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\ ^M V, b-]. Is 3^ 




FROM THE 
LIBRARY 

OF 
CHARLES 

ELIOT 
NORTON 




THE GIFT OF f HIENDS 
M D C C C C V 




3 2044 102 86^70 



I 



THE 

COMBINED SPANISH METHOD. 

A NEW 
FBACnCAL AND THEOBETICAL STSTEM OF LKAIOmiQ 

THE CASTniAN LANGUAGE, 

BMBBAOINO THE HOST ADYASTAOSOVS FKATDBH OF THB BBST XKOWH 

METHODS. 

WITH A 

PROlfOUlfCING YOCABULART, 

OOXTAININO ALL THE WORDS USED IN THB 00UB8B Or THE WORK, AMD RBnEBXHGB 

TO THB LESSORS IK WHICH BACH 0KB IS EXPLAIKED, THUS EHABUKO 

AKT OKE TO BE HIS OWK IHBIBVCIOB. 



BY 

ALBERTO DE |ORNOS, A.M., 

VOBV^J VnaOIOB of VOBK AL MDOOLB DI BPADT, AJTB vow TBAOniB OF SPAKISB Dl 

XEB HEW TOSK XXBOANTILS UBVAAT, mw TOHK KrVStMa HIGH flCHOOIt AKD 

TBM FOLTTECHHIO AKD PAGKBB IB8IITimB| BBOOELTX. 



• NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 

443 Ain> 446 Bboadwat. 

1867. 



N ■•• • ' •••-n. 



BRnaiD, aocoiding to Act of Congresfi, in the year 1807, by 

D. APPLETON.& COMPANY, 

In the Oerk^s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Sonthem District 

of New York. 



PREFACE 



It is an undoubted fact that in teaching, not only lan- 
guages, but any other science or art, there neither is, nor 
can be, any other method than that of uniting theory 
with practice^ and the various modes of applying the one 
to the other, the extent of the application, and the time at 
which it should be commenced, have produced the great 
number of methods hitherto published. 

This fact is now universally acknowledged, and each new 
author proclaims himself to be the only one who has put it 
into execution. The most insignificant little phrase-book 
does not fail to announce, in its introduction, that it com- 
bines theory and practice ; and grammars containing noth- 
ing more than confused masses of rules, heaped one upon 
another, are entitled " Theoretical and ProMicair It is 
admitted on all hands that much progress has been made 
within the last few years in the art of teaching languages ; 
and, in testimony of this, we have only to mention the ex- 
cellent oral and practical methods of Jacotot, Manesca, Ollen- 
dorff, Boulet, Kobertson, and others who have followed in 
their footsteps, all of which are ably treated, and have done 
much good in their way. But each one of the grammarians 
referred to, satisfied with his own invention, looked with 
disdain upon that of his predecessor. Hence the enmity 



IV PBEPAOB. 

andihe almost unaccountable diversity of opinion wliich we 
observe amongst them. Had they studied each other with 
impartiality, ai^d endeavored to profit by the experience 
and even the defects of the several systems, their labors 
would certainly have been attended with still more favora- 
ble results, and of course more considerable benefit would 
have accrued thereby to the art in general. Numberless 
points of excellence are to be found, scattered here and 
there, throughout the various ancient- and modem systems, 
and chiefly those already alluded to; and it has been 
thought that, if carefully sifted out and judiciously com- 
bined, they would form a new method which would be in 
details essentially superior to any of the old ones. 

This conviction, joined to twenty years' experience 
in teaching the Spanish language, sometimes through the 
medium of one, sometimes of another of the before-men- 
tioned systems, has led the author to prepare and publish 
the Combined Method, which he now offers to those desir- 
ing to learn the noble language of Cervantes. 

Whether he has succe^fully attained his object, the pub- 
lic wUl decide. 



OBSEEYATIOK"S 



gOME OF THE ADVANTAGEOIJS FEATURES OP THE "DE TORNOS*S 
COMBINED METHOD." 



Ist. Tetb advantage of presenting the verb as the first and 
principal part of speech, wMch serves as the axis upon which 
all the other parts revolve. These, too, have been introduced 
in their torn, not in grammatical order, nor by mere chance, 
but in the logical and natural order in which they occur in 
discourse, whether written or spoken. 

2d. That of explaining these parts of speech in the order 
just mentioned, not in an isolated manner, but united to form 
a homogeneous whole, and in such a way that the learner will 
have no difficulty in finding the explanation relative to the use of 
each one of them respectively, as often as occasion may require. 

3d. These explanations, which embrace the whole theory, 
and form a complete grammar of the language, are separate 
from and independent of the exercises ; the latter being com- 
posed in strict accordance with the examples accompanying 
each lesson, in such a manner that those unacquainted with 
grafaimar in general, and those who have no desire to enter 
into the theory of the language, or, finally, those who are too 
young or too old to learn grammar, may acquire a thorough 
conversational knowledge of Spanish, by merely committing to 
memory the Vocabulary, studying the Compositions, and care- 
fiiUy writing the Exercises. 

4th. From the arrangement alluded to, arises another great 
advantage, namely, all the elements are found in the vocabu- 
lary of each lesson, separated and detached from the examples 
and rules given in the explanation ; thus enabling the student 
to see at one glance all that*he has to commit to memory for 
each recitation. 



VI OBSERVATIONS, 

Bth. And this division of the lessons into Elements, Compo- 
sition, Explanation, Version, and Exercise, enables the teacher 
to divide each lesson into two, three, or even four parts, accord- 
ing to the age and capacity of the learner. 

6th. JRepetition, and constant repetition^ is indispensable for 
acquiring any language ; but by repetition should not be under- 
stood the simple reiteration of single words and easy phrases ; 
but repetition of the idioms, and of those fprms of expression 
differing most widely from the idiomatical constniction of the 
learner's native tongue. It is true, that though this is the 
proper plan for acquiring a thorough knowledge of a language, 
that feature might tend to make the present work appear, at 
first sight, more difficult than the books hitherto used; but 
such will not be found the case; for when there is frequent 
change of matter there cannot be monotony ; and variety ren- 
ders study at the same time easy and agreeable. This repetition, 
then, of useful forms of expression, and contrast of idiom, will 
be found in every page of our " Combined Method," in which 
it has been our endeavor to introduce gradually and with the 
necessary explanations of each, the most important idioms of 
the Spanish language, 

7tlL Although we are of opinion that to leani a language, 
and, above all, to learn to pronounce it, it is always preferable 
to have the assistance of a skilful teacher, and one who speaks 
his native tongue with purity and correctness ; yet, as it is not 
always possible to procure such, we have placed at the end a 
Vocabulary, containing all the words used in the course of the 
work, and the pronunciation of each, so that nothing may be 
wanting to second the efforts of those who, from choice or 
necessity, may be their own instructors. 

8th. The Vocabulary, besides giving the pronunciation and 
meaning of the words, indicates the lesson in which the expla- 
nation of each has been given in the Grammar. By this means 
the learner can with ease refer to the explanation of all those 
words of which it has been deemed essential to give one. * 



CONTENTS. 



PMFACB, • . . . ^^^ 

A nw BXMARKB OH THB COXBOZD HkTBOD, . • • • ▼« ▼! 

COMTENTB, TU-Xri 

Pbeldohabt Lesson ok Obthogbapht ahd PaoamfdAnaM^ . x?li-xxlT 

LESSON I. 

mnXiS 

1. Begnlar Terbs, dasdiled in fhxee coi^iagatloiifl, . • . • • 1 

2. Boots, * 

8. Tenxiinations of the three model Ter1>9,corre8pondI]igto an tlier^gnlarTeilw^ 2 

— . Sappression of the nomixiAtlTe pronouns, . .... 2 

4. F. (C^f^AO zeqnlres the yerb in the third perBOO, 3 

LESSON II. 

& saSor,»efUfrllo,»etU)ra,9efUjrUa,iueotitieaeM<^^ • • • 4 

6. Am and A>^a8e of these words, ..••••. 6 

7. ^o; placed before the T^b, • • 5 

LESSON III. 

a The conjunction y changed into ^, .7 

0. ^, interrogatlTe pTonoun, ... • • 7 

10. tSKiio.— When &t£t is to be translated by «^ ..... 7 

11. itet?.— When &irf is to be translated by pcro, .• . . . • , 7 
12.' JSipa^ infflet, Ac., one word may belong to difTerent parts of speech, . 7 

LESSON IV. 

13. -4, preposition to, nsed after active Terbs, when the object is a person, . 10 

14. 2>e,ased to express positioner the material of which any thing is made, . 10 

15. ^, the article the, nsed to determine a noun masculine sin^lar, . 10 
— . Contraction of the article rf and the prepositions a and <fe into a/, drf, . 10 

16. ^», the indefinite prononn used before masculine nonns, ... 10 
— . D'wiaonlyusedasanumeTal.i^ective, 10 

LESSON V. 

17. Oender, how ascertained, ....... 18 

— . ZTHo, nacd before feminine nouns, . . . . • . .13 

18. 72»ir, how translated, 18 



VUl CONTENTS. 

LESSON VI. 

19. The tenDinAtions of the penons of the pieeent indicatiTe ; how they diifer 

in the three coi^agatlonB, ........ 16 

SO. Ifuy, how tmuBlated, ........ 16 

21. Noons ending in o change that Yowel into a for the feminine, . .* . 17 

LESSON VII. 

22. A4)ectiTeB ending in o, on, or on form their feminine In a, . . 20 
— . AtUectivea Bigniiying nationality and ending in 0, . ... 20 
— . AdJectlYes are generally placed alter their nonna, .... 20 
~. A4)ectfTeB naed metaphorically are always placed before the noona, . . 20 
— . Some a4)ectiTes drop their last letter or syllable, .... 20 

LESSON VIII. 

23. The endings of the secpnd and third cox^ngations, how they differ, . . 28 

24. The coi^unction 6 when changed into 6, . . . , . 28 

25. i\^, how tranalatodi . . . . . . . ' . 23 

26. The plural of nouns, • « . . . . . . 28 

27. Adjectives agree with their nonns in gender, number, and case, . . 24 

28. The article agrees also, 24 

— . Feminine nouns that take the masculine article, 24 

29. The neuter article A>, . * 24 

LESSON IX. 

80. -Rip<£,ma»«i,jrf^, are exceptions, 27 

81. Nonns which are not monosyllables and end in «, their plural, . . 28 
— . Words ending in «, their plural 28 

82. Words which are compounds of two nouns,, their plural, ... 28 
88. The days ofthe week, when they take the article, .... 28 
81 Donde^ adonde, euandoi placed before the verb, . . . 28 
86. Donde^ adonde^ euando, in interrogations require an accent, . . .28 

LESSON X. 

86. Irregular verbs, 81 

' — . Tmer not included in the seven verbs, . . . . • .81 

~. Objective case of the third person 2^, ft», 2a, 2t2«, ft), . . . . 81 

87. Lo and U, the difference between them, . . ... . .82 

— . Jl and M> are translated sometimes by 2o, . . . 83 

88. Quim^ eiud, que, de qtden, used interrogatively do not take the article, . 82 

89. When the Interrogative is governed by a preiK>8ition, the same preposition 

must be repeated in the answer, 82 

LESSON XI. 

40. AlgtUen, -alffuno, the di^rence between them, . . . • .85 
—. Any me or any body, when translated by cualqiderc^ ... 85 

41. JVodli^ nMfTimo, their distinction, 85 

42. Algwio and ninffuno, when they lose the 0, . • • • • 86 
48. AlgOt algwia com, used affirmatively, ..•••• 86 



COSTTSITTS. IX 



44. y<kta,fdngma€09a^iiaedikegtldrelf, ; as 

4ft. Negatiyes, when placed before the Yeib, aS 

— . Two negatiyes reader the negation more emplistk thai one, • . aS 

40. ^ or on, when not tzanalated, 86 

LESSON XII. 

47. 7S9ur and Aa0«r, their distinetioa, W 

— . 7b Aaog and to flg, followed by an IniinltiTe, how they are tnmiiatw!, . . m 

48. JPrderU Btd^^bUU, 40 

LESSON XIII. 

48. JflO, toyo, Ac, change the o into a for the femtnfaie, . . . . 4S 

60. Foeaesetyepranoans agree In gender and number with the name of the thhtg 

poBseaeed, ......... 48 

61. As pronominal a^Jectiyea, nda, tti^ ntyo precede the noon and drop their 

final syllable, 48 

65. JOo, when phuxd alter the noon, 44 

68. FDsBesaiyea need aa pronoana agree in gender sod nnmher with the noona 

they repreeent, and take the article, .' . .44 

M. When naed indefinitely they take the neater article, ... 44 

66. When connected with the yeib ft) te, tlie article ia ondtted, . . .44 
66. Fii«^ vuMCni, when aaed, 44 

LESSON XIV. 

91. Formation of compound nombers, 48 

68w Nnmbera are indeclinable, except «fK» and the oompoonda of flitnA^ . 48 
60. Uno, its agreement ; when it loeea the 0, . . . . .48 

to, ClefUo, iU agreement ; when it loses the Umt syOable, ... 48 

LESSON XV. 

ei. 0!nllnab,tteir agreement and place, 61 

— . iV*wm) and fawwv, when they drop their final letter, ... 61 

63. (?rd«rMi&, when ascd, 88 

— . N. B.— When ordinala do not reqoire the definite article, ... 61 

LESSON XVI. 

68. PreUrUD^fMU, -J* 

64. ^nfe, its meaning, ^ 

66. Jf« and #?»«», how oBod, <» 

LESSON XVIlI 

66. ^!«fen,howased, ....••••• ^ 

67. TWko, when translated by «w«, and when by flr«i»H ' ' ' ' « 

68. (S«rf and ?w« relate to persons and things, vl 

60. ftivo refers to persons and things: its agreement, . • • .61 

— . It partakes of the nature of the relatlyea and of the poBseiBiyes, . 61 



X. CONTKKTS. 

70. The prepoftition placed before the rclatlTe, . • • • .61 

71. Belatiye pronouns am ntftyer be BuppiesBed in Spanish, • • • 61 



LESSON XVIII. 

72. Declension of the demonstratlTe pronouns esU, ese, as^ * • • .66 

73. JSrfe, how used, .....•••• ^ 

74. JS5rfe, ew, forming one word with the a^jectlyp otro^ . . • •67 

75. The demonstrative pronoons used as neater, . . . • • 67 

76. 7%«/orm<r and ^to«tfr, translated by o^t**? and «fe, .... 67 

77. 2%<jrf <2r, <Aa< wAo, or ^Aflrf M>AfcA, translated by rf «te, rf flw, 67 

78. TCngHah personal pronouns rendered in Spanish by demonstratiTe pronouns, 67 

79. -Aj«f, oAi, 000, oai, how employed, 68 



LESSON XIX. • - 

80. jRira and ;3or, how they differ, 73 

81. ^Ure, its meaning, .....•••• 78 
eSL flcuto, its meaning, 73, 



LESSON XX. 

83. Tanio and cuanio, when they lose the last syllable, • . • • .77 

84. Comparison of equality^ bow formed, ...... 77 

85. Cuan may be employed, . . . . . . ... 77 

80. Comparison of mperiority^ how formed, . . . . .77 

87. Comparison of <;i/J?rtor(/y, ........ 77 

88. Mayor, menor, m^jor, peor, are already in the comparatlye degree, . 77 
88. Than, translated by de and que, . . . . .78 
90. Comparison relating to nmaa, verbs, and adverbs, . . ' . . '78 



LESSON XXI. 

01. Superlatives ending in est, or formed by most, how translated, '. 83 

93. Most, or most qf, when translated by la mayor parte, or by mas, . • . 83 

03. In, preposition, when translated by efe, . . . . .83 

04. Superlatives fdrmed by very, mast, etc., when formed in Spanish by mvy and 

whcnbyi«imo, . • . 83 

05. Adjectives drop the last vowel on taking the termination (0<m0, . 83 

06. Other superlatives ending m errimo, . . . . . . 83 

07. A4)ectives which change their endings before the termination idma, . . 83 
Oa Superlatives in Uimo irregularly formed, ..... SI 

09. Irregular comparatives and superlatives, . . . . . .84 

— . These make also a superlative in («<mo, ..... 84 

— . Also with muy, and a comparative with mas or menos, . . . .81 

100. Substantives used a(yectively admit the degrees of comparison, . . 84 

LESSON XXII. 

101. 8er and ettar, the distinction between them, 89 

103. '' *' their employment, ....... 80 



CONTENTS. xi 

LESSON XXIII. 

Birui TAam 

103. Future simple, .96 

101 The d^finiie arUde lued with nnmerals, indicatixig the hour of the day, . 96 

106. Evening and nighl, translated by nochs, . . .96 

106. The coojimction »L, when it governs the BubJonctiTe, and when the indica- 

tiye, 96 

LESSON XXIV. 

107. Oofnpound fuiitrts ' • .100 

106. Acabar de, its meaning, 100 

— . N. B.^How the pupil may learn a great number of words with little or no 

dilfieulty, 101 

100. Noons endhig in tion are the same in Spanish, changing the letter t into e, 101 

110. The days of the month are connted by the cardinal nnmbcrs, preceded by the 

article, 101 

LESSON XXV. 

111. iSlsd^ and 00ruK»r, how they differ, ...... 107 

112. Jtm, ya^ todavia^ their different meaning and nses, . . . .107 
— . Once, twice, Ac, translated by una vez^ doe veces^ &c., ... 107 
— . Wedo^ valor, &c., take the preposition de after them, . . . .107 

113. 7b be (tfroid, to be thirty, &c., how translated, .... 107 

114. Jam6a and nuncOy how used, . ' . 107 

LESSON XXVI. 

115. Frononn sabject, or nominatlre, ...... 112 

116. Two objective cases of the personal pronomis, how used, . . .118 

117. The objective case, when not preceded by a preposition, is affixed to infini- 

tives, genmds, Ac., . '118 

118. When the verb drops the final letter followed by ruw or (W, . . ' . 113 
— . The reason of this, . . .113 

119. When the objective case may follow the verb, . *. .113 
lao. When the objective may be placed before the first verb, or after the second, 113 

121. Prepositions, when expressed, always goyem the second objective case, . 113 

122. *i/?, /{, «l, when preceded by con, ...... Hi 

128. .Sh^MS, how nsed, ......... 114 

124. The second objective case is used after comparatives, ... 114 

125. When the first objective case is used, .114 

126. Th^ objective case of the third person is rendered by fe, to, if the preposition 

1o govern it in English, ........ 114 

LESSON XXVII. 

127. The third person rendered in Spanish by ««, .110 

128. The object of the verb is to be placed last, when two first objective cases 

occur in the sentence, ........ 110 

129. Placed first when the object of the yerb is the reflective pronoun, . . ISO 

180. Both of the ol)|ective cases belonging to the same person used together, . ISO 

181. The expressions a df gu^m?, f{ <l amo, arc incorrect^ . . . 120 



xii CONTENTS. 

amvu rAca 

132. The pronoanfl.S, la,lo^loi^ and to, how dlfltlynlflhfld from the articles eZ, la, 

k>,lo8,la8, .ISO 

188. The aidJecUye mUmo^ how need, • . • 120 

LESSON XXVIII. 

184. When the lm|»3;/«rnB used, 125 

185. When the pluperfect Lb need, . . . . .* . . .196 

186. How the expreeslonB to heme just and to be just are translated before a past 

participle, . . 126 

LESSON XXIX. 

187. The preterit anterior, its use, . . • 180 

138. Derivation of adyerbs of mannier and quality, .... 131 
180. How adverbs are formed ftom adjectiyes, . . . . .131 

140. Adverbs terminating in mmU admit, like adjectives, the degrees of compari- 

son, 181 

141. How these adverbs can be sabstitated, 181 

LESSON XXX. 

143. What impersonal verbs are, 187 

143. Amaneoer and anocher^ used in the three persons, . . • .137 

144. Haber and Aocer, and other verbs nsed impersonally, ... 187 

145. The pronoon U^ accompanying impersonal verbs, not translated, . . 188 
— . Nonns taken in a definite sense require the article, .... 138 
— . NomiB used in their most general sense take the article, .188 

146. Names of nations, countries, mountains, &c., take the article, . 188 

147. Nations, countries, and provinces, when preceded by a preposition, do not 

take the article, .' . . . * . . . 188 

— . Names of some places that fdways take the article, .... 138 

LESSON XXXI. 

14a (^itftor, 8ignliyingto^wj)2fla««r«to, howused, 148 

149. atwtof, followed by the preposition d«, 144 

160. Oustar, used as an active verb, 144 

151. Verbs that require the same idiomatic construction as that of the verb flwtor, 144 

158. The verb pcsar, when meaning to WflTrf, 144 

LESSON XXXII. 

•* 

158. How the passive voice is formed, - * **^ 

154. When the passive form is used with the verb wr hi the present and imperfect 

tenses of the indicative, ...•••• J*® 

166. When the preposition «fe or i»r is to be used alter passive verbs, . . 149 

156. Passive voice formed by ««, . • • '" JS 

167. When the passive, formed with «, is to be preferred, . . • • iW 

LESSON XXXIII., 

168. 5Q^^c«wtWf6f, what they are, ...•#•• 1*® 



CONTENTS. Xiii 

159. Whan are the Terbe made TflieetlTer 186 

100. When a yerb denotes raoi^vva^y, how it la conjugated, • • • 166 

LESSON XXXIV. 

161. Which are the irragalar Terhs, KU 

162. Yerhe which, although thej undergo Blight changes in their radical letters, 

are not to he considered as liregiilar, ISl 

163,164. Verbs which change i into y, 169 

165. How the irregular verbs are divided, 1611 

166. What is to be observed relative to the object of the verb jMgw, . . 168 

LESSON XXXV. 

167. Irregnlarlty of the verb oeotUsr^ ,..-...'. 168 
16a ImpertUive mood^ when used, . .168 
160. The 9 of the first person plural, and the d of the second, snppreaacd before 

nofandof, ......... 168 

170. The subjunctive, used when thp imperative is negative in English, . . 168 

171. The fhture of the indicative, used for the Imperative, ... 168 

173. Adjectives ending in 0U9, how rendered into Spanish. . . .168 
17S. Nouns and adjectives ending in English in fe or iocU^ bow rendered into 

Spanish, .......... 160 

LESSON XXXVI. 

174. Irregularity of the verb moMn 1^3 

175. iSe, aa the Spanish indelinite personal pronoun, ' . ' . ' . * . 173 

176. The pronoun M, in its four flmctions, . .*.'.'. 174 

177. Nouns ending in English in /y, how rendered into SDanish. * " 174 
17a Itafcr.howused, *^^ * " J.^ 

LESSON XXXVII. 

179. Irregularity of the verb afciwfer,. !«« 

180.181,182,183. aiVwk^ttw Ifood, when lied in 'spsnii, . " . * " in 

184. Present tense of the suljnnctive ' Cpi 

186. Perfecttense, . . .'.'.".".*.' ' iS 

LESSON XXXVIII. . 

186. Pruent Partic^tes, . i«, 

187. Otrundt, . . .'.'.*.'.*.'.". lae 
J!^' ^ ^*^**^™«d^th the gerund in Spanish, ' .'.*.'.' 186 

189. When in English the present participle, preceded by a preposition, is used, 

how rendered into Spanish, Igy 

190. The Inflnitive used as a verbal noun, . . ... 187 
m. The infinitive governed by an other verb, how rendered into En^sh, . 187 

LESSON XXXIX. 

199. Irregularity of the verb /!«»•, . . . • • • • lOS 

198. The nsnal forms of salutations, . • 199 



Xiv CONTENTS. 

LESSON XL. / 

194. Omdttdr, its InegiilBrlty, 197 

105. iS^grun as a prepoBition and an adVex^, . . . . . . 198 . 

196. CoUectiye nouns, ......... 196 

• . - LESSON XLI. 

197. Defective verbg podritt plaar^ &c., ....*.. 203 

198. racw. Its use, . . 808 

199. Soler, its use, ' . . .808 

900. J9m<I«, Ite meaning and asc, .... t .. 803 

901. CorUra, rendered into English by agatnU^ 201 

909. iSoftre, its signification, 204 

208. Traa^ its meaning ^804 

9M. The conjunction /?ue9^ its Qse, . . .' . . .804 

LESSON XLII. 

906. C^unc<fi>rw, their classification, 909 

906. Wliat is to be observed In relation to the government of coi^JnnctlonB, . SKIO 

907. Some conjonctions that govern the sabjunctive mood, . . .910 
906. Compoond coi^onctlons which require the infinitive mood, . . 210 

909. Compound coi^unctions which require the Indicative, . . . .210 

LESSON XLIII. 

910. Imperfect and pluperfect of the subjunctive, 215 

211. How to render into Spanish the auxiliaries may, fnight^ car^ could, vbUL, 

would, ttudshauia . . -817 

212. What the Imperfect subjunctive denotes, . . .' . . 917 
2ia What the pluperfect denotes, 217 

ESSON XLIV. 

214. Auj^entative and diminutive nouns, ...... 992 

915. Irregular terminations of certain diminutives, . . . . .994 

916. Diminutives may be formed from a4)ectives, participles, gerunds, and ad- 

verbs, •. *. . . . . . . 924 

917. Some of the primitive words do not admit all the diminutive terminations, . 924 
218. There are derivatives which, although they appear to be augmentatives or 

diminutives, are not so, . . . . . . . 295 

LESSON XLV. 

919. The fhture simple of ihesubjnnctiye, . . .980 

990. How the present of the subjunctive may be substituted by the ititure, . 230 
921. The fhtnre compound, . . ' . . . ... .280 

222. The compound present of the subjunctive may be substituted by the future 

compound, . . • . . .231 
228. What is to be observed in order not to misapply the Imperfect and plu- 
perfect, . .981 

S94. Goyemment of the ftiture simple and compound fhturc of tlfe subjunctive 

mood, 981 



CONTENTS. XV 

LBSSON XLYI. 
23&-2a6. Inteijectioiifl, S3T' 

LESSON XLVII. 

227. Use of the article, 243 

22& The definite article used with common nonna taken in a general eenee, . 213 

3S9. The article before the names of the foor parts of the giohe, names of empires, 

kingdoms, &c.\ . 243 

230. Nouns of measure, weight, dEc., when they require the article, . M8 

281. The article repeated before every noon enumerated, ... 243 

233. The definite article used before nouns Indicating nmk, ofl&ce, Ac., . . MS 
238. Used instead of the poBsessiyea^iective, SM 

234. Used aa in Bnglisti, before nouns, taken in a particular or definite sense, . 344 

LESSON XLVIII. 

236. Correspondence of the tenses with each other, 949 

296. When the determined verb is put in the InfinitiTe, . 9S0 

237. When the determining verb is «er, or any impersonal verb, and the gOTeming 

Terl^ lias no subject, . 250 

238. Put in the subjunctiye when the determining verb has a nominatiTe, . . 261 
839. When the goyeming verb is pht in the present or fhture of the subJunetiTe, 261 
340. Government of the preterit indefinite, and compound fhture of the indica- 

Uve, 261 

941. The nominative being the same for both verbs and the governing one in the 

indicative, in what mood the determining verb is put, ... 263 

LESSON XLIX. 

942, 943, 344, 345, 318, M7, 948, »i9, 260, 351, 263. Derivative nouns, . 267 

LESSON L. 

864 

263. Compound nouns, .••-*** 

LESSON LI. 

• . . 209 

264. The natural construction, ..•••' . ino 
S55, 256. Figurative construction, ,^ 

257. Which of the two constructionB is preferable, . . • • • 

LESSON LII. 

2T6 

258. Past PartidpUs^ • * . . 2^6 

968. ExtraoriUnaryirrcijnlarity of the verb OTOrtr,. • ^ * ' . .278 

m Some past or p«irfyep«Udple.t.|kc™«tlTC.«n«l«tion^ ^ 

SM. ftrt participles my vmetlmestoke the place of »nb»t«iinTeB. ^ 

S6S. Other tenaea In the InflniUve mood. 



XVI OONTKNTB. 

LESSON LIII. 

206. Idiomatic ezpresBionSf in which the English prepoBition differs in meaidng 

from that which most generally constitates its proper signification, . S84 

LESSON LIV. 

967. Ck>i^unction8 in English that are frequently nsed as anhstitates for other 

words, how rendered iilto Spanish, Sgg 

968. Spanish coi^nnctions used as substitutes for other words, . . 989 
— . Different uses of the cox\}nnction<<, . •• * . .980 

LESSOI^ LV. 
900. Some ofthe principal uses of the coi^unction^iM, . . . .985 

LESSON LVI. 

970. Epistolary correspondence, 801 

LESSON LVII. 

971. Observation in regard to verbs that change their meaning according to the 

preposition by which they are followed, . * ' . . . . 810 

LESSON LVIII. 

979. The verbs to be ^ad and to be r^oieed^ how translated, . . • .814 
978. The verbs to be wiry and ix> grkve, how translated, .... 814 
874. How the Terb oi&tfr is used, . 814 

LESSON LIX. 
975. Idioms with the verbs eaer, dar, dedr, ecAar^ . . . . .890 

LESSON LX. 

876. .Idioms with the verbs enirar, Tiaoer, ir, Uevar, mandar, oler d, iober <£, saUr, 

Mro<r, tofvtor, and vo^wr, . *. . . . 896 

LESSONS LXI TO LXV. 
On the Principal Idioms of the Spanish Language, 889 to 854 



Genersl observations on some gnmmatiGal and idiomatical peculiarities of the 

Spanish language, not hitherto treated of in the Grammar, . . .856 

Recapitulation of all the rules of the Grammar, . . . . 88510 889 

Complete list of the ooiOagations of all the Spanish verbs, . . . 388 to 488 

List of aU the irregular verbs, 488,440 

VocABULABT, Containing all the Spanish words used in the grammar, . 441 to 470 



PRELIMINARY LESSON 



ORTHOGRAPHY AND PRONUNCIATION. 



THE AI^PSIABET. 

Thb SpAnnsn Alphabet contains twentj-seren letters, ex- 
elusive of JT and Wj which are used in foreign words only, 
and are pronounced as in English. The W appears in a very 
few historical names, like Wambay Witizcu The letters are all 
of the feminine gender, and their names and pronunciation are 
as follows: 



A, 


a. 


ah. 


N, 


n. 


tfynay. 


B, 


^ 


lay. 


% 


«, 


ain-yay. 


0, 


c, 


Oay. 


0, 


«>, 


0. 


CH, 


ch, 


«^y. 


P, 


P, 


pay. 


D, 


d. 


day. 


Q, 


q, 


loo. 


E, 


e, 


ay. 


B, 


«•. 


air-ray. 


F, 


{, 


ay-fay. 


8, 


«. 


aytay. 


G. 


g, 


Uy. 


T, 


t, 


toy. 


n, 


h, 


at-thay. 


u, 


«. 


00. 


I, 


i, 


e. 


V, 


▼, 


nay. 


J, 


J, 


hotah. 


X, 


X. 


ayhiM. 


L, 


1. 


tt-lay. 


Y, 


7, 


e-ffree-ay'-ffoh. 


m 


n, 


aOryay. 


z, 


*, 


fhay-tah. 


M, 


m, 


aymay. 









XViU PBBLIMINARY LESSOX. 

All the letters are invariable in sound, except c and <;, which 
have each two sounds, as will he seen in the proper place; and 
every letter is pronounced in all positions, except the A,' which 
is always silent, and the t/, which is not sounded in the sylla- 
bles gue^ ffuiy and que^ qui. 

So that, with a few exceptions, the Spanish language is 
pronounced exactly as it is written, and does not present those 
difficulties met with in the orthography and pronunciation of 
most other languages. The system of representing, in each les- 
son, the pronunciation of each word by an incorrect orthography 
only augments the doubts and labor of the learner, besides in- 
creasing unnecessarily the size of the work ; one lesson of an 
hour's duration with a native Spanish teacher will do more toward 
the acquisition of a pure Castilian pronunciation, than all the 
works that could be written on the subject. 

As the English vowels differ in sound from those of all 
other languages, great care ought to be taken to learn the 
irue sound of the Spanish vowels; they are: 

a, 0, i, o, n.. 

ah^ ' ay, «, o, oo, 

Y is sometimes a vowel. (See the letter Y.) 

A has an invariable sound, as heard in the words arty father; 
as, arte, padre (not varying as in the English words fare, fat^ 
faTyfaU^ stoalloWj manyy courage^ mustard). 

Z! has the sound of a in made ; as, hecho. 

I sounds like the first e in even ; as, inglia, (See letter Y.) 

O is pronounced like the English o in the word ode ; as, amo. 

U sounds as the English u mhuU\ as, hrda\ it is silent in 
the syllables gue^ gui^ guerra^ except it has a diaeresis marked 
over it, agilero. In the syllables que^ qui^ it is always silent. 



SOUNDS OF THE COIVSONAIVTS. 

B has the same sound as in English ; but in Castile and 
Aragon (where in other respects the Castilian language is most 



PBJELIMIKABY LESSON. xix 

• purely spoken and pronounced), they do not press the lips 
quite so close as the English do, which causes it very frequent- 
ly to be confounded with the r, although they are distinct 
letters, and should be pronounced as in English. 

O, when followed by a, o, w, or any consonant, sounds like 
Tc ; before e and «, it sounds like th in thanks ; as, gracias, leo 
cioHj cabaUero, (See letter Z.) 

OH is not a double consonant, but a letter which, although 
of a double form, has by itself a particular denomination and 
sound ; it is pronounced like ch in chess ; as, chicOy chocolate. 
Formerly, in words of Hebrew and Gre^k origin, it had the 
sound of ky when the vowel following it was marked with the 
circumflex accent ; as, archdngel, chtmica : but this practice is 
obsolete, and such words are now written arcdngely quimica. 

D is pronounced like the English c?, except when found be- 
tween two vowels or at the end of words, when it sounds 
softer than the English d, li£e th in the article thCy but not like 
th lisped, as in thin^ as Madricf (like the)^ not Madrid (like 
thin); Ustee? (like the)j not TJste« (like thin). This lisped 
pronunciation on the d is considered vulgar. 

P is always pronomnced like the English/, and is now used 
instead of 2?A; a»j Filosofia^ Mladelfia^ imtead of JPhilosophuZy 
PhUadelphia, 

G has two distinct sounds : one, before a, Oy w, or a conso- 
nant, is the same sound as in English go^ good; as, gato^ gror 
cias : before e and i it has another strong, guttural, aspirated 
sound, for which the English has no equivalent, and which 
even a very strongly aspirated A, as in the words hot^ holy^ does 
not represent ; as, gente^ people ; gesto^ gesture ; gigante^ giant. 

H is never pronounced in the Spanish language; as, hace, 
higo, pronounced as if no such A were there. It is, properly 
speaking, only a sign used to mark the etymology of words, 
and is now omitted in many words in which it was formerly 
used; as, Cristo, FOosofla, Teatro, Pitdgoras, FUadeifia. 



/ 



XX PBELIMIKABT LEBSOH. 

This letter is always written before the words that begin 
by tie and ie, and here it has a very soft, alpiost imperceptible, 
aspiration ; as, huevo^ egg; htiesOj bone; huispedy guest; hierroj 
iron; hielOj ice: bat great care must be taken not to pronounce 
it too strong, as the lower classes of certain provinces do, pro- 
nouncing juevOj or fftievo ; jitesoj or gUeao^ which is considered 
vulgar. 

J has always an aspirated guttural sound, like that which 
the g has befbre e and /, and is written before the vowels a, o, 
Uj instead of the letter a;, which formerly represented the same 
aspirated sound ; as, ^l^andrOy Alexander ; Don Quyote, Don 
Quixote. 

Ii always sounds as in English. 

IjIi is, like the cA, a single letter, although of double form, 
, which therefore cannot be divided at the end of a line. It has 
a liquid sound, resembling that of the English U in WiUiamy 
brilliant I as, CruiUermo^ briUante. 

BEE, N, and F have the English somid. 

"& is always pronounced like ni in the English word pinion, 

Q is pronounced like the English * before ue and w£, in 
which combination alone it is now used ; in all other positions 
it has been replaced by c ; as, cuando^ camay comer j quien^ querer. 

R, when single, is sounded soft, as in English; as, querido^ 
oro : and when double, or at the beginning of a word, and 
when it comes after /, n, or «, or in compound words, in which 
the second begins by r; it is pronounced with a very strong 
rolling sound ; as, rc%', malrotar^ enriquecer^ Israel^ prerogati- 
«?a, manirotOy cariredondoy &c. 

S is pronounced like the English s in say; as, saibiOj wise; 
solOy alone ; aerlory sir. 

T is pronounced as in English. 

V has the sound of the English v. (See letter JB.) 



PBSLIMIVABT L1SB80V. XXI 

X has the sound of the x in the English irord tax; %a, 
exdmen^ eaOrangero. It no longer lepresentA its foimsx guttu- 
ral sound, as has been observed. (See letter J^ Some replace 
it by the letter s^ when it comes before a consonant, and write 
eetrangero instead of extrangero. The grammar of the Span- 
ish Academy does not authorize this practice. 

T is a consonant letter, but use makes it serve as a 
vowel when it stands alone, used as a copulative conjunction 
(meaning and) ; it is also used instead of the vowel », in the 
pombinations ai^ eij ui at the end of a word ; as, vetdegay^ rey^ 
fey, convoy^ muy. 

When used in its proper place, that is to say, as a conso- 
nant, .it has the same sound in Spanish as in the English words 
y&ung, year. 

Z has always the sound of ^A, as heard in thank^ batK 



V¥lAJiBMJR%. 



Such syllables only will be noted here as may be subject 
to doubt as to the pronunciation and orthography. 



ca, 


que, 


qui, 


CO, 


en, 


hah. 


• hay. 


hee. 


ho. 


hoc. 


za, 


ce, 


ci, 


zo, 


zn, 


ikah. 


thay. 


thee. 


iho. 


th4)0. 


az, 


ez, 


W 


oz, 


uz, 


ath. 


aith. 


eeth. 


oth. 


ooth. 


&h 


^% 


gni, 


go, 


go, 


ffoh. 


^ay. 


ghee. 


gd. 


goo. 


ja. 


ge, 


gi, 


jo, 


jn, 


hah. ' 


hay. 


hee. 


hd. 


hoo. 


ya, 


ye. 


yi. 


yo. 


yu. 


ThlB flomid cannot be pxopeily repKsented In EngUah. 


(Sc© letter T). 


cha, • 


cbe, 


chi, 


cho, 


chn, 


tehah. 


tehay. 


• tehee. 


Uhd. 


tehoo. 



XXU . PBELIMINABY LBSSON. 



Ha, 
lyah. ■ 


lyay. 


Hi, 
lyee. 


Do, 
lyS. 


Dt., 
lyoo. 


nyah. 


fie, 
nyai. 


fii, 
nye. 


flo, 


flu, 
nyoo. 


cna, 
iwah 


cue,. 
hway. 


cui, 
iwee. 


cuo, 
. hcS. 




S^, 


g<ie, 


gOi, 


gno, 





ffway, gwee, 

BIPHTKONGS. 



ai, 


as in 


daboia, 


dah'-hahree98. 


You gave. 


ay, 


(( 


hay, 


ah'-e. 


There is. 


aw, ■ 


(( 


pausa, 


pah'-oo-m. 


Pause. 


«, 


(C 


V61S, 


mi'-em. 


You see. 


^, 


u 


%, 


lai'-e. 


Law. 


ea, 


(i 


lineo, 


W-naira, 


Due. 


e<?. 


(( 


virglnao, 


^eer-he'-nairo. 


Virginal. 


«w. 


(( 


dcwda, 


dai'-oo-da. 


Debt. 


ia, 


(( 


graoto. 


grah' -tJie-a. 


Grace. 


w» 


tc 


cfelo. 


the-ai'-lo. 


Heaven. 


io. 


Ifr 


precio, 


prai'-tlve-o. 


Price. 


»V, 


a 


cti*dad. 


iJu'Oo-^th'. 


City. 


ofl, 


u' 


h6ro0, 


ai'-TiHiu 


Hero. 


Oh 


i( 


wis, 


S0''e€98. 


You are. 


oy, . 


(( 


yof/. 


w'-e. 


I go. 


«a. 


(( 


fragMO, 


frdh'-gwa. 


Forge. 


^*« 


it 


dt/^no, 


. doo-ain'-yo. 


Owner. 


ui; 


(( 


rwido, 


Too-e'-do. 


• Noise. 


«yi 


(( 


muy, 


. moo'-e. 


Very. 


«d, 


u 


arduo, 


aT'-do(H>. 


Arduous. 




TBIPHTUO]!VGS. 




ta£, 


as in precMiis, 


prai'the-ah'- 


een. 


i<?i, 




" YBjoieis, 


ftah-the-a^^eew. 


uai^ 




" santigwdfs, san-U-gwak'- 


ees8. 


wiy, 




" Paragwdy, pah-rah-gwah'-i. 


uei, 




'* averigttws, dh-tai-Tl-gtBa^-iem. 


fiey, 




huey, 


IwaH-l, 





PBELIMINABY LESSOK. XXIU 

Whenever one of the vowels is accented (generally the i 
and m), these combinations do not form diphthongs, because 
each vowel belongs then to a separate syllable ; as, leid^ varic^ 
efecti&aj Ac. And in poetry the diphthongs as well as the 
triphthongs may be divided into different syllables by a di- 
uresis, when the verse requires an additional syllable, as : 

^< Bi rode6 tal yez, 
For el Istmo de Siiez.'* 



ACCEKITS. 

Words that end in a consonant are accented on the last 
syllable; as, virtud, virtue; hablar^ to speak; fusil^ ^^^\ 
papeiy paper. 

Words'that end in a vowel are accented on the penultimate ; 
as, banco, bench ; meaay table ; libra, book. 

Of course we need not put any written accent on the last 
syllable,. when it ends in a consonant; nor on the next to the 
last, when it ends in a vowel, because the fact of ending in any 
of these letters is a sufficient mark where to lay the stress of 
the voice. 

The written accent is used only over the words that do not 
follow the above two general rules, to show they are excep- 
tions ; as, pqpdf papa ; periddico, newspaper ; Idpiz, pencil ; 
IdneSy Monday ; mdrtes, Tuesday ; miercoles, Wednesday, &c. 

Remabks. 

Monosyllables having only one signification are never ac- 
cented ; as, pan, mai. But monosyllables or any other word 
having more than one signification should h^ accented when 
they are more slowly pronounced ; as, mi, me ; mi, my ; t^, 
thoa,; tu, thy ; il, he ; d, the, &c. 

The vowels d, e, 6, H, when used alone are always accented. 

The verb is an exception to what has been stated about the 
accent, since many persons of it, in different tenses, have the 
stress of the voice on the syllable next to the last, although 
they end in a consonant ; as, hablan, they speak ; compraron. 



XXIV. PEKLIMINABY LESSON. 

they bonght, &c, ; and although this mjs^ be an exception, it 
is not customary to place the written accent over them as is 
done in the case of other words. 

The employment of the written accent in the verbs is now 
generally confined to the first and third persons singular, and 
first person plural of the perfect indiccUiv€j and every person 
of the future indiccUive. 

If one or more pronouns of the dative or accusative case be 
affixed to an unaccented person of a verb, the syllable on which 
the stress falls should be marked with the accent; as from 
busca, bHiscalo^ b&scmelo; from venda^ v&ndalOy vindasdo. 



PCWCTlJATIOIf. 

The marks are the same as in English, and are similarly 
applied, excepting those of interrogaticm and exclamation, 
which both precede and succeed the sentence; the former it 
should be remarked are inverted. — TSjl.^ g C6mo estd V. f 
t Oh^ si FT mpieral 



DE TOEHTOS'S 
SPANISH GRAMMAR. 



LESSON I. 

BEGCLAB XESS3.—fSnt Oai^i^aiiim. 
Sabl-ar. | To speak. 



INDIOATIVB PBB8SNT. 


To habl-o. 


Ispeak. 


Tti habl-as. 


ThoQ speakesL 


£1 or ella habl-a. 


He or she speaks. 


Usted (V.) habl-a. 


Toa speak. 


Nosotros, or ^ ^, 
Noeotras, \^^-^^ 


We speak. 


Vosotros,or 
Yosotna, } °*°^ "^ 


Yon speak. 


EDoB, or eUas, habl-an. 


They speak. 


Ustedes (Vds.) habl-an. 


You speak. 


Si (adverb). 


Yes. 


No ** 


No, or not 


Senor. 


Sir. 


C50MP0 


smoN. 


^HablaV.t 

Sf, sefior, JO hablo. 

^H&blan Vd0.? 


Do you speak? 
Yea, BIT. I speak. 
Do yon speak? 



LBB80N I. 



No, sefilor, dlas hablan. 

I Hablais voflotias? 

No, sefiior, ellos hablan. 

^Hablaella? 

No, sefior, ella no habla. 

jHablaatii? 

No, sefior, A habla. 

iHabUV.? 

Si, sefior, hablo. 

^Hablan ellas? 

No, sefior, no hablan. 

I Hablamos nosotros ? 

Sf, sefior, hablamos. 

i Hablais vosotras f 

Nosotraa no hablamos. 



No^ rar, they speak. 

Do you speak? 

No, sir, they speak. 

Does she speak ? 

No, sir, she does not speak. 

Dost thon speak? 

No, dr, he speaks. 

Do yon speak? 

Yes, sir, I speak. 

Do they speak ? 

No, sir, they do not speak. 

Do we speak? 

Tes, sir, we speak. 

Do yon speak? 

We do not speak. 



EXPLANATION. 

1. Regulab Vebbs. — ^All the verbs of the Spanish language 
have their endings, in the infinitive mood, either in ar^ er, or 
ir; hence their classification in three conjugations: Ist, those 
ending in ar; 2d, those ending in er; and dd, in tr ; as, hablrar^ 
aprend-er^ escrUhir. 

2. Roots. — ^The letters before the terminations or, «r, »r, in 
the preceding verbs, are habl^ aprend^ eacribj and are called the 
roots. 

3. Terminations. — ^All regular verbs of the^r«^ conjugation 
vary the endings in their respective tenses, so as to correspond 
with those of the verb habl^tr; all those of the second conjuga- 
tion correspond to the terminations of aprender; and all those 
of the ^Airc? correspond to eacrilhir. 

Consequently, when the student has learned how to conju- 
gate one of the regular verbs of each conjugation, he can con- 
jugate all the regular verbs of the Spanish language (about 
8,000). For this reason we recommend the scholars to devote 
their attention, in thejirstplacey to committing to memory the 
different moods and tenses of these three model verbs. They 
will be found complete at the end of the book. 

The terminations of the verbs being different for each per- 
son, as well in the plural as in the singular number, the nomina- 
tive pronouns are ordinarily dispensed with, and are only used 



LESBOK I. 8 

to give emphasis ; except the pronoun Ustedf which must 
always be expressed. — Ustedj meaning You, is a contraction 
from vuegtra merced. Your Honor ; and, being a title, its omis- 
sion would be considered impolite. 

4. You.— In addressing an individual in Spanish, the third 
person is used with the pronoun Uited: as, Uited hcMa^ you 
speak ; the second person is employed only in speaking to rela- 
tives or intimate friends. 

CONVEBSAHON AND VEKSION. 

1. lEablan ellas? 8i, sefior, eOas hablan. 

2. iHablais vosotros? No, sefior; elloB hablan. 
8. |Hablamo8 nosotras? No, sefior ; ella habla. 

4. iHabhds vosotroe? No, sefior; 41 habla. 

5. I Habla ella^ 8i, sefior, habla. 

6. I Habla 61 f No, sefior, no habla. 

7. iHablas td? Si, sefior, yo hablo. 

8. ^Hablais voeotras? 81, sefior, nosotras hablamos. 

9. 2 Hablo yo? 81, sefior, Y. habla. 

10. I Habla 61? No, sefior, no habla. 

11. I No hablan ellos? Si, sefior, ellos hablan. 

12. I Habla Y. ? No, sefior, yo no hablo. 
18. 4 No habla Y. ? No, sefior, yo no hablo. 
14. I No hablan ellas? Si, sefior, hablan. 

16. I No hablais vosotras? No, sefior, nosotras no hablamos. 

EXGERCISE. 

1. Do you speak? I speak. 

2. Do they speak? Yes, sir, they speak. 
8. Dost thou speak? No, sir, he speaks. 

4. Do you speak? No, ear, we do not speak. 

5. Dost thou speak? No, sir, I do not speak. 

6. Does he not speak? Yes, sir, he speaks. 

7. Do you not speak? No, sir, we do not speak. 

8. Does she not speak? No, sir, she does not speak. 

9. Do we not speak? Yes, sir, we speak. 

10. Do they (Jem.) not speak? No, sir, they (Jem,) do not speak. 

11. Do we (^fem) not speak? Yes, sir, we {fern.) speak. 

12. Do you speak? No, sir, I do not speak; they (fern.) speak. 



LESSON II. 



LESSON II. 



MASCfUUNB K0T7NB. 



FSMINUIK K0TJN8. 



Seflor (Sr.). Sir, Mr., or Lord. 
Caballero. Gentleman, Sir. 
Sefiorito. Yoong gentleman. 
Don.(Dn.,orD.).Mr., Esq. 


Sefiora (Sra.). Madam, or Mrs. 

" " TAdy, or My Lady. 
Sefiorita (Srita). Misa, or younglady. 
Dofia Pa.) Mrs. 


Espafio). Spanish. 
Tngl^s. English. 
Frances. French.- 
Aleman. German. 


COMPO 


Lnisa. Louisa. 
3inON. 



Sefiorita, i habla Y. espafiol ? 
Si, eefior, hablo espafiol. 
Luisa, I hablas frances ? 
No, sefior, no hablo frances. 
^Hablanyd8.mgl6B? 
Hablamos inglds. 
jHablan elloe, 6 eUas, fiunces? 
Sefiora, ^ habla Y. espafiol ? 
Bon Manuel, i habla Y. aleman? 
Caballero, i habla Y. espafiol ? 
Sefiorita Luisa, 4 habla Y. frances ? 



Do yon speak Spanish, Missf 
Yes, sir, I speak Spanish. 
Louisa, dost thou speak French f 
No, rar, I do not speak French. 
Po you speak English f 
We speak English. 
Do they speak French ? 
Madam, do you speak Spanish ? 
Mr. Emanuel, do you speak German ? 
Sir, do you speak Spanish ? 
Miss Louisa, do you speak French ? 



EXPLANATION. 

6. SkI^ob. — ^This word, used alone, L e., in the vocative case, 
implies inferiority on the part of the speaker, and answers to 
the word Lord in English. It is used in addressing God, or 
the King; or by servants when speaking to their masters. 
"With an equal, the proper term is cabdUerOy gentleman ; never- 
theless, Seflor may also be used among equals : in the affirmar- 
tive, S%^ seflor^ or in the negative, wo, seHor^ in which cases it 
means sir; or together with the name of the person ; as, iSeftor 
JETempy which means Mr. Kemp. 

Sefiora^ Sefiorita. — ^In addressing ladies, the word Sefiora^ 
Madam, and Sefiorita^ Young Lady, or Miss, may be used 



LBSSON II. 5 

alone; as, SenorOj or Seflorikt^ ^AoMa FT e^foflolf Madam, 
or Young Lady, or Miss, do you speak Spanish ? 

SeikyrUo^ IDce Sefior^ implies inferiority on the part of the 
speaker, for which reason it is seldom used, except by servants. 
6. DoK, Mr., applies to gentlemen, and Doflaj Mrs., to la- 
dies. These terms are only used in conjunction with the Christ- 
ian names; as, Don Manuel^ Dafla IJuisa^ and, still more re- 
spectfully, Seflor Don Manud^ Sefiota Dofia Ijuiaa. This 
title, conferred, in old times, only upon members of noble 
Amines, is now used in addressing all persons, except those 
of very humble station, and is written in abbreviation thus, 
Dn., Da. ^ 

7. The negative no, is always placed immediately before 
the verb. 

CONVBRSAnON AND VERSION. 

1. ^Habla V. espafiol? Hablo espafioL 

2. Lnisa, jhablas frances? Hablo franoes. 

8. jHabla Manuel ingles? Hablaingl4s. 

4. Cabanero, ^habla Y. aleman ? Si, sellor, hablo alei^ian. 

5. iHablan Yds. frances? |Hablamos frances? 

6. I Hablan eQos ingles? No, sefior, no hablan ingl6s. 

7. 2 Hablan dlas espafiol? No, sefior, no hablan espalioL 

8. (Habla Lmsa frances? No, sefior, no habla frances; ella habia 
espafioL 

9. i^o habla Mannel aleman ? No, sefior, no habla aleman ; 41 habla 
ingl^ 

10. I Habla Y. espafiol ? No, sefior, no hablo espafioL 

11. I Habla Mannd espafiol ? Si, sefior, 61 habla espafioL 

12. iDon Manne], habla Y. frances? No, sefior, no hablo frances. 
18. Sefiora Da. Luisa, ^habla Y. espafiol? No, sefior ; hablo ingl^. 

14. Sefiorita Da. Lnisa, ^habla Y. frances? Yo hablo frances. 

15. CabaUero, | habla Y. aleman? No, sefiorita, hablo espafioL 

EXERCIBEL 

1. Do they speak French? They speak French. 

2. Do you speak Enghsh? ' We speak English. 

8. Do they speak Spanish ? No, madam, they do not speak Spanish. 

4. Sir, do yon speak German? Tes, madam, I speak German. 

5. Does Emannd speak French? No, sir; he speaks English. 



6 



LESSON III. 



6. Do 70Q speak Spazush? No, ear, I do not epeak Spanish. 

7. Does not Louisa speak German? No, sir, she does not speak Ger- 
man ; she speaks French. 

8. Emannel, dost thou speak English ? I speak English. 

9. Does Louisa speak Spanish ? Yes, sir, she speaks Spanish. 

10. Do you speak French? No, sir, I speak English. 

11. Sir, do you speak French? No, sir. 

12. Miss Louisa, do yon speak Spanish? Yes, madam. 

18. (Don) Emanuel, do you speak English ? Yes, sir, I speak Eng- 
lish. 

14. Do we speak Spanish? We do not speak Spanish; we speak 
French. 



LESSON III. 



Estudi-ttT. 


To study. 


Estndi-o. 


I study. 


Estudi-as. 


Thou studiest 


Estudi-a. 


He studies. 


Estudi-amoa. 


We study. 


Estudi-ais. 


You study. 


Estudi-an. 


They study. 


El (moie, sing.). 


The. 


Yor6. 


And. 




What or which. 


Pero, sino. 


But. 


Bien (adverli). 


WeU. 


ATfl] 


Badly. 


ADJRO 


nVEB. 


Espafiol. 


Spaniard. 


IngMs. 


Englishman. 


Frances. 


Frenchman. 


A1flTnq.n, 


German. 


Americano. 


American. 


MABCTJUafB KOUNS. 


FEMININK NOUXS. 



Al^andro. Alexander. 



I Margarita. Margaret. 



LB880K III. 



ooxposmoy. 



«Estadiay. espftfiol? 

No, seiior, tl Fnnces estodia e^MuBol ; 

pero JO eBta^o in^da. 
i Qai estadia el Americano f 
Estadia espafiol y franoea. 
Alqandro, i estudiaa francea y aleman f 

No, seSor, estudio espafiol 4 in^ia. 
Maimd no eatadia rino fnncea. 
i Qa6 hablan elloe aino espukA f 
iHabU bien ingl^ d Espafiol ? 
No, sefior, ^l-habla el in^te mal, pero 
habla bien d espafioL 



Do joQ study E^nmah ? 

No, sir, the Frencfaman atedies Spanidi ; 

bat I study fti^ah. 
What docs the American sCady ? 
He stndiea Spani^ and French. 
Alexander, do you stndy French and 

German? 
No, ^, I study Spamsh and Ba^sh. 
Ernanud stoifies bat (onlj) French. 
What do they speak bat Spamsh * 
Does the Spaniard speak English wcDt 
No, sir, he speaks EngCah badly, bat 

speaks Spanish veO. 



EXPLANATION. 

8. Y. — ^The conjanction y is changed into i when the fol- 
lowing word begins with i or At; as, etpaHoi i ingle^ Spanish 
and Englisb ; algodon i hilo^ cotton and thread. 

9. Qu^ interrogative pronoun, is written with an accent, 
to distinguish it from que, relative prononn, or conjunction. 

10. Seng. — ^When we translate but into Spanish, we most 
first ascertain its meaning ; because this conjundion is used in 
English to express many very different things. In Spanish it 
is translated sino, when it is used in antithesis, that is, when it 
means except \ and also after an interrogation, or a negation. 
The verb is not repeated with this conjunction ; as, £l no habla 
9ino ingles. He speaks but (only) English. ^Qne habla nito 
espaSol ? What (else) does he speak but Spanish ? 

11. Pebo is used when it is not preceded by a negative, 
and the verb is repeated ; as, JuMo etpaiicl, pero no JuMo 
francea. I speak Spanish, but do not speak French. 

N. B. — ^We will see hereafter that but, according to its dif^ 
ferent meanings in English, must be translated by different 
words in Spanish. 

12. We have again introduced the words etpafiol, inglis, 
fiances, and aleman into this lesson, because, while they were 
given before as substantives, they are now employed as adjec- 
tives. The pupil will observe that, in Spanish, as in English, 
some words are, at different times, different parts of speech ; as. 



8 LB880K III. 

M Espaflcl habla hien frances. The Spaniard speaks French 
well. Here the word ^Espaficl is used as an adjective, 
me2kVkm^' Spaniard \ and the word frances as a sabstantive, 
meaning the French language \ hien is employed as an ad- 
verb, meaning well, and it will appear hereafter as a substan- 
tive, meaning good. Consequently, the learner, before trans- 
lating a word, must first ascertain the part of speech to which 
it belongs. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. 2 Habla espafiol Margarita? Margarita no habla espallol, pero 
habla ingl6& 

2. j Habla Y. espafiol? No, sefior, hablo frances y aleman. 
8. Alejandro, ^hablas ingles? Si, sefior, hablo ingl^. 

4. I Hablan Yds. espafiol ? Hablamos espafiol k ingles. 
6. ^Qn6 hablan eUos? Hablan aleman. 

6. Gaballero, ^estndia Y. espafiol? Si, sefior, estadio espafiol k in- 
gl^. 

7. i Qu6 estndia el Aleman? Estndia espafiol. 

8. ^Estudian Yds. espafiol? Estadiamos frances y aleman. 

9. \ Uabla bien Luisa el ingMs? Habla bien espafiol k inglds. 

10. j Habla bien Manuel el aleman? No, sefior, habla mal el aleman, 
pero habla bien el frances. 

\\, I Habla bien ingles el Americano? Habla bien ingl68, pero habla 
mal el espafiol. 

12. Sefiora, |estadia Y. frances. No, sefior, estadio espafioL 

18. % Qne estndia Alejandro? El no estndia sine frances. 

14. I Que hablan ellos sino espafiol ? Ellos hablan frances. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do jon study German ? We study French and Spanish. 

2. Does Alexander speak Spanish? Alexander does not speak Span- 
ish, but he speaks English. 

3. Margaret, do you speak French? No, sir, I speak German and 
Spanish. 

4. What do they speak ? They speak Spanish and Grennan, but do 
not speak French. 

6. Do you speak Spanish? No, sir, I do not speak Spanish, but I 
speak English. 

6. Does Louisa speak French well? She speaks French badly, but 
iq>eaks German welL 



LJESS80K lY. 



9 



7. What do joa study? We stady Spanisb, and Alexander stadies 
IVench. 

6. What does the German study? He studies Spanish. 
9. Does he study well ? No, madam, he studies badly. 

10. Do yon speak Spanish, madam? No, air, I do not speak Spanish, 
but I speak "Kngliah and German. 

11. Does the Frenchman speak English well ? No, madam, he speaks 
English badly, but the Spaniard speaks English weD. 

12. What does the German study ? He studies English, and the Eng- 
lishman studies German. 

18. What does Alexander study ? He studies French only. 
14. What do they speak but Spanish? ) v tjvo ii 

What else do they speak but Spanish ? J ^^^ ^'P®^ ITrencb. 





LESSON IV. 


Compr-ar, 




To buy. 


Compr-o. 




I buy. 


Gompr-as. 




Thou buyest 


Oompr-a. 




He buys. 


Oompr-amos. 


We buy. 


Oompr-aiSb 




You buy. 


Compr-an. 




They buy. 


6u80-ar. 


1 


To look for, to seek. 


A. 




~ To. 


De. 




Of^ or from. 


AL 




To the. 


Del 




Ofthe,orfromthe. 


Un (maae. Hng,). 


A, or an. 


libro. 


Book. 




Onademo. 


Oopy-book. 




PapeL 


Paper. 


Madera. Wood. 


Caballo. 


Horse. 




Untera 


Inkstand. 

COHPO 


filTION. 


^Qa^oompimy.? 




What do you buy? 


Ckmqiro un Ubio. 




Ibuyabook. 



10 LESSON IV. 



i Compran Yds. |>apel ? 

jNo, Befior, no compramoe papd, 

oompramos on coademo. 
Busco al Americano. 
£l buBca el libro. 
£1 caballo del Frances. 
£1 tinttro de madera. 



Do you buy paper? 

No, sir, we do not buj paper, we buy 

a copy-book. 
I look for the American. 
He looks for the book. 
The Frenchman's horse. 
The wooden inkstand. 



EXPLANATION. 

13. -i. — ^The preposition d, to. Active verbs govern their 
objectives with the aid of the preposition d^ if that objective be 
a person ; as, Suaco al Americano^ I look for the American ; 
JBusco dpapdy I look for the paper. 

14. De. — The preposition <fe, of^ or from^ is used to ex- 
press possession, being always placed before the possessor ; as, 
El cabaUo del Frances: The Frenchman's horse. It is also 
used to denote the material of which any thing consists, or is 
made ; as, JS7 tintero de madera^ The wooden inkstand. 

16. El. — ^The article d^ the^ is nsed to determine a noun 
masculine singular ; as, el lihro^ the book. 

N. B. — ^When the article el comes after the proposition d 
(to), or de (of, or from), the e is suppressed, and the two words 
compounded into one ; thus, al^ dely instead of d el^ de eL 

16. Un. — The indefinite pronoun un is used before mascu- 
line nouns ; as, un ingles, an Englishman ; un caballo, a horse. 

N. B. — Uho is only used as a numeral adjective. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. iQxx^ compra el Frances? Gompra d caballo del Ingl^ 

2. iQa6 comprais vosotras? Oompramos nn cuademo. 
8. 4Qa6 compra V.? Oompro un libro. 

4. ^Oompran Yds. nn cnademo? No, sefior, compromos un tintero 
de madera. 

5. 4Qn6 bnscas ttif Bnsco un libro espoQoL 

6. I Qn6 buscais vosotros ? Nosotros buscamos nn tintero. 

7. |Qu6 busoan ellas? Bnscan el papel. 

8. Alejandro, ibnscas el papel? No, sefior, busco el cnademo. 

9. ^Estudia Margarita ingles? No, sefior, estudia frances. 



LESSON lY. 11 

10. |Qn6 estadia el Americano f Estadia espafioL 

11. {Estadian Yds. frances? No, sellor, estadiamos inglde. 

12. iQa6 estadia ella? Estndia aleman. 

18. 4Qq^ compra Y. ? Compro el caballo del Espafiol. 

14. iQa6 compran ellos? Gompran on tintero de madera. 

15. ^Bascais yosotros al Aleman? No, sefior, bnscamos al Frances. 

16. jHabMs vosotros aleman? 81, sefior, hablamos aleman. 

17. i<Hablan ellas espafiol ? No, sefior, hablan franoes. 

18. I Qa6 estadia Y. ? Estndio ingl^ y espafioL 

19. lOompra ella on libro? Si, sefior, compra on libro. 

20. iBosca 61 al Frances? No, sefior, abosca al Aleman. 

21. iQa6habIa el Americano? Habla espafiol. 

22. Manuel |qa6 estndias tti? Estndio aleman. 

23. |Qa6 compran ellos? Gompran nn caballo. 

24. I Qa6 bnscan Yds. ? Boscamoe el libro espafioL 

EXERCISE. 

1. What do they look for? Thej look for an inkstand. 

2. What does she look for? She looks for a book. 

3. Do you look for a copy-book? Yes, sir, we (fern.) look for a 
copy-book. 

4. Do they (Jhrn.) bay a wooden inkstand? Yes, sir, they buy a 
wooden inkstand. 

6. What do you buy? We buy the Frenchman's horse. 

6. Do you buy paper? No, sir, I buy a book. 

7. Do you buy a copy-book ? Yes, sir, I buy a copy-book. 

8. What does the Frenchman study? He studies German. 

9. Do you study Spanish? No, sir, I study French. 

10. Wliat does she study? She studies English. 

11. Wliat do they (fern.) study? They study Spanish. 

12. Do you 9peak French ? Yes, sir, I speak French. 

13. Does she speak Enghsh? No, sir, she speaks German. 

14. Do you speak German? No, sir, we (fern.) speak English. 

15. Do you look for the Frenolunan? Yes, sir, I look for the French- 
man. 

16. Do yon look for paper? No, sir, I look for a copy-book. 

17. What do they look for? They look for a book. 

18. Do you look for the German? Yes, sir, we (/w».) look for the 
German. 

19. Do you speak French? Yes, sir, I speak French. 

20. What does Margaret q>eak? She speaks English. 



12 



LB8S0N y. 



21. What do they buy? They bay a wooden inkstand. 

22. What dost thon look for? I look for a horse. 
28. What do you stndy ? We (/em.) study Spanish. 
24. What do you speak? 1 speak English. 



LESSON V. 


• 


Uecentar. 


To need, or to be in want of. 


Necesit^o. 


I need. 




Neceslt-as. 


Thou needest 


Necesit-a. 


He needs. 




Necesit-amos. 


We need. 




Necesit-ais. 


You need. 




Necesit-an. 


They need. 




m. 


My. 




Su. 


His, her, its, 


their. 


Sa (») de v., or \ 
m (n) de V. J 


Your. 








GES 


FDES. 




El papi. The papa. 


La mami. 


The mftmnm^ 


El abogado. The lawyer. 


Lapluma. 


The pen. 


El oomerciante. The merchant 


Latinta. 


The ink. 


El lacre. The sealmg-wax. 


La gramiitica. 


Thegranunar. 


El poUo. The chicken. 


La gallina. 


The hen. 


El algodon. The cotton. 


Laseda. 


The silk. 


Eljabon. The soap. 


La lavandera. 


The washerwoman. 


El pattuelo. The handkerchief. 
COMPO 


Lacamisa. 

smoN. 


The shirt 



i Neoesita el abogado la pluma ? 

Si, eefior, necesita la pluma j el tintero. 

^Qu6 necesita comprar la lavandera? 

Necesita comprar Jabon. 

^Necesita el oomerciante mi algodon? 



Does the lawyer want the pen ? 

Yes, sir, he wants the pen and the ink- 
stand. 

What ddies the washerwoman want to 
buy? 

She wants to buy soap. 

0oes the merchant want my cotton ? 



LESSOir ▼. 13 



Neoesita compnr el algodon de Y. y 

la seda del Frances. 
i Neoesita Y. ea pafinelo de algodon ? 
No, seiiora, neceaito bu paiiuelo de seda 

deY. 
i Qae neoesitan Yds. t 
Neoesitamos nn poUo y una gallina. 



He wants to bay yoor cotton, and the 

Frenchman's silk. 
Do you want your cotton handkerchief? 
No, nuulam, I want your silk handker- 

chiefl 
What do yon want ? 
We want a chicken and a hen. 



EXPLANATION. 

17. GsiTDBB. — ^In Spanish aU noons are either mascnline or 
feminine ; the neuter gender is only applied to those things so 
indefinitely used that their gender cannot be discovered. 

The gender of nouns may be ascertained either by their 
signification or their termination. 

NounB which signify males, or which denote dignities or 
professions, &c., applicable to men, are masculine; and those 
which signify females, or professions, &c., applicable to women, 
are feminine, without regard to their terminations: so that, 
hombrey man; cdbaUerOy gentleman; poUOy chicken; zapaterOy 
shoemaker; abogadoy lawyer, are masculine; and tnujerj wo- 
man ; sefLora, lady ; gallina^ hen ; Uwanderay washerwoman, 
are feminine. 

Nounds ending in a, cf, or ion, are generally feminine, and 
those ending in other letters are masculine ; as. 



PapdL 


Paper. 


Leodon. 


Lesson. 


Tmtero. 


Inkstand. 


Floma. 


Pen. 


BOlete. 


BUlet 


aadad. 


aty. 



N. B. — Una {indefinite article) is used before feminine nouns. 

To facUitcOe thepuptis in the distinction of gender ^ the left- 
hand side, in the vocabulary ^ is reserved for maeeuliney the 
right for feminine nouns. 

18. When your is preceded by yoUy it is sometimes trans- 
lated by Su; otherwise, it is generally rendered by el — de K, 
OTsu—^ v.; as, 



V, neoeriia sn carta. « 

/ Qui neeemia ^peytdde Y. ? 
Jfeemia su l^ro de Y . 



Tou need your letter. 

What does yemr fiither need t 

He needs your book. 



14 LBSBON V. 

CONVEBSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^Necesita Y. mi gram&tica? No, sefior, no neoesito sn gramAtica 
deV. 

2. I Necesita ella el palinelo de seda ? Si, sefior, ella necesita el pafinelo 
de seda. 

8. I Necesita Y. comprar nn libro ? Neoesito comprar un cnademo. 

4. ^Necesitan ellas el lacre? No, sefior, necedtan el pafinelo de al- 
godon. 

5. I Qa6 necesita comprar el abogado? Necesita comprar nna plnma. 

6. I Qa6 necesita comprar la lavandera? Necesita comprar jabon. 

7. iBnsca Y. su pafinelo? Si, sefior, bnsco mi pafinelo. 

8. I Bnsca Y. el cnademo de Mannel? No, sefior, bnsco el cnademo 
deY. 

9. I Habla Y. bien el aleman ? No, sefiorita, hablo mal el aleman. 
10. ^Estndian Yds. trances? No, sefior, estndiamos espafioL 

m 11. ^Compra Y. nn caballo ingles? Si, sefior, compro un caballo 
ingles. 

12. I Qn6 compran ellos? Oompran nna plnma j tinta. * 

13. iQn6 comprais vosotras? Nosotras compramos nn pafinelo de 
seda. 

14. 2 Qci^ compra la lavandera? Compra jabon. 

15. I Bnsca Y. 4 mi abogado ? Si, sefior, bnsco al abogado de Y. 

16. jOompra la lavandera nnpoUo? Compra nna gallina. 

17. I Compra jabon el comerciante ? No, sefior, el comerciante com- 
pra algodon. 

18. I Bnscan ellas el pafinelo de Y. ? Bnscan el pafinelo de Y. 

19. ^ Necesita Y. hablar al abogado? Si, sefiora, necesito hablar al 
abogado. 

. 20. j Necesita Y. comprar nn libro ? No, sefior, necesito comprar nna 
plnma y papel. 

21. I Necesita Y. estndiar ingles? Si, sefior, necesito estndiar ingl^ 

22. I Qu6 necesitais vosotras ? Necesitamos comprar lacre. 

28. 2 Necesita Y. hablar ol Frances? No, sefior, necesito hablar al 
Aleman. 
24. £Qn6 necesita Y.? Necesito nn pafinelo de algodon. 

EXERCISE. 

1. What do you need ? I need a book and paper. 

2. What does she need ? She needs your handkerchief. 

8. Do you need a horse? Yes, sir, I need an English horse. 
4. What do you need? I need soap. 



LBSSOK VI. 



15 



5. Does the American need the Spanish bookt Yea, air, he needa the 
Spaiushbook. 

6. Bo they need a lawyer? Yea, air, they need a lawyer. 
T. Do yon hny a silk handkerchief? No^ ar, we {/em.) huy a cot- 
ton handkerchiefl 

8. Do yon look for the Frenohman'a harae? No, air, I look for the 
£nglishiiian*s horse. 

9. Dost thou stndy German ? No, sir, I stndy Tgngliah, 

10. What does the merchant hny? He hnys cotton. 

11. What does the washerwoman hny ? Bhe bnys a hen and a chicken. 

12. Does the lawyer bay a book ? No, sir, he bnys paper. 

13. Do they (Jem.) speak well? No, sir, they speak badly. 

14. Do yon speak French, sir? No, sir, I speak English. 

15. Do yoH study much {muoho)% No, su-, we stndy very little {poeo). 

16. Do yoa study fast {aprua) ? No, sir, I study slowly {deepaeio), 

17. Do you buy cotton from the merchant ? No, air, I buy silk from 
your brother. 

16. What does your papa need? He needs the lawyer's book. 

19. What are they looking for ? They are looking for paper. 

20. Do you need a copy-book? No, sir, I need a book. 

21. Do you study Spanish ? Yes, madam, I stndy Spanish. 

22. Do you need paper and pen ? Yes, sir, I need paper and pen. 

23. What do they need? They need a dlk handkerchie£ 

24. What do yon need? I need an English horse. 



LESSON VI. 



Aprendree. 
A[Hrend-o. 
Aprend-es. 
Aprend-e. 

Aprend-emos. 

Aprend-eis. 

Aprend-en. 



To learn. 
I learn. 
Thou leamest 
Heleams. 

We learn. 
Yon learn. 
They learn. 



Vender. 



To sell. 



16 




LB880N yi. 




Mu7. 






Very. 




Macho. 






Mach, a great deal 


Pooo. 






Littia 




Aprisa. 






Qoioklj. 




Despacio. 






Slowly. 




Estadioflo. 


Stadioua. 




Holgazan. 


Man. 


Idle. 




Hombre. 




Mi^'er. 


Woman. 


Muchacbo. 


Bor. 




Maohacha. 


Gu-L 


Padre. 


Father. 




Madre. 


Mother. 


Hyo. 


Bon. 




Hya. 


Daughter. 


Hermano. 


Brother. 


Hermana. 


Sister. 






COMPOS 


moN. 





I Aprende may aprisa el madiacho ? 
£1 machacho eatadioBo aprende may 

i4>rifla; pero el machaoho holgazan 

aprende may deapado. 
^Aprenden ingl^a an padre y an hei^ 

mano de Y . f 
Sf, aefior, y mi madre y mi hermana 

aprenden franoea. 
i Aprende macho la machacha ? 
No, aeflor, aprende poco. 
^Aprenden apriaa an h^o y aa htja 

deV.? 
No, aeflor, aprenden deapada 



Doea the boy learn very fiistt 
The atadiooa boy leama very &st; bat 
the idle one leains very slowly. 

Do year father and brother learn Eng- 
lish? 

Tea, sir, and my mother and sister 
learn French. 

Does the girl learn mach t 

No, sir, she leains little. 

Do yoor son and daaghter learn fiuit ? 

No, dr, they leam alowly. 



EXPLANATION. 

19. The tebmination of the Jlrst person in the present in- 
dicative is always o in all the verbs of the Spanish language, 
to whatever conjugation they may belong, except six irregular 
verbs, as we shall see in future ; bo that the only difference be- 
tween the termination of (be second and first conjugations is 
the changing the a into e in the second and third persons 
singular, and in all the plural 

20. MuT is generally translated by vert/ or very much ; as 
muy bienj very well ; may lueno^ very good, <fec. ; but it can 



LE880K YI. 17 

never qaalify a rerb nor stand alone in discourse; as. Does 
he speak very well? Yes, very. ^JSiMa it muy bienf Sly 
mucho. 

21. Many masculine^ nouns ending in o, change this letter 
into a for the feminine ; as, 



Hennaoo. 


Brother. 


Hcmuuia. 


Sister. 


Hijo. 


Son. 


Hijft. 


Daughter. 


lladiacbo. 


Boy. 


Muchacha. 


GirL 



CONVERSATION AND TEBSION. 

1. (Aprende Y. bien d franccat No, sefior, aprendo mny mal el 
finances. 

2. I Aprcnden ellas aprisa ? No, sefior, aprenden despacio. 

8. I Aprende macho el machacho holgazan ? No, sefior, aprende may 
poco. 

4. I Aprendeis vosotros aprisa t Si, sefior, aprisa y bicn. 

5. I Qq^ vende el hermano da sa padre de V. ? Yende algodon. 

6. 2 Yenden ellas papel? No, sefior, venden plamas y lacre. 

7. I Qa6 Tende Margarita? Yende ana gallina. 

8. I Yende lacre el comerciante? No, sefior, vende papeL 

9. |Necesita Y. el pafiaelo de sa hermana? No, sefior, neoesito el 
pafinelo de sa hya de Y. 

10. jBusca sa mam4 de Y. el pafiaelo de sedat No, sefior, boSCa el 
pafiaelo de algodon. 

11. iQa6 necesita sa h^a de Y. ? Necesita hablar al hermano de Y. 

12. I Necesita la machacha comprar papel? No, sefiora, necesita com- 
prar an caademo. 

13. jHabla Y. del Frances? No, sefiorita, hablo del Aleman. 

14. |Qa6 compra sa padre de Y.? Gompra el caballo del h^o del 
abogado. 

15. I Qa6 bosca Y. ? Basco an libro y ana planuu 

16. |Qa6basca la machacha? Basca el jabon de la hermana de Y. 

17. I Aprende macho d machacho estadioso? 61, sefior, aprende 
macho. 

18. I Aprende Y. sa leccion de frances? No, sefior, aprendo mi lec- 
don de aleman. 

19. jHabk bien BonHanad d espaflol? Si, sefior, habla may bien 
el espafiol. 

20. (Estadia Y. gram&tica inglesa? No, sefior, estadio grom^ca 
francesa. 

21. I Compra Y. an tintero y papd ? No compro sino an tintero. 



18 LESSON YI. 

22. ^Bnsca Y. i mi padre ? Si, sefiorita, bosco & so padre de V. 

23. 2 Neoesita \ . comprar un tintero ? No, sefiora, necesito hablar 4 
mi hermana. 

24. ^Necesitamos nosotras aprender espafiol? Si, sefior, necesitamos 
mucho aprender espafioL 

EXERCISE. 

1. Does yonr sister learn English ? Yes, sir, she learns English. 

2. What does joar brother learn f Mjr brother learns Spanish. 
8. Do you leam quickly? No, sir, we learn very slowly. 

4. Does the studious boy leam well ? Tes, sir, he learns very well. 

5. What does your brother sell ? *ne sells cotton and edlk. 

6. Do you s^U paper ? No, sir, I sell sealing wax and ink. 

7. Do they (Jem,) need a French book ? No, sir, they need a copy- 
book, a pen, and ink. 

8. Do you need the English grammar? No, sir, I need the Spanish 
grammar. 

9. Do you want to speak to my father ? Yes, sir, I want to speak to 
your father. 

10. Do you want to speak to my sister's son ? No, sir, I want to 
speak to the Frenchman. 

11. Does he want to buy a horse ? Yes, sir, he wants to buy a horse. 

12. Do you need my book ? No, madam, I need your wooden ink- 
stand. 

18. Do you look for the merchant ? No, sir, I look for your father. 

14. Do they look for papa? No, sir, they look for the lawyer. 

16, Do you buy a book ? No, sir, we buy a copy-book ^d paper. 

16. Do they study English ? Yes, sir, they study English. 

17. Do you study German, sir ? No, I study Spanish, madam. 

18. Do you speak English well ? No, sir, I speak English badly. 

19. Does your sister speak French very well? No, sir, she speaks 
very little French. 

20. What does your father speak ? He speaks but (only) English. 

21. Does he not speak German? No, sir, he does not speak German. 

22. Does your daughter speak to your sister? Yes, sir, she speaks to 
my sister. 

23. Do you learn very quickly ? Yes, sir, I leam very quickly. 

24. Do you sell your book ? No, sir, I sell my paper. 



LS880H YII. 



19 



LESSON VII. 



Le-a 

Le-emoa. 

Le-eis. 

Le-en. 

Comer. 
Beber. . 
XASOULDrS AiMBonrxB. 

Bneno. Good. 
Hermosa Handsome. 
Feo. U»[y. 

Peqnefio. Little or smaD. 
(xrande (fit. &/!)• Large. 
EspafioL Spaniah, also Spaniaid. 
Americano. American. 



To read. 
Iread. 

ThoareadesL 
He reads. 

We read. 
Yon read. 
Theyrea^ 

To eat, to dine. 
To drink. 

nOHNIBE ABraOTIYl 



Bnena. Good. 

Hennosa. Handsome. 

Fea. F^y. 

PeqnefEa. little or smalL 

Espaflola. Spanish. 

Amerii^ana. American. 



Pan. 


Bread. 


Came. 


Meat 


Pescado. 


Fish. 


Leche. 


Milk. 


Qaeso. 


Cheese. 


Agua. 


Water. 


Vino. 


Wine. 


Cer^eza. 


Beer. 


Bfll^. 


BiUet or note. 


Carta. 


Letter. 




OOMPO 


smoN. 





jLeeY. imbineter 

No, sefior, leo una carta. 

i Qu6 come el Espafiol ? 

Come haen pescado, pero come mala 

came. 
i Beben Yds. rino baeno ? 
Bebemoa baen rino j buena cerveza. 
I Que compra el Americano f 
Cknnpra mi caballo peqnefio. 
i Habia Y. al gran hombre ? 
If Of sefior, hablo al hombre grande. 
i Q116 Tende la Franoesa ? 
Yende hermosa seda. 



Do yon read a note f 
No, sir, I read a letter. 
What does the ^Moiaid eat? 
He eats good fish, bat bad meat. 

Do you drink good wine ? 

We drink good wine and good beer. 

What does the American buy ? 

He buys a small horse. 

Do you speak to the great man ? 

No, sir, I speak to the large man. 

What does the French woman sell ? 

She sells handsome silk. 



20 LESSON YII. 

EXPLANATION. . 

22. Adjectiybs terminating in o, an, or on, form their 
feminine termination in a. Those terminating otherwise are 
conmion to both genders ; as, 



£1 muchacho holgazazu 
La muchacha holgazaxuk 
El hombre comilon. 
La mi^jer comilona. 
El hombre feliz» 
La mujer feliz. 
La gallina bueiuw 



The idle boj. 

The idle ^L 

The gluttonous man. 

The gluttonous woman. 

The happy man. 

The happj woman. 

The good hen. 



Adjectives signifying nationality, and ending in a conso- 
nant, take an a to form their feminine terminations ; as, 

EspafioL Spaniard. 

Espafiola. Spanish. 

Libro ingUs. English book. 

Gram&tica ingldsa. English grammar. 

Those ending in o change this letter into a ; as, 
Americano. I American. 

Americana, | American. 

A^ectivea are generaUy placed after their nouns; but in 
poetry, or in an elevated style, and even in conversation, we 
place many before the nonn. Reading and practice will form 
the ear of the scholar so as to use them properly. 

Adjectives used metaphorically, or in a signification differ- 
ent from their proper one, are always placed before ; as, • 

Un gran caballo. | A great horse. 

Some adjectives lose their last letter, or syllable, when pre- 
fixed to the singular masculine noun ; as, 
Hal muchacho. Bad boy. 



Buen libro. 
Gran caballo. 



Good book. 
Great horse, &c. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 



1. iLee V. un buen libro? Si, sefior, leo uu libro bueno. 

2. jLeemos nosotros bieu el ingles ? No, sefior, leemos mal el ingl^ 
t>ero leemos bien el espafiol. 

8. I Bebe V. vino ? No, sefior, yo bebo agua. 



LBSSOK YII. 21 

4. I Qo6 beben ellos? Beben ceireza. 

C. I Gomeis voeotros qaeso 7 pan ? No, sefior, comemos pescada 
6. I Qa6 comen los IngleBes ? Loe Icgleses o<»nen bnena came. 
T. ^Qn6bebeeIEspaflol? Bebe bnen yino 7 oerveza mala. 

8. £ Qa6 lee la Americana f Lee un libro de mi benxuma. 

9. I Qa6 estadia el h^o peqaefio de Y. ? Estndia gramidca. 

10. |Qa6necesitalamachacbabeimoBa? Neoeata mi peqneflo pafioelo 
deseda. 

11. iNecesita Y. mi caballo grande? No, aefior, 70 no neoeaito on 
caballo grande, ono mi gran caballo. 

12. I Qn6 estndia la Espafiola? Estndia ingl^ 

13. i Estndia Y. la gramitica francesat No, sefior, estndio la gramA- 
tica ingflesa. 

14. I Come pan la Inglesa ? Si, sefior, come pan 7 came. 

15. j Qn6 beben Yds. ? Bebemos lecbe. 

16. I Lee Y. nn libro ingl^ ? No, sefior, leo nn libro frances. 

17. I Qai lee la Americana? Lee sn lecdon. 

18. iQn^vendelaLiglesa? Yende nn pafinelo. 

19. ^Compra Y. algodon al comerdante americano? Si, sefior, com- 
pro algodon al comerdante americano. 

20. I Necesita la Franoesa nn pafinelo grande ? No, sefior, necedta nn 
pafindo hermoso. 

21. I Qa6 bnsca d mnchacfao ? Bnsca 6 sn hermana. 

22. I Qa6 compra Y. ? Gompro nn pafindo feo, pero bneno. 
28. I Necesita Y. seda? No, sefior, necesito algodon. 

24. I Qn6 lee Y. ? Leo el libro de mi padre. 

25. I Qne comeis vosotros ? Gomemos pan 7 pescado. 

26. I Qn6 bebe el Aleman ? Bebe vino 7 cerveza. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Wbat do 7on read ? I read a great book. 

2. Do 7on read English weD? Yes, sir, I read English yer7 well. 
8. Does the German drink wine ? No, rar, he drinks beer. 

4. What do the7 (f&m.) drink ? The7 drink water. 

5. Do 7on eat meat ? No, sir, I eat fish. 

6. What does the Englishman eat ? He eats bread and meat 

7. What does 7onr danghter bn7? She bn7s a silk handkerchief 
from the American woman. 

8. Does the stndions bo7 bn7 a book? Yes, dr, he bn7s a French 
grammar. 

9. Does the handsome American woman bn7 a large book ? No, dr, 
she bnTS a little book. 



22 



LKS80W VIII. 



10. Doee jowr mamma want a large handkerchief? No, eir, she wants 
a handsome handkerchief. 

11. Do 7on need your book ? No, sir, I do not need my book. 

12. Do they need a Spanish grammar ? Yes, sir, they need a Spanish 
grammar. 

18. Does the woman sell bread ? Yes, sir, she sells bread and fish. 

14. What do yon read ? I read my letter. 

15. What does your brother read ? He reads a note. 

16. Does the girl sell soap ? No, sir, she sells milk. 

17. Does the lazy boy learn well ? No, sir, he learns badly. 

18. Do you learn much ? No, dr, I learn little. 

19. Do you read the book ? No, rar, I read the letter. 

20. Do you buy cheese ? Yes, sir, I buy cheese. 

21. Do tiiey buy bread ? No, sir, they buy meat and beer. 

22. Do you need a handkerchief? No, sir, I need soap. 

28. Do you read your father's letter? No, sir, I read my brother^s letter. 

24. Does your fi^ther buy an English grammar ? No, sir, he buys a 
French book. 

25. Does your brother read my note ? No, sir, he reads my sister's letter. 



LESSON VIII. 



THIBD COKJUaATIOK. 



JSwriJ-ir. 
Escrib-o. 
'Escrib-es. 
Esorib-e. 

Escrib-imos. 

Esorib-is. 

Esorib-en. 

Hecibir. 


To write. 
I write. 
Thou writest. 
He writes. 

We write. 
You write. 
They write. 

1 To receive. 


En. 


In, into, or at 
No, neither, nor. 


El (mase. sing.). 
La (Jhn. Hng,), 
Lo (neuter). 
Los (nuue. plural). 
Las (fern, plural). 


The. 



LBS80N YIII. 



23 



ADJXcmrEs. 



Mncho. 


Mach. 


Poco. 


litde. 


MnchoB. 


Many. 


Pocos. 


Few. 








Peri6dico. 


Newspaper. 


LeccioiL 


Lesson. 


Peri6dico8. 


Newspapers. 


Lecciones. 


Lessons. 


IJercicio. 


Exercise. 


Ley. 


Law. 


Ejerdoios. 


Exercises. 


Leyea. 


Laws. 


Zapatero. 


Shoemaker. 


Plata. 


Silver. 






Semana. 


Week. 






Bemanas. 


Weeks. 




COMPOi 


3inON. 





^Eseribe y. ks lecciones 6 los qerci- 

dosP 
Ko eacribo ni las lecciones ni los ^erd- 

dos. 
i Escriben las sefioritas mnchos biUetes ? 
EUas eaciiben machos. 
i Bedbe el oomemaTite plata 6 oro ? 

t\ redbe oro y plata. 
^Escribe Y. la carta en ingles f 
Si, seflor, escribo la carta en ingl^ 



Do yoa write the lessons or the exer- 



I write ndther the lessons nor the ex- 



Do the joang ladies write many notes ? 

They write many. 

Does the merchant reoeiTe silyer or 

gold? 
He recdves gold and silTcr. 
Do you write the letter in E&gUah f 
Yes, sir, I write the letter in Bngtish. 



EXPLANATION. 

23. The endings of the third conjugcUion and those of the 
second are the s^me, except in the first and second persons of 
the plnral ; in which the e of the second conjugation is changed 
into i in the third, as the learner must have observed. 

24. The conjunction 6 is changed into H when the fol- 
lowing word begins with 6 or hoi ^^y 

Plata t oro. | SUyer or gold. 

25. Ni. — Neither and nor are rendered by ni ; as, 

]& no necesita ni la came ni el pescado. | He wants neither the meat nor the fish. 

26. Thb plubal 6f nouns is formed by adding an 8 to 
those terminating in a vowel not accented ; as, 

1^'ercido. Exercise. | igerdcios. Exercises. 



24 LBSSOK YIII. 



And adding < 

Ist. To those ending in an accented vowel ; as, 
AleU. Gilliflower. | Aldfes. Gilliflowen. 

2d. To those ending in a consonant ; as, 

Lecdon. Lesson. | LeoGi<Mie8. Lessons. 

dd. To those ending in y ; as, 

Lej. Law. | Leyes. Laws. 

27. Ak ADJEanvE agrees with its noan in gender, nomber 
and case, and forms the plural according to the rules laid down 
for nouns ; as, 



Buen hombre. 
Buenos hombres. 
Buena miger. 
Buenas mi^cres. 



Good] 
Goodi 
Good woman. 
Good women. 



28. The abticle must agree also with the noun to which it 
refers, in number, gender and case ; as. 



El libro. 
Los libros. 
La ploma. 
Lasplumas. 
Lo bueno. 



The book. 
The books. 
The pen. 
The pens. 
What is good. 



Ell 
£1 agoa. 
El alba. 
El hambre. 



Feminine nouns beginning with d accented, take the mascu- 
line^ article el in the singular number, instead of the feminine 
/a, in order to avoid the disagreeable meeting of two a^s ; as, 

The soul 

The water. 

The dawn of day. 

The hunger, &c 

29. The neuter abticle lo has no plural number, and is 
placed only before adjectives used as substantives, in an abso- 
lute indeterminate case ; as, 

Lo bueno. I What is good. 

Lomalo. | What is bad. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. j Escribe Y. & sa padre ? No, sefior, escribe & mi hermano. 

2. I Qa6 escribe Y. ? Esoribo mia carta & la machacha. 



LXSSON VIII. 25 

8. (l^cribe Y. mnchos bflletest No, sefior, esoribo muj pocos. 

4. lEsdiben ellos bien los ^}eroioios? SS, aeflory ellos escriben bien 
los qerddoa. 

5. j Bedbe Y. libros ingleaes ? No, senor, redbo libros franoeses. 

6. iQa6 reciben ellos ? Reciben plata j oro. 

7. ^Bedben nrnoho oro? No, Befior, redben 111117 poco. 

8. |Lee Y. sos cartas 6 sosbilletes? No leo ni mis cartas, ni mis 
billets ; leo mis ejerddos. 

9. I Neoesita Y. machos pafioelos ? No, sefior, necento mnj pocos. 
19. jEstadia Y. mnchas kcdonest No, sefior, estodio pocas. 

11. I Bosoa Y. tsua plmna? No, sefior, basco mia gnanAtica. 

12w |Qa6 bnsca so hermana de Y. ? Bnsca los ejerddos en ingl4i. « 

13. iEstodia Y. fi*aiices 6.aleman ? No estudio ni franoes, ni aleman ; . 
estodio espafioL 

14. I Neoesita Y. mi c^jerddo ? SI, sefior, necedto so ^'erddo ingl^ 

15. I Escribe Y. al comerdante 6 el abogado? Ni escribo al oomer- 
dante^ ni al abogado; escribo 4 sa padre de Y. 

16. I Escriben ellas los cgerddos de ingles? No, sefior, escriben los 
^erddos de espafioL 

17. I Bedbe Y. mnchas cartas de sa padre? No, sefior, redbo maj 
pocas. 

18. I Bedbe el comerdante macho algodon ? Si, sefior, redbe macho. 

19. I Compra Y. machos pafiudos? Si, sefior, compro machos. 

20. I Compra sa padre dcY. machos caballos? No, sefior, compra 
pocos. 

21. i Compra Y. la gram^tica dd mnchaoho f No, sefior, compro el 
coademo de la mnchacha. * 

22. I Habla macho el Frances ? No, sefior, habla poco. 

23. i Escribe Y. bien d ingl4s ? No, sefior, escribo mal d ingl^ pero 
escribo bien d espafiol. 

EXEBCISE. 

1. Does joor brother write English well? Tes, or, he writes Eng- 
lish welL 

2. Do yon write to my brother ? No, sir, I write to my father. 
8. Do 70a write in English or in Spanish ? I write in English. 

4. Do Wey (/em.) Write the lessons or the exerdses? They write 
ndther the lessons nor the exercises ; they write letters. 
6. Do yon receive many Qotes? No, dr, I receive bat few. 

6. Do they receive gold ? No, sir, they receive silver. 

7. Do you recdve many letters firom your father ? Yes, dr, I recdve 
many. 

2 



26 



LB8SON IZ. 



8. Do jou eat fish ? No, sir, I eat bread and cheese. 

9. Do the Grermans drink water f No, sir, they drink beer. 

10. Do 70U read your brothef^s letter? No^ sir, I read my sister's 
letter. 

11. Does the merchant sell French paper? No, sir, he sella English 
paper. 

12. Does your brother learn German and English? No, sir, he learns 
neither Grerman nor English ; he learns Spanish. 

13. Do yon need silver or gold ? I need neither gold nor silver. 

14. Do yon look for my father ? No, madam, I look for the lawyer. 

15. Do you buy a grammar from the merchant? Yes, sir,.! buy a 
grammar from the merchant 

16. Do they study their lessons well? Tes, sir, they study thdr les- 
sons well. 

17. Do you speak much to your sister? Yes, madam, I speak much 
to my sister. 

18. Do yon speak Spanish or English ? I speak English. 

19. Do you receive French books ? No, ^, I receive English books. 

20. Does the merchant receive silver or gold? He receives gold and 
silver. 

21. Do you write your exercises? No, sir, I write my letters. 

22. Do you write a letter to your father? No, sir, I write to my 
aster. 



LESSON 


IX. 


Vw-ir. 






To-live. 


Tiv-6. 






' I live. 


Viv-es. 






Thou livest. 


Viv-e. 






He lives. 


Viv-imos. 




We live. 


•Viv-is. 




You live. 


Viv-en. 


- 


They live. 


Residir. 


1 


To reside. 


Mia {plwal). 






My. 


Sus {plwal). 






Your. 


Gnando. 






When. 


Donde (without motion). 


■ 




Where. 


Adonde (with motion). 









LESSPN IX. 21 

• 


Oampo, pais. 


Country. 


Flor. Flower. 


Dia. 


Day. 


Flores. Flowers. 


Dias. 


Days. 


Gasa. Honse, or home. 


L&piz. 


PenciL 


Nneva York. New York. 


L&pices. 


Pencils. 


Franda. France. 


AlelL 


Gilliflover. 


Espana. Spain. 


Alelies. * 


GilMowers. 


Inglaterra. England. 


Cortaplxunas. 


Penknife. 


Alemania. Germany. 


Hotel 


Hotel 


Tienda. Store. 
Oiudad. Oity. 


J)ia8 de la Bemana.* 


Dayi of the week. 


Limes. 




Monday. 


M&rtes. 




Tnesdi^y. 


Hi^rcolea. 




Wednesday. 


Ja^yes. 




Thnrsday. 


Vi^rnes. 




Friday. 


Sdbado. 




Saturday. 


Sdbadoe. 




Saturdays. 


Domingo. 




^Sunday. 


Domingofi. 


COMPOI 


Sundays. 

srnoN. 



^Yive y. en d campo 6 en la dudad? 
Viro en la dndad. 
I En d6nde redden sns pap6s de Y . ? 
Pap& redde en Frandai y mamk en 

Nneyia York. 
jGo&ndo come Y. en casa de sos her- 

manoe de Y. ? 
Lo8 domingos, m&rtes y ju^res como en 

casa de mis hennanos. 
4 Y en d6nde come Y. Ics Itines, mi^r- 

ooles, Ti^mes y s&bados ? 
Comb en casa. ^ 



Do you liye in the country or in the dty ? 
I live in the dty. 
Where do your parents redde ? 
Father reddes in France, and mother in 

New York. 
When do you dine at your brothers*? 

On Sundays, Tuesdays and Thursdays 
I dine at my brothers'. ^ 

And where do you dine on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays ? 

I dine at home. 



EXPLANATION. 
30. Pa^<f, papa; mamd^ mamma; jpt^ifoot; are exceptions 
to the general rule, and form the plural by the addition of b\ 
2i8jpapdSy papas; marndsy mammas ; piisj feet. 

* AH of the masonllne gender. 



28 LBBSOH IX. 

31. Nouns which are not tnonosylUMes^ and end in «, the 
last syllable not being accented, do not change their termina- 
tion in the plural number ; as, lAnes^ Monday or Mondays ; 
Mdrtes, Tuesday or Tuesdays, etc. Words ending in z take eSj 
and change the z into c in the plural ; as, IdpiZy Idpices^ pencil, 
pencils ; juez^jueceSy judge, judges. 

32. Words which are compounds of two nouns differ so ya- 
riously that it is not possible to give rules for the formation of 
their plurals ; but compounds of a verb and a noun in the singu- 
lar number form the plural in the same manner a9 simple nouns ; 
and compound words of a verb and a noun in the plural will be 
used the same in both numbers ; as, cortaplumas^ penknife, or 
penknives. * 

33. The days of the week always take the article when they 
are employed to mark, or express time ; as, 

Eatadio espafiol el ItuieB j el Ti^meB. | I stady Spaniah on Monday and Friday. 

34. Donde, where (without motion) ; adande, where (with 
motion) ; cuando^ .when. These adverbs are placed always be- 
fore the verb ; as, 

i D6nde reside Y. f | Where do yon reside } 

i Cu&ndo escribe Y. ? | When do you write ? 

35. Donde, adonde^ and ciuzndOj wKen used interrogatively 
require an accent; thxiB^ ^Ddndevivef Where does he live? 
^ Cudndo lee Kf When do you read P 

CONYERSATION AND YERSION. 

1. |En d6nde vive V. ? Vivo en Nueva York. 
f. 4D6nde viven sns padres do Y. t AG padre vive en la ciudad y mi 
madre en el campo. 

8. |D6nde viven sos hermanos ? Viven en Fnmo^ 

4. £D6nde come V. los s&bados y los domingost Gomo on el hotel 
de los Franceses. 

5. lY d6nde come V. los Itines y-los mdrtes? Oomo en el hotel 
Americano. 

6. I D6nde reside V. f Resido en el compo. 

7. ^ Y d6nde reside sn mam4 de V. ? Reside en los Estados Unidos. 

8. |(Mndo estadia V. sos lecoiones de frances? Los mi^rcoles y loa 
ju^ves. 



LE8S0K IZ. 29 

9. |Y qn6 estadia Y. los viemes? Los yiemes estadio una Icocbn 
defrances. 

10. jOa&ndo lee Y. los peri6dioos? To leo los peri6dicos los do- 
mingoe. 

11. I OompraQ alelies sns faermanas ? Si, sefior, ellas compran alelles. 

12. ^Estadia Y. las lejes de Inglaterraf No, sellor, esstadio las de 
los Estados Unidos {ITnited States). 

13. lAprende bien la muchacha el ingles? Si, sefior, aprende bien 
elin^^ 

14. I Qn6 beben los Espafioles j los Alemancsl Los Espafioles beben 
boen Yino, y los Alemanes bnena cerveza. 

15. |D6nde compra el comerciante el algodonf Compra el algodon en 
los Estados Unidos. 

16. I Y d6nde vende el oro y la plata ? En Jnglaterra. 

17. I Cdbdo necesita sn hermano de Y. la gram^tica ? Ifi bennano 
neoesita sn gram&tiea el Itiines. 

18. |En qn6 botel oome Y. ? Gomo en el botel de Jnglaterra. 

19. iQa^ compra el comerciante, plata li oro? El comerciante no 
compra ni oro ni plata, compra seda. 

20. i Qa6 estndia Y. ? Estndio los dias de la semana en ingles. 

21. I Escribe Y. & Franda? No, sefior, escribo ft Jnglaterra. 

22. iQn6 escribe Y.? Escribo los ^erdcios de la semana en ingl6s. 

23. I D6nde reride sn bermana de Y. ? Beside en el campo. 

24. ^ En qn6 pais vive sn pap4 ? Yive en Alemania. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon live in the country ? No, sir, I live in town. 

2. Where does yonr sister live? She lives in New York. 

3. Where do yonr parents live? They live in France. 

4. Where does yonr brother reside ? He resides in England. 

5. Do yon not reside in the United States? No, sir, in Spain. 

6. In which conntry does yonr mother live ? She lives in the United 
States. 

7. Do yon write to yonr father in Spanish or in English ? I write 
in English. 

8. Where does the merchant buy the c6tton ? He buys the cotton in 
England. 

9. Which do yon sell, gold or silver ? I sell gold. 

10. Where do yon dine on Sundays and Mondays ? I dine in the 
French hotel 

11. And where on Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays? In the 
German hotel 



30 



LSS80K X. 



12. When do they study their lesson? On Tuesdays. 

13. Does the lawyer study the laws of England ? No, sir, he studies 
the laws of the United States. 

14. Where does your mother reside ? She rendes in Qermany. 

15. When do you need your grammar ? On Friday. 

16. When do your sons study the French lessons? They study the 
French lessons on Mondays and Saturdays. 

17. Where does the merchant huy the good penknives? In England. 

18. What day do you (/tfw.) receive the newspapers? We receive the 
newspapers on Sundays. 

19. Does your sister buy ^iflowers? Yes, sir, she buys gilliflowers. 

20. Where do you buy your pencils ? In the French store. 

21. What do you study ? I study the days of the week in Spanish. 

22. Where do your parents reside ? My mother resides in Spain, and 
my father in Germany. 

23. Where does your sister reside ? She resides in the country. 

24. Do you need my books? Yes, sir, I need your books. 



LESSON X. 



Tengo. 
Tienes. 
Tiene. 

Tenemos. 

Teneis. 

Tienen. 



To have, 

I have. 
Thon hast. 
He has. 

We have. 
You have. 
They have. 



OBJXOnVB CASE. 



Le, los {imoM, pL), 
La, las (fern, pL). 
Lo {neuter). 



It, him, them. 
It, her, them. 
It, (sometimes) so. 



JLN TERBOOA.TI V K PRONOUNS. 



^Qui^n, qui6nes Q>?.)? 

iOu4I, cu41es(jp2.)? 

iQu6? 

De qui6n, de qui6nes {pl^ ? 

Con. 



Who? 

Which one, which ones? 

What, or which? ' 

Whose? 

With. 



ZiEssoir z. 



31 



Zapato. 
Chaleoo. 
Baston. 
Sombrero. 



Shoe. 
Vest 
Cane. 
Hat. 



i Qai6ii tiene mi baaton ? 

Yd lo tengo. 

i Cual cqrbata tiene Y. f 

Tengo la bpnita. 

i Tienen elloa mi cbalcco f 

No, senor, tienen la oorbata de V. 9 

i De qni^n habia Y. ? 

Hablo de los Franoesea. 

i Teneia voeotroa casacaa ? 

Si, se&or, las tenemoa. 

i Qni^n tiene sombreros ? 

Los tiene el comerciante. 

i Neoesita Y. k mi padre f 

Si, sefior, le necesito. 

i Tiene Y. mi casaca ? 

Si, sefior, la tengo. 

i Chx&les botas tiene Y. f 

iQtt6 tiene Y.? 



Botaa. Boots. 

Caaaca. Coat 

Corbata. Cravat 

Medias. Stockings. 

COHPOSmOK. 

Who has mj cane f 

I hare it 

Which craTat hare yon f 

I have the pretty one. 

Have they my waistcoat ? 

No, sir, they hare yonr cravat 

Of whom do you speak ? 

I speak of the Frenchmen. 

Have you coats f 

Tes, sir, we haye (them). 

Who has hats f 

The merchant has (them). 

Do yon need my father ? 

Yes, sir, I need him. 

Haye you my coat ? 

Yes, sir, I have it 

Which boots have you ? 

What ia the matter with you? 



EXPLANATION. 

36. Ibheguiab yebbs are those which do not retain in- 
tact the radical letters and ihe terminations designated for 
each tense and person. 

The verb tenerj to hare, is the first of the irregular verbs 
here introduced ; and, like all the auxiliary verbs, is not in- 
cluded in the seven groups in which the irregular Spanish 
verbs are classified, on account of their multifarious irregulari- 
ties. The auxiliaries require, therefore, to be learned separate- 
ly, or each one by itself 

A complete list of the irregular conjugations will be found 
at the end of the book. 

When the objective case of the third person is the object 
of the English verb, it is translated by Ze, los, for the masculine ; 
fa, las, for the feminine ; and lo for the neuter; as, 

SI le bnaca. | He looka for hinK. 

Ella /of oompra. i She buys ikem, 

Elloa lo neceaitan. I They want it 



32 LESSON X. 

37. Lo and Le. — ^It must be observed^ however, with regard 
to the objective forms le and lo, that their use is very doubtM 
in Spanish, sinee many correct writers employ the neuter lo^ 
inst^Ekd of the masculine fe. Consequently, while custom or 
general use does not ^ve the preference to either, the learner 
may use them according to his own discretion or taste, in the 
accusative case, masculine gender ; as, 

MaDuel tiene un buen jibro y lo (le) I Emanuel has a good book and sella iL 
venJe. ( • 

Xo is sometimes employed to avoid the repetition of a 
whole or part of a sentence, and then it is equivalent to «o, or 
it Of this, however, more will be said when treating of the 
regimen of verbs. 

38. The iNTEBBOGATnnB pbonouns quHn, cudlj gtd^ de 
quien^ who, which, what, and whose, do not require the arti- 
cle; as, 



^Qui^nhabla? 

i Cu&l tengo yo ? 

I Qu6 escribe V. ? 

I De qni^n son los caballos ? 



Who speaks f 
Which one hare I? 
What do you write? 
Whose are the horses ? 



39. When, in a question, the interrogative pronoun is 
governed by a preposition, that preposition must also be re- 
peated in the answer ; as, 



i Con qui^n vive V. ? 
Con mi amigo. 
/ De qui^n es el caballo ? 
De mi amigo. 



With whom do you lire ? 
With my friend. 
Whose is the horse f 
My friend's. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Qn6 tiene Y. Y Tengo nn hermoso baston. 

2. iHenes tH nn buen sombrero? Si, senor, lo (le) tengo. 
8. ^QnSpafinelo tiene ellaf Tiene el de seda. 

4. I Odd tiene Y. ? Tengo mi pafinelo. 

5. ^Teneis Tosotros bnenos chalecos? Si, sefior, los tenemos. 

6. ^De qui^n hablan ellos ? Hablan de las Americanas. 

7. 2 Tiene Y. las corbatas ? Si, selior, las tengo. 

8. I Tienen eUos los hermosos panuelos de seda? Si, sefior, los tienen. 

9. I Qoi^n tiene las medias ? Yo las tengo. 

10. i Tiene Y. mi sombrero ? Si, senor, lo (le) tengo. 



LESSON Z. 33 

11. I Qni6n tiene mi baston ? Sa hennano lo (le) tiene. 

12. |Habla Y. 4 sa hermana? Si, sefior. 

13. jBusca y. 4 sa hermana? Si, sefiorita, la basco. 

14. ^Estadia Y. sa leccion f Si, sefior, la estadio. 

15. jNecesita Y. 4 sa pap4? Si, sefior,- le (lo) necesito. 

16. 4Qa6 sombrero tiene V. ? Tengo el de Y. 

17. iQu6 botas busca Y. ? Basco las baenas. 

18. I Con qai^n aprende Y. el ingl^ ? Con on Americano. 

19. i A qni^n bosca Y. ? Basco al abogado. 

20. I Qa6 compra Y. ? Compro 14pic6s ingleses. 

21. i Tiene Y. ana baena gram4tica ? Si, sefior, tengo ana may baena. 

22. i Tiene Y. macbos libros ? No, sefior, tengo pocos. 

23. iTienen elks macha seda? No, sefior, tienen majpoca. 
24.2 I>6nde reside Y. ? Resido en el campo. 

25. 2D6nde vive sa abogado de Y. ? Yive en la ciadad. 

26. 2 Yive en Francia sa hennano de Y. ? No, sefior, yiFe en Espafio. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Who has the stockings? I have them. 

2. What has he ? He has mj grammar. 

3. Have they my vest? Yes, sir, they have it. 

4. Which books have they (/em.) ? They have yonrs. . 

5. Of whom do yoa spe^k ? I speak of the Frenchman. 

6. Who has my coat ? They have it. 

7. Have yoa my cravat ? No, sir, I have it not. 

8. Have we very good coats?' Yea, sir, we have. 

9. Who has the hahdsome stockings ? They (fem.) have them. 

10. Do you speak to the Frenchman? Yes, sir, I speak to the French- 
man. 

11. Do you need my hat? No, ur, I have my hat. 

12. Whom do you look for ? I look for yoar father. 

13. What do yon bay ? I bay English books. 

14. Which shoes do you bay ? I bay the handsome shoes. 

15. Which hats have yoa ? I have the merchant's hats. 

16. With whom do yon learn En^h? I learn with an American. 

17. Have you good coats? Yes,.sh', I have good coats. 

18. Have they many grammars? No, sir, they have very few. 

19. Where do yon live ? I Itve in the country. 

20. Does your &ther reside in France ? No, sir, he resides in England. 

21. Does your mother live in Gennany? No, rnr, she lives in the 
United States. 

2* 



34 



LS8S0N XI, 



22. Do you buy many books ? No, sir, I buy very few. 
28. Who has my handsome boots? I have them. 

24. Which hat have you? I have yours. ^ 

25. What have you? I have my stockings. 

26. Of whom do you speak? I speak of your £&ther. 





LESSON XI. 


/Sfer. 




To be. 


Soy. 




lam. 


Eres. 




Thou art. 


Es. 




He is. 


Somos. 




We are. 


Sois. 




You are. 


Son. 




They are. 




INDEFmiTB 


PRONOUNS. 


Alguien. 




Some one, somebody, anylxx] 
any one. 


Alguno. 




Some, somebody, anybody. 


Nadie. 




No one, nobody. 


Nfngnno.' 




None, no one, nobody. 


Algo, alguna cosa. 


Something, anything. 


Nada, ninguna cosa. 


Nothing, not anything. 


Todo. 




All, everything. 


Todos. 




Every one, everybody. 


Librero. 


Bookseller. 


Libreria. Bookstore. 


Panfldero. 


Baker 


Panaderia. Bakery. 


Carnicero. 


Butcher. 


Camiccria. Butcher^s shop. 


Sastre. 


Tailor. 

COMPO 


Sastreria. Tailor^s shop. 

smoN. 


i Son Vds, camiceros ? 


Are you butchcra ? 


No, seflor, Bomoa panaderos. 


No; sir, wa are bakers. 


jEsY. carnicero? 


Are you a butcher ? 


No, BeSor, yo soy sastre. 


No, sir, I am a tailor. 


^neneY. algun pan? 


Have you some bread ? 




So, 

iQni^ii tiene d aonbrero? 

B Ameriemo lo 

iDdndeeQmpimV.ptti? 

En Ift paBBdofa. 

^Donde eompim T. aoi filvoB? 

fiikfibieiii. 

^Eres t& maj estnfioao? 

Ko, sefior, no lo boj. 

ilkncn lodos Tda. bM 



iQni^itiaoiMpcl? 

KadkloCIe) 



SXPLASTillOX 

• 

40. AiiGunnr, AiiGu^ra — ^^I/tkm rcfen qnly to 
and always in the smgiilar nimber ; as, 

ViTo con ilgideD. I Ifiv«viAaMB«^ 

Eseribo 4 ilguen. | I wnle to ■Miliiii^ 

When some one, any one is fiiDowed by the piqwriiiiM o^ 
ve most nse oH^wno in 8pankh, and not 6lgmm ; as, o^mo A 
elloB escribe en el peii&dioo, •omt one ot them vxites in the 
newspaper. 

.^y onej or anybody, not nsed interrogatiTelT, is tnas- 
lated by ewdquieraj as will be seen when we intzodoee the in- 
definite prononn. 

Alguien is nsed only in the affinnatiTe. Afymo mar, on 
the contrary, be employed either in affiimatiTe or ne^atiTe 
sentences ; In the affirmatiye it always precedes the noon to 
which it refers, and in the negative it inrariaUy eomes after 
it; as, 

No estadian leedon algana. I Thej rtndj no loam (or do boc ttaij 

I myksni). 

41, Nadie, BiKeuxo. — mnguno relates to persons and 
things, and is nsed in the n^ative in the same manner as al- 
gtmo in the affirmative ; nadic relates to penona only, aa^ is 



36 LBSSON XI. 

used in the negative in the same way as the pronoun dlffuten 
in the affirmative. In a word, nadie and ninguno are merely 
the negative forms of dlguien and alguno, 

42. Alouno and kingitno lose the o when they come im- 
mediately before the noun. 

43« Algo, and alguna cosa, are used in the affirmative ; as, 

Como al^f or alffutia eaaa, I I eat Bomething. 

iRedbeY. alffo^ or afyuna oo$af \ Do yoa receive anything ? 

Anything, when not used interrogatively, is translated 
cualquiera cwa^ as will be seen in its proper place. 

44. Nada, kikguna cosa are used in the negative form. 

45. Nada, nunguno, nadie, the adverb no^ as well as any 
other words expressing negation, are placed before the verb ; 
but when no precedes the verb, another negative may be placed 
after it, and the two negatives serve to strengthen each other, 
contrary to the practice of the English language ; as, • 



No estudio nada. 
No bablo k nadie. 
No recibo niti^no 



I study nothing. 

I speak to nobody, or no one. 

I receive none. 



But in omitting the negative no, the words which express 
the negation must be placed before the verb ; as. 



Nada estudio. 
A nadie hablo. 
Ninguno recibo. 



I study nothing. 
I speak to nobody. 
I receive none. 



The two negatives are always, preferable. 

46. The indefinite article a or auj is not translated into 
Spanish when accompanied by a noun which expresses nation- 
ality, profession, &o. ; as. 



^EaV. Ingles? 

No, sefior, soy Espafiol 

^Ea (A sastre? 

No, sefLor, es zapatero. 



Are you an Englishman f 
No, sir, I am a Spadiard. 
Is he a tailor ? 
No, sir, he is a shoemaker. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^Es Y. Frances? Ko, sefior, soy Americano. 

2. jSon Yds. Alemanes? No, sefior, somos Ingleses. 
8. ^Eres td bnen mnebacho ? SS sefior, lo soy. 

4. jSois vosotros sastresf No, sefior, somos panaderoa 



LESSOK ZI. 37 

5. ^Es bneno el libro de su hennano de Y. ? 8!, sefior, lo es. 

6. 2 Son buenos sob zapatoe de Y. ? No, sefior, son may malos. 

7. ^Tiene alguno mi sombrero? SI, sellor, dlgoien lo (le) tiene. 

8. I Tiene algoien papel? No, sefior, ningono tiene papel. 

9. 2 Tiene Y. alguna cosa ? No, sefior, no tengo nada. 

10. ^No tiene Y. cosa algnna? Si, sefior, tengo Alguna cosa. 
* 11. 2 Compran pan todos Yds. ? Si, sefior, todos compramos pan. 

12. iD6nde compran Yds. todo an panf Lo (le) compramos en la 
panaderia. 
. 13. ^Son Yds. panaderos? No, sefior, nosotros somos zapateros. 

14. ^ Tiene ^goien mi sombrero bneno f Si, sefior, filgoien le (lo) 
tiene. 

15. iNo compra Y. algo ? Si, sefior, compro algnna cosa. 

16. 2 Escribe Y. algo? No, sefior, no escribo nada. 

17. ^Necesita Y. todo el papel ? Si, sefior, lo (le) necesito todo. 

18. ^Necesita Y. todas las plnmas? Si, sefior, las necento todas. 

19. |£s Y. sastre? Si, sefior, yo soy sastre. 

20. 4D6nde tiene Y. sn sastreria ? La tengo en Nneva York. 

21. |Es BQ padre de Y. librero ? Si, sefior, lo es. 

22. I Yende machos libros? Si, sefior, vende mncbos. 

23. ^D6nde tiene 61 sn libreria ? La tiene en Francia. 

24. 2 Tiene Y. nna panaderia? No, sefior, tengo nna comioeria. 

25. |Habla Y. & %aien ? No, sefior, no hablo & nadie. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Are yon an EngBshman? No, sir, I am an American. 

2. Are you good boys? Yes, sir, we are very good boys. 
8. Is Lonisa a good girl ? Yea, sir, slie is a yery good girl. 

4. Art' tbon a Frenchman ? No, sir, I am a German. 

5. Is yours a good book ? Tea, sir, mine is a very good one. 

6. Are they (/em,) studious ? Yes, sir, they are very studious. 

7. Have ypu anything ? No, su*, I have nothing. 

8. Have you nothing ? Yes, sir, I have something. 

9. Has anybody a good grammar ? Yes, sir, the Frenchman has one. 

10. Who speaks French ? The American speaks French. ^ 

11. Do you write an exercise ? Yea,' or, I write an exercise. 

12. Where do you buy all your books? I buy them in the bookstore. 

13. Are you a bookseller ? No, sir, I am a baker. 

14. Where have you your bakery ? I have it in New York. 

15. Where do you buy your coats? In the tailor's shop. 

16. Have you all of your books? Yes, or, I have alL 



38 



LB8SON XII. 



17. Do 700 all reside in the United States? Yes, sir, we reside in the 
United States. 

18. Have yon any bread f No, or, I have none. 

19. Do 70a speak to anybody ? Yes, sir, I speak to the Amerioans. 

20. Do yon buy anything ? No, sir, I buy nothing. 

21. Are you a baker? No, sir, I am a tiulor. 

22. Are they French ? No, sir, the7 are En^ish. 

28. Art thon a Spamard ? No, sir, I am an American. 
24. W&o is studious ? Emannel is yer7 stndious. 



LESSON XII. 



EcSber. 






1 To have. 


He. 






I have. 


Has. 






Thon hast 


Ha. 






He has. 


Hemos. 






We have. 


Habeis. 






You have. 


Han. 






They have. 


PAST PABTIOIPLES.— 


'First Conjugation, 


Habl-ado. 






Spoke. 


Estudi-ado. 






Studied. 


Compr-ado. 






Bought 


Busc-ado. 






Looked for, sought 


Necesit-ado. 


Sea 


md m 


Needed. 
id Third. 


Aprend-ido. 






Learned. 


Vend-ido. 






Sold. 


Le-ido. 






Read. 


Beb-ido. 






Drunk. 


Com-ido. 




\ 


Eaten, dined. 


Recib-ido. * 






Received. 


Viv-ido. 






Lived. 


Redd-ido. 






Resided. 


Escrito (irregular 


in 


this 


Written, 


partieiple arUff). 









LX880K XII. 



39 



Hoy. 

Paris. 
L6ndres. 
Madrid. 
Pa&o. 



Paria. 
Londoo. 
Madrid, 
dotib. 



To-day. 

Habana. Hayana. 

Yi^na. Vienna. 

Filadelfia. Philadelphu 

Esqaela. Note. 



COMPOSITION. 



iCbindo ha escrito Y. 4 an padre? 

He escrito hoy k mi padre. 

( Ha recibido Y. ana cartas f 

Si, aefior, las he recibido. 

« Ha rirido Y. en Paris ? 

Si, sefior, he rirido ana semana. 

i Ha residido Y. en Ldndres f 

Si, seSor, he residido algunos diaa. 

^Han comido ellos f 

Si, sefior, han comido. 

i Hemos leido bien nosotcos ? 

Si, se&or. Yds. han leido mny blen. 

(Habeb Tcndido Tosotros muchos pa- 

fiuelos? 
Hemos rendido mny pocoa. 
i Cuindo habeis apiendido Tnestra leo- 

don? 
La hemos aprendido hoy. 
i Habeis comprado pan ? 
Si, fidior, lo hemos comprado. 
i Ha estadiado Y. aleman t 
Xo, sefior, no lo he estadiado. 
i Ha bablado Y. con d Frances ? 
Si, sefior, he hablado con 61 



When hare yoQ written to your father ? 
I have written to my father to-day. 
Haye yon recciyed your letters t 
Tes, sir, I haye receiyed them. 
Haye yon Uyed in Paris f 
Tes, su*, I haye liyed a week. 
Haye yon resided In London ? 
Tes, sir, I resided some daya 
Haye they eaten (or dined) ? 
Tes, air, they liaye eaten. 
Haye we read well f 
Tes, sir, yon liaye read yery welL 
Haye yon sold many handkerchief ? 



We haye sold yery few. 
When haye yon learned yonr 



We haye learned it to-day. 

Haye you bought bread? 

Yes, sir, we haye bought it 

Haye you studied Oerman ? 

Ko, sir, I haye not stuped it 

Haye you spoken with th^renchman ? 

Yes, sir, I haye spoken with him. 



EXPLANATION. 

47. Tenkb and Habek, To have, used as an active verb, 
is translated by tener^ as an auxiliary, by haber ; as, 

Tener caballos, To haye horses. 

Tengo oro. I have gold. 

Habcr hablado. To have spoken. 

Hemos hablado. We haye spoken. 

When the anzHiaiies to fuive and to be^ followed by an infi- 



40 LESsoir XII. 

nitive, denote some future action, to have is rendered by tener 
quey and to be by haber de\ as, 

Tenemos que eacribir. I We have to write. 

Hemos de redbir dinero. | We are to receive money. 

48. Pretkbit Indefinite, — ^This tense not only refers to 
what is past, but also conveys an allusion to the present time ; as, 
Alejandro ha estudiado el eepafioL | Alexander has studied Spanish. 

It must also be used when we speak indefinitely of any 
thing past, as happening or not happening in the day, year, 
or age, in which we mention it ; as, 

He escrito hoy muchas cartas. | I have written many letters to-day. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1, I Ha escrito V. sus cartas? No, sefior, he eacrito Ids ^'ereicios de 
la leccion. 

2. iHa recibido V. su dinero? Si, sefior, lo he recibido, 

8. I Ha escrito V. d su hermana? Si, sefior, he escrito hoy d mi her- 
mana. 

4. I Gadndo ha recibido Y. los peri6dicos de Paris ? Los he recibido 
hoy. 

6. iHa leido V. mi libro? Si, sefior, lo he leido. 

6. 2nanvividoYd8.6nL6ndres? Si, sefior, hemos vivido una semana. 

7. I Ha comido Y. ? Si, sefior, he comido. 

8. I Ha leido Y. la carta de mi hermano? Si, sefiora, la he leido. 

9. I Ha vendldo Y. su baston ? Si, sefior, lo he vendido hoy. 

10. ^Ha necesitado Y. el libro de mi hermana? No, sefior, no lo he 
necesitado. 

11. 2 Ha bnscado Y. bicn el pafiuelo? Si, sefiora, lo he buscado bien. 

12. 4 Ha comprado Y. pan ? No, sefior, he comprado vino. 

18. jHa aprendido Y. su leccion do espafiol? La he estadiado, pero 
he aprendido muy poco. 

14. ^Ha hablado Y. con mi padre? Si, sefior, he hablado con 6L 

15. 2 Ha estndiado Y. el aleman? Si, sefior, lo he estadiado con nn 
Frances. 

16. jHa vivido Y. en la Habana? No, sefior, he vivido en Filadelfia. 

17. 4 Ha vendido Y. machos Idpices? No, sefior, he vendido niuy 
pocos. 

18. jHa recibido Y. sos cartas? No, sefior, he recibido los peri6dicos 
del jn6ves. 



LESSOK XII. 41 

19. I Ha Iddo Y. mi esqnela ? No, sefior, no la he leido. 

20. I Ha bascado Y. bien mi baston ? Si, seflor, lo he bnsoado bien. 

21. jHa comprado Y. nn sombrero? Si, senor. 

22. ^Han hablado ellos & sa padre? No, sefior. 

23. I Ha aprendido Y. el ipgl^s? No, sefior, lo he estadiado on poco; 
pero no lo he aprendido. 

24. jHa leido Y. el peri6dioo de hoy ? Si, sefior, lo he leido. * 

EXERCISE. 

1. Have yon received yonr letters? Yes, sir, I have received them 
to-day. 

2. Have yon read the newspapers? Tes, sir, I have read them. 

8. Have yon written to my sister ? No, sir, I have not written to 
her. 

4. Have yon received yonr letters from Yienna? I have received 
them. 

5. Have yon read the English newspapers? Yea, siv, I have (read 
them). 

6. Have yon dined with yonr sister? I have dined with her. 

7. Have yon bought yonr hat? I have bought it to-day. 

8. Have yon looked for my father in Paris? Yes, sir, I have looked 
for him. 

9. Have yon spoken with him?* Yea, nr, I have spoken with him. 

10. Where have yon spoken with him ? I have spoken with him at 
hb honse. 

11. Have yon studied yonr Spanish lesson? Yes, mr, I have studied it 

12. Have yon leamedit well? No, sir, I have learned it little. 

18. Have the bakers sold much bread? No, sir, they have sold very 
Httle. 

14. Has the tailor bought much doth ? Yes, sir, he has (bought). 

15. Have they (/em.) dined with yonr sister? Yes, sir, they have 
dined with my sister. 

16. Have they dined with your brother? Yes sir. 

17. What have they eaten? They have eaten bread and meat 

18. What have they drunk? They have drunk water, wine and ale. 

19. Have you spoken with the Spaniard? Yes, sir, I have spoken 
with Mm. 

20. Have yon spoken with him in Spanish or English? I have spoken 
with him in English. 

21. Have yon received yonr letters from Philadelphia? Yea, eir, I 
have recdved them. 

22. Have you received them all ? I have received them alL 



42 



LBBSON XIII. 



23. Have yon liyed in London ? No, sir, I haye lived in Vienna. 

24. Have yon lived with yonr &ther ? No, sir, I have lived with my 
brother. 



LESSON XIII. 



Querer. 

Qtterido. 
Qniero. 
Quieres. 
Quiere. 

Qaeremos. 

Quereis. 

Quieren. 



To wish, to be willing, to love. 

Wi8hod, loved, dear. 
I wish, or am willing. 
Thou wishest 
He wishes. 

We wish. 
Ton wish. 
They wish. 



POSaSSSIYB PBONOUira. 



Mio. 
Tayo. 

Suyo. 

Nnestro. 

Vnestro. 



Amiga 
Primo. 
Dinero. 



Friend. 
Consin. 
Money. 



My, or mine. 
Thy, or thine. 
His, hers or its. 
Our, or onrs. 
Yonr, or yonrs. 



UtiL 


UsefuL 


Oaro. 


Dear. 


Barato. 


Cheap. 


Viejo. 


Old. 


J6ven. 


Young. 


Rico. 


Rich. 


Pobre. 


Poor. 



Amiga. 
Prima. 
Moneda. 



Friend. 
Oousin. 
Coin. 



COMPOSITION. 



i Quiere Y. un sombrero? 
No, sefior, quiero un baston. 
i Quiere Y. mucho k su primo ? 
Sf, sefior, le quiero mucho. 



Do you wish a hat f 

No, sir, I wish a cane. 

Do you love your couirin much? 

Yes, sir, I love him much. 



LK8SON XIII. 



43 



iQaieie V. escribir f 

Xo, Befior, qmero leer. 

iQuiere V. hablar con mi hermana? 

Si, eefior, qiiiero hablar con ella. 

i Qoiere T. comprar el caballo de naes- 

tro amigo? 
Si, sefior, qniero ocymprar el caballo del 

amigo de T. 
i Quieres escribir 6 mi herraano ? 
^ se&or, quiero escribirle. 
i Tiene Y. mi baston ? 
No, sefioT, tengo el mio. 
i Tienen eUas nuestros libros ? 
Si, BdioT, tienen los de Yds. 
i Es Yiejo 8u padre de Y. f 
Sf, eeffor, es mi poco vieja 
i Es j6yen so hermana de Y. ? 
SI, aefior, es mny j6ven. 
I Ea pobre el comerciante? 
Ko, aefior, es muy rico. 
iHa eecrito Y. 4 su amigo ? 
Si, aeiior, he escrito hoy & mi amigo. 

iHa hablado Y. con sn prima ? 
No, seEioT, he hablado con mi amigo. 
i Donde yive su prime de Y. ? 
Yive en FOadelfia. 



Do you widi to write ? 

No, sir, I wish to read. 

Do yon wish to speak to my sister ? 

Yes, sir, I wish to speak to her. 

Do you wish to buy our friend's horse? 

Yes, sir, I wish to buy your friend's 

horse. 
Do you wish to write to my brother f 
Yes, sir, I wish to write to him. 
Have you my cane ? 
No, sir, I have mine. 
Have they our books ? 
Yes, sir, they have yours. 
Is your father old f 
Yes, sir, he is rather old. 
Is your sister young ? 
Yes, sir, she is very young. 
Is the merchant poor f 
No, sir, he is very rich. 
Did you write to your friend ? 
Yes, sir, I have written to my friend 

to-day. 
Have you spoken with your cousin f 
No, sir, I have spoken with my friend. 
Where does your cousin live ? 
Eo lives in Philadelphia. 



EXPLANATION. 
49. Mio, TUYO, BiTYO, NUE8TRO, vuESTRO, change the final 
o into a, to form the feminine termination. 

BO. In Spanish, the possessive pronouns always agree with 
the name of the thing possessed, in gender, number, and case ; as, 
Nuestra gramitica. I Our grammar. 

Nuestros Ubros. I Our books. 

51. When used as pronominal adjectives, they precede the 
noun with which they agree ; and it is to be observed that, in 
this case, m»o, tuyo and suyo drop their final pliable ; as, 



Nuestros caballos. 
Mi pluma. 
TupapeL 
Sncuadema 



Our horses. 
My pen. 
Thy paper. 
His copy-book. 



44 LESSON XIII. 



Mxs plomas. 
Tuspapeles. 
Bus cuadernoB. 



My pens. 
Thy papers. 
His copy-books. 



62. Mio, when used in the rocatiye case — ^that is, in ad- 
dressing persons — ^is placed after the nonn governing it ; as, 
Escribei h^o niio. | Write, my son. 

53. When possessives are used as pronouns, they agree in 
gender, number and case with the noun which they represent, 
and are preceded by the definite article ; as, 



Ta gram6tica y la mia. 
0e mis mucbachos y lo8 iuyo9, 
8a hermano y d nuestro. 
Sus zapatos y ha nuestros, 
Tus caballos y los auyas. 



Thy graimnar and mine. 
Of my boys and thine. 
Bla brother and oura. 
His shoes and oura. 
Thy horses and thein^ &c. 



54. Possessives are preceded by the neuter article, when 
they are indefinitely used ; as, 

Lo mio, lo tuyo, lo suyo. | What is mine, what is thhie, what is his. 

55. When the possessive pronoun is connected witii the 
noun by the verb to fte, the article is omitted ; as. 



Este billete es mio. 

Esa carta es tuya. 

£1 caballo es sayo. 

Mucbachos, i es este vuestro Ubro ? 

Nifios, I es este el vuestro f 



This note is mine. 
That letter is thine. 
The horse is his. 
Boys, is this your book ? 
Children, is this youra f 



66. YuEsiso, YUESTBA, is chlefly used in addressing per- 
sons in very high positions ; as, 

Sefior, vuettra patria lo cx^e. | Sir, your country demands it 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. jQniere V. vino? No, senor, qniero agaa. 

2. ^Qaieren Vds. mis libros? Ko, sefior, qneremos los nuestros. 

8. iTienen alios nuestros peri6dico8? No, sefior, eilos tienen los 
snyos. 

4. ^Tiene V. nuestro libro? No, sefior, yo tengo el mio. 

5. ^Teneis vuestros^jeroiciosf Si, sefior, tenemos los nnestros. 

6. iEs vi^a SQ amiga de V. ? No, sefior, es j6Yen. 

7. ^Es rico el comerciante? Si, sefior, es may rioo. 

8. iVende barato? No, sefior, compra barato; pero vende caro. 



LKB80K XIII. 45 

9. |Eb ^tn k gram^tica? Si, sefior, ee may tiSL 

10. iQoiere V. mnoho 4 sa hermana? Si, sefior, la qniero macho. 

11. ^Qoiere Y. beber vino? No, sefior, qoiero beberagoa. 

12. iQaiere Y. G<»Dprar an pafiaelo da algodon? No, sef&or, qaiero 
comprar ono de seda. * 

18. I Qoiere Y. Tivir en naestra casa? No, sefior, qaiero viybr en la mia. 

14. ^Qoiere Y. estodiar espafiol ? Si, sefior, qaiero estadiarlo. 

15. I Qa6 qaieren ellos ? Qoieren hablar con Y. 

16. iQoiere Y. iT{togo) 4mi casa el m&rtesf No, sefior, qmeroir hoy. 

17. iNeoesita Y. an libro ? Si, sefior, necesito el mio. 

18. iNecesita Y. hablar con el abogado? No, sefior, necesito hablar 
con el comerdante. 

19. jNeoesita so prima an Upiz? No, sefior, eDa no lo necesita. 

20. ^Ha qaerido Y. macho 6 su padre? Si, sefior, le he qaerido 
madio. 

21. ^Ha necesitado Y. dinero? No, sefior, he necesitado amigos. 
22. 1 Ha escrito Y. sos cartas ? Si, sefior, las he escrito. 

23. I Ha Iddo Y. los peri6dico6 ? Si, sefior, los he leido hoy. 

24. ^Qaiere Y. aprender espafiol? Si, sefior, qoiero apronderlo. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon wish to eat anything? No, sir, I wish to drink. 

2. What do yon wish to drink ? I wish to drink water. 

8. Do yon wish to speak to yoar brother ? Tes, ur, I wish to speak 
to him. 

4. Do yoa wish to learn Spanish ? No, sir, I wish to learn French. 
6. Do they wish to live in New York ? No, sir, they wish to live in 
Philadelphia. 

6. Have yoa read yoar note ? Yes, sir, I have read it. 

7. Do you want some wine ? No, sir, I want some water. 

, 8. Do they want my book ? Yes, ar, they want yoar book. 

9. Does yoar brother want to speak to my father? No, sir, he 
wants to speak to the lawyer. 

10. Did yoa want my fiither's letter? No, sir, we did not want yoar 
father's letter. 

11. Did yoa want any money ? Yes, sir, I wanted some. 

12. Do yon wish to live in France? No, sir, I v^ish to live in the 
United States. 

18. Do yon wish to speak French ? No, or, I wish to speak Spanish. 
14. Dothey wish to bay a grammar? No, mr, they wish to buy news- 
papera 



46 



LBSSON xir. 



15. What do 70a wish to bny ? I wish to buy a handkerchief. 
'16. What do 70a wish to read? I wish to read the English news- 
papers. 

17. What do yon wish to drink? I wish to drink some wine €nd 
water? 

18. What do they want to sell ? They want to sell their horses. 

19. When did yon receive yonr let^ters from England? We have re- 
ceived them to-day. 

20. When did yon dine with yonr friends? I have dined with them 
to-day. 

21. Have yon a nsefbl book ? Yes, sir, I have a Spanish grammar. 

22. Does the merchant sell his hats dear ? No, sir^ he sells them very 
cheap. 

28. Is yonr friend yonng? No, sir, he is old. 

24. Are yon rich? No, air, I am poor. 

25. Do yon wish to have money ? Yes, nr, I wish to hfive it 

26. Bo yonr friend and consin live in New York? No, nr, they live 
in Philadelphia. 



LESSON XIV. 



Llemr, Uetado. 
Ervoiar^ enviado. 
Tomar, tornado, 
PagoTj pagado. 

Guanto. 

Onantos. 

Bastante. 

Peso. Dollar. 

Oentavo. Cent 

Caf6. OofTee. 

Chocolate. Chocolate. 



To bring, brought. 
To send, sent 
To take, taken. 
To pay, paid. 

How mnch. 
How many. 
Enough. 



Silla. 



Cama. 



Ch^r. 
Table. 
Bed.' 



NTTMBBAL ADJSOTIVIES — OASDINAL NT7KBXB8. 

Uno, una. One. 

Dos. Two. 

Tres. Three. 

OuatiD. Four. 

Cinco. Five. 



LB8BON ZIY. 



47 



8d8. 

Sieie. 
Ocha 

Diez. 

Once. 

Dooe. 

Trece. 

Catoroe. 

Quince. 

Diez 7 seifl. 

Diez 7 aiete. 

Diez 7 ocho. 

Diez 7 nneye. 

Yeinte. 

Yeinte 7 nno, etc. 

Treinta. 

Cnarenta. 

Cincae^ta. 

Sesenta. 

Betenta. 

Oohenta. 

Noventa. 

Ciento. 

Dosciento8. 

Trescientos. 

CoatrocieDtos. 

Qdnientos. 

Seiscicntos. 

Setecicntos. 

Ochocientos. 

Novedentos. , 

Mil. 

Dos mil. 

Mil ciento. 

CieU mil. 

Un millon. 



Six. 



ISght. 

Nine. 

Ten. 

Eleven. 

Twelve. 

Thirteen. 

Fourteen. 

fifteen. 

Sixteen. 

Seventeen. 

Eighteen. 

Nineteen. 

Twent7. 

Twenty-one, fto. 

Thirt7. 

Forty. 

Fifty. 

Sixty. 

Seventy. 

Eight7. 

Ninet7. 

A or one hnndrecL 

Two hundred. 

Three hundred. 

Four hundred. 

Five hundred. 

Six hundred. 

Seven hundred. 

Eight hundred. 

Nine hundred. 

A or one thousand. 

Two thousand. 

Eleven hundred. 

A or one hundred thousand. 

A or one million. 



COMPOSITION. 



4 Han Devado mieombrero al sombre- 

rero? 
% eeSoFy lo han llerado. 



Have the7 taken 07 bat to the batter? 
Yes, rir, they have taken St 



48 



LESSON XIV. 



I Ha eaviado V. la carta & an primo ? 

La he enviado. 

^Ha tornado v. caf6? 

No, se&or, he tornado chocohite. 

i Ou&nto dinero tiene Y. ? 

Tengo bastante. 

I Cu&nto tiene Y. ? 

Tengo diez pesos. 

i Ha comido Y. con sa hennano hoy ? 

No, sefior, no he comido con H. 

i Ga&nto ^ pagado Y. al sombrerero ? 

Ocho pesos 7 eels centayos. 

i CuAntaa sillas ha comprado Y. t 

He comprado seis. 



Have yon sent the letter to your cousin? 
I liaye sent it 
Have yoa taken oofifee ? 
No, sir, I have taken cfaocohite. 
How madtk money have you ? 
I have enough. 
How mudi have yoa f 
I have ten dollars. 

Have yoa dined with your brother to- 
day? 
No, ur, I have not dmed witii him. 
How madtk have you paid to the hatter ? 
Eight dollars and six cents. 
How many diairs have you boo^t? 
I have boogfat six. 



EXPLANATION. 

NUMERAL ADXBOnYBB. 

67. In the formation of compound nnmbeis, the same order 
is observed in Spanish as in English, except as to the place of 
the conjunction ; as. 

Mil ochodentos sesenta y seis. | 1866. 

68, All these numbers, except unOy one, and the compounds 
of cientOy one hundred, are indeclinable. ~ 

59, ITno agrees in gender with the noun to which it refers, 
but drops the o when it comes immediately before a masculine 
noun; as, 

Uno de los hombres. 



Ufia miger. 
Un hombre. 
Un gran caballo. 



One of the men. 
A woman. 
A man. 
A great horse. 



60- CiENTO drops the last syllable when it comes immedi- 
ately before a noun. Its compounds agree in number and 
gender with the nouns to which they refer ; as. 



Cien hombres y den m\\jeres. 

Otenio vdnte y tres eaballoe. 
Do6«imto8 libros. 
TreB<;ienta9 d^as. 



One hundred men and one hundred 

women. 
One hundred and twenty-three horses. 
Two hundred books. 
Three hundred boxes. 



LXS80N XIY. 49 

GONYEBSATION AND YEBSION. 

1. |Ha escrito Y. sua cartas? Sf, sefior, las he escrito. 

2. iLas ha enyiado V. al correo^? 8i,8enor, las he enviado hoy. 
8. 4 Ha tx>mado V. caf6 6 chocolate? He tornado oaf&. 

4. 4 Tiene Y . bastante dinero ? 6S, sefior, tengj> bastante. 
6. iCo^totiene Y.? Tengo veinte pesos y treinta centavos. 

6. I Gndnto ha pagado Y. & sn sastre ? He pagado 4 mi sastre veinte 
J cinco pesos j cnarenta centavos. 

7. i Onfindo ha comido Y. con sa amigo ? He comido con dl hoy. 

8. I Cn4ntos caballos ha comprado Y. ? He comprado ocho. 

9. (Ha comprado Y. sillas? Si, sefior, he comprado doce. 

10. I Tiene Y. mucho dinero ? Tengo cien pesos y cincnenta oentavoe. 

11. lOoanto tiene sn hermano ? Hene qninientos (500) pesos. 

12. |I>6nde vive Y. ? Yivo en Nneva York. 

18. |Qq4 ntmero {number) tiene la casa de Y.? Tiene el ntimero 
trescientos treinta j ocho (888). 

14. I Ha recibido Y. sos peri6dicos de Paris ? Si, sefior, los he recibido. 

15. |Qn6 ntimeros ha recibido Y.? He recibido el once, doce, trece, 
catorce, y diez y ocho. 

16. 4 Los ha leido Y. ? No, sefior, no los he leido. 

17. |Ca4ntos afios (year) ha vivido Y. en Paris? He vivido cmoo. 

18. I Gointas lecciones ha aprendido Y. ? He aprendido trece. 

19. I Cnintas gramdticas tiene Y. ? No tengo sino nna. 

20. I Qni^n ha recibido hoy peri6^cos ? Nadie los ha recibido hoy. 

21. ^Es rico el amigo de Y. ? Si, sefior, tiene qninientos mil (500,000) 
pesos. 

22. {Ha Ilcvado Y. mis cartas al correo? No he llevado sino dos. 

23. {Ha enviado Y. mis zapatos al zapatcro ? Si, sefior, los he envia- 
do hoy. 

24. 2 Ha tomado Y. mnchas lecciones de espafiol? He tomado doce. 

25. I Cntoto ha pagado Y. & sa amigo ? Tres mil ochocientos cnarenta 
y cnatro pesos (8,844). 

EXEBdSE. 

1. Do yon wish to send anything to yonr consin? Yes, sir, I wish to 
send money to my consin. 

2. How mnch money do you wish to send? I wish to send $317. 

3. Who has taken the money to the tiulor? My cousin (fern.) has 
taken it. 

4. Where have yon sent the horses ? I have sent them to Paris. 
6. How many have you sent? I have sent two very good ones. 

_ • Oonw, poBt-offlce. 



50 



LESS029^ XT. 



6. Mj son, have yon taken the $31.60 to the baker ? Tes, dr, I have 
(taken them). 

7. Hasyonr brother sent some ohairs to yonr house? No, ear, but he 
has sent some to his. 

8. How many haa he sent? He has sent ten chairs and three tables. 

9. Has the womim bought no chairs? Yes, sir, she has bought 
twenty-six. 

10. How many letters have they written this (etta) week. They have 
written three hundred and ten letters and one thousand and one notes. 

11. Which newspapers have yon sent to your father ? I have sent him 
numbers three, fifteen and eighteen. 

12. Has he read them all ? He has read only number fifteen. 
18. Has the butcher much money ? He has $1,000. 

14. How much have you sent to your Mend (fem.)^ I have sent 
$111.17. 

15. Whom do you wish to pay ? I wish to pay my tailor. 

16. Where does your tailor redde? He resides in "Vienna. 

17. When have you written to Alexander ? I have written to Alex- 
ander to-day. 

18. Have you received a letter from him to-day ? Tes, rar, I have re- 
ceived six, 

19. What day do you receive letters from France? I receive them on 
Tuesdays and Saturdays. 

20. How many has your oouMn written to you ? Kone. 



LESSON XV. 



Fronunciar^ pronunciado,, 
Tocwr^ tocado. 

Cantor^ cantado, 
jReina^j reinado, 

Como. 



To pronounce, pronounced. 
To touch, touched; to play, 

played. 
To sing, sung. 
To reign, reigned. 



How, like, as. 



OBDINAL NTTMBBBS. 



Primero (primer htfore a noun), 

Begnndo. 

Teroero {or tercer htforeanoun). 



First. 

Second. 

Third. 





LBSSON XV. 




Ciuurto. 




Fourth. 




Qomto. 




Fifth. 




Sexto. 




Sixth. 




86ptimo. 




Seventh. 




Octavo. 




Eighth. 




NoveBo, w nona 




Nmth. 




D6cimo. 




Tenth. 




Piano. 


Bano. 


Oandon. 


Song. 


Violin. 


Violin. 


Palabra. 


Word. 


Mtisioa 


Mofiician. 


Gmtarra. 


Guitar. 


Ptamsta. ' 


Pianist. 


Histoiia. 


History. 


Cantor. 


Singer. 


Arpa. 


Harp. 


Tomo w Toltimen. Volnme. 


Obra. 


Work. 


Carlos. 


Charles. 


Mtlaiea. 


Mnsio. 


Luis. 


Louis. 


Cantora, oantatriz. Smger. 


Enriqne. 


Henry. 


CaUe. 


Street 


Rey. 


King. 


Avenida. 


Avenne. 


Trab^o. 


Work, labor. 







61 



COMPOSITION. 



i G61110 pronimda Uannel el espafiol ? 

Lo pronimda bien. 

4T0CA v. la goitarra? 

No, sefior, tooo el violin 7 d piano. 

I Outa V. candones espafiolas ? 

No, aefior, canto candones inglcsas. 

^Qoien reina en Bnsiaf 

AUjandro Segimdo. 

^Enqo^calleviveV.? 

Yivo en la calle Once. 

iYV., d6ndevivcf 

To vivo en la calle Vdnte y tres. 

