalby, 1882 ; 
and is present incumbent. 


Levi Campton, 1815-19; Scoby Stewart, 1819-21 . 
Hiram Bell, 1821-24 ; Robert Frazier, 1824-30 ; John 
Woods, 1830-32 ; Daniel Stennett, 1832-35 ; Charles P. 
Burns, 1835-37 ; Alan Emmerson, 1837 ; (Resigned.) 
John Woods, 1837-71 ; George Michels, 1871-73; John 
Woods, 1873-75 ; George Bower, 1875 to present time 


Henry Bowman, 1838; (Died soon after appoint- 
ment) Henry I Mills, 1838-42 ; James Hcau, 1842- 


The territory of Lawrence formed a part of the county 
of Illinois until April 27th, 1790. when Arthur St. 
Clair divided the vast territory into various counties. 
The east boundary line of St. Clair county was the 
meridian line passing through FortMassacon the Ohio ; 
thus the territory along the Wabash, was detached from 
the rest of Illinois and formed a component part of 
Knox county. The separation of the Territory north- 
west of the river Ohio into those of Ohio, May 7th, 1800, 
and Indiana July 4th, 1800, left matters in statu quo. 
The organization of the Territory of Illinois, February 
3d, 1809, led to a new formation of counties, to wit, St. 
Clair and. Randolph, April 28th, 1809. The St. Clair 
county of 1760 was bounded on the east by the Fort 
! Massac meridian, on the north by the Ohio, on the west 
i by the Mississippi and on the north by the Illinois river. 
| The county St. Clair of 1809 extended from the Wabash 
to the Mississippi, was bounded on the south by township 
', lines between towns three and four south of the base Hue 
extending north to the English possessions. This 
territory (now comprising Lawrence) remained a part of 
j St. Clair county until November 28th, 1814, when the 
I county of Edwards was organized of which it formed a 
: component part until it was organized into a separate 
county. The northern part of Lawrence county however 


belonged to the county of Crawford from December 31st, 
1816, to January 16th, 1821. 

The county of Edwards, whose center of population at 
the time of its organization was in the territory of ( hat 
is now Wabash and Lawrence counties) appears to have 
been represented in the territorial legislature of 1816- 
1817 for the first and only time, when Seth Card was a 
member of the house. The Illinois legislative directory 
of 1881 does not mention the name of the gentlemen, 
who represented the county in 1817 and 1818. Willis 
Hargrave is mentioned as a member from White. 

Seth Card and Levi Compton were delegated to the 
constitutional convention of 1818. In the first and 
second General Assembly of Illinois, the counties were 
represented by Guy W. Smith and Robert Frazier in the 
Senate and by Henry Utter, Alexander Campbell and 
Moses Michaels in the House. 

This county, organized under a special act of the 
legislature, was by the organization of Richland county, 
February 24th, 1841, reduced to the following boundary, 
to wit, on the East by the Wabash river, on the South 
by Wabash county, on the West by Richland county, 
and on the North by Crawford county. 'Its area now 
comprises seven full congressional townships, four frac- 
tional ones, along the Wabash, and four parts of town- 
ships on the north boundary line. The county' was 
named after the famous James Lawrence, captain U. S. 
N., whose dying words : " Don't give up the ship! " are 
alive on the lips of every true American. 

The act of the General Assembly of Illinois which 
called the county of Lawrence into existence, is in words 
and figures as follows : 

The bi'll to organize the new county, was introduced 
in the house of Representatives by the Hon. Moses 
Michaels, member from Edwards, the 26th of December, 
18-20, and upon motion of Hon. Wickliffe Kitchell, 
advanced to a second reading on the day following. On 
motion of Hon. Henry Eddy, of Gallatin, the bill was 
referred to a committee of the whole House and made 
the order of the day for December 30th, when it was 
referred to select committee. This committee reported 
progress and obtained leave to " sit " again on said bill. 
On the 4th of January the committee reported, giving 
the new county the name of " Perry." Blackwell of St. 
Clair sought to amend the bill by substituting the word 
" Dubois " in lieu of Perry, which amendment was lost, 
Eddy tried the name of " Decatur ;" it was lost ; then 
Blackwell suggested first " Pike " and then"Azby," 
all to no purpose, when Kitchell .succeeded to have his 
amendment, to call the new county "Lawrence," 

An Act for the formation of a new county out of the 
counties of Edwards and Crawford. 

Approved January 16th, 1821. 

1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, 
represented in the General Assembly: That all that 
tract of country contained within the follow ing boundary, 

to wit: Beginning on the great W abash river, seven 
miles north of the base line, thence west to Wayne county 
' line, thence north two miles north of town four, thence 
j east to the said Wabash river, thence with said river to 
the place of beginning, shall constitute a new county, to 
be called the county of Lawrence; and for the purpose 
of fixing a permanent seat of justice therein, the follow- 
ing persons were appointed commissioners, to wit: David 
Porter, Moses Thompson and William Wilson, which 
said commissioners, or a majority of them, shall meet at 
the house of Toussaint Dubois, on the first Monday of 
May next, and after being duly sworn before some 
j Justice of the Peace in this State, to faithfully take into 
view the convenience of the people and the situation of 
the settlements, with an eye to the future population and 
the eligibility of the place, shall proceed to determine on 
| the place of the permanent seat of justice, and designate 
the same. Provided: The proprietor or proprietors of 
the land shall give to the county, for the purpose of 
erecting public buildings, a quantity of land, not less 
than twenty acres, to be laid off into lots and sold for 
! that purpose. But should the proprietor or proprietors 
refuse or neglect to make the donation aforesaid, then 
and in that case it shall be the duty of said commission- 
ers to fix on some other place for the seat of justice 
as convenient as may be to the inhabitants of said county, 
which place, when fixed and determined upon, the said 
' commissioners shall certify under their hands and seals, 
i and return the same to the next commissioners' court in 
the said county, which court shall cause an entry thereof 
to be made on their books of record ; and until the pub- 
lic building be erected, the court shall be held at the 
house of Toussaint Dubois, in the said county. 

?. Be it' further enacted: That the commissioners 

shall receive a compensation of two dollars for each day's 

j attendance that may be necessary in fixing the aforesaid 

j seat of justice, to be paid out of the county treasury by 

an order from the commissioners' court. 
! 3. Be it further enacted: That the citizens of Law- 
I rence county are hereby declared to be entitled, in all 
I respects, to the same rights and privileges as are in gen- 
j eral allowed other counties in the State. 

4. Be'it further enacted : That the county of Law- 
rence shall be and compose a part of the second judicial 
circuit, and the courts shall be holden therein at such 
times as shall be specified by law. 

j At the time of the organization of the county as such, 
! a very large portion of the public lands had become the 
| property of individuals, and in order to show clearly 
which parts of. the county were settled, and who the 
settlers were, we shall here introduce the names of the 
freeholders in each congressional township, having been 
i residents thereof prior to 1821. Non-resident land- 
holders, of whom there were not many, will also be men- 

Town 3 North, Range 10 West. Henry Cassady, Rob- 
ert Bunting, J. B Tougas, J. B. Chartier, Heirs of Du- 
rnais, Thomas Jones, Paul Gamelin, Pierre Carnoyer, 


John Elliot, Franjois B.>sseron, John Askin, J. B. 
Bassine, Joseph Laraot, Laurent Bassine, Joseph Ham- 
trarnac, Hugh Hawl (Hall), Fran9ois Vigo, William 
H. Harrison, Lawrence Slaughter, Daniel Sullivan, 
Pierre Bonneau, Larant Hainlan and Henry Giilhara. 
These twenty-three individuals owned 2,960 acres of 
land, all French locations, varying in area from 34 to 
201 acres. None of the government lands d scribed in 
the usual manner, by sections, etc. were entered prior to 

Town 4 North, Range 10 West William Hogue, A. 
F. Snapp, William Clark, James Baird, William Mcln- 
tosh (speculator). Toussaint Dubois, Abner Reeves and 
Andrew Robinson. These eight persons owned 2,196 
acres, also French locations, and militia rights ; no gov- 
ernment lands entered prior to 1821 

Town 5 North, Range 10 West. Laurent Bazadon, 
Heirs of Stockwell, and Willia-n Hogue, owned 422 
acres, all locations. 

Town 2 North, Range 11 West. William Mclntosh, 
Louis Ravellate, Joseph Tougas, Pierre Grimmayre, 
and Widow Clairmont owned 2,27- acres, French loca- 
tions, improvements, and militia rights. 

Town 3 North, Range 11 West : Toussaint Dubois, 
Htirs of Dubois, William Morrison, John Small, W. 
M. Small, and T H. Small owned 2.430 acres, all loca- 
tions, improvements and militia rights. 

Towns 4 & 5 North, Range II. Samuel Harris Eli 
Harris, Israel Price, Henry Price, Andrew Pinkstaff, 
Michael Price, Charles Emmons) John Pinkstaff, James 
Bryan, Adam Lackey, jr, John Dollaham, Edward 
Mills, J. McCord, R ,bert McCord, Samuel McCord, 
David McCi>rd,'Lion Morris, John Morris, Joshua An- 
derson, Daniel Travis, Thomas Baggott, James Baggott 
Eady Cole, John Dunlap, John Conner, Samu-1 Allison, 
John McMillen, William Howard, Moses Turner, John 
Hart, John M- Cleave, J. M. Cawley, John Ashbrook, 
Henry Johnston, E. H. Allison, Samuel Leneve, John 
Allison, Alexander Turner, Joseph Ridgeway, David 
Travis, Moses Turner, Thomas Anderson, Joseph Berry, 
J. R. Adams, John Berry, G. W. Kinkade, William 
Huston, Thomas McCall, Samuel Gaston, Abraham 
Cams (Cairns), Francis Boggs, Scott Biggs, Ben. 
Matthew, Aivlrew McClure, David Ruby, Francis Cul- 
lom, Peter Price, Edward Inlow and Cornelius Vaun- 
ausdell had, during the years from 1814 to 1822, entered 
11,500 acres of congress land. 

Town 2 North, Range 12 West. Victor Buchanan, 
Adam Corrie (an English speculator, who entered over 
5.000 acres of land in this township about the year 1818), 
Thomas Brooks, J. B. Vale urs, J. B Chartier, William 
Spencer, John Davis, August Tougas, Shadrach Ru- 
ark, jr., John Gibson, James Johnson and William 
Leach entered 7,676 acres prior to 1822. 

Town 3 North, Range 12 West Toussaint Dubois 
possessed in this township five "locations," aggregating 
764 acres, and Henry Faile, William Smith, John Beu- 
uefield, Peter Lewis, William Spencer, B. McCleave, 

William French, Adam Claycomb, William Jones, Con- 
stant McMahan, Samuel Newell, Nathan Rawlings, 
John Richardson, Elijah Atherton, Patrick Doherty, 
Daniel Grove, John Richardson, Larkin Ryle, John 
Buchanan, Absalom Milton, Rezin Clubb, Thos. Fish, 
John Scott, Alley Miller, John Wilson, Rezin Ragen, 
John Gillespie, Samuel Parr, James Ryan, Samuel S. 
Chi Ids, John Andrew, Jarvis Burroughs, Benjamin 
Gibbs, Win. Kinkade, John Clark, William Dennison, 
John Powers, John Osburn and Joshua Butler possessed 
6,472 acres of c.mgress land prior to 1822. 

Towns 4 and 5 North, Range 12 West. Thomas Kell, 
A Gallaher, C. White, Robert Bennefield, Solomon 
Breginaw, George Westner, Joseph P. Badollet, Corne- 
lius Vanansdale, T. Roseman, James Stewart, John 
Bennefield.'Thomas Tyffe, Thomas Landau, Moses Petty, 
Joshua Allender, Peter Shidler, Willi-m Speucer and 
William Douglas were in possession of 4,480 acres of 
land in these towns prior to 1822. 

Towns 2, 3, 4 and 5 North, Range 13 West Adam 
Corrie, Jacob Sch rader, Shadrach Ruark, And w. Christy, 
Elijah Clubb, Moses Laws, Wm. Laws, John Laws, 
Samuel H. Clubb, Wm. Martin, Benjamin Sumner, 
Richard Heath, Hugh Drennon, Richard B. McCorkle, 
Alexander Frazier, and P. and J. Pargin owned 6,400 
acres in this the most western part of the county in its 
present limits. 

From the foregoing list it would appear lhat 46,828 
j acres, or one-fifth the area of the county, was in 
possession of private individuals, a large and overwhelm- 
ing majority of whom were actual settlers. 

The population of the county at the time of its organ- 
ization consisted of the families of about 250 freeholders 
and of probably as large a number of " squatters," 
Crawford and Edwards counties, according to the census 
of 1820, had a population of 6,443 in that year, which 
increased to 11,136 during the next decade. The terri- 
tory of those two counties in 1820 was, in 1830, divided 
into four counties, to wit: Crawford, with a population 
3117; Edwards, with 1649; Lawrence, with 3668; and 
Wabash, with 2710. Allowing that the increase in 
population by immigration and otherwise was uniform 
in those four counties, it is safe to assume ihat the popu- 
lation of Lawrence county at the time of its organization 
amounted to 2250 souls. 

Early Deaths. The probate records of 1821 and 1822 
mention the following estates put under administration, 
to wit: John Richardson, whose personal property was 
valued at $801.70; Peter Lewis, whose personal property 
brought 8468.86; Joshua Gifford, value $153 37i ; Eli 
Harris, whose personal property amounted to $-302 81, 
whose real estate was appraised at $1950 ; Samuel 
Norton, $526.50; Thomas Evans, $311.37; William 
Dukes, $613 85 ; Bennet Organ, $263.87 ; Ben Matthew, 
8227.50 ; and Thomas Baird, $666.75. 

None of those estates would in our days be called a 
large one, but each was solvent, with a small surplus; 
the most remarkable feature of those early estates is, 



however, that they differ but slightly in amount. Prices 
paid in those days for the various products of the land 
were fair. A yoke of oxen would bring from $36 to 
$40, cows $9 and $10, hogs sold for $1.50, corn was I 
worth 20c. a bushel, cotton 12jc. a pound, etc. 

The first will probated in the court of Lawrence was | 
filed for record on the 20ih of August, 1821, a verbatim j 
copy of which is here introduced : 

Last Will of John Pargin. Know all men by these 
presents that I, John Pargin, of Lawrence county and 
state of Illinois, being in my right mind and sences, 
and a low state of health, I make and ordain my last j 
will and testament. In the name of God, amen : First, ' 
I will that Samuel H. Clubb and Cossier Pargin be the j 
executors of this my last will and testament ; secondly, 
I will that all my just deabts be pade by my executors ; 
thirdly, I will and bequeath unto my son, Peter Pargin, 
my young sorrel mare and my rifle gun and my steel ! 
trap ; forthly, I will and bequeath one hundred dollars 
of my money that I now have to be lade out in land at 
congress price, in the county of Lawrence, in the name 
of Polly, John and Jacob pargin, my three youngest chil- 
dren as their part of my estate ;. sixthly, I will and be- 
queath sade lande as a home for my wife during her 
widerhood ; seventh, I will and bequeath to my wife, 
" Cossier " pargin, all the reste of my property and 
money as longe as she remains a wider, to raise the chil- 
dren on and to go to them at her death if anything is 
left ; eight, I will that the taxes of sade lande be pade 
out of my estate until the three children comes of lawful 
age. Sinde and sealed in the presents of us this eleventh 
day of March in the year of our Lord 1821. 


This will was witnessed by Samuel Stoltz and Aaron 
Vanetta and probated on the 20th of August, 1821, be- 
fore H. M. Gillhain, judge of probate. 

The form of this will differs from the average in the 
opening sentence; the "know all men" introduction 
causes the reader to presume that the author of said will 
was guided by the phraseology used in writing deeds. 

Looking over the list of marriages in the Pioneer chap- 
ter the reader will observe that Mrs. " Cossier pargin " 
did not remain in the state of " widderhood " for a great 
length of time. The " widder Cossier" Pargin became 
Mrs. Casiah Barney on the 3d of July, 1822. 


We introduce here the proceedings of the first session 
of the county commissioners' court. The act creating 
the county of Lawrence did not provide for a special 
election of commissioners, hence it is to be inferred that 
those officers were appointed by Gov. Shadrach Bond- 

The Proceedings : 
STATE OF ILLINOIS,") . ., 1 . 1891 
Lawrence county, j F ' 

This being the first meeting of the county commission- 
ers' court for the county of Lawrence, there were present 

John Dunlap, James Lanterman and William Martin, 
who were duly sworn and qualified into office by Tlioruas 
Anderson, Esq, a justice of the peace for said county. 
Toussaint Dubois was then appointed clerk for the 
county commissioners' court of Lawrence county, who 
being duly sworn and having given bond and security 
faithfully to discharge the duties of said office, pro- 
ceeded immediately to fulfill the same. 

Ordered, that Samuel H. Clubb be and he is hereby 
appointed treasurer of the county of Lawrence, and he 
having given b nd and security faithfully to discharge 
the duties of said office, was duly sworn and qualified. 

Ordered, that Thomas Ashbrook and Thomas Bland 
be, and they are hereby appointed constables for the 
county of Lawrence. 

Ordered, that the following named persons be sum- 
moned to serve as petit jurors for the first term of the 
circuit court to be holden on the first Monday in June 
next: William P. Blanchard, John Ruark, William 
Leach, Aaron Vannatta, Victor Buchanuau, Jacob 
Helphestine, John Mills, Samuel Lancave, John Adams, 
William Ashbrook, Jeremiah Robinson, Alexander 
Turner, William Spencer, Joseph Lamotte, James Ryan, 
Jacob Trout, Harris McCord, Jonathan Allison, Joseph 
Baird, Asa Norton, William Westrope, Hugh Kinkade 
and James Gibson. Adjourned, etc. 

At the second term, a special one held on Wednesday, 
the 16th of May, 1821,' the report of the state commis- 
misioners for locating the permanent seat cf justice for 
Lawrence county was returned to the court, in words as 
follows, to wit : 

To the honorable the county commissioners for the 
county of Lawrence, state of Illinois, for locating the 
permanent seat for said county, do certify that we have 
determined upon twenty acres of land, situate on the 
west side of river Erabarras, about 300 yards north of 
Dubois mills, on a ridge to the left of the St. Louis 
road, laid off in a square, and have designated as the 
centre of said twenty acres of land a white-oak stump 
with a peeled stake sticking by its side, as the permanent 
seat of justice for said county of Lawrence, in the state 
of Illinois. 

Given under our hands and seals this 9th day of 
May, 1821. 


The expenses of these commissioners amounted to 
$22 00 for themselves and $8. 00 for David Porter. The 
warrants issued to those parties were the first issued by 
the court. John Dunlap was appointed to make a sur- 
vey of the "donation land" made to the county, and 
also to lay off the town of Lawrenceville into streets 
and alleys. These lots were ordered to be sold on the 
first Monday and Tuesday of July, 1821, and the clerk 
was instructed to advertise the sale in the " Indiana 
Sentinel" and " Western Sun," printed at Vincenues, 
and also in the "Illinois Gazette" and the' "Illinois 
Intelligencer," printed in this state. 


The sale of those county lots did not fill the treasury 
of the new county as was expected. Money was scarce 
and although easy terms were granted, the old settlers ! 
of 1820 were too cautious and reluctant to contract debts ' 
of any kind. The want of money was so severely felt 
throughout the State, that the legislature resorted to a 
scheme of creating money. It is but recently that the 
people of these United States have seen a new party 
the " Greenback party " for short spring ioto life, with 
the avowed object of abolishing the use of gold and sil- 
ver as measures of values and substituting tluir fiat 
money for it. The older people of the county have had j 
some experience in this matter, for there was a time ; 
when the county authorities flooded the county with a i 
paper currency, based on an empty treasury. The few j 
remarks introduced here are intended for the generation j 
now starting out into political life. It is presumed to ; 
be know by all, that almost every person residing in ! 
Illinois in 1820 and 1821 was virtually a bankrupt, that I 
is, he could not pay any debt, however small it was, j 
despite his possessing many acres of lands, etc., simply : 
because there was no money in the State. Well, it was 
a glorious time for "fiat" money, and the legislature 
created it by chartering the State Bank of Illinois, with- j 
out a dollar in its vaults and wholly on the credit of j 
the State. It was authorized to issue notes of various j 
denominations, differing from the notes of regular banks 
only in being made interest bearing (2 per cent, per 
annum) and payable by the state after ten years. The 
bank and it* branches, officered by men appointed by 
the legislature (politicians of course and not business ! 
men), were directed by law to lend its bills to the peo- 
ple, to the amount of one hundred dollars on personal 
security, and of larger amounts upon the security of 
mortgages on real estate. These note were to be re- ! 
ceived in payment of taxes, costs, fees, salaries, etc , and 
if tendered to a creditor and by him refused, the debtor 
could stay the collectioa of the debt due by him for [ 
three years by giving personal security. The Solons at I 
Vandalia (nomen et omen) actually believed that these | 
notes would be worth their face in gold or silver, and I 
the Secretary of the Treasury of the U. S. was requested \ 
by a resolution of the legislature to receive those notes j 
at the various land offices in payment for public lands. 
Governor Ford, in his history of Illinois, tells an amus- 
ing anecdote in reference to the adoption of this reso- 
lution in the State S nate : When it was put to a vote 
in the senate, the old French Lieutenant Governor, 
Colonel Menard, presiding over the body, did up the 
business as follows : 

Gentlemen of de Senate, it is moved and seconded dat i 
de notes of dis bank be made land office money. All in 
favor of dat motion say aye, all against it say no. It is 
decided in de affirmative. And now gentlemen I bet you 
one hundred dollars he never he made land office money, j 
The banks went into operation in 1821, and their officers 
finding it easier and more pleasant to lend than to re- 
fuse, had soon scattered hundreds of thousands of their 

" fiat " money throughout the state. It was taken at 
first at 75 cents per dollar, but Boon came down to 25 
cents. A large number of people who had " borrowed " 
from the banks, thought, of course, that their transac- 
tions with the banks terminated then and there. The 
idea of repaying was and remained foreign to them. 
The real troubles commenced four and five years later, 
as appears from the dockets of all circuit courts in the 
older countries. Countless lawsuits and few "returns" 
were the consequences of the "financial" legislation. 
But to return to the subject of county government, we 
will state, that the county commissioners appointed a 
large number of supervisors to take charge of the public 
roads in the county, to wit : Robert Bennefield, on the 
county line, and east of the Embarras river; Peter 
Shidler, also on the county line road, from the range line 
between 12 and 13, to the line between 13 and 14. 
Thaddeus Morehouse, on the west end of railroad ; Ben- 
jamin McClure, to the road leading from Yellow Banks 
to Joseph Lamotte's ; James Ryan, Daniel Deniston 
Benjamin Summer and Cornelius De Long on the old 
Sallsburg road ; Thomas Buchanan on the Palmyra road ; 
Samuel H. McCord, on the north line of the county, be- 
tween ranges 10 and 11, thence west with the line of 
Embarras river, thence down to Du Bois' mills and 
thence to Purgatory ! (This is the first time that the 
queer and ominous name is mentioned in the official 
records. The wiiter has frequently heard the known 
Western exclamation " There's h (ades) on the Wabash ;" 
(could this phrase have originated with the above un- 
heard of designation of a creek or swamp?) Joseph 
Baird, Daniel, Travi?, James Gibson and Jeremiah Rob- 
ertson were also appointed supervisors of roads. 

The attention of the commissioners was next directed 
to the organization of military districts, one for each 
company. There were enough able-bodied men in the 
county to form six companies. This circumstance seems 
to verify the supposition express d above, in reference to 
the estimated number of inhabitants in 1821. 

The returns of the elections of company and regimen- 
tal officers have not been preserved ; they would have 
been of much interest to the reader. 

We introduce here the boundary lines of the various 
districts, and such other information as could be gathefed 
from the records. 


First Company. Beginning at the Embarras river, 
one mile north of the lines between towns 3 and 4, thence 
west with said line till it strikes the range line between 13 
and 14, thence north with that line till it strikes the 
county line, thence with the county line to Embarras river 
and with said river to the place of beginning. 

Second Company. Beginning at the northwest conn r 
of section 10, thence south to the county line, thence 
with said line to the Wabash river, thence up said river 
to the mouth of the Embarras, thence up said river to 
one mile south of the line between towns 3 and 4. 



Third Company. Beginning northeast of section 9, 
thence south to the county line, thence with said line 
to the range line between 13 and 14, thence with said 
line to one mile south of the line between township 3 and 
4, thence with said line to the place of beginning. 

Fourth Company. All that part of the county west of 
range 13 and 14. 

Fifth Company Beginning at the Embarras river 
thence to the W abash river to the county line, thence 
west to the line between ranges 10 and 11, thence south 
with said line to the marsh on which the bridge is at 
Houston's, and with said marsh to the said range Lne 
leaving Eli Harris to the east and south with said line 
to the Embarras river, and with said river to the place 
of beginning. 

Sixth Company. Beginning on the line between ranges 
10 and 11 oil the north county line, thence with the Em- 
barras river, and down the river to Purgatory thence up 
Purgatory to the marsh bridge, at Ashbrooks and down 
said marsh to the line between sections 27 and 22, thence 
east with said line past the school-house to the line 
between ranges 10 and 11 an i south with said line to the 

Elections for company, battalion and regimental offi- 
cers were held on the 23rd of June, 1821, at the houses of 
Isaiah Lewis; Victor Buchanan ; Richard B McCorkle; 
Cornelius De Long ; Peter Price and William Adams. 

After having provided for proper military protection 
and warlike emergencies the court directed their atten- 
tion to what may be termed home comfort, by granting 
license to Cornelius, Taylor, and also to Elijah Lamp- 
hear, to keep taverns, without confining them to any lo- 
cality. Each of these men paid an annual tax of $3.00 in 
advance, thus enabling Squire Clubb to make the first 
entry of moneys received into the treasury of the county 
of Lawrence. The prices which guests and cm- 
tomers were to be charged, were stipulated by a solemn 
order, as follows : Each meal 25 cts., lodging 1"} cts., 
each horse feed 12} cts., keeping a horse for a full day 
50 cts., whiskey 12} cts , French braudy 50 cts., Jamaica 
spirits 50 cts., Holland gin 50 cts., domestic brandy 25 
cts., wine 50 cts., peach braudy 25 cts. and domestic gin 
25 cts., per one half pint. The fractional parts of cents 
must have been a source of trouble in making change; 
and yet the very same rates, with the half and frequently 
quarter cents are met with every where during that 
period of time. The fact of so many brands of foreign 
and domestic liquors being kept on tap, must lead one 
to suppose that those old settlers of ours were rather 
inclined to indulge. 

H. S. Campbell, too, was licensed to retail liquor " by 
the small," and paid a tax of three dollars for the privi. 
lege. His was not a tavern, but merely a tippling house. 
We have thus far traced $9 in the public cash box, and 
now comes Squire Anderson and pays into court an- 
other $2, which he has collected from persons for " pro- 
fane " swearing. Swearing, common and profane, is no 
longer a source of revenue, prolific though it might 

prove, while alcoholic liquors have to this day main- 
tained their position as first-class sources of public 
revenue, here as well as in all other civilized nations. 

The government of the county was now fairly started, 
with John Dunlap, James Lauterman and William 
Martin as county commissioners; Toussaint Dubois as 
clerk; Samuel H. Clubb, treasurer and assessor; H. M. 
Gillharn, probate judge ; William Wilson, circuit judge; 
Toussaint Dubois, circuit clerk ; Henry Dubois, sheriff; 
J. M. Robinson, prosecuting attorney ; Robert Benne- 
field, coroner ; and J. Dunlap, county surveyor. 

.Thomas Armstrong, Benjamin McCleave, James West- 
fall and Daniel Travis were acting justices of the peace. 
The first public improvement made under the direc- 
tion of the court was the building of a stray pen, con- 
structed by Sheriff Dubois at an expense of $7.75. A 
sale of donation lots took place on the 9th of July, 18-1, 
and the proceeds, to wit, $250.12}, were paid into court 
on the 3d of September. Toussa''nt Dubois, at whose 
house court was held, resigned the office of county clerk 
on the 3d Sep'ember, 1821, and was succeeded by James 
M. McLean. 


The court next proceeded to have a jail constructed. 
The same was to be 17 feet square, two stories high, to 
be constructed of hewn logs, double walls, and the space 
between walls to be filled with rocks ; the rooms to be 7 
feet in the clear. Cornelius Taylor contracted with the 
court, and was to be paid $625 for the job. It seems, 
however, that Isaac Fail had to complete the work, for 
a settlement with him as builder of the jail was perfected 
in March, 1822. 


The court, at the special August term, 1822, entered 
into an agreement with H. M. Gillham to build a suit- 
able court-house of brick for and in consideration of the 
sum of $1500, on the place which the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the State had selected for a permanent seat 
of justice. At the same time the court contracted with 
Bastian Smith for 80,000 bricks, at $4.25 per thousand, 
said brick to be used in building the court-house. It is 
impossible to state if the bricks were paid out of the 
above $1500, or by the county direct. At any rate, the 
building proceeded very slowly, and in December, 1823^ 
two new contractors, Onates Chafie and Joshua Eaton, 
were mentioned in connection with the building. The 
house was finally received on the 24th of July, 1824, but 
was in so poor a condition that it had to be temporarily 
abandoned. The June term of 1825 was held at the 
house of Richard Mieure, and the December term 1825, 
at Hiram Wade's. Gabriel T. Canthorm's house shel- 
tered the court during the March, June and September 
! terms, 1826. Meanwhile the county had" contracted with 
Joshua Bond to finish the court-house at a further ex- 
penditure of $2500. Mr. Bond filed his bond on the 5th 
of June, 1826, and was paid the full amount on the 
same day. This court-house has certainly cost the county 



the sum of $5,000, and not $1,500, as usually under- 


The various streams coursing through the count)" were 
too large to be bridged and too deep to be forded, hence i 
a number of ferries were established at an early date. 
James Gibson's ferry on the Wabash, opposite Vin- } 
cennes, was the most important. Daniel Keykendall j 
also kept a ferry boat on the Wabash. A third one was 
kept by Elijah Lamphere, who was also licensed to sell [ 
liquor by the "small." Valentine J. Bradley and j 
Caius M. Eaton established a ferry across the Embarras j 
at Lawrenceville in June, 1825, at which time James 
Nabb and John Fail were licensed to run a ferry across 
the same stream at Yellow Banks. These ferries were > 
also a source of revenue to the county, and remained so j 
many years. 

The number of taverns increased with the population. ! 
The tavern of 1820 was a different institution from 
the "saloon" of our modern times. Taverns were ; 
usually found in the county seats, on the stage roads, j 
and at ferry landings. The tavern-keeper was, as a i 
rule, a leading man in his borough. He was well 
informed, for it was he, who gathered the news from the 
traveling public. The judge and the lawyer, in court 
time, put up at the tavern, and formed the center of 
attraction for the time being. For years the taverns j 
were the court houses, and the tavern-keeper stood high 
in the estimation of his townsmen, and was a power in the 
land. We have mentioned a few names of the early 
tavern-keepers, and will here give a list of all who had 
been licensed in the first five years of the county govern- i 
ment: Cornelius Taylor, Elijah Lamphere, H. S. ' 
Campbell, Daniel Key keudall, James Nabb, Matthew 
Neely, Jonathan Marney, Jesse M. Grant, (Jesse was j 
al-o justice of the peace), Edward Rathbone, John \ 
Bush, Samuel H. Clubb, Michael Stufflebeam, and 
Delilah Matson. These thirteen taverns paid each a 
small tax, none over $3.00 ; they gave bond to keep 
orderly houses, and were licensed became the public good 
demanded it. 


It is very difficult to ascertain the exact county re- 
venue during the earlier period. -All the county officials 
seem to have been collecting public funds, and the 
treasurer, who ought to have had all public moneys j 
under his control, seemed to have been used as " middle- 
man," to inform people who had claims against the j 
county, that there was no money in the treasury. Fines, 
licenses, and proceeds from the sale of donation lots 
were paiii " into court," or during vacation to the 
clerk. The little pay these officers were entitled to was 
taken out of this income and others, who had been 
employed to do some public work, were paid direct by 
the court. The tax collections made by the sheriff were 
paid, for the greater part, in county orders or jurors 
warrants, and again paid " into court," instead of to the 
treasurer. The first tax levy was ordered on the lo'th of 

May, 1821, and the treasurer instructed to. list the 
following taxable property, to wit : Town lots, carriages 
for the conveyance of persons, distilleries, stock-in-trade, 
and horses and cattle over three years old ; all of which 
property was to pay a tax of fifty cents for every one 
hundred dollars' valuation. This valuation must have 
been small, probably less than $80000, as subsequently 
in 1824 it was reported to have amounted then to 
$88,964. The total receipts of the county, including 
fines, licenses, proceeds from sale of donation lots, and 
direct tax amounted to $1219.17. The treasurer re- 
ported that a part of this aggregate to wit, $72 14, re- 
mained in the hands of the collector. The ordinary 
expenditures, including the treasurer's commissions of 
$22.49 amounted to $464.36, leaving a balance of 
$732 32. In March, 1823, the treasurer reported an in- 
come of $1694.69, but inasmuch as the tax rate was 
not higher than in the previous year, and as the collector 
was reported in arrears to the amount of $208.92, it is to 
be inferred that the balance in treasury, as reported in 
March, 1822, was a part of those $1694.69. The trea- 
surer received a compensation of $80 62, to wit, $32 68, 
commissions, and $48.00 for listing the property. The 
regular expenditures of the county increased from 
$464.36 in 1822 to $1614.09 in 1823. The report of 
1824 stated the county revenue to have been as follows : 
Fines, $21.00 ; estrays sold, $40.5. ) ; tavern licenses, 
$16.00 ; one-half of the land tax, $264 62* ; county tax, 
$444-.82; total, $786.94. The expenditures of the county 
exceeded the income for the first time in 1825, and 
continued to do so for several years. As early as 1827, 
there were $2488.18 of unpaid county orders afloat, while 
the assets of the county consisted in a deliquent tax list 
of $153.50. This sad state of affairs gave cause to dis- 
satisfaction and distrust; the clerk was instructed to get 
up a correct statement of the financial condition of the 
county, and keep a copy of it posted up in a prominent 
place in his office, so that all who desired, might see it. 
The statement was also published in the Viucennefa' 
newspapers This statement, ordered in March, 1827, 
was not recorded, and of course, cannot now be found. 
The court increased the annual tax from 50 cents to 
$1.00 per one hundred, and made a strong effort to cur- 
tail expenses, which in 1827 amounted to $739.72. 
The cause of the embarrassment lay in the cost of the old 
court-house, which, as stated above, amounted to three 
times the contract price. The first fiscal statement of the 
county found on record, was made in December, 1827, 
and is, in words and figures as follows : 


Inabilities of the County. 

nty orders issued_ prior to December, 1826 $2,R4.S8 

Unpaid coun 
County orders issued 

nted to county commissioners . . 
ueto Valentine hradley for making 
age as county tn usurer 

* Lands, which had been in possession of individuals, for five yrars or 
ore. were assessed per KKJ acres, at SI. 00 if located in the "\\aua-h 
iti..m,and 75 cents for all other locations; one half of said lax was paid to 
c Suite, the other half to the eouuty. 



Payments and assets. 

ount paid by Hiram W 


$ 50.00 


ount paid to I. Bond on 
ounts paid to same on c 
ount of county orders ta 

contract . . . 
omract. . . . 

" and paid into 

ount due by sheriff 



ount of notes due to the 

county, sale of 

ots 75.00 8907.27% 

Present county debt $2,3,7.02% 

The earlier divisions of the county into militia districts 
had nothing to do with its civil government, nor are 
these districts subsequently mentioned. The road dis- 
tricts increased in number as new settlements developed 
In March 1824 the county was divided into three town 
ships, respectively called Allison, east of Embarras, 

mile and a half south of the township line of T 3 N., 
thence west to the range line between ranges 13 and 14, 
thence south with said line to the beginning ; poll at house 
of William Denison, with Thomas Buchanan, Thomas 
Fish and William Travis as judges of election. 

Lawrenceville. Beginning at the north county line 
where the range line between ranges 13 and 14, strikes 
the same, thence south with said line to one mile and a 
half south pf the township line of T. 3 N., thence east to 
the Embarras river, thence up the Embarras to the 
county line, thence west with the county line to the 
beginning; poll at the court-house with David McHenry, 
Colonel W. Spencer and John McCleave as judges of 

Allison. Beginning at the mouth of the Embarras 

Lawrenceville, west of the Embarras and east of range j river thence up the Wabash river to the mouth of Flat 
line between 13 and 14, and Fox.westof said range Hue ! creek thence up Flat creek to the head of Purgatory, 

thence down Purgatory to the Embarras, thence down 
the Embarras river to the place of beginning ; poll at 
the Centre school-house with Thomas Ashbrook, John 
Mills and Joseph Adams as judges of election. 

Bond. Beginning at the mouth of Purgatory at the 
Yellow Banks, thence up Purgatory to the head of Flat 
Creek, thence down Flat creek to the Wabash river, 
thence up the Wabash to the county line, thence west 
with the county line to the Embarras to the beginning ; 
poll at the house of Charles Emmons, with Edward 
Mills, Samuel Drake and John Allison as judges of 

These six precincts comprised the area of the county 
in the limits made by the act of the Legislature creating 

justices ever elected in this region, were those fam< us ! the county. The townships or precincts of Mason and 
five of the Vincennes court 1779 and the experience Salt Spring were on February 24, 1841, separated from 
had with them, had shaken the confidence of the govern- I Lawrence county to become a part of the county of 
ment in too much popular sovereignty. | Richland. In June, 1828, a seventh precinct was 

formed to be called 

Wabash. Beginning at Bellgrave, thence west to 
Houston's marsh, thence down said marsh to the Em- 

rence county, thence east with the county line to the j barras, thence down the Embarras to its mouth, thence 
range line between ranges 13 and 14, thence north j up the Wabash to the place of beginning; the poll at 
with said line to one mile and a half south of the town- I the house of James Gibson, with John Long, James 
ship line of T. 3 N., thence west to the county line, White and James Gibson as judges of election, 
thence south with said line to the place of beginning ; This precinct was remodeled in March, 1840, and 
poll at the house of James Parker, with Hugh Calhoun, j reduced in size. It began at the Wabash at the centre 
James Parker and James Cunningham as judges of | of fractional section 22, T. 4 N. R. 10 W., thence west 
election. j to the range line between ranges 10 and 11, thence 

S lit Spring. Beginning at the northwest corner of i south to the centre of section 1, in town 3 N. R. 11 W. 

It seems that this subdivision was made for the purpose 
of creating new offices, to wit : Overseers of the poor, 
Daniel Travis and Enoch Organ became the managers 
of pauperism in Allison, while Samuel H. Clubb and 
John Williams divided the territory of Lawrenceville 
and Fox between themselves. 

In 1827 all counties of Illinois, in pursuance of a state 
law, providing for the election of justices of the peace, 
were to be divided into election precincts. So far the 
justices of the peace had held their respective offices by 
appointment. The usual modus operandi was, that the 
commissioners of the county courts recom mended or sug- 
gested the names of suitable persons for said positions to 
the governor, who then appointed them. The first 


Mason. Beginning at the southwest corner of Law- 

Lawrence county, thence south with the county line 
to one mile and a half south of the township line of T. 3 
N., thence east to the range line between ranges 13 and 
14, thence north with said line to the county line, thence 
west with said line to the place of beginning ; poll at the 

on the east line of said section, thence west to the Law- 
renceville district line, thence south with said line to the 
Embarras river, thence down the said river to its mouth, 
thence up the Wabash to the place of beginning ; the 
poll remained at the house of James Gibson. An 
house of John Bullard, and with Chip. Webster, James J eighth precinct was formed in March term, 1840, to be 
Elliott and Elisha Gibbs as judges of election. { called 

Johnston. Beginning at the south county line where j Shidler. All that part of the Lawrenceville district 
the range line between ranges 13 and 14 strikes the same, that lies west of section line running due north and south, 
thence east to the Wabash, thence up the Wabash to the i east of section 33 in township 4 N. R. 12 west, including 
raouthof the Embarras thence up the Embarras to one ! that part of the Lawrenceville district that lies between 


the aforesaid section line and the range line of 13 and 
14; poll at the house of Peter Shidler, with W. Y. 
Christy, Benjamin Conchraan and Elijah Barns as 
judges of election. A ninth precinct was organized 
October 2d, 1843, and named 

St. Fmnclsville. It was composed of all that portion 
of Lawrence county south of Indian creek and east of 
the Mt. Carmel and Liwrenceville state road ; poll at 
the house of Thomas Selby, with Amos Lyon, Alfred 
H. Grass and J. B. Maxwell as judges of election. 

Various changes of minor importance were made in 
subsequent years. Shidler was divided by a line run- 
ning east and west through the centre of the precinct, 
the southern half to be called Petty. A tenth precinct, 
Russellville, was organized in 1852. At the time of the 
adoption of township organization, the county was 
divided into eleven precincts respectively, called Rus- 
sellville, Allison, Wabash, Bond, Petty, Shidler, Prairie, 
Bonpas, Johnson, St. Francisville and Lawrenceville. 

We introduce next the official report of the commis- 
sioners appointed to form the political townships, into 
which the county was subdivided in December, 1856, to 

To the Honorable County Court of Lawrence County at 

the March Term, 1857 : 

The undersigned commissioners appointed by your 
honorable body at the December term, 1856, to divide 
the county of Lawrence into townships in accordance 
with an act entitled an act to provide for township or- 
ganization, beg leave to submit the following report, to 

Perry Township, now Petty. Beginning at the N. W. 
corner of the county, thence east eight miles to the 
northeast corner of section 29 in township 5 N. R. 12 
W., thence south seven miles to the southeast corner of 
section 29, township 4 N., R. 12 W., thence west eight 
miles to the county line at the S. W. corner of section 
30, T. 4 N., R. 13 W., thence north to the place of 

Bond Township Beginning at the N. W. corner of 
section 28 in township 5 N. R. 12 W., thence east seven 
miles to the northeast corner of section 28, T. 5 N. R. 
11 W., thence south five miles to the southeast corner of 
section 16, T. 4 N. R. 11 W., thence west seven miles to 
the S. W. corner of section 16, T. 4 N., R. 12 W., 
thence north five miles to the place of beginning. 

Russell Township. Beginning at the N. W. corner 
of sec. 27, tp. 5 N., range 11 W- ; thence south five 
miles to the S. W. cor. of sec. 15, tp. 4 N., range 11 W. ; 
thence east three miles to the S. E. corner of sec. 13, 
tp. 4, range 11 W. ; thence south one mile to the S. W. 
corner sec. 19, tp. 4 N., range 10 W. ; thence east four 
miles to the Wabash river ; thence up the Wabash river 
to the county line between Lawrence and Crawford 
counties, thence west to the place of beginning. 

Hardin Township, now Christy. Beginning at the 
northwest corner of sec. 31, tp. 4 N , range 13 W.; 

thence south six miles to the S. W. corner of sec. 30, 
tp. 3 north, range 13 W.; thence east eight miles to the 
southeast corner of sec. 29, tp. 3 N., range 12 W. ; 
thence north six miles to the N. E. cor. of sec. 32 in tp. 
4 N., range 12 W., thence west eight miles to the place 
of beginning. 

Lawrence Township. Beginning at the northwest 
corner of sec. 21, tp. 4 N., range 12 W. ; thence east 
seven miles to the northeast corner of sec. 21, tp. 4 N., 
range 11 W. ; thence south six miles to the southeast 
corner of sec. 16, tp. 3 N., range 11 W. ; thence west 
seven miles to the southwest corner of sec. 16, tp. 3 N., 
range 12 W. ; thence north six miles to the place of 

TJiompson Township, now Allison. Beginning at the 
northwest corner of sec. 22, tp. 4 N., range 11 W. 
thence south nine miles to the southwest corner of sec. 
34, tp. 3 N., range 11 W.; thence east to the Wabash 
river, thence up said river to the line between sections 
23 and 26, tp. 4 N., range 10 W. ; thence west four 
miles to the southwest corner of sec 19, tp. 4 N., range 
10 W. ; thence north one mile to the northwest oorner 
of sec. 19, tp. 4, N., range 10 W., thence west three miles 
to the place of beginning. 

Marion Township, now Lukin. Beginning at the 
northwest corner of sec. 31, tp. 5 N., range 13 W. ; 
thence south six miles to the southwest corner of sec. 
13, tp. 2 N., range 13 W. to the county line; thence 
east with the county line eight miles to the southeast 
corner of sec. 29, tp. 2 N., range 12 W. ; thence north 
six miles to the northeast corner of sec. 32, tp. 3 N., 
range 12 W. ; thence west eight miles to the place of 

Denison Township. Beginning at the north west corner 
of sec. 21, tp. 3 N., range 12 W. ; thence south eight 
miles to the southwest corner of sec. 28, tp. 2 N., range 
12 W. ; thence east to the Wabash river, thence up the 
Wabash river to the township line between townships 2 
and 3 N., range 11 W. ; thence west to the south- 
west corner of sec. 34, tp. 3 N., range 11 W.; thence 
north three miles to the northeast corner of sec. 21, tp. 
3 N. range 11 W. ; thence west seven miles to the place 
of beginning. 

Respectfully submitted. 



This report was approved on the 5th of March, 1857, 
and an election ordered to be held in the various town- 
ships on the first Tuesday of April, 1857, for the 
election of township officers. 

The territory of Christy township was divided into 
two townships in September, 1872, to form a new town- 
ship called 

Bridgeport Township Commencing on the north- 
east corner of Christy, running west on its north 
base line two and a half miles; thence due south- 



through said town to the south line ; thence east along 
said line to the southeast corner, thence north along 
the east line to place of beginning. 


The financial statement of Dec. 1827, exhibited a debt 
of $2237 ; that of 1828 shows a reduction of about $240. 
In 1829 another small reduction is to be noted $110. 
The taxable property, exclusive of lands, had now (1829) 
increased to $148,143, and a tax of 50c. per 100, promised 
a direct income of some $740. The ferries across the 
Wabash had now to pay an annual license of $30 each ; 
the Embarras ferries were rated from $5 to $15 each. 
The total revenue of 1830 amounted to $994.23 ; and 
in March, 1831, the county debt was stated to have 
amounted to $17(>1.08. Out of an income of less than 
$1200, the commissioners (Caius M. Eaton, Charles 
Eiumons and Jon. Barnes), saved nearly $700 for the 
purpose of reducing the debt, which in 1832 still amount- 
ed to $1088.49. A new system of licensing merchants 
provided for additional revenue ; so we find that John 
C. Reily paid $15 a year for the privilege of selling goods 
at Lawrenceville. Clock peddlers had to pay $50 fora 
three months' license! These clock peddlers were Yan- 
kees. The revenue of 1833 amounted to $1275.90, and 
expenditure to $506.38, all told ; the debt was reduced 
to $417.69. The last dollar of this debt was paid in 1834, 
and a surplus of $244 cash in the treasury, besides pro- 
missory notes for donation lots amounting to $102. This 
auspicious state of affairs led to negotiations in reference 
to opening a state road from Vincennes to Chicago, with 
an estimated cost of only $6953.90 for Lawrence county, 
and to open and bridge another state road from Mt. Car- 
mel to Lawrenceville, a distance of 22 miles. The county 
expenditures were again on the increase, amounting to 
$1741.15 in the year ending March 1,1835; however, 
the greater income justified this extravagance, which 
consisted principally in the painting of the old court- 
house. The exchequer of the county still showed up a 
snug cash balance of $481 93. An unexpected and, 
comparatively speaking, a large sum of money was added 
to this surplus. An act of the Legislature of January 
19, 1829, provided for the distribution among the various 
counties of the state of funds realized from the sale of 
Saline Reserve lands in Vermillion county. Lawrence 
county drew $1600 in January, 1836, $1400 of which 
were loaned out to individuals, and the balance expended 
on roads. The county revenue of that year amounted to 
$1173.65, and exceeded the expenditures to the amount of 
$642.98 ; the treasurer was instructed to loan $400 of 
the surplus to responsible parties for a period of six 
months. Six hundred dollars of the saline land funds 
were placed in the hands of Joseph Adams and George 
Lemons, for the purpose of defraying the expenses of 
permanent improvements of the Vincennes and Danville 
road. In the following year another appropriation, 
amounting to $831.59, was made for a similar purpose. 
The ordinary expenditures of 1836 and 1837 did not 
wholly absorb the revenue, so that in June, 1838, a bal- 

ance of $554.32 remained at the disposition of the county 
commissioners. The county got into possession of large 
sums of money in consequence of the inauguration by 
the State of what is generally known as the grand sys- 
tem of internal improvements. The impetus to the 
system of internal improvements at the expense, or, more 
properly speaking, on the credit of the State, was given 
by George Forquer, formerly of Monroe, but then a 
senator of Sangamon county, in 1834; his plans, how- 
ever, failed. J. M. Strode, senator " of all the county, 
including Peoria and north of it," had a bill passed in 
1835, authorizing a loan of half a million of dollars on 
the credit of- the State for inaugurating public improve- 
ments. This loan was negotiated by Governor Duncan 
in 1836, and with this money a commencement was 
made on the works of the Illinois canal, June, 1836. 
The great town lot speculation had reached Illinois 
about that time. The number of towns multiplied so 
rapidly that it seemed as though the whole State would 
become one vast city. All bought lots, and all dreamed 
themselves rich ; and, in order to bring people to those 
cities in embryo, the system of internal improvements 
was to be carried out on a grand scheme. The agitation 
became genera), and the silence and indifference of the 
busy farmer were taken for tacit consent. The legisla- 
ture, in 1837, provided for the building of about 1300 
miles of railroads, and voted eight millions of dollars for 
that purpose; two hundred thousand dollars of these eight 
millions were to be paid to counties not reached by those pro- 
posed railroads as an indemnity. In order to complete 
| the canal from Chicago to Peru, another loan of four 
j millions of dollars was authorized. And, as a crowning 
act of folly, it was provided that the work should com- 
mence simultaneously on all the proposed roads at each 
end, and from the crossings of all the rivers. 

No previous survey or estimate had been made, either 
of the routes, the costs of the works or the amount of 
I business to be done by them. The arguments in favor 
i of the system were of a character most difficult to refute, 
j composed as they were partly of fact, but chiefly of 
| prediction. In this way it was proved, to general satis- 
! faction, by an ingenious orator in the lobby, that the 
State could well afford to borrow a hun dred millions of 
dollars and expend it in making improvements. None 
of the proposed roads were ever completed ; detached 
parcels of them were graded on every road, the excava- 
tions and embankments of which have long remained a 
memorial of the blighting scathe done by this Legisla- 
ture. The next Legislature voted another 8800,000 for 
the system, but the general failure became so apparent, 
that in 1839 the system had to be repealed, as 
no more loans could be obtained. Under this 
system a State debt of fourteen and a quarter millions of 
dollars had been created, to be paid by a population of 
476,183 souls! Lawrence county, not being reached 
and benefited by the construction of canals and the 
building of railroads, came in for a considerable share 
of the $200,000 cash distribution, for the only "improve- 



meut" made in the county consisted in the extending of 
the present State road from the Wabash across the 
prairie. The share of Lawrence county in the cash 
distribution amounted to $11,125. Abuer Greer was j 
appointed fund commissioner and agent of the county j 
to receive moneys due to the county under said act, \ 
passed and approved February 27, 1837. Greer re- \ 
ceived the above amount on the 19th of November, 1838, \ 
and deposited it, as directed by the county board, (Win. 
Spencer, S- B. Lowery, and Daniel Pain) in the 
Lawrenceville bank, a branch of the State bank, on the 
same day. The county fared undoubtedly much better 
than other counties, which were within the radius of 
promised railroads, but then the transaction was by no 
means a profitable one. The debt of the State was 
equal to $30 per head throughout the State, con- 
sequently Lawrence county with its population of 7,092 
souls had to assume a permanent and interest bearing 
debt of 6212,760, its proportional share of those four- 
teen and a quarter millions, for and in consideration of a 
few miles of a dirt road, and $11,125 current money in 
hand paid. The question now arose what is to be done 
with this money? The court decided to loan it out, at 
eight per cent, annual interest, to citizens of the county, 
in sums not exceeding two hundred dollars, and to be 
secured by the signature of two sureties, etc. The re- 
cords show that there was a brisk demand for money in 
the county, some $8,000 of the money having been 
placed within forty-eight hours of its arrival. The 
matter of getting sureties was not of difficult nature. 
B and C signing A's note, or A and C signing B's, and B 
and A signing C's. The parties borrowing the funds 
were : James P. A. Lewis, Cephas Atkinson, Aaron 
Shaw, Samuel K. Miller, S. H. Clubb, Caius M. Eaton, 
A. F. David, John Mieure, James M. McLean, Daniel 
Pain, J. C. Reiley, A. S. Badollet, James Rawlings, E. 
G. Peyan, William Wilson, Alexander Stewart, William 
Spencer, A. Barker, John Baker, Elijah Mayes, J. R. 
Wilson, Samuel Newell, Paul Lewis, W. G. Anderson, 
Joshua Dually, J. B Colwell, Edmond Taylor, Jesse 
Conway and James Lewis, each $200 ; Silas Moore, $175 ; 
James Neal, D. D. Marney, D. C. Travis, James F. 
Moore and Isaac Leach, each $150 ; John P. Lamb, 
(the only one who gave three sureties) Nathan Raw- 
lings and Jacob Young, each $125 ; Rice Mieure, Thos. 
Cook, Joseph Petty, James Sawyer, James Rankin and 
W. V. Murphy, each $100'; H. Hanks, $75 ; Thomas 
Gardner, Lewis Sawyer and J. P. Tyffe, each $50. 

The balance of the improvement fund, to wit, $3,015, 
was loaned out on the third of December, 1838. The 
financial condition of the county was now prosperous. 
The Treasurer, Abner Greer, reported, December, 1838, 
that all county orders and juror warrants were paid and 
canceled, and that $1,950.41 J cash remained in treas- 
ury. An appropriation of $200 was made to purchase 
160 acres of land to be subsequently used as a poor 
farm. Samuel Thorn, the sheriff, was appointed agent 
to select and buy the land. 

