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THE COMEDIES OF 

PLAUTUS 



LITERALLY TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISH PROSE, 
WITH NOTES BY 

HENRY THOMAS RILEY, M.A. 



VOL. II. CONTAINING THE 

AMPHITRYON, RUDENS, MERCATOR, CISTELLARIA, TRUCULENTUS, 

PERSA, CASINA, PCENULUS, EPIDICUS, MOSTELLARIA, 

AND FRAGMENTS. 



LONDON 

G. BELL & SONS, LTD. 
1913 




IReprinicd from Stereotype plates.l 



PREFACE. 



In the Translation of the Plays contained in the present 
volume, the text of Fleckeisen has been adopted for the 
Amphitryon and the Rudens, and that of Weise (as given 
in the Tauchnitz Edition) for the others. In the supposed 
interpolations of the Amphitryon and Mercator, Schmieder 
has been followed. 

The previous English translations of the author are few 
in number. A part of the MensBchmi (translated, it is sup- 
posed, by William Warner) was published in 1595 ; to which 
reference will be found at page 372 of Vol. I. In the latter 
part of the seventeenth century Echard translated the Am- 
phitryon, Eudens, and Epidicus. Thornton remarks that 
" his style is coarse and indelicate ; when he aims at being 
familiar, he is commonly low and vulgar." In 1747, Cooke, 
the Translator of Terence, published a version of the Am- 
phitryon, which Thornton speaks of as apparently intended 
" merely for the use of learners." 

Of Thornton's translation of Plautus as a poetical work, 
it is impossible to speak in other than terms of admiration ; 
but from the circumstance of its being in blank verse, it is 
not sufficiently close to convey to the English reader an 
accurate idea of the peculiar style of the author. 

A professed translation of seven of the Comedies of Plautus 
was published by the hey. G. S. Cotter in 1827, but in it he 
avowedly omits a large portion of the text, and a still larger 
portion without the least intimation. 

In the present translation, particular attention has been 
given to the difficult and obscure passages, and it may not 
be presumptuous to hope that the Notes will be found of 
value to the classical student. 

It is hardly necessary to remind the Eeader that the 
asterisks in the text denote where portions of the original 
are lost. 

H. T. K. 



COKTENTS. 



PAGE 

Asiphitrtok; ob, Jupiter in Disguise 1 

RuDENs; THE Fisherman's Rope 63 

Mercator; the Merchant . . • . . • , 133 

Cistellaria; or, the Casket 185 

Truoulentus; the Churl . « . . . . 209 

Persa; the Persian . . , 255 

Casina; or, the Stratagem Defeated 303 

Pcenulus; the Young Carthaginian 351 

Epidicus: or, the Fortunate Discovery .... 419 

JMOSTELLARIA ; OR, THE HAUNTED HoUSB .... 459 

Fragments of the Writings of Plautus • • • .512 
Index to the Two Volumes •••••. 53^ 



AMPHITRYON; 
OR, JUPITER IN DISGUISE, 



IBramatts ^ersona^ 

JUPITER, who personates Amphitryoai. 
Mercury, who personates Sosia. 
Amphitryon, the Theban General. 
Sosia, the servant of Amphitryon. 
Blepharo, the Pilot of Amphitryon's Shit. 
Ax Actor. 

Alcmena, wife of Amphitryon. 

Bromia, 

Thessala, 



> attendants of Alcmena. 



&efiet — Thebes before the house of AjfPHmiToai. 



TOL. II. 



»\S 



THE SUBJECT 



Creon, King of Thebss, being at war with the Teleboans or Taphians, tinder the 
command of Ptereias, sends an army against them. This is commanded by 
Amphitryon, who leaves his wife Alcmena pregnant at his departure from 
"'liebes. Daring his absence from home, Jupiter, assuming his form, and 
blercury ttiat of his servant Sosia, present themselves to Alcmena, as though 
just returned from the expedition against the Taphians. By means of this stra- 
tagem, Jupiter is admitted *f; the embraces of Alcmena. While Mercury is 
keeping watch at the door of Amphitryon's house, Sosia, who has just arrived 
at Thebes with Amphitryon^ inakes his appearance for the purpose of announcing 
to Alcmena his master's return. Mercury, pretending that he himself is the 
real Sosia, and that the other is an impostor, drives him away from the door, lie 
goes back to his master, who returns with him to the house, and on meeting 
Alcmena, she denies his assertion that be has but that moment returned from 
the expedition, and now presents himself to her for the first time since his return. 
On this, Amphitryon charges her with infidelity, and goes away to the harbour 
to find a witness who may persuade Alcmena of the truth of his assertions. When 
he returns, he is first driven away from the house by Mercury, and is after- 
wards accused by Jupiter of attempting to personate Amphitryon, which person 
Jupiter asserts hhnself to be. The dispute is referred to Blepharo, the pilot of 
Amphitryon, who. after makinjT minute enquiries into the matter, professes 
himself utterly unaoie to oecide between them. In the Fifth Act, at the 
moment m which Alcmena is delivered of Hercules and Iphiclus, a violent peal 
of thunder is heard, and Amphitryon swoons with the shock. Broraia, the 
attendant of Alcmena, comes out of the house, and having raised Amphitryon 
from the ground, on his recovery informs him of the delivery of Alcmena. At 
this juncture, Jupiter descends in his own character, and reveals the myatef 7 to 
Amphitryon, who then becomes reconcikd with \m wlbx 



AMPHITRYON; 
OR, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 
[Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

'UPITER, being captivated by love (^Amore) for Alcraena, has changed (Mutavii) 
himself into the form of her husband, while Amphitryon is fighting for {Pro) 
his country with the'foe; m the form {Hahitu) of Sosia, Mercury acts as his 
servant. He (7«) imposes upon the master and the servant, on their arrival. 
Amphitryon commences a quarrel (Twrhas) with bis wife; and Jupiter and 
Amphitryon seize (^Raptant) one another as adulterers. Blepharo, chosen as 
umpire, is not able to determine which of the two (Uter^') is Amphitryon. At 
last they understand diW (^Omnem) the matter; and she brings forth twins. 



THE PEOLOGUE. 
Spohen hy Meecuet. 
As, in purchasing and selling your merchandize^, jou are 
desirous to render me propitious to your bargains, and that .1 
should assist you in all things ; and as both in foreign coun- 
tries and at home, you desire me to turn to the best advantage 
the business and the accounts of you all, and that with fair 
and ample profit, without end, I should crown the ventures 
both which you have begun, and which you shall begin ; ana, 
as you wish me to delight you and all yours with joyoua 
news^ — these tidings will I bring, that I may announce them 

» This Acrostic is adapted to the word Amphitruo, the old Latin form of th» 
name. 

2 Merckindize) — Ver. 1. " Mercimoniis." Mercury was the God of trading 
and merchandize, and was said to liave received his name from the Latin wora 
*' mprx." See the tradesman's prayer to him in the Fasti of Ovid, B. v., 1. 682. 

' With joyous news) — Ver. 8. Mercury was the messenger of tlie Gods, and, 
therefore, tlie patron of messengers; and. if we may so say, the God. of Xews^ 

b2 



AMPIIITETON 



to you, things whicli in especial are for your common interest 
(for already do you know, indeed, that it has been given and as- 
signed to me by the other Divinities, to preside over news and 
profit) : as you would wish me to favour and -promote these 
things, that lasting gain may ever be forthcoming for you, so 
shall you give silence for this play, and so shall you be fair and 
upright judges here, all of you. Now, by whose command, 
and for what reason 1 am come, I'll tell you, and at the 
same time, myself, I will disclose my name. By the command 
of Jupiter I am come ; my name is Mercury^. My father has 
sent me hither to you to entreat, although, what should as his 
commands be enjoined on you, he knew that you would do, 
inasmuch as he knew full well that you venerate and fear 
himself, as is befitting Jupiter. But, certainly, he bade me 
ask this of you with entreaty, in gentle tones, and in bland 
accents. For, in fact, this Jupiter, by whose command I am 
come, dreads a mishap^ not less than any one of you. Born 
of a mortal mother, a mortal sire, it is not reasonable to be 
surprised if he has apprehensions for himself. And I too, as 
well, who am the son of Jupiter, through my relationship to my 
father, stand in dread of ill. Therefore, in peace am 1 come 
to you, and peace do I bring. I wish a thing to be asked of 
you that's reasonable and feasible ; for, reasonable things to 
ash o/the reasonable, a reasonable mediator have I been sent. 
Eor from the reasonable it is not right to ask things unrea- 
sonable ; whereas from the unreasonable to ask things reason- 
able, is sheer folly, since these unrighteous persons are ignorant 
of what is right, and observe it not. Now tlien, all lend your 
attention here to the things which I shall say. What we wish, 
you ought to wish as luell : both I and my father have well 
"deserved of you and of your state. But why should I men- 
tion how in Tragedies I have seen others, such as Neptune, 
Valour, Victory, Mars, Bellona, making mention of the good 
services which they had done you ? Of all these benefits, the 
ruler of the Deities, my sire, -ras the founder. But this has 

1 My name is Mercury) — Ver. 19. There seems hardly any reason why he 
should disclose his name, after having, by au enumeration of his attributes, in- 
formed the Audience who he is. 

2 A mishap) — Ver. 27. " Malum." This word probably signifies here the cor- 
poral punishment which was inflicted on the slaves. It has been already remarked 
that the actors were mostly slaves, and punishment ensued on tbeir displeasing the 
Audience. 



OR, JUPITER IN DISGUISE 5 

never been tlie habit of my father, to throw in your teeth what 
good he has done unto the good. He thinks that this is 
gratefully returned by you to him, and that he bestows these 
blessings on you deservedly, which he does bestow. Now, the 
matter which I came here to ask, I'll first premise, after that 
I'll tell the subject of this Tragedy. "Why have you con- 
tracted your brows ? Is it because I said that this would be a 
Tragedy ? I am a God, and I'll change it. This same, if you 
wish it, from a Tragedy I'll make to be a Comedy, with all 
the lines the same. Whether would ye it were so, or not ? 
But I'm too foolish ; as though I didn't know, who am a God, 
that you so wish it ; upon this subject I understand what your 
feelings are. I'll make this to be a mixture — a Tragi-comedy^. 
Eor me to make it entirely to be a Comedy, where Kings and 
Gods appear, I do not deem right. What then ? Since here 
the servant has a part as well, just as I said, I'll make it to be 
a Tragi-comedy. Now Jupiter has ordered me to beg this of 
you, that the inspectors^ should go among each of the seats 
throughout the whole theatre^, amid the spectators, that, if 
they should see any suborned applauders of any actor, there 
should in the theatre be taken away from them the pledge of 
their coats, as a security for their good hehaviour. But if any 
should solicit the palm of victory for the actors, or if for any 
artist, whether by written letters, or whether any person him- 
self should ^oYicit personally, or whether by messenger ; or Vj 
the ^diles, too, should unfairly adjudge to any one the re- 
icard ; Jupiter has commanded the law to be the same as if he 
had sought by solicitation an appointment for himself or for 

* A Tragi-comedy) — Ver. 59. " Tragico-comoedia." This is said to be the only 
occasion in which Tragi-iomedy is mentioned by any of the ancient authors. 
Plautus does not, however, use tlie tei-m in the sense which we apply to it. Gods 
being generally introduced into Tragedy alone, but here taking part in a Comedy 
he thinks it may be fairly called a Tragi-comedy, or a Comedy with the characters 
of Tragedy. This play is thought by some to have been borrowed from the 
writings of Epicharmus, the Sicilian dramatist. 

2 The inspectors) — Ver. 65- To the actor who was considered to give the most 
satisfaction to tiie Audience, it was customary for the ^diles to present a reward, 
which they were bound to do without partiality. Officers, called " conquisitores,' 
were consequently employed to go ab )Ut the " cavea," or part of the theatre 
where the Audience sat, to see that there were no persons likely to have been hired 
for the purpose of applauding a particular actor. 

» WhoU theatre) — Ver. 6J6. " Cavea." Literally, " the seats" or " becdu's'' 
wnere the Audie*u<a sat. 



6 amphithtoi?- j 

another. By valour lias he declared that you exist as victors, 
not by canvassing or unfair dealing. Why any the less should 
there be the same principle for the player, which there is for 
the greatest man ? By merit, not by favourers, ought we to 
seek our ends. He who does aright has ever favourers enough, 
if there is honesty in them in whose disposal this matter^ rests. 
This, too, he directed me likewise in his injunctions, that 
there should be inspectors over the players ; that, he who 
Bhould have procured suborned persons to applaud himself, or 
Ae who should have contrived for another give less satib- 
^tiou, from the same they might strip off his dress and 
leather^ mask- I don't wish you to be surprised, for what 
reason Jupiter now concerns himself about actors. Don't 
be surprised, Jupiter himself is about to take part in this 
play. Why are you wondering at this ? As though, indeed, 
a new thing were now mentioned, that Jupiter takes to the 
calling of a player. But a year since^, when here on the 
stage the actors invoked Jupiter, he came ; he aided them. 
Besides, surely in Tragedy he has a place. This play, I say, 
Jupiter liimself will take a part in this day, and I together 
with him. Now do you give attention while 1 shall relate 
to you the subject of this Comedy. 

This city is Thebes ; in that house there ^pointing), Am- 
phitryon* dwells, born at Argos, of an Argive sire; whose 

1 This matter) — Ver. 80. The award of the prize. 

2 Leather) — Ver. 85. " Corium." It is a matter of doubt whether this word 
means the " persona," or " leather mask" worn by the actors, or the actor's own 
hide or skin, which would suffer on his being flogged. 

' A year since) — Ver. 91. It is conjectured that he is here dealing a hit at some 
Poet who had recently introduced Jupiter on the stage, perliaps in an awkward 
manner or at an untimely moment — not as taking part himself in tlie piece, but at 
the prayer of some one of the characters. Horace reprehends a similar practice 
in his time: "Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus;" meaning, that a 
Deity may only be introduced when the circumstances are such as to warrant Ijis 
interference. 

♦ Amphitryon) — ^Ver. 98. Perseus was the son of Jupiter and Danae. By An- 
dromeda, he was the father of Alcaeus, Sthenelus, Nestor, and Electryon. Alcaeus 
was the father of Amphitryon, while Electryon was the father of Alcmena, by 
I.ysidice, the daughter of Pelops. Amphitryon, having accidentally slain Elec- 
tryon, fled with liis daughter Alcmena, who had been betrothed to him, to the 
court of Creon, King of Thebes. The brother of Alcmena having been slain 
by the Teleboans or Taphians, who inhabited certain islands on the coast ot 
Acarnania, Amphitryon undertook an expedition against them, at the head of Ui« 
forces of Creon. 



OE, JFPITER IN DISGUISE. 7 

wife is Alcmena, daughter of Electryon. This Amph-iryon is 
now the general of the Thehan troops ; for between the Tele- 
boans and the Theban people there is war. He, before he de- 
parted hence for the expedition, left his wife Alcmena pregnant. 
But I believe that you already know how iny father is disposed 
how free in these affairs he has been, and how great a lover of 
many a woman, if any object once has captivated him. Un- 
known to her husband, he began to love Alcmena, and took 
temporary possession of her person for himself, and made her 
pregnant, too, by his embrace. Now, that more fully you may 
understand the matter with respect to Alcmena, she is preg- 
nant by both ; both by her husband and by supreme Jupiter 
And my father is now lying here {he points to the house) in-doors 
with her ; and for this reason is this night made longer, while 
he is taking this pleasure with her whom he desires. But he 
lias so disguised himself, as though he were Amphitryon. 
Now, that you may not be surprised at this dress of mine, in- 
asmuch as I have come out here this way in servile garb, an an- 
<3ient and an antique circumstance, made new, will I relate to 
you, by reason of which I have come to you attired in this new 
fashion ; for lo ! my father Jupiter, now in the house, changes 
himself into the likeness of Amphitryon, and all the servants 
who see him think it is he, so shifting in his shape does he 
render himself when he chooses. I have taken on myself the 
form of the servant Sosia, who has gone hence together with 
Amphitryon on the expedition, that I may be able to serve 
my father in his amour, and that the servants may not be 
enquiring who I am, when they see me here frequenting oft the 
house. Now, as they will suppose me a servant and their 
fellow-seiTant, not any otio will enquire who I am, or why I'm 
come. My father, now in-doors, is gratifying his inclination, 
and is embracing her of whom he is especially enamoured. 
What has been done there at the army, my father \^ now re- 
lating to Alcmena. She, who really is with a paramour, thinks 
that he is her own husband. There, my father is now relating 
how he has routed the legions of the enemy ; how he has been 
enriched with abundant gifts. Those gifts which there were 
given to Amphitryon, we have carried off; what he pleases, my 
father easily performs. Now will Amphitryon come hither this 
day from the army, his servant too, whose form I am bearing. 
Kow, that you may be able the more easily to dist JiguisU 



8 AMPHITEION; Act 1. 

between us, I always shall carr}' these little wings here 
{pointing) upon my broad-brimmed cap ; then besides, for my 
father there will be a golden tuft beneath his cap ; that mark 
will not be upon Amphitryon. These marks no one of these 
domestics will be able to see ; but you will see them. But 
yonder is Sosia, the servant of Amphitryon ; he is now coming 
yonder from the harbour, with a lantern. I will now drive 
him, as he arrives, away from the house. Attend, it will be 
worth the while of you spectators, for Jupiter and Mercury 
to perform here the actors' part. 

Act I. — ScEKE I. 
Enter Sosia, with a Lantern. 
Sos. {to himself). "What other person is there more bold 
than I, or who more stout of heart, who know the humours 
of young men^, and who am walking at this hour of night 
alone ? What shall I do, if now the officers of the watch^ 
should thrust me into prison. To-morrow shall I be dealt out; 
from there^, just as though from a store-closet, for a whipping ; 
nor will it be allowed me to plead my cause, nor will there be 
a bit of aid from my master ; nor will there be a person but 
that they will imagine, all of them, that I am deserving. And 
so will eight sturdy fellows be thumping on wretched me just 
like an anvil ; in this way, just come from foreign parts, I shall 
be received with hospitality by the public. The inconsiderate- 
ness of my master compels me to this, who has packed me off 
from the harbour at this time of night whether I would or no. 
Couldn't he as well have sent me here by daylight ? For this 
reason, is servitude to a man of high station a greater hardship ; 

• Of young men) — Ver. 154. He alludes to the broils of the night, occasioned 
by the vagaries of wild and dissolute young men — perhaps not much unlike the 
ilohawks, whose outrageous pranks are mentioned in the Spectator and Swift's 
Journal to Stella. 

« Officers of the watch)— Ver. 155. Literally, the " Tresviri." As usual, 
though the Scene is laid in Greece, Roman usages are introduced by Plautus. 
The officers here mentioned were called " nocturni Tresviri," It was their pro- 
vince to take up all suspicious characters found abroad during the night. They 
were a.".tended, probably, by lictors, or subordinate officers, who are here referred 
to as ' homines octo validi," " eight sturdy fiellows." 

* Dealt Old from there)— Yer. 156. He compares the gaol, or place of confine- 
ment, to a store-closet, and means to say. that as food is brought thence to be 
dressed, so shall he be brought from the gaol to be dressed, in tiie way of havuyi 
iua l)ack lashed. 



Sc. I. OE, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 9 

for this reason is the servant of a wealthy man the mora 
wretched: both night and day, without ceasing, there is 
enough, and more than enough of work for him ; for doing or 
for saying occasion is ever arising, so that you can't be at 
rest. The master, abounding in servants^, and free from 
labour himself, thinks that whatever he happens to choose, 
can be done ; he thinks that just, and reckons not what the 
labour is ; nor will he ever consider whether he commands a 
thing that's reasonable or unreasonable. "Wherefore, in ser- 
vitude many hardships do befall us ; in pain this burden must 
be borne and endured. 

Merc, {to the Audience). 'Twere with better reason for 
me to complain of servitude after this fashion ; I, who to-day 
was free, and whom my father is now employing as a slave : 
this fellow is complaining, who was born a slave. 

Sos. (to himself). Eeally I am a rascal beyond a doubt ; 
for only this moment it has suggested itself to me, that on 
my arrival I should give thanks, and address the Gods for their 
kindnesses vouchsafed. For surely, by my troth, if they were 
only desirous to give me a return according to my deserts, they 
would commission some person on my arrival soundly to box 
my ears, since those kindnesses which they have done me I 
have held as worthless and of no value. 

Merc, {apart). He does what people are not generally in 
the habit of doing, in knowing what his deserts are. 

Sos. {to himself). "What I never expected, nor any one else 
of my townsmen, to befall him, that same has come to pass, for 
us to come home safe and sound. Victorious, the enemy con- 
quered, the troops are returning home, this very mighty war 
brought to an end, and the enemy slain. A city that haa 
caused many a bitter death for the Theban people, that same 
has been conquered by the strength and valour of our sol- 
diers, and taken by storm, under the command and conduct 
of my master Amphitryon in especial. With booty, terri- 
tory, and glory2, too, has he loaded his fellow-citizens, and 
for Creon, King of Thebes, has he firmly fixed his sway. 
From the harbour he has sent me before him to his house 

• Abounding in servants) — Ver. 170. "Dives operis." Literally, "rich in la- 
bour," abounding in slaves to labour for hira. 

2 And glory)— Sfbt. 193. " Adorea." Tliis was literally the allowance or largesi 
of corn which was distributed a troops after a victory ; hence it f^uratively sijj- 
nifies " honor" or "^lory." 



10 AMPHITRYON- ^ Act I, 

that I may bear these tidings to his wife, how he has pro- 
moted the public good by his guidance, conduct, and com- 
mand. This now will I consider, in what manner I shall 
address her, when I've arrived there. If I tell a falsehood. I 
shall be doing as I am accustomed after my usual wont; 
for when they were fighting with all their might, then with 
all my might I ran away. But still I shall pretend as though 
I was present, and I'll tell her what I heard. But in what 
manner and with what expressions it is right for me to tell 
my story, I still wish first to consider here with myself. {He 
assumes an attitude of thougJit.) In these terms will I give 
this narrative. " In the first place, when we arrived there, when 
first we made land, Amphitryon immediately made choice of 
the powerful men among the chieftains. Those he despatched 
on the embassy, and bade them tell his mind to the Tele- 
boans ; that if without constraint and without warfare they 
sliould be ready to deliver up what was plundered and the 
plunderers, and if they should he ready to restore what they 
had carried off, he would immediately conduct the army home- 
wards, that the Greeks would depart from their territory, and 
that he would grant peace and quietness to them : but if they 
should be otherwise disposed, and not concede the things which 
he demanded, he, m consequence, would attack their city 
with extreme violence and with his men. When the embassa- 
dors had repeated these things, which Amphitryon liad en- 
joined, in order to the Teleboans, being men stout of heart, 
relying on their valour, and confident in their prowess, they 
rebuked our embassadors very rudely. They answered that 
they were able in warfare to protect themselves and theirs, and 
that at once tliey must lead the army with all haste out of their 
territories. When the embassadors brought back this mes- 
sage, straightway Amphitryon drew out all his army from the 
encampment ; on the other side, the Teleboans led forth their 
legions from the town, furnished with most gorgeous arms. 
After they had gone forth on either side in full array, the 
soldiers were marshalled, the ranks were formed. We, after 
our manner and usage, drew up our legions ; the enemy, too, 
drew up their legions facing us. Then either general went forth 
into the mid-space beyond the throng of the ranks, and they 
parleyed together. It was agreed between them, that, which 
ever side should be conquered in that battle, they should sur- 
render UP their city, lands, altars, hearths, and theraselvea. 



Sc. I. OE, JUPITER I>" DISGUISE. U 

After that was done, the trumpets on either side gave the 
signal; the earth re-echoed, they raised a shout on either 
side. Each general, both upon this side and on that, offered 
vows to Jupiter, and then encouraged his troops. Each man 
according to his ability does that which each one can and has 
the strength to do ; he smites with his fVilchion ; the weapons 
crash ; the welkin bellows with the uproar of the men ; 
of breaths and pantings a cloud is formed; men fall by 
wounds inflicted by men. At length, as we desired, our 
troops conquered ; the foe fell in numbers ; ours, on the other 
hand, pressed on ; firm in our strength, we were victorious. 
But still not one betook himself to flight, nor yet gave way 
at his post, but standing there^ he waged the combat. Sooner 
than quit the spot, tliey parted with their lives ; each, as he 
stood, lay there and kept his rank in death. When my master 
Amphitryon saw this, at once he ordered the cavalry on the 
right to charge. The cavalry obeyed directly ; from the right 
wing, with a tremendous shout, with brisk onset they rushed 
on ; and rightfully did they slaughter and trample down the 
impious forces of the foe." 

Merc, (apart). Not even one word of these has he yet 
uttered correctly ; for I was there in the battle personally, 
and my father too, wlien it was fought. 

Sos. {continuing). " The enemy betook themselves to flight. 
Then was new spirit added to our men, the Teleboans 
flying, -with darts were their bodies filled, and Amphi- 
tryon himself, with his own hand, struck off the head of 
Pterelas their king. This battle was being fought there 
even from the morning till the evening. This do I the better 
remember for this reason ; because on that day I went with- 
out my breakfast. But night at last, by its interposing, 
cut short this combat. The next day, the chiefs came weep- 
ing from the city to us at the camp. With covered hands^, 
they entreated us to pardon their offences ; and they all sur- 

* Standing tJiere) — Ver. 239. This seems to be the true meaning of " statim" in 
this passage. 

- With covered hands) — Ver. 257. He alludes here to the carrying of the " ve- 
lamenta," which were branches of olive, surrounded with bandages of wool, and 
held in the hands of those who sued for mercy or pardon. The wool covered th« 
hand, and was emblematical of peace, the hand being thereby rendered powerleat 
to effect mischief. 



12 AMPniTETON ; Act L 

rendered up themselves, and all things divine and human, 
tlieir citr and their childreji, into the possession and unto the 
disposal of the Theban people. Lastly, by reason of his va- 
lour, a golden goblet was presented to my master Amphitryon, 
from which king Pterelas^ had been used to drink." These 
things I'll thus tell my mistress. I'll now proceed to obey 
my master's order and to betake me home. {He moves.) 

Merc, {apart). Heyday! he's about to come tliis way; 
I'll go meet him ; and I'll not permit this fellow at any time 
to-day to approach this house. Since 1 have his form upon 
myself, I'm resolved to play the fellow off. And indeed, 
since I have taken upon me his figure and his station, it is 
right for me likewise to have actions and manners like to his. 
Therefore it befits me to be artful, crafty, very cunning, and 
by his own weapon, artfulness, to drive him from the door. 
But what means this ? He is looking up at the sky. I'll 
watch what scheme he's about. 

Sos. {looki?iff up at the sky). Upon my faith, for sure, if 
there is aught besides that I believe, or know for cer- 
tain, I do believe that this night the God of Night^ has 
gone to sleep drunk ; for neither does the Wain move 
itself in any direction in the sky, nor does the Moon 
bestir herself anywhere from where she first arose ; nor 
does Orion^, or tlie Evening Star^, or the Pleiades, set. In 

' King Pterelas) — Ver. 261. Pterela, or Pterelas, was the son of Hippothoe, the 
cousin of Amphitryon and Alcinena. He had a daugliter named Cymetho, or 
Cometho, and his fate was said to depend upon the preservation of a certain lock 
of his hair. Cymetho, smitten with love for Amphitryon, or, according to some 
accounts, for Cephalus, his associate in the enterprise, cut off tiie fatal lock, and, 
like Scylla, betrayed her father, who was afterwards slain by Amphitryon. 

2 God of Night) — Ver. 272. " Nocturnus" is generally supposed here to mean 
the " God of Kight," though some Commentators have fancied that by it tne 
Evening Star is signified. 

3 Nor does Orion) — Ver. 275. " Jugula" means either the three stars composing 
the girdle of Orion or the Constellation Orion itself. It also was the name of two 
Btars in the Constellation Cancer, or the Crab, which were also called " Aselli," or 
" the Little Asses." The plural, " Jugulse," is more generally used. " Septen- 
triones" was a name of the " Ursa Major," or " Greater Bear," also called by us 
*^ Charles's Wain." It received its name from " septem," " seven," and " ter- 
riones," " oxen that ploughed the earth," from its fancied resemblance to a string 
of oxen. 

* The Evening Star) — Ver. 275. " Vesperugo" is a name of Hesperus, or the 
Evening Star ; while the Constellation c f the Pleiades was sometimes known bj tb« 
oame of '• Vergiiiae." 



Sc. 1. OK, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 13 

siicli a fashion are the stars standing stv. ck-still, and the 
night is yielding not a jot to the day. 

Merc, (apart). Go on, Night, as you've begun, and pay 
obedience to my father. In best style^, the best of services 
are you performing for the best of beings ; in giving this, you 
reap a fair return. 

Sob. (to himself). I do not think that I have ever seen a 
longer night than this, except one of like fashion, which live- 
long night I was hanging up, having been first whipped. 
Even that as well, by my troth, does this one by far exceed 
in its length. I' faith, I really do believe that the Sun's 
asleep, and is thoroughly drenched. It's a wonder to me if 
he hasn't indulged himself a little too much at dinner. • 

Merc, (apart). Do you really say so, you scoundrel ? Do you 
think that the Gods are like yourself ? I' faith, you hang-dog, 
I'll entertain you for these speeches and misdeeds of yours ; 
only come this way, will you, and you'll find your ruin. 

Sos. (to himself). Where are those wenchers, who unwil- 
lingly lie a-bed alone? A rare night this for making the 
best of what was a bad bargain at first^. 

Merc, (apart). My father then, according to this fellow's 
words, is doing rightly and wisely, who in his amorousness, 
indulging his passion, is lying in the embraces of Alcmena. 

Sos. (to himself). I'll go tell Alcmena, as my master 
ordered me. (Advancing, he discovers Mercury.) But who 
is this fellow that I see before the house at this time of night ? 
I don't like it. 

Merc, (aside). There is not in eanstence another such cow- 
ardly fellow as this. 

Sos. (aside). Noio, when I think of it, this fellow wishes 
to take my mantle off once more^. 

Merc, (aside). The fellow's afraid ; I'll have some sport 
with him. 

Sos. (aside). I'm quite undone, my teeth are chattering. 
For sure, on ray arrival, he is about to receive me with the 

> In best style) — ^Ver. 278. " Optnmo optume optumam operam." There is a 
clumsy attempt at vnt in this alliteration. 

2 Bad bargain at first) — Ver. 288. This line has been a little modified in the 
translation. 

^ Take my mantle off once more) — Ver. 294. " Detexere." This term was 
properly applied to the act of taking cloth, when woven, fnwn off the loom. Sosia 
here nses it in the sense ol stripping himself of it. 



1 It AMPHITEYON *, Act 1 

hospitality of his fist. He's a merciful person, I suppose ; now, 
because my master has obliged me to keep awake, with his 
fists just now he'll be making me go to sleep. I'm most 
confoundedly undone. Troth now, prithee, looh, how big 
and how strong he is. 

Meec. {aside). I'U talk at bim aloud, he shall hear what 
I say. Therefore indeed, in a still greater degree, shall he 
conceive fears within himself. {In a loud voice, holding up 
hisjlsts.) Come, fists, it's a long time now since you found 
provision for my stomach ; it seems to have taken place quite 
a long time ago, when yesterday you laid four men asleep, 
stript naked. 

Sos. {aside). I'm dreadfully afraid lest I should be chang- 
ing my name here, and become a Quintus^ instead of a Sosia. 
He declares that he has laid four men asleep; I fear lest I 
should be adding to that number. 

Meec. {throwing about his arms). "Well, now then for it. 
This is the way I intend. 

Sos. {aside). He is girded tight; for sure, he's getting 
himself ready. 

Meec. He shan't get off without getting a thrasliing. . 

Sos. {aside). What person, / wronger .'' Meec. Beyond a 
doubt, whatever person comes this way, he shall eat my fists. 

Sos. {aside). G-et out with you, I don't wish to eat at this 
time of night ; I've lately dined. Therefore do you, if you 
are wise, bestow your dinner on those who are hungry. 

Meec. The weight of this fist is no poor one. 

Sos. {aside). I'm done for; he is poising his fists. 

Meec. What if I were to touch him, stroking him down^, 
80 that he may go to sleep ? 

Sos. {aside). You would be proving my salvation ; for I've 
been watching most confoundedly these three nights running^. 

> A Quintus) — Ver. 305. This is a poor attempt at wit. Mercury tells his fists 
that they thraslied four men into a lethargy yesterday \ on wliich Sosia, in liis 
apprehension, says that in that case he shall have to change liis own name to 
"Quintus;" which signified "the fifth," and was also in use as a name among 
the Romans ; implying thereby that he shall be the fifth to be so mauled. 

2 Stroking him down) — Ver. 313. He probably alludes to the soporific power of 
his "caduceus," or "wand." 

' Three nights running) — Ver. 314. He alludes to the length of the night, 
wliich was prolonged by Jupiter for the purpose of his intrigue. According 
to other writers, it was on the occasion when Hercules was begotten, seveo 
months betore this pe-iou, that three nights were made into one. 



Sc. I. OR, JUPITEE IN DISGUISE. 15 

Meec. My hand refuses to learn to strike his cheek ; it 
cannot do a disgraceful action. Hand of mine, of a changed 
form must he become whom you smite with this fist. 

Sos. {aside). This fellow will be furbishing me up, and 
be moulding my face anew. 

Merc, {to Msjist). The man that you hit full, his face 
must surely be boned. 

Sos. {aside). It's a wonder if this fellow isn't thinking of 
boning me just like a lamprey. Away with a fellow that 
bones people ! If he sees me, I'm a dead man. 

Merc. Some fellow is stinking to his destruction. 

Sos. {aside?). Woe to me ! Is it I that stink ? 

Merc. And he cannot be very far off; but he has been a 
long way off from here. 

Sos. {aside). This person's a wizard^. 

Merc. My fists are longing. 

Sos. {aside). If you are going to exercise them upon me, 
I beg that you'll first cool them down against the wall. 

Merc. A voice has come flying to my ears. 

Sos. {aside). Unlucky fellow, for sure, was I, who didn't 
clip its wings. I've got a voice with wings, it seems. 

Merc. This fellow is demanding of me for himself a heavy 
punishment for his beast's back^. 

Sos. {aside?). As for me, I've got no beast's back. 

Merc. He must be well loaded with my fists. 

Sos. {aside). V faith, I'm fatigued, coming from board ship, 
when I was brought hither ; even now I'm sea-sick. "With- 
out a burden, I can liardly creep along, so don't think that 
with a load I can go. 

Merc. Why, surely, somebody^ is speaking here. 

Sos. {aside). I'm all right, he doesn't see me; he thinks 
it's " Somebody" speaking: Sosia is certainly my name. 

Merc. But here, from the right-hand aide, the voice, as it 
seems, strikes upon my ear. 

» This person's a wizard) — ^Ver. 323. We must remember that this is supposed 
to take place in the dark ; and Sosia says that the man must surely be a wizard 
to guess that another person is so near him, and that he has been abroad till just 
now. 

2 His beasfs hack) — Ver. 327. " Jumento suo." Literally, *' on his beast of 
burden." 

^Somebody) — Ver. 331. " Nescio quis." Literally, '* I know not who." For 
the sake of the joke, he pretends to think tliat this is the name of som« one 
mentioned by Mercury \ and says that as be is not that person, lie u all riclit. 



16 AMPHlTETOIf ; Act 1 

Sos. (aside). I'm afraid that I shall be getting a thrashing 
here this daj, in place of my voice, that's striking him. 
(Moves.) 

Meec. Here he is — he's coming towards me, most oppor- 
tunely. 

Sos. (aside). I'm terrified — I'm numbed all over. Upon 
my faith, I don't know where in the world I now am, if any 
one should ask me ; and to my misfortune, I cannot move 
myself for fright. It's all up with me ; the orders of his 
master and Sosia are lost together. But I'm determined 
boldly to address this feUow to his face, so that I may be able 
to appear valiant to him ; that he may keep his hands off me 
(Advances towards the door.) 

Meec. (accosting him), "Where are you going, you that are 
carrpng Vulcan enclosed in your horn^ ? 

Sos. Why do you make that enquiry, you who are boning 
men's heads with your fists ? 

Meec. Are you slave or free man ? 

Sos. Just as it suits my inclination. 

Meec. Do you really say so ? Sos. I really do say so. 

Meec. "VVhip-scoundreP ! Sos. Now you are telling 
a lie. 

Meec. But I'll soon make you own that I*m telling the 
truth. Sos. What necessity is there for it ? 

Meec. Can I know whence you have set out, whose you 
are, or why you are come ? 

Sos. (pointing). This way I'm going, and I'm the servant 
of my master. Are you any the wiser now ? 

Meec. I'U this day make you be holding that foul tongue 
of yours. 

Sos. You can't ; it is kept pure^ and becomingly. 

Merc. Do you persist in cliattering ? What business now 
have you at this house ? (Points to the house.) 

* Vukan enclosed in your horn) — ^Ver. 341 . " Volcannm in cornu.'* Literally, 
" Vulcan in your horn ;" alluding to the horn lantern which Sosia is carrying. 

2 Whip- scoundrel) — Ver. 344. '* Verbero." This word, as a substantive, pro- 
perly means a bad slave, who had been whipped — " a rascal" or " scoundrel." As 
a verb, it means " I beat." Sosia chooses, for the sake of the quibble, to take it in 
the latter sense, and tells Mercury that he lies ; meaning to say that he (Mercury) 
s not beating him (Sosia). 

' It is kept pure)— Ver. 348. It is ?:enerally supposed that in these words 
indelicate allusion is intendeds but it is not so universally agreed on what 
nature is. 



So. T. OE, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 17 

Sos. Aye, and what lusiness have you ? 

Meec. King Creon always sets a watch every night. 

Sos. He does right ; because we were abroad, he has been 
protecting our house. But however, do go in now, and say 
that some of the family servants have arrived. 

Meec. How far you are one of the family servants I 
don't know. But unless you are off from here this instant, 
family servant as you are, I'll make you to be received in no 
familiar style. 

Sos, Here, I say, I live, and of these people I am the servant. 

Meec. But do you understand how it is ? Unless you are 
off, I'll make you to be exalted^ this day. 

Sos. In what way, pray ? Meec. You shall be carried 
off, you shan't walk away, if I take up a stick. 

Sos. But I declare that I am one of the domestics of this 
family. 

Meec. Consider, will you, how soon you want a drubbing, 
unless you are off from here this instant. 

Sos. Do you want, as I arrive from foreign parts, to drive 
me from my home ? 

Meec. Is this your home ? Sos. It is so, I say. 

Meec. "Who is your master, then ? 

Sos. Amphitryon, who is now the general of the Theban 
forces, to whom Alcmena is married. 

Meec. How say you ? What's your name ? 

Sos. The Thebans call me Sosia, the son of my father 
Davus. 

Meec. Assuredly, at your peril have you come here this 
day, with your trumped-up lies, your patched-up knaveries, 
you essence of effrontery. 

Sos. Why no, it's rather with garments patched-up that 
I'm arrived here, not with knaveries. 

Meec. Why, you are lying again; you come with your 
feet, surely, and not with your garments. 

Sos. Yes, certainly. Meec. Then certainly take that for 
your lie. {He strikes Mm.) 

Sos. By my troth, I certainly don't wish for it of course. 

Meec. But by my faith, joMCQvi^XvUj shall have it of course, 

^ To he exdUed) — Ver. 357. He probably means by this, that he will beat hira 
to such a degree that lie will be obliged to be carried off, either dead or unable ta 
move a limb — " elevated" on the shoulders of other men. 
VOL. II. 43 



Is AMPHiTnToir ; Act i. 

whether you wish or not : for, in fact, this is certainly my de- 
termination, awi it is not at your own option, (jffe strikes him.^ 

Sos. Mercy, I entreat of you. 

Meec. Do you dare to say that you are Sosia, when I my- 
self am he ? (Strikes Mm.) 

Sos. (crying at the top of his voice). I'm being murdered. 

Merc. Why, you are crying out for a trifle as yet, com- 
pared with what it will be. Whose are you now ? 

Sos. Your own ; for with your fists you have laid hands 
on me^. Help, help, citizens of Thebes. (Meecuey strik- 
ing him ^ 

Merc. What, still bawling, you scoundrel ? Speak — wimt 
have you come for? Sos. For there to be somebody for 
you to belabour with your fists. 

Merc. Whose are you ? 

Sos. Amphitryon's Sosia, I tell you. 

Merc. For this reason then you shall be beaten the more, 
because you prate thus idly ; I am Sosia, not you. 

Sos. (aside). I wish the Gods would have it so, that you 
were he in preference, and that I were thrashing you. 

Merc. What, muttering still? (Strikes him). 

Sos. I'll hold my tongue then. 

Merc. Who is your master ? Sos. Whoever you like. 

Merc. How then ? What's your name now ? 

Sos. Nothing but what you shall command. 

Merc. You said that you were Amphitryon's Sosia. 

Sos. I made a mistake ; but this I meant to say, that I was 
Amphitryon's associate^. 

Merc. Why, I was sure that we had no servant called Sosia 
except myself. Your senses are forsaking you. 

Sos. I wish that those fists of yours had done so. 

Merc. I am that Sosia, whom you were just now telling 
me that you are. 

Sos. I pray that I may be allowed to discourse with you in 
quietness, so as not to be beaten. Merc. Well then, let there 
be a truce for a short time, if you want to say anything. 

' Laid hands on me) — Ver. 375. " Usufecistu" " Usufacere" was a rerm usea 
m Iaw, to signify the taking possession of a thing by the laying of hands thereon. 
This, Sosia means to say, Mercury has most effectually done. 

' Asaociate) — Ver. 384. This poor pun is founded on the similarity of sound 
getween Sosia and " socius," a " companion" or " associate. ' 



So. 1. OK, JUriTER IN DISGUISE. 19 

Sos. I'll not speak unless peace is concluded, since you 
are the stronger with your fists. 

Merc. If you wish to say anytliing, speak ; I'll not hurt 
you. Sos. Am I to trust in your word ? 

Meec. Yes, in my word. Sos. "What, if you deceive me? 

Merc. Why, then may Mercury be angry with Sosia^. 

Sos. Then give attention : now I'm at liberty to say in free- 
dom anything I please. I am Sosia, servant of Amphitryon. 

Merc. What, again? {Offering to strike him.) 

Sos. I have concluded the peace, ratified the treaty — I 
speak the truth. 

Merc. Take that, ^^ew. {He strikes him.) 

Sos. As you please, and what you please, pray do, since you 
are the stronger with your fists. But whatever you shall do, 
still, upon my faith, I really shall not be silent about that. 

Merc. So long as you live, you shall never make me to be 
any other than Sosia at this moment. 

Sos. I' faith, you certainly shall never make me to be any 
other person than my own self; and besides myself we have 
no other servant of the name of Sosia — myself, who went 
hence on the expedition together with Amphitryon. 

Merc. This fellow is not in his senses. 

Sos. The malady that you impute to me, you have that same 
yourself. How, the plague, am I not Sosia, the servant of 
Amphitryon ? Has not our ship, which brought me, arrived 
here this night from the Persian port^ ? Has not my master 
sent me here? Am I not now standing before our house? 
Have I not a lantern in my hand ? Am I not talking ? Am 
I not wide awake ? Has not this fellow been thumping me 
with his fists ? By my troth^, he has been doing so ; for even 

> Angry with Sosia) — Ver, 392. There is something comical in the absurdity of 
tliis oath. Mercury, personating Sosia, says that if he breaks it, the result must 
be that Mercury {i.e., himself) will be angry with Sosia, the person in wJiose 
favour he is pretending to take the oath. 

"^ The Persian port) — Ver. 404. Piautus is here guilty of an anachronism ; for 
the " Portus Persi(!us," which was on the coast of Euboea, was so called from the 
Persian fleet lying there on the occasion of the expedition to Greece, many ages 
after the time of Amphitryon. 

3 By my troth) — Ver. 408. " Hercle." Literally, " by Hercules." Hypercn- 
tical Commentators have observed, that Piautus is guilty in this Play of a gran»- 
matical anachronism, in putting the expletive, " Hercle," in the mouths of per- 
•0TJ8 at a time when Hercules is supposed to be yet unborn. They might with 

c2 



20 AMPHITETOW ; Act I- 

now, to my pain, my cheeks are tingling. Why, then, do 
I hesitate ? Or why don't I go in-doors into our house ? 
(JECe makes towards the door.) 

Meec. {stepping letween). How — your house? 

Sos. Indeed it really is so. 

Meec. Why, all that you have been saying just now, you 
have trumped up ; I surely am Amphitryon's Sosia. For in 
the night this ship of ours weiglied anchor from the Persian 
port, and where king Pterelas reigned, the city we took by 
storm, and the legions of the Teleboans in fighting we took 
by arms, and Amphitryon himself cut off the head of king 
Pterelas in battle. 

Sos. {aside). I do not h-ustmy own self, when I hear him 
affirm these things ; certainly, he really does relate exactly 
the things that were done there. {Aloud.) But how say 
you ? What spoil from the Teleboans was made a present to 
Amphitryon? 

Merc. A golden goblet, from which king Pterelas used 
to drink, 

Sos. {aside). He has said the truth. Where now is this 
goblet ? 

Meec. 'Tis in a casket, sealed with the seal of Amphi- 
tryon. Sos. Tell me, what is the seal ? 

Meec. The Sun rising with his chariot. AVhy are you on 
the catch for me, you villain ? 

Sos. {aside). He has overpowered me with his proofs. I 
must look out for another name. I don't know from whence he 
witnessed these things. I'll now entrap him finely ; for what 
I did alone by myself, and when not another person was pre- 
sent in the tent, that, he certainly will never be able this 
day to tell me. {Aloud.) If you are Sosia, when the armies 
were fighting most vigorously, what were you doing in the 
tent ? If you tell me that, I'm vanquished. 

IMeec. There was a cask of wine; from it I filled an 
earthen pot^. 

as much justice accuse him of anachronism in putting the Roman language into 
the mouths of persons at a time when that language did not as yet exist. He 
merely professes to embody the sentiments of persons in bygone days in such lan- 
,««ji>gc as may render them the most easily intelligible to a Koman audience. 

' A w earthen pot)—Ver. 429. " Hirneam." " Hirnea" was an earthen veosel for 
k*Kiing wine. It was said to receive its namfc from the Greek word oovis " a 
bird," because it originally bore the figure of a bird. 



Sc. i. OE, JTTPITEE IN DISGUISE. 21 

Sos. {aside). He has got upon the track. Merc. That I 
drew full of pure wme, just as it was born from the mother 
grape. 

Sos. {aside). It's a wonder if this fellow wasn't lying hid 
inside of that earthen pot. It is the fact, that there I did 
drink an earthen pot full of wine. 

Me EC. Well — do I now convince you by my proofs that 
you are not Sosia ? Sos. Do you deny that I am ? 

Meec. "WTiy should I not deny it, who am he myself? 

Sos. By Jupiter I swear that I am he, and that I do not 
say false. 

Meec. But by Mercury, I swear that Jupiter does not 
believe you ; for I am sure that he will rather credit me 
without an oath than you with an oath. 

Sos. Who am I, at all events, if I am not Sosia ? I ask you 
that. 

Meec. When I choose not to be Sosia, then do you be 
Sosia ; now, since I am he, you'll get a thrashing, if you are 
not off hence, you fellow without a name. 

Sos. {aside). Upon my faith, for sure, when I examine him 
and recollect my own iigure, just in such manner as I am 
(I've often looked in a glass^), he is exactly like me. He has 
the broad-brimmed hat and clothing just the same ; he is as 
like me as I am myself. His leg, foot, stature, shorn head, 
eyes, nose, even his lips, cheeks, chin, beard, neck — the 
whole of him. What need is there of words ? If his back 
is marked with scars, than this likeness there is nothing 
more like. But when I reflect, really, I surely am the same 

' Looked in a glass) — Ver. 442. He seems to speak of looking in a mirror as 
something uncommon for a slave to do. Probably the expense of them did not 
allow of their being used by slaves. The " specula," or " looking-glasses," of tlie 
ancients, were usually made of metal, either a composition of tin and copper or 
of silver ; but in later times, alloy was mixed with the silver. Pliny mentions the 
obsidian stone, or, as it is now called, Icelandic agate, as being used for this pur- 
pose. He also says that mirrors were made in the glass-houses of Sidon, wliich 
consisted of glass plates with leaves of metal at the back. These were probably 
of an inferior character. Those of copper and tin were made chiefly at Brundi- 
siunu The white metal formed from this mixture soon becoming dim, a sponge, 
with powdered pumice-stone, was usually fastened to the mirrors made of that 
composition. They were generally small, of round or oval shape, and having a 
handle. The female slaves usually held them while their mistresses were per- 
forming the duties of the toilet. Sometimes they were fastened to the walls, and 
they were occasionally of the len^jtb of a person's body, like the cheval glasses ct 
oar dojr 



22 AMPHITBTON ; Act 1. 

person that I always was. My master I know, I know our 
house ; 1 am quite in my wits and senses. I'm not going to 
obey this fellow in what he says ; I'll knock at the door. 
{Goes towards the door.) 

Mebc. Whither are you betaking yourself? Sos. Home. 

Meec. If now you were to ascend the chariot of Jove and 
fly away from here, then you could hardly be able to esca|)e 
destruction. 

Sos. Mayn't I be allowed to deliver the message to my 
mistress that my master ordered me to give ? 

Meec. If you want to deliver any message to your own 
mistress ; this mistress of mine I shaU not allow you to ap- 
proach. But if you provoke me, you'll be just now taking 
hence your loins broken. 

Sos. In preference, I'll be oif. {Aside ^ Immortal Gods, 
I do beseech your mercy. "Where did I lose myself? Where 
have I been transformed ? Where have I parted with my 
figure? Or have I left myself behind there, if perchance 
I have forgotten it ? Tor really this person has possession 
of all my figure, such as it formerly was. While living, that 
is done for me, which no one will ever do for me when dead^. 
I'll go to the harbour, and I'll tell my master these things 
as they have happened — unless even he as well shall not know 
me, which may Jupiter grant, so that this day, bald, with 
shaven crown, I may assume the cap of freedom^, {Exit. 

Scene II. — Meecuet, alone. 

Meec. Well and prosperously has this aifair gone on for 
me ; from the door have I removed the greatest obstacle, so 
that it may be allowed my father to embrace her in security. 
When now he shall have reached his master, Amphitryon 

» When dead) — Ver. 458. It is generally thought that lie is punning here upon 
the word " imago," and alludes to the practice of carrying the *' imagines," or 
" waxen images" of their ancestors, in the funeral processions of the Patricians — 
an honor, he says, that will never befall him when he is dead. Douza, however, 
thinks that he is playing upon the expression " lados facere," which has tlie 
double meaning of " to impose upon " a person, or " to give a spectacle" of glaiii- 
ators after the death of a person of Patrician rank ; and that he means to say 
that the act '' ludos faciendi" is being applied to him (in the first sense) whil^ 
alive, a thing that (in the second sense) will never befall him when dead. 

' Cap of freedom) — Ver. 462. When a slave was made free, after his manumis. 
sion liis head was shaved, and a cap put upon it in the Temple of Feronia, th« 
Goddess of Freed-mcu. 



Sc. II. OB, JUPITER IS DISGUISE. 23 

there, he will say that the servant Sosia has repulsed himself 
from the door here ; and tlien the other will suppose that he 
is telling him a lie, and will not believe that he has come here 
as he had ordered him. Both of them and the whole household 
of Amphitryon I will fill with mistakes and distraction, even 
until my father shall have had full enjoyment of her whom 
he loves ; then at last all shall know what has been done. In 
the end Jupiter shall restore Alcmena to the former affection 
of her husband. For Amphitryon will just now be beginning 
a quarrel with his wife, and will be accusing her of in- 
continence ; then will my father change for her tliis strife 
into tranquillity. Now, inasmucb as yet I've said but little 
about Alcmena, this day will she bring forth two sons, twins ; 
the one will be born in the tenth month after he was be- 
r^otten, the other in the seventh monty ; of these the one is 
the son of Amphitryon^, the other of Jupiter. But of the 
v'ounger son the father is the superior, of the elder the inferior, 
(To the AuDiKNCE.) Now do you comprehend this how it is ? 
But for the sake of the honor^ of this Alcmena, my father will 
take care that it shall happen at one birth, so that in one tra- 
vail she may complete her double pangs, and not be laid under 
suspicion of unchastity, and that the clandestine connexion 
may remain concealed. Although, as I have said just now, 
Amphitryon shall still know all the matter in the end. What 
then ? No one surely will impute it to Alcmena as a disgrace ; 
for it does not seem that a Grod is acting justly to permit his 
own offences and his own faultiness to fall upon a mortal. 
I'll cut short my talk : the door makes a noise. See, the 
counterfeit Amphitryon is coming out of doors, and together 
with him Alcmena, the wife that he has taken the loan of. 

• In the seventh month)— Yer. 482. It is difficult to imagine how a critic can 
suppose tliat the duration of this Play is intended to be seven months, merely 
because, according to the ancient story, Hercules was born seven months after 
the intercourse of Jupiter with Alcmena. Heinsius and Vossius, however, wera 
of this extraordinary opinion. They probably did not reflect that Plautus, 
for the sake of finding material for his Play, supposed the same intercourse to 
have been repeated on the same night on which Hercules was born. 

- Son of Amphitryon) — Ver. 483, Iphiclus was the son of Amphitryon, 
Of the honor) — Ver. 486. " Honoris." Madame Dacier has observed, that 
the tenderness of Jupiter extended only to her health, and not to her " reputa- 
uon,** as the word " honoris " would seem to imply. "■ Honoris gratia " may 
iwwever, simply mean "for Lar own sake." 



24 A.MPHITKTON ; Act 1. 

Scene III. — Enter Jttpitee and KjjCisiiESkjfwm the house. ■ 

Jup. Kindly fare you well, Alcniena; take care, as you 
are doing, of our common interest, and pray be sparing of 
yourself; you see that now your months are completed. It's 
necessary for me to go away from here; but the offspring 
that shall be born do you bring up^. 

Alc. "What business is this, my husband, since you thus! 
suddenly leave your home ? 

Jup. By my troth. His not that I am wearied of you or of 
my home ; but when the chief commander is not with the 
army, that is sooner done which ought not to be done than 
that which needs to be done. 

Meec. {aside). This is a very clever counterfeit, who 
really is my own father. {To the Audience.) Do you observe 
hhn, how blandly he smoothes the lady over. 

Alc. r faith, I find by experience how much you value 
your wife. Jup. If there is no one among women whom I 
love so much, are you satisfied ? 

Meec. {aside). Verily, upon my faith, if Juno only knew 
that you were giving your attention to such matters, I'd war- 
rant that you'd rather be^ Amphitryon than Jupiter. 

Alc. I would rather that I should find it so by experience, 
than that it should be told me. You leave me before the 
spot in the bed where you have been lying has well grown 
warm. Yesterday, in the middle of the night, you came, and 
now you are going away. Is this your pleasure ? 

Meec. {aside). I'll approach, and address her, and play 

1 Do you bring up) — ^Ver. 506. " Tollito." It was a custom among the ancients 
for the new-born child to be laid on the ground, upon which it was taken up by 
the father, or such other person as intended to stand in the place of a parent to 
t. If it was not taken up, it was disowned, and left to starve. For this reason 
Jupiter makes this request of Alcmena. 

2 You'd rather he) — Ver. 510-511. "Edepol nae ilia si istis rebus ne sciat 
operam dare. Ego faxim ted Amphitryonem malis esse quam Jovem." This pas- 
sage lias been difierently rendered by Richter. He says that " ilia," " she," refers 
to Alcmena, and not to Juno, as has been generally imagined, and that Mer- 
cury says these words aside, and, turning to the Audience, remarks, that 
if he were only to tell Alcmena that Jupiter is not the real Amphitryon, he 
would wish himself the real one, in preference to being Jupiter, and losing 
the lady. The translation in the text seems, however, to convey the real meaning 
of the passage. Probably, when using the word " '11a," as applying to Juao, b» 
slily points upwards to the heaven*. 



Sc. III. OK, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 25 

second fiddle to my father. (-He approacJies Alcmena.) 
Never, upon my faith, do I believe that any mortal did so 
distractedly love his wife as he distractedly dotes upon you. 

Jup. Scoundrel! — don't I know jouofold? Won't you 
be off out of my sight ? What business have you in this 
matter, whip-knave ? or why your muttering ? AVhom this 

very instant, with this walking-stick, I'll {Shakes his 

stick over his head.) 

Ai.c. Oh don't. Jup. Only make a whisper. 

Merc, {aside). My first attempt at playing second fiddle 
had almost come to an unfortunate conclusion. 

Jup. But as to what you say, my wife, you ought not to 
be angry with me. I came away privately from the army i 
these moments I stole for you, that you the first might 
know from me the first, how I had managed the common 
interests. All this have I related to you. If I had not 
loved you very much, I should not have done so. 

Merc, {aside). Isn't he doing just as I said? In her 
alarm, he is smoothing her down. 

Jup. That the army then mayn't find it out, I must re- 
turn there privately, lest they should say that I have preferred 
my wife before the common interests. 

Alc. By your departure you set your wife in tears. 

Jup. Be quiet ; don't spoil your eyes : I'll return very 
shortly. Alc. That "very shortly" is a long time. 

Jup. I do not with pleasure leave you here, or go away 
from you. 

Alc. I am sensible of it ; for, the night that you have come 
to me, on the same you go away. {She embraces him.) 

Jup. Why do you hold me ? It is time to go : I wisli to 
depart from the city before it da^ns. Now, Alcmena, this 
goblet which has been given me there on account of my 
valour, from which king Pterelas used to drink, he whom 1 
slew with my own hand, the same I present to you. {Presents 
to her the gohlet.) 

Alc. {taking the goblet). "You do as you are wont in other 
things. By heavens, it is a noble gift ; like him who gave 
the gift. 

Merc. Aye, a noble gift ; just like her to whom it has 
been given as a gift. 

Jup. What, still going on ? Can't I, you scoundrel, mako 
an end of you ? 



26 AMPIIITETON Act 11. 

Alc. Amphitryon, there's a dear, don't be angry ^ with 
Sosia on my account. 

Jup. Just as you wish I'll do. 

Merc, {aside). Prom his intriguing, how very savage lie 
does become ! 

Jfp. Do you wish for anything else ? Alc. That when I am 
absent you will love me — me, who am yours, though absent. 

Mekc. Let's go, Amphitryon ; it's already dawning, 

Jup. Go you first, Sosia. {Exit Mercury.) I'll follow 
this instant. {To Alcmena.) Is there anything you wish? 

Alc. Yes ; that you'll come back speedily. 

Jup. I will ; and sooner than you expect will I be here 
therefore be of good heart. (Alcmena goes into the hovse.) 

Scene IV. — Jupiter, alone. 

Jup. Now Night, thou who hast tarried for me, I permit 
thee to give place to Day, that thou mayst shine upon mortals 
with a bright and brilliant light. And Night, as much as 
on this last thou wast too long, so much the shorter will I 
make the Day to be, that a Day of equal disparity may suc- 
ceed the Night. I'll go and follow Mercury. {Exit. 

Act II. — Scene I. 
Enter Amphitryon am,d Sosia, at the end of the stage. 

Amph. Come, do you follow after me. 

Sos. I'm following ; I'm following close after you. 

Amph. I think that you are the veriest rogue 

Sos. But for what reason ? 

Amph. Because that which neither is, nor ever was, nor 
will be, you declare to me. 

Sos. Look at that ; you are now acting according to your 
usual fashion, to be putting no trust in your servants. 

Amph. "Why is it so ? For what reason ? Surely now, 
by the powers, I'll cut out that viUanous tongue of yours, you 
villain. 

Sos. I am yours ; do each thing just as it is agreable and 
as it pleases you. Still you never can, by any method, hinder 
me from saying these things just as they took place here. 

» Don't he angry)— Ver. 540. It has been justly remarked that the amiable 
afi<i interesting character of Alcmena is not unlike that of Desdemona, m SbaJC- 
sjt^ure's Othello, 



Sc. I. OR, JXJPITEII IN DISGUISE 27 

Amph. You consummate villain, do you dare tell me this, 
tbat you are now at home, who are here present ? 

Sos. I speak the truth. Amph. A mishap shall the Gods 
send upon you, and I this day will send it as well. 

Sos. That's in your power, for I am your property. 

Amph. Do you dare, you whip-scoundrel, to play your tricks 
with me, your master ? Do you dare affirm that which no 
person ever yet before this has seen, and which cannot pos- 
sibly happen, for the same man to be in two places together 
at the same time ? 

Sos. Undoubtedly, such as I say is the fact. 

Amph. May Jupiter confound you ! 

Sos. What evil, master, have I been deemed deserving 
of in your service ? Amph. Do you ask me, you rogue, 
who are even making sport of me ? 

Sos. With reason might you curse me, if it had not so 
happened. But I tell no lie, and I speak as the thing really 
did happen. 

Amph. This fellow's drunk, as I imagine. 

Sos. "WTiat, I ? Amph. Tes — ^you there. 

Sos. I wish I were so. 

Amph. You are wishing for that which is fact; where 
have you been drinking ? Sos. Nowhere, indeed. 

Amph. What is this, that is the matter with the fellow ? 

Sos. Eeally I have told you ten times over. I am both at 
home now, I say (do you mark me ?), and I, Sosia, am with, 
you likewise. Don't 1 appear, master, to have told you quite 
distinctly, and quite circumstantially, that this is so. 

Amph. Avaunt, get away with you from me. 

Sos. What's the matter ? 

Amph. A pestilence possesses you. 

Sos. But why do you say so to me ? I really am quite 
well and in perfect health, Amphitryon. 

Amph. But I'll make you this very day, just as you have 
deserved, not to be quite so well, and to be miserable instead 
of your perfect health, if I return home. Follow me, you who 
in this fashion are making sport of your master with your 
crack-brained talk; you, who, since you have neglected to 
perform what your master ordered, are now come even of 
your own accord to laugh at your master. Things which 
neither can happen, and which no \:inQ ever yet heard of in 



28 amphitkton; Act II ' 

talk, you are telling of, you villain ; on your back I'll take 
care and make those lies to tell this very day. 

Sos. Amphitryon, this is the most wretched of wretched- 
ness to a good servant, who is telling the truth to his master, 
if that same truth is overpowered by violence. 

Amph. Discuss it with me by proofs. Why, how the 
plague can such a thing happen, for you now to be both here 
and at home ? That I want to be told. 

Sos. I really am both here and there ; this any person has 
a right to wonder at ; nor, Amphitryon, does this seem more 
strange to you than to myself. 

Amph. In what way ? 

Sos. In no degree, I say, is this more strange to you than 
to myself; nor, so may the Deities love me, did I at first 
credit Sosia — me myself, until that Sosia, I myself, made 
me to believe me myself. In order did he relate every- 
thing, as each thing came to pass, when we sojourned with the 
enemy ; and then besides, he has carried off my figure together 
with my name. Not even is milk more like to milk than is that I 
myself like to me myself. Por when some time since, before 
daybreak, you sent me from the harbour home before you 

Amph. What then ? 

Sos. I had been standing a long time at the door before I 
had got there. 

Amph. Plague on it, what nonsense ! Are you quite in your 
senses ? Sos. I'm just as you see me. 

Amph. Some mischief, I know not what, has befallen this 
fellow from an evil hand^ since he left me. 

Sos. I confess it ; for I have been most shockingly bruised 
with his fists. 

Amph. Who has been beating you ? 

Sos. I myself, who am now at home, leat me myself. 

Amph. Take you care to say nothing but what I shall ask' 
vou. Now, do you answer me. First of all, who this Sosia 
18, of that I want to be informed. 

Sos. He is your servant. 

^ An evil hand') — Ver. 605. " Maia, manu." In this line these words relate 
to sorcery or enchantment, probably through spells, in which the hand was 
employed. Sosia takes the opportunity of punning, by understanding the words 
in their literal sense. " Evil hand," indeed, he says, " when I have been almost 
oualed to death with fists." 



Sc. n. OE, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 29 

Amph. Eeally I have even more than I desire by your 
own one self. ]N"ever, too, since I was born, had I a servant 
Sosia besides yourself. 

Sos. But now, Amphitryon, I say tJiis ; I'll make you, I 
say, on your arrival, meet with another Sosia at home, a ser- 
vant of yours, besides myself, a son of Davus, the same 
father with myself, of figure and age as well just like myself. 
What need is there of words ? This Sosia of yours is be- 
come twofold. 

Amph. You talk of things extremely wonderful. But 
did you see my wife ? Sos. Nay, but it was never allowed 
me to go in-doors into the house. 

Amph. "Who hindered you? Sos. This Sosia, whom I 
was just now telling of, he who thumped me. 

Amph. Who is this Sosia? Sos. Myself, I say; how 
often must it be told you ? 

Amph. But how say you ? Have you been sleeping the 
while ? Sos. Not the slightest in the world. 

Amph. Then, perhaps, you might perchance have seen 
some Sosia in your dreams. 

Sos. I am not in the habit of performing the orders of my 
master in a sleepy fashion. Awake I saw liim^ awake I now 
see you, awake I am talking, awake did he, a little while since^ 
thump me about with his fists. 

Amph. What person did so ? Sos. Sosia, that I myself, — 
he, I say. Prithee, don't you understand ? 

Amph. How, the plague, can any one possibly under- 
stand ? Tou are jabbering such nonsense. 

Sos. But you'll know him shortly. 

Amph. Whom ? Sos. You'll know this servant Sosia. 

Amph. Pollow me this way, then ; for it is necessary for 
me first to enquire into this. But take care that all the 
things that I ordered are now brought from the ship. 

Sos. I am both mindful and diligent that what you order 
shall be performed; together with the wine, I have not 
drunk up your commands. 

Amph. May the Gods grant, that, in the event, what you 
have said may prove untrue. {They stand apart.) 

Scene II. — Enter AjjCm:e^ a., from the house, attended hy 

Thessala. 
Alc. Is not the proportion of pleasures in life and in 



C 30 AMPHITETON ; Act li- 

passing our existence short in comparison with what is dis- 
agreable ? So it is allotted to each man in life ; so has it 
pleased the Gods that Sorrow should attend on Pleasure ai 
her companion; but if aught of good befalls us, more o\ 
trouble and of ill forthwith attends us. Por this do 1 no^ 
feel by experience at home and in relation to myself, to 
whom delight has been imparted for a very short time, while 
T had the opportunity of seeing my husband for but one 
night ; and now has he suddenly gone away hence from me 
before the dawn. Deserted do I now seem to myself, be- 
cause he is absent from here, he wliom before all I love. 
More of grief have I felt from the departure of my husband, 
than of pleasure from his arrival. But this, at least, makes 
me happy, that he has conquered the foe, and has returned 
home loaded with glory. Let him be absent, if only with 
fame acquired he betakes himself home. I shall bear and ever 
endure his absence with mind resolved and steadfast ; if only 
this reward is granted me, that my husband shall be hailed 
the conqueror in the warfare, sufficient for myself will I deem 
■t. Valour is the best reward; valour assuredly surpasses 
nil things : liberty, safety, life, property and parents, country 
too, and children, by it are defended and preserved. Va- 
lour comprises everything in itself: all blessings attend 
him in whose possession is valour. 

Amph. {apart). By my troth, I do believe that I shall conre 
~nuch wished for by my wife, who loves me, and whom, in 
return, I love : especially, our enterprise crowned with suc- 
cess, the enemy vanquished, whom no one had supposed to be 
able to be conquered : these, under my conduct and com- 
mand, at the first meeting, have we vanquished ; but I know 
for sure that I shall come to her much wished for. 

Sos. (aside). Well, and don't you think that I shall come 
much wished for to my mistress ? 

Amphiteton advances, at a distance, icith SosiA. 

Alc. {to herself). Surely, this is my husband. 

Amph. {tc Sosia). Do you follow me this way. 

Alc. {to herself). But why has he returned, when just now 
he said that he was in haste ? Is he purposely trying me, 
and is he desirous to make proof of this, how much I regret 
his departure ? By my faith, against no inclination of mine 
has he betaken himself hoipe« 



.0. IL OK, aVPtTES, IS DISGUISE. 31 

Sos. AmpliitryoD, it were better for us to return to the 
ehip. Amph. For what reason ? 

Sos. Because there's no person at home to give us a 
breakfast on our arrivah 

Amph. How comes that now into your mind ? 

Sos. Why, because we have come too late. 

Amph. How so ? Sos. Because I see Alcmena standing 
before the liouse, with her stomach-full^ already. 

Amph. I left her pregnant here when I went away. 

Sos. Alas, to my sorrow, I'm undone ! 

Amph. What's the matter with you ? Sos. I have come 
home just in good time to fetch the water^ in the tenth 
month after that, according as I understand you to compute 
the reckoning. 

Amph. Be of good heart. Sos. Do you know of how good 
heart I am ? By my troth, do you never after this day entrust 
to me aught that is sacred, if I don't draw up all the life of 
that well, if I do hut make a beginning. 

Amph. Do you only follow me this way. I'U appoint an- 
other person for that business ; don't you fear. 

Alc. {advancing). I think that I shall now be doing my 
duty more, if I go to meet him. {They meet.) 

Amph. With joy, Amphitryon greets his longed-for wife — 
her, whom of all women in Thebes her husband deems by far 
the most excellent, and whom so much the Theban citizens 
truthfully extol as virtuous. Have you fared well all along ? 
Do I arrive much wished for hy you ? 

Sos. {aside). I never saw one more so ; for she greets her 
own husband not a bit more than a dog. 

Amph. Wlien I see you pregnant, and so gracefully bur- 
dened, I am delighted. 

Alc. Prithee, in the name of all that's good, why, for the 
sake of mockery, do you thus salute and address me, as 
though you hadn't lately seen me — as though now, for tho 
first time, you were betaking yourself homeward here from 
the enemy ? For now you are addressing me just as though 
yom were seeing me after a long time. 

' Stomach-ftdl) — Ver. 667. He is guilty of a vulgar pan on the word " satu- 
ram,'' which may either me^n " having a full stomach " or " being pregnant." 

' To fetch the water) — Ver. 669. He alludes to the practice among the ancienta 
of bathing immediately after childbirth, and says that he himself, as :he sex-. 
»aDt, will have to fetch the backets of wnt«r 



32 AMi'HlTIlTOy ; Act II. 

, Amph. "WTiy, reallj for my part, I have not seen you at 
all this day until now. 

Alc. Why do you deny it? Amph. Because I have 
learned to speak the truth. 

Alc. He does not do right, who unlearns the same that he 
has learned. Are you making trial what feelings I possess ? 
But why are you returning hither so soon ? Has an ill omen 
delayed you, or does the weather keep you back, you who 
have not gone away to your troops, as you were lately 
speaking of ? 

Amph. Lately ? How long since was this "lately?" 

Alc. You are trying me ; but very lately, just now. 

Amph. Prithee, how can that possibly be as you say ? — 
" but very lately, just now." 

Alc. Why, what do you imagine ? That I, on the other 
hand, shall trifle with you who are playing with me, in saying 
that you are now come for the first time, you who but just 
now went away from here ? 

Amph. Surely she is talking deliriously. 

Sos. Stop a little while, until she has slept out this one sleep. 

Amph. Is she not dreaming with her eyes open ? 

Alc. Upon my faith, for my part I really am awake, and 
awake I am relating that which has happened ; for, but lately, 
before daybreak, I saw both him {pointing at Sosia) and 
yourself. 

Amph. In what place ? 

Alc. Here, in the house where you yourself dweU. 

Amph. It never was the fact. 

Sos. Will you not hold your peace ? What if the vessel 
brought us here from the harbour in our sleep ? 

Amph. Are you, too, going to back her as well ? 

Sos. {aside to Amphitbygi^). What do you wish to be 
done ? Don't you know, if you wish to oppose a raving 
Bacchanal, frOm a mad woman you'U render her more mad — 
she'll strike the oftener^ ; if you humour her, after one blow 
you may overcome her ? 

Amph. But, by my troth, this thing is resolved upon, 
somehow to rate her who this day has been unwilling to greet 
me on my arrival home. 

• Strike the oftemr) — Ver. 704. This is said in allusion to the blows with the 
thyrsus, which the frantic female votaries of Bacchus iufiicted upon all person* 
that '/b jy met. 



SC, II. OR, JUPITER IN DisatrisE. 33 

Sos. You'll only be irritating hornets. 

Amph. You hold your tongue. Alcmena, I wish to ask 
you one thing. Alc. Ask me anything you please. 

Ampii. Is it frenzy that has come upon you, or does pride 
overcome you ? 

Alc. How comes it into your mind, my husband, to ask 
me that ? 

Amph. Because formerly you used to greet me on my 
arrival, and to address me in such manner as those women 
who are virtuous are wont their husbands. On my arrival 
home I've found that you have got rid of that custom. 

Alc. By my faith, indeed, I assuredly did both greet you 
yesterday, upon your arrival, at that very instant, and at the 
same time I enquired if you had continued in health all along, 
my husband, and I took your hand and gave you a kiss. 

Sos. What, did you welcome him yesterday ? 

Alc. And you too, as well, Sosia. 

80s. Amphitryon, I did hope that she was about to bring 
you forth a son ; but she isn't gone with child. 

Amph. What then ? Sos. With madness. 

Alc. Really I am in my senses, and I pray the G-ods that 
in safety I may bring forth a son ; but {to Sosia) hap-ill 
shall you be having, if he does his duty : for those ominous 
words, omen-maker, you shall catch what befits you. 

Sos. Wliy really an apple^ ought to be given to the lady 
thus pregnant, that there may be something for her to gnaw 
if she should begin to faint. 

Amph. Did you see me here yesterday ? 

Alc. I did, I say, if you wish it to be ten times repeated. 

Amph. In your sleep, perhaps ? 

Alc. Xo — 1, awake, saw you awake. Amph. Woe to me ! 

Sos. What's the matter with you? 

* An apple) — Ver. 723. There is a pun here upon the similarity of the two 
words " malum," " evil," and " malum," an " apple," in which latter sense 
Sosia chooses to take the expression of Alcmena. The version of the pun used ia 
the text is borrowed from Thornton's Translation. In a Note, he wonders " why 
an apple (or any fruit) should be given to a pregnant woman." Sasia seems to 
explam the reason, in sajring that if she feels faint, she will have something to 
gnaw. It is not improbable that tension of the muscles may in some degree 
counteract a tendency to faint. This wretched pun is repeated.in 1. 1032 

VOL. II. H 



I 



34 AMPHITETOK ; Act 11. 

Amph. My wife ia mad. Sos. She's attacked with black 
bile ; nothing so soon turns people mad. 

Amph. When, madam, did you first find yourself affected? 

Alc. Why really, upon my faith, I'm well, and in my 
senses. 

Amph. Why, then, do you say that you saw me yesterday, 
whereas we were brought into harbour hut last night ? There 
did I dine, and there did I rest the livelong night on board 
ship, nor have I set my foot even here into the house, since, 
with the army, I set out hence against the Teleboan foe, and 
since we conquered them. 

Alc. On the contrary, you dined with me, and you slep ; 
with me. 

Amph. How so ? Alc. I'm telling the truth. 

Amph. On my lionor, not in this matter, really ; about 
other matters I don't know. Alc. At the very break of 
dawn you went away to your troops. 

Amph. By what means could I? 

Sos. She says right, according as she remembers; she'll 
telling you her dream. But, madam, after you arose, you 
ought to have sacrificed to Jove, the disposer of prodigies^, 
either with a salt cake or with frankincense. 

Alc. a mischief on your head ! 

Sos. That's your own business, if you take due care. 

Alc. Now again this fellow is talking rudely to me, and 
that without punishment. 

Amph. {to Sosia). You hold your tongue. {To Alc- 
MENA.) Do you teU me tiow — did I go away hence from you 
at daybreak? 

Alc. Who then but your own self recounted to me how the 
battle went there ? Amph. And do you know that as well ? 

Alc. Why, I heard it from your own self, how you had 
taken a very large city, and how you yourself had slain 
king Pterelas. 

Amph. What, did I tell you this ? 

Alc. Tou yourself, this Sosia standing by as weU. 

Amph. {to Sosia). Have you heard me telKng about this 
to-day ? Sos. Where should I have heard you ? 

> Disposer of prodigies)— Yqt. 739. See the Miles Gloriosus, L 394, and tht 
Uote to the passage. 



Be. II. OB, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 35 

Amph. Ask her. Sos. In my presence, indeed, il never 
took place, that I know of. 

Alc. It would be a wonder^ if he didn't contradict you. 

Amph. Sosia, come here and look at me. 

Sos. {looks at him). I am looking at you. 

Amph. I wish you to tell the truth, and I don't want yoti 
to humour me. Have you heard me this day sav to her these 
things which she affirms ? 

Sos. Prithee now, by my troth, are you, too. mad as well, 
when you ask me this, me, who, for my part, my own self 
now behold her in company with you for the first time ? 

Amph. How now, madam ? Do you hear him ? 

Alc. I do, indeed, and telling an untruth. 

Amph. Do you believe neither him nor my o\Nn self, your 
husband ? 

Alc. No ; for this reason it is, because I most readily be- 
lieve myself, and I am sure that these things took place just 
as I relate them. 

Amph. Do you say that I came yesterday ? 

Alc. Do you deny that you went away from here to-day ? 

jiMPH. I really do deny it, and I declare that I have now 
come home to you for the first time. 

Alc. Prithee, will you deny this too, that you to-day made 
me a present of a golden goblet, with which you said that 
you had been presented ? 

Amph. By heavens, I neither gave it nor told you so : but 
I had so intended, and do so now, to present you with that 
goblet. But who told you this ? 

Alc. Why, I heard it from yourself, and I received the 
goblet from your own hand. (She moves as if going) 

Amph. Stay, stay, I entreat you. Sosia, I marvel much 
how she knows that I was presented there with this golden 
goblet, imless you have lately met her and told her all this. 

Sos. Upon my faith, I have never told her, nor have I ever 
beheld her except with yourself. 

Amph. What is the matter^ with this person ? 

Alc. Should you like the goblet to be produced ? 

Amph. I should like it to be produced. 

* It would be a wonder) — Ver. 750. She says this ironically. 
' What is the matter) — Ver. 769. It is disputed among the Commentators to 
which character these words belong, Amphitrycn or Alcmena 

i>2 



86 AMPHITETOH"; Act II. 

Alc. Be it so. Do you go, Thessala, and bring from in- 
doors the goblet, with which my husband presented me to- 
day. (Thessala goes into the house, and Amphitbton cmd 
SosiA walk on one side.) 

Amph. Sosia, do you step this way. Eeally, I do wonder 
extremely at this beyond the other wondrous matters, if she 
has got this goblet. 

Sos. And do you belieye it, when it's carried in this 
casket, sealed with your own seal. {He shows the casket.) 

Amph. Is the seal whole ? Sos. Examine it. 

Amph. {examining it). All right, it's just as I sealed it up. 

Sos. Prithee, why don't you order her to be purified^ as 
a frantic person? Amph. By my troth, somehow there's 
need for it, for, i' faith, she's certainly filled with sprites. 

Thessala returns with the gohlet, and gives it to Alcmena. 

Alc. "What need is there of talking? See, here's the 
goblet ; here it is. Amph. Give it me. 

Alc. Come, now then, look here, if you please, you who 
deny what is fact, and whom I shall now clearly convict in 
this case. Isn't this the goblet with which you were pre- 
sented there ? 

Amph. Supreme Jupiter ! what do I behold ? Surely this 
is that goblet. Sosia, I'm utterly confounded. 

Sos. Upon my faith, either this woman is a most consum- 
mate juggler, or the goblet must be in here ( 'pointing to the 
casket). Amph. Come, then, open this casket. 

Sos. Why should I open it ? It is securely sealed. The 
thing is cleverly contrived ; you have brought forth another 
Amphitryon, I have brought forth another Sosia; now if the 
goblet has brought forth a goblet, we have all produced our 
doubles. 

Amph. I'm determined to open and examine it. 

Sos. Look, please, how the seal is, that you may not 
hereafter throw the blame on me. 

Amph. Now do open it. For she certainly is desirous to 
drive us mad with her talking. 

> To fc purified) — Ver. 776. *' Circumferri." Literally, " to be carried rouna 
her." Those who were '• cerriti," " tormented with the wrath of Ceres," or, in 
Other words, " possessed by evil spirits," were exorcised by persons walking roundi 
tbem wUb eolpbur and bnrQing torches ; whence the present expression. 



8c. II. OB, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. 37 

Alc. Whence then came this which was made a present to 
ne, but from yourself? 

Amph. It's necessary for me to enquire into this. 

Sob. (opening the casket). Jupiter, O Jupiter! 

Amph. What is the matter with you ? 

Sos. There's no goblet here in the casket. 

Amph. What do I hear. Sos, That which is the truth. 

Amph. But at your peril now, if it does not make its ap- 
pearance. 

Alc. (showing it). Why, it does make its appearance. 

Amph. Who then gave it you ? 

Alc. The person that's asking me the question. 

Sos. (to Amphitryon). You are on the catch for me, in- 
asmuch as you yourself have secretly run before me hither 
from the ship by another road, and have taken the goblet away 
from here and given it to her, and afterwards you have secretly 
sealed it up again. 

Amph. Ah me ! and are you too helping her frenzy aa 
well ? (2b Alcmeni. ) Do you say that we arrived here yes- 
terday ? Alc. I do say so, and on your arrival you instantly 
greeted me, and I you, and I gave you a kiss. 

Sos. (aside). That beginning now about the kiss doesn't 
plea,se me. 

Amph. Gro on telling it. Alc. Then you bathed. 

Amph. What, after I bathed ? 

Alc. You took your place at table. 

Sos. Bravo, capital ! Now make further enquiry. 

Amph. (to Sosia). Don't you interrupt. (To Alcmena). 
Go on telling me. Alc. The dinner was served ; you dined 
with me ; I reclined together with you at the repast. 

Amph. What^ on the same couch ? Alc. On the same. 

Sos. Oh dear, I don't like this banquet. 

Amph. Now do let her give her proofs. (To Alcmena.) 
What, after we had dined ? 

Alc. You said that you were inclined to go to sleep ; the 
table was removed ; thence we went to bed. 

Amph. Where did you lie ? 

Alc. In the chamber, in the same bed together with your* 
self. Amph. You have proved my undoing. 

Sos. WTiat's the matter with you ? 

Amph. This very moment has she sent me to my grave. 



88 AMPHITETON ; Act IL 

Alc. How so, pray ? Amph. Don't address me. 

Sos. What's the matter with you ? 

Amph. To my sorrow I'm undone, since, in my absence 
from here, dishonor has befallen her chastity. 

Alc. In heaven's name, my lord, why, I beseech you, do I 
hear this from you ? Amph. I, your lord ? False one, don't 
call me by a false name. 

Sos. (aside). 'Tis an odd matter^ this, il' indeed he has been 
made into my lady from my lord. 

Alc. What have I done, by reason of which these ex- 
pressions are uttered to me ? 

Amph. You yourself proclaim your own doings ; do you 
enquire of me in w^hat you have offended ? 

Alc In what have I offended you, if I have been with 
you to whom I am married ? 

Amph. You, been with me ? What is there of greater 
effrontery than this impudent woman? At least, if you 
were wanting in modesty of your own, you might have bor- 
rowed it. 

Alc. That criminality which yon lay to my charge befita 
not my family. If you try to catch me in incontinence, yoii 
cannot convict me. 

Amph. Immortal Gods ! do you at least know me, Sosia ? 

Sos. Pretty well. 

Amph. Did I not dine yesterday on board ship in the 
Persian Port ? 

Alc. I have witnesses as well, who can confirm that which 
I say. 

Sos. I don't know what to say to this matter, unless, 
perchance, there is another Amphitryon, who, perhaps, though 
you yourself are absent, takes care of your business, and who, 
in yoiu" absence, performs your duties here. Por about that 
counterfeit Sosia it is very surprising. Certainly, about this 
Amphitryon, now, it is another matter still more surprising. 

AjtiPH, Some magician, I know not who, is bewildering 
this woman. 

Alc. By the realms of the supreme Sovereign I swear, 

* 'Tis cm odd matter) — Ver. 814. Thornton says, on this passage, "The am- 
biguity of So.sia's pun in this place depends on the double signification of ' vir, 
which means ' a man ' and 'a husband,*'* Poor as it is, it answers very well v% 
kh« English word " lord.** 



Sc. II. on, JT7PITER IN DISGUISE. 89 

and by Juno, the matron Goddess, whom for me to fear anu 
venerate it is most especially fitting, that no mortal being^ 
except yourself alone has ever touched my person in contact 
with his so as to render me unchaste. 

Amph. I could wish that that was true. 

Alc. I speak the truth, but in vain, since you will not 
believe me. 

Amph. You are a woman ; you swear at random. 

Alc. She who has not done wrong, her it befits to be bold 
and to speak confidently and positively in her own behalf. 

Amph. That's \eTj boldly said. 

Alc. Just as befits a virtuous woman. 

Amph. Say you so ? By your own words you prove it. 

Alc. That which is called a dowry, I do not deem the 
same my dowry; but chastity, and modesty, and subdued 
desires, fear of the G-ods, and love of my parents, and con- 
cord with my kindred ; to be obedient to yourself, and 
bounteous to the good, ready to aid the upright. 

Sos. Surely, by my troth, if she tells the truth in this, 
she's perfect to the very ideaP. 

Amph. Eeally I am so bewildered, that I don't know my- 
self who I am. 

Sos. Surely you are Amphitryon ; take you care, pleascj 
that you don't perad venture lose yourself; people are chang- 
ing in such a fashion since we came from abroad. 

Amph. Madam, I'm resolved not to omit having this 
matter enquired into. 

Alc. I' faith, you'U do so quite to my satisfaction. 

Amph. How say you ? Answer me ; what if I bring your 
own kinsman, Naucrates, hither from the ship, who, together 
with me, has been brought on board the same ship ; and if he 
denies that that has happened which you say has happened, 
what is proper to be done to you ? Do you allege any reason 
why I should not at your cost dissolve^ this our marriage ? 

• No mortal beinff) — ^Ver. 833. Unknowingly, Alcmena has a salvo here for 
the untruth, which, unconsciously, slie would be otherwise telling; Jupiter not 
being a mortal. 

2 To the very ideal)— Ver. 843. " Examussim." Literally, " by the rule ;" 
a term applied to carpenter's work. 

^ At your cost dissolve) — Ver. 852. " Mulctem matriraonio." He alludes to 
the custom among the Romans of the husband retaining the marriage-portion of 
the wife, wlien she was divorced for adultery. If they separated for auy other 
reasou. her iKtrtion was returned to her. 



40 amphitetok; Act 111. 

Alc. If I have done wrong, there is no reason. 

Amph. Agreed. Do you, Sosia, take these^ people in-dooTS. 
I'll bring Naucrates hither with me from the ship. i^Eont. 

Sos. {going close to Alcmena). Now then, there's no one 
here except ourselves ; tell me the truth seriously, is there 
any Sosia in-doors who is like myself ? 

Alc. Won't you hence away from me, fit servant for your 
master? Sos. If you command me, I'm off 2. {Goes into 
the hotise.) 

Alc. {to herself). By heavens, it is a very wondrous pro- 
ceeding, how it has pleased this husband of mine thus to 
accuse me falsely of a crime so foul. Whatever it is, I shall 
now learn it from my kinsman Naucrates. {Goes into the 
house.) 

Act III. — Scene I. 
JEnter Jupiter. 
Jup. I am that Amphitryon, whose servant Sosia is the 
same that becomes Mercury when there is occasion — I, who 
dwell in the highest story^, who sometimes, when it pleases 
me, become Jupiter. But, hither soon as ever I turn my 
steps, I become Amphitryon that moment, and 1 change my 
garb. Now hither am 1 come for the sake of a compliment 
to you, that I may not leave this Comedy incomplete. I've 
come as well to bring assistance to Alcmena, whom, guiltless 
woman, her husband Amphitryon is accusing of dishonor. 
For what I myself have brought about, if that undeservedly 
should fall as an injury upon her in her innocence, it would be 
my blame. Now, as I have already begun, I'll again pretend 
that I am Amphitryon, and this day will I introduce extreme 
confusion into this household. Then afterwards, at last, I'll 
cause the matter to be disclosed, and to Alcmena timely aid 
will I bring, and will cause that at one birth she shall bring 

* Take these) — Ver. 854. " Hos." It is not known to what this word is in- 
tended to apply ; but it may possibly refer to some captives which he has brought 
with him, the fruits of his conquest. 

' rm off) — Ver. 857. We may suppose him to say so with peculiar alacrity, 
as " abeo," the word used by Alcmena, was the formal word used on the mana- 
mission of a slave. 

' TTie highest story) — Ver. 863. " Csenaculo." " Csenacnlum " was a name 
given to garrets, or upper rooms, which were let out as lodginj^s to the poorer 
classes. The word here conveys a double sense, either as signifying the ele- 
vated habitation of the heaveols Jove, ur the humble lodging of the poor actor 



Sc. II. OR, JUPITER ITJ DISGUISE. 41 

forth, without pangs^, both the child with which she is preg- 
nant by her husband and that with which she is pregnant bjr 
myself. I have ordered Mercury forthwith to follow me, if 
I should wish to give him any commands. Now will I 
accost her. (^He stands apart.) 

Scene II. — Enter AijCu:ETSA.,from the house. 

Alc. I cannot remain in the house. That I should be thus 
accused by my husband of dishonor, incontinence, and dis- 
grace ! he cries aloud that things which have been done, have 
really not been done ; and of things which have not been 
done, and of which I have not been guilty, he accuses me, and 
supposes that I shall treat it with indifference. By heavens, 
I will not do so, nor will I allow myself to be falsely charged 
with dishonor ; but rather I'll either leave him, or make 
him give satisfaction and swear as welP that he wishes unsaid 
the things which he has alleged against me in my innocence. 

Jup. (apart). This must be done by me, which she requires 
to be done, if I wish for her to receive me into her company 
as loving her : since that which I have done, that same con- 
duct has proved to the detriment of Amphitryon, and since 
my love has already created trouble for him who is really 
guiltless, why now his wrath and his resentment towards her 
shall fall on me that am not accused. 

Alc. And lo ! I see him, who just now was accusing 
wretched me of incontinence and dishonor. 

Jup. {advancing). "Wife, I would discourse with you. 
{She turns from him.) Why turn yourself away ? 

Alc. Such is my disposition ; I always hate to look upon 
my enemies. 

Jup. Heyday ! enemies indeed^ ! Alc. It is so, I speak the 

who is performing the part. Perhaps our cant term, " sky-parlour," whi(;h ts 
sometimes applied to a garret, would be the happiest translation liere of the word. 

* Without pangs) — Ver. 879. " Sine doloribus." Plautus has been censured 
here for inconsistency, as at the close of the Play he appears to represent Alcmena 
as enduring the pangs of childbirth; but it is to be remembered that is only the 
account givt-n by Hromia, and, according to what was her impression, on hearing 
Alcmena invoke the Dehies. 

' Swear os well) — Ver. 889. It was considered a sufficient atonement, tf th« 
accuser took an oath that his accusation was wrongful; and his oath was con- 
sidered to wipe off the injury. 

'Enemies iiuleed) — Ver. 901. " Inimicos." Gronovius tells us that "i::i. 
micaii " waa term in law by which the hosband was denoted after divorct 



42 AMPHITRYON ; Act ITL 

truth ; unless you are going to allege that this is falsely said 
as well. 

Jup. {offering to embrace her). Tou are too angry. 

Alc. {^repulsing him). Can't you keep your hands off? 
For surely if you were wise, or quite in your senses, with her, 
whom you deem and pronounce to be unchaste, you would 
neither hold discourse, in mirth or in seriousness, unless, 
indeed, you are more foolish than the most foolish. 

Jup. If I did say so, not a bit the more are you so, nor do 
I think you so, and therefore have I returned hither that 
I miglit excuse myself to you. For never has anything 
proved more grievous to my feelings than when I heard that 
you were angry with me. " Why did you charge me ?" you 
will say. I'll tell you ; by my troth, not that I deemed you 
to be unchaste ; but I was trying your feelings, what you 
would do, and in what manner you would bring yourself to 
bear it. Really, I said these things to you just now in jest, 
for the sake of the joke. Do but ask Sosia this. 

Alc. But why don't you bring here my kinsman, Nau- 
crates, whom you said just now that you would bring as 
a witness that you had not come here ? 

Jup. If anything was said in joke, it isn't right for you 
to take it in earnest. 

Alc. I know how much this has pained me at heart. 

Jup. Prithee, Alcmena {taking her hand), by your right 
hand I do entreat you, grant me pardon ; forgive me, don't be 
angry. 

Alc. By my virtue have I rendered these accusations vain. 
Since then I eschew conduct that's unchaste, I would wish to 
avoid imputations of unchastity. Fare you well, keep your 
own^ property to yourself, return me mine. Do you order 
any maids to be my attendants ? 

Jup. Are you in your senses ? Alc. If you don't order 
them, let me go alone ; chastity shall I take as my attendant. 
( Going.) 

Jup. Stay — at your desire, I'll give my oath that I believe 
my wife^ to be chaste. If in that I deceive you, then, thee, 

it so, the expression might be supposed to strike with peculiar harshness on a 
husband's ear. 

> Keep your t>um) — ^Ver. 928. This was the formula used on separation by mutual 
oonsent, when the wife's portion was returned to her, as ri mattir of course 

' Beliefs my tcife^ — Ver 932. Madame Dacier KUiitSests that Ju^jiter Ls hem 



I 



Sc. III. OR, JUPITER IN DISGUISE. ^ .43 

Buprenie Jupiter, do I entreat that thoa wilt ever be angered 
against^ Amphitryon. 

Alc. Oh ! rather may he prove propitious. 

Jup. I trust that it will be so ; for before you have I taken 
a truthful oath. Now then, you are not angry ? 

Alc. I am not. Jup. You act properly. For in the life 
of mortals many things of this nature come to pass ; and now 
they take their pleasures, again they meet with hardships. 
Quarrels intervene, again do they become reconciled. But u. 
perchance any quarrels of this nature happen between them, 
Vhen again they have become reconciled, twofold more loving 
are they between themselves than they were before. 

Alc. At the first you ought to have been careful not to 
say so ; but if you excuse yourself to me for the same, iiJ 
must be put up with. 

Jup. But bid the sacred vessels to be got ready for me, 
that I may fulfil all those vows which I made when with the 
army, in case I should return safe home. 

Alc. I'll take care of that. Jup. {To a Servant). Call out 
Sosia hither. Let him fetch Blepharo, the pilot that waa 
on board my ship, to breakfast with us. {Aside.) He sliall 
be fooled this day^ so as to go without his breakfast, while I 
ehall drag Amphitryon hence by the throat. 

Alc. {aside). It's surprising what he can be arranging alone 
in secrecy with himself. But the door opens ; Sosia's coming 
out. 

Scene III. — Enter Sosia, from the house. 

Sos. Amphitryon, I'm here ; if any way you have need of 
me, command me ; your commands I will obey. 

Jup. Very opportunely are you come. 

Sos. Has peace been made then between you two ? Bull 
since I see you in good humour, I'm delighted, and it is a 

equivocating, and that he is covertly resorting to a salvo, by alluding to the 
chastity of Juno, his heavenly consort. He is so full of quibbles and subterfuges, 
that it is not unlikely to be intentional, although Dacier has been lidiculed by 
Gueudeville and Thornton for the notion. 

' Ever be angered against) — Ver. 934. This oath is similar in its absurdity to 
that of Mercury, in 1. 392. Jupiter, personating Amphitryon, says, that if h« 
himself breaks his oath, then may he himself always prove hostile to Ampnitryon. 

* Befooled Hiis day) — Ver. 952. Jupiter savo tliis for the information of tht 
Audience- and to raise tlieir eiioectations oi Uit lun tliat is to follow 



44 AMPHITKTON ; Act TIL 

pleasure to myself. And so does it seem becoming for a 
trusty servant to conduct himself ; just as his superiors are, so 
should he be likewise ; by their countenances he should fashion 
his own countenance ; if his superiors are grave, let him be 
grave; if they rejoice, let him be merry. But come, answer 
me ; have you two now come to a reconciliation ? 

Jup. You are laughing at me, who know full well that 
these things were just now said by me in joke. 

Sos. In joke did you say it ? For my part, I supposed that 
it was said seriously and in truthfulness. 

Jup. Still, I've made my excuses ; and peace has been 
made. 

Sos. 'Tis very good. Jtjp. I shall now perform the sacri- 
fice in-doors, and the vows which I have made. 

Sos. So I suppose. Jup. Do you invite hither, in my 
name, Blepharo, the pilot, from the ship, so that when the 
sacrifice has been performed, he may breakfast with me. 

Sos. I shall be here again, while you'll be thinking that 
I'm there. 

Jup. Return here directly. {Exit Sosia.) Alc. Do you 
wish for anything else, but that I should go in-doora now, 
that the things that are requisite may be got ready ? 

Jup. Gro then, and take care that everything is prepared 
as soon as possible. Alc. Why, come in-doors whenever 
you please ; I'll take care that there shall not be any delay. 

Jup. You say well, and just as befits an attentive wife. 
(Alcmena goes into the house.) 

Scene IY. — Jupitee, alone. 
JlTP. Now both of these, both servant and mistress, are, 
the pair of them, deceived, in taking me to be Amphitryon ; 
egregiously do they err. Now, you immortal Sosia, take you 
care and be at hand for me. You hear what I say, although 
you are not present here. Take care that you contrive to 
drive away Amphitryon, on his arrival just now, by some 
means or other, from the house. I wish him to be cajoled, 
while with this borrowed wife I now indulge myself. Please, 
take care that this is attended to just in such way as you know 
that I desire, and that you assist me while to myself I am 
offering sacrifice^. (Goes into Amphitbygn's home.) 

^1 am qferifUl sacrificed— Yet 983. There is a cessation ol action here, ani 



Act IT. OE, JUPITEE IN DISOriSE. 4ik 

Act IV. — Scene I. 
Enter Mercuet, running, at the end of the stage. 

Meec. Stand by and make room all of you, get you out of 
the way. And let not any person now be so presumptuous aa 
to stand before me in the road. For surely, why, by my troth, 
should I, a God, be any less allowed to threaten the public, 
if it does not get out of my way, than a slave in Comedies^ ? 
He is bringing news that the ship is safe, or else the ap- 
proach of some angry old blade ; whereas I am obeying the 
bidding of Jove, and by his command do I now hie me. For 
this reason, it is more fitting to get out of the road and to 
make room for me. My father calls me, I am following him, 
to his orders so given am I obedient. As it befits a son to 
be dutiful to his father, just so am I to my. father; in hia 
amours 1 play second fiddle to him, I encourage him, assist 
him, advise him, rejoice with him. If anything is pleasing to 
my father, that pleasure is an extremely great one for myself. 
Is he amorously disposed ? He is wise ; he does right, inas- 
much as he follows his inclination ; a thing that all men ought 
to do, so long as it is done in a proper manner. Now, my 
father wishes Amphitryon to be cajoled ; I'll take care, Spec- 
tators, that he shall be rarely cajoled, while you look on. I'll 
place a chaplet on my head, and pretend that I am drunk. 
And up there {pointing to the top of the house) will I get ; 
from that spot, at the top of the house, I'll cleverly drive this 
person oflT when he comes hither : I'll take care that, sober, he 
shall be drenched. Afterwards, his own servant Sosia will pre- 

Echard and Thornton rightly make the next Scene commence another Act. The 
interval is filled up with Amphitryon searching for Naucrates, Sosia for Ble- 
pharo, and Jupiter and Alcmena performing the sacrifice. 

* Slave in Comedies) — Ver. 987. In reference to this passage, Thornton 
says, " It is remarkable that this circumstance, which appears to be here ridi- 
culed, is introduced in no less than three of our author's Plays. In the Mer- 
cator, Acanthio runs to his master Charinus, to tell him that his mistresa 
P;.sicompsa has been seen in the ship by his father Demipho; in the Stichus, 
Dinacium (Finacium), a slave, informs his mistress Panegyris (Philumena) 
that her husband has put into port on his return from Asia ; and in the Mos- 
tellaj"ia, Tranio brings information of the unexpected coming of Theuropides, an 
old gentleman. Terence has censured the like practice, in the Prologue to tb« 
Self-Tcr2i?ator." 



46 AMPHITETON; Act IV. 

Bently be suffering the punishment for it ; he'll be accusing 
him of doing, this day, the things which I myself have done 
what's that to me ? It's proper for me to be obedient to my 
father ; it's right to be subservient to his pleasure. But see ! 
here is Amphitryon ; he's coming. Now shall he be rarely 
fooled, if, indeed, {to the Audience) you are willing, by listen- 
ing, to lend your attention. I'll go in-doors, and assume a 
garb^ that more becomes me ; then I'll go up upon the roof, 
that I may drive him off from hence. ( Goes into the houses 
and fastens the door.) 

Scene II. — Enter Amphitetok. 
Amph. (Jto himself). Naucrates, whom I wanted to find, waa 
not on board ship ; neither at home nor in the city do I meet 
with any one that has seen him ; for through all the streets 
have I crawled, the wrestling-rings and the perfumers' shops, 
to the market, too, and in the shambles, the school for exercise, 
and the Eorum, the doctors' shops, the barbers' shops, and 
among all the sacred buildings. I'm wearied out with seek- 
ing him, and yet I nowhere meet with Naucrates. Now I'll go 
home, and from my wife wiU I continue to make enquiry into 
this matter, who the person was, by the side of whom she 
submitted her body to dishonor. For it were better that I 
was dead, than that I this day should leave this enquiry in- 
complete. {Goes up to the door.) But the house is closed. 
A pretty thing indeed ! This is done just like the other things 
have been done : I'll knock at the door. {Knocks.) Open 
this door ; ho there ! is there anybody here ? Is any one 
going to open this door ? 

Scene III. — Meecijet appears on the top of the house, with a 
chaplet on his head, pretending to be drunk. 

Meeo. "Who's that at the door ? Amph. 'Tis I. 

Meec. "Who's " 'tis I ?" Amph. 'Tis I that say so. 

Meec. For sure, Jupiter and all the Deities are angered 
with you who are banging at the door this way. 

Amph. In what manner? Meec. In this manner, that 
without a doubt you must be spending a wretched life. 

* Anume a garh')—Y&[. 1007. He perhaps means aot only the chaplet won 
bj the reveller on his head, but the garb of a slave also. 



Sc. III. OB, JUPITEB ITT DISGXnSE. 47 

Amph. Sosia. Meec. Well ; I'm Sosia, unless you think . 
that I've forf^otten myself. What do you want now ? 

Amph. What, you rascal, and do you even ask me that, 
what it is I want r 

Merc. I do so ask you; you blockhead, you've almost 
broken the hinges from off the door. Did you fancy that doors 
were supplied us at the public charge ? Why are you looking 
up at me, you stupid ? What do you want now for yourself, 
or what fellow are you ? 

Amph. Tou whip-scoundrel, do you even ask me who I 
am, you hell of elm -saplings^ ? I' faith, this day I'll make, 
you burn with smarts of the scourge for these speeches 0/ 
yours. 

Merc. Tou surely must have formerly been a spendthrift 
in your young days. 

Amph. How so ? Merc. Because in your old age you 
come begging a hap-ill^ of me for yourself 

Amph. Slave ! for your own torture do you give vent to 
these expressions this day. 

Merc. Now I'm performing a sacrifice to you. 

Amph. How? Merc. Why, because I devote you to 
ill-luck^ with this libation. (^Throws water on him.) * * * 
******** 

[Amph. What, you, devote me* you villain ? If the Gods 
have not this day taken away my usual form, I'll take care 
that you shall be laden with bull's hide thongs, you victim of 

1 Hell of elm-saplings) — Ver. 1029. " Ulmorum Acheruns." According to 
Taubmann, this means, " whose back devours as many elm-rods as Acheron does 
souls." 

2 A kap-iUy-Yer. 1032. See the Note to 1. 723. 

'Devote you to ill-hwk) — Ver. 1034. " Macto infortunio." "Macto," which 
properly signified " to amplify," was especially applied to the act of sacriticing, 
by way of giving sometliing. Mercury here says in sport, that he makes Am- 
pliitryon an offering of — a jug of water, or perhaps a tile, it is not known for 
certain which ; but it is generally supposed that in some part of this Scene, as 
originally written, he does throw water at him. 

* Yov^ devote me) — Ver. 1035. This line commences the portion that is sup- 
posed by many of the Commentators not to have been written by Plautus, it not 
being found in most of the MSS. By those, however, who deny it to have been 
his composition, it is generally thought to have been composed by an ancient 
writcj, and not to be at all deficient in humour and genuine Comic spirit. Gueude- 
viHe and Echard speak in high terms of it ; and the learned Schmieder is unwilU 
cjE to believe that it is not the composition of Plautoa. 



48 AMPHITRTOW; Act IV 

Saturn^. So surely will I devote you to the cross and to 
torture. Come out of doors, you whip-knave. 

Merc. You shadowy ghost — ^you, frighten me with your 
threats ? If you don't betake yourself off from here this 
instant, if you knock once more, if the door makes a noise 
with your little finger even^ I'll break your head with this tile, 
Bo that with your teeth you may sputter out your tongue. 

Amph. What, rascal, would you be for driving me awaj 
from my own house ? What, would you hinder me from 
knocking at my own door? I'll this instant tear it from off 
all its hinges. 

Meec. Do you persist ? Amph. I do persist. 

Merc. Take that, then. (^Throws a tile at him.) 

Amph. Scoundrel ! at your master ? If 1 lay hands upon 
you this day, I'll bring you to that pitch of misery, that you 
shall be miserable for evermore. 

Meec. Surely, you must have been playing the BacchanaP, 
old gentleman. 

Amph. Why so ? Meec. Inasmuch as you take me to be 
your slave. 

Amph. What ? I — take you ? Meec. Plague upon you ! 
I know no master but Amphitryon. 

Amph. (to himself). Have I lost my form? It's strange 
that Sosia shouldn't know me. I'll make trial. {Calling 
out). How now ! Tell me who I appear to he ? Am I not 
really Amphitryon ? 

Meec. Amphitryon ? Are you in your senses ? Has it not 
been told you before, old fellow, that you have been playing 
the Bacchanal, to be asking another person who you are? 
Get away, I recommend you, don't be troublesome while 
Amphitryon, who has just come back from the enemy, ia 
indiilging himself with the company ©/"his wife. 

Amph. What wife ? Meec. Alcmena. 

Amph. What man ? Meec. How often do you want it 
told ? Amphitryon, my master ; — don't be troublesome. 

> Victim of Saturn) — Ver. 1037. Taubmann remarks that there is here an 
allusion to those slaves which the Carthaginians were in the habit of purchasing; 
in order to sacrifice them, in place of their children, to Saturn — a rite borrowed 
from the same source as the passing of children through fire to Moloch, as prac- 
tised by the Phoenicians. 

^Playing the Bacchanal)— Ver. 1046. "Bacchanal exercuisse." "To keep 
the festival of Bacchus," where frantic conduct and acts of outrageous madiMS9 
were prevalent. See the Notes to th» F**** Act of the B^cchkieii. 



5c. III. OB, JUPITER IW ©TSQtTTST!. 40 

Amph. "Wlio's he sleeping with ? Mekc. Take care that 
you don't meet with some mishap in trifling with me this 
way. 

Ampf. Prithee, do tell me, my dear Sosia. 

Merc. More civilly said — with. Alcmena. 

Amph. In the same chamber ? 

Merc. Yes, as I fancy, he is sleeping with her side by side. 

Amph. Alas ! — wretch that I am ! 

Merc, {to the Audience) . It really is a gain which he ima- 
gines to be a misfortune. For to lend one's wife to another 
is just as though you were to let out barren land to be 
ploughed. 

Amph. Sosia ! Merc. "What, the plague, about Sosia ? 

Amph. Don't you know me, you whip-scoundrel ? 

Merc. I know that you are a troublesome feUow, who have 
no need to go buy^ a lawsuit. Amph. Still once more — am 
I not your master Amphitryon ? 

Merc. Tou are Bacchus liimself^, and not Amphitryon. 
How often do you want to be told ? Any times more ? My 
master Amphitryon, in the same chamber, is holding Alcmena 
in his embraces. If you persist, I'U produce him here, and 
not without your great discomfiture. 

Amph. I wish him to be fetched. {Aside.) I pray that this 
day, in return for my services, I may not lose house, "wife, and 
household, together with my figure. 

Merc. WeU, I'U fetch him ; but, in the meantime, do you 
mind about the door, please. {Aside.) I suppose that by 
this he has brought the sacrifice that he was intending, as 
far as the banquet^. {Aloud.) If you are troublesome, you 
shan't escape without my making a sacrifice of you. {He re- 
tires into the house.) 

Amph. Ye Grods, by my trust in you, what madness is 
distracting my household? What wondrous things have 
I seen since I arrived from abroad! Why, it's true, 
surely, what was once heard tell of, how that men of Attica 

1 No need to go buy) — Ver. 1063. He seems to mean that a " litigium," or 
'* lawsuit," is already prepared for him, in daring to personate Amphitryon. 

* Bacchtis himself) — Ver. 1064. He means that, from his frantic conduct he 
must surely be, not a Bacchanalian, but Bacchus himself. 

' As the banquet') — Ver. 1071. It is supposed that he here has a double mean- 
me, and implits tliat he supposes that by this time Jupiter has satisfied hi* 
Tenement desire. It has been previously remarked, that after sacrifices a feask 
was made of the portions that were left. 

VOL. II « 



50 AMPH1:r\oiv. ^ollf, 

were transformed m Arcadia^, and remained as savage wild 
beasts, and were not ever afterwards known unto tlieir 
parents. 

Scene IY. — Enter Blephaeo and Sosia, at a distance. 

Bleph. What's this, Sosia ? Great marvels are these that 
you are telling of. Do you say that you found another Sosia 
at home exactly like yourself? 

Sos. I do say so — but, hark you, since I have produced a 
Sosia, Amphitryon an Amphitryon, how do you know whether 
you, perchance, may not be producing another Blepharo ? O 
that the Grods would grant that you as well, belaboured with 
fists, and with your teeth knocked out, going without your 
breakfast, might credit this. For I, that other Sosia, that is 
to say, who am yonder, has mauled me in a dreadful manner. 

Bleph. Eeally, it is wonderful ; but it's as well to mend 
our pace ; for, as I perceive, Amphitryon is waiting for us, 
and my empty stomach is grumbling. 

Amph. {apart), And why do I mention foreign legends ? 

M(3re wondrous things they relate to have happened among our 
Theban race^ in former days ; that mighty searcher for Eu- 
ropa, attacking the monster sprung from Mars, suddenly 
produced his enemies from the serpent-seed; and in that 
battle fought, brother pressed on brother with lance and 
helm ; the Epirote land, too, beheld the author of our race, 
together with the daughter of Venus^, gliding as serpents. 
From on high supreme Jove thus willed it ; thus destiny 
directs. All the noblest of our country, in retm-n for their 
bright achievements, are pursued with direful woes. This 
fatality is pressing hard on me — still I could endure disasters 
so great, and submit to woes hardly to be endured 

Sos. Blepharo. Bleph. "WTiat's the matter ? 

Sos. I don't know ; I suspect something wrong. 

* In Arcadia) — Ver. 1075. He alludes to a story among the ancients, that 
certain people of Arcadia were transformed for a certain time into wolves : they 
were called *' Lycanthropi," or " Wolf-men." Pliny the Elder mentions tnem in 
his Eighth Book. 

Our Theban race) — Ver. 1085. He alludes to the story ot Cadmus being sent 
by Agenor in search of Europa, and sowing the Dragon's teeth, from which 
9rose a rrop of armed men. See the Metamorphoses of Ovid, B. 3, 1. 32. 

» [VUh the daughter of Venus ) — Ver. 1089. He alludes to the tradition which 
stated that Cadmus and his wife Herinione retired to Illyria, and were ther* 
changed into serpent*. See the Metamorphoses B. 4, 1. 574, 



Sc. ly. Ott, JUPITEE IN DISGUISE. 51 

Bleph. "Why ? Sos. Look, please, our master, like an 
Humble courtier^, is walking before the door bolted fast. 

Bleph. It's nothing; walking to and fro, he's looking 
for an appetite^. 

Sos. After a singular fashion, indeed ; for he has shut the 
door, that it mayn't escape out of the house. 

Bleph. Tou do go yelping on. Sos. I go neither yelping 
on nor barking on ; if you listen to me, observe him. I don't 
know why ke^s by himself alone ; he's making some calcula- 
tion, I suppose. I can hear from this spot w^hat he says — 
don't be in a hurry. 

Amph. (apart). How much I fear lest the Grods should blot 
out the glory I have acquired in the conquest of the foe. In 
wondrous manner do I see the whole of my household in com- 
motion. And then my wife, so full of viciousness, inconti- 
nence, and dishonor, kills me outright. But about the goblet, 
it is a singular thing ; yet the seal was properly affixed. And 
what besides ? She recounted to me the battles I had fought j 
Pterelas, too, besieged and bravely slain by my own hand. 
Aye, aye — now I know the trick ; this was done by Sosia'a 
contrivance, who as well has disgracefully presumed to-day 
to get before me on my arrival. 

Sos. (to Blepharo). He's talking about me, and in terms 
that I had rather not. Prithee, don't let's accost this man 
until he has disclosed his wrath. 

Bleph. Just as you please. Amvk. (apart). If it is granted 
me this day to lay hold of that whip-scoundrel, I'll show him 
■«hat it is to deceive his master, and to assail me with threats 
and tricks. 

Sos. Do you hear him ? Bleph. I hear him. 

Sos. That implement (pointing to AMVKiTnYOi^^s lualking' 
stick) is a burden for my shoulder-blades. Let's accost the 

' An humble courtier) — Ver. 1094. " Salutator." The " salutatores " were a 
class of men w'ao in the later times of the Roman Republic obtained a living by 
visiting the houses of the wealthy in the morning, and hanging about the door 
to pay their respects, and to accompany the master when he went abroad. Many 
persons thus supported themselves, and thereby enacted a part not much unlik» 
the Parasites among the Greeks. 

' Looking for an appetite) — Ver. 1095. Cicero relates that Socrates used to walk 
very briskly in the evening, and when asked why he did so, replied that he waa 
going to market for an appetite. 



5^ AMPHITETO^i Act IV. 

man, if you please. Do you know what is in the habit of 
being commonly said ? 

Bleph. What you are going to say, I don't know ; what 
you'll have to endure I pretty well guess. 

Sos. It's an old adage — " Hunger and delay summon angei 
to the nostrils^." 

Bleph. Aye, and well suited to the occasion. Let's aa- 
dress him directly — Amphitryon ! 

Amph. (looking round). Is it Blepharo I hear ? It's strange 
why he's come to me. Still, he presents himself opportunely, 
for me to prove the guilty conduct of my wife. Why have you 
come here to me, Blepharo ? 

Bleph. Have you so soon forgotten how early in the 
morning you sent Sosia to the ship, that I might take a re- 
past with you to-day ? 

Amph. Never in this world was it done. But where is that 
scoandrel ? 

Belph. Who ? Amph. Sosia. 

Bleph. See, there he is. {Points at Mm.) 