^Qa6 toca d mfisico? 

Toca d arpa, d violm 7 d piano. 

i Tiene V. d primer tomo de mi librof 

No, se&or, tengo el segmido. 

4 Ha Iddo V. el tomo tercero ? 

No, seiior, he Iddo d caarto. 

i Cu&ntos afios tiene V. ? 



How does Emannd pronounce Spanish ? 

He pronounces it wdL 

Do yon play the guitar ? 

No, sir, I play the violin and the piano. 

Do you sing Spanish songs f 

No, sir, I sing English songs. 

Who reigns hi Russia f 

Alexander the Second. 

In which street do you live ? 

I live in Eleventh street 

And where do yov live ? 

I live hi Twent7-third street 

What does the mudcian pUj ? 

He plaTS the harp, violin and piano. 

Have you the first volume of m7 book ? 

No, sir, I have the second. 

Have you read the third volume? 

No, sir, I have read the fourth. 

How old are you f 



EXPLANATION. 
61. The ordinals always agree in gender. and nnmber with 



62 LB880N ZV. 

the noun, e3q)reB8ed or understood, to which they refer, and may 
be placed either before or after that noun ; as, 



The first volume. 
The first good book. 
The first copy-books. 
The first lessons. 
The second volume. 
The second mtentions. 



£1 primer tomo (or el tomo primero). 

El primer buen Ubro. 

Los primeros cuademos. 

Las primcras lecciones. 

El segundo tomo. 

Las segundas intenciones. 

It has been seen, in the list of ordinal numbers at the open- 
ing of the present lesson, that /Trim^ro and tercero lose the final 
letter when they immediately precede their noun, or are separ- 
ated from it only by an adjective. We may observe here, that 
tercero is by some written entire ; the contracted form, how- 
ever, is much to be preferred ; as, 

EI tercer tomo. | The third volume. 

62. The ordinals are not so frequently used in Spanish as 
in English; and, except primero^ first, their place is generally 
supplied by the cardinal numbers ; as, for instance, in speaking 
of the days of the month, which are expressed by el doSy tres, 
cuatro^ etc.j the second, third, fourth, &c. The following are 
the principal cases in which the ordinals are employed: 1st, 
with the names of sovereigns, popes, &c. ; 2d, in the enum- 
eration of books, chapters, lessons, <&c., and a few others; 
but, even in these cases, after dbcimo^ tenth, they are, by rea- 
son of their great length, generally replaced by the numerals ; 
as, 

Charles the Fifth. 



C&rlos Quinto. 
Pio Nono. 
Capftulo d^cimo. 
Calle Veinte y trcs. 
Luis Catorce. 



Pius the Nmth. 
Chapter tenth. 
Twenty-third street. 
Louis the Fourteenth. 



N. B. — ^The definite article is not required in the above ex- 
{fmples. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^PronuDcia V. bien el ingles? Ko, seflor, lo pronimcio maL 

2. iEs V. cantor? No, sefior, pero tooo. 
8. I Qu6 toca V. ? Toco el violin. 



LESSON XV. 53 

4. iGanta bien sa hermana de Y. ? No, sefior, ella canta mal; pero 
toea bien el piano. 

5. I Qii6 leccion estadia Y.? Estndio la cnarta. 

6. ^Eq quife calle vive sa padre de Y. ? Vive en la calle Catorce. 

7. 4Qn4 tomos ha Iddo Y. ? He leido el primero, segondo, tercero j 
eoarto. 

8. |On&ntos tomos tiene la obraf Tiene seis. 

9. iQu61ibrolee Y.? Leo la Mstoria de CWos Qninto. 

10. I Ha leido Y. la hiatoria de Enrique Ootavo de Inglaterra? 81, 
sefior, la he leado. 
11- iQu^ tomo lee an bennana de Y. ? Lee el noveno. 

12. I Cudnto dinero ba recibido Y. boy ? He recibido dncnenta y un 
pesos. 

13. lOu&ntoshennanoBtiene Y.9 Tengo cinco. 

14. I Curios afios tiene sa bennana de Y. ? Tiene qnince. 

15. I Gn^nto tiempo ba vivido Y. en Paris ? He viyido seis afios. 

16. iQn6 ndmero tiene sn cosa? El doscientos seis (206). 
IT. iQn^diadelasemanacsboy? Hoy es mi6rcoles. 

18. I Qii6 bora tiene Y. ? Las diez. 

19. I GnAntos dias tiene una semana? Tiene siete. 

20. Ocbo y doce ^cn^tos son? Son veinte. 

21. I Gndntos afios tiene sn pflp4 de Y. ? Tiene sesenta. 

22. 2 Cn&ntos dias tiene el afio ? l^ene trescientos sesenta y cinco (865). 

23. iC6mo ba leido Y.9 He leido despacio. 

24. I Ha llevado Y. mi piano al pianista ? Sf, sefior, lo be llovado. 
26. I Ha cantado Y. mncbo boy ? Hoy be cantado poco. 

26. I Cu6ndo ba yendido Y. sa caballo ? Lo be yendido boy. 

EXERCISE. 

1. What book bave yon? A mneac-book. 

2. How many volumes lias it? Tbree. 

8. Wbicbyolame bave yoa read? Tbe first. 

4. Has your fatber not read the second volume? Ko, sir; but my 
cousin bas read it. 

5. Wbat are you reading, miss? I am reading tbe History of Cbarles 
" tlieFiftb. 

6. Wbo bas sold your sister's History of England ? She bas sold it. 

7. Wbo bas bougbt the violin? The pianist. 

8. Where does he liVe ? In Seventeenth street. 

9. In wbat street does the butcher live ? In Sixth avenue. 

10. Have you bought good meat in tbe butcher's shop? Tbe meat 
(which) I bave bought is very bad. 



64 



LES8X>N XYI. 



11. What things have yon sent to the tailor ? I have sent stockings, 
vests, and pocket-handkerchiefs. 

12. What day of the week is to-day? Monday. 

18. Is Monday the first day of the week 9 No, sir, it is the second; 
Sunday is the first. 

14. How much money does the merchant require? He requires $1,500. 

15. How much money do you wish to send to your friend? I wish to 
send my friend $50. , 

16. Does he need much money ? Tes, madam, he is very poor. 

17. How many letters have your brothers written to Emanuel? Very 
few. 

18. How do your costers pronounce Spanish? They pronounce it well 
when they read, but not when they speak. 

19. When do they write their exercises? When they have studied 
their lessons. 

20. And you, when do you write yours? When my brothers write 
theirs. 

21. How do the poor buy? The poor buy dear, and the rich buy 
cheap. 

22. Hasyour&ther sold his old horse? He has sold it 

28. Have you read the History of Louis XYL? I have read volumes 
first, second, and third. 



LESSON XVI. 

HBST ooiSJVQATiOK— Preterit D^nite. 



ffdbU. 
Habl-aste. 
Habl-6. 


I spoke. 
Thou spokest 
He spoke. 


Habl-Amos. 
Habl-asteis. 
Habl-aron. 


We spoke. 
You spoke. 
They spoke. 


8B00ND 00 


BTJUOATION. 


Aprend-L 
Aprend-iste. 
Aprend-io. 


I learned. 
Thou leamedst 
He learned. 


Aprend-imos. 
Aprend-isteis. 
Aprend-ieron. 


We learned. 
You learned. 
They learned. 



LX880K XYI. 



55 



£Bcril>-L 

£scrib>iste. 

£Bcrib-i6. 

'EamMnnos, 
Escrib-isteis. 
Eacrib-ieron. 

Pasar. 

Ayer. 

Antes de ayer, or anteayer. 

£1 a&o pasado. 

£1 mes pasado. 

La aemana pasada. 

Ante (,pr^,). 

Ante todas cosaa. 

Ante todo. 

Antes (ad.). 

Belante (ad.). 

Despues ((id.), 

Mas (ad.). 

M^nos (ad.). 

Qae (eonj.). 



OOHTUOATIOK. 

I wrote. 
Thoa wrote. 
He wrote. 

We wrote. 
Yon wrote. 
They wrote. 

To pass, to spend (in relation 
to Ume). 

Yesterday. 

The day before yesterday. 

Last year. 

Last month. 

Last week. 

Before, in the presence ot 

Before all things. 

Above alL 

Before (r^en to time). 

Before (refers to place). 

Afterwards, after. 

More. 

Less, fewer. 

That, than. 



COMPOSITION. 



iHabl6 y. con mi padre? 

Si, aefior, habl^ con 61 ftntes de ayer. 

I Han apiendido Yds. sa leocion f 
81, aefior, la hemes apiendido hoy. 
i Gaaodo escribid Y. & su hermana ? 
Kflcribi la aemana pasada & mi henaana. 
jHa redbido Y. sua periddiooa del 

mes pasado? 
SI, sefior, los he recibido hoy. 
iCn&ndo vendid Y. su caballo? 
Lo Tendi d afio pasado. 
i Estadia Y. Antes 6 despaes de comer ? 

Sstadio Antes de comer. 

4 Habl6 Y. mucfao ante el Juex ? 



IHd yon speak inth my fkiher ? 

Tes, sir, I spoke with him the day be- 
fore yesterday. 

Have you learned your lesson ? 

Tes, sir, we have learned it to-day. 

When did yon write to your sister ? 

I wrote to my sister last week. 

Have yon recdred year newspapers of 
last month (last month^s newspapers)? 

Yes, sir, I have recdved them to^y. 

When did you sell yoor horse ? 

I sold it last year. 

Do yoa stady before or after dining (or 
dinner)? 

I study before dining. 

Bid yon speak much before the Judge? 



56 



LESSON XYI. 



No, Befior, habU muy poco. 

I Qu6 libro tiene Y. delante ? 

Tengo la gram&tica espafiola. 

I E8cribi6 V. BUS cartas ? 

Si, sefior, las eacribi el domingo pasa- 

do. 
i Come V. m^nos que yo ? 
No, Be&or, como maa que Y. 
i Ha visto Y. & su amigo ? 
Si, seuor, lo y1 ayer. 
4D6ndelovi6 Y.? 
Lo Tf delante de la iglesim. 

^Habl6 Y. con^I? 

Si, sefior ; pero muy poco. 

i Ha comido Y. f 

Si, sefiora, he comido pan y he bebido 

vino. 
i Ha leido Y. y estudiado bus q'ercicios ? 

Sf, sefior, los he leido y estudiado. 

i Ha escrito Y. & su padre f 

Si, sefior, escribf ayer. 

i Gu&ndo ha recibido Y. las cartas de 

Las he recibido hoy. 

I Ha enviado Y. mis cartas despues de 

las suyas ? 
Las he enviado &ntea. 
i Habl6 Y. ante d rey ? 
Ko, sefior, habl6 ante el juez. 
^Cuftnto tiempo? 



No, BUT, I spoke very little. 
What book have you before you ? 
I have the Spanish grammar. 
Did you write your letters ? 
Tes, sir, I wrote them last Sunday. 

Do you eat less than I f 

No, sir, I eat more than you. 

Have you Been your friend ? 

Yes, sir, I saw him yestertlay. 

Where did you see him ? 

I saw him before (in front of) the 
church. 

Did you speak to him ? 

Yes, sir ; but very little. 

Have you dined ? 

Yes, sir, I have eaten bread and drunk 
wine. 

Have you read and studied your exer- 
cises? 

Ye$«, sir, I have read and studied them. 

Have you written to your father ? 

Yes, sir, I wrote yesterday. 

When have you received the letters 
from him ? 

I have received them to-day. 

Have you sent my letters after yours ? 

I (have) sent them before. 
Did you speak before the king ? 
No, sir, I spoke before the judge. 
How long ? 



EXPLANATION. 



63. The Pretebite DEPiNTrB refers to a time past, and 
generally specified in the sentence, and denotes the thing or 
action past in such a manner that nothing remains of that 
time in which it was done ; as. 



Escribi & mi padre en el afio 1864. 
iiprendi el frances el aSo pasado. 



I wrote to my father in the year 1864. 
I learned French last year. 



In colloquial language, the preterite indefinite (which has 
been treated of in Lesson xii.), is sometimes, though incorrect- 



LB8SON ZTI. 57 

ty, substituted for the preterite definite. The following example 
will show the impropriety of such a substitution : 
He escrito k mi padre ayer. | I have written to my iatlier yestenlay. 

Nothing remains of yesterday ; it is time past^ and has no 
connection with the present ; and, as it has been already seen 
that the preterite indefinite conveys an aUutUm to the present 
timej the incorrectness of the foregoing example is at once 
apparent. 

We may, however, say with propriety : 

Eacribi la carta k las trefl, & las cna- I I wrote the letter at three o^do<^ at 
tro, etc. I four o'clock, &c 

for the time specified is completely past. 

64. AsTTE. — ^This preposition means before^ or in the pree- 
€nee of-^ as, 
Habl6 ante el jaez. | He spoke before the jadge. 

And it sometimes denotes priority, antecedence, Ac. ; as, 
Ante todas oosas. | Before all things. 

6 5 - Mas, more ;* Miasros, few, fewer, — ^These two adverbs are 
used to form the comparative degree of several adjectives, 
which last they always precede in the sentence ; as. 

El vino es tuM caro que la cerveza. I Wine is dearer'tfaan beer. 

Yo soy ma» rico qne Y. I I am richer than you. 

When nsed to express some quality or circumstance re- 
specting, verbs, their usual place in the sentence is immediate- 
ly after these last ; as. 

To escribo www. I I write more. 

T6 hablas meriM, \ Thou speakest less. 

It is needless to observe here, that mcu and menos are thetnt 
selves the comparatives of mvcho sudpoco^ respectively. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Cu4ndo habl6 V. con el abogado ? Habl^ con 61 anteayer. 

2. 4 Ha hablado V. con mi hennana? No, sefior, habl6 ayer con su 
amigo de V. 

8. 4 Ha hablado V. con el pianista ? Si, seflor, le habl6 ayer. 



58 LESSON XYI. 

4. ^Ha aprendido Y. an leccion? No, sellor; pero lie escrito el 
cjercido. 

5. ^Han aprendido ellos sns lecciones de frances? Si, sefior, han 
aprendido las de frances y de espafioL 

6. I Otidndo aprendi6 sa bermana & tocar el piano ? Aprendi6 el alio 
paB^do. 

7. I Ha leido Y. la l^tonsL de los Estados Unidos ? He leido el tomo 
primero j el segnndo. 

8. I Ha leido Y. la carta de sa hermana y la de sa amiga ? He leido 
la de mi hermana; pero no la de mi amiga. 

9. I Qa6 ha leido Y. hoy ? He leido los ^ercicios de la semana pasada. 

10. j Cndndo compr6 Y. sa caballo ? Lo compr^ el mes pasado. 

11. iD6nde habl6 Y. con mi padre 9 Delante de sa casa de Y. 

12. iLej6 Y. la carta de sa padre dates qae la de sa hermano ? No, 
sefior, la lei despaes. 

18. j Oadndo residid Y. en Paris ? Besidi alii Antes qae Y, 

14. j Cadntos alios tiene sa hermana 9 Tiene veinte. 

15. I Oadntos pesos pag6 Y. el mes pasado al comerciante ? Qoinien- 
tos. 

16. I Ha Uevado Y. mis zapatos al zapatero 9 Si, sefior, los ]lev6 oyer. 

17. I Ou&ndo ha recibido Y. sa dinero 9 Lo recibi anteayer. 

18. 2 Ha escrito Y. despaes qae escribi6 mi padre 9 No, sefior, escribl 
dntes. 

19. j Esoribi6 Y. sa carta despaes qae recibi6 la de sa hermano 9 Si, 
sefior, la escribi macht) despaes. 

20. I Ha hablado Y. con la madre dntes qae con la hija9 No, seflor, 
habl6 dntes con la h^a qae con la madre. 

21. I Estndid Y. sa leccion de ayer 9 No, sefior, estudi6 la de dntes de 
ayer ; pero no he estndiado la de ayer ni la de hoy. 

22. I Habl6 Y. ante el jaez 9 Si, sefior, habl6 ante el jaez y ante el rey. 

23. I Habla Y. mas qae yo 9 No, seflor, hablo m6nos ; pero escribo 
mas. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Did yoa speak more yesterday than to-day 9 I spoke less ; bat I 
read more. 

2. How many newspapers did yoar father read yesterday 9 Yery few. 
8. How old is your sister 9 She is nineteen. 

4. Who took the vest to the tailor last year 9 The baker took it. 

, 5. How much did the taUor pay to the baker afterwards 9 $59.10. 

6. Did he receive the vest after or before the coat 9 He received it 
after. 



LESSON XYII. 



59 



7. Did your sisten sing yesterday? Tes, sir, they sang and played. 

6. What did they sing ? They sang Spanish songs and played on the 
piano. 

9. Have yon (plural) played to-day? No, madam, we have not 
played; but we have written our French exercises. 

10. How many words have your brothers written in Spanish to-day? 
Fewer than last Thursday. 

11. Do they speak more EngUsh than Spanish? No, madam, they 
speak more Spanish. 

12. What have the singers received from Paris? They have received 
some good songs and French music. 

18. Have the singers (/em,) enough Spanish music ? Yes^ sir, they 
have received some to-day. 

14. Did they sing well last month? Not very welL 

15. Who sang in your house the day before yesterday? Nobody sang. 

16. How long did you reside in Vienna? Hve years, six months, and 
thirteen days. 

17. How many churches has Paris? Paris has many churches. 

18. How did your cousins pronounce their Spanish yesterday. Very 
welL 

19. Are yon a musician? Yea^ madam. , 

20. Is your sister a pianist or a singer, or does she play on the guitar ? 
She sangs and plays on the piano. 

21. When did you speak before the judge? The day before yesterday 
and last week. 

22. Do you sing much with the muncians ? I sing a little ; but be- 
fore all things I study my Spanish lessons. 



Thibd^ar. 
Mandar 



LESSON XVII. 

To work. 

To command, to send. 



Quien, quienes, 

A quien, 4 quienes. 

iQn6? 

Oual, cuales. 

Cuyo (nuue. <in^.)) cuya (fim.^ 

9ing,). 
Gnyos (moie. pltiral)^ cqyas 

(/em. plural), 
Varios. 



Who. 

Whom, to whom. 

What (inter,), who, that, or which. 

Which one, which ones. 

Whose, which, or of whom* 
Several. 



60 


LESSON XTII. 




Retrato. 


Portrait 


[Oriada. 


Servant 


Pantalon. 


Pantaloons. 


Iglesia. 


Church. 


Criado. 


Servant. 


OaUe. 


Street 


Concierto. 


Concert. 


Plaza. 


Square, market 


Teatro. 


Theatre. 


Oompafiia. 


Company. 


MercaJo. 


Market 


Jaana. 


Jane. 


Parque. 


Park. 






Jaan. 


John. 






Trabiyador. 


Workman. 






Hotel 


Hotel. 








COMPOSmON. 





I Es viejo el caballero d quien Y. habl6 

en el concierto ? 
No, sefior, pcro lo es la sefiora que ha 

hablado con Y. en el teatro. 
i A qui6n buaca Y. ? 
Bijisco k la Befiorita d quien Y. busca. 

i Qiii6n es el joven que ha hablado con 

v.? 

Es un criado del hotel 

El muchacho que lee, 7 alcual Y. man- 

d6 trabiyar, es mi hennano. 
La ^m&tica que 61 ticne, y en la eual 

estudia, es mia. 
El caballero cuya casa Y. coinpr6 es 

amigo mio. 
El comerciante cuyo Tino Y. compr6, 

vende muv barato. 
El libro en que leemos* 

La sefiora d quien habl6 es mi madrc. 
iManda Y. bus niSos al Parque Cen- 

ti-al? 
I A qui6n manda Y. trabcgar ? 
A mis criados. 
I Juan! 

] Scfior ! I qu6 manda Y. ? 
Quicro la comida. 
J En d6nde trabajan hoy los trabaja- 

dores? 
Trabajan en la calle. 



Is the gentleman to whom you spoke 

at the concert «ld ? 
No, sir; but the lady who spoke to you 

at the theatre is (so). 
For whom do you look? 
I am looking for the young lady that 

you look for. 
Who is the young man that has spoken 

to you? 
He is a servant in the hotel 
The boy that reads, and whom you 

commanded to work is my brother., 
The grammar which he has, and in 

which he studies, is mine. 
The gentleman whose house you bought 

is my friend. 
The merchant whose wine you bought 

sells very cheap. 
The book in which we read (or which 

we read in). 
The lady I spoke to is my mother. 
Do you send your children to the Cen- 
tral Park? 
Whom do you command to work ? 
My servants. 
Johnl 

Sir ! what do you wish ? 
I wish my dinner. 
Where do the workmen work t>day? 

They work m the street 



liBSSOIf XYII. 61 

EXPLANATION. 
66- QuiEBT. — The relative pronoan quien refers to perBons 
only, and is al^w^ys preceded by the preposition 4, when gov- 
erned by a verb ; as, 
EI bombre d qwen, V. qaiere. | The man whom 70a lore. 

67. Who, coming immediately after its antecedent, is 
translated by gw ; when it stands alone, or is governed by a 
preposition, it is rendered by quien; as, 

El macbac^o que estudla. | The boy who studies. 

La muchacha con qmtn hablas. | The giri with whom 70a speak. 

68. CuaIj and qite relate to persons and things ; as, 



El mnchaclio que lee, 7 al eual Y. 

mondo trabcjar, es mi heimano. 
Ia gram4tica que &. tiene, 7 en la 

euai estudla, es mia. 



The bo7 that reads, and whom 7011 
commanded to work, is m7 brother. 

The grammar which he has, and in 
which he studies, is mine. 



6 9. CxjTO also refers to persons and things, but agrees with 
the word by which it is immediately followed ; as, 



EI caballero ewfa com V. compro es 

amigo mio. 
El comerciante euyo Yino V. compr6 

Tende mu7 barato. 



Tlie gentleman whose house 70U bought 

is m7 friend. 
The merchant whose wine 70U bou^t 

sells Ter7 cheap. 



This pronoun partakes of the nature, both of the relatives 
and tbe possessives. 

70. In English the preposition does not always precede the 
relative pronoun; but in Spanish it is indispensable to place 
the preposition before the relative ; as, 

El libro en que leemos. I The book which we read in (or, in 

I which we read). 

71. The relative pronoun can never be suppressed in Span- 
ish ; so that we cannot say, as in English, the lady I spoke to, 
but, in full ; as. 

La sefiora d quien, habI6, es mi I The Iad7 to whom I spoke is m7 
madre. | mother. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. g A qui^n mand6 V. ayer al mercado ? Mand^ & mi criado Juan. 

2. jCn&l do sQs criadoB trabi^'a mas? Jnan trabtga mas que todos. 

3. I Qai^n es el hombre 6 qui^n Y. bosoa? El hombre 4 quien basc6 
63 trab^jador. 



62 LESBON Xyil. 

4. ^Qni6n es el caballero con qnien habl6 Y. a/er en el concierto? 
Es on discipnlo mio. 

5. I A qai6n quiere Y. hablar f Qaiero hablar & la seliorita que toca 
el piano. 

6. 1 06mo pasaron Yds. el tiempo en el campo ? Lo pasamos muy 
Men en compaflia de nnestros amigos. 

T. i£s Franoes el comerciante & qnien compr6 Y. el oaballo? Si, 
sefior, es el Franoes cuja casa oonipr6 Y. 

8. |Manda (envia) Yi sua nifios al Parqne Central t Si, sefior, los 
mando al Parque Oentral. 

0. I Oon qui^n los envia Y. f Oon sns primos. 

10. iQa^ libro qniere Y. leer? Quiero leer el de ManneL 

11. iNo qniere V. leer el que yo tengof No, sefior, quiero leer el de 
Alejandro. 

12. I A qui6n manda Y. trab^ar ? A mis criados. 

13. I Juan I I Sefior t ^Qu6 manda Y.f Quiero la comida. 

14c. I Canta Y. bien f No, sefior ; pero la sefiorita que reside en su 
casa de Y. canta muj bien. 

16. 2 Estudia Y. mucho ? No, sefior, pero trab^o mncho. 

1^ 2 na estudiado Y. hoj sn leccion ? No, sefior, la estudi6 ajer ; hoy 
he escrito los C|jercicios. 

17. |06mo pronuncia su maestro de Y. el espafiolf Lo pronuncia 
bien ; pero pronuncia muy mal el ingles. 

18. I Toc6 Y. ayer el piano en casa de sua amigos ? Si, sefior, todtmos 
y cant&mos. 

19. jQu6 cantaron Yds.? Oantdmos canoiones espafiolas y la can- 
clon amoricana llamada, ^' The Star Spangled Banner." 

20. iCabollerost iQuieren Yds. tomar chocolate 6 caf6? Queremos 
beber vino. 

21. I Oudntos dias pa96 Y. en el campo ? Pas6 toda una semana. 

22. 2 Porqu6 no pasa Y. un mes en el campo con nosotros ? Porque 
necesito residir en la ciudad. 

23. lOvL&L de sus amigos habla bien espafiol? £1 que estudia mucho 
habla bien. 

24. 2 OuiU de sus hermanos estudia mas ? El mas pequefio. 

25. I De qui^n recibe Y. cartas ? De mi padre y mis hermanod. 

26. {Es de Y. el libro en el cual estudia su hermano ? No, sefior, es 
snyo. 

27. |Trab^j6 Y. mucho ayer? No, sefior; pero he trabigado mucho 
hoy. 

' 28. I Cuibido estudia Y. sos lecciones ? Las estudio los mi6rcoles y los 
s&bados. 



LBBBON XYII. 63 

EXERCISE. 

1. Whose is the portrait (which) you sent me yesterday ? It is the 
portrait of my hrother who lives in Germany. 

2. Which portrait have you sent to Charles? I have sent no portrait 
to Charles ; hnt I have sent mine to the musician. 

3. With whom did you spend last week ? I spent last week with my 
toiisin John. 

4. In which dty of France does the pianist^s hrother live ? He lives 
in the city in which your sister Jane resides. 

6. To whom did you send the first volume of your work? I sent it 
to Louis. 

6. Whom do you order to work ? My servant John. 

7. Who is the lady you are looking for ? She is the mother of the 
anger {/em.) whose piano Charles bought last year. 

8. With whom did you send your children to the concert last night? 
I sent them with a servant 

9. With which servant did you send them ? With one of mine (my 
own). 

10. In which church does Miss Garcia sing ? She sings in Twenty- 
eighth street church. 

11. How did you {plural) pass the time in Philadelphia? Yery well. 

12. Did you study many lessons ? We studied very little, and neither 
read nor wrote our exercises. 

13. How much did you write the day before yesterday ? I studied a 
good deal, but wrote little. 

14. Which volumes of Robertson's History has your son ? He has re- 
ceived the first, second, third and fourth. 

15. Did you buy any books at the bookstore in Walker street? Yes, 
madam, I bought the History of Charles Y. and some music books. 

16. Whom have you paid with the money I sent you ? I have paid 
the man who worked in my house yesterday. 

17. Does your servant work much ? Ko, or ; but she reads a great deal. 

18. From whom do you receive letters every day ? I receive letters 
from Henry on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, and from my father 
on Tuesdays. 

19. Who has the boots that I bought in Fourth avenue? John has 
tak^ them to his cousin who lives in Philadelphia. 

20. Has your servant bought any good meat in the market ? He has 
not bought any to-day. 

21. How many songs have you received from Spain ? I have received 
several from Spain and two from England. 



64 



LBSBON Xyill. 



22. Have jon song any of them ? None ; bnt my raster sang one or 
two last night at .the concert 

23. Are they very good ? One of them is very good, and my cousin 
(Jem,) sings it very well. 

24. How many pencils does the hatter wish ? He wants twelve pen- 
cils and three penknives. 

25. Does Louisa play maoh on the piano? Ko, sir, she is very lazy, 
and will neither play nor study. 

26. The tailor has a handsome vest, very cheap ; will you buy it ? I 
do not wish to buy a vest ; but I want pantaloons. 

27. Has he any pantaloons ? He has none, he sold them all lost week. 





lesso:n^ XVIII. 


Ir. 


1 

PRESENT. 


Togo. 


Voy. 
Vas. 
Va. 






I go (or, am going). 
Thou goest. 
He, or she, goes. 


Vamos. 

Vais. 

Van. 






We go. 
You go. 
They go. 




PBETBETT DEFUnTE. 


Ful. 

Fuiste. 

Fu6. 






I went. 
Thou wentest. 
Ho, or she, went. 


Fuimos. 
Fuisteis. 
Fueron- 






We went 
You went 
They went 




FEESENT. 




Venir. 
Vengo. 
Vienes. 
Viene. 






To come. 
I come (or, am coming), 
lliou comest. 
He, or she, comes. 


Venimos. 

Venis. 

Vienen. 






We come. 
You come. 
They come. 



LESSON XYIII. 



66 



PBBTEBIT 




Yine. 


I came. 


Yiniate. 


Then earnest 


Yino. 


He, or she, came. 


Yinimos. 


We came. 


Yinisteis. 


You came. 


Yinieron. 


They came. 


BEMONfiTKATTTB PBOSOUNS. 


Sin^lar. 


Uaaealbie. Feminine. Kenter. 




Este. Esta. £sto. 


This. 


E3e. Esa. Eso. 


That. 


AqueL Aqnella. Aqaello. 


That (yonder). 


Flu 


ral. 


Estos. Estas. JSh neuter. 


These. 


Esos. Elsas. " 


Those. 


Aquellos. Aquellas, " 


Those (yonder). 


EIlo. 


It 


Aqni, adi. 


Here. 


Ahi. ) 
Alii, aU^ acnll^ 


There. 


Porqud. 


Why. 


Porqne. 


Because. 


L6J08. 


Far. 


Cerca. 


Near. 


Otro. 


Another. 


Ni imo ni otro (ind, pro.). 


Neither. 


Profesor. Professor. 


Juana. Jane. 


Bifldpulo. PupiL 


Discipnla. Pupil. 


Trfwlo. Side. 


Zapateria. Shoemaker's shop. 


Jardin. Garden. 


Manteca. Butter. 


COMPO 


smoN. 



i De qai6n es esU libro que lengo aquif 
Ese que tiene Y. ahi, y este que yo ten- 
go aqui, son del profesor. 



^Quidn es aqiiel caballero que 

alii del otro lado de la callc ? 

AqueL cabellero c& mi discipulo. 



Whose book is this which I hare here ? 

That one which you have there, and this 

one which I have here, are the pro- 



Who is that gentleman who resides 
there on the other side of the street ? 
That gentleman is my pupiL 



66 



LBBSOK XYIII. 



i Ad6nde va Y. t 

Toy all&, al otro lado del parqae. 

i No quiere Y. Tenir ac4 de eate lado ? 

No, seiior, yoj tJlk del otro lado. 

i Quiere Y. oomprar aqud Ubro ? 

No, seiior, quiero comprar eae otro. 

i Quiere Y. venir al teatro oon nosotros ? 

jE^ quiero. 

i lAevb Y. aqudlo k la eastreria t 

LoUerd. 

^MandaY. algo mast 

No, e>o ea todo. 

i EnTi6 Y. el chaleco k la saatrerfa, y 

las botas k la zapaterfa ? 
£iiyi6 lo uno y lo otro (or amboe). 
^Fueron k su casa de Y. el m6dioo 

francee j el profesor aleman ? 
Yino aqudf pero no Tino etle, 

i Habl6 Y. de agueOo k mi madre ? 
No, sefior, pero liabl6 de eUo k ea pa- 

drodeY. 
En mi casa y en 2a de sa hennano de Y. 
El jardin de esta casa y el de la que Y. 

compr6. 
Este cabaUo y e^ de mi amigo. 



Where do you go ? 

I go there to the other mde of the park. 

Will yoa not come here to this side ? 

No, sir, I go there to the other side. 

Do yoa wish to buy that book ? 

No, BUT, I wish to buy that other one. 

Will you come to the theatre with us ? 

That (is what) I wish. 

Did yoa take that (thing) to the tailor's ? 

I did (or I took it). 

Do you command anything more (or 
have you any more conunands) f 

No, that is all 

Did you send the Test to the tailor's, 
and the boots to the shoemaker's ? 

I sent both. 

Did the French phyudan and the Ger- 
man professor go to your house ? 

The fonner came, but the latter did not 
come. 

Did you speak of that to my mother ? 

No, sir, but I spoke of it to your father. 

In my house and In your brother's. 
The garden of this house and that of 

the one you bought 
This horse and my friend's (that of my 

fUend). 



EXPLANATION. 

72. The demonstrative pronouns este^ this, ese^ aqud^ that, 
are thus declined : 

Este, ese, aquel {nuue, nng,\ 
Esta, esa, aquella {fem, nng,\ 
EstOB, esos, aqueUoB (nuwc. plural). 
Estas, esas, aquellas (fern, plural). 
Esto, eso, aquello {neuier), 

73. EsTB is used to point oat what is near to ns, and cor- 
responds to the meaning of the adverb here ; ese points out 
that which is at some distance, and corresponds to the adverb 



LS880N XYIII. 



67 



there; and (zqud denotes remoteness, and corresponds to the ad- 
Terb yowfer; as. 



jSffe tibro qae tengo agui. 
Ek que tiene Y. ahi, 
Aqael que l]ev6 V. cM, 



Thi» book which I have here. 
That one which you have Ihere, 
Thai one which yoa took there. 



74. When the pronouns este, eae precede the adjective otro^ 
another, they may sometimes be written together, so as to form 
but one word with it, in the 4>Uowing manner : 



Estotro. ' 




Estotroa. ' 




Estotra. 


This other. 


Estotraa. 


These others. 


Eaotra 


That other. 


Esotrofl. 


Those others. 


Esotra. . 




Esotraa. . 





These forms, however, are now rarely used. 
76. The demonstrative pronouns, in their quality of adjec- 
tives, are used also na neuter. JEbo, that, is the most used of 
the three, and almost as much as the personal pronoun fo, and 
in the same manner; as, 
&o se har&. t That will be done. 

/Aoes! I That 19 it! 

76. The former and the latter is translated in Spanish by 
aqtid and este; thus. 



La aplicacion j la pereza hacen al 
hombre muy diferente ; aquella le 
elera j etia le rebaja. 



Industry and slothfhiness have arery 
different effect upon man ; the former 
eleratea him, the latter lowera him. 



77. When in English the demonstrative pronoun thca is 
followed by the prepositipn of, or either of the relatives who, 
whiehy expressed or understood, referring to a noun already 
mentioned, the definite article, in the corresponding number 
and gender, is employed in Spanish ; as. 



En mi eaaa y en la de su hermano de 

V. 
£1 jardUi de esta casa y el de 2a ^u« 

V. oompr6. 
Este caballo y d de nu amiga 



In my house and in your brother's. 



The garden of this houae and that of 

the one (which) yoa bought 
This horse and my friend's (t. e., that 
" of my friend). 

78- English personal pronouns, followed by a relative not 
agreeing in case, are generally rendered in Spanish by the de- 
monstrative; as, 
Quierocomprar&aQtMJZMqaeTeQden | I want to buy from cAom who sell 

barato. | cheap. 



68 LESSON XVIII. 

79. AQTjf, Aixf, Aci, AixA. — ^Although the adverbs a^uty 
here, o/K, yonder, are employed as synonyms of acdy here, and 
aUdy yonder, respectively, we must observe that aqui and alli 
refer to a place more circumscribed or determinate than acd^ 
olid; for the same reason we can say, mas acdj mas aUd^ 
nearer, farther ; and we cannot say, ma« aquX^ more here, m>as 
aUij more there. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. J Vione Y, del campo? No, 8efior, voy alia. 

2. ^ De d6nde viene su amigo de Y. ? Yiene de Espafla. 
8. I Ad6nde va Y. este alio ? Este alio quiero ir a Paris. 

4. ^De quidn es ese retrato qne tiene Y. ahi? Este que tengo aqni 
es el de mi padre, y aquel que tieno sa amigo de Y. olli, es de mi madre. 

6. ^Es discipulo de Y. el caballero que reside en aquella hermosa 
casa ? No, sefior ; pero su prima, quo reside de este otro lado de la calle, 
es mi discipula. 

6. 4 Ya. Y. d su casa todos los dias? No, sefior, voy alli los lAnes, 
midrcoles y vi^mes. 

7. I Cudntas lecciones toma el caballero que vino ayer & su casa de Y. ? 
Toma dos & la semana. 

8. I Qui^n trab^ja mas, el profesor 6 el discipulo? El uno y el otro 
trabfijan mucho. 

9. ^Es este nifio su h^o de Y. ? Si, sefior, cs mi h^jo Manuel. 

10. 2 Manuel I ^quieres venir aqui & mi lado? No, sefior, no quiero ir. 

11. iPorqu6 ? Porque quiero ir con mi padre. 

12. I Cudntos nifios tiene Y. ? Tengo cinco, tres nifias y dos nifios. 
18. ^Quiere Y. venir con nosotros al Parque Central? No, sefior, por- 
que tengo que ir con mis nifios al campo. 

14. iHa de ir Y. (tiene Y. que ir) hoy? Si, sefior, tengo que ir hoy. 

15. ^No quiere Y. venir acd de este lado? No, sefior, voy alia del 
otro lado. 

16. iDev6 Y. aquello d la sastrerfa? Si, sefior, lo llev6. 

17. ^Manda Y. algo mas? No, eso estodo. 

18. iHabl6 Y. de aquello & mi amigo? No, sefior; pero habl6 de ello 
d su hermano. 

19. I En d6nde trabiy6 Y. ayer ? Trab(\j6 en la casa de Y. y en la de 
su hermano. 

20. I Trab^)6 Y. en mi jardln 6 en el de mi amigo ? Trabcj6 en el uno 
y en el otro. 



LSBSOK XYIII. 69 

21. 4 Ad6nde va Y. & trabigar hoy ? Yoy & trabiviar en el jardin de 
esta casa j en el do la qne Y. compr6 el afio pasado. 

22. I Llev6 Y. mis botas 4 la ziq)ateria, j conipr6 Y. el pan que necedta- 
mo6 f Llev6 las botas ; pero no he comprado el pan. 

23. iQa& llevas ahi, Alejandro? Llevo mis libros. 

24. I Qq6 qniere ta hermano ? Qoiere pan 7 mantecik 

25. 4Pag6 Y. al sastre ? 61, senor, ajer pagu6 al sastre, j boy be pa- 
gado al zapatero. 

26. I De qni^n son esos caballos ? Este es el de mi padre, j aqnel es el 
de mi bermano. 

2T. i Cu61 es el de Y. ? Yo no tengo ningnno. 

28. iQuiere Y. tencr nno? Qaiero tener muchos. 

29. 4£scribi6 Y. la carta 7 la leocion ? Escribi aqnella, pero no he 
escrito esta. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon go to chnrch every day ? I only (solo) go on Sundays. 

2. Where is yonr servant Jane going? She is going to the bakery.to 
buy bread. 

8. Do yonr mnsic teacher (f/Mestro) and yonr Spanish professor come 
to your house every day? The former comes every day, but the latter 
only comes on Tuesdays and Saturdays. 

4. Which of the two works the more ? Both have to work much. 

5. Which of the two horses is the older, this one here or that one 
there ? This one here is the yoimger. 

6. Have you that letter which you received last Monday ? I have not 
that one ; but I have here the one I received the day before yesterday. 

7. Who has written these two histories, that of France and that of 
America? RoUin has written the former, and Robertson the latter. 

8. Does the piano teacher live far from here? The piano teacher 
does not live far from here ; bnt the French professor lives very far. 

9. Is that all {lo que) your brother has studied? Yes, sir, that is all. 

10. Which lesson have you studied? I have studied the one (la que) 
we read the other day. 

11. Which did we read, the fifte'enth or the sixteenth ? We read both. 

12. Which one do you wish to read first ? I require to read the former. 

13. Why do you require to read the former? Because I have not 
studied it well 

14. Which exercise have^you there? I have mine and my brother's. 

15. Is your brother not coming to take his lesson to-day? No, sir, he 
has to take his music lesson to-day. 

16. John? Sir I 



^0 



XB8S0N XIX. 



17. Have yon .taken my coat to the tailor's? Yes, sir, I took it last 
night 
16. Have yon paid that man? Yes, Eor, I have paid him to-day. 

19. How mnch have yon paid him ? I have paid him three dollars and 
seventy-five cents. 

20. Why did yon pay him three dollars and seventy>five cents ? Be- 
cause he worked one day in this garden, and two in that of the Twenty- 
third street house. 

21. How many pupils have you ? I have thirty : seventeen learn 
Spanish and the thirteen others French. 

22. Do they study well? Some of them study very well; but none 
write their exercises well. 

28. When do you slug and play on the piano? I study my lessons 
before singing and playing. 

24. Who is that gentleman that came from Vienna last month? That 
gentleman is the one to whom I spoke last week at the concert 



LESSON XIX. 


Saeer. 
Haciendo. 
Hecho. 


To do, or to make. 
Doing, making, 
pone, made. 


PBEC 


JKNt. 


Hago. 
Haces. 
Hace. 


I do, or make. 

Thon doest, or makest 

He does, or makes. 


Hacemos. 

Haceis. 

Hacen. 


We do, or make. 
You do, or make. 
They do, or make. 






Hice. 

Hidste. 

Hizo. 


I. did, or made. 
Thou didst, or madest 
He did, or made. 


Hicimos. 
Hicisteis. 
Hicieron. 


We did, or made. 
You did, or made. 
They did, or made. 


Partir. 

Marchar. 

Cambiar. 


To set out, to depart, to divide. 
To go, set out, setoff to march. 
Change, 



LBSSOK XIX. 



71 



FSBPO0IIIO2IB. 



Para. 




For, or in order to. 


A«d 




So, thus. 




Por. 




By, for, through. 


Entre. 




Between, among. 


Hasta. 




Until, even. 




H4cia. 




Towards. 




Sin. 




Withont. 




Pedro. 


Peter. 


Helena. 


Helen. 


Eficritor. 


Writer. 


Escritora 


Writer (femaU). 


Escribano. 


Notary. 


Tienda. 


Store, shop. 


Estado. 


State. 


Prorinda. 


Prorinoe. 


Pais. 


Oonntry. 


Manera. 


Manner. 


Medico. 


Phygidan. 


Eflcritara. 


Writing, convey- 




' Doctor. 




ance. 



Cnarto. 

Aragon. 

Tie. 



Boom. 

Aragon. 

Uncle. 



OOMPOSmON. 



iQa6 hixo Y. ajer en sa cnarto? 

Estodi^ mi leodon. 

iQa6 ha hecho Y. hoy f 

He escrito los qjerddos. 

^Qu6 haoe el zapatero en la zapaterfa? 

Haoe lapatoe y botas para Y. 
iTiene Y. papei para escribir ana 

cartaf 
SI, aefiora, lo tengo. 
i Qoiere Y. escribir una carta por mi 

hermano f 
/ Para qni^n es la carta ? 
£s /MDM ManneL 
Yo parte /»ra Madrid. 
^ Para d6nde parte Y. ? 
Parto para loe Estados Unidos. 
i Habl6 Y. & sn padre /x>rim hemumo ? 

HabU j9or 61 & mi padie y fc mi tio. 



What did yon do yesterday in year 

room? 
I stodied my lesson. 
What have yon done to^y f 
I have written my exercises. 
What does the shoemaker do in tbe 

shoe-shop ? 
He makes shoes and boots for yon. 
Have yon paper to write a letter t 

TeSj madam, I have. 

Will you write a letter for my brother ? 

For whom is the letter? 

It is for Emanael. 

I set out for Madrid. 

For where do you set out ? 

I set out for the United States. 

Did yon speak to your father for any 

brother ? 
I spoke for hhn to my &iher snd to my 

nncle. 



n 



LEfiBON XIZ. 



i Habla Y . Uen d franceB t 

Lo hablo muy bien, y hasta paso por 

frances. 
/ Por cuanto Yendi6 V. el caballo ? 
Lo vendi por doBcientoB dncaenta pesos. 

^ Keoesita Y. enviar joor algo ? 

Necesito enviar por el medico. 

/ Por qu6 envia V. ? 

Envio por vino. 

i Yiye V. para comer ? 

No, sefior, como ^ra ^vir. 

^March6 ayer macho el regimiento 

S^ptimo. 
March6 hasta el Parque Central 



Do yon speak French well t 

I speak it very well, and I even pass 
for a Frenchman. 

For how much did you sell the horse ? 

I sold it for two hundred and fifty dol- 
lars. 

Do you want to send for anything ? 

I want to send for the physician. 

What do you send for ? 

I send for wine. 

Do you live to eat ? 

No, sir, I eat to live. 

Did the Seventh regiment march much 
(far) yesterday ? 

They marched to the Central Park. 



EXPLANATION. 
80- Para and Por. — ^As both these preposition^ very fre- 
quently answer to the English for^ they are apt to be con- 
founded by foreigners. Such confusion may, however, be 
avoided by bearing in mind the following rules : 
Para expresses aim, object, destination. 
Por conveys the idea of want or requirement, substitution, 
favor, duration of time, direction, &c. Examples : 

"wrrii poB. 



wrrn paba. 
PapeljEMra escribir. 
Paper for writing. 
Este libro es para Y. 
This book is for you. 
Parte /)ara Nueva York.. 
I start for New York. 
Comer jtwra vivir. 
To eat to live. 

Trabsgo para ganar la vida. 

I work in order to earn a living. 

Para el domingo. 

For Sunday. 

Este caballo es para su padre do V. 

This horse is for your father. 

Lo har6 para tu hermano. 

I shall do It for thy brother. 



Escribo/M>r mi hermano. 

I write for my brother. 

Gambia mi sombrero por el suyo. 

I changed my hat for his. 

Pasa jDor docto. 

He passes for a man of learning. 

Vender^ la casa por diez mil pesos. 

lie will sell the house for ten thousand 

dollars. 
Trabi^jo 7>or ganar la vida. 
I work to (endeavor to) earn my living. 
Habld jDor id amigo. 
I spoke for (in iavor of) thy friend. 
EnviojDor pan. 
I send for bread. 
Lo har6 por tu hermano. 
I wiU do it for thy brother (for thy 

brother's sake). 



LSSBON XIX. 73 

81. Entbs. — ^The general meaning of this preposition is 
between and amonffst; as. 



Entre loe doe. 


Between the two. 


Entre V. j yo. 


Between you and me. 


Entre todofl. 




82. Habta signifies tiU^ urUU, eveuy to, as many aSj aa far 


as; as, 


Haetft d domingo. 


TiU (or until) Sunday. 


Pasaron hasta wiH, 




Yoj hasta el Parqne Central. 


I go as far aa the Central Park. 


EBtadi6 el espailol hasU que lo 


He studied Spanish till he learned it 


aprendi6. 





CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. iE8cribi6y. la carta para sa padre, j los cgercidos de la leccion de 
espanol ? Hice aqneDo ; pero no he hecho esto. 

2. iHene Y. papel para escribir nna carta? Si, sefior; pero tengo 
que escribir ^tes mis ^jeroicios. 

3. I Hizo el sastre mi casacaf La hizo. 

4. I Qa6 ha hecho el zapatero ? Ha hecho nnas botas para Y. y nnoB 
zapatOB para ManneL 

5. 4 Para d6Dde parte Y. ? Parto para los Estados Unidos. 

6. iQniere Y. escribir una carta por mi hermano? Si, sefior, ipara 
qm6n es la carta? Es para Dn. Manuel. 

7. iHabl6 Y. 6 sa padre por mi hermano ? Habl6 por 61 & mi padre 
y 6 mi amigo. 

8. iHabla Y. Men el francos ? Lo hablo mny bien, y hasta paso por 
frances.. 

9. jPor cuAnto vendi6 Y. la casa? La vend! por ocho mil pesos. 

10. I Por qu6 envia Y. ? Envio por mis libros. 

11. I Vive Y. para comer ? No, sefior, como para vivir. 

12. |March6 Y. ayer con el regimiento S^ptimo? Marcb6 hasta el 
Parqne Oentral. 

18. |Es Dn. Pedro escritor? No, sefior, Dn^ Pedro es escribano. 

14. I De qn6 manera hace Y. eso ? Lo hago asL 

15. |Qn6 hizo Y. ayei.? Estndi^ la leccion de espaOol, y hoy he 
escrito los ejerdcios. 

16. jTiene Y. qne trabijar mas qne yo? Tengo que escribir mas que 
Y. ; pero no tengo qne trabigar mncho. 

17. lEdciadondevan Yds.? Yamos h&cia la iglena. 

18. jEn d6nde vive Y. ? Yivo en la Onarta avenida niimero, trescien- 
tos treinta y ocho, entre las calles Yeinte y cinco y Yeinte y seis. 

4 



14 LESSON XIX. 

19. 2 Para qu6 qniere V. mi libro ? Para leerlo. 

20. 2 Qai6n pag6 la comida ? La pag&mos entre todos. 

21. I Marohan bien estos bombres? Marcban may bien. 

22. ^Por d6nde pasaron Yds. cuando fderon & la iglesia? Pasimos 
por la calle Yeinte y tres. 

23. {Es esa senora esoritoraf Si, sefior, y escribe may bien. 
^. jDe qa6 pais es V. ? Soy de Espana. 

25. ^De qa^ provincia? De Aragon. 

26. I Pronancian bien el espallol en Aragon ? Lo prononcian may bien. 

27. I Hablan bien el ingles en los Estados Unidos ? Lo bablan bien. 

28. £ Qniere Y. venir 4 mi casa para comer con nosotros ? No, sefior, 
porqne tengo qne ir & comer & casa de mi amigo. 

EXERCISE. 

1. How &r did tbe Seyenth regiment marcb yesterday ? Tbey Qt) 
marched to the Central Park. 

2. Did yoor sister set oat yesterday for Philadelphia? No, madam, 
she did not set oat yesterday. 

8. When does she start ? She starts to-day. 

4. What does yoar servant look for ? He looks for my coosin^s i/em,) 
letter. 

5. What do yon da to learn Spanish ? I stady the lessons of my 
Spanish grammar and read good writers. 

6. To whom did yon speak last night at the concert ? I spoke to the 
physician for Peter. 

T. Who is that man who came to yoor hoase last night? He is my 
brother^s servant. 

8. Do yon speak Spanish well ? No, sir ; bat I speak Italian very 
well, and I even pass for an Italian (italiano), 

9. How did yoar ancle spend the day yesterday ? Stndying his les- 
sons and writing to Madrid. 

10. Will yonr ancle write a letter for (m favor of) Charles ? He will 
write it, 

11. Do the yoang ladies want to send for anything? They want to 
send for the phyfltcian. 

12. For what do they send for the physician? To speak for their 
serviait (/em.). 

18. Where does he live ? In Fifth avenae, between Twenty-fonrth 
and Twenty-fifth streets. 

14. Where do yon send? I send to the shoemaker's. 

16. What do yon send there for? For some boots and shoes for 
Emanael. 



LESSON XX, 



75 



16. How do yon write your exerdses without ink? I write them with 
apenciL 

17. How did Louis write his exercise the other dajf He and his sis- 
ter wrote it between them. 

18. Have you sold joor old hat? I changed it for Peter's new one. 

19. Will yon pass me that paper to write a letter for my brother? 
This paper is not for letters. 

20. What is it for? It is for my exercises. 

21. Whose letter is that? This letter is for your mother. 

22. Where did the singer go last year? He went to Aragon, a proT- 
inoe in Spain. 

23. What have yon sent lor? I have sent for nothing. 

24. Will yon go for wine? I do not want wine, but bread and meat. 

25. Do yon live to eat? No, sir, I eat to live. 

26. Have yon read the newspapers to-day? N<^ sir; bnt I have 
marched with my regiment. 

27. Has the tdlor made my vest ? Yes, mr, he made it last week. 

28. Will yon go to the pianist's for my piano? Ko; I have to stndy 
my lessons. 

29. Do yon write before studying? No; I stndy first and write after- 
wards. 



LESSON XX. 



Salir. 
6aliendo. 
Salido. 

Salgo. 
Sales. 
Sale. 

SalimoB. 

Salid: 

Salen. 

Sail 

Saliste. 

8ali6. 



To go out, to leave. 
Going out. 
Gone out. 



FBSSENT. 

I go out 
Thou goest out. 
He goes out 

We go out 
Yon go out 
They go out 

FSBTEBTT DEFUdlTE. 

I went out 
Thou wentest out 
He went out 



76 



I.KSS03r XX. 



SafieroD. 



Wa went ooL 
Too went ooL 
Tliej went out 



Tanta 


So, 80 mnch, as much. 


Caanto. 


How much. 


Como. 


As, how. 


Presto. 


8oon, speedily. 


Pronto. 


Promptly, quickly. 


Temprano. 


Early. 


Tarde. 


Late. 


M^or. 


Better. 


Peor. 


Worn. 


Mayor. 


Greater, larger, older. 


Menor. 


Smaller, younger. 


Mqjor. 


Better. 


Peor. 


Worse. 


Prudente. 


Prudent. 


Imprndente. 


Imprudent. 


Pronto. 


Prompt, quick, ready. 


Presto. 


Ready, prepared. 


Callado. 


Silent, taciturn. 


Hablador. 


Talkative. 


limpio. 


Oleanly, clean. 


Vivo. 


Lively, alive. 


Situado. 


Situated. 


Cansodo. 


Tiresome, tired. 



M6jioo. 



Mexico. 



Fecha. 



Date. 



COMPOSITION. 



^£s Alqjandro Ian prudente como 8U 
bermano ? 

No, sefior, Alqjandro ea muy impru- 
dente. Es tan im|irudente eomo ha- 
blador. 

^Son Ids comerciantes mas rices que 
los m^cos ? 

Algunoa son nuu ricos; pero otros lo 
son mhw9 quo los m^cos. 

I Ss Nuera Tork mayor que Madrid ? 

Madiid es menor que Nueva York, 



Is Alexander as prudent as his brother? 

No, sir, Alexander Is very imprudent 
He is as imprudent as talkative. 

Are merchants richer than physicians f 

Some are richer; but others are less 

rich than physiciaxis. 
Is New York lai^feer than Madrid ? 
Madrid is smaller than New York. 



LBSSON XZ. 



11 



lQa6 cabaDo es fn^or^ el de Y. 6 d 

mio? 
£1 de Y. es mayor ; pero tApeor que el 

loio. 
i Tiene Y. mas ds cincaenta pesos f 
No tengo mas que veinte y tres. 
£1 tiene UaUo dinero como Y. 
To estudio tanto como Y.; pero do 

iqireiido tanto. 
1^ habla espaSol tan bien eomo Y. ; 

pero no lo escribe tan bien. 
fl tiene iatUo euanto quiere. 
Tengo tantM libros y tanto papel como 

a 

To escribo maa que Y.; pero Y. lee 

nuu que JO. 
£l habU m^nos que Y. 



Which horse is the better, yours or 

mine? 
Tours is larger; but it is worse than 

mine. 
Have you more than fifty dollars ? 
I have not more than twenty-three. 
He has as much money as you. 
I study as much as you ; but I do not 

learn so much. 
He speaks Spanish as well as you ; but 

he does not write it as well. 
He has as much as he wishes. 
I have as many books and as much 

paper as he. 
I write more than you ; but you read 

more than I. 
He speaks less than you. 



EXPLANATION. 

DEOBEES OF OOMPASISON. 

83. The adverbs tarUo and euanto lose the last syllable, tOj 
before an adjective or anofher adverb. 

84. The comparative of equality is formed by placing the 
adverb ton, bo or as, before, and como, as, after the adjec- 
tive; as, 

Alejandro es tan prudente eomo su I Alexander is a» prudent a* his sister, 
hermana. | 

85. CuAN may be employed, if the comparative is followed 
by an adjective instead of a noun ; as, 

Es tan hablador cuan imprudente. | He is as talkative as imprudent 
But como is more frequently used. 

86. The comparative of superiority is formed by placing 
the word mas^ more, before the adjective, and que^ than, after 
it; as, 

^ es ma» rico que Y. | He is richer than you. 

87. The comparative of inferiority is formed by placing 
the word minos^ less, before, and que after ; as, 

£l es mhio» rico que Y, | He is 26W rich than you. 

88. Mayob, greater or larger ^ mbnob, smaller; mbjob, bet- 



This house is Uirger or anaUer than 

that one. 
This horse is beUer or worse than mine. 



78 LB880K XZ. 

ter, and psob, worse, are already in the oomparativc degree, 
and do not require mas or mkioa before them ; as, 
Esta easa es mayor 6 motor qae esa. 

Este caballo es m^r 6 peor que d 
mia 

89. Than^ after comparatives coming before numeral ad- 
jectives, is also generally translated by cfe in the affirmative, 
and qu^ in the negative ; as, 

Tengo mas «k dncaenta llbroa. 1 I have more than filly books. 

Ko teogo mas q^ Teinte pesos. | I have not more than twenty dollars. 

90* Comparison may also take place with relation to nouns^ 
rerisy and adverbs; but its form is so similar to that laid down 
for the adjectives that the learner will not require any other 
explanation than the examples given in the Composition. 

CONTERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. 4 Sale y. taato oomo su hermano? No, sellor, mi hermano sale 
mas quo yo. 

2. iCudndo salimos nosotros9 Nosotros, salimos mny pronto. 

8. 4Sali6 sa hermano temprano de casa? No, sellor, sali6 tarde. 
4. iSalioron Yds. pronto del teatro? Sf, sellor, salimos mny pronto. 
6. 4 Sale Y. presto 4 la calle? Si, sellor, salgo may presto. 

6. jSalieron Yds. temprano de la iglesla? Salimos tardo. 

7. iCa^ do estas dos gram&ticas es mejor? La que Y. tiene delante 
es mqjor que la otra. 

8. jEs malo este caballo? Es peor que el de Y. 

9. j Es bnena la pluma de sa hermano de Y. ? Es mejor qae la mia y 
peor que la de Y. 

10. 4 Caiato dinero tiene Y. ? Tengo caarenta pesos. 

11. I Co4ntos libros tiene sa hermana? Tiene tantos como sa prima. 

12. i Ca&nto tiempo vivi6 Y. en Paris ? Yivi caatro afios. 

13. i Es stt hermano mayor 6 monor que Y. ? Es mayor. 

14. iQm6n de su familia do Y. habla mejor el ingl6s? Mi hermano 
mcnor lo habla mejor quo todos. 

15. 4D6ndo lo aprendi6? En L6ndre8. 

16. I Cuiinto tiempo yiyi6 alld? Seis afios. 

17. i Cnfindo vino de alld? Yino el afio pasado. 

18. iOafil do Yds. dos estadia mas? £l estadia m^nos que yo ; pero 
aprende mas. 



LB8S0K XX. 79 

19. i Cnil de sos hennanos de V. es mas pradente ? El mayor es mny 
callado j pradente ; pero el menor es vivo 6 impradente. 

20. ^Salieron Yds. del concierto 6ntes que noeotros? No, sellor, salf- 
mos despnes. 

21. I Ca&ndo 8ali6 sa amigo de Yds. de Nueva York ? Sall6 cl mee 
pasado para Paris. 

22. ^Ouando sale Y. para ilkdelfiaf No salgo hasta la semana que 
viene. 

23. ^H^ia d6nde vive sn amigo de Y. ? Yive hdcia la plaza. 

24. 4 Por d6nde vino Y. de Pans ? Yine por Inglaterra. 

25. I En d6Dde vive Y. ? En la Qointa avenida entre las calles Trcinta 
J Treinta y una. 

26. iQn6 caballo es mejor, el de Y. 6 el mio? El deY.es mayor; 
pero no tan bneno como el mio. 

27. ^Tiene Y. mas de cien pesos? Tengo mas de ciento. 

28. I No tiene Y. mas que tres pesos? No, sellor, no tengo mas que 
dos. 

29. 4 Habla Y. espafiol mejor qne Laisa ? No, senor, lo hablo peor ; 
pero lo escribo mejor que ella. 

80. I Sali6 Y. ayer temprano ? Sali temprano ; pero Loy he salido 
may tarde. 

EXEBGISE. 

1. Have you written your letter? Yes, sir, I Laye written it. 
. 2. What is the date of it (what date has it) ? The first of this month. 

8. Do yon {plural) go out mach? We go oat this year as mach as 
last year. 

4. Which is the better grammar, mine or yoars? Yoors is better 
than mine, bat not so large. 

6. Which of the two goes oat earlier, yoa or your coasin? I go oat 
earlier than he. 

6. Are merchants as rich as singers? Some singers arc richer than 
merchants. 

7. Is this horse not as lively as that one? That one is a little more 
lively than this one. 

8. Is Mexico as large as the United States ? No, miss, the latter are 
mach larger than the former. 

9. When do the masicians leave for Havana ? They leave next week 
(the week that is coming). 

10. When did yo^ take yoar moaic lesson? I took it the day before 
yesterday, early. 



80 LE9SON XX. 

11. Did jonr brothers take theirs as early as you ? No, sir, they took 
theirs very late. 

12. Which of you two speaks Italian better? He q^aks it better 
than I ; but I write it better than he. 

18. Do you sing much every day ? I do not sing as much as last 
month. 

14. Does the notary write as well as the physician? The former 
writes better than the latter. 

16. Is that man not very tiresome? He is very talkative and very 
tiresome. 

16. Is Lewis as prudent as his uncle? lie is more prudent than he; 
but not so taciturn. 

17. Are you less tall (aUo) than Louisa? Ko, she is less tall than I. 

18. Is your uncle, the merchant, as rich as your father ? No, sir, my 
father is richer than he. 

19. When do your cousins leave f»r Paris? They leave very soon. 

20. Is your servant as cleanly as ours? Ours -is more cleanly than 
yours, but not so talkative. 

21. Have you any paper for writing? I have as much paper and as 
much ink as I wish for. 

22. Is Henry very prudent ? He is as imprudent as talkative. 

23. Who goes to the bakery quicker than John? Nobody goes as 
quick as he. 

24. Have the merchants sent as much silver to France as to Spain? 
They have sent more to France. 

25. Did the shoemaker make the shoes as quickly as the tailor made 
the coat ? The former mode the shoes quicker, because he worked more 
than the latter. 

28. Which works the later, the tailor or the baker? The latter does 
not work so late as the former. 

27. Are your father's books larger than ours ? Yours are smaller than 
his. 

28. Are those horses bad? They are worse than the others. 

29. Will you go with your friend (Jem,) to the concert ? I will not go. 

30. Why will you not go ? Because it is very late, and I have to play 
on the piano. 

81. Where did your mother learn Spanish ? She learned it here. 

82. And does she speak it well? She does not speak it as well as she 
writes it. 

83. How much money have you ? I have not more than seven dollars. 

84. Has your friend as much as you ? He has more than I ; he has 
received more than two hundred dollars from Spain. 



LSSSON XXI. 



81 



LESSON XXI. 



Saber. 
Sabiendo. 
Sabido. 

Sabes. 
Sabe. 

Sabemos. 

Sabeis. 

Saben. 

Snpe. 

Sapiste. 

Supo. 

Supimos. 
Snpisteis. 
Supieron. 

Amar. 
Viajar, 

Trinidad (/em). 
Sabio, sapientisuno. 

HAbil, babilisimo. 
Dif icil, dificilisimo. 
Fdcil, facilisimo. 
Ck>rto, cor^mo. 
Alegre, alegrisiiiio. 
Triste, tristlsimo. 
Feliz, felicisimo. 
Largo, larguismo. 
Faerte, fortiaimo. 
Nuevo, noviamo. 
Kel, fidelisimo. 
Alto, altf»mo. 
4* 



To know. 
Knowing. 
Known. 

I know. 
Thou knowest. 
lie knows. 

We know. 
You know. 
They know. 

I knew. 
Thon knewest. 
He knew. 

We knew. 
Yon knew. 
They knew. 

To love. 
To travel. 

Trinity. 



Wise, learned ; very, most or ex- 
tremely wise. 
Clever, skilful; very clever. 
Difficult, very or most difficult 
Easy ; very or most easy. 
Short; very or most short. 
Cheerful ; very or most cheerful. 
Sad; very or most sad. 
Happy ; very or most happy. 
Long ; very or most long. 
Strong ; very or most strong. 
New ; very or most new. 
Faithful; very or most faithfid. 
Tall; very or most tall 



82 



LESSON XXI. 



IBBBOXTLAS 00MPABATIVB8 Aim BUFEBLiiTXTES. 



Baeno, m^or, 6ptimo. 
Malo, peor, p^imo. 
Grande, mayor, m&zuno. 
Pequeno, menor, minimo. 
Alto, superior, supremo. 

B<go, inferior, Infimo, 



Good, better, best 
Bad, worse, worst 
Great, greater, greatest 
Small, smaller, smallest. 
High, i ^ig^er, highest 



Low, 



( superior, supreme. 
jiSor, f^^^^ 



COMPOSITION. 



Es d maa sabio de mis discfpulos. 

Esta sefioriU es la mat amabla 

La mayor parte del r^imlento. 

Za mayor parte, 6 lo8 mas^ de los solda- 

dos. 
La m^or casa de la calle. 
Manuel, jcu&led son los profesorea que 

saben mas en tu escuela ? 
£1 profesor de aritm^tica sabe mucho, 

el de frances, sabo mas; pero el 

proresor do historia es el que mas 

sabe. 
i Es bneno este caballo ? 
Este caballo es muy bueno ; pero el de 

Y. es mejor, y el mio es el mcjor de 

los tres. 
i Es esta lecdon muy facil f 
"Eb facilUima, 

^Essu casa de y. tan alta como la mia ? 
La mia es mas alta que la de V., y la 

de sn hermano de Y. es la mas alta, 
Ese Frances es muy cabaUero, 
I Es alegre 6 triste sa amigo de Y. f 
Es al^rfsimo ; pero cs muy nifia 

iEsmuyj6vcn? 
No, seHor, es ricja 



He is the wisest of my pupils. 
This young lady is the most amiable. 
The greater part of the regiment 
The greater part, or the most, of the 

soldiers. 
The best house in the street 
Emanuel, which are the professors in 

your school who know the most ? 
The professor of arithmetic is learned, 

the French professor is more learned ; 

but the professor of history is tlie 

most learned. 
Is this horse good f 
This horse is very good ; but yours is 

better, and mine is the best of the 

three. 
Is this lesson very easy? 
14 is most, or ve% easy. 
Is your house as high as mine f 
Mine is higher than yours, and your 

brother's is the highest 
That Frenchman is very gentlemanly. 
Is your friend cheerful or sad ? 
He is most cheerful; but he is very 

childish. 
Is he Tery young ? 
No, sir, he is old. 



EXPLANATION. 
91. English superlatiyea ending in est^ or formed by tnost^ 



LESSON XXI. 83 

are rendered by placing the definite article before the Spanish 

comparative; as, 

£1 mas sabio. I The wisest 

La mas amable. | The most amiable. 

92. Mostj or most ofj when followed by a noun (singular), 
is translated by la mat/or parte ; as, 

Ija mayor parte del r^^ento. | Host of the Fegiment 

But if the noun is in the plural, most may also be translated by 
maSy with the corresponding article ; as, 

La mayor parte, 6 loe nuu^ de los I Host of the soldiers, 
soldados. | 

93. The preposition m, after the English superlative, is 
translated by de in Spanish ; as, 

La m^or casa de la calle. | The best house m the street 

94. Those superlatives which in English are formed with 
the aid of very^ most, &c., may in Spanish be formed either 
with the help of mut/ before the adjective, or by adding to the 
latter the termination isim^o ; as, 

Mu]f h&bfl, or habilinmo. I Very clever. 

Misy f&cO, or facUinmo. | Very, or most easy. 

The termination isimo is, however, more expressive of the 
positive superlative degree than is the adverb mut/. 

95. Observe that adjectives ending in a vowel drop that 
vowel on taking the termination isim^ ; as. 



Short, very short 
Cheerful, most cheerful 
Sad, very sad. 



Corto, cortistmo. 
Alegre, alegristmo. 
Triste, tristinmo. 

96. There are other superlatives ending in irrimo; as, 
C^lebre, celeb^mmo. I Celebrated, most celebrated. 
Salubre, salub^rrtmo. | Salubrious, very salubrious. 

But these forms are not the most used. 

97. Adjectives ending in the following letters change them 
before admitting the termination isimo : 

Co becomes qu; as, rico, ri^visimo. 
Go *' ^ ; a^ lu^) larTulshnp. 
Ble " bil; as, amable, ama&fVlsimo. 
Z ** c; as, felizy feliOBlmo. 



84 LESSON XXI. 

98. Snperlatives in iaimo irregularly formed : 

Buenoy good, makes bonUimo^ very good. 
Ihiertey strong, makes forUdmOy yery strong. 
NuevOy new, makes novidmOj very new. 
iSabiOy wise, makes sapienUsimo, rery wise. 
Sacro, sacred, makes^a<Ta^iRmo, yery sacred, 
i^, fedthful, makes fiddimnOy rety fakhfuL 

99. Irregular comparatives and superlatives: 

Bueno, mejor, ' 6pdmo. 

Halo, peor, p^simo. 

Grande, mayor, m&ximo. 

Pequefio, menor, minimo. 

Alto, sapeiioPy supremo. 

B^'o, inferior, fnfimo. 

Mucho, mas, lo mas. 

Foco, m^nos, lo mdinos. 

All these adjectives form also a superlative in Uimo^ accord- 
ing to the rules already given ; as, malisimOj poguUimOy mu- 
chUimo, 

They admit also a comparative formed with mas or tnhnos ; 
and a superlative with muy\ as, 



M6no9 malo. 
Los mas grandes. 
Muy pequcfios. 



Less bad. 
The greatest 
Very smaU. 



100. Substantives used adjectively admit the degrees of 
comparison; as, 



Es mas caballero que tii. 
£s muy hombre. 

Este hombre es muy nifio. 



He is more gentlemanly than thou. 
He is very much of a man, or yery 

manly. 
This man is very childish. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^Sapo y. su leccion 6ntes de ayer? La snpe muy bien, y la 96 
todos los dios. 

2. I Ama Y. & sn hermano ? Le amo. 

8. 2 Le ama 4 Y. sn hermano? No lo s^. 
4. A qui^n ama Y. ? Amo 4 mis papas. 

6. I Ha vicgado Y. macho? He viigado mucho en Europa; pero he 
vii\jado may poco en America. 



LESSON XZI. 86 

6. ^Sabe Y. el espaflol ? Muy pooo, sefiorita ; pero lo aprendo. 

7. Y v., sefiorita, ^lo sabe Y. ? No, sefior, no lo s6, ni lo aprendo. 

8. ^Porqu^ no estadia Y. el eepafidl? Porqae aprendo la mdsica, y 
no tengo tiempo para estadiarlo. 

9. ^Es nray bdbil sa profesor de mtiuoa de Y. ? Es habilisimo. 

10. {Sabe Y. cantar ? No, sefiora, pero sS tocar nn pooo el piano. 

11. 4 No sabe Y. tocar la guitarra ? No, seflora, tooo el violin. 

12. ^Aprendo bien ese oaballero el espafiol? Estudia macho y lo 
aprende may bien. 

18. iQoi^n aprende mas pronto d espaliol, las sefioras 6 los oaballeros ? 
Las sefioras aprenden mnoho mas pronto. 

14. 4 Qoi^n es el mas sabio de sos diadpnlos de Y. ? La sefiorita N., es 
la mas sabia de todos mis discipnlos. 

15. g OnM de estos nifios es el m^'or ? El qne ama 4 sos padres, y es- 
tadia mas sas lecciones, es el m^or. 

16. 4Maich6 todo el regimiento 7^. por Broadway hasta el Parqne 
Central ? No, sefior, pero la mayor parte de €L 

17. ^Faeronal campo los soldadost .Los mas deles soldados fneron 
alM. , 

18. I'Ea esta la mejor casa de la calle? No, sefior, esta casa es may 
bnena ; pero la de Astor es mejor y la de Stewart es la mcjor de la 
ciadad. 

19. ^Sabe Y. qoi^n pas6 por aqni anocbe? No, sefior, pero se qoi^n 
pas6 por la 5* avenida. 

20. ^Es bneno este caballo? Este cabaUo es mny bneno ; pero el de 
Y. es m^or, y el mio es el mejor de los tres. 

21. lEs caballero ese Frances? Si, sefior, es may caballero. 

22. ^Es ese hombre alegre 6 triste? Es mny alegre; pero es may 
nifio. 

23. iFa6 Y. al conderto la semana pasada ? Fai dntes de ayer. 

24. I Qaiere Y. tocar el piano ? Qniero, pero no s6. 

25. iHavenidosaamigode Y.? Havenido. 

26. I Oa^ndo vino ? Yino 6ntes de ayer. 

27. iOnindosale Y.9 Qoiero salir la semana qae viene. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do you know French ? No, sir, bat my brother knows it 

2. Is that physician dever ? He is most clever. 

8. Which is the most ekilfiil physician? Oars is the most skilfd in 
the dty. 

4. Is Miss Lonisa very amiable ? Yes, she is very amiable. 



86 LBSSOK ZXI. 

6. Alexander, wMch is the most learned teacher in yonr school ^ 
The En^ish teacher is learned, the teacher of arithmetic is more learned ; 
hat the Italian teacher is the most learned of alL 

6. Is your school-mistress cheerf ol, Louisa ? Tes, mamma, she is most 
cheerful and very happy. 

7. Did you know your lessons well yesterday? Yes, I knew them 
very well, hetter than to-day^s, for I have not had time to study them. 

8. Does your hrother know his every day? I do not know ; but he 
works very little. 

9. Is he taciturn ? No, ear, he is very talkative. 

10. Whichis the largest church in New York? Trinity Church is the 
largest and the handsomest in the city. 

11. Whose is that handsome house there? It is my nucleus. 

12. Is it not the finest in the street ? No ; Mr. Emanuers is the finest 
in the dty. 

18. Did the 12th Regiment go out to march yesterday? Not all, but 
the greater part went out. 

14. Did not all the soldiers march througli Fourteenth street last 
Thursday? The most of them marched through Fourteenth street, but 
not all. 

15. Is your Spanish lesson for to-day difficult? Yes, it is the most 
difficult (that) I have had this month. 

16. Is your French lesson very difficult, Charles ? No, mr ; my French 
lesson for to-day is the easiest one in the grammar. 

17. Which is the best Spanish grammar? The Combined Spanish 
Grammar is the best and the eaMest. 

18. Is not your table very low for writing? Yes, it is very low; I 
write better on a higher one. 

19. WiD you take this small pen to write your exercise? No; I do 
not write well with my own, which is very small, but larger than 
yours. 

20. Have you travelled much in Europe ? I have travelled very much 
in America, but veiy little in Europe. 

21. Which is the longest street in New York ? Broadway is the 
longest in the United States. 

22. Do you love your parents ? Yes, I love them very much. 

28. Why does Margaret not love her cousin? She does not love him 
because he is very taciturn. 

24. Which of your pupils is the wisest ? Henry and Louisa are the 
wisest of all my pupils. 

25. Who reads the most newspapers in your house ? I do not knoyr ; 
but papa reads a great many. 



LB880N ZXII. 



87 



26. To whom have yoa pud the most money to-day ? I have paid 
most to the tailor, because he has worked most for me. 

27. Does not yoor washerwoman work very mnch ? Yes, she works 
very mnch, bnt earns {ganar) Yerj little money. 

28. Whose horse is the most lively, yours, Charles^ or mine? Charles' 
is lively, mine is more lively, bnt yours is the liveliest of the three. 

29. In what street do you live? I live in Twenty-eighth street 

80. Is that a fine street? Yes, it is one of the finest streets np-town 
(of the iq»per part (jH»rte alta) of the city). 



LESSON XXII. 



JEstar 

Estoy. 
Estiis. 
£st4. 

Estamos. 
Estais. 
Estan. 
Prestar. 

Hablando. 

Estudiando. 

Gomprando. 

Bnscando. 

Necesitando. 

Aprendiendo. 

Yendiendo. 

Leyendo. 

Bebiendo. 

Oomiendo. 

Escribiendo. 

Rocibiendo. 

Viviendo. 

Resdiendo. 

Teniendo. 

Biendo. 

Queriendo. 



OKBUNDS. 



To be (in a certiun place, 
state or condition), 
lam. 
Thou art. 
He is. 

"We are. 
You are. 
They are* 
To lend. 

Speaking. 

Studying. 

Buying. 

Looking for. 

Needing, wanting, requiring. 

Learning. 

SelHng. 

Beading. 

Drinking. 

Eating, dining. 

Writing. 

Receiving. 

Living. 

Re&iding. 

Having, holding. 

Being. 

Wishing, desiring, loving. 



88 



LBSSON ZXII. 



lievando. 

£nviando. 

TonuDido. 

Pagando. 

Pronnnciando. 

Cantando. 

Tocaado. 

Haciendo. 

Pasando. 

Trab^jando. 

Mandando. 

Tendo. 

Viniendo. 

Estanda 

Norte, sor, este, oeste. 



Oarr jing, taking. 

Sending. 

Taking. 

Paying. 

Pronouncing. 

Sin^g, chanting. 

Touching, playing. 

Doing, making. 

Passing. 

Working. 

Sending, commanding. 

Going, 

Coming. 

Being (m a certain state, &c.). 

North, BouUi^ east, west 



COMPOSITION. 



/ ^ 8u casa de Y . grande ? 
& grande ; pcro estd en mal estado. 
I En que calle estd la casa de su henna- 
no de V. ? 
&id en la Cuarta avenida. 
/iSbLuisabonita? 
M may bonlta. 
/ Eatd ella contenta ? 
No eatd contenta, porque estd enferma. 

/iSbenfermiza? 

Lo «9 mucho. 

i De qui^n 6$ esta casa f 

^ de mi hermono. 

JEstd muy bien Bitaada. 

Esta carta es para Margarita. 

Nueva York estd entre el rio del Norte 

y el del Este. 
El sefior Walker es pintor. 
La mesa ess de madera. 
Ektuve en casa hasta que Y. 
Mi amigo estd para parUr. 
JEstay sin comer. 
i Qu6 estd Y. hadendo ? 
ISstoy escribiendo. 



Is your house large ? 

It is large ; but it is in a bad state. 

In what street is your brother^s house ? 

It is in (the) Fourth Avenue. 

Is Louisa pretty ? 

She is very pretty. 

Is she contented ? 

She is not contented, because she is 

uck. 
Is she sickly f 
She is very much so. 
Whose house is this ? 
It is my brother's. 
It is very well situated. 
This letter is for Margaret. 
New York is between the North and 

East rivers. 
Mr. Walker is a painter 
The table is of wood. 
I was at home until you arrived. 
My friend is about to set out. 
I have not dined (I am without eating). 
What are you doing ? 
I am writing. 



LBSSON XXII. 



80 



i De qiu4n et Y. amado ? 

Soif anuido de mis ninos. 

Kanuel et bueno. 

Manuel «s<tf malo. 

/ &td Pedro cansado ? 

£std cansado j et cansado. 

i Porqu^ esld tan callado Al^andro f 

Porqae «• callado. 



By whom are you lored f 
I am loTed by mj children. 
Emanuel is good. 
Emanuel is ilL 
Is Peter tired? 

He is tired, and he is tiresome. 
Why is Alexander so silent ? 
Because he is taciturn. 



EXPLANATION. 

101. Skb and Estak. — These two verbs have in English but 
one equivalent — to be ; but their respective significations and 
uses are so materially different as to constitute one of the chief 
difficulties of the Spanish language. By careful observation, 
however, of the following simple rule, the learner will, we are 
assured, be enabled to overcome that difficulty, and know ex- 
actly when to use the one and when the other of these two 
verbs. 

102. Whenever we wish to express tchat persons or things 
arej and their mode of being, in an absolute manner, bbb is the 
verb to be employed ; but if we desire to express the aUUe or 
condition of persons or things, and the mode of that ^ate or 
condition in a relative manner, then estab must be used. 

The following examples will serve to render the application 
of this rule more clear : 



Ist. Esta casa et grande. 

2d. EsU casa efftllimpia. 

3d. Esta casa esfcl en Broadway. 

4th. Loisa a bonita. 

6th. Lmaa a feliz. 

6th. Loisa edd oontenta. 

7th. Luisa mtd enferma. 

8th. Loisa et enfermiza. 



This house is large. 
This house ta clean. 
This house U in Broadway. 
Louisa if pretty. 
Louisa it happy. 
Louisa f « content 
Louisa u sick. 
Louisa tf sickly. 



In the first example we use seb to express nofua kind of a 
house the one referred to w — ». e. large ; in the second, estab, 
inasmuch as we desire to express Aoto, or in what state the 
house M, f . e. in a clean state ; estab is also employed in the 
third, sixth and seventh examples, the object being to make 
known respectively where the house is^ and in wha^ state or 



90 



LSSSON ZZII. 



condition Louisa is or finds herself ; while in the fourth, fifth 
and eighth seb again comes into play, seeing we wish to design 
nate Louisa^s mode of being in an absolute manner. 

From the above general rule may be deduced the following 
observations : 

Ist. That SEE must be used whenever we wish to express 
possession, use, purpose or destination ; to point out the nation- 
ality, profession or calling of persons ; the place of production 
of things or the materials of wWch they are composed ; the 
simple fact of existence, the occurrence of events ; and, finally, 
as an auxiliary in forming the passive voice of verbs. 

2d. That bstab is to be employed in speaking of situation 
or position, place, state or condition, in making the progressive 
form in ndo (corresponding to the English ing) of other verbs ; 
and, lastly, to govern verbs in the infinitive mood with the aid 
of a preposition, or past participles without such aid. 

N. B. — ^The verb estab can never be used with the present 
participles of ir and venir. 

Examples of the uses of sbb and estab : 



La casaca es de mi hennano. 

The coat is my brother^B. 

La carta es para Maigarita. 

The letter U for Margaret 

El sefior Walker a pintor. 

Mr. Walker is a painter. 

£ste vino ea de Espa&a. 

This wine is from Spain. 

La mesa m de madera. 

TheUbleisofwood. 

Has ado prudente en hacerlo asL 

Thou liast been pradent in so doing. 

.Hoy es la celebracion. 

The celebracion is to-day. 

/Sim las dlez. 

It is ten o'clock. 

Fui el caso como yo escribf & Y. 

The case was as I wrote to you. 

^y amado. 

I am loved. 



BSTAB. 

Esta casa e$td bien sitoadit 
This house is well situated. 
Nuera'Tork e$Ui entre el no del 

Norte y el del Este. 
New Tork is between the North and 

East riyers. 
Esiuve en casa hasta qte lleg6. 
I was at home until he arrived. 
EI esid escribiendo. 
He is writing. 
Mi amigo esid para partlr. 
My friend is about to set out 
JSitoy por no hacerlo. 
I am inclined not to do it 
EsUxmM sin comer. 
We have not dined (or eaten). 
Esta carta estd fechada en Madrid. 
This letter is dated from Madrid. 



LESSON XZII. 



91 



N. B. — ^As it fieqnently occurs that, in perfect accordance 
with the rules of grammar, the same sentence may be construed 
with either seb or estab, though conveying entirely different 
ideas, it is essential to inquire thoroughly into the respective 
value of these two verbs, in order to avoid the confusion which 
must necessarily arise from their misapplication. The impor- 
tant nature of this remark may be seen from the following 
examples : 



WTTH BBS. 

Manuel e$ bueno. 
Emiimel is good. 
Joan es malo. 
John u bad (or wicked). 
Pedro es cansado. 
Peter is tiiesome. 
Joana «9 Tiva. 
Jane Is lively. 
Alqandro et callado. 
Alexander ia t^dtuni. 
Bate nifio et limpio. 
• This child is cleanly. 
Esta naraija ei agria. 
This is a soar orange (i. e. of the eour 
species). 

What is said in the course of the present lesson relative 
to SEE and estab, being all that is requisite to enable the 
student to determine which of the two is to be used in any 
ordinary case, his attention shaU not again be called to them 
until we come to treat of their idiomatic uses. 



WITH ESTikB. 

Manuel eatd bneno. 

Emanuel is welL 

Juan e$id malo. 

John is sick. 

Pedro etld cansado. 

Peter is tired. 

Juana etldyvnL 

Jane is alive; 

Alejandro e$id callada 

Alexander is silent 

Este nifio ettd limpio. 

This child is dean. 

Esta narai\ja etid agria* 

This orange is sour (t. e, unripe). 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Qa6 est4 haciendo el mnebacho ? Est^ estadiando su leccion. 

2. ^Ha estadiado Y. la snja? La estudi^ ajer. 

3. I De qui6n es Y . amado ? Soy amado de mis nifios. 

4. ^Estd Y. escribiendo bos cjercicios? No, sefior, estoy escribiendo 
una carta. 

5. |£st4 Margarita cansada? Margarita no estd cansada; pero es 
cansada. 

6. I Porqu^ est& Pedro tan callado ? Porqne es callado. 

7. {Para qm6n es esta carta 9 £s para Y. 



92 LESSON XXII. 

8. |£nd6nd6est4atiiadaNneTaYork? £std aitnaida outre el no del 
Norte y el del Este. 

9. |£8 Y. Espafiol? No, seflor, soy Americano. 

10. i£s ese caballero abogado ? No, seflor, es m^co. 

11. I C6mo est4 Alejandro ? Estd baeno. 

12. 2 £^ Alejandro buen machacho ? Es baeno. 

13. jEstuYO y. ayer en mi casa? Estnve alii basta que sn padre de 
V. vino. 

14. ^De qn6 es este tintero? Es de madera. 

15. i£s grande su jardin de Y. ? Es grandisimo ; pero est4 en mal 
estado. 

16. ^En qa6 calle esl& sa casa de Y. ? Estd en la Goa^ ayenida. 

17. iEshermosalacasadesaamigode Y.? Es bermoslsima. 

18. |Es Luisa feliz? Lnisa es mny feliz; pero no est& contenta, por 
que no vino Y. & verla. 

19. {Es Y. enfermizo ? No, sefior ; pero estoy enfermo. 

20. |De qni^n es aqnella casa tan alta? Es de nn amigo mio ; pero 
qoiere venderla porqne est& mal sitoada en esta calle tan fea. 

21. I Cn^do parte Y. ? No 86, qniero partir boy, porqne tengo mncbo 
que bacer. 

22. iParti6 su amigo de Y. ayer? No, sefior, ba partido boy. 

23. jFnd Y. & la iglesia el domingo pasado ? Si, sefior, voy & la iglesia 
todos los donHngos, cnando no estoy enfermo. 

24. jYive sa amigo de Y. en el campo? No, sefior, reside en la 
ciadad. 

25. I Qa6 bace en la ciadad ? Trabija de abogado. 

26. iQa6 bace Y. ? Yo vendo y compro : soy oomerciante. 

27. iPas6 Y. por Paris, coando fa6 k Madrid ? Si, sefior, y por otras 
maobas dadades de Franoia y Espafia. 

28. I Yi^ja Y. macbo? He vii^ado mncbo ; pero no viiyo mas. 

29. I Yii\j6 Y. en M^jioo? Si, sefior, estave alii el afio pasado. 
80. |Es bonitopais? El pais es bermosisimo. 

EXCERGISE. 

1. Wbere is yoor boose sitaated? In Eleventb street 

2. Is it very large ? No, sir, it is not as large as my ancle's. 

8. Wbicb of tbe tbree languages, Englisb, French or Spanisb, is tbe 
richest? Tbe Spanish is mnoh richer than tbe other two. 

4. Do yon speak Spanish? No, madam ; bat I am learning it 

5. Do yoa and your aster take a lesson to-day? No, oar teacher is 
not coming (does not come) to-day, be is mck. 



LESSOXT XXII. 93 

6. What lesson are you at (in). We are at the twenty-second, one 
of the most difficult in the grammar. 

7. Is Louis very tacitam? he speaks rery little. No, sir, he is not 
tadtmm ; bnt he is silent to-day, becaose he is nnwelL 

8. Why is Henry so cheerful to-day ? He is cheerM because he has 
received letters from his father and mother. 

9. Is he a good boy? He is a very good boy; he is studying his 
Italian lesson. 

10. How is your friend to-day? He is much better than yesterday. 

11. Where is that wine from that Charles is drinking? It is from Spain. 

12. Has your father been prudent in selling his horse? He has been 
most imprudent in selling it. 

13. Whom do you love ? I love my fiither and mother, and I am loved 
by them. 

14. Where is that letter from? It ia (comes) horn 'Pana. 

15. Have you (plural) dined to-day? No^ sir, we have hot dined; 
our servant is very ill. 

16. What do you do every day fo pass the time ? Sometimes I sing 
and play on the piano, and at otiiers I read the newspapers and go out 
to walk. 

17. What does Mr. Emanuel do ? He is a merchant 

18. For whom is that letter that Louisa is writing? It is for her 
cousin (fern,). 

19. Is Alexander a tiresome boy? No, madam, but he went to walk 
very early, and he is tired. 

20. Was Louis at your house yesterday? Yes, sir, he was there until 
my unde came. 

21. How is your xmcle to-day? He is very well ; he is about to set 
out for Paris. 

22. Is Henry tired ? No ; but he is very tiresome. 

23. Whose book is that? It is my friend's; but he wants to sell it, 
because it is very badly written. 

24. How much does he want for it ? He wants five dollars and a half. 

25. Is it in French ? No, sir, it is in Spanish. 

26. When do you (plural) leave for Europe ? We leave Terj soon. 

27. Have you a garden at your house ? Yes, sir, I have a very fine 
garden. 

28. Is it very large ? It is very large. 

29. What is your friend doing in Paris ? He is studying law (for a 
lawyer). . 

80. And you, what do you do in Philadelphia? I work as a notary. 
31. Whom is this letter from? It is from the pianist, and for you. 



M 



LX8SOV XXIII. 



LESSON XXIII. 



FTTUBS BDfFIJL 



I^t Cimjuyation. 


HiU^tt^ 


I shall speak. 


Habl.«r^ 


Thou wilt speak. 


HaU-ari. 


He win speak. • 


Habl-arteooL 


We shall speak. 


Hd>Ui^ia. 


Ton win speak. 


HaU-tfin. 


They win speak. 


Swmd Omfvd^ion, 


Aprend-erl 




Aprend-eHis. 


Thou wilt learn. 


Aprend-eriL 


He win learn. 


Aprend-er6mo8. 


We shaU learn. 


Aprend-er^is. 


Yon wiU learn. 


Aprend-erim. 


They win learn. 


7A»n? Conjugation. 


Escrib-ird. 


I Shan write. 


£scrib-irfi0. 


Thou wUt write. 


Escrib-irl 


He wUl write. 


Escrib-ii^moa. 


We shaU write. 


Escrib-ii^is. 


Yon win write. 


Ecrib-idoL 


They win write. 


Desear. 


To desire. 


Praoticar. 


To practise. 


Bailar. 


To dance. 


Principiar. 


To commence, to begi 


Acabar. 


To finish. 


Medio. 


~ Half. 


Proximo. 


Next 


£nt6noo8. 


Then. 


Anoche. 


Last night. 


Antes do anool^e. 


The night before last 


HaAana. 


To-morrow. 



LESSON XXIII. 



05 



Pasado mafiana. 

La TTIUffftTlfL- 

SL 



I 



Gusto. Taste, pleasure. 

Deseo. Desire, miud. 

Kegocios. Business, occupa-. 

tian. 

Oficio. Office. 

Minuto. ' Ifinnte. 

Seg^nndo. Second. - 

Vals. Waltz. 

Idioma. Language. 



The day after to-morrow. 
The morning. 

If. ' 

Noche. Night 

Gracias. (to give) Thanks. 

Familia. Family. 

Pr&ctica. Practice. 

Teoria. Theory. 

Hora. Hour. 

Polca. Polka. 

Lengua. Tongue, language. 



COMPOSITION. 



^£Btad]ar& Y. mafiana sa leodon de es- 

pafiol? 
Si, seSor, la estudiard mafiana por la 



i A qu6 hora prindpiAri Y . ? 
Frinctpiar6 k las tres de la wmfiflna^ 

Sefiorita, i qm6re Y. bailar mi vals ? 
Gracias, caballero, no 86 bailar vals. 

jBailar& Y. mia polca ? 

Si, sefior, con macho gosto. 

Hablo mal el espafiol, porqne no lo 

practico. 
Y. necesita practicar macho para apren- 

der ana lengoa. 
Practicar^ en Espafia, porque ir6 alll 

may pronto. 
^Qa6 dias toma Y. sos leodones de 

piano? 
Las tomo los liines y los Tidmes, & las 

once de la mafiana. 
4 A qa6 hora tomar& Y. las lecciones 

defrancee. 
Las tomar^ & las diez. 
i Qa6 hora es ? 
Efllaana. 



WiD you stady yoor Spanish lesson to- 
morrow? 
Tes, sir, I will stady it tomorrow 

morning. 
At what hoar will yoa conmience ? 
I shall commence at three o'clock in 

the morning. 
Will yoa (dance a) waltz, IGss ? 
Thank yoa, sir, I do not know how to 

waltz. 
Will yoa dance a polka ? 
Yes, sir, with great pleasure. 
I speak Spanish badly, because I do 

not practise it 
Ton require to practise a great deal in 

order to learn a language. 
I will practise in Spain, because I shall 

go there very soon. 
On what days do you take yoor piano 

lessons? 
I take them on Mondays and Fridays, 

at 11 o'clock in the morning. 
At what hour wiH you take your French 

lessons? 
I BhaQ take them at 10 (o'clock). 
What o'clock is it? 
It is one (o'clock). 



96 



LBSSON XXIII. 



Son Us once j euaiio. 

Son laa tres m6no8 dies nunntoe. 

Maflana ir^ al campo, y paaado mafiar 

na tendr6 el gosto de pasar el dia 

conV. 
Oracias ; entdnces 8er6 muy feliz. 
I Bailar6m08 en sa caaa de Y. ? 
Si, aeftor, bailar^mos, cantar^moa, toca- 

rdmos y practtcar^mos d espafiol 

toda la noche. 
Muy bien, may bien ; ent6nce8 sei^moB 

mas qne felices, serdmoB feUdomos. 

i En donde pas6 Y. ayer la noche ? 

La pas^ con mis amigos los aefiores 

Martinez y sn familta. 
i Ca4nto tiempo estnyd Y. en sa casa ? 
Fill 4 las siete de la noche y sail & los 

OQoey media. 



It is a qnarter-past eleren. 
It is ten minutes to three. 
I shall go to the comitry to-morrow, 

and shall have the pleasure of spend- 

' ing the day after to-morrow with you. 

Thank you ; then I shall be very happy. 

Shall we dance at your house ? 

Tea, sir, we shall dance, sing, play and 

practise Spanish all the evening (the 

whole night). 
Yery well, very well ; then we shall be 

more *than happy; we shall be most 

happy. 
Where ^d you spend the evening 

yesterday? 
I spent it with my friends, Mr. and Mrs. 

Mardnez and (their) family. 
How long were you at theur house ? 
I went at seven in the evening and left 

(went out) at half past eleven o^dock. 



EXPLANATION. 

103. FuTUBB SIMPLE. — ^This tense affirms what is yet to be 
or to take place at a future time (mentioned or not) ; as, 

8erS comerciante. ^ I I MU be a merchant 

Joan estudiard mallana. | John will study to-morrow. 

This tense is also used as imperative, as will be seen when 
that mood is introduced. 

104. The DEFiNiTB ABTicLE is to be used before numerals 
indicating the hour of the day, and the word o^dock is never 
translated into Spanish ; as, 

A las tres do la tarde. | At three oVlock in (of) the afternoon. 

106. NocHB (evening or night), commences at sundown; 
so that evening and night both are translated into Spanish by 
nooAe. 

106. The conjunction si, when conditional, does not gov- 
ern the subjunctive in Spanish as it does in English, unless the 
latter be followed by should, as will be seen in the proper 
place ; in all other oases, si is followed by the present of the 
indicative; as, 
Si V. AVmepapel, iescribiri? | If you have paper, wiU you write? 



LE8SOK XXIII. 97 

CONVERSATION JlND VEBSION. 

1. iCn&ndo prmcipiar& Y. & escribir sos ejeroicios? Prindpiar^ 

2, I A qn6 hora acabard Y. ? Acabar6 4 las diez j media. 

8. Alejandro, ^qti^ quieres ser, abogado 6 esoritor? No 8er6 ni abo- 
gado ni escritor, ser6 comerciante. 

4. Sefiorita, iqniere Y. bailar una polca? Graciafi, caballero, no 
bailar^, porqne estoy muy cansada. 

5. 2 Bailard Y. la pr6zima ? Si, aefior, eon mncho gosto. 

6. iFrscticaik Y. el piano boy? No, sefior, boy no tengo Uempo; 
pero praoticar6 mafiana por la mafiana. 

7. iQa6 hark Y. mafiana? Mafiana por la mafiana escribir6 mis 
ejercicios j praoticar6 el espafiol con mi hermano. 

8. 2 Qu6 dias toma Y. leccion de piano ? Los Itines y vi^mesL 

9. I A qn6 bora tomard Y. su leccion mafiana ? A las once y cnarto. 

10. I Yendr& Y. 4 mi c^isa en el campo ? Ir6 pasado mafiana y tendrd 
el gosto de pasar el dia con Y. 

11. 2 Bailar6mo6 en su casa de Y. ? Si, sefior, bailar^mos, cantarSmos 
y practicar^mos el espafiol toda la nocbe. 

12. I En d6nde pasard Y. mafiana la noobe ? La pasar6 con nus ami- 
gos los sefiores Martinez y sa fsunilia. 

13. I A qn^ bora ir&n Yds. alii ? Ir6mos & las siete de la nocbe. 

14. I Hasta qa6 bora estardn Yds ? Hasta la nna y media. 

15. lEstard Y. mafiana por la mafiana en sa cnarto ? £star6 basta las 
nneve y diez minptos. 

16. I Es triste su bermano de Y. ? No, sefiora, no es triste ; pero est& 
triste. 

17. {Es Y. feliz ? Soy felicisimo ; pero no estoy oontento esta tarde. 

18. jEs Y. mayor qne su bermano ? No, sefiora, soy el menor de toda 
lafamilia. 

19. iQoi^n es el mayor? Joan es el mayor. 

20. I Sale Y. de casa temprano? Salgo tempranisimo. 

21. 2 A qn6 bora? Salgo & las ocbo y media. 

22. iStihd Y. ayer tan temprano? No, sefior, ayer sali mas tarde; 
pero boy be salido temprano. 

28. 2 A qn6 bora saldrdY. mafiana? Mafiana 8aldr6 & la nna de la tarde. 

24. I Para qm6n escribe Y. nna carta? Escribo al abogado, por el 
pobre Jnan, qne lo necesita para nn negoclo. 

25. jPartird Y. mafiana para la Habana ? No, sefior, no partir6 basta 
la semana pr6xima. 

26. {Es este caballo nmyfaerte? Es fortfsimo; pero cse que est4 
ahi es mas fnerte y el que est& alii al otro lado es el mas faerte. 

6 



08 I.BS80K XXIII. 

EXERCISE. 

1. When shall yon commenoe to stadj nrnsic ? I desire to commence 
next month. 

2. Do you know how to dance ? I do not dance yery well ; bnt I am 
going to take lessons soon. 

5. Do yoQ study in the morning or in the evening ? I stndy in the 
morning. 

4. At what o^dock do yon take yonr lessons ? At a quarter to three 
In the afternoon {tofds). 

6. Does yoor teacher come so late ? Yes^ he has a great many pupils 
this year. 

6. Tnn yon dance a waltz, Mias? Thank yon, sir, I danced so much 
the night before last that I am tired. 

7. Then it will be better to talk. I stiall talk with mnch pleasure. 

8l TThen shall your conan write lis exercise? .He shall write it to- 
morrow morning. 

9. At what time do yon receive your newspapers ? I receive them 
ereiy day at eight o^dock in the morning. 

10. Mr. Louis, will yon come and dine at my house ? I shall be very 
happy to go with yoa. 

11. How did yoa spend the evening at your friend's? Very well; his 
wife (iody) is most anuable. 

12. Has she not travelled in Europe? No, sir; but they spoke last 
night of travelling very soon. 

18. Is thdr family large ? No, they have no children. 

14. Does not your friend speak Spanish very well ? Yes, sir, ho some- 
times even passes for a Spaniard. 

15. Did you practise much with him? No ; his cousin speaks trench 
very well, and so we spoke that language all the evening. 

16. Where shall you spend this evening? I do not know; but the 
day after to-morrow we shall go to your house. 

17. Thank you I then I shall be more than happy; I shall be most 
happy. 

18. How many se^nds make a minute ? Sixty. 

19. How many minutes make an hour ? Sixty minutes. 

20. And how many hours has a day ? A day has twenty-four hours, 
a week seven days, a month four weeks, and a year twdve months. 

21. Peter, what oVlock is it ? It is half-past two. 

22. Then I am going to take my lesson : will you come? No, thank 
you ; I wish to read this morning's paper. 

23. Until what o'dock shall you be ? I shall finish at one. 



LESSOK XXIV* 



09 



24. Peter! Sir? 

25. Has the tailor finished my vest?' Yes, esip, here he is with the 
vest and 'the coat 

26. "When will the shoemaker make my hoots? He will make them 
for next Tuesday. 

27. Have'jrou any husiness in Philadelphia? Yes, sir, lam writing 
the history of Louis XVI., for a gentleman of that city. 

28. Mr. Henry, are you happy? Yes, sir, thank you, I am very 
happy ; hut I am not very contented this eyening. 

29. Why are you not contented? Because my father has not written 
to me this week. 



LESSON XXIV. 





OOMPOUWD PITTUBB. 




Hahr^ escrito. 


I shall have 


) 


Hahr^ escrito. 


Thou wilt have 


> written. 


Hahri eecrito. 


He will have 


i 


Hahr^mos escrito. 


We shall have 


) 


Hahr^is escrito. 


You will have 


y written. 


Hahrdn escrito. 


They will have 


) 


Coser. 




To sew. 




Lavar. 




To wash. 




Barrer. 


' 


To sweep. 




Pasear. 




To walk (take i 


iwalk). 


Dedal. 


Thimhle. 


Agiya. 


Needle. 


Hilo. 


Thread. 


Primavera. 


Spring. 


Verano. 


Summer. 


Accion. 


Action. 


Inviemo. 


Wmter. 


Nacion. 


Nation. 


Otollo. 


Autumn (FaU). 


Afeotacion. 


Affectation. 


Enero. 


January. 


Navegacion. 


Navigation. 


Fehrero. 


Fehruary, 


Agitaoion. 


Agitation. 


Marzo. 


March. 


Aprohacion. 


Approbation. 


Ahril. 


April. 


AceptacioD. 


AcceptatioD. 


Mayo. 


May. 


Atraccion. 


Attraction. 


Jnnio. 


June. 


Conversacion. 


Conversation. 


Julio. 


July. 


Direccion. 


Direction. 


Agofito. 


August. 


Gircunspeccion. 


Circumspection. 



100 



LBSBON XXIY. 



Setiembre. 


September. 


Clflsificadaii. 


CUsdficalioiL 


Oetobre. 


October. 


ColeockiB. 


CcdlectioiL 


Xoriembre. 


November. 


ComMcadoB. 


Comlnnfllion. 


Diciembre. 


December. 


Gompandon. 


Oomparison. 






Compofiicioii. 


Compoation. 






ReputadoB. 


Eeputation. 




COMPOSITION. 





Habr6 escrito mi lecdon 4nte8 de ir & 

€«5a d«l profesor. 
Habc^ Mftbado k ks diet. 
El abogado acaba de bablar. 
To acabo de estudiar mi leccioD. 
La laTandera habci acabado de lavar 

4 lascoatro. 
' i A cuAntos estamos f 
Estamos iseia. 
i Qui dia del mes es hOj f 
£s el primero. 

i Qui fecba ticne eaa carta f 
£1 primero de Enero de mil ochodentos 

aesenta y seis. 
i En qu6 alio fu6 Y. & H^jlco ? 
Fu( en Setiembre de mil oehodentos 

cincuenta y dos. 
i Ir& y. este yerano & Europa ? 
No, sefior, ird en el inyiemo. 
i Paseari V. mucbo esta primayera ? 
No, sc&or, trabiyar^ macho. 



1 Bhall have written my lesson before 

going to the professor^s. 
I shall have finished at ten o'clock. 
The lawyer has jost spoken. 
I have just studied my lesson. 
The washerwoman will have finished 

washing at four o^clock. 
What day of the month is it ? 
It is the sixth. 

What day of the month is to-day ? 
It is the first 

What is the date of that letter f 
January 1st, 1866. 

In what year did you go to Mexico ? 
I went in September, 1862. 

Will you go to Europe tlus simimer? 
No, sir, I shall go in the winter. 
Will you walk much this spring ? 
No, sir, I shall work a great deal. 



EXPLANATION. 

107. The COMPOUND futukb affirms something future that 
will have taken place before or at the time of some other future 
action or event expressed in the sentence ; and is composed of 
the simple future of the verb habere to have, and the past parti- 
ciple of another verb ; as, 

nabr6 escrito mi ejercicio totes de 
ir & casa del profesor. • 

Habrd acabado 4 las dlez. 



I will have written my exercise before 

going to the professor^s. 
I will have finished at ten o^dock. 



108. AcABAB DB is employed before an infinitive in the 



LE8SOK ZXIY. 101 

sense of to have jmtj and the infinitive is translated in English 
as a past participle ; as, 

Acaba de hablar. I He Km Jtut spoken. 

Acabo de estudiar. | I have just studied. 

N. B. — ^In order to facilitate the acquisition of words, we 
shall give now and then a few rules, with the help of which the 
learner will be enabled to convert several thousand English 
words into Spanish. And, although we have proposed not to 
introduce many new words or elements at one time, these 
observations will enable the pupil to learn a greater number of 
words with little or no difficulty at all, fix^m the striking re- 
semblance that those words bear to the English ones. 

109. The greater part of English nouns ending in tion are 
rendered into Spanish by changing the letter t into c ; as, appro- 
bation, aprobacion. It is to be observed that the only conso- 
nants that can be doubled in Spanish are e, n and r. All nouns 
of the above termination are feminine, 

110. The days of the month are all counted in Spanish by 
the cardinal numbers, preceded by the article, except the first 
day; and there are several forms of asking the day of the 
month; e. g.y 

i Qii6 dia del mes tenemoB ' ) I 

i Qa6 <Ua es hoy ? \ What day of the month is it ? 

4 A cu&ntOB estamos del mes ? ) | 

There is no preference between these ; but the answer must 
be made in the same form as the question ; as. 



jQa6 dia tenemos? 
Tenemos el sds. 
^ A cu^ntos estamos ? 
Estamos 4 dos. 
i Qa6 dia es hoy ? 
£b el primero. 



What day of the month is it ? 

It is the sixth. 

What day of the month is it? 

It is the second. 

What day of the month is to^y? 

It is the first 



CX)NVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Habr4 Y. acabado de escribir su Icccion k las diez y media ? ITo, 
b6; pero la habrd acabado ^ntes de ir a casa del profesor. 

2. ^Ha hablado aquel abogado? No, sefior, acaba de hablar este. 
8. ^Ha hablado bien? May bien, pero con afectacion. 



102 LXBSOK ZXIY. 

4. iHarA y. una bnena composioiott para la leccion pr6ziznaf SS, 
se&or, si tengo tiempo, la har^ 

5. j Lava bien sn layandera de Y. ? Lava mnj bien. 

6. I A d6nde envia Y. sos ninos ? Los envio & pasear con la criada. 

7. lAdonde? A la plaza de MadisoD. 

a. I Esta oorca de sa casa de Y. ? Est4 mny'cerca. 
9. I Barri6 el criado ayer mi cuarto ? No, sefior, no lo barri6 ayer ; 
pero lo ha barrido boy. 

10. iLobarrer&mafiana? Lo babr4 barrido totes de las nueve. 

11. Macbacboi |eBt& el sastre en la sastreria? No, sefior, acaba de 
salir. 

1^ 4 A qo^ bora prindpiaron Yds. 4 bailar? Principi^mos & las diez 
de la nocbe. 

IS. I De^'A Y. practicar el ingl^ ? Si, sefior, si tengo tiempo prind- 
plaK^ pasado mafiana. 

14. 2 I>5ndo C5t4 sa amigo ? Est& vi^ando por Franda. 

15. I Ama sn benuana de Y. mndio 4 sos li\jo3? Si, sefior, los ama 
mncbisimo. 

16. jSaldr^Y.mny pronto para Enropa? Qoiero salir mafiana. 

17. |Sabe Y. bailar el valst No, sefior, pero b6 bailar d rigodon y 
lapolka. 

18. ^De d6nde yienen Yds.? Yenimos de Franda, y yamos para 
FUaddfia. 

19. 4 Quiere Y. salir 4 pasear ? Mny bien, ir^mos al Parqne Central 

20. i Qni^n lay6 estos pafindost Estan mny mal lavados. Sa lavan- 
dera de Y. los lay6. 

21. 4D6ndepas6 Y. dyerano? Lo pas^ en d campo. ^^dinyiemo? 
£n la coidad. 

22. I CuMes son los meses mas alegres del afio? Los de la primayera. 

23. I Sabe Y. la direccion de la casa de sn bermano do Y. ? Si, se^or, 
calle Catorce, ntimero dento yeinte y dnoo. 

24. 4 A qn4 bora comen Yds. ? Gomemos 4 las tres de la tarde. 

25. I Qu4 bora tiene Y. ? Tengo las dos y yeinte 

26. I A qn4 bora salieron sns bermanas para d parque ? Salieron 4 las 
sds y media de ia mafiana. 

27. j Y 4 qa4 bora yolvieron ? A las once m4nos cnarto. 

28. i Buenos diasi— Bnenos dias.— 4£st4 Y. bueno ? May baeno, grar 
cias. I T sa familia de Y. ? May bnena, gracias. 

29. iBaila Y. la poloa? No, sefior, estoy prindpiando 4 aprenderla. 



LESSON ZZIT. 103 



EXERCISE. 



1. When shall yotir uncle have finished his letter? He shall have it 
finished at eight o'clock. 

2. When shall yon have jonr letter written ? I shall have it written 
before going to the professor's. 

8. When shall the notary make the conveyance (writing) ? He has just 
made it. 

4. Shall your servant have swept my room before the lesson hour to- 
morrow ? Yes, sir, she shall have it swept at six o'clock. 

5. What day of the month is it? It is the thirteenth. 

6. . Does yonr washerwoman come to wash in yonr house f She does 
not, but she washes very well. 

7. How many lessons do those gentlemen take every month ? They 
take four every week ; that makes sixteen every month. 

8. Which are the best months for walking ? The three months of 
spring, and the three of antomn (or fall). 

9. "Where are yon coming (do yon come) trom ? I am coming from 
walking. 

10. Win yon give me a needle and thread and a thimble to sew? 
Here is the needle ; I am going to look for the thread and thimble. 

11. In what year did yonr sister Margaret go to England? She went 
in Jane, 1865. 

12. What is the date of that letter? Madrid, 7th July, 1866. 

13. Shall yon go to Enrope this summer ? No, madam, I shall nvt go 
before next spring. 

14. Is December a good month for travelling? No, it is one of the 
worst in the year. 

15. How did you (plural) spend the day yesterday? We walked in 
the Central Park. 

16. Did yon walk the whole day ? No,* we walked until twelve o'clock, 
and then we read and played on the piano. 

17. Did yon not pass the evening at Mr. Martinez ? No, we did not 
go ont an Qsx all) the evening, Margaret was a little dck. 

18. Do you know which are the longest months ? Yes ; they are Jan- 
uary, March, May, July, Augni^ October and December. 

19. And which are the shortest? April, June, September and No- 
vember. 

20. But what do you do with February ? February is the shortest of 
all; it has but twenty-eight days. 

21. Shall yon walk much this spring? No, miss, I shall work a great 
deal 



104 



LESSOK XXY. 



22. THien shall the tailor sew my vest? He shall sew it to-morrow 
eTeiung* 

23. Has the lawyer not spoken ? He has just spoken. 

24. Until what hour did he speak? Until half-past one. 

25. Did he speak in Spanish? No, he spoke in French to-day; bat 
to-morrow he ahaJl speak in Spanish. 

26. Do yon not wish to practise Italian ? Tea, flir, and I shall prac- 
tise the d^y after to-moirow, if I have time. 

27. U yoor teacher comes to^y, will yon take a lesson ? I shall 
take it if he comes. 

2Sl Does he pronounce weQ? He pronounces yery well, but with 
scane affectation. 

29, How many Spanish words do you know that end in eion t I know 
TWT many. 

80. Which are they t Conversation, approbation, agitation, complica- 
tioQ« classification, intention, desertion, circumspection, nation, naviga- 
tion, and very many others. 



LESSON XXV. 



^ \/9tMCtT» 



I To know, to be acquainted with. 



FBBSKST Cn>ICATIVS. 



COQOICO. 


I know. 


ConoccsL 


Thou knowesL 


Conoce. 


He knows. 


Conocemos. 


We know. 


Coneceia. 


Ton know. 


Conocen. 


They know. 


FBKISBIT 




CJonocL 


I knew. 


Cbnociste. 


Thou knewest 


Conoci6. 


He knew. 


Conocimos. 


We knew. 


Conocisteis. 


You knew. 


Conocieron. 


They knew. 



LE880K XXY. 



105 



3 


PUTUBE 


SQCFLB. 


Conoccr6. 




I shall know. 


Conocer^. 




Thou wilt know. 


Conocer4. 




He will know. 


Conocer^moa. 




We shall know. 


Conocer^is. 




You will know. 


Conocer^n. 




They will know. 


PBETEEIT DTDEFraiTE. 


He Gonocido. 


1 


I have known. 


COMPOTTNI] 


» FUTUBB. 


Habr^ conocido. 


__\ 


I shall have known. 


Qozar, 




To epjojr. 


Prometer. 




To promise. 


Una vez. 




Once. 


Dos veces. 




Twice. 


Alto. 




High, loud. 


Biyo. 




Low. 


Siempre. 




Always. 


Nunca. 




Never. 


Jam^. 




Never. 


Ya. 




Already, yet {interrogatively). 


Ta (toith a negathe). 




No longer. 


Aun. 




Still, yet, even. 


Todavia. 




StiD, yet, even. 


A menndo. 




Often. 


Demasiado. 




Too, too much. 


Bastanie. 




Enough, pretty. 


Frio. Cold (the). 




VergHenza. Shame. 


Calor. Heat 




Razon. Reason. 


Miedo. Fear. 




Sed. ^ Thu^t. 


Sueflo. Sleep. 




Ldstima. Rty. 


Hambre. Hunger. 




Salud. Health. 


Valor. Courage, worth, 


value. 


Moda. Fashion. 


Maestro. Master, teacher. 


COMPO 


Maestra. Mistress (school). 
SITION. 


i CJonoce V. & eae hombre ? 




Do you know that man ? 


No lo conozoo ; pero b6 quiei 


i le 00- 


I do not know hun; but I know wl 


noce. 




knows him. 


5* 







106 



LESSON XXY. 



i Forqnd no aprende V. sua lecciones f 

Conozco que he hecho mal en no 

aprenderlas; pero prometo saber- 

las para mafiana. 
I Sabe y. frances ? 
No, sefior, pero roy k aprendcrlo; 

i conoce Y. un buen maestro ? 
i Estadia Y. aun (todavfa) el espafiol ? 
Ya no lo estudio. 
jSabe Y. hablarloja? 
No, todavia. 
i Ha prindpiado ya sa hennano de V. 

soa lecciones f 
iTa ha principiado ; pero no las apren- 

der& jamis (nunca), porque no esta- 
dia bastante. 
i Cudntas yeces ha estado Y. este mes 

en el teatro f 
He estado una vez ; pero el mes pasa- 

do estuve tres veces. 
i Tiene Y. miedo de sn maestro ? 
No tengo miedo de 61 ; pero tengo ver- 

guenza de 61. 
^ De qui6n tiene V. l&stima f 
Tengo l&stima de ese pobre hombre. 
I flene V. calor 6 frio ? 
No tengo ni calor nl frio ; tengo ham- 

brey sed. 
i Tiene razon el abogado f 
El abogado no tiene razon. 
i Tiene 61 razon alguna vez f 
Tiene razon algonas yeces, pero no 

siempre. 
i Hard V. eao otra vez ? 
No lo har6 jam&s (nnnca). 
i Amar& Y. & su amlgo ? 
Le amar6 por siempre Jam&s. 
i Ha leido Y. jam&s ese libro ? 
Nunca jam&s lo har6. 
i Tiene su madrc de Y. buena salud ? 

Sf, seiior, goza de muy buena salud. 
i Tiene Y. hambre 6 sed ? 
No tengo ni hambre ni sed, tengo 
suefio. 



Why do you not learn your lessons ? 
I know that I have done wrong in not 
* learning them ; but I promise to 

know them for to-morrow. 
Do you know French P 
No, sir, but I am going to learn it ; do 

you know a good teacher ? 
Do you still study Danish ? 
I study it no longer. 
Do you know how to speak it already P 
Not yet 
Has your brother commenced his les* 

sons yet? 
He has (already) conmienced ; but he 

will never learn them, for he does 

not study enough. 
How many times have you been in the 

theatre this month P 
I have been once; but last month I 

was there three times. 
Are you afraid of your master ? 
I am not afraid of him; but I am 

ashamed before him. 
On whom do you take pity f 
I take pity on that poor man. 
Are you warm or cold ? 
I am neither warm nor cold; I am 

hungry and thirsty. 
Is the lawyer right ? 
The lawyer is not right 
Is he right sometimes ? 
He is right sometimes, but not always. 

Will you do that again (another time) ? 

I will never do it 

WiU you love your friend f 

I shall love him always (for ever). 

Have you ever read that book ? 

I shall never do it 

Is your mother in good health (has 

your mother good health)? 
Tes, sir, she enjoys very good health. 
Are you hungry or thirsty ? 
I am neither hungry nor thirsty, I anx 

sleepy. 



LJB880H ZZY. 107 

EXPLANATION. 

111. Sabeb, to know, and conoceb, to be acquainted with. 
— ^It mast be observed, in order not to confound these two 
verbs, that %abet is employed to signify the act of knowing, 
being informed of, having learned, or having a knowledge of 
something; whereas eonocer is nsed to express the fact of 
being acquainted with, perceiving, or being able to distinguish 
persons or things ; as, 

I SabeY. qxaaieonoeekeete hombre f | Do yoa know who knows that man ? 

112. AuN, TA, ToDAviA. — ^The adverb aun indicates that 
the subject of the sentence continues in the same state as be- 
fore; quite the reverse with the adverb ya, which always 
signifies discovUifmance of a former state (expressed or under- 
stood) ; e. ^., 

I Escribe V. ann t 1 Do yon write yet t 

No eacribo ya. 1 1 do not write any longer. 

Todavia, yet, still, is synonimous with aun ; as, 

£st4 trabajando (odavia (or aim). | He is still working. 

Once, twice, &c, are rendered in Spanish by una vez^ doa 
vece8y &c. 

MiedOy valaf^ vergHenza, Idstimay tiempOy take the preposi- 
tion de after them ; as, 

Tengo miedo de salir. 1 1 am afraid to go out 

Tengo verpiaua de ese hombre. | I am ashamed of that man. 

113. When in English the verb to be precedes the adjec- 
tives hungry J thirsty^ afraid, cuhamedj rights ajrong, warm, cold, 
skq>y, it is changed into the Spanish verb tener, and the adjec- 
tive into a corresponding substantive ; as, 



i Hcne V. miedo ? 
i Tiene Y . sed ? 
i Tiene Y. calor. 
^TleneY. frio? 



Are yon afraid t 
Are you thirsty t 
Are yon warm t 
Are yon cold ? 



114. JamIs and iruNCA may be used indiscriminately, or 
one for the otheir ; aSy 
J<md9 (or mmco) le he conoddo. ] I have nerer been acquainted with him. 



108 I.S6BOH XXY. 

Sometimes the j are lued together, to give more energy to 
the expression ; as, 
Kunea jamiM lo hard. | Xerer, no nerer, ehall I do sa 

But jamds has the peculiarity of being used after the words 
por sienypre and para sienyffre^ for ever; where, instead of being 
a negative, it affirms, meaning demaUy ; as, 
Le vmax^ por nen^re jamdL \ I will lore him forerer. 

Sometimes it is used alone interrogatively, meaning €ver\ as^ 
;Ha letdo Y. jamiM ese libro? | Hare yoa ever read that book ? 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. 2l^6nde conoci6 Y. & sa amigo? Le oonod en Paris el inviemo 
pasado. 

2. I Sabe Y. qnidn conoce k ese hombre ? Mi ^|dre le conoce mny 
bien. 

S. jCu^doconocer^&SDheiTDanode Y. ? Enclotofioleconocer4Y. 

4. I Ha conoddo Y. en L6ndres d ese caballero ? Si, sefior, le conoci 
alli el ano pasado. 

5. 1 06mo esta sn hijo de Y. ? Mai ; no goza de bnena salad. 

6. I Bail6 Y. mncho en el baile de anoche ? Bi, sefior, mnohisimo. 

7. I Qnien es ese caballero ? £s on escritor de gran repntadon. 

8. I Tienen macha aceptacion sos obras ? Tieneu muchisima. 

9. I Sabe Y. lo qne ban prometido sos amigas de Y. ? Ko lo sS. — ^Han 
prometido estudiar sns leociones. 

10. j Yendrd Y. mafiana k comer con nosotros? No, sefior, be prome- 
tido comer con mis amigos los Alemanes. 

11. jHabla ya espafiol su prime de Y.? No lo habla ami, y no lo 
bablard Jamds (nmica), porque no estadia bastante. 

12. 2 Barri6 Y. mi caarto ? No, sefior, pero prometo barrerlo mafiana 
temprano. 

18. I Cndntas veces promoti6 Y. buscar mi sombrero ? Jamds lo pro> 
metL 

14. 2 No desea Y. ya ir 4 su pals? Lo deseo mncbisimo. 

15. I Sale Y. ya & pasear todos losdias ? No salgo sino algunas veces. 

16. i Llev6 Y. ya mi carta al correo ? Todavia no la he Uevado. 

17. i No ha estado Y. jamds en Paris ? No, sefior, jamds he estado. 

18. iNo ha leido V. jamds la bistoria de los Estados Unidos? Si, la 
he leido nna vez. 

19. 4 Habla bien el abogado ? Habla bien, pero muy bcgo. 

20. I Oomprende Y. ya el espafiol ? Si hablan alto, y despacio, si, sefior. 



liBSSOX XXY. 109 

21. I Tlene Y. bastante que hacer ? Tengo demasiado. 

22. I Cuintos alios tiene V. ? Tengo veinle y uno, 

23. I Gadndo Yi6 Y. por tiltima vez 4 bu familia ? El dia seis de Se- 
tiembre del afio de mil ochocientos cincnenta j cinco. 

24. I Gadndo conoci6 Y. al pianista ? Le conoci ayer por primera vez. 

25. ^Han salido sns hennanas para el campo? Todavk no, pero aal- 
dran may pronto. 

26. 2Qa6 hace sa padre de Yds.? Est4 gozando del bnen tiempo en 
cl campo. 

27. I Qu6 tiene bu niflo de Y. ? Tiene fno y snefio. 

28. iTienen ellos hambre? No, sellor, tienen sed. 

29. I Tiene Y. valor para hac^lo? Si, sefior, pero tengo vergHenza. 

80. 2 No tiene Y. Mstima de esa miger? Si, senor, tengo liistima de 
jella, porque no tiene buena salad. 

81. I Tiene sneno sa madre de Y. ? No, sefior, pero est4 may cansada. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon know that man? Yes, sir, that gentleman is my uncle. 

2. Are yon still writing? No, I am no longer writing, 

8. Has Gharles come from the country yet ? No, be has not come yet. 

4. Have you {plural) ever read the History of Givilization by Gnizot? 
No, but we shall read it next spring. 

6. Are you not ashamed of not having read the History of the 
United States? I am not ashamed, because I am too young to read his- 
tory. 

6. When shall you commence to read it? I shall commence next 
year. 

7. Yery well ; it is a useful study {estudw), 

8. Does your aunt e^joy good health ? Yes, sir, thank you, she en- 
joys very good health. 

9. Are you cold, madam ? No, thank you, I wish to go out a minute, 
because I am very warm in this room. 

10. Is itlen o'clock yet? No, it is but a quarter past eight. 

11. Who is that gentleman to whom your cousin spoke last night at 
the concert ? I do not know him. 

12. And that gentleman who came this morning to your house, who 
is he? He is a Spanish writer who enjoys a high (great) reputation. 

18. Has he written many works? He has already written many 
books, and he is going to write a history of Spain. 

14. Do you knaw Sir Walter Scott's works ? Yes, I have read them all. 

15. Are they not much esteemed in Europe (have they not much esti- 
mation) ? Yes, very much. 



110 LJBSSON ZZY. 

16. When-^did your brother become acquainted with his Spanish 
friend ? Last year, in London. 

17. Are you sleepy, young ladies? Yes, we are very tired, thirsty 
and sleepy (tener sed y Bumo), 

18. Will you take a little wine ? No, thank you, we never take wine. 

19. Does your mother know Emanud^s address (direction) ? Yes, here 
it is in this letter. 

20. WiQ you read it ? With much pleasure. Emanuel Martinez, Esq. 
(don), 113 Broadway. A thousand thanks. 

21. Did your cousin's {fem,) Mends commence their lessons the 
other day ? Yes, they commenced, and are much pleased (content) with 
them. 

22. Why does the lawyer speak so low ? I do not know. 

28. Does he not speak as low as his brother loud? He speaks low 
from (by) aflfectation. 

24. Which of your servants (fern.) sews the best? None of them 
sews. 

25. How many conjugations has the Spanish language? Three regu- 
lar {regular) cei^ugations, and several irregular (irregular) ones. 

26. Have you ever been in Philadelphia? I have never been there 
yet ; but 1 shall go next year. 

27. Did your father write the letter for Peter yesterday ? No, but he 
promised to write it the day after to-morrow. 

28. Has your shoemaker enough to do ? Yes, sir, he has too much 
to do. 

29. Will you always love your brothers and sisters?* Yes, I shall 
love them forever. 

80. Do you not pity that man ? I do pity him, for he has nothing to 
do. 

81. Have you money enough to buy a house? Yes, sir, I have 
enough. 



LESSON XXVI. 

Dor. I To fi^ve. 

SBBSENT CTBIOATIVS. 

Doy, das, da. 1 1 give, thou givest, he gives. 

Damos, dais, dan. I We g^ve, yon give, they ^ve. 



LE8SON XXYI. 



Ill 



PBSTEBIT DSFCmX. 

Di, diste, di6. 1 1 gave, thou gaveet^ ho gave. 

Dimos, disteis, dieron. I We gave, you gave, they gave. 



Dar^ dar^ dar^ 
Dar^moB, dar^is, dar&o. 



FUTUBB BIMPIB. 

I shall give, thou wflt give, he will 

give. 
We shall give, you shall give, they 

shall give. 



FBETESrr INDSFEnS. 

He dado, has dado, etc 1 1 have given, thou hast j^ven, &c. 



Hahr^ dado, 


OOHFOUin) 
3tC 1 


I shall have given, d 


Ganar 


1 


To gain, earn, win. 


SiTig. 27bm. 
1st Olj. 
^ Olj. 


To. 

Me. ) 

AmL ) 


I. 

Me, or to me. 


Phir. Norn, 
lat Ohj. 
%d Ohj. 


Kosotros. 
Nos. ? 
Anofitros. J 


We. 

Us, or to us. 


Sing, Ifom. 
iMt Olj, 
2d 01^, 


T6. J 
A tL 


Thou. 

Thee, or to thee. 


Plur, N<m.^ 
l9t Olj. 
U Olj. 


Yosotros. 

Os. 

A vosotros. 


Ye, you. 

Ye, you, or to you. 


Sing, mm. 
Ut Olj. 
2d Olj, 


£1. 
Le. 

Aa J 


He. 

Him, or to him. 


Plur, Xom. 
lit Olj, 
2d Olj. 


Ellos. 

Los, les. 1 

A ellos. J 


They. 

Them, to them. 


Sing, Nam. 
Ut Olj, 
28 Olj. 


Ella. 

La,le. 

Aella. 


She. 

Her, to her. 



112 



LESSON zxyi. 



Plur. Nom. Ellas. 
\»t Olj, Lasy les. 
2d Obj. Aellas. 

Sing, and Plur, 
lit Obj, Be. 
2d Obj. AsL 

^Neuter Farm, 
mm, EDo. 

Ut Ob}, Lo. 

2d Olj. Aello. 



They. 

Them, to them. 

' Himself, herself itself; them- 
selyes; or to himself, to her- 
self to itself; to. themsdves. 

It 
It 
To it 



COMPOSITION. 



Peseo 



^Conoce Y. aqaellas sefiofast 

conocerlas. 
Conoci^ndolas las amarft V. 
I Me promcte Y. lleTarme 4 su casa f 

Doj & y. mi palabra. 

i Qu^ le di6 & V. mi primo f 

Quiso darme imas florea ; poro 70 no 

quise redbirlas. 
I Quieres venir comnigo al teatro ? 
Ko ir6 contigo, porquo mi padre quicre 

Uevarme consigo. 
i Son estas flores para if ? 
No son para mi ; son para V, 
Yo te neceaito. 
£Ua nos habl6 en d teatro. 
tl me amar& con el Uempo. 
Noaotros le hablamoa en el ooncierto. 
Yo le eacribf una carta. 
Ella les di6 un libra. 



Do you know those ladies ? I desire to 

know them. 
On knowing them you will love them. 
Do you pramlse me to take me to their 

house? 
I win give you my word. 
What did my cousin give you ? 
He wanted to give me some flowers ; but 

I would not receive them. 
Wilt thou come with me to the theatre ? 
I will not go with thee, because my 

&ther wants to take me with him. 
Are these flowers for thee ? 
They are not for me, they are for yoo. 
I want thee. 

She spoke to us m the theatre. 
He will love me in time. 
We spoke to him at the concert 
I wrote him a letter. 
She gave them a book. 



EXPLANATION. 
116. SimjEor or Nominative. — ^To what has already been 
Baid, in Lesson X, relative to pronouns as subjects or nominative 
cases to verbs, we shall here simply add, that they may at all 
times precede their verbs, unless the latter be in the imperative 
mood, or be used interrogatively ; examples : 



Yo estudio. 
Tu escribes. 
Vengan «22o«. 
i Lee ella t 



I study. 
Thou writest 
Let them come. 
Does she read. 



LESSON XXVI. 113 

116. Pebsonal Pbonoxtns. — ^In SpaDish there is a pecu- 
liarity to be observed amongst the personal pronouns : that is, 
that they have two objective cases ; one of which can never 
be used with prepositions, and the other never, without one. 

117. The Objective Case, when not preceded by a prepo- 
sition, is aflSxed to infinitives, imperatives and gerunds ; as, 

Amianoale, 
Amkndolos, 



HabUndo^ amado. 
CbmpnUs algo. 
Habi6ndo2o« hallado. 



To lore her. 
Let us love him. 
LoYing them. 
Having loved her. 
Buy them something. 
Having found them. 



118. In some tenses the verb drops the final letter in the 
first and second persons plural, when they are followed by nos 
or o^ ; as, 

AmdmonM instead of amdmomos. I We loved each other. 
Amaos instead of amadoB, \ Love each other. 

In the first case, the reason of this is perhaps to soften the 
pronunciation of the first word ; and in the second the d is 
dropped, in order that the imperative be not confounded with 
the past participle. Nevertheless, we say idos^ go, and not 
io8 ; but this is the only exception to the rule. 

119. The objective case may sometimes elegantly follow 
the verb, but rarely when the sentence does not begin by the 
verb; as, 

Llev6m6 al teatro. I He took me to the theatre. 

120. When one verb governs another in the infinitive 
mood, the objective- case teferring to the second verb may be 
placed either before the -governing verb, or after the governed 
one; as, 

• Quiero Uevarle, or le quiero llevar. | I wish to take him. 

121. Prepositions, when expressed, always govern the 
second objective case ; as, 

Para mi. For me. 

ffin H. Without thee. 

H&da elioa. Towards them. 



114 LBS60K XXTI. 

122. Mf, xf, sf, when preceded by can, take go after them, 
and are joined to the prepoBition ; as. 



Gonmtgo. 

Ck>D^go. 

Gonstjga 



With me. 

With thee. 

With him, her, them, it " 



123. Entbb is nsed with the nominative case of the first 
person singalar, in this expression, 

BiUre td j 70. | Between thee and me ; 

bat in every other instance it governs the second objective 
case; as, 

BrUre sf. I Between themselves. 

JSnire nofiotros. j Between us. 

124. The second objective case is always used after com- 
paratives; as, 

Te quiero mas qne d SL | I love thee better than hun. 

126. When in English the objective case of the first or 
second person is the object of the verb, or of the preposition 
to^ expressed or understood, we use the first case ; as; 



To te necesito. 
Ella no8 habl6. 
"EL me amar&. 



I want thee. 
She spoke to us. 
He will love me. 



126. In Lesson X. we explained the objective case of the 
third person when it is the object of the English verb ; bnt 
if the third person in English be governed by the preposition 
tOy expressed or understood, we render it by fo, fej?, for both 
genders; as, 



Nosotros le habUunos. 
To le escribi. 
Ella &» did. 



We spoke to him. 
I wrote to her. 
She gave theoL 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^Qa6 me dar4 V. ? Le dar6 4Y. las gracias. 

2. I Qa6 les di6 Y. d ens nifios ? Les di veinte centavos. 

8. gMe dards algo per mi trabi^o? Algo te dar6 si k) haces bien y 
sin6, nada. 



Ii^SSOK ZXYI. 115 

4. I Qn6 OS dieron en casa de in prinio ? Nos dieron chocolate. 
6. iQa6 le has prometido & ta prima? Bailar hoy con ella. 

6. iC6mo ser^mos mas felloes? Amindonos los onos 4 los otros. 

7. i Gn^do vendrd 61 con nosotros ? Y endr4 mafiana temprano. 

8. ^Ga&ndo 8aldr4 Y. conmigo k paseo? Tendr6 ese gusto pasado 
malfana. 

9. I Qni^n irk conmigo al teatro esta noche ? Yo ir^ contigo. 

10. ^D6nde hablaste 4 mis amigos ? Les habl6 en el Parqne CentraL 

11. ^Les 1076 Y. mi carta? No, les lei la de sa hermana de Y. 

12. ^Me envid Y..I08 libros? No, senor, los envie 6 sa hermano 
deY. 

18. i06mo snpo Y. de sus amigos? Escribi^ndoles. 

14. iC6mo conooi6 Y. & su amiga? Bailando con ella en casa de su 
hermano. 

15. i Qu6 le prometi6 Y. 4 su prima ? Le prometi Bevarla & la 
opera. 

16. 4N0S hablaron ellos alguna vez? Nos hablaron una 6 dos veces 

en el paseo. 

17. iPorqu6 no les habl6 Y. ? Porque no los conozco bien. 

18. ^Qu6 le han escrito 4 Y. sus amigos ? Que vendr4n 4 hablamos. 

19. iQuieres salir conmigo 4 paseo ? Si, saldr^ contigo. 

20. jCuando iremos 4 casa de tus amigos? Ir^mos hoy, porqne ellos 
tendr4n mucho gusto en conocerte. 

21. ^Quiere Y. pasarme el pan ? Con mucho gusto. — Gracias. 

22. 4Qu6 le prometiste 4 tu prima? Le prometi ir 4 su casa manana 
y llevarle un pa&uelo de seda. 

28. I Gu4ndo le habl6 Y. ? Le habl6 anoche en casa de su madre. 

24. iQuiere Y. venir 4 pasear? Mejor ser4 estamos aquL 

25. i A qu6 Tienen Yds. ? Yenimos 4 hablarle 4 Y. 

26. ^Gnando irdmos al campo con nuestros amigos? Ir6mos mafiana. 

27. iG6mo les gan6 4 Y. la lavandera tanto dinero? Lavandonos los 
Testidos y trabtgando mucho. 

28. iOa4ntas veces 4 la semana habla Y. con sus anugos? Nos ha- 
blamos todos los dias. 

29. i Yendr4 hoy su primo de Y. 4 comer con nosotras? SS, porque 
qmere conocerlas 4 Yds. 

80. J Le di6 Y. los bnenos dias 4 su prima? Le di los buenos dias ayer 
en la plaza y le habl6 de Y. 

81. Le doy 4 Y. las gracias. jTieno buena salud ahora? Bi, seflora, 
e8t4 muy buena. 

82. i Le di6 4 Y. los peri6dico8 ? No, seflora, pero prometi6 mandar- 

los mafiana. 



116 LBSSON XXVI. 

EXERCISE. 

1. WLat was* that you gave to your friend last night at the theatre? 
I gave him the second volume of Mr. Eomanos' new work. 

2. Why do you not give him the first volume? I have already given 
it to my cousin. 

3. Did you not promise last week to ^ve me those two volumes ? 
Yes ; and you shall have them the day after to-morrow. 

4. Will you come with me to the country in the summer? I will go 
if you set oulTon the first of July. 

6. Will you and your uncle come with us to walk this afternoon ? 
This evening we have to go to the concert 

6. When will you go out with us? I do not know; hut I think (that) 
to-morrow {creo que maflana), 

7. Have you heard (saiido) from your father this week? No; hut 
we heard from our brother John last week. 

8. How often has he written to you 'from Boston? We have received 
seven or eight letters from him. 

9. How much did that singer make (gain) in New York? Which 
one ? I do not know any singers. 

10. Do you not know the singer who spent last week at your uncle's 
in the country? Yes; but it was in PhCadelphia that he sang, not in 
New York. 

11. Are you cold? No, sir; but I am hungry and thirsty. 

12. When wUl you take Emanuel to see your children ? I shall take him 
to-morrow.— They wiU have much pleasure in making his acquaintance. 

13. How many languages does that gentleman speak? He only speaks 
his own ; but his cousin speaks five. 

14. Which are they' He speaks French, German, Spanish, English, 
and Italian. 

16. How did he learn so many languages? By studying the grammar 
of each one of them (coda una de ellaa), reading the works of the best 
writers, and practising with the natives (natural), . 

16. Does he write all those languages as well as he speaks them ? He 
writes them better than he speaks them. 

17. Did I not see you (plural) speaking to the notory yesterday in the 
park ? No, it was the day before yesterday. 

18. What has he done in that affair (negocio) of your brother's? He 
has done nothmg ,et ; and as he has to leave town (la ciudad) this after- 
noon, he will do nothing all this week. 

19. Who is the young lady who danced so well last night at your 
house? Do you not know her? she is my cousin. 

♦ Sec the conjugation of the verb Sbb, at the end of the book. 



LBSSOSr XZYII. 117 

20. When did jon see onr friend Mr. Perez ? I saw him the other day 
in Twenty-sixth street, and we talked for more than two hours about 
(de) theatres and concerts. 

21. I saw him the night before last ; but we did not talk about thea- 
tres and concerts. In whose house did you see him? At Mr. de la Rosa'& 

23. At what o^cIock did you go there? I went at a quarter to eight, 
and left at half-past ten. 

23. Did* yon see many Mexicans there? I only saw one: that Mexi- 
can lawyer who has just written a history of his country. 

24. Does he leave soon for Europe ? He wishes to set out next week. 

25. Did John write to his father the day before yesterday ? Tes, and 
he has heard (saber) since that he set out last week for France. 

26. Has your sister read the books yet which she received from Louisa 
last week? Yes; and she wishes to read them again (ptra ves^. 

27. I shall see her this evening; and if you wish Qt) I shall take them 
to her. 

28. Thank you. Have you much to do now? No, I never have much 
to do in summer. 

29. Is Peter tured ? No ; but he is the most tiresome boy I know. 



LESSON XXVII. 
Decir. \ To say, to teD. 

PBB6SNT OF INDICATIVE. 

Digo, dices, dice, decimos, de- 1 I say, or tell, &c. 
eSs, dicen. I 

FBETEBIT DEFINITE. 

Dye, dyiste, dyo, dyimos, di- I I said, or told, &o. 
jisteiS) dyeron. I 

FTITUBE SEMFLB. 

Dir6, dirfis, dir4, dir^mos, di- I I shall or will say, or tell, &c. 
r6is, dirdn. I 

PRETESIT INDEFINITE. 

He dicho, has dicho, etc. I I have said, or told, &c. 

COMPOUND FDTUKE. 

Habr6 dicho, etc * | I shall or will have said, or 

told, &c. 



118 



LEBSOK ZXYII. 



ExouBar. 




Toezcuae. 


Perdonar. 




To pardon. 


Oreer. 




To believe, to think. 


Ofender. 




To offend. 


Llamar. 




To call, to knock. 


Ensefiar. 




To teach, to show. 


Ahora. 




~ Now. 


Mismo (adf>erh). 




Just, very. 


Mismo. 




Same, self. 


Neceaario. 




Necessary. 


Preciso. 




Precise, needfuL 


Begnlar. 




Regular, middling. 


Parte. Despatch. 




Parte. Part 


Estudio. Stady. 




Falta. Fault, mistake. 


Humor. Humor, disposition. 


Esperanza. Hope. 


Bugeto. A person, 


subject, topic. 


Puerta. Door. 


Asonto. Subject, business, matter. 


Noticia. News. 


Ramillete. Bouquet 








COMPOSITION. 



Le compr6 un ramillete, y Be lo maixd6. 

Les escribir^ ties cartas, y «e las man- 

dar6. 
Ella 96 lo ha prometido. 
i Qu6 e8t4 y . haciendo con ese libro ? 
Estoy eusefiandose^o & KanueL 
i Le IdBte la carta ? 
Ta M la lei. 
Ella me lo d\jo. 
Yo »e lo di 

Hi madre me ama d mi, 
Tu amigo te busca d H. 
Yo ha di las notidas d elloe, 
Yo 86 las dar6 dVJ 
A Hie amo, or te amo & tf. 
i Qa6 U ha dicho d V, 6u hermano f 
No me ha dicho nada. 
/XtfdQeyo esod VJ 
Y.Bomelo dijo. 



He bought her a bouquet, and sent it to 

her. 
I shall write them three letters, and 

send them to them. 
She has promised it to her. 
What are you doing with that book ? 
I am showing it to Emanuel. 
Did you read the letter to him ? 
I did. (I read it to him already.) 
She told it to me. 
I gave it to him. 
My mother loves me. 
Thy friend looks for thee. 
I told them the news. 
I will tell them to you. 
I love thee. 

What has your brother told you f 
He has told me nothing. 
Did I tell you that? 
You did not tell it to me. 



LBSSOK ZXYII. 



119 



/&&>hadicho61dr./ 
Mt h ba dicho. 

i Qmere Y . dedr eso & sos amigos f 
Quiero decfiseio d ettos. 
' I Qoi^ llama k la paerta ? 
Soy 70 mismo. 

i 1^6116 buen humor su amigo de V. / 
Si, sefior, Ueae buen humor coando le 

▼an bien loB negodoa. 
4 Gana ese sugetomucho en ese asaniof 

El no gana pan sf mismo ; pero gana 

paraotroB. 
Tengo esperanza de que me perdonar&. 



Haa he told it to yon f 

He has told it to me. 

WiU you teU your friends that ? 

I will tell it to them. 

Who knocks at the door f 

It is I (myself). 

Has your friend a good disposition ? 

Yes, sir, he is good humored when busi- 
ness goes well with him. 

DoesHhat man make (or earn) much in 
that business ? 

He does not make for himself; Xfui he 
makes for others. 

I have hopes he will pardon me. 



EXPLANATION. 



127. OBjEcnvB PBONOXTKS, cotUirmed. — The third person 
being governed by to in English, either expressed or under- 
stood, is in Spanish rendered by se^ if the object of the verb 
be a pronoun in the third person ; as, 
Le oompT6 un ranullete, y m lo mand6. 



Les escsribir^ tres cartas, y te 

mandlar^. 
Ml criado ae lo dar&. 



He bought her a bouquet, and sent it to 

her. 
I shall write thera three letters, and 

send them to them. 
My servant will give it to him. 



This is done for the sake of euphony, changing the first of 
the two pronouns, whatever its full form may be (fe, la or fc«), 
into «e. This rule applies to all pronouns, after as well as be- 
fore the verb ; as, 
EUa M 2o ha prometido (instead of 

dUiUlo). 
PromeHindouio (instead of promo- 
tUndolelo). 



i Le leiste la carta ? 

Yaaelalei, instead o£ yalelalet 



She has promised it to her. 
Promising it to him. 



Did you read the letter to him ? 
I read it to turn (already). 



128. When two^r^^ objective cases occur in the sentence, 
one of whioh is the object of the verb, and the other is gov- 
erned, in English, by the preposition tOy either expressed or 
understood, the object of the verb is to be placed last ; as, 

Ella roe lo dijo. I She told ii to me. 

To se fo di 1 1 gaye U to him. 



120 LESSON XXVII. 

129. Bat if the object of the verb be the reflective pro- 
noun, it mast be placed first ; as, 

Lu^o 86 me exciis6. | He excused himself immediately to me. 

130. Both the objective cases belonging to the same per- 
son are sometimes used together in Spanish, in order to give 
more energy to the expression, and then the second must al- 
ways be preceded by d ; as, 



10 madre me ama d mi, 
Tu amigo ie bosca d ii. 
£l se lo dgo d dlas. 
To /ef di las noticias d dlw, 
YoM las dax6d Vdt,f 



My mother loves me. 
Thy fiiend seeks thee. 
He told it to them. 
I told them the news. 
I will tdl them to you. 



131. The second objective case of any of the persons 
should never be used in the sentence, preceded by d, as the 
ob^ct of the verb, without being accompanied by the first 
(except after comparatives) ; therefore, such expressions as 
these: d U quiero^ d t% amo^ are incorrect, and should be thus: 
d Ule quieroj dtite amo. The place of the second objective 
case in sentences of this kind is restricted to the following rules : 

1st. If the first objective case precede the verb, the second 
may be placed either before the first, or after the verb ; as, 

A Ute amo, or te amo dlL | I love thee. 

2d. If the first objective case follows the verb, the second 
must be placed after the first ; as, 
Am&ndoZff d H, \ Loving him. 

132. It may appear that the personal pronouns ^, la^ lOj 
l08 and las might be confounded with the articles e/, la, lo, las, 
laSy having the same form ; but they are easily distinguished, 
since the articles must always be occompanied by and precede 
nouns ; as, el tiempo, la salud, los soldadoSy las obras, lo hueno ; 
while, on the other hand, the personal pronouns are only em- 
ployed with verbs, and placed before or after them ; as, 

La tUvarony or UevdronJa, | They carried li, 

Lo hucaroHj or biucdronlo, > . | They looked for it 

133. Whenever emphasis is required to be laid on any 



LBSSOK ZXYII. 121 

noun or pronoun, the adjective miamo is used in Spanish for 
that purpose ; as, 
El no ama & nadie mas qne & d He lovefl no one bat himselC 

This rery man will do it. 
I will do it myselC 



Este mumo hombre lo harA, 
To fntunp lo har6. 



GONYEBSATION AJSD VERSION. 