The county tax rate was now reduced to twenty cents 
per $100 tax value. In June, 1839, the treasurer 
reported a surplus of $1,146,11 in available assets. At 
the same term the county commissioners bethought 
themselves that their actions in reference to the disposi- 
tion of the improvement funds had not been wise, and that 
the moneys should be made useful to all by proper and 
needed public improvements. They allotted $4.340 funds 
and accrued interest to the district east of the Embarras, 
to be disbursed by John Dollahan and T. C. Bailey, as 
agents of the county. The district west of the Embarras 
and east of range line between ranges 12 and 13, was to 
have an equal amount to be put into the hands of 
Victor Buchanan, Jr., and James M. McLean, agents, 
for proper use ; and finally, $3340 to be awarded to the 
west end now part of Richland and to be'managed 
by James Parker and W. Y. Christy, agents. This 
distribution of the improvement fund was, however, not 
final. The money was " out ' and the calling in pro- 
cess very slow. T he notes were renewed from year to 
year with certain reductions. The board, seeing the 
difficulty of collecting the loans, resorted to the means 
of calling in annual instalments, thus reducing the risks 
to some extent. In June, 1842, the court issued an 
order to use $5000 of the improvement fund in defray- 
ing the expenses of building the new court-house. But 
to return to the county finances. G. W- Kinkade, 
the treasurer, who succeeded Ab. Greer in 1839, re- 
ported in June, 1840, that the ordinary expenses of the 
current year had amounted to $835.30, and that the 
cash balance in the treasury amounted to $1417.85. 
The next year saw this balance reduced to $903.82 ; in 
1842 this balance was wiped out completely, and a 
floating debt of $5376.47 was reported June 7. The 
building of the new court-house may have been the 
cause of this sudden change in the financial condition of 
the county. The organization of Richland county oc- 
curred at that period, and as about one-fourth of the ter- 
ritory of Lawrence county became a part of the new 
county, the revenues of the latter were reduced in pro- 
portion. The separation was an amicable one, decided 
by an overwhelming majority at a special election held 
on the 7th of January, 1841. The division subse- 
quently caused some trouble, as the citizens of the new 
county claimed $5000 as their share in the internal im- 
provement fund. Suit was instituted by Richland 
county for this amount, but a compromise, to settle on 
the basis of an indemnity of $1000 was finally effected. 

Turning from the subject of finances, a few words 
will here be said in reference to the various county offi- 
cials during this period. 

County Officials 1821 to 1849. The county commis- 
sioners in office during that period were John Lanter- 
man, J. Dunlap, William Martin, James Nabb, J. P. 
Harris, Isaiah Lewis, Daniel Travis, Richard Gardner, 
Samuel Harris, Benjamin McCleave, A. S. Badellot, 
Caius M. Eaton, Samuel Adams, Charles Emmons, John 
Barnes, William Spencer, Samuel Duulap, S. B. Low- 


ery, Daniel Pain, G. V. Russell, Hugh Calhoun, Victor 
Hucliaiiiui, C. D. Emmons, Edward Moore, Randolph 
Heath, /John Mieure and William Tanquary. The 
machinery of the county government worked smoothly 
until 1839, the period of the improvement fund, when 
resignations seem to have been in order. S. R. Lowery 
withdrew from the board in 1840, William Spencer and 
S. V. Russell in 1841, and then Edward Moore. The 
records simply state the fact of those resignations with- 
out mentioning the cause leading to them. 


The position of County Clerk must have been a most 
unpleasant one, for there are m ore resignations to note 
than in all the other county offices combined. Toussaint 
Dubois served only 5 months, and resigned September 
6, 1821. James M. McLean, his successor, resigned in 
the last year of his second term, March 12, 1829. H. 
M. Gillham served only 9 months and resigned Decem- 
ber 15, 1829. Vl. J. Bradley came within 3 months 
of serving a full term, and was succeeded September 2, 
1833, by J. M. McLean, reappointed, who in his turn 
res'gned in the third year of his term, September, 1836. 
Ebenezer Z Ryan held his own for the balance of 
McLean's, and two full terms, to which he was elected 
in 1839 and 1843 ; he too, had his troubles and annoy- 
ances, as will appear from the following : 

Lauirenceville, Illinois, January 25, 1842. 

To the Hon. County Commissioners of Lawrence 
county, Illinois. 

GENTLEMEN: Inasmuch as reports have been cir- 
culated, embracing charges highly prejudicial to myself 
both as an individual, and as an officer of your court, I 
ask as an act of justice to myself, and as an officer always 
willing that my official conduct shall be fully investi- 
gated, a lull and complete investigation of all my 
actings and doings as Clerk of the Cpurt of the said 
county of Lawrence, either by yourselves sitting as a 
court, or by a committee to be appointed by you, for 
that purpose, and that they be instructed to report the 
result of their investigations to the next term of your 
court. Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 
. Z. RYAN. 

The court appointed Samuel Dunlap, Benjamin 
Conchman and Joseph G. Bowman such committee ; no 
report mentioned. 

Ryan was succeeded by W. S. .Hennessy, in 1847. His 
official couch was not a bed of roses, and he was forced 
to resign January 19, 1853. 


As a rule the Treasurers of the county have had 
pleasant duties to perform, and were never exposed to 
tribulations, persecutions and unfounded accusations. 
Samuel H. Clubb served two terms, from 1821 to 1823. 
(Treasurers were appointed by the county commission- 

ers' court annually). Valentine J. Bradley served five 
successive terms, 1823 to 1828. Algernon S. Badollet, 
1828 to 1829; James Nabb, 1829 to 1830; Samuel 
Harris, 1830 to 183] ; G. W. Kiukade, 1831 to 1833 ; 
Samuel H. Clubb, again, 1833 to 1835; Edward J. 
O'Neille. 1835 to 1836; Ebeuezer Z. Ryan, from March 
to September 1836, when he resigned and was appointed 
clerk in place of James M. McLean. Abner Greer, 
i 1836 to 1839 ; G. W. Kinkade, elected August 1839, 
and re-elected in 1841, for two years' terms ; D. D. 
Marney, 1843 to 1847 ; did not serve the full length of 
his second term aud was succeeded March 4, 1847, by 
Lafayette McLean, who remained in office only 6 
months. James B. Alleuder, elected 1847, served until 

Circuit Clerks. Toussaint Dubois, from April to Sept. 
1821: J. M. McLean, 1821 to 1829; Valentine J. 
Bradley, 1829 to 1836; E. Z. Ryan, from 1836 to 

Sheriffs. Henry Dubois, 1821 to 1825 ; Hiram Wade, 
to 1834; Robert B. Barney, to 1836; Samuel Thorn, 
to 1848 ; and Jacob Young, to 1850. 

Coroners. Robert Bennefield, Absalom Chenowitb, R. 
M. Marney, Thomas Fyffee, and W. M. Murphy. 

Circuit Attorneys. J. M. Robinson, E. B. Webb, 
Aaron Shaw, and Alfred Kitchell. 

School Commissioners. James M. McLean, from 
December, 1834 to September, 1836, when he re- 
signed the four offices he was then occupying, to 
wit : County Clerk, Circuit Clerk, Probate Justice, 
and School Commissioner. He was succeeded 
by Abner Greer, 1836 to 1842; W. R. Jackman, 1842 
to 1843 ; and Algernon S. Badollet, from 1843 to 1857. 

Probate Justices. H. M. Gillman, 1821 to 1823; 
James M. McLean, 1823 to 1836; G. W. Ku.kade, 
1836 to 1837 ; aud Caius M. Eaton, from 1837 to 1849. 

County Assessors. As a rule, the county treasurers 
were also entrusted with " listing " the property of the 
citizens of the county for taxation. Daniel Travis, Jr., 
commissioner of census in 1825, also made the assessment 
for that year. The revenue law of 1839, provided for the 
dividing of counties into assessors' districts. The com- 
missioners' court then appointed Jackson B. Shaw, J. H. 
Morris, and M. B. Snyder, for 1839, and again George 
Lemons, J. H. Morris, and J. M. Travis, 1840. The assess- 
ment of 1841 and 1842 was made by D. C. Travis, county 
assessor. All subsequent assessments until 1857 were 
made by the several county treasurers. 

Circuit Courts, 1821 to 1849. The first circuit court 
of Lawrence county was held in the house of Toussaint 
Dubois, on Monday, June 4, 1822. Hon. William 
Wilson, was on the bench, with -J. M. Robinson, 
as prosecuting attorney, Toussaint Dubois, clerk, and 
Henry Dubois, sherifi*. James McLean, was appointed 
clerk, in place of Dubois, on the 9th June. The sheriff 
called upon the following gentlemen freeholders to 
form the 

Grand Jury. Samuel Harris, foreman; William 


Spencer, Larken Ryle, Daniel Grove, Benjamin 
McCleave, Rezin Clubb, Benjamin Sumner, Samuel 
Ramsay, Gabriel Scott, Abraham Cairns, Scott Riggs, 
William Howard, Thomas Anderson, William Adams, 
Eli Harris, Daniel Travis, John Berry, Ezekiel Turner, 
Joseph Clayton, James Beaird, Joseph Adams, William 
Bennet, and John Hinriman. 

Major Daniel L. Gold, in his historical sketch of 
Lawrence county, read on the 4th July, 1876, mentioned 
this grand jury, and added the following : " After being 
charged as to their duty, they retired to the woods, very 
probably, for consideration, etc." Nor is this taking to 
the woods wondered at; for those good and sterling 
gentlemen freeholders were fully two generations nearer 
to our progenitors (see Darwin's origin of man), than we 
are now ; and all know, that those progenitors of ours 
are great foresters to this day. 

The grand jury presented William Ashbrook, for 
assault and battery, and Michael Stufflebeam and Ben- 
jamin Matthews, for selling liquor without a license. 
Ashbrook was, on a plea of guilty, fined two dollars, the 
others were tried and fined $12.00 and costs, each. At 
the next term, Nov., 1821, General W. Johnston, was 
licensed to practice law, and Jacob Call was sworn as a 
lawyer, and admitted to practice W. R Baker's cases, 
two indictments for passing counterfeit money, and two 
larceny, were taken from docket. Judge Wilson's 
place on the bench was occupied by Hon. James 

May Term 1825. A case of larceny, the people of 
Illinois vs. W. B. terminated in a plea of guilty. The 
poor culprit was sentenced to 15 stripes on his bare 
back, well laid on, and the sheriff, (Hiram Wade) ordered 
to execute the sentence immediately at some convenient 
spot, etc. The first divorce case, Jane Hembre vs. John 
Hembre, was tried before judge James Hall, November, 
1825. It was made a jury case, and Jane was freed from 
the hateful bands of matrimonial infelicity. Both terms 
of court held in 1826 were presided over by judge James 
O.Watties. In April 1827 judge William Wilson occupied 
the bench in Lawrenceville again. At this term a trial for 
horse stealing was had. James Langley was put on trial 
for having stolen a horse, and Levi Rush, for having 
received the stolen property. The parties were defended 
by Moses Tabbs, and prosecuted by J. M. Robinson. 
The jury, who found them both guilty as charged, were 
composed of Joshua Westfall,. Alexander Stewart, Isaac 
Westfall, John Barnes, Isaac Hunter, Joseph Lamotte, 
Andrew Quick, Z. French, John Melton, Tilman Melton, 
Philip Lewis and Jesse Jenny. Langley was sentenced to 
50 stripes, to be immediately " well " laid on, etc , and to a 
fine of one hundred dollars, to pay which he was to be sold 
into servitude for a term not exceeding three years. Levi 
got off with thirty stripes and two and a half years invol- 
untary servitude, provided he failed to pay a fine of one 
hundred dollars, before the 28th of the current month. 
Judge Wilson remained on the bench until 1835. At 
the April term, 1834, another barbarous sentence was 

passed on one John Shelton for the heinous crime of 
rape. He received sixty stripes and was imprisoned for 
two days besides. Speaking of the morals of the 

| people in those early days, Mr. Gold says : Owing to the 
unsettled condition of border life, the country was infested 
with marauding horse-thieves, counterfeiters etc., to such 
an extent that many banded themselves together to 
pursue and punish these desperadoes. These bands were 

, called regulators, and although self-constituted they held 
their courts, arrested, tried and generally convicted a 
number of these robbers and punished them usually with 

| thirty-eight lashes on the bare back. Numbers of 

j citizens opposed these operations of Judge Lynch, yet the 
bands had upon their rolls many of the best citizens 
whom self-defense had driven to such ulterior remedies 
and on the whole, the regulators served a good "purpose 

j for the time, as the den of desperadoes was discovered and 
destroyed, their dies captured and ground to powder in 
this place (Lawrenceville) by an outraged public. 

I Hon. Justin Harlan presided at the Circuit Court as the 

I successor of Judge Wilson since March 1835. The 
September term of 1835 however was held by Judge 
Alexander Grant, and it was during this term that Hon. 
Aaron Shaw was admitted to the bar. 

W. K. Cunningham has the distinction of being the 
first man sent to the penitentiary from Lawrence 
county. His was a one year's term on being convicted 
for assault with intent to kill. October term, 1839. 

The only enforcement of the death penalty in the 
county was that of Elizabeth Reed. She was however 

j not a resident of Lawrence county, and her case was 

j tried here on a change of venue from Crawford county. 
She was tried at the April term, 1845, held by Hon. 

| William Wilson, judge, who had again presided over 
the sessions of the circuit court since April, 1841. 
Elizabeth Reed had killed Leonard Reed, her husband, 
on the 15th day of August, 1844, by administering 
poison in his food. She was indicted by the grand 
jury of Crawford county at the September terra, 1844. 
This grand jury was presided over by D. Hill, foreman, 
and the indictment was based upon the testimony of 
James M. Logan, John Wynn, Harrison Price, Eveline 
Deal, John Herriman, H. G. Burr, N. T. Steele and 
Levi Shoemaker. 

The prosecution was conducted by Aaron Shaw 
(Attorney of State since 1842) and S. S. S. Hayes, and 
the defense by Messrs. French and Linder. 

The jury, before which the case was tried, was com- 
posed of Henry Sheraddin, Edward Fyffe, Joshua Dud- 
ley, J. M. Morris, James V. Robinson, John L. Bass, 
W. R. Jackman, Elijah Gaddy, Emsley Wright, Wil- 
liam Collins, James W. Corrie and Silas Moore. 

The jury found the defendant guilty and the court 
sentenced her to be hung on the 23d of May, 1845. 

The wretched woman ended her life as sentenced, 
and the painful duty of becoming her executioner 
devolved on a most kind hearted man, Samuel Thorn, 
the sheriff. 



Judge Wilson remained on the bench until the end of 
this period, 1849. Before closing this period of the 
civil history of the county, we should state that the 
county was represented in the constitutional convention 
of 1847 by Hon. John Mieure. 

In order to point out the wealth and resources of the 
county at the close of that period, we introduce now the 


The population of Lawrence county in 1850 consisted 
of 30.05 white males, 2838 white females, 144 colored 
males, and 134 colored females, 6121 in the aggregate. 
The town of Lawrenceville had a population of 419. 
216 children were born in the county in 1849, 82 
couples were married and 68 persons buried. The 
1057 families in the county were occupying 1057 dwel- 
lings. 42 teachers, 1406 native and two foreign born 
children, 306 native adults and two foreign born adults 
were unable to read and write. The farms of Lawrence 
county contained 34,684 acres of improved and 5u,968 
acres of unimproved lands, and were worth $599,680. 
Farming implements represented a value of $40,757, 
live stock one of $161,322, and slaughtered animals one 
of $:3,787. The productions of the county in 1849 
had been : 15,582 bushels of wheat, 426,850 of corn, 
50,144 of oats; 14,120 of Irish, and 2000 of sweet 
potatoes; 1530 of buckwheat and 930 of rye; 7297 
Ibs. of tobacco; 12,000 Ibs of wool; 90,505 Ibs. of butter; 
5300 of cheese; 10,500 of flax; 2370 Ibs. of maple 
sugar; 12,356 Ibs of flax, and 1926 tons of hay. Arti- 
cles manufactured in the county in 1849 represented a 
value of $12,274. The county had thirteen church 
edifices, to wit: 1 Baptist, 4 Christian, 5 Methodist, 2 
Presbyterian and 1 Roman Catholic, erected at an ex- 
pense of $5760, with a capacity of seating 4300 persons. 

1849 TO 1883. 

The county commissioners' court was now abolished, 
and the county affairs were conducted by county courts 
until 1857, when the people adopted the new system of 
township organization. 

The first connty court was composed of Hon. E. Z. 
Ryan, county judge, with W. Tanguary and Randolph 
Heath associate judges. The first session was held 
December 30, 1849. County Clerk Hennessy resigned 
his office on the 19th of January, 1853, on account of 
difficulties with the court, he having been charged with 
collecting illegal fees. J. C Reily, his successor,. made 
settlement of his affairs on the 21st of December, 1855. 
He was owing the county $24.24, which his honor, Judge 
Jesse K. Dubois, assumed to pay. 

Township organization was adopted in November, 
1856, and the county court, to wit ; J. K. Dubois, judge, 
J. M. Travis and James Irish, associates, held their last 
session on June 1, 1857, and adjourned sine die. 

The first board of supervisors was composed of W. D. 
Adams, of Allison, chairman ; Thomas Donner, of Den- 
nison, Daniel Grass, of Petty, D. L. Gold, of Lawrence, 
Robert Dollohan, of Bond, Andrew Pinkstaff, of Russell, 
Henry Schrader, of Christy, and Wiley Edmundsou, of 
Lukin. As usual in such cases, a committee was ap- 
pointed to investigate the county offices. D. L. Gold 
was appointed such committee. 

The clerk, I. B. Watts, ordered December 28, 1860, 
to prepare a statement of the county debt, which, how- 
ever, he failed to do. July 25, 1861, the clerk was 
authorized to issue county orders to the families of vol- 
unteers, at the rate of $3.00 per month for each family. 
These orders were to be issued during vacation, at the 
request of the individual supervisors of townships. The 
whole amount of money spent in this direction was 
$1842. This was all the appropriations of the county 
in aid of the cause against the rebels. A proposition to 
borrow $75,000 to pay a bounty of $300 each to volun- 
teers, so as to avoid conscription, was voted down Feb- 
ruary 6, 1865, by a vote of 5 to 2, to wit : J. L Flan- 
ders, Aaron Clark, Daniel Feagan, J. L. Jones and 
Richard Greer voting nay, while John Jackson and L. 
W. Gee voted aye, D. H. Morgan in the chair. 

Daniel Grass, who had been appointed superintendent 
of schools in place of L. Albernathy, deceased, refused 
to accept the position. July 25, 1861, J. B. Saye, the 
next appointee, reported the books in confusion, and 
some $1500 fine-money uncollected ; whereupon he was 
instructed to file a claim of $1500 against the estate of 
the dead superintendent. 

County board purchased eighty acres to wit : the west 
half of the north quarier of section 4 in township 3-12 
for $2400, for the purpose of making it the permanent 
home of the county poor. The taking care of the poor 
had been a vexatious business ever since 1850. The 
expenditures were not near as large as it was generally 
believed, yet the thought was prevalent that the poor- 
master was making a fortune out of this business. A 
new township, Bridgeport, was organized Septem- 
ber 6, 1872. 

The financial condition of the county as well as the 
swamp land trials and tribulations have been made 
special subdivisions of this chapter, and are here intro- 


The swamp land act of congress and subsequent acts 
of the legislature of Illinois had put the county of Law- 
rence in possession of large tracts of overflowed lands. 
The county court appointed Jacob Young swamp land 
and drainage commissioner, at their September term, 
1852. The county surveyors instructed to make an ex- 
amination of those lands reported on the 4th of Decem- 
ber, 1854, the following : 420 acres in 3-10 and 200 in 
4-10 are in such a condition that they may be drained 
at a moderate expense, when these lands would be worth 
fully $6,230. There are about 1000 acres in 3 and 4-11 




that could be made worth 85,000, as also 200 acres in 
4 and 5-13. The balance, to wit: 15,542 acres, cannot 
be drained at all, or more properly speaking, the ex- 
.pense of draining them would greatly exceed their value 
when drained. 

The court, however, ordered a sale, which took place 
on the 9th, 10th and llth of January, 1855, when 
17,350 acres were sold for $20,869.10. Mr. Young 
made a final settlement as drainage commissioner on 
the 8th of December, 1855, from which it appears that 
he handled $20,906.69, principal and interest of those 
swamp lands. This report was finally disposed of on the 
22d of March, 1856. The costs in adjusting matters 
and of making surveys amounted to $880.60, and $522.- 
66 were allowed to Mr. Young as commissions. The 
actual funds on hand on the day named above amounted 
to $19,388.93 in promissory notes and $417.16 in cash. 
This fund was to be used in such improvements as would 
benefit the overflowed districts, and soon after the settle- 
ment mentioned $2000 were appropriated for the erection 
of a dam across Purgatory and $1000 for a levee on 
Cole's Island. In June, 1857, $4000 were appro- 
priated to build a bridge across the Embarras, opposite 
Lawrenceville, and D. L. Gold, G. W. Wise and 8. H. 
Clubb appointed a committee to superintend the work. 

D. L. Gold succeeded Jacob Young in the office of 
drainage commissioner, and remained in office until 
January 2, 1862. During this period the fund was 
reduced to $8,470.47, and consisted in judgments and 
uncollected claims. Years after, when certain irregu- 
larities in the handling of those funds were discovered, 
Mr. Gold petitioned the county board to have his ad- 
ministration investigated. This prayer was granted, 
and on the 1st of September, 1872, the committee re- 
ported that the administration of Mr. Gold had been 
correct, and that all funds had been properly accounted 
for. W. D. Adams succeeded Gold in January, 1862, 
and was in his turn succeeded by I. B. Watts, Sep- 
tember, 1865. The appointment of Watts, who was 
then county clerk, was a most censurable if not culpable 
measure of the board. The law makes it the duty of 
his office to keep an account with all other county offi- 
cers, handling the public funds with a view of properly 
controlling their acts. It is the clerk who is expected 
to control others. By making him a fund commis- 
sioner, he was put into the absurd position of reporting 
to himself what amounts he had received or disbursed. 
Measures of this kind prove always disastrous, and 
usually most so to the unfortuate man on whom such 
position is forced. During Watts' administration the 
county received land scrips for 20,645 acres from the 
U. S., in lieu of and compensations for swamp lands in 
Lawrence county, sold by the U. S. subsequently to the 
act mentioned above. I. B. Watts was authorized to 
sell this scrip, then in the hands of D. L. <jold, pro- 
vided he could get 50 cents per acre, and to receive 
county orders, at their par value, in pay. (County 
orders were then rated at 50 per cent, discount). The 

commissioner, however, could not effect sales, and this 
failure caused some displeasure in the board. The re- 
cords do not exactly state why, but they contain the 
following brief communication from Mr. Watts : " I 
hereby order the board of supervisors of Lawrence 
county to retain one thousand dollars out of my salary 
if I do not sell the swamp land scrip of said county for 
$5000 within twenty months from this day " (September 
26, 1869.) The county board subsequently, on the 1st 
of March, 1870, sold these 20,645 acres to James Gra- 
ham for $5000, payable in ninety days, $4000 to go to 
the county and the balance to Hon. J. L. D. Morrison, 
of St. Clair county, who claimed an interest in the 

I. B. Watts' administration as fund commissioner was 
investigated, and he was found to be indebted to the 
county on that account, to the amount of $1025.83. He 
resigned in March 1872, and was succeeded by T. P. 
Lowery in May 1872. 


The County Court, on entering upon the administra- 
tion of county affairs, in December 1849, found the coun- 
ty in a healthy financial condition. The credit of the 
county was good, there was no public debt, and the tax 
rate very low, 15 cents per $100. 

This state of affairs was not and could not be expected 
to continue, for the large amounts of money received into 
the treasury from the state saline and improvement 
funds had been gradually disbursed. The expenses of 
opening and repairing roads, the building of bridges, the 
erection of public buildings,* and the purchasing of a 
poor farm, necessitated large expenditures, frequently 
much larger than anticipated. 

In order to keep the county in a healthy financial con- 
dition, the county court raised the tax rate to 60 cents 
in 1850. The tax values amounted to $745,061 in said 
year. The values were rapidly increasing, caused prin- 
cipally by the building of railroads, in aid of which, the 
county as such, however, did not spend a dollar. A 
proposition to have the county take stock in the Ohio 
and Mississippi railroad, was voted down in 1856, al- 
though the road traversed the county from east to west, 
through its very center. This refusal may be called 
economy, but it is not policy. Railroads have invaria- 
bly benefited agricultural districts more than inland towns 
and cities, and yet, the rural population is apt to treat 
their benefactors aa public enemies. We introduce here 
the first Itemized Assessment of Lawrence County : 

W hare related heretofore that a new court-house had been erected 
in 1841, 1842, and 1843. This, the present court-home, was built under the 
superintendence of Abner Greer and D. D. Marney, by David Me Henry and 
Thomas Bisbop. The county records give but a meagre account of this 
job. John Garner had a contract for 200.000 bricks, for which he was td 
be paid 81,082. The work was finished in October 1843, when McHenry 
and Bishop were paid the balances, towit: (228.20 and $425.31, due to them. 

The contract for building tho present jail was let to John Garner, and 
Ryan, and Watts on the 5th of April, 1854. Associate Jui 
superintended the work. 




2833 horses 
6061 cattle 


Tax Levies. 

State 57 cents per 100 

. . 18,478 86 

126 mules 
6125 sheep 


State Back Tax 

. . 2,975 04 

. . iir,:. 112 

.... 31,588 




Goods and merchandise 
Manufactured articles 
Moneys and credits 


Total Taxes 

. . J18.541 67 

Value of lands 
Value of town lots 


other field products. 

State tax 49j-per loo 

County tax 40 " 

River tax 4% " 
Road tax " 

School tax " 

. $6,819.36 

The board next in order to protect the county orders 
against further depreciation, made them interest- 
bearing, and what was still worse, allowed them to be 
" split," as they termed it. Appropriations of larger 
amounts, were paid for in countless orders, of 1, 2 and 
3 dollars each ; thus we find, for instance, that an allow- 

The reader will observe, that the state tax was by far ance of 83,062 50, made December, 

the heaviest. The people of Illinois in general and the 
tax payers of Lawrence in particular were now paying 
off the improvement debts of 1837 and 1838. The tax 
value had increased to $2,196,525 in 1857, when the ad- 
ministration of the county affairs was intrusted to a board 
of supervisors, superseding the unpopular counly courts. 
The financial management under the new board was 
no improvement, and those who expected grand results 
from the new departure were disappointed. The board 
caused a financial statement to be made, September 28, 
1858, from which it appeared, that the county had a 
floating debt of 83,792.71, oa the 12ih of September, 

High, on a bridge contract, was paid for i 

566, to G. F. 

i one thousand 
and thirteen county orders of 1, 2, 3 and 5 dollars each. 
How could such work be endured and how control it? 
No wonder that the people became terribly alarmed 
about this financial chaos. A victim was sought and 
found, as will appear on a subsequent page. The finan- 
cial misery had become so great that in 1867, the board 
petitioned the General Assembly for aid in constructing 
the levies, etc., in which petitions they state, that the 
county debt then exceeded $20,000, and that county 
orders were only worth 50 cents per dollar. The board 
elected in 1868, showed more financial ability ; they or- 

1857, when the board took charge of affairs, that during dered to discontinue the practice of "splitting," orders 

(not heeded however, and constantly violated,) and to 
receive county orders at par in payment of interest due 
to the county on swamp land notes. Still matters did 
not improve ; and the people demanded a speedy clear- 

the first year under township organization, $8,989.80 
had been expended, exceeding the revenue of the 
county to the amount of $3,792.71, thus more than 
doubling the county debt in twelve months. Matters 

continued on in this way. A cheap government had j ing of the financial muddle. A committee, James M. 
been promised, and a cheap government it apparently Buchanan, James F. Jennings and John Seed, appointed 
was, as will be seen from the following exhibit, for al- December, 1870, with instructions to investigate the pro- 
though the tax values were greatly reduced, nearly ceedings of all boards of supervisors, .the books of 
8800,000, or 34 per cent, since 1857, the tax rate of 40 treasurers and county clerks, since the adoption of town- 
cents was retained. The depreciation of tax values was 
caused by the civil war ; a reaction, however, was soon 
after to be observed in an unheard of inflation of all 
values, and of precious metals in particular. 
Assessment of 1862. 

ship_organization, reported in March, 1871, as follows : 

County orders issued during said period of 14 years . . $114,128.59 
Amount of orders and juror: 

8822 Horses 
8358 Cattle 
250 Mules 


County Officert. Sheriffs 
Circuit Clerks 


9357 Sheep 
17,293 Hogs 


County Clerks 
County Judges 


1226 Carriages and Wagons 



". 2,762.00 

970 Clocks and Watches 




Goods and Merchandise 
Manufactured Articles 

Moneys and Credits 

47 002 

Soldiers' families 


Unenumerated Property 


Roads and Bridges 


$93,922.22 * 

Total p p 

Railroad Property 

.... 91,756 

*The committee have apparently forgotten 

>r neglected to find amounts 

Town Lots 

71 643 

expended for keeping and dieting prisoners, 

repairs of public buildings' 
vhieh fact fullyexplainsthe 

discrepancy between the amount of orders 

issued, $114,128.59, and the 



itemized allowances, 803,922.22. 



The said report continues : Many orders have been 
paid but not canceled, and the debt appeared to consist 
of the following amounts, to wit : 

County orders uneanceled !0,707.77 

Int.T.-t on th.' .-lime 8,:G.2(P 

Juror warrants unpaid 1,:O6.1B 

Total debt $13,490.13 

In concluding their report, the committee recommended j 
that in future county orders, etc., should not be destroyed i 
after being redeemed, but to be defaced, and then pre- 
served. (This is the best part of the report.) The com- 
mittee were paid $550 for their work. 

May, 1872. All holders of county orders were warned j 
by public notices to present their orders to the county 
treasurer prior to July 1, 1872, as a number of '' bogus" 
orders were supposed to be in circulation. A second 
committee of investigation was appointed at the same 
term. It consisted of D. L. Gold, Levi Lathrop and 
J. L-' Flanders. A former order, allowing the clerk to 
issue county orders in vacation, was rescinded July 
term, 1872. This committee reported May term, 1872. 
Their report was very exhaustive and censured the 
board for Having paid so little attention to the report of 
the Seed committee. Analyzing the acts in the county 
clerk's office, the committee came to the conclusion that 
by reissuing of orders, and by issuing orders out, pro- 
perly authorized, the county had lost a vast amount of 
money. They stated that these over-issues and dupli- 
cated issues amounted, from 1865 to 1872, to $9260.92; 
that another order, to wit, No. 5362, for $3337.87, was 
still out and a debt of the county, and that $4419.15 of 
those $9260.02 of fraudulent orders had been paid by 
the county. The committee became a terror, and the 
county judge, who tried to interfere, was also severely 
criticized. The county debt, which had been reported 
to have amounted to $43,490 13, was, however, stated to 
amount to $23,628.00 only. The clerk was reported a j 
defaulter in the amount of $15,142 37 as clerk, and of j 
$3232.72 as drainage commissioner. It was also reported 
that the aggregate value of taxable property in the 
county was greater than officially stated, but that excess 
of taxes thus collected had been properly accounted for. 
Subsequent proceedings in the courts threw a milder 
light on this sad business, as it was shown that the 
"splitting" of orders had been the principal cause of the 
confusion, inasmuch as the issuing of the small orders 
mentioned above, in lieu of the larger allowances, had 
given cause to the alarming rumors and reports of du- 
plicating the allowances. A special tax of $1.50 was 
levied to pay off the county debt in 1873, the credit of 
the county was restored, orders were worth 100 cents per 
dollar and have remained at par ever since. 

We conclude this synopsis of the county finances by 
the following statement of assessment and tax levies 
for 1882 : 

Pt:lt.> tuxes 
n.imty " 
Town " 
Ho:id :in,l bridge 

Nrliool ....?. 

Corporation ... 
All otiicr taxes. . 

ilroad property. 
Total . . . 

This tax is to be paid by a population of 13,600 ; 
about $4 00 per capita. 

A few statistical remarks may follow here : 351 chil- 
dren were born in 1882 ; 163 couples were married, and 
91 persons buried. Of the improved lands of the county, 
40,413 acres are in wheat, 36,046 in corn, 5.9J3 in oats, 
10,596 in meadows. 2,443 in other field products, 24,076 
in inclosed pastures and 2,516 in orchards; 61,533 acres 
are reported as woodland. The cities and towns in the 
county contain 2,037 building lots, of which 1,008 are 


The county of Lawrence was represented in the various 
Constitutional Conventions as follows : 
i-1847, by Hon. J. Mieure. 1862, by Hon. Harmon 
Alexander. 1870, by H)a. Jamas M. Sharp. 

Lawrence county as represented in the General 
Assembly of Illinois : 

1822 to 1824. William Kinkead, Senator for Wayne 
and Lawrence. Abraham Cain, Kepresentative from 

1824 to 1826. James Bird, Senator for Wayne and 
Lawrence. Asa N >rton, Representative. 

1826 to 1828. James Bird, Senator for Wayne and 
Lawrence. Samuel H. Olubb, Representative. 

1828 to 1830. Wickliffe Kichell * Senator for Law- 
rence and Crawford. Henry M. Gillham, Representa- 

1830 to 1832. Wickliffe Kitchell, Senator for Law- 
rence and Crawford. James M. McLean, Representa- 

1832 to 183i. David McGahey, Senator for Lawrence 
and Crawford. Abner Greer, Representative. 

1834 to 1836. David McGahey, Senator for Lawrence 
and Crawford. Jesse K. Dubois.f Representative. 

1836 to 1838. John C. Reilly, Senator for Lawrence 
Crawford and Jasper. Jesse K. Dubois and Edward J. 
O'Neille, Representatives. 

1838 to 1840 Abner Greer, Senator for Lawrence, 
Crawford and Jasper. Jesse K. Dubois, Representative. 

1840 to 1842. John Houston, Senator for Lawrence, 
Crawford and Jasper. Samuel Dunlap and James 
McLean, Representatives. 

1842 to 1844 John Houston, Senator for Lawrence, 
Crawford and Jasper. Wm. G. Anderson and Jesse K. 
Dubois, Representatives. 

1844 to 1846. Samuel Dunlap, Senator for Lawrence, 
Crawford, Jasper and Richland. Wm. G. Anderson 
and J. H. Reed, Representatives. 

Wickliffo Kitchell was Attorney General of Illinois from March 5th, 
1839 to Nov. 19th, 1810, when he resigned, 
t Jesse K. Dtilrais was Auditor of State from 1857 to 18M. 



1846 to 18 18 Samuel Dunlap, Senator for Lawrence, 
Crawford and Jasper. Michael McLean, and Jos-iah R- 
Wynne, Representatives for Lawrence and Richland. 

1848 to 1850. Alfred H. Grass, Senator 8th Senato- 
rial district.* Ebenezer Z. Ryan, Representative 9th 

1850 to 1852. Alfred H. Grass, Senator, 8th Senato- 
rial district. Aaron Shaw,f Representative. 

1852 to 1854. Mortimer O'Kean of Jasper, Senator 
8th Senatorial district. William J. Christy, Represen- 

1854 to 1856. Mortimer O'Kean, of Jasper, Senator 
19th district. Rudolph Heath, of Crawford, Represen- 
tive 17th district. 

1856 t'o 1858. Mortimer O'Kean, of Jasper, Senator- 
19th district. Isaac Wilkins, of Crawford, Representa- 
tive 17th district 

1858 to I860. Mortimer O'Kean, of Jasper, Senator 
19th district. H. C. McClcave, of Crawford, Represen- 
tative 17th district. 

1860 to 1862. Presley Funkhouser, of Effingham, 
Senator 19th district. Aaron Shaw, of Crawford, Re- 
presentative 17th district. 

1862 to 1864. Hugh Gregg, Senator for 2nd Sena- 
torial district. James W. Sharp, of Wabash, Represen- 
tative 4th Representative district. 

164 to 1866. John W. Westcott, of Clay, Senator, 
as above. D. H. Morgan, of Lawrence, Representative. 

1866 to 1868. John W. Westcott, of Clay, Senator as 
above. James M. Sharp, of Wabash, Representative. 

1868 to 1870. J. J. R. Turney of Wayne, Senator as 
above. D. H. Morgan, of Lawrence, Representative. 

1870 to 1872. John Jackson, of Lawrence and John 
Landrigan, of Edwards, Senators 2nd Senatorial district. 
John D. Sage, of Lawrence, Representative 21st dis- 

1872 to 1874. W. J. Crews, of Lawrence, Senator. 
Representatives J. L. Flanders, of Lawrence, Thos. J. 
Golden, of Clark, Herman Alexander of Crawford. 

1874 to 1876. 0. V. Smith, of Lawrence, Senator. 
Representatives Ethelbert Callahan of Crawford, John 
H. Halley, of Jasper, John W. Briscoe, of Clark. 

The Constitution of 1848 provided that the Senate should consist of 
twenty-five, and the House of seveniy-five members, uctil the popula- 
tion of the State amounted to one million of souls, when five members 
might be added to the House, and five additional members for every 500,(iOO 
inhabitants thereafter, etc., etc. The first apportionment under said Con- 
stitution made Edwards, Lawrence, Wabash, Effingham, Jasper, Clay and 
Richland to form the 8th Senatorial district, and Lawrence and Richland 
to form the oth Representative district. The Act of February 27th, 1854, 
put Lawrence county, together with Clark, Fayette, Effingham, Jasper 
and Crawford into the 19th Senatorial district, and with Crawford into the 
17th Representative district. By Act of January 31st, 1861, Lawrence, 
Hamilton, Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Clay, Richland and White formed 
thf 2nd Senatorial, and Lawrence and Wabash the 4th Repr. sentative dis- 
trict. The apportionment of 1870 left Lawrence in the same Senatorial dis- 
trict, but made the county a Representative district by itself the 21st. 
The apportionment of 1872 formed the 4oth Senatorial district of the counties 
of Lawrence, Clark, Crawford and Jasper, entitling the district to one Sen. 
ator and three Representatives. By the reapportionmentof 1882 the coun- 
ties ol Lawrence, Wabash, White and Hamilton foim the 46th Senatorial 

t Aaron Shaw represented the 7th Congressional district of Illinois 
from 1867 t<> l.s.V.1. 

1876 to 1878. O. V. Smith, of Lawrence, Senator. 
Representatives William Lindsey, of Clark, John H. 
Halley, of Jasper, Andrew J. Reavill, of Crawford. 

1878 to 1880. W. C. Wilson, of Crawford, Senator. 
Representatives Jesse R. Johnson, of West Liberty, 
James W. Graham, of Clark, Andrew J. Reavill, of 

1880 to 1882. W. C. Wilson, Senator. Representa- 
tivesJacob C. Olwin, James C. Bryan, W. H. H. 

1882 to 1884. John C. Edwards, Senator 46th dis- 
trict. * Representatives F. W. Cox, Lowery Hay, W. 
J. Johnson. 

COUNTY OFFICERS 1849 to 1883. 

County Courts, 1849 to 1853. E. Z. Jlyan, Judge, 
resigned November, 1852, James Nabb, Judge, elected 
to fill vacancy, 1852. 

Associate Justices William Tanquary, Randolph 
Heath, resigned November, 1862. James Irish, elected 
to fill vacancy. 

1853 to 1857. Jesse K. Dubois, Judge. Associate 
Justices J. M. Travis, James Irish. 

1857 to 1861. The county having adopted township 
organization, the county Judges attended to probate' 
business only. 

Isaac Potts, three terms, 1857 to 1869; W. J. Crews, 
1869 to 1872, when he was elected State Senator. 

T. B. Hoffman, appoinied to fill vacancy, Feb. 6, 
1873; Isaac Potts, two terms, 1873 to 1882; P. W. 
Barnes, since 1882. 


W. D. Adams, Chairman ; James Banner, Daniel 
Grass, D. L. Gold, Robert Dollohan, Andrew Pinkstaff, 
Henry Schrader and Wiley Edmundson. The balance 
of the Supervisors will be found in the respective town- 


W. H Hennessy, re-elected in 1849, resigned January 
19, 1853. John Seed, officiated under appointment, to 
March, 1853, when Thomas F. Watts was elected 
for the balance of Hennessey's term. J. C. Reily, 
elected Nov. 1853, resigned December 21, 1855, and 
Lunenburg Abernathy, officiated until March, 1856, as 
appointed, when I. B. Watts was elected. He was re- 
elected for four successive terms, but resigned April 15, 
1872. Thornton E. Adams was appointed clerk on the 
same day, and officiated until August 5, 1872, when 
Clinton Abernathy, elected at a special election, took 
charge of the office until 1877. James K. Dickerson, 
from 1877 to 1882, and J. W. Calvert, since 1882. 


William Neal, 1849 to April 6, 1851, when he resigned. 
W. B. Buchanan, served balance of term until Novem- 

* The 4Gth district is composed of the counties of Lawrence Wabash, 
White, and Hamilton. 



her, 1851; Caius M. Eaton, 1851 to 1853; Isaac Potts, 
1853 to 1855; R. \V. McLean, 1855, resigned June, 
1857 ; E. Z. Ryan, served during remainder of term ; 
Edward Thorn, 1857 to 1863 three full terms ; Samuel 
Laird, 1863 to 1869 three full terms; J. W. McCleave, 
1869 ; G. \V. Stoltz, 1873 ; W. M. Lewis, 1875 ; J. W. 
Whittaker, 1877, who died before the expiration of his 
2nd term, in 1881, and was succeeded by the present 
Treasurer, J. W. McCleave, since May 2nd, 1881. 

Circuit Clerks since 1848. Fred. A. Thomas, 1819; 
Jacob Young, 1851 ; J. C. Reiley, 1852; E. Z. Ryan, 
1856; S. J. Stiles, 1857; Lafayette McLean, 1863; Ed- 
ward Thorn, Jr.. 1863; G. F. Nigh, 1864; Alfred J. 
Judy, 1868 ; B. L. Cunningham, 1872, two terms ; and 
Lafayette Barnes, since 1880. 

Circuit and County Attorneys since 1825. J. M. 
Robinson, E B. Webb, Aaron Shaw, Alfred Kitchell, 
John Scholfields, F. D. Preston, E. T. Wilson, D. L. 
Brewer, H. A. Briscoe, died in office 1872 ; T. B. Huff- 
man, 1873, two terms ; and K. P. Snyder, since 1880. 

Sho-i/g since 1819. Jacob Young, Isaac Potts, Joel 
Johnson, James Corrie, J. W. Watts, G. W. Whattaker, 
G. F. Nigh, W. C. Gilbert, E. Ryan, W. C. Gilbert, 
William Blackburu, 1870, two terms ; James H. Alli- 
son, 1874; John P. Scott, 1876, two terms; and Edmond 
Ryan, since 1880. 

Coroners since 1863. E. G. Canover, 1868 ; J. B. 
Musgrave, 2870, two terms ; Gabriel Graffham, 1874, 
two terms; Daniel Leach, 1880, and H. V. Lewis, since 

Surveyors since 1849. Peter Smith, 1849 ; Walter 
Buchanan, 1859 ; T. P. Lowry, 1863, and Jesse B. Ben- 
nefield, since 1865. 

School Superintendents. Algernon S. Badollet, from 
1843 to 1857 ; L. Abernathy, from 1857 to 1861, died 
during terra ; J. B. Saye, 1861 to 1865 ; T. B. Lowery, 
1865 to 1869 ; O. V. Smith, 1869 to 1873; F. W. Cox, 
from 1873 to 1882, two terms, and C. H. Martin, since 


Circuit Court. Second Circuit. Chancery S. Ganger, 
Thomas S. Casey and William C. Jones. Judges. 
K. P. Snyder Attorney. 
Edmond Ryan Sheriff. 
Lafayette Barnes Clerk. ' 
P. W. Barnes County Judge. 
J. W. Cal vert. County Clerk. 
J. W. McCleave -Treasurer. 
Jesse B. Bennefield. Surveyor. 
C. H. Martin School Superintendent. 
H. V. Lewis Coroner. 


The political history of this county, as a body politic, 
commences with the county organization had in pursu- 
ance of au act of the Legislature, approved December 

27, 1824. The history of the territory, of which the 
present county of Wabash is partly composed, is much 
older, and the reader is respectfully referred to the ter- 
ritorial sketch contained in this volume. ' 

The organization of Wabash county reduced the area 
of Edwards, the mother county, to such limits that a 
further sub-division of them was, and could not be, 
thought of. The east part of the county of Edwards 
contained the old pioneer settlements. It was here where 
the sturdy emigrants, from old Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Pennsylvania, etc., had joined the-French adventurers, 
who had preceded them half a century and longer. It 
was here where old Edwards county had had its time- 
honored seat of justice at Palmyra. Unfortunately thia 
Palmyra situated in, or near, the marshes oil the banks 
of the great Wabash, could, in reference to health of 
climate and beauties of surroundings, not be compared 
to the proud and ancient city after which it was named- 
Yes, lovely Palmyra, and lovely the oasis where it 
stood ! 

In the western part of the county, beyond the waters 
of the meandering river De Bon Pas, (now called Bon- 
paa for short) another city, Albion, had been reared a 
rival to Palmyra. Numerous immigrants from the 
British Isles had sought and found homes in the old 
county of Edwards. The separation of Lawrence county 
from the former had given numerical strength to the 
English settlements, and at an election held for that 
purpose, a majority decided to locate the county seat 
at the new town of Albion. (The reader is referred to 
preceding pages under the head of Edwards county. ) 

Mt: Carrael was defeated in this election, and her 
people, as well as the American settlements along the 
Wabash, felt outraged that Albion, then an out-of-the- 
way place, should -bear off the price. The agitation be- 
came violent; men that understood the signs of the 
time, could see " blood " in the moon. The militia, 
four companies, were out drilling day after day, and 
actually went into camp at Ball Hill Prairie, with the 
avowed.purposeof taking possession of the court archives 
to remove them from the town of Albion. A delegation 
of Albionians, under a flag of truce, came into camp to 
negotiate for terms of peace. Major Utter promised to 
bring about a peacable arrangement by a division of 
the county, making the Bonpas the line. 

Major Utter, a member of the House of Representa- 
tives from Edwards county, in the 4th General Assembly, 
1824 to 1826, was as good as his promise. The division 
took place. The feeling was, however, by no means, a 
very friendly one, and the Legislature took the precau- 
tion to entrust the selection of a county seat for the new 
county to non-residents of either county. 

The county debt of Edwards county was to be shared 
in equal parts, and Samuel Munday, of Wabash, and 
John Cove, of Edwards, were appointed commissioners 
to ascertain that debt. We introduce next a copy of the 
act, creating the new ccunty, to wit : 



An Act forming a separate county out of the county 
of Edwards. 

Approved December 27, 1824. 

Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of 
Illinois represented in the General Assembly. That all 
that tract of country within the following boundaries to 
wit : Beginning at the mouth of De Bon Pas creek, 
thence running up the main branch of said creek to the 
line of Lawrence county ; thence running east with said 
line to the Wabash river, and thence down the same to 
the place of beginning, shall constitute a new county, to 
be called Wabash ; and for the purpose of fixing a per- 
manent seat of justice in said county, William Kinkade, 
John H. Morris, Cornelius De Long and Thomas Mason 
of Lawrence county, and George W. Farris of Wayne 
county, be and they are hereby appointed commissioners, 
which said commissioners or a majority of them, being 
duly sworn before some judge or justice of the peace of 
their State, to faithfully take into view the convenience 
of the people, and the situation of the settlements, with 
an eye to future population and the eligibility of the 
place, shall meet on the first Monday in May, or within 
six days thereafter, at the house of Gervaise Hazleton in 
said county and proceed to examine and determine upon 
the place of the permanent seat of justice and designate 
the same. 

Provided.- That the proprietors of the land shall 
give to the county a quantity of land not less than 
twenty acres for the purpose of erecting county build- 
ings, to be laid out in lots and sold for that purpose ; or 
should the proprietor or proprietors refuse or neglect to 
make the donation aforesaid, then it shall be the duty 
of said commissioners to fix upon some other place for 
the seat of justice, as convenient as may be to the inhabi- 
tants of said county, which place so fixed and determined 
upon, the said commissioners shall certify, under their 
hands and seals and return the same to the next county | 
commissioners' court in said county ; which court shall j 
cause an entry to be made in their books of record, ! 
which place, so designated, shall be the permanent seat 
of justice of said county ; and until the public buildings 
shall be erected, the courts shall be held at such place, 
in said county as the county commissioneHt of said 
county shall appoint. 

Section 2. Be it further enacted That eaid county 
shall bear an even share of the debts which are now out- 
standing against Edwards county, excepting all such as 
have arisen from the erection of public buildings at Al- 
bion ; and for the purpose of ascertaining and adjusting 
the same, Samuel Munday of said county and John 
Cove, junior, of Edwards county, be, and they are here- 
by appointed commissioners, whose duty it shall be to 
meet at the court-house in Albion on the first Monday 
in June next, and to examine into the state of the 
treasury, of the present Edwards county, and the debts 
due from said county, and to divide the amount of debts 
which shall remain unpaid, excepting such as have I 
arisen from the erection of the public buildings at Albion, 

between the two counties in equal proportion, and cer- 
tify, under their hands and seals, to the next county 
commissioners' court of each county, the amount to be 
paid by each ; and for the purpose of executing their 
commission, the said commissioners are hereby author- 
ized to send for witnesses and examine them upon oath. 

3. And be it further enacted, That each of the 
commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in 
said county, shall receive a compensation of two dollars 
for each and every day they may be necessarily em- 
ployed in fixing the aforesaid seat of justice, to be paid 
out of the county treasury, by an order from the county 
commissioners ; and that the commissioners appointed 
by the second section of this act, shall receive the like 
sum per day, for every day necessarily employed in ex- 
ecuting their commission, to be paid out of the treasuries 
of their respective counties, upon the order of their re- 
spective county commissioners' courts. 

4. Be it further enacted, That on the first Monday of 
April next, an election shall be held at the house of 
Henry Utter in said county for one sheriff, one coroner 
and three county commissioners, which election shall be 
conducted in all respects agreeably to the provisions of 
the law regulating elections ; Provided, that any three 
justices of the peace in said county may act as judges of 
election, taking to themselves two qualified voters as 
clerks, and it shall be the duty of the circuit clerk of 
said county to give public notice agreeably to law, at 
least ten days previous to such elections. And in case 
there should be no clerk in said county, it shall be the 
duty of the recorder to give such notice. 

5. Be it further enacted, That the citizens of said 
county are hereby declared to be entitled to the same 
rights and privileges as are allowed in general to other 
counties in this state. 

6. Be it further enacted, That the said county shall 
vote in conjunction with Edwards county for representa- 
tives and senator of the General Assembly. 

In pursuance of the provisions of section 1, of the 
above act, John E. Morris, Thomas Mason and Cornelius 
De Long, reported to the county commissioners that they 
located the county seat at the site of the present town of 
Centerville. The commissioners appointed under sec- 
tion 2 of this act reported on the 4th of December 1827, 
that Wabash's proportionate share of the old Edwards 
county amounted to 8 748. 20*. 

The election provided for in 4, came off on the first 
Monday of April, 1825, at the house of Henry Utter, 
and resulted in the election of Levi Compton, Tarlton 
Boren and Moses Bedell, county commissioners and of 
Abner Armstrong, sheriff. 

Owning to the fact, that the court-house at Mt. Carmel 
and all its contents were destroyed by fire April oth 
1857, this sketch, based on documentary evidence, will 
be somewhat deficient in dates and names. A part of 
the public records happened to be outside of the court- 
house at the time of the conflagration. They were care- 



fully collected and re-recorded as will be seen from the 
following entry : 

" The following is a copy of the proceedings of the 
county commissioners' court of Wabash county, It was 
found by Hiram Bell, Esq , at his residence after the 
burning of the court-house of the county, April 5th, 1857, 
and after being about the county clerk's office for years, 
I have been ordered to copy and preserve it as far as 
possible in this record. Hiram Bell was clerk of the 
county and circuit courts of Wabash county fora period 
of about 32 years, and all that remains of his labor for 
nearly all that period is what is copied in this book. 
There is one other volume that was preserved by my 
having it at my home on the night of the burning of I 
said court-house. Everything else of value, in the way 
of records or papers was destroyed, 
(no date). J^MES S. JOHNSTON, late Co. Clerk. 

From the contents of the thus preserved public records, 
we have ascertained the following facts of the early 
county government. 

The first (?) meeting of the county commissioners, Levi 
Compton, Tarlton Boren and Moses Bedell, was held at 
the house of Gervaise Hazleton on the 6th day of June 
1825, when the report of the commissioners on the county, 
seat questions was received and approved. 

Before reciting the acts of the officers, usually called 
the servants of the people, we shall introduce here the 
names of the bona fide land owners of the county as far 
as we were able to ascertain them. 

Township 1 N., R. 12 IF. Levi Compton, Hugh 
Calhoun, P. Munday, Fames Thompson, Asa Smith, F. 
Ayres, Cornelius Vanderhuff, Asa Hammond, Jeremiah 
Wilson, George Field, Joseph Gardener, W. Smith, 
George Antis, B. S. E Goff, Joseph Wright, George 
Oman, Coles Besley, E. Higgins, William Pool, Jarvis 
Dale, John Stillwell, Samuel Stillwell, Stephen Gardner, 
Peter Keen, Charles Garner, J. M. Armstrong, Joseph 
Wood, John Mclntosh, Sarah Arnold, Samuel Marshal, 
Thomas Pulliam, John Snider, David Beauchamp, 
William Higgius, Enoch Greathouse, John Shadle, 
Henry McGregor, Nathaniel Claypoole, and Gervaise 
Hazleton ; these parties owned then 9558 acres of land. 

Township 2 N., R 12 W. John Smith, Jr., Adam 
Carrie, Moses Decker, William Tougas, John Bu- 
chanan, and Thomas West, owned 1590 acres. 