Amph. {looking about). Where ? Bleph. Before your 
eyes ; don't you see him ? 

Amph. I can hardly see for anger, so distracted has that 
fellow made me this day. You shall never escape my making 
a sacrifice of you. {Offers to strike Sosia, on which Ble- 
pharo prevents him.) Do let me, Blepharo. 

Bleph. Listen, I pray. Amph. Say on, I'm listening — 
{gives a hlow to Sosla.) you take that. 

Sos. For what reason ? Am I not in good time ? I couldn't 
have gone quicker, if I had betaken myself on the oar- 
like wings^ of Daedalus. (AMPHiTEYOif tries to strike him 
again.) 

Bleph. Prithee, do leave him alone ; we couldn't quicken 
our pace any further. 

Amph. Whether it was the pace of a man on stilts or that 

' To the nostrils) — Ver. 1113. From their expanding when a person is 
enraged, the nostrils were said to be peculiarly the seat of anger. 

2 Oar-like wings)— Yev. 1123. " Remigiis." Virgil, and Ovid also, with con- 
siderable propriety, call the wings of Daedalus " remigia," " tiers of oars," from 
the resemblance which the main feathers of the wing bear to a row of oars. Th« 
story of Dasdalus and Icarus is beautifully told by Ovid, in the Art of Loye 
-vock 2f and in the Metamorphoses, Book 8. 



Sc. IV OE, JUPITEE IN DISGUISE. 53 

of the tortoise, I'm determined to be the death of this villain. 
{Striking him at each sentence.) Take that for the roof; that 
for the tiles ; that for closing the door ; that for making fuu 
of your master ; that for your abusive language. 

Bleph. What injury has he been doing to you ? 

Amph. Do you ask ? Shut out of doors, from that house- 
top {pointing to it) he has driven me away from my house. 

Sos. What, I ? Amph. What did you threaten that you 
would do if I knocked at that door ? Do you deny it, you 
scoundrel ? 

Sos. Why shouldn't I deny it ? See, he's sufficiently a wit- 
ness with whom I ha^^ejust now come ; I was sent on purpose 
that by your invitation I might bring him to your house. 

Amph. Who sent you, viUain? Sos. He who asks me 
the question. 

Amph. When, of all things ? 

Sos. Some little time since — not long since — just now. 
When you were reconciled at home to your wife. 

Amph. Bacchus must have demented you. 

Sos. May I not be paying my respects to Bacchus this 
day, nor yet to Ceres^. You ordered the vessels to be made 
clean, that you might perform a sacrifice, and you sent me 
to fetch him {pointing to Blephaeo), that he might breaks 
fast with you. 

Amph. Blepharo, may I perish outright if I have either 
been in the house, or if I have sent him. {To Sosia.) Tell 
me — w^here did you leave me ? 

Sos. At home, with your wife Alcmena. Leaving you, I 
flew towards the harbour, and invited him in your name. 
We are come, and I've not seen you since till now. 

Amph. Villanous fellow ! With my wife, say you ? You 
shall never go away without getting a beating. {Gives him 
a blow.) 

Sos. {crying out). Blepharo! Bleph. Amphitryon, do let 
him alone, for my sake, and listen to me. 

Amph. Well then, I'll let him alone. What do you 
Want ? Say on. 

Bleph. He has just now been telling me most extraordi 
nary marvels. A juggler, or a sorcerer, perhaps, has en- 

» Nor yet to Ceres) — Ver. 1134. He wishes to see neither of these Deities, j' 
being a common notion that those to whom they appeared i>ecame mad. 



54 AMPHITETOW Act IV 

cli anted all this household of yours. Do enquire in other 
quarters, and examine how it is. And don't cause this poor 
fellow to be tortured, before you understand the matter. 

Amph. You give good advice; let's go in, I want you 
also to be my advocate against my wife. (^Knocks at the 
door.) 

Scene V^. — JEnter J vtiteh, from the house. 

Jup. Who with such weighty blows has been shaking this 
door on all the hinges ? Who has been making such a great 
disturbance for this long while before the house ? If I find 
him out, I'll sacrifice him to the shades of the Teleboans. 
There's nothing, as the common saying is, that goes on well 
with me to-day. I left Blepharo and Sosia that I might find 
my kinsman Naucrates ; him I have not found, and them I 
have lost. But I espy them ; I'U go meet them, to enquire 
if they have any news. 

Sos. Blepharo, that's our master that's coming out of the 
house ; but this man's the sorcerer. 

Bleph. Jupiter ! What do I behold .? This is not, 
but that is, Amphitryon ; if this is, why really that cannot 
be he, unless, indeed, he is double. 

Jup. See now, here's Sosia with Blepharo ; I'll accost them 
tlie first. Well, Sosia, come to us at last ? I'm quite hungry. 

Sos. Didn't I tell you, £lepharo, that this one was the 
sorcerer ? 

Amph. Nay, Theban citizens, I *«y that this is he (point- 
ing to Jupiter) who in my house has made my wife guilty 
of incontinence, through whom I find a store of unchastity 
laid up for me. 

Sos. (to Jupiter). Master, if now you are hungry, crammed 
full of fisticufts, I betake me to you. 

Amph. Do you persist, whip-scoundrel ? 

Sos. Hie thee to Acheron, sorcerer. 

Amph. What, I a sorcerer ? (Strikes him.) Take that. 

Jup. AVhat madness jpossesses you, stranger, for you to 
be beating my servant ? 

Amph. Your servant ? Jup. Mine. 

' Scene, F.) Many of tliose Commentators who have doubted the gennineness of 
the last Scene, and of the previous one from tlie fourteenth hne. have been ready 
to admit that this Scene is tlie composition of Plautus • indeed, xt bears very stioog 
internal marks o*" iuvmg been composed bj him 



Be. VI. OE, JUPITEE IN DISGUISE. 65 

Amph. You lie. Jup. Sosia, go in- doors, and take caro 
tlie breakfast is got ready while I'm sacrificing this fellow. 

Sos. I'll go. {Aside.) Amphitryon, I suppose, will receive 
the other Amphitryon as courteously as I, that other Sosia, 
did me, Sosia, a while ago. Meantime, while they are con- 
tending, I'll turn aside into the victualling department^ : I'll 
clean out all the dishes, and all the vessels I'll drain. {Goes 
into the house.) 

ScENiE VI. — JupiTEB, Amphiteton, and Blephaeo. 

Jup. Do you say that I lie ? Amph. You lie, I say, you 
corrupter of my family. 

Jup. For that disgraceful speech, I'll drag you along here, 
seizing you by the throat. {Seizes him hy the throat.) 

Amph. Ah wretched me ! Jup. But you should have ha(i 
a care of this beforehand. 

Amph. Blepharo, aid me ! Bleph. {aside). The two are so 
exactly alike that I don't know which to side with. Still, so 
far as possible, I'll put an end to their contention. {Aloud.) 
Amphitryon, don't slay Amphitryon in fight ; let go his throat, 
I Jiray. 

Jup. Are you calling this fellow Amphitryon ? 

Bleph. Why not ? Formerly he was but one, but now 
he has become double. While you are wanting to be he, the 
other, too, doesn't cease to be of his form. Meanwhile, 
pritliee, do leave go of his neck. 

Jup. I will leave go. {Lets go ©/"Amphiteton.) But 
tell me, does that fellow appear to you to be Amphitryon ? 

Bleph. Eeally, both of you do. Amph. O supreme 
Jupiter ! when this day didst thou take from me my form ? 
I'll proceed to make enquiry of him ; are you Amphitryon ? 

•I UP. Do you deny it ? Amph. Downright do I deny it, 
inasmuch as in Thebes there is no other Amphitryon besides 
myself. 

Jup. On the contrary, no other besides myself; and, in 
fact, do you, Blepharo, be the judge. 

Bleph. I'll make this matter clear by proofs, if I can. 
{To AMPHiTEYOif.) Do you answer first. 

I Victualling department) — Ver. 11C5. *' Popina" usually siprnifies a "cook's 
sftop;" but here it evidently alludes to the larier or kitchen in AmphitryouS 
bou&e. which SoKia now enters and we s«e no mcr: ^f him. 



60 AMPHITRYON ; Act IT. 

Amph. With pleasure. Bleph. Before the battle with the 
Taphians was begun by you, what orders did you give me ? 

Amph. The ship being in readiness, for you carefully to 
keep close to the rudder. 

Jup. That if our people should take to flight, 1 might 
betake myself in safety thither. 

Bleph. Anything else as well? Amph. That the bag 
loaded with treasure should be carefully guarded. 

Jup. Because the money Bleph. Hold your 

tongue, you, if you please; it's my place to ask. Did you 
know the amount ? 

Jup. Fifty Attic talents. 

Bleph. He tells the truth to a nicety. And you {io Am- 
phitryon), how many Philippeans ? 

Amph. Two thousand. Jup. And obols^ twice as many. 

Bleph. Each of you states the matter correctly. Inside 
the bag one of you must have been shut up. 

Jup. Attend, please. With this right hand, as you know, 
I slew king Pterelas ; his spoils I seized, and tlie goblet 
from which he had been used to drink I brought away in a 
casket ; I made a present of it to my wife, with whom this 
day at home I bathed, I sacrificed, and slept. 

Amph. Ah me ! what do I hear ? I scarcely am myself. 
For, awake, I am asleep ; awake, I am in a dream ; alive and 
well, I come to destruction. I am that same Amphitryoa, 
the descendant of ^ Grorgophone, the general of the Thebana, 
and the sole combatant for Creon against the Teleboans ; /, 
who have subdued by my might the Acarnanians and the 
Taphians, and, by my consummate warlike prowess, their 
king. Over these have I appointed Cephalus, the son of the 
great Deioneus. 

Jup. I am he who by warfare and my valour crushed the 
hostile ravagers. They had destroyed Electryon and the 
brothers of my wife. Wandering through the Ionian, the 

^ And obols) — ^Ver. 1187. The " obolus" was the smallest of the Greek coins. 
It was of silver, and was worth in value rather more than three-halfpence of our 
money; six of them made a drachma. Plautus has not escaped censure for 
his anachroaism, in talking here of the coins of Philip, King of Macedon. 

'^Descendant of) — Ver. 1194, " Nepos" cannot here mean " grand son," a& 
Corgophone was not a lineal ancestor of Amphitryon, being the sister ol his fathtl 
Alcseus. 



8c. \ I. OE, JUPITER IN DISGTTISE. ^7 

Mgean, and the Cretan seas, with piratical violence tLey laid 
waste Achaia, ^tolia, and Phocis. 

Amph. Immortal Gods ! I cannot trust my own self, so 
exactly does he relate all the things that happened there. 
Consider, Blepharo. 

Bleph. One thing onh/ remains ; if so it is, do you be Am- 
phitryons both of you. 

Jup. I knew what you would say. The scar tJiat I have 
on the muscle of my right arm, from the wound which Pte- 
relas gave me 

Bleph. Well, that. Amph. Quite to the purpose. 

Jup. See you ! look, behold ! 

Bleph. Uncover, and I'll look. 

Jup. We have uncovered. Look ! (They show their naked 
arms.) 

Bleph. (looking at the right arm of each). Supreme Jupi- 
ter, what do I behold ? On the right-arm muscle of each, 
in the same spot, the scar clearly appears with the same mark, 
reddish and somewhat livid, just as it has first commenced to 
close. Eeasoning is at a standstill, all judgment is struck 
dumb ; I don't know what to do^.] 



Bleph. Do you settle these matters between yourselves ; 
I'm o^,for I have business ; and I do not think that I have 
ever anywhere beheld such extraordinary wonders. 

Amph. Blepharo, I pray that you'U stay as my advocate, 
and not go away. 

Bleph. Farewell. What need is there of me for an advo- 
cate, who don't know which of the two to side with ? 

Jup. I'm going hence in-doors: Alcmena is in labour. 
{Exit Blephaeo, and Jupitee goes into Amphiteton's 
house.) 

Amph. {aloud to himself). I'm undone, wretch that I am j 
for what am I to do, when my advocates and friends are now 
forsaking me ? Never, by heavens, shaU he deride me unre- 
venged, whoever he is. Now will I betake myself straight to 
the king, and tell him of the matter as it has happened. Bv 

» WJiatto do)— Ver. 1209. With this line terminates what is generally callea 
the supjtubititious part of this Play. 



68 AMPHTTETON ; Act V 

my faith, I will this day take vengeance on this Thessalian 
sorcerer, who has wrongfully distracted the minds of my 
household. But where is he ? {Looking around.) By my 
troth, he's off into the house, to my wife, I suppose. What 
other person lives in Thebes more wretched than myself ? 
What now shall I do ? J, whom all men deny and deride 
just as they please. I am resolved ; I'll burst into the house ; 
there, whatever person I perceive, whether maid-servant or 
man-servant, whether wife or whether paramour, whether 
father or whether grandfather, I'll behead that person in the 
house ; neither Jupiter nor all the Deities shall hinder me 
from this, even if they would, but that I'll do just as I have 
resolved. (^As he advances to the door^ it thunders^ and he 
falls in a swoon upon the ground.)^ 

Act V. — ScEiTE I. 

Enter 'BnowiK^from the home, Amphiteton lying on the 
ground, 

Beom. {to herself). The hopes and resources of my life lie 
buried in my breast, nor is there any boldness in my heart, but 
what I have lost it. So much to me do all things seem, the sea, 
the earth, the heavens, to be conspiring, that now I may be 
crushed, that I may be destroyed. Ah, wretched me ! I know 
not what to do. Prodigies so great have come to pass within the 
house. Ah ! woe is me ! I'm sick at heart, some water I could 
wish ! I'm overpowered and I'm utterly undone. My head 
is aching, and I cannot hear, nor do I see well with my eyes 
Ko woman is there more wretched than myself, nor can one 
seem to be more so. Thus has it this day befallen my mistress ; 
for when she invoked for herself the Deities of travail, what 
rumblings and grumblings^, crashes and flashes ; suddenly, 
how instantaneously did it thunder, and how woundy loud. On 
klie spot where each one stood, at the peal he fell ; then some 
one, I know not who, exclaimed in a mighty voice, " Alcmena, 
Buccour is at hand, fear not: propitious both to thee and 
thine, the Euler of the Heavens comes. Arise," it said, "ye 
who have fallen down in your terror through dread of me." As 
I lav, I arose ; I fancied that the house was in flames. Then 
Alcm.ena called me ; and then did that circumstance strike 

^ Rumblings and gru1^bling!^) — Ver. 1238. " Strepitus, crepitus, sonitus toni- 
tnus.*' A iiwa^ «*; evideatly iatended here- 



Sc. I. OE, JTJPITEE rtf DISGUISE. 59 

me with horror. Years for my mistress took possession of 
me ; I ran to her to enquire what she wanted ; and then I 
beheld that she had given birth to two male children ; not 
yet did any one of us perceive when she was delivered, or 
indeed expect it. (^Sees Amphiteton.) But what's this? 
"Who's this old man that's lying thus before our house ? Has 
Jupiter then smitten him with his thimders ? By my troth, 
I think so ; for, oh Jupiter ! he is in a lethargy just like one 
dead. I'll approach, that I may learn who it is. {Bhe ad- 
vances?) Surely, this is my master Amphitryon. ( Calls aloud.) 
Ho ! Amphitryon ! 

Amph. I'm dead. Beom. Arise. 

Amph. I'm slain outright. 

Beom. Grive me your hand. ( Takes his hand.) 

Amph. (recovering). Who is it that has hold of me ? 

Beom. Bromia, your maid-servant. 

Amph. (rising). I tremble all over, to such a degree has Jove 
pealed against me. And no otherwise is it than if I had come 
hither from Acheron. But why have you come out of the 
house ? 

Beom. The same alarm has scared ourselves, affrighted with 
horror ; in the house where you yourself dwell, have I seen 
astounding prodigies. Woe to me, Amphitryon ; even now 
do my senses fail me to such a degree. 

Amph. Come now, tell me ; do you know me to be your 
master Amphitryon ? Beom. I do know it. 

Amph. Look even once again. Beom. I do know it. 

Amph. She alone of all my household has a sane mind. 

Beom. Nay but, really, they are all of them sane. 

Amph, But my wife causes me ta be insane by her own 
shameful practices. 

Beom. But I'll make you, Amphitryon, to be holding other 
language ; that you may imderstand that your wife is dutiful 
and chaste, upon that subject I will in a few words discover 
some tokens and some proofs. In the first place of all, Ale- 
mena has given birth to two sons. 

Amph. Two, say you ? Beom. Two. 

Amph. The Grods preserve me ! 

Beom. Allow me to speak, that you may know that all the 
Deities are propitious to yourself and to your wife. 

Amph. Say on. Beom. After that, this day, your wife 
begaji to be in labour, w hen the pangs of childbirth came on, 



60 AMPHITETOIT ; Act \ . 

as is tlie custom with women in travail, she invoked the im- 
mortal Grods to give her aid, with washed hands^ and with 
covered head. Then forthwith it thundered with most tre- 
mendous crash. At first we thought that your house was 
falling ; all your house shone bright, as though it had been 
made of gold. 

Amph. Prithee, relieve me quickly from this, since you have 
kept me long enough in suspense. What happened then ? 

Beom. While these things were passing, meanwhile, not 
one of us heard your wife groaning or complaining; and 
thus, in fact, without pain was she delivered. 

Amph. Then do I rejoice at this, whatever she has merited 
at my hands. 

Brom. Leave that alone, and hear these things which I shall 
tell you. After she was delivered, she bade us wash the babes ; 
we commenced to do so. But that child which I washed, 
how stout, how very powerful he is ; and not a person was 
there, able to wrap him in the swaddling-clothes. 

Amph. Most wondrous things you tell of. If these 
things are true, I do not apprehend but that succour has 
been brought to my wife from heaven. 

Brom. Now shall I make you own to things more won- 
drous still. After he was laid in the cradle, two immense 
crested serpents glided down through the skylight ; instantly 
they both reared their heads. 

Amph. Ah me ! Brom. Be not dismayed — but the ser- 
pents be^an to gaze upon all around. After they beheld the 
children, quickly they made towards the cradle ; I, fearing 
for the children, alarmed for myself, going backwards, began 
to draw and pull the cradle to and fro, and so much the more 
fiercely did the serpents pursue. After that one of the 
children caught sight of the serpents, he quickly leapt from 
the cradle, straightway he made an attack upon them, ana 
suddenly he grasped them, one in each hand. 

Amph. You tell of wondrous things ; a very fearful exploit 
do you relate; for at your words horror steals upon tlie 
limbs of wretched me. What happened then ? Say on. 

Brom. The child slew both the serpents. While these 
things are passing, in a loud voice there calls upon your 

wife 

» With washed hands)— Ver. 1270. The head was covered ana the hands icadt 
pure by vrabhiog, before sacrifice to the Gods. 



Sc. 11. OE, JUPITER nf DISGUISE. 61 

Amph. What person ? Brom. Jupiter, the supreme 

!Euler of Gods and men. He said that he had secretly enjoyed 
Alcmena in his embraces, and that he was his own son who 
had overcome those serpents; the other, he said, was your child. 

Amph. By my troth, 1 am not sorry ii'I am allowed to take 
my half of a blessing in partnership with Jupiter. Gro home, 
and bid the sacred vessels to be at once prepared for me, that 
with many victims I may seek my peace with supreme Jove. 
I vdll apply to Tiresias^ the soothsayer, and consult him what 
he considers ought to be done ; at the same time I'll relate to 
him this matter just as it has happened. (It thunders.) But 
what means this ? How dreadfully it thunders ! Ye Gods, 
your mercy, I do entreat. 

Scene II. — Jupiter appears, in Jiis own character, above. 

Jup. Be of good cheer, Amphitryon ; I am come to thy 
aid : thou hast nothing to fear ; all diviners and soothsayers 
let alone. What is to be, and what has past, I will tell 
thee ; and so much better than they can, inasmuch as I am 
Jupiter. First of all, I have made loan of the person of Alc- 
mena, and have caused her to be pregnant with a son. Thou, 
too, didst cause her to be pregnant, when thou didst set out 
upon the expedition ; at one birth has she brought forth the 
two together. One of these, the one that is sprung from my 
parentage, shall bless thee^ with deathless glory by his deeds. 
Do thou return with Alcmena to your former affection ; she 
merits not that thou shouldst impute it to her as her blame ; 
by my power has she been compelled thus to act. I nx>w 
return to the heavens. {He ascends.) 

' Tiresias) — Ver. 1304. Some Commentators think that under the name T'lre- 
sias any soothsayer is here meant, and that this was before the time of Tiresias. 
So involved is the heathen Mythology, that it would be hard to say who existej 
first, Tiresias or Amphitryon, so that if Plautus is guilty of an anachronism, it 
is one of his most excusable ones. Juno was said to have struck Tiresias with 
blindne.-s ; on which Jupiter, as a recompense, bestowed on him the gift of prophecy 
See the Metamorphoses of Ovid, B. 3, 1. 323. 

^ Shall bless thee)— Yer. 1316. " Te adficiet." " Se," "himself," is tnougnt 
by some to be the correct reading here, as it has been remarked, how could the 
exploits ot Hercules redound to the glory of Amphitryon ? Still, as his adoptive 
father, it was not unlikely that he would take a peculiar interest in tlie actiev©- 
axenta of Hercules. 



62 AMPHITETOir. Act 'V. 

Amph. I'll do as thou dost command me ; and I entreat 
thee to keep thy promises. I'll go in-doors to my wife. I 
dismiss the aged Tiresiasfrom my thaughts. 

An AcTOB. 
Spectators, now, for the sake of supreme Jove^, giv6 loud 
applause. 

' Sake of supreme Jove) — Ver. 1322. According to some Commentators, the 
Romans believed that this Play greatly redounded to the honor of Jupiter ; and it 
was, consequently, often acted in times of public trouble and calamity, with the 
rfew of appeasing his anger. They must have had singular notions of honor, as 
his Godship figures here ic the xmblned characters of an iusolent impostor aad 
jm ouprincipldd debaacLe«. 



RUDENS ; THE IISHERMAN'S ROPE. 



33ramatts ^^crsonar. 

Abcturus, who speaks the Prologae. 

DiKMONES, an aged Athenian, now living at Cyrene. 

Plesidippus, a young Athenian, in love with PaUostnu 

SCEPARNIO, "^ 

„ ' > Servants of Dasmones. 

TURBALIO, I 

Sparax, J 

Trachalio, the servant of Plesidippus, 

Labrax, a Procurer. 

Charmides, a Sicihan, his guest. 

Fishermen of Cyrene. 

Ptolemocratia, Priestess of Venug. 

PaLuESTRA, 1 _, . , . , T 1. 

. J- Young women m the possession of Labrax. 

Ampelisca, j * ^ 



Scene. — Near Cyrene, m Africa; not far from the sea-»hore, and before thi 
cottage of DiEMONES and the Temple of Venus, wbicl has, probably, a small cotut 
Mlore it, surrounded with a low waU. 



THE SUBJECT 



DjntoiTES, an aged Athenian, having lost his property, goes to lire in rttirement 
uear the sea-shore of Gyrene, in the vicinity of the Temple of Venus. It so 
happens tliat Labrax, a Procurer, makes purchase oi two damsels, Palaestra 
and Ampelisca, and comes to reside at Cyrene. Plesidippus, a young Athenian, 
sees Pala3stra there, and falls in love with her ; and making an arrangement 
with tlie Prrcurer, gives him a sum in part payment for her, on which occa- 
sion, Labrax invites him to a sacrifice in tlie Temple of Venus. A Sicilian 
guest of his, however, named Charmides, persuades him to carry the young 
Women over to Sicily, where he is sure to make a greater profit by them. On 
this, the Procurer, accompanied by his guest, sets sail with them. A tem- 
pest arises, and they are shipwrecked. The young women escape hi a boat, 
and arriving ashore, are hospitably received by the Priestess of V;inus. Labrax 
and Charmides also escape, and on discovering where the women are, the former 
attempts to drag them by force from the Temple. On this they are protected 
by Daemones and Plesidippus, who, through Trachalio, finds out where they 
are. In the wreck a wallet has been lost, which belongs to Labrax, and in which 
is a casket enclosing some trinkets belonging to Palaestra. Gripus, a servant 
of Daemones, draws this up with the rope attached to his net ; and by means of 
these trinkets it is discovered that Palaestra is the daughter of Daemones, wliona 
he had lost in her infancy ; on which she is given in murria^ to Plesidippus 
by her father, who becomes reconciled to Labrax. 



RUDENS; 
THE FISHERMAN'S ROPE. 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

LSapposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammanan.] 
A FISHERMAN draws a wallet out of the sea in his net {^Reti\ in which {Ul>i) art 
the trinkets of his master's daughter, who, havinj^ been stolen, had come into 
the possession of a Procurer as her owner (^Dominum). She (£a), having 
sufifered siiipwreck (^Nattfrayio), without knowing it comes under the protec- 
tion of her own father ; she is recognized, and is married to her (Suo) lover 
Plesidippus. 



THE PEOLOaUE. 

Spoken hy the God Arctueus^. 

With him who sways all nations, seas, and lands, I am a 
feUow-citizen in the realms of the Gods. I am, as you see^, 
a bright and shining star, a Constellation that ever in its 
season rises here on earth and in the heavens. Arcturus is 
my name. By night, I am glittering in the heavens and 
amid the Grods, passing among mortals in the day. Other 
Constellations, too, descend from the heavens upon the earth ; 
Jove, who is the ruler of Grods and men — he disperses us here 
in various directions among the nations, to observe the actions, 
manners, piety, and faith of men, just as the means of each 
avail him. Those who commence villanous suits at law upon 
false testimony, and those who, in court, upon false oath 
deny a debt, their names written down, do we return to Jove. 
Each day does he learn who here is calling for vengeance. 
Whatever wicked men seek here to gain their cause through 

' Arcturus) This is a star near the tail of the Great Bear, whose rising and 
setting was supposed to be productive of great tempests. The name is derived 
from its situation, from the Greek words apxro? and ovpa^ " the Bear's tail." It 
nses in the beginning of October. Pliny mentions it as rising on the 12th, and 
Columella on the 5th of that month. 

2 As you see)*— Ver. 3. The actor is supposed here to foint to r star placed on 
Dis forehead, or on the head-dress which he wears. 

VOL. 11. F 



66 RrcEifs ; 

perjury, who succeed before the judge in their unjust de- 
mands, the same case adjudged does he judge over again, and 
he fines them in a penalty much greater than the 7'esults of 
the judgment they have gained. The good men written 
down on other tablets^ does he keep. And still these wicked 
persons entertain a notion of theirs, that they are able to 
appease Jupiter with gifts, with sacrifice ; both their labour 
and their cost they lose. This, for this reason, is so, because 
no petition of the peijured is acceptable to Him. If any 
person that is supplicating the Deities is pious, he tnoII moro 
easily procure pardon for himself than he that is wicked. 
Therefore I do advise you this, you who are good and who 
pass your lives in piety and in virtue — still persevere, that one 
day you may rejoice that so you did. Now, the reason lor 
which I've come hither, I will disclose to you. First, then, 
Diphilus^ has willed the name of this city to be Cyrene'^. 
There {pointing to the cottage) dwells Daemones, in the country 
and in a cottage very close adjoiningto the sea, an old gentleman 
who has come hither in exile from Athens, no unworthy man. 
And still, not for his bad deserts has he left his country, but 
while he was aiding others, meanwhile himself he embarrassed : 
a property honorably acquired he lost by his kindly ways. 
Long since, his daughter, then a little child, was lost ; a most 
villanous fellow bought her of the thief, and this Procurer^ 
brought the maiden hither to Cyrene. A certain Athenian 
youth, a citizen of this city, beheld her as she was going 
home from the music-school. He begins to love her ; to the 
Procurer he comes ; he purchases the damsel for himself at 
the price of thirty minas, and gives him earnest, and binds 

* Written doton on other tablets') — Ver. 21. This is not unlike the words of the 
Psalmist, Psalm Ivi., 8 : " Thou tellest my wanderings ; put thou my tears into 
thy bottle. Are they not in thy book ?" 

2 Diphiltis) — Ver. 32. He was a Greek Comic Poet, from whom Plautus is sup- 
posed to have borrowed the plot of several of his Plays. 

3 Cyreuf ) — Ver. 33. Tliis was a famous city of Libya, said to have been 
founded by Ari.staius, tlie son of the Nymph Cyrene. It was situate in a fertile 
plain, about eleven miles from the Metiiterranean, and was the capitid of a 
district called " Pentapolis," from the five cities which it contained. 

* This Procurer) — Ver. 41. " Leno." Tl)e calling of the " lenones" wa* tc 
traffic in young female slaves, to whom tliey gave an accomplished education, and 
then sold them or let them out for the purjxaees of prostitution. The " knoneg ' 
vere deservedly reckoned infamous. 



THE FISHEEMAN'S EOPE. 67 

the Procurer with an oath. This Procurer, just as befitted 
hini, did not value at one straw his word, or what, on oath, he 
had said to the young man. He had a guest, a fit match for 
himself, an old man of Sicily, a rascal from Agrigentum^, a 
traitor to his native city ; this fellow^ began to extol the beauty 
of that maiden, and of the other damsels, too, that were be- 
longing to him. On this he began to persuade the Procurer ta 
go together with himself to Sicily ; he said that there the 
men were given to pleasure ; that there he might be enabled 
to become a wealthy man ; that there was the greatest profit 
from courtesans. He prevails. A ship is hired by stealth. 
Whatever he has, by night the Procurer carries it on board 
ship from his house ; the young man who purchased the dam- 
sel of him he has told that he is desirous of performing a a^ow 
to Venus. This is the Temple of Venus, here (pointing at 
it), and here, for that reason, has he invited the youth hither 
to a breakfast-. From there at once did he embark on board 
ship, and he carried off the courtesans. Some other persons 
informed the young man what things were going on, how that 
the Procurer had departed. When the young man came to the 
harbour, their ship had got a great w^ay out to sea. When I 
beheld how that the maiden was being carried off, I brought 
at the same instant both relief to her and destruction to the 
Procurer ; the storm I rebuked, and the waves of the sea I 
aroused. For the most violent Constellation of them all am 
I, Arcturus ; turbulent I am when rising, when I set, more tur- 
bulent still. Now, cast ashore there, both the Procurer and 
his guest are sitting upon a rock ; their ship is dashed to pieces. 
But this maiden, and another as well, her attendant, affrighted, 
have leaped from the ship into a boat. At this moment the 
waves are bringing them from the rocks to land, to the cot- 
tage of this old man, who is living here in exile, whose roof 
and tiles the storm has stript off. And this is his servant 
who is coming out of doors. The youth will be here just 

' Agrigentum) — Ver. 50. Tliis was a town of Sicily, on Mount Acragas, about 
two miles from the sea. Its inhabitants were famed for tlieir luxurious mode of 
living. 

^ To a breakfast) — Ver 61. This probably refers to the meal which took place 
after the sacritice. for which certain portions of the victin , particularlj the 
eotrails, were reserved. See the Miles Gloriosus, 1. 712. 

f 2 



68 EUDElfB Act 1. 

now, and you shall see him, who purchased the maiden of 
the Procurer. Now, fare ye well, and may your foes^ dis- 
trust themselves. {Exit. 
Act p. — Scene I. 
Mnter Scepabnio, vnth a spade on Ms shoulder. 
ScEP. {to himself). O ye immortal Grods, what a dreadful 
tempest has Neptune sent us this last night ! The storm 
has unroofed the cottage. What need of words is there ? 
It was no storm, but what Alcmena met with in Euripides^ ; 
it has so knocked all the tiles from oif the roof; more light 
has it given us, and has added to our windows. 

ScEiTE II. — JEnter Plesidippus, at a distance, talking with 
three Citizens. 
Ples. I have both withdrawn you from your avocations, 
and that has not succeeded on account of which I've 
brought you ; I could not catch the Procurer down at the 
harbour. But I have been unwilling to abandon all hope by 
reason of my remissness ; on that account, my friends, have I 
the longer detained you. Now hither to the Temple of Venus 

» May ymir foes) — Ver. 82. The Cartliagiuians are alluded to; this Play having 
been written during the second Punic war. 

2 Act /.) We may here remark, that the Play is called " the Fisherman's Rope " 
in consequence of the important part which, towards the close, the rope acts in 
bringing the wallet to shore in tiie net. The scenery of this Play must have been 
much more picturesque than that of those of Plautus in general. At the end ol 
the stage is a prospect of the sea, interspersed with rocks in the distance, whik' 
others project upon the front of the stage. The City of Cyrene is also seen in the 
distance; while nearer to the Audience is the Temple of Venus, with an altar in 
front of it; and adjoining the Temple is the cottage of Daemones. Some other 
cottages are also seen at a distance. If the comparison may be made, it bears 
some slight resemblance to the Tempest of Shakspeare. 

3 In Euripides) — Ver. 86. He alludes to a Tragedy of Euripides so named, 
where a dreadful storm was so accurately represented that at length the Play 

ecame a proverbial expression for tempestuous weather. IMadame Dacier ob- 
serves, that it was not strange for Scepaniio to mention this, as he miglit often 
have seen it represented at Athens upon the stage. This notion is somewiiat 
far-fetched, as it is not likely that Plautus troubled himself about such a fine 
point, or that the Audience was gifted with any such nicety of perception as to 
note his accuracy, even if he had. It has been suggested, and not at all impro- 
bably, that Plautus borrowed the Scene of the thunder and lightning in his Aaa- 
^itryon from this Play of Euripides. 



Sc. 111. THE FISHERMAN'S EOPE. G9 

am 1 come to see, where he was saying that he was about 
Xaj perform a sacrifice. 

ScEP. (aloud to himself, at a distance). If 1 am wise, I 
shall be getting ready this clay that is awaiting me. {Falls 
to work digging.) 

Ples. (looking round). Some one, I know not who, is 
speaking near to me. 

Scene III. — Enter Djemones, from his house. 

D-EM. Hallo ! Sceparnio ! 

ScEP. Who's calling me by name ? 

D^M. He who paid his money for you. 

ScEP. (turning round). As though you would say, Dae- 
mones, that I am your slave. 

D^M. There's occasion for plenty of clay^, therefore dig 
up plenty of earth. I find that the whole of my cottage must 
be covered ; for now it's shining through it, more full of holes 
than a sieve. 

Ples. (advancing). Health to you, good father, and to both 
of you, indeed. i)^M. Health to you. 

Scep. (to Plesidippus, who is muffled up in a coat). But 
whether are you male or female, who are calling him father ? 

Ples, Why really, I'm a man. 

D JEM. Then, man, go seek a father elsewhere. I once h.td 
an only daughter, that only one I lost. Of the male sex I 
never had a child. 

Ples. But the Gods will give 

Scep. (going on digging). A heavy mischance ijo you indeed, 
i' faith, whoever you are, who are occupying us, already occu- 
pied, with your prating. 

Ples. (pointing to the cottage). Pray are you dwelling 
there ? 

Scep. Why do you ask that ? Are you reconnoitring the 
place for you to come and rob there ? 

Ples. It befits a slave to be right rich in his savings, 
whom, in the presence of his master, the conversation cannot 
escape, or who is to speak rudely to a free man. 

Scep. And it befits a man to be shameless and im])u- 
dent, for him to whom there's nothing owing, of his own 

» Plenty of clay) — Ver 100. He probably means clay for the purpose of dryiup 
•Qd making tiles with it. 



70 EUDE^^s ; Act L 

accord to come to the house of another person annoying 
people. 

DiEM. Scepamio, hold your tongue. (To Plesidipptjs.) 
What do you want, young man ? 

Ples. a mishap to that fellow, who is in a hurry to be the 
first to speak when his master's present. But, unless it's 
troublesome, I wish to make enquiry of you in a few words. 

Djem. My attention shall be given you, eyen though in the 
midst of business. 

ScEP. {to Plesidippus). Eather, be off with you to the 
marsh, and cut down some reeds^, with which we may cover 
the cottage, while it is fine weather. 

DiBM. Hold your tongue. Do you tell me {to Puesidifpus) 
if you have need of anything. 

Ples. Inform me on what I ask you ; whether you have 
seen here any frizzle-headed fellow, with grey hair, a worth- 
less, perjured, fawning knave. 

D^M. Pull many a one ; for by reason of fellows of that 
stamp am I living in misery. 

Ples. Him, I mean, who brought with him to the Temple 
of Venus here two young women, and who was to make pre- 
parations for himself to perform a sacrifice either to-day or 
yesterday. 

Djbm. By my faith, young man, for these very many days 
past I haven't seen any one sacrificing there ; and yet it can't 
be unknown to me if any one does sacrifice there. They are 
always asking here for water, or for fire, or for vessels, or for 
a knife, or for a spit, or for a pot for cooking^, or something 
or other. What need is there of words? I procured my 
vessels and my well, for the use of Venus, and not my own. 
There has now been a cessation of it for these many days past. 

Ples. According to the words you utter, you tell me I'm 
undone. D^m. Eeally, so far as I'm concerned, i' faith, 
you may be safe and sound. 

ScEP. {stopping in his digging). Hark you, you that are 
roaming about Temples for the sake of your stomach, 'twere 

» S(me reeds')— Ver. 122. From this we learn that the cottage of Dsemones was 
covered with a kind of thatch. This and 1. 18 of the Miles GloriosQS are pro. 
bably the earliest instances in which thatched roofs are mentioned. 

' A pot far coofang)—Yer. 135. " Aula extaris." JLiterally, " a pot for /lold. 
ing the entrails" of the animuls sacrificed. 




Sc. III. THE fisherman's ROPE. 71 

better for you to order a breakfast to be got ready at home. 
Perhaps you've been invited here^ to breakfast. He that 
invited you, hasn't he come at all ? 

Ples' 'Tis the fact. 

ScEP. There's no risk then in your betaking yourself hence 
home without your breakfast. It's better for you to be a 
waiter upon Ceres than upon Venus ; the latter attends to 
love, Ceres attends to wheat. 

Ples. (to Djemones). This fellow has been making sport 
of me in a digraceful manner. 

Djem. {looking out at the side). O ye immortal Grods, Sce- 
parnio, what means those people near the sea-shore ? 

ScEP. According to my notion, they've been invited to a 
parting breakfast^. 

DiEM. How so? ScEP. Why, because, after dinner, I 
fancy, they yesterday washed themselves clean; their ship 
has gone to pieces out at sea. 

Djgm. {looking steadfastly). Such is the fact. 

ScEP. But, i' faith, on dry land our cottage and tiles have 
done the same. 

D^M. Oh dear ! what unfortunate creatures you are ; {tc 
ScEPARifio) how the shipwrecked people are swimming. 

Ples. Prithee, where are these people? 

D^M. {pointing to the distance). This way, to the right; 
don't you see them near the shore ? 

Ples. {looking the same way). I see them ; {to his Priends) 
follow me. I only wish it may be he that I'm seeking, that 
most accursed fellow. (To Djemones and Sceparnio.) Fare 
you well. 

Scep. If you hadn't put us in mind, we should have thought 
of that ourselves. {JExeunt Plesidippus and Priends. 

* Been invited here) — Ver. 1 42. It was the custom of Parasites to prowl about 
the Temples, for the purpose of joining in the feasts which sometimes took place 
at the conclusion of the sacrifice. 

^ To a parting breakfast) — Ver. 150. " Prandium propter viam." Thornton 
has the following Note here : " This is a sorry joke, even for Sceparnio, on so se- 
rious and melancholy an occasion, and cannot be well expressed in our tongue. 
When the ancients were about to undertake any voyage, they used to make a sa- 
crifice to Hercules before they set off, wliich was for that reason called ' propter 
viam;' and the custom was to burn all they didn't eat. Wherefore Sceparnio 
says ' laverunt,' which signifies ' they have consumed their all' as well as • they 
have bathed.' alluding to the ship being lost." 



72 BUDENS ; Act L 

Scene IT. — Scepabnio and Djemones. 

ScEP. {looking out towards the sea). But, Palaemon^, 
hallowed associate of Neptune, who art said to be the partner 
of Hercules, what shocking thing do I see ? 

D^M. What do you see ? 

ScEP. I see two young women sitting in a hoat alone. 
How the poor things are being tossed about ! That's good, 
that's good, well done. The surge is driving the boat away 
from the rock towards the shore. Not a pilot could have 
ever done it better. I don't think that I ever saw billows 
more huge. They are saved, if they can escape those waves. 
Now, now's the danger; it has sent one overboard! See 
you that one whom the waves have thrown out of the boat ? 
Still, she's in a shallow place; she'll easily wade through 
it now. O capital! now she's safe; she has escaped from 
the water; she's now on shore. But that other one has 
notv sprung towards the land from the boat — from her alarm 
she has fallen into the waves upon her knees. She has got 
up again ; if she takes this direction, the matter's safe ; {a 
pause) but she has taken to the right, to utter destruction. 
Ah, she will be wandering all the day 

D^M. What signifies that to you ? 

ScEP. If she should fall down from that rock towards which 
she is wending her way, she'll be putting a period to her 
wandering. 

D^M. If you are about to dine this evening at their ex- 
pense, I think you may then be concerned for them, Sceparnio ; 
if you are going to eat at my house, I wish your services to 
be devoted to myself. 

ScEP. You ask what's good and proper. 

D^M. Then follow me this way. Scep. I follow^. (Exeunt. 

Scene V. — Enter Palestra, at a distance^ with her clothes 
torn and drenched. 
Pal. (Jo herself). By heavens, the mishaps of mortals are 
spoken of as much less bitter than * * * * 

• Palcrniori) — Ver. 160. This was one of the names of Melicerta. or Portunos, 
the son of Athamas and Ino. Athamas being abo'.;t to slay him and Ino, they 
leaped into the sea, where they became sea Divinities. 

2 I folloio) — Ver. 184. The Scene of the wreck, previously described by Sce- 
parnio, was probably not visible to the Audience, but was depicted by him whiil 
directing his view towaris the sid» of the *tage. 



Sc. V . *HE nSHERMAlf'S ROPE. 73 

♦ * * the sharp pangs that are inflicted in ^le 

experience of them * * * * jjaa 

this then pleased the Deity, that I, clad in this guise, should, 
in my terror, be cast upon a spot unknown ? Shall I then 
declare that I have been born to this wretched lot ? Do I 
receive this meed in return for my exemplary piety ? For 
to me it would not prove a hardship to endure this laborious 
lot, if I had conducted myself undutifully towards my parents 
or the Grods ; but if studiously I have exerted myself to beware 
o/'^a^, then, unduly «w^ unjustly. Deities, you send upon me 
this. For what henceforth shall the glaringly impious receive, 
if after this fashion you pay honor to the guiltless ? But if I 
knew that I or my parents had done anything wicked, now 
should I have grieved the less. But the wickedness of thu 
master of mine is pressing hard upon me, his impiety is causing 
my woes ; everything has he lost in the sea ; these are the 
remains {looking at her dress) of his property. Even she, who 
was carried together with me in the boat, was washed out by 
the violence of the waves ; I am now alone. If she at least^ 
had been saved for me, through her aid my affliction here would 
have been lighter to me. jN^ow, what hope or aid or what 
counsel shall I receive, a spot so lonesome here have I lighted 
upon alone ? Here are the rocks, here roars the sea, and not 
one individual comes across my path. This dress that I am 
clothed in forms all my riches quite entirely ; nor know I with 
what food or roof I am to be provided. What hope have I 
through which to desire to live ? Neither am I acquainted with 
the place, nor was I ever here before. At least I could have 
wished for some one who would point out to me either a road 
or a path from these spots ; so much am I now at a loss for ad- 
vice whether to go this way or that ; neither, indeed, do I see^ 
anywhere near here a cultivated spot. Cold, distraction, and 

* If she at least) — Ver. 202. Exactly the same sentiment occurs to Defoe's 
hero, Robinson Crusoe, when he visits the Spanish ship wrecked off" his island: 
" I cannot explain by any possible energy of words what a strange longing 
or hankering of desires I felt in my soul upon this siglit, breaking out some- 
times thus, ' that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one soul saved 
out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that 1 might have had one companion, 
one fellow-creature to have spoken to me and to have conversed with I' " 

' Neither, indeed, do I see) — Ver. 214. Slie is unable to see the Temple ot 
Venus and the house of Dsemones, by reason of the high crags among w'aich she it 
wandering, some of which are reoretiented in the front of the stage. 



74 EUDENS ; Act I. 

alarm, have taken possession oi all my limbs. My parents, 
you know not of this, that I am now thus wretched ; I that 
was born a woman entirely free, was so to no purpose. Am 
I at all the less in servitude now, than if I had been bom a 
slave ? And never in any way has it been a profit to those 
who for their own sakes reared me up. (She advances for- 
wardj and rests on one side against the cliff.) 

Scene YI. — Enter Ampelisca, at a distance, on the other 
side of the stage, in a similar condition. 

Amp. (to herself). What is there better for me, what mor< 
to my advantage, than to shut out life from my body ? Se 
wretched am I in my existence, and so many deadening cares 
are there in my breast ; so despicable is my lot ; I care not for 
my life ; I have lost the hope with which I used to comfort 
myself. All places have I now rambled about, and through 
each covert spot have I crawled along, to seek my fellow-slave 
with voice, eyes, ears, that I might trace her out. And still 
I find her nowhere, nor have I yet determined whither to go, 
nor where to seek her, nor, in the meantime, do I find any 
person here to give me an answer, of whom I might make 
enquiry. No place, too, is there on earth more solitary than 
are these spots and this locality. And yet, if she lives, never 
while I exist will I cease before I discover her alive. 

Pal. {aloud). Whose voice is it that sounds close by me 
here ? 

Amp. {starting). I am alarmed. Who's speaking near me ? 

Pal. Prithee, kind Hope, do come to my aid. 

Amp. It's a woman : a woman's voice reaches my ears. Will 
/on not rescue wretched me from this alarm ? 

Pal, Surely a woman's voice reached my ears. Prithee^ 
is it Ampelisca ? 

Amp. Is it you, Palaestra, that I hear ? 

Pal. But why don't I call her by her own name, that sho 
mav hear me ? {With a loud voice.) Ampelisca! 

Amp. Ha! who's that ? Pal. 'Tis I. 

Amp. Is it Palaestra ? Pal. It is. 

Amp. Tell me where"^ you are. 

Pal. Troth, I'm now in the midst of a multitude of woes. 

* TeU me where) — Ver. 238. It must be remembered that tliey are still separatea 
»y the crags upoc the stage, though they are both visible to the Audience. 



Re. YIl. THE fisheeman's eopb. ^5 

Amp. I am your partner ; and no less is my own slare than 
yoiu's. But I long to see you. 

Pal. In that wish you are my rival. 

Amp. Let's f^iiow our voices with our steps; where are 
you ? Pal. See, here am I. Step onward towards me, and 
come straight on to meet me. 

Amp. I'm doing so with care. {They meet in front of five 
stage.) 

Pal. Grive me your hand. Amp. Take it. 

Pal. Are you still alive ? Prithee, tell me. 

Amp. You, indeed, make me now wish to live, since I'm 
empowered to touch you. How hardly can I persuade myself 
of this, that I am holding you. Prithee, do embrace me {they 
embrace), my only hope; how you are now easing me of all 
my woes. 

Pal. You are beforehand with me in using expressions 
which belong to m.e. Now it befits us to be going hence. 

Amp. Prithee, whither shall we go ? 

Pal. Let's keep along this sea-shore. {Pointing to the 
shore.) Amp. Wherever you please, I'll follow. 

Pal. Shall we go along thus with our wet clothing ? 

Amp. That which exists, the same must of necessity be 
borne. {Looking up at the Temple.) But, pray, what's this ? 

Pal. What is it? Amp. Prithee, don't you see this Temple ? 
{Pointing towards it.) 

Pal. Where is it ? Amp. On the right hand. 

Pal. I seem to be looking at a place becoming the Divini- 
ties. 

Amp. There must be people not far hence ; it is so de- 
lightful a spot. Whoever the God is, I pray him to relieve us 
from these troubles, and to succour us females, wretched, lielp- 
less, and in distress. {They advance towards the Temple, and 
kneel doiun before it.) 

ScEiTE VII. — JEnter Ptolemocratia, the Triest ess, from the 
Temple of Femes. 

Ptol. Who are these, that in their prayers are soliciting 
aid from my Patroness ? For the voice of suppliants has 
brought me hither out of doors. They pay suit to a kind and 
compliant Groddess and a Patroness that makes no difficulties, 
and one who is very b«nevolent. 



76 BTTDENS ; Act 11. 

Pal. Mother, we bid you hail. Ptol. Maidens, hail to 
you. But, prithee, whence am I to say that you are hither 
come with your wet garments, thus wot'ully arrayed ? 

Pal. Just now, we came from a place there {pointing 
towards the shore), not a great way from this spot ; but it is a 
great way off from here, whence we have been brought hither. 

Ptol. Have you been borne, do you mean, by a ship, the 
wooden steed^, over the azure paths ? 

Pal. Even so. Ptol. Then it were more fitting that you 
should have come arrayed in white and provided with vic- 
tims ; it isn't the practice for people to come to this Temple 
111 that fashion. {Pointing at their dresses.) 

Pal. Prithee, whence would you have us, who have been 
both cast away at sea, to be bringing victims hither ? Now, in 
want of assistance, do we embrace your knees, we who are of 
hopes undefined in places unknown, that you may receive us 
under your roof and shelter us, and that you will pity the 
miseries of us both, who have neither any place of refuge nor 
hope at hand, nor have anything whatever of our own beyond 
that which you see, 

Ptol. Grive me your hands, arise, both of you, from off" your 
knees ; no one among women is more compassionate than 1, 
{They arise from the ground^ But, maidens, my circumstances 
are poor and limited ; with difficulty I support my own exist- 
ence ; Venus I serve for my maintenance. 

Amp. Prithee, is this a Temple of Venus ? 

Ptol. I will admit it ; I am styled the Priestess of this 
Temple. But whatever it is, it shall be done by me with a 
hearty welcome, so far as my means shall suffice. Come with 
me this way. 

Pal. Kindly and attentively, mother, do you show your 
attentions to us. 

Ptol. So I ought to do. {They go into the Temple.) 

Act II. — Scene I. 

Enter some Pishermen, with lines and nets, 

A PiSHERMAK. Persons who are poor live Avretchedly in 

every way, especially those who have no calling and have 

learned no art. Of necessity must that be deemed enough, 

whatever they have at home. From our garb, then, you pretty 

77i« wooden steed}— \er. 26?. Homer calls ships «' horses of the sea." 



8c. II. THJB FISHEEMA-IT'S EOPE. 77 

well understand how wealthy we are. These hooks and these 
rods here are as good to us as a calling and as our clothing. 
Each day from the city do we come out hither to the sea to 
seek for forage. Instead of exertion in the wrestling-school 
and the place for exercise, we have this : sea-urchins, rock- 
mussels, oysters, limpets^, cockles, sea-nettles, sea-mussels, 
and spotted crabs^, we catch. After that, we commence our 
fitihing with the hook and among the rocks, and thus we take 
our food from out of the sea. If success does not befall us, 
and not any fish is taken, soaked in salt water^ and thoroughly 
drenched, we quietly betake ourselves home, and without 
dinner go to sleep. And since the sea is now in waves so 
boisterous, no hopes have we ; unless we take some cockles, 
without a doubt we've had our dinners. Now let's adore 
good Venus here, that she may kindly befriend us to-day. 
{They advance towards the door of the Temple.) 

Scene II. — Enter Tra^chalio, at a distance, in haste. 

Tbach. (to himself). I've carefully given all attention 
that I mightn't pass my master anyv\'here ; for when some 
time since he went out of the house, he said that he was 
going to the harbour, and he ordered me to come here to 
meet him at the Temple of Venus. But see, oppoi-tunely 
do I espy some people standing here of whom I may enquire ; 
I'll accost them. {Ooes up to the Fishermen.) Save you, 
thieves of the sea, shellfish-gatherers and hook-fishers*, hun- 
gry race of men, how fare ye ? How perish apace° ? 

j^impets) — Ver. 297. " Balanos." It is not known what shellfish the " ba- 
lani" really were. 

'-^ Spotted crahs) — Ver. 298. It is not known what kind of fish the " plagusia" 
was. 

3 Soaked in salt water) — Ver 301. " Salsi lautique pure." Thornton says, 
" ^ladame Dacier supposes that a joke is intemied here, from the equivocal 
meaning of the words, which might mean that they had been entertained with 
high-seasoned cates, or that they had been washed and cleansed with salt water 
' J"alsi,' says she, because sea- water is salt ; ' pure,' because sea- water wasl« 
away all impurities." 

* Shellfish-gatherers and hook-fishers') — Ver. 310. "Conchitae — hamista.'' 
These words are supposed to have been coined by Plautus for the occasion. 

^ How perish apace) — Ver. 311. Thornton has this Note here: " 'ihere is ar 
humour in the original which could not be preserved in our language. Instead of 
aoking the fishermen ' Ut valetis?' which was the common phmse of salutation, 
Iraclialio addresses them in the opposite term, 'Utperitis?' — prooably \n allU' 
won to theu- perU^^w* calliiyj.'' 



78 RUDENS; Act ir. 

FisHEE. Just as bcfiti a fisherman with hunger, thirst, 
and expectation. 

TiiACH. Have you seen to-day, while you've been standing 
here, any young man, of courageous aspect, ruddy, stout, of 
genteel appearance, come by this way, who was taking with 
him three men in scarfs, wath swords ? 

FisHEE. We know of no one coming this way of that ap- 
pearance which you mention. 

Teach. Have you seen any old fellow, bald on the forehead 
and snub-nosed, of big stature, pot-bellied, with eyebrows 
awry, a narrow forehead, a knave, the scorn of Gods and men, 
a scoundrel, one full of vile dishonesty and of iniquity, who 
had along with him two very pretty-looking young women ? 

FiSHEE. One who has been born with qualities and endow- 
ments of that sort, 'twere really fitter for him to resort to the 
executioner than to the Temple of Venus. 

Teach. But tell me if you have seen him. 

FisHEE. Beally, no one has passed this way. Fare you 
well. 

Teach. Fare ye well. {Exeunt Fisheemen. 

Scene III. — Teachalio, alone. 

Teach, (to himself). I thought so ; it has come to pass as 
I suspected ; my master has been deceived ; the cursed Pro- 
curer has taken himself off* to distant lands. He has em- 
barked on board ship, and carried the women away ; I'm a 
wizard. He invited my master here to breakfast, as well, 
this very spawn of wickedness. Now what is better for me 
than to wait here in this spot until my master comes ? At 
the same time, if this Priestess of Venus knows anything 
more, if I see her, I'U make enquiries ; she'll give me the in« 
formation. 

Scene IV. — Enter Ampelisca,^ow the Temple, 

Amp. (i^o^^ePEiESTESS, w^Am). I understand ; here at this 
cottage {pointing to it), which is close by the Temple ol 
V^nus, you've requested me to knock and ask for water. 

Teach. Whose voice is it that has flown to my ears ? 

Amp. Prithee, who's speaking here ? Who is it that I see ? 

Teach. Isn't this Ampelisca that's coming out from th© 
Temple ? 



Be. IT. THE FISHERMAIf'S ROPE. 79 

Amp. Isn't this TracLalio that I see, the servant of PI©- 
sidippus ? 

Trach. It is she. Amp. It is he ; Trachalio, health to you. 

Trach. Health, Ampelisca, to you ; how fare you ? 

Amp. In misery I pass a life not far advanced^. 

Trach. Do give some better omen. Amp. Still it behoves 
all prudent persons to confer and talk together. But, prithee, 
where' s your master, Plesidippus ? 

Trach. Marry, weU said, indeed ; as if he wasn't within 
there. {^Pointing to the Temple^ 

Auv. By my troth, he isn't, nor, in fact, has he come her© 
at all. 

Trach. He hasn't come ? Amp. Ton say the truth. 

Trach. That's not my way, Ampelisca. But how nearly 
is the breakfast got ready ? 

Amp. What breakfast, I beg of you ? Trach. The sacrifice, 
I mean, that you are performing here. 

Amp. Prithee, what is it you are dreaming about ? 

Trach. For certain, Labrax invited Plesidippus hither to 
a breakfast, your master, my master. 

Amp. By my troth, you're telling of no wondrous facts : 
if he has deceived Gods and men, he has onli/ acted after 
the fashion of Procurers. 

Trach. Then neither yourselves nor my master are here 
performing a sacrifice. 

Amp. You are a wizard. Trach. What are you doing then ? 

Amp. The Priestess of Venus has received here into her 
abode both myself and Palaestra, after many mishaps and 
dreadful alarm, and from being in danger of our lives, desti- 
tute of aid and of resources. 

Trach. Prithee, is Palsestra here, the beloved of my 
master ? 

Amp. Assuredly. Trach. Great joyousness is there in 
your news, my dear Ampelisca. But I greatly long to know 
what was this danger of yours. 

Amp. Last night our ship was wrecked, my dear Trachalio. 

Trach. How, ship ? What story's this ? 

Amp. Prithe'3, have you not heard in what way the Pro- 
curer intended secretly to carry us away hence to Sicily, 

• Not far advanced) — Ver. 337. She seems to mean that, m the prime oi Kf« 
Her misfortunes are greater than might have been anticipated bj tf le so joitig . 



80 KUDEirs ; Act II. 

and liow, whatever there was at home, he placed on board 
ship ? That has all gone to the bottom now. 

Tba.ch. O clever Neptune, hail to thee ! Surely, no dicer 
is more skilful than thyself. Decidedly a right pleasant throw' 
liast thou made ; thou didst break a — villain. But where now 
is the Procurer Labrax ? 

Amp. Perished through drinking, I suppose; Neptune 
last night invited him to deep potations. 

Tkach. By my troth, I fancy it was given him to drink by 
way of cup of necessity^. How much I do love you, my dear 
Ampelisca ; how pleasing you are ; what honied words you 
do utter. But you and Palaestra, in what way were you saved ? 

Amp. I'll let you know. Both in affright, we leapt from the 
ship into a boat, because we saw that the ship was being borne 
upon a rock ; in haste, I unloosed the rope, while they were 
in dismay. The storm separated us from them with the 
boat in a direction to the right. And so, tossed about by 
winds and waves, in a multitude of ways, we, wretched crea- 
tures^ during the livelong night # * * ♦ 
* * * half dead, the wind this day has scarce 
borne us to the shore. 

Teach. I understand ; thus is Neptune wont to do ; he 
is a very dainty ^dile^ ; if any wares are bad, over he throws 
them all. 

Amp. Woe to your head and life ! 

Trach. To your own, my dear Ampelisca. I was sure that 
the Procurer Mould do that which he has done ; I often said 
90. It were better I should let my hair grow*, and set up 
for a soothsayer. 

* Right pleasant throw) — Ver. 360. There is a joke liere, which depends on the 
double meaning of "jacere bolum" and " perdere." Tlie former signifies, "ti 
cast a uet" and " to cast a throw of dice." " Perdere" signifies, " to cause to 
perish," and " to break" or " ruin," in the gamester's sense. 

2 Cup of necessity) — Ver. 365. " Anancaeum," " the cup of necessity," which 
derived its name from the Greek word ai/ayicr;, *' necessity," was so called from the 
custom, in feasts, of handing round a large goblet, which all were obliged to 
empty, without losing a drop. Trachalio alludes to the large draught of salt 
water which he supposes Labrax has had to swallow at the bidding of Neptune. 

' Very dainty j£dile)—Wer. 373-4. It was the duty of the ^diles at Rome tc 
visit the markets and inspect the wares, like the Agoranomus, or " market- 
offiror," of the Greeks. See the Miles Gloriosus, 1. 727, and the Note. 

« Le* my hair grow) — Ver. 377. It is suprosed to have been the custora ct 
MOt^sayexs and diviners to let their hair grow -o i greater len^tik than UMuat 



SC. IV. THE l-ISHEKMA?f'S HOPE. 81 

Amp. Did you not take care then, you and your master, 
that he shouldn't go away, when you knew this? 

Teach. What could he do ? Amp. If he was in love, do 
you ask what he could do ? Both night and day he should 
have kept watch ; he should have been always on his guard. 
But, by my troth, he has done like many others ; thus finely 
has Plesidippus taken care of her. 

Teach. Eor what reason do you say that? 

Amp. The thing is evident. 

Teach. Don't you know this ? Even he who goes to the 
bath to bathe, while there he carefully keeps an eye upon his 
garments, still they are stolen ; inasmuch as some one of 
those that he is watching is a rogue ; tlie thief easily marks 
him for whom he's upon the watch ; the keeper knows not 
which one is the thief. But bring me to her ; where is she ? 

Amp. Well then, go here into the Temple of A^enus ; you'll 
find her sitting there, and in tears. Teach. How disagreab.e 
is that to me already. But why is she weeping ? 

Amp. I'll tell you; she's afflicting herself in mind for 
this; because the Procurer took away a casket froua her 
which she had, and in which she kept that by which she might 
be enabled to recognize her parents ; she fears that this has 
been lost. 

Teach. Where was that little casket, pray ? 

Amp. There, on board the ship ; he himself locked it up in 
his wallet, that there mightn't be the means by which she 
might recognize her parents. 

Teach. scandalous deed ! to require ner to be a slave, 
who ought to be a free woman. 

Amp. Therefore she now laments that it has gone to the 
bottom along with the ship. There, too, was all the gold 
and silver of the Procurer. 

Teach. Some one, I trust, has dived and brought it up. 

Amp. Por this reason is she sad and disconsolate, that she 
has met with the loss of them. 

Teach. Then have I the greater occasion to do this, to go 
m and console her, that she mayn't thus distress herself in 
mind. Por I know that many a lucky thing has happened 
to many a one beyond their hopes. 

Amp. But I know too that hope has deceived many who 
have hoped. 

Teach. Therefore a patient mind is the best remedy for 

VOL. II. O 



82 BUDEKS ; xict 11, 

afiliction. I'l! go in, unless you wish for anything. {Ooes 
into the Temple.^ 

Amp. Go. {To herself?) I'll do that which the Priestess 
requested me, and I'll ask for some water here at the neigh- 
bour's ; for she said that if I asked for it in her name, they 
would give it directly. And I do think that I never saw a 
more worthy old lady, one to whom I should think that it is 
more befitting for Gods and men to show kindness. How 
courteously, how heartily, how kindly, how, without the least 
difficulty, she received us into her home, trembling, in want, 
drenched, shipwrecked, half dead ; not otherwise, in fact, 
than if we had been her own offspring. How hindly did 
she herself, just now, tucking up her garments, make the 
water warm for us to bathe. Now, that I mayn't keep her 
waiting, I'll fetch some water from the place where she re- 
quested me. {Knocking at the door of Dj^imokes.) Hallo, 
there, is there any one in the cottage ? Is any one going to 
open this door ? Will any one come out ? 

Scene V. — Enter ScepabniOj/z-otw the cottage o/'DiEMONES. 

SoEP. Who is it so furiously making an attack upon our 
door? 

Amp. It's I. ScEP. Well now, what good news is there? 
{Aside?) Dear me, a lass of comely appearance, i' troth. 

Amp. Greeting to you, young man. Scep. And many 
greetings to you, young woman. 

Amp, I'm come to you Scep. I'll receive you with a 

welcome, if you come in the evening, by-and-by, just such as 
I could like ; for just now I've no means^ to receive you, a 
damsel, thus early in the morning * * * 

But what have you to say, my smiling, pretty one. {Chuchs 
her under the chin?) 

Amp. Oh, you're handling me too familiarly, {Moves away?) 

Scep. ye immortal Gods! she's the very image of 

1 For just now Fve no means) — Ver. 4] 8. This line has greatly puzzled the 
Commentators. Sceparnio, however, seems to mean that at present he is busy, 
and cannot attend to her, but that in tlie evening he will be at her service. It 
has been suggested that a double entendre is meant ; and such may possibly he 
the case, though the pungency of the passage is lost by reason of the hiatus in 
the next line. The meaning may, however, be harmless, and he may intend to 
say that at present he is busy thatching the house, but that at nighttail lie wiH 
Lave finished, when she may count uDon beuig hospitably encertamed. 



Sc V. THE riSEERMAN's HOPE. 83 

Venus. "WTiat joyousness tliere is in her eyes, and, only do 
see, what a skin ; 'tis of the vulture's tint^, — rather, the eagle's, 
indeed, I meant to say. Her breasts, too, how beautiful ; and 
then what expression on her lips ! {Takes hold of her. ^ 

Amp, (struggling). I'm no common commodity for the 
whole township^ ; can't you keep your hands off me ? 

ScEP. {patting her). Won't you let me touch you, gentle 
one, in this manner, gently and lovingly p. * * * 

« * «: * # 

Amp. When I have leisure, then I'll be giving my atten- 
tion to toying and dalliance to please you ; for the present, 
prithee, do either say me " Yes" or " No" to the matter for 
which I was sent hither. 

ScEP. What now is it that you wish ? 

Amp. (pointing to her pitcher). To a shrewd person, my 
equipment would give indications of what it is I want. 

ScEP. To a shrewd woman, this equipment, too, of mine, 
would give indication of what it is I want. 

Amp. (pointing to the Temple). The Priestess there of Ve- 
nus, requested me to fetch some water from your house here. 

ScEP. But I'm a lordly sort of person ; unless you entreat 
me, you slian't have a drop. We dug this well mth danger 
to ourselves, and with tools of iron. Not a drop can be got 
out of me except by means of plenty of blandishments. 

Amp. Prithee, why do you make so much fuss about the 
water — a thing that even enemy affords to enemy ? 

ScEP. Why do you make so much fuss about granting a 
favour to me, that citizen grants to citizen ? 

Amp. On the contrary, my sweet one, I'll even do every- 
thing for you that you wish. 

ScEP. charming ! I am favoured ; she's now calling me 

* Of the vultures tint) — Ver. 423. There is a poor joke here upon the words 
" subaquihim" and " subvulturium," Sceparnio means to describe the com- 
plexion of Ampelisca as somewhat resembling the colour of an eagle. By mistake, 
he happens to mention " a vulture," and immediately corrects himself, as, from 
Its sordid habits, he may be deemed to be paying her an ill compliment. 

* No common commodity for the whole township) — Ver. 425. " Pollucta pago." 
The portion of the sacrifice to Hercules which was given to the common people 
was said to be " pollucta," whence the present adaptation of the epithet. Echard 
Beems to have contemplated translating this, " I'm no pie for every one's cjittin^ 
op!" 

g2 



84 • EUDENS ; " Act II. 

lier sweet one. The water shall be given you, so that you 
mayn't be coaxing me in vain. Give me the pitcher. 

Amp. Take it {gives it to him) : make haste and bring 
it out, there's a dear. 

ScEP. Stay a momejit ; I'll be here this instant, my sweet 
ODfi. {Goes into tJie cottage.) * * * # 

Scene YI. — Ampelisca, alone. 
Amp. "What shall I say to the Priestess for having delayed 
here so long a time ?***** 
* * How, even still, in my wretchedness do I tremble, 
when with my eyes I look upon the sea. {She looks towards 
the shore.) But what, to my sorrow, do I see afar upon 
the shore ? My master, the Procurer, and his Sicilian guest, 
both of whom wretched I supposed to have perished in the 
deep. Still does thus much more of evil sur\dve for us than 
we had imagined. But why do I delay to run off into the 
Temple, and to tell Palaestra this, that we may take refuge at 
the altar before this scoundrel of a Procurer can come hither 
and seize us here ? I'll betake myself away from this spot ; 
for the necessity suddenly arises /iw me to do so. {Suns into 
the Temple.) 

Scene YII. — Enter Scepaenio, from the cottage. 
ScEP. {to himself). ye immortal Grods, I never did ima- 
gine that there was so great delight in water ; how heartily 
lilid draw this. The well seemed much less deep than formerly. 
How entirely without exertion did I draw this up. With all 
deference^ to myself, ain I not a very siUy fellow, in having only 
to-day made a commencement of being in love^ ? {Turning 
slowly round, he holds out the pitcher.) Here's the water for 
you, my pretty one ; here now, I would have you carry it with 
»3 much pleasure as I carry it, that you may please me. {Stares 
around him.) But where are you, my tit-bit ? Do take this water, 
please ; where are you ? {Again looks about.) T troth, she's iu 

1 With all deference) — Ver. 461. " Prjefiscine." This word was generally 
Tised as being supposed to avert the evil eye, when persons spake in high terms 
of themselves. There is some drollery in Sceparnio using it, when speaking in 
iispiragement of himself. 

' Of being in love) — Ver. 462. Not for the pleasure of loving, but for the com- 
"ft-aiative ease of drawing the water, which was probably one of Ixis employments. 



So. yill. THE fishebman's eope. 85 

love with me, as I fancy ; the roguish one's playing bo-peep^. 
Where are you ? Are you going now to take this pitcher ? 
"Where are you, I say ? You've carried tho joke far enough. 
Really, do he serious at last. Once more, are you going to 
take this pitcher p Where in the world are you r {LooJcs 
ahotct.) I' troth, I don't see her anywhere, for my part ; 
she's making fun of me. I' faith, I shall now set down this 
pitcher in the middle of the road. But yet, suppose any per- 
son should carry away from here this sacred pitcher of Venus, 
he would be causing me some trouble. I' faith, I'm afraid that 
this woman's laying a trap for me, that I may be caught 
with the sacred pitcher of Yenus. In such case, with very 
good reason, the magistrate will be letting me die in prison, 
if any one shall see me holding this. For it's marked with 
the name; itself -tells its own tale, whose property it is. 
Troth now, I'll call that Priestess here out of doors, that 
she may take this pitcher. I'll go there to the door. (ITe 
knocks.) Hallo there ! Ptolemocratia. {CaUing aloud.) Take 
this pitcher of yours, please ; some young woman, I don't 
know who, brought it here to me. (A pause.) It must then 
be carried in-doors hy me. I've found mi/selfa.ph, if, in fact, 
of my own accord, water is to be carried by me for these 
people as well. {Goes into the Temple with the pitcher.) 

Scene YIII. — Enter Labrax, dripping wet, followed hy 
Chabmides, at a distance, in the same plight. 

Lab. {grumhling to himself). The person that chooses him- 
self to be wretched and a beggar, let him trust himself and 
his life to Neptune. For if any one has any dealings at all 
with him, he sends him back home equipped in this guise. 
{Surveying himself) By my troth. Liberty, you were a clever 
one, who were never willing^ to put even a foot, i' faith, on 
board ship with me. Bat {looking round) where's this 
guest of mine that has proved my ruin ? Oh, see, here he 
comes. 

Charm. Where the plague are you hurrying to, Labrax ? 
For really I cannot follow you so fast. 

* Playing bo-peep) — Ver. 466. Both Horace and Virfjjil mention the game of 
hiding, or "bo-peep," as a favorite one with the girls of tlieir day 

* Who were never wilUng) — Ver. 489. He probably alludes to some current 
'proverb of the day, which may, with considerable truth, have said that liberty 
forsakes a man when he goes or board ship. 



86 suDEKg ; Act II. 

Lab. T only wish tKat you had perished by direftil tormenta 
in Sicily before I had looked upon you with my eyes, i^ou on 
whose account this misfortune has befallen me. 

Chabm. I only wish that on the day on which you admitted 
me into your house, I had laid me down in a prison sooner. 
I pray the immortal Gods, that ao long as you live, you 
may have all your guests just like your own self. 

Lab. In your person I admitted misfortune into my house. 
"What business had I to listen to a rogue like you, or what 
to depart hence ? Or why to go on board ship, where I have 
lost even more wealth^ than I was possessor of ? 

Chabm. Troth, I'm ftir from being surprised if your ship 
has been wrecked, which was carrying yourself, a villain, and 
your property villanously acquired. 

Lab. Tou've utterly ruined me with your wheedling 
speeches. 

Chabm. A more accursed dinner of yours have I been 
dining upon than the ones that were set before Thyestes 
and Tereus^. 

Lab. I'm dying ; I*m sick at- heart. Prithee, do hold up 
my head. 

Chabm. By my troth, I could very much wish that you 
would vomit up your lungs. 

Lab. Alas 1 Palaestra and Ampelisca, where are you now? 

Chabm. Supplying food for the fishes at the bottom, I 
suppose. 

Lab. Ton have brought beggary upon me by your means, 
while I was listening to your bragging lies. 

Chabm. You have reason deservedly to give me many 
hearty thanks, who from an insipid morsel by my agency 
have made you salt^. 

Lab. Nay, but do you get out from me to extreme and 
utter perdition. 

* Even mare icealtJi) — Ver. 504. He means that lie has not only lost his exist- 
.ng property by the shipwreck, but bis hopes of profit as well on his arrival at 
Sicily, by means of his traffic with Palaestra and Ampelisca. 

2 Thyestes and Tereus)—VeT 509. Atreus killed the children of his brother 
Tliyestps, and served them up to their father. Progne slew her son Itys, and set 
him before his father Tereus, who had ravished and mutilated her sister Phi- 
lomela. 

« Have made ymi salt) — Ver. 517. " Ex insulso salsum." The humour m this 
passapt' depends on the double meaning of the word " salsus," wJtich siguih-Ji 
" aaiicd," aud, figuratively, " sharp," " clever." " witty." 



Sc. Till. THE FISHEEMAITS EOPE. 87 

Charm. You be off ; I was just going to do tliat very 
thing. Lab. Alas ! what mortal being is there living more 
wretched than I ? 

Charm. I am by very far much more wretched, Labrax, 
than yourself. 

Lab. How so ? Charm. Because I am not deserving of it, 
whereas you are deserving. 

Lab, O bulrush, bulrush, I do praise your lot, who always 
maintain your credit for dryness. 

Charm, (his teeth chattering). For my part, I'm exercising 
myself for a skirmishing fight^, for, from my shivering, I utter 
all my words in piecemeal flashes. 

Lab. By my troth, Neptune, you are a purveyor of chilly 
baths ; since I got away from you with my clothes, I've 
been freezing. No hot liquor-shop^ at all for sure does he 
provide ; so salt and cold the potions that he prepares. 

Charm. How lucky are the blacksmiths^ who are always 
sitting among hot coals; they are always warm. 

Lab. I only wish that I were now enjoying the lot of the 
duck, so as, although I had just come from out of the water, 
still to be dry. 

Charm. What if I some way or other let myself out at 
the games for a hobgoblin^ ? 

Lab. For what reason ? 

Charm. Because, i' faith, I'm chattering aloud with my 
teeth. But I'm of opinion that, with very good reason, I've 
had this ducking. 

Lab. How so ? 

CSARM. Why, haven't I ventured to go on board ship with 
yourself, who have been stirring up the ocean for me from 
the very bottom ? 

* For a skirmishing Jtghf) — Ver. 525. Thornton has this Note on this passage: 
" ' Velitatio' signifies ' a skirmish,' which was usually made hy the ' velites,' 
that is, 'the light-hani^ssed soldiers;' and these men always made use of darts, 
.vhose points would glitter at a distance, sometimes one way, and sometimes 
another. Now Charmides, trembling with cold, compares himself to these 
' velites,' or * skirmishers,' who never keep their places ; and his words, which 
came out broken and by piecemeal, to the unequal glimmerings or flashes of their 
darts ' 

hoiMquor shop) — Ver. 529. See the Trinummus, 1. 1013, and the Note. 

' For a hobgoblin) — Ver. 535. " Manducus" was a huge figure exhibited. on 
the stage and at public shows, with huge teeth craunching, and a \\ide mouth— 
wobablj not nxiliJcB some of the idols of the South Sea Islanders. 



88 KTJDENS ; Act II; 

LiB. I listened to you wJien advising me ; you assured me 
that there in Sicily was very great profit from courtesans ; 
there, you used to say, I should be ahle to amass wealth. 

Chakm. Did you expect, then, you unclean beast, that you 
were going to gobble up the whole island of Sicily ? 

Lab. What whale, I wonder, has gobbled up my walle^ 
'^^lere all my gold and silver was packed up ? 

Charm. That same one, I suppose, that has swallowed my 
purse, which was full of silver in my travelling-bag. 

Lab. Alas! I'm reduced even to this one poor tunic 
{stretcliing it out') and to this poor shabby cloak ; I'm done 
for to all intents. 

Charm. Then you may even go into partnership with me ; 
we have got equal shares. 

Lab. If at least my damsels had been saved, there would 
have been some hope. Now, if the young man Plesidippus 
should be seeing me, from whom I received the earnest for 
Palaestra, he'll then be causing me some trouble in conse^ 
quence. {lie begins to cry.) 

Charm. Why cry, you fool ? Really, by my troth, so 
long as your tongue shall exist, you have abundance with 
which to make payment to everybody^. 

Scene IX. — Enter Sceparnio, from tJie Temple, 

ScEP. (Jo himself, aloud). "What to-do is this, I'd like to 
know, that two young women here in the Temple, in tears, 
are holding in their embrace the statue of Venus, dread- 
ing I know not what in their wretchedness ? But they say 
that this last night they have been tossed about, and to-day 
cast on shore from the waves. 

Lab. (overhearing). Troth now, young man, prithee, where 
are these young women that you are talking of? 

Scep. Here (^pointing) in the Temple of Venus. 

Lab. How many are there ? Scep. Just as many as you 
and I make. 

Lab. Surely, they are mine. Scep. Surely, I know 
nothing about that. 

Lab. Of what appearance are they ? 

fayment to everybody') — Ver. 558. He means, that his rea/liness to commit 
penury will save him tlie trouble of finding money to pay with as he cau alway* 
swear that he has paid akeady. 



Be. X. THE FISHERMAT^^S ROPE. 89 

ScEP. Good-looking; I could even fall in love vrith either 
of them, if I were well liquored. 

Lab. Surely, they are the damsels. Scep. Surely, you are 
a nuisance ; be off, go in and see, if you like. 

Lab. These must be my wenches in here, my dear Char- 
mides. Chabm. Jupiter confound you, both if they are and 
still if they are not. 

Lab. I'll straightway burst into this Temple of Yenus here. 

Chabm. Into the bottomless pit, I would rather. (Labray 
rushes into the TempUj and shuts the door.) 

Scene X. — Chaemides and Sceparnio. 

Charm. Prithee, stranger, show me some spot where 1 
may go to sleep. Scep. Gro to sleep there, wherever you 
please (points to the ground) \ no one hinders, it's free to 
the public. 

Charm, (^pointing to his clothes). But do you see me, 
in what wet clothes if.'m dressed ? Do take me under shelter ; 
lend me some dry clothes, while my own are drying; on 
some occasion I'll return you the favour. 

Scep. See, here's my outer coat, which alone is dry ; that-, 
if you like, I'll lend you. {Takes it of and holds it out to 
him.) In that same I'm wont to be clothed, by that same 
protected, when it rains. Do you give me those clothes of 
yours ; I'll soon have them dried. 

Chabm. How now, are you afraid that, as I've been washed 
bare^ last night at sea, I mayn't be made bare again here 
upon shore r 

Scep. Wash you bare, or anomt you well, I don't care one 
fig^. I shall never entrust anything to you unless upon a 
pledge being taken. Do you either sweat away or perish 
with cold, be you either sick or well. I'll put up with no 
stranger-guest in my house ; I've had disagreements enough. 
{Puts on his coat again, and goes into the house o/" Djemones.) 

* Washed bare) — Ver. 579. The poor joke here turns on the double meaning of 
the word " eluo," which, in the passive, means " to be shipwrecked," an(i in 
the active, either " to bathe" or " to be ruined in one's fortunes." It is not very 
dissimilar to an expression common with us, and might be rendered, " I wasn't 
cleaned out enough at sea last night, but you want to clean me out still more.."* 
Soeparnio takes the word in the sense of " to bathe," and says, " Bathe or anoint 
vonrsolf ; I don't care a fig," Anointing followed immediately after bathing. 

« One Jig) — Ver. 580. " Ciccum." " Ciccum" was the thin skin in the ix>me* 
^ranate that divided the kernels. 



90 BTTDENS ; Act IIL 

Scene XI. — Chaemides, alone. 

Chaem. Wliat, are you off ? {A pause.) He's a traf- 
ficker in slaves for money ^ ; whoever he is, he has no bowels^ 
of compassion. But why in my wretchedness am I standing 
here, soaking ? "Why don't I rather go away from here into 
the Temple of Venus, that I may sleep off this debauch which 
I got with drinking last night against the bent of my inclina- 
tion? Neptune has been drenching us with salt water as 
though we were G-reek wines^, and so he hoped that our 
stomachs might be vomited up with his salt draughts. What 
need of words ? If he had persisted in invitiug us a little 
longer, we should have gone fast asleep there ; as it is, hardly 
alive has he sent us off home. Now I'll go see the Pro- 
curer, my boon companion, what he's doing within. (^Ooes 
into the Temple,) 

Act III. — ScEiTE 1. 

Miter DMMOiTESffrom his house, 

Dmm.. (to himself). In wondrous ways* do the G-ods make 
sport of men, in wondrous fashions do they send dreams in 
sleep. Not the sleeping, even, do they allow to rest. As, for 
example, I, this last night which has gone by, dreamed a won- 
derful and a curious dream. A she-ape seemed to be endea- 
vouring to climb up to a swallow's nest ; and she was not able 
thence to take them out. After that, the ape seemed to come 
to me to beg me to lend a ladder to her. I in these terms 
gave answer to the ape, that swallows are the descendants of 
Philomela^ and of Progne. I expostulated with her, that she 

* For money) — Ver. 584. His meaning is, " he is so inhuman, that surely he 
IS a slave-dealer, and nothing less." 

' Eos no bowels) — Ver. 585. " Non est misericors." Literally, " he is not 
mercifuL" 

3 Were Greek wines) — Ver. 588. He uses this comparison because it was the 
custom of the ancients to mix sea-water with all the Greek wines, except the 
Chian, which Horace styles " maris expers," " unmixed with the sea." 

* In wondroiLS tra^s)— Ver. 593. It is somewhat singular that the same three 
fines as this and the two following occur in the Mercator, at the beginnmg of 
Act II. 

* Of Philomela) — ^Ver. 604. The Poets generally represent Progne as changed 
Into a swallow, and Philomela into a nightingale. Ovid, however, on one ocxia- 
«on, mentions Philomela as being changed into a swallow. They were th« 
•iaughters of Pandion, king of Athjns, the native place of Daeraones. 



Sc. H. THE FISHEEMAN'S EOPE. 91 

might not hurt those of my country. But then she began to he 
much more violent, and seemed gratuitously to be threatening 
me with vengeance. She summoned me to a court of justice. 
Then, in my anger, I seemed to seize hold of the ape by the 
middle, in what fashion I know not ; and I fastened up with 
chains this most worthless beast. Now to what purpose I 
shall say that this dream tends, never have I this day been 
able to come to any conclusion. {A loud noise is heard in the 
Temple.) But what's this noise that arises in this Temple of 
Venus, my neighbour ? My mind's in wonder ahout it. 

Scene II. — JEnter Teach alio, in haste, from the Temple. 

Teach, {aloud). citizens of Cyrene, I implore your aid, 
countrymen, you who are near neighbours to these spots, 
bring aid to helplessness, and utterly crush a most vile at- 
tempt. Inflict vengeance, that the power of the wicked, wlio 
wish themselves to be distinguished by crimes, may not be 
stronger than of the guiltless. Make an example for the 
shameless man, give its reward to modest virtue ; cause that 
one may be allowed to live here rather under the control ot 
the laws than of brute force. Hasten hither into the Temple 
of Venus ; again do I implore your aid, you who are here at 
hand and who hear my cries. Bring assistance to those who, 
after the recognized usage, have entrusted their lives to 
Venus and to the Priestess of Venus, under their protection. 
"Wring ye the neck of iniquity before it reaches yourselves. 

D^M. What's all this to-do ? Teach, {embracing his 
knees). By these knees of yours, I do entreat you, old gen- 
tleman, whoever you are 

D^M. Nay, but do you let go my knees, then, and tell ute 
why it is that you are making a noise ? 

Teach. I do beg and entreat you, that if you hope this year 
that you wiU have abundance of laserwort and silphium^, 
and that that export will arrive at Capua^ safe and sound, 
and that you may ever enjoy freedom from diseased eyes 

* iMserufort and silphium) — Ver. 630. "Sirpe" and " laserpitiura " seem to 
De different names for the same plant, "laserwort," from which assafceiida is dis- 
tilled. It gi-ew abundantly in Cyrene, which region Catullus calls " Laserpiri- 
ferae Cyrenae." The juice of this plant seems to have been used in making certain 
perfumes, for which reason it was exported to Capua. 

At Capua) — Ver. 631. Capua was tee chief city of Campania, in Italy, «nl 



92 EUDEirs ; Act III. 

D^M. Are you in your senses ? 

Track . Or whether you trust that you will have plenty 

of juice of silphium^, tliat you will not hesitate to give me 
the aid which I shall entreat of you, aged sir. 

D-aEM. And I, by your legs, and ancles, and back, do entreat 
you that, if you hope that you will have a crop of elm-twigs, 
and that a fruitful harvest of beatings will this year be your 
lot, you will tell me what's the matter here, by reason of 
which you are making this uproar. 

Trach. Why do you choose to speak me ill ? For my 
part, I wished you everything that's good. 

D^M. And for my part, I'm speaking you well, in praying 
that things which you deserve may befaU you. 

Trach. Prithee, do prevent this. 

D^M. What's the matter, then ? 

Trach. (pointing to the Temple). Two innocent women 
are inside here, in need of your aid, on whom, against law 
and justice, an injury has been, is being, glaringly committed 
here in the Temple of Yenus. Besides, the Priestess of 
Venus is being disgracefully insulted. 

D^M. What person is there of effrontery so great as to 
dare to injure the Priestess ? But these women, who are 
they ? Or what injury is being done to them ? 

Trach. If you give me your attention, I'll tell you. 
They have clung to the statue of Venus ; a most audacious 
fellow is now trying to tear them away. They ought, bi/ 
rights, both of them to be free. 

D^M. What fellow is it that so lightly holds the Gods ? 
In a few words tell me. 

Trach. One most full of fraud, villany, parricide, and 
perjury ; a lawbreaker, an immodest, unclean, most sliamelesa 
fellow ; to sum up all in one word, he is a Procurer ; why 
need I say more about him ? 

D^M. Troth now, you teU of a man that ought to be 
handed over to retribution. 

Trach. A villain, to seize the Priestess by the throat. 

was famed for its luxury. It was celebrated for its choice perfumes; and in 't 
there was one £^eat street called " Seplasia," which consisted entirely of sliops, in 
wnich ungiaents and perfumes were sold. 

* Juice ofsilphium) — Ver. 633. " Magularis" is the root or jiiice of the piani 
ttUed " laserpicium." 



Sc. III. THE riSHEE:sIATf'S EOPE. 9S 

Dmm. Bj my troth, but "he has done it at his own great 
peril. (Calls aloud at Ms door.) Come you out of doors 
here, Turbalio and Sparax ; where are you ? 

Teach. Prithee, do go in, and hasten to tueir rescue. 

D^M. (impatiently). And am I to call for them once more ? 

Enter Tuebalio and Spaeax,^o^ the cottage. 

D^M. Follow me this way. 

Teach. Come on now this instant, bid them tear his eyes 
out, just in the way that cooks do cuttle-fish^. 

DiEM. Drag the fellow out here by his legs, just like a 
slaughtered pig. (D^mokes and his Seeyants go into the 
Temple.) 

Teach, (listening at the door). I hear a scuffling ; the Pro* 
curer, I guess, is being belaboured with their fists ; I'd very 
much like them to knock the teeth out of the jaws of the 
most villanous fellow. But see, here are the women them- 
selves coming out of the Temple in consternation. 

Scene III. — Enter Pal^stea and Ampelisca, in haste^ 
from the Temple, tvith dishevelled locks. 

Pal. JSTow is that time arrived when destitution of all re- 
sources and aid, succour and defence, overtakes us. Neither 
hope nor means is there to bring us aid, nor know we in what 
direction we should commence to proceed. In exceeding 
terror now are we both, in this our wretchedness. Sucfi 
cruelty and such outrage have been committed towards us 
just now in-doors here by our master, who, in his villanv, 
pushed down tlie old lady, the Priestess, headlong, and struck 
her in a very disgraceful manner, and with his violence tore 
us away from the inner side^ of the statue. But as our lot 
and fortunes are now showing themselves, 'twere best to die, 
nor in our miseries is there anything better than death. 

Teach, (behind). What's this? Whose words are those ? 
W7ig do I delay to console them ? (Aloud.) Harkye, Pa- 
laestra, Ampelisca, harkye ! 

Pal. Prithee, who is it that caUs us ? 

' Cociks do cuttle-fish') — Ver. 659. This, probably, was a practice of ancient 
cookery, which, happily, has not come down to our times. 

^ The inner side) — Ver. 673. " Signo intumo" may either mean the statue m 
the most distant and sacred recess, or the inner side of the statue, to which spcit 
they had retired for safety. 



04 RXIDENS ; Act nX 

Amp. Who is it that calls me by name ? 

Teach. If you turn round and look, you'll know. 

Pal. (turning round). hope of my safety ! 

Teach. Be silent and of good courage ; trust me^. 

Pal. If only it can be so, let not violence overwhelm us. 

Teach. What violence ? 

Pal. That same which is driving me to commit violence 
on myself. Teach. Oh, do leave off ; you are very silly. 

Pal. Then do you leave off at once your consoling me in 
my misery with words. 

Amp. Unless you afford us protection in reality 2, Trachalio, 
it's all over with us. 

Pal. I'm resolved to die sooner than suffer this Procurer 
to get me in his power. But still I am of woman's heart; 
when, in my misery, death comes into my mind, fear takes 
possession of my limbs. 

Teach. By my troth, although this is a bitter affliction, do 
have a good heart. 

Pal. Why where, pray, is a good heart to be found for me ? 

Teach. Don't you fear, I tell you ; sit you down here by 
the altar. {Points to it.) 

Amp. What can this altar possibly avail us more than tlie 
statue here within the Temple of Venus, from which just 
now, embracing it, in our wretchedness, we were torn by 
force ? 

Teach. Only you be seated here ; then I'll protect you 
in this spot. This altar you possess as though your bul- 
warks^ ; these your fortifications ; from this spot will I defend 
you. With the aid of Venus, I'U march against the wicked- 
ness of the Procurer. 

Pal. We follow your instructions (tJiei/ advance to the 
altar and kneel) ; and genial Venus, we both of us, in tears, 
implore thee, embracing this thy altar, bending upon our 
knees, that thou wilt receive us into thy guardianship, 

• Tmst me)— Ver. 680. At the same time he is afraid to go in. Palaestra sees 
tiiis, and taunts him with being brave — in words only. 

2 In reality) — Ver. 683. " Re," " in reality," in contradistinction to words. 

' Your bulwarks) — Ver. 692. " Moenia." Madame Dacier supposes that these 
words refer to the walls of a court in front of the Temple, represented on tii« 
stage with an altar in the middle, the walls being breast high, which Traclialio 
compares to entrenchments. 



Sc. ly. THE nSHEKMAJf-S BOl'B. 95 

aud be our protector ; tliat thou wilt punisli those wretches 
who have set at nought thy Temple, and that thou wilt suffer 
us to occupy this thy altar with thy permission, we who 
last night were by the might of Neptune cast away ; hold us 
not in scorn, and do not for that reason impute it to us as a 
fault, if there is anything that thou shouldst think is not so 
well attended to^ hy us as it ought to have been. 

Tbach. I think they ask what's just ; it ought, Venus, by 
thee to be granted. Thou oughtst to pardon them ; 'tis 
terror forces them to do this. They say that thou wast born 
from a shelP ; take thou care that thou dost not despise the 
shells of these. But see, most opportunely the old gentleman 
is coming out, both my protector and your own. {He goes to 
the altar ^ 

Scene IY. — Enter D^mois'ES, from the Temple, with his two 
Servants dragging out Labeax. 

D^M. Come out of the Temple, you most sacrilegious of 
men, as many as hav.e ever been born. Do you go {calling 
to the "Women) and sit by the altar. {Not seeing them near 
the door.) But where are they ? 

Teach. Look round here. 

Djsm. {looking round). Very good; T wanted that^. Now 
bid him come this way. {To Labeax.) Are you attempting 
here among us to commit a violation of the laws against the 
Deities ? {To the Seeyants, who ohey vnth alacrity.) Punch 
his face with your fists. 

Lab. I'm suffering these indignities at your own cost. 

' Not so well attended to) — Ver. 701. " Bene lantum." There is a joke in- 
tended in the use of these words, which may signify either " quite tidy " or " pro- 
j)erly arranged ;" or, on the other hand, " well washed," neglect of which cer- 
tainly could not be imputed to them, by reason of their recent shipwreck. 

2 Bom from a shell) — Ver. 703. He alludes to the birth of Venus, who was 
said to have sprung from the sea in a shell. He also seems to joke upon the 
destitute state of the young women, and to call them mere shells. An indelicate 
construction has been, by some, put upon the use of the word " conchas," while 
others think it refers to the use made by women of shells, for holding their 
pauits, perfumes, and cosmetics, and that he means thereby to reproach Ventia 
for having allowed them to lose all their property. This, however, seems to be 
a rather far-fetched notion. 

» / wanted thai^—Yer. 708. He means that the women have done as he^ 
tnen: to do, m flying to the altar tor refuge. 



9G ETTDEiy 8 ; Act 111, 

D^M. Why, the insolent fellow's threatering eren. 

Lab. I've been robbed of my rights ; you are robbing me 
of my female slaves against my will. 

Trach. Do you then find some wealthy man of the Senate 
of Gyrene as judge, whether these women ought to be yours, 
or whether they ouglitn't to be free, or whether it isn't right 
that you should be clapped into prison, and there spend your 
life, until you have worn the whole gaol out with your feet. 

Lab. I wasn't prepared to prophesy for this day that I 
should be talking with a hang-gallows^ like yourself. {Turn' 
ing to D^Mo:s^ES.) Tou do I summon to judgment. 

D^M. {'pointing to TEACHAiiio). Li the first place, try it 
with him who knows you. 

Lab. {to D^MONEs). My suit is with yourself. 

Trach. But it must be with myself. {Pointing to the 
WoMEiS".) Are these your female slaves ? 

Lab. They are. Trach. Just come then, touch either 
of them with your little finger only. 

Lab. What if I do touch them ? 

Trach. That very instant, upon my faith, I'll make a hand- 
ball- of you, and while you're in the air I'll belabour you 
with my fists, you most perjured villain. 

Lab. Am I not to be allowed to take away my femaie 
slaves from the altar of Venus ? 

DiEM. Tou may not ; such is the law with ns. 

Lab. I've no concern with your laws ; for mv part, I shall 
at once carry them both away from here^. If you are in love 
M-ith them, old gentleman {holding out his hand), you must 
down here with the ready cash. 

DjEii. But these women have proved pleasing to Yenus. 

Lab. She may have them, if she pays the money. 

D-SM. A Groddess, pay you money ? Now then, that you 

* A luing-gaMows) — Ver. 717. " Furcifero." He sneeringly alludes to Tracha- 
lio's pot-ition as a slave, and his liability to have the panishment of the " furca" 
mtlicted on him. 

"^ A hand-haW) — Ver. 721-2. These lines are thus rendered in one version: 
" Instantly I will make you a prize-fighting pair of bellows, and while you 
are drawing breath, will belabour you with my fists." The allusion, however, 
is clearly to a ball blown up like our footballs, and struck with the clenched fist, 
the merit of the game being not to let it come to the ground. 

^ Away from here}— WQv.lit. "Foras." Pnbably in allusion to the. court 
Defore the Temple- 



Sc. IV. THE FISHEEMATf's KOPB. 97 

may understand my determination, only do yon commence in 
mere joke to offer them the very slightest violence ; I'll send 
you away from here with such a dressing, that you won't 
know your own self. You, therefore (turning to his Seb- 
VANTs), when I give you the signal, if you don't beat his eyes 
out of his head, I'll trim you round about with rods just like 
beds of myrtle^ with bulrushes. 

Lab. You are treating me with violence. 

Teach. What, do you even upbraid us with violence, you 
flagrant specimen of flagitiousness ? Lab. You, you thrice- 
dotted villain^, do you dare to speak abusively to me ? 

Teach. I am a thrice-dotted villain ; I confess it ; you are 
a strictly honorable man ; ought these women a bit the less 
to be free ? 

Lab. What — free? Teach. Aye, and your mistresses, 
too, i' faith, and from genuine Greece^ ; for one of them was 
born at Athens of free-born parents. 

D^M. What is it I hear from you ? 

Teach. That she {pointing to PALiESTEA) was bom at 
Athens, a free-born woman. D^M. {to Teachalio). Prithee 
is she a countrywoman of mine ? 

Teach. Are you not a Cyrenian? D^m. No; bom at 
Athens in Attica, bred and educated there. 

Teach. Prithee, aged sir, do protect your countrywomen. 

D-EM. {aside). O daughter, when I look on her, separated 
from me you remind me of my miseries : {aloud) she who was 
lost by me when three years old ; now, if she is living, she'a 
iust about as tall, I'm sure, as she. {Fointing to Paljestea.) 

Lab. I paid the money down for these two, to their owners, 
of whatever country they were. What matters it to me 
whether they were bom at Athens or at Thebes, so long as 
they are rightfully in servitude as my slaves ? 

Teach. Is it so, you impudent fellow ? What, are you, 
a cat prowling after maidens, to be keeping children here 

> Beds of myrtle)— Yev. 732. " Myrteta." This may allude to bundles o! 
myrtle (which was sacred to Venus), bound with rushes and hung about tha 
Temple, or else to beds of myrtle in front of the Temple, with small fences round 
/them, made of rushes. 

\ 2 Thrice-dotted villain)— Yer. 734. " Trifurcifer." Literally, " one punished 
\fith the 'furca' three times," meaning a " thief," or "villain three times over." 
See the Aulularia, 1. 28 1 , and the Note (where read " punished with the ' furca ' "). 

' Genuine Greece) — Yer. 737. Perhaps in contradistinction to Sicilj, •whicli 
was only colonized by Greeks. 

TOL. II. II 



98 RUDEIfS , Act III. 

kidnapped from their parents and destroying them in your 
disgraceful calling ? But as for this other one, I really don't 
know what her country is ; I only know that she's more de- 
serving than yourself, you most abominable rascal. 

Lab, Are these women your property ? 

Teach. Come to the trial, then, which of the two according 
to his back is the more truthful ; if you don't bear more com- 
pliments^ upon your back than any ship of war^ has nails, then 
I'm the greatest of liars. Afterwards, do you examine mine, 
when I've examined yours ; if it shall not prove to be so 
untouched, that any leather flask maker^ will say that it is a 
hide most capital and most sound for the purposes of his 
business, what reason is there why 1 shouldn't mangle you 
with stripes, even till you have your belly full ? "Why do you 
stare at them ? If you touch them I'll tear your eyes out. 

Lae. Yet notwithstanding, although you forbid me to do 
so, I'll at once carry them off both together with me. 

D^M. What will you do ? Lab. I'll bring Vulcan ; he is 
an enemy to Yenus*. (Goes towards Djemones' cottage.) 

Teach. Whither is he going ? 

Lab. (calling at the door). Hallo ! Is there anybody here ? 
Hallo! I say. 

D^M. If you touch the door, that very instant, upon my 
faith, you shall get a harvest upon your face with fists foi- 
your pitchforks^. 

Seev. We keep no fire, we live upon dried figs. 

* Compliments) — Ver. 753. " OfFerumenla," according to Festus, signified an 
offering to the Gods ; and as these were fixed to the walls of the Temples, Tra- 
chalio calls the lashes of the scourge or rod, when applied to the back of the 
delinquent slave, by the same terra. 

' Ship of war)— Ver. 754. " Longa navis." Literally, " a long .ship." Ships 
of war were thus called by the Greeks. 

3 Leather flask maker) — Ver. 756. " Ampullarius." " A maker of ampnllae,' 
or leather bottles. They were of a big-bellied form, with a narrow neck. 

* An enemy to Ventis) — Ver. 761. In so saying, he alludes to the intrigue of 
Venus with Mars, which was discovered by the device of Vulcan, her injured 
husband. For the story, see the Metamorphoses of Ovid, B. 4, 1. 73, and the 
Art of Love, B. 2, 1. 562. 

^ Fists for your pitchforks) — Ver. 763. " Mergis pugneis." Echard, in his 
translation, explains this: "As they Hft up their pitchforks to heap corn, so will 
I lift up my fists, and heap a whole harvest of cuffs on your face." " Merga " 
n'leans " a pitchfork ;" and, according to Festus, it was so called from its re- 
gemblance when dipped into the hay to the action of the " mergos." or " didapper 
when dipping into the se^u 



Be. T. THE fisherman's eope. 99 

D^M. I'll find the fire, if only I have the oppi.rtuniiy of 
kindling it upon your head. 

Lab. Faith, I'll go somewhere to look for some fire. 
' DiEM. What, when you've found it ? 

Lab. I'll be making a great fire here. 

DiEM. What, to be burning^ a mortuary sacrifice for your- 
self? Lab. No, but I'll burn both of these alive here upon 
tho altar. 

Dmm. I'd like that. For, by my troth, I'll forthwith seize 
you by the head and throw you into the fire, and, half-roasted, 
I'll throw you out as food for the great birds, (Aside.) When 
3 come to a consideration of it with myself, this is that ape, 
that wanted to take away those swallows from the nest 
against my will, as I was dreaming in my sleep. 

Teach. Aged sir, do you know what I request of you ? 
Tliat you will protect these females and defend them from 
violence, until I fetch my master. 

D^M. Go look for your master, and fetch him here. 

Teach. But don't let him D^m. At his own ex- 
treme peril, if he touches them, or if he attempts to do so. 

Teach. Take care. D^m. Due care is taken ; do you be ofi. 

Teach. And watch him too, that he doesn't go away any- 
where. For we have promised either to give the executioner 
a great talent, or else to produce this fellow this very day. 

DiEM. Do you only be off. I'll not let him get away, 
while you are absent. 

Teach. I'll be back here soon. {Exit Teachalio. 

BcEiTE Y. — DiEMONES, Labeax, Pal^stea, Ampelisca, and 
Seevants. 

D^M. {to Labeax, who is struggling witJi the Seeyakts). 
Which, you Procurer, had you rather do, be quiet with a 
thrashing, or e'en as it is, without the thrashing, if you had 
the choice ? 

Lab. Old fellow, I don't care a straw for what you say. My 
own women, in fact, I shall drag away this instant from the 
altar by the hair, in spite of yourself, and Venus, and supreme 
Jove. 

* To he burning) — Ver. 767. Festns tells us that " humanum " was a " mor- 
luary sacrifice," or " offering to the dead." In his question, therefore, Daemc 3ea 
/nplies a wish to know whether Labrax is abmt to put an end to himself. It 
»as allowable to drive away those who fled to the altar by the agency of tire. 

B2 



100 EITDETfS, Act IIL 

Djem.. Just touch tbem. Lab. (^going towards them) 
1* troth, I surely will touch them. 

Djem. Just come then ; only approach this way. 

Lab. Only bid both those fellows, then, to move away 
from there. 

D^M. On the contrary, they shall move towards you. 

Lab. I' faith, for my own part, I don't think so. 

D^M. If they do move nearer to you, what will you do ? 

Lab. I'll retire. But, old fellow, if ever I catch you in 
the city, never again, upon my faith, shall any one call me a 
Procurer, if I don't give you some most disagreable sport. 

D^M. Do what you threaten. But now, in the mean- 
time, if you do touch them, a heavy punishment shall be 
inflicted on you. 

Lab. How heavy, in fact ? D^aEM. Just as much as is suffi- 
cient for a Procurer. 

Lab. These threats of yours I don't value one straw ; I 
certainly shall seize them both this instant without your 
leave. 

D^M. Just touch them. Lab. By my troth, I surely 
will touch them. 

D^M. You will touch them, but do you know with what 
result ? Gro then, Turbalio, with all haste, and bring hither 
.^'om out of the house two cudgels. 

Lab. Cudgels ? Djem. Aye, good ones ; make haste 
speedily. (Tuebalio goes in.) I'll let you have a reception 
this day in proper style, as you are deserving of. 

Lab. (aside). Alas! cursedly unfortunate. I lost my head- 
piece in the ship ; it would now have been handy for me, if it 
had been saved. (To D^mones.) May I at least address these 
women ? 

Dmu. You may not * * # « * 

(TuEBALio enters, bringing two cudgels.) Well now, by my 
faith, look, the cudgel-man is coming very opportunely here. 

Lab. (aside). By my troth, this surely is a tingling for my 
ears. 

D^M. Come, Sparax, do you take this other cudgel. ( Giving 
Mm one.) Come, take your stand, one on one side, the othei 
*ju ViLfs other. Take your stations both of you. {They stand 
noiih lifted cudgels on each side of the altar.) Just so. Now then 
aetend to me: if, i' faith, th^Ji fellow there should this day touch 
ttieue women with his finger against their inclination, if yon 



» 



So. "Vl. THE fisherman's ROPE. 101 

don't give him a reception^ with theso cudgels even to that 
degree that he shan't know which way he is to get home, 
you are undone, both of you. If he shall call for any one, 
do you make answer to this fellow in their stead. But i^ 
he himself shall attempt to get away from here, that instant, 
as hard as you can, lay on to his legs with your sticks. 

Lab. Are they not even to allow me to go away from here ? 

Djgm. I've said sufficient. And when that servant comes 
Aere with his master, he that has gone to fetch his master, 
do you at once go home. Attend to this with great dili- 
gence, will you. (D^MONES goes into his house.) 

Scene YI. — Palestra, Ampelisca, Labeax, and the 
Servants. 

Lab. O rare, by my troth, the Temple here is surely 
changed all of a sudden ; this is now the Temple of Her- 
cules* which was that of Venus before ; in such fashion has the 
old fellow planted two statues here with clubs. I' faith, I 
don't know now whither in the world I shall fly from here ; 
so greatly are they both raging now against me, both land 
and sea. Palaestra ! 

Serv. What do you want ? Lab. Away with you, there 
is a misunderstanding between us ; that, indeed, is not my 
Palaestra^ that answers. Harkye, Ampelisca. 

Serv. Beware of a mishap, will you. 

Lab. (aside). So far as they can, the worthless fellows 
advise me rightly enough. (Aloud.) But, harkye, I ask 
you, whether it is any harm to you for me to come nearer to 
these women ? 

* Their inclination — a reception) — Ver. 811. "Invitos — invitassitis." He 
hece plays upon the resemblance of the words " invitos," signifying " against 
their will," and " invito," being a verb signifying " to invite," and admitting of 
much the same equivocal use as our expression, " to give a warm reception to." 

* Temple of Hercules) — Ver. 822. Seeing the servants with their cudgels, he 
IS reminded of Hercules, who was thus depicted, and was called by the Poets 
" Claviger." 

» Not my PaJeestra) — Ver. 827. Echard, borrowing the notion from Madame 
Dacier, has the following Note on this passage: " This ' Palaestra' was a place of 
public exercise, over the gate of which was a statue of Hercules, with an inscrip- 
tion ' Palaestra;' now Labrax, finding this stout fellow with his club, whom before 
he had compared to Hercules, answering insteac of Palaestra, he wittily allides 
to that statue, and says that that Palaestra was none of his." Thornton appears 
to be right m considering this a far-fetched conceit on the part of the fair Com- 
ateutatress. 



1(^ fiTTDEBB, Act IIL 

Serv. "WTiy none at all to ourselves. 

Lab. Will there be any harm to myself? 

Sery. None at all, if you only take care. 

Lab. What is it that I'm to take care against? 

Serv. Why, look you, against a heavy mishap. 

Lab. Troth now, prithee, do let me approach them. 

Serv. Approach them, if you like. 

Lab. I' faith, obligingly done ; I return you thanks, I'll 
go nearer to them. {Approaches them.') 

Serv. Do you stand there on the spot, where you are, 
(^Drags him to his place, with the cudgel over his head?) 

Lab. (aside). By my faith, I've come scurvily off in many 
ways. Still, I'm resolved to get the better of them this da^ 
by constantly besieging them. 

Scene YII. — Enter Plesidipptts and Tbachalio, at a 

distance, on the other side of the stage. 

Ples. And did the Procurer attempt by force and violence 

to drag my mistress away from the altar of Venus ? 

Track. Even so. Ples. Why didn't you kill him on the 
instant ? 

Trach. I hadn't a sword. Ples. Ton should have taken 
either a stick or a stone. 

Trach. What ! ought I to have pelted this most villanous 
fellow with stones like a dog ? * * # # 

* * # # # 

Lab. {aside, on seeing them). By my troth, but I*m un- 
done now; see, here's Plesidippus ; he'll be sweeping me 
away altogether this moment with the dust. 

Ples. Were the damsels sitting on the altar even then 
when you set out to come to me ? 

Track. Yes, and now they are sitting in the same place, 

Ples. Who is now protecting them there ? 

Trach. Some old gentleman, I don't know who, a neigh- 
bour of the Temple of Venus — he gave very kind assistance ; 
he is now protecting them with his servants — I committed 
them to his charge. 

Ples. Lead me straight to the Procurer. Where is this 
fellow ? {TJiey go towards Labrax.) 

Lab. Health to you. Ples. I want none of your healths. 
Make your choice quickly, whether you had rather be seized 




f 



THE nSHEEMAir'S EOPB. 103 

by your tliroat wrenched^, or be dragged along ; cboose which- 
ever you please, whiie you may. 

Lab. I wish for neither. Ples. Be off then, Trachalio, with 
all speed t^ the sea-shore; bid those persons that I brought 
with me to hand over this rascal to the executioner, to come 
from the harbour to the city to meet me ; afterwards return 
hither and keep guard here. I'll now drag this scoundrelly 
outcast to justice. (Exit Teachalio. 

Scene YIII. — Plesidippits, Labeax, Pal^stea, and 
Seevants. 

Ples. (to Laeeax). Come, proceed to a court of justice. 

Lab. In what have I offended? Ples. Do you ask? 
Didn't you receive an earnest of me for this woman {^pointing 
to Pal^stea), and carry her off from here ? 

Lab. I didn't carry her off. Ples. Why do you deny it ? 

Lab. Troth now, because I put her on board ship ; carry 
her off^, unfortunately, I couldn't. Por my part, I told you 
that this day I would make my appearance at the Temple 
of Venus ; have I swerved at 'dWfrom that ? Am I not there ? 

Ples. Plead j^our cause in the court of justice ; here a 
word is enough. Follow me. {They lay hold of him.) 

Lab. {calling aloud). I entreat you, my dear Charmides, 
do come to my rescue ; I am being seized with my throat 
wrenched. 

ScENiJ IX, — Enter Chaemides,//'^^ the Temple, 

^ Chaem. {looking about). Who calls my name ? 

Lab. Do you see me how I'm being seized ? 
* Chaem. I see, and view it with pleasure. 
. Lab. Don't you venture to assist me ? 

Chaem. What person is seizing you ? 

Lab. Young Plesidippus, 

Charm. AVhat you've got, put up with ; 'twere better 
for you, with a cheerful spirit, to slink to gaol ; that has be- 
fallen you which many greatly wish for for themselves. 

• Seized by your throat wrenched) — Ver. 853. " Rapin te obtorto collo." Echard 
has the following Note : " When any person was brought before the Praetor, they 
always threw his gown or cloak about his neck, and led him that way; and this 
was called ' rapi obtorto collo.' " 

2 Carry her off) — Ver. 863. Ttiere is a play or c nibble here upon the words 
" avehere " and " provehere." " to carry away," and " to put on board ship," for 
thfi purpose of being carried away. 



J04 ETJDENS ; Act IIL 

Lab. What's that ? Chaem. To find for themselves that 
which they are seeking. 

Lab. I entreat you, do follow me. Chabm. You try to 
persuade me, just like what you are : you are being taken off 
to gaol, for that reason is it you entreat me to follow you ? 

Ples. {to Labrax). Do you still resist ? 

Lab. I'm undone. Ples. I trust that may prove the 
truth. You, my dear Palaestra and Ampelisca, do you re- 
main here in the meanwhile, until I return hither. 

Serv. I would advise them rather to go to our house, 
until you return. 

Ples. I'm quite agreahle; you act obligingly. (The 
Servants open the door of the cottage^ and PALiESTEA and 
Ampelisca go in.) 

Lab. You are thieves to me. Seev. How, thieves ? 

Ples. Lead him along. {The Servants seize him.) 

Lab. (calling out). I pray and entreat you. Palaestra. 

Ples. Follow, you hang-dog. Lab. G-uest, Charmides ! 

Chaem. I am no guest of yours ; I repudiate your hospi- 
tality. Lab. "What, do you slight me in this fashion ? 

Chaem. I do so ; I've been drinking with you once already^. 

Lab. May the Deities confound you. 

Chaem. To that person of yours, say that. (Plesidipptjs 
leads Labeax ojf, followed hy the Seevants.) 

ScENB X. — Chaemides, alone. 
Chaem. I do believe that men are transformed, each into 
a diiFerent beast. That Procurer, I guess, is transformed 
into a stock-dove^ ; for, before long, bis neck will be in the 
Itocks. He'U to-day be building his nest in the gaol. St^ill, 
However, I'll go, that I may be his advocate, — if by my aid 
he may possibly be sentenced any the sooner. 

* Once already) — Ver. 884. He alludes to the drenching he has had in tb* 
sea, by reason of bis acquaintance with Labrax, and means to say that one 
sucb reception is quite sufficient for his life. 

• A stock-dove') — Ver. 887. He puns upon tha resemblance between the word 
*' columbar," " a collar," into which the head was inserted by way of punishment, 
and " cx)lumbus," a " pigeon." The notion of prese/ nng the pun, by csiaf the 
word '• stock-dove," is Echard's. The plural of Jie word " colombw '' wai 
Klao used to signify a aove-coL 



Act ly. THE nSHEEMAU's EOPB. 105 



^CT IV^. — SCETfE I. 

Enter D^MOirES,yrow liis cottage, 
Dmk. (to hvmselp) 'Twas rigHtly done, and it 5 a pleasure 



rthis day for me to have given aid to these young women ; I 
have now found some dependants, and both of them of comely 
looks and youthful age. But my plaguy wife is watching me 
in all ways, lest I should be giving any hint to the young 
women. But I wonder what in the world my servant Gripua 
is about, who went last night to the sea to fish. Troth, he 
had done wiser if he had slept at home ; for now he throws 
away both his pains and his nets, seeing what a storm there 
now is and was last night. I'll thoroughly cook upon my 
fingers w hat he has caught to-day ; so violently do I see the 
ocean heaving. {A hell rings.) But my wife's calling me to 
breakfast ; I'll return home. She'll now be filling my ears 
with her silly prating. (Goes into the cottage?) 

Scene II. — Enter Geipus, dragging a net enclosing a 

wallet, hy a rope. 

Geip. {to himself). These thanks do I return to Neptune, 
my patron, who dwells in the salt retreats, the abode of fishes, 
inasmuch as he has despatched me finely laden on my return 
from his retreats, and from his Temples, laden with most 
abundant booty, with safety to my boat, which in the stormy 
sea made me master of a singular and rich haul. In a won- 
drous and incredible manner has this liaul turned out prosper- 
ously for me, nor yet have I this day taken a single ounce 
weight offish, but 'only that which I am here bringing with 
me in my net. For when I arose in the middle of the night, 
and without sloth, I preferred profit to sleep and rest ; in the 
raging tempest, I determined to try how I might lighten the 
poverty of my master and my own servitude, not sparing of 
my own exertions. Most worthless is the man that is sloth- 
ful, and most detestably do I hate that kind of men. It be- 
hoves him to be vigilant who wishes to do his duty in good 
time ; for it befits him not to be waiting until his master 
arouses him to his duties. For those who sleep on for the 

' Act rV.) Echard remarks that the interval between the last Act and thii 
ia filled up with Plesidippus carrying Labrax before the Praetor and hib trial, axk 
likewise with what passes ia Dsmones' house. 