1. {Le dyo Y. 680 al ingl^? Se lo d^e. 

2. |Se lo d\jo y. en inglte 6 en espafiol? Se lo dye en ingl^ 
8. ^Le comprendi6 & Y. ? Si, sefior, may bien. 

4. I T qn6 le ensen6 & Y. ? He ensefi6 d retrato de sa hermana. 
6. iLolieneY.? No; seloenyi^ja. 

6. |Me lo ensefiar& Y. ? Se lo ensefiarS 6 Y. la semana pr6xima. 

7. &Ha llamado Y. & la criada? La he Uamado 7 no ha venido. 

8. I No le perdonar& Y. esa falta ? No qniero perdon&raela. 

9. |A qni^n llama mi padre? Te llama & tL 

10. I Qnieres ense&arme ta veetido nnevo ? Te lo ensefiar^ oon mnoho 



11. iYendr&ntdsamigos&darnosloBbaenosdias? Greo qne vendrdn 
^diunosloe. 

12. 4 Nos han enyiado los peri6dioos ? Os los enviardn mafiitfia. 

13. (Oainto le gan6 Y. & ese sngeto? Le gan6 dos mil trescientoe 
cincaenta y ouatro pesos. 

14. I Qa6 lea dieron 6 sms amigas de Y. ? Prometl^ronles Bevarlas 6 
paaeo ; pero no les dieron nada. 

15. I Qoi^n d\jo eso ? To mismo lo dye. 

16. i Para qmSn son estos libros ? Para ti mismo. 

17. (Han mandado mis cartas al correo? 81, sefior, yo mismo las he 
mandado. 

18. iQoi^n me ha enviado este ramillete? Sa amiga misma se lo ha 
enviado. 

19. |Le leiste & ta padre las noticias de Francia ? El mismo las ha leido. 

20. iQoieresensefiarmetareloj? Qoiero enseflirtelo. 

21. I Qoi^n llam6 & la pnerta Y To mismo llam6. 

22. I Tiene Y. esperanza de ver sa pais ? SI, sefior, tengo esperanza de 
verlo may pronto. 

28. I Cantaron bien anoche en el conderto ? Oantaron bien la primera 
parte; pero la segonda may maL 

24. 1 06mo eBt4 sa tio de Y. ? Est& baeno ; pero de may mal hnmor. 

26. 4£s hombre de mal hamor? No; sefior, es hombre muy amable; 
pero hoy est& de mal hamor por asantos de fiimilia. 
6 



122 LESSON ZZYII. 

26. j Green enodganardinero&esehombre? €h«en ganiraelo. 

27. iNecedta V. enyiar este peri6dico 6 sa hennanol Neoesito ea* 
vi^FBclo. 

28. |Cu^do quiere Y. mandar sa piano al pianiBta? So lo qiiiero 
mandar ahora. 

29. iGnindo necedta Y. hablar al abogado? Neoeaito hablarle ahora 
mismo. 

30. |Es esta la carta qne Y. recibi6 ayer ? Es la misma. 

81. i A qni^n ama el Mqjicano ? No ama k nadie mas que 6 id miBmo. 

82. (Paraqai^Qtrabi^jaesamiyer? Trabiga para si misma. 

88. I Qa6 le ha ^cho Y. hoy & sa padre ? Lo mismo qne le d^e ajer. 

EXEBGISK. 

1. €k>od morning, sir; how are yonf Yery well, thank yoo. 

2. How is your family? Yery well, thank you, 

8. When did you hear from your cousin Janet I received a letter 
from her yesterday. But will yon excuse me an instant? some one is 
knocking at the door. 

4. Haye you sent your sister the bouquet I bought for her the other 
day ? Not yet ; but I shall send it to her to-morrow morning. 

6. Will you write to her at the same time and (to) tell her what 
Charles said? I am g<nng to write to her just now, and I shall tell it 
to her. 

6. Do you think my fiither will pardon us? I do (I think so), because 
Emanuel showed me a letter he received from him, in which he says he 
will pardon both of us. 

7. And what does Henry think of the matter? He thinks the 
same. 

8. Have the pupils shown their new books to their teacher yet? 
Yes, they showed them t9 him yesterday. 

9. Does he think they are good ? He says they are very good. 

10. What else (more) did he say? He said that if they study them 
with attention they will very soon speak Spanish. 

11. Is that all he said? That is alL 

12. Who is knocking at the door? is it you, Peter? Yes, it is L 

18. Why did you not come earlier? I was (have been) reading the 
news from Italy. 

14. What is the news (what news have we) ? The papers say that the 
Italians have gained another victory (oietaria), 

16. What did that man promise you last night ? He promised to bring 
me some volumes of the History of the United States. 



LBBSOK ZZVII. 123 

16. Has he brought (traido) them to yon yet ? Not yet 

17. When do yon think he will bring them ? He has to come to onr 
honse this evening, and I thii^ he will bring them with him. 

18. What do yon wish to see ? I wish to see yonr new dress, if yon 
win have the goodness (bondad) to show it to me. 

19. Will yon tell the En^ishman what I have. told yon? I shall not 
tell it to the Englishman; bnt I shall tell it to the Frenchman this yery 
day. 

20. Will he believe it? Tes, he will (believe it) ; he believes every- 
thing I tell him. 

21. Have they taken my letters to the post^ffioe ? I took them my 
aelf^ sir. 

22. Who is my Mher calling? He is calling yon to send yon to the 
bookstore for a book. 

23. Do yon know why Lonis does not send ns the papers any more 
(ya)l He promised to send them ; bnt yon know that no steamer {va- 
par) has arrived this week yet. 

24. When does the merchant want to see the notary ? He wants to 
see him jnst now. 

25. There he is talking to a gentleman; wQl yon go and (to) teU him 
that my &ther wishes to speak to him a moment (momento) ? 

26. Good morning, rir; &ther wishes to tell yon something; will you 
come now ? Tes, I shall go Jnst now. 

27. How is yonr son, Mr. Alexander ? He is mnoh better, thank yon ; 
bnt he wonld not come ont this morning, becanse he has to stndy his 
lesson. 

28. What language is he learning? He is not learning any now; he 
commenced to learn Spanish in the winter. 

29. What is he studying, then ? He takes lessons in (of) writmg, his* 
toiy and music. 

80. What part of the grammar are you in now, Peter ? I have just 
got to (arrived at) the twenty-seventh lesson* 

31. ho yon require to send this paper to your brother? I require to 
send it to him this very day. 



124 



LESSOK XXYIII. 



LESSON XXVIII. 

IMPERFECT AND PLUPERFECT TENSES. 

IMFKRFBOT. 

First ' Corrugation, 

I spoke, was speaking, or used to 

speak, &o^ && 
W^ spoke, Ac. 



Habl-aba, Habl-abas, Habl-aba. 

Habl-abamos, habl-abais, habl-aban. 

Sec<md Conjugation. 



Aprend-ia, aprend-iaa, aprend-ia. 
Aprend-iamos, aprend-iais, aprend- 
iaiL 



I learned, was learning, or used to 
learn, &c., &c 



Third ConJugaUon, 
Escrlb-ia, esorib-ias, escrib-ia. i I wrote, was writing, or used to 

Escrib-iamos, escrib-iais, escrib-ian. | write, &&, &0. 



Habia 


hablado. 


Ihad 


spoken. 


Habiais 


aprendido. 


Thon hadst • 


learned. 


Habia 


escrito. 


He had 


written. 


Habiamos *] 


hablado. 


We had 


spoken. 


Habiais V 


aprendido. 


Yon had 


learned. 


Habian J 


eaorito. 


They had ^ 


written. 


Aoabar. 




To finish. 




Entrar. 




To enter, come i 


m, go in. 


Deber. 




To owe. 




Deber. 




Shonld, oaght, mnst, to be to, to be 






one's daty to. 




Dudar. 




To doubt. 




Temer. 




To fear, be afraid of. 


Abrir, abierto (irregolar in this 


To open, opened. 


past participle only). 






Ambos. 




Both. 




Ouidado. 


Care. 


Oabeza. 


Head. 


Deber. 


Dnty. 


Mano. 


Hand. 


Prdjimo. 


Neighbor. 


Ropa. 


aothes. 



LESSON ZXVIII. 



125 



Yedno. 
Beloj. 

Marido, cssposo. 



To escribia coando Y . Tino. 

El estodiaba sua leodonea todoe loe 

diaa. 
Margarita bailaba macho coando era 

joven. 
To acababa de salir coando Y. entr6. 
I Abria Y. la paerta 6 la yentana en d 

inTierao f 
En el inyierno no abria ni la ona ni la 

otra ; pero en el yerano abria &mbafl. 
i Habia Y. escrito los qjerddos &nte8 

de dar so leocion ? 
Ko los habia escrito ; pero habia esta- 

diado la leccion. 
Debe Y. tenor cddado no solo de estu- 

diar la leodon, sino de escribir los 

cjerdcioe, porque si no Y. no apren- 

deri nada. 
i En d6nde est4 sa yecino de Y. ? 
Acaba de entrar. 
i Qq6 bora tiene so reloj de Y. f 

Son las dooe j coarto. 

i Tenia so yedno de Y. coidado de so 
ropa? 

Debia hacerio, pero no lo hada. 

pebemos amar al pr6jimo tanto como 
& nosotrofl mismos ; pero mi yedno 
no me atna 6 mi ni yo le amo & 61. 

No dodo lo que Y. dice. 



Neighbor. 
Clock, watch. 

Hnaband. 


Yentana. 
Yisita. 
Cnenta. 
Esposa. 


Window. 

Yisit. 

Bill, acoonnt. 

Wife. 


COMPOSITION. 





I was writing when yon came. 

He osed to stodj his lessons eyery day. 

Margaret used to dance much when she 

was yoong. 
I had just gone out when yoa came in. 
Used yoa to open the door or the win- 
dow in winter f 
In winter I osed to open ndther; bat 

in summer I used to open both. 
Had yoo written yoor exercises before 

taking yoor lesson ? 
I had not written them; bat I had 

stadied my lesson. 
Ton most take care, not only to study 

your lesson, but (also) to write your 

ezerdses; for if not, you will learn 

nothixig. 
Where is your nd^bor ? 
He has just come in (entered). 
What o'dock is it by your watch 

(what hour has your watch) ? 
It is a quarter past twdye. 
Used your ndghbor to take care of his 

clothes ? 
He should haye done so, but did not 
We should loye our ndghbor as oor- 

selyes; but my ndghbor does not 

loye me, nor do I loye him. 
I do not doubt what yoa say. 



EXPLANATION. 



lS4;i The hcpebfegt is need to express what is past, and, 
at the same time present, with regard to something else which 
is past ; that is, it is a past tense which was still present at the 
time spoken o£ It may always be employed in Spanish when 
in English the word was can be used with the present parti- 



120 LXBBOV ZZYIII. 

dple, or ft$ed to with the iofinitiye, or when we speak of hsr 
bitual actions ; as. 

To escribU coando Y. Tiiia 1 1 was writing wlien yoa ctme 

El estudiaba mu Iflcdones todoe las I He used to stad j his lessons eterj 
diss. I day. 

135. The FLUPiESFECT is used to express what is past, and 
took place before some other past action or event, expressed or 
understood; as, 

To habia leido ya los peri6dioo6 cnando 1 1 had already read the newspapen wheQ 
y. me los dl6. | you gave them to me. 

136. AcABAB DK. — The English expressions, to havejust, 
and to be jugt, before a past participle, are translated into 
Spanish by acabar dCy precedmg an infinitive ; as, 
Aeabo de entrar. t I have just come m. 

£1 aeaba de abrir la yentaua. | He has just opened the window. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. 2 Ha hablado Y. con la sefiorita? No, eila acababa de salir coando 
yo toqn6 k la pnerta. 

2. jDndaba Y. entrar? Si, porqne temla ofender k Y.- 

8. I No sefior ; i qu6 hora es ? Mi reloj tiene las once y cnarto. 

4. 4 Y qn6 hora tiene Y. ? To tengo las onoe y media. 

5. jSabe Y. qn6 hora es en el reloj de la igleaa? Cruuido jo pasaba 
estaban dando las once. 

6. jEnt6nce8 ahora deberin ser no mas que las once j yeinte 6 veinte 
7 cinco minutes? Creo que ser&n un poco mSnos. 

7. i Ha hablado Y. con mi y ecino ? He ido 4 haoerle una vifiita, pero 
habia salido. 

8. I No habl6 Y. con la senora? Si, estaba en la yentana cuando 70 
pa86. 

9. I Tiene una mano muj hermosa ? Si, pero los ojos son mas her- 
mosos. 

10. I Qn6 tenia en la cabeza? Dos flores. 

11. jQuidn llama 4 la puerta? La layandera, que yiene 4 buscar la 
ropa. 

12. I Cui!into le debo 4 Y. ? Me debe Y. yeinte 7 cinoo centayos de la 
ropa de la semana^pasada. 

18. (No se los ha pagado 4 Y. mi marido ? No, sefiora, no tenia di- 
nero. 
14. i Duda Y. lo que le digo ? No, sefiora, lo creo. 



LSBSON XXYIII. 127 

15. I'Eeti bien lavada la ropa? May bien ; 70 roisma la lay6. 

16. iHizo Y. la viMta & su veoino ? Fai 6 an casa ; pero habia salido. 

17. ^Ya Y. nmchas veces al teatro? Caaado yivia en Paris iba & 
aienado ; pero aqni yoj maj pocas yeces. 

18. 1 06mo debemos amar al prdjimo ? Tanto oomo 6 nosotroa mismos. 

19. (Qni^n es el pr6jimo ? Todos los hombres son nnestros pr6jimo6. 

20. lEst&mfllasahennanade Y.f 8S, sefiora, 7 de ooidado (seriouflly). 

21. jOn4ntas yisitas le ha heoho el m^co ? Hnchisimas. 

22. jDeben Yds. tener macho caidado de ella? S(, seflora, 7a lo te- 
nemos. 

23. I Caintas yisitas le debo 70 & Y. ? Ck>a esta son tres. 

24. |No yendrd Y. & comer mafiana con noeotras? Mafiana ir6 al 
campo con mis vecinos. 

25. ^ Habia Y. redbido la carta del Frances caando redbid la mia ? 
La redbi despaes. 

26. ^Pprqu^ trabiga Y. tanto ? Porqae es mi deber. 

27. ^Yenddb Y. 7 sa hermana& pasar ana semana con nosotrosf 
Si, eefiora, la semana pr6zima rendr^mos 6mbos. 

28. jQai^n abri6 mi yentana, Juan ? Senor, 70 mismo la abrL 

29. 4Habl6 Y. con el sastre ? ' Fai all^ pero habia salido. 

80. lOn&ndoyino Y.f Ahora mismo acabo de entrar. 

81. iD6nde est^ mi padre ? Acaba de salir & la calle. 

82. I Babes & d6nde fa6 ? Fa6 6 comprar ropa. 

38. ^Habr4 ido & la Ooarta ayenida? No, sefior, creo qae fii6 & 
Broadwa7. 
84. |Qa6 hora es? £1 reloj de sa caarto de Y. aoaba de dar las doce. 

EXERCISE. 

1. What were 70a doing when Alexander w&ai into 7oar room? I 
was talking to m7 father. 

2. I thonght 70a were writing 7oar exercises. No, I had written 
them alread7. 

8. Does the servant take care to sweep 7oar room eyer7 da7 ? Yes, 
ho knows yeiy well it is his dat7. 

4. Wh7 did 70a not come before? 70a were to come at nine o^clock. 
I know I haye done wrong in not coming earlier; bat I haye been 
writing all the morning. 

5. Does 7oar sister Margaret dance now as nrach as she ased ? 
When (she was) in the cit7 she ased to dance yer7 mach, but now she 
has no time. 

6. When 70a liyed in the coantr7 did 70a open botji the doors and 
the windows? I opened neither. 



128 LKBBOK XXTIII. 

7. Had yon finished your work before going to the concert? I had 
(finished it). 

8. Do yon doubt what I ten yon? No, sir, I never doubted anything 
you told me. 

9. Is your neighbor afiraid to open his windows in winter ? He is 
not afraid to open them. 

10. Who was it that went out last night after ten o'dock? No one 
went out; my brother came in at that hour. 

11. Did Alexander go out when your couMn came in ? He had already 
gone out when my cousin came in. 

12. Where is he now ? He has just gone out to walk. 

18. Will he be very long (much time) ? He will not be long ; he is to 
take his Spanish lesson this eyening. 

14. Did you pay (make) a visit to my neighbor last week ? I went to 
his house, but he was not at home. 

15. When did you see the pianist? He came to see me the other day, 
but I had gone out. 

16. Do you think we shall have studied our lessons before going to the 
teacher's? t think we shall. 

IT. What o'clock is it by Qn) your watch? It is seventeen minutes 
past three by mine; what time have you? 

18. It must be (deben ser) half-past three; has the music teacher 
come ? Not yet. 

19. Will you have the kindness to go to his house and tell him I shall 
not take my lesson this afternoon ? With much pleasure. 

20. 8o soon I Well,'did you see the teacher? No, madam, he bad 
just gone out 

21. How much do you owe the tailor now ? I owe him very little ; 
you know 1 sent him some money last month. 

22. I know (it) ; but did he not send (pasar) in another bill on Mon- 
day ? If he has sent in another I have not seen (vwto) it 

23. I thought you were in the country, Mr. Emanuel ? I was there 
last week. 

24. Why did you not come yesterday? I saw you were writing and 
I feared to offend you. 

25. But you know it was your duty to come in ; you knew I wanted 
you. Well, if you pardon me tiiis time (vez), I shall come in again (another 
time). 

26. How often do yon go to the theatre? Not very often now; I 
used to go every night in the week. 

27. How are we to love our neighbor? As ourselves. 

28. Who is our neighbor ? All mankind (men) are oar neighbors. 



LESSON XZIX, 



129 



29. How many visits bus the physician made to yonr nnde ? He be- 
gan his visits on the 80th of December, and visited him twice i^ week 
until April 4th. 

30. How many visits do I owe yon for now? Ton owed me for 
twelve, bnt yon paid me for nine, and so yon only owe for three now. 

81. Whose letter did yon receive first, mine or Jane's f When yonrs 
came to hand (my hands), I had already received Jane's. 

32. Win yon take yonr lesson to-dsy ? I am to go to the Oentral Park 
this afternoon with my mother, and so I shall not take my lesson until 
to-morrow. 



LESSON XXIX. 



FBStEEOT AJITJUaOB. 



Hnbe ] hablado. 


I had 1 spoken. 


Hnbiste . aprendido. 


Thon hadst I learned. 


Hnbo J escrito. 


He had J written. 


Hubimos ] hablado. 


We had 1 spoken. 


Hnbisteis . aprendido. 


Yon had . learned. 


Hnbieron j escrito. 


They had J written. 


Ver. 


To see. {See the end qf the 


Mirar. 


To look. 


Esperar. 


To hope, *to wait for. 


Afli que. 


As soon as. 


Ap^nas. 


Scarcely. 


No bien. 


No sooner. 


Tampoco {eon}.). 


Neither, not either. 


Tambien (adwrb). 


Also, likewise. 


Tambien (eonj.). 


As well, moreover. 


Adem49. 


Moreover, besides. 


Primeramente^ or en primer In- 


Firstly. 


gar. 






Secondly, &o. 


Ingar. 




Frecnente. 


Freqnent 


Frecnentemente. 


Frequently. 


G6modo. 




06modamente. 


Conveniently, comfortably. 


6* 





130 



LXSSON ZXIZ. 



Inoomodo. 






InoonTenient^ unoomfortable. 


lBo6modamente. 






Inoonyenientij, unoomfortablj. 


Probable. 






Probable, Hkely. 




Probablemente. 






Probably, Hkely. 




Perfecto. 






Perfect 




Perfectamente. 






Perfectly. 




Oorrecto. 






Correct 




Oorrectamente. 






Correctly. 




Ojo. Eye. 


1 


"vLta. 


Sights view. 


Oorreo. Po8t> 


postroffioe, 


ComodidacL 


Convenience, 


courier. 






comfort 


Lugar. Place. 














COMPOSITION. 





Cuando le hube coaocido le am6. 
Ap^nas bubo salido ti cuando yo entr^ 

Ko bien le babe visto ooando le oonocf . 

Asi que babe escrito la carta la llev6 

al correo. 
Cuando le oonocf le am6. 
i Iba v. frecuentemente al teatro el alio 

pasado? 
Iba frecuentlsimamente, or may freeaen- 

temente. 
£1 Tive en esa casa edmodamente, or 

con comodidad. 
El escribe correcta y perfectamente; 

pero y. escribe mas f^dlmente. 



When I had known him I lored hiuL 
Scarcely had he gone oat when I 

came in. 
No sooner had I seen him than I knew 

him. 
As soon as I had written the letter I 

took it to the poet-office. 
When I knew him I loyed him. 
Did you go often to the theatre last 

year? 
I went rery often. 

He liyes comfortably, or with comfort, 

in that house. 
He writes correctly and perfectly ; bat 

you write more easily. 



EXPLANATION. 
137, The PBETEBiT AivTEBioB IS used to express a past 
action or event that took place immediately before another 
action or event also past. It is never used except after some 
of the adverbs of time ; cttandoy when ; ewi qitCy as soon as ; no 
bieUy no sooner ; ap&n<X8y scarcely ; luego que^ immediately after ; 
despu^ quCy soon after ; as, 

Cuando le hube conocido. When I had pade his acquaintance. 

Ap^nas hubo salido cuando yo Tine. Scarcely had he gone out when I came. 

No bien le Aufttfvisto coando le conoci. No sooner had I seen him than I knew 



LS460N. ZXIX. 



131 



This tense is very little UJBed,.not only for the reason already 
mentioned, of its being preceded by an adverb of time, bat also 
because its place may be elegantly supplied by the fbetebtt 



DSFiKiTE ; as, 

Cutfido le eonoc(, 

Ap^nas 9alid coando 70 Tine. 

No bien le vi coando le oonod. 



When I had known him. 
Scarcely had he gone ont when I came. 
No sooner had I seen him than I knew 
him. 



138. The adverbs of manner and quality, in Spanish as 
well as in English, are generally derived from adjectives. 

189. To form an adverb from an adjective, it is sufficient 
to add menie to the adjective, if the latter has the same ter- 
mination in both genders ; as, 

Frecoente, frecnentem^nfe. 
Oramatical, gramatiotbnente. 

If the adjective has a different termination for each gender^ 
then mente is added to the feminine ; as, 

Inc6moda, inc6modamtfnl^. 
Ferfecta, perfectaiiMti^e. 

When two or more of these adverbs follow each other, only 
the last one takes mentCy th6 others taking the feminine termi- 
nation a ; as, 
Gceron habl6 sabi^i 7 elocnentemaU^ | CScero spoke learnedly and ekx^aently. 

140. These adverbs terminating in mentey being derived 
from adjectives, admit like these the degrees of comparison ; as, 

Easily 

More easily. 

Less easily. 

As, pc so easily. 

Very easily^ or most easQy. 



F&dlmente. 

Mas f&cilmentet. 

Menos f&dlmente. 

Tan fldlmente. 

May f&dhnente, or f&dllsimamente. 



141, Those adverbs may, without any change in the 
sense, be substituted by a substantive governed by the prepo- 
sition eon ; as, 

ti Tire c6modameiite, or oon comodi- ( He Utm comfortably, 
dad. 



132 LX8B0K XXIX. 

OONVEBSATION AlO) VERSION. 

4. I Ye Y. aqoella flor tan hennosa ? Miro, poro no la veo. 
2. 2 Ye Y. qa6 hora es en el rdoj de la iglesia? No, pero mirarS en 
mi reloj. 

8. (Ha yisto Y. 6 sa hermano? Si, sefior, le ri ap^nas hnbo aalido 
del teatro. 

4. jLe conoci6 & Y. mi vecino? No bien le babe hablado, me oo- 
noci6. 

6. I Han venido mis amigos ? Ylnieron asi qne hnbo Y. salida 

6. |Le dieron k Y. mis libros? Ke los dieron, no bien les hnbe 
bablado de ello. 

7. jY se marcbaron mnj pronto? Se marcharon asi que bnbieron 
escrito sns cartas. 

6. jQu6 hizo Y. despnes? Primeramente (or primero) fbi al oorreo 
7 despues al meroado. 

9. jQa6 qniere Y. bacer? Primeramente eacnbir los cjercicios y 
despnes estndiar la leccion. 

10. iPorqu6 no lo bizo Y. &ntes? En primer lugar porqne no tenia 
bnmor j en scgnndo porqne ap^nas tuve tiempo. 

11. iHabla Y. frances frecnentemente ? Si, selLor, lo bablo con fre- 
cnencia. 

12. ^Lo escribe Y. correctamente ? Gnando lo estndiaba lo escribia 
con mas correccion que ahora. 

13. I Aprende Y. ingles 6 espafiol ? Aprendo 6mboB. 

14. 4 Y sn hermano de Y. ? Mi hermano los apreode tambien. 

15. I Los hablan Yds. con perfeocion ? Si, sefior, el ingl^ lo bablamos 
perfectamente ; pero el espafiol ni yo, ni 61 tampoco. 

16. I Ha enviado Y. sn carta al correo? No, sefior, la enviar^ ma- 
fiana. 

17. iLtL ha escrito Y. ? Tampoco la he escrito, porqne quiero bacerlo 
con comodidad. 

18. ilia aprendido Y. la leccion de hoy? He aprendido la de boy y 
la de mafiana tambien. 

19. £On4ndo piensa Y. salir para Paris? Probablemente saldr^ la 
semana pr6xima. 

20. ^No YivQ Y. c6modamente aqoi ? Si, sefior, pero vivo mas o6mo- 
do en Francia. 

21. jYivia Y. c6modamente cuando estaba en L6ndres? No, sefior, 
vivia inc6modamente porqne no hablaba ingles. 

22. jTiene Y. otro libro adem&s de ese ? Si, sefior, tengo otros dos. 

23. iEst& Y. malo de la vista ? Si, sefior, tengo malo nn ojo. 



LX880K ZZIX. 188 

24. jPorqn^ no ha venido aim sa primo de Y. f Porqae qniere venir 
con comodidad. 

25. ^Tiene Y. bnena yista? fii, sefior, pero ahora iengo los ojoB 
malofl. 

26. iCnindo estndia Y. sns leociones? Las eetndio de dia porqne el 
cstadio de noche es malo para la Tista. 

27. iD6Dde estan sns hermanos de Y. ? Salieron & paseo no blen hn- 
bieron escrito sua ejercicios. 

28. jCndndo escribieron las cartas? Asi qne hnbieron aprendido sns 
leociones. 

29. iLley6 Y. mis cartas al correo f Si, sefior, asi qne Y. bnbo saHdo. 
80. 4 Ya Y. con frecnencia al correo t Si, senor, voy frecnentemente ; 

YOj todos los dias. 

EXERCISB. 

1. Did yon go to the lawyer's as I told yon? I went as soon as 
yon told me. 

2. Was he at home ? did yon see him ? He was not in when I went; 
bnt I waited nntil he come. 

8. Did yon show him the letter f I opened it and showed it to him ; 
bnt he wonld not read it. 

4. What did yonr children do after taking their lesson ? They had 
scarcely finished their lesson when they went to bed. 

6. Did yon look at the horses yonr brother bonght on Monday. I did 
(look at them), and I think they are very fine. 

6. Have yon ever taken yonr family to Italy? Tes, several times; 
last year we travelled in Italy. 

7. Did yon spend some time in the principal cities? Yes; bnt prin- 
cipally in Rome (Bama\ Florence (Floreneia) and ^lan (MUan). 

8. Where were yon on the 16th of December, 1865? On the 16th 
we were in Florence in the morning, and in Some at night 

9. Did yon all ei^oy good health in Europe ? Yes, all, except {nUnoi) 
Alexander, who had a sore (malo) eye the greater part of the time. 

10. IM, yon go often to the tiieatre? We generally went every 
evening. 

11. Had yon any difficnlty {dificultad) in nnderstanding the langnage? 
None ; yon know Emanuel speaks Italian very correctly : he had learned 
it before setting ont for Europe. 

12. Did yon see many Americans when yon were travelling ? Yery 
many ; some of them we knew very weD, and others were Mends 
of onrs. 



184 LESSON XZIX. \ 

18. Where u the letter yon were writing this moixung? As soon as I 
had finished it John took it to the po6tK>ffice. 

14. Do yon ever write to yonr nnde ? Yery little onoe we left New 
York ; bnt there I used to write to him very frequently. 

16. Which of yon three writes French the most correctly ? I know it 
is not I ; and as to (^ cuanto d) Peter and Louis, I think Peter writes 
best) but Loois writes with more ease (more easily). 

16. Do yon see that beautiful flower ? I am looking ; but I do not 
see it. 

17. Win you teU me what o'clock it is by the church dock? I am 
lookmg at the church ; but I see no dock. 

18. Have you not good sight? Yes, very good; but I have a very 
sore eye. 

19. Did my cousins not come ? They came as soon as you went out. 

20. Did you show them my portrait? I did ; but they scarcely had 
time to look at it 

21. Did they say where they were going? They said they were going 
to the country. 

22. How long are they to be there ? They did not tell me that 

23. Are they not coming for me to-morrow ? Yes, sir, they are com- 
ing for you to go and pay a visit to Mrs. Pefiaverde. 

24. Have you ever seen a more comfortable littie room than this one ? 
Besides being comfortable it is very handsome. 

25. Why do you not speak Spanish with Mr. Biberns? In the first 
place, because I do not speak it wdl enough ; and in the second, because 
he speaks English very correctiy. 

26. I thought you were studying Spanish? Jam studying it; but 
studying and speaking are two distinct {dispinto) things. 

27. Did you tell the music teacher that Louisa wishes to take lessons? 
Not yet ; but I shall see him to-morrow and tell him so. 

28. Why did you not take your lesson yesterday ? I was sick. 

29. Have you studied yesterday's lesson, and to-day's? I have studied 
both. 

80. Will yon come to-morrow at the same hour ? Probably I shall 



LS680N ZZZ. 



186 



LESSON XXX. 



nCFSBSOZTAL TEBS8. 



UoYor. 




To ram. 


Iloyienda 




Raming. 


Lloyido. 




Rained. 




Indicative. 


Present. 


Uneve. 


It rains. 


Imperfect. 


lioYia. 


It was raining. 


Preterit d^nite. 


Lloyi6. 


It rained. 


Future Hmple. 


UoyedL 


It will rain. 




Campcun 


d Tenses. 


Preterit d^ite. 


Ha noyido. 


It has rained^ 


Pluperfect. 


Habia lloyido. 


It had rained. 


Anterior. 


Habo Uoyido. 


It had rained. 


Future compound 


. Habr4 lloyido. 


It win haye rained. 


Amanecer. 




To grow light 


Anochecer. 




To grow dark. 


Dfliiviar. . 




To rain like a deluge, to rain in 
torrents. 


Oranizar. 




To hall. 


Helar. 




To freeze. 


Uoyiznar. 




To drizzle. 


Keyar. 




To snow. 


Kelampagaear. 




To lighten. 


Tronar. 




To thunder. 


: 


PKB80KAL YKBIiS TIE 


lED IHFEB80NALLT. 


Bastar. 




To be sufladent. 


Haber. 




(Signifying) there to be. 


Hacer. 




(Signifying) to be. 


Ser. 




To be. 


Oonyenir. 




To snit, to be proper. 


Parecer. 




To seem, to appear. 


BraoL 


Brazil. 


Habana. Hayana. 


Keneater. 


Neceadtj. 


Nieye. Snow. 


melo. 


Ice. 


Lluyia. Rain. 



136 



LXBSOK XXX. 



Helado. 


loe cream. 


Tarde. 


AftemooiL 


Trueno. 


Thunder. 


La wiRftj^na. 


Morning. 


Medio dia. 


Noon. 


Media noche. 


Midnight 


Yiento. 


Wind. 








COMPOSITION. 





^Es neoeeario estndiar nrncho pan 

. aprender el espafiol f 

Es menester estadiar macho, pero no 

tanto como para aprender el ingles. 
En Nueva York Uoeve y llo?iziia macho, 

pero no dllttvia como en la Habana. 

En Madrid amaneoe mny temprano y 

anocheoe muy tarde en el venuio. 
En la Habana amaneoe y anocheoe siem- 

pre & la miama hora, en todoe los 

diaa del afio. 
En el Brasil no idera; pero trnena y 

relampaguea macho Biempre qae 

Uueve. 
En la Habana no hay hielo, porqae no 

haoe baatante fHo para helar ; y por 

eso lo lleran de Nueva York. 

En Naera York ha helado y nerado 
macho este afio ; pero en el paaado 
neT6 y hel6 may poco. « 

i Haoe macho calor en eflte paia f 

En los mesee de Noyiembre, Didembre 
y Euero hace mucho frio ; pero en 
Junio, Julio y Agosto hace macho 
calor. 

^Qu6 tiempo hace? 

Parece que va & Uover, porqae hay 
mucho Tiento y hace calor. 

Cuatro afioB h&, or hay caatro afios, que 
no veo & mi padre. 

Pero v. tiene esperanza de yerle pron- 
to, porqae llegar& hoy & Nueva York 
en el rapor ''Etna** que yiene de 
Earopa. 

En verano voy & pasear todos los dias 
al 



Ib it neoeasary to study much to learn 

Spaniah? 
It is necessary to stady a great deal, 

but not 80 much as to learn En^ish. 
In New York it rains and drizzles a 

great deal, bat it does not rain in 

toirents as in Havana. 
In Madrid day breaks yery eariy and 

night falls very late in summer. 
In Havana day breaks and night fidla 

at the same houra ereiy day m the 

year. 
In Brazil it does not snow ; but it thun- 
ders and lightens much whenever it 

rains. 
In Havana there is no ice, because it b 

not cold enough to freeze; and for 

that reason they take it from New 

York. 
In New York it has frozen and snowed 

much this year ; but last year it 

snowed and froze very litUe. 
Is it very warm in this countiy? 
In the months of November, December 

and January it is very cold; bat jn 

June, July and August it is very 

wann. 
What Und of weather is it? 
It appears it is gohig to rain, because 

it is very windy and hot. 
I havei not seen my father for four 

years. 
But you (have) hope to see him soon ; 

for he will arrive tCHiay m New York 

by the steamer **Etna*' (that is) 

coming from Europe. 
In summer I go to walk every mocning 

at daybreak. 



LESSON XXX. 



137 



jYa y. & k cftoia temprano? 

No, aefior, tarde ; & la media noche. 

4€kime V. ol medio dia? 

No, se&or, como al anocfaecer. 

^VaV. &laHabaiia? 

No, sefior, voy & Francia. 

La Francia es maa alegre qpe la lnf^ 

terra. 
El muchacho estodia mucho. 
El estudio de la gram&tica es neceearia 
El hombre neoesita trab^jar. 
La oonTerBadon es may iitil para spmor 

der ma lengna. 



Bo yoa go to bed early ? 

No, sir, late ; at midnight 

00 yoQ dine at noon ? 

No, sir, I dine at nightfalL 

Are you going to Havana ? 

No, sir, I am going to France. 

France is more pleasant than England. 

The boy studies moch. 
The study of grammar is necessary. 
Man requires to work. 
Conversation is very useful for learning 
a language. 



EXPLANATION. 

142. IicPEBSONAL TEBBS are those which are used only in 
the infinitive mood and in the third person singular of all the 
tenses, and have no definite subject ; as, 



Uueve. 

Tronar&. 

Nevaba. 



It rains. 

It will thunder. 

It was snowing. 



148. The yerbs anumecer and anochecer are sometimes 
used in the three persons, both numbers ; but then they are 
not impersonal, but neuter ; as, 

Yo amane<rf en Nueva York, y ano- 1 I was in New York at daybreak, and 
checi en Filadelfia. | in Philadelphia at night&U. 

144. Habeb and haceb are often used impersonally, and 
are in such cases to be rendered into English by the corre- 
sponding tenses of the verb ^o &«. • 

The verb AaJer, when conjugated impersonally, has the 
peculiarity of taking a y in the third person of the present in- 
dicative; as. 

There is much fruit 
There will be many men. 



Hay mucha fruta. 

Habr& mucfaos hombres. 

Hi^frio. 

Hace muchos aflos. 



It was cold. 
Many years ago. 



N. B. — Md is sometimes elegantly used for hay; as, 
Doce afios h6, or hay doce alios. | Twelve yean ago ; 



138 



LBSSON XXX. 



bat it is to be observed that M always follows the tune, while 
hay precedes it. 

There are many other verbs which, although not impersonal, 
are sometimes used as such ; as, 

Efl muy tarde. It ia very late. 

£8 predso. It is necessary. 

Es menester. There is decessitj. 

Pareee. It seems, it appears. 

Conviene. It suits, it is proper. 

Baata. It is sufficient, it will do. 

145. As it may have been observed, the pronoun it^ which 
accompanies impersonal verbs in English, is not translated into 
Spanish. 

Nouns taken in a definite sense require the article ; as. 
El mucfaacho estodia, I The boy studies. 

El estudio de la gramitica es iitil. | The study of grammar is usefuL 

Nouns used in their most general sense are preceded by the 
article ; as, 



El hombre neoeaita trab^ar. 
La conversadon es muy ii^ para 
aprender una lengua. 



Man requires to work. 
Conversation is very usefiil for learn* 
inga language. 



146. Names of nations, countries, provinces, mountains, 
rivers and seasons, generally take the article; as, 

Ia Espafia. Spain. 

La Inglaterra. England. 

El inviemo. Winter. 

147- Nations, countries and provinces, when preceded by 
a preposition, do not take the article unless they are personi- 
fied; as, 

Las provindas de Espafia. I The provinces of Spain. 

El valor de la Espafia. | The courage of Spain. 

Nevertheless, the article is employed under all circumstances 
with the names of some places ; as. 



ElBraail 
Ia Habana. 
ElFerroL 
LaChma. 
El Japon. 
ElPerii. 



BnudL 

Havana. 

FerroL 

China. 

Japan. 

Peru. 



LESSON XXX. 139 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Qa6 tiempo haoef Ahora haoe calor ; &ntes hada frlo. 

2. I lioverd mafiana ? Creo qn6 nevar4. 

8. iUaevemnchoenNneyaTork? liaeve y Uoyizzia bastante ; pero 
raramente dilavia. 

4. I Hace mncho frio en la Habana en d mes de Enero ? Hace alga- 
no, pero nxmca nieva ni Mela. 

6. ^Relampagaea? Belampagaea y llovizna. 

6. iPorqn6 escribe Y. tantos ejerddos ? Porqne para aprender una 
lengoa no basta bablarla, esnecesario tambien saber escribirla. 

7. I Nieva mncbo en el Brasil ? En el Brasil no nieya, mas que en las 
montafiaS) donde baj nieve todo el afio. 

8. ^Qniere Y. tomar un belado? No, sefior, los belados no soq 
buenos en este tiempo. 

9. I Ou^to tiempo bace que no ve Y. & sn familia ? EI dos de Setiem- 
bre pr6simo bar4 once afios. 

10. ^Porqu6 no vino Y. anocbe 9 Porque llovia y bacia mucho yiento. 

11. |Tiene V. miedo de los truenos ? Cuando relampaguea mucbo, si 
sefior. 

12. ^Porqu6 no fh6 Y. anocbe al ooncierto? Porque Doviznaba j 
estaba nevando. 

18. 2 A qu6 boras come Y. ? Al amanecer tomo chocolate; al medio 
dia como, y al anocbecer tomo el t6. 

14. jSe levanta Y. al amanecer todos los diss ? Ouando es menester, 
'si sefior. 

15. I A qu6 bora 8ali6 Y. del teatro el s&bado ? A media nocbe. 

16. ^Ou^do salieron sua bermanas para el campo? Ayer al medio 
^a. 

17. ^Cu^doTolver^f Pasado mafiana por la nocbe. 

18. I A qu6 bora amanece en el yerano? En verano amance i las 
cinco J anocbece & las siete y media. 

19. I Porqu6 se maroba Y. tan pronto f Porque ea menester. 

20. |Es menester salir al amanecer 9 No, basta salir al medio dia. 

21. |Haj muoboB Alemanes en Nueva York? Si, sefior, bay mucbi- 
simos. 

22. I Gustos diss bace que no le ye Y. ? No bace mas que uno. 

23. jHay algunFrances en sucasa de Y.9 Hay ouatro Franceses y una 
Francesa. 

24. ^Oniindo yinieron Yds. ? Ayer al medio dia. 

26. lOree Y. qa6 lloyerd boy? Pareoe que si, porque bace mucho 
yiento y mucho calor. 



140 LESSON XXX. 

26. iJAoT\6 mncho aqui el afio pasado? Aqui ]loyi6 mncho, pero en 
la Habana llovi6 mas. 

27. i Kieya mncho en este pais ? En el mviemo nieva mnoho. 

28. { Se hiela el agna? Mnchas veces. 

29. I Habr4 mnoho hielo el afio pr6ximo ? £n el umemo habrd mn- 
cho hielo. 

SO. j Hace mncho frio f Si, sefior^ y al amanecer llovia y granizaba. 
81. |Porqn6hacetantoMohoy? Porqne ney6 ayer. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Is it raining ? I do not know. 

2. Yon do not know 9 How, are yon stiU in bed?— Yea, and I shall 
be there nntil T o'dock. 

8. At what o'clock did yon go to bed? At midnight. 

4. What is it necessary to do in order to learn Spanish? It is neces- 
sary to stndy a good grammar, talk a great deal vrith Spaniards, and read 
the works of good authors. 

6. What were yon doing in the garden this morning at daybreak ? 
I was walking. 

6. Have yon read the Spanish newspaper yet that I lent yon ? Yes, 
sur, here it is. Thank yon. 

7. What language do they speak in Brazil ? Portogaese (portu{^v£i). 

8. Do yon see that lightning ? Yes, it is li^^tetdng and thundering 
Tery much. 

9. Is it proper to have the windows open when it thunders? Ifo, it 
is better to have th^n shut. 

10. I think (it appears to me) it will soon rain. Yes, I think so too ; 
it is already drizzling. 

11. John I Su". Is there any water in my room ? — No, sur, but if you 
wish, I shall take some there now. 

12. In what months of the year does it freeze most in New York? 
During (durante) the months of Jannary and February. 

18. I believe there is a great deal of ice nsed (m ma) in New York 
during the summer. A great deal, and it is very cheap. 

14. It appears that there will be lit&e ice next summer. Very little, 
the winter has not been cold enough to have much. 

15. What watch is that you have there ? It is the one I always had. 

16. I thought yon had given your watch to Charles, and bought your 
(the) neighbor's ? No, Charles has a very pretty little watch. 

17. What o'clock is it by your watch ? It is just four o'clock (wn loi 
euatro en punto). 



LB8S0N ZXXI. 141 

18. THio knocked at the door just now? It was Mrs. Martixiez ; it is 
thnndering, and you know she is afraid of the lightning. 

19. Why did she not come in ? She did not like to (would not) disturb 
yovL {mcUstarla d F.) madam. 

20. Do jou know whether Alexander has sent the papers to his 
brother yet? I think he has (mepareee que ^). 

21. Did you take him the two volumes I showed him yesterday? I 
took them to him this morning. 

22. Was he in the house when you went ? No, madam, he had Just 
gone out. 

23. Win you open that window, if you please ? With pleasure. * 

24. And this one also? No, thank you; it is better to have that one 
shut 

25. Whatkindof weather is it to-day? Very bad; it has been raining 
and hailing ever since (deade) daybreak. 

26. Itfadam, here are two beautiful bouquets that Mrs. Garcia has sent 
you from her garden. She is very kind (buena). 

27. Who brought them ? Her servant (Jem.). 

28. When did she bring them? Tou had no sooner gone out than 
she came. 

29. How windy it was last night I Yes, and it rained in torrents the 
whole night, from nightfall until daybreak this morning. 

80. What news is there from Europe? I do not Imow; I have not 
yet seen the newspapers. 



LESSON XXXI. 

Gustar. I To like. 



FBBSENT, 



(A mQ me gusta or gnstan. 

(A to te gusta « 

(A 61) le gusta '< 

(A noeotros) nos gusta, or gnstan. 

(A vosotros) 08 gusta, " 

(A ellos) les gusta. '^ 



I like it or them. 
Thou likest it or them. 
He likes it " 

We like it " 

You like it " 

They like it " 



IHFEKFEOT. 

(A mi) me gustaba or gnstaban. I I liked it or them. 
(A ti) te gustaba, etc. I Thou likedst it^ &o. 



142 



Guatarde. 



Gnstode. 

Gnstaade. 

Gnstade. 

Gnatamoa de. 

Gnstaiade. 

Gnatande. 



Gnatabade. 
Goatabaa de, etc 



LSBSON XXXI. 

'l To be fond oC 



I am fond o£ 
Thou art fond oil 
He ia fond ot 



Bello. 

Fosible. 

Imposible. 

Foeta. 

Pintor. 

Esonltor. 

Placer. 

Dios. 

Fesar. 

Melon. 

Melocoton. 

Arte. 



We are fond oil 
You are fond oil 
Thej are fond oL 



I waa or uaed to be fond ol 
Thou wast or used to be fond 

O^ ^DO, 



Gnstar. 


1 To taste. 


Flacer. 

Fesar (impenanaT). 

Fesar (in aU iU persons). 

Faltar or hacer fialta. 

Faltar. 

Acomodar. 

Oonvenlr. 

Importar. 


To please. 

To regret 

To weigh. 

To want 

To &i], to be wanting or mifisiDg. 

To suit^ to aooommodate. 

To suit, to be oanVenient 

To be important. 


Oerca. 
L6J08. 
Dentro. 
Fuera. 


Near. 
Far. 
Within. 
Without 



Foet 

Fainter. 

Sculptor. 

Pleasure. 

God. 

Regret, sorrow. 

Melon. 

Peach. 

Art, skill. 



Beautifhl, fine. 

Possible. 

Imposnble. 

Poesia. 

Pintura. 

Escultura. 

Prosa. 

Fruta. 

Manzana. 

Nara^ja. 

Artes (plu.). 

Arroba. 



Poetry, poem. 

Fainting. 

Sculpture. 

Prose. 

Fruit 

Apple. 

Orange. 

Arts. 

Arroba. 



LBSSOK XXXI. 



148 



COMPOSITION. 



jLegostaiV. lafrataf 

Si, sefior, me gostan las nanzgaB y loa 

meloiies. 
A mi me gostan loa melooottmea y las 

manrjinaa 
{Cuil de las bellas artea la gnata & Y. 

maa? 
He gnatan todaa, la mi^ca, la poeala, 

la pintora y la eacultura. 
iVa Y. & la 6pera muy & meQudo f 
y oy doB 6 tres yeoea por semana. 
He parece qae Uoreri pronto, y me 

gosta porqne tengo un gran placer en 

Tcr Hover. 

lEs poaible I A mi no me gnata yer 
Hover; pero me gnsta mnchiaimo 
verneyar. 

iLe acomoda & V. eae caballo ? 

No me conyiene, porque ea mny yi^o, 
aai qne no lo comprar6. 



jFive v. cerca 6 l^joB de aqni? 
Vho muy oerca. 

i Viye v. dentro 6 fuera de la dudad f 
Ahora en la dudad ; pero en el yerano 

yiyo en d campa 
iQo6 le &lta k V. para ser feHz? 

No me falta nada, graciaa k Dioa. 
Deseo oonooer al pintor cuya pintora 

tiene V. en an coarto. 
iLe peaa k V. de no haber eatado en d 

conderto? 
He peaa mudio de no haber estado, 

porque no tuye el placer de yer k su 

amigo de V. 
A ml me peaa de ello tambien. 



Do you Uke fruit f 

Yea, dr, I like oiangea and melons. 

I like peacbea and apples. 

Which <^ the fine arts do yon like 

beat? 
I like them all, moaic^ poetry, painting 

and Bculptore. 
Do you go to the opera yery often? 
I go two or three tunea a week. 
It H>pearB to me that it will soon ndn, 

and I am glad of it (I Uke it)^ becanae 

I find (haye a) great pleasure m aee- 

ing it rain. 
Is it posdble 1 I do not like to see it 

ndn; but I like to see it snow. 

Does that hoiae suit you ? 

It does not suit (or answer) me, because 

it is yery dd, so that I ahall not 

buy it 
Do you liye near here, or fkt away? 
I liye yeiy near. 
Do you liye in or out of town ? 
In town now, but in the country in 

summer. 
What do. you want (is wanting to you) 

to be happy? 
I want nothing, thank God. 
I desire (or wish) to know the painter 

whose painting you haye in your room. 
Do you regret not haying been at the 

concert? 
I deeply (very much) regret not haying 

been there, for I had not the pleasure 

of sedng your friend. 
I regret it too (also). 



EXPLANATION. 



148. GusTAB, derived from the noan gnsto^ pleasure, and 
signifying literally to giveplecuure tOj is the yerb by which we 



144 LXSSOK XXZI. 

translate to like; bat in passing from English to Spanish^ the 
nominative case or subject becomes the objective, and the 
latter is preceded by the preposition d; as, 
^Legosta&y. lapoesia? I Do joulikepoetiyf 

Me gosta (or & ml me gnsta) macho. | I like U rery mnch. 

149. GusTAB, followed by the preposition de^ means to be 
fond qfy and sentences in which it is used are constracted as 
in English; as, 

To gusto de la mMca. I I am fond of music 

£1 gosta de la poesia. | He is fond of poetry. 

150. GusTAB, used as an active verb, means to Uute^ and 
governs the objective, without the aid of any preposition what- 
ever; as, 

i Gusta v. la sopa ? I Do yon taste the soup f 

Ko, sefior, gusto la came. | No, sir, I taste the meat 

151. The verbs j9e«ar, to regret; faUar^ in the sense of to 
want, or hacer/cUtay to have need of; (xcomodar^ to suit ; em- 
veniVj to suit ; importar^ to be important ; placety to please, 
and some others, require the same idiomatic construction of the 
sentence as that explained in the case of gustar; as. 



Nos falta (or nos hace ialta) dinero. 
A v. le importa ese negodo. 
Macho me place. 



We want (or are in want of) money, 
that businesB is important to 70a. 
It pleases me mnch. 



This last verb is defective, and is very little used, except in 
the present and imperfect of the subjunctive mood, as will be 
seen in the proper place. 

152. The verb pesar, when meaning to regret^ generally 
takes the preposition de after it ; as, 
Me pesa de ello. | I am sorry for it 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. |Le gusta & V. la 6pera? Ouando era j6ven me gostaba mas qne 
ahora. 

2. jVendrd V. mafiana & comer con nosotros? Si, sefior, no £altar6. 
8. {Necesita V. hoy su reloj? Hoy no me haoe falta, mafiana me 

convendr& tenerlo. 

4. I Qoiere Y. saber lo que he heoho hoy ? No me importa saberlo. 



LBSSON XXXI. 145 

6^ iCompra V. el caballo del ingl6s? No, sefior, no me oonviene: 
es may caro. - 

0. Dicen qne es muj bneno. No importa. 

7. iPorqnS viveY. tan l^jos de la dndad? Porqne no me gostan 
Tecdnofl. 

8. lAnte^vivia Y. o6modamente c^rca de la pobladon? 6i; pero 
ahora no me gnsta. 

9. I Odmtas arrobas pesa Y. f Peso ocho arrobas y oinco libras. 

10. ^Ha yisto Y. & sn prima? No, sefior, j me pesa mncho de ello. 

11. I Caimto pesa sn nlfio de Y. ? No s6, porqne no lo bemos pesado 
ann. 

12. iQniere Y. ir & paseo con D. O^los, nnestro vecino? No qniero 
ir con ^1 porqne babla mucho, j no me gostafi los babladores. 

13. No obstante, el afio pasado estaba Y. en buena amistad con ^L 
Si ; pero abora me pesa j me pesar& siempre. - 

14. iNnnca ser^ Yds. amigos otra vezt Jamds : es imposible. 

15. jPorquef No pnedo declrselo & Y. 

16. |Eso no le gnstar^ 4 61 ? Nada me importa. 

17. ^EsSn Yds. comiendo pan? No, sefior, estamos comiendo fruta. 

18. I Gnsta Y. ? Si, corner^ xma manzana. 

19. |No le gostan & Y. los melomes? No, sefior; pero me gnstan mas 
los melocotones y las narasjas. 

20. iQni^n es aqnella seflorita tan bella qne paseaba ayer con Y. en 
el parqne? £s nna amiga mia. 

21. I Qq& son los bombres qne vinieron intes de ayer con Y. ? El nno es 
poeta, el otro pintor y esonltor el otro. 

22. lOu&L de las bcllas artes le gnsta & Y. mas? Todat^ me gnstan; 
pero la x>oesia mas que las otras. 

23. iJjQ gnsta i Y. leer nna bella poesia? Si, sellor, me gnsta 
mncbo. 

24. |Hace mncbo Mo boy? Fnera bace bastante; pero dentro de 
casa bace mny poco. 

25. 2Porqn6 no fU^ Y. al balle anocbe? Porqne no me gnstan los 
bailes. 

26. |Es pomble qne siendo tan j6yen no le gnstan d Y? A mi me 
importa estndiar; nobailar. 

27. iPorqn6 no qniere Y. bailar? Porqne estoy oansado. 

28. iQn6 es lo qne le bace falta & Y. para ser feliz? Nada me bace 
falta por abora, gracias & Dios. 

29. 2jQn6 le fUta & Y. ? Me &]ta el sombrero. 

80. Aqni est4. 480 marcba Y.?— Si, sefior, si V. no manda otra 
cos^ 



146 LSSBON XXX I. 



EXERCISE. 



1. Are your brothers and sisters foDd of study t They are not so 
fond of it as some children I have known. 

2. Do they ever read poetry? Sometimes, but not very often. 

5. Do yon nnderstand Spanish poetry? Not yet; hvttd, understand 
prose perfectly welL 

4. Do you ever eat fruit? Tes, I am very fond of apples, oranges, 
peaches and melons. 

6. Is that gentleman a sculptor? No, madam, he is a painter, and 
eigoys a high reputation. 

6. Do you know that it is raining ? Raining! no, I did not (know it). 

7. Do you think it is going to thunder ? I think it is (I think so). 

8. Then it is imposible to go out? By no means {de ningun modo) ; 
we are not afraid of lightning. 

9. Does it always lighten when it rains? Not always. 

10. Good morning, Mr. RetortiUo, how do you do? Very weS, thank 
you ; and how are you (and you)? 

11. What do you wish? I have come to see if this letter is correctly 
written. It is perfectly correct 

12. Who wrote that letter? A Mend of mine, yrho writes Spanish 
very well. 

18. Why do you not learn Spanish yourself? I have no time, and I 
regret it very much. 

14. What profession (profenan) do you like best? Of all professions I 
like that of a physician best 

15. When did you see Miss Md^ndez ? I had the pleasure of seeing 
her the other day. 

16. How do you like (gui taT) your new piano? Very much. 

17. Who is your music teacher? I have none just now; but I used 
to have a German teacher. 

18. How much do you weigh? I weigh a hundred and «xty-five 
pounds (lUnw), 

19. Does Charles weigh as much as Alexander? No, sir, Alexander 
weighs twenty pounds more. 

20. Is Mr. Martinez at home? No, or, he is out 

21. When will he be in ? I do not know; he did cot say (it) when he 
was going oi^t (al salir). 

22. Does your uncle live in or out of town ? In summer he lives out 
of town. 

28. WhenJie is in town where does he live ? In Twenty-second street 
near Fifth Avenue. 



LESSON XXXII. 



147 



24. How did yon spend your time when yon were in the country? I 
walked morning and evening, and during the day I read the beautiful 
pocma of Zorrilla and Espronceda. 

25. Have you ever read any of Martinez de la Rosa's poems? Yes, 
but I do not like them so well as those of Mcl^ndez. 

26. Which is the greatest Spanish painter? Spiun has had a great 
nmnber of excellent painters, but the most celebrated of all are Murillo 
and Velazquez. 

27. Are your cousins pleased with their new house? I believe so; 
bat they say they liked the old one better. 

28. Where did they live before taking the house in which they reside 
now ? In Fourteenth street, near Seventh avenue. 

29. Are they not comfortable in the new one? It is not for that; 
but they are very fond of flowers, and they have no garden now. 

30. Will you come out i^nd take a walk with me ? Yes, if Emanuel 
oomes with us ; if not, I shall go and practise on the piano. 



LESSON XXXII. 



Poder. {See thU verb at the 

end of the look,) 
Esperar. 
Gastigar. 
Engafiar. 
Qnemar. 
Tratar. 
Tratar de. 
Tratar en. 

Segair. {See this verb at the 
end of the booh.) 



To be able ; may, &o. 

To expect, to wait for, to hope. 

To punish. 

To deceive, to cheat. 

To bum. 

To treat ; to have intercotfrse with. 

To endeavor, to try, to treat of. 

To deal in. 

To follow. 



ADYBBBS AlTD ADTEBSIAL PHBA8ES. 



Gasl 

£0u4nto1iempo? 

Cuanto dntes. 

DeModa. 

Debalde. ) 

Gratis. ) 

De cnando en cuando. 



Almost, nearly. 
How long? 
As soon as possible.* 
. Fashionable. 

Gratis; for nothing. 

From time to time ; now and then. 



148 



LB880N ZZXII. 



De improviflo. 

Do veras. ) 

Yerdaderamento. ) 
En lo sacesWo. 
Hastano mas. 
Poco 4 poco. 
For sapuesto. 
Tal vez. ) 
Acaso. ) 

Picaro. Rogae (roguish). 

Bribon. Rascal. 

i^emplo. Example ; instance. 



Bnddenly, unexpectedly, un- 
awares. 

Indeed, truly. 

In future. 

To the utmost, to the extreme. 
Little by little, by degrees, gently. 
Of course. 



Perhaps. 

Coqneta. 
Sociedad. 
Politics. 



Coquette. 

Society. 

Politics. 



COMPOSITION. 



tfi hermano es castigado algunas veces 

por no saber sus lecciones. 
Y su amigo de V. Alejandro, ^lo es al- 

gunayez? 
Lo es de coando en caando ; pero mi 

hermana no ha side castigada jam&s, 

porque sabe nempre sus lecciones. 
i Ha sido V. engafiado alguna rez ? 
Hasta no mas, porque hay muchos p(- 

caros en la eociedad. 
Esta casa est& bien sitoada. 
La carta estaba mal escrita. 
Manuel es amado de {or por) Margarita. 
£1 Ubro ha sido escrito por un Frances. 
Se quem6 (or fu6 quemada) la casa. 
Esta casa se hlzo en seis meses. 

i En cu&nto tiempo se hlzo la do V. f • 

En cosa de tres meses. 

i Co&nto tiempo necesita Y. para escri- 

biresa carta? 
Est4 casi acabada ; cstoy con Y. en un 

minuta 
Poco k poco; va Y. muy apriaa. 
Tal vez ; pero tengo prisa y quiero aca- 

bar pronto. 



My brother is sometimes punished for 

not knowing his lessons. 
And your fiieud Alexander, is he ever 

punished (ever so) f 
He is, now and then ; but my sister has 

never been punished, because she 

always knows her lessons. 
Hare you ever been deceived ? 
To the utmost, for there are a great 

many rogues in society. 
This house is well situated. 
The letter was badly written. 
Emanuel is loved by Margaret 
The book was written by a Frenchman. 
The house was burnt 
This house was built (made) in six 

months. 
How long was yours in building (mak- 
ing)? 
About three months. 
How long shall you be in writing that 

letter? 
It is almost finished ; I shall be (am) 

with you in a moment (minute). 
Gently : you go very quick. 
Perhaps so ; but I am in haste, and I 

want to get done (finish) soon. 



LBSSON XXXII. 



149 



^Deverafl? 

For supaesto : tengo que ir al corrco. 

Dio3 est4 en todas partes, lo Babe y lo 
paede todo, j nos perdonar& si trata- 
mo8 de hacer nueetro deber. 



i Es Ba reloj de Y. de moda? 
Si, seiior ; pero no me gosta, porqne cs 
may pcqueno. 



Indeed ? 

Of course : I hare to go to the post- 
ofBce. 

God is everywhere; He knows all 
things, and • nothing is impossible 
for Him (can do all); and He will 
pardon us, if we endeavor to do our 
duty. 

Is your watch {ashionable ? 

Yes, sir ; but I do not like it, because 
it is too smalL 



EXPLANATION. . 



15 3. Passive Voice. — ^This voice is formed by the different 
tenses of the auxiliary ser added to the past participle of the 
verb, care being taken that the participle agree with the sub- 
ject, in gender and number, like an adjective ; as, 



Soy annado. 
HemoB sido amado«. 
Habeis sido amadou. 
Ser&s amado. 



I am loved. 
We have been loved. 
You have been loved. 
Thou wilt be loved. 



(a). The passive voice is, however, formed in Spanish, by 
estor, instead of «er, when the past participle is used adjective- 
ly, that is to say, when the state or condition of the subject is 
described without any reference to an action ; as, 

£sta casa edd bien tUuada. | This house is well located. 

La carta egtaba mal escrita. | The letter was badly written. 

164. The passive verb formed by ser is used in Spanish in 
the present and imperfect of the indicative mood, only when it 
is designed to express a mental act ; as, 

Manuel es amado de Margarita. | Emanuel is loved by Margaret 

When a mental act is not expressed, the passive verb being 
in the present or imperfect of the indicative mood, eatar is the 
auxiliary to be used, and not 8er\ as. 
El libro ha sido escrito por un Fran- The book was written by a French- 

ces, or el libro estd escrito por un 

Frances (instead of es eserilo), 

165. When the action of the verb refers to the mind, the 



150 LEBBON ZXXII. 

preposition de or por may be used after the passiTe verb, before 
the agent, and j9or only, when otherwise ; as, 

Manuel es amado de (or por) Marga- 1 Emanuel is loved by Uai^ret 
rita. I 

156. The passive voice in English is very frequently 
turned into Spanish by putting the verb which is in the parti- 
ciple past in English, in the same person and number as the 
auxiliary to he in the English sentence, and placing the pronoun 
96 before it. 

167. The latter form is preferred when the object, or re- 
ceiver, of the action is. an inanimate thing, or when the sub- 
ject, or agent, remains undetermined ; as, 



8e quem6 la caaa. 

Esta caaa «e hizo en eeis meses. 



The house was burnt 
This house was built (made) in six 
months. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. jNo puede V. esperar ? Esperar6 un poco. 

2. I No me engafiar&Y.? For sapnesto que no; yo no soyningon 
picaro. 

8. Bnenos dias. ^De qu6 estan Yds. tratando ? — ^Estabamos hablando 
de modafi. 

4. ^Paede Y. decirme si mi sombrero es de moda ? No es de la tilti- 
ma (moda). 

5. I Cadnto tiempo hace qae pas6 esta moda ? Habrd ya nn mes, pooo 
mas 6 mi&Dos. 

6. i Qoiere Y. qnemar las cartas de esa sefioritat Si, sefior, porqae 
es xma coqneta. 

7. jDe veras? Yo cl'eia que era mia sefiorita de mncha circuns- 
peccion. Ilace algrai tiempo lo era ; pero poco & poco ha ido siguiendo 
el ejemplo de otras. 

8. I Tal voz el ser coqneta es de moda en la sociedad del dia ? Asi lo 
creo. 

9. Y. debe excusar k las nifias ; ellas son inocentes j no creen haccr 
mal en eso. 

10. iHa side Y. engafiado alguna vez? Hasta no mas; porque hay 
mnchos picaros. 

11. iHan sido castigados sns nines do Y.? Si, senor, ban sido casti- 
gados por no saber sos lecdones. 



LB8»>ON XXXII. 161 

12. I Y aqael criado tan baeno qne V. tenia? Es an bribon; no lo 
qaiero ni de balde. 

13. |De Veras? Y. lo trataba mny bien. Acaso por lo mismo qne 
JO lo trataba bien, me ha tratado €1 tan mal. 

14. |Le gnsta & V. la sociedad f SS, sefior, de cnando en coando. 

15. iPorqa6 no vive Y., ent6nce8, en la cnidad? Porqne se me qaem6 
lacosa. 

16. ^Oo&ntotiempohace? Casi nn mes. 

17. Y ahora, j no va Y. nnnca all4 ? Yoy de cnando en coando. 

18. £so es verdaderamente on gran mal ; pero en lo sncesivo tendrd 
y. mas cnidado. — Por snpnesto que sL 

19. J No pudo Y. aaber qni6n le quem6 la casa? No; pero creo qne 
fu4 on bribon, qne me queria mal. 

20. 4 Qniere Y. acabar ya? Si, onanto ^tes ; no pnedo esperar mas. 

21. I Qa6 piensa Y. haoer ahora ? Trato de casdgar al qne me qaem6 la 
casa. 

22. I Y despnes? Despnes ver^ si pnedo hacer otra. 

28. j Y no tiene Y. ahora ningnna aM ? Tengo una hecha de impro- 
viao. 

24. Poco 4 poco ir4 Y. hadendo otra. Asi lo espero. 

25. A Por snpnesto que' sn sefiora Tivir4 en la dndad? 81; pero ra 
sM de coando en coando ; el otro dia Degd de improviso, cnando m^nos 
laesperaba. 

26. ^ No poede Y. rolrer mafiana por aqni ? Mafiana tal vez no, pero 
pasadosi. 

2T. Ent6noes lo espero 4 Y. Mn falta ? Puede Y. esperarme ; no faltar6. 

28. |Ird Y. hoy 4 la comedia 6 4 la 6peraf Tal vez ir6 4 la 6pera, 
porqne es mas de moda. 

29. I Nnnca Ta Y. 4 la comedia ? Si ; roy de cnando en coando. 

80. I Sabe Y. que se ha quemado la Academia {academy) de Mtisica ? 
Si; anoohe lo lei en los peri6dioos. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Pax>a, may I go out f Yes, you may go out for half an hour. 

2. How long is it since your house was burnt ? Only three weeks. 
8. Why does that woman punish her children so much? She al- 
ways punishes them when they do wrong (pbrar mctl). 

4. Does she reward {reeampeMor) them when they do right? I be- 
lieve she does. 

6. Why do you bum all that young lady^s letters ? Because she is 
only a coquette. 



152 LEBSON XZXII. ' 

6. I think yon are not right ; I haVe known her along time^ and I 
believe she is very circmnspect (cireumspecta). . 

7. Why do your family always live in the country ? Becaose we do 
not like society. 

8. And is it not possible to live in town without going into society ? 
It is impossible. 

9. We always live in town, and yet (Hn embargo) we never go into 
society. 

10. Peter, can yon write that letter for me now? I can. 

11. When do yon want it? As soon as possible. 

12. Havje you ever been deceived by that man? Yes, very. often ; he 
isarasoaL 

18. How long have yon known him ? I^ot long ; but each time I have 
had business with him, he has deceive! me. 

14. Indeed ! What business is he in ? I cannot tell you. 

15. Do you often go to the theatre ? Never to the theatre ; I go to 
the opera now and then. 

16. Can you tell me whether my hat is fashionable ? Yes, it is in the 
latest fashion. 

17. Is Peter^s the fiashion too? No, those hats went out of fGLshion 
last year. 

18. Where is your old servant? He lives* with us no longer. 

19. Did you give Charles the fruit you were to buy for him ? No, he 
came for it the other day, but I had not had time to buy it. 

20., Why did you come so late to-day to your lesson ? My exercise 
was very difficulty and I could not finish it in time. ' 

21. Well, I hope you will come in time in future ? Yea, in future I 
shall come at four o'clock precisely. 

22. I hope you will not deceive me ? Of course I shall not ; I never 
deceive anybody. 

23. Will that young gentleman be at the concert with you to-morrow 
night ? Perhaps he will come with us. 

24. Does he not go every night ? Indeed I do not know. 

25. How long is it since you began to take lessons ? About (eerea de) 
four months. 

26. And do your brother and sister take their lessons at the same hour 
as you? No, my brother takes his at ten o'clock, and my aster at 
twelve. 

27. Where did you become acquainted with the gentleman who danced 
last with your cousin (fern,) yesterday evening ? I made his acquaint- 
ance in Madrid the year before last 

28. Has this young man deceived you aii often as his fSather ? He has ; 



LESSON- XXXIII. 



153 



7011 know children almost always follow the example of their parents 
QMu2re»). 

29. Do you think Charles is loyed by Louisa? I think she loves him 
as mnch as it is possible to love. 

30. What did you tell the tailor ? I told him yon wanted your coat 
and Test for the day after to-morrow. * 



LESSON XXXIII. 



Lavar^^ 
'E&heTse lavado. 
Haber.9« de lavar. 

LaT4ndo9«. 
Habi6ndo86 lavado. 
Habi6iido«0 de lavar. 



KEFLECnVE VERBS. 

LNFIMITIVE MOOD. 

To wash one^s sel£ 
To have washed one^s se]£ 
To have to wash one^s self. 



QJSRTJITD, 



Washing one's self. 
Having washed one^s self. 
Having to wash one's sel£ 



DIDIOATIVE PBESBNT. 



(Yo) me lavo. 
(TA) te lavas. 
(£l) se lava. 
(Nosotros) nos lavamos. 
(Vosotroe) os lavais. 
(EIlos) se lavan. 



I wash myself. 
Then washest thyself 
He washes himselfl 
We wash ourselves. 
You wash yourselves. 
They wash themselves. 



{The other simple tenses a/re conjugated in like tnanner.) 



FBETSBIT JU^DKFLNITE, 



(Yo) me he lavado. 
(Tti) te has lavado. 
(Cl) so ha lavado. 
(Nosotros) nos hemes lavado. 
(Vosotros) OS habeis lavado. 
(EUos) se han lavado. 



I have washed myself. 
Thou hast washed thyself. 
He has washed himself. 
We have washed ourselves. 
You have washed yourselves. 
They have washed themselves. 



{The other compound tenses are conjugated in like manner.) 



Cortar. 

Cortarw. 

Aftttar. 



To cut. 

To cut one's self; to be ashamed. 

To shave. 



154 



I.E880N XXXIII. 



Afeitane. 
Lerantar. 
Levantarj^. 
Cansar. 
GansarM. 
^Descansar. 
Contentar. 
Ck)Dt6ntarM. 
Bnrlar. 
BorlarM. 
Pregnntar. 
Responder. 
Engafiaratf. 
Temer. 

Arriba. 

Ab^o. 

Detr^ 

Encima. 

Debi^o. 

Lnego. 

Qu6tal? 

Descansadamente. 

De borlas. 

Descansado. 
Oontento. 



Barbero. 

Cansancio. 

Descanso. 

Oontento. 

Bespondon. 

Caohillo. 



Barber. 

Weariness, fatigue. 
Best 

Oontentment. 
Ever ready to reply. 
Knife. 



Pelo 6 cabello. ^air. 



To shave one's sell 

To raise, to lift. 

To get up, to rise. 

To weary, to fi^igae, to tire. 

To tire one's sel^ to get tired. 

To rest 

To content, to please. 

To content one's sel£. 

To mock, to jest 

To jest, to make jest of, to laugh at. 

To question, to ask, to enquire. 

To answer. 

To deceive one's selC 

To fear. 

Up. 

Down. 

Behind. 

Upon, above. 

Under. 

Presently. 

How ; how do you do? 

Easily. 

In jest. 



Bested. 
Content 



Pregunta. 

Bespuesta. 

Burla. 

Declinacion. 

Derivacion. 

Disposidon. 

Una. 



Question, query. 

Answer. 

Jest 

Declination. 

Derivation. 

Disposition. 

NaU (finger). 



COMPOSITION, 
^ A qu6 bora se levant6 Y. ayer ? 



He levants temprano; me levanto al 

amaneoer todos los dias. 
i Qa6 hizo Y. entOnoes ? 
He afeit^ y sail 



At what o'clock did you get up yester- 
day? 

I rose early ; I rise at daybreak every 
morning. 

What did you do next (then) ? 

I shaved myself and went out 



LBSSON XZXIII. 



155 



^Se lava V. katen de afdtarae? 

tf e afetio Antes de lavanne. 

I Son fadles de aprender las palabras 
dedinacion, deiivacion, y disposicion ? 

Son facilfmmafl, porque casi todas las pa- 
labras que acaban en cion son lo 
mismo en ingl^ cambiando la c en f. 

Tengo nn barbero qne afeita muy bien, 
pero es carislmo ; i qu6 tal afeita el 
deV.? 

El mio no afeita muy bien; pero es 
baratisimo, porque me afeito yo 
misma 

Ahora me afdta el barbero, porque me 
he cortado la mano y no puedo afei- 
tarme yo mismo. 

i Porqu6 se l>urla Y. de su amigo ? 

Me burlo de 41 porque se levanta muy 
tarde. 

(Se ha caziaado Y. de estndiar ? 

No, Befior, porque cuando me canso de 
estodiar, deecanso escribiendo. 

I Ama Y. & su hermano ? 

Xos amamoe el uno al otro. 

iLe gusta k Y. mas pr^guntar que res- 
ponder? 

No, senor, yo no Boy pregunton, y me 
guata haoer fimbas cosas. 

To no trsbigo mucho, lo hago descan- 
sadamente. 

I Se engafia Y. & si mi«ano alguna Tez ? 

Y. habla de burlas ; i puede uno enga- 
fiarse k sf mismo jam&s ? 

For Bupuesto que sL 

i Est& su amigo de Y. abijo 6 arriba ? 

i £st4 mi libro debijo 6 endma de la 

mesa? 
*Qu6 tal le gosta 6 Y. Nuera York ? 



Do yon wash yourself before shaving 

(yourself)? 
I shave before washing myself. 
Are the words declination, derivation 

and disposition easy to learn ? 
They are very easy, because all words- 
ending in don are the same in Cng- 

lish, changing the e into t 
I have a barber that shaves very well, 

but he is exceedingly high (dear); 

how does your's shave ? 
Mine does not shave very well ; but he 

is very cheap, for I shave mysell 

The barber shaves me at present (now), 

because I (have) cut my hand, and I 

cannot shave myself. 
Why do you make fun of your friend ? 
I make fhn of him because he gets up 

very late. 
Have you got tired of studying? 
No, ear ; because when I get tired at 

study, I rest myself writing. 
Do you love your brother ? 
We love each other. 
Do you like better to ask questions 

than to answer ? 
No, sir, I am not inquisitive ; I like to 

do both. 
I do not work much ; I do it at my ease. 

Do you ever deceive yourself? 
Tou speak in jest; can one ever de- 
ceive one^s self? . 
Certainly (so). 

Is your friend up^ituis or down-stairs ? 
Is my book upon or under the table ? 

How do you like New York ? 



EXPLANATION. 

158. Rbplbctiye Vkebs.— Almost all active verbs may 
become reflective in Spanish, and be used as pronominal 



The 



156 LB880N XXXIII. 

pronoun object most be of tbe same person as that of the sub- 
ject, and each person is conjugated with a doable personal 
pronoun. However, the pronoun subject is almost always im- 
derstood in Spanish, while in English it is expressed ; as, 

InfinUU/e. Amane. I To lore one's selfl 

FarL Pra. Am&ndotB. | Loving one's sdC 



IKDXCAIITB 



Heamo. 

Teamas. 

Beania. 

Nosamamos. 

Oa annus. 

Seaman. 



I loTe myselfl 
Thou lovest th jBel£ 
He loves himself. 
We love ourselves. 
You love youra^ea. 
They love themselves. 

And in the same manner in all the other tenses. 

159. When an agent performs an action upon a part of 
himself, the verb is made reflective ; and tbe possessive pro- 
nouns, my, hiSf etc., are translated into Spanish by the article 
d^ Igj loSj iaa; as, 

Me corto d cabello. I I cut mj^ hair. 

Sc corta ku nfiaa. | He cuts his nails. 

160. When the verb denotes a reciprocity of action be* 
tween two or more individuals, it is formed, in Spanish, in the 
same manner as the plural of reflective verbs ; as. 



I^Toa amamoB, 
(h engaiiadeU, 
Se temerdn. 



We love one another. 
You deceived each other. 
They will fear eadi other. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. jSe ha afeitado Y. ? Ni me ho lavado ni afeitado. 

2. ^ Oo^ntas veces lava la criada & los nifios ? Los lava por la mafiana, 
al medio dia y 4 la noche. 

8. I Oa^do les corta las nfias ? Se las corta los midrcoles y los s&bados. 
. 4. ^ Se lavantan temprano ? A las sets en verana, y & las siete en in- 
vierno. 

6. jPorqu6 no se levant6 V. hoy mas temprane ? Porqne el criado 
no me despert6. 

6. 2 No despierta Y. temprano ? Ouondo estoy cansado, no. 

7. {EstabaY.mny cansado ayer? Si, senor, el paseo me can86 mucsho. 



LB8BON ZXZIII. 157 

a Entdnces, iqaerri V. doecansar hoy todo el dia? No^ he desean* 
sado ja bastante durante la nt)che. 

9. I Con co^nto dinero ae oontenta Y. ? Yo me contento oon pooo. 

10. jSe contentard V. oon diez pesos ? Se bnrla Y. de mL 

11. No, yo Bolamente pregonto. — Y. me pregonta j 70 respondo que no. 
13. I Habla V. do bnrlas 6 de veras ? Hablo de veraa ; 70 no me con- 
tento con m^09 de den pesos. 

13. jSe burla Y. de mi? No, aelLor, 70 nnnca hablo de bnrlas; 7 Y. 
tendr4 qne contentarse con lo que se le ha dado 7a. 

14. Y. es qnien se engafia.— El engafiado ser& Y., 70 no. 

15. I Para qn6 llama Y. al barbero ? Para afeitarme. 

16. I Porqn6 no se afeita Y. mismo ? Porqne tengo miedo de cortarme. 

17. iD6ndeest&elcndu]lo? Est& sobre la mesa. 

18. £Ad6ndevaY.? Y07 & cortarme el pelo. 

19. iD6nd6 idve bu barbero ? Yive dethb de la iglesia. 

20. 4Pregnnt6 Y. al criado por mis botas ? Si, sellor, me dyo que es- 
taban bi^o de la cama. 

21. 2 Sale Y. ahora&paseo? Ko, setior, saldr6 despnes. 

22. I Qu6 tal est6 sn amigo de Y. ? Ahora est4 mas contento. 

2*^- I Qa6 tal es el criado que tiene Y. ahora? Es mn7 respondon. 

24. 2D6iide eetd sa padre de Y., arriba 6 abigo ? Antes estaba ab^o, 
ahora me parece que eStk arriba. 

25. I Q116 tal ha pasado Y. la noche ? Mn7 descansadamente ; he dor-^ 
mido muy bien. 

26. I C6mo estan escritos los ^erdcios de sn gramdtica de Y. ? Estan 
por pregnntas 7 respuestas. 

27. I Hizo Y. la pregunta qne le dije ? Si; pero no me dieron respuesta. 

28. (De qu6 trata la lecdon de ho7? De la dedinacion 7 derivadon 
de los nombreS) 7 de la dispoddon de las palabras en la compodcion. 

29. I Qn6 est^ Y. l67endo? Las dispoddones del re7 Oarlos UI. 

80. I Aprende bien d espanol su amigo de Y. ? No, sefior, tiene mu7 
poca dispodcion para las lengnas. 

81. 4 Qu6 hizo Y. a7er despnes que se levantd ? Me laT6 7 me afeita. 

82. (Se cana6 Y. muoho a7er? 81, sefior, me cans6 mncho d paseo al 
parque- 

88. I Neoedta Y. descanso ? Descanso bastante de noche. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Wh«re do 7on deep? In the small room on the third floor (piso). 

2. At what o'dook do 70a get up every morning ? I generall7 rise 
at ax o'dock. 



158 LESBON XXXIII. 

8. At what hour do jour children rise in Bommer 9 Thej rise at day- 
break. 

4. At what time do they go to bed? At nightfall. 

5. Where do you wash yourself? I wash myself in my own room. 

6. Do you wash yourself in hot (calierUe) or cold water ? I wash 
myself always with cold water. 

7. Why do you not wash sometimes with warm water? Because 
cold water is much better for the skin (ct^^is). 

8. Where do you go to get shaved ? I go to the barber's. 

9. Where does your barber live? In Broadway, near Broome 
street 

10. Are you tired ? No, sir, I never tire myself writing. 

11. Are you speaking in earnest or in jest? In earnest; I am not in 
a humor to jest. 

12. It seemed to me you were in a humor to jest a whDe ago ? Not 
at all ; on the contrary, it was my brother that was making fun of me 
because I had cut my hand. 

13. Well, no matter ; I know you are fond of jesting and laughing at 
everybody. You deceive yourself my dear su* (sefior mio), 

14. Oharles, can you go to the trior's to tell him I wish to see him ? 
It is impossible for me to go out now, I am expecting Mr. Yalero. 

15. No matter, I shall send John. John cannot go either ; he has to 
be here at the same time as L 

16. WiU you go to the post-office and ask if there are any letters for 
me ? I asked this morning when I took father's letters, and they told 
me there were none. 

IT. Did you see the newspaper I was reading when your cousin came 
in ? There it is on the table, behind the dictionary. 

18. Why did you get your hair cut {haeene eortar)^ Because it was 
too long (largo). 

19. Indeed I I thought you Uked long hair ? On ladies, yes ; but it 
is not very suitable for a man. 

20. Where is Peter ? I think he is up-stairs. 

21. Will you do me the pleasure to call him ? Certainly. 

22. Was the muracian contented with what you gave him ? He did 
not appear to be contented. 

28. How do you like the vest that my tailor made for you ? Pretty 
(bastante) well ; but I like the work of my own tailor, better. 

24. How is your unde to-day? The physician came to see him this 
afternoon, and he smd he was much better. 

25. What are those gentlemen doing over there ? Do you not see that 
they are resting? 



LESSON XXXIV. 



169 



26. How do yoa know they are tired f They have been walking all 
the morning. 

27. Then they are Tery right {hacer muy him) to rest. Of course ; 
rest is sweet {grato) when one is tired (m estd eantado). 



LESSON XXXIV. 



mREGULAB VERBa 



Acertar. 






To guess, to make out, to hit 






the mark. 






iNDiCAti VK. — Present. 


Aeierto, 
Aeiertas. 






I guess. 
Thou guessest 


Acierta. 
Acertamos. 






He guesses. 
We guess. 


Accrtais. 






You guess. 


Aeiertan. 






They guess. 






nfFEBATIYE. 


Acierta tti^ 






-Guess thou. 


Aeierte 61. 






Let him guess. 


Aoertemos nosotros. 




Let us guess, 


Acertad vosotros. 




Guess. 


Acierten ellos. 






Let them guess. 






BUBJUTTonvB. — Present. 


Aeierte. 






I may or can guess. 


Aeiertes, 






Thou mayest or canst gneas. 


Aeierte, 






He may or can guess. 


Aoertemos. 






We may or can guess. 


Aoerteis. 






You may or can guess. 


Acierten. 






They may or can guess. 






Oalentar. 






To warm, to heat. 


Cerrar. 






To shut, to close. 


Confesar. 






To confess. 


Despertar. 






To awake, to wake. 


Gobernar. 






To govern. 



160 



LBBSON ZZZIY. 



Merendar. 

Negar. 

Pensar. 

Qaebrar. 

Sentarse. 



ToliinclL 

To deny. 

To think, to iutend. 

To break. 

To sit down. 



Verhi that are regular, although email changes are made to preeerte the 
pronunciation of the i^finityoe. 

To vanquish, to overcome. - 



Veneer. 

Resaroir. 

Pagar. 

Delinqnir. 

Escoger. 

Poseer. 

Proveer. 

Hair. 

Argtdr. 



Fuego. Fire. 

Jardinoro. Gardener. 

Motivo. Motive. 

Sofl Sofa. 



To indemnify. 

To pay. 

To commit a fault, to transgress. 

To choose. 

To possess. 

To provide. 

To flee, to fly. 

To argae. 



Aver. 


Let ns see. 


Qniz&. 


Perhaps. 


Delinoaento. 


Delinquent, offender, transgres- 




sor. 


Inooente. 


Innocent. 


Franco. 


Frank, open. 


Coalquiera. 


Any, any one, some one, what- 




ever, whatsoever. 


Cnalqtdera parte. 


Any place. 



Consecnenda. 

Prndencia. 

Verdnras. 

Deuda. 



Oonseqaence, 
condosion. 
Prudence. 
Vegetables. 
Debt. 



COMPOSITION. 



^Le gusta k Y. calentane al Aiego? 
Si, sefior, me gusta calentarme al fuego 

en el inviemo cuando hace mucho 

frio. 
I Qu6 calienta el criado ? 
EstA calentiuido el caf6. 
^ A qu6 hoia despertd V. ayert 



Do you like to warm yourself at the fire ? 

Tes, BUT, I like to warm myself at the 

fire in winter when it is very cold. 

What is the servant warming ? 

He is warming the coffee. 

At what hour did you awake yesterday. 



LBS80K XXXIT. 



161 



jATOTsi adertaV.f 

No s6, quizi despertd Y. & laa cinoo. 

Despierto todas laa mafianas k las cna- 

troy media. 
^Cierra V. la puerta 6 la abre ? 
He cerrado la puerta 7 abierto la yen- 



i E9 delincnente aqnel hombre ? 

Lo creo, porque huye. 

Xiego la consecuencia ; Y. no argaye 

bien, 61 paede aer inocente y huir 

por piudenda. 

^SepTOyey6 Y. de florest 

Me prorei de fruta 7 mi hermana de 

Terduraa. 
«Pag& Y. por ellas al jardinero ? 
To le pagu6 la frata 7 mi hermana le 

pag6 las yerdnras. 
jFiensa Y. ir & Eoropa este yerano P 

Beseo irme £ alguna parte, porqne con- 

fieso que tengo macho miedo del c61era. 
Hajmuchos que niegan tener miedo; 

pero 70 teogo el yalor de confesarlo 

inncamente. 
i A qix6 bora se desa7una Y. P 
He de8a7ano & laa ocho, mcricndo & las 

dos 7 Gomo k laa seis. 
itfe promete Y. yenir & comer conmi- 

goho7? 
Entre comer 6 merendar con Y. escojo 

el merendar, porque Y. come dfttia- 

siado temprano. 

* Words printed In 4taUc9 do not 



Lei US see if 70U eon* gneas/ 

I do not know ; perhi^ 70a awoke at 

fiye o'clock. 
I awake eyer7 morning at half-past 

four. 
Are 70a shutting the door or opening it ? 
I haye shut the door and opened the 

window. 
Is that man a transgressor ? 
I think so, for he flees. 
I den7 the conclusion ; 70U do not 

argue correctl7 (well) ; he ma7 be 

innocent and flee (or fl7) from pra- 

dence. 
Did 70U proyide 70ur8elf with flowen ? 
I proyided m7Self with fruit, and m7 

sister with yegetables. 
Did 70U pa7 the gardener for them ? 
I pud bun for tKe fruit, and m7 sister 

paid lum for the yegetables. 
Do 70U mtend to go to Europe this 

summer? 
I wish to go somewhere, for I confess 

I am yery much afraid of the cholera. 
There are man7 who den7 being afraid ; 

but I haye the courage to confess it 

frccl7. 
At what hour do 70U breakfast ? 
I breakfast at eight, lunch at two, and 
. dine at six. 
Will 70U (do 70U) promise to come and 

dine with me to-da7 ? 
Between lunching and dining with 70a, 

I choose lunching, for 70a dine too 

eari7. 
reqoixo to be txandated Into Spaniah. 



EXPLANATION. 

161. iBBEGtTLAB Vekbs. — All verbs that are not conju- 
gated throagbont according to tbe model verbs already given 
(hablaTj aprendery eacrilnr)^ are called irregtdar. 

162. It 18, however, to be observed^ that although some 
verbs undergo slight changes in their radical letters, they are 



162 LSB80N XZXIV. 

not to be considered as irregular on that account, inasmuch as 
those mutations take place in order to preserve throughout the 
whole conjugation the pronunciation of the root as sounded in 
the infinitive. This' observation should be carefully borne in 
mind, so as nc^ to take for irreguLir verbs those which are 
really not so. 

Many verbs ending in car^ cer^ cir^ gar^ for instance, undergo 
respectively such mutations as above alluded to : those in car 
change the c into que before e ; as, 

Tocar. I To toudu 

To^6 (instead of toc^). | I touched ; 

in those in cer and cir, the c is changed into z before a and o; 
as. 



°> 



Venoer. 

Veiu50 (inatead of tciwo). 

Resarcir. 

Reaarso (instead of resareo). 



To vanquish. 
I yanquish. 
To indemnify. 
I indemnify ; 



and lastly, those in gar take a u after the g and befote e ; as, 
Pagar. I To pay. 

Pagv6 (instead of pag6). | I pud. 

For the same reason delinquir changes qu into c, before a 
and ; as, delinco^ ddinea^ ddincamos ; and escoger, to choose, 
changes the g intoj before a and o ; as, eacqfoj escqfa. 

163. The verbs which terminate in ecr, as creer^ to believe ; 
leer J to read; poseeTj to possess; proveer^ to provide, in those 
terminations which contain an f, change it into f/ whenever it 
is to be joined with another vowel ; as, creij creyS ; fei, let/eron ; 
po8e\^po8ey€re\ provei, provet/erem^y &c. 

164. The same change is made in the verbs ending in tiir, 
when the u and the i make a part of two diffisrent syllables. 
Thus AmV, to fly, makes, in the third person of the preterit defi- 
nite, huyd ; argUir, to argue, makes argugS, &c. 

165. The irregular verbs, about ^tje hundred and Jifty in 
number, may be divided into seven classes, presenting each a 
certain regularity in their irregularity ; that is to say, whose 
irregularities occur in. the same persons and tenses, so that 
when the pupil has learned seven verbs, or one of each of those 



LESSON XZXIY. 168 

gronps, he will be able to conjugate almost all the* SpaDish 
irregular verbs, save a few that confine their irregularities to 
themselves and their compounds, and of which the majority 
have been already introduced in previous lessons, such as haher^ 
tener^ &q, ; but the learner can find them all^coagugated at the 
end of the book. 

Aeertar may serve as a model for the conjugation of the 
first of these seven classes of irregular verbs, just as hdblar does 
for the first conjugation of the regular verbs. The irregularity 
oi aeertar^ and of all those conjugated like it, consists in taking 
an % before the last e of the root, in, the firsli^ second and third 
persons singular, and the ^Aerc^ person plural of the present of the 
indicative mood, in the pi^sent of the subjunctive, and in the 
imperative. {See list of the irregular verba at the end of the 
book,) In all the other tenses and moods those verbs are regu- 
lar, and the learner can easily form them according to their 
respective conjugations. 

166. Pagab may take for its direct object either the value 
paid or the thing paid for, while the person paid is the indi- 
rect object. JPor may be used before the thing paid for ; as. 



Pago lo8 caballofl, or pago por los 

cabftUos. 
Pago xnH pesos /Mr los cabaUoB. 

Pago al comerciante mil pesos por 
lo8 cabdllos. 



I pay for the horses. 

I pay a thousand doQars for the 
horses. 

I pay the merchant a thousand dol- 
lars for the horses. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Acertar& Y. la casa de sa prima? Si, senor, yo la acertar6. 

2. iPodr& V. aeertar qm6n estuvo aqui ayer? No acierto. 

8. I No entiende sa hermano de Y. lo que le digo ? SS, senor; pero 
no acierta d responder. 

4. iSe calienta Y. al ftiego ? Si, sefior, porqne hace macho frio. 

5. |Porqa6 no cierra Y. ent6noes la paerta? Confieso que no habia 
pensado en ello. 

6. j A qu6 hora de8pert6 Y. esta manana? Despert6 4 las diez. 

7. jEl que gobierna ana casa y ana fanulia, no debe levantarse tem- 
prano? No lo niego. 

8. ^Piensa Y. merendar hoy? Si, sefior, nosotrosTnerendamos todos 
los dias. 



164 LBSSON XXXIY. 

9. iPorqa6 no b6 sienta Y. en aqneUa sOla, qne es mc^jor? Porqne 
tengo miedo de rompcrla. 

10. jLepag6V. dsucriado? Si,8eflor,lepagn6ayeryhoy8ehahuido. 

11. iNo le perdonar^ V. ? No, sefior, porque quien delinqui6 una vez 
delinquira dos. 

12. i Y no se re8afci6 de su trab^jo? Si, senor, dntes se provey6 do 
ropa en mi casa. 

18. I Qa6 lengnas posee 61 ? El ingles, el frances j el italiano. 

14. jQai^nposeeaboralacaBadecampodeY.f Elamericanolaposee. 

15. 2 Se la ha pagado & V . ? No^ sefior, no me pag6 nada. 

16. iCompr6 V. flores al jardinerot Le compr6 yerdoras 7 mi bei^ 
mana le compr6 florca. 

17. ^Le pagaron Yds. al jardinero por elks? Yo le paga6 las verda- 
ras 7 mi hermana pag6 por las flores. 

18. I A qai6n le gustan mas las flores, 4 Y. 6 d sa hermana ? Oreo que 
k clla le gustan mas las flores; pero & mi me gosta mas la frnta. 

19. 2 Qn^ ^ta le gosta & Y. mas ? Me gostan las naraigas 7 las man- 
zanas. 

20. jPaga Y. dempre bus dendasf Las pago cnondo tengo dinero. 

21. I Piensa Y. ir d campo este Terano ? Deseo ir 6 cualqniera parte, 
porqne confleso ^ne tengo macho miedo del c61era. 

22. I No tiene Y. vergaenza de confesarlo? Ha7 muchos qne niegan 
tener miedo ; pero 70 tengo el yalor de confesarlo francamente. 

23. i A qn6 hora despert6 Y. a7er? A7er, creo que despert^ & las 
cinco. Despierto todos los dias & las cuatro 7 media. 

24. 2 Y & qu6 hora se de8a7una Y. ? Me desa7uno a las siete, meriendo 
k las dos 7 como k las seis. 

25. 2 Me promete Y. renir ho7 k comer conmigo? No paedo prome- 
t^rselo, porque no s6 si tendr^ tlempo. 

EXCKHCISE. 

1. How cold it b this morning I Yes, it is vety cold. 

2. Will 70U not come and warm 7ourself at the fire? No^ thank 
70U ; I do not like to warm m78elf at the fire. 

8. In that case it is better to shut the doors and the windows. 
Perhaps it «.♦ 

4. Do 70U intend remaining {eita/ne) here during the winter? If m7 
uncle remains, I will too. 

5. WiU 70U not choose other rooms if 70U remain ? Yes, I intend 

to do BO. 

« SngllBhvordfl printed in <te{ie« do not rapiira to be tnndated Into BjM^^ 



LBBBON XXZIY. 165 

6. Good eYeniQg, Charles; will jon not sit down for a few minntes f 
With pleasure. 

7. Did yoa find oat (make oat) the moMcian^s hooae yesterday ? I 
made ont the house without much difficulty, bat I did not see him. 

8. How was that ? He most have been oat, for I knocked at his 
door. • 

9. At what hoar do yoa dioe? I generally dine at six o'clock. 

10. Then yoa lanch at noon ? Yes, ^, I generally lanch about that 
hour. 

11. Do you eat ftuit every day at dinner? Not every day. 

12. Did your brother pay for the fruit he bought last week ? No ; but 
ho has to go out to-morrow, and perhaps he will go and pay for it 

13. Let us go and take a walk. Where do you wish to go 9 

14. We can go to the Central Park. Very well, let us go there ; I 
think it is the finest promenade in the city. 

15. At what time do they ope^ the park in the morning? I believe 
it is open in summer at five o'clock. 

16. And at what time is it shut? At eleven o'clock, I believe, or per- 
haps a little later. 

17. In that case it will be better not to go there until to-morrow ; it 
is now rather too late {algo tarde). 

18. How too late? It is only half-past seven, so that we have three 
hours and a half for walking. 

19. Where are they taking that man to ? They are taking him to 
-prison (la edrcel)» 

20. What are they taking him to prison for? He must be guilty of 
«ome misdemeanor (delinquir). 

21. Has the servant taken the letter to the pianist yet ? He took it to 
him yesterday afternoon. 

22. Have you seen the news this morning ? No ; what news is there? 

23. There was a great fire last night in Fourth street, and twelve 
houses were burned. 

24. Where is Alexander ? He is up stairs. 

25. Have any of you seen my Spanish dictionary? Yes, I had it this 
morning in my room. 

26. What were you doing with it? I was lo(ddng for a new word 
which I met with* while reading the history you lent me. 

27. How did you manage (aeertar) to wake so early this morning ? 
My brother awoke me sm^ng in my room, at five o'clock. 

28. At what time do you generally wake ? If no one comes to inter- 
rupt (interrumpir) my sleep, I never wake before nine. 

• EiiftUsh words in itaUes do not reqnire to bo tranalAtad. 



166 



LEBSOK ZXZY. 



29. fs it not better for the health to rise early ? Certainlj; but then 
it is necessary to go to bed early also. 

80. Why do yon not go to bed early ? I am fond of reading and stady, 
and so I rarely go to bed before two o^dock in the morning (de la ma- 
drugada). 



LESSON XXXV. 

IRREGULAR VERBS— C<m^n«ed 
Aoostar. | To put in bed* 

TsmoATivn, — Present. 
AeuestOj acueetoA, cieueeta. I I pat in bed, Ac 
Aoostamos, acostais, aetiestan. \ We pat in bed, &o. 

IMPEBATITE. 

Aeueata tti, aeueste 61, aooste- Fat in bed, && 

mos nosotros, acostad yobo- 
tros, acuetteniXLoA. 

flUBjTJNonvB. — Present 

Aeueste^ aeuestes^ acuesU^ acos- 1 I may, or can, pat in bed, &g, 
temos, acosteis, (umesten. 



Acostarse. 

Aprobar. 

Almorzar. 

Gontar. 

Oonsolar. 

Encontrar. 

Mostrar. 

Probar. 

Recordar. 

Reprobar. 

Rogar. 

Sofiar. 

Delicioso. 
Espacioso. 
Indastrioso. 
Religioso. 



OONJUGATED UEX AOOSTAB. 

To go to bed, to lie down. 
To approve. 
' To break&st 
To coant; to relate, or teH 
To console. 
To meet 
To show. 

To prove; to try; to taste. 
To remind ; to remember. 
To reprove. 
To entreat 
To dream. 



Delicioos. 
Spacioas. 
Indnstrioos. 
R^igioas. 



LESSON XXZY. 



161 



Arifltoor4tico. 


Aristooratio. 


Glisico. 


ClasBio. 


FanMco. 


Fanatic. 


Monirquico. 


Monarchical. 


Tir&nico. 


TTrannicaL 


Tragico. 


Tragic. 


Portico. 


Poetical 


Analitico. 


Analytical • 


BAtirioo. 


Satirical 


illo66fico. 


Phnosophical 


C6mioo. 


Ck>micy comical 


£coii6inico. 


Economical 


Lac6mco. 


Laconic. 


Met6diG0. 


Methodical 


Cr6nico. 


Chronic. 


Yaao. Tumbler, glass. 


Taza. Cap. 


Sermon. Sermon. 


Moral Moral 


Mundo. World. 


Rept^bHca. Eepublic. 




Independencia. Inde^ndence. 




Religion. Religion. 


COMPOS 


mON. " 



Manuel, aca^state tempranoy lev&ntate 

temprano tambien. 
Alejandro, cu^ntame lo que te dijo Loiaa. 
Ayadate y Dies te ayudaHL ' 

AsDA & t& projimo como & tf mismo. 
S4 leligioso, pero no seas fan&tico. 
S4 indostrioso y eoon6mico y no ser&a 

pobie. 
Sent6mono8, que estoy cansado. 
Amaos como hermanos y no hableis 

mal nno del otro. 
Entrc v., Dn. Pedro, y tome V. a^ento, 

or si^ntese Y. 
No puedo, estoy de prisa. 
Juan, cierra la pnerta, pero no derres 

laventana. 
Caballeros, entren Yds., y les mostrar^ 

mialibros. 
Alejandro, confieea tu fUta y te la per- 

doDar6. 



Emanuel, go to bed early and rise early 

too. 
Alexander, tell me what Louisa told thee. 
Help thyself^ and God will help thee. 
LoTe thy neighbor as thyself. 
Be reli^ous, but not a fanatic. 
Be industrious and economical and thou 

Shalt not be poor. 
Let U8 sit down, for I am tired. 
Love each other as brothers, and speak 

no eril one of another. 
Come in, Mr. Peter, take a seat, or be 

seated. 
I cannot, I am in a hurry. 
John, shut the door, but do not shut 

the window. 
Come in, gentlemen, and I shall show 

you my books. 
Alexander, confess your fault, and I 

will pardon you. 



168 LBSSOK ZZXV. 



Ko lo8 ofendamoB. 

Amigos, cantemoB y bailemOB j seamos 

feUoes. 
No tomar&s en vano el Kombre del Se- 

fior tu Dioa 



Let us not offend thenu 

My fiiends, let us ong, danoe and be 

merry. 
Thou fihalt not take the Name of the 

Lord thy God in vdn. 



EXPLANATION. 

167. The verb acoatar changes the radical o into ue in the 
flame tenses and persons as those in which the verb acerUxr Is 
irregular; i. e., in the present indicative, the imperative and the 
present subjunctive. (See this verb and those cw^ugated like 
it at the end of the book). 

168. Thb dcpebative hood is not used in the first person 

singular ; nor is it used in Spanish for forbidding ; that is, it is 

not employed in the negative form; but the persons of the 

present subjunctive are used when a negative command or a 

prohibition is expressed ; as, 

No lo hagas. I I •. . 

Nolohagai8.f | I>onotdoBo. 

169. As has already been said, the s of the first person 
plural, and the d of the second, are suppressed before nos and 
08; as, 

Am6mono9. | Let ua Ioto each other. 

Amaos. | Love one another. 

170. When the imperative is negative in English, as the 
subjunctive is employed in Spanish, the objective pronouns are 
placed before it ; as, 

No lo digas. t Do not tell it 

No los ofendamoa. | Let us not offend them. 

171. The future of the •indicative is often used for the im- 
perative; as, 

No tomar&8 en vano el Nombre I Thou ahalt not take the Name of 
del Sefior tu Dies. | the Lord thy Qod in vain. 

172. Many adjectives ending in ous are rendered into 
Spanish by changing this termination into oso ; as, 

Delidow. I DeliciouB. ' 

Espadoi^. I SpadooB, &a 



I.BSSON ZZZV. 169 

173. Many nonns and adjectives ending in English into 
or icai have in Spanish the termination ico ; as, 

Fanittco. i Fanatic, fanatical 

Portico. I Poetic, poeticaL 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. Lnisa, estadia bien tn lecdon do espa&ol j escribe los ejercicios. 

2. 2Qa6 me dork Y., pap&i si la estudio bien j no hago faltas en los 
ejercicios ? Te Uevar6 conmigo al Parqne OentraL 

3. Pap^ I no llevar4 Y. 4.Al^andro j & Manael con nosotros? 8i 
son bnenos muchaohos j estndiosos los llevar^ tambien. 

4. Alejandro, yen ac& j cn^ntame qn6 hidste ayer en el campo.— ,0on 
tnacho gosto. For la mallana me levants temprano, mo lav^ j almorc^ j 
despnes me ful & pasear. Yolvi muj cansado j me aoost^ 4 las nneve. 

5. I Juan! • ^Sefior? Mafiana me despertar&s & las cinco, me limpia- 
ras las botas y me traeras el caballo temprano, porqne quiero ir 4 dar nn 
pa'teo y tomar on vaso de leche en el hotel del Parqne Central. 

6. Amigo mio, no seas fan^tico, pero s^ religioso. No seas satirico 
ni hablador, pero b6 pmdente, econ6mico 6 industrioso j serds feliz. 

7. Por DioB, Don Pedro, no faable Y. mas, le prometo 4 Y. estudiar 7 
ser baen mnchacho. 

8. No seas respotfdon, haz tn deber, ajtidate j Dios te ayndard. 

9. Don Pedro, 4 mi no me .gnstan los sermones largos, si^nteso Y. j 
hablemos de otra cosa. 

10. Mire V., Dn. Jnan, d aqnella senorita que estd en la ventana del 
vecino ; jla conoce Y. ? Si, setter, la conoci en Filadelfia. 

11. jQu6 tal le gnsta d Y.? Mnchisimo; es ima seflorita perfecta, y 
habla el espafiol tan bien como el ingl6s. 

12. 4 Quiere Y. Uevarme d su casa? Tengo deseo de conocerla.— Oon 
mucho gusto, pero dntes necesito sn aprobacion. 

13. jLe aman d Y. mucho sub nifios? Me aman y yo los amo; y toda 
la familia nos amamos los nnos d los otros, asi es que somos felicisimos. 

14. ^Se aman Yds. los nnos d los otros tanto como se aman Yds. mis- 
mosf Oreo que si. 

15. Hable Y. alto y despacio si Y. gnsta y ent6noes entender6 todo lo 
que Y. dice. — Asi lo har6 ; pero Y. no pensard en otra cosa que en lo 
que yo digo, porqne si no, no hablarS mas. 

16. jLe conviene d Y. comprar aqnella casa? No me conviene, por- 
qne es muy cara y estd mny 16jo3 de la ciudad. 

17. iQn6 le parece d Y. del tiempo? Hoy es d cuatro de Julio do 

8 



170 LBSSOK ZXXY. 

1866, 7 por snpnesto liace calor; pero haoe mny bnen tiempo para la 
celebracion de la independencia de esta gran Beptiblica. 

18. I Cndntos alios hace hoj que los Estados XJnidos celebran sa inde- 
pendencia ? Noventa y un afios. 

19. I Parece imposible ! £n m^nos de cien afios ha llegado esta nacion 
& ser una de las potencias (powers) mas grandes del mundo. 

20. Eso debia ser asi, y no dade Y . que llegari nn dia en qne la liber- 
tad y la reli^on reinar^ en el mondo haciendo felloes & todas las na- 
dones como 4 otras tantas familias qne tienen un mismo padre. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Did yon get np late to-day ? No; I got np at daybreak to go and 
walk in the oonntry. 

2. Where did yon walk? I went first to the Central Park, and then 
to Harlem. 

8. What ia the first thing we read in Telemachns? We read that 
Oalypso could not console herself for the departure {partida) of 
Ulysses. 

4. Where have you been all this time, sir f it is more than a week 
since you last came to see us ; that is not right (eatar Men), I confess I 
am rather negligent (negligerUe) sometimes. 

6. You have doubtless already gone to see your old Mend? Yes, 
and he wanted to make me spend a month with him at his country house. 

6. What part of the country does he live in ? On Long Island, about 
ten miles from the city. 

7. Was he not glad to see you ? We looked at each other for about 
ten minutes without being able to say a word ; at last (en Jin) he broke 
the silence (rompiS el eilencio), and said to me : '* What I is it you, my 
dear friend? After seven years^ absence (atueneia) I How glad I am. 

8. Did he know you as soon as he saw you ? Yes, and I knew him, 
though I met him at some distance from his father's house. 

9. Doubtless he asked you about your travels (voyages)? Of course. 
"Whore have you been ? " said he. " What have you done ? what have 
you seen? are you rich? are you happy? Tell me all you have done 
since you went away (irae) ; all your adventures. I wish it; I desire it; 
I beg of you; it will give (you will do) me the greatest pleasure." 

10. All that proves his joy at seeing you. Yes, I know that; but how 
many questions 1 

11. Did he want an answer to each one of them? Of course; and I 
answered them as well as I could. 

12. What did you tell bun? I told bun that after having left France^ 



LS880N XXXVI. 171 

I went to Spain, and from there into Fortagal {Portugal), and that after 
a few months passed in Lbbon {Lulbod) I went on to Italy, where I re- 
mained fonr years. 

13. What are the hoars for breakfast and dinner amongst the Italians? 
The Italians, like the French, usually (generally) breakfast at eleven 
o'clock, and dine from five to seven in the evening. 

14. And do they never eat anything before the breakfast hour? Al- 
most everybody takes a cup of coffee or chocolate in the morning soon 
after rising. 

15. What kind of governments are there in Europe? In Europe we 
find almost every form (/armd) of government, repablican and monar- 
chicaL 

16. What is that book you have in your hand? An analytical treatise 
(tratado) of Spanish poetry that I was going to show to your cousin. 

17. Have you seen Boileau's satirical poems? My unde has promised 
to bring me that work from Paris. 

16. Are you fond of reading? Yes, I take (find) great pleasure in 
reading books of all kinds, classical, poetical, religions, analytical, satiri- 
cal, philosophical, Ac 

19. Do you remember the peaches our friend sent us from the country 
last year? Of course I remember them, and that they were delicious. 

20. (>harles, go and take your breakfast; I want to take you to see 
the fine horse your unde has bought for Alexander. 

21. Will you not buy one for me, too, papa? If you are a good boy 
I probably will. 

22. Do you ever dream? Very often; last night I dreamed I was 
travelling. 

28. Indeed! Where were you going to ? I do not remember now. 

24. What was your fether saying to Peter when I came in ? He was 
reproving him for not having written his exercise yesterday. 

2d. Can you tell me what day this is? To-day is Wednesday, July 
4th, of the year 1866, and the mnety-first of the Independence of the 
United States. 



Bespetar. 

Parar. 

Mover, 



LESSON XXXVI. 



To respect. 
To stop. 
To move. 



172 



LSSSON XXXVI. 



mDiOATPTK — Present 
Muevo, mueves, mueve, move- | I move, &c 



mos, moveis, tnueven. 



IMPERATIVE. 



Muete tt^ mueuoa 61, movamos 
nosotros, moved vosotros, 
muecan ellos. 



Move, &G. 



Mueoa, muevas, mueva, mova- 1 I may or can move, Ac 
mos, movais, mvetan, | 

Verba conjugated like movee. 



Uover. 






To rain. 




Morder. 






To bite. 




Doler. 






To grieve, to pain, to ache. 


Volver. 






To turn, to return. 


Antes que. 




Before. 




Annque. 






Although. 




Como. 






Since, provided. 


Para que. 
A fin de. 


ando. 




In order that, 


in order ta 


Todo el mi 




Everybody. 




Principalmente. 




Principally, chiefly. 


Antagomsta. Antagonist, 




Atrocidad. 


Atrocity. 


Artista. 


Artist. 




Gapacidad. 


Capacity. 


Materialista. 


Materialist. 




Glaridad. 


Oleameas, 


Katuralista. 


Naturalist 






light 


Organista. 


Organist. 




Crueldad. 


Crudty. 


Violinista. 


Violinist. 




Dificultad. 


Difficulty. 


Purista. 


Purist 




Etemidad. 


Eternity. 


Escritorio, 


Office. 




Facilidad. 


Facility, 


Oima. 


Climate. 




Noticias. 


News. 


Dolor, 


Grief, pain, 


ache. 
COMPO 


Guerra. 
SITION. 


War. 



Be dice que Maiimiliano ha partido de 
H^jico. 



It is said that Mfl^^'T"'^^*" has left Mex- 
ico. 



LESSON XXXVJ. 



173 



jSecreeeso? 

Aqui lo cree todo el mundo ; pero en 

Francia no se cree. 
I Cree Y. qae se podr& pagar pronto la 

deuda de los Estados Unidos ? 
No se har& muy pronto ; pero se hadl. 

AquI 86 habla espafioL 

Aqai se rende bnen vino. 

Se perdona algunas veces & los delin- 

cuentes, pero no siempre. 
£1 hombre se engafia & si mismo. 
iEnvid V. el violin al violinista ? . 

Se le envi^. 

i Tocan bien el piano en Espafla ? 

En Espana se toca bien la guitarra. 
iSc babla bien el espafiol en la Ameri- 
ca del Sur f 
Lo hablan j pronunclan bien. 
i Le daele k Y. la cabeza ? 
Si, sefior, mucho. 
i G6mo se llama Y. ? 
He Uamo Juan. 

i C6mo se llama eso en espafiol ? 
i C6mo se dice eso en espa&ol f 

U> niismo que en ingl6s. 



Do they belieye tbat ? 

Here everybody believes it ; but in 

France it is not believed. 
Is it thought that the United States 

debt can soon be paid ? 
It will not be accomplished (done) very 

soon ; but it will be done. 
Spanish is spoken here. 
Good wine is sold here. 
Transgressors are pardoned sometimes, 

but not always. 
Men deceive themselves. 
Did you send the violin to the violin- 
ist? 
I sent it to him, or did send it to him. 
Do they play well on the piago in 

Spam? 
They pli^ the guitar well in Spun. 
Is Spanish well spoken (or, do they speak 

good Spanish) in South America ? 
They speak it and pronounce it welL 
Does your head ache ? 
Yes, sir, very much. 
What is your name ? 
My name is John. 
What is that called in Sj^ish ? 
How do you (or, do they) say that in 

Spanish? 
The same as in EngUsh. 



EXPLANATION. 

1 74. MoYEB, to move, changes the radical o into tie^ in the 
same tenses and persons as the verb acostar; i, e,y in the 
first, second and third persons singular, and the third plural 
of the present indicative, and present subjunctive, and in the 
imperative. (See this verb^ and those conjugated like it, at the 
end of the hook). 

175. Se is the indefinite personal pronoun of the Spanish, 
referring to a personal agency in such a manner as to leave un- 
determined both the sex and the number of the persons repre- 
Bented. It corresponds, in this respect, with the English vye^ 
th^^ people or one; in fact, with all expressions which mention 



Sedice. 
JSe cree. 
No M hard, 

Aqui $e vende yino boeno. 
Aqui 96 habla espafioL 



174 LESSON XXXVI. 

persons thas vaguely and indefinitely. It is used with the 
third person singular of the verh ; as, 

It ifl naid, or they say. 

It is beUeved, or they beUere, 

They (people) will not do it, or it 

will not be done. 
Good wine is sold here. 
^Muiish is spoken here. 

1 76. The pronoun se has now been seen used in the four fiinc- 
tions in which it can be found ; it may be well to mention them 
all again, in order that these different offices of the pronoun ee 
may be well distinguished, and to avoid all confusion. They 
are the following : 

Ist. As an indefinite subject, as has been seen in the pres- 
ent lesson ; as, 
8e dice. | They say. 

2d. To form the passive voice of verbs (see Lesson 
XXXIL) ; as, 

Se perdona algonas Teces & los delin- 1 Transgressors are someUmes par- 
cuentea. | doned. 

Sd. As a reflective pronoun ; as, 

Manud se engafia. | Emanuel decdves himseUl 

4th, and lastly, the objective pronoun «6, for the sake of 
euphony, takes the place of the objectives le^ la^ lo, les (see 
Lesson XXVIL) ; as, 
Se lo pagar^ & Y. mafiana. | I will pay it to yon to-moirow. 

177. Many nouns ending in English in fy, are rendered in 
Spanish by changing these letters into dad\ as, 

Acixndad, I Activity. 

Gapacidiad | Capacity. 

N. B, — All nouns of this termination are feminine. Many 
nouns ending in English in iat^ are rendered into Spanish by 
adding to these letters an a ; as, 

Artidta. I Artist 

Oiganista. | Organist, &a 



LESSON ZXXVI. 1V5 

178. DoLEB. — ^Thisverb is used in the same manner as the 
verb guslar^ to like (see Lesson XXXI.) ; as, 
I Le dude & Y. la cabeza ? | Does your head ache? 

The same may be expressed in the following manner : 
I ^leue Y. dolor de cabeza ? | Have you a headache ? 

CONYERSATION AND YERSION. 

1. iSe vendo bucn vino en Nneva York ? Se vende bneno j male ; 
pero mny caro. 

2. £Qn6 noticiaa hay? Se dice qne la Alemania j la Italia estan en 
gnerra. 

8. I Se cree eso ? No solamente se cree, sino qne se sabe que la gner- 
ra ha principiado ya. 

4. {Se habla espafiol en Nneva York? En Nneva York se hablan 
todas las lengnas, pero prindpalmente d iogl^ el aleman, el francos j 
el espafiol. 

5. {Se aman los Franceses y los Ingleses? Greo qne no se aman 
oomo hermanos; pero se respetan. 

6. 2 A qni^n se ama mas en este pais, 4 los Franceses 6 4 los Ingleses ? 
Es cosa qne no sabr^ decir. 

7. I En los Estados Unidos se respetan las iglesias de todas las religio- 
ncs? Si, sefior, porqne hay libertad de reli^on;. es ana cosa mny bne- 
na para el pais, y yo la deseo para todas las naciones del mnndo. 

8. Hablemos de otra cosa, porqne todos no son tan liberales como Y. ; 
7 no se hard Y. amigos si habla tan francamente. 

9. Convengo con Y. en eso, ademds no se debe decir todo lo qne se 
piensa; pero para aprender nna lengna se debe practioar mncho y se 
debe hablar de todo nn poco. 

10. Y. tiene razon en eso, j ima conversaclon en qne no se habla, sino 
de '^si hacc calor 6 fiio, si ha estado Y. en el teatro, en el conderto, 6 en 
la iglesia, y de si tiene Y. el sombrero y d fnsil, y el vino, y el dinero de 
Y. 6 del vedno'^ es mny cansada. 

11. For snpncsto; pero Y. debe saber qne lo qne se Hama en ingles 
»m€dl talk es mny de mods. — Lo s6, es mny de moda, y hasta necesario 
algnnas veces. 

12. {Le d\]o Y. eso 4 sn amigo? No se lo d^e, porqne mi hermana se 
lo habia dicho ya. 

13. I Forqn6 no me lo dyo Y. 4 mi ? Porqne mi hermano me ha dicho 
qne se lo dir4 4 Y. mafiana. 

14. |Toca Dn. Pedro bien d piano? No, sefior, pero se engafia 4 si 
mismo j cree tocarlo mny bien. 



176 LESSON XXXYI. 

15. V^ngase V. esta tarde por aqui, 6 ir^mos i dar un paseo. — ^Bien, 
si V. me espera hasta las seis, vendr6, pero no dntes, porqne no puedo 
solir del escritorio hasta esa hora. 

16. 2 Qu6 tal tiempo ha hecho hoy en la ciadad ? Hoy ha hecho bnen 
tiempo y ayer hlzo bnen tiempo tambien ; pero maflana hard mol 
tiempo. 

17. iQ6mo sabe Y. que hard mal tiempo manana? Porqne en Naeva 
York no hace nunca buen tiempo por t^es dias. 

18. ^y. cree qne no hace buen tiempo mas que (aino) en la Habana? 
Perdone V. no me gusta el clima de la Habana ni el de Nneva York. 

19. Ent6nces, {qu6 clima le gosta & Y.? El de Espafia, porqne alii 
tenemos verdaderamente las cnatro estaciones. 

20. I Qu6 quiere Y. deeir ? Quiero decir qne en E^afia hace calor en 
verano annque no mnchisimo ; en inviemo hace frio, pero no nos hela- 
mos ; en otono hace nn excelente tiempo de otofio, y en la primayera 
tonemos primavera. 

21. ^Bien, jr no es lo mismo en Nneva York? Escdseme Y.; en 
Nneva York no he conocido la primavera ; hay mny pocosdias de otoflo, 
nn invierno larguisimo y un verano calurosisimo. 

22. i Y en la Habana ? Eu la Habana hay todo el afio el verano de 
Nneva York. 

23. ^ Yo pensaba qne d Y. no le gnstaba hablar del tiempo? Y. no 
me ha entendido; creo qne dobo hablarse dc todo, pero no siempre del 
tiempo. 

EXEUCISE. 

1. Why do yon not come quicker when I call yon ? I cannot come 
any quicker, my head aches. 

2. Where do yon think Spanish is spoken best? In Madrid, and in 
all parts of Old and New Castile {Costilla), 

8. And is it not well spoken in South America? There is some 
difference in the pronunciation; but, in general, persons of education 
speak correctly, whether they be South Americans or Spaniards. 

4. William, will you be good enough to take this letter to the post- 
office when you are going to take your lesson ? I shall take it in the 
afternoon, I have not time now. 

5. Are there many organists in the United States ? Yes ; and in New 
York, principally, there are a great many excellent organists and pianists. 

6. Do you like that man^s manner of speaking? No, I do not; he is 
too much of a* purist. 

7. Is your brother studying natural history? I cannot tell you 

* Engliah words In Ualict not to be innelAted into SiMmlah. 



LBSSON XXXVI. 177 

whether he is studying it or not ; but I know he has just bonght the 
complete works of Buffon. 

8. Who is Buffbn? A celebrated French naturalist. 

9. What did that man do that was taken to prison this morning? 
They say he was arrested {arrestar) for cruelty to animals. 

10. Will he be punished for it? Of course; transgressors of that 
kiud are rarely let off unpunished (pardoned). 

11. What is the matter with Alexander ? A dog bit him in the hand. 

12. Come here, Alexander; show me your hand. Is this the one? 
No, it is the other. 

13. Does it pain you much? It was very sore (pained) when I got 
bitten, hut now it is less painful. 

14. 1 have always told you how necessary it is to take care with dogs. 
I know that ; and I shall do so in future. 

15. Does your new watch go well ? Not very well ; it stops (itself) 
three or four times a day. 

16. Is your son getting on well in his studies ? Pretty well ; he has a 
great deal of capacity, and is fond of study. 

- 17. Look here, Charles. What do you wish? 

18. Count from one to a thousand in Spanish. Oh ! I can do that 
with the greatest ease. 

19. Well, let us see? One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, 
nine, ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen,* sixteen, seventeen, 
eighteen, nineteen, twenty, twenty-one, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, 
eighty, ninety, a hundred, a hundred and one, two hundred, three hun- 
dred, four hundred, five hundred, six hundred, seven hundred, eight 
hundred, nine hundred, a thousand. 

20. How do they write that last word in Spanish ? I do not remember. 

21. What is that? you do not remember! Did you not learn in the 
lesson on pronunciation, at the beginning of the grammar, that in Spanish 
every word is written just as it is pronounced ? Oh, yes, now I remember. 

22. Tell me, if you please, Mr. R., is French as easy to pronounce as 
Spanish ? They say it is much more difiScult, on the contrary. 

23. But it is not impossible to learn French pronunciation ? I did not 
say that ; I only said that they say it is more difficult than Spanish pro- 
nunciation. 

24. How do I pronounce ? Very well ; but, when reading or speaking, 
take a little more care with the z, 

25. Please to pronounce the name of that letter again (to return to 
pronounce)? With the greatest pleasure; it is called z. 

26. What other letter (letra) is pronounced like (the) zt Gy when it 
comes (finds itself) before an e or an i. 

8* 



178 



LESSON XXXYII. 



LESSON XXXVII. 



Subir. 
Atender. 



To go, or come up, to ascend. 
To attend. 



nmioATiTB — Present. 
Atiendoy atiendea^ attende, aten- | I attend, &c. 
demos, atcndeis, atienden. I 

IMFERATiyE. 

Atiende td, atienda ^\ atenda- Attend, dca 
mos nosotros, atcnded voeo- 
troa, atiendan ellos. 

BUBJUNonvK — Present, 
Atienda, atiendas, atienda, aten- I I may, or can, attend, dra. 
damos, atendais, atiendan. I 

Verbs conjugated like atendeb. 



Ascender. 

Descender. 

Defender. 

Entender. 

Encender. 

Perder. 

Alegrarse. 

Cbarlar. 

Hallar. 

Llegar. 

Enviar. 

Preparar. 

Con tal que. 

Puesto qnc. 

Dado caso que. 
Hasta que. 
Ann oaando. 
Por tanto. 
Por coanto. 
A m6nos de. ) 
A m^nos qne. f 



To ascend, to monnt. 
To descend. 
To defend. 
To understand. 
To light, to kindle. 
To lose. 



To be glad, to rejoice. 
To prattle, to chat. 
To find. 
To arrive. 
To send. 
To prepare. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

On condition that ; provided 

(that). 
Since, inasmuch as; supposing 

that 
In case. 
Until, till. 
Even, although. 
Therefore. 
Seeing that, for. 

Unless. 



LESSON XXZYII. 



170 



Tambien. 

Adem^ 

Ya. 

Tampoco. 

.Ojal4. 


Steamer. 
Balloon. 
Cold. 




Also, too. 

Moreover, besides. 

Whether, either. 

Neither, 

Would to God, God grant 


Vapor. 
Globo- 
Resfriado. 


Altura. Height 
Friolera. Trifle. 

COMPOSITION. 



Deaeo qae est^ estadiando sa leccion. 

Creo que la est& estudiasdo. 

i Pienaa V. qae tiene razon ? 

Kg pienao que la tenga. 

No lo creer^ aunque me lo digan miL 

Lo crco aunque ^1 lo niega. 

Dodo que Tenga hoy. 

Dado que baya yenido. 

Dado caao que Y. no me encuentre en 

casa, esp^reme Y. haeta que Tenga. 
Asi lo bar^ con tal que Y. me prometa 

Tolver pronto. 

Yolver^ tan pronto como pueda. 

Temo que no haya recibido mi carta. 

I Ojal4 no la reciba I pero yo temo que 
la redbidL 

A m6nofl que Y. venga primero k ret- 
me, yo no ire 4 verlo 4 Y. 

Puesio que 61 baya yenido, i le hablar4 
Y.? 

Aunque haya yenido no le hablar6 An- 
tes que 61 me hable. 



I wish that he may be etudying his 

lesson. 
I think he is studying it 
Do you think he is right f 
I do not think he is. 
I will not believe it though a thousand 

tell it to me. 
I believe it, although he denies it 
I doubt whether he will come to-day. 
I doubt his haying come. 
In case you should not find me at home, 

wait for me till I come. 
I win do so, on condition that you 

promise me to come back soon (or 

quickly). 
I shall return as soon as I can. 
I fear he has not received my letter. 
God grant that he may not receive it! 

but I fear he will (receive it). 
Unless you come first to see me, I will 

not go to see you. 
Supposing that he has come, will you 

speak to him? 
Although he may haye come I will not 

speak to him before he speaks to me. 



explanation; 

179. ATENDBBy to attend, and all the verbs conjagated like 
it, take an i before the last e of the radical letters, in the same 
tenses and persons as the verb acertar^ and the same tense in 
which {xcostar and mover change the o into ue ; i. e., in the first, 



' ,.- :: — -rr — n _L 3, ~7 - "- .^ _c iiiii±:in-»»s»ii:s ittoo^ 
^ ^ -.^^ 'TIT — =•* .=: -iL'i_zi iir TL%. iLi ri: '-%ii=:^ ra sacli a^ 

'"' " - ji...- _:r - r- . -«- L r -^ -Ht^^iirLzLAte, as ixs 

-^'^ - ^.^-' - ^ '^~ ^ r i X ^zTut-I^ -cFtilly witli tliie 

-^ - . -* ; =£L -SI. jh^-- — - mil 12^ ilriff t^crs^s of tlie 

■ '* ^ _ - I 1^ ^ i-"^ - ^i — • — -L 't^ ili*-'^** cf »be indica- 

-"^ ^ -J -» ' .- — ^ i=-w :it ^ "xn-iTr^TiiZL. 7« *-T ^2je ixifimtive, 
1^ . — — -- T 2L-T. J. iliE-i^rj :rL ^^-r — -~= ~^ w^ben tlie 

*" ^ "^ ^ -_r - ^ - ' 1 ' - *^ - ^ ^if "tIij^ Ti.»-»>i, ^ ^bole volume 
' ,, -J ^t . 1-^^ 1 v-c - f. ^cir^ i l*i.r>* ^Vj^se izkost likely 

.^TT'v:-!"^' Ti.-i^ f' ■ "-- '^ ^'^V «r- T^ ^<r^>^^ consent, 

' >'*-* -"*"• *" "^ "'••^f^ '".rFioramcf^ prefer- 

»^ -- - ;-'"; •-. ^.v^ 

T:- ^; i:- • ^**"*^.'"? '"*''^^ ^>:^-^iTvi l>ec3iuse t^o are not 

^.-^ • Tii: -^i-^ ^' ^-sx o. ^iiziii^a^ Jcc^ will be aecom- 

^ .::.•: i- "3: si^* ^ - ^ TI^ c-^yvems tbe siiboTOiiiate one 

.1 i'7- c - .i : -^^"^ **"/"* ^ ;^^>^*lT*e^ ^w-l^n the accomplish- 



.. .. .. ::. i - ^ :::i':V^ G-.-vcms i^ in any of tbose of 

-.f .: : ..:. : vl^ t-^ »^'-— ^ t^^^axdoa as certain to take 

^- V ^..^,. .^.^^^ ^^ i^ to tbosc ^irtio (may) have 

1^:=^.' T 4 3* ra«r '^ ^^^^ I ^^^<^ >* to tbe foxir wbo bave (or aw) 

fc ibe fim example, the verb is put in tbe subjunctive 1)0- 



LBS80N XXXVII. 181 

cause the speaker is not positive how many have come, or 
whether any have as yet come. In the second, the indicative 
is employed, because the speaker is certain of the arrival of the 
persons alladed to, and also of their numher. 

182. There are in Spanish certain conjunctions which re- 
quire the subjunctive mood after them, on account of the in- 
delinite and uncertain meaning which they commonly have. 
Some of them, however, it will he seen, occasionally occur with 
a positive signification, and may, in that case, he used with the 
indicative after them ; as. 



No lo cTeer6 aunque me ) ^ 

lodiganmn. \ Contingent 

Lo creo aunque 41 me | 
loniega. \ Certain. 



I win not believe it tboiigh a thou- 
sand tell it to me. 

I belieye it, although he denies it (to 
me). 

183. Finally, there are other parts of speech, and even 
whole phrases, which, on account of their indeterminate and 
doubtful, or contingent, meaning, require the subjunctive after 
them. 

184. Thb pbesent tensb of the suBJUNcnvB marks a 
contingent action as going on at the present moment, or to take 
place at some future time ; as, 

Dudo que yenga. | I doubt whether he wUl coma 

N. B. — Another use of this tense has been already noticed 
when treating of the imperative. (See Lesson XXXV.) 

185. The pebfect tense expresses a doubtful or contin- 
gent action or event, as having been completed some time past, 
or that will have taken place before the completion of another 
ftiture action or event ; as. 



Budo que haya vcnido. 
To le dar6 8u libro cuando H me 
haya dado el mio. 



I doubt whether he haa come. 
I shall giye him his book when he 
will have given me mine. 



CONVEBSATION AND VERSION. 

1. i Espera V. que llegue hoy el vapor de Eoropa? Oreo que ha lle- 
gado esta mafiana. 

2. To dudo que haya llegado todavia. i Quiere V. enviar su criado 
4proguntar si ha Degado el vapor? Con mucho gusto, porque yo tam- 
bien deseo tener noticias de Europa. 

8. I Oree V. que llegarA un dia en que podamos ir 4 Europa en globoe 



182 LBS80K XXXVII. 

aereosMUiooe? Macho me alegnir6 qne Ilegae ese dia, pero creo qne no 
lo yer^aam nosotros, porque es may dificil, j qmzik imposlble, el hallar la 
direcdon de los globos. 

4. iSuben mnj alto los globos ? No creo qne snban i mas de dos 6 
ires mil pi6a, pero si se qniere pneden sabir hasta la altora de qoince 6 
diez J seis mil pi6s. 

6. Dado caso que Degoe hoy el vi^r; |espera V. & sa amigo ? For 
sapnesto qae si, pnesto qne me escribe qne Uegard en este nusmo vapor. 

6. Ojal4 llegne, pero temo mncho qne haya tornado otro vapor j qne 
no llegne hasta la aemana pr6zima. 

7. ^Dnda Y. qne haya eetncUado sn leccion ? Dndo qne la haja estn- 
diadado, porqne es mny holgazan. 

8. A m6no8 qne Y. estndie bien las leociones j haga con mncho cni- 
dado los ^erdcios de la gram&tica, no aprender4 Y. el espafiol. 

9. Si, pero 70 creia qne se podia aprender nna lengna con la pr^ctioa 
solamente. — ^Asi es; pero ent6nce8 se necesita practicar todos los dias 
con qnien la hable may bien. 

10. ^£n cn4nto tiempo piensa Y. qne hablar6 70 el espafiol ? Y. lo 
hab]ar4 cnando sepa bien todias las lecciones de la gram^ca, 7 ba7a 
practicado 7 escrito los ejercicios. 

11. Y despnes qne ha7a aprendido toda la gram4tica, practicado, 7 
escrito los ejercicios, |hablar6 perfoctamente el espafiol? No, sefior; 
pero hablard Y. bastante correctamente para Uevar nna conversacion, es- 
cribir nna correspondencia, 7 poder hacer negocios en esta lengna. 

12. Yo pensaba qne el espafiol era nna lengna mn7 faciL — Yerdadera- 
mente lo es para aprender lo qne acabo de decirle 4 Y. ; pero para har 
blarlo perfectamente como Y. qniere, todas las lengnas son difioiles. 

18. Y si Y. no lo cree, h&game el favor de dedrme si habla Y. sn pro- 
pia lengna 7 la escribe perfectamente.— Yo confieso qne todavia tengo 
algo que aprender en el ingl6s. 

14. Cr6ame Y., amigo mio, el estndio de nna lengna no es nna friolera. 
— Creo qne tiene Y. mncha razon ; pero ha7 mnchos qne qnieren aprenderlo 
todo 7 mn7 pocos qne qnieran estndiar. 

15. jMe promete Y. venir 6 verme cnando venga 4 la cindad? Ann- 
qne venga 4 la cindad no podr6 venir 4 ver 4 Y. 4 m^noa qne acabe tem- 
prano mis negocios. 

16. jSabe Y. hacer frases (gentenees) en espafiol con todos los tiempoa 
del modo indicative? Sf, sefior, 7 tambien con el imperativo, el presente 
7 el perfecto de sabjnnctivo. 

17. Mn7 bien, ent6nces hdgame Y. ocho frases con los ocho tiempos de 
indicative, nna con el imperative 7 dos con el presente 7 perfecto de 
snbjnnctivo de cnalqniera verbo. 



LESSON XXXVII. 183 

18. lEstdV. malo? iHaestado Y.boy en elescritorio? jEstabaV. 
en stt cosa cuando sn amigo fd6 4 verle ? i Habia V. estado en el teatro 
^ntes de ir al baile ? i Estuvo Y. ayer en la ciudad? |Qa6 bizo Y. asi 
quo hnbo estado algnn tiempo en el botel ? i Estard Y. en casa mafiana 
todo el dia ? i Habr4 escrito Y. sn ejeroicio ^tes de las onatro ? £6ta- 
dia tus lecciones y escribe los ejercicios. No pierdas el tiempo. jDada 
y. qno yo sepa mi leccion? £ Duda Y. que yo la baya estadiado? 

EXERCISE. 

1. Jobn, tbere is some one at tbe door ; go and see wbo it is. Yes, sir. 

2. Is Mr. Retortillo in ? Yes, sir ; wbo sball I say wisbes to see bim? 
Tell bim tbat Mr. Perez wisbes to speak to bim a moment. 

8. Mr. Perez wisbes to see yon a moment^ sir. Let (^tie) bim come up. 
. 4. Ob! i am so glad to see yonl How are yon? bow bave you 
been? wbcn did you return?— I arrived by tbe nA/^amer Napoleon IlL^ 
on Wednesday last. 

5. Did you receive all tbe letters I wrote you during {durante) my 
absence ? I received one in Marcb, dated from Borne. 

6. How did you spend tbe time ? did you pass tbrougb Spain, as you 
bad intended ? No ; wbile I was still in Paris, and preparing to set out 
for Madrid, I learned tbat my brotber was very ill in Florence. 

7. Indeed I I am very sorry to bear tbat. Wbat was tbe matter 
witb bim Cwbat bad be) ? A beavy (strong) cold, tbat be bad caugbt on 
tis way from Turin to Florence. 

8. He had not, I believe, enjoyed very good bealtb for a long time be- 
fore leaving borne ? No, be bas always been sickly ; but principally for 
about a year before bis voyage to Europe, be bad colds almost every 
month, and I may say tbat be was never witbout beadacbes, day or 
night. 

9. Had be an Italian physician to attend bim ? No, Dr. Perez, bis 
family physician, wbo was travelling tbrougb Italy tbat same winter, just 
arrived at Florence tbe same dax as my brotber, and, bearing of bis ill- 
ness, went at once to see bim. 

10. How long was be ill? Nearly three weeks. 

11. How ? Are you going away so soon ? Sit down and let us chat 
for half an bour about your famOy. Thank you ; I cannot stay any 
longer now, but I shall have tbe pleasure of seeing you again to-morrow. 

12. Where are your brothers ? They are gone to see tbe balloon that 
is to go up this afternoon. 

13. Indeed ? I thought tbe baHoon was not to go up until Saturday. 
It was not to have gone up before Saturday; but, on account of tbe fine 
weather, it is to go up this afternoon. 



184' LBSSON ZXXTIII. 

14. Will many persons go up in it? Very few, I think; people in 
general do not like to go to sack a height. 

15. Do yon understand all that is said in Spanish ? I understand more 
and more every day ; but there are still many words and constructions 
tliat I do not know. 

16. How long do you think it will be before I can understand all, and 
speak like a native? That is a hard question to answer; provided you 
study with attention, read a great deal, and practice with Spaniards, you 
will soon understand and speak with ease ; but it is difficult for a foreigner 
to speak any language exactly like a native. 

17. But do you believe it to be impossible ? No, I do not say it is im- 
possible, but it is very difficult ; and, besides, I do not think it is neccs- 
sary. All that is required (wanted) is correctness, and to be able to con- 
verse with ease. 

18. Has John's servant lighted the fire ? Not yet ; John does not wish' 
it to be lighted until he returns. 

19. Well, Charles, have you found out* the meaning of the word yoa 
asked me for yesterday? No, sir; I have searched for it in all the dic- 
tionaries, and it is not to be found in any of them. 

20. Why do you not ask your teacher ? he can tell you at once. Yes, 
I know th&t very well ; but I do not like to ask him so many questions : 
every day he comes I have a new one to ask him. 

21. Do not stop at trifles of that kind; your teacher is very glad to be 
able to answer all questions, knowing that by that means (medio) you 
will learn better and more quickly. 

22. I am very glad to see you defend him, for Alexander said he was 
not fond of answering questions, and did not like inquisitive persons. — 
Neither he does ; but an inquisitive person is one thing, and a person 
who asks questions in order to gmn knowledge is another. 



LESSON XXXVIII. 

Sentir. (Look far the eonjugatum I To feel, to be sorry for. 
of thia verb at p, B96), I 

Verba conjugated like sentib. 

Arrepentirse. L To repent. 

Consentir. To consent 

Preforir. To prefer. 

• EngllBh words itaiieUed not to be tnuuhtod. 



LK880K XXXYIII. 



185 



Animar. 

Desanhnar. 

Ajndar. 

Enfermar. 

Exi^. 
Quedar. 
Pepfecciouar. 
Usar. 

Generalmcnteb 
De memoria. 

Ambos. 

De continno. 

Pere^oao. 

Examen. 

Oficio. 

Alberto. 

Norte. 

Sur. 

Este, oriente. 



To secure, to insure, to assore. 

To animate, to encourage, to in- 
duce. 

To dishearten, to discourage. 

To aid, to help. 

To fall (or get) sick, to make 
sick. 

To exact, to require. 

To remain. 

To perfect, to finish. 

To use, to wear. 



Generally. 
By heart. 

Both. 

Continually. 

Lazy. 



Occidente. 



Examination. 

Trade, office. 

Albert 

North. 

South. 

East 

West. 



Ilelena. 

Persona. 

Lectura. 

Profcsion. 

Escuela. 

Muerte. 

Vida. 

Promesa. 



Ellen. 

Person. 

Beading, lecture. 

Profession. 

School. 

Death. 

life. 

Promise. 



List of the present participles or verbal nouns and adjectives formed from 

' introdticed. 



Viviente. 

Estudiante. 

Escribiente. 



Residente. 
Tocante (en 6r- 

den &). 
Keinante. 
Saliente. 
Amante. 
Practicante. 
Princlpiante. 



the verbs already 
Living being. 
Student. 
A lawyer's clerk, 

a writer in a 

commercial 

house. 
Resident 
Concerning. 

Reigning. 

Salient 

Lover. 

Practitioner. 

Be^ner. 



Paseante. 

Creyente. 
Conveniente. 

Lnportante. 

Tratante. 

Cortante. 

Gobernante. 

Contanto. 

Doliente. 



Walker, passer- 
by, promeuader. 
Believer. 
Convenient, suita- 
ble. 
Important 
Dealer. 
Sharp, edged. 
Governing. 
Ready. 
Sad, afflicted, 
mournful. 



186 



LESSON XXXVIII. 



COMPOSITION. 



Tocante 4 lo que V. me d^o d otro <fia, 
deseo que no ae hable mw de ella 

Entraron canUnda 

Le encontraron lejcnda 

I Qa6 est4 V. haclendo ? 

Eatoy leyenda 

Vengo de comer. 

TnilNiJa sin deacansar. 

El trabiyar ea boeno para mnchaa 



El deacansar deapnea de trabajar es 

neceaaria 
La Timoa bailar. 

Emanad ea mi estadiante industrioso. 
^ Ea y . reaideote de loa tSatadoa Unidos ? 
ti ea baen creyente^ 



Ckmcening what you told me the other 
day, I wiah no more to be said 
abont it 

They came In singing. 

They fomid him reading. 

What are you doing ? 

I am reading. 

I am coming firom dinner. 

He labors without resting. 

Work la good for many things. 

Rest after labor is necessary. 

We saw her dandng. 
Emanad is an industrious student 
Are you a reddent of the United States f 
He is a good bdieyer. 



EXPLANATION. 

186. Present Participles. — Many Spanish verbs have, 
besides the past or passive participle, another called the present 
or active participla Those formed £rom verbs of the first con- 
jugation end in ante; as, amante^ loving, lover; and those 
formed frbm the second and third end in iente or erUe\ as, asis- 
tente^ assistant, obedienCej obedient. 

Participles of this kind cannot be formed firom all verbs, 
and indeed those already in existence can only be regarded as 
mere verbal noans or adjectives, inasmuch as, with the excep- 
tion of a very limited number to be found in use, such as to- 
carUCy they do not follow the regimen of the verbs from which 
they are derived. 

187. GERUNDa — ^Instead of the present participle, as a part 
of the verb, the gerund is now employed, and it corresponds, 
therefore, exactly to the English progressive form in inff\ as, 

Entraron cantando. | They came in singing. 

Le encontraron leyenda | They found him reading. 

188. The verb estar^ as has already been mentioned, can 



iisssoir zzxYiii. 187 

be used with the gerund in Spanish, as in English the verb to 
fc, with the present participle ; as, 

To esioy Uyendo. | I am readiiig. 

£IIos aian eseribiendo. \ They are writing. 

189. The i N Fm r A i vE is used in Spanish when in English 
the present participle, preceded hj a preposition, is used ; as, 

Se fii^ tin verle. | He went away without seeing him. 

Trabaja «n deacanaar. | He labon without resting. 

190. The rNFiNTnYE is also used as a verbal noun or pres- 
ent participle, in which case it takes the masculine definite 
article before it ; as, 



El trabajar es biieno pant la salad. 
Bl descansar despnes de trabajar 
mncho es necesaria 



Work ia good for the health. 
Rest is necessary after much work. 



191. The iNTnnrnns is often rendered in English by the 
present participle, when in Spanish it is governed by another 
verb; as, « 

Ia vifno9 bailor. \ We saw her dancing. 

CONVERSATIOX AND VEBSION. 

1. (Le. gosta k Y. mas leer que escribir ? He gostan 4mbas cosas, 
pero creo que leyendo se aprende mas que eseribiendo. 

2. |Es estudioso ese machacho ? No, sefior, pero hoy estadia mucho 
porqne mafiana tienen ex^enes en sn escnela. 

8. 2 Piensa V. que sea conveniente ese negocio ? Yo pienso qno lo es, 
pero qoiza no lo sea. 

4. I Qa6 est& Y. haciendo ? Estoy estadiando mi lecdon de espafiol. 

6. I Sintid Helena mncho la maerte de sa amiga ? La sinti6 tanto que 
eiiferm6. 

6. I G6mo se siente ahora? Est& an poco m^*or.~Me alegro qne est6 
mejor, porqne es may baena machacha. 

7. ^Paede Y. prestarme trescientos pesos ? Paedo prest&rselos d Y., 
pero no me gosta el prestar dinero. 

8. 1 06mo se aprende 4 hablar el espaftol ? Hablando se aprendo & 
hablar; delmismo modo qao bailando se aprende & baUar y haciendo 
zapatos se q)rende & zapatero. 

9. {Se arrepinti6 aqacl hombre de sa mala accion ? No lo creo por- 
qne es on pfcaro qae vive de engafiar. 

10. {Qae profesion t. ofido tieue? No tiene ni oficio, ni profesion 
ningana, es an pasoante. 



188 LESSON XXXTIII. 

• 

11. jDe d6nde viene V. ? Vengo de comer. 

12. ^De d6nde viene el viento? Yiene dd Sur, pero esta mafiana 
venia del Este. 

18. I liaeve en Nueva York cuando est& el viento al Este ? No, sellor, 
generalmente Uaeve cuando el viento est& al Oeste. 

14. Alberto, animate, 86 estadioso j aprende de memoria la leccion 
para manana. Pap&, hace macho calor 7 estoj cansado. 

16. Bien, no te desanimes, descansa nn poco 7 vuelve 4 trabiyar des- 
pnes. — ^y. qniere que yo estS trabfgando continuamente. 

16. No, querido, no qniero que trabiges demasiado ; pero aca^rdato quo 
en este mnndo no se logra nada sin trabigar. — ^Bien, papd, yo b6 que V. 
tiene aempre razon, descansar6 nn poco ahora y despues acabar^ de esta- 
diar mi leccion. 

17. i 8e qued6 mucho tiempo su amigo de Y. en el condcrto ? Ambos 
nos quedamos hasta que se acffb6. 

18. ^Tuvieron Yds. ayer ex^menes en la escnela? Ayer tnvimos ex^ 
men de gramdtica, dntes de ayer de Mstoria, hoy de espafiol y mafiana 
lo tcndr6mos de aritm^tica. 

19. Manuel, lev6ntate y vete k la^esouela. |No sabes qu6 bora es? 
Ko, sefior, yo pensaba que era temprano. 

20. I G6mo, temprano ? Ya son las siete y media y todavla tienea que 
lavarte y almorzar; jvamos, vamos, perezoso, arribal — ^Alla voy papdi^ 
alia voy ; y exctiseme Y., no sabia que era tan tarde. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Have you heard any more conoeming the matter we were speak- 
ing of the other day? Nothing tother ; but I expect by to-morrow to 
be able to tell you something more. 

2. When does your fiiend intend setting out on his travel to the 
South ? Probably by the latter end {i&Uimas) of November, or beginning 
of December. 

8. Is he to be long absent ? He knows nothing as yet of how long 
he may be absent. 

4. Concerning books to be read in order to perfect one's self in a 
language, what kind do you think the best? There is little difference 
between books to be used for that purpose (propdsito). 

6, Are there not some better than all the others? Not that I know 
of: each student will prefer those that treat of the subject he is 
fondest of. 