Township 1 N., R. 13 IF. Hezekiah Clark, Ebenezer 
Couch, Jeremiah Ballard. Isaac Harness, John Higgius, 
Henry Cusick, William Jordan, John Harrison. Henry 
I. Mills, John Pugh, Tarlton Boren, Benjamin Reynolds, j 
Richard Maxwell, A. J. Mills, William Brown, Ralph I 
Little, AV. Vanwick, John White, Reuben Blackford, : 
Robert McNair, Josiah Higgins, F. Winter, Ephraira I 
Reed, Benjamin Taylor, Ransom Higgins, Thomas \ 
Pool, Jeremiah Slaughter, Beauchamp Harvey, G. M. | 
Tettinger, Arthur Vandever, John Waggoner, Henry \ 
D. Palmer, Samuel Harris, Philip Hull, Seth Card, | 
Joseph Preston, Cyrus Danforth, William Barney, 
James Andrews, Guy W. Smith, Phil. Ingram, John 

Cantrecht, S. Madison, Fred. Munday, James Fordyce, 
Elijah Harris, J. Brown, I. C. Griffin, Stephen Jessup, 
John Hart, and William Lismond, owned 12,2:30 acres. 

Township 2 N., R. 13 IF. Havilah Guun, Andrew 
Knight, James McMullen, Nathaniel Osgood, Adam 
Carrie, and Hezekiah Clark, owned 1440 acres. 

Township 1 N., R. 14 W James Black, I. C. Griffin, 
John Moore, and F. Ayres, owned 880 acres. 

Township 1 S. R. 12 IF.-Cornelius McCollum, John 
Ingersole, William Simonds, Adam Carrie, Enoch 
Greathouse, John Tiltron, Sr., Henry Shrader, John 
Shadle, Elijah Harris, John Marshall, Thomas Hinde, 
and Joshua Beall, owned 2986 acres. 

Township 1 S., R. 13 IF. Scoby Stewart, Enoch 
Greathouse, James Majors, Daniel Greathouse, Henry 
Alter, James English, E. Putman, Jacob Claypole, John 
Stillwell, A. Smook, Manlove Beauchamp, James Dun- 
lap, James Miller, Thomas McLean, William Deputy, 
Charles Bigg, J ohn Collins, Joshua Beall, Samuel Bigg, 
Cornelius McCullon, William Tanguary, Robert Bigg, 
Andrew Dyer, William Beauchamp, John White, Jr., 
and George Bell, owned 7180 acres. 

Township 2 S., R. 13 IF. Thomas T. Hinde, A. F. 
Dyer, John Nestler, A. Tougas, dit Lavialet, Daniel 
Keen, Samuel Marshall, John Ruth, Elijah Compton, 
Jean B. Langlois, John Marshall, William Jones, John 
Stewart, Thomas Baird, John McClary, and John 

Townships 1, 2, 3, S., R. 14 W. George Flower 
Samuel Brown, J. & J. Duulap, Samuel Brown, William 
Wilson, Asa Durley, Ephraim Farr, Elias Jordan 
Joseph Wright, James Gray, Lanford Violet, John 
Painter, Samuel Campbell, Francis Jordon, Neil Camp- 
bell, and James Campbell, owned 4572 acres. 

French locations were owned in Township 1 N , R. 11 
W., by widow of Le Denoyon, Alexander Valle, Frai^ois 
Baziuet, Jacques La Lemoille, Ambrois Degenet, Jean C. 
Thiriot, Gabriel Bon Ion, Jr. and Pierre Levrie, aggre- 
gating 1600 acres. Christopher Wyatt owned 400 acres, 
location right in T. 1 N., R. 12 W., and Nicholas Varner, 
Pierre Gamelin, Etieune St. Marie, and Francis St. 
Marie, 1 1 90 acres of similar rights in Township 1 S., R. 
12 W. 

The area of the whole county, swamp lands included, 
is stated to contain 137,486 acres. 84,834 acres were 
listed as " improved " lands in 1882- The lands 
by individuals at the period of the organization of 
county, amounted to about one half of that quantity, to 
wit : to 42,186 acres. Besides Palmyra, the county had 
another and iar more important commercial centre in 
the town of Mt. Carmel, founded in 1817, and incorpor- 
ated in 1825. 

Shortly after the organization a census was taken by 
Abner Armstrong. The number of resident families is 
stated to have been 351, and the total population 1930 
souls, of whom 427 were subject to military duty in the 
Slate militia. 

In order to make the above list of names more com- 



plete, the following addition is made. We are indebted 
to the Aft. Carmel Register for it. 

First Grand Jury appointed September 5th, 1825. Seth 
Grand, Felix Hull, John Higgins, John Arnold, Ran- 
som Higgins, Moses Decker, Stephen Bliss, Stephen 
Summons, Joseph Wright, John Andrew, John Arm- 
strong, Lewis Armstrong, Spencer Wood, Joseph Wood, 
William Higgins, Alexander Wood, Thomas Beard, 
John McCleary, Daniel Groves, John Gray, David 
Wright, Samuel N. Campbell and Beauchamp Harvey. 

First Petit Jury. William M. Richards, George Pugh, 
John Harrison, James McMillen, John Key, Thomas 
Pulliam, George W. Higgins, William Brown, William 
Fullerton, John Campton, Francis Vallie, Lyman Utter, 
Lyman Brines, George Claypole, John Stillwell, William 
Deputy, William Arnold, John Degan, Ephraim Phar, 
James Block, Joshua Beall, Stephen Simonds, Nathan 
Fry and Aaron Gould. 

The counties of Illinois along the Wabash were divid- 
ed into military districts and thus Wabash county 
formed seven military or company districts, named after 
their captains. There was a Captain Arnold's, a Cap- 
tain Campbell's, a Captain Andrews', a Captain Beall's, 
a Captain Wardell's, a Captain Suider's and a Captain 
McCleary 's district. These districts existed at the time 
of the organization of the county, and this subdivision 
was utilized by the first county, in calling each district 
a road district also, placed under the supervision of Levi 
Crouch, John Compton, James Gray, Joseph Jones, Henry 
Utter, Enoch Greathouse and Coles Bertley respectively. 

Political Subdivisions. In. Juhe, r 1825 the county was 
divided into two townships, called Prairie, north ot the 
base line and Centerville south of the base line. 

Two years later in June, 1827, the county was sub- 
divided into five districts for the election of justices of 
the peace and constables. Heretofore the justices of the 
peace were appointed by the governor of the State, 
usually upon recommendations made by the county 
commissioners. These justices in their turn apppointed 
their own constables, who however had to be confirmed 
by the county board, before they could enter upon the 
duties of their offices. The five districts or precincts 
were named as follows : Coffee, Mt. Carmel, Centerville, 
Wabash and prairie. 

Co/te. Was bounded as follows: Beginning at the 
mouth of Bonpas creek, thence up the same to the old 
Boupas bridge, thence with the road leading to Mount 
Carmel to Coffee creek, thence down the same to the 
Wabash, thence down said river to the place of begin- 
ning. Elections to be held at the house of John Comp- 
ton, with Daniel Keen, Thomas Beaird and John Mc- 
Cleary as judges of election. 

Mount Carmel Beginning at the Wabash where the 
base line strikes the same, thence west to the range line 
dividing ranges twelve aud thirteen west, thence south 
with said line two miles, thence west to the Bonpas creek, 
thence down said creek, to the old Boupas bridge, thence 
with the road leading to Mount Carmel to Coffee creek, 

thence with said creek to the Wabash river, thence up 
said river to the place of beginning. Elections to be 
held at the tavern of Robert Lucas in Mount Carmel, 
with James Townsend, James Brown and Edward Ulm 
as judges of election. 

Centrevdle. Beginning at the section corner of sec- 
tions 17, 18, 19, 20 in township 1 north of range 12 west, 
thence west to Bonpas creek, thence with said creek to a 
point two miles south of base line, thence east to the 
section corner of sections 12 and 13, on the line 
between ranges twelve and thirteen, thence north two 
miles to the baseline, thence east one mile, thence north 
three miles to the place of beginning. Elections at the 
court-house in Centreville, with Henry Utter, Seth Gard 
and Zedekiah Winter as judges. 

Wabaah. Beginning at the base line at the section 
corner between sections 31 and 32 in township number 
one north of range 12 west, thence north to the north 
line of the county, thence east to the Wabash, thence 
down the same to the base line, thence west with said 
line to the place of beginning. Elections to be held at 
the house of John Andrew, with Abner Armstrong 
Spencer Wood and John Snider as judges. 

Prairie. Beginning at the section corner of sections 
17, 18, 19 and 20, in township 1 north, range 12 west, 
and thence north four miles to the county line, thence 
west to Bonpas creek, thence down the same to a point 
four miles south of the north line of the county, thence 
east to the place of beginning. Elections to be held at 
the house of John Arnold, with Ransom Higgins, John 
Harrison and James McMillen as judges of election. 

Various unimportant changes in names and boundari s 
were made in the course of time, until at this day, we 
find the following. 




Mount Carmel is bounded as follows : Commencing 
on the Wabash river where the base line strikes the 
same, thence west to the northwest corner of section 3, 
T. 1 S., R. 13 W., thence south to the southeast corner 
of section 4, T. 2 S., R. 13 W., thence east to the 
Wabash river, thence up the Wabash river to the place 
of beginning. 

Friendsville commences at the northeast corner of the 
northwest quarter of section 32, T. 2 N., 12 west, on 
the north line of the county ; thence west on the north 
line of the county to the northwest corner of the north- 
east quarter of section 33, T. 2 N., R. 13 west, thence 
south on the half section line to the southeast corner of 
the southwest quarter of section 11, T. 1 N., R 13 west, 
thence west to the northwest corner of section 15, T. 1 
N., R. 13 west, thence south to the southwest corner of 
section 34, T. 1 N., R. 13 west on the base line, thence 
east on the base line to the southwest corner of the 
southeast quarter of section 32, T. 1 N., R. 12 west; 
thence north on the half section line to the north line of 
the county and the place of beginning. 



Wabash commences on the Wabash river where the 
north line of the county strikes said river, thence on the 
north line of the county to the northwest corner of the 
northeast quarter of section 32, T. 2 N, R. 12 west, , 
thence south on the half section line to the southwest 
corner of the southeast quarter of section 32, T. 1 N., R. i 
12 west on the base line, thence east on the base line to 
the Wabash river, thence up said river to the place of 

Lancaster commences at the northeast corner of the 
northwest quarter of section 33, T. 2 N., R 13 west, on j 
the north line of the county to Bonpas creek, thence ' 
southerly along said creek to where it strikes the half 
section line of section 22 running east and west T. 1 N., | 
R. 14 west, thence east on the half section line to the ' 
southeast corner of the northeast quarter of section 21, 
T. 1 N., R 13 west, thence north on the section line to j 
the northwest corner of section 15, T. 1 N., R. 13 west, | 
thence east to the northeast corner of the northwest 
quarter of section 14, T. IN., R. 13 west, thence north 
on half section line running north and south of sections 
2 and 11, T. I N. R. 13 west on the half section line 
running north and south of section 33, T. 2 N., R. 13 
west to the place of beginning. 

Lick Prairie commences at the southeast corner of the 
northeast quarter of section 21, T. 1 N., R. 13 west, 
thence west on the half section line to Bonpas creek, j 
where said creek strikes the half section line of section 22, i 
running east and west, T. 1 'N., R. 14 west, thence j 
southerly along said creek to where it strikes the half 
section line of section 11 (running east and west) T. 18. 
R. 14 west, thence east on the half section line to the 
southeast corner of section 9, T. 1 S., R 13 west, thence 
north to the southeast corner of the northeast quarter 
of section 21, T. 1 K, R. 13 west, the place of begin- 

Bonpas commences at the southeast corner of the 
northeast quarter of section 9, T. 1 S , R. 13 west, thence 
west on the half section line to Bonpas creek, thence 
southerly with said creek to the southwest corner of 
section 3, T. 2 S., R. 14 west, thence east on the south 
line of sections 1, 2 and 3, T. 2 S., R. 14 west, and the 
south line of sections 4, 5 and 6, to the southeast corner 
of section 4, T. 2 S., R. 13 west, thence north to the 
southeast corner of the northeast' quarter of section 9, 
T.'l S., R. 13, the place of beginning. 

Coffee commences' at Bonpas creek, at or near the 
southwest corner of section 3, T. 2 S., R. 14 west, thence 
due east on the south line of sections 1, 2 and 3, T. 2 S , i 
R. 14 west, on the south lines of sections 1, 2,3, 4, 5 and j 
6, T. 2 8 , R. 13 west, to where the same strikes the 
Wabash river, thence southerly along said river to the i 
mouth of Bonpas creek, thence up said Bonpas creek to i 
the southwest corner of section 3, T 2 S., R 14 west, the i 
place of beginning. 

Returning to the county " governors " of those early 
days, it should be stated that the presiding members of 
the court had represented the present county of Edwards 

in the first legislature of the State, and that he as chair- 
man of the committee on public buildiugs, had superin- 
tended and conducted the erection of the Statehouse at 
Vandalia. Hiram Bell was clerk of this court, and re- 
mained in appointment and reappointment at first, and 
by election and reelection next for more than 30 years. 
George Bell was the first county assessor, and received a 
compensation of 825.00 for his labors. Abner Arm- 
strong, the sheriff, was also treasurer, and Hiram Bell, 
the county clerk, was also county surveyor and clerk 
of the circuit court. Beauchamp Harvey at Mount Car- 
mel, and John Tilden at Centerville, were the earlier 
justices of the peace, and L. W. Jordan, constable. The 
poor " masters " were William Higgins and George W. 
Higgins. Gervaise Hazleton, George Claypole and 
Ephraim Phar, Thomas Pulliam, William Higgins and 
John Compton were trustees of school-lands. There 
were two organized school districts, one at Mt. Carmel 
and the other at Centerville. 

Abner Armstrong was appointed agent to lay off the 
donation land at Centerville into town lots. There were 
12 blocks of 4 lots each. These lots measured 10 by 14 
poles. The streets were ordered to be two poles wide, 
and the lots were to be sold at auction on the 4th of 
July, 1825, on very easy terms, to wit : at a credit of 
six, twelve and eighteen months, and no "earnest" 
money required. The sale however proved a failure, and 
the court authorized Armstrong to sell at private sale, 
provided however that no lot should be sold for less than 

To make the county seat more accessible, a road 
from Centerville east, crossing the road from Jeremiah 
Woods to Palmyra at Prairie creek, to Moses Bedell's 
mills, was laid out on a route viewed by Enoch Great- 
house, Jeremiah Woods and John Compton and another 
one from August Tegan's ferry to Centerville. 

The county revenue of the first year amounted to 
395.30, and the ordinary expenditures to $255 40. The 
support of the paupers cost the county $44.40, which 
amount was paid to William Johnson, who had provided 
for the wants of Daniel Hoit, a pauper, during a period 
often and one-third months, at the rate of fourteen 
cents per day. 

Miscellaneous notes from the journal of the commis- 
sioners. Tarlton Boren, Ephraim Phar and Beauchamp 
Harvey formed the second county court, 1826. They 
organized a new precinct and named it Coffee. Its 
boundaries commenced at the old Bonpas bridge, thence 
with the county road leading from Mt. Carmel to S. 
Riggs, thence in a direct line to the mouth of Coffee 
creek, thence with the Wabash to the mouth of Bonpas, 
thence up the creek to the place of beginning, elections 
to be held at the house of John Compton, with Thomas 
Baird, Levi Compton and Daniel Keen as judges of 
election. John Tilton, William Higgins, sr. and Thomas 
Pulliam conducted the election at Centerville. The 
compensation of judges was for each 75 cts. specie or its 
equivalent in state paper. ($1.00 in specie was worth 



$3.00 in state paper in 1825 see chapter of Lawrence 
county.) Isaac Parmenter was granted license to sell 
liquor by the small, for which privilege he paid 25 cts., 
December 5, 1826 ; and was elected sheriff in 1828. 
John Crow kept tavern at Centerville, and Robert Lucas 
at Mt. Carmel. The court fixed their rate of charges 
at 25 cents per meal, 6k cents for lodging, whiskey at 
12 cents and foreign spirits or wines at 25 cents per 
half pint. The annual tax for taverns was then $3.00. 
George Knight succeeded Tarltou Boren, December, 
1828. Levi Crouch is mentioned as coroner at the same 
time. The last meeting of court at Centerville was dur- 
ing March, 1829. The court then adjourned to meet at 
Mt. Carmel in June, 1828. Beauchamp Harvey was 
re-elected in 1830, leaving the county commissioners' 
court unchanged. The county revenue of 1830 
amounted to $701.10. The population of the county 
was increasing rapidly, and amounted in 1830 to 2,710, 
about one hundred more than the parent county Edwards 
contained. O. B. Ficklin, in later years member of leg- 
islature and finally representative in Congress, com- 
menced his career like his friend Isaac Parmenter in 
keeping tavern, 1831. 

No vestige of records has remained in existence from 
1831 to Sept. 1844. The August election of 1844 added 
Daniel Keen to his colleagues Anthony Altintz and 
William Wier. The population had meanwhile increased 
to over 4,000 souls and 4 new precincts, to wit ; Pleasant 
Hill, Frifndville, Lancaster and Bonpas, had been es- 
tablished. George Glick succeeded Wier in Sept 1845, 
and Stephen T. Gunn became the successor of Altintz in 

Ralph Baird was licensed to operate a ferry-boat- on 
the Wabash, with a landing in section 23, T. 2 S. R. 13 
W. Daniel Darnell, a negro 23 years old, was recorded 
as free born, on the affidavit of Nathan Seers, who had 
raised him. Lawrence and Elizabeth Ferguson produced 
documentary evidence, that HWliam Ferguson, of Louis- 
iana, from motives of benevolence and humanity, had 
manumitted them and their children on the 4th day of 
June, 1847, and upon giving the required bond, they 
were registered as free negroes and permitted to dwell 
at Mt. Carmel. This is the only instance in which the 
"black laws " of Illinois are mentioned in the county 
records of Wabash. Daniel Keen was re-elected in 1847, 
and remained a member of the commissioners' court 
until 1849, when this court, by provision of the new 
constitution of Illinois was abolished and the government 
of the county entrusted to a county court, composed of 
three members, the county judge as presiding officer, 
and two county justices, his associates, to be elected Nov. 
1849 for a term of four years. Abraham Utter succeed- 
ed Glick in 1840. The last term of the commissioners 
was held on the first Monday of December 1849, present 
Daniel Keen, Stephen T..Gunn and Abraham Utter. 
At the close of this period the number of paupers had in- 
creased to 7, and Daniel Hoit, the first county pauper, 
was still one of their number. These people were farmed 

out to the lowest bidder ; some were taken at 37} cts. 
per week, while others cast as much as $2.00 per week. 
Statistic} taken from the U. S. Census of 1850. The 
county had then a population of 4690, among them 50 
persons of color. Mt. Carmel counted 935 inhabitants, 
151 children were born in 1849, 121 couple got married 
and 45 persons had died during the year ; 808 dwelling- 
houses sheltered 816 families; 30 teachers taught 1233 
na'ive born, 32 foreign born and 2 negro children. 
There were 2ij adult natives and 1 adult foreigner unable 
to read and write. The farms of the county embraced 
24,369 acres of improved and 39,649 acres of unimproved 
land representing a cash value of 3407,000; the farming 
utensils were worth $36,000 and the live stock $118,235. 
The slaughtered- animals represented a value of $34,000. 
The farmers had produced, in 1849, 12,438 bushels of 
wheat, 320,000 of corn and 45,000 of oats, 5,000 Ibs of 
tobacco, 10,230 Ibs. of wool, 2,500 bushels of beans, 10. 
110 of Irish and 536 of sweet potatoes, 55,500 Ibs. of 
butter and 6,000 Ibs. of cheese, 2,200 tons of hay, 4,687 
Ibs. of flax, etc etc. There were two libraries in the 
county, with a catalogue of about 600 volumes each. 
There were 2 Lutheran, 1 Christian, 2 Methodist, 3 
Presbyterian and 2 Roman Catholic churches in the 
county, 11 buildings in all, erected at an expense of 
$13,950 with a capacity of seating 7,400 people. 
7,400 seats and only 4 6jO souls in the county! 

Before entering upon the proceedings of the newly in- 
troduced government of the county, we shall introduce 
here a brief sketch of the 


Firnt Court House. Moses Bedell, the miller, con- 
tracted, September 5th, 1825, for the building of a frame 
court-house, 26x36 feet, two stories high ; the first story 
to be eleven feet in the clear, the second eight feet. He 
agreed to furnish all the materials, h'ave shutters to the 
windows and shingles to the roof. The work was to be 
completed by May 1st, 1826. The house was completed 
and the worshipfuls as the commissioners called them- 
selves occupied it on the 5th of June, 1826. Moses 
received $715.00, the contract price, on the 19th of 
March, 1827. 

Second Court House. The location of the county 
seat at Centerville, was a failure, and a majority of the 
people desired a relocation, selecting Mt. Carmel as the 
most desirable place. The only objection to the scheme 
was the question of expense, but when Scoby Stewart, 
in March, 1829, offered to give bond to the amount of 
$4,000, conditioned that within two years from date, he 
would erect a court-house at Mt. Carrael of equal value 
of the old courthouse at Centerville, free of all ex- 
penses to the county, and located on a lot, selected by 
the court, and to be donated to the county, the question 
was decided at once. The court chose lots 217 and 477 
as the most suitable site, on which the second court- 
house of the county was erected. 

rflt/RT Hf) 



This building was occupied by the county authorities 
until April 5th, 1857, when it was destroyed by fire. 

Third Court House. This building was erected in 
1857, on the old site by Hiram Bell, contractor, at an 
expense of $6,770. A part of the necessary funds was 
borrowed from Thomas J. Shannon, who was at the same 
time appointed agent to pay the contractor as the work 
progressed, and upon the reports of Charles Cuqua and 
Brivoyle, experts, superintending the work. Brivoyle, 
for some reason, withdrew from this superintending po- 
sition and was succeeded by T. C. Turner. The build- 
ing was completed in autumn, 1858. A final settlement 
with the contractor was had on the 6th day of December, 

This building was also destined to be destroyed by 
the elements. The following few lines, entered upon the 
journal of the county commissioners' board will fully 
explain the tragic downfall of Court-house No. 3, to 

"June 4th, 1877: The board of county commis- 
sioners remained in session until about twenty minutes 
to four o'clock, P. M., when said court was suddenly 
adjourned without ceremony or delay, a terrible cyclone 
striking and destroying the court-house and offices, the 
members of the board and the other officers not standing 
upon the order of their going but at once and precipi- 
tately rushing to the vault, and upon emerging there- 
from the order of business was entirely lost in the wreck 
of matter." 

The destruction of this building was indeed a calamity, 
the financial condition of the county being anything 
but prosperous. An appeal to the magnanimity of the 
state met with a noble reply, and a special appropriation 
of $15,000 enabled the county authorities to contract 
and pay for the 

Fourth Court House. The question of changing the 
site of the new court-house was submitted to a vote of 
the people, who by 1,020 against 309 decided to retain 
the old place. The original contract price agreed upon 
was amended by a compromise, April 1st, 1881, by 
which the contractors received an additional payment 
of $1,950. This circumstance had its origin in the 
great and astonishing looseness and lameness of con- 
tract and specifications, drawn by James Higbee, and 
adopted by the c mnty commissioners. We introduce 
them here at length. 


Mount Carmel, 111. June 24th, 1879. 

Specifications for building a court-house in the city of 
Mount Carmel, Wabash county and state of Illiuois, 
said building to be brick and of size and form as 
shown on plans made by James Higbee of Mt. Carmel. 

Excavation. Under the main building the dirt is to 
be taken out to the depth of four feet, six inches, the 
trenches for the wings to be taken out to the depth of 
three feet, dirt to be removed off the ground, if not 
needed for grading. 

Brick Work. The contractor of the brick work to 
furnish good merchantable brick for the foundations up 
to the surface of the ground to be all hard brick to be 
laid in good lime mortar, mixed with one-third cement, 
joints to be well filled with mortar, the foundations of the 
outside walls to be three feet wide and drop in as shown 

' on plan, all the outside walls to be 18 inches all the way 
up, the cross walls 13 inches, the walls of the vaults to 

I be built double with three inch space between them, as 
shown on plan ; the vaults to be arched over with hard 

I brick laid in cement, the arch to be 18 inches thick ; for 

[ the walls above the ground good fair brick is to be se- 
lected for the outside and of uniform color, walls to be 
laid with binder every fifth course, straight and neatly 
pointed, wall left clean, cornice on main building to be 
made of brick. 

Stone Work. There will be water table of good stone, 

I 6x8 inches, running round the entire building, stone 

' door sills, 8x19 inches wide, stone window sills to all the 

j windows, caps to windows to be of brick as shown on 

! plan, steps to be added as shown on plan. 

Carpenter Work. First and second tier of joint to 
be of good sound oak or yejlow poplar, free from sap, 
2x12 inches, placed 16 inches apart from center, bridged 

! with cross braces, all the floor joints, 10 feet long or 
longer, to be bridged ; there will be rough floor laid in 
the second story of good sound oak or yellow poplar. 
Strips, 1x2 inches, laid over each joint filled to the top 
with mortar to tleaden sound, mortar to be dry before 
the floor is laid, all of the floors to be good sound ash, 

; oak, or yellow pine, from 8 to 5 inches wide, nailed in the 
tongue and in every joint ; the upper joint to be of good 
sound oak or poplar, placed 16 inches apart from the 
centers ; there will be the inside finished and doors to be 

' painted three coats and grained, outside of sash painted 

' red, putty black, sash grooves stained. Wainscoting, 

I witness stand, judge's desk to be oil finish. It is under- 
stood that all the work herein specified and not on the 
plans is to be done, and also all of the work on plans 
and not specified is to be done, all to be done in good, 
neat and workmanlike manner, material furnished to be 

\ approved by county commissioners. 

The bell is to be hung on good iron hangings ; court 
will furnish bell, contractor the hangings. The vault 
doors to be like the one now in use in the clerk's office 

I in this city, two registers to each vault, doors to be made 
as shown on full size drawings, and all inside finish to be 
as shown x on plan, slat seats and backs with iron frames, 
as per plan shown, said building to be completed on 
or before the 1st day of September, 1880, to the full 
satisfaction of the board of county commissioners. 

The contractor to give bondsmen with two or more 

; good and sufficient sureties in the penal sum of fifteen 
thousand dollars, to be approved by the board of county 
commissioners, payable to the people of Wabash county, 
Illinois. Plastering to be two coats, brown work and 
one coat of plaster Paris, all angles to be sharp and 
straight, all of said building to be plastered inside. 



The board of county commissioners agree to furnish as it progresses to completion, a gentleman to inspect the 
one-third of the contract price when the building is work and material used in said building, 
completed to the ground or first floor, one-third when : The new court-house was occupied in March 1881. It 

the building is fully enclosed, and the remainder when 
the building is fully completed to the satisfaction of the 

is apparently a stately building. The work seems to 
have been slighted to some extent, and it is sincerely to 
be wished that it be never tested as to its power to resist 

board of commissioners. 

There is to be a stairway in the rooms as shown on floor another cyclone, 
plans, stairs to be wainscoted with pine or poplar dressed ' County Jail. There is no such institution in existence 

on both sides, steps of oak, rise of poplar, rail of poplar at this day. The records of the county show however 

fitted on top of wainscoting, which is run above the that B. Harvey contracted with the county-board, on 

second floor, two feet six inches, to form railing around 
the landing or headway. 

The towers or wings to be furnished with rough iron 
railing, there is to be a trap door on top of each tower, 
the contractor to furnish a ladder for each tower from 
the floor on the ceiling joints to trap-door on the top, the 
front tower to be finished as shown on front elevation to 
be covered with slate ; cornice covered with galvanized 
iron, molding around the dock's faces to be of galvanized 
iron. The contractor to furnish six dozen good sub- 
stantial chairs for jury purposes ; the deck of tower to 
be covered with tin. 

The Contract This agreement witnesseth : That on 
this 1st day of August, 1879, the board of county com- 
missioners of Wabash county, Illinois, of the first part. 
and A. Halterback of the second part, agree together in 
manner following. 

The said Halterback for the said consideration here- 
inafter mentioned, doth for himself, his -heirs, executors, 
and administrators covenant with the said the board of 

March 8th, 1831, for the erection of a jail at Mount 
Carmel, of a dimension of 16 feet by 32 feet Terms of 
contract not stated. 

1849 to 1883. The constitutional convention of 1847, 
in which Wabash county was represented by Charles H.^ 
Constable, concluded their labors on the 13th of August, 
1847. The judgment law, proposed by said convention 
was ratified by the people on the 6th of March, 1848. 
The form of county government was changed in conse- 
quence of the adoption of the new constitution ; the 
commissioners of the county stepped down and out, to 
make room for the county court. 

Miscellaneous notes from the Journal. The first county 
court to wit, James H. Beall, judge, Anthony Albietz 
and John D. Dyar, associates, took charge of the affairs 
of the county on the 1st December, 1849. There was 
nothing but routine before them, during their whole term 
with the exception of the examination of the accounts of 
S. S. Lu ken?, late sheriff who had died before he had finish- 
ed his collector's report. W. T. Page represented the coun- 

county commissioners of Wabash county aforesaid and ty in this examination, and reported 81542.83 due the 

their successors in office, that he, the said party of the 
second part, shall and will on or before the first day of 
September, A D. 1880, after the date hereof, in a good 
and workmanlike manner, and at his own proper charge 
and expense, at a place to be designated by the party of 
the first part in Mt. Carmel, in said county, well and sub- 
stantially erect, build and finish a court-house according 
to the specifications, draught, scheme, and explanation 
hereunto annexed, with such brick, timber, and other 
material as the said, the board of county commissioners 
have mentioned and specified in the prefixed specifica- 
tions, and as contemplated by the plan referred to in 
said specification. 

In consideration whereof, the said board of county 
commissioners do for themselves and successors in office, 
covenant with the said A. Halterback, his executors, 
administrators, well and truly to pay unto the said 
Halterback, his executors, administrators, the sum of 
fourteen thousand and fifty dollars, lawful money, in 
the following manner, viz: Oue-third of the contract 
price when the building is completed according to 
specifications and plan to the ground or first floor, one 
third more when the building is fully inclosed, and 
balance when the court-house is fully completed and 
finished according to. said plans and specifications. It 
is mutually stipulated that the party of the first part 

county, which amount was paid over to the treasurer by 
the administratrix. A vote on township organization, 
the first one, was had in 1855, an indication, that there 
was some dissatisfaction with the new governors. 

The burning of the court-house, April 5th, 1857, is not 
mentioned at all in the subsequent records, except 
incidentally, as for instance,when the court ordered that 
the judge and clerks should have the bricks of the 
burned building cleaned and piled up to the best advan- 
tage of the county, or that he, the court, should be cited 
to come forward to file a new bond or vacate his office. 

The building of the court-house was not the only 
business, that weighed heavy on the court ; there were 
the swamp land troubles and railroad subscriptions 
besides. The building of the court house is mentioned 
above and the swamp land business may be briefly 
stated. The lands ceded to the county by and in con- 
sequence the swamp land act of 1850, were ordered to be 
sold December, 1853. Hiram Bell, the swamp land 
commissioner, made his first report in March, 1858, when 
he stated he had $4,304.36 in money and notes on hand, 
the proceeds of lands sold. The report is succeeded by 
an order of court, July, 1858, that the drainage commis- 
sioner should again report at the September term, and 
also give a full and detailed account of all his transac- 
tions as swamp land commissioner and drainage master. 

shall have privilege to place and keep on said building, The language of the order is terse and exhibits anger 



The report was filed and approved, but the office of 
drainage master and swamp land commissioner was 
abolished and the ex-officer peremptarily ordered to turn 
over books, vouchers and notes at once. Mr. Bell was 
then building the court-house and attending to the duties 
of various public offices, and he had for the last twenty- 
five or thirty years been burdened with an uncommon 
load of public labors and responsibilities. The known 
ingratitude of republics was again exemplified in him, 
and he was held to pay, and had to pay a balance of 
$1,840.06 found against him in his accounts as swamp 
land commissioner. This office so recently abolished, 
was re-organized with James P. McNair as commissioner 
January 5th, 1859. On June 5th, 1861, judge Wilkin- 
son reported that he had visited the General Land 
Office at Springfield, to ascertain the status of the 
Wabash county claim against the United States, and 
that he had been assured, that the county would soon, 
probably in less than three months, be reimbursed by 
the United States, for moneys obtained in the sale of 
some 5000 acres of Wabash county swamp lands. The 
funds finally obtained were $2,715.58. The money was 
used in drainage works and for other purposes. 

The finances of the county, during this period, were in 
a wretched condition as will be seen from the following 
synopsis : 


The financial condition of the county during the pe- 
riod from 1825 to 1850 had been healthy. The expen- 
ditures did not exceed the revenues, and the county re- 
mained free of debt ; at any rate the records do not 
show any financial troubles. An examination of the 
county finances, made March 8, 1851, developed the 
fact that then a small floating debt of $740.85 existed, 
and that the assets of the county, to wit: $33.13 cash 
in the treasury, $1102.97 of uncollected taxes, and $50 
in fines not yet paid, exceeded the debt to the amount 
of $445.25. The tax values of that year amounted to 
$618 : 947, and the taxes for state, county and schools to 
$6.104.81, not quite 1 per cent.,- or about $130 per 
capita. In June, 1855, the funds in the treasury were 
reported by the treasurer to amount to $273.73, where- 
upon the court proceeded to count the funds, and found 
them to consist of $158 in American gold coin, 7 twenty 
fianc pieces, worth $26.81, 2 ten gulden pieces worth 
$8.00, 2 English sovereigns worth $12.12, American 
silver $21.10, German thalers $11.70, and bank paper 
amounting to $43.00) and worth $36.00. 

The taxes were now rapidly increasing, the county 
having contracted heavy debts in the aid of railroads 
located in the county. The taxes of 1857, to wit : $1.60 
per $100, amounted to $16,233 or $2.46 per capita, but 
there was then still a cash balance. In 1859 the tax 
roll amounted to $31,951 21, or more than $4.00 per 

The first detailed statement of the expenditures of the 

county was made in March, 1862, from which learu the 
following : 

Cost of roads and bridges ............ $668.49 

" of providing for the poor .......... 935.13 

" of dieting prisoners ............. 32587 

" of drainage ................. 248.94 

" of courts and salaries of officers ...... 2,087.65 

" of elections ................. 67.85 

Interest on court-house debt ........... 468.00 

Interest on railroad debt ............. 8,000.00 

Cost of making assessment ............ 622.22 


The county debt was stated to be : 

i aid of railroad 

Bonds issue 

Balance of court-house 

Unpaid county orders . 

ebt. . 



Total $103,234.90 

The assets of the county consisted in the hope of get- 
ting $3000 from the United States on account of swamp 
lands sold. The assessed value of taxable property was 
stated to be $945,571. 

Matters grew rapidly worse, and on November 4, 
1865, the court resorted to the pernicious measure of 
issuing interest bearing county orders. The clerks of 
the circuit and county courts were authorized to issue 
$50,000 in such orders, throw them on the market and 
deposit the money to be realized with T. J. Shannon, 
the fiscal agent of^the county. The two clerks reported 
that they could not place these orders, and so, the court 
in its desperate efforts to obtain money, ordered Decem- 
ber 5, 1865, that those county orders should be tax free, 
and that they might be sold at a discount of from 2 to G 
per cent. At the same time a special tax of $2.00 was 
levied to guarantee the speedy redemption of those 
orders. The tax of 1866 was simply enormous, to wit: 
$3.00 for the county, and nearly $2.00 for State and 
local purposes. The taxes were promptly paid, the debt 
reduced, and in 1870 the constitutional limit of the tax 
rate, to wit, 75 cents, not exceeded. The county courts 
to whom the government of the county had been en- 
trusted since 1849, were superseded by boards of county 
commissioners in 1874, and these officers caused a rigid 
investigation of the county affairs to be made, and in 
their March term, 1874, declared that a floating debt of 
$12,238.85 was still in existence. The bonded debt of 
the county was refunded in pursuance of an election 
held August 13, 1881, at which it was decided by a vote 
of 403 against 64 to issue $100,000 in 6 per cent, regis- 
tered bonds, to redeem older bonds. Messrs. George 0. 
Marcy & Co., of Chicago, took the whole amount at 4i 
per cent, premium, and placed the sum of $104,250 into 
the hands of the State treasurer to the credit of Wabash 
county August 16, 1831. To complete this sketch we 
introduce a few tabulated statements, to witT: 

Copy of Assessment of 1853. 

Horses, 1893, at $35.00 

Neat cattle, 3658 " 7.75 

Mules, 40 " 64.35 

Sheep, ST& " 1.00 

Hogs, 14218 " 1.04 




Carriages and wagons, 654 at $30.00 
Clocks and watches, 525 " 6.25 


Household and office property 

. . 831,875 
. . 1,170 

pe y 

Moneys and credits 



Bonds and stocks f . . 
Unenumerated property 
Total personal property 
Valuation of lands 



84,834 acres improved, at 810.02 
52,652 " unimproved 4.94 
1,871 town lots improved 143.19 
773 town lots unimproved 20.51 

. . 849,798 
. . 241,172 
. . 267,900 
. . 16,851 

. Total tax value 


Wheat 29,600 acres Other field products . . 

. . $1,690,240 
. . . 2,002 

State tax at 49% - 

. $3,836.18 
. 3,110.42 

Corn 23,357 " Pastures 

. . . 14,652 


Back taxes 

. . 83.94 

Totaltax '88,00264 

From which it would appear that all taxes added to- 
gether would amount to a very small fraction over one 
per cent. The population of the county amounted then 
to 5245 souls, and the tax to be raised was $152 per 
capita. This was in 1853, and, in order to draw proper 
lines of comparison, we introduce here the assessments of 


Values and Taxes of Wabath County in 1882. 

Personal property of every description $311,453 

Lands, improved and unimproved 1,108,069 

Town and city lots 271,326 

Railroad property 194,139 

Total $1,884,989 


1873 and 1882 : 

Wealth of Wabash County in 1813. The Cow 
its best. ^ 

ity at 

. 10,635 
. 12,828 
. 68,930 
. 17,110 
. 6,665 
. 1,405 
. 94.635 

. 66,377 
. 281,441 
. 149,880 

g table 

. 37,305 

State 36 cts. per 100 $6,673,26 
State back taxes . . 2,963.69 $9,636.85 

Special railroad debt taxes 21,399.30 
County tax 75 cts $14,143.31 
back taxes 5,122.58 
" road and bridge tax 3,866.20 - 23,132.09 

4443 cattle, 14.33% 

421 mules 66.50% 
7360 sheep 1,44% 
13470 hogs 2.38 
16 steam engines 801.75 
8 safes 71.75 
8 billiards 141.25 
1356 wagons 43.46% 
1150 watches and clocks 6.46% 
353 sewing machines 48.47 

19 melodeons 74.00 

City taxes 1,785.99 
Dog tax 845.00 
Total taxes $75,923.37 

This is an enormous tax more than $4.00 per $100, 
or $7.60 per capita. 
The Railroad Debts. One of the causes of the county 
indebtedness and increased taxation was the fact that 
the people voted large amounts of money to aid the 
construction of railroads through the territory of the 
county. We append a brief synopsis of the measures 
adopted for that purpose : 

The first proposition in this direction, made by the 
county court, to subscribe $30,000 to the Ohio and 
Wabash road, was voted down on the 2ith of March, 
1854, as was also the proposition to donate the proceeds 
from the sale of swamp lands to Illinois Southern road 
in 1857. The agitation in favor of this road continued, 
however, and at the November election, 1857, a major- 
ity of 171 decided in favor of subscribing $100,000 
capital stock of the said road. On the 8th of December, 
1858, the Court, consisting of Judges William R. Wil- 
kinson, and Thomas J. Armstrong and George Glick, 
Associates, made an order to issue $100,000 in 8 per 
cent, interest bearing bonds to pay said subscription. 
There were, however, a few restrictions in reference to 
the issue ; the bonds were not to be sold for less than 85 
cents per $1.00, nor was the money to be paid before a 
proportionate amount of work was performed in the 
road bed in the county. 
Richard H. Hudson was entrusted with the examina- 
tion of vouchers, and the disbursing of the funds were 
discretionary, vith him. Associate Justice Armstrong 

1 patent right 10.00 
4 sailing vessels 45.00 
Manufactured articles 

Moneys and credits 
All other personal property 

63810 acres of improved lands 828.31-81,806,691 
9853 ' unimp'd " 14.66- 1,024,019- 
2121 town and city lots 

The county was rich in 1873. The followiu 
exhibits an unaccountable reduction in values : 

Assessment of 1882. 

2474 horses, at 825,00 
4755 cattle 7.27% 

4147 sheep 1.51% 
531,9 hogs 1.57 

15 safes 33.00 

a l mr !> oo 

1314 wagons 

795 sewing machines 7.55 
39 pianus 70.13 


Agricultural tool? , machines, etc 
Moneys, bonds, jewelry, etc 



protested against the proposed measure ; his protest was 
spread upon the record. Judge Armstrong resigned his 
office at once. The balance of the term was filled by 
Wm. McClain. Richard Hudson withdrew from his 
trust in November, 1861. 

The county did not provide for the necessary funds to 
meet the interest due, and surrendered a part of her 
railroad stock to the company, which, in their turn, 
agreed to pay the interest then due. The county bonds 
were subsequently bought up by Messrs. Robert Bell 
and E. B. Green, the county paying for them at the rate 
of 75 cents per $1.00. The measures taken to raise the 
necessary funds are mentioned elsewhere. The bulk, to 
wit, $90,500, were taken up and paid for in March, 

1867, and the remainder was presented by E. S. Rus- 
sell, in March, 1868. His bonds amounted, principal 
and interest, to $3,442.40, and he agreed to take $2 - 
581.80 for it. lu the transaction it occurred that four- 
teen coupons of forty dollars each, were counted for 
double their face value, to wit $1,120, instead of $560. 

It is an astonishing fact, that in the midst of an abso- 
lute financial misery, and an enormous tax, the people 
of the county voted another subscription of $15,000 in 
aid of the Cairo and Vincennes railroad, January 4, 

1868. The vote polled was large, to wit 1,265. Lan- 
caster voted unanimously against the subscription, which 
had but few endorsers in Lick Prairie, Friendsville, 
Bon pas and Wabash, while Mt. Carrnel and Coffee alone 
gave majorities in favor of it. The majority in favor 
was 95. 

The county entered into an agreement with Green B. 
Iliium, the president of the proposed railroad, to issue 
those bonds and surrender the stock issued to the county, 
to the company, when the iron was laid through the 
county, conditioned, however, that the cars should run 
within eighteen months from January 22, 1868. This 
latter clause saved the county from this subscription. 
The cars did not run. Another railroad scheme found 
favor with the citizens on the 29th of January, 1870 ; 
they voted 618 against, 54CUo donate one hundred thous- 
and dollars in aid of the St Louis, -Mt. Carniel and New 
Albany railroad. The bonds were to run twenty-five 
years, but payable at any time previous at the pleasure 
of the county, and were to bear eight per cent, annual 
interest. The bonds were issued August 1, 1871. Ten 
years later they were taken up by substituting the new 
six per cent, bonds, as stated above. 

In closing this sketch, a few statistics of the census of 
1880, imperfect as they are, may find a space here. 

City and precinct of Mt 
Town of Allendale . 

Lick Prairie and Lancaster . 
Bonpas (now li'-lim-iiT 

Town of Bellmont . . . 


Town of Keensburgh . . 

231 1,407 

-'?'.> 1,8:17 


The county of Wabash sent Hon. Charles H. Consta- ^ 
| ble as her delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 
1847. Hon. Thomas W. Stone represented the counties of /-" 
Wabash and White in the Convention of 1862, and 
Hon. James M. Sharp was the delegate of Wabash and 
Lawrence to the Constitutional Convention of 1870. 

Wabash county as represented in the General 
Assembly : 

1826 to 1828 Stephen Bliss, Senator for Edwards 
and \V abash. Henry Utter, Representative. 

1828 to 1830 Enoch Beach, Senator for Edwards, 
j Wabash and Wayne. Samuel Mundy, Representative. 

1830 to 1832. Enoch Beach, Senator as above. 
j Samuel Mundy, Representative. 

1832 to 1834. Henry I. Mills, Senator as above. W. 
G. Anderson, Representative. 

1834 to 1836. Henry I. Mills, Senator as above. 
Orlando B. Ficklin, Representative, resigned February 
13th, 1835. Edward Smith elected to fill vacancy. 

1836 to 1838. Henry I. Mills, Senator as above. 
Edward Smith Representative. 

1838 to 1840. Henry I. Mills, Senator as above. 
Edward Smith, Representative, died during term. Jc- 
j seph G. Bowman, Representative, successor of Smith. 

1840 to 1842. R. B. Slocumb, Senator as above. 
James Beall, Representative. 

1842 to 1844. R. B. Slocumb, Senator as above. 
John Compton, Representative. 

1844 to 1846. Charles H. Constable, Senator as r 
above. John F. Youngkin, Representative. 

1846 to 1848. Charles H. Consable, Senator as ^ 
above. Samuel S. Lukins, Representative. 

1848 to 1850. Alfred H. Grass, of Lawrence, Sena- 
tor, 8th Senatorial district. William Pickering, of Ed- 
wards, Representative, 8th Representative district.* 

1850 to 1852. Alfred H. Grass, Senator as above. 
William Pickering, Representative as above. 

1852 to 1854. Mortimer O'Kean, of Jasper, Senator 
as above. Victor B. Bell, of Wabash, Representative. 

1854 to 1856. Silas L. Bryan, of Marion, Senator, 
20th Senatorial district. S. H Martin, of White, Rep- 
resentative, 9th Representative district f 

1856 to 1858 Silas L. Bryan, of Marion, Senator as 
above. John E. Whitney, of White, Representative as 

1858 to I860. Silas L. Bryan, of Marion, Senator as 
i above. John G. Powell, of White, Representative. 

1860 to 1862. Zadock Casey, of Jefferson, Senator as 
' above. James M. Sharp, of White, Representative. 

1862 to 1864. Hugh Gregg, of Williamson, Senator, 
2nd Senatorial district. James M. Sharp, of Wabash, 
Representative, 4th district.J 

Wabash, Edwards, Lawrence, RichUnd, Clay, Jasper and Effing- 
ham formed the 8th Senatorial, and Wabash and Edwards the 8th Rep- 
resentative district from 1848 to 1854. 

t From 1834 to 1862 Wabash and Wnite formed the 9th Represen- tative 
district, and Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Jefferson, Merion, Clay and Rich- 
land, the 20th Senatorial district. 

\ From 1862 to 1870 Wabash, Edwards, Wayne, Clay, Rlchland 



1864 to 1866. John W. Westcott, of Xenia, Senator 
as above. D. H. Morgan, of Russellville, Representa- 

1866 to 1868. John W. Westcott, of Xenia, Senator 
as above. James M. Sharp, of Mt. Carmel, Represen- 

1868 to 1870. J. J. R. Turney, of Fairfield, Senator 
as above. D. H. Morgan, of Russellville, Representa- 

1870 to 1872. John Jackson, of Lawrence and John 
Landrigan, of Edwards, Senators, 2nd Senatorial dis- 
trict. Walter L. Mayo, of Edwards, Representative. 
20th district. 

1872 to 1874. George W. Henry, of Clay, Senator, 
44th Senatorial district.* Isaac M. Jacquess, of Wa- 
bash, Robert T. Forth, of Wayne and David W. Bark- 
ley, of Wayne, Representatives. 

1874 to 1876. George W. Henry, of Clay, Senator 
as above. Samuel R. Hall, of Edwards, Byron J. Ro- 
taii, of Clay and John Landrigan, Representatives as 

1876 to 1878 Robert P. Hanna, of Wayne, senator 
as above; Hiram H. Chessley, of Clay, W. R. Wil- 
kinson, of Wabash, George Ramsey, of Clay, representa- 

1878 to 1880 Robert P. Hanna, of Wayne, senator 
as above; Jacob Zimmerman, of Wabash, William 
Bower, of Richland, Charles Churchill, of Edwards, 

1880 to 18*2 John Taaner, senator as above; Na- 
than Crews, James Keen, E. B. Keen, representatives. 

1882 to 1884 John C. Edwards, senator 46th Dis- 
trict f ; F. W. Cox, Lowery Hay, W. H. Johnson, repre- 

County Commissioners. Levi Compton, 1825 to 1826 ; 
Tarlton Boren, 1825 to 1828, two terms ; Moses Bedell, 
1825 to 1826 ; Ephraim Phar, 1826 to 1830, two terms ; 
Beauchamp Harvey, 1826 to 1830, two terms; George 
Knight, 1829 to 1832, two terms; Anthony Altintz, 
1840 to 1846, two terras ; William Wier, 1842 to 1845 ; 
Daniel Keen, 1844 to 1849, twice elected ; George Glick, 
1843 to 1848 ; Stephen S. Gunn, 1846 to 1849 ; Abra- 
ham Utter, 1848 to 1849. 

County Courts. 1849 to 1853, James H. Beale, judge ; 
Anthony Albietz, John G. Dyer, associate judges. 1853 
to 1857, James H. Beale, co-judge ; T. J. Armstrong, 
Henry Mundy, associates- 1857 to 1861, Wm.R. Wilkin- 
son, resigned, co-judge ; T. J. Armstrong, 1857 to 1859, 
William McClain to fill vacancy, George Glick, associates. 
1861 to 1865, Thos Armstrong, co-judge; Isaac Hershey, 
O. H. Keen, associates. 1865 to 1869, Thomas J. Arm- 
strong, Judge (died 1869); Robert Bell, judge elect, 1869, 
Rozander Smith, Collins Bredwell, associates. 1869 to 

White, Lawrence and Hamilton formed the 2nd Senatorial, and Wababh 
and Lawrence the 4th Representative district. 

The Act of March 1st, 1872, formed the State into 51 Senatorial dis- 
tricts, each district to elect one Senator and three Representatives. 
Wabash, Clay, Wayne, Richland and Edwards constituted the 44th district 

t Wabash, Lawrence, White and Hamilton compose now the 46th 
Senatorial District of the state. 

1873, James S. Johnson, co-judge; Stephen C. Midgett, 
John Graff, (resigned 1872), W. R. Mundy, filled va- 
cancy 1872. 1873 to 1877, Thomas J. Shannon, judge 
of probate, the county government to be attended to by 
a board of commissioners. W. W. McDowell, judge, 
1877, resigned April, 1879 ; Stephen C. Midgett elected 
to fill vacancy in 1879 and re-elected for a full term 
1882 to 1884. 

Board of County Commissioners. 1873 to 1874, Je- 
remiah Fox, Jacob Seiler and L. A. Miller; 1874 to 
1875, Jacob Seiler, L. A. Miller and E. H. Courier ; 
1875 to 1876, L. A. Miller, E. H. Courier and O. H. 
Keen ; 1876 to 1877, E. H. Courier, O H. Keen and 
Luke A. Miller, re-elected. 1877 to 1877, O. H Keen, 
(died in office, vacancy filled by J. W. Tanquary), 
Luke A. Miller and Silas Andrews. 1878 to 1879, 
Luke A. Miller, Silas Andrews and J. W. Tanquary. 
1878 to 1880, Silas Andrews, J. W. Tauquary and Berk- 
ley Armstrong. 

1880 to 1881. J. W. Tanquary, B. Armstrong and 
Roberl Ramsey. 

1881 lo 1882. B. Armstrong, died in office, vacancy 
filled by R. S. Gordon, Robert Ramsay. 

1882 to 1883. Robert Ramsay, R. S. Gordon and J. 
E. Heniken. 

County Clerks. Hiram Bell, 1825 to 1853; James S. 
Johnson, 1853 to 1869 ; Sylvester Greathouse, 1869 lo 
1873; William Birkelt, 1873 to 1877; Marquis D. 
McClintock, 1877 to 1882, and Isaac F. Price, since 

Sheriffs. Abner Armstrong, 1825 to 1828; Isaac 
Parmenter. 1828 ; John D. Dyan, 1842 lo 1846 ; Isaac 
N. Jaquess, 1846 to 1850 ; S. S. Luken, 1850, died 
February, 1851, vacancy filled by I. N. Jaquess, pro tern. 
William B. Beall, 1851 to 1852 ; Charles Cuqua, 1852 
to 1854; D. S. Harvey, 1854 to 1856; Charles Cuqua, 
1856 to 1858; Isaac N. Jaquess, 1858 to 1860; Charles 
Cuqua, 1860 to 1862; William Arbuthnot, 1862 to 
1864; Isaac Ogden, 1864 to 1866; W. W. McDowell, 
1866 to 1868; Isaac Ogdn, 1868 to 1870; Neill C. 
Burns, 1870 to 1872; W. W. McDowell, 1872 lo 1876; 
J T. Burkell, 1876 lo 1878; James S. Wilson, 1878 to 
1880; Martin Walser, 1880 lo 1882, and Francis M. 
Cowling since 1882. 

drcuit Clerks. Hiram Bell, 1825 lo 1826; Edward 
Munday, 1826 lo 1828; Hiram Bell, to 1864; Richard 
H. Hudson, 1864 to 1872 ; William E. Keen, from 1876 
to 1880, and J. T. Burkett since 1880. 

Treasurers and Assessors. Abner Armslrong, 1825 ; 
George Bell, 1827; J. H. Beall, 1843; G.C.Turner, 
1849; David Reinhard, 1855; Paul Moyer, 1857 ; 
Isaac Ogden, 1859 ; W. W. McDowell, 1861 ; George 
W. Douglas, died in office, insane; Samuel Fisher filled 
vacancy ; Sylvester Greathouse, two terms, 1865 ; James 
B. Ramsay, two lerms, 1869 ; N. C. Burns, Iwo lerms > 
1873 ; Henry J. Henning, Iwo terms, 1877, and Peter 
P. Keepes since 1882. 

Coroners. Levi Crouch, 1826 ; J. G. Wirth, 1862 ; 



Kichard Adam, 1864; Joel P. Thrall, 1868 ; John Kern, 
1868 ; Samuel Shaw, 1870, four terrnes in office, and A. 
J. Mclntosh since 1878. 