106 ETTDEirs; Act fV. 

love of it, rest without profit to themselves and to their own 
cost. But now I, who have not been slothful, have found 
that for myself through which to be slothful if I should 
choose. {Points to the wallet?) This have I found in the sea 
to-day ; whatever' s in it, it's something heavy that's in it ; I 
think it's gold that's in it. And not a single person is there 
my confidant in the matter. Now, Gripus, this opportunity 
has befallen you, that the Praetor^ might make you a free man 
from among the multitude. Now, thus shall I do, this is my 
determination ; I'll come to my master cleverly and cunningly, 
little by little I'll promise money for my freedom, that I may 
be free. Now, when I shall be free, then, in fine, I'll provide 
me land and houses^ and slaves : I'll carry on merchandize 
with large ships : among the grandees I shall be considered 
a grandee. Afterwards, for the sake of pleasing myself, I'll 
build me a sliip and I'll imitate Stratonicus^, and I'll be 
carried about from town to town. When my greatness is 
far-spread, I shall fortify some great city : to that city I shall 
give the name of " Gripus," a memorial of my fame and ex- 
ploits, and there I'll establish a mighty kingdom. I am re- 
solving here in my mind to prepare for mighty matters. At 
present I'll hide this booty. But this grandee {pointing to 
niTnself) is about to breakfast upon vinegar* and salt, with- 
out anT/ good substantial meat. (Gathers v/p the net, and 
drags it after him.) 

ScEKE III. — Enter Teachalio, in haste. 
Teach. Hallo there ! stop. Geip. Why should I stop ? 
Teach. While I coil up this rope^ for you that you are 
dragging. Geip. Now let it alone. 

> The Praetor)— Vev. 927. The slave about to be manumitted, or to receive his 
freedom, was taken before tbe Praetor, whose lictor kid the " vindicta " or 
•' festuca," ♦' the rod of hberty," on the head of the slave, on which he received 
his freedom. 

* Land and houses)— Ver. 930. Is not this wonderfully like Alnaschar's reverie 
m the Arabian Nights, so aptly quoted in the Spectator? 

» Strat(mictis) — Ver. 932. He was the treasurer of Philip of Macedon and 
Alexander the Great, and was famed for his wealth among the Greeks, as Crassus 
was among the Romans. 

* Upon vinegar) — Ver. 937. He alludes to the " posca," or vinegar and water, 
whicli formed the beverage of the slaves, and which is mentioned by Palaestrio ia 
the Miles Gloriosus, 1. 836. 

* This rope)— Ver. 938. This is the first meDtion of ttie " rudens," or " net^ 
rope," from which ths Play derives its name. 



Sc. III. THE FISHEEMAU'S HOPE. ^ 107 

Teach. Troth, but I'll assist you. "Wliat's kindly done to 
worthy men, isn't thrown away. 

Geip. # * # * # There was 

a boisterous tempest yesterday ; no iish have I, young man ; 
don't you be supposing I have. Don't you see that I'm 
carrying my dripping net without the scaly race ? 

Teach. I' faith, I'm not wishing for fish so much as I am 
in need of your conversation. 

Geip. Then, whoever you are, you are worrying me to 
death with your annoyance. 

Teach, {takes Jiold of him). I'll not allow you to go away 
from here ; stop. 

Geip. Take you care of a mishap, if you please; but 
why the plague are you dragging me back ? 

Teach. Listen. Geip. I won't listen. 

Teach. But, upon my faith, you shall listen. 

Geip. Nay but, another time, teU me what you want. 

Teach. Come now, it's worth your while at once to heaf 
what I want to tell you. Geip. Say on, whatever it is. 

Teach. See whether any person is following near us, 
(Looks back.) Geip. Why, what reason is there that it 
should matter to me ? 

Teach. So it is ; but can you give me some good advice ? 

Geip. What's the business ? Only tell me. 

Teach. I'll tell you ; keep silence ; if only you'll give 
me your word that you won't prove treacherous to me. 

Geip. I do give you my word ; I'll be true to you. whoever 
you are. 

Teach. Listen. I saw a person commit a theft ; I knew 
the owner to whom that same property belonged. Afterwards 
I came myself to the thief, and I made him a proposal in these 
terms : " I know the person on whom that theft was com- 
mitted ; now if you are ready to give me half, I'll not make 
a discovery to the owner." He didn't even give me an 
answer. What is it fair should be given me out of it? 
Half, I trust you will say. 

Geip. Aye, even more ; but unless he gives it you, I think 
it ought to be told to the owner. 

Teach. I'll act on your advice. Now give me your atten« 
tion ; for it is to yourself all this relates. 

Geip. What has been done by me ! 



108 ETJDENS; Act IV 

Teach, (^pointing at the wallet^. I've known tlie person 
for a long time to whom that wallet belongs. 

Grip. What do you mean ? 

Tbach. And in what manner it was lost. 

Geip. But I know in what manner it was found ; and I 
know the person who found it, and who is now the owner. 
That, i' faith, is not a bit the more your matter than it is my 
own. I know the person to whom it now belongs ; you, the 
person to whom it formerly belonged. This shall no indivi- 
dual get away from me ; don't you be expecting to get it in 
a hurry. 

Teach. If the owner comes, shan't he get it away ? 
. Geip. That you mayn't be mistaken, no born person ia 
there that's owner of this but my own self — who took this 
in my own fishing. 

Teach. Was it really so ? 

Geip. Which fish in the sea wUl you say " is my own ?'* 
When I catch them, if indeed I do catch them, they are my 
own ; as my own I keep them. They are not claimed as 
having a right to freedom^, nor does any person demand a 
share in them. In the market I sell them all openly as 
my own wares. Indeed, the sea is, surely, common to all 
persons. 

Teach. I agree to that ; prithee, tJien, why any the less 
is it proper that this wallet should be common to me ? It 
was found in the sea. 

Geip. Assuredly you are an outrageously impudent fellow ; 
for if this is justice which you are saying, then fishermen 
would be ruined. Inasmuch as, the moment that the fish 
were exposed upon the stalls, no one would buy them ; every 
person would be demanding his own share of the fish for him- 
self ; he would be saying that they were caught in the sea 
that was common to all. 

Teach. Wliat do you say, you iva^viAeni fellow ? Do you 
dare to compare a wallet with fish ? Pray, does it appear to 
be the same thing ? 

Geip. The matter doesn't lie in my power ; when I've 

* Claimed as having a right to freedom) — Ver. 973. " Manu asserere " was 
•* to assert " or " claim the liberty of a slave by action at ^w." Gripns applies th« 
term to the fish of the sea, and means to say that when he catches them he sellg 
them as his own " venales," or " slaves." 



SC. IIL THE flSHEBMAN'S EOPE. 109 

cast my hook and net into the sea, whatever has adhered I 
draw out. Whatever my net and hooks have got, that m 
especial is my own. 

Tkach. Nay but, i' faith, it is not; if, indeed, you've fished 
up any article that's made^. G-rip. Philosopher, you. 

Teach. But look now, you conjurer, did you ever see a 
fisherman who caught a wallet-fish, or exposed one for sale in 
Ihe market ? But, indeed, you shan't here be taking possession 
of all the profits that you clioose ; you expect, you dirty 
fellow, to be both a maker of wallets^ and a fisherman. Either 
you must show me a fish that is a wallet, or else you shall 
carrj' nothing ofi" that wasn't produced in the sea and has no 
scales. 

Geip. What, did you never hear before to-day that a 
wallet was a fish ? 

Teach. "Villain, there is no such fish. 

Geip. Yes, there certainly is ; I, who am a fisherman, know 
it. But it is seldom caught ; no fish more rarely comres near 
the land. 

Teach. It's to no purpose; you hope that you can be 
cheating me, you rogue. Of w^hat colour is it ? 

Geip. {looking at the loallet). Of this colour very few are 
caught : some are of a purple skin, there are great and black 
ones also. 

Teach. I understand; by my troth, you'll be turning into 
a wallet-fish I fancy, if you don't take care ; your skin will 
be purple, and then afterwards black. 

Geip. {aside). What a villain this that I have met with 
to-day ! 

Teach. We are wasting words ; the day wears apace. 
Consider, please, by whose arbitration do you wish us to 
proceed ? 

Geip. By the arbitration of the wallet. 

Teach. E-eally so, indeed ? Tou are a fool. 

Geip. My respects to you. Mister Thales^. {Going.) 

* Article that's made) — Ver. 986. " Vas." An utensil or article that is manu- 
factured. 

2 Maker of wallets) — Ver. 990. " Vitor," or *' vietor," was a maker of "viduli," 
or " wallets," which were made of osier, and then covered with leather of various 
colours. 

5 Thales) — Ver. 1003. Tliales of Miletus was one of the seven wise men ol 
Greece. Gripus ironically calls Trachalio by this name, in reply to the other 
oaving called him a fooL 



110 BTTDEirs ; Act lYr 

Trach. (holding Tiim). You shan't carry that off this day, 
uii_ess YOU find a place of safe keeping for it, or au umpire, 
bj whose arbitration this matter may be settled. 

Grip. Prithee, are you in your senses ? 

Teach. I'm mad, in need of hellebore. 

Grip. But I'm troubled with sprites ; still I shan't let this 
go. {Hugs the wallet.) 

Teach. Only add a single word more, that instant I'll 
drive my fists smash into your brains. This instant on this 
spot, just as a new napkin is wont to be wrung, I'll wring 
out of you whatever moisture there is, if you don't let this 
go. (Seizes the wallet.) 

Grip. Touch me ; I'll dash you down on the ground just 
in such fashion as I'm in the habit of doing with a poly- 
pus fish^. Would you like to fight ? (Assmnes a hoxing at' 
titude.) 

Teach. What need is there ? Nay, in preference, divide 
the booty. 

Geip. You can't get anything from here but harm to yovir- 
self, so don't expect it. I'm taking myself off. 

Teach. But I'll turn aside your ship from that direction, 
that you mayn't be off anywhere — stop. (Stands in front of 
him, and holds the rope.) 

Geip. If you are the helmsman of this ship, I'll be the 
pilot. Let go of the rope now, you villain. 

Teach. I wiU let go ; do you let go of the wallet. 

Grip. I' faith, you shall never this day become a scrap the 
more wealthy from this. 

Trach. You cannot convince me by repeatedly denying, 
unless either a part is given me, or it is referred to arbitra- 
tion, or it is placed in safe keeping. 

Grip. What, that which I got out of the sea ? 

Trach. But I spied it out from the shore. 

Grip. — With my own pains and labour, and net and boat. 

Trach. If now the owner, whose property it is, were Uy 
come, how am I, who espied from afar that you had taken 
this, a bit the less the thief than yourself? 

Grip. None whatever. (Going.) 

Teach, (seizing the net). Stop, you whip-knave ; just let 

^ With a polypus fish)— Yet. 1010. The polypus not being eatable, the 
VOPi woiild thmw it violently on the ground on findi^j^ it in the nuta. 



Sc. III. THE nsnEEMAN'S KOPE. Ill 

me learn of you by what reasoning I am not the sliarer, 

and yet the thief. 

Grip. I don't knew ; neither do I know these city laws 
of yours, only that I affirm that this is mine. {Looks at the 
wallet.} 

Trach. And I, too, say that it is mine. 

Grip. Stay now ; I've discovered by what method you may 
he neither thief nor sharer. 

Track. By what method ? 

Grip. Let me go away from here ; you quietly go your 
own way, and don't you inform against me to any one, and 
I won't give anything to you. You hold your tongue ; I'll 
be mum. This is the best and the fairest plan. 

Track. Well, what proposition do you venture to make ? 

Grip. I've made it already ; for you to go away, to let go 
of the rope, and not to be a nuisance to me. 

Track. Stop while I propose terms. 

Grip. I' faith, do, prithee, dispose^ of youi'self forthwith. 

Track. Do you know any one in these parts ? 

Grip. My own neighbours I must know. 

Track. Where do you live here ? Grip, (pointing). At 
a distance out away yonder, as far off as the farthest fields. 

Track, (pointing to the cottage of Djemo'SIS.s). The person 
that lives in that cottage, should you like it to be decided by 
Lis arbitration ? 

Grip. Let go of the rope for a moment while I step 
aside and consider. 

Track. Be it so. (Lets go of the rope.) 

Grip, (aside). Capital, the thing's all right; the whole of 
khis booty is my own. He's inviting me here inside of my 
own abode to my own master as umpire. By my troth, he 
never this day will award three obols away from his own 
ser\^ant. Assuredly, this fellow doesn't know what proposal 
he has been making. (To Trackalio.) I'll go to the arbi- 
trator with you. 

Track. "What then? Grip. Although I know for sure 
that this is my own lawful right, let that be done rather than 
I should now be fighting with you. 

> Propose — dispose) — Ver. 1031-2. He plays on the resemblance of the wwds 
relero,' " to make a proposal," and " aufero," " to betake one's self away." 



112 BUDEifS ; Act IV 

Teach. Now you satisfy me. 

G-EiP. Although you are driving me before an arbitrator 
whom I don't know, if he shall administer justice, although 
he is unknown, he is as good as known to me ; if he doesn't, 
though known, he is the same as though entirely unknown. 

Scene TV. — Enter DiEMOifES, from his cottage, with Pa- 
L^STEA and Ampelisca, and Servants. 

D^M. {to the Women). Seriously, upon my faith, young 
women, although I wish what you desire, I'm afraid that on 
your account my wife will be turning me out of doors, who'll 
be saying that I've brought harlots here before her very eyes. 
Do you take refuge at the altar rather than I^. 

The Women. We, wretched creatures, are undone. {They 
weep.) 

D^M. I'll place you in safety ; don't you tear. But why 
{turning to the Servants) are you following me out of 
doors ? Since I'm here, no one shall do them harm. Now 
then, be off, I say, in-doors, both of you, you guards from off 
guard. {They go in.) 

Grip. O master, save you. 

D^M. Save you. How goes it ? 

Trach. {pointing to Griptjs). Is he your servant ? 

GrRiP. I'm not ashamed to say yes. 

Trach. I've nothing to do with you. 

Grip. Then get you gone hence, will you. 

Trach. Prithee, do answer me, aged sir ; is he your ser- 
vant ? D^M. He is mine. 

Trach. Oh then, that is very good, since he is yours. 
Again I salute you. 

D^M. And I you. Are you he who, not long since, went 
away from here to fetch his master ? 

Trach. I am he. 

D^M. What now is it that you want ? 

Trach. {pointing to Gripus). This is your servant, you 
Bay? 

D^M. He is mine. 

Trach. That is very good, since he is yours. 

' Rather than /) — Ver. 1048. D«mones here alludes to the jealons dJrspositioo 
of I is wife, and says that if the damsels do not oait \a» hana^ be shall be obliged 
to ,< so in seK defence. 



THE FISHERMAN'S EOPE. 113 

D^M. What's the matter ? 

Trach. {pointing to Gtripiis). That's a rascally fellow 
there. D^m. What has the rascally fellow done to you ? 

Trach. I wish the ancles of that fellow were smashed. 

D^Ai. What's the thing about which you are now disputing 
between yourselves ? 

Trach. I'll tell you. Grip. JSTo, I'll tell you. 

Trach. I fancy I'm to move the matter first. 

Grip. If indeed you were a decent person, you would 
be moving yourself off from here. 

DiEM. Gripus, give attention, and hold your tongue. 

Grip. In order that that fellow may speak first ? 

D^M. Attend, Itellyou. {To Teachalio.) Do you say on. 

Grip. Will you give the right of speaking to a stranger 
sooner than to your own servant ? 

Teach. dear ! how impossible it is for him to be kept 
quiet. As I was beginning to say, that Procurer, whom 
some little time since you turned out of the Temple of 
Venus — see {fointing at the wallet), he has got his wallet. 

Grip. I haven't got it. Trach. Do you deny that which 
I see mth my own eyes ? 

Grip. Eut I only wish you couldn't see. I have got it, 
and I haven't got it ; why do you trouble yourself about me, 
what things I do ? 

Trach. In What way you got it does matter, whether 
rightfully or wrongfully. 

Grip. If I didn't take it in the sea, there's not a reason 
why you shouldn't deliver me up to the cross. If I took it in 
the sea with my net, how is it yours rather than my own ? 

Trach. {to D^MOJfEs). He is deceiving you; the matter 
happened in this way, as I am telling you. 

Grip. What do you say ? Trach. So long as the per- 
son that has the first right to speak is speaking, do {to D-S- 
MONEs) put a check on him, please, if he belongs to you. 

Grip. What, do you wish the same thing to be done to 
myself, that your master has been accustomed to do to your- 
self ? If he is in the habit of putting a check upon you, 
t his master of ours isn't in the habit of doing so with us. 

DiEM. (^0 Trachalio). In that remark only has he got the 
better"^ of you. What do you want now ? Tell me. 

» Has he got the better)— Ver. 1076. In the use of the word " comprimere." an 

VOL. II. I 



114r ETJDEN s ; Act IV 

Track. Por my part, I neither ask for a share of that 
"pallet there, nor have I ever said this day that it is my own ; 
but in it there is a little casket that belongs to this female 
(^pointing to Palestra), whom a short time since I averred 
to be free born. 

D^M. You are speaking of her, I suppose, whom a short 
time since you said was my countrywoman ? 

Teach. Just so ; and those trinkets which formerly, when 
little, she used to wear, are there in that casket, which is in 
that wallet. This thing is of no service to him, and will be 
of utility to her, poor creature, if he gives it up, by means of 
which to seek for her parents. 

D^M. I'll make him give it up ; hold your tongue. 

GrEiP. I' faith, I'm going to give nothing to that fellow. 

Tbach. I ask for nothing but the casket and the trinkets^. 

G-Rip. What if they are made of gold ? 

Teach. What's that to you ? Gold shall be paid for gold, 
silver shall have its weight in silver in return. 

G-Rip. Please let me see the gold ; after that I'U let you 
see the casket. 

D^M. {to GrEiPUs). Do you beware of punishment, and 
hold your tongue. {To Teachalio.) As you commenced to 
speak do you go on. 

Teach. This one thing I entreat of you, that you will have 
compassion on this female, if, indeed, this wallet is that Pro- 
curer's, which I suspect it is. In this matter, I'm saying 
nothing of certainty to you, but only on conjecture. 

Geip. Do you see how the rascal's wheedling him ? 

Teach. Allow me to say on as I commenced. If this is 
the wallet that belongs to that villain whose I say it is, these 
(vomen here will be able to recognize it ; order him to show 
it to them. 

indecent double entendre is intended ; and agreeing with Gripus's remark, that 
the word in that sense could not be applied to him, Daemones says that Gripus is 
right there, at all events. 

1 The trinkets)— Yew 1086. These " crepundia," " trinkets " or " toys," seem 
to have been not unlike the amulets, or charms, in metal, of the present day. As 
kidnapping was in ancient times much more prevalent than now, these little arti- 
cles, if carefully preserved by the child, might be the means of leading to the 
aiscovery of its parents ; at the same time it may be ^'ustly asked how it came to 
pass that the kidnapper shouM alloT such damning evidence of his vilJany to 
remain in existence. 



Sc. rV. THE FISHERMAN S EOPE. 115 

GrEip. Say you so ? To show it to them ? 

DiEM. He doesn't say unreasonably, Gripus, that the 
wallet should be shown. 

Geip. Yes, i' faith, confoundedly unreasonably, 

D^M. How so r* Grip, Because, if I do show it, at once 
they'll say, of course, that they recognize it. 

Teach. Source of villany, do you suppose that all other 
people are just like yourself, you author of perjury ? 

Geip. All this I easily put up with, so long as he (^point- 
ing to D^MONEs) is of my way of thinking^. 

Teach. But now he is against you ; from this (^pointing to 
the wallet) will he obtain true testimony. 

D^M. Gripus, do you pay attention. {To Teachalio.) 
You explain in a tew words what it is you want ? 

Teach. For my part, I have stated it ; but if you haven't 
understood me, I'll state it over again. Both of these women 
{pointing to them), as I said a short time since, ought to be 
free ; {pointing to Paljestea) she was stolen at Athens when 
a little girl. 

Geip. Tell me what that has got to do with the wallet, 
whether they are slaves or whether free women ? 

Teach. You wish it all to be told over again, you rascal, so 
that the day may fail us. 

Djem. Leave off your abuse, and explain to me what I've 
been asking. 

Teach. There ought to be a casket of wicker- work^ in 
that wallet, in which are tokens by means of which she may 
be enabled to recognize her parents, l>y whom, when little, she 
was lost at Athens, as I said before. 

Geip. May Jupiter and the Gods confound you. "What 
do you say, you sorcerer of a fellow ? What, are these wo- 
men dumb, that they are not able to speak for themselves ? 

Teach. They are silent for this reason, because a silent 
woman is always better than a talking one. 

* Of my way of tJiinking) — Ver. 1 100. " Dum hie hinc a me sentiat.* This is 
clearly the meaning, though one translation renders this line thus: " I easily bear 
all those things until this fellow may ieel that he must go away hence from me." 
Track, (moving further off). " But now," &c. 

* Casket of loicker-work) — Ver. 1109. " Caudeam." Festus tells us that this 
kind or casKet was made of wicker, and received its name from its resemblance to 
a horse's tail, " cauda;" others, however, perhaps with more probability, derive it 
from " caudex," " a piece of wood." 

i2 



116 EUDENs ; Act IT . 

Grip. Tlien, i' faitli, by your way of speaking, you are 
neither a man nor a woman to my notion. 

Teach. How so ? G-eip. AVhy, because neither tallving 
nor silent are you ever good for anything. Pritliee {to Y^s.- 
MONEs), shall I ever be allowed to-day to speak? 

D^M. If you utter a single word more this day, I'll break 
your head for you. 

Teach. As I had commenced to say it, old gentleman, I 
beg you to order him to give up that casket to these young 
women ; if for it he asks any reward for himself, it shall be 
paid ; whatever else is there besides, let him keep for himself. 
Grip. Now at last you say that, because you are aware it is 
my right ; just now you were asking to go halves. 
Teach. Aye, and even stiU I ask it. 
Geip. I've seen a kite making a swoop, even when he 
got nothing at all however. DiEM. {to Geipus). Can't I 
shut your mouth without a drubbing ? 

Geip. {pointing to Teachalio). If that fellow is silent, 
I'll be silent; if he talks, allow me to talk in my own 
behalf. 

DiEAT. Please now give me this wallet, Gripus. 
Geip. I'll trust it to you ; but for you to return it me, if 
there are none of those things in it. 

D^M. It shall be returned. Geip. Take it. {Gives him 
the wallet.) 

DiEM. Now then listen. Palaestra and Ampelisca, to this 
which I say : is this the wallet, in which this JProcurer said 
that your casket was ? 

Pal. It is the same. Geip. (aside). Troth, to my sorrow, 
I'm undone ; how on the instant, before she well saw it, she 
said that it was it. 

Pal. I'U make this matter plain to you, instead of difficult. 
There ought to be a casket of wicker-work there in that 
wallet ; whatever is in there I'U state by name ; don't you 
show me anything. If I say wrong, I shall then have said 
Sihis to no purpose ; then you shall keep these things, what- 
ever is in there for yourselves. But if the truth, then I en- 
ti-oat you that what is my own may be restored to me. 

D/EH. I agree ; you ask for bare justice only, in my way ol 
thinking, at least. 

Grip. But, i' faith, in mine, for extreme iniustice ; wliat ii 



Sc. IV. THE nSHERMlx'S ROPE. 11^ 

she IS a witeli or a sorceress, and shall mention exacth 
everything that's in it ? Is a sorceress to have it ? 

D^M. She shan't get it, unless she tells the truth ; in vaii\ 
will she^ be conjuring. Unloose the wallet, then (^giving it to 
Gripus), that as soon as possible I may know what is the truth. 

GrRiP. {Jirst unfastens the straps of the wallet, and then 
hands it to Aw Master). Takeit^, it's unfastened. (D^mones 
takes out the casket.) Alas, I'm undone ; I see the casket. 

D^M. (holding it up, and addressing Palj3STRa). Is this it ? 

Pal. That is it. O my parents, here do I keep you locked 
"^p ; here have I enclosed both my wealth and my hopes of 
recognizing you. 

G-RiP. {aside). Then, by my faith, the Gods must be enraged 
with you, whoever you are, who fasten up your parents in so 
narrow a compass. 

Djsm. Gripus, come hither, your cause is being tried. {To 
PALiESTRA.) Do you, young woman, away at a distance there 
say what's in it, and of what appearance ; mention them all. 
By my troth, if you make ever so slight a mistake, even if 
afterwards you wish, madam, to correct yourself, you'll be 
making a great mistake. 

Grip. You demand what's real justice. Trach. By my 
troth, then, he doesn't demand yourself; for you are the op- 
posite of justice. 

DiEM. Now then, say on, young woman. Gripus, give at- 
"tention and hold your tongue. 

Pal. There are some trinkets. D^M. {looking in the 
casket). See, here they are, I espy them. 

Grip, {aside). In the first onset I an^ worsted; {takes hold 
of the arm o/D.emones) hold, don't be showing. 

DiEM. Of what description are they ? Answer in their 
order. Pal. In the first place, there's a little sword of 
gold, with an inscription. 

» In vain will she) — Ver. 1141, By this he clearly means to say that conjuring 
IS all nonsense, and that she has no chance of teUing what is m it merely by 
guessing. 

2 Take it)— Ver. 1143. " Hoc habe." This, though not adopted by Fleckeisen, 
seems to be the right reading, and we have followed the conjecture of the learned 
Rost in adopting it. Gripus undoes the strap, then holds the wallet to his master, 
Baying, " Take it, it's unfastened." Daemones takes it, and at once draws out the 
casket, on seeing which GJripus makes an exclamation of surprise and disappoint- 
ment. 



118 EUDENS; Act IV. 

D^M. Just tell me, what the characters are upon that 
little sword. 

Pal. The name of myfatlier. Next, on the other side, there's 
a little two-edged axe, of gold likewise, with an inscription : 
there on the axe is the name of my mother. 

D^M. Stay ; tell me, what's the name of your lather upon 
the little sword ? 

Pal. Daemones. D^m. Immortal Gods ! where in the 
world are my hopes ? 

GrRip. Aye, by my troth, and wliere are mine ? 

DiEM. Do proceed forthwith, I entreat you, 

GrRTP. Cautiously, or else {aside) away to utter perdition. 

D-aEM. Say, what's the name of your mother, here upon 
the little axe ? 

Pal. Dsedalis. DiEM. The Gods will that I should be pre- 
served. 

Grip. But that I should be ruined. 

DjEM. This must be my own daughter, Gripus. 

Grip. She may be for me, rudeed. {To Trachalio.) May 
all the Gods confound you who this day saw me with your 
eyes, and myself as well for a blockhead, who didn't look 
about a hundred times first to see that no one was watching 
me, before I drew the net out of the water. 

Pal. Next, there's a little knife of silver, and two little 
hands linked together, and then a little sow. 

Grip, {aside). Nay, then, go and be hanged, you with 
your little sow and with your little pigs. 

Pal. There's also a golden drop^, which my father pre- 
sented to me upon my birthday. 

Djem. Undoubtedly there is ; lut I cannot restrain myself 

* A golden drop) — Ver. 1171. The " bulla" was a ball of metal, so called from 
its resemblance in shape to a drop or bubble of water. These were especially worn 
by the Roman children, suspended from the neck, and were generally made of thin 
plates of gold, of about the size of a walnut. The use of them was derived 
from the people of Etruria , and though originally used solely by the children erf 
tlie Patricians, they were subsequ«ntly worn by all of free birth. The children 
of the " libertini," or " freed-men," wore " bullae," but made of leather. The 
" bulla " was laid aside at the same time as tlie " toga prsetexta," and was on 
that occasion consecrated to the Lares. It must be owned that the " little sow," 
mentioned in the line before, was rather a curious sort of trinket. Thornton think* 
that the word " Bucula " admitted of a ayiible entendrtf though of what naton 
16 now ankrown. 



Ss. yi. THE FISHEEMAN'S EOPE. 119 

any longer from embracing you. My daughter, blessings on 
you ; I am that father who begot you ; I am Daemones, and see, 
your mother Dsedalis is in the house here {pointing to his 
cottage). 

Amp. (emhracing him). Blessings on you, my unlooked- 
for father. 

D^M. Blessings on you ; how joyously do I embrace you. 

Teach. 'Tis a pleasure to me, inasmuch as this falls to 
Vour lot from your feelings of aifection. 

D^M. Come then, Trachalio, if you can, bring that wallet 
into the house. 

Teach, (faking the wallet). See the villany of Gripiis ; 
inasmuch, Gripus, as this matter has turned out unfortu- 
nately for you, I congratulate you. 

D^M. Come, then, let's go, my daughter, to your mother, 
who will be better able to enquire of you into this matter 
from proofs ; who had you more in her hands, and is more 
thoroughly acquainted with your tokens. 

Teach. Let's all go hence in-doors, since we are giving 
our common aid. 

Pal. Follow me, Ampelisca. Amp. That the Gods favour 
you, it is a pleasure to me. ( Theg all go into the cottage of 
JO^MONES, excejpt Geipus.) 

Scene Y. — Geipus, alone. 

Geip. (to himself). Am I not a blockhead of a fellow, to 
have this day fished up that w^allet ? Or, when I had fished 
it up, not to have hidden it somewhere in a secret spot ? By 
my troth, I guessed that it would be a troublesome booty for 
me, because it fell to me in such troublous weather. I' faith, 
T guess that there's plenty of gold and silver there. What ia 
there better for me than to be off hence in-doors and secretly 
hang myself — at least for a little time, until this vexation 
passes away from me ? (Goes into the cottage.) 

Scene YI. — Enter D^MONES,/row his cottage. 

DiEM. {to himself) O ye immortal Gods, what person is there 

more fortunate than I, who unexpectedly have discovered my 

daughter ? Isn't it the fact, that if the Gods will a blessing to 

befall any person, that \ong^di-iov jpleasure by some means or 



120 ETJDENS; Act IV. 

otlier, falls to the lot^ of the virtuous ? I this day, a thing 
that I never hoped for nor yet believed, have unexpectedly 
discovered my daughter, and I shall bestow her upon a re- 
spectable young man of noble family, an Athenian, and my 
kinsman. For that reason I wish him to be fetched hither 
to me as soon as possible, and I've requested my servant 
to come out here, that he may go to the Forum. Still, I'm 
siirprised at it that he isn't yet come out. I think I'll go to 
the door. (Opens the door, and looks in,) What do I behold ? 
Embracing her, my wife is clasping my daughter around her 
neck. Her caressing is really almost too foolish and sicken- 
ing2. {Goes to the door again, and calls out.) 'Twere better, 
wife, for an end to be made at last of your kissing; aiid 
make all ready that I may perform a sacrifice, when I 
come in-doors, in honor of the household Gods, inasmuch as 
they have increased our family. At home I have lambs and 
swine for sacred use. But why, ladies, are you detaining 
that Trachalio ? Oh, I see he's coming out of doors, very 
seasonably. 

Scene VII. — I^nter Teachalio, j^ow the cottage. 

Tbach. {speaking to those within). Wheresoever he shall 
be, I'll seek Plesidippus out at once, and bring him together 
with me to you. 

D^M. Tell him how this matter has fallen out about my 
daughter. Eequest him to leave other occupations and to 
come here. 

Tbach. Very weU^. D^m. Tell him that I'll give him 
my daughter for a wife. 

*Teach. Very well. Djem. And that I knew his father, 
and that he is a relation of my own. 

Teach. Very weU. Dj3m. But do make haste. 

> Folk to the lot)— Yer. 1194. He forgets here that " Self-praise is no recom- 
mendation." 

2 And sickening) — Ver. 1204. He says this probably out of disgust at the 
wonderful change in his wife's conduct, who before was tormenting him with 
her jealousy about the girls, and is now kissing and hugging (though naturally 
enough) her long-lost daughter. 

3 Very welV)—Yer. 1212. " Licet." This word is used by Trachalio in answei 
to eyerythiug that Da)mones says to him 



Sc. YIII. THE FISnEEMAU's EOPE. 121 

Teach. Very well. 

D j^M. Take care and let a dinner be prepared here at once. 

Teach. Very well. D^m. What, all very well ? 

Teach. Very well. But do you know what it is I want 
of you ? That you'll remember what you promised, that 
this day I'm to be free. 

Dmm. Very welli. Teach. Take care and entreat Plesi- 
dippus to give me my freedom. 

D^M. Very well. Teach. And let your daughter re- 
quest it ; she'll easily prevail. 

D^M. Very well. Teach. And that Ampelisca may marry 
me, when I'm a free man. 

I) JEM. Very well. Teach. And that I may experience a 
pleasing return to myself in kindness for my actions. 

D^M. Very well. Teach. What, all very well ? 

D^M. Very well. Again I return you thanks. But do 
you make haste to proceed to the city forthwith, and betake 
yourself hither again. 

Teach. Very well. I'll be here directly. In the mean- 
while, do you make the other preparations that are neces- 
sar}\ (Uxit Teachalio. 

D^M. Very well — may Hercules ill befriend him with his 
" very-welling2 ;" he has so stuffed my ears with it. What- 
ever it was I said, " very well" was the answer. 

Scene VIII. — Enter GrETPUS,^om the cottage. 

Geip. How soon may I have a word with you. Deem ones ? 

D^M. What's your business, Gripus ? Geip. Touching 
that wallet, if you are wise, be wise ; keep what goods the 
Grods provide you. 

D^M. Does it seem right to you, that, what belongs to 
another I should assert to be my own ? 

Geip. What, not a thing that I found in the sea ? 

D^M. So much the better does it happen for him who 
lost it ; none the more is it necessary that it should be your 
wallet. 

'^ Very wd!) — Ver. 1217. Here Dsemones begins to pay him in his ovm coin, 
and answers him with " licet" until he makes liis exit. 

2 His ^' very- welling^') — Ver. 1225. " Cum sua licentia." In the latter word he 
alludes to Trachalio having bored him with his " licets," although, having giv«a 
him a Roland for his Oliver, he might have surely been content with th&t. 



122 KTJDETrs ; A(;t IV. 

GrKTP. Por tills reason are you poor, "because you are too 
scrupulously righteous. 

Djem. O Gripus, Gripus, in tlie life of man very many 
traps there are, in what they are deceived by guile. And, by 
my troth, full often is a bait placed in them, which bait if 
any greedy person greedily snaps at, through his own greedi- 
ness he is caught in the trap. He who prudently, skilfully, 
and warily, takes precaution, full long he may enjoy that 
which is honestly acquired. This booty seems to me^ to be 
about to be made a booty of ly me, that it may go hence with 
a greater blessing than it first came. What, ought I to con- 
ceal what I know was brought to me as belonging to an- 
other ? By no means will my friend Daemones do that. 'Tis 
ever most becoming for prudent men to be on their guard 
against this, that they be not themselves confederates with 
their servants in evil-doing. Except only when I'm gaming, 
I don't care for any gain. 

Grip. At times, I've seen the Comedians, when acting, in 
this fashion repeat sayings in a wise manner, and be ap- 
plauded for them, when they pointed out this prudent con- 
duct to the public. But when each person went thence his 
own way home, there wasn't one after the fashion which 
they had recommended. 

I) JEM. Go in-doors, don't be troublesome, moderate your 
tongue. I'm going to give you nothing, don't you deceive 
yourself. 

Grip, {apart). Then I pray the Gods that whatever' s in 
that wallet, whether it's gold, or whether silver, it may all 
become ashes. {Goes into the cottage.) 

Scene IX. — D^mones, alone. 
Djem. This is the reason why we have bad servants. For 
this master, if he had combined with any servant, would have 
made both himself and the other guilty of a theft. WhUe he 
was thinking that he himself had made a capture, in the 
meantime he himself would have been made a capture : cap- 
ture would have led to capture. Now will I go in-doors from 
here and sacrifice ; after that, I'll at once order the dinner 
to be cooked for us. ( Goes into tlie cottage?) 

» This booty seems in me)— Ver. 1242. This passage is very obscure, and nas 
been variously interpreted. He seems, however, to mean that more good will 
a! restoring the booty to its owner than of keeping it. 



Act y. THE fisheeman's eope. 123 



Act Y. — Scene I. 

Enter Plesidippus and Teachalio, at the further end of the 
stage. 

Ples. Tell me all these things over again my life, my 
Trachalio, my freed-man, my patron, aye rather, my father ; 
has Palaestra found her father and mother ? 

Teach. She has found them. 

Ples. And is she my countrywoman ? 

Teach. So I think. Ples. And is she to marry me ? 

Teach. So I suspect. Ples. Prithee, do you reckon that 
he will betroth her to me ? 

Teach. So 1 reckon^. Ples. "Well, shall I congratulate 
her father too upon his finding her ? 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. Well, her mother too ? 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. Wliat then do you reckon? 

Teach. What you ask me, I reckon. 

Ples. Tell me then how much do you reckon it at ? 

Teach. What I, I reckon 

Ples. Then really, do carry over^. Don't be always 
making a reckoning. 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. What if I run ? {Fretend^ 
to run.) 

Teach. So I reckon. 

Ples. Or rather gently, this way ? {Se walks slowly.) 

Teach. So I reckon. 

Ples. Ought I to salute her as well when I arrive ? 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. Her father too ? 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. After that, her mother ? 

Teach. So I reckon. Ples. And what after that ? WTien 
I arrive, should I also embrace her father ? 

Teach. So I don't reckon. Ples. Well, her mother ? 

Teach. So I don't reckon. Ples. Well, her own self? 

* So I reckon) — Ver. 1269. For the sake of mere nonsense, Trachalio begins to 
trifle with his master, by giving him the answer of "censeo" to everything he 
says ; just as he gave his repeated answers of " licet " to Dsemones before leaving 

2 Do carry over) — Ver. 1273. " At sume quidem," though not given by Fleck- 
eisen, has been here adopted as the reading. " Censeo"' seems to mean " to 
reckon up," as well as " to think." Salmasius and Gronovius suggest, and witn 
fair reason, that he tn&ans jocularly to say, " Don't be always reckoning, but cask 
UD and carry over." 



124 ETJDENS ; Act Y. 

Teach So I don't reckon. Ples. Confusion, he haa 
closed his reckoning^; now when I wish him, he doesn't 
reckon, 

Teack. You are not in your senses ; follow me. 

Ples. Conduct me, my patron, where you please. (Th^ 
go into the cottage o/D^mones.) 

ScEifE II. — JEnter Labeax, af a distance. 

Lab. (to himself). "What other mortal being is there living 
this day more wretched than myself, whom before the commis- 
sioned judges^ Plesidippus has just now cast ? Palaestra has 
just been taken from me by award. I'm ruined outright. But 
I do believe that Procurers were procreated for me7'e sport ; 
BO much do all persons make sport if any misfortune befalls 
a Procurer. Now I'll go look here, in the Temple of Venus, 
for that other female, that her at least I may take away, the 
only portion of my property that remains. (He retires a 
little distance.) 

^CENE III. — JEnter GrEiPUS,/rom the cottage q/'D^MONES, 
with a sjnt in his hand. 

Geip. (calling to the People within). By the powers, you 
shall never this day at nightfall behold Grripus alive, unless 
the wallet is restored to. me. 

Lab. (behind). I'm ready to die ; when I hear mention 
made anywhere of a wallet, I'm thumped, as it were with a 
stake, upon the breast. 

Geip. (at the door, continuing). That scoundrel is free ; I, 
the person tliat held the net in the sea, and drew up thft 
wallet, to him you refuse to give anything. 

Lab. (hehind). ye immortal Gods! by his talk this 
person has made me prick up my ears. 

* Closed his reckoning) — Ver. 1279. " Dilectum dimisit." This expression is 
explained by some Commentators as alluding to the enlisting of soldiers, to which 
the word " censeo" was applicable. The play on the word " censeo" throughout 
■this Scene is enwrapt in great ctwcurity. 

^ Commissioned Judges) — Ver. 1282. " Recuperatores." These were alw 
called "judices selecti," and were "commissioned judges" appointed by thi 
Prastors at Rome for the purpose of trying causes relative to property in dispute 
©etweeu parties. See the Bacchides, 1. 270. 



Sc. III. THE FISHERMAN'S EOPE. 125 

GrEiP. (continuing). By my troth, in letters a cubit long, 
I'll immediately post it up in every quarter, " It" any person has 
lost a wallet with plenty of gold and silver, let him come to 
Grripus." Ton shan't keep it as you are wishing. 

Lab. {behind). V faith, this person knows, as I think, who 
has got the wallet. This person must be accosted by me ; ye 
Gods, aid me, I do entreat you. 

{Some one calls GtEIPUS, from within.) 

GrBiP. Why are you calling me back in-doors ? {He rubs 
away at the spit.) I want to clean this here before the door. 
But surely this, i' faith, has been made of rust, ajid not of 
iron ; so that the more I rub it, it becomes quite red and 
more slender. Why surely this spit has been drugged^ ; it 
does waste away so in my hands. 

Lab. {accosting him). Save you, young man. 

Geip. May the Gods prosper yon with your shorn pate^. 

Lab. What's going on ? Geip. A spit being cleaned. 

Lab. How do you do ? 

Geip. "WTiat are you ? Prithee, are you a medicant^ ? 

Lab. No, i' faith, I am more than a medicant by one letter. 

Geip. Then you are a " mendicant." 

Lab. You've hit it to a nicety*. 

Geip. Tour appearance seems suitable to it. But what's 
the matter with you ? 

Lab. Troth, this last night I was shipwrecked at sea 
the vessel was cast away, and to my misfortune I lost there 
everything that I had. 

Grip. What did you lose ? 

Lab. a wallet with plenty of gold and silver. 

Grip. Do you at all remember what there was in the wallet 

' Has been drugged) — ^^^er. 1302, He alludes to the rust which has eaten into 
the spit and worn it awav. 

2 Your shorn pate) — Ver. loOS. Madame Dacier suggests that Labrnx has had 
his hair cut off in consequence of having escaped from shipwreck, which, indeed, 
was often done during the continuance of a storm by those at sea. 

3 A medicant) — Ver. 1304. He plays upon the resemblance of the words " me- 
dicus" and " mendicus." To give effect to the pun, we have, with Thornton, 
coined the word " medKant," in the sense of " doctor" or " physician." 

* Hit it to a nicety)— Yer. 1305. " Tetigisti acu." Literaliy, ' you've hit it 
witli the point"— that is, " exactly." 



126 EUDENS ; Act V. 

which was lost ? Lab. "Wliat matters for us now to be talk- 
ing of it, if, in spite of it, it's lost ? 

G-mp. AVTiat if I know who has found it ? I wish to learn 
from you the tokens. 

Lab. Eight hundred golden pieces were there in a purse, 
besides a hundred Philippean minae in a wash-leather bag 
apart. 

Geip. (aside). Troth, it is a noble prize ; I shall be get- 
ting a handsome reward. The Gods show respect to mor- 
tals ; therefore I shall come off bounteously rewarded. No 
doubt, it is this man's wallet. {To Labeax.) Do you pro- 
ceed to relate the rest. 

Lab. a large talent of silver of full weight was in a purse, 
besides a bowl, a goblet, a beaker, a boat, and a cup. 

Geip. Astonishing! you really did have some splendid 
riches. 

Lab. a shocking expression is that, and a most abominable 
one. " You did have, and now have not." 

Geip. What would you be ready to give to one who 
Bhould find these out for you, and give you information ? 
Say, speedily and at once. 

Lab. Three hundred di drachms. Geip. E-ubbish. 

Lab. Four hundred. Geip. Old thrums. 

Lab. Five hundred. Geip. A rotten nut. 

Lab. Six hundred. 

Geip. You are prating about mere tiny weevils. 

Lab. I'll give seven hundred. 

Geip. Your mouth is hot, you are cooling it^ just now. 

Lab. I'll give a thousand didrachms. 

Geip. You are dreaming. 

Lab. I add no more ; be off with you. Geip. Hear me 
then ; if, i' faith, I should be off from here, I shan't be here. 

Lab. "Would you like a hundred as well as the thousand ? 

Geip. You are asleep. 

Lab. Say how much you ask. 

Geip. That you mayn't be adding anything against your 

» You are cooling if) — ^Ver. 1326. He is supposed here to allude to the act of 
drawing the breath into the mouth with the teeth half closed, which produces a 
tensatiou of coolness; meaning, that he doesn't speak oat and offer with boldneas. 



Sc. III. THE riSHEEMLiJf'S EOPE, x27 

inclination, a great talent ; it's not possible for three olinls 
to be bated thence; then do you say either "yes" or "no" 
at once. 

Lab. {aside). What's to he done here? It's a matter of 
necessity, I see : (to GtEIPus) the talent shall be paid. 

Grip, (going towards the altar). Just step this way; I 
wish Venus here to put the question to you. 

Lab. Whatever you please, that command me. 

Grip. Touch this altar of Venus. 

Lab. {toucJiing it). I am touching it. 

Grip. By Venus here must you swear to me. 

Lab. What must I swear ? 

Grip. What I shall bid you. 

Lab. Dictate in words just as you like. (Aside.) What 
I've got at home, I shall never beg^ of any one else. 

Grip. Take hold of this altar. 

Lab. (taking hold of it). I am taking hold of it. 

Grip. Swear that you will pay me the money on that same 
day on which you shall gain possession of the wallet. 

Lab. Be it so. Grip, (speaking, while Labrax repeats 
after him). Venus of Cyrene, I invoke thee as my witness, if 
I shall find that w^allet which I lost in the ship, safe with 
the gold and silver, and it shall come into my possession 

Grip. " Then to this Gripus do I promise ;" say so and 
place your hand upon me. 

Lab. Then to this Gripus do I promise, Venus, do thou 
hear me 

Grip, (followed hy Labrax). " That I will forthwith give 
him a great talent of silver." 

Grip. If you defraud me, say, may Venus utterly destroy 
your body, and your existence in your calling. (Aside.) As 
it is, do you have this for yourself, when you've once taken 
tlie oath. 

Lab. If, Venus, I shall do anything amiss against this 
oath, I supplicate thee that all Procurers may henceforth be 
wretched. » 

Grip, (aside). As it is, it shall be so, even if you do keep 

> / shall never beg) — Ver. 1335. He says this to !iimself, meaning that Iw 
has a suflBcient stock of perjury at home, without gcing to another person fat 
it. See J. 558. 



128 : EUDEU^S ; AcT V. 

your oath. Do you wait here ; ingoing towards the cottage)^ 
I'll at once make the old gentleman come out ; do you ibrth- 
with demand of him that wallet. (Goes in.) 

Lab. (to himself). If ever so much he shall restore to me 
this wallet, I'm not this day indebted to him three obols ; 
even. It's according to my own intention what my tongue 
BAvears. (^The door opens.) But I'll hold my peace ; see, 
here he's coming out, and bringing the old man. 

Scene TV. — Unter G-biptjs, followed hy D^mokes, with the 
wallet. 

Geip. Follow this way. "WTiere is this Procurer ? Hark 
you {to Labrax), see now; this person (^pointing at ~Dm- 
MO^fEs) has got your waUet. 

D^M. I have got it, and I confess that it is in my posses- 
sion ; and if it's yours, you may have it. Everything, just as 
each particular was in it, shall in like manner be given safe 
to you. (Holding it out.) Take it, if it's yours. 

Lab. Immortal Grods, it is mine. (Takes it.) Welcome, 
dear wallet. 

D^M. Is it yours ? Lab. Do you ask the question ? If 
indeed, i' faith, it were in Jove's possession, still it is ray own. , 

DiEM. Everything in it is safe ; there has only been one 
casket taken out of it, with some trinkets, by means of which 
this day I have found my daughter. 

Lab. What person ? D^m. Palaestra, who was your pro- 
perty, she has been discovered to be my own daughter. 

Lab. By my troth, it has happily turned out so ; since 
this matter has happened so fortunately for you according to 
your wishes, I'm rejoiced. 

DiEii. In that I don't readily believe you. 

Lab. Aye, by my faith, that you may be sure that I'm 
rejoiced, you shan't give me three obols for her; I excuse 
you. 

D^:\r. I' faith, you are actiijg kindly. 

Lab. No, troth ; it's really yourself, indeed, thufi doinff 'J!a 
(Going off with the wallet.) 

Grip. Hark you, you've got the wallet now. 

Lab. I have got it. Grip. Make haste. 



Sc. IV. THE FISHEEMAN's HOPE. 129 

Lab. Make haste about what? G-rip. To pay me the 
money. 

Lab. By my troth, I'll neither give you anything nor do I 
owe you anything. Geip. What mode of proceeding is this ? 
Don't you owe it me ? 

Lab. Troth, not I indeed. Grip. Didn't you promise it 
me upon your oath ? 

Lab. I did take an oath, and now I'U take an oath, if it is 
ill any way my own pleasure ; oaths were invented for preserv- 
ing property, not for losing it. 

Grip. Give me,will you, a great talent of silver, you most 
perjured fellow. 

D^M. Gripus, what talent is it you are asking him for ? 

Grip. He promised it me on oath. 

Lab. I chose to swear ; (turning to D^mones) are you 
the priest^ as to my perjury ? 

D^M. {to Gripus). For what reason did he promise you 
the money ? 

Grip. If I restored this wallet into his hands, he swore 
that he would give me a great talent of silver. 

Lab. Find me a person with whom I may go to the judge, 
to decide whether you did not make the bargain with wicked 
fraudulence, and whether I am yet five-and-twenty years old^. 

Grip, (pointing to D^moi^es). Go to the judge with him. 

Lab. No ; I must have some other person. 

D^M. (^0 Labrax). Then I shan't allow you to take it 
away from him, unless I shall have found him guilty. Did 
you promise him the money ? 

* Are you the priest')— Yer. 1377. The meaning of this passage is doubtful, 
out he seems to ask Daemones, " Are you the Priest of Venus, in whose presence 
I took the oath ?" It was probably the duty of the priesthood to take cognizance 
»f cas^s of perjury. 

2 Five-and-twenty years old) — Ver. 1382. By the Laetorian law (which is also 
referred to in the Notes to the Pseudolus), persons under the age of five-and- 
twenty were deemed minors, and free from all pecuniary obligations. As usual, 
in this allusion Plamtus consults the usages of his Audience, and not of the place 
where the Scene is laid. Labrax is ready to say or swear anything; and Madame 
Dacier justly remarks, that it is amusing enough that he should call himself not 
five-and-twenty, when he is described, in the Second Scene of the First Act, aa 
a person liavinc; grey hair. Gripus being a slave, could not try the question at 
law with Labrax. 

VOL. II. K 



130 RUDEKS ; Act V. 

Lab. I e.iiressit. D^m. What you promiaed my slave 
must ueeds be my own. Don't you be supposing, Pro- 
curer, that you are to be using your pimping honesty here. 
That can't be. 

GrKip. (to Labeax) . Did you fancy now that you had got 
hold of a person whom you might cheat ? It must be paid 
down here {holding his hand), good silver coin ; I shall, at once, 
pay it to him (^yointing to DiEMONEs), so that he may give 
me my liberty. 

D^M. Inasmuch, therefore, as I have acted courteously 
towards you, and by my means these things (^pointing to the 
wallet) have been saved for you 

Grip. I' faith, by my means, rather ; don't say by yours. 

DiEM. {to GrRiPus). If you are prudent you'll hold your 
tongue. {To Labrax.) Then it befits you in a like cour- 
teous manner kindly to return the obligation to myself, who 
so well merit the same. 

Lab. You are pleading, of course, for my right ? 

D^:m. {ironically). It would be a wonder if I didn't, at 
a loss to myself, ask you to forego your right. 

G-Rip. {aside). I'm all right; the Procurer's giving way ; 
my freedom is at hand. 

DiEM. {pointing to Gripus). He found this wallet ; he is 
my slave. I therefore have preserved this for you, together 
with a large sum of money. 

Lab. I return you thanks, and with regard to the talent 
that I promised on oath to him, there's no reason that you 
shouldn't receive it. 

GrRiP, Hark you, give it me then, if you are wise. 

D.EM. {to GrRiPUs). "Will you hold your tongue, or not ? 

GrRip. You pretend to be acting on my side : / tell you * 
***** by my troth, you 

shan't do me out of that, if I did lose the other booty^. 

D^M. You shall have a beating if you add a single word. 

GrRiP. Troth now, do you kill me even ; I'll never be 
silent on any terms, unless my mouth is shut with the talent. 

Lab. For yourself, in fact, is he using his exertions ; 
do hold your tongue. 

• The otfier booty) — Ver. 1 --yO. By this he means the wallet and its ' ••ntenti. 



Be. IV. THE fisheeman's eope. 131 

D^M. Step this way, Procurer. 

Lab. Very well. {They walk on one side.) 

G-Eip. Proceed openly ; I don't want any whisperings or 
mumblings to be going on. 

Dmm. Tell me, at what price did you buy that other 
young woman, Ampelisca ? 

Lab. I paid dowTi a thousand didrachms. 

D^M. Should you like me to make you a handsome offer ? 

Lab. I should Hke it much. Djem. 1*11 divide the talent. 

Lab. You act fairly. 

D^M. For that other woman Ampelisca, that she may be 
free, take you one half, and give the other half to him. 

Lab. By all means. 

D^M. For that half I'll give his freedom to Grripus, by 
means of whom you found your wallet, and I my daughter. 

Lab. Tou act fairly ; I return you many thanks. {They 
return to Gtripus.) 

Grip. How soon then is the money to be returned to me ? 

D^M. The money's paid, Gripus ; I've got it. 

Geip. You, faith ; but I had rather it were myself. 

DjiM. I' faith, there's nothing for you here, so don't you 
De expecting it. I wish you to release him from his oath. 

Grip, {aside.) Troth, I'm undone ; if I don't hang myself \ 
I'm utterly done for. {Aloud.) T faith, after this day you 
certainly shall never be cheating me again. 

DiEM. Dine here to-day. Procurer. 

Lab. Be it so ; the proposal is to my taste. 

D^M. Do you both follow me in-doors. {Se comes forward 
and addresses the Audience.) Spectators, I would invite you 
to dinner as well, were it not that I'm going to give nothing, 
and that there is no good cheer at all at home ; and if, too, I 
didn't believe that you are invited to dinner elsewhere. But 
if you shall be willing to give hearty applause to this Play, do 
you all come to make merry at my house some sixteen years 
nence. Do you {to Labeax and Geipus) both dine here 
with me to-day. 

Grip. Be it so, 

^ If I don't hang myself^ — Ver. 1415. Thornton calls this " a sorry witti- 
eisin ;" but Madame Dacier and other Commentators discover great humour in it. 
It certainlj is amusing for its absurdity. 

k2 



182 EXJDEIfS. Act V 

An AcTOE. 
{To the Audience.) Now give us your applause^ 

' Give us your applause) — Ver. 1423. This Play, though pronouuced to be 
one of the best of this author, does not conclude satisfactorily. We are not 
told what becomes of Ampelisca, or of TrachaUo, who aspires to the honor of 
her hand. The sturdy Sceparnio we lose sight of too early ; and I>s>mones 
loses all claim to our estimation, by inviting such an infamous villain as jL,abrax 
to take a place at his table, who certainly, according to the usual -^Je» at 
Dramatio retribution, richly iktierves to loss bis wallet and its ccDtent« 



MERCATOR; THt MERCHANT. 



t 



Bramatis persons. 

Demii'ho, an aged Athenian. 

LYSIMACHUS^ an aged Athenian. 

Charinus, son of Demipho, in love with PasicompBa, 

EuTYCHUs, son of Lysimachus. 

AcANTHio, the servant of Charinus. 

A C!ooK. 

Pasicompsa, a young woman beloved by Charinus. 
DoKiPPA, the wife of Lysiiii*chus. 
Syra, an old woman, her servant. 
Pbristrata,* the wife of Demipho. 
Lycissa,* her attendant. 

Slaves. 



Scene. — Athens ; before the hoases of Lysimachus and Demipho vhich 
adjacent to each other. 



* These characters are only introduced in the two Scenes at tne ecd al 
Fourth Act, which are generally considered to be sparicu& 



TEE SUBJECT! 



This Play (Trhich is thought by some not to have been the compositioo of Piantn*) 
Jescribes the follies of a vicious old man and his son. Two years before tbf 
period when the Play opens, Charinus has been sent by his father Demipho to 
traffic at Rhodes. Keturning thence, he brings with him a young woman, named 
Pasicompsa, who is in reality his mistress, but whom he pretends to have pur- 
«hased for the purpose of her being an attendant upon his mother. Demipho, in the 
absence of his son, goes down to the ship, and seeing the young woman there, falls 
desperately in love with her. He then pretends to Charinus that she is too hand- 
some to be brought into tne house as a servant, and that she must be sold again. 
Insisting upon this, he persuades his friend, Lysimachus, to purchase her for him 
in his own name, »ud to take her to his own house. This being done, and the 
damsel brought to the house, the wife of Lysimachus unexpectedly returns 
home from the country, and finds her there. In the meanwhile, Charinus, 
being reduced to despair on losing his mistress, determines to leave the coun- 
try. His friend Eutychus, the son of Lysimachus, having discovered his 
friend's mistress in his father's house, stops him just as he is about to depart, 
and informs him where she has been found. He then reconciles his own parents, 
and the Play ccncludes with his very just oeosore ot' i)euu|kho icr his -nrsauM 
condvct. 



MERCATOR; THE MERCHANT. 



I 

m, ■ THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

W [Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

I A YOUNG man, being sent {Missus) by his fatiier to traffic, buys (Emit) a clam- 
■ sel of remarkable beauty, and brings her home. The old man, after he lias 

J seen her, makes enquiry Qliequirit) who she is. The servant pretends (^Con- 

Jingit) that she has been bouglit by the son as an attendant for his mother. The 
old man falls in love with (^Amat) her, and pretending that he has sold her, 
gives her in the charge of (J^radU,) his neighbour. His wife thinks that he lias 
brought (^Obdtixe) a mistress home. Then his friend atops {lietrahit) Ch^ 
rmus in his flight, after he has discovered his mistress. 



Act I. — Scene I. 
The Prologue, spoken hy Chaeinus. 

Two things have I now resolved to do at the same time ; 
both the subject and my own amours will I disclose. I 
am not doing like as I have seen other lovers do in Come- 
dies, who relate their woes either to the night or to the day, 
or to the Sun or to the Moon ; who, faith, I don't suppose pay 
much regard to the complaints of mortals, either what they 
wish or what they don't wish. To yourselves in preference will 
I now relate my woes. In the Greek this Flay is called the 
Emporos^ of Philemon ; the same in the Latin is the Mer- 
cator of Marcus Accius. My father sent me hence to trade 
at Rhodes. Two years have now passed since 1 left home. 
There I began to love a fair one of remarkable beauty. But 
how I was captivated by her, I'll tell you, if you'll lend ear, 
and if you'll have the kindness to give your attention to this. 
And yet in this, but little have I followed the method of our 

> Emporos) — Ver. 9. The Greek word ffinopos, rignifying " a merchant.'* 



136 MERCATOR ; Act 1. 

forefathers in mv own person, and on the spot as a tell-tale^ oj 
my own amours am I represented before you. But all these tail- 
ings are wont to attend on love — care, trouble, and refinement 
overmucli. Not only him who loves, but every one to whom 
this latter fault extends, him mth a great and weighty evil 
does it affect ; nor by my troth, in fact, does any one aim at 
refinement, beyond what his means allow of, without heavy 
disaster. But to love as well are these evils incident, which 
I have not as yet recounted — sleeplessness, a troubled mind, 
confusion, terror, and apprehension, trifling, and folly even, 
rashness too, thoughtlessness, foolhardy impudence, Avanton- 
ness, lust, and malevolence ; covetousness is inherent as well, 
idleness, injustice, want, contumely and wastefulness, talkative- 
ness or moody silence. This latter is the fact, because things 
which relate not to the purpose, nor are of utility, the same does 
the lover give utterance to full oft at an unseasonable moment ; 
and yet again, this moody silence for this reason do I commend, 
because no lover is ever so skilled in eloquence, as to be en- 
abled to give utterance to that which is for his own interest. 
You, then, must not be oflfended with myself for my babbling ; 
Yenus bestowed it upon me on that same day on which tMs 
passion. To that point am I resolved to return, that what I 
commenced upon I may disclose. In the first place, when 
in life I had passed from my boyish days, and my disposition 
was weaned from childish pursuits, I began distractedly to 
love a Courtesan in this place. Forthwith, unknown to my 
father, my means went to be wasted upon her ; an exacting 
Procurer, the owner of this damsel, by every method that he 
could, grasped everything into his own possession^. Night and 
day my father censured me for this ; represented the perfidy, 
ilie wickedness of Procurers ; liow that his own property was 
being forcibly rent in pieces, while that of this Procurer was 
increasing ; this too in the loudest tones ; sometimes mutter- 
ing to himself; refusing to speak to me ; even denying that I 
was his child ; crying aloud through all the city and proclaim- 
ing that all should withhold from trusting me when desiring 

* As a tell-tale) — Ver. 17. He apologizes for his apparent boldness in breaking 
m upon them, and commencing to relate his amours, without first asking their 
leave. 

* Grasped evei'ythivg into his own possession) — Ver. 45. " Kiipiebat domuiu.* 
Literally " he carried off ho-^a " 



Sc. 1. THE MERCHANT. 137 

to borrow ; that love had allured many a one to ruin ; that I, 
passing all bounds, regardless of decency, and acting wrong- 
fully, laid hands upon and tore whatever I could from liim 
at home ; that 'twas a most vile system that those choice 
possessions which he, by enduring every hardship, had acquired, 
should all be squandered away and parted with througli the 
violence of my desire. That now for so many years he had 
supported myself, a reproach to him ; that were I not ashamed, 
I ought not to desire to live. That he himself, at the very 
moment after he had passed his boyish days, did not, like me, 
devote his attention to love or indolence in slothfulness, nor, 
indeed, had he the control of himself, so very strictly by hia 
father was he held in check ; that in the various sordid pur- 
suits of the country he was employed, and that only every fifth 
year even was he then enabled to visit the city, and that im 
mediately after he had had a sight of the Testivali, back 
again instantly into the country was he wont to be driven by 
his father. That there by far the most of all the household 
did he toil, while thus his father would say to him : " For 
yourself you are ploughing, for yourself you harrow, for your- 
self you sow, for your own self too do you reap ; for yourself, 
in fine, will this labour be productive of happiness." That 
after life had left his father's body, he had sold the farm, and 
with that money had bought for himself a bark of fifteen tons^, 
and with the same had transported merchandize to every 
quarter, even until he had acquired the property which he 
then possessed. That I ought to do the same, if I would be 
as it behoved me to be. I, when I found that I was disliked 

* Had had a sight of the Festival) — Ver. 67. " Spectavisset peplum." Lite- 
rally, " had seen the show of the garment." At the great Panathenaea, or 
festival of Minerva, which was celebrated every fifth year, the " peplum" of Mi- 
nerva was exposed to public view. A procession was afterwards formed, to carry 
it to the Temple of Minerva, or Athene Polias. The " peplum " was a garment of 
crocus colour, woven by virgins. On it were represented the conquest of Enceladus 
and the Giants by Minerva. The garment was not carried by hands, but on the 
mast of a ship; and this ship, which was usually kept near the Areiopagus, w&s 
moved along by machinery. 

^ Of fifteen tons) — Ver. 7o. " Metretas trecentas." Literally, " three hundred 
metretae." The " metreta" was properly a Greek liquid measure of about nine 
gallons. If, as some of the bo^ks inform us, in weight it was equal to one 
hundred-weight, three hundred :;f them would make fifteen tons. It is, how- 
ever, not improbable that the woru really signifies a weight nearer in capacity to a 
ton than to a hundred- weifiht. 



I 



138 MEECATOB ; Act 1. 

by my father and was an object of hate to him whom I was 
bound to please, distracted and in love as I was, resolutely 
made up my mind. I said that I would go to traffic, if he 
pleased ; that I would renounce my amour, so as to be obe- 
dient to him. He gave me thanks, and praised my good 
feeling, but failed not to exact my promise ; he built a mer- 
chant-shipi, and purchased merchandize ; the ship ready, he 
placed it on board; besides, to myself with his own hand 
he paid down a talent of silver ; with me he sent a servant, 
who formerly had been my tutor from the time when I was a 
little child, to be as though a guardian to me. These things 
completed, we set sail ; we came to Ehodes, where the mer- 
chandize which I had brought I sold to my mind according 
as I wished ; I made great profits, beyond the estimate of the 
merchandize which my father had given me ; and so I made a 
large sum. But while in the harbour I was walking there, a 
certain stranger recognized me, and invited me to dinner. 
I went, and took my place at table, being merrily and hand- 
somely entertained. When at night we went to rest, behold, 
a female came to me, than whom not another female is there 
more charming. That night, by order of my entertainer, 
did she pass with me ; consider your own selves, how very 
much he gratified me. Next day, I went to my host ; I begged 
him to sell her to me ; I said that for his kindnesses I should 
exier be grateful and obliged. What need is there of talking ? 
I bought her, and yesterday I brought her hither. I don't 
wish my father to come to know I've brought her. Eor the 
present, I've left her and a servant in the harbour on board 
the ship. But why do I see my servant running hither from 
the harbour, whom I forbade to leave the ship ? I dread 
what the reason may be. {Stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Enter Acanthio, at a distance, in haste. 
Ac AN. (to himself). With your utmost power and might 
always try and endeavour that your younger master^ may bj 

» A merchant-skip) — Ver. 86. " Cercurum." The merchant-sliips, which were 
called " cercuri," are said to have been so called from the island of Corcyra, or 
Cercyra, so famous for its traffic, where they were said to have been first built. 
Some writers suppose them to have originally been peculiar to the inhabitants of 
the Isle of Cyprus. 

' lour younger master) — Ver. 111. "Herus minor," One version renders 
these words, " your master when throwr down." Th>it surely cannot be the 
m&n.'nmg of the passage. 



I 



Sc. II. THE MERCHANT. 139 

your aid be preserved. Come then, Acantliio, away with 
weariness from you ; take care and be on your guard against 
sloth. At the same time put an end to this panting ; troth, 
I can hardly fetch my breath ; at the same time, too, drive 
right full against all those persons who come in the way, 
shove them aside, and push them into the road. This custom 
here is a very bad one ; no one thinks it proper for him to 
give way to one who is running and in haste ; and thus three 
things must be done at the same moment, when you have 
commenced upon lut one ; you must both run and fight, and 
squabble as well, upon the road. 

Char, {apart). What's the reason of this, that he's r* 
quiring speed for himself at a rate so rapid ? I have some 
anxiety, what the business is, or what news he brings. 

AcAS". {to himself). I'm trifling about it. The more I 
stop, the greater the risk that's run. Char, {apart). He 
brings news of some misfortune, I know not what. 

KcKS. {to himself). His knees are failing this runner. 
I'm undone, my spleen is in rebellion^, it's taking possession 
of my breast. I'm done up, I can't draw my breath. A very 
worthless piper should I be. I' faith, not all the baths will 
ever remove this lassitude from me. Am I to say that my 
master Charinus is at home or abroad ? 

Char, {apart). I'm doubtful in my mind what the matter 
is ; I'd like for myself to learn of him, that I may become 
acquainted with it. 

AcAN. {to himself). But why still standing here ? "Why 
still hesitating to make splinters of this door ? {Knocks at 
the door of Demipho's house, and calls.) Open the door, 
some one. Where's my master, Charinus ? Is he at home 
or abroad ? Does any one think fit to come to the door ? 

Char, {presenting himself). Why, here am I, whom you're 
looking for, Acanthio. Acan. {not seeing him). There is 
nowhere a more lazy management than in his hov^e. 

Char. What matter is afflicting you so terribly ? 

Acan. {turning round). Many, master, both yourself and me. 

Char. What's the matter ? Acan. We are undone. 

Char. That beginning do you present unto our foes. 

Acan. But your own self it has befallen, as fate would 
have it. 

• Spleen is in rebeUi<m) — ^Ver. 123. He alludes to the expansion of the splwa 
hj the act of running fast. 



J 40 MEECATOB ; Act I, 

Chae. Tell me this matter, whatever it is. 

AcAN. Quietly — I want to take a rest. (^Se pants.) 

Chak. But, i' faith, do take the skirt of your coat^, and 
wipe the sweat from off you. 

AcAN. For your sake, I've burst the veins of my lungs ; 
I'm spitting blood already. {He spits.) 

Char. Swallow Egyptian resin with honey ; you'll make 
it all right. 

AcAW. Then, i' faith, do you drink hot pitch^ ; then your 
tapoubles will \anish. 

Chab. I know no one a more tetchy fellow than yourself, 

AcAN". And I know no one more abusive than yourself. 

Char. But what if I'm persuading you to that which I 
take to be for your benefit ? Acan. Away with benefit of 
that sort, that's accompanied with pain. 

Char. Tell me, is there any good at all that any one can 
enjoy entirely without evil; or where you mustn't endure 
labour when you wish to enjoy it ? 

AcAN. I don't understand these things ; I never learnt to 

* Shirt of your coat) — Ver. 138. " Laciniam." The "laciniae" were the an- 
gular extremities of the " pallium," and the " toga," one of which was brought 
round over the left shoulder. It was generally tucked into the girdle, but was 
sometimes allowed to hang loose. From the present passage, we may conclude 
that it was sometimes devoted to the purposes of a pocket-handkerchief. 

2 Brink hot pitch) — Ver. 141. Commentators have been at a loss to knonr why 
Acanthio should be so annoyed at the recommendation of Charinus, and why he 
should answer him in these terms. The ingenious Rost seems in a great measure 
to have hit upon the true meaning of the passage. Charinus tells him that a 
mixture of resin and honey is good for the lungs. Now, from what Pliny says, 
B. 24, ch. 6, we should have reason to suppose that some kinds of resin were used 
in diseases of the lungs. But, on the other hand, Aristotle, in his History of Ani- 
mals, B. 8, ch. 24, mentions a certain resin called " sandonache," which was of 
a poisonous nature. Acanthio, then, may have been frightened from a previous 
knowledge of the doubtful nature of resins as a remedy; he may also have 
heard that the Egyptians preserved their mummies with honey and resin, and his 
stomach may have revolted at swallowing such a mixture ; and, thinking that his 
master is trifling with him, he answers him in anger. The latter explanation will 
appear the more probable when we remember, that as honey and resin were used 
for the embalming of the higher classes, the bodies of the poorer persons in Egypt 
were preserved by being dipped in pitch ; and though this did not suggest itself to 
Kost, it is not improbable that the servant intends by his answer to repay his master 
in the same coin. Perhaps he may have imagined that his master intended him 
to swallow the mixture in a hot, melted state, just as when it was injected into th« 
muminies. Persons convicted of blasphemy were sometimes condemned to swallow* 
melted Pitc 



Sc. 11. THE MEECHANT. 141 

philoso :)liize, and don't know how. I don't want any good 
to be given me, to which evil is an accompaniment. 

Chak. {extending Jiis hand). Come now, Acanthio, give 
me your right hand. Acan. It shall be given ; there then, 
take it. ( Oives Ms Jiand.) 

Chae. Do you intend yourself to be obedient to me, or 
don't you intend it ? 

AcAN. You may judge by experience, as I've ruptured my- 
self with running for your sake, in order that what I knew, 
you might have the means of knowing directly. 

Char. I'll make you a free man within a few months. 

AcAN. You are smoothing me down. 

Chae. What, should I presume ever to make mention of 
an untrue thing to you ? On the contrary, before I said so, 
you knew already whether I intend to utter an untruth. 

AcAN. Ah ! your words, upon my faith, are increasing my 
weakness. You are worrying me to death ! 

Chae. What, is this the way you're obedient to ine ? 

AcAN. What do you want me to do ? 

Chae. What, you ? What I want is this 

A CAN. What is it then that you do want ? 

Chae. I'll tell you. Acan. Tell me, then. 

Chae. But still, I'd like to do it in a quiet way. 

AcAN. Are you afraid lest you should wake the drowsy 
Spectators^ from their nap ? 

Chae. Woe be to you ! Acan. For my part, that same 
am I bringing to you from the harbour. 

Chae. What are you bringing ? Tell me. 

Ac AW. Violence, alarm, torture, care, strife, and beggary. 

Chae. I'm undone ! You really are bringing me hither a 
store of evils. I'm ruined outright. 

Acan. Why, yes, you are 

Chae. I know it already ; you'll be saying I'm wretched. 

Acan. 'Tis you have said so ; I'm mum. 

Chae. What mishap is this ? 

Acan. Don't enquire. It is a very great calamity. 

Chae. Prithee, do relieve me at once. Too long a time 
have I been in suspense. Acan. Softly ; I still wish to 
make many enquiries before I'm beaten. 

> The drowsy Spectators')— Yer. 160. No wonder if this most tiresome dialogiu 
has sent them to sleep. 



142 MEECATOE ; Act 1, 

Chae. By my troth, you assuredly will be beaten, unless 
you say at once, or get away from here. 

AcAN. Do look at that, please, how he does coax me ; 
there's no one more flattering when he sets about it. 

Chae. By heavens, I do entreat and beseech you to dis- 
close to me at once what it is ; inasmuch as I see that I must 
be the suppliant of my own servant. 

AcAN. And do I seem so unworthy of it ? 

Chae. Oh no, quite worthy. Acan. Well, so I thought. 

Chae. Prithee, is the ship lost ? 

AcAN. The ship's all right ; don't fear about that. 

Chae. Well then, the rest of the cargo ? 

AcAK. That's right and tight. 

Chae. Why then don't you tell me what it is, for which, 
just now, running through the city, you were seeking me ? 

AcAN. E-eally, you are taking the words out of my mouth. 

Chae. I'll hold my tongue. Acan. Do hold your tongue. 
I doubt, if I brought you any good news, you'd be dreadfully 
pressing, who are now insisting upon my speaking out, when 
you must hear bad news. 

Chae. Troth then, prithee do you let me know what this 
misfortune is. 

AcAisr. Since you beg of me, I'll tell you. Tour father 

Chae. My father did what ? Acan. Tour mistress 

Chae. What about her ? Acan". He has seen her. 

Chae. Seen her ? Ah wretch that I am ! What I ask you, 
answer me. 

AcAN. Nay, but do you ask me, if you want anything. 

Chae. How could he see her ? Acan. With his eyes. 

Chae. In what way ? Ac an. Wide open. 

Chae. Away hence and be hanged. You are trifling, when 
my life's at stake. 

AcAN. How the plague am I trifling, if I answer you what 
you ask me ? 

Chae. Did he see her for certain ? 

AcAK. Aye, troth, as certainly as I see you and you see 
me. Chae. Where did he see her ? 

AcAN. Down on board the ship, as he stood near the 
prow and chatted with her. 

Chae. Father, you have undone me. Come now, you, 
come now, you sir ? Why, you whip-rascal, didr t you take 



Sc. 11. THE MEECHaINT. 143 

care that he mightn't see her? "Why, villain, didn't you 
stow her away, that my father mightn't perceive her ? 

AcAN. Because we were busily employed about our busi- 
ness ; we were engaged in packing up and arranging the 
cargo. While these things were being done, your father 
was brought alongside in a very small boat ; and not an indi- 
vidual beheld the man until he was aboard the ship. 

Chak. In vain have I escaped the sea with its dreadful 
tempests ! Just now I really did suppose that I was both 
ashore and in a place of safety ; but I see that by the raging 
waves I am being hurried towards the rocks. Say on ; what 
took place ? 

AcAN. After he espied the woman, be began to ask her to 
whom she belonged. Chab. What did sbe answer F 

AcAN. That instant I ran up and interposed, saying that 
you had bought her as a maid-servant for your mother. 

Char. Did he seem to believe you in that ? 

KcA.^. Do you e'en ask me that ? Why the rogue began 
to take liberties with her. 

Chae. Prithee, what, with her ? Acan. 'Twere a wonder 
if he had taken liberties with myself. 

Chak. By heavens, my heart is saddened, which, drop by 
drop is melting away, just as though you were to put salt in 
water. I'm undone. 

AcAN. Aye, aye, that one expression have you most truly 
uttered. 

Chae. This is mere folly. What shall I do ? I do think 
my father won't believe me if I say that I bought her for 
my mother ; and then, besides, it seems to me a shame that I 
should tell a lie to my parent. He'll neither believe, nor 
indeed is it credible, that I bought this woman of surpassing 
beauty as a maid-servant for my mother. 

AcAN. Won't you be quiet, you most silly man ? Troth, 
he will believe it, for he just now believed me. 

Chae. I'm dreadfully afraid that a suspicion will reach 
my father how the matter really stands. Prithee, answer 
me this that I ask you. 

AcAN. What do you ask ? 

Chae. Did he seem to suspect that she was ray mistress ? 

AcAN. He did not seem. On the contrary, in everything, 
just as I said it, he believed me. 

Chab. As being true — as he seemed to ycurself at least. 



144 MEECATOE ; Act II. 

A CAN. Not SO ; but he really did believe me. 

Char. Ah ! wretched man that I am ! I'm ruined ! But 
why do I kill myself here with repining, and don't be off to 
the ship ? Eollow me. {Hastening along.) 

AcAN. If you go that way, you'U conveniently come slap 
upon your father. As soon as he shall see you, dismayed and 
out of spirits, at once he'll be stopping you, and enquiring 
where you bought her, and for how much you bought her ; 
Ve'll be trying you in your dismay. 

Chab. {turning about). I'll go this way in preference. 
t>o you think that by this my father has left the harbour ? 

AcAN. Why, it was for that reason I ran before him hither, 
that he mightn't come upon you unawares and fish it out 
of gou. 

Chae. Very properly done. (Exeunt. 



Act II. — Scene I. 

Enter Demipho. 

Dem. {to himself). In wondrous ways^ do the Gods make 
sport of men, and in wondrous fashions do they send dreams 
in sleep. As, for instance, I, this very last night that has 
passed, have sufficiently experienced in my sleep, and, mortal 
that I am, was much occupied therewith. I seemed to havo 
purchased for myself a beautiful she-goat. That she might 
not offend that other she-goat which I had at home be- 
fore, and that they mightn't disagree if they were both in 
the same spot, after that I had purchased her, I seemed to 
entrust her to the charge of an ape. This ape, not very 
long afterwards, came to me, uttered imprecations against 
me, and assailed me with reproaches ; he said that by her 
means and through the arrival of the she-goat he had 
suffered injury and loss in no slight degree ; he said that 
the she-goat, which I had entrusted to him to keep, had 
gnawed away the marriage-portion of his wife. This seemed 
extremely wonderful to me, how that this single she-goat could 
possibly have gnawed away^ the marriage-portion of the 

» In wondrous ways)—Ver, 224-5. These lines occur also in the Rudens, 1. 593. 

» Could possibly have gnawed away)—Yer. 240. There is a poor play on words 
herewith reference to '*una;" how " one" goat could " ambadederit," "gnaw 
away," or " doubly eat" (literally speaking) the dowry— that is, how one goat 
•odd do the work of two. 



So. I J. -fHE MERCHANT. 145 

wife of the ape. The ape, however, insisted that it was so, and, 
in short, gave me this answer, that if 1 didn't make haste and 
remove her away from his own house, he would bring her 
home into my house to my wife. And, by my troth, I seemed 
very greatly to take an interest in her, but not to have any 
one to whom to entrust this she-goat ; wherefore the more, in 
my distress, was I tormented with anxiety what to do. Mean- 
while, a kid appeared to address me, and began to tell me 
that he had carried off the she-goat from the ape, and began 
to laugh at me. But I hegan to lament and complain that she 
was carried off. To what reality I am to suppose that this 
vision points, I can't discover ; except that I suspect that 
I have just now discovered this she-goat, what she is, or what 
it all means. This morning, at davbreak, I went away hence 
down to the harbour. After I had transacted there what I 
wanted, suddenly I espied the ship from Rhodes, in which my 
son arrived here yesterday. I had an inclination, I know 
not why, to visit it ; I went on board a boat, and put off to the 
ship; and there I beheld a woman of surpassing beauty, 
whom my son has brought as a maid-servant for his mother. 
After I had thus beheld her, I fell in love with her, not as 
men in their senses, but after the fashion in which madmen 
are wont. I' faith, in former times, in my youthful days, I 
fell in love, 'tis true ; but after this fashion, according as I'm 
now distracted, never. Now beyond a doubt, surely thus this 
matter stands ; this is that she-goat. But what that ape and 
that kid mean, I'm afraid. One thing, i' faith, I really do know 
for certain, that I'm undone ybr love ; {to the Audiekce) con- 
sider yourselves the other point, what a poor creature I am^. 
But I'll hold my tongue ; lo ! I see my neighbour ; he's 
coming out of doors. {Stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Enter Ltsimachus and a Servant with somt 
rakes, fro7n the house of the former. 

Lts. Eeally I will have this goat mutilated, that's giving 
as so much trouble at the farm. 

Dem. {apart). Neither this omen nor this augury pleases 

* What a poor creature I am) — Ver. 268. This seems to be the real meaning of 
" quanti siem ;" Gueudeville has adopted it; but there ts considerable difference 
of opinion among the Commentators on the sense of the passage. 
VOL. II. Xi 



14G MEECATOB ; Act II 

me ; I'm afraid that my wife will be just now mutilating me 
like the he-goat, and be acting the part of this same ape. 

Lts. Do you go hence to my country-house, and take 
care and deliver personally into his own hands those rakea 
to the bailiff Pistus himself. Take care and tell my wife 
that I have business in the city, so that she mayn't expect 
me ; for do you mention that I have three causes coming on 
for judgment to-day. Be off, and remember to say this. 

Sery. Anything more ? 

Lts. That's enough. (I^xit Seeyant. 

Dem. {Stepping forward). Greetings to you, Lysimachus. 

Lys. Well met! and greetings to you, Demipho. How 
are you ? How goes it ? 

Dem. As with one that's most wretched^. 

Lts. May the Gods grant better things. 

Dem. As for the Gods, it's they that do this. 

Lts. What's the matter? 

Dem. I'd tell you, if I saw that you had time or leisure. 

Lts. Although I have business in hand, if you wish for 
anything, Demipho, I'm never too busy to give attention to 
a friend. 

Dem. You speak of your kindness to myself who have ex- 
perienced it. How do I seem to you as to age ? 

Lts. a subject for Acheron — an antiquated, decrepit old 
fellow. 

Dem. Tou see in a wrong light. I am a child, Lysima- 
chus, of seven years old. 

Lys. Are you in your senses, to say that you are a child ? 

Dem. I'm telling what's true. Lts. I' faith, it has this 
moment come into my mind what you mean to say ; directly 
a person is old, no longer has he sense or taste ; people say 
that he has become a child again. 

Dem. Why, no ; for I'm twice as hearty as ever I was 
before. 

Lts. I' faith, it's well that so it is, and I*m glad of it. 

Dem. Aye, and if you did but know ; with my eyes, too, 
1 see even better now than I did formerly. 

Lts. That's good. 

Dem. Of a thing that's bad, I'm speaking. 

' As with one thafs most toretched) — Ver. 282. " Quod miserrimos." Litwa\>y 
' whai a verjr wretched person doesj* 



8c. 11. THE MERC ^A.^'T. 14? 

Lts. Then that same is not good. 

Dem. But, if I wished at all, could I venture to disclose 
something to you ? 

Lts. Boldly. Dem, Grive heed, then. 

Lts. It shall be carefully done. 

Dem. This day, Lysimachus, I've begun to go to school 
to learn my letters. I know three letters already. 

Lts. How ? Three letters ? 

Dem. {spelling). A M O [^lam in love']. 

Lts. "What ! you, in love, with your hoary head, you most 
sliocking old fellow? Dem. Whether that is hoary, or 
whether red, or whether black, I'm in love. 

Lts. You're now playing upon me in this, I fancy, 
Demipho. 

Dem. Cut my throat, if it*s false, what I'm saying. That 
you may be sure I'm in love, take a knife, and do you cut 
off either my finger, or my ear, or my nose, or my lip : if I 
move me, or feel that I'm being cut, ^hen, Lysimachus, I 
give you leave to torture me to death here with being in love. 

Lts. (aside to the Audience). If ever you've seen a lover 
m a picture, why, there he is {pointing at Demipho) : for 
really, in my way of thinking, an antiquated, decrepit old 
man is just about the same as though he were a figure 
painted upon a wall. 

Dem. Now, I suppose, you are thinking of censuring me. 

Lts. "What, I, censure you ? 

Dem. Well, there's no reason that you should censure 
me. Other distinguished men have done the like before. 
It's natural to be in love, it's natural, as well, to be con- 
siderate. Then, please, don't reprove me; no inclination 
impelled me to this. 

Lts. Why, I'm not reproving you. Dem. But still, don't 
you think any the worse of me for acting thus. 

Lts. I, think the worse of you ? O, may the Deities forbid 
it. Dem. Still, please, only do take care of that. 

Lts. Due care is taken. Dim. Quite sure ? 

Lts. You're wearing me out. (Aside.) This person's de- 
ranged through love. (To Demipho.) Do you desire aught 
with me ? Dem. Farewell ! 

Lts. I'm making haste to the harbour ; for I've got bum* 
nesa there. Dem. Good luck go with you. 



148 MEECATOE ; Act 11, 

Lts. Heartily fare you well. 

Dem. Kindly fare you well. (Exit Ltsimachus. 

Scene III. — ^Demipho, alone. 
Dem. (to himself). And what's more, I too as well bave 
got some business at the harbour ; now, therefore, I shall be 
off thither. But, look ! most opportunely I see my son. I'll 
wait for the fellow ; it's necessary for me now to see him, 
to persuade him, as far as I possibly can, to sell her to me, 
and not make a present of her to his mother ; for I've heard 
that he has brought her as a present for her. But I have need 
sf precaution, that he mayn't any way imagine that I have set 
my fancy upon her. 

Scene IV. — JEnter Chabinus, ai a distance. 
Char, (to himself). Never, I do think, was any person 
more wretched than myself, nor one who had more everlast- 
ing crosses. Isn't it the fact, that whatever thing there is 
that I have commenced to attempt, it cannot fall out to my 
wish according as I desire ? To such an extent is some evil 
fortune always befalling me, wliich overwhelms my fair in- 
tentions. To my misfortune, I procured me a mistress to 
please my inclination ; I acquired her for a sum of money, 
fancying that I could keep her unknown to my father. He 
has found her out, and has seen her, and has undone me. 
Nor have I yet determined what to say when he asks me, so 
much do uncertain thoughts, aye, tenfold, struggle within my 
breast ; nor know I now in my mind what resolution I can 
possibly take ; so much uncertainty, mingled with anxiety, is? 
there in my feelings, at one moment the advice of my ser- 
vant pleases me, then again it doesn't please me, and it 
doesn't seem possible for my father to be induced to think 
that she was bought as a maid-servant for my mother. Now, 
if I say, as is the fact, and declare that I purchased her for 
myself, what will he think of me ? He may take her away, 
too, and carry her hence beyond sea, to be sold! "Well 
taught at home, I know how severe he is. Is this, then, 
being in love ? I'd rather be at the plough-tail^ than love in 

1 Raifier be at the plough-tail) — ^Ver. 352. " Arare mavelim, quam sic amare." 
There is an insipid play upon the resemblance of the words " arare," " to plough,'- 
and " amare," " to love." 



Sc. IV. THE MEECHANT. 149 

this fashion. Before to-day, long ago, he drove me away 
against my inclination from his house, my home, and bade me 
go and traffic. There did I meet with this misfortune. When 
its misery can surpass its pleasure, what is there delightful 
in it ? In vain I've hidden Jier^ concealed A<?r, kept her m 
secret ; my father's a very fly^ ; nothing can be kept away 
from him ; nothing so SEicred or so profane is there, but that 
he's tliere at once ; neither have I any assured hope in my 
mind through which to feel confidence in my fortunes. 

Dem, {apart). What's the reason of this, that my son is 
talking to himself alone ? He seems to me anxious about 
some matter, I know not what. 

Chak. {looking round). Heyday, now! Why, surely it's 
my father here that I see. I'll go and accost him. {Ac- 
costing him.) How goes it, father ? 

Dem. Whence do you come ? Why are you in a hurry, 
my son ? 

Char. It's all right, father. Dem. So I trust ; but what's 
the reason that your colour's so changed ? Do you feel ill 
at all ? 

Char. I know not what it is affects my spirits, father ; 
this last night I didn't rest quite as well as I wished. 

Dem. As you've been travelling by sea, your eyes, I sup- 
pose, are at present rather unaccustomed to the shore. 

Char. No doubt it is that ; but it will be going off presently. 

Dem. Troth, it's for that reason you are pale ; if you were 
prudent, you'd go home and lie down. 

Char. I haven't the leisure ; I wish to attend to business 
on commission. 

Dem. Attend to it to-morrow ; the day after, attend to it. 

Char. I've often heard from you, father, it behoves all 
wise men, the first thing, to give their earliest attention to 
business upon commission. 

Dem. Do so, then; I have no wish to be striving against 
your opinion. 

Char, {aside). I'm all right, if, indeed, his adherence to 
that sentiment is immoveable and lasting. 

Dem. {aside). Why is it that he calls himself aside into 

* A very fly)— YeT. 357. The flies of those days seem to have been as annoying 
and inquisitive as those of modern times. " Muscae" was a term oi reproach for 
Parasites and busybodies. 



150 MEECATOE ; Act II. 

counsel with bimself ? I'm not afraid now lest be should he 
ahle to come to know that I'm in love with her, because I've 
not as yet done anything in a foolish manner, as peopje in 
love are wont to do. 

Chae. (aside). V faith, the affair for the present is really 
quite safe ; for I'm quite certain that he doesn't know any- 
thing about that mistress of mine ; if he did know, his talk 
would have been different. 

Dem. (aside). "Why don't I accost him about her ? 

Chae. (aside). Why don't I betake myself off hence? 
(Aloud.) I'm going to deliver the commissions from my friends 
to their friends. (Moves as if going.) 

Dem. Nay, but stop ; I still want to make a few enquiries 
of you first. 

Chae. Say what it is you wish. Dem. Have you all along 
been well ? 

Chae. Quite well all the time, so long, indeed, as I was 
there ; but as soon as I had arrived here in harbour, 1 don't 
know what faintness it was came over me. 

Dem. I' faith, I suppose it arose from sea-sickness ; but it 
will be going off just now. But how say you ? What ser- 
vant-maid is this that you have brought from Rhodes for 
vour mother ? 

Chae. I've brought one. Dem. Well, what sort of a 
woman is she as to appearance ? 

Chae. Not an ill-favored one, i' faith. 

Dem. How is she as to manners ? 

Chae. In my way of thinking, I never saw one better. 

Dem. So, indeed, i' faith, she seemed to me when I saw 
her. 

Chae. How now, have you seen her, father ? 

Dem. I have seen her ; but she doesn't suit our ways, and 
80 she doesn't please me. 

Chae. Why so ? Dem. Because she hasn't a figure suit- 
able to our establishment ; we stand in need of no female 
servant but one who can weave, grind, chop wood, make yarn, 
sweep out the house, stand a beating, and who can hav3 every 
day's victuals cooked for the household. This one will be 
able to do not any single one of these things. 

Chae. Why, in fact, for this reason I purchased her, ta 
make a present of her to my mother. 



•ic. lY. THE MEECttANT. 151 

Dem. Don't you be giving her, nor mention that you liave 
brought her. 

Chae. (aside). The Deities favour me. 

Dem. {aside). I'm shaking hmi by slow degrees. {Aloud!) 
But, what I omitted to say, — she can neither with due pro- 
priety follow your mother as an attendant, nor will I allow it. 

Char. But why ? Dem. Because, with those good looks, 
it would be scandalous if she were to be following a matron 
when she's walking through the streets ; all people would be 
staring, gazing, nodding, winking, hissing, twitching, crying 
out, be annoying, and singing serenades at our door; my 
door, perhaps, would be filled with the charcoal marks^ of her 
praises; and, according as persons are scandalizing at the 
present day, they might throw it in the teeth of my wife and 
myself, that we are carrying on the business of a Procurer. 
Now what occasion is there lor this ? 

Char. Why, faith, you say what's just, and I agree with 
fou. But what shall be done wnth her now ? 

Dem. Exactly; I'll buy for yoiu' mother some stout wench 
of a female slave, not a bad servant, hut of ungainly figure, 
as befits the mistress of a family — either a Syrian or an Egyp 
tian woman : she shall do the grinding, spin out the yarn, 
find stand a lashing; and on her account no disgrace at all 
will be befalling our doors. 

Char. What then if she is restored to the person of whom 
she was purchased ? 

Dem. By no means ia the world. 

Char. He said that he would take her back, if she didn't 
suit. 

Dem. There's no need of that ; I don't want you to get 
into litigation, nor yet your honor to be called in question. 
I' trotli, I would much rather, if any must be endured, put 
up with the loss myself, than that disgrace or scandal on 

• With the charcoal marks) — Ver. 404. Colman, who translated this Play in 
Thornton's edition, has this Note here: " Some consider these words as alluding to 
defiimatory, rather tluin commendatory \rerses, alleging that praise was written in 
cn&lic, and scandai in coal. • Ilia prius charta, mox haec carbone.' I have fol- 
lowed the opinion, liowever, of other Commentators, who suppose that in these 
cases chalk, or coal, or lighted torches, were used indiscriminately, according to 
the colour of the ground — as a Poet would write a panegyric in black ink upon 
white paper, or a lover delineate the name of his mistress with the smoke ot a 
cuidle ou a white-vashed ceiling.** 



152 MJ!:iiCA'roB ; Act II. 

account of a woman should be brought upon my house. I 
think that I am able to sell for you at a good profib. 

Char. I' faith, so long, indeed, as you don't be selling her 
at a less price than I bought her at, father. 

Dem. Do you only hold your tongue ; there is a certain 
old gentleman who commissioned mQ to buy one for him of 
just that same appearance. 

Chae. But, father, a certain young man ccmmissioned me 
to buy one for him of just that same appearance that she is of. 

Dem. I think that I am able to dispose of her for twenty min». 

Chab. But, if I had chosen, there have been already seven- 
and-twenty minae offered. 

Dem. But I Chab. Nay, but I, I say 

Dem. But you don't know what I was going to say ; do hold 
your tongue. I can add three minse even to that, so that there 
will be thirty. (Looks as though on one side at a distance.) 

Chab. What are you turning yourself towards ? 

Dem. Towards him who's making the purchase. 

Chab. {staring about). "Why, where in the world is this 
person ? 

Dem. Look there, I see him^, yonder (pointing) ; he's 
bidding me even still to add five minse. 

Chab. (aside). By my troth, may the Gods send a curse 
upon him, whoever he is ! 

Dem. (loolcing in the distance). There he is again, making 
a sign to me, even still, for me to add six minje. 

Chab. My man is bidding seven minae, for her, full weight, 
father. (Aside.) T faith, he shall never this day outdo me. 

Dem. He's bidding in vain ; I will have her ! 

Chab. But the other one made the first offer. 

Dem. I care nothing for that. Chab. He bids fifty. 

Dem. No, a hundred's the offer. Can't you desist from bid- 
ding against the determination of my mind. I' troth, you'll bo 
having an immense profit, in such a way is this old gentleman 
for whom she's being purchased. He's not in his senses by 
reason of his love ; whatever you ask, you'll get. 

Chab. I' faith, that young man, for whom I'm purchasing, 
is assuredly dying with distraction for love of her. 

* T/ieie, I see him)—Ver. 428 He says this by way of joking;, just for the mo- 
ment, in order to withdraw his son's notice from the manifest iniquity of whiclj 
he is guilty 



Sc. TV. THE MERCHINT. 155 

Dem. Troth, very mucli more so is that old gentleman, if 
you did but know it. 

Chae. I' faith, that old man never was nor ever will be 
more distracted with love than that young man, father, to 
whom I'm lending this assistance. 

Dem. Do be quiet, I tell you ; I'll see to that matter, that 
it's all right. Chae. How say you ? 

Dem. What is it ? Chae. 1 didn't take her for a slave ; 
but it was he that took her for such. 

Dem. Let me alone. Chae. By law you cannot pat her 
up for sale. 

Dem. I'll somehow see to that. Chae. And then besides, 
she's the common property of myself and another person ; 
how do I know how he's disposed, whether he does wish or 
doesn't wish to sell her ? 

Dem. I'm sure he does wish. Chae. But, i' faith, I believe 
that there's a certain person who doesn't wish. 

Dem. What matters that to me? Chae. Because it's 
right that he should have the disposal of his own property. 

Dem. What is it you say ? Chae. She is the common 
property of myself and another person ; he isn't here at 
present. 

Dem. You are answering me before I ask. Chae. Tou 
are buyin-g, father, before I sell. I don't know, I say, whe- 
ther he chooses to part with her or not. 

Dem. But if she is purchased for that certain person who 
gave you the commission, will he choose it then ? If I pur- 
chase her for that person who gave me the commission, w ill 
he then not choose it ? Tou avail nothing. Never, on 
my faith, shall any person have her in preference to the 
person that I wish. That I'm resolved upon. 

Chae. Have you made up your mind that it is resolved 
upon ? Dem. Why, I'm going hence at once to the ship \ 
there she shall be sold. 

Chae. Do you wish me to go there with you ? 

Dem. I don't wish you. 

Chae. Tou don't choose it, t^en. 

Dem. It's better for you to give your earliest attention to 
the business which you've been commissioned upon. 

Chae. Tou are hindering me from doing so. 

Dem. Then do you make your excuse that you have used 
aU diligence. Don't you ffotothe harbour, I tell you that now. 



154- MERCATOE ; Act. II. 

Chab. That shall oe attended to. 

Dem. {aside). I'll be oiF to the harbour, and (I have need of 
caution lest he should find it out) I'll not buy her myself, but 
commission my friend Lysimachus ; he said just now that he 
was going to the harbour. I'm delaying while I'm standing 
here. (Exit. 

Scene Y. — Charinus, alone. 
Char, (wringing his hands, and crying aloud). I'm lost — 
I'm undone. They say that the Bacchanals tore Pentheus to 
pieces^, I do believe that that was the merest trifle com- 
pared with the manner in which I am rent asunder in different 
ways. Why do I exist ? Why don't I die ? What good is 
there for me in life ? I'm determined, I'll go to a doctor^, 
and there I'll put myself to death by poison, since that is being 
taken from me for the sake of which I desire to remain in 
existence. (He is going off.) 

Scene VI. — Enter Euttchus,j/^ow the house q/* Lysi- 
machus. 

EoT. Stop, prithee, stop, Charinus. 

Char, (turning). Who is it that calls me back ? 

Etjt, Eutychus, your friend and companion, your nearest 
neighbour as well. Char. You don't know^ what a vast 
weight of my woes I am enduring. 

EuT. I do know. I listened to it all at the door : I know 
the whole matter. 

Char. What is it that you know? Eut. Your father 
wishes to sell 

Char. You have the whole matter. 

Eut. — Your mistress Char. You know by fur too 

much. 

Eut. — Against your wish. Char. You know everythmg. 
But how do you know that this woman is my mistress ? 

* Tore Pentheus to pieces)— Yer. 462. Pentheus, king of Thebes, was torn in 
pieces by his mother Agave, and the other Bacchanalian women, for obstructing 
tlieir celebration of the orgies of Bacchus. See the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 
B. 3, I. 720. 

' To a doctor) — Ver. 465 Colman renders "medicnm," "an apothecary;" 
and remarks, that the passage may put the reader in mind of Shakspeare's Romeo 
in allusion to tlie passage commencing, " I do know an apothecary," &c 

» Vou don't know) — Ver. 468. The note of interrogation in VVeise's edition at 
tbtt end of these words seems oui of place. 



Sc. Yl THE MEECHANT. 155 

EuT. You yourself told me yesterday. Char. Isn't it the 
fact tliat I had quite forgotten that I told you yesterday ? 

EuT. It's not surprising it is so. Char. I now consult 
you. Answer rae ; by what death do you think that I should 
die in preference ? 

EuT, "Won't you hold your peace ? Take you care how 
you say that. Char. "Wiiat then do you wish me to say ? 

EuT. Should you like me to trick your father nicely ? 

Char. I really should like it. Eut. Should you like me 
to walk to the harbour 

Char. What, rather than that you should fly ? 

Eut. And release the fair one for a sum. 

Char. AVhat, rather than you should pay her weight in 
gold ? Eut. Whence is it to come ? 

Char. I'll entreat Achilles to lend me the gold with which 
Hector was ransomed Eut. Are you in your senses ? 

Char. I' faith, if I were in my senses, I shouldn't be seek- 
ing you for my physician. 

Eut. Do you wish her to be purchased for as high a price 
as he asks ? 

Char. Throw in something by way of surplus; even a 
thousand didrachms more than he shall demand. 

Eut. Now, do hold your peace. But what say you as to 
this ? Wlience will the money come, for you to give, when 
your father asks for it ? 

Char. It shall be found, it shall be sought out, something 
shall be done. Eut. You are worrying me to death. For 
I'm afraid of that " Something shall be done." 

Char. Why won't you hold your tongue ? 

Eut. You give your commands to one who is dumb. 

Char. Is this matter sufficiently pointed out to you ? 

Eut. Can't you possibly be attending to something else ? 

Char. It isn't possible. Eut. {going). Kindly fare you 
well. 

Char. I' faith, I cannot ^are well, before you come back 
to me. Eut. To better purpose, recover your senses. 

Char. Farewell, and prevail, and be my preserver. 

Eut. I'll do so. Wait for me at home. 

Char. Do you take care, then, to betake yourself back 
just now with the booty. 
iExit EuTTCHUS, aTjf/CHAEiNUS goes into Demipho's ious€. 



150 MKRCA-TOE ; Act III 

Act III. — ScEN^E I. 
Enter Ltsimachus, with Pasicompsa, weeping, 

Lts. (to himself). I've lent my assistance to my friend in 
.a friendly manner ; this piece of goods, which my neighbour 
requested me, I've purchased. {Turning to Pasicompsa.) 
You are my own ; then follow me. Don't weep. You are 
acting very foolishly ; spoiling such eyes. Why, really you 
have more reason to laugh than to be crying. 

Pas. In the name of heaven, prithee, my good old gentle- 
man, do tell me 

Lts. Ask me what you please. 

Pas. "Why have you bought me ? 

Lts. What, I, hoiight you ? For you to do what you are 
bidden; in like manner what you bid me, I'll do. 

Pas. I am determined, to the best of my ability and skill, 
to do what I shall think you desire. 

Lts. I shall bid you do nothing of laborious work. 

Pas. Why, really, for my part, my good old gentleman, I 
haven't learnt, i' faith, to carry burdens, or to feed cattle at 
the farm, or to nurse children. 

Lts. If you choose to be a good girl, it shall be well for 
you. Pas. Then, i' faith, to my sorrow, I'm undone. 

Lts. Why so ? Pas. Because in the place from which 
I have been conveyed hither, it used to be well with the 
worthless^. 

Lts. (aside). By my troth, her talk alone is worth more 
than the sum that she was purchased at. (To Pasicompsa.) 
As though you would say that no woman is good. 

Pas. Indeed I don't say so ; nor is it my way, to say a 
thing which I believe all people are acquainted with. 

Lts. I want to ask this one thing of you. 

Pas. I'll answer you when you ask. Lts. What say you 
now ? What am I to say your name is ? 

Pas. Pasicompsa. Lts. The name was given you from 
your good looks^. But what say you, Pasicompsa ? Can you, 
if occasion should arise, spin a fine woof ? 

» Wdl with the worthless)— Yer. 504. She seems to mean that at Rhodes, 
where she has lately come from, women of light character are treated better than 
those who are virtuous. 

2 From your good looks) — Ver. 510. Coming from two Greek words, sig 
Djfying " all graces," or " attractions," 



Sc. 1. THE mehchaxt. 157 

Pas. I can. Lts. If you know how to do a fine one, 
I'm sure you can spin a coarser one. 

Pas. Por spinning, I fear no woman that's of the same 
age. Lts. Upon my faith, I take it that you are good and 
industrious, since, young woman, now that you are grown up, 
you know how to do your duty. 

Pas. I' faith, I learned it from a skilful mistress. I won't 
let my work be called in question. 

Lts. Well, thus the matter stands, i' faith. Look noWf 
I'll give you a sheep for your own, one sixty years old. 

Pas. My good old gentleman, one so old as that ? 

Lts. It's of the Grecian breed. If you take care of it, it 
is a very good one ; it is shorn very easily. 

Pas. Por the sake of the compliment, whatever it is that 
shall be given me, I shall receive it with thanks. 

Lts. Now, damsel, that you mayn't be mistaken, you 
are not mine ; so don't think it. 

Pas. Prithee, tell me, then, whose I am ? 

Lts. You've been bought back for your own master. I've 
bought you hdicVfor him} ; he requested me to do so. 

Pas. My spirits have returned, if good faith is kept with 
me. Lts. Be of good courage ; this person will give you 
your liberty.. I' troth, he did so dote upon you this day as 
soon as ever he had seen you. 

Pas. I' faith, it's now two years since he commenced his 
connexion with me. Now, as I'm sure that you are a 
friend of his, I'll disclose it. Lts. How say you? Is it 
now two years since he formed the connexion with you ? 

Pas. Certainly, it is ; and we agreed, on oath, between 
ourselves, I with him, and he with me, that I would never 
have intercourse with any man except himself, nor he with 
any woman except myself. 

Lts. Immortal Gods ! Isn't he even to sleep with his wife ? 

Pas. Prithee, is he a married man ? He neither is nor 
will he be. Lts. Indeed, I wish he wasn't. I' faith, the 
fellow has been committing perjury. 

Pas. No young man do I more ardently love. 

Lts. WThy, really he's a child, you simpleton ; for, in fact, 
it's not so very long a time since his teeth fell out. 

» Back for him) — Ver. 523. She imagines all along that by the word "master* 
DC means the young man Charinus ; whereas Demipho is really intended. 



158 MEECATOE ; Act III. 

Pas. What r His teeth ? Lts. It's no matter ? 1 ollo\v 
me this way, please ; he requested that I would find you 
room for one day in my house, since my wife is away in the 
country. {He goes into his house, followed hy Pasicompsa.) 

Scene II. — Enter Demipho. 
Dem. {to himself). At last I've managed to ruin myself: 
a mistress has been purchased^or me without the knowledge 
of my wife and son. I'm resolved on it ; I'll have recourse 
again to former habits and enjoy myself. In my allotment of 
existence^ almost now run through, the little that there re- 
mains of life, I'll cheer up with pleasure, wine, and love. Por 
it's quite proper for this time of life to enjoy itself AVhen 
you are young, then, when the blood is fresh, it's right to 
devote your exertions to acquiring your fortune ; and then 
when at last, you are an old man, you may set yourself at 
your ease ; drink, and be amorous ; this, the fact that you 
are living, is now so much profit. This, as I say, I'll carry out 
in deed. {Turning to his hou^e.) Meanwhile, however, I'll 
take a look in-doors here at my house ; my wife has been some 
time expecting me at home quite hungry: now, she'll be 
worrying me to death with her scolding, if I go in-doors. 
But, in fine, whatever comes of it, i' faith, I'll not go, but 
I'll first meet this neighbour of mine before I return home; 
I want him to hire some house for me, where this damsel 
may dwell. And, see, he's coming out of doors. 

Scene III. — Enter LYSiMACHUs,/row his house. 

Lts. {to Pasicompsa, w?tMm). I'll bring him to you directly, 
if I meet him. 

Dem. {behind). He's meaning me. 

Lxs. {turning about). How say you, Demipho? 

Dem. Is the damsel at your house ? 

Lys. What do you suppose ? 

Dem. What if I go see her ? {Moves towards the house.) 

Lts. Why making such baste ? Stay. 

Dem. Wliat am I to do ? 

Lts. What you ougl it to do ; take care and consider. 

Dem. Consider what ? Why troth, for my own part, 3 
thmk there's need for my :'oing this, going in-doors tliere^ 
1 mean^ 



Sc. YV, THE MEECHANT. 159 

Lys. AVhat, is it so, you old wether ? "Wouid you be 
going in ? Dem. "What should I do else ? 

Lys. First listen to this, and attend ; there's something 
even before this that I think it proper you should do. For 
if you now go in-doors to her, you'll be wishing to em- 
brace her, chatting with her, and kissing her. 

Dem. Eeally you know my feelings ; you understand what 
1 would be at. Lys. You will be doing wrong. 

Dem. What, with that which you love ? 

Lys. So much the less reason. Would you, full of hungri- 
ness, with a foul breath, a stinking old fellow, be kissing a 
woman ? And wouldn't you, as you approached, be setting a 
female vomiting ? 

Dem. I' faith, I'm sure that you're in love, as you point 
out these things beforehand to me. What tlien, if I give a 
dinner ? If you approve of this, let's lay hold of some cook, 
who may be cooking away a meal^ here at your house, even 
until the evening. 

Lys. Well, I'm of that way of thinking. Now you are 
talking w'sely, and like a lover. 

Dem. Why are we standing here ? Why then don't we be 
off and procure the provisions, that we may be comfortable ? 

Lys. For my part, I'll follow you. And, i' troth, you'll be 
finding out a lodging for her, if you are prudent ; for, i' faith, 
she shan't be at my house a single day beyond the present ; 
I'm afraid of my wife, lest, if she should return from the 
country to-morrow, she'll be finding her here. {Exeimt. 

Scene IV. — Enter Charinus,^o;w Demipho's liouse. 

Chae. (to himself). Am I not a wretched mortal, who can 
rest quietly nowhere ? If I'm at home, my mind's abroad; 
but if I'm abroad, my mind's at home. To such a degree 
has love kindled a flame in my breast and in my heart ; did 
not the tears fall from my eyes, why then, 1 doubt, my head 
would be on fire. I cling to hope ; safety I've lost ; whether 
she'll return or no, I know not. If my father seizes her^ as 
he has said, then my welfare is gone in exile ; but if my 
companion has done what he promised, then my welfare has 
not departed. But still, even if Eutychus had had gouty 
feet, he could have been back from the harbour by this. This 

' Cooking away a meal) — Ver. 673. " Prandmm " here does not mean tli^ 
Oiornmg meai, similar to our breakfast, but a " fcjtst" or " banquet in general 



160 MEiicArOR; Act 111. 

is a very great fault of his, that he is too slow, against the 
wishes of my feelings. But (looking towards the side) isn't 
this lie whom I espy running P 'Tis he himself; I'll go meet 
him. {Olasps his hand^s.) Thou who art the overlooker of 
Gods and of men and the mistress of mortals as well, inas- 
much as thou hast indulged me in this hope that I enter- 
tained, I do return thee thanks. Does any hope remain? 
Alas! I'm utterly undone. His countenance by no means 
pleases me ! He moves along in sadness. My breast bums. 
I am in doubt. He shakes his head. Eutychus ! 

Scene Y. — Enter Eutychus. 

EuT. Alas! Charinus. {He pants.) 

Chae. Before you take breath, in one word, speak out. 
W^here am I ? Here, or among the dead ? 

EuT. You are neither among the dead nor here. 

Char. I'm saved, immortaKty has been vouchsafed me — ■ 
he has purchased her. He has nicely tricked my father. 
There's no one living more clever at gaining his purpose. 
Prithee, do tell me ; if I'm neither here nor at Acheron, 
where am I ? 

EuT. Nowhere in the world. Chae. I'm utterly undone! 
That speech has just put an end to me here. Whatever it 
is, do come to the material points of the matter. 

EuT. Eirst of all, we are ruined. 

Char. But why don't you in preference tell me that 
which I don't know ? It is an annoying way of speaking, 
when you should despatch the business, to be beating about 
the bush^. 

EuT. The damsel has been taken away from you. 

Char. Eutychus, you are guilty of a capital offence. 

EuT. How so? Char. Because you are killing your 
year's-mate and friend, a free citizen. 

EuT. May the Gods forbid it ! Char. You've thrust a 
sword into my throat ; this moment I shall fall. 

EuT. Troth now, prithee, don't be desponding in mind. 

Char. I have none to be desponding in. Tell on, then, the 
rest of your bad news ; for whom has she been purchased ? 

EuT. i don't know. She had been already knocked down 
to the bidder and taken off 5y him, when I got to the harbour. 

• To be beating about the hush) — ^Ver. 606 " Longinquum lOQ^* Iii'wrallv 

to be talking at a distance." 



SC. V. THE MERCHANT. 161 

ChjlB. Ah me ! Already, indeed, have you heaped bum- 
hig mountains of woe upon me. Proceed, executioner, tor- 
ment me on, since y^^u have once begun. 

EuT. This is not more a cause of anguish to yourself, than 
it has proved to me this day. 

Chab. Tell me, \vho bought her ? 

EuT. I' faith, I do not know. 

Chae. Well, is this a good friend giving one his aid ? 

EuT. What would you have me do ? 

Chae. The same that you see me doing, die with grief. 
But did you m.ake enquiry, what was the appearance of the 
person that had bought her? Perhaps the damsel might 
have been traced out by that means. 

EuT. Ah ! wretch that I am Chae. Do cease lament* 

ing ; attend to that which you are now about. 

EuT. What have I done ? Chae. Proved the destruction 
of myself, and with myself of your own word. 

EuT. The Gods know that that is not any fault of mine. 

Chae. A fine thing, indeed ! You mention the G ods, who 
are absent, as witnesses ; how am I to believe you in that ? 

EuT. Why, it rests with your own self what to believe ; 
with myself, what to say, that rests with me. 

Chae. On that point you are ready, so as to give answer like 
for like ; hut as to what you are requested, you are lame, blind, 
dumb, defective, and weak. You promised that you would 
trick my father ; I myself supposed that I was entrusting the 
matter to a skilful person, and\ entrusted it to an utter stone. 

EuT. What could I do ? 

Chae. What could you do, do you ask me ? You should 
have enquired, and asked who he was or whence he was, of 
what lineage ; whether he was a citizen or a foreigner 

EuT. They said that he was a citizen of Attica. 

Chae. At least, you should have found out where he livei, 
if you couldn't the name. 

EuT. No person was able to say he knew. 

Chae. But at least you shoidd have enquired what was tlie 
appearance of the man. Eut. I did do so. 

Chae. Of what figure, then, did they say he was ? 

Eut. I'll tell you : grey-headed, bandy-legged, pot-bellied, 
wide-mouthed, of stunted figure, with darkish eyes, lank jaws, 
eplay-footed rather. 

TOL. II. M 



162 MERCATOH j Acl IL:. 

Chae. You are mentioning to me not a human being, but 
a whole storehouse, I don't know what, of deformities. Is 
there anything else that you can tell about him ? 

EuT. It is just as much as I know. 

Chab. I' troth, for sure, with his lank jaws he has caused 
my jaw to drop^. I cannot endure it ; I'm determined that 
I'll go hence in exile. But what state in especial to repair 
to, I'm in doubt ; Megara, Eretria, Corinth, Chalcis, Crete, 
Cyprus, Sicyon, Cnidos, Zacynthus, Lesbos, or Boeotia. 

EuT. Why are you adopting that design ? 