6. But beginners cannot do so, for there are many books too difficult 
for them; is it not so? Certainly; I thought it needless to say that 
beginners must search for books easy to be read. 



LBSSON xrxVIII. 189 

7. It seems to me that newspaper reading is very useful; what do 
joa think? Yea» aad especially for those who take pleasure in studying 
the politics of the day.* 

8. Do you think I shall be able to understand Oeirantes' great work 
ifter I h&ve gone through (reeorrir) the whole of the grammar? No, 
sir, you will not ; you will have to read and study a great deal before 
you will be able to understand thoroughly the writings of any of the 
Spanish classic anthers. 

9. Who is that young man we met when walking, and to whom you 
spoke ? He is a lawyer's derk. 

10. Does he make much money at that occupation? I cannot teU you; 
but he is nndonbtedly a man of talent (talento). 

11. Are the children gone to school yet, Louisa? All but Henry, 
who wishes not to go to-day, if you will consent to it. 

12. I am a&aid he is a very lazy boy; he is continually asking not to 
be sent to school. 

13. How can he expect to learn if he neither goes to school nor studies 
St home ? He wants to study at home ; he says that if you consent to 
his staying at home, he will study anything you please. 

14. Wen, I shall give him something to learn by heart, and we shall 
see what he does. — ^Very well ; but do not give him too mnch to do at 
the beginidng, for he is easily disheartened. 

15. I never require of any one more than he is able to do. — ^That is 
perfectly right. 

16. Tell Charles and Albert that I want to see them, and that I have 
two books for them. — ^I need not go to tell them ; here they are coming. 

lY. Come here, boys. — ^Well, papa, what do you want us for ? 

18. To give you these two books: one for each.— How beautiful! 
— ^Yes, that is true; but they are something more than beautiftil : they 
are good. 

19. What do they treat of? This one treats of man in life and of all 
Vuing beings ; and that one of man's state after death. 

20. Now, I wish you to read a chapter each one in his book every 
day, after your lessons ; and then yon may go out and walk for an hour. 
— ^Thank you, sir ; and we can assure you that we shall do so with the 
greatest pleasure. 

21. Tell me, Albert, where did you buy that hat? That is one of those 
hats that were worn three summers ago. I know that very well, for I 
bought it at the time they were being worn, and I have worn it ever 
since. 

22. This author seems to have travelled a great deal ; have you read 
any of his travels ? Yes, and I like them exceedingly (muchmmo). 



190 



LISBON XXZIX. 



23. I am going to read ibem, too, as soon as I have tiineu In what 
ooantries did he travel principally ? He has been^in nearly every cona- 
try in the world, East, West, North and South. 

24. What is the trade or profeanon of that person, Jnst gone out ? He 
is a phyidcian ; he has been in this dty f(v now nearly ^yq yean. He is 
an excellent practitioner. 



LESSON XXXIX. 



Pedir. (Looh for ths conjugation 1 To petition, to ask for. 
qfthuwrbatp.B9fi,y I 



Verbs e&f^ttgated like fedib. 


Oompetir. 


To contend, to compete. 


Elejir. 


To elect, to choose. 


Medir. 


To measore. 


Renh*. 


To qnarrel, to scold. 


Segidr. 


To follow. 


Bendlr. 


To render; to exhaust, to do out^ 




to wear out 


Bepetir. 


To repeat 


Servir. 


To serve. 


Tefiir. 


To dye. 


Vestir. 


To dress. 


Divertirse. "^ 


To amuse one^s self. 


Oa9arse. • 


To marry; to get (or be) married. 


Besar. 


To kiss. 


Enamorarse. 


To fall in love. 


Oelebrar. 

Oenar. 

Presentar. 


To celebrate, to praise, to be glad. 

To sup. 

To present, to introduce one per- 




son to the acquaintance of 


Beconooer. 


another. 
To recognize, to examine closely. 


Agradeoer. 


To estimate, to value, to esteem. 


To thank, to be tliankful, to be 




obliged. 


En hora buena. 
Adasl. 


It is weU, well and good. 
So so. 



I.B8SOH XZXIX. 



101 



TalcoaL 




Middling, io 80. 


Hastalavista. 




nil I see yon again. 


Hastalaego. 




Good-bye for a while. 


Sin novedad. 




Well, in a good state of health. 


Mediaiuunoate. 




Middling. 




I Ah I (m^) 




~AhI 




lOhl (wU.) 




OhI 




Eespetablo. 








Belicado. 




Delicate, weak. 


Infinito. 




Infinite. 




Junto. 




Near, dose to. 




IKsoreto. 




Discreet 




Favor. 


Favor. 


Tertnlta. 


t 
Party, soiree. 


Beso. 


Kisa. 


Novedad. 


Novelty. 


ServidOT. 


Servant 


Oelobradon. 


Celebration. 


Pi6u 


Foot 




Servant 


Honor. 


Honor. 


Ocasion. 


Occasion. 


Vcstido. 


Dreaft. 


Coroplacencia. 


Complaisance. 


Espoao. 


Husband. 


Bondad. 


Goodness, kind- 


Aaento. 


Seat 




ness. 


Oapitola 


Chapter. 


Esposa. 


Wife. 






Orden. 


Order, command. 






Memorias. 


Regards. 






Enhorabuena. 


Oongratnlatiox^ 




COMPO 


smoN. 





iQn6 1e i^de 4 Y. ese hombre? 

Kg me pide nada; me pregmita que 

bora 68. 
Beso 4 Y. la mano, caballero. 



Beso 4 Y. la suya. 

iC6mo e6t4 si^fazmlia de Y. ? 

Todos estan bien, gradas; ^ y la de Y. ? 

Asi asi; loB nifios estan may bnenofl, 

pero mi esposa no se siente bien. 
A los pi6s de Y., seflora. 

Beso 4 Y. la mano, caballero. 
A la 6Tden de Y., Don Ped^. 



What is that man asking for ? 

He is asking me for nothing ; he is ask- 
ing me what o'clock it is. 

(A Sfpaniih expremcm of courtesy^ rued 
at meeting or parting. No equivalent 
in Engliah,) 

{Reply to the above,) 

How is yoor family ? 

AH are well, thanic you ; and yours ? 

So so ; the children are very well, but 
my wife does not feel well. 

{Spanith expreuion of courtesy^ uted to 
ladies. No JSnglish equivalent,) 

{The lady^B reply to the above,) 

At your service, Mr. Peter. 



192 



LBSSON ZXXIZ. 



Yaya V. oon Dios, Don Juan. 

Buenos dias, Dofia Luisa, i c6mo lo pasa 

V.hoy? 
Bien, para aervir 4 V. ; i y V. ? 
Sin novedad k la dispoddon de V. 
Sefior D. M., tengo el honor de pre- 

sentarle al Sr. D. P. 
</abaIlero, oelebro la ocasion de conocer 

4V. 
Tenga V. la bondad de darme el cu- 

chUlo. 
Con mucho goato. 
MUgradas. 
H&game V. d fkror de dedrme, c6nio 

ae Uama esto en espafioL 
• Sfrvase Y. tomar asiento. 
Lo dento macho, pero no puedo, tengo 

que marcharme. 
Tenga V. la complacenda de ponenne 

4 los pi4s de su esposa de V. 



Ood be with you, Mr. John. 

Good morning, Miss Looisa, how da 

you do toHiay? 
Wdl, thank you ; and you ? 
I am yery well too, thank you. 
Mr. H., I hare the honor to intiodace 

(or present) you to Mr. P. 
I am happy to make your acquaintance, 

sir. 
Have the goodness to gire me the knife. 

With much pleasure. 

Thank you. 

Be kind enough to tell me what you call 
this in Spanish. 

Please to take a seat 

I am very sorry, but I cannot, I must 
be off. 

Have the goodness to present my re- 
gards to your lady (or wife). 



EXPLANATION. 

192. Pedib. — ^A paradigm will be found at the end of the 

grammar, showing the tenses and persons in which this verb 

and all those conjugated like it change the e of their root into e. 

193. The usual forms of salutations, among gentlemen 

in greeting each other, are the following : 



Beso & y. la mano. 
Servidor de V., caballero. 
A la 6rden de Y. 
Vaya V. con Dios. 
Tenga V. muy buenos dias. 



I kiss your hand. 
Tour servant, sir. 
Your most obedient 
Adieu, or Qod be with you. 
Good day to you. 



This last expression is used from the earliest part of the 
morning till two or three hours after meridian ; from which 
time till dark is used, ^ 

Buenas tardes. | Good afternoon ; 

and from dark until the following morning, both on meeting 
and taking leave, 
Buenas noches. | Good night 

All these expressions are always used in Spanish in the 
plural number. 



I.SSSOH XZXIX. 



193 



In saluting a lady, the first expression most frequently made 
use of is : «. 

A Io3 pi^ de Y., sefiora. | Madam, at your feel 

The lady's reply is : 
Beso i Y. la mano, caballera | I kiss your hand, sir. 

To inquire after another's health : 
C6mo lo pasa Y. f or c6mo esU Y. ? | How do yon do f 
To answer : 



Hedianameate bien. 

Perfectamente bien. • 

Para seryir & V. 

May bien, gradas. 

ijsl asi, or tal coal; y Y., i c6mo lo 

pasa? 
&inoyedad, 
A la dispoaidon de Y. 



Middling well 

Perfectly well 

At your service. 

Yeiy well, thank yoo. 

So so ; and how do yoa do? 

Always well 
At your seMoe. 



For introducing one person to another: 
Scfior Don M., tengo el honor de pre- I Mr. M., I have the honor of intro- 



sentaxle al Sefior Don P. 

And the reply is : 

Ciaballero, celebro la ocasion de cono- 

cer & v., or 
B6con6zcame Y. per un servidor 

sayo. 

For asking or requesting : 

Tenga Y. la bondad de darme. 
H&game Y. el fiivor de decirme. 
Sirvase Y., or tenga Y. la compla- 
oencia de. 

And for returning thanks : 

Ifilgracias, or 

Machlsimas gradas. 

Se k> agradezco & Y. infinito. 



dadng Mr. P. to yon. 



Sr, I am happy to make your ao- 

quaintance. 
I am entirely at your service. 



Have the goodness to ^ve me. 
Do me the favor to tell me. 
Have the kindness to. 



A thousand thanks. 

Many thanks. 

I am very much obliged to you. 



CONVERSATION AND YERSION. 

1. Sefior D. Juan, jqa6 le pide & Y. mi mnchacho? No me pide 
nada; me pregnnta qn6 hora es. 

2. Yo creia qae le'pedia & Y. dinero, porqne Q. est4 dempre pidiendo 





194 LE8BOK XXXIX. 

centavos k todo el mundo. — ^Yaya! no lo rifia Y. ; & todos los nifios les 
gasta que les den centaros. — ^Verdad es, pero & mi no me gasta que los 
mios los pidan. 

8. Digame Y., D. Pedro, i qni^n es aqnella sefiorita qne est4 sentada 
en el sofd junto d sn esposa de Y. ? Esa es ana sefiorita muj amable, 
hija del Sefior D. Lois Martinez, {iamilia may respetable 4 quien conoci 
haoe machos afios. 

4. % Qaicre Y. haoerme el &vor de presentarme & ella ? Con mncfao 
gasto; pero le advierto que no ee enamore de la Sefiorita Martinez, poi^ 
que est4 para casarse. 

6. Pierda Y. cnidado; yo solo deseo conocerla para gozar de sn dis- 
oreta conversacion. — En hora buena venga Y. y lo presentar^. 

6. Sefiorita Martinez, tengo el honor de presentar 4 Y. al Sefior Don 
Juan McLeren. — Oaballero, celebro la ocasion de conooer 4 Y. — Sefiorita, 
recon6zcame Y. por so servidor. 

7. I Ah 1 aqoi viene Don Alberto y so esposa.^Sirvaose Yds. posar 
adelante. 

8. I Oh I Sefior Don*Pedro, me alegro mocho de encontrar 4 Y. por 
ac4. Mil gradas, sefiora, soy may feliz en volver 4 yer 4 Yds. 

9. A los pi^s de Y., Sefiorita Martinez. — ^Beso 4 Y. la mano, caballero. 

10. Dofia Margarita, i c6mo est4 so Emilia de V. ? To^os estan bicn, 
gracias, ^y la de Y. ? Asi asi ; los nifios estan may baenos, pero mi esposa 
est4 delicada. 

11. Slrvase Y. tomar as&ento, D. Alberto. — ^Lo siento mncho, pero no 
paedo; he prometido 4 mi madre volver pronto para cenar con ello. 

12. Sefioras, 4 los pi6s de Yds. Beso 4 Yds. la mano oaballeros. 
18. A la 6rden de Y., D. Pedro. 'Yaya Y. con Dios, D. Joan. 

14. |Tenga Y. may boenas noches, Dofia Loisa, o6mo lo pasa Y. hoy? 
Bien, para servir 4 Y., jy Y. ? Sm novedad, 4 la disposicion de Y. 

15. Baenas noohes, D. Pedro; basta mafiana. Hasta mafiana, p6n- 
game Y. 4 los pids de sa sefiora. 

16. D6 Y. memorias de mi parte 4 toda la fEonilia.— De so parte de Y. 
lo estiraar4n mncho. 

17. Adios, Manael, |4 d6nde yas tan de prisa? Yoy 4 acompafiar 4 
mi hermana al teatro, y desde aUi ir6mos 4 la tertolia dd, Sefior MarracL 

18. Celebrar4 qoe te diviertas macho. Yo tambien pienso ir 4 la ter- 
tolia del Sefior Martaci ; con qoe, asi no te digo adios, ya nos yer^mos. — 
Uasta la yista. — ^Hasta loego. 

EXERCISE. 
1. Good morning, Oharles I Are you neyer going to set op f^Why, 
how late is it? 



I.ESSOK XXZIZ. 195 

SL It is near nine oMock ; bnt it Ss nothing new to see jon in bed at 
tittt hpur. Ah ! yon are always making fhn of me for lying so long in 
the morning^ and I think I rise very early. 

3. Up, then, and dress yourself as quickly as possible, I want yon to 
eome and breakfast with me. 

4. Indeed ! What good things are you going to ^ve me ? You will 
hsve a first-rate breakfast, with excellent wine, followed by delicious 
chocolate. 

5. Tell me, my dear/eUow : I can never remember the name of that 
jonng lady that I met at your raster's parfy ; what is her name ? Oh, 
no matter ; my sister has invited her to dine this evening, and if you 
wait for dinner with us I wiU intvoduoe you to her. 

6. Papa, here is my friend Mr. N., whom I have the pleasure to pre* 
9wt to yoo. I am very hi^py to know you, dr. 

7. Be kind enough to take a seat, and excuse me an instant; I shall be 
Uck immediately. Certainly, su-. 

8. How are your old Mends the Retortillos? TJiey are very well, 
t^k yoa; they are to be here this evening, so you can have a chat 
with them. 

9- Why ^d you not introduce me long ago to your &ther ? I am 
^^ Borry for not having -done so^ and my father has often scolded me 
for my n^ect (negligeneia). 

10. Do jgn expect your uncle to-day ? I do not ; but if he comes, 
wen and good, we shall be glad to see him« 

11. Win you be good enough tp give me that newspaper that is on the 
cihair next tiie window ? With the greatest pleasure. 

12. What news is there this morning? I see that a new president 
iprencUnte) has been elected in one of tiie provinces of 8onth America. 

13. They might have chosen auother occasion for electing him, I think. 
Ah, of course; they are at war ^irith Spain. 

14. How much do they ask for the house that is for sale in Fifteenth 
street? Father was saying yesterday that they are asking a very high 
price. 

15. What do you understand by a high price? More than the house 
is worth (valer). 

16. You seem very much dissatisfied at the price ; have you any in- 
tention of buying the house? Tes, unless it has already been sold. 

17. What news have you from Boston ? is Miss Guevara married yet? 
I have not heard from the family for a month ; but I suppose she must 
be married by this time; she was to bcnnarried in July. 

18. Will you come and take a wsSk before dinner? Ah, you must ex- 
cuse me ; believe me, I am worn out with fatigue. 



196 



LESSOV XL. 



19. What is that you said, Emanael? 1 have told yon once, and I 
shall not repeat it 

20. Do yon know that young lady who is fflttlng on the sofa beside 
your niece ? Yes ; I- will introdnce yon to her, if yon wish. 

21. When will yon introdnce me ? Jnst now, on condition that yoa 
win not fall in love with her. 

22. Wen, will yon promise ? I will ; yon know I am going to get 
married, and I only wish to enjoy her charming conversation. 

23.' Miss Yeleta, allow me to have the honor of introdndng to. yoa 
Mr. Romelio. How do yon do, sir ? I am very happy to know yon, miss. 

2^ Well, John, what do yon think of her? That she is chaiming; 
and I am exceedin^y obliged to you for introdncing me. 

25. Oh, Louisa! come and look at this beautiful dress. — Oh, how 
beautiful ! How much did it cost ?— Only a trifle of $120. 

26. How much did yon pay for that last coat of yours, Alexander ? 
^Only eighty dollars. — Not very much aiali(noMfne haee caro). 



LESSON XL. 



Condndr. {See eonjuffotion ^ this | To conduct, to lead, to drive. 
verb in at p. Z98.) 



Producir. 
Traducir. 
Introducir. 


Verbt eor0ugaU( 


i like ooNDuciB. 
To produce. 

To introduce. 




Obrar. 
Envidiar. 
Olvidar. 
Exi«t.ir. 


\. 




To act 
To envy. 
To forget 
To exist 




Segun (prep,). 
Siqmera (eonj.) 
Colectivo. 
Particular. 




According to. 
At least, even. 
Collective. 
Private, particular. 

^ K0X7NB. 


IS^rcito. 

Gentio. 

Rebafio. 


Army. 
Crowd. 
Flock, herd. 


Tropa. 
Gente. 
Multitude 


Troop. 
People. 
Multitude. 





I.SSSOH XL. 




Pkr. 


Pair, couple. 


Docena. 


Dozen. 


CenteoAres. 


JELmidreds. 


Centena. 


A hundred. 




Thoosazids. 


Mitad. 


Half. 


Bterdo. 


The third. 


Lateroera. 


The third. 


Qcoarto. 


The fourth. 


La cnarta parte. 


The fourth, &< 


n dozayo. 


The twelfth. 


Una infinidad. 


An infinity. 


Qdoble. 


The doable. 






E^ 


Kg. 


Conciencia. 


Conacience. 


Caricter. 


Character. 


Circonstancia. 


Circumstance. 


Habitante. 


Inhabitant. 


Uva. 


Grape. 


Gobiemo. 


GrOTermnent 


Especie. 


Species, kind. 


BecoTBO. 


Becoorse, resonr- 


Karanja. 


Orange. 




sea. 


Castafia. 


Chestnut. 


Konte. 


Mountain, 


Nuez. 


Nut 


Boaqne, 


Wood (forest). 


Cuestion. 


Question. 


Bio. 


River. 


Producdon. 


Production. 


lago. 


Lake. 


Libertad. 


Libertj. 


Kombre. 


Nonn, name. 


Gansa. 


Cause. 


Camero merino 


. Merino fiheep. 


Irlanda. 


Ireland. 






Natoraleza. 


Nature. 




COMPOS 


3inON. 





197 



Obr& aegon sn ooncieDcia. 
Babla segon las drcunstaneiis. 
Lo caento segun me lo ban contado. 
E&tr6 (or oitraron) en la ciadad una 

tropa de soldados. 
En d ejSrdto de los Estadcn Unidoe 

haUa soldados de todas las nadones, 
£1 tercio (or la tercera parte) de esos 

hombres no aaben escribir. 
£1 gentio era tan grande que no pudi- 

moB pasar. 
Un par de caballos americaaos vale por 

dos pares de caballos m^jicanos. 



He acted according to his conscience. 
He speaks according to circumstances. 
I tell it as it was told to me. 
A troop of soldiers came into the city. 

In the Uidted States army there were 

soldiers of all nations. 
The third of those men do not know 

how to write. 
The crowd was so great that we could 

not pass. 
A pair of American horses are worth 

two pairs of Mexican horses. 



^ EXPLANATION. 

194. CoNDUCiR, to conduct, and the verbs conjugated like 
it, take a z hefore the radical c in the terminations beginning 
with ooTCU They also take the tenmnaXiouBjeJisteJoJimoBf 



108 LESSON XL, 

jtsteis,Jeronj &c., as may be seen in tbe conjugation oi candu' 
ciVj at the end of the grammar. 

196- Segxtnt. — ^We class this word among the prepositions, 
in conformity to the general practice among Spanish gpram- 
marianSy and because it sometimes has the character of such ; as, 

Obr6 Mgwuwk concienda. I He acted According to his coDsdence. 

Habia segun las circunstancias. | He speaks according to circumstances. 

Nevertheless, in other cases it is employed as an adverb ; as, 
Lo cuento aegun me lo han contado. | I tell it as it was told to me. 

196. Collective nouns, in the singular, generally agree -with 
verbs in the singular number ; but when the collective noun 
is taken in its most extended sense, custom allows the verb to 
be in the plural, for in such case the numbers concurring' to 
form the whole, rather than the whole itself, are considered; as, 
Entr6 (or entraron) en la dudad una I A troop of soldiers came into the cit j. 

tropa de soldados. | 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^Prodace Espana baena fruta? Espofia produce excdente fruta 
de todas especics. 

2. I Ga^ es la mcjor fhita de Espafia ? Ko sabrS decir d Y., porqne 
toda es buena y hay centenares de especics, por ^cmplo : las nvas son de 
las mejores del mundo ; los melocotones y los melones son tambien muj 
buenos, sin contar con las naraiijas, las hlgos, los castafias, las nueces y 
otra infinidad de frntas. 

8. ^Es Espafia un pals caro 6 barato? Ea demasiado barato. Con 
nn peso se pnede vivir mcjor en Espafia que en Nueva York con cuatro. 

4. ^Bien, ent6nces porqa^ se vino Y. & vivir en los Estados Unidos? 
Esa es ya otra caestion. Espafia no tiene que envidiar 4 ningun pals del 
mnndo en onanto 4 sa clima ni 4 sns producoiones, ni m6uos en cnanto al 
cardctcr de sus habitantes ; pero btgo su gobiemo no se goza de la misma 
libertad que se goza biyo el de la Reptiblica de los Estados Unidos. 

5. lEs esta la causa por la cndl Y. se vino & resl^ en este pals? 
Hay mucbas otras. Por ejemplo, es verdad que en Espafia no se conocen 
las hambrcs que hay en Irlanda, Alemenia y otros paises, y que, como 
he dicho, se vive n[i^or alii con nn peso qne aqni con cnatro ; pero tam- 
bien es verdad, qne en cualqniera profesion A oficio es mas faoil ganar 
cuatro pesos en los Estados Unidos, que uno en Espafia. 

6. 2 Por tanto Y. cree que los recursos de los Estados Unidos son 



LESSON XL. 199 

ZDSS gnndes qae los de otros paises? For sapnesto que si. Aqni la 
jiMdm es grande ; la libertad es grunde ; los montes, los rios, los lagos, 
Jos boBqnes son grandes ; la nataraleza es grande ; todo es grande ; Nue- 
n York es grande y los bombres mlsmos son tambien grandes ; pero no 
mss grandes qne los £spafioIes. 

7. Hablando de esto, Y. se olvida que en este Cjercicio tiene V. quo 
practicar con los nombres colectivos.— V. tiene razon, se me babian olvi- 
dddo los nombres colectiyos bablando de las dos naciones que maa amo 
en el mnndo. 

8. En cnanto 4 los nombres colectiyos, sa pr^tica es muy facil j todo 
se rednce 4 decir : qne en Nneva York bay multitnd de gentes de difo- 
rentes naciones, millares de mi^eres j cosas bnenas 7 centenares do 
hcmbres y cosas mft^ft^. 

9. |Pero y qn6 dice Y. con respeoto & los rebafios, cj^rcitos, etc ? 
Qae en Espalla bay rebafios de cameros merinos qne, lo mismo qne sn 
^ercito, no tienen snperiores en el mnndo. 

10. iSegnn eso Y. cree que todo lo m^jor existe en Espafia? Todo 
no, pnesto qne mis nifios son Americanos. 

11. Yamos, Y. se bnrla. — ^No, sefior, yo bablo de veras para practicar 
d espanol. 

12. Y. babla segnn las oircnnstancias.— No, sefior, yo bablo segnn mi 
concienda. 

IS. Acn^rdese Y. qne segnn Y. obre con los demiis asi obradm ellos 
con Y. — Mny bien y asi como yo bable de ellos, asi bablar^ ellos de mi ; 
pero yo no debo bablar de ellos mejor qne de mi mismo. 

1^ iQniere Y. pagarme la mitad, el tercio 6 el cnarto de lo qne Y. 
me debe? Ki lo nno ni lo otro, porqne no tengo dinero ahora. 

15. Deme Y. & lo m^nos nn par de pesos. — Mafiana le dare & Y. nna 
dooena de pesos, pero boy ni tan siqniera nn centavo. ' ^ 

16. A Bios, Gdrlos, me canso de cbarlar y me voy & acostar. Bnenas 
nocbes, Lnis» np olyide Y. de pagar sns dendas. 

EXCERCISB. 

1. What is the name given to a large nmnlierof sheep together? 
It is called a flock. 

2. What were yon doing so long in the street! I went to see the 
reason of the great crowd at the comer of the. next street. 

3. Well, what was it ? I conld not see any thing ; but it seems there 
was a fire in some of the streets near here. 

4. You seem to be very much of a Spaniard ; why did yon ever come 
to the United States? I will not deny that I like the government; yet 
iliat is not the only reason I bad for coming here. 



200 LESSOK XL. 

6. Con jon tell me some of the oiherof Undonbtedly; altJioii^li 
living b higher here than there, buedness of all kinds is better, and. it is 
easier to make money here, not only than in Spain, but than, any other 
oonntry in Earope. 

6. I am very glad yon think so ; how long have yon been here ? It 
will be fonr years next September. 

7. Will you be good enough to tell me something of your coantrj' ? 
That will give me much pleasure. 

8. Ton talk so much about Europe in general^ and about Spain in 
particular, that I cannot help (no puecio mhi09 de) thinking you intend to 
go there. You are very right; it is very possible that my brother and 
I shall take a trip (eiaje) to Spain next falL 

9. Well, in order to be able to enjoy yourselves aa much as possible, 
it will be necessary for you to know how to speak the language perfectly 
before starting. That we intend to do. 

10. Do you think all the soldiers in the army are Americans ? Noy 
nor even the half, and perhaps not even the third. 

11. How many inhabitants are there in thi^ city? I am not able to 
tell yon exactly ; but there cannot be much less than a million. 

12. Which city in the world has the most inhabitants ? London ; it 
has about three millions of inhabitants. 

18. Ah I you are jesting; or else you are an Englishman. I am not 
Jesting, neither am I an Englishman, but a Frenchman ; after London 
comes Paris. 

14. Who is that book by ? This is the celebrated Don Quixote (Qui- 
joU\ by Oorv&ntes. 

15. In how many parts is. it ? Two, the first containing (cMitener) 
some fifty-two chapters, and the second about eighty-four. 

16. What effect (tfecto) does the reading of Don Quixote produce upon 
you ? It makes mo admire, and even leads me to envy the genius (genid) 
of its author. 

17. Ah I I see ; you say that to please me, because you know that I 
too admire the grand work of Cervantes. Pardon me, sir ; I never speak 
according to circumstances, but always according to my conscience. 

18. But, have you forgotten your promise already? What promise is 
that ? I do not remember any. 

19. No matter; I see you have completely forgotten it I am very 
sorry. 

20. What are the best fruits that Spain produces? Spain produces 
so many kinds of fruit, and so deliciouB, that it is almost unposaible for 
me to tell them all : You have excellent grapes, melons, peadies, apples, 
oranges, and an infinity of others. 



LESBOH XLI. 



201 



21. Hato the soldiers that came into the city last night gone awaj 
jet ? They marclied this morning at daybreak. 

23. How was oar old friend Hamero when yon kst heard from him ? 
He was in Boston, entirely without mean^, haying been deceived by a 
{kad man wbo took the whole of his money from him, and from whom 
he was unable to recover (reeobrar) even the fourth part 



LESSON XLI. 



Soler. 


To be accustomed to, to do, or 




be, usually. 


Bendecir. 


To bless. 


Caer. 


To fall, to see (understand). 


Dormir. 


To sleep. 


Korir. 


To die. 


Errar. 


To err. 


Jngar. 


To play. 


Oir. 


To hear. 


Oler. 


TosmelL 


Contradecir, 


To contradict 


Poner. 


To put 


Podrir. 


To rot 


Reir. 


To laugh. 


Valer. 


To be worth- 


Yacer. 


•To He. 


{See the comjugalion of thest 


verbs at (he end of the book.) 


Beposar. 


To rest, to repose. 


Premiar. 


To reward. 


Examinar. 


To examine. 


Desde. 


Since, from. 


Contra. 


Against, towards. 


Sobre. 


Above, over, about 


Tras. 


After, behind, besides. 


Pues. 


1 Well, then ; therefore, Ac 


HeloaquL 


Here he (or it) is. 


Desde ahora. 


Henceforward, from now, just 




now. 



9* 



202 



LESSON ZLI. 



Desdeaq 


oL 


From here. 




Enefecto. 


Indeed, in effect, in fect> really. 


Etemo. 


Eternal 


Afortnnado. 


Fortunate. 


Gonvicto. 


Convicted. 


Defigraoiado. 


Unfortunate. 


Inforttmio. 


MLsforinne. 


Carlota. 


Charlotte. 


Reo. 


Criminal. 


Creacion. 


Creation. 


Grito. 


Cry, scream. 


Caridad. 


Charity. 


Cocbe. 


Carriage. 


Prenda. 


Pledge, quality, 


Vicio. 


Vice. 




accomplishment. 


FraOe. 


Fraj, friar. 


Virtud. 


Virtue. 


Diego. 


James. 


Tristeza. 


Grief, sorrow. 


Verbo. 


Verb. 


Experiencia. 


Experience. 


Prindpio. 


Beginning, prin- 
ciple. 


. P^igina. 


Page. 




COMPOI 


SinON. 





i Suele V. levantarse temprano ? 

Saelo IcTantanne tarde. 

^Solia v. ir k pasear & caboUo el afio 

pasado? 
No, sefior, solia pasear en coche. 
Flegue k Dios que teDgamos pronto lo 

que deseomos. 
Desde ahora prometo serrirle & V. en lo 

que pueda. 
£1 hombre ha obrado mal para con Dios 

y consigo mismo desde la creadon del 

mundo. 
Desde Nueya York k fHadelfia hay 

ochenta y ocho millas. 
To juego contra tt 
Esta casa e8t& contra el Este. 
La ciudad e8t& sobre un montc. 
La caridad es sobre todaa las virtudes. 
Voytrastl 
Sufre la pens pues lo quieres. 

Tras la primavera Tiene el yerano. 
Tras set culpado, S es el que levanta el 

grito. 
Leer^ este libro pues Y. me dice que es 

bueno. 



Do you usually rise early f 

I usually rise late. 

Used you to ride on horseback last 

year? 
No, mr, I used to ride in n carriage. 
God grant we may soon have wbat we 

desire. 
From this moment I promise to serre 

you as far as I can. 
Man has acted .wrong before God and 

to himself since the creation of the 

world. 
It is eighty-dght mUes from New York 

to Philaddphia. 
I play against you (thee). 
This house faces the East 
The dty is built upon a mountam (or hill). 
Charity is before all Tirtues. 
I go after you (thee). 
Suffer the consequences (pain), since 

such is your (thy) will. 
After spring comes summer. * 
Notwithstanding he is guilty, it is he 

that raises the cry. 
I Drill read this hock shice you tell me 

it is good. 



LESSON XLI. 203 

EXPLANATION. ^ 

197. Depectivb vebbs are those which are not employed in 
all their tenses and persons. PodHr^ to rot, placer^ to please, 
and yacer^ to lie, belong to this class, and are found used in the 
following tenses and persons : 





PODBIB. 




ImptT, 2d penon plural 


Podrid. 


Rot 


Subfunc, imp. Sdperton ting, Fodriria. 


He would rot 


JnfiiUL Freaent 


Podrip. 


To rot 


ParHcip, 


Podrido. 

rULCEB. 


Rotten. 


IndieaL Fret, Zd peraon 


rififf. Place. 


It pleases. 


ImperfecL 


Placia. 


It did please. 


Fer/ect ind. 


Plugo. 


It pleased. 


Suijunc, FreaenL 


Plegue. 


It ma J please. 


Imper/eeL 


Pluguiera. 
' Pluguiese. 


It might please. 


Future imp. 


Plaguiere. 


It may please. 



These persons of the subjunctive mood in this verb are only 
used in the following expressions : pleffue^ or pluguiera, or plu' 
guiese d Dios, would to God ; and si me pluguiere^ if it should 
please me. 

198. Tackb. — "So part of this verb is used except the 
third persons of the present indicative, yace and yaceth chiefly 
at the beginning of epitaphs. 

199. SoLEB is used only in the present and imperfect of 
the indicative mood. This verb has the peculiarity of never 
being employed except as a determining verb, governing the 
determined verb without the aid of any preposition, and al- 
ways in the present infinitive ; as, 

Sudopaaear temprano. | I osnally go early to walk. 

200. Desde, from, points out the beginning of time or 
place; as, 

Letdi la ereacton del mmido. . I From the creation of the world. 

Detdi Nueva York k FJaddfia. | From New York to Philadelphia. 

For this reason it forms a part of several adverbial expres- 
sions which signify time or place ; as, 
Deade ahora. I From this time. 

Ihade aqui | From hence. 



204 LE8S0N XLI. 

201. CoNTBA is used in all cases as the English against. 

202. SoBBEy upon, above, <&c., serves to denote the superi- 
ority of things with respect to others, either by their material 
situation or by their excellence or power ; as, 

La ciudad eBt4 Bobre un monte. I The city is on a moimtaiiL 

La caridad ea aobre todas las yirtadea. | Chant j is above all Tirtaes. 

It has also the signification of ademdSy moreover, or ademds 
dCj besides ; as, 

Sobre ser reo con^cto qtuere que le I Besides being a convicted criminal, 
premien. | - he wishes to be rewarded. 

It also signifies time ; as, 
H»blar sobre mesa. | To talk during dinner. 

Security; as, ^ 

Prestar aobre prendas. > | To lend upon pledge. 

203. Tbas, behind, after, &c., signifies the order in which 
some things follow others ; as, 

Voy tras tL ' I ^ follow you. 

Tras la primayera viene el verano. | After spring comes summer. 

It also Signifies besides ; as, 
Tras ser culpado, 61 es el que levan- I • Besides being guilty^ he remonstrates. 



ta el grito. 

204. The conjunction pubs, since, is used to account for a 
proposition brought forward ; as, 
Leer6 este libro puea Y. me dice que I I will read this book nnce you idl 
es bueno. I me it is good. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^ Sobre qn6 qniere Y. que hablemos hoy ? No b6; de cualqoiera 
cosa, con tai qne practiquemos con los verbos defectiTOS y las preposi- 
ciones eontra^ desde, sohre y trcu. 

2. Que me place ; pero digame Y., i cree Y. que tenemos mucho que 
praoticar con el verbo yacerf No, sefior, puesto qne es nn verbo que 
solo sirre para ponerse en los epitafios. 

3. Pues si Y. gasta Ic har^mos un epitafio y pasarSmoa d practicar 
con otro verbo que no sea tan triste.— Soy d© su opinion d© Y., porque 
no me gostan las cosas tristes. 



LSSBOK XLI. 205 

4. Helo aqnf : 

" Aqni yace el rerbo yaeer, 
Otn coaa no aablendo haoer." 

5. Ese epitafio me hace reoordar d mi otro, oigalo Y. : 

** Aqni Fry Diego repoaa, 
T jiun&s hizo otn oosa.^ 

6. Hombre, tenga Y. caridad de ml 7 no me haga Y. reir hablando de 
epitafios, que es cosa mas bien para hacer Uorar qne para bacer reir. 
iSaele Y. tener siempre tan buen bmnor? No siempre; pero no se gana 
nada con estar triste. 

' 7. En efecto, mas yale estar alegre que triste, pero no siempre se 
puede estar alegre, | y ent6nces que bace Y. ? Ent^nces mando 4 pasear 
al mal bamor. 

8. Esc cs mas fl&cil de decir que de bacer; ^qmere Y. dedrme como 
lo bace Y. ? Convengo con Y. ; pero coando el bombre qniere verda- 
deramente nna cosa la logra casi siempre. 

9. Plegae d Dios que 70 logre estar siempre oontento pnesto que estar 
contento es ser feliz. i Qn6 es lo que Y. bace para estar siempre con- 
tento ? Yd no le be dicbo d Y. que estoy siempre contento, pero pro- 
cure estarlo y asi logro no estar triste. 

10. I C6mo lo bace Y. ? Obro segun las circunstancias. Examine la 
causa de mi tristeza 6 mal bumor ; si es mi falta me consuelo porque creo 
que Dios me castiga para que yo me corr^a, y me baga mejor con la ex- 
periencia. 

11. Bien, i y cuando Y. es inocente y le sucede un infortunio ? Ent6n- 
ces me consuelo tambien, porque creo que todo lo que Dios nos envia es 
para nuestro bien. 

12. Ent6nces i es Y. fil6sofo ? No, sefior, i^ejor que eso ; soy reli^oso. 

13. jTiene Y.*miedo de la mucrte? No, sefior, porque s6 que todos 
bemos de morir, y que tras la muerte viene la vida eterna. 

14. I Cudntos niflos tiene Y. ? Oinco ; dos nifios y tres niflas. 

15. I C6mo se llaman ? El mayor de los nifios se Uama Alejandro y el 
menor Manuel. 

16. 2 Y las nifias ? Las nifias son Luisa, Oarlota y Margarita. 

17. 2 Ouanto tiempo bace que no ba estado Y. en Espafia ? Hace veinte 
afios que sail de Espafia. 

18. J Y no ba vuelto Y. ? No, sefiora, y creo que nunca volver6. 

19. iPorqu6 ? No porque no lo baya deseado, sino porque las circun- 
stancias no me lo ban permitido. 

20. Porqu6 babla Y. tanto de si mismo en sus conversaciones, ^no 
piensa Y. que eso puede cansar d sus oyentes ? Asi es la verdad, sefiora ; 
pero para mi es la materia de conyersacion mas interesante que puedo 
encontrar. 



206 LBS60N XLI, 



EXERCISE. 



1. James, do yon know where Gliarlotte has gone to? I saw her 
going oat, bat I do not know where she has gone. 

2. Can yon not help yoor brother in his misfortane f yon know he re- 
lies (eantar) npon yonr aid. I shall do all in my power to serve him ; 
bnt yon know that is not mnch. 

8. Margaret, go and call Charles; tell him he has played enongh, and 
that I want him to attend to his mnsic lessons. Why, he has be^i at his 
lessons for the last half honr I 

4. Ah I that is another thing. Where is he then ? Here he is, here. 

6. Well, Charles, how are yoa getting on with yonr masic ? Very 
well, papa; but I think Jane will have to help me with my Spanish ex- 
ercise. 

6. My dear boy, always do yonr own exercises, then yon will be snre 
they are well done. Oh, yes, I know ; as they say: " Help yourself and 
Heaven will help yon." 

7. How beantifbl that lady is! Yes; bat, my dear sir, her accom- 
plishments are much superior to her beauty. 

8. I do not doubt it at all; but how do you know that? have yon 
known her long? Long enough to find out her good qualities, which, in 
my opinion, are of more value than all the beauty in the world. 

9. Have you found time yet to examine the books I put on your table 
the other day ? I have, and the examination caused (produced) me a 
great deal of sadness. 

10. How so? From the commencement, page after page, I found that 
the author has not the least experience of the world ; and, beades, he 
contradicts toward the end what he has given as a general rule at the 
beginning of his work. * 

11. I am very much grieved (sorry) that such is your opinion. So am 
I ; but you know it is better (worth more) to tell the truth, even though 
it shonld offend the author himself. 

12. Can you read that epitaph? I beHeve itisin£n£^. Tes; it 
says: "Here lies Pedro Gutierrez." 

18. Is that all it says ? No, there is a great deal more ; but I cannot 
read it 

14. Ah, mdeed 1 I see ; you do not read English as well as you thought 
I do not ; and I proipise you that from this moment I will study it at- 
tentively until I know it thoroughly. 

16. What is that you are smelling? The book that Charles has Just 
bought 

16. What smell has it? It smells like new paper. 



LX880K XLII. 



207 



IT. What was that man rewarded for f For having returned fdevoher) 
fire hundred dollars, which he fonnd in the park, to the person that had 
lost them. 

18. I am very glad that he has heen rewarded ; but virtue is alwajs 
rewarded, sooner or later {tarde que tempram). 



LESSON XLII. 



Adqnirir. 


To acqnlre. 


Aair. 


To seize. 


Caber. 


To contain, to hold* 


Cocer. 


To cook. 


Erguir. 


To erect. 


Satisfaoer. 


To satisfy. 


Traer. 


To bring, to carry. 


(See eonjugatioti of these i 


erbt at the end of (he book,) 


Gonsegnlr. 


To succeed, to get 


Callar. 


To be silent, to hold one's tongue.' 


Eeprender. 


To reprehend, to chide. 


Divisar. 


To perceive, to descry, to espy. 


Pumar. 


To smoke. 


Establecer. 


To establish. 


Saber {imp. verli). 


(In the Hgnificatitm of) to taste. 




or to savor. 


Sorprender. 


To surprise. 


Entrambos. 


Both. 


Solo. 


Alone. 


Ir 4 caballo. 


To ride on horseback. 


Iren coche. 


To ride in a carriage. 


De todos modos. 


At all events, by all means. 


De ningnn modo. 


By no means, not at alL 


Manos 4 la obra. 


To work I 


Por mi parte. 


For my part 


AsSsea. 


So be it, let it be so. 


iC^spital (int). 


Wonderful I too bad I 


iVayal (int.). 


Come, now I indeed I go away I 



208 



LBSBON XLII. 



OONJUNOTIOKB. 

Thej are clasdfied as follows : 

Copulative. 



Qne. 
Tambien. 



8ea que. 
Tampoco. 



That. 
Also. 



Or, either, 
whether. 
Whether. 

Neither. 



Ademis. 

Y(w6. 

NL 

Disjunctive. 

For cuanto. 
Para que. 

Afinde. 



Moreover. 
And. 
Neither, nor. 

Whereas. 

So that) in order 

that. 
In order that. 



Advenative. 
M^ pero. Bat. 

Ann cnando. Even. 
Aunqne. Although, 

thongh. 

Causal. 
Porqne, qne. Because. 
iPorqu6? Why? 

Pnes, pnes qne. Since. 
Por. For. 

Por tanto. Therefore. 



Conditional. 
SL tt 

Sino. But 

Con tal que. Provided. 
Am6no8de. ) ^^^ 
A m^nos que. ) 

Continuative, 
Pnes, pnesto qne. Since, inasmuch 
as. 

Comparative. 
Oomo, asi como. As. 
AsL So. 



Antes de. 




Before. 


L6J0S de. 




Far from. 


£n lugar de. 




Instead of, in place ot 


Porfaltade. 




For want ot 


De miedo de. 
Por temor de. 




For fear of. 






Oomo quiera que. 




However. 


Fuera de quo. 




Besides. 




luego que, or 


As soon as. 


tan pronto como. 






De manera que. 




So that 


Desde que. 




Since. 



Acuerdo. 



Advice, or opin- I 
ion. I 



Marca. 
Fortuna. 



Brand, mark. 
Fortune. 



LEBSOir XLII. 



209 



Dafio. 


Harm, damage. 


Partida. 


Party, game, de- 


Ajcdrez. 


Chess. 




parture. 


Cigarro. 


Cigar. 


Opinion. 


Opinion. 


Cigarrillo. 


Cigarette. 


Pipa. 


Tobacco-pipe, 


Tabaco. 


Tobacco. 




pipe. 


Jaqne. 


Check. 


Compafila. 


Oompanj* 


Caso. 


Case. 








COMPOSITION. 





Conjunetions governing the Hihjunetwe, 



Dado que me escriba no le responder^. 

Ck>n tal que el trabaje. 
A m6nos que me pague. 
Sea que se vaya 6 que se quede. 
Galle Y. no sea que nos oiga. 



Granted that he should write me, I will 

not answer him. 
Provided he works. 
Unless he pays me. 
Whether he sets out or remains. 
Be silent lest he should hear us. 



Conjunctions governing the indicative. 



Al instante que recibi la carta le res- 
pond!. 

De suerte que (or de modo que) no 
pudo conseguirlo; 

De manera que no e8t& nada satisf echo. 

i Qa6 ha hecho Y. desde que le he y\&- 
to & V. ? 

Llegu4 tan pronto como pude. 

Mi^ntras quo Y. juega 61 estudia su leo 
cion. 

Yo reprendo & Y. sus faltas porque le 
quiero. 



As soon as I received the letter I an- 
swered him. 
So that he could not bring it about 

So that he is not pleased at all. 
What have yon been doing since I saw 

you? 
I got here (or there) as soon as I could. 
While you play, he studies his lesson. 

I reprove you for your faults because I 
love you. 



Conjunetumt governing the infinitive. 



Yo trabajo & fin de ganar dinero. 
No le visitar^ &ntes de conocerle. 

L6J0S de amarle le aborrece. 



I work in order to earn money. 

I shall not visit him before making his 

acquaintance. 
Far from loving him, he abhors him. 



EXPLANATION. 



205. CoNJxnsrcnoNS. — ^The learner is already acquainted 
with the greater part of the conjunctions ; but in this lesson 
they are again given, so that he may see how they are classified. 
Besides the conjunctions introduced in this lesson, there may 



210 LB880K XLII. 

be formed a yariety of expressions which answer the same end 
as conjunctions ; as. 

Como quiera qae, I Howerer ; 

Fuera de que, | Besides ; 

and a large number of others. 

206. It would require too much space to specify aU the 
conjunctions that govern verbs in a given mood ; more is to be 
learned from the teacher, and by constant practice in reading 
and conversation, than from all the rules that could be given. 

207. The subjunctive should be used after the following 
conjunctive expressions : Dado que^ granted that ; con ted quCy 
pro^-ided that; d m&nos quCj unless; no sea que^ lest, for fear; 
dniea quCy sin que, sea que, &c. ; as, 



Dado que me escriba no le respon- 

derd. 
Con tal que 61 trab^e. * 
A mhwi que me pagne. 



Granted that he should write to me, 

I shall not answer him. ' 
ProTided that he works. 
Unless he pays me. 



208. Other expressions having cfe, instead of que, require 
the verb in the infinitive mood ; such as^ dfin de, in order to ; 
d mhios de, unless, &o. 

20d. Finally, other compound conjunctions govern the 
indicative ; as, al instants que, as soon as ; de manera que, so 
that| &c, 

CONVERSATION AND VEESION. 

1. Buonos difls, Don C&rlos. — ^Tdagalos Y. mny felloes, Don Enrique; 
al instante que lo divisS desde la ventana lo reconocL 

2. i C6mo estd toda k familia? Todos buenos ; aoaban de salTr. 

8. ^De manera que estd Y. solo ? Si, sefior, en logar de salir quise 
quodarme & esperar 4 Y. pnes sabia que habia Y. de venir. 

4. |Qm6a se lo dyo dY.? A que no aciorta Y.— Yerdaderamente 
no s6 qui^n puede hab^rselo dicho d Y. 

6. Fa6 Helena, sa h\ja de Y., que acaba de salir d pasear con mi esposa 
y Margarita, mi hija. 

6. Y nosotros, jqud har^mos? Lo que Y. gnste. 

7. Mi opinion es.que jnguemos una partida de f^odroz, que fhmemos 
un cigarro, bcbamos un vaso de vino de Carinena, y vayamos despues d 
Borprender dlas selloras al parque. ^Estd Y. de aouerdo? Perfectld- 
mamente. 



LESSON XLII. 211 

€. Pues bieD, iiiaii066 Utobn; ijuega V. macho t Medianameate ; 
pero porno no lo practioo temo que me gane V. 

9. I Q116 hombre ! ri hace lo m^nos dos ancs qne 70 be jagadO| fnera 
de que jamas be ado may (herte. 

10. |CiiMesqmerey^]asnegTas6]asbLiiica8t Coalesquiera, de todos 
modos be de perder. 

11. Jaqne k b& reina Don Enriqne. — ^Pnes creo qne est4 perdida. — Si, 
sefior, no pnede bnir — ^yaja paes le doj d Y. la partida, puesto qne sin 
reina es casi imposible ganar. 

12. I Qoiere V. qae en Ingar de jngar mas vajamos d ver ha sefloras ? 
Si, sefior, Inego qne bebomos del vino de Carifiena. 

13. I Hombre,. sS, lo habia oMdado! aqni estd, 7 aqai tiene V. tambien 
pipas, cigarros de la Habana, cigarrillos de la marca do la Honradez 7 
tabaco de Virginia para la pipa; |qa6 prefiere Y.? To prefiero los 
cigarrillos. 

14. A sn salnd de Y., Don Cdrlos. — ^A la de Y., Don Enriqne. — ;Oafr- 
pita! iqnd bien sabe el de Carinena! 

15. {Le gosta &Y.? iQn6 si me gnstat desde qne vivo en Nneya 
York no be probado vino mejor. 

16. Pnesto qne le gnsta ^porqnd no repite Y. ? Por temor de qne me 
baga dafio, no snelo beber mncho, 7 temo qae me pcmga nn poco alegre. 

17. Aqni tiene Y. fuego; iqa6 tal le gastan 6 Y. esos cigarrillos? 
Excelentcs. 

18. Sefior; ^Qn^ qnicres Jnan? Los caballos cstan listos. 

19. \ Qa6 1 I Yamos 4 caballo ? Si, sefior, las senoras ban ido en cocbe. 

20. iQnd camino tomar^mos? Ir^mospor la Qointa avonida, qne es 
la calle mas hermosa de Nneva York. 

21. Tenemos bnen tiempo, D. Enriqne. — Hcrmosisimo, 7 con csto, bnena 
salad, amigos fides, nna lurga familia 7 xma baena fortima, iqix^ mas 
podemos desear ? 

22. Tiene Y. razon, Don Odrlos, por mi parte 807 feliz 7 solo desco qne 
Dios me de nna larga vida para ver 4 todos mis b\jos bien establecidos. — 
Asi sea, Don Enriqao, lo desco para entrdmbos. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Does 7our brother never go oat on horseback? Sometimes; bnt 
not ver7 often. 

2. What can be the reason of that ? I thonght he was ver7 fond of 
horses and riding on horseback. So he is; but he docs not often take 
exercise of that kind for fear of falling. 

5. How docs he go to the Central Park, in that case ? Wh7, in a 
carriage of course. 



212 



LBS80K XLIII. 



i. Goawaj! What carriage does he go in f In hia coa^^s, of ooarse, 
for want of one of bis own. 

6. Who will give me a cigarette ? No one here ; there is nobody 
here that smokes any thing bnt cigars or pipes. 

6. Too bad I May I ask whj none of you nse the cigarette? Cer- 
tainly; and we shall tell yon with the greatest pleasure: at one tune 
we all smoked what you call ^^ cigarette," but what we call a '* poor 
man's cigar,'' until one day Henry came (you know Henry is something 
of a doctor), and, with his head erect, said with a voice of thunder : 
^' What's this ? smoking cigarettes ? " 

7. Weill what more did he say? "Don't you know that what you 
are smoking there is nothing more than paper ? You will all be sick I '* 

8. What did you do then ? We were at first surprised ; but very 
soon we promised never to smoke such a thing agmn, for it was good for 
nothing, and only tasted of paper. 

9. Be that as you please ; for my part I shall always prefer the dga- 
rette to the cigar (tdbaco). Perhaps you are right ; each one has his 
taste, and so we shall say no more about it 

10. What news do you bring from Boston ? Some good, and some 
bad : my cousin has been very fortunate in that affair I spoke of to you ; 
but he met last week with an unfortunate accident. 

11. Ah! how was that? He was out riding in company with some 
friends, and in returning home he fell off his horse. 

12. I am very sorry indeed ; and I hope he may soon be able to attend 
to his business. 

18. What do you think of playing a game of chess ? I am ready to 
play one, if you wish ; but you will not find my game very good. 

14. Why do you not practise more than you do ? I have practised 
very much, with a desire to become perfect in the game, but have not 
been able to succeed. 



Advertir. 

Coiyugar. 
Desconfiar. 
Oometer. 
Distinguir. 



LESSON XLIII 



To take notice, to observe, to 

warn. 
To coigugate. 
To distrast, to mistrust. 
To oommit. 
To distinguish. 



I.X8S09 XI.III. 



213 



Fonnar. 
DeTolver. 
Descmdait 
Perteneoer. 
liolestar. 
Besoltar. 
{7%e learner mi^ <y Ifttf Ume k> kmm 
the regular amd ike trrtgtdar mrh$ ; tkomUkedt 



To lamiy to sliape. 

To retezny to gire 1m^ [mind. 

To ne^ed, to be at ease in one s 

TobdoD^. 

To molest, to trouble. 

To result, to turn out. 

ea At cotg^^^hmM^haUmf 
time he ei m iem Jar mtm 



pari of a «er6, kf mag refer lo Ae wmjmgaiiome ai Ike emd of Ae 



) 



Gada. 



I Erery, eacb. 



Sindnda. 


Gertamlj, witboat doabt 


lAdeUntel 


GoqdI goabeadi come in! 


Eaadeiante. 


HeneefOTtb. 


Cknopnesto. 


Ck>mpoimd. 


Irregular. 


Irregular. 


Gompleto. 


Complete. 


Varioa. 


Various, diTera, severaL 


Simple. 


Snnple. 


Segoro. 


Secm^ sore. 


Obvio. 


ObTioua. 


Lodemis. 


Thereat. 



Oonodmieiito. 

Jos^. 

Articnlo. 

Pronombre. 

Participio. 

Genmdio. 

Adverbio. 

Ptesente. 

Imperfecto. 

Perfecto. 

Future. 

Pluscamperfecto, 

Infinitive. 

Indicative. 

Imperative. 

Subjuntive. 



I Bin of lading. 
I Knowledge. 

Jesepb. 

Article, section. 

Pronoun. 

Participle. 

Gerund. 

Adverb. 

Present. 

Imperfect. 

Perfect 

Future. 

Pluperfect. 

Infinitive. 

Indicative. 

Imperative. 

Subjunctive. 



Condicien. 

Navidad, or \ 

Natividad. ( 

Relacion. 

Duda. 

Yentsya. 

Prase. 

Prentitud. 

Sentencia. 

Coi^ugacion. 

Verdad. 

Imprudencia. 

Prepesicien. 

Coignncion. 

Inteijeccion. 

Paz. 



Condition. 
Nativity, Cbrist- 

mafi. 
Relation. 
Doubt. 
Advantage. 
Phrase. 
Promptitude. 
Sentence. 
Conjugation. 
Trutii. 
Imprudence. 
Preposition. 
Conjunction. 
Interjection. 
Peace. 



214 



LEBSON XLIII. 



COMPOSraON. 



DescmdeY. 



I Ca&ntoB tiempofl tiene d modo indicar 

tivo? 
Ocho: cuatTO simples y cuatro oom- 

puestos. 
Bueno fuera {or seria) no descoidarse. 

Conyimera (or oonTendria) que se hicie- 

sc la pax. 
Aunque dijeras (or dijeses) la verdad, 

no te creeria. 
I Ojal& cesara {or cesase) la guerra! asi 

seriamos mas felloes. 
Pens^ que estadiaras. 
Ko crei que estudiase Y. 

Ju2gu6 que estudiaria Y. 
Bije que leyeras. 

Dijo que leexias. 

Dyimos que leyese. 

Deseaba que ganaras {or gonases). 

Quiso que te casaras {or casases). 

No 86 si iria 6 no. 

Si tuvicra {or si tuviese) buenos libros 

leeria. 
Seria imprudencia ir con este tiempo. 
Ko qui86 ir. 

Debemos perdonar&nuestros enemigos. 
Y. puede hablar, pero yo no lo puedo. 
i Si hubiera {or bubiese) Y. redbido los 

libros me los habria Y. prestado ? 

Si los hubiera {or hubiese) recibido se 
los habria prestado; pero no los he 
recibido aim. 

En lugar de venir & yerme me escribi6. 

£l no jugar& por temor de perder su 

dinero. 
I Quiera Dios que se oomja I 



Make yourself easy (or be at ease in 

your mind). 
How many tenses has the indicatiye 

mood? 
Eight: four simple and four compound. 

It would be wen not to be off one*s 

guard. 
It would be well if peace were made. 

Though thou wert to tdl the truth, he 
would not believe thee. 

Would to God the war would come to 
an end I we should then be happier. 

I thought thou wouldst study. 

I did not think you would study (or 
were studying). 

I judged you would study. 

I said thou wert to read (or wouldst 
read). 

He said thou wouldst read. 

We said he was to read. 

Hfe wished thee to win. 

He wished thee to get married. 

I do not know whether he would go or 
not 

Had I (or if I had) good books I would 
read. 

It were imprudent to go in this weather. 

He would not go. 

We should forgive our enemies. 

You can speak, bntJ cannot 

Had you received (or if you had re- 
ceived) the books would you have 
lent them to pe? 

If I had received them I would have 
lent them to you ; but I have not re- 
ceived them yet 

Instead of coming to see me, he wrote 
tome. 

He will not play, for fear of losing his 
money. 

God grant that he may change 1 



liESSOH ZLIII. 



215 



tAslBea! Lo deseo para entr&mboa. 
Bebo k U salad de Y., Don Enrique. • 
A la de V., Don G&rlos. 
Sefiores, manos 4 la obra, no sea que 

no podamos acabar 4 tiempo. 
De todos modos creo que no lo conse- 

goirdzbos. 



So be it I That is my desire for both. 
I drink to your health, Mr. Henry. 
Tour health, Mr. Charles. 
To work, gentlemen, for fear we should 

not be able to finish in time. 
At all events, I do not think we shall 

succeed. 



EXPLANATION. 

210* Impeepect astd Plup^epect op the Subjunctive. — 
Although it has been deemed expedient, in the example of the 
conjugation of verbs in the subjunctive mood, to give but one 
English equivalent for each of the three terminations Wa, ra, 
se^ it is not to be inferred therefrom that they may be used in- 
discriminately. Indeed, the correct application of each of 
these terminations presents as much difficulty to the student of 
Spanish as does that of the English signs might, could, shoiUdj 
toould to the foreigner learning English. The following rules 
will, however, serve as a guide in all ordinary cases, and enable 
the pupil to surmount not a few of the most serious obstacles 
* to the right use of the terminations in question. 

Ist, When the sentence begins without a conditional con- 
junction, the verb may take either the first or the second ter- 
mination (ria or ra) ; as, 



Bueno seria ((tr fiiera) no descuidarse. 



It would be well not to be off one*s 

guard. 
It would be wdl if peace were made. 



Oonvendria {or conviniera) que se bl- 

dessUpaz. 

2d. In sentences beginning with si, sino, aunque, hien que, 
dado que, &c.j or with an interjeistion expressive of desire, 
either the second or third termination may be employed {ra or 
se) ; and were it necessary to repeat the same tense in the 
second clause of the sentence (in order to shojir what would 
take place as the result of the condition expressed in the first 
clause), the first termination {rki) may then be used ; as, * 
Aunque dijeras {or dye8cs)laverdad, I Thougb thou toldeflt (op wert to tell) 

no te cieerto. I the truth, he would not believe thee. 

' 3d. When the imperfect of the subjunctive is preceded by 
a verb in the preterit definite of the indicative, signifying pen- 



I did not think you were studying, or 

I did not think you would study, 
I judged you would study. 

I said you would read. 
He Bidd you were to read. 
We said be was to read. 



216 LESSON XLIII. 

BOT^ to think, deevr^ to say, or such like, any of the terminations 
may be used ; but it must be observed that the idea conveyed 
will be different, according to the termination employed ; as, 

Pens6 que estudiara Y., or que estn- I thought you would study. 

diaria Y. 
Ko cref que estudiaie Y.(or estudiara) 

Y. 
Juzgtt6 que estudiarui {pr estudiara) 

Y. 
Dije que leycra (or leerta) Y. 
Dgo que leyeic {or leyera) Y. 
Dyimos que leyera (or leyese). 

4th. But if this tense be preceded or governed by a verb in 
any of the past tenses of the indicative, signifying deseoTj to 
desire, guerer, to wish, or by any verb of such nature, then the 
second termination {ra) or the third (se) must b^ used, and 
never the first {ria) ; as, 

Deseaba que ganara {or gana«e) Y. I He was desirous that you might win. 

QuiflO que Y. se casara {or casaM). | He wished you to get married. 

A glance at the foregoing rules and examples will suffice in 
order to observe that the first and second terminations {ria and 
ra) may be used one for the other, without any change in the 
sense of the phrase ; that the second may also be used for the 
third (that is to say, ra for se)y but that the first and third are 
of an entirely different meaning, and, in consequence, can never 
be substituted one for the other. Another peculiarity of the 
first {ria) is, that it can never be preceded by a conditional con- 
junction, while the second and third may. 

6th. When, in translating into Spanish, tchether is to be 
translated by si^ would or e/iotdd must be rendered by the ter- 
mination ria ; as, . 
No 86 M Iria, . | I do not know whether he would go. 

6tL The inverted forms had J, hadhe^ &c, meaning \f I 
hadj if he had^ &c., are always to be turned into Spanish by 
either of the terminations ra or w, preceded by the conjunc- 
tion si ; as, 
Si tuviera (or tnyieae) buenos libros, 1 Had I (or if I had) good books, I 

leeria. I would read. 



LBS80H ZLIII. 217 

7th. Were^ used in the place of toould be^ may be translatecl 
hj either ria or ra, never by se ; as, 

Serta (or fuera) imprudencia ir con I It were imprudent to go in this 
este tiempo. I weather. 

211. The English auxiliaries, mayy mighty cariy cauldy toitty 
would and should are sometimes to be translated into Spanish 
by principal verbs of the same meaning, and not merely ren- 
dered by corresponding terminations ; as, 

No quuo ir. 1 He would not go. 

V. puede hablar, pero yo no lo puedo. | Ton may (or can) speak, but I cannot 

In the first example we see, that by would not is conveyed 
the idea of the want of toiU or desire on the part of the person 
alluded to, and not the idea of that person's going or not going ^ 
as dependent on a condition. Had the latter been the sense 
intended, we should then have rendered toould by the teraod- 
nation ria of the verb %r, to go ; thus, 
ti no trio. | He would not go ; 

for, in that case, the object would have been simply to predict 
that he toould not gOy as dependent on some such condition as, 
if I did not go too, si yo nofuese tambien. Hence, the closest 
attention is required, in order to find the real meaning of the 
auxiliaries above mentioned, before attempting to translate thero. 

212. The imperfect of the subjunctive denotes a contingent 
action that took place some time ago, or that is taking place at 
the present time, or that will take place after the completion 
of the action expressed by the determining verb. 

213. The pluperfect represents a contingent action as com- 
pleted before some period of^ time already past, or before some 
other action which is now also completed, or which would be 
now completed had it taken place. 

The closest attention to the foregoing remarks is essential, 
in order to avoid thMmproper substitution of the tenses of the 
indicative for those of the subjunctive, which all foreigners, and 
especially the English, are most liable to commit. 



10 



218 LESSON ZLIII. 

CONVERSATION A^^) VERSION. 

1. I Dnda Y. que se haga la paz este verano ? Convendria (or convi- 
niera) qae se hiciese la paz; pero temo qne no se haga. 

2. I Iria y. & Enropa si taviera (or taviese) tiempo? No iria annque 
taviera tiempo, si no tuviese dinero. 

8. lOjaUI tuviera Y. (or tayiese) mnoho dinero, porqne ent6nces 
me prestaria Y. algnno ; |no es asl? Si tnviera mncho le prestaria 4 Y. 
algono ; pero con la condicion de qne me lo devolviese pronto. 

4. ^Temo Y. acaso qne no se lo devolyieraf Todo pndiera saoeder, 
amigo mio. 

5. Si Y. me hnbiera (or hnbiese) prestado algo, 7 yo no se lo hnbiese 
(or hnbiera) devnelto, Y. tendria razon en desconfiar. — Todo eso est4 mnj 
bien ; pero si, en logar de ser Y., fhera 70 el qne necesitara dinero, 7 Y. 
el qne lo tuyiera, | me lo prestaria f For snpnesto qne si. 

6. Pnes con todo- eso 70 no s6 si Y. lo baria.— |Porqn6 piensa Y. tan 
mal do mi ? 

7. ^Ha olvidado Y. 7a qne el afio pasado, por Nayidad, fnf & pedirle 4 
Y. cien pesos 7 me los neg6 Y. ? lial pndiera 70 prcst^rselos & Y. 
cnando 70 no los tenia ; pero est4 Y. segaro, Don Jos^, qne yo hnbiera 
tenido un gran placer en hab^rselos prestado & Y. si los hnbiera (or hn- 
biese) tenido. 

8. 1^1 Y. snpiera nsar oorrectamente los tiempos 7 modos del verbo, 
sabria Y. hablar espafiol ? Si, sefior, con los conocimientos que 7a tengo 
de las dem&s partes do la oracion, creo qne hablaria bien el espafiol si sn- 
piera nsar bien los tiempos 7 modos del verbo. 

9. ^Qn6 es lo mas importante al aprender nna lengna? El conoci- 
miento de todo lo qne hace relacion al verbo. 

10. £porqn6 cree Y. qne el verbo eslo mas importante? Porqne sin 
los verbos no se pnede formar nna sola sentencia. 

11. iLnego, segnn eso, bastard aprender la coi^ngacion de los verbos 
regolares 6 irregnlares para hablar nna lengna? No, sefior, si nno sabe 
coi^ngar los verbos como regnlarmente se coi\jngan en las gram&ticas ; 
pero si sabifindolos conjugar como se debe. 

12. iPues qn6, ha7 olgnn otro modo de coiyngar los verbos? Los 
verbos beben conjagarse formando sentencias cmnpletas en todos bus 
modos 7 tiempos. 

18. iQn6 ventjyas resnltan de esto? Las vent^as son obvias, pnes 
formando sentencias completas con cada tiempo 7 modo se aprende 4 dis- 
tmj^ir ^tos ti^pos 7 modos, acabando por nsarlos oorrectamente. 
*.« f!li* 1 "^ "^"^^ hablaria bien el espafiol d pndiese hacer sentencias 
en todos los tiempos 7 modos del verbo? Sin dnda algnna, nna vez qne 



LESSON XLIII. 219 

y. forme estas sentendas con prontitad y sin cometer faltas, hablar& Y. 
espafioL 

15. Paes manos 4 la obra, iqaiere Y. que baga algnnas en el roodo in- 
dicativo ? No, sefior, en las lecciones pasadas ha practicado Y. bastante 
con ese modo, haga Y. algonas abora con el modo snbjuntivo. 

16. Presenter {Desea Y. que yo aprenda el espafiol? jEs correcta? 
Perfectamente; adelante. 

17. Perfecto de sabjnntivo : Temo qne la gaerra no baya acabado en 
Earopa. |EistA.bien? Si, sefior, est4 may bien; pero no necesita Y. 
pregantarme d cada sentenoia qne baga, si estd correcta, porque yo ten- 
dr6 buen cnidado de advertirselo & Y. cnando no sea asi. 

18. Plnscnamperfecto : Si yo bnbiera creido qne esto le molestaba & Y. 
no se lo habria pregnntado. — ^Esto no me molesta de ningnn modo y espero 
qne Y. no se moleste tampoco por lo qne yo acabo de decir. 

19. Imperfecto: |Seria snfidente bacer nna fraae en cada tiempo? 
Seria snfidente si cada tiempo se nsase en nn solo caso ; pero como bay 
mncbos y mny varios, convendria practicar en todos tanto como fnese 
posible. 

EXEBCISE. 

1. Before going out, Henry, I wish to give yon a piece of advice. 
Well, go on I 

2. What is that advice yon have to give me ? Hold yonr tongue, and 
hear what I have to tell yon. 

8. Did yon warn yonr cousin not to lend bis carriage to that young 
man who asked him for it ? Tes, but he said he would do so, and that 
he did not distrust that young man at all. 

4. Do you know how to cocgugate all the verbs in the Spanish lan- 
guage now ? I am not sure ; my memory is not very good ; and so I al- 
ways like to look at my granmiar, for fear of making (committing) mistakes. 

5. Oan you tell me how many coi^ugations of regular verbs there 
are in Spanish ? Tea, sir, there are three. 

6. When you see a new verb, how do you know to what coigugation 
it belongs ? By the termination of the infinitive mood. 

7. Oan yon tell me to what coi\jugation the verb comprar belongs ? 
Certainly; it belongs to the first. 

8. How do you know that ? I see the characteristic termination of 
the first conjugation, which is ar, 

9. And of which coiyugation is entender f The second ; its termina- 
tion being er, 

10. Yery well. Now, if I say exiatiS, can you tell me all about that 
verb ? Yes, sir, it is a regular verb, third person singular, of the preterit 



220 



LB880N XLIY. 



definite tense of the indioatiye mood ; it belongs to the third conjagation, 
its infinitive being existir. 

11. Are there in Spanish no other conjugations than those which jon 
have just told me ? Yes, very many. TTiose I have mentioned (meneio- 
nar) already are the three regular verbs. 

12. What do you understand by " regular verbs " ? Begular verbs are 
those which are conjugated in all their moods and tenses exactly like the 
models {modelos) given in different parts of the granmuir. 

13. And *^ irregular verbs,'^ what are they ? Those whose conjugation 
is different from the models. 

14. If you could speak Spanish as well as English, do you think you 
would prefer it to your own language ? I would like to be able to speak 
it as well ; but there is no language in the world that I would prefer to 
my own. 

15. If I were to lend you this phrase book would you return it to me 
next week ? I would if yon wanted it, and that I promised to return it 
to you at that time. 



LESSON XLIV. 



Aprozimar. 


To approach, to draw near. 


Apurar. 


To perplex, to press. 


Aullar. 


To howl. 


Ladrar. 


To bark. 


Ouidar. 


To take care of. 


Dejar. 


To leave, to let 


Emplear. 


To employ. 


Mnt^r. 


To kill. 


Permitir. 


To permit. 


Robar. 


To rob, to steal 


Imponer. 


To impose. 


Tantico. 


Somewhat; a little. 


Vaya de cuento. 


To begin my story. 


Oomo iba diciendo de mi 


As I was saying Cm my story). 


cuento. 




A mi costa. 


At my expense, to my cost. 


Ya le veo 4 V. venir. 


I see what you are at. 


Venir d pelo. 


To suit exactly, to be apropos. 



LESSON XLIY. 



221 



De sopeton. 
Cuanto mas. 
\ Por DioB 1 



Unexpectedly. 

The more. 

For Heaven's sake I 



jHel 


Hoi hoa! What? 


iOigal 


Indeed! Just listen! 


Gliioo. 


Little, small. 


Revoltoso. 


Noisy. 


Caliente. 


Hot, warm. 


Apurado. 


Embarrassed. 


Borlon. 


Jester, scoflfer. 


Natural. 


Natural. 


Aomentativo. 


Augmentative. 


Diminntivo. 


Diminutive. 


Picaro. 


Rogue, rascaL 


Satiafecho. 


Satisfied, contented. 



Cuento. 

Oorro. 

Oojo. 

Brazo. 

Ademan. 

Francisco, Paco 

(dim.). 
Jos^P6pe (cZim.). 
Galdo. 
Calducho. 
Pistoletazo. 
Poetastro. 
Lugar. 
Grarrote. 
Garrotazo. 

Canon. 

Oafionazo. 

Ladron. 



Tale, story. 

Group of persons. 

Lame. 

Arm. 

Attitude. 

Francis, Frank. 

Joseph, Joe. 
Broth. 
Poor broth. 
Pistol shot. 
Poetaster. 
Place. 
Bludgeon. 
Blow of a bind- 

.geon. 
Cannon. 
Cannon-shot 
Thief, robber. 



An6cdota. 

Casuca. 

Mosca. 

Necesidad. 

Piema. 

Boca. 

Maria, Mariqui- 

ta (dim.). 
Concepcion, 

Concha (dim.), 
Pistola. 
Estratagema. 
Josefa, P6pa 

(dim.). 
Francisca, Paca 

(dim.). 
Costumbre. 
Gaae. 



Anecdote. 
Miserable house. 
Fly ; tiresome 

person. 
Necessity, need. 
Leg. 
Mouth. 
Mary. 

(2^0 Bnglish equiv- 
alent.) 
Pistol. 
Stratagem. 
Josephine. 

Frances, Fanny. 

Custom. 
Class. 



COMPOSITION. 



Lo aprendi k mi costa. 

Antes no le habia comprendldo k Y., 

ahora ya le veo venir. 
t\ me did la noticia de sopeton. . 



I learned it to my cost 

I did not understand you before, but 

now I see what you are at. 
He gave me the news unexpectedly. 



222 



LESSON XLIY. 



I For Dios ! D. Frandsco, no hable Y. 

dceso. 
i Conoce Y . & aquei hombron f 
Sf, sefior, ea el marido de mi yednita 

Hariquita. 
Y. me Borprende. i Es posible que eea 

aquel bombronazo el marido de esa 

mujercita I 
i Eb ese hombre oojo ? 
Si, sefior ; en la iiltima gaerro redbid 

un piatoletazo en mia pienuk 
i Ha matado Y. alguna vez & algono ? 
Si, Befior, el alio pasado mat6 de un 

garrotazo al perro de mi vecino, por- 

que no me d^aba donnir, aullando 

todita la noche. 
Ese hombre es un picaronazo, que no 

hace Bino beber y no atiende & las 
*'neceBidade8 de bu familia. 
Este perro ee chiquito, pero yo tengo 

uno chiquirritito. 
Carlotita, ye & cuidar de tu hermanita. 

Ese nifio es un picarillo. 

Esta nifia es una coquetiUa. 

Mi pobrecico hijo e8t4 muy mala 

P^pe, I has visto mi caballito ? 

Si ; pero yo en tu lugar, Paco, le Uama- 
ria caballejo, porque creo que no 
merece el nombre de caballito. 

Pdpe yino callandita 

Mi amigo est& apuradillo. 

Esa niiia eaik muertecita de fno. 

Tu casa est& lejitos. 

ti no es poeta, sino poetastro. 



For Heaven's sake! Mr. Frands, do 
not speak of that 

Do you know that big man t 

Yes, sir, he is the husband of my little 
neighbor Mary. 

You surprise me. Is it possible that 
that enonnous man is that little 
woman's husband 1 

Is that man lame f 

Yes, sir ; in the last war he received a 
pistol shot in one of his legs. 

Did you ever kill any one ? 

Yes, sir ; last year I killed my neigh- 
bor's dog with a bludgeon, for he 
would not let me sleep, howUng the ' 
whole night over. 

That man is a great rascal who does 
nothing but drink, and does not at> 
tend to the wants of his family. 

This dog is pretty small, but I have a 
very little one. 

Charlotte, go and take care of your lit- 
tle sister. 

This child is a little rogue. 

This little girl is a little coquette. 

My poor little son is very sick. 

Joe, have you seen my little horse f 

I did; but if I were you, Frank, I 
would call it a nag, for I think it is 
not worthy the name of (little) horse. 

Joe came in softly. 

My friend is a little embarrassed. 

That little girl is almost dead with cold. 

Your house is pretty far away. 

He is no poet, but a poetaster. 



EXPLANATION. 

214. AuGMEm'ATivB AOT) DiMrNTTnvB NOXTNS are those 
derivatives which serve to augment or diminish the significa- 
tion of their primitives ; not only in regard to size, but also to 
esteem, charactep^ dignity, importance, &c. 

They are formed by adding various terminations to the 
primitive nouns, dropping generally the vowel, if it end in one. 



LBS80K ZLIY. 223 

The tenninations which are nsed are very namerons ; bat those 
most frequently adopted are azOj on, ote for the augmcntive 
masculine, and aza^ ona, ota for the augmentive feminine nouns. 
These terminations are equivalent in their meaning to the Eng- 
lish words big^ ^rge^ stout^ taU^ and such like ; as, 

FRIMrriTXS. DEBZYATiySS. 



Hombre. A man. 

Mtycr. A woman. 



Hombron, horn- A tall, or large, 
broso, hombro^ man. 

Mi\jerona, mu- A tall, or large, 
jera2a,mtuero^ woman. 

But the nouns which have those terminations are not al- 
ways augmentatiyes, since the nouns pistoletazo^ pistol shot; 
caiUmazo^ cannon shot ; garrotazo^ blow of a bludgeon, do not 
augment the signification of their primitives, pistola^ cafion 
and garrote^ and consequently are not augmentatives. 

Familiar use has introduced many other augmentative and 
diminutive terminations ; as, 

Hombronaa>. I A very large man. 

Ficaronozo. | A very great rascal 

The terminations most used as diminutives are in^ iUo^ itOj 
icOy etc, udo or ^o, for the masculine ; the feminine are formed 
by adding a to the termination iuy and by changing the final 
vowel of the others into a. 

Many of the diminutive terminations may acquire a still 
further diminutive signification, by adding other terminations 
to them ; thus, 

Chieo. Small 

Ghiqaifo. Very smalL 

Chiqmrrittto. Very, very smalL 

The manner of applying these terminations, as much for 
their different meanings as for their various orthographical ac- 
cidents, admits of so much variety that practice seems the only 
means of acquiring the proper use of them ; as, 



Mi bermantfo. 
Un hombrecifo. 
Un viejecfto. 
£l es mi picari^. 
Carlott^a. 



Hy dear little brother. 
A dear little maa. 
A dear little old man. 
He IB a dear little rogue. 
Dear little Charlotte. 



224 



LESSON ZLIV. 



Una pobre viejectfti. 

Ella es una coquett/Ztk 

Mi probrecMo higo (or mi pobre 

hpo). 
Un caball^o. 
Un pobreto. 
Un hidroiDzuelo, 
Un reyezu«^. 



A poor dear little old wom^n. 
, She is a dear little coquette. 
Mj poor little son. 

A miserable little horse, a nag. 
A poor useless creature. 
A petty youn^ thie£ 
A petty king. 



216. Besides the terminations mentioned, there are many 
others which may he called irregviJUxr^ inasmuch as they can be 
affixed to certain nouns only, among them the most irregular 
are those of persons ; as, 



Francisco, Paoo, etc 
CoQcepcion, Concha, etc 
Jo86, Pepe, etc 
Harla, Mariquita, etc 



Frands, Frank. 

{No eqmvaleni tn jEnglish.') 

Joseph, Joe 

Maiy. 



-216. Although the diminutives proceed in general from 
substantive nouns, as we see by the preceding examples, they 
are also formed, in familiar style, from adjectives, participles, 
gerunds, and even from adverbs ; thus we not unfrequently 
say: 



BeToltoRt22o ee el muohacho. 
Huertectto de frio. 
TodUo el dia. 
Pan calentifo. 
ApandiUo estuvo. 
Vino callandifo. 
L^'i^os est& tu casa. 



The boy is rather turbulent 

Half dead with cold. 

The whole day over. 

Warm bread (slightly warm). 

He was somewhat embarrassed. 

He came softly. 

Tour house is pretty far away. 



217. Primitive words, ending of themselves in any diminu- 
tive termination (such as cepiffo, brush ; aban^co, fan ; esp^'o, 
looking-glass, &c.), cannot take an additional termination simi- 
lar to their own, without producing a disagreeable sound, which 
ought always to be avoided. Words ending in ito or ita are 
excepted. 

The same tehnination may often serve t^ express affection^ 
pity^ contempt^ Ac, being in this respect like the interjec- 
tions, and it is consequently very difficult to classify them. 
Very often their real meaning can be distinguished only 
by the nature of the conversation and the intonation of the 



LESSON XLIV. ^ 225 

voice. * They are, nevertheless, not to be used too profasely, 
because when they come too close together they render the 
discourse monotonous, in consequence of the similarity existing 
between them. 

218. There are in Spanish other derivatives, formed more 
or less at fancy, and which are not augmentatives or diminu- 
tives, although they may appear to be such; these might be 
called depreciatives {despreciativaa)^ because there is always in 
them something of censure, maliciousness, or mockery ; as. 



Casa, casuca. 
Poeta, poetastro. 
Caldo, calducbo. 



' Houae, miBerable-looking house. 
Poet, poetaster. 
Broth, poor broth. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Tiene Y. liLstima de aqnel pobrete ? No tengo l^ima do 61, por- 
que es nn ladronzuelo. 

2. ^Le ha robado 4 V. algo? No, sefior, 61 sabe may bien que si so 
atreviese 4 robarme yo lo mataria de an pistoletazo. 

8. Y |porqa6 no do un garrotazo, 6 on caflonazo ? iPorqn6? No s6 
porqa6, probablemente he empleado la palabra pistoletazo porqae tengo 
una pistola y no tengo ni garrote, nl cafion. 

4. No, senor, esa no es la razon ; ^qniere Y. qne yo se la diga? Bien, 
veamos. 

5. Y. no tiene valor para matar una mosca caanto mas & an hombre ; 
pero Y. qaeria practicar con las palabras matar y pistoletazo y esta es la 
sola razon per la caal Y. iba & cometer on homicidio. 

6. Yaya, Don Francisco, Y. es poeta, hombre do ingonio y de baen 
hamor y qaicre divertirse d costa'mia, ^no es verdad ? Ya lo veo 4 Y. 
venir, Y. qaiere hacerme decir qne no soy poeta sino poetastro introdu- 
ciendo esta palabrita mas de la leccion. 

7. Solo le faltaba & Y. llamarso Quevedo para serle pareddo en todo, 
hasta en el nombre. — ^Mil gradas por el honor de la comparacion, pero 
Yolviendo & lo del pistoletazo. 

8. I Por Dios I D. Francisco, no sea Y. tan barlon y d6jeme Y. estar 
en paz. — ^Lo dejar6 4.Y., Bon Pepe, si me permite contarle on cuentecito; 
y para que le parezoa 4 Y. mas interesante, se lo contar6 4 Y. introdncien- 
do tantos aomentativos y diminativos como me sea posible. 

9. Oon esa condicion le escacho 4 Y. — ^Paes bien ; vaya de cnento : 
Habia un hombrecillo en derto lugarcillo. — ^Y observe Y., D. Pepito, 
que para el caentecito lo mismo habiera dado que el hombre hubiera udo 

10* 



226 # LSS80K ZLIY. 

hombron y el Ingor logaron. — ^Adelante con el caenteciHo que me va gas- 
tando na tantico. Paes es el caso que esto hombron, hombrecito, hom- 
brecillo, hombrote, hombrecico, hombrasso, hombronazo, hombracho, 6 
como V. qniera llamarlo. . . . 

10. To no qaiero Ilamarle nada, Y. lo ha llamado ja saficiente ; pcro 
al cuento, id cacnto 6 se acabard el ejercicio sin que llegnemos al fin.— 
Paes este hombrezuelo no sabia mas que un cnentecillo ; pero lo contaba 
& todo el mundo que encontraba. 

11. Pero 70 no comprendo como podia hacer que su cuento vinieso & 
pelo 7 y. sabo que no se cuenta an cuento asl de sopeton, como se dan 
los buenos dias. — Al principio, el viejote se encontraba apuradillo para 
conscguirlo ; pero el picaruelo invent6 despues una estratagema por me- 
dio de la cual hizo que su anecdotiUa viniera 4 pelo siempre. 

12. jOigal I J quo estratagema fu6 esa? Oigala Y. ; pero dntes debo 
advertir d Y. que en su an^cdota habia algo que hacia relacion 4 cafiona- 
zos 7 pistoletazos. 

13. I H6 1 I Ta Yuelve Y. 4 los pistoletazos ! Pues bien, como iba di- 
ciendo de mi cuento, se aproximaba el buen Tiqjecito callandito 4 cnal- 
quier corrillo que encontrase 7 poni^ndose el dedo indice sobre la boca 
en ademan de imponer silencio, les preguntaba. '^ | Han oido Yds. un 
cafionazo ? " No, sefior, era naturalmente la respuesta ; pues bien, res- 
pondia mi hombre ma7 satisfecho. — Ahora que hablamas de cafionazos 
les C/0ntar6 4 Yds. una an^cdota .... 7 aqui contaba su cuento. 

14. To no veo la aplicacion de su cuento do Y. todavia, Sr. D. Fran- 
cisco. — I C6mo I D. Pepe, ^no ha oido Y. un pistoletazo ? 

EXERCISE. 

1. How did 70U like that stor7 by Fornan Caballero which I lent 
70U? Yer7 much indeed; it gives a ver7 good idea of the manners, 
customs and language of the low classes in Andalusia (Andalucid), 

2. What did that man want? He is a poor lame man asking for a 
piece of bread, or a few cents to bu7 some. 

8. He is lame, 70U sa7 ; how did that happen to him ? He saTs he 
was at the war and received a pistol shot in the leg. 

4. What does the ph7sician give to 70ur cousin since he has been 
sick? Hehasg^ven him some medicine (fnedieina\ and 8a78 he must 
take broth three times a da7. 

6. Do 70U like broth ? Yes, ver7 well ; but not such poor broth as 
the7 make for m7 cousin. 

6. How does that poor man make his living since he lost both his 
arms ? He can do nothing in the world, and lives on what little money 
he gets from his brother, who is rather embarrassed himself just now. 



LESSOK XLY. 



227 



7. Ck>me nearer to the fire, Louisa; it is a little cold this morning. 
Thank 70U, I do not feel the cold mnch ; hnt I would be obliged to you 
if 70a wonld call Fanny in to warm herself; 'she is half dead with cold. 

8. Is Henry going to be employed by that merchant to whom yon 
spoke for him some time ago ? Tes, I think it is probable, and I shall be 
very glad, for the poor fellaui^ is a little embarrassed, and has been so 
for a long time. 

9. If I were in yonr place I wonld not allow that dog to howl so the 
whole night over. My father will not let me speak abont it to onr neigh- 
bor, who lives in that miserable old honse next to onrs ; it is his dog, and 
he onght not to let it howl in snch a manner. 

10. Jnst listen to him I as if I wonld not go and kill it with a bind- 
geon. — Elll it I There wonld be no necessity for killing it ; jnst give 
him one good blow with the bludgeon you talk of and he wonld let you 
sleep in future. 

11. Have yon ever read Don Quixote? No ; why? If you take the 
trouble to read it you will find a very good anecdote of a madman (loco) 
and a dog, in the first chapter of the second part of that justly celebra- 
ted work. 

12. Have you paid attention to what is said in to-day's lesson on ang- 
mentativcs and diminutives ? Tes, madam ; and it seems to me that the 
proper use of them must make a language expressive and elegant in a 
high degree (grado), 

13. Is Concepeian a very common name for ladies in Spain ? There 
are a great many called by that name ; the diminutive is Concha. 

14. Is your mother satisfied with her new servant ? Very much so. 

15. Why did she let the other one go away? She was very glad to 
see her go away, because she used to steal everything that came to her 
hand. 

16. Is that coffee warm? No, sir; but I could warm it in a few 
minutes, if. yon wished. 



LESSON XLV. 

[know. 
Avisar. To advise, to notify, to let one 

Admirar. To admire. 

Acons^ar. To counsel, to advise. 

Apremiar. To urge, to compel one to do any 

thing by order of court. 

• BeoMmto tiitl Si]«]]di WQfds ItoltoiMcf are not to be tni^ 



228 



LESSON XLY. 



Afectar. 

Compadecer. 

Convertir. 

Desertar. 

Empefiar. 

Ezplicar. 

Fosilar. 

Guardar. 

Ubrar. 

Mentir. 

Mencionar. 

Pennanecer. 

Relatar. 

Santificar. 

Sncedcr. 

Sonar. 

Volar. 



To feign, to affect 

To pity. 

To convert 

To desert. 

To pledge, to engage. 

To explain. 

To shoot 

To guard, to observe, to keep. 

To free, to liberate^ to deliver. 

'To lie. 

To mention. 

To remain. 

To relate. 

To sanctify. 

To happen, to succeed. 

To sonnd. 

To fly. 



lAh bahl 


Oh, pshaw I 


jTomal 


Indeed I 


Ancho. 


Wide, broad. 


False. 


False. 


Oalvo. 


Bald. 


Famoso. 


Famous. 


Notorio. 


Notorious, well known. 


Cr^dulo. 


Credulous. 


Crftlco. 


Critical. 


Formal. 


Formal, straightforward. 


Snpersticioso. 


Superstitious. 


Esc6ptico. 


Skeptic, skepticaL 


De todo corazon. 


With all my heart 


En su interior. 


In his mind. 


Ya caigo. 


I see (or understand). 


Bien venldo. 


Welcome. 


A dial mas. 


Vieing with each other. 


De buena f6. 


In good faith. 


Estoes. 


That is. 


Ya lo ve V. 


So you see. 



Sol. 
Amor. 



Sun. 
Love. 



Oracion. 
Tierra. 



Prayer. 
Earth, hind. 



LESSON XLY. 



229 



Oielo. 


Sky, heaven. 


Calm 


Baldness, the bald 


Reino. 


Kingdom. 




part. 


Fin. 


End, purpose. 


Ana. 


Ann. 


Deudor. 


Debtor. 


Voluntad. 


Will, choice. 


General. 


General 


Profecia. 


Prophecy. 


Caervo. 


Bayen, crow. 


ilsonomia. 


Physiognomy, 


Agaero. 


Omen. 




countenance. 


Interior. 


Interior. 


Tentacion. 


Temptation. 


Kspiritn. 


Spirit 


Sinceridad. 


Sincerity. 


Lodo. 


Mud. 


Ii^ustida. 


Injustice. 


£1 padre nnestro. The Lord's Fi«7er. 


Kidiculez. 


Bidicule. 






Compaaion. 


Compassion. 






Materia. 


Matter. 






F6. 


Faith. 






Bolsa. 


Purse. 






Ezoepcion. 


Exception. 






Frente. 


Forehead, 






Formalidad. 


Formality. 




OOMPOi 


51T10N. 





Dios te lo premie. 

Si para fines de aflo no hubiere pagado, 

le apremias (or apremiale, or le apre- 

miar&s). 
. S yiene {or como yenga) ser& bien re- 

cibido. 
Qoien tal diga miente. 
Si asi lo haces, Dios te lo premie. 
Si al salir de tu casa vieres yolar cuer- 

yos, ddjalos volar y mira tii donde 

pones los pi^s. 
Todo hombre calro no tendr& pelo ; y 

si tuviere alguno no ser& en la calya. 

Le perdonarfin todo lo que hidero. , 

Le eseribir6 & Y. lo que me d^ere. 

Si permaneciere aqul algun tiempo se lo 

ayisard. 
Le eacribir6 k V. lo que diga. 



May God reward yon for it. 
If at the end of the year he has not 
paid you, compel him to do so. 

If he comes, he shall be well received. 

Whoever says such a thing lies. 
If you do so, may God reward you. 
If on going out of your house you should 

see crows fly, let them fly, and look 

where you put your own feet. 
Every bald man will be without hair ; 

or if he should have any, it will not 

be on the bald part 
They will forgive him every thing he 

may do. 
I will write to you what he may {hvp- 

pen to) say to me. 
If I should (or should I) remain here 

any time, I will let you know. 
I will write to you what he may say to 

me. 



230 



LEB80N XLT. 



Le perdonar&n lo que haga. 

Si habiere salido cuando Y. llegae. 
Atmque hubiere Uegado Antes qae re- 

clba la carta. 
Aunque haya llegado Antes qae reciba 

la carta. 
El general mandd que todos los que 

desertaran faesen fuailados. 

El general niand6 que todos los que 
hubieran desertado ftiesen fusilados. 

El general ha mandado que todos los 
que desertaren sean fosUados. 

El general ha mandado que todos los 
que hubieren desertado sean foakr 

dOB. 

Quien lo d^ere mienie. 

Si viniere, serA bien recibido. 

Si asl lo hideres. 



They will foi^ye hun every thing he 

may do. 
If be should hare left when you arrive. 
Although he may have axrived before 

he receives the letter. 
Althou^ he may have arrived before 

he receives the letter. 
The general ordered that all those who 

might (happen to) desert should be 

shot 
The general ordered that all those who 

might have deserted should be shot 
The general has ordered that all those 

who may desert (t. e, may happen to 

desert) should be shot 
The general has ordered that all ihoee 

who may have deserted be shot 

Whoever should say so will lie. 

If he should come, he will be well re- 

ceifed. 
If you should do so. 



EXPLANATION. 

219. The FimrBE simple of the Babjunctive mood repre- 
sents a contingent action as to take place some time hence ; as, 

I will write to you what he may 

(happen to) say to me. 
They will forgive him everything he 



Le escribir6 & Y. lo que me d^ere. 
Le perdonar&n todo lo que hidere. 



Siperfnaneeiere aquf algun tiempo se 
lo avisar^. 



may do in future. 
If I should (or should I) remunhcre 
any time I shall let you know. 



220. The pbesent of the subjanctive may be substitated 
for the foregoing tense, except when the verb is preceded by 
the conditional 8% ; as, JOe escribiri dVilo que diga ; Leperdo- 
nardn lo que haga. 

221. The futube coMPOxn!n>, which is not so much used 
as the simple, denotes a contingent action subordinate to a 
future event ; as. 

Si Austere m2k29 cnando Y. llegae- | If he should bare left when yoa 

arrive. 



LESSON ZLY. 



231 



Amiqae hubiere Uegodo intes que 
reciba la carta. 



Although he may baye arriyed before 
be reoeiyes the letter. 



222. The compounb pbbsent of the sabjanctive may be 
snbstitated for the above tense, except when the verb is pre- 
ceded by the coqditional si ; as, aunque haya llegado dntes que 
reciba la carta. 

223. In order that the imperfect and pluperfect of the sub- 
junctive, which also express a future contingent action or 
event, be not misapplied, as too frequently they are, and con- 
founded with the future simple and compound future of the 
same mood, the following distinction must be attentively 
observed : 

1st. That the imperfect and pluperfect may be employed 
when the actions or events expressed in the sentence are future 
only in reference to some other time expressed, or merely im- 
plied, in the sentence. 

2d. That the future simple and compound future must be 
nsed when the contingent 'action or event implied' in the sen- 
tence is future with regard to the action expressed by the 
determining verbs ; as. 



El general mandd que todos los que 
desertaran fuesen fusilados. 

El general mand6 que todos los que 
hubieran dnertado fuesen fusilados. 

£1 general ba mandado que todos los 
que deteriaran sean fusilados. 

El general ha mandado que todos los 
que huburea desertado sean fbsi- 
lados. 

224. The future simple and the compound future of the 
subjunctive also act as determining verbs ; but they govern the 
subordinate verb only in the present or the future simple of the 
indicative, and in the imperative ; as, 

Quien lo d^ere^ miente. Wboever should say so will lie. 

^vinitreierd blen redbido. If he should oome, he shall be well 

xeoeiTed. 



The general ordered that all those 
who should (might happen to) de- 
sert should be shot 

The general ordered that all those 
who had (might baye) deserted 
should be shot 

The general has ordered that all those 
who desert (t. e, may happen to 
desert) shall be shot 

The general has ordered that all those 
who baye deserted shall be shot 



232 



LESSOK XLY. 



SI as! lo hieiera. IHoB te lo premie. If joa do bo, may God reward joa 

for It 
Si para fines de afio no hubierepagar If at the end of the year he has not 

do^ le opremtcu, or aprhniale^ or paid you, compel him to do bo. 

le apremianU. 

These determining sentences of tbe future simple of the 
subjunctive may be turned to the present indicative in certain 
cases, and to the present subjunctive in others ; as. 



^ rtefi«, or como venga, Ber& bien re- 

dbido. 
Quien tal diga miente. 
Si aaf lo haeet^ DioB te lo premie, etc. 



If he comes, he shall be well re- 
ceived. 

Whoever says so lies. 

If you do so, may God reward you 
for it 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. Don Jos^, me han dicho que es mal a^ero al salir uno do sn casa 
T6r volar ouervcft; |qa6 piensa Y. sobre ello? To pienso como Don 
Francisco de Qaevedo. 

2. ^T qu^ es lo que pensaba ese famoso escritor sobre esta materia? 
Oiga Y. lo que ^1 decla. 

8. Si ol saHr de tn casa vieres volar cnervos, d^jalos volar, y mira it 
donde pones los pi4s. 

4. I Ah I {bah \ Qnevedo era xm criticon que no perdonaba nada, 
pero alld en sn interior qniza creia nn poqnito como todo el mundo en 
los agtleros ; |no cree Y. asi ? | Qa6 si creia 1 Por sapnesto que a. Yea 
Y. aqui otro de los agtieros en qaoVreia. 

6. Si vas d comprar algo, y al ir d pagar no hallares la bolsa adonde 
Uevabas el dlnero, es agtlero malisimo, y no te sncederd bien la compra. 

6. jTomal Esa es mia verdad de Perogrullo, y ya veo que Y. no 
oree en los agtleros pero al m6nos Y. creerd en las profecias ; ^ no es ver- 
dad, Don Jos^? lOI si, sofiora, macho, sobre todo en las de Pero- 
grullo. 

7. 4Qu6 profecias son esaa, que nunoa las he oido? Sefiora no podr6 
relatdrselas 4 Y. todas, pero le dir6 d Y. algunas si Y. lo desea. 

8. Con mucho gusto, hdgame Y. el favor. Pues bien, oiga Y. : " Si 
lloviere habrd lodos." " El que tuviere tendrd." 

9. I Ah ! ya caigo ; es por esto que se llama cnalquiera verdad que es 
muy notoria, verdad de Perogrullo. | Yamos I aqui viene Don Enrique, 
puede ser que 61 crea en algo, porque Y. no cree en nada. 

10. A los pi68 de Y., Dofia Anita.— Beso d Y. la mano Don Enrique. 



LBS80K XLY. 233 

11. A las 6rdeiies do V., Don Jo86, — ^Bien vcnido, Don Enrique. — ^Aqui 
tiene Y. 4 Dofia Anita empefiada en hacerme snpersticioso. 

12. Y V. es tambien esc^ptico, no cree V. en snefios, en espiritua, en 
fisonomias, jen que cree V., Don. Enrique? To, sefiorita, aoy un hombre 
mnj cr^dolo, creo en todo, creo hasta las mi\)eres. 

13. Mil gracias, Don Enrique ; yo creia que la ranoeridad estaba siempre 
de parte de la mi^er y no del hombre, puea son Yds. todos 4 cual mas 
iaiso. — Sefiorita, 6 Y. nos hace una iiyusticia, 6 yo soy una ezcepcion ; 
pero ycdviendo 4 lo de las creencias, confieso de buena f6 que soy un poco 
superstidoso. — ^Me alegro mucho, de ese modo me ayudar4 Y. 4 convertir 
4 Don Jos6 que no oree en nada. 

14. Perdone Y., sefiorita, yo creo en una de las cosas que Y. ha men- 
cionado, esto es, en las fisonomlas. — \ Bien, bien I ezpliquenos Y., ent6nce8, 
su significado. 

15. El que tuviere la frente ancha tendr4 los ojos deb^jo de la frente, 
y Yivir4 todos los dias de su vida, — ; Por Dios 1 Don Jos^, hable Y. for- 
mafanente. 

16. Pues bien, con toda formalidad. Todo hombre calvo no tendr4 
pelo, y si tuviere algnno no 8er4 en la calva. 

17. ) Ya lo ye, Y. I se burla de todo, y no cree en nada, es un esc^ptico 
completo. Defi^ndase Y., amigo Don Jos6, 6 quiz4 es verdad que no 
cree Y. en nada. Ent6nces le oompadezco 4 Y. de todo corazon. 

18. I Hombre I d^jeme Y. en paz, y guarde Y. su compadon para 
tod4s esas pobres gentes que oreen, 6 afectan creer, todas esas ridiculeces ; 
yo creo lo que veo ; creo lo que raento, y creo lo que mi razon me acon- 
sqja creer; por eso crdo en el sol, en el amor, en Dios.— ) Yamos! ahora 
va 4 hacemos creer que es hombre muy religioso. 

19. Sefior Don Jos4, esta sefiorita y yo tenemos grandes deseos de 
aprender el Padre nuestro en espafiol ; i lo sabe Y. ? No solamente lo b4, 
siuo que es una oracion que me gusta mucbo. 

20. ^Quiere Yi hacemos el favor de declmosla? Con mucho gusto, 
h6lo aqui. 

21. ** Padre nuestro, que est4s en los cielos, santificado sea tu nombre, 
venga 4 nos el tu reino. H4gase tu volimtad, as! en la tierra como en el 
cielo. El pan nuestro de cada dia d4nosle hoy. Perd6nanos nuestras 
deudas, como nosotros perdonamos 4 nuestros deudores. Y no nos dejes 
caer en tentacion. Y libranos de maL" Amen. 

22. Mil gradas, Don Jos6 ; voy 4 aprenderlo de memoria porque me 
Buena muy bien en espafiol. 



234 LESBOK XLT. 



EXERCISE. 



1. At what o^dock does the son rise at New York in the month of 
September t The son rose here this morning at twentj-seven minates 
past five o'clock. 

2. What did your teacher say to yon to-day when your lessons were 
finished? Nothing to me in particnlar; he spoke to all of ns about 
reading good books, as very necessary in order to acquire the love of 
truth and sincerity in all our actions. 

8. Here are the works of Francis de Quevedo ; have you ever read 
themt Yea, very often; and I admire very much his profoxmd knowl- 
edge of the human heart. 

4. He is also somewhat of a jester; is he not? Yes, but for a very 
wise end ; he shows all the ridicule of the belief in auguries, omens — ^for 
instance, the flight (puelo) of crows, &c. 

6, What do you think of his prophecies? The only end of his 
prophecies seem to be to divert his readers, telling them that all bald 
persons will have no hair, or if they should have any, it will not be on 
the bald place. 

6. Do you know what the general has ordered ? He has given orders 
that all the soldiers that desert shall be shot 

7. Do you pity that poor soldier who is to be shot ? I did not know 
there was one to be shot ; what crime did he commit ? He deserted. 

8. What win they do to that robber if they find him? He will be shot. 

9. Do you not think he deserves to be shot? There can be no doubt 
of it : he who kills a man must die by the hand of man. 

10. Are there still superstitious people in the world? Yes, a very 
great many; and I must say, that, even amongst the learned, we find a 
great number whose education would lead us to have a higher opinion 
of them. 

11. Has that gentleman paid you yet the money he owed you such a 
long time ? Not yet ; indeed I begin to fear he will never pay me. 

12. If he should not pay you before he leaves the country, compel him 
to do so. 8o I intend to do. 

48, How long does your father intend to remain in Germany ? Perhaps 
two or three months ; but should he remain longer, he will write for me 
to go to him. 

14. Welcome, 3ilr. Martinez I how long have you been in town? Only 
a few days; and I shall return home as soon as I hear firom my brother. 

15. What a fine forehead that young lady has I I have never seen 
such a beautif\al countenance, with the exception of that of a lady whom 
I met in Spain a few years ago. 



LESSON XLYI. 



235 



LESSON XLVI 



Adivinar. 




To guess. 


Acordar. 




To agree, to tune. 


Acordarso. 


To recollect, to remember. 


Colocar. 




To lay, to place. 


Meter. 




To put^ to make (noise). 


Peinar. 




To comb. 


Picar. 




To prick, to chop, to hash. 


Perdstir. 




To persist 


Boznper. 




To break. 


Coger. 




To take. 


Esconder. 




To hide, to cpnceaL 

SOTZOKB. 


lAyl 


Ayl • 


iZape! Heaven preserve 


lEal 


Gheer upt come, 


us! 




• comet 


I Victoria! Tictory! 


lEht 


Oht ahl 


(Ctoo! How! 


iHuyl 


Whew! 


lAnda! Go! go away! 


lOxI 


Get you gone! 


iGaUe! Strange! 


]Sas! 


Gome! come! 


lGhito(orchi- Hush! 


|Uf(whnf)l 


Ugh! 


ton)! 


iHolal 


HaUoal 


jDiantrel The deuce! 


I Tate! 


Take care! 


(Lookout! 
iGmdadoI ^Takecare! [us! 


|Gat 


Pshaw! 


iVival 


Hurrah! 


{Diosnoslibre! Heaven preserve 


{Dale! 


Go! 


iVamos! Gome! 


lQn6hoiTorI 


horror! 


iVuelta! Turn about (or 
round) ! 


Finalmente. 


finally. 


Llevar & cabo. 


To accomplish. 


Ueyarse chasco. 


To be disappointed. 


CabaL 




Just, exact 


Fresco. 




Gool, fresh. 


listo. 




Ready, quick. 


Restante. 




Remaining, remainder. 


Telegrdfico. 


Telegraphic. 


Extraordinario. 


Extraordinary. 


Dichoso. 


1 


Happy. 



236 



LBS60K XLYI. 



Aire. 

Oambio. 

Alfiler. 

AU^ntico. 

£zito. 

Buen 6zito. 

Gable. 

Peine. 

Prosidente. 

Roido. 

Obasco. 

Patio. 

Tratado. 

Dolor. 

Asombro. 

Maollido. 

Gato. 



Air. 

Change. 

Pin. 

Atlantic. 

Issue. 

Success. 

Cable. 

Comb. 

Preffldent. 

Noise. 

Disappointment 

Yard, pit (theatre). 

Treaty, treatise. 

Pain, griefl 

Amazement 

Mewing. 

Cat 



Camisa. 

Cuenta. 

Empresa. 

Cualidad. 

Austria. 

Palangana. 

Prusia. 

Prooesion. 

Oonstancia. 

Prueba. 

Tranquilidad. 

Victoria. 

Gaoeta. 



Shirt, chemise. 

Account 

Enterprise. 

Quality. 

Austria. 

Wash-basin, wash- 
bowL 

Prussia. 

Procession. 

Constancy. 

Proof; trial. 

Tranquillity. 

Victory. 

Gazette, news- 
paper. 



CJOMPOSmON. 



I Ah I quedesgracial 

\ Ay de mi I 

I Oh 1 dolor 1 

lAh! briboul 

lAhl queal^rial 

I Oh! asombro! 

I Ay, d le cojo ! 

I Oh! ya nos ▼er6moB 1 

I Bah 1 no babies de esa manera ! 

I Hay ! me quemd con el dganillo ! 

lUfl quecalorazo! 

I Ea, & trabi^ar ! 

I Tate I tate 1 no pase V. por ahi, que 

yeo on hombre escondido 1 
I Zape 1 ese gatazo no me d^a dormir 

oon BUS mauUidoB 1 
] Toma I toma ! eso ya lo sabia ya 
\ Viva la libertad I 
iDiantre de muchachosi y qu6 raido 

meten! 
iHola! D. Francisool dicH^sos los 

ojoe que lo Ten & Y ! 



Ah I how unfortonate ! 

Woe is me I 

Ah! how sad! 

Hal rascal 1 

Ah I what joy ! 

Oh! wonder! 

Let me get hold of bim ! 

Oh ! I shall see you again ! 

Fhaaw I don't talk that way ! 

Whew I I have burned myself with the 

cigarette ! 
Oh ! how warm it is ! 
Come to work ! 
Take care ! donH go that way ; I see a 

man hiding! 
Heaven preserve us 1 that confounded cat 

will not let me sleep with its mewing! 
That's all, eh ! I knew that much myself 
Hurrah for liberty I 
Did you ever hear such children ? what 

a noise they make ! 
HaUoa I Mr. Frandsl it is good for 

sore eyes to see you ! 



LSBSOK ZLYI. 



237 



jQa^mes^yof 
La cuenta eatA cabaL 
Espero no Uevanne chasoo, 7 qae lle- 
T9x6 k cabo mi empresa. 



How can I ten f 
The aoooant is exact (correct). 
I hope not to be liiBappoiiited, and that 
I shall carry oat my midertaking. 



EXPLANATION. 

225. IiTTEBJECTiONS are words which serve to express the 
different emotions and affections of the sooL There should be a 
separate interjection to express each passion or emotion ; but this 
not being the case, we often use the same ones to express joy, 
grief, affright, astonishment, mockery, anger, &c., the significa- 
tion of each interjection changing according to the voice, ges- 
ture and manner of the speaker. 

The exclamations that are properly called interjections in 
Spanish, inasmuch as they have no other use, and because they 
consist of only one wor^ are the following : Ah^ ay, bah, ca, 
eA, hui/y oh, ox, SU8, uf, ea, hola, qfald, tate, zape, and a few others. 

Ah, ay and 6 are used indifferently to express pain, joy, 
mockery, surprise, scorn, anger, or admiration ; as, 
/Ahf que desgrada 1 Ah ! what misfortune 1 



/Oh/ dolor! 

/Ah/ briboni 

/Ah/ que alegria t 

/Oh/ asombro ! 

/ Ah / que nedo I 

/AysWe cojo ! 

/Oh/ ya nos yerdmos ! etc, etc. 



Woe is me ! 

Ah I how sad 1 

Hal rascal! 

Oh I what joy 1 

Oh I wonder! 

Ah I what a fool 1 

Let me get hold of him I 

Oh ! I shall see you again I 



226. J Bah I expresses displeasure, and sometimes wonder 
and admiration. {Hit besides being used to attract the atten- 
tion, is often employed in the sense of alas 1 / Sua ! serves 
only to encourage. jHuy! is an exclamation expressive of 
pain. jEa! serves to encourage, and sometimes to call the at- 
tention. We use iholal to call our inferiors, and intimate 
friends, and to manifest joy and surprise. / Tate I expresses 
surprise, and serves to warn any one of some danger. / OJdldl 
serves to manifest ardent desire for something. 



238 LBSSOir ZLTI. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 



1. (Eal eat macbaohos, arribat qne ja ea hora de levantane. — 
^Paes qa6 hora es, pap&? Ta son las seia y quiero qae os vistaia, laveis 
y tomeis el caf<§ prontito, para ir & tomar el aire fresco de la mallana en 
la plaza de Madison. 

2. i Sob I arriba I y el que se me presente primero ILsto ir4 & comprar- 
me el JBeraldo y tendr& el centavo del oambio. — Helena, ppnme agna 
para lavarme. — ^No, Helena, no ayndes k Al^aadro que ese ya puede ves- 
tirse solo, aynda k Oarlotita y k Manolito. 

8. Luisa, dame mis zapatos y mis medias. — ^64soalos t4 mlsniD, yo no 
▼oy k ayndarte para que te vistas &ntes que yo. 

4. I Ouidado I | no veis que Tais k romper esa palangana ? £s este 
Manuel que todavia no se ha puesto mas que una media y un zapato y se 
quiere lavar 4nte8 que yo, que me he puesto ya la camisa, los zapatos y 
el pantalon. 

6. I Ay I ay t-— |Qu6 es eso, Luisa? Me he picado con el alfier qne 
estaba poniendo en mi vestido. 

6. I £n d6nde eatk el Jabon? Qu6 me s6 yo. 

7. i Oarlota, me quieres dar el peine, 6te\aak estar peinando todo el 
dia ? D^jame en paz, ahora aoabo de principiar. 

8. Mam&, mire Y. que Alejandro no me d^a ayudar k vestir k Manncl. 
I Mam^ en d6nde esta mi sombrero ? 

9. Pap&, ya estoy listo, d6me Y. el dinero para comprar el Eeraldo. — 
No, no, pap4 ; mire Y. que se ha puesto el sombrero sin peinarse. 

10. i 06mo ! eso no, Alejandro, no se sale k la calle mn p^narse.— Papd, 
ya estoy listo. — ^Y yo. — ^Y yo. 

11. I Ohiton I I Diantre de muohachos y que ruido metent Aqui te- 
nds diez centavos, cnatro para el Eeraldo y de los seia restantes uno para 
oada uno, cuenta cabal, metraeis ^\ Eeraldo y despues os vais k la plaza y 
no Tolvais, k lo mdnos en un par de boras. 

12. Margarita, ahora que tenemos tranquilidad tr^me la pipa, &ntes de 
ponerme k escribir, fumar6 un poco y leer6 las noticias en el patio al fresco. 

18. Hola I grandes noticias I j Qq6 hay de nnevo ? El Oreat Eastern 
ha llegado, y se dice que el gran cable telegrdfico ha sido finalmente colo- 
cado, uniendo asi la Europa y la America. 

14. I Es posiblel ent6noes pronto tendr^mos noticias todos los diss de 
Earopa. — Asi lo espero, pero no debemos estar muy segnros de ello, por- 
que ya te acordards del chasco que Uev&mos anos pasados. 

16. I Ah I si, ya me acuerdo ; en 1858, cuando se celebr6 el ^xito del 
cable telegr^co con aquella grande procesion, y se vendia por la calle la 
gaceta extraordinaria con el parte telegr^co de la Beina Victoria al 



LESSON ZLTI. 239 

Fresidente de los Estados ITziidos. — ^Espero que no nos llevemos ahora el 
mismo chasco. 

16. iiLaeztraordinariatl n La gaceta eztraordmaria 1 1 lEhlmucha- 
cbo, aqni, aqnl. 

17. ^CointOYale? Diez centayos. 

18. I Victoria I Viva I Viva I iQu6 dice de nnevo? El cable del 
Atl^Qtico ha tenido bnen ^zito, el primer pari;e recibido por 61 es el trata- 
do de paz cntre el Auatria j la Prosia. 

19. Esta es una praeba mas de lo qne pnede Uevar i cabo el bombre, 
si tiene constaDoia y peraiste en nna empresa. — jCree V. que jo tambien 
tendr^ bnen 6zito en mi empresa ? 

20. I Qa6 empresa es esa ? { C6mo ! | no la adivina V. ? La empresa 
de aprender el espaliol. 

21. I Ah I No dado qne V. hablard espafiol si persiste y tiene cons- 
tanda ; pnesto qne con estas onalidades se ha logrado que hable el cable 
del Atl&ntico. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Can yon teU roe what kind of weather we will have to-morrow t 
Oh, what a question I Do yon suppose that I can guess the weaker we 
will have before it comes? 

2. Did the pianist say he would come to tune the piano ? He said he 
would come to-morrow, but that he could not come to-day. 

3. Have you seen that the Atlantic telegraph cable is laid at last? 
Yes; I am glad to see that the undertaking has been so successful. 

4. Do you know who sent the first dispatch by the cable ? I am not 
sure; but I remember that the first, at the time of the former cable, in 
1858, was that sent by the President of the United States to the Queen 
of England. 

5. What was the reason of laying a second cable? Ah, come now I 
do you not know tiiat the first one, having broken shortly after it had 
been laid, became entirely useless (inutil) t 

6. Have you seen the news to-day by Atlantic telegraph ? No ; what 
is the news? That a treaty of peace has been signed (celebrar) between 
Prussia and Austria. 

7. Charles, go and find the comb, wherever you put it when you had 
done with it. I have not seen it since Henry was using it; and even if 
I had, I would not tell you where it was. 

8. Ah, yon little rogue ! there, you have broken the wash-basin. It 
is not my fi&ult, Henry wanted it first, and I had already commenced to 
wash myself; but he persisted and would take it from me. 

9. O horror t ju9t look at the state his hair (pelo) is in t Go this 



240 LESSON, ZLYI. 

instant and get the oomb and comb yonr hair before yon dare to appear 
before me. 

10. Have yon a pin to |^ve me f Yea, here is a paper of pins ; take 
all yon want and gLve me back the rest. 

11. Did yon know yonr lessons well this morning? Yes, very well, 
and the proof is that papa allowed me to go to see the procession. 

12. What did yon kill that poor little fly for? Have I not told yon 
many times that I don't wish yon to catch or kill flies ? 

18. Is that bread fresh ? Yes, sir, the baker has jnst brought it a few 
minntes ago. 

14. We were to have gone to the yard to play at twelve o^clock. Yon 
may go now ; bnt do not make much noise. 

15. Where were yon going when I met yon? We were coming home 
to dine. 

16. Has the shoemaker sent yon his bill ? Yes, bnt it is not correct. 

17. Has not yonr uncle ^pitten to yon since he went away? He has 
sent several telegraphic dispatches to my father on business ; bnt he has 
not written to us once (una sola vee), 

18. Is there not to be a new opera to-night ? No ; but I understand 
there is to be a new play (eomedia) at the theatre. 

10. That is nothing extraordinary ; there are new pieces very often now. 

20. If Louisa were a little taller would she not be handsomer than 
Jane ? She would at least be quite as handsome. 

21. Would you wish to have the window opened ? I think it wonid 
be much cooler if it were open. 

22. Would yon not like me to repeat to you that story I told you the 
other day ? If you had lime I should be much obliged to you to tell it 
to me once more. 

28. Would not quietness be much better for that gentleman than so 
much noise ? He could not live without noise. 

24. Might you not have broken your arm or your leg when yon fell 
out of your carriage ? Yes, if I had not taken care. 

25. If I had wanted money when I was in the country would you not 
have brought me some ? If I could have got {eoMeguir) it I would. 

26. Would your aunt not have been disappointed if she had not been 
in time to take the three o^dock train ? She would have been terribly 
disappomted, for she was going to spend the day at a firiend^s, about ten 
miles out of town. 



LESSON XLVII. 



241 



LESSON XLVII. 



Acompafiar. 
Cargar. 
Curar. 
Dafiar. 
Deleitar* 
Incomodar. 
Incomodarse. 
Eqnivooar. 
Evitar. 
' Instruir. 
Oonpar. 
Padecer. 
Solicitar. 



Acento. 

Bolsillo. 

Autor. 

Esfuerzo. 

Efecto. 

Fastidio. 

Ciudadano. 

Hospital. 

M6todo. 

Trabtgo. 

Napoles, 

Real 

Sonido. 

Ohelin. 



To accompany. 

To load, to charge. 

To core, to attend (as a physician). 

To iignre, to damage. 

To delight 

To inconmiode. 

To get out of temper. 

To mistake. 

To avoid, to shmu 

To instruct. 

To occQpy. 

To safer. 

To solicit, to apply for, to m'ge. 



Dimes y dir^tes. 


Ifs and ands. 


El no s6 qa6. 


An inexplicable something. 


Dolor de cabeza. 


Headache. 


Mascnlino. 


Mascnline. 


Amable. 


Amiable. 


Agradable. 


Agreeable. 


Extrangero. 


Foreign, foreigner. 


Interesaato. 


Interesting. 


Moribnndo. 


Dying. 


Valiente. 


Valiant, arrant. 


Femenino. 


Feminine. 



Accent. 

Purse. 

Author. 

Effort, bravery. 

Effect [ness. 

Unease, nneasi- 

Gtizen. 

Hospital. 

Method. 

Labor, work. 

Naples. 

Real. 

Sound. 

Shining. 



Alma. 

Comedla. 

Vara. 

libra. 
Manteca, or 

Mantequilla. 
Calidad. 
Cantidad. 



Soul. 

Comedy. 

Bod, yard {mea»- 

ure). 
Pound. 
Butter. 

Quality. 
Quantity. 



n 



242 



LESSON XLTII. 



COMPOSITION. 



El porqa6 de todas las cosas. 



Lofl ayes del moribundo. 

Los dimes y dir^tes. 

£1 cuando. 

£1 no b6 qu6. 

£1 tener amigos no dafia. 

Hay bombres de on saber eztraordi- 

nario. 
Un nada le incomoda. 
La constancia y el tralMgo son neoesa- 

rios al bombre en todas sua empresas. 

La America es mayor que la Europa. 

La Francia es una nadon mny poblada. 

El clima de Espaiia. 

Los esfUerzoB de la Espafia. 

Cuatro pesos la vara. 

Dos reales la libra. 

Treinta centavos la docena. 

Dos Teces al dia. 

Cuatro pesos por vara. 

La f6, la esperanza y la caridad. 

£1 Sefior De Vargas tieoe tres nifios. 

La Se&ora Martinez ea muy prudente. 

Ella me di6 la mano. 

Puso la mano en el bolsUlo. 

Mucbos caballeros solidtaron mi mana 

El caballero & quien yi6 Y. ayer en mi 



The why and the wherefore of all 
things. 

The groans of the dying. 

The i& and ands. 

The time. 

I know not what 

It is hurtful to no one to have fiiends. 

There are men of extraordinary knowl- 
edge. 

A mere nothing incommodes him. 

Constancy and labor are necessary to 
mankind in all their enterprises (or 
undertakings). 

America is larger than Europe. 

France is a very populous natioxL 

The climate of Spain! 

The bravery of Spain. ' 

Four dollars a yard. 

Two reals a pound. 

Thirty cents a dozen. 

Twice a day. 

Four dollars a yard. 

Faith, hope and charity. 

Mr. Vargas has three cldldien. 

Mrs. Martinez is very prudent. 

She shook hands with me. 

He put his hand in his pocket 

Many gentlemen have solicited my 
hand. 

The gentleman whom you saw yesterday ' 
in my house. 



EXPLANATION. 

227. Use ov the Abticle.— All or any of the parts of 
speech, and sometimes even whole sentences, may. be used as 
nouns, and as such admit the article, as has just been observed 
in the Composition of the present lesson, in which we see exam- 
ples of verbs, adverbs and interjections preceded by the article, 
and treated in every respect as nouns substantive. 

228. The defikits abticlb is to be used before all com- 



LESSON XLVII. 243 

mon nonns, taken in a general sense and in the full extent of 
their signification ; as, 

La constancia j el trabajo son neccsa- I Ck)nstanc7 and labor are necessary to 
lios al hombre en todas bus empresas. | mankind in all undertakings. 

229. The article is expressed before the names of the four 
parts of the globe : before the names of empires, kingdoms, 
provinces and countries j and before the four seasons of the 
year; as, 



America is larger than Europe. 
France is a very populous nation. 

The winter in the South is more agree- 
able than the summer. 



La America es mayor que la Europa. 
La Franda es una nacion muy po- 

blada. • 
M inviemo en d Sur es mas agradable 

que el verano. 

But it is omitted before the names of kingdoms, provinces, 
Ac, when they are preceded by a preposition ; unless they be 
personified, as has been observed in Lesson XXX. ; as, 
£1 clima de Espalia, I The climate of Spain. 

Los esfuerzos de la Eapaiia, \ The bravery of Spain. 

Kingdoms bearing the same name as their capitals do not 
admit the article ; as, Ndpoles^ Naples. 

230. Nouns of measure, weight, ifec, when preceded by 
the indefinite article in English, as an equivalent to ecichj re- 
quire the article ; as. 



Cuatro pesos la vara, 
Dos reales la libra, 
Treinta centavos la doeena, 
Dos Teccs al dia. 



Four dollars a yard. 
Two reals a pound. 
Thirty cents a dozen. 
Twice a day. 



If the preposition por be used, we omit the article ; as, 
cuatro pesos por vara^ &c. 

231. The article is generally repeated before every noun 
enumerated, especially if they differ in gender; as, 

La U, la esperanza y la caridad. I Faith, hope and charity. 

Los dias y la» noches. I The days and nights. 

232. The definite article is used before nouns indicating 
rank, office, profession or titles of persons, when these are spoken 
of, but not when spoken to ; as. 



El General Sheridan es valiente. 
El Sefior De Vargas tiene tres nifios. 
La Scnora Martinez, es muy prudente. 



General Sheridan is brare. 

Mr. De Vargas has three children. 

Mrs. Martinez is very prudent. 



Puflo lamano en d bolsillo. 



244 LEB80N XLTII. 

233. The definite article is used instead of the possessive ad- 
jective when the possessives refer to parts of our own body ; as, 
lie be cortado la tnano. I I have cat mj hand. 

lie duele la eabtza, I My head aches. 

This applies even to parts of the body of other persons ; as, 

Ella me dio la mono. She gave me her hand (or shook hands 

with me). 
He put his hand in his pocket 

But the pronoun must be used when the personal article would 

occasion ambiguity; as, 

Machos caballerossolicitaron mi mano. | Many gentlemen solicited my hand. 

234. The definite article is also employed, as in English, 
before nouns taken in a particular or definite sense ; as, 

El caballero k quien Ti6 V. ayer en mi | The gentleman whom you saw yesier- 
casa. I day in my house. 

We forbear from adding many more rules which we might 
give, if they were not subject to numerous exceptions, and, 
especially, if we were not of opinion that practice and reading 
will teach better than any rules when to employ and when 
to omit the article. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Cn41 de las partes del mnndo es la mayor 9 El Asia es la mayor. 

2. ^Es Asia nombre masculino? No, sefior, es femenino. 

8. £nt6nces, £porqa6 le pone Y. el articnlo mascolino? For evitar 
el mal sonido que resnltoria de-poner dos a juntas, 

4. ^Luego, v. pone siempre el articnlo mascnlino delante de todo 
nombre femenino que empieza por a? No, sefior; esto solo sucede en 
singular, y cuando sobre dicha vocal carga el acento de la palabra. 

6. 4 Ha leido V. el si de las nifias de Moratin ? Si, sefeor, lo lei hace 
muchos afios; pero & mi me gusta ttih a la oomedia nueva del mismo 
antor. 

6. |Qu6 tal le gusta & V. sn nueva vecinita? Dicen que es muy 
bonita. — ^En efecto lo es ; poro & mi no me gusta, pofque anda siempre en 
dimes y dir6tes, y un nada la incomoda. 

7. ^Oiiales son las virtudes del alma? La f6, la esperanza y la ca- 
ridad. • 

8. jTiene V. olguna cosa interesante que dedrme hoy? Mucbisimas 



LE8S0K XLYII. 245 

interesantlsimos 6 iraportantisimas para practicar y aprender el 



9. I Uf ! ya va V. i principiar con sus adverbios, preposiciones y arti- 
culos; va V. & decirmo, por snpueato, que estas partes de la oracion nnas 
veces sc ponen dntes las nnas qne las otras, y vice versa ; que las nnas 
gobicrnan d las otras y las gobernadas gobieman & sn vez & otras, que 
se acuerdon 6noentre sf. |Cre6 Y. quo todo eso scrd interesante para 
mi con el fastidio que tengo, y el dolor de cabeza que padezco? ; CaUo I 
ent6nce8, caballerito, V. ha equivocado la casa. . . 

10. 4Qu6 quiere V. decir con eso de equivocar la casa? Quiero decir 
que, en lugor de venir a la dase, debi6 V. ir boy ol hospital y de aUi al 
teatro. 

11. 2 Para qu6 ? Para qne le curasen en una parte de sns dolores y en 
la otra del fastidio. 

12. Si; pero, Sefior Profesor, yo si^mpre creia qne el mejor m^todo de 
ensefianza es aquel que "instruye deleitando." V. tiene mil razones, 
pcro ha olvidado una peqnefia cireunstancia que requiere sn m6todo. 

18. I T cual es esa cireunstancia? Que no pnede aplicarse sino cod 
aquellos discipulos qne se deleitan aprendiendo. 

14. Y ahora volviendo al articulo. — Senor Profesor, V. mo escnsar^ 
pero no volvamos al articulo porque no puedo quedarme mas aqui hoy. 

15. iC6mo es eso? el tiempo de la leccion no ha acabado todavia. — 
V. tiene razon ; pero hoy es necesarip qne me vaya temprano, porque he 
^rometido acompafiar & nnas sefioritas 4 la opera. 

16. I Oh I ent6nces es necesario no faltar d sn palabra. — Sefior Pro- 
fesor, bnenas noches (este buen sefior me fastidia con sns explicaclones). 
— Divi^rtase V. mucho, Sefior Don Pepito (este amable j6ven aprenderd 
espafiol, para el tiempo que yo compre una casa en la Qninta Avenida, 
ensefidndolo). 

EXERCISE. 

1. If I should come for yon this evening, would you come with me 
to see the Martinez ? I would, with great pleasure, if Charlotte would 
accompany us. 

2. How does that lady speak French ? They say she speaks very 
correctly, though with a slightly foreign accent, 

8. Might he not bo cured if he called in a good physician ? He is of 
opinion that physicians do more ii\jury tHan good to mankind. 

4. Do yon know any thing of the author of that play ? Yes, I have 
read (or heard) all his plays ; they are very interesting, and delighted 
me exceedingly. • 

6. What is death ? The separation of soul and body. 



246 LEBSON ^Lyii. 

6. Can one be a citizen of the TJnjf^ States without having been 
born (nacer) in the country ? Yes, after having resided in the United 
States a certain number of years any one may become a citizen. 

7. Where is that poor man going ? To the hospital ; he has broken 
his leg. 

8. Pardon me, I think you are laistaken ; it is rather his arm that is 
broken, for if his leg were* broken he could not walk. 

9. Do you remember the name of the principal city of Kaples ? Yes, 
the naioe of the principal city is that of the kingdom also. 

10. Did you silake hands with that young lady ? Yes, as soon as she 
saw me she came towards me and gave me her hand. 

11. Is that cloth (pafto) sold very high? Not very; it costs only 
three dollars a yard. 

12. How often do you take your Spanish lessons ? Twice a week. 

13. Would you not learn faster if you took a lesson every other day 
(un dia »i y otro no) ? My teacher says I would ; but I have not time to 
take lessons so often. 

14. Would you like summer to return again ? No, thank yon, I am 
glad it is past, for I assure you I havo suffered enough with the heat. 

16. How sad it is on the field of battle (eampo de hatalla) to hear the 
groans of the dying I Yes ; and, notwithstanding, men will persist in 
killing each otner for a foot * of grQund {terreno). 

16. How is butter sold a pound? Thirty cents for one kmd, and forty 
cents a pound for the best 

17. Do you think it can injure any one to have Mends? No, it can 
injure nobody to have friends. 

18. Is not that person very amiable and agreeable? Yery rarely, for 
a mere nothing incommodes him. 

19. Are there many learned men in that country ? There have been 
and there are at present men of extraordinary learning. 

20. Which are the three principal virtues ? -Paith, hope and charity. 

21. Is Miss Cabargas married yet? Not yet, although a large number 
of gentleman have solicited her hand. 

22. I suppose you. have all read some Spanish comedies? Several 
Spanish and some French comedies, by the best dramatists. 

23. Which of all the French comedies that you have read do you like 
best ? Those of Moli(3re. 

* i\i;mo (literally a Bpan). 



LESSOR XLYIII. 



247 



LESSOW XLVIII. 



Afinnar. 

Aflig^r. 

Admitir. 

Atreverse. 

Oriticar. 

Condescender. 

Convenoer. 

Dedarar. 

Depender. 

Disponer. 

Diferenciar. 

Edifioar. 

Entretenerse. 

Fabricar. 

Suponer. 

Nombrar. 

Inflmr. 

Ocnltar. 

Observar. 

Obede«ir. 

Proporcionar. 

Pretender. 

Publicar. 

Qaejarse. 

Beg^nlarizar. 

Reflexionar. 

Ridiculizar. 

Refonnar. 

Lo qne s6 decir. 

Sin qne V. me lo diga. 

Volver d las andadas. 

Para mi tengo. 

A tmeqne. 
Sin embargo. 
C&ndidamente. 
De modo. 



To afSrm. 

To afflict 

To admit, to accept 

Tod^e. 

To criticise. 

To condescend, to consent 

To convince. 

To declare. 

To depend. 

To dispose, to arrange. 

To differ. 

To edify, toT)nild. 

To amnse. 

To constmct, to make, to build 

To suppose. 

To name, to appoint 

To inflnence, to affect 

To conceal, to hide. 

To observe. 

To obey. 

To proportion, to jtrocnre, to 

offer, to afford. 
To pretend, to laj claim to, fib 

aspire to, to sne for. 
To publish. 

To complmn, to moan. 
To regulate. 
To reflect. 
To ridicule. 
To reform^ 

What I know. 

Without you telling me. 

To do so again, to return to 

(one's) old habits. 
It is my opinion. 

On condition. 

Nevertheless, notwithstanding. 

Candidly. 

In such a manner, that, so that 



248 



LESSON XLVIII. 



I Bravo! 



I Very good 1 Bravo I 



Bruto. 


Brutish. 


Oierto. 


Certain. 


A6reo. 


Airy, aerial. 


Angi^csJ. 


AngelicaL 


Ideal. 


Ideal. 


Interior. 


Interior. 


Incompleta, 


Incomplete. 


Imperfecto. 


Imperfect. / 


Exterior. 


Exterior. 


Extrtfio. 


Strange. 


Igual. 


Equal, the same. 


Hmmmo. 


Humane. 


Positivo. 


Positive. 


Real. 


Real, royaL 



Arquitecto. 
Anoiano. 
Oiego. 
Oal y canto. 
Bruto. 
Idiota. 
Espacio. 
Oomplemento. 
Gooe. 
Mai. 

Material. 
Objeto. 
Palacio. 
P^aro. 
Enfermo. 
Prisionero. 
Pensamiento. 
OastilloB en el 
aire. 



Arbhitect 

Old man. 

Blind. 

Stone. 

Brute. 

Idiot 

Space. 

Complement. 

Eigoyment. 

EviL 

Material 

Object 

Palace. 

Bird. 

Sick. 

Prisoner. 

Thought 

Castles in the air. 



Oarrera. 

Desgracia. 

Diferencia. 

Curiosidad. 

Exageracion. 

Franqueza. 

Juventud. 

Ilusion. 

Felicida^. 

Risa. 

Realidad. 

Ruindad. 

Riquezas. 



Career. 

Misfortune. 

Difference. 

Curiosity. 

Exaggeration. 

Fra^jknesa. 

Youth. 

Illusion. 

Happiness. 

Laugh, laughter. 

Reality. 

Meanness. 

Riches. 



COMPOSITION. 



Adivino el motivo por el coal nos ha- 
bian adolado los mismos que des- 
pues nos critican, criticaban, critica- 
ron, ban criUcado, criticar&n. 

Ldamos ima noticia que acababa {or 
acaba) de publicarse. 



I gueas the motive for which those same 
persons who bad flattered us before^ 
criticise, did criticise, criticised, have 
criticised, will criticise us afterward. 

We were reading some news just pub- 
lished (that had just been published, 
or has jost been published). 



LESSON XLYIII. 



249 



Contaba la desgracia que los afligid. 

No ser^ 70 el primero qae se atreva. 
Apiended vosotit)8,'los que os quejais, 

quejabsus, qu^aflteis, habeis quqjado, 

quejar^ifl. 
tl qaiere jugar. 
KosotroB queremos estadiar. 
tl hubo de condescender. 
Tengo qae callar. 
Ellos deben estar muy ocapados. 
Quiero {or pienao) eallr. 
Afirmo (or declaro) que Baldr6. 
Digo que Baldr6. 
£s litil estadiar las lengoas. 
ConTiene & los hombres inBtruirse. 

El estudio de las lenguas es iiUL 

La instraccion conviene & lo3 hombres. 

Conyiene que yo estudie. 

Es iitil que los hombres se instruyan. 



J 



Les mandd callar. 

Les maud6 que callasen. 

Impedir que se cometan injusticias es cl 

objeto de las leyes. 
Deseo que me comprendas. 
No lograr&s que le castiguen. 

Se le ayudar& si fuere necesario. 

He sentido que no se conyenza (con- 

yenciera or convenciese). 
Habr& llamado para que le abran (abrie- 

ran or abriesm) la puerta.. 
Creo que le oonyencer^ facOmente. 
Reflexionar^ lo que he de hacer. 
Pens6 que iba 4 matarla. 
Pens^ que enyiara (or enyiaiia) la carta. 



He was tellmg the misfortone that afiOici- 
edj;henu 

I shall not be the first to dare. 

Know, you who complain, were com* 
plaining, complained, had complained, 
wiU complain. 

He will (is determmed to) play. 

We will study. 

He had to consent 

I haye to be silent. 

They must be yery busy. 

I wish (or intend to) go out 

I affirm (or declare) that I shall go out 

I say that I shall go out 

It is useful to study languages. 

It is man's interest to acquire knowl- 
edge. 

The study of languages is usefuL 

Knowledge is useful to man. 

It is my hiterest to study. 

It is useful to mankind to possess 
knowledge. 

He ordered them to be silent 

To preyent the commission of ii^justice, 

such is the .object of laws. 
I wish you to understand me. 
You will not succeed in haying him 

punished. 
He shall haye help if it be necessary. 
I was sorry he should be conyinccd (or 

was conyinccd). 
He knocked, of course, in order that 

the door may (or might) be opened. 
I think I shall conyince him easily. 
I shall reflect on what I shall do. 
I thought he was going to kill her. 
I thought he would send the letter. 



EXPLANATION. 
235. C0BBB8PONDBNCE OP THE Tenses with each othee. 
—When one verb is connected with another by a relative, there 
are many combinations in which the determining and the cfo- 
11* 



250 



LBSSOK XLYYII. 



termined verbs may be fonnd ; both may be in the indicative 
or in the subjunctive mood, or one in the indicative and the 
other in the subjunctive ; but both cannot be in the infinitive 
or in the imperative ; as, 



I guess the moUTe for which those same 
persons who have flattered us before, 
criticise, did criticise, criticised, have 
criticised, will criticise us afterward. 

We were reading some news that had 
(or has) just been published. 

He was telling the misfortune that 
afflicted them. 

I shaU not be the first to dare. 

Learn, you who complain, were comr 
plaining, complalned,had complained, 
will complain. 

236. The determined verb is put in the infinitive whenever 
it has the same subject as the determining verb ; as, 



Adivino el motivo por el cual nos ha- 
bian adulado los mismos que nos 
eritican^ erUicabatk, criiicaron, han 
eriiicado, criticardn, 

Leiamos una noticia qi*e acababa (or 
aeahd) de publicarse. 

CorUaba la desgracia que los ajiig%6. 

No serk yo el prlmero que se atreva. 
Aprended vosotTOB los que os qwjais^ 

quejabais, quefasteis, haheis quefado, 

quejarHs, 



t\ quiere jugar. 

Nosotros queccmos estudiar. 



He wishes to play. 
We wish to study. 



This is the reason why the auxiliaries hdber de, tener que, 
deher, always require the governed verb in the infinitive, be- 
cause the subject, or nominative, is the same for both verbs ; as, 

fA hubo de condeseender, 

Tengo quo ecUlar, 

Ellos deben ettor muy ocupados. 



He had to consent 
I have to be silent. . 
They must be very busy. 



An exception to this rule occurs when the determining verb 
expresses a firm and decided affirmation; arid so we say: 
Quiero (or pienso) sdHr. I I wish (or Intend) to go out. 

Afirmo (declare) que aaldrS. \ I affirm (or declare) that I shall go out. 

We must also except the verb decir, which cannot govern 
another verb in the infinitive, because whenever we employ it 
to announce our own actions it is not with the purpose of re- 
lating them, but to manifest our resolution to execute them ; as, 
Digo que saldri, | I say I shall go out 

237. When the determining verb is ser, or any imperson- 



LESSON XLYIII. 



251 



al verb, and the gbvemed verb has no subject, the latter is 
placed in the infinitive ; as, 

£s 6til edudiar las lengoas. It is useful to study languages. 

Conviene & los hombres inttruir$e. It is the interest of mankind to acquire 

knowledge. 

And such is the natural construction, because the true sub- 
ject of this proposition is the very infinitive itself, which stands 
there as a noun, an office that cannot be performed by the 
other moods. The above sentences are equivalent to these : 



£1 esiftdio de las lenguas es iitil 

La instruecian conyiene & los hombres. 



The studj of languages is useful. 
It is the interest of mankind to acqtiire 
knowledge. 

238. But if the determined verb also has a nominative, then 
it must be placed in the subjunctive ; as, 



CouTiene que yo estadie. 

Es iitil que los hombres se inttruyan. 



It is my interest to study. 
It is useful to mankind to 
knowledge. 

Those verbs that express command, govern either of the 
two forms, since we say equally well : 

Les mand6 caUar. \ I „ 

Les mand& que caUasen. \ | ^^ ^"^^'^^ ^^^ ^ ^ «^«^*- 

239. When the determining verb is in the infinitive, in 
the present or fixture of the indicative, or in the imperative, 
connected with the governed verb by a conjunction, this latter 
verb is put in the subjunctive mood, ordinarily in the present 
or in the future ; as. 



Impcdir que se comeian iigusticias es el 

objeto de las leyes. 
Deseo que me comprtndas. 
No lograrda que le auliguen, 

Se le ayudard Afiiere necesario. 



To prevent the commission of ii\iustice, 
such is the object of the laws. 

I wish you to understand me. 

You will not succeed in having him 
punished. 

He will have help if it be necessary. 

240. The preterit indefinite and compound future of the 
indicative govern the determined verb in the present or impei^ 
feet of the subjunctive ; as. 



ffeseniido que no se eorwenza {convert 

dera or conveneiese), 
Habr& llamado para que le aJbran 

{abrieran or abrieten) la pnerta. 



I was sorry he should not be (or was 

not) convinced. 
He knocked, of coune^ in order that 

1h$ door may (or might) be opened. 



262 LBS80N XLYIII. 

241. When the determining verbis in the iadicative, it gen- 
erally governs the determined one in the same mood, if the 
nominative is the same for both verbs ; as, 
Creo qae le anvfeneer^ f&cilmente. I I think I shall conrinoe Mm ensSlj. 

Rejlaionari lo que he de haoer. | I shall reflect on what I have to do. 

But if each verb has a different nominative, the second 
verb may be placed in the indicative or in the subjunctive ; as, 
Peme qae iba k matarla. I thought he was going to kUl her. 

Pemi que me enviara (or eiwiaria) la I thought he wouffi send me the letter, 
carta. 

Much more might be said upon this subject, did we not fear 
to exceed the limits prescribed by the nature of the present 
work. 

CONVERSITION AND VERSION. 

1. Dofia Lnisita, |Le gnsta 6 Y. formar castillos en el aire f Macho ; 
pcro creo qne forme demasdodos. 

2. Me alegro mncho qne, como k ml, le gaste 4 Y. el mundo de las ilu- 
siones, y taq;Lbiea apruebo sa franqueza de Y. en confeBarlo. — Y jporqa6 
lo habia de ociiltar ? 4 Qu6 mal hay en eso 9 

8. No 86 si hay mal 6 no, lo que s^ decir es, qne todo el mnndo afccta 
no formarlos y con cierta risita bnrlonn pretenden ridicnllzar 4 los que, 
como Y. y yo, confesamos c&ndidamcnte qne los hacemos. 

4. 2 Y cree Y., D. Jos6, qne esas gentcs vivon sin ilnsiones de ningnna 
especie? No, sefiorita, no lo creo. Dies ha dado k todo hombrc, & 
diferencia del bmto, nn mnndo ideal interior adem^s del mnndo positivo 
exterior, d excepcion de los idiptas. 

6. I Cndnto me alegro de oirlol iporqne yo tenia tanta vergtLenza de 
mis pobres castillos on el aire I i De modo es qne Y. cree qne yo no soy 
sola ? De ningnn modo, todo el mnndo los forma, la diferencia solo existe 
en la mancra. 

6. I Ah 1 Don Jos6, Y. me va pareciendo nn bnen arqnitecto de casti- 
llos en el mro y uno de estos dias voy 4 pedirle qne me mnestre nno de los 
mnchos qne habr4 edificado. — Oon mncho gnsto, sefiorita, 4 trueqne, sin 
embargo, de qne Y, me admita en nno do sns palacios a^reos. 

7. No, 680 no, jam4s podria yo poner en evidencia mis c^illos; pero 
Y. dice qne la diferencia solo existe en la manera de formarlos ; expliqu^ 
me Y. esto, qniza asi lograr4 reformar los mios, porqne he observado que 
son incompletos ; siempre lea falta algo.^Pues es extrafio, sefiorita, por- 



LESSON XLTIII. 258 

que 70 creia qae solo las oosas hamanas eran imperfectas y sus ilnsiones 
de V. siendo 

8. Por supuesto, jangelicalesl iVamosl d^jese V. de CTnnplimientos, 
ya sabe V. que no me gustan, y resp6ndame V. 6 mi prcgonta m V. 
gusta, porque tengo coriosidad de saber c6mo forman otros sus castdllos. 
— Obedezco, sefiorita, y para principiar debo decir que yo me equivoque 
cnando dge que solo se diferenciabau en la manera, porque tambien in- 
flnye mncho el material. 

9. I G6mo el material ? { si se fabrican en el aire ! i Espero que no los 
fibrique V. de cal y canto I — No, seliorita, no de cal y canto; pero se fa- 
brican; y si se fabrican, de algo se fabrican. 

10. jPero de qu6, seflor, de qu6 ? Yo formo castiUos, pero no necesito 
n.'.da para bacerlos ; vuelo mas que los p4jaros, mando basta en las yo- 
luntades de los otros, bago volver al tiempo en su oarrera, dispongo del 
espacio, de la fortuna, y bago que me obedezca basta el amor. — ^£so lo 
creo sin que V. me lo diga, sefiorita, 

11. I Dale I no yuelva Y. 4 las andadas, y cu6nteme Y. qu6 materiales 
son esos de que Y. me hablaba. — Y. misma acaba de norabrar algunos. 

12. I CuMes ? 1 06mo I 2qu6 mas materiales quiero Y. para formar un 
Castillo en el aire, que poder disponer, como Y. dice que puede, de las 
voluntades de los otros, del tiempo, del espacio, la fortuna y basta del 
amor? 

13. {Tomal Pero yo no poseo ningnna de esas oosas en realidad, y 
sin embargo mis castillos me entretienen y divierten mucbo.— Perdone 
Y., sefiorita, Y. las posee y con ellas forma Y. ese bonitomondo interior, 
que le proporciona 4 Y. los goces que no le da el exterior. 

14. Y en eso tiene Y. razon, que mis ilusiones, 6 sea como Y. la Dama, 
mi mundo interior, me consuela mucbas veces de la rulndad del mundo 
exterior. — ^Eso sucede & todo el mundo, de ese modo, el ciego ve, el en- 
fermo goza de salud, el prisionero de libertad, el pobre de las riquezas y 
el anciano de la juventud, las ilusiones bacen los males menores. — £n este 
mundo ideid es en donde los bombres son verdadcramente ignalcs, y para 
ml tengo que no es ilusorio, sino real, puesto que de ^1 depende nuestra 
felicidad. 

15. i No cree Y. que bay alguna exageradon en lo que Y. dice ? No^ 
seflora, pero si, creo, que debemos tener buen cuidado de regularizar 
nuestros pensamientos y de basar siempre nuestros castillos en el aire en 
la virtud y la religion. 

16. I Bravo I bravo ! muy bien, asi me gustan & mi los castillos en el aire. 



254 LS8S0K ZLVIII. 



EXERCISE. 



1. Who bnilt the house yon are living in at present? An excellent 
architect, a friend of my father. 

2. Are yon certain it was an old man that was suing for her hand? 
I cannot affirm that it was an old man. 

8. What a misfortane that he will not study! It would be B real 
misfortune if it were true ; I think it is not true. 

4. Do you ever build castles in the air? Seldom ; for, in my opinion, 
real castles built of stone are to be preferred to the atrial ones you speak of. 

6. What a pretty bird you have there I does it sing? It sings the 
whole day long. 

6. Do you think our young friend is really as happy as he appears to 
be? No, there must be some exaggeration in what he says. 

7. In what respect do these two authors differ from each other ? Read 
the works of both, and you will observe for yourself. 