School* Commissioners and Superintendents. Gilb. C. 
Turner, 1843; James Mahorn, 1849; W. M. Harmon, 
1853, two terms ; James Leeds, 1861, five terms, and an 
additional one year term, and A. P. Manley since 1882. 

State and County Attorneys. John M. Robinson, 
1825; E. B. Webb, 1832; Aaron Shaw, 1843 ; Alfred 
Kitchell, 1851; John Schofield, 1858; D. L. Brewer, 
1864, and Silas Z. Landes since 1872. 


Stephen C. Midgett, of Mt. Carmel, Judge County I 

Isaac F. Price, Mt. Carmel, Clerk County Court. 

Francis M. Cowling, Mt. Carmel, Sheriff. 

Peter P. Keepes, Mt. Carmel, Treasurer. 

Alfred P. Manley, Mt. Carmel, Superintendent of 

A. J. Mclntosh, Allendale, Coroner. 

Robert Ramsay, of Mier, Frederic Holsen, of Allen- 
dale, John E. Heniken, of Cowling, Members of Board 
of County Commissioners. 

John T. Burkett of Mt. Carmel, Clerk of Circuit 

S. Z. Landes, Mt. Carmel, States' Attorney. 

Charles Buckanan, Bellmont, Surveyor. 



JY a wise ordination of providence, law and 
order govern everything in the vast and 
complex system of the universe. Law is 
everything. Law would still always exist, 
though every one of its professors and teachers should 
perish from the face of the earth. And should such a 
thing occur, and a new race spring up, the first instinc- 
tive desire of its best men would be to bring order out of 
c^aos by the enactment and promulgation of wise and 
beneficent laws. Law in the abstract is as much a com- 
ponent part of our planet as are the elements earth, air, 
fire, and water ; in a concrete sense, as applied to the 
government of races, nations, and peoples it plays almost 
an equally important part. Indeed, so grand is the sci- 
ence and so noble are the objects sought to be accom- 
plished through it, that it has inspired some of the best 
and greatest men of ancient and modern times to an in- 
vestigation and study of its principles. 

Draco, among the first and greatest of the Athenian 
lawgivers, was hailed as the deliverer of those people, 
because of his enacting laws, and enforcing them, for the 

prevention of vice and crime, and looking to the pro- 
tection of the masses from oppression and lawlessness. 
It is true that many of the penalties he attached to the 
violation of the law were severe and even baibarous, but 
this severity proceeded from an honorable nature, with 
an earnest desire to improve the condition of his fellow- 
men. Triptoleinus, his contemporary, proclaimed as laws, 
'' Honor your your parents, worship the gods, hurt not 
animals." Solon, perhaps the wisest of them all, a man 
of remarkable purity of life and noble impulses, whose 
moral character was so great and conviction as to the 
public good so strong, that he could and did refuse su- 
preme and despotic power when thrust upon him. 

What is true of one race or nation in this particular 
is true of all, viz., that the wisest and greatest of law- 
makers and lawyers have always been pure and good 
men, perhaps the most notable exceptions being Justin- 
ian and Tribonianus. Their great learning and wisdom 
enabled them to rear as their everlasting monument the 
Pandects and Justinian Code, which, however, they sad- 
ly defaced by the immoralities and excesses of their pri- 
vate lives. 

Among the revered of modern nations will be found, 
conspicuous for their great services to their fellows, in- 
numerable lawyers. To the Frenchman the mention of 
the names of Trouchet, Le Brun, Portalis, Roederer, Thi- 
baudeau, and others excites a thrill of pride for their 
greatness and of gratitude for their goodness. 

What Englishman, or American either, but that takes 
just pride in the splendid reputation and character of 
the long line of England's loyal, lawyer sons? The Ba- 
cons, father and son, who, with Lord Burleigh, were se- 
lected by England's greatest Queen to administer the af- 
fairs of state, and Somers and Hardwicke, Cowper and 
Dunning, Eldon, Blaokstone, Coke, Stowell, and Curran, 
who, with all the boldness of a giant and eloquence of 
Demosthenes, struck such vigorous blows against kingly 
tyranny and oppression ; and Erskine and Mansfield and 
a score of others. And in our own country have we not 
names among the dead as sacred, and among the living 
as dear ? In the bright pages of the history of a country, 
founded for the sole benefit of the people, and all kinds 
of people, who more than our lawyers are recorded as as- 
sisting in its formation, preservation, and working for 
its perpetuity. 

On the organization of Edwards county, November 
28th, 1814, the Illinois Territory comprised three judicial 
circuits, of which Edwards county formed a part of the 
third. From the admission of the State into the Union 
in 1818, until 1835, with the exception of a little more 
than two years, (1824 to 1827) the Judges of the Su- 
preme Court of Illinois, performed the duties of Circuit 
Judges. In that year a law was enacted establishing 
the distinctive office of Circuit Judge, and dividing 
the State into separate Judicial districts, which contin- 
ued to February, 1841, when the old system was re- 
established, and remained in force until the adoption of 
the new constitution in 1848. This constitution pro- 



vided for the election of one Circuit Judge in each judi- 
cial district. 

The counties of Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash have 
been included within the same judicial district, except 
from 1851 to 1873. Edwards county was erected in 
1814; Lawrence in 1821, and Wabash in 1824 A ref- 
erence to these dates will show a complete list of the 


doing duty in each of the counties in their respective 

The earliest courts within the Territory of these three 
counties were held at old Palmyra, then the county seat 
of Edwards. The first session was held July 11, 1815, 
with Judge Stanley Griswold on the bench. 

In 1816, Thomas Towles presiding. From 1817 to 
1818, JepthaHardin was onthe'bench; 1818 to 1819 
Thomas C. Browne; William Wilson, from 1819 to 
1825; James (). Wattles from 1825 to 1827, 
when Thomas C. Browne, was again on the bench 
serving one year ; William Wilson again appeats, serv- 
ing from 1828 to 1835 ; Justin Harlan from 1835 to 
1841, when William Wilson again returns to the bench, 
serving until 1849, being succeeded by his predecessor, 
Justin Harlan, from 1849 to 1851 ; Samuel S. Marshall 
was then elected, serving until 1854, when he resigned, 
and Downing Baugh served one year ; Edwin Beecher 
served from 1855 to 1861 ; Samuel S. Marshall, from 
1861 to 1865, when James M. Pollock succeeded to the 
bench, serving until 1873. By act of Legislature, March 
28, 1873, the State was divided exclusive of Cook 
county, into twenty-six judicial circuits, and at the 
election, in June, 1873, one judge was elected for each 
circuit, for the term of six years. Edwards and Wabash 
counties formed a par t of the twenty-fourth district, j 
Tazewell B. Tanner was elected judge of the circuit, and } 
Lawrence county formed a part of the twenty-first 
district and elected James C. Allen, in that circuit. In 
18 f 7, the Legislature, in order to increase the number 
of Circuit Judges, and to provide for the organization 
of the Appellate Courts, consolidated the twenty-six 
judicial circuits into thirteen, thereby giving each cir- 
cuit two judges, and provided for the election of one 
additional judge in each circuit, in August, 1877, for 
two years, making three judges in each judicial circuit. 
The September following the Supreme Court appointed 
twelve of the Circuit Judges to appellate duty, the re- 
maining judges held the Circuit Courts in their respec- 
tive districts. In this change of the judiciary system the ! 
twenty-fifth and the twenty-fourth districts were thrown 
together to be known as the Second Judicial Circuit. In ! 
those districts Tazewell B. Tanner and James C. Allen, 
were already serving on the bench, and John H. Halley 
was elected to make the requisite number. They pre- 
sided, as required by the above act, until 1879, when ' 
Chauueey S. Conger, Thomas S. Casey and William 
C. Jones, were elected, and are still on the bench. 

The judges serving on the bench, in Lawrence county, 
while that county was noc inelu lj 1 within tli3 same 

judicial circuits, were: Justin Harlan, who served un- 
til 1859, when Edwin Beecher held two terms ; Alfred 
Kitchell served nearly two years ; James C. Allen, was 
commissioned July 1, 1861, and resigned December 31, 

1862, and was succeeded by Aaron Shaw, March 2, 

1863, who continued on the bench until 1867, being 
succeeded by Richard S Canby, and he by James C. 

Some of the above named judges were, during their 
day very prominent and influential in shaping the af- 
fairs of state. 

WILLIAM WILSON, aVirginian,oneof the earliest judges 
in the State, and the first to hold court in Wabash and 
Lawrence counties, was for many years one of the lead- 
ing jurists of the State. He served on the supreme 
bench for a period of almost thirty years. As already 
mentioned he was first appointed July 7, 1819, nine 
months after Illinois was admitted into the Union. 
January 19, 1825, he was made chief justice and occu- 
pied that honorable position until December 4, 1848. 
He left behind him a most excellent record, and his 
memory is dear Jo his many friends and associates. He 
was a man of fine personal appearance and presided over 
his court with great dignity. On leaving the bench he 
retired to a farm in White county, where he resided 
until his death. THOMAS C. BROWNE was also on the 
Supreme bench from October 9, 1818, to December 4, 
1849. He was a conscientious judge. 

JEPTHA HARDIN, was a native of Kentucky, and be- 
longed to the celebrated Hardin family of that State. 
He was a half brother of the distinguished Benjamin 
Hardin, but not his equal, although an excellent judge 
and a fine lawyer. 

JUSTIN HAKLAN, was a man of the highest order of 
talents and although his learning was not what is called 
liberal, yet he was a profound, well-read and able law- 
yer, and honest and impartial in the discharge of his ju- 
dicial functions. He was eminently social, and gained 
many friends. 

SAMUEL S. MARSHALL, another able lawyer, repre- 
sented his district in congress in 1855, and again re- 
elected in 1857, '65, '67, '69 and 71, and is still figur- 
ing prominently in state and national politics. 

JAMES C. ALLEN, was one of the Appellate Judges in 
the fourth district, and for several years a member of 
Congress. He is an able and sound lawyer, and while on 
the bench his fairness and impartiality and the correct- 
ness of his decisions won him much credit. He is a 
fluent and pleasing speaker and a genial, affable gentle- 


These counties being in the same judicial circuit in 
the early time, they were consequently visited by nearly 
the same traveling attorneys. Many were the priva- 
tions and hardships that surrounded the early bar of 
Illinois. At that time, owing to the small amount of 
litigation, attorneys, in order to gain a livelihood from 
the practice of their profession, found it necessary to fol- 


low the courts from county to county. Nevertheless, 
some of the most illustrious legal lights that the State 
has produced lived in those days. 

Among the distinguished men that came to practice 
at Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash courts in that 
early day were: Edwin B. Webb, for many years in 
the Illinois legislature ; Col. William H. Davidson, who 
was a fair lawyer and for many years a leader in the j 
State Senate ; Gen. John M. Robinson, who was prose- 
cuting attorney in 1821, and afterward represented the 
State for years in the U. S. Senate ; John McLean, 
already mentioned, a native of Kentucky, and a good j 
and popular lawyer : Henry Eddy, long the editor of | 
the Shawneetoion Gazette, and a man of fine legal ability ; . 
Thomas C. Browne, who was the prosecuting attorney | 
at the first courts of Edwards county, and afterward ; 
Judge of the circuit ; John Mclntire, the prosecutor in \ 
1816, and who for many years rode the circuit; U. F. 
Linder, witty and eloquent, eminent as a criminal law- 
yer and adroit politician; O. B. Ficklin, a profound 
lawyer, and leader in the national congress, who for j 
several years was a resident of Mt. Carmel ; the hand- 
some and gifted Charles H. Constable ; Samuel S. Hayes, 
a scholarly lawyer and preeminently a self-made man ; 
Col. J. E. Whiting, George Webb, father of Edwiu B. 
Webb, John Pearsons, Samuel McRoberts, Col. A. P. 
Field, who ranked among the ablest members of the 
bar of Illinois, and subsequently moved to Louisiana, j 
and became Attorney General of that State, William 
J. Gatewood, an eminent lawyer, and for many years in 
the State Senate ; August C. French, twice governor of 
Illinois; J. M. Krebs, John McElvain, and probably 
others whose names might be mentioned, but they have 
passed from the recollection of the oldest citizens. 


In early times lawyers were few ia number, and resid- 
ed mostly in the larger towns of the State This being 
a small county, there have been but few resident 
attorneys, and they mostly remaining but a short time. 
At the first term of the Circuit court held in the county, 
on the 12th day of July, 1815, the following gentlemen 
were admitted to the practice of law : Adolphus T. 
Hubbard, Elias Kent Kane, Thomas H. Blake, John 
McLean, Russel E. Heacock, Jeptha Hardin, and John 
Mclntire. We simply mention the fact that these 
gentlemen were admitted at this term of court. They 
however were not residents of the county. The above 
named, afterward became prominent and conspicuous 
men in Illinois. Elias Kent Kane and John McLean, 
having represented the state in the United States 

The first resident attorney at Albion was JAMES O. 

WATTLES. He came in 1820. He resided there for a 

number of years and practiced in the courts of Edwards 

and adjoining counties. He was elected judge of the 


Fifth judicial district in 1825, and served on the bench 
until 1827. 

AUGUST O. FRENCH, came to Albion soon after 1820, 
then a young man fresh from some eastern college, and 
engaged in teaching a select school of small children at 
two dollars a quarter. He also employed a portion of 
his time writing in the clerk's office, at the same time 
reading law, and it was not long afterward that he was 
seen in the saddle, riding the circuit with the lawyers. 
He afterward removed to Palestine, Crawford county, 
was in the legislature in 1836 and was elected Governor 
of Illinois in 1846, and re-elected in 1849. 

JAMES B. HINDE, who was subsequently elected cir- 
cuit clerk of White county, was a very early lawyer in 
Albion, and practiced his profession there for a period of 
about six years. Soon after Mr. Hinde, came SAMUEL 
BOOKER, a bright and talented man, who made Albion 
his residence until 1849, when he emigrated to Cali- 
fornia, where he afterward became a man of some pro- 

WILLIAM HARROW, was a resident attorney for a 
number of years. He was considered a good lawyer. 
Early in the late rebellion, he enlisted in an Indiana 
regiment, and became colonel, and served his country 
with credit and distinction. He was killed a few years 
ago by a railroad accident, while on a trip to make a 
political speech. 

0- S. CANBY,a single man, practiced here a few years 
and died in Grayville, in 1868. It is said he was a 
studious, careful lawyer and a man of ability. 

AMOS B. MATHEWS, a lawyer of ability, located here 
in 1867 and remained in practice until July, 1882, when 
he removed to Minnesota. 

R. G. BROWN, located here in 1870 remaining only a 
few months, when he moved to Kaskaskia, Illinois. 


JOSEPH M. CAMPBELL, a native of Illinois, is the old- 
est resident member of the Edwards county bar. He 
received his education in the common schools of Wayne 
county, and began the study of law in the office of Wil- 
liam H. Robinson, and was admitted to the bar in the 
fall of 1865. In 1866 he came to Albion and opened a 
law office in partnership with his preceptor, W. H. 
Robinson, which relation continued until 1870. Since 
that date, with the exception of a short period in part- 
! nership with H. J. Strawn, Mr. Campbell has practiced 
! by himself. In 1873 he was elected judge of Edwards 
I county, and by re-election still continues to hold that 
[ office. Mr. Campbell is a good judge of law, and a 
painstaking, careful lawyer. 

HALBERT J. STRAWN is a native of Pennsylvania. 
He came west, and in 1870 was admitted to the bar at 
Princeton, Indiana. In a short time afterward he came 
to Illinois, and in September, 1872, prior to his admit- 
tance to the bar in this State, he had formed a law part- 
j nership with Judge J. M. Campbell, which continued 
1 until 1873, when he opened an office by himself. In 



March, 1879, he was appointed master in chancery for 
a term of two years, and in 1882 he was elected prose- 
cuting attorney. Mr. Strawn has confined himself to a ' 
general practice in which he has been very successful. 
WILLIAM F. FOSTER, although a native of Indiana, 
has been a resident of Edwards county since he was four 
years of age. His education was acquired by hard, ! 
studious application to his books, having attended school 
only nine months in his life. In January, 1876, he be- j 
gan reading law in the office of F. A. Sampson, at Se- | 
dalia, Missouri, and was admitted to the bar in that I 
State May 8, 1876, having acquired the knowledge of ' 
law necessary for admission within the short space of 
four months. He was admitted to practice in Illinois 
January 22, 1879, and located at Albion, since which he 
has had a good practice. In November, 1880, he was 
appointed master in chancery and served in that capa- 
city for a term of two years. 


Many lawyers at various times have made Lawrence 
county their residence, some for a very short period and 
others remaining for several years. It is impossible to 
gather the names of all those who resided at Lawrence- 
ville in the earlier part of its history, as they have passed 
from the recollection of the oldest citizens. 

JUDGE AARON SHAW was the earliest resident attor- ' 
ney that became in any way prominent. He was ad- | 
mitted to the bar at Lawrenceville in 1835, and 
remained there for several years. In 1850 he was 
elected to the Legislature, and in 1857 to Congress. He 
subsequently moved to Olney. March 2, 1863, he was 
commissioned circuit judge in the twenty-fourth circuit, I 
vice James C. Allen, resigned. In 1882 he was again j 
elected to Congress, and still resides in Olney. 

JOSEPH G. BOWMAN located here about 1835. He is | 
a fine judge of law and a successful attorney. He 
moved to Viucennes and from thence to Olney, where 
he now resides. 

FREDERICK A. THOMAS, a young attorney, came 
about 1840, was elected circuit clerk and died while in 

Two brothers, Louis and D. B. ABERNATHY, located 
here about 1860. The former held the office of school 
commissioner, and the latter was master in chancery for 
several years. They were promising young lawyers, and 
both died in Lawrenceville. 

T. P. LOWERY became a resident practitioner about 
the same time as the above named, and remained for 
seven years. He held the office of county surveyor for i 
two terms, and served in the capacity of school superin- j 
tendent and justice of the peace. He moved to Texas. 

WM. LINDSEY was here for a few years, leaving about 
1864 or '65. He was politically inclined, a fair stump 
speaker, and receiving an office under the government 
he departed. 

JOHN FIELDS, a lawyer of considerable ability, came 
to the bar in 1867. He graduated in the law department 
of the State University of Indiana. In 1870, he was a 
partner of E. B. Green of Mt. Carmel ; was appointed 
master in chancery in 1871, performing the duties of 
that office until 1878. Failing health caused him to 
give up his lucrative practice here and he is now a 
resident of Colorado Springs, Colorado. 

D. L. BREWER, a well known attorney, resided in 
Lawrenceville for a number of years. 

HARRY BRISCOE, with the story of whose horrible 
death the citizens are so familiar, was a good young 
lawyer, and was for a time prosecuting attorney of the 

T. A. STEWART, and I. N. FARNSWORTH were among 
those of the more recent years. 


The oldest resident lawyer of Lawrence county is the 
Hon. Wm. J. Chews. He was born in Crawford county, 
Illinois, in 1824, and five years later his father moved 
his family to this county, locating on Allison prairie. 
Here he grew to manhood, attending the common schools 
of his neighborhood, and laboring at home on the farm. 
At the age of twenty-one his father gave him forty acres 
of land, and he engaged in farming for himself. A few 
years later he moved to Lawrenceville, and embarked in 
the milling business, with which he soon became dissat- 
isfied and returned to farm life. In 1843, he began 
the study of law under the directions of J. G. Bowman, 
being admitted to practice in 1846. It was now, for the 
first time, that he had an opportunity of displaying his 
powerful intellect. His knowledge was acquired almost 
entirely by self-culture, and had he devoted his entire 
attention to law, he would doubtless have shed lustre on 
the bar of southern Illinois. He is a man possessed of 
extraordinary judgment, a good speaker and a sound, 
careful lawyer. In 1869 he was elected to the office of 
county judge, but resigned his position in 1872, when his 
fellow-citizens chose him to represent them in the State 
Senate, where he served with distinction for two years. 
The Judge is still living, on his farm, near where his 
father settled on coming to the county. 

T. B. HUFFMAN, a native of Indiana, received his 
rudirrientary education in the common schools of his 
native State, completing his literary education at the 
Vincennes University, and at Lincoln University at 
Lincoln, Illinois. Commenced the reading of law in the 
office of Judge Willliam B. Jones, of Lincoln, and was 
admitted to the bar in the spring of 1869. In May of 
the same year he located in Lawrenceville, where he has 
since continued to practice his profession. In 1873, was 
appointed by the governor to the office of county judge, 
to fill the vacancy occasioned by the resignation of 
William J. Crews. About the close of the term of 
county judge, Harry Briscoe, the prosecuting attorney, 
died, and Mr. Huffman was chosen to fill the vacancy, 
and in 1875 was elected to the same for the term of 
four years. In 1869, he formed a partnership with 



David B. Abernathy, and, subsequently, for about two 
years was in partnership with E. Callahan. In 1881, 
he took into partnership, D. L. Brewer, which continued 
until the death of the la ter in March, 1822. In June- 
1882, S. G Gee, became a partner, and the firm of 
IIu fl man & Gee still continues. 

WILLIAM M. ROBINSON, is a son of Dr. J. A. Robin- 
son, a Methodist minister. He received his early 
education in the public schools, in the various towns in 
Illinois, to which his father was sent as pastor, and sub- 
sequently attended McKendree college at Lebanon, 
Illinois, from which institution he graduated in 1870. 
In 1871, he began reading law with William Stoker, of 
Centralia, and afterward with Judge Horace Hayward, 
Olney. Was admitted to the bar in January, 1875. 
Immediately thereafter he began the practice of law in 
Olney, associated with W. Mattoon, and in August, 
1876, came to Lawrenceville and opened an office, form- 
ing partner-hip with D. L. Brewer, in 1877, which 
continued for a period of two years, since which time 
Mr. Robinson has practiced alone. He is a man of great 
talent and a lawyer of ability. 

S. B. ROWLAND, is a native of Illinois. He began the 

Lawrenceville. In 1880, he was elected to the office of 
State's attorney for Lawrence county, for a term of four 
years. Mr. Snyder is a studious, careful lawyer, and a 
successful prosecutor. 

T. B. FINLY, a resident attorney of Sumner, a native 
of Ohio, attended Miller's Academy, and afterward 
Franklin College at Athens, Ohio, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1860. Read law in the office of Miller & Sherrard, 
at Steubenville.Ohio, and took a course in the law school 
at Cleveland, Ohio. Began practice at Sidney, Ohio, 
and afterward became a partner of Judge William 
Lawrence, at Bellefontaine, Ohio, Opened an office 
at Sumner, in 1879, where he has since resided. 

FRANK MESERVE came to Illinois from Massachu- 
setts, his native state, in 1879. He is a young man of 
scholarly attainments, having had advantage of the su- 
perior schools of his native state, and graduating at the 
Boston University in 1877. His father being a lawyer, 
Mr. Meserve inherited a natural inclination and tact for 
the legal profession, and shortly after leaving college he 
began the study of law in his father's office. Coming 
west, he resided with his uncle, at Robinson, Illinois, 
and completed his legal course in the office of Callahan 

study of law in the office of Wilson & Hutchison, of & Jones of that town. He was admitted to the bar in 
Olney, and afterward attended the law department of j this state in June, 1880, and the following month located 
the University of Michigan, graduating in March, 1871. ! in Lawrenceville, forming a law partnership with George 

Was admitted to the bar in this State, in April of the 
same year, and soon afterward located in the practice of 
law at Lawrenceville. In 1882, he formed a partner- 
ship with T. P. Lowery, and in the same year purchased 
the Lawrence County Democrat, which was under his 
management about four years. March 16, 1883, he 
formed a partnership with his old preceptor, E. S. Wil- 
son, of Olney. 

GEORGE HUFFMAN, is a brother of Judge T. B. Huff- 
man, also a native of Indiana. He was educated in the 
schools of his native State, attending the Vincennes 
University, and in 1867 entered the Lincoln University 
of Illinois, from which he was graduated in 1869. Began 
the study of law in 1870, in the office of W. B. Jones, 
at Lincoln, and was admitted to practice in 1871. For 
a few years he taught school, and was engaged in the 
mercantile business, and in the spring of 1878 began 

Huffman, under the style of Huffman & Meserve, which 
still continues. In January, 1881, the firm purchased 
the Democratic Herald, Mr. Meserve assuming editorial 
charge. He is an energetic, studious lawyer, with good 
prospects for an extended practice. 

C. J. BORDEN is a native of Pennsylvania ; he gra- 
duated from the Chester county Academy, in Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1873, and in 1876 went to Kentucky and 
attended the law department of the University of Louis- 
ville, graduating in 1879. He located in the practice 
of law at Lawrenceville in 1881. 

S. J. GEE was born in St. Francisville, in this county. 
He entered Shurtleff college, at Alton, Illinois, iu 1876, 
graduating in 1880, and immediately afterward began 
the study of law in the office of Brewer & Huffman, in 
Lawrenceville, and was admitted to the bar in 1882. 
Soon afterward he became the junior partner of T. B. 

the practice of his profession in Lawrenceville by him- | Huffman, with whom he is still associated. 

self. In 1879 he became a partner with E. S. Wilson of 
Olney, which continued until August, 1880, when he 
formed a partnership with Frank C. Meserve. Mr. 
Huffman is a good lawyer. 

K. P. SNYDER, the present efficient prosecuting 

PHILIP W. BARNES, the present judge of the Law- 
rence county court, is a native of Ohio, and came with 
his father to this county when a lad of six years ; at- 
tended the common schools of Lawrence county, and 
graduated at the Olney high-school in 1879, and soon 

attorney of Lawrence county, was born in Richland ! afterward entered the law department of the Illinois 
county, Illinois, where he recejved his early education, [ Wesleyan University, at Bloomington, Illinois, from 
subsequently attending the State Normal University, at 
Normal, Illinois. Read law in the office of Fifer & 
Phillips, of Bloomington, at the same time attended the 
law department of the Wesleyan University, from which 

hich he graduated June 15, 1881, and was admitted to 
the bar January 11, 1882 On the 4th of December of 
the same year he began the practice of law in Law- 
renceville by himself. In 1873 Mr. Barnes received 

institution he graduated in June, 1^79, and immediately | the nomination for the office of county judge, by the 
thereafter was admitted to the bar at Mt. Vernon Republican party, and was elected, the duties of which 
Illinois. September 1, 1879, he opened a law office in ' office he is now discharging with credit to himself and 



satisfaction to the people of Lawrence. Judge Barnes 
is a young man of promise. 


The first resident attorney of Wabash county, as near 
as it is possible to ascertain, was EDWARD MUNDY. 
He was a native of New Jersey, and became a resident of 
Wabash county as early as 1820, locating in what is now 
Friendsville precinct. He traveled the circuit and was 
considered a good attorney. He was elected to represent 
this district in the legislature in 1830. A few years later 
he moved to Michigan, where he afterward became very 
prominent in political affairs, being elected Lieutenant 
Governor and holding other important offices. An 
attorney, by the. name of ELKINS, is remembered as 
early as 1826, having located in the county, remaining 
however, only a' few years. 

HON. O. B. FICKLIN, a gentleman so well known to 
the citizens of the Wabash country, became a practising 
lawyer at Mt. Carmel as early as 1830, au'd was elected 
from Wabash county to represent that district in the 
legislature in 1834. Soon after serving out his term in 
the legislature he moved to Charlestown, Coles county, 
this state, and from that district was elected to Congress 
in 1843, being four times re-elected, and for many years 
recognized as one of the leaders of that body. He is 
still an honored citizen of Charlestown. 

A MR. PYLE, came to Mt. Carmel about 1833, re- 
maining about three years. 

JAMES McDowELL, came in 1836, and practiced law 
at the Wabash bar until his death in 1866. He was 
for several years judge of the probate court, and was 
regarded as a sound attorney. Besides his profession he 
was also engaged in mercantile puisuits for several 
years in Mt. Carmel. 

CHARLES H. CONSTABLE, was a native of Maryland 
A and located at Mt. Carmel in 1839, and remained here 
until 1852, when he removed to Marshall county, Illi- 
nois, where he was elected to the office of circuit judge. 
He was a lawyer of ability. Died about the close of 
the late war. 

JOSEPH G. BOWMAN, a Virginian, became a member 
of the Wabash bar in 1839. He was elected to repre- 
sent the district in the legislature in 1840, and subse- 
quently moved to Lawrenceville, and thence to OlneVj 
where he still resides. 

JOSEPH C. ORTH, native of Pennsylvania, located 
here iu 1844, practicing his profession for three or four 
years, whtn he engaged in farming in this county until 
his death in 1857. 

ROBERT W. DOUGHERTY, came here from Baltimore 
about 1848, practiced law for a short time and returned 
to the east. 

VICTOR B. BELL, brother of Robert Bell, practiced 
at the Wabash bar from 1848 to 1855, when he moved 
to Chicago, and formed a partnership with Gen. T. E. 

Ransom. He afterward moved to Washington, D. C., 
and from thence to New Orleans where he died in 1867. 
In 1852-54, he represented Wabash and Edwards 
counties in the house of Representatives. 


ROBERT BELL is the oldttt resident lawyer of the 
Wabash county bar. He is a native of the county, and 
received his education in the common and select schools 
of Mt. Carmel. He began the study of law in the office 
of his brother, Victor B. Bell, and subsequently attended 
the law department of the Indiana State University, 
from which Institution he graduated in February, 1855. 
In the spring of the same year, he formed a ptrtnership 
in law, with Lewis C. Keller, at Fairfield, Illinois, where 
he began the practice of his profession. After a resi- 
dence of two years at Fairfield, he established au office 
in Mt. Carmel. In 1864, he formed a partnership with 
Edward B. Green, under the style of Bell & Green, 
which firm still continue, one of the strongest in south- 
ern Illinois. 

In 1863, Mr. Bell was elected President of the Illi- 
nois Southern Railroad Company, which afterward 
merged into the Cairo and Vincennes Railroad Company. 
In 1869, he was appointed by the Governor, Judge of 
Wabash county, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
death of Judge T. J. Armstrong. In the same year he 
was elected President of the St. Louis, Mt. Carmel & 
New Albany llailroad Company, serving iu that capa- 
city until the consolidation of that railroad into the 
Louisville, New Albany & St. Louis, in 1872. In 1876, 
he was sent as special agent of the U. S. Treasury, to 
California, to investigate alleged frauds in the Interna- 
tional Revenue district of that State. In the campaign 
of 1878, he was the Republican candidate for Congress 
in the nineteenth district, making a vigorous fight, 
although the district was hopelessly Democratic. Was 
a member of the Republican State Central Committee 
at large, from 1878 to 1882, and was one of the U. S. 
Commissioners in 1881, appointed to examine the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific railroad iu New Mexico. 

Besides those more important positions, Judge Bell 
has held many other minor offices of trust, in all of 
which he performed his duties with credit and satisfac- 
tion. He is a sound successful lawjer. 

EDWARD B. GREEN, who stands at the head of the 
Wabash county bar, is a native of Pennsylvania, born 
December 29, 1837. He obtained his early education 
in the common schools of his native State, and took a 
classical course in the Reimersburg Academy, after 
which he was for some time Professor of Languages, in 
the West Freedom Academy. Leaving that position, 
he came directly to Edgar county, Illinois, in 1858, and 
began the study of law in the office of Green & Eads, 
at Paris. Completing his course, he was admitted to 
the bar in June, 1860, and immediately afterward came 
to Mt. Carmel, and established himself in the practice of 
his profession. Four years later he formed a partner- 
ship with Robert Bell, under the style of Bell & Green, 



which still continues, and is one of the leading law firms 
this part of the State. 

In 1877, he was the Republican candidate for Judge 
of the second judicial circuit. Two years later he be- 
came a candidate against John H. Mulkey, for the 
Supreme bench. In 1882, he accepted the Republican 
candidacy for Congress, against Aaron Shaw, and not- 
withstanding the large Democratic majority in this dis- 
trict, Mr. Green made a vigorous and creditable contest. 
Mr. Green is a man of fine talents, and one of the ablest 
and most profound lawyers in southern Illinois. He 
has a practice that extends to all adjoining counties, and 
his cases in the Appellate and Supreme courts are numer- 

S. Z. LANDES is a native of Virginia, and with his 
parents emigrated and settled at Paris, Illinois, in 1856. 
He acquired his preliminary education in the common 
schools of Edgar county, and afterward attended the 
Edgar County Academy. He entered upon the study 
of law in the office of Robert N. Bishop, and after com- 
pleting his course, was admitted to the bar in August, 
1863. The next year he opened an office in Mt. Carmel, 
and began the practice of his chosen profession. In 
1870, he was elected City Attorney, and served in that 
capacity for three consecutive terms. In 1873, he 
was chosen as State's Attorney for the county of Wabash, 
and by re-election has held that office ever since. Mr. 
Laudes is a hard student, a sound lawyer, a vigorous 
prrsecutor and excels as an advocate. 

SAMUEL R. PuxMAN,was born in Wabash county. He 
began the study of law in the office of Bell and Green 
in the spring of 1868, and was admitted to the bar in the 
sprang of 1870. Soon after being admitted he went to 
Kansas, where, in Eureka, he engaged in the practice of 
his profession for two years, returning to Mt. Carmel. 
In 1874, he formed a partnership with A. B. Mathews, 
which firm continued for one year, when Sylvester 
Greathouse came in, the style of firm being Mathews, 
Putman and Greathouse. Mathews retired from the 
firm in June, 1879, and Putmaii and Greathouse con- 
tinue still in partnership. They are engaged in a good 
general practice. 

SYLVESTER GREATHOUSE, is also a native of this 
county. He read law in the office of Mathews and 
Putman, and was admitted to the bar in 1875, and im- 
mediately entered upon the practice in partnership with 
the firm above named. Prior to his adopting the pro 
fession of law, Mr. Greathouse served the people of the 
county in the capacity of Treasurer, being eleited in 
l!-65, and re-elected in '67. In 1869 he was elected to 
the office of county clerk, and served one term. 

M. F. HOSKINS, is a native of Indiana. He read law 
wi'h Bell and Green, and was admitted to the bar in 
January, 1876, and opened an office in Mt. Carmel and 
began the practice by himself. In 1877 he was appoint- 
ed city attorney, and in 1879 was elected to the same 

M. H. MUNDY, was born in Wabash county, where he 

received his rudimentary education, and attendtd the 
Western Central college, at Warrenton, Mo. He began 
the study of law in the office of Judge F. D. Preston, 
at Olney, Illinois, in the spring of 1876, and was admit- 
ted to the bar in 1878. He first practiced in Olirey, 
about one year, then came to Mt. Carmel, where he has 
since been engaged. 

WILLIAM R. LANDES, brother of S. Z Landes, student 
in the office of the latter; was admitted to the bar 
in 1882, and practices with his brother, but not in part- 

The list of prosecuting attorneys of these counties 
will be found in the chapter on civil history. 



The Pioneer, Albion Journal, Th< Bumble-bee, Egyptian Republican, American 
Sentinel, Star Spangle Banner, American Banner, LawrencevUle Banner, West- 
ern Qlobf, Laicrence County Globe, Lawrence County Journal, Lawrence County 
Courier, Rural Republican, Lawrence County democrat, Farmers' Union, Dem- 
ocrat Herald, Lawrence County Press, Sumner Press, Sumuer Democrat, Bridge' 
port Times, Mt. Carmel Sentinel and Wabmh Adcoca/e, ML Carmel Register, 
Wabash Republican, The Qreenbrier, The Plowbou, Wabash Democrat, Tern- 
Leader, Mt. Carmel Leader, Mt. Carmel Republican. 

HE pres?, the great luminary of liberty, is the 
handmaid of progress. It heralds its doings 
and makes known its discoveries. It is the 
advance courier, whose coming is eagerly 
looked for, and whose arrival is hailed with joy as it 
brings tidings of its latest achievements. The press pre- 
pares the way and calls mankind to witness the ap- 
proach and procession of the triumphal car of progress 
as it passes on down through the vale of the future. 
When progress stops, the press will cease, and the intel- 
lectual and moral world will go down in darkness. The 
press is progress, and progress the press. So intimately 
are they connected that one cannot exist without the 
other. The history of this great discovery dates back 
to the fifteenth century. Its discovery occurred in the 
following manner : Laurentius Coster, a native of 
Hserlem, Holland, while rambling in the forest contigu- 
ous to his native city, carved some letters out of the bark 
of a birch tree. Drowsy from the relaxation of a holi- 
day, he wrapped his carvings in a piece of paper and 
lay down to sleep. Dampened by the atmospheric moist- 
ure, the paper wrapped about his handiwork had taken 
an impression from them, and the surprised burgher 
saw on the paper an inverted image of his engravings. 
The phenomenon was suggestive, because it led to ex- 
periments that resulttd in establishing a printing office 
in the old Dutch town of Haerlem. The discovery of 
Coster's wood blocks, on which the pages to be printed 
were engraved, was made some time between 1440 and 
1450. Peter Schoeffer's improvement, by casting the 
type by means of matrices, was made about 1456. 

For a long time printing was dependent upon most 



clumsy apparatus. The earliest press had a contrivance 
for running the forms under the point of pressure by 
means of a screw. Improvements were made upon these 
crude beginnings from time to time, until the hand- 
presses now in use are models of simplicity, durability 
and execution. In 1814, steam was first applied to cyl- 
inder presses by Friedrich Konig, a Saxon genius, and 
the subsequent progress of steam printing has been so 
remarkable as to almost justify a belief in its absolute 

The first newspaper of modern times was issued at 
Venice, in 1536, but governmental bigotry compelled 
its circulation in manuscript form. In 1663, the Public 
Intelligencer, was published in London, and is credited 
with being the first English paper to attempt the dis- 
semination of general information. In 1639, the first prin- 
ting-press in America, was set up at Cambridge, Conn., 
and Stephen Daye, the pioneer American printer, struck 
off " The Freeman's Oath," and the next year the Bay 
Psalm-Book. The first American newspaper was the 
Boston News Letter, whose first issue was made April 24, 
1704. It was edited by John Campbell, the postmaster. 
The Boston Gazette made its appearance December 21, 
1719, and the American Weekly, at Philadelphia, Decem- 
ber 22, 1719 In 1776, there were thirty-seven news- 
papers published in the colonies ; in 1828, the number 
had increased to eight hundred and fifty-two, and at the 
present time not less than eight thousand newspapers 
are supported by our people. 

For dates and facts relating to the early history of 
the press of Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash counties 
we are indebted to Morris Emmerson, of the Albion 
Journal; Walter Colyer, of the Edwards County News ; 
Frank Havill, o^ the Mount Carmel Register; Thomas 
L. Joy, of the Mt. Carmel Republican; Judge Robert 
Bell, Captain Sharp; Sam B Day, of the Rural Repub- 
lican ; Frank C. Meserve, of the Democratic Herald ; J. 
J. W. McCleave, Major Daniel L. Gold.S. B. Rowland 
and several other citizens who were interviewed, to 
whom we wish to return our 1 thanks. Especially are we 
under obligations to Will R. Carlton, of the Summer 
Press, who took an active interest in gathering from the 
proper sources the facts and history pertaining to the 
newspaper enterprises of Sumner. 


The first journalistic venture within the borders of 
Edwards county was made by R. S. Thompson, a native 
of the county. In 1868 he purchased a press and 
printers' material at the Cincinnati Type Foundry, 
brought it here and issued 


The style of the paper was first a five- column folio, but 
was afterward changed by Mr. Thompson to a five-column 
quarto, patent. It was a neat, well appearing sheet. Mr. 
Thompson was not a practical printer, but a man of 

good business tact, and a vigorous writer. While the 
paper was under his management it advocated Republi- 
can principles. In about five years from the time of 
the establishment of the Pioneer, Mr. Thompson sold 
the material and paper to Gil R. Stormont, who changed 
the name of it to the 


And made it a seven-column folio, printing all 
in the office. Mr. Stormont being a practical print- 
er, and acquainted with journalism, soon brought 
the paper up to the standard country journal, 
and it continued to flourish under his control until 
September 1, 1876, when he sold it to Ballentine & 
Emmerson. He is now editor and publisher of the 
Princeton (Indiana) Clarion. The latter firm continued 
the publication until September 1, 1878, when Mr. Bal- 
lentiue retired from the partnership, and Morris Emmer- 
son assumed full proprietorship and still continues as 
such. April 1, 1883, he added another column, making 
the paper au eight-column folio. Mr. Emmerson is an 
able writer and a successful journalist. His paper ad- 
vocates the principles of the Republican party and has a 
large circulation. 

While Mr. Thompson owned the paper, he also pub- 
lished a monthly magazine called 


Besides the newspaper business he was engaged in 
the drug trade, and manufactured and sold patent 
medicine. The Bumble-Bee was published in the inter- 
est of the trade, and by the " Bumble-Bee Manufactur- 
ing Company." It was mailed to all parts of the 
United States, but was short-lived, having made but a 
few issues. 

Mr. Thompson is now editor and publisher of the 
Farmer's Advance, published at Springfield, Ohio, and is 
secretary of the State Grange of Ohio. 

One year prior to the establishment of the Pioneer, 
William B. Tribe, then deputy circuit clerk, purchased 
a small hand press and some type, and did job printing 
in the office. This was the first printing done in Ed- 
wards county. 


was the name of a newspaper published in the office of 
the Albion Journal in 1878. It was a three-column 
folio, edited by Chalcraft & Orange, and existed about 
seven months. 

In the autumn of 1880, Flo wer& Chalcraft purchased 
a press, and a variety of type at the Cincinnati Type 
Foundry, brought it to Albion, and from it the first 
issue of the 


Appeared December 23, 1880. In about two months 
Chalcraft sold his interest to Quaint Buntin, and the 
firm became Flower & Buntin, which continued until 
August 5, 1881, when they sold to Applegath & Colyer. 
November 5, 1881, Colyer sold his interest to Applegath, 



who in turn, February 11, 1882, sold to Walter Colyer, 
who became sole owner and editor of the paper. He 
goon changed its name to the 


And made it a seven-column folio. From the beginning 
it has been a Republican sheet. It is typographically 
neat, well edited, and is a credit to the county journal- 
ism of Illinois. 


The newspaper enterprise of Lawrence county began 
with the publication of the 


in the winter of 1847. It was owned and edited by John 
F. Buntin, who deserves honorable mention as the pio- 
neer printer of the county. He brought the press and 
material from Vincennes. The paper was a six column 
folio, independent in politics. In a year or two the words 
" Star Spangled," were dropped, and American was sup- 
plied to the head of the paper. 


was then moved to Olney, where it was printed and 
mailed to the subscribers. In 1855, Mr. Buntin returned 
the office and paper to the county, locating at Russell- 
ville, where it remained until March, 1856, when it was 
again removed to Lawreuceville. The name is said to 
have again been changed to the Laivrenceville Banner. 
In 1858, the office and paper was purchased by H. C. 
Me Cleave and D. L. Brewer. They gave to it the name 
of the 


and it became wedded to the democratic party. The 
journalistic career of McCleave and Brewer was of short 
duration, for in a few months the Globe was again the 
property of J. F. Buntin, and for a time Nat. Lander 
was associated with him as editor. Mr. Buntin changed 
the name of the paper to the 


and brought it back into the republican fold. He con- 
tinued the publication of the paper until some time in 
1868, when he moved the office to Cumberland county. 

The Globe being changed to a republican paper, cre- 
ated a demand for an exponent of the democratic party, 
and resulted in establishing the 


in the spring of 1867. The editor and proprietor of 
this enterprise was W. C. Luken. He brought the ma- 
terial from Vincennes. The paper was a six column 
folio. After a year or two, John F. Buntin returned to 
Lawreuceville, and purchased the Journal and changed 
the name to 


Mr. Buutin continued its publication as a democratic 
paper until December, 1870, when the office was totally 
destroyed by fire. Soon after, by the assistance of friends, 

Mr. Buntin purchased a new press and material, and 
reestablished the Courier. It was, ho wever, destined to 
a short life, being again entirely destroyed by fire, Au- 
gust 18, 1871. Buntiu was a man not to be discouraged, 
for in a very short time the Courier was being issued 
from a new office in Bridgeport. It remained there 
about one year and was removed to Lawrenceville, and 
soon after suspended. The Republican party being with- 
out an organ, in March, 1873, Maj. Daniel L. Gold pur- 
chased the office, added some new material and estab- 
lished the 


1 1 was a five column folio, and ably edited. In 1874 
or '75 Miss Mary Buntin, daughter of John F. Buntin, 
purchased it and continued its publication until No- 
vember 16, 1880, when it passed into the possession of 
Sam. B. Day, the present editor and proprietor. Mr. 
Day is a young man, a practical printer, and displays 
considerable journalistic ability in the management of 
the Republican, a newsy, first class country journal. 


was established in October, 1871, by W. C. Garrard, 
editor and publisher. It was an eight column folio. Mr. 
Garrard continued the Democrat for about two years, 
when it was purchased by S. B. Bowland. The name 
was then changed to 

T. P. Lowery, assumed editorial charge, and the pa- 
per was run in the interests of the Grange movement. 
In 1874, J. W. Mehaffy accepted the editor's chair, and 
brought the paper back into the Democratic ranks, giving 
it the name, 


under which title it has since been published. Decem- 
ber, 1875, Rowland sold the Herald to James K. Dick- 
erson, who continued it until December, 1878, disposing 
of it to Riley & Garrard. January 31, 1880, Will. M. 
Garrard, became sole owner, continuing its publication 
until January, 1881, when the law firm of Huffman & 
Meserve, purchased it, Frank C. Meserve, assuming 
editorial control of the paper. Under their manage- 
ment the Herald has taken front rank in country jour- 
nalism, and these gentlemen have demonstrated their 
ability to run a newspaper and make it a financial suc- 
cess, and at the same time furnish their constituency a 
journal of which they may well be proud. 


was a Sumner enterprise, and the first newspaper in that 
town. For mora than fifteen years Suinner had been 
regarded as the best place of business in the county, and 
it was not until the establishment of the Press, in 1875, 
that it had a newspaper. This fact was owing to party 
supremacy. The larger proportion of the strength of the 
Republican party being in and around Sumner, the 
people felt it their duty to support that paper at the 
county seat. However, as the town grew in importance, 


a newspaper became a necessity, and in November, 
1875, James A. Ilger established the Frets. It was In- 
dependent, and in form, a five column quarto, two 
pages of which were printed at home. Mr. Ilger was a 
practical printer, but unfortunately had no editorial 
ability. In April, 1878, he sold the paper and office to 
C. P. and W. E. Mock. They were both men of exper- 
ience, but lacked judgment in the proper selection of 
local news, engaging in petty quarrels, and in the publi- 
cation of trivial matters that should not be noticed by 
a newspaper. C. P. Mock retired in July, 1878, leaving 
his young brother in charge, but died shortly afterward. 
Some time in the administration of the Mock brothers, 
the form of the paper was changed to a seven column 
folio, with patent inside. In October, 1875, the Press 
was purchased by Dr. Z. D. French and A. C. Clip- 
pinger, both of Sumner. These gentlemen changed its 
politics from Independent to Republican, and under 
their management it increased in circulation, and was in 
a healthy growing condition. 

In December, 1879, Clippinger retired, and E. E. 
Jones, also of Sumner, succeeded him as half owner. 
French & Jones continued the paper until 1880, when 
the former retired, and Mr. Jones became sole proprie- 
tor, filling the position with credit to himself and the 
community, until February, 1881. A. C. Clippiuger 
then purchased the entire business, made it again an 
Independent paper, conductirg it until September fol- 
lowing, when W. R. Carlton, of Wabash county, the 
present editor and proprietor, succeeded him. Under 
Mr. Carlton's vigorous management, the paper at once 
fntered upon an era of prosperity it had never before 
enjoyed. It very soon became a straightout Republican 
organ. He added to the office a rotary job press, and a 
variety of new type. In April, 1882, another change 
was necessary, the "patent inside" was abolished to 
make room for increased advertising. The name was 
changed to 


and the paper was made a six column folio, which still 
continues, the only all-home print journal in Lawrence 
county. Mr. Carlton is a practical printer, a man of 
experience and journalistic ability, and is publishing a 
newspaper of which the people of Lawrence county may 
well feel proud, and to whose support they can most 
graciously contribute. 

Prior to the campaign of 1880, the democracy of the 
west side of the county, began to feel that they should 
have an exponent of their principles in that end of the 
county, having only one democratic paper, while the 
republicans had two. After counselling with the party 
leaders, and business men of the place, it was determined 
that Sumner should have another paper, one that should 
be conducted in the interests of the democratic party. 
Consequently in February, 1880, Rev. P. C. Cauble and 
A. C. Clippinger established 


The paper made a good start, and was doing well, 
when in April, 1880, Cauble retired and resumed his 
profession. The firm changed its name two or three 
times, but continued weakening, and on the 10th of 
November, 1880, it yielded up the ghost. 

The press and material of the Democrat office lay idle 
the remainder of the year, and January 1, 1881, Joseph 
M. Freese and David B. Clark, purchased them and a 
few days after commenced the publication of 


at Bridgeport. It was Independent in politics, and in 
form a seven column quarto. They published a respect- 
able paper, but the community failed to give them a 
living support, and about eight months it suspended. 
The material was subsequently sold and taken to Robin- 
son, and from it was issued the Anti-Monopolist. 


The first newspaper established in this county was 
published at Mt. Carmel, 1834. It was called the 


The press and material was brought here by Horace 
Roney, who after publishing it for about one year, died, 
and it came into the possession of Edward Baker, who 
continued it until 1836. It then passed into the hands 
of Richard Beck, with B. Fieklin, as editor. Joseph 
G. Bowman, was also connected with the paper. In 1839, 
it was discontinued and the office taken to Mt. Vernon, 

The county was without a newspaper for only a short 
time, as in the fall of the same year, 1839, the citizens 
purchased a press and fitted up an office from which the 


was issued with J. S. Powers, as editor and publisher. 
At that time there were but few papers in Southern 
Illinois, and the Register had a wide circulation. It was 
a five column folio, and in politics it advocated the prin- 
ciples of the Whig party, and supported Gen. Harrison, 
in the campaign of 1840. Powers was succeeded by 
Ezra B. Meeny, a printer, who had come west with him, 
only for a short time, however, as in 1841, George B. 
Backus, took charge and conducted the paper for several 
years. He was succeeded by Frank Fuller, and he in turn 
by Fuller & Hutchinson. In 1848, W. D. Jackson 
appeared as editor, and was soon succeeded by S. S. 
Luken, who died soon afterward, and the Register be- 
came the property of Victor B. and Robert Bell, who 
increased the subscription list and published an excellent 
paper. As the brothers Bell, were divided in political 
views, the paper was allowed to float in an independent 
channel. In 1852, they sold the paper and office to 
Theodore S. Bowers, who, although a practical printer, 
was not a success. During the late war, Bowers became 
a colonel in the regular army, and adjutant on Gen. 



Grant's staff, and was killed on the railroad near West 
Point, in 1866. He was succeeded in the Register by 
Frank C. Manly, with Judge Green, as political editor, 
who made the Register a Republican organ. Manly j 
died in 1862, and George W. Douglas took the paper | 
and made it a Democratic sheet, supporting McClellan ; 
in the campaign of 1864. Before the close of the con- j 
test Douglas died, and it was sold to Richard Beck, who j 
again wheeled it into the republican ranks. Jn 1867, > 
the office and paper was sold at public auction for $250 | 
Judge Green being the purchaser. B^ck still continued 
to publish the paper, until it was sold to J. P. M Calvo, \ 
the publisher of the Democrat. The press and a portion 
of the type were subsequently sold and shipped to Iowa. 

In 1868, Messrs. Cope and Wade, two young printers, 
from Olney, brought an outfit here and re-established 
the Register. They soon sold out to C. I. Wilmans, who 
run the paper until 1870, when it was purchased by 
T. J. Groves, who returned it to Wilmans within a few , 
weeks. The next year John H. Wilmans became a j 
partner. In 1872,6. I. Wilmans, sold his interest to 
Frank W. Havill, and the firm of Wilmans & Havill, 
continued to publish the paper for about three and a 
half years. August 27th, 1872, the office was totally 
destroyed by fire, but was immediately re-established, 
only two issues of the paper being missed. It re-ap- 
peared as an eight column folio. In 1875, Frank W. 
Havill, became sole owner of the Register, and in 1878 ) i 
made it an exponent of the Democratic party. 

Under the management of Mr. Havill, the paper has 
taken new life, and now ranksamongthe leadiugjournals ! 
of southern Illinois. He is a strong, forcible writer, and 
an excellent newspaper manager. 

The next journalistic venture after the Register, was the 


started by W. D. Latshaw in 1840. It existed about 
one year. About the same date as above, J. S. Powers, 
published a small sheet called 


Its candle of life speedily flickered out. 
In 1844, Valentine Miller, issued a little political ] 
paper known as 


Its existence was very brief. 


was established in 1844, by W. E. Latshaw, who con- 
tinued its publication for about two years, when Austin 
Brooks and Fiuney D. Preston purchased it. They 
were inexperienced and soon failed to issue the paper 
and the office was sold and moved to Shawneetown. 

In 1860, a new press was purchased, the old name 
revived and Jacob Zimmerman installed as editor. 
Under his short administration the paper was ably 
edited. He was succeeded by G. W. Besore, who w 
killed in a political fight by Hiram Stan ton, in 1863. 
James T. Costello, was next in the editorial chair, and 
had a good paper. The Democrat existed until 1878, 
and during that lime made n:auy changes, having had 

at least a dozen different owners. Messrs. J. & G. W. 
Hanna, who were at one time proprietors, for about 
four years, brought the paper up to the standard country 
journal, and made it a prosperous institution. 

In 1878, it died a natural death under the management 
of J. C. Hinckley, and the office was moved to Harris- 
burg, Illinois. 

During the " Blue Ribbon Movement" in 1878, Messrs. 
Grossman & Scafer, published a monthly paper called 


but the "movement," being irresponsive and not 
materializing to the extent desired by its too sanguine 
and mistaken supporter, soon collapsed. 