Chab. "Why, because love is tormenting me. 

EuT. What say you as to this ? Suppose, if when you have 
arrived there, whither you are now intending to go, you begin 
there to fall desperately in love, and there, too, you fail of 
success, then you'll be taking flight from there as well, and 
after that, again, from another place, if the same shall happen, 
what bounds, pray, will be set to your exile, what limits to 
your flight ? What country or home can possibly be certain 
for you ? Tell me that. Say now, if you leave this city, do 
you fancy that you'll leave your love here behind ? If it is 
so fully taken as certain in your mind that so it will be, if 
you hold that as a jpoint resolved upon, how much better is it 
for you to go away somewhere in the country, to be there, to 
live there, until the time when desire for her and passion 
have set you at liberty ? 

Chab. Have you now said your say ? 

EuT. I have said it. Chab. You have said it to no pur- 
pose ; this is my fuU determination. I'U be off" home, to pay 
my duty to my father and my mother ; after that, unknown 
to my father, I'll fly from this country, or adopt some other 
plan. {Goes into Demipho's house.) 

Scene YI. — Eutychus, alone. 

EuT. {to himself). How suddenly he has taken himself off 
and gone away. Ah ! wretch that I am ! if he goes away, all 
will say that it has happened through my remissness. I'm 
determined at once to order as many criers as possible to be 

» He has caused my jaw to drop) — ^Ver. 639. Literally, " he has given me a great 
evil." He puns upon the resemblance ef the words " malum," aa " evil," a&d 
"mala," the "jaw." 



Act IV. THE MERCHANT. 1G3 

hired to search for her to find her ; after that, I'll go to the 
Praetor forthwith, and beg him to give me search-warrant 
officers in all the quarters of the city ; for I find that nothing 
else whatever is now left for me to do. {Exit. 



Act IY. — Sceke T. 

Enter Doeippa. 

Doe. (to herself). Since a messenger came to me in the 
country from my husband, that he couldn't come into the 
country, I made up my mind, and came back to follow after 
him who fled from me. But {looking round) I don't see 
our old woman Syra following. Aye, look, there she comes 
at last. 

Enter Stea, with a bundle of green sprigs. 

Doe. "Why don't you go quicker ? Ste, By my troth, I 
cannot ; so great is this burden that I'm carrying. 

Doe. What burden ? Ste. Fourscore years and four, and 
to that are added servitude, sweat, and thirst ; these things 
as well which I am carrying weigh me down. 

Doe. Grive me something, Syra, with which to decorate this 
altar of our neighbour^. 

Sye. {holding out a sprig). Present this sprig of laurel, 
then. Doe. Now do you go into the house. 

Ste. I'm going. {Goes into the house of JjY^iyLKCKJ]^.) 

Doe. {laying the sprig on the altar). ApoUo, I pray thee 
that thou wilt propitiously grant peace, safety, and health, 
unto our household, and that in thy propitiousness thou wilt 
show favour to my son. 

Stea rushes out of the house ^ clapping her hands. 

Ste. I'm utterly undone ! "Wretch that I am, I'm ruined ! 
Ah ! wretched me ! Doe. Prithee, are you quite in your 
senses ? What are you howling for ? 

Ste. Dorippa, my dear Dorippa ! Doe. Prithee, why are 
you crying out ? 

' AUar of our neighbour) — Ver. 672. She alludes to Apollo Prostaiwius: a- 
altar or statue to whom was placed near the doors of most of the hccuje* 
Athens ; see the Notes to the Bacchides. 

m2 



164 MEacATOfi ; Act IV. 

Sye. Some woman, I know not who, la here in-doors in the 
house. 

Doe. "What ? A woman ? Str. A. harlot woman. 

Doe. Is it so, really ? Sye. In serious truth. You know 
how to act very prudently, in not remainin{T; in the country. 
A fool even could have found it out that she waa the mistress 
of your very pretty husband. 

Doe. By heavens, I believe it. 

Sye. {taking her arm) . Step this way with me, that you, 
my Juno, may see as well your rival Alcmena. 

Doe. I' troth, I certainly shaU go there, as fast as I can. 
{They go into the house (?/'Ltsimachus.) 

Scene II. — Enter Ltsimachus. 
Lys. (to himself). Is this too little of a misfortune that 
Demipho's in love, that he must be extravagant as well ? If he 
had been inviting ten men of highest rank to dinner, he has 
provided too much. But the cooks he directed in such a way 
just as at sea the time-keeper^ is wont to direct the rowers. 
I hired a Cook myself, but I'm surprised that he hasn't come 
as I directed him. But who's this, I wonder, that's coming 
out of my house ? The door's opening. {He stands asideJ) 

Scene III. — JEnter DoEipPA,^om the Ao^^e q/* Lysimachus. 

Doe. {weeping). No woman ez/'er will be, or ever has been, 
more vn-etched than myself in being married to such a hus- 
band. Alas ! imhappy that I am ! Just see, to what a husband 
have you committed yourself and the property you have! 
Just see, to what a person I brought ten talents for a portion ; 
that I should see these things, that I should endure these 
insults. 

Lys. {behind). V troth, I'm undone; my wife's returned 
from the country already. I do believe she has seen the 
damsel in the house. But what she says I cannot distinctly 
ear from hence ; I'll go nearer to her. {Approaches her.) 

Doe. Ah ! woe to wTetched me ! 

Lys. {behind). Aye, and to me as well. 

' The time-Tceeper) — Ver. 692. The time wj3 given to the rowers by the 
♦* pausarius," who is here called " hortator." The directions he gave were called 
' celeusma," from the Greek Ke\eva), " to order." Lysimachus probably mean* 
that Demipho has hired whole ranks of them 



Sc. III. THE MERCHANT. 165 

Doe. I'm utterly undone ! 

Lts. (behind). As for me, i' faith, to my sorrow I'm down- 
right undone! she has seen her. May all the Grods con* 
found you, Demipho ! 

Doe. I' troth, this was it, why my husband wouldn't go 
into the country. 

Lys. (behind). "What shall I do now, but go up and speak 
to her ? (Goes up to her.) The husband bids health to his^ 
wife. Are the country people^ becoming townsfolk ? 

Dor. They are acting more decently than those who arj 
not become country people. 

Lts. Are the people in the country at all in fault ? 

Doe. I' faith, less so than the townsfolk, and much less 
mischief do they meet with for themselves. 

Lys. But in what have the townsfolk done wrong ? Tell 
me that. Doe. Whose woman is that in the house ? 

Lts. What, have you seen her ? 

Doe. I have seen her. Lys. Whose is she, do you ask ? 

Doe. I shall find out, in spite of you ; i' faith, I long to 
know. But you are trying me on purpose. 

Lys. Do you wish me to tell you whose she is ? She, she 

(Aside.) Ah me ! upon my faith, I don't know what to say. 

Doe. Do you hesitate ? 

Lys. (aside). I never saw one who did it more. 

Doe. But why don't you tell me ? 

Lys. Nay, but if I may Doe. Tou ought to teU me. 

Lys. I cannot, you hurry me so ; you press me as though 

were guilty. 

Doe. (ironically). I know you are free from all guilt. 

Lys. Speak out as boldly as ^''ou please. 

Doe. Tell me, then. Lys. 1, tell you ? 

Doe. Why, it must be told, in spite of everything. 

Lys. She is Do you wish me tell her name as well ? 

Doe. You are trifling. I've caught you in the fact ; yoy 
are guilty. 

Lys. G-uilty of what? If now I had no occasion /b/ 

• Are the country people) — ^Ver. 710. There has been much discussion as to the 
meauing of this passage ; it seems, however, pretty clear that it is only an in- 
direct way of asking Dorippa why she has so suddenly left the country for town. 
Caiman thinks, with some of the older Commentators, that Dorippa pouts, and 
mal-es no return to her husband's salutation, on which he fibserves that the town 
gentry are grown as unmannerly as the country bumpkins. TJie context will 
admit oi this explanation, but it iseems rather far-fetc)i*d. 



166 MEECATOB ; Act IV. 

silence, now I shouldn't tell you^. Wliy, this same woman 
is 

Dob. Who is she ? Lts. She 

Dor. Marry, come up ! don't you know who she is ? 

Lys. Why, yes, I do know. I've been chosen as an arbi- 
trator with respect to her. Dob. An arbitrator ? Now I 
know ; you have invited her here to consult with you. 

Lts. Why no ; she has been given me as a deposit. 

Dor. (ironically). I understand. 

Lys. By my troth, it's not anything of that sort. 

Dor. You are clearing yourself too soon^. 

Lys. {aside). Too much of a business have I met with ; 
really I'm stuck fast. 

Scene IV. — Enter a Cook, at a distance^ with Scullions 
and provisions. 

Cook. Make haste, get quickly on, for I've got to cook a 
dinner for an old gentleman in love. And, in fact, when I 
think of it again, it's to be cooked for ourselves, not him for 
whom we've been hired : for a person that's in love, if he has 
that with which he is in love, he esteems that as food, to see 
her, embrace her, kiss her, chat with her ; but we, I trust, 
shall return well laden home. Step this way. But see, here's 
the old gentleman that hired us. 

Lys. (aside). Why, look! I'm undone ! here's the Cook. 

Cook (going up to Lysimachus). We are come. 

Lys. Be off! Cook. How, be off? 

Lys. (in a low voice). Hush ! Be off! 

Cook. What, I, be off ? Lys. Be off, I say. 

Cook. Are you not going to have a dinner ? 

Lys. We are full already. 

Dor. But Lys. (aside). I'm utterly undone. 

Dor. What say you ? Have those persons ordered thc-se 
things to be brought to you as well, between whom you were 
appointed arbitrator ? 

» / shouldn't tell you) — Ver. 726. This he says, in his confusion, by mistake 
for " I should tell you." 

2 Clearing yourself too soon) — Ver. 732. " Numero." Eost thinks that this 
means " you have quite," or " satisfactorily cleared yourself," Dorippa, cf course, 
saying so in an ironical manner. She seems, however, rather to allude to hia 
defending himself before he is accused. Lysimachus pretends that some persons 
h;Hve disputed the possession of Pasicompsa. and that she has been left in hif 
hands by mulual consent, till he lias given ^lis decision. 



Sc. IV. THE MERCHANT. 167 

Cook. Is this person {pointing to Dorippa) your mis- 
tress, whom a little time since you told me you were in love 
with, when you were buying the provisions ? 

Lys. Won't you hold your tongue ? Cook. A very pretty 
figure of a woman ! I' faith, she does love a sweetheart. 

Lys. Won't you be off to perdition ? 

Cook. She's not amiss. Lys. But you are amiss. 

Cook. I' troth, I do fancy she's a nice bed-fellow. 

Lys. Won't you be off ? I'm not the person that hired 
you just now. 

Cook. How's that ? Nay but, upon my faith, you are 
that very man. Lys. {aside). Alas ! wretch that I am ! 

Cook. Your wife's in the country, I suppose, whom you 
were saying a little time ago you hated full as much as vipers. 

Lys. I, said that to you ? 

Cook. Aye, to me, upon my faith. 

Lys. So may Jupiter love me, wife, I never did say that. 

Dob. Do you deny that as well ? 

Cook {to Dorippa). He didn't say he hated you, but his 
wife. Dor. This is made clear, that you detest me. 

Lys. But I deny it. 

Cook. And he said that his wife was in the country. 

Lys. {pointing to Dorippa). This is she. Why are you 
annoying me ? Cook. Because you say that you don't know 
me. Are you afraid of her ? 

Lys. I'm wise in being so ; for she's my only companion. 

Cook. Do you wish to use my services ? 

Lys. I don't wish. Cook. Give me my pay. 

Lys. Ask for it to-morrow ; it shall be given you ; for the 
present, be off. {Aside.) Alas, wretch that I am ! I now 
find that that old saying is a true one, that some bad comes 
through a bad neighbour. 

Cook {to the Scullions). Why are we standing here ? 

Lys. Why don't you be gone ? 

Cook {aside to Lysimachtjs). If any inconvenience hap- 
pens to you, that's not my fault. 

Lys. {aside to the Cook). Why, you are utterly ruining 
wretched me 

Cook {aside to Lysimachtjs). I understand now what you 
want. You mean, you wish me to go away from here. 

Lts. {aside to the Cook). I do wish it, I say. 



168 MEBCATOB ; Act IV. 

Cook (aside to Lysimachits). I'll be off. Pay me a 
drachma. Lts, (aside to the Cook). It shall be paid. 

Cook {aside to Ltsimachus). Then order it to be paid 
me, please. It can he paid in the meantime, while they are 
putting down the provisions. 

Lts. (aside to the Cook). Why don't you be off? Can't you 
cease being troublesome ? {Slips the money into his hand?) 

Cook {to the Scullions). Come, do you set down those 
provisions before the feet of that old gentleman. These 
baskets I'll order to be fetched from your house either by* 
ind-by or else to-morrow. {To the Sctjllions.) Do you 
follow me. {Exeunt, having set down the provisions.) 

Scene V. — Ltsimachtjs, Dokippa, Stba. 

Lts. Perhaps you are surprised at that Cook, that he came 
and brought these things. I'll tell you why it is. 

Doe. I'm not surprised if you do anything wrongful or 
criminal ; and, by heavens, I'll not put up with it, that I 
am married thus unfortunately, and that harlots are brought 
into my house in this way. Syra, go ask my father, in my 
name, to come here directly together with vou. 

Stb. I'll go. 

Lts. Prithee, wife, you don't know what the matter is. In 
set form now will I make oath, that I have never had any- 
thing to do with her. {Exit Stra.) What, is Syra gone now ? 
By heaven, I'm undone ! (Dorippa goes into the house.) 

Scene VT. — Lysimachits, alone. 
Lys. {to himself ). But, see, she's off as well! Woe to 
wretched me ! Then, neighbour Demipho, may the Grods and 
Goddesses confound you, together with your mistress and 
your intriguings! He has most unjustly loaded me with 
suspicions ; he has stirred up enemies against me. At 
}iome my wife is most infuriated. I'll be off to the Eorum, 
and tell this to Demipho, that I'll drag this woman by the 
hair into the street, unless he takes her hence out of this 
house wherever he chooses. {Goes to the door and calls.) 
Hark you ! wife, wife ! although you're angry at me, you'll 
order, if you are wise, these things to be carried hence in- 
doors. We shall be able by-aud-by to dine aU the better 
upon the same. 



8c. yil. THE MERCHANT. 1G9 

Scene VII. — Enter Stba and Euttchtts, at a distance, on 

opposite sides. 

Syr. {to herself). "Whither my mistress sent me, to her 

father , he's not at home ; thej said that he has gone olf 

into the country. Now, I'll take home this answer. 1' faith, 
the women do live upon hard terms, and, wretched creatures, 
on much more unjust ones than the men. For if a husband has 
been keeping a mistress without the knowledge of his wife, if 
the wife comes to know it, the husband gets off with impunity; 
if, luiknown to the husband, the wife goes from the house 
out of doors, a pretext arises for the husband, the marriage 
is dissolved^. I wish the law was the same for the husband 
as for the wife ; for the wife that is a good one, is content 
with one husband; why, any the less, should the husband 
be content with one wife ? By my troth, I'd give cause, if 
men were punished in the same way (if any one should be 
keeping a mistress unknown to his wife), as those women are 
repudiated who are guilty of a slip, that there should be more 
divorced men than there are women now. 

EuT. (to himself, apart). I'm quite tired wdth hunting the 
whole city through ; I find nothing whatever about this 
woman. But my mother has returned from the country ; 
for I see Syra standing before the house. Syra ! 

Ste. "Who is it tliat's calling me ? 

EuT. 'Tis I, your master and foster-child. 

Sye. {turning round). Save you, my foster-child. Erx. Has 
my mother returned from the country then ? Answer me. 

Sye. Aye, for her own especial sake and that of the family. 

EuT. What is it that's the matter ? 

Sye. That very pretty father of yours has brought a mis- 
tress into the house. 

EuT. How say you ? Sye. Tour mother, on arriving from 
the country, found her at home. 

EuT. By my troth, I didn't think my father was a person 
■for those practices. Is the woman now even still in-doors ? 

Sye. Even still. 

EuT. Do you follow me. (^He goes into the house o/'Lysi- 

MACHUS.) 

1 The marriage is dissolved) — ^Yer. 803. She alludes to the facility with wliich 
at Rome, where the Play was performed, wives were divorced oa the tnereat 
suspicion of infidelity. 



170 MERCATOE ; Act IV. 

[Syr. (to herself). How now^ ? Do I see Peristrata here, 
the wife of Deraipho ? She quickens her pace ; she glances 
about with her eyes ; she turns herself round ; she inclines her 
neck on one side. I'll observe from here what matter she's 
about; it's something of importance, whatever scent she's 
upon. (Stands aside.) 

Scene YIII. — Miter Peristrata and IjYcisba, from the 
house o/Demipho. 

Per. The Groddess Astarte^ is the might of mortals and of 
the Gods, their life, their health ; she, the same, who is like- 
wise their death, destruction, downfall, the seas, the earth, 
the heaven, and the stars. "Whatever Temples of Jove we 
^inhabit, they are guided by her nod ; her do they obey ; to her 
do they pay regard ; what displeases her, the other Deities 
do quickly put aside. Whatever pleases her, that, all things, 
which live and have sense, do pursue. Some she tortures, 
destroys ; others, with her own milk does she nourish and 
raise aloft; but those whom she tortures, they live and 
enjoy their senses; those whom she hastens to rear and 
raise aloft, these last indeed do perish forthwith, and to 
their sorrow use their senses. Then, well-wishers, they lie 
prostrate, objects of dislike they bite the ground, grovel 
upon their faces, roar out, and make a riot ; and when they 
think they live, then in especial do they rush on to ruin, then, 
then do they show eagerness in the pursuit of the object 
beloved; young men stumble, aged men likewise are led away. 
They love themselves ; the object which they love, they wish to 
be loved and known. But if at that age they begin to fall 
in love, much more grievous is their madness. But if they 

' How now f) — Ver. 823. From the commencement of tliis line to the end ot 
1. 909, is generally considered to be spurious ; probably it is the work of some zealous 
critic of the middle ages, who fondly thought to improve the Play as it stood* 
He introduces Peristrata as complaining of the conduct of her husband, in de- 
priving her son of his mistress, but never suspecting what is the true state of the 
case ; an opportunity for a Comic dilemma, which Plautus himself, had he in- 
tended to introduce the character, would probably not have neglected. 

" The Goddess Astarte)—VeT. 826. Astarte. The author seems to allude to 
Venus under this name. Cicero tells us that Astarte was the Syrian Venus. 
This soliloquy of Peristrata is very obscure and confused, and coucned in most 
erahlu'd language, bit her intention seems to be to descaut upon the supremt 
sway of love. 



Sc. IX. THE MERCHANT. 171 

do not love, then they hate, they are morose, too, and way- 
ward; tattlers, haters, ill-disposed, passionate, envious for 
themselves and theirs. What they have formerly been shame- 
lessly guilty of themselves, if it is done in a more quiet 
way, Withers do not tolerate as they ought to do ; but they 
proclaim it, and indecently cry it out aloud. 

Syr. (apart). So far as I understand, Demipho is treating 
this lady badly too. 

Per. This is the truth. My son is in love and is dying ; 
when his father came to know of it, he was enraged beyond 
bounds. What insanity is thi^ ? This same husband of mine 
at one time packed my son off to Bhodes to traffic ; now, ac- 
cording to the news Acanthio brings, he'll be betaking him- 
self into banishment. unjust father ! O unfortunate son ! 
whither will you betake yourself ? Where will you leave your 
mother ? Shall I pass my life bereft ? Shall I lose my son ? I 
will not endure it. Has his father sold her ? Wherever she 
shall be found, the mother will redeem her. Do you tell me, 
Lycissa, do they suppose that she was brought into this 
neighbourhood ? 

Ltc. {pointing to the house q/" Lysimachus). To that, I 
fancy ; to the house of a certain old gentleman, a friend. 

Per. Here, there is no one that 1 know of besides Lysi- 
machus. 

Syr. (apart). They are mentioning Lysimachus. It's a 
wonder if the old fellows, who are neighbours, haven't been 
going halves in the same nest. 

Per. I'll go look for Dorippa, his wife. (JThe door of the 
house q/" Lysimachus opens.) 

Lyc. Why go look for her ? Don't you see her ? 

Per. Indeed, I do see her. Let's listen ; she's muttering 
something in a passion, I know not what, to herself. (They 
stand aside.) 

Scene IX. — Enter Dorippa, ^ow the house oi Lysimachus. 

Dor. (to herself). Syra hasn't come back, whom, poor 
wretch, it's now a long time since I sent to fetch my father ; 
in her very slowness, she has either hardened into a stone, 
or she has stopped from swelling with the sting of a serpent. 

Syr. {apart), I'm undone ; here's my mistress, she s look- 
ing after me, 



172 MERCA.TOE ; Act IV. 

Doir. (continuing). I cannot remain at home; my eyes 
oatonot abide that pretty young harlot ; I would have shut 
.ler out of doors, but my son Eutychus prevented me. StiU, 
I shan't altogether belie 7e the news he brings. 

Ltc. (apart). Do you hear, mistress ? 

Pee. (apart). I hear; let her go on. 

Ltc. (apart). I'll let her. Dob. (to Jierself). He says that 
she has come hither to our house for the salte of an old gen- 
tleman, a friend ; that he has her for sale, so that he may 
withdraw her from his son, who's in love with her. This 
really is a falsehood, either in my husband or my son; 
the accounts differ. The husband says that she w^as given 
him as a deposit; but the son says that she's on sale. 

Syr. (apart). I'll go meet her on a sudden, that she 
mayn't find out that I've been loitei-ing. 

Doe. In this matter I shan't believe my son, who's acting 
in compliance with his father; for, for him, like a regular 
cuckoo^, has he determined to tell abundance of lies : for my 
own part I shall believe the Cook, in preference. But see, 
here's Syra. How the oZ^ witch does run. Syra! 

Sye, Who's calling me ? (Stares around her.) 

Doe. The Grods send a plague upon you ! 

Sye. Mistress, if you are wise, bestow this upon your rival 
and your husband in preference. 

Doe. For saying that, I'm no longer angry with you. 
But Where's your father ? "Why does he delay ? Does gout 
liinder the man ? 

Sye. He's lame with neither gout nor chalk-stones^, whom 
his feet carry into the country. 

Doe. Not at home ? Sye. No. 

Doe. Where then ? 

Stb. They say he's in the country, and that it's uncertain 
whether he'll return to-day, he has such a large account 
with his bailiff. 

Doe. Everything is befalling me this day contrary to my 
wishes. I shan't live till the evening, unless I drive that 
hussy away from the house. (She turns to the door.) I'm 
going home. 

* A regular cuckoo) — Ver. 866. Plautus, on more tnan one occasion, calls an 
adulterer by this epithet. 

2 Nor chalk-stonesy—Yar. 871. " Articularius " Literally, " having a disease m 
Uie ioiiiu." 



Sc. IX. THE MEECHAKT. 17^ 

Lyc. (aparf). Tlie mistress is going away. 

Per. {apart). What, going away? Call her. 

Ltc. {calling). Dorippa! Dorippa! 

Dor. (turning round). "What nuisance is this? "Wlio'a 
calling me back ? 

Per. I'm not a nuisance, but a well-wisher ; and it's your 
friend Peristrata addresses you. Prithee, do stay. 

Dor. Why, Peristrata — i' faith, I didn't know you : dread- 
ful vexation is tormenting and agitating me. 

Per. This I enquire about — prithee don't deny me. I 
heard you just now; tell me what annoyance is troubling 
you. 

Dor. Peristrata, so may the Gods prosper your only son, 
do kindly lend me your attention ; none could be given me 
more agreably : our ages are alike ; together we grew up ; 
we have husbands alike in age ; with no one do I converse 
with greater pleasure. I'm really annoyed with good reason. 
What now would your feelings be, if at this time of life 
your husband Demipho were to bring a mistress before your 
eyes? 

Per. Has he brought one ? Dor. So it is. 

Per. She's at your house ? 

Dor. At my house ; aye, and cooks were hired ; a ban- 
quet was being prepared, if my coming hadn't upset every- 
thing. Venus and Cupid are tormenting the wretched old 
fellow at an unseasonable time. 

Per. But these things are trifles, Dorippa. I wish that 
I wasn't more wretched. 

Dor. Trifles ? Per. Eeally trifles. 

Dor. What worse could your husband do ? 

Per. Aye, worse than worse. 

Dor. What is it ? Prithee do say. As you to me, so I 
to you, let's give advice to each other what needs to be done. 
It's an old saying, that, "he's truly wise who is wise at the 
risk of another." 

Per. Dorippa, I have an only son ; do you know that ? 

Dor. I do know it. 

Per. Him his father some time ago packed off" from his 
own house to Ehodes. 

Dor. Por what reason ? Per. Because he was in lo¥et 

Dor. For that very thing ? 



174 MEECATOE ; Act V 

Per. Yes, and tlie very same thing now as well — inasmuch 
as he had brought a female slave here, his father coming to 
know of it, took her away, and put her up for sale. 

Dor. Aye, aye, I know it ; my son told me the truth. I 
fancied she was the mistress of my husband. To whom was 
she entrusted ? 

Per. To a certain old gentleman in this neighbourhood, 
his friend. I think that he has no other friend here except 
your hiishand. 

Dor. {aside). It certainly is she. {To Peristeata.) What 
does your son ? 

Per. He declares that he'll leave this city. 

Dor. The matter's in a safe position. What if he finds 
her ? Per. I imagine he'll stay. 

Dor. Beyond expectation we are saved ; don't doubt it ; 
she's at my house. 

Per. At your house ? It was she, I suppose, about whom 
J heard you talking just now. Dor. It was she. 

Per. well done; I love you with reason; you've re- 
stored me my son. Do let me see her. 

Dor. Let's go in-doors then. 

Per. Let's go. {Turning round.) Come here, Lycissa. 
Do you go tell these things to Acanthio. I'll go here to 
Dorippa's house. {Eccit Lycissa. Dorippa, Peristrata, 
and Syra go into the house q/*LYsiMACHUs.)] 

Act V. — Scene I. 

Bmer Chaeinus,^ow the house of DbM-ITKOj in a travelling 

habit. 

Char, {looking towards the door). O higher and lower^ 
portions of the threshold, now both of you farewell. This 
day for the last time do I raise this foot* within my father's 
house. The ease, the enjoyment, the in-dwelling, the habita- 
tion of this house is henceforth for me cut off, destroyed, and 
alienated. I am undone ! The household Grods of my parents, 
the Lar the father of the family^, to you do I recommend, 

* Higher and Zotoer)— Ver. 910. According to some writers, the threshold was 
sacred to Vesta. Tertullian mentions a Deity called " Limentinus," or " the God 
ef the Threshold." 

* Father qf tlie /am»/y)— Ver. 915. The "Lares" seem to have beer dividfti 



Sc. 11. THE MERCHANT. 175 

that you will kindly protect the possessions of my j.arents. I 
shall now seek other household Grods for myself, another Lar, 
another city, another state. The people of Attica I do de- 
test ; for where worse manners are on the increase every daj , 
where, those who are friends, those who are faithless, you are 
not able to distinguish, and where that is torn SLW&jfrom i/(m, 
h^hich especially pleases your taste, there, in fact, if a kingdom 
were given one, that country is not desirable. {Stands aside 
in deep thought.) 

Scene II. — IJnter'EvTYC-B.TJS,from the home o/*Ltsimachtjs, 
at a distance. 

EuT. (to himself). Thou who art the overlooker of Gods 
and of men, and the mistress of mortals as well, inasmuch as 
thou hast indulged me in this hope that I entertained, I do 
return thee thanks. "What Deity is there now that is joyous 
with gladness like mine ? That was at home which I was iu 
search of. There did I find six companions, life, friendship, 
my native land, festivity, mirth, and jollity. On finding 
these, at the same moment did I utterly destroy ten very bad 
things, wrath, hatred, folly, ruin, perverseness, grief, tears, 
exile, want, and loneliness. Ye Grods, 1 pray you grant me 
a speedy opportunity of meeting him. 

Char. ( to himself, not seeing Euttchus). I'm ready pre- 
pared, as you see. Pride I cast aside ; I'm my own companion, 
attendant, horse, groom, esquire ; I'm my own master, I, too, 
obey myself; for my own self do I carry what I require. 
Cupid ! how powerful art thou. For easily dost thou render 
finy one resolute through thy deeds, and then again, the same 
person difiident forthwith from being over bold. 

EuT. {to himself). I'm thinking which way to run in 
search of him. 

Chab. {continuing). The matter's resolved upon, that I'll 
seek her everywhere, wherever in the world she has been 
carried off* from hence ; and neither shall any river stand in 
my way, nor mountain, nor the sea, indeed, nor heat, nor 

into two classes — the private and the public Lares. The private, or " familiares," 
were probably the same as the " Penates," under another name. The public 
Lares were the " urbani," presiding over the cities ; " rustici," over the country ; 
" compitales," over cioss-roads ; " marini," over tte sea. 



176 MEECATOR ; Act V. 

citld ; I dread neither wind nor hail ; the torrents of rain I'll 
eiibmit to ; labour, heat, and thirst, will I endure. I'll neither 
stop nor rest anywhere at night, or in the day, assuredly, 
before I shall have met with either my mistress or my death. 

EtJT. {loohing round). Some voice, I know not who's, flew 
to my ear. Char, {continuing). You do I invoke, ye Lares 
of the roads^^, that you m^U kindly lend me aid. 

EuT. (seeing Charinus). Jupiter! isn't that Charinus ? 

Char, {turning round). Fellow-citizens, fare ye well. 

EuT. (aloud). Charinus, stop, this instant. 

Char. Who calls me back ? Exit. Hope, Safety, Victory. 

Char. AVhat do you want with me ? 

EuT. To go along with you. 

Char. Look for another companion ; these companions 
that have ])ossession of me, will not part wath me. 

EuT. Who are they ? Char. Care, misery, sickness, tears, 
and lamentation. 

EuT. Drive away those companions, and look this way and 
return. Char. If indeed you wish to speak to me, do you 
follow. (Moves on.) 

EuT. Stop, this instant! Char. You do amiss, in de- 
laying me as I haste ; the sun is setting. 

EuT. If you would make haste in this direction, just as 
you are hastening in that one, you^'d be doing more rightly ; 
this way there is now a prospering gale, only tack about. 
Here is a fair Westerly breeze ; there is a showery Southern 
blast. The one causes a calm; the other stirs up all the 
waves. Betake yourself towards the land, Charinus, in this 
direction. Don't you see right opposite ? Black clouds and 
showers are coming on. Look now to the left, how full the 
heaven is of brightness. Don't you see right opposite ? 

Char. He has thrown religious scruples^ in my way ; I'll 
betake myself in that direction. (Tarns towards EuTY- 

CKUS.) 

EuT. You are wise. O Charinus, turn your steps, and 

* Lares of the. roatfe)— 'Ver. 944. He seems here to allude to the class of Lares 
wb3 were usually called " Compitales," and whose statues were erected at the 
cross-roads. Varro tells us that there were 265 stations for Lares at the corneni 
of the streets of Rome. 

2 Throvm reliffious scruples) — Ver. 961. He considers the remark made bj 
Sutychus as ominous, wlxicb it would be impious for him to disregard. 



Sc. 1.1. THE MEBCHiJIT. 177 

ttiTH your feet as well, in the opposite direction Extend 
your arm. Catch hold of me. Do you hold me new f 

Char. I'm holding you. 

EuT. Hold on, then. "Whither now were you going ? 

Cha-R. Into banishment. Eut. "What to do there ? 

Char. As a wretched person would. Eur. Don't fear ; this 
instant shall I restore you to joyousness before you go away. 

Char. I'm going. {Moves.) 

Eut. a thing that you especially long to hear, the same 
shall you hear for you to rejoice at. Stay this instant ; I'm 
come as a friend, full of the kindest feelings. 

Char. "What is it ? Eut. Your mistress 

Char. "What of her P Eut. I know where she is. 

Char. Prithee, do you ? Eut. She's safe and sound. 

Char. "Where is she safe ? Eut. I know where. 

Char. I'd much rather I did. 

Eut. Can't you possibly be calm in your feelings P 

Char. "What if my feelings are agitated ? 

Eut. I'll bring them for you into a safe and tranquil state ; 
don't you fear. 

CttAR. Prithee * * * do say where she is 

— where you've seen her. "Why are you mute ? Speak — 
you are torturing to death wretched me by your silence. 

Eut. She isn't far from here. 

Char. "Why then don't you point her out, if you see her ? 

Eut. I' faith, I don't see her at this moment ; but I saw 
her just now. 

Char. Why, tTten, don't you cause me to see her ? 

Eut. I will cause it. 

Char. That means a long time for one in love. 

Eut. Are you still in apprehension ? I'll disclose it all. 
No person is there living more beloved by me than is he 
who has got her ; nor is there one to whom it is right that 
I should be a better wisher. 

Char. I don't care about that ; I'm looking for her. 

Eut. About her, then, I'm telling you. Eeally, this has 
not come into my mind but this moment, to tell it you 

Char. Tell me, then, where she is. Eut. In our house. 

Char. If you are telling the truth, a worthy house, and 
aptly built, l' deem it. But how am I to credit that ? llavo 
you seen her ; or do you speak from hearsay ? 
ToL. u, jr 



178 MEECATOE; Act V 

EuT. I've seen her myself. 

Chae. Who took bcr to your house ? 

EuT. Why, you're asking an unfair question. "What 
matters it to you with whom she came ? 

Chae. So long as she's there Eut. She certainly is. 

Chae. Then, for these tidings, do you wish whatever you 
please. Eut. What if I do wish ? 

Chae. Pray to the Gods to bring its fulfilment. 

Eut. Tou are laughing at me. 

Chae. My fortunes, in fine, are redeemed, if I can see her. 
But why don't I lay aside this garb ? ( Goes to the door of 
Demipho's house, and calls.) Hallo, somebody, come here this 
instant out of doors. Come out, and bring me thence a cloak 
this way. 

Eut. Well, now how much you do gratify me. 

Chae. (to a Boy who enters^ bringing his cloak) . You boy, 
who have come with such speed, take my scarf {giving it), 
and now stand aside there ; that, if these things are not true, 
I may hasten to go upon this intended journey. {To Euty- 
OHUS.) Are you telling the truth ? 

Eut. EeaJly, Charinus, you are not ashamed of anything. 
Don't you believe me ? 

Chae. Eor my part, I really do believe everything that 
you tell me. But why don't you introduce me to her, that 
I may see her ? 

Eut. Wait a little. Chae. Wby am I to wait ? 

Eut. It's not a convenient moment to go into the house. 

Chae. Tou are torturing me to death. Eut. There's no 
need, I tell you, for you to go into the house just now. 

Chae. Answer me — for what reason ? 

Eut. She's not at leisure. Chae. Why so ? 

Eut. Because it isn't convenient to ber, 

Chae. Is it so ? IS'ot convenient to her who loves me, and 
whom I love in return? He's trifling with me in every 
way. I'm too foolish to believe him. He's onlg delaying me. 
{Turns to the Boy.) I'll put on my scarf again. 

Eut. Stop a little, and listen to this. 

Chae. {talcing off the cloak). You boy, take this cloak^, 
please. {Puts on the travelling scarf.) 

* Take iJiis cloak) — Ver. 1001. Though commonly rendered "cloak," the 
pallium" aiffered materially from that articb of dress. It was a square piece 



St. II. THE MEHCHANT. 170 

EuT. Eeallj this hasn't come but this moment into my 
mind to tell it you. My mother's dreadfully angry with my 
fatlier, because he has brought into the house a harlot before 
her very eyes, while she was away in the country. She sus- 
pects that she's his own mistress. 

Char, {not attending to him). I've taken up my belt^ 
{Puts it on.) 

EuT. She's now enquiring into this matter in-doors. 

Char, (inattentive). Now my sword's in hand. (Tahinq 
it from the Boy.) 

EuT. But if I were now to introduce you ? 

Char, (inattentive). I'll take my bottle, and be off from 
here. (Moves.) 

Etjt. Stop, stop, Charinus ! 

Char. You are mistaken ; you can't deceive me. 

Eut. And, i' faith, I have no wish. 

Char. Why, then, don't you allow me to proceed upon 
my journey ? Eut. I won't let you. 

Char. I'm delaying myself. Boy, do you this instant be 
off hence in-doors. (The Boy goes into the house.) Now I've 
ascended the chariot ; now I've taken the reins in my hands. 
(Imitating the action of a charioteer.) 

Eut. You are not in your senses. 

Char, Feet of mine, why don't ye betake yourselves into 

of cloth, which came direct from the loom in that shape, and required no cutting 
out by the tailor. The " pallia" were mostly worn in an undyed state, cr-nse- 
quentlj white, brown, and grey were the prevailing colours. They were sometimes 
dyed of crimson, purple, and saffron colour. Sometimes they were striped, like our 
plaids or checks. Flowers were sometimes interwoven, and occasionally with gold 
thread. Wool was the most common material. They were not only used for wearing, 
but for spreading over beds and couches, and covering the body during sleep. 
Sometimes they were used as carpets, and sometimes as awnings or curtains; 
and indeed the word as often means " a blanket " as a garment. When worn, the 
" pallium" was passed over the left shoulder, then drawn behind the back and 
under the right arm, leaving it bare, and then thrown again over the left shoulder 
See Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

^ My belt) — Ver. 1005. The "zona," "girdle" or "belt," would be employed 
by the traveller to tuck up his long clothing, for the sake of expedition ; it was 
also used either as a purse or for the purpose of holding the purse. The traveller 
would require his sword for the purposes of safety, while the "amjnUa," or 
" leather bottle," was to hold the oil with which the feet were anointed wheu 
galled with walking. 



IbO MEHCATOB; Act V- 

tlie chariot, straight for Cyprus, since my father deterniinea 
on my banishment ? 

EuT. You are silly. Prithee, don't be saying this. 

Char, {as tlion^gh to himself). I'm resolved to persist — to 
use my endeavours to seek her out where she is. 

EvT. Why, she's at our house. 

Char, {as though to himself). For what that person 
said, he told a falsehood in it. 

EuT. Keally, I told you the truth. 

Char, {continuing). ^Jfow I've come to Cyprus. 

EuT. Nay, but follow me, that you may see her whom 
you are looking for. {Moves towards his Father's house.) 

Char, {pretending not to hear). Enquiring there, I didn't 
find her. Eut. I'll not care then for my mother's anger. 

Char, {still pretending). I'll still go on to seek her. 
Now I've got to Ciialcis ; I see there my former host at 
Zacynthus ; I tell him why I've come thither ; I make 
enquiry if he has heard say who has brought her thither, who 
has got possession of her. 

EiTT. Why don't you cease that nonsense, and step with 
me this way in-doors ? Chae. {still pretending). My host 
answered that figs grew, not bad ones, at Zacynthus. 

EtJT. He didn^t say false there. 

Char, {continuing). But he says that he has heard about 
my mistress, that she's here at Athens. 

Eut. Eeally, this Zacynthian is quite a Calchas^. 

Char, {continuing). I get aboard ship, and start at once. 
I'm now at home ; now I've returned from banishment. My 
friend, Eutychus {turning towards him), greetings to you! 
How have you been ? How are my parents ? Are they well ? 
Bo you come to my mother, you say — you in^vite me kindly ; 
you speak politely. At your house to-morrow ; for the pre- 
sent at home. So it is proper ; so it ought to be done. 

Eut. How now ? What are you dreaming about ? This 
man's not in his senses. Char. Why don't you, as a friend, 
make haste to cure me then ? 

Eut. Follow me, please. Char, {running close behind 
him). I'm following. 

Caichas) — Ver. 1025. The soothsayer who attended the Grecian army U frny 



Sc. IV. THE MEECHANT. 18 i 

EuT. (turning round). Softly, pray: you are treading ou 
my heels. Don't you hear nie ? 

Chae. I've heard you for some time past. 

EcT. I want a reconciliation to be made between my 
father and mother ; for now she's in a passion 

Chae. (pushing Mm). Only do go on. Eut. About that 
woman 

Chae. (^pushing him). Only do go on. 

But. Therefore take care Chae. (pushing him). Nay, 

but do go on then ; I'll make her as mild as Juno is when she's 
kind to Jupiter. ( They go into the house (?/'Lysimachus.) 

ScEifE III. — Enter Dbmipho and Ltsimachtjs. 

[Lts. Demipho^, this saying of the mse, I think you have 
often heard, " Pleasure is the bait for misfortune ;" because, 
by it, not less are men ?aught than are fishes with the hook. 
Although aged people fly tifom it, still you don't pay that 
regard to your old age : since it hasn't even withdrawn love 
from you, but has forced you to it even more vehemently. 
Wherefore it utterly confounds yourself and your understand 
ing and your mind, and dazzles your eyesight. Myself too hav< 
you brought into great trouble, and I know not what to do 

Dem. Lysimachus, this is the will of the Gods, not of 
men. If you reflect upon this with yourself, you wiU be of 
opinion that you are not doing right, in censuring so heavily 
a person your friend and the sharer of your secrets.] As 
though you yourself had naver done anything like this action. 

Lts. By heavens, n^ver, I took care not to do anything : 
wretch that I am, / am scarcely alive ; for my wife is ly'^g 
all in a ferment about her, 

Dem. But I'll undertake to clear you, so that she mayn't 
be angry. Lys. Follow me — but I see my son coming out. 

Scene IV. — JEnter Euttchus, from the house of 
Ltsimachus. 

Eut. (as he comes out, to Chaeikus, within). I'll go to my 
father, that he may know my mother's wrath is appeasejl. 
I'll return just now. 

> Demipko) — Ver. 1037. This, and the next ten lines, are generally looked upoc 
as spurious. They have probably been inserted by some busy interjwlater, to 
snpply what Piautus had intended us to suppose as having transpirt'il bpt-V/ecB 
Dtinjpho and Lyahmchus before theF enter. 



JS2 MEKCATOB; Act V. 

Lts. {to Demipho). The beginning pleases me. {Going up to 
EiiTYCHUS.) What are you about ? How g;>es it, Eutychus ? 

EuT. Extremely opportunely have you both met me. 

Lys. "What's the matter ? 

EuT. Tour wife is peaceful and appeased. Gire me youl 
right hands this moment. {Shakes hands mth them both.) 

Lts. The Gods are favouring me. 

EuT. {to Demipho). I bring you word that you have got 
no mistress. Dem. The Gods confound you. Why, prithee, 
what aifair is this ? 

EuT. I'll tell you. Give your attention then, both of you. 

Lys. Well then, we are giving you our attention, both of us. 

EuT. Those who are born of a good family, if they are of 
bad tendencies, by their own faultiness withdraw nobleness 
from their rank, and disgrace their disposition. 

Dem. He says what's true. Lys. Then it's to yourself he 
says it. 

EuT. For this reason is this the more true ; for at this 
time of life, it wasn't just for you to take awi^y from your son, 
a young man, his mistress, purchased with his own money. 

Dem. How say you ? Is she the mistress of Charinus ? 

EiTT. {aside). How the rogue does dissemble. 

Dem. Why, he said that he had bought her as a maid- 
servant for his mother. Eut. AVas it for that reason, then, 
vou bought her, you young lover, you old boy ? 

Lys. Very well said, i' troth! Proceed, proceed. I'll 
stand by him here on the other side. Let's both load him 
well with such speeches as he's worthy of. 

Dem. {aside). I'm done for. Eut. Who has done an in- 
justice so great to his blameless son ; whom, in fact, upon my 
faith, I brought back home just when he was setting out in 
*e//-banishment ; for he was going into exile. 

Dem. Has he gone then? Lys. What, do you speak, 
you hobgoblin ? At this time of life you ought to abstain 
from those pursuits. 

Dem. I confess it ; undoubtedly I*ve acted wrong. 

Eut. What, do you speak, you hobgoblin ? You ought at 
this time of life to have done with these guilty practices. 
Just as the seasons of the year, so different lines of conduct 
befit different ages; but if this is prober, that old feUowa 
should be wenching in their old age, wl ere in the world ia 
our common welfare ? 



Sc. IV. THE MERCHANT. 183 

Dem. Alas ! wretcli that I am ! I'm undone. 

EuT. The young men are more in the habit of giving 
their attention to following those pursuits. 

Dem. Troth, now, prithee, do take her to yourselves, with 
pigs and witli basket^. 

EuT. Eestore her to your son; let him have her, now, 
as he wishes. 

Dem. So far as I'm concerned, he may have her. 

EuT. High time, i' faith, since you haven't the power of 
doing otherwise. 

Dem. For this injury let him take what satisfaction he 
likes ; only do you make peace, I beg of you, that he mayn't 
be angry with me. I' faith, if I had known it, or if, indeed, 
he had told me in the slightest way of joke that he was in 
love with her, I shouM never have proceeded to take her 
away from him so in love. Eiitychus, you are his com- 
panion, preserve and rescue me, I beg of you. Make this 
old fellow your client. You shall say that I'm mindful of a 
kindness. 

Lts. Entreat him that he'll pardon his offences and his 
youthful a^e^. 

Dem. Heyday now, are you still persisting in inveighing 
against me with your airs ? I trust that a like opportunity 
will befall me as well for returning you a similar compliment. 

Lys. I've loiig made an end of those pursuits. 

Dem. And really so shall I from this time forward. 

Lts. Not a bit of it. Through usage your inclinations wiU 
be leading you to it again. 

Dem. Prithee, do now be satisfied. Eather, scourge me 
with thongs even, if you like. 

Lts. You say right. But that your wife will do, when 
she comes to know of this. 

Dem. There's no need for her to come to know of it. 

EuT. What's that ? She shan't come to know of it ; don't 
be afraid. Let's go in-doors ; this place isn't a suitable one 
for your practices, for there to be persons to overhear who 
are passing through the street, while we are talking. 

> With pigs and v}ithh(uikeC)—YQr.^O%\. "Cum porcis, cum piscina." This 
was probably a countrified expression, analogous to our phrases " with bag and 
baggage," " stump and rump." 

■' And his yotUhftd age) — Ver. 1090. Of course this is said in a tone of keen 
Mid well-merited :iatire. 



154 MEBCATOB. Act V. 

Dem. Why, faith, you say what*8 right; that way the 
story will be shorter. Let's be off. 

EuT. Your son is in-doors here at our house. 

Dem. It's very good. We'll pass that way through the 
garden^ home. Lts. Eutychus, I want this affair to be 
settled before I set my foot again within doors. 

EuT. What is it ? Lts. Each person thinks aVout his own 
concerns. Answer me this : do you know for certain that 
your mother isn't angry with me ? 

EuT. I do know it. Lts. Take care. 

EuT. Trust me for it. Are you satisfied ? 

Lts. I am. But still, troth now, prithee, do take care. 

EuT. Don't you believe me ? Lts. Yes, I do believe 
you ; but still I'm dreadfully afraid. 

Dem. Let's go in-doors. 

EuT. Aye, but I think we must pronounce the law for the 
old men before we depart, on what terms they are to keep 
check upon themselves and to be continent. Whoever shall 
be sixty years of age, if we know of any one, whether husband 
or, i' faith, whether bachelor, in fact, who goes a wenching, 
upon these terms shall we deal with him ; we shall deem him 
a fool. And, i' faith, so far as we're concerned, he shall be 
in want who has squandered away his property. And let no 
one hereafter forbid his youthful son to be in love and to keep 
a mistress, so it be done in a decent manner. If he shall 
forbid him, let him, unknown to himself, suffer more loss than 
if he had openly permitted him. Let this law, then, from 
this night forward, be binding upon the old men. (lb the 
Audience.) Young men, kindly fare you well ; and if this 
law, enacted for the sake of the old ones, pleases you, it is 
right that you should give us loud applause. 

» Through the garden)— Ver. 1102. He means that he will be able to go home 
the back way, so that perhaps his wife may not see whence he has come. This 
line shows that the houses of Lysimachus and Demipho are on the same side of 
the street, and not, as Cotter says, one on one side, the other on the other, with 
their doors opposite. — It may be here remarked, that it is not improbable that • 
ooDuderable portion of this Flajr has perished. 



CISTE1.1ARIA; OR, THE CASKET. 



Bramatis ^3frsontr. 
The God of Help, who speaks the Prologue in the Second AoiL 

Demipho, a merchant of Lemnos. 
Alcesimarchus, a young naan of Sicyon. 
Lampadiscus, servant of Demipho. 

Phanostbata, wife of Demipho. 

SiLENiuM, their daughter, beloved by Alcesimarchus. 

Meuenis, a Procuress. 

Halisca, her servant. 

A Procuress, the mother of Gymnasium. 

Gymnasium, a Courtesan. 



Seen*.— Sicyon, in Peloponnesus. Before the houses of Dcmipbo, SiuattlTft, 
ud the faXher of Alci^mabchux 



THE SUBJECT. 



Dbhipho, a merchant of Lemnos, having ravished Phanostrata, a ycnag woman 

of Sicyon, she is brought to bed of a female child. This she gives to her servant 
Lampadiscus, to be exposed. On this being done, in the sight of Lampadiscus, 
a Procuress picks up the infant, and afterwards makes a present of it to her 
friend Melsenis, by whom it is brought up, under the name of Silenium. Al- 
cesimarchus, a young man of Sicyon, falls violently in love with her, and takes 
her under his protection. In the meantime, Demipho, who has married 
another wife, after her death marries Phanostrata, and comes to live at Sicyon. 
He and his wifie are then anxious, if possible, to regain their lost child. The 
daughter of Demipho by his first wife is destined by her father to become the 
wife of Alcesi march us ; on hearing which, Melasnis removes her foster-child 
from his protection. At this conjuncture Lampadiscus finds out the Pro- 
curess that had taken up the infant wlien exposed, and from her discovers 
that the child of his mistress is with Melaenis. He informs his mistress of 
this, while Melaenis is, unknown to them, standing by; upon which she deter- 
mines to confess the truth, and to restore Silenium to her parents. While she is 
tliinking upon this plan, Alcesimarchus lays hands on Silenium, and carries her 
off to his father's house. In the confusion attendant on this, Halisca, the servant 
of Melaenis, drops a casket in the street, containing some trinkets which had 
been worn by Silenium at the time when she was exposed. Phanostrata and 
Lampadiscus find the casket, and on Halisca coming to search for it, they dis- 
cwor where Silenium i&. They go into the house, and Phanostrata disoovera 
oer loJi^-lotit child. 



CISTELLARIA; OR, THE CASKET. 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

I Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

A YOUNG man of Lemnos ravishes (^Comprimit) a woman of Sicyon. He (Z») 
returns to his country, and becomes father of a daughter by his marriage there. 
The woman of Sicyon (Sicyonia) also bears a daughter. A servant takes 
(Tollit') and exposes her, and keeps watch in secret; her (^Eam), taken up, a 
Courtesan presents to another. Coming back afterwards from Lemnos (^Lemno), 
he marries her whom he had ravished; and his daughter born at Lemnos 
{Lemnt) he promises in marriage to a young man captivated by passion (^Amo7-e') 
for the one that had been exposed. On makmg enquiry (^Requirens), the servant 
finds her whom he had exposed ; and so (itaque) legaUy and properly does 
Alcesimarchus (Akesimarchtis) gain her recognized as a tree woman, whom 
before he had had as a concubine. 



Act I. — Scene I. 

Enter Silenium, GtTmnasium, and Peocuhess, from the 
house q/SiLENiUM. 

SiL. Inasmuch as hitherto I have loved you, and have 
deemed you to be my friend, my dear Gymnasium, and your 
mother as well ; so have you shown it to me this day, both 
you and she. If you had been my own sister, how more you 
two could possibly have held me in esteem I know not ; but, 
according as is my way of thinking, I conceive it could not 
possibly be , such ready assistance, all other things laid aside, 
have you given me. For this reason do I love you, and for 
it a vast obligation have you botli conferred upon me. 

Gym. I' faith, at such a price as this, indeed, it's easy for 
us to give you our attendance and to do you good offices ; so 
handsomely and so elegantly have you entertained ua at 
breakfast at yoiu* house, as we shall ever remember. 

SiL. It has been done with hearty good will by me, and 
will be done, to get those things which I shall think you are 
desirous of. 

' Cistellaria) A word formed by Plautus from the diminutive of " cistella,** 

" a casket." 



188 CI8TELLABIA ; Act I. 

Pkoc. As the man said, who was borne by a prospering 
breeze on a calm sea: " I rejoice that we came^ to you;" in 
such a delightful manner have we been here this day received ; 
nor except in the management, was there anything there at 
your house but what pleased me. 

SiL. How so, prithee ? 

Peoc. Too seldom did the servant give me something to 
drink, and, as it was, it clouded the colour of the wine. 

GrTM. Pray, is that becoming to he mentioned here ? 

Peoc. It's both right and proper ; there's no other person 
here. Sil. "With reason do I love you both, who esteem 
and honor me. 

Peoc. I' faith, my dear Silenium, it befits this class to be 
kindly disposed among themselves, and carefully to keep up 
friendships, when you see these matrons of elevated rank, 
tsorn of the noblest families, bow they value friendship, and 
how carefully they keep it united between themselves. If 
we do that same thing, if we imitate the same example^ 
still as it is, with difficulty do we exist with tlieir extreme dis- 
like. Of their own enjoyments they would have us to be in 
want, in resources of our own they would have us not to pos- 
sess any power, and to stand in need of them in all matters, 
that we may be tlieir humble servants^. If you wait upon 
them, you'd rather he giving your room than your company. 
So very kind are they before the world to our class ; in pri- 
vate, if ever there's the opportunity, underhandedly they 
pour cold water^ upon us. They declare that we are in the 
habit of having commerce witli their husbands ; they say that 
we are their supplanters ; they attempt to crush us. Because 
we are the free daughters of slaves*, both I and your mother, 
we became Courtesans ; she brought up yourself, and I this 
girl {pointing to Gymkasium), by chance-fathers. Nor yet 

^ Tfiat. we eaiae) — Ver. 15. " Ventum." There is probably a poor pun intended 
:n the otlier meaning of this word, as the accusative case of " ventus," " wind." 

' May he their hurnble servants)— Ver. 33. " Ut simus sibi supplices." Lite- 
rally, "that we may be suppliants to themselves." 

' Pour cold water) — Ver. 36. Meaning, in other words, " They try to do us 
all the mischief they can." 

♦ Free daughterg of slaveg)—Ver. 89. The " professse," or " courtesans," at 
Rome, were mostly of the class of " libertinae " — " children of slaves who had 
been made free," or else freed-women themselves, who had been the mistresses of 
their former owners. From this circumstance, " to lead a libertine life" Citint 
to mean the same as " to pas.s a loose " or " uncliaste life." 



Sc. 1. OR, TUE CASKET. 180 

for the sake of vanity have I driven her to the calling of a 
Courtesan, hut that I mightn't starve. 

SiL. But it had been better to give her in marriage to a 
husband in preference. 

Proc. Heyday, now ! Surely, faith, she's married to a hus- 
band every day ; she has both been married to one to-day, 
she'll be marryiug again to-night. I've never allowed her to 
go to bed a widow. For if she weren't to be marrying, the 
household would perish with doleful famine. 

Gym. It behoves me, mother, to be just as you wish I 
jiliould be. 

Proc. I' troth, I don't regret it, if you will prove such as 
you say you'll be ; for if, indeed, you shall be such as I intend, 
you'll never be a Hecale^ in your old age, and you'll ever 
Jteep that same tender age which you now have, and you'll 
prove a lo^s to many and a profit to myself full oft, without 
any outlay of my own. 

G-YM. May the Gods grant it. 

Proc. AVithout your own energies^, the Goda cannot pos- 
sibly do anything in this. 

Gym. I' faith, for my own part, I'll zealously devote my 
energies to it. But wliat mean you amid this conversation, 
apple of my eye, my own Silenium ? (never did I see you 
more sad ;) prithee, do tell me, why does mirth so shun you / 
And you are not so neat as you usually are. (SiLEJriTTM sighs.') 
Do look at that, please, how deep a sigh she heaved. Tou are 
pale too. Tell us both what's the matter with you, and in 
what you want our aid ; so that we may know. Prithee, don't 
by your tears be causing me anxiety. 

SiL. My dear Gymnasium, I'm sadly affected j I feel ill, 
I am shocidngly distrest ; I am pained in spirits, I feel pain 
in my eyes, I am in pain from faintness. "What shall I say, 
but that my own folly drives me to sadness ? 

Gym. Take you care, then, that you have your folly en- 
tombed in that very same place from which it takes its rise. 

1 A Hecale) — Ver. 49. " Hecala" seems a preferable reading here to "Hecata." 
Hecale was a very poor old woman, whom Plutarch mentions as having enter- 
tamed Theseus on one of his expeditions. " As poor as Hecale," became a 
proverb. Her poverty is mentioned by Ovid, in tlie Remedy of Love, in con* 
•unction with that of the beggar Irus. 

' WitJtouf your own energies) — Ver. 62. This is very siicUar t« OUr jnrotert, 
chit '* Pn.vidence helps thase who help themselves.*' 



190 CISTELLAETA ; Act 1. 

SiL. What shall I do ? Gym. Hide it in darkness, in the 
very deepest recesses of your breast. Take you care and 
have it so, that you yourself are alone sensible of your own 
folly, without any other witnesses. 

SiL. But I've got the heart-ache. 

GrTM. Why so? Por what reason have you th^ heart- 
ache, prithee, tell me, a thing that I neither have, nor any 
other woman whatever, according as the men say ? 

SiL. If there's any heart to feel pain, it does feel pain ; but if 
there isn't, still this pains me here. (Pointing to her left-side.) 

Pkoc. This woman's in love. 

GrTM. Come now, to begin to be in love, is it bitter, prithee ? 

Pkoc. Why, troth, love is most fruitful both in honey and 
in gall ; inasmuch as it produces sweetness in a mere taste, 
but causes bitterness even to repletion. 

SiL. Of that character is the malady that afflicts me, my 
dear Gymnasium. 

Gtm. Love is full of treachery. 

SiL. He's taking his spoils of me, then. 

Gym. Be of good courage, you'll get the better of this 
malady. Sil. I trust it will be so, if the physician comes 
that can administer the medicine to this malady. 

Gym. He wdll come. Sil. A hard expression is that to 
one in love, " He will come," unless he does come. But by 
my own fault and foolishness, am I, wretched creature, more 
afflicted, because for him alone have I longed for myself, with 
whom to pass my life. 

Peoc. That is more suitable to a married woman, my dear 
Silenium, to love hut one, and with him to pass her life, to 
whom she has once been married; but, indeed, a Courtesan is 
most like a flourishing city ; she cannot alone increase her 
fortunes without a multitude of men. 

Sil. 1 want you to give heed to this matter ; the thing on 
account of which you have been sent for to me, I'll disclose. 
Now, my mother, because I don't wish myself to be called 
a Courtesan, complied with my desire ; in that matter she 
indulged myself who have been obedient to her ; to allow me 
to live with him alone whom I so ardently loved. 

Peoc. I' faith, she acted foolishly. But look, have you 
ever kept company with any man ? 

Sil. With no one, indeed, except Alcesimarchus ; nor has 



Sc. 1. OB, THE CASKET, 191 

any other person whatever committed an infringement on my 
chastity. Pboc. Prithee, by what means did this man gain 
your good graces ? 

SiL. At the festival of Bacchus my mother took me to see 
the procession. While I was returning home, from a secret 
look-out he secretly traced me even to the door ; after that, he 
insinuated himself into the friendship of my mother and my- 
self as well, by endearments, presents, and gifts. 

Peoc. I should like a man of that sort to be offered me. 
How I'd work him. 

SiL. What need is there of words ? Through intercourse, 
I on the other hand began to love him, and he myself, 

Peoc. my dear Silenium ! 

SiL. What's the matter ? Peoc. You ought to pretend 
to be in love ; for if you fall in love at once, you'll be much 
better consulting the interests of him whom you love than 
your own. 

SiL. But in solemn form he took an oath before my mother 
that he would take me as his wife. Now, another woman is 
about to be taken home by him, a Lemnian lady, his relation, 
who is living here hard by (pointing to Demjpho's house) ; 
for his father has compelled him. Now my mother is enraged 
with me, because I didn't return home to her, when I came 
to know of this matter, that he was about to take another as 
his wife. 

Peoc. Nothing's unfair in love. 

SiL. Now, I entreat you that you'll let her {pointing to 
Gymnasium) be here only for the next three days, and keep 
house for me ; for I've been sent for to my mother's house. 

Peoc. Although this will be a troublesome three days for 
me, and you'll be causing me a loss, I'll do so. 

SiL. You act kindly and like a friend. But you, my dear 
Gymnasium, if in my absence Alcesimarchus shall come, don't 
you chide him roughly ; however he has deserved of mystif, 
still he has my affections ; but, prithee, act gently, so that 
you mayn't say anything that may cause him pain. Take the 
keys {giving them to her) ; if you have need to take out any- 
thing for use, take it out. I wish to go 

Gym. {weeping). How you have drawn tears from me. 

SiL. My dear Gymnasium, kindly, farewell. 

Gym. Take care of yourself, there's a dear. Prithee, wil! 
you go in this dishabille ? CPointing to hei^ dress.^ 



102 CISTELLARIA ; Acl 1. 

SiL. It's right that such neglect should attend upon my 
prospects thus disarranged. 

Gym. At least do lift up that outer garment^. 

SiL. Let it be dragged, while I myself am bemg dragged 
down. 

Gym. Since so it pleases you, fare you well and prosper. 

SiL. If I could, I would. {Exit 

Gym. Mother, do you wish anything of me, before I go in- 
doors ? Upon my faith, to me she does seem to be in love. 

pROC. For this reason, then, it is, that I'm repeatedly diu- 
niug it into your ears, not to be in love with any man. Go 
in-doors. 

Gym. Do you wish anything of me ? 

Peoc. That you may fare well. Gym. Fare you well. 
(Gymnasium yotfs into the house ©/"SileKIUm.) 

Scene .II. — The Peogueess, alone. 

pROC. (to the Audience). It's the same fault vAth myself 
fts with a great part of W5 women who are following this call- 
ing ; who, as soon as ever we have got our load of food, are 
forthwith full of talk ; more than is enough do we say. "Why, 
myself now, inasmuch as I*m filled to my heart's content, 
and because I've charged myself quite full of the choicest 
of wine» it pleases me to use my tongue more at freedom ; to 
my misfortune I can't keep silent on that which it were ne- 
cessary to be silent upon. But once upon a time, that girl, 
who has gone hence in tears, from a lane I carried off a little 
child exposed. There is here a certain youth, of the highest 
rank ; his father, of a very high family, is living at Sicyon^ ; he 
is dying desperately in love for this young woman, who has just 
now gone hence in tears ; on the other hand, she is smitten 
with love. I made a present of her to my friend, this Courtesan : 
who had often made mention of it to me that somewhere I 
must find for her a boy or a girl, just born, that she herself 
might pass it off as her own. As soon as ever the opportunity 
befell me, I immediately granted her request in that which 

^ Outer garment') — Ver. 116. " Araiculum" was a general name for the outer 
garment, sucii as the " pallium," " toga," or " chlamys," in contradistinction to 
the " tunica," or " under-clothing." 

' Licir^j at Sicyon) — Ver. 131. This was a very ancient city in the north of 
the Peloponnesus, not far from Corinth. According to Pliny the Elder, it was 
&moas for itt> shopif«. stored> with all kinds of metals. 



Sc. in. OE, THE CASKET. 103 

she had asked of me. After she had received this female 
child from me, at once she was brought to bed of the same 
female child which she had received from me, without the aid 
of a midwife and without pain, just as other women bring 
forth, who seek a trouble to themselves ; but she said that 
her lover was a foreigner, and that by reason of that circum- 
stance she was palming it off. This, we two alone are aware 
of, I who gave tlie child to her, and she who received it from 
me; {to the Audience) except yourselves, indeed. Thus 
was this affair managed; if any occasion should arise, I wish 
you to remember this circumstance. I'm off* home. {Exit. 

' Scene III. — Enter the God of Help^, who speaks the 
Peologue. 
{To the Audience.) This old woman is both a much-talker 
and a much- tippler. Isn't it the fact that she has hardly 
left room to a Divinity for him to speak, so much has she 
forestalled him in talking about the substitution of this girl ? 
But if she had held her tongue, still I was about to mention 
it — a G-od, who could do it better ; for my name is Help. 
Now {to the Audience) lend your attention, that I may 
clearly explain this plot to you. Some time since, at Sicyon, 
there was the Festival of Bacchus ; a merchant of liemnos"-^ 
came hither to the games, and he, an ungovernable young 
man, ravished a maiden^ in the dark, in the street, at the dead 
of night. He, as he knew that he was deserving of a lieavy 
punishment, at once found shelter with his heels, and made off 
for Lemnos, where he then lived. She whom he had ravished, 
the ninth ensuing month completed, brought forth a daughter 
liere*. Since she did not know the person guilty of this 
deed, who he was, she made the servant^ of her father partaker 
of her counsels, and gave to that servant the child to be ex- 
posed to death. He exposed it ; this woman took up the 
child ; that servant, who had exposed it, secretly took note 
whither or to what house she carried away the child. As you 

* God of Help) For the purposes of the Prologue, which is here introduced^ 
" help," or " assistance," is personified as a Divinity, under the name ai 
■' Auxilium," who is to assist Silenium in the discovery of her parents. 

* Merchant of Lemnos) — Ver. 158. Demipho. 
' A maiden) — Ver. 159. Phanostrata. 

* A d/amghter here) — Ver. 164. Silenium. 
' The servant) — Ver. 166. Lampadiscus. 

Vol. II. u 



194 CISTELLAEIA f Act II. 

have heard her own self confess, she gave this child to the 
Courtesan Melaenis ; and she brought her up as being her 
own daughter, honestly and virtuously. But then, this Lem- 
nian married a neighbour there, his relation, for his vvi^e. 
She departed this life ; there she was compliant to her hus- 
band. After he had performed the due obsequies to his wife, 
at once he removed hither ; here he married for his wife that 
same woman^ whom formerly,when a maid, he ravished. When 
he understood that it was she whom he had ravished, she 
told him that, in consequence of the violation, she had brought 
forth a daughter, and had at once given her to a servant to 
be exposed. He forthwith ordered this same servant to 
make enquiries, if anyhow he could discover who had taken 
it up. Now to that task is the servant always assiduously de- 
voting his attention, if he can find out that Courtesan, whom 
formerly, when he himself exposed her, he from his hiding- 
place had seen take her up. Now, what remains unpaid, I wish 
to discharge, that my name may be struck out, so that I 
mayn't remain a debtor. A young man^ is here at Sicyon, 
liis father is alive ; with affection he distractedly dotes upon 
this exposed girl, who just now went hence in tears unto her 
mother ; and she loves him in return, which is the most delight- 
ful love of all. As human matters go, nothing is granted for 
everlasting : the father is wishful to give the young man a 
wife. When the mother^ came to know of this, she ordered 
her to be sent for home. Thus have these matters come to 
pass. Kindly fare you well, and conquer by inborn valour, as 
you have done before ; defend your allies, both ancient ones 
and new ; increase resources by your righteous laws ; destroy 
your foes ; laud and laurels gather ; that, conquered by you, 
the Poeni* may suffer the penalty. (JExit. 

Act II. — Scene I. 
Enter Alcesimaechus am,d Mel^nis. 
Alc. I do believe that Love was the first to invent torture 
among mankind. This conjecture do I form from myself at 

' That same woman) — Ver. 179. An exactly similar circumstance forms the 
groundwork of the plot in the Hecyra of Terence. 

' A young man) — Ver. 191. Alcesimarchus. 

' When the mother) — Ver. 197. Melaenis. 

« The Pceni) — Ver. 203. This Play was probably written towards the end cf the 
B^/lbud Panic wiu' 



Kc. 1. OB, THE CASKET. lOf* 

liume, not to go seek it out of doors ; I, who surpass all men, 
exceed them in the pangs of my feelings. I'm tossed, tor- 
mented, agitated, goaded, whirled on the wheel of love in my 
misery, I'm deprived of sensation, carried one luay, carried 
another way, I'm torn and rent asunder; such clouded 
faculties of mind have I, where I am, there I am not ; where 
I am not, there my thoughts are ; to such a degree have I 
now all kinds of feelings in me ; what I like, then all at once 
I like not the same ; so much does love trifle with me changing 
my mind, drive me, pursue, desire, and seize for itself, 
retain, trepan, and promise ; what it gives, it gives not ; 
it deludes me ; what this moment it has persuaded me, it 
now dissuades me from ; what it has dissuaded mo from, it 
now points out to me that same. After the manner of the 
sea is it experienced by me ; so much does it distract my 
enamoured feelings ; and only in that, in my misery, I do not 
sink utterly, is there any evil removed from me thus ruined ; 
in such a way has my father detained me these six days 
running in the country, at his house there ; nor has it been 
allowed me in the meantime to visit my mistress. Isn't this 
dreadful to relate ? 

Mel. Are you joking for this reason, because you've 
got another wife engaged, a rich lady of Lemnos ? Have 
her then! We are neither of a family so great as you are, 
nor is our wealth so substantial as yours ; but still I have no 
fears that any one will impeach our oath ; you then, if you shall 
feel any pain, will know for what reason you do feel pain. 

Alc. May the G-ods confound me Mel. AVhatever 

you wish for, I desire it may befall you. 

Alc. If ever I'll marry that wife which my father has en- 
gaged for me. 

Mel. And me, if ever I give you my daughter for a wife. 

Alc. Will you allow me to be forsworn ? 

Mel. Yes, and a little more easily than myself and my 
affairs to go to ruin, and my daughter to be trifled with. 
Begone ! go seek where there is confidence enough in your 
oaths ; here now, with us, Alcesimarchus, you've renounced 
your title^ to our friendship. 

' Renounced your title) — Ver. 245. *' Conf'registi tesseram.' Literally, " yon 
nave broken your tally," or " ticket." These were pieces of wood cut in half, 
wid fitting each other. They were exchanged by friends, and denoted thtii 

o2 



196 cistellahia; Act II. 

Alo. Make trial of me but once.. Mel. I have made thai 
trial full oft ; which I lament has been so made. 

Alc. Grive her back to me. Mel. Under new circum- 
stances I'll use an old proverb : " What I have given, I wish 
I liad not given ; w lat's left, that I shall not give." 

Alc. Won't you restore her again to me ? 

Mel. Answer yourself for me. 

Alc. You won't restore her then ? 

Mel. You know the whole of my resolution already. 

Alc. Is that quite resolved upon by you in your heart ? 

Mel. Why, in fact, I'm thinking about something else; 
i' fiiith, I don't at present catch these words of yours with 
my ears. 

Alc. Not hear ? Why, what are you doing ? 

Mel. Then do you give heed at once, that you may know 
what you are doing. 

Alc Then, so may the Q-ods and Goddesses of above and 
below, and of middle rank^, and so may Juno the queen and 
the daughter^ of supreme Jove, and so may Saturn his 
uncle 

Mel. I' troth, his father- 



Alc. And so may Ops the opulent, bis grandam 

Mel. Indeed, his mother, rather. 

Alc. Juno his daughter, and Saturn his uncle, supreme 
Jove — You are maddening me ; it's through you I make 
these mistakes. Mel. Gro on saying so. 

Alc. Is it that I'm to know^ what conclusion you are 
going to come to ? Mel. Gro on talking ; I shaU not send 
her back, that's resolved upon. 

Alc Why then, so may Jupiter, and so may Juno and 
Saturn, to me, so may — I don't know what to say — Now I 
know — Yes, madam, listen, that you may know my mind ; 

readiness, on the presenting thereof, to entertain each other with hospitality. She 
means that Alcesimarchus has broken his word, and has lost his right to be con- 
sidered as a friend. See the Poenulus, 1. 1047. 

1 Of middle rank) — Ver. 249. " Medioxtuni." By these are meant the De- 
migo(1s. 

- And the dmighter) — Ver. 250. In his confusion he calls Juno, the sister and 
wife of Jupiter, his daughter. 

' Thai tm to know) — Ver. 255. According to the suggestion of Rost, th« 
rejiding " sciam," " I may know," has been preferred to " scias," " you may know." 
«i the present passage. 



tic. III. OR, THE CASKET. 197 

may all the Deities, great and small, and those honored with 
the platter^ * * * cause me not sur- 

viving to give a kiss this day to Silenium, if I don't this very 
day murder you and your daughter and myself, and after 
that, vrith the break of day, if I don't to-morrow kill you 
both, and indeed, by all the powers, if at the third onset I 
don't demolish you all, if you don't send her back to me. 
I've said Mhat I intended. Earewell. {Goes into his 
Father's house.) 

Mel. (to herself). He's gone in-doors in a rage. "What 
ehall I do now ? If she comes back to him, matters will be 
just in the same position. When satiety begins to take pos- 
session ; he'll be turning her out of doors, when he shall be 
biinging home this Lemnian wife. But still I'll go and fol- 
low him ; there's necessity for caution, lest he, in love, should 
be doing some mischief. In fine, since with strict justice a poor 
person's not allowed to contend with a rich one, I'll lose my 
labour rather than lose my daughter. But who's this that 
straight along the street is directing his course this way? 
Both the other matter do I fear, and this do I dread ; so 
utterly in trepidation am wretched I. {She stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Unter Lampadiscus. 
Lam. (to himself). I've followed the old woman with my 
clamour through the streets ; I've kept her most dreadfully 
plagued. In what a multitude of ways has she, this day, 
kept guard upon herself, and been able to remember nothing. 
How many alluring things, what advantages I've promised 
her. How many inventions I've applied to her, how many 
stratagems in questioning her. With difficulty have I ex- 
torted it from her that she should tell me, because I promised 
to give her a cask of wine. 

Scene III. — Unter 'Pb^a.sostilat a., from her house. 

Phan. (to herself). I seemed just now to be hearing the 
voice of my servant Lampadiscus before the house. 

Lam. (stepping for u;ard). You are not deaf, mistress, you 
heard aright. 

» Honored with the platter) — Ver, 259. *' Patellarii.'' These were the Lure* 
and Penates, the household Gods, to whom offerings were made of victnaa; in 
small plates or platters. Ovid, in the Fasti, B. 2, 1. 634, says: "Offer, too a 
ghare of the viands, that the presented platter testimony of the pleasing honor, 
Buy feed the well-4tirt Lares." 



IDS CISTELLABIA ; A.et II. 

Phax. AVIiat art you doing here ? 

Lam. a thing for you to rejoice at. 

Phan. AVhat's that ? 

Lam. {pointing to the house of ^ihE^iTJU). A little -while 
ago, I saw a woman coming out of that house there. 

Phak. Her that took up my daughter? 

Lam. You have the matter right. 

Pha>% What after that ? Lam. I told her in what way 
I had seen her take up the daughter of my mistress from 
the Hippodrome. Then she was in a fright. 

Mel. (apart). Now my body's in a shudder, my heart is 
throbbing; for I recollect that from the Hippodrome the 
/ittle female infant was brought to me, and that I brought it 
up as my own. 

Phan. Come, prithee, do go on ; my soul's longing to 
hear how tlie matter proceeded. 

Mel. {apart). I only wish you couldn't hear. 

Lam. I proceed * * * saying^, " This 

i)ld woman calls you her daughter wrongfully. * * 

* • * * * * • * Yov this 

woman here is your foster-mother, so don't think she is your 
mother. I'm to take you back and invite you to opulence, 
where you may be settled in a noble family, where youi* 
father may present you with twenty great talents for a por- 
tion. Por this is not a place where after the Etrurian mode^ 
you are disgracefully to earn a dowTy for yourself hy prosti- 
tution of your person." 

Phax. Is she, pray, a Courtesan, who took it up ? 

Lam. Yes, she was a Courtesan. But how it happened, I'U 
tell you about that matter. I was now winning her over to 
me by my persuasion. The old woman embraced her knees, 
weeping a7id entreating that she would not forsake her ; saying 
that she was her own daughter ; and she took a solemn oath to 
me that she herself had borne her. " Her," said she, " whom 
you are in search of, I gave to a friend of mine to bring her 

1 Saying') — Ver. 294. We are to suppose that on following the Procuress to her 
cwn house, he says this to Gymnasium, taking her for the young woman whom he 
is in searcli of. Probably a large portion of the Play is lost here. 

- The Etrurian mode) — Ver. 300. Tlie Tuscans or Etrurians, who were said te 
hiive been originally a colony from Lydia, are by some writers s'^ated to have 
forced their young women to gain their marriage-portions by prostitution. Uer»> 
dolus iiUudL-b to this custom of the Lvdians, 



Sc. 111. OR, THE CASKET. 199 

up as lier own daughter ; and she ia alive," said she. " Where 
la she ?" immediately said I. 

Phan. Preserve me, ye Grods, I do entreat you. 

Mel. {apart). But me you are undoing ! 

Phan. You ought to have enquired to whom she gave it. 

Lam. I did enquire, and she said to the Courtesan 
Melaenis. 

Mel. {apart). He has mentioned my name ? I'm utterly 
undone ! 

Lam. When she mentioned her, I straightway asked, 
" Where does she live?" said I ; " take and show me." " She 
has been carried off hence," says she, "to live abroad." 

Mel. He's sprinkling^ a little cold water now. 

Lam. " Wherever she has been carried off, thither we ^-ill 
follow. Do you trifle in this fashion? Ton are undone, 
if, i' faith, you don't disclose this." I insisted to such a 
degree, that the old woman swore that she would soon in- 
form me. 

Phax. But you oughtn't to have let her go. 

Lam. She's all safe ; but she said that she wished first to 
meet a certain woman, a friend of hers, with whom this was a 
matter of interest in common, and I'm sure she'll come. 

Mel. {apart). She'll be discovering me, and adding hep 
own distress to mine. 

Phan. Make me acquainted what you now wish me to do. 

Lam. Go in-doors, and be of good heart. If your hus- 
band shall come, bid him w^ait at home, lest he should be 
required by me, if I want him for anything. I'm going to run 
back to the old woman. 

Phan. Lampadio, prithee, do take care. 

Lam. I'll have this matter well managed. 

Phai^". I trust in the Grods and in yourself. 

Lam. And I in the same — that you'll now go home. 
(PHA^'OSTEATA goes into her house.) 

Mel. {coming forward). Young man, stay and listen. 

Lam. What, are you calling to me, woman ? Mel. To you. 

Lam. What's the matter ? For I'm fully engaged. 

Mel. {Pointing to the house of Demipho). Who lives 
there ? Lam. Demipho, my master. 

' He's sprinJcU'Tff) — ^Ver. .S18. This metaphor, which is also used iii the Tn- 
nummus, is tak.>i from the cublom of throwing cold water on persons when in a 
faipting state 



200 CISTELLAEIA : Act II. 

Mel. It is lie, I suppose, that has betrothed his daugh- 
ter with such great wealth to Alcesimarchus ? 

Lam. It is he himself. Mel. How now, you? What 
other daughter, then, are you people now in search of? 

Lam. I'll tell you ; not his daughter by his wife, but his 
wife's daughter. 

Mel. What's the meaning of that speech ? 

Lam. By a former woman, I say, my master had a daugh- 
ter born. 

Mel. Surely, just now you said you were m search of the 
daughter of her who has been talking here. 

Lam. Her daughter I am in search of. 

Mel. In what way then, pray, is she a " former woman," 
who is now his wife ? 

Lam. Woman, whoever you are, you weary me with your 
prating. The middle woman^ whom he had for a wife, of her 
this maiden was born that's being given to Alcesimarchus. 
That wife is dead. Do you understand now ? 

Mel. I understand that quite weU ; but it's this knotty 
point I'm enquiring about, how the first can be the last, the 
last be the first. 

Lam. The fact is this ; this woman he ravished before he 
took her home as his wife ; before that she was pregnant, 
and before that she gave birth to a daughter : after she gave 
birth to her, she ordered the infant to be exposed ; I mi/self 
exposed her ; another woman took her away ; I was on the 
look-out ; after that, my master married her. That girl, her 
daughter, we are now in search of. (Mel^nis turns aside 
her head.) Why now, with face upturned, are you looking 
up towards the heavens ? 

Mel. Now, then, be off" at once whither you were hasten- 
ing ; I won't detain you ; I understand it now. 

Lam. I' troth, to the Deities I do give thanks ; for if you 
hadn't understood me, I do think you would never have let 
me go. {^xit. 

Mel. (to herself). Now it's necessary for me to be honest, 
whether I will or no, although I had rather not ; I find the 
thing is discovered. Now will I myself lay them under an 

1 The middle woman) — Ver. 347. " Medioxumam." The middle woman, although 
his first wife, and the mother of the daughter whom he had betrothed to Alcesi- 
niHrc'hus; he having had Phanostrata the tirst, as a woman (when he ravishea 
ber J, but not »s» a wife until after the death of his tirst wife. 



Act III. OR, THE CASKET. 201 

obligation to me, rather than she shall peach upon me. I'll go 
home, and I'U bring SHenium to her parents. {Uxit. 

Act III. — Scene I. 
IJnter Mel^nis, Silenium, and Halisca.. 

Mel. I've disclosed the whole matter to you ; follow, my 
Silenium, that you may rather belong to those to whom you 
ought to belong, than be mine. Although against my will I 
shall part with you, still I'll reconcile my mind to consult 
that which in especial conduces to your benefit. ( Giving her 
a casket.) For here in this are the trinkets^, together with 
which she who gave you to me formerly brought you to me ; 
that your parents may recognize you the more easily. Take 
this casket, Halisca, and then go and knock at that door 
(jpointing to the house of Demipho) : say that I request that 
some one will come from within. Make haste, quickly. 

Scene II. — Unter Alcesimaiichus,/^©^ his Fatheb's 
house, with his svmrd drawn. 

Alc. {calling aloud). Death, receive me unto thyself, a 
friend and well-wisher to me ! 

SiL. My mother, to our sorrow, we are undone ! 

Alc. (aloud, to himself). Whether shall I pierce my side 
here (striking his right side) or on the left. 

Mel. (to Silenium). What's the matter with you? 

SiL. (pointing). Don't yon see Alcesimarchns? He's grasp- 
ing a sword. Alc. (aloud, in a frantic manner). What art 
about? Thou art delaying. Quit the light 0/ Jay. 

SiL. Do run and aid him, pray, that he mayn't kill him- 
self. (They run to assist him, on which Halisca drops the 
casket.) 

Alc. Safety more healthful than my own safety, you 
now, whether I wish or don't wish, alone do cause me to live, 

Mel. Pie on it ! Were you ready to commit such violence ? 

Alc. I've nought to do with you — to you I'm dead. 
{Clasping Silenium in his arms.) Her, as I hold her, I'm de- 
termined not to lose. For, by heaven, I am resolved hence- 

* Are the tn,nkets) — Ver. 371. The discovery in the Kudens depends on a 
sin.ilar circumstance. This custom of attaching trinkets to the persons of chil- 
dren when exposed, will be more fully remarked upon in the Notes to the Tr«aa^ 
jation of lereuce. 



I 



202 CISTELLARIA Act IV. 

forth to have her entirely ri vetted fast unto me. {Goes to the 
door of the house, and calls.) Where are you, servants ? Shut 
the door with bolts, with bars, when I shall have carried 
her within the threshold! (He carries Silenium into the 
house, followed hy Halisca.) 

Mel. (exclaiming, while wringing her hands). He's gone 

off: he has carried the damsel away. I'll go — I'll at once 

ollow him in-doors, that he may know of me these same 

hings, if from being angered with me I can render him 

[J leased. CGoes into the house.) 

Act IV. — Scene I. 
Unter Lampadiscus. 
Lam. I do believe I never saw a more tormenting old 
flag than this is. "What she just now confessed to me, is 
she to be denying it? But look, I see my mistress. 
Why (seeing the casket on the ground), how's this, that this 
casket is lying here with these trinkets, and that I see no 
other person in the street ? I must act the child's part^ ; I'll 
stoop to j)ick up the casket. (Picks it up.) 

Enter Ph ano strata, /totti her hou^e. 

Phan. What are you about, Lampadio ? 

Lam. (cjiving the casket to Phanostrata). Is this casket 
from out of our house here, I wonder. For I picked it up, 
lying here near the door. 

PiiAN". What news do you bring about the old woman ? 

Lam. That there's not one other on earth more wicked. 
She denies all those things which she just now confessed to 
me. But, i' faith, for me to allow that old jade to be laugh- 
ing at me, it's preferable for me to die by any kind of death. 

Phan. Ye Grods, I do adjure you by our trust in you! 
(Opening the casket.) 

Lam. Why do you call upon the Grods r 

PuAisr. Save us! Lam. What's the matter? 

Phan. These are the trinkets with which you exposed 
my little daughter to death. Lam. Are you in your senses ? 

Phan. These certainly are. Lam. Do you persist ? 

^ Act the child't part) — Ver. 392. He alludes to his taking up tiie toys ot 
tnnkcts, wtiich were made for children to play with. "Conquiniscam," verj 
uunecebsarily it would seem, has an indelicate meaning given to it by Lambinus. 



Sc. II. OR, THE CASKET. 203 

Phan. TLdse are they. 

Lam. If any other woman were to speak to nie after that 
fashion, I should say she was drunk. 

Pha]s^. By heaven! I'm talking no nonsense. But pri- 
thee, whence in the world did these come, or what Deity 
placed this before our door ? As though for a given purpose, 
at the very instant sacred Hope comes to my aid ? 

Scene II, — ^w^er Halisca, at a distance, from the house of 
the Father o/'Alcesimaechus. 
Hal. (to herself). Unless the Gods give me some aid, I'm 
utterly undone ; nor do I know whence I am to seek for 
aid. To such a degree does carelessness possess wretched 
me in mind, which I sadly fear may be lighting upon my 
own back, if my mistress knows that I'm so negligent as I 
really am. The casket which I took and held in my hands 
here before the door, where it is I know not ; except, as I 
fancy, it was dropt by me about this spot, {Looks about on 
the ground.') My good sirs (to the Audience), my kind 
{Spectators, do give me information if any one has seen it, if 
any one has taken it away, or any one picked it up ; and 
whether in this direction or that he has taken his departure ? 
{She pauses for a reply.) I'm none the wiser for asking 
these persons, or for worrying them, w'ho are always delighted 
at a woman's mishaps. Now I'll mark if there are any foot- 
steps here ; for if no one liad passed this way since I went 
in-doors, the casket would be lying here. Why say " here ?" 
It's lost, I guess ; it's done for. It's all over wnth unhappy 
and unlucky me ! It's nowhere, and nowhere am I. This, 
by its loss, has proved my loss. But still, as I've begun, I'll " 
e'en go on ; I'll make search ; for both within do I fear, and 
without I am afraid ; so much, on either side, does fear 
agitate me now. In this are mortals intensely wretched. He 
is now joyous, whoever he is, tdat has found it, which is of no 
use at all to any person else ; to myself it may be. But I 
cause delay to myself, while I'm doing this with remissness. 
Halisca, attend to what you are about : look down upon the 
ground, and look round about ; search with your eyes ; giiesi 
with shrewdness. 

; Lam. {apart, at a distance^. Mistress! 
Phan, {apart). Well, what's the matter? 



204 CISTELIA.EIA ; Act IV 

Lam. {apart). That's she. (Pointing at Halisca.) 

Phan. {apart). Who? 

Lam. {apart.) She who let fall the casket. Why surely 
she's tracing out that spot where it fell. 

Phan. {apart.) It seems so. Hal. {to herself, looJcing on 
the ground). But that person has gone this way; this way I 
perceive the imprint of his shoe^ ; this way I'll folloAv him. 
{She moves along, still looking on the ground.) In tins spot 
now has he stopped, along with another person. Here now a 
circle- presents itself to my sight, nor did he go straight for- 
ward this way ; here he came to a pause. This way did he 
come out of that circle. Here was a conference with some 
one. It points to two persons now. Who are these ? Hey- 
day ! I see the footsteps of only one. But he has gone tliis 
way. I'll consider it : hither he went from thence ; from 
hence he has never gone. I'm troubling myself to no pur- 
]>ose. What's lost is lost ; my hide^ along with the casket. 
I'll go in-doors again. ( Going towards the house of the Fatheb 
of Alcesimarchus.) 

Phan. {calling out). Hallo, woman — stop; there are some 
persons who wish to meet with you. 

Hal. Who's calling me back ? 

Lam. a good female and a bad male want you. 

Hal. Away with you, bad male ; I want a good one. 
(To herself) After all, he who calls knows better what he 
wants than I who am called ; I'll return. {Aloud.) Prithee, 
have you seen any person hereabouts pick up a casket with 
some trinkets, which I, to my misfortune, have lost here? 
For when, just now, we were running into the nouse of Alce- 
simarchus, that he mightn't put an end to his life, at that 

• Of hit ihoe) — Ver. 443. " Socci." Tlie " soccus " was a loose shoe woni 
especially by the Comic actors. Its use was probably derived from Greece. 

2 Here now a circle) — Ver. 445. " Turbo." Schmieder thinks that this means 
•* a whirlwind," and that she intends to say that she has lost the track, in 
consequence of the wind blowing round the dust, and so obliterating the foot- 
marks. Perhaps, however, she means, that just there the trick is lost by its being 
till in confusion, witliout beginning or end, so far as she can see. Some would read 
" turba," a " multitude," as meaning that the throng in the street hinders her 
♦rom clearly seeing the imprints of the feet. 

' 3/y hide) — Ver. 452. She alludes to the flogging which she may expect for 
n»*r carelessness, which will cause her to lose her skin, or literally, as Plautiu 
•»ijr» (^uite in accordance with our vulgar parlance), her " leather." 



Sc. J J. OE, THE CASKET. 205 

moment I think that, through terror, the casket fell down 
from me here. 

Lam. {aside to Phanostbata). This woman's to our pui'- 
pose ; let's then give heed to her a little, mistress. 

Hal. To my sorrow, I'm utterly undone. What shall I 
say to my mistress, who bade me with such earnestness take 
care of it, through which Silenium might the more readily 
recognize her parents — who, when little, was adopted by my 
Diistress as her own, and whom a certain Courtesan gave to 
her? 

Lam. {aside). She's talking about this matter of ours. 
According as she gives these indications by her talk, she 
must surely know where your daughter is. 

Hal. Now is she desirous of her own accord to restore her 
to her father and mother, whose daughter she is ; prithee, my 
■^ood sir, you are attending to something else ; I commend my 
matter to you. 

Lam. I'm giving my attention to this, and this is as good 
as food to me, that you are talking of; but amid my attend- 
ing to this matter, I was answering this mistress of mine 
what she was enquiring ; now I return to you. If you have 
need of anything, say you, and give your orders. "Wliat were 
you looking for ? 

Hal. My good sir and my good madam, I greet you. 

Phan. And we you. But what are you looking for ? 

Hal. I'm tracing footsteps here, the way that something 
has escaped me here, I don't know how. 

Phan. What is it ? Lam. What is it, pray ? 

Hal. Something to bring a loss to another, and a cala- 
mity on our family. 

Lam. {aside to Phai^'O strata). A worthless baggage is 
this, mistress, and a crafty one. 

PHAif. {aside). I' faith, and so she seems. 

Lam. {aside). She imitates a worthless animal and a mis- 
chievous. 

Phak. {aside). Which one, prithee? Lam. {aside). A 
caterpillar, which twisting about winds itself in the leaf of 
the vine ; just in the same way does she begin a story that 
twists about. {To Halisca.) What are you looking for ? 

Hal. a casket, my good young man, has flown away from 
m"^ here. 



tiO() JISTELLAEIA ; Act IV. 

Lam. You ought to have put it in a cage. 

Hal. I' faith, the booty was no great one. 

Lam. It's a wonder, if a whole troop of slaves^ isn't there 
ir the casket. 

Phan. Do let her speak. Lam. If indeed she would speak. 

Phak. {to Halisca). Come say you, what was in it ? 

Hal. Trinkets only. Lam. There's a certain man, who 
declares that he know^s where it is. 

Hal. But, by my faith, he'll confer an obligation on a 
certain woman if he'll discover it. Lam. But this certain 
man wishes a reward to be given to him. 

Hal. But, by my faith, this certain woman, that has lost 
this casket, declares that she has nothing to give to this cer- 
tain man. 

Lam. But still this certain man looks for some money. 

Hal. But still he looks for it in vain. 

Lam. But, by my faith, good woman, in no matter does 
this certain man give his pains for nothing. 

Phan. Lend me your conversation : it w^ill now be for your 
own advantage. We confess that we have got the casket. 

Hal. Then may Salvation preserve you ; where is it now ? 

pHAif. {producing the casket). See, here it is, safe. But I 
wish to discourse with you upon a matter of importance to 
myself; I take you as a sharer with me in my own preserva- 
tion. 

Hal. "What matter is this, or who are you ? 

Phan. I am the mother of her who had these things 
with her, when exposed. 

Hal. Do you live here then ? {Pointing to the house.) 

Phan. You are a diviner. But, prithee, good woman, do 
lay aside all mystification, and to the point ; tell me at once, 
whence did you get these trinkets ? 

Hal. This daughter of my mistress had them. 
• Lam. You tell a falsehood ; for my own mistress's daughter 
had them, not yours. 

Phan. Don't interrupt. Lam. I'll be mum. 

Phan. Good woman, go on speaking. Where is she who 
had them ? 

Hal. {^pointing to the home o/'Alcesimaiichtjs). Here, 
' • Troop of slaves) — Ver. 42&. This is said in allusion to the runaway pru 
cecsities of slav^es. 



Act y. OB, THE CASKET. 207 

next door. Phan. By the powers, surely the son-in-law of 
my husband is living there. 

Lam. Surely Phan. {to Lampadiscus). Interrupting 

again? {To Halisca.) Go on relating it. How many 
years old is she said to be ? 

Hal. Seventeen. Phan. She is my own daughter then ! 

Lam. 'Tis she, as the number of her years has proved. 

Hal. What you are seeking, you have found; I now 
seek what's mine. Lam. Why, faith, they've found what's 
their own, I'll seek for number tbree^. 

Phan". My daughter, the object which I was seeking, 1 
have discovered. 

Hal. It's proper to keep in safety what has been entrusted 
in confidence, lest a kindness should turn out a detriment to 
the well-deserving. This fosterling of ours is assuredly your 
daughter, and my mistress is about to restore you your own, 
and for that purpose has she come from her house. But, 
prithee, enquire of her own self; I am hut a servant. 

Phan. You ask what's just. 

Hal. To her rather do I choose this obligation to belong. 
But I beg that you'll restore me that casket. 

Phan. What's to be done, Lampadio ? 

Lam. What's your own, keep as your own. 

Phan. But I feel compassion for her. 

Lam. This I think ought to be done ; give her the casket, 
and go in-doors together with her. 

Phan. I'll follow your advice. {Giving it to Halisca.) 
Take you the casket. Let's go in-doors. But what's the 
name of your mistress ? 

Hal. Melaenis. Phan. Go first ; I'll follow you at once. 
{Exit Lampadiscus, and the others go into the house oj 

the PaTHER q/'ALCESIMAECHrS.) 

Act V. 
Unter Demipho. 

Dem. What affair is this, that all persons are talking 
about in the street — that my daughter has been found ? 

' For number three) — Ver. 507. " Qusero tertiam." Literally, " I seek a 
third." This he says by way of joke; as one has been looking for her daughter 
another for the casket, he must look for something a well, a mistress, to wit 



208 CIBTELLARIA. Act V. 

They say, too, that Lampadio^ haa been seeking nie in the 
loTum. 

Enter Lampadiscus. 

Lam. Master, whence come you ? Dem. From the Senate. 

Lam. I rejoice that through my means there is an addition 
to your children. 

Dem. But it don't please me ; I don't want that I shoula 
be having more children by means of another person. Bui 
what is the meaning of this ? 

Lam. (^pointing to the house of the Father q/*ALCESiMAR- 
CHUs). Make haste, and go in-doors here to the house of your 
neighbour ; you'll at once recognize your daughter. Your 
wife's in-doors there as well. Go quickly. 

Dem. I'm resolved that this shall, before all other matters, 
be attended to. {They go into the house of the Father of 
Alcesimarchus.) 

The Company of Comedians. 
Don't you wait. Spectators, till they come out to you ; 
no one will come out; they'll all finish the business in- 
doors ; when that shall be done, they'll lay aside their 
dress ; then, after that, lie that has done amiss will get a 
beating^ ; he that has not done amiss will get some drink. 
Now as to what's left, Spectators, for you to do, after the 
manner of your ancestors, give your applause at the conclu- 
sion of the Play. 

1 Lampadlo) — Ver. 524. Lampadiscus is called here, and in Act IV., *' Lam- 
padio." This was probably intended as a familiar name, by which the family called 
h m : though some Commentators are of opinion that Lampadio is the real name, 
and Lampadiscus a diminutive. 

' Get a heating) — Ver. 535. It has been already remarked, that as the actors in 
nrly times were slaves, it was the custom after the Play was over for the ^dilea 
|0 srder those to be flogged who had not given Mtisfaction to the Audience. 



TRUCULENTTJS ; THE CHURl. 



©ramatis persona, 

StRAlK)l»HAKEs, a Captain in the Babylonian seryioi^ 

Strabax, a young man from the country. 

DufARCMus, a young Athenian, 

Stratilax, the Churl, the servant of Sbrabax, 

Callfcles, an aged Athenian. 

Geta, servant of Dinarchus. 

Cyamus, servant of Phrone^um* 

Phronesium, a Courtesan* 

AsTAPHiUM, her servant. 

Syra, the female hair-dresser of PhmiesStUXL 

A Maid-servant of Callicles. 

. ' >• Mutes, female-servants of Phronesium. 

Archylis, } ' 

Sbene.— Atb«)fl ; before the houses of Phb(»ve8Iux and of the father of SnusA4 



roh OL 



THE SUBJECT. 



PuRONESiUM, a Courtesan, has three admirers — Dinarchus, a dissipated jonng 
Athenian; Strabax, a young man from the country; and Stratophanes, an 
officer in the Babylonian army. To impose upon the last, slie palms off a child 
upon him, pretending that it is hers, and that he is the father of it. In the tirsi 
part of the Play, Dinarchus returns from abroad, and is admitted by the ser- 
rant Astaphium into the house of Phronesiura. After this, Astaphium goes 
to the house where Strabax lives, to invite him to visit Phronesium, but is 
roughly repulsed by Stratilax, his servant. Dinarchus quits the house of 
Phronesium, not having been allowed to see her, on the excuse that she is at 
the bath. Phronesium at length comes out, and, in their conversation, tells 
Dinarchus that she is pretending to have been pregnant by the Captain Stra- 
tophanes, and has procured a child to pass off as his. She also begs Dinar- 
chus to make her a present, which he promises to do, and then takes his leave. 
She then gets everything in readiness to look as though she had just lain 
in. The Captain arrives from abroad, and produces his presents ; but as ready 
money does not form a part of them, Phronesium expresses extreme dissatisfac- 
tion and contempt. At this moment Geta, the servant of Dinarchus, comes 
with his present, in money and provisions. A quarrel ensues between the Cap- 
tain and Geta, who at last takes to his heels, on which Phronesium goes into 
her house. Strabax then arrives from the country with some ready money, and 
is admitted to visit Phronesium. Stratilax comes to look for him, and after 
some parley falls a prey to the allurements of Astaphium. Dinarchus then 
arrives, but, despite of his recent generosity, suffers a repulse. Before he quits 
the stage, Callicles, an old gentleman, comes with two female-servants, whom hf 
examines as to what they have done with a female child that his daughter ha? 
been recently dehvered of. They confess that they have carried it to Phrone- 
sium to be passed off as her own, and that Dinarchus is really the father of it 
Dinarchus, in great alarm, overhears this conversation, and then accosts Cal. 
licles, and, confessing his fault, offers to marry his daughter forthwith. His 
offer is accepted ; on which he revisits Phronesium, to request her to restore to 
him the child. She, however, prevails upon him to lend it to her for a few 
days, that she may fully carry out her design of imposing upon the Captain. 
After this, Stratophanes appears agahi, and brings fresh presents. He then 
has a quarrel with Strabax, and the Piay ends by Phronesium promising t« 
divide her favours between them both. The text of this Piay is in a most oor- 
rapt stat«. 



TRUCULENTUS; THE CHURL 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

[Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

Three (7Ve«) young men are desperately in love for the same woman— one from 
the country (iB«re), another from the city, the third from abroad ; and tha 
{UtqtK.) she may touch the Captain for a heavy haul, she secretly (Cfam) 
passes off as her own a child that has been born by stealth. A servant uses 
great violence ( Ft) and churlish manners, that Courtesans (Lujhb) may not 
squander the savings of his master ; and (^E() yet he is softened. The Cap- 
tain arrives, and for the sake of the child (iVa<t) gives costly presents. At 
length (^Tandem), the father of her that has been debauched comes to know 
all, and agrees that {Utque) he shall marry her who has seduced her; and he 
asks back his own (jSttum) child that has been passed off by the Courtesan as 
hers. 



THE PEOLOGTJE. 
A TERT small portion of room does Plautus ask from 
out of your vast and pleasant city within the walls, whither, 
without builders, he may transport Athens. What then? 
"Will you give it or not? They nod assent. I fancied, 
indeed, that I should obtain it of you without hesitation. 
What if I were to ask something of your private means ? 
They shake their heads. Only see, i' faith, how the ancient 
habit still indwells among you, to keep your tongues ever 
ready for a denial. But let's to the point, on account of 
which I came hither. Let this be Athens, just as this is our 
stage, only for the while that we perform this Play. Here 
{pointing to her house) dwells a female whose name is Phro- 
nesium ; she has in herself the manners of the present age ; 
she never asks of her lover that which has been given ; but 
what is left, she does her best that it mayn't be left, by beg- 
ging for it and carrying it off, as is the habit of the women ; 
for all of them do this when they discover that they are loved. 
She is pretending to a Captain that she has been brought \q 
bed, that the more speedily she may sweep away his property 
from him every atom. Why say more f If the life of this 

f2 



I 



212 TBtrCtJLEKTrs J Act 1. 

woman should only last, he will be sweeping off his sub- 
stance with his very life into her hands. * • # 

Act I. — ScEWE I. 
Enter Diis^archtjs. 
Din. (to himself) Not a whole life is sufficient for a lover 
thoroughly to learn, until he has become full well aware of 
this, in how many modes he may come to ruin ; nor does 
Venus herself, in whose hands lie the sram and substance of 
iovers, ever instruct ns in that art of reckoning — in how 
many ways one in lore may be deluded, in how many modes 
he may come to ruin, and with how many modes of entreaty 
he may be entreated. How many blandishments are there 
in it, how many pettish ways in it, how many perils must be 
courted! Ye Gods I by our trust in you! Hey! what 
ground for perjury as well, besides the everlasting presents ! 
In the first place then, there's the yearly allowance j that's 
her first haul^. Tor that the favour of three night» i» granted. 
In the meantime she's trying for either money, or wine, or 
oil, or corn, to 'prove whether you are lavish or thrifty. Just 
like the person that throws a casting-net into a fish-pond ; 
when the net has gone and sunk, tlien he contracts the folds ; 
but if he has rightly thrown it, he takes care that the fish 
may not escape ; then in this direction and that does he enfold 
the fisii netted well, until he has taken them out of the water : 
just so is the lover. If he gives that which is asked for, and 
is lavish rather than thrifty, nightly favours are given in 
addition. Meanwhile he swallows down the hook. If once 
he has partaken of the cup of love unmixed, and that draught 
has made its way within his breast, forthwith both himself is 
ruined, and his fortune, and his credit. If the mistress is 
angry with her lover perchance, doubly is the lover ruined, 
both in fortune and in mind ; but if one man is preferable to 
another in Tier eyes, just as much is he ruined ; if he enjoys" 
but few of her favours, in mind is he ruined ; if he enjoys 
them in abundance, he himself is jovous, his fortunes are 
ruined. * * * dl^hus is it in the houses 

kept by procurers ; before you've given a single thing, she's 
preparing a hundred to ask for; either a golden trinket's 

'■ Tier first haul) — Ver. 31. '* Bolns." This is a metaphorical eipression, 
j^lludiiig to the casting of the net in fislihig. 



So. 1. THE CHURL. 210 

lost, or a maitle ha& been torn, or a female sen-ant bought ; 
or some silver vessel, or some vessel of brass, or expensive 
couch, or a Grecian cabinet, or there's always something to 
be lost and for the lover to be replacing for his mistress. And 
with one common earnestness do we conceal these losses while 
we are losing our fortunes, and our credit, and ourselves, lest 
our parents or our relatives should know something ; whom, 
while we conceal it from them, if we were to make acquainted 
with it, for them in time to restrain our youthful age, we 
should be gi\ing what has been received from them before to 
our descendants in reversion ; I'd be for causing, that as there 
are now more procurers and harlots, there should be fewer 
and fewer of spendthrift fellows than there are at present ; 
for now-a-days there are almost more procurers and harlots 
than flies at the time when it is most hot. For, if they are 
nowhere else, the procurers with their harlots are around the 
bankers' shops each day as though on siege. That score is 
the principal one ; inasmuch as I know for certain, that now- 
a-days there are more harlots ready for the money than there 
are weights for weiffhing it. And I really don't know what 
purpose to say it is to serve that these procurers are thus keep- 
ing them at the bankers* shops, except as in the place of ac- 
eount-books, where the sums lent on loan may be set down — 
the sums received I mean, those expended let no one take count 
of. In fine, in a great nation, amid numberless persons, the 
state being tranquil and in quiet, the enemy vanquished, it 
befits all to be in love who have anything to give. Now, this 
Courtesan {pointing to the house) Phronesium, who dwells here, 
has totally expelled from my breast her own name. Phrone- 
sium, for Phronesis is wisdom^. For I confess that I was with 
her first and foremost; a thing that's very disastrous to a lover's 
cash. The same woman, after she had found another out, a 
greater spendthrift, who would give more, a Babylonian Cap- 
tain^, whom the hussy said was troublesome and odious to 
her, forthwith banished me from the spot. He now is said 

* Phronegig is wisdom) — Ver. 81. He alludes to the reKemblance of the name 
of Phronesium to the Greek word (PpourjaU, " prudence," or " forethought." 
This line, however, is thought by some to be spurious, and to be a mere gloss or 
explanation. 

2 Babylonian Captain) — Ver. 87. He does not mean an officer, a native of 
Babylon, but probably a Greek, serving for pav in the Babylonian army. Thus 
X«3i>p]u)0 aoii the Ten Thousand were Greeks in the pay of the Younger Cjru*. 



214 TBrcuLENTrs ; A<Jt I. 

to be about to arrive from abroad. For tl at reason haa 
she now cooked up this device ; she pretends that she haa 
been brought to bed. That she may push me out of doors, 
and with the Captain alone live the life of a jovial Greek, 
she pretends that this Captain is the father of the child ; for 
that reason does this most vile hussy need a palmed-oif child. 
She fancies that she's deceiving me! Does she suppose 
that she could have concealed it from me, if she had been 
pregnant ? Now I arrived at Athens the day before yester- 
day from Lemnos, whither I have been on an embassy from 
this place on the public service. But who's this woman ? 
It's her servant-maid A^<taphium. With her too as well I've 
had some acquaintanceship. {Stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Unter Abtatrivm, from the hoj*se o/*Phrone- 

SIUM. 

AsT. (speaking to the Servants within). Listen at the door 
and guard the housfc, that no one who comes may go awa}' 
more loaded than he came, or who has brought empty hands 
into our house may take them full out of it, (To herself.) 
I know the ways of people ; of such habits are the young men 
now-a-days. For as soon as ever the jolly companions have 
arrived at the courtesans' houses, their plans are formed. 
When they've arrived in-doors, some one of them is inces- 
santly bestowing kisses on his mistress. While they are en- 
gaged, the others are pilfering^. But if they see that any 
one is obsei'ving them, they play some trick, by which to 
amuse the observer with pleasantry and sport. Full oft do 
they devour that belonging to us just as the sausage-makers^ 
do. Upon ray faith, this is the case, and some of the Spectators 
(to the Audience), i' faith, you know full well that I tell no 
lie in this. There with them is the struggle and the valour, to 

* Othei's are pilfering') — Ver. 107. This is somewhat similar to a passage in 
Ovid's Art of Love, B. 3, 1. 449, where he speaks of the liabit of well-dressed 
thieves getting into the houses of the courtesans, and the consequences. " Per- 
haps the best dressed of the number of these may be some thief, anil he may be 
attracted by a desire for your clothes. ' Give me back my property !' full oft do 
the plundered damsels cry; 'give me back my property!' tne whole Forum re- 
sounding with their cries." 

' The gausage-makers) — Ver. 118. It would appear from this passage that it 
was the custom to send the ingredients to the sausage-makers to be made up 
into sausages ; and that these worthies gave occasion to complalc f their dis- 
honesty, by purloining a portion cf what was entrusted to them. 



Sc. II. THE CHURL. 215 

carry oft a booty from the plunderers. But we again nicely 
give a like return to these robbers of us ; for they them- 
selves look on, while we are heaping up their property ; indeed, 
of their own accord even do they themselves bring it to us. 

DiK. (apart). In those words she's surely lashing myself; 
for I've been heaping up presents there. 

AsT. (in answer to some one who calls from Phroniksium's 
house). I well recollect it. I' troth, his own self, if he's at 
home, I'D at once bring here with me. (Runs on.) 

Diw. (calling out). Hallo! Astaphium, do stop a moment, 
before you go away. 

AsT. Who's calling me back? Din. Tou sball know-, 
look back this w^ay. 

AsT. Who is it ? Din. One who wishes many a blessing 
to yourselves. 

AsT. Grive them then, if you wish us to have them. 

Din. I'll let you have them. Only do look back this way. 

AsT. O dear, you're teazing wretched me to death, who- 
ever you are. (Runs on.) 

Din. Worst of women, stop. Ast. Best of men, go on ; 
you are troublesome. (Turns round.) Is that Dinarchus? 
Why, it is he. 

Din. He's going to your house ; and do you give me your 
hand (holding out his) in return, and walk together with me. 

Ast. I am your servant, and am obedient to your command. 
( Gives her hand.) 

Din. Yourself, how are you? Ast. I'm well, and am 
holding by the hand one who's weU. Since you've arrived from 
abroad, a dinner must be given^. 

Din. You speak obligingly. Ast. But, prithee, do let me 
go whither she ordered me. (Withdrawing her hand.) 

Din. (lets go her hand). Be off then. But how say you — ? 

AsT. What do you want ? Din. He, that you are on your 
road to, who is it that you're going to fetch ? 

Ast. Achiva, the midwife. 

Din. You are an artful damsel. 

Ast. I'm as usual then ; that's my practice. 

Din. You deceitful hussy, I've caught you detected in a lie. 

Ast. How so, pray? Din. Because you said that you 

A dinner must he given) — Ver. 129. Allusion is here made to the custom ol 
Droviding an entertainment of welcome, " caena viatica," for a friend oa liis 
arrival from abroad See die Bacchides, 1. 94 



216 TEUCULENTirS ; Act L 

were going to bring "his own self,** and not "herself." A 
woman, then, has been made out of a man. You are an 
fcrtful one. 

AsT. A conjurer ! Din. But, pray, tell me, Astaphium. 
who is this person ? A new lover ? 

AsT. I think that you are a gentleman too much at hia 
ease. 

Din. "Why now do you think so? Ast. Because you 
trouble yourself about things that don*t concern your own 
clothing and food. 

Din. It's yourselves have made me a gentleman at ease. 

Ast. Why so ? Din. I'll explain it to you. I've lost 
my property ; with my property you've robbed me of occu- 
pation. If I had preserved my property, there had been 
something with which I might have been occupied. 

Ast. And do you suppose that you can possibly well 
manage the affairs of state, or those of love, on any other 
terms without being a gentleman at ease ? 

Din. It was she held a public employment, not I ; you 
misinterpret me. But, against the law, in spite of my tax 
paid for pasturage^, she has received other cattle beside 
myself. 

Ast. Most persons who manage their property badly, da 
the same as you are doing ; when they haven't wherewith to 
pay the tax, they blame the farmers of the taxes. 

Din. My pasturage contract with you turns out but 
badly ; now in its turn, I wish to have, according to my nar' 
row circumstances, a little bit of arable land here with you. 

A ST. Here is no arable, but the field is pasture land. If 
you desire some ploughing, you had better go to those^ who 

1 Tax paid fir pasturage) — Ver. 146. " Scripturam." This passage is some- 
"rhat difficuL 1, be understood. Dinarchus seems to say that he is reduced to 
idleness from having squandered his property upon Phronesium, and retorts upon 
Astaphium, by saying that he himself has no public oflBce, but that Phronesium » 
a publican, alluding to her calling as a public courtesan ; and he then proceeds to 
accuse her of letting the public pasture, for which he had paid the rent or tax 
(" scripturam "), to another. Part of the Roman revenue arose from the letting 
of the uncultivated lands, through the medium of " publicani," or '' farmers o| 
the public revenue," who used to sublet them to private persons. He therefore 
means to say, that Phronesium has undertaken the duties of a publican, but has 
failed in duly performing them. It is possible that a pun may be intended on the 
word " scriptura," which also signifies a " writing " or " deed," and may allude t« 
gome preceding compact which had been made between Phronesium and himself 

^ Go to tbote) — Ver. 152* The whole of this passage has been aomew^val 



Sc. 11. THE CHUBL. 217 

are in the habit of ploughing ; we hold this public emolument, 
the right of pasturage ; those are farmers of other taxes. 

Din. Full well enough do I know both sides. 

AsT. I' troth, it's that way you are a gentleman at ease, 
since you've been going wrong both in that direction ana in 
this. But the acquaintance of which do you like the best ? 

Din. Tou are the more exacting, but they are perjured. 
"Whatever' s given to them is lost outright, nor with them- 
selves is there any show at all of it ; you, if you gain any- 
thing, do at least drink and feast it away. In short, they 
are unprincipled ; you are good-for-nothings, and full of airs. 

AsT. All this abuse which, Dinarchus, you are uttering 
against us and them, you utter against yourself, both as re- 
spects us and them. 

Din. How's that ? Ast. I'll tell the reason ; because he 
who accuses another of dishonesty, him it behoves to look 
into himself. Tou who are so prudent, have got nothing 
from us; we, who are good-for-nothings, have got all out 
of you. 

Din. O Astaphium ! you were not in the habit of speaking 
to me in that fashion formerly, but courteously, when I my- 
self possessed that which is now in your possession. 

A ST. While he's alive, you may know a person ; when 
he's dead, you may keep yourself quiet. I used to know 
you when you were alive. 

Din. Do you consider me to be dead ? 

Ast. Prithee, how can it be plainer ? He who formerly 
was esteemed a first-rate lover, for him to be bringing to hia 
mistress nought but lamentations^. 

Din. I' faith, through your own faults it was done, who 
in former days were in haste to plunder me, Tou ought to 
have done it leisurely, that, imscathed, I might last the 
longer for you. 

Ast. a lover is like an enemy's fortress. 

Din. On what ground ? Ast. The sooner the lover can 
be taken by storm, the better it is for the mistress. 

modified in the translation, as the meaning of Astaphium is gross in the extreme, 
and so much to the discredit of Dinarchus, that any compassion for tlie ili- 
treatment he afterwards experiences ?70u]d be quite thrown away upon him. 

•Nought but limentaiUm)'^Y'i!, 169. **Meras querimomsiii '* UtW^i 

mere complaiuts." 