8. Do they both write equally well? No, one of them arranges his 
thoughts in a very strange manner, so that it is sometimes impossible to 
understand his meaning^* and at all times disagreeable to read hinu 

9. Is Peter punished now in school as often as formerly ? As often 
as ever ; but it is useless to punish him, for though he is good for a few 
days, yet he always gets back to his old habits. 

10. Does that man always say what he thinks ? lam sure I cannot 
say; but it seems to me that there is in his manner of speakiog a some- 
thing I cannot explain that hides his real thoughts. 

11. Is he liked in general by those who know him ? On the contrary, 
everybody hates him and ridicules him for his meanness. 

12. Have you any curiosity to see the interior of a royal palace? If 
the occasion offered (presented itself), I would like to see it; otherwise I 
am perfectly content with the interior of my own house. 

18. You are wise for that; happiness is not at all times to be found in 
palaces. Ah I I see you aret something of a philosopher. 

14. How is this, sir ? your exercise is incomplete. I confess that had 
I wished I might have finished it; but you wiU find that, as far as it goes, 
it is not imperfect 

• 15. That is to say that the quality does not depend on the quantity. 
Precisely bo ; you may complain of my not having done the whole of the 
exercise, but I do not think you can critidse the part I have brought to you. 

16. What sizet is the book your friend has just published ? The same 
size as the one he published before^ 

* Xo fliM qvkn ^ackr. t Tiene V. t Tama§o. 



LESSON ZLIX. 



265 



LESSON XLIX. 



Acndir. 



Anadir. 

Componer. 

Contener. 

Incluir. 

Facilitar. 

Ofrecer. 



Artificial. 

Anterior. 

Aborrecible. 

Celeste, azul celeste.' 

Celestial. 

Calico. 

Chinesco. 

Creible. 

Despreciable. 

Familiar. 

Gigantesco. 

Terrestre. ' 

Territorial. 

Terroso. 

Terrado, terrero. 

TerrenaL 

Terron. 



To basten (to a place), to refer. 

To add. 

To add. 

To compose, to mend, to fix. 

To contain. 

To inolade. 

To facilitate. 

To offer. 



For instniido qne sea. 


However learned he m 


Anteriormente. 


Formerly, previously. 


Comparativamente. 


Comparatively. 


Corriontemente. 


Currently, fluently. 


Fltiidamente. 


Fluently. 


Suficiente. 


Sufficient. 


£n general. 


In general. 


Generalmente. 


Generally. 


Consi4erablemente. 


Considerably. 


Farticularmentc. 


Particularly, privately. 


£n cuanto L 


As to, as for. 



Artificial. 

Anterior, previous. 

HatefuL 

Celestial, sky-blue. 

Celestial, heavenly. 

Celestial, heavenly. 

Chinese. 

Credible. 

Despicable. 

Familiar. 

Gigantic. 

Terrestrial, earthly. 

Territorial. 

Terreous, earthy. 

Terrace. 

Terrestrial, earthly. 

Lump (or clod) of earth. 



256 


LESSON XLIZ. 


• 


Ricacho. 




Very rich* 




Picaresoo. 




Roguish. 




Patr6nimioo. 


Patronymic. 




Propio. 




Proper^ own. 




Mudable. 




Chargeable. 




Verbal. 




Verbal 




Arenal. 


Bandy (ground). 


Arboleda. 


Grove. 


Ascenso. 


Promotion. 


Ascension. 


Ascension. 


Alvarez. 


Alvarez. 


Carnuza. 


Bad meat. 


Calvinista. 


Oalvinist. 


Creencia. 


Belief; credence, 


Catolicismo. 


Oatbolicism. 


Ciencia. 


Science. 


Diccionario. 


Dictionary. 


Gentualla. 


Rabble. 


Escobtyo. 


A bad broom. 


Madrastra. 


Btep-mo£her. 


Boticario. 


Druggist, apothe- 


Terminacion. 


Termination. 




cary. 


Dicha. 


Happiness. 


Bomin^ez. 


Dominguez. 


Xsla. 


Island. 


Fernandez. 


Fernandez. 


Educadon. 


Education. 


Idiotismo. 


Idioms. 


Escoba. 


Broom. 


Filosofaatro. 


Philosophaster. 


Excusa. 


Excuse. 


Ilgastro. 


Step-son. 


Explicacion. 


Explanation. 


nermanastro. 


Step-brother. 


Espada. 


Sword. 


Ilombracbo. 


Corpulent. 


Exclamacion. 


Exclamation. 


Libraco. 


A contemptible 


Firma. 


Signature. 




book. 


Gota. 


Drop. 


Pigarraco. 


An ugly bird. 


Figura. 


Figure, appear- 


Latintgo. 


Dog Latin. 




ance. 


Manzanar. 


Apple orchard. 


Faccion. 


Feature. 


Pinar. 


Pine grove. 


Factura. 


Invoice. 


Protestante. 


Protestant. 


Facultad. 


Faculty, power. 


Padrastro. 


Step-father. 


Adquisicion. 


Acquirement. 


Significado. 


Signification, 
meaning. 


Astronomia. 


Astronomy. 


Vinacbo. 


Bad wine. 






Protestantismo. 


Protestantism. 






Ilabanero. 


Ilavanese. 






Madrileno. 


Madrilenian. 






Rodriguez. 


Rodriguez. 






Sanchez. 


Sanchez, [heart. 






Amante. 


Lover, sweet- 






Arbol. 


Tree. 






Amador. 


Lover. 







LESSON XLIZ. 



257 



COMPOSITION. 



^FoTqii6 lee V. ese libraco ? 



Porqne no tengo otro ; pero Y. se equi- 
Yoca, es un libro cl4sico excelente. 

i Oonooe V. & aquel ricacho f 

Le conozco ; pero no le trato, porque es 

un hombracho que solo le gu8ta tra- 

tarse con gentnalla. 

Joan, no barras con ese esoobajo, que 
ensacia mas que limpia. 

La came buena se venae & treinta cen- 
taToa la libra ; la camuza 4 veinte. 

Ese estudlanto sude decir latuugos, 
pero no sabe Latin. 

En la America del Norte hay mas pro- 
testantes que cat61icos. 

Los boticarios en los Estados TJnidos 
no solo yenden mcdicinas, sine per- 
fumeria, cigarros y otras mncbas 
cosas. 

i Yiye el Sefior Fernandez con su pa- 
dre? 

No, sefior, porque no quiere vivir con 
su madrastra y bermanastros. 

i Es V. madrileflo ? 

No, sefior, soy Habanero. 

Aquel filosofastro es despreciable. 

Esa sefiorita es muy amable ; pero muy 
mndable. • 



Why do you read that contemptible old 

book? 
Because I have no other ; but you are 

mistaken, it is an excellent classic 

(book). 
Do you know that rich man ? 
I know him ; but I have no intercourse 

with him, because he is a low man, 

whose taste is to associate only with 

the rabble. 
John, do not sweep with that old stump 

of a broom ; it dirties more than it 

deans. 
Good meat sells at thirty cents a pound, 

poor (bad) meat at twenty. 
That student is in the habit of reciting 

dog Latin, but he does not know 

Latin. 
There are more Protestants than Catho- 
lics in North America. 
In the United States the druggists sell 

not only medicines, but perfumery, 

cigars, and many other things. 

Does Mr. Fernandez live with his 
father? 

No, sir; because he does not wish to 
live with his step-mother and step- 
brothers. 

Are you a Madrileman ? 

No, sir, I am a Havanese. 

That philosophaster is a despicable 
(man). 

That young lady is very amiable, but 
very changeable. 



EXPLANATION. 



242. Debivative Nouns. — ^These nouns constitute one of 
the chief sources of the richness of the Spanish language ; we 
have already introduced some of them in previous lessons, 
when treating of augmentative and diminutive terminations. 



258 LESSON XLIX. 

These terminations are very numerous, both for the sub- 
stantives and adjectives, and each one of them determines the 
general signification of the derivative noun. As it would be 
impossible to give in this place a complete list of all these 
terminations, we shall endeavor to lay before the student such 
of them as are to be found in most common use. 

243. The terminations aco^ achOy dHa and uza, denote in- 
feriority; as 



JAhToeo, 

Yhiaeko. 

Qentxtalla. 

GamtoMi. 



A contemptible old book. 

An ugly bird. 

Bad wine. 

Rabble. 

Bad meat « 



The termination acho is sometimes augmentative ; as, 

Rica<:Ao. | Very rich. 

Hombrae^. | A big (or corpulent) man. 

244.. ^0 implies meanness, and the consequent contempt 
inspired by it ; as, 

Escobo/o. I An old stomp of a broom. 

LaUnq/o. | Dog LaUn. 

245. The terminations aly ar, ego^ icOy U^ iscOy in adjectives, 
commonly denote the quality of the thing ; as, 



ArtiflcidL 

Familiar. 

Gigant£9<». 

Picaretco. 

ClkUeo, 

Chineseo. 



ArtificiaL 

Familiar. 

Gigantia 

Roguish. 

Olassic. 

Chinese. 



246. In substantives the same terminations, a?, ar, and 
also eda and edo^ serve to form collective nouns ; as. 



Arbolftia. 
Arena/. 
Manzanar. 
Pinar. 



Grove. 

Sandy groimd. 
Apple orchard. 
Pine grove. 



247. The terminations arUCy ario^ entCy erOy Uta and or are 



LB8S0N XLIX. 259 

for the most part expressive of use, sect, profession, trade, or 
occupation; as, 



Estadlante, 

Boticario. 

Zapat^ro. 

OrgAnista, 

Protestan/«. 

CaMsxista. 

Pintor. 



StudeDt. 

Druggist. 

Shoemaker. 

Organist 

Protestant 

Calvinist 

Painter. 



248. The termination astro signifies inferiority in a super- 
lative degree ; as, filoaofoBtro^ a despicable philosopher ; poetaa- 
trOy poetaster ; and it is curious to observe that it also serves 
to express the degrees of relationship existing between those 
persons who more generally hate than love each other ; as, 



Hermanc»/ro. 
Hij<u/ro. 
Padros^ro. 
HadroMra. 



Step-brother. 
Step-son. 
Step-father. 
Step-mother. 



249. JBle corresponds to the same termination in English ; 
as. 



AborreciJfe. 
Creible. 
Mada620. 
Axnahle. 



Hateful 
Credible. 
Changeable. 
Amiable. 



250. Ismo corresponds to the English termination Mm; as, 
CatolicMfTKh- I Catholicism. 
Protestantismo. | ProtestantisnL 

251. The names of nationalities are also derivatives, and 
have their terminations in ero, eSj eflo ; as, 

Haban^o. I HaTanese. 

Frances. French, Frenchman. 

Hadriltfjio. I Madrilenian. 

252. Many patronymic, or family, names are also deriva- 
tives ; for instance, Alvarez^ Domtnguez^ JFhmdndeZj HodrlgueZy 
SdncheZj <fcc., were the names that were given to the sons of 
the Alvaros, Domingos, Femandos, Rodrigos, Sanchos, &c., 
changing the final o into ez. 



260 LEB80N XLIX. 

CONVERSATION AND VEESION. 

1. |Es necesario para hablar ana lengna aprender todas las palabras 
que contieno dicba Icngua? De ningcm modo, ademds, jo no creo que 
ezista un hombre, por instruido que sea, que las sepa todas. 

2. I Cu4ntas palabras picnsa Y . que sean snficientes para poder hablar 
el espafiol corrientemeute ? De tres & cuatro mil palabraa primitiyas con 
BUS derivodos es todo lo que se requiere, para bablar una lengua fltiida- 
mente. 

8. Si, pero probablemente los dcrivados acrdn en tanto 6 mayor 
ntimero que los primitivos. — Asi es, i)ero una vez que se conocen las 
terminaciones, cs muj fadl el formarlos, aunque nunca se hayan visto an- 
teriormente. 

4. {Esposiblel ent6nces esto debe facilitar mucbo el estudio de la 
lengua. — ^Muchisimo, porque, como ya hemos dicho, sabiendo los primi- 
tivos no tiene mas quo afiadirseles las termlnaciones, segun el significado 
que quiera ddrseles. 

6. iQuiere Y. hacerme el favor de formar algunos deriyadosf Si, 
sellor, con mucbo gusto ; d6me Y. los primitivos. 

6. I Cudles son los derivados de cielo? Celeste y celestiaL 

7. iDe tierra? Terrestre, terrenal, y otros. 

8. ^Porqu^ no me los da Y. todos? Porque me parece mejor que 
aprenda Y. primeramcnte los de mas uso, pues sobre baber mncbos, los 
bay do poco uso comparativamente. 

9. Cuales otros se pudieran formar de cielo y tierra? C^iioo ; terroao, 
terronj y otros muobos. 

10. |Se pueden formar derivados de los vorbos? Si, sefior, y d estos 
so les da el nombre de verbales. 

11. |Ou&les se derivan del verbo amar? Amador, amante, amado, 
amable. 

12. jDe ascender? Ascenso, ascendon. 

13. iDe creer? Creyente, creencia, creible, cr^dulo, cr6dito. 

14. ^De estndiar? Estudiaute, estudio; pudiendo agregar adem^los 
aumentativos y diminutivos que tambien son derivados, como estudian- 
tilio, estudianton, etc. 

15. I De qu6 se derivan los nombres de familia GonzMez, Dominguez, 
etc. ? Se derivan de los nombres propios Gonzalo, Domingo, etc. 

16. jCudntas palabras cree Y. que contendrd esta gram&tica? Mas de 
tres mil palabras primitivas y un gran ntiraero de derivadas. 

17. 2 En acabando la gramdtica podre traducir y bablar sobre cual- 
quiera materia que se ofrecza? Podrd Y. hablar de todo y seguir una 
conversacion en general como Y. ve que ya lo hacemos ; pero para tra- 



LBSSON XLIX. 261 

dadr j hablor de cnalquiera oioncia, arte i& oficio en paiiiotdar, tendr^ Y. 
qne acudir al diccionario, porqne es imposible introduoir en nna gram^ca 
todas las palabras neoesarias para'x>oder bacer esto. 

18. Y en caanto 4 los idiotfsmos de la lengua, | so ballardn todos en 
esta graradtica? Tampoco, puesto que se podrian componer tres 6 cuatro 
yoltimenes coino este j quiza no inclnunan todos los de la lengaa. 

19. 2G6mo los aprender6 ent6nces? En la conyersacion de personas 
instroidas 7 en la lectnra de bnenos libros. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Did Charles go to another regiment at the time of his promotion I 
Yes, he left the 71st and went to the 7th. 

2. What do 70a know about the names Sdnchez, Domingaez, and all 
those ending in «? That they mean son of Sancho, son of Domingo, 
and are formed from those names by adding the termination yon have 
just mentioned. 

3. To whom does that magnificent pine grove belong ? To the step- 
son of the gentleman who owns that pretty little house yod see over 
there in the distance (d lo dejos), 

4. What contemptible old book is that you are reading so attentively ? 
It is no contemptible old book at all {ninguno\ it is the dictionary; I 
always go to the dictionary for a word of which I do not know the 
meaning. 

5. Do you know the names of all the heavenly bodies ? Ko, nor you 
either; the science of astronomy is still imperfect, and there are besides 
many of the heavenly bodies hidden from human sight. 

6. Is not that young gentleman a great lover of the sciences ? Yes, 
but most particularly of the exact sciences. 

7. Why do you sweep with that old stump of a broom ? It is the 
best I have.* 

8. Did you say he was a philosopher? No, on the contrary, I said 
he was but a miserable philosophaster. 

9. How does that rich fellow amuse himself? Beading hbtory in 
general, and that of his own country in particular. 

10. I observe that you speak German very fluently now ; have you 
changed your book? No, I have still the same one, but I myself study 
more than I did formerly. 

11. Do you know whether your cousin speaks as fluently as your 
sister? Mrs. Alvarez says that in familiar conversation they speak 
equally fluently. 

12. Do you do any compositions? Yes, our father requires us to do 
two compositions a week on the idioms of the language. 



262 



LISBON L. 



18. Is it not a despicable habit to offer to do ttungs we nerer intend 
to perform (Uevar d edbo) ? I should say it is more than despicable, it is 
even hateAiL 

14. Does not the study of grammar considerably facilitate the acquisi- 
tion of a language? Tes, but that alone is not sufficient: something 
more is required. 

16. Have yon much fruit at your house in the country? We have a 
very fine orchard of apples. 

16. What language was that your young friend spoke in a moment 
ago ? What he takes for Latin ; but what is not in reality any thing but 
dog Latin. 

17. Would not that letter have been better if you had not added that 
last word ? It appeared to me to be necessary to add that to what I had 
already said, so tiiat the meaning might be more easily understood. 



LESSON L. 



Amenazar. 
Apoyar. 
Disgustar. 
Recurrir. 
. Saoar. 

A pesar de. 

T dioiendo y haciendo. 

I Todo sea por Dios I 
Tomar las de villadiego. 
Sobre todo. 
Desproporcionadisimamente. 

Adverbial 

Antisocial. 

AntepentUtima. 

Intitil. 

Gomponente. 

Izquierdo. 

Derecho. 

Pentiltima. 

Superlativo. 



To threaten, to menace. 

To lean upon, to support. 

To displease, to disgust, to grieve. 

To recur, to have recourse. 

To take out. 



In spite ofl 



And suiting the action to the 

word. 
I hope all will be for the best ! 
To take to one^s heels, to make off. 
Above all. 
Without any proportion. 



Adverbial. 

AntisociaL 

Antepenultimate. 

Useless. 

Component. 

Left. 

Right. 

Penultimate. 

Superlative. 



LEBSOK L. 



263 



Anieojos. 

Agnardiente. 

Barbilampifio. 

Correveidile. 

Bienhechor. 

Director. 

Dolor demuelas. 

Dentista. 

Disgnsto. 

Ilazmereir. 

Condiscipnlo. 

Pisaverde. 

Pormenor. 

Pnntapi6. 

ParasoL ' 

Paragnas. 

QuitasoL 

Socialismo. 

Sacamaelas. 

Pueblo. 

Vicerector. 



Spectacles. 

Brandjr. 

Beardless. 

Tell-tale.' 

Benefactor. 

Director. 

Toothache. 

Dentist 

Disgast, grie£ 

Laoghing-stock. 

Schoolmate. 

Fop, coxcomb. 

Detail. 

Kick. 

Parasol. 

Umbrella. 

Parasol. 

Socialism. 

Tooth-drawer. 

People, town. 

Vice-rector. 



Eqnivocacion. 
Granapierde. 

Barberia. 
La derecha. 
La izqoierda. 
Sinrazon. 
Particula. 
Qn^jada. 



IGstake. 

A game in check- 
ers. 
Barber-shop. 
The right hand. 
The left hand. 
Injustice. 
Particle. 
Jaw. 



COMPOSITION. 



No le e8t& bien 4 un aadano el ser pisa- 
verde, eso es propio de barbilampifios. 

iQm^n hft dado un puntapid & aqud 
muchacho ? 

Yo se lo he dado, porque es un corro- 
YcidHe. 

Este hombre juega muy bien 4 las da- 
mas, sobre todo 4 la ganapierde. 

i Tiene V, un quitasol 6 un paraguas ? 

Tengo 4mbo8. 

Ese j6yen bebe mucbo aguardiente y no 
hace caso de los consejos de su bien- 
hechor. 

Esa es la razon porque es el hazmerdr 
de todo el muodo. 

i Tiene V. bucna vista ? 

No, sefior, y esta es la razon porque 
uso anteojos. 

Ifi condiscfpulo Manuel me ha ayuda* 
d<^4 haeer la composicion. 



It is not becoming to an old man to be 
a fop ; that belongs to beardless boys. 
Who gave that boy a kick f 

1 did, for he is a tell-tale. 

This man plays very well at chess, and 
especially at ganapierde. 

Have you a parasol or an umbrella ? 

I have both. 

That young man drinks a great deal of 
brandy, and pays no heed to the ad- 
vice of his benefactor. 

That is the reason why he is the laugh- 
ing-stock of every one. 

Have you good sight ? 

No, sir, and that is the reason why I 
use spectacles. 

My school-feUow Emanuel has helped 
me to do my composition. 



264 



LS8B0N L. 



Eg inutil qae me caente V. lo8 ponne- 

norefl. 
£1 director y el yicerector de la escuela 

son hombrea excelentea. 
Me disgustan las smrazones. 
£1 socialismo, & peaar de la opinion de 

loe que lo apojan, es antisocial 6 im- 

pofiible. 



It is useless for yon to tdl me the de- 

taila. 
The director and sub-director of the 

school are excellent men. 
Unreasonableness disgusts me. 
Socialism, in spite of the opinion of 

those who Support it, is antisocial 

and impossible. 



EXPLANATION. 

263. Compound Nouns. — ^These are very namerous in the 
Spanish language ; some are formed of two nouns, as barbilafjv- 
piflOf beardless ; puntapiiy a kick ; (zgt£ardient€j brandy ; others 
are formed of a noun and a verb, as quUa$oly parasol ; 9000- 
mitelaSy tooth-drawer; others of an adjective and a verb, as 
piaavercky coxcomb ; others of a noun and an adverb, as bien- 
hechoTy benefactor; others of a noun and a preposition, as anr- 
teqfosy spectacles ; others of two verbs, as goiiapierdey a mode 
of playing draughts ; others of two verbs and a pronoun, as 
Kamureiry laughing-stock ; three verbs, a pronoun and a con- 
junction enter into the formation of correveidiley tale-bearer ; 
and, finally, others are composed of a noun and some one of 
the following component particles : a, aby abSy ocZ, untBy atUiy 
circuin or circuriy cw, citray cOy corny coUy contrOy <fe, <fe«, c?t, cK», 
c, cm, eriy entrey equiy es or eXy extray tm, in, t »/ra, tnfer, intrOy o, 

Oby pCTy pOTy p08y pTCy prktCTy JWO, VCy TC^W, «« Or ZUy SCy BCmiy 

sesquiy airiy «o, aobrCy «on, aoSy suy «m6, siipery sus^ trOy trans or 
traSy ultra, and vice or vi ; as, 



^nlisociaL 

Composicion. 

Condfscipulo. 

Director. 

Dtfgusto. 

/mposible. 

/nutil. 

Pormenor. 

Potpuesto. 

Hnrazbn. 

Ftccrector. 



AntisociaL 

Composition. 

School-fellow. 

Director. 

Displeasure. 

Impossible. 

Useless. 

Detail. 

Post-fixed. 

Unreasonableness. 

Sub-direotor. 



LESSON L. 265 

We call them component particles^ becanse the majoiity of 
them — although they are true Latin and Greek prepositions- 
have no signification in Spanish, except as prefixes, in which^ 
case they serve to augment, diminish, or modify the significa- 
tion of the simple word in proportion to the strength or value 
they have in the languages from which we have taken them. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. Don Jos6, 1 sabe V. el significado de las palabros pentiltima y ante- 
pentUtima ? Si, sefior, porqae corresponden & las palabros inglesas penul- 
timate y antepenultimate. 

2. Pnes bien, ahora, que hablamos de '^ cafianazos,^' quiero decir, ahora 
que hablamos de estas palabraa, le contar6 d V. mi cuentecito. — ^Muy bien, 
k mi me gustan muoho los caentos, sobre todo caando no son largos y 
vienen & pelo. 

8. Paes este viene & pelo 7 no es largo. — ^Ent6nces cnent^melo V., 
Don Pedro, escucho con la mayor atencion. 

4. Paes vaya de caento : Un caballero tenia nn fiierte dolor de mnelas, 
y fn6 d an sacamuelaa para que le sacase una. 

5. {Hombrel ij porqae no fa6 4 casa de on dentistaf Porqae en 
aqnel pucblecito no habia dentistas y tuvo que ir k ana barberia, cuyo 
barbero unia d su oficio el de sacamnelas. 

6. I Pobre hombre I adelante. — ^Este barbero, 6 sea sacamnelas, pero 
qne de ningon modo era dentista, le pregant6 : 

7. " iQu6 maela le daele a V. ? " "La perMtima del lado izquierdo de 
la qaijada inferior." 

8. "May bien," y diciendo y hacieudo le sac6, no la pentiltima, sino la 
tiltima. 

9. " I Hay I 2qa6 ha hecho Y., hombre? yo le d^e d Y. que me sacase 
la pentiltima, y Y. me ha sacado la tiltima." — " \ Callel paes yo creia que 
pen^tima y tiltima era todo ana misma cosa." 

10. "No, hombre, no; la pentltima es la que estd dntes de la tiltima." 
— " \ Diantre I Mil perdones, y si6ntese Y. que esta vez no me equivocard." 

11. "iYamos,y todo sea por Dies I" "jAy! ay I hombre dado d 
BarrabasI" 

12. "{Tomal ^y ahora porqa6 se queja? ^ no vengo de sacarle la que 
estaba dntes de la tiltima?" "Si ; pero Y. olvid6 contar la que me 8ac6 
anteriormente, de modo qae abora me ha sacado la antepentiltimay — La 
ante .... jqa^? Pero no importa, dqjemos estos malditos nora- 
bres, que han side causa de mi equiyocaoion, y si^ntese Y. que yo le ase- 
garo d Y. que." .... 

12 



266 LB8B0N L. 

18. Pero el parroqniano, dindolo & todos los diabloa, tom6 las de villa- 
diego, J 86 cree que nonca mas recurrio 4 on saoamnelas para que le aa- 
case la pentUtima muela. 

14. jCaal es la palabra compnesta mas larga en espafiol? Detpro- 
porcionadmmamente, 

15. ^De qu6 palabras se compone? De la particula oomponente de»y 
el nombre proporei(m^ la terminadon saperlatiya iima j la termininaoion 
adverbial tnenU, 



EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon Dse spectacles because it is fashionable with some people to 
wear (ffottar) them, or because jon cannot see without them ? Because 
I cannot see without them. 

2. My toothache is not any better jet Then you had better go to 
the dentist^s and get him to extract {taear) the tooUi. 

8. Do yon often see the beardless youth who came to walk with us 
without being asked kst evening ? Not often, nor do I care to see him 
very often, he is too much of a fop for my taste. 

4. Which way do I turn here to go to the new hotel ? Turn to the 
right ; it is not more than two streets to the hotel. 

5. What did he do when you said that? He took to his heels, and I 
have neither heard of nor seen him since. 

6. What were your two school-fellows doing at the door a few 
minutes ago ? One of them had told the director of a mistake in the 
other's exercise, and this one threatened to punish him for his trouble 
{fnole$tia) ; so, suiting the action to the word, he gave him a kick, and 
called him a despicable tell-tale. 

7. Has your brother bought the house yet that he intended to buy ? 
No ; when he came to examine the details he found the price of the house 
entirely out of proportion to the value. 

8. Do you always take an umbrella when it rains ? I seldom use an 
umbrella; when it rains I never go out, if I can avoid it 

0. What a strange man that is! Tes, he is the laughing-stock of 
every one who knows him. 

10. What kind of wine do they ^ve you in your hotel ? They give us 
very poor wine, and so I drink very little of it ; I prefer water. 

11. Do yon often play at draughts (or checkers) ? Very often; but I 
prefer the losing game. 

12. What is that man's business? He keeps a barber's shop in Sixth 
or Seventh Avenue. 

18. I want you to be good enough to translate this letter for me. Oh I 



LBSSOK LI. 



267 



it is useless to talk to me of translating any thing jost now {por ahara\ 
for I have a headache. 

14. Where is that family living now ? In a small town in the western 
part of the State. 



LESSON LI. 



Atravesar. 


To traverse, to cross. 


Atropellar. 


To run over, to hnrry one's self 




toomaoh. 


Gansar. 


Tocanse. 


Correr. 


Tonm. 


Calcnlar. 


Tocalcnlate. 


Dividir. 


To divide. 


Exponer. 


To expose. 


ExtrafLar. 


To wonder at 


Hospedar. 


To lodge and entertain. 


Incendiar. 


To set fire to. 


liorar. 


To cry, to weep. 


Manifestar. 


To manifest, to show, to inform. 


Ordenar. 


To order, to arrange. 


Oponer. 


To oppose. 


Proponer. 


To propose. 


Parar. 


To stop. 


Procurar. 


To procure, to try. 


Besistir. 


To resist. 


Rivalizar. 


To rival. 


Simpatizar. 


To sympathize. 


Ni con macho. 


Far from, far firom it 


A decir verdad. 


To say the truth. 


En lo qne respecta. 


With respect to. 


En morcha. 


Let us go, let us start 


A lo largo. 


Lengthwise. 


A esta parte. 


Within the last 


Api6. 


On foot 


En frente. 


In front, opposite. 


Oontinuamente. 


Oontinually. 


Perpendicularmente. 


Perpendicularly. 


Alrededor. 


Around. 



268 


LESSON LI. 




Admirable. | 


. Admirable. 




Apto. 




Apt 




Carioso. 




Curious. 




Desocapado. { 


Disengaged, 


unoccupied. 


Direoto. 




Direct. 




Indirecto 


. 


Indirect 




Figurado 




Figurative. 




Inepto. 




Unsuitable. 






Gramatical. 




Oamplemento. 


Complement. 


Academia. 


Academy. 


Oosmopolita. 


Cosmopolite. 


Admiradon. 


Admiration, won- 


Oami^e. 


Carriage. 




der. 


Delito. 


Crime. 


Arquitectura. 


Architecture. 


Dibcyo. 


Drawing. 


Construccion. 


Construction. 


Individuo. 


Individual, mem- 


Belleza. 


Beauty. 




ber. 


Erase. 


Phrase. 


Literato. 


Man of letters. 


Distancia. 


Distance. 


Gozo. 


Enjoyment. 


Esquina. 


Comer. 


Maseo. 


Museum. 


Liigrima. 


Tear. 


Paseo. 


Promenade. 


Laboriosidad. 


Industry. 


Panto. 


Point, place. 


Marcha. 


March. 


Edifioio. 


Edifice. 


Metr6polL 


Metropolis. 


Peligro. 


Danger. 


Madurez. 


Ripeness, maturi- 


Omnibus. 


Omnibus. 




ty, prudence. 


Soltero. 


Bachelor. 


Permanencia. 


Permanence, stay. 


P&blico. 


Public 


Sorpresa. 


Surprise. 


Trascurso. 


Course (of time). 


Vista. 


Sight, view. 


yjx,j Rincon. 

' .Tablerode da- 


Co^er, 


Orilla. 


Bank, border. 


Checker-board. 


Batalla. 


Battle. 


mas. 


COMPO 


Remuneradon. 

smoN. 


Remuneration. 


Oriente y Ocddenta 


East and West. 




Ciclo y tierra. 




Heaven and earth. 


El hombre discreto ordcna siempre las 


The sensible man always arranges his 


cosas con madurez. 


affairs with prudence. 


La casa de Juan 


se ha inccndiado. 


They have set fire to John's house. 


Un individuo incpto para escribir puede 


An individual that is unsuited for wri- 


ser apto para < 


;>tras cosas. 


ting may be apt at other things. 


El reo, & quien se castiga, ha cometido 


The culprit that is bemg punished has 


grandes delitos. 


committed great crimes. 



LESSON LI. 



269 



Un hombre pobre es muy diferente de 
iin pobre hombre. 

Hemos dado un gran paseo. 

Hemos dado un paseo grande. 

Lo que Y. dice es una cosa cierta. 

To he observado cierta cosa. 

Madrid, & 23 de Agosto de 1866 {or 
Madrid, Agosto 23 de 1866, or Ma- 
drid y Agosto 23 de 1866). 

To so y quien probar6 que tu te cqui- 
Yocas. 

Dios es admirable en todas sua obras, 
pues todas ellas manifiestan su poder 
y su bondad {or admirable se muestra 
IHos en todas bus obras ; su poder y 
6U bondad manifiestan todas ellas). 

Solo Dios es grande, hermanos mios. 

A^os, Juan ; ^ qu^ tal f 

Hasta mafiana. Buenos diaa. 

Nuera York, ciudad de los Estados 
Unidos. 

Yo mismo le vi Uorar l&grimas de 
gozo. 

Pronto se calmar&n las borrascas que 
agitan la nave del Estado. 

I Ha estado Y. alguna vez en el Museo 
de Nueva York ? 



A poor man (a man in poverty) is very 

di£Eerent from a poor feUow. 
We have had an excellent walk. 
We have taken a long walk. 
What you say is certain. 
I have observed a certain thing. 
Madrid, August 23d, 1866. 



It is I who shall prove that yon are 

mistaken. 
God is wonderful in all His works, for 

they all set forth his power and His 

goodness. 



God only is great, my brethren. 
Good morning, John ; how do you do ? 
I shall see you to-morrow. 
New York, a city of the United States. 

I myself saw him shed tears of Joy. 

The tempests by which the ship of 
State is tossed shall soon be calmed. 

Have you ever been in the New York 
Museum? 



EXPLANATION. 

Notwithstanding we have already made some general ob- 
servations relative to the place etfch part of speech occupies in 
sentences, we deem it expedient to add here a few niles which 
the learner will find of considerable utility in composition. 

254. The natubal construciion demands* that the sub- 
stantive be placed before the adjective, because the thing is 
before its quality ; that the governing word precede the one 
governed, for it is natural that the former should present itself 
to the mind before the latter; that the subject precede the 
verb ; that the verb precede the adverb by which it is modi- 
fied ; that the complement come after the verb and the adverb, 
if there be one ; and that when two or more things are to be 



2(0 LESSON LI. 

expressed, of which one, from its natare, comes before the 
other, this order be preserved ; as, 

East and West 
Heaven and earth. 



Oriente y Occidente. 
Gelo y tierra. 
Norte y Sur. 
Este y Oeste. 



North and South. 
East and West 



266. FiGUBATivE CoNSTBTTCTiON. — ^Thc genius of the Span- 
ish language, and, above all, use, allow us to depart in some 
cases from the above rules ; thus avoiding the monotonous uni- 
formity which would otherwise take place, and leaving the 
writer more latitude for the construction and arrangement of 
his periods. So loug as sense and perspicuity do not suffer, 
there is ordinarily no fixed position for any of the parts of 
speech. Therefore : 

1st, Personal pronouns subjects of verbs may, with a few 
exceptions, be expressed or suppressed at wilL 

2d. When the pronoun subject is expressed, it may be 
placed either before or after the verb. 

.3d. The same liberty exists with respect to the verb, adverb 
and complement. 

4th. Nevertheless, for the sake of clearness in our sentences, 
it is essential that certain words which together form a whole 
(such as adjectives with the substantives they qualify, or parts of 
sentences, acting the part of subject or complement) should be 
arranged in the same order as that in which the ideas they ex- 
press are naturally presented to the mind. 

6th. Thei'e are also certain words which, when placed be- 
fore certain others, have a signification very di^<^ent from that 
which they have when placed after them. 

Of all the modem languages the Spanish is certainly the 
most flexible ; indeed, in no other can the same idea be ex- 
pressed with the same words in so endless a variety of con- 
structions. 

Let the following sentence serve as a proof of the truth of 
this assertion : 

Esta Befiorita era hya de Don Hanuel I This young lady was the daughter of 
S^chez. I Hr. Emanuel Sanches. 



Isi inversion. 


2d 


a 


M 


u 


M 


u 


m 


u 


eth 


u 


lih 


(( 


m 


(( 



LESSON LI. 271 

256. Words which, firom their nature, cannot be separa- 
ted : £J8ta seflorita, De Don Marvad Sdnchez. 

Nahiral Construction, Esta sefiorita era hija de Don Manuel S&nchez. 
Era esta sefiorita hija de Don Manuel S4nchez. 
Era hija esta sefiorita de Don Manuel Sanchez. 
Era-de Don Manuel S&nchez hija esta sefiorita. 
De Don Manuel Sanchez era h\ja esta sefiorita. 
Hiya era esta sefiorita de Don Manuel S&nchez. 
H\ja de Don Manuel S&nchez era esta sefiorita. 
Hija de Don Manuel S&nchez esta sefiorita era. 
De Don Manuel S&nchez hija era esta sefiorita. 

257. The natural constmction is, of course, the most gram- 
matical, but the best writers generally give preference to the 
figarative, as being more easy and elegant, and as giving at 
the same time more freedom to imagination and genius, and 
finally, as being better suited to express the grand emotions of 
the souL ' 

CONYERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Oh I amigo mio, V. por Naeva York I \ Cadnto lo celebro ! Si, 
sefior, aqni me tiene V., Don Fernando, no he podido resistir la tentacion 
de venir & ver la America. 

2. \ Me alegro infinito I i Pero porqn6 no se vino Y. 4 hospedar 4 mi 
casa ? En primer lagar, porqne llega6 anoche may tarda ; y en seguido, 
porque 4 los solteros nos gusta la libertad y la vida del hotel. 

8. Bien, no me opongo, 4 condicion do que yendr4 Y. 4 pasar con 
nosotros algonos dias. — Lo har6 asi con macho gasto, ademds, Don 
Fernando, que, como no s6 hablar ingl^ y esta ciadad es tan grande, 
tengo miedo de perderme si salgo solo, y qaisiera qae, darantc mi per- 
manencia en ella, taviese Y. la bondad de ser mi cieerans, de modo es que 
me propongo, pasar la mayor parte del tiempo en sa compafiia. 

4. £n eso me hara Y. macho placer, ademds de que yo gozar^ tanto 
oomo Y. con la sorpresa y admiradon que le caasardn 4 Y. las vistas de 
esta metr6poli. ^Ha estado Y. jam4s en L6ndres 6 en Paris ? No, se- 
fior, Jamds he salido de Espafia hasta ahora. 

5. iCudndo qaiero Y. que principiemos nuestros paseos? Cuahdo Y. 
guste ; ahora mismo si est4 Y. desocapado, porqu^, 4 decir verdad, tengo 
una gran curiosidad. 

6. iQuiere Y. que vayamos 4 pi6 6 en coohe? A pi6, si Y. gusta; 
me parece que podr6mos vei; mas o6modamente; pero tomar^mos un 
coche cuando haya que salir de la ciadad. 



272 LESSON LI. 

7. Pnes en marcha, venga el brazo. — ^Yo temo que voy k molestar 4 V., 
Don Fernando, porque soy mny carioso, como dicen loa franceses, soy un 
flaneur, y me llaman la atencion hosta las cosas mas peqnefias. 

8. £nt6nce9 siinpatizar^mos^ porque & mi me gosta obsenrarlo y criti- 
carlo todo. — i Qa6 calle es esta en que estamos ahora ? £sta es la Onarta 
Avenida, y esa que la atraviesa es la caUe Veinte y tres. 

9. {C6mo es eso? Las calles en Nuera York estan divididas en 
avenidas, que son las que atraviesan la ciudad 4 lo largo, y en calles, que 
la atraviesan de occidente 4 oriente, cortando las avenidas en 4ngulos 
rectos y fonnando toda la ciudad como un tablero de damas, de modo 
que sabiendo el ntimero de la calle 6 avenida y el de la casa 4 donde se 
va, puede calcularse facilmente la distanda. 

10. Y esto edificio de arquitectura tan curiosa de la esquina, 4qu6 es? 
Esta es la nneva academia de dibngo, donde se exponen al pdblico muy 
bucnas pinturas. 

11. ^ nay aqui tan buenas pinturas como en el museo de Madrid ? No,' 
ni con mncho ; este pais es aun nucvo, y aunqne puedan baoerlo en otras 
cosas, todavia no pueden rivalizar en lo que respecta 4 las bellas artes 
con £uropa. 

12. \ Hombre, qu6 bermosa plaza I Esta es la plaza de Madison y todoB 
estos bellos editicios que V. ve 4 su alrededor, y la plaza misma, ban »do 
hechos do Teinte afios 4 esta parte. 

18. 2 Qn6 edificio es aquel de enfrente que es tan grande como un paZa- 
do ? Ese es el botel do la Quinta Avenida, y en efecto Y. tiene razon en 
compararlo 4 un palacio, porque los hoteles son en realidad los paLacios de 
los Estados Unidos, y se dice que son los mejores del mundo. 

14. I Caidado I bombre, por poco se dqja Y. atropellar por d 6mDibu8. 
— I Ciispita ! | qu6 miger tan bermosa I 

15. Si ; pero no debe Y. pararse 4 admirar las bellezas, en medio de 
Broadway en su punto de reunion con la Quinta Avenida, porque corre Y. 
peligro do ser atropcUado por los carru^jes de todas espedes que contir 
nuamente lo atraviesan. 

16. Bon Fernando, | son todas las sefloras en Nueva York tan hermo- 
sas como esa que acaba de pasar ? No s^, porque yo solo mir6 d6nde 
ponia los pi^s, procurando escapar al mismo tiempo de los oarrucjes; 
pero si podr^ decirlo 4 Y. que mnjeres mas bermosas que las que be visto 
yo en Nueva York no creo que se encuentren en ningnna parte del 
mundo. 

17. lOiga Y. I ino bablan cspafLol esos que van delante de nosotros? 
Eso no debe Y. eztrafiarlo ; esta es una ciudad oosmopolita; en eUa bay 
gentes de todas las nadones y Y. oir4 en, el trascorso de poco tiempo 
bablar aleman, espafiol, francos y otras mucbas lenguas. 



LESSON LI. 273 



EXERCISE. 



1. What do yon understand by the complement of a verb ? It is a 
phrase or a part of a phrase that serves to complete the idea expressed 
by the verb. • 

2. Can yon tell me what a cosmopolitan is ? A cosmopolitan is one 
who is not a stranger in any country, a citizen of the world. 

8. Where does that gentleman live ? In Fifth Avenue, on the comer 
of Twenty -second Street. 

4. How long has your uncle been a member of the Royal Academy 
of Madrid ? He is not a member of the Royal Academy of Madrid ; but 
he ^as been a member of the Academy of Sciences for the last ten years. 

5. Take that book from Charles and give it to Peter. I will give him 
some other book, because if I took that one from Charles he would cry. 

6. Is your friend a married man ? No, sir, he is a bachelor. 

7. Have you ever seen Da Vinci's celebrated panting of " The Last 
Supper " ? No ; but I have seen the engraving of that painting, made by 
Morghen, and it is a truth admitted by every one, that, notwithstanding 
the absence of coloring, that engraving is a happy expression of the 
ori^nal. . 

8. How long does it take to go from here to the Central Park ? But 
a short time ; the distance is not very great. 

9. Could you run there in as short a time as one could go in a car- 
riage ? I do not doubt that I could, if I started from the same place and 
at the same time as the carriage. 

10. How are the several States of the Union divided ? Into Northern, 
Southern, Eastern, and Western. 

11. Is that not the tallest man you have ever seen? Far from it; I 
have seen several much taller. 

12. Have they been able to fill that office (or position) yet ? I believe 
not; I understand that one of our friends was about to apply for it {pre- 
tenderlo)j but his father was opposed to his doing so, and so he wouldtiot 
persist 

13. How far did you go before yon found him? I walked about half 
an hour by the river side, inquiring of every one I met whether he had 
seen a young man on horseback ; and at last an old man told me he had 
seen him cross the river, nearly opposite the new building they are put- 
ting up (erecting), at a short distance from the entrance to the public 
promenade. 

14. Are there any fine public walks in the metropolis? About seven 
or eight beautiful ones, the most of which have been made within the 
last five years. 

12* 



274 



LSSBON LII. 



LESSON LII. 



Acons^ar. 


To counsel, to advise. 


Aproveohar. 


To profit, to embrace (profit by). 


Consistir. 


To consist. 


Oolorir. 


To color (paintings). 


Citar. 


To quote, to cite. 


Oostar. 


To cost. 


Oomnnicar. 


To communicate. 


Demostrar. 


To demonstrate, to point out. 


Beteriorar. 


To deteriorate. 


Expresar. 


To express. 


Freir. 


To fry. (oxy. 


Grabar. 


To engrave, to fix (in the mem- 


Tomarse (el trabiyo). 


To take the trouble. 


Prender. 


To take up, to arrest. 


Perfeccionar, 


To perfect. 


Merecer. 


To merit, to deserve. 


Reunir. 


To gather, to assemble, to re- 




unite. 


Remunerar. 


To remunerate. 


Visitar. 


To visits to search. 


Por ejemplo. 


For instance. 


Que 70 sepa. 


For all I know. 


List of the Irregular Poet Participles of all the Verbs already intr educed. 


Abicrto. Opened. 


Frito. Fried. 


Bendito. Blessed. 


Hocho. Done. 


Contradicho. Contradicted. 


Impuesto. Imposed. 


Convicto. Convicted. 


Mnerto. Died. 


Compuesto. Composed. 


Manifiesto. Manifested. 


Dicho. Said, told. 


Oculto. Hidden, con- 


Devuelto. Given back, re- 


cealed. 


turned. 
Dispuesto. Disposed. 


Opuesto. Opposed. 
Preso. Taken, arrested. 


Escrito. Written. 
Electo. Elected. 
Expreso. Expressed. 
Expuesto. Exposed. 
^i«^- Seen. 


Puesto. Placed, put. 
Provisto. Provided. 


Roto. Broken. 
Satisfecho. Satisfied. 
Vuelto. Returned. 





LESSOK LII. 


275 


Amplio. 




Ample. 




ActaaL 




Present. 




Antiguo. 


* 


Ancient, old. 




CoDtempordneo. 


Contemporary. 


Enemistado 


• 


At variance, on bad terma. 


Dramdtico. 




Dramatic. 




Modemo. 




Modem. 




Honroso. 




Honorable. 




Politico. 




Political. 




Cocinero. 


Cook. 


Amenidad. 


Agreeableness, 


Capitan. 


Captain. 




amenity. 


Acierto. 


Success. 


Biblioteca. 


Library. 


Colorido. 


Coloring. 


Cena. 


Supper, 


Grabado. 


Engraving. 


Comedia. 


Comedy, play. 


Fresco. 


Cool, refreshing 


Costumbre. 


Custom, habit. 




air. 


Erudicion. 


Erudition. 


Empleo. 


Employment, 


Puente. 


Fountain. 


Drama. 


Drama. 


Existencia. 


Existence. 


Estilo. 


Style. 


Elegancia. 


Elegance. 


J6ven. 


Youth. 


Instrucdon. 


Instruction, learn- 


Mercader. 


Dealer. 




ing. 


Paisano. 


Countryman. 


Ignorancia. 


Ignorance. 


Hecho. 


Action, fact 


Mencion. 


Mention. 


Siglo. 


Century. 


Literatura. 


Literature. 


Verso. 


Verse. 


Medianla. 


Moderation, me- 


Soldado. 


Soldier. 




diocrity. 






Prosa. 


Prose. 






Novela. 


Novel. 






Politica. 


Pontics. 






Tragedia. 


Tragedy. 






Vasija. 


Vase, vesseL 




COKPO 


BmON. 





los 



Esth, enemistado con so primo. 
Golocmdo en vasijia. 
Ha cantado una amckm espsfiola. 
Los cabaDos que ban comprado 

meicaderes no sonbnoios. 
Los cabaHoa qoefneron oompradoa por 

loamercaderes sc 
Estan {cr qnedan) 



He is on bad tenns with his eoarin. 

Placed m vases (or vessek). 

He has song a ^nidi song. 

The horses the dealers have boo^t are 

not good. 
The hoTMS that were boo^t by the 

dealers are good. 
These troths are (or renuuD) 

stiated. 



276 



LBSSON LII. 



La cocinera habia frito (or frddo) el 

pescado. 
Han prendido {or preso) al culpable. 
No b6 81 babr&n ya proveido {or pro- 

Tisto) el empleo. 

Has roto el vaso. 

i Ha Tisto Y. un caballo muerto f 

No, pero he yisto un caballo matado. 

I Qtti^n ha muerto & ese caballo ? 
Un paisano le ha muerto. 
El capitan fu6 muerto por sua soldados. 
El se ha matado. 
El Be ha muerto. 

Ese es un j6yen muy lddo» muy apro- 
yechado y muy callado. 

Es un hecho que la Cena de da Yind esik 
felizmente expresada en el grabado 
de M6rgben, no obstante que le falta 
el colorido de la pintura. 

Aunquc el fresco de la Cena, hecho por 
da Vinci, e8t& mal colorido y dcterio- 
rado, ha sido grabado con acierto por 
M6ighen. 



The cook had fried the Ml 

We have arrested the offender. 

I do not know whether they hare al- 
ready provided (a person to fill) the 
oflice. 

You haye broken the glass. 

Have you seen a dead horse ? 

No, but I have seen a horse with a sore 
back. 

Who killed that horse? 

A countr3rman killed it 

The captain was killed by his soldiers. 

He killed himself. 

He died. 

That young man is well read, makes 
the most of his opportunities, and 
talks little. 

It is a fact that Da Ymci's "Last Sup- 
per ** is happily expressed in Morg- 
hen^s engraving, notwithstanding the 
latter lacks the coloring of the paint- 

•mg. 

Although the fresco of the "Last Sup- 
per," made by Da Vinci, is badlj 
colored, and deteriorated, it has been 
engraved with success by Morghen. 



EXPLANATION. 

258. Past Pakticiples. — Some past participles retain the 
regimen of their verbs ; as, 

Encmistado eon su prime. | On bad terms with his cousin. 

259. The past participle must agree in gender and number 
with the subject or determining verb, except when that de- 
termining verb is haber ; in which case the past participle is 
indeclinable, whatever be the gender and number of the sub- 
ject; as, 

Ha cantado una cancion. | He has sung a song. 

Los cabttllos que han comprado Ids The horses that the dealers have 
mercaderes. " I bought 

But the past participle, if it comes after the auxiliaries ser. 



LESSON LII. 



277 



estar^ quedar^ or any other, except Tiaher^ agrees with the subject 
in gender and number ; as, 



Los caballos que fueron comprados 

por los mcrcaderes. 
Estan {pT quedan) demostradoa estas 

verdades. 



The horses that were bought by the 
dealers. 

These truths are (or remain) demon- 
strated. 



260. Some verbs have two past participles, one regular and 
the other iiTcgular. These are used very differently, since the 
irregular one, being a true noun, is employed in an absolute 
sense only, and never signifies motion, whether in the active 
or in the passive form. For this reason the latter may be 
accompanied by the verbs «er, estar^ gtcedar^ and others, but 
never by the auxiliary haber ; inasmuch as it would be im- 
proper to say : hiibo convictOy he contractor instead of, hubo 
convenciuoy he contraido. 

261. The irregular participles /rito^ fried; preeOy taken 
prisoner; provistOj provided, and rotOj broken, are the only 
ones that can be used with the verb haher^ to form the com- 
pound tenses ; as, 

La cocinera habia frUo (or frdJo) 

el pescado. 
^QXiprendido {or preto) al culpable. 



No b6 ei habr&n ya proveido {or pro- 
viUo) el empleo. 



The cook had fried the fish. 

They haye taken (or arrested) the 

offender. 
I do not know whether they haye 

already proyided (a person to fill) 

the office. 
Ton haye broken the glass. 



Has roto el yaso {aounda belter than 
has rompido el yaso). 
262. The verb matar^ in the sense of to take away life, has 
the extraordinary irregularity of appropriating for its past par- 
ticiple that of the verb morir; the participle ma^aefo being 
used to express wounds or sores in animals, resulting from the 
rubbing of the harness, or from cruel treatment ; as. 



Un caballo matado. 

Un caballo mtierio, 

Un paisano le ha muerto. 

£1 capitan fu6 muerto por bus soldados. 



A horse with a sore back. 

A dead horse. 

A countrynum killed him. 

The captain was killed by his soldiers. 



But in speaking of a person that has committed suicide, we 
must say : 
Se ha matado (and not So ha muerto), \ He has killed himself. 



278 LESSON LII. 

263* Some past or passive participles take an active signifi- 
cation, but only referring to persons ; as, 
Un Jdven leido, aprowchado^ eaUado. \ A well read, thrifty and silent youth. 

264. Past participles may sometimes take the place of 
substantives, and the difference can be known only by the ante- 
cedents and subseqnents, as in this sentence : 



Es un hecho que la Cena de da Vhici 
esti felizmente expresada en el 
ffrabado de M6rgben, no obstante 
que le falta el eolorido de la pin- 
tura. 



It is a fact, that " The Last Sapper " 
by Da Yind is happily expressed 
in the engraving of Morghen, not- 
withstanding the latter lacks the 
coloring of the painting. 



Where the words Jiecho^ grabado and eolorido^ are substan- 
tives. The same words appear as participles in the following 
phrases : 



Aunque el fresco de la Cena, heeho 
por da Vinci, e8t& mal eolorido y 
deteriorado, ha sido grabado con 
acierto por M6rghen. 



Although the fresco of **The Last 
Supper,'* made by Da Yind, is 
badly colored and deteriorated, it 
has been engraved with success by 
Morghen. 

266. Other grammarians add one more tense in the infini- 
tive mood ; as, 
Haber de amar. | To have to love. 

Habiendo de amar. | Havhig to love. 

But such a classification is no longer essential, nor even correct. 
In early Spanish literature that form frequently occurs, per- 
forming the office now almost exclusively filled by the regular 
terminations of the tenses, and chiefly those of the future indic- 
ative and the imperfect of the subjunctive. 

CONYERSATION AND YERSION. 

1. iQa6Iegasta4y.mas,laconversadon61alectara? Ambas cosas 
mo gostaa mucho. 

2. £Qa6 g^nero de lectnra le gosta 4 V. mas? La historia, la come- 
dia, y la novela. 

8. jPrcfiere Y. la prosa al verso? No, sefior, la poesia me gosta 
mas ; pero ha de ser may bnena, porqne en poesia no me gosta la me- 

4. Qae aotores, en la literatora modema, me aoonseja V. que lea 



LESS017 LII. 270 

para perfedonarme en el espafiol.— En historia j politioa lea Y. 4 La- 
foente, j 4 Mifiano. 

5. |Y para la comedia? A Moratin, Breton de los Herreros j Don 
Ventara De la Vega. 

6. ^No tienen Vds. otros ? Si, sefior; pero yo le cito & V. solamente 
los' mejores j solamente 4 los contempordneos. 

7. jY poetas? Zorrllla, Espronceda, Hartzenbosch, y otros mn- 
chos. 

8. 2 Tienen Yds. algnn bnen critico contempor4neo por el estilo del 
antigao Qaevedo? Yocreo que no pueden encontrarse dos Qnevedos; 
pero, sin embargo, tenemos criticos de costumbres mny bnenos, tales como 
LaiTa (Rgaro), Don Ramon de Mesonero Romanos, Pelegrin, y otros. 

9. ^Tienen Yds. bnenos antores para la tragedia y el drama ? Si, 
sefior, mtiy buenos, por cgemplo, Martinez de la Rosa, Garcia Gutierrez, 
Gil y Z4rate, etc., etc. 

10. Yo no sabia qne taviesen Yds. tantos antores bnenos en la litera- 
tnra actual. — Yo pndiera citarle 4 Y. otros mncbos ; pero bi Y. remie 
las obras de los catorce mencionados lograr4 Y. tener una peqnefiita 
libreHa de literatnra modema, qne le ensefiara 4 Y. mas espafiol que 
todas las gramaticas y m^todos qne se ban compnesto para ensefiar esta 
lengna basta el dia, y qne le remnnerardn 4 Y. ampliamente por el tra- 
b£go que le ha oostado el aprenderla, con el placer y la instruccion que 
le comunicar4n. 

11. jEs posible ! Yo babia oido decir, y asi lo babia llegado 4 creer 
yo mismo, qne Espafia no poseia nada qne mereciese mencion en su litera- 
tnra moderna, y 4 decir verdad, los tinicos libros bnenos que creia que 
Yds. poseian eran el Don Qugote de Cervdates y las obras dram4ticas de 
Calderon de la Barca. — Asi lo be oido yo decir tambien, y en verdad 
qne es una cosa que no pnedo coraprender, esa general ignorancia de la 
existencia de nua literatura espafiola contempor4nea, que ba producido 
mas y mejores obras que las que se ban producido en algunos siglos no 
solamente en Espafia sino en otras naciones. 

12. |Se oonocen en Espafia nuestros antores ingleses contempordneos ? 
Se conocen mucho mas de lo que aqni son conocidos los espafioles ; la 
prueba es que la mayor parte estan traducidos al castelJano, y Yds. no 
tienen ninguna traduccion, que yo sepa, do todos esos antores que acabo 
de citarle 4 Y. 

13. Probablemente consiste en qne los Americanos 6 Ingleses no apren- 
den mucho el espafiol. — Entre los Americanos debo hacer tres honrosas 
excepciones, que son : Washington Irving, Prestcott, y Ticknor. Estos 
distingpiidos escritores no solo aprendieron el espafiol, sino que vi^aron 
en Espafia, visitaron nuestras mejores bibliotecas y quiz4 adquirieron en 



280 LESSON LII. 

aqnellas fiieiites mucho del saber, la erndicion, el gasto 7 la elegancta en 
el dedr que comunican 4 sos obras taato iDter^s y amenidad. 



EXERCISK 

1. Ought we not to make the most of (profit by) every occasion that 
offers for acquiring knowledge ? That is the only way to arrive at the 
possession of knowledge. 

2. Tell the cook I do not wish that fish to be fried. It is too late to 
tell her so; she has already fried it. 

8. Has that work been translated into Spanish? Not that I know ; 
but It was translated with success iuto French, by M. de TOrme, a few 
years ago. 

4, Is not that gentleman to whom you introduced me a short time 
since a dramatist? He is, and his plays might serve as a model of ele- 
gance for many dramatists of higher pretensions (pretensumea) than he. 

6. Have they found out yet who set fire to your uncle's house ? Yes ; 
and the offender has been arrested and convicted of the crime. 

6. Would you be good enough to lend me that novel of which you 
read a chapter to me the day before yesterday? I would with great 
pleasure if it were mine; but it belongs to Alexander; and, as we are on 
bad terms at present, I should not like to ask him for any favors. 

7. Would that painting be deteriorated by being exposed to the heat 
of the sun {Hoi) ? Oertunly ; and the heat of a strong fire would produce 
the same effect upon it. 

8. Did your friend, the captain, return with his regiment from the 
war ? No ; he was killed in the first battle that took place after his 
arrival at the seat (teatro) of war. 

0. I saw no mention made of his death in the newspapers. No ; I 
believe his name did not appear in the list (ZMto) of the killed ; but the 
sad news was conmiunicated to his brother by an officer of the same 
regiment. 

10. Do you like to walk in the garden in the morning before breakfast? 
I generally go to the garden every morning and evening to read and 
smoke in the cool air. 

11. I wish you had bought that work on English literature. So do I ; 
it would have been very useful to Louisa, who is so demons of becoming 
perfect in that language. 

12. Did your father think Peter merited the remuneration he received? 
I do not know whether he did or not; but, at all events, Peter must have 
merited some remuneration, or else he would have got none. 



LESSON LIII. 



281 



13. Are yoa going to have joor luime engniTed on jonr watch ? I 
shall only have my initials (inicial) engrayed on it 

14. What kind of literature does yonr annt like best ? Ha I yon ask 
me more than I can tell yon ; I really cannot say whether She has any 
taste in the matter; for the fact is, never having taken her for a woman 
of much eradition, I have not taken the trouble to ask her. 



LESSON LIII. 



Agradar. 


To please. 


Agnantar. 


To bear with, to put up with, to 




suffer. 


Alcanzar. 


To reach, to overtake, to catch. 


Alimentar. 


To feed. 


Armar. 


To arm. 


B^jar. 


To go (or come) down. 


Corretear. 


To run about. 


Conceder. 


To concede, to grant. 


Distar. 


To be distant 


Descomponer. 


To decompose, to put out of 




order. 


Determinar. 


To determine, to induce. 


Echar. 


To throw, to put (in). 


Exceder. 


To exceed. 


Hinchar. 


To swell. 


Nadar. 


To swim. 


Prohibir. 


To prohibit 


Qoitar. 


To take off, to take away. 


Contrario. 


Contrary. 


Descompuesto. 


Decomposed, out of order. 


Dotado. 


Endowed, gifted. 


Exceleote. 


Excellent. 


Indigno. 


Unworthy. 


Improviso. 


Improvised, unexpected. 


Terrible. 


Terrible. 


Antojo. Desire, longing, 


Alabanza. Praise. 


whim. 


Apariencia. Appearance. 


Alcance. Reach. 


Estocada. Thrust 



282 LESSOK LIII. 


Conscjo. Counsel. 


Busca. Search. 


DiscoTBO. Speech, discourse. 


Comida. Dinner. 


GatiUo. Pincers (dentist's). 


Custodia. Keeping. 


Juioio. Judgment, trial. 


Edad. Age. 


Juramento. Oath, affidavit. 


Hermosura. Beauty. 


Mar. Sea. 


Obligadon. Duty. 


Navio. Ship. 


Vela. Sail, cnndle. 


Piso. Floor, story. 


Trayesura. Trick, pertnesa. 


Tiro. Shot 


C:k>rridadetoro8. Bull-fight 


Precepto. Precept 


Oposicion. Opposition. 


Torero. Bull-fighter. 




Toro. Bull. 




Tribunal Tribunal, court 




COMPOl 


3ITI0N.> 




To nm about the streets. 


Habl6 de (or sobre) ese nQgocio. 


He spoke about that ailair. 


^Qu6e8t&y. haciendo? 


What are you about f 


Estaba para dedrselo & V. 


I was about to tell it to you. 


No alcanzo & comprenderlo. 


It is aboye my comprehension. 


Hace las cosas & su antojo. 


He does thhigs after his own fiincy. 


Iba en bosca de un amigo. 


I was in search of a friend. 


Me opuse & eUo. 


I set my face against it 


A lo largo del rio. 


By the riyer side. 


Venga V. conmlgo. 


Come along with me. 


No b6 qa6 detenninar. 


I am at a loss how to act 


Be ningun modo. 


Not at all 


Esti comiendo. 


He is at dmner. 


£ntr6 por la yentana. 


He came in by the window. 


Belante de mi ventana. 


Before my window. 


Ante el jaez. 


Before the judge. 


Antes de ahora. 


Before now. 


Tales acdones son indlgnas de un ca- 


Such actions are beneath a gentleman. 


balJero. 




Parecia fuera de sf. 


He appeared to be bedde lumsel£ 


Ezcede & toda alabanza. 


It is beyond all praise. 


Sin duda alguna. 


Beyond all doubt 


Dedia. 


By day. 


Uno & uno. 


One by one. 


g Per d6ndele vino & 7.? 


How did you come by it t 


Luego. 


By and by. 


Por mar. 


By sea. 


A la mano, 


At hand. 



Lsssojr I.III. 



283 



, Echelo y. en tierra. 
£n cuanto 4 mt 
Digaselo Y. de mi parte. 
A consequenda de eao. 
De acuerdo oon. 

Tenia esperanza de que serriiia, 
Bajar al jardin. 
Todoa nosotroa. 
Le pido & V. 
i Ca&Dto dista ? 
De improTiso. 
•Quitese Y. el Bombieo. 
Se la lleT6. 
Le dej6 ir. 
For ese motiyo. 
Adelante. 
Sobre mi palabra. 
•Al contrario. 
No se tratan. 

Lea impuso esa obligacion. 
Alimentarse de esperanzas. 
Yenga Y. el doce de Mayo. 
Al {or del) otro lado. 
Sc acabd. 

Yuelva Y. & Icerlo. 
De miedo. 
Fuera de peligro. 
Faera de>casa. 
£st& dn (Onero. 
Descompuesto. 
Perdi6 el juido. 
For coriosidad. 
Estar de mal humor. 
Fa3ar6 & su casa de Y. 
Fas&mos por Francia. 
Le atravesd de parte & parte. 
Por6L 

For medio de 61. 
De dia en dia. 
Segun las apariencias. 
£so est& aun por venir. 
Diez contra mio. 
Hasta hoy. 
El navio eflt& & la vela. 



Throw it down. 

As forme. 

Tell him that from me. 

In consequence of thai. 

In accordance with. 

I was in hopes that it would da 

To go down to the garden. . 

All of OS. 

I beg of you. 

How far is it? 

Off-hand. 

Take off your hat 

He carried her oS 

I let him off. 

On that account 

Goon. 

On my word. 

On the contrary. 

They are not on good terms. 

He imposed that duty upon them. 

To live on hope. 

Come on the 12th of Kay. 

Over the way, on the other dde. 

It is all oyer. 

Read it oVer again. 

From fear, for fear. 

Out of danger. 

Out of doors. 

He is out of money. 

Out of order. 

She is out of her mind. 

Out of curiosity. 

To be in bad humor. 

I will go round to your house. 

We passed through France. 

He ran him through. 

Through (t. e., on account of) him. 

Through (t. e., by means of) him. 

From day to day. 

By all appearances. 

That is yet to come. 

Ten to one. 

To this day. 

The ship is under siuL 



284 



LB8S0K. LIII. 



£s menor de edad« 

Bajo de Juramento. 

Hacia all&. 

^ Estan levantados ? 

Al segundo piso. 

Que suban la comida. 

Le pusieron en custodia. 

Hincharee de Boberbia. 

No la puedo aguantar. 

Armeae Y. de pacienda. 

Su hermosura me Borprendi6. 

No la conozco. 

Dotado de Tirtudea. 

He agrad6 bu (^carso. 

A tiro de pistola. 

A mi alcance. 

No bay nadie en < 



ne is under age. 

Under oath. 

Up that way. 

Are they up ? 

Up two flights of stalra. 

Let them bring up the dinner. 

He was taken into custody. 

To be puffed up with pride. 

I cannot put up with her. 

Arm yourself with patience. 

I was struck with her beauty. 

I am not acquainted mih her. 

Endowed with virtues. 

I was pleased with his disconise: 

Within pistol-shot 

With my reach. 

There is nobody ?rithin. 



EXPLANATION. 

266. Idioms are certain peculiar modes of expression which 
cannot be translated literally into another language. TVe have 
already introduced some Spanish as well as English idioms ; 
but they are very numerous in all languages, and it would be 
as unnecessary to give within the compass of a grammar all 
those peculiar to the Spanish language, as it would be to intro- 
duce all its words. The learner will find them in the several 
dictionaries, and principally in the works of good writers. 

However, we have introduced in the " Composition " of this 
lesson as many as the limits of this book would allow ; giving 
examples of phrases in which the English preposition differs in 
meaning from that which most generally constitutes its proper 
signification, and consequently must be translated by words 
corresponding to those in whose place it stands ; as. 

No 66 qu6 determinar. I I am at a loss how to acL 

De ningun modo. | Not at alL 



CONVERSATIOJi^ AND VEBSION. 

1. 2 En d6nde estd Alejandro ? £st& corriendo per las calles. 

2. ^Porqu6 no me lo dgiste &ntes? Estaba para decirselo d Y. 



LSSSON LIII. 285 

8. Yo no qniero que ande oorreteondo calles. — Creo qne iba en bnsca 
de sa amigo. 

4. Se lo tengo prohibido ; pero el no me obedece, 7 hace las cosas 4 
TO antojo. — ^Yo me opuse d ello, y le dye qu6 V. queria ir 4 paseo con 
todos nosotros. 

6. Don C4rloB, si V. qniere, ir6 4bnscarlo. — ^De ningnn modo, V, no 
lo encontraria; lo que temo es qne haga alguna traversnra qne le caeste 
cara. 

6. Yo creo qne snbiendo 4 lo largo del no lo enoontrar^, porque si no 
me engafio le oi decir que qaeria ir 4 nadar. — ^No b& qn6 determinar, pero 
no, m^or 8er4 dqjarlo, y4monos nosofxos' 4 paseo. 

7. Sa hermano Mannel es may diferente, ezcede 4 toda alabanza 7 
dempre obedece los preceptos de sa pap4. — Sin dada algnna Mannel es 
nn exoelente mnchacho. 

8. |Holal aqni viene Jnanito. ^YieneV. al campo con nosotros? 
Con mncho gusto ; pero 4ntes tengo que pedir 4 V. nn favor. 

9. D^lo v. por concedido. — ^Palabra de honor? — Sobre mi palabra. 
£Qu6 es? 

10. Qne perdone Y. 4 Alejandro. — \ Yaya I sea asi, puesto que di mi 
palabra; ^pero d6nde est4? Se e8Condi6 7 no se atreve 4 presentarse de 
miedo, pero ahora lo veo asomado 4 una yentana en el segundo piso de 
6u casa de Y. 

11. Yo creo qne ha perdido el juicio ese mnchacho ; venga Y. aca, 
sefior mio, 7 cudntenos qu6 ha hecho en todo este tiempo quo ha estado 
faera de casa. — Pap4, perd6neme Y., que no lo volver^ 4 haoer otra 
vez. 

12. Bien, bien, dejdmoslo asi por esta vez. 

13. i Don Jos6, oomo est4 su hermana de Y. ? Est4 mejor 7 esperamos 
que 7a e6t4 fuera de peligro. 

14. 2Mat6 el torero al toro 4 la primcra estocada? Si, senor, 41a 
primera estocada lo atrayes6 de parte 4 parte. 

15. ^No se trata Y. con su yecino? No, senor, es un hombro Ueno 
de soberbia, 4 quien no puedo aguantar. 

16. 2 So di6 el navio 41a yela para la Habana? Si, senor, el nayio 
e8t4 41aye]a. 

17. jPuderon al culpable en custodia? No, sefior, le dejaron bsjo 
juramento de que se presentaria en el tribunal. 

18. I Conoce Y. 4 la Sefiorita S4nchez ? Hace poco tiempo quo hicc 
su conoclmieuto, su hermosura me sorprendi6 7 es una sefiorita dotada 
de grandes virtudes. 

19. lYiajd Y. el yerano pasado por mar 6 por tierra? Por supuesto 
por mar, puesto que fui 4 Europa. 



LS880N LIII. 

20. iPasaron Yds. por Francia? 8S, eefior, paskaos por Franda, y el 
doce de Majo entrdmos en Paris. 

21. |£st& y. de mal humor? 8i, aetior, malisimo, porque tengo nn 
terrible dolor de mnelas. 

22. Le acons^o 4 V. que se arme de paciencia.— MU gracias, por ea 
baen consejo, pero creo que aerd m^or armarse de un baen gatiilo. 

EXERCISE. 

1. How does that man spend his time? He seems to do nothing bat 
ran about the streets. 

2. Is your unde^s sight not good? No, mr; and that is the reason 
why he wears spectacles. 

8. Is that the way you spell (eseribir) that word ? Oh, no, of coarse 
not ; I must take out one of the e^a, 

4. Does your watch keep good time (andar hien)^ Yes, when it 
goes, which occurs very rarely* ; it gets out of order about twice a month. 

5. Did you see the Spanish man-of-war (ship of war) that came into 
port (jmerto) last month? Tes, I saw it the day it set sail (dane d la 
Mia) to retam to Spain. 

6. Did you go to see a ball-fight daring your stay at Madrid ? I did ; 
and although I do not like it myself, yet I coold not help {no poder menos 
de) admiring the amazmg dexterity of the men (bull-fighters) who dared 
to expose their lives attacking the furious animaL . 

7. How many stories are there in the hoase you live in ? Three ; 1 
generally sleep on the third floor. 

8. Can you not indace him to stay at home? No, he wants to go ; 
it is a whim of his, and he will not bear with any Opposition. 

9. Were you in court at the time of the trial ? No, I could not go 
down town that day. 

10. How far had he gone before you overtook him ? I caught up with 
him at the comer of the street. 

11. How is your couan getting on ? Pretty well ; but his arm is still 
swollen, and to all appearance it pains him very mach. 

12. I wonder how he can bear up under so much snffering. He lives 
in the hope of getting better one day or other. 

18. Did that man swear he had not been there ? He made {prestar) 
affidavit that he had never sot (put) his foot in the hoase. 

14. What a beantiful yonng lady that is 1 That is trae ; but her learn- 
ing by far exceeds her beauty. 



LESSON LIY. 



287 



LESSON LIV. 



Apegarse. 


To adhere to, to be attached. 


Oriar. 


To raise (breed), to bring np. 


Concebir. 


To conceive. 


Contdnnar. 


To continue. . 


£ncerrar. 


To shut up. 


Gnardar. 


To guard, to take care, to keep/ 


Rntar. 


To paint. 


Presidir. 


To preside. 


Ponderar. 


To make much o^ to praise. 


Combatir, 


To combat. 


Heducir. 


To reduce. 


Rbdar. 


To roll. 


Sacadir. 


To shake, to shake off. 


Tirar. 


To pull, to draw, to throw, to 




throw out (or away). 


Llenar. 


TofilL 


EntuBiasmar. 


To render enthasiastio. 


Al cabo. 


After all, finally, at the end. 


De repente. 


Suddenly, on a sudden. 


Ko obstante. 


Notwithstanding. 


Siacaso. 


If at all, in case. 


8i bien. 


Although. 


Amarillo. 


YeUow. 


Aznl. 


Blue. 


Anaraigado. 


Orange. 


Atento. 


Attentive. 


Confaso. 


Oonflised. 


Feroz. 


Rerce. 


Bondadoso. 


Kind. 


Favorite. 


Favorite. 


Griego. 


Greek. 


Anil. 


Indigo. 


Ugero. 


Uglit, slight, speedy. 


Ueno. 


FuU. 


Montaraz. 


Mountaineer, wild. 


Vist08o. 


Oonspiouous, showy. 


Colorado. 


Red. 



288 


LESSON LIY. 




Bomano. 




Roman. 


• 


Particukr. 


Particnlar, private, rare. 


Picante. 




Pungent 


, 


Temerario. 


Daring, rash. 




Violado, 




Violet (color) 


. 


Verde. 




Green. 




Prism4ti< 


X). 


Prismatic 




Oabo. 


End. 


Algazara. 


Shouts (of joy). 


Circo. 


Siege, circna. 


Autoridad. 


Authority. 


Color. 


Color. 


Confusion. 


Confusion. 


Bullioio. 


Bampas, noise, 


Carc%}ada. 


Burst of laughter. 




bnstle. 


Corrida. 


light (bull), race. 


CeremoniaL 


Ceremony. 


Violeta. 


Violet (flower). 


Espoctro solar. 


Solar spectmm. 


Diversion. 


Diversion. 


Goce. 


Delight, joy. 


Clase. 


Class. 


Dieho. 


Saying. 


Lifancia. 


In&ncy. 


Desierto. 


Desert 


Idea. 


Idea. 


Interns. 


Interest 


Fiesta. 


Feast, festival 


Gaante. 


Glove. 


Guifiada. 


Wink. 


Leon. 


Lion. 


Ocupacion. 


Occupation. 


Local. 


Sitnation. 


Corrida detoros. Bull-fight 


Entnsiasmo. 


Enthnsiasm. 


Pelota. 


BaU. 


Enemigo. 


Enemy. 


Plaza de toros. 


Arena. 


Doros. 


Tears, cry. 


Proeza. 


Prowess, exploits. 


Paso. 


Step, pace. 


Sonrisa. 


Smile. 




Priam. 


Valentia. 


Bravery. 


Rnmor. 


Bumor. 


Jaula. 


Cage. 


S^r. 


Being. 






Tr^'e. 


Dress, costmne. 






Recibimiento. 


Reception. 






Saelo. 


Groond. 






Grito. 


Shout, cry. 

COMPO 


srnoN. 




Lob yfinos cnando entrabsmos. 


We saw them as we were going in. 


Si no habiera sido per mi, le habrian 


But for me, they would have killed him. 


matado. 








To ilia si no creyera que fiiese mutil. 


I would go, but that I think it useless. 


Piga y. si Tendr& 6 no. 


Say whether you will come or not 


Qoe venga 6 que ] 


no vcnga. 


Whether he come or not 


Dado que lo sepa. 




I doubt whether she knows it - 



LBSSON LIY. 



289 



* For atentos y bondadosoa que seaa {or 
no obstante lo atentos que son) y per 
bondadosoa que sean. 
£s menester que se cuide V., porque si 

no se enfennar&. 
Es menester que obedezca Y. las 6rde- 
nes ; de lo contrario sufrir& las con- 
secuencias. 

yo tengo razon 6 61 la taene. 
Ni proxnetas ni obres sin pensar. 

No lo haria si me importara la vida (t. «., 
aunque, or por msfl que me importa- 
ra la vida). 

Taliente si los hay. 

TuTO el valor, si talnombre merece una 
accion temeraria de combatir solo 
contra tantos enemigos. 

Quiero saber si emplea bien el tiempo. 

1 Si habr& llegado el correo ? 
Mira si viene. 

No s6 si lo haga. 
Si (es que) acabo de entrar. 
Si (cuando) 61 al cabo ha de venir. 
Si (es que) no es eso. 
Si (ya) lo dije. 

Si (porque) no hay cosa que yo haga. 
Ap6nas si se oia el ooniiiso rumor de 
los pasoB. 



However attentiye they are, and how- 
ever kind they may be. 

You must take care of yourself, for if 
you do not you will be ill. 

You must obey the orders ; for if you 
transgress them, you will suffer the 
consequences. 

Either I am ri^t or he is. 

Neither promise nor act without think- 
ing. 

I would not do it, though my life were 
at stake. 

A valiant man, if there are any in the 

world. 
He had the courage, if the rash action 

of fighting alone against so many 

enemies is worthy of such a nama 
I wish to know whether he employs his 

time profitably. 
If the nuul should have arrived ? 
See if he is coming. 
I do not know whether to do it or not 
I have but just come in. 
For, after lUl, he must come. 
But that is not it 
But I said so. 
For I do nothing at alL 
The confused tramping of feet could 

scarcely be beard. 



EXPLANATION. 

267. There are seYeral conjanctions in English that are 
frequently used as substitutes for other words ; these conjunc- 
tions are generally rendered in Spanish by the words which 
they stand in the place of; as, 

Los vimofl euando entrabamos. I We saw them as we were going in. 

Diga y. M quiere venir 6 no. | Say whether you will come or not 

268. The Spanish conjunctions are also often used as sub- 
stitutes for other words of very different meanings. Let »i and 
que serve as examples : 

13 



2M I.S8SOK LIT. 

Si^ as an adrerb, k, as we hare already observed, affirmative, 
except when employed ironically. 

Sij as a conjonction, may be employed in a variety of signi- 
fications. The following are some of its principal nses : 

IsL To denote the condition on which depends the accom- 
plishment of an action ; as, 

& qoieres afompaJLinne, T07 k eaJSr, I If yon wiU aooomptny me, I am go- 

I ingoat. 

2d. To express indispensable conditions ; as, 

Tendrifl d cabiUo it b pagas. I Ton will hare the horae if you pay 

I for it 

3d. In the sense of although, or even thongh ; as, 

No lo haria it me importan la vida I I would not do it, eren though my 
(l e^ aunqme or por mat que, me I life were at stake, 

importara la Tida). I 

4th. In fisimiliar conyeisation this conjunction is often em* 
ployed in meanings very different from those we have just ex- 
plained. For instance, it is often used instead of es que^ it is 
because ; cuando, when ; porque^ because ; and not uofreqaent- 
ly instead of yo, already, as we read in one of Moratin's come- 
dies: 



Si (es que) acabo de oitrar. 

& (coando) &. al cabo ha de venir. 

Si (es que) no es eaa 

Si (ya) Ip dye; 

& (porque) no bay coea qae yo haga. 



I hare but juiit eome in. 
For, after all, he must come. 
But that Is not it 
But I said so (or did say so). 
For I do nothing at aU. 



6th. It is often used redundantly ; as, 

Ap^nas it Be oia el coofuso rumor de I The confused tramping of feet could 
los paaoB. I scarcely be heard. 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. 2 Iria Y. & ver 4 sa hermano si tuviera tiempo ? Yo iiia n no ere- 
yera qne faese inttil. 

2. Diga V. fli vendrA 6 no. — ^Amigo mio tomo salir, porqne hace mal 
tiempo, y es menester qne mo onide porqne si no cnfermarS. 

8. I Estavo y. ayer & ver el recibimiento del Presidente? No, se&or, 
mis ocupaciones no me lo permitieron. 



LESSON LIV. 291 

4. I Ou^es son lo6 colores en que se descompone el espectro solar ? 
Violado, anil, azul, verde, amarillo, anaranjado y rojo. 

6. I De qu6 color tine V, sus guantes ? Los tin© de amarillo. 

6. I Qu6 tal le gusta 4 V. este ejercicio ? No me gusta de ningun 
modo, y si contintia tan interesante como hasta aqui, creo que me harik 
dormir. 

7. iQue costumbres le gustan 4 V. mas, las de Espatta 6 las de los 
Estados Unidos? Naturalmente, como espafiol, me gustan mas las de 
Espana. 

8. Pero 4 cu41es son las mejores ? No 8abr6 decirselo 4 V., cada nacion 
tiene las suyas y cada individuo se apega desde bu infanda 4 las de su 
propio pais. 

9. I Ou41 es la diversion favorita del pueblo espafiol ? Las corridas de 
toros; esto se entiende hablando del pueblo en general y aun de muchos 
oabaUcros de la pnmera olaso de la sociedad; pero no de todos, porque 
hay muchos, principalmente, senoras, que jam4s han visto una corrida de 
Toros. 

10. Debe ser una diversion muy cruel y muy peligrosa.— No deja de 
ser peligrosa, pues los toros de Espana son mas feroces y ligeros que los 
de ninguna parte del mundo, criados con este objeto montaraces, de modo 
que cuando de improviso se encuentran en la plaza muestran una feroci- 
dad y una valentia en nada inferior 4 la de un leon de los desiertos del Afri- 
ca, que se encontrase de repente en estos circos Uenos de sdres humanos. 

11. i Quiere Y. haoerme el favor de relatarme una corrida de toros f 
Lo haria con mucho gusto ; pero 86 que no podria hacerlo como merece 
esta antigua diversion, en algo scmcjante 4 los circos de los Griegos y 
Komanos. 

12. I V4mos I pruebe V. — ^Pero si es imposible, y aunque Uegara 4 pin- 
tarle 4 Y. el local, los vistosos tr^yes, tanto del pueblo como de los tore- 
ros, los curiosos ceremoniales de la fiesta, las autoridades que la presiden, 
los tropas que la guardan ; la mlisica, el bullicio, los dichos picantes, las 
sonrisas, las guinadas, los lloros y carcigadas, todo esto no serviria de 
nada para hacerle 4 Y. concebir una pequena idea del gozo y entusiasmo 
que anima al pueblo espanol en una corrida de toros. 

13. [Es posiblel jOon que todo eso hay I pues yo creia que se redu- 
cia 4 una camioerfa de vacas y caballos. — ^Pues si Y. estuviera en Madrid 
le sucederia como 4 todos los extrangeros, que 4 pesar de criticamos esta 
diversion, jaiB4s pierden una corrida de toros. 

14. Pero I en qu6 puede consistir ese goce que Y. me pondera ? i Goee ! 
hombre, he visto yo tirar 4 la plaza el baston, el bolsillo y hasta el reloj, 
entusiasmado de la proeza de alguu toreador. Eso era lo que yo le decia 
4 Y. que no era facil de pintar, porque no consiste en la cosa misma por 



202 LESSON LIV. 

mas interds qne tenga sino en la digposicion particular y el entosiaffliio de 
cada uno. T si do digame V. en el jnego del fragata americano en 
que no se ve otra cosa que una pelota que rueda por el suelo, 6 se eleva 

por el aire, despedida por un garrote inQ^^ ^ lo qne mueve 

toda aquella algazara y ruido y confusion y gritos de, Uola I ! ! Willie 1 ! I 
Obarleylll Herelll Herelll Runlll JamesIII Hurralll Hurra!!! 
15. Ila, ha, ha ; V. me hace reir con sn corrida de toros. lYaya! me 
alegro, algo se ha ganado, porque al principio yo creia que Y. se iba & 
dormir. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Had you not better leave a line for him in caso he should come? 
I think it would be better ; notwithstanding that it seems impossible for 
him to get here to-night. 

2. Do the boys still continue to take lessons ? One of them still con- 
tinues, although tlie least studious of the three ; the other two gave up 
all of a sudden last month. 

8. What shouts are those I hear up-stairs ? Charles has some friends 
with him, and they are getting enthusiastic on the occasion of the Presi- 
dent's visit to the city. 

4. Do you know how to keep a secret ? I want to know that before I 
tell you this one.— I do.— Well, so do I. 

5. I suppose they gave the General a grand reception when he re- 
turned from the war ? A magnificent one, fit for a king; it was Peter's 
uncle that presided at it 

6. Can yon tell me how many prismatic colors there are, and their 
names ? I shall try ; let us see : Green, blue, violet, red, orange, yeUow, 
indigo. 

7. What is the best time for learning a language with the least 
trouble ? During infancy; in that age the study of languages is reduced 
to its simplest expression. 

8. What would the earth be without the light and heat which we re- 
ceive from the sun ? A perfect desert ; man nor no living being could 
exist, and there would be no vegetation, for all animated nature is sus- 
tained by the vivifying (vivificador) effects of the sun. 

9. What is the use of ttie piism ? It possesses the power of decom- 
posing the sunbeam (rayo del sot), thus enabling (poder)xiB to see separate- 
ly the rays of different colors which unite to form what is called light. 

10. Where are you going now ? it is not yet time for the theatre. Why, 
it is half-past seven, and the play begins at eight precisely. 
^ 11. If my friend should have come while I was out? Oh, I imagine 
that if he had come he would have left some word (d^ar dicho) for you. 



LESSON LY. 



293 



12. What is that confased tramping of feet^ that I hear in the street ? 
A crowd of people ronniDg to see a fire in the next street. 

18. Do yon hear how that lady praises the courage of the man who has 
jnst got into the Iion*s cage {jaula) ? I do, and I was just thinking she 
might find an occupation of more interest ; hesides, I do not see any 
proof of courage in such a rash action as to shut one^s self up with a fe- 
rocious animal like the lion. 

14. What sort of a dress did Miss H. wear at the hall ? A hlne silk 
(seda) dress, with yiolet and orange trimmings (guamicionea). Can yon 
conceive of any thing more detestable ? 



LESSON LV. 



Afianzar. 

Conqnistar. 

Construir. 

Fundar. 

Medir. 

Portarse. 

Tirar. 



Auxilio. 

CasteUano. 

Arabe. 

Crimen. 

Catalan. 

Chniento. 

Dialecto. 

Fulano. 

Gallego. 
Hodelo. 



Help. 

Castilian. 

Arab. 

Crime. 

Catalonian. 

Foundation. 

Dialect 

Such a one, 

and so. 
Galician. 
Model. 



To secure, to fasten, to prop. 

To conquer. 

To construct, to build. 

To found, to go upon (a principle). 

To measure. 

To conduct one's self, to behave. 

To throw. 



Desigual. 


Unequal. 


Eztremado. 


Extreme. 


Horrendo. 


Horrific. 


Distinto. 


Distinct. 


Bidiculo. 


Ridiculous. 


InmemoriaL 


Immemorial 


Recto. 


Right, straight. 



so 



AndalncSa. 

Costilla. 

Catalufia. 

Corona. 

Avila. 

Galicia. 

Isabel. 

Imperfeccion. 
Irregularidad. 
Guipuzcoa. 



Andalusia. 
Castile. 
Catalonia. 
Crown. 
Avila. 
Galicia. 
Elizabeth, Isa- 
bella. 
Imperfection. 
Irregularity. 
Guipuzcoa. 



294 



LSSSOK LT. 



Defecta 


Defect 


Ignaldad. 


Equality. 


M^rito. 


Merit 


Medida. 


Measure. 


Reino 


Kingdom. 


Pesa. 


Weight (for 


Terreoo. 


Ground. 




weighing) 


•ntolo. 


Title. 


Nobleza. 


KobDity. 


Yascaence. 


Basque. 


Persona. 


Person. 


Zatano. 


Sach a one. 


Moneda. 


Coin. 


Escntorio. 


Office. 


Regnlaridad. 


Regularity. 






Valencia. 


Valencia. 






Vizcaya. 


Biscay. 






Universidad. 


University. 




COMPOSITION. 





Tratemos abora de descansar que seri 

lo mejor. 
Si DO hay rirtades, que son el cimiento 

de la libertad, no se afianzar& esta en 

loB pueblos. 
I Qu^ hermosa que estis I 
£86 si que es un modo de portarse con 

honor. 

Que llanntn 

Que me deje en paz. 

i Qu6 me matan I 

En muchas obras no se encuentra otra 

{or mas) m^rito que el estilo. 
Es que estoy ocupado. 
Es que se encuentra sin ningun auzilio. 
Con la p^rdida de su madre esti todo 

el dia Uora que llora. 
I Qu6 no lo hubiera yo £abido 1 
i Qu6 siempre has de ser un holgazan ? 
I Qu6 bermoso cielo I 
I Qu6 hoirenda noche 1 
i Qu6 cielo tan hermoso I 
A que si. 
A que no. 
A que lo digo. 
A que lo bago. 
I Qu6 de crimenes se Tieron 1 
I Qu6 de iiy'usticias no se cometen 1 

lQu6I ^noTienes? 



Let us try to rest now ; that will be 

best 
If there are no virtues, which are the 

foundation of liberty, the latter will 

have no firm foothold among nations. 
How beautiful you are ! 
That, now, is an honorable mode of 

acting. 
Some one is calling (knocking). 
Let him let me alone. 
Murder 1 
Many works are Toid of all merit save 

the style. 
WeQ, but I am busy. 
Well, but he is entirely forsaken. 
She does nothing the whole day over 

but lament the loss of her mother. 
Ah 1 could I but have known it I 
Are you always to be a sluggard I 
What a beautiful sky t 
What a horrific night I 
What a beautiful sky I 
I will bet you it is. 
I will bet you*it is not 
I will bet you I can say it 
I will bet you I can do it 
How much crime there was 1 
How much iiyustice is there not com- 
mitted! 
What I are you not coming ? 



LESSON LT. 



295 



iFulano!— iQa6? 

Ir6 & paseo, que no eetard siempre me- 

tido en casa. 
Qu6 qniera que no qolera. 
No es hijo mio, que si lo fuera .... 



Saohaonel What! 

I shall go and take a walk, for I will 

not be always stuck in the house. 
Whether he will or not 
He is no son of mine, for if he were . . . 



EXPLANATION. 

269. Que, as a conjunction, is employed in so many differ- 
ent ways and meanings, tending to perplex the learner, that 
we deem it essential to mention here some of its principal uses : 

It is employed as a copulative ; as, 
Tratemos ahora de descansar, que Ber& I Let us go to rest now; that will be 
lomejor. I best 

It sometimes serves to introduce an incidental proposition 
dependent on the principal one ; as. 



Si no hay yirtudes, que son el cimiento 
de la libertad, no se afianzari esta 
en los pneblos. 



If there are no virtues, which are the 
foundation of liberty, the latter will 
have no firm foothold among nations. 



It is employed instead of stnoj but after either of the ad- 
jectives otro or mas ; as, 

En muchas obras no se encnentra otro I Many works are void of all merit ex- 
. (or mas) m^rito que d estUo. | cept the style.* 

It is employed instead of pero^ but in the phrase es que^ 
with which we convey the reasson why something is or is 
not done ; as, 

Ee que estoy ocupado. | But I am busy. 

& que se encuentra sm ningun auxilio. | But he is entirely forsaken. 

The conjunction que^ placed between two words of the 
same meaning, besides uniting them as a conjunction, gives 
more energy to the expression ; as. 

Con la p6rdlda de su madre estA todo I She is the whole day over lamenting 
d dia llora que llora. * | the loss of her mother. 

At other times it serves to confirm more and more the ex- 
pression; as. 



/ Qui hermosa que est&s I {indead of, 
/ Qui hermosa est4s !) 

I Ese si que es un modo de portarse con 
honor I {imUad of \ Ese sf es un mo- 
do de portarse con honor I) 



How beautiful you are I 

That, now, is an honorable mode of 
acUng! 



Some one 4fi calling. 
Let him let me alone. 
Moiderl 



296 LESSON LY. 

The coDJonction que^ at the beginning of a sentence, implies 
a proposition going before it ; as, 

QM^Uaman. 

Que me dq'e en paz. 

/ Que me matan t 

In all these examples a proposition is understood before the 
qtie ; as, mirady in the first ; deseo or quiero^ in the second ; and 
reparad or sabed^ in the third. 

When the sentence is interrogative or exclamatory, que 
denotes desire and expostulation ; as, 

/ Qui no lo hubiera 70 Babido 1 I Ah I could I but haye-known it 1 

/ Qui Biempre has de ser un holgazan I | Are yon always to be a sluggard ! 

In an exclamatory sentence, and when it precedes a noun 
adjective, it is equivalent to cudn ; as, 

/ Que hermoso cielo I I What a beautiful sky I 

/ Qui horrenda noche I | What an horrific night I 

But if in these sentences the substantive comes first, the particle 
tan must be put between, because we cannot say: / Qui cielo 
/^ermoaof but, / Qu& cido tan hermoao/ 

In some sentences a determining verb is understood ; as. 



Ague si 
A que no, 
A que lo digo. 
A que lo hago. 



I win bet you it is. 
I wHI bet you it is not 
I will bet you I can say it 
I will bet you I can do it, 



in which is understood the present indicative apuestOy I bet. 

In other sentences it is equivalent to a collective noun or a 
plural adjective, and requires to be followed by the preposition 
de; as, 

/ Qui de crfmenes se yieron 1 

/ Qui de injusticlas no se oometen I 



How much crime there was I 
How much ii\justice is there not com- 
mitted! 



instead of saying : / Cudntos crimenea ! j Cudntaa injusticias t 
or, / Qai mitUitud de crimenes ^ injusticias/ 

It also denotes surprise, and is used as an interrogative, and 
for answering ; as, 
/ Qui/ ^no Tienes? | What! are you not coming? 



LSSSON LY. 297 

and is equivalent to an entire proposition answering; as, 
I Fulano I i QuSf {i, e, f Qui quieres ?) I Such a one ! What ? (t. e. What do yoa 

I want?) 

At Other times it is employed instead of the adversative 
sinOj and the copulative y, in periods where the second member 
denotes opposition to what is expressed in the first ; as. 



He will not get it, bat will remain with 
the desire. 

I shall go out to walk, for I will not be 
always stuck in the house. 



Ko lo consegiur4 ; gw se qaedar4 con 

el deseo (iiuiead of sino que se que- 

dari, etc.). 
Ir6 & paseo, que no estar6 siempre me- 

tido en casa (ituUad of yno estar^, 

etc). 

It is not unfrequemtly used in the place of a disjunctive con- 
junction; as. 

Que qulera que no quiera (t. e,, quiera I Whether he will or not. 
6 no quiera). | 

It is sometimes substituted for one or other of the causals, 
pueSy porgrue, pttes que ; as, 

No es hijo mio, que si lo fiiera . . . (t. e., | He is no son of mine, for if he were . . . 
porque or puee^ si lo fuera). | 

In this meaning it is more used in poetry than in prose ; as, 

** Que quien se opone al delo, 
Goanto mas alto sube, Tiene al suelo.** 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I Se habla el castellano en todas las provincias de Espatl^ ? En lea 
tribunales, universidades, y oficinas pUblicas, si seflor ; pero el pueblo ha- 
bla diferentes dialectos. 

2. iQu6 dialectos son estos? El Catalan, que so habla en Catalufia; 
el valendano, en Valencia ; el gallego, en Galioia ; y el yascnenoe que se 
habla en las provincias vascongadas, que sou Alava, GuipAzcoa y Vizca- 
ya ; se cree que este tUtimo es lengna madre 7 una de las mas antiguas 
do Eoropa. 

3. iEn d6nde se habla el castellano ? En las dem&s provincias, Oas- 
tilla, Aragon y Andalucia. 

4. iPorqu6 no se habla el espanol en toda Espafla ? Porque Espafla 
estuvo anteriormente dividida en varies reinos ; de estos algunos fueron 
conquistados per los Arabes, otros pertenecieron 4 Francia, y otros final- 
mente permanecieron indepeudientes por muchos siglos, hasta que Fernan- 

13* 



208 LESSON LY. 

do 6 Isabel, echando & los Arabes de Espana, reunieron las coronas de 
Aragon y Castilla. 

6. tSondiferenteslascostnmbrefldelaBprQvinciasdeEspafiaf Ma- 
cho; no solamente no se habla la misma lengna en todas, sino que hasta 
poco tiempo hace cada provinoia tenia leyes diferentes, y aun hoy dia 
tienen pesas, medidas, tr^je y basta caract6res mny distintos. 

6. Paes eso dobe ser muj inc6modo; en los Estados Unidos tenemos 
la ventcga de hablar una misma lengna y tenemos las mismas pesas, me- 
didas y monedas. — ^Yerdad es, pero tambien es cierto qne Yds. ban becbo 
todo esto con la experiencia adquirida en el antiguo mnndo. 

7. {Tporqud no lo bacen Yds. as! en Espafia? Porqne nosotros 
tenemos ja cstablecidas estas cosas de tiempo inmemorial, y no es £&cil 
cambiar oostumbres arraigadas por tantos siglos. 

8. Goando Yds. ftmdan nna cindad en este nnevo mnndo, eligen el 
terreno necesario, tiran Yds. lineas rectas y trazan calles y plazas ; para 
esto no siguen el modelo de nna antigaa cindad de Enropa, pero las an- 
tiguas cindades de Enropa con sns imperfecciones 6 irregnlaridades les ban 
mostrado & Yds. d modo de constmir cindades, cnjo solo defecto con- 
siste en sn extremada regularidad. 

9. ^Yno cree Y. qne de esta ignaldad resnltan grandes yenti^as? 
Sin dnda algnna, y seria de dese^ qne en todo el mnndo se.bablase la 
misma lengna, bubiese la misma moneda, pesas y medidas, 7, tanto como 
el clima, las costnmbres y otras circnnstancias lo permitiesen, las mismas 
leyes. 

10. Tambien me ban dicbo qne bay en Espafia varias dases de sode- 
dad; (no es asif Si, sefior; pero eso sncede en todaslas nacionesdd 
mnndo. 

11. No en los Estados Unidos. Y. v6 qne aqnl no se dan titnlos de 
nobleza, no bay diferencia en el tr^e, y decimos Mr. Jobnson, bablando del 
presidente, and Mr. jQbnson, bablando de nn camicero, y d mismo Presi- 
dente Jobnson era dntes sastre, de modo qne la ignaldad existe en las 
pcrsonas como en las cosas. 

12. No olvide Y., sin embargo, qne Dios no ba becbo dos cosas ignales 
en el mnndo, y qne los bombres son qaiz4 mas designales entre si qne 
las mismas cosas. — Concedido, y no bay cosa qne mas ridicnla me parezca 
que las lavanderas vestidas de sefioras, y los rowdies dd Bowery afectan- 
do ser caballeros. 

EXERCISE. 

1, Did yon meet tlicm as yon were going in, or as yon were coming 
ont? As we were going in. 



LESSON LTI. 



209 



2. What is the name of that province in Spam in which thej epeak 
the Oatalonian Lmgoage or dialect ? Catalonia. 

8. In which province do they speak the Basqne ? In the three Bas- 
que provinces. 

4. And do these dialects differ very materially* from the Oastilian 
langnagef Yes, very materially; in general they are more like the 
French than the Spanish. 

5. Have you ever heard the Spanish name for the natives of Galicia? 
Tes, sir, for I am well acquainted with several Galicians living in New 
York. 

6. Can yon tell me the weights and measures principally nsed in the 
Peninsula (FenifiBula) f The principal weight, entirely different from all 
those of the United States, is the arroha. 

7. How many Isabellas have there been on the throne of Spain? 
Two ; the first was Isabella the Catholic, and the present queen is Isa-, 
bellan. 

8. By what event is the reign of Isabella the Catholic distinguished 
from all other reigns f By the discovery of America by Christopher 
Columbns (jDruUlal Colon), in the year 1492. 

9. Was there not some other very important event tha^ occnrred about 
the same time ? Ah I yes ; at the commencement of that queen^s reign ; 
you mean, I suppose, the conquest of the Arabs, and union of the crown 
of Castile and Aragon. 

10. Are railroads very common in the Peninsula? Not so common as 
in other European countries ; but of late years the spirit of enterprise 
seems to be revived in Spain, and to the few which now exist we shall 
soon see a large number of others added. 

11. Let us sit down and rest for half an hour, for I am very tired, and 
you must be so too. 

12. How beautiful the sky looks (h) to night 1 That is true ; but how 
it rained all day! 

13. How long has that newspaper been published? Ten years, for it 
was established (founded) in 1856. 



LESSON LVI. 



Apreciar. 
Apresurar. 
Favorecer. 
Invitar. 



To appreciate. 
To haste. 
To favor. 
To invite. 



*Mueho. 



300 LSS60N LYl. 




Apredable. 




Appreciable. 


( 


Corriente. 




Corrent, fluent 


Estimado. 




Esteemed. 


^ 


EzceleDtisimo. 




Very (or most) excellent 


1 


Favoredda. 




Favored. 




Invariable. 




Invariable. 


1 


Intiino. 






\ 


Fino. 




Fine. 




Servidor. 




Servant 




MeroantiL 




Mercantile. 




Comerdo. Commerce, 


trade. 


-T — 

Atencion. Attention. 




Corazon. Heart 




Oorrespondcncia. Correspondence. 




Oonvite. Invitation, 


feast, 


Esquela. Note. 




banquet, party. 


Formnla. Form, formula. 




Formiilario. list of formulas. 


Expredon. Expression. 




Kespeto. Bespect 




Estmctura. Structure. 




Sobrescrito. Address. 




Intimidad. Intimacy. 




Corresponsal. Correspondent 


IniciaL InitiaL 








Residencia, Besidence. 






CX)MPOi 


3inON. 




Sefior D. Jo86 Romero. 




Mr. Joseph Romera 




May Sr. mio. 




Dear Sr, My Dear Sir. 




Hny Sr. naestro. 




Dear Sir. 




Muy Sres. mios. 




Gentlemen. 




Muy Sres. nuestros. 




Gentlemen. 




Sefiora Da. Isabel Jim^es. 




Mrs. Isabella Jlm6nez. 




Muy Sra. mia. 




Madam. 




Muy Sra. nuestra. 




Madam. 




Hemos recibido su ap^^, apreciable 


We have received your favor (or your 




{or su est^, estimada, or an 


favoi^, 


esteemed favor). 


J 


fa7orecida). 








Las de V. del 2 del corriente (w 


-cor**). 


Your favors of the 2d instant 




4 del pp*® (pr6ximo pasado). 




4th ult 




Se repite 4 las 6rdeDeB de Y. 


" 








S. S. S. 










(Su seguro serndor). 










Q. a M. B. 




. 


Yours very truly. 




(Que ea mano besa). 










M. De. T 










Q. & P. B. 






• 




( To ladies, que bus pi^s besa). ^ 






t 



LBSSOK LVI. 



801 



Muy Sr. mio 7 amigo. 

Mi querido amigo. 

Uande Y. con toda franqueza & su in- 

yaxiable amigo 7 S. S. 
£1 Sr. A. De L. presenta (or ofrece) sua 

reapetoB al Sr. D. L De H., 7 le haoe 

saber que. 
Sr. D. J086 Martinez, 

Del Comercio de Madrid. 
Sres. D. Francisco SAncfaez, 

Hermanos 7 Ca., C&diz. 

Sefiora Da. Teodora Jimenez 7 

Arteta, Calle Ma7or N«. 10, 

Zaragoza. 
Al Ex™*". (Excelentfsimo), 

Sr. D. Juan Yalero 7 Arteta. 

B. li. M.y 

AlSr.DeV. 

a a a, 

A-DeT. 



M7 Dear Sir and Friend. 

M7 Dear Friend. 

Command with freedom 70iir true 

friend and faithful aenrant. 
Mr. A. De L. presents his compliments 
to Mr. L De H., and begs to infonn 
him that 
Mr. Joseph Martinez, 

Merchant, Madrid. 
Messrs. Francis S&nchez Bros, k Co., 

CaduB. 
Mrs. Theodora Jimenez 7 Arteta, 
10 Ma7or Street, 

Saragoasa. 
To His Ezoellenc7, John Yalero 7 

Arteta. 
(Form of addressing letters, notes, &c., 
to persons living in the same place as 
the writer.) ^ 



EXPLANATION. 

270- Epistolabt Cobbespondencb. — ^We could not, with- 
out overstepping the limits of a grammar, give here all the 
terms peculiar to mercantile correspondence ; those desirous to 
become perfect in that branch may consult the sereral works 
written on the subject, among which we particularly recommend 
Mr. De Veitelle^s "Mercantile Dictionary," published by D. 
Appleton & Co. We merely give here the general forms for 
beginning and ending letters. 

In addressing persons of different classes of society, except 
those having titles, letters begin as follows : 

Mu7 Sefior mio. M7 Dear Sir. 

Mu7 Sefior nuestro. Sir ; Dear Sir. y 

Mu7 Sefiores mios. ) 

Mu7 Sefiores nuesteos. f Gentlemen. 

And to ladies : 
Mu7 Sefiora mia. | Madam. 

These expressions are most generally abbreviated thus : — 
Mut/ Sr. mio; Muy Sr. n«>; Muy Sres. mios ; Jfwy Sres. n'^; 
Muy Sra. mia; Muy Sra. nr^\ Muy Sras. nw. 



302 



LEBSOlf LTI. 



In the body of the letter, su of/^ (sa apreciable), or 8u 
€8t^ (su estimada), or suyavor^ (su favorecida) — cartas letter, 
bemg understood — ^are equivalent to your favor or your es- 
teemed letter. 

Such expressions as these are translated thus : 

Yours of the 2d inBt; 4th alt ; 8th 
of Hfty, &0. 



Las de Y. del 2 del oor«* (corriente) ; 
4 del pp^ (prdzimo pasado) ; 8 de 
Ma JO, etc 



The following forms are employed at the end of letters : 



Se repiie & las drdenes de Y., 

(Su segoro serridor). 
Q. & M. Bi. 

(Que su mano besa). 
Manden Yms. cuanto gustea k 
S. S. S.| 
Q. S. H. B. 



I am, Dear Sir, 

Yours respectfully. 



Command at pleasure your faithful 
senrant 



To a lady, the form is the same, only changing the letter 
M, into P., thus : 

Q. S. p. B. 
(Que BUS pUs besa). 

In a more familiar style : 

Huy Sr. mio y amigo. 
Mi querido amigo. 
Maude Y. con toda franqueza & su 
inyariable amigo y S. S. 



My Dear Sir and Friend. 
My Dear Friend. 

Command with freedom your true 
friend and fidthftil serrant. 



JEkqtielaSj notes, are also written in Spanish, as in English, 
in the third person ; as, 



£1 Sr. A. De L. presenta {or ofrece) bus 
respetos alSr.Dn.LDe H., y le 
hace saber que, etc. 



Mr. A. De L. presents his respects to 
Mr. L De H., and begs to acquunt 
him that, &c. 



The most usual manner of addressing letters is : 

Sr. Dn. Jos6 Martinez, del Comercio de Madrid. 
Sres. Dn. Fran«> S&nchez, Heimanos y Ca., C&diz. 
Bra. Dfia. Teodora Jimenez y Arteta, Calle Mayor N^ 10. 
Al £z»> Sr. D. Juan Yalero y Arteta, Madrid. 



LESSON LVI. 303 

In the city: . 

TO A GIZmSlCAV. TO A LADT. 



B. L. M., 
Al Sr. D. P., 

s. a a, 

A-T. 



B. L. P., 
A la SnL Da. F. V., 

a a a, 

A-T. 



CONVEBaiTION AND VERSION. 

1. jLe guBta & V. eeoribir cartas? Me guste escribir & mis amigos 
Intimos ; pero me gnsta mas recibir cartas que escribirlas. 

2. Yo no a& bien el ceremonial 6 fonnulario de cartas, iqoiere V. 
hacermo el favor de decirme o6mo se principia nna carta? Con mncho 
gusto, preg6nteme Y. aqaello qne no sepa. 

8. iC6mo se principia nna carta dirigida 4 nna persona cnalqniera 
con qaien no tenemos intimidad? Si es nn caballero, principiamos con 
la f6rmnla de Muff 8r. mio^ y ifi es nna sefiora con la de Muy Setlora mia. 

4. jY para acabar? Escribiendo 4 nn caballero solemosdedr entre 
otras mnchas ezpresiones^ ** Qaeda de V., 

a 8. 8., 

Q. a M. B.,. 

¥nlano de tal." 
6. i Y si es nna sefiora 4 qnien escribimos ? Lo mismo, solo cambia- 
mos la iniclal de mano, M., en la inicial de pie$y P., aaS, 

"Quedade v., 

a 8. a, 
Q. a p. B., 

Fnlano de taL" 

6. ^Ycnindoesdnnlntimoamigo? Ent6ncesesmasparecidoalingl6s 
J principiamos didendo : " Qnerido amigo," j para acabar, cnalqniera de 
las mnchas expresiones qne se nsan, oomo : 

'*Tu amigo que te ama de corazon, 

Fnlano de tal." 

7. I C6mo se escriben las esquelas de invitadon, etc., & las personas 
que yiven en la ciudad ? Se escriben, oomo en ingl^ en la tercera persona. 

8. I Qniere V. escribirme nna esqnela invit^ndome 4 comer ? Si, se- 
fior, yea Y. asi: "Los Sres. De Y. presentan sus respetoe 4 los Sres. De 
T., y les snplican que les hagan el honor de venir 4 comer con ellos el 
m4rte8 4 las cinco. Ltines, Abril 8 de 1866." 

9. Yeamos ei Y. puede responderme en espallol. — Yea Y., "Los Sres. 
De T. se apresurar4n 4 acudu* al amable convite de los Sres. De Y., y les 
presentan sus mas finas atendones." 



304 LS880N LYI. 

10. Mnj bieiif maj bien^ahora solo falta poner la direcoion (el sobre). 
— ^Estondo las personas 4 quien me dir^o en la ciadad, creo qae el sobres- 
crito debe ponerse asl : 

B, L. M. 

Al St. De V. 

8. 8. 8., 
A. De T. 

11. {Oree Y. qne podr6 abora tradacir ana carta mercantil en iDgMs? 
Si, senor, 7 escribirla tambien, pnesto qne Y. sabe ya la estrnctnra de la 
lengna, adem&s de poseer nn gran ntimero de sns giros, idiotismos 7 pala- 
bras mas neoesarias; pero todavia tendr& Y. necesidad de acndir al dic- 
cionario, porqne no es posible introdncir en nna gramitioa todas las pala- 
bras 7 frases qne reqniere nna Gorre^ondenda mercantlL 

EXERCISE. 

1. Do yon ever do an7 of the correspondence in yonr office (eBeri- 
torio) ? Not often, for I do not know how to write letters in Spanish, 
and the greater part of onr correspondence is carried on (Uevar) in that 
langaage. 

2. Ton onght, in that case, to make that branch the object of par- 
ticular stud7 for a time.* That is what I desire to do ; and I wonld be 
obliged to yon to gire me some instructions (vMtruir) in the forms most 
observed in Spanish houses. 

8. I shall have much pleasure in showing you all I know myself; but 
as I have never been in business, there are many points of wluch I am 
ignorant (ignorar). 

4. What is Ae first thing to write in a letter? In Spanish, as in 
English, the date is generally the first thing ; it is written thus : 

Cadiz, October 1st, 1866. 

5. What comes next ? The name and residence of the person we are 
writing to, thus : 

Messrs. Lafukntk, Sows & Co., Malaga: 

6. So far there is little difference between the two language. Yery 
little ; we next go on to say {luego sepone) : 

Gentlemen (or 8ir, or My Dear Sir, or Dear Sirs, or, if we write to a 
lady. Madam) : 

7. Ah ! there I observe a decided difference : is that the form always 
followed for conmiencing letters? For business letters, yes; but for fa- 
miliar correspondence, we have many others ; indeed, they are mostly 
always suited to the taste of the writer. 

8. Be good enough to show me one or two? With the greatest 



LESSON LYII. 



305 



pleasure : My Dear Friend : My Very Dear Alexander : Esteemed Friend : 
My Ever Dear Mother, &c., &c., &c. 

9. How do yon acknowledge (aeuaar) the receipt of a favor ? In this 
manner : I have dnly received your esteemed favor (or letter) of the 17th 
instant. 

10. As for the body of the letter, the form depends entirely on the 
nature of the business ; and, in general, aU that is required is to say just 
what is necessary and nothing more, and to avoid obscurity {odcuridad)^ 
in order that our ideas may be completely understood by our corre- 
spondent (eorrespanml). 

11. The usual manners of closing a letter are : 

I am, dear or, 

Your most obd't'ser't ; or, 

I am, fflr. 

Yours very truly. 

12. And for familiar letters: 
I am, dear Charles, 

Your true Mend and loving cousin ;- or. 
With kindest expres^ons to your brother, 

Beiieve me to remain your ever faithfnl and loving friend. 



LESSON LVII. 



Abalanzarse. 

Concordar. 

Gumplir. 

Conversar. 

Entregar. 

Escapar. 

Honrar. 

Participar. 

Kegir. 

Auziliar. 

Honrado. 

Plural. 

Singular. 



To rush, to spring. 

To agree. 

To fulfQ, to keep, to do (dutyj. 

To converse. 

To give, to hand, to deliver. 

To escape. 

To honor. 

To participate, to partake. 

To govern. 

To help. 

Honest, honored. 

Plural. 

Singular. 



306 


LSSSOX LVII. 




Baron. 


Baron. 


Alh^a. 


Jewel. 


Or6dito. 


Credit 


Agudeza. 


Wit, witty say- 


Encargo. 


Gommisfflon, 




ing. 




charge, order. 


Oocina. 


Kitchen. 


G^nero. 


Kind, doth. 


Oonfianza. 


Ck>nfidenoe. 


Empleo. 


Employment, 


Espada. 


Sword. 




office. 


Fnga. 


Flight 


Plato. 


Plate, diflh. 


Gracia. 


Favor, good 
graces. 


Ntimero. 


Number. 




Mania. 


Regimen. 


Regimen. 


Promesa. 


Promise. 


Tema. 


Theme, exercise. 


Pretension. 


Pretension, daim. 


Diptongo. 


Diphthong. 


Oonoordanda. 


Concord, agree- 


Triptongo. 


Triphthong. 




ment. ' 


Varoru 


Man: 


Version. 


Vermon, 


Error. 


Error, mistake. 


Tema. 


Whim. 




OOMPO 


srrioN. 




Aoordarse con algano. 


To agree with anj 


one. 


Acordarse de alguno. 


To remember any 


one. 


Caer & la plaza. 




To front on the square (said of a house). 


Caer en la plaza. 




To faU in the square. 


Caer de la grada de alguno. 


To fall fiom any ( 


one's fevor (or good 






graces). 




Caer en gracia & algano. 


To get into any one's favor (or good 






graces). 




Contar una cosa. 




To relate, to teU a 


tWng. 


Contar con una cosa. 


To count upon a thing. 


Conyenir & uno. 




To suit (to be convenient for) any one. 


Convenir con uno. 




To agree with any one. 


Cumplir con uno. 




To do one's duty toward any ona 


Cumpllr por uno. 




To act in the place of any one. 


Dar algo. 




To give any thing. 




Dar con algo. 




To find any tMng. 




Dar en una cosa. 




To be obstinate. 




Dar por algo. 




To give for any thing. 


Dar cr^to. 




To give credit, to believe. 


Dar & cr6dito. 




To give on credit 




Dar la mano. 




To give the hand ( 


or to shake hands). 


Dar de mano. 




To lay aside, to abandon. 


Dar en m^nos de. 




To faU into the hands of. 


Dar con el pi^ 




To despise, to scoin, to make light of. 


Dar por el pi6. 




To overthrow. 





LBSSOK LVII. 



807 



Dar fin {mr cabo) k una cosa. 
Dar fin de una cosa. 
Declararse & algono. 
Declararse por alguna 

Dejap haoer algo. 
Dqjar de hacer alga 
Desbacerse alguna coea. 
Deshacerse de alguna cofla. 
Disponer sua alhajas. 
Disponer de sua allugaa. 
Echar tierra k una cosa. 

Echar un g6ncro en tierra. 

Entender una oosa. 
Entender en una ooea. 
Entregaree al dinero. 
Entregarse del dlnera 
Escapar k buenaa. 
Escapar de buenaik 
Estar en alguna cosa. 
Estar sobre alguna oosa. 
Estar k todo. 
Estar en todo. 
Estar con cuidado. 
Estar de cuidado. 
Estar enst 
Estar sobre sL 
Estar con alguna 

Estar por alguno. 

Estar en hacer alguna cosa. 

Estar para hacer alguna cosa. 

Estar por hacer alguna cosa. 

Estar alguna oosa por hacer. 

Gustar un plato. 

Gustar de un plato. 

Hacer confianza k una persona. 

Hacer confianza de una persona. 

^Hacer una cosa con tiempo. 



To bring to an end, to finish.' 

To destroy. 

To confide one^s secrets to any one. 

To side with any one, to declare one's 
self in fayor of any one. 

To let any thing be done. 

To leave any thusg undona 

(Speaking of thmgs) to be destroyed. 

To dispose of (or part with) any thing. 

To arrange one's jewelry. 

To dispose of one's jewelry. 

To forget any thing, to cast it into ob- 
livion. 

To throw any thing on the ground (or 
down). 

To understand a thing. 

To be a judge of a thmg. 

To make a god of one's money. 

To receiye, to take charge of money. 

To make the best of one's escape. 

To make a happy escape. 

To be aware of any thing. 

To push an affair. 

To be ready for whatever may come. 

To pay attention to every matter. 

To be anxious, solicitous. 

To be dangerously ilL 

To have complete consciousness. 

To be proud. 

To be with any one, to be of any one's 
opinion. 

To favor any one. 

To be resolved (or disposed) to do any 
thing. 

To be about to do any thing. 

To be inclined to do something. 

To remain to be done. 

To taste a dish (of any kind of food). 

To be fond of a dish. 

To tell a secret to any one. 

To make a confident of any one, to 
trust to any one. 

To do a thing at one's leisure (so as not 
to be pressed for time). 



308 

Hfloer QUA com en tiempo. 
Haoene & una cosa. 
Hacene con una cosa. 
Haoene de una coea. 
Hallane algo. 
Ilallarse con algo. 

Irconalguno. 

Ir sobre algono. 
Mayor de edad. 
Mayor en edad. 
Participar una cosa. 
Participar de una cosa. 
Poner una cosa en tierra. 
Poner una cosa por tierra. 
Poner con cuidado. 
Poner en cuidado. 
Preguntar 4 uno. 
Pn^untar por uno. 
Quedar en haccr una cosa. 
Quedar una cosa por haoer. 

Responder una cosa. 
Responder de una cosa. 
Saber & cocina. 
Saber de cocina. 

Salir con una empresa. 
Salir de una empresa. 
Salir & su padre. 
Salir con su padre. 
Salir de su padre. 

Salir por su padre. 
Ser con alguno. 
Ser de alguno. 
Ser para alguno. 
Tener consigo. 
Tener para si. 
Tener de hacer algo. 
Tener que hacer algo. 
Tirar la espada. 



LESSON LVII. 



To do a thing in time, at a soitable tixst. 

To get used to a thing. 

To get (or procure) a thing. 

To provide one*s self witb a filing 

To find any thing. 

To be in possession of (or hMv^e) aaj 

thing. * 

To go with anybody, to be of an j aoes 

opinion, to be on any one's side, to 

listen to any one. 
To fall upon (or attack) any one. 
To be of age. 
To bo older. 

To communicate any thing (to another). 
To participate in any thing. 
To lay any thing on the ground. 
To make little of a thmg. 
To put (or place, or lay) with car& 
To alarm, to give anxiety. 
To ask any one (interrogate). 
To ask (or inquire) for any thing. 
To agree to do any thing. 
To remain to be done (speaking of 

things). 
To answer something (ghring an answer). 
To answer for any thing. 
To smell (or taste) of the Idichen. 
To be skilfbl in (or to understand) 

cooking. 
To carry out an enterprise. 
To give up an enterprise. 
To resemble one*s father. 
To go out with one's father. 
To be released from the wardship of 

one*s father. 
To go bail for one's father. 
To be of any one's opinion. 
To belong to any one's party. 
To be for any one (of things). 
To have with (or about) one. 
To be persuaded. 
To be going to do any thing. 
To have to do any thing. 
To throw down (or away) one's swori 



LESSOir LYII. 



300 



TFlrar de la espada. 
TCratar de vinos. 

Orator en Tinos. 

"Vender al contado. 

"Vender d? contado. 

Volver & la razon. 

Volver por la razon. 

Tolver en razon de tal cosa. 



To draw one's sword. 

To talk- about winee. 

To deal in wines. 

To sell for cash. 

To sell on the instant 

To recover one's reason. 

To stand np for reason (or what is 

right). 
To return for such a reason (or motive). 



EXPLANATION. 

271. It is a general cnstom, amongst authors of Spanish 
grammars and Spanish methods, to copy entire the forty pages 
devoted by the Spanish Academy in its Grammar to a list of 
verbs requiring certain prepositions after them. But we, not- 
withstanding our most profound respect for the body just 
mentioned, refrain from following in the footsteps of our pre- 
decessors, and that not merely on account of the useless- 
ness of the list, but for the more potent reason that we believe 
it to be calculated to misguide the student at every step. An 
example : — ^Any one not thoroughly acquainted with Spanish 
syntax would, on reading the very first article in the list above 
referred to, AbcUamarse & los peiigros^ nsLtuTdXij conclude there- 
from that the verb abalanzar governs at all times and under 
all circumstances the preposition d» Now that would be 
absurd, for nothing is more usual than to see, and hear the ex- 
pressions : — Abalamarse contra {or sobre) su enemigo^ abalan- 
zarse con {or sin) juicio^ abalamarae para 8a<yudir^ de repente, 
&c. And so of all the other verbs, each of which may, accord- 
ing to the idea to be conveyed, govern almost any preposition 
in the language. 

It would be vain to attempt to give, in a work of the 
nature of the present one, a complete set of rules for determin- 
ing the various significations of every verb as decided or 
modified by the attendant preposition; but, as much can be 
done, even here, toward helping the student through the most 
difficult parts, we could not resist giving in this day's Composi- 
tion a list composed of those verbs which are at the same time 
of most frequent occurrence in general e very-day conversation. 



310 LESSON LYII. 

and susceptible of the greatest diversity of meaning, accaitiuig 
to the preposition by which they are followed. 

Before dismissing this subject we deem it convenient to re- 
mark that a large number of English verbs, to determine the 
meaning of which a preposition is indispensable, are rendered 
in Spanish by a verb alone. For example : 

B&jtr. To go down. 

Entrar. To oome in. 

Sallr. To go out. 

Subir. To go up. 

Sacar. To draw out. 

Partir. To set out. 

Caer. To fall down. 

This may be the reason why many Spanish granmiarians 
have thought that in Spanish the same thing does not exist. 
We regret that the dimensions of our book do not allow of our 
giving a more complete list in corroboration of the fact that 
Spanish verbs too enjoy that transition of signification which 
is so frequent in English verbs. 

CONVEKSATION AND VERSION. 

1. I A qu6 lado caen las ventanas de sn caarto de Y. ? Tres caen & 
la plaza de Madison j las otras tres caen d la calle YeiDte 7 dnco. 

2. ^Le cae & Y. en gracia esc machachito? SS, senor, porqne res- 
ponde oon mucha agadeza. 

8, |Paedo contar con sn promesa do Y. ? Y. pnede contar con ella, 
porqne yo complo siempre lo que prometo. 

4. J Da Y. cr6dito 4 todo lo que eye? No, sefior, 4 m4nofl que 
oonozca las personas. 

5. ^Da Y. la mano 4 aqnel pobre? SS, sefior, porque aunque pobre 
es honrado. 

6. I Ha dado Y. fin d su tarea ? Todavia no ; pero pronto dar6 de mano. 

7. 81 Y. deja esos libros en manos de ese muchacho, pronto dard fin 
de ellos. — ^Aai lo creo ; pero es necesario quo los nifios tengan algo para 
entretenerse. 

8. I C6mo ha dispnesto Y. de sus alhajas ? Las he guardado, porqae 
pude enoontrar diuero sin venderlas. 

9. I Qu6 se hizo de aqnel mal negocio en que se meti6 su primo de 
Y. ? Se le ha echado tierra, y nadie se acuerda mas de 61. 

10. I En qn6 se ocnpa su amigo de Y. ? Entiende en vinos; pero es 
oosa que no entiende. 



LSSSOK LVII. 311 

11. 2 06mo est4 sa esposa de y . ? Ellaest&decmdado,770coiicaidado. 

12. ^Estd y. en hacer aqael negocio ? Estoy para haoerlo. 

18. ^Qaeda y. en hacer ese encargo por mi? Qucdo en hacerlo j 
pierda y. coidado, qae no se quedard por hacer. 

14. ^Es y. mayor de edad? No, senor, todavia no; pero soy mayor 
en edad con respecto 4 mis hermanos. 

16. No ponga y. eso por tierra. — No lo pongo por tierra, sino en tierra. 

16. iPiensay. salir con sa empresa? No, sefior, pero pienso salir 
pronto de ella. 

17. I 'Ilr6 ese homhre de la espada ? Tir6 de la espada, porqne la sao6 ; 
pero el miedo le hizo empren^er la faga y la tir6. 

18. Don Juan, jle gosta 4 y. vender al fiado? No, sefior, me gosta 
. vender al contado y de contado. 

19. iyolvi6 D. Francisco por la razon? No, sefior, D. Francisco no 
ha vnelto & la razon, y por consigoiente no volvi6 por la razon. 

20. I Se acnerda ese hombre con sn esposa? No, sefior, no se acuerdan. 

21. 1 8e acuerda y. de lo qne le d^e d y. ayer ? No, sefior, lo he 
olvidado. 

22. I Gonviene y. ahora conmigo en qne el espafiol es mas fdcil qne el 
ingl6s ? Convengo con y . en ello. 

23. jLe conviene & Y. hacer eso ? No, sefior, no me conviene. 

24. I Di6 y. por fin con lo qne bnscaba ? No, sefior, todavia no lo he 
encontrado. 

25. Este hombre ha dado en la tema de qnerer aprender sin estndiar ; 
I no le parece & y. qne es nna pretension mny ridicola ? Eidicnlisima. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Has the Baron given np his project ? He told me he wonld like to 
give it np, if he conld do so honorably. 

2. I understand he is an honorable man? Ye8,*and he is therefore 
respected by all who know him. 

8. Has yonr brother come to an agreement with that dealer for the 
purchase of the horse he was speaking of? It appears not, and that, on 
the contrary, he desires to get rid of the one he has. 

4. Did yon inform the merchant of the order yon received from the 
West ? Not yet ; but I intend to let him know of it this very day. 

6. Does that woman understand cooking? She says she does; and 
she handed me a letter from a lady with whom she lived two years. 

6. Did the captain draw his sword as soon as he heard his antagonist's 
reply? He had already drawn it; but when he heard the reply he 
threw down his sword, and ran and gave his hand to the man whom, a 
few moments before, he was resolved to kilL 



812 



LS880K LYIII, 



7. Has your brother sent yon the books he promised joa f Ko* 
that need not soiprise yon, for I can never rely (count) oa him for 
thing. 

8. That is to say, he never keeps his promise ? That is 
what I mean to say. 

9. Do past participles always agree in gender and nnmber with 
subject of the verb ? Yes, always, except when governed hj the 
ary to hate. 

10. Are there not some participles, past and present, that do not i^ 
tain the regpmen of the verbs to which they belong I — ^There are tot* 
many; and, if you like, I will mention some of them.— Be good enoo^ 
to do so. 

11. I hope you have provided yourself with every thing neoeasary for 
your journey? Every thing, except one or two artides which I have 
been unable to find. 

12. How do you advise me to arrange (dispose) all these books? I 
have only one advice to give you in the matter, and that is, t^ <fiiqM?^ 
of them as quickly as you can. 

18. Woald you like to taste this dish ? No, thank you, I am not Ibod 
of it 

14. Is he not of your opinion ? Not at all ; he always goes (aides) 
with his father. 



LESSON LVIII. 



Notar. 

Cazar. 

Ohancear. 

Combinar. 

Concertar. 

Ooncluir. 

Enfriarse. 

Encargar. 

Flotar. 

Improvisar. 

Inspirar. 

Repartir. 

Saltar. 

Trinchar. 



To note, to observe, to perceive. 

To hunt, to chase. 

To jest 

To combine. 

To concert, to agree. 

To conclude, to finish. 

To cool, to get (or grow) cold. 

To charge, to commission, to 

order. 
To float 
To improvise. 
To inspire. 
To divide. 
To leap, to jump. 
To carve, to cut 



LESSON LYIII. 



813 



A lo 16joe. 
Acnestaa. 
A la espafiola. 
Atras. 



Abanic<f. 

Apetito. 

Aficionado. 

BaoL 

Buey. 

Brindia. 

Carro. 

Oanasto. 

CoDdnctor. 

Pretezto. 

Pefiaaoo. 

Embarcadero. 

Piropos ipl)> 

Pasiye. 

Sitio. 

Salon. 

Vooabnlario. 



Fan. 

Appetite. 
Amatenr, one 

fond ot 
Trunk. 
Ox. 
Toast 
Car, cart 
Basket 
Conductor. 
Pretext. 
Book. 
Ferry. 

Sweet tilings. 
Fare. 

Place, spot 
Saloon. 
Vocabulary. 



At a distance, in the distance. 
On one*8 back, on one's slioulder. 
In the Spanish fkahion. 
Backward, ago, bebind. 



Blanco. 


White. 


Bonito. 


Pretty. 


Durable, duradero. 


Durable. 


Elocuente. 


Eloquent 


Galante. 


Gallant 


Bello sexo. 


Fair sex. 


Magnifico. 


Magnificent 


Negro. 


Black. 


Bodeado. 


Surrounded. 


Vado. 


Empty. 



Botella. 

Caza. 

Chanza. 

OinuL 

Colina. 

Dama. 

Iniaginaoion. 

liave. 

MiUa. 

Pechuga. 

Fuensa. 

Suerte. 

Tarea. 

VocaL 

Yoz. 

Sombra. 

Elocuenda. 



Wing. 

Bottle. 

Hunt 

Jest 

Top, summit 

HOL 

Lady. 

Imagination. 

Key. 

Mile. 

Breast (of fowl). 

Force, strength. 

Luck, sort. 

Task. 

VoweL 

Voice, word. 

Shade, shadow. 

Eloquence. 



COMPOSITION. 



Qued&mos en qae saldriamos 4 las 

dnco. 
Este canasto es superior 4 mis fiierzas. 

A la salad de las sefioras. 
14 



We agreed (or appointed) to set oat (or 

start) at five o'clock. 
This basket is more than I am able to 



To the health of the ladies. 



314 



LESSON LVIII. 



Dedr piropos 4 las Mfioritta. 
Sinrue Y. pagar al oonducior. 
I Hire Y. qa6 grada ! 
^Qu^tallegttsta&Y.? 
Fongamoe los canaatoa k la acmibra. 
La subida de la oolina con un gran 

canaato k cueatas, me ha abierto el 

apedto. 
He alegro de ver k Y. 
Se al^gr6 de la notlda. 
Lo dento mncha 

Me peaa modio aaberla 

i CuAntaa peraonaa cabea en eata igle- 

ria? 
No cabiamoa todoa en el aalon. 
^Puede caber en ta imaginadoii tal 



Cabe mncfao en eate banL 
No caber de pl68. 

A mf me capo en aaerte venir 4 la 
. America. 
No caber de goio. 



To say sweet things to the young latSea. 

Please pay the conductor. 

Only think I 

How do you like? 

Let us set the baskets m the shade. 

Coming up the bill with a large baalrft 
on my back haa sharpened my aippe> 
tite. 

I am {^ to see yoo. 

He waa rejoiced at the news. 

I am very sorry for it (jL e^ I fed it 
much). 

I am very sony to know it ^t. «l, it 
grieves me much to know it). 

How many persona doea this dnxrcfa 
hold? 

The saloon could not hold na alL 

Gan SQch a thing enter your imagina- 
tion? 

This trunk holds a great deal 

To have no room to stand. 

It was.my lot to crane to America. 

To be OYCijoyed. 



EXPLANATION. 
miOMATIO UBS OF GBBTAIN YEBBS. 

272. Alegeabse. — ^The verbs to be glad and to be r^oieed 
ai are translated by the reflective verb €degraree\ as, 

Me aUgro de ver 4 Y. I I am glad to see you. 

Se alegrd de la notida. | He was r^oioed at the news. 

273. Sbmtib and pesab. — To be sorry and to grieve^ ars 
translated by these verbs ; as, 

Lo siento mucho. 



He peea mucho saberlo. 



J am very sony for it (i. 0., I fed it 

much). 
I am very sorry to know it (i. e., it 

grieyes me much to know it). 

274. Cabee, to be capable of containing, &c. — ^This verb 
is employed* in different manners in Spanish ; as, 

I Cu&ntas personas eaben en esta I How many persons does this chorch 
igleda ? hold (or is it capable of oontaizi' 

I Sng)? 



LBBSOlf LYIII. 



815 



Ko eabiamo9 todoB en el salon. 
^Puede eaber en ta imagiaadoa tal 



Cixbe macho en este bauL 

No caber de pi68. 

A mf me a^ en suerte venir k 

America. 
Nocoier enaf. 
No caber de gozo. 



The saloon coold not hold us alL 
Can sQch a thing enter your imagina- 
tion? 
This trunlK holds a great deal. 
To have no room to stand. 
It was my lot to come to iimerica. 

To be well satisfied with one^s self! 
To be OTerjoyed. 



GONYEBSATION AKD VEBSION. 

1. Baenos £as, sefiores, iconque ya todoe estan listos? Paes no 
Iiabiiunos de estar, d son ya las seia j qaedimos en qne saldriamoa k las 
cinco. 

2. Habriamos estado aqni de los primeros, si no habiera side qne, des- 
pnes de haber andado doe 6 tres Tnanyamaa, echo de yer mi esposa qne 
habia olvidado la Have del cnarto, el paragnaa, el abanico, y yo no b6 
onintas otraa cosas mas ; pero en fin ya estamos aqni, ^cn^do partimos ? 
Estamos esperando el carro qne va al embarcadero de la calle Treinta 
y tres. 

8. Sefioras, eaten Yds. prontas, porqne veo yenir el carro.— Don Mar- 
tin, aytideme V. k Ueyar eate canasto, porqne es superior k mis fnerzaa — 
Dame Y. 4 Don Pepito, qne no hace mas qne dedr piropos k las sefio- 
ritas, porqne yo tengo ya dos pardgnas y tres nittoe de qne cnidar. 

4. Don Pepe, Y. qne no tiene nifios, ni canastos, etc., dryase Y. pagar 
al conductor. — (j £1 diantre del hombre 1 ahora me pesa no haber tomado 
nn canasto.) 

5. (El pasige caballerosi |Cn&nto8 somos? nno, dos, tres, cnatro, 
caballeros; nna, dos, tres, coatro, siete sefioras, esto es: once personas 
mayores y catorce nifios. 

6. Papi, I est& may l^jos el sitio 4 dondo yamos 4 pasar el dia? No, 
Lnislta, solamente nnas diez millaa 

7. jDee8telado6delotrodelrio? Delotro,defldeaqnilopnede8yer. 

8. I No yes all4 4 lo l^jos, en la cima de aqnella colina, nna casa blanca 
en donde. flota la bandera americana? Si, sefior, es mny bonito dtio y 
debe tener mny bnenas yistas. 

9. Caidado con los nifios al saltar en tierra, no se calga algnno al agna. 
—J Estan todos ftiera ? jNo se ba olyidado nada?— No, sefior.— Pues en 
marcba. 

10. Don Pepito, tome Y. ese canasto, y cnidado no lo dqje caer y 
rompa las botc^las qne contiene. — i Hombre, i)or IMos I con el pretexto de 
qne yenia con las manos yacias, me ba hecho Y. pagar los carros y el ya- 



816 LBBBOK LTIII. 

porcito por veinte 7 ires personas^ y ahora me qniere Y. hacer cargar 
con el oanasto del vino. 

11. Yamos, Don Pepito, USvelo Y. ahora hasta la cima de aqneJIa 00- 
lina, que & la vnelta & oasa yo me encai^ de Uevarlo. — i Mire V. que 
gracial i la ynelta! qa6 es I0 que qaedar4 de ima doceoa de botellas, 
despaes de beber veinte 7 tres personas. 

12. Nada ; el que no ayade k Uevar los canastos no participar4 de sa 
contenido. — Sres., repartamos la tarea; que los hombres lleven los cft- 
nastos, las mamds 4 los nifios, los nifios los paraguas, y las sefioritaa 4 
Don Pepito. 

18. Da. Delfina | qa6 tal le gosta 4 Y. este sitio f i Oh ! es delicioso; 
I qn6 vistas tan bonitas I 

li. Pongamos los canastos i la sombra de ese hermoso 4rboL — Si, y 
pongimonos nosotros tambien 4 la sombra, qae al sol hace calordto. 

16. I No le parece 4 Y., Don Enrique, que es tiempo de poner la mesa? 
Asi me pareoe, porque la subida de la oolina con un gran canasto 4 
cnestas me ha abierto el apetito. 

16.* Sres., la comida est4 en la mesa. — Selloras, |qu6 es lo que Yds. di- 
cenf (en la mesa I ] Ahl si, ya vemos, sobre un gran pefiasco 4 la sombra 
de aquel 4rbol jmagnifica ideal 

17. Don Pepito, traiga Y. un par de ^as mas, que faltan para dos 
sefioras. An4yoy, ic4spita con las sillitasl cada una pesa cienlibras; 
pero, eso si, son durables, no haya miedo de que se rompan. — ^Tomen 
Yds. asiento, sefioras. 

18. Pase Y., Don Martin, primero. No, sefior, despues de Y. — Sefio- 
res sin cumplimientos que se enfiia la comida. 

19. |Qui6n quiere sopa? {Hombre, sopal yo, yo, slrvame Y. un 
plato, Don Enrique. 

20. Poco 4 poco, Don Pepito, en el campo, no tenemos sopa. — ^Pues yo 
crei que Y. me la ofrecia. — To pregunt4 por saber qui6n era aficionado 
4 la sopa. 

21. Sefior Don Pedro | quiere Y. hacerme el favor de trinchar ese 
polio ? Oon mucho gusto. 

22. Da. Margarita |voy 4 mandarle 4 Y. un pedazo de pechuga? No, 
sefior, gracias, m4ndeme Y. el ola 6 la piema, que me gusta mas. 

28. Don Pepito, un brindis, vamos un brindis. — Ezctisenme Yds., 
sefiores, yo no s4 hacer, y m4nos improvisar brindis. 

24. Pero hombre, { eso dice Y. que es tan galante y elocuente con las 
damasi ^No le inspira 4 Y. ajgo el beUo sezo de que se halla Y. ro- 
deado ? Pues bien, 4 la salud de las sefioras. — ^T | porqu4 no f 



LBS80N LTIII. 317 



EXEKCISK 



1. Has the baker not come yet ? You are in a jesting mood (humor) 
this morning ; he came long before yon were np. 

2. Never mind; I have got change enough to pay for all. — Ton are 
too late, I haye already paid ; the conductor has no time to wait half an 
hour collecting the fare of each passenger. 

8. Tonr appetite seems to be a little better to-day than nsnal ; how 
do yon account for that ? Beally you flatter my appetite beyond what it 
deserves ; I am happy to say that it is at all times in excellent order. 

4. Do yon not find it good exercise to climb to the top of the hill 
with that heavy basket on your arm ? The fact is I shall have to give it 
to some one else for a while, for my strength is not equal to the task. 

5. I wonder who you can giye it to ; you see that we have each of us 
something to carry. Well, in that case, I must change with some one 
that has a lighter- burden (earga) than my own. 

6. Does not John intend to become a soldier ? He does, though en- 
tirely contrary to the will of his father, who set his face against it in the 
most determined manner. 

7. How many trunks is each passenger {poiojerd) allowed to keep 
with him in his berth (camarote) ? Only one, supposed to contain the 
articles he will require to have at hand during the passage. 

8. Did you ever go to a lion-hunt while you were in South AfHca? 
Several times, and I can assure you it is a most interesting and exciting 



9. Did you go there entirely for pleasure ? No, I managed to com- 
bine bufflness and pleasure, otherwise I should probably never have seen 
that country, for you know that such a voyage as that costs a great deal 
of money. 

10. Did they drink many toasts during the dinner! A good many, 
and the first one I proposed was to the £Eur sex. 

11. Nothing surprising in that ; I know it would scarcely be possible to 
surpass you in gallantry. Yon are flattering me now, for the ladies agree 
on all hands in callmg you the most gallant young gentleman in the 
country. 

12. Just try if your eloquence wiU not succeed in persuading your 
young friend to come with us to-morrow. With all my heart; but un- 
fortunately he does not speak French, and you know how much my elo- 
quence loses in English. 

18. Does the art of pleasing depend on what we do and what we say? 
It does not, in my opinion, depend so much on what we do and say as on 
how we do things and how we say them. 



318 



LESSON LIX. 



14. Is it not sarprising that jour mster has not jet oome ? I b^iere 
she has gone round to see her jonng Spanish friend (/em.\ althongii sbe 
left me bat half an hour ago, under pretext of haying to write a letter. 

15. Do jou general! J dine in the Spanish fashion at home? We gen- 
erallj eat in the French fashion, notwithstanding we are aU very fond 
of the Spanish manner of cooking. 



LESSON LIX. 





To menace. 


Oojear. 


To be lame, to limp. 


Oolgear. 


To hong. 


Oorregir. 


To correct 


Cubrir. 


To cover. 


Cubrirse. 


To put on one^s hat. 


Descubrir. 


To discoYcr, to uncover. 


Descubrirse. 


To take oflF one's hat 


Despedir. 


To send away, to put awaj 




fi^veup. 


Definir. 


To define. 


Durar. 


To last 


Rodar. 


To roll, to run on wheds. 


Prestar. 


To lend. 


Veneer. 


To conquer. 


Oosade. 


About 


Oapaz. 


Capable, able. 


Oondicionol. 


Oonditiona]. 


Gariredondo. 


Roundfaced. 


Oasero. 


Household, familj, domestic 


Compaflero. 


Oompanion. 


Claro. 


Clear. - 


Oopulativo. 


Copulative. 


Generoso. 


Generous. 


Defectivo. 


Defective. 


Libre, 


Free, unembarrassed. 


Vulgar. 


Vulgar, common, usual. 


Vistoso. 


Showj. 





LSBBON LIZ. 


31S 


Ase^o. 


Assassin. 


Barba. 


Beard, chin. 


Axunento. 


Increase, aagmen- 


Carci^ada. 


Burst of laughter. 




tation. 


Decena. 


About ten. 


Cerrojo. 


Bolt. 


Definidon. 


Definition. 


Campo. 


Held, conntry. 


Evidencia. 


Evidence. 


Ck>iTedor. 


Broker. 


Espalda. 


Back. 


Bedo. 


Hnger. 


Gana. 


Desire, mind. 


Dialogo. 


Dialogue. 


Hoja. 


Leaf. 


Dolor de costado. Pain in the side. 


Loteria. 


Lottery. 


Deseo. 


Deore, wish. 


Llave. 


Key. 


Descaido. ^ 


Carelessness. 


Pena. 


Difficulty, pain. 


Qrito. 


Shout. 


Pera. 


Pear. 


Gemido. 


Groan, moan. 


Pobreza. 


Poverty. 


Pagai^. 


Promissory note. 


Pascua. 


Easter. 


Presidio. 


State-prison. 


Bodilla. 


Eniee. 


Peral. 


Pear-tree. 


Vuelta. 


Turn, change. 


P6same. 


Condolence. 


Posicion. 


Portion. 


Premio. 


Prize, premium, 
reward. 


Excusa. 


Excuse, apology. 


Salto. 


Jump, spring. 






Semblante. 


Look. 






Trago. 


Draught, drink. 

COMPOS 


3inON. 





Sa pagar6 de V. cae el mes que viene. 
Le ha caido la loteria. ^ 

Este edificio cae al (or h&cia el) Norte. 
IGb yentanas caen & la mano derecha. 
Este vestido te cae bien. 
No cay6 en la caenta. 

Ta caigo en ello. 

Estaralcaer. 

Gaer de pl^ de rodillas. 

Lo doy por hecho. 

Lo dieron por libre. 

Me doy por venddo. 

Le di6 im dolor de costado. 

La lectora de ese libro te dar& ganas 

de dormlr. 
Alfin di6 en la dificultad. 
D«r loB baeaofl dias. 
Du las pascuas. 



Tonr note falls due next month. 
He has won a prize in the lottery. 
This building looks toward the North. 
My windows are on the right hand. 
This dress fits her well. 
He did not see the drift (of what was 

said). 
Ah, now I see I 
To be about to take place. 
To fan on one's feet, on one's knees. 
I take for granted it is done. 
They let hun free. 
I give it up. 

He took a pain in his side. 
Reading this book will put you asleep 

(or make yon sleep). 
Fmally he fell upon the difficulty. 
To wish one good day. 
To wish a happy Easter. 



320 



LSSBOir LIX* 



Dar el p^flam& 

Dar la enbonbueiui. 

Dar gritoa. 

Dar gemidos. 

Di6 una caro^ada. 

Bar & comprender. 

Darse & oonooer. 

Bar miaTaelta. 

Bar pena. 

Bar gnstOb 

Bargana. 

BarsaltoB. 

Bi6 que decir. 

Eato no dice bien oon aqaeOo. 

£1 bianco dice bien con el azoL 

8u Teelido dice an pobreza. 

£1 semblante de Joan dice bien ea mal 

genio. 
Este peral echa machas peras. 
Esta planta no ha echado hojaa. 
He echado un trago. 
Eche y. la Have k la puerta. 
Echar pi6 k tierra. 
Echar el oerrqjo. 
Echario k Ju^go (or chanza). 
Hoy echan la comedia nueva. 
Ha echado ooehe. 
Echar & presidio. 
Echar por los campoa. 
Echaron k oorrer. 
Lo ech6 todo k perder. 
Echar &.rodar. 
No echo de ver este defecto. 
I Echa V. de m^nos algo ? 
No, sefior; echo de m6no8 4 Alguien. 
Me ech^ & dormir. 
8e ech6 k reb. 
Se ech6 k corredor. 
Lo puBO de patitas en la caHe, 



To ezprew coodolenee. 

To congratulate. 

To give Bhouta. ' 

To utter groaoB. 

He burst out laughing. 

To give to understand. 

To make one'a self known. 

To take a turn, to go round. 

To cause displeasure. 

To give pleasure. 

To have a mind ; to take the notioii. 

To Jump about • 

He left room for talk. 

This is not in strictT accordance with 

that 
White goes Tery well with blue. 
Her dress tells of her poverty. 
John's bad temper is pictured on his 

countenance. 
This pear-tree bears a great many pears* 
This plant has not had any leaves. 
I have taken a diink. 
Lock the door. 
Tq, dismount 
To draw the bolt 
To take it in play (or hi Jest). 
The new play comes out t04ii^l 
He has bought a carriage. 
To send to State-prison. 
To set out across the fields. 
They set out running. 
He spoiled all. 
To send rolling. 
I do not percdve the defect 
Bo yon n^ any thing? • 
No, sir ; I miss some one. 
I went asleep. 
He b^an to laugh. 
He became a broker. 
He threw hun mto the street 



EXPLANATION. 