The last venture for journalistic favor was the estab- 
lishment of the 


in 1878. Its founders were Richard H. Brown and his 
father, who brought the press and material here. They 
did not make a success and soon retired, the paper pass- 
ing into the possession of J. F. Wilmans, who purchased 
new material, refitted the office and continued to publish 
the paper until January llth, 1883, when Thomas L- 
Joy purchased it and assumed the position of editor 
and publisher. Mr. Joy is an experienced newspaper 
man, having been connected with some of the leading 
journals in southern Illinois. The name of the paper 
expressed its political tone. In April, it was made an 
eight column folio, and the paper presents a neat typo- 
graphical appeareme. Judging from the motto, " We 
are here to stay," and the evidences of prosperity and 
industry plainly observable around the office, we have no 
doubt that the Republican is destined to be one of the 
prominent institutions and industries of Mt. Carmel. 
The history of the press of Edwards, Lawrence and 
Wabash counties, has been briefly traced. They have 
been fairly representative of the progress and have 
kept pace with the business growth of the country. It 
has numbered among its workers men of culture and 
literary ability, several of whom afterward occupied 
positions of high honor and trust in the states of their 
adoption. The influence and character of the county 
papers have grown with the material and intellectual 
growth of those they have represented. No industry 
can show a better record or number more patient or en- 
thusiastic workers. To them more than any other class 
belongs the honor of building up the reputation that 
Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash counties possess and in 
which they delight. 



[HE precursor of this conflict was the Winne- 
bago war, an affray which occurred in the 
summer of 1827. At this period a great 
many adventures, attracted by the lead- 
mines at Galena, visited the Wiunebago country and 


purposely provoked hostilities, as a pretext for taking 
their lands by reprisal. The Winnebagoes, in what they 
deemed their wrongs, enlisted the sympathies of the 
Sioux, who were waiting an opportunity of redressing 
grievances, which they claimed to have suffered at the 
hands of the Americans. The principal hostile demon- 
stration was an attack upon a keel-boat returning down 
Rock river from a trip, carrying supplies to Fort Suell- 
ing. It had touched on its way up at the Winnebago 
camp, and carried away a number of squaws. Its return 
was watched for, and while a desperate attack was made 
upon it, it became grounded, and the crew were in im- 
minent peril. The squaws escaped to their infuriated 
lords, and the boat succeeded in dislodging itself and 
making its way down the river. This occurrence spread 
great alarm among the people, and, in pursuance of an 
order from Gov. Edwards, the miners at Galena were 
formed into companies and equipped for action. General 
Atkinson, with six hundred regulars, and the Galena 
militia under General Dodge, penetrated the enemy's 
country and compelled the savages to sue for peace. 
Among the captured were Red Bird, chief of the Sioux, 
and Black Hawk. The former had been the friend of 
the whites till incited to hostilities by the Winnebagoes. 
The latter, in the war of 1812, offered his services to the 
Americans, who declined them from motives of humanity. 
He was born at the principal village of his tribe on Rock 
river in 1767. Possessing no hereditary rank, he rose 
to the dignity of a chief by the native vigor of his char- 
acter and his success in war. To Gen. Gaines' inquiry 
in council : " Who is Black Hawk ? Is he a chief, and 
why does he sit in counc ; l ?" he replied : " I will tell 
you who I am. I am a Sac. My father was a Sac. I 
am a warrior, and so was my father. Ask those young 
braves who have followed me in battle, and they will 
tell you who Black Hawk is. Provoke our people to 
war and you will learn who Black Hawk is." 

By the treaty of 1804 the Sacs and Foxes ceded to 
the United States all land lying between the mouth of 
the Illinois and of the Wisconsin rivers. By a pro- 
vision of this treaty, so long as these lands remained the 
property of the United States, the Indians were to enjoy 
the liberty of occupying them. In the year 1829 the 
government disposed of some land at the mouth of Rock 
river, and thus, according to the treaty, extinguished 
the Indian title. In 1830 a treaty was made, in accord- 
ance with whose provisions the Indians removed from 
the lands they had sold and retired across the river. At 
this time Keokuk and Black Hawk were the two prin- 
cipal chiefs of the Sac and Fox nations. In accordance 
with the treaty stipulations, Keokuk remained across the 
river. Black Hawk, however, actuated no doubt to 
some extent by a genuine love of the land and village 
home of his fathers, but principally by ill-will toward 
the Americans, intensified by the intrigues of a Wiune- 
bago chief, who assured him of the assistance of the 
tribes along Rock river, recrossed the Mississippi in the 
spring of 1831 with his women and children and three 

hundred warriors. Depredations on the part of the Iii- 
i dians were quite frequent, and the executive of the state 
\ was applied to for protection. General Gaines, with six 
companies of United States troops from the Jefferson 
barracks, four having been ordered from Prairie Du 
! Chien, proceeded to Fort Armstrong, and on the 7th 
| of June held a council with the Indians, in which Black 
Hawk asserted that they had never sold them lands, and 
were determined never to abandon them. Gaines imme- 
diately applied to Governor Reynolds for volunteers. 
Sixteen hundred were soon in marching order, and an 
j expedition was made to the mouth of Rock river. The 
i Indians had fled and were encamped across the Missis- 
sippi. Gaines sent an order to Black Hawk, requiring 
I him and his band to return and enter into a treaty of 
peace. This order, after much reluctance and delay, on 
the 30ih of June the renowned warrior obeyed. 

On the 6ih day of June, 1832, Black Hawk and his 
band, induced by White Cloud, the prophet of the Win- 
nebagoes, re-crossed the Mississippi and ascended the 
Rock river to the county of that tribe, ostensibly for the 
purpose of planting a crop of corn with them. His real 
intentions, however, were to re-possess himself of his an- 
cient patrimony, and to this end he intended to make 
allies of the Winnebagoes, Potawattomies and other 
! northern tribes. For in the winter of 1831-32 he had 
j manifested dissatisfaction, and displayed much zeal in 
' his efforts to obtain recruits. He had swelled the uum- 
; ber of his warriors to five hundred, embracing the pride 
I and chivalry of the nation. When it became known 
j that he had re crossed the river, great alarm spread 
among the settlers, and frequent petitions for protection 
were received by Governor Reynolds, who determined 
to call out a large body of volunteers. 1800 men ac - 
cordingly met at Beardstown, the place of rendezvous' 
: and were organized into brigades and placed under the 
| c >mmand of Gen. Whiteside by Gov. Reynolds, who also 
participated in the campaign. After organization, the 
State troops marched to Rock river, and united with 
i the regulars under the command of General Atkinson. 
On the 9th of May the army commenced its march up 
the river in pursuit of the enemy, arriving at Dixon on 
the morning of the 12th. The principal event of this 
campaign was the battle of Stillman's Run, May 14th, 
1 in which a reconnoitring party, under Major Stillman, 
j was defeated. On the night of the battle, Governor 
! Reynolds, as commander-in-chief of the Illinois militia, 
j made a requisition for two thousand additional troops 
to rendezvous at Beardstown and Hennepin early in 
I June. Dissatisfaction and demoralization appeared 
| among the State troops of the army, and May 27th they 
were discharged by Governor Reynolds. This ended 
the second campaign, without effecting any important 
j results. 

i At the time these troops were mustered out, at the 
: suggestion of General Atkinson, Governor Reynolds 
i called for a thousand additional troops to enhance the 
' previous levies, and a thousand to guard the frontier. 



A regiment was raised from among the disbanded troops 
to guard the more exposed settlements until the new 
levies could be made available. One of the companies ) 
under Captain Snyder, became engaged in a severe skir- 
mish with a body of seventy Indians, at Kellogg's Grove. 
On the 6th of June Black Hawk and one hundred and 
fifty warriors made an attack upon Apple river fort, a 
stockade situated near the present village of Elizabeth. 
The Indians, after an unsuccessful attempt of fifteen hours 
to take the fort, defended by twenty-five men, departed, 
loaded with spoils taken from the village and vicinity. 
Other depredations were committed before the levies 
could be brought together and officered. Organization 
was effected on the 16th of June at Fort Wilburn, on 
the south bank of the Illinois river, the men electing 
their own officers. They were received into the United 
States service by General Atkinson, who acted as com- 
mander-in-chief. On the 17th, Colonel Dement and his 
battalion were ordered to Dixon, preceding the main 
army. He took a position in Kellog's Grove at the 
block house. Near this point Black Hawk and his 
three hundred naked warriors drew a reconnoitering 
party into an ambuscade, and pounced upon them from 
a bushy ravine with yells and savage fury, killing five 
men before they could make good their retreat to the 
fort. The result was the battle of Kellog's Grove. The 
block house fort was vigorously attacked for nearly an 
hour, the force within returning the fire with such ra- 
pidity and precision that the assailants retired, leaving 
nine of their number dead on the field, and conveying 
others away with them. 

Early in July, Gen. Atkinson having heard that 
Black Hawk had fortified a position in southern Wis- 
consin, started thither for the purpose of bringing on a 
general engagement and terminating the war. Eight 
weeks were spent in marches and countermarches, result- 
ing in a fruitless attempt to find the enemy. This con- 
dition of things resulted largely from the perfidy of the 
Winnebago guides to whom the army trusted. At the 
Burnt Village, on the White Water branch of Rock 
river, Gen. Atkinson ordered the army to disperse for 
subsistence. A council of war, however, convened, and 
it was unanimously agreed by the officers present that 
it was necessary under the existing exigencies to disre- 
gard the orders of Atkinson. Gen. Henry set to work 
at reorganizing his brigade, and fitting it for the de- 
mands of rapid marching. Having previously quelled 
a mutiny among the volunteers, a circumstance making 
the turning point of the entire campaign, on the loth 
of July, he set out ; his brigade then numbering six 
hundred men, and soon fell upon the trail of Black 
Hawk and his band, which from starvation, exhaustion 
and sickness, they could no longer conceal. They were 
overtaken at the Wisconsin bluff, and there was achieved 
the first important victory of the campaign, with a loss 
of one mail killed, and eight wounded. The Indians 
left one huudred and sixty-eight of their warriors dead 
on the field, while a number of wounded were found in 

their trail. Night came on and it was not thought pru- 
dent to pursue them into the bottom, whither they had 
taken refuge in the tall grass and dense forest. They 
crossed the Wisconsin and made their way toward the 
Mississippi, followed by the entire army under Gen. 
Atkinson. On the morning of the second of August, 
the army reached the bluff of the Mississippi. The In- 
dians having reached the margin of the river, a little 
below Bad Axe, some time before, were making prep- 
arations to cross. While they were thus situated, the 
steamboat Warrior, Captain Throckmorton, disregarding 
the white flag raised by the Indians, a course which was 
severely criticised, discharged into their midst a six 
pounder, loaded with canister, followed by a severe fire of 
musketry. Twenty-three of the Indians were killed and 
a number wounded. Shortly after this, General 
Atkinson arrived and commenced a general engagement. 
By a feint the main body of the army was drawn aside 
and while it was moving up the river, the Indians were 
discovered by Henry's men who through the jealousy of 
Atkinson had been placed in the rear, charged upon 
them, completely routing and pushing them into the 
river. The battle ended in a general carnage, but few 
of the Indians escaping, among them their leader, the 
renowned Black Hawk. This bloody scene closes the 
war, in which many of the brave sons of Edwards, Law- 
rence and Wabash participated and played a gallant part. 
Believing that it will be of interest to our many 
readers, we append a list of the names of the men who 
served in the Black Hawk war from these counties. 


Third Regiment Second Brigade, of Illinois Mounted 
Volunteers, called into the service of the United States, 
on requisition of General Atkinson, by the Governor's 
proclamation, dated May 15, 1832. This Company was 
organized and their officers commissioned May 5, 1832. 
Mustered out August 15, 1832, by order of Brigadier 
General Atkinson. 

Men fr im Edwards C!ounty. 
Captain champion S. Marding. 

First Lieutenant William Curtis. 

Second Lieutenant Thomas Sanders. 



James Hunt 

Mitchell, William 

James Edmonson 
James Ellison 
John Edmonsou 

Mounts, Stephen 
Pixley, Lewis 
Russell, Kobert 


Rutherford, Josiah 
Shelhy, David 

Samuel Edmonson, 2d. 

Shelby, E. 

Sames L B. 

Bogwood, David 
Cooper, John 
Garland, Joseph 
Greathouse, David 

Shores, William 
Spring Henry 
Sterrit, John 

A detachment mustered out of service at Fort Dixon, 

under command of Capt. Jordan, of the Second Regi- 

ment, Second Brigade. 

Men from Edwards County. 


Lav, Joshua 

Will-oil. V,li'iaii,':M. 
Bengaman, William, 4th. 

Madding, Robert 
M.-Kin,,,.,-, Alfred 
Moore, Harrison 
Mnvs, Matthew 

Drury, John 

SloUhV, ' 
Sli.'H.V, .l..llilfh:lll 

Thread, B 


Thread, Jame? 

Bennett, James 

Underwood, Alexander 
\V;m-en, William B. 



No rations, otly as privates, drawn by any commis- 

Johnston, Ahner 

Pollard. Edwin 

i;;M\linLrs Nat'-an 

sioned officer in my company; only one half-bushel of 

ti'k'lm"-',' w'ilHamson 
ellams, Gideon 

lii.-l.ards. Newton 
Small, Thomas H. 

corn diawn by each msn durirg the time of service; 

Lawler, William 
I -u'ki'v John O 

Seeds, William 

only one half-gallon of spirits drawn by the company ; 

Lackey', Thomas 
Neil James 

Willi'im- John 

not one pound of baggage hauled or packed for any 

ivi kins, Thomas 

Young, Jacob 

commissioned officer in my company. This company 
was ordered to rendezvous at Hennepin, June 10, and 
arrived the llth, and was mustered into service the 

Detachment of Capt. Barnes' company 2d Regiment, 
2d Brigade of Illinois Mounted Volunteers. This com- 
pany was organized in Lawrence county, Illinois, May 

19th " Captain S o,omon Hater's Company * 2. Mustered OUt AugUSt 15, 1832. 

Of Third Regiment Second Brigade of Illinois Mounted S S S^-Dan'ie^Mo^k 

Volunteers, called into the service of the United States Sergeants. 

Gaddy, James 

on the requisition of Gen. Atkinson, by the Governor's Thoma; M* Doriaid, zd. 

Montgomery, John 

proclamation, dated May 15, 1832. This company was corporal. 

Jloaler, Pev'ton 
McCleave, Benjamin 

organized in the county of Edwards May 5, 1832. Mus- 

James Buchanan 

Organ, Daniel 
Lewi-- Thomas T 

tered out August 15, 1832, by order of Brigadkr-Gen. 


Pollard, James W. 
Richards, Joshua 

Atkinson. Bass^ "Miehard 

Turner, Thomas I. 

Crews, James 

Turner, John 

Men from Edwards County. 

Christy, Joseph B. 

Turner, E. D. M. 

Captain Solomon Hunter. 

Dnnlap, Samuel 

Taylor, George W. 

First Lieutenant Wil iam Carrabaugh, 
Second Lieutenant John S. Rotrammel. 

Gullaher, Bonapart waiaen, .jonn 

This company was organized in Lawrence county, 


Former, John 

Illinois, on Monday, May 5, 1832; marched from ^iere 

Thomas .Taggers 
Joseph MeCreary 

Hamilton William 

June 2, 1832; arrived in Springfield June 9; mustered 

John Hocking 
John Brown- 

Hen-lev. Charles 

into U. S. service June 19, 1832. 



Captain Jonn Barnes' Company. 

William H. Harper 
Zach Bottinghouse 


Captain John Barnes. 
First Lieutenant Elijah Mays. 

Hugh Mounts 
James, N. Harper 

Met. rose. William 
Michels, Summer 

James McNabb 

Moore, ^rfCd 8 ' 

Morris, Allies 

Samuel Mundle 

Mulling, John B. 

Bottinghouse, Daniel 

Miffln, William 

William Mase 

Organ, Daniel A. 

Birkett, Thomas 
Batson William 

Moss, Moses 
Rice, Matthew 


Pea; Salnoel 

Birkett, Samuel 

Kobinson, John G. 

A. 8. Badollett 

Pullis, John J. 

Charles, Solomon 

Snell, William 

Arthur Chenoweth 

Carl, John 

Skinner, Thomas W. 

Joseph F. Darr 

Curtis, George 
Chism, Elisha 
Podd, Milton 
Dorothy, Robert 

Tiuscott, William 
Thompson, Francis B. 
Tait, John 
Vincent. James 

Barnes Silas 
Bush, John 

Ruark, William F. 
Stewart, Joseph 
Strother, Pendleton 
Thompson, Jamesf 

Everly Nimrod Vincent, Josiah 

Hunter, John T.* 

Westfall, Isaac 

EmmerRon, Alan Williams, Jonathan 

* Promoted Quartermaster July 10, 1832. 
f Wounded ; left in Hosp tal at Dixon, Aug. 2, 1832. 

nois, on the 5th day of May, 1832. Marched, according 
to Governor's order, for Hennepin, June 1, 1832 ; was 
mustered into the service of the United States on the 
19th of June, 1832. Each man of the company fur- 
nii-hed tix days' rations for himself and horse. The 
officers of said company drew one ration per day in 
kind, and the officers and men drew one half-bushel of 
corn, as forage, duiing the whole campaign. 

This company was organized in Lawrence county 
Illinois, May 5th, 1832; Mustered out, August 15th, 

Captain John Arnold'* Company 

Of the 2nd Regiment, of the 2nd Brigade of Illinois 
Volunteers, called into the service of the United States, 
on the requisition of Genl. Atkinson, by the Governor's 
proclamation dated May 15th, 1831. Mustered out 
August 15tb, 1832. This company was organized in 

Captain Abner Greer'g Company, 

Wabash county, May 12th, 1832. 

Spy Battalion of Illinois Mounted Volunteers, called 

Me1> from Wabash County. 
Captain John Arnold. 

into the service of the United States on the requisition 

First Lienlennnt George Danforth. 
Second Lieutenant Samuel Fisher.* 

of Gen. Atkinson, by the Governor's proclamation, 


Hull, Philip 

dated , 1832. Mustered out August 15, 1832. 

Mitchel C. Minnis 
Hiram Couch 

Hovt, Jonathan S. 
Hobbert, Henry 

Men from Edwards County. 

Mathias Leather-land* 
John A. Dobbs* 

Keen, Dennis 
M ', Barton S. 

Captain Abner Greer. 


McMillen, James 
Ochletrec, John 

First LUuttnfintDnvid D. Marney. 

Solomon Frear* 

Parmenter, Isaac 

Second Lieutenant Aaron Wells. 
Serqeant,. Baird, James 
Ehenezer Z. Ryan Bajfd, P otor B - 

John Golden* 
Ira Keen* 
Wesley Wood* 

Rideefv, William 
Reel, Henry R. 
Sanford, Thomas 
Sanford, Jacob 

A^sndr e H. Gilmore R"<^ y ' o J n Oi ' hua 

Besley, James* 

Smith, John 0. 
Turner 4bner 

Corporals. Evans, William 

Buchannan, John W. 
Buehannan, Joseph O.* 

Utter, John 
Vanderhort Philip 

James Gadd^ , Fv'te^i'o'ses 1 

Buchannan. Henry R.* 

Woods, Jeremiah 

Jeremmh Cawthorn j?\"}'i' lo'V "* *"' 
Thomas J. England cm\'sp'i'eY\Villiam 
"- Gibbons. Harvey 
Andrews, Silas Jenadv, Joseph 
Blizard, Thomas Jacknian, Bazel 

Brines, Jeffer-on 

Golden, William 
* Absent 

Wear, Thomas 
Wear, Harvey 
Winders. Warren 
Wright, Robert 

ffith leave. 





t of Captain Ellas Jordan'! Company, of the ! 

m ant, 2d Brigade. Enlisted for 90 days. Mounted Volunteers. 
Crtj>fa;-Elias Jordan. 
First Lieutenant James Kennerly. 
Second Lieutenant John K. Barnett 
James Grayson, 4th 

Zach Wilson, 2d 



Carlton, Robert 

C:impli.-ll, Ui.biTt 
Campl-ell, Patrick S. 

August 2nd, 1832, when 
Dixon's Ferry, Illinois. 

Men from Wabash County. 

Adjutant Isaac Parmenter, Adjutant 2d Regiment, 2d Brigade. 
First Lieutenant Samuel Fisher. 

South; the former holding that the Union was inviolable 
and that the federal government was supreme, the latter, 
that each individual state was supreme, and had a 
right to withdraw, by virtue of its sovereign power, from 
what they deemed a mere federal compact. 

The anti-slavery principles of Mr. Lincoln and the 
party that elevated him to power, were well known, al- 
though he had openly declared against the right of the 
government, and his own intention, of interfering with 
the institution of slavery, where it already existed. His 

! election to the presidency, however, was construed by the 
cotton-states as a blow at that institution. Seldom in a 

the command of Isaac Parmenter, Adjt. Second Regi- | nation's history has any one been placed under circum- 
ment Second Brigade, from the day of its enrollment to j stances go trying as those attending Mr. Lincoln's in- 
mustered out of service, at j auguration, although he fondly hoped, until the first 
| shot fell on Sumter, for a settlement of difficulties with- 
out resort to arms. The South had been emboldened 
and encouraged in rebellion by the reticence and inac- 
tivity of President Buchanan. The treasury was empty, 
the forts and arsenals were in possession of the enemy, 
and they had shot back at the Union, after having left 
it. This condition of things and this course of conduct 
inspired all patriotic hearts, and citizens of every class 
the farmer, the mechanic, the student, the professional 
man, renounced all distinction of education, fortune or 
birth, and walked in the common ranks of patriotism, in 
defense of our insulted flag. 

The first blood of the war was spilled in Baltimore, 
while the Massachusetts regiment of volunteers was 
passing through that city, three of its members falling 
dead at the hands of the mob. The first regular battle 
was that of Bull's Run, June 21st, 1861. The last en- 
! gagement took place at Boro Chico, May 12th, 1865, two 
days after the capture of Jefferson Davis, at Irwinsville, 
j South Carolina, by General Wilson's cavalry. The first 
aval battle of importance was the action between the 

Matthew Leatherland 

Jaquess, W.^P. 

John A. Dodds 
Solomon Frair 

Beauchamp, Charles 
Gnklns'.n', Jonathan 

John Golden 

Hickev, James 

Ira Keen 
Wesllev Wood 
Biirhatiiin, .los. O. 

Wright, C. W. 
Williamson, Robert 
Ficklin, O. B. 
Ochletree, John 

Buchanan, Henry R. 
Beslev, .lumen 
Blgley, William 
li. ..1,1s. Joseph M. 

Reel, Henry R. 
Smith, John O. 
Turner, Abner 

Goddy, John 
Garner, Jmes 

Vanrli-rhotf, Philip 
Wear, Thomas 

G..M"ii. William 
ll.ivl. Jonathans. 
MrMullen, James 
Miller, Barton S. 

Wear, Harvev 
Hawkins, Tilford 
Fortney, Richard 


This conflict was inaugurated April 12 1861, by the 
storming and reduction of Fort Sumter, December 20th, 
I860. South Carolina had passed an ordinance severing 
her connection with the Union. She was followed in 
her example successively by Mississippi, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas, prior to the es- 

Confederate batteries at Charleston, South Carolina, and 
the steamboat, Star of the West, when the latter was 
driven out to sea, January 9th, 1861 ; the last was that 
between Porter's fleet and the batteries, at Fort Fisher, 
North Carolina, January 13th, 1865. April 9th, of this 
year, General Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court- 

tablishment of any form of government. February 4th, j House, Virginia, and arranged the terms of the latter's 

1861, one month prior to the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln, surrender, which subsequently followed. The surrender 

delegates from six of these states met in convention at j of General Johnston to General Sherman took place at 

Montgomery, Alabama, and formed the "Confederate Raleigh, North Carolina, April 2:ith, 1865. 

States of America," and established their place of meet- I Then closed the most sanguinary and at the same time 

ing as the seat of the new government. On the 8th of the most glorious conflict that the historian has ever 

the same month, Jefferson Davis was chosen president, j been called upon to record. The sentiment of patriotism 

and Alexander H. Stephens vice-president. The seat of never before so strong in any people, was shared by the 

government was afterward removed to Richmond, Vir- citizens of Edwards, Lawrence and Wabash counties, and 

ginia, after the secession of that State. This course of readily did they leave their occupations and pleasant 

conduct, on the part of these states, and those that follow- \ homes for the hardships, privations and dangers of the 

ed them in the act of rebellion, was brought about by | battle field. The names of these patriotic men appear 

sectional interests, of which the institution of slavery was, ! below under the heads of the commanders to which they 

directly or indirectly, the cause. Two methods of inter- ] respectively belonged. 

preting the constitution of the United States originated Lawrence county deserves special mention, as having 

between the statesmen of the North and those of the tendired the first company in the state to Gov. Yates, 


under President Lincoln's first call for 75,000, three 
months' men. This tender was made byMaj. Daniel L. 
Gold, now of Washington, D. C., on Sunday, April 
17th, 1861, at 10 P. M., from Vincennes, while the proc- 
lamation was yet passing over the wires. 

7th Infantry. 


Kecniti Baltzell, Henry H. (Lawrence County), vet, M. O. July 9, 1865. 
Mushrush, Eli (Lawrence County), vet., M. O. July 9, 1865. 

8th Infantry. Three years' service. 

Drafted and SubttUiUe Recruit Bains, Charles W. (Lawrence County), mus- 
tered out Sept. 26, 1865. 


Drafted and Substitute Recruits. 

Harmon, Andrew (Lawrence County), mustered out Oct. 6, 1865. 
Ramsey, William (Lawrence County), mustered out Oct. 6, 1865. 
Wolf, Henry M. (Lawrence County), mustered out Oct. 6, 1805. 

Ninth Infantry. Three years' service. 

The Ninth, in which Lawrence county was represent- 
ed as the accompanying Roster will show, was one of the 
six regiments, organized at Springfield for three months 
service. It was mustered into the United States service 
for three years, July 26th, 1861, about five hundred three 
months' men having re-enlisted. After a number of 
expeditious, marches and small engagements, on tha 12th 
day of February, 1862, eight companies entered the 
fight at Fort Done'son, sustaining a loss of thirty-five, 
killed and one hundred and sixty-six, wounded and six 
prisoners. At Shiloh April 6th and 7th, it lost sixty- 
one, killed, two hundred and eighty-seven wounded, and 
two prisoners. Out of twenty-six officers, twenty-one 
were killed or wounded. At Corinth October 3d and 
4th, it lost nineteen -men killed, eighty-two wounded 
and fifty-two prisoners. During its entire term of 
service, it participated in one hundred and ten battles 
and skirmishes. It was mustered out of service at 
Louisville, Ky., July 9th, 1865, and arrived at Camp 
Butler July 12th, for final payment and discharge 



Mminan Edward Stephen (Lawrence County), mustered out Aug. 20, 1864 

erhals, Godfrey (Lawrence County), died Nov. 18, 1861. 
Bruening, William (Lawrence County), died Oct. 1, 1861. 
Erbar, George (Lawrence County), mustered out Aug. 20, 1804. 
Fray, John A. (Lawrence County). 

Herbig, William (Lawrence County), mustered out Aug. 20, 1804. 
Hugenburg, Frederick (Lawrence Co.), died Oct. 12, '62; wounds. 
Jacob, Christian (Lawrence County), mustered out Aug. 20, 1804. 
Klingenburg, William (Lawrence Co.), killed at Shiloh Apr. 6, '62. 
Lehr, George (Lawrence County), killed at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Lippert, Frederick (Lawrence Co.), killed at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Mueller, John (Lawrence County). 
Mill.T, William (Lawrence County). 
Nadler, Andreas (Lawrence County). 
Randall, Stephen (Lawrence County), died Aug. 6, 1802. 
Randall, Jacob (Lawrence County). 

Richter, Henry (Lawrence County), killed at Shiloh April 6, 1862. 
Roehrwiem, William (Lawrence County), M. 0. Aug. 20, 1864. 
Schenck, Charles (Lawrence County), M. O. Aug. 20, 1804. 
Spohule, John (Lawrence County). 
Tungeman, John (Lawrence County), killed at Corinth Apr. 6, '62. 

16th Regiment Infantry. 


Kecruiti Daniels, James (Lawrence County), disch. July 2, '65 ; disability. 
Ross, John (Lawrence County). ^ 

White, Thomas B. (Lawrence County); was prisoner; mustered 

out Aug. 10, 1865, as sergeant. 
White, James A. (Lawrence County); was prisoner ; mustered 

out Aug. 19, 1805, as corporal. 


Privates Irving, Corban W. (Lawrence County), mustered out Aug. 19, 1805 
Parrott, John L. (Lawrence County), disch. Aug. 7, '65; disability. 

Eighteenth Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

This Regiment was organized under the Ten Regiment 
Act, at Anna, Illinois, and mustered into the State 
Service, for thirty days, by Captain U. S. Grant, May 
16, 1861. May 28, 1861, it was mustered into the 
United States Service, by Captain T. G. Pitcher. Was 
engaged in the three days' battle, at Fort Donelson, 
with a loss of fifty men killed and one hundred and fifty 
wounded. Took part in the engagement of Shiloh, 
April 6th & 7th, los'ng ten killed and sixty-five wounded. 
Companies H. and C. were so reduced in numbers after 
the battles, that they were consolidated with the re- 
mainder of the regiment. During the Shiloh battle was 
in General Oglesby's brigade. In the fall of 1862, two 
new companies were raised at Carbondale. Company K 
was transferred to the Mississippi Marine Brigade, per 
special order, "No. 69, War Department, February 11, 
1863." The regiment was mustered out, December 16, 
18"5, at Little Rock, Ark. aud on the 31st received final 
payment and discharge, at Camp Butler, Illinois. 


Private! Evans, William (Edwards Co.), mur. by R. DickermanSep.30,'61. 

Filkey, William H. (Wabash County). 

Loten, Joseph (Edwards County), discharged Jan. 21, 1863. 

Litherland, Samuel (Wabash County), vet., promoted Qjiarter- 
master-sergeant on consolidation ; mustered out Dec. 16, 1865. 

Pickering, George (Wabash Co.), klld. at Ft. Donelson Feb. 1 r.. Y,.'. 

Stevenson, A. J. (Wabash County), sergt.-vet , M. O. Dec. 16, 1865. 

Woodrup, John (Edwards County), trans, to V. R. C. Oct. 9, 1863. 
Veterans Brinn, John O. (Wabash County), mustered out Aug. 23, 1865. 

Rice, Andrew J. JWabash County), mustered out Dec. 16, 1803. 
Recruit Hockey, William.(Edwards County). 

18th Infantry Reorganized. Three years' service. 


Private Laird.'Satnuel (Wabash County), mustered out Oct. 24, 1865. 

Private*-- Biggerstaff, Wesley (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. 16, '65. 
Golden, James (Edwards County). 

Hawthorne James E. (Edwards County), mustered out Deo. 16, '65. 
Hays, Arthur M. (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. 1, 1865. 
Harkrider, John (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. 1C, Is:.:.. 
Lechner, William C. (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. 16, '65. 
Little, James M. (Edwards County), mustered ou Dec. Hi, Is.,:,. 
Loyd, James D. (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. Hi, lsc.r,. 
Land, John A. (Edwards Co.), died at Little Rock, Ark., July 29, '65. 
Milspaugh, Daniel (Edwards County), mustered out June 18, 1865. 
Mabcrry, Emanuel (Edwards County), mustered out Dec. 16, 1865. 

19th Infantry. 

Vnauigncd J!,-rniits. 
Dailey, William Murphy, James Ryan, Martin Sullivan. 1'ati i.-k 



20th Infantry. 


Drafted and Subititute tfecruita-Castv, Chauncy (Wai .ash Co.), M. O. Jan. 7, '60. 
Greathouso, Irvin (Wabash County). 

aist Infantry. 

Firm Astiitcmt-Svrgeon Carl Muns ( Wabnsh Co.), reported dead Feb. 16, 1802. 
Twenty-Sixth Infantry. Three years' service. 

This regiment in which the counties of Edwards, Law- 
rence and Wabash are well represented, was mustered 
into United States service with seven companies, at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, August 31st, 1861, and not hav- 
ing been armed, at first did guard duty at Quincy with 
hickory clubs. During the fall armed with old English 
Tower muskets, it was detailed to guard the Hannibal 
and St. Joe railroad. Three more companies complet- 
ing the organization, were raised prior to January 1st, 
1862. February 19th, 1862, left Hannibal, Missouri, 
for the South, stopping at Corinth, where the regiment 
was assigned to Brigadier General J. B. Plummer's 
Brigade, Brigadier General Hamilton's Division, Major 
General Pope's Corps. 

After an active service of more than two years, four 
hundred and sixty-three, out of five hundred and fifteen 
men present for duty, re-enlisted as veteran volunteers, 
January 1st, 1864. During its four years of service, 
the regiment marched six thousand nine hundred 
and thirty-one miles, and fought twenty-eight hard 
battles, besides many skirmishes. It was permitted by 
order of the commit) ling general to place upon its 
banners, "New Madrid," " Island No. 10," " Farming- 
ton," Siege of Corinth," "luka," "Corinth 3d and 4th 
October, 1862," " Holly Springs," " Vicksburg," " Jack- 
son, Miss.," " Mission Ridge," " Resaca," '' Kenesaw," 
" Ezra Church," " Atlanta," "Jonesboro," " Griswold- 
ville," ' McAlister," " Savannah," " Columbia," " Ben- 
tonville." The regiment was mustered out of service, 
July 20th, 1865, at Louisville, Kentucky, and finally 
paid and dis charged, July 28th, at Springfield, Illinois. 

-Albert Rude, mustered out July 20, 1865. 

A. Abbott (Edwards County), M. O. July 20, 1 

1 ; disch. Sept. 19, '54 ; dis,,., v 
icharged Aug. 26, 1862 as 1st 
sergeant ; disability. 
Ctorjwrab-Ishmael Fortney (Edwards County), wounded ; discharged Oct. 

Will'iam S. Taite (Edwards County!, diseh. Jan. 23 ; disability. 

v,. Tuvlor (Edwards Couiitv), wounded at Corinth ; 
killed at Resaca May 13, ISM. 

Thomas Light (Edwards <\>.>, killed at Dallas, Ga, May 30, 1884. 
-Busket, Reiner (Edwards County), vet., died at Scottsboro, Ala., 

Bones, Thomas (Edwards County), wounded 
charged Oct. n, isr,l,:i- MTL'< ant : .Usabilit 
]'!"'!!, Saii.iK 1 .Edward (Guilty), 

nde'd ; discharged Oct. 

Deg:iu. John (Edwards Co.), died at Pt. Pleasant Mar. 28, 18f 
BwdetOD. Anderson (Edwards County), killed at Mission 

Soov'Jrs, William ' Edwards Co.), vet., mustered out July 20 
ennegan, John (Edwards County), vet., corporal, killed 

Ham" Enoch (Bdwards County). 

*D?( I- 

Barnett, Lewis i Kdwm-ds Co.), died at Hannibal, Mo, Jan. 2s, '(12. 
Glover, Kiehards iK.luanl.. County), mastered oat July 20, ixn.v 
Taylor, Harrison K. .Edwards County), mustered out July 211, Iwi.V 


mat Philip J. Spring (Lawrence Co.), scrg. July 1",'65. 
Piii(f Bimner, Joseph M. (Lawrence (;o.), disch. Sept. (t, 1XJ12; disability. 

Cantwell, Benton (Wabash County), vet, mustered out July 20, '65. 

Degilltawny, Ant ,, I Wabash Co. i, vet., mustered out JulV a) 'Ci. 

Hocking, Warren (Edwards Co.), vet, mustered out July 20, 18(1.5. 
Hocking, William H. ( Edwards County), disch. Mar. :), '03; disab. 
Hedge, William . Lawn-nee Count VI,' vet, transferred to Co (i- 

mustered out July 20, 18SIC 
Miner, George, S. (Edwards County), vet, corporal, died at home 

Spring, Phiiip (Lawrence Co.), vet,, M. O.July 20, 1865, as 1st serg. 
Recruitt Benson, Joseph C. (Edwards County), died at Savannah, Ga., 

Dec. 20, 1864. 
Blair, James (Lawrence County), killed at Colliersville, Tenn., 

Collis'on, .'lames M. i Lawrence Co.), vet, M. O. Julv 20, '65, as eorp. 
y), trans, to V. R.'C. Sept. 7, 18B2. 

Hershey, John K. (Lawrence County), vet, M. O. July 20, 1865. 
Hacking, Frank (Edwards County), 'mustered out July 20, 1865. 
Hocking, Francis M. I Edwards County! mustered out July 20, '65. 
Irwin, Samuel I. (Lawrence Co. I, diseh. Oct. 2. 1.1(12: disability. 
Krcuger, Lewis i Waba-li County), mustered out July 20, 1865. 
Shurtletf, Hereanus (Edwards County i, died at Si'. Louis Mo 

April 2. 18(12. 
Smith, William F. (Lawrence County), wounded; discharged Oct. 

2, 1862; disability. 

290i Infantry-Three years' service. 
Quarternuuter Ebenezer Z. Eyan (Lawrence County), resigned Mar. 4, 1862. 

30th Infantry .-Three years' service. 

PHvalM-Adwell, John (Wabash County), vet., discharged July 22, 1864, as 

Fisher. John B. (Waiiash County), died at Cairo Dec. 13, 1861. 
Greening, James (Wabash Co.), vet,, M. O. July 17, 1865, as sergt. 
Kenny, Lorenzo (Wabash County). 

Mekci'f'wiVl'inm D. ( (Wabash CmMi'tVl'di"cnarged O A t pril 1 14, 1 i862?'' 

Martin, Arthur (Wabash County),, liseh. Sept.. [864; term expired. 

Retherford, Martin V. (Waiiash County), vet, M. O. Julv 17, 1865. 

Ray, George W. (Wabash Co.), vet, M. o. July 17, 180:,, as corporal. 

Smith, George P. (Wabash County). 

Tungate, William (Wabash County), discharged Oct. 14, 1862. 

Taylor, George (Wabash C,,.), vet., M. (J. July 17, 1865, as corporal. 

Veach, Samuel (Wabash County., vet, mustered out .lulv IT Iwla. 

Veach, James F. (Wabash County). 

Vermillion, Charles W. (Wabash County), vet, died at Nashville 

Workman, Samuel M. (Wabash Co.). died at Cairo Feb. 10, 1862. 
Wycoti; John M. (Wabash County), discharged April 14, 1862. 
Recruits Colhorn, Frftnclfl L. .Wabash Co.), trans, to V. B. C April 27. 1864. 

Stratton, Joseph C. (Wab'nsli Co), disch. De 
wink, H. William (Wabash Co.), died at V 

Thirty-Second Infantry Three years' service. 

The thirty-second Illinois Infantry, was organized at 
Camp Butler, by Col. John Logan, and was mustered 
into the United States service, December 31st, 1861. It 
bore a distinguished part in the battle of Shiloh, April 
6th and 7th, 1862, losing forty men killed and two 
hundred wounded. Was engaged in the advance on 
Corinth, and in the battle, as a re-enforcement to Gen. 
Rosecraus, October 4th. Next day did good service at 
Matarnora, losing seven killed, and twenty -nine wounded. 
On the 8th, surprised and captured over a hundred rebel 
cavalry, at Lamar. From this time forward, saw no 
service beyond numerous marches, till June, when it 
participated in the siege of Vicksburg, July oth, march- 
ed with General Sherman's army toward Jackson, 
experiencing its most trying march, being tired and 
worn out during the siege. Early in September, captur- 
ed nine piecesof artillery at Harrisonburg, La. Novem- 
ber 24th, landed at Vicksburg. December 22d, the 
brigade advanced to Fayette, driving the enemy before 
it. January 23, 1864, returned to Vieksburg, where 
the regiment was mustered as a veteran organization, 
February 3d, started on the Meridian expedition, 
marching three hundred miles. In June, engaged in 
the siege of Kenesaw Mountain, occupying a most exposed 
position in the advance and July 5th, in the assault on 
Nickajack creek, was the first to plant its colors on the 


enemy's works. July 18th, the regiment was transfered ' 
to the Second Brigade, Colonel Logan commanding, and j 
sent to Marietta to guard the depot of supplies at that 
place. September 8th, forty-one out of a foraging party 
of fifty men were captured by the enemy, after a spirited 
resistance. October 3d, near Kenesaw Mountain, was 
attacked by the enemy in strong force, and suffered a 
loss of twelve men killed. Participated in Sherman's 
March to the Sea, and in the siege of Savannah, lost 
Captain E. C. Lawson, and four men wounded. February 
3d, 1865, waded the ice-cold waters of the Salkahatchie j 
for a distance of two miles, and after a half hour's 
skirmishing on the opposite bank, compelled the enemy 
to evacuate their line of defense. March 21st was engag- 
ed in the skirmishing line at Bentonville, N. C-, losing 
heavily. September 16th, mustered out of service at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and ordered to Camp 
Butler, Illinois, for final payment and discharge. The 
regiment traveled, while in the United States service, 
about eleven thousand miles. 

-William Ulm (Wabash County), resigned Sept 3, 1862. 

Hiram K. Wolganmt i Wabasfi C,,A M. ( i. Sept. Hi, LSI;:,. 
Corpora?* David M. Cawser (Wabash County), vol., M. O. Sept. 16, 1865. 

Robert II. M'.Neil (Wabash Countv). 

Musician -George Biedlamau (Wabash Co.), pro. Lieut, in 6th Mias. colored. 
Wa,,,,,,-Joseph Urenon JWnbash County) 

Privates Albeit/., Ubertiua (Wabash County), died at St. Louis May 2n, '62. 
Compton< Thomas (Wabash Co.). killed at Shiloh April ii, fs(a. 
' i Co), disch. April 28. ls'^: .usability. 

' Co.), M. O. Dee. :il, 1ST,: term 'expd. 
ash Coumvl, died at Holivar, Tenu, 
Oct. 11. 1802 ; wounds. 

Fuller, Samuel (Wabash County), vet., mustered out May 27, 18C5. 
Id, Thomas (Waha-h C.Hintv i, trans, to V. K. C. Sept. 1,1, 18ii:j. 
dan, John (Wabash County). 

"le prison 

Crackel, James (Wabash C 

Crane, An, I y \V. ^aba- 

Diselms, Washington iWa 

Gold, Thomas (\yabash Count>)", 'trans! to V 
Krishe'r, John'( Wabash Count))', vet., 

4, 1863 ; wounds 

June in, 1-W4; No. of grave, 1SUU. 
letchum, Philander (Wal.asli c,..\ disch. Oct. 14, 
Ic.Nair, Alfred (Wabasii Co.), M. O. Dee. HI, 1864; 
'eters, Samuel L. i Wabash County), vet , mtlstere 
Peakers, William (Wabash County), died Aug. 3, 1863, 
race (Wabash Couut.v), 41. O. Dec. 31, 18ii4; te 
, Thomas (Wabasli County), disch. April (i, 18li3; 
Peters, s, 

Pool, Ho'race (Wabash Countv), 4i.'b. Dec. 3l7l8(';4; term expired. 
Kulsford, Thomas (Wabash County), disch April .;, Is,:',; wounds. 
Sumens, William (.Vahash Co.). .if.-, Ii. Amr. 1's, 186:i; disability. 
Sanford, Daniel (Wabash County;, dfach. \pril 6, IN',:): disability. 
Wood, Nelson (Wabash County), disch. Nov. 22, lsr,2 ; disability. 
Recruit Preston, Samuel (Wabash County), mustered out June 3, 1866. 

Pi-icatet Gains, Jacob (Lawrence County), disch. June 28, 1862; disability. 

Harris, James (Lawrence . ountyi, trans, to V. 1;. C. Sept. IS, V,:l. 

Waggoner, John L. (Lawronoc County), vet.. M. l ). Sept. Hi, Isi;',. 

Wilson, James B. (Lawrence County), v t., M. O. Sept. In, 1865. 
Remits Baehe, Arthur c Law rcncc Cottntv), 'mustered out Sept. 16, 1864. 

Heath, Robert (Lawrence Coumy). 

Jones, John l>. (Lawrence County) stored out Sept, 10, 1805. 

Law, Chailes L>. (Lawrence Countvi, died at Washington, D. ("., 
Mar. 17, 18H5. 

McNeece, Gomgo W. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 16, 1865. 

Mullins, James K. I idice County). 

Smith, Jonathan (Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. 16, 1865. 

unds Sept. 3, 1804. 

_ isiuned Nov. 4, 1864. 

John A. Porter, mustered out Oct. 8, 18tJ5. 

Second iteufenanf-William A. Mitchell, mustered out as sergt. Oct. 8, 1835. 
Sergeant-Scoti Brownlee, disch. Sept. 23, 1864, as private; term expired. 
Corpora/ David B. Brownlee, private, died at R Ha, Mo., Nov. 24, 1861. 
Musicians James L. Dryden, mustered out Oct. 24, 1854; wounded. 

Joseph F. Young, discharged Sept. 2:1, 1801 ; term expired. 
Pruales Allen, William S., corporal, killed at Chiekamauga Sept. 20, 1863. 
led at Cassville, Mo., April la, 1862. 

;, Jose 

Arthurs, Will 
Azdel, Williai 
' nstrong.J 

im T , killed at Stone Kiver pec. 31, 1802. 
C., .li-'-harirod An-. 2s, l.MiJ: disability. 
mes, discharged Aug. lu, 188S; disability. 
Kailes, Charles B.. discharged Sept IB, 1864 : tern, expired. 
Baird, Nathaniel T., discharged Dec,:!, is;-: difnhilitv. 
Marlon, Thomas o., discharged July 31, 1862; disability. 
Carson. Una-, ret., mustered out i let. 8, I866jiu corporal. 
Criswell, William P., vet., mustered out Oct. 8, 1865, as corporal. 
Constant, Eno, mustered out Jan. 24, 1865. 
liowell, George, discharged Sept. 24, 18(14; term expired. 
Donnell, George, vet., disch. June 2, 18H5. as corporal; wounded. 
Jiavis, James, vet., killed at Adairswllo, Ga., May 17,1864. 
Kckeison. Albert, discharged Sept. 2:1. ls.;i : 'term expired. 
Klder, James, k lied at Stone River Dec. :;l, 18>i2. 
Kduar, John B., discharged Aug. Ill, 18",:! : disability. .. 
FUner, William, corporal, died at Nashville Sept. 1, 1863. 
Godfrey, EUchard.,dled at Springfield, .'Mo., .May Hi, 1802. 
Gibson, William .M .discharged \ 14, 1862; wounds. 
Harper, Hugh W., transferred to Vet. Uesorve Corps. 
Hayes, Orlando, mu.-tered out June >, is;:,; prisoner of war. 
Haitzcil, Willi no, discharged Sept. L':;, 18(4: term 
Henderson. John R, died O.-t. In, 1S62: wounds. 

I, ism : term expired. 


en. Tli on .as, transt' Tred to V. R. C. 
j..-,.., Henrv II., \-et., mustered out Oct. 8, 1865. 
JlcCov, joiin w., must -red out (jet. u, 1864, as sergeant. 
McClanahan, Frank, transferred to V. R. C. 

MePherrin, James C., transferred to Marine Brigade at St. Louis 
McGregor, Joseph. 

McMullen, John K., discbargod Sept. 25, 1863 ; disability. 
Mitchell, William A., vet., mustered out Oct. 8, 1865, as 1st sergt. 
Moss, Jacob W., vet., killed at Adairsville. 
Munson, Ezra E., discharged Sept 2:'., is ",4; term expired.J 
Nelson.-George, died at Rienzi, Miss., June 23, 1864. 
Nichols. George W., discharged Sept. _:!, Is u ; term expired. 
Paxton, Samuel, vet., mustered "(it (let. s, is.ii, as sergeant. 
Patterson. William, died at Chattanooga Jan. 5, 1864. 
Ralston, James, vet., died at Louisville, Ky., Aug. 24, 1864. 
Shearer, William, died at Holla, Mo. Dec. 1, 1861? 
Shearer, Hugh, died at Holla, Mo., Dee. 10, 1861. 
Seholts, Kzra, died Dec. I, 18ii:i ; wounds. 
Stewart, Abraham, discharged Sept. 2:1, IS04; term expired. 

,rt, Isaac, mustered out s ,pt. 2(1: term expired. 

;pson, George V 

taff, Henry, die 
Wimmer,E Z ekiel,yt- 
Wright, S. Gamble, discharged May 19, 1863; disability. 
Becruite-Baird, Thomas F., discharged June 2, 1862; disability. 

Kitchen, John W., mustered out Oct. 8, 1865. 

Drafted aad Substitute Becruit-Evims, Robert T., sub., died at Louisville 
Mar. 1, 1865. 

Thirty-Eighth Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

The Thirty-Eighth was organized at Camp Butler, 
Illinois, in September, 1861, by Colonel William P. 
Carlin. October 21, it was engaged at Fredericktown 
against the enemy under Jeff. Thompson. March 3, 
1862, it became a part of the division of southeast 
Missouri under General F. Steele. In ten days it com- 
pleted a march of 220 miles to Cape Girardeau, Missouri, 
May, 1862. It took part in the following actions and 
skirmishes : Perryville, October 8, 1862, capturing an 

Thirty-Sixth Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

This regiment was organized at Aurora, Illinois, in 
September, 1861, by Colonel Nicholas Grensel, and j ammunition train, two caissons, and about 100 prisoners ; 
mustered into the United States service by Captain A. Knob Gap capturing two guns, and losing three men 
G. Brackett, U. S. A., September 23, 1861. It partici- j killed and eight wounded ; Stone River, December 30, 
pated in the following engagements : Boonville, Ark., i 1862, to January 4, 1863, losing 34 killed, 109 wounded, 
March 6, 1861 ; Leetown, March 7, and Pea Ridge, i and 34 missing ; Liberty Gap, June 24, 25, 26 ; Chicka- 
March 8, 186 1 ; Perryville, losing seventy-five men in ! mauga, September 19, losing 180 men. February 29, 
killed and wounded ; Stone River, from December 26, i 1864, re-enlisted, and was mustered March 16, 1864. It 
1862, till January 2, 1863, coming out of the battle with [ participated at Pine Top, and at Kenesaw Mountain. 

only 200 men; Chiekamauga, September 20 and 21, 
1863 ; Gordon's Mills, September 20, 1863. The regi- 
ment was mustered out of service October 8, 1865, at 
New Orleans, and arrived at Camp Butler, Illinois, 
October 17, for final payment and discharge. 

September 1, 1864, engaged in the battle of Jonesbor 
From that time forward it was engaged in various 
skirmishes, marches and guard duties, till it was mustered 
out of service, and ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for 
final piymeut and discharge. 



CVon-V-Edwar 1 Colyer (Edwards Co.), M. <). MI T.icut. c,.|. March 20, I sun. 
Quarto-muter William Forrman (Edwards County), M. O. Sept. 15, '.14 ; 
term expired. 

Cjmmitsary Sergeant James Scott Stone (Edwards Co.), M. O. March 20, '60. 

Captain John O'Meara (Edwards County), M. O. March 20, 1806. 

Captaim Charles Churchill (Edwards Co.), term expired Sept. 15, 1865. 

Lee Woods (Edwards Co.), M. < i. Mareh 211, 18 

Green (Edwards County), M. O. Mareh 20 
/-t&/vt-01iver 'Simpson (Edwards County), discharged No 

First LUulMomt Joseph Green i Edwards c..uii 

to accept a promotion in Id U. 8. Infantry. 

Sergeants Charles Cole (Edwards County). 

James Pettigrew (Edwards Co.i, diseh. Sept. i;,, 1865 as 1st sergt 
John Henderson (Edwards Co.,', diseh. Mav l,;,ls,;l : wounds. 8 
Morris Harris ( Edwards County), M. . I. Sept. 3U, 18114. 

Cbrporah Arbuer, I-:. Hall E.lwards Co.i', di-eh. June 27. Isiti; disaliilitv. 
Lu-iils Harris (Edwards Co.), 1st Sen.'!., diseh. April 7 Y.2 di's 
William P. Richmond (Edwards County), died at Pilot Knob, 

Andrew J. jett (Edwards Co.), died Sept. 15, 1864, as sergeant. 
Wright, Bunting (Edwards C.M. died July 28, ]x.!3; wounds. 
Thomas Sharon (Edwards County), died at Murfreesboro, .nine 


s Murry (Edwards County), killed at Chiekamauga Sept. 
19, '63. 

Privates Allen, Thomas (Edwards County), vet., M. O. March 20, 1866. 

Briscoe, Johu(Edwards County;, died at Pilot Knob Mo Xov 
24, 1861. 

H. (Edwards County), vet., disch. Jan. 

Curtis, Jafvis (E.lwards County), dis 
Ourtis, Nath 
Jhi-m, Ricf 

corporal; wounds. 
Cannon, Boggs (Edwards County), M. O. Sept. 15, 1804. 
Clark, John J. . Edwards Countv), vet. 

, . , 

Dixon, Joseph (Edwards County), diseh. Jan. 7, Ifi4; disability. 
Ewing, Aaron (Edwards Co.), Missing in a -timi at Stone Kiver." 

dgar, John (Edward.- Co.], died al I'.i.-uh.mtas. Ark., Apr. 10, '62. 

llis. Jose - 

, , . ., . 

Ellis. Joseph (Edwards < - o. I. M ( >. Sept. 21. V.j ; wounded and pris. 
Franklin, William (Edwards c...), di*.-h. Apr. H. v,2 : di.-al.ilitv. 

Gill, John ..Edwards County i, di.-d at Ham burg. I'.. June (I. I 

Horton, Richard (Edward- c.'.'i, diseh. Au-.s, is;-; disability! 
Harper, John lE.lwurds County). Mareh ,;', Is, 1:1 ; wounds. 
Harper (ieori;.- (Edward* Countv), vet. M. t K Mareh 2n, 1806. 
Harder! Joseph (Edwards County), trans. , V. R. C. Feb. 6, 1863. 
Hedge, Thomas (Edwards Co ), killed at Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 6, '64. 
Hall, Charles (Edwards County), diseh. Feb. 2", I8J3. 

, . . , . 

y, Thomas (Edwards Co.)', died at Nashville Oee. 26, 1863. 


M.-Kibben, Dudley (Edwards Co.), mustered 
McKibhen, P. ter S. (Edwards Co.), mustered 
M.-Kibheii. Luther E. 