218 TRUCULENTUS; Act 1 

Din. I confess it ; but far diiferent is the friend from the 
lover. I' faith, for sure, the oldest friend's the best one pos- 
sible for a man. I' faith, my lands and tenements are not 
yet all gone. 

AsT, Why then, prithee, are you standing before the door 
as a stranger and an alien ? Do go in-doors. Eeally you 
are no stranger ; for, upon my faith, not one person this day 
does she more love in her heart and soul — {aside) if, indeed, 
you've got land and tenements. 

Din. Tour tongues and talk are steeped in honey ; your 
doings and dispositions are steeped in gall and sour ^dnegar. 
From your tongues you utter sweet words ; you make your 
lovers of bitter heart if any don't give you presents. 

AsT. I've not learnt to say what's false. 

Din. It was not this liberality of mine that taught you to 
say what's false, but those niggardly fellows who are strug- 
gling against their appetites. You are a sly one, and the 
same artful coaxer that you used to be. 

AsT. How ardently longed for have you returned from 
abroad ! But, prithee, do come, my mistress wants to see you. 

Din. How so, pray ? 

AsT. You alone of all mankind does she love. 

Din. (aside). Well done, lands and tenements ; you have 
come to my aid in good time. {To Astaphium.) But how 
say you, Astaphium ? 

AsT. What do you want r 

Din. Is Phronesium in-doors just now ? 

AsT. To you at all events she's in-doors. 

Din. Is she well ? 

AsT. Aye, faith, and I do believe she'll be still better when 
she sees you. 

Din. This is our greatest fault : when we're in love, then 
we are undone ; if that w^hich we wish is told us, when mani- 
festly they are telling lies, in our folly we believe it t ) be 
true ; verily as though with a tide we fluctuate. 

AsT. Heyday now — such is not the fact. 

Din. Do you say that she loves me ? 

AsT. Aye, you only, alone. 

Din. I heard that she was brought to bed. 

AsT. Oh, prithe-?, Dinarchus, do hold your tongue. 

Din. Whysof 



Sc. III. THE CHURL. 219 

AsT. I shudder in my alarm, as often as riention is made 
of childbirth, with such difficulty has Phronesium survived 
for you. Prithee, do come in-doors now ; do go to see her 
and wait there a little. She'll be out just now ; for she was 
at the bath. 

Din. AA^hat do you say ? She who was never pregnant, how 
could she be brought to bed? For really, I never, that I am 
aware of, perceived her to be in a breeding state. 

AsT. She concealed it from you and was afraid, lest you 
tihould persuade her to have recourse to abortion^, and so 
destroy the child. 

Din. Troth then, who's the father of this child ? 

AsT. A Babylonian Captain, whose arrival she is now ex- 
pecting. So much so, indeed, that, according as was reported, 
they say that he'll be here just now. I wonder he has not 
arrived by this. 

Din. Shall 1 go in, then ? 

AsT. Why not ? As boldly as at home, into your own 
house ; for even still are you now one of us, Dinarchus. 

Din. Hov\' soon are you on your return ? 

AsT. I'll be there this instant ; it's close at hand where 
I was going. 

Din. But do return directly ; meanwhile I'll wait for you 
at your house, {lie goes into the house o/'Pheonesiiim.) 

Scene III. — Astaphium, alone. 
AsT. {laughing). Ha, ha, ha ! I'm at rest, since my plague 
has gone in-doors ; now, indeed, I shall speak according to my 
own inclination, freely, as I please. My mistress has sung a 
funeral dirge^ at our house for this fellow, her lover, over his 
estate ; for his lands and tenements are mortgaged for his 
treats in his amour. But with him does my mistress speak 
freely upon the objects of her plans, and so he is rather a 
friend by way of counsel to her than by way of maintenance. 
While he had it, he gave ; now he has got nothing ; what 
he did have, we have got ; what we had, he has now got the 

' Recourse to ahortwm) — Ver. 203. Tlie practice of procuring abortion was not 
rleemed criminal either at Rome or Athens ; tliough at the latter place tiere 
was a law which imposed a penalty on any person who administered a potion to a 
woman for that purpose. 

"^ A funeral dirge)— Ypt. 213. "Naenia" was a funeral song among tht 
Romans, recited or tiiaiited by hired female mourners, called " prieticaB.'' 



220 TErCULENTUS ; Act I 

same. The comm:>n course of things has happeneil. For. 
tunes are wont to change upon the instant. Life is checquered- 
We remember him as rich, and he us as poor ; owr remi- 
niscences have shifted places. He must be a fool to wonder 
at it. If he is in want, it's necessary that he should allow us 
to make a living ; that's proper to be done. 'Twere a dis- 
grace for us to have compassion on men that squander away 
their fortunes. A clever Procuress ought to have good teeth ; 
to smile upon whoever comes, to address him in flattering 
terms ; to design mischief in her heart, hut to speak fairly 
with her tongue. A Courtesan it befits to be like a briar ; 
whatever man she touches, for either mischief or loss cer- 
tainly to be the result. A Courtesan ought never to listen to 
the plea of a lover, but, when he has nothing to give, do you 
pack him off home from service as a deserter^ ; and never is 
any gallant good for anything unless he's one who is the 
enemy of his own fortune. It's trifling, if, when he has just 
given, he doesn't take a pleasure in giving afresh. That 
person's esteemed with us who forgets that that has been 
given which he has given. As long as he has anything, so 
long let him go on loving ; when he has got nothing, then 
let him look out another employment ; if he himself has 
got nothing, let him, with a contented mind, make way for 
others who have. He's a proper lover who, neglecting his 
aflairs, squanders away his property. But among themselves 
the men declare that we act ill, and are greedy. Prithee, do 
we in fact at all act ill ? For, by my troth, never did any 
lover whatever give enough to his mistress ; nor, i' faith, have 
we ever received enough, nor has any woman ever asked for 
enough. For when a gallant is barren with his gifts ♦ 

• * * * If he denies that he has anything to 

give, alone ♦ * * # # ^q^ ^q 

we receive enough, when a person has not enough to give us. 
It is ever our duty to look after fresh givers, who take from 
untouched treasures, and make presents to us. Just like 
this young man from the country, who dwells here {pointing 
to the house where Steabax lives), i' faith, a very pleasant 

» At a deserter) — ^Ver. 229. " Infrequente," a soldier " negligent of his duty"'— 
a deserter." She alludes to a custom annong the Romans of dismissing bad 

foldiers from the service ; sometimes, however, they merely secluded their fropn 

Ub» other soldiers or as we say " sent thero to Coventry." 



JC. IV. THE CHtTEL. 

creature, and a very bounteous giver. But he, without the 
knowledge of his father, even this very last night, leapt over 
the wall by way of the garden, and came to Our house. I wish 
to meet with him. But one servant has he, a very great 
savage, who, when he sees any one of us near the door, if you 
approach that way, drives us off just as he scares the geese 
away with his noise from the corn ; he's such a bumpkin. 
But come what may, I'll knock at the door. {Knocks at the 
door, and calls.) Who, I wonder, has the keeping of thia 
door ? Is anybody coming out from in-doors ? 

IScEKE IV. — Unter 8tra.tijjAX, from the house of the 'FA.ruER 
o/'Strabax. 

Steat. "Who's this^, that's so sturdily plying his battering- 
ram against our door ? 

AsT. It's I. Look round at me. Stbat. Who's I? 

AsT. Am I not seen bi/ you ? 

Steat. {turning to her). Woe worth thee! What mean 
you by this coming so near this door, or whifs this knocking ? 

AsT. Health to you. 

Steat. Enow of thy health have I ; I care nought for't, 
I've got no health ; I'd rather be sick, than be a hit the 
sounder with health from thee. Thia I want to know, what^a 
owing thee here in our house ? 

AsT. Do keep close 

Steat. Yea, faith, to my own good woman I trust ; let him 
keep close to thee whose habit 'tis. A rare fine joke ! a »illy 
hussy to be tempting a countryman to naughty tricks. 

Ast. Kee^ close your anger, I meant. 

Steat. As thee'st begun with me, so I'd e'en lay a wagef^ 
there's not another like thee. 

» Who's this)-~-XeT. 254. Except that in one or two histaiices he coins 
Words, there is no proof, so far as the language of the original is caficemed, tliat 
Stratiiax, the churl or clodhopper, speaks in any peculiar manner. But from 
the fact of his being introduced as a perfect specimen of a rude ch-wa^ there can 
be little doubt that on the stage he speaks the Latin language with the bUrr or 
patois of a countryman. In the translation, an attempt has been made to denote 
this probable peculiarity of speech, by making him to substitute *' thee " for 
" thou," before verbs in the second person singular. Warner, in his version, re- 
presents him throughout as speaking in a sort of ^omersetshu-e dialect. 

» Lay a wager) — Ver. 262. The meaning of this passage seems to be, " accord- 
mg to the way you have begun, I'd lay a wager your equal can't be found;'' but 
tiip passage seems hopelessly corrupt, though a dozen different readiogs tiave bMB 



222 TEUCULENTUS ; Act 1. 

AsT. {half to herself). Eeally this fellow's very cHurlisb. 

Steat. Woman, dost thee go on abusing me ? 

AsT. Why, what did I say to you ? 

Steat. Why, because thee dost call me churlish. There- 
fore now, if thee doesn't be off this instant, and tell me 
quickly what thee want'st, adzookers, woman, I'll be, here 
this very instant, trampling thee beneath my feet like a sow 
her piglings. 

AsT. This is indeed right country, and no mistake ; 'tis an 
abominable and truly a monkey race. 

Steat. {holding up his fist). Dost thee tbrow the country 
in my teeth, when thee hast found a man who's ashamed of 
what's foul ? Hast thee come hither to tempt me with thy 
decked out bones^ ? Was it for that, shameless slut, thee 
dyed thy mantle of its smoke-dried colour, or art thee so fine 
because that thee' s been a stealing? Come thee towards 
me then. 

AsT. Now you charm me. Steat. How much I wish 
I could charm thee. 

AsT. You tell a lie. Steat. Tell me 

AsT. What ? Steat. What I ask thee. Dost thee wish 
to be taken for a bondswoman, who dost carry on thee those 
rings ? {Pointing to her fingers.) 

AsT. They give them to those who are worthy. 

Steat. These are the spoils of Laverna^ which thee dost 
possess. {Lays hold of her.) 

Ast. Don't be touching me. {Moving away?) 

Steat. I, touch thee ? So help me my weeding-hoe, I'd 
rather i' the country for me to be harnessed like an ox with 
crumpled horns, and with it spend the livelong night upon 
the straw, than that a hundred nights with thee, with a din 
ner apiece, were given me for nothing ! But what busi- 
ness, woman, hast thee at our house ? Why dost thee come 
running this way as often as we come to town ? 

Ast. I want to meet with your women. 

Steat. What women art thee talking to me about, when 
there's not even a single woman-fly within the house ? 

* Decked out hones) — Ver. 269. " Ossibus," " with your bones." Probably, in 
tllusion to her thinness, he insinuates that she is " a skeleton." ♦' Exornatis " 
may apply either to her dress or to the paint upon her face. 

* Spoils ofLavema) — Ver. 274. Laverna was the tutelary Divinity of thieve*, 
end he intends to iusinui'-^e that she has stolen the rings. 



Sc. IV, THE CHURL. 223 

AsT. What, does no woman live here ? 

Steat. They've gone into the country, I say. Be off. 

AsT. Why are you bawling out, you lunatic ? 

Steat. If thee doesn't make haste to get away from this 
with prodigious speed, I'll forthwith be separating even from 
thy brains those falsified, daintily arranged, corkscrew curls of 
thine, with all their grease a^ well. 

AsT. For what reason, pray ? Steat. Why, because thee 
hast even presumed to approach our door anointed up with 
thine unguents, and because thee hast those cheeks so nicely 
painted pink. 

AsT. I' troth, it was by reason of your clamour that I 
coloured in my alarm. 

Steat. And is it so ? Thee coloured ? As though, 
hussy, thee really hadst left to thy skin the power of re- 
ceiving any colour. Redden up thy cheeks, thee hast given 
all thy skin its colour with chalk^. Ye are scoundrelly jades. 
What's the reason, abominable hussies, that this way * * 
* * * ? I know more than thee think:*st I 

know. 

AsT. Prithee, what's this that you know ? 

Steat. How Strabax, my master's son, is ruining himself 
at your house ; how you are all enticing him to fraud and 
present-making. 

Ast. If you appeared in your senses, I'd teU you. You're 
uttering abuse onli/ ; not a person is in the habit of being 
ruined here at our house ; they waste their property ; when 
they've wasted their property, they may go bare thence, if 
they choose. I don't know this young man of yours. 

Steat. Indeed so. Ast. In sober truth. 

Steat. Aye, but that garden walP that's in our garden 
says so, which is becoming every night less by a brick, over 
w hich he travels to your house on the road to destruction. 

Ast. The wall's an old one ; it isn't wonderful if the 
bricks, heing old, do tumble down. 

Steat. And says thee, hussy, that old bricks do tumble 
down ? By my fakes, may never any mortal man henceforth 

iU colour with chalk) — Ver. 2i>2. Chalk was much used by the Bomaa 
lemales for the purposes of a cosmetic. 

« That garden waliy-Ver. 301. " Maceria." This was a wall mad« U loMi 
tiles or bricks, laid on each ether without mortar. 



224 TETJCTJLEKTTJS ; Act I. 

trust me upon the twc grand points^, if I donU inform of 
these goings on of yoUrs to my elder master. 

AsT. Is he a savage as well ? Stbat. Why, he didn't get 
his money by enriching harlots, but by thriftiuess, and living 
hard ; which now, houoeeer^ is being carried off to you, abomi- 
nable jades. {Takes her by the shoulders and snakes her.) 
There's for thee, six-clawed hussy ; a wretched life to both of 
ye. Am I to keep mum about these matters P But, lookye 
now, 1*11 be off to the Forum at once and tell these going! 
on to the old gentleman, that he mayn't somehow be cherish* 
ing within this matting^ a whole swarm of misfortunes. 

(JSadt 

AsT. {to herself). Upon my faith, if this fellow were living 
on mustard, I don't think he could possibly be as snappish. 
But, i' troth, how much a well-wisher to his master he is. 
Still, although he is a savage, I trust that he can be changed 
by coaxing, allurements, and other arts of the courtesan. 
I've seen a horse from unruly become tamed, and other brutes 
as well. Now I'R go back to see my mistress. But see, my 
plague's coming out. {The door of Phrgnesium's hotise is 
opened.) He's coming out with a sad air ; he hasn't even yet 
had a meeting with Phronesium. 

Scene Y. — ^^erDiKAECStTs,/row Pheonesium's house. 

Din. I do believe that the fishes, that are always bathing as 
»ong as they live> do not take so long in bathing as this Phro- 
nesium does in bathing. If women could be loved on as long 
as^ they take in bathing, all lovers would be becoming bath- 
keepers. 

AsT. Can't you endure waiting for a short time even ? 

^ The (too grand points) — Ver. 805. Alciatus thinks that the "two things'* 
here mentioned are " yes " and " no." turnebus thinks that they mean " things 
human and divine." 

« Within this matting) — Vei*. 312. "In segestro." He seems to derive his 
metaphor from the usage in gardening of covering up trees with straw or lass 
matting, and of insects getting into the folds and hatching their eggs and swarm- 
ing there. 

« As long a«) — Ver. 322. Warner says that he does not well comprehend this 
passage. The meaning, however, seems to be, that if women could be courtea 
Bs long a time as they took in bathing, then lovers would certainly be keeping 
baths, or becoming bath-men, that they might be able for so long a time to ergof 
the opportunity of courting them. 



Sc. \l THE CHUEL. 22^ 

Din. Why, 'pon my faith, I'm wretchedly tired with wait- 
ing already. 

AsT. 1, as well, shall be obliged to go bathe from weariness 

Din. But, i' faith, Astaphium, prithee do go in-doors and 
tell her that I'm here. Do go at once, and persuade her 
that she has bathed long enough by this. 

AsT. Very well. {Going.) Din. And do you heara« well ? 

AsT. What do you want P {Comes back.) Din. May the 
Grods confound me for calling you back. I had nothing to 
say to you, only do be off. 

AsT. Why did you call me back then, you worthless and 
good-for-nothing fellow ? A delay to me which has produced 
fully a mile's delay tor you. {Goes info the hottse of Pheone- 

SITJM.) 

Din. {to himself.) But yet why was she standing here so long 
before the house ? Some one, I don't know who, she certainly 
was waiting for ; the Captain, I suppose. That's it ; see now, 
how, just like vultures^, a whole three days beforehand they 
foresee on what day they are to have a feast. They're all agape 
for him ; on him are all their minds Jixed. No one will be 
giving any more attention to myself, when he comes, than if 
I had been dead two hundred years ago. How delightful a 
thing it is to keep one's money ! Ah wretched me ! after 
it's done I'm punished, who lost what I once had. But 
now, if any great and splendid fortune should chance to fall 
to my lot, now, after I know it, what sweets and what bitters 
come of money, by my troth, I'd so keep it, I'd live in a 

manner so sparing, that in a few days I'd make there to 

be none at all. I'd then confute those who now censure me. 
But I perceive that this tide-like door is opening {the door of 
Pheonesium's house is opened), which sucks up whatever 
comes within its bolts. 

Scene VI. — Enter Pheonesium,^o^ her house. 

Pheon. Please now, is my door apt to bite^, that you are 
afraid to come in, my love ? 

' Jugt like vultures)— Ver. 335. Vultures were supposed, some days before - 
Hand, to scent out a place where a dead carcase was about to be. Plinj the 
El<ler mentions this behef. 

•^ Apt to bite) — Ver. 350. Taubmann has a notion that this remark refers to 
the inscription otten set up in the Koman vestibules: " Cave canem," "Beware of 
the flog." 

VOL. II. Q 



226 TRUCULENTUS ; Act 1. 

DiTX. (aside). Behold the spring ! How all blooming it is ! 
how fragrantly does it smell ! how brightly does it shine. 

Phron. Why so ill-mannered, as not, on your arrival from 
Lemnos^, to give a kiss to your mistress, my Dinarchus ? 

Din. (aside). dear, by my troth, I'm being punished 
now, and most terribly 

Phro]S'. Why do you turn yourself away ? 

Din. My greetings to you, Phronesium. 

Phroist. Grreetings to you as well. Will you dine here 
to-day, as you've arrived in safety ? 

Din. I'm engaged. Phron. Where will you dine tJien ? 

Din. Wherever you request me ; here. 

Phron. You'll give me pleasure by doing so. (They take 
their places at a collation spread before the house.) 

Din. I' troth, myself still more. You'll give me your com- 
pany to-day, I suppose, my Phronesium ? 

Phron. If it could possibly be done, I would. 

Din. Grive me my shoes^ then — make haste, remove the 
table. Phron. Are you in your senses, pray ? 

Din. By heavens, I cannot drink now ; so sick at heart 
am I. Phron. Stay ; something shall be done. Don't go. 

Din. Ah, you've refreshed me with cold water ! My 
senses have now returned. Take off my shoes^ ; give me 
something to drink. 

Phron. By my faith, you are just the same that you used 
to be. But tell me, have you sped successfully ? 

Din. I' troth, successfully enough, indeed, hither to you, 
inasmuch as I enjoy the opportunity of seeing you. 

Phron. Embrace me then. Din. With pleasure. (He 

^ From Lemnos) — Ver. 353. This may be intended as a hit at the people of 
Lemnos, who were remarkable for their rude and unpolished manners. 

2 Give me my shoes) — Ver. 362. " Soleas." These were a kind of slipper or 
Bandal much in use among the Romans in the house ; but it was considered effemi- 
nate to wear them in the street. They were taken off when persons reclined on 
the " tricHnia," or couches, at meals. Dinarchus is calling to the servant to 
fetch his slippers, as he is going to leave the entertainment given him on his 
return by Phronesium. This appears to be set out on the stage in the front of 
the house; but there is probably some portion of the Play .bst here, in whieh 
Phronesium orders it to be laid out. The last Scene in the Asinaria is somewhat 
similar. 

3 Take off my shoes) — Ver. 365. This he says to the servant whose duty it 
•was to take off the slippers of the guests before they reclined. Limiers suggests, 
most probably incorrectly, that this is going on inside of Phronesium's house, 
knd that the door is opened wide, so that the Audience cau E-ee ia 



I 



Sc. A'i. THE cuuKL. 227 

embraces her.) Oh, this is honey sweeter than sweet honey 
In this, Jove, my fortune does exceed thine ownl 

Pheon. Won't you give me a kiss ? 

Din. Aye, ten even. {Kisses her.) 

Phron. You are not niggardly in that. Tou pron.ise 
more than I ask of you. (Turns away her head.) 

DiK. I only wish that from the first I had been as sparing 
of my property, as you are now tlirifty of your kisses. 

Pheon. If I could possibly cause you any saving, i' troth, 
I could wish it done. 

Din. Have you bathed then ? Phron. I' troth, indeed I 
have then, to my own satisfaction and that of my eyes. Do 
I seem to be loathsome to you ? 

Din. r faith, not to myself indeed ; but I remember that 
there was once a time when between ourselves we were loath- 
some^, the one to the other. But what doing of yours is this 
I've heard upon my arrival ? What new matter have you 
been scheming here in my absence ? 

Pheon. Why, what is it ? Din. In the first place, that 
you've been blessed with, children, and that you've safely got 
over it, I'm delighted. 

Pheon. {to some Attendants near the door). Go you 
away from there into the house, and shut the door. ( They 
go in, and shut the door.) You now alone are left to be pre- 
sent at my communication; to you I've ever entrusted my 
designs. For my own part, I've neither had any child nor 
have I been pregnant ; but I've pretended that I was preg- 
nant ; I wasn't though. 

Din. For what reason, O my life ? 

Pheon. On account of a Babylonian Captain, who kept 
me as though his wife for a year, while he was here. 

Din. That I knew. But what means this ? For what 
purpose was your design in pretending this ? 

Pheon. That there might be a certain bond and tie- for 
him to be returning to me again. Now he has lately sent 
me a letter hither, that he'll make trial how much I value 

• Were loatlisome) — Ver. 379. " Sorderemus unus alteri ;" he to her because 
he had spent all his money, she to him for her covetousni-ss and ill-nature. 

"^ And tie) — Ver. 393. " Kedimiculum." The "redimicula" were, properly 
strings or ribbons which fell on the shoulders from the " mitra" or head- 
dress of females, and were probably used for the purpose of tying it under tl*» 
chin. They hung down on each side, over the breast. 

<i2 



228 TiiucuLENTUs; Act 1. 

him. If I should raise and bring up the child which I sho\dd 
bear, that then I sliould have all his property. 

Din. I listen with pleasure. In fine, what is it you ares 
contriving ? 

Phron. My mother ordered the servant-maids, since now 
tlie tenth month is arriving close at hand, each to go in some 
different direction, to seek out and bespeak a boy or a girl, to 
be passed off as my own. Why need I make many words ? 
YoM know Syra, the female hair-dresser^, who now lives hard 
by our house ? 

Din. I know her. Phron. She, with the utmost care, 
went about among the families, and secretly found out a 
child, and brought it to me. She said it was given to her. 

Din. O shocking traiRc ! She then hasn't borne this child 
who at first did bear it, but you who come afterwards. 

Phron. Tou have the whole matter in its order. Now, 
as the Captain has sent a message before to me, he'll be 
here no long time hence. 

Din. Now, in the mean time, you are treating yourself here 
as though one who had just lain in ? 

Phron. Why not, when, without trouble, the matter can 
be nicely managed ? It's proper that every one should be 
alive at his own trade. 

Din. What's to become of me when the Captain comes ? 
Forsaken, can I live without you ? 

Phron. When I've got from him that which I want, I 
shall easily find a way how to create discord and a separation 
between us ; after that, my delight, I shall be always at your 
side. 

Din. Aye, faith, but I'd rather it were at my couch^. 

Phron. Moreover, I wish to sacrifice to-day to the Deities 
for the child, on this the fifth day^, as is proper to be done. 

Din. I think i/ou ought. Phron. Can't you venture to 
give me some trifling present ? 

* The female hair-dresser) — Ver. 403. " Tonstricem " Warner translates the 
word " tonstrix," " tire- woman ;" but the real meaning is, " a female hair-dresser " 
or " barber." They were women who used to cut the hair and pare the nails of 
females. 

* Atmy couch) — Ver. 420. " Adcubuo." There is a play on the resemblance 
of this word to that used by her, " adsiduo," "at your side." 

' On this the fifth day) — Ver. 422. The Greeks sacrificed to the Gods and 
named their children on the fifth day after their birth ; the Romans on the ninth, 
if .1 male, on the eighth, if a female. 



Act 11. THE CHUEL. 229 

Din. Upon my faith, my delight, I seem to be making a 
gain for myself when you ask anything of me. 

Phuon. (agide). And I, when I've got it. 

Din. I'll take care it shall be here just now. I'll send 
my servant hither. Phron. Do so. 

Din. But whatever it shall be, do take it in good part. 

Phron. I' troth, I'm sure that you'll give all attention to 
your present, of which I shan't be ashamed so long as you 
send it to me. 

Din. Do you wish anything else of me ? Phron. That, 
when you have leisure, you'll come again to see me. 

Din. Pare you well. 

Phron. Farewell. (Goes into her hou^e.) 

Din. (to himself). immortal Gods ! 'twere the part not 
of a woman in love, but of a partner of kindred feelings and 
confiding, to do what she just now has done for me, in dis- 
closing to me the palming of the child upon the Captain, — a 
thing that a sister entrusts not to her own born sister. She 
discloses herself now to me from her very soul, that she 
will never prove faithless to me ao long as she exists. Ought 
I not to love her ? Ought I not to wish her well ? I'll 
rather not love myself, than that love should be wanting for 
her. Shall I not send her a present ? This instant, then, 
I'll order five minae to be brought to her from my house, 
besides catering to the amount of a mina at least. Much 
rather shall kindness be shown to her who wishes kindly to 
me, than to myself, who do every mischief to myself. (JExit. 

Act II. — Scene I. 
Unter PHRONESiUM,/row her house. 
Phron, (speaking at the door to the Servai^its within). 
Give the breast to that child. (To herself, coming forward.) 
How wretchedly and anxiously are mothers^ distressed in 
mind. I' faith, 'twas craftily contrived ; and when I revolve 
this matter in my mind, we are accounted to be much less 
artful than we naturally are in disposition. I'm n^w speak- 
ing of what, but lately, for the first time, I've been taught at 
home ; how great is my anxiety of mind, what panp;s I do 
feel in my heart, lest through the death of the child che 

» Anxiously are 7nothers)—'Ver 448. This, of course, she says ironically, mtb 
& smiU'- on hev face. 



'2S0 TRUCULENTUS ; Act II. 

plot should fail. Because I'm styled its motlier, for that 
reason am I the more anxious for its life, who have ven- 
tured thus secv<>nY i,o attempt a stratagem so great. In 
my avarice, for the sake of gain, have I entered on this dis- 
graceful scheme ; the pangs of others have I falsely shammed 
for myself. You must attempt nothing by craftiness, un- 
less you Mould carry it out with cunning and with cai'e. 
(To the Audience.) You yourselves now see in what garb^ 
I go ; I'm now pretending that I'm an invalid from having 
lain in. A thing that a woman attempts to do in fraud, 
unless she is perfect in carrying it out, that same is as bad 
as disease to her, that same is as had as old age to her, that 
to her, wretched creature, is wretchedness: if she begins to 
do what's right, soon does weariness of it overtake her. 
How very few are tired who have commenced to do what's 
wrong ; how very few carry it out, if they have commenced 
to do anything. aright. To a female it is a much less 
burden to do bad than good. In that I'm an artful one, 
through the agency of my mother^ and my own artful dis- 
position am I artful, who liave thus feigned to the Babylonian 
Captain that I am pregnant. I wish now the Captain may 
find this artful plot concocted well. He'll be here no long 
time hence, I suppose; forewarned of that I'm now forearmed, 
and I'm wearing this garb, as thougli I had just lain in in 
pregnancy. {Calls to the Servants tvithin.) Bring me 
hither some myrrli and fire for the altar, that I may pay 
9,doration to my Lucina. (Thei/ bring it.) Place it here 
(pointing to an altar near the door), and go out of my sight. 
Ho there ! Pitheciuni, help me to lay me down. Come 
hitlier ; thus is it proper to help one w^ho has just lain in. 
(A couch is brought in by Astaphium and two Handmaids, 
and she lays herself down,) Take off" my sandals ; tlirow 
a coverlet here over me, Archylis. Astaphium, where are 
you ? Bring me hither, holy herbs, frankincense, and sweet- 
meats. Bring water for my hands. (The Servants go and 
fetch the things as ordered.) i^Tow, i' faith, I could wish 
that the Captain should come. (The Servants stand aside.) 

' In what garb) — Ver. 461. She alludes to the dress she is wearia; — that of a 
woman wlio has just lain in. 

2 Afjency of viy mother) — Ver. 469. This may, perhaps, mean the Procuress 
wild h;id instrufted htr in her evil ways. These wretches were generally thus 
tailed by t'.tir di;it:pics. 



SC. II. THE CHUEL 231 



Scene II. — Enter Stratophanes, at a distance, followed hif 
a Seryant and several Female Slates. 

Strat. {to the Audience). Don't you be expecting. Spec- 
tators, that I should recount my combats ; with my hands 
in battle I'm wont to recount them, and not in words. I 
know that many a soldier have told lies ; both the Homeric 
poetlings^,and a thousand others besides them could be named, 
who have been both convicted and condemned for their sham 
battles. He's not to be commended who trusts another any 
u further than he sees. It pleases me not when those com- 
' mend more who hear than those who see ; of more value is 
one eye-witness than ten hearsays. Those who hear, speak 
of what they've heard ; those who see, know beyond mistake. 
I like him not whom the town-gossips- are praising, and the 
men of his maniple are mum about; nor yet those whose 
tongues at home make blunt the edge^ of our swords. The 
valiant are much more serviceable to the public than the 
eloquent and skilled. Valour easily finds for itself a fluent 
eloquence ; without valour, for my own part, I esteem an elo- 
quent citizen as a hired mourner*, who praises other people, 
but can't do the same for herself. JNTow, after ten months, 
am I come to Athens of Attica to see my mistress, how she 
gets on, whom I left pregnant by my embrace. 

Phron. (raising herself on the couch, and speaking to As- 
taphium). See who's talking. 

AsT. (coming forward, and looJcing ahout). The Captain's 
now close at hand, my mistress Phronesium: Stratophanes 
is coming to you. (In a low voice.) Now is it requisite for 
you to pretend yourself an invalid. 

Phron. (in a low voice). Hold your tongue. What, the 

^Homeric poetUngs) — Ver. 483. By " Homeronidae," he probably means 
'* wretclied imitators of Homer." 

2 Whom the tovm-gossips) — Ver. 489. He does not admire those would-be heroes 
whose praises are in tlie mouths of the gossips about town (scurrae), but whose 
achievements are never witnessed by the soldiers who serve under their command 
(manipulares). 

3 Make blunt the edge) — Ver. 490. This remark might, perhaps, with some 
justice be applied to some of the senators of modern times ; whose fault it certainly 
is not if their tongues fail to blimt the edge of the swords of their countrymen when 
fighting the battles of their fellow-citizens " who live at home at ease." 

* A hired mouiiier) — Ver. 493. I'lie " praeficae" were the women who chanted 
the " nac;-!." bee the Note to L 21.3. 



232 TRUCULENTUS • Aot 11. 

plague, dc I want you for as an adviser in this matter ? Is 
it possible to excel myself in craftiness ? 

Strat. {to himself Y Madam's brought to bed, as I fancy. 

AsT. {in a low voice). Would you like me to accost the 
gentleman ? 

Phron. I wish you. (Astaphium moves forward.) 

Strat. O delightful ! Why, see, here's Astaphium coming 
to meet me. Ast. {affecting surprise). By all the powers! 
welcome to you, Stratophanes, that you're safe arrived 

Strat. I know it all. But, prithee, has Phronesium been 
brought to bed ? 

Ast. She has been delivered of a very fine boy. 

Strat. Is it like me at all ? 

AsT. Do you ask the question? Why, the moment it 
was born, it asked for a sabre and shield for itself. 

Strat. It's my own ; I know it at once from the proofs. 

Ast. Indeed it is extremely like you. 

Strat. Ye Gods above ! Is it of full growth already ? Has 
it already chosen some army which it intends to plunder ? 

Ast. Why really, it was only bom five days ago. 

Strat. What then, after it was h(ym ? After so many 
days, i' faith, something really ought by this time to have 
been done. What business had it to leave the womb before 
it could go forth to battle ? 

Ast. Follow me, and wish her joy, and congratulate her. 

Strat. I follow. {They move to the other side of the stage.) 

Phron. {in a faint voice). Prithee, where is she who has 
left me here and forsaken me ? Ast. I'm here ; I'm bringing 
you Stratophanes, so much longed for by you. 

Phron. Prithee, where is he ? 

Strat. {going close to the couch). Mars, on his arrival from 
abroad, salutes Neriene his spouse^. Since you've well got 
over it, and since you've been blest with offspring, I congra- 
tulate you in that you have given birth to a great glory to me 
and to yourself. 

Phron. Welcome to you, you who have almost deprived 
me of life and light ; and who have, for your own gratification, 
centred in my body the cause of great anguish, with the pangs 
of which I'm even now dreadfully afflicted. 

Strat , Well, well ; not to your misfortune, my love, do 

> Nerien his spouse)— Ver. 513. Aulua GelUus also meotious Nem, or Neriene 
9« tUe wife of Murs. 



Sc. li. THE citURL. 233 

these pains befall you. You've brought forth a son 'v\ ho' 11 
be filling your house with plunder. 

Phron. By the powers, there's very much greaterneed to 
have our granaries well filled with wheat ; lest, before he takes 
the plunder, hunger should be putting an end to us here. 

Stea-T. Be of good heart. 

Phron. Do, please, take a kiss from me here. I cannot lift 
up my head ; such pain I've felt, and in such pain I now am ; 
and I cannot as yet, of my own strength, walk upon my ftet. 

Stra.t. {stooping down, and kissing her). If, right from 
the middle of the sea, you were to order me to take a kiss 
from you, I would not hesitate to fetch it, my sweet. Vou'vo 
experienced it already so to be ; and now shall you experi- 
ence it, my Phronesium, that I do dote upon you. {J*oinHng 
to a distance behind him.) See there, I've brought you two 
female slaves from Syria ; I present you with them. {To 
a Servant behind him.) Do you bring those women this 
way. Now, these were both of them queens at their own 
homes ; but with mg own hand I laid waste their country, 
I present you with them. {Handing them forward to he-r.) 

Phron. Are you dissatisfied with the number of female 
slaves I have already, that you must be still makijig ad- 
ditions to the number, to be devouring food for me ? 

Strat. I' troth, if this indeed isn't acceptable to you^ 
you boy {beckoning to the Servant), do you give me that 
bag. See here, my love, I've brought this mantle from 
Panchaeai for you. Take it for yourself. {He presents it to her.) 

Phron. What, is so little as this to be given me in return 
for pain so great ? 

Strat. {aside). I' faith, to my misfortune, I'm iir.done! 
My son's already costing me his weight in gold. {To i'uno- 
NESTUM.) Do you still set such little value on me r I've 
brought you a purple garment from Sarra^, and two pretty 
ones from Pontus. {Takes the garments from the Servant, 
and presents them.) Take this for yourself, my love. ( /b the 
Servant.) Take those Syrian women hence out of my sight. 
(27ie Servant takes them into the house.) Do you love me at all ? 

» From Panchcea) — ^Vnr. 534. Panchaea was a distnct of Arabia Felix, whicli 
was said to produce frankincense. 

2 From Sarra) — Ver. 537. Sarra was a name of the city of Tyre, which was so 
called from the *' murex," or shell-fish, from which the Tyrian purple wu- ;:»- 
tractcd. und which, in tha Phopuician language, was called by that name. 



234 TRUCULENTUS ; Act II, 

PiiRON. Not at all, i' faith ; nor do you deserve it. 

Strat. {aside). What, is nothing enough for her? Eeallyj 
to myself she hasn't even said one word. I do believe that 
these presents would sell for more than twenty minaB, which 
I have given her. Now she's desperately enraged with me •. 
I perceive and understand it ; but I'll address her still. {Tg 
Phronesium.) What say you then? Do you wish me, my 
love, to go to dinner where I was invited, and after that to 
return hither to your house to sleep ? Why are you silent ? 
{Aside.) V troth, beyond a doubt, I'm undone. But what 
fine affair is tliis ? Who's this fellow that's leading such a 
long train ? I'm resolved to watch whitlier they are taking 
it. It's being brought to her, I do believe ; but I'll soon 
know more. {He stands at a distance.) 

Scene III. — Unfer Gteta, at a distance, followed hy Slaves 
with presents from DiNARCHUS. 

Get A. Get on, get on this way together with you, mules 
laden with money only to be squandered, you emptyers out of 
the house, you carriers oif of property by waggon-loads ! ( To 
#A(? Audience.) And can't he who is in love do without being 
good for nought, and cleaning himself out by his disgraceful 
practices ? But how I know this, don't any one be asking that 
of me; we've a lover at home, who's engaged in disgraceful 
pursuits ; who esteems property just as dung : he's in dread of 
the public officers^ ; most cleanly in his ways is he. He wishes 
his house to be cleaned out ; whatever he has at home, it's 
swept completely " dehors^." Since he himself is sending his 
own self to ruin, for my part, i' faith, I'll help him by stealtli, 
and not through my assistance, indeed, shall he be ruined 
e'en a bit the less speedily than he may. For now from these 
provisions, from the one mina I've just now abstracted five 
didrachms ; I've deducted for myself the Herculean share^. 

* The public officers) — Ver. 555. " Publicos," *' the public officers." He al- 
udes to tlie ^diles, whose duty it was to see that the streets and houses were 
icpt clean and free from nuisances. 

'^ I'ehors) — Ver. 55G. In the text, e^o). The Greek word is used just in the 
w-ay we should employ the French word " dehors," of like meaning. 

' Herculean share) — Ver. oGO. " Herculaneam." The share of Hercules, which 
w^as tlie *ithe or tenth. From this passage it ts clear, beyond all doubt, that 
-* ituunnus" means a " didrachm," as he makes five of them the tenth oart of a 
' uiina," which consisted of one hundred drachmae. 



Sc. III. THE CHURL. 235 

But tljia is just like as though a person should turn off a 
stream for himself from a river ; if it is not turned off into a 
channel, still all that water would go into the sea. For this 
is going into the sea, and is being utterly wasted to no good 
purpose whatever. When I see these things going on, I 
pilfer, I purloin, from plunder I plunder take. 1 take a 
harlot to be just like what the sea is ; what you give her 
she s\yallows down, and yet never overflows. But this at 
least the sea does preserve ; what's in it is seen. Give her as 
mucii as ever you please, it's never seen either by the giver 
or the acceptor. For instance, this liarlot by her blandish- 
ments has reduced my poor master to poverty ; has robbed 
him of fortune, life, honor, and friends. {^Catching sight of 
her.) Heyday ! why look, she's close by. I do think she has 
heard me saying all this. She's pale, as she has been delivered 
of a child. I'll address her, as though I didn't know her. 
{Addressing Phronesium.) I present you my respects. 

Phron". Our Greta, what is it you're about ? How are you ? 

Geta. I'm well, and I'm come to one who's not so well, 
and I'm bringing something with which she may get well. 
My master, the apple of your eye, bade me bring these presents 
to you, which you see those persons carrying, and these five 
minae of silver. 

Phrov. I' faith, it's not thrown away, that I'm so very 
fond of him. 

Geta. He bade me beg that you would accept these in 
kind part. 

Phroi^. I' troth, I do accept them kindly and thankfuUy. 
{To Cyamtjs, who comes out of the house.) Go, Cyamus, and 
order tliem to be taken in-doors. Do you hear at all this 
which has been ordered ? {The Servants take up the things.) 

Geta. I don't want them to take away the vessels ; I'd 
ike to have them emptied. 

Phron. An impudent feUow, i' faith, how busy he is. 

Geta. What ? do you say that I'm impudent, you who 
yourself are a receptacle of villany ? 

Phron. Tell iue, I beg of you, where is Dinarchus ? 

Geta. At home. Phron. TeU him, that, for these presents 
which he has sent me, I love him the most of all men, and 
that in return I hold him in the highest esteem of all, and 
entreat that he will come hither to me. 

Geta. Tliis instant. But who's that person, pray {lookint 



23G TEUCULENTUS; Aft II 

towards Stratophakes), that's devouring himself^, scowling 
with malignant eyes ? I' faith, the man's distressed in hia 
mind, whoever he is. 

Phron. I' troth, he's deserving of it. 

Geta. What's the matter? Pheon". Prithee, don't you 
know ? He that's yonder used to live with me ; he, there, is 
the father of my child. He ordered it to be brought up till 
about a before-daylight breakfast^. I waited his coming, I 
listened to his injunctions ; I attended to the child. 

G-ETA. The good-for-nothing fellow that I knew so well, 
prithee, is that he ? 

Phron. That's he. G-eta. He looks at me as he groans. 
He heaved a sigh from the very bottom of his breast. Observe 
that now ; he gnashes his teeth ; he strikes his thigh. Prithee, 
is he deranged^, that he's beating his own self? 

Strat. (coming forward) . Now will I at once summon up 
my ungovernable indignation and my wrath from my breast ! 
(To G-ETA.) Say, whence are you ? To whom do you belong ? 
Why have you dared to speak rudely against me ? 

Get A. It's my pleasure. Strat. Do you answer me in 
that way ? 

Geta. In this way (snaps his fingers) ; I don't care one 
straw for you. 

Strat. {to Phbottesium). "What say ycu? Why have 
you dared to say that you love another man ? 

Phron. I chose to. Strat. Say you so, indeed ? I'll 
first make trial of that. Do you, for the sake of such a 
shabby present, vegetables, and comestibles, and vinegar- 
water, bestow your love upon an effeminate, frizzle-pated, 

' Devouring himself') — Ver. 591. Either he means, that, to judge from his 
looks, he is feeding upon his spleen; or else, the Captain is standing on one 
side, gnawing his finger-nails from vexation. 

2 Before-daylight breakfast) — Ver. 594. This passage is probably in a corrupt 
state. If it is nor, her meaning seems to be, that the Captain didn't care much 
about his child, but took care about its supjwrt for a very short period, and no longer. 
Perhaps, as "jentaculum" meant "an early meal, taken before daylight," she 
may intend to hint that the Captain, on hearing of her pregnancy, interested him- 
self in her offspring, and contributed to her support and tliat of the cliild in the 
embryo state; but that after it came to light, and required a meal (to speak figu- 
ratively), beyond the period of the "jentaculum," he took no notice of it, but waa 
ready to allow it to starve. 

» Is lie deranged) — Ver. 599. " Harjolus." Literally, " a soothsayer," or 
•' diviner." In their prophetic frenzy, these persous jften had the appearance of 
iieiDg mad, and were so considered. 



Sc. 111. HIE cnuEL. 237 

dark-hauTit frequenting, drum-drubbing debauchee', a fellow 
not worth a nutshell ? 

Geta. What new thing's this ? Do you dare, you rogue, 
to speak ill of my master, you spring-head of vice and per- 
jury ? 

Strat. Add a single word to that; by the powers, I'll 
that instant here with this cut you up into mincemeat I'pon 
the spot. {Shaking his sword at him,) 

GrETA. Only touch me ; I'll that instant be making a lamb 
of you on the spot, and I'll slice you asunder in the middle. 
If you have the renown of a warrior with your troops, still 
I'm a Mars^ in the kitchen. 

Pheok. {to Steatophanes). If you did the thing that's 
right, you'd not be abusing my visitors, whose gifts I hold as 
acceptable and pleasing, and your own which I have received 
of you as unacceptable. 

Stbat. Then, i' faith, I'm both deprived of my presents 
and undone as well ! 

GrETA. Clearly it is so. Pheon. Why then are you now 
here, with your annoyance, who confess that you are worsted 
in every point ? 

Steat. {aside). V faith, I'm this day undone, if I don't 
drive this fellow away from you. {He approaches GtETa.) 

Geta. {holding up Tiis Jist) . Only approach this way ; only 
step this way ! 

Steat. Scoundrelly fellow, threatening even ? WTiom thi^ 
very, very, very instant I'll be chopping up into splinters. 
What business have you coming here ? What business have 
vou to approach her ? {Pointing to Pheonesium.) What 
business have you, I say, to be knowing my mistress ? Tou 
shall die this instant if you make the slightest movement 
with your hand. 

Geta. Why shouldn't I move my hand? 

Steat. Do as I commanded ; stop ; I'll this instant cut you 
up into mincemeat on the spot. 

> Drum-dn^Ung debaitchee) — Ver. 608. " Typanotriba." Literally, " drum," 
or " tambourine beater." He alludes to the eunuch-priests of Cybele, who used 
to beat tambourines in her procession — probably in allusion to debauchees, emas- 
culated by riot and dissipation. 

2 A iV«r«)— Ver. 613. In the text " Ares." This was tlie Greek name of ILu^ 
tlie God of War. 



238 TRUCUL3NTUS; Act III 

GrETA. (aside). I'm done for. Strat. 'Twere best fo be off. 

GrETA. It's a ticklish point ; you have a longer sword there 
than this is ('pointing to a knife in his girdle) ; but just let me 
t^o seek a spit, if indeed I must be having a battle with you. 
I'll be oif home. Warrior, for me and you I'll choose an 
impartial judge. {Aside.) But why am I delaying to betake 
myself off hence, while with a safe inside I may ? (Exit. 

Scene IV. — Phroitesiijm and Stratophaites. 

Phron". (to her Servants). Give me my sandals^, and 
take me at once in-doors ; for my head aches shockingly from 
the air. 

Strat. What's to become of me, to whom the two female 
slaves cause ache enough^ with which I presented you ? (Phro- 
nesium is led into the house.) Are you off then ? WeU, 
thus one's used in return. How can you possibly shut me 
out. (The door is slammed to.) Prithee, can anything bo. 
more clear than that I'm now shut out ? I'm finely fooled. 
Be it so. AYith how little difficulty (placing his foot against 
the door) might I now be persuaded to break the ankles of 
this entire mansion! Do the manners of covetous women 
change at all ? Since she has brought forth a son, she has 
plucked her spirit up. Now it's as though she said to me, 
" I neither ask you nor forbid you to come into the house." 
But I won't — I shan't go — I'll make her to be saying in a 
very few days that I'm a cruel man. (To his Attendants.) 
Follow me this way. A word's enough. {Exit. 

Act III. — Scene I. 
Enter Strabax. 
Strab. (to himself). One morning a short time sinee my 
father ordered me to go hence, to deal out the mast for food 
for the oxen. After I got there a person arrived at the farm- 
house (so it pleased the Gods), who was owing money to my 
father, who had formerlg purchased some Tarentine sheep of 
my father ; he asked for my father ; I said he was in the city ; 

* Mt/ sandals) — Ver. 628. She gets up from the couch where she h?fs been re- 
clining before her house, and calls for her sandals. Sandals were generally 
vw^rn by women alone, and the use of them in public by the other sex w.as 
regarded as efFemirate Cicero censures Verres and Clodius for wearing them. 



I 



8c. II. THE CIIUEL. 239 

1 enquired what he wanted with him. The fellow takes a 
purse from off his neck, and gives me twenty minae; with 
[)leasure I receive them, and stow thetn in my purse ; these bad 
sheep^, the minae, have I brought in my purse hither to the 
city. By my troth, Mars has proved very angry with my 
father; for his sheep are not very faraway from the wolves^. 
Now, with this one stroke shall I send adrift those finical 
town, gallants, and be bundling them all out of doors. My 
father, in the first place, I'm quite resolved to ruin, root and 
branch ; then next in turn, my mother. Now to-day I'U carry 
this money to her whom I love more than my own motlier. 
(Goes towards the door o/'Pheonesium, and knocks.) Hillo 
there — is any one here? There's not a woman. la any one 
going to open this door ? 

AsTAPHiTJM opens the door. 

AsT. "Why so a stranger, pray, my dear Strabax ? Why 
don't you come in at once ? Ought you to have been doing 
so, you, indeed, who are so intimate ? 

Steab. I'll go in then, that you mayn't think I'm loiter- 
ing. {Goes into the house.) 

AsT. You act obligingly. 

Scene II. — Enter Steatilax. 

Steat. (to himself). It seems marvellous to me, that 
Strabax, my master's son. hasn't returned from the country, 
unless perchance he has slily slipt in here into this den of cor- 
ruption of liis. 

AsT. {aside). Now, faith, he'll be roaring at me if he 
espies me. 

St RAT. I'm much less savage now, Astaphium, than I was 

' These bad sheep) — Ver. 650, " Perperas." Literally, " worthless," as having 
no fleece on them. He is alluding to the common pun upon " mina," the sum r 
money so denominated, and " mina," the sheep that had no fleece on the belly 
and he calls the former by the latter appellation. See the Pseudolus, 1. 329, aaa 
the Bacchides, 1. 1 1 29, and the Notes. 

2 Far away from the wolves') — Ver. 653. Still calling the money " oves,'* 
" sheep," he says that they are not far off from the wolves — alluding to Phrone- 
sium, for whom they were destined by him. The pun is improved by the fiu;t 
that Courtesans were frequently termed "lupse," "she-woh-es." He not im- 
probably mentions Mars, because he was the fatluer of Romuius and Kemus, arid 
migiit be supposed to be indebted to the she-wolf for suckling his children, when 
exposed by the order of Amulios. 



240 TEUCULE>'Ttrs ; Act 111. 

lefote: I'm not churlisli now ; don't thee fear. {She runs to 
9 distance.) What wouldst thee be at ? What ? 

A ST. A\Tiat, say i/ou ? Why, I'm waiting for your churlish- 
aess. 

^^TBAT. Say, command me what thee dost please, and in 
what way thee dost please. I've got all my manners anew : 
my old ones I've parted with. I can e'en fall in love, or 
take a mistress now. 

A ST. Upon my faith, you do tell me fine news. But tell 
me, have you ? 

Strat. a mistress^, perhaps, thee means. 

AsT. You've understood nicely what I meant to say. 

Stbat. Hark you, since I've been so many times back- 
wards and forwards to the city, I've become quite a chat- 
terer ; I'm now a right good stalker^. 

AsT. Prithee, what's that ? That's nonsense ; perhaps you 
intend to mean " talking." 

Stbat. Just so ; it differs mighty little from stalking. 

A ST. Prithee, do follow me in-doors, my love. 

Stbat. {holding out some money to her). Take this for 
tlivself ; keep it as a ledger^ for thee, that thee mayst give 
me thy company this night. 

.A ST. {taking the money). Ton are the death of me, with 
your "ledger." "What kind of beast am I to say that is ? 
Why don't you say "pledge?" 

Strat. The " r" I make a saving of; just as the Prae- 
nestmes* have "conia," for "ciconia." 

' A mistress) — ^Ver. 674. " Parasitum." This word, if the correct reading, 
cannot mean anything else than " a mistre.ss" here, in which sense Lambinus 
a.ssert-8 that it was sometimes used. If that is not the case, we must be content to 
agree with Schmieder, that the passage is corrupt. 

2 Right good stalker) — Ver. 678. He means to say " cavillator," a " chatterer ;"* 
but instead thereof, mispronouncing the word, he calls it " cauUator," which was 
perhaps a word of no meaning; it has been translated " .stiiiker," fVom its re- 
semblance to " oauiis," " a stalk." 

^ As a ledger)— V^er. 683. In his bungling, he calls " arrhabo," a " pledge" 
or " earnest," " rhabo," which had no meaning. Of course this cannot be 
literally translated, but something tantamount is given in the Tr.inslation, in 
ord«r to convey the spirit, by making him miscall " pledge" " ledger." 

* The Pr(enestines)—Ver. 686. In the Trinummus, 1. 609, he jokes at the ex- 
pense of the people of Prajneste, for using the expression " tammodo." Here he 
says that they were in the habit of calling " ciconia," a " stork," " conia." They 
ar? also alluded to, apparently as braggarts, in the Fragment at the beginning ol 
t/;e oacchides. 



Act IV. THE CHTTEL. 211 

AsT. Prithee, do follow me. Steat. I'll wait here a little 
for Strabax, till he comes from the farm. 

AsT. Why, Strabax is at our house. He has just come 
from the farm. 

Stkat. What, before he went to his own mother ? Alas, 
the man's worth nought, i' faith. 

AsT. What now, your old habit ? 

Steat. Well, I'll say nought. AsT. Prithee, do come in- 
doors. Grive me your hand. {Takes his hand.) 

Steat. T^ZZ, take it. (To #Ad Audience.) I'm being led 
off into a public-house, where I shall be but poorly enter- 
tained for my money. {They go into the house of Pheo- 

NESIUM.) 

Act IY. — Scene I. 
Enter Dinaechtjs. 
Din. {to himself). There's not a person bom, nor will there 
be bom, nor can there be found one, to whom I would now wish 
praises to be given, or on whom attentions bestowed, rather 
than on Yenus. Ye great Grods, how joyous I am, and how 
I'm transported with joyousness ! Such great tidings of joy 
has Cyamus brought to me this day ; that my presents have 
been esteemed and deemed acceptable by Phronesium. While 
this now is a delight, then besides this in especial is rare 
honey-drink to me, that the Captain's presents are held 
as disagreable and not acceptable. I'm all enraptured ! The 
ball's my own^ ; if the Captain's sent adrift, the woman will 
be mine. I'm saved, because I'm going to ruin ; if I didn't 
go to ruin, it's clear I should die. Now I'll keep watch, what's 
going on there, who goes into the house, who comes out of 
doors ; from here at a distance will I observe what is to be 
my lot. Because I've got nothing, my feelings remind me of 
one thing ; I'll do everything by begging. 

Scene II. — Enter Astaphitjm, from the house of Pheo- 

NESIUM. 

AsT. {speaking to her Misteess as she comes out). I'll cle- 
verly do my duty, mistress; do you only take care that in-doors 
1 The halts my ovm) — Ver. 701. " Mea pila est." A figure derived from the 
game of bandy-ball, which appears to have been played by striking the ball with 
the fists, as we do with the feet. See the Rudens, 1. 721, and the Ncte. W 
have a. similar proverbial saying: " He has the ball at his foot." 

VOL. I'. n 



242 TBUCULENTUS; Act IV. 

^ou do yours as well ; love that whicli you ought, your own 
interest; clean that fellow thoroughly out. Now, while it 
pleases the fellow, while he has got something, adapt the oppor- 
tunity to that purpose. Display all your charms to your lover 
that you may heighten his joys. I meantime will stay here 
behind and watch at this door so long as he is thus transport- 
ing hi^ presents home to you ; nor, in the meantime, will I admit 
any one from there to you who may cause you annoyance. Do 
you go on, just as you please. Are you not diddling these 
fellows ? 

Din. How now, Astaphium, tell me, who is this fellow 
that's on the road to ruin ? 

AsT. Prithee, were you here ? 

Din. What — am I troublesome ? 

AsT. More now than you were ; for unless a person is of 
use to us, he is troublesome to us. But, prithee, do lend me 
your attention, that I may say what I want. 

Din. "Why, what is it ? Does it concern myself ? 

AsT. Not a rap. But what hauls he is making present of 
m-doors. Din. How? Some new lover? 

AsT. A fresh one, and a brimming treasure she has hit upon. 

Din. "Who is he ? 

AsT. I'll tell you, but you be muin. Don't you know this 
Strabax ? (Pointing to his Fathee*s house.) 

Din. Why shouldn't I ? 

AsT. He alone rules the roast here at our house. He just 
now is a landed estate to us. With right good spirit is he 
wantonly wasting away his property. 

Din. He*s on the road to ruin ; i' faith, I, too, have come 
to ruin. AsT. You are a simpleton, to expect with words 
to make undone what is done. 

Din. Even Thetis, too, in weeping, made lamentation for 
her son. Can I not now be admitted in-doors to your house? 

AsT. Why so rather than the Captain ? 

Din. Why, because I've given more. 

AsT. But you were admitted more, when you were giving 
m(yre ; let those who give, in return for that which they give, 
enjoy our services. You've learnt your letters; since you 
know them yourself, let others learn them. 

Din. Let them learn, so long as it is allowed me to com 
my lesson, that I may not forget what I have paid forw 



SC. II. THE CHUEI.. 243 

AsT. In the meantime, while you, wJio are a master, shall 
be conning your lesson, she, as well, is desirous to con hers. 

Din. How so ? Ast. In receiving money ever and anon. 

Din. Tor my own part, this very day I gave five minsB of 
silver to be carried to her, besides one for provisions. 

AsT. I know that the same was brought ; with it we are 
now enjoying ourselves upon your liberality. 

Din. Tor these enemies of mine here to be devouring my 
property! By heavens, I'd rather that I were dead than 
isubmit to tliat ! 

Ast. You are a simpleton. Din. How's that ? 

Ast. Wait. Din. Why so ? 

AsT. Because, 1' troth, I'd rather that my enemies should 
envy me, than I my enemies ; for to envy because it goes well 
with another, mid goes badly with yourself, is wretchedness. 
Those who are envious, are in want ; they who are envied, 
possess property. 

Din. May I not be a partaker of the provisions bought with 
the mina ? 

Ast. If you wanted to be a partaker, you should have 
taken half home. For here an account of the receipts is 
entered just as at Acheron ; we take in-doors ; when it's got 
by us, it can't be carried out of doors. {Turning on her 
heel.) Kindly farewell. 

Din. {catching hold of her) . Do stay. 

Ast. {struggling). Let me go! Leave off! 

Din. Do let me go in. Ast. Yes, to your own house. 

Din. Aye, but here into your house. 

Ast. You cannot go. 

Din. I can, very well. Do let me try. 

AsT. No, wait here; it's sheer violence to try. I'd say 
that you are here, if she wasn't engaged. {Buns to the door.) 

Din. Ha ! Do stop ! Ast. It's of no use. 

Din. Are you going to return or not ? 

Ast. I'd return, but a voice is calling me that has more 
influence with me than you have. 

Din. In one word I'fl say it. You'U receive me ? 

AsT. You are telling a He — be off. One word, you said j 
but now three words have you uttered, and those untrue. 
{Goes into the house, and shuts the door.) 

Din. {to himself). She's off, and she^s gone hence in-dooiu 
£2 



241 TEtrcuLENTUS ; Act IV. 

That I sliould endure these things to be done to me. By 
heavens, enticer, with my cries I'll be exposing you to ridicule 
in the street, you who, contrary to law, have received money 
from many a one. Upon my faith, I'll forthwith cause yo"* 
name to be before every magistrate^, and after that I'll sue 
you for fourfold^, you sorceress, you kidnapper of children. 
By the powers, I'll now disclose all your disgraceful deeds. 
Worthless creature that I am, who have lost everything 
I had! I'm become desperate, and now I haven't the 
slightest bit of concern what shoes I weai-^. But why am I 
irying here ? What, suppose she were to order me to be let 
in ? I could swear in solemn form that I wouldn't do it if 
she wished. It's nonsense. If you thump a goad with your 
fists, your hands are hurt the most. It's no good to be 
angry at a thing of nothing ; a creature that doesn't value 
you a straw. {Starting.) But what's this? O immortal 
Gods, I see old Callicles, him who was my connexion by 
marriage*, bringing two female slaves in bonds, the one the 
hair-dresser of this Phronesium, the other his own servant- 
maid. I'm greatly alarmed ! inasmuch as one care has so 
recently taken possession of my heart, I'm afraid lest all my 
former misdeeds should be discovered. {Sta/nds aside.) 

Scene III. — Enter Callicles, attended ly Slaves, with his 

Maid-servant and Stea, hound. 

Call, (to his Servant). Do I use ill language to you, 

or do I wish you so very iU ? According to my ideas, you 

have both pretty well experienced how mild and gentle a 

^ Before every magistrate) — Ver. 757. He probably alludes to the Praetor and 
the Triumviri ; which last magistrates had especial jurisdiction over the conduct 
of courtesans. 

2 Site you for fourfold) — Ver. 758. He will sue her for a fourfold return, which, 
In cases of fraud and extortion, a person was sometimes condemned to make. 

3 What shoes I wear) — Ver. 761. The Romans were very particular as to their 
dress in the street, and they were especially careful not to wear the shoes which 
Ihey used in-doors, nor such as were too big, or fitted loosely to the feet. Ovid 
Bays, in the Art of Love, B. 1. 1. 516, " let not your foot wallop about, losing 
itself in the shoe, down at heel," enjoining the men to be careful on this point. 
The expression is used figuratively here, signifying that he will throw off all re- 
gard for appearances. 

* Was my connexion by marriage) — Ver. 767. He probably calls him " adfinis," 
or " connexion," from the fact cf himself having been formerly betrothed to h.% 
daughter. 



Sc. III. THE CatTEl. 215 

person I am. I interrogated you hotJi^ as you were lashed 
and hanging up hy the a?-ms ; I well remember it ; the way in 
which you quite confessed each point, I know. Here now, I 
wish in the same way to learn ; do you confess without a 
punishment. Although you are both of you of the ser- 
pent nature, I tell you beforehand, you mustn't be having 
double tongues, lest with your two tongues I should be 
putting you to death ; unless, perhaps, you wish to be taken 
to the men who go clink, clink^. 

Maid. Violence forces me to confess the truth ; the thongs 
do so gall my arms. Call. But, if you confess the truth 
to me, you shall be relieved from the chains. 

Dim. (apart). Even now, what's the matter, I'm at a loss 
to know and uncertain ; except that still I'm afraid. 

Stea. What I've done wrong I know not. 

Call. First of all, then, you stand apart. {They stand 
apart.) Aye, so ; that's what I mean ; that you mayn't be 
making signs between you, I'll be a party-wall. (To his 
Maid-seevakt.) Speak you. 

Maid. What am I to speak about ? 

Call. What was done with the child that my daughter 
was delivered of? My grandchild, / mean? Tell me the 
circumstances of the case. 

Maid. I gave it to her. (Pointing to Stea.) 

Call, (to the Maid-seevant). Now hold your tongue. 
( To Stea.) Did you receive the child from her ? 

Stea. I did receive it. 

Call, (to Stea). Hold your tongue; I want no more; 
you've confessed enough. 

Stea. I'm not going to deny it. 

Call. By this you've now caused some relief for your 
shoulder-blades. So far, the account of each of them tallies. 

Din. (apart). Ah wretched me! my doings are now being 
disclosed, which I hoped would be concealed. 

Call, (to the Maid-seevant). Speak, you. Who bade 
you give the child to her ? 

Maid. My elder mistress. Call, (to Stea). What say 
you ? Why did you receive it ? 

' Men who go cUnk, clink)— Ver. 778. " Tintinnaculos." The executioners or 
torturers are so called, either from their putting fetters on the persons to l>o 
punished, or else from their fastening bells (tintinnabuia) upon them, to preTent 
Uieir ru:auu' away. 



246 TEUCTJLEIfTUS ; Act IV. 

Stba. My young mistress entreated me that the child 
might be brought, and that all this might remain secret. 

Call, {to Stba). Speak, you. "What did you do with 
this child ? Stea. I took it to my mistress. 

Call. What did your mistress do with this child ? 

Syea. Gave it at once to my mistress. 

Call. Plague on it, to what mistress ? 

Maid. There are two of them. 

Call, {to the Maid). Take you care, unless I ask you 
Anything, only to answer that which I ask of you. 

Stea. The mother, I say, made a present of it to the 
daughter. 

Call. Tou are saying more than you Ji^ just now. 

Stea. You are asking more. 

Call. Answer me quickly ; what did she do^ to whom it 
was given ? Tell me. 

Stea. She passed it off as Call. Whose ? 

Stea. As her own son. Call. As her own son ? Ye Gods, 
by my trust in you I do appeal to you, how much more easily 
does another than she to whom it belongs, bring forth another's 
child ! She, by the labours of another, has brought forth this 
child without pain. A child blest indeed ! two mothers it has 
got, and grandams two^. I'm now afraid how many fathers there 
may have been. Do see, please, the shocking deeds of women ! 

Maid. I' troth, this fraud relates rather to the men than 
to the women. 'Twas a man, and not a woman, that caused 
her pregnancy. 

Call. I know that too. You were a trusty guardian for it. 

Maid. He can do the most, who is strong the most. He 
was a man; he was the strongest; he prevailed; what he 
wanted, he carried off. 

Call. And, i' faith, he too brought a heavy mishap, in fact, 
upon yourself. Maid. The thing itself experienced, I myself 
fully know that, even if you had held your tongue. 

Call. Never, this day, have I been able to make you de- 
clare who he was. 

Maid {aside, on catching sight of Dinaechus). I've held 
my tongue; but now I shan't hold my tongue, since he's 
here ; it's necessary I should tell. 

* And grandams two) — Ver. 804. Plautus must, of course, mean two grand- 
mothers by the mother's side alone; otherwise there was nothing wonderful iii • 
child having two grandmothers. 



Sc. III. THE CHURL. 247 

Din. {apart). I'm petrified; in my wretchedness, I daro 
not move myself; the matter's all out ! The trial's now going 
on here for my life! These are my misdeeds, this is my 
folly. I'm in dread how soon I may be named. 

Call, {to the Maid-seevant). Speak out, who was it 
debauched my maiden daughter ? 

Maid. I see him near you. Call. Hussy, who was it ? 

Maid. A supporter of the wall^. 

Din. {apart). I'm neither alive nor dead, nor know I 
what I am now to do ; neither know I how to go away hence, 
nor how to accost him ; I'm numbed with fear. 

Call. Will you tell me, or no 't Maid. It is Dinarchus, 
to whom you first betrothed her. 

Call, {looking round). Where is this person whom you 
mention ? 

Din. {steppingforioard). Here I am, CaUicles. {Falling 
on the ground.) By your knees I do entreat you that you wiD ' 
bear with wisdom that which was done in folly ; and that 
you will pardon me that, which, losing my senses, I did 
through the bad influence of wine. 

Call. You please me not. You throw the blame on what is 
dumb^, that which cannot speak. But the wine, if it could 
speak, would defend itself. It's not wine that's in the habit of 
ruling men, but men wine ; those, indeed, who are virtuous 
men ; but he who is bad, although he drinks water, or if indeed 
he abstains from intoxicating liquors, still, by nature he's bad. 

Din. Well, I'm sensible that many reproaches must be 
heard by me, which I would prefer not. I confess that I've 
offended you, and am privy to the crime. 

Maid. CaUicles, prithee beware that you do injury to no 
person ; the accused is pleading his cause at large, the wit- 
nesses you are keeping in bonds. 

Call, {to his Slaves). Eelease those women. {They are 
unbound.) Come {to each of them in turn), do you be off home, 
and you home as mcU. ( To Syra.) Tell your mistress this . 
she must give up the child, if any one asks for it. (Syra goeft 

' Supporter of the wall) — Ver. 818. Dinarchus, in his fright, is sneaking clooc 
to the wall. The servant espying him, sneeringly calls him " patronus parieti," 
"the patron" or " supporter of the wall" 

' On what is dumb)— Ver. 825. By throwing the bkme on wine, that could not 
de&iid itself. 



248 TKUCULENTU« ; Act IV. 

into the house o/*Puronesium, and exit the Mjl1d-seeva:nt.) 
You, Dinarchus, let's go before the judge. 

Din. "Why do you wish me to go before the judge ? Tou 
are the Praetor to me. But I entreat of you, Callicles, that 
you'll give me your daughter for a wife. 

Call. I' faith, I find, indeed, that you've come to a decision 
on that point yourself; for you haven't waited till I gave her ; 
you have helped yourself. Now keep her, as you've got her, 
but I'll fine you this grand haul ; six great talents will I 
deduct from her dowry for this folly. 

Din. Tou act kindly towards me. 

Call. 'Twere best for you to demand your son back from 
thence. (Fointinff to the hotise of Vkho^^sivm.) But your 
wife, as soon as possible, take away from my house. I shall 
at once, therefore, send a messenger to that kinsman of mine 
by marriage, and tell him to look out for another match for 
his son. (JExit. 

Din. (to himself). But I'll demand back the child of her, 
lest by-and-by she should deny it. That's of no use ; for 
she herself, of her own accord, has discovered the whole 
matter to me, how it happened. But see, right opportunely, 
i' faith, is she coming out of doors from her house. Assuredly, 
a far-darting sting has that woman, who even from that dis- 
tance is wounding my heart. (Stands aside.) 

Scene TV. — Unfer Pheonesitjm and Astaphium, from the 
hotise of the former. 

Phhon. (to herself). A woman is a spoony and a troUoping 
slut, if she hasn't a view to her own interests, even in her cups. 
If her other limbs are soaked in wine, at least let her head be 
sober. But it's a vexation to me that ray halr-dresser has 
been thus badly treated. She has been telling me that this 
child has been discovered to be the son of Dinarchus. "When 
I heard that * * * * (She moves, 

as if going.) 

Din. (apart). She's going, in whose hands are all my for- 
tune and my children. 

Phbon. (seeing Dinaechtjs). I see him who has consti- 
tuted me the guardian of his property. 

Din. (coming forward). Madam, here am I. 



Sc. IV. THE CHFEL. 249 

Pheon. It certainly is he. "WTiat's the matter, my love ? 

Din. No love ; cease your trifling. I've nothing now to 
do with that subject. 

Phron. By my faith, I know what you want, and what 
you desire, and what you ask for. You want to see me ; 
you desire to caress me ; you ask for the child. 

Din. (aside). Immortal Grods ! liow plain she speaks. 
How, in a few words, has she hit upon the very point ! 

Pheon. As for me, I know that you are betrothed, and that 
you have a son by your betrothed, and that a wife is now 
going to be married by you ', that now your thoughts are else- 
where, that myself you are going to consider as forsaken. But 
still consider, the little mouse, how sagacious an animal it is, 
which never entrusts its life to one hole onl;i/ ; inasmuch as, 
if one hole is blocked up, it seeks another as a place of refuge. 

Din. When there's leisure, then I'll talk to you on those 
matters more at large ; at present, give me up the child. 

Pheon. No ; do, there's a dear, let it be at my house the 
few next days. 

Din. Certainly not. Pheon. Do, there's a dear. 

Din. "What occasion is there ? 

Pheon. It's for my interest. This for the next three days 
at least, until the Captain is circumvented somehow ; for that 
same purpose. If I get anything, it shall be for your own 
advantage as well. If you take the child away, all hope in 
the Captain will evaporate from my heart. 

Din. I would have that done ; but, when it's talcen home, 
to do it again^, if I were to wish it, I have not the opportunity 
Now make use of the child, and take care of it, because you 
have the means by which to take care of it. 

Pheon. Upon my faith, I do love you much for this matter. 
When you shall be afraid of a scolding at home, do you take 
shelter here in my house. At least, prove a friend, to help 
me to a profitable speculation. 

Din. (moving). Kindly farewell, Phronesium. 

Pheon. Won't you any longer call me " apple of yout 

^ To do U again) — ^Ver. 873. " Refacere." This, in most of the Editions, is 
printed as " re facere," " to do in reality ;" but that does not seem to be tht 
proper reading. Dinarchus appears to mean, " You may keep the child tor tiie 
present, in order to carry out your plans; for when I have once taken it homo 1 
fchall not be able to do it again" — or, in other words, " Itnd it to you for you' pur- 
pooes." 



250 TEUCULENTirs ; Act V. 

eye ?'* DiN. That name too, meanwhile, shall be repeated 
full oft. 

Phkon. Do you wish for anything else ? 

DiK. Fare thee well; when I have leisure, I'll come to 
your house. {Eocit. 

Pheon. Well, he*s gone away from here, and has taken 
his departure ; we may say here whatever we please. 'Tis 
a true proverb that's quoted, " Where the friends are, there 
are the riches." Through him, there's still some hope that 
the Captain may be duped to-day ; whom, by the powers, 
I love better than my own self, — so long as I get out of him 
what I want : since, when we have got much, not much of it 
is seen that has been given. Such are the brilliant prospects 
of Courtesans! 

AsT. Hush I hush ! be quiet. 

Pheon. Prithee, what is it ? 

AsT. The father of the child is coming. 

Pheon". Well, let him come here. Let him, if it only is 
he, let him come himself straight up to me here just as he 
chooses. If he does come, for very sure, i' faith, I'll do him 
to-day with some cunning tricks. {They go into the house.) 

Act V. — Scene I. 

PHEOirasiUM and Astaphiitm appear hefbre the door of the 
house. Enter Steatophanes. 

Stbat. (to himself). That I should love^ for this! I'm 
taking an atonement for my offences to my mistress ! That 
that may be taken by her in kindly part which I've squandered 
before, I'll add this as well. But what's this ? I see the 
mistress and her maid before the house. I must accost her. 
{Addressing them.) What are you doing here ? 

Pheon. Don't speak to me. 

Steat. Yon are too angry. {Fats her on the shoulder.) 

Pheon. Leave me alone. Can't you possibly cease to be 
an annoyance to me ? 

Steat. What is the matter, mg dear little Astaphium ? 

AsT. I' faith, she's angry with you wdth good reason. 

» That I should love) — Ver. 889. " Ec mi amare." It is much more easy tj 
guess at the sense of this passage, than a': what is really the projser reading of it 
as it is evidently cornipt. 



Sc. II. TUE CHUEL. 251 

Phbdn. AVTiat, I ? I'm not even half spiteful enough to- 
wards that fellow. 

Steat. My love, if I have at all offended before, I present 
you with this mina of gold. If you smile upon me, deign me 
a look. 

Pheon. My hand forbids me to believe anything, before 
it holds in its possession. "VVe require food for the child j 
we require it for the dame^, as well, that bathes the child ; 
we require it for the nurse^, as well, that she may have a 
leather bottle full of old wine in ample style, that night and 
day she may tipple ; we stand in need of fire ; we want coals, 
too ; we want swathes, napkins, the cradle, the cradle-bed ; oil 
we want; the child requires flour, ybr^a^; all day we are 
wanting something ; never, in the same one day, can our task 
be performed, but what there's always need of something ; for 
the children of officers cannot be reared upon medlars^. 

Steat. Look upon me then. Take this (jpresenting the 
money)^ with which to satisfy these necessities. 

Pheon. {taking it). Give it me, although it's very little. 

Steat. Whatever you shall order, shall be given at youi* 
demand. Give me a kiss now. {Tries to hiss her.) 

Pheon. Leave me alone, I say! You are a nuisance! 

Steat. {aside). It's no use, I'm not loved hy her ; the day 
wears apace. More than ten pounds of silver have I lost in 
this short time by reason of my passion. 

Pheon. {giving the money to Astaphium). Take this, and 
carry it away in-doors. (Astaphium carries it in.) 

Scene II. — Enter Steabax,^(w» the house. 

Steab. {to himself). Where in the world is my mistress ? 
I get on with no business, either in the country or here, at 
this rate; I'm spoiling with mouldiness, I'm grown so dread- 
fully numbed with lying waiting here upon the couch. But 
look, I perceive her. Hallo ! sweetheart, what are you about ? 

Steat. What fellow is that ? Pheon. One that, upon my 
honor, I love far more than yourself. 

» F<yr the dame)—Ver. 898. " Matri." Literally, " the mother." 
2 For the nurse)— Yer. 899. Even in those days, nurses were famed for their 
toping propensities. See the Andria of Terence, 1. 229. 

» Upon medlars) — ^Ver. 904. It is not known whether " setanium" or " seta- 
rum" here means " medlars" or "onions." Some Commentators think it meaoi 
an inferior kind of pulse, used as food for the children of the poor. 



252 TEUCULENTUS; Acl V. 

• 8trat. Than myself? In what way? 

Pheon. WTii/, this way, that you are not to be troublesome 
to me. (Moves as if going.) 

Steat. Are you going now, after you've got the gold ? 

PHRor. What you've given me, I've put away in-doors. 

Steab. Come here, sweetheart ; I've got something to say 
to you. 

Pheon. "Why, I was just coming to you. 

Steab. To me, my charmer ? 

Pheon. In serious truth, i' Mth. 

Steab. Although I seem a simpleton to you, I like myself 
to have a bit of recreation. For pretty though you are, you 
are so to your own loss, unless I amuse myself a bit with you. 

Pheon. Should you like me to embrace you and give you 
a kiss ? 

Steab. Do whatever you like, I'll deem it agreable. {She 
hisses him.) 

Steat. "What, shall I suffer her to be embracing other 
men before my eyes ? I' faith, 'twere better that I were dead. 
AVoman, take your hands off of him, unless, perhaps, by this 
b .ord of mine, won from the enemy, you wish yourself and 
l..m to die. (Flourishing his sword.) 

Pheon. There's no use in " badinage^," Captain. If you 
want yourself to be loved, with gold, Stratophanes, not with 
iroa, may you prevent him from loving me. 

Steat. How, the plague, are you pretty or witty, to be 
fond of a fellow of that description ? 

Pheon. (aside, to Steatophanes). Don't it come to your 
recollection what an actor once said upon the stage ? " All 
people have an eye to their profit, and are not over delicate." 

Steat. That you couid ^ossibli/ caress this fellow, so dirty 
and foul! 

PflEON". Although he is dirty, although he is foul, still, he's 
pretty to me. Steat. Didn't I give you some gold ? 

Pheon. To me ? You gave money for the child's food. 

Steab. Now, if you hope to have her, another mina of 
gnlti is requisite. 

Steat. A sore mishap upon these people, and a weighty one! 

Steab. By all means, keep that by way of provision for 
yv.ir own journey. 

' N;i tise in badinage) — Ver. 923. ^Xvapclv^ " to trifle," " to play xipon ;" aj 
%.-j^-. ixaciXj correi>ponding with our use of the French term " badina^." 



Se. II. THE cnrnL. 253 

8trat. "VYhat does she owe you ? Steab. Three things. 

Steat. "What, pray ? Steab. Perfumes, her favours, and 
kisses. 

Phron. (apart). He answers him like for like. {To 
Steatophanes.) But now, at all events, if you do love me, 
do you give me some little trifle from your most abundant 
treasures. 

Steat. Do say, there's a dear, what it is that I'm to give 
you ; only say. If I have it left, you shall have it. 

Pheon. Mere kickshaws^ you're talking about. Be off, be 
off. (Strabax kisses her.) 

Steat. I've considered this over with myself. My ffood 
sir, take you care, wiU you, that she don't inflict a wound 
upon you, whose teeth are made of iron. She's allowing access 
to her to all in common. Ton take your hand off of her. 

Steab. {striking him). Then, by my troth, do you take that, 
with a hearty punch, warlike man ! 

Steat. I've given her gold. Steab. And I, silver. 

Steat. And I a mantle and a purple garment. 

Steab. And I, sheep and wool ; and many other thing? 
that she shall ask for I'll give. 'Twere better for you to con- 
test it with me with minse than with menaces^. 

Pheok. Upon my faith you are a funny mortal, my Strabax. 

Prithee, do proceed (Aside.) A fool and a madman are 

contending for their ruin ; I'm all right. 

Steat. Come, younker, do you ofler something first. 

Steab. AVhy no ; do yju squander first, and come to ruin 

Steat. (to Pheonesium). "Well, here's a talent of silver 
for you. It's in Philippean coins. Take it for yourself. 

Pheon. (taking the money). So much the better. Be one 
of our family, but live at your own expense. 

Steat. (to Steabax). Where is that which you are going 
to give ? Open your purse-strings^. 

• Mere Idchshaws) — Ver. 938. Ka/X7ra?. This is from the Greek Kaynrv^ 
" a caterpillar," and meaas " nonsensical, trifling stuff." He gives her a hint, in 
the next line, to beware of the great teeth of the countrymen. 

- With mincB than with menaces) — Ver. 944. " Melius, te minis certare mecumj 
quam minaciis." He plays upon the resemblance of the word " minis," " with 
minac," to " minaciis," " with threats," and means that money is more likely 
than menaces to hare weight with Phronesmo. 

* Open your purse-strings)— Yer. 950. " Solve zonam." Literally, " loosen 
your girdle." The girdle was sometimes used as the purse itself. At other tmxea 
tne purse was placed there f:r safety 



254 TExrcTJLENTrs. Act V 

Phron. That's a challenge. 

Strat. (to Strabax). What are you afraid of? 

Strab. You are from abroad^. I live here (points to his 
Father' s Jiome) . I am afraid. Strat. I am not. Walk off, tlien, 

Strab. I'm bringing her some sheep fastened in a purse 
to my neck. 

Strat. Because I gave that, how I did flounder the fellow*. 

Strab. Why no, indeed, it's I, who am going to give. 

Phron. (to Stbatophanes). Come in-doors now, prithee, 
and (to Strabax) do you then stay with me here. 

Strat. You will give me your company then ? 

Strab. (to Phronesium). 'What say you ? Phrow. Wliat ? 

Strab. What do you say ? What, with this fellow ? Am 
I to be postponed ? 

Strat. I have made my present. 

Phron. (to Stratophanes). You have given; (pointing 
to Strabax) he's going to give just now; the one I've got, 
the other I expect. But each of the two shall be indulged 
to his heart's content. 

Strab. So be it. As I see the matter stands, that must 
be taken that's offered. Strat. Indeed, I shall assuredly not 
be letting you take possession of my couch. 

Phrok. (aside). V faith, I've cleverly netted them, and 
quite to my satisfaction. (To the Audience.) And as I see my 
affairs successfully managed, yours likewise^ would I success- 
fully manage. I'll caress you in reality. If you are disposed 
to be doing anything, take care, will you, and let me know at 
once. For the sake of Venus, applaud ; this Play is in her honor. 
Spectators, kindly farewell ; grant applause, and then rise up*. 

' You are from abroad) — ^Ver. 951. He alludes to the alleged service of Stra- 
tophanes in the Babylonian army, and implies that he hesitates to answer to the 
challenge because he does not know whether Stratophanes may not turn out 
to be a sharper. 

• Flounder thefeShw) — ^Ver. 953. Stratophanes plumes himself with the idea 
that, he having given the money to Phronesium, the other will not dare to answer 
his challenge. 

' Yours likevoise) — Ver. 960. There has been some doubt as to the meaning of 
fliis and the next two lines ; but, on examination, it is clear that they have an in- 
decent signification. 

♦ Then rise up) — Ver. 964. Cicero, in his Treatise " On Old Age," informs ni 
that this Play was a favourite one of Plautus. It is difficult to see for what 
fpason, as, compared with many of the others, it seems to be deficient in plot, and 
Um ChurL from whom it takes its name Las scarcely nxiy cart in the business of it. 



PERSA; THE PERSIAN. 



JBramatis ^crsonaf. 

ToxiLUS, a servant. 
Sagaristio, a servant. 
Saturio, a Parasite. 
P^EGNiuM, a boy. 
DoRDALUS, a Procurer. 

Lkmniselene, a Courtesan, beloved by Toxilus, 

SoPHOCLiDiscA, her attendant. 

A Young Woman, daughter of Saturio. 



Scene — Athens : before the houses of Dordalvs and of the Master of 



THE SUBJECT. 



T^xiLus, who IS left in charge of his master's house m his absence, is desirous ol 
obtaining the liberty of his mistress Lemniselene, who belongs to the Procurer 
Dordalus. He applies to his friend Sagaristio to lend him the sum necessary 
for that purpose. Sagaristio has not the money himself, but succeeds in 
finding some for the use of his friend. With the view of getting back the 
money when paid to Dordalus, Toxilus prevails on the Parasite Saturio to 
allow his daughter to be sold by Sagaristio to Dordalus, as though she were a 
slave. While these arrangements are being made, Lemniselene sends her 
attendant Sophoclidisca with a letter to Tosilus, and he at the same time sends 
the boy Pasgnium with a message to Lemniselene. On receiving the money 
from Sagaristio, Toxilus pays it to Dordalus, who sets Lemniselene at liberty. 
Immediately after this, Sagaristio, dressed as a Persian, brings the daughter of 
Saturio, also dressed as a Persian captive, and sells her to Dordalus, without 
warranty, for a large sum of money. Immediately upon the departu'-e of 
Sagaristio, Saturio makes his appearance, and claiming his aaugnter, taKes her 
away Toxilus and Sagaristio conciade with a feast, and make merry over 
the Procurer's misfortuues. 



^ 



PERSA; THE PERSIAN". 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

LSupposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian. ] 

His master being absent {Profecto), Toxilus purchases {Emit) his mistress, and 
contrives that the Procurer sets her at liberty ; and he then persuades him to 
buy of her capturer a young woman, a captive {Raptam), the daughter of his 
Parasite being dressed up (Szibomatd) for tfiat purpose; and {Atque) as 
he carouses, he makes sport of Dordalus, thus cajoled. 



Act I. — Scene I. 
Enter Toxilijs and Sagaeistio, on different sides, 

Tox. {to himself). He who, falling in love, destitute of 
means, has first entered upon the paths of love, has in his 
own labours exceeded all the labours of Hercules. For with 
the lion^, and with the Hydra, with the stag, with the ^Eto- 
.ian boar, with the birds of Stamphalus, with Antaeus, would 
I rather contend than with love. So wretched am I become 
with hunting after money \o borrow ; and yet, those whom I 
ask know of nothing to Enswer me, except "I have got 
none." 

Sag. {apart). The servant that is desirous faithfully to 
serve his master, i' troth, it surely does behove him to trea- 
sure up full many a thing in his breast which he may think 
will please his master, both present and abroad. I neither 
serve with cheerfulness, nor am I quite to my master's satis- 
faction ; but, as though fi-om a running eye, my master is 

' The Persian) As " Persa" signifies " a male Persian," the Play is evidently- 
named from the character assumed by Sagaristio, who, as a Persian, sells the 
daughter of Saturio, dressed up as a captive, to the Procurer Dordalus. 

2 With the lion) — Ver. 3 Tlie- conquest of the Nemaean lion, the Hydra of 
Lerna, the brazen-footed stag, the Erymanthian boar, the birds of Lake Stym- 
phalus, and the giant AntaBus, formed part yf the labours of Hercules. See th» 
Met.morpliosea of Uvid, Books 9 »nd 10. 

VOL. n. a 



258 PER8A Act I. 

still uuable to keep his hands off me, in giving me his com- 
mands, in making me the support of his affairs. 

Tox. "Who's this that's standing opposite to me ? 

Sag. Who's that that's standing opposite to me ? 

Tox. It's like Sagaristio. 

Sag. Surely this is my friend Toxilus. 

Tox. Certainly it is he. Sag. I think it is he. 

Tox.. I'll go meet him. Sag. I'll go up and accost him. 

Tox. {meeting Mm). Sagaristio, may the Gods bless you. 

Sag. Sagaristio, the Gods grant you what you may de- 
sire. How fare you ? 

Tox. Just as I can. Sag. "What's the matter ? 

Tox. I still live. Sag. Quite then to your satisfaction ? 

Tox. If the things come to pass which I desire, quite. 

Sag. You deal with your friends in a very silly fashion. 

Tox. How so ? 

Sag. Because you ought to give them your commands. 

Tox. As for myself, you were already dead to me, because 
I haven't seen you. 

Sag. Business, upon my faith 

Tox. In the iron chain line, perhaps. 

Sag. For more than a twelvemonth I've been promoted in 
chains to be commanding officer in the basting line^ at the 
mill. 

Tox. Why, that's your old line of service. 

Sag. Have you been quite well all along ? 

Tox. Not very. 

Sag. I' faith, it's with reason then you are so pale. 

Tox. I've been wounded in the battles of "Venus ; Cupid 
has pierced my heart with his arrow. 

Sag. Do servants then fall in love here ? 

Tox. Why, what could I do ? Was I to be struggling 
against the Gods ? Was I, like the sons of Titan, to bo 
waging war with the Deities, with whom I am not quite able 
to cope ? 

Sag. Do you only take care that "catapultae" made of 
elm^ don't pierce your sides. 

* In the hasting line) — Ver. 22. " Triburms vapularis." Literally, " a vapnlary 
Triliune." By this droll expression he means, promoteJ above all others to the 
distinction of a flogging. The military Tribune was an officer high in rank in the 
Roman armies. 

' Made of elm) — Ver. 28. He means the e.m-twigs, which were s^peciaJly 
Bsed for the puuibhment :f slaves. 



I 



3c. I. THE PERSIAN. 259 

Tox. In right royal manner I'm celebrating the feast? of 
Freedom^. 

Sao. How so ? Tox. Because my master's gone abroad. 

Sag. Do you say so ? Is he gone abroad ? 

Tox. If you can bear to be enjoying yourself, do you 
come: you shall live with me; you shall be treated with 
right royal entertainment. 

Sag. Out upon it {rubhing himself) ; my shoulder-blades 
Are quite itching now, because I've heard you mention these 
things. 

Tox. But this one thing is torturing me. 

Sag. "Why, what is it ? 

Tox. This day is the very last day, to determine whether 
my mistress is to be free, or whether she is to endure lasting 
servitude. 

Sag. What, then, do you now desire ? 

.Tox. You have it in your power to make me your friend 
for ever. 

Sag. In what way ? 

Tox. In lending me six hundred didrachms, for me to pay 
the same for her freedom, which I will forthwith refund you 
in the next three or four days. Come, do be good-natured ; 
give me your help. 

Sag. "With what assurance, you impudent yeZZot^, do you 
venture to ask so much money of me ? Why, if I myself 
were to be sold all in one lot, it's hardly possible for as 
much to be received as you are asking me for ; for now you 
are asking for water from a pumice-stone, which is all a-dry 
itself 

Tox. Ought you to be treating me in this fashion ? 

Sag. What am I to do ? 

Tox. Do you ask the question? Beg it on loan from 
somebody. 

Sag. Tou do the same as you are asking me. 

• Feast of Freedom) — Ver. 29. "Agito Eleutheria." He is speaking of his 
enjoying fall range in the absence of his master, and for that purpose borrows a 
figure from the Eleutheria, or " Feast of Liberty," a festival which the Greeks, 
after the battle of Plataea, instituted in honor of Jupiter or Zeus Eleutherius, 
" The Deliverer." This festival was not only a mark of gratitude to the Deity, 
■to whom they believed themselves indebted for their victory over the Persians, 
but employed as a bond of linion among themselves. It w.is celebrated each 
year at I'l.Ufra, and every fifth year with additional solemnities, and contest* 
iNo skveb were allowed to minister on the occasion of thb festival. 

82 



'21f>D PERSA; Act tk 

Tox. I've been trying ; I've found it nowliere. 

Sag. I really will try, if any one will trust me. 

Tox. Am I then to consider it^ as a thing in possibility ? 

Sag. If I had had it at home, I'd promise it at once. Thia 
is in my power, to use my best endeavours. 

Tox. Whatever it is, come you home to me. 

Sag. Still do you try to get it ; I'll carefully do the same. 
If anything shall turn up, I'll let you know at once. 

Tox. I entreat you, and entreat over and over again, do 
give me your stanch help in this. 

Sag. O dear ! you are worrying me to death by your im^ 
portunity. 

Tox. It's through the fault of love, and not my own, that 
I'm now become a silly prater to you. 

Sag. Then, i' troth, I'll now be taking my leave of you. 
{Moving^ 

Tox. Are you going away, then ? A good walk to you. 
E lit betake yourself* back as soon as you can, and diO take'- 
care that I haven't to seek you ; I shall be close at home 
until I have cooked up a mishap for the Procurer. 

(Eccit Sagaeistio, and Toxilus goes into the hoztse. 

Scene II. — Unter Satueio. 
Sat. (to himself). The old and ancient calling of my fore- 
fathers do I follow, and hold, and cultivate with great care. 
For never was there any one of my forefathers, but that by 
acting the parasite they filled their bellies : my father, 
grandfather, great-grandfather, great-great-grandfather, his 
father, and his grandfather, jast like mice, always fed on the 
victuals of others, and in love of good eating no one could 
excel them. Hard Heads^ was their surname. From them 
have I derived this calling, and the station of my forefathers ; 
nor do I wish myself to turn informer^, nor indeed does it 

I Am I then to consider it) — Ver. 47. "Nempe habeo in mundo?" Literally, 
'* I have it in the world, I suppose ?" implying. that he presumes, that if possible, 
Sagaristio will comply with his request, 

- Hard Heads)— Yev. 62. " Duris capitonibus." Literally, " hard large 
heads." He probably alludes to the necessity which there was for Parasites 
to have particularly hard heads, in order to be proof aganist the ill-usage to 
which they were subjected. The expression would be more likely to catch a 
laufih from a Roman Audience, as there was a noble family at Rome of the 
surname of Capito. 

* To turn piforrriery-rVeT. 64- " Qjiadrapdari." He aeems to thwk that he m 



Sc. III. THE PEESIAN. 261 

become me, without risk of my own, to go seize upon tlie 
goods of other people ; nor do those persons please who do 
so ; I'm speaking out. For whoever does this, more for the 
sake of the public than of his own benefit, my mind can be 
induced to believe that he is a citizen both faithful and de- 
serving ; but if he should not prosecute to conviction tho 
breaker of the laws, let him pay one half of the intended 
penalty to the public. And let this, too, be written in that law ; 
when an informer has prosecuted any one, let the other in his 
turn^ sue him for just as much, and upon equal terms let them 
come before the Triumvirs*. If that were done, assuredly I'd 
tnake those nowhere to be seen, who here with their whitened 
nets^ lay siege to the property of others. But am I not a 
simpleton, to be taking care of the public interests when there 
are the magistrates, whose duty it is to take care of them ? 
Kow I'll in-doors here ; I'll go look after the scraps from 
yesterday, whether they have rested well or not ; whether they 
have had a fever^ ; whether they've been well covered up or 
not, so that no one could creep up to them. But the door 
is opening ; I must pause in my steps. 

Scene III. — Enter Toxilus, ^rom the house of his Master. 

Tox. (to himself). I've hit upon the whole matter, so 

that with his own money the Procurer may this day make 

reduced to the alternative of getting a living either by being a Parasite or an 
informer, and prefers the first. Informers were called " quadruplatores " at 
Rome, because tiiey received the fourth part of the tines paid by the persons 
against whom they informed. 

' Let the other in his turn) — Ver. 73. In case of his not obtaining a conviction. 
It is not improbable that the practices of informers were an especial annoyanca 
at the time when this Play was written. 

2 The Triumvirs) — Ver. 74. For an account of the magistrates called " Tres- 
viri," or " Triumviri," see the Notes to the Aulularia ana tne Amplntryon. 

' Whitened nets)— Ver. 76. By the use of the word " albo," " white," Grono- 
vius is led to think that the passage refers to the white book or paper upon which 
the rules and ordinances of the Praetor were written, and that the allusion is to 
the habit of informers hampering people, by repeated accusations of infringing 
the Praetor's rules. It seems, however, not improbable that he likens the accusa- 
tions of the informers (who of course pretended that they were only actuatt-i 
by a desire for the public good) to whitened nets, by reason of their speciousr.ess, 
^nd tiie difficulty of avoiding the meslies wiiich they spread in every direction. 

* Had a fever)— Ver. 80. By this expresaiuu he probably u:eans, " whetntr 
ttiey iiave been warmed up anaia 



262 PERSA ; Act I, 

her his freed-woman. But see, here's the Parasite whose 
assistance I have need of. I'll make believe as though I 
didn't see him ; in that way I'll allure the fellow. {Goes to 
the door, and calls to the Servants within.) Do you attend, 
you there, and quickly make haste, that I mayn't have any 
delay when I come in-doors. Mix the honied wine ; get. 
ready the quinces and the junkets^, that they may be nicely 
warmed upon the dishes, and throw in some scented cala- 
mus^. I' faith, that boon-companion of mine, I fancy, will be 
here just now. 

Sat. (apart). He's meaning me — Iwavo! 

Tox. 1 think that he'll be here just now from the hatha 
when he has bathed. 

Sat. (apart). How he does keep everything in its due 
order. 

Tox. Take you care that the gravy-cakes^ and the cheese- 
biscuits^ are hot ; don't be giving them to me unbaked. 

Sat. (apart). He's speaking the very fact; they are worth 
nothing raw, only if you swallow them warm. Then, unless 
the broth for the gravy-cakes is of a thick consistency, that 
miserable, thin, pale, transparent stuff, is worth nothing at 
all. The broth for a gravy-cake ought to be like a soup. 
I don't want it to be going into my bladder, I want it for 
my stomach. 

Tox. {^wetending not to see him). Some one, I know not 
who, is talking near me liere. 

Sat. (accosting him). my earthly Jupiter, your fellow* 
feaster addresses you. 

Tox. O Saturio, you've come opportunely for me. 



The junkets) — Ver. 89. " Colutea." These, according to some, were the 
fruit of a tree called by the same name ; others take tlie word to mean a large 
kind of quince. As there is some doubt on the subject, a general name has been 
adopted in the Translation. Warner thinks that tlie word means '■'■ inyrrli ;" but 
it is pretty clear that he is mistaken. Qainces were used in the wines of the 
ancients, as we learn from Columella. 

- Calamus) — Ver. 90. Supposed to be " sweet-scented rush." This was used, 
probably, for flavoring the wine. 

^ The gmvy-cakes) — Ver. 94. " Collyrse." These were cakes eaten with broth 
or gravy. 

* The cheese-buicmts) — Ver. 94. " Colliphia." These ■*ere mitde of a mixtort 
of flour and new cneesa 



So. III. THE PEESIAN. 263 

Sat. Upon my faith, you are telling a lie, and it becomes 
you not; for as Hungerio^ I'm come, not as Saturio am 1 
come. 

Tox. But you shall have something to eat ; for now the 
creature-comforts for the stomach are smoking away in-doors. 
I've ordered the remnants to be warmed. 

Sat. Why, it's the proper thing for the gammon to be 
served up cold the day after. 

Tox. I've ordered it so to be done. 

Sat. Any caviare^ ? 

Tox. G-et out — do you ask the question ? 

Sat. You have a capital notion of what's good^. 

Tox. But do you at all remember the matter about which 
I was making mention to you yesterday ? 

Sat. I recollect ; that the lamprey and the conger ought 
not to be made warm; for they are much better stripped 
of their meat* when cold. But why do we delay to com- 
mence the engagement ? While it's the morning, it befits 
all people to eat. 

Tox. It's almost too early in the morning. 

Sat. The business tliat you begin to do in the morning, 
that same lasts on throughout the day. 

Tox. Prithee, do give your attention to this. Por yester- 
day I mentioned it to you, and entreated you to lend me six 
hundred didrachms. 

Sat. I recollect it and am aware, both that you did ask 
me, and that I hadn't any to lend. A Parasite's good for 
nothing that has got money at home ; he has a longing at once 
to begin upon an entertainment, and to gobble away at his 

' Hungerio) — ^er. 105. In the original, " Esurio," " Hungerer." He puns on 
his name, which he b-iys ought to have no relation to "satur," " full," but rather 
to " esuriens," *' one who is hungry." 

-Any caviare) — Ver. 109. " Halec," or "alec," was a "pickle," or "salt 
liquor," made from fish, and, perhaps, especially herrings. It was probably whgA. 
for much the same purposes as anchovy sauce with us. 

^ A capiUd notion of what^s good) — Ver. 110. " Sapis multun ad Genium;'* 
more literally, " you have much good taste for enjoyment." 

* Stripped of theirmeat) — Ver. 113. " Oppectuntur." This word comes from 
" pecten," " a comb," and was not improbably used in especial reference to fish, 
8s the picking the meat off of a conger or a lamprey does reduce it to somewhat 
of the appearance of a comb. As to eating fish cold, see the words of Feripla- 
comeujis, in the Miles Gloriosus,|l. 760, and the Note. 



Si54 persa; Act 1' 

own expense, if be has anything at home. A Parasite ought 
to be a right down needy Cynic ; he ought to have a leatht.r 
bottle^, a strigil, an utensiP, a pair of slippers, a cloak, and a 
purse; and in that a little of the needful, with which he 
may just cheer up the existence of his own household. 

Tox. I don't want money now ; lend me your daughter. 

Sat. By my troth, never to any person whatsoever have 
I lent her as yet. 

Tox. Not for that purpose which you are insinuating. 

Sat. "Why do you want her then ? Tox. You shall know ; 
because she's of a pretty and genteel figure. 

Sat. Such is the fact. Tox. This Procurer {^pointing to 
the house of Doedalus) neither knows yourself nor your 
daughter. 

Sat. How should any one know me, except him who finds 
me food ? 

Tox. Such is the fact. This way you can find some 
money for me. Sat. I' faith, I wish I could. 

Tox. Then do you allow me to sell her. 

Sat. Ton to sell her ? 

Tox. Wliy no, I'll depute another person to sell her, and 
to say that he is a foreigner ; since it isn't six months since 
that Procurer removed hither from Megara^. 

Sat. The remnants are spoiling; this, however, can be 
done afterwards. 

Tox. Do you understand on what terms it can ? Never, on 
my word, shall you eat here this day, so don't be mistaken, 
before you declare to me that you'll do this that I'm request- 
ing ; and unless you bring your daughter with you hither at 
once as soon as you can, by my faith, I'll cashier you from 



* A leather hottle) — Ver. 126. " Ampullam." This was probably the bottle in 
which unguents were kept by the Parasite for the convenience of bathers. See 
the soliloquy of Gelasimus the Parasite, in the Stichus, 1. '228. 

" An utensil) — Ver. 126. " Scaphium." If this word has not the same mean- 
ing here as " matuhi," it will probably signify a bottle, which he ought to be in 
the habit of carrying about with him, for taking home any wine left after the 
entertainment. The use of the "socci" would show that his avocations were 
more confined to in-doors than the street, where tne use of them was considered 
effeminate. On the " stngil," see the Notes to the Stichus, 1. 228. 

' From Megara) — Ver. 139. This was a city not far from Athens, on the coa 
fines of Attica. 



Sc. ITI. THE PERSIAN. 265 

this squad. What now? What's the matter? Why don't 
you say what you will do ? 

Sat. I' troth, prithee sell even myself as well, if you like, 
BO long as you sell me with my stomach full. 

Tox. If you are going to do this, do it. 

Sat. Tor my part, I'll do what you desire. 

Tox. You act kindly. Make haste, be off home ; cleverly 
tutor your daughter beforehand, instruct her cunningly, 
what she is to say, where she is to declare she was born, 
who were her parents, how she was kidnapped. But let her 
declare that she was born at a distance from Athens ; and let 
her shed tears when she makes mention of it. 

Sat. Now won't you hold your tongue ? Three times more 
artful is she than you would have her be. 

Tox. I' troth, you say what's excellent. But do you know 
what you are to do ? Get a tunic and a girdle, and bring a 
scarf and a broad-brimmed hat for him to wear who is to sell 
her to this Procurer 

Sat. Well — capital ! Tox. As thougb he were a foreigner. 

Sat. I approve of it 

Tox. And do you bring your daughter cleverly drest up 
after a foreign fashion. 

Sag. " Oil sont^" the dresses ? Tox. Borrow them of the 
chorus-leader^. He ought to lend them ; the jEdiles^ have 
contracted for them to be found. 

Sat. I'll have them here just now. But I'm to be 
acquainted with nothing of these matters ? 

Tox. I' faitb, nothing, in fact. 3ut, when I've got the 
money, do you at once claim her of the Procurer. 

Sat. Let him keep her for himself, if I don't immediately 
carry her off from him. 

* Ou sonf) — Ver. 161. The word "whence" is expressed in the text by the 
Greek nodev. It has been previously remarked, that the Romans interlarded 
their dialogue with Greek expressions, in the same way that we adopt French 
words and phrases. 

2 The chai'us-leader) — "Ver. 161. " Chorego." As to the " choragus " or " master 
of the wardrobe," see the Curculio, Act IV., Sc. 1 (and the Note), where he is intro- 
duced as one of the Dramtitis Personse. See the Notes also to the Trinummus, 1 858. 

3 The jEdiles) — Ver. 162. It has been observed in previous Notes that the 
^diles had the management of the representations on the stage ; and probably 
they had a contract with the " choregi " that they should always have dresses and 
' properties " in readiness foe tne use ot tne actors. 



266 PEESA ; Act IL 

Tox. Be off and attend to this. (Uxit Saturio.) In the 
meantime, I want to send a boy to my mistress ; that she 
may be of good courage, and that I shall manage it to-day. 
I'm talking too much at length. (Goes into the house.) 

Act II. — Scene I. 
Enter Sophoclidisca and LemniselenEj^ow the house of 

DORDALUS. 

Soph. It were enough to tell an untaught, thouglitlesa, 
silly girl the same thing so many times over ; really, in fact, 
I do imagine that I'm quite looked upon by you as a block- 
head and a country booby. Although I do drink wine, still 
I'm not in the habit of swallowing down your commands 
together with it. I really had fancied that both myself and 
my ways had now been sufficiently proved by you ; for, as 
for me, I've attended you now these five years ; whereas, in 
that time, a cuckoo even, I do believe, if he had gone to school, 
could by now have been made to know his letters well; 
while, in the meantime, whether speaking or not speaking^, 
you have not made yourself acquainted with my disposition. 
Can you not hold your tongue ? Can you not cease advising 
me ? I remember, and I know, and I understand, and I 
keep in mind ; i' faith, you are in love, poor thing ; on that 
account your mind's disturbed. I'll cause that that shall be 
calmed for you. 

Lemn. Wretched is the person that's in love. (Goes into 
the house.) 

Soph, (to herself). Grood for nothing, indeed, he certainly 
is, who is in love with nothing. What need has that person 
of life ? I ought to go, that I may prove obedient to my 
mistress ; that through my aid she may the sooner become a 
free woman. I'll go meet this Toxilus, hoicever ; his ears I'll 
stuff with what has been enjoined upon me. (Stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Enter, from the house, Toxiltjs and P^gnium. 
Tox. Are these things quite clear and certaiQ to you — do 
you quite remember and understand them ? 

* Or not speaking) — Ver. 176. Sclimieder thinks, that by this expression So- 
phoclidisca alludes to the habitual taciturnity of Lemniselene; indeed, her quiet 
and inoffensive disposition is observable throughout the Play. In the concluding 
Scene the Procurer calls her " ignavia." " luino of kziness." 



8c. II. THE PEESIAW. 267 

P^G. Better than you who have instructed me. 

Tox. Say you so, you whip-rascal ? 

P^G. I really do say so. Tox. What did I say then ? 

P^G. I'll tell it to her all correctly. 

Tox. I' faith, you don't know it. 

P^G. Troth now, lay me a wager that I don't remember 
and know it all. 

Tox. Why, for my part, I'll lay a wager with you on this, 
whether you know your own self, how many fingers you have 
this day upon your hand. 

P^G. Without hesitation — if you are desirous to lose. 

Tox. A fair truce rather let there be. 

P^G. For that reason, then, do you let me go. 

Tox. I both bid and permit you. But I wish you so to 
attend to it, that you are back home while I'm thinkiug that 
you are there. 

P^G. I'll do so. {Moves towards their oum house,) 

Tox. Whither are you now going ? 

P^G. Home ; that I may be at home while you are think- 
ing that I am there. 

Tox. Ton are a rascal of a boy, and for this service I'll 

give you something to add^ to your savings. 

Pjgg. I'm aware how want of shame is wont to be imputed 
to a master's word, and that masters cannot ever be compelled 
to appear before the judge on account of those promises. 

Tox. Be off now. 

P^G. I'll give you reason to command me. 

Tox. But, Paegnium, take you care and give that letter to 
Lemniselene herself, and teU. her what I bade you. 

Soph, {apart). Do I delay to go whither I was sent? 

P^G. I'moff. Tox. Then do be oif; I'll off home. Take 
care and manage this business with attention. Ply post 
haste. ( Goes into the house.) 

Pjeg. That's what the ostrich^ is wont to do in the Circus, 

* Give you something to add) — Ver. 191. " Peculiabo." Some Commentators 
will have it that an indecent allusion is intended here. Possibly they are not mis- 
taken ; but it is a rather far-fetched one. 

' The ostrich') — Ver. 198. " Marinus passer." Literally, the " sea- sparrow.* 
Paegnium alludes to the mode in which the ostrich runs, in answer to the order 
of Toxilus, who tells him to fly. The ostrich, as it runs, flaps it wings as though 
flyinf Referring to Roman customs, P»gnium speaks as though he had see* 



268 PEESA ; Act II. 

He's off froiu here ni-aoors there. Biit who's this woman 
that's coming towards me ? 

Soph, {advancing). Surely this is Paegnium. 

Pjeg. This is Sophoclidisca, the private servant of her vo 
whom I'm sent. 

Soph, {aside) > There's not a person this day that's reported 
to be more arttul than this boy. I'll accost him. 

PiEG. At this bar^ I must come to a stop. 

Soph. Paegnium, my charmer of a boy, save you ; how are 
you ? How do you do ? 

P^G. Sophoclidisca, the Grods will favour me. 

Soph. Why "me?" Which of us V 

P^G. I' faith, I don't know. But if they were to do as 
you deserve, by my troth they'd hold you in hate, and treat 
you but badly. 

Soph. Do leave off your abusive talking. 

P^G. Since I'm saying just as you I'm talking to deserve, 
properly, not abusively.. 

Soph. What are you about now ? 

P^G. Standing opposite to you, looking at a worthless 
woman. 

Soph. For my own part, assuredly, I do not know any 
more good-for-nothing boy than yourself. 
' P^G. What mischief do I do, or to what person do I 
speak abusively? Soph. I' faith, to every one that you 
have the opportunity. 

P^G. Not an individual has ever thought so. 
' Soph. But, i' faith, full many a one knows that so it is. 

PiEG. Heyday, indeed ! Soph. Heyday, indeed ! 

PiEG. According to your own disposition you judge of the 
ways of others. 

> Soph. I certainly do confess that I'm just as befits one 
of a Procurer's household to he. 

ostriches m the Roman Circus. These, and wild beasts of every description, were 
hunted there at the " Venationes," for the amusement of the people. It is not 
improbable that ostriches had been recently introduced into Rome, as aorming part 
of the spoil of the Carthaginians. The Elmperor Probus, several centuries after 
this period, gave a " Venatio" of a thousand ostriches in the Circus. 

^ At this bar ) — Ver. 202. Seeing Sophoclidisca, he knows that »lie will stop him 
for a hit of gossip, aad he consequently stales her an '* -rbex," a "bar" or '• im- 
■pediment. ' 



Sc. II. THE PEESIAiy 26& 

Py£G. I've now had enough ol'your chattering. 

Soph. What say you ? Do you plead guilty to what I 
take you to be ? 

P^G. If I were so, I should confess it. 

Soph. Be off then ; you've got the victory. ~ 

P^G. Now then be off with you. 

Soph. Do you then tell me this — whither are you goicg ? 

P^G. Whither are you ? Soph. Say you. 

P^G. Say you. Soph. I was the first to ask. 

P^G. Then you shall be the last to know. 

Soph. I'm going not far hence. 

P^G. And I, indeed, not far. 

Soph, Whither then, you rascal ? 

P^G. Unless I know first of you, you shall never know this 
of me that you are enquiring. 

Soph. On my honor you shall never this day know before 
I've heard it of you. 

P^G. Is such the fact ? Soph. Is such the fact ? 

Pjsg. You are a worthless one. 

Soph. Eogue. P^g. That befits me. 

Soph. Me then it does not befit. 

PiEG. What do you say ? Are you quite determined, you 
hussy, to conceal whither you are going ? 

Soph. And are you quite resolved to hide whither you are 
betaking yourself, you scoundrel ? 

P^G. You are giving answer to what I say like for like ; 
be off with you then, since such is your determination. I 
don't care at all to know. Good-bye. (^Moving.) 

Soph. Stop ! P^g. But I'm in a hurry. 

Soph. And, i' faith, I as well. 

P^G. Have you got anything ? {^Pointing to her hand.) 

Soph. Have you anything ? {^Pointing likewise.) 

P^G. Eeally nothing whatever. 

Soph. Show me your hand then. 

PiEG. (showing his right hand). Is this the hand ? 

Soph. Where is that other, the pilfering left hand? 

P^G. {hiding his left hand). Why, it is at home, d'ye see ; 
I've not brought one hither. 

Soph, {trying to seize his hand). You've got something, 
w I Kit it is I know not. 

P.^G. {pushing her axcay). Don't be mauling me abou^ 
you bhe-groper. 



270 PER8A ; Act 11, 

Soph. "But suppose I'm in love with you. 

P^G. You employ your pains to no purpose. 

Soph. Why so ? Vmq. Why, because you are in love vrth 
nothing at all, when you are in love with one who doesn't 
return it. 

Soph. It befits these youthful looks and age to be on the 
watch for pleasure in good time ; so that, when your hair 
comes to change its hue, you may not be always in a gro- 
velling servitude. Why, really, as yet you are not eighty 
pounds in weight. 

P^G. Still, that warfare is waged much more successfully 
by spirit than by weight. But I'm losing my pains. 

Soph. Why so ? 

Pjeo. Because I'm teaching those who know it all. But 
I'm loitering here. (Moves.) 

Soph, (taking hold of him). Do stop. 

P^G. You are annoying to me. 

Soph. And so I shall be then, if I don't find out whither 
you are betaking yourself. 

P^G. To your house. 

Soph. And I to your house, i' faith. 

P^G. Why thither ? 

Soph. What's that to you ? 

P^G. (standing before her). Why, you shan't go now, 
unless, in return, I know. 

Soph. You are teazing. P^g. I choose to. 

Soph. Never, upon my faith, shall you wring this out of 
me, so as to prove yourself more artful than I am. 

P^G. It's a misery to contend with you in artfulness. 

Soph. You are a mischievous baggage. 

P^G. What is there for you to fear ? 

Soph. The very same that there is for you. 

P^G. Say then, what is it ? 

Soph. But I'm forbidden to tell this to any person, and 
am instructed that all the dumb people are to speak of it 
hefore myself 

Pjeg. And most especially was I cautioned not to trust 
this to any person, so that all the dumb people were to men- 
tion this before myself 

Soph. Still, do you do so ; on giving our words, let's trust 
each other. 

P-SG. 1 know /^w— all procuresaea are light of faith, and 



8c. III. flic PEitsiAir. 271 

the weight of a water-guat^ is not more light than is the word 
of a procurer. 

Soph. Tell me, there's a dear. 

Vmq. Tell me, there's a dear. 

Soph. I don't want to be your dear. 

Vjeq. You'll easily prevail upon nie in that. 

Soph. Keep it yourself. PiEO. And you be mum about 
this. (Showing her a letter.) 

Soph. It shall be kept a secret. 

PiEG. It shall not be known. (She shows Mm a letter?^ 

Soph. I'm carrying this letter to Toxilus, your master. 

P^G. Be off; he's there at home. And I am carrying this 
pinewood tablet sealed, to Lemniselene, your mistress. 

Soph. What's written there. P^g. If you don't know, 
pretty much like yourself, I don't know, except soft words, 
perhaps. 

Soph. I'm off. Pjeg. And I'll be off. 

Soph. Move on then. ( They go into the respective houses.) 

Scene III. — Miter Sagaeistio. 