276. The verbs eaer^ to fall; dar^ to give; dedr^ to tell, 
or to say ; echoTy to throw ; differ from the EngUsh in meanuig 



LBSSON I.IZ. 821 

as conyeyed by the sentences which are given in the Composi- 
tion, and to which we refer without putting them here, in order 
to avoid repetition. 

There they are to be found, with their English translations, 
which is the only explanation they admit of. 

CONVERSATION AND VEBSION. 

1. Don QonzslOy ^le ha caido 4 Y. la loteriaf Ko, se&or; pero mi 
pagar^ ha caido. 

. 2. Luisita, | qoi^n ha heoho ese vestido que te cae tan bien f Mi maiii& 
lo oort6 J yo lo cosL 

8. I No sab^ y. porqa6 me hace ahora tantos cumplimientos Don En- 
rique ? No, sefior, no s6 qu6 motiyo tenga para ser ahora mas politico 
con v. que lo ha sido hasta aquL 

4. I No sabe Y. que me ha caido el preraio de los den mH pesos en la 
loterfa de la Habanii^ Si, sefior ; ya me lo ha dioho Y. ^tes. 

5. Paes bien, juo cae Y. ahora en la ouenta? { Ha I ya oaigo en ello, 
Don Enrique quiere pedirle & Y. dinero prestado. 

6. {Han dado las doce? Estan al caer. 

7. iDierou garrote k los asesinos? No, sefior, al fin los dieron per 
libres, porque no habia evidencia sufidente para sentendarloe. 

8. iQu6 ha tenido su hermauo de Y. que no lo he visto per tanto 
tiempo ? Le di6 un dolor de costado y ha tenido que guardar cama por 
una semana. 

0. {A que no adivina Y. lo que acabo de hacerf Seguramente que 
no lo adivinard, porque Y. es capaz de haoer mucbas cosas buenas y malas. 

10. 1 8e da Y. por vencido f Me doj.— Pnes veugo de eohar un trago. 

11. jQn6 comedia echan hoy? Hoy dan la tragedia de "Medea," en 
donde representa la Sefiora Bistori ; ^ird Y. ? 

12. Siendo en italiano no ir6, porque no comprendo el italiaifo y me 
' daria ganas de dormir. 

18. Sr. D. Alejandro, vengo & darle & Y. los buenos dias.— T6ngalos Y. 
muy buenos. 

14. {No me quiere Y. dar alguna otra cosaf Si, sefior, le doy 4 Y. la 
enhorabuena por el aumento que ha tenido Y. en su familia. — ^Yiva Y. 
mil afios. 

16. Todo eso es muy bueno, D. Pepito; pero sea Y. generoso y deme 
Y. alguna cosita mas. — ^Hombre, si Y. no se da & comprender yo no s6 
qu6 mas darle 4 Y. iHa! Bi,yacaigoI qua. estamos en tiempo de. . . . 
Doy 4 Y. feHces pascuaa 

16. Dale, Dale, d no es eso, yo hablo del dinero que presto 4 Y. haoe 
14* 



322 LSBSOH LIX. 

mas de nn afio.--iHaI Sellor D. Al^andro, no crea Y. qae 70 lo haya 
echado en saco roto. 

17. Pues bien; {porqu6 Ho me lo da Y. ? {PorquSl hombre, abora 
ha dado Y. en la dificultad, 7 esta es qae yo no tengo dineroi j por consi- 
goiente no pnedo darlo. 

18. Ent6nce9, i qn6 es lo qae Y. paede dar ? { 1 en caanto k eso jo 
paedo dar machas cosas. 

19. I Ha t me alegro macho, veamos lo qae Y. paede dar. — ^Ed primer 
lagar paedo dar gemidos. 

20. |PafI (/»Aaip).—Tarabien paedo dar gritos. 

21. I Dale 1— Paedo dar, .... qaedecir. 

22. No lo dado.— Paedo dar on p^same. 
28. {Diosmelibrel — Paedo dar saltos. 

24. Vaya aoabe Y., hombre, acab^ Y. — Paedo dar 4 oomprendcr. 

25. Si, eso si, demaaado comprendo. — Paedo darme 4 conocer. 

26. Ya, ya, oonozco de qa6 pi6 cojea Y. — ^Paedo dar ana vaeka. 

27. Paes va61vase Y., por donde ha venido y nanca d^ Y. mas vaeltas 
por esta casa.— Y todavia mas, paedo dar ana carcigada. 

28. I Jaan 1 Jaan I echa & ese hombre de casa, y despaes echa la Haye 
y ol cerrojo 4 la puerta. } Haya picaro I lo he de echar 4 on presidio I 

29. I Has eohado 4 ese hombre 4 la calle ? Si, senor, ya lo pose de pa- 
titas en la calle. 

80. Y I qu6 d\jo ? Primero se echo 4 reir, yo le amenac6 qae lo echaria 
4 rodar y ent6nces echo 4 correr. 

81. El diantre del hombre siempre est4 pidiendo dinero prestado y 
Bobre no pagarlo se viene 4 reir de ano en sas barbas.— Sefior, ^manda 
Y. algana otra cosa f No, to pnedes ir, yo voy 4 echarme 4 doimir, ese 
bribon me ha dado an gran dolor de cabeza. 

EXERCISE. 

1. IM there any thing in the papers this morning relative to the trial 
of the marderer of Smith ? I anderstand his trial is not to take place 
before a month from this time. 

2. Why did yoa not bring yoar friend with yon? He is not able to 
walk very far to-day, owing to a pain in his side, whidi has troubled him 
for the last three days. 

8. Did yoa tell the servant to draw the bolt of the door? No, but I 
told him to lock the door. 

4. Who is that I hear groaning? Yon hear no one groaning; it is 
some one shouting in the distance. 

5. How did your cousin lose his situation? He owes that miafortane 
entirely to his own oardessness. 



LESSON LZ. 



323 



6. Charles, are yoa not going to say good morning to that gentleman? 
I need not say good morning to him now, for I have already wished him 
a happy Easter. 

7. Did^that merchant pay hik correspondent at Malaga after all? He 
did not pay hun ; bat he gave him a note at three months. 

8. What do yon understand by parlor plays (household comedies) in 
Spun ? They are plays represented by private individuals, sometimes in 
private honses, from which circumstance they take their name. 

9. Do you know that round-finoed little man who is sitting next to 
your unde ? That is one of the principal actors (aetor) in the parlor 
plays given at Mr. Gutierrez'. 

10. What became of the offender? The evidence not being sufEldent 
to prove the crime of which be was accused, he was let off; otherwise 
lie would have been sent to State-prison. 

11. Did they refuse to g^ve him the things he wanted on credit? Of 
course they did, because no one can rely on him nor give credit to any 
thing he says. 

12. Will that young man probably obtain the employment he has ap- 
plied for ? Most probably he will, because he has had the good fortune 
to get into the prendent's &vor. 

18. Hot^ 1 do you not attend your classes this week ? No, I am not 
very well ; and so a friend of mine was good enough to offer to act in 
my place. 

14. Was the error corrected before the letter was dispatched ? Ko^ it 
was not discovered in time to be corrected. 



LESSON LX. 



Decidir. 

Ijecutar. 

^ercer. 

i^Buciar. 

Enemistar. 

Escuchar. 

Ezagerar. 

Ezhibir. 

Eztrafiar. 

Enfriarse. 



To decide. 
To execute. 
To exercise. 
To dirty, to soil. 
To put at enmity. 
To listen to, to hearken to. 
To exaggerate. 
To exhibit 

To ponder at, to find strange. 
To grow odd, to get (become) 
cold. 



824 



LESSON LX. 



Sncftrgflr. 

Exclamar. 

Ezceptoar. 

Esforzar. 

Estrechar. 

Sospeohar. 

Tardar. 



AtoUadero. 

Camino. 

Astr6noino. 

061era. 

Cometa. 

Cofre. 

Gapriclio. 

Oaello. 

Cargo. 

Exterior. 

Extrai^ero, 

Embarcadero. 

Espejo. 

Estreoho. 
Elemento. 
Gobemador. 
Grado. 



To 0(»moiaBioDy to ocder, to ^ve 

charge. 
To exclaim. 
To except. 

To endeavor, to make effort, 
TopresBu 
To BUflpect. 
Todelfl^. 



Extra. 


Extra. 


Empero. 


Bat 


Ellptico. 


Elliptical. 


Agrio. 


Sour. 


Estrecho. 


Close, narrow. 


Predso. 


Essential, indispensable, predse. 


Elocaente. 


Eloquent. 


Tonto. 


Foolish, stupid. 


Trayieso. 


Mischieyous. 


Entr&mbos. 


Both. 


Entretanto. 


In the mean time. * 


Excepto. 


Except 



Difficulty. 
Boad, way. 
Astronomer. 
Cholera. 
Comet. 
Chest. ' 
Drawer, box. 
Caprice. 
Neck. 

Cargo, charge. 
Exterior, outside. 
Foreigner. 
Landing. 
Mrror, looking- 
glass. 
Strait 
Element 
Qovemor. 
Grade, degree. 



Casaca. 

Colocacion. 

Civilizacion. 

C61era. 

Corte. 

Cometa. 

Cita. 

Charla. 

Claridad. 

Compafiia. 

C^a. 

Cartilla. 

Calentura. 

Cafiualidad. 

Cantidad. 

Capa. 

Cara. 



Coat, dress-coat 
Situation. 
Ciyilization. 
Anger. 
Court 
Site. 

Appointment 
Chat 
Clearness. 
Company. 
Box, case, cash 
(comm&reial). 
Primer. 
Fever. 
Chance. 
Quantity. 
Qoak. 
Face. 



LBSSOK LX. 



825 



Homo. 


Oven. 


Oarga. 


Charge (of a gun, 


Luto. 


Moarning. • 




Ac). 


Litro. 


Litre* 


Ouchara. 


Spoon. 


Matem&tico. 


Mathematicifln. 


Culpa. 


Fault, blame. 


Tond. 


Cask. 


Oriatura. 


Oreature, infant 


T6nii6in6faro. 


Thermometer. 


Ck>sta. 


Cost, coast 


Ferro-oarriL 


Railroad. 


Disculpa. 


Apology. 


Fruto. 


Fmit (result). 


Eetacion. 


Season. 


Fondo. 


Bottom. 


Existencia. 


Existence. 


Fl^do. 


Fluid. 


Fragata. 


Frigate. 






M^iscara. 


Mask. 






Tontera. 


Foolish action. 






Preteofflon. 


Fretenmon, 
daim. 






Yerba. 


Grass. 




00HP02 


3inON. 





Hoy entra la primavera. 
Mafiana entra d mes de Octabre. 

Entra en d niimero de los sables. 

Eiitr6 k reinar k los quince afios. 

Este tond hace den litres. 

No le bago tan tonto. 

To le hada mas rico. 

Has per yemr. 

Hace de gobeniador. 

Esa pobre muchacfaa e8t& hadendo de 

madre k bus hennanos. 
A eso voy. 
Yoy de paseo. 
Yan de m4scara. 
Ya de luto. 
Le va en die la yida. 
Yengo en ello. 

i Cu4nto me lleva Y. por esto ? 
Estos dos amlgos se Uevan muy bien. 

No nos Ilevamos blen. 
Este camino Uevafr Madrid. 
Le Uevo dos afios y medio. 
Me Uerd diasco. 



Spring commences to-day. 

The month of October commences to- 
moirow. 

He is of the number of the learned. 

He b^an to rdgn at fifteen years of age. 

This cask holds 100 litres. 

I do not take him for such a fool. 

I took him to be richer. 

Try to come. 

He is acdng as govemor. 

That poor girl is acting the part of a 
mother to her brothers and sisters. 

That is the point X am coming to. 

I am going for pleasure. 

They are going in masks. 

He is in mourning. 

His life is at stake. 

I agree to that 

How much will you charge me for this^ 

These two fiiends agree very wdl to- 
gether. 

Wc do not agree well together. 

This road leads to Madrid. 

I am two years and a half older than he. 

I was disappointed. 



• Equal to 8.118 Amerloan ^tSi 



826 



LX880V LX. 



Umi 



4UfriHceM. 



Se hiso i la Tda. 

llanda que no6 tnugan el dmneno. 

Hari que nos lo tnigan. 

i Haoe Y. tef&ir sa vestido de axal ? 

NOy selior, lo he mandado tefiir de yerde. 

Saldri baen matem&Uco. 

8ali6 mny traTieeo. 

Ta he salido de todoe mis gnnos. 

He aatid una buena colocadon. 

Este negodo me ha eaJido bien. 

Le 8ali6 mal sa empreea. 

Este nifio ha salido k sa padre. 

Sali6 de la regla. 

Pronto 8aldr6 de hyo de Emilia. 

Esta capa me sale en dncucnta pesoa 

Se 8ali6 con su pretension. 

Siire al rey. 

No sirve para nada. 

Sirvase Y. admitir mis discolpas. 

il tarda mncho en decidir. 

iGu&nto tarda enresponderl 

I Adios I Yolveri 4 ver 4 Y., y le T<d- 

Ter6 4 hablar de esa 
Este Tino se Tuelre agrio. 
Se Tolver4 baeno con el tiempo. 
Este melon sabe 4 melocotoxL 
Este Tino huele 4 vinagre. 
D. Jnanhace un gran papel en la corte. 
Napoleon III hace un gran papel en la 

polftica del mundo. 



He wem a eoiti inade in ihe 



He set sail 

Order the breaUut to be aenred i^ 

I shall have it bron^t to us. 

Are yon getting yoor dress dyed bine? 

No, sir, I have ordered it to be djed 

green. 
He shall torn oat (to be) agood maiiie- 

matician. 
He (or she— the cldld) turned oat r&y 

naughty. 
I have got rid of sU my grain. 
A good situation tunied up for me. 
This business has turned out weD fiirme. 
His undertaUng turned out badly. 
This child resembles his fiUher. 
He departed from the rule. 
I shall soon be of age. 
This cloak cost me fifty doIlax& 
He obtained what he desired. 
He serres the king. 
It is good for nothing. 
Be good enough to accept my apology. 
He is slow in deciding. 
How long he is in answering ! 
Good-by I 1 shall see you agun, and 

talk more to you on the subject 
This wine is turning sour. 
It will become good again in time. 
This jnelon has the taste of a peach. 
This wfaie smeDs of vmegar. 
John makes a great noise at court 
Napoleon IIL plays a great part m the 

politics of the world. 



EXPLANATION. 

276, lo tbe Composition of this lesson we give the princi- 
pal idioms with the verbs enirar^ to go (or come) in ; hacer, to 
do, to make; tr, to go; Uevar^ to take, to charge; mandar, 
Tictcer^ in the sense of to order, to cause to be done ; oler (f, to 
to smell of; and 9aber d^ to taste of; «a2tr, wrvir^ tardar and 
volver. 



LESSON LZ. 327 

CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. ^OnAndo entra la primayera? Debo oonfesar franoamente que no 
86 el dia preciso en que entra y sale cada estaoion. 

2. £nt6noe8 V. no entra en el n^mero de los sabioa, pnesto qne no 
■eabe cailndo estamos en inviemo y cnando en verano.— Poco d poco, 
sellor Don Pedro, eso seria hacerme entrar en el ntunero de los idiotas. 

3. iPnes no acaba Y. de decirlof To aoabo de decir qne no sd el 
dia preciso en que entra cada estadon ; pero cnando veo crecer la yerba 
y las bojas de los drboles, y abrirse las flores, sospecho qne estamos en la 
primayera. 

4. I Hal V. sospechal Yamos, ya es algo.-~Si, settor, y del mismo 
modo, cnando yeo el term6nietro en la sombra, qne maroa OS"", creo 
adiyinar que estoy, una de dos, 6 eyi nn homo 6 en Nueya York en la 
estaoion del verano. 

6. Yamos, yo le hacia 4 Y. mas ignorante de lo qne en efecto es; 
^y c6mo adiyina Y., 6 sospecha, que se encnentra Y. en el otofio? 
Cnando los melocotones se acaban y las hojas caen. 

6. {Bienl bicnl ^y el inyierno? Cnando por la mafiana no puedo 
layarme por hallar que se ha helado el agua en la palangana. 

7. Ya yeo que es Y. nn sabio perfecto. Yeamos en historia i& qu6 
edad entr6 4reinar el Bey Pepino? — i Coital Senor Don Pedro I es 
mas facil oriticar que qjecutar, y mas f4cil hacer pregnntas qne respon- 
derlas, y sino resp6ndame Y. que la echa de sabio. 

8. I Cndntos litros hace ese tonel ? ] Hombre ! yo i qn6 he de entender 
demedir toneles? 

9. Pnes cambiar6 de materia, iqnidn haoe de gobemador en Manila? 
I Y 4 ini qu6 me importa I 

10. I Yayal ese es un bnen modo de salir del atolladero. — ^No, sefior, sir- 
yase Y. recibir mis disculpas, tengo qne irme ahora, pero yolyer6 4 yer 4 
v., y yolyerdmos 4 tratar de esa materia. Adios, sefiores. 

11. jQn6 le pareoe 4 Y., Don Enrique, de ese caballero? Me parece 
que este j6yen saldr4 bnen matem4tico, porque ha salido en todo 4 sn 
padre. 

12. {Sabe Y. si sali6 bien 6 mal de sn empresa? Es nn negodo que 
le ha salido mny bien. 

IS. £ Se Ueya bien Luisa con sus hermanos ? Si, sefior, y annqne no les 
Oeya mas de tres 6 cuatro afios, les sirye de madre. 

14. |Cn4nto le cuesta 4 Y. esa capa? Me sale en nnos dncnenta 
pesos. 

15. |Cn4nto tardar4 la fragata en haoerae 4 la yela? No sd, creo que 
el capitan es hombre que tarda en deddirse. 



428 LBB60V LZ. 

16. |De qa6 color haoe Y. tefiir sa vestido? Lo mand^ t^lir de 
amiurillo. 

17. Don Mannelf maade Y. que no8 saban el almnerzo. — Hai^ qne nos 
lo traigaiL 

EXERCISE. 

. 1. When does Spring commence? It commences in Msrch and ends 
in Maj. 

2. Has yonr yonng fiiend passed his examination yet? The exami- 
nations have not taken place; bnt when they do, he will prove to be the 
best Spanish scholar in the country. 

8. In what month does the cold weather generally commence in the 
North of Spain ? Winter nsnally sets in abont the middle of November. 

4. How much does this cask hold? It holds from 100 to 12Q Gtrea. 

5. How soon do you set out for Europe f As soon as the fine weather 
tets in. 

6. Are you going on business, or for pleasure f For pleasure only. 

7. How are they going to the ball ? They are going in masks. 

8. How much did your tailor charge you for that coat? It cost mo 
forty-five doUars. 

9. What age do you take my cousin to be ? I would take him to be 
about the same age as his friend. 

10. You had better guess again. I give it up. 

11. How old is he, then ? He is two years and four months older than 
his friend. 

12. Dp you know whether the pianist's brother succeeded m obtaining 
the position he applied for? He did not; but an excellent situation 
turned up for him a short time after. 

Id. How long will you take to dye this dress for me ? About a weeL 

14. What color do you wish it to be dyed ? I wish to have it dyed 
blue. 

15. Do you think this boy will turn out to 1)0 as good a musician as 
his father ? I have not the least doubt about it, for he resembles him in 
every respect (en todo), 

16. Be good enough to accept my apology for not having come yester- 
day as I had promised. Certainly, sir; I know very well that you have 
a great deal of business to attend to. 

17. Who is Mr. Terrero in mourning for? For his unde, who ^ed 
about a year ago in Manila. 



LSBSOlf LXI. 



829 



LESSON LXI. 



Felicitar* 

Rar. 

Ignorar. 

Lastimar. 

Improvisar. 

Inqnieiar. 

Intentar. 

Interrogar. 

Invertir. 

Interesar. 

Invitar. 

Imprimir. 

Obligar. 

Behasar. 

Lboijear. 

Ueyar. 



De Zeca en Meca. 
Aciegas. 
A gatas. 
£n el Interin. 



To feUcitatOy to congratulate. 

Totrost 

To be ignorant o^ unaware oil 

To hurt, to wound. 

To improvise, to do (any thing) 

off-hand. 
To make nneasy, to cause anjdetj. 
To attempt, to intend. 
To interrogate, to question. 
To invert, to invest 
To interest, to be of interest 
To invite. 
To print 

To force, to oblige. 
To refuse. 
To flatter. 
To carry, to take^ to charge. 



Descuidado. 


Careless. 


Final. 


Final. 


Ignorante. 


Ignorant 


ImpersonaL 


Impersonal. 


Increible. 


Incredible. 


Indefinido. 


Indefinite. 


Inexplicable. 


Inexplicable. 


Ingenioso. 


Ingenious. 


Inmediato. 


Immediate, close by, next 


Inquieto. 


Uneasy, restless. 


Justo. 


Just, right 


ITllamo. 


Last 


lisoi^ero. 


Flattering. 


Espedero. 


Grocer. 


Loco. 


Mad. 


Lento. 


Slow. 


Solemne. 


Solenm, cruel. 



To and fro. 

With one's eyes shut 

On all fours. 

In the mean time. 



830 


LXSBOV LZI. 




Ampo dela Die- WhitenetB of 


Anchuras {f.pt\ Ease. 


ve. 


snow. 


Cuba. 


Cask, toper. 


AflQO. 


Am. 




dnmkmrd. 


Deecnido. 


Carelessness. 


Cara. 


Face. 


Haeso. 


Bone. 


Cartilla. 


Primer. 


Golpe. 


Blow, stroke. 


Calabaza. 


Pumpkin, refbsaL 


Dare« y tomares. Digpate. 


Imaginacion. 


Imagiuadon. 


Indioe. 


Index. 


Intencion. 


Intention. 


Ingenio. 


Genins. 


Interrogacion, 


Intenx>gati(HU 


Iiuecto. 


Insect 


Invernon. 


Inversion. 


Instinto. 


Instinct 


Justida. 


Justice. 


Instromento. 


Instroment 


Llave. 


Key. 




. Question, note of 


Uuvia. 


Rain. 




interrogation. 


Dsta. 


List 


Italiano. 


Italian. 


Lisoi^a. 


Flattery. 


Arcoiris. 


Rainbow. 




Moon. 


Galicismo. 


Gallioism. 


Lur. 


Light 


Hierro. 


Iron. 


latitud. 


Latitude. 


Juego. 


Plaj. 


Longitud. 


Lon^tnde. 


Looo. 


Madman. 


Legua. 


League. 


Lugar. 


Place. 


Letra. 


Letter. 


Latin. 


Latin. 


limosna. 


Alms. 


Sonido, 
Son. 


Sound. 


limpieza. 
LSnea. 


Cleamiees. 
line. 


Pico. 


Beak. 


Levita. 


Frock-coat 


Levita. 


Levite. 


Rama. 


Branch. 


Uso. 


Use, custom. 


T^a. 


Tile. 


Objeto. 


Object 


Ocasion. 


Occatton. 


Oido. 


Ear, hearing. 


YergHenza. 


Shame. 


Olfkto. 


SmelL 

COMPOS 


HTION. 




Anitftardar. 




AtUtest 




A media palabn. 




At the slightest Unt 


A medida de sub ( 


leaeoB. 


According fb one^fl 


wishes. 


A 808 anchunifl. 




At one's ease. 




Al descuido j ood 


cddada 


Stttdiottsly careless. 


Abrirelojp. 




To be upon the alert 


AM Be las haya. 




Let hhn look to that 


Andar & ctegas. 




l!o grope in the dark. 


Andar k gatas. 




To creep on all fouis. 


A todo coirer. 




With all speed. 





LESSON LZI. 



331 



"Vaya V. con Dios. 

£1 va de capa caida. 

£1 va de Zeca en Meca. 

Ir de puntillas. 

Andftr en dares y tomares. 

Andarse por las ramas. 

De tejaa abajo. 

Ajsir la ocasion por los cabellos. 

Sailar al son que se toca. 

Beber los ures or los vientos. 

Beber como una caba. 

Blanco como el ampo de la mere. 

Bocado sin hueso. 

Burla burlando. 

Buscar cinco pids al gato. 

No caber de gozo. 

No caber en si 

No cabe en 6L 

Caer de su asno. 

Ca^rsele & uno la can de Yerg&enza. 

Callar el pico. 
. Ghanzas aparte. 

Con mO amorea. 

Con su pan se lo coma. 

Conque, hasta la vista. 

Cosa que no e8t& en la cartilla. 

Dar & alguno con las puertas en la cara. 

Dar & kiz. 

Dar por supnesto, or por sentado. 

Dar chasco. 

Dar el si. 

Dar golpe una cosa. 

Dar caJabazBS. 
No se le da nada. 



Go in peace. 

He is crest-fallenu 

He goes roying about, to and fra 

To go on tiptoe. 

To quarrel 

Not to come to the point 

Humanly speaking. 

To take time by the forelock. 

To go with the stream. 

To desire anxiously. 

To drink like a fish. 

White as the driren snow. 

An employment without labor ; a dne- 
cure. 

Between joke and earnest 

To pick a quarrel 

To be oveijoyed. 

To be bursting with pride. 

He is not capable of such a thing. 

To acknowlecige one's fault 

To blush with shame. 

To hold one's tongue. 

Jesting aside. 

Most willingly. 

That is his own business. 

I hope we may soon meet again. 

Bomething out of the common way. 

To shut the door in one's face. 

To publish ; .to give birth to. 

To take for granted. 

To disappoint 

To ooDseDt 

To strike one with admiration, or as- 
tonishment (said of things). 

To giro the mitteu. 

He cares nothing about it 



CONVEBSATION AND VERSION. 

1. jLe salen d Y. las cosas k medida de sua deseos? Ohanzas aparte, 
Don chian, Y. sabe bien que de tejas abcgo eso nanca sncede. 

2. Si, pero como Y. baila al son qne se toca y sabe asir la ooadon por 
los cabeHos, siempre est4 k sua anohnras y tiene siempre algan bocado 
sin hneso. — ^Amigo, caiga Y. de sn asno y confiese de. bnena f6 qne si 



\ 

832 LB880N LXl. 

anda de oapa oaida, es porque va siempre de Zeoa en Heca, jr porqae 

bebe mas qne nna caba. 

8. Adios, Don Pedro, me voy, porqne no qpieio buscar oinco pies tl 
gato. — ^Vaja Y. con IMos, Don Joan. 

4. Don Pedro, me parece qne Y . ba dado oon la pnerta €3i la cara i 
Don Juan. — No, sefior, Don Enrique, & otro se le oaeria la cars de rer- 
gnenza, pero & ^1 no se le da nada, j prouto lo volvedl Y. & ver por ack 

6. Ent6nce8 61 no entiende 4 media palabra. — ^A mas tardar lo Te» 
Y. aqui otra vez dentro de media bora. 

6. El pobre bombre anda & ciegas, y n no abro el ojo, ird 4 parar a 
nn bospital. — Con su pan se lo coma, y all4 se las baya; yo lo siento so- 
lamente por su nifia, que es una senorita perfecta. 

7. Me ban dicbo que Y. queria casarse oon ella, ^es yerdad, Don En- 
rique? — Si, sefior, y lo bubien^becbo con mil amores, porque ademis de 
ser muy amable 6 instruida, es muy bonita, tiene ojos negros may h^- 
mosos y estan blanca oomo el ampo de la nieve. 

8. Pues 4porqu6 no se caa6 Y. con elk? Por una peqaefia difi- 
cultad. 

9. Quiz4 Y^se andaria por las ramas y no sabria asdr la ocasion por 
los cabellos. — ^No, sefior, nada de eso, ^tes al contrario yo lo daba todo 
por supuesto, porque Y. sabe que soy rico, y crei que la nifia me daria 
el si ein baoerse de rogar. 

10. (Pues qu^ no se lo di6 ? No, sefior, no me di6 el si, pero me di6 
oalabazas. 

11. iMiren la rapazuelal ^y Y. qu6 bi7x>? Yo que bebia los vientos 
por ella, y creia que sus oalabazas eran cosa que no estaban en la cartilla, 
recurri & su padre, creyendo que 61 no me negaria la mano de su bga. 

12. ^T bien y qu6? Que me lley6 un solemne cbasco, el padre me 
rebus6 la mano de su bya ni mas ni m^nos que ella lo babia becbo. 

18. I Pero qu6 razon le di6 & Y. para eUo? Me d^jo que su bya, aun- 
que pobre, era b^a de un caballero y que ni eDa querria ni 41 la obligaria 
jam^s & casarse con un espedero comun 6 ignorante ; que el dinero era 
una gran cosa, pero que no lo compraba todo. 

14. 2 Y Y. qu6 d^o? To, por no andar en dares y tomares y dimes 
y dirties, me call6 el pico y sali de su casa 4 todo correr. 

EXERCISE. 

1, Would you not be more likely to obtain wbat yon wish, if you 
came to the point at once? Perhaps I would ; but the matter is an im- 
portant one, and I conddered it necessary to enter into some explanation 
relative to it. 



LSSSOK LZI. 333 

2. Do yon think lie would nnderstand me? Of course he would, at 
the slightest hint. 

8. How did jonr consin Oharles sncceed in that affidr f Eyeiy thing 
tnmed out according to his wishes. 

4. How soon do yon snppose this book will be published? I hope it 
will be published in a very short time; I know they are working at it 
with all possible speed. 

6. Have you ever seen "a more active man than that merchant? 
ITever; and I have never seen a less active man than his brother, he 
always goes with the stream, and troubles himself about nothing. 

6. Ought you not to have shown that letter to your brother? I 
would have done so, of course, but I took for granted that he had already 
heard the news. 

7. You had better tell your friend to be upon the alert, and not get 
into a quarrel with that man. That is his own business, let him look to 
it himself. 

8. Is it possible that he could be capable of such an action? Tes, 
but the worst of all is, that he is not ashamed to acknowledge it to every 
one he meets. 

9. When is Peter to be ^married? I cannot say certainly; but I 
suppose in about a month at latest. 

10. I don^t know any one who has a better position than your uncle : 
plenty of money and scarcely any thing to do. That is a fact, his situ- 
ation is a real sinecure. 

11. What has occurred to that gentleman ? he looks quite crest-fallen. 
Do not be astonished at that ; he has been unfortunate in business, and 
has lost almost all he possessed in the world. 

12. Are you trying to pick a quarrel with me? No, I assure you, 
jesting aside, that the matter stands exactly as I say. 

18. How was he received by the lady's &ther ? He was not received 
at aU, they shut the door in his face. 

14. If you desire so anxiously to see him, why do you not go to his 
house? I cannot make up my mind (decidirme) to do that; you know 
he is bursting with pride, and he would very probably refuse to receive me. 

15. Well, I hope we may soon meet again ; present my respects to 
your family. With the greatest pleasure. — ^Please not to forget the letter. 

16. That I care nothing about ; all I desire to know is whether he will 
be here in time or not. I think you may rely on his being punctual. 

17. I have been told that your brother was about to be married to 
Miss Ramirez ; is it true ? I really cannot say how the matter will turn 
out ; so far every thing seems to go on according to the desire of both 
parties. 



834 



LXSBOK LXII. 



LESSON LXII. 



Aplioar. 

Oebane. 

Eohar & perder. 

Errar. 

Oconir. 

Mannunir. 

Madragar. 

Medir. 

Montar. 

Madar. 

Naoer. 

Sazonar. 
Rennirse. 

Modlfioar. 



To apply. 

To feed, to gloat 

TospoiL 

To err, to misa. 

Toooonr. 

To murmur, to gromble. 

To rise earlj. 

To measoie. 

To mount, to amount. 

To oihange, to move. 

To be bom, to spring op, to pro- 
ceed. 

To season, to ripen. 

To miite, to collect togetlitf, to 
assemble. 

To modify. 



Despreyenido. 


Unawares, unprepared. 


Intachable. 


Unimpeachable, unquestaonable. 


Maldito. 


Perverse, confounded. 


M&y^acala, 


Capital (letter). 




Small (letter). 


Numeral 


Numeral 


Noble. 


Noble. 


Nominatiyo. 


Nominative. 


Neutro. 


Neuter. 


Masculino. 




Objetivo. 


Objective. 


Qnieto. 


Quiet^ at rest 



Gumpleafios. 
Menoscabo. 

Pique. 
Rayo. 
Socio. 
Sabor. 
Menudo. ^ 



Birtbday. 

Detriment, less- 
ening. 

Point, verge. 

Thunderbolt 

Associate, partner. 

Taste, savor. 

Change, small 
change. 



Apariencia. 

Bravata. 

Botica. 

Fiesta. 

Centella. 

Siesta. 

Suerte. 



Appearance. 
Bravado. 
Drug store. 
Feast, holiday. 
Spark, flash.* 
Siesta (aftenioon 

nap). 
Luck, fortune, 

chance. 



LS880K I»XII. 



335 



Meridiano. 


Meridian. 


Mnrmnracion. 


Mmmnnngs. 


MetaL 


ICetaL 


MaHcia. 


Malice. 


Miembro. 


Member. 


Mente. 


Mind. 


MmeraL 


Mineral. 


Mnestra. 


Sample, sgn. 


Momento. 


Moment. 


Manera. 


Manner. 


Mozo. 


Yonth, waiter. 


Manteca,^man 


-Batter. 


Macho. 


Male. 


tequilla. 




"NTaoBtro. 


Master, teacher. 


Medida. 


Measure. 


Mannscrito. 




Ollapodrida. 


Sort of mixed 




Sea. 




dish. 


Olor, 


Smell, odor. 


Ostra. 


Oyster. 


Olivar. 


Olive gronnd. 


Kegacion. 


Negation. 


Osdon. (See 


Oyster. 


Mar. 


Sea. 


Ogtra.) 




Negatiya. 


Negative. 


Palo. 


Wood, stick. 


Nota. 


Note. 


Polvo. 


Dust, powder. 


Zaga. 


Rear-guard. 


Banc. 


Cloth. 






Parabien. 


Felioitation, con- 






• 


gratnlaticm. 

OOMPO 


smoN. 




De buenas k primeras. 


Without oeremonj 


r. 


De bnena f6. 




With sinoerity. 




DemalafS. 




DeceitfiiUy. 




Deintento. 




Onpnrpose. 




Deoidas. 




By hearsay. 




. Dedr por decir. 




To talk for the sake of talking. 


Dcjar & ono oolgado. 


To frustrate one's 


hopes. 


D^ar &"iiiio ea la ealle. 


To strip one of lus alL 


D^ar atraa loa Tientos. 


To go quicker Ihan the whid. 


Dejar correr. 




To ^0 with the world. 


Dejar el campo libie. 


To yield to one's < 


[x>mpetitor8. 


D^ar en bianco. 




To leave blank. 




B^arae algnna cosa en el tbtero. 


To forget to say something. 


Bia de cmnpleafioi 


). 


Birthday. 




Saber algo de buena tinta. 


To know any thing on good authority. 


Dedlaendia. 




From day to day. 




De nn dia para otro. 


From one day to another. 


De hoy en ocho dias. 


This day week. 




TTn dia si 7 otro no. 


Every other day. 




Hoy dia. 




Now-«4ay8. 




Diefaoybedio. 




No sooner said than done. 



836 



LB880H X.XII. 



Donntr & piama sndto. 

Bonnir la aiwta. 

Ecliar & perder t|ga 

Ediar bmTilM. 

Ediar imyos y oenteUai. 

Ediar la culpa 4 algima 

Echar siiertes. 

EmpeSarse en haoer a^ 

Empefiane por algimo. 

En on abrir 7 oerrar de cjoa. 

Enceadene en c61enL 

Errardtiro. 

Eire i|ii6 efTQ. 

Escannentar en cabeia agena. 

Estar & pique de perderaeu 

Estardecaaa. 

Estar de fiesta. 

Estar en aseuas. 

Estar en lo qne se dice. 

Estar & BUS anchuras. 

Estar sobre sL 

Estar desprevenido. 

Estar mano sobre mana 

i EstAs en tus dnoo sentidos f 



To sfeq> al one^ < 

To take an afteraoon Dap. 

To spoil aiv thing. 

To brag, to boasL 

To be forionSi enraged. 

To throw the blame on any one. 

To cast lots. 

To insist upotk doing an j *htwg , 

To interest one's self for any odcl 

In the twinkling of an eje, in a tnoe: 

To flj into a passion. 

To miss one's aim. 

Obstinately. 

To take warning by others* uusf ot iu i K a, 

To be within an ace of being lost 

To be in disbajwlte. 

To be merry. 

To be upon thons. * 

To oomprehend.what is sftid. 

To be at one's ease. 

To be on one's goard. 

To be oflT one's guard. 

To be idle. ^ 

Are you. hi your senses t 



OONVEBSATION^ AND VERSION. 

1. Sefiores, dcjen Yds. el campo Hbre, qne aqui viene Don Pepito 
echando bravatas j rayoa y oentellas. — ^Bien venido, Don Pepito^ ^qpk 
trae Y. de nnevo, qne pareoe estar faera de si? 

2. No, sefior, yo estoy en mis cinco sentidos, pero hay gentes de mala 
f& qne hablan por hBblar y se ocapan de oriticar al pr6jimo. — lY eao i 
qn6 viene? 

8. Yo no lo digo por Y., Don Enriqne, pero Y. sabe que hay mnchos 
desocopados que se vienen & sn botioa de Y. y oritican & todo elmnnda — 
I Yamos, vamos I Don Pepito, qne i Y. tambien le gnsta on poqnito la 
mnnnnraaoii. 

4. CSertamente, porqne sino |qn6 seria de la oonyeraaoion sin nn po- 
qnito de critica qne la sazone y le d6 interns ? Mny bien, pero entdnoes 
no eche Y. la culpa & nadie de hacer lo mismo qne Y. haoe. 

6. Si, pero yo hablo sin malicia, de bnena ^ y digo lo qne me. oonrre 
por decirlo, nada mas.— Afd pneden declr los demka, 

6. Si, pero yo no soy como Don O&rloa, qne viene aqni de dia en dia, 



LB8S0N LXII. 837 

Y de la inafiana d la tarde hablando mas que nn saoamnelas y sin dejar d 
nadie hneso sano. — 81, pnes apliqnese Y. el onento. 

7. No, sefior, yo no soj ni tan hablador ni tan mnrmnrador como 
nin^no de los que se reonen aqni, y si no, observo Y. un poqnito 4 cada 
nno de ellos, D. Gronzalo, por ejempio, ^ha venidoJioy ? No, sefior, no 
ba venido, ni vendrd, porqne es el dia de su compleaflos y lo celebra con sa , 
f ftiniUft en el oampo, por consiguiente pnede Y. cebarse en ^ 4 sn sabor. 

8. D. Gonzalo es hombre de bnenos sentimientos y hombre honrado, 
no haya miedo que yo diga nada en menoscabo sayo, pero tiene un 
moldito geniq qne le hace ecbar 4 perder toda conversacion. 

9. Pnes yo no babia observado eso. — \ C6nio hombre I pnes si viene 
aquf nn dia si y otro no, k criticar k los qne se rennen en la botica de la 
esquina, y los dias qne no viene aqni va & la botica de la esquina 4 criti- 
camos 4 nosotros. " 

10. jY qn6 es lo qne le hace echar 4 perder las conversaciones como 
decia Y. pocos minntos h4 ? Que en un abrir y cerrar de ojos se en- 
ciende en c6Iera. 

11. Bien, por D. Gonzalo, jy nnestro vecino, D. Alberto, ese si que es 
iatachable,.no le parece 4 Y. ? { Ho I en efecto es un excelente hombre, 
14stima que errase el tiro. 

12. jQu6 quiere Y. decir con eso de errar el tiro? Hablo con respecto 
4 BOS negocios. 

18. Y bien, 4 qu6 le sucedi6 ? Que escogi6 malos socios, y le han de- 
jado en la calle. 

14. Pero eso no pnede ser, Don Alberto goza de muy buena reputa- 
don, Y. habla de oidas. — ^No, sefior, que lo s6 de buena tinta, y hoy dia 
est4 4 pique de perderse. 

16. Pnes 61 parece dormir 4 pierna suelta. — ^Est4 obligado 4 hacerlo asi 
por gnardar las apariencias. 

16. i No se ha dejado Y. algo en el tintero ? Sin duda que me he de- 
jado, pero es tarde y voy 4 dormir la siesta. 

EXERCISE. 

1. Is the custom of taking an afternoon nap as common in Spain 
now-a-days as in former times ? It is quite as common now-a-days as it 
ever was, not only in Spain, but in almost every country of Europe. 

2. Are yon perfectiy certain that he acted with sincerity in that mat- 
ter f I am quite sure, as I know it on good authority. 

8. Who told yon that young man had acted deceitfully toward your 
cousin? I do not care to say much in the matter, especially as all I 
know respecting it I only know by hearsay. 
15 



338 



LS8BON LXIII. 



4. Can yon tell me how that merohant^s enterprise turned out t Verj 
badly; for shortly after he had engaged in it, he heard <rf bis brother- s 
misfortune, which frustrated all his hopes. 

5. Did Alexander manage to pay his debts after all? No, be did not; 
and although his intentions were strictly honorable, his creditors (aeree- 
dare$) would wait no longer, and they stripped him of all he poaaessed in 
the world. 

6. What date do you wish me to put here f Just leave a blank, and 
Charles will put in the dote before he sends the letter off. 

7. When do you think they will be able to give me some of the 
papers? Probably by this day week. 

8. What did he say when he saw how the tailor had qK)]led his coat ? 
Fortunately for the latter he was in a merry mood, and did not fly into a 
passion as he usually does when any thing occurs to displease him. 

9. Are you in your senses, my dear friend? are you not aware that 
such a thing is impossible? 

10. Did he shut the door on purpose ? Tes, but he sent liis servant to 
take us into another room, for he was in dishabille, and did not wish to 
be seen until he had dressed. 

11. How often do you go to dine at your unde^s? I generaBy go 
every other day. 

12. Have your friends returned yet from the country ? No, they have 
been putting it off from day to day for some time, and I shall not be in 
the least astonished if they do not return before November. 

18. Why did you not bring your sister with you ? I did all I iK>s»bly 
could to persuade her to come, but she insisted upon staying at home. 
14. How did they decide on who should go first? They cast lots for iL 



LESSON LXIII. 



Retirar. 

Pegar. 

Pesoar. 

Posponer. 

Preceder. 

Promoter. 

Razonar. 

Resfriarse. 

Regalar. 



To retire, to withdraw. 

To stick, to adhere, to beat. 

To fish. 

To place after. 

To precede. 

To promise. 

To reason. 

To take cold. 

To regale, to present 



LESSON LXIII. 



d39 



Xnfrente. ) 

Frente por frente. f 
De hito en Lito. 
De grado. 
Por fas 6 por nefas. 



In front, opposite. 

Fixedly, witli open eyes. 
By £Edr means. 
Justly or nnjustly. 



1 Cascaras I 


Dear me I OhI 


Afortnnado. 


Fortraiate. 


Ageno. 


Foreign, belonging to others. 


Formal. 


Formal, steady, respeotable. 


Pasivo. 


Passive. 


Perezoso. 


Lazy. 


Personal 


Personal. 


Poseavo. 


Possessive. 


Potencial. 


Potential 


Precise.^ 


Precise, necessary, obligatory. 


I^reliminar. 


Preliminary. 


Pret^rito. 


Preterit. 


PontnaL 




Partitivo. 


Partitive. 


Radical 


Badical 


Raro. 


Hare, cmions. 


Redproco. 


Reciprocal. 


Reflexivo. 


Reflective. 


Rnbio. 


Fair (of the hair and complexion). 


Rnin. 


Mean. 



Alarde. 

Bnlto. 

Ganso. 

Bledo. 

IMente. 

Desafio. 

Fspadaohin. 

Estribo. 

Mequetrefe. 

Pasi^e. 

Pedazo. 

Perro. 

Plazo.. 

Plomo 



Boast. 

Bulk, bundle. 
Goose. 
Straw. 
Tooth. 

Challenge, duel. 
Bully. 
Stirrup. 
Trifling fellow, 

meddler. 
Passage. 
Piece. 
Dog. 
Term, 
Lead. 



Bulla. 
Baza. 

ITudspeda. 

Puntuacion. 

Puntualidad. 

Paciencia. 

Paja. 

Polvora. 

Perseverancia. 

Porcion. 

Prenda. 

Pronunciacion. 



Noise, uproar. 

Trick (card-play- 
ing). 

Hostess. 

PunctuatioQ. 

Punctuality. 

Patience. 

Straw. 

Gunpowder. 

Perseverance. 

Portion, number. 

Good quality, 
jewel. 

Pronunciation. 



340 



LB880N LXIII. 



PorquA. 


Reason whj. 


Propiedad. 


Propriety, prop- 


Pdblioo. 


PubUc. 




erty. 


Prmcipla 


Principle, beg^- 


Polgada. 


Inch. 




ning. 


Raiz. 


Root 


Rasgo. 


Trait 


Rebanada. 


SUce. 


Recado. 


Message, errand. 


Reforma. 




Recibo. 


Receipt 




tion. 


Rector. 


Rector, director. 


RegbL 


Rnle. 


Refran. 


Proverb. 


Reina. 


Queen. 


Rel&mpago. 


Flash of light- 


Repeticion. 


Repetition, re- 




ning. 




hearsaL 


Relojero. 


Watchmaker. 


Resolncion. 


Resolution. 


Regalo. 


Present 


Rosa. 


Rose. 


Reposo. 


Rest, repose. 


Rutina. 


Routine. 


ResfHado. 


Cold. 


Soma. 


SUHL 


ReamatiHino. 


Rheumatism. 


Satileza. 


8ubtilt J, finene^ 


Rev^s. 


Wrong side, back. 


Salida. 


Departure. 


Rincou. 


Corner. 


Silaba. 


Syllable. 


Rolsellor. 


Nightingale. 


Soledad. 


Solitude. 






Snstancia. 


Substance. 






Subida. 


Rising ground, 
going up. 






Suegra. 


Mother-in-law. 




OOMPO 


SITION. 





Faltar & su pal&bra. 
Guardarse de alguna cosa. 

Hablor k bulla 

Hablar & tontas y & locaa. 

Hablar al aire. 

Hablar al oido. 

HablarUahna. 

Hablar entre dientes. 

Hablar per boca de ganso. 

Hacer & one perder los estribos. 

Haoer de las suyas. 

Hacer alarde de. 

Hacer la cuenta sin la hu^speda. 

Hacer case de. 

Haberla {or hab^rselas) con alguno. 

Irse de la memoria. 

Irsele k uno la cabeza. 



To break one's word. 

To take care not to do a thing (not to 

attempt to do a thing). 
To speak at randoixL 
To speak without rhyme w reason. 
To talk ragnely. 
To whisper into one's ear. 
To speak one's mind. 
To mutter. 

To echo what another has said. 
To make one lose his temper. 
To show off one's triclu. 
To boast of. 

To reckon without the host 
To pay attention (or respect) to. 
To dispute (or contend) with any od& 
To escape one's memory. 
To lose one's reason. 



LB880N LZIII. 



841 



Tan cien dnros & que es derto. 

Llevar k maL 

Hal de su grado. 

Mai que le pese. 

Manos & la obra. 

Meter bulla. 

Meterse & caballero. 

Meterse k sabio. 

Meterse con alguna 

Meterse en camisa de once yara& 

Meterse en todo. 

Meterse en vidas agenas. 

Mlrar de hito en hito. 

Mostrar las suelas de los zapatos. 

Kacer de pi6B. 

Nada se me da de ello. 

No dejar meter baza. 

No cabe mas. 

No estar para fiestas. 

No le pesa de haber nacido. 

No se me da un bledo. 

No tener arte ni parte en alguna cosa. 

Perder cuidado. 

Por ce 6 por be. 

Por fas 6 nefiaui. 

No llegar& la sangre al no. 



I wager a hundred dollars that it is true. 

To take cmy thing amiss. 

Unwillingly. 

In spite of him. 

To set about a work. 

To make a noise, a bustle. 

To assume the gentleman. 

To affect learning and knowledge. 

To pick a quarrel with any one. 

To interfere in other people^s business. 

To meddle in every thing. 

To dive into other people^s affairs. 

To look steadfastly at 

To take to one^s heels. 

To be bom to good luck. 

I care nothing about it. 

Not to allow one to slip in a word. 

Nothing more can be desired. 

To be out of temper. 

He has no mean opinion of himselC 

I do not care a straw. 

To have no hand in any thing. 

Not to fear, to make one^s self easy. 

Some way or other. 

Right or wrong. 

There is nothmg to be feared. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. D. Pepito ha fiiltado k sa palabra, 6 |oree Y. qa6 Yendr6 todavla? 
I Qa6 ha de yenir I Si 61 habla siempre k tontas j 4 looas. 

2. Pues 70 crei qae prometi6 formalmente venir hoy. — ^Don Pepito 
no habla ntmca formalmente. 

8. (De qn6 manera habla ent6noes? De mnchas, 61 habla al aire, 
k bulto, al oido, entre dientea, por booa de ganso; .pero nnnca habla 
al alma. 

4. Esto hark perder 4 onalqniera los estribos. — ^A esto le Uama 61, ha- 
ciendo alarde, hacer de las suyas. 

6. Si ; pero 61 se las habrd conmigo, porqne ha hecho la cuenta sin 
la hn^speda. — ^D. Ltlis, no haga Y. caso, es un meqnetrefe, n Yds. qnieren 
yo ir6 k sa casa 7 le har6 yenir mal de sn grado, 6 mejor dioho, mal que 
le pese. 

6. No, sefior, no vaya Y., es nn hombre qne se mete en todo. — T en 
eso tiene Y. razon, porqne 61 se mete con todo el mmido. 



342 LBSSON LXIII. 

7. Y hasta se meto & sabio y & cabaUero. — Lo peor es que mete 
macha bulla. 

8. iVamos, sefiorea, en qTi6 mas se mete el pobre D. Fepito? Se 
mete en camisa de once yarais, en vidas agenas, etc^ etc. 

9. Pero, sefiores, no olviden Yds. qne si per ce 6 por be, lo Degase 4 
saber, D. Pepito, j por fas 6 por nefas habiese nn desaf io, do lo olviden 
Yds., Tuelvo & r^etir que Don Pepito es nn gran espadacliiD. 2 Yaja ! 
pierda Y. cnidado, que no llegar4 la sangre al rio. 

10. {Don Pepito espadacliin I O^ficaras I — ^Yan cicn pesos 4 qne a le 
miro de hito en hito, mnestra las snelas de los zapatos. 

11. Y. no debe Uevarlo 4 mal, annqne Don Pepito sea tan sn amigo; 
pero es muj hablador 7 no deja & nadie meter baza. — ^Yo no tengo arte 
ni parte en cUo 7 no so me da nn bledo. 

12. ^Se acord6 Y. de decir aquello & sn yecino el Sr. Foster? Ho, se- 
fior, se me fu6 de la memoria. 

13. i Es nn j6yen mn7 afortonado ? Si, sefior, ba nacido de pi6s ; pero 
86 qne no le pesa de haber nacido. 

14. Y. no debe criticarlo, porqne ahora no estd para fiestas. — ^A mf no 
se me da nn bledo de que est^ 6 no de mal hnmor. 

16. Hable Y. bago 6 h^bleme Y. al oido, porqne veo al SeDOr Foster 
all! en frente 7 Y. debe gnardarse de qae le oiga bablar de ese modo, 
porqne lo llevaria 4 mal. — ^Pierda Y. onidado qne no Uegard la sangre al 
rio.^ 

EXERCISE. 

1. Does that man alwa78 keep his word? I hare never known blm 
to break his word on a single occasion. 

2. Peter is yerj sorr7 that Alexander went awa7 without him, and 
I do not know what he would have done if John had left him. 

8. John took good care not to start at the same time as his elder 
brother, for he well knew that he would have been obliged to show him 
ever7 thing worth seeing in the cit7. 

4. He ver7 often talks for hours together without rhTme or reason, 
to the ver7 great anno7ance of those who have to listen to him. 

6. Believe me, it is no proof of talent to talk awa7 at random for an 
hour at a time, without saying any thing that could be called either new 
or agreeable. 

6. I cannot support a man who is so ignorant as to come and whisper 
something in my ear while I am engaged in conversation with another. 

7. iN'ot one of those ideas is his own, he onl7 echoes what he has 
heard said b7 oth^% 

8. I would advise 70U to pa7 no attention to aD7 thing he tells 700. 



LBSSON LXIY. 



343 



9. Judging bj his manner of speaking, one would say he had lost' his 
reason. 

10. I will wager fifty dollars that not one word of all you have read 
and heard on that score (sobre esa materia) is trae. 
. 11. I suppose you haye ab*eady heard of my good fortune ? I have; 
and I need not tell you how glad I was to know you had succeeded. 

12. Did you hear all the president said ? Every thing; he spoke yery 
loud, so that all those that were present might not lose a word. • 

13. Although he affects gi'eat learning and knowledge, I have had oc- 
casion to find out (discover) that he is a very ignorant man. 

14. I know very well that he has no mean opinion of himself; but, 
after all, his greatest fault is to dive a little too much into other people^s 
affairs. 



LESSON LXIV. 



Alumbrar. 

Soltar. 

Suponer. 

Situar. 

Significar. 

Saludar. 

Sobrar. 

Sonreirse. 

Soplar. 

Sonrojarse. 

Sufnr. 

Suplicar. 

6uspirar. 

Rasgar. 

Reb^ar. 

Rebanar. 

Recitar. 

Recomendar. 

Referir. 

Regular. 

Remendar. 

Remediar. 



To light 

To loose, to let go. 

To suppose. 

To situate. 

To signify. 

To salute, to bow to. 

To remain over, to be too much, 

too many. 
To smile. 

To blow, to prompt 
To blush. 
To suffer, to bear. 
To supplicate, to beseech. 
To sigh, to long after. 
To tear. 
To lower. 
To cut in slices. 
To recite. 
To recommend. 
To refer, to teD, to relate. 
To regulate. 
To mend. 
To remedy, to help. 



344 



LES80K LXIY. 



Repasar. 
Representor. 
Kesolver. 
Zafar. 

De gorra. 
Deperilla. 

Gaacos & la gineta. 
A raja. 
A solas. 
Siquiera. 
EnBiima. 

Santo. 

Satil. 

SUencioso. 

Sordo. 

Sustantivo. 

Sucio. 



Atrevimiento. 

Ouerpo. 

Inconyeniente. 

Esfncrzo. 

Descaro. 

Fondos (pi). 

Matrimonio. 

Modismo. 

Provecho. 

Yugo. 

Trapo. 

Saber. 

Sacaoorchos. 

Saldo. 

Salto. 



Assurance, dar- 
ing. 

Body. 

Objection. 

Effort, endeavor. 

Barefacedness. 

Funds. 

Matrimony. 

Idiom. 

Profit, benefit. 

Yoke. 

Rag. 

Learning, knowl- 
edge. 

Corkscrew. 

Balance. 

Leap, jump. 



To look over (a leaacm, &^y. 
To represent, to lay before. 
To resolve. 
To disembarrass. 



Sponging, at the ezpeiiBe of others. 
To the purpose, at the prop^ 

tune. 
On one's high horse. 
Within bounds, at baj. 
All alone. 
Even, only. 
In a word, in fine. 

Holy, saintly. 
Subtil, fine. 
Silent. 
Deaf. 

Substantive. 
Dirty, filthy. 



Blanca. 
Bula. 
Flaqueza. 
Gorra. 

Osihas(/em,ph). 

Pieza. 

Trastienda. 

Tienda. 

Tigeras. 

Taijeta. 

Traza. 

Trampa. 

Traducdon. 



Mite. 

Bull (of the Pope). 

Weakness. 

Cap, lady's bon- 
net. 

Breeches. 

Piece. 

Back shop. 

Store, shop. 

Scissors. 

Card (vidting or 
business). 

^en, appearance. 

Trap, cheat. 

Translation. 



COMPOSITION. 



Quedarse en bianco. 

Qtiedarse hecho una pieza {or helado). 



To be left in the lurch. 
To be thunderstruck, to remiun 
tonished. 



LESSON LZIY. 



345 



Querer decir. 

Sacar fuerzas de flaqueza. 

Sacar provecho. 

Sacodir el yugo. 

Salir &laz. 

Salir oon algo. 

Salir los colores & la cara. 

Saiga lo que saliere. 

Salirse con la suya. 

Santo J bueno. 

Sin mas ac& ni mas all&. 

Sin qu4 ni para qn^. 

En nombrando al ruin de Roma luego 

asoma. 
Sobre la martha. 

Tan daro como el sol {or oomo el agua). 
Tener & m^nos hablar & uno. 
Tener & uno & raya. 
Tener algo en la punta de la lengua. 

Xener buen diente. 
Tener bula para todo. 

Tener el pi6 en dos zapatos. 
Tener los cascos k la gineta. 

Tener su alma en su cuerpo. 
Tomar el delo con las manos. 

Tomar la ocasion por los cabelloi<. 

Tomar las (calzas) de YiUadiego. 

Yamos claros. 

Yenir & m6no8. 

Yenif al caso. 

Yenir con las manos lavadas. 

Venir de perilla. 

Yenir una cosa pintada. 

Verse n^gro. 

Yestirse con veinte y cinco alfileres. 



Dicho y hecho. 



To mean. 

To make a virtue of a necessity. 

To turn to account 

To shake off the yoke. 

To be produced, to be published. 

To gain one's end. 

To blush. 

Come what may. 

To have one's own way, to accomplish 
an object 

Well and good. 

Without ifs and ands. 

Without rhyme or reason. 

Speak of the devil, and his imps ap- 
pear. 

Off-hand (instantly). 

As clear as daylight 

Not to deign to speak to one. 

To keep one at bay. 

To have any thing on the tip of one's 
tongue. 

To have a good appetite. 

To have permission to do what one 
likes. 

To have two strings to one's bow. 

To be hare-brained, to have little judg- 
ment 

To do what one thinks proper. 

To be transported with rapture, to be 
enraged. 

To profit by the occasion. 

To take to one's heels. 

Let us understand one another. 

To decline in any way. 

To come to the point 

To wish to ei^oy the fruit of another's 
labor. * 

To come at the nick of time, or to fit 
exactly. 

A thing to suit (or fit) exactly. 

To be afflicted, embarrassed. 

To be dressed in style, to be decked 
out 

No sooner said than done. 



15* 



846 LBSSON LZIV. 



ViTir de gomu 

Yivir & sua uichAS (anohoraB). 

Zofaree de alguoa cosa. 



To U^e at another's expense. 

To live at one's ease. 

To get dear (or rid ot) any thiqg. 



CONVERSATION AND VERSION. 

1. (Qa6 qtuere decir quedarse en bianco f Quiere decir lo miano 
que qaedarse & la lona de Valencia, esto es, qnedarse sin nada. 

2. I T qnedarse hecho nna pieza 6 helado, qn6 qniere dedr f Son 
modiamos qne indioan admiracion 6 sorpresa. 

8. I Qoiere V. ezplicarme algnnos modismoe espafioles ? Xo tengo 
inoonveniente, preg^nteme V. el aignificado de los que no oomprenda V. 
— ^Muy bien. 

4. Sacar fherzas de flaqneza, | qn^ qniere decir? To creo qne es Imoer 
esfherzos ; pero tambien signtfica) hacer de la necesidad yirtod. 

6. Sacar provecho, oreo qne no necesita ezplicacion 7 a la ocasion ae 
presenta, creo qne sabrd sacarlo. — i Y qn6 me dice V. aoerca de saeadir el 
yngo ? Qne aqnellos qne tengan algnn mal yngo que sacndir deben ha- 
cerlo Aobre la maroha. 

6. Santo 7 bneno, pero V., i no tiene ningnn yngo qne sacndir? No, 
sefior, es verdad qne e6to7 bigo el yngo del matrimonio ; pero no deaeo 
zafarme de 61, porqne para mi annqne es yngo, es nn yngo santo qne me 
ha hecho mn7 feliz 7 bijo el cnal deseo vivir todavia mnchos alios. 

7. I No le parece 4 V. qne aqnel hombre vive do gorra ? Si, sefior, 
aqni se venia todos los dias con sns manos lavados 7 so nos comia nn coda 

8. 4 Y porqn6 no lo ech6 V. de an casa ? ; Asi lo hice ayer, y a V. lo 
hnbiera visto I parecia qnorer tomar el ciolo con las manos I 

9. I Va7a nn atrevimiento I Al fin me yi obligado 4 amenazarle con 
nna silla, y ent6nces tom6 las de Villadiego. 

10. Oreo qne dntes era rico, pero ahora ha venido & m6nos. — No, lo qne 
es tener, todavia tiene. 

11. No hombre, si no tiene sobre qn6 caerse mnerto. — ^Perdone V^ si 
V. qniere qne, para practicar en los modismos del verbo tener, le diga a 
V. lo qne ese bnen senor tiene, se lo dir6 4 V. 

12. Santo y bneno. — ^Pnes ent6nces alld va sin qn6 ni para qa6. 

18. Pero hombre, ipara qn6 sacar & la colada los tmpos de ese buen 
hombre ? Si eso es tan daro como el sol qne nos alnmbra. 

14. Vamos daros, | qniere V. 6 no qne le diga lo qne ese sefior, quo 
se viste con veinte y cinco alfileres, tiene ? Pero si no viene al caso. 

15. Entonces se aoabar& el qjercicio sin poder introdncir en la pr&ctica 
la mitad de los modismos qne tenemos en la leccion. — ] Ah I si, si, tiene 
V. mil razones, escncho, | qn6 es lo qne ese bnen sellor tiene ? 



LBSSON LXIir. 347 

16. En primer Ingar tiene bnen apetito y buen diente. — { Oaspita I qu6 
si lo tiene I IJ & quien se lo cnenta Y. ? 

17. Tiene siempre algo en la ponta de la lengna y nonca tiene noda^en 
el bolsillo. 

18. T Begun el descaro* con que obra, parece tener bnla para todo ; 
tambien tiene los cascos & la cpneta y con tanto tener oreo que es mas lo 
que le falta qne lo que tiene. 

19. To no s6 c6mo tenerlo & raya, | no me har& Y. el favor de aconse- 
jarle que no venga mas por aqui ? Amigo mio, digaselo Y. mismo, por- 
qne yo tengo d m6nos hablar 4 nna persona de sn especie. 

20. T sin embargo, yea Y., 61 tiene el pi6 en dos zapatos, ^y qn6 mas 
tiene ? ' 

21. D^jeme Y. pensar, ) ah I si, el pobre sefior tiene todavia otra cosa 
mas. — ^Bien, pnes, digala Y., que se acaba el ejercicio. 

22. Tiene sn alma en sn cnerpo. Hombre, calle Y., qne aqni viene 
41 en persona. — Si, en nombrando al ruin de Boma, Inego asoma. 

23. Buenos dias, D. Juan. — T^ngalos Y. muy buenos, D. Periquito, 
I qu6 se ofrece ? Yengo 4 pedirle & Y. diez pesos prestados, que me yen- 
drian de perilla, ] porque me yeo negro I 

24. Hombre pidaselos Y. al Sr. De Y. que estd en fondos, en cuanto& 
mi me encuentro sin blanca. 

EXEBdSE. 

1. I understand your brother was left entirely in the lurch ? Not at 
all ; on the contrary, he came. off (turned out) much better than I did. 

2. How did he feel when he learned that I had heard of the whole * 
matter ? He was thunderstruck, and could not g^ve me any reply. 

3. How are you going to manage in such a case as that ? I have only 
to make a virtue of necessity, and take the small one. 

4. I think there is little danger of his not succeeding ; what do you 
think (what appears to you) ? Not the least ; he is very prudent, and 
knows how to turn every thing to account. 

5. Bo you remember when that article was published? I do not re- 
member exactly ; but it appears to me it must have been some time in 
last November. 

6. You see that is what I told you the other day would take place. 
Tos, that is true ; but you seem to have forgotten the condition I men- 
tioned to your friend as he was going out. 

7. Is Mr. Martinez not going to be here, as he promised ? I am ex- 
pecting him, — yfe shaft wait until seven o'clock ; if he comes before that 
.time, well and good ; if not^ we shall go on with the bunness of the 
evening without him. 



348 



LESSON LXT. 



8. Well, let ns understand each other before going any fartlier. It 
seems to me we understand each other perfectly ; the thing is as dear &s 
da^ht 

9. Oh, Charles 1 I am so glad to see yon ! yon have just come at the 
nick of time ; we shall have the pleasure of *yonr company at diimer. 
Ton are very kind; bnt really yon mnst excuse me; I have a fiieod 
waiting for me. 

10. Yon lost your ooatf how did yon come home in the cold withomt 
it ? Alexander lent me one of his that fitted me exactly. 

11. No sooner said than done ; he took his hat and went out in search 
of him, notwithstanding it rained in torrents. 

12. Yon may be at ease in your mind on that score ; I shall manage to 
get rid of him very soon. 

18. I wish yon would come to the point, for up to the present I have 
been unable to find out what yon mean. 

14. One would have said, from the manner in which he was (eiendolc) 
decked out, that he was going to the theatre or to a ball instead of td 
the office. 



LESSON LXV. 



Aventurarse. 

Apretar. 

Cobrar. 

Desafiar. 

Escaldar. 

Enhebrar. 

Enzarzar. 

Enfadarse. 

Hilar. 

Jnntar. 

Madmgor. 

Prevenir. 

Belucir. 

Sustentar. 

Trasqnilar. 

Tapar. 

Trampear. 

Tragar. 



To venture. 

To tighten, to urge. 

To collect. 

To challenge. 

To scald. 

To thread (a needle), to link. 

To sow discord. 

To get angry. 

To spin. 

To join. 

To rise early. 

To warn, to inform. 

To shine. 

To sustain. 

To shear. 

To cover up, to dose up. 

To impose upon, to deceive. 

To swallow. 



LSSBON LXV. 



349 



Trasnocbar. 

Tenninar. 

Tolerar. 

Tomar. 

Tranqoilizar. 

Tatear. 



To sit up all night. 

To terminate. 

To tolerate. 

To retoTD, to do over again. 

To tranquillize, to make any one's 

mind easy. 
To address any one in the second 

person singular, to speak &- 

miliarly to. 



ExpresiTO. 


Expresdye. 


Jasto. 


Just. 


Duro. 


Hard. 


Necio. 


Silly, foolish. 


Practico. 


Practised, experienced. 


Ciego. 


BUnd. 


Tuerto. 


Blind of one eye. 


Triguefio. 


Dark (of the complexion). 


Tin to. 


Colored, red. 


Tonto. 


Foolifth. 


Tramposo. 


Deceitftd, swindling. 


Terminante. 


Decided. 


Tranquilo. 


Tranqnil, quiet 


A borbotones. 


Bubbling, hurriedly, confusedly. 


Palabras mayores. 


Offensive words or expressions. 


No ser rana. 


To be able and expert. 


iCarambal 


Dear me \ Hah I 



Asador. 

Oopo. 

Entendedor. 

Herrero. 

Menosprecio. 

Hortelano. 

Dado. 

Proverbio. 

Sayo. 

Pecho, 



Spit (for roasting). 
Flake (of snow). 
One who under- 
stands. 
Blacksmith. 
Scorn, contempt. 
Gardener. 
Dye. 
Pnoverb. 

Sort of loose coat 
. or jacket. 
Breast. 



Cola. 

Donza. 

Divisa. 

Familiaridad. 

Miel. 

Mona. 

Fama. 

Moderacion. 

Oveja. 

Necesidad. 

Pareja. 

Bana. 



Tail. 

Dance. 

Motto. 

Familiarity. 

Honey. 

Monkey. 

Fame, notoriety. 

Moderation. 

Sheep. 

Necessity. 

Pair. 

Frog. 



350 



LB880H LXT. 



Raton. 


Mouse. 


Viga. 


Beam. 


Tio. 


Uncle. 


Tenacidad.' 


Tenacity. 


Bebedor. 


Toper, tippler. 


Tos. 


Cough. 




(AU Aae are mMeuline.) 




SolUoqiuo. 


Soliloquy. 


Tirabuzon. 


Corkscrew. 


Snegro. 


Father-in-law. 


Trineo. 


Sldgh. 


Sngeto. 


Person, indi- 


Tacto. 


Touch. 




Yidoal. 


Talento. 


Talent. 


Sobrino. 


Nephew. 


Tel6grafo. 


Tel^raph. 


8m6nimo. 


Sjnonyme. 


Tenedor. 


Fork. 


SUencio. 


Silence. 


T^rmino. 


Term. 


Sentido. 


Sense. 


Trigo. 


Wheat. 


Semblante. 


Countenance, 


Term6metro. 


Thermometer. 




looks. 


Tomo. 


Lathe. 


Secreto. 


Secret 


Toque. 


Touch, ringing 


Trato. 


Intercourse, 




(of bells). 




treatment. 


Tltulo. 


Tide. 


Travis. 


Breadth (of a 
thing). 

COMPOS 


Trago. 
ffinON. 


Draught, drink. 



A buena gana no hay pan doro. 

A lo hecho pecho. 

A quien se hace de miel las moscas se 

lo comen. 
A quien madniga Dies le ayuda. 
Al baen entendedor con media palabra 

basta. 
Al fin se canta la gloria. 
Antes que te coses miia lo que haoes. 
Antes cabeza de raton que cola de leon. 

Aunque la mopa se yista de soda mona 

se queda. 
Bien yeogas mal si vienes solo. 
Cada oyqa con su par^a (or Bios los 

cria y ellos se juntan). 
Cada uno juzga por su oorazon el 

agena 
Cada uno hace de su capa un sayo. 



Hanger is the best sauce. 
What IB done cannot be helped. 
Smear yourself with honey, and yen 

will be deTOured by flies. 
The early bird catches the worm. 
A word to the wise is sufficient 

Boast not till the yictory is won. 

Look before you leap. 

Better be the head of a mouse than 

the tall of a lion. 
A hog in armor is still but a hog- 
Misfortune never comes alone. 
Birds of a feather flock together. 

Every man measures other people's 

com in his own bushel 
Every one may do as he likes with his 

own. 



LESSON LXV. 



351 



Gada uno sabe donde le aprieta el zar 

pato. 
Cobra buena fama y debate k doimir. 

Como el perro del horteUno, que ni 

come ni deja comer. 
Cuenta y razon suBtentan amistad. 
Del mal el mdnos. 
Deb^jo de tma mala capa se encaentra 

un buen bebedor. 
Dime con quidn andas, y te dird quidn 



Donde foerea haz como vieres. 

Lo mejor de los dados ea no Jugarlos. 

En boca cerrada no entran moacas. 
En casa del herrero asador de palo. 

En ticrra de d^gos el tuerto es rey. 

Gato escaldado del agua fria huye. 
Ir por lana y volver trasquUado. 
Hombre pre^enido nnnca fue vencido. 
La caridad bien ordenada empieza por 

uno mismo. 
La mucha familiaridad es causa de me- 

nosprecio. 
La necesidad carecc de ley. 
La tenacidad es divisa del necio. 

Lo que no se puede remediar se ha de 

aguantar. 
Has vale tarde que nunca. 
Mar Yale pfijaro en mano que ciento 

Yolando. 
MiSntras en mi casa estoy rcy soy. 
Kadie puede decir de esta agua no be- 

ber6. 
No es oro todo lo que reluce. 
No hay mal que por bien no Tcnga. 
No la hagas no la temas. 
Poquito a poco hllaba la vieja el copo. 
Quien bien te quiere te hara llorar. 

Quien mucho habla mucho yerra. 



Every one knows where the shoe pinch- 
es him. 

Get the nfone of early rismg, and you 
may h'e arbed all day. 

Like the dog m. the manger. 

Short reckoning and long friends. 

Of two evils, the lesser. 

We should not judge the book by the 
cover. 

Tell me your company and I will tell 
you what you are. 

When at Rome, do as Rome does. 

The best throw at dice is to throw them 
away. 

A close mouth catches no flies. 

No one goes worse shod than the shoe- 
maker's wife. 

In the land of the bUnd, the one-eyed 
man is king. 

A burnt child dreads the fire. 

The biter bit 

Forewarned, forearmed. 

Charity begins at home. 

Too much familiarity breeds contempt 

Necessity has no law. 

A wise man will change his mind ; a 

fool never. 
What canH be cured must be endured. 

Better Uite than never. 

A bird in the hand is worth two in the 

bush. 
A man's house is his castle. 
No one can tell what is .to happen to 

hun. 
All is not gold that glitters. 
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good. 
Do no evil, and fear no harm. 
Rome was not built in a day. 
Spare the rod, and you will spoil the 

child. 
Who speaks much often blunders. 



352 



I.ESS02r LZV. 



Quien no se aTentnra no pua la mtr. 
Ya que la casa ee qaeroa caleni6moD08. 
Temo0 la piga en el ojo ageno y no la 

▼iga en d nuestro. 
Tu enemigo es do tu oficio. 



Never Tentore, never win. 

Let MB make the best of a bad job. 

We Bee the mote in onr neighbor's eje» 

and not the beam in our own. 
Two of a trade never agree. 



COXVERSATTON AND VERSION. 

1. I nay mnchos proyerbios en espafiol ? Uay muchisimos; en tod^s 
las lengnos los hay, pero en la espafiola creo que hay tantos qne si se T&t- 
nicsen todos formarian yarios voltimencs. 

2. jLo gufltan d V. los proyerbios? Si, scfior, son muy expresivos, 
pero debemos nsarlos, como decia D. Qnyotc, con moderacion y no a 
borbotoncs como Sancho Panza. 

8. En eso tieno V. razon, porqne qoien roucho habla mncho yerra.— 
y. acaba de aplicar ese mny bicn ; pero es imposible que practiqnemos con 
todos los qne trae esta loccion, en cete cyeroicio. 

4. Sin embargo, al que madmga Dios le ayuda. — Y. dice bien, y quien 
no so ayentnra no pasa la mar. 

5. Espero que qnicn nos oiga conversar introdnciendo tanto refinan, 
no diga de ellos lo qne se dice de los males. — iQn6 dicen de los males? 
Bien yengas mal si yienes solo. 

6. I Oh I no, seflor, en primer Ingar los proyerbios no son males^ y en 
segundo Ingar 4 nosotros nos gnstan, y queremos practicar con ellos, para 
aprondcrlos. — ^Y. estk en lo jnsto, y adcmds, cada nno hace de sn capa nn 
sayo. 

7. I Ola, amignito I Y. mo parcce prdctico en la materia, pero no piense 
Y. qne yo soy rana, porqne del^yo de nna mala capa se encoentra nn 
buon bebedor. — Caramba iqne no me d^a Y. meter baza! no se dir& de 
Y. aqnollo de, en boca oerrada no entran moscas. 

8. Yamos amigo, ese refran yino por los cabellos. — ^Pnes a yino por 
los cabellos, 4 pelo yino, ademds, qne Y. me parece eer de aqnellos *qae 
yen la pi^ja en el ojo agcno y no la yiga en el snya 

9. No se enfade Y., amigo, qne qnien bien lo qniere le har& llorar. — 
No, se&or, no me enfado, pero ya yeo qne no es oro todo lo qne relnce. 

10. iBrayoI bravo I ya va Y. aprendiendo & tmnrr^ refiranes, lo 
hace Y. cnal otro Sancho Panza, y yo, con toda mi pr&ctica, he ido por 
lana y he ynelto trasqnilado. — Sn ^emplo de Y. me ird ensefiando; p^ 
qnito d poco hilaba la vicpa el copo, y dime con qni6n andas y te ^i^ 
qni^ eres. 

11. iQa6 h(mibre ! n Y. va d ganar d loi maestro! pero no hay mal 
qne por bien no venga; Y. me hace rm oon sns refiranes^ — Bien, dd mal 
el mdnos, pero D. Mannd, |es poslble qne le haya de ganar sn disdpolo f 



LB8SOK LZY. 353 

12. No 8^, no pttedo decir de esta agaa no beber6, y lo que no sg pnede 
remediar se ha de agaantar, y al fin se canta la gloria.— jZape, qomo los 
onhebra I pero yo no me doy por vencido, s^or maestro, porqae yo ya 
b6 aqnello de cobra buena fama y Achate & dormir. 

13. La tenacidad es divisa del necio, y al buen entendedor'con m^a 
palabra basta. — Si, pero esas ya son palabras mayorea, y & quien se hace 
de miel las moscas se lo comen, y mi6ntras en mi casa cstoy, rey soy. 

14. Espero, D. O&rlos, qne no me qaiera Y. poner faera de sn casa. — 
No hombre, pero estos refranes son tan expresivos que le bacen decir 4 
uno mas de lo que quiere ; pero 4 lo hecho pecho y ya que Y. me desa- 
£6, siga la danza. 

15. Bneno, si Y. lo qniere, ya qne la casa se qnema calent^monos; pe- 
ro bien haria Y. &ntes que se case en mirar lo que hace, porqne cada xmo 
sabe donde le aprieta el zapato. — ^Amigo mio, Y. no sabe de la misa la 
media ; yo nunca doy mi brazo 4 torcer, y dntes quiero ser cabeza de 
raton que cola de leon. 

16. Si, setlor, pero aunque la mona se vista de seda, mona se queda, no 
sea Y. oomo el perro del hortelano, que ni come ni deja comer, y acu6r- 
dese Y. que cuenta y razon sustentan amistad y lo mejor de los dados ea 
no jugarlos. — Basta, basta, hombre me doy por vencido. 

17. No la hagas no la temas ; tu enemigo es de tu oficio. — Pero, D. 
C&rlos, le repito. ... • 

18. La caridad bien ordenada entra por si misma. — ^Pero si repito 
que. . . . 

19. Donde quiera que fucres haz como vieres. — Sefior, me rindo.— Mas 
vale tarde que nunca. 

EXEBCISE. 

1. We]], Oharlea, so yon have come at last Yes, better late than 
never, you know ; but if it had continued raining I would not have 
come at aD. 

2. Are yon going out? I thought we were going together to the 
theatre this evening. — ^I must go out now ; but should I get hack as soon 
as I expect, we shall still have time to go to the theatre. 

8. If you undertake that journey, I should like to be your companion. 
It is rather doubtful at present whether I shall; but if I do, I would be 
delighted to have your company. 

4. K the directors establish that as a general rule, very many persons 
win suflfer great loss. 

6. The conditions were, that if he did not discover the error, or i^ 
after having discovered it, he could not rectiijr it, he should lose his place. 



364 LBS80K LXY. 

'6. He said he would Laye no rest until he should hear some news of 
tliAt poor young man« 

7. He promised that I should have the place, if it were in his power 
to procure it for me. 

8. In case his efforts should not be attended with saccess, joa may 
rely npon me to do all in my power to advance (jnwfUMter) yonr interests. 

9. Their embarrassments will not cease so long as they do not intro- 
dnce some system of reasonable economy. 

10. Peter tells his stories so well, and with snch an appearance of 
troth, that one is actually tempted to belieye them. 

11. They made so many conditions, that it was dear they had no wish 
to help OS. 

12. Why did yon not take that book? I would not take it beoaase 
some leayes were wanting. 

18. If there is any tUng within On) my reach with which I can serye 
joxijjttst^ let me know. 

14. Whatever he may have been in his yonth, he is now a respectable 
man, and beloved (loved) by everybody that knows him. 

* English wordi la UaUet, not to be tmuUtod. 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS 



GRAMMATICAL AND IDIOMATICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE SPANISH LAN- 
GUAQB, KOT HITHERTO TREATED OF IN THE GRAMMAR. 



In order to acquire a thorough knowledge of a language, it 
is necessary to compare carefully the different uses of the 
several parts of speech in the native language and in the one 
proposed.to be learned. 

The sense of a whole passage is very often changed by the 
undue suppression or omission of an article, a preposition, or a 
conjunction ; by using one tense of a verb for another ; placing 
an adjective before its noun when, in order to convey the idea 
intended, it should go after it ; and not unfrequently by trans- 
lating a certain part of speech by a word which, although its 
appearance would lead us to take it for the equivalent of the 
word to be interpreted, bears in reality no relation to the sense 
designed to be expressed. 

We have deemed it convenient, therefore, to devote a 
few pages of our Combined Method to such general remarks 
as are necessary to guide the learner, and which, if attentively 
observed, will, after the study of the Spanish exercises con- 
tained in the preceding lessons, enable him to compose purely 
and idiomatically in the Castilian language. 

Tba Definite Aztlole. 
1. It has already been observed in previous lessons, which 
are the most usual cases where the definite article is ex- 
pressed in the Spanish language ; but there are many others 
in which it would be altogether incorrect to express or omit it 



356 



GBAHMATICAL PBCULI ABITIES. 



in Spanish, as in English, as may be seen from the following 
examples, which may serve as a general role for all those of 
the same kind : 



I E8t4 el rey en palacio ? 
Es costumbre en Espofia. 
Su tio firmd por 61, en ausenda de 

sa padre. 
Decia verdad. 
A tres de jtftiio. 
TuTO Talor para responder. 
A mediadoa de agoato. 



I8 the king in the palace ? 
liia the custom in Spain. 
His unde signed for him, in (he absence 

of his father. 
He told the truth. 
On ^ 8d of June. 
He had the courage to answer. 
In the middle of August. 



2. In Spanish the article is at times accompanied by; a 
preposition not required in English ; as, 
Hace dd caballero. | He plays the gentleman. 



3. The so-called indefinite article (more properly adjective) 
is, as has been observed in one of the early lessons, frequently 
employed in English; and when translating from the latter 
language into Spanish, we either suppress it entirely or render 
it by some other part of speech ; as. 



Tiene derecho sobre este caudal 

A distancia de . . . 

C&diz es puerto de mar. 

Es otro Alejandro. 

En medio siglo (or dentro de medio 

siglo). 
yolver6mos dentro de media hora. 
Las obras de otro {or obras agenas). 

Hubo tiempo en que . • . 



He has a right to (or a chum upon) 

this capital 
At a distance of . . . 
Cadiz is a seaport (town). 
He is another Alexander. 
In half a century. 

We shall return in half on hour. 

The works of (mother (or onothei^s 

works). 
There was a time in which . . . 



Personal aad PoflaeBsiTe Ptdnoims. 
4. The use and repetition of the personal and possessive 
pronouns are more frequent in English than in Spanish ; and 
that seeming redundance is essential to the clearness and pre- 
cision of the English language ; but Spanish syntax does not 



OBAMMATICAL FECULI A BITIES. * 357 

Bnbmit to stich encumbrances, and they are, therefore, generally 
suppressed, as will be seen from the following examples : 



£a Terdad. 
Uueve. 
E[ace frio. 

iPorqu6 es menester? 
£1 mismo principe. 
Su miama madre. 
£l mifitmo lo Tib. 



It 18 true. 

It id raining (or ii rains). 

It is cold. 

Why is U necessary ? 

The prince Atmsel^ 

His mother heraeif. 

He saw it Aifn^elf. 



6. Before leaving the pronouns, it is proper to remark that 
one and onea^ so often used in English composition, to avoid 
the unpleasant repetition of nouns, have no eqmvalent what- 
ever iu Spanish, and are hence to be left out in translating from 
the former language to the latter; as, 

i TIene Y. cabollos ? I Have you horses (or any horses) ? 

Tengo dos baenos. | I have two good ones, 

6. Pwsonal pronouns, when used redundantly in English, 
as in the following example, are never expressed in Spanish : 

Ambos perecieron. | Both of them perished (or were lost). 

7. Even whole members of sentences are, not unfrequently, 
suppressed in translating from English into Spanish ; as, 

Todo no podia entrar en nn elogio, i All could not find place in a eulogy, 
mas sf en una s^tira. | but ail could find place in a satire. 

Observe that the repetition of the words italicized in the 
English sentence is avoided by means of the adverb si in Span- 
ish, which serves to correct the negation expressed in the first 
member of the phrase, thus rendering the latter at once shorter 
and more elegant. 

EUlpflds. 



8. There are certain short modes of expression, certain 
grammatical laconicisms, peculiar to the English language, 
which are not admissible in Spanish ; the ellipses must in sUch 
cases often be filled up; as. 



Jam&s hubo orador ^ue hablase 

mejor. 
De ahl dimanan estos errores. 



Never did orator speak better. 
Hence these errors. 



858 



GBAHHATICAL PBCULI ABITIS8. 



No paede penflar en Aoeer maL 
La dadad reducida 4 cenizaa. 
No va mal para aer niiio. 
8a madre hahada en l&griznaa 
Awnqm todos estuviesen juntos. 
Esto ei por to que toca d sa persona. 

En pro y «n contra. 

C<m /a espada en la mano. 



He cannoi think of eriL 

The city in ashes. 

Not bad for a child. 

Her mother in tears. 

They were all together. 

8o much for his person (or personal 

appearance). 
For and against 
Sword in hand. 



N. B. — ^It is also correct to say, JEipada en mono. 

Sxivaralosi* 

Although we have spoken at some length, in Lesson IX, on 
the subject of inversion, we imagine the learner will not be 
displeased to meet here a few well-chosen examples which will 
give him a still clearer idea of the order observed in Spanish 
for the expression of ideas, and the consequent difference of 
construction between that language and the English. 

9. The substantive often precedes its adjective ; as. 



Es d hombre mas perfecto del 

mondo. 
LlaTe falsa. 
Testigo falso. 
Sahyomasj67$n. 



He is the most perfect man in the 

world. 
False key. 
False witness. 
Her youngest son. 



10. Instances occur, however, of the inversion taking place 
in English, while the natural construction is followed in Span- 
ish ; especially in the case of past participles acting as verbal 
adjectives ; as, 

This foundation bong once destroyed, 
the whole (edifice) comes to the 
ground. 

This liberty (being) once admitted, man 
may . . . 

11. In all cases similar to that of the following example, 
the possessives mio, tuyo, myo are placed afl;er the substantive, 
and then, of course, they retain their final syllable; as, 

El otro hijo nayo. \ His other son. 

12. The same ideas are in not a few instances presented in 



Una vez destruido este fundamento, 
todo se vicne abigo. 

Admitida esta llbertad, el hombre 
puede • . . 



GBAHMATICAL PBOULIABITIKS. 



359 



Spanish in an order very different firom that followed in Eng- 
lish; aSy 

It 13 not to destroy that he has come, 

but to build up. 
I see (very) well that . . . 
If you had an agreement to make. 



1^0 ha veiiido para defltruir, sine para 

edificar. 
Bien veo que < . . 
Si tuviese Y. que hacer una contrato. 



iff ycu had to make an agreemerU would, of course, also he an allowable construction 
in Si^^UsIl) 



No ttnia razon aquel fildsofo que 

decia que . . . 
Toca remunerar los seryidos al que 

los recibi6. 
Entre los Gri^os, los que . . . 
£l que mas hablaba. 
Gien reoes mas quisiera yo que . . . 
Solo Dios es inmutable. 



lliat philosopher who said that . . . 

was wrong. 
It is for hun who recd^ed the services 

to reward them. 
Those amongst the Greeks, who . . . 
He who spoke the most 
I would prefer a thousand times that . . 
God alone is unchanging. 



Votms. 
13.«There is a striking difference to be observed in the use 
of nouns in the two languages; we sometimes meet nouns in 
the singular in English, while in Spanish they are used in the 
plural only, and vice-versd : 

PluraL Angular, 



Mlrar con malos oJ€$. 

Fuso ha ojo8 en ml, 

Dar oidoB & . . . 

Prestar ouiSos. 

"Depih k cabeza. 

For iodatpatiea, 

Ju^o de manot, 

Se present6 con loa ojoi en el suelo. 

Singular, 
Api^ descalzo. 
Estar en pie. 
A remo y vda. 
En toda tKurte de negocios. 
No son duefios de «f. 



To look with evil eye. 

He set hiB eye on me. 

To give car to .• . 

To lend an ear. 

From head to foot 

In every direction. 

Sleight of hand. 

He came forward with downcast eye. 

Plural. 
With hsre/eet (or in (his) haxefeei). 
To stand on (one's) /eei. 
With oara and aaila. 
In an sorts (or kinds) of business. 
They are not masters of themselves. 



One Fart of Qpeeoh tsxr Axiother. 
14. It is not uncommon, in comparing English and Spanish 
composition, to see adjectives translated by substantives, ad- 



360 



OBAHMATICAL PSCULI ABITIS8. 



verbs by substantives, substantives by verbs, and vice-versd. 
Sometimes, in translating, difficulties, appearing at fiist si^bt 
almost insurmountable, are overcome by the simple substitu- 
tion of one part of speech for another. 

AdUaotlTW toot Substanttyee. 



PSca de guo^ (or preBomido de 

guapo). 
Es acusado de impio, 
Se pone/tfruwo. 



He piques himBelf on hu bravery. 

He IB accused of impiely. 
He gets into a /itry. 



BahukaaitivmB tar AdwrlM, and vto^-veisa. 



Aunqne iddlatras de <n'fffen. 
Come fxeetiveanente. 
Tu7o la <ftdka de salvarse. 
For detffraeia nada oyeron. 



Although imginaUy idolaters. 
He eats to exeew. 
HappUy for him he escaped. 
Unfortunately they heard nothing. 



8alMtaiittT«s Cor Verbs, aad vioe-veraa. 



Habl6 lo m^or quepudo. 
Debe probar su dieho, 
Gomo aeoitunUtra. 
Despues de almorzar. 
Antes de comer. 



He spoke to the best of his ability^ 
He must prove what he m^ 
According to his custom. 
After hreakfiut. 
Before dinner. 



Verbs fbr Frononns. 
Hay historiadores que aseguran I Some liistorians assure us that . . 
que . . . I 

Of Verbs In General. 
15. We very often find verbs active with the indefinite ««, 
and sometimes the passive verb with the particle «e, used in 
Spanish to express the same idea conveyed in English by 
passive, and sometimes also by active verbs ; one tense trans- 
lated by another different tense, one number substituted in the 
place of another, one person for other persons, and at times 
even the same person translated by any or all the others, ac- 
cording to the sense desired to be conveyed. 

PaaslTe In "RngHab* 



El concilio se eelebraha en Pisa. 
El libro que m le airibuye, 
Esto K enderra en la proposicion. 
Esto debe eotitane per nada. 
Cuando ae les mega que respondan. 



The council was held at Pisa. 
The book which is ailrUnOed to him. 
That is contahied in the proportion. 
This is to 6« counted for nothing. 
When they are requested to answer. 



GBAMMATICAL PECULI ABITIES. 



361 



AotlvBln BngHah. 



Yiene k Juntane con bu familia. 
Se eatd con la duquesa. 
&e hicieran k la Tela. 



He comes to join his familj. 
He married the duchess. ' 
They get sail. 



The IndioatlTe or Sa1]iiTmotiTe fbr the InflnltlvB. 



Le mand6 que adlaae, 

Es reputado por hombre que nada 
posee. 

Jlspero me retporuki Y. 



He ordered him to hold his tongue (or 

to be silent). 
He is supposed topo89eu nothing. 

I expect you to annoer me. 



OnsTenaefto Another. 



^Te habrS yo dado un derecho que 

no tengo ? 
^Porqu6 solo los hombres habrdn de 

dcgenerar? 
Cuanto mas hagan^ m^uos ganar&nl 

Que un muerto rtnucite^ no es cosa 
comuD, 



Have I then given thee a right which I 

do not possess myself? 
Why must mankind alone degenerate ? 

The more theycfe, the less they will 

gain. 
It is no common thing for a dead (man) 

to retnudtate. 



One Niu&ber ft>r Anothftr In Verbs. 

Son las seis. I It t> six o'clock. 

No le qiudan mas que tree h^os. | He Aot only three children left 

One P w on fox AnotiLer. 

Kosotros 9omo9 los birbaros. I It u we that are barbarians. 

Si hubiefen sldo eUos los vituperadoa | If it had been they that they had bUimed. 

Uode of Aairtwg. QoeetlonB and fbrminff Negationa with Yerbe. 

16. The auxiliary do^ used in English in asking questions, 
whether negatively or positively, is to be lost sight of in trans- 
lating into Spanish, inasmuch as the simple form of the verb 
contains all that is required for that purpose, as may be seen in 
the following examples : 



i Van Yds, algunas veces 4 la 6pera ? 
/ Sabia Y. que debiamos venir tan 

temprano? 
No creia que debiesen Yds. renir 

hasta las tres. 



Do you sometimes go to the opera? 
Did you know that we were to come so 

early? 
I did not think you were to come until 

three o'clock. « 



17. Nor is it to be translated into Spanish when it stands 
16 



362 GBAMlfATICAL PECTJLI ABITIB8. 

in the English sentence merely for the purpose of giving more 

emphasis to the expression ; as, 
To creia qae no ib«n nnnct al teatro. I I thoaght thej never went to tlietlie«tiCL 
Si, sefior, van k menudo. | Yes, sir, ihej do go oIUd. 

18. It sometimes takes the place of a verb, to avoid the 
repetition of the. latter; in all such cases it is to be rendered 
into Spanish by a simple particle (positive or negative, as re- 
quired by the sense), or else the verb expressing the action 
must itself be repeated ; as, 

^Escribe V. todos los riteses & sa tio ? Do you write to your unde every month? 
8(, sefior {or le escribo todos los Yes, sir, I do. 
meses)L 

19. To what has already beeif remarked relative to conju- 
gations, we have but a few words to add, respecting a limited 
number of verbs of the third conjugation. Those which have 
either of the letters cA, Uy or fl, immediately preceding the ter- 
mination, make their past participle in endo^ instead of iendo ; 
as, ciflendOf mitUendOy riflendo, hinckendo^ brufiendOj grufiendOj 
taflendoy instead of cifAendo^ muXRendo^ Hfiiendo^ hinchiendd^ 
brufiitndOj grufiiendOy tafliendo. 

For the same reason the i is also suppressed in the third 
persons singular and plural of the preterit definite of the indica- 
tive, and in all the persons of the second and third terminations 
of the imperfect subjunctive, and of the future of the same 
mood ; as, cifld^ rnuUdj rifleron^ hinchera^ bruflese^ grufiere^ in- 
stead of cifixdy mylCidy rifiieron^ hinchiera^ brufiieaey gruniere. 

There is but one exception allowable to this rule, and that 
occurs in the verb henchiry which generally retains the % in the 
third person singular preterit definite of the indicative, making 
it hinchiSy in order to avoid confounding it with hinchd^ same 
person and tense of hinchary a regular verb of the first conju- 
gation. 

The reason of the suppression of the i in the cases pointed 
out above is obvious, inasmuch as the letters cA, K, or /I, when 
forming a syllable with e, cannot be sounded without the con- 
currence of the i element to a certain extent. If, therefore, the i 
were retained in those combinations, a forced and disagreeable 
sound would be the result. 



6BAMMATICAL P ECULI ABITIBS. 863 

20. There are in Eoglish certain verbs of very frequent 
occurrence, and whose signification, if not determined by some 
other part of speech, it would often be difficult to explain. 
Amongst this class, the. verb to get plays a very important, if 
not the most important part, and English persons are some- 
times at as great a loss to know how exactly ^o translate it into 
a foreign language, as foreigners are to know how and when 
to use it idiomatically in English. This verb {to get) has no 
exact equivalent in Spanish, but there are in that language 
many verbs of something of a like nature, and by which it may 
at times be correctly rendered, according to the signification in 
which it is used. We venture to say that, in the most knotty 
cases, a little thought, a moment's reflection would go far in 
removing all difficulty. 

Before making some uncouth makeshift of a translation, 
pause a moment, and look what is the real meaning of ^o get in 
the case before you ; then see what other verb would serve in 
its place, or what other form of expression*you can substitute 
for the one proposed to be translated. This you will soon dis- 
cover, for perhaps in no language can an instance be found of 
the impossibility to express the same idea in more than one 
way. For instance, let it be required to translate into Spanish, 
To GET IN by the window ; here is a difficulty just as great as 
any other case where the verb to get can be used. 

. Let us now see how else we can express that idea : To oo 
IN", or to eome in by the window ; that is to say, we have to 
convey the idea of motion into. This same idea is to be ex- 
pressed thus : To BNTEia by the window=BinitAB por la venr 
tana ; enibab then is the standard and usual verb expressive 
of motion into. Let us now change the preposition and reverse 
the sense, for the preposition in determines the signification of 
get in the case under consideration. 

Required to translate: To get our by the window; the 
same^process as above gives us motion oiU; hence, SAUBj^or 
la ventana^ salib being the standard and usual Spanish verb 
expressive of motion out. 

This mode of reasoning will in all cases lead to the desired 
end. Let your object be to find some verb in English which 



864 



GBAMMATICAL PE CTTLI ABITIES* 



alone will mean the same thing as get and its detenninmg prepo- 
sition together. 

Got, used in connection with adjectives, is no more difficolt 
to be disposed of than when accompanied by prepositions, and 
it may in general be turned into Spanish by one of the three 
verbs ponene, haceru, or 'ool^er9t (according to the nature of 
the case), and an adjective coirespondmg to the English one 
determining ^et; as. 



ViAnent cieponarte rojo. 
Ptmene fiirioso. 



To^ rccL 
To gd furious. 



These ideas in Spanish may be expressed by single verbs 
derived jfrom each of the adjectives respectively; as, 
Enriquecerse. I To get ricb. 

Enrojecerse. I To ^rrf red (i. €., to redden). 

Enfttieoerse. I To gel furious. 

21, To GET, as an active verb, is usually translated into 
Spanish by any of these : conaeguir^ obtener^ procurar^ hacerse 
dey hacerse con^ according to the sense ; as. 



Coftsiguid lo que deseaba. 

Obiettdrdn el privilegio. 

^Puede v. etnueguirme or proeurar- 

fM un ejempkr de ese libro ? 
Se hho de un cftballo para el viaje. 



He got what he wanted. 

They will get the patent' 

Can you ^ me a copy of that book? 



He gi}t (t. 0., bought) a horse for his 
Journey. 

22. As for to gety used redundantly (and incorrectly) with 
^the verb to have^ it disappears in the Spanish translation ; as, 

Tcnemos uno. | We have got one. 

23. The above remarks are equally applicable to all verbs 
of the class alluded to, as for instance to become ; which latter, 
as well as to get^ is often elegantly translated by Uegar deer; as, 



8e Auo ciudadano de los Estados 

Unidos. 
Uegd d ter hombre muy distinguido. 



He became a citizen of the United 

States. 
He became a very distinguished man. 



EECAPITULACION 

D£ LAS BEGLAS DE LA GBAMItIOA. 



LEOOION I. 

1. j En qTi6 letras acaban Iob infinitivos de todos los verbos en espafiol ? 

— iOndntas co^jugaciones hay? 

2. I G6mo 80 llaman las letras qne anteceden (jmcede) & las termina- 
clones or, eTjirf 

8. |C6mo 80 forman las coigagaeiones de todos los verbos regnlares 
delalengna? 

— I So pnede snpriznir el pronombre nominaiiyo ? 

— jPorqu6? 

— I Puede snprimirse d pronombre Usted t 

4. I En qn6 persona so pone el verbo cnando so emplea el pronombre 
U9tedt 

— I En qn6 cases se emplea la segonda persona del verbo? estoes, 

I cn&ndo se tutea en espanol ? 

> 

LEOOION II. 

5. ^ Qndsigmfioa la palabra«0fk>r cnando sensa en vocativo? ^ 

— iQndpalabrasedebeemplearenlngardef^/l^enelcasoyooatiyo? 
~ i On4ndo se emplea la palabra 9enor t 

— I Oo^do 80 emplean las palabras settorOf tenorita j Beflorito f 

6. ^De qn6 modo se nsan los Tocablos (toorcU) Don j Doflaf 

7. |En d6nde se colooala negaoion no^ con respecto al verbb? 

LEOOION III. 

8. iCo^do se oambla la coqjmidon y por la vocal if 

9. |(Mndo se escribe d acentofiobre d quef 



860 BECAPrrTJLACIOK. 

11. I En qn6 caso se tradace hut por pero t 

12. iPneden las palabras eipafioly /ranees^ hien, j otras mnchas^ 
pertdneoer 6 diferentes partes de la oracion (fipeeeh) ? 



LEOOION IV- 

18. I On&ado ligen Iob yerbos actiyoB & sa objeto con aynda de la pie- 
posicion^/ 

14. Qu6 prepodoion drre para denotar la posedon 6 latnateiiade 
qne una cosa estd hecba ? 

16. I Qa6 nombres determina d articnlo elf 

— i Qq6 yariadon aofre el articnlo el cnando yiene despnea de la pre- 
po8ioion^6(20/ 

16. iDelante de qn6 parte de la oracion se coloca el articnlo indefini- 
dounf 

— |0n^ es el nso de la palabra unof 



LEOOION V. 

17. ^Odintos g^neros bay en espafiol ? 

— I On&ndo se emplea el articnlo femenino una f 

18. 406mo8e tradnoeyot/r/ 



LEOOION VI. 

10. I En qn6 letra aoaban todos los yerbos en la primera persona de 
indicativot 

— ^En qa6 se diferencia la segmida coi^ugacion de la primera, en 
el presente de indio(itiyof 

20 1 06nio se traduce muy f 

21. i 06mo se forma la terminacion femenina de los nombres acaba- 
dos en / 



LEOOION VII. 

22. |06mo forman sn terminadon femenina los adljetiyos que acaban 
^mo, antionf 



BBCAPITtTLACIOir. 367 

— ^Y.IosgeDtalicios? 

— ^En d6nde so colocan generalmente los a4Jetiyo9 con respecto & 
los sQstantivoB ? 

— I En d6nde se oolooon los acyetivos nsadoa metaf6ricam6nto (meta- 
phoricaUy) ? 

— iPierden algnnos a^jetivos sa ^tuna letra6 sllaba coando so colo- 
can delante do los snstantiyos? 



LEOOION VIII, 

28. 4 En qa6 se diferencian las terminaciones de la segonda y tercera 
conjngacion en el presente de indicativo ? 

24. I Oodndo se cambia la corjnndon 6 per la letra iSi t 

25. |06mo8etradncentf«^A^ynof r 

26. I G6mo se fonna el plural de los nombres ? 

27. jConcnerda el acyetivo con el sustantivo? 

28. jConcaerda el articnlo con el nombre & qne se refiere ? 
— iQa6 nombres femeninos toman el artionlo masculino ? 

29. lOoiado se nsa el articnlo nentro lot 



LEOCION IX. 

80. 1 06mo forman el plnral los nombres papd^ matnd jpiet 

81. 1 06mo forman el plnral los nombres de mas de nna sflaba que 
acaban en «, tales como Mnes^ mdrtes^t 

— I Ou4l es el plnral dejuez^ Upis^ j dem^s nombres que acaban enzf 

82. iC6mo se forma el plnral de los nombres compnestosf 

83. I Co^do toman articnlo los dias de la semana ? 

84. |Qn6 lugar ocupan en la oracion los adverbios i^n^^^, addnde j 
eudndoT 

85. |Cn4ndo requieren el acento los adverbios donde, adonde y 
ciuindot 



LEOOION "X. 
86. AQn6sonyerbosirregnlares? 
— |Qn6 se advierte aoerca de tener y los dem^s verbos anziliares f 



368 BE CAP ITU LA CI OK. 

— |06mo 86 tradnce los pronombres, r^^en direoto de un Torbo 
ingl68f 

87. |06mo 80 iiaar& del £0 y el 2o en el oaso acosativo^ esto ea, oomo 
regimen directot 

— I C6mo 86 tradacen en algnnos casos Ujiof 

88. lEeqmerea el articnlo los pronombres InterrogativoB ^Un^ eudt^ 
^uSf de quiin f 

89. Caando en una pregimta est& regido un pronombre interrogatiYo 
por nna preposidon | qa6 debe haoeroe en la respneeta t 



LEOOION XI. 

40. I Ga6ndo 86 emplea dlguien^ j cdmdo dlguno t 

— |En qa6 oaso so tradacir& amy tme, 6 anybody por eualquieraf 

41. |C6nio 86 nsadeno^Zid 7 nin^no/ 

42. I (Mndo pierden dlguno 7 ninguno la o final ? 
48. |En qa6 oaso so osari de algo 7 alguna com f 

44. I Gn^do se nsar^ de nada 7 ninguna eosa t 

45. iQa6 negadones se colocan delante del verbof 

— I Qa6 efecto producen en eepafiol, dos negativas en la misma bct- 
tendaf 

46. |En qa6 eases no se traduce d articnlo indefinido a 6 cnf 



LEOOION XII. 

47. i Oa&ndo se nsa dd verbo haber 7 cn^ndo dd yerbo tenerf 

— i06mo se tradaoen los aiudliareB to have jtole segnidos de on 
infinitivof 

48. |£n qnS oasos se emplea ^Lpr^hito ind^nidot 



LEOOION XIII. 

49. |De qa6 modo forman sn terminacion femenina los pronombres 
mhy tuyoj euyOy nueetro^ fmeetro f 

60. i Qa6 ooncordanda tieil^n los pronombres posedvos ? 

61. ^En d6nde se oolooan 7 qa6 letras pierden caando se nsan como 
a^jetiyos pronominalesf 



BBC A PI TULA CI ON. 369 

52. ^£n d6nde se oolooa el pronombre mio^ onando se nsa en el oaso 
vocativo? 

58. iQa6 conoordanda tieneu los a^etivos posesivos onando se usan 
como pronombres ? 

— iBequieren el artfonlo en esta caso ? 

54. I Qu6 articnlo reqnieren cnando se nsan de nn modo indefinido ? 

55. I Ou4ndo se omite el articitio con los pronombres posesivos ? 

56. I Cn4ndo se emplean los pronombres vue$ti^ j tuestra t 

LEOOION XIV. 

57. |Qa6 6rden se dgne en la formadon de los nlimeros oompnestos? 

58. 2 Oo&les son los ntuneros dedinables ? 

59. I Ca4ndo pierde uno la letra o t 

60. I Qa6 conoordanda tiene eiento j codndo pierde la tiltima sflaba ? 



LECWION XV. 

61. 2Qn6 ooncordancia tienen los ntimeros ordinales y d6nde se oolo- 
can? 

— ^Qa6 ntimeros ordinales pierden sn tiltima letra? 

62. I Qa6 ntimeros ordinales se nsan j cn4ndo ? 



LECOION XVI. 

68. ^Ondndo se nsa el preterito d^nidOj y en qn6 se diferenda del 
pretirito indefinido t 

64. 2 Qn6 significa la prepoddon anftf / 

65. ^06mo se nsan los adverbios mas y mhkOB^ y en d6nde se colocan 
en la oracion ? 

LEOOION XVII. 

66. jDe qn6 modo se emplea el pronombre relativo quient 

67. I Ondndo se tradnce who por que y onindo por quien t 

68. i Cual y que pneden refbrirse & personas y cosas? 

16* 



870 BSCAPITITLACIOV. 

69. ^Conqn^palabraconcnerdftmrytf/ 
— I Qa6 espede de pronambre es ? 

70. I Se osa del pronombro relaliTo ea espafiol dd mismo mddo que 
en iDgl68 ; esto ea, precedido 6 no de una prepoadon ? 

71. |Paede Buprimine el pronombre relatiTof 



LEOOION XVIII. 
72. |06mo se dedlnan los pronombres demostratiyos este, mey aqudf 
78. |£n qu6 caso se emplea €9U t 

74. iQa^ snoedia en lo antiguo cnando este j e$e preoedian al BdjeAivo 
ctrot 

75. i06mo se emploan los pronombres dcmostratiyos en sa calidad de 
a<^eUvo8f 

76. |06mo se tradaoen las palabras the former j the latter f 

77. i C6nio 80 tradace el pronombre demostrativo ingl4s thaiy segmdo 
do la proposidon ^, 6 de cualquiera de los reladvos ioho 6 tcAieA / 

78. 1 06mo 80 tradaoen generalmento los proi^ombres personales in- 
glescs, cnando yan sogoidos de nn relatlyo ? 

79. I Qn6 dlferenda bay entre el significado de los adyerbios aqu% j 
allX, jacdr alUt 

LECOION XIX. 

80. I On4ndo debe nsarso de la preposicion para^ j coiindo de par f 

81. iCo&l 08 d fflgnifioado de la prepoddon entre t 

82. ^Ou^ OS d »gnifloado de la prepoddon hcuta t 



LEOOION XX. 

83. ^Onindo pierden los adyerbios tanto j euanto sd iiltima silaba ? 

84. 206mo se forma d comparatiyo de igualdadt 

85. jEnqn^oasopnedeemplearse (man f 

86. |O6mo8efornuidoomparatayodeatipm0n(Zai/ 



BECAPITULACION. 871 

87. 1 06mo se forma el comparativo de ii^ferioridad t 

88. |Porqn6 IO0 ac(]etiYOs ma^or^ menor^ m^orj peor^ no necesitan 
de las palabras fUM 6 minoi^ para formar sos grados de comparaoion ? 

89. jEn qn6 caso se traditce th(m por dejea ca41 otro per que f 

90. gPueden tambiea formar grados de comparaoion los nombres, ver- 
bos 7 adverbios? • 



LEOOION XXI. 

91. 206mo se tradncen los snperlatiyps ingleses que acaban por est^ 
6 se forman con la palabra most t 

92. I En qn6 caso se tradnce movt^ 6 movt qfi por la mayor parte f 

93. i Qn6 preposicion corresponde en espafiol al in ingl6s despnes de 
tin superlatiyo? 

94. Los snperlativos qne se forman en ingles por medio de mott^ very, 
&c,y I c6mo se forman en espafiol ? 

95. I Cnilndo pierden los acyetivos la tUtima vocal ? 

96. jDlgame Y. lo que se advierte acerca de los sapcrlativos en 
irrimof 

97. i Qn6 acyetivos cambian sas letras finales dntes de recibir la ter- 
minacion \aimo f 

98. iOoMes son los snperlativos en \»mo formados irregolannente ? 

99. I Oa41es son los comparativos 7 snperlativos irregolares ? 

100. I On^do itimiten grados de comparacion los snstantivos ? 

LEOOION XXII. 

101. I Qa6 se advierte acerca de los verbos ser y eatar t 

102. I On^do se tradnce el verbo to he, por wr, y cndndo por eatar t 
— I On&les son los verbos cnyos gemndios no admiten d verbo etiar 

oomo auzUiar ? 



LEOOION XXIII. 

103, J Oudndo se emplea eiyi*^w «M»j?Ztf / 

104. 1 06mo se nsan los nnmerales qne indican.las boras del dia ? 



372 BECAPITULACIOir. 

105. i Forqni6 palabra ae tndaoe wawn^ 6 night t 

106. I En qii6 caso no rige al .BabjuntiTO la coojundon H f 



LECCION XXIV. 
107. I Cnimdo ee emplea f^futuro einnpwito f 
* 108. i C6mo fle traduce en ing^^ acodar ^ f 

109. jEn qa6 letra acaban en espafiol la mayor parte de las pakbras 
qne en ingl^ terminan en turn t 

110. I Ck>n qn6 nlinieros se cnentan los dias del mes ? 

LEOOIOK XXV. 

111. |Qn6 diferencia se encaentra en el significado de los rerbos 
saber J conoeert 

112. I Qa6 diferencia existe entre los adverbios aun, ya j todaoia f 

— I C6mo se tradace once^ tmce^ etc. ? 

— I Qa6 se observB en el nso de la palabras miedOj valor^ verguen- 
tOj IdstimOj y Uempo t 

118. Ooando el yerbo to he precede k los ac^jetiYOS hungry^ thirsty y 
qfraid^ ashamed^ rights wrongy eoldy sleepy^ i qa6 yerbo se emplea en 



114« 1 06mo se emplean jami< y nunea f 

LEOOION XXVI. 

116. 2 En d6nde se colocan los pronombres nominativos con respecto 
al yerbo ? 

116. 2 Qn4 pecoliaridad se nota en los pronombres personales ? 

117. iEn d6nde se ooloca el eomplemento directo {objective ease) 
cnondo no le precede una preposicion, y el yerbo est4 en Infinitiyo 6 
imperativo ? 

118. I En qu6 tiempos pierde el yerbo la letra final cuando se le afiade 
uno de los pronombres iiMiiost 

— 4 Con que objeto se hace esto ? 

119. jCu&ndo podr4 colocarse el pronombre eomplemento directo 
despues del yerbo en el modo indioatiro 6 subjuntlyo ? 



BEGAPITULACION. 873 

120. Cuando on verbo r\ja 4 otro en infinitiTO, i en d6nde se oolocar4 
el proiiombre objeto ? 

121. I Qa6 oaso rigen las preposiciones expresas ? 

122. I Qn6 se nota caando la preposidon eon anteoede 4 los pronom- 
bres mi^ tif ^f 

128. I Oo^ndo se nsa de la preposidon entre con el oaso nominatiyo ?. 

124. I Qa6 pronombre complemento (i. «., 1st objeotiTe or 2d objec- 
tive case) se nsa despaes de los comparatiyoB ? 

126. Cuando en ingl^ el caso objetivo de la primera 6 segonda per- 
sona es d regimen dd verbo 6 de la prepoddon tOj t&dta (understood) 
6 ezpresa, i c6mo se traduce ? 

126. I C6mo se traduce d complemcDto indirecto ingles de la tercera 
persona ? 



LEOOION XXVII. 

127. Cuando la tercera persona va regida de la prepoddon to en 
ingles, tdcita 6 ezpresa, dendo el regimen dd verbo un pronombre de la 
tercera persona, i por qu6 palabra se traduce ? 

— I Cu41 es la razon de esto ? 

128. En caso de encontrarse en una sentenda dos pronombres, uno 
complemento directo 7 d otro indirecto, i<mil se coloca primero ? 

129. I Y cu&ndo d regimen del verbo es un pronombre refleziyo ? 

ISO. I Qu6 se observa cuando, para dar mas energia d la frase, se ponen 
dos pronombres de la misma persona? 

181. I Qu4 debe observarse con respecto 4 las frases, d il guiero^ d ti 
amot 

182. ^ Qu6 se debe tener presente para no confundir los pronombres 
personales ilj la, lo^ los j lat^ con los u^culos el^ lOf lo, los j laa f 

138. {Para qu6 sirve d a^jetivo mumot 



LITCCION XXVIII. 

184. ^Cu^doseusadm^tfi/ee^f 

185. iQjJikAo^xia^Apluscuamperfectot 



874 BXCAPITVLACION. 

186. 1 06mo 86 tradnoen las ezpresioiieB to Aom jtat jtole Jtut de- 
lante de un participio pasado? 

LEOOION XXIX. 

187. |Oa&ndo so naa el pret^to anterior? 

188. |De d6nde se derivan los adTerbios de modo y oalidad f 

189. ^ 06mo se forman los adverbios que se derivan de a^jetivos f 

140. i Qa6 adverbios admiten grados de oomparadon ? 

141. |Qa6 adverbios paeden sostitairse an cambiar de rignificado? 

LEOOION XXX. 

142. iQn^son verbosimpersonales? 

148. |En qa6 caso se nsan los verbos amaneeer y anoehec&r en las tres 
personas ? 

144. 1 06mo se tradnoen en ingl6s los verbos hdber y h4xeer cnando se 
nsan como impersonales ? 

— I QuS se observa oon respecto & la primera persona del presente de 
indicativo del verbo hahery nsado impersonahnente ? 

— I Hay otros verbos qne pneden nsarse como impersonales ? 

145. I En qn6 oaso no se tradnce el pronombre poseavo ingl^ iU f 

— iBeqnieren arlicnlo los nombres tomados ensentido indefinido? 

— I Toman el articitlo los nombres nsados en toda la extension de sn 
significado? 

146. ^Uevan articnlo los nombres de-nadones, paSses, provindas, 
monies, rios y estadones ? 

147. I Ooindo no admiten articnlo los nombiej de midones, paises y 
provindas, etc. 

— I Onfiles reqnieren dempre d articnlo t 

LEOOION XXXL 

148. 1 06mo se oox\Jnga d verbo anistar cnando dgnifica U please t 

149. I Qn6 dgnifica el verbo gtutar segaido de la prepoddon de t 

160. I Qn6 dgnifica y c6mo se coignga d verbo gustos como verbo 
active? 



BECAPITTJLACIOK. 875 

151. |Qq6 otros verbos reqnieren la misina oonstraooion idiom&tica 
del verbo ffustar f 

162. I Qa6 se obseira en la coz\}agacion del yerbo jMsar cnando dgni- 
fica to regret t 



LEOOION XXXII. 
158. 1 06mo se forma la voz pasiva ? 
— I (Mndo se forma oon el verbo e^tar t 

154. I En qui caso no podr4 nsarse la voz paava con el verbo ier en 
el presente y el imperfeoto de indicativo? 

156. I (Mndo se nBar& de la prepoedcion de j cu&ndo do par en la voz 
pasiva? 

156-157. I En qui oasos se forma la voz pasiva con el pronombre se t 



LEOCION XXXIII. 

158. I C6mo se coqjagan los verbos reflezivos f 

159. I Ca&ndo se nsa la forma reflexiva ? 

160. A C6mo se co^jngan los verbos recfprocos ? 



• LEOOION XXXIV. • 

161. I Qa6 oonstitaye la irregolaridad de los verbos ? 

162. I Qa6 debe tenerse presente para no confundlr con loe verbos 
irregnlares algtmos qne annqne snfren nn oambio ortogrMoo no dejan por 
eso de ser regolares ? 

168. ^Qa6 oambio sofiren los verbos que aoaban eueert 

164. 2 Qa6 oambio se nota en los qne aoaban euuirt 

165. ^En cn^tas dases 6 gmpos se dividen los verbos irregnlares? 

166. I Qn6 se observa en la oonstmccion del verbo paga/r t 



LEOOION XXXV. 

167. i Ouiles la irregolaridad del verbo oe^tor/ 

168. I Odmdo se nsa el modo imperalivo ? 



870 BBCAPITULACI027. 

169. iQQ^letraspierde^yenqa^penonaBydmodoimperatiyocniaiido 
86 le afiade el pronombres noBjaf 

170. I En d6nde se oolooan los pronombres en espaflol coando el im- 
peratiTO se usa en la forma neg^tivaf 

171. iPnede nsarse el fntnro de indicatiyo por el imperatiyo? 

172. |06mo se tradncen en espafiol los a^etiyos ingkses acabadoa 

178. I T los nombres y a^jetiyos ingleses qne acaban en ie 6 ieal t 



LEOOION XXXVI. 
174^ I OoAl es*la irregularidad del yerbo m&oer t 

175. Coando se nsa del m como pronombre indefinidOy ^ 4 qn6 palabras 
corresponde en Ingl^ t 

176. I Ou^es son las ooatro flmdonee qne desempefia el pronombre m f 

177. |C6mo se tradncen en espafiol los nombres ingleses que acaban 
en tyt 

— i A qn6 g^nero pertenecen estos nombres ? 

178. I Qa6 pecoliaridad se nota en el yerbo doler t 

LEOOION XXXVII. 
170. iOaSL es la firegnlaiidad del yerbo atenderf , 
180-181-182-188. I Oo^do se emplea d modo snbjuntiyo f 

184. I OnAndo se nsa el presente de snbjontiyo ? 

185. I Cudndo se nsa el perfecto de snbjnntiyo ? 

LEOOION XXXVIII. 

186. j Tienen los yerbos espafioles otro pardcipio adem^ del pasado ? 
— I Qn6 terminacion tienen los participios presentee, y c6mo se nsan ? 

187. I Oo^do se nsan los genmdios ? 

188. lOnil es el anxiliar de los gemndiost 

189. I G6mo se tradnce en espafiol el partioipio presente ingles, pre- 
cedido de nna prepoddon ? 

190. jPaede nsarse dinfinitiyo como nombreyerbal? 



BSCAPITULACION. 877 

191. i06mo Be tradaoe en ingl^ el infinitiyo espafiol, re^do por otro 
verbo? 



LEOOION XXXIX. 

192. 2OaAleslairrQgiilaridaddelTerb6|70(2irf 

193. i On&les son las formas mas nsuales para saladar ? 

LEOOION XL. 

194. 4 OaM es la irregolaridad del verbo condudrf 
d95. I Qn6 se nota sobre la palabra tegun t 

196. 1 06ino cononerdan Ips nombres oolectiyos ? 

LEOOION XLI. 

197. |Qii6 son verbos defectiyos ? 

198. ^En qn6 personas y co^ndo se nsa el verbo yaeerf 

199. I En qn6 tiempos se nsa el yerbo $oler j qn6 pecnliaridad se nota 
en 61? 

200. iQn6 eagnificadon tiene la preposidon desdef 

201. 2 06mo se nsa la preposidon em^a / ^ • 

202. 2 On&l es la significacion de la preposidon tdbref 
208. 2 Oa&l es la signifioacion de la preposidon tra9 f 

204. I On&ndo se nsa de la ooi\jnndon pue» f 

LEOOION XLII 

205. |En qn6 80 dividen las coi\]andones? 

206. I Qn6 debe observarse acerca dd regimen de las co^jondones ? 

207. I Qn6 conjnndones rigen d verbo al modo snbjnntiyo ? 

208. i On&les le rigen al modo inflnitivo ? 

209. I OdUes le rigen al modo indicativo? 



378 SBCAPITVLACIOV. 

LEOCION XLIII. 

210. iCoindo M emplea d m^Mrfecto de flobjimtiTO, y coindo el 
phneaamperfecto f 

211. |C6mo 86 tndnoen ea espafiol loe anxOkres moffj mightj eon, 

212. ^De qok manen ezproM U aocUxi del Yorbo el imperfecto de 
satjimtiTof 

218. ^De qii6 maoen It represenfta d ploscuamperfeotof 



LECOION XLIV. , 

214. |Qii6 son nombreB onmeiitatiyos j diinmiitiyofi, y o6mo te 
fomunt 

216. jHay algonoe nombres qae fonnan ana diminntavos con otras 
tenninadones diatiiitaB de las designadas par eate objeto ? 

210. I Paedea formane diminntiyofs con otras partes de la oradon f 

217. I Qq6 nombres pnmitiyos no admiten algonas de las termiaadonea 
designadaa? 

218. I A qja& noDcbies so deeigna o(xi el de dettprmaPiunf 



LEOOION XLV. 

219. I G6mo representa la aodon dd yerbo el fatoro ample de sab- 
jontiyo? 

220. iGoAndo pnede sustitoirae el presente de sabjtmtiyo al fiitiiro 
simple f 

221. 1 06mo. representa la aodon del yerbo el ftitoro oompneato de 
aaljantiyof 

222. 4 Cnindo pnede sostitnirsde el perfedx) de salgontiyo ? 

223. I Qa6 debe tenerse presente para no confondir el imperfed;o y 
plnscoamperfecto del modo snbjantiyo, con d fhtaro simple y compnesto 
ddmismomodo? 

224. Giiando d yerbo que est4 en fhturo simple 6 compnesto fnndona 
oomo Yerbo detenninante ^4 qu& modo y tiempos pnede regir d yerbo 
determinadof 



BSCAPIXULACION. 379 

LEOOION XLVI. 

225-226. i Qu6 son coiyimoioneB, y cu£ es el signifioado de las prin- 
cipales f 

LEOOION XLVII. 

227. i Qu6 partes de la oradon paeden llevar arUculo ? 

228. ilievan artlculo los nombres comunes q|^e se nsan en toda la 
extension de sn significacion ? 

229. iSe pone articulo delante de los nombres de imperios, reinos, 
provincias y paises ? 

— ^Oudndo se omite? 

230. I CdLndo reqnieren articulo los nombres de medidas, pesos, &c. 

231. I Cn^do se repite el articulo ? ' 

232. I En qn6 caso se pone el articnlo delante do los nombres qne 
expresan rango, oficio, profesion 6 titulo de personas? 

233. 2 En qn6 caso se nsa el articnlo en Ingar del a^jetlvo posesivo ? 

234. I En qn6 caso se nsa el articnlo, como en Ingl^ ? 

LEOOIOI^r XLVIII. 

285. I C6mo se corresponden los verbos cnando estan nnidos por nn 
relativo? 

236. ^ Cudndo se pone en infinitiyo el verbo determinado ? 

237. Si el verbo determinante fnere ser, 6 cnalqniera de los imperso- 
nales, i en qn6 modo se pondr& el verbo determinado, en el caso de care- 
oer este de sageto ? 

— |Porqn6 sncede esto asi? 

238. T cnando dicho yerbo tnviere sngeto, i en qn6 modo se pondrd ? 

— Los verbos qne expresan mandato, i & qn6 modo rigen el verbo 
determinado ? 

239. Cnando el verbo determinante est4 en infinitivo, en presente 6 
futnro de indicativo, 6 en imperativo nnido al verbo determinado por 
nna ooi\jnndon ^ en qne modo se pone este tUtimo ? 

240. I A qn6 modo y en qu& tiempos rige al verbo determinado el 



880 SBCAPITULACIOV. 

deiermiiiBnte, cnando eete tlismo se enoaentra en el pret6iito indefinido 
6 en el fhtnro oompnesto de indicativo f 

241. CoAndo el nominatiyo es el mismo para lunbos verboB 7 d de- 
terminante se encaentra en indicatiyo, i k qne modo rige este al deter* 
minado f 



LEOOION XLIX. 
242. I Qq6 son nombres deriyados f 

248, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252. sQo^ denotan, j 
oo^e^jBon las principales terminaoiones ? 



LEOOION L. 
258. I C6mo Be forman loe tiempos compaestos f 

LEOOION LI. 

254. I Ondl es la constraocion natoral ? 

255. jOoideslafigoradaf 

266. I De cdtfitoe modos pnede conrtrairse nna frase ? 

257. iQa^oonstraccioneBlapreferible? 

LEOOION LII. 

258. lOonserran alganos partidpios el regimen de sos yerboe? 

259. i Ooiil es la ooncordanoia del participio pasado ? 

260. Ooando nn yerbo tiene dos participios pasados, ono regular 7 
otro irregular, i o6mo se emplean ? 

261. I OnAles son los participios pasados irregnlares qne se pneden 
nsar con el yerbo haber ? 

262. i Qa6 irregnlaridad pecnliar tiene el rerbo morir f 

268. I Ha7 algnnos participios pasados 6 pasiyos qne toman nna sign!- 
ficadon actiyaf 



BBCAPITULACION. 381 

264. ^Paeden algonos partidpios pasados haoer las veoes de snstan-. 

tlFO? 

265. iQii6 86 debe observar acerca de otros tiempoa qne algnnos gra- 
m&ticos agregan al modo infinitiyo f 



LEOOION LIII. 

266. I Qn6 son modismoB 6 idiotiamos i- 

— I C6mo 86 tradncen en espafiol las frases en qne la preporaoion 
inglesa toma nn signifioado diferente de aqnel qne generalmente se le 
atribnje ? 



LEOOION LIV. 

267. I C6mo se tradnoen en espafiol las co^jnnoionea inglesas qne se 
nsan freonentemente en Ingar de otras palabras ? 

268. I Haj tambien en espafiol coignndones qne se nsan en Ingar db 
otras palabras? 

— I (Mies son los principales nsos de la ooi\jnncion n f 

LEOOION LV. 
' 269. ^ Odkles son los principales nsos de la ooxgnnoion que f 



LEOOION LVI. 

270. I On^les son las formas mas nsnales para principiar j acabar 
cartas? 



LEOOION LVII. 

271. gQn6 se advierte acerca de las prepodciones qne cambian sn 
signifioado de los verbos & qne se jnntan ? 



LEOOION LVIII. 
272. |06mo se tradncen los verbos to he glad ytohe refoieed atf * 



882 BSCAPITI7I.ACI0K. 7 

278. |06mo se tradnoen los verbos to he iorry j to ffriece f 
274. i 06mo se emplea el verbo caber f 

LECOION LIX. 
276. I A qa6 modimos se prestan los verbos eaer^ da/r^ deeir j eekarf 



LEOOION LX. 

276. I Qu&Les son los principales idiotismos 4 que se prestan los Terbos 
entrar^ hacer^ tr, Uecar^ mandar^ oUr d, edber d^ ealir^ seniVj tardar j 
tolverf 



COMPLETE LIST 

Of THB 

CONJUGATIONS OF AL L THB SPANISH VERBS, AUXILI AHY, E BQTJLAB, IS- 

BBGULAB, BBFLBCnVS, DCPEBSONAL AND DEFBCTIVB, WITH 

AN SXAHFLB OF THE PASSIVE VOICE. 



ATTXILIABT TBBB8. 

nOTNrrnvB. 

FBESEmr. 



ToJum. 



To he. 



Haber. 



Tener. 



I Ser. 

OEBUND. 



Habiendo. 



ITaving. 



Teniendo. 



Ead. 



Habido. 



1. He. 

2. Has. 
8. Ha. 

1. HemoB. 

2. Habeis. 
8. Han. 

Ihad. 

1. Habia. 

2. Habias. 
8. Habia. 



I 



Being. 
Siendo. 



Tenido. 



PAST PABTIOIFLB. 
I 8idO. 

INDIOATIVB. 

PBE8SST. 



Been. 



IhOM. 



lam. 



Tengo. 
Tienes. 
Hene. 

Tenemos. 

Teneia. 

Tienen. 



Tenia. 

Tenias. 

Tenia. 



Soy. 
Erea. 
Ea. 

Somos. 

Sois. 

Son. 



IHPEEFEOT. 



I was. 



Era. 

Eras. 

Era. 



Estar. 



Estando. 



Estado. 



Estoy. 
Estas. 
Est4 

Estamos. 

Estais. 

Estan. 



Estaba. 

Estabas. 

Estaba. 



384 



COKJUOATIOKB. 



1. Habiamoa. 


Teniamos. 




Estabamos. 


2. HabuiiB. 


Teniaifl. 


Erais. 


EatabaiA. 


8. Habian. 


Tenian. 


Eran. 


Estaban. 




FRETEBIT 






Ihad. 




/too*. 




1. Hnbe. 


Tuve. 


FuL 


Estave. 


2. Hnbiste. 


Taviste. 


Fuiste. 


Estuviste. 


8. Hnbo. 


Tuva 


F116. 


Estayoi. 


1. Hnbimoa. 


Tavimoa. 


Foimofl. 


Estayimos. 


2. Hubisteis. 


Tuvisteia. 


Fnisteis. 


EBtayistei& 


8. HnbieroiL 


Tuvieron. 


Faeron. 


Estayieron. 










lOiall U. 


1. Habr6. 


Tendp6. 


Ser^. 


Estar^. 


2. Habr^ 


Tendr^ 


Ser^. 


E9tari0. 


8. HabHL 


Teudr4. 


SeHL 


Estar&. 



1. Habr^mos.^ Tendr^mos. 

2. Habr^ia. Tendinis. 
8. Habr&Q. Tendr^. 



SerSmos. Estar^mos. 

Serbia. Estar^is. 

Ser^ Estardn. 



DfPERATIVE. 



Let me hone. 

1. Let me have. Tengayo. 

2. Have thou. Ten tiL 
8. Letbimbaye. Tenga^. 

1. Letnsbaye. Tengamoe. 

2. naye je. Tened. 
8. Lettbemhaye. Tengan. 



Letfnele. 

E8t6. 

S6. Estd. 

Sea. Est6. 



Seamoa. 

Sed 

Sean. 



EstemoB. 

Estad. 

Eaten. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Imayha/te. 

1. Haya. Tenga. 

2. Hajaa. Tengaa. 
8. Haya. Tenga. 

1. Hayamos. Tengamoa. 

2. Hayaia. Tengaia. 
8. Hayan. Tengan. 



I may he. 
Sea. Estd. 

Seas. Estea. 

Sea. Est6. 



Seamos. 

Seais. 

Sean. 



Estemoa. 

Esteia. 

Eaten. 



CONJUGATIONS. 



885 



DiPKBFKOT. — First TertninatiafL* 
I icofUd hcvoe, I would h&. 



1. Habria. 


Tendria. 


Sena. 


Estaria. 


2. Habrias. 


Tendiias. 


Senas. 


Estarias. 


8. Habria. 


Tendria. 


Seria. 


Estaria. 



1. Habriamos. Tendriamos. 

2. Habrias. Tendriais. 
8. Habrian. Tendrian. 



Seriamos. Estariamos. 
Serials. Estariais. 

Serian. Estarian. 



liDOuld ha/ee. 



Second Termination, 

I would he. 



1. Hubiera. 

2. Habieras. 
8. Habiera. 



Tnviera. 
Tuvieras. 
Tuviera. 



Faera. 
Faeras. 
Fuera. 



Estayiera. 
Estavieras. 
Estaviera. 



1. Habieramos. Tavieramos. 

2. Hubicrais. Tuvierais. 
8. Hubieran. Tavieran. 



Fueramos. , Estnyieramos. 
Faerais. Estavierais. 

Fneran. Estnyieran. 



Third Termination, 



IfihovXd haw, 

1. Habiese. Tnviese. 

2. Habieses. Tuvieses. 
8. Habiese. Tnviese. 

1. Hnbiesemos. Tuviesemos. 

2. Hnbieseis. Tuvieseis. 
8. Habiesen. Tnviesen. 



I should he, 

Faese. Estaviese. 

Faeses. Estavieses. 

Fuese. Estuviese. 

Faescmos. Estaviesemos. 

Fneseis. Estnvicscis. 

Fuesen. Estuyiesen. 



FUTUBB. 



I might or should hwoe, 

1. Habiere. Taviere. 

2. Hubieres. Tuvieres. 
8. Hnbiere. Taviere. 



I might or should he, 
Faere. Estaviere. 

Faeres, Estavieres. 

Faere. Estaviere. 



1. Habieremos. Tavieremos. 

2. Habiereis. Tuviereis. 
8. Habieren. Tavieren. 



Faeromos. Estavieremos. 
Faereis. Estuvicreis. 

Faeren. Estavieren. 



* It wiU be obaeryed that, dlllbrent from almost all other gramman, we ^reriaas the 
flnt termination, this order appearing to ns more logical and, abore al], more grammatical, 
and more in aoootdanee with the slgDlflcatlon and oaes of the three termlnationB. 

17 



886 



GOHJUOATIOKB. 



K0DIL8 07 TfiZ TEBES BSaTTLAS OOHJTrGAXIOHS. 

HIST CMJVCATEOV. 

INFINITIVJI 
Hablar. I To speak. 

G8BUHD. 

Hablando. I Speaking. 



HaUada 


1 8poken. 


i 

1. Hablo. 

2. Hablas. 
8. Habla.. 


INDIOi 

FEES 

Swgvltar. 
lapeak. 


LUVJB. 

XBT. 

JPluroL 

1. HablazQOs. 

2. Hablais. 
8. Hablan. 


1. Hablaba. 

2. Hablabas. 
8. Hablaba. 


UCF8B 

I spoke, was 
speakiDg, &a 


IFEOT. 

1. HablabamoflL 

2. Hablabais. 
8. Hablaban. 


1. Habl6. 

2. Hablaste. 
8. Habl6. 


I spoke. 


1. HabltooB. 

2. Hablasteis. 
8. Hablaron. 


1. Hablar6. 

2. Hablar^ 
8. Hablarl 


IshaUorwiU 
qieak. 


RTMPIS. 

1. HablardmoB. 

2. Hablardis. 
8. Hablarim. 


2. Habla. 
8. Hable. 


IMPEB 
Speak (thon). 


ATIVK. 

1. Hablemos. 

2. Hablad. 
8. HaUen. 





CONJUaATIOKB. 




SUBJUNOnVB. 




FBBBENT. 


1. Hable. 

2. Hables. 
8. Hable. 


I may speak. 


1. Hablemos. 

2. Hableis. 
8. Hablen. 






1. Hablaria. 

2. Hablarias. 
8. Hablaria. 


I should or would 
speak. 


1. Hablariamos. 

2. Hablariais. 
8, Hablarian. 




aetmd Tmninatum. 


1. Hablara. 

2. Hablaras. 
8. Hablara. 


I might, could, 
would, or should 
speak. 


1. Hablaramos. 

2. Hablarais. 
8. Hablaraa 




Third Termination. 


1. Hablase. 

2. Hablases. 
8. Hablaae. 


I might, &c., 
speak. 


1. Hablasemos. 

2. Hablaseis. 
8. Hablasen. 






1. Hablare. 

2. Hablares. 
8. Hablare. 


I might, ^., 
speak. 


1. Hablaremos. 

2. Hablareis. 
8. Hablaren. 




8B0OID €0V JVCIATiOV. 




INPIOTTIVB. 


Aprender. 


1 To learn. 




GZRTTSD. 


Aprendiendo. • | Learning. 




PAST PABnOtPLX. 


Aprendido. 




Leanied. 



88? 



888 



COHJXrOATIONB. 
INDICATIVE. 



1. ApraDdo. Ileanu 

2. Aprendes. 
8. ApreDde. 



1. Aprendemos. 

2. ApreDdds. 
8. Aprdaden. 



1. Aprendia* 

2. Aprendias. 
8. Aprendia. 



1. AprendL 

2. Aprendiste. 
8. ApreDdi6. 



I learned, was 
learning, &c 



1. Aprendiamos. 

2. Aprendiais. 
8. Aprendian. 



PBSTKBIT DSFOnTB. 



I learned. 



1. Aprendimos. 

2. Aprendiflteia. 
8. Aprendierom 



FCTUBX BDIFLB. 



1. Aprender6. 

2. Aprender&8. 
8. AprendeHL 



2. Aprende. 
8. Aprenda. 



I shall or will 
learn. 



1. Aprender6mo6. 

2. Aprender^s. 
8. Aprender4n. 



mPERATIVB. 
Learn (thou). 



1. Aprendamos. 

2. Aprended. 
8. Aprendan. 



1. Aprenda. 

2. Aprendas. 
8. Aprenda. 



SUBJUNCnVR 

FBBSBNT. 



I may learn. 



1. Aprendamos. 

2. Aprendais. 

3. Aprendan. 



iMPEBFEcrr. — First Termination. 



1. Aprenderia. 

2. Aprenderias. 
8. Aprenderia. 



I would or should 
learn. 



1. Aprgpderiamos. 

2. Aprenderiala. 
8. Aprenderian. 



0ONJUOATI0N8. 



88d 



Second Termination. 



1. Aprendiera. 



2. Aprendleras. 
8. Aprendiera. 

1. Aprendiese. 

2. Apr6ndiese& 

3. Aprendiese. 



I might, oonld, 
would, or should 
learn. 



1. Aprendieramos. 



2, i^rendierais. 
8. Aprendieran. 

Third Termination. 



I might, &C., 
learn. 



1. Aprendiesemos. 

2. Aprendieseis. 
8. Aprendiesen. 



FUTUBE. 



1. Aprendiere. 

2. Aprendieres. 
8. Aprendiere. 



I might, &0., 
learn. 



1, Aprcndieremos. 

2. Aprendiereis. 
8. Aprendieren. 



Escribir. 

Escribiendo. 

Eacrito.* 



THUD CONJUGATIOH. 

iNFiNrnvE. 

I To write. 

OEBUm). 

I * Writing. 

PAST PABmCIPLB. 

I Written. 



INDICATIVR 



1. Escribo. 

2. Escribes. 
8. Escribe. 



1. Esoribia. 

2. Esoribias. 
8. Escribia. 



I write. 



1. Escribimos. 

2. Escribis. 
8. Escriben. 



IMFEBFECrr. 



I wrote, was 
writing. 



^TblsiltlMODlj 



1. Escribiamos. 

2. Escribiais. 
8. Escribian. 

of kregolarity in the Terb AoHMr. 



890 



OOHJVOATIOKB. 



PuraunT Dsmnrx. 



1. EaciibL 

2. Efloribiste. 
8. £0Gribi6. 



1. EBdibif^ 

2. Efloribir^ 
8. ^oribird. 



2. Eacribe. 
8. Eflcriba. 



1. Esoriba. 

2. Escribaa. 
8. Escriba. 



1. EBoribiiia. 

2. Escribiriafl. 
8. Escribiria. 



1. Esoribiera. 



2. Escribieras. 
8. Escribiera. 



1. Esoribieae. 



2. Esoribieses. 
8. Esoribieae. 



I wrote. 



1. Eacribimos. 

2. EacribistdB. 
8. EaoribieroiL 



FUTUBB St2fPLB. 



I ahall (or wiU) 
write. 



1. Eacribirdmos. 

2. Esoribir^u. 
8. Eaoribir&iL 



Write (thou). 
Let him, ftc, 
write. 



IMPEBATTVE. 

1. Eacribamos. 

2. Escribid. 
8. Eacriban. 



SUBJDNCnVB. 



I may write. 



1. Eacribamoa. 

2. Esoribua. 
8. Eaoribanu 



DCPBBFXcr.— 1^^ Termination, 



I would (or 
ahould) write. 



1. Eacribiriamoa. 

2. Eacribiriaia. 
8. Eacribirian. 



Second Termination. 



I might, could, 
would, or ahould 
write. 



1. Eacribieramos. 



2. Escribieraia. 
8. Eacribieran. 



Third Termination, 



I might, could, 
would, or ahould 
write. 



1. Eacribieaemoa. 



2. Eacribieaeis. 
8. Eaoribieeen. 



OOKJUGATIOHrS. 



891 



FUTUltX. 



1. EsGiibiere. I ndght^ &c^ 

write. 

2. Esoribieres. 
8. Escribiere. 



1. Escribieremos. 

2. Escribiereifl. 
8. Esoribiereo. 



CfOMFOUND TBNBES. 

These are formed hj joining the several tenses of the auxiliary hdber 
to the past participle of the verb expressing the action. 



INDICATIVE MOOD, 




PBBTBBIT IfJDJU'lAlTJS. 










IhtHewiUen. 


To he escrito. 


1. He \ hablado. 


Hemos 


hablado. 


2. Has aprendido. 


Habeisv 


aprendido. 


8. Ha J escrito. 


Han 


escrita 


FLTJFE) 


SFBOT. 





Ihadepoken, 
Ihad learned, 
I had written. 

1. Habia ^ hablado. 

2, Habias L aprendido. 
8. Habia J escrito. 



To habia hablado. 

To habia aprendido. 

To hctbia eacrito. 
Habiamos ^ hablado. 
Habiais I aprendido. 

Habian J escrito. 



PBSTSBIT AKTEBIOB. 





IhadapoJcen. 








To hubi 


\ aprendido. 




I had written. 


To hube escrito. 


1. 


Hnbe ] 


hablado. 


Hubimos 


hablado. 


2. 


Hubiste 


aprendido. 


Hubisteis 


• aprendido. 


8. 


Hnbo 


escrito. 


Hnbieron 


escrito. 




OOMPOITZn 










Tohdbf 


'i hablado. 




I shaU have learned. 


Tohdbt 


6 aprendido. 




lahaU have written. 


Tohdbf 


e eacrito. 


1. 


Habr6 ] 


hablado. 


Habr6mos ^ 


hablado. 


2. 


Habdb 


. aprendido. 


Habr6is 


. aprendido. 


8. 


Habr4 


escrito. 


Habrto 


escrito. 



892 



OOKJUGATIOKS. 



THB tOSYSV PBnrCIPAL CLASSES OF DtSEGITLAB 
▼ESB& 







URsicuss. 




ACERTAB. 






1 To hit the tnari. 






INDICATIVEL 








PBBSXSi: 




1. Acierto. 


I hit the mark. 


1. Acertamos. 


2. Adertaa. 






2. Aoertais. 




8. Aderta. 






3. Aeiertan. 






mPKUATIVE. 










1. Acertemos. 


8. Aderta. 






2. Aoertad. 




8. Aderte. 






8. Acierten 








SUBJUNCriVE. 








PBB8 


KNT. 




1. Aderte. 






1. Acertemos. 


2. Adertes. 






2. AoerteiB. 




8. Aderte. 






8. Aderten. 


The following wrbt^ and their compounds, are canjilgated Uke Aoertab : 


Acrece&tar. 


Toincreaae. 




Derrengar. 


To break the back. 


Adestrar. 


To render skllfuL 


Despemar. 


To cat off theirs. 


AlenUr. 


To breathe. 




Despertar. 


To awake. 


Apaoentar. 


To feed. 




Besterrar. 


To banish. 


Apretar. 


Tosqueese. 




Empedrar. 


To pave. 


Arrendar. 


To hire. 




Empezar. 


Tob^. 


Asentar. 


To place. 




Enoerrar. 


To lockup. 


ABerrar. 


To saw. 




Enoomendar. 


To recommend. 


Aterrar. 


To throw down. 


Enterrar. 


To bury. 


AtesUur. 


ToatoiC 




Escannentar. 


To take warning. 


Atravesar. 


TocroBB. 




Fregar. 


To rob. 


Aventar. 


To winnow. 




Gobemar. 


Togoyem. 


Calentar. 


To wann. 




Hekr. « 


To freeze. 


Cegap. 


Toblmd. 




Henrar. 


To shoe. 


Ocprap. 


To ehut 




Inyemar. 


To winter. 


Gomenzar. 


To commence. | 


Hentar. 


To mention- 


Goncertar. 


To agree. 




Herendar. 


To take a coDation. 


Confesar. 


To confess. 




N^ar. 


To deny. 


Deoentar. 


To taste for the | 


Nerar. 


To snow. 




first time. 


1 


Pensar. 


To think. 



CONJUGATIONS. 



38^ 



Quebrar. 


To break. 


Sosegar. 


To quiet 


Recomendar. 


To recommend. 


Soterrac 


To bury. 


Regar. 


To water. 


Temblar. 


To tremble. 


ReTentar. 


To burst 


Tentar. 


To tempt 


Segar. 


To out down. 


Tras^ar. 


To rake. 


Sembnir. 


To sow. 


Tropezar. 


To stumble. 


Sentar. 


To set. 








SECOND CLASS. 




AooflTAB. 




1 To put in led. 




INDICATIVR 










1. Acuesto. 


I put in bed. 


1. Acostamos. 


2. Acnestas. 




2. Aoostais. 




3. Aonesta. 




3. Acuestan. 




IMPERATIVK 








1. Acostemos. 


2. Acnesta. 




2. Acostad. 




8. Acueste. 


SUBJUl 


8. Acaesteo 
ACTIVE. 


• 




FREe 


E29T. 




1. Acueste. 




1. Acostemos. 


2. Acuestes. 




2. Acosteis. 




8. Acueste. 




8. Acuesten 


• 


The following verbs, and their eompi 




Acordar. 


To agree. 


Consolar. 


To console 


Agorar. 


To divina 


Oontar. 


To count 


Almorzar. 


To breakfast. 


Costar. 


To cost 




To grind. 


DegoUar. 


To behead. 


Aporcar. 


To hoe. 


Demostrar. 


To demonstrata 


Aposta^ 


To bet 


Descollar. 


To surpass. 


Aprobar. 


To approve. 


Desconsolar. 


To discourage. 


Asolar. 


To waste. 


Desolar. 


To desobite. 


Atronap. 


To thunder. 


DesoUar. 


To skin. 


Aveigoiizar. 


To shame. 




To be impudent 


Golar. 


To strain. 


Emporcar. 


To dirty. 


Colgar. 


To hang. 


Enoordar. 


To string. 


Comprobar. 


ToTerify. 


Enoontrar. 


To meet 



17* 



su 



OOKJUOATIOKB. 



Engroaar. 

Foraar. 

Holgar. 