'' * 


Sept. 15, . 

., Sept. 15, ima. 

(Edwards County), diseh. Dec. 10,1861; 

Y,4: prisoner 

Piekford, Charles (Edwards County I, died Jan. 17, 18H3; wounds. 
Powell, Cilrran (Edwards County), mustered out Sept. 15, 1864. 
Smith, Thomas (Edwards County i. mu-tered out Aug. 22, 18li4. 
Rudolph, Charles (Edwards County!, diseh. Nov. 21, '01 ; disab. 
Smith. Charles, Sr. , Edwards Countv). vet. M. O. March 20, 1806. 
Smith, Chad.-. Jr. i Edwards < 'oiinty >. vet. M. O. Mareh 20. 1H66. 
Smith, George (Edwards Co.), disch. Auu. 14, 18::|; disabili 

Shunk,Henry(kdwardsr ' ' ' 

Stanley, George i Edwanl 
Stillwe'll, John (Edwards 

BtJnnett, Ja.-'ob (Edwards Co.), died at Nashville Dec. 31, 1862. 

Snowdall, Joseph i Edwards . ,,.>. vet., M. (I. Mareh 2u, IS'Ki. 

.James 8 -ott (Edwards Co.), vet.. Pro. (J. M. Sergeant ; M. 

iwards County), vet., drowned Cumberland 

Co.), died at Murfreesbo., T., May 19, '( 
ds Co.), died at Ironton, Mo., Feb. 24, 'I 
ty), died at Andersonville; No. 

Uiv.-r, April 14, IK'U. 
Walker. William (Edwtuu, ^uuu.j 

Young, Mieha.-l (E.lwards County) ... .... _.. 

RccrMtt Aflumson, Wm.G. i Edward.- Co.), disch. Feb. -.'(I, 1862; disability. 

nty).M. 0.8eptU 

Adamson. Moses (Edwards 

Birkett, Francis, (Edwards .,.,, ,=,.. .,. <,,, ,<,,.*. ,.,, 
Brown, John . Edwards County), discharged for disability, 
liak.-r, William (Edwards Co.i, yet., M.O. Mar. 2(1, 'Wl, as corporal 
Brown, Franklin . Edward- Countyl. vet., M. O. .Mar. 2(1, I8l). 
Pukes, H.-nry (Edwards Co.), diseh. Nov. -Jl ls.,1; disability. 
Elliott, .lame- (Edward- County), vet., M. O. Mareli 2(>, I*,;.C 

Fawkes, Franklin II. (Edwards C ty). M. II. Mareli 2n, 1806. 

Fawkes, Thomas i Edwards Co.), di-eh. Feb. Hi, lsc,2; disability. 
Green, Thomas (K,lw, ' 

i Co.), vet., M.'o. March 20, 1866. 

Harper, William (Edwards County i, M. O. March 20, 1866. 
' "dwards County), diseh. lice. 12, 1864. 

.(Edwards Co.), vet., M. O. Mar. 20, '66, as 


Me, lie,-. Henry i Edwards Countyi, Di.-d 

Aug. 3. 1S04. No. ol Grave, 4,648. 
MeVoy.or MeVaughn, Nathan (Edwards Co.), died at Ooltewah, 

Ten , May 12, 1864. 

Posey, Samuel (Edwards County), M. O. Sept. 21 1861 
Robinson, John i Edwards Counly), ab-ent -i.-k al M. O. of Reg't. 
Reinus, EdL-ar (Edwards Countv), vet., M. O. March 2(1, 1806. 
Keofield, William (Edwards Conn, v,. B. O. Mareh > ,, Isr,,-, 
Snidle, John , Kdwanls County), M. (I. Mar.-l, 1-2, lso4,as corporal. 
Seotield, Edward (Edwards Countv), yet., M. (I. Mareh 2u, Isijii. 

Shilling, G -ge , EdwantoC ity), M. U. Mareh 2.1, IKIK. 

Sentence. Joseph i Edwards Co.), died in prison at Danville, Ga., 

Thompson, Willi 

Thompson, William It. i Edwards Co ). died Nov. 21, 18 1; dii 
Tucker, William A. 1 1. I Edwards Countv). Mil. March 2o Is 
1-lley, Momeville W. , Edwards County), diseh. Oct. 2.5, '62; d 
Vandevender, John (Edwards County), M. U. Jan. 2, lV" 
West, Koberl i, Edward- Collntvj, diseli. Jan. 17,1802; 
Drafted ami Stbrttute Xrcruin-Ha.krr, Tliomas, s ' 
Flaningan, 1'airi 

Jan. 4, 1866. 

Palmer, Jen-mi; 


lingan, Patrick, sub. 

genson. Am:., sub., M. (I. Jau.28, 1SD6. 
' ' rds County), M. O. 

liah M., (Edwards County), 
sub., M. C. Jan. 21, I860. 
Savage, James (Edwards County), sub. 
Winfield, Stephen (Edwards County), sub. 

Fortieth Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

Was organized by Stephen G. Hicks, of Salem, Illinois, 
and had in its ranks a number of representatives from 
Edwards and Wabash counties. At the time of its 
muster into service, August 10, 1861, it numbered seven 
hundred men. It was brigated with the 23d Indiana, 
8th Missouri, and the 9th Illinois, under command of 
Col. W. H. L. Wallace. It fought at Pittsburg Land- 
ing, April 6, 1862 ; Holly Spring, July, 1862 ; Mission- 
ary Ridge, October 1863. Having completed its three 
yeais term of service, it re-listed January 1, 1864. It 
participated in the battles of the Atlanta campaign, and 
was also with Sherman in his inarch to the sea. It was 
mustered out of service at Louisville, July 24, 1865, and 
on the 28th, at Springfield, received final payment and 

Surgeon* William Graham (Wabash County), mustered out July 24, 1865. 
Hrtt Asiiaant-Surgeun William E. Turner ( Wabasll Co.), M. O.'July 24, '65. 

Hospital Sfcraard-William P. Harvey (Lawrence Co.), M. O. Julv 24, 1865. 

Seri!tt-Samu.el T. Ulm (Wabash Co.), trans, to 1st West Tenn Inft. Jan. 

Private* McGregor, Thomas (Wabash Co.), disch. Aug., 1864, term expired 

Bisley, James (Wabasi, Co.), trans, to 1st West Tenn. tufty ..Jan 

28. 1864. 

Stanley Thomas (Edwards County). 
Stanley,' Francis (Edwards County). 

Rtciuib Baird, James (Wabash Co.), diseh.'. let. 3, 1864; term expired. 
Bargh, Joseph (Wabash County.) 

r, John C. (Wabash"co!), disch 
from Company i*. 


Sept. 4,1863; disability; 

Frank, Havill (Wabash Co.), detached"; i 
Pint Lieutenant George II. Humphries (Wabash Co ), died of wounds 

Watson'M. Uimtnn (Edwards Co.), resigned Mch. 10, '04. 
John F. E'ldiugs (Edward- Co.i. M. < I. Julv 21, 1865. 
Second LieutaunilillKnry Cra-kel (Wabash Co.), died. 

IWM Ingenoll iWal.a-h Co.), resigned Jan. 8, 1863. 
Carparalt Samuel Wells (Wabash County). 

M. Wilman (Wabash Co.). trails, to Sig. Corps October 1, 186:1. 
T. D. Keen (Wabash Co.i, veteran. 

Joseph King (Edwards Co.), disch. Feb. 16, 1863; disability. 
J. F. Eddings (Edwards Co.), veteran. 
John Dreniri (Wabash County). 
R. C. Sweat (Wabash Countv). 
Bell, William li. (Wabash Countv). 

Barnet.T. J.i Wabash Co.i, died January 20,18.51; wounds. 
Model, li. (Wabash County). 

Burrill. George ( Edwards Co.), vet, mustered out July 24, 1865. 
liuekett. J. W. i Edwards Co.), disch. Mav, 18ii:i; disability. 

Copeland. I!.iEdwardsCo.),disch.Aug.!'i,'04,ascorp'l ; termexp. 
Hale, E.M.I Edwards County). 

" 'Vitt, A. C. (Wabash Co.).'diseh. Aug. 9, 18r,4 ; term expired. 
~. W. (Wabash Co.), vet., died July ll, 11114; wounds. 
Jtered out July 24, 1865. 

Denham, B. W. (Wabash Co.i, vet., di 

Evans, John T. I Wabash Co.), vet., m 
Klli. William (Wabash County). 

Card, Reason (Wabash Coumvi, must. -red 

C.. Septe 
ut July 2 

, . 

Card, Fran.-i, , Wal.a-h County ., diseh. Feb. 16,1863; disability. 
Gardner, Henry i Wal.a-h County). 

Ham, Henry i Wabash Co.), yet., 'mustered out Julv 21, 1815. 
In-. Martin' (Wabash Co i i.-t., mastered out Julv 24, l(;'.. 
Kimball, W. T. (Wabash Co.), vet , killed at Griswoldville, Ga., 
November 22, 1804. 



Miter, Joseph (Edwards Co.), disch. Aug. 
unly, Join, <Wiil ash County), 
orsworthv, John (Wabash County). 
>r, Patrick (Wabash Count 

10,1864; term exp. 

., vet., 1 

"'wa'l"a'i;\ l; ,0, disch. At. 


Voight, William (Kdwards Co.], vet., killed mar Atlanta, Ua , 

Deuliam, .Ia 
Fonietl 1 , \\il 
Gould, T 

I'. ( County), 
lliam (Vi al ash i u.i. vet', mustered c 

it July 24, 18 

i: di.-'ahility 

(.anoilg, James D. (Kdwards (o.,, diseh. Aug. 19, I8B4; termexpd. 
Gibson, Stephen S. (Kdwards (,,.,. . ( i. July 21, 1WV1, as sergeant. 
Harris, William A. i Kdwards Co.), M. u. July 24, '6:., as sergeant, 
lligbee, William H. (\Vaba-h CJo ", niu-t,-re,i ,,nt VUK. 3d, 1864.; John H. iWaha-hCo.i. mustered out July 24, 1865. 
itchen, Rigdon S. (Kdwards Co.), vet., mustered out July 24, '65. 
Kitchen. John C.. veteran, must. 'red out July 24, 1865. 
Lilt/., George (Wahash Co.), disch. Aug. I'.i. 1x61; term expired. 
":, Samuel (Wabasl, C,..,, mustered out July - ' 
P (Kdwards County). 

Stone, William (Wabash County), - 
Tanquery, John N. i Kdwards Co.i. 
Ulm, Samuel N. (Edu ards Co.), kill 

Riide, DavidV (1 
Rice, Or ,.~ . 

''. disc April 27, .=... 

illed Kenesaw Mt., June 27, '64. 
Weaver, Gotleib (Edwards Conn tv). 
Watkins, William (Edwards County). 


Pr iKite-Finley, Andrew W. (Wabash Co.), vet., mustered out July 24, '05. 
46th Infantry. Three years' service. 


Becn<i(s Elliott, William (Wabash Co.), died at Shreveport.La., June 25, '65 
Gross, Josiah (Wabash Countv i M n Jan 20 lsr,1 
Hart, John W. (Wabash Co.), Vet. recruit. M. O. Jan. ax, 1865. 
Messenger, Theodore (Wabash ( 
Sanford, William H. (Wabash C 

47th Infantry. Re-organized. Three years' service. 


Prirola-Glikinson, Alfred W. (Wabash Countv), drafted ; disch. July 20,'65. 
Kenard, Robert (Wahash County), drafted ; disch. July 20. Is,,:,. 
Moser, Benjamin (Wabash County), drafted ; M. O. Sept, la, '65. 

48tU liifaiitrv. Three years' seivice. 

This gallant regiment had a large representation from 
Wabash county. It was oganized at Camp Butler Sep- 
t mber, 1861, by Isham N. Haynie. It fought at Fort 
Henry, February 7, 1862 ; Fort Donelson, February 13 
to 16, 1862 : Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862 ; siege of 
Corinth, May, 1862 ; Mission Ridge, November 24 and 
26, 1863 ; Kenesaw Mountain, June 10 to July 3, 1864; 
Sandstown, July 6 to 12, 1864; Atlanta, July 21, 22, 
28, 1864 ; siege of Atlanta, July 28 to August 26, 1864 ; 
siege of Savannah, December, 1864 ; South Edisto River, 
February 9, 1865; Bentonville, March 20, 1865, and in 
other engagements. It was mustered out August 15, 

Ut Aug. 15, 1865. 

:m.-Willim W. Beall, resigned March 24, 1862. 

George M. Kensipp, honorably discharged Jan. 28, 1865. 
Isaac E. Carlton, mustered out Aug. i:.. '186.1. 
Lieutenant Theodore S. Bowers, promoted Staff Gen'l Grant. 

William H. Murray, mastered onl Aug. 15,1865. 
Lieutenant George Kank, mustered out Feb. 15, 186*. 
Hepburn, Comrie, died Nov. 1,1862. 
William H. Brown, mustered out \iu; 15 1865 
- "-nry W. Reinsmith, disch. April 22, 186-2; disability. 

i H. Ka 

II, vet, mustered out An 
.ingenfeltcr, mustered < 

Corpora/. Benjami 

y, vet,, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
troman, died at Savannah, Tenn., April '4, 
Albert Compton, killed at Fort Konelson. Feb. 1.1, Lsiy. 

llenrv C. Sharp, trans, to S 

Robert H. Walker, vet, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Georire Aiidrus, died at .Mound City, Feb. 17, 1862. 
-Arnold, William, died at Keokuk, Iowa. April 26, 180,2. 
liaird, Thomas R., v, t., died at -Marietta. Ga., Sept. Ill, 1 
Baird, Kpl.raim p., vet., mustered out Aug. 15, 186.1, as c 
Bass, Burrell G, vet, died June 1, IMil; wound,. 

Bass, Ezekiel, mustered out Oct. 27, 1864. 

Belim, Jacob, killed near Atlanta, (.a., July 2?, 1804. 

I'.anU-. .him. > A, ret., innM.-iod ..tit AUK. i:., is.;:., as corporal. 

Brldwell, Hamon, discharged Nov.24, IMS; die biiity. 

Compton, .Markns, disoliarged April 22, 1862; disability. 

Clark, Charles, discharged April -j2, Is(i2: disability. 

Cotton, Peter, must, -re, I out Oct. 27, 1864. 

ggp" " " t0 "-"' 18M - 

Kri:.r.' l';i-n";ainin, discharu.'-d'May ii,"']s> liYdisabiii 
Gray, Ralph, vet, mustered out Aug. 15, 18U5. 

GoroioVor Compton, Vunel G, disch. April 22, 1862; disability. 
Husbrook, Paseal. oi-ciiaiKed March 28, !*,:;; wounds. 
Hill, Morris, vet, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Henry,' Abram, discharged April 23, 1862 ; disability. 
Hill, Oliver S, vet, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865, as corporal. 

___ .,_fceredout A Jime 1 3; 'wTto date Aug. 15,'c5. 
t, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Keller, Adami muster. '.lout ( let. 25, 1864. 
Melcher. Joseph F, vet.. M. <>. AUK. M, 180x1, absent sick. 
Mid. U, ton. Larner, discharged April 21, 1862; disability. 
Miller, John. \et.. mil, t. Ted out Aug. 1.1,1865. 
Montgomery, William, killed at Shiloh, April 6, 1862. 
Montgomery, Leonard, died at Camp Butler, Nov. 25, 1861. 
Motor, George, discharged June 11, 1862; disability. 
McDonald, Robeit, vet, mustered out Aug. 15.18IS. 
t, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Ivy, William C, vet, muste 
Ingram, Samuel, vet, must 
Keen, Jordan, vet, muster. 

Ogden, Joseph 1), trails, t., Signal Corps, Ml 
Ollcndorff, August, mustered out Oct._27, 1864. 

Martin, Alfred, vet, mustered out Aug. 15, 1815. 

-- --,, LSI;:,, as corpl.- absent sick. 
orps, .March 28, 1864. 

__ it. 27,1864. 

Olleiidorrt, John, mustered out Oct. 27, 1864. 

Putnam. William II, vet., mustered out AUK. l.i. 180.1, as corporal. 

Kcil, Jacob, died at c amp Butler, III, .Nov. 3, 1861. 

Rigg, Henry H, vet, mustered out Aug. 1.1, 18C.1, as sergeant. 

Rounding. John, died at 1' l.andiiiK. April 20, 1862. 

Shenenherger, Reuben, vet, died at Atlanta, Aug. 1.1, 1864, w'nds. 

Simmonds, William R, vet, killed at New Hope Church, Ga, 

June ii.1864. 
Steikiltz. Frederick. 

Sanford, Joseph, died Pitt-bur-.' April 21,1862. 
Sanford. llenjamin F, vet., killed at Atlanta, La, July 21, 1864. 
Shear,-. J,,h .. M. \ h-,or, Ga., Dec. 13, 18:4. 

Trunks. Edward C, vet, killed nc.,r Atlanta, Ga, Aug. 11, 1864. 
Turner. Daniel I-:, mastered out Oct. 27,1864. 
1'tter John vet. mustered oil! AUK. 15, 1865. 
- -Us, Robert C, vet. died at Marietta, Ga Sept. 10, 1864. 

"-- -'-charged June 26, Is.-:.:,,, 

1 to signal Corps, March 28, 1864. 
Wolfington, Samuel, vet, mustered out Aug. 25, 1805. 
Zull, Andrew, died at Cairo, Feb. 17, 1862. 
J?ecrui/ Andrews, George V, mustered out Nov. 23, 1864. 

rsoii, Jacob, vet., discharired June 25, 
l. \\ ilson, mustered oul Atm. 15, W5. 



Bredwell 1 

P.aird, John P. died at Nashville, Tenn,"july 4, 1864. 

Bosk John, dish iraWy M. o, April 2. 1865. 

Copeland. James A, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Clark, Geo. W, died Atlanta, Ga, July 21, 1864; wounds. 
Collins, Conway B, died Marietta, Ga, July 31, 1864. 
Clark, Benjamin, died Cairo, Nov. 26, 1864. 
Cout^r, James K.. died Rome, (ia, Aug. SI, 1864. 
Chapman, Robert L, died Nashville. Tenn, July 7, 1864. 
Dyer, Jame* II, mustered out AUK. 1.1,1865. 
K.'pler, Daniel I. , mastered out May 13. 1865. 
Fuller, Simpson A, mustered out Aug. 15. 1805. 
Fuller. Isaac J, muster, d out Aug. 15, 1866. 
Killer or Miller. John, mustered out Aug. 15,1865. 
llashrook, Pascal C, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Hiller, Herman, killed at Dallas, Ga, May 26, 1S64. 
Johnson, James H, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Keneipp, Edward B, mustered out Aug. 15,1865. 
KhiKsbiirv, Hiram O, died, Chattanooga, Oct. 14, 1864. 
Middleton, Jeremiah, mu.-tcicd out ioV 1.1, 1865. Abs< 
Mover, David, mustered out Aug. 15, 1805. 
Muney. W, mustered out AUK. 15,1865. 

Patton, Michael S, discharged June 21, 186.1 ; disability. 
Risley. James T, mustered out Ann. 15, 1865. 
Rigg, Thomas T, mu.-tered out Aug. 15, 180,5. 
RigK. Andrew F, mustered out AUK. 1.1, 1866. 
Risley, F-dwin. dis.-luirged May 8, 180,2; disability. 
Sapp, Alberts, musiered out Aug. 1.1, 1865. 
Sanford, Ahram, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Samomel Louis, mustered out Aug. l.i. 1865; wounded. 
Shenrer. William M . mastered out AUK. 15, 1865. 
Shaw, Samuel B, m .stored out AUK. LI, 1865. 
Showalter, William H, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Show-alter. Alfred M, mastered out AUK l.i. 1805. 
Showalter, Daniel, discharged June 26. 1865; disability. 
Bmilh, Joseph, discharged Feb 24, lie*; disability., 

, , . , . ; .. 

Smith, Frederick, discharged June 25, 1865; wounds. 

Sanford, Isaac, vet., mustered .nil Ails,'. 15, 1865. 
rim. Hichard H., mastered out Aug. 15,1865. 


Ulter, Charle- W.. died D < al Atlanta, Ga, July SO, 1864. 
Wallace, Elijah A, mu.-tered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Willman, George, muster, d out Aug. 1.1. 1865. 
Wooley. Feley W, died at, Ala, May 3, 1864. 
Wells.'Georgi'- M, di. d at K.-saea, (ia.. June 22, 1864. 

' > Bluff, Miss.. Jdly 7, 18C3. 
>ut Aug. 15, 1865, as sergeant 




Eastwood John S . mustered 
Frair, .1 ilm T , died near D -ca 
Fuller, John !!., died :it I! >me, Ua., .Inly 3, 1814. 
(Jard, Tim ithv, died at Scott boro, Al:i.', Apiil 12, 1804. 
' i?, I.'., 

June 22, ISo. 
D -catur. Ga. 

e, Ua., .Inly 3, 1814. 


(iard, Frauds, mustered out Ang, 1.-., 1865. 

Holdsou. Joseph 1!., mustered out Aug. 15, 1835.' 

Hill, William T., must ired out Vug. I.'., IS'l.'i. 

Holds,. n. Hivid, died at S lottstmro, Ala. March 2'>, 1864. 

Hallo -k, Aa-on, died at Ma IHOU, Ind., Jan. 1 1, 18 . 

Jvil, James F.. n, uttered our Aug. 1.1, 1885. 

KimbaU, Joseph L., died at K mi . (ia.. Ang. in, is",!: wounds. 

Moser, William, killed near Iiallas, (ia.. Mav 2S, 18-4. 

M ( ; ire, John D., died ai ludianap-ilis I)..;.. 2, 1804. 

Neil, An-lr >w H., died at Little |J ick, July :! I, 18J5. 

Ross or Rose, Philip, mustered out Aug. 15, 18,35. 

Reed, Wan-.-n, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Swinck, William, nvi-tore I out .Vug 15, 1865. 

Slimmerville, Henry A , died at Nashville, Teun.. June Id, 1805. 

Warren, Cliri-to .her. killed near Atlanta, (ia., July 21, 1804. 

Young, James W., mustered out Aug. 15, 1805. 


Recruit Harvey, David (Lawrence Co.), died at Scottsboro, Ala., May 5, '64. 
Forty-Ninth Infantry. Tliree Years' Service. 

This regiment, Illinois volunteers, was orginized at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, by Col. William R. Morrison, 
Dec. 31st, 1861, and on the 23d Feb. was ordered to 
Cairo, Illinois. Was assigned to the Third Brigade, 
McClernand's Division, at Fort Henry, the 8th ult., 
and on the llth moved to Fort Donelson. Engaged the 
enemy on the 13th, losing 14 killed and 37 wounded. 
Remaining at Donelson until March 4th, it moved to 
Metal Landing, and two day's later embarked for Pitt?- 
burg Landing, Tenn. Disembarked at Savannah, and 
on the 21st completed the march. 

Participated in the battle of Shiloh, losing 17 killed 
and 99 wounded. 

Moved from Bethel, Tenn., by rail, March 10th, 1863, 
to Germantown, and on the 12th to White Station, and 
was assigned to the Fourth Brigade. Nov. 10th, assisted 
in the capture of Little Rock. On the 15th, moved by 
rail via Duvall's Bluff, to Memphis, arriving November 
21st, 1863. 

January 15th, 1864, three-fourths of the regiment re- 
enlisted, and were mustered as veteran volunteers. 

On the 27th inst., marched to Vicksburg, and was 
with Major Gen. Sherman in the Meridian campaign, 
returning to Vicksburg, March 3d. Was assigned to 
Red River expedition, and on March 14th, participted 
in the capture of Fort De Russey, La.. ; April 9th, en- 
gaged in the battle of Pleasant Hill, La., and returned 
to Memphis, June 10th, 1854. 

June 21th, ordered to Illinois for veteran furlough. 
The detachment of non-veterans remained, commanded by 
Capt. John A. Logan, engaging in the battle of Tupelo, 
July 14th and 15'Ji, 1864. After the expiration of the 
veteran furlough rendezvoused at Centralia, Illinois, and 
proceeded via Cairo and Memphis to Holly Springs, and 
rejoined the command. Participated in the Oxford ex- 
pedition, and returned to Memphis, August 30th. 

Arrived at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., Sept. 30th ; 
moved thence to Franklin, and drove the enemy from 
the place ; was with the army in pursuit of Gen. Price 
through Missouri, and returned to St. Louis, Nov. 18tb, 
1864. From there it moved to Nashville, Tenn., and 
took part in that battle, December 15th. On the 24th, 
was ordered to Paducah, Ky , to muster out non-veterans, 
and thereafter the regiment did garrison duty. Was 
mustered out, Sept. 9th, 1865, and arrived Camp at But- 

ler, Illinois, Sept. 15th, 1865, for final payment and dis- 

Captain George Berz, mustered out Sept. 9, 1865. 
First /.iVudwi/ifs Simeon Spira, term expired Jan. 9, 1865. 
John Linck, mustered out .Sept. 9,1865. 
Sergeants Henrv Herwejr. mustered out Jan. !l, 1st;.-), as 1st sergeant. 

Valentine MoTe, discharged NOT. 21, 18M; wounds. 
Corporals Carl Schnlze, mustered out Jan. !i, LSI;:., as private. , 

John Link, veteran pro. 

Jacob Lehr. discharged June 24, lsi',2: disability. 

ike,-,. Nicholas, died at Cineinnat i, March 1, 18112. 

Kreiieer', Henry, died at St. Louis,' May 2^18627 "wounds. 

Mueller' William, vet., mustered out Sept. 9, 1865, as sen 
Moellman, John, discharged Oct. :i, ISU2; disabilitv. 

M.Miseii', Peter, discharged Oct. 8,1862; i 
Pctrce, John, discharged for disability. 
Peohler, .lolm, discharged Oct. 18, 18(12; 

Peohlcr J ,, discharged < 

Phoff, Tli lore, discharged net. :iu, 18i'i2: disabilitv. 

'after. Valentine, discharged Oct. 2. l.s,12; disabilitv. 

t^.iin, . 

Selfert, Frederick, mustered out Jan. 9, 1805, a corporal. 
Stempel, Bernhard, killed by falling of a tree, Nov. 12, 1864. 
Schulte, Carl, discharged' May 12, 18112; disability. 
Temme, William, mustered out Jan. !i, ISii:>. 
Wannemaeker, I'eter, vet.,corpl.. killed at Ph-as't Hill, April 9, ' 
Recruits Brockaus. Frederick, veteran, mustered out Sept. 9, 1865. 

, 'o5. 

ut .Inly 1, 18<r>. 

, shiloh, April (i, 1862. 

Kerkziek, Ilenrv, nmM.-ie 1 ,,ni .Inlv 1, 1865. 
Loelfelman. Hermann, mustered our July 1, 1805. 
Meyer, John, mustered out Julv 1, 18'i.i. 
Nilhans, Frit/., mustered out F.'-b. 17, 1865. 
.\ortropp, ll 'iinel,, mustered out July 1, 1885. 
Nimeyer, Frederick. 

Piper, Fritz, discharged March in, is !.->; disability. 
Hoettgor, Frederick, veteran, mustered out September 9, 1865. 


54th Regiment Infantry. 


Private Albert, Charles K. (Lawrence Co.), died at home, Oct. 15, 1863. 

Moore, Christopher (Lawrence County). 
Napier, peter , Lawn-nee Co.), diseh. Am-, in, isill: disability. 
I'lnmer, Kobert ( Wahash Co.i. mnsten-,1 out Feb. 17, 18U5. 
Williams, Joseph E. (Lawrence Co.), veteran, 
.-l li Regiment Infantry. 

Commissary Sergeant-Paul T.Halbeck, trans, to Co. H. Dec. 31, 18C4, from 
Edwards County. 


Corporal Jacob Stevens (Wabash Co.), discharged Nov. 3, 1863. 
PruHtn Gouldsburjr, Albert (Wabash Co.l, diseh. Sept. *), '(12; disabilitv. 
Lacer, John i Wabash Co.), lost <m sir. (fen. Lyon. Man-h :ii, 'ti,-,'. 
Mulenax, James (Wabasb Co.), diseh. Julv 2:1! IKK): disabilitv. 
Mulenax,,Ias.(Wnhash Co.l, trans, i,, MUs. Marino Hrig. Ap'l l '03. 
Nichols. James \ , Waha-h Co.l, diseh. Dec. !.,, Is -,2 ; di~abditv. 

.John Finney (Wabash County). 

, Uavid S. ( Wabash Co.), killed at Vicksburg. June 17, '63. 
,John F. (Wabash Co.), diseh. Oct in. 1x112: 'disabilitv. 
David (Wabasb Co.), killed at Vickshnris. June 17, 1863. 

Goldburg, (iabriel S. (Wabash Co.), diseh. 
Pulley, Haxidi Wabash ( ',,.!, diseh. Dee. 15, 
Smalliouse, Albert (Wabash Co.), lost on str! 

Co.), lost on str. Gen. Lyon, .March in, '6.1. 

Swartz, Jacob i Wabash Co.), lost on str. (Jen. Lyon, March :il, 'til. 
Smnlhonse, Alfred (Wabash Co.), lost str. (Jon.'Lvon. M,-h. :ll, Y,.v 
Weil, liobert (Wabash Co ). lost on str. lien. I.vo'n March :ll 't.f, 
tfwruife-Goldburtr, Gabriel S. aVabash (V.), disch._Aprii 2!., Y.2 ; disability. 

GenVLyon, Mar'.SL '65. 
First Lieutenant Pm] T. Halbeck (Edwards Co.), lost on stmr. Gen. Lyon, 

March 31, 1863. 

Pint Sergeant-Henry A. Fitze (Edwards Co.), diseh. Sept. 3, '(12 ; disability, 
Corpuralt Walter L. Gamer (Ed wants Co.), dis,-har.i.'od June 2.', 1865. 

Kinsey, Cullison (Edwards Co.), lost on str. Gen. Lyon, March 

Musician will'Hulon (Edwards Co.), disch. Sept. 29, 1862 , disability. 

P/iMfa> Brown, Isaac , l-Mwards Co. i. logt on Mr.lo-ii. Lyon. UoTCh 91, 'B5. 
Cullison. Henry , Kdwards (Vi. di-eh Sept. 2n, Is ;2 : disability. 

Illott, Oeorgo (Edwards Co.), dlch.Mrohl 

Hntt, James (KdvvardsCo.), die, 

llotr, William ILf KduardsCo.i, vet., mustered out AUK I-' IS'li 
' W.lliam F. (KdwardsCo.); lost' str. Gen. Lyon, Mar. :)l,'l 

Elliott, Oeorgo (Edwards Co.), dUich. March :;. "isnn: disabilitv 
1 '.111. .It. .lames I Kdwards Co. i, died at Memphis, March '.I, 18Hl' 
Klllott, William H.(E.lwards Co.), vet., mustered out Ami I' IS' 
Gaede, William F. (Edwards Co.), lost str. Gen. Lyon, .Mar. 81 '65. 

Bproall, Charles (Edwards Co.), lot on rtr.Qn. Lyon, Mi' :i -n:!' 

Vtooent, George L. (Edwards Co.), lost on str. Gen. Lyon, March' 

VincenC'joseph (Edwards Co.), diseh. Nov. 12, 1862; disability. 


V,,i L -t. Adolph iKdwards Co I, killed .-it Corinih. Oct. 4, 1862. 
West AlfXiinder iKdwards Co.), disch. Sept.:;, 1*112; ilisability. 

Winkles, William (Law-re - Co.), vet., must, -red out Aug. 12, '65. 

-Fowler. David (Edwards Co.), must, led ,nu Aug. 12. 18li. r >. 
Stapleford. Jackson (Edwards Co.), mustered out Aug. 12, 1865. 
r/l-Green, William K. (Edwards Oo.), mustered out Aug. 1-2, 1865. 
Gilt I n fnii i i-y Regiment. 

This regiment was organized at Carrollton, Illinois, by 
the venerable Colonel Jacob Fry, the hero of three wars. 
He was also the fat her of the celebratrd Provost-Mar- 
shal, General Fry, who was so distinguished during the 
late rebellion as the Provost-Marshal of the United 
States. The 61st mustered February 5th, 1862, and 
was ordered to the front, and became a part of the com- 
mand under General Prentiss. At Pittsburg Landing 
this regiment distinguished itself by holding the ground 
until every other regiment in the division had given 
way. The regiment was highly complimented by Gen. 
Prentiss for its gallant stand. April 7th it lost 80 killed, 
wounded and missing, including 3 commissioned officers. 
Had an engagement with Forest. After this time the 
regiment was mostly employed in skirmishing and doing 
garrison duty. The command did good service during 
the war, and was discharged September 12th, 1865. 

Colonel Daniel Grass (Lawrence Co.), hon. disch. as Lt. Col. May 15, 1865. 


raptnia Elias C. Davis (Lawrence Co.), hon. disch. as 2nd Lt. May 1.1, '65. 
Fmt Lieutenant-George W. Bryan (Lawrence Co.,, resigned Jan. 9, 18 5. 
Pritafc* Burgess. Charles s (Lawrence Co.), M. IP. Sept. 11, 'I;.-., as .sergeant. 
Cummings, Isaac (Lawrence Co.), died at Jettcrson Barracks, 

ViiMLawrence Co.), disch. June 17, 1862; disability, 
is, Elias P. (Lawrence County), died. 

Dutton, John C. (Lawrence Co.i, vet., mustered out Sept. 8, 1865. 
Farrar, William G. (Lawrence Co.), vet,, M. O. June 28, 1865, as 

Heath, Asahei (Lawrence County), died. 

Judy, John C. (Lawrence Co.), trans to Co. E, pro. 2nd Lt., M. 0. 

Sept. 8, ISC,:., as captain of Co. G. 

Mieure, Charles (Lawrence Co.), disch. June 2, 1862; disability. 
Petty, John M. (Lawrence County), died. 
SchrilU, Samuel (Lawrence Co.j.diseh 
Salisbury, George W. (Lawrence Co.), 

Smith, Joei'B. (Lawrence County). 

Shoiirs, Nelson A. (Lawrence Co.',, diseh. Feb. V.', 1K64, disability. 
Smith, John J. (Lawrence Co.), sergt., died at Sumner, 111., June 

Walters, William W. (Lawrence Cn'), mustered out March 22, '6 
.Kecruito-Baker, W. H. II. (Lawrence Co.). It O. Sepl. g, 1865, as sergeant 
Dutton, Stewart (Lawrence Co.), trans, to V. R. C. May 1:., 1804. 
Evans, John B. i Law-pence Co.i, n.u-tercd out Sept. 8, 1865. 
Gruv, Salathicl (Lawrence Co.), M. i >. Sept. 8, 1865; pris. war. 



cs, Stephen <;.(Liiwp-en 



e 23,1862; disability. 
rry, James IL (Lawrence Co.'), trans, to V. H. C. : M. o. .luly.i.'i 5. 

ss'cll, /,arias T, (Lawrence Co.), mustered out " " 


/,.. -lianas T, (Lawr 

, Anthoiiv (Lawren ., . , 

aggonor. Philip (Lawrence Co.), died Jetterson liurracks, Mo., 

Trtickev. Ant! v (Lawrence Co.), mustered 

- Lawrence C 

mustered out Sept 8, 1865. 

'...I, must. -red "lit Sept. S. ISli:,. 

, M. II. June -_'s, IS'if,; iiris. war. 

Winkles, Levi (Lawrence Co.), 

Witsel, George M. (Lawrence Co. 

Willet, Riinion (Lawrence Co.), 1W 

Wilber, Benjamin F. (Lawrence Co.), 

Trantferred from S3d Iltinoit Infantry Hruee. Nathaniel (Lawrenc 

mustered out Sept. 8, 1865. 




Sergeant John R. Hit.- (Lawr 
rr j 1 . 1 

Corporals Ja 

James M. Harlan (Lawrence Co .). M. O. Sept., 1 865, as sergeant, 
arcs Baker, Kc/.in M. (Lawrence Co.). M. I). Sepi. s, 'il.-,. as corporal. 
Bauer. Joseph iLawivnoe Co.), died Camp P.iitler, III., Jan. 25, '64. 
;red out Sept. 8, 1865. 
:en-d out Sept. 8, 1865. 

er, Joseph (L 
aire,f Zr ra (Lawrence. 



(Lawrence Co.), disci.. June 14. lsi',5 : disability. 
1'ay, (ieorge (Lawrence Co.), mi isle red out Sept. 8, 1865. 

j Co?), mustered out Sept^S, 'C5. 

: Co.), musttred out Sept. 9, 1865. 

Cudgel, JohnS. (Lawrence I 
JIaleom, Benjamin L. (Lawr 
Heath, Tobias (Lawrence Co 

Jennings, Seth M. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 9. 18 
Judy, Joseph H. (Lawrence Co.i, mustered out .-ept. i), 1865 
Kimmel, John (Lawrence Co.). died at Cairo. Feb. 1, 1864. 
King, William A. (Lawrence Co.), diseh. May 16, 18ii4; disa 

. ., . , 
red out Sept. g, 1865. 
tered out Sept. 8, 1865. 

Landis, William '(Law 

Lathrop, Thoiiiii- K. 

Laws, Lewis (Lawre 

Laws, William (Law 

Loas. Thonia* F. ( L .. . , . 

Malone, John II. (Lawrence CVli dttch.JnDe -s, Isi;:, : disability. 

Mann, Henry II. (Lawrence Co.,, mustered out Sept. 8, 1U5. 

Musgravc, William II (Lawrence County). 

Musrilsh, liobeit il.awrenc,. Co.), imiste'red out Sept. 8,18^5. 

Beeves, Lorenzo (Lawrence Co.), died at Camp Butler, 111., Jan. 

16, 181,4. 

Roderick, John 8. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 8, 1805. 
Roderick, Thoma~ L. > Law rcncc Co.). nutst,-re i ,,ut Sept. S, 'tVi. 
Rush, Benjamin F. (Lawrence Co.), died at Din-all's Bluft; Aug. 

i (Lawn-nee Co.), discharged (Pet. 24, ls.;4, as corpora 
ram-is M. (Lawrence Co.), discharged Aug 111, 1864. 
Lawrence Co.i, mustered out Sept. 8, 

t Sept. 8, 1865. 
1864, as c 
i Co.), discharged Aug 10, 

I, mustered out Sep.. s. Is,, 

Slimner. Henry (Lawrence Co.), mustered on: Sept. s. 1x6.-,. 
Tevis, Lyeiirgus (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. s, isi;.',, 
Turner, 'Henry C. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept s, LSI;. 
Vooiim, Kimu're M. (Lawrence Co.i. mii-tered out Sept. 8, 1 
" 11, Henry J. (Edwards Co.), mustered Out Sept. 8, 1865. 

).), die 
Sixty-Second Infantry .--Three years aei-rice. 

The Sixty-second was organized by Col. James M. 
True, at Camp Dubois, 111., April 10, 1863. December 
13, 1862, left Holly Springs, Tennessee, for Jackson, near 
which it overtook the enemy under General Forest, and 
skirmished with him for a distance of twenty miles. 
August 12th, 1864, left the seat of war for Illinois, on 
veteran furlough. The regiment was mustered out at 
Little Rock, Arkansas, March 6, 1866. 

Co.), trans, as consolidated ; 


__ jiF.Struble(LwrenceCo.\musteredoutMayl, '65 

Quartermaster Serftnt'Eastaee L. Park (Lawrence Co.,, disch. June 27, 

1803, for piomotion -jnd West leuu. Infantry. 

/Vwcipn!.W.;<;i<,uson , Lawrence Co.), reduced to ranks Co. 
A, mustered out April 6, 1865. 


Captains Henry C. McClave (Lawrence Co.), resigned Sept. 11, 18 
Thomas J. Warner i Lawrence Co.), died Aplil 15, 1X64. 
Jacob J. Applegate (Lawrence Co ), trans, as consolidat. 


S,, ,!,( /.iciirru.ii.r Benjamin F. Strimi-r (Laurence Co.), res. Sept. 3, 1862, 
Sergeants Benjamin F. (iosiiell (Lawrence Co.), vet., tr 
sol dated ; mustered out March 6, 1866, as 

Thomas J. Spain. I Lawrence C. 
George W. Sadie iWahah Co.), vet., trans, to Co. 
dated; promoted Com. Sergt, ; mustered out Mi 
(Lawrence Co.), 

T,die'da"t Anna, III?AprU 14, '62. 
>. A as , 

Corporal* Perry V. VVatson (Lawrence Co.), mus ered out May 2, 1865. 

Cornelius Berkshire (Lawrence Co.,, absent sick at M.O. of re(rt. 
Theophilus .Smith i. Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as con- 
solidated; mustered out March ii. I.*.;.;, as sep-geant. 
Justice Strilbk- (Lawrence c,,. . discharged March 24, 1863. 
John M. Johnson i Lawr, nee Co.), vet.,' trans, to Co. A as con- 
solidated; promoted 2nd Lieu..; M. (I. March 6, 1866. 
Harrison, Bisley i W abash Co ), vet., trans, to Co. A. as consoli- 
dated: musteVed out March 6, 1866. 

John Wall;,.-,- (Lawrence Co.), vet., Irans. to Co. A -as consoli- 
dated; discharged Junes, 1865; disability. 
.Musicians Joseph llrennen ( Wabash Co.), mustered out May 2,1865. 

Simon John-',,, I Lawr < Co.), M. (1. April 12, '65, as private. 

Pl-irafei- Atkins, Adna (Lawrence (o.).died Little Hock, Ark.'. March 4, '62. 
Ackman, Charles i Lawrence (',,., disoh. April lo, isr:; : disability. 
Buchanan, John (Wabash Co.), disch. I>ee. ;,, lxr.2: disability. 
Buchanan, George, W. (Wabash Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as 

consolidated; mustered out March 6, 1866. 

Bishop, William (Lawrence Co.), died K.-nlon, Tcnn., Dec. 7, '62. 
Baker, George (Lpwrenee Co.), vet., trans, to C... A as consoli- 
dated; mustered mi March 6, 1X66, as corporal. 




(Lawrence County). 
i- (Lawrence Co.), died at Padueah, Ky.. May ,, 

Lawrence Co.i, vet., trans, to Co. A as consolidated ; 
t March 6, 18.66. 

Custcr, Thomas (Lawrence Co.). vet., trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
dated; mustered out March tj, 1866. 

Crampton, Leon (Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
dated; mustered out March r,. Is,;.;, us corporal. 
illiam A. (Lawrence " 

sol (dated ; 
Crosby. Thomas. I. (Lawrence Co.), vet, 

dated ; mustered out March i;. ixii.;. as corporal., Wiley (Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as < 

dated: mustered out March r,, is.iil, as , 
Crosliv, Sylvester (Lawrence CO, vet., trans. 

dated; discharged July 7. ISC,: disability. 

Cod i ran. Thomas : Law re County). 

Deuen, Mansou (Lawrence Co.,, died Little Rock, Ark., Dec. 1, '63. 



Delonge, Noah (Lawrence Co.), died Lawrence Co., 111., July 2, '62. 
Ldokiuk, Thomas (Lawn-nee Co.i, vet, trans, to Co. A as consoli- 

dated: mustered cut March 6, 1806. 

Evans, Zeddiek (Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
li, 1866. 

dated : 
Gosncll, James (Law:. .. 

dated; mustered out March 


Miell, \Villiiiin (Lawrence Co. I. vet., trans, til 
lated : mustered (nit March 11. isiii;, as corpor 
ckson. Andrew (Lawn-nee Co.), disch. .Ian. 1 

ns. to Co. A. as consoli- 

' Co. A as consoli- 

, Abram S. (Lawren 

t".', died at Mattoon, HI., Sept. 


. (Lawrence Co.), promoted. 

Lai: ra i me, Henrv ( Lawrence CM. i. \c 

date,!: mustered ..nt .Inly 1:1, ISiir,. 

WoCleave, John B. (Lawrence Co.). vet., 

, . . 

solidated : mustered out Marc 
Lake, Aaron (Lawrence Co.), vet., died at Little Rock, Ark., Aug. 

Lane! J^mes (Lawrence Co.), died at La-rence, III., Ang. 7. 1863 

i me, Henrv ( Lawrence CM. i. \ct, irans. to Co. A as consoli- 

Co. A as consoli- 

. .), vet., trans, to Co. A as con- 

solidated ; mustered out. March 6, 1866. 

MeCleve, Benjamin F. (Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as con- 
solidated: mustered out March 6, 1866. 

iller, Philip (Lawrence to Co. A as consolidated ; 
.lied at Fort Uihsnn. Sept. 24, 1865. 

, to Co. A as consoli- 

Miller, Philip (La 

died at Fort Gil 
Miller, Jeremiah i Lawn-nee Co.), vet,, trans, to Co. 

dated: mustered out March 0, 1866. 
More, Martin I Lawrence Co, trans, to Co. Aasc 
' US.-. 2. 186T,: 

. .1.1 Law 

mistered out 
0-borne, Jacks 

dated, mustered 
--*- - 

Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A consoli- 


Sylvester (Lawrence Co.), vet , trans 
1; discharged May -I. lsr,;, : disability. 

Co.), Died at Padueah," Kv., Mav 21, '82. 

, Willi 

dated; mustered out March 6, 1866 
Smith, W. H. H. (Lawrence Co.), vet. 

dated; mustered out July IT>, 1865. 
Struhlo, Norman (Lawrence Co.), vet., died 

Sniper, George W. (Lawre 
.smith. James M (Lawrence Co.),' 

' i Fort Gibson. Dec. 28, 1865. 

:>.), vet., trans, to Co. A 

Co. A as. consoli- 
trans. to Co. A as consoli- 
Bluff, Ark., 

Co.), died Kenton, Tenn , Oct., '62. 

, . Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as consoli- 

dated; died at Fort (Jibson. 

Vanansdol, Charles H. (Lawr ., ., , 

consolidated : mustered out March li, IWifi, as corporal. 

Wallace. Cyrus L.I Lawrence (',,. ), died Columbus. K v., June 17,Y,2. 

Watson, David (Lawrence Co.), mustered out May -1, 1S(V>. 

Williams, James B. (Lawrence Co.), vet., trans, to Co. A as 

Youngnmn, John (Wahash fo.\ absent sick at M. O. of regiment. 

Zehner, Nathan (Lawio Co.), mustered out May 2,1865. 

Recruits Bennett, William T. (Lawrence Co.), trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
dated; mu-tored on' Ang. 2, 1865. 

Dicksoii. William .1., died m Tenn., (let. l,1s.;_- : mustered out 
March 0,1866. 

Fullilove, Jphn A. (Lawrence Co.). trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
dated; mustered out March 0, 1866. 

Phillip, W. II. II. t Laurence Co. I. diseh. Dec. 1,1863 ; was prisn'r. 

Short, Isaac N. (Lawrence Co.). trans, to Co. A as consolidated; 
mustered out March 6,1806. 

Watson, Benjamin F. (Lawrence Co.), pro. com. sergeant. 

Wallace, William S. (Lawrence Co.i, trans, to Co. A as consoli- 
dated; mil-teredout March 8, 1866. 

Zechnor, Seih d awrencc Co.). trans, to A Co. <a consolidated; 
mustered out Mrch 6, 1886. 

Cnp/aia Robert J. Ford (Lawrence Countv) ; term expired April 14, 18 
Ser"K-Cochran, Daniel, vet., ] - 
Corporate John r 

hran, Daniel, vet,, pro. 1st sergeant, then 1st lieutenant. 
,l,n Urn-croft, rot., trans, to Co. C as consolid'd; pro. 1st sergt., 
then 2d lieutenant. 

Powell, Canover, trans, to Co D as 

ol'td; M. O. March r> 

ShuKs, .las. H. (Lawrence c,,'. i, trans, to Co. F., M. O. March 6, '66. 
Allen. John F., corporal, died 

, ., s. o. as consolidated, M. C i. Aug. 2, U85. 

Richards, Elias, (Lawrence Co.), trans, t" Co. E as consolidated, 

mustered out June 20, '65. 
Stuart, .John, (Lawrence Countv), trans, to Co. E as consolidated, 

mustered out March 6, '06. 


Veteran Evans, Samuel (Lawrence Co.), trans, to Co. E as consolidated, 
mustered out March 6, '60. 

Host, i at Sixty-Second Infantry as re-organized. 

Quartermaster Henry F. Walters, resigned Nov. 16, 1865. 


OipMm Benjamin F. Gnsnell. (Lawrence County), M. O. March f, 1866. 
>/,(-John M. lohnson, (Lawn-nee Co.), M. O. March 6, 1866. 


Srcond Lieutenant John Barcraft, (Lawrence Co.\ M. O. March 6, 1866. 
Sixty-Third Infantry .-Three years' service. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Dubois, Illinois', 
December, 1861, by Colonel Fran cisMoro, and mustered 

into service, April 10, 1862. It was assigned to the 
Fourth Brigade, Seventh Division, and Seventeen h Array 
Corps. It fought at Richmond Louisiana, June 16th, 
1863; Mission Ridge, November 23d and 24th, 1863; 
Ogeechee canal, November, 1864; in the campaign of 
the Carolinas in 1865. It was mustered out of service 
at Louisville, Ky., July 13th, 1865 and arrived at Camp 
Butler, Illinois, July 16th, 1865 for final payment and 

Vcferatu Fyffe, George W. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out July 13, 1865. 

Lathrop, K/.ra (Lawrence County), mustered out July 13, 1865. 
Miller, George (Lawrence County), mustered out Jul'v 13,1865. 
Painter, James (Edwards Countyi, mustered out July 13, 1805. 
Robinson, Joseph (Lawrence Co'.), mustered out July 13, 1-05. 
Seed, Ttiomas C., (Lawrence Co.), mustered out July 13, 1865. 

Captains George J. Johns (Edwards County), resigned Nov. 27, 1862. 

Arnot L. M,-Co V , K, I wards County', must, 'red out April fl, 1862. 
F.rit Litulmant John C. GiaTMB. (Kdwards County), resigned Oct. 13, '6i 

William A. Harris, (Kdwards Co.), term exp. April 7,'05. 
Second LleuteunMt -Albert L. Hunter. (Edwards Co), M. O. April 9, 1865. 
b',r,t >,.,-,-,,/ Henry Wcvlc, ' Kdwards County.) 
ierjwmto-Willinm Painter. 1 Kdwards Co.), Ml 1 1. April 9, 1865, as 1st serg't, 

William P. Degan, (Edwards County.) 

Samuel llaliam, ( Kdwards County ustored out April 9, 1805. 

Corporals Edward I',. llanna. \ct.. (Edwards Co.). M. (I. July 13, 1865. 

James Rice, vet., (Edwards Co.i. M. 1 1. as sergeant. July 13, 1805. 

Reuben Hayne, (Edwards Co.), M. o. April i, isi;5, as corp-ral. 

John Lovelett, (Edwards Co.i, M. ( i. April :i. isi,',, as private. 

James M. Skaggs, I Kdwards Co.), M. (I. April 11, Is.,:., as sergt. 

William Kimliall, (Edwards Co.) Btered out April <i, 1,\ 

Cornelius N. 9ray i Edwards County), discharged Feb. 2:,, iw,4. 

Joseph Williams. (Edwards Conniyi, mn-ter.-d out April 9, l.sii.i. 
JfMic-ioiu Wm. Crackles, (Edwards Co.), killed in S. Carolina Feb. 25, 05. 

Win. Crackles. (Kdwards C 
John Day, (Kdwards Count 

, . 

y), discharged. 

.i. died Iluntsvill 

oner Barney Kilev, (Edwards Co.). died Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 16, 1864. 
i(.<.< Armstrong, Thomas N. (Kdwards County), M. o. April 9. 1805. 

Arnold, Jesse, (Edwards Co.), died at Lagrange, Tenn.. Nov. 1:.,'(12. 
J - " '" 'wards Co.), died at C5iro, May 3, 1862. 

Co.), killed ill South Carolina, Feb. 25,T.5. 
Barberj Henrv, (Kdwards Co.), died at Jackson, Tenn., Oct. 23,'62. 
Kenton. Samuel R. (Kdwards County.) 

Cowling, Richard (Edwards Countyi mustered out April 9,1865. 
Cowling, Francis i Kdwa'ds Countyi. vet., M. 1 1. July 13, 1865. 
Thomas ( Kdwards Co.), died at Anna, Iil.,"M " 
iehard (Kdwards County), m 
Cuncoh'no, Patri'-k (Edwards County.) 
Druer, liaruev (Edwards Countyi. mustered out April 9, 18BS. 
Dinnel, .lame's , Edwards County), M. o. \piil n, HI;.-,, as S eri:ea 

'illiam I Kdwards Countv), mustered out April :!:-'. IsllJ. 

Samuel (Edwards County i, disch. Nov. 1st, 18ia ; disali 

, .lolm (Edwards County), mustered out April !l, ]si;;,. 

k, Asel (Edwards County.) 
Horton, Frederick (E.lwards County), muMcrcd out April 9, 1805. 
Holloman. Henry H. (Edwards Co.), diseh. Aim. -Jn, Isc,-.': disab'ty. 
Hall, William i Ed wards County], disehm-g, ,1 at St. Louis, Mo. 
K noose, Christian (Edw< ' 
Lindsay, Samuel (Kdwai 
Lambert, Ellas C. (F.dwa 
I ,charh-s K. (Edward 

K noose, Christian (Edwards Co.), trans, to E vet., M. O. July 13,'65. 

Lindsay, Samuel i Kdwards County.) 

. (Edwards County), mustered out April !>, Tsor,. 
Edwards County.) 
Moody, John (Edwards County) 'dich. Nov. 7, 1862; disnlvlity. 

Ceoix-c i Kdwards Coun 
, hn (Edwards County), 
Norton, John C (Edwards County.) 
Naylor, Joseph (Edwards County], mu 
' ' 

, . . , 

MeCombs, Ceoix-c i Kdwards County), mustered out April !l, 
Merritt, John (Edwards County), diseh. July u\, Iwit; disab 
ty).' disch. Jun 

>Co. A Vet , M. o. July i:i,Y,r,. 

ias (Kdwards Colintvi, died at Cairo. Mav In, 1802. 
,c.-i Edwards Co.), di. at Ja<-ks.m. Tenn., dis'tj 

in i I-Mwards Co.), diseh. Nov. 7, Isna: disability. 
March 13, 1 

ice, James rL (Edwards County), died at Ann^Vll.^Ma 

I!ol..-rson, John (Ed 
Riley Francis ( Edw 
H, ley, 1, avid (Edwards Cotin 

lisch. Nov. 7, 18i;2; disability 

), discharged March 13, 1804. 

mustered out April 9, 1865. 

y), died at Anna, III., Ma 

Bay.'Andrew .1. (Edwards County i. mustered out April !>, 
Sullivan, Dennis (Kdwards ' ' '' ' ' 

,lav 9, 1SII2. 