Sag. (to himself). To Jove the opulent, the renowned, 
the son of Ops^, the strong, the mighty in power, who 
riches, hopes, kind plenty does bestow, joyously and grate- 
fully do I offer the sacrifice of thanksgiving, inasmuch as 
in a friendly way they have bestowed for my friend this 
opportunity of satisfying his necessity and of borrowing the 
money, so that I can lend him aid in his need. Whereas I 
no more dreamed, or thought, or imagined that I should 
have this opportunity — that same has now fallen from heaven 
as it were. For my master has sent me to Eretria^ ; he 

* Weight of a water-gnaf) — Ver. 243. " Tipulae," a " water-gnat," or " water- 
spider." This is a very pretty illustration. On a sunny day these little animals 
may be seen in hundreds skating over the surface of still water. Warner suggests 
that this simile may have been a proverbial one. 

2 The son of Ops) — Ver. 250. He seems to intend a jingle on the resemblance 
between " Jove the opulent" and " the son of Ops." The Goddess Ops of the 
Romans w us the same Divinity as the Rhea of the Greeks, and was daughter of 
Coelus ana Terra, and became the mother of Jupiter by her husband Saturn. 
Slie was also known by the name o'^ Cybele, Bona Dea, Magna Mater, and Tellus. 

» Eretria) — Ver. 260 This was a city in the is'and of Euboea, on the Eastern 
MAst of Greece. 



272 PETISA.;.-. Act n. 

hii9 ^Yen me the money to purchase some trained oxen 
for him ; but he said that the fair would take place seven 
d;iys hence ; a simpleton to trust this money to me whoso 
jjropensity he knew ; for this money I shall misapply in som€> 
other purpose : there were no oxen for me to buy. Now I'll 
both promote the success of my friend, and will give my in- 
cliniition full enjoyment. The pleasures that belong to a long 
time will I serve up in a single day. Crack, crack^ it will 
be upon my back ; I don't care. Now, to a person that is 
my friend I shall present these trained oxen from out of my 
purse; for this, in fact, is a delightful thing, handsomely 
to bite your thrice-dotted niggardly, antiquated, covetous, 
spiritless people, who against their servant seal up the salt- 
cellar with the salt. It's a virtue, when occasion prompts, 
to hold them in contempt. What will he do to me ? He'll 
order me to be beaten with stripes, the fetters to be put on. 
I may get a beating. Don't let him fancy that I shall go 
oegging to him. "Woe be unto him ! Nothing new can now 
be inflicted upon me but what I have already experienced it. 
But see, here comes Paegnium, Toxilus's boy. 



Scent; IY. — Enter P^gnifm, from the home of Dordalus. 

PiEG. {to himself). My task that was set me I've finished ; 
now I'm hastening home. 

Sag. Stop, although you are in haste — Paegnium, listen 
to me, 

P^G. Tou ought to buy a person, for you to desire to be 
obedient to you. (Moves on.) 

Sag. Stop there, / say. PiEG. You'd be giving some 
trouble, I fancy, if I were to be owing you anything, who are 
now so troublesome. 

Sag. You rascal, will you look back then ? 

P.EG. I am aware of what age I am ; for that reason you 
rill all get off for this abuse with impunity. 

Sag. Where is Toxilus, your master ? 

PvEG. Wherever he pleases, and he don't ask your advice. 

Sag. Won't you tell me, then, where he is, you villain? 

» (Jrackt (Tack)— Yer. 265. " Tax. t»» " The noise of the cracking of ttM 



Sc. IV. THE PERSIAN. 27S 

P^Q. I don't know, I say, you eim-twig spoiler^. 
8ag. You are abusive to your senior. 
P^G. As you deserved it first, do you put up with it. 
yij master bade me hold my labour at his bidding, my 
tongue in freedom. 

Sag. Will you not tell me, where is Toxilus ? 
P^o. I tell you that — ^you may go to perdition ever- 
lasting. 

Sag. This day you shall be flogged with a rope's end. 
P^G. On your account, indeed, you cuckoo ! I' faith, you 
carrion, if I were to give you a broken head, I shouldn't be 
afraid of that. 

Sag. I understand you, you've been up to^ some bad work 
just now. 

P^G. So I have. What business is that to you ? But I 
haven't, like yourself, all for nothing. 
Sag. Assurance ! 

P^G. I' faith, I certainly am ; for I am assured that J 
shall be free ; don't be hoping that you'll ever be so. 
Sag. Can't you cease your impertinence ? 
Pjeg. That which you are mentioning, you can't do i/om- 
self. Sag. Away with you to utter perdition. 

PiEG. And off" home vdth you ; for there it's all ready 
prepared for you. 

Sag. He summons me^ on my recognizances. 
P^G. I only wish the sureties may be out of the way, so 
that you may get to prison. 

Sag. Why's this ? P^g. Aye^ why is it ? 
Sag. Still abusing me, rascal ? 

P-EG. Why, inasmuch as you are a slave, it ought at 
least to be allowed a slave to abuse you. 

» Elm twig spoiler) — Ver. 279. " Ulmitriba." This word is composed of the 
Latin " ulmus," " an elm," and the Greek rpijSco, " to rub" or " wear ;" and 
may mean either " one beaten " or " rubbed with elm-twigs," or " one that wears 
elm-twigs." 

2 You^ve been up to) — Ver. 285. This passage is somewhat modified in the 
Translation. 

• He summons me) — Ver. 290. The meaning of this allusion is somewhat 
•bscure ; but it seems likely that when Paegnium uses the word '* praesto," 
** ready," or " in preparation," Sagaristio understands him to speak of " pras," 
* a surety" or " bail ;" on which he remarjcs that P»gnmm ig calling hini ja 
ais surety. 

TOL. II. S 



274 PERSA ; Act 11. 

SAfr. And is it 80 ? Just look {holding up his Jist) what 
I shall give you. 

PvEG. Nothing ; for nothing have you. 

Sag. May all the Grods and Goddesses confound me, if I 
don't this very day, if I lay hold of you, fell you to the 
ground with blows. 

PiEG, I am your friend ; I trust that what you wish may 
befaU you, and that it may come to pass ; if you fell me^, 
may others make you feel yourself fixed to the cross before 
long. 

Sag. But you may the G-ods and Groddesses Tou 

understand what I was going to say after that, if I hadn't 
been able to restrain my tongue. Can't you be oif ? 

P^G. You drive me off with ease ; for already my sha- 
dow's getting^ a whipping in-doors. (Goes info the house.) 

Sag. (to himself). May the Gods and Goddesses confound 
that fellow ! just like a crawling serpent he has got a double 
tongue, and is a wicked one. Upon my faith, I'm glad he's 
gone. (Going towards the door.) Open, you door. But 
look! he's coming from within, the person that I most 
especially wished to meet with. 

Scene Y. — !Enter Toxilvs, from his Master's house, followed 

hy SOPHOCLIDISCA. 

Tox. (to Sophoclidisca). Tell her that it's now arranged 
whence the money is to come. Bid her be of good heart ; 
tell her that I love her exceedingly. "When she cheers up, 
then does she cheer me up. AYhat I've told you to teU her, 
do you quite understand it ? 

Soph. Better than your legs^ under-stand you, do I under- 
stand it. 

» If you fell me) — ^\''er. 296. " Tu ut me defigas, te cruci ipsuiti propediem alii 
affigant." Literally, " should you fix me down, may others before long be fixing 
yourself up to the cross;" the play being upon the verbs "defigo" and "affigo." 
An attempt has been made to give a somewhat similar pun in the Translation. 

' My shadow's getting)— Ver. 299. Being close to the house, and in a hurry to 
get home, he says that his shadow is in the house already, getting the beating 
which awaits its owner for having been so long on his errand. 

» Better than your legs) — ^Ver. 307. " Magis calleo, quam aprugnum coUum 
rallet." This pnn carnot be appreciated ir a literal translation, and another J8 
•abstituted, for wh'ch we are indebted to V'amer. The play is UDon the resem* 



f5c» V, THE PERSIAN. 275 

Tox. Make all haste, be off home. (Sophoclidtsca gnea 
into the Jiouse of DordaJjUS.) 

Sag. (apart). Now I'll make myself a perfect droll towards 
him ; I'll carry myself with arms a-kimbo, and assume a 
lordly air^. (Struts along.) 

Tox. But who's this that's walking like a two-handled 
jug2? 

Sag. (apart). I'll spit about me in a dignified style. 
(Spits about.) 

Tox. Why, surely this is Sagaristio. How are you, Saga- 
ristio ? How do you do ? Is there any tiny hope in you aa 
to that which I entrusted to you ? 

Sag. (in a lofty way). Step this way ; it shall be seen to ; 
I would have it done. Advance — move forward. 

Tox. What's this swelling^ here upon your neck ? (Touclies 
his neclc.) 

Sag. It's a tumour; forbear to press it, for when any 
person touches it with a rude hand, pain is the result. 

Tox. When did that first come upon you ? Sag. To-day. 

Tox. Tou should order it to be lanced. 

Sag. I'm afraid to lance it before it's ripe, lest it should 
cause me more trouble. 

Tox. I'd like to examine your complaint. (Comes nearer.) 

Sjlq. (retreating). Be off", and do be careful, will you, of 
the horns. Tox. Why so ? 

Sag. Because a couple of oxen are here in the purse. 

Tox. Do let them out, please ; don't starve them with 
hunger — do let them go to pasture. 

Sag. Why, I'm afraid that I mayn't be able to drive them 
back to their stall, lest they should wander. 

blance of "calleo," " to understand," '* calleo," "to be hard," and "collum," 
" the hard part," jr " brawn, of a boar's neck." Literally translated, it is, " I 
understand in a better degree than the brawn of a boar's neck is hard." This 
pun occurs also in the Poenulus, 1. 577. 

» Assume a lordly air) — Ver. 308. " Amicibor." By the use of this word, he 
clearly refers to some peculiar way of assuming a jaunty air, probably by tucking 
up a portion of the dress In the same way we read in our old Novelists of 
military men " cocking their hats" to look fierce. To spit with noise and gesture 
was also considered to give an air of importance. 

' Like a two- handled jug)— Ver. 309. " Ansatus." His arms beiiig arkimbo, 
he compares him to a jug with two handles. 

» Whafs this swelling)— Ver. 313. He has the purse slung round his ncy;H 
nnderneath his iress. Tliis bulges out, and Toxilus asks him what it is. Th'jp» 
4fj a somewhat similar Scene in the Asinaria, between Libanus and Leonidifc. 

t2 



276 peesa; Act 111. 

Tox. I'll drive tliem back; be of good heart 

Sag. You shall be trusted then; I'll lend them yen 
Follow this way, please {talcing the 'purse from his neck) ; in 
this there is the money which you were asking me lor a 
short time since. 

Tox. "What is it you say ? 

Sag. My master has sent me to Eretria to purchase some 
oxen ; at present my Eretria shall be this house of yours. 

Tox. Ton speak quite enchantingly ; and I shall very 
soon return you all the money safe; for now I've ar- 
ranged and put in readiness all my devices, in which way 
I'm to get this money out of this Procurer. 

Sag. So much the better. 

Tox. Both for the damsel to be set at liberty, and, still fur- 
ther, for himself to pay the money. But follow me ; I have 
need of your assistance in this affair. 

Sag. Make use of it just as you please. {They go into the 
house.) 

Act III. — Scene I. 

Enter Sattjeio an'd his Daughtee^, in the hahit of a 
Peesian. 

Sat. May this same matter turn out well for me, and for 
yourself, and for my stomach, and for everlasting victuals 
for it as well for all time to come ; that I may have more 
than enough, a superfluity, and that it may outlast me. 
Eollow me this way, my daughter, with the Gods' good 
leave. The matter to which we are to give our attention, you 
know, you remember, you understand ; to you I have commu- 
nicated all my designs. Eor that reason have I dressed jon 
out after this fashion ; young woman, to-day you are to be 
sold. 

Datj. Prithee, my d^ar father, although you do eagerly 
long for victuals at another's cost, are you for the sake of 
your appetite going to sell your own daughter ? 

Sat. It is a wonder, indeed, if I don't sell you, who ai-e 
my own, for the sake of King Philip or Attains^, rather than 
my own. 

' Daughter) Her name is not given in the Play though she pretends, when 
asked by Dordalus, that it is Lucris, 

- FliUip or Attahis) — Ver. 340. Attains was the name of three wealthy kingi 
srf T' TgHmus. PiiJlip wan the name of several of Uie Macedonian monarcii. 



SC. I. THE PEESIAN. 277 

Dau. Wlietlier do you regard me as your slave or as yoiir 
daug iter ? 

Sai. I' faith, that of the two which shall appear most for 
the interest of my stomach; it's my authority over you, I 
suppose, not yours over me. 

Dau. This power is yours, father ; but still, although our 
circumstances are but very limited, it's better to pass our 
lives with frugality and moderation ; for if disgrace is added 
to poverty, poverty will be more unendurable, our character 
more frail. 

Sat. Why really you are impertinent. 

Datj. I am not, nor do I think that I am, when, though of 
youthful age, I give good advice to my father. Por enemies 
carry about slander not in the form in which it took its rise. 

Sat. Let them carry it about, and let them go to utter 
and extreme perdition. I don't value all their enmities any 
more than if an empty table were now set before me. 

Dau. Father, the scandal of men is everlasting ; even 
then does it survive, when you would suppose it to be 
dead. 

Sat. What ? Are you afraid lest I should sell you ? 

Dau. I am not afraid of that, father; but I wish you not 
to pretend to do so. 

Sat. Then it's in vain you wish me not ; this shall be done 
rather after my own fashion than yours. 

Dau. Shall be done ! 

Sat. "What is the matter, now? 

Dau. Father, reflect upon these words : if a master has 
threatened punishment to a slave, although it is not in- 
tended to be, stillj when the whip is taken up, while he is 
taking off his tunics, with what an amount of misery is he 
afflicted. Now, that which is not to be, I'm still in fear of. 

Sat. Damsel or woman none will there ever be, but what 
she must be good for nothing, who is too wise to be giving 
satisfaction to iier parents. 

Dau. Damsel and woman none can there be, but what she 
must be good for nothing, who holds her peace if she seea 
anything going on wrong. 

Sat. 'Tvvere better for you to beware of a mischief. 

Dau. But if I cannot beware, what am 1 to do ? !Fcf 
it's as to yourself I wish to beware. 



278 PEESA; Act III. 

- Sat. Wliat, am I a miscliief ? 

Dau. You are not, nor is it becoming for me to say so ; 
but for this purpose am I using my endeavours, that others 
may not say so who have that liberty. 

Sat. Let each one say what he pleases ; from this purpose 
I shall not be moved. 

Dau. But, could it be after my own way, you would be 
acting prudently, rather than foolishly. 

Sat. It is my pleasure. Datj. I know that I must let it 
be your pleasure so far as I'm concerned; but it should not 
please you to be your pleasure, if I had my way. 

Sat. Are you going to be obedient to your father's orders, 
or not ? Dau. To be obedient. 

Sat. Do you know then what I instructed you ? 

Dau. Everything. Sat. Both this, how you were stolen ? 

Dau. I understand it perfectly well. 

Sat. And who your parents were ? 

Daf. I keep it in my memory. You cause me of neces- 
sity to be artful ; but take you care, when you wish to give 
me in marriage, that this story doesn't cause the match to 
be given up. 

Sat. Hold your tongue, simpleton. Do you not see the 
customs of people now-a-days, that marriage is easily effected 
here with a reputation of any kind ? So long as there's a 
marriage-portion, no fault is reckoned as a fault. 

Dau. Then take you care, and let this occur to your 
thoughts, tliat I am without a fortune. 

Sat. Take you care, please, how you say that. By my 
faith, through the merits of tlie Gods and of my ancestors 
I'll say it, you must not say that you are without a fortune, 
wno nave a marriage-portion at home. Why look, I've got 
a wliole carriage-full^ of books at home. If you carefully 
give your attention to this matter in which we are exerting 
ourselves, six hundred bon-mots shall be given you out of 
them as a fortune, all Attic ones=^, too ; you shall not receive 

» Whole, carriage-full)— N^r. 393. " Soracum." This, which was also called 
" sarracum," was, according to Festus, a vehicle especially used for the purpose of 
carrying dresses, scenery, and theatrical properties. 

- All Attic ones) — Ver. 396 In this remark lie refers to the pure language of 
Altica, in contrast with the patois, or mixture of Greek and Latin, spoken by 
Uie Sicilians. It is not improbable that the Parasite alludes to the examplft *4 



Sc. lil. THE I'EfibiAN. 279 

a single Sicilian one. "With this for a fortune, you miglit 
saffly marry a beggar even^. 

Dau. AVhy, then, don't you take me, father, if you aro 
going to take me anywhere ? Either do you sell me, or do 
icith me what you please. 

Sat. Tou ask what's fair and right. Follow me this way. 

Dau. I'm obedient to your command. {They go into the 
house, to ToxiLUS.) 

Scene II. — Enter Dordalus, from his hoiise. 

Doe. {to himself). I wonder what I'm to say my neighbour 
is going to do, who swore to me that he would pay the 
money to-day ? But if he should not pay it, and this day go 
by, I shall have forfeited the money, he his oath. But the door 
there makes a noise. I wonder who's coming out of doors ? 

Scene III. — Enter ToxiLus,^om his Master's house, with 
a purse in his hand. 

Tox. {speaking at the door to the Persons within). Take 
you care of that in-doors ; I shall betake myself home just now. 

Dor. Toxilus, how are you ? Tox. How now ! — pimping 
filth mixed up with mud ! How now ! — public dung-heap 1 
dirty, dishonest, lawless, enticer, disgrace to the public ; you 
hawk after money, greedy and envious; you impudent, 
rapacious, craving fellow (in three hundred lines no person 
could run through your villanies), will you take the money ? 
{Holding out the purse.) Take the money, will you, shame- 
less fellow. Take hold of the money, will you. Are you 
going to take the money, then ? Can I make you take the 
money, filth ? {Keeps moving it away.) Tou didn't suppose 
that I should have had so much money — you, who didn't 
venture to trust me at all except upon oath ? 

Dor. Do let me recover breath, so as to give you an 
answer. Eellow, dregs of the populace, you stable for she- 
slaves, you liberator of harlots, you surface for the lash, you 
wearer-out of the fetters, you citizen of the treadmill, you 

Homer, who, ^lian informs us, was said to have given Ins " Cypnan poems'' aa 
a portion to his daughter. 

» Marry a heggar even) — Ver. 397. As being sure of always Oeing above wwjt 



280 PERSA ; Act III. 

8lave everlastingly, you gormandizer, glutton, pilferer, run- 
away, give me the money, will you. Grive me the money^ 
impudence. Can I get the money out of you? Grive me 
the money, I say. Why don't you give me the money ? 
Are you ashamed of nothing ? You impersonation of sla- 
very, a Procurer is asking money of you for the liberation 
of your mistress, so that all may hear it. 

Tox. Troth now, prithee, do hold your tongue. For sure 
your voice is in first-rate strength. 

Dor. I've got a tongue made for returning a compliment. 
Salt is provided for me at the same price as for yourself; 
Unless this tongue protects me, it shall never lick a bit of 
salt. 

Tox. I'll cease to be angry now. It was for this I blamed 
you, because you refused to trust me for the money. 

Doe. 'Twas a wonder, indeed, that 1 didn't trust you, that 
you might do the same to me that some of the bankers do^. 
When you've entrusted them with anything, tliey imme- 
diately run more quickly away from the Forum than a 
hare, wlien, at the games^, he's let out of the entrance of 
Ms cage. 

Tox. (Jiolding out the money). Take this, will you. 

Dor. Why don't you give it then ? 

Tox. {giving it). There will be here six hundred di- 
drachms, full weight and counted ; cause the damsel to be 
set at liberty, and bring her out here forthwith. 

Dor. I'll have her here this moment. I' faith, I don't 
know to whom now to give this money to be tested^. 

Tox. Perhaps you are afraid to entrust it to any one's 
hands ? Doe. Strange if I wasn't. More quickly, now-a- 

» Some qfihe bankers oo)— Ver. 485. As to the character of the " argentarii," 
or " bankers," at Rome at this period, see the Curculio, 1. 373, and the Pseu- 
dolus, ]. '296, and the Notes to those passages. 

2 When, at the games) — Ver. 437. He probably alludes to the games in the Circns, 
at the Floralia, or Festival of Flora, when hares and deer were hunted. See the 
Fasti of Ovid, B. 5, 1. 872. These animals were sometimes brought in nets, and 
sometimes in cages, the " porta," or " door," of which is here mentioned Pro- 
bably, one reason for hunting the hare was the fact that it is destructive td 
flowe.-s (especially pinks and carnations), which were tinder the tutelage of 
Flora. 

' To be tested) — Ver. 441. The " argentarn" were licensed to be " probatore^,' 
" triers" or " assayers" of the goodness of the coin in circulation. 



Adt IV. THE PEllSIAN. 281 

days, do bankers abscond from the Forum, than a wheel spina 
round in a race. 

Tox. (pointing). Do you go that way, through the alleys, 
the back way to the Forum^ ; let this damsel pass through 
the same way to our house, through the garden. 

Doe. I'll have her here this moment. 

Tox. But not in public view. Doe. Very discreet. 

Tox. To-morrow she must go to return thanks^. 

Doe. r faith, just so indeed. 

Tox. While you've been loitering, you might have got 
hsuik. {Exit DoEDALUS ; Toxilus goes into the house.) 

Act IV. — Scene I. 

Enter Toxilus. 

Tox. {to himself^. If you give attention to any matter 
with steadiness or with good management, that same is wont 
properly to thrive to your satisfaction. And, by my faith, 
pretty nearly according as each man gives attention to his 
business, in the same manner do the results^ finally ensure 
him success. If he is knavish or a rogue, the business turns 
out badly which he has commenced ; but if he uses good 
management, it results profitably. Cleverly and skill'ully 
did I commence upon this business; for that reason do I 
trust that it will turn out well for me. Now, I'll this day 
have the Procurer so hampered, that he shan't know himself 
which way to extricate himself. {Goes to the door.) Saga*- 

* Back way to the Forum) — Ver. 445. Dordalus is to go through his house 
(which adjoins that of the master of Toxilus) to the Forum, for the purpose of 
procuring the manumission of Lemniselene from the Prsetor, who sits in court 
there. The reason for his being advised by Toxilus to go the back way probably 
is, that he does not wish, by their walking in the main street, to attract attention 
to the fact that he has purchased her freedom. The Procurer, too, having to 
carry the money to the assayers, probably would not like to attract too much 
attention to his precious burden. As they are to come back the same way, Lem- 
niselene is to enter the house where Toxilus lives at the back entrance, which ac- 
counts for her coming thence, in the Fifth Act, without having appeared on the 
stage since she went back, after speaking with Sophoclidisca, into the house oi 
Dordalus. 

^ Go to return tJumks) — Ver. 448. It was the custom solemnly to return thanks 
to the Deities on liberation from servitude. 

» The results') — Ver, 453. " Pof tprincipia " Literally, " the continuwice of • 
ihing after it is once be^uiu" 



I 



282 PERSA ; Act IV. 

ristio, hallo ! Come forth, and bring out tLe ycung woman, 
and that letter which I sealed for you, which you brought 
me all the way from Persia, from my master. 

ScEKE II. — Enter Sagaeistio and the Daughter of Sa- 
TVJLio,from the hoiise, each dressed in Persian costume. 

Sac. Have I delayed at all ? 

Tox. Bravo ! bravo ! dressed out in splendid style. (To 
Sagaeistio.) The tiara^ does finely set off your dress. 
Then, too, how beautifully does the slipper become this 
stranger damsel ! But are you thoroughly up in your parts ? 

Sag. Tragedians and Comedians have never been up so well. 

Tox. Troth, you are giving me kind assistance. Come, 
be off that way (pointing), to a distance out of sight, and 
hold your tongue. When you see me conversing with the 
Procurer, that wiU be the time to accost us ; now be off, you, 
— away with you. (Sagaeistio and the Damsel yo aside^ 
out ofsi^ht.) 

Scene III. — Enter Doedalus. 

Doe. (to himself). The man to whom the Deities are pro- 
pitious, in his way they throw some profit. For I this 
day have made a saving of two loaves daily ; this way, she 
who this day was my slave is now her own ; by his cash he 
has prevailed ; this day then she'll be dining at the expense 
of another, she'll be tasting nothing of mine. Am I not a 
worthy man, am I not a courteous citizen, who this day have 
made the extensive state of Attica still larger, and increased 
it by a female citizen ? But how obliging have I been 
to-day ! To how many have I given credit, and have from no 
person taken surety ; so readily did I give credit to all : and 
I don't fear that of those whom I've trusted to-day any one 
will forswear himself against me upon trial. I wish from 
this day forth to be honest — a thing that never will be and 
never was. 

Tox. (apart). This fellow, this very day, by clever contri- 
vances, I'll catch in a springe ; and so the snare is cunningly 

' The tiara) — ^Ver. 465. The " tiara" was a head-dress with a large high crown, 
which covered the ears, and was worn especially by the Armenians, Parthians^ 
and Persians. The King of Persia wore an erect " tiara," while that of his sub- 
iects was soft and flexible, falKng on one side. 



Sl-. III. THE FERSIXS. 283 

laid for him; I'll accost the fellow. (Aloud.) "W"hat are 
you about ? Dor. Giving credit. 

Tox. Whence do you betake yourself, Dordalus ? 

Dob. I'm going to give you credit^. 

Tox. May the Gods grant whatever you may desire. 
How now, have you given the damsel her liberty by this ? 

Dob. I'm going to give you credit, i' faith, I'm going to 
give you credit, I repeat. 

Tox. Are you now increased in number by one freed- 
woman ? Dor. You worry me to death. Why, I tell you 
that I'll give you credit. 

Tox. Tell me in sober truth, is she now at liberty ? 

Dor. Go, go to the Forum, to the Praetor^ ; make all en- 
quiries, since you don't choose to give me credit. She is at 
liberty, I say. Do you hear me at all ? 

Tox. May all the Deities bless you then. And never 
from this time forward, will I wish to you or yours what 
you don't wish. 

Dor. Be off : don't be swearing that. I quite believe you. 

Tox. Where is your freed-woman now ? 

Dor. At your house. 

Tox. Do you say so ? Is she at our house ? 

Dor. I do say so, I tell you; she is at your house, I say. 

Tox. So may the Deities favour me, for this thing many 
blessings from me are in store for you: for there's a certain 
matter, which I refrained from mentioning to you ; now I'll 
disclose it, and from it you can make a very large profit. 
I'll give you cause to remember me so long as you exist. 

Dob. My ears are wanting some kind deeds by way of 
assistance to these kind words. 

Tox. It's onli/ your deserts, that I should do as you de- 
serve. And that you may know that I will do so, take this 
letter (showing him a letter) ; read it over. 

* To give you credit) — Ver. 484. He probably says this satirically, as Toxilas 
has really paid him the money. If so, we must suppose that his soliloquy is 
spoken in a bantering manner, on the absurdity of trusting people. Perhaps he 
has been just requested f.t the Forum to give credit to some intended customers. 
It is not improbable that a portion of this Play is lost here, or that it is in a very 
corrupt state. 

« To the Prator) — Ver. 488. Who has just manumitted the damsel, by his 
lictor laying upon her the "■ vindicta," or *' festuca," the rod of liberty," and 
then registering her name. 



28i PER£A.; Act IV. 

Doe. What has this got to do with me ? 

Tox. "Why yes, it bears reference to yourself, and it does 
relate to you. But it has just now been brought me froiu 
Persia, from my master. 

Dos. When ? Tox. Not long since. 

Doe. What does it say ? 

Tox. Make enquiry of its own self: it will tell you itself. 

Doe. Grive it me, then. {Taking it from Toxilus.) 

Tox. But read it aloud. 

Doe. Be silent while I read it over. 

Tox. I'll not utter a word. 

Doe. (reading). " Timarchides sends health to Toxilus 
and all the family. If you are well, I am glad ; I am quite 
well, and carrying on my business, and am making money ; 
and I am not able to return home for these eight months, 
for there is some business which detains me here ; the Per- 
sians have taken Chrysopolis^, a city of Arabia, full of good 
things, and an ancient town ; there the booty is being col- 
lected, that a public auction may be made; this matter 
causes me to be absent from home. I wish attention and 
hospitality to be shown to the person who brings tliis letter 
to you. Attend to what he wants ; for at his own house at 
home he has shown me the greatest attentions." What has 
it to do with me or my welfare, what matters the Persians 
are about, or what your master is doing ? 

Tox. Hold your tongue, silly babbler ; you don't know 
what blessing awaits you. It's in vain that Fortune is ready 
to light for you her torch that leads to profit. 

Doe. What Fortune is this that leads to profit ? 

Tox. {'pointing to the letter). Ask that which knows: I 
know about as much as yourself, except that I was the 
first to read it through. But as you've begun, learn the 
matter from the letter. 

Doe. You counsel me aright. Keep silence. 

Tox. Now you'll come to that which does relate to your 
interest. 

Doe. (reading on). " The person that brings this letter, 
has taken with him a well-bred female of engaging 
charms, who has been stolen, and brought from the in- 

' Ckrynopolis) — Ver. 515. Chrysopolis (Golden City) would have peculiaf 
ehanns to: the ear of Dordalus; of course there was no such place in reality- 



Sc. III. THE PERSIAN. 285 

most parts of Arabia ; I wish you to take charge of her that 
she may be sold there; but he who makes purcliase of 
her, must buy her at his own risk; nobody will promise 
or give a warranty. Take you care that he receives money 
fidl weight and counted. IPay attention to this, and give 
attention that the stranger is attended to. rarewell." 

Tox. What then ? After you have read over what has 
been committed to the wax, do you believe me now ? 

Dor. Where now is this stranger that brought this let- 
ter ? Tox. He'll be here just now, I believe ; he has sent 
for her from the ship. 

Doe. I don't want any lawsuits or quirks at all. Why 
should I be laying out so much money at such a distance ? 
Unless I get her on warranty, what need have I of this 
purchase ? 

Tox. Will you, or will you not, hold your tongue ? I never 
did believe you to be such a blockhead. What are you afraid 
off , _ _ 

Doe. I' faith, I really am afraid ; I've experienced it now 
so many times, and it wiU not befall me without having 
already experienced it, to be getting stuck in such a quag- 
mire. 

Tox. There seems to be no risk. 

Doe. I know that ; but I'm afraid about myself. 

Tox. It matters nothing whatever to me, so far as I'm 
concerned ; it's for your sake I mentioned it, that I might at 
the earliest moment give you an opportunity of advanta- 
geously purchasing her. 

Doe. I return you thanks ; bat it's a nicer thing for you 
to become wise through others, than for others through 
yourself. 

Tox. Surely no person can follow after her from the in- 
most parts of Arabia. Will you make purchase of her, then ? 

Doe. Only let me see the commodity. 

Tox. Tou say what's fair. But look, most a propos, the 
stranger is coming himself, who brought this letter hither. 

Doe. {pointing down the side-scene). Is that he ? 

Tox. That's he. Doe. And is that the girl that was 
utolen ? 

Tox. I know just about as well as yourself, except that 1 



28t5 persa; Act IV 

have seen her. Upon my faith, she certainly is genteel look- 
ing, whoever she is. 

Doe. Faith, she has pretty regular features. 

Tox. {aside). With what contempt the hang-dog doe» 
speak of her. {To Dobdalus.) Let's examine her beauty in 
silence. 

Dor. I approve of your advice. (They stand aside.) 

Scene IV. — Enter Sagaristio and the Dattghtee of 
Satueio, dressed as Peesians. 

Sag. Doesn't Athens seem to you a rich and opulent 
place ? 

Datj. I've seen the appearance of the city ; the customs 
of the people I've observed but little of. 

Tox. {apart). At the very outset has she forborne to make 
a wise remark. 

Doe. {apart). I cannot by her very first words form an 
estimate of her wisdom. 

Sag. What as to that which you have seen ? How doea 
the city seem fortified to you, with its wall ? 

Datj. If the inhabitants have good morals, I think it's pro- 
perly fortified. If Perfidiousness, and Peculation, and Avarice 
are exiled from the city. Envy in the fourth place, Ambition 
in the fifth. Scandal in the sixth, Perjury in the seventh. 

Tox. {apart). Bravo ! 

Dau. Idleness in the eighth. Injustice in the ninth, Immo- 
rality, which is the very worst in its attack, in the tenth. If 
these things shall not be away from it, a wall a hundred-fold 
were too little for preserving its interests. 

Tox. {apart). What say you ? Doe. {apart) . What do you 
mean? 

Tox. {apart). Tou are among those ten companions; you 
must depart in banishment from here. 

Dor. {apart). ^Wa^ so? Tox. {apart). Because you are 
perjured. 

Dor. {apart). Beally she has spoken not without some 
cleverness. 

Tox. {apart). That's to your advantage, I say ; you buy 
her. 



Sc. ly. THE PERSIAN. 287 

Doe. {apart). Upon my faith, the more I look at her, the 
more she pleases me. 

Tox. {apart). If you do buy her, immortal Gods, no other 
Procurer will be more wealthy than yourself; at your will 
you'll be turning people out of their estates and households ; 
you'll be transacting business with mel« of the highest rank ; 
they'll be longing for your favour ; they'll be coming to make 
merry at your house. 

Don. {apart). But I shan't allow them to be admitted. 

Tox. {apart). But then at night they'll be singing^ before 
your threshold, and be burning down your door ; do you at 
once order your house to be fastened with a door of iron-, 
change for a house of iron, fix in thresholds of iron, a bar of 
iron and a ring ; if you don't prove sparing of the iron, do 
you order thick fetters of iron to be rivetted upon yourself. 

Dob. {apart). Away to utter perdition ! Tox. {pushint/ 
him). Go then, make purchase of her, and follow my advice. 

Dor. {apart). Only let me know how much he asks for 
her. 

Tox. {apart). Should you like me to call him here ? 

Dor. {apart). I'll go to him. 

Tox. {accosting him). How fare you, guest ? 

Sag. I'm come ; I've brought her {pointing to the Dam- 
sel), as I just now said I would. For yesterday at night the 
ship arrived in harbour : I want her to be sold, if she can ; 
if she cannot, I intend to go away from here as soon as I can. 

Dor. Greetings to you, young man. Sag. If indeed I 
shall dispose of her at her own price 

Tox. {pointing to Dordaltjs). Why, you'll either sell 
her handsomely with him for your purchaser, or you can to 
no one. 

Sag. Are you a friend of his ? Tox. In the same measure 
as all the Divinities who inhabit the heavens. 

Dor. Then you are an assured enemy to me ; for to the 
race of procurers no God was ever so kind as to prove pro- 
pitious. 

> They'll he singing') — Ver. 577. " Occento " seems to have a twofold meaning 
— " to sing to " or " serenade," or " to sing against," " to defame in abusive 
songs." Perhi^ps the latter is the meaning in the present passage. 

* With a door of iron) — Ver. 578. De I'CEuvre suggests that Plautus liert 
alludes to the story of Jupiter and Danae. 



268 PERSA ; Act IV 

Sag. Attend to the business in hand. Have you any 
need to purchase her ? 

Dor. If you have need for her to be sold, I, too, have need 
to purchase her ; if you have no sudden occasion to seZZ, just 
in the same degree have I to huy. 

Sag. State a sum ; name a price. Dor. The commodity 
is your own ; it's for you to name a sum. 

Tox. (to Sagaristio). He asks what's right. 

Sag. Do you wish to buy at a bargain ? 

Dor. Do you wish to sell at a handsome profit ? 

Tox. I' faith, I'm sure that both of you would like to do so. 

Dor. Come, boldly name your price. 

Sag. I tell you beforehand ; no one will dispose of her to 
you on warranty. Do you so understand it, then ? 

Dor. I understand it. Declare what's the lowest price at 
which you'll offer her, for which she may be taken hy the 
purchaser. 

Tox. Hold your tongue, hold your tongue. Really, upon 
my faith, vou are a very simple man, with your childish ways. 

Dor. Why so ? 

Tox. Why because I wish you first to make enquiries 
)f the damsel which relate to your interest. 

Dor. And really, upon my faith, you've given me no bad 
advice. Look at that, will you. I, an experienced Procurer, 
had almost fallen into the pit, if you had not been here. How 
important a point it is to have a person your friend at hand 
when you are about anything. 

Tox. I want you to make enquiry of her, of what family 
or in what country she was born, or of what parents, so that 
you mayn't say that you've bought her at hazard by my 
persuasion or suggestion. 

Doe. On the contrary, I approve of your counsel, I tell you. 

Tox. (to Sagaristio). Unless it's troublesome, he's de- 
sirous to make a few enquiries of her. 

Sag. By all means ; at his own pleasure. 

Tox. (to DoRDALTJs). Why do you delay ? Go to him 
yourself; and do you yourself ask him as well, that you 
may be allowed to make such enquiries as you please ; 
although he has told me that he gives permission to do 
so of her, still I had rather that you yourself should go to 
aim, that he mayn't be holding you in contempt. 



SC. IV. THE PEESIAIf. 250 

Dor. You give me very proper advice. (Accosting Saoa- 
EiSTio.) Stranger, I should like to ask some questions of 
her. {Pointing to the Young Woman.) 

Sao. From earth to heaven, whatever you like. 
Doe. Just bid her to step this way to me. 
Sag. {to the Young Woman). Go you, then, and humour 
him. {To DoEDALUS.) Make enquiry, question her, just as 
you please. 

Tox. {to DoEDALUs). Well, welU, get on then; make 
your preparations. {Aside to the Young Woman.) Take 
you care to commence with a good omen. 
Dau. The auspices are favourable. 

Tox. {Aside to the Young Woman). Hold your tongue. 
( To Doedalus.) Step you aside here ; I will now conduct her 
to you. 

Doe. Do what you think is most for my interest. 
Tox. {to the Young Woman, who advances with him). 
Follow me. {To Doedalus.) I've brought her, if you are 
A'ishful to make any enquiries of her. 
Dor. But I want you to be present. 
Tox. I cannot do otherwise than pay atteiition to this 
stranger {pointing to Sagaristio), whom my master bade 
me shoiu courtesy to. What if he doesn't choose that I should 
be present together with you ? 
Sag. Yes, but do come. 

Tox. {to DoRDALus). I'll lend you my assistance, then. 
Dob. You're lending it yourself as well when you are 
assisting your friend. 

Tox. Examine her. {Aside to the Young Woman.) 
Hark you, be on your guard. 

Dau. {aside). Enough has been said to me. {Aloud.) 
Although I am a slave, I know my duty, so that whatever he 
asks I'U tell the truth as I have heard it. 

Tox. {pointing to Dordalus). Young woman, this is an 
honorable man. Dau. I believe you. 

Tox. You'll not be long in servitude with him. 
Dau. I' faith, and so I trust, if my parents do their duty. 
Doe. I do not wish you to be surprised, if we make en- 
quiries of you about either your country or your parents. 

^ Wdl, weU) — Ver. 614. In Weise's Edition these words are given to Sfiga- 
ristio, but they seem better in tlie mouth of Toxilus. 
VOL. II. V 



2':0 peesa; Act IV. 

Daf. Why should I be surprised at that, my dear sir r My 
state of servitude has forbidden me to be surprised at any 
misfortune of my own. 

Tox. (aside). May the Gods confound her! so cunning 
and crafty is she. She has got shrewd sense : how readili/ 
she does say what's needed. 

Doe. What's your name ? 

Tox. (aside). Now I'm afraid she'll be tripping. 

Datt. My name was Lucris^ in my own country. 

Tox. The name and the omen are worth any price. Why 
4on't you make purchase of her ? (Aside.) I was greatly 
afraid that she would be tripping. She has got herself free. 

Doe. If I make purchase of you, I trust that you'll prove 
Lucris to myself as well. 

Tox. If you do make purchase of her, never, on my word, 
do I think that she'll remain your slave throughout the 
month. 

Doe. And so indeed I'd hope, i' faith. 

Tox. That what you wish may come to pass, employ your 
own energies. (Aside.) In nothing even as yet has she made 
a slip. 

Doe. Where were you bom ? 

Datj. According to what my mother told me,in the kitchen*, 
in a comer on the left hand. 

Tox. (to DoEDALUs). This woman will prove a lucky 
Courtesan for you ; she has been bom in a warm spot, where 
full oft there is an abundance of all good things. (Aside.) 
The Procurer was taken in when he asked where she was 
bom. She has played him off nicely. 

Doe. But I ask of you, what is your country ? 

Dau. What should be mine but that where I now am ? 

Doe. But this I'm asking, what was ? 

Datt. Everything that was, do I consider as nothing, since 
it was, and is not now. Just like a man when he has breathed 
lorth his spirit ; why enquire of him who he was ? 

' Was Lvcris) — Ver. 633. He is enchanted with her name of Lucris, because 

It so closely resembles " lucrum," " profit " or " gain." 

« In the Tdtchen) — Ver. 637. This is the first of her evif.icns of a direct answer 
to Dordalus. The cleverness of all of them is admiral Cj and shows a wish, If 
possible, to save her conscience in the awkward position "j: which she hm beeo 
okced by the ^nttony of her father. 



Sc. IV. THE PEIlSIAlf. 291 

Tox. {aside). So may the Deities kindly favour me, right 
cleverly. And yet I really do pity her. 

Dor. But still, young woman, come, tell me at once which 
is your country ? "Why are you silent ? 

Dau. For my part, I really am telling you my country. 
Since I'm in servitude here, this is my country. 

Tox. Do cease now making enquiries about that. Don't 
you see that she's unwilling to declare, lest you should recall 
to her the remembrance of her misfortunes ? 

Doe. "What's the matter ? Is your father in captivity ? 

Daxi. Not in captivity ; but what he had, he has lost. 

Tox. She will prove to be born of a good family ; she 
knows how to say nothing but the truth. 

Doe. Who was he ? Tell me his name ? 

Dau. "Why should I tell of him, wretched man, who he 
was ? Por the present 'twere proper for him to be called 
Miserable, and me Miserable. 

Doe. "What kind of a person was he considered by the 
public ? 

Datt. Not a person more acceptable ; slaves and free 
persons all liked him. 

Tox. You do speak of a miserable man, inasmuch as he'i 
almost lost himself, and has lost his friends. 

Doe. I shall purchase her, I think. 

Tox. What, stiU " I think ?" 

Doe. I imagine that she's of a noble family. 

Tox. You'll make riches by her. 

Doe. May the Gods grant it so. 

Tox. Do you only buy her. 

Datj. Now this I tell you : my father wiU be here di- 
rectly, when he knows that I've been sold, and will ransom 
me thus separatedyroaw him. 

Tox. What say you now ? Doe. What's the matter ? 

Tox. Do you hear what she says ? 

Dau. Eor although his fortunes are broken, he still has 
friends. {Pretends to cry.) 

Doe. Don't weep, please ; you'll soon be at liberty, if — 
you have sweethearts enough^. Would you like to belong to 
me? 

I Have sweethearts enottghy-Yer. 662. This is a somewhat modified transia,- 
tion of tlie passage. The Procurer uses a brutal expression^ which well belita 
tm character. 

U2 



292 PEES a; ActlY. 

Datj. So long, indeed, as I don't belong to you too long, 
I'd like. 

Tox. How well she does keep in mind her liberty. She'll 
be producing you fine hauls. About it, if you are about it. I'U 
go back to him. (2b the Young Woman.) Do you follow me. 
\To Sagaeistio.) I've brought her back to you. 

Doe. Young man, are you disposed to sell her ? 

Sag. I'd like it, rather than lose her. 

Doe. Do you compress it then into a few words ; state the 
price at which she's ofiered. 

Sag. I'll do so, as I see you wish it. Take her for a 
hundred minaB. 

Doe. That's too much. Sag. Eor eighty. 

Doe. That's too much. 

Sag. There can't a didrachm be abated from the price 
which I shall now name. 

Doe. What is it, then ? Speak out at once and name it. 

Sag. At your own risk, she's offered at sixty minsB. 

Doe. Toxilus, what am I to do ? 

Tox. {adde to Doedalus). The Grods and Goddesses are 
pursuing you with their vengeance, you rogue, for not making 
haste to purchase her. 

Doe. Take them, then. 

Tox. Well done, you have got a rich prize ! Ee off, and 
fetch the money out here. On my faith, she's not dear at 
three hundred minsB. 

Sag. Hark you, for her clothing there'll be ten minae 
added to this as well. 

Doe. Yes, be deducted, not added. 

Tox. Do hold your tongue, will you ; don't you see that 
lie's seeking an excuse to have the bargain broken ? Why 
don't you be off and fetch the money ? 

Doe. {to Toxilus, as he is going). Hark you, do you keep 
an eye upon him. 

Tox. Why don't you then go in ? 

Doe. I'll go and fetch the money. {Ooes into his home.) 

Scene Y. — The Daughtee of Satueio, Toxilus, and 
Sagaeistio. 

Tox. Upon my word, young lady, you have given us praise- 
worthy aid, good, and wise, and sensible. 



Sc. yi. THE PEESIAiy. 293 

Datj. If for good persons anything good is vione, the same 
is wont to be both important and pleasing. 

Tox. Do you hear, you Persian, when you've got the 
money of him, do you pretend as though you are going 
straight to the ship. 

Sag. Don't teach me. 

Tox. Betiike yourself back again to our house, that way 
(^pointing) down the lane through the garden. 

Sag. You are naming what's intended to be done. 

Tox. But don't you at once be changing your quarters 
with the money, I recommend you. 

Sag. "What's worthy of yourself, do you take to be worthy 
of me? 

Tox. Hold your tongue ; lower your voice ; the spoil is 
coming out of doors. 

Scene VI. — Re-enter Dordalus, j^row his house^ with a hag 
of money. 

Dor. Sixty minae of assayed silver are here (^'pointing at 
the hag), less two di drachms. 

Sag. What's the meaning of those didrachms ? 

Doe. To pay for this bag, or else to cause it to come home 
again. 

Sag. Lest you mightn't be enough of a Procurer, did you 
fear, wretched, filthy, avaricious creature, that you might 
lose your bag ? 

Tox. Pray, let him alone ; since he is a Procurer, he isn't 
doing anything surprising. 

Dor. I've judged from omens that I should make some 
pi-ofit to-day ; nothing is of value so small to me, but that 
I grudge to lose it. Come, take this, will you ? {Holds out 
the hag to Sagaristio.) 

Sag. Place it around my neck, if it is not too much 
trouble. 

Dor. Certainly, it shall be done. (Hangs it round his neck.) 

Sag. Is there anything else that you wish with me ? 

Tox. AVhy are you in such haste ? 

Sag. My business is of that nature ; the letters that have 
been entrusted me, I want to deliver ; and I've heard that 
my twin-brother's a slave here ; I wish to be off to geek him 
out, and redeem him. 



294i PEESA ; Act lY 

Tox. And, i' faith, you've not badly put me in mind of it ; 
I think that I've seen here one very like you in figure, of 
just the same size. 

Sag. AYhy, it must surely be my brother^. 

Dob. But we'd like to know what your name is. 

Tox. "What does it matter to us to know ? 

Sag-. Listen then, that you may know ; my name is Lyinj^- 
speakerus^, Virgin-seller-onides, Trifle-great-talker-ides, Sil- 
ver-screwer-outides, Thee-worthy-to-talk-to-ides, "Wheedler* 
out-of-coin-ides, What-he-has-once-got-hold-of-ides, Never- 
again-part-with-it-ides. 

Doe. Dear me ; upon my faith, this name of yours is 
written in many ways. 

Sag. Such is the way with the Persians ; we have long 
names of many words twisted together. Do you wish for 
anything else ? 

Doe. Parewell! 

Sag. And you farewell ; for my mind's aboard ship already. 

Doe. You'd better have gone to-morrow, and dined here 
to-day. (Sagaeistio i^ ^omy.) Earewell! 

{Exit Sagaeistio. 



Scene YII. — Toxiltjs, Doedalus, cmd the Datjghtee of 
Satueio. 

Tox. Since that fellow's gone, I may say here whatever 
I please. This day has assuredly shone a gainful one for 
you; for you've not been buying her, but making a clear 
profit of her. 

Doe. He indeed quite understands what he has been about, 

* Be my brother) — Ver. 705. Sagaristio is afraid that Dordalus may remember 
having seen him before about the city, and he artfully preoccupies the ground, 
by saying that he is searching for his twin-brother, whom he has lost. 

« Lying -speakerua) — Ver. 709. He here uses an assemblage of long worda 
made for the occasion, and coined out of Latin and Greek, hashed up together 
which, however, contain in themselves an account of the part whfch he is the* 
acting to7"irds the Procurer. The lines in the original are as follows : 

Vaniloquidorus, Virginisvendonides, 
Nugipolyloquides, Argentiexterebronides, 
Tedigniloquides, Nummorumexpalponides, 
Quodseme arripides, Nuuquampoateareddidfi*. 



I 



Sc. VIII. THE PEESIAN. 295 

in having sold me a stolen woman at my own risk ; lie has 
got the money, and taken himself off. How do I know now 
whether she mayn't be claimed at once ? Whither am I to 
follow him ? To the Persians, nonsense. 

Tox. I imagined that my services would be a cause for 
thankfulness with you. 

Doe. Why, yes, indeed, I do return you thanks, Toiilus, 
for I found that you zealously gave me your assistance. 

Tox. What, I, to you ? 

Doe. In seriousness, yes. By-the-bye, I forgot just now t« 
give some directions in-doors, which I intended to be given 
Do keep watch on her. (^Pointing to the Young Woman.) 

Tox. She's all safe, for certain (Doedalus goes into his 
house.) 

Dau. My father's delaying now. 

Tox. What, if I put him in mind ? 

Dau. It's full time. 

Tox. {going to the side of the stage, and calling aloud). 
Hallo! Saturio, come forward; now's the opportunity for 
taking vengeance on the enemy. 

Enter Satueio. 

Sag. See, here I am. Have I delayed at all ? 

Tox. Well, ^o you off there at a distance out of sight ; 
keep slence. When you see me talking to the Procurer, do 
you then make a row. 

Sat. a word's enough to the wise. (He withdraws out of 



Scene YIII. — Enter DoEDALUS,y5'07» his house, with a whip 
in his hand. 

Dob. On coming into the house, I lashed them all with 
the whip ; my house and furniture are in such a dirty state. 
Tox. Are you returned at last ? 
Doe. I'm returned. 

Tox. Assuredly, I have this day done you many services. 
Doe. I confess it ; I give you thanks. 
Tox. Do you want anything else with me ? 
Doe. That happiness may attend you. 
Tox. I' faith, aU that indeed I shall surely enjoy at home 



296 PEESA ; Act y. 

now ; for I sliall now go take my place at table with your 

freed-woman. You, when I'm gone 

Doe. Why don't you hold your tongue ? I know what it 
is you want. (Toxilus goes into the house.) 

Scene IX. — Enter Satueto, in a seeming rage. 

Sat. If I don't prove the destruction of that fellow 

Doe. I'm undone. 

Sat. And most luckily there he is, himself, before the door. 

Dait. {running towards him). Most welcome, my dea/r 
father. ( She embraces him.) 

Sat. Welcome, my child. 

Doe. {aside). That Persian has utterly ruined me ! 

Dau. {to DoEDALTJs). This is my father. 

Doe. Ha ! — what ? — father ? I'm utterly undone ! Why 
then, in my misery, do I delay to bewail my sixty minae ? 

Sat. By my faith, you scoundrel, I'll give you cause to 
bewail your own self as well. Doe. I'm undone ! 

Sat. Come, walk before a magistrate. Procurer. 

Doe. Why do you summon me before a magistrate ? 

Sat. I'll teU. you there, before the Praetor. But before 
the magistrate I summon you. 

Doe. Don't you summon^ a witness ? 

Sat. What, for your sake, hangdog, am I to be touching 
the ear of any being that's free — you, who are here trading 
in persons, free citizens ? 

Doe. Let me but speak Sat. I won't. 

Doe. Hear me. Sat. I'm deaf. Walk on — follow me 
this way {dragging him), you villanous mo user after maidens ! 
Follow after me this way, my daughter, to the Praetor. 

Datj. I'll foUow. {Exit Satueio, dragging Doedalus, 
his J) ATJQKT^n following.) 

Act V. — Scene I. 

Enter Toxiltjs, from the house. 

Tox. {to himself). The foe subdued, the citizens safe, the 
state in tranquillity, peace fully ratified, the war finished, our 

' Don't you summon) — Ver. 753. See the Notes to the Curculio, I. 621. A 
slave, or a person of infamous character, might be dragged by force, whfu sum- 
moned to appear before the Praetor, 



Sc. I. THE PEESIAir. 297 

affairs prospenng, tne army and tlie garrisons untouclied; 
xnasmuch, Jupiter, and all you other Deities potent in the 
heavens, you have kindly aided us, for that reason do I return 
and give you thanks ; because I have been fully revenged 
upon my foe. Now, for this reason, among my partners will 
I divide and allot the spoil, (lb the Slaves in the house ^ 
who obey his orders?) Come out of doors ; here, before the 
entrance and the door, I wish to entertain my commates 
with hospitality. Lay down the couches here; place here 
the things that are usual. Here am I determined that m.y 
eagle^ shall be first pitched ; from which spot I'll cause all to 
become merry, joyous, and delighted, by the aid of whom 
those things which I wished to be effected have been ren- 
dered for me easy to be done ; for worthless is the man who 
knows how to receive a kindness, and knows not how to 
return it. 

Enter Lemniselene, Sagaristio, and PiEGiTiUM:,yro?» the 



Lem. My Toxilus, why am I without you ? And why are 
you without me ? 

Tox. Come then, my own one, approach me, and embrace 
me, please. Lem. Indeed I will. {Embraces him.) 

Tox. 0, nothing is there more sweet than this. But, 
there's a dear, apple of my eye, why don't we at once betake 
us to the couches ? 

Lem. Everything that you wish, the same do I desire. 

Tox. It's mutual. Come, come — come then. You, Saga- 
ristio, recline in the upper place. 

Sag. I don't at all care for it. Give me but equal shares 
in what I've earned. Tox. All in good time. 

Sag. For me that " good time" is too late. 

Tox. Attend to the matter in hand. Take your place ; 
this delightful day let's keep as a joyous birthday of mine. 
(To the Slaves.) Bring water for our hands ; arrange the 
table. {The Slaves obey, and the Guests take their places.) 
To you, blooming one {addressing Lemniselene), I give 
this blooming wreath. {Places a garland on her head.) You 
shall be our governess here. Come, lad, commence these 

» That my eagle) — Ver. 765. He looks upon himself as a general who has led 
his troops to victory ; and alludes to the eagles or standards of the Roman army, 
which were entrusted to the Pnmii>ilas. or first Centurion of the Leg-on 



I 



2i/8 PERSA ; Act V. 

games fro3i the top -vNitli a round of seven cups. Bestir 
your hands ; make haste. Psegnium, you are slow in giving 
me the cups ; really, do give them. Here's luck to me, luck 
to you, luck to my mistress, luck to us all. This much 
U'ished-for day has been sent me by the Grods this day, inas- 
much as I am allowed to embrace you a free woman. (^He 
drinks.) 

Lem. By your own agency it was effected. ( Giving him 
the cup.) This cup my hand presents to you, as it becomes 
a mistress to her love. 

Tox. Give it me. Lem. Take it. ( Gives him the cup.) 
Tox. Here's luck to him who envies me, and to him who 
rejoices in this joy. {Drinks.) 

Scene II. — I^nter Doedalus, at a distance. 

Dor. {to himself). Those who are, and those who shall 
be, and those who have been, and those who are to be here- 
after, all of them I singly by far surpass, in being the most 
wretched of men alive. I'm undone, ruined quite ! This day 
has shone upon me the most unfortunate of days; that 
miner Toxilus has so outmanoeuvred me, and has so laid 
waste my property ! A whole cartload of silver, to my mis- 
fortune, have I upset, and lost, and have not that for which 
I did upset it. May all the Deities utterly confound that 
Persian, and all Persians, and all persons besides ! in such a 
way has Toxilus, the wretch, conjured this up against me. 
Because I didn't trust him for the money, for that reason 
has he contrived this plan against me, — a fellow, that, by my 
faith, if I only live, I'll bring to torture and the fetters ; if, 
indeed, his master ever returns here, as I trust he will. 
{Catching sight of the Bevellers.) But what its it I see ? Do 
look at that. What play is this ? By my troth, they're 
carousing here surely. I'll accost them. {He goes up to 
them.) O worthy sir {to Toxiltjs), my greetings to you — 
you, too {to Lemniselene), my worthy freed-woman. 

Tox. Why surely this is Dordalus. 

Sag. Invite him, then, to come. 

Tox. {to Dordalus). Come here, if you like. {Aside.) 
Come, let's sing his praises. {Aloud.) Dordalus, most de- 
lightful fellow, welcome, l>ere's a place for you ; take your 
place here {pointin^i to a couch). Bring water for his feet 



Sc. II. THE PERSIAN. 299 

(to the Slaves.) Are you going to give it, lad? {Is going 
to pat DoEDALUS on the shoulder^ 

Dor. Don't you, please, be touching me with a single 
finger, lest I should fell you to the ground, you villain. 

r^G. {holding up a cup). And I this very instant will 
be striking out your eye with this tankard. 

Dor. What do you say, gallows^, you wearer-away of the 
whip ? How have you imposed upon me^ to-day ? Into 
what embarrassments have you thrown me? How have I 
been baulked about the Persian ? 

Tox. You'll be off with your abuse from here, if you are 
wise. 

Doe. {to Lemniselene). But, my worthy freed-woman, 
you knew of this, and concealed it from me. 

Lem. It's folly for a person who can enjoy himself to turn 
to brawling in preference. 'Twere more proper for you to 
arrange about those matters another time. 

Dor. My heart's in flames. 

Tox. Give him a goblet, then ; put out the fire, if his 
heart's in flames, that his head mayn't be burnt. 

Dor. You're making sport of me, I find. 

Tox. "Would you like^ a new playfellow for you, Psegnium ? 
{Pointing at Doedalus.) But sport on as you are wont, as 
this is a place of freedom. (P^gnium struts about round 
DoRDALUs.) O rare ! you do stalk in a princely style and 
right merrily. 

P^G. It befits me to be merry, and I've a longing to 
play this Procurer some pranks, since he's deserving of it. 

Tox. As you commenced, proceed. 

P^G. {striking him). Take that. Procurer! 

Dor. I'm undone ! he has almost knocked me down ! 

P^G. Hey — be on your guard* again. {Strikes at him.) 

^ Gallows) — Ver. 800. " Crux." Literally, " cross ;" in allusion to it as 
peculiarly the instrument of the punishment of slaves. 

2 Imposed upon me) — Ver. 801. " Manus adita est." Literally, " your hanu 
was gone to." This is probably an allusion to the practice of kissing the hand 
in irony to a person when he is loudly complaining of having been imposed upon. 

3 Would you like) — Ver. 807. This passage has been somewhat modified in 
the Translation. 

^ Be on your gtuird)— Ver. 814. In Weise's Edition, "servo," in this line, 
seems to be not so conformable to the sense of the passage as " serva," which baji 
Deen adopted. 



300 PEESA ; Act V. 

Dob. Sport on just as you please, whi^ your master's 
away from here. 

Pjsg. {skipping around him) . Don't you see how obedient 
I am to your request ? But why, on the other hand, are 
not you obedient to my request as well, and why don't you do 
that which I advise you ? 

Doe. Wbat's that ? 

P^G. Do you take a stout rope for yourself, and go hang 
yourself. 

Doe. (shaking his stick). Take you care, will you, that you 
don't touch me, lest I give you a heavy return with this 
walking-stick, P^g. Make use of it ; I give you leave. 

Tox. Come, come, Paegnium, put an end to it. 

Doe. By my faith, I'll utterly destroy you all. 

Tox. But he, who dwells above^ us, wishes you all ill, and 
will do you all iU. It's not they that tell you so, but I. 

Tox. Come (to the Slaves), carry round the honied 
wine^ ; give us drink in goblets quite full : it's a long time 
now since we last drank ; we've been athirst too long. 

Doe. May the Gods grant that you may drink that which 
may never pass through you. 

PiEG. I cannot forbear. Procurer, from at least dancing a 
hornpipe^ for you, which Hegea formerly composed. But 
just look if it quite pleases you. (^He dances.) 

Sag. (rising). I'd like also to repeat that one whicb Dio- 
dorus formerly composed in Ionia. (Goes close to Doe- 

DALUS.) 

Doe. I'll be doing you a mischief, if you are not off! 

Sag. Still muttering, impudence ? If you provoke me, 
I'U just now be bringing you the Persian again. 

Doe. I' faith, I'm silenced now. Why, you are the Persian 
that has been fleecing me to the quick ! 

Tox. Hold your tongue, simpleton ; this is his twin- 
brother. 

• Who dwells above) — Ver. 826. He alludes to Jupiter, the King; of Heaven. 

2 The honied wine) — Ver. 828. He probably mentions " mulsum," because that 
was the draught with which soldiers were regaled after victory. 

3 A hornpipe) — Ver. 831. " Staticulum." This was probably danced, the 
performer not moving from the spot ; and perhaps was sonr ething similar to our 
hornpipe -iances. Of Hetfea and Diodorus, the dancing wasters, no recordi 
are left. 



Sc. II. THE PEHSIAN. 301 

DoiL Is it lie ? Tox. Aye, and a very twin of twins. 

Doe. May the Gods and Goddesses rack both yourself 
and your twin-brother. 

Sag. Him, you mean, who has been ruining you; for I 
don't deserve anything. 

Dor. But still, what he deserves, I hope that that may 
])rove to your undoing. 

Tox. {to Sagaristio). Come, if you like, let's have some 
sport with this /eZZo«7, unless he isn't deemed worthy of it. 

Sag. Just now it's right. 

Lem. {aside). But it isn't proper for me. 

Tox. {aside). For the reason, I suppose, that he made no 
difficulties when I purchased you. 

Lem. {aside). But still 

Tox. {aside). No " still." Beware, then, of a mishap, 
will you, and obey me. It becomes you to be heedful of my 
orders ; for, i' faith, had it not been for me and my protec- 
tion, he would before long have made a street-walker of you. 
But such are some of those who have gained their free- 
dom, unless they thwart their patron, they don't appear 
to themselves free enough, or wise enough, or honest 
enough, unless they oppose him, unless they abuse him, 
unless they are found ungrateful to him who has been kind. 

Lem. (aside). V troth, your kindnesses command me to 
pay obedience to your commands. 

Tox. {aside). I clearly am your patron, who paid the 
money for you to that man {pointing to Doedalus) ; in re- 
turn for that, I choose that he shaU be made sport of. 

Lem. {aside). For my part, I'll do my utmost. 

Dob. For sure, these persons are consulting to do some- 
thing, I know not what, to injure me. 

Sag. Hark you. Tox. What do you say ? 

Sag. Is this person here, Dordalus the Procurer, who 
deals in free women? Is this he who was formerly sl 
stalwart ? 

Doe. TVhat means this ? (P^gnitjm strikes Mm.) Oh, 
oh ! he has given me a slap in the face ! I'll do you a mis- 
chief. {Shakes hisjlst at him.) 

Tox. But we have done you one, and shall do it again too. 

Doe. (PjGGJfiUM pinching him). Oh, oh ! he's pinching 
my behind. 



802 PEESA. Act Y. 

PiEa. Of course ; it bas been many a time twitcbed be- 
fore tbis. 

Dob. Are you still prating, you bit of a boy r 

Lem. {to r>OBi)Ai*us). My patron, do, there's a dear, come 
in-doors to dinner. 

Dor. My lump of laziness, are you now scof&ng at me ? 

Lem. What, because I invite you to enjoy yourself ? 

Dor. I don't want to enjoy myself. 

Lem. Then don't. 

Tox. How then? The six hundred didrachms, how are 
they ? What disturbances they do cause. 

Dor. (aside). I'm utterly undone ! They understand full 
well how to return the compliment to an enemy. 

Tox. Have we now had satisfaction enough ? 

Dor. I confess it ; I hold up my hands^ to you. 

Tox. And, ere long, you shall be holding them beneath 
the bilboes^. Be off in-doors. 

Sag. To perdition ! 

Dor. {to the Audiewce). Have ^Q^e fellows here worked 
me in too slight a degree ? ( Goes into his house,} 

Tox. {calling after him). Keep in mind that you met with 
a Toiilus. ( To the Audience.) Spectators, kindly fare you 
well. The Procurer is demolished. Grrant us your applause. 

» H(M np my hands) — Ver. 860. " Manus dare," " to extend the hands," waa 
a term applied to the gladiators in the Amphitheatres, who extended their 
hands for mercy, when they acknowledged themselves defeated. 

2 Bemath the bilboes) — Ver. 861. " Furca." This inatrument, in shape of the 
ktter V, was placed round the :ieck of offenders, anL tb«ir bao^ tied to tba 



CASTNA; 



OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 



IBramatfs ^persona?. 

SrALiifo, an aged Athenian. 

Chalinus, the armour-bearer of Euthynicns, son cf Staiiro 

Olympic, bailiff of Stalino. 

Alcfsimus, a neighbour of Stalino. 

A Cook. 

Male Slaves. 

Cleostrata, wife of Stalino. 
^'akdaltsca, her maid-servant. 
5'vRRHiXA, wife of Alcesimns. 
T\v<» Maid-sekvasts of Cleostrata. 



r»-— Athens • before the ,uM>iBti o» Staijho and Ahcu/mvt 



THE SUBJECT. 



A SERVANT, having obtained from a woman a female infant which was about tfl 
be exposed, brings it to his mistress, Cleostrata, who brings it up with the 
greatest care. The child is called Casina; and when she grows ;ir, loth Sta- 
hno, the husband, and Euthynicus, the son of Cleostrata, fall in love with her. 
Cleostrata, being aware of this, and favouring the passion of Euthynicus, is 
desirous to give Casina in marriage to Chalinus, his armour-bearer, as a covert 
method of putting her in the power of Euthynicus. On the other hand, 
Stalino wishes her to be married to Olympio, the bailiff of his farm, as a means 
of getting her into his own possession. It is at last arranged that the matter 
shall be decided by lot, which being drawn, Olympio is the winner. Cleostrata 
then resorts to a stratagem to defeat her husband's plan. With the assistance of 
Myrrhina and her own female servants, she dresses up Chalini? r- represent 
Casina, who is taken by the bridegroom Olympio to a house m the vicinity, 
which has been secretly engaged by Stalino. The Play concludes with Olympio 
«nd Stalino rushing out of the house in dismay, after having been soundly 
beaten bv Chalinus. Stalino implores pardon of his wife, which, at the inter- 
cession of Aiyrrhina, is granted. It is then discovered that Casma is really 
the daughter of Alcesimus, and ttie Audience is informed that she ia tc ho 
riven in marriage to Euthynicna« 



CASIM; 
OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

[Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

Two fellow-servants seek their fellow-servant (^Conservam) as a wife; the o.cl 
man prompts the one (^AUuni), his son the other. A decision by lot (Sor$) 
fevours the old man ; but he is deceived by a stratagem ; and so (/to) for 
him, in place of the damsel, a rascally (Nequani) servant is substituted, who 
thrashes his master and the bailiff. The young man (^AdoUscens) marries 
Casina, when known to be a citizen. 



THE PEOLOaUEi. 

I BID you, most worthy Spectators, welcome; who most 
highly esteem the Goddess Faith^, and Eaith esteems you. 
If I have said the truth, then give me loud applause, that 
even now, from the very beginning forward, I may know 
that you are favourably disposed towards me. Those who 
make use of aged wine, I deem to be wise ; and those as 
well, who, through choice, are the spectators of ancient Plays. 
Since antique works and words are pleasing to you, 'tis just 
that ancient Plays should in preference please you ; for the 
new Comedies which come out now-a-days are much more 
worthless than the new-coined money^. "We, since we have 

* The Prologue) This Prologue appears to have been written many years, 
after the death of the author, and indeed bears internal marks of having been com- 
posed at a period nearer to the Augustan age than the time of Plautus. Judging, 
however, from the fourteenth hne, there were, at the time when it was written, 
some persons still surviving who had been present at the original representation 
of the Play. 

« Faith)— Yer. 2. She was worshipped under the name of Fides. Further 
reference is made to her in the Aulularia, where her Temple is represented. 

' The new-coined money) — Ver. 10. He seems to refer to the circulation of 
«ome coin of a base or alloyed character, probably much to the annoyance of tbe 
public. 

VOL. II. X 



300 CASINA ; 

heard the report in public, that you ardently wish for the Playo 
of Plautus, have brought forward this ancient Comedy of his^ 
which you, who are among the older ones, \i2lyq formerly ap- 
proved. But I am aware that those who are among the younger 
3nes are not acquainted with it ; still, that they may make ac- 
quaintance with it, we will carefully use our best endeavours. 
When this was first represented, it surpassed all other Plays. 
In those days there was the very elite of the poets, who have 
now departed hence to the place common to all. But though 
departed, yet do they prove of advantage to those who are still 
existing. All of you, with the greatest earnestness, I would 
have entreated that you'll kindly lend attention to this our com- 
pany. Dismiss from your thoughts cares and monies due ; 
let no man stand in dread of his duns. 'Tis a holiday this — 
to the bankers a holiday has been given. "Tis now a calm ; 
about the Torum these are Halcyon days^. Beasonably do 
they act : during the games^ they ask no man /or money ; but 
during the games to no one do they pay. If your ears are 
disengaged, give me your attention ; I wish to mention to you 
the name of the Play. " Clerumense^" this Comedy is called 
in Greek ; in Latin, " Sortientes." Diphilus wrote it in 
Greek, and after that, over again, Plautus with the barking 
name* in Latin afresh. {Pointiny to the house of Staliko.) 

- Halcyon days) — Ver. 26. *' Alcedonia," " days of calm." This flexure is de- 
rived from the circumstance that by the ancients the sea was supposed to be 
always calm when the female kinp^sher (alcedo) was sitting; and the saying 
became proverbial. Ovi>l, in the Metamorphoses, B. 11, speaking of Ceyx and 
Halcyon, who were changed into kingfishers, says, 1. 744 et seq.^ " Nor, when 
now birds, is the conjugal tie dissolved; they couple and they become parents; 
and for seven calm days, in the winter-time, does Halcyone brood upon her nest, 
floating on the sea. Then the passage of the deep is safe; iEolus keeps the 
winds in, and restrains them from sallying forth, and secures a smooth sea for 
his descendants." 

2 During the games) — Ver. 27. The public games, or shows, at Rome, were 
represented on days that were " nefasti," when no law-suits were carried on, and 
no person was allowed to be arrested for debt. 

3 Clerumence) — Ver. 31. The Greek word KKrjpovfifPoi, the " lot- drawers." 
This passage is considered by some Commentators to prove that the Greek 
01 was pronounced like the Latin " ae." 

* With the barking name) — Ver. 34. It is not fully ascertained whether the 
'barking name" alludes to that of Plautus or of Casina; the former is, most 
piobably, the case. Indeed, Festus tells us that " plautus" actually was the nama 
of a species of dog with long, loose ears, which buug down. Some Commenta* 



OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 307 

An old married man is living here ; lie has a son ; he, with his 
father, is dwelling in this house. He has a certain slave, who 
with disease is confined — aye, faith, to his bed, he really i*, 
that I may tell no lie. But sixteen years ago, it happened 
that on a time this servant, at early dawn, beheld a female 
child being exposed. He went at once to the woman who 
was exposing it, and begged her to give it to himself. He 
gained his request : he took it away, and carried it straight 
home. He gave it to his mistress, and entreated her to 
take care of it, and bring it up. His mistress did so ; with 
great care she brought it up, as though it had been her 
own daughter, not much different. Since then she has grown 
up to that age to be able to prove an attraction to the men ; 
but this old gentleman loves this girl distractedly, and, 
on the other hand, so does his son as well. Each of them 
now, on eitlier side, is preparing his legions, both father 
and son, each unknown to the other. The father has de- 
puted his bailiff to ask her as his wife; he hopes that, if 
she's given to him, an attraction out of doors will be, un- 
known to his wife, provided for him. But the son has de- 
puted his armour-bearer to ask her for himself as a wife. He 
knows that if he gains that request, there will be an object 
for him to love, within his abode. The wife of the old gen- 
tleman has found out that he is gratifying his amorousness ; 
for that reason, she is making common cause together with 
her son. But this father, when he found out that his son was 
in love with this same woman^ and was a hindrance to him, 
sent the young man hence upon business abroad. His mo- 
ther, understanding this, still lends him, though absent, her 
assistance. Don't you expect it; he will not, in this Play, 
to-day, return to the city. Plautus did not choose it: he 
broke down the bridge that lay before him in the way. 
There are some here, who, I fancy, are now saying among 
themselves, " Prithee, what means this, i' faith ? — the mar- 
riage of a slave^ ? Are slaves to be marrying wives, or asking 

tors reject this explanation, and think that the " an " in " Plantus " suggested 
the notion, from its resemblance to the baying of a dog. This is, however, veir 
problematical. 

1 Marriage of a slave) — Ver. 68. The ingenious Rnst suggests this explanation 
ef the passage: The slaves at Rome were not allowed to contract marriagea 
wtween themselves, or what was in legal terms called '* matrimonium." They 

x2 



308 CASiTf A ; 

them for themselves ? They've introduced something new — 
a thing that's done nowhere in the world." But I affirm that 
this is done in Greece^, and at Carthage, and here in our own 
country, and in the Apulian country ; and that the marriages 
of slaves are wont to be solemnized there with more fuss than 
even those of free persons. If this is not the fact, if any one 
pleases, let him bet with me a stake towards a jug of honied 
wine^, so long as a Carthaginian is the umpire in my cause, 
or a Grreek in fact, or an Apulian. {A pause.) What now ? 
You don't take it ? No one's thirsty, I find. I'll return to 
that foundling girl, whom the two slaves are, with all their 
might, contending for as a wife. She'll be found to be both 
chaste and free, of freeborn parents, an Athenian girl, and 
assuredly of no immodesty at all will she be guilty^ in tliis 
Comedy at least. But i' faith, for sure, directly afterwards, 
when the Play is over, if any one offers the money, as I 
guess, she'll readily enter into matrimony with him, and not 
wait for good omens. Thus much I have to say. Farewell ; 
be prosperous in your affairs, and conquer by true valour, as 
hitherto you've done*. 

were, however, permitted to live together in " contubemiom," or what was in 
common parlance called "quasi matrimonium." This he supposes to have in 
time come to be styled, in common parlance, "matrimonium" by the lower 
classes, and consequently to have given great offence to some martinets, who 
insisted on giving, on all occasions, the strict legal term to the unions of slaves. 
He therefore excuses this shock to their feelings, by pleading the example of the 
Greeks, Carthaginians, and Apulians. 

1 Dwie in Greece)— Ver. 71. Rost remarks, that in reality, "matrimonium," 
or " marriage," in the strict legal sense, was no more permitted by the Greeks to 
their slaves than it was by the Romans. He is of opinion, however, that Plautus 
here refers to the superior humanity and kindliness of the Greeks, wlio did not 
object to call the union of slaves by the name of marriage, in common parlance, 
although those unfortunate persons were denied all the immunities of married 
people. As to the usage among the Carthaginians and Apulians, with relation 
to the intermarriages of slaves, no account has come down to us. 

2 Jug of lionied wine) — Ver. 75. As he only ventures to wager a jug of 
" mulsum " on his correctness, it is not improbable that the speaker of the Pro- 
logue is not very careful in what he asserts as to the customs of other nations. 

3 Will she he guilty) — Ver. 83. Warner thinks that these words imply that i) 
the Greek Comedy, from which the present one was taken, Casma was introduceij 
ou the stage, and represented as acting immodestly. 

^Hitherto you've done) — Ver. 88. The conclusion of this Play is limiiar to 
that of the Cistellaiia. 



Act I. OR, THE STIIATAGEM DEFEATED. 309 

Act p. — Scene I. 
Unter Olympic, Ckkli^u^ following him, 

Ol. Isn't it to be allowed me for myself to speak and 
think about my own affairs by myself, just as I choose, with- 
out you as an overlooker ? Why the plague are you fol- 
lowing me about ? 

Cha. Because I'm resolved, just like your shadow, wher- 
ever you go, to follow you about. Why troth, even if you are 
ready to go to the cross, I'm determined to follow you. Hence 
judge of the sequel, whether you can or not, by your arti- 
fices, slily deprive me of Casina for a wife, just as you are 
attempting. 

Ol. What business have you with me ? Cha. What say 
you, impudence ? Why are you creeping about in the city, 
you bailiff" 2^ so very valuable in this place ? 

Ol. Because I choose. Cha. But why ain't you in the 
country, at your post of command ? Why don't you rather 
pay attention to the business that has been entrusted to you, 
and keep yourself from meddling in city matters ? Have 
you come hither to deprive me of my betrothed ? Be off 
to the country — be off" to your place of command, and be 
hanged to you. 

Ol. Chalinus, I have not forgotten my duty. I've given 
charge to one who will still take care that all's right in the 
country. When I've got that for which I came hither to 
the city, to take her as my wife whom you are dying for 
— the fair and charming Casina, your fellow-servant — ^when 

» Act I.) — This Play is named after Casina, the female slave; and it is ratlier 
singular that neither she nor Euthyuicus, two of the parties most interested, 
appear as characters in it. 

2 You bcdliff) — Ver. 98. The " villicus " was an upper slave, who had the 
management of the country farm, and all the business on it, except that relative 
to the cattle. His duty was to watch over the other slaves ; never to leave the 
farm but for the purpose of going to market ; to take care of the implements of 
husbandry, keep an account of the stock, distribute food and clothing to the la- 
bourers, perform the sacrifices, buy what was necessary for tJie household, and sell 
the produce of the farm. Cato says that it was especially a part of his duty to 
avoid Soothsayers. Of course he would be of more use in the country than is 
town. 



310 CASIKA ; Act 1. 

I've carried lier off witK myself into the country as my wiie, 
I'll then stick fast in the country, at my post of command. 

Cha. What, you marry her ? By my faith, 'twere better 
I should die by a halter, than that you should be the winner 
of her. 

Ol. She's mv prize ; do you put yourself in a halter at 
once. Cha. Fellow, dug up from your own dunghill, is 
she to be your prize ? 

Ol. You'll find that such is the fact. Woe be unto you ! in 
what a many ways, if I only Hve, I'U have you tormented at 
my wedding ! 

Cha. What wiU you do to me ? 

Ol. What will I do to you ? In the first place of all, 
you shall hold the lighted torch for this new-made bride of 
mine ; that always, in future, you maybe worthless^, and not 
esteemed. Then next after that, when you get to the country- 
house, a single pitcher^ shall be found you, and a single path, 
a single spring, a single brass cauldron, and eight casks ; 
and unless these shall be always kept filled, I'll load you 
with lashes. I'll make you so thoroughly bent with carry- 
ing water, that a horse's crupper might be manufactured out 
of you. And then, in future, unless in the country you 
either feed on pulse, or, like a worm, upon the soil, should you 
require to taste of any hetter food, never, upon my faith, is 
hunger as full of hungriness as I'U make you to be in the 
country. After that, when you're tired out, and starved 
with famine, care shall be taken that, at night, you go to bed 
as you deserve. 

Cha. What will you do ? 

Ol. Ton shall be shut up fast in a nook with bars, where 
you can listen while I'm caressing her, while she is say- 
ing to me, " My soul, my own Olympio, my life, my sweet, 

• May he worthless) — Ver. 118. It has been suggested by Muretus that this 
refers to some superstition among the ancients, that those who had carried a torch 
before the bride at a wedding were doomed to be unlucky in future life ; perhaps, 
however, there is no ground for this supposition, beyond the present passage ; as it 
is not likely that they would have found any free persons to undertake the duty 
of torchbearer, if they were to be afterwards considered as of such ominous 
character. 

2 A single pitcher) — Ver. 121. To be " drawers of water," as well as "hewers 
of woffu," waa the lot of the unfortunate slave, from the earliest age» if ~-ht 
world. 



Act II. OB, THE STEATi.GEM DEFEATED. 311 

my deliglit, do let me kiss your dear eyes, my love ! do, there' a 
a dear, let yourself be loved ! my own day of happiness, my 
sparrow-chick, my own dove, my leveret!" When these 
expressions shall be being uttered to me, then will you, you 
villain, be wriggling about like a mouse in the middle of the 
wall. Now, that you mayn't be trying to give me an an- 
swer, I'U off in-doors ; I'm tired of your talk. (^Qoes into 
the home q/* Staling.) 

Cha. I'll follow you. Here, indeed, on my word, assu- 
redly you shall do nothing without me for an overlooker. 
{Follows him into the house^ 

Act II. — Scene I. 

Enter Cleosteata and Paedalisca,^ow the house of 
Staling. 

Cle. {at the door, to the Servants, tcithin). Seal fast the 
store-rooms^, bring back the signet to me. I'm going here 
to my next door neighbour ; if my husband wants me for 
anything, take care and send for me thence. 

Pae. The old gentleman ordered a breakfast to be got ready 
for him to-day. 

Cle. Tut ! Hold your tongue, and be off. (Pardalisca 
goes into the house.) I don't prepare it, and it shan't be 
cooked ; since he sets himself against myself and his son, for 
the sake of his passion and his appetite. A disgraceful fellow 
that ! I'll punish this lover with himger, I'll punish him with 
thirst, with abuse, with hardships. By my faith, I'll tho- 
roughly worry him with disagreable speeches ; I'll make him to 
pass a life in future just as he deserves—;/?^ food for Acheron, 
a hunter after iniquity, a stable of infamy ! Now I'll away 
hence to my neighbours, to lament my lot. But the door 
makes a noise ; and see, she's coming out of doors herself. 
On my word, I've not started for my call at a convenient 
time. 

^ Seal fast the store-rooms) — Ver. 144. This passage bears reference to the 
•.omrnon practice of the ancients, who were in the habit of sealing boxes and cnp- 
bOiirds with the impression of their signets, stamped on wax. So in St. Matthew, 
xxvii , 66 : "So they went and made the sepulchre sure, sealing the stone, and 
setting a watch;" and in Daniel, vL, 17: "A stone was brought, and laid upon 
the mouth of the den ; and the king sealed it with his own signet, and with th« 
R^net of his lords." 



812 CASINA ; Act IT. 

Scene II. — Enter 'Myb.b.kiisa, from the house o/*Alcesimus. 

Mtrr. (to her Sertants, at the door). Follow me, my 
attendants^, here next door. You there! Does any one 
hear this that I say ? I shall be here, if my husband or any 
person shall seek me. Did I order my distaff to be taken 
there ? For when I'm at home alone, (bowsiness takes eifect 
iipon^ my hand. 

Cle. Myrrhina, good morrow. Mtee. Grood morrow, my 
dear Cleostrata. But, prithee, why are you sad ? 

Cle. So all are wont to be who are unjfortunately married ; 
at home and abroad, there's always enough to make them 
sad. But I was going to your house. 

Myeb. And, troth, I was coming here to yours. But what 
is it that now distresses your mind ? For the thing that 
distresses you, that same is a trouble to me. 

Cle. On my word, I do believe you. For with good 
reason no female neighbour of mine do I love better than 
yourself, nor any one with whom I have more ties of in- 
timacy^ to afford me pleasure. 

Mtre. I thank you kindly, and I long to know what 
this is. 

Cle. My husband has put slights upon me in a most 
unworthy manner. 

Myee. Hah! What is it? Prithee, repeat that same 
again ; for, on my word, I don't in my mind sufficiently com- 
prehend your complaints. 

Cle. My husband has put slights upon me in a most un- 
worthy manner, and I have not the advantage of enjoying 
my own rights. 

Myee. 'Tis surprising, if you say the truth ; for husbands 
can scarce obtain from their wives what's their own right. 

Cle. Why, against my will, he demands a female servant 
of me, who belongs to myself, and was brought up at my 
own expense, for him to give to his bailiff. But he is in love 
with her himself. 

Myee. Pray, do hold your tongue. Cle. {loohing round). 
But here we may speak at present ; we are alone 

' My attendants) — Ver. 160. It was considered unbecoming for women ot rank 
and character to appear abroad without their attendants. 
' Takes effect vi>o»)— Ver. 164. "Calvitur" Literally, "baulks" or au» 



Sc. III. OE, THE STEATAQEM DEFEATED 313 

Mtee. It is SO. Eut whence did you get ber ? I'or a 
good wife ought to have no property unknown to her hus- 
band ; and she who has got any, it is not to her credit, for 
she must either have purloined it from her husband, or ob- 
tained it by unfaithfulness. "Whatever is your own, aU that 
I take to be your husband's. 

Cle. Surely, you're saying aU this out of opposition to 
your friend. 

Mtee. Do hold your tongue, will you, simpleton, and at- 
tend to me. Do you forbear to oppose him, wiU you. Let 
him love on ; that which he chooses let him do, so long as 
nothing's denied you at home. 

Cle. Are you quite in your senses ? For really, you are 
Baying these things against your own interest. 

Myee. Silly creature, do you always take care and be on 
guard against this expression from your husband 

Cle. What expression ? 

Myre. " Woman ! out of doors with you^ !" 

Cle. {in a low voice). 'St! be quiet. 

Myee. What's the matter ? 

Cle. Hush! {Looks in a particular direction.) 

Myee. Who is it that you see ? 

Cle. Why look, my husband's coming; go you in-doors. 
Make all haste ; be oif, there's a dear. 

Myee. You easily prevail ; I'm off. 

Cle. At a future time, when you and I shall have more 
.eisure, then I'll talk to you. For the present, adieu ! 

Myee. Adieu! {Goes into her house. Cleosteata «^awc?« 
aside.) 

ScEKE III. — Enter Staling. 
Sta. (^0 himself) . I do believe that love excels all tilings 
and delights that are exquisite. It is not possible for anything 
to be mentioned, that has more relish and more that's deli- 
cious in it. Really, I do much wonder at the cooks, who 
employ sauces so many, that they don't employ this one 
seasoning, which excels them all. For where love shall be the 
seasoning, that I do believe will please every one; nor can there 
be anything relishing or sweet, where love is not mixed with it. 

> Woman! out of doors with you) — Ver. 196. " I foras, mulier." This was the 
<0chcicai fom used oq occasioo^ of divorce or sei^aration. • 



314 CAS IN A ; Act II. 

The gaU wliicli is bitter, that same it will make into honey ; 
a man from morose into one cheerful and pleasant. This 
conjecture do I form rather from myself at home than froip 
anything I've heard ; who, since I've been in love with Casina, 
more than in my young days have excelled Neatness herself in 
neatness ; I give employment to all the perfumers ; wherever 
an unguent is excellent, I perfume myself, that I may please 
her. And I do please her, as I think. But inasmuch as she 
keeps living on, my wife's a torment. (^Catches sight of his 
Wife, andspeahsin a low voice.) I espy her standing there in 
gloominess. This plaguy baggage must be addressed by me 
with civility. {Going towards her.) My own wife and mj 
delight, what are you about ? (Takes hold of her.) 

Cle. (shaking him off). Gret you gone, and keep your 
hand off! 

Sta. O fie ! my Juno. Tou shouldn't be so cross to vour 
own Jupiter. Where art come now ? 

Cle. Let me alone. {Moves as if going?) 

Sta. Do stay. Cle. {still going). I shan't stay. 

Sta. I' troth, then I'll follow you. {Follows her.) 

Cle. {turning round). Prithee, are you in your senses? 

Sta. In my senses, inasmuch as I love you. 

Cle. I don't want you to love me. 

Sta. You can't have your way there. 

Cle. Tou plague me to death. 

Sta. I onlg ^^^sh you spoke the truth. 

Cle. There I believe you. {Moves on.) 

Sta. Do look back, O my sweet one. 

Cle. About as much, I suppose, as you are to me. 
Whence is this strong smell of perfumes, prithee ? 

Sta. {aside). O dear, I'm undone ; to my misfortune, I'm 
caught in the i'^ct. Why delay to rub it off my head witli 
my cloak ? {Rubs his head with his cloak.) May good Mercury^ 
confound you, you perfumer, who provided me with this. 

Cle. How now, you worthless grey gnat^ ! I can hardly 
restrain myself from saying what you deserve. In your 
old age, good-for-nothing, are you walking along the streets 
reeking with perfumes ? 

» May good Mercury) — Ver. 224. He probably mentions Mercury, as being th« 
tutelary Divinity of tradesmen. 
* Worihlegg ffrey gnat) — ^Ver. 225. Being both troublesome and insignificant 



Sc. III. OR, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. 315 

Sta. I' faith, I lent my company to a certain friend oj 
miney while he was purchasing some perfumes. 

Cle. How readily he did trump that up. Are you 
ashamed of anything ? 

Sta. Of everything that you like. 

Cle. In what dens of iniquity have you been lying ? 

Sta. (with an air of surprise). I, in dens of iniquity ? 

Cle. I know more than you think I do. 

Sta. "What is it that you know ? 

Cle. That not one among all the old men is more worth- 
less tlian yourself, an old man. Whence come you, good- 
for-nothing ? Where have you been ? In what den amusing 
yourself? Where have you been drinking ? You are come, 
on my word ; look at his cloak, how it's creased. {Points at it.) 

Sta. May the Gods confound both me and yourself, if I 
this day have put a drop of wine hkto my mouth. 

Cle. Very well then ; just as you like : drink, eat, and 
squander away your property ! 

Sta. Hold, wife ; there's now enough of it ; you din me too 
much. Do leave a little of your talk, that you may wrangle 
with me to-morrow. But what say you? Have you by this 
time subdued your temper, so as to do that in preference 
which your husband wishes to be done, rather than strive 
against liim ? 

Cle. About what matter are you speahing ? 

Sta. Do you ask me ? About the handmaid Casina — that 
she may be given in marriage to our bailiff, an honest ser- 
vant, where she'll be well off, in wood, warm water, food, 
and clothing, and where she may properly bring up the 
children which she may have, in preference to that rascally 
servant of an armour-bearer^, a good-for-nothing and dis- 
honest, a fellow that hasn't this day a leaden dump of money 
his own. 

Cle. Upon my faith, I am surprised that in your old age 
you do not remember your duty. 

Sta. How so ? Cle. Because if you were to act rightly 
or becomingly, you'd let me manage the maid-servants, 
which is my own province. 

* An armour-bearer) — ^Ver. 241. The "armiger" was a genera] "camp- 
servant," who was ready to hold the arms, pitch the tent, or run on the messagai 
oi his n»aster. 



316 cASiNA ; Act IL 

Sta. Why the plague do you wish to give her to a fellow 
that carries a shield ? 

Cle. Because it's our duty to gratify our only son. 

Sta. But although he is an only one, not a bit the more 
is he my only son than I am his only father. It's more 
becoming for him to conform to me, than for me to him. 

Cle. By my troth, sir, you're providing for yourself a 
serious piece of trouble. 

Sta. {aside). She suspects it, I find that. {To Ms wife.) 
What, I, do you mean ? 

Cle. Tou ; but why do you stammer so ? Why do you 
wish for this with such anxiety ? 

Sta. Why, that she may rather be given to a servant that's 
honest, than to a servant that's dishonest. 

Cle. What if I prevail upon, and obtain of the bailiff, 
that for my sake he'll give her up to the other one ? 

Sta. But what if I prevail upon the armour-bearer to give 
her up to the other one ? And I think that I can prevail 
upon him in this. 

Cle. That's agreed upon. Should you like that, in your 
name, I should call Chaliuus hither out of doors ? Do you 
beg of him, and I'll beg of the bailiff. 

Sta. I'm quite willing. 

Cle. He'll be here just now. N^ow we'll make trial which 
of us two is the most persuasive. {Slie goes into the house.) 

Sta. {to himself). May Hercules and the Gods confound 
her ! — a thing that now I'm at liberty to say. I'm wretchedly 
distracted with love ; but she, as though on purpose, thwarts 
me. My wife has some suspicion now of this that I'm plan- 
ning ; for that reason is she purposely lending her assistance 
to the armour-bearer. 

Scene IY. — Enter Chalintjs, /rom the house. 

Sta. {aside, on seeing him). May all the Grods and God- 
desses confound him ! 

Cha. {addressing him). Your wife said that you were 
calling me. 

Sta. Why yes, I did order you to be sent for. 

Cha. Tell me what you want. 

Sta. In the first place, I want you to speak to m9 with a 
more cheerful countenance. 



So. lY OR, THE STRATAGEM DEEEATED. 317 

Cha. It would be folly for me to be morose toward you 
whose rule is the strongest. 

Sta. Indeed ! I consider you to be an honest fellow. 

Cha. So I find. But if you think so, why don't you give 
me my freedom ? 

Sta. Why so I wish to do ; but it's of no use for me to 
wish a thing to be done, unless you aid me with your 
actions. 

Cha. What you wish, I only wish myself to be acquainted 
with it. 

Sta. Listen then ; I'U tell you. I've promised to give 
Casina as a wife to our bailifi". Cha. But your wife and 
vour son have promised her to me. 

Sta. I know it ; but whether now would you prefer your- 
self to be single and a free man, or, as a married man, to pass 
your lives, yourself and your children, in slavery ? This choice 
is your own : whichever condition of these two you prefer, 
take it. 

Cha. If I am free, I live at my own cost ; at present I live 
at yours. As to Casina, I'm resolved to give way to no born 
man. 

Sta. Gro in-doors, and at once be quick and call my wife 
here, out of doors ; and bring hither together with you an 
um^, with some water, and the lots. 

Cha. I'm quite agreable. 

Sta. I' faith, in some way or other I'U now ward off this 
weapon of yours ; for if, as it is, I shall not be able to 
prevail by persuasion, at least I'll try it by lot. There I shall 
take vengeance upon you and your abettors. 

Cha. Still, for all that the lot will fall to me 

Sta. Aye, faith, for you to go to perdition with direful 
torments. 

Cha. She shall marry me, contrive what you wiU, in any 
way you please. 

» An umy-Ver. 279. " Sitella," or " sitnla," though usually called an " nrn," 
was a vessel shaped like a water-pitcher, from which lots were drawn. It had a 
wide belly and a narrow neck irith a handle on each side, and stood on legs. 
Th^ vessel was filled with water, and the lots, made of heavy wood, which sank, 
being put into it, the vessel was shaken, and as only one lot could come to the top 
at a time, the percon who had chosen the number which was the first to come up 
was the winner. 



318 CASINA; Act II 

Sta.. "Won't you away hence from my sight ? 

Cha. Unwillingly you look upon me, still I shall Hve on. 
{Goes into the house.) 

ISta. (to himself). Am I not a wretched man ? Don't all 
things go quite contrary with me ? I'm now afraid that my 
wife will prevail upon Olympio not to marry Casina. If that's 
done, why look, it's all over with me in my old age ! If she 
does not prevail, there is still some tiny hope in the lota. 
But if the lots fail me, I'll make a pillow of a sword, and 
lay me down upon it. But see, most opportunely Olym- 
pio's coming out of doors. 

Scene Y. — Enter Olympio, ^om the house, gjpeahing to 
Cleosteata, within. 

Ol. By my faith, all in an instant shut me up in a hot 
furnace, and parch me there for a hard-baked biscuit^, good 
mistress, before you shall gain that point of me which you 
desire. 

Sta. {apart). I'm all right. My hope's realized, accord- 
ing as I hear his words. 

Ol. {at the door, to his Mistress, within). But why do 
you frighten me about liberty? Why, even though you 
should oppose it, and your son as well, against your wills 
and in spite of you both, for a single penny^ I can become free. 

Sta. {stepping forward). What's this? Who are you 
wrangling with, Olympio ? 

Ol. With the same person that you always are. 

Sta. What, with my wife ? Ol. What wife are you speak- 
ing of to me ? Eeally you are a hunter, as it were : your 
nights and days you pass with a female cur^. 

Sta. What does she say? What's she talking to you 
about ? Ol. She's begging and entreating of me that I won't 
be taking Casina as my wife. 

Sta. What did you say after that ? 

» A hard-baked biscuit)— Ver. 293. " Panis rubidus," literally, " red bread," 
was probably a kind of bread or biscuit, which received its name from its being 
highly baked, tUl it was " red," or of a deep-brown colour. 

« For a single penny)— Ver. 299. "Libella," the same as the "as;" a small 
rilver coin, the tenth part of the " denarius." 

» With a female cur)— Ver. 303. " Cum cane." literally, '♦ with a bitch •*• an 
expression too coarse for ears polita^ 



So. VI. OE, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. SlU 

Ol. "Why, I declared that I wouldn't give way to Jupiter 
himself, if he were to entreat me. 

St A. May the Gods preserve you for me ! Ol. She's now 
all in a ferment ; she's swelling so against me. 

Sta. By my troth, I could like her to burst in the middle. 

Ol. I' faith, I fancy she will, if indeed you manage cle- 
verly. But your amorousness, i' faith, is a cause of trouble 
to me ; your wife is at enmity with me, your son at enmity, 
my fellow-servants at enmity. 

Sta. What matters that to you? So long as {'pointing 
to himself) this Jupiter only is propitious to you, do you 
take care and esteem the lesser Grods at a straw's value. 

Ol. That's great nonsense ; as if you didn't know how 
suddenly your human Jupiters take to dying. So after all, if 
you, my Jupiter, are dead and gone, when your realm devolves 
upon the lesser Gods, who shall then come to the rescue of 
my back, or head, or legs ? 

SxA. Affairs will go with you better than you expect, if I 
obtain this — the enjoyment of my Casina. 

Ol. I' faith, I do not think it possibly can be ; so earnestly 
IS your wife striving that she shall not be given to me. 

Sta. But this way I'll proceed : I'll put the lots in an 
urn, and draw the lots for yourself and Chalinus. I find 
that the business has come to this pass ; it's necessary to 
fight with swords hand to hand. 

Ol. What, if the lot should turn out different from wliat 
you wish ? Sta. Speak with good omen. I rely upon the 
Gods ; we'll trust in the Gods. 

Ol. That expression I wouldn't purchase at a rotten 
thread, for all people are relying upon the Gods ; but still 
I've frequently seen many of those deceived who relied upon 
the Gods. 

Sta. But hold your tongue a little while. {Pointing.) 

Ol. What is it you mean ? 

Sta. Why look ; here's Chalinus coming from the house, 
out here, with the urn and the lots. Now, with standards 
closing, we shall fight. 

Scene YI. — Enter Cleosteata and Chalinus, with the 

urn and lots. 
Clk. Let me know, Chalinus, what mj husband wants 



320 OAGIKA Act IL 

with me. Cha. By my troth, he wants to see you burn- 
ing outside of the Metiau gate^. 

Cle. I' faith, I believe he does want that. 

Cha. But, by my troth, I don't believe it, but I know it 
for certain. 

St A. (aside to Olympic). I've got more men of business 
than I imagined: I've got this fellow, a Diviner, in my 
house. What, if we move our standards nearer, and go to 
meet them ? Follow me. (Goes up to Cleostbata and Cha- 
LiNTJS.) What are you about ? 

Cha. All the things are here which you ordered ; your 
wife, the lots, the urn, and myself. 

Sta. By yourself only, there is more here than I want. 

Cha. I' faith, so it seems to you indeed. I'm a stinger 
to you now ; I'm pricking that dear little heart of yours ; 
even now it's palpitating from alarm. 

Sta. Whip-knave Cle. Hold your tongue, Chalinus. 

Ol. Do make that fellow be quiet. Cha. No, that fellow 
rather {pointing to Olympic), who has learned to misbehave^. 

Sta. {to Chalinus). Set the urn down here. (Chalinus 
puts it down.) Grive me the lots : lend your attention noiv. 
But I did think, my wife, that I could have prevailed upon 
you thus far, for Casina to be given me as my wife, and 
even now I think so. 

Cle. She, given to you ? Sta. Why yes, to me dear 

me, I didn't mean to say that. While I meant for myself^, I 
said him; {aside) why really, while I'm wanting her for 
myself, I've already, i' faith, been chattering at random. 

Cle. {overhearing him). TJpon my word, you really have; 
and you are still doing so. 

Sta. For him — no, no ; for myself, i' faith*. Plague take 

* The Metian gate)—Ver. 337. As he writes for a Roman audience, the author 
does not see any impropriety in speaking of the " Metian gate," although the 
scene is at Athens. The bodies of the dead were burned outside of the Metian or 
Esquiline gate. 

2 Learned to misbehave') — Ver. 345. As an indecent allusion is covertly made 
here, the translation of the passage is somewhat modified. 

3 While I meant for myself)— Ver. 35 D. Wishing to correct himself, in his con- 
fusion he only gets deeper. He means to say • " While I meant for him, I saio 
myself." 

♦ For myself f faith)— Yet. 352. For the third time he commits the camt 
mistake. 



Sc. VI. OE, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. 321 

it, at last, with great difficulty, I've got into the right 
road ! 

Cle. Very often, i' faith, you are making your mistakes. 

Sta. Such is the case when you desire anything very 
much. But each of us, both he {pointirig to Olympic) and 
1, apply to you for our rights 

Cle. How's that? Sta. Why, I'll tell you, my sweet. 
As to this Casina, you must make a present of her to thi^ 
jailiff of ours. 

Cle. But, i' faith, I neither do make it, nor do I in 
tend it. 

Sta. In that case, then, I'll divide the lots between them. 

Cle. Who forbids you? Sta. I judge with reason that 
that is the best and fairest way. In fine, if that happens 
which we desire, we shall be glad; but if otherwise, we'll 
bear it with equanimity. {Giving a lot to Oltmpio.) Tak-i 
this lot — take it ; see wliat's written on it. 

Ol. {looTcing at it). Number one. Cha. It isn't fair, be- 
cause that fellow has got one before me. 

Sta. (giving one to Chalintjs). Take this, will you. 

Cha. (taking it). Give it me. Stop though; one thing 
has just now come into my mind. {To Cleostbata.) Do 
you see that there's nu other lot in there by chance at the 
bottom of the water. 

Sta. Whip-rascal ! do you take me to be your own self? 
{To Cleosteata.) There is none ; only set your feelings at 
rest. 

Ol. {to Chalinus). May it prove lucky and fortunate to 
me, a great mischance to you ! 

Cha. I' faith, it will certainly fall to you, I fancy ; I know 
your pious ways. But stop a bit ; is that lot of yours of 
poplar or of fir ? 

Ol. Why do you trouble yourself about that ? 

Cha. Why, because I'm afraid that it may float on tha 
surface of the water. {They go up to the urn.) 

Sta. Capital ! — take care ! Now then, both of you, throw 
rour lots in here. {Pointing to the urn.) Look now, wife, 
ftll's fair. {They throio them in.) 

Ol. Don't you trust your wife, 

Sta. Be of good courage. 

VOL. II. T 



S22 CAS15A ; Act II. 

Ol. Upon my faith, I do believe that she'll lay a speL 
upon the lots this very day, if she touches them. 

Sta. Hold your tongue. 

Ol. I'll hold my tongue. I pray the Gods 

Cha. Aye, that this day you may have to endure tlie chain^ 
and the bilboes^. Ol. That the lot may fall to me. 

Cha. Aye, faith, that you may hang up by the feet. 

Ol. Aye, that you may blow your eyes out of your head 
through your nose. 

Cha. (to Staling). What are you afraid of? It must be 

ready by this (Turning to Olympio.) A halter for you, 

Xmean. 

Ol. (to Chalinus). You're undone I 

Sta. Grive attention, both of you. 

Ol. I'll be mum. 

Sta. Now you, Cleostrata, that you may not say that any- 
thing has been done cheatingly by me in this matter, or sus- 
pect it, I give you leave, do you yourself draw the lots. 

Ol. (to Staling). Tou are ruining me. 

Cha. He's gaining an advantage rather, 

Cle. (to Staling). Tou do what's fair. 

Cha. (to Olympig). I pray the Gods that your lot aay 
run away out of the urn. 

Ol. Say you so ? Because you are a runaway yourself, do 
you wish all to follow your example ? I wish, indeed, that 
that lot of yours, as they say that of the descendants of Her- 
cules' once did, may melt away while the lots are drawing. 

' Eiidttre the chain) — Ver. 372. " Ganis." Literally, '' the dog." This was 
the small chain, which was also called " catillus." It has been referred to iu a 
previous Note. 

2 The bilboes')— Ver. 372. " Furcam." 

* Descendcmts €>f Hercules) — Ver. 381. Pausanias says that the sons of Aristo 
demus and Cresphontes drew lots, on condition that the party whose lot came first 
out of the urn should receive Messenia, and the other Lacedaemon. Temcnus, 
favouring Cresphontes, pkced the lots in the water, taking care that tlie one 
belonging to Cresphontes should be of baked clay, while the other was of cLiy 
yttly dried in the snn, which of coorse melted on coming in contact with tlie 
wftter; by which stratagem Cresphontes gained possession of Messenia. Apol- 
loiioms relates the same story in a different manner. He says that Temenns, 
Procles and Eurysthenes, tlie sons of Aristodemus, jointly, and CresphontevS, 
drew lots, on condition that the one whose lot should appear first should liave 
Argr>8, the second have Lacedaemon, and the third Messenia. Cresphontes having 
long set Li» miud upon gaining Messenia^ had his lot made of unbaked clay, which 



Sc. Yl. on, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 323 

Cha. And you, that you may melt away j ourself, awJ just 
now be made hot with twigs. 

Sta. Attend, will you, to the business in hand, Olympio ! 

Ol. Yes, if this thrice-dotted^ fellow '11 let me. 

Sta. May this prove lucky and fortunate to me. 

Ol. Yes indeed ; to me as well. . 

Cha. Not so. Ol. By my troth, yes, Isai/. 

Cha. By my troth, yes, for myself, I sa^. 

Sta. (to Olympic). He'll be the winner; you'll live in 
wretchedness. Do you give him a punch in the face thia 
instant ! Well, what are you about ? 

Cle. (to Olympic). Don't you raise your hand. 

Ol. (to Staling). With clenched or open hand am I to 
strike him ? 

Sta. Do just as you please. 

Ol, (striking Cualinus). There's for you, take that I 

Cle. {to Olympic). What business have you to touch 
him? 

Ol. Because my Jupiter ('pointing to Staliitg) commanded 
me. 

Cle. (^0 Chaliitus). Do you slap him in the face in return. 
(Chalinus strikes Olympic in theface^ 

Ol. (calling out to Staling). I'm being murdered, I'm 
being punched with his fists, Jupiter! 

Sta. (to Chalinus). What business had you to touch him ? 

Cha. Because this Juno of mine (pointing to Cleosteata) 
ordered me. 

Sta. I must put up with it, since, as long as I live, my wife 
will have the mastery. 

Cle. (to Staling). He (pointing to Chalinus) ought tr 
oe allowed to speak as much as that fellow. 

Ol. Why hy his talk does he occasion me an unlucky omenl 

Sta. I think, Chalinus, you should be on your guard 
against a mishap. 

Cha. Full time, after my face has been battered \ 

melted ; the others being taken out, there was no necessity to look for the remain- 
ing one, and thus the trick succeeded. 

» Th7^e-dotted)—YeT. 384. " Literatus." Lambinns thinks that this alludes 
to his back being marked by sti-ipes. There is^ however, more reason to believe 
that it refers to the custom of branding slaves and criminals. The Grreka 
marked criminals on the forehead with 0, the beginning of the weed 6a3>avaSf 
to denote tliat tbey were dead in law. 

t2 



L 



324 CASiNA ; Act II. 

Sta. Come, wife, now then draw the lots. ( To the Sek- 
Vants.) Do you give your attention. {To Cleosteata.) And 
give it, you, as well. 

Ol. "Where I am I know not. I'm undone, I've got my 
heart full of maggots, I think ; it's jumping about dready ; 
with its throbbing it beats against my breast. 

Cle. (^putting her hand into the urn). I've got hold of a 
lot. 

Sta. Draw it out, then. 

Cha. {to Olympic). Are you not dead now ? 

Ol. Show it. {She shows it.) It's mine. 

Cha. Beally this is an unlucky mishap. 

Cle. You are beaten, Chalinus. 

Sta. Then I'm glad that we are to survive after all, Olympic. 

Ol. Through my own piety and that of my forefathers haa 
it happened. 

Sta. Wife, go in-doors and make ready for the wedding. 

Cle. I'll do as you bid me. 

Sta. Do you know that it's to a distance in the country, 
at the farm-house, that he is to take her ? Cle. I know. 

Sta. Go in-doors, and although this is disagreable to you, 
still take care and attend to it. 

Cle. Very well. ( Goes into the house.) 

Sta. {to Olympic). Let us, as well, go in-doors ; let's en- 
treat them to make all haste. 

Ol. Am I delaying at all ? Eor in his presence {pointing 
to Chalii^us) I don't want there to be any further conversa- 
tion. {They go into the house.) 

Scene VII. — Chalinus, alone. 

Cha. {to himself). If now I were to hang myself, I should 
be losing my pains, and besides my pains, putting myself 
to the expense of purchasing a rope, and doing a plea- 
sure to my evil-wishers. "What need is there for one, who, 
indeed, am dead even as it is? At the lots I'm beaten; 
Casina's to be married to the bailiff. And this now is not 
so much to be regretted, that the bailiff has got the bettei*, 
as the fact that the old man so vehemently desired that 
she shouldn't be given me, and should marry him. How 
frightened he was, how in hia misery he did bustle about, 



Sc. VIII. uK, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 325 

how he did caper about after the bailiff had won. Bj-the- 
bye, I'll step aside here; I hear the door opening. (Sees 
Staling and Olympic, coming out.) My well-wishers ana 
friends^ are coining out. Here in ambush I'U lay in wait 
against them. {Goes on one side.) 

ScEifE YIII. — Enter Staling and Oltmpig,^(9w the house, 

Ol. Only let him come into the country; I'll send the 
fellow back into the city to you with his porter's knot^, as 
black as a collier. 

Sta. So it ought to be. 

Ol. I'll have that done and well taken care of. 

Sta. I intended, if he had been at home, to send Chalinua 
to cater with you ; that, even in his sadness, I might, in 
addition, inflict this misfortune upon our foe. 

Cha, {apart ^ retreating to the wall of the house). I'll betake 
me back again to the wall ; I'll imitate the crab. Their con- 
versation must be secretly picked up by me ; for the one of 
them is tormenting me, the other wasting me luith anguish. 
Why, this whip-rascal is marching along in his white garb^, 
a very receptacle for stripes. My own death I defer ; I'm 
determined to send this fellow to Acheron before me. 

Ol. How obsequious have I been found to you ! A thing 
that you especially desired, that same have I put in your 
power ; this day the object that you love shaR be with you, 
unknown to your wife. 

Sta. Hush ! So may the Deities kindly bless me, I can 
ftardly withhold my lips from kissing you on account of this, 
my own delight ! 

* Well-wishers and friends') — Ver. 418. Of course this is said ironically. 

' With his porter's knot) — Ver. 421. From a passage of Festus, it is con- 
'ectured that the word "furca" here means an implement by means of which 
Jurdens were slung over the shoulder, for much the same purpose as the 
knot of the porters of the present day. 

* In his white garb) — Ver. 429. Lipsius thinks that Olympic has assumed the 
white dress on becoming the f reed-man of Stalino. There is more reason, however, for 
believing that he has assumed it as his wedding-garment, according to the usuai 
custom among the Romans, with whom the bridegroom, bride, and guests invite^ 
to the wedding, were drest in white. So in the Scripture, St. Matthew rxii., 11 — 12, 
** When the King came in to see the guests, he saw there was a man which ha? 
not on a wedding-garment, and he said unto aim, 'Fiiend, how earnest thjou in 
hither, not having a wedding-garment ?' " 



326 CASij? A ; Act IL 

Cha. {apart). "What? Kiss him? "VVliat's the meaning 
of this ? What's this delight of yours ? 

Ol. Do you love me at all now ? 

Sta. Aye, by my faith, myself even less than you. May 
I embrace you ? 

Ol. Tou may. (Staling embraces Mm.) 

Sta. How, when I touch you, I do seem to myself to be 
tasting honey ! 

Cha. (apart). I really do think he intends to choke the 
oailifF. 

Ol. {pushing Staling away). Awaj with you, you lover; 
get off, with your too close acquaintanceship ! 

Cha. (apart). T faith, I think that^ this very day they*ll be 
making terms. Surely, this old fellow is an universal admirer. 
This is the reason, this is it why he made him his bailiff; 
some time ago, too, when I came in his way, he wanted to 
make me his chamberlain upon the like terms. 

Ol. How subservient have I proved to you to-day, how 
attentive to your pleasure ! 

Sta. How surely, so long as I live, will I prove more of a 
well-wisher to you than to my own self! How will I this 
day give full many a kiss to Casina ! How will I, unknown 
to my wife, right pleasantly enjoy myself ! 

Chal. (apart). Oho! Now, faith, at last I've got into 
the right track. It's himself that's dying for Casina. I've 
caught the feDows. 

Sta. Even now, by my troth, am I longing to embrace her ; 
even now to be kissing her. 

Ol. Do let her be brought out first ^ww the house. Why 
the plague are you in such a hurry ? 

Sta. I'm in love. 

Ol. But I don't think that this can possibly be managed 
to-day. 

Sta. It can, if, indeed, you think that you can possibly 
receive your freedom to-morrow. 

Cha. (apart). Why, really, I must make still better use 
here of my ears ; now, in one thicket, I shall be cleverly 
catcliing two boars. 

Sta. (pointing to the house <?/'Alcesimus). At the house 

* / timik thai) — Ver, 441. This and the next six lines have fceen modifieu is 
tne Translation, as they are replete with gross indecency. 



Sc, yill. OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 327 

of this friend and neighbour of mine there's a place pro- 
vided ; I have confided to him all my amorousness : he said 
that he would find me a room. 

Ol. What will his wife do ? Where will she be ? 

Sta. I've cleverly contrived that : my wife will invite her 
here, to her own house, to the wedding ; to be here \\ith her, 
to help her, to sleep with her. I have requested it, and my 
wife has said that she will do so. She'll be sleeping here : 
I'll take care her husband is away from home. You shall 
take your wife home into the country; that country shall be 
this house, for a period, until I've had my marriage with 
Casina. Hence, before daylight, you shall afterwards take 
her home to-morrow. Isn't it very skilfully managed ? 

Ol. Cleverly! 

Cha. (apart). Only do proceed; contrive away. By 
my troth, to your own mischance are you so clever. 

Sta. Do you know what you must do now ? 

Ol. Tell me. 

Sta. {giving him a purse). Take this purse. Be off and 
buy some provisions: make haste. But I want it nicely 
done : delicate eatables, just as she herself is a delicate bit. 

Ol. Very well. Sta. Buy some cuttle-fish, mussels, 
calamaries, barley-fish^. 

Cha. {apart). Aye, wheaten fish, if you know what 
you're about. 

Sta. Some sole-fish^. 

Cha. {apart). Prithee, why those rather than soles of 
wood, with which your head may be banged, you most vile 
old fellow? 

Ol. Should you like some tongue-fish^ ? 

* Barley-Jish) — Ver. 476. " Hordeias." This was the name of some fish now un- 
known ; for want of a better name, and to express the pun contained in the original, 
it has been called "barley-lish" in the translation, as Chalinus puns on its 
resemblance to " hordeum," ^' barley." 

"^ Some sole-fisK) — Ver 477. "Soleas." Chalinus puns on this word, which 
means either " sole-fish " or " thin shoes." He thinks " sculponese " better suited, 
rith which to bang the old fellow's head. These were wooden shoes worn by the 
instic slaves, and resembled either the clogs of the north of England, with 
wooden soles and upper leathers, or the sabots of the Contineut, which are made 
• atirely of wood. 