Hollar. 

MoBtrar. 

Poblar. 

Piobar. 

Reoordar. 

Beooatar. 

Begoldar. 

Benoyar. 

Beprobar. 



ToengroflB. 
To force. 
To rest 
To tread. 
To show. 
To people. 
To prore. 
Torenund. 
To He down. 
To belch. 
To renew. 
To reproTe. 
To compensate. 



HOTXB. 



1. Mnevo. 

2. Mueyes. 
8. Maeve. 



3. Haeve. 
8. Maeva. 



1. MiieYa. 

2. Maevas. 
8. Maeva. 



BeaoUar. 

Bodar. 

Bogar. 

Soldar. 

Soltar. 

Sooar. 

Sofiar. 

ToBtar. 

Trocar. 

Tronar. 

Volar. 

Yolcar. 



To breathe. 
ToroU. 
To entreat. 
To Bolder. 
ToleBBen. 
To Boond. 
To dream. 
To toast. 
To barter. 
To thonder. 
To fly. 
TooTertnnu 



TBIBD CUSS. 



To move. 



INDICATIVE. 



1. MovemoB. 

2. Moveis. 
8. Mueyen. 

DCPEBATIVB. 

. 1. Moyamos. 
2. Moved. 
8. Maevan. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



1. MoTamoB. 

2. MoYais. 
8. Mueyan. 



ThefoUowifig terU^ and their eompoundi^ are e<mjugated like Motbb : 



Absolyer. 

Disolyer. 

Doler. 

Uoyer. 

Holer. 



To absolye. 
To ^ssolye. 
To grieve. 
Tondn. 
To grind. 



Horder. 

Betoroer. 

Solver. 

Torcer. 

Volver. 



To bite; 
To twist again. 
To solve. 
To twist 
To tain. 



Atjbndib. 



FOVEIB fXiflS. 

I 



To attend. 



CONJUGATIONS. 



895 







INDICATIVE. 


1. Atiendo. 

2. Atiendea 
8. Atiende. 




FBBBENT. 

1. Atendemos. 

2. Atendeis. 
8. Atienden. 


2. Atiende. 
8. Atienda. 




DfFKRATlVE. 

1. AtendamoB. 

2. Atlffided. 
8. Atiendan. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 


1. Atienda. 

2. Atiendas. 
8. Atienda. 




PBBE 


lENT. 

1. Atendamos. 

2. Atendais. 
8. Atiendan. 


ThefoUamngverbSj and their eomj 
08 At 
Afloender. . To ascend. 
Cemer. To sift 
Condescender. To condescend. 
Contender. To contend. 
Defender. To defend. 
Desatender. To neglect 
Descender. To descend. 
Encender. To kindle. 


bndsb: 
Entender. To understand. 
Extender. To extend. 
Heder. To stink. 
Hender. To split 
Perder. To lose. 
Tender. To stretcb ont 
Trascender. To transcend. 
.Verter. To poor out 


Sjemtul 




nrra class. 

1 To/eel 
INDICATIVE. 


1. Siento. 

2. Sientes. 

3. Siente. ' 




FBEC 


KENT. 

1. Sentimoe. 

2. Sentis. 
8. Sienten. 


2. Siente. 
8. Sienta. 




TMFER. 


ATIVE. 

1. Sentamos. 

2. Sentid. 
8. Sientan. 






SUBJUNCTIVE. 


1. Sienta. 

2. Sientas. 
8. Sienta. 




nuaa 


BNT. 

1. Sintamos. 

2. Sintais. 
8. Sientan. 



396 



OON.JUaATIONS. 







IHFEBFBOT. 




Mrst Termination. 






1. Seotina, &c. 




Second Termination, 


1. Sintiera. 






1. Sintieramos. 


2. SintieraB. 






2. Sintierais. 


8. Sintiera. 






8. Sintieran. 




Third Termination, 


1. Sintiese. 






1. SintdesemoB. 


2. Sintieses. 






2. Sintieseis. 


8. Sintiese. 






8. Sintiesen. 






FUTUBK. 


1. Sinliere. 






1. Sintieremos. 


2. Sintieres. 






2. Sintiereis. 


8. Sintiere. 






8. Sintieren. 


The following verbs, and their eompoundsj hone the same irregvl 






as Bentib: 


Adherir. 


To adhere. 




Digerir. To digest 


AdTertir. 


To advert. 




Herir. To wound. 


Arrependrse. 


To repent. 




Hervir. To boiL 


Aflentip. 


To assent 




Ingerir. To ingraft. 


Conferir. 


To confer. 




Invertir. To invert. 


Consentir. 


To consent 




Pervertir. To pervert 


ContTovertir. 




Preferir. To prefer. 


Convertir. 


To convert 




Referir. To refer. 


Diferip. 


To defer. 




Requerir. ' To require. 


Diferir. 


To differ. 








8ULTU CLASS. 


Pedib. 




1 ToasK 
INDICATIVE. 

FSBSSNT. 


1. Pido. 






1. Pedimoa. 


2. Pides. 






2. Pedis. 


8. Pide. 






8. Piden. 






FBETBSIT. 


1. PedL 






1. Pedlmos. 


2. Pediste. 






2. Pedisteis. 


8. Pldi6. 






8. Pidieron. 



OOirJUQATIONS. 



897 



2. Pide. 
8. Pida. 



1. Pida. 

2. Rdas. 
8. Pida. 



1. PidamoB. 

2. Pedid. 
8. Pidan. 



SUBJUNCTIVB. 



1. Pidiera. 

2. Pidieras. 
8. Pidiera. 



1. Pidamos. 

2. Pidais. 
8. Pidan. 



DCFEEFBOT. — First Terminatum, 
1. Pediria, &c. 

Second Terminatum. 

1. Pidieramos. 

2. Rdierais. 
8. Pidieran. 



Third Terminatum, 

1. Pidiese. 1. Pidiesemos. 

2. Pidieses. 2. Pidieseis. 
8. Pidiese. 8. Pidiesen. 



FUTUBB. 



1. Pidiere. 

2. Pidieres. 
8. Pidiere. 



1. Pidieremos. 

2. Hdiereis. 
8. Pidieren. 



The following verba^ and their compounds^ have the eame irregularitiee 

Of Pedis: 



Arrecip. 


To benumb. 


Gemip. 


Togpoon. 


CeSir. 


To belt 


Medir. 


Tomeasupe. 


Colegir. 


TocoUeci. 


Begip. 


To pole. 


Competir. 


To contend. 


Bendip. 


To pendep. 


Concebir. 


To conceive. 


Befiip. 


ToqnappeL 


Ck>nstrefiir. 


To constrain. 


Bepetip. 


Topepeat 


DerreUr. 


To melt 


Seguip. 


To follow. 


Deeldr. 


Todifisolve. 


Servir. 


Tosepre. 


El^ir. 


To elect 


Tefiip. 


Todya 


Embeetir. 


To attack. 


Vestlp. 


To dress. 



808 



CONJUGATIOXrS. 
SEFEBIB CUflEf. 



I 



To conduct. 



CkfsnxuoiB, 



1. Oondnzco. 

2. Condaces, &o. 



1. Oondiige. 

2. Oondi^jiste. 
8. Oondiyo. 



2. Oondnoe. 
8. Oondiizoa. 



1. Oondnzca, &o. | 1. Oondnzoamofl, &ol 

iMFEBFXOT.— J¥ivt Termination. 
1. Oondndria, &c \ 1. Condadriaznos, &c 

Second Termination. 
1. Condi^era, &c. \ 1. Condiyeramos, &c 

Third Termination. 
1. Oondtjes©, &o. | 1. OondnJeBemos, &a 



INDIOATIVB. 

FBESEBT. 

1. Oondadmos. 

2, Condads, &o. 

FBBIKBIT. 

1. Oondi^jimos. 

2. Condi^isteis. 
8. Gondiyeron. 

IHFERATIVR 

1. Condnzcamos. 

2. Gondndd. 
8. Oondnzcan. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 



FUTUKB. 


1. Oondnjere, Ac | 1- Oondigeremoa, &o. 


The following terbe are conjugated lihe Oonduoib . 


Adncir. To adduee. 


Produdp. To produce. 


Dedudr. To deduce. 


Reducip. To reduce. 


Introdttdr. To Introdace. 


Tradudr. To translate. 



N. B.— Cbnooff*, and all tctIm ending in otr, of more than two eyllables, follow the 
irregnlArity of Qmdudr tn tlie prawnt Indlcattye and BobJancttTe, and in tbe Inq^iative. 
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1 


1 


i 
1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


> 


^ 


> 


^ 


i 


^ 


g' 




H 


E-i 


H 






S 


_2 


1 



*p9fjaduq 



CON/VOATIOKS. 



425 



^A i i i i i i i i i 



I Iff t III 



€ i g i ^ fffif 



> t> >. t» >.>>>> 






1 1 






.3 I -ij 



"s I « I J Hill 



t i ^1 



U 






^ 1 1 f f 

tS t> p: i>: p 



J 


^ 


^ 


H 


E^ 


H 


^ 


*© 


•a 


vH 


04 


00 









y»/Mdvij 



I 



43$ 



COVJUGATIOirS. 



oomraAxnnr of a verb dt thb bselbctiye sqbx 



IM'INITIVE. 

I To waflh 006*8 adL 



GEBTSD. 



Urindose. 



Uridon. 



I Waaliiiig one's sd£ 

PASr PASnCEPLX. 

I Washed one's self 



EfDICATIVR 



L llekfa 
2. Te hTML 
a. SekTB. 



1. IfekyabiL 



2. Te larabas. 
S. SeUvaba. 



IwashmjselE 



I was washing, 
washed, or nsed 
to wash mjself 



1. Noshmanofl. 

2. Oskvais. 
8. Sehvan. 



1. Nos kyabamoa. 



2. Oslayabais. 
8. Sekraban. 



FBSTERIT DXFESITB. 

1. Me kT6. I washed mjnelL j 1. Nos kT&mos. 

2. Xekvaste. 2. Oskrasteis. 
8. Sekv6. I 8. Sekvaron. 



FUTUBB SQCPLB. 



1. ¥ekvar6. 

2. Tekvards. 
8. SekvariL 



I shaD wash mj- 
sell 



1. No8 kyardmos. 

2. Oskyar^is. 
8. Sekvaiia. 



2. L&vote. 
8. lirese. 



Wash thyself. 



nCPEBATIVE. 

1. Lay6mono& 

2. Layaos. 
8. L&yense. 



C0KJU6ATI0KS. 



427 



1. He lave. 

2. Te laves. 
8. Selave. 



1. Melayaria. 

2. Telayarias. 
8. Se lavaria. 



1. He lavara. 



2. Telavaras. 
8. Se lavara. 



1. Helavase. 



2. Telavases. 
8. Selavose. 



1. Helavare. 

2. Telavares. 
8. Selayare. 



sdbjukctive. 

VBMBSST, 

I may vrash my- 



self. 



1. Nos lavemos. 



2. Oslaveis. 
8. Selaven. 



DCPBBFEOT. — Mrst Terminatioiu 



I would wash my- 
self: 



1.' Nos layariamos. 

2. Oslavariais. 
8. Selayariaa. 



8ec&nd Termination, 



I might, could, 
wonld, or should 
wash myselfl 



1. Nos lavaramos. 



2. Oslayarals. 
8. Selavaran. 



Third Termination. 



I mighty could, 
would, or should 
wash myself. 



1. Nos layasemos. 



2. Oslavasei^. 
8. Se layasen. 



FUTUBB. 



I might or should 
wash myself. 



1. Nos layaremos. 

2. Oslayareis. 
8. Selayaren. 



Ayudarse. 

Ayud&ndose. 

Ayud^ose. 



INFINITIVE. 



To help each other. 



GSBT7in>k 



I Helping each other. 

PAST PASnOIPLB. 

I Helped each other. 



428 



COKJtTGATIOHB. 



1. Noe aynda- We he^ eaoh 

mo8. other. 

2. Osajudais. 
8. Be ayudan. 



INBICATIVB. 

DfPEBFIOT. 

1. Nob ajnda- We used to help 
bamoe. each othec 

2. OsajndabaSs. 
8. Seayudaban. 



FBSTXBIT DJEFLNITX. 

1. Nos ayud4- We helped each 

moB. other. 

2. Os ayudaeteis. 
8. 8e ayudaroD. 



FDTUBB UMFLB. 

1. Nob ajuda- We shall h 

r6moB. each other. 

2. Ob ajudar^lB. 
8. Se ayndarim. 



1. Ajnd^monoB. 

2. AjndaoB. 
8. AytLdense. 



nCFERATiyE. 



Let QB help each other. 

Help each other. 

Let them help each other. 



1. Nob aynde- 

moB. 

2. Ob ajndelB. 
8. Be aynden. 



We may help each 
other. 



SUBJTJNOnVK. 

ncFESFXCT. — I^nt Termination. 

1. NoBayndaria- We would help 
moB. 

2. Ob ayndariaiB. 
8. Be ayndarian. 



Second Termination, 

1. Nob aynda- We might, could, 

ramoB. would, or should 

help each other. 

2. Ob ayudaralB. 
8. Se ayndaran. 



each other. 



Third Termination. 

1. Nos ayndase- We might, could, 

moB. would, orshoaM 

help each other. 

2. OsayadaseiB. 
8. Se ayndasexL 



FUTUBK. 



1. Nob ayndaremos, 

2. OsayndareiB. 
8. Se ayudaren. 



We might or should help each 
other. 



OONJUGATIOHS. 



429 



Imperfect. 
Pret Dff. 
Fu,U Simple, 



IXFEBSOH AI VEBB8. 

Amanboeb. I To grow Ught. 

INDICATIVB. 

Sdiflb Txnbes. 

It grows light 



Amaaece. 
Amanecia. 
Aixianeci6. 
Amaneoeri. 



It was growing light 
It grew light 
It will grow light 



Compound Teitoics. 



Fret. Inc^f. Ha amaneddo.. 
Pluperfect. Habia amaneddo. 
Anterior. Hnbo amaneddo. 
Comp. Future. Habr6 amaneddo. 



It has grown light 
It had grown light 
It had grown light 
It will have grown light 



Amanezca. 



IMPERATIVB. 

I Let it grow light 

# 

SUBJUNCTTIVE. 

Sdcflb Tenses. 



Present. Amanezca. 

(Amaneceria. 
Amaneciera. 
Amaneciese. 
Future. Amanedere. 



It may grow light 

r might, ^ 
It J should, or I grow light 

[ would J 
It should grow light. 



OoMPouND Tenses. 



Perfect. Haja amanecido. 

'Habria 1 
Pluperf . Hnbiera l«°«^^ 

[Hubiese J ^^^^• 
Comp. Future. Hnbiere amaneddo. 



It may have grown light 

(might have, 1 
should hav<y»rU'7^ 
would ha^ J ^'^^^ 
It should have grown light 



N. B. — Anoeheeerj to grow dark, is conjugated in the same manner, 
and has the same irregularity. 



430 




CONJUGATIONS. 


Nbtah. 1 To mow. 




INDICATIVE. 




SmPLB TtaBKS. 


Freient. 
Imperfect. 
Fret. D(f. 
Future, 


Nieva. 
Nevaba. 
Nev6. 
Nevarl 


It snows. 
It was snowing. 
It snowed. 
It will snow. 




OOMFOUKD TeZTSBS. 


Fret. Ifkdef Ha nevado! 
Fluperfect. Habia nevado. 
Anterior. Habo nevado. 
Comp. Future. Habr4 nevado. 


It has snowed. 
It had snowed. 
It had snowed. 
It will have snowed. 




nCPERATlVK. 


Meve. 


1 Let it snow. 




• 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 




Simple Tenses. 


Freeent. 

Imperfect. 

Future. 


Nieve. 
fNevaria.' 
J Nevara. 
[ Nevase, ^ 

Nevare. 


• 


It I 

It 

Itfi 


nay snow. 
' might, 1 
should, or Isnow. 
. would J 
Jiould snow. 




Compound Tenses. 


Ferfect. Haya nev 

Habria ' 

Flvperfeet. J Hubiera . 

tmibiesej 

Comp. Future. Hubiere n 


ado. 

nevado. 

Levado. 


It I 
It. 

Its 


oay have snowed. 

might have, 
should have, or .snowed. 

would have 
hould have snowed. 



K R — ffeUvr^ to freeze, is c(H\}agated in the same manner, and has 
the same tenses irregular. 



Tbokab. 



OOKJUGATIOKS. 

' I To thunder. 



431 



Present. 
Imperfect, 
Fret Drf. 
Future, 



INDICATIVE. 

BiMFiB Tenses. 



Traena. 
Tronaba. 
Tron6. 
Tronarl 



It thnnderB. 
It was thundering. 
It thundered. 
It will thunder. 



OoMPoxTNB Tenses. 



Fret, Indef, Ha tronado. 
Fluperfect Habia tronado. 
Anterior. Hnbo tronado. 

Comp. Future. Habrd tronado. 



It has thnndered. " 
It had thundered. 
It had thundered. 
It win have thundered. 



Tmene. 



mPEBATIVE. 

I Let it thunder. 



Present. 

Imperfect. 

Future. 



SUBJUNCTIVR 
Simple Tenses. 



Tmene. 
Tronaria.1 
Tronara. I 
Tronase. J 
Tronare. 



It may thunder. 
' might, 1 
It < should, or I thunder. 

would J 
It should thunder. 



Compound Tenses. 



Perfect, Haya tronado. 

(Habria 
Hubiera .tronado. 
Hubiese 
Comp. Future, Hubiere tronado. 



It may have thundered. 

(might haye, 1 
should have, or I thnndered. 
would have J 
It should have thundered. 



K B. — Llowr^ to rain, is coigugated like this verb, and chauges also 
the o into ua in the same tenses. E8ecmh4i/r^ to freeze ; ^aniear, to 
hail; Uovvsnar^ to drizzle; and relampaguearj to lighten, are all regular. 



432 



OONJTTGATIOKS. 



Haoeb, to he (when employed in reference to time and weather). 
INDICATIVE. 



81MFUS TXNBES. 



Present, 
Imperfect. 
Pret Def. 
Future. 



Hace. 
Hacia. 
Hizo. 
Hard. 



It is. 
It was. 
It was. 
It will be. 



CoMPomno Tenbbs. 



Pret Indif. Ha hecho. 
Pluperfect Habia hecho. 
Anterior, Hnbo hecho. 
Comp. Future. Habr4 hecho. 



It has been. 
It had been. 
It had been. 
It will have been. 



DiPERATtVE. 

I Let it be. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Sdcplb Tenses. 



Present Haga. 

(Haria. 
Hiciera. 
Hiciese. 
Future. Hidere. 



Perfect 



It may be. 

(mighty 
should, or 
wonld 
It should be. 



Ibe. 



OOMFOXTND TEZnSBS. 



Haja hecho. . 

(Habria 
Hubiera .hecho. 
Hnbiese ^ 
Comp. Future. Hubiere hecho. 



It may have been. 

might have, 
It H sliould have, or 

wonld have 
It should have been. 



1 



Habeb, when signifying there to he. 



Hay. 

Habia. 
Huba 
Eabrl 



(There is, 
I There are, 
j There was. 
( There were. 
There will be. 



Ha habido. 

Habia habido. 
Hubo habido. 
Habr4 habido. 



(There has been. 
J There have been. 

There had been. 

There had been. 

There ahaU have 
been. 



Haya. 

Ilava. 

Ilabria. 

Hubiera, 

Hubiese. 

Hubiere, 



CONJUGATIONS. 
Haya habido 



Let there be. 

There may be. 
r There might, 
-j could, would, or 
I should be* 

There might or 
should be. 



Habria habido. 
Hubiera habido. 
Hubiese habido. 

Hubiere habido. 



433 

There may have 

been. 
There might, 

could, would, or 

should have 
^ been. 
There might or 

should have 

been. 



DEFECTIYE& 

The following verba are found used only in the teraes and persons given 
in the annexed examples: 



Places. 



To please. 



INDICATIVE. 



Present, Sdpers, sing., Place. 
Imperf. " " Placia. 

Fret. Drf. " « Plugo. 



It pleases. 

It was pleasing. 

It pleased. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Present. Bdpers.ySing.y Plegue. 
Mperf. " « (Pluguiera. 

{ Pluguiese. 
Comp. Future. " Pluguiere. 



SOLER. 



It may please. 
It would please. 
It might please. 
It should please. 



To he wont. 



Suelo. 

Sueles. 

Suele. 

Solemos. 

Soleis. 

Snelen. 



19 



INDICATIVE. 



PBESENT. 



I am wont. 
Thou art wont. 
He is wont. 
We are wont. 
Ton are wont. 
They are wont. 



434 



CONJUGATIONS. 



DCPEBFECT. 



Solla. 

Solias. 

Solia. 

Soliamos. 

Soliais, 

Sollaa. 



Yackr. 



I was wont. 
Thou wast wont. 
He was wont. 
We were wont 
You were wont. 
They were wont. 

To lie dead. 



No part of this verb is made nse of except the third persons of the 
present indicative, yoM and yaeeny which are generally inscribed on 
tombstones. * 



coir JITGATIOir OF A VEBB IH TEE PASSIVE VOICE. 

Ser perdonado. 



INFINITIVE. 

I To be pardoned. 



GEEUND. 

Siendo perdonado. | Being pardoned. 

PAST PABTiarLE. 

Ilabicndo sido perdonado. | Ilaving been pardoned. 



INDICATIYE. 



PRESENT. 

1. Soy perdona- I am pardoned. 

do. 

2. Eres perdo- 

nado. 

3. Es perdonado. 



1. Somos perdonados. 

2. Sois perdonados. 
8. Son perdonados. 



IMPEKFECT. 



1. Era perdona- I was or used to 

do. be pardoned. 

2. Eras perdonado. 
8. Era perdonado. 



1. Eramos perdonados. 

2. Erais perdonados. 
8. Eran perdonados. 



CONJUGATIONS. 



435 



P22ETERIT DEFINITE. 



1. Fui perdona- I was pardoned. 

do. 

2. Fiiisto perdonado. 
8. Fu6 perdonado. 



1. Fnimos perdonados. 

2. Fuisteis perdonados. 
8. Fueron perdonados. 



FUTUBE SIMPLE. 



1 . Ser6 perdo- I shall be* par- 

nado. doncd. 

2. Scrds perdonado. 
8. Serd perdonado. 



1. Ser6nios perdonados. 

2. Serais perdonados. 

3. Ser&n perdonados. 



IMPERATIVE. 



2. S6 perdonado. Be pardoned, 
8. Sea perdonado. 



1. Seamos perdonados. 

2. Sed perdonados. 
8. Sean perdonados. 



SUBJUifCJTIVE. 



PBESEirr. 



1. Sea perdonado. I may bo par- 

doned. 

2. Seas perdonado. 
8. Sea perdonado. 



1. Seamos perdonados. 

2. Seais perdonados. 
8. Sean perdonados. 



IMPEBFEOT. — First Termination. 



1. Seria perdona- I would be par- 

do. doned. 

2. Serias perdonado. 
8. Seria perdonado. 



1. Seriamos perdonados. 

2. Serials perdonados. 
8. Scrian perdonados. 



Second Termination. 



1. Fuera perdona- I might, could, 
. do. would, or 

should bo par- 
doned. 

2. Fneras perdonado. 
8. Fuera perdonado. 



1. I^leramos perdonados. 



2. Fuerms perdonados. 
8, Fueran perdonados. 



436 



CONJtJGATIOKS, 



Third Termination, 



1, Fuese perdona- I might, could, 

do. would, or 

should be par- 
doned. 

2. Fuescs perdonado. 
8. Fuese perdonado. 



1. Fuesemos pcrdonados. 



2. Fucseis perdonados. 
8. Fuesen perdonados. 



FUTUBE. 



1. Fuere perdona- I might or 

do. should be par- 

doned. 

2. Fueres perdonado. 
8. Fuere perdonado. 



1. Fueremos perdonados. 



2. Fuereis perdonados. 
8. Fueren perdonados. 



Compound TenBe& 

INDICATIVE. 

PBETKRIT IXDETUnTB. 



1. lie si do perdo- 

nado. 

2. Has sido per- 

donado. 
8. Ila sido perdo- 
nado. 



1. Ilttbia sido I 

perdonado. 

2. Ilabias sido 

perdonado. 
8. Ilabia sido 
perdonado. 



1. Ilubo sido I 

perdonado. 

2. Hubiste sido 

perdonado. 
8. Hubo sido 
perdonada 



I have been par- 
doned. 



1. nemos sido perdonados. 

2. Ilabeis sido perdonados. 
8. Han sido perdonados. 



PLUPEEFECT. 



had been par- 
doned. 



1. Habiamos sido perdonados. 

2. Ilabiais sido perdoandos. 
8. Uabian sido pcrdonadost 



AXTE5I0R. 



had been par- 
doned. 



1. Ilubimos sido perdonados. 

2. Hubisteis sido perdonados. 
8. Hubieron sido perdonados. 



CONJUGATIONS. 



437 



1. nabr6 sido 

perdoiiado. 

2. Ilabriis sido 

perdonado. 

3. Uabrii sido 

perdonado. 



1. Ilaya sido 

perdonado. 

2. Ilayas sido 

perdonado. 

3. Ilaya sido 

perdonado. 

1. Ilabria sido 

perdonado. 

2. Ilabrias sido 

perdonado. 

3. Ilabria sido 

perdonado. 

1. Ilubiera sido 
perdonado. 



COMPOUND FUTTJBE. 

I shall have 'been 
pardoned. 



1. Ilabrdmos sido perdonados. 

2. IIabr6is sido perdonados. 
8. Ilabrdn sido perdonados. 



SUBJUNCTTYE. 

PERFECT. 

I may have been 
l)ardoned. 



1. Ilayamos sido perdonados. 

2. Ilayais sido perdonados. 

3. Ilayan sido perdonados. 



PLUPEPJEOT. — First Termination. 
I would have been 
pardoned. 



1. llabriamos sido perdonados. 

2. Habriais sido perdonados. 

3. nabrlan sido perdonados. 



Second Termination, 



2. Ilubieras sido 

perdonado. 

3. Ilubiera sido 

perdonado. 

1. Hubiesesido 
perdonado. 



I might, could, 
would, or 
should have 
been pardoned. 



1. Ilubieramos sido perdonados. 

2. Hnbierais sido perdonados. 
8. Ilubicran sido perdonados. 



Third Termination, 



2. Hubieses sido 

perdonado. 

3. Hubiesesido 

perdonado. 



I might, could, 
would, or 
should have 
been pardoned. 



1. Ilnbiesemos sido perdonados. 

2. Hubieseis sido perdonados. 

3. Hubiesen sido perdonados. 



438 



COKJUGATIOXS, 



rUTURE COMPOUND, 



1. Ilabiere sido I might or should 

perdonado. have been par- 
doned. 

2. Ilabicrcs sido 

perdonado. 

8. Ilabiere sido 

perdonado. 



1. Hubferemos sido perdonadoau 

2. Hnbiereis sido perdonados. 
8. Hubieren ado perdonadoe. 



LIST 

OF THE PRINCIPAL ffiEEGULAR YEBBS IN THE SPAIflSH 
IMGUAGE. 



N. 'R.—Thejigwrea placed after each verb rtfer to (he page at which the modd conjugation 

far that verb is to be found. For instance, the number 808 showe that Aduoib 

is conjugated Wee CojXDVcm, found at page 39a 



Absolver, 8M. 
Abetraer, 422. 
Acertar, 892. 
Acordar, d9S. 
Acostar, 893. 
Acrecentor, 892. 
Adeetrar, 892. 
Adherlr, 895. 
Adquirir, 399. 
Advertir, 395. 
Aducir, 898. 
Ac:orar.393. 
Alentar, 392. 
Almorzar, 393. 
Amolar, 393. 
Asdar, 400. 
Apacentar, 892. 
ApoBtar, 393. 
Aprobar, 393. 
Aprctar, 892. 
Arreclree, 300. 
Arrcndar. 892. 
Arrepentirflo, 395. 
Ascender, SSH. 
Asentar, 392. 
Apentir, .^95. 
Ascrrar, 302. 
Asestar, 302. 
ABir, 401. 
ABolar, 393. 
Apoldar, 383. 
Atcndcr, 3M. 
Atontar. .392. 
Atcrrar (echar por tlcr- 

ra), 392. 
Atoatar (rellcnar), 892. 
Atracr, 422. 
Atravesar, 302. 
Aventar, 392. 
Aventaree, 392. 
Avcrgonzar, 898. 

Bendeclr, 408. 



Ctiber, 408. 
Caer, 422. 
Calentar, 802. 
Cegar, .392. 
Cefiir, 890. 
Ceraer, 394. 
Ccrrar, 392. 
Cimcntar. 892. 
Cocer, 404. 
Colar, 893. 
Colesrir, 396. 
Colgar, 803. 
Comedirec, 896. 
Comcnzar, 392. 
Corapotir, 896. 
Conccbir, .396. 
Conccrnir, 395. 
Concertar,'392. 
Conconlar. 30.3. 
Condcpccnder, 894. 
Condolorec, 304. 
Condncir, .398. 
Conferlr, 895. 
Confcsar, .392. 
Conocer, 898. 
Consetnilr, 306. 
Consent Ir, .305. 
Consolar. 803. 
Conptrenir, 896. 
Contar, 393. 
Contener, like TENvn. 
(See anzlliary yerbB.) 
Contender, 304. 
Contradccir, 406. 
Controvcrtir. 395. 
Contraor, 422. 
Convert ir. 395. 
Correglr, 396. 

Bar, 40B. 
Decacr, 423. 
Decentar. 893. 
Decir,406. 



Dedncir, 896. 
Defender, 301 
Deferir, 895. 
Dei,'ollar, 393. 
Dcmoler, 394. 
Dcmobtrar, 2SS. 
Dencgar, .392. 
Denoiitar, 893. 
Derreni^r, .392. 
Derretir, 396. 
Deaaveulr, 424. 
Descender, SM. 
Dcecollar, 893. 
Dcpcordar, .303. 
Descomedirftc, 386. 
Dcsflocar, 303. 
Deebacer, 410. 
Deehclar. .^02. 
DePteir. :J96. 
Deeembrar, S92. 
Dc«olar, 393. 
Deaollar, n03. 
Dcsovar, .'>n3. 
Dcppcdlr, .306. 
Despcmar, 392. 
Dcspcrtar, 3J%. 
Desterrar, .309. 
Dcflplesrar. 302. 
DcsverRonzarso, 393. 
Dezmar. i^2. 
Dfpccmlr. 305.* 
Difcrir, fm. 
DIfirerir. 305. 
Difconlar. :^01. 
Di-^olver, r.f) l. 
Divert Ir. mij. 
Doler. .301. 
Donnir, 407. 



Elesrfr, 306. 
Embertir, 806. ' 
Empedrar, 392. 



440 



LIST OF IBBSGULAB YEBBS. 



Empesar, 391 
Kmi)orcar, 393. 
EDCUuder, ri]>l. 
Kncensar, 2212. 
Enccrrar, 'J»i. 
KucumcuUiir. aOt. 
Eucouirar, :393. 
Eiicuniar, :jU3. 
En^fruirse, 396. 
Eiigrusar, 303. 
Eumcudar, 393. 
Enrodar, :^il3. 
£nisaii;'rcutar, 39S. 
Entcnder, :J9t 
Enterrar, 392. 
EiivcHtir, 396. 
Ennilr, 408. 
Errar, 409. 
Escanuentar, 89S. 
Efcocer, 404. 
Eeforzar, ;)9^}. 
EsTAB. (bee ftiudUaiy 

vcrbn.) 
Estrcnir, 396. 
Expcdlr, :}96. 
Extcudcr, 3^ 



Forzar, 393. 
Frcgar, 392. 



Gcmlr, 396. 
Gobcrxuir, 392. 



IlABint. (See anzlliarics 

and ImpcrBOiuUs.) 
Tlacir. 410. 
Hodcr, mL 
Ilclar, 392. 
Ilonchir, 396. 
Ilender, 391 
Hcflir, 396. 
Hcrir, 395. 
ITcrrar, 392. 
Hcn'ir,395. 
Holijar, 393. 
Uollar, 393. 



Imped fr, 996. 
lnccnpar,_892. 
Indncir. 398. 
Inferir, 896. 
In^rir, 396. 
Inqalrir, 399. 
Introdncir. 396. 
Invcrnar, 392. 
Invertir, 395. 
Investlr, 396. 
Ir, 411. 



UoTer, 891 

Valdeclr, 402. 
Blanireaiar. 392. 
Haniencr, like Teneb. 
(See auxiliary verbs.) 
Medir, 396. 
Mentar, 392. 
Meotir. 395. 
Merendar, 392. 
Holer, 394. 
Morder, 391 
Morir, 407. 
Moetrar, 392. 
Hover, 896. 



Necar, 392. 
Nevar, 392. 



Olr,418. 
Oler, 411 



Pedir. 396. 
Pcnfiar, 392. 
Perder, 3M. 
Pervcrtir, 396^ 
Placer, 483. 
Plcjmr, 392. 
Poblar, tm. 
Podcr 416. 
Podrir, 416. 
Poncr, 417. 
Prefcrir, 395. 
Probar, 393. 
Produclr, 898. 
Profcrir, 395. 



Qnebrar, 392. 
Qocrer, 41S. 



Jiigar«418. 



BecomeDdar, 392. 
Recordar, 893. 
Becofitar, 393. 
Bednclr, 398: 
Befcrir. J»5. 
Bcear, 393. 
Bej,dr. 396. 
Besoldar, 892. 
Belr, 419. 
BemcDdar, 892. 
Bcndlr, 396. 
Benovar, 898. 
Beflir, 396. 
Bepetir, 396. 
Beqaebrar, 392. 
Beqoerir, 895. 
Be8Coiitiar,a93. 



BesoUar, 893. 
BeteDtar, 392. 
Beveotar, 392. 
Be\ olcar. 3113. 
liodar, 393. 
Boer. 
Bpgar, 393. 

Saber, 490. 

Balir, 421. 

Sati6&cer, 410. 

Segar. 892. 

Sef,TiIr, 896. 

Sembrar, 8D2. 

Sentar, 892. 

Betir, 895. 

SsB. (See anxUiary 

verba.) 
Servir, 396. 
Serrar, 392. 
Soldar, 893. 
Soler, 483. 
Soltar, 393. 
Solver, 894. 
Sonar, 398. 
Sonar. 393. 
Sosegar, 39a. 
Soterrar, 3I>4. 
Sngcrir, 395. 

Temblar, 899. 

Tender, 894. 

Tenkr. (See anxflimrr 

verbs.) 
Tcflir, 896. 
Tcntar, 392. 
Torcer, 404. 
Tostar, 393. 
Tradacir, 898. 
Traer, 423. 
Trascender, 394. 
Trascordanie. 893. 
Tra»et»ar, 392. 
Trocar, 893. 
Tronar, 893. 
Tropezar, 39S. 



Valer, 428. 
Vcnir, 421 
Ver, 426. 
Verier, 3M. 
Vestir, 896. 
Volar, 898. 
Volcar, 893. 
Volver, 394. 



Yacer,431 
Z«herir,S05. 



VOOABULAET, 

CONTAIXIXG ALL THE SPANISH WORDS USED IN THE GRAMMAR. 

N. B.—Thejlffures ctfter each definition r^er to the lessons in which the loords 
have been explained in the Grammar. 



A, ah, prep., to, at. In.— Voy A Francia, I 

am goini? to France; a lo menos, at 

leant ; d la vcrdad, indeed ; a la espanola, 

in the Spanish fashion. L. 4. 
Abajo, m-bah'-ho, adv., below, down, 

down-Btairs. L. 38. 
Abalanzar, ahbah-lan-thar*, to spring, to 

rush. L. 57. 
Abandonar, ah-ban-do-nar', to abandon, to 

c^ive up, to leave. L. 53. 
Abanico, ah-bah-ne'-oo^ s. ra., ftm. It. 68. 
Abierto, afi-b^-air'-to, p. p. irr. of Abbib. 

(which see). L. 62. 
Abojrado, ah-bo-gah'-do^ s. m., lawyer, ad' 

vocate. L. 49. 
Aborrecible, a/i-bor-rai-thr-blai, adl., hate- 

ftil. L. iM. 
Abnl, ah-brf*fl\ s. m., April. L. 28. 
Abrir, a'i-bre^r\ to open. Abrir»e, to be 

opened, to blow (of flowerB). L. 28. 
Acft, a'^-<ra', adv., here.— ^c</ y alhi, here 

and there. L, 18. 
Acabar, ah-cah-bar\ to finish, to cnd.—Aca- 

barde, to be just, to have jii^t.— Ac I'/nr 

con, to kill, to put an end to, to do.strov 

L. 28. '' 

Academia, ah-cah-dai'-md-a, a. f., academy. 

Li. 51. 

Acaao, ah-cay-Ao, adv., perchance by 
chance.— Si acu^o. if at all.— Por bI acaso. 
in case that. L. m, 

Accidonte, ac-th^-daln'-tai, b. m., accident. 
L. -lO. 

Accion, ac-aa-One'^ s. f., action, share. L. 

Accnto, ah-thfUn'-(o, s. m., accent. L 47 
Aceptar, ah-tha'in-tar'. to accept. L 45 * 
Acerca, afi'thair^-ca, prep, ^cerca de,'ab6ut. 

Li. 49. 
Acertar, ah-thalr-tar*^ to make out to hit 

the mark, to succeed, to be right (/. e to 

conjecture risrht). L. »4. v ^ , lu 

Acierto. ah-thji-car'-to, b. m., snccess. L. 62 
Acomoclar, ah-cd-mO-dar\ to accommodate. 

to suit. L. 31. 
Acorapaflar, ali-cl^m-pan-yar', to accom 

pany. L. 47. 
Aconsejar, ah-cdn-sai-har' . to coungel to 

advise. L. 45. ' 

Acordar, ah-cdr-dar', to accord, to acree to 

iuuQ.—Acordarse, to remember. L. 46 



Acostar, ah-d^s-tar*^ to lay down.— .ievtf- 
tor#€, to lie down, to go to bed. L. 85. 

Actual, ac-lwal\ acy., present. L. 52. 

Acudir, ah-coo-deer' , to haste, to run, to 
turn (to), to refer (to). L. 49. 

Acncrdo, ah-cwair'-do, s. ra., lUfrccment, 
accord, decision (of a court). L. 42. 

Acull4,, ah-cool-ya'y adv., there.— Aqul y 
acvlld, to and ho: here and there. L. 18. 

Adelantar, ah-dai-lan-tar', to advance, to 
make process. L. 36. 

Adelante, ah-dai-kui'-tai, adv., forward.— 
En ctddante, henceforward.— /^tfe/a/ifo/ 
CO on I go ahead ! L. 43. 

Ademan, ali-dai-tnan\ s. m., posture, air. 
L. 41. 

Adcmdfl, ah-dcU-mas', Prep., besides ; adv., 
moreover, besides. L. 37. 

Adentro, ah-dain'-tro, adv., in, within, in- 
side. L. 47. 

Adivinar, a/i-dee-vee-nar'. to guess, to di- 
vine. L. 46. 

Ad}etivo, ad-hai-iee'-vo, s. m., acUective. 
L. 43. 

Admirable, ad-mee-rah'-btai, adj., admlro- 
I ble. wonderfhl. L. 61. 

Admiracion, ad-mee-rah-m-bfuf. e. f., ad- 
I miration, wonder. L. 51. 
, Admirar, ad-m^e-rar' , to admire, to won- 
I dcrat. L. 61. 
' ^^3^"?^' (SeeDoKDE.) L. 0. 

A j^ , , ' ^-^^-re/^r', to acquire. L. ^o 

Adverbial, ad^air-m-al', adj., adverbial. 
iv. 60. 

Adverbio, e. m.. adverb. L. 4.? 

Advcrtir, Oil-rair-tfier' , to advlw. to mcn- 
L 43 ^ °"*' *** ^^^' ^^ observe. 

A^r«>, ah-ai'-rai-o. adj.. nrrinl. L. 4S. 

^^^^^^o\(tf>-falk-(aJi'thZ-onr\ g. f., affec- 
tation. L. 24. 

Afectar, ah-faiJc-fnr', to affect. L. A^. 
face)'' ^if^'^'^^^^ to «^a^'e, to paint (the 

Afirmacion, ah.ffcr-mah-thc-dne\ b. f., af- 

nrmatlon. L. 24. 
Aflrmar, ah-feer-mnr' , to affirm, to make 
A £^' ^ strcnirthcn. L. 48. 
Aflijlr, ah-Jlee-h4fPr', to afflict. L. 4S. 
Afortunado, ah-fbre-too-nah'-do, adj., fortu- 

Date. L. 68. ' 

too't^2«!^''L:''&.*^" ^""^^^ belonging 



442 



VOCABULABY, 



Agitacion, afi'hee4aM/a-l>ne', b. £, agita- 
tion. L. M. 

A^'nular, ah-grah-dar', to please. L. 63. 

Aj^rudcccr, ah^^fraJi'iJUU-Uiair' ^ to tiiauk, to 
be obliged lo. L. a9. 

Agri'ifar, iUi-groi-gaT' ^ to add, to unite. L. 

A^Tio, ah'-gri-o, a^., eoor. L. 83. 
uVim, afi'-^wOy B. r., water. L. 7. 
A^'uonur, a/i-tjwati'tar\ to eapport, to put 

up with, to bear, to bear wiiii. L. 63. 
AiTuardicnte, aii-^war-U^-cUn'-UtL, e. ql, 

brandy. L. 6U. 
AijHideza, a/i-goo-^iai'-tha, a. 1, wit, witty 

Niying. L. 57. 
A^iicro, ah-ffwai'^ro^ b. ol, angary, omen. 

Aliora, aA-^(-n2, adv., now. L. 27. 

Aire, i'-rai^ e. m., air. L. 46. 

AJedrez, a/t-fuU-UraU/i^ b. m., cheas. L. 4S. 

Ala. ah'-ia^ a. f.. win^. L. 68. 

Alabonza, a/i-ia/i-UuV'tha, 6. f., pnUse. L. 
63. 

Aiarde, b. OL^IIaccr alarde^ to boast. L. 
03. 

Alberto, al-bair'-to, b. m., Albert. L. 38. 

Alcaucc, al'kan'-t/ioi, 8. m., reach. L. 63. 

Alcauzar, al-can^ior'^ to reach, to over- 
take, to take up with, to catch. L. 63. 

Alo'^T-ar, a/i'iiti-ffrar't to give joy, to make 
k1"U. L. o7. 

AU'i.Tc, ah-loi'-ffrai, a^., Joyful, glad, merry. 
L. 21. 

Alejandro, a/i-tai-han'-dw^ b. m., Alexan- 
der. L. 3. 

Alois, a/i4ai-lee\ 8. m., gllHflower. L. 9. 

Alemon, ah-kU-tfuin', s. m., German (lon- 
iTiia^'e). L. 2. 

Aleman. 8. m., German ; a^., German. L. 3. 

Alenianla, ah-lai-nuih-nl-a^ B.f., Germany. 
L.9. 

Ainicr, al-/c^4air\ 8. m. and f., pin. L. 46. 

AliTAzara, (U-gaffUiah'-ra^ b. f., ehouta of 
joy. L. 64. 

Al;r')don, al-gd-dSne' , ». m., cotton. L. 6. 

Al'-Tulcn, aV-fj<Vn, pron., Bomcbody, any- 
body, 8ome one. any one. L. 17. 

Aliuno, a, cU-fjoo'-no, acy., Bomc. L. 17. 

AlLnmo, a, prbn. ind., and adj., aomcbody, 
«omc one, anybody, any one, eome. L. 
17. 

Alhnja, a^-ah'-hn, p. f.. Jewel. L. 67. 

Allinrntar. ah -l '-main-tar'^ to feed.— j4«- 
fTiritfartte de cApcranzaB, to live on hope. 

Allmonto, s. m., food. L. 40, 
Alii, al-vrt\ adv.. thoro, yonder. L. 18. 
Alnifi, al'-ma, p. f.. ponl. L, 47. 
Ainncen, aJ-mnh-fhafyt\ b. m., ptore. L. 62. 
Alnior/Jir. al-fnor-ffiar', to breakfast, to take 
broakfliPt. L. 85. ^ ^^ ^ 

Almnorzo, al-mu-air'-ffit)^ B. m., brcaWaBt. 

Alrodedor, al-rai-dai-d^, adv., around. L. 

Altemclon, (d-tdh-rnh-th^-^ne', b. f , altera- 
tion, chancre. T*. B6. ^ ^^ 

Alto, nl'-tfi, ndJ., hi^'h. tall. L. 21. 

Altnra. al-too'-ra. b. f. heltrbt. L. 37. 

Alnmhrar, ah-Ionni-f>rar'. to licnt. L. 64. 

.xmable, ah-mah'-Uai, adj., amiable. L. 
47. , .. 

Amador, ah^mahrdSr*^ b, m., lover. L. 40. 



Amancccr, ah-mah-nai-thair^, to get laortr- 

in^, to be iu a place at dsjonsajL. «7 

muming. L. 30. 
Arnault;, ah-man'-tai^p. p. and s., lovir.^ 

lover, Bweetkcan. L. S8. 
Amar^ a/t-jnar', to love. L. 21. 
Amanllo, afi-nialt^n^'-jfd^ a^.,relknr. I_ r,L 
Ambicion, om-M-^tc-^Ae', s. £., ambiuo:^ 

L. 00. 
Amboa, om'-^Ar, pron., both. L. 2SL 
Amenazar, tA-mai-nah-Vua^y to menace, to 

threaten. L. 69. 
Amenldftd, a/t-iiU2l-n^-<la&i', e. £., amenitr. 

L. 32. 
Amigo, <th-ml'-ffo^ b. m.^ fiiend. L.. 13. 
Amitftad, tth-ttieeif^ath^ s. H, friciubhip. 

L. 61. 
Amor, ah-mort', b. m., love. I*. 45. 
Ampno, am'-jM-o^ a4j., ample. L. 5S. 
Ampo. 8. m., whiteness (of buow). L. 61. 
Aualitico, aJi-nah-H'-il-w, ndj., analjtica2. 



L. 35. 



Anara^jado, aA-miA-fwi-AaA'-(29, a4}., or- 
ange (color). L. 64. 

Ancuo, an'-ctidy adj., wide, broad. L. 47. 

Anchura, an-chou'-ray s. f., width, breadth. 
L.61. 

Anciano, ffn-ZW-oA'-no, adj. and a., oM, oStl 
man. L. 4S. 

Andar, an-dar', to walk, to go. I*. 44. 

An(*cdota, aJi-ruuk'-dd-ta, a. C, anecdote. 
L.44. 

Anirel, an'-haU, b. m., angel. L. GO. ^ 

Angulo, an'goohlo, b. m., angle.— En dA^tbU 
rectos, at right angles. L. CO. 

Animal, alt'nl-fnal\ 6. m., animal. L. <H. 

Animar, a/t-n?-»/kir', to animate, to eocour- 
agc. L. 88. 

Anoche, ah-rtv'-choL adv., lart nigfat. L. Sx 

Anocheccr, ah-nd^fiai-ihair', to ijet n:_*tit. 
to be (in such a place) at nlghtmll. L. : vX 

AntAiToniBta, (m-ia/i-gO-rues'-fa, e. m., an- 
tarroult^t. L. 90. 

Ante, an'-tai, prep., before, in presence of. 
L. 10. 

Antcaycr, an-tai-ah-yair*^ adv., the day be- 
fore yesterday. L. 16. 

Anteccdcnlc, an-tai-Uiai-^iin'-tal, a. m., 
ant«!cdent. L. 01. 

Antcnoche, aii-tai-nd'-cluiU tho night be- 
fore last. L, 23. 

Antcojo, an-tal^'-ho, b. m., eye-glass,— 
Anf£(iJofi„ epectaclcs. L. 53. 

Antepenfiltimo, an-t^-nai'nooi*-f^-rfio, adj. 
ana p. m., antepenultimate. L. 50. 

Anterior, an-tai-rP-or*, adj., preceding, fore- 
coinix, previous, former. L. 49. 

Antea,^ an'-taiss, prep.— -l/nZ-e* dc, belbrc 
L.42. 

Ante«, adv.. rather,1lrst, sooner than. li. K. 

Antepuceto, an-tal-jrwaiB'-tOy p.p., prefixed; 
p.. prcftx. L. 63. 

Antiguo, an-d'-fftco, ac^., ancient, old. L. 

AnTJaocial, an-n-s^^Z-aT^ a4j., antiPoc:aL 
L. fiO. 

Antojo, an-td'-ho, b. m., whim, lon::jin^. 
L. 03. 

A n.idir, an-vnJf-den', to add. L. 49. 

Anil, on-f/reS\ B. m., Indliro (color). L. 51. 

Aflo, an-w>„ a. m., year. L. 10. 

Apariencia, ah-pah-T^^n'-i/il-a, a. f., ap- 
pearance. L. 68. 



VOCABULARY, 



443 



Apcgar, ah-pairgar^ to adhere, to attuch. 

Ap^nas, afi-pai'-nas, adr., Bcarcely, hardly. 
' X«. 29. 

Aplicar, cih-ptS-car*. to apply. L. 62. 
Apostar, ah-pO«-tar^ to bet, to wager. L. 68. 
Apoyar, aJi-pO^ar'y to lean, to support, to 

protect. L. 60. 
Apreciable, ah-prahrtKR-ah'-Uaiy apprecia- 

Dle, TeopocUble. L. 66. 
Apremlar, ah-prai-mi'ar'y to preas, to urge. 

Aprcnder, ah-prain-dair'. L. 6. 
Apputar, a/trvrai-tar't to tighten, to press, 

to urge. L. (S. 
Aprisa, ah-prS'-ea, adv.. quickly. L. 6. 
Aprobacion, ah-prd-ba/i'i/t6'one\ a. f., ap- 
probation. L. !M. 
Aprobar. ah-prd-bar'^ to approve. L. S5. 
Aprovecuar. ah-pHHsaircnar'y to progress, 

to make the most of. L. 62. 
Aproximar, ' a/i-prd-ksS-niar'^ to approxi- 
mate, to approach. L. 41. 

Apto, ap'-tOt adj., apt, fit. L. 51. 

Aparado, cUi-poo-ra/t'-do^ a4J., embarrassed. 
Xi. 4-1. 

Aqncl, ah-kaU\ pron., that one, he; the 
former. L. 18. 

Aqui. a/t'ki' adv., here. L. la 

Arbol, ar'-dol. s. m., tree. L. 49. 

Arboleda, ar-M-lai'-da^ s. f., grove. L. 4». 

Arena], a/i-txU-ncU', s. m., sandy ground. 
L. 49. 

Ar^air, ar-goo-eer'^ to ar 'no. L. 81. 

Arrrttocracla, a/i-reejf-iu-kraA''ChS-a^ s. f., 
aristocracy. L. CO. 

Arlstocnitico, adj., aristocrat. L. 85. 

Aritm6tica, ah-reet-mai'-tS-ka^ s. f., arith- 
metic. L. 21. 

Armar, ar-tnar\ to arm. L. 59. 

Arpa, ctr'-pa^ s. f, harp. L. 15. 

Arquitecto, ar-kf^tailr-lOy s. m., architect. 
L. 48. 

Arqnltcctura, ar-ki-taik-too'-ra^ s. f.. archi- 
tecture. L. 51. 

iWm^^lar, ar-ral-glar\ to regulate, to ar- 
ranijc, to settle. L. CO. 

Arrcpcntirse, ar-rcU-pain-tecr'-sai, to re- 
pent. L. 33. 

Arrcstor, ar-inis-iar', to arrest. L. 37. 

Arriba, arrS'-Oa^ adv., above, up-etairs. L. 
3;J. 

Arto, 8. ar'-f'U, m. nnd f., art. L. 31. 

Art fen lo, ar-t^.'-coo-lOy s. m., article. L. 43. 

Artiiicial, aHc-fS-t/iv-cU', a4)., artificial. L. 
40. 

Arti-^ta, ar-kcs'-ta, s. m., artist. L. 36. 

Aeador, s. m., enlt (for roastlni^). L. C5. 
• Ascender, oft-tnain-dair' ^ to ascend, to 
amount. L. 37. 

Ascension, ds-thain-sS-l^ne^ a. f., ascension. 
L. 49. 

ABorrurar, ah-Md-goo-rar* ^ to secure, to as- 
Buro. L. 88. 

Asc^ino, ahsai-^'-no, a. m., assassin. L. 
59. 

Asi, a^-A?/, adv., so, thus. L. fHQ.—Ain que, 
so that, as soon aa. L. fiQ.—Asi oH, so 
so. L. 89. 

Apiento, ah-n^-ain'-to^ s. m., seat. L. 89. 

Aslr, aJirseer'^ to seize, to make the most of. 
L. 42. 

Asno, o^-fK), 8. m., aas. L. 61. 



[1*.46. 

Asombro, ahsdm'-bro^ 8. m., amazement. 

Astronomia. tug^rG-nO-mi'-a. 8. f., astrono- 
my. L. 40. 

Atencion, oh-tainrtM-GM'^ 8. £, attention. 
L. 56. 

Atender, ah-tain-dair', to attend. L. 37. 

Atlantico, at-lan'ti-ko, b. m. and adi.. At- 
lantic. L. 46. 

Atolladero, ah-a>l'ltfa-d(U''ro, e.m., difficul- 
ty. L. 60. 

Atraccion, oA-^raifc-fAWn*', 8.f:, attraction. 
JL. 21. 

Atr^, ahrinu^^ adv., behind, ago. L. 68. 

Atrevcrse, ah-trcd-xakr''sai^ to dare. L. 48. 

Atrevimiento. ah-(rai'Ve-rni'ain''(o, s. m.. 
assurance, daring. L. M. 

Afaocidad, ahrtrO^/a-dath', 8. f., atrocity. 
Lu 86. 

Atropellar, a-tr^ipaU-yar'y to trample upon, 
to run over. L. 51. 

Aullar, ah-cU-yar', to howl. L. 44. 

Aumcnto, ah-co-main'-to, s. m., augmenta- 
tion, increase. L. 59. 

Aun, a/fOon\ adv., still, yet. L. 26. 

Aunoue, ah-con-ke'^ adv., although, though. 

AnsenciA, ah-co-eain'-(Ja-a. 8. f., absence. 
L. 36. 

Ausente, ah-oo-ioin'-tai, ad)., absent. L. 
69. 

Antor. ah-co40r'y b. m., author. L. 47. 

Antorldad, €ihrCO-U>-H-dath\ s. f., authority. 
L. 59. 

Auxiliar, ah-oo-ksl-ll-ar'^ s.m. and ad]., anx- 
iliaiy. L.57. 

Auxiliar, to help, to aid. L. 62. 

Auxllio, ah-oo-hl'-U-Oy 8. m., help, assist- 
ance. L. 55. 

Avenida, ahrvai-nl'-da^ 8. f., avenue. L. 
15. 

Aventurarse, ah-vainrico-rar'-mi^ to ven- 
ture. L. C5. 

Avisar, ati-il-sar'y to inform, to let know. 
L.45. 

Ay I ah-€'. Int., alas! L.46. 

Ayer, ah-yair'^ adv., yesterday. L. 16. 

Ayudar, ah-yoo-dar\ io aid, to help. L. 

Azui, ah-t1tJ0ci\ adj.., blue. L. 54. 



Bailar, bah-i-iar', to dance. L. 28. 
Dalle, bah-^-lal, s. m., dance, ball. L. 90. 
Balar, bafi-ftar'y to go or come down, to 

lower. L. 58. 
B«0o» bah' -ho. acU-, low, base, mean. L. 21. 
Banco, ban'-ko^ s. m., bench, bank. L. 31. 
Bandera, ban-dai'-ra^ s. f., flog, standard. 

L. 68. 
Baflar, ban-^ar*^ to bathe. L. 49. 
Barato, bah-rah'-to^ adj., cheap. L. 18. 
Barba, bar'-ba, s. f, chin, beard. L. 60. 
Barberfa, bar-bai-rr'a, s. f., barber's shop. 

L. 50. 
Barbcro, bar-bai'-rOy p. m., bather. L. 83. 
Barbilamplflo, bar-bi-lam-peen'-yo^ adj., 

having a thin beard. L. 60. 
Barco, s. m., vessel, boat L. CO. 
Baron, bah-rdne\ s. m., baron. L. 61. 
Barrer, bar-rair^, to sweep. L. 2t. 
Basta 1 ba»'-ta^ int., enous^h 1 L. 80. 
Bastanto, bas-tan'-tai, adv., enough. L. 25. 



444 



VOCABULABT. 



BasUr, ba»4ar'^ to be enough, Buffldcnt 

L. 30. 
Baston, baf-fdne, 8. m., cane, atick. I* 10. 
Baza, l>ih' t/ia, a, f., trick (at cards).— No 

dcjar meter baza^ not to let any one put 

in a Bin 'le word. L. 63. , , ^ 
BclHxlor, bai-b€LidOre\ a. m., tippler, toper, 

driukor. L. <B. , , 

Bcber, bai-bair', to drink.— 5<s6*r loa vien- 

tojf por alu'o, to M>llclt with much eaircr- 

niMH, to desire ardently.— -Oeftcr como una 

cnlxa, to drink like a fish. L. 7. 
Bclk'za, baUyai''tha„ e. f., beauty. L. 61. 
Bello, bail'-yo. a^)., iMsautiful, handsome. 

L. 81. 
Bendeclr, bain-<lai-theer\ to bless. L. 41. 
Bondilo. bain-fif'-fo, adj., blessed. L, 5% 
Bo««ar, mlitar\ to ki;**. L. 39. 
Bt-o, b(U'-ito, s. m., kiss. L. 39. 
Bibliotcca, bS-bH-d-tal'-ka, b. £, library. L. 

5-2. 
Bien, bi-aln' (pronounce In one syllable), 

adv.. well. L. :J.— Esti bien^ very well, 

all ri:;ht.— No bien^ scarcely, no sooner. 

L. «). 
Bifnhechor. bS-ain-ai-eMh^, e. m., benefiic- 

tor. L. TiO. 
Bien vouido ! b?-aia* rai-nS^-do, Int., wol- 

co'iio I L. iV 
BilK'tc, bi-tl-yM'-tai, s. m., note, ticket. L. 

7. 
Blanca, hhin'-li, s. f.— Encontrarse sin blan- 

ca^ uoi to h:ivi' a cent. L. W. 
Blanco, hl-in -ko, ai^j., white. L. 6S. 
Blanro, s. in., mark (to aim at). — (^ucdftrse 

en Manro, to be lell In the lurch. L. 57. 
Bledo, b'al'-ffo, s. m., straw. — No 8o mo da 

un b!e io^ I do not care a straw for it. L. 

63. 
Boca, M'-AvT, s. f., month. L. 44.— Tlablar 

por boi'ti do •;anso, to repeat what another 

lias said. L, (W. 
Bocado, hnkftfi'-fJo, s. m., mouthftil, bite.— 

lio'a'fo sin hueno, sinecure. L. 61. 
Bolsa, 6r>/'-<'i, H. f„ pur*c. L. 46. 
Boluillo, bj!-.<id'-yo^ s. m., pocket, purse. 

L. 47. 
Bondad, hOnf-fl(ith\ s. f., goodness, kiud- 

ncHH. L. ;n. 
Bouda(lo:«o, lM.w-dah-d0''9O^ ad)., good, kind. 

L. 51. 
Bonito, btynT'-fn^ a'lj., pretty. L. 58. 
Borboton, bOr,-' O-fdnr.—X borbotone»^ bub- 

blini;, hurriedly, confus(»dly. L. iY\. 
Botfque, bOg'kal, s. m., wood, woody place. 

L. 40. . — »/ *- 

Bota, bd'-fa. s. f , boot. L. 10. 

Boticii, M-:d-\'a, s. f., dru£j-storc. L. ©i. 

Boticario, bo-tl-kah'-rT-o. s. m., dru''£:i8t. 
L.49. "^^ 

Draviita, brah-rah'-fa, s.f, bravado.— Echar 
braratany to bra^. to boast. L. iVi. 

Bnivo, brah'-ro, adj., brave. L. 44. 

llmvo 1 Int., bravo I L. 48. 

i'razo, brah'-tho^ s. m., arm. L. 44. 

lii-ibon, br^-bonl\ b. m., scoundrel, rascal. 
L. ;«. 

Bruto, brw'-tOy b. m., brute, ignorant per- 
son. L. 48. 

Bruto, adj., brutish, ignorant. L. '18. 

Bueno, btral'-no^ ad(j., good. L. 7.— /?'/<r>?<M 
dia««. good morning, good day.— De batnas 
fi primeros, all at once. L. 61 



Bney, ftipai'-?, b. m., ox. L. 56. 

Bnla, bo(y4a. s. f.— Tener bvla pan tocbx le 

act according to one's flmcy. L.. 61. 
Bulla, boot'-ya, b. f., noise.— Meter ba^i. 

to make a noise. L. 63. 
Bullicio, boot-yS'-tAi-o^ s. m., bustle, col^, 

uproar. L. 61. 
Bnlto, bool'-to, B. m., bnndle. — HafcUr i 

buUo. to Uik at random. L. 63. 
Bnrla, wr'-te, s. f.. jest, joke.— Habjir de 

bvrias, to i>peak in jest. I.. 33. 
Bnrlar, boarAar^^ to jest.— iJw/Ttenw de a^- 

guno, to make fun of, to laugh at any ai. -. 

—Burin buriandOy half jest, half earee»i. 

L. 83. 
Burlon, boor-I5ne\ s. ni., wag, jester. L 44. 
Busca, 6oa«r'-i(*a, s. f, search.- £ii b^tcxi dr. 

in search of. L. 55. 
Bnscar, bfjoi-kar'^ to sev^ch, to look for 

L. A.—B^iscar cinco pics al gato, to pkk 

a quarrel. L. 4. 



Caballcjo, iah-bal-f/ai'-ho^ s.m. (dim. of Ca- 

BAL.LO), nag, contemptible old horse. L. 

49. 
Caballcro, kah-bal-yai'-ro^ s. m., eentlenan. 

knight.— Bneuo;» tardes, eaUuiera, good 

aftenioon, sir. L. 2. 
Caballo, kc^-bal'-yo^ b, m., horse. I*. 4. 
Cal)cllo, kah-baii-yo, s. m., hair. L. 33.- 

Tomar la oca^ion por lo.i cabcilaf, to prufit 
- by the occasion. L. CI. 
Caber, kah-bair'^ to hold, to contain.- N^ 

cabt r dc gozo. to bo overjoyed. — i Put-de 

calhT en tu imaginaciony can snch :i 

thing enter into your imagination > — ^No 

cab^! mas, nothing more am be destnird. 

L.42. 
Cabe^a, kah-bai'-tJia^ s. f., head. L, 23L 
C\i1)1o, kah'-biai, s. m., cable L. 46. 
Cabo, kah'-bo. s. m., end. — ^Al cabo^ at last. 

L. 61. 
Cacla, kak'-da, pron.. each, ererj.—Ca^a 

vez, every time.- Cat/a uno, each, every 

one. L. 43. 
Cacr. kah-air'^ to foil, to see, to understand, 

to be, foil due. L. n.—CcuT de pies, to 

foil on one's feet.— Ya cai^ en eUo, now 

I sec, understand.— Las vcntanas oh^h a 

la plaza, the windows look on the squarv*. 

—Vacmele k uno la cam de vei^Qenza, to 

blush with Bhame. L. 69. 
Cafe, ka/i-/ai\ s. m., coli'ee, coflee-hoa«{!. 

L.14. 
Caja, kah'-ha^ s. f., case, box, cash (com- 

luerclal). L. GO. 
Cal, s. f., lime.— De e<d y canto, of atone. 

L. 48, 
Calabaza, kah-iah-bah'-tha^ s. f., pumpkin. 

—Par ralaf>azajt, to give the mitten. L. (H, 
Calcniar, kal-koo-lar\ to calcolate. L. 61, 
CnUlo, kal'-do s. m., broth. L. 44. 
Calducho, kai-doo'-c/io^ s. m., poor broth. 

L.41. 
Calentar, kah-lain-tar's to heat, to warm. 

L. 81. 
CaVntura, kah-lain-too'-rtu, s. f, fever. L. 

t». 
Calientc, kaJi-tZ-ain'-tai^ a4j., hot, warm. 

L.4^1. 



VOCABULABY. 



445 



Oallado, kal-yah'-do^ acU.* silent, tacltom. 

Oallar, kal-yar'^ to be Bllent, to keep ^K- 
\eiice,—C(Uiar sa pico, to hold one's 
tongue, to say nothing. L. 4A. 
Oulle, kal'-yal^ a. f., street— Dejar d uno en 

la caUe^ to strip one of his all. L. 15. 
Calor, kah.-UjT'y a. m., heat, warmth. L, 25. 
Calva, kal'-va. b. f., hald place, bald part of 

the head. L. 45. 
Calvo, kal'-vo, acy.. bald. L. 45. 
Culza, kal'-tJia^ e. r., stocking.— Tomar las 
colzas de Villadiego, to make off, to make 
a harried escape. JL. 60. 
Cama, kafi'-ina, s. f , bed.— Guardar cama^ 

to be confined to one's bed. L. M. 
Cambiar, katn-b^-ar' ^ to chani,'e. L. 59. 
Cambio, kam'-dS-o^ s. m., clmngc. L. 46. 
Camino, kah-rtU'-no^ s. m., way, road. L. 60. 
Camii<a, kah-tnS^-sa, s. f., shirt.— Meterbe en 
camisa de once varas. to interfere in other 
people's affairs. L. 46. 
Campo, kam'-jx)^ s. m., field, carap.— Dcjar 
el campo libre, to leave the field to one's 
competitors. L. 69. 
Canasto, kah-nas'-io^ s. m.. basket. L. 58. 
Candidamente, karh'-dl-dah-ntain'tai^ adv., 

candidly. L. 48. 
Cansado, kan-sak'-dOy ac^., tired, tiresome. 
— Estar can^ado^ to be tired.- Ser canm- 
do^ to be tiresome. L. SO. 
Cansar, kan-sar\ to tire, to Ihtignc. L. 33. 
Cautar, kan-lar\ to sinff. L. 15. 
Cautatriz, kan-tah'treeth', e. f., singer. L. 

15. 
Cantidad, kan-tS-dai/i^ quantity, sum. L. 

60. 
Canto, kan'-tOy s. m., singing, stone.— De 

cal y canto, of stone. L, 48. 
Cantor, kan-Uyr\ s. m,, singer. L. 15. 
Canon, kan-ifS^ne.\ s. m., cannon. L. 44. 
Caflonazo, Kan-yo-nak'-tho^ s. m., cannon- 
shot, gim-shot. L. 44. 
Capa, X:a/t'-»a, s. f., cloak. — Andar de capa 

caioa, to be crestfallen. L. 60. 
Capacidad, kafi-pah-ihl-daUi\ s.f., capacity, 

capability. L. :36. 
Capaz, ka/i'pafh\ adj., capable. L. 59. 
Capitan, kah-pS-fan\ s. m., captain. L. 52. 
Capricho, kah-pre'-cfWy s.m., caprice, fancy, 

whim. L. GO. 
Cara, kah'-ra^ p. f, fece.— Dar & alguno con 
la pucrta en la cara, to shut the door in 
any one's face. L. 60. 
Caractcr, kak-rak'-tair (pi. caractdres), s. 

m,, character, disposition. L. 40. 
Caramba I kah-ram'-ba^ inter., strange ! 

zounds! L. 05. 
Carcajada, kar-kah-hah'-da^ s. f., loud 

laugh, burst of lath?htcr. L. 54. 
C'lrcei, kar'-thail, s. f., prison. L. 84. 
Carga, kar'-ga^ s. f., load, burden, charge. 

L. 60. 
Cargar, kar^ar'^ to charge, to load, to 

heap. L. 47. 
Cargo, kar'-goy s. m., load, employment, 

change, office. L. 60. 
Carid<3, kah-rl-dath\ s. f., ckarity. L. 41. 
Cariredondo. kah-rl-rai-dom'-do^ a^)., 

roundfacca. L. 59. 
Came, kar'-nai^ s. f., flesh, meat. L. 7. 
Camero, kar-nai'-ro, s. m., mutton, sheep. 
L.40. 



Camicerla, kar^'thai/r^'-a, s. f., butcher's 
shop, meat market. L. 11. 

Camicero, kar-ni-thai'-rOf s. m., batcher. 
L. 11. 

Garnuza, kar-noo'-tha, s. f., bad, disgust- 
ing, spoiled meat. L. 49. 

Caro, kah'-ro^ a^)., dear, at a high price. 
L. 13. 

Carplntero, kar-peen-tai'-ro^ s. m., carpen- 
ter. L. 83. 

Carrera, kar-rai'-ra. s. f., ciireer, course, 
race, profession. L. 48. 

Carro, kar'-ro^ s. m., car, wagon. L. 68. 

Carruage, kar-roo-ah'-hai^ s. m., carriage. 
L. 51. 

Carta, kar'-ta^ s. f., letter. L. 7. 

Cartilla, kar-Uel'-ya^ s. f., primer.— Cosa 
qao no esta en la cartiUa^ somctliiug 
strange or uncommon. L. 61. 

Casa, ka/t'sa, s. f.. house. L. 9. 

CiViicaras I kas'-kafi-rasy int., oh ! dear mc I 
L. 63. 

Cascro, kah-sai'-ro^ adj., domestic, house- 
hold. — Comedia camera, parlor play. L. 59. 

Casi, ka/i'-d^y adv., almost. L. 3d. 

Caso, kuh'-i^y s. m., case, event.— No haga 
V. caso de eso, take no notice of that. 
L.60. 

Castafla, kas-fan'-ya, ». f., chestnut. L. 40. 

Castellano, kas-lail-yafL'-no^ s. m., Castilian 
luuiHiage. L. 55. 

Castellano, adi., Castilian. L. 55. 

Castillo, kas-iitl'-yo^ s. m., castle.— Hacer 
castUm en el aire, to build castles in the 
air. L. 48. 

Ca:*ualidad, kah-€00-ah-tl-dath\ s. f., casual- 
ty, chance, hazard. L. 60. 

Casucha, kah-mo'-cha^ s. f., contemptible 
old house. L. 44. 

Catolicismo, ka-to-lMft^xsa'-mOy s. m., Ca- 
tholicism. L. 19. 

Catorce, kah-tor'-thai, num. adj., fourteen. 
-Luis Catorce. Louis the Fourteenth. 
L. 14. 

Causa, kah'-oo-m^ s. f., cause.- A causa dc, 
on account of. L. 40. 

Causar, kah-oo-sar'^ to causae. L. 51. 

Caza, kah'-tha^ s. f., chanc, hunt, hunting. 
— Ir ji la caza, to go hunting. L, 58. 

Cazar, kah-thar', to chase, to nunt. L. 58. 

Celebracion, ihai-hd'tfraJi-thl-One\ s. f., 
celebration. L. 39. 

Cclebrar, thai-lai-hrar\ to celebrate.— Cc/c- 
hro que V. haya venido, I am glad you 
have come. L. 89. 

Celeste, thai4ais'-fai, adj., heavenly, celes- 
tial.— Los cuerpos celestes, the heavenly 
bodies. L. 49. 

Celestial, tliai-laift-n-al', adj.,. celestial, 
heavenly. (See Celeste.) L. 49. 

C61ico, thaf-li-ka, adj., heavenly (used In 
poetry only). L. 49. 

Celo, tncU'-io, s. m., zeal. L. 55. 

Ccna, thai'-na^ s.f., supper, Last Supper. 
L. 52. 

Conar, tfiai-nar'^ to sup, to take supper. 
L.39. 

Centavo, iham-iah'-vOy e. m., cent. L. 14. 

Centolla, thain-tuU'-ya, s. f., flash, spark,— 
Echar rayos y centeUas^ to foam with rage. 
L. 62. 

Centena, thain-tai'-na^ s.f, about a hun- 
dred. L.40. 



446 



VOCABULAEY. 



Centcnar, (Aain4ai'nar', fl. m., a hnndred, 

L.4U. 
Ccrca, thair''ka^ ady., near, close by. Cer- 

ca de sa casa, near his houtto. L. 31. 
Ceremonial, thai-rui-mO-ni-al' , a^lMCcremo- 

niaJ, ceremonioaa. L. 54. 
Cerrar, thair-rar'^ to shut, to close. L, SL 
Ccrrojo, thair-rO'-ho. s. in., bolt, L. 69. 
Ceneza, Uiair-vai'-tha, s. f., ale, beer. L. 7. 
Clialcco, chah-lai'-ko^ s. m., vest. L. 10. 
Cbaucear, chaiv-thai-ar'^ to Jest, to joke. 

L. 58. 
Chanza, chan'-tha^ s. £, Jest, Joke. L. 63. 
Charla, char'4a^ s. f., chit-chat, prattle. 

L. 00. 
Cbarlar, charAar'^ to chat, to prattle. L. 37. 
Chasco, chas'-ko^ s. m.. dit»ppointment. — 

Llevarf c un cIiaiKO solemno, to be greatly 

disappointed. L. 40. 
Chc'iin, chai4een\ s. ra.. shilllnj?. L. 61. 
Chico. cJic'-ko^ aflj., little, f^mali. L. -14. 
Ctiiquirriilco, chi-kter-rt-t^'-ko^ adj., very 

pniall, very little. L. 44. 
Cliito ! chZ'-to, Int., hui^h 1 silence 1 L. 10. 
Chocolate, cJuy-ki>4ah'-tai. s. m., chocolate. 

L. 14. 
Cii'ijo, th7-ai'-nOy 8. m. and a^j., blind,— A 

ci 'jat, blindV, lu the dark. L. 48. 
Ci'lo, th^-iii'-lo^ e. m., heaven, sky.— Tomar 

ci cnlo con liis inanos, to be tranpporied 

witli ioy, prief, or passion. L. 45. 
CI en, (h^-ain\ niira. adj., a hundred.— (See 

ClENTO.) L. 14. 
ri.'ucia, th7-ain'-(fi7-a^ s. f. , pclcnce, L. 49. 
Ci -nto. th?-ain'-(o, nam. adj., a hundred. — 

(SceCiEV.) L. 14. 
Cicrto. tht-air'-fo, adj., certain. L. 48. 
Ciniicnto, thc-7nl-ain' -iOy s. m., foundation. 

L. 5«J. 
Cinco, thfcn'-ko, num. adj., five, fifth. L. 14. 
CinciK-nta, ^/^e.,rt-Aica^"/i'-^a, num. adj., lift>', 

lif.icth. L. 14. 
Circiinsncccion, thccr-koon '!<t-paik-t?i(i-dnt\ 

H. f., circumspection. L. '21. 
Cir^!un.«tancin, i/n/ r-kwn^a-tan'-th^-a, b. f.; 

circumstnnco. L. 4(k 
Cita, t/u'-tay a. f., appointment, quotation. 

L. m. 
Citar. th^-tar', to make an appointment 

(with any one), to quote. L. M. 
Ciu'.iatlaiio, thZ-oo-dah-Ualt'-ttOy ciiizcn. L. 

47. 
Civili/^acion, thi-r7-f7-thah-th^-one\ s. f., 
^ civili/^ti.,n. L. CA 

Claridad, klah-r'-dath\ s. f., clearness, pcr- 

^picnitv. L. .'JO. 
Claro. Kh)!t'-ro, adj., clear, bri:,dit. L. 69. 
CIa.-»<', klah'-mi, 8. f., chiss. L. 51. 
Ci:i-ieo, klak'-ifZ-kOy adj., clausjic, classical. 

L. .'«). 
Clasificacion, klahs7-fZ-ka'thl-one\ e. f., 

class iiicalion. L. 24. 
Cliina, kf?'-ma, s.m., climate. L. 40. 
Cocir. krf-fftair'y to boil, to cook. L. 42. 
Coclie, ko'-cfiai, B. m., coach, carrlacrc in 

ijciu'ral.— It en cochCy to go in a carriaia*. 

L. 4>. 
CiK'incro, kJi-th'-nai'-rOy e. m., cook. L. 11. 
Cofrc, ku'-r'raf, e. m., chest, trunk. L. W). 
Cou'cr, ko-hair'y to catch, to take, to pick 

up. L. 10. 
Cqicar, kO-hai-ar', to limp, to walk lame. 

L, 39. 



Coto. Jt^-Ao, a^. and 0. m., lame. L. 44. 
Colada, kd-lah'-iia, ».£., etilleniiig of doibe- 
— Todo saldra en la ooUida^ all vnll k 
brou;^t to light. 1^ G5. 
Colecuvo,A:J-^aii-^'^e^, a4j., collectrre. L 

40. 
Colgar, kdle-gar', to ban^. Ir. 69. 
Colina, k^-na. s. r., tuTl. I-. 5S. 
Colocacion, kd4^kiiA't/i^-^h»^\ *. t, ra- 

plojrmcnt, place, eituatioD. Lu GO. 
Colocar, kiHO-kar'y ta put, to arrange, to 

place, to employ. X^. 46. 
Colorado, kMoTah'-Oo^ a4j., red. JL 51 
Colorido, 4-W5-r2'-<to, s. m., colorins^ (jisini- 

Ing). L62. • "^^^^ 

Color, kd-ldr'y s. m., color, L. 62. 
Combatir. kSfM-bah-t^^^ ^ to combat, to 

fight. L. 54. 
Combinacion, kdme-M-nah-thi-^n^^ s, U 

combination. L. 94. 
Combinado, kbrM^j/h-iMth'-dtOy p.p. azida4/-, 

combined. L. 68w 
Combinar, kdme4ti-nar', to combine. L. 

68. 
Comedia, ki^^mai'-di-€L, ». T., comedy. L. S 
Comer, klhmair'y to eat, to dice. H 7. 
Comerciante, kd-mair^^AS-an'^al, e. m., 

merchant. L. 6. 
Cometa, kO-mai'-ta, b. m., comet; a A 

kite (toy). L. 60. 
Cometer, kO-niai-lair'y to commit. L. 4H. 
C6mico, kd'T/ii-ko. s. m., BctoT, comedian. 

L. 6:3. 
Comico. adj., comic, comica]. L. 35. 
Como, ko'-tnOy adv., how, as. — ^ Como e«td 
V. ? how are yon ?— Yo 8er6 tan ricoccM^.? 
61, 1 Phall be as rich as ho. L. 15. 
Coniodidad, ko-mo-iit-daih\ ». t., comicodi- 

ty, convenience, comfort. L. 29. 
C6inodo, kd'-mD^iOy adj., commodlozifi, com- 
fortable. L. 29. 
Couipafiero, kSnic-pan-yai'-ro^ s. m., com- 
panion, comrade. L. 60. 
Compailfa, kOfM-pan-yl'-a^ s. f., company. 

L. 00. 
Coniparativo, kdrnK-pah-roA-tt^-va, adj., 

comparative. L. 61. 
Conipat«Ion, kQfme-pah-si-dne*^ a. f, compas- 
sion. L. 45. 
Complacencia, kdme-plah-thaln'-thl-(Xy s. l, 

complacency, pleasure. L. 39. 
Corai)lcmento, k&i7u-plai-ttiain'-iOy s. m.* 

complement. L. 51. 
Componente, kome-iiu-nain'-taiy part., com- 
ponent. L. 49. 
Coniponcr, kDifu-p^nair'y to compose, to 

mend, to arrange, to compound. L. 49. 
Compos icion, ko7fie-jH>^^-t/il-oJUi\ s. f., com- 
position, mending, arranging, compouuJ- 
ing. L. W. 
Comprar, kdme-prar'y to buy, to pnivhs^. 

L. 4. 
Comprcnder, kume-praln-dair' ^ to compr^ 
heud, to understand, to comprise. L. M. 
Con, kdMy prep., with, by. L. 10. 
Conccbir, kDue-UiOi-beer' ^ to conceive ol. 

L. 54. 
Conceder, kdM-t/iai-dair', to grant, to con- 
cede. L. 5:1 
Concertar, kdne-thair-tar' ^ to concert, to 

n-reo. L. 58. 
Couciencia, kOne-thl-ain'-tKha^ b. f , con- 
science. L. 40. 



VOCABULAEY. 



447 



CoQciorto, kdne-tM-air^-to, b. m., concert, 

agreoiaent. L. 17. , ^ * ^ 

Coucluir, kOne-doo-eer'^ to conclade, to An- 

iah, to 1)0 over. L. M. 
CoiicortLmcia, kSfu-kore-dan' -thl-a, b. f, 

coacordanco, .agrceuicnt. L. 60. 
Condoicender, laae-dais-tham-dair^ tocou- 

de^ccud, to agrco. L- 4ij. 
Coadiclon, kOne-dS-t/iS-vue , s. f., condition. 

Coudicional, Jane-(R-thl-^ne-al\ aclJ., con- 

ditionaL L. 6!). 
Conducir, kdM-doo-theer', to conduct, to 

convoy, to lead. L. 10. 
Confonar, kdihe-fai'8ar\ to confess, to ac- 

knowlcdjfe, to avow. L. 34. 
Confu!4o, KJ ^i-foo'sOy acU., confkised, con- 

foiiuJoi. L. 54. 
Coujii^iuion, kOtha-fioo-gah-Vii-dm^ s. f., 

co.ija^.itlon. L. I'j. 
Conjuj'.ir, k:>ii.fi-Jioo-fjar\ to conjugate. L. 

4i. 
Coajaiicioa, k^na-fiOon-tJiZ-One\ 8. f., con- 
junction. L. 43. 
Cjii n .f >, fc5/w-//i3'-70, pron., with me, with 

mynjif. L. 20. 
Canoe jr, it) /w-^/ioir', to know, to bo ac- 

qiuiiit ;il with. L. 25. 
Con )'/i,ii'iontj, kJ-nO-L'iS-mS'Oin'to^ s. m., 

ku»vlxi>i.;j, biii of ladine (commerce). 

L. a. 

Cjnijcuencla, kon^-^icU-kwaln'-thZ-a, b. f., 
con-ic.j^iiciico. L. ;>1. 

Cjn-jo^uir, kf)/ie'iftjU-y.'ir''jir', to obtain, to 
tfet, to aaccovid. L. Ai. 

Coaajjo, k'iiui-sal' -fu)^ s. m., counecl, ad- 
vice. L. 53. 

Coa^ijatir, k'iie-sa^'i-tcir'^ to consent, to 
a<fs5j ^to). L. .3S. 

Coasi^tir, k'jni-^.'^<^-Ucr\ to consist. L. 52. 

Ct)nHohir, k^ft^s-fO-l'tr', to console. L. 35. 

Condtjrici2&, koi^^-taih' 'L't^-Of s. f., coustoucy, 

8t3lllIHJ-J3. L. 'I4i. 

C ).ntra.:cion, k^m-tr09k-t/iS-Diic\ constmc- 

t on. L. 51. 
Co into, km^-tan'-ftlf s. m. and adj., 

Tiiilf monoy. L. 3S. 
Co Uar, kj.i'i-tar' ^ to count, to relate, to teU. 

L. 3,. 
Contener, kd/i^^-t^i-nair', to contain, to re- 

Ktr.iiii, to -itop, to cncivii. L. i'J. 
Coat jni lo, koi^-tai-ikni'-dj^ s. m., contents. 

L. 4>. 
Coatjatir, kHfie-t lin-tar' ., to content, to 

in lie 5 i;Ul. L. 31. 
Contcito, klni-t.i> '(.'-*■». ad)., content, con- 

t.Mi^; 1, 2fla 1, rfan i 1 > I. L. J. 
Conti ; >, kj,nfe'-/>, pro i,, with thee. L. 26. 
Co.jtia:iar, kj/i^-tB-itJj'ar\ to continue. L. 

C).itri. *ltj'-/rj, prep., a^ins^t. L. 41. 
Co!i'ri.l;clr, koi^ylra.'L'du-Uicvt''. to contra- 

di't. L. 41. 
Co,i;r.irIo, kr)fi-i.traJi''79-o, ad,i., contrary.— 

Wcmfr.irh, on the contrary. L. 6:^. 
C).ivjaojr, kdne'Vain'thalr\ to convince. 

L. H. 
C.)i/.«nlr, hl^.-vil-nefr' y to suit, to becon- 

v'.'ii.»nf, to a^reo. L. 30. 
C)r.'.«ruvMon, kdm-viir-^taA-thi-dM', s. f., 

r )nv ^r-iation. L. 34. 
Cxr.'criir, konc-vair-sar^ ^ to converse. L. 



Convertlr, kSne-vcdr-tter', to Convert. L. 45. 

Convicto, koiut-veek'-tVy irr. past part, ^of 
CoNVENCEK), convicted. L. 62. 

Couvile, kOiui-cte'-(ui^ n, m., invitation, feast 
or banquet to wiuuh any one is invited. 
L.50. 

Copulalifo, kD-poo-lahrtl'-vo^ acy., copula- 
tive. L. 69. 

Coqueta, k&kai'-ta^ s. f., coquette. L. 32. 

Corazon, kO-ra/i^t/tone'^ s. ui., heart. L. 00. 

Corbata, kOre-bidt'4a, cravat. L. 10. 

Corona, kO-rd'-na. s. f., crown. L. 5G. 

Correcto, kiOr^uik' -to^ ad)., correct. L. 29. 

Corrcdor, kur-rai'dirrc\ s. m., corridor, 
broker. L. 49.« 

Correj^ir, kOr-rai-heer'^ to correct.— C5?rrtf- 
gine, to mend. L. &9. 

Correo, kur-rai'-o^ s. m., courier, post. — Ca- 
sa de correm^ poBt-ofhce. L. 20. 

Correr, k^r-roir'^ to rsoi.—iXjrrervc^ to be 
QHiiamed or confhsed, to blusii. L. 51. 

Corretear, kOr-rai-UU-ar' ^ to run about. L. 
5;i. 

Corrcveidiie, k^r-nU-cai-i'di'-laL s.m., tale- 
bearer, tattler. L. 50. 

Corriente, kor-rS-iUn'-faiy adj., current; 
B. m., al corrierifti de, aware of; s. f., cur- 
rent, Htream. L. 50. 

Corrientemente, k<yr^^-ain-tai-main*'taL, 
adv., currently, fluently. L. 40. 

Corro, kdr'-ro^ s. m., circle of people col- 
lected together for talking. L. 41. 

Cortante, kdn^-tan'-taiy adj., cuttin-', sharp, 
ed-ed. L. 88. 

Cortuplumas, kOre-tah-pUxf^mass^ penknife. 
L. 0. 

Cortar, kore-tai-*^ to cut. L. m. 

Corto, kore'-to, adj , short. L. 21. 

Co;?a, ko'->^a^ e. f., tiling. — A cum de las seis, 
al)out six o'clock. L. 11. 

Coijcr, k5-^air\ to sew. L. 21. 

Cortuiopolita, km-riuj-pO-Ut'-Ui^ s. m., cos- 
mopolite. L. 51. 

Costa, kocti'-ta, s. f., cost, coast.— A co-'^ta 
mia, at my expcuae.-— A cov(u de, at the 
expense of. L. 00. 

Costado, ko'^-talt'-dOy s. m., side. L, CI. 

Coatar, ko.<-tar\ to cost. L. Gl. 

Costumbre, kds4oorn'-t/raiy s. f., custom, 
liabit. L. 51. 

Creacion, knti-ah-tlid-utie', s. f., creation. 
L. il. 

(Year, krai-ar', to create. L. 41. 

Crotiito, knu'-ul'toy s. m.; creoit, credence. « 
L.57. 

Creoncla, krai-ain'-tM-a^ s. f., credence, be- 
lief. L. 49. 

Crecr, ktai-air', to bclleye, to think. L. 27. 

Crcyeute, krai-yain'-tai, present part, lof 
UuEKu), B. m. and f., believing, oeliever. 
L. 38. 

Criado, krl-aJt'-do^ s. m., servant. L. 17. 

Criado, past part, of Criar. L. &1. 

Criar, hS-ar, to breed, to bring up. L. M. 

Crlatura, kri-a/i-too'-ra, s. f., creature, in- 
fant. L. 60. 

Crfmen, krS'-main, s. m., crime. L. CD. 

Critfcar, kfd-f7-kar\ to criticise. L. 43. 

Crftico, krl'-d-ko, s. m„ critic. L. 45. 

Cronologista, kr!hno-lo-Ji£tss'-tCL chronolo- 
gist. L. 36. 

Cmeldad, krtXHUl-dcUh^ b. f., cruelty. L. 



448 



VOCABULABY, 



Cuadcrao, cioah-dair^-na, 8. m., copy-book. 
L. 4. 

Cual, cn'ol^ pron., which. L. 10. 
CuuiiOud, cuii^i-U-(i<i''/i , ». f., qua.lity. L.36. 
Cua-i-iuicrti, cuiU-/.e-ai -iu, piou. uud a^j., 

lUi} uiic, whurocver, boiuc one. L. <^ 
Cnuii, <''/u/», adv., how, att ^ui>cd only bc- 

lore uujc( ti\ cd or other adverb?;. L. 14. 
Cuando, ttr<//t -</<>, adv., whou. L. 9. 
tu.uito r i'((iH'-u>y adj., how much? how 

u\.,iiy t—Luanto jiiiU,-, at ouce, iminedi- 

uuiy.— Por tM6i/./o, iiia.-imKh aj». L. 14. 
Cuarto, iivur'-toy ord. adj. and b. m., fourth, 

rooia, chamber. L. iu. « 

Ciiutro, c-i (//V-//0, num. adj., four. L. 13. 
CuIki, k'Hj -Ui^ b. 1'., ca&k, tub. — Cuba ^leUiud 

(.1 I, L. Gl. 
i\r rir, ki»^(,mt\ to cover. L. 59. 
('lit n.iru, ki-'-i./i ih'-ni, e. f., t-poon. L. 00. 
C'lu liiilu, hr^dutl -^>, t.. 111., Kiiite. L. u3. 
V\u Uu, ( /' .4<' -yf*, h. m., utcK, collar. L. GO. 
C'lu ina, 0' ''/■/( -/t/, H. f., actoimt, lull. L. 4G. 
t'lnnio, C''-ii/ii'-t<t^ f. m., flory, lalo, L. 'U. 
t'lUTiKi, c 'iUt -jtu^ B, HI., body. L. G4. 
<''i'r\o, ('imur'-t<K 8. m., crow. L. 4j. 
Cn '-1:1, rc-ii,.^^ -Ut, H. r, hill.— A i"uti.% on 

i».ii''~ back or I'lumldtiH. 1,. r»;i. 
I'.h ~iju;j, mui -iZ-vitc , a. f., (question. L. 

C'uuiado, cr-T'fhih'-iln^ p. m., care— Tl-^t.'.r 
di' ci.l I / >, tu bi" daii:_<Tou-ly iil.— i. lur 
con <• t I :•( , U) In- M.i> aKxIuas, L. '^'^. 

Cuular, c«. «-/*../ , louuJ, lo latwc caio. L. 

•n. 

Culpa, A^* /'-;«/. p. f.. fault, blame. L. GO. 
I'ulp.ir. Li"'-, >\ to blauu'. L. GO. 
('iilii>ar. /m^ r-^(//', t<M uIt!\ato. L. G>. 
C'unipleario"*, A^i-/a-^7(//-u/* -y-.*, b.m,, biilh- 

(1 ly. L. G4. 
Cuuiijliniirnto, h.o7V'i.!^-inl-aln'-k\ 8. ni., 

conipliniciit. L. 4S. 
Cuiup.ir, k'f'/'i-jtf'fr', to nccomidi^h. to fr.l- 

lil.— (//;/<;////• j)()r otio. to act lor or in 

tin- naujc of anotluT. L. 57. 
Cuiuulo. a, l>-t>n-jiiIi-d(K (iu ». m. n:id f., 

bri»{h»T-in-l:>\v. hi-^tir-in-law. L. GL 
Cui »()»(», k(ii>-n-i'>;''f^ adj., curious, worthy 

of notf. L. 51, 
Cur-'O, k,H»'-M>, H. m., conrHC. L. GJ. 
Ci! lodia. hi -/<■/-. t-u, K. f., cu^t(Kly. L. .'".3. 
(.'.'iti^. /."f''-<'f< v.;, H. ni. and f, el.ln. 'li. Gl. 
C'uyo. kf>'')ju, i)r()n., oi' whom, of which, 

\N hosc, which. L. 17. 



T).";o ! r/'.-'V-/,//, Int., liavc at It 1 L. 01. 
Jj;i .ij, {{•■h'-ih'U P. f.. lady, darac. — JJumoSy 

111 aiiu'litt^, or checkers, L. iS. 
l).i:./.a, (i'lu'-tfm, b. f., dance. L. 61. 
D.iiar, (Jan-i/ii/\ to daina^'e, to hurt, to 

liarm. L. 47. 
D.iiM), t/iiu'-tjo^ B. m., damage, hurt, liarm. 

L. 1>. 
Lar, to L'ivo.— Mr/Yvytomarep, di^putc.'^, jfs 

and i\ud»,—J/at\t a la vela, to bet Bail. 

L, iJ»;. 
I)e. ^A//, prop., of, from.—Dc dia, by day.— 

J^t Intento, on purporse. L. 4. 
Deber, </</<V.,?/r', 8. ui., dutv. L. 28. 
Deber, to owf», mu^t,— Aiin per las ocho, 

it must bo ciijht o'clock. L. '2S. 



Dccena, dalr-thal'-na^ a. f., aboat ten. I- 39. 

liccidir, d^ii-thl-iietr' ^ to dccJt.c. Lu G'*. 

Itccimo, (ku'-(hlrrnAt onl. adj., aiul h. q:l.« 
tenth. L. 15. 

Dccir, dai-Uutr', to Bay, to tell. L 27. 

Ueciarar, dai-ciuJi-rar\ to declare. L. 4^*- 

Dedal, dai-dal\ b. m., thImbJe. 1.. :tL 

Dedo, dai'-do, e. m., linger. L. &*. 

Defectivo, dai-j'aik-Ce-vo^ a4j., deiecti-r«_ 
L. G3. 

Dcfecto, dai-fait-to^ «. xn., defect, Cailiis^. 
L. 53. 

Defender, dai-fain-dair' , to defend. L. flT- 

Dellnlcion, dai-jl-hl-thl-on<i\ e. L, dt-ixi..- 
tion. L. 59. 

Deflnir, d'u-Tl-rve<r'. to define. L. 59. 

Dejar, dcU-Zlar'^ to leave, to let, to a3c»w- 
L. 44. 

Delante, dai-ian'-tai, prep. — Dti*inU dc, be- 
fore, in the pre^cnce of. L. 16. 

I)t kitar, dai-uii-Z-tar'^ to dcli«;ht, L. 47. 

Ddicado, dai4t-kaJt'-d0y adj., delicate. L. 

Delicloso, dai-U-thl-o'-K)^ a^j-, dclicioiis. 

L. H5. 
Ptllucuente, rf..v'-A r.-^fahi'-tal^ b- m., dc- 

Iin(iueut, tran-,4ri.--<jr. L. ol. 
I>( linquir, dui-i.x.,-ktcr„ to tran!?gTe<a. I*. 

Delito, dai-^'-to, e. m., crime, tram^zn:*- 

^:(m. L. 51. 
IJcja:'.!*, rf(.'<-/?uf.'-A', adv., over and nlKJvo. t'>'i 

luiich; adj. uenendly u.^e<l wUti Iv», l_-c, 

l.i I, the rest, the ollur*. otben*. L. 4.;. 
I)v ; .a--iado, dui-}iuh-H-nh'-<lo^ ndj. and 

u I v., loo much, too. L. ii5. 
IV a; ro, r/' ,''■/<-/'? t), prep., ju, within. Inside 

(.:i\\ ayi* followed by ux i. L. M. 
Dc:-. I lio, diii-Ku'-cho^ ai^., ri;,-ht, even, 

^tla^'ht. D. 5«). 
Di-ailar, dai-^Mt-ft-ar'y to cluillen^e. L. 

G.j. 
Di . afio, dai-HiJi-fZ'-Oy p.m., challenge, dueL 

L. ('►;>. 
Dc. ..nimar, ff-u-sah-f'?-mar'^ to dishearten, 

to di-coura_:e. L. :x 
I\- cauf^adauunto, tinJ.<-X'an:oafi-^/(ift-r7i. u'^*'- 

t L adv., eaeily. at one's ta-e. L. J>J. 
Di . can^ado, dai.^-koh-.^uh'-uc^ adj., t^>y, 

q-.;iet, refreshed. L. .>J. 
Dl cnuKir, ({ii:.y-k\m-far'^ to rcj^t. L. rv?. 
i;e-tanso, d<iu-kau'-tO^ b. m., rest, re]>o:fC, 

ca'^c. L. .'.3. 
Dt -euro, duU-kafi-ro^ B. m., barcliccdness.. 

L. Gt, 
Descender, dci^'t?iain-<i>ur\ to dcs?cend. L. 

;37. 
Dcr^componer, dats-kZyr.i-jKt-TirJr', to dls.ir- 

ranirc, to diDConipofcC, to put out of order. 

L.53. 
Dc^compnoFto, daK^-h'jJif jrjrahf'-to, nd'., 

(liHarran^'td, di.-C(>niposed, out of onit r, 

di^•orde^ly. L. 5.1. 
DeHCLUillnr, dai^-koiu-fZ-ar', to dlstru.<t, to 

mi.'truh't. L. 4;}. 
DcM^racia, dah-grah'-tll-a^ 8. f., ml&for- 

luue, ill-luck. L. 48. 
Def^lL'iccr, dah-nl-f f'ir\ to undo, to de- 

Ftrov, to take or jnit asunder. L. 57. 
Dc-^ierto, dui-.l-ch'-to, e. m., desert, wil- 
derness. L. 51. 
Dcfij^al, d'ii-tZ-gwai\ adj., uneqaal, un- 
even. L. 53. 



VOCABULABY, 



4^9 



Dceocnpnr, dcU-sd-koo-wir'^ to quit, to 

evacuate, to empty. L. 5(5. 
J>t:r>paclo, (iaiA-pah'-tM-o^ adv., elowly. L. 6. 
X)cv3pcdir, tlai^-jXii-dtt.r' y to diauut<i«, lo Bond 

or put away, to dihchargc. L. 5!J. 
Dcsjportar, dal^-iKitr-tat ^ to awake, to 

tiwukcn, to arouse, to roaee. L. o4. 
Dcspiorto, daiifijie-air''to., aty., awake, 

bridlv, pprighlly, lively. L. 52. 
DcHproporcionadiBimaniente, </<;&s7?r5-j55r«?- 
t/f<i-0fte-<ih-di'-6i-mahfnaln-tai^ adv., out 
of all proportion. L. 50. 
Dcapuea, dais-nwaie^' ^ prep. and adv., after, 

afterward. L. 16. 
Determlnante, dai-tair-m^-nan'-tal^ aclj.,dc- 
• temiining. — Verbo d<:tffmwiwitt\ deter- 
mining verb. In 5.3. 
Detcrminar, dai-UUr'ffii-nar'^ to determine. 

L. 63. 
I>ctn\3, dai-trass\ prep, and adv., behind. 

L. 33. 
Dcudor, dai-at-d&r€% e. m., debtor. L. 45. 
Dcvolver, daJ-ioit-viUr'^ to return, to give 

back. L. 4.3. 
Dia, </2'-a, 8. m., day.— Do f//Vf, by day, in 
tlio daytime.— Dar los <//«.•, to say good 
niomint? (to any one). L. 1). 
Diablo, dS-<iU'-fjUj, n. m., devil. L. rCi. 
Dialccto, dS-a/i4aik''tOy 8. m., dialect. L. 

55. 
X)iiklop:o, dl-ah'-l&-gOy B.m., dialo;^ue. L. 59. 
Diantrc, dl-an'-lraly b. m., deuce. L. IfJ. 
Dibujo, dl-boo'-lio^ b. m., drawing, dcsi^. 

L. 61. 
Diccionario, tf^^A:-^/i?-t?-waA'-r?-o, b. m., dic- 
tionary. L. 49. 
Dicha, dl'-cha^ 8. f., happiness, good luck, 

pood fortune. L. 04. 
Die ho, dl'-i:ho. e. m., paying. L. 54. 
Diciembrc, de-t/ii-aim'-lraiy s. m., Decem- 
ber. L.*l. 
Diente, dl-ain'-tcdy a.m., tooth.— Ilablar cn- 
tre dknt(\% to mumble, to mutter. L. 03." 
Diez, di-aWi\ num. adj., ten. L. 14. 
Diferencia, dl-fai-rain'-tM-a^ 8. f., differ- 
ence. L. 4S. 
Diferenciar, d^-fai-rain-thZ-ar^^ to differ. 

L.48. 
Dillcil, di-fl'-fhaf, adj., difflcult. L. 21. 
Dificultad, d?-/2-kool-taai\ 8. f., dilliculty. 

L. 86. 
Digno, dicf-nOf adj., worthy, deserving. 

L.68. 
Diluvlar, di-loo^i-ar'^ to rain like a deluge, 

to pour. L. J». 
Dimes, rfZ'-mafo#,— Andar en dlmfJt y dir6- 
tcs, to use ifo and onds, to quibble. L. 47. 
Diminativo, d2-r/i2-»w^'-w, b. m., diminu- 
tive, L. 4.1. 
Dinero, di-nui'-ro^ e. m., money. L. 13. 
DioB, dli-oce\ e. m., Qod. L. 31. 
Diptongo, deep-tdne'-go^ 8. m., diphthong. 

Dircccion, dl-raik-tM-fhie' ^ e. f., direction, 
address. L. S4. 

Dirccto, (R-raik'-to, adl., direct. L. 51. 

Director, dd-raik-tor'^ director. L. 50. 

Dirigir, di-re-hur'^ to ^ieci.—JHrigirs€^ to 
apply. L. 6-'J. 

T)\id^\i\!0,dre.s-thl'-poo4o^ 8. m., pupil, dis- 
ciple. L. 18. 

Diecrcto, de£S8-krai'4o^ a^J., discreet, cir- 
cumspect. L. S8. 



Discalpa, decst-kool'-pci^ e. f., apology, ex- 

cu»e. L. (X). 
Discurso, dtess-koor'-so^ e. m., discourse, 

speech, course. L. 53. 
Di^i^^u^Ulr, du\'ii^'{/ou6-iar' , to disgust, to 

ui.-plcai«e. L. 50. 
I Dij*ijUBlo, det{<s-aot*8'-tOy s. m., disgust, dis- 

pkubure, unpleasantness. L. 5U. 
Di^poner, d(<ifii-po-iiair\ to dispose, to lay 

out, to arrange, to prepare. JL. 48. 
Disposicion, dtfi's-jjO-u-tUl-Cm'^ 8. f., dis- 
position, arrangement, distribution. L. 

83. 
Diiitancia, deess-tan'-thZ-a^ s. f., distance. 

L. 51. 
Distantc, dee8^-tan'-taf„ adj., distant. L. 88. 
Ditftar, detfi<-tar\ to be distant, tor from. 

L. 53. 
Dii<thiguir, deees-teenrgheer' ^ to distingnish. 

L. 43. 
Dlvertir, d^-rair-Uer' ^ to divert, to amuee. 

L. 39. 
Dividir, ai-rl-d€€r\ to divide. L. 51. 
Divisar, dS-Td-.^ar\ to cleVcry, to perceive, 

to catch a glimpse of. L. 42. 
Doble, do'-buiiy adj., double. L. 40. 
Doble, s. m., double. L. 40. 
Doce, dv*-t/iai, num. adj. and 8. -m., twelve, 

twelfth. L. 14. ' 

Doccna, do-thai'-na, p. f., dozen. L. 40. 
Dolcr, dd-lair' .— M( rlo & nno la cnbeza, 

los dleutes, to liavo & headache, locth- 

ache. L. :«. 
Dolor, du-lort\ s. m., pain. L. 60. 
Domingo, do-vuu^'-ao^ s. m., fc^unday. L. 9. 
Donde,\/(/;2<f'-</o/, adv., where. L. 9. 
Dona, dune'-ya^ s. f., lady, madam, Mrs. 

L. 2. 
Dormir, dure-meer'^ to sleep. L. 41. 
Dos, dOce. num. aili. and s. m,, t^^o, second. 

L. 14. 
Drama, drah'-tna., a. m., drama. L. 52.- 
Dramiilico, dra/i-ma/i'-tZ-ko, adj., dismatic. 

L. 52. 
Duda, doo'-da, s. f., doubt. L. 48. 
Dudar. d(jo-d(tr\ to doubt. L. 28. 
Durable, daj-rah'-blul, adj., durable. L. 68. 
Durante, doo-ran' -tai^ pres. part., daiing. 

L. 59. 
Durar, doo-rar\ to la^t, to continue. L. 59. 
Duro, doo'-rOy acU. and e. m., kaid ; dollar. 

L.CO. 



Ea I ai'-a, int., Eay I hollo 1 L. 4G. 

Echar, ai-ckar', to throw, to put, to cast.— 
Fx^har de ver, to notice, to obscne. — 
Echar a correr, to run avi&y.—JKfiar & 
perder, to spoil. L. 63. 

£con6mico, ai-kO-nd'-mhko^ a^j., economi- 
cal. L. 85. 

Edad, 8. f., aze. L. 53. 

Edicion, aidi-m-one\ e. f., edition. L. GO. 

Edificar. cU-dl-ft-kar' ^ to edify. L. 48. 

Efecto, ai-faik'-to, 8. m., efitct. L. 47. 

EJccutar, ai-hai-koo-tar' ^ to execute, to put 
into execution, to put into practice. L. 
CO. 

£;jemplo, ai-haim'-pU)^ e. m., example. L. 
82. 

i;]ercer, ai-hair4ft<Ur'^ to exercise, to prac- 
tise. L.flO. 



450 



VOCABULABY. 



Qercicio, ai'hair-ihr-tM'C, s. m., exercise. 

El. la, lo, los, la^ def. art., the. L. 1. 

EL cila, oily aU'-ya, pe». pron., he, she, It 

EJeccion, ai-laUt-t/ii'^ne'f 0. t. election, 

choice. L. 24. 
Ele^'ancia, at4airgan'-tKHiy 8. f., elegance. 

L.6-i. 
Elc'juite. ai4ai-gan'-tal, a^j., elegant. L. 65. 
£K%'ir, <u4ai-heer'. to elect, to choose. L. 

Elemento, txi-iai-main'-to, s. nL, element, 
contttitncnt part. L. GO. 

Elena, ai-lai'-wiy s. f., Helena, Ellen. L. 19. 

Elipiico, aiUeiy-a-ko^ adU., elliptic, ellipti- 
cal. L. 60. 

Enilmrcadiro, aimbar-kah-dai'-TO, s. to., 
lauding forty. L. 58. 

Emlwr^'o, aim-dar'-go^ ». m., erobar??o.— Sin 
tm'xirgo^ notwithstanding, -however. L. 

EmpoAar, tUm-pain-yar'^ to ensage, to 
pfedife, to bind.— /;/«yjf/iar.v, to bind 
ouo'b self, to persist, to desire eagerly. 
li. 45. 

^mpero aim-pcU'-ro, coi\J., yet, howcTer, 

Einpl««ar, aimplaiar', to employ. L. 44. 
I'.mpleo, aiin-ntai'-o. %. m., employ, cm- 

pfoymont, omco. L. 57. 
Ell, <«•'<, prep., in, at, on. L. 8. 
l-naraorar, ai'HaA-r?i^rar'^ to court, to 

make love io.—Kni.norarst de, to be 

cnainoureJ of, to full in love with. JL 3a 
EiK'irjo. ari-k tr'-'j.\ s. m., char-'e, com- 

ini-lon, con. mill. L. 57. 
Encarja*. a •i-Ur-jar' ^ lo charge, to com- 

mi-nion, to o dir. L. 58. 

^H*!^'""^!*' .''"*""^ li'^'dalr'y to Uijht, to kin- 
cue. j^. i)(. 

Encorrar, ain-thrtlr-rar', to shut up, to con- 

tain, to comproliciid. L. 03. 
Eucliua* aiU't.'ih'-ttia, prep, and adv., above, 

over. L. SJ. 
Enconirar, ain-kD/u-(rar\ to meet, to find, 

EneinL'o, al-n if-mr-To, s. m., enemy. L. 5 1. 

l:.iifiai.HUir. m-n i--i/i^-^<H-tar'^ to set at on-. 

mAy.^A'uifu^far u alijuno con otro, to 

aSithUr ""h. m. """^^^ "^^^^ ""' ^^""^ 
Enrr-iji, ai-ndlr-hZ'^, ». f., energy. E. 61 
^^^^J^T^al^fair'7mr', to bccSmo or get 

Enjormo, aL-fair'-mo, a^J., sick, 111. L. 48. 

^m 'L!at ^'''^^' *^^- opposite; u; 

^"n*^'*;ij"^^'*'^^'^* *° deceive, to take 
Eiihi^rai-; i/i-oi-ftrtir', to thread, to link. 

Enhorabucno. Ql-nd-mh-fncai'-na * f 
con;?ratulation, felicitationr L ft) ' 

Enrimie, oin-r^'-kaK s. m., Henry. L 1J5 
Eiweftar, ai/<-«ai/i-yar\ to showf to teach. 

^?o a «^£-X'^'^. to dirty, to son, 



Entcnder, aUi-iain-dair*^ to midast&l 

L.87. 
Entonces, ain-tdne'-ihaiss, adv., then. L ^ 
Entrambos, cU/i-tmrn'-dCoe, pron. pl^ tr^u. 

L. (iO. 
Entrar, ain-trar*^ to enter, to begin, 's 

commence, to come or go in, to ^: jl 

^tre, ain'-trai^ P«P-. 1)cnreen, la i:. 

course of. r«. 19. 
Entretanto, ain'4rai'tan*'4a^ adv., in tlir 

mean time. Lu 60. 
Entieteucr, ab^rai-tai-nair^y to eotntth. 

to amuse, to divert. — £ntreUh(nf.. tj 

spend one s time, to be enga^^ in. 1^ i- 
£ntusia:;mo, cUn-too^B^-as^'-ziku, s. m, w 

thnsiasm. L. &1. 
Envlar, (Wi-ti-ar^, to eend. L 14. 
iiuvidiar, ain-citii-<ir\ to envy. L. 40. 
Kquivocacion, cu-ke-vd-kcUi'tM^^ ^ e. f, 

mistake, misoonceptiou. I*. 50. 
Equivocar, ai-ki-vC-JUir'y to mistAke.-£:^-.- 

rocoriie, to be mistaken. !•. 47. 
Erguir, air-gheer'^ to hold erect (as it. 

head, &c.). L. 43. 
Errar, air-rar^^ to err, to miss. L. 41. 
Erudicion, airroonlZ (Ai-</ne% e. £, ^niJ.- 

tion. L. 63. 
Escaldar, aiaa-keU-ii^xr', to ecakL L. S>. 
Escena, dsf-t/Kii'-na^ s. f., ecene. L. 65, 
Efrceptlco, aiss-^/uMip'-a-lOy a4|., skeptiii.'. 

L. 45. 
Escoba, aistt-kd'-lxi, 8. f., broom. L. ©. 
Escobajo, alki-Ja-l/ah'-/io, s. m. (an„Tneara- 

tivc of Escoba), stamp of a brooni. L 

E*coTCr, aiag-kd-haJr', %o cfaooste. L.65. 
Escribano, aUa-kti-bah'-no. s. m., nouiy. 

L. 19. 
Escribiento, aixs-kT^^'/tin'-/ai, *. au 

amanuensis, clerk, writer ,<in an olfice.'. 

L. 3S. 
Escribir, aivf-krhbeer', to write. L. & 
Escntor, avw-fcre4&re\ s. m., writer, ac- 

thor. L. 19. 
Escritnra, (Uss-lr^-tW^ra, b. f., write 

document, convej-ance. L. 19. 
Escnchar, aUa-kofxhar', to hesarkcn, to ft* 

ten. L,60. ' 

Escuela, ai-^-kwai'-fa, s. f., school. L. 21, 
Escultor, oiw-too^-^f^.. m., sculptor. L ; 

31. 
Escultuia, ais8-hool4oo'-ra, b, f., sculpture^ | 

Esforzar, aUft-f^frt^har', to strwisthco. to 
exert.— i^orsar», to make cflbrt, to en- 
deavor. L. 60. 

Esfiicrzo, aisf^/trair''(fu>, s. m., cfTort €0- 
dcavor (pi.), couraffo, bravery. L- 47. ^^ 

Espacio, ai<s^}MJi''tJi^^^ p. m., space. L, 4& 

raE*^'*' «^-lw*'-rf«, B. r, swoii. L. 57. 

Espadachln, aiss-paJi-dah-cheen', s. ni., 
Dullv. L. 63. 
ifack'*' L^'?^'-*^ *• 'm shoulder, (pU 

Ej^pafji ai».^n'.yn, s. f., Spal». L. 9. ^ ^ 

-ti-paflol. atis-jmn-volfi', b. and adj.. Pj>«o^"* 

the Spanish foshlon. L. a. 
^specie aivf-pai'-t/a-ai, s. f., species, kind, 

sort. L. 40. 
^*£^oro, aiss-pca-m-ai'^, 0. m., ffocff. 



VOCABULABY. 



451 



EepeJOf aiss-pai'-hOt b. m., looking-glass. 

J-., ou. 
Cbl>cr^nza, aisn-pai-nrn'-Uia^ a. f., hope. L. 

l!:^pera^, ais9-pairraf y to hope, to await, to 

^> ait for. \4,M, 
Ks^piritu, aign-j/i'-rS-ioOy 8. m., I|)lrit. L. 46. 
KtspoHO, (jUtm-po'-sa, b. t, spouue, wife. L. iH). 
Kttpobo, ausi-pO'-My s. m., epouBe, liusbaiul. 

i.. »». 
Ktf^iuela, ai8s-kai'-lay s. f., note. L. 66. 
Ji»t|uma, ai«f-Ac'-mi, b. f., comer. L. 51. 
iiidiablecer, aiiu-tah-Uai-l/uiir'y to cBtablieh. 

la, 4^ 

Eauicion, atsa-tah-thl-^ne^ a. f., station, 
bcason. L. 60. 

Etitudo, aUs-Ca/i'-dOy s. m., Btatc, State.— 
Loa JuitaU(j6 Uniaos, the United btates. 
L. 19. 

EBtur, aiss-tar". to be, to understand.— 
J'^itar para salir, to be about to sot out.— 
Ji^iar por aI;;uuo, to be for, or in favor of, 
any one.— ^ J^td V. Mo you understand ir 
L. 22. 

Ettte, aiss'-taiy s. m., east. L. 22. 

Kbte, esta, euto, dcm. pron., this, thlB one. 
L.18. 

Estilo, aLiS-tl'-lo^ s. m., style. L. 62. 

Estimable, aiss-il-rnu/i' -blai^ a^., eBtimable. 
L. \Q. 

Estimar, ais$-(l-fnar'y to esteem, to esti- 
mate. L. 39. 

Esto, ai8s'-to. (See Estb.) L. 18. 

Estocada, aisa-tO-ka/i'-Ua, s. f., stab, thrust. 
L. 5;3. 

EstraQo, aiss-iran'-yOy acJij., strange, foreign. 
L. 48. 

Estratacrcma, (dfts-trah-tak-hai'-ma^ s. £, 
BtratUj^'ciQ, ruse. L. 44. 

Es*trechar, aus-trai-dtar', to tighten, to 
make narrow, to squeeze, to press. L. 60. 

Estrecho. am-frai'-c/io, adj., narrow, tight, 
close, intimate.- ^'//trc/to, s. m., strait. 
L.60. 

Estribo, tusH-tri'-fto, s. m., stirrup. L. 88. 

Estudiante, aiss-too-dZ-an'-toL, s. m., stu- 
dent. L. 38. 

Efttndiar, al<^-foo-d7-/tr'j to study. L. 8. 

Estudio, cdss-UxZ-Oi'd, s. m., study. L. 
25. 

Etcmidad, (a'tair-Ta-dath', a. f., eternity. 
L.36. 

Etemo, ai'fair*-no, adj., eternal. L. 41. 

Evidcncia, airxZ-dain'-the-a, s. f., evidence. 
L.59. 

Evitar, ai-rT'-far*, to avoid, to help (do 
otherwise than ha<< brni done"). L. 47. 

Exnsrcraclon, cUk-f^aJ-hai-rah-thl-dne'^ s. f, 
cxagseratlon. L. 48. 

Exaiierar, aik-sah-hai-rar'y to exaggerate. 
L.60. 

E^camen, aih-tah'-main^ s. m., examination. 
L. 3«. 

Examlnar, aik-foh-mi'nar'^ to examine. L. 
41. 

Exceder, ail-'^hai-dair'. to exceed, to over- 
ptop, to pnrpa««». L. 63. 

Excclcnto, niks-thai-iain'-tai^ a^J., excel- 
lent. L.*B3. 

Excopclon, (TiJts-thaip-thl-ane'y s. f., excep- 
tion. L.46. 

Exceptuar, aiks-thcUp-UxHor^^ to except. L. 
60. 



Exclamacion, aiJts-klah^mah-thd-^ne'^ e. f„ 

exclamation. L. ^. 
Exclamar, rnks-kia/i-tnar', to exclaim. L. 

Excusa, aik8-koc/-ta, a. t, excuse, apology. 

Li. 60. 

Excusar, aiks-koo-sar'^ to excuse, to apolo- 
gize, L. 27. 1 *~ 

Exhibiclon, aik^i-bS-tia-^ne', s. f., exhibi- 
tion. L. 48. 

Exhlbir, aik-s^-beer', to exhibit L. 60. 

Exigir, aik-ite'h€€r', to exact, to require, to 
demand. L. 88. 

Existencia, aik-seess-tain'-Ua-a, s. f., exist- 
ence, (pl.) stock. L. 52. 

Exist ir, aik-neess-teer', to exist. L. 40. 

Exito, aik'si-tOy s. m., result, issue.— Con 
buen exito^ successfully. L. 4il3. 

Expcrlcncia, aiki:-jjai-ri-ain'-Uit-a, s. f., ex 
porience. L. 41. 

Explicacion, aikif-pR-kaA-tM-lhie\ s. f., ex- 
planation. L. 48. 

Explicar, aiks-pRkar', to explain. L. 46. 

Exponer, aiks-pd-nair'. to expose, to ex- 
pound, to explain. L. 51. 

Exprcwir, aiks-jtrai-aar' ^ to express. L. 62. 

Expresion, aih-pnUse-dne', s. f., expres- 
sion. L.66. 

ExprcsiTO, aiks-praUV-vo^ a^j., expressive. 

Exterior- aiks-tai-riSn!', exterior. L. 48. 

Extra, athf'-ira, adv., extra. L. 60. 

Extrangero, cUts-tran-hai'-ro^ s. m., foreign- 
er. L. 00. 

Extrafiar, aik»'lran-yar* ^ to wonder at, to 
find (a thing) strange. L. 60. 

Extrafio. aihu'tran'-yo^ adj., strange. L. 48. 

^xX raordinario, am-trah-urc-dZ-iidft'-rl-O^ 
adj., extraordinary. L. 46. 

Extremado, aiks-lrai-nia/i'-do, acU., ex- 
treme. L. 55. 



Fabricar,/a^-*r?-Xor', to make, to manu- 
facture, to build. L. 48. 

Faccion, /aA-<A*-5i»<', s.f., feature; ihction. 
L. 85. ' 

FdcW.fah'-Oieel, acU., easy. L. 21. 

Facilidad, faft-Uil-U-dath', s. f., Ihcillty, 
ease. L. 36. 

Facilitar, faIi'thi-19-iar', to flicilitate, to 
make easy, to procure. L. 49. 

Facilnientc, fa/i'-t/itel-mainrtai^ adv., easi- 
ly. L.49. 

FactTira, fak-too'-ra. s. f., invoice. L. 03. 

Facultad",/a;<-Aoo/-/a/A', s. f., faculty, power 
of doing any thing, liberty to do any 
thing. L. 63. 

Falso, faV-m^ a4J., flilse. L. 45. 

Falta, >a/'-^a, s. f., fault, want. L. 27. 

Faltar,//T/-tor', to want, to lack, to be lack- 
inir. L. 31. 

Fama./a/i'-fwa, s.f., fiune, reputation, re- 
putc. L. 65. ^ „ ^ ^ 

Famnia,/a//-w?'-/?-<i, s. f., flimilv. L. 23. 

Familiar. /a/<-w^-^-«r', atlj., mmiliar. L.,40. 

Faniil!ari(iad,/aA-m«-^-a/i-re-</a^/i', s. f., fa- 
miliarity. L. 65. 

Famo<o,/<7A-'7«5'-/w, aqj., famous. I*. 45. 

FanaUco,/aA-n<i/t'-i2-to, a(y., flinaticaK L. 
85. 



452 



VOCABULARY, 



Fas, fa.xs.^'PoT fat 6 por n£fa«, right or 
wrolu'; ju»tly or apjubtlj. L. IW. . 

Fa^llaio,yaA*-rt'-<i«-(;, u. m.| trouble, aiino7- 
aiicc. L. 47. 

Favor, ^WA -ivre ', B. m., favor, mercy, help. 
— Ayi/'Vyr dc, m bciuilf of. L. ISJ. 

Fa\ orccur, ja/i-vO-rai-Utair'^ to tavor. L. 

Favorite, /a// -r.>r8 '-to, at^., tovoritc. L. M. 
Fc, /'<//, p. f., la nil. L. Ab. 
WhciiiOsj'ui-Wai'-rOy t. ra., February. L. 34. 
Ffcha, fai't'/id^ ». f., dote. L. 20. 
FclicidIid,^<«-/r-/A2-tii.'/«', g. f., happmess, 

fdiiiiy. L. 48. 
Feliciiur,/<ii-'«-Me-/ar', tofeJiciUtc, to con- 

grotulaLo. L. 01. 
Fdiz, j\iiUitU\ a<y., liappy, fortanate, 

luckv. L. 'Jl. 
Ti.h'/.u.cn\i.\ftu-leif^i'mcun'-(ai, adv., happi- 
ly, ft-nunuu'l^', luckily. L. 4'J. 
Fciacuiuo, jat-ifuu'iti -lU)^ a^j., feminine. 

L. 47. 
Ft'o,ya«''-o, a(\J.. nglv, nnbcccmlnir. L. 7. 
Fcrt)Z, /«/-/ J///, at^j., ferocious, ncrce, rav- 

onoii!*. L. 51. 
Viin\Ka.Tr\\,j>j*r-rO-carrcd\ s. m., railroad. 

L. (X). 
Flatl'),/r-f//<'-7o, adj., conndent, trusting.— 

Al Jt'i'4-t, ou crt'dil, ou trust. L. 01. 
Fiar, flr\ to lru^t, to l>ail. L. 01. 
Fill,./ r.(/7'. adj., faithful. L. 21. 
Fi. -la. /f-cv^sV'/, s. f., fcaxt, feblival.— Dia 

d''./'/.7./. holiday. L. li'i. 
Fii;ui a, ./■«"-;/""'-/«, ». f., fl^nrc, form, ehapo, 

—llac'er y/yura, to make, to eut a fl^^ure. 

L. (W. 
Fiifurado, fl-goo rah'-do, a^)., figurative. 

L. 51. 
YWo^iSn'^tTO^'Io-s^/aits'-tro^ 8. m., philoso- 

1)1 latter. L. 49. 
Filohofo, fv4u'-^'fOy B. m,, philosopher. L. 

4U. 
Fin, ftrn^ p. m., end, object, point.— A fin 

di", iu order to. L. ATt. 
Final, j7,.nl\ 8. m. and a^., end, termlna- 

11111"; I'liial. L. 01. 
Final nK-nie,/?-/j«/-//wz//i'-/ffA adv.* finally. 

L. 4y. 
Fino,/f'-no, adj., fine. L. 56. 
Flnua,/tcr'-;/<a, b. f., nlmiature. L. 60. 
Fifonomia, /t"-*{J-7k?-wr^'-a, 8. t, pliyi»iogno- 

niy. L. 45. 
Flaquc'za, fiali-kai'-Uia, p. f., leanness, 

Wiakm'ps, foible, frailty. L. (M. 
Foudo, fofte'-</o, («. ni., bottom, gronnd 

(of coiorcd articles); pi., IhndB, cash, 

money. L. GO. 
Formal, fl>r<'-mal\ acU., formal, reliable, 

ret«pcctable. L. 45. 
Formalldad./7Jn'-7/i«A-/?.r/a^A', fl. f., formali- 
ty, reliablllly, reypoctability. L. 43. 
Formar,/<?r<'-wiar', to form, tonbapc. L. 43. 
Fortuna, fOrt'too'-na^ e. f., fortune, luck. 

L.4)J. 
rra;,'ata./mA-f7<iA'-te, B. f., IHgate. L. 00. 
Fraile, /ra/i'.?-/aA b. f., Mar, X. 41. 
Franeep./ra;j-^//a/A<?', e. m. andac^., French 

(lan'juacre), French. L. 8, 
Francia,yran'-^/(e-«, s. f.. Franco. L. 9. 
I'ranclsco, fran-theest'-kOy b. m., Francis. 

L.44, "^ 
Franco, fran'-ko, a^J., ftank, free, open- 

bearteci, intimate. L. &t 



Franqaeza, fran-hU'-fha^ b. C, Crsnkn:*- 
opt^-heanedness, intimacy. L>. 4a. 

Frd&^yjra/i'-iiaiy s, il, piiraee, ecnten^. L 
51. 

Yni}%frah''i, 8. m., friar, L. 41. 

Frt-cucute, jriU-AtciUu-iai. adj., ftx-i u.ll 

Frcir Jyai-etr', to f^. L. 62. 

Frente, fnun'-tui, ». f., forefacad, fttst-— 

Enfixnle^ opposite. L. 45. 
Fresco, jrOMT-ko, acU., frc«h, cool.— P5it3- 

ra al jresoo, tneco paintizif^. L. 4*. 
Fresco, 8. m., cool breeze, cool, re^elil::^ 

air, freeco (painting). L. 46. 
Frio,/?e'-<J, aO]. and 6. m., cold. I*. 25. 
FrIolera,/rt-c-^M '-ra, b. f., trifle. L. ST. 
Fruta,y;M/-te, 6. f., fruit. L. 31. 
Fruto, /;t»'-/o, e. m., fruit ipiodocc). L 

40. 
rue<»o,/«ral'-^, b. m., fire. L. W. 
Fueuie, J'wain'-Lai^ s. f., fouzitulD, ^riiii^, 

source. L. 52. 
Fucra, yVioi'-ra, adv., ouL — JTuttti dc qcj, 

be.-^iaea. L. 81. 
Fuera 1 inter., out ! be cone I awaj I L .11 
Fuerza, fwair'-tha, t. fi, force, strcne'ih-— 

A fita-za de, by dint of. JL. 68. 
Fui,'a./<»'-^, B. f., flight, CMapc. L, 57. 
Fulano, foo-lafi'-uo^ b. m. . ibuch a one. L. S. 
Fumar,/oo^jar', to emoke. L. 4:i 
Fu?il,y«>-jv^/', B. m., gun. L. 49. 
Fusilar,/o(Me-/ar', to i»hoot (military). L 

45. 
Futuro,/<»-too'-ro, e. m.. futnrc (tense;. L. 

43. 
Futuro, adiJ., ftiture. L. 43. 



O. 

Galan, gah-lan\ b. m. and a^)-, gallant, ac- 
tor ; gallant. L. 58. 
Galan to, ga/i-la7i'-tai, a4j., gallant, courtlT. 

L. 58. 
Galicismo, ffah-U-tAecfs'-mo^ a. m., galli- 

cism. L. 01. 
Gallcgo, gal-yai'-ffo, b. m., Gaiician. L. 55. 
Galliua. (jal-yt'-jia^ b. f., hen. L. fi. 
Gana, tjah'-na^ b. f., desire, will, appetite. 

L. 69. 
Ganapierdc, gah-nah-pi-air'-dq^, s. ro . 

came of draughts, or checkers, at ^hlch 

the loser wins. L. 60. 
Ganar, gah-nar'^ to gain, to win. L. 27. 
Gan^o, gan'-«>, b. m., «)obc.— llablar por 

boca de gannOy to ccIio what has bcH;n 

Baid by others. L. 03. 
Garrotazo, gar-td-tah'-tfU^^ s. m., blow with 

a cudgel. L. 44. 
Garrote, gar-n>'-taJ, b. m.. cvdgel. L. 44. 
Gastar, gafx-lar", to waste, to use, to spend, 

to expend. L. 50. 
Gatillo, g(ih'Uel'-yOy b. m. (dim.), Uttle cat, 

trigger of a gun. L. 63. 
Gato, gah'-to, s. m., cat. L. 46, 
Geniido, hai-ml'-tlo. b. m., croan, lamcnia- 

tion, moan, howling. L. 60. 
General, hainai-ral\ 8. m. and a4)., gen- 
eral. L. 45. 
G^nero, hai'-nai-rOy b. m., gender, gena^, 

kind, sort, cloth. L. 67. 
Gentiiicio, hainrti-tS'-l/ii-^, a^}., peculiar to 

a nation. L. 49. 



VOCABULABY, 



453 



Ocatfo, hain-iS'-dy B. m., great crowd, mnl- 

tltade. L. 40. 
Oentaalla, hain-too-al'-ya, 8. f., rabble, 

dregs of the people. L. 49. 
Ocrundio, halrroo/i'-de-d, s. m., gerund. L. 

43. 
GIffiintesco, h^-gan-icuss''fy>y a^., gigantic. 

C. 49. 
Oineta, hi-nai'-ta.—T(mcT loa cascos & la 

oineta, to be hare-brained. L, G4. 
Qlobo, glO'-bo^ ». m., globe, balloon. L. 37. 
Oobemador, go-batr-nah'aQre\ a.m., gov- 
ernor. L. G^ 
Oobemante, g^-dair-nan'-taiy pres. part., 

povemin:?. L. 33. 
Oobcmar, g<>^ir^nar'y to govern. L. 31. 
Oobicmo, gO-bH-air'-nOy b. m., government, 

C3occ, gd'-f^iai, b. m., enjoyment. L. 54, 
Gtolpe, goU'-pai, b. m., blov/, Btroko. L. 61. 
Gonzalez, gOne-thah'-l'uth, s. m. (dim),. 

Spanish proper name sli^nifying son or 

uonzalo. L. 49. 
Gorra, gdre'-ra^ b. f., bonnet.— Vivir do 

gorray to live at others' expense, to 

sponge. L. 61. . 
Gozar, gd-thar', to enjoy. L. 23. 
Gozo, gS'-thOy B. m., Joy, Batidfiictlon, pleas- 
ure. L. 51. 
Grabado, grah-bah'-do. b. m., engraving, 

cut (picture). L. 53. 
Orabar, grah-bar', to engrave. L. 52. 
Gracia, grah'-th:-a, b, f,, grace, favor, grace- 

ftilnes^, pardou. h. 51. 
Qrncias, h. m. pi., thank you. L. 23. 
Grado. grah'-ao, b. ra., erratic, degree. — De 

groflo, willini'ly. L. 00. 
Oramatica, grah-nuili' -Q-Im^ b. f., grammar. 

L. 5. 
Gramatical, grdh-mah-i^'kai'. adj., eram- 

matical. L. 51. 
Grande, gran' -flat, adj., great, larre. L. 7. 
Granizar, grah-nMhary to hall. L. 30. 
Grato, grah'-to^ adU., grateful, pleasing, 

agreeable. L. 56. 
Grito, grl'-tOy e. m., cry, shout, scream. L. 

69. 
Guerra, gair'-ra, e. f., war. L. 56. 
Guiflada, gfum-yah'-fln^ s. f , wink. L. 51. 
Gnlpuzcoa, qh^-prx>*h'-kira, b. f , Guipuzcoa 

(province in Spain). L. 55. 
Gudtar, goo<ii-tar\ to like, to please, to 

taste, X. 31. 
Gusto. j70o.<«'-to, B, m., taste, pleasure.— Con 

mucho gustOy with great pleasure. L. 23. 

H. 

Habana (La), Idh-ah-bah'-na^ b. f., Havana. 
L. 12. 

nabanero, a/i-fxih'nai''rOy a4). and s. m., 
navanese. L. 49. 

naber, ah-bair', to have (uped only as an 
auxiliary verb in this Bljnlflcation ; for 
exceptions see Lesson »>); impersonal 
verb, there to be.— //ay dos J§lc»!ia3 en 
esta calle, there arc two churdR in tliis 
street. L. 12. 

nahil, ah'-bfel, adj., able, skilful, expert, 
clover. L. 21. 

n.jbllidad, ak-bT-tH-dafh', b. f., ability, skil- 
fulness, cxpcrtncss, cleverness. L. 86. 



Habitante, ah-^-tan'4aiy s. m., inhabitant 

L. 40. 
nablador, ab4ah-d^re\ adj. ands. m., talka- 
tive ; talker. L. 20. 
Hablar, ab-lar', to talk, to speak.— Z/o^r 

a bulto, to talk at random. L. 1. 
ILiccr, ali-thair'y to do, to make.— /7af<?r 

muy bicn, to do well or right, to be rigUi. 

— Hijuxr de, to act as. L. 19. 
Hucia, ah'-thi-a^ adv., toward, towards. L. 

19. 
Hallar, al-yar'y to find. L. 87. 
llambro, am'-brai, b. f., hanger.— Tener 

hambrey to be hungry. L. 25. 
nasta, aas'-ta, adv., until, till, as Air as, 

even. L. 19. 
Hazmcreir, ath-mal-ral-eer' ^ b. ra., lau^jhing- 

stock. L. 60. 
He! ai, inter., ho! what? what do you 

8a V? L.44. 
necho, ai'-cfto, s. m., action, fbct. L. 52. 
Hclar, ai-lar'y to freeze. L. 30. 
Helena, al-lai'-na, s. f., Helen, Ellen. L. 19. 
UermanaAtro, air-mah-nass'-tro, p. m., aug., 

Btep-brothcr, half-brother, L. 49. 
Hermano, air-mah'-no^ b. m., brother. L. 6. 
Uermoso, air-tnd'-eo, ad}^ beautiful, hand- 
some. L. 7. 
Hermosura, air-md-Mo'-ray b. f., beauty, 

handsomeness. L. 53. 
Herrero, air-rai'-ro, s. m. , blacksmith. L. 65. 
Uielo, yai'-lo, s. m., ice, frost. L. 30. 
Hicrro, yair'-ro, 8. m., Iron. L. 61. 
Iligo, I' -go, s. m., flg. L. 40. 
Hilastro. l-fiass'-tro, b. m., step-son. L. 49. 
Hijo, 2'-Ai9, s. m., son. L. 6. 
Hilar, J-Zar', to spin. L. 63. 
Hilo, I'-lo, s. m., thread. L. 21. 
Hlnchar, ten-char's to swell. L. 53. 
Historia, eess-((y-r?-a, s. f., history. L. 15. 
Uoja, D'-ha, s. f., leaf (of a tree or a book). 

L.59. . 
Hola I d'-ia, inter., hallo ! L. 46. 
Holgazan. Ole-gah-(han\ adJ. ands. m.. Idle, 

lazy, loitering; idler, loiterer. L. 6. 
Hombre, Dme'^rai^ s. m., man.— Es mas 

fu)7ni)}'e que su hermano, he is more of a 

man than his brother. L. 6. 
Honor, d-n&re\ s. m., honor. L. .^. 
Honroso, dne-rd'-m, a<y., honorable. L. 62. 
Hora, d'-ra, s, f, hour. L. 23, 
Homo, &re'-m, s. m., oven.— Coccr en A<?r/w>, 

to bake. L. 60. 
Horrendo, Ore-rain' -do, a^j., horriflc (poet.). 

L. 55. 
Hortelano, Ore-tai-lah'-nOy s. m., gardener. 

L. 63. 
Hospital, dce-pS-ial', s. m., hospital. L. 47. 
Hotel, O-iali', 8. m., Iiotel. L. 17 
Hueso, wai'-so, s. m., bone.— Bocado sin 

"^fiff^. sinecure. L. 61. 
nu6spod ivaL'is'-paid, s. m., ffucst, host..— 

Ecliar la cnenta Bin la huUneda, to reckon 

withont the host. L. 63. 
Huir, weer, to flee, to make off. L. 31. 
Humano, oo-mnh'-no, adl., human. L. 4fi. 
Humor, oo-miUrt' s. m., humor, wit. L. 27. 



Idea, ^-ffai'-a, n. f.. ideal. L. 51. 
Ideal, l-dcU-al', adj.. Ideal. L. 48. 



452 



VOCABULABY, 



Fas, fa.^.— Vox fat 6 por nffos, right or 
\\n*ii^'; justly or unjut^tly. L. G3. . 

Fa>(idi(j,ya«.s-/e'-u«<<;, b. m.| trouble, onsoy- 
uncc. L. 47. 

Fu\or,yi/..-r</n', 8. m., favor, mercy, help. 
—\juiori\v, iu bciuilf of. L. :X). 

Fa\orcccr, yaA-tv-/t4^-Wia«r', to favor. L. 

Favorlto,/a/<-r«%;2'-to, acy., fiivorite. L. 5L 
>V,ya/, n. f., laiih. L. 45. 
Fi l)rcro,yiii-6/-t/i'-n>, i«. in., February. L. ^ 
Fecluj,/</i'-c7«/, t>. f., date. L. A). 
Ft'licid.id,^(/<-/r-/Atni/.'A', 8. f., bapphiess, 

felicity. L. 48. 
Felk ilar,/(W-.7'7/#r-<ar', to felicitate, to con- 

CTalulato. L. 01. 
Feliz, jui-Utfh\ a<y., happy, fortunate, 

lucky. L.^»l. 
Fdiza.oiite, niiktth'mam'-titi, adv., happi- 
ly, loriuuuiely, luckily. L. 49. 
Feiticuiuo, jaHnai-nc -iu>, a^j., feminine. 

\j, 47. 
Feo,./k/*'-o, aty., uply, nnbocoralns:. L. 7. 
Feruz, /a/-# t"//« , adj., ferocious, tierce, rav- 

euuii!(. L. 51. 
Ferroc:irril,yu«/--r(>-car^r«/', b. m., radroad. 

L. CO. 
Fiado./i'-r.'/j'-Vo, adj., confident, trnpting.— 

Al /*,'-/ », on cri'dii, ou trubt. L. Gl. 
Fhir, ;r- r\ to tru~t. to bail. L. 61. 
Fitl.y t"-(/ .". adj., faithful. L. 21. 
Fi«.ft.i. rt-i'^^>-f", B. f., fea.-'t, febtlval.— DIa 

d'- j! \/ '^ luiliday. L. IW. 
Fijjrra,yt-.7' *>'-/(/, p. f., fi;?ure, form, phape. 

— liaccry/yt/za, to make, to cut a figure. 

L. <». 
Fiiairado, fl-goo rah' -do, a^J., flgurative. 

L. 51. 
FilO}«t.raf>tro^-/<><!^a«r'-^/T>, e. m., philoso- 

plia.^tcr, L. 49. 
FiK'-hofo, /t-/t/'-*^o, 8. m., philosopher. L. 

4U. 
Fin, ftcn^ p. m., end, object, point.— A >fn 

f.U\ in order to. L. 45. 
Final, i2-..-il\ e, m. and ac^., end, termina- 

tit \\\ r.nal. L. fil. 
Fi urtl : noil te, fl-tuil-main '-tci^ adv., llnally. 

L. -lU. 
Flno,/?'-no, adj., line. L. 56. 
FIriua,/<fr'-;/jtf, ». f., hl„-uatare. L. 66. 
Flbonouiia, ft-i^no-ini'-a^ 6. t, physiogno- 
my. L. 45. 
Flaqueza, jfah-lai'-iha. 8. f., leanness, 

Wiakncp**, foible, frailty. L. 64. 
Fondo, fOtu'-ilo, »». m., bottom, gronnd 

(of colored articles); pi., fUnds, cash, 

money. L. GO. 
Formal, /vn-mal', a^., formal, reliable, 

respectable. L. 45. 
Formalidad,/5nf-/7»<//<-/?-'^a'A', e. f., formali- 
ty, reliability, retyped iiJility. L. 43. 
Formar,/or<^wiar', to form, to chape. L. 43. 
Fortuna, Jore-too'-na, e. £, fortune, luck. 

L.42. 
FraMta, /mA-(7aA '-/a, s. f., IHjrate. L. 60. 
¥miU\/rah'-Hai, s. f., War. L. 41, 
France}«,./>a/j-^Aa/>!^, e. m. andat^., French 

(lan^ua:^'\, French. L. 8, 
Francia, fran'-thT-ft, p. f., France. L. 9. 
Francisco, /ran-t/itci>sf'-ko, e. m., Francis, 

L. 41. 
Franco, fran'-ko, ac^)., JVank, flrec, opcn- 

hcartod, intimate. JL ai 



Fnmqocza, firan-lttV-iha^ e. t, ftanknces, 

open-heart cdue8«, intimacy. L. 4tj. 
Frutc, J rah'- bill, a, f., phraae, eenten^i. L. 

Fray,/raA'-?, s. m., IHar. L. 41. 
Frceueute, jrai-kwaiii'-tai^ a^}., frequent. 

Freir, /roi-err', to f^. L. 52. 

Frente, jrain'-tai, e. f.» forehead, tront. — 

KuyW /</*-, fippobite. L. 45. 
Frebco,/ra^*'-X», a^j., fhssh, cool.— Plntu- 

ra al jrct^, tnaco painting. L. 46. 
Frebco, b. m., cool breeze, cool, refreshing 

air, frewro (painting). L. 46. 
rrio,y>-e'-<5, ai^j. and e. m., cold. L. S5. 
I l'riolera,/rt-o-/r«"-ra, e. f., trifle, L. 87. 

¥Tn\&,jttM*'-ta, B. f., fruit. L. 31. 
I Fruto, jixx)'-tOy 8. m., fruit (produce). L. 
I 40. 

■ Ywe^^fwai'-go, b. m.. Are. L. 3-1. 
Fueuic, Jnain -lai^ s. f., founttdn, Bpriiig, 

Mnircc. L. 52. 
F\u'Tn./uai''ra, adv., out— rutra de que, 

bf.-itlos*. L. 81. 
Fuera 1 inter., out ! be gone ! away ! L. 31. 
Fuerza. fa'air^-tha, f-. f., force, t^trength. — 
j A jui iza de, by dint of. L. 68. 

Fu::a.^«>'-^, b. t, flight, escape. L. 57. 
I Fulano,jrc«^aA'-no, tf.m.. euchaonc. I*. 55. 

Fumar,/<x)-war', to smoke. L. 42. 
I Y\.\^\\,joo-t<€tl\ B. m., gun. L. 49. 
Fusilar,/ot)-6't -/ar', to Bhoot tmilitaxy). L. 

45. 
Fu turo, /oo-too'-n>, e. m.. ftitnre (tense). L. 

43. 
Futuro, ac^., fhture. L. 43. 



Galan, ffah-lan\ s. m. and a^., galhint, ac- 
tor ; gallant. L. 58. 

Galante, ga/t-lan'-tai, a^j., gallant, courtly. 
L. 68. 

Galicitimo, ffoh-R-thet^s'-mo^ b. m., galli- 
cism. L. 01. 

Galk'go, gal-yai'-go, s. m., Galiclan. L. 65. 

Galliua, gal-yi -ua, e. f., hen. L. 5. 

Gana, (juh'-ua, s. f., desire, will, appetite. 
L. 69. 

Ganapierde. gah-nah-p^-air^-dQ^ a. m., 

Sme of draughts, or checkens, at which 
c loser wins. L. 50. 
Ganar, gah-nar', to gain, to win. L. 27. 
Gant^o, qau'-^ s. m., eoosc.— Hablar por 

boca ae ga/uto, to ccuo what h&s been 

said by others. L. 63. 
Qarrotazo, gar^rO-tah'-tJU^^ b. m., blow with 

a cudgel. L. 44. 
Oarrote, gar-rv'-tai^ s. m., cudgel. L. 44. 
Gastar, ga/nt-tat ', to waste, to use, to spend, 

to expend. L. 50. 
Gatillo. gah'ted'-yo^ s. m. (dim.), little cat, 

trigger of a gun. L. 53. 
Gato, gah'-to. s. m., cat. L. 46. 
Gemido. />ai-m7'-f/o, s. m., groan, laxnenta- 

tion. moan, howling. L. 69. 
General, /ifiitiat-ral^ ». m. and acy,, gen- 
eral. L. 45. 
Genero, hai'-nai-ro. b. m., gender, genus, 

kind, sort, cloth. L. 57. 
Gentilicio, kain-ti-fl'-thl'd^ a4)., peculiar to 

a nation. L. 49. 



YOCABULABT. 



455 



Tnteileccion, eenrtair-haVb4ia'dne', s. £, In- 

t;enection. L. 43. 
Interrogacion, eenrt<Ur^/iygah-tM-dne\ 8. f., 

Interrogation. L. 61. 
Interrogante, eenrtcUr-rd-gan'-taiy B.m., note 

of Interrogation. (Free. part, of Ikteb- 

XIOOAB.) L. 61. 

Interrogar. een-tair-rd-gar', to interrogate, 

to question. L. 61. 
Interrumplr, een-tair-room-peer'^ to inter- 

mpt. L. 64. 
Intiniidad, ten-thfia-dath'^ s. £, intimacy. 

X.. 66. . 

Xntimo, een'-il-mo^ ad}., intimate. L. 66. 
Iiitroduclr, een-trO-oUlhtheer^, to introduce. 

i. 40. 
Iniitil, em-co'-ted, acU., useless. L. 60. 
Invariable, ecrtrvah-rl-ah'-Uai^ adj., invari- 
able. L. 56. 
Inversion, e«yi-t?atr->«Wn«', e. f., inversion. 

L. 61. 
Invertir, een-vair-teer' ^ to invert. L. 61. 
Iiiviemo, een-vl-fUr'-no^ s. m., winter. L. 

^. 
Invitar, eenrvl-tar', to invite. L. 66. 
Ir. eer. to go. L. 18. 
Iris, 2'-f€««w, 8. f., rainbow. L. 61. 
Irlanda, eer-lan'-da^ s. f, Ireland. L. 40. 
Irregular, eer-r<d-go<>4aT^, a<3iJ., irregular. 

L.43. 
Irrcgnlaridad, eer-rairgoo4cJir^l-daUi,\ s. f., 

irrcinilarity. L. 55. 
Isabel, l-sah-baU', b. t, Isabella, Ellzabcth- 

L. 65. 
Isia, €^ii''la^ p. f., island. L. 61. 
Italia, g-/aA'-/?-a, 8. f., Italy. L.40. 
Italiano, 2-^aA-/e-aA'-n<?, 8. m. and adj., ItaU 

ian. L. 61. 
Izquicrdo, eeth-Ja-air'-do, a^., left-handed. 

— Mano izgyterda, left hand. L. 50. 

J. 