! Co.), "died at Anna, 111., Mav lo, LS02. 
Sloan, Jefferson G. (Edwards Countv.) 

Wilkerson, Wm. II. i Kdwards County), mustered out April 9,1865. 
Wheeler, John (Kdwards County), mustered out April 9, 1865. 
Wilkerson, John (Edwards County), died at home May 20, 1862. 

Yrterata Carlisle, John K. (Lawrence Co.), M. O. July 13, aa 1st sergeant 

commanding 1-t lieutenant. 

Dirkeisim. Francis M., mustered out July 13, 1865. 
Lewis, Aimer H. (Lawrence Countv). mustered out July 13, 1865. 
McCausland, John (Lawrence Co.), mustered out July 13, 1885. 
Nimmo, William I Lawn-nee County) mustered out July 13, isr.5. 
Walker, Levi H. (Lawrence Co.), M. O July 13, Iwo. as'eorporal. 


Sixty-Fourth Infantry Regiment. 

The 64th, better known as the ' First Battalion of 
Yates' Sharp Shooters," was organized at Camp Butler, 



in the month of December, 1861, by Lieutenant Colonel, ! 
D. E. Williams. It consisted of four companies! the last 
of which was mustered into the United States service, 
December 16th, 1861. Two additional companies were 
mustered into the service, December 31st, with Fred.W. 
Matteson as Major. The Colonel of the 64th was John 
Morrill. January 10th, 1862, the command started for 
the seat of war, via Quincy. Here it was armed, moved 
south, and in conjunction with Pope's army took part 
in the expedition against Fort Pillow. Subsequently 
became a part of the command under Rosecrans ; after- 
wards under Sherman. The leading engagements in 
which it took a part were siege of Corinth, luka, Dallas, 
Kenesaw Mountain, and Resaca. These are a few of 
the more important engagements ia which this regiment 
took a part. Was paid and discharged at Chicago, 111., 
July 18th, 1865. 

Jtecruil Shed, John J. (Lawrence Co.), diseh. Dec. 26, 1864; term expired. 

First Sergeant John O. Shown, (Lawrence County), discharged June 11, 

1865, as private; disability. 

gergtant John Crackell, (Wabash County), M. O. July 11, 1865, as private. 
Corporal-Frederick Grot', (Wabash County), M. O. July 11, 1865, as sergt. 
George A. Williams, ( Lawrence Co.), M. O. July 11. li;5, as priv. 
Thomas Smith, (Wabash County), mustered out July 11, I8(i5. 
Waqoner Amaziah Turner, (Lawrence County), mustered out July 11,1865. 
P, i,fc.-Boyce,Wm. M. (Wabash Co.), killed at Kenesaw Ml., June 27, 1864. 
Black, James (Wabash County), mustered out July 11, 18 5. 
Madder, Aloozo (Wabash County), mustered out Julv 11, I8'5. 
Crackell, Matthew ( Wal.a-h Comity), died Allatootla, Ga, June 5, 

Cluxto'n Aaron '(Wabash Co.), died at Chattanooga, May 23, 1864 

W. (Lawrence County), killed near Atli ' 

Sidney Aberncthv (Lawrence County), discharged Ma 
disability; died June, 1862. 

Atlanta, Ga., 

Curry, Ja 

Davi^Mart 8 in 4 (Wabash Co.). died Jeffersonville, Ind., April 6, 
Dean, Kpliraim (Waha-ih Co.), died at Decntur, Ala., April 1, 18i 
Dunlap, Allen (Lawrence County), mustered out . Julv 11, I8li5. 
Garrett, Horatio (Wahash CountVi, <lied in Georgia, June 5, 18S4. 
Gray, Daniel V. (Wahash County), di-ch. Oct. ti,'lsr,4: ty. 
Hrumhouse, Charles (Wabash County), mustered July 1 1, 1865. 
Knoles, James (Wahash Counn i. .M. ('). July II. isn'v ai corporal. 
Kimbrell, John iWahash County), mii-tcrc'd out July 11, 18ti5. 
Lambert, Wm. H. ( County), unistcrt>d out July 11, 18H5. 
Nicholson, Arch (Lawrence Co.), trans to 5 Keit.! I >oc. L".i,T,4. 
Shafer, George (Wabash County i. mustered out July 11, 1865. 

Stolt, Samuel (Lawrei Countyi, mustered out July 11, 1865. 

Schick, John V. (Lawrence County), mustered out July 11, 186.1. 
Turner, Hezekiah (Lawrence County) mustered out July 11, 1805 

66th Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

The organization of this regiment was begun at the 
Benton Barracks in September, 1861, by John W. 
Busge, and the eight companies composing it were known 
as "Western Sharp Shooters." The ninth company 
was added December 5th, and Benjamin S. Compton 
was mustered in as Colonel. The regiment was mus- 
tered as the Fourteenth Missouri Infantry. November 
20, 1862, the regiment was transferred to the State of 
Illinois, and numbered sixty-six. It was out July 7, 
1865, at Louisville. Kentucky, and arrived at Camp 
Butler, Illinois, July 9, 1865, for final payment and dis- 


Quarkrmatttr Sergeant Geo. E. Alden, (Lawrence Co.), pro. cap. and A Q.M 

C<Tpram.-Jerry N. Hill, (Lawrence County), re igned Nov. 18, 1863, V.R.C. 
John L. Hays, (Lawrence County), mustered out. 
' J. Smith, (La 

unty), on detached serv 

ered out Julv 7, 


ames O. Ackinson, (Wabash County), died 

Mav 29, 18R2. 

avid W. Foster, (Edwards County), died at Paducah, Ky 

iharged May 18, 18C2; disabi 

t of Regimi 
I Lintenant James I'. I.amott. (Lawrence Co.), .... 

V. Litherland. (Wabash County), M. a .TulyJ, . 


-Ahernethy, Elijah (Lawrence County), corporal, 

lanta.l.a.. July'-. IS.I4. 

corjil. killed 

i, disch. Oct. 18, 18J4; 

jv 2-J 

James (Wa'bash Co.) corpl. killed at Corinth, Oct. 4, 1861 
, Wm. P! (Wabasli Co.), dii ' ' 



Beeslev, Samuel c. i Wabash County), vet. 

Blessing, Geo. w. i Wabash co.i, died at St. Louis, MO, D c. lc.,'61. 

Blessing, John C. (Wabash Co.), diseh. July 11. Is.a; disability. 

Barnes, Lafayette , Lawrence c,,,, vet M.'O. July 7,'lio; as sergt. 

Lawrence County), vet. 


Foster, Wm. F. i Edwards County), M. t >. July 7, isi;,i; detached. 
Goodart, Andrew (Wabash County), vet.. M. u. Julv 7, 18H5. 
Greenlev, Gco. W. (Lawrence (,,.,, vel.. .M. ( i. Julv'7, '6j : as corpl. 

Hedrick",'Henderson (Edwards County), mustered out July 7, '65. 
: (Lawrence County!, mustered out July 7, 1865. 

Howell, i'eter 
Lamott. Dani 

ph (Lawrence County), discharged June 1.1, ISi 
Benj. F. (Wahash Co.), disch. May 18, 1862; di 
. (Wabash Co.), vet., killed nr. Atlanta, Ga, Jill 

, . 

Long, Joseph (Lawrence County), 
Melntosh, licni. F. iWai.ash c. 
Miller, Jlio. !\Val,ali Co.l, vet., 

-' '64. 

NerT, Louis H. (Wabash County, .diseh. Juh ': Is.,- disability. 
Pierce, 8amul .Lawrence Co |, vet , M. (I. July 7 is,;;,; as private. 
Pixley, Casper (Kdwards Co. i, vet, M. u. July" 7, isi;.-.; as c,,rporal. 
Rice, "Marshall (Kdwards Co.i, disch. June lie,, ls.;.' : disability. 
Smith. Wm. J. i Lawrence Co i, vet . M. t ). Julv 7, IM;->; as corpl. 
Shraeder, Samuel i Wabash County.) 

Test), Eli (Wabash Countyi. vet.. M. O. July 7. 1815; as corporal. 
Turner, James F. (Wabash Co.), vet, M (i. Julv 7, Isii.l; as corpl. 
Thrasher, Algernon (Wabash County),vet, mustered out July 7, 

18H5, as corporal ; wounded. 
Whittaker, Edward P. (Lawrence County), vet. sergeant, killed 

Atlanta. Ga, Julv 22, 18C4. 

West, John 1!. (Lawrence Co.) diseh. Oct. 30, 1864; term expired. 
Semiitt Blood, Henrv E. (Wabash County), M. O. July 7,18M, a* corporal. 
Baird, Adam F. (Lawrence Couufyl, must. Ted oiu July 7, 1865. 
Bunyan, Ezekiel (Wabash Countyi. mu-tored out July 7, 1865. 
Carter, George W. (Kdwards County), mustered out July 7, 1865. 
childress, Tiiomas (Wabaib County), mastered ant July 7, 1865. 
Crump, Geortre F. (Lawrence Countv), mustered out Julv 7, lsr.,1. 
- ),M:0. July 7.1W15; wounded. 

May Hi, 1864. 

Gould. Invin i Edwards Coiintv 1 !, mustered out July 7, 18R5. 
Greenlee.Wm. M. Lauren, County), mustered ont Julv 7, 1865. 
Hedrick, George F. (Kdwards County . mustered out July 7, 1*05. 

ck, George F. (Edw 
ield, Hy. D. (Lawrei 

llo\ve. James K ( Law rcnoe Cou 
Howe, WilliamS. (Lawrence Co, 




Price, J . 

Pixley, John (Lawrence Co.), killed 

Pierce, Frederick (Lawrence Coumy 

Pool. Chester 1). (Wabash County), d 

ut July 7, 1865 
d July 7, 1 

out July 7, 18 
t July 7, 186 

t .lufv 7, 186 
t Julv 7, 186 
out July 7, 1 

lit July 7, 1 
Julv 7, 1 

.Ionian, Joshua (W abash County), mustered out July 7. lsi;l. 
Johnson, Thos. J. (Lawrence County), mustered out July 7, 1865. 
Kelsey, James E. ( Wabash County), mustered out July 7, 1865. 
Kearicher, Jacob (Edwards Co.), died at Rome, (ia , July 12, 1864. 
Keen, Levi C. (Waliash Countv, disoh. July n. ls..l; disability. 
Litherland, Matt. I). ( Wabash County I, mustered out July 7, 18 5. 
Litherland Daniel M. (Wubash County), died at Pulaski, Tenn., 

April in, 1864. 

Miller. Horace S. (Wabash County), mustered out Ju 
Mill.L'.an, William (Lawrence County), mustered < 
Mi!N. Qflorin u. . Lawrence County), mustered out July 1 
Myers, I'hilip i Edwards County), muster,-. 1 ,,ut July 7, ',6. 
Myers, Joseph Edward-, County), mustered out .lufy T, T~" 
" y, Lewis (Edwards County), mustered 
?is (Lawrence County), mustei 
je (Lawrence County), mustered out . 
Price, James c. Lawrence Countv), mustered out. 

' "id at Dallas, Ga , May 30, 1864. 

uy), mustered out June 2d,1805. 
untv), discharged May 28, 18C.5. 

Rothrock, Parmena (Edwards County), mustered out July 7, 1865. 
Sloan, Jefferson (Wabash County), mustered ont July 7, 1865. 
Sloan, Francis M 'Wabash Countyi, mustered out July 7, 1865. 
Stewart, Luther M. (Lawrence County), mustered out July 7. 1866. 
Sharei ~ "' ' -"-- -- - 


tered out J 

Walser, Gaither C. I Edwards Co.l, M. O. July 7, 1865, as corporal. 
Walser, Franklin ( Kdwards Count, ), mustered out Julv 7, 1865. 

' n (Lawrence Cour- *-' 

.. .. -dm. Peter (Lawre 

Wood, Francis (V 

Wilhelm, John L. (Lawrence County), died 

Sept 26, 1864. 


Akers. James J. (Lawrence County.) 

Cromer, George W. i Lawrence County.) 

King, Lafavette (Wabash County) died at Camp Butler, 111, April 7,1864. 

MoGauhv, Daniel F. (Lawrence'county), discharged June l, 1864. 

Maddox,' K. F. C. (Lawrence County), died at Camp Butler, III, Feb 24,'64. 

Whyde, Alexander (Wabash County), died at Camp Butler, 111, April 7,'64. 

70Ui Tnfantry H. - 

Men fn 

Captain George K. Brumlay, mustered out. 
First L.eufeiinnl-Robert W. Musgrave, mustei 
Sfcond Lieuttaani Henry A. Club, mustered ( 



Pint Servant. 
Henry Patterson 

William M. Powers 
William 11 Tamiimry 
Tlmiiiiis 1). Shepcid 
Peter Carver 

ll'iol c'l'.'vocum 
,|,.hn M.l.i. kirson 

J;unes C.' Ib.ys 

Elijah II. Lowe 
Gvorge W. Pickerel 

William H. Seed 

I'rintl, . 

Appling, Georize D. 
A.-hhrook, Willi,,,,, 

Barker, Francis M. 
Black. William 
Brnmblay, George R. 
Bank-. HaneyB 
Bower , Samuel M. 
Bryan-, George W. 
Beach, Chambers 
Bowman, Christian 
Bird. 1'h., mas F. 
H, rkshire, John W. 
Berkshire, K 

Bache; Arthur 
Coombs, Francis M. 
Cain, William 
Currell, Lorenzo D. 

Crosby, Nathaniel B. 

, . 

Funk. Anderson E. 
Fisher, Lafayette 
Foster, Robert 
Promoted Captain July 25, 1862. 

Frenrh, Bascomb 
(o,rdon, Jackson D 
Garner, George 1). 

-l.-ev, Wi lia 
Kissinger, William M. 
Ken.-l, !-, Aloin 
Kuetl, Silas F. 
Eaiiir-on, Jason L. 
Mill-, William W. 
.Miohads. Jacob 
MeEHrosh, David 
Myers, John 

i i,-n 

ohn H. 

Parsons, Johr 

Rains, James 

Ralney, \Varren R. 

Richards, liant'ortli 

Kodcnck. John 3. 

lieiter, "Arthur H 

Ramsey, Samuel H. 

Rogers', lohn W. 

Robinson, William A. 

Shiiadin, Clinton 

Sphar, Johnf 

Scotr, James 

ir, Hezekiah 
;r, Amaziah 

, miteet. Ben;a:i,in E. 

White. Joseph 

White, Milton 

We-ucr. Alexander 




Wilber, George W. 
f Transferred from C8th III. Infantry. 

TCth Regiment Infantry. 

Secnit Ostrander, Charles (Lawrence Co.), trs. to 5 III., M. O. Mar. 1, '66. 

Corporal Leyerance King (Lawrence County), died at Lagrange, Tenn., 

Prit<K-Gleason',' Gershom (Lawrence County), killed at Jackson Cross 

Roads, July 7, 1804. 
King, John (Lawrence County), M. O. as 

I July L'.', 

ergeant, Lewta (Lawrence Co.), M. 0. May :ii, is.;;,; wounded, 
teeter, Loren*> (Lawrence Co.), trans, to V. K. C. Nor. ", ls-;:i. 
.- (Lawrence County), mustered out Julv 22, ' 

Roberts, Joseph i Lawrence 
Van See. pie, Stephen (Lawrence County), 
infantry; absent sick at mustering out of 

ty), mustered out July 22, '65. 

County), mustered out July 22, 18*15. 
County) mustered out July 22, 18 5. 

County), transferred to .",7 111. 

87th Regiment. Three years' service. 

Principal .V^ic/cra-Columbus L. Freeman (Edwards Co.), M. O. June 16, '66. 


Corpora!. Joseph G Coles (Edwards Co.), M. O. Jun 16, 1865, as sergeant. 
James Feaverston (Edward.- c.,untyi. mustered ,,ut .June 18, MH6. 
/VirirtM Armor, Anthony (Edwards County), mustered nut June 1C,, im;.1. 
Butler. William L. (Edwards County I. mustered out Jim.- 1C, 18C5 
Clark, W. H. F. (Edwards County), mustered out .Inn.' 1C, ISM 
1 . 1 !. i ". .'.'"!' (Kdards County)/c(ied J 

1 July 17, 1803. 
:h. Dec. 8, 1 

Fortney, William K."( Wabash cV,",'int'y)',"transf erred to Co.'o' 2 

Ellis, William W. (Edwards Co.), disci,. Dec. s, l,x,;:, ; disability. 
Elli-, John (Edwards County), mustered out June 16, 1 
Ellis, Tholna- E. (Edward- County,, mustered out .In 

Fever-ton. Henry ( Edwaid* County) 
Hoovers, James F. (Edwards County 
Henscly. Hiram (Edwards County)." 
Hoover, George W. .Edwards Count, , 

Johnson, John ( Edward- County), mii-tercd out Jane 1C, ixo*. 
Jordon. El, -by i Waba-li CountJ (, disch. Sept. 1'.,, lsC:l; ilisabili 

Johnson, Will ian, (Edwards CoSn.v), mustered',,,,. June Hi, 1 

), M.O.June 10, '66, as sergt. 
nty), mustered out June 16, '65. 

% liniyt, mustei 

-Mussett, William , Edwards Co.), M. (I. June 1C, I KC ',, a., corporal 
' H. ( Edwards County), mustei ' ' ' 
(Edwards County), musterei 
W. (Edwards County), died 

(Edwards County), mustered out Ji 

mustered out June 1C, 1805. 

Mound City, 111., 

abash County), mustered out June 1C, 1865 
Satterly, Philip , Wabash County), dinch. May 12, 1865 .disability. 

Thompson, Daniel W. i, Edwards County,, died at -New Orleans 

irds County), resign* 

; Conntyi, ipjii-tered out .In 

Firtt Ifeiitemdite Willinm II. Jones ( I'.dw ards Co.). resigned Dee. 13, 18,13. 

John D. Fiebcr (Ed nurds Co.), mil-tered out Juua 16, '65 
Second Lielfnm,l -William B. Tribe, mustered out June 1C, 1865. 
Fiiit Sergeants James M. Black (W abash Co.), mustered out June 1C, 1865. 
Eil ward Deems i U aUi-h Co.), mustered out June 1C. ls,i."i. 
William Pnoklaad (Edwards Co ,. M.u. June 1C,, iscs. 
Alfred Bas.-ett (Edwards I 'o.), mustered out June 16, 1865. 
Corporals James Brown, Jr. (Edwards County), mustered out June 1C, '85. 
James T. Hum (Edwards Counn |, "mustered out June 1C,, Is,;:,. 
Robert McCrcerv (Edwards Co. >', died at .Memphis Mar is l,s,i:l 
James F. Hanks (Edwards Co.), nan-, to V. R. C. May i;,, isc,4. 
Peter Bail.-y (Edwards County), died at .Memphis Mar. 1, 18(3. 
Thoma- Cromc, Jr. (KdwardsY.onuty j, mustered out June 1(1, ',;;,. 
Isaac Decme (Edwards County), mn-tcrcd out Jlav 21, 1865. 
John Kuykendall (Edwards County), mustered out June 16, '65. 
Uuiicians Fieihnc'k Harrison (Edwaids County,, died at Helena, Ark., 

April H), 1WJ5 ; wounds. 

Columbus I.. Freeman, promoted Principal Musician William Dunk ,E,la (taXJounty) mustered out June 16,1863. 
Pricuta Ateibcriy. Jim. r .Edwards Co, inly i, muster, d out June Hi, 186B. 
Bassett, George (Edwards County), mustered out June 16, I8oo. 
Bunting, Sylvc-t.-r , Edward- Coumy ), mustered out June Hi, 1805. 
Bell, James W. (Edwards County). 

r., H, James W. (Edwards County). 

Colyers, Robert {Edwards Co.), died at Carrolton, La., Sept. IS, 'C3. 
Culiisoli, Thomas i Edwards County), mu.-tercd out June 10, 1865. 
Tilham , Edward.- County/, mustered out June 1C,, 181*. 
.ium (Eilwards County), disch. .Nov. S, l,sc,:i disability. 
Reuben C. (Edwards Co.), mustered out June Hi, 1M,5. 

Cullison William (Edw 

Ee, William (E,' 
p-ford, Reuben 
k, Thomas, Jr. i Kdwards Co.), M. O. June 16, '05; _ , 

Davis, Robert E. (Edwards County), mustered out June 10, 1805, 

Estes, Timothy (Edward- County). 

Elliott, Richard E. (Edwardi County), trs. to V. R. C. Sept. 1, 1862. 

Elliott, Daniel (Edward's County)', died at Memphis Mar? Hi, 1803. 
Elliott, William U. (Edwards Co.), died at Jlcmphis, April 1U, 18>i3. 
Glover, James ( Edwards County), died at home Sept. 8, 1863. 

, , . 

enderson, Gcorirc ilvlwurds County), mustered out Aug 2, 1865. 
udson, George W. (Edwards Conntyp, mii.-ter.-d out June Hi, 'M. 
ughs, James {Edwards Countyi, 

, George 

, James { , 

ugo, William , Edwards County i, 

, . 
t Memphis May 15, 1863. 

HoFtJu, James (Edwards County); mustered out June IB, !... 
Ives, Charles (Edwards County), disch. June 1:1, ls,,:i; disability. 
Long, Robert (Edwards Coimiv,, nui-tcied ,,ui June Hi, 1865. 
Lowery, Isaia,, (Wabash County), died u Memphis .Mar. 1C, 1863. 
Lucus, Abraham (Wabash C.miiU ), trans, to V. K. C. June 17, 1864. 
Lance, Willi m H. (Wabash Coumy), mustered out June 10, 1865. 

JlcKibbeii, Jlanlcv (Edwards County), -tcrcd out June Hi 1805. 

McKibben, David (Edwards Co.), JI.', i. June 1C, 1805, as corporal. 

' mistered out June 1C,, Is,;;, 

. to V. R. C. Jan. 15, 1804. 

McCreery, William P. , Edward- Co. ,, mustered out June 10, 1805. 
Moore, Samuel (Edwards County), died near Tyler, Texas, while 

Morris, Rufus (Edwards County), mustered out June 16, 1865. 

Me Kibhcii, Zebnlon (Edward* County), died at .letleisou barracks, 

Mo.. Aug. 21, 1863. 

Ncal, Thomas (Edwards County), died at Memphis Mar. 11, 1863. 
Orr, William (Edwards County), mastered out June 10, isir, 
Oi-r, Cunningham (Edwards Co.). disch. Mar. 3, isct; disability. 
Park, E. L. (Edward- Count] ,, died at .Memphis May 19, 1863. 
Peter, Andrew (Kdward., County,, mustered out June 16. ISliS. 

Peek, Joseph (i* abash County), mustered out June 10, isos. 
Riddens, James JI. (Edwards County), mustered out June 1C, 18C5. 
Snowdall, Edwaid. Jr. , Edward- Co.,, mustered cm June 10, 1865. 
Sncllen, William (Edwards County), mil-tered out June Hi, 1865 
Smilh, William, Jr. (Edwards Co.,". M.ti. June 16, Is,:,; was prsnr 
Smith, George, Jr. (Edwards County), musiered out June 16, 1865. 
Spiuell, William K. (Edward- Co.), M. IP. .lone ic, 1865; was prsnr. 
Thrash, Stephen S. , Wabash Co.), JI. O. June 16, 1805, as corporal. 
Tail, John (Edards County), M. O. June 1C, 1865, as sergeant 
Utley, Robert W. (Edwards' County , mustered out June Hi lsc.5. 
Vinson. John (Edwards Co.), discharged Am.-. 8, IS,;:|; disability. 
Wilkins, John (Edwards County), died at JUmphis May 14 1803 

"^ ''^ K ' 1 "-- JS fco:A b J JuneV^ WaaV ^ er - 

.. ), died at Warrenton, Miss., June 9, '6:1. 

JNomto-Campbell. James (Edwards County), died at Katchez, Miss, Dec. 

Harris, Bedford (Edwards County), transferred to H 18 111. inftry. 

reorganized: mustered ou I Dee. 16, 1865. 

Harris, James T. {Edwards County), transferred to Co. H 18 111. 
infantry r.-organi/eil: absent sick ;,t must-rim: out of regimt. 
II, Franklin C. (Edwards County), tran-fcrred to Co. H 1" III. 
lifantry reorganized : absent sick at I 
Seatfield, James (Edwards County), kill 

Sept. Hi, 1864. 

Hutchins, Henry J. (Edwards County), transferred (o .Co. HIS III. 

infantry ; discharged Sept. Ill, 1865. 
Horton, Richard (Edwards County), transferred to Co. H. 18 111 

'iifantry; musiered out Dec. 16. 1865 

Stanley, Charles (Edwards County), transferred to Co. H 18 111. 

infantry : discharged J ,1 ly fl, 1865. 
Stewart, Alexander (Edwards County,, transferred to Co. H 18 

III. infantry; discharged July 9, 1865. 
Tail James M. or W. (Edwards County), died at Morganzia, La.] 

Tribe', William B (Edwards County), transferred to Co. H 18 111. 

infantry: on detached service at mustering out of regiment. 

Waters, i;eori;c , Kd wards County,, iran-lerrcd to Co. H 18 111. in- 
fantry; mustered out Dee. IK, IX, M. 

Weaver. Alexander , Edwards Countyi. transferred to Co H 18 III. 
infantry ; on dc!a<-he,i ->-n ice at m, interim: ,,,11 of reciim lit 

West, Robert X. , Edw-ards County), transferred to C... H 18 III. in- 
fantry; discharged Aug. 2.',, 181.5. 



, Thorn is (Edwards County), transferred to Co. D. 

.Sen-Kid Fowler, Silas 51. [Kdwards County), 1 
~ ' ' nder M. (F ' ' " 

Orr, Alexand 
)rr, Alfrud (li 

ltt.<-ruits Alii' 

aferred to Co. ] 

(Kdwai-ds Coiinly), transferred to Co. II. 
ds County), transferred t i Co. H IS infaii 
Samuel t Wabash County), died at Camp i 

Mar. 13, 1804. 
iaker, Abram (Wr. 
Try, Thomas II. 
elv'ilihee. Luther K. iKdards County),' 
died at Camp Butler, April I 
88th I maiif i-y Regime 

9, 1865, as corporal 
91st Infantry Re g lment.-Three Years' Service. 

This regiment was organized by Col. H. M. Day, at 
Camp Butler, Illinois, and mustered in September 8, 
1862. October 1, ordered to Louisville, Kentucky, and 
was assigned to duty guarding the L & N. railroad, in 
Gen. Gilbert's division, on 27th December, 1862, at 
Elizabethtown, Kentucky. After an engagement the 
regiment was captured by Morgan, and, after beiug 
paroled, was sent to Benton Barrack, Mo- 

July 14th, having been exchanged, ariivrd at Vicks- 
burg, Miss., from there moved to Post Hudson and 
Carrollton, La., thence to New Orleans. Here the reg- 
iment was transfered to the First Brigade. Embarked 
October 22d, for Brownsville ; took part in the captur- 
ing of the fort and city, and driving the enemy from that 
part of Texas; did garrison duty several mouths at 
Brazos, Santiago, and New Orleans. The Ninety-first 
took an active part in the campaign, which resulted in 
the capture of Spanish Fort and Fort Blakeley, and 
caused the surrender of Mobile ; had a sharp en- 
gagement with the enemy at Eight Mile creek, on the 
Tombigbee river ; mustered out of service July 12, 1865, 
at Mobile, and on the 22d of July following at Camp But- 
ler, Illinois, received final payment and discharged. 


Captains Elmus, Ryn,n, (Lawrence County), resigned Sept. 13, 1863. 

Thomas J. Ball win, I l.awre, 'County I, resigned Feb. 5, 1864. 

William W. Shepperd, (Lawrence County), M. o. Julv v_<, 1*65. 
Kr(ii,(,an( S -Alfred 11. < I ra-s. i Lawrence Co.), resigned .Inly &, lx,i:i. 
Thomas J. Tanquary, (Lawrence Co.), 51. o. July 12, Isir.. 

Second Lieutenant Nathan I!. Hull 1 , (Lawre Co.) resigned Sept. in, 1861. 

C. M. Bosley,, Law rence c,,.,, 51. o (as seri;i ,. July !_>, Y,:,. 
lin Rogers, (Lawrence Co.), d. at New Orleans, Nov. 19, '63. 
as Rich, i Lawrence County). 

" Mills, (Lawrence Co.), M. o. July 12, Isi;:,, as private, 
r Monroe, (Lawrence Co.), died at Carrollton, La., Sept. 

Hiram, Jones, (Lawrence Co.), M. O. July 12, 1865, as sergeant. 

Joseph (Joslen, (Lawrence Co.), 51. 0. July 12, 1x65, as private. 

Obadiah B. Webb, (Lawrence County), M. ' i. July 12, 1865. 

John StandnVId, I Lawrence Conntyi', mustered out July 12,1865. 
Acres, John, (Lawrence County., mustered our July 12,1865. 
Allison, Warner, (Lavrenoc Countyi. mustered out' July 12,1865. 
Brunson, Alexander. .Lawrence- Co.), 51. o. July 12, 1865, as Corp. 
Barnett, Robert, t Lawrence County), muster.-, I out July 1.', 1865. 
Brannan, Alexander !>., (Lawrence Countyi, 51. O. .Inly 12, lsiir>. 
Barber, Elipbalet. 'Laurence Conntv), mustered out July 1'2, 1865. 
Boree, A. D., (Lawrence County), transferred to Company C. 
Coleman, Thomas, (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 1865. 


Collison, John Wl, '(Lawrence Co.), 51. o. July 12. 1865, as'corporaL 
Corrie, George IL, (Lawrence County), mustered out May 10, 1865. 

Dennison, John 
April 28, 1864. 

Delimit, Jacob, (Lawrence Co.). d. at Carrollton, La., Nov. 4, 1863. 
Ill-long, .lettorson, .Lawrence Countyi, mustered O'lt July 12, 1865. 
Dixun, Theodore, (Lawrence Co.). d. at New Orleans, Feb. 1:1, '65. 
Dubois, Charles, (Lawrence County), died Brazos Santiago, T, 

Evins/John S. (Lawrence County), sergeant, died Brazos Santiago, 

Emmons,' James C., (Lawrence Co.), d. at N. Orleans, Sept. 10, 'S3. 

F.mmons, Charles, (Lawrence Co.), disch. Mar. IX. Ism, disability. 
Fitchey. William 11.. (Lawrence Countv), 51. O. 12. IS05. - 

Corporals Thom 

John T. Mills,' 
Alexande " 

Clark, Thomas, i Lawrence County), "M. o. Julv 12, IgliS, as sergt. 

Cox Edward, (Lawrence County)", 51. O.July 12. 1865, as corporal. 

Cool-:. Samuel .M.. i renee Countv), mustered out Julv 12 1865 

Allison, John W!, (Lawrence Co.), 51. O. July 12. 1865, as'corpo, 
>rrie, George II., (Lawrence County), mustered out Slav IIP, It 
aft, William. I Lawrence County.) 'mustered out Julv 12, 1HI!5 
enuison, John. (Lawrence Countv), died at Brownsville Tes 

Funk, (Jabriel M., (Lawren 
Funk, Thomas M, (Lawrei 
Faith, Thomas J., (Lawreni 

Grant, Elmer. (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 
lore, liussell. i Lawrence Co.), disch. Nov. 20, 1*12, di 
~ untv,) mustered out July 
....,.,.-, ^ .-,., v ^,..uu uc Bounty), mi- - J * '' 

IL-vill. UalUee. , Lawrence Cu.l. died wh 

llensloy, Marion, (Law 

, liussell, (Lawrence do.), diseh. No 
. Felix, (Lawrence County,) i 
H"!?' A ! f r. ed M., (Lawrence County), 

Hensley, Marion, (Lawrence Co.i. mustered out .Inly 12, 18ii5. 
I licks, Samuel F. 51., i Law rence Countyi. Iran.forred to Co. H. 
Irwin, William II., (Lawrence County l! mustered out July 12, '65. 
Iristi, Stephen A., (La* rence Co.), died at Brownsville, Texas, Apl. 

Jones, Lewis, (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 1863. 
Jett, Joseph B., , Lawrence County I. mustered out July 12, 1865. 
Jones, Aimer, il.iwrcnco Countyi. mustered out July'l2. Ixii.i. 
Keniepp, Win. 5L, I Lawrence County), mustered out'.May :i I, 1*65. 
Laeo-t, Ualph, . La wren .-,- Conn VI, mustered out J.ilv 12 IXi;:,. 

Mullins,.lohn II., (Lawrci County., 51. o July 12. as corporal. 

Hosier, William D., (Lawrence Countv). died at Lawrenceville 

III., Nov. 15, 1865. 

Mccarty, John. (Lawrence Countyi, mustered out July 12, 1865. 
MeKiniey Thomas C., I Lawrence County ), 51. o. .Inly 12, 1865. 
Miller. William 1L. , Lawrence County i. 51. o. .Inly 12, 1865. 
Murphy, 51ichacl A., (Lawrence Conntyi. 51. o. July 12, 1865. 
Mills, Henry P.. (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 1865. 
Martin, Edmund. (Lawrence County), transferred to Company H. 

September IIP. ls,;j; disoli. 5lHrch"7, 18,1-4 ; disability. 
Norton, IraC., (Lawrence Co.), 51. o. July 12. I.s,i5. as'sergeant. 
Peters, William. ( Law rence County), mustered out June 19, 1865. 
Peters, John, (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 18IJ5. 
Peek. Uexander ' 
Ramsey, Tobias, 
liich, William R.,'(Lawre 
liawlins, William W., (' 

Countv), mustered t 
Couniyl. mustered out July 12, 1865. 
(Lawrence County), died at Carroitton, La., 

Roizers, Svlve-ter, (Lawrence c,,unt\ L K. O. July 12, 1865, as Corp. 

Kna-U. Hiram C..,l,,re, c,,.,d.'.,, New ( Orleans, ( Pct! 15. lx,a 

Shidler, Thos., (Lawrence Co.), disch. March 21, 1st;:!; disability. 
~ d. at New Orleans. Sept. Ill, Isiii. 
.), mustered out July 1-2, 1865. 
), M. O. Julv 12, 1805, as corporal. 
ountv), diet! at Brazos Santiago, 

Smith, Oeori'e 
Shrader, Wm. 51.. (Lawren 
Shrefler, Daniel, (Lawrence Count 
Mlg. 29, 1864. 

Thomas, Joseph, (Lawrence County), mustered out July 12, 1805. 
Vallev, IVtcr I-'., i Lawrence County), .M. o. Julv I-'. IMn, as Corp. 
Valley, Frank, (Lawrence County), died at Lawrenceville, 111., 

w'insiiip, Jo's'., (Lawrence County), disch. Mar. 24, 1863; disability. 
Wardell, Furman, (Lawrence County), died at New Orleans, Aug. 

Ktcniils Branson,' David, (Lawrence Co.), transferred to Co. E, 28th III., 
mustered out Mar. 15, 1866. 

115th Infantry .-Col Jesse H. Moore in command. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Butler, Sept. 
19 1862; ordered into the field October 4th following, 
and soon after became a part of the command of Gen- 
A. J. Smith. On the 18th of September, 1863, engaged 
the enemy upon the field at Chickamauga. The regi- 
ment participated in all the engagements around Chat- 
tanooga and Mission Ridge. Jt also formed a part of 
Sherman's army in the Atlanta campaign. Durii'g the 
latter campaign the regiment lost about one hundred 
men. The 1 loth took part in the engagements, which, 
in November and December, 1864, resulted in the des- 
truction of Bragg's army. This regiment made a gal- 
lant record during the war. June 11, 1865, mustered 
out of service and received final pay and discharge 
June 23, 1865, at Camp Butler, Illinois. 


Ctytofci-David Williams (\Vabash County), mustered out June 11, 185. 
F,rt Liatkwiuts F.phraiin II. Kiimcrj , Wai a-i, Co.), resigned Sept. 7, '63. 
John C. K. Youngken (Wahash Co ). 51. o. June II, IdiiS. 
Firxt fjciv;iiit-.Iohn S. .Mundv I Wahash Co.), mustered out June II, 1865. 
-John M. Brown iV.'al.ash Co.,, ,lisch. April 10. ISO; disability. 
Hllifli H. Fry (Lawrence Co.), disoh. .May 2:1. lsi;:i; disability. 
Lewis (Jeisl'er iWabash County). , lied near Knoxville, Tenn., 

\pril 2,1, 1x114, by falling from i 

vge'" - 


Feb. x, is,;:t. 

, , . 

Corporate fjeorite W. Rlm.l.-s. mu-ti-red mil June 11. isci.-,, as serge. 

William Lanterman (Lawrence County), died at Danville, Ky., 

Edwin 1 

,. -to T. K.-l'sey i \\abash CIP.), dis 

Hamilton Hinkle (Kdwards County., died at Richmond, Ky., 

Dec. 2!>, 1862. 
Fred, -rick liadde (Edwards Countv), killed at Chickamauga 

Sept. 20,1 

Moses Duty t Wabash Co.), died at Nashville. Tenn., Apr. 2, 1863. 
Richard I'tter (Wabash County), m tutored OOl June 11, 1865. 
Henry liard (Wabash County)", .M. o. June 11, pris. of war, 

Wagoner John 

Priratcs Browi 


ph Sheare 

(Wabash County), mustered . 



Brines, Franklin (Wabash County), 

infnniry: mustered out IT,-. 

Baxter, James II. I vVahn-h Co ) 
Harrier, Abraham i Wahash Coiintv.i, 

nsferred to Co. A 21 III. 

t Dec. in, is.;:,. 
tvVaha-h Co ), disch. Aiisr, I, isiti; disability. 

(Wahash C I1VI. mustered out June 11, 1865, 

-...npbcll, Frante A. (Lawn-nee County I, discharged . 

as corporal; disability., James M. (Wbssh County), mustered out June 11, 18 
< 'lines,' William (Waha-h Coiintyj.'mustored out June 11, IsiiTi. 

'KmHtmel (Kdwards County), tr 
le'll" John "' '' 


Dell, John (Wabash County), diseh. Mar. 23, 1803; disability. 

Freeman, Thomas J. i Wabash County,, died at Chattanooga Oct. 
nf, isii:] ; wounds. 

Freeman, Wallace A. (Wabash Co.), M. I). June 11, 1865, as corpl. 

Koi-man, Samuel , Lauren,-,- Coumj i, mustered out June 11, '65. 

Sard, Charle- i Waba-di Co.), discipline Is, Isi;:! ; disability. 

(iillespic, John (Lawrence County I, mustered out June 11, 1865. 

Glick, John t Wabash Co.), died at Shell .Mound. Tenn., Dec. 5, '63. 

Gould, William II. i Waba-h County), ,-n deta.-h.-d duty; mus- 
tered out June 22, 1865. 

Hill, Aaron (Wabash County), died in Amlersonville prison Sept, 
15, MI14: No. of grave, 883.) 

Hallaek, John ( County), mustered out June 11,1865. 

Iigu'ins,H 'go II. (Wabash Co.), M. O. June 1 1, Is,;;,, as corporal. 

ohn I Wabiish Conniyi, mustered out June 11, 1865. 
, W. (Wnbash Co.i, d'isch. June Is, MII:I; disabili 

Hine'lmugh, Jacob (Wabash Coiiuly), nmsiered out June if, isii,-,. 
Howell, Jasper i Wabash Co.). diseh. May 7, 1863; disability. 

' ' "Vahash Oo.),dtooh. April r, 1863; disability. 
' mistered out June II. isiiii. 

lowell, Jasper , W.-iha-h I 

lammiker JohniWaba- 
lill, John W. (Lawrence 

Litherlami, William J. (Wabash Co.), mustered out June 11, 1865. 

Lithorland, (i -ge W. (Wabash Co.l. mustered out. June 11, 1866. 

l.indsev, Benjamin (Lawrence County), died at Triune, Tenn., 

June i.', ls,,l. 
Miller, William S. (Wabash County), died at Danville, Ky., Jan. 

Mull, Richard (Wabash Co.), died at Richmond, Ky., Jan. 4, 1863. 

Miller, Moses J. (Wabash Co.), diseh. .lune IS, Mil:;'; disability. 
Myers, George iWaha-h County), mustered out June 11, 1865, 
Miller, James W. (Wabash County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Markman, Christian < Wabash Couniyi, mustere I out June 11, '65. 
Markman, William (Wal-a-h County), must, -red ut June 11/65. 
Nunly, Absalom (W,,bash County), mustered outJune 11, 1865. 

Price, Ge< rge B. (Wabash C I'.yi, M. <>. May li, lsr.5; wounds. 

~ ' tard (Wabash County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 


ustered i 


(Wabash County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Lewis (Watiash Co.l, M. c i, June II, isii.-,, as corporal. 
Mvid S. (Wabash C ' ' ' J ' ""' 

" porV 804 ' 

__ y), mustered out June 11, 1865.' 
Eiber, Andrew (Lawrence Co. i, trans, to V. R. C. Sept. I, 1863. 
Rose, Reuben li. (Wabash County), must, -rod out June II, 186*. 
Rigg, Edwanl D. (Wabash County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Shoarer, G. C. ( abash County), M. < ). June 11, 1865, as sergeant. 
Shoaff, John (Wabash County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Stone-, Thomas (Waba-h Cou'my), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Shepard \lbert (Wahash Coun'tv], mustered out June 11, 1865. 
Shearer/Joseph (WahasJi Co.), Mil. June 11, 1865, as corporal, 
er (Wabash Countyi, mustered out June 11, 1865. 

), mustered out June 11, ISiv.. 
h. April '.'"I, lsr,;i; disability. 
), discharged June 15,1864, 

M(Wab'ash Co.), disch. April 23, 1863; disability. 
Wood, Niles A. (Wabash Co.), died at Lexington. Kv., Nov. 23, '0-1. 
Wabash County), mustered <.llt June 11, 1865. 


Jasper (\ 


I. I VI, 1 
I * 'olltl 

Turner, Gilbert H. (Wabash County), mil! 
White, Franklin L. (Wabash Co.), disch. / 
Williams. John H. (Lawrence County), d 

, . ., , 

.la ..... -. Wai, ,sh County), mustered out June 11, 1865. 
er. H.-nj. F. - Lawrence Co.;. M. O. June 11, 1868, as corp 
Youngken, John C. K. (Wabash County), pro. Com.-Scrgt. ; 

1st Lieut. Co. C. 
Jfeenii'to-Armstrong, Ephraim (Wabash County), died at Tunnell Hill, On, 

Oct. 24, 18ii4. 
Hare, Thomas (\Vabash Count}-), transferred to 21 111. ; mustered 


Nun U |y, D John b '( Wabash 

mustered out Dec. 16, 18 Jo. 

h Co.), transferred to 21 111. vet.-recruits ; 



JViwifca-Morgan, Maxwell W. (Edwards County), disch. Nov. 15, 1863, as 
Phillips, Edward (.Edwards Count}-), missing near Canton, Miss, 

One Hundred mill Thirtieth Infantry. Three Years' Service. 

The 130th regiment, Illinois volunteers, was organized 
at Camp Butler, Illinois, October, 1862, by Colonel 
Nathaniel Niles, and vas mustered in on the 25th of the 
game month. 

The regiment moved from Camp Butler, Nov. 10th, 

and proceeded to Memphis, Tennessee, where it arrived 
on the 18th instant. 

It was mustered out of service Aug. 15th, 1865, at 
New Orleans, Louisiana, and reached Camp Butler, 
October 26, 1865, where it received final payment and 

Qnartennaiten Silas J. Stiles (Lawrence County), died at Memphis, Ten" 
ee, Dec. 19, '62. 
f H. Harrington (Wab, 


Sergeant. Absalom Banks (Lawrence Co.), trans, to Co. B., 77 III,, retrnns. 

to 130, as revived, muster,-,! out June 17, 'ir,. pris. war. 
Corporal. Anderson. Kenard (Wnbash Coiinlvi, died at Memphis, Tenn., 

Feb. 14, 1863. 
Private*. Austin. Stephen P. (Wabash Countv), died at Milliken's Bend 

April 12, 1862. 
Banks, John A. (Wnbash Co.), transferred to 77, retransferred 

Brown, William H. (Wabash' Co.), transferred to 77 and retrans- 
ferred to 130 as consolidated, mustered out Aug. 16, 1865, 

1 to 77, retrans^ 

Gfick/George H. (Wabasirco.j, Transferred 't >"77, P retrans ferred 
July 20, '65. 

ransferred to 77, retrans* 
... .'une 17, '65, prisoner war. 

iWaha-h Co.). transferred to 77, i .-transferred to 
idated, mustered out .lune 17, V,;,, prisoner war. 

Knowles, Cornelius (Wabash Co.), died at Memphis, Mar. 12, ,(B. 

Kramer, Lewis W. (Wabash Co.), transferred to 77, retrans- 
ferred to 130 as consolidated, mustered out June 17, pris. war. 

Lucas, lieorge W. i Wabash Co.) discharged for disability. 

Moyer, William H. (Wahash Co.). 

Pierce, -Joseph C. (Laurence Co.), transferred to 77, retrans- 
ferred to 120 as consolidated, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 

Samoniel, Frank (Wabash Co.), trans, to 77, l, trails, to 130. 

Slater, George W. (Lawrence Co.), diseh. Jan. 2s, '11:1, disability. 

Stett'ey, Martin L. i Wabash Co.), transferred to 77, retransferred 
to 13(1 as consolidated, nmsiered out June 17, '(15, prisoner war. 

Stein, John (WabMh Co.). transferred to 77, retranslVrred to 130 
as consolidated, mustered out Aug. 15, '85. 

Thoma", William H. (Lawrence Co.l, transferred to 77, retrans- 
ferred to 130 as consolidated, mii-torcd out Aug. 15, '65. 

Wirth, Thomas A. (Wabash Co.). 

Burton, William W. (Wabash Co.), transferred to 77, 
ferred to 130 as consolidated, M. < i. June 17, '65, prison, 

Glick, George II. (Wahash c,,.), transferred t) 77, retra: 
to i:i(i as consolidated, mustered out July 20, '" 

Harville, Thomas C. i Wabash Co.), transfer 
ferred to 130 as consolidated, M. O. June 17, 

J,,iie-. Thomas (" 




ferred to 13ii as consolidated, mustered out \ug. 15, 1865. 
Young, Charles (Wahash Co.i, diseh. \ P ,il 14, 1XU3, disability. 
RemiUa. Banks, Benjamin S. (Lawrence Co.). died at Memphis May 22, 

Bryan, Jones (Lawrence Co.). 

W. Watts (Lawrence Co.), transferred t 

77 111., ret 

Second Uente 
First SergtmL 

lidated, M. O. F. 

-John M. C. Cordon (Lawrence Co.). discn. Mar. 15, '65, disabil'y. 
James W. Turner (Lawn- ',,.1, transfer,,-,! to 77, retrans- 
ferred t" i:;u. mustered out Jim 17, 1865. 
Caleb Hoops (Lawrence Co.).' 

.-Patrick II. Gordon (Lauren,:,- Co.), Disch. Feb. 1, '63, disability. 
John Stivus (Lawrence Co.), wounded at Vieksburg .May 12, 'tis. 
Samuel L. Brown (Lawrence Co.), disch. Feb. I, '65", disability. 
John S. Abells , Lawn-nee Co.), oischa.god Feb. 1, V,;,, disability. 
SchuylerSumner (Lawrence Co.), transferred to Co. I 77, re- 
transferred to 130, mustered out Ailir. 15, 1865. 
Pleasant I niphloel i Lawrence Co.l. transferred to Co. I 77, re- 
transferred to 13o, mastered ,,m June 17. isr,:,. nrisonor war. 
.George W. Ramsey (Lawrence Co.), transferred to III. 77, re- 
transferred to 130, mustered out Aug. 15, 1865. 
Francis A. Homier (Lawrence Co.), wounded, tranferred to 

R. R. 6 Jan. 23, 1864. 

r. Henry V. Bass (Lawrence Co.), transferred to 77 III., retrans- 
ferred to 130, mustered out Aug. 1:., 1865, as corporal. 
>. Arnold, Jacob (Lawrence Co.), transferred to 77 III., retrans- 

ferred to l:to, mustered out Juno 17, prisoner war. 
Bishop, Benjrmiin F. ' Lawrence Co), transferred to 77 III., re- 

iransferred to 13", inn-ier, -d ,-nt June 17, prisoner war. 
Bowman Henry (Lawrence Co.), trans, to 77, M. (I. May 15, 1865. 
Bellis, Philip (Lawrence Co.), transferred to 77 III., rttrans- 

ferred to i::o. mustered out June 17, Isi,:,, prisoner war. 
Barnes, John H. (Lawrence Co.). Iran, to V. H. C. Feb. 23, 1864. 
Brown, Robert A. (Lawrence Co.). 

Bourn, Ransf.rd (Laurence Co.), died at Memphis Dec. 21, 1862. 
Bell, George A. (Lawrence Co.), discharged Sept. 4, 1863. 
Cravens, Rilev (Lawrence Co.), transferred to 77 III., retrans- 
ferred to 130, mu~t.-r.-d out June 17, Isi;:,, prisoner war. 
Kdwards. John L. (Lawrence Co i. transferred to 77 III., 

1:10. must-rod out Jan.- 17. 18 
atthe . ., 

udy, Joseph (Lawrence Co.), tran 



1 to ISO, mustered out June 17, 186:., prisol 
Grimth.ThomM- (Lawrence C,.... disch. April s. Is.::!, .Usability. 
Henry, Edward .1. (Law rcuee Co.), transferred to 77 III., retrans- 

fcrrcd to l:;o, mustered out J 17. Is,;:., prisoner war. 

H err in, Alexander (Lawrence Co N (ransferred to 77 lll.,retrans- 

feirod to l.'lii, mustered "lit Aug. 17,18115. 

Johnson, Milton 11. H,awr-nce Co.l.diseh. April H,lR63,disabil'y. 
Judy, John F. (Lawrence Co.), transferred to 77 111., retrans- 

foYrcd t" l:io, must. 'red out June 17. lii."., prisoner war. 
Lindsey, William (Lawret Co.), transferred to 77 111., retrans- 

ferred to l:io. mustered out Aug. 14,186.5. 

Walone, Benj. F. (Lawrence Co.), dlKJD, Fcb 1, 183. disability. 
Co.). die.l at Memphis. Dec. 2o. 1 

usirrove. .James r. >].-,:\\ iv 
re-transter,vd t,. i:m 111., M 
athewR, Jonathan W. ll.awr 

., . . . . 

. ll.awrcm-e Count.M. disch. Oct. 1st, 1863. 
rence Comity), transferred to 77 111., re- 
uster-d out AiiL'iist \-,, isti.-,. 
nce Countj I, transferred to T7 111, re-trans- 

ed out August 1ft, 1805. 

se, Isaac .1. (Law l'' 1 "'" 1 County), transferred to 77 111., retrans- 
erred to l:i". nmstci-e.l out Juno 17, lsi;-, ; prisoner of war. 
mner, Smiley (Lawrence Co.), disch. Kel,. 7, isii: 1; disability. 
aw, William H. II. (Lawrence County), trans, to 77 III. 
yuc, William \ . t I.a rence Oo.), .li-e'li. I'd,. I, Ixil.'.: disability. 
s (Lawren 
. (Luwren 
s [Lawren 

ipcr, James \. (Lawi 
transferred to 130, m 

Ramsey, Aaron (Lawrence Countj I, transferred to 77 111, re-trans- 
ferred to l.'Vl, mustered out August 1ft, 1865. 

Rose, Isaac J. (Lawrence County), transferred to 77 III., retrans- 
ferred to l:m. mustered out June- 17, 1x115 ; prisoner of war. 


StiVeVs,' jVo's\i.liwrV.iVcV<^uiityVVransf!'rre(i to7TilT. 

Smith, Diseh. (Lawn. nee Co.). dfsch. .Ian. 18, 1X6:;; .Usability. 

Sunnier. Benj. (Luwrence County) disch. Jan. I, 1S,;|; .Usability. 

Seaggs, James (Lawrence Countv), discharged Sept. 17, 1863. 

Seaggs, Thos. (Lawrence Co.), trans, to 77 III., dis. June 5, 1865. 

Scaggs, John (Lawrence County), transferred to 77 III., re-trans- 
ferred to 130, mustered out June 17,1X1'..-,: prisoner of war. 

Umphleet, Jm-vis . I. (Lawrence Coiintvi.iranstencd to 77 111., re- 
transferred to 130, mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Hermits Wharton, Joseph W. (Lawrence County), tiaiisferred to 77 III., 
re-transferred to 130, mustered out June 17, 1865. 

135th Regtment Infantry. One hundred days' service. 


Second Lieutenant Peter Jones, (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept, 28, 1864. 
Jfrin-William H. Seed, (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 2x, lxf,4. 
Wagoner Joseph A. J. I'.laeK. ( I .awrctice Co.), mustered out Sept. 2X. 1864. 
JVil-ataBinnier. William II. (Lawrence Co.i. mustered out Sept. 2x| 1X64. 
Cochran, James ( ^awTence Coun-y), mustered out Sept. 28, 1864. 

fisgrove, lioyal C. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 2s. lxi'4. 
an, .lau,o- (Lawrenoe County), mustered out Sept. 2s, isot. 
ompson, James W. i Law fence Co.), mustered out Sept. 28, '64. 
Wilbor, John (Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. 28, 1864. 

Captain-Jumee St. Clair, (Edwards County), i 

mstered out Oct. 22, 1864. 
iT H. 

Second Lieuleanul Alfred Mayo, (Edwards County), M. O.Oct. 