* Some tongue-fisK) — Ver. 480. *' Lingulaca" was, according to Festus, a kind 
of fish, or a talkative woman. To give some idea of the play on the word, it has 
been rendered " tongue-fish." Warner says, in a Note to his Translation, t.'iui 
roall flat-fish, or young soles, are called " tongues'* in the west of England 



328 CASINA ; Act 111. 

Sta. "What need is tliere, since my wife's at home ? She 
is our tongue-fisli, for she's never silent. 

Ol. "While I'm about it, I must make choice out of the 
supply of fish what to purchase. 

Sta. You say what's good : be oif. I don't care to spare 
for cost; provide abundantly. But it's requisite also tliat 
I should see this neighbour of mine, that he may attend to 
what I've requested. 

Ol. Am I to go now ? Sta. I wish you. (Exit Olym 
pio. Staling ffoes into the house q/* Alcesimtis.) 

Chal. {coming forward) . By three freedoms I could not 
be induced this day to do other than provide a heavy re- 
tribution for them, and at once disclose all this matter to 
my mistress. I've caught and fully detected my enemies 
in their guilt. But if my mistress is ready now to do her 
duty, the cause is all our own : I'U cleverly be beforehand 
with the fellows. With omens in our favour the day pro- 
ceeds: just conquered, we are the conquerors. I'll go in- 
doors, that that which another cook has seasoned, I now, in 
my turn, may season after another fashion ; and that for 
him for whom it was prepared, it may really not be pre- 
pared ; and that that may be prepared for him, which before 
was not prepared^. {Goes into the home.) 

Act III. — Scene I. 
^i»^er Alcesimus and Staling, ^om the house of the former. 

Sta. Now, Alcesimus, I shall know whether you are the 
very picture of friend or foe to me ; now is the proof upon 
view ; now is the contest going on. " But why do I do so;'^ 
forbear to correct me ; save yourself all that. " With your 
hoary head, at an age unfit ;" save yourself that as weL. 
" One who has a wife ;" save yourself that likewise. 

Alo. I never saw a person more distracted with love 
than yourself. Sta. Do take care that the house is clear. 

Alc. Why, faith, men-servants, maid-servants, all of them 
I'm determined to send out of the house to yours. 

Sta. Heyday ! with your adroitness you are very adroit ! 
But only take care and remember the lines which Colax 

* Was not prepared) — ^Ver. 497. He means that, spite of his preparationa, 
Olyrapio shall not have Casina, and that he himself will; in which, howe/er, he 
IS disappointed in the end, as she is given to Euthynicua. 



Sc. TI. OE, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. 329 

repeats^ ; take care that every one comes with his own pro- 
visions, as if they were going to Sutrium^. 

Alc. I'll remember it. 

Sta. "VVhy now there's no public ordinance^ better ordered 
than yourself, in fact. Attend to this. I'm now going to 
the Forum ; I shall be here just now. 

Alc. Luck go with you. 

Sta. Take care that your house gets a tongue. 

Alc. Why so ? 

Sta. That when I come, it may invite me. 

Alc. Pooh, pooh ! you are a person that stands in good 
need of a basting; you're making too free with your fun. 

Sta. Of what use is it for me to be in love, unless I'm quite 
ready and talkative ? But take you care that you haven't 
to be sought for by me. 

Alc. I'll be at home all the while. {Exit Staling ; Al- 
CESIMTJS goes into his house.) 

Scene II. — Enter CLEOSTRATA,/rom her house. 
Cle. {to herself). This was the reason, then, i' faith, why 
my husband entreated me, with such great earnestness, to 
make haste and invite my female neighbour to our house — 
that the house might be clear for him to be taking Casina 
there. Now, therefore, I shall by no means invite her, 
80 that liberty of free range shan't be any way given to 
worn-out bell-wethers. (Alcesimus is coming out of his 
house.) But look, the piUar of the Senate's coming forward, 
the safeguard of the public, my neighbour, the person who 
is finding free range for my husband. I' faith, the measure 
of wit"* that has been sold to him, was purchased at no 
cheap rate. 

> Which Colax repeats) — ^Ver. 506. Colax. or, the Flatterer, was a Play ol 
Menander's, which was translated by the Roman Comic writer Nsevius, a little 
before the time of Plautus. It was not allowed to be acted at Rome, on account 
«f some satirical passages in it which bore reference to tlie family of the Metelli. 

2 Going to Sutrium) — Ver. 607. This was a proverbial expression (used in the 
Colax), wliich had originated at the time wlien Brennus attacked Rome. Sutrium 
vas a Roman colony in Etniria. Fearing an attacK upon it by tlie Gauls, Ca- 
millus ordered that some troops should march to the assistance of the Sutrians, 
t)ut that they should carry their own provisions with them. 

3 Public ordinance) — Ver. 507. See the Pseudolus, 1. 748. 

* The measure of unt) — Ver. 521. "Salis." Literally "salt." The meinmc 
of this passage is obscure iu the extreme, and it is difficult to form a conjecture 
Ik hat it really is, further than that it is not complimentary to Alcesiniiiis. 



330 CASINA ; Act III 

Alc. (to himself). I'm wondering that my wife, who's 
already waiting at home, dressed out, to be sent for, hasn't 
been invited by this to my neighbour's here. But see, here 
she is ; she's come to fetch her, I guess. {Going up to Cleo- 
8TEATA.) Good day, Cleostrata ! 

Cle. And you the same, Alcesimus. "Where's your wife ? 

Alc. She's waiting in-doors for you to send for her ; for 
your husband requested me to send her to help you. Do 
you wish me to call her ? (Going towards the door.) 

Cle. Let it alone ; I don't care ; * * if she's 

busy. Alc. She's at leisure. 

Cle. I don't care about it ; I don't want to be trouble- 
some to her ; I'll see her at a future time. 

Alc. Are you not getting ready for a wedding there at 
your house ? 

Cle. I am getting ready and making preparations. 

Alc. Don't you require an assistant then ? 

Cle. We have enough at home. "When the marriage has 
iaken place, then I'll call upon her ; for the present, fare- 
well, and bid her the same from me. (Goes into her house.) 

Alc. {to himself). "What am I to do now ? To my sorrow 
I've done a most disgraceful action for the sake of that vile 
and toothless goat, who has engaged me in this. I've pro- 
mised the aid of my wife out of doors, as though to go lick 
dishes^ like a dog. A worthless fellow, to tell me that hia 
wife was going to send for her, whereas she herself declares 
that she does not want her. And upon my faith, it's a wonder 
if this female neighbour of mine hasn't already her suspicions 
of this. But yet, on the other hand, when I reflect with 
myself on this notion, if there were anything of that, there 
would have been enquiries of me. I'll go in-doors, that I 
may lay up the sliip^ again in the dockyard. {Goes into his 
house.) 

Scene III. — Enter Cleostbata, yrom her house, 
Cle. {to herself). Kow he has been finely made a fool Oi. 

» To go lick dishes) — Ver. 535. He alludes to the habit of puppies, and 
pr(iwn-up d ogs as well, of being very ready to find their way to the cupboards o( 
their neighbours. 

* Lay up the ship) — Ver. 541. He means his wife, who is all dressed out rpaiiy 
for her voyage to her neighbours, and whom be will now order to be unn'ggea ano 
Itowel mto dock. 



Sc. III. OK, THE STEATAftEM DEFEATED. 331 

In what a bustle are these unfortunate old fellows. Now 1 
do wish that that good-for-nothing decrepit jusband of mine 
would come, that I might make a fool of him in his turn, after 
I have thiis fooled the otlier one. For I long to make a bit of 
a quarrel between these two. But look, he's coming. Why, 
when you see him so serious, you'd think him a decent person. 
(^She stands on one side, unseen.) 

JEnter Staling. 

Sta. (aloud, to himself). It's a great folly, to my notion 
at least, for any man that's in love to go to the Forum on 
that day on which the object w^iich he loves is close at 
haiuU ; as I in my folly have been doing ; I've spent the day, 
standing pleading^ for a certain relative of mine, who, faith, 
I'm very delighted has lost his cause; so that he hasn't for 
nothing chosen me as his advocate to-day. He ought first 
to ask and make enquiry, whether his mind is at home or 
not at home, whom he's choosing for his advocate ; if he says 
it isn't, without his mind he should send liim off home. 
{Catches sight of his wife.) But look, there's my wife before 
the house ! Alas ! wretch that I am ! I'm afraid that she 
isn't deaf, and has heard this. 

Cle. {apart). By my troth, I have heard it to your great cost. 

Sta. I'll go nearer to her. {Goes up to Cleostra.tjl.) 
Wliat are you about, my delight ? 

Cle. I' faith, I was waiting for you. 

Sta. Are the things ready now ? Have you by this 
brought over here to our house this female neighbour of yours, 
who was to assist you ? 

Cle. I sent for her as you requested me ; but this com- 
panion of yours, your very good friend, was in a pet w^tli 
his wife about sometliing, I don't know what ; he said, when 
I went to fetch her, that he wouldn't send her. 

Sta. That's your greatest fault ; you are not courteousi 
enough. 

Cle. It's not the part of matrons, but of harlots, to be 
showing courtesies, my husband, to the husbands of others. 

* Is close at hand) — Ver. 548. " In mundo." There is some doubt what is the 
meaning of this expression here. Warner renders it " in all her trim." 

2 Standing pleading) — Ver. 550. It was the Cfistom at Rome, as -witli us far 
the advocate to stand while pleading the cause of his client. 



332 Ci^siNA; ActllL 

Go yourself and fetch her ; I wish to attend in-doors, my 
husband, to what is requisite to be done. 

Sta. Make haste then. 

Cle. Very well. (Aside.) Now, faith, I shall inspire some 
apprehensions in his heart. I'll this day render this love- 
sick man completely miserable. {She goes into the home.) 

Scene TV. — IJnter ALCESiMUS,y>ow his house. 

Alc. (to himself). I'll go see here if the lover has come 
back home from the Forum, who, an old ghost, has been 
making fools of myself and my wife. But see, there he is 
before his house. (Addressing Staling.) I' faith, 'twas just 
in good time I was coming to your house. 

Sta. And, i' faith, I to yours. How say you, you good- 
for-nothing fellow ? What did I enjoin you ? What did I 
beg of you ? 

Alc. What's the matter ? 

Sta. How nicely you've had your house empty for me ! 
How well you have sent your wife over to our house here ! 
Isn't it through yourself that I and the opportunity are lost, 
both of us ? 

Alc. Why don't you go hang yourself? Why, 'twas you 
yourself said that your wife would come and fetch mine from 
our house ? 

Sta. Then she declares that she has been to fetch her, 
and that you said you wouldn't let her go. 

Alc. But she herself, of her own accord, said to me that 
she didn't care for her assistance. 

Sta. But 'tis she^ herself who has deputed me to come 
and fetch lier. 

Alc. But I don't care for that. 

Sta. But you are proving my ruin. 

Alc. But that's as it should be. But I shall still go on 
delaying ; but I very much long for nothing but to do you 
some mischief; but I'll do it with pleasure. Never this day 
shall you have a " but" the more than I. But, in fine, really, 
upon my faith, may the Grods confound you. 

Sta. What now ? Are you going to send your wife to my 
house ? 

* Bvt His she) — Ver. 586. The repetition of " quin,** " but," is intended as a 
iudicruus mark of tlie contempt that these antagonists have lor each other. 



Sc. Y. OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 333 

Alc. Tou may take her, and be off to utter and extreme 
perdition, both with her and with that one of yours, and with 
that mistress of yours as well. Away with you, and attend 
to something else ; I'll at once bid my wife to pass thither 
through the garden to your wife. 

Sta. IS'ow you are proving yourself a friend to me in 
genuine style! (Alcesimus goes into his house.) Under 
what auspices am I to say that this passion was inflicted 
upon me, or what have I ever done amiss towards A^enus, 
that when I'm thus in love crosses so many should befall me 
in my path? {A noise is heard.) Heyday! what's that noise, 
prithee, that's going on in our house ? 

Scene Y. — Enter Paedalisca, running out of the house. 

Par. (bawling out at the door). I'm undone, I'm undone, I'm 
utterly, utterly ruined ! My heart is deadened with fear. My 
limbs, in my misery, are all a-trembling ! I know not whence 
to obtain or look for any assistance, safety, or refuge for my- 
self, or any means of .relief : things so surprising, in a manner 
so surprisingly done, have I just now witnessed in-doora, a 
new and unusual piece of audacity. Be on your guard, 
Cleostrata! prithee do get away from her, lest amid such 
transports she may be doing you some mischief! Tear away 
that sword from her, who's not in possession of her senses ! 

Sta. AVhy, what is the matter — that she, frightened and 
half dead with fear, rushes hither out of doors ? Pardalisca ! 

Par. (looking mldly about her). Whence do my ears catch 
the sound ? 

Sta. Just look back at me. 

Par. My master! Sta. What's the matter? What? 

Par. I'm undone. Sta. How undone ? 

Par. I'm undone, and you are undone. 

Sta. Disclose it, what's the matter with you ? 

Par. Woe to you! 

Sta. Aye, and the same to yourself. 

Par. That I mayn't fall down, prithee do hold, hold me. 
(Staggers, on which Staling supports her.) 

Sta. "Whatever it is, tell me quickly. 

Par. Do support my throbbing breast, prithee do make a 
little air with your cloak. 

Sta. (farming her icith the lappet of his cloak) I'm in alarm 



33 1 CASI^A ; Act III. 

as to what is the matter ; (aside) unless this woman has been 
somewhere upsetting herself with the pure cream^ of Bacchus. 

Par. Hold my ears, pray do. {Her head falls on her 
shoulder.) 

Sta. Away to utter perdition ; breast, ears, head, and your- 
eeU', may the Gods confound ! For, unless I quickly learn 
from you this matter, whatever it is, I'll forthwith be knock- 
mg your brains out, you viper, you hussey, wiio have thus far 
been making a laughing-stock of me. 

Pae. My master ! Sta. What do you want, my servant ? 

Par. You are too angry. 

Sta. You are saying so too soon. But whatever this is, 
tell it ; relate in a few words what has been the disturbance 
in-doors. 

Par. You shall know. Hear this most foul crime w hicL 
just now in-doors at our house your female slave began to at- 
tempt after this fashion, a thing that does not befit the regu- 
lations of Attica. 

Sta. What is it? 

Par. Fever prevents the use of my tongue. 

Sta. What is it ? Can I possibly learn from you what is 
the matter ? 

Par. I'll tell you. Your female slave, she whom you in- 
tend to give as a wife to your bailiff, in-doors she 

Sta. In-doors what ? What is it ? 

Par. Is imitating the wicked practices of wicked women, 
in threatening her husband 

Sta. What then? Par. Ah! 

Sta. What is it ? Par. She says that she intends to take 
her hushand^s life. A sword 



Sta. {starting). Hah ! Par. A sword 

Sta. What about that sword ? 

Par. She has got one. Sta. Ah! wretch that I amt 
Why has she got it ? 

Par. She is pursuing them all at home nil over the house, 
and she won't allow any person to approach her ; and so, all, 
biding in chests and under beds, are mute with fear. 

Sta. I'm murdered and ruined outright ! What malady 
is this that has so suddenly befallen her ? 

• With the pure creaTn) — Ver. 621-2. " Nisi hsec meraclo se uspiam percnssit 
floi e Liberi." Literally, " Unless she has somewhere struck herself with th« 
nearly unmixed flower of Liber.** 



Sc. V. OE, THE STEATAQEM DEEEATED. 335 

Par. She is mad. Sta. I do think that I am the most 
unfortunate of men ! 

Pab. Aye, and if you were to know the speeches she 
uttered to-day. 

Sta. I long to know about what she said. 

Par. Listen. By all the Q-ods and Q-oddesses she swore 
that she would murder the person with whom she should bed. 

Sta. Will she murder me ? 

Par. Does that bear reference to yourself in any way ? 

Sta. Pshaw ! Par. "What business have you with her ? 

Sta. I made a mistake ; him, the bailiff, I meant to say. 

Par. It's on purpose^ that you are turning aside from the 
high road into bye-paths. 

Sta. Does she threaten anything against myself? 

Par. She is hostile to you individually more than any 
person. 

Sta. Por what reason ? 

Par. Because you have given her as a wife to Olympio ; 
site says that she 11 neither suffer your life, nor her own, nor 
that of her husband, to be prolonged until the morrow. I have 
been sent hither to tell you this, that you might beware 
of her. 

Sta. (aside). By my troth, to my misery I'm quite undone ! 
There neither is nor ever was any old man in love so wretched 
as I. 

Par. (aside, to the Audience). Don't I play him off 
cleverly? Por everything that I've been telling him as 
taking place, I've been telling him falsely. My mistress 
and she who lives next door have concocted this scheme. 
I've been sent to fool him. 

Sta. Hark you, Pardalisca ! Par. What is it ? 

Sta. There is Par. What? 

Sta. There is sometliing that I want to enquire of you 
about. 

Par. Tou are causing me delay. 

Sta. Why, you are causing me sorrow. But has Casina 
got that sword even still ? 

Par. She has ; but two of them. 

' Ifs on purpose) — Ver. 658. Slie hints bj tliis tl\at she weU knows what liia 
thoughts are, and that really it is no mistake on his part; but that he is 
designedly deviating from the open path of rectitude, aud tirmng audc i»to Vam 
bye-puths of lust aud dapicity 



3,1G casina; Act II J 

Sta. Why two ? Pah. She says that this very day she'll 
murder you with the one, the bailiff with the other. 
- Sta. lamnowthemoatutterly murdered of all people that 
do exist. I'll put on me a coat of mail ; I think that's the 
best. What did my wife do ? Didn't she go and take them 
away from her ? 
. Par. No person dares go near her. 

Sta. She should have prevailed on her. 

Par. She is entreating her. She declares that assuredly 
she will lay them down on no other terms, unless she under- 
stands that she shall not be given to the bailiff. 

Sta. But whether she likes it or no, because she refuses, 
she shall marry him this day. For why shouldn't I carry 
this out that I've begun, for her to marry me ? — that, in- 
deed, I didn't intend to say — but, our bailiff? 

Par. You're making your mistakes pretty often. 

Sta. It's alarm that impedes my words. But, pritliee, do 
tell my wife, that I entreat her to prevail upon her to put 
down the sword, and allow me to return in-doors. 

Par. I'll tell her. Sta. And do you entreat her. 

Par. And I'll entreat her. 

Sta. And in soft language, in your usual way. But do 
you hear me ? If you manage this, I'll give you a pair of 
phoes^ and a gold ring^ for your finger, and plenty of nice 
things. 

Par. I'll do my best. Sta. Take care and prevail. 

Par. Now then I'll be off; unless you detain me for 
anything. 

Sta. Be off, and take care. 

Par. {aside). Look, his assistant is returning, at last, 
with the provisions ; he's bringing a train after him. {She 
goes into the house.) 

* A pair of shoes) — Ver. 693. Perhaps these would prove very acceptable to 
Pardalisca, who, as a slave, was probably condemned to wear the heavy 
"scalponeae" before mentioned, in 1. 478. 

* And a gold ring) — Ver. 694. Slaves were not in pjeneral allowed to wear other 
than iron rings, called " condalia." See the Notes to the Trinummus, 1. 1014» 
iMeursius, as quoted by Limiers, goes so far as to suppose that this is an implied 
promise of her liberty to Pardalisca, becau.'je of this inability of the slaves to wwu 
gold rings. That seems, however, to oe a '.pry far-fetcheil notion. 



Sc. A^I. Oa, THE StEATAaEM DEFEATED. 337 

Scene VI. — Enter Olympic, a Cook, and JiU AssisTANTts, 
yjtth ^provisions. 

Ol. {to the Cook). See, you thief, that you lead on your 
briars beneath their banners^. 

Cook. But how are they briars P 

Ol. Because that which they have touchedj they instantly 
seize hold of ; if you go to snatch it from them, they instantly 
rend it ; so, wherever they come, wherever they are, with a 
twofold loBs^ do they mulct their masters. 

Cook. Heyday, indeed ! 

Ol. Well, well ! This way I'm delaying to go meet my 
master with a magnificent, patrician, and patronizing air. 
(^He struts along.) 

Sta. My good man, save you. Ol. I admit tiiat so lam^. 

Sta. How goes it P 

Ol. You are in love, but I'm hungering and thirsting. 

Sta. You have come capitally provided. 

Ol. Pooh! pooh ! {Goes towards the door.) 

Sta. But stop you, although you do hold me in con- 
tempt 

Ol. O dear, O dear ! your converse has a bad smell to 
me. {Moving away.) 

Sta. What's the matter ? Ol. {pointing to the baskets qf 
provisions). That's the matter. 

Sta. Will you not stop there P 

Ol. Why, really, you are causing me ennui*. 

' Briars beneath their banners) — Ver. 702. This figure is derived partly from 
jE;ardening, partly from ir ilitary tactics. The assistants of the Cook are compared 
1 1 briars, because they tear and carry off everything they meet ; and their leader 
IS requested to keep tliem " sub signis," " beneath the banners," lest, like soldiers 
on a march, leaving their ranks, they should stroll about to plunder and steal. 
The bad character of the hired cooks has been referred to in the Pseudolus. It 
will be also found enlarged upon in the Aulularia. 

' With a twofold loss) — Ver. 706. Probably, pilfering in all directions, ar^d 
then getting paid for their services. 

3 / admit that so I am) — ^Ver. 709. *' Fateor." His conscience prickmg hira 
for his disgraceful conduct, he is glad to catch the opportunity of alleging that he 
really is a " bonus vir " vice thus paying homage to virtue. 

* Causing me ennui) — Ver. 715. This is in Greek in the original — Trpdyiiara 
fioL TTapexfis. More literally, "You give me trouble." It was a pliiase 
generally used by a superior when annoyed by an inferior, and aptly show^ liie 
degraded position to which Stalino has reduced himself by his base assocWiona 

VOL. n. s 



k 



538 CASiNA ; Ajt III. 

Sta. I sliall be giving you a grand coup^, I fancy, if you 
don't stand still forthwith. {Catches hold of him.) 

Ol. mon Dieu^ ! Can't you get away from me, unless 
you would like me to be sick just now ? 

Sta. Do stop a bit. 

Ol. How's this ? (^Staring at him.) What person's this ? 

Sta. I'm your master. Ol. "What master ? 

Sta. He whose slave you are. 

Ol. I, a slave ? Sta. At/e, and mine. 

Ol. Am I not a free man ? Eemember ! remember ! 

Sta. Stop and stay you there ! {Catches hold of him.) 

Ol. Let me alone. Sta. I am your slave. 

Ol. That's very good. 

Sta. My dear little Olympio, my father, my patron, I dc 
beg of you 

Ol. Well, you certainly are in your senses. 

Sta. Of course I am your slave. 

Ol. What need have I of so worthless a slave ? 

Sta. Well now, how soon are you going to provide me 
some amusement^ ? 

Ol. If the dinner were but drest. 

Sta. Then let them be off this instant in-doors. {To 
the Cook and his Assistants.) Gro you into the house and 
despatch with all haste. I'll come in just now. Have the 
dinner charmingly sauced up* for me; I want to have a 
charming meal. I really don't care, now, to be eating in 
the style of i/our sumptuous foreigners^. Be off, will you ; 

with his servant OljTnpio. An attempt has been made in the translation, perhaps 
not very successfully, to pourtray the impression intended to be conveyed by the 
passage oy tne use of the French word " ennui." 

1 A grand coup) — Ver. 716. Meya kukov. Literally, " A great mischief" 

2 mon D{eu)—YeT. 717. 'Q Zev. Literally, " Zeus !" or " Jupiter !'* 

» Provide me some amusement) — Ver. 727. He perhaps alludes to the gratifi- 
cation of his villanous intentions with regard to Casina. If not, his meaning is 
still more gross. He is, without exception, the most despicable character, with the 
exception of Dinarchus, ui the Truculentus, depicted in any Play of Plautns. 

* Charmingly sauced up) — Ver. 731. By the use of the word " ebria," he either 
means that the hashes are to be swimming with sauces and gravies, or that plenty 
of wine is to be provided. 

* In the style of your sumptuous foreigners) — Ver. 733. Barbarico ritu. He 
perhaps alludes to the Eastern style of entertainments, which were probably ac- 
companied with more magnificence, and, at the same time, greater sobriety, 
which doubtless would not agree with his Epicurean notions. 



Act TV. OE, THE STATAGEM DEFEATED. 339 

bub for tlie present, however, I take up my abode here. 
{The Cook and his Assistants go into the house.') 

Ol. Is there anything that detains you here ? 

Sta. The servant-maid says that Casina has got a sword 
in-doors, to deprive you and me of life with it. 

Ol. I understand it. Just let her alone with it. They are 
imposing on you : I know these worthless baggages. How- 
ever, do you now go into the house with me. 

Sta. But, i' faith, I'm fearful of mischief: only do you 
go. Eeconnoitre, first, what's going on within. 

Ol. My life's as dear to me as yours is to you. 

Sta. But only do go now. 

Ol. If you'll go yourself, I'U go in with you. {They ^o 
info the house.) 

Act IV. — Scene I. 
Enter PAEDALiscAjyrowz the house, laughing aloud. 

Par. {to herself). Upon my faith, I do not believe that at 
^em'e2^,novdoIthink that at Olympia, or anywhere else, there 
ever where such funny games as these ridiculous games that are 
going on in-doors here with our old gentleman and our bailiff 
Olympio. In-doors, all over the house, all are in a bustle ; 
the old man is bawling away in the kitchen, and urging on 
the cooks. " "Why don't you go to work at once ? Why 
don't you serve up, if you are going to serve up ? Make 
haste ; the dinner ought to have been cooked by this." And 
then this bailiff is strutting about with his chaplet^, clothed 
in white and finely rigged out. And then these women are 
dressing up the armour-bearer in the bedroom, to give him 
to be married to our bailiff in place ^f Casina ; but the artfid 
baggages very cleverly conceal what the upshot of this^ is 
really to be. Then too, in a manner quite worthy of them, the 
cooks are very cleverly doing their best to the end that the 
old gentleman mayn't get his dinner. They are upsetting 

» At Nemea) — Ver. 746. Nemea was a town near Corinth, where games were 
held in honor of Hercules, in remembrance of his slaying the Nemean Lion. At 
Olympia, in Ells, the Olympic games in honor of Jupiter were celebrated. 

2 With his chaplet) — Ver. 754. Among the Romans the bridegroom wore a 
jpreath or chaplet of flowers on his head. 

3 The upshot qfthis) — Ver. 759. The meaning of this passage is obscure. It 
perhaps, however, means that they conceal from Chalinus how far they intend 
bim to go in the joke, for fear lest he should refuse his services. 

z2 



MO casika; Act IV. 

the pots, and putting out the fire with the water. At the 
request of these ladies they are so doing ; they, too, are 
determined to bundle the old fellow dinuerless out of doors, 
that they by themselves may blow out their own stomachs. 
I know these female gluttons ; a merchant-ship^ full of vic- 
tuals they can devour. But the door is opening. 

ScEiOB II. — Unter StaIjITSo, from the house. 

Sta. {speaking to Cleosteata, within). If you are wise, 
wife, you'll dine, after all, when the dinner's cooked. I 
shall dine in the country, for I'm desirous to attend the new- 
made husband and the newly-made bride into the country 
(I know the mischievous habits of persons), that no one may 
carry her off. Do you people indulge your appetite. But 
do make haste and send him and her out immediately, that at 
least we may get there in daylight. I shall be here to- 
morrow ; to-morrow, wife, I'll be having a banquet still. 

Pah. (aside). 'Tis as I said it would be ; the women are 
packing the old fellow dinnerless out of doors. 

Sta. {to Pakdalisca). What are you doing here ? 

Pae. I'm going whither she sent me. 

Sta. Eeally ? Pae. Seriously. 

Sta. "What are you looking for here ? 

Pae. Eeally I'm looking for nothing at all. 

Sta. Be off; you are loitering here ; the others are bustling 
about in-doors. 

Pae. I'm off. 

Sta. Be off, then, will you, away from here, you jade of 
jades. (Paedalisca goes into the house.) Is she gone 
then ? I may now say here anything I please. He that's in 
love, i' faith, even if he is hungry, isn't hungry at all. But 
see, the bailiff, my associate-, conipanion, and husband-in- 
copartnership, is coming out of doors with wreath and torch. 

> A merckant'8h{p)—VeT. 766. " Corbitam," " a merchant-ship.*' This word 
gave rise to the French word " corvette." Merchant-ships are said to have been 
so called from their carrying a "corbis," or "basket," at the mast-head; probably 
to show at a distance that they were traders, and not ships of war. 

2 My associate) — Ver. 784. " Socins," " associate," seems certainly a much 
more rational reading than " socerus," " father-in-law," which Weise adopts. 
Amid all his folly, we can hardly imagine Stalino calling Olympio his fother-ir>- 
la-.v. From the present passage it would appear that the bridegroom was oie of 
those who held the torcJjes before the bnde when sh*' was led to his hotwe. 



OC. III. OR, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 84l 

Scene III. — Enter Olympic, dressed in white^ with a wreath 
on his head, and a torch in his hand, accompanied hy Musi« 

CIANS. 

Ol. (^0 one of the Musicians). Come, piper, while they are 
escorting the new-made bride out of doors, make the whole 
of this street resound with a sweet wedding-tune^. (-He sings 
aloud.) lo Hymen hymenaee ! lo Hymen ! 

Sta. (accosting him). How fare you, my preserver? 

Ol. I'm very hungry, faith ; and, in fact, I'm not thirsty 
a little. 

Sta. But I'm in love. Ol. Still, upon my faith, love, I 
shan't be making any trial of you. For some time past my 
inside has been grumbling with emptiness. 

Sta. But why is she now delaying so long in-doors, just as 
though on purpose ? The greater the haste I'm in, in so 
much the less is she. 

Ol. What if I were even to trill an hymeneal lay ? 

Sta. I agree to that ; and I'll help you at these our common 
nuptials. 

Ol. (Staling joining, they sing). Hymen hymenaee! lo 
Hymen.! 

Sta. Upon my faith, I'm dreadfully done up ; one may burst 
one's self with singing this hymeneal lay ; if I do burst this 
way2, 1 can't burst any other, that I may make sure of. 

Ol. Upon my faith, for sure, if you were a horse, you'd 
never be broken in. 

Sta. On what grounds ? Ol. Tou are too hard-mouthed. 

Sta. Have you ever found me so ? 

Ol. The Grods forbid ! But the door makes a noise ; they 
are coming out. 

Sta. I' troth, the Grods do will me to be preserved at last. I 
already smell Casina^ at a distance. ( They move to a distance,) 

' Wedding-^iie) — Ver. 787. " Hymenaso." The nuptial-song was called 
" Hymena3us," in honor of Hymen, the God of Marriage. The above words were 
probably the refrain, or Chorus of the song. 

"^ If I do hurst this way) — Ver. 801. Tlie meaning of this passage is obscure, 
but there is no doubt that it is of an indecent nature. The translation is conse- 
quently somewhat modified. 

3 Already smell Casino) — Ver. 805. Some Commentators explain this passage 
as one of indecent allusion, but there is really no occasion for such a construction ; 
no doubt, the bride was usually perfumed to the highest pitch, and Stalino mny 
ver J naturally say that he smells her at n distauce. 



3i2 CASINA ; Act IV 

Scene IV. — Enter, from the house, two Female Seetants 

leading Chalinus, veiled and dressed in women's clothes^ 

as Castka. 

Sert. Move on, and raise your feet a little over the 
threshold^, newly-married bride ; prosperously commence this 
journey, that you may always be alive for your husband, that 
you may be his superior in power, and the conqaeror, and 
that your rale may gain the upper hand. Let your husband 
find yoa in clothes ; you plunder your husband ; by night and 
day to be tricking your husband, prithee, do remember. 

Ol. (jto Staling). Upon my faith, at her downright peril, 
the instant she offends me ever so little ! 

Sta. Hold your tongue. Ol. I shall not hold my tongue. 

Sta. "What's the matter? Ol. These wicked jades are 
wickedly teaching her wicked lessons. 

Sta. Instead of being all ready, they'll be bringing this 
matter all into confusion for me. They are striving at that, 
wishing for it, that they may have it all undone. 

Serv. Come, Olympio, as soon as you please, receive this 
wife of yours from us. {They present Chalifus to him.^ 

Ol. Hand her to me then, if you are going to hand her to 
me at all to-day. (^They hand Chalinus to him.) 

Sta. {to the Female Servants). Be off in-doors. 

Serv. Prithee, do deal gently with her who is so young and 
inexperienced. Sta. It shall be so. Farewell ; be off now. 

Serv. Farewell. ( They go into the house.) 

Sta. Is my wife now gone ? 

Ol. She's in the house ; don't be afraid. 

Sta. Hurra ! Now, faith, I'm free at last. {Addressing 
himself to Chalinus as Casina.) My sweetheart, my spring- 
flower^, my little honey ! {Embraces him.) 

Ol. But, hark you ! you'll beware, if you are wise, of some 
mishap : she's mine. 

Sta. I know that ; but mine's the first enjoyment. 

Ol. {holding him the torch). Hold this torch /or me. 

Sta. Why, no, I'll hold her in my arms in preference. 

» A little over the threshold) — Ver. 806. When the bridal procession left the 
house of the bride, and when it reached that of the husband, the bride was hfted 
over the threshold by " pronubi," men who had been married to only one wife, that 
8he might not touch it with her foot, which was deemed an evil omen. 

^ Afy spring- flower) — Ver. 821. " Verculum.*' Literally, " My little spring. 
The Koinau names ot endearmeut seem to ivttve been i6i;nerally -try silly ones. 



Act Y. OR, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. 343 

All-powerful Yenus, a happy existence hast tho x given me in 
giving me the possession of her ! A dear little body ! a dear 
little honey ! \Hugs Chalinus, who pretends to struggle.) 

Ol. {sliouting aloud). O my dear little wife ! {Jumps alout 
on one leg.) 

Sta. What's the matter ? 

Ol. She has trod upon my toes. 

Sta. {aside). I'll compliment her, as it were. A mist is not 

so soft as is {Pulls Chalinus about.) A pretty little 

bosom, upon my faith. (Chalinus gives him a thrust with his 
elbow, on which he roars out.) Woe to unfortunate me ! 

Ol. What's the matter ? 

Sta. She struck me in the breast with her elbow. 

Ol. Why then, pray, do you maul her about ? But she 
does not do so to me, who touch her gently. {CkaJjUSTIS gives 
him a poke with his elbow.) me ! 

Sta. What's the matter? Ol. Prithee, how robust she 
is ! she has almost laid me flat with her elbow. 

Sta. She wishes, then, to go to bed^. 

Ol. Nay but, why don't we be oif ? 

Sta. {taking hold of Chalinus). My pretty, pretty little 
dear ! {They go info the house of Alcesimus.) 

Act Y. — Scene I. 

Unter Mtrrhina and PAKDALiscA,^om the house of 
Staling. 

Myre. Having been well and handsomely entertained in- 
doors, we've come out here in the street to see the wedding- 
sports. I'd like to know how Chalinus gets on — the newly- 
married bride with her new-made husband. Never, upon my 
faith, any day did I laugh so much, nor in the time that's to 
come do I think I shall laugh more ; and no poet ever did con 
trive a more artful plot than this was skilfully contrived by us. 
I'd now very much like the old fellow to come out, with hia 
face well battered, than whom there is not a more wicked old 
man alive. Not even him do I deem to be more wicked who 
finds the room for him. Nom*, Pardalisca, do you be guard 
here {pointing to the door of her house) ; that whoever comea 
out from here, you may have some sport with him. 

> To go to bed) — Ver. 839. There is a childish play here on the word* 
*cubito," "with her elbow," and "oubitum." " to go to oed." 



34 i CASIX;V; Act V 

Pae. I'll do it with pleasure, and in my usual way. 

Mter. Observe from here everything that's going on in- 
doors. 

Par. Prithee, get behind me. Mter. Tou have liberty, 
too, to say freely and boldly to him anything you like. 

Par. {in a low voice). Be quiet ; your door makes a noise. 
( They hide themselves.) 

Scene II. — Enter Olympic, in great alarm, from the house of 
Alcesimus. 
Ol. (bawling aloud). Neither where to fly to, nor where 
to conceal myself, nor how to hide this disgrace, do I know ; 
so much have my master and myself been supereminently 
disgraced at these nuptials of ours. I'm now so ashamed, 
and now so afraid, and so ridiculous are we both. But, a sim- 
pleton, I'm now doing what's new to me : I'm ashamed at that 
which has never shamed me before. {To the Atjdiekce.) Lend 
me your attention, while I repeat my exploits ; it's worth 
your while to catch them with your ears ; so ridiculous to be 
heard, to be repeated, are these mishaps which I have met with 
in the house. [When straightway^ I had led my new-made 
bride into the room, I fastened the bolt ; but, however, the 
gloom there was just like the night. I placed, I propped 
things against the door ; I struggled hard^ that before the old 
fellow * * * * with my bride. Then 

^ When straightway) — Ver. 865. With tliis line commences a part of the Play 
which is in a very imperfect state, and as to the reason for the appearance ol 
which in that form the Critics are divided in opinion. As it is full of the grossest 
indecencies (which have precluded the possibi'ity of translating some parts of it), it 
has been sujigested that Plautus himself wrote it in this tragmentary form, as 
being sufficient to show his meaning, without displaying these indelicacies in all 
their amplitude. Another opinion is, th;it these passages are really the composi- 
tion of Plautus, but that they have been reduced to their present state by lapse of 
time, or possibly, by reason of the MSS. having been subjected to castration by 
the fastidious students of the middle centuries. A third opinion is, that the por- 
tion between this line and 1. 927, and some few lines in the next Scene as well, 
were not the composition of Plautus, but that they were composed by some of the 
learned in the middle ages, to fill up the liiatus which existed in this part of the 
Play, or was supposed to exist there. If so, the writers might certainly have 
employed their time and talents to better advantage, as they have fairly distanced 
Plautus in the very woi-st of his indecencies. 

2 I struggled hard) — Ver. 867. This word is given as "mollio." to soften," in 
all the Editions. " Molio" seems much moro appropriate, aa4 is used by FrontiilU* 
m tho 3. me sense as " n[ioUar " 



Sc. II. OB, THE STEATAGEM DEFEATED. 345 

I began to be slow in my proceedings, for I looked behind me 
every now and then, lest the old fellow should break in * 
* * * *, a kiss, that provocative to lust, 

I asked of her first. She pushed back my hand, and allowed 
me not to give her a kiss in a quiet way. But then the more 
anxious was I, the more desirous to assert my privilege with 
Casina, and 1 longed to do the old fellow out of that task. 
The door I blocked up, so that the old man might not over- 
power me. 

Enter Cleosteata and two Female Seetants, from tTie 



Myee. {apart to Cleosteata). Come now, you accost him 
{Fainting to Oltmpio.) 

Cle. {accosting Oltmpio). "Where is your newly-made 
bride ? 

Ol, {aside). By heavens, I'm utterly undone ; the thing's 
all out. 

Cle. {overhearing Mm). It's right, then, that you should 
relate the whole affair as it happened. What's going on 
in-doors ? How fares Casina ? Is she quite obsequious to 
your will ? 

Ol. I'm ashamed to tell it. 

Cle. Eelate it in its order just as you proceeded. 

Ol. Upon my faith, I am ashamed. 

Cle. Proceed boldly. After you went to bed, I want you 
to tell what took place after that. 

Ol. But it's a disgraceful matter. 

Cle. I'll take care that those who hear it shall be on their 
guard as to mentioning it. 

Ol. That's the principal thing. 

Cle. You kill me with weariness. Why don't you pro- 
ceed ? 

Ol. Ubi 

* * * * us subtus porro 

* * * quid. Ol. Babse! 
Cle. Quid? Ol. Papse! 

* * quid est ? Ol. Oh, erat maximum. 
Gladimn ne haberet metui ; id quserere occoepi. 
Dum, gladiumne habeat, quaere, arripio capulum. 

Sed, quom cogito, non habuit gladium ; nam id esset frigidiuai 
Cle. Eloquere. Ol. At pudet. 



340 CASINA ; Act V. 

Cle Nuni rad-x fuit ? Ol. Non fuit. 

Cle. Num cucumis ? 

Ol. Profecto hercle non fuit quidquam olerum ; 
]NI'isi quidquid erat, calamitas profecto attigerat nunquam. 
Ita, quidquid erat, grande erat. 

Myrr. Quid fit denique ? Edisserta. 

Ol. sepit veste id, qui eatis. Ubi ilium saltum vide« 

obseptum ; 

Bogo, ut altero sinat ire. Ita, quidquid erat, grande erat. 
Tollo ut obvortam cubitissim # * # 

UUum mutire # # * # * 

Surgo, ut ineam in * * * * * 

Atque illam in * * * * * 

Myrr. Perlepide narrat * * * # 

Ol. When I addressed Casina, " Casina," said I, " my 
dear wife, why do you slight your husband in this fashion ? 
Really, upon my faith, you do this quite without my deserving 
it, inasmuch as I have given you the preference as my wife." 
Slie answered not a word. When I attempted a kiss, a 
beard pricked my lips just like briars. Forthwith, as I was 
upon my knees, she struck my head with her feet. I tumbled 
headlong from the bed ; she leapt down upon me and punched 
my face. Prom there in silence out of doors I came in this 
guise ; by your leaves I say it ; may the old fellow drink of 
the same cup that I have been drioking of. 

Cle. Most excellent. But where' s your cloak ? 

Ol. {pointing to the house of Alcesimus). I left it here 
in-doors. 

Cle. Well now ; hasn't a very nice trick been played you? 

Ol. Yes, and deservedly. Hush ! the door makes a noise. 
What, is she following me, I wonder? (They go to a distance.) 

Scene III. — Enter Staling, in haste, from the house of 
Alcesimus. 

Sta. {aloud to himself). I'm branded with the greatest 
disgrace, nor what, under my circumstances to do, do I know. 
Kor yet how to look my wife in the face; so utterly un- 
done am I ! All my misdeeds are discovered. In every way, 
to my confusion, I am ruined ! So clearly am I hooked fast 
by the jaws ! nor know I in what way to clear myself before 
mv wife; wretch that I am, to have been stripped of my 
cloak 1 # * # * These 



Se. TV, oil, THE STRATAGEM DEFEATED. 347 

ciandestine nuptials are all discovered. # ♦ « 

* I judge it best for me * * # * 

She taught my wife * the way * * But 

who is there, what person would be ready to undertake this 
office for me ? "What now to do I know not, except to imitate 
worthless slaves, and fly from the house ; for there's no 
safety for my shoulder-blades if I return home. I may tell 
lies there ; i' faith, I shall get a basting, though much against 
my will, although I have earned my punishment. I'll at 
once betake myself in this direction in flight. (^He begins to 
run?) 

Ol, {coming forward with the others). Hallo there ! Stop, 
this instant, you amorous one ! 

Sta. {to himself). I'm utterly imdone ! I'm being called 
back. I'U be ofi", as though I didn't hear. {Buns on.)'] 

Scene IV. — Enter Chalihus,^ow the Aoz^e of Alcesimus, 
dressed in woman's clothes. 

Cha. "Where are you, you who imitate the morals of the 
Massilians^ ? Now, if you wish to be taking liberties with 
me, is a good opportunity [ * * * at your 

risk. By my troth, you are undone. Come, only step this 
way. * * * j^ow I fancy that when a 

witness out of * * * * * * 

* * rUfind # * * * 
thus out of the street I order # * * * 
a murmur I * * * 

Sta. Now am I in extreme danger, between the stone ana 
the sacrifice, nor know I which way to fly * * 

* * * The wolf-dogs * * * 
it was # * # 

1 Of the Massilians) — Ver. 928. It is not at all settled by Commentators what 
is tlie mianing of this line. Massilia, now Marseilles, was a colony of the Phocaeans. 
Cicero, m his Speech for L. Flaccus, particularly alludes to the strictness of their 
morals. It is possible that this good character may have passed into a proverb, 
and that Chalinus banteringly calls Stalino one who cultivates Massilian or the 
strictest morals. Schmieder, however, thinks that a pun on the word "Mas- 
silienses" is intended, and that as Stalino has met with a " mas," or " male." 
where he had hoped to find a female, ChaHnus comes forward and asks him what 
he thinks of the Mas-silians ; just as we in a similar case might say (thougk 
perhaps rather tamely) the Man-chester people 



348 CASiiTA ; Act V. 

Cha. r faith, I do think * # * « 

old there now like new.] 

St A. {turning about). I'll go this way. I trust that the 
omen of a bitch's barking will prove the better^. 

Cle. AVhat are you doing, my husband, my good man V 
Whence come you in this guise ? What have you done with 
your wa. king-stick, or hoiv disposed of the cloak you had? 

Seev. While he was playing bis loving pranks with 
Casina, he lost it, 1 fancy. 

Sta. (aside). Utterly undone ! 

Cha. (coming up to Staling). Shall we go to bed again P 
I am Casina. 

Sta. Away with you to utter perdition ! 

Cha. Don't you love me ? 

Cle. Nay, but answer me ; what has become of your cloak ? 

[Sta. (running ahout, exclaiming). Upon my faith, wife, 
the Bacchantes ! Bacchantes^ ! Bacchantes ! 

Seev. He's making pretence on purpose ; for, upon my 
word, no Bacchantes are exhibiting at the present time. 

Sta. I forgot that. But still, the Bacchantes ! 

Cle. How, the Bacchantes ? Why, that cannot be. 

Seev. By my troth, you are in a fright. 

Sta. Wliat I ? 

Cle. (to the Seevant). I' faith, do tell no lies, for it's 
quite clear. 

# ****** *1 



Sta. Won't you hold your tongue P 



* Will prove the hetter) — ^Ver. 938. It is somewhat difficult to say exactly 
what he means. In 1. 927, he seems to be annt yed at being called back as he is 
running (probably down one of the streets that debouched on the stage). " Revo- 
camen," " being called back," was particularly considered as a bad omen among 
the Romans. He, perhaps, now changes his mind, and says to himself, "This is 
a bad omen ; Til turn back ; and bad as it is, the barking of my wife may prove a 
better one." 

2 Bacchantes! Bacchantes!^ — Ver.944. He tries to m!iko an excuse byimplica- 
tifn: pretending to be in a fright, he shouts out, wishing tliem to believe that he 
has met a gang of Bacchanalian votaries (who were not very particular as to 
doing miscliief to any one they met). Unfortunately for him, a servant-maid 
Buggests that no feast of Bacchus is going on at that time of the year, and thai 
eon«equentJy the Bacc.iantes are not " out." 



Sc. IV. OE, THE STEATAGEil DEFEATED. 3 1:9 

Ol. I' troth, I certainly shall not hold my tongue ; for with 
the greatest earnestness you begged me to ask for Casina as 
my wife. 

Sta. That I did on account of my love for you. 

Cle. I' faith, of her rather. {Turning to CuALi^fUS.) He'd 
have been making an attack upon you, in fact. 

Sta. I been doing these things that you mention ? 

Cle. And do you ask me that ? 

Sta. If indeed I have done so, I've been doing wrong. 

Cle. Just come back in-doors here ; I'll remind you, if 
you have forgotten anything. 

Sta. Troth, I think, I'll believe you in preference as to what 
you say. But, wife, do grant pardon to your husband for this ; 
Myrrhina, do entreat Cleostrata ! If ever, from this time 
forward. I love Casina, or even think of it, should I love her, 
I say, should I ever hereafter, in fact, be guilty of such a 
thing, there's no reason, wife, why you shouldn't lasih me 
with twigs as I hang up hy the arms. 

Mtee. On my word, I do think that forgiveness may be 
granted for this. 

Cle. {to Mteehika). I'U do as you request me. {To 
Staling.) On tliis account with the less difficulty do I now 
grant you this pardon, that, from being a long one, we mayn't 
be making this Play still longer. 

Sta. You are not angry ? Cle. I am not angry. 

Sta. Am I to trust your word ? 

Cle. You may my word. 

Sta. No person ever did have a more amiable wife than 
I've got. 

Cha. Keep to her, ^^e?j. Cle. (^o Chalintjs). Come you, 
give him back his walking-stick and cloak. 

Cha. {taking tJiem from behind him, where he had hela 
them). Take them, if you wish. Upon my faith, a great in- 
justice has reaUy been most egregiously done me ; I've been 
married to two husbands ; neither has behaved to me as to a 
new-made bride. 

The Company o/'Platees. 
Spectators, what's to be done within, we'll tell you here. 
This Casina will be discovered ro be the daughter of thii 



330 CASINA, Act v. 

person next door^, and she'll be married to Euthynicus, our 
master's son. Now it's only fair that with your deserving 
hands you should give us deserved applause. He who does 
so, may he always keep his. mistress without the knowledge of 
his wife. But he who doesn't with his hands clap as loud as 
he can, in place of a mistress, may a he-goat, soused in bilge- 
water, be palmed off upon him^. 

* Of this person next door) — Ver. 968. Schmieder suggests that Myrrhina has 
not hitherto seen Casina, but now, on hearing so much of her, enquires into her 
history, on which Chalinus explains how he begged her of the woman who was 
going to expose her, and Myrrhina then recognizes in her her own child, whom 
?he had ordered to be exposed. This practice, especially with regard to female 
children, was by no means uncommon among the ancients, and even with the 
more respectable classes. We must remember, however, that in the Prologue it 
is stated that the servant who found her is ill in bed. 

« Palmed off upon Mm) — Ver. 973. Warner, in bis concluding Note to tLi« 
Play, informs us that " Machiavel had undoi\btedly this Comedy of Plautif is 
tus eje when he wrote his C*^ii*." 



P(ENU1US; 
THE YOUNG CARTHAGINIAN, 



Bramatis persona?. 
Hanno, a Carthaginian. 

Aqobastocles, a young Carthaginian, living at CftlydafW 
Anthemonides, a Captain. 
MiuPHio, servant of Agorastocles. 
CoLLYBiscus, bailiflf of Agorastocles. 
Lycus, a Procurer. 
Syncerastus, servant of Lycus. 
A Boy. 
Some Assistants. [Advocati.] 

Adelphasium, ) . n, ^ 

} sisters, Courtesans. 
Anterastylis, J 

GiDDENEME, their Nurse. 

A Maid-servajjt. 

Soent—C^jdon, a city of ^tolia. Before the houses of Aqokastoclbi hA 
Ltcus, and the Temple oi Venus. 



THE SUBJECT 



Thkre were twt cousins, citizens of Carthage ; the daughters of one of them, 
named Hanno, were stolen In their childhood, and being carried off to Calydon, 
were there purchased by Lycus, a Procurer. In the same place there is living 
Agorastocles, the son of the cousin of Hanno, who, having been stolen in his 
infancy, was sold to a wealthy old man, and finally adopted by him. Here, 
without knowing their relationship, Agorastocles falls in love with Adelphasiuin, 
the elder of the sisters, while Anthemonides, a military oflBcer, entertams a 
passion for AnterastylLs, the younger sister. The Procurer being at enmity 
with Agorastocles, the latter, with the assistance of his servant Milphio, 
devises a plan for outwitting him. Cullybiscus, the bailiff of Agorastocles, is 
dressed up as a foreigner, and, a sum of money being given him for the purpose, 
pretends to take up his abode in the house of Lycus. On this being effected, 
by previous arrangement Agorastocles comes with witnesses, and accuses the 
Procurer of harbouring his slave, and encouraging him to rob his master. At 
this conjuncture, Hanno arrives at Calydon in search of his daughters. He 
discovers them, and finds that Agorastocles is the son of his deceased cousin. 
The play ends with the removal of the damsels from the house of Lycus, who 
is brought to task for his iniquities ; and Adelphasium is promised by her 
father in marriage to Aj^rastocles. 



PCEXULUS; 
THE YOUNG CARTHAGINIAN'. 



THE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 
{^Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian, j 
A HOY (P«er), seven years old, is stolen at Carthage. An old man, a hater ((?«" ) 
of women, adopts him when bought, and {Et) makes him his heir. His turo 
kinswomen and their nurse (Nutrix) are also carried off. Lycus buys thexi 
and torments (^Vexat) Agorastocles in love. But he palms off his bailiffs th 
some gold upon the Procurer (^Lenoni), and so convicts him of theft. Hanno, 
the Carthaginian, comes (^Venit), discovers him to be the son of his cousin, ami 
recognizes his own (5m<m) daughters whom he had lost. 



THE PEOLOaUE. 
I HAVE a raind to imitate the Achilles of Aristarchus^ r 
from that Tragedy I'll take for myself the opening : " Be 
silent, and hold your tongues, and give attention." The 
head-manager it is who bids you listen, that with a good 
grace they may be seated on the benches, both those who 
have come hungry and those who have come well filled. 
You who have eaten, by far the most wisely have you done ; 
you who have not eaten, do you be filled with the Play, But 
he who has something ready for him to eat, 'tis realli/ 

1 The young Carthaginian) Cicero uses the word " Pcenulus," as signifying 
merely " a Carthaginian." It is difficult to say whether the Play is so styled in 
reference to Hanno, merely as a citizen of Carthage, or whether the word refers 
to the young man Agorastocles, in the sense of the " young Carthaginian." From 
an expression used in the Fifth Act, " a man's great toe," it would appear that 
Hanno was represented on the stage as a person of diminutive stature; in conse- 
quence of which, it has been suggested that the meaning is *' the little Cartha- 
ginian." Lipsius thinks that this Prologue was not written by Plautus, and 
imieed some schc^ars suspect the whole Play to be spurious. 

- Achilles of Aristarchus) — Ver. 1. Aristarchus was a Tragic Poet, the con- 
temporary of Euripides, and flourished about 250 years before the time ol 
Plautus. His Tragedy of Achilles no longer exi.sts. We are informed by Festos 
that it was translated into Latin by the Poet Eunios. 

VOL. II. 2 ▲ 



354 PffiNtTLiTS ; 

jrreat folly in him, for our sakes, to come here to sit fasting, 
Bise up, cryer! bespeak attention among the people: I'm 
now waiting to see if you know your duty. Exercise your 
voice, by means of which you subsist and find your clothes ; 
for imless you do cry out, in your silence starvation will be 
creeping upon you. Well, now sit down again, that you may 
earn double wages. Heaven grant success^ ! do you obey my 
commands. Let no worn-out debauchee^ be sitting in the 
front of the stage, nor let the lictor or his rods^ be noisy in 
the least ; and let no seat-keeper* be walking about before 
people's faces, nor be showing any to their seats, while the 
actor is on the stage. Those who have been sleeping too long at 
home in idleness, it's right for them now to stand contentedly, 
or else let them master their drowsiness. Don't let slaves be 
occupying the seats^, that there may be room for those who 
are free ; or else let them pay down the money for their 
places^ ; if that they cannot do, let them be off home, and 
escape a double evil, lest they be variegated both here with 
scourges, and with thongs at home, if they've not got 
things in due order when their masters come home. Let 
nurses keep children, baby-bantlings, at home, and let 
no one bring them to see the Play ; lest both they them- 

* Heaven grant success) — Ver. 16. '* Bonum factum est." Literally, " it is a 
good deed." This was a stated form, placed at the commencement of Roman 
edicts and proclamations, as ensuring a good omen. 

« Woi^n-out debauchee)— N ex. 17. " Scortum exoletum." As the word " scor- 
tum" may apply to either sex, it is not improbable that this is intended as a notice 
to the old and battered debauchees, that they are not to take the hberty of occu- 
pying the front of the stage, as perhaps, in their effrontery, they had lately been 
in the habit of doing. 

3 Or his rods)— Ver. 18. These " virgse" were used by the lictors for the pur- 
poses of punishment, and if stiff and hard, would be likely to make a noise when 
Btruck against any object. 

* No seat-keeper) — Ver. 19. *' Designator." It was the duty of this ofl5cer to 
point out to persons then- seats. 

* Occupying the seats) — Ver. 23. It has been previously remarked that only 
standing room was provided in the theatres for the slaves. 

* The money for their places) — Ver. 24. *' iEs pro capite." The meaning of 
this term, as here used, is not exactly known. Some think that it means, that 
if the slaves want seats, let them pay down money for their freedom, on which 
they will be entitled to them. It is not improbable that the piiiase meanu, 
" let them pay money lor their seats ;" and Muretus supposes that the right i<i 
ietting out certab seats wa? •••iMirveti by the *ctor*ia« their own perquisile. 



THE Toryo CAT^Tn.\r,Tyi\y-. ?.55 

selves may be athirst', and the children may die with hun- 
ger ; and that they mayn't be squealing about here, in their 
hungry fits, just like kids. Let the matrons see the piece in 
silence, in silence laugh, and let them refrain from screaming 
here with their shrill voices ; their themes for gossip let them 
carry off home, so as not to be an annoyance to their husbands 
both here and at home. And, as regards the managers of 
the performance, let not the palm of victory be given to any 
player wrongfully, nor by reason of favour let any be driven 
out of doors, in order that the inferior may be preferred to 
the good ones. And this, too, besides, which I had almost 
forgotten : while the performance is going on, do you, lac- 
queys, make an onset on the cookshops ; now, while there's 
an opportunity, now, while the tarts^ are smoking hot, hasten 
there. These injunctions, which have been given as the 
manager's command. Heaven prosper them ! troth now, let 
every one remember for himself. Now, in its turn, I wish 
to go back to the plot, that you may be equally knowing 
with myself. Its site, its limits, its boundaries I'll now 
lay down ; for that purpose have I been appointed surveyor. 
But, unless it's troublesome, I wish to give you the name of 
this Comedy : but if it is an annoyance, I'll tell you still, 
since I have leave from those who have the management. 
This Comedy is called the " Carthaginian^ ;" in the Latin, 
Plautus has called it " the Pulse-eating Kinsman*." You 
have the name, then ; now hear the rest of the story ; for 
here will this plot be judged of hy you. Its own stage is 
the proper place for every plot ; you are the critics ; I 
pray you lend attention. There were two cousins-ger- 

* May be athirst) — Ver. 30. This is not the only place where Plautus refers 
to the love which the Roman nurses had for the bottle. 

' While the tarts') — ^Ver. 43. " Seriblitas." These were a kind of tarts or 
cakes which had letters stamped upon them, and were probably so called from 

scribo," " to write." 

' The Carthaginian) — Ver. 53. " Carchedonius," the old Roman name for 
" Carthaginian," from KapxT)da)v, the Greek for " Carthage." 

* Pulse-eating Kinsman) — Ver. 54. " Patruus pultiphagonides." The Roman 
" puis," or " pottage," was composed of meat, water, honey, cheese, and eggs. 
There was a particular sort of " puis," called " puis Punica," or " Punic pottage." 
As this Play was written at the period of the secor.d Carthaginian war, Plautus 
voiud tot obiect to hold their enemies up to contempt as mere " pcrridge- 

2a2 



356 PdNULFS ; 

man'^, Carthaginians, of a very high and very wealthy family. 
One of them is still alive, the other's dead. The more con- 
fidently do I inform you of this, because the undertaker^ told 
nie so, who anointed him for the pile. But the only son 
there was of that old man who died, being separated from his 
father, was stolen at Carthage when seven years old, six years, 
in fact, before his father died. When he saw that his only 
m was lost to him, he himself, from grief, fell sick ; he 
jiade this cousin-german of his his heir ; he himself de- 
parted for Acheron without taking leave^. The person who 
stole the child, carried him off to Calydon, and sold him 
here to a certain rich old man for his master, one de- 
sirous of children, hut a hater of women. This old man, 
without knowing it, bought the son of his host, that same 
child, and adopted him as his own son, and made him his 
heir when he himself departed this life. This young man is 
dwelling here in this house. {Pointing to the house of Ago- 
RASTOCLES.) Onco moro do I return to Carthage. If you 
A\ ant to give any commission, or anything to be managed — 
unless a person* gives the money, he will be mistaken ; but he 
wlio does give it will be very much more mistaken. But this 
father's cousin of his at Carthage, the old man who is still alive, 
had two daughters. The one when in her iifth year, the other 
in her fourth, were lost, together with their nurse, from the 
walks in the suburbs^. The person who kidnapped them, 

1 Two c<yusins-germa<') — Ver. 59. " Fratres fratrueles." " Sons of brothers." 
This clears up all the confusion that otherwise seems to exist in the Play, by 
reason of Agorastocles continually calling Hanno his " patruus," whicli Warner 
(to avoid confusion, as he says) translates " uncle." It is pretty clear that 
" patruus" was a terra extending not only to uncles, but to other collateral rela- 
tives of the father ; not only father's brothers, but father's cousins. 

2 The undertaker') — Ver. 62. " Pollinctor." This was properly the servant of 
the " libitinarius," or " undertaker." See the Asinaria, 1. 916, and the Note. 

3 Witiiovt taking leave) — "\'er. 71. "Sine viatico." Literally, "without pro- 
visions for the journey." This, probably, simply means that he died suddenly and 
unexpectedly. Some think that it refers to the ceremony of placing a piece of 
money in the mouths of the dead, for payment to Charon, on ferrying ti)em over 
the Styx. If so, the allusion here appears to be very purposeless. 

* Unless a person) — Ver. 81-2. These two lines also occur almost verbatim in 
tfu' Menaechmi, 1. 54-5. 

* In the suburbs) — Ver. 86. " Magalia," or " magara," was a nan e given to 
•be httts or cottages peculiar to the neighbourhood of Carthp^je. The word, pnv 



THE YOUNG CAHTHAGINIAN. 357 

carried them off to Anactorium^, and sold them al, both 
nurse and girls, for ready money, to a man (if a Procurer is 
a man) the most accursed of men, as many as the earth con- 
tains ; but do you yourselves now form a conjecture what 
sort of man it is whose name is Lycus^. He removed, not 
long ago, from Anactorium, where he formerly lived, to 
Calydon^ here, for the sake of his business. He dwells ir 
that house. (^Pointing to the house <?/'Lycus.) This young 
man is dying distractedly in love with one of them, his kins- 
woman, not knowing that fact ; neither is he aware who she 
is, nor has he ever touched her (so much does the Procurer 
hamper him) ; neither has he hitherto ever had any improper 
connexion with her, nor ever taken her home to his house ; 
nor has that Frocurer been willing to send her there. Be- 
cause he sees that he is in love, he wishes to touch this man 
for a good haul. A certain Captain, who is desperately in 
love with her, is desirous to buy this younger one to be his 
mistress. But their father, the Carthaginian, since he lost 
them, has been continually seeking them in every quarter, 
by sea and land. "When he has entered any city, at once he 
seeks out all the courtesans, wherever each of them is living ; 
he gives her gold, and prolongs the night in his enquiries ; 
after that he asks whence she comes, of what country, whether 
she was made captive or kidnapped, born of what family, who 
her parents were. So diligently and so skilfully does he 
seek for his daughters. He knows all languages, too ; but, 
though he knows them, he pretends not to know tliem : 
what need is there of talking ? He is a Carthaginian all 
over*. He, iu the evening of yesterday, came into har- 
bour here on board ship. The father of these girls, the 
same is the father's cousin of this young man. Now d'yo 

bably, here means a suburb of that city, wiiich received its name from these hute, 
and was used by the inhabitants as a public walk. 

* Anactorium) — Ver. 87. This was a town of Acarnania, in Greece. 

* Natne is Lycus) — Ver. 92. From the Greek word Xu/eoy, "a wolf." 

' To Calt/dofi) — Ver. 94. Calydon was a city of ^tolia, which was situate in 
the centre of Greece. 

* A Carthaginian all over) — Ver. 113. This is intended as a reflection upon 
tiie proverbial faithlessness of the Carthaginians. " Funica fides," " Punic faith,' 
was a common proverb with tlie Romans. 



358 pcENTTLrs ; Act L 

take^ tbis ? If 3011 d > take it, draw it out : take care not to 
break it asunder; pray, let it proceed. {Moving as if to go.) 
Dear me ! I had almost forgotten to say the rest. He wiio 
adopted this young man as his own son, the same was tlie 
guest of that Carthaginian, this old man's father. He will 
come here to-day, and discover his daughters here, and this 
person, his cousin's son, as indeed I've learnt. He, I sag, 
who'll come to-day, will find his daughters and this his 
cousin's son. But after this, farewell ! — attend ; I'm off ; I 
now intend to become another man^. As to what remains, 
some others remain who'll explain all to you. I'll go and 
dress. With kindly feelings do you then recognize me. 
Farewell ! and give me your aid, that Salvation may prove 
propitious to you. 

Act I. — Scene I. 
Enter, from his house, Agorastocles, follotoed hy Milphio. 

Ago. Full oft have I entrusted many matters to you, 
Milphio, matters of doubt and necessity, a«fi? standing in need 
of good counsel, which you wisely, discreetly, cleverly, and 
skilfully have by your aid brought to completion for me. For 
which services I do confess that hoth your liberty and many 
kind thanks are due unto you. 

Mil. An old adage, if you timely introduce it, is a clever 
thing : but your compliments are to me what are wont to be 
called sheer nonsense, and, upon my faith, mere bagatelles^. 

' Uye take) — Ver. 116. There seems to be au equivocal meaning here in th« 
word " tenetis," which may mean either " to understand," or " to take hold with 
the hand." "Dirumpatis" also may mean either " break off" a rope or cord, or 
•' interrupt." Though Lambinus tliinks that some indecent allusion is intended, 
t is much more probable that Scaliger is right in supposing that allusion is mMde 
to the boyish diversion of two parties pulling at the ends of a rope till it either 
breaks, or one side lets go. 

2 Become another man) — Ver. 125. He will go to dress for a part in the Play; 
that of Agorastocles, as some have suggested. 

3 Afere bf*gatelles) — Ver. 138. h.rjpoi. This word almost exactly answers to 
the word "bagatelles," or "kickshaws," borrowed by us from the French. As 
to the origin of the word " gerrse," in the sense of " trifles," or '* nonsense,' 
Festus gives the following anecdote : — " Osier-twigs, in bundles, were called 
* gerrae.' When the Athenians were besieging the Syracnsans, and were often 
calling aloud for these fascines, the besieged, in ridicule, used tc cry oat, ^gerras. 



Sc. I. THE YOUNG CAETHAl INIAN. 359 

Just now, you are full of kind speecnes towards me ; yester- 
day, without hesitation, upon my back you wore out three 
bulls' hides with flogging. 

Ago. But if, being in love, I did anything by reason oi 
my distraction, Milphio, it's only reasonable that you should 
pardon me for it. 

Mil. I've seen nothing more reasonable. I, too, am now 
dying for love ; allow me to thrash you just as you did me, 
for no fault at all ; and then, after that, do you pardon me 
being thiLs in love. 

Ago. If you have a mind for it, or it gives you pleasure, I 
do permit it ; tie me up, bind me, scourge me ; I recommend 
you, I give you my permission. 

Mil. If, hereafter, you should revoke your permission , 
when you are unloosed, I myself should be hung up^/or 



A tto. And would I venture to do that, to yourself espe- 
cially ? On the contrary, if I see you but struck, it gives 
me pain immediately. 

Mil. To me, indeed, i' faith. 

Ago. No, to me. Mil. I could prefer that to he the case. 
But what now do you wish ? 

Ago. Why need I tell a lie to you ? I am desperately in 
love. 

Mil. My shoulder-blades feel that. 

Ago. But I mean with this damsel, my neighbour Adel- 
phasium, the elder Courtesan that belongs to this Procurer. 

Mil. For my own part, I've heard that from yourself 
already. 

Ago. I'm on the rack with love for her. But than this 
Procurer Lycus, her master, not dirt itself is more dirty. 

Mil. Do you wish now to present him with some mis- 
chief? 

Ago. I should like it. Mil. "Why look then, present him 
\^4th me. 

Ago. Go and be hanged ! Mil, But tell me seriously, do 
you wish to present him with a plague ? 

on wliich account that word came in use, to signify, in contempt, anything 
trifling." 

' Be hung up) — Ver. 148. " Pendeam." He alludes to the pr? ctiae :.'. tying 
*^veii up by the hands for the purpose of ^^ing flogged. 



360 PCENULUS Act I. 

Ago. I should like it. 

Mil. Well then, present him with this selfsame me ; I'd 
cause him to be having both a mischief and a plague. 

Ago. Tou are joking. Mil. Should you like this very 
day, without risk to yourself, to make her free^ ? 

Ago. I should like it, Milphio. 

Mil. I'll manage for you to make her so. Tou have in- 
doors three hundred golden Philippean pieces^. 

Ago. Six hundred even. Mil. Three hundred are enough. 

Ago. To do what mth them ? 

Mil. Hold your peace. This day I'll make you a present 
of the Procurer, whole, with all his household. 

Ago. What to do ? Mil. Tou shall soon know. CoUy- 
biscus, your bailiff, is in the city just now. The Procurer 
doesn't know I :m. Do you fully understand ? 

Ago. I' faith, I understand that ; but what you are driving 
at I know not. 

Mil. Tou don't know ? Ago. Not J, faith. 

Mil. But I'll soon let you know. The gold shall be given 
him, for him to take to the Procurer, and say that he's a 
stranger from another city; that he's amorously inclined, 
and wishes to gratify his inclinations; that he wants IVee 
range to be found him, where he may secretly indulge his 
appetite, so that there may be no overlooker. The Procurer, 
greedy for the gold, will at once take him into his house; 
he'll conceal the man and the gold. 

Ago. The design pleases me. 

Mil. Do you then enquire of him whether your slave hasn't 
come to him. He'll think that I am being sought for; im- 
mediately he'll say no to you. Have you any doubt but that 
the Procurer will at once have to double the gold for you, 
and be considered to have stolen the man ? Neither has he 
the means of raising it. "When he comes to trial, the Praetor 
will award^ his whole household to you. Thus with a pitfall 
Bhall we deceive the Procurer Lycus. 

* To make her free) — Ver. 164. " Tuam libertain." " Your freed- woman ;" you 
being the one to give her her liberty. 

' Philippenn pieces) — Ver. 166. The Philippean piece had the head of Philip 
of Macedon on ir, and was in value about two guineas of our money. 

» PrcBtor will award) — Ver. 186. In consequence of his being unable to pay 
the penalty o.- damiijtes decreed against him. 



Sc. II. THE YOUNG CAETHAGINIA2? 361 

Ago. The design pleases me. Mil. Aye, when I've 

Eolished it up, you'll then say so still more even ; now it's 
ut in the rough. 

Ago. I'm going to the Temple of Venus, unless, Milphio, 
you wish for anything. It's the Aphrodisia^ to-day. 

Mil. I know. 

Ago. I wish to amuse my eyes with the harlot finery. 

Mil. Let's first proceed to this, the plan we have resolved 
upon. Let's go in-doors, that we may instruct Collybiscus, 
the bailifi", how to plant this cheatery. 

Ago. Although Cupid has the sway in my heart, still I'll 
listen to you. 

Mil. I'll cause you to be glad it's done. (Agoeastocles 
goes into his house.) There is a speck of love upon this man's 
breast, which cannot by any means be washed out without 
great harm ; this Lycus, too, the Procurer, is such a wicked 
person, against whom the engine of mischief is now well 
aimed, which before long I sliall discharge from my battery^. 
But see, here's Adelphasium coming out, and Anterastylis. 
The first is the one who renders my master distracted. But 
I'll call him out. (Goes to the door and calls.) Hallo! 
Agorastocles, come out of doors if you would see most joyous 
sports ! 

JEnter Agorastocles, in haste, from the house. 

Ago. What's this bustle, Milphio ? 

Mil. {pointing to the door of Lycus' s house). Why, here's 
your mistress, if you'd like to see her. 

Ago. O may the Grods bestow many a blessing on you, 
for having presented to me a sight so charming as this! 
(They stand apart.) 

Scene II. — Enter Adelphasium, Anteeasttlis, and an 

Attendant. 
Adel. The man who wants to find abundance of employ- 
ment for himself — a woman and a ship, these two things, let 

» The Aphrodisia) — Ver. 191. The Aphrodisia were festivals periodically cele- 
brated in lionor of Venus or Aphrodite, in most of the towns of Greece. The 
worshippers were, however, mostly of the class of courtesans. 

2 From my battery) — Ver. 202. " Balistario." According to Lipsius, '' balis* 
tarium" was th«' same as the balista itself; while Turnebus thiuka it was Um 
place where the ' balista" was mounted. 



362 pffiNULTjg ; Act 1. 

him procure ; for no two things do produce more trouhle, 
if, perchance, you begin to equip them ; neither are these 
two things ever equipped enough, nor is the largest 
amount of equipment sufficient for them. And as I mention 
these things, from experience at home do I now say thus ; 
for w^e two, even from daybreak up to the present hour of the 
day, have never ceased either washing, or scrubbing, or 
rubbing, or dressing, smoothing, polishing, painting, trim- 
ming, with all our might , and at the same time the two 
maid-servants, that have been provided for each of us, have 
been giving us their assistance in washing and, cleaning ; and 
in carrying water two men have become quite weary. Fie 
lipon it ! how great a plague there is in one female. But if 
there are two, I know full well that they are able to give to 
any one, the mightiest nation whatsoever, more trouble than 
enough, in being night and day, always, at all hours, dress- 
ing, washing, rubbing, polishing. In fine, there's no mode- 
ration in women, nor do we understand how ever to set a 
limit to washing and scrubbing. But she who is washed 
clean, unless she is thoroughly dressed, in my notion at least, 
is just as though she were dirty. 

Ant. I really wonder, sister, that you talk in this fashion ; 
you who are so knowing, and discreet, and clever ; for when 
with all care we have ourselves in trim, hardly and with diffi» 
culty do we find poor pitiful admirers. 

Adel. Such is the fact; but still reflect upon this one 
thing ; a limit is best to be observed in all thini^s, sister ; all 
things in excess give too much trouble to mortals of them- 
selves. 

Ant. Sister, prithee, do reflect that we are accounted just 
in the same way as pickled salt-fish^ is thought of — without 
any relish and without sweetness ; unless full oft and long it 
is soaked in water, it smells badly, and is salt, so that you 
cannot touch it. Just so are we. Women of this class 
are utterly tasteless, and devoid of grace, without dress and 
expense. 

Mil. {apart). She surely is a cook, Agorastocles, accord- 
ing to my notion ; she knows how to soak pickled fish. 

Ago. (pushing Jiim away) . Why are you thus troublesome P 

» Pickled gaJi-Ji^h)—Ver. 240. "Salsa muriatica.** L'Wf.lly. "the pickle d 
Mlt-fish," which is supposed by some to have baea tiie thuuny 



Sc. IT. THE YOUNG CAETHAOINIAW. 363 

Adel. Sister, do, there's a dear, forbear. It's quite suffi- 
cient for others to say that to us, not to be ourselves as welj 
proclaiming our foibles. 

Ant. I'll have done, then. 

Adel. I thank you : but novr answer me this ; are all 
things here which ought to be provided for propitiating the 
Gods? 

Ant. I've taken care of everything. 

Ago. {apart). How charming and joyous a day, and fuU 
of delight, worthy of Venus, by my troth, wliose Aphrodisia 
are celebrated to-day ! 

Mil. {apart). Any thanks ^r me, for calling you out of 
doors ? Oughtn't^ I now to be presented with a cask of old 
wine ? Say it shall be given. Don't you answer me ? His 
tongue has fallen out, I imagine. What, plague on it, have 
you been struck with amazement standing here ? {He shakes 
him.) 

Ago. {apart). Do let me love on; don't disturb me, and 
do hold your peace. 

Mil. {apart) . I'll hold my peace. 

Ago. {apart). If you had held your peace, why then that 
" I'll hold my peace" would not have been in existence. 

Ant. Let's go, my sister. {She moves.) 

Adel. How now — why, prithee, are you now hastening 
that way ? 

Ant. Do you ask me ? Because our master is waiting for 
us at the Temple of Venus. 

Adel. Let him wait, i' faith. Do you stay ; there's a 
crowd just now at the altar. Do you wish yourself to be 
pushed about among those common prostitutes, the doxies 
of bakers, the cast-offs of the spelt-bread sellers ; wretched 
creatures, daubed over with grease^, followers of poor slaves, 
ivho stink for you of their stable and staU^, their seats and 
very sheds; whom, in fact, not a single freeman has ever 

• Daubed over vnth grease') — Ver. 267. " Schoeno." This is, by some, thought 
to have been a rank oil extracted from rushes. Meursius, liowever. ridicules the 
idea of an oil being made from rushes, and reads coeno, " dirt," in the present 
tassage. 

2 Of their stable and stall) — Ver. 268. She seems to refer to the lowest class d 
iourtesans, and their seats in the prostitutes' sheds (menti iied by Ballio in tim 
Pseadola^ 1. 214> where thea were exi>o>utd bv the '■'■ lenones to the public gaze. 



364 PCENULUS ; Act 1. 

touched or taken home with him, the twopenny strumpets* 
of dirty trumpery slaves ? 

Mil. (apart). Away with you to utter perdition! Do 
you dare, then, to despise the slaves, youhussey r As if she 
was a beauty, as if kings were in the habit of making her 
their choice. A monstrosity of a woman ! Diminutive -i? 
she is, she does spit out such mighty words — seven nights 
with whom I wouldn't purchase at a cupful of vapour. 

Ago. {apart). Immortal and omnipotent Divinities, what 
is there among you more beauteous ? What have you that 
I should deem you more immortal than I am myself, in be- 
holding with my eyes these delights so great ? But Venus 
is not Venus ; for my own part, her will I worship as Venus ; 
that she may love me and prove propitious. Milphio! — 
hallo ! Milphio, where are you ? 

Mil. (apart). See, here I am with you. 

Ago. (apart). But I want you boiled^. 

Mil. (apart). Why really, master, you are making merry. 

Ago. (apart). Why, it was from yourself I learnt all this. 

Mil. (apart). What, even to be in love with her whom 
you have never touched ? Beally, that is nonsense. 

Ago. (apart). V faith, the Gods as well do 1 love and fear 
from whom, nevertheless, I keep off my hands. 

Ant. Alas ! upon my word, w^hen I look at the dress of ua 
both, I'm grieved at the way we are dressed out. 

Adel. Why really, it's quite in a proper style ; for our 
master's gain and our own we are dressed quite well enough. 
For no profits can result, if the outlay exceeds them, sister ; 
therefore, that is better to be had which is enough, than that 
which is more than enough. 

Ago. (apart). So may the Grods love me, may she love 
me (I had rather she than the Grods), Milphio ; why, this 
woman has it in her power to force a flint-stone to be in love 
with her. 

' Twopenny strumpets) — Ver. 270. " Diobolaria." Literally, "hired for a 
couple of obols." 

2 / want you boiled) — Ver. 279. He puns upon the word " assnm," which 
Milphio uses. He intends it to signify " here am I." But as it may also mean 
the neuter of the participle " assus," " roasted." Agorastocles cliooses to take tlie 
■entente in the latter ser.se, as meaning " here I am roasted ;" and answers, " I'd 
Tather you were boiled. ** 



Sc. TT. THE TOUXG CARTHA.GINTA.5". 365 

Mil. {a^art). Upon my faith, in that you certainly tell no 
lie, for you are more sejiseleas than a flint-stone to be in \o\e 
with her. 

Ago. (apart). But consider this, will you ; I've never soiled 
her^ with a kiss. Mil. {apart). I'll run, then, somewhere 
to a fish-pond or a pool, and fetch some soil. 

Ago. {apart). What need is there of that ? 

Mil. {apart). I'll tell you ; to soil her lips and yours. 

Ago. {apart). To utter perdition with you! 

Mil. {apart). For my part, I'm there already. 

Ago. {apart). Do you persist? 

Mil. (apart). I'll hold my tongue. 

Ago. {apart). But I wish you to do so always. 

Mil. {apart). "Why really, master, you challenge me at 
my own game, and still you make fun of me. 

Ant. At present, sister, I suppose you think yourself 
quite well enough drest ; but when the instances of other 
courtesans are compared, then you will be having the heart- 
aclie, if perchance you should see any one more nicely drest. 

Adel. Envy was never inbred in me, my sister, nor yet 
spitefulness : I had rather by far that I was adorned with a 
good disposition than with gold ; gold is met with by luck, 
a good disposition is found by nature. I very much prefer 
for myself to be called good than fortunate. It more befits 
a courtesan to show modesty than purple ; and more does it 
become a courtesan to show modesty than golden jewels. 
Evil habits soil a fine dress more than mud ; good manners, 
by their deeds, easily set off a lowly garb. 

Ago. {apart to Milphio). How now, you; would you like 
to play a merry and a frolicsome prank ? 

SliL. {apart). I should like. 

Ago. {apart). Can you, then, give attention to me? 

Mil. {apart). I can. 

Ago. {apart). Be off home, and go hang yourself. 

Mil. {apart). Why? Ago. {apart). Because you'll never 
again hear so many words as sweet as these. What need 
have you to live ? Only listen to me, and go hang yourself. 

' Never soiled her) — ^Ver. 291. There is a puerile and rather Indelicate phy 
in thi.s line and the next two upon the resemblance of the word " limus," " mud,* 
and '' limn," " to rub," An attempt has been mads to give something analugoai 
io tos Translatio" 



866 pcE^rLUs; Act!. 

Mil. (apart) "Why yes, if, like grapes that are drying^, 
you'll hang together with me. 

Ago. {apart). But I do love her. 

Mil. (apart). But I, to eat and drink. 

Adel. {to her Sistee). How now, you? How gay you — P 

Ant. What is it you ask me ? 

Adel. Do you see ? My eyes which were full of dirt, are 
they clear now ? 

Ant. {looking close at her eyes). Why, even still there's a 
little dirt in the middle of the eye. 

Adel. Lend me your right hand, please. 

Ago. {apart). And would you really touch or rub her eyes 
with unwashed hands ? 

Ant. Too great indolence has taken possession of us to-day. 

Adel. Por what reason, prithee ? 

Ant. Why, because we didn't come long since, before day- 
light, to the Temple of Venus, to be the first to place fire 
upon her altar. 

Adel. O, there's no need for doing that ; those who have 
faces suited for the night only, make haste to go and sacri- 
fice by night ; before Venus is awake, they are already hurry- 
ing \sdth all haste to sacrifice; for if they were to come 
when Venus is awake, so ugly are they, upon my faith, I do 
believe they would drive Venus herself away from the Temple. 

Ago. {apart). Milphio! Mil. {apart). Poor Milphio, 
i' faith ! What do you want with me now ? 

Ago. {apart). Troth now, prithee, do mark how she speaks 
honied wine ! 

Mil. {apart). Nothing at all, except tile-cakes^, sesamum, 
and poppies, wheat and parched nuts. 

Ago. {apart). Do I seem at all to he in love ? 

Mil. {apart). In love to your loss, a thing that Mercury 
is by no means in love with^. 

* Grapes that are drying) — Ver. 311. " Uva passa" were grapes hung up in 
the sun to dry, and then scalded, for the purpose of being used as raisins, or for 
making sweet wine. 

2 Nothing at all, except tile-cakes) — Ver. 324. " Laterculi" were swpet cakea oi 
biscuits, shaped like a tile or brick. The things here named were probably articles 
of homely diet, compared with honied wine. 

' Mercury is by no means in love with) — Ver. 326. As being the God of Mer- 
fifaaudize and Profit. 



Sc. IT. THE rOUNG OABTHAGINIATT. 3G7 

Ago. {apart). Why, really, by my troth, it befits no lover 
to be in love with peli'. 

Ant. Let's go, my sister. Adel. Do, please, just as you 
like. Follow me this way. 

Ant. I'll foUow. ( They move.) 

Ago. {apart). They are going. Wbat if we accost them? 

Mil. {apart). You accost them. 

Ago. {going towards them). In the first place, health to 
you, the elder ; and you, the younger, health to you in the 
second degree of estimation ; {to the Attendant) you, the 
third, health to you, without any place in my estimation. 

Att. In that case, faith, I've wasted my oil and my labour. 

Ago. {to A-DELphasium). Whither are you betaking your- 
self? 

Adel. What I? To the Temple of Venus. 

Ago. Why thither ? Adel. To propitiate Venus. 

Ago. How now ? Is she angry, then ? Upon my faith, 
she is propitious. I will even answer for her. {Stands 
before her.) 

Adel. What are you about? Prithee, why are you annoy- 
ing me ? 

Ago. Thus cruel ? Alas ! Adel. Let me go away, I beg 
of you. 

Ago. Why in such a hurry ? There's a crowd there at 
present. Adel. I know it ; there are other females there 
whom I wish to see, and bg whom to be seen. 

Ago. How can it give you pleasure to look at ugly people, 
and to afford one so beauteous to be looked at ? 

Adel. Because to-day, at the Temple of Venus, there's a 
fair for the courtesans ; there the dealers meet ; there I wish 
myself to be shown. 

Ago. To wares unsaleable, its right to entice the buyer 
of one's own accord ; good wares easily meet with a purchaser, 
although they may be placed in concealment. How say 
you ? When, at my house here {pointing) will you lay your 
head and side by me ? 

Adel. On the day on which Orcus sends away the dead^ 
from Acheron. Ago. I've got in-doors I know not how 
many golden coins in a state of madness. 

' UrcuM send* avx^ the dead) — Ver. 843. Which, of conne, meaiu iieT«^ 



368 PCENUl.TTS ; Act 1. 

Adel. Ering them to me ; I'll make their madness pretty 
BOOM come to an end. 

Mil. (ivitk indignation). A nice one, upon my word ! 

Ago. Away to utter and extreme 'lerdition with you, and 
go and be hanged ! 

Mil. (aside to Agorastocles). The more I look at her, 
the more insignificant^ she is, and a mere bauble. 

Ago. Keep your prating to yourself; I'm tired of it. 
( To Adelphasium.) Come, do lift up this outer garment. 
{Baises it from the ground, and attempts to embrace her.) 

Adel. I'm in a state of purity^ ; prithee forbear to touch 
me, Agorastocles. 

Ago. What am I to do, then ? 

Adel. If you are wise, you may be saving yourself your 
anxiety. 

Ago. What ? Me not be anxious on your account ? 
What are you about, Milphio ? {Beckons to him.) 

Mil. {aside). See now, my aversion, thi^"^. {Aloud.) 
AV^hat is it you want with me ? 

Ago. {pointing to Adelphasium). Why is she angry 
with me ? 

Mil. Why is she angry with you ? Why should I trouble 
myself about that ? For that is rather your own concern. 

Ago. On my word, it's all over with you this very instant, 
if you don't make her as smooth for me as the sea is at the 
time when the halcyon* is rearing her young ones there. 

Mil. What am I to do ? 

Ago. Entreat her, soothe, and flatter her. 

IMiL. I'll do so with all diligence ; but see, please, that 
you don't afterwards be giving this ambassador of yours a 
dressing with your fists. 

• The more insignificant) — Ver. 347, " Nimbata." According to some Com 
nicTitators, this word is a substantive here, and signities a " sUght fillet," of the 
same colour with the hair which the women used to wear upon the forehead ; the 
idea of Turnebns, however, that it is an adjective, signifying "cloud-like," seems 
mfire likely to be correct. 

^ A state of purity) — Ver. 349. This she says, probably, because she is espe- 
cially careful to avoid pollution, by contact with the male sex, when on the eve at 
worshipping the Goddess in her Temple. 

3 My aversion, this) — Ver. 351. "Odium meum." He forgets that Aoelp'-xa 
Slum is only the innocent cause of liis master's ;inxiety. 

* When the halcyon) — Ver. 355. See the Note to the Citiina. 1 tC. 



Sc. II. THE TOTING CAETHAGINLUT. 

Ago. I'll not do so. 

Adel. {to her Sister). Let's now begone. (Agok^-Sto- 
CLES stands before her.) Do you detain me still ? You act 
badly ; you make me many fair promises^ ; of those many, 
the whole come to nothing at all. Not once, but a hundred 
times, have you sworn to give me my freedom. While de- 
pending on you, I have neither anywhere procured any other 
resources for myself, nor is this assistance of yours at all 
visible. And thus none the less am I still a slave. Move 
on, sister. {To Agobastocles.) G-et you gone from me ! 

Ago. Utterly undone! Come now, Milphio, what are 
you about ? (Pova's at Adelphasium.) 

Mil. {addressing Idelphasium). My joy, my delight, 
my life, my pleasure, apple of my eye, my little lip, my 
health, my sweet kiss, my honey, my heart, my biestings, my 
cream-cheese 

Ago. {aside). Am I to allow these things to be said in 
my presence ? I'm quite distracted, wretch that I am, if I 
don't order him at full speed to be hurried off to the exe- 
cutioner in a chariot and four ! 

Mil. {to Adelphasium). Prithee, for my sake, don't be 
angry with my master. I'll make 

Abel. Let me alone. Mil. You are too cross. He'll 
pay the money for you, and make you a citizen of Attica^, 
and a free woman. 

Adel. {to Milphio, who is standing before her). But why 
don't you let me go away ? What is it you want ? Just 
as he wishes me well, in like manner do you wish me weU. 

Mil. If, indeed, he has deceived you before, from this 
time forw^ard he shall be truthful to you. 

Adel. Get you gone hence, will you, you trepanner. 

Mil. I'll obey you. But on what terms — do you under- 
stand ? Do let me prevail upon you ; do let me take you by 
those little ears^ ; do let me give you a kiss. By my troth, I 
shall now set him a weeping, if I don't make you k!nd ; 

1 Many fair promises) — Ver. 359. The semicolon seems to be more appro- 
priately placed before than after " ex multis." 

2 A citizen of Attica') — Ver. 371. Plautus evidently makes a slip here, for- 
getting that Calydon was in iEtolia, and not in Attica. 

3 By those little ears) — Ver. 375. It was a common practice to take hold of 
the e;<rs of the person kissed. The Greeks called this practice ^vrpa, because it 
iesemb)pd the mode of taking up a kind of jug, which was so c-alled, by its ea«. 

VOL. II. ' 2 B 



370 P(ETfT7LTJS ; Act L 

and (unless I do make you kind he certainly will do it) 
I'm dreadfully afraid lest he should beat me. I kno^Y the 
harsh manners of this crabbed man. Wherefore, my delight, 
pray do let me prevail upon you. 

Ago. {aside). I'm not a man worth threepence^, if I don't 
tear out the eyes and teeth of that whip-scoundrel. {He teaU 
MiLPHio.) There's your delight for you! There's your 
honey ! There's your heart ! There are your biestings- ! 
There's your health ! There's your sweet kiss ! {Giving him 
a blow at each sentence.^ 

Mil. Master, you are rendering yourself guilty of impiety! 
You are beating an ambassador. 

Ago. More than that even still. {Beating him again?) I shall 
now add the apple of the eye, the little lip too, and the tongue. 

Mil. When will you be making an end ? 

Ago. Was it in that fashion I requested you to plead for 
me ? Mil. How then was I to plead ? 

Ago. Do you ask me that ? Why thus you should have 
said, you scoundrel : " his" delight, I do entreat of you, " his" 
honey, "his" heart, "his" little lip, "his" tongue, "his'* 
sweei\Ss,^, "his" biestings, "his" sweet cream-cheese, you 
whip-scoundrel. All these things which you spoke of as 
yours, you should have mentioned as mine. 

Mil. {addressing Adelphasitjm). By my troth, I do en- 
treat you, his delight and my own aversion ; his full-bosomed 
mistress, my enemy and evil-wisher; his eye, my eyesore; 
his honey, my gall — don't you be angry with him ; or, if 
that cannot be, do take a rope and hang yourself, with your 
master and your household: for I see that henceforth, on 
your account, I shall have to live upon sighing ; and as it 
IS, I've already got my back about as hard with weals as an 
oyster-shell, by reason of your amours. 

Adel. Prithee, do you wish me to hinder him from beat- 
ing you, rather than that he should not prove untrue to- 
wards me ? 

Akt. {to her Sistek). Do answer him in somewhat kindly 
terms, there's a dear, that he mayn't be annoying to us ; for 
he's detaining us from our purpose. 

• Wcyrth threepence)— Ver. 380. " Trioboli." Literally, " of three obols " 
"^ Ymtr biestings)— Ver. 382. " Colostra." Tliis is the first milk after a 
row has calved. It is niudi esteemed lor its richness. 



Sc. III. THE TOUNG CARTHAGINIAir. 371 

Adel. That's true. This one fault more will 1 pardon you 
for, Agorastocles. I am not angry. 

Ago. You are not ? Adel. I am not. 

Ago. That I may believe you, give me a kiss then. 

Adel. I'll give you one by-and-by, when I return from 
the sacrifice. Ago. Be off, then, in all haste. 

Adel. Follow me, sister. Ago. And do you hear too ? 
Pay all compliments to Venus in my name. 

Adel. I'll pay them. Ago. Listen to this, too 

Adel. Wliat is it ? Ago. Perform the ceremony in few 
words. And do you hear ? Look back at me. (She looks 
back.) She did look back. By my troth, I trust that Venus 
will do the same for you. (Adelphasium, Antebastylis, 
and Attendant, yo into the Temple of Venus.) 

Scene III. — Agokastocles and Milphio. 

Ago. What now do you advise me to do, Milphio ? 

Mil. To give me a beating, and then have an auction^ ; 
for (pointing to the house) really, upon my faith, with utter 
impunity you might put up this house for sale. 

Ago. Why so ? Mil. For the greater part you make 
your dwelling in my mouth^. 

Ago. Do have done with those expressions. 

Mil. Wliat now do you wish ? 

Ago. I just now gave three hundred Philippeans to 
the bailiff Collybiscus, before you called me out of doors. I 
now adjure you, Milphio, by this right hand, and by thia 
left hand its sister, and by your eyes, and by my passion, 
and by my own Adelphasium, and by your liberty^ 

Mil. Why, now you adjure me by nothing at all. 

Ago. My dear little Milphio, my kind occasion, my safe- 
guard, do what you promised me you would do, that I may 
prove the ruin of this Procurer. 

' Have an auction) — Ver. 409. Some Commentators have fancied that a play 
IS intended upon the resemblance of the word " auctio" in this line and " auctor' 
in the preceding one. 

• Dicellituj ill vvj mouth) — Ver. 41 1. He says that his master may sell hn 
own hou.sp, for lie set-ms to have taken up liis abode in his (Milphio's) moutb 
m reference to his liaving continually to speak of him or to him. 

» £^ your liberty)— Wv. 418. His liberty being a thing non-existent. 
2 s^ 



372 pcENiTLtrs ; Act I, 

l\rii,. Why, tliat's very easy to he clone. Be off, bring here 
with you your witnesses ; meanwhile, in-doors I'll forth- 
with provide your bailiff with my disguise and stratagems. 
Make haste and be off. 

Ago. i fly. Mil. That's more my part^ than yours. 

Ago. Should I not, should I not, if you effect this 
adroitly^ 

Mil. Only do begone. 

Ago. Ought I not this very day 

Mil. Only do be off. Ago. To give you freedom 

Mil. Only do begone. 

A GO. By my troth, I should not deserve — ah ! 

Mil. B*ah ! Only do be off. 

Ago. As many as are the dead in Acheron 

Mil. "Will you, then, move off? 

Ago. Nor yet as many as there are waves in the sea 

Mil. Are you going to move off? 

Ago. Nor as many as there are clouds 

Mil. Do you persist in going on this way ? 

Ago. Nor as there are stars in heaven 

Mil. Do you persist in dinning my ears ? 

Ago. Neither this thing nor that ; nor yet, indeed, seri- 
ously speaking — nor, by my faith, indeed. What need is 
there of words ? And why not ? — a thing that in one word 
— here we may say an3'-thing we please — and yet, i' faith, not 
seriously in reality. D'ye see how 'tis ? So may the Gods 
bless me ! — do you wish me to tell you in honest truth ? A 
thing that here we may between ourselves — so help me 

Jupiter Do you see how ? Look you — do you believe 

what I tell you ? 

Mil. If I cannot make you go away, I shall go away myself : 

' More my parf) — Ver. 425. He alludes to the common trick of slaves takyig 
to fliglit. 

2 Effect this adroitly) — Ver. 426. Plautus designedly makes Agorastocles talk 
m this disjointed and unintelligible manner, both for the purpose of showing his 
own distraction and teasing Milphio. He does not, however, seem likely to 
hurt his own interest by his promises. Given connectedly, his words stand thus 
(as sriven in a Note to Warner's Translation) : " Should I not give you your 
liberty to-day, if you do what you have promised — if you impose upon the 
pander, and deliver Adelpliasium to me — I do not deserve so many Philippeans 
of gold as there are dead men in the s jades, waves in the sea, or stars ia %bt 
Iky." 



Act II. THE YOUNG CAllTHAGrNTA.N. 373 

for really; ^^^n my faitli, there's need of an CEdipus^ as a 
diviner for this speech of yours, him who was the interpreter 
to the Sphinx. (He goes into the house of Agorastocles.) 
Ago. He has gone off in a passion; now must 1 be- 
ware, lest, through my own fault, I place an impediment 
in the way of my love. I'll go and fetch the witnesses • 
since love commands me, a free man, to be obedient to my 
own slave. (^Exit. 

Act II. — Scene I, 

Enter Ltcus. 

Ltc. {to himself). May all the Grods render him unfortunate, 
should any Procurer, after this day, ever immolate any victim 
to Venus, or should any one sacrifice a single grain of frank- 
incense. For wretched I, this day, have sacrificed to my most 
wrathful Deities^ six lambs, and still I could not manage to 
make Venus to be propitious unto me. Since I could not ap- 
pease her, forthwith I departed thence in a passion ; I forbade 
the entrails to be cut, and would not examine them. Inasmuch 
as the soothsayer pronounced them not propitious, I deemed 
the Goddess not deserving. By these means I fairly played 
a trick upon the greedy Venus. When, that which was 
enough, she would not have to be enough, I made a pause. 
'Tis thus I act, and thus it befits me to act. I'll mu1ve the 
other Grods and Goddesses henceforth more contented, and 
less greedy, when they know how the Procurer put a trick 
upon Venus. The soothsayer, in manner right worthy of 
him, a fellow not worth threepence, said that in all the 
entrails misfortune and loss were portended to me, and that 

' Need of an (Edijnis) — Ver, 441. Juno, in her displeasure aeainst the city of 
Thebes, sent the Sphinx, in order to wreak her vengeance against the inhabitants. 
Tliis was a monster with the face and speech of a woman, the wings of a bird, and 
the rest of the body resembling that of a dog or a Hon. The monster proposed 
enigmatical questions to all with whom it met, and those who could not explain 
them it devoured. On the Oracle being consulted, they were informed tl»at 
thej would not get rid of the monster uidess they could find out the meaning of 
a certain enigma, which was, " What is that animal that has four feet in the 
morning, two at noon, and three at night ?" Oidipus, at length, explained this 
as meaning a man, who crawls on all-fours during infancy, during manhood 
stands on two legs, and, when old, makes use of a stick as a third leg to support 
lum. On hearing this, the monster, in despair, knocked out its brains against 
a rock. 

- My most wrathful Deities) — Ver. 450. These, probably, were Mercury, tlM 
God of Profit, and Venus, the Goddess of Lust. 



874 PCENITLTJS; Act II. 

the Gods were angry with me. In what matter either divine 
or human is it right for me to put trust in him? Just 
after that, a mina of silver was given me. But where, pray, 
has this Captain stopped just now, who gave it me, and whom 
I've invited to breakfast ? But look ! here he comes. 

Enter Anthemonides. 

Anth. So, as I began to tell you, you sorry pimp, about 
that Pentethronic battle^, in which, with my own hands, in 
one day, I slew sixty thousand flying men. 

Lyc. Heyday! Flying men ? Anth. Certainly I do affirm it. 

Ltc. Prithee, are there anywhere men that fly ? 

Anth. There w^ere ; but I slew them. 

Ltc. How could you ? 

Anth. I'll tell you. I gave birdlime and slings to my 
troops ; beneath it they laid leaves of coltsfoot^. 

Ltc. For what purpose ? 

Anth. That the birdlime mightn't adhere to the slings. 

Lyc. Proceed. {Aside.) I' faith, you do lie most egregi- 
ously. {Aloud.) What after that ? 

Anth. They placed pretty large pellets of birdlime in their 
slings : with which I ordered them to be taken aim at as they 
flew. "Why many words ? Each one did they hit with the 
birdlime — they fell to the ground as thick as pears. As 
each one dropped, I straightway pierced him through the 
brain with his own feathers, just like a turtle-dove. 

Ltc. By my troth, if ever this did take place, then may 
Jupiter make me to be ever sacrificing, and never propitiat- 
ing him. 

Anth. And don't you believe me in this ? 

Lyc. I do believe, in the same degree that it is proper that 
I should be believed. Come, let's go in-doors, until the 
entrails are brought home. 

Anth. I wish to relate to you a single battle more. 

Lyc. I don't care about it. Anth. Do listen. 

Lyc. Upon my faith, no. 

» PentetJironic battle) — ^Ver. 471. Much learning and discussion have been 
♦ aeted on this word, which probably is only intended as coined by the Cap- 
tain, as a high-sounding word without any meaning. 

2 Leaves of coltsfoot) — Ver. 478. 'i"he hairy surface of the leaves of coltsfoot 
vould serve to keep tlie pelets of birdlime together at the moment ot beinj 
nurlcd from the sling. 




THE YOUNG CARTHAGINIAN". 875 

Anth. Why then I'll break your head this instant, if you 
don't listen, or else be off to utter perdition! 

Lyc. I'd sooner go to utter perdition ! 

Anth. Are you determined then ? 

Lyc. Determined. Anth. In that case, do you, then, upon 
tlivi lucky day, the Aphrodisia, mak(i over to me the younger 
one of your courtesans. 

Lyc. The sacred ceremony has hy its omens been to me to- 
day of such a nature — I put oif all serious matters from to- 
day until another day. I am resolved to make it really a 
holiday. Now let's go hence in-doors. Follow me this way. 

Anth. I follow. For this day, then, I'm out on hire to 
you. {They go into the house o/L reus.) 

Act III. — Scene I. 

Enter Agokastocles, and several Assistants walking be- 
hind him. 

Ago. So may the Deities love me, there's nothing more 
annoying than a tardy friend, especially to a man in love, 
who's in a hurry in everything that he does ; just as I'm 
leading on these assistants, fellows of most crawling step ; 
tiiey are more slow than merchant-ships in a calm sea. And 
upon my faith, I really did on purpose wave my aged friends ; I 
knew they were too slow through their years ; I apprehended 
delay to my passion ; in vain I selected for myself these 
young fellows on their preferment, timber-legged, most tardy 
chaps. Well {turning round to them), if you are going to come 
to-day, get on, or get off hence to utter perdition ! Is this the 
way it befits friends to give their assistance to a person in 
love ? Why sure, this pace was bolted through a fine flour- 
sieve^ ; unless you have been practising in fetters to creep 
along tlius with this step. 

Assist. Hark you ! although we seem to you of the com- 
monalty and poor, if you don't speak us fair, you rich man of 
highest rank, we are in the habit of boldly playing the mis- 
chief with the rich man ; we are under no engagement to you, 

* Fineflour-aieve) — Ver. 511. He probably alludes to the time that the fine 
fcour takes before it gets down to the holes of the sieve through which it has to 
pass. Some Commentators, however, fancy that it is a general allusion to the 
haiidmili, and that he means to tell them that su-*jly they mujst have lost all 
their activity by their punishment at the mill. 



S76 P(ETTTJLUS; Act ITT. 

about what it ia that you love or hate. Wlien we pjiid 
money for our freedom^, we paid our own, not yours ; it's right 
that we should be imder no restraint. We value you at 
nought ; don't you fancy that we've been made over as slaves 
to your passion. It's proper for free men to go through the 
city at a moderate pace ; I deem it like a slave to be runnin*^ 
along in a bustle. Especially when the state is at peace and 
the enemies are slain, it is not decent to make a tumult. But 
if you were for making greater haste, you ought to have 
brought us here as assistants the day before. Don't you 
fancy it — not any one of us will this day be running through 
the streets, nor yet shall the people pelt us with stones for 
madmen. 

Ago. But if I had said that I was taking you to a Temple^ 
to breakfast, you would have surpassed a stag in speed, or a 
man on stilts in your steps. JN'ow, because I have said that I 
am taking you as my assistants and witnesses, you are gouty, 
and in the slowness of your pace have been outdoing the snail. 

Assist. Why, really, is there not good cause for running 
swiftly, where you are to drink and eat at another man's ex- 
pense as much as you please, until you are full, what you need 
never return against your will to your host, at whose expense 
you have been eating? But still, in some way or other, although 
we are poor men, we have at home something to eat ; don't 
you browbeat us in such a contemptuous way. Whatever that 
very little is, that little of ours is all at home ; we neither dun 
any one ourselves, nor does any one dun us. Not one of us 
is going to burst the veins of his lungs for your sake. 

Ago. You are too warm ; really, I said this to you in joke. 

Assist. Consider it said in joke as well what we have said 
t J you in answer. 

Ago. Troth now, prithee, do give me this aid of yours liJce 

* Paid money for our freedom) — Ver. 516. This passage shows that they 
had formerly been slaves. It is not improbable that numbers of liberated slaves 
were always to be found in the Forum, ready for money to offer their services as 
witnesses of any transaction, without reference to its morality. They are here 
called " advocati ;" which literally means, "persons summoned to one's assist- 
ance." Slaves were nrt allowed to give evidence against freemen. 

"^ To a Temph) — Ver. 527. He refers to the practice of worsliippers inviting 
their friends to the Temples, to join them in eating the portions that were 'eft 
after the sacrifice. See the Rudens, where this practice is more fully referred ta 
• In jedem" may, however, possibly mean " to my house." 



Sc. I. THE YOUNG CAETHAGI>'TAN 377 

a fly-boat, not a merchant- ship. Do hobble along at least, for 
I do not ask you to hurry. 

Assist. If you wish to do anything quietly and leisurely. 
"we lend our aid ; if you are in a hurry, it woiild be better for 
you to hire runners^ as your assistants. 

Ago. You understand (the matter I've informed you of), 
that I have need of your assistance with regard to this Pro- 
curer, who has so long trifled with me in my amour ; that 
a scheme is to be planned against him about the gold and my 
servant. 

Assist. All that we know already, if these Spectators know. 
For the sake of these Spectators it is that this Play is now 
being acted. 'Twere better for you to inform them, that 
when you do anything, they may know what it is you are 
doing. Don't you trouble about us ; we know the whole 
matter ; since we all learnt it together in company with your- 
self, so that we can answer you. 

Ago. Such really is the fact ; but come, that I may be sure 
then that you know it, repeat the matter at length, and tell 
me what I told you just now. 

Assist. Are you trying in this way whether we know ? Do 
you suppose we don't remember how you have given three 
hundred Philippeans to CoUybiscus your bailiff", for him to 
bring here to the Procurer, your enemy, and to pretend that 
he is a foreigner from a distance, from another city ? When 
he has brought them, you'll go there to seek your servant 
together with the money. 

Ago. You remember it by heart ; you have saved me. 

Assist. He'll be for denying it ; he'll suppose your Milphio 
is being looked for. He'll have to pay double all the money 
stolen ; the Procurer will be adjudged to you. In this matter 
you wish us to be your witnesses. 

Ago. You've got the matter y^s^. 

Assist. I' faith, hardly with the tips^ of our fingers, in- 
deed ; it is so very small a one. 

Ago. This must be done quickly and with expedition. 
Make as much haste, then, as you can. 

' To hire runners) — Ver. 544. Cursores. See the Notes to the Trinummus, 
I. 1023. 

2 Hardly with the tips) — Ver. 464. He plays upon the two yneanings of 
*' rem" — " the business in hand," or " money" or *■ property.'' Agorastoclea 
means it in tlie former sense, but the assistants take it in the latter, and probably 
ailaae to che smaimess ot their pay. 



378 PCENULUS , A ct III. 

Assist, {moving as though goin(j). Kindly fare you wt^ll, 
then ; it's better for you to provide some active assistants, 
we are hut slow ones. 

Ago. Ton move very welU. {Aside!) But very badly do 
you speak me, faith. {Aloud.) Moreover, I could wish your 
thighs to fall down into your ankles. 

Assist. And, i' faith, we that your tongue had fallen into 
your loins, and your eyes upon the ground. 

Ago. Heyday! it's not for you to be angry at what I 
said in joke. Assist. Nor for you, indeed, to be speaking 
ill to your friends in joke. 

Ago. Drop this. What I want to do, you understand. 

Assist. We know full well : to undo the perjured Pro- 
curer, it's that you wish. 

Ago. You've got the matter right. See, Milphio and the 
bailiff are opportunely coming out together. He's coming 
rigged out like a nobleman, and appropriately, for the plot. 

Scene II. — Enter Milphio and CoLLYBiscTrs,//'owi the house 
o/'Agorastocles, dressed as a person of quality. 

Mil. Have you now got your instru^'^ms by heart ? 

Coll. Nicely. 

Mil. Take care you understand them, please. 

Coll. A¥hat need is there of talking ? I won't let my 
own legs understand^ as well. Mil. Only take you care 
that your speeches are learnt by heart for this plot. 

Coll. Why, upon my faith, I am more perfect tlian tragic 
or comic actors are. Mil. You are a capital fellow. 

Ago. {to the Assistants). Let's go nearer to them. 
{Accosting Milphio and CoLLYBisctrs.) Here are the wit- 
nesses, 

Mil. {to Agoeastocles). Eeally you could not have 
brought as many men better suited for this purpose ; for not 
one of them is tongue-tied as a witnes^ ; they are genuine 

' You move very well) — Ver. 567. *' Optume itis, pessume — dicitis." Rost 
suggests that the meaning of these words is, " You'll do well in going away, for 
you are very abusive." The passage has puzzled many of the Commentators. 

2 My own legs understand) — Ver. 577. " Cillum aprugnum callere seque 
non sinam." For a literal transition of this pun, see the Persa, 1. 306, and the 
Note to the passage. 

* Tongue-tied as a witness)— Y ex. 582. "Nefastus," forbicden to give evi- 



Sc. II . THE TOUN G CAETnAGINIAN. 379 

ttien of tlie law-courts ; there they take up their abode ; there 
you may see them more frequently than the Prsetor. At 
this very time there are no better eookers-up of a lawsuit^, 
to stir up litigation, than are these men ; for they, if there is 
no litigation, sow litigation. 

Assist. May the Sods confound you ! 

Mil. You I really do commend, inasmuch as, whoever 
you are, still you act both worthily and kindly in giving your 
aid to my master thus in love. {To Agoeastocles.) But 
do they now know what the business is ? 

Ago. The whole matter, all in its order. 
. Mil. In that case, do you, then, give me your attention. 
Do you know this Procurer Lycus ? Assist. Perfectly. 

Coll. But, upon my faith, I don't know him, of what ap- 
pearance he is. I wish that you would point this fellow out 
to me. 

Assist. "We'll take all care : we've been instructed quite 
enough. Ago. (^om^iw^^oCoLLYBiscus). He has got three 
hundred pieces counted out. 

Assist. Then it's right, Agorastocles, that we should see 
this gold, that we may know what to say by-and-by as our 
testimony. 

Ago. Come andlooV at it. {Opens the hag which Collt- 
Biscus holds in his hand.) 

Coll. {to the Audience). Undoubtedly it's gold, Spec- 
tators — playhouse gold^; upon this, soaked in water, in fo- 
•eign lands, the cattle become fat^ : but, for the carrying out 
of this design, 'tis real Philippean ffold. 

Assist. We'll make believe it is so. Coll. But do you 
make believe as though I were a foreigner. 

Assist. Just so ; and, in fact, as though you, on your 
arrival to-day, had asked us to show you a spot for free- 

dence as witness, either through incompetency as being slaves, or throngh 
infamy of character. 

> Cookersup of a lawsuit) — Ver. 584.. * Furis coctiores." "Jus" means, 
according to the context, "law" or "justice." As the same word also means 
" broth," Milphio puns upon this double meaning, in conjunction with the word 
" coctior," " better versed in." 

2 Playhoiise gold) — Ver. 595. He alludes to tlie practice of using lupines in 
their purses on the stage, to represent gcid. They were probably used for this 
purpose on account of their yellow colour. 

' Cottle become fat.) — Ver. 596. He means, that in other countries thaa 
Greece lupines are used for the purpose o» fattening cattle. 



380 P(ENULxrs ; Act III. 

dom and pleasure ; where you might wench, drink, and live 
like a Grreek. 

Mil. Dear me ! Crafty fellows, upon my faith ! 

Ago. But it was I who instructed them. 

Mil. And who you, in your turn ? 

Coll. Come, be off in-doors, Agorastocles, lest the Pro- 
curer should see you together with me, and some accident 
might befall our plan. 

Mil. This person is extremely prudent. (To Agoeas- 
TOCLES.) Do as he bids you. Ago. Let's be off. {To the 
Assistants.) But you — has enough been said ? 

Coll. Do you be off. • 

Ago. I'm off. Immortal Grods, I beg 

Coll. Nay, but why don't you be off ? Ago. I'm off. 

Coll. You do wisely. (Agobastocles and Milphio go 
into the house.) Hush ! be quiet. 

Assist. What's the matter? 

Coll. This door {pointing to the door of the house of 
Ltcus) was guilty of a great indecency just now. 

Assist. "What indecency is that ? 

Coll. It rumbled aloud. Assist. May the Deities con- 
found you ! G-et you behind us. 

Coll. Be it so. ( Goes behind them.) 

Assist. We'll walk first. 

Coll. {aside). They do what town-fellows are in the habit 
of doing : they put worthy men behind themselves. 
, Assist, {pointing to the Procubee's house). That man 
that's coming out is the Procurer. 

Coll. He's a real good one ; for he's like a bad man^. 
Even now, as he comes forth, I'll suck out his blood at this 
distance. 

Scene III. — Enter JjYCV^, from his house. 

Lto. {speaking to Anthemonides, within). I'll return 
here this moment. Captain. I wish to find us some fitting 
guests, to join us. Meanwhile, they'll bring the entrails ; 
and at the same time, the women, I suppose, will soon be 
making their appearance at home after the sacrifice. Blil 
why are such a number of people coming this way r I 
wonder w^hat they are bringing? He, too, ir. the scarf, 

' Like, a bad ma7i) — Ver. GU. He means that the worse the man, the better 
the Procurer. 



Sc. III. THE rOUXG CAETHAGINIAN. 381 

that's fdllowing at a distance, who is he, I wonder? He is 
not an ^tolian. 

Assist. We greet you, Lycus. Although against our will, 
we give you this salulation, and although in a very moderate 
degree do we entertain good wishes for procurers. 

Lyc. May you all be fortunate — a thing that I know for 
certain you neither will be, nor will Fortune permit it so to be. 

Assist. That is a treasure hoarded in the tongues of fools, 
to deem it gainful to speak amiss to their superiors. 

Lyc. He who knows not the road by which to arrive 
at the sea, him it befits to seek a river as his own com- 
panion. I know not the way of speaking abusively to you. 
Now you are the rivers to me ; you I'm resolved to follow. 
If you speak blessings, along your banks I'll follow you ; if 
you utter curses, along your track I'll go. 

Assist. To do good to the bad is a danger just as great as 
to do bad tc the good. 

Lyc. But why ? Assist. You shall learn. If you do any 
good to the bad, the benefit is lost : if you do any bad to 
the good, it lasts for a length of time. 

Lyc. Cleverly said ! But what does that matter to me ? 

Assist. Because for the sake of your own well-doing we 
came hither, although in a very moderate degree do we enter- 
tain good wishes for procurers. 

Lyc. If you bring anything that's good, I give you thanks. 

Assist. Of our own, we neither bring nor give you any- 
thing that's good, nor do we promise you, nor, in fact, do we 
wish to give it. 

Lyc. I' faith, I do believe you ; such is your kindly feel- 
ing. But what now do you wish ? 