Jabon, hah'bone', s, m., soap. L. 6. 
Jamris, hah-mass', adv., never. L. ^. 
Jaque, hah'-kaU check (at chess). -Ja<7M^ 7 

mate, checkmate. L. 42. 
Janlin, har-deen', s. m., garden. L. 18. 
Jardincro, har^-nai'-ro, s. m,, gardener. 

L S4. 
JosC', ///V/^al', s. TO., JofJcpb. L.4n. 
J6vcn, ho'-vniv^ adj. and s. m. and f., young, 

vonne man, youncr woman, i.. u- 
Juan, vA/rw. s. m., John. L. 17. 
Jnana, whah'-na, s. f., Jane. L. 17. 
Jnc£fo, tohai'-go, e. m., game, play, set. Li. 

Jndvcfl. whaV-miss, P.m., Thursday. L. 9. 
Jnez, ?r;>a/^A, H.m., Indge. I.. 9. 
Jn^r, Aoo-ry/ir'. to play. L. 41. 
Julcio, ^rhr-thl-d, s. m., judgment, sense, 

trial. L. 53. ^ , , ^n 

JuHo, fioo'-n-d, 8.m., July, (prop, name) 

Julins. L. 24. , ^ 

JnnUr, hoon-tar', to join, to place together. 

L. 65. , X >r «A 

Junto, hofm'-to, adv., near, close to. L. ^, 
Jnramento, ho(hr<i-m(Un''U>^ s. m., oath, affi- 
davit. L. 53. . . „ . n* 
Juflticia, hoosfha'-tM-a, s. f, justice. L. 61. 
Jupto. ^oos^-to, adJ. Jnst, ripht. L. 61. 
Juventad, hoO'Ven4ooth', s. t, yontn. L.. 48. 



La, def. art. f. sing., the. L. 6. 

La, pron. f. sing., ner, it, L. 8. 

Laconico. lah-ko'-ra-ko, aclj., laconic. L. 38. 

Laboriosidad, lah-bo-rd-d'tB-dai/i^ s. f., in- 
dustrv. L. 51. 

Lacre, lah'-krai^ s. m., sealing-wax. L. 5. 

Lado, lah'-do. s. m., side. L. la 

Ladron, lah-ardM\ s. m., thief. L. 44. 

Lago. lah'-go, s. m., lake. L. 40. 

Lfigrima, tah' -gr^-ma, s. f., tear.. L. 51. 

liLpiz, lah'-peeth. b. m., pencil. L. 51. 

Laigo, lar'-go, adj., long.— Xargo tiempo. a 
long time.— A lo largo, alongside. L. 21. 

Ldstima, lags' -thma^ s. f.. pity. L. 25. 

Lastimar, lam-V^-mar'^ to hurt, to wound, 
to ofTcnd. L. 61. 

Latin, lah-teen^ s. m., Latin. L. 61. 

Latinajo, lah-d-nah'-ho^ b. m. aug., Dog- 
Latin. L. 49. 

LaUtud, lak-a-too(h', 8. f., width, latitude. 
L.61. 

Lavandera, lah-tanrdai'-ra^ 8. f., waBhcr- 
woman. L. 5. 

Lavar, lah-rar', to wash. L. 84. 

Le, lai, pron., him, it ; to him, to it. L. 10. 

Leccion, laik-thi-one' , s. f, lesson. L. 8. 

Leche, lai'-chaU b. f., milk. L. 7. 

Lectura, laik^too'-ra, s. f., reading. L. 88 

Leer, lai-air', to read. L. 7. 

Legiia, lai'-mca, s. f., league. L. 61. 

Leido, lai-r-do, adj.— Hombre blen Uido, a 
well-read man. (Past pt. of Leer.) L.52. 

Ldios, lai'-hCcei adv„ far off.— A lo l^os, in 
the distance. L. 81. 

Lengua, UUn'-gwa^ b. f., tongue, language. 
L.23. 

Lcnguage, laiti-gwa'-hai^ s. m., language, 
manner of speaking or writing. L. C6. 

Lento, lain' -to, adj., Plow, tardy. L. 61. 

Leon, lai-dn€\ s. m., lion. L, 64. 

Lctra, lai'-ira, s. f., letter (character), hand- 
writing, letter (of credit) ; pi., letters, lite- 
rature.— Bellas letroif^ Belles-lettres. L. 

Levantar, lal-ran-tar' , to raise, to lift up.— 
Levantarse. to' rise, to get up. L. 33. 

Levlta, lai-ii'-(a, b. m., Levlte. -Zei«a, 
8. f, frock-coat. L. 61. 

Lov lai'-9, s. f., law. L. 8. 

Liberal, ll-bai-raV. adj., iib<;ral. L. 62. 

Libcrtad, li-bair-iath' . s. f., liberty. L 40. 

Libra, Ce^-bra, s. f., pound. -Xa^r7'a esteriina, 
pound sterling. L. 47. ^ _, ,, 

LiTbrar, /2-AjW, to free, to deliver: (com- 
mercial) to draw. ^L. 45. 

Libre, W-lrrttU adj., free. L. 69. 

Librerla, U-irai-rr-a. s. f., bookstore, book- 
seller's shop, book-trade. L.11. 

Librero, n-trrai'-ro, s.m., bookseller. L. II. 

Libro, W-trro, s. m., book. L. 4. 

Lieeri, li-hai'-ro, ac^j., light, swift. -A la 
«7«ra, liphtly. L. 46. . 

Limopna, U-mdc^-na, s. f., alms. L. 61. 

LJmpiar, fc^-pg-gr', to clean ^^^,^^,^3 

Llmpioza, leem-pS-ai'-tha^ s.r., cieaunucBD. 

Limplo,foem'.p8-<J, adj., clean, cleanly. L. 

Lfnea, B'-na<-<i, b. f., line. L. 61. 
Lisboa, le^M-W-a, s. f., Lisbon. L. 55. 
Ll8oi\Ja, Rsdfie'-ha, 8. f., flattery. L. 61. 



456 



VOCABULARY. 



LltoqJear, U-Onf-hai-ar*^ to flatter. L. 81. 
Lisoujero, U-^One-hai'-ro^ a4j. and s. m.« 

flattering, flatterer. L. 61. 
LI*ta, ttt*?tit, 6. t, Itat. L. 61. 
Li^to, Uest'-(o^ acU., ready, obaip, quick. L. 

Litenito, Q-tai-rafi' 'tOy b. m., man of letters, 

liter itud. L. 51. 
Lltoraiiira, H-tai-rah-too'-ra, b. t, litcratare. 

L. 54. 
Lltro, fl'-^ro, 8. m., litre. L. 60. 
Lo, art. neat., tlie. (See explanations in 

Lc4!»oa8.) 
Lo. pn>n., it, (and sometimes) him. L. 26. 
Local, U^-hiF, a(y., local. L. 54. 
Loco, W-fei, a'lj.. mid —A tontas y k loca^, 

in .'onaiderately, wilhoat rodectiou. L. 61. 
Loc }, A. m., muhniQ. L. 61. 
Lo lo, W-'/j, e. m., ra id, miro. L. 45. 
Lo 'rai; lO-yrar', to saccacd, to obtain. L. 

L^ndres, Idn^'-^rahn^ a. m., L3n'Jon. L. 19. 

Lon:/itud, tjtu-M-iojt/i'^ s.f., leajtb, lonjl- 
tu K L, 61. 

Loteria, W/.ii-rB'-a, g. f,, lottery. L. 65. 

I.ucip, h>f'i T', to 0hlne, to flitter. L. G>. 

Lut'.'o, lt»'t*y\ adv., by and by, ImtujJi- 
at 'ly ; — c )aj ., then, therefore. L. :J ). 

La^.ir, U))gir\ b. m., place, village.— En 
Ittjar dc», insteid of, L. 2J. 

Luis, ln)<'ii\ a. m., L.^wis, LouU. L. 15. 

Luisa, txhi'-H'i, s. f., Ljui^a. L. «. 

Luna, too'-ni, s. f. m >5n. L. 61. 

Luto, h)'-to^ A. m., m>uraiu^. L. 6). 

Lu^. A»'4, s.f., H^ht.— Dir a /uj, to pub- 
lish, to give birth to. L. 61. 



I«L. 

Llamar, /yi^-mir', to call, to know. L. 27. 

Llive, Iri'i'-rai. a. f., key. L. 5'J. 

Llc^ir, fi/ii-j.ir', to arrive.— Ir.Vyar i ser, to 

b'»con». L. 37. 
Lljuar, lyiinar'^ to All. to falfll. L. 61 
Llono, Iv'U'-no, ac^., full. L. 54. 
Llevar. lyal-txir'^ to Uko, to carry, to bcsar. 

to brln.r forth. L. 14. 
Llorar, fynrar', to cry, to weep. L 51. 
Lloro, /yj'-ro, s. m., tear, act of crying. L. 

Llovor, iiy^vair', to ram.— Ltoivr icantar- 
roH. to pour. L. 3). »w»uwr 

Llovlzuar, l^y-vyth-naf, to drizzle. L. 30. 
Lluvia, lyo^-iia, a. f., rain. L. 30. 



^mJle 'T'^G^^' ^•'°' °**^° <«' animals), 
""luSr'l'r'-^"^ '' '- ^^> "™^^'» 
^J?.'*L."i9!"^^''''*^*''^ ^' '- etep-moth. 
Madre maA'-rfro/, s. f, mother. -Lcngua 

ma ire, an ori rinal lanffua?c. L. 6. 
Mac rid. mah-rircfh', s. m„ Madrid, L. 12. 
Al^dnlcflo. mah'^ir?.Min'-yo, 8, m.. Mad rile- 

nlan, native of Madrid. L. 49. 
Midni^icla. mah-fimfi'Qah'-da^ §. f., that 

pirt of the night fVom 12 p. ¥. until sun- I 

rise. L. 65. 1 



ICadrugar, matirdroo-gar^^ to rise -very earr 

L. 62. 
Madurcz, mah-<ioo-ruUh\ s. £., laaturr/. 

npenetis. L. 51. 
Maestro, inah-oies'-tro^ b. m.<, master, c^..^ 

cr. L. 62. 
Magniflco, mag-ia''fl4a>^ adj., ma^iSoc^L 

L.5a 
Mai, s. m., evil, harm, disease. L. 4SL 
Mai, adv., badJy.— J£a/ de so grado, m t;<a: 

of him. L. 3. 
Maldito, mal-(£i^-tOy adi., aocoreed. povr^: 

L.d2. 
Malicia, inaA-£^-£A^-^ a. £.. malice. w<ck.^j 

ness. L. 62. 
Malo, maA'-io, tO}., bad, ill. wicked.— E-.r- 

maio^ to be sick.— Ser maio^ U> be b&^x. c^ 

be wicked. L. 7. 
MamA, mah-ma\ a. f., Tnamma L^ 5. 
Mandar, man-cUa^y to send, to comznand, tt? 

order. L. 17. 
Manera, moA-noi'-ni, s. f., manner.- Dc* 

manera que, so as, bo that. L. 42. 
Mania, ma^-tiT-ay e. f.. mauta, whim. L cT. 
Manifestar, fnah-ra-faisa'tar'^ to manii'cti, 

to show. L. 51. 
Maniflesto. tnah-nH-fl-aisa'-tOt^ ad}., nuni- 

,feat. L. 52. 
Mano, r/uih'-no, s. f., hand, quire ((^ paper*. 

— Venir con frua tnanat larada.«, to wi-L 

to enjoy the fruit of another's labor. L 

28 
Manteca, man-tai''ta. b. f., batter, lard 

(South America). L. 62. 
Manteqnilla, man-tai-keel'-ya^ s. f., butter 

(South America), lard. L. 02. 
Manuel, mah-7wo-aU\ s. m., Emanud. L. 2. 
Manuscrito, mah-nooss-kri'-lo^ ». m.. maoo. 

script. L. 62. 
Manzana, man'thah'-na^ 8. f., apple, block 

(of houses). L. 81. •-•'•' ^ 

Manzanar, man-thah-nar^t b. m.. apple-or- 

chard- L. 49. 
Maflana, man-yah'-n€u e. t, momini:. to- 
morrow.— Paaado maSlana^ the day after 

to-morrow. L. 80. 
Mar, s. m. and f., sea.— Qnien no w arrie* 

Si no pasa la mar, flihit heart never woa 
ir lady. L. 62. 

5Ja!S' '"«'^-i^ *• f., mark, brand. L. 4i 
Marcha. mar'-cha, s. f., marrh.— Sobre la 

marefia, ofT-hand, on the spot L. 51. 
Marchar, fiwr^^r'. to march. L. 1ft. 
Margarita,, mar^oA-fg'.to, s. f., Margaret 

Li. o. 

Maria, maA.r?'-<j. s. f., Mary. L. 44. 
Maries, mar^'taiif, s. m., Tuesday. L. 9 
Marzo, mar'thd, s. m., March. L. 24. 
Mas. fwi>f.«, adv., more.— Jf(» que (or dc\ 

more than. L. 16. 
Mascara, mOfuf'.kah-m, s. f., mask, L, GO. 
Mapculino, fnoM-koo-U'-no, a^j., mascnhne. 

L. 47. 
Matar, mah-tar', to kill. L. 44. 
Matom^tico. mah-tni-mah.''f?'1»^ e. m., 

roathemaliclan; at^., mathematical. L. 

60. 
Materia, mahfai^'r^a, s. f., matter, subject. 

aflair. L. W. 
Material, malt-tai^ial^ adj., material. L. 

46. 
Materialista, tnnh'tai-f^-ah4ees8'4€L s. m,. 

materialist. L.36. --, , 



VOCABULARY. 



457 



HatrimoniOf moA-M-md'-n^-oi, 8. m., matii- 
mouy, wedlock, marriage. L. W. 

lliAuilido^ rnah'i»i'}/i'-dOt ». m., mew (or a 
cai). L. 46. 

Haximo, maf-^S-mo^ &d}. (auperlatiye of 
Ubamue;, chief, principal, very great. 
L. ai. 

Hayo, mah'-yo^ s. m., May. L. 3^1. 

Mayor, rtiaii-yore' ^ adj., jireatcr, larger.— 
ill uiayur^ ttie greatest, tnc largest. L. "iii. 

HayCitM:ula, iiui/^'yuosb'-Lou-Ui^ acg., capital 
(bald of letters). L. U2. 

Me, riiaiy prou., uie, to me. L. 26. 

Mcca, tnoi'-ka^ s. f.— Dc zeca en meca^ from 
pillar to poidt, to and fro. L. 61. 

Media, tnai'-cCi-ay b. f., Btocking. L. 10. 

Medlanamcnte, mai-di-a/i-na/i^main'-tai, 
adv., middling. L. a9. 

Mediania, niai-a3-a/i-ni' -a^ 8. f., mediocrity, 
moderation. L. 52L 

Mediano, rmUrdi-a/i'-no^ adj., mediam, mid* 
dling, moderate. L. S9. 

M6dlco, mai'-iihko^ b. m., physician. L. 19. 

Mcdlda, mai-dl-fia, b. f., meauarc. L. 55. 

Medio, mai'-iil-Os adj., half. — JI/«</iodia, mid- 
day, noon.— i/€rf/onoche, midnit^ht. L. ao. 

Medio, 8. m., middle, means.— I'or tnedio 
de, by meauB of. L. 37. 

Medlodia, mai-dl-O-dl'-a^ e. m., noon, mid- 
day, south. L. 30. 

Mcdtr, mai-d^T^y to measure. L. 39. 

Mejicano, mai hhkali'-iu>^ b. m. and a^).. 
Mexican. L. 47. 

Meiico, mai'-hl-kOy s. m., Mexico. L. SO. 

Mcjor, mai-h&re'. a(y. and adv., better. 
—El mOory the bcfit. L. 20. 

Mclocoton, mai t&-LO-tOne\ b. m., peach. L. 
31. 

Melon, mat4dm'^ b. m., melon. L. 31. 

Memoria, rnai-mo'-re-a, b. f., memory, re- 
collection.— Aprender do metiwria^ to 
learn by heart. L. 38. 

Memorias, mai-nU>-ri-<u^ 8. f. pi., my com- 
plImcntB. L. 39. 

Mencion, main-th^-^ne'. 8. f., mention. L. 
52. 

Mencionar, main'thi-O-nar^^ to mention. L. 
45. 

McncBtcr, mai-naiits-talr' , b. m., need, want, 
necesBlt V. — Ser menester^ to be necessary ; 
mnst.— liaber menesUr^ to want, to re- 
quire. L. 30. 

Mcnor, mcd-nlire', adj., less, smaller, minor, 
youn^r : s. m., minor. L. 20. 

MenoB, mai'-nucf, adv., less.— A lo men/w, 
at looBt.— Ni mas mi menos^ neither more 
nor IcBB. L. 16. 

Mcnoscabo, mai-n/icf-kah'-bo. b. m., detcri 
oration, detilment, prejudice, diminu- 
tion. L. 62. 

Menosprccio, mat-nl^c^prai'-thl-ii, b. ra., 
contempt^ Bcom.— Mncha tomlltarldad cs 
cauPA dc mer.ottprffio. much familiarity 
breeds contempt. L. 05. 

Mento, main'-fai^ b. f,. mind. L. C2. 

Mentlr, main^€er\ to lio. L. 45. 

Mcnndo, mai-rw&'do. ndj., small, picnder, 
mean.— A fiwnvdo, oft on. L. 25. 

Meqnetr*fe, mcd-kof-irai'-fai, 8. m., trifler. 
Jackanapes. L. 63. 

Mercader, rn<jir kah-dair' . b. m., dealer, 
trader, shopkeeper. L. 65. 

Mercado, mair-kah'-do^ s. m., market. L. 17. 

20 



Mcrcantil, mair-kan-teel', acU., mercantile. 
L.5tt. 

Mercccr, mcU-rai-Uialr' ^ to merit, . to de- 
serve. L. 62. 

Merendar, mai^rain-dar', to lunch. L. a<. 

Mcridiauo, tfutl-te-dS-ah'-tiO^ a. m., merid- 
ian. L. 62. 

Merino, nuu-ri'-no, a. m., merino (sort of 
bpauitih sheep). L. 40. 

MciiLo, vi<u''jflo, 8. m.. merit. L. 55. 

Mes, »MtiMf, B. m., moutn.— Al me^^ by the 
month. L. 16. 

Mc8a. iruW-aQj 8. f., table. L. 14. 

Metal, tmiHal\ s. m., metal. L. 62. 

Meter, nuU-tcUr', to put, to place. —J/e/<rr 
ruldo, to make noise. L. 40. 

Mctodico, mai-to'-dS-kOy ac^., methodical. 
L. 35. 

MC'todo, mai'-td-do. s. m., method. L. 47. 

MetT6poli, mai-ir^ pO-^, 8. f., metropolis. 
L. 51. 

}(It, mi, pron., me. L. 25. 

Mi, poss. prun.. my. L. 5. 

Miedo, mc-ai'-ao, s. f , fear.— Tener mkdo, 
to be afraid. L. 25. 

Miel, mv-ail', 8. f., honey. L. 05. 

Miembro, mi-ai/n'-lfro, o. m., member, limb. 
L. 62. 

Miercolcs, mi-air' -k^ialim, s. m., Thursday. 
L. 9. 

Mil, tneel, num. adj. and 8. m., a thousand, 
one thousand. L. 14. 

Milla, ffied'-m, s. f., mile. L. 62. 

Millar, mea-yar'^ s. m., the number of a 
thousand, tliousand. L. 40. 

Millon, med-yOne\ num. adj. and s. m., mil- 
Won.— MiUones de pesos, miliiona of dol- 
lars. L. 40. 

Mineral, nu-nai-ral', s. ra., mineral. L. 62. 

Minuscula, mf-nooce'-koo-la, adj., snmll 
(said of letters), as opposed to capital. 
L. 62. 

Minnto, mi-noo''to, b. m., minute. L. 23. 

Mio, mia, mi'-d, ml'-a, poss, pron. and poss. 
adj., mine. (As a poss. adj., mio is al- 
ways placed after the substantive.) L. 13. 

Mlrar, mi-rar\ to look, to look at, to ob- 
serve. L. 29. 

Mismo, imc8s'-mo, adj., pame, pelf, self- 
same.— El mismo^ he himself L. 27. 

Mitad, mhiath\ s. f., half L. 40. 

Moda. md'-da, s. f., fistshion. L. 25. 

Modelo, md-dai'-lo, s, m.. model. L. 56. 

Moderaclon, md-dai-rah-tM-dne', s, f., mod- 
eration. L. 65. 

Modemo, md-dair'-no^ a^j., modem. L, 52. 

Modiflcar, md-di-fl-kar^ to modify. L. 61. 

Modismo, md-deegft^-mo, b. m., peculiar 
manner of expressing the same ideas 
in the same language. L. 64. 

Modo, md'-do. b, m., mode, manner.- T>n 
ningun modo. by no moans.— Dc modo 
que, so that. L. 42. 

Molcptar, mfi-fofftHar' , to molest, to dis- 
turb, to trouble. L. 43. 

Momcnto, md-main'-fo, s. m.. moment. L. 
62. 

Mona, m/y-na^ b. f., female morkey.-c-Ann- 
que la m4ma se viPta de perin. mora se 
qncda, a hog in armor is still but a hog. 

MonArqniro. mo-nar' -khko^ ad)., mooarchi' 
cal. U35. 



453 



VOCABULABY. 



Moneda, m^-nai'-da, b. f., money, coin,— 

Papcl moneda^ paper money. L. 66. 
MoDur, tfidM-iar', to mount, to asceDo, to 

nde (on horseback). L. 62. 
MouUtrass, tni>ne-Uth-raik\ a4)., moontam, 

wild. L. M. „ ^ 

Moute, mdne'-lai, s. m., monntam.— iiOMe 

dc piedad, pawn-oflice. L. 40. 
Mordcr, imrtd<ur'y to bite, to nip.— No ee 

tnutrde iod labioa, lie speaks out hia mind. 

L. 36. 
Moribuudo, mOH-boon'-do, ad^., dying. L. 

47. 
Morir, md-reer*, to die. L; 41. 
Moiica, mdce'-ka^ b. f., ily. L. 44. 
Moatrar, vUke-trar* ^ to show. L. 85. 
Motivo, md-U'-vOy 8. m., motive. L. 34. 
Mover, nU>-vair', to move. L. 36. 
Mozo, mo'-tho, b. m., youth, young man, 

waiter. L. 02. 
Muchacha, mochchah'-cha^ %. f., girl. L. G. 
Machacho, mocxtuUi'-cttOy b. m., boy. L. 6. 
Mucho, moo'-c/iOy adj. and adv., much, a 

great deal, very. L. 8. 
Httdable, moo-dah'-Uai, a^)., mutable, 

changeable, llclde. L. 40. 
Hudar, fnoo-dar', to change.— Jftfdarw, to 

move (from one place to anotlicr). L. 62. 
Muela, nwo-ai'4a, ». f., back tooth.— Dolor 

dc tnuelas, toothache. L. GO. 
Mucrtc, moo-air'-taiy b. f., death. L. 88. 
Hucrto, nuxHur'-to, paat part, (of Monm), 

dead, killed. L. 6l 
Muestra, mocxUsa' tray b. f, Bample, sign. 

L. 02, 
Miijcr. moo-hair'^ b. f., woman, wife. L. 6. 
MiUtltud, tnool'O-UjoUi'y a. f., multitude. L. 

40. 
Mundo, moon'-dOy b. m., world.— Todo el 

mundOy everybody. L. 35, 
Munnuraclon, moor-rnoo-rahthlSine' y b. i.| 

murmuring, backbiting. L. 62. 
Murmurar, rrwor-moo-rar' y to murmur, to 

backbite. L. 62. 
MiiHco, moo-mi'-dy s. m., mupenm. L. 61. 
Mfi«ica, mo(/'8?'kay b. f., muBlc. L. 16. 
M(iMcb, moo'sd-kOy a. m., musician. L. 16. 
Muy, moo'-^y very. L. 6. 



N. 

Nacor, nah'thcdr'y to be bom.— A'iKvr de 
n\6»y to be bom to good luck. L. 62. 

Naclon, nah-thi-dne'y «. f., nation. L. »4. 

Nada, ruth' -da. adv., In no degree.— :^ada 
m^noB, nothincr lew. L. 11. 

Nnda. b. f., nothins. nonentity. L. 11. 

Nadnr, nah-dar\ to Bwim. t. 53. 

Nadic, nah'-dS-aiy ind. pron., nobody, no 
ono. li. 11. V « 

Nftpolc«», nah'-j)^-laiMy b. f, Nnplc*. 1^-f «. 

NamnH, nnh-mn'-hn, 8. f.. ornnire. L. 31. 

Nntnral, vnh-ton-raV. a. m. and adj., natu- 
ral; native. L. 44. 

Naturalojia, ndh'(oo-rah4ai' -tha^ b. f., na- 
ture. L. 40. 

Natnraliflta. nah-too-rah4ee8s'-tay b. m., na- 

_^ turallst. L. 36. _ 

i7avarra, nah-var'-ray b. f., Navarre. L. 
55. 

Navarro, nah-wtr'-ro. fl. m., Navarreae (na- 
tive of Navarre). L. 65. 



Navegadon, nah-toHfah^hi'tne' , a. £, navi- 
gation. L. 24. 
Navidad, nah-vl-dath* y a. t, nativity, Christ. 

mas. L.43. 
Navio, nuh-vi'-d^ a. m., ehip. L. 63. 
Neccaario, nai-thai'sah'-rl-Oy adj., neces- 

aary. L. 27. 
Necealdad, nal-thaisi'daih', a. t, neceesity. 

need, want. L. 44. 
Necesltar, nai-thai-ii'iar\ to be neceeeary, 

to necessitate, to require, to want. L. 5. 
Necio, nai'-UilrOy acy. and a. m., foott^li ; 

fool. L.65. 
NefiiB, nai''/at».—VoT fae 6 por nrfof^ right 

or wrong. L. 63. 
Negaclon, nai-gahrthl-dne', a.f, negation. 

Ncgar, nai-gar'^ to deny, to refuec. L. 34. 

Negativa, nai-gahti'-iOy s. f., negation, neg- 
ative, refusal. L. 62. 

Negligente, fuii^ll'Aain''taiy a4}^.negii> 
gent. L. 60. , . 

Neeocio, nai-gd'^tl-^y a. m., bnaineaa, 
affair, matter. L. 27. 

Negro, nai'-grOy a. m. and adij., negro ; blaclc 
L. 62. 

Ncutro, ncA'-oo-trOy adj, neuter. L. 62. 

Kevar, nal-tor'y to anow. L. 80. 

Ki, nly conj., neither, nor.— A'/ maa rd m©- 
noB, neither more nor le&a. L. 8. 

Nieve, nl-ai'-T€dy a. f., enow. L. SO. 

Ninguno, neen-goo'-nOy pron.. no one, no- 
body.— Hinguna coea, nothing. L. 11. 

Nifia, neen'yay s.f., little girl, young girt, 
maiden. L. 17. . ^ , » .._ 

Ni&o, netn'-yo, a. m^ child, Inliint. L. 17. 

No, adv., no, not. L. 1. , , ^ 

Noble, n&'-llaiy a(«., noble. L. 62. 

Nobleea, nD-Hai' IhOy a. f., nobleness, no- 
bility. L.B6. . ,.. „ 

Noche, nd'-chaiy a. f., evening, night.— Bue- 
naB noc/ugy good evening, good nipnt,— 
Ik'oehe buena, Chriatmaa eve. — Ancche, 
laPt night. L. 28. 

Nombrar, nUme-brar'^ to name, to appoint. 
L.48. 

Nombre, rwme'-braiy 8. m., name, nonr.— 
ycmbre propio, proper name, proper 
noun. L. 40. 

Noniinatlvo, fi^mJ-noA-ff -to, a. m., ncmi- 
native. L. 62. , , ^„ 

Nono. (SceNoviNO.) L. 15. 

No obsUnte, ''t^^-^Sf^'-^f^^^^!.-; TS" 
theless, notwithatanding, hov e\er. I-. bi. 
Norte. nCre'-taiy a. m., north. L. 2». 
Nop nOce. pera. pron., ua. to ua. L,. 26. 
No'otroa, lo^l/'trccty pron., we, oun:elvee. 

Nota, W-fa. p. 1, Bote. .^- J?- ^ t 59 

Notar, nS-tar\ *o««t^V*° ^dcrnew^' Pl 
Notlcia, TiTi'tr'thl-a. e. f., notice, new^ , pi., 

Noveclcntop. vd-voi-m-edn -tOce, nura. i^w , 
nine hundred. T^.J*- . ^^^ritv trouble. 
Novrdad, nO-rai-dalh' y B.f., novcnj, 

NoveU, n^J.rai'-/o, a. f., novel, f omancc. L. 

Noveno, pd^cA'-nOy ord. aOJ. "od *• ™- 
ninth. L. 16. ., ^,„_*- r 

Novcnta, nd-vain'-tOy num. adj., ninety. *- 
14. 



VOCABULABY. 



459 



Novlembre, n^-vl-aim'-^rtxl, s. m., Novem- 
ber. L.^. 

Naestro, noo-aisi'-tro^ po8s. pron., onr, ours. 
L. 13. 

Nnera, noo-ai'-va, b. f., news (generaJly 
used in the pi). L. 60. 

Naeva York, luxhoi'-va^ s. f., New York. 
L.9. 

Naeve, noo-ai'-vai, nnm. at^., nine. L. 11. 

Naevo, noo-ai'-vo^ a^)., new.— De nuevo, 
anew. L. SI. 

Naez, jvxHiitA', a. f., walnut. L. 40. 

Nameral, noo-mai-ral'^ atU-* numeral. L. 

Ndmero, na/^mai-ro^ e.m., number. —^ Quo 
numero ticnc bu casa de v. ? what 1b the 
number of your bouae ? L. 14. 

Nunca, noon'-ka^ adv., never. L. 85. 



O, conj., or, either. L. 8. 

O t inter., oh ! L. 39. 

Obedecer, (^-daircUU-thair*, to obey. L. 48. 

Objetivo, Obe-AairO'-vo^ a^}. and s. m., ob- 

. lective. L. 6*2. 

Obieto, Sbe-hai'-to^ b. m., object. L. 48. 

Obligacion, O-bH-gafirUa-^ne' , b. f., obliga- 
tion, duty. L.§1. 

Obligarf^^a-^ar', to oblige, to force, to 
compeK L. 61. 

Obra, o'-'bra, b. f, work (any thing made, as 
a book, a doubc, <fec.). L. 15. 

Obrar, d-brar*^ to work, to act, to operate. 
L.40. 

Obaervar, Sbe-sair-var'^ to observe, to re- 
mark. L. 48. 

Obstante, Sdesian''i€il, present part.— No 
obstante. (See no obstattte.) L. M. 

Obvio, Sbe't^-b^ a4i., obvious. L. 43. 

Ocasion, d-kafirsS-bne', b. f., occaBlon, oppor- 
tunity.— Tomar la oca4ft>n por los cabailoB, 
to take time by the forelock. L. 39. 

Occidente, dke-t/O-ckUn'-tai, s. m., the west. 
LSI. 

Ochcnta, b-ehain'-tay nnm. a4)., eighty. L. 

Ocho, 3'-cAo, nnm. ai^., eight. L. 14. 
OchoclentOB, d-cho-t/ii-ain-toce^ num. a^)., 

el!£Cbt hundred. L. 14. 
Octavo, bke-tafi'-vo^ ord. a4}., eighth.— £n 

octavo^ 8vo. L. 15. 
Octubre, dke-too'-tnxU^ b. m., October. L 

34. 
OcnlUr, dkool'tar', to hide. L. 48. 
Oculto, 6-koW'tjOy adj., hidden. L. 52. 
Ocupaclon, dkoo-pah'tM-dne\ s. f., occupa- 
tion, business, concern. L. 51. 
Ocnpar, 0-koo-par', to occupy, to engage, to 

flllcapost). L.47. 
Ocurrir, O-kjoor-reer'^ to occur, to strike.— 

Le ocurre una idea, an idea strikes him. 

L. 6^. 
Oeste, d-ai^f-tcU, s. m., west. L. 51. 
OfeiKler, b-Jain-dair', to offend. L. 27. 
Oiicio, b-Jl'-thi-Oy b. m., office, employ, 

trade. X. 38. 
Ofreccr, d-frai-lkair'. to offer. L. 49 
Oldo, d-^'-do, s. m., hearing, ear.— Hablar al 

oWo, to whisper in one's ear. L. 61. 
Olr, d-eer*, to heaj^ Oiga / Just listen 1 L. 



OJal& 1 bhah-la^ inter., would to Qod I L. 
87. 

OJo, d'ho, B. m., eye. L. 29. 

Oler, d-kUr', to Bmell. L. 41. 

Olfttto, dU'/ah'-to. s. m., the seoBe of smelL 
L.61. 

Olla, Ote'-ya^ s. f., earthen pot.— ^XZs podri- 
da, Spanish mixed dish of meats, vegeta- 
bles. &c., cooked to^i^ether. L. Gi. 

Olor, b-ldre\ s. m., odor, scent, smell. L. 62. 

Oiivar, O-ti'Vaf, s. m., olive ground. L. 62. 

Olvldar, olevi-dar', to forget. L. 40. 

Omnibus, bme'-ni-boocey b. m., omnibus-. 
L. 51. 

Once, bne^-tAai, num. a^., eleven.- Hacer 
las once, to lunch about noon. L. 14. 

Opera, d'-pairra, s. f., opera. L. 25. 

Opmion, o-pi'/H-bne', s. f., opinion. L. 42. 

Oponer, d-pd-nair', to oppose. L. 51. 

Optimo, ope^U^mo, acQ., best, extremely 
good. L. 21. 

Opuesto, lH»waig8'4o^ a^J-i opposite, op- 
Dosed. (meg. paBt. part or Oponeb.) 

Oracion, d-rah'Ua-iyne'y s. f., prayer, speech, 
discourse. L. 45. 

Ordcn, Ore'-dmn, s. m. and f., order.— A la 
6rden de V., at your service. L. 89. 

Ordcnar, bre-dai-nar' ^ to order, to com- 
mand. L. 51. 

On;anlsta, 0ng<ih-nee98'4a, 8. m., organist. 

Oriente, d-rd-ain'-tai, east. L. 51. 

Oro, 3'-ro, s. m., Rold.— No es oro todo lo 

Zue reluce, all m not gold that glitters. 
u8. . " 

Os, A», pron., yon (objective of verbs). L. 

26. 
Ostion, ^o^/j-^n^', B. m. (SeeOsTBA.) L.62. 
Ostra, Dee'-tra, s. f., oyster. L. 68. 
Oto&o, b-tOne^-yo, s. m., autumn, fall. L. 24. 
Otro, O'-tro, Indef. pron., other, another. 

L. 18. 
Oveja, d^ai' ha, s. f.. sheep. L. 65. 
Ox I Oka, Inter, used to Inghten off fowls, 

Ac. i.46. 



Paca, pah'-ka. s. f., Fanny. L. 44. 
Paclencia, pah-thi-ain'-lhi-a, s. f., patience. 

L. 68. 
Paco, pah'-ko, s. m., (contraction of Fbak- 

cisco, Francis), Frank. L. 44. 
Padeccr, paA-dai-iAair', to suffer pain. L. 

47. 
Padrastro, pah-dross' 4ro, b. m., step-fiiiher. 

L. 49. 
Padre, /MiA'-<fmi, b. m., ftther.— T^irfr^nues- 

tro, the liord's prayer, L. 6 and 45. 
Pasar, pah-qar', to pay. L. 14. 
Pa&;ar6, pak-qah^rm', h. m., (comra.) prom- 
issory note. L. 59. 
PA^ina, pah'fil-na, s. f., page (of a book, 

Ac). L. 50. 
Pais, pah-fess', b. m., country.— i Cn&nto 

ticmpo hacc qn6 esti V. en cste paUf 

how long have yon been in this countiy ? 

L. 19. 
Paisano, pah-^-sah'-no, s. m., countryman 
• (one flrom the same country). L. 60. 
PfliJa, pah'-ha, b. f., straw. L. 63. 



458 



TOCABULABY. 



Hoaeda, nU^-nai'-iia, b. t, moner, coin.— 

Fapei mo/ieda^ paper money. L. fi5. 
Houuir, r/iOne-iar'^ to mount, to ascend, to 

ride (ou horseback). L. 62. 
Moutaraz, tuone-toA-ratA'^ ad^., moontam, 

wild. L.&1. 
Moutc, tuone'-tai^ s. m., moontain.— ifon/e 

de piedad, pawn-office. L. 4U. 
Mordcr, more-Uatr', to bite, to nip.— No fle 

tnutrde Urn labios, he speaks out hid mind. 

L. an. 
Moribundo, md-rS-liooA'-do, a^)., dying. L. 

Monr, m^reer', to die. L; 41. 
Hobca, t/ioce'-ka^ b. f., fly. L. 44. 
Mo^ttrar. r/wce-trar'^ to efaow. L. 86. 
Motivo, tn&'ti'-co^ 8. m., motive. L. dl 
Muver, vii^'Vair'y to move. L. 36. 
Mozo, mo'-tho^ B. m., youUi, young man, 

waiter. L. 4)3. ^ 

Muciuicha, nuxhchah'-cha, b. f., girl. L. 6. 
Muchacho, moo^htUi'-cho^ 6. m., l>oy. L. 6. 
Mucho, fMO'-c/iO, a4). and adv., much, a 

great deai, very- L- 8. 
Madable, moo-Uah'-Uai^ b^Im mutable, 

cliangeable, fickle. L. 49. 
Mudar, fnoo-dar*^ to change.— ITucfar/v, to 

move (ftom one place to another). L. 02. 
Hnela, moo-ai'-la. ». f., back tooth.— Dolor 

dc muelas^ tootluu^hc. L. fiO. 
U ncrte, rnoo^ir'-tai, 8. f., death. L. 88. 
Huerto, nioo-air'-to, past part, (of Horib), 

dead, killed. L. 63. 
Muci^tra, fiuxHUse'-tra^ b. f., sample, elgn. 

Miijcr. moo-hair'^ b. f, vr oman, wife. L. 6. 
Multitud, ntcol-a-tcoth', e. f., multitude. L. 

40. 
Mnndo, moon'-do, b, m., world.— Todo el 

71} undo, everybody. L. 35^ 
Munnuraclon, mocr-moo-rahthi-dne\ b. f., 

myrmnring, backbitinc:. L. 62. 
Murmurar, mcoT'tnoo-Tar't to murmur, to 

backbite. L. 62. 
Mn^oo, mofHtai'-d, b. m., mupoum. L. 61. 
MtVlca, froo'-fs?-I:a^ b. f., mupic. L. 16. 
Muhico, viOfZ-si-ko^ b. m., musician. L. 16. 
Muy, tnoo'-iy very. L. 6. 



N. 

Nacer, n/ifi-fhnfr\ to bo horn.— Karer do 
pIt'S, to bo bom to good luck. L. 62. 

Nacion, nak-f/i9-i>ne*^ b. f., nation. L. 24. 

Nada, nah'-ffn, adv.. In no degree.— iVcrfa 
Tn<^noB, nothincr Icbb. L. 11. 

N.irtn. fl. f.. nothinir. nonentltv. L. 11. 

Nft'lnr, nah'dar\ to Pwim. t. 5.3. 

Nadlo, naJi'-di-ai, Ind. pron., nobody, no 
ono. L. 11. 

Nnpolcs, nah'-ji^laUs, b. f. N"np1o«. L. 47. 

Nnmnia, nnf>-ran'-7in, fl. f.. ornn'ro. L. 31. 

Nat n nil, vnh-iof*-rnI\ B. m. and adj., natu- 
ral; rntlve. L. 44. 

Natnraleza, nah-loo-rdh-iai' -tha, b. f., na- 
ture. L. 40. 

Natnnili«ta, nalt'too-rah-leess'-ta, b. m., na- 
turalist. L. 86. 

Navarra, nah-var'-ray b, f., Navarre. L. 
55. 

Navarro. ruih-f*ar'.ro. b. m., Navarrese (na- 
UveofNavane). L. 66. 



Nayegadoii, nahrvai-ffoh-ihi-^ne'^ s. C, naii- 

gation. L. iM 
Navidad, naAc^-<iath\ a. £, naUvity, Clirist- 

mas. L. 48. 
Navio, na/t-ti'-6, b. m., ship. L. 63. 
Necesario, nai^tJuU-w/ir''ri-d, adi., neces- 
sary. L. 27. 
Necesldad, nai'iJiai-a-{l<Uh\ b. C, neceaeitr. 

need, want. L. 44. ' 

Necesitar, nai-tJiai-ii-(ar\ to be neceecaxr, 

to necessitate, to require, to wan:. L. 5. 
Neclo, nai'-tht-O^ ac^. and s. m., focliili : 

fool. L.65. •» . 

NefkB, naiV"«»-— For fas 6 por n^of, right 

or wrong. L. 68. 
Negacion, naL-gahrUil-^t', b.C, negation. 

Negar. nai-ffar^^ to deny, to refuse. L. 51. 

Nq^ttva, Tiai-gak-W-ia^ e. f., negation, neg- 
ative, refusal. L. 63. 

Negligente, nahi^-hoin'-tai^ a^).^ . ncgli> 
gent. L. CO. 

N<^pcio, nai-gi>'4M-l^ a. m., tmsineas, 
i^air, matter. L. 27. 

N^jo, noi'-^rv, s. m. and adj., negro ; blade 

Neutro, nai'-co-trOy a^., neuter. L. GS. 

Ncvar, nai-rar'y to snow. L. 80. 

Ni, ni^ conj., neither, nor.— A'^i mas ni vaS- 
noa, neither more nor less. L. 8. 

Nieve, nl-ai'-rai^ b. f., snow. L. 80. 

Ninguno, neen-ffoo'-no, pron., no one, no- 
body.— Alngrt/na cosa, nothing. L. 11. 

NiBa. netn'-ya^ s. f., little girl, young giil, 
maiden. L. 17. 

Nifio, neai'-yo^ s. m., cbild, Infant. L. 27. 

No, adv., no, not. L. 1. 

Noble, nC'-llaU adj.. noble. L. 62. 

Nobleza, rw-Utd' tha, b. f., nobleness, no- 
bility. L.66. 

Nochc, rtd'-c/tai, s. f., evening, night.— Bne- 
nas tiocfuf^ good evening, good ni(!ht. — 
A'orAd buena, Christmas eve. — AnocAf, 
iBHt night. L.23. 

Nombrar, nCtM-Orar'. to name, to appoint. 
L.48. 

Nombre, nCme^'brai, s. m., name, noun.— 
Acmlnv propio, proper name, proper 
noun. L. 40. 

Nominativo, nd-mX-nah-d'-ro^ b. m., nomi- 
native. L. 62. 

Nono. (Sec Novkko.) L. 16. 

No obstante, r.o-Ct>e-i^an'4aL, adv., never- 
t hcless, notwithstanding, however. L. 54. 

Norte. vCre'-tai^ a. m., north. L- ^ ^ 

Nop, ndce, pers. pron., up, to us. L. 26. 

Noeotros, nOso'-trCcf, pron^ we, oureelves. 

Nota,W-^a, 8.1, note. L.C2. 

Notar, nd-far\ to ncte, to o^fc^^J- ^^.^j- 

Noticia, nr>-(r-thl-c, s. f., noUcc. news ; ^.1., 

Ticivp, L. 27. . . . T Ar 

yotoT\orr}d-(d'-fi-d. aflj., noV^J^^^^- ^' Y' 
Novcclontop, rd-Toi-tM-um'-tut, ^^^- at'J- 

nine bnrrlrod. L. 14. i*.. ironiiV 

Novcrlad, n&-v<a-dath\ s.f., novelty, troub.e. 

Novcla, nl^rai'-la, s. f., novel, lomance, L. 

62 
Noveno, n^-ral'-fio, ord. adj. and s. m- 

ninth. L.15. .. . *» i 

Novcnta, nO-vain'-ta, num. adj., ninety, i^- 

14. 



VOCABULABY. 



459 



Novlembre, «5-u^fllJ»'-*rfli, 8. m., Novem- 
ber L. 34. 
Nuestro, ruxyaigy^-lro, poss. pron., our, ours. 

L. 13. 
NncTa, noo-ai'-va, n. f., news (generally 

used ID the pi). L. 60. 
Nueva York, noo-ai'-va, a. f., New York. 

L. 9. 
Nueve, noo-ai'-vai^ nnm. acy., nine. L. 11. 
Nuevo, noo-ai'-vOy a^)., new.— De wuWs 

anew. L. 21. 
Nuea, naHtith\ a. f., walnnt. L. 40. 
Nomeral, noo-tnai-ral\ a4}., numeral. L. 

14. 
Ndmero, nay-mai-ro^ a. m., number. —i Que 

numero tienc au caaa de V. ? what 1b the 

number of your house ? L. 14. 
Nunca, noon'-ka, adv., never. L. 85. 



O. 

O, coi^., or, either. L. 8. 

O I inter., oh ! L. 39. 

Obedecer, d-bairdai-thtUr'^ to obey. L. 48. 

Objetivo, Sbe-hai-t^-vo,, adj. and a. m., ob- 
Icctive. L. 63. 

Objeto, dbt-hai'-tOy a. m., object. L. 48. 

Obligacion, ^-M-gahrlta-dne' , a. f., obliga- 
tion, duty. L. 34. 

Obliga^^^l-^ar', to oblige, to force, to 
compeK L. 61. 

Obra, o'^-br€L s. f., work (any thing made, aa 
a book, a house, &c. ). L. 16. 

Obrar, d-6rar', to work, to act, to operate. 
L. 40. 

Obaervar, dbesair-var'y to obaerve, to re- 
mark. L. 43. 

Obstante, ^ibe-stan'-tai^ present part.— No 
obatanU. (See no obstante.) L. 54. 

Obvio, dbe^vi-d^ a^j., obvious. L, 43. 

Ocasion, d-kah-si-dne\ s. f., occasion, oppor- 
tunity.— Tomar la ocasion por los cabeUos, 
to take time by the forelock. L. S9. 

Occidente, bke-i/a-dain'-taly s. m., the west 
L,51. 

Ochenta, d-ehain'-tay num. a^j., eighty. L. 
14. 

Ocho, y-chOy num. a^J., eight. L. 14. 

Ochocientos, d-cho-t/ti-ai^-toce^ num. a^J., 
eight hundred. L. 11. 

Octavo, dke-tah'-vo^ ord. a^., eighth.— En 
octavo^ Svo. L. 15. 

Octubre, dke-too'-braiy a. m., October. L 

Ocultar, d hxi'tar, to hide. L. 48. 

Oculto, d-hool'-to^ adi., hidden. L. 53. 

Ocupaclon, d koo-pah'iM'One\ s. f., occupa- 
tion, business, concern. L. 54. 

Ocnpar, b-koo-par', to occupy, to engage, to 
fiir (a post). ^. 47. 

Ocurnr, O-koor-rter' ^ to occur, to strike.- 
Le ocitrre una idea, an idea strikes him. 
L. oa. 

Oeste, d-aiss'-tai.B. m., west. L. 61. 

Ofender, d-Jain-dair'^ to offend. L. 27. 

Olido, d-Ji'-t/ii-Oy 8. m., office, employ, 
trade. L. 38. 

Ofrecer, d-frai-ihait''^ to offer. L. 49. 

Oido, d'^-do, 8. m., hearing, ear.— Hablar al 
oidOy to whisper in one's ear. L. 61. 

Oir, &-eer', to hea^^ Oiga / just listen 1 L. 



OJal&l bhah-la\ inter., would to God I L. 
»T. 

Ojo, d'ho, a. m., eye. L. 29. 

Oler, 04011^, to smell. L. 41. 

Olfato, dU'/a/i'40y s. m., the aenee of emell. 
L. 61. 

Olla, OU'-ya^ s. f., earthen pot.— OlBa podri- 
da, Spanish mixed dish of meats, vegeta- 
bles, &c., cooked together. L. 62. 

Olor, b-ldre\ s. m., odor, scent, smell. L. 63. 

OUvar, d-n-var'. s. m., olive ground. L. 63. 

Olvldar, OUvi-dar', to forget. L. 40. 

Omnibus, bUM'-n^-boooe^ b. m., omnibus-. 
L.51. 

Once, dne'-thaiy num. a^., eleven.— Hacer 
las OFUX, to lunch about noon. L. 14. 

Opera, d'-pai-ra^ s. f., opera. L. 25. 

Opmion, O'pli-nt-One'^ s. f., opinion. L. 43. 

Oponer, i>-pd-nair\ to oppose. L. 51. 

Optimo, opeiO-mOy a^j., best, extremely 
good. L. 31. 

Opuesto, ^wai88'40y adj., opposite, op- 
posed, (meg. past, part or Oponeb.) 
1.53. 

Oraclon, d-rah'tkl-dne'y s. f, prayer, speech, 
discourse. L. 45. 

Orden, Ore'-dam, s. m. and f., order.— A la 
6rden de V., at your service. L. 89. 

Ordenar, Sre-dal-nar' ^ to order, to com- 
mand. L. 51. 

ista, &ngah-nee88'-ta, s. m., organist. 



Oriente, iyr^-ain'-tai, east L. 61. 

Oro, d'-rOy B. m., cold.— No es oro todo lo 

Zue reluce, all is not gold that glitters. 
.8. . ^ 

Os, dce^ pron., you (objective of verbs). L. 

26. 
Ostiojiy Dee- ii-dne\ a. m. (SccOstra.) L.63. 
Ostra, Dce'-tra, s. f., oyster. L. 63. 
Otoiio, d40ne'-yo, s. m., autumn, fall. L. 34. 
Otro, S'-tro^ indef. pron., other, another. 

L. 18. 
Oveja, d-vcU' ha, s. f.. sheep. L. 65. 
Ox ! dks. Inter, used to fnghten off fowls, 

&c. L.46. 



P. 

Paca, pah'-ka. s. f., Fanny. L. 44. 

Paciencla, pah-thi-ain'-thS-a, s. f., patience. 
L. 68. 

Paco, pah'-ko^ s. m.. (contraction of Fran- 
cisco, Francis), Frank. L. 44. 

Padecer, pcUt-dai-thair' , to Buffer pain. L. 
47. 

Padraatro, pah-drags' -trOy a. m., step-fother. 
L. 49. 

Padre, paA'-drcrf, s. m., fethcr.— i^w/rfnuea- 
tro, the Lord's prayer. L. 6 and 45. 

Pagar, pah-gar', to pay. L. 14. 

Pa£;ar6, pah-qah-rai\ h. m., (comm.) prom- 
issory note. L. 69. 

Po^na, pah'-hl-na^ s. f., page (of a book, 
&c.). L. 50. 

Pais, pah-eess*, s. m., country.— iCn&n to 
ticmpo hace qu6 est& V. en cste paUf 
how long have you been in tills country f 
L. 19. 

Paiaano, pah-isah'-no, s. m., countryman 
(one flrom the same country). L. 60. 

PiOa* poA'-Ao, 8. f., Btnw. t. 63. 



460 



VOCABULABT. 



PlUaro, pah'^ah-ro, b. m., bird. L. 48. 
P^urraco, pah-har-rah'-ka, b. m., (aug. of 

Pajabo), an ogiv, clumoy bird. L. 40. 
Paiabra, paii-lcUv-bra^ 8. f., word, promiee. 

—J\Uaorm mayorca, oli'cn«ive worda. L. 

15 and U5. 
Palaeio, pa/i-kth'-tfti-o^ a. m., palace. L. 

Palaa^'aoa, pah4an-g<jji'-na^ a. f., washbowl. 

L. 40. 
Palo, ixih'-lo, a. m., stick of wood. L. 62. 
Pan. ;x{/}, ». m.. bread, loaf. L. 7. 
Pauaderia, pa/i-na/i-dai-ri'-a^ a. f., bakery. 

L*. 11. 
Panadero, pah-^iahrdai'-ro, a. m., baker. 

L. n. 
Pantalon, pan-iah-ldru\ a. m., pantaloons, 

troattcFi}. L. 17. 
Pano, iHin'-yo, s. in., cloth. L. 62. 
Pailuelo, wn-yoo-ai'-lo^ s. m., Qpckct-hand- 

kcrchicf. L. 5. 
Papa. pah-na\ a. m., papa. L. 6. 
Papei, paA-ixUl\ s. m., paper, part (in a 

play).— Ilacer ;>«/>£/, to cut a fiu'urc. L. 4. 
Paquito, pah-kl-to, h. ni., (contraction of 

I-iiANcisco, FranciH), Franky. L. 44. 
Par, /wr, a. m., pair, couple. L. 40. 
Para, p(i/i'-ra, prep., for, to, in order to, 

toward.— Tiene una carta jxtra V.. he lias 

a letter for you.— Esta para partir, ho ia 

about to ^ct ont. L. 19. 
Parabi(m, pnh-rah-fH-ain', s. m.. conj^ratu- 

lation, complimcut.— Dar cl parai/Un, to 

con«;mtulatc. L. U2. 
Pardt^uas, paJi-rali'-t/wass^ e. m., umbrella. 

L. 50. 
Parar, pah-rar', to stop, to end (In). L. 51. 
Pank-ol, jxt/hrafi-.<<'U\ ». m., parasol. L. 50. 
Pareccr, pah-rai-UuUr'^ to appear, to seem. 

L. :». 
Pared, jxih-raith\ s. f, wall. L. 60. 
Paris, pah- reels', ^. m., Paris. L. 12. 
Parquc, par'-kai, s. m., park. L. 17. 
Parte, par'-tai, a. f., part.— Alpfuna park, 

somewhere.— Ningruna parfe, nowhere.— 

l)e ocho dias & e«ta parte, for the la-'t 

claht days;— s. m., messa^^e, dispatch. 

Information. L. 27. 
Partlcipar, par-ti-iJil-par*^ to participate, to 

partake. L. 67. 
Pttrticipio, par-li-iM'-pi-O^ a. m., partici- 
ple. L. 4a 
Partlcula, par^'-kco-ta, s. f., particle. L. 

50. 
Particular, par-ti-koo-iar', a^J., particular, 

private. It. 40. 
Partida, par-fS'-da, s. f, departure. L. 42. 
Partir, par-U(r\ to depart, to act out, to 

divide, to split. L. 19. 
Pirtitivo, par-iitl-vo, a^J- partitive. L. 

63. 
Paw^e, pah-sali'-hai, s. m., passage, ihrc. 

L. 58 and 63. 
Pa^^ar. jxih-mr\ to pass, to 50 {ttom place 

to place). L. 10. 
Pa*«cua, point' kwa, e. f . Easter. L. 69. 
Paevante, pah sai-an'-tai, s. m., paP3cr by, 

walker, promcnadcr. (Prcs. part, of Pa- 

SEAB.) L. 38. 
Paccar, txth-sai-ar^ to walk, to promenade. 

L. »1. 
Pasco, pa/i-sai'-o, a. m., walk, promenade. 

L. 51. 



I PasiTa, pdth'O'-va^ a. f. , the ptsaive Toice. 

L. 50. 
Pasivo, pah-ti'^vo, Bd^., passive. L. 63. 
Paso, pa/i'-fOy 6. m., step, pacx;. L. 61. 
I Patio, pah'-Ck-Oy a. m., yard, pit (in theatr^is). 
; L. 40. 

1 Patronimico, pah-ir^nl'-iM-ko^ adj., patro- 
I nymic. L. 40. 
Ptti, iMth, 8. t, peace. L. 4S. 
Pecho, pai'-du>, s. m., breast.— A lo liccho 

pechOy what is done cannot be helped. L. 

65. 
Pccbuga, pai<h(xf-gay a. f., breast of fowL 

L. 58. 
Podazo, jMi-c^oA'-^, e. m., piece, moTad, 

bit. L.63. 
Podir, pai-dur", to ask, to demand, to ask 

for.— A pt^dir dc boca, aa well as could be 

desired L. SO. 
Pedro, pai'-drOy s. m., Peter. L. 19. 
Pea;ar, pai-gar', to stick, to paste, to beat. 

L.63. 
Peinar, pai-i-nar', to comb. L. 46. 
Peine, pai-^'-nai, s. m.. comb. L. 46. 
Peli^px), pat'tt-grOy s. m., danger, peril. L. 

61. 
Pelo, pai'-hy s. m., hair.— A pdo^ to the 

purpose. L. 33 and 41. 
Pclota, jMU4d'-ta, a. f., baU (for playing). 

L. 54. 
Pena, pai'-na, s. f., pain, penalty.-^ dona 

pt'nw<\ with much difficulty. L. 50. 
Pcnsamlento, pain-sahini-inin'-to^ a. m., 

thoui^ht. L. 48. 
Penaar, pa«A-^-ar', to think, to intend. L. 

SI. 
PcnOUimo, wU-nod'-tk-mOy a^)., penulti- 
mate, last out one. L. 50. 
Penasco, pain-yaeg'-kOy s. m., a large rock. 

L. 56. 
Pcor, pai-Or^y acy. and adv., worse. L. 90. 
Pcpa, pai'-pa, s. f., (contraction of Fkast- 

ciscA, Frances), Fanny. L. 44. 
Pepe. (Sec Pepito.) L. 44. 
Pepito, pai-pS'-lo, 8. m. (contzsction of 

Jo8£, Joseph), Joe. L. 44. 
Pcqueilo, pai-hain'-yOy a4J., amall, little, 

young. L. 7. 
Per, p(Ury Latin prep, need in Spanish as a 

prefix only ; as, jjerturbar. L. 60. 
Pcra. pai'-ra, s. f., pear. L. 59. 
Pcral, pai-ral\ s. m., pear-tree. L. 60. 
Perder, pair-dair'. to lose. L. 87. 
Perdonar, patr-d^-nar*, to pardon. L. 27. 
Pcrczoeo, pai-rai-tho'-io, acy., lazy, eloth- 

Pcrfcccionar. pair-faik-tM-d-nar'y to per- 
fect, to improve. L. 38. 

Perfccto, palr-faik'-to, acy., perfect. L. 29. 

Periila, pai-refr-uoy s. f., small pear.— Vc- 
nir dc pcnllOy to suit exactly. L. 61. 

Peri6dico, pai-r^-d'-dS-ko, s. m., newspaper. 
L.a 

Pcrmanccer, pair-ma7i-nai-(hair^ , to re- 
main, to stop, to stay. L. 46. 

Permanencia, pair-nuiJi-n<Un'-ihl-ay a. f., 
permanence, duration, stop. Ftay. L. 51. 

Permitir, pair-mi-teer' , to permit, to allow. 
L.44. 

Pero, pai'-ro, conj., but. L. 3. 

Perpendicular, pair^pain-dl-koo'lar^ y a^}.. 
perpendicular. L. 61. ^ 

Perro, palr^-rOy s. m., dog.^ L. 63. 



VOCABUI^ABY, 



461 



Fenererancia, pair-sai-vai^ran'-t/a-a^ b. f, 

pcreeTerance. L. 63. 
PeraiBtir« pcUrseess-teer^ , to persist. L. 60. 
Persona. jxiir-sO'-na, s. f., pcr»»on. L. 38. 
Pcraonal, pair^a-nal\ a^)., personal. L. 

Ga. 
Pesa, pai'-M^ a. f., weight (for wcighin;;). 

L. 55. 
Pcsame, pai'-Mh-mai^ a. m., condoleoce. 

Li. — . 

Pcsar, pai'Sar'^ to weigh, to regret— No le 
puia ue haber nocido, he has an czcclleDt 
opinion of himself. L. 31. 
Pcsar. 8. m., regret, grief, sorrow.— A pe^ar 

dc, in apite of, notwithstanding. L. 31. 
Pericado, iHiij^kah'-do^ s. m., llsh. L. 7. 

Pcscar, ixUsS'kar'^ to fish. L. ({3. 

Pesimo, pai'-i^-ino^ at^., worst, veiy bad. 
L. 21. 

Peso, /M<'-«), B. m., weight, heavineBB, dol- 
lar. L. 14. 

Pianista, pi-ah-Mess'-ia^ b. m., pianist. L. 
15. 

Piano, p^-ahf-no, b. m., piano. L. 16. 

Picante, pS-kan'-tai, ai^j., piquant, high- 
seasoned, pungent. L. 54. 

Picar, pS-kat^y to prick, to bite, to pique. 
L. 46. 

Picarcsco, pl-keUi-raitt'-ko, ad^.^ roguish. 
L. 49. 

Picaro, pi'-kaJi-ro^ a^)., rogue, rascal, 
scoundrel. L. 32. 

Pico, p9''ko^ 8. m.j beak, bill.— Callarse cl 
pico^ to hold one^s tongue. L. 61. 

Pie, ja-<U\ s. m., foot.— A pit\ on foot.— 
^accr do imtf, to bo bom to good luck. 
L. 39. 

Plema, jiB-air'-nay b. f, leg. L. 33. 

Pleza, j^-cu'-tAa, b. f., piece. L. W. 

Plnar, j)i-nar', s. m., pine-grove. L. 49. 

Pino. p3'-/w, 8. m., pine. L. 40. 

Pintar, peen-lar', to paint, to represent. L*. 
54. 

Pintor, peen-tdre\ 8. m,, painter. L. 31. 

Pintura, pcen-ioo'-ra^ s. l, painting. L. 31. 

Pipa, fiS'-pa, B. f., pipe. L. 42. 

Pique, /)?-^a/, 8. m., pique, oflcncc.— Esta- 
bia jMr/tie de perderse, he was on the brink 
of ruin. L. 62. 

PIropos (Declr), jiS-rd'-pOce, to say soft 
things (to the lacllcs). L. 58. 

Pisavcnlc j!??-A>a/i-ra«r'-d(rf, s. m., fop, cox- 
comb. L. 50. 

PisOjjyc'-.^o, B. m., iloor, aiory (of a house). 
— Tercer piao, third floor. L. 53. 

PIstola, pee^'(v'-la^ s. f., pistol. L. 44. 

Pisioletazo, j)ee<is-l^-ku-tah'-t/iOy b. m., pis- 
tol-shot. L. 44. 

Placer, pla/i-t/iair'. to please. L. 31. 

Placer, s. m., pleasure. L. 81. 

Plata, piah'-fa, s. f., silver. L. 8. 

Plato, j)la/L'-(o, s. m., plate, dlBh (of viands). 
L. 57. 

Plaza, plah'Vta, ». f, place, situation, 
square, market-place.— /Yoza de toros. 
Arena (for bull-lights). L. 17 and TA. 

Plazo, plah'-UiOy s. m., term (of payment). 
L. 63. 

Plomo, pld'-mo, s. m., lead. L. 63. 

Plunuu, ptoC-ma, s. f., pen, feather. L. 6. 

Plural, ploo-rtU\ a^)., plural. L. 67. 

PluBcnamperfecto, ptoooe-kwam-pair'/aik'- 
to, s. m., plnperfect L. 48. 



Pobrc, p5'-6fYil, a4J., poor, needy, wretched. 

L. 13. 
Pobreza, pd-brai'-tha, b. f., poverty. L. 59. 
Poco, pd-ko, adv., litUe; pi., few.— /iw d 

pooo, gently, sottly. L. 82. 
Poco, 8. m., little. L. 6. 
Poder, pd-(iair\ to be able.— No poder mas, 

to be exhausted. L. 32. 
Poder, s. m„ power, possession. L. 35. 
Podrir, po-drter\ to rot. L. 41. 
Poesia, pC-ai-ai'-a, s. f., poesy, poetry. L. 

31. 
PoetA, pli^'-ta, B. m., poet. L. 81. 
Poetastro, pO-ai-tass'-irOy b. m., poetaster. 

JL. 44. 
Po6tlco, piHU'-a-kOy a4J., poetic, poetical. 

ia. 35. 
Poica, poie'-kCy s. f., polka. L. 23. 
Polftica, j;5-ft'-/«-to, b. f., politics; polite- 
ness. L. 52. 
Politico, pdjl'-a-ko, a4|., political; polite. 

L. 52. 
Politico, 8. m., man of politics. L. 52. 
Polio, jOW-yo. s. m., chicken. L. 5. 
Polvo, poie'-ro, s. m., powder, dust. I^ 62. 
P61vora, pole'-rd-ra^ s. f., gunpowder. 1^. 63. 
Ponderar, pone-dai-rar', to exaggerate, to 

cry up. L. 54. 
Poncr, po-nair', to put, to place, to lay, to 

set (as the sun).— /Iwi^tw, to oeconie, to 

L^et.— Se puso Berio, he became serious. 

Por, pdre^ prep., by, for, in behalf of, in fla- 
vor of, about, through.— ftr las calles, 
through the streets.— Ir j)or pan, to go 
for bread.— 7l;r si acaso, in case, if by any 
chance. L. 10. 

Porcion, pdre-f/i9-Sne'y b. f., portion, part, 
lot, number, quantity. L. 63. 

Ponnenor, p6rK'mat-tibre\ b. m. (generally 
used in the plural).- i\^i^<ore», details, 
particulars. L. 60. 

Porque, piire'-kaL, coqj., because. L. 18. 

Porqu6, pore-ka£\ conj., whyy for what 
reason f— s. m., reason wherefore. L. 18. 

Portarse, p&re-tar^-eaiy to behave, to conduct 
one's self. L. 65. 

Portugal, pdre-too-g(U\ b. m., Portugal. L. 
60. 

Portugues, p0re-(oo-{;hai88*yB. m. and a^J., > 
Portuguese (language), Portuguese (na- 
tive of Portugal). L. 84. 

Poseer, pd-fai-atr. to posseBs. L. 84. 

Posesivo, p&-ifai-t>e''tOy adj., possessive. L. 
63. 

Posibic, p^sV-UaU a4)*) possible. L. 31. 

Positivo. pO-tS-tl'-vOy adj., positive. L. 48. 

Posponer, poce-])6Hatr' ^ to postpone, to 
place after. L. 63. 

Potencial, po-taln-Utl-al^ adj., potential. 
L. 63. 

Practita, prak'-fi-la, b. f., practice. L. 23. 

Practicante, »rai[-^2-Aaa'-«ii, s. in., practi- 
tioner. (Present part, of Pbacticab.) 
L. 88. 

Practicar, pmk-tikar', to practise. L. 23. 

Prfictico, prak'tl-kOy adj., practical. L. 66. 

Pre, praiy Latin prep. UBeu m bpanlsh as a 
prefix only. L. 5(). 

Preceder, prai4h€U-(UUr*y to precede, to go 
before. L. 63. 

Precepto, prai4haip^4o^ 8. zn., precept L. 
63. 



462 



VOCABULABY. 



Preclo, prai'-tM-d, 8. m., price, prize. L. 60. 

Preclso, prai'Ua'so, a4J., neceoaary, obllt;- 
atory, prb*ci8e.— fis preciM qae la lean, 
they ma!»t read it L. 68. 

Preferir, pnU-fai-reer' ^ to prefer. L. 88. 

TTe^n\A,prai-goon'-ta^ b. f., queetion. In- 
quiry. L. 33. 

Pro^uutar. prai-wfon-tar'j to ask qneetions. 
to qntMtlon. L. *i. 

Preliniiaar. prai-H-tni-nar*^ acy., prelimi- 
nary. L. 61. 

Prcmlar, prai-mi-ar', to reward. L. 68. 

Premio, prai'-fni-O, ». m., premiam, reward, 
prize. L. 39. 

Prenda, prain'-da, b. f., pled<7e, jewel ; pi., 
endowmeutA, talcntH, partt». L. 41, 63. 

Prcndcr, prain-dair'j to talvc, to talce ap, to 
arrent. L. 39. 

Prepoaicion, prai-pl^-fi'lM-dne'^ preposi- 
tion. L. 43. 

PrcHcncia, prai-Mln'-thha, s. f, pre»ence.— 
Preiencij, de finlino, prescuce of mind. 
L. 6-). 

Prcaentar, prai-Min-iar'^ to present, to in- 
troduce, to oTcr. L. 39. 

Preaeate, prai-nain'tcU. ad)., present.— Te- 
nor or-f^/x/^, to bear In mlna. L. 43. 

Pre^l'teute, prai-d9-dain'-taL b. m., presi- 
dent. L. 46. 

Presidio, praisi'-di-O, b. m., state prison. 
L. 59. 

Pro^idir, prai-si-deer', to prc-^lde. L. 54. 

Preso, prai''<io, Irrc?. past part, (of PjucN' 
DRR), taken. L. 5'^ 

Preslar, prai*si'tar\ to lend. L. B9. 

Pre-^to, prai^M'-to, ac^., qoiclc, ready, 
prompt. L. 20. 

Presto, adv., soon, qnlckly. L. 90. 

Pretender, prai-tain-fJair\ to pretend, to 
lay claim to. to claim, to Boliclt. L. 48. 

Pretension, prai-t(Un-fi^-dne\ s. f., preten- 
sion, claim, thin<? solicited, L. 57. 

Pret^rito, prai-tai'-r^-to, a^j., preterit L. 
63. 

PreteBto, prai-taiat'-tOy b. m., pretext L. 
53. 

Prevenir, jirai-vai-neer'^ to prevent, to fore- 
see, to warn, to prepare. L. 63. 

Prever, prai-rair', to foresee. L. 89. 

Primavera, pri-ma/irvai'-ra, b. f.. Spring. 

Prlmero, pr^-maV-ro, a^J., flrst.— De bnenaa 

kprimerait^ all at once, rashly.— adv., first, 

rather, sooner. L. 16. 
Primo, prV-mo, b. m., consln. L. 13. 
Principal, preen-tM-pcU\ a4)., principal, 

chief. L. 36. 
Prlnclplantc, mw»-^A?-/)?-fln'-^al, s, m. and 

ores. part, (of Pbincitiar), beginner. L. 

Princlpiar, preen-ffif-p^-ar'^ to begin, to 

commence. L. 23. 
Principio, preen-t/i^'-pf-d, s. m^ bcrinnlnj?, 

commencement, principle. L. r»3. 
Prisa, pr9'-fta, s. r., haste, hurry.— Tener 

prisa, to be In a hnrrv. L. 30. 
Priaionero, pri-^-iS-nai'-ro, s. m., prisoner. 

L.48. 
Prisma, preess'-mn. s, m., prism. L. 54. 
Probt^bie, prMah'-dlai^ a^}., probable. L. 

29. 
Prob.ar, pri>4far\ to try, to prove, to taste. 

—El <dima de ebte pals le prueba bien, the 



climate of thlB conntry agrees \f en with 
him. L. 85. 

Procesion,pn0-<Aai-£2-dfatf', s. f., procession. 
L.46. 

Procurar. prv-lcoo-fxtr' ^ to procure, to en- 
deavor, to try. L. 51. 

Pruduccion, prO-dook-Uti-dne', b. f., produc- 
tion. L. 4U. 

Produclr, prO-doo-ifteer'^ to produce. L. 40. 

Proeza, prO-ai'-iAa, b. f., prowess. L. 51. 

Profecia, prd-/al-itii'-a^ s. f., prophecy. L. 
45. 

Profesion, prd-/ai-»9'SAe*^ b. t, profeseian. 
L. 38. 

Profesor, prO-fai-Ore*^ s. m., professor. L. 

Prohibir, pro^l-beer', to prohibit. L. 68. 

Pr6Jimo, prO'-hl-mOy b. m., neighbor (fellow- 
creature). L. 28. 

Promcsa, jtrd-mai'-ga^ b. f., promise. L. 57. 

Prometer, pr^-mai-tmr' ^ to promise. L. 25. 

Pronombre, pro-rUhne'-braiy s. m., pronoun. 
L.43. 

Pronominal, pr&-nd-mi-ncU\ 4id1., pronomi- 
nal. L. 61. 

Prontitud, prone-a-iooth\ s. f., promptncBS, 
promptitude, quickness. "L. 43. 

Pronto, ;>r5n^-/o,adj., prompt, quick, mdy; 
—adj., soon, promptly, qnickiy. L. 20. 

Pronanciacion, pro-noon'thl-uh't/ti-ijne*^ s. 
f., prononciation. L. 63. 

Pronnnchir, prd-noon-tM-ar^ to pronounce, 
li. 15. 

Propiedad, pr^pf-ai-dath' ^ b. f., propriety, 
property. L. 63. 

Propio, prO'-pS-d, a^J., proper, own, self- 
same, same. L. 49. 

Proponer, prd-pf^-nair'^ to propose. L. 61. 

Prosa, prd'sa, s. f, prose. L. 81. 

Proporcionar, pr6-p6rt'thJt-d-nar'^ to pro- 
portion, to procure, to offer. L. 48. 

Protestante, prd-CaiM-ian'-tai, s. m., Prot- 
estant. L. 49. 

Protestantismo, pt^aiM^anrt^etf-fno^ 8. 
m.. Protestantism. L. 49. 

Provccho, prO-vai'-cho^ s. m., profit, benefit 
L. 64. 

Ppoveer, prO-vairair', to provide. L. 84. 

Proverbio, pr&-vair-bl6-0y s. m., proverb. 
L. 65. 

Provlncla, pr^-tMfn'-^AS-a, 8. f., province. 

Provisto, pri>-Tfes8'4o^ past part (of Pbo- 
VBKR), provided. L. 62. 

Prdximo, pr&kt'-^-Tno, adj., proximo, next, 
nearest.— El sdbado pn»imo, next Sator- 
dav. L. 83. 

Pmdencia, proo-dain'-thi-a, s. f., prudence. 
L. 34. 

Pmdcnte, proo-dain'-tai, a43-i prudent L. 
20. 

Pmeba, proo-al'-ba, s. f., proof. L. 46. 

Prn!?ia. proo'-<?-a, e. f , Prussia. L. 46. 

Pnblicar, jx)0-f'f9'f:ar\ to publish. L. 4^. 

Publico, poo'-NS-ko, s. m. and a^]., public. 
L.51. 

Pueblo, pwai'-blo, s. m., town, people. L. 60. 

Puerta, ptrair'-(a, s. f., door. L. 27. 

Paes, tncaiff^ coi^., then, therefore, inas- 
mucn as, since, because :— inter., weU I — 
Ptfsff, qu6 ? well, what of It?. L. 41. 

Puesto qne, pwaifs'-to, adv., since, inas- 
much as, supposing that L. 37. 



VOCABULABY. 



463 



Pol^dA, pool-gah'-aa^ b. f.. inclL L. 63. 

Pimtapii;, pooti^tCLfi-Di-ai^ a.m., kick. L. 60. 

Pauta, poua'-ta^ point, stitch. L. 60. 

PuntiUa, poonrUa'-ifa^ s. f., email point. — 
De punUlku, on tiptoe. L. 44. 

Panto, poon'-to^ a. m., point (of time or 
Bpace), spot, place.— Al puntOy at once. 
L. 51. 

Pantnacion^DOon-too-oA-MS-^ntf^ s. f., punc- 
tuation. L. 68. 

Puntnal, poottrUxHil'y ad^., ponctnal, exact, 
accurate. L. 63. 

Pontoalidad, pam-UxHihrll-dath'y b. f., 
punctuality. L. 03. 

Purista, poo-reess'-iGy b. m., purist. L. 86. 



Qqc, kai, rel. pron., ttiat, which, who.— 
i(hie bneno ! now t^ood \—/QuS desgracia ! 
what a miefortune I— Que vcnga, let him 
come.— 4/ ^u^ ec dice de bueno ? wtiat la 
the good news?— Tarde que temprano, 
eooner or later. L. 3, 16, 17. 

Qucbrar, kairbrar'y to break, to smash. L. 

Qucdar, kai-dar'y to stay, to stop, to re- 
main, to become.— £1 campo quedo por 
loa Americanos, the Americans were vic- 
torious. L. 88. 

Qnojarse, kai-har'saiy to mooa, to com- 
plain. L. 48. 

Onemar, kai-^mar'y to bam. L. 82. 

Quorer, kairralr'y to wish, to desire, to will, 
to lore, to like, to be willing. L. 13. 

Querido, kai-rf-do, a^J., dear. (Past part. 
ofQuEREB.) L. 1.3. 

Qneso, kai'-80y s. m., cheese. L. 7. 

Quicn, Ja-ain\ rel. pron., who, whom. L. 
17. 

Qnlcnquiera, ki-ain-ke-ai'-ray indcf. pron., 
whosoever. L. 60. 

Qnieto, kit-ai'-tOy a4J., quiet, still, at rest 
L. 63. 

Qnijada, kS-kah'-da, s. f, jaw. L. 60. 

Quince, ke(:n''thai;.iinm. acU., flfteen. L. 14. 

Qninlcntos, khnS-ain'-tdeey acU., five hon- 
dred. L. 14. 

Qainto, keen'-tCy ord. a4). and s. m., fifth. 
L.50. 

Qui tar, ki-tar\ to remove, to take away, 
off, out ; to prevent. L. 63. 

Qnitasol, ki-tah-ff^le', s. m., parasol. L. 60. 

Qoiza, quizas, kH-tfiah'y -thasd'y adv., per- 
haps. L. 84. 



Radical, rah-de-kal'y acU-, radical. L. 63. 

Rafz, rah-eeth'y s. f., root. L. 63. 

Kama, niA'-ma, s. f., branch (of trees, fiimi- 

lies, &c.) L. 61. 
Ramillete, rah-nud-pcU'-taiy s. m., bonqact. 

L. 27. 
Ramo, rah'-mOy s. m., brancli, department 

L. 66. 
Rana, rah'-na^ b. f., tros.—'So ser ranOy to 

be wide awake, expert. L. 66. 
Bapaza, rahrpah'-thOy s. f, little j^rl.— iMl- 

ren la rapazuda ! the little vixen ! L. 61. 
Raro, Toh'-roy adj., rare, odd, cnrioos, 

scarce. L. 63. 



Rasj^ar, ras9-gar*y t6 tear, to scratch. L. 64. 

Raago, TWtif-gOy s. m., trait, 8a*oke, In- 
stance. L. 63. 

Bato, rah'-tOy s. m., while, moment— A ra- 
toSy from time to time. L. 44. 

Raton, rah'Uyne'y s. m., mouse. L. 63. 

Raya, ra/i'-yay s. f., etroke, dash.— U'ener & 
rayOy to keep within bounds. L. 04. 

Bayo, rah'-yOy s. m., ray, thunderbolt.— 
l!k±ar raij09 y centellas, to foam with 
ra^e. L. 62 and 63. 

Razon, ra/i-tMne'y s. f., reason, right.— 
Tener razoriy to be right. L. 25. 

Bazonar, rah-tJU^nar'y to reason. L. 63. 

Re, raiy always nsed as a pretlz. L. 50. 

Real, rai-al'y a«U., real, royal ;— s. m., real 
(Spanish coin). L. 47 and 48. 

ReaUdod, riU-ah-U'dath'y s. f., reality. L. 
48. 

Rebajar, raUbah-har' y to reduce, to abate, 
to lower (prices, Ac.). L. 64. 

Rcbanada, rai-bah-nah'-day s. f., slice (of 
bread, &c.). L. 63. 

Rebanar, roi-bah-nar^y to slice. L. 61. 

Rebafio, rai-ban'-yOy s. m., flock of sheep. 
L.40. 

Recado, r<d-kah'-dOy s. m., message, errand. 
L.63. 

Rcccpcion, rai-UuUp-thl-bne' y b. f., recep- 
tion. L.M. 

Recibimlcnto, rat-tia-fi^-^nM-ain'-tOy s. m., 
act of receiving, reception. L. 65. 

Recibir, rai-thl-Uer'y to receive^ L. 8. 

Recibo, rcU-tM'-bo, s. m., receipt. L. 68. 

Reciproco, roi-lKt-prb-kOy a^)., reciprocal. 
L. 6:3. 

Recltar, rai-thl-iaT' . to recite. L. 61 

Recomendaclon, rai-kdtnain-dah-i/ii'dne'y 
s. f., recommendation. L. 60. 

Recomendar, rat-kO-mainrdar'y to recom- 
mend. L. &4. 

Reconocer, rai-kd-nO-fhair'y to recognize, 
to acknowledge. L. 89. 

Recordnr, rai-kHrt-dar' y to remember, to 
remind. L. 2&. 

Recto, raik'-f4>, adj., right.— En fingalos 
rttrfoff, at rltrht angles. X. 65. 

Rector, raik^tbre'y s. m., rector, director. 
L.63. 

Recnrrlr, rai-knor^rter' y to recur, to have re- 
course. L. 60. 

Recnrso, rai-koor'sOy s. m., recourse, re- 
source. L. 40. 

Reduclr, rai-dno-theer\ to rednce. L. 5i. 

Refcrir, rai-fai-refer't to refer, to relate. L. 
64. 

Reflcxivo, rai-Jl(Uk-€i'-V0y acy., reflective. 
L.63. 

Reflexionar, rai-JUUk-il-b-nar* y to reflect. 
L.48. 

Rcfbnna, rai-f^r^-may s. f., reform, refor- 
mation. L. 63. 

Reformar, rat-Jdre-mar' , to reform, to form 
anew, to diochai^ (fhsm an employment 
or office). L. 48. 

Refhm, rai'Jran'y s. m., refrain, proverb. 
L. 63 and 65. 

Regalar, rai-goA-lar'y to regale, to present 
with, to make a present of. L. 63. 
lo, nO-gah'-lOy s. m., gift, present. L. 



.._„ , rcU'-hhrnain^ s. m., regimen, gov- 
ernment, object (of verbs). L. 67. 



404 



VOCABULARY. 



Begrimiento, rai'hhnO-ain'-to^ b. m., rcg!- 
meQt. L. 19. 

Rcglr, ral-/ttrtr\ to govern. L. 67. 

Kt^la, raiff'-(a, e. f., role, ruler. L. 63. 

Kc^mlar, rai-'jvo4ar^y aty., re<^alar, tolera- 
ble, modcruio, ordinary ; — adv., tolerably, 
middlin;; ;— v., to rei,nilate. L. 27, 67, ana 
04. 

Regularidad, rai-goo-lah'r%-<IcUh\ 8. f., regu- 
lunty. L. 55. 

Re;^ulari2ar, rai-goo-lah^^4har' ^ to regu- 
lutc. L.48. 

ReUut«r, nU-oo-^ar'. to refhse. L. 61. 

Keina, rtti-i -nu^ h. f., queen. L. 63. 

Keinaiile, rai-i-nan'-tai^ pres. part., reign- 
in-. L. ;w. *^ F« . b 

Reiiiar, nii-inar'^ to reign. L. 15. 

Ktino, rai-i'-nu^ ». m., kingdom. L. 45. 

Reir, raittn^' to lau-'h. L. 41. 

Kclucion, rai4ah-th€-oi*e\ 8. f., relation, ac- 
count, recital. L. 43. 

Rclumpapro, rai-lam' -pah-go. b. m., flash of 
ll'^itniii;;. L. 63. 

Rolaiapoi^ucar, rai-Utm-pah-gai-ar'^ to 
li^'hten, L, 30. 

RHutar, rui-lnh-tnr'. to relate. L. 46. 

!{• ii„non, rai-le-hi-One\ 8. f., religion. L. 

Relii,'ioflo, rai-U-hl-O'-fO^ a4J., religious. L. 

TivXo), r(U-fo\ B. m., watch, clock. L. 28. 

Iiol()j(*ro, rai-lihhai'-ro^ b. m., watchmaker. 
L. m. 

Reluclr, rai-loo-tfiirr'. to Fparklc, to glitter. 
—No «» oro todo lo tiuc /%/{<£«, alTie not 
ffold that erlittore. L 65. 

Rcinedlar, rai-mal-ff?-ar', to remedy. L. 64. 

Rwnedio, rai-tnai'-iJi-o, 8. m., remedy. L. 
53. 

Remendar, rai-mainrdar*^ to repair, to 
mend. L. 64. 

Reranncrar, rai-moo-nai-rar' ^ to remuner- 
ate. L. 52. 

Rendir. rain-divr', to render, to aubdue.— 
Jftrulirifp, to surrender. L. 89. 

Reflir, rain-yet r\ to quarrel, to dispute, to 
Hcold. L. 89. 

Rco, rai'-o, o. m., culprit, ofltender. L. 68. 

Repartir, rai-]>ar-tfer\ to divide. L. 58. 

Repa«ar, rai-ixih-mr'^ to repass, to reex- 
amine, to irlance over again. L. 64. 

Repaso, rai-pah'-m^ s. m., revision, act of 
LToinir over anew. L. 61. 

Rcpente, ral-iyun'-fai.—lie repenU^ endden- 
ly, on a sudden. L. 54. 

Repclicion, rai-pai-Ct-thl-dne'. s. f., repeti- 
tion. L. 63. 

Rtpotir. rai-pai-t<^, to repeat. L. 39. 

Repo?ar, ral-p0-8ar\ to repose, to rest. L. 

Vi). 

RipoBo, rai-pO'-to^ 8. m., repose, rest. L. 



Ro])rcnder. rai-prain-dair'^ to reprehend, ! 
n>primand. L. 42. ! 

Ri^prcsentar, rai-;rrai-min-far\ to repre- 
sent, t4) make appear ; to perform (a part), ' 
to enact. L. 64. 

Rcprobar, rai-iiri^^xur', to reprove, to up- 
braid. L. 60. 

Rcpfiblica, rai-poo'-Ui-ka, s. f., republic. 

Reputacion, rai'P0O'tah4M-9n«fn B' t, repu- 
tation. L. ^ 



Resarcir, rai-sar-theer', to indemnify, to 

compensate, to make up fo[. L. 69. 
Reseutin»e, rai-min-teer'-gal, to feel tJhe 

efl'ectH (of), to resent. L. 50. 
Reafriado, raing-frt-aJt'-do^ b. m., cold (dis- 

eanc cau&ed by cold). L. 63. 
Re:«rriarHe, rai^-fri-ar' 'foi^ to catch cold- 

L. 6>i. 
Ret^idente, rai-f?-fiain'-fai^ Bidj. and part 

£art. (Of RssiDiB), rceideut, reeidin^. 
I. 88. 
Residir, rai-a-de/r' . to res^ide. L. 9. 
Rcjiislir. rai-see^fi-ffer', to resibt. L. 51. 
Resolucion, rai-6o-loo-f/ie-(/M\ b. f., reMln- 

tion. L. 63. 
Resolver, rai-edU-tair'^ to solve, to reaolve. 

L.64. 
Reapecta, raigg-pcdkf-ta.—^Si lo que regpceta, 

with rcppoct to. L. 51. 
Re«pctablc, raiM-pai-tah'-llai, a^., re- 
spectable. L. 39. 
Rcppetar. raite-pai-tar'. to respect, L. 38. 
Reupcto, raihb-pai'-to^ s. m., respect, regard. 

L. 66. 
Reppondcr. rai»^-pl>ne-daif^^ to respond, to 

answer. L. 33. 
Reppondon, raifs-rfine-dGM\ adj., aliiaja 

ready to reply. L. 38. 
Rei*puei*ta, raiM-puaititt'-tay a. f., response, 

reply, answer. L. 30. 
Restaute, txii-f-tan'-tai, s. m., and pros. 

part, (of RssTAB), remainder, reat ; re- 
maining. L. 46. 
Resnltar, rai-mtd-tar' ^ to result, to turn out, 

to occur. L. 43. 
Retirar, rai-fi-rar\ to retire, to withdraw, 

to retreat. L. 63. 
Rctrato, rai-trah'-to^ b. m., portrait, liko- 

ncB.**. L. 17. 
Reumatinno, rai-4X>-maK-U£u'-mOy a. m., 

rheumatism. L. 63. 
Reunir, rni-oo^ne^y to reunite, to aBsem- 

ble. L. 62. 
Rcv^s, rai-niiMi', b. m., back part, wrong 

side.— Al nrig, on the contrary; upside 

down. L. 63. 
RevoltoBO, rai-vOle-tO'-fOy a4J., turbulent, 

rebellious. L. 44. 
Rcy, rai'-i, s. m.. king. L. 16. 
Royezuclo, rai-yai-thirai'-io^ b. m. (dim. of 

Rey), pett V king. L. 44. 
Ricacho. rTkah'-cho, a4j., veiy rich. L. 49. 
Rico, rr-ko, a^J.. rich. L. la 
Ridicules, ri-di-hoo-laith\ s. £, ridicule. 

L. 45. 
Ridiculizar, r^d^-hoo-l^thar*^ to ridicule. 

L.48. 
Ridiculo, r9-*W h)0-lo, adj. and 8. m.. ridicn- 

loup, reticule («ort of lady's basket). L. 5. 
Rigodon, t^-g^ddfte\ b. m., rigadoon. coun- 
try dance. L. 28. 
Rincon, reen-kone', §. m., comer. L. 61. 
Rio, rg'-<>, p. m.. river. L. 40. 
Riqncza, r9-kai'-(/ta, s. f., riches. L. 48. 
Rii«a. r?'-,<fl, s. f.. ]au;;h. laughter. L. 48. 
Rivalixar. r^-rah-t^iar' ^ to rival, to Tie 

with. L. 51. 
Rohar, rf^mr'^ to rob, to steal. L. 44. 
Rodar, rd-dar*, to roll. L. 54. 
Rodear, r&-dai-ar', to surround, togorouBd, 

to revolve. L. 64. 
Rodeado, rd-dai-ah'-do^ adj. and past part 

(ofRoDEAB), Burrounded. L. 68. 



VOCABULABT. 



465 



Kodilla, rd-ded'-yoy b. f., knee— De rodillag, 

on one's knees. L. BU. 
Rodriguez, rO-<irl-gaith\ s. m., Rodriguez. 

RoL^r/rS-fl'ar'. to pray, to beg of. L. 86. 
Rofo, rd'ho, adj., red. L. 54. 
Romano, id-mah'-M, ac^J., Roman. L. 54, 
Romper, rOme-jxiir', to break, to tear.- 
Hamper el sUenclo, to break the aileuce. 

Ropa?r5'-;w, b. f, clothes, wearing appareL 

Rosa, r^'-wr, s. f, roec. L.68. ^^^^^^^. 

Roto, rd'-to, irr. past part, (of Bompbb), 
broken. L. 52. 

Rubio, roo'-i>S-0, tid}., feir (of the complex- 
ion), ruddy. L. 6.3. 

Rnldo, roo-i'-do, s. m., noise. L. 46. 

Rum. roo-een\ adj., mean, churlish. L. 63. 

Ruindad, roo-een-dalh\ s. f., meanness, 
churlishness. L. 48. 

Ruiseflor, roo^'Saln-ydref ^ b. m., nightin- 
gale. L. 6:i. 

Rumor, roo-ml^y s. m., rumor. L. 54. 

Rutina, nxHl'-na^ s. t, routine. L. 68. 



Sabado, mh'-bah-do, s. m., Saturday. L. 9. 

Saber, sah-bair\ to know, to have knowl- 
edge of, to hear from ; to savor, to taste : 
— s. m., learning, knowledge. L. 42 and 
21. 

Sabio, sah'-U-o^ a^j., wise, sage, learned. 
L. 21. 

Sabor, sah-bSre\ %. m., savor, taste.— A su 
sabor, at liia pteaeure, ta.ste. L. 62 and 66. 

Sacacorchos, sah-kaJi-kdre'-chOce^ s. m., 
corkscrew. L. 64. 

Sacamnela?, sah-kah-mwai'-lass^ a. m., 
tooth-dmwer, dentist. L. 50. 

Sacar, mh-kar', to take or draw out, to pull 
out. L. 5Uand66. 

Saco, fo/i'-ko, a. m., sack, bag. L. 61. 

Sacudir, sali'koo-deer\ to shake off, to shake. 
L. 54. 

Sal, 8. f., salt, wit. L. 5.5. 

Saldo, gal' -do, s. m., balance (of accounts, 
Ac). L.64. 

Salida, sa/i-lS'-da^ s. f., going out, departure, 
start. L. O:^. 

Sal Ion te, sah-t^-ain'-tcdy adj. and pres. part, 
(of Salik). projecting, salient. L. 88. 

Salir, 8ah-lfer\ to ffo or come out, to set 
out, to leave, to start, to go out, to end or 
finish, to rise (said of the sun, &c.) : to 
turn out, to turn up.— .S'o//^ a su padre, 
he resembled his ihther. L. 20. 

Salon, 8ah4dne', s. m., saloon, large hall. L. 

Sal tar, sal-tar', to jump, to leap, to bound, 

to spring. L. 58. 
Balto. ml'-to, s. m., leap, Jump, bound, 

spring. L. 59. 
Salud, sah-looth' s. f.. hcalth.^A }Afiafvd de 

la»^ sefloraa, to the good healtli of the 

ladies. L. 25. 
Salndar, sah-loo-dar^, to salute. L. 64. 
Sanchez, mn'-chaiih^ s. m„ Spanish family 

name, signifying son of Sancfio. L. 49. 
Ban.gre, mn'-grai, s. f., blood. L. 64. 
Santificar, tan-O-fhkar'^ to sanctify. L. 45. 

20* 



Santo, san'-io, adj., holy, eaUntlj.—Sanio j 

bueno, well and good. L. W. 
Sastre, Mue'-trai, s. m., Uilor. L. 11. 
Sastreria, 6ass-lTai-i^''ay s. f., tailor s shop. 

Satirico, sah-tl'-ri-ko, adj., satirical. L. 35. 
batiblacer, mJi-te(Hs«-ja/i-l/itur\ to satisfy. 

L. 42. 
Satrefecho, saJirkess-fai'-cliO^ adJ. and past 

part, (of tiATisFAC£B;, satisued. L. 44 

and 62. _^ , . 

Sayo, sa/i'-yo^ b. m., sort of loose coat or 

jacket. L. ti6. , «^ 

Sozonar, sah-tAo-nar^y to season. L. 62. 
Se mL pers. pron. (instead of Le, les, to 

him to her, to them). L. 26.— Fron. (used 

to form the passive voice). L. ifcJ.— Ke- 

flecttve pron. L. 3a.-Impers. pron., we, 

they people, Ac.-** dice, Uiey say.-nCs* 

cree it !» believed. L. 86. 
Se prep., used as a prelix in composition. 

L. 50. ' 
Secrcto, aai-krai'-to, b. m., secret, secrecy. 

Scd', gaith, s. f., thirBt- Tencr ted, to be 

thirsty. L. 25. 
Seda, sai'-da, s. f., silk. L. 5. 
Scguir, sai-gheer'y to follow; to continue. 

£.89. 
Segun, sai-fioon\ prep., accordlntr to.— 5fe- 

gun y como, just as. L. 40 and 66. 
Segundo, sal-goon' -do, ord. adj. and b. m., 

second. L. 15 and S3. 
Se^ro, gairgoo'^rOs adl, sure, eecnre. L. 4-3. 
Sejs, mi'<e9s, nnm. adj., six. L. 14. 
8clscientoj», sair^.^.th^-ain' -Idee, num. adj., 

six hundred. L. 14. 
Scmana, sai-maJt'-vn, s. f , week. L. 8. 
bemblante, mlm-fjlan'-tai, s. m,. cotmte- 

nance, fiice, aspect, appearance, look. L. 

Sentar, nain-i^xr', to set down, to enter (in 
a book) ; to fit, to bcrome. L. JM. 

Sentencia, win-tain'-t/ti-a, s. f., sentence, 
phrase. L. 4.3. 

Sentldo, min-(?''do, s. m.. sonse/ L. 65. 

Sentir, sain-teer'y to feel: to be sorry for. 
L. 38. 

Seflor. min-i/dre', e. m., lord, sir, Mr.— 
Muy senor niio, my dear fir. L. 1. 

Scflora, eain-yd'-ra, s. f, ladv, madam, Mrs. 
L.2. 

Scflorita, sain-yd-rl'-ta, s. f., young lady, 
miss. L. 2. . 

Scfiorito, fairhv9-ri''fo, s. m., young gentle- 
man, sir (used generally by ser\ants), 
Mr. L.2. 

S^ptimo, sa^-a-mOy ord. ac^., seventh. L. 

Ser, «?/r, to be, to exist. (Not to be con- 
founded with EsTAB, which see.) L. 11 
and 22. 

Ser, 8. m., boine, existence. L. 54. 

Ser\'idor. Mfr-rhd&re' , s. m., servant.- &7^ 
ridor de V.. your servant, L. R9. 

Scr^ir, mir-'veer' , to serve, to oblige, to do 
a service —iSiTfir^?, to be irood enough, 
kind cnoasrh. to plcw*e.— .S'frrrr^^ V. to- 
mar asicnto, please to take a scat.— -Ser- 
nVw de, to use. L. 89. 

Seacnta, mi-min'-ta, num. adj.. sixty. L. 14. 

Setenta, 9ai4ain'4a, num. a^)., seventy. 
L. 14. 



466 



VOCABULA&Y. 



Setedentot, taHai^M'ain'-idoe, nun. a^., 
seven houdred. L. 14. 

Betiembre, eat-U-ai/n'-inxU, s. m., Septem- 
ber. U%L 

Bezo, saiJt'SO, 0. m., sex.— £1 bello Max), the 
iair Bcz. L. u6. 

Sexto, naikt'-to^ ord. a4)* >Q<1 ■• m., sixth. 

Li. iu. 

&i, Mc, adr., yes. L. 1. 

bi, iuuet*. proa., selL one's self.— HabI6 

para At, hu spoke to liluittelf. L. SHi. 
SL coi\)., U'; but.— <£iU no viene, hombre, 

bat he is not couiln^, my dear lellow. L. 

Siempre, ii-aim'-prai^ adv., always.— Per 

munpre Jamas, lor ever and ever. L. "£». 
Siesu, ifi'aii(if''ta, s. t, sicaia, afternoon 

nap. L. Gii. 
Siete, t^-ai'-tai, num. acU., seven. L. 14. 
Biglo, f^-lOy B. m., century. L. &8. 
biguillcado, neegr-n*^ l-kah'-ilOy s. m., signi- 

licalloa, meauing. L. 49. 
Si'^uilicar, Htg-ttl-j l-kar\ to signify. L. 64. 
Slluba, tV-laJk-ha, u. f., syllable. L. 63. 
Bilcucto, gi4ain'-t/ti-d, s. m., silence. L. 63. 
Bilencioso, «e'/ain^<2-d'-«o, at^., silent. L. 

64. 
Silla. jvy/'-i/fl, s. f, chair. L. 14. 
Blmpatizar, futm-pa/i-U-tAar'^ to sympa-. 

tliizc. L.61. 
Simple, fe^m'-pfai, a^., simple, single; 

simple, silly. L. 43. 
Sin, fififn. prep., without.— *?/n embanjo, 

notwithstanding, however.— .SSfn qa6 ni 

para qu6, without any cause or reason. 

L. 19. 
Finccridad. feen-thai-f^-dath' , s. f., sinccri- 

tv. L.46. , _ 

Pincero. nfen-ihai'-ro, a^).. Biocoro. L. 40. 
SlnirnlBT. p^^-rfoo4ar' , adj., sin^nilaT'- L- R'- 
Sino. *«'.no, con)., but; if not.— No es 61, 

rfwo sn hormano. It Is not he, but his 

brother. L. «. 
SinAnlmo, a-nH'-n^-mo^ s. m., synonyme. 

L. m. , 

SInrazon, 9mi rah-ih^ne' ^ s. f., wrong, In- 

Instice. L. 50. ^ , , 

Sloulcra, fT-kl-id'-ra, conj., even, at least. 

L. 'iO. 
Sitio. /??'-/!-«, s. m., place, position, siege. 

L. R«. 
Sitnndo, Atoo-ah'-do, past part, of Situab. 

Pit'inr, f9-(o(Hir', to sltnate. L. 64. 

Bo. jc»5. prep., under.— 5b prelcsto de, under 

pretext of. L. 41. . , . 

Sohrar, sThbrar^ to be over and above, to 

have more of any thing than one needs. 

I. 64. 
Sobre, gd'-hrai, prep., upon, above, over, 

nhout.— Vino w)*rc las ocho, he came 

Pbont elsht o'clock. L. 41. 
Sohrecprrito, 90-fnv*'af^-Jrr?'-to, s. m., sn- 

per>crlptlon. addrepf* (of a letter). L. 56. 
Bohrlna, ^fi-f>r7'-na. s. f., niece. L. 65. 
PobriPo, fiThbr'-'-nn, p. m., nephew. L. m 1 
Soclaligmo, fid-tM-ah-leess' -mo, s.m., social- 1 

ipm. L. KO. - . . ^ ' 

Socledad, f^th^-ai-dafh\ s. f, society, firm, 

partnerphip (commercial). L. 82. 
Socio, 9b''thho, 8. m., partner, companion. 

L. 02. 
Bofi, «9/a', e. m., BOlH. L.84. 



, Sol, aOfe, 8. m., 8un. L. 46i. 
! i^olas (A), tO'-ioM, aU alone. L. 64. 
1 boldado, gdle-dah-do, s. m., soldier. L. 52. 
Boledad, sd4ai-iiath\ s. t, solitude, loneH- 
I ness. L.. 63. 

Solemne, 904ahn''naU a4J., solemn; thor- 
I oujjh, downright. L. til. 
• Boler, ifO-lair'^ to be accustomed to, to be 
I wouL L. 41. 
Soliciiar, «W5-^««-tor', to solicit. L,47. 
boUioquio, iM9-iO 'Jtc-Oy s. m., so&loqoy. 

L. 6u. 
Solo, ifo'4o^ a4J., alone ;— adv., only. L. '25. 
Boltar, sdle-tar', to untie, to loose, to libci^ 

ate, to let go, to let free. L. ^L 
Boltero, a(e4(U'-ro^ s. m., bachelor, on- 
married man. L. 51. 
Bombra, si^fie'-tffu, b. f., shade, shadow. 

L.5d. 
Sombrero, «9me^rai'-ro, s. m., hat. L. 10. 
Son, A>>i(„ii. m., sound.— bin ton y siu am, 

without rhyme or reason. L. 47. 
Sonar, sO-nar\ to sound. L. 45. 
Bouido, s6-ni'ilo, s. m., sound. L. 47. 
Sonreirse, a&ne-rai-ncT'-dai^ to smile. L. 64. 
Bonrisa, ^ne-ri'-sa, s. f., smile. L. 54. 
Bonrojar, sOne-rO'har', to make one blnah. 

L. 64. 
Sofiar, fdne-yar'. to dream. L. 85. 
Sopa. «0'-jMr, s. r, soup. L. 44. 
Sopeton, si^nai'tdn€'.—De fopeton, unex- 
pectedly. L. 44. 
Soplar, sd^pUir*^ to blow* to prompt L, M. 
Sordo, tGre'-do, a<y., deaf. L. 04. 
Sorprcnder, aOre-prainrdair', to snrprlae. 
• L.42. 

Sorprepa, f!hr-prai'-M, s. f, surprise. L. 51. 
Sospechar, foof-pai-char*, to suspect. L. 60. 
8n. fioo, poss. ad^M his, her. its, their. L. 5. 
Sub, /KXih, Latin prep, used in Spanish as 

a prefix only. L. 50. 
Bublda, €00-ta'-da, s. f., rising, rise: ascent. 

L.68. 
Sublr, itco^bcfr'^ to co or come up, to ascend, 

to mount, to rii>e. L. 60. 
Subjnntivo, fwMioon-W'VO^ a^J., subjnnc- 

tive. L. 43. » -w ^ 

Snceder</w)-tta/-rfffi>'. to happen, to take 

place, to succeed (come after). L. 45. 
Sucesivo, 9c>0'1hai'6i''V0.—'EM. lo eucesivo, in 

ftiture. L. !K. 
Sucio, foo'-m-d, adj., dirty. L. 64. 
Sud, «»d, s. m., sonth. L. 26. 
Sncgra, twai'-gra^ s. f., mother-in-law. L. 

63. 
Sne^ro, gwai'-grOy s. m., &ther-ln-law. L. 

63. 
Snela, inpai'4a^ 8. f., Bole. L. 61. 
Snelo, swcU'40y s. m., ground, floor, soil. 

L. 54. 
Suelto, stcaU'-tOy a^. and past part, (of 

SoLTAR), loose, free.— A riendia wudta^ 

with loose rein. L. 04. 
Snefio. nratn'-yo, s. m., sleep, dream.— To- 
ner fntefio^ to be sleepy. L. 95. 
Suerte, tncatr'-tai, s. r,*lnck, chsnce, sort 

Eehar mertef, to ca«t lots. L. 58. 
Snficiente, soo-fl-Ua-ain'-tai^ a^., sufficient. 

L. 49. 
SufHr, MfO'freer'^ to suffer, to bear with, to 

undergo. L. 64. 
Sngcto, Boo-hai'-to^ s. m.. tndivldnal, per* 

eon; topic, matter, Bubject It. 87. 



VOCABULABT. 



467 



SuJeto, too-hai'-io, aOJ. and past part, (of 
bujETAB), snbject; sabjticted, tied, fast- 
ened. L.66. ™_ , 

Snma^ 400' -ma^ 0. m., Bam. — ^En suma^ in 
short. L. 68 and 64. 

Superior, «oo-iw«-re-^re', a4j., Buperior, L. 

Superlatlvo, »oo-p(Ur4ah'1!if^co^ acy., super- 
lative. L.50. 

Supersticioso, sot^pairss-d-tJa-^-so^ adj., bu- 
penttitioiis. L. 46. 

Suplicar, MO-pH-kar'^ to supplicate, to beg, 
to crave, L. 64. 

Sapouer, tfOO-pO-iutir'^ to suppose. L. 64. 

Supremo, soo-prai'-ftw^ adj., siyireme, high- 
est, most excellent. L. s!l. 

Supuesto. $oo-pwai8^'to^ past part of Supo- 
NKB.— ror supuesto^ of coarse. L. &1. 

Sur. (SeoSuJU.) L.66. 

Sua ! sooce^ inter., holla ! L. 46. 

Susplrar, sooce-pi-rar' . to sigh. L. 64. 

Sasumcia, sooct-tan'4M^ s. f., substance. 
L. 68. 

SustantiTO, MOce-ton-^'-ro, b. m. and adj., 
substantiye. L. 64. 

Sustcntar, eooce-tainrtar', to sustain. L. 65. 

SutiL, soo4ed\ ac^., subtle, thin, slender. 
L.61. 

Sutileza, fOO-a-Ua'-iha, s. f., BubUety, cun- 
ning, thinness, sIcndeinesB. L. 68. 

Suyo, wW-yo, his, hers, its, theirs, one's. 

T. 

Tabaco, tahrbah'-kOy s. m., tobacco, cigar. 

L 42 
TableK). tah-blai'-ro, b. m., a smooOi board. 

—TabUro de ajcdrea, chess-board. L. 51. 
Tacto, takf-U)^ s. m., the sense of touch. 

Tali adj., such, so.— TW cual, middling, so 
BO.— To/ vez, perhaps. L. 88. ......^ 

Talcnto, tah-kOn'-to, s. m., talent, abintleB.- 

Tamblen, tam-hi-ain'. couj. and adv., also, 

as well, morever. L. 29. 
Tampoco, tam;pS''ko, adv., neither, not 

eitner nor. T*, 29. 
Tan, adv., so, so much, a«, afl much. L. SO. 
Tanto, ian'-to, adj., so, in such a manner.— 

Tanto mejor, so much the better.— For 10 

tonto, therefore. L. 20. ^ ^ 

Tapar, tah-par', to cover up, to stop up 

(with a cover). L. 65. .^, _ 

Tapete, tah-pai'4ai, s. m., table-cover. L. 

Tardar, tar-dar', to delay, to put off. L. ao. 
T^rde, taf-doL, s. f , afternoon ;— adv., late. 

—Algo terA?, rather late. L. 20. 
Tarea, tah'-nd^, s. f., task. L. 68. 
TarJetA, tor-Aoi'-te, b. t, card, visitmg card. 

Tnte ! 'iah'4ai, inter., easy 1 toke care ! L. 
43. ♦ , ^^ 

Taza. iah'4ha^ b, f, cup. L. 66. 

T^, tai, 8. m., tea. L. 86. 

Te, pron., thee, to thee. L. 28. 

Teatro, fai-ah'-tro, s. m., theatre. L. 17.. 

Tcja, tai'-ha, b. f, tile.— Do (^<u abijo, hu- 
manly speakinsr. L. 61. 

Telegrftflco, tairUO-groA'ifl-lto, a4J-i tele- 
graph, li. 66. 



Tel^grafo, iairiat'-grahifOy s. m., telegraph. 

L.46. 
Tema, tai'-mOy b. m., theme, exercise;— 

s. f , dispute, contention. L. 57. 
Temer, tai-mair', to fear. L. 28. 
Temerario, tai-mai-ra/i'-H'O^ adj., rash, in- 

conbidcrate. L. 64. 
Temor, tai-mdref .-For ttmor dc, for fear of. 

Tcmprano, taimrprah'-no^ adv., early, soon. 
L. 20. 

Tenacidad, tairnah-thi^ath*, s. f., tenacity. 
L. 66. 

Tenedor, tai-nai'ddfe', s. m., fork. L. 66. 

Tencr, tai-nair^^ to have, to hold : to be, to 
take (p\acc).—Tener hambrc, frio, sed, to 
be hungry, cold, ihinty. —Tener lugar, to 
take ylace.—Jener que hacer, to have 
Bomethlng to do.— To (engo para mf, it is 
my opinion.— 7(en{70 V. la bondad dc de- 
cirme, be good enough to tell me. L. 10. 

TenUcion, Fo»n-te/t/A«-^«^, ». m., tempta- 
tion. L.61. , _ 

Tefiir, iain-yeer*, to dye. L. 89. ^ 

Teoria, to-^;y-«, B. f., theory. L. 2a 

Tercero, iatr-thai'-ro^ ord. adj., third. L. 

Tercio, tair'-tfa^, a.m., third, third part. 
L. 40. 

Termlnacion, tatr-ml-nah-Uii-^ne'^ b. f., ter- 
mination. L. 49. . , 

Terminante, tair'-ml^an'-tca, a<y., conclu- 
sive. L.66. , X -r 

Terminar, iair^mX-nar*, to terminate. L. 

T^rmino, tair'^hno, a. m., termination, 
end: term. L. 65. 

Termometro, tair-fnd'-fnai4ro^ s. m., ther- 
mometer. L. 60. ._. , » 

Terrenal, tair-rttirnal\ adj., terrestrial. L. 

Terrcno, tair-rai'-no. b. m., ground. L. M. 
Terrible, tair-r^'-Uai, ad)., terrible. L. 68. 
Terron, tair-Hine', a. m., turned up earth. 

L. 49. 
Terroeo, tair-rd'so, adj., terreouB, earthy. 

L 49. 
Terrcstre, tair-r(d8s'4rai, adj., terrestrial, 

earthly. L.49. ^ r ^ 

Tertulia, tair-to&-n-a, b. f , party. L. 88. 
Tf, ff, pron., thee (governed by a prep.). 

Tieinpo, U-tOm'-po, s. m., time, weather.— 
Con el ««wi», in the course of time. L. 
2S. 

Tlenda, a-ain'-da, s. f., store, shop. L. 64. 

Tlcrra, O-air'-Ta, s. f., earth, land, naUve 

Tijeras, a-hai'-nu, s. f pi., scisBors. L. 64. 

Tinto, <«»'-/a. B. f.. Ink. L. 6. 

TIntero, Um-tai'-ro, s. m., inkstand.- De- 
jarse algo en el tintero, to forget to say 
someUiing. L. 4. ^ 

Tinto, teen^, adj., red (said of wines). L. 

Tio,'«'-5,B.m., uncle. L.66. 

Ti«bu«on, fl-ro^-*oo-tWn<', fl. m., cork- 

Tirinico, a^roh'-nl-hOy adU., tyrannical. L. 

T^, a-rar', to throw, to cast, to take 
(speaking of a road).— 2Yre V. por aqui, 
UfeUiisway. L.64. 



468 



VOCABULARY, 



^Mro, n'-ro^ n. m., throw, cast.— A tiro dc 

i)i nola, within a pistol-.-hot. L. 51^ 
Tit'ilo. te'4oo-lo, 8. lu.. title. L. 55. 
To ante A, to-kan'-tui a, prep., concorn- 

i:i ', ri'latlir^ to, touchiiiL,'. L. 518. 
Tgcar, fO:':ar*, lo touch, to play (oium In- 

Btrumeut). L. 15. 
To;livia. tO-tl(Lh^9i'-a^ adv., yet, stUl. L. 25. 
To lo, tO'-dt\ adj., ail.— yix/a? loa dlas, every 

diy.— Del tolo, entirely.— Con todo, Udw- 

cvcr, notwithstanding. L. 11. 
Todo, f*. m.. the whole L- 61. 
Tolorar, fd4ai-rar', to tolerate. L. C5* 
Torna! (5'-tnn^ inter., Indeed I L. 45. 
Toniar, td-umr'^ to take. Ii. 14. 
To:n<>, tiT-mo, 8. m., volume.- Un libro do 

trc:) l4>moi^ a book in three volumes. L. 

1.-). 
Toiid, fonall^ B. m., cask, barrel. L. (50. 
Toiito, ton-:' -to. adj., foolitih.- A ton/a« y d 

Nk-i-*, at randoai. L. 60. 
Tontcra, tOne-tai'-ra^ a. t, foolish action. 

L. (>). 
To iiie. fr/kaf, s. m., roll (of a drum), rin::- 

iiU' (of bcll.^).— Ahf C8tu el toque, that Id 

wh 're the diniculty llc-^. L. 05. 
Torero, fdrai'tv, ». m., bull-ll','hter. L. B3. 
TtMiiar, tOrtnar'^ lo return, to begin anew. 

L. G3. 
To-no, tiirf'-no^ s. m., lathe.— En tomo,, 

round about. L. 65. 
Toro. to-ro, «. m., bull. L. 63. 
Tu.-f, A>v, e. f., cou^h. L. f>5. 
TrMbij i'l'»r, t rah-hah-hah-dore', a^j. and s. 

ni., hurdworkiu'^, worker. L. 17. 
Tr.ib ij.ir, trah-bak-har^ . to work, to labor. 

L. 17. 
Tr.ibiijo, trah-ba!i'-ho, s. m., work, hibor, 

occupation. L. 47. 
TraMucclon, trah'dook4M-dne'^ s. f., trans- 
lation. L. 61. 
Traduclr, trak-doo-tkeer^ ^ to translate. L. 

4'». 
Tracr, trah-alr'^ to bring, to carry, to wear. 

L. \'L 
Tra^'ar. /ra'>-7ar', to swallow. L. 615. 
Trau'i'dia, trdJi-IuW -d^-a^ s. t, tragedy. L. 

52. 
TraVico, trih'-hS-ko, adj., trade L. 35. 
Tra^'o, trah'-r/o. s. m.. drauq:ht, drink.- 

Kchar un fra 70, to take a dram. L. 69. 
Trajti, irah'-fiiii, s. m., dross, costume. L. 

51. 
Tniinpa, tram'-pa, s. f., trap, swindle.— 

Cucr en la tranipa. to foil Into the pnare. 

L. 61. 
Trampear, fram-pii-ar', to swindle, to im- 
pose upon. L. fi5. 
Trauipo^o, tram-pd'-^, a^J., dcccltfhl, 

Hwiudling;— 8. m., clieat, swindler. L. 

65. 
TninonlUdad, iran-n4?-flaf.h\ s. f., tran- 

(luillitv. peace, quintnes^. L. 46. 
Tranquilizar, tran-kUZ-thar', to tnmqnll- 

Truiquil.1, tmn-ir-lo, adj., tranqntl, quiet, 
Peaceful. L. 60. H , 1 V, 

Trapo, trah'-m. s. m.. ra?. L. M. 

Tras. prep., behind, after. L. 41. 

IrascurKo. frft<8-kwr'-so, s. m., course, pro- 
cess (of tirae>. L. 51. 

Trasnochar, irasa-nd-char' , to filt np aU 
night. L. 05. 



Trasqnilar, fnus-ibe-fer', to shear (ahoep).- 

Ir por hina y volver traagnalado^ the bit>cr 

tit. L.65. 
Trastlenda, trass-H-ain'-da^ s. f., back shop. 

L. 61. 
Tratado, trahrtah'-do^ s. m., treatise, tvsafy. 

L. 46. 
Tra tantc, trahrtan'-tai, a.m., dealer. L. S>. 
Tratar, trah-tar'y to treat, to have liitcr- 

course or relations with, to trade, to 

de.al, to traffic, to try. L. S2. 
Trato, trafi'-to^ s.m., treatment, dealii^gs, 

intercourse. L. 65. 
Traves, trah-rais8\ prep.— Al trad* de, 

through. Ij.65. 
Trave^Kura, (rah-vai-M(/'ra, s. f., trick, mis- 
chief, nanghtinoss. L. 5.1 
Travleso, frah-ri-ai'-w, aty., t4cky, nangh- 

ty, mischievous. L. 52. 
Traza, trah'4ha, s. f., trace.— Tener baeoa 

traza, to look well. L. 64. 
Trcce, trcA'-thai^ num. acy., thirteen. L. 14. 
Trointa, trm-teti'-ta^ num. a<ij., thirty. 1*. 

11. 
Tres, trai8», num. aj^)., three. L. 14. 
Tribunal, lrl-boo-naI\ s. m., tribomU, court 

of justice. L. 53. 
Trlgo, frv'-ifo.s. m., wheat. L. 63. 
Trig«ei\o, fn-gain'-yo, a4J., bro\ra, dait 

(complexion). L. 65. 
Trinchar, treen-char'^ to cut up, to carve. 

L. 53. 
Triueo, trS-Tiai'-d, s. m., sleigh. L. 65. 
Trinidad, trZ-nl-da(h\ s. f.. Trinity. L. 21. 
Triptongo, trtep-td/tc'-t/o, a. m., triphthong. 

L. 57. 
Tri*<te, treess'-tai^ a43., sad, moumlU, dull. 

L. 21. 
Tristeza, treess-ixd'-tha^ s. f., sadness, dnl- 

nc.'<8. L. 41. 
Trouar, tro-nar', to thunder. L. .30. 
Tropa, tro'-pa^ s. f., troop. L. 40. 
Tmeco, frtrai'-ko, s. m., barter, exchange. 

—A /rittw, provided that L. 61. 
Tnieno, trwai'-no, s. m., thunder, clap of 

thunder. L. 30. 
Trueque. (See Tbueco.) L. 4a 
Tu,.tot>, pers. pron., thou;— poss. a<y., thy. 

L. 1. 
Tuorto, twaif-io, adj., blind of one cye. 

L.05. 
Tutcar, foo-fai-^rr', to speak Ihmiliarly (in 

the Hccond person sinirulsr). L. 65. 
Tnteo, too-tai'-d. s. m., thoninc:. L. 65. 
Tuyo, too'-yOy poss. pron., thine. L. 13. 



U, 00, conj., nped instead of 6., before words 

besinninj? with o or ho. L. 8. 
rf ! oof, inter., neh 1 L. 46. 
niimo, onl'-f^-mo. adi., last.— Por ftffimo 

at last, finally. L. 61. 
Un. of)T), ndj. and indof. tw\„ one. a (nlwnys 

n'sed before, never nftcr. word«V L. 4.' 
r*na. m'-nn. fem, of TTtto. whifh see. L. 5. 
Univor'sidad, f)o--n'^^tiir-^-dath\ s. f., nni- 

vernltv. L. ^•>. 
Uro. or>'-7?/). Indef art. and ft<y., a, one.-- 

r«o A w;>o, one by one. L. 14. 
TTfta, oon'-ya, s. f , finger-nail. L, 33. 
Usar, ot>-«ar', to use. L.6d. 



VOCABULAET. 



469 



TJbo, oo^-eOy e. m.. ubc. L. 61. 

Ustcd, ooss-taith\ s. m. and f., you. (Con- 
traction of VuESTRA MBUCED, yotZT Wor- 
ship.) L. 1. 

Util, co'-hi!^ adj., uscftil. L. 13. 

Vva, 00' -la, s, I'., fjfi}^. L. 40. 



Voca, twA'-toi, 8. f., cow, boet L. 65. 
Vacio, vah't/it'-d, aty., empty. L. B8. 
Valencia, vah4ain'-Ua'a^ s. f., Valencia. 

L, 55. 
Valcntia, vahlain-tS'-a^ b. f., vilor, biETciy. 

L. 51. 
Valcr, vah-iair*, to be worth, to be good 

for.— Mas vale tardo que nunca, better 

late than never.— To^^am^ Dioal bless 

mc! L. 41. 
Valicnte, tuMi-ain'-tai. a4).,Ti|liant, brave. 

L.47. 
Valor, €aA4ore\ b. m., valor, bravery; 

worth, value. L. 23. 
Vald, ralce, s. in., waltz. L. 23. 
VamosI vah'-moce^ inter., comet come 

alon;; I L. 46. 
Vapor, vafi-pore\ s. m., steam, eteamboat, 

steamer. L. 87. 
Vara, va/i'-rOy b. f, rod; yard measure. L. 

47. 
Varlo, t;aA'-r*-o, adj., various, variable;— 

pi., several. L. 43. 
Varon, vah-rOne\ s. m., man, male human 

bcinj;. L, 62. 
Vascongadaa, (Las Provikciab), vasn-kOne- 

gah'-das8, s. f. pi., the three Spanish pro- 
vinces of Alava, Guipuzcoa, and Biscay. 

L. 55. 
Vascucnce, vcutg-kicain'-thaiy s. m., the Bis- 

cavan dialect. L. 55. 
Vasija, va/i-si'-ka^ s. f., cask for liquors. 

L.52. 
Vaso. vah'-w^ s. m., vase, glass (for drink- 

ing), tumbler. L. 61. 
Vaya ! ra/i'-yo. Inter., come now I Indeed I 

L.42. 
Vccino, vai'thi'-no, s. to., ncljjhbor. L. S8. 
Vclnte, vai'-eefi-tai, num. ad^)., twenty. L. 

Vela, rai'-la, b. f., sail (of a ship), candle. 

L.53. 
Veneer, valn-thair'y to vanquish, to ovci^ 

come, to conquer. L. 59. 
Vender, rain-dair', to pcU. L. 6. 
Venir. rai-nen-'^ to come : to fit, to suit. — 

Venir A pelo, to be jii8t the thlnir.— No 

hay mal quo por b!en no renga, it's an ill 

wind that blows jrood to nohcxly. L. IS. 
Venti^a, vain-t<ih^fia^ s. f., advantage. L. 

13. 
Vontana. vain-tah'-na. s. f., window. L. 28. 
Vcr, rafr, to pee. to look —A r^. let us 

9Qii.— Verse negro, to be in prrcat distress. 

L.20. 
VersTio. rni-rnh'-vn. s. m,. ffnmTner. L. 24. 
Vorhftl, rn^r-hnl\ adj., verbal. L. 49. 
Verbo. r<i/r'-^, s. m.. verb, L. 41. 
Verdftd, rair-<lath'. s. f, truth.— A la Ter- 

dad. truly ; indeed. L. 43. 
Verdaderamentc, rair-dah-dai-rahrmcUn,'- 

tai, adv.. trulv, veritably. L. 82. 
Verde, tJO^-fitoi, ad^., green. L. 64. 



blcs. 7l. 84. 



B. f., yordorc; vi^geta^ 

Vergaenza, vair-0W^ain'-£fta, b. f., shame.— 

Tcuer vergiUma^ to be aabamed. L. 25. 
Version, vair-^-One'^ s. f., version. L. 64. 
Verso, ^oir'-w, b. m., verse; Jincofpoetir. 

L. 62. 
Vcbtido, vaisa4S'-do, b. m^ dress, wearing 

apparel. L. 89. 
VcsUr, vaisHeer'^ to dress, to clothe. L. 25. 
Vez, vaith, b. f., time.— Una tez, ouce.^ 

Dos feces, twice.— En 9^ de, instead of. 

— Uacer las veces de, to act as. ser>-e as.— 

Tal vcz, perhaps.— Ami cee, in my turn. 

—A vece8<t at tuMes. L. ^. 
ViJvJar, xl-afi-har', to travel. L. 21. 
VIcerector, tl-thai-raik-Wre', 6. m., vice- 
rector. L. 50. . 
Vice verso, v9'-thai vair'-ea^ rice versa, L. 

47. 
Vicio, Tl'-thl-d. 8. m., vice. L. 41. 
Victoria, Teek-to'-r^-a^ s. f., victory. L. 46. 
Vida, t»?-tfa, e. f., life. L. 50. 
Vicjo, vl-ai'-ho, a<y., old. L. 13. 
Viena, ve-ai'-na^ s.f., Vienna. L. 12. 
Vicnto, vl-ain'-to^ s. m., wind. L. 30. 
Vi^rnes, vl-air'-naiss^ s. m., Friday.— Yitr 

ties banto, Good Friday. L. 9. 
Viga, vi'-ga, s. f., beam. L. 65. 
VlUadlego, reei-yah-ile-ai'-go, s. m.— Tomar 

las de ViUadieaOy to run away ; to take to 

one's heels. L. 50. 
Vinacho, vl-nah'-cho, b. m., bad wine. L. 

49. 
Vino, r?'-no, s. m., wine. L. 7. 
Violado, rl-o-ia/t'-do, s. m. and a^J.* violet 

(color). L. 54. 
Violeta, t^-o-iai'-ta, s. f., violet. L. M. 
Violin, r?-5-fe»w' 8. m., violin. L. 15. 
Violinista, ve-C-ti-neess'-la^ s. m., violinist. 

L. 36. 
Virtud, teer-tooth\ s. f., virtue.— En vlrtwi 

de, by virtue of. L. 41. 
Visita, vl-Hl'-ta, s. f., \ibit. L. 28. 
Visitar, ve-ahtar'. to visit; to examine. 

L.52. 
Vista, reess'-ta^ s. f., view, sight. -A rista, 

at Hight,- Perdcr de rfato, to lose sight of. 

L. 29 and 51. 
Visto, reess^'to, past part, (of Veb), seen. 

L.52. 
Vistoso, reessW-80^ a^J., conspicuous, 

phowy L. 51. 
Viva I r?'-rrt, inter., long live! hurrah I 

huzza I L. 46. 
Vivionte, r^-rl-ain'-tai^ s. m. and pros, part., 

livinjr bcinar; living, animated. L. 38. 
Vivir, r^-reer', to live. L. 9. 
Vivo, r2'-«?, adj., alive, lively, sprightly. 

L. 20. 
Vireaino, veefh-l-ah-V-fio, b. m. and adj., 

Bipcavan. L. 55. 
Vizcava. r^fth-Jeoh'^ta, b. f. Biscay. L. Ro. 
Vocabniario. rd-1:nh4)Oo4ah'-r^-d^ s. m., vo- 

cabularv. L. 5S. 
Vocal, rfy-kal', adj. and s. m., vocal; vowel. 

L.58. 
Volnr. rS-lnr'. to tly. L. 4!i. 
Volfimen. r^no'-mafn, s. m., volume. L. 15. 
Volnntad, rMo(m'tafh\ s. f., will. L. 45. 
Volver, vole-rair*^ to come or go back, to 

return, to do as:ain. to turn.— PWrvr en 

Bi, to recover one*B Benses.— Fh^wr & las 



470 



YOCABULABT, 



andadM, to return to one^s old' habits. 
L. 36. 

Vo«, vAas, pen. pron., yon. L. 08. 

VoeotioA, tO-tiy-trOoe. pen. pron., yon, yc. 
L. 1. 

Voz, ««*, ■. t, Yolce; word; rumor: re- 
port.— <;orre la voz qne . . . , it is 
rumored UuU ... L. 58. 

Vuelta, vtcaU'-ta, b. t, return, turn, trip.— 
A tmeUa de oorreo, by retum mail.— Dar 
una vueita^ to take a walk.— Dar la vueUa 
alparque, to gofouud the paik. L. 46. 

Vnclto, vwaU'^o, past part, {pt Voltes), 
returned. L. 62. 

Vucptro, vwaist'-tro^ poaa. ad)., yonr. L. 13. 

Vulgar, voo^^r', adi)-, Tolgar. L.60. 



T, 2, coiO., and. L. 3. 

Ya, adv., already, yet; Bometlmes.— 7^ lo 

uno, ya lo otro, sometimefl one, aome- 

timcB the other. L. 26 and 87. 
Tacer, pah-thair'^ to lie. L. 41. 
Yerbo, yoir'-ba, %. f., herb, srasB. L. 00. 
Yemo, yaiT'-no^ b. m., Bon-u-law. L. 00. 



Yo, pera. pnm., L— Fo miamo, I myaelt 
Yngo,'ifOO'-0O,B.m.,yoke. L. 61. 

Z. 

Z^hr8^ttj*./ar'.«a«, to escape, to get rid 

Zaga, tAah'-ffa, a. f., rear.-No trie & cno 
en ao^a, not to be lar behind any one. 

Zapaterla, thah-pahtai-rV-n.^. f, shoe 
trade ; ahoemaker'a ehop. L. n. 

Zapatero, tkahpah-tai'fxf^ a. ul. shoe- 
maker. L. 8. 

Zapato, thah-pQh*-to, b. m., shoe. L. la 

Zape! tAah'pat, inter., need to frighten 
away the catB; God forbid I L. 46. 

Zaal sasl tAofg^ inter., used to imitate 
the Bound of repeated knocka or Uowa. 
L. OS. 

Zeca en Meca (Akdar dx), that-hi ein 
mtd'-ka, to wander about Aom pillar to 
poBt. L. 61. 

Zutano, thoo-tahf'no^ a. m., ench a one. L. 
65. 



THB EKD. 



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and familiar phrases have been added. 

It gives in both languages the exact equivalents of the words in general 
nsc, both ip their literal and metaphorical acceptation^ 

Also, the technical terms most frequently used in the arts, in chemistry, 
botany, medidne, and natural history, as well as nautical and mercantile 
terms and phrases — ^most of which are not found in other Dictionaries. 

Also many Spanish words used only in American countrieA which were 
formerly dependencies of Spain. 

The names of many important articles of commerce, gleaned firom the 
price currents of Spanish and South American cities, are inserted for the 
benefit of the merchant, who wUl here find all that he needs for carrying on 
a business correspondenoe. 

The parts of the irregular verbs in Spanish and English are here, for the 
first time, given in full, in thdr alphabetical order. 

The woric likewise contams a grammatical synopsis of both languages, 
arranged for ready and convenient reference. 

The new and improved orthography sanctioned by the latest edition of 
the Dictionary of the Academy — ^now universally adopted by the press — ii 
here given for the first tune in a Spanish and English Dictionary. 

tn Abridgment of 7elazc[Tiez'8 Large Dictionary, 

IirrKNDXD roB Schoois, Goxjjbgks, akd Tkavsllxu. 

In Two Parts :— I. Spajiish-EnsliBh : H. finfflisli-Simiiiah. 

By MARIANO VELAZQUEZ DE LA CADENA. 12mo. 888 pages. 



2>. APPLETON A CO: 8 PUBLICATIONS, 

Elementary Spanish Reader 

By M. F. TOLON. 12mo, 156 pages. 

This is one of the best Elementary Spanish Headers, not only for the 
purposes of self-instruction, but also as a class-book for schools, that has 
ever been published. A full Vocabulary of all the words employed is api 
pendad, rendering a large dictionary unnecessaiy. 

Progressive Spanish Reader : 

With an Analytical Study of the Spanish Language. By AUGUSTIN 
iO^t MORALES, A.M., H.M., Professor of the Spanish Language 
and literature in the New York Free Academy. 12mo, 336 pages. 

The prose extracts in this volume are preceded by an historical account 
of the origin and progress of the Spanish Language, and a condensed, 
scholarlike treatise on its grammar ; the poetical selections arc introduced 
with an Essay on Spanish versification. Prepared in either case by the pre- 
liminary matter thus furnished, bearing directly on his work, the pufnl 
enters intelligently on his task of translating. The extracts arc brici^ spirited, 
and entertaining ; drawn mainly from writers of the present day, they are a 
faithful representation of the language as it is now written and spoken. The 
arrangement is progressive, specimens of a more difficult character being 
presented as the student becomes able to cope with them. 

New Spanish Reader : 

Consisting of Extracts from the Works of the Most Approved Authors 
in Prose and Verse, arranged in Progressive Order; with Notes 
explanatory of the Idioms and Most Difficult Constructions, and a 
Copious Vocabulary. By M. VELAZQUEZ DE LA CADENA. 
12mo, 351 pages. 

This book, bdng particulariy intended for the use of beginners, has been 
prepared with three objects in view : First, to furnish the learner with pleas* 
bg and easy lessons, progressively developing the beauties and difficulties 
of the Spanish language ; secondly, to enrich their minds with valuable 
knowledge ; and thirdly, to form thdr character, by instilling correct princt 
pies into thdr hearts. In order, therefore, to obtain the de^red effects, the 
txtracts have been carefully selected from those classic Spanish writers, 
both andent and modem, whose style is. generally admitted to be a patten 
flf elcipuice, combined with idiomatic purity and sound morality 



A APPLETON df C0:B PUBLICATIONS, 

The Spanish Teacher and Colloquial Phrase 
Book. 

Aa EaBj and Agreeable Method of Acquiring a Speaking Knowledge of 
the Spanish Language. B7 Professor BUTLEB. 18mo, 299 
pages. 

The object of the author is to make the Spanish language a liTlng^ 
^leaking tongue to the leamer ; and the method he adopts is that of nature. 
He begins with the simplest elements, and progressirdy adrances, applying 
all former acquisitions as he proceeds, until the leamer has mastered one of 
the most perfect languages of modem times. 

From M4 Kew York Journal qf Oomm^rtt. 
** This la a good book, and well fitted for the mtrposea for which it is desifiied. The 
Bptniah language ia one of great aimplidty, ana moHB eaally Aeqnired than anj other 
modem tongueL For a begmner. we recommend thia little book, which ia small, and 
dealgned to be carried in the pocket^ 

All Easy Introduction to Spanish Conver- 
sation. 

By MARIANO VELAZQUEZ DE LA. GADENA. 18mo, 100 pages. 

This little wwk contains all that is necessary for making rapid progresa 
in Spanish conversation. It is well adapted for schools, and fbr persooa 
who have little time to study or are their own instractors. 

Spanish Grammar. 

Being a New, Practical, and Easy Method of Learning the Spanish Lan- 
guage ; aftec the System of A. F. AHN, Doctor of Philosophy, and 
Professor at the College of Neuss. First American Edition, ro> 
vised and enlarged. 12mo, 149 pages. 

Prof. Ahn's method is one of peculiar excellence, and has met with grest 
luooess. It has been happily described in his own words : " Learn a foreign 
language as you learned your mother tongue" — ^in the same dmple manner, 
ind with the same natural gradations. This method of the distingviished 
Berman Doctor has been applied in the present instance to the Spanish 
Language, upo^ the basis of ^e excellent Grammars of Lespada and Marti- 
•es, and it is hoped that its dmplicity and utility will procure for It the 
Ckvor that its German, French, an^ Italian prototjrpes have already found io 
the Schools and Colleges of Europe. 



D. APPLET02r df CO:S PUBUOATIONS. 

• 

German and English, and English and Ger- 
man Pronouncing Dictionary. 

By 6. J. ADLEIR, A. M., Frof^or of the German Language and 
Literature in the University of New York. One elegant lai^ 8to 
ToL, 1,400 pages. 

The turn of the dlstingoished author of this work has been to 
embodj all the valnable resalts of the most recent inyestigations in 
a German Lexicon, which might become not only a i^liable guide 
for the practical acqaisition of the language, but one which would 
not forsake the student in the higher walks of his pursuits, to which 
its treasures would invite him. 

In the preparation of the German and English Part, the basis 
adopted has been the work of Fl&gel, compiled in reality by Hei- 
mann, Feiling, and Oxenford. This was the most complete and 
judiciously prepared manual of the kind in England. 

The present work contains the accentuation of every German 
word, several hundred synonymes, together with a classification' 
and alphabetical list of the irregular verbs, and a Dictionary of 
German abbreviations. 

The foreign words, likewise, which have not been completely 
Germanized, and which often differ in pronunciation and inflection 
from such as are purely native, have been designated by particular 
marks. 

The vocabulary of foreign words, which now act so important 
a part, not only in scientific works, but in the best classics, reviews, 
journals, newspapers, and even in conversation, has been copiously 
supplied from the most complete and correct sources. It is believed 
that in the terminology of chemistry, mineralogy, the practical arts, 
commerce, navigation, rhetoric, grammar, mythology, philosophy, 
&c., scarcely a word will be found wanting. 

The Second or German-English Part of this volume has been 
chiefly reprinted from the work of FlQgel. (The attention which 
has been paid in Germany to the preparation of English dictionaries 
for the German student has beisn such as to render these works 
very complete. The student, therefore, will scarcely find any tiling 
deficient in this Second Part.) 

An Abridgment of the Above. 12mO| 844 pages. 



D. jlppleton df co:a pubucations. 



Progressive German Reader. 



Bt G. J. ADLER, Professor of the German Language and Literature in 
the University of the City of New York. 12nio, 308 pages. 

The plan of this German Reader is as follows : 

1. The pieces are both prose and poetry, selected from the best auters, 
nd present sufficient variety to keep alive the interest of the ediolar. 

a. It is progressive in its nature, the pieces being at first veiy short and 
Sisy, and increasing in difficulty and length as the learner advances. 

8. At the bottom of the page constant references to the Grammar arc 
made, the difficult passages are explained and rendered. To encourage the 
first attempt of the learner as much as possible, the twenty-one [ueces of 
the first section are analyzed, and all the necessary words givoi at the bot 
torn of the page. The notes, which at first are very abundant, diminish as 
i Uiejeamer advances. \ 

4. It contuns five sections. The first contains easy pieces, chiefly in 
prose, with all the words necessary for translating them ; the second^ short 
pieces in prose and poetry alternately, with copious notes and renderings; 
the thirds short popular talcs of Grimm and others; ihe fourth, select bal- 
lads and other poems from Burger, Goethe, Schiller, Uhland, Schwab, Cha- 
«nisso, &c. ; the^/A, prose extracts from the first classics. 

6. At the end is added a vocabulary of all the words oocuiring in the 
book. 

The pieces have been selected and the notes prepared with great taste 
and judgment, so much so as to render the book a general favorite with 
German teachers. 

Hand-Book of German Literature : 

Containing Schiller's ^*Mud of Orleans," Goethe'^ **Iphigenia in 
Tauris," Tieck's '^Puss hi Boots," and *' The Xenia " by Goethe and 
Schiller. With Critical Introductions and Explanatory Notes ; to 
which is added an Appendix of Specimens of German Prose, from 
the Middle of the Sixteenth to the Middle of the Nineteenth Cen* 
tunes. By G. J. ABLER. 12mo, 5&0 pages. 

For classes that have made some proficiency in the German language^ 
tfid desire an acquaintance with specimens of its dramatic literature, no 
more charming selection than this can be found. Sufficient aid is given, in 
the form of introductions and notes, to enable the student to understana 
thoroughly what he reads. 



D. APPLMTON df CO:S PUBUCATION& 



Ollendorff's Italian Grammars 



Prixxiary liOSsonB in Ijeamlxier to Read, Write, and Si>eak the Ital- 
ian Langnace. Introduotory to.the Larger Grammar. Bjr G. W. GEEEN& 
18m<s 283 poges. 

OUendoriTB New Method of Leaixiinff to Bead, Write, and Speak 
the Italian Lanstiage. WlUi Additionii u.d Oorrectlona. By E. FELIX 
FOKESTI, LL.D.. 12m<s 088 pages. 

Key. Beporate Yolame. 



Xn Ollendorff's grammars is for tlie first time presented a system 
bj wliich the stadent can acquire a conversational knowledge of 
Italian. This will recommend them to practical students; while 
at the same time there is no lack of rules and principles for tliose 
who would pursue a systematic grammatical course with the view 
of translating and writing the language. 

Prof. Greene's Introduction should be taken up by youthful 
classes, for whom it is specially designed, the more difficult parts 
of the course being left for the larger .volume. 

The advanced work has been carefully revised by Prof. Fovesti, 
who has made such emendations and additions as the wants of the 
country required. In many sections the services of an Italian 
teacher cannot be obtained ; the Ollendorff Course and Key will 
there supply th» want of a master in the most satisfactory manner. 

Italian Reader. 

A Collection of Pieces in Italian Ptose, designed as a Reading-Book for 
Students of the Italian Language. By E. FELIX FORESTI, LL.D 
12mo, 298 pages. 

In making selections for this volume, Prof. Forcsti has had re- 
course to the modem writers of Italy rather than to the old school 
of novelists, historians, and poets; his object being to present a 
picture of the Italian language as it is written and spoken at the 
present day. The literary taste of the compiler, and his ^dgment 
as an instructor, have been brought to bear with the happiest 
raaults in this valuable Header. 



D. APPLSTOK &i ao: 8 PUBLICATIONS. 

Spiers and Surenne's French and English 
and Enghsh and French Pronoun 
cing Dictionary, 

Edited by 6. P. QUAGEEKBOS, A.M. One large* Tolsme, 8to, o* 
1,816 pages. Neat type and fine paper. 

THB FITBLIBKBBS CLADf FOB THIS WO^K: 

1« That it is a revi^on and combinaUon of (Sfikrs*) the best defining, 
and (Sdrdimi's) the most accaiate pronooncing dictionaiy extant- 

2. That in this work the numerous errors m Spiers* Dictionary hare beer 
carefully and fsdthfully corrected. 

8. That some three thousand new definitions have been added. 

4. That numerous definitions and constructions are elucidated by gram- 
matical remarks and illustrative d&uses and sentences. 

5. That several thousand new phrases and idioms are embodied. 

6. That upward of twelve hundred synonymous terms are explained, by 
pointing out their distinctive shades of meaning. 

7. That the parts of all the irregular verbs are inserted in alphabetical 
order, so that one reference gives the mood, tense, person, and number. 

8. That some some four thousand new French words, connected with 
•oienoe, art, and literature, have been added. 

9. That every French word is accompanied by as exaet a pronunciation 
as can be represented by corresponding English sounds, and vice verBd, 

10. That it contains a full vocabulaxj of the names of pereons and 
places, mytholo^cal and classical, andent and modem. 

11. That the arrangement is the most convement for reference that can 
be adopted. 

12. That it is the most complete,, accurate, and reliable dictionary of 
these languages published. 

From Wabbinotoh Ibvxko. 
** Ab htwl have had time to examlife it, it appeftrs to me that Mr. Qa«ekenibM| bj 
his revlaioii, ootreetionsi oad Additions, hae rendered the Paris Edition, ah-eady ao ex- 
wUent, the most complete and valaable lexicon now In prinU^ 

From Wm, H. Pbzsooti^ 
* Is the ooplonanesB of Its vocabulaiy and its definitions, and in the great varietj 
of diomatio phraaea and STnonymes, it fhr exeecds any ether French and Bn^lsl 
Diotlonaf^ with which I am aoaoalntod." 



D, APPLETON A CO:S FTTBUCATIONB. 

Spiers and Snrenne's French and English 
and English and French Pronoun- 
cing Dictionary, 

Occ Volume, 12ino, 978 pages. Standard Abridged Edition. Fran 
new and large type. 

Tlw first Ptft of this weU-known tnd unlreniny popular work oontaliia: 

Words in oomffioii use; 

Teims connoeted with sdenoe ; Terms belonging to tlie fine srts ; 

Foot thousand historiesl names ; Four thousand geogrsphioal names ; 

Upward of eleren thousand words of reoent origin ;. 

The pronnndation of eyery word aooording to the F^renoh AcsJemf and the msM 
eminent lexioographers and grammarians; also, 

More than seren hondred critical remarks, in which the Tarlons methods of pro 
oodBdng employed hy dllTerent aathora are investigated and compared. 

The Second Fart contains: A copious yocabulaiy of English words, with theb 
proper pronnnolation. The whole is preceded by a critical treatise on French pro- 
■ nundatlon. 

** It embracea all the words in common use, and those in science and the fine art^ 
historical and georaphical names, etc, with the pronunciation of erery word according * 
to the French Academy, together with such critical remarks as will be useftil to every 
learner. It contains so ftill a compilation of words, definitions, eta, as soaroely ti 
leave any thing to be dealred.**— ilTeie York ObMrttr, 

Pronouncing French dictionary 

By GABRIfX SURENNE, F. A. S. £. 16mo, 666 pagefi. 

POCKET EDITION. 
In the preparation of this new work, due regard has been paid to the introdnetioa 
of such new words and definitions as the progressive changes in the language have 
rendered necessary; and for this purpose the best and most recent authorities have 
been careftilly consulted. It is therefore confidently anticipated that the volume will 
prove not only a usefbl auxiliary to the student, but also a convenient Pocket Com* 
panlon to the traveller, wherever the SYench language is spoken. A vocabulary ol 
proper names accompanies the work. 

"IL Snrenne is a very prominent profbsaor in Edinburgh, aud all who use his 
huks may rely on having before them the purest style of the French toi>guei**- 
OArMtoA IfiMligmu>sr 



J). APPLETON ds CO:a PUBUCATIONB. 



Ollendorff's French Grammars. 

FZBST LESSONS VR THB FRENCH I.ANOT7 AGE : belxtj? u Intro- 
duction to OllendorfTs lanrer Gnmmar. By Q. W. GKEEN. Ifimo, 138 pages. 

OIXENDOBFP*S NEW UETHOD of Learning U End, Write, and Speak 
the French Tiuignagc With full Paradigms of the Regular and Irregular, A^ax- 
UUrjr, Reflect] re, and Imperaonal Verba. By J. L. JEWETT. 12mo, 498 pagea 

OIiZiENDOBFF'S NEW METHOD of Leaning to Bead, Write, and Speak 
the French Language. With numerous Correetlot s, Additional and ImproTementi, 
■uitabla fior this Country. To which are added, YaIne*B System of French I¥i>- 
nundatlon, his Orammatleal Synopsia, a New Index, and short Models of Oommcr* 
dal Conespondenoe. By V. VALUE. 12mo> 588 pages. 



OIlendorflTs French Grammars have been before the public so long, and 
UiTe had thdr merits so generally acknowledged, that it is unnecessary to 
enter into any detailed description of thdr peculiarities or l^)gthy argument 
in their favor. Suffice it to say, that they are founded in nature, and follow 
the same course that a child pursues in first acquiring his native tongue. 
They teach inductively, understindingly, interestingly. They do not repel 
the student in the outset by obliging him to memorize dry abstract language 
which conveys little or no idea to his mind, but impart thdr lessons agree- 
ably as well as efficiently by exercises, which teach the prindples succeas. 
Ivdy involved more dearly than any abstract language can. They ^ve a 
oonversational, and therefore a practically useful, knowledge of the language; 
the student is made oonstantly^to apply what he learns. To these peculi 
ariUcs is due the wide^spread and lasting popularity of the Ollendorff series. 

Prof. Greene's Introduction, the first of the works named above, will be 
found useful for young beginners. In !t are presented the fundamental 
principles of the language, carefully culled oat, and illustrated with easy 
ttercises. It paves the way for the lai^ger works, preparing the pupil^s 
mind for thdr more oomprebensive course and awakening in it a desire for 
farther knowledge. 

Value's and Jewett*s wadn are essentially the same, though differing 
somewhat in their arrangement and *he additions that have been made to 
fhe original Some institutions prefer one, and others the other; dther, k1 
b believed, will impart a thorough acquaintance with French, both gram- 
matical and conversational, by an interesting process, and with bitt littk 
outlay o( time and labor. 



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