-Edward Stewart. (Edwards County), M. O. Oct. 22. 1864. 
"tered out Oct. 22, 1864. 
itered out Oct. 22, 1864. 

il-y Woods, (Kdwards Coitntvi, mustered nut (let. 22, 1864. 
Abe. Venfold. (Edwards Conmvi, absent sick at M. O. of regt., 
M. O. Dec. :i, to date Oct. 22, 1864. 

mistered out Oct. 22. 1864. 

Scrgeautt .Moses Sn.llh, (Edwards County), mustered < 
William Se.,tt. i Kdwards Countv), mustered 

Henry W Is (Edwards County) mustered 

Abe. Penfold, (Edwards County), absent sicl 
M. O. Dec. :i, to date Oct. 22, 1864. 

IXrporali Charles Clark, (Edwards County), mustered out Oct. 22, IXill. 
Thomas .1. Ct.lsm, (Edwards Couun !. nmstered out Oct. 22. 1,- 

Joel Bunting, (Edwards Countj ). mustered out Oct. 22, 1864. 

James S B. II, (Edwards County., mustered out Oet 22, 1864. 

Harry Dalt,v. (Edwardfi ( onni\ ,. mustered out Oet. 22, 1864. 

Lewis A. Michaels, (Edwards Com, H), mustered out Oct. 22, 1P64. 
Musicians Jiimes H. Shelby, (Edwards County.! M. Oct. 22, 1x64, as private. 

(leorge Stanley, I Edwards County', M. Oct. 22. 1X64, as private. 
Wagoner William F. Koomson, (Edwards c'.imtv . M o. (I t. 22 as priiate 

atson, John, (Kdwards County), 'mils 
1'iiBlev, William. (Edwards Cmmiv). 
liming. Phincse. [Edwards County), 

usier.'d out Oct. 22, 1X64. 

llstered out 'let. 22. 1X6-1. 

ustered out Oct. 22, 1X64. 

llaker. Simps,,,,. (Edwards Counn i. mustered out Oct. 22. 1X64. 
Bowers, Willimn. (Edwards County ), absent sick nt M. o. "f regt. 
Crome, James, (Edwards County ),' mustered out Oct. 22. Ism. 
Crome, William, (Edwards County], untutored out Oct. 21'. 1x114. 
llru-y, Bamctt, (Edwards County), mustered out o. t. 22. 1x64. 
Ellis,' Charles. (Edwards Coiinti)' mustered out Oet. 22, 1864. 
Franklin, George, (Edwards county,, M. O. Oct. 22, 1X64, as corpl. 
Ferrieman, John C., l Edwards Coun.yi, mns ered out Oct. 22, '64. 
Fewks, William. I Ed wards comity, mustered out Oet. 22, l64. 
Green, William M., (Edwards Co.'l. muster, d out Oct. 22, 1864. 
Gould, Charls,( Edwards Co.), died :.t ColumbUB, Ky., Sept. 1, '64. 
Gawthorp, Kobert. (Kdwards Counu ). mustered out Oct. 22. 1X64. 
l!a, wick, Edmund I!., (Edwards County i, M. o. I let 22, 1x64. 
Hoc-king, Peter. (Edwards County), mustered out Oct. 22, Islil. 

. Edwards Conn 

mistered out Oet. 22, 
I at Columbus, Ky,.lnly:.(i, 64. 

, mustered out Oct. , 1S61. 

I -'. Samuel, lEdwalds ( ouiitv ). mustered 0111 Oct. 22. 1X61. 

McKibl , IiiL-ht. (Edwards c '., uiilyi. mustered ..ut Oct. 2", '61. 

MeCullom, Iiani. l.i E.I wards County i, mustered out Oct. 22, lxr.4., I iilison, (Edwards County i', must, red out Oct. 22, 1X64. 

MeCullom. William. (Edwards County), mustered out Oct. 22, '04. 
Over, William. iKdwar. sC,, u ,iti ,. musiere.i ..ut ( let. 22, 1864. 
iirr, Albert, i Edwards County), mustered out Dot. 22 1x114. 
Powell, Anson. (Edwards Coiinly,. mustered out Oct. 22. lsi'4. 
Eeed.G. Charles, (Edwards County), died at Columbus, Ky., Aug. 


ards County), mustered 

Shelby, William, (Edwards Countv,, mustered out Oct. 22, 1X64. 
Stanley, Luther. (Edwards County), died at Columbus, Ky., July 

Scott, Thomas J., (Edwards County), died at Columbus, Ky., July 

Sum'merfield, Charles F., (Edwards Co ), M. O. Oet 22, 1864. 

Shenpard. Th s, [Edwards Count] I, 'mustered out Oct. 22. 1x64. 

Bocllng, .!., incs K., (Edwards County .muttered out OcizZ, 1x64. 

Watson, Silas H., (Edwards County), died at Columbus, Ky,, July 

Woods, Franklin, (Edwards County), mustered out Oct. 22, 1864. 
Wode, Thonwa, (Edwards Countj i. mustered out ' ict. 22, 1*64. 
Williams, James, (Edwards County), mustered out Oct. 22, 1864. 

One Hundred and Fifty-Second Infantry. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Butler, Illinois, 
by Col. F. D. Stephenson. Mustered, Feb. 18, 1865," 
for one year. Feb. 20, ordered to Tullahoma, Tenn., 
and became part of Geu. Millroy's command. The 
regiment was mustered out, Sept. 11, 18u5, at Memphis. 
Ordered to Camp Butler, there received pay and dis- 


(Wright, Bunting (Edwards Co.\ M. O. Sept. 1 1,'65, as serg- 

lob T. Johnson. (Edwards County,, absent sj.-k since July 

6, 18-.6: reduced to sergeant. 

ithan MeKihbeii, , Edwards Co.), mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 
uel A. Rothraek, (Edwards Co.), mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 
Samuel 1'. Walk, (Edwards Co.). .M. O. Sept. 11, ixi;:., as private. 
Curporalt Henry J., (Edwards Co.i, muster,-.! "lit Sept. 11,1X65. 
George. l'i\ley. (Edwards County,, musiere.i out Sept. 11, 1865. 
' Roat, (Edwards County), mustered out Sept. 11, 1 


wiiiiiim's'choVic-i.'i.' i'i., 'iw "','!. i.'a'i,-'.. iu' si,'-u'!lt' .tfo 

Wesley Bond, (Edwards Co. i. died at Nashville, Tenn., Ju,y 11,'65. 

Peter Kershaw, (Edwards Coiinly ,, iiiu-tcred out Sept. 11,1x66. 

William Curtis, (Edwards c Kyi, mn-toivd out Sept. 11, 1866. 

Harrison Kiw, (Edwards County), nmstered out July 22, 1865. 
JlfMsfciaiw Andrew L. Hedriok, (Edwards Co.), mustered out Sept. 11, 1X65. 

Peter Hammaker, (Kdwards Co.), M. o. Sept. II, 1865, as privt. 
Wagoner Peter P. Piejve. (Edwards County), mustered out Sept. 11. 186.}. 
Priiutca Byers. Fmneis W. (Edwards Coinityi. mustered out Sept. 11, '65. 

Borrell or llarne 

Cory, Thomas 

nster out of Regiment. 

TY. ThonUfl \\ . < ^..l^^;,^ds Coin 

March 17, 1865. 

ty), died at Tullahoma, Te 

Fields, Jo 

i,",Ulen (Edward* Count] '.n'u 

eph (Edwards County), miiste 
Edwin (Edwards Count] i, mu 

Sept, II, 
tercdout Sept. 11, 1 

wit Sept H, 1MB. 

r. l':iijali i I' 
, Henry (E 

I_D. (Edwards I ,',.,, 

, mustered out Se 
'** - tSep, 

(in (Ec 

-,. (Edward- Comity i, mustered ( 

Glade, Henry (Edwards County), nuistered out Sept. II, 1x6. 

t Sept.' II 

pt. 11, 1X1 

S lover, Alfred (Edwards 

Harms, Henry (Kdwards County), mustered out Sept. II, 1865. 

Jlollc.mam. H'irain (E.lwards County), mustered out Sept. II, '65. 
]lill. William i Edwards County), nm-teivd out Sept. 11,1866. 
Huey, Jacob (E.lwards County), died at Tullahoma. 
Knailee. otto ,Eduards County), mustered out Sept. 11, 1S65. 
Mv-Clure, Alex. H. (E.lwards Co.!. M. c >. Sept. 11, isn;,, as 1st 
McKay, Jan 

vi, musi,.re<l out Sept. 11,1865. 
.), mustered out Sept. 11,1X60. 
County), mustered out Sept. 11, 18( 
mtyl, mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 
Edwards Co.), M. o. Sept. 11, ls(i.i. 
lt\'i, mustered out Sept. 11, 18<lo. 
niy). mustered out Sept. II, isilo. 

_ ..ding, John (Edwards Coun 

Nadimr, Samuel i Edward- County), mustered out t 

NadiiiL-. Jacob ! I'.dwards Comity,, sterc-d out Sept". 11, Isilo. 

< i\ er. .lames H. ( Edwards County), mustered out Sept. 11, 1865. 

< )rr. Nol,le (Edwards County), nuistered out Sept, 11, 1865. 
Pollard. John A. iF.dwa ds County i. ab-.-nt sick at M. O. of Regt. 
Powell. Alison lEdw-irds County), must. -red out Sept. 11, Ixi',:,. 
Hi.-,-, William s. (Edwards County), mustered out July :u, is,;:,. 

r Joseph (Edward! ( ountvi.died at Tullahoma, 
-., is,,:,. 
Edward- ( 

liice, Claylioru (Kdwa-ds Coun'tyi, musician, absents 
t,er out of Reiriment. 

" " "- J - "r,.), mustered out Sept. II, 1865. 

nster.-. I out Sept. 11, 1X65. 
n , ........... ... VIJ v....,...s County'), died at Nashville, 

ll.v, ion-: Jolm'w.TKdwards County), m ustered out Sept 11,1866. 
..... e 

Qu ^issg'^ 

Seever Elias (F.dw 

Uce, ( 'lav lorn i \'A- 
I. r oiit'of liegitm 
Roiram. 1, Henry F. (Edwards Co.), 
Rich, Elias (Edwards County, mils 
Rothraek, uiilian, 11. (Edwards 


.,. Henry (Edwards CoOnty), niuste,',-.! out Sept. 11, IMio 
llolhroek. II. m'y !'. ' Edwards Co.i, mustered out Sept. 11, IWio. 
Moan. .Morris 11.' County), mustered out Sept. II, 1KK5. 
Shelbv. .lame- I!. 1 1-:. Iwards ( ..nun' ., mastered out Sept. 11, 1865. 

Sl,ell'V,W,n. 11. (Edward- C My i, al ,-en, slek al M.S. of l(ej!t. 

Steele, Arthur i Edwards C..unl>), mustered out Sept. 11, Isil',. 
Shaw, William . Edwards C.imiU ), inuster.'d out Sept. II, 18U5. 



Tomlinson, .lames (Edwards County}, mustered out .Inly 1", lso.1. 
Taylor, Win. or James (Edwards Co.), mastered out July i\ IS.B. 
Valette, \Vtn. I'. County), mustered ,,ut Miiy .'!. Isiwi. 
We-t, Charles ci. , Kduards County >. nri-trr.-.l .,nt Sept. 1 1, 1S. 
\V-st. John s. il-Mttiir.N County), iiiustcn-d out Sept. n. isn:,. 

Jas. M. i Edwards Comny), mustered out s..,,t. II, ixo:,. 

, .las. C. ( Kdward County), mustered out Sept. 1 ', 1865. 

ciiry (Kd wards Coiiutyi, 'mu.-ten-d out Sept. 11. 1865. 


Willis, II 

Wood. Charli-s | I'M 

ts,.,,t, n.i 

it May .M, I 

s County), 
154th Infantry. 

This regiment was organized at Camp Butler, Illinois, 
February 21, 1865, under the call of December 19, 1864 
Ordered to the front and reached Louisville, Ky., Feb. 
21th, thence to Nashville on the 27th, and on March 
2d, moved on to Murfreesboro, where they remained 
until May 15. The regiment participated in no battles, 
but, occasionally, had slight skirmishes, Sept. 18, 1865. 
The regiment was mustered out at Nashville, Teun , and 
ordered to Springfield, Illinois, for final payment and 
discharge, which took place, Sept. 29th, 1865. 


First Lieutenant James H. Wright (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1865. 
.svcmi'/ Li'iitniatit Geo. B. Danforth (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18,1805- 
Fir,t Sergeant-Harvey W. Wright (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1865. 
SeriieiiU John B. Rich (Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. 18, 1865. 
OirporaU James c. s -v.-rns (Lawrence Co.i, M. O. Sept. 18, 1865 ; as sergt. 
William N. Colton iLawriMlce County), M. (I. May , 1865. 
William II. Filk.-\ (Waba-h County], M. O. Sept. 18, 1865. 
John Highsmith (Lawrence County), M. o. Sept. 18, 1805. 
John L.Bidgley, Lawrence County i M. o. Sept. ix, 1805. 
Benjamin S.' M.'.orc (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept, 18, 1805. 
Musician-John Jackman (Lawrence County), M. O. Aug. 23, 1866, as priv't 
Wagmter John R. Hazelton (Edwards County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1805, as pv\ 
Privates Allen, William F. (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1805. 

Allen, otho W. !L-iwreii-e County), 'mustered out Sept. 18, 1X65. 

" n, Oscar (Wabash Co.), M. O. Aug. 

s. James J. (Lawrence County), r 
.Ihcrs, Benjamin ( Lawrence Count. ). 
itliers. William (Lawrence County). 

iwn, Leand-r, (Lawrence Countyi mustered out Sept. 18,1865. 
Bl.mkcu^hip, Craven (Lawrence Countv). 

Bicklc,.lohn (Lawrence Co.), died at Nashville, Tenn., May 29, '05. 
Conover, Isaac (Lawrence Co.), d. at Murfreesboro, T., May 4, '65. 
im B. (Lawn-nee County), M. O. May 22, 1805. 

,, mstercd out 

Heath,' Robert (Lawrence Co.), M 6. Sept. II 18>-,.->, as corporal. 
Highsmith, James M. (Lawrence County). M. O. Am;. 25, 1865. 
Higgins, Harvey (Lawrence Co.), died at Murfreesboro, T., April 

Hawking James K. P. (Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1805. 
Huffman, John (Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. IX, lxi;5. 
Jones, Samuel (L.wrenoe County,, mustered out Sept. 18, 865. 
Jackmau, Aaron II. I Lawn-uec County), M. (1. Sept. 18, 1805. 
Lailghlin, John (Lawrence County,, must. -red out June W, 1805. 
Latl-'lilin, William (Lawrence County), M. o. Sept. 18, 1805. 
Laird, George W. i Lawrence County), M. O. Sept. 18, 1805. 
Lewis, Jaui'-s i Lawrence County). 

ibald 1'. (Lauren, -c'Coiintyl, M. 1 1, Sept. 18, 1865. 
Moore, Til ford (1. awn-nee Countv,, mustered out Sept. IX, 1X65. 
Moore, Archibald (Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. 18,1805. 
Mo., re, Jonathan (Lawrence County), .died at Murfreesboro, T., 

April lit, 18135. 

Myers, Preston (Lawrence Countv), must. -red out Sept. 18, 1805. 
Mi-Petridge^John (Lawrence County), died at Murfreesboro, T., 

McFetridge, ^William H. (Lawrence County), died at Mnrfrees- 

135th Infantry Volunteer*. 

Was organized and mustered in at Camp Butler, Illinois, 
Feb. 28th, 1865, for one year, by Colonel Gustavus A. 
Smith. On March 2d, the regiment 964 strong- 
moved, via Louisville and Nashville, to Tullahoma, 
Tenn., reported to Gen Milroy, and was assigned to the 
i command of General Dudley. June 17tb, the regiment 
was divided into detachments of twenty or thirty men 
each, and did guard duty on the Nashville and Chat- 
tanooga railroad, occupying the block-houses from Nash- 
ville to Duck river, a distance of fifty miles. Sept. 4th, 
the regiment was mustered out of service, and moved to 
Camp Butler, Illinois, w!:ere it received final pay and 

r, John (Lawrence Co). 


li.,ro, T,, May 7, li 

I lani.-l K. ( I. iwn 

McGixin, -loliu (Lawn-nee County), muste 
1'olt-s .I..-,-pli (Lawrem-e Countyi. absent 
I'ittmaii, lieruardc. (Lawrence County), 

County), M. O. Sept, 18, 1865. 
), mustered out Sept. 18, 18(35. 

sick at M. II. of regt. 

absent with leave sinc 


Pa'tt'on', John't). (Lawrence County), mustered out July 31, 1865. 
Putnam, Lafayette [Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. 2ll, '115. 
Kid-ley, Harrison i}. (Lawrence County), M. o. Sept. 18 1865. 

n i, mustered out Scut, 18, 1865. 

Shiek, Koi.ert F. (Lawrence County ), absenl sick at M. O. ofregt 
Sliulls, Samil.-l i Lawn-nee County)', mustered out Sept. 18, 1X65. 
W.-stm,,rlaiiil, .l.ilin l Lawn-nee County). M. ( ). Sept. 18. 1805. 
-Witters, John i Lawn-nee Countyi mustered out May ^2, 1865. 


nustered out (as 

Lieutenant Jacob Tucker (Lawrence 

sergeant) Sept. 18, 1865. 
d Charles Kow (Lawn-nee County), m 
-Hlattner, Henry i Lawrence Countyi, mu-t -red out Sept. IX, Iwr,. 

llen-miah. 11,-ilrv I Lawrence Co i.'.M. o. Sept. Is, lsr.5, as corpl. 

Kicnitr, Wil n ,, mii-ton-d out Sept. Ix, IM;:,. 

(ist.-n,i.,rf. Henry il.awn-nee County), mustered out Sept. Ix, iso5. 

OlH-rmilcller, Join, I Lawn-lie,- County ), mu-tero. 1 out Sept. |8,'05. 

Row. Francis M. il.awn- County,, mii-ten-d out Sept. Ix. Ixc,:,. 

Tucker, (ieorne .Laurence County), mustered ..ut Sept. Is, is..-,. 

Tkke,Chrisfcpher<Lawrence County), mustered out Sept. is, '65. 

.Mi -ol i, A a roll, l.awtouee Co.), must. ( 

'avis, William (Lawrence Co.). must, out Sept. 4, IxivV, as 8e 

Jo.), died at Tullahoma, Tenn., May 

t Sept, 4, 1805, as Sergt. 
,' must, out Sept. 4, 18(>.i, as Sergt. 
Johnson, Ja,. K (Law. " ' ' 

2, 18H.-I. 

Lee, Francis M. (Law 

Aug. 16, 1865. 
Lee, Charles K. i l.awre Co.), mustered out Sept. I, ixiir, 

Co), died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., 


Privates. Cook, Thomas ( Lawrence Co.), mustered out Sept. 4, lxo.1. 

Privates. Baughman, Oliver (Edwards Co.), mustered out Sept. 4, 1865. 


/Virato. Bueklin, Sylvester (Lawrence (Co.), mustered out Sept. 20,1865. 
Godrich, Charles H. (Lawrence Co.i, mustered out Sept. -.11, 1x05. 
Hayworth, William (Lawrence Co.i, mustered out Sept. -'u, Ixof,. 
Noble, Lewis G. (Lawrence Co.), died at Memphis Aug. 8, 1865. 


Mtaiciam. George C. Grimes (Lawrence Co.), M. O. Aug. 25, 1805, as Sergt. 
Layhourll, Benj. (Lawrence Co.), absent sick at M. O. of Regt. 
Lawnoss, Isaac C. (Lawrence Co.) mustered out Sept. 20, 1805. 
Loomis, Defariet (Lawrence Co.). mustered out Sept. 20, 1865. 

136th Regiment Indiana Volunteer*. 

The following named parties enlisted in this regiment 
from Wabash county, Illinois : 

J. T. Burkett, Company H, 136th Indiana Vols. 
James Parkinson, Co. H, llloth Indiana Vols. 
James H. llcall, Co. II, noth Indiana Vols. 
Wm. P. Habberton. Co. II, lamli Indiana Vols. 
James II. Bell, Co. II, 138th Indiana Vols. 
8. 1). Greer, Co. II, Moth Indiana Vols. 

. , . , 

L M. Turner Co. II 
M. L. Tilton, Co. C, 

. Tilton, 

hen Willi 

, . , 

Co. II l:!''.th Indiana Vols. 
Co. C, i:ii;ih Indi 

. . , . , . 

Stc-phen Williamson, Co. C, i:ic,th Indiana Vols. 
Jno. Voll, Co. C, llllitli Indiana Vols. 
Christian Walter, Co. A. l:ith Indiana Vols. 
Mack H. Moyer, Co. F, 136th Indiana Vols. 

Cavalry s, . i. , I < li Cavalry Regiment. 


Stlt Cavalry Regiment. 

This regiment was organized at-Camp Butler, Nov. 8, 
1861. Ordered to Jefferson barracks, Mo., February 
20, 1862. March 3d, reached Pilot Knob. On the 
29th of June following became a part of General Curtis' 
command. Also, took part in the fight at Cotton Plant, 
and the expedition to Duvall's Bluff, and engaged in 
the pursuit of Marmaduke. In July was with Sher- 
man's army at Jackson, Miss. Was in the expeditions 
to Meridian, Canton, Grenada and the Yellow Bush. 



Participated in the battles and skirmishes at Browns- 
ville, Port Gibson, Natchez and Tonica Bend. In '64 
was in an expedition to Arkansas and Louisiana. Sta- 
tioned for a time at Hempstead, Texas. Ordered to 
Springfield, Ills. Was mustered out, receiving final pay- 
ment, Oct. 30, 1865. 


Veterans. Karns, John R. (Lawrence Co.) must, out Oct. 21, '65, as Sergt. 
erui( B .-Hendri,-k, Geuriro Edwards Co., must, out May 11,8865. 
Snider, Jolm (Lawrence Co.) mustered out Oct. 21, 1865. 

BecruiU Edmundson, William (Lawrence Ci ). 


m.ite.-Ewing, Johnson (Edwards Co.), died. Camp Butler, 111., Feb. 28, 
Smith, William (Lawrence Co.) 


JJecruu'i-Audrews. Jno, (Lawrence Co.), Corpl. V.R.C. May.,15,'65 
Buchannan. Joseph It. ( Lawn-nee Co.), must, out Oct. 27, 1865. 

(Impel, 1'hilo X. (Lawrence Co.i, mustered out Oct. 27, 1865. 
Deirermes, Louis (Lawrence Co.,, mustered out Oct. 27. is,;;,. 
Drennan. Betij. . Law-renew C,,.), died at Vicksburg Aug. 31 
Eaton, Al,,li/,o , Laurence Co.i, 1 Uscharged July 2.',, 1864. 
Ed.unudson.Jas. E. (Lawrence i ',..,. died at Vi disburg Aug. 

31, 1864. 

Aug. 8, '64. 


England,' Jefferson" (Lawrence Co.)','died at VicksburgOcClo; 'i 
' r, )Lawreii,-e c,,i, must, out Oct. 27, ISto. 



;elley, Thomas J. (L'awrence_Co.), mustered 

lieure, C 
Orr, Jesse F. (Lawrence Co.), 'mi 

[>:,tt,-rs,,n, George (Wabash Co.), mustered 

Stherfand, George '(Wabash Co.V'mu 
'John ( 
as. (La 
r, Jesse F. (Law 

Litherland, j'oh'n^Walsh Co.). (Hod at Vicksbu 
Micure, ('has. (Lawrenc 

It Oct. 27, 1865. 
red out May 31, 1865. 

died Lawrenceville, fll.?Ma?.' I'. 

ay 111. Itii.f 
t Oct. 27, 1 

I'elkey, Joseph Lawrence Co.), mustered out del -7. Is,,;,. 
Potviiie, Clias. (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Oct 27,1865. 
Patterson, Win. i \\al.ash Co.), died at Vicksburg March 28,1864. 

k. John, I 

t Oct. 27, 1865. 

mse'y, James E. (Wabash Co.), must, out Oct. 27/1865, as Corpl. 

i-iuc, Henry (Lawrence Co.), died at Memphis March Is, Ixii4. 
ither Janu-s (Wai ash Co ), died at Vicksburg Nov. 5, 1864. 
gans, Felix (Lawrence Co.), mustered out May 24. 1865. 
ter, Henry (Lawrence Co.). mustered out ( let. H7, T,.'i, a) Corpl. 
invn, U iiliam I Wai a,h Co.), must, out Oct. 27, 1865, as Sergt. 

Warren, William (Wabash 

... .music 
Co.), mu, 


ander (Lawrence 

ohn (La\vren,.-c Co). 

Coffman, Leander (Lawrence Co). 

I'o ail Join, i La 
- n, Willi 

..liarn (Lawrence Co). 

Southerland, Asa i Lawrence Co). 

Smitbers. Louis M. , Lawrence Co). 
^<f/,.fcm<.-Sylvanus Gard (Edwards Co.), resigned Aug. 29, 1865. 

Pint Lieutenant Jos. Frazier (Edwards Co.), mustered ont Nov. 5, 1805. 
,SVr,,>i,( /.i ,,ii',i,int. Kliiah O. Tar], ley (Lawrence Co). , 
f\rtl Sergeant. Arthur St. C' 
&>? ennl. Jerfersor.JBpray ( 
Corporals. James 

David Great house (Edwards Co). 

'arrier. Chas. E. Marks (Edwards Co ), mustered out Jan. 4, 1865. 
, James (Edwards Co.), mustered out Jan. 4, 1865. 

rds Co ), ., , . 

! ,u;,r,s (',,.) veteran. 
(Edwards Co'), vet., died at Mound City, 111.. 

Wl , ( 

Brock William (Edwards Co). 

Blakely, Thomas (Edwards Co.), died at Memphis Oct. 7. 1864. 

Blakely James A. (Wabash Co.), died at Memphis May 4, 1864. 

Bvford, John H. (Edwards Co). 

Bradshaw, John (Edwards Co). 

Bratton, James (Edwards Co). 

Bond, Leonard C. (Edwards Co.), vet., must, out Nov. 5, 1865. 

Homi; Martin (Edwards Co). 

liiehl Daatel [Edward* Co.), mustered out Jan. 4, 1865. 

Cropper, Lovel I-:. (Edwards Co.), vet., must, out Nov. 5, 1865. 

Curtis, Henry (Edwards Co). 

, Daniel (Edwards Co.), mustered out Nov. 6, 1865. 
-, Siou (Lawrence Co.), vet.,- mustered out May 5, 1805. 
e, Thomas (Lawrence Co.), mustered out Jan. 10, 1865. 
-1 (Lawrence Co.,, mustered out Jan. 4,1805. 
. (Lawrence Co.), vet., must, out May 5, 1865. 
ac (Edwards Co.), died in Gahaba prison, Ala. 

Guyot', Ad'am'(Edward8 Co.), disch. Dec. 18. 1804. Term exp. 
Hill, stcrlinu- M. i Edwards Co.), mustered out Jan. 4, 1805. 
Lewis. Stephens. (Mdwards Co. , mustered out Jan. 4 1865. 

Mounts, Thomas (Edwards Co.) disch. 1 IX, ls.14. Term Exp. 

Mounts, Ilinuu l Edwards Co.), vet., mustered out Nov. 5, 1865. 
Mullmcy, Win. (Lawrence Co.), disoli Dec. 18, 1866. Term exp. 

mey, Wm. ( Lawrence Co.), discli. Hoc. 18, 1805. 
1'ark, Eisberry I Edwards Co.), vet., mustered out NOT 
Shelby, Georg'e C. (Edwards Co). 

, . 

Thread, Joliu'F. (Kilwards Co). 
Terry, John A. (Edwards Co.), vet., 
Thorne, James T. t Edwanl* Co). 
Turner, Jesse (Wabasli Co). 

6, 18C5. 
mustered out NOT. 5, ) 

,.. \qu.lla i ., 

RecruUi. Clodlelter, George (Edwards Co.), vet. 

Corporal-Samuel F. Drake (Wabash Co). 


SeventH Cavalry. 

This regiment was organized September, 1861, with 
Col. \Vm. Pitt Kellogg in command. 

Captains Jolm Etheridge, (Edwards Co.), pro. to 1st sergt. then 2d and 1st 

lieut. pro. capt. May -::, ]x.i:i, mu.-ter.-d out Nov. 5, 18-6. 
Corporals Hull, r Enlow i I :.! I'u-ds Co.), 'disch. March 1-1, 18li:i; disability. 
Joseph Noble, tWabasb County I, died Jan. 8, 1862. 

Jilt/., (Edwards Co.), 'vet., M. 1 1. Nov. 4, 18U r .,as corpl. 
ITS, (Edwards Coiinn I. di-eli. Nov. r. lx(12: disability. 
11, John (Edwaids County), transferred to Regimental 

Hell, lor. I 


Etheridge, Michael Edwards Co.), M. u. i let. ir,.'i;4, as corporal. 
Enlnjv, .lames \V. (Edwards Co.-. dis. (let. 27, '02, as corpl.; dis'ty. 
Helke. John G. (Edwards Co.i, vet., M. d. Nov. 4', 1 SIM, as corpl. 
Hta-sum, George (Edwards Co.), vet., M. O. Nov. 4,'ii5, as sergt. 
L'scher, Samuel n. (Wabash County), vet., promoted Assistar, 

. (Wa 
. C. I. 

urireon. K . . 
cC ary, John (Edwards County), died J 


. . 
n (Edwards County), died Jan. 22, 1862. 

rire l; (Edwards Co.i, M. ( ). Oct. l.\ 1 SI14, as sergt. 
K. (Edwards Co.), vet.. M. < I. -Nov. 4,'<i5, as 1st sergt. 

Maxwell, Geor 

(irin. diaries J 

Hull, Augustus (Edwards Co.i, killed at Memphis. Aug. 21, 1864r 

Smith. Stephen (.Edwards County), mustered out (let. 15,1864. 

Spencer, Henry E. (Edwards Co.), vet., M. O. Nov. 4 ,'H5, as sergt. 

Taylor. Jolm (Edwards, oiiniy). vet., mu-tercd ,,iit N( ' 

Vo'ijjt. F A. (Edwards Co.i, vet., M. O. Nov. 4, 1865, as 

Rtcrmfo Goforth, 

4 ,'H5, as s, 
t NOT. 4, 18 

Webber, Mat'hias (Edwrds Co.)', M. O. Oct. 10, ISfiS^as^rgeant. 

\\ icd, John , ICdwards Co.), vet . M. o. Nov. 4, '(15, as blacksmith. 
( ;,,t"i -th, Wm. A. (Waba-h County), mustered out Nov. 4, 1865. 



Recruit Leathers, John M. (Wabaah County), mustered out Nov. 4, 1865. 
UncuMt/neit Ittcruits Phillips, George (Lawrence County.) 
Itobinson, George (Lawrence County.) 

Private Hutchinson, Claiborn D. (Law: 


Ebenezer C. Litherland, (Wabash County), mustered 
,bash ( 

ll Coll 

County), died May 29, 1863. 

Corpora; Alfred II. Clark, (Wabash County.) 
Akin, Joseph (WaWh County ) 
Fowler, Frederick (Wabash County.) . 

t at Consolidation. 

JWl-Akin, Jo 

Phillip-, Absalom (Wahash County.) 

liamsav James E (Wabaeh Co.), disch. Oct. 7, 1861; disability. 

Thompson, William (Wabash County), died at Benton Barracks, 

Ticejjoseph J. (Wabash County.) 

Hill. Elkanah M. i Wabash County), sergeant, transferred to Co. I 
10th Cavalry as Consolidated. 

Battery M, First Artillery. 

liel (La 

Ralph, Joseph (L 
Unassigmd Itea-uUs Clay, Henry. Caton, Thomas. 

First Army Corpa. 

Metzdorf, Anton (Lawrence County.) 
Mitchel, Adam (Lawrence County.) 
Kambeau, Lewis (Lawrence County.) 
and V. S. Artillery. 

Smith, John (Law 





E educational history of few even of the older 
States is more instructive or full of interest 
than the educational history of Illinois, and 
especially that part relating to the development and 
growth of her system of common schools. It haa en- 
couraged and nurtured education since its admission 
into the Union. 



The present school system really dates from January 
15, 1825. Illinois was admitted as a State in 1818, and 
the act of admission contains the following stipulations 
imposed by Congress: "Whereas the Congress of the 
United States, in the act entitled " An act to enable the 
people of Illinois Territory to form a constitution and 
State government, and for the admission of such State 
in the Union on equal footing with the original States, 
passed the 3ih of April, 1818, have offered to this con- 
vention, for the free acceptance or rejection, the follow- 
ing proposition, which, if accepted by the convention, 
are to be obligatory upon the United States, viz : 1. 
The section numbered sixteen in every township, and 
when such section has been sold, or otherwise disposed 
of, other land equivalent thereto, and as contiguous as 
may be, shall be granted to the State for the use of the 
inhabitants of such township for the use of schools. 2. 
That all salt springs within such State shall be granted 
to the said State for the use of said State, and the same 
to be used under such terms, and conditions and regula- 
tions as the Legislature of said State shall direct: Pro- 
vided, the Legislature shall never sell or lease the same 
for a longer period than ten years at any one time. 3. 
That five per cent, of the net proceeds of the lands lying 
within such State, and which shall be sold by Congress 
from and after the first day of January, 1819, after de- 
ducting all expenses incident to the same, shall be re- 
served for the purposes following, viz. : Two-fifths to 
be disbursed under the direction of Congress, in making 
roads leading to the State ; the residue to be appropri- 
ated by the Legislature of the State for the encourage- 
ment of learning, of which one- sixth part shall be ex- 
clusively bestowed on a college or university. 4. That 
thirty-six sections, or one entire township, which will be 
designated by the President of the United States, to- 
gether with the one heretofore reserved for that purpose, 
shall be reserved for the use of a seminary, and vested 
in the Legislature of the said State, to be appropriated 
solely to the use of said seminary by the said Legisla- 

From the foregoing it will be seen with what care and ! 
jealou-y the general government guarded the school 1 
interests of the new formed States. These grants and 
conditions were accepted by the convention which assem- 
bled at Kaskaskia in July, 1818, for the purpose of i 
framing a constitution for the new State. Hon. Shad- ' 
rach Bond, a man of marked ability was elected firat 
Governor of Illinois. In his inaugrfral address to the 
general assembly, he called their special attention to the I 
educational interests of the State in the following forci- 
ble language : "The subject of education, the means for 
which have been so amply provided by the bounty of 
the general government, cannot fail to engross your se- 
rious attention. It would be well to provide for the ap- 
pointment or election of trustees in each township, suffi- 
ciently populated, and empower them to lease, for a 
limited period, the section of land reserved and granted 
for the use of schools within the same, requiring them 

to appropriate the rents arising therefrom to such use 
and in the manner to be prescribed by law. The town- 

| ships of land which have been granted to the State for 
the use of a seminary of learning, cannot, it is believed, 
be so disposed of at present as to authorize the passage 
of a law to commence the undertaking ; but at least a 
part of them may be leased, and the rents arising there- 
from may be laid up or vested in some productive fund 
as a secure deposit to be hereafter appropriated to the 
object to which the grants were made ; such a course 
will render those lands productive, and when the period 
shall arrive at which it may be advisable to sell them, 
they will be extensively improved and of great value. 
These donations, together with the three per cent, upon 
the net proceeds arising from the sale of the public lands 
within the State, which have been appropriated for 
similar purposes, with proper arrangements, will create 
a fund sufficiently large to educate the children of the 
State to the remotest period of time. It is our imperious 

j duty, for the faithful performance of which we are an- 
swerable to God and our country, to watch over this 
interesting subject. No employment can be more en- 
gaging than those of husbanding those resources which 
will spread through all classes of our fellow-citizens the 
means of wisdom and of knowledge, which in the free- 
dom of our institutions will make the child of the poor- 
est parent a useful member of society and an ornament 
to his country." 

The first general assembly was too much engrossed 
with other matters of state to give this portion of the 
governor's message the attention it deserved ; but at 
its second session it took cognizance of the recommenda- 

! tions contained in his first message, and a bill was 
passed by both houses, and approved by the governor, 
March 2, 1819. It provided for the appointment by the 
county commissioners in each and every county, of three 
trustees in each township, who were in six months after 
appointment authorized to employ a surveyor, who should 
lay off section sixteen in each township into lots not con- 
taining less than forty nor more than one one hundred 
and sixty acres, and to lease the same for a term of ten 
years, for the purpose of creating a revenue for school 
purposes. As this law was general in its tenor, it was 
sufficient to protect and throw around these school lauds 
a proper safeguard ; and had the recommendations of 
the governor and the provisions of the law been ad- 
hered to until the lands became valuable, the public 
fund in nearly every township in the state would be 
to-day sufficient to maintain our public schools, without 
special taxation. Unwise counsel prevailed somewhere, 
and the most of this munificent gift of the general gov- 
ernment has been largely sacrificed. 

From 1819 to 1825 but few changes wereraade in the 
school law. Although the changes were &w and un- 
important, there was a decided growing sentiment fa- 
vorable to the free-school system ; and in 1825 the 
general assembly passed an act providing for the estab- 
lishment and maintenance of public schools. In the 



preamble to the act, the following patriotic sentiment 
was expressed : " To enjoy our rights and liberties, we 
must understand them ; their security and protection 
ought to be the first object of a free people, and it is a 
well-established fact that no nation has ever continued 
long in the enjoyment of civil and political freedom 
which was not both virtuous and enlightened ; and be- 
lieving the advancement of literature always has been, 
and ever will be the means of developing more fully 
the rights of man, that the mind of every citizen in a 
republic i* the common property of society and consti- 
tutes the basis of its strength and happiness. It is, 
therefore, considered the peculiar duty of a free gov- 
ernment like ours to encourage and extend the improve- 
ment and cultivation of the intellectual energies of the 

This act is unquestionably the foundation-stone of the 
grand structure of the present free-school system of the 
state of Illinois. The act was mandatory, as will be 
seen from the language of the statute in the following 
passage: "There shall be established a common school 
or schools in each of the counties of this state, which 
shall be open to every class of white citizens between the 
ages of five and twenty-one years." It also provided 
for the election in each district of the following officers: 
Three trustees, one treasurer, one clerk, one assessor 
and one collector. The trustees were empowered to 
perform many of the functions now allotted to the duty 
of county school superintendents, such as the examina- 
tion of teachers, visiting and superintending schools, 
reporting to the commissioners, et . Some of the pro- 
visions of the law of 1825 were repealed by the act of 
1827, creating a general law of the state relating to the 
common schools ; but no material changes were made 
until 1841, when the legislature made a complete revi- 
sion of the school law, approved February 26th, 1841. 

Among the changes by this act were the following 
provisions : Each township was entitled to have as many 
schools as the inhabitants of such township desired ; the 
people of every organized district were required to meet 
and elect from their number three trustees, and to agree 
upon the plan and manner of conducting the school. 
These trustees or directors were vested with power to 
execute the plan adopted, and were required to visit 
and superintend the schools. This law was the first that 
required schedules to be kept by the teachers and re- 
turned to the township treasurers. It also required a 
teacher to pass an examination for a certificate to teach. 
The law did not mention the branches to be taught, nor 
did it specify the branches in which the teacher should 
be examined, but required that the certificate, when 
issued, should enumerate the branches in which the ap- 
plicant was qualified to teach. 

In 1845 another revision of the school law was made, 
and many new features were incorporated in it. The 
secretary of state became ex-officio state superintendent 
of schools. Among his various duties the statute pro- 
vided that he should counsel with experienced teachers 

relating to the latest and most approved methods of 
conducting the common schools ; he was required to 
advise the school commissioners as to the best manner 
of managing the schools of constructing school-houses, 
and procuring competent teachers ; to recommend the 
best text-books, charts, maps etc., and to bring about a 
uniformity of the same. Under thh law whose duties 
were those of secretary of state the first state super- 
intendent was the Hon. Thomas Campbell, who made a 
very efficient and useful officer. Many of the sugges- 
tions made by him in his report to the governor could be 
used with profit to our school system of to day. 

The duties of Secretary of State confined his atten- 
tion almost wholly to his office as the State developed, 
and the demands for a special officer to discharge the 
duties of this department became a necessity. Hence, in 
1854, the Legislature passed a law making "the office of 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction aseparate one. 
The duties to be performed were similar to those under 
the act of 1845. The office was to be filled by appoint- 
ment by the Governor until after the election in 1855. 
The Hon. NJnian Edwards, received the appointment, 
and was the first to have the honor of framing a bill for 
the unification of the school system of the State. 

Again in 1872, there was another general revision of 
the school law, since which time there have been but 
few important changes made. Of this last revision, we 
should do this history great injustice without the men- 
tion of the name of Hon. Newton Bateman, who has no 
superior in this country, ad a an educator, or friend to 
the free-school system. Oar Legislators, in the above 
mentioned revision, which caused our common schools 
to rank with the best in the land, gave the greatest heed 
to his judgment and counsel. 

From the foregoing it will be seen there have been 
five marked epochs in the school history of Illinois 
1825, 1841, 1845, 1854 and 1872. In the main we have 
a most excellent free-school system in our State ; but 
there are changes that should be made iu the law, which 
would prove wholesome to all concerned. We have 
special reference to the want of clearness in the lan- 
guage of the statute. The school law, above all others, 
should be the plainest in all its details, and so well 
arranged as to be intelligible to all who are able to 

The permanent school fund of the State comprises : 
1st, the school fund proper, being three per cent, upon 
the net proceeds of the sales of public lands in the 
State, one sixth part excepted ; 2nd, the college funds, 
consisting of the above one-sixth part ; 3rd, the surplus 
revenue derived from the distribution in 1836, of the 
surplus revenue of the United States; 4th, the seminary 
fund, derived from sales of lands granted to the 
State by the General Government; 5th, county funds 
created by the Legislature in 1835 ; 6th, township funds, 
arising from the sale of public lands granted by Con- 
gress for common school purposes. 




To establish and maintain a school in a- new country, 
is and has been, one of the difficult problems of the first 
settlers. These inhabitants were backwoods hunters, 
whose cabins are several miles apart. Their mode of 
life requires no education in the scholastic meaning of 
the term. Their habits are independent of literary ac- 
quirements, and their children grow up without knowing 
how to execute the most simple sum by the rules of 
arithmetic, or write a word, or read a sentence Yet 
some of these untutored men of the woods, by some 
complex reasoning of their own, are capable of reach- 
ing correct results with greater dispatch than those who 
have mastered the books. In a town or village, even 
in its infancy, a school may be established and main- 
tained. If there be but a half-score of families, a 
school is easily assembled, and a suitable teacher pro- 
cured. This was the case in Albion, in its earliest days, 
as it was here that the first school was taught, in what 
is now Edwards county. The teacher was Oswald War- 
rington, who had come to the county from England, 
among the first emigrants. This school was established 
in 1819, and was what is termed a private or subscrip- 
tion school. Mr. Warrington excelled in penmanship, 
and there were many of the young men of that early 
day, who owed their skill in writing to their first master, 
Mr. Warringtou. He subsequently removed to Cincin- 
nati and went into the mercantile business. The first 
regular or public school in Albion, was conducted by 
John Love, in an old building then situated, on the lot 
of Robert Curdling. Ex-Governor French, was also 
among the early teachers of the town. The first school 
building erected here, was situated on the ground now 
occupied by the Presbyterian church. 

The first school taught outside of the town of Albion, 
was about three miles west of the village. The school- 
house was the old style log building with puncheon 
floor, seats and desks, and a hole cut out in one of the 
sides to admit the light, which was failed a window. 
The manner and means of building_it were as unique as 
the structure. Four or five English farmers and two or 
three New Englanders, living in what was then consid- 
ered a close neighborhood, none being more than a mile 
from the common center, met at an appointed time, 
some with oxen and others with axes. They went to a 
neighboring wood, (Congress !and) where they prepared 
the logs and hauled 1 them to the spot chosen for the site. 
The raising was performed by the united efforts of those 
interested in the school. It is said that it was at this 
school-house, that Ex- Governor Augustus C. French 
taught his first school. The first teacher in this school- 
house was Isaac Coper, in 1820. 

The first school-house built and the first school taught 
in French Creek precinct, was in 1821. The school- 
house was a rude log building of the primitive style, 
and was situated in section 17, township 3 south, range 

14 west, and within the northern limits of the city 
of Graysville. The first teacher was Daniel R. Jacobs, 
" and in his time was considered good." 

In Salem precinct, although having territory among the 
first settled in the county, the pioneers were so few and 
scattered, that it was not until 1824, that a school could 
be established and maintained. The first school-build- 
ing was erected in the above year, and was situated on 
the northwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 
21. The building was of round logs and other appur- 
tenances to match. It is claimed, however, that this 
building had a window of real glats, instead of the 
usual greased paper posted over the aperture to admit 
light. Prior to the building of this house, a school had 
been taught a year or so before, in a deserted cabin 
The first teacher's name that we are able to record in this 
part of the county, was a colored ruan, by the name of 
Sweat. Other early teachers w.ere, Lothrop Rude and 
Daniel Abbey. 

In Dixon precinct, the first school was taught in a log 
cabin, situated on the Churchill land, in 1824. The 
teacher was Daniel Bain, a transient person from some 
part of the east. He taught but a term or two, and 
afterwards migrated to some other portion of the State. 
The first school in Shelby precinct was taught by a 
Mr. McCowen, in 1827. The place for holding the 
school was in a log cabin, located in the northwest quar- 
ter of the southeast quarter of section 33, township 1 

| north. The next teacher was a man by the name of 
Moore. The first building erected for school purposes 
was in 1856. It was a frame building, and was situated 
in section 33, township 1 north. 

The text-books of those times were such books as the 
family might have at hand, some read in the Testament, 
others in histories or biographies such as the family 
library could produce. There was no uniformity of 
books in the schools, and classification was not thought 
of. Each pupil was trotted up to the master's side and 

I read or recited according to the book he might po.-sc.-.*. 

j In a few years, a partial system of text-books came into 



use, and the cause of teaching received quite an impe- 
tus. The first real system of text-books was not intro- 
du.ced until about 1835. Among those used in the 
count}' were Pike's, Smiley's and Smith's arithmetics ; 
Murray's, Smith's and Kirkham's grammars; the old 
English reader, and later, Goodrich's series ; Morse's, 
and Mitchell's geographies ; and above and beyond all 
as the text-book, was the old " blue back," Webster's 
spelling book. Sometimes we hear those of this more 
progressive age, condemning the " fogies," as they term 
the old people, because of their advocacy and desires of 
again placing the " blue back" speller in our schools. 
If " Young America " could comprehend the value, in 
its time, of this much reverenced, now abused book, they 
would surely be prepared to exercise the charity for the 
merits of an auxiliary, which, for the good it has served, 
cannot be supplanted by any other text-book which is 
now or shall in the future be placed in print. 

The progress of the schools of the county has been of 
a slow but healthy growth. The sixteenth section of 
each township, granted under the stipulations of the ad- 
mission of the State into the Union, have been disposed 
of, and the proceeds distributed to the various town- 
ships. The swamp land fund of five townships is yet in 
the hands of the county superintendent, and subject to 
his distribution of interest. The school, college and 
seminary fund in 1841, was $1,637.05, and the amount 
paid out for school purposes to that time was, $1,188.49, 
leaving a balance in favor of the county, $499 46. The 
following is a showing of the school affairs of the county 
for 1858, acording to the biennial report of the State 
Superintendent for that date: 

Whole number of schocls in the county 

Average number of months taught 

Number of male teachers 

Number of female teachers 

Average salary of male teachers 

Average salary of female teachers 

Number of male scholars 

Number of" female scholars 

Number of school-houses built in the yoar 

Number of school-houses 

Number of white persons under twenty-one 

Number of while persons between five and twenty-one 

Amount paid to leachers 

For building, repairing and renting school-houses 

Whole amount received for school purposes 

Whole amount expended for school purposes 

Number of colored persons in county under twenty-one years . 
Number of colored persons in county between ages of five and 


1,1 r.n 


In 1867, we glean the following from the report of 
the County Superintendent to the State Superintendent : 

Whit persons between the ages of six und twenty-ono 2,614 

Colored persons between the ages of six and twenty-one .... 82 

Number of school-houses 47 

Number of school districts 39 

Number of schools in the county 44 

Whole number of pupils in attendance 2,046 

Number of teachers in the county 64 

Amount of state and county funds $2,878,21 

Amount paid to teachers $7,145.04 

Total expenditures for the year $14,*85.87 

Highest wages paid 875.00 

I.ow.'st wages paid J9..M 

Again, in 1882, we glean fr. m the annual report as 
follows : 

Number of pupils between the ages of six and twenty-one .... 3,083 

Number of school districts 43 

Nunbor of schools conducted in the county 

Number of pupils in attendance 2,568 

Number of teachers in the county 63 

Number of school-houses 48 

Highest wages paid $84.00 

Lowest wages paid $ie.oo 

Total amount paid teachers $11,748.77 

Total expenditures of schools $15,794.66 

Amount on hand due the county $3,;toii.68 

Henry Bowman was appointed the first school com- 
missioner in 1838. Mr. Bowman died soon after ap- 
pointment, when Henry I. Mills was appointed to fill the 
vacancy, which position he held until 1842. His 
successor was James Hean, who served until 18ol. The 
following is a roster of school commissioners and super- 
intendents to the present time : Cyrus Rice in office 
from 1851-61 ; Edgar W. Brandon from 1861-65. 
Subsequent to this date the name of the office is changed 
to "County Superintendent of schools." In 1865, 
Lothrop T. Eude was elected, and served until 1869, 
when Levinus Harris was elected, and has filled the 
office to the present time. 

The following are the names of the present school 
treasurers of the county : 

Township 2 south, range 10 east, E. H. Harwick. 

Township 1 south, range 10 east, B. P. Reid. 

Township 3 south, ranges 10 and 11 east, Thomas W. 

Township 3 south, range 14 west, C H. Spring. 

Township 2 south, range 14 west, John Marriott. 

Township 1 south, range 14 west, Orion Rice. 

Township 1 north, range 10 east, Robert Marshall. 

Township 2 north, range 10 east, M. L. Howe. 

Township 1 north, range 11 east, H. A. Tietze. 

Township 1 north, range 14 west, H. A. Tietze. 

Township 2 north, range 14 west, J. A. Berry. 

Township 2 north, range 11 east, E. R. Harrison. 

Township 1 south, range 11 east, James Stone. 

Township 2 south, range 11 east, E. D. Jacobs. 

The first teachers' institute in the county was held at 
Albion, in the fall of 1866, and was conducted but three 
days. This was under the instruction and management 
of L. T. Rude, County Superintendent, and Levinus 
Harris, present Superintendent. The number of teach- 
ers in attendance was about fifteen. With the exception 
of two years these associations have been kept up, and 
have been productive of much good lo the teachers and 
school interests of this county. These associations have 
been mainly under the supervision of the present effi- 
cient County Superintendent, Levinus Harris. In 1880 
a Normal Institute, of eleven weeks' duration was con- 
ducted by the County Superintendent and Charles Har- 
ris, there being about seventy persons in attendance. 
The year following, another Normal session was held for 
a term of eight weeks, the same parties conducting it. 
In the institute, all the common branches were taught. 



also the " sciences," book-keeping, theory, and practice 
in teaching, and Latin. Among the assistants in these 
institutes was the popular educator, Professor James H. 
Brownlee, of Carbondale, who takes a prominent rank 
among the able educators of Illinois. 

Monthly teachers' associations are held in different 
portions of the county, and much good is growing out 
of them. The grade for obtaining license to teach is 
well up with the times, and it may be truthfully be said 
that the present Superintendent of Schools, is discharg- 
ing his duties in an efficient and conscientious manner. 


From the best information, the first regular school 
taught in Lawrence county was in 1817, by George 
Godfrey. The school was conducted in one of the log 
houses situated within a fort built in Dennison township, 
during the time of the Indian troubles. Prior to this he 
had taught in Compton fort, at Allendale, Wabash 
county. A school-house was built in 1826, and situated 
in section seventeen, township three, range eleven. Chas. 
Martin taught the first school in it. Another early 
teacher in this precinct was Jeremiah Flemming. A 
school was taught in Lawrence precinct as early as 1818, 
Lakin Ryle being the first teacher. The school was 
kept in a deserted log cabin situated in section 34, 
township 4, range 12, Mr. Ryle taught in this vicinity 
for several years, when his health failed, and he was 
obliged to cease his labors. The fint house built for 
school purposes, was in 1822, and was located in section 
3, township 3, range 12. It was constructed of sound 
hickory logs, and was of the most primitive style. 

A double log building, for both school and church 
purposes, was erected by the New Light or Christian 
denomination in Allison township, as early as 1818. 
Eli Harris was one of the first teachers. The house was 
named "Center " school-house, and is known as such to 
the present time. It has been remodeled and repaired 
from time to time, and is yet in a fair state of preserva- 
tion, and used for school purposes. A school was 
taught in 1819 by John Martin, in a small pole cabin 
situated in section 18, township 3, range 12, Bridgeport 
precinct. About two years later, a log house was built 
for school use, not far from the above cabin, and was 
known as "Spring Hill '' school-house. This being the 
first locality settled in the west part of the county, the 
children for several miles around, attended school in this 
house for quite a number of years. Another early 
teacher, of this portion of the county, was James 

The first teaching done in Luken township was in 
1819, by Mrs. Clark. The school was conducted at her 
own house, situated in section 24, township 2, range 13. 
A log house was built in 1820, and located in section 
24, township 2, range 12. In the spring of .1819, Ag- 

nes Carrie taught a select school of about fifteen pupils. 
The school was conducted in an abandoned log house in 
the door yard of her father, in section 30. The first 
school taught in Bond township was about 1820. A 
school house was built in 1822, and was situated near 
what is now Pinkstaff station. About the same time, 
another house was built about two miles east of the 
station. These houses accommodated this entire settle- 
ment. In 1828 they united and built a house in the 
Dolahan neighborhood. The first teachers were, Law- 
son Childers John Dolahan, and a man by the name of 

Samuel Borden. a native of New Jersey, taught the 
first -school in Russell township, as early as 1817. The 
school was