Assist, (^pointing to Collybiscus). This person in the 
scarf, whom you see, with him Mars is angered. 

Coll. (aside, to himself). May he he so indeed with your 
own heads ! 

Assist. "We are now bringing him here, Lycus, to you, for 
tearing asunder^. 

Coll. {aside, to himself). This huntsman, myself wiU be 

• For tearing asunder) — Ver. 645. " Ad diripiendum." This expression is 
purposely used, as being susceptible of a double meaning. It may either nr.ean 
'*for you to plunder," or ''to plunder you." In the use of the word " (Juipo,* 
'» to tear to pieces," allusion is made to the woltish name of Lycos. 



382 PCENULUS ; Act Til. 

going home to-daj witli some spoil ; the dogs are cleverly 
driving Lycus into the toils. 

Lyc. "Who is this person ? Assist. "We really don't know 
who he is, except that some time since, after daybreak, 
when we went down to the harbour, at the same moment we 
saw him landing from a merchant-ship. Disembarking, he 
came up to us at once — he saluted us ; we answered him. 

Coll. (aside). The artful fellows! how cleverly they do 
enter upon the plot ! 

Ltc. "What after that ? Assist. Then he joined in dis- 
course with us : he said that he was a foreigner, unacquainted 
with this city : that he wanted a convenient place to be found 
here, for him to indulge his appetite. We brought the man 
to you ; if the Grods are favourable to you, it's an opportunity 
for you to ply your trade. 

Ltc. Is he eager to that degree ? 

Assist. He has got gold. Ltc. (aside). That booty is mine. 

Assist. He wishes to drink and wench. 

Ltc. I'll find him a nice place. 

Assist. But still he wants to be quite private, in a quiet 
way, that no persons may know it, and that there may be no 
overlookers ; for he has been a soldier in Sparta, as, indeed, 
he himself has told us, with King Attains^ ; from there he 
fled hither, when the town was surrendered. 

Coll. (aside). Very clever that, about the soldier ! about 
Sparta, most capital ! 

Ltc. (in a loiv voice). May the Grods and Goddesses bestow 
many blessings on you, for having given me kindly informa- 
tion, and finding me a choice prey. 

Assist. Aye, and, as he himself has told us, that you may 
receive him the better, he has brought three hundred Philip- 
pean pieces as a provision. 

Ltc. I'm a king if I can to-day entice this man to my 
house. 

Assist. Nay but, he really is your own. 

Ltc. Bv my troth, prithee, do persuade him to take up 
his abode at my house, as the best iodgino^. 

Assist. It befit us neither to persuade nor to dissuade a 

' With King Attains) — Ver. 663. This is said merely for its absurdity; as 
Attalus was king, not of Sparta, but of Pergamus in Asia Minor 



Sc. III. THE YOUNG CABTHAGINIAIT. 383 

person who is a foreigner ; you'll transact your own business, 
if you are prudent. We have brought the ringdove for you, 
even to the trapping-ground ; now it's better for yourself to 
catch him, if you wish him to be caught. {They move as if 
going.) 

Ltc. Are you going now ? 

Coll. {to the Assistants). "What about the matters that 
I commissioned you upon, strangers ? 

Assist, {pointing to Lycus). It's better for you, young 
sir, to speak to him about your own concerns ; he's clever 
in those matters which you are enquiring about. 

Coll. {aside). But, for my part, I could like you to see 
when I deliver him the gold. 

Assist, {aside). At a distance there we shall be witnesses 
of that. 

Coll. {to the Assistants). You've given me kind assist- 
ance. {The Assistants go out of sight.) 

Ltc. {aside, so as to he heard). The profit comes to me. 

Coll. {aside, to himself). Aye, just so, indeed, the way 
that the ass kicks^ with his heels. 

Ltc. I'll speak the fellow fairly. {To Colltbiscus.) A 
stranger salutes a stranger ; I'm glad that you have arrived 
in safety. 

Coll. May the Deities grant you many blessings, since 
you wish me well. 

Ltc. They say that you are in search of a lodging. 

Coll. I am in search. Ltc. So those persons told me, 
who left me just now, that you are in search of one that is 
free from flies. 

Coll. By no means in the world. Ltc. Why so ? 

Coll. Because if I had been looking for a retreat from 
the flies^, on arriving here 1 should have straightway gone 
to gaol. I'm in search of this kind of lodging, where I 
may be treated more delicately than the eyes of King An- 
tiochus^ are in the habit of being treated. 

^ The way that the ass kicks') — Ver. 683. Taubrnann says that this means 
that as the ass kicks away from himself, so tlie gain will go from Lycus, not 
to him. 

» A rei'^eatfrom ihe flips') — Ver. 690. Under this name he refers t-o envioua 
»na mquisitive jjersuns ana Parasites. 

3 The eyes of Kinfj Antiochus) — Ver. 693. This is probably not to be taken 
literuUv as, accordintr to Suidus, the chief miuifiters of Autiochuii were ihvc 



'384 P(EXULrs; ilct III 

Ltc. Upon my faith, for sure, I can provide jou a charm- 
ing one, if, indeed, you can put up with yourself being in a 
chiu-ining room, on a couch charmingly laid, a charming dam- 
sel cuddling you. 

Coll. Tou are in the riffht road. Procurer. 

Lyc. "Where, with Leucadian, Lesbian, Thasian, and Coan 
wiiie^, toothless with old age^, you may soak yourself. There 
I'll quite drench you with the effusion of unguents. AVhy 
many w^ords ? I'll cause, when you've bathed, the bath- 
keeper to set up unguent-shop there. But (speaking conji- 
deiitially) all these things that I have mentioned let out their 
serv ices for pav. 

Coll. Why so? 

Ltc. Because they demand ready money. 

Coll. Why, upon my faith, you are not more ready to re- 
ceive than I to give. Ltc. Why then follow me in-doors. 

Coll. Lead me in-doors, then; you've got me devoted 
to your will. ( The Assistants come forward. Ltcus and 
Colltbiscus go apart.) 

Assist, (among themselves). What if we call AgorastocLs 
hither out of doors, that he himself may be his own witness, 
past all exception ? (They go to the door of Agokastocles 
and call out, in a loud lohisper.) Hallo ! you that are to catch 
the thief, come out quickly, that you yourself may witness 
him giving the gold to the Procurer. 

ScE]S"E IV. — Enter Agorastocles, in haste, from his house. 

ago. What's the matter? What is it you want, wit- 
nesses ? 

Assist. Look to the right hand ; your servant is paying 
gold to the Procurer himself. 

Coll. (apart to Ltcus). Come, take this, will you: here 
are three hundred gold coins, counted out, which are called 
Philippeans. (Gives him the hag.) With these do you pro- 
vide for me. I wish these to be spent with all speed. 

Ltc. By my troth, you have found a lavish steward for 
yourself. Come, let's away in-doors. 

C.I lied. ApuVeius says that the ministers of the King of Persia were called 
his " eyes" and " ears." 

' And Coan tcine) — Ver. 698. The Chian held the first rank among the wines 
3( Greece, while the Lesbian, Th.isi.in, and Coan. ranked next to it. 

* Toot/Uf^e wWi old aaA\ — Ver. 699. Having by a^e lyst all its acidity. 



Sc. IV. THE YOUNG CAETHAGINIAN. 885 

Coll. I follow you. Ltc. Well, well, walk on ; and then 
we'll talk together about the other matters that remain. 

Coll. As for me, I'll teU you about the Spartan affairs. 

Lyc. Why then follow me. Coll. Lead me in-doors; 
lead me in, you have got me made over to you. {They go 
into the house o/*Lycus.) 

Ago. What do you advise me now ? 

Assist. To be moderate. 

Ago. What if my feelings will not let me be ? 

Assist. Then be as they wiU let you. 

Ago. Did you see it, when tlie Procurer received the 
money ? Assist. We saw it. 

Ago. Did you know that he is my slave ? 

Assist. We knew it. 

Ago. That it is a thing against the reiterated laws of the 
people ? Assist. We knew it. 

Ago. Well then, all these things I wish you to keep in 
memory before the Praetor by-and-by, when occasion shall 
come. 

Assist. We remember them. Ago. What if, while the 
matter has so recently happened, I knock at the door ? 

Assist. I think you ought. 

Ago. If I do knock, he won't open it^ 

Assist. Then break the panneP. 

Ago. If the Procurer comes out, do you think I ought to 
enquire of the feUow whether my slave has come to him or 
not? 

Assist. Why not ? 

Ago. With two hundred golden Philippean pieces ? 

Assist. Why not ? 

Ago. Then the Procurer will be going astray at once. 

Assist. About what matter ? Ago. Do you ask ? Because 
a less sum will be named by one hundred pieces. 

Assist. You judge rightly. Ago. He'll think that some 
other person is being looked after. 

Assist. No doubt. Ago. He'll be denying it at once. 

' He won't open it) — Ver. 729. A note of interrogation seems out of pl»c« 
ifter " redudftt." 

^ Break the pannet)—Ver. 729. " Panem frangite" LiteraQy, " break th« 
oread," meaning the "pannel." He plays upon the resemblance of «ne T«b 
" pulto," " to knock," and " puis," " pottage." 

xo^'- ^^ 2 



386 pffiNULUS ; Act III. 

Assist. On his oath even. Ago. The fellow Tsill involve 
himself in the guilt of theft 

Assist. Beyond a doubt, it certainly is so. 

Ago. Of however much it is that shall have been brough 
to him. 

Assist. "Why not ? Ago. Jupiter confound you^ ! 

Assist. Why not your own self? Ago. {going towards 
the door o/*Lycus). I'll go and knock at this door. 

Assist. Even so. "Why not ? Ago. It's time to be quiet, 
for the door makes a noise. I see the Procurer Lycus coming 
out of doors ; come this way, pray ! 

Assist. Why not ? But, if you please, cover up our heads, 
that the Procurer mayn't know us, who have been his de- 
coyers^ into so great a calamity. {He throws the lappets of 
their garments over their heads.) 

Scene V. — Enter JjYCVSy from his house, 

Ltc. (to himself). Let all soothsayers go hang themselves 
now at once. Why should I believe them in future, as to 
what they say ? Por they, just now at the sacrifice, told me 
that evil and the greatest disaster was portended to me. 1 
have since then amplified my fortune with profit. 

Ago. (accosting him). Save you, Procurer. 

Ltc. May the Gods bless you, Agorastocles. 

Ago. You now salute me more kindly than hitherto. 

Ltc. a calm has come, as though to a ship at sea. Just 
as the wind is, to that quarter is the sail shifted. 

Ago. May those ladies be well in your house, to whom I 
wish it, but to yourself I do not wish it. 

Ltc. They are well, as you desire ; not for you, though. 

Ago. Send your Adelphasium to my liouse, to-day, please, 
upon this celebrated and famous festival, the Aphrodisia. 

Ltc. Have you been breakfasting on a hot breakfast to- 
day? Tell me. 

Ago. Why so ? Ltc Because now you are only cool- 
ing your mouth^, when you ask me. 

* Jupiter confound you) — Ver. 739. For their repeated and tiresome answers 
of "quippini?" "why not?" 

2 His decoyers) — Ver. 745. " Illices." " Illex " was a bird-call, quflil-prp«, 
or decoy used by fowlers for catching birds. 

• Cooling your mouth') — Ver. 760. BecAose in opening tiie mouth, toe aa 
leads to cool it 



Sc. V. THE YOUNG CAETHAGINIAN . 3S7 

Ago. Attend to this, Procurer, will you; I've heard that 
my slave is at your house. 

Ltc. At my house ? You'll find that has never been the 
fact. 

Ago. You lie ; for he has come to your house, and car- 
ried off some gold there. Word has been brought me to 
tliat effect, by persons I fully believe. {Pointing to the 
Assistants.) 

Lyc. You are an artful fellow : you've come to entrap me 
with your witnesses. There's no one of your people in my 
house, nor anything of yours. 

Ago. (turning round to the Assistants). Eemember that, 
assistants. 

Assist. "We will remember it. 

Lyc. (laughing). Ha, ha, ha! I now understand how it is. 
I've this instant seen through it. These persons, who a 
short time since introduced that Spartan stranger to me, 
their brain is now fired at it, because I'm going to make a gain 
of these three hundred Philippean pieces ; now, because they 
knew that this person was an enemy of mine, they have set 
him on to say that his slave, together with his gold, is in my 
house. It's a planned contrivance for them to deprive me of 
it, and to divide it among themselves. They are wanting to get 
away the lamb from the wolf ^. They are wasting their pains. 

Ago. "What, do you deny tha{ either the gold or my slave 
is at your house ? 

Lyc. I do deny it ; and, if it's of any use, I make myself 
hoarse with denying it. 

Assist. You are undone. Procurer ; for that person whom 
we told you was a Spartan, is his bailiff; who brought you 
just now the three hundred Philippean pieces ; and that same 
gold, too, is in his purse. 

Lyc. (shaking hisjlst at them). Woe unto you! 

Assist. That, indeed, is close at hand for yourself. 

Ago. Come, you hang-dog, give up the purse this instant. 
You are clearly a thief, caught by me in the fact. {To the 
Assistants.) By my troth, I do beg of you, lend me your 
aid, so as to see me bring my slave out of his house, (ifii 
goes into the Peocueeb's house.) 

» lamb from ths wolf)— Yer. 776. In allusion to la own 

2c2 



SSS P(ENULts; Act III. 

Ltc. I' fuith, I'm now undone for certain, beyond a 
doubt ! This has been done on purpose that a snare might 
be laid for me. But why do I hesitate to betake me hence to 
utter perdition, before I'm dragged off to the Praetor by the 
throat? Alas! what soothsayers I've been having for my 
diviners, who, if they promise anything that's fair, it comes 
to pass but slowly ; that which they promise as unfortunate, 
co!iies directly. Now I'll be off: I'll consult my friends in 
what way — they deem it l>est m especial for me to hang 
myself. {Exit. 

Scene VI. — Enter Agorastocles, yro?w the house o/*Ltcus, 
driving out Colltbiscus. 

Ago. Be off you, get out you, that the witnesses may 
see you coming out from here. Isn't this my servant ? ( J'o 
the Assistants.) 

Coll. I' faith, I really am, Agorastocles. 

Ago. How now, villanous Procurer ? Assist. He, with 
whom you have the dispute, has made off. 

Ago. I hope he's gone hence to utter perdition. 

Assist. It's proper that we should wish the same. 

Ago. To-morrow I'll bring my action against the fellow. 

Coll. Anything further with me ? 

Ago. You may go ; put on your own dress. 

Coll. It wasn't for nothing that I turned soldier. I 
made a little booty in-doors. "While the household of the 
Procurer was asleep, I got myself well fiUed with the entrails. 
I'll be off from here in-doors. 

Ago. (to the Assistants). 'Twas kindly done by you. 
Assistants, you have lent me your good services. To-mor- 
row morning I beg you'll meet me at the court of justice. 
(To Colltbiscus.) Do you follow me in-doors. (To the 
Assistants.) To you, farewell ! 

Assist. And you, farewell ! (Agobastocles ffoes into his 
house, followed ly Colltbiscus.) This fellow wants a thing 
that's notoriously unfair ; he thinks that we are to serve him 
at our own expense. But such are all these rich people of 
ours : if you do anything of service, their thanks are lighter 
than a feather ; if there's any offence, they show vengeance 
like lead. Let's now go to our houses, if you like, forthwith, 
since we've effected that for which we lent our services, to 
ruin this corruoter of our fellow-citizens. CExeunt, 



Act IV. THE YOUNG CAETUAGINIAN. 389 

Act. IV. — Scene I. 

Enter Milphio. 

Mil. l*m awaiting in what way my plot is to proceed. 
I'm bent upon ruining this Procurer, since he torments my 
afflicted master ; but he in his turn beats me, and strikes me 
with his fist and heels. It's a misery to be in the service of 
one who is in love, especially one who is debarred from the 
object which he woos. Heyday ! I see Syncerastus, the Pro- 
curer's servant, betaking himself from the Temple. I'll 
listen to what he has to say. (^He stands aside.) 

Scene II. — Enter Syncerastus, with some cooking utensils, 
from the Temple of Venus. 

Syn. {to himself) It's quite clear that Gods and men 
neglect the benefit of him who has a master like a person 
of such character as I have/br a master. There's not an- 
other person anywhere in the world more perjured or more 
wicked than is my master, nor one so filthy or so defiled 
with dirt. So may the Gods bless me, I'd rather pass my 
life either in the stone quarries or at the mill, with my sides 
hampered with heavy irons, than pass this servitude with a 
Procurer. AVhat a race this is ! What con-uptors of men 
they are ! Ye Gods, by our hopes in you, every kind of men 
you may see there, just as though you had come to Acheron 
— horse and foot, a freed-man, a thief, or a runaway, tfjou. 
choose, one whipped, chained, or condemned to slavery. He 
who has got money to pay, whatever sort of person he is — all 
kinds are taken in ; throughout all the house, in consequence, 
are darkened spots and hiding-places: drinking and eating 
are going on, just as though in a cookshop, and in no less 
decree. There may you see epistles written in letters in- 

ribed on pottery^, and sealed with pitch : the names are 

• Inscribed on potte7 y) — Ver. 837. He alludes to the marks denoting the age 
of wine, which were placed upon the "amphoras" or "cadi," the earthenware 
casks. These were stopped tight with wwd or cork, made impervious to the 
atmosphere with pitch (as here mentioned), or with clay, or a composition of 
gypsum. On the outside the title of the wine was either painted, or inscribed in 
earthenware letters, which are here alluded to. The date of the vintage was 
denoted by the names of the Consuls then in office. When the vessels were (if 
glass, small tickets, called •' pittacia," were suspended from them stating to a 
aimilar effect. 



390 PffiNULUS; Act ^V. 

npon them in letters a cubit long ; sucli a perfect levy oi 
vintners^ have we ^ot at our house. 

Mil. {apart). IJpon my faith, it is quite wonderful, if his 
master doesn't make him his heir; for really, the way he 
soliloquizes, he's making a speech over him as though dead 
and gone. I'd both like to accost the fellow, and yet 1 
listen to him with extreme delight. 

Syw. (to himself). When I see these things going on, I'm 
vexed that slaves, purchased at the heaviest price, should at 
our house be robbed of the savings^ whicli ought to go to 
their masters. But at last nothing is left visible : " badly 
gotten, badly gone." 

Mil. {apart). This man goes on talking quite as though 
he himself w^ere an honest fellow, when, upon my faith, he 
himself is able to make worthlessness more worthless. 

Syn. {to himself). Now I'm taking home these vessels from 
the Temple of Venus, where with his sacrifice my master 
has not been able to propitiate Venus on her festive day. 

Mil. {apart). Charming Venus ! 

Stn. (^0 himself). But our Courtesans, with their first 
ictims, appeased Venus in an instant. 

Mil. O charming Venus, once again ! 

Stn. {moving). Now I'll go home. 

Mil. {coming forward) . Hallo! Syncerastus! 

Stn". {looking around). "Who's calling Syncerastus ? 

Mil. Tour friend. Syn. You don't act like a friend, in 
causing me delay when I've got a burden. 

Mil. But in return for this matter I'll lend you my aid, 
when you please, and when you give me your commands. 
Consider the agreement signed. 

Syn. If so it is to be, I'll give you my ser\'ices in this • 

Mil. In what way ? Syn. Why that, when I'm to have 
a beating, you yourself may substitute your hide. 

Mil. Get along with you. Syn. I don't understand what 
sort of person you are. 

Mil. I'm good for nothing. 

» Levy of vintners)— Y ex. 838. He calls the worthlpss characters who are 
skulking in his master's iiouse " vinarii," '' vintners," from their love for wine, 
if which the Procurer seems to be in possession of a clioice stock. 

2 Robbed of the savings)— Yer. 843. " Expeculiatas." He alludes to those 
slaves who, having run away from their masters, are lurking in the Procm^r's 
house, where they spend all their savings (peculinm), wliich, by rights, snoaid 
<C0 to their masters towards the purchase of their fn«dom. 



Sc. II. THE YOUNG CAKTHAGINIAIT. 391 

Syn. Be 80 to yourself, then. Mil. I want you. 

Syn. But my burden is pressing me. 

Mil. Then, do you set it down, and turn your face to me. 

Syn. I'll do so, although I have no leisure. (^Puts dovm 
his load.) 

Mil. Save you, Syncerastus. Syn. O Milphio, may all 
the Grods and Groddesses favour 

Mil. What person, pray ? Syn. Neither you, nor me, 
Milphio, nor my own master, in fact. 

Mil. Whom are they to favour, then ? 

Syn. Any one else they please ; for not one of us is de« 
serving of it. 

Mil. You speak wittily. Syn. It befits me to do so. 

Mil. What are you doing ? Syn. I'm doing that which, 
clearly, adulterers don't generally do. 

Mil. What's that? Syn. Bringing all off in safety^. 

Mil. May the Gods confound you and your master ! 

Syn. May they not confound me. I could make them 
ruin him, if I chose — ruin my master, did I not fear for 
myself, Milphio. 

Mil. What is it ? Tell me. 

Syn. You are a bad one. Mil. I am a bad one. 

Syn. It goes hut badly with me. 

Mil. Just tell me, then ; you ought to be in quite other 
plight. Why is it that it goes badly with you, who have at 
home in superabundance what to eat, and what to drink ? 
You don't give a single three-obol piece away to a mistress, 
and have her for nothing. 

Syn. May Jupiter so love me 

Mil. I' Mth, in the degree that you deserve, to wit. 

Syn. How I do long for this family to come to ruin. 

Mil. If you long for it, lend your aid. 

Syn. Without feathers it isn't easy to fly : my wings have 
got no feathers. 

Mil. Troth, then, don't pluck out any hairs ; then, in the 
next two months, your arm-pits will be fit for fiying. 

Syn. Away to utter perdition! 

Mil. Away yourself, and your master ! 

^ AU off in $afHy') — Ver. 9>fiZ. There is an indecent allusion in this pa«8a0a 
vhicb is modified in the t. 



302 PffiNULUS ; Act IV. 

Syn. But, really, if a person knew him well, tiie felloTV 
might soon be mmed. 

Mil. Why so ? Syk. * * * Just as though you 
could be silent on any matter. 

Mil. I'll keep the matter more strictly secret for you than 
that which has been told to a dumb woman. 

Syn. I could easily bring my mind to believe you there, 
if I did not know you. 

Mil. Trust me coldly at my own peril. 

Syn. I shall trust you to my cost, and still I will trust you. 

Mil. Don't you know that your master is a mortal enemy 
of my master ? 

Syn. I know it. Mil. By reason of the love affair ? 

Syn. You are losing all your pains. 

Mil. "Why so ? Syn. Because you arc teaching one that 
has been taught. 

Mil. Why, then, do you doubt that my master will do a 
mischief to your master with pleasure, so far as he can do, 
with his deserving it ? Then besides, if you lend some assist* 
ance, on that account he'll be able to do it the more easily. 

Syn. But I'm afraid of this, Milphio 

Mil. What is it that you're afraid of? 

Syn, That while I'm preparing the plot against my master, 
I may be betrayed by yourself. If my master knows that 
I've been talking to any individual, he'll forthwith be making 
me from Syncerastus into Brokenlegs^. 

Mil. On my word, never shall any mortal be made the 
wiser by me ; only to my master alone will I tell it ; and to 
him, too, in such a way that he shall not disclose that this 
' matter originated in yourself. 

Syn. I shall trust you at my peril, and yet I will trust 
you. But do you keep this a secret to yourself 

Mil. To Faith herself \t is not more safely confided. Spealt 
out boldly (there's room and opportunity) ; we are here alone. 

Syn. If your master chooses to act with caution, he'll 
prove the ruin of my master. 

Mil. How can that be ? Syn. Easily. 

Mil. Then let me be acquainted with this " easily,' that 
be may know it as well. 

> Brokenleg8)—Yei. 886. " Crunfragium j" a wora coined for the occasiat 



Sc II. THE TOXTNG CAETHi-QDrEAIT. 393 

Stn. Because Adelphasium, whom your master dotes ou, 
is free by birth. 

Mil. In what way? Syn. In the same way that her 
otlier sister Anterastylis is. 

Mil. But how am I to believe that ? 

Syn. Because he bought them at Anactorium, when little 
children, of a Sicilian pirate. 

Mil. For how much ? Syn. Por eighteen minae. 

Mil, {with an air of surprise). These two for eighteen 
minm^ ? 

Syn. And their nurse for the third. He, too, who sold 
them told him that he was selling persons who had been kid- 
napped : he said that they were free-bom, and from Carthage. 

Mil. Te Gods, by our hopes in you ! you mention a most 
interesting matter ; for my master Agorastocles was bom in 
the same place ; he was sk>len thence when about six years 
old ; after that, the person who stole him brought him here 
and sold him to my master ; that person adopted him as heir 
to his wealth, when he departed tnis life. 

Syn. Tou mention everything that can render it the more 
easy ; let him assert their freedom, his own countrywomen, 
in an action on their freedom. 

Mil. Only do keep silence and hold your tongue. 

Syn. He certainly will bring the Procurer to a back- 
gammon, if he gets them away. 

Mil. Nay but, I'U cause him to be ruined before he moves 
one foot^ ; 'tis so contrived already. 

Syn. May the Gods grant it so, that I don't continue the 
slave of this Procurer. 

Mil. On the contrary, upon my faith, I'll cause you to be 
a free man with myself, if the Gods are willing. 

Syn. May the Gods grant it so ! Do you detain me for 
anything else, Milphio ? 

Mil. Fare you well, and may happiness attend you. 

Syn. I* faith, that lies in the power of yourself and your 

» For eighteen mince ?) — ^Ver. 898. He asks this question, as thirty minse was 
about the average price for a single slave. 

* Moves one foot) — Ver. 908. " Calcem." By some this word is thought to 
be used for " calculum," a " chessmmi," and that reference is made to the use of 
the word "incitas " in the previous line, which was the mate or backgammon io 
the game of " duodecim scripta " (somewhat similar to our game of ba( kgauniioL) 
and in which " calculi," " pieces " or " chessmen," were used 



394 PffiNULUS ; Act V 

master. Farewell, and mind that these things have been told 

iu secrecy. 

Mil. This has not been mentioned even. Tarewell. 

Syn. But really it's of no use, unless this is done while 
it is warm. 

Mil. Tou are right in your advice, and so it shall be done. 

Stn. There's excellent material, if you provide an excellent 
workman. 

Mil. Can't you hold your tongue ? 

Syn. I'll hold my tongue and be off. 

Mil. a grand opportunity you've made for me. (Syn- 
CERASTUS goes into the house o/'Lycus.) He's gone from here. 
The immortal Grods do will my master to be preserved, and 
this Procurer utterly ruined ; a mischief so great is impend- 
ing upon him. Is it not the fact, before one weapon has been 
launched, then another presses upon him ? I'll go in-doors, 
that I may recount these matters to my master. For if I were 
to call him out hither before the house, and, what you've {to the 
Audience) just heard, if I were now here to repeat the same, 
it would be folly. I'd rather in-doors be an annoyance to 
my master singly, than be so here to all of you. Immortal 
Gods, what misfortunes, what great calamities do this day 
await this Procurer. But now there's no reason why I 
should delay. This business is resolved upon ; no pausing is 
allowed ; for both this must be cleverly managed, which has 
just now been entrusted to me, and that plan as well which 
was formed at home must be attended to. If there's any 
delay, he who sends me a heavy mischance will be acting 
rightly. Now I'U off in-doors ; until my master comes from 
the Forum, I'll wait at home. {Goes into the house of Ago- 

EASTOCLES.) 

Act Y. — Scene I. 

Enter Hk^'SO, followed at a distance hy his Servants. 

Han. (Jto himself). Hyth alonim^ vualonuth sicorathi si 
ma com sith, 

» Hyth alonim) — Ver. 930. These eighteen lines (or, at least, the first ten) 
are in Punic, the native language of Hanno. The following is the meaning oi 
them, as given by Plautus in the next eleven lines: " I worship the Gods and 
Goddesses who preside over this city, that I may have come hither with good 
oiiinn as to this business of mine, on which I have come ; and, ye Gods, lend me 
four aid, tliat you mav ©ermit vnu ut find mv diiu^iters and the son of iu» 



Sc. I. THE YOUNG CAETHAGINIAN. 395 

Chi mach chui yth miimys tyal mictibariim isclii, 
Lipho canet luth byiiuthi ad aedin bynuthii. 
Birnarob syllo homalonin uby misyrthoho 
Bythym mothym noctcthii velech Antidasmachon. 
Tssidele berim thyfel yth chylys chon, tern, lyphul 
Uth bynim ysdibut thinno cuth ru Agorastocles 
Ythe manet ihy * * chyrssB lycoch sith naso 
Byuni id chil luhili gerbylim lasibit thym 
Bodyalyth herayn nyn nuys lym moncoth lusim. 
[Exalonim volaiius succuratim mistim Atticum esse 
Concubitum a bello cutim beant lalacant choua 

cousin ; those who were stolen away from me, and liis son from my cousin. But 
nere lived formerly my guest Antidamas. They say that he has done that which 
he was doomed to do. They say that his son Agorastocles lives here. To him 
am I carrying with me this token of hospitality. He has been jwinred as living 
in this neighbourhood. I'll make enquiry of these who are coming hither out oi 
doors." The learned Bochart, in his Phaleg, considers that the first ten lines are 
Punic, and that the other eight are, possibly, Lybic, of which the sense had been 
previously given in Punic ; and, in fact, he quite despaired of translating them 
His translation of the first ten very nearly agrees with that given by Plautus 
himself. Samuel Petit, in his Miscellanea, considers the whole to be Hebrew, 
and translates his ver>ion (which consists of sixteen lines) as follows: 1. Give 
ear and attend, Gods and Goddesses, under whose protection are the men 
of this city. 2. Receive as acceptable my prayers and my integrity. Two 
daughters did I beget, my strength. 3. Urged on by fate, I caused them on 
each feast-day of the Gods to go to the gardens. 4. With much rejoicing, and 
on the day of song, there was a void. 5. The girls, being stolen, forsook me. 
Whither shall I go, pacing all chambers ? 6. Where is he who bore them away ? 
that I may remove the helplessness of my sorrow which he produces for me like 
fruit, in being the father of, and rearing, children. 7. They have said that 
here, assuredly, Agorastocles lives. 8. I have a token of hospitality, the likeness 
of Saturn (I'm carrying it), 9. Between us. May there be some end for my 
journey, that rest at last may be afforded to my integrity. 10. So that alone and 
wretched and afflicted I may not wander to and fro. but rather that I may meet 
with my children, and pay my vows and oblations 1 1. To the Gods and Go<lde«ses 
whom I've invoked as my advisers and assistants, 12. To purify my house from 
the griefs with which I was affected when I praised them. But they heard not 
my words, and I am most afflicted and am despondent in mind. 13. my hope, 
come hither, and whatever troubles await me, cause me to endure them. Take 
courage from the truth of oracles, and of the responses of the God Tau, from di- 
>'inatif)ns, and forewarnings, and prodigies. 14. Be thou speedily fulfilled ; arouse 
thyself and pray. Would that they could hear: grief would depiirt from a 
devout parent, and I should recognize Aristodes, my brother's son. 15. At- 
tentively hear this lamentation, God, my power, make haste to the truth Ov 
♦Jiy promise of my exaltation, God, and my evil odours shall cease. 16. Lni 
from henceforth wUl I to the best of my means show iionor, sacrificing spelt tl 
all the Gods, and singing praises ! ! ! 



396 PCENULUS ; Act V. 

Enus es liuiec silec panesse AtWdamascon 
Alem * * induberte felono * * buthume 
Oeltum comucro lueni, at enim avoso uber 
Bent hyach Aristoclem et se te aneche nasoctelia 
Elicos alemus [in] duberter mi comps vespiti 
Aodeanee lictor bodes jussum limnicoliis.] 

Scene II. — Enter Agoeastocles, from his house, followed 
hy MiLPHio. 

Ago. {in a loud voice). Do you say, Milpbio, that Synce- 
rastus told you that both of these women were freeborn, and 
stolen away from Carthage ? 

Mil. I do say so ; and if you were willing to act wisely, 
you'd at once assert their liberty by an action on their free- 
dom. Yov it's a disgrace to you for you to allow your own 
country-people to be slaves before your eyes, who were free 
women at home. 

Han. {overhearing, apart). O ye immortal Gods, I do en- 
treat your aid! "What speech is this that my ears devour! 
Surely the words of these persons are made of chalk ; how 
have they cleansed away all the dark spots of woe from me ! 

Ago. If you've got witnesses of this matter, I'll do as you 
bid me. 

Mil. Why speaJc you to me about witnesses ? Why don't 
you stoutly insist upon it ? Some way or other. Fortune will 
be vour assistant. 

Ago. It's much more easy to begin a thing than to bring 
it about. 

Mil. {catching sight of Hanno, attended hy his Ser- 
vants). But what bird is this^, pray, that's coming liither 
with the tunic on? Is he from the baths^, I wonder, enve- 
loped in his cloak ? I' faith, the countenance is surely Car- 
thaginian. The man's a Grugga^. I' faith, he certainly has 
got some ancient and antiquated servants. 

Ago. How do you know? Mil. Don't you see the 

' What bird is this) — Ver. 975. The " tunica," or " garment," which ITanno is 
Tearing, has long sleeves, or " manicae," which causes Milphio to ask if he is 
a bird, from their resemblance to wings. 

' From the baths) — Ver. 976. He alludes to the practice of th" wes making 
off with the cloaks of persons while bathing at the public baths. 

» A Gugga) — Ver. 977. Probablj a nickname for an African, ic O0jmon \it4 
%t Borne. 



Sc. II. THE TOUIfQ CAETHAGI3riA5^. 397 

fellows fol. owing, loaded with luggage? And, as I fancy, 
they've got no fingers on their Lands. 

Ago. Why so ? 

Mil. Why, because they go with their rings in their ears^, 
I'll approach them, and address them in the Punic language : 
if they answer, I'll continue to speak in the Punic tongue 
if not, then I'll adapt my language to their usage. How 
say you, do you still remember anything of the Punic lan- 
guage? 

Ago. jN'othing at all, i' faith ; for tell me, how could I know, 
who was but six years old when I was stolen away from Car- 
thage ? 

Han. {apart). O ye immortal Gods! very many freebom 
children have been lost from Carthage after this manner. 

Mil. How say you ? Ago. What do you want ? 

Mil. Should you like me to address this person in the 
Punic tongue ? 

Ago. Do you understand it ? Mil. No Punic man this 
day is a better Punic than I. 

Ago. Go and address him, as to what he wants, why he' a 
come, who he is, of what country, and whence he comes. 
Don't be sparing of your questions. 

Mil. {addressing Hanno and his Seeyants). Avo^! Of 
what country are you, or from what city ? 

Han. Hanno Muthumballe bachaedreanech. 

Ago. AVhat does he say ? 

Mil. He says that he is Hanno from Carthage, a Cartha- 
ginian, son of Muthumbal. 

Han. Avo ! Mil. He salutes us. 

Han. Donni^. Mil. He intends to present you with 
some " donation" out of this ; what, I don't know. Don't you 
hear him promise ? 

' Rings in their ears) — Ver. 981. The Carthaginians, no doubt, borrowed 
this custom from the Syrians and Phoenicians, with whom, as also with the 
Jews, it was prevalent. 

2 Avo) — Ver. 994. " Hail." Milphio's knowledge of the Punic dialect was 
probably but limited, though in the sequel it appears that he does know some- 
thing of it. The translation of these Punic expressions is from Warner's Trans- 
lation, where the Punic is given in a form somewhat different from that found is 
the modern editions of the text. 

'' Donm) — Ver. 998. "My masters." Milphio says he is talking about 
" cifts," from the resemblance of the word to the Latin " doni," the genitivt 
case of " donum " " a gift." 



398 p(ENULUS; Act V, 

Ago. Salute him again in Punic, in my name. 

Mil. {to Hanno). " Avo donni" he tells me to say to you 
in his name. {Pointing to Agorastocles.) 

Hak. Mehar bocca^ ! Mil. Be that for yourself rather 
than me ! 

Ago. What does he say ? Mil. He declares that his 
" box" for his teeth is painful. Perhaps he takes us to be 
doctors. 

Ago. If it is so, tell him that we are not; I don't wish a 
stranger to be mistaken. 

Mil. {to Hanno). Hear you. Eufen nuco istam^. 

Ago. This is my wish, that in fact everything should be ex- 
plained to him just as it is. Ask him whether he has need of 
anything. 

Mil. {to Hanno). Touwho have got no girdle^, why havn 
you come to this city, or what is it you seek ? 

Han. Muphursa*. Ago. What is it lie says ? 

Han. Moin lechianna^. Ago. Why has he come ? 

Mil. Don't you hear ? He declares that he is wishful to 
give African mice to the ^diles as a show at the games. 

Han. Lalech lachananim liminichot^. 

Ago. What does he say now ? 

Mil. He says he has brought latchets, water- channels^, 
and nuts ; he's now begging that you'll lend him your assist- 
ance in having them sold. 

Ago. He is a merchant, I suppose ? 

» Mehar bocca) — Ver. 1002. This passage has been rendered, " Oh ! what a 
son of tears!" Milphio says he is talking about his " bucca," or "cheek," beinj; 
in pain. An attempt has been made in the Translation to preserve in some slight 
degree the resemblance. 

' Eufen nuco istarti) — Ver. 1006. " We are no doctors." 

* Got no girdle) — Ver. 1008. The Carthaginian tunic flowed loose, and was 
not fastened with a girdle. Milphio perhaps alludes to his being without a 
purse, which was generally supported by the girdle, and without which he might 
think that a stranger had no business in such a wealthy city as Calydon. 

* Muphursa)— Ver. 1010. "Open." 

* Moin lechianna) — ^Ver. 1010. I beg an entrance for Saturn. Milphio plays 
upon the very slight resemblance of " muphursa " to " mures," " mice." Under 
the name of " African mice," he probably alludes to " panthers" or " leopards," 
which had perhaps been recently shown by the ^diles, for the first time. 

« Lalech lachananim liminickot) — Ver. 1013. " The messenger who asks a 
safe abode and kind endurance here." 

' Latchets, water-channels) — Ver. 1014. Milpnio plays upon the resemblance 
of the words " lalech lachananim," to " ligulos canales," which (if the reading 
as cocr«ct^ will noeaii ahoestrings and water-pipes — perfect nooaeas* 



Sc. II. THE YOUNG CAETHAQINIAN. 3^ 

Han. Is amar binam^. Ago. "What is it he says ? 

Han. Palum erga dectha^. 

Ago. Milphio, what is he saying now ? 

Mil. He says that he has got spades and forks^ given him 
for sale, for digging the garden and reaping the corn. 

Ago. What is that to me ? 

Mil. He wishes you to be informed of it, so that you mayn't 
suppose that he has taken anything secretly and by stealth. 
He has really, I do believe, been sent here to your harvesting. 

Han. Muphonium sucoraim^. Mil. So there! do take 
care, please, how you do what he's begging of you. 

Ago. What is he saying, or what is be begging ? Ex- 
plain it. 

Mil. Eor you to order him to be placed beneath a hurdle^, 
and for many stones to be heaped upon it, so as to put 
him to death. 

Han. Grunebel balsamen ierasan ! 

Ago. Tell me what it is that he's saying. 

Mil. I' faith, now I really don't at all know. 

Han. (speaking in their own language). But that you 
may know, now from this moment henceforth will I speak 
Latin. {To Milphio.) Upon my faith, you must be a 
worthless and bad servant, to be laughing at a person, a 
foreigner and a stranger. 

Mil. But, i' faith, at yourself a person that's both a swindler 
and a cheat, who have come here to take us in, you half- 
and-half Lybian, you double-tongue, just like a crawling 
reptile. 

Ago. {to Milphio). Away hence with your abusiveness ! 
do restrain your tongue. You'll keep it from uttering abuse, 
if you are prudent ; I don't want you to be speaking harshly 

' Is amar hinarn) — Ver. 1016. "Us unarmed." 

2 Palum erga dectha) — Ver. 1017. " Naked men." 

3 Spades and forks)— Ver. 1018. Milphio says he is speaking of " palas" and 
*' mergas," " spades" and " pitchforks," by reason of the resemblance in the 
sound. 

* Muphonium, swcomm)— Ver. 1023. " 'Tis on account of your Deities before 
invoked. 

* Beneath a hurdle)— Ver. 1025. Milphio says he is speaking of "crates," 
"a hurdle." This mode of stoning to death was oractised among the Cas^ 
thaginiaos. 



100 PffiNTJLTTS Act V 

to my kit.smen. I was bom at Carthage ; do you remembef 
that. 

Han. my fellow-countryman, greetings to you ! 

Ago. And you, troth, whoever you are ; and if you have 
need of anything, pray mention it, and command me for the 
sake of our common country. 

Han. I return you thanks ; but I've got a place of enter- 
tainment here ; I'm in search of the son of Antidamas ; do 
point me out Agorastocles, if you know him. Do you know 
any young man here named Agorastocles ? 

Ago. If, indeed, you are in search of the adopted son of 
Antidamas, I am the very person whom you are in search of. 

Han. {starting). Hah'! what's that I hear ? 

Ago. That I am the son of Antidamas. 

Han. If so it is, if you would like to compare the token of 
hospitality^, see here, I've brought it. {Shows him the ticket.) 

Ago. Come then, show it here. {He takes it in his hand, 
and looks at it.) It is exactly true ; for I've got the counter- 
part at home. 

Han. my host, hail to you right earnestly ; for it was 
your father, then, Antidamas, that was my own and my 
father's guest; this was my token of hospitality with him. 

Ago. Then here at my house shall hospitality be shown 
you ; for I don't reject either Hospitality or Carthage, from 
which I sprang. 

Han. May the Gods grant you all you may desire. How say 
you ? How could it happen that you were bom at Carthage, 
but had a father of ^tolia here ? 

Ago. I was stolen away from there ; this Antidamas, your 
guest, bought me, and adopted me as his son. 

Han. He himself, likewise, was adopted by Demarchus. 
But about him I say no more, and return to you. Tell me, dc 
you at all remember the names of your parents ? 

Ago. I remember my father and my mother's name. 

Han. Eepeat them, then, to me, to see if I know them, pep- 
chance, or if they are relatives of mine. 

Ago. Ampsigura was my mother, and lachon my father. 

Han. I could wish that your father and mother were alive. 

Ago. Are they dead ? 

' Token of Jiospitality) — Ver. 1047. As to the " tessera" of hospitality, se« 
the Cist?Jiria 1. 240, and the Note to the passage. 



Sc. ll. THE YOUNG CARTHAGINIAN". 401 

Han. So it is, a thing which I bore with much grief; for 
your motlier Ampsigiu-a was my cousin-german ; your father 
— he was my uncle's son, and when he died he made me his 
heir ; of whom beiug deprived by death, I am greatly affected. 
But if it is the fact that you really are the son of Sachon, 
there ought to be a mark upon your left hand, a bite which 
an ape gave you when a child, playing with it. Show it^ that 
1 may look at it ; open your hand. 

Ago. {opening his hand.) Look, if you like ; see, there it 
is. My kinsman, welcome to you ! 

Han. And welcome to you, Agorastocles ! I seem to my- 
self to be born again, in having found you. 

Mil. By my troth, I'm delighted that this matter has 
fallen out so happily foryou. {To Hanno.) And would you 
decline to take advice ? 

Han. Eeally, I should wish to he advised. 

Mil. His father's property ought to be restored to the 
son ; it's fair that he should have the property which his 
father possessed. 

Han. I vrish no otherwise ; everything shall be restored. 
I'll give his own property to him all safe, when he comes there. 

Mil. Take care and restore it, will you, even though he 
should live here still. 

Han. Nay but, he shall have my own as well, if anything 
should happen to me^. 

Mil. a pleasant project has just now come into my mind, 

Han. "What's that ? 

Mil. There's need of your assistance. 

Han. Tell me what you wisk. Eeally, you shall have 
my services just as you please. What is the business ? 

Mil. Can you act the cheat ? 

Han. Towards an enemy, I can ; to a friend, it would be 
viere folly. 

Mil. I' faith, it is an enemy of his. {Pointing at Ago- 
rastocles.) 

Han. I could do him a mischief mth pleasure. 

Mil. He's in love with a person who belongs to a Procurer. 

Han. I deem that he acts discreetly. 

» Anything should happen to me) — Ver. 1085. An Euphemism to avert 
iD omen. 

TOL. II. 2 © 



402 pCENrLus ; Act V. 

Mil. This Procurer lives close at hand. 

Han. I could do him a mischief with pleasure. 

Mil. He has two slave girls, courtesans, sisters ; one of 
these he is desperately in love with, nor has he ever takei 
any liberties with her. 

Ha.n. It's an unhappy kind of passion. 

Mil. Tiie Procurer plays upon him. 

Han. He's enhancing his own profits thereby. 

Mil. He wishes to do him an evil turn. 

Han, He's right, if he does do it. 

Mil. Now I adopt this plan, and prepare this contrivance, 
that we should cite you ; you are to affirm that they are 
your daughters, and that they were stolen when little from 
Carthage, and to maintain the cause of both in an action on 
their freedom, as though they were both your own daughters. 
Do you understand ? 

Hak. On my faith, I do understand ; for I likewise did 
have two daughters who were stolen away when little chil- 
dren, together with their nurse. 

Mil. Upon my word, you do feign it cleverly. At the 
very commencement this amuses me. 

Han. {aside, weeping). Much more, i' troth, than I could 
wish. 

Mil. (asiWeifo Agorastocles). Dear me! a subtle person, 
upon my word, artful and knowing, both tricky and crafty ! 
How he does whimper, in order that with his gestures he 
may effect this all the more easily. Even myself, now, the 
master-workman, does he excel in skill. 

Han. But their nurse^, of what appearance was she ? Tell 
me. Mil. Of stature not tall, of a dusky complexion^. 

Han. 'Tis the very person. Mil. Of agreable form, with 
a small moutli, and very dark eyes. 

Han. I' faith, you really have depicted her form exactly 
in your words. 

» BtU their nurse) — Ver. 1111. It did not escape the accurate Schmieder that 
the fact iias not been hitherto communicated to Hanno that tlie damsels had a 
nurse who was stolen. This, then, is either an oversight of Plautus, or he must 
mean that Hanno thinks he has asked the question, and has received an answer 
in the affirmative. 

* Of a dusky complexiM)—VeT. 1112. "Aquilo." "Of he hue of deep 
water." 



I 



SC. III. THE YOUNG CARTHAGINIAIT. 403 

Mil. Sliould you like to see her ? 

Han. I'd rather see my daughters. Still, go and call her 
out of doors. If they are my daughters, if she is their nurse, 
she'll recognize me at once. 

Mil. {knocking at the door of the Peocurer's hoiise). 
Hallo there! is there any one here? Tell Griddeneme to 
come out of doors ; there's a person wants to see her. 



Scene III. — JSnter Giddeneme and a 'Boy, from the home, 

GiD. Who is it that knocks ? 

Mil. One that's a near acquaintance of yours. 

GiD. What do you want ? 

Mil. Come now {pointing to Hanno), do you know that 
person in the tunic, who it is ? 

GiD. Why, whom do I behold ? O supreme Jupiter ! this 
sure is my master, the father of my foster-childreu, Hanno, 
the Carthaginian! 

Mil. Now, do see the cunning hussey ! this Carthaginian 
is really a clever juggler; he has brought all over to his 
own opinion. 

GiD. (running up to Hanno). O my master! welcome to 
you, Hanno ! most unhoped for by myself and your daugh- 
ters, welcome to you! But look you, don't be wondering, 
or gazing so intently upon me. Don't you know Giddeneme, 
your female slave ? 

Han. I know her. But where are my daughters ? That 
I'm longing to know. 

GiD. At the Temple of Venus^. 

Han. What are they doing there ? Tell me. 

GiD. To-day is the Aphrodisia, the festive day of Venus ! 
they have gone there to entreat the Goddess to be propitious 
to them. 

Mil. I' faith, they've fully prevailed, I'm sure, inasmuch 
as he has arrived here. 

Ago. {aside to Giddeneme). How now, are these his 
daughters ? 

Giu. Just as you say. {To Hanno.) Tour kindness 
has clearly come to our rescue, in your having arrived here 
to-day at the very time ; for this day their names were to 

> Temple of Fentw)— Ver. 1113. Venus was the tuteoir Divinity of Calydoiw 

2j>2 



404 P(E3fULUS ; Act V 

have been changed^, and thej were tt have made a livelihood, 
diuo^racetul to their station, by their persons. 

Boy. Haudones illi^. Gid. Havon bene si illi, in mustine. 
Me ips". et eneste dum et alamna cestinum^. 

Ago. What is it they are saying among them selves? Tell me. 

Mil. He's saluting his mother, and she this her son. 

Han. Hold your peace, and let alone the woman's gear. 

Mil. What gear is that ? 

Han. Loud talking without limit. {To Mtlphio.) Do 
you lead these people in-doors {pointing to his Servants), 
and bid this nurse to come away together with you to your 
house. 

Ago. {to MiLPHio). Do as he requests. 

GriD. {to Hanno). But who's to point them out to you ? 

Ago. I will, right skilfully. G-id. I'll go away then. 

Ago. I*d only rather that you would do so, than say so. 
{She goes into the house o/'Agorastocles.) 

Mil. Upon my faith, I do think that this day the very 
thing that I said by way of joke will be coming to pass both 
soberly and seriously, that these will be discovered to-day to 
be his daughters. 

Ago. Troth, that very thing is quite certain now. Do 
you, Milphio, take them {pointing to the Servants) in-doors ; 
we'll wait here for these damsels. I wdsh a dinner to be got 
ready for my kinsman on his arrival. 

Mil. Lachananim* you! {aside to the Servants), whom 
I'll just now be packing off to the mill-stones, and from there 
after that to the dungeou and the oaken log^. I'll give you 
reason to praise your treatment here but slightly. 

^ Names were to have been changed) — Ver. 1139. The " professae," or " cour- 
tesans," at Kome, were registered by the iEdiles, and usually adopted some other 
tlian their family name for the purposes of their calling. 

2 Havdones illi) — Ver. 1141. Shall I not bid him welcome? 

3 Alamna cestinum) — Ver. 1142. " Child, remember that they are at the Fes- 
tival of Venus. The time is not proper as yet. Hold your peace at preseut, and 
keep the Captain in ignorance of this." 

< Lachananim) — Ver. 1157. " Get on with you, and be thankful," according to 
Petit. 

* The oal'en log) — ^Ver. 1158. The "codex" was a heavy log to which slaves 
were chained, and which they were condemned to drag about with them. It is 
hard to say why Milphio speaks thus harshly to the servants of Hanno ; perhaps 
however all this b said in a jocular way i; show l-is own importance. 



Sc. I\ THE YOUNG CA-ETHAGINIAN. 405 

Aao. {to Hanno). Do you hear, kinsman ? I say, don't 
you revoke what has been said ; promise me your elder daugh- 
ter iu marriage. 

Han. Consider the thing as agreed on. 

Ago. Do you promise her, then P 

Han. I do promise her. 

Ago. My kinsman, blessings on you! for now you are 
mine beyond a doubt; now at length shall I converse with 
her wntliout restraint. Now, kinsman, if you wish to see 
your daughters, follow me. 

Han. AVhy, really, this long time I've been longing for 
it, and I'll follow you. 

Ago. What if w^e go and meet them ? 

Han. But I'm afraid lest we should pass them on tlie 
road. Grreat Jupiter, do now reinstate my fortunes for me 
as being certain instead of uncertain ! 

Ago. I trust that my charmer will be my own. But look, 
I catch sight of them. 

Han. What, are these my daughters? How tall from 
being such little creatures have they now become ! 

Ago. Do you know how it is ? These are Grrecian columns^ ; 
they are wont to be erect. ( They stand aside.) 

Scene IV.— Enter ADELrHASiuM and ANTEiiASTTLis,yr6>;« 
the Temple of Venus, 

Adel. 'Tw^as worth the while, to-day, of him who has a 
taste for loveliness to afford a feast to his eyes, in coming hither 
to the Temple this day to see the sights. Upon my faith, I 
was charmed there to-day with the most elegant offerings of 
the courtesans, worthy of Venus, the most handsome Goddess ; 
nor did I despise her worship this day ; so great an abundance 
of beauteous objects was there there, each nicely arranged in 
its own place. The odours of Arabia and of myrrh fflled 
everything. The festive day seemed to be affected with no 
^loom, Venus, nor did thy Temple ; so great a throng of her 
dependants was there, who had come to Venus of Caiydon. 

Ant. But certainly, as far indeed as regarded us two, sister, 
we were all-powerful in our prayers, beauteous and gainers of 

« Grecmn coMmns)—Ver. 1173. He seems to allude to tlieir upriglit way of 
waljang, and the elegance of the GreciaD columns, to which he compares them. 



408 pcE^nxs ; Act V. 

her fnvoiir ; neither were we there held in ridicule by the 
yoxiiig men, which, i' faith, sister, happened to all the rest. 

Adel. I'd rather tliat it should so appear to other persons, 
than that you, sister, should praise yourself. 

Ant. Indeed, I trust so. Adel. Troth, and so do I, 
when I reflect of what breeding we and the others are. 
AVe were born in that station, that it befits us to be un- 
blemished by faultiness. 

Han. (apart). Jupiter, who dost preserve and feed the race 
of men, through whom we pass this mortal life, in whose hands 
are the hopes of life in all men, prithee, do grant this day aa 
a prosperous one for my fortunes ! Those whom I've missed 
for many years, and whom when little I lost from their native 
land, to them restore their liberty, that I may be sure that 
for an indomitable sense of duty there is a reward. 

Ago. (apart). I'll engage that Jove shall do it all; for to 
me he is indebted^, and stands in awe of me. 

Han. (apart). Prithee, do hold your peace. (Se weeps.) 

Ago. (apart). Kinsman, do not weep. 

Ant. (apart). As it is a pleasure for a man, my sister, if 
he succeeds in anything, to have the credit of victory, just so 
did we this day among the rest excel them all in beauty. 

Adel. Sister, you are more silly than I could wish. 
Prithee, do you really think yourself a beauty, if your face 
has not been besmeared with soot^ ? 

Ago. (apart). O kinsman ! O kinsman, dearest of all kins- 
men^ to me ! 

Han. (apart). What is it, son of my cousin? My son, 
tell me, what is it you wish ? 

Ago. (apart). Why, really, I do wish you to attend to this. 

Han. (apart). Why, really, I am attending to it. 

Ago. (apart). Kinsman, kinsman, dearest of all kinsmen 
to me! 

> To me he is indebted) — Ver. 1204. This impious expression is out of cha- 
racter with Agorastocles, and the latter portion of the line is supposed to be 
spurious. 

2 Besmeared with soof) — ^Ver. 1209. Douza iniorms us that it was the custom 
of tlie young men to divert themselves at the expense of those courtesans \vh« 
were not handsome, by daubing their faces with soot and dirt. 

^Dearest of all kinsmen) — Yer. 1210. ' Patruissime." A word coioed bj 
Plautus for the occasion. 



i 



ic. ly. THE YOUNG CAETH^GINIAN. 407 



IIan. {apart). "What's the matter ? Ago. (aparf) . ^he' a 
a clever and a nice girl. How shrewd she is ! 

Han. (apart). She has her father's disposition in being 
shrewd. 

Ago. (apart). How's that ? This long time, i' faith, she has 
surely used up your shrewdness. 'Tis from here (pointing 
to himself) she now derives her shrewdness ; 'tis from here 
her sense ; whatever she does shrewdly, through my love does 
she act so shrewdly. 

Adel. We are not bom of that rank, although we are 
slaves, sister, that it should befit us to do anything which 
any man may laugh at. Many are the faults of women ; but 
of the many, this one is the greatest, to please themselves 
too much, and to give their attention too little to pleasing 
the men. 

Ant. It was a very great delight that was portended in 
our sacrifice of the entrails, sister, and what the soothsayer 
said about us both 

Ago. (apart). I wish he had said something about me ! 

Ant. That we should be free in a few days, in spite of our 
owner. I don't know why I should hope for that, unless 
the Gods or our parents do something. 

Ago, (apart). 'Twas through confidence in me^, kinsman, 
upon my faith, that the soothsayer promised them liberty, 
I'm sure of it, because he knows I'm in love with fier. 

Adel. Sister, follow me this way. (Moves as if going.) 

Ant. 1 follow. (Moves also.) 

Han. (stepping forward). Before you go away^, I want you 
both. Unless it's inconvenient, stop. 

Adel. Who's calling us back? 

Ago. One who wishes to do you a kindness. 

Adel. There's opportunity for doing it. But who is the 
person? Ago. A friend of yours. 

' Through confidence in me) — Ver. 1226. He surmises that the soothsayer 
(like most other successful prophets) had learnt the true state of the caa« 
beforehand. 

2 Before you go away) — Ver. 1228. Warner, in his Note on this passage, sug- 
gests tliat Plautus lias here forgotten the rules of nature. He says, " It 19 
unnatural to sup{x>se a parent, who has so long been in search of his daughters, 
should be so near tliem as to see them, and hear them talk, and not immediately 
fly into their embraces. And when he does speak to them, he teases and tor- 
mtnts them a, long time, for no other reason thau to divert the Spectators." 



4.08 PCENULUS ; Act V, 

Adel. One who is not an enemy, in fact. 

Ago. This is a good man, my love. 

Adel. I' faith, I should prefer him rather than a bad one. 

Ago. Ifj indeed, friendship must be engaged in, with such 
a person ought it to be engaged in. 

Adel. I don't beg for it. Ago. He wishes to do you 
many services. 

Adel. Being good yourself, you will be doing good to 
the good. 

Han. I will cause you joy 

Adel. And, i' faith, we pleasure to you. 

Han. And liberty. Adel. At that price you'll easily 
make us your own. 

Ago. My kinsman, so may the Gods bless me, if I were 
Jupiter, upon my faith I'd at once marry her for my wife, 
and pack Juno out of doors. How quietly did she utter 
her words, how considerately and becomingly ! how modestly 
did she frame her speech ! certainly she is my own ! 

Han. {apart to Agobastocles). But how skilfully I ac- 
costed her ! 

Ago. Cleverly and becomingly, upon my faith. 

Han. Am I still to go on testing them ? 

Ago. Compress it in a few words; the people who are 
sitting here are getting thirsty^. 

Han. "Well, why don't we proceed to do that which 
was to be done? {To the Women.) I summon you to 
justice. 

Ago. Seize hold of this one, kinsman, if you are wise. 
Should you like me to catch hold of her ? 

Adel. Is this person your kinsman^ Agorastocles ? 

Ago. I'll soon let you know. Now, by my word, I'll be 
nicely revenged on you ; for I'll make you my bride. 

Han. Come before a court of justice; don't delay! 

Ago. Summon me as your witness^, and take me ; I'll be 
a witness for you ; and after that, her {pointing to Adel- 
phasium) will I love and embrace. But 'twas this, indeed, I 

^ Sitting here are getting thirsty) — Ver. 1241. He alludes to the Spectators, 
and means that they must be tired with sitting there and listening to such a 
long Play. 

^ Summon 'me an your wilne$g) —\er. 1246 'Antestare me." See the NoU 
to the Curculfo, 1. 621. 



Sc. IV. THE XGTTIS^G CAHTnAGIIQA^r. 409 

intended to say — why yes, I did say that which I intended 
to say. 

Han. (to the Damsels). Tou are lingering. I summon you 
to justice, unless it is more becoming for you to be dragged 
thither. 

Adel. Why do you summon us to justice? What are 
we in your debt ? Ago. He'll tell it there. 

Adel. Are even my own dogs barking at me ? 

Ago. Then, troth, do you caress me; give me a kiss in 
place of a piece of meat ; present your Hps in place of a 
bone^ : that way I'll render this dog more smooth for you 
than oil. 

Han. Come on, if you are coming. Adel. Wbat have 
we done to you ? 

Han. You are thieves, both of you. 

Adel. AVhat, we, as regards you ? 

Han. Tou, I say. Ago. And I know it. 

Adel. What theft is this? Ago. Enquire of him. 

Han. Because for many years you have been concealing 
my daughters from me, and, in fact, persons free-born, and 
free, and born of the highest rank. 

Adel. 1' faith, you'll never find that villany to have been 
committed by us. 

Ago. Make a bet of a kiss now, if you are not forsworn, 
which is to give it to the other. 

Adel. I've nothing to do with you ; prithee, get you gone. 

Ago. But, i' faith, I've got something to do with you ; for 
he is my kinsman; it's necessary for me to be his advo- 
cate. And I'll inform him how you are guilty of many a 
theft, and in what way you have got his daughters as slaves at 
your house, whom you know to be free women stolen from 
their native land. 

Adel. Where are these, or who are they, prithee ? 

Ago. {aside to Hanno). They have been teased sufiiciently. 

Han. {aside). Why not speak out, then? 

Ago. {aside). V faith, I'm of that opinion, kinsman. 

Adel. I'm dreadfully afraid what this business can mean, 

my sister ; so astounded am I, I stand here without my senses. 

Han. Damsels, give me your attention. In the first place, 

* Your lips in place of a hone) — Ve" 1252 The original of this line is some- 
what indelicate, and tfte traiisiaiion of it has been modified. She expected issisi- 
•nce from Agorastocks, who appears to her to be taking the part of her enensy . 



410 PCENULTJS ; Act V. 

if it could possibly come to pass, for the Grods not to send 
upon the innocent what is undeserved, that could I have 
wished to happen ; now for the good the Gods bestow upon 
nie, upon yourselves and upon your nurse^, 'tis due that we 
should give to the Deities our endless thanks, since the im- 
mortal Gods approve and reward our piety. You are my 
daughters, both of you, and this is your relation, Agorastocles, 
the son of my cousin. 

Adel. Prithee, are they deluding us with imaginary joys ? 

Ago. Really, so may the Deities preserve me, this is your 
father. Give him your hands. 

Adel, {embracing him). Welcome, father! unhoped-for by 
us, allow us to embrace you ! 

Ant. (embracing him). Welcome, father! much wished and 
longed for ! We are both your daughters ; we both embrace 
you. 

Ago. Who'll be for embracing me in the next place ? 

Han. Now am I happy ! JSTow with this delight do I allay 
the miseries of many a year. 

Adel. We hardly seem to believe this. 

Han. I'll tell you something to make you believe it the 
more : why, it was your nurse who recognized me first. 

Adel. Prithee, where is she ? 

Han. (pointing to Agorastocles). She's at his house. 

Ago. (fo Adelphasium, who is embracing her father). 
Pray, why does it please you to clasp his neck so long, 
before he lias betrothed you to me ? Dear one, much longed- 
for, blessings on you ! (He embraces her.) 

Adel. (struggling). Do leave off your salutations ! 

Ago. I will leave off. And you the other one. {To An- 
TEEAstylis, whom he embraces.) 

Ant. {strtbggling). I don't want that; you torment me to 
death ! 

Han. Let us each clasp the other in our arms, than whom 
:s there anything on earth more happy? 

Ago. Blessings befall the deserving. (Pointing to Hanno.) 
At last his wishes are realized ! Apelles ! Zeuxis^ the 

* And upon yow nurse) — Ver. 1270. "Matri.** This may either mean their own 
mother, tlie wife of Hanno, if then living, or their nurse Giddenerae: as "mater" 
ifi '.ised ill the latter sense by Plautus in the Prologue to the Menaichmi. 

* Apelles! Zeuxis) — Ver. 1289. Apelles ci Cos flourished in the time of 
Alexaader the Great. He was tlie most celebrated paiuter of hk time- Zt-uKia 



8c. \. THE TOtJlfG CAETHAGINIAT^. 411 

painter ! why did you die too soon ? "Would that you could 
paint a subject after this ! For I don't care for other com* 
man painters to be treating subjects of this description. 

Han. Grods and Goddesses all! I return you deservedly 
extreme thanks, for having blest me with this gladness so 
supreme and with these joys so great ; as my daughters havo 
returned to me and into my possession. 

Adel. My father, your own piety has clearly come to our 
aid. 

Ago. Kinsman, take care and keep it in memory that 
you've betrothed your elder daughter to me 

Han. I remember it. 

Ago. The portion, too, that you promised. 

Scene Y. — Enter Anthemonide8,^cww the house of liYCVS, 

Anth. (to himself). If! don't take full revenge for that 
mina which I gave to the Procurer, tlien really may the 
townspeople make a butt of me ! This most rascally fellow 
even brought me to his house to breakfast. He himself went 
away out of doors, and left me as his chamberlain^ in the 
house. When neither the Procurer nor these women came 
back, nor anything was given me to eat, for the best part of 
the breakfast I took a pledge^, and came out of doors. This 
way I'll pay him. I'll touch up the rascally Procurer in the 
military way of payment'*. He did get hold of a person for 
him to bamboozle out of a mina of silver ! But I wish that 
tny mistress would now come in my way while thus enraged. 
Then, by my troth, with my fists I'd make her quite black 

of Heraclsea flourished about a century before him, and was equally famous as 
a painter 

' As his chamberlain) — Ver. 1301. " Atriensi." The duties of this domestic 
are fully referred to in tho Notes to the Asinaria. 

2 / took a pledge) — Ver. 1303. It is not quite clear what he refers to, but ho 
probably means to say that he has laid hold of something valuable in the Pro- 
curer's house, which will, at all events, procure a substitute in part for the 
" prandium " out of which he has been clieated 

^Military way of payment) — Ver. 1304. By the mention of " ses militare," 
60ii-'3 Commentators think that he alludes to his sword, and draws it. He seems 
to refer, however, to the stipend which the soldiers receive for their services, w'Ul 
foil liberty to lay their hands on anything that belongs to the enemy. 



412 PCENULUS ; Act V. 

aJl over ; I'd cover her so with swarthiness, that she sliould 
be much more swarthy than the Eg^'ptiaiis, or tha7i those who 
carry the buckets^ at the games in the Circus. 

Adel. (running to Agorastocles). Do hold me fiist, 
please, my love ; I sadly fear the kites ; this is an evil animal 
— lest perchance he may carry me off, your chick. 

Ant. {embracing her Fathee). I cannot clasp you fast 
enough, my father ! 

Anth. {to himself). I'm delaying. {Loohing in his hand.) 
I can now pretty nearly cater a breakfast for myself with 
this. {Raising his eyes.) But what's this ? How's this ? 
What's this ?" What's this I see ? How now ? What 
means this strange conjunction ? What's this coupling 
together ? Who's this fellow with the long skirts, just hke 
9, tavern-boy ? Do I quite see with my eyes ? Isn't this 
my mistress, Anterastylis ? Why, surely it is she. Fcjr 
some time past I've perceived that I'm set at nought. Isn't 
the girl ashamed to be hugging a tawny fellow in the 
middle of the street ? I' faith, I shall give him up forthwith 
to the executioner to be tortured all over. Surely this is a 
womanish race^, with their tunics hanging down to their 
heels. But I'm determined to accost this African female 
lover. {To Hanno.) Hallo ! you woman, I say, are you not 
ashamed ? What business have you with her, pray ? Tell me. 

Han. Young man, greetings to you. 

Anth. I don't want tJiem ; that's nothing to you. What 
business have you to touch her with a finger ? 

Han. Because I choose. Anth. You choose ? 

Han. I say so. 

Anth. Away to utter perdition, you shoe-latchet ! What, do 
you dare to be acting the lover here, you great toe of a man^, 
or to be meddling with an object which masculine men are fond 

' Carry the buckets) — Ver. 1309. He alludes to the slaves whose duty it was 
to hold the buckets to the horses in the Circus for them to drink from. Exposure 
to sun and dust would tend to render them swarthy, 

^A womanish race) — Ver. 1321. "Mulierosus" generally means "fond of 
women." It clearly, however, in this passage means " womanish," or " woman- 
like." 

' Yoti great toe of a man) — Ver. 1328. From this expression it has been con- 
jectured that Hanno was a man of diminutive stature, and that the Play took its 
name of Pujuulus, " tlie little Carthaginian," from that circumstance- 



Sc. V. THE TOUNG CATTTHAGTNTAN. 413 

of, you skinnea pilchard, you deformed image o/Serapis^, you 
halt-apron, you sheepskin-jacket^^, you pot of stinking sea- 
salt ; more crammed, too, to boot, with leeks and garlick than 
the Roman rowers ? 

Ago. Young man, do your jaws or your teeth itch, that you 
are annoying this person, or are you in search of a heavy 
mishap ? 

Anth. "Why didn't you use a drum^ while you were saying 
that ? For I take you to be more of an effeminate wretch than 
a real man. 

Ago. Do you understand what sort of effeminate wretch I 
am ? {Galling aloud.) Servants, come out of doors, bring out 
some cudgels ! 

Anth. Hark you, if I have said anything in a joke, don't 
you be for taking it seriously. 

Ant. Prithee, what pleasure have you, Anthemonides, in 
speaking rudely to our kinsman and father ? For this is our 
father ; he has just now recognized us, and him as the son 
of his cousin. 

Anth. So may Jupiter kindly bless me, I heartily rejoice 
that it is so, and I am delighted, if, in fact, any great misfor- 
tune befalls this Procurer, and since a fortune awaits you 
equal to your merits. 

Ant. I' faith, he says what's worthy of belief; do believe 
him, my father. Han. I do believe him. 

Ago. And I believe him. But look {pointing), I espy 
the Procurer Lycus, the worthy fellow ; look, there he is — 
he's betaking himself homeward. 

Han. Who is this ? 

* OfSerapis) — ^Ver. 1330. It is not fully known what the meaning of " Sarapis '* 
is, as it occurs nowhere else. It has been conjectured, that, owing to the African 
features of Hanno, the Captain compares him to the little ugly images of Serapis, 
which were carried about in harvest-time by the priests of that God, for the pur- 
pose of collecting money. 

' You sheepskin-jacket) — Ver. 1331. This garment, being worn with the wool 
on, was remarkable for its offensive smell. " Halagoras hama " is supposed to 
mean the pots of common sea-salt exposed for sale in the market-place. 

^ Use a drum) — Ver. 1335. The priests of Cybele, who were either eunuchs, or 
Pvrswns of effeminate and worthless character, walked in their pri)ces.sions beating 
a " tympanum,"' a "drum" or " tambotrine." The Captain, by his qmstion, 
oontcinpruously implies that Agorastocles is such a character. See tiie I'racff 
lentus, I 608, and the Note. 



414 PCENULTTS; ActV. 

Aoo. He*8 which you please, both the Procurer and Lycus. 
He has been keeping your daughters in servitude, and from 
myself he has stolen some gold. 

Han. a pretty fellow for you to be acquainted with ! 

Ago. Let's bring him to justice. 

Han. By no means. Ago. Por what reason ? 

Han. Because 'twere better for an action of damages to 
be brought against him^. 



Scene VI. — Enter Lxcus. 

Ltc. {to himself). No one, in my opinion at least, is de- 
ceived, who rightly states his case to his friends. But by 
all my Iriends the one same thing is agreed upon, that I 
ought to hang myself, so as not to be adjudged to Agoras- 
tocles. 

Ago. {stepping forward). Procurer, let's away to the court 
of justice. 

Lyc. I do entreat you, Agorastocles, that I may be at 
liberty to hang myself. 

Han. I summon you to justice. 

Ltc. But what have you to do with me ? 

Han. {pointing at his Daughters). Because I affirm that 
both of these are my daughters, free women, and free by birth, 
who, when little, were kidnapped together with their nurse. 

Ltc. Indeed, I knew that already, and I wondered that 
no one came to assert their freedom ; they really are none of 
mine, indeed. 

Anth. Procurer, you must come to justice. 

Ltc. You are talking about the breakfast ; it is owing to 
you ; I'll give it. 

Ago. Twofold compensation I must have for the theft. 

Lyc. {pointing to his neck). Take it out of this, then. 

Han. And I require a full satisfaction. 

Ltc. {pointing to his neck). Take out of this whatever you 
please. Anth. And I, indeed, a mina of silver. 

Ltc. ( 'pointing to his neck). Take out of this whatever you 

' Action of damages to he brought against him) — Ver. 1356. " Multum dici " 
has been adopted as the reading, in preference to " mnlto induci," which seema 
capable of no translation consistently with sense. The passage may possioly 
that he prefers an actior^ at law to summary proceedingii. 



Sc. YII. THE TOUKG CAETHAGINIAir. 415 

please. I'll at once settle the matter for all with my neck, 
just like a porter. 

Ago. Do you refuse me in any way ? 

Lyc. Not a word, in fact. 

Ago. Go in-doors, then, damsels. But (to Hanno), my 
kinsman, betroth me your daughter, as you promised. 

Han. I should not venture to do otherwise. 

Anth. Kindly farewell ! Ago. And kindly farewell to you ! 

Anth. {holding up what he has got in his hand). Procurer, 
I take this as a pledge with me for my mina. 

Lyc. By heavens, I am ruined ! 

Ago. "VVTiy yes, before very long, when you've come to 
justice. 

Lyc. Nay but, I own myself your slave. What need of 
the Praetor have we ? But I beseech you that I may be 
allowed to pay the simple sum^, three hundred Philippeans. 
I think it can be scraped together ; to-morrow I'll have an 
auction. 

Ago. On condition, then, that you shall be in wooden cus- 
tody at my house. 

Lyc. So be it. Ago. Follow me in-doors, my kinsman, 
that we may keep this festive day in joyousness, upon his 
misfortune and our good fortune. {To the Avbi-e^ce). Heartily 
fare you well. To great length have we gone ; at last all 
these misfortunes fall upon the Procurer. Now — that which 
is the last seasoning for our Play — if it has pleased you, our 
Comedy asks applause. 



[ScEi?ii VIP. — Agorastocles, Lycus, Hanko, Anthemo- 
NiDES, Adelphasium, owc? Anterastylis. 

Ago. "What is it you are about, Captain ? Why does it 

* Pat/ the simple sum)— Yer. 1379. In lieu of paying double the amount, aa he 
might be forced at law to do, for being an accomplice in the theft. 

- Scene VII.) Many of the ancient MSS. contain this additional Scene, which 
is generally supposed not to have been the composition of Plautus. It is not 
improbable that at some period the last Scene may have been lost, and that the 
present one may have been composed to supply its place, as it is evidently not the 
composition of a person who was aware of the existence rf the Scene whicL 
precedes it. 



*16 PCE1TULTJS r -«ct V, 

please you to speak rudely to my relative? Don't be sur- 
prised that the damsels do follow after him ; he has just now 
diticovered that both of them are his own daughters. 

Lyc. {starting). Hah ! what speech was it that reached my 
ears ? Now I am undone ! ( To Agokastocles.) From what 
house were these females lost ? 

Ago. They are Carthaginians. 

Lyc. Then I am ruined. I was always in dread of that, 
lest some one should recognize them, a thing which has now 
come to pass. Woe unto wretched me ! My eighteen minae 
are lost, I guess, which I paid for them. 

Ago. And you yourself are lost, Lycus. 

Hai^. Who is this ? 

Ago. Which you please, he's either the Procurer or 
Lycus. He has been keeping your daughters in servitude, 
and from myself he has stolen some gold. 

Han. a pretty fellow for you to be acquainted with ! 

Ago. Procurer, I always deemed you to be avaricious, but 
they know you to be a thief as well, who know more of 
you. 

Lyc. I'll approach him. {He falls on the ground before 
Agoeastocles.) By your knees I do beseech you, and by 
him {pointing to Hakno), whom I understand to be your re- 
lative ; since you are deserving persons, as it befits deserving 
persons to do, do then come to the aid of your suppliant ! 
Indeed, already did I know them to be free women, and was 
waiting for some one to claim their freedom, for really they 
are none of mine. Then besides, I'll restore your gold that 
I've got in my house, and I'll make oath that I have done 
nothing, Agorastocles, with ill intent. 

Ago. As it's right for me to do, I shall still consult my 
own notions. Let go of my knees. 

Lyc. I'll let them go, if such is your determination. {He 
rises from the ground, and retires to a distance.) 

Ago. Hark you ! Procurer. Lyc. What do you want with 
a Procurer amid business ? 

Ago. Tou to restore me my money before I take you hence 
to he laid in fetters. 

Lyc. May the G-ods g^rant better things ! 

Ago. Even so ; you'll be dining away from home. I sea 



Sc. Vli. THE YOUNG CAttTHAGINIAlT. 417 

Gold, silver, and your neck. Procurer, the three things are 
you now owing to me all at once. 

Han. What it befits me to do in this matter, I^n consider- 
ing with myself. If I should attempt to take vengeance on 
thi^ fellow, I shall be engaging in litigation in a strange city. 
So far as I hear, his disposition and manners, of the uatui-e 
that they are 

Adel. My father, do have no dealings with this man, I 
conjure you. 

Ant. Do listen to my sister. Come, put an end to your 
strife with the rascal. 

Han. Attend to this, will you. Procurer. Although I 
know that you deserve to come to ruin, I'll not try the matter 
with you. 

Ago. Nor I, if you restore me my gold; Procurer, when 
let go from the fetters — you may get thrust into prison. 

Lyc. What, your old habit still ? 

Anth. Carthaginian, I wish to excuse myself to you. If 
I have said anything in my passion against the inclination of 
your feelings, J beg that you will pardon it ; and as you have 
found these daughters of yours, so may the Deities bless me, 
it is a pleasure to me. 

Han. I both forgive and believe you. 

Anth. Procurer, do you take care either to find me a mis- 
tress, or return me the mina of gold. 

Lyc. Should you like to have my music^girl P 

Anth. I don't care for a music-girl; you don't know 
which is the greater, their cheeks or their bosoms. 

Lyc. I'll find one to please you. 

Anth. Mind that 

Lyc. {to Agorastocles). To-morrow I'll bring back your 
gold to your house. 

Ago. Take care that you keep that in memory. Captain, 
follow me. 

Anth. Tes, I'll follow you. (Lyctjs goes into his 

'•) 

Ago. (to Hanno). How say you, kinsman ? When are 
you thinking of leaving here for Carthage ? — for I'm deter- 
mined to go together with you. 

Han. Ah soon as ever I can, that instant I shall go. 

TOL. II. 2 £ 



418 PffiNTJLUS. Act V. 

Ago. It's necessary for you to stop here some days, until 
I've had an auction. 

Han. I'U do just as you wish. 

Ago. Come, please, let's be off; let's enjoy ourselves 
( To the Audience.) Grant ua your applause.] 



EPIDICrS; 
OR, THE FORTUNATE DISCOVERY. 



Bramatis persona?. 

Periphanes, an aged Athenian of rank. 
Stratippoclks, bis son by a former wife. 
Ap^cides, an aged Athenian, friend of Periphanes. 
EriDiCTTS, servant of Periphanes. 
Ch^ribulus, a young Athenian, friend of Stratippocles- 
Thesprio, armour-bearer to Stratippocles. 
A Captain of Rhodes. 
A Banker. 

Philippa, a woman of Epidaurus, the mother of Teiestis. 
AcROPOLiSTJS, a music-girl, mistress of Stratippocles. 
Telestis, daughter of Periphanes and Philippa, 
A Music-girl. 



SoflB*— Atheni : before the houses of Periphanes, Ap^cides, &nd 

COSBIBULUS. 



THE SUBJECT. 



The plot of this Play is Df an involved nature. Periphanes, an aged Athenian, 
has a son, born in wedlock, named Stratippocles. By Philippa, a woman of E{>i- 
daurns, whom he has formerly seduced, he ha» had a daughter, named Telestia, 
who has been residing with her mother at Thebes. A war arising between 
the Athenians and Thebans, Stratippocles, on setting out for the army, commiij- 
sions Epidicus, his father's servant, to purchase fof him Acropolistis, a music- 
girl, of whom he is enamoured. Epidictis, on this, persuades Periphanes that 
this girl is really his daughter by Philippa, whom he has not seerj for many 
years, and that she has been taken captive at Thebes, and brought to Athens. 
On this the old man gives Epidicus the requisite sum, and she is brought home 
and introduced to him as his daughter Telestis. In the meantime, Stratippocles 
meets with another damsel who has been taken captive, and agrees with a 
Banker to borrow forty minse, for the purpose of purchasing her. He returns 
to Athens, and resolves not to meet his father until he has paid the money to 
the Banker and gained possession of the damsel, and Epidicus is threat- 
ened by him with a severe punishment, if he does not manage to raise the 
sum reqrired. On this he accosts his aged master, and tells him that he must 
find a wife for his son, who is about to purchase a singing-girl of the name of 
Acropolistis. The old man is persuaded to give a sum of money to Epidicus 
for the purpose of buying Acropolistis, that she may be kept out of the way of 
his son. On receiving the money, Epidicus hands it over to Stratippocles, to 
be paid to the Banker. The old gentleman having that morning ordered 
a singing-girl to be hired to perform at a sacrifice at his house, she is brought 
to him as Acropolistis, having been instructed how to play her part. A Cap- 
tain, who admires Acropolistis, having heard that Periphanes has purchased 
her, applies to him, and offers to give him a profit of ten minse if he will trans- 
fer her to him. Periphanes, thereupon, brings to him the music-girl who 
is assuming that character (while the real Acropolistis is taken for his 
daughter), on which the Captain discoters the deception, and Periphanes finds 
out that the girl is already free, and has been only brought to his house 
to perform at the sacrifice. At this conjuncture Philippa arrives, having 
heard that her daughter has been brought to Athens. Periphanes meets her, 
and assures her that her daughter is safe at his house. On this, Philippa is 
introduced to Acropolistis, and declares that she is not her daughter, and that 
Periphanes has been imposed upon. On being questioned, Acropolistis con- 
fesses that she has only called Periphanes her father because he has called her 
his daughter. Epidicus, on being discovered to be guilty of this second fraud 
upon his master, is greatly alarmed ; but just then he perceives the Banker, 
who has come for the money, leading the Theban captive. He immediately 
recognizes her as Telestis, the real daughter of Periphanes and Pliilippa. Stra- 
tippocles, somewhat tc his sorrow, is informed that the captive is his half-sister, 
and therefore, most probably, consoles himself with Acropoli^itis. For making this 
discovery, Epidicus is not only pardoned by Periphanes, but receives his treudoia. 



EPIDICUS; 
OR, THE FORTUNATE DISCOVERY*. 



IKE ACROSTIC ARGUMENT. 

[Supposed to have been written by Priscian the Grammarian.] 

An old gentleman, thinking her his daughter, purchases (^Emit) a music-girl, by 
the advice (Persuasu) of his servant, who, a second time {Iterum), substi- 
tutes for him, in place of his son's mistress, another one hired ; he gives (X>a<^ 
to his master's son the money; with it the young man, not knowing it (/m- 
prudens), purchases his sister. Soon afterwards, by the aid of a woman wkom 
he has seduced, and of a Captain, the old man understands (Cognoscit) that 
he has been imposed upon, as (^Ut) the one is in search of his mistresa, 
the otlier of her daughter. But (Sed) on finding his daughter, he girea 
his servant his liberty. 

Act I. — ScEXE I. 
Enter Tk^sfrto, followed hy Epidicus. 

Epid. {pulling Thespeio hy the cloak). Harkye! young 
man. 

Thes. "Who pulls me by the cloak, when thus in haste ? 

Epid. An intimate. Thes. I confess it ; for with your 
annoyance you are too intimate. 

Epid. But do look back, Theaprio ! 

Thes. {looJcing round). What? Is it Epidicus that I see ? 

Epid. Why surely you've the use of your eyes. 

Thes. Grreetinga to you. Epid. May the Grods grant what 
you desire. I'm glad that you've got here safe. 

' Or the Fortunate Discovery) Plautus calls this Play by the name of Epidicus, 
from the slave, who is the principal actor in it. It will be seen that a fortunate 
discovery really does take place in the Fifth Act, where Periphanes not only finds 
his long-lost daugliter, but Stratippocles is prevented from unknowingly beint^ 
guilty of incest. That Plautus thought very highly of this Play, is evident from 
what is said in the Bacchides, 1. 215, where Chrysalus 10 introduced as saying 
Ktuit be " loves the Epidicus 3$ well nh bL» own selL" 



422 EP1DICU8 ; Act 1. 

Thes. What besides P Epid. According to the usage, a 
dinner shall be given you^. 

Thes. I agree. Epid. What to do ? 

TiiES. That I'll accept it, if you oifer it. 

Epid. How are you ? Pare you as you could wish ? 

Thes. The proof's before you, Epid. I understand. 
{^Eyeing him from top to toe.) Marvellous! You seem quite 
plump and hearty. 

Thes. {pointing to his left hand). Thanks to this. 

Epid. AVhich, indeed, you ought to have parted with^ long 
ago. 

Thes. I'm less of a pilferer now than formerly. 

Epid. How so? Thes I rob above-board^. 

Epid. May the immortal Gods confound you, with what 
huge strides you do walk ! for when I caught sight of you 
at the harbour, I began to run at a rapid pace ; I was hardly 
able to overtake you just now. 

Thes. You are a town wit. Epid. I know that you, 
on the other hand, are a military gentleman. 

Thes. Speak out as boldly as you please. 

Epid. How say you? Have you been well all along? 

Thes. In a varied way. Epid. Those w^ho are well in a 
varied way'^, a race of men of the goat kind or of tlie panther 
kind, don't please me. 

Thes. What do you wish me to teU you but that which 
is fact ? 

Epid. To answer to these things fairly ; how's our master's 
son ? Is he well ? 

Thes. Stout as a boxer and an athlete. 

' A dinner shall be given ymi) — Ver. 6. The " coena viatica," or *' welcome 
entertainment," has been mentioned in the Notes to the Bacchides, Act I., Sc. 2. 

2 To have parted with) — Ver. 9. The thieves of antiquity are said to have 
used the left hand for the purposes of their nefarious calling. The cutting off of 
the hand was a common punishment. 

^ / rob above-board) — Ver. 10. It has been suggested that this is an imita- 
tion of a passage in Aristophanes, Act II., Sc. 3, where Blepsidemus says, 
"or K€K\o(pa.s aXX' ^pnaKas. ' " You have not pilfered, but plundered." The 
thou(j;ht, however, is quite natural, without resorting to a previous author for it. 

* Tn a varied way) — Ver. 16. He puns upon the different meanings of the 
word " varie;" and alludes to the checquered or striped state of the slave's back 
after whipping. By "varie," Thesprio simply means, "sometimes well, and 
Ronietimes ilL" 



Sc. I. OR, THE FOETUNATE DISCOYEEY. 423 

Epid. You've brought me joyous tidings on your arrival. 
But where is he ? 

Thes. I came here together with him. 

Epid. Where is he then ? Unless, perchance, you've 
brought him in your wallet, or, perhaps, in your knapsack. 

Thes. May the Gods confound you ! 

Epid. I want to make enquiries of you. Lend me your 
attention ; attention shall be lent you in return. 

Thes. You say what's law^. Epid. It becomes me to 
do so. 

Thes. But why now are you acting the Praetor over us ? 

Epid. What other person in Athens will you say is more 
deserving of it than I ? 

Thes. But still, Epidicus, one thing is wanting for your 
Prsetorship. 

Epid. What, pray ? ThEs. You shall know ; two lictors^ 
two osier bundles of twigs 

Epid. (shaking his fist at him). Woe unto you! But how 
say you ? Thes. What is it you ask ? 

Epid. AVhere are the arms^ of Stratippocles ? 

Thes. I' faith, they've gone over to the enemy. 

Epid. What, his arms ? Thes. Aye, and quickly too. 

Epid. Do you say that seriously ? 

Thes. Seriously I say it ; the enemy have got them. 

Epid. By my troth, a disgraceful affair. 

Thes. Still, before now, other persons have done the 
same. This affair will turn out to his honor^. 

Epid. How so ? Thes. Because it has been so to others 
before. 



• Whot^s law)—Ver. 23, The words " operam da" and " operam dabo," used 
by Epidicus, were terms used in the Koman courts of law: therefore Thesprio says, 
•'jus dicis," meaning, "you talk like a judge." 

2 Two lictors) — Ver, 26. The Praetors were attended by lictors As one part 
of their duty was to scourge refractory slaves, Thesprio means to joke Epidicus, 
by telline; him that he requires the lictors — not to do him honor, but to 
scourge him. 

* Where are the arms)— Ver. 27. As Thesprio was his armour-bearer, this 
question cannot be considered as an impertinent one. 

♦ Will turn out to his honor) — Ver. 31. Schmieder thinks that in these words 
there is a covert allusion to the conduct of Terentius Varro, by whose bad manage- 
ment the Romans lost the battle of Cannae, when fighting against Hannibal. Tlia 
Senate, however, received him with open arras, " because he had not despaired 
fli' the stale." .- 



424 jsriDicus ; Act 1. 

Epid. IMulciber, I suppose, made the arms which Stratip- 
pocles had ; they flew over to the eneniy^. 

Thes. Why, then, e'en let this son of Thetis lose them ; 
the daughters of I^ereus will bring him others. 

Epid. Only this must be looked to, that material may be 
found for the armourers, if in each campaign he yields a 
spoil to the enemy. 

Thes. Have done now with these matters. 

Epid. You yourself make an end of them when you please. 

Thes. Cease your enquiries then. Epid. Say, where is 
Stratippocles himself? 

Thes. There is a reason, for which reason he has been 
afraid to come together with me. 

Epid. Pray, what is it ? Thes. He doesn't wish to see 
his father as yet. 

Epid. For what reason ? Thes. You shall hear ; because 
he has purchased out of the spoil a young female captive of 
charming and genteel figure. 

Epid. What is it I hear from you ? 

Thes. That which I'm telling you. 

Epid. Why has he purchased her ? 

Thes. To please his fancy. 

Epid. How many fancies has this man ? Eor assuredly, 
before he went away from home to the army, he himself 
commissioned me, that a music-girl whom he was in love 
witli should be purchased of a Procurer for him. That I 
have managed to accomplish for him. 

Thes. Whichever way the wind is at sea, Epidicus, in that 
direction the sail is shifted. 

Epid. Woe unto wretched me ! He has utterly undone me ! 

Thes. What's the meaning of this ? What's the matter, 
pray ? 

Epid. Well now — she whom he has bought, at what sum 
has he purchased her ? 

Thes. A very little. Epid. That I don't ask you. 

Thes. What then ? Epid. For how many minae ? 

Thes. {holding up all his Jingers four times). For so many. 

* Flew over to the enemy) — Ver. 82. Plautus seems here to fancy that the 
arms made by Mulciber or Vulcan, for Achilles, were taken by Hector from 
Patroclus, when, in fact, they were made at the request of Thetis, for the pur- 
pose of avenging his deatli. He probably did not care to represent a slave anj 
• vamp-follower as bein^ particularly correct in tUeir knowUd^e of Hom«r. 



S. 1. OR, THE FOETUNATE DISCOVEET. 425 

Epid. Forty rainae ? Thes. For that purpose, he borrowed 
the money on interest of a Banker at Thebes, at a didrachra 
for each silver mina per day. 

Epid. Surprising! 

Thes. This Banker, too, has come together with him, and 
is dunning for his money. 

Eptd. Immortal Gods! now I'm fairly done for i 

Thes. "Why so, or what's the matter, Epidicus ? 

Epid. He has proved my ruin 1 

Thes. Who? 

Epid. Who ? He who lost his arms. 

Thes. But why so ? Epid. Because he himself was every 
day sending me letters from the army — but I shall hold 
my tongue ; it's best to do so. It's best for a man in servitude 
to know more than he says ; that's true wisdom. 

Thes. On my faith, I don't understand why you are 
alarmed. You are frightened, Epidicus ; I see it by your 
countenance. You seem here, in my absence, to have got 
into some scrape or other. 

Epid. Can't you cease annoying me P 

Thes. I'll be off. {Moves as if going.) 

Epid. Stand still ; I'll not let you go from here. {Holds 
Mm.) Thes. Why do you hold me back ? 

Epid. Is he in love with her whom he has purchased out 
of the spoil ? 

Thes. Do you ask me? He dotes to death upon her. 

Epid. The hide will be stripped from off my back. 

Thes. He loves her, too, more than ever he loved you. 

Epid. May Jupiter confound you ! 

Thes. Let me go now ; for he has forbidden me to go to 
our house ; he ordered me to come here (pointing to the house) 
to our neighbour's, Chseribulus ; there he bade me wait ; he's 
about to come there himself. 

Epid. Why so ? Thes. I'll tell you; because he doesu^t 
wish to meet with or see his father, before he has paid down 
this money which is owing for her. 

Epid. O dear ! an involved business, i' faith. 

Thes. Do let go of me, that I may now be off forthwith. 

Epid. When the old geutlemau knows this, our ship will 
fairly founder. 



42(5 EPiDicus ; Act I. 

Thes. . What matters it to me in what way you come to 
your end ? 

Epid. Because I don't wish to perish alone; I'd like 
you to perish with me, well-wisher with well-wisher. 

Thes. (tearing himself awa^ from 'Efibicus). Away with 
you from me to utter and extreme perdition with those 
terms of yours ! 

Epid. Be off, then, if you are in great haste about any- 
thing. 

Thes. (aside). I never met with any person from whom I 
parted with greater pleasure. (Goes into the house ofCKJE- 

EIBTJLUS.) 

Epid. (to himself). He's gone away from here; you are 
now alone. In what plight this matter is, you now see, Epi- 
dicus. Unless you have some resources in your own self, you 
are done for. Ruination so great is impending over you — un- 
less you support yourself stoutly, you cannot hold up ; to such 
a degree are mountains of misfortune threatening to tumble 
on you. Neither does any plan just now please me by means 
of which to find myself disengaged from my entanglement. 
To my misfortune, by my trickeries I have forced the old man 
to imagine that he was making purchase of his own daugh- 
ter ; whereas he has bought for his own son a music-girl whom 
he was fond of, and whom on his departure he commissioned 
me about. He now, to please his fancy, has brought another 
one from the army. I've lost my hide, for when the old man 
finds out that he has been played tricks with, he'll be flaying 
my back with twigs. But still, do you take all precautions. 
(He stands still and thinks.) That's of no use ! clearly this 
head of mine is addled ! You are a worthless fellow, Epi- 
dicus. (In another tone.) What pleasure have you in being 
abusive ? Because you are forsaking yourself. AVhat am J 
to do ? Do you ask me the question ? Why you yourself, in 
former days, were wont to lend advice to others. Well, well ; 
something must be found out. But why delay to go meet 
the young man, that I may know how the matter stands ? 
And here he is himself. He is in a grave mood. He's 
coming with Chaeribulus, his year's-mate. I'll step aside here, 
whence at my leisure T'U foliow their discourse. {He steps 
aside.) 



5c. 11. OE, THE JFOETUNATE DISCOVEET. 427 

Scene II, — Enter Steatippocles and Ch^eibtjlus. 

Steat. I've told you aU the matter, Chseribulus, and I 
have fully disclosed to you the sum of my griefs and loves. 

CHiEE. You are foolish, Stratippocles, beyond your age and 
lineage. Does it shame you, because you have bought a cap- 
tive girl, born of good family, from among the spoil? "Who 
will there be to impute it as a fault to you ? 

Steat. Through doing this, I've found that those who are 
en\dous are all enemies to me ; but I've never offered violence^ 
or criminal assault against her chastity. 

Ch^e. Then, so far, in my opinion at least, you are a still 
more deserving man, inasmuch as you are temperate in your 
passion. 

Steat. He effects nothing who consoles a desponding 
man w4th his words : he is a friend, who, in dubious circum- 
stances, aids in deed when deeds are necessary. 

Chjee. What do you wish me to do ? 

Steat, To lend me forty minae of silver, to be paid to the 
Banker from whom I borrowed it on interest. 

Ch^e. On my word, if I had it, I would not deny you. 

Steat. "Wliat then does it signify your being bounteous 
ni talk, if all aid in the matter^ is dead outright. 

Ch^e. Why faith, I myself am quite wearied and dis- 
tracted with being dunned. 

Steat. I had rather my friends of that sort were thrust 
into a furnace than into litigation^. But now I could wish 
to buy me the assistance of Epidicus at a weighty price, a 
fellow whom I'll hand over well-liquored with stripes to the 
baker*, unless he this day finds me forty minae before I've 
mentioned to him the last syllable of the sum. 

» NevefT offered violejice) — Ver, 109. This is a very important passage, as.it 
relieves the Audience from the apprehension they might otherwise feel in the 
Fifth Act, that Stratippocles had unconsciously been guilty of incest, 

2 If all aid in the matter) — Ver. 116. The same sentiment occurs in the 
Trinummus, 1. 439. 

' Into Utigatlon) — Ver. 1 18. " Quam Foro." Literally, " than in the Fonun." 
He plays on the resemblance of the words " furno," " oven" or " furnace," and 
" Foro," the " Forum." He had rather see his friends dead outright, than worried 
by their creditors. 

* To the baker) — Ver. 120. For the purpose of taking his place at the hand- 
mill for grinding corn, which was probably done in the same building where the 
bread was baked, and was a most laborious operation. 



4"/ EPIDICt^Sj Act 1. 

EiTD. (apart). The matter's ail right; he promises well' 
he'll keej. %ith, I trust. {Ironically.) Without any expen- 
diture of my own, an entertainment^ is already provided for 
my shoulder-blades. I'll accost the man. {Re goes up to 
Steatippocles.) The servant Epidicus wishes health to hia 
master Strati ppocles, on his arrival from abroad. 

S'TEA.T. {turning round). Where is he ? 

Epid. Here he is ; I'm delighted that you have returned 
safe. 

Strat. I believe you as much in that as I ^ myself. 

Epid. Have you been well all along ? 

Steat. I've been free from disease ; in mind I've been 
ailing. 

Epid. As regarded myself, I've taken care of what you 
entrusted to me ; it has been obtained ; the female captive 
has been bought, about wliich matter you w^ere sending me 
letters so often. 

Steat. You've lost all your labour. 

Epid. But why have I lost it ? 

Steat. Because she is not dear to my heart, nor does she 
please me. 

Epid. What means it, then, that you gave me such strict 
injunctions, and sent letters to me ? 

Steat. Formerly I did love her ; hut now another passion 
influences my heart. 

Epid. I' faith, it is a shocking thing for that to be unplea- 
sant for a man which you have managed well^or him; where I've 
done well, I've in reality done ill, since love has shifted sides. 

Steat. I wasn't right in my mind when I sent those letters 
to you. 

Epid. Is it proper that I should be the atonement for your 
folly, so as for you to substitute my back as the scape-goat^ 
for your folly ? 

Steat. AVhy are we making words about that ? This man 
{pointing to himself) has need of forty minae, ready money, 
and in all haste, for him to pay a Banker, and speedily too. 

^ An entertainment') — Ver. 124. As already mentioned, "symbola" was a 
club entertainment, or pic-nic (in ftie original 6ex<se of the word), where each 
provided his own share of the provisioos. 

' As the scape-goat') — Ver. 139. " Succidanea" was a term applied to a victin^ 
rcbetituted \n *Lice of acotber which had not &i ^en favourable omen*. 



8c. II. OR, THE rOETriTATE DISCOTEET. 429 

Epid. Only tell me from what quarter you wish me to get 
them. From what banker am I to seek them ? 

Stbat. From where you like. But if I don't finger them 
before sunset, don't you enter my house ; off with yourself to 
the mill. 

Epid. You easily say that without risk and concern, and 
with a gay heart. I know owijloggers ; I feel the pain wheu 
I'm beaten. 

Steat. How say you now ? WUl you suffer me to de- 
stroy myself ? 

Epid. Don't do that, I'll cope with this peril and bold 
attempt in preference. 

Steat. Now you please me ; now do I commend you. 

Epid. I'll submit to this in any way that's pleasing to 
you. 

Steat. What then is to be done about this music-girl ? 

Epid. Some method shall be found out ; by some means 
I'll disengage myself; some way I shall get extricated. 

Steat. You are full of scheming ; I know you of old. 

Epid. There is a rich Captain of Eubcea^, abounding in 
plenty of gold, who, when he knows that that one was bought 
for you, and that this other one has been brought here, will 
forthwith be entreating you, of his own accord, to transfer 
that other one to him. But where is she whom you hare 
brought with you ? 

Steat. I shall have her here just now. 

CHiEE. What are we now doing here ? 

Steat. Let's go in-doors here at your house, that, for the 
present, we may pass this day merrily. {They go into the house 
q/" Ch.^eibijlus.) 

Epid. {to himself^. Gro in-doors ; I'll now call^ a council 
in my heart to adopt measures about this money business, 
against whom, in especial, war is to be declared, and out of 
whom I'm to get the money. Epidicus, consider what you 

> Captain ofEvbcBo) — Ver. 152. The Captain is elsew here CAiled a Rhodian. 
Probably it is meant that Khodes was the place of his birth, and the island of 
Euboea that of his residence. 

2 rilnow call) — Ver. 158-159. Echard's adaptation of these two lines is so 
quaint, that it is worth transcribing. " In the meantime must I have a com- 
mitter^ of the whole house, to consider of ways and means for the raismg suppl e« 
to carry on this vigorous war." 



430 EPiDious ; Act II 

are to do ; thus suddenly has this business been thrown upon 
you. But now you must not be slumbering, nor have you 
any leisure for delay. Now must you be daring ! 'Tis my 
fixed determination to lay siege to the old man. I'll go in- 
doors ; I'll tell the young man, ray master's son, not to walk 
abroad here, or come anywhere in the way of the old gentle- 
man. {Goes into the house o/*Chjeeibultjs.) 

Act II. — Scene I. 

Enter ApiECiDES and Peeiphanes, from the house of the 
former. 

Ap. Mostly all men^ are ashamed when they have no occa- 
sion to he ; when they ought to be ashamed, then does shame 
forsake them, when there's a necessity for their being ashamed. 
That man, in fact, are you. What is there to be ashamed 
of in your bringing home a wife, poor, hut born of good 
family ? Especially her, whose daughter you say this girl is, 
who is at your house ? 

?EEi. I have some regard for my son^. 

Ap. But, i' faith, the wife whom you buried I thought 
you had felt some respect for ; whose tomb as oft as you see, 
you straightway sacrifice victims to Orcus ; and not without 
reason, in fact, since you've been allowed to get the better of 
her by surviving her. 

Peri. Ah me ! I was a Hercules while she was with me ; 
and, upon my faith, the sixth labour^ was not more difficult 
to Hercules than the one that fell to my lot. 

Ai. I' faith, money's a handsome dowry. 

Peei. Troth, so it is, which isn't encumbered with a wife. 

> Mostly all men) — Ver. 165. Apaecides has been talking in-doors with Peri- 
phanes about his supposed daughter who has lately come home, and is recom- 
mending him to atone to Philippa for his conduct to her, by marrying her. It is 
supposed that Terence had this passage in view in the Andria, 1. 637-8. 

' Regard for my son) — Ver. 171. It was looked upon as a disgraceful thing 
for a father with grown-up sons to marry again, and thereby introduce -a mother- 
in-law into his family. Apaecides blames Periphanes for this scruple, and hints 
to him that he ought not to be more ashamed on account of his son, than oi 
his late wife, who, being dead, and for whom he had no hearty liking, could not 
make him blush at a second marriage. 

3 The sixth labour) — Ver. 177. The sixth labour of Hercules was his combat 
with the Amazons, when he took Antiope or Hippolyts, tlieir queen, and carried 
Bff her girdle. 



8c. I.l. OK, THJ5 rolfrrirWATH; DISCOTJEBY. 431 

Scene II. — Unter^FiBic\JS,from the house of CK^miBULVSy 
softly crossing the stage. 

Epid. (at the door, as he enters). Hist ! hist ! be silent, and 
have good courage ; with a fair omen have I come out of doors, 
the bird upon the left hand^. {Fointing to his head.) I've got 
a sharp knife, with which to embowel the old man's purse ; 
but see ! here he is before the house of Apsecides, the two old 
fellows, just as I want. Now I shall change me into a leech, 
and suck out the blood of these who are called the pillars of 
the Senate. 

Peei. Let him be married at once. 

Ap. I approve of your design. 

Peri. Eor I've heard that he's entangled with love with 
a certain music-girl, I don't know who. At that I'm vexed 
to death. 

Epid. {apart). By my troth, all the Deities do aid, amplify, 
and love me ; really, these men themselves are pointing out 
to me the way by means of which I'm to get the money out of 
them. Now then, come, equip yourself, Epidicus, and throw 
your cloak about your neck {suiting the action to the word), 
and pretend as though you had been in search of the man all 
the city over. On with it, if you are going to do it ! {He 
hurries past the Old Men as though he didn't see them, 
and calls out aloud.) Immortal Grods ! I do wish I could 
meet with Periphanes at home, whom I'm tired with search- 
ing for all over the city, throughout the doctors' shops, 
throughout the barbers' shops, in the gymnasium, and in the 
Eorum, at the perfumers' shops and the butchers' stalls-, and 
round about the banlters' shops. I'm become hoarse with 
enquiring ; I've almost dropped down with running. 

Peri. Epidicus! J^fid. {looking round). Who is it that's 
calling Epidicus back? 

Peri. It's I, Periphanes. Ap. And I, Apsecides. 

Epid. And I, indeed, am Epidicus. But, master, I find 
that you've both met me at the nick of time. 

* Bird upon the left hand)— Yer. 181. Among the Romans the Augur looked 
to the South, having the Et»«t on his left hand, which was considered the aus- 
picious quarter. The Greeks considered birds on the left hand an iD omen. 

2 Butchers' stalls) — Ver. 196. *' Lanienas." Madame Dacier thinks that 
this means a place where arras were sold, and the " lanistse," or " gkdiators * 
exercised themselves. 



432 BPlDicus ; Act ii. 

Pebi. What's the matter ? Epid. "Wait, wait ! {puffs ana 
blows) ; prithee, do let me get breath ! 

Peri. By all means, rest yourself. 

Epid. I'm quite faint ; I must recover my breath. 

Ap. Do rest yourself at your leisure. 

Epid. Lend me your attention. All the men of the army 
have been remanded home from Thebes^. 

Ap. Who knows for certain that this has been done P 

Epid. I say that it has been done. 

Peei. Are you sure of that P Epid. I am sure of it. 

Peei. Why are you sure of it ? 

Epid. Because I've seen the soldiers marching through the 
streets in shoals. They are bringing back their arms and 
their bag^mge-horses. 

Peei. Very good indeed ! 

Epid. Then, what prisoners they've got with them ! boys, 
girls, in twos and threes ; another one has got five ; there's a 
crowd in the streets ; they are looking out each for his son. 

Peri. I' troth, a business very well managed ! 

Epid. Then, fully as many of the courtesans as there 
are in the whole city were going decked out each to meet 
her lover ; they were going to trap thera ; that's the fact, 
inasmuch as I gave especial attention to it ; several of these 
nad with them nets beneath their garments. When I came 
to the harbour, forthwith I espied her waiting there, and 
with her were four music-girls. 

Peei. With whom, Epidicus ? 

Epid. With her whom your son has been loving and 
doting on for years, with whom he's making all haate to ruin 
credit, property, himself, and yourself. She was on the look- 
out for him at the harbour. 

Peei. Just see the sorceress now ! 

Epid. But decked out, sparkling with gold, and adorned 
BO splendidly ! so nicely ! so fashionably ! 

Peri. What was she drest in ? Was it a royal robe, or 
was it a plain dress ? 

Epid. A skylight one^, according as these women coin 
names for garments. 

.• Remanded home from Thebes) — Ver 203. Madame Dacier supposes, an J 
with f?ir reason, that in this Epidicus tells what really is the fact. 
■ A sh/light one) — Ver. 221. " Imcluviatam." ii«har<i's Note to this pa5« 



^C. II. OE, THE rOETUNATE DISCOVEET. 433 

Peei. What ! was she dressed in a skylight ? 

Epid. What's there wonderful in that ? As though many 
women didn't go through the streets decked out with farms 
upon them. But when the tax is demanded, they declare 
it cannot be paid^; while to these hussies, to whom a larger 
tax is paid, it can be paid. Why, what new names every 
year these women are finding for their clothing — the thin 
tunic, the thick tunic, ^our fulled linen cloth, chemises, bor- 
dered shifts, the marigold or saffron- coloured dress, the under- 
petticoat or else the light vermilion dress, the hood, the 
royal or the foreign robe, the wave pattern^ or the feather- 
pattern, the wax or the apple-tint. The greatest nonsense ! 
From dogs, too, do they even take the names. 

Peei. How so ? Epid. They call one the Laconian^. 
These names compel men to make auctions. 

sage is much to the purpose. " The word ' impluvium' signifies a square open 
place which the Romans had in their houses to receive rain for their use ; or a 
square courtyard, that received the rain at four water-spouts; from whence a 
habit thev had, made with four sides or four pieces, was called ' vestimentum im- 
pluviatum.' Here Epidicus takes occasion from this to admire at a woman's 
being able to wear a courtyard on her back. Periphanes, carrying on the 
humour, tells him 'tis no wonder, since they frequently wear whole houses ana 
lands, meaning the value of them." The word " impluvium" has been previously 
rendered "skylight," in the present Translation. See the Notes to the Miles 
Gloriosus, 1. 159, where Periplecomenus complains of Sceledrus looking down his 
" impluvium" from the top of the house. The garment may, however, not impro- 
bably have been called " impluviatum," from its being of a greyish, or rain colour. 
» They declare it cannot be paid) — Ver. 224. He means that their dupes or 
lovers cannot pay their taxes. 

2 The wave pattern) — Ver. 230. " Cumatile," from the Greek KVfia, " a wave." 
These dresses were so called, probably, from their being undulated, or, as we call it, 
" watered." Ovid, m the Art of Love, B. 3, 1. 177, speaks of dresses called 
" undulatae," " resembhng the waves ;" as also does Varro. Some Commentators 
think that "undulatae" means " sea-green," and Schmieder takes "cumatile"* 
to mean the same. From its juxtaposition with " plumatile," "feather-pattern," it 
would seem that the pattern rather than the colour is alluded to. " Plumatile" 
is considered by some simply to mean embroidered ; and " plumafta" is clearly 
used in that sense by Lucan in the Pharsalia, B. 10, 1. 125. For a list of the 
Roman ladies' dresses, see the Aulularia, 1. 463, et seq. 

3 The Laconian) — Ver, 231. Probably the garments had their name from their 
resemblance to the colour of this breed of dogs. They were imported from La- 
conia, and hence called " Laconici." From an expression in the Epodes of Horace, 
Ode VI., 1. 5-6, they appear to liave been used as shepherds' dogs ; but Wanier in 
a Note to his Translation, supposes them to have been of the greyhound species. 
So, in Shakspeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, Act IV., Sc. 1, Theseus say»; 

My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, 
So flewed, so sanded 

VOL. II. 2 r 



4:34 EPiDicus ; . Act II. 

Peei. But do you say on as you commenced. 

Epid. Two otlier women behind me began to speak thus 
between themselves; I, like my wont, went away a little 
distance from them ; I pretended that I wasn't attending to 
their talk : I didn't quite hear all, and still I wasn't deceivec 
in a word they said. 

Peri. I long to hear it. 

Epid. Then one of them said to the otlier with whom she 
was talking 

Peei. What? 

Epid. Be quiet then, that you may hear. After they had 
caught sight of her whom your son is dying for : " Prithee, 
how happily and luckily has it befallen that woman for her 
lover to be wishing to set her free." " Who is he ?" said the 
other. She mentioned Stratippocles. 

Peri. Troth now, I'm undone ; what is it I hear of you ? 

Epid. That which really took place. After this, I myself, 
when I heard them talking, began again to draw closer 
towards them little by little, as though the crowd of people 
was pushing me, whether I would or no. 

Peri. I understand. Epid. Then the one asked the other, 
" How do you know ?" " Why, because a letter has been 
brought her to-day from Stratippocles ; that he has borrowed 
money on interest from a banker at Thebes ; that it is ready, 
and he himself has brought it for that purpose." 

Peri. Tell on — I'm undone ! 

Epid. She said that she had heard so from her and from 
the letter which she had seen. 

Peei. What am I to do now ? I ask your advice, ApsBcides. 

Ap. Let us find some clever, useful expedient; for he, 
indeed, will either be here just now, or is here already 

Epid. If it were right for me to be wiser than you, I could 
give you some good advice, which you will praise, I fancy, 
both of you 

Peri. Then where is it, Epidicus ? j 

Epid. Yes, and useful for this purpose. j 

Ap. Why do you hesitate to mention it ? I 

Epid. It's proper for yourselves, who are the wiser, to be 
the first to speak, and for me to speak afterwards. 

Peri. Aye, aye, of course — come, say on. 

Epid. But you'll laugh at me. 

Ap. On my word, we will not do so. 



J. II. oil, THE FORTUNATE DISCOTERT. 435 

Epid. "Well then, if it pleases you, use my advice ; if it 
doesn't please you, lind better. There's neither sowing nor 
reaping^ for me in this matter ; only that I do wish the same 
thafc you wish. 

Pebi. I return you thanks. Make us partakers in your 
wisdom. 

Epid. Let a wife at once be chosen for your son ; and so 
take vengeance on this music-girl whom he wants to liberate, 
and who is corrupting him for you; and so let it be managed, 
that even until her dying day she may remain a slave. 

Ap. It ought to be so managed. 

Peri. I am ready to do anything, so long only as this may 
be brought about 

Epid. Well then, now there's an opportunity of doing so, 
before he comes into the city, as to-morrow he will be here ; 
to-day he will not have come. 

Peri. How do you know ? 

Epid. I do know, because another person told me, who 
came from there, that he would be here in the morning. 

Peri. Then say you what we are to do. 

Epid. I'm of opinion that you ought to do thus : i/ou must 
pretend as though you were desirous to give her liberty to 
the music-girl for your own whim, and as though you were 
violently in love with her. 

Peri. To what advantage does that tend ? 

Epid. Do you ask that ? Why, that you may purchase her 
beforehand with money, before your son comes, and may say 
that you bought her to set her at liberty 

Peri. I understand. Epid. When she's bought, you must 
remove her somewhere out of the city ; unless your own feel- 
ings are any way opposed. 

Peri. O no, skilfully suggested. 

Epid. But what say you, Apaecides ? 

Ap. Why, what should I ? Except that I think you've 
contrived it very cleverly. 

Epid. Then, in consequence, all thoughts of marriage vnth 
her will be removed from him, so that he will make no diffi- 
culties as to what you wish. 

' Neither sowing nor reaping) — Ver. 261. " Mihi istic nee seritur nee 
metitur." This proverbial saying (so well known to every student of the Etoa 
Grammar) merely means, " I have no interest whatever in the matter." 

2r2 



I 



436 EPiDicus ; Act 11. 

Ap. Long life to you, wise as you are, it really does please 
us. Epid. Do you then skilfully do whatever you are going 
to do. 

Peei. I' faith, you speak to the purpose. 

Epld. I have found, too, how this suspicion naay be re« 
moved from yourself. 

Peri. Let me know it. 

Epid. Tou shall know it ; just listen. 

Ap. He's come with a breast full of counsel. 

Epid. There's need of a person to carry the money there 
for the music-girl ; but there's no equal necessity for your- 
self to do it. 

Peri. Why so? Epid. Lest he should think you are 
doing it for the sake of your son 

Peei. Cleverly thought of! 

Epid. By which means you'll keep him away from her ; 
lest any difficulty might arise by reason of that suspicion. 

Peri. What person shall we find suited to this purpose ? 

Epid. {pointing to Ap^cides.) He will be the best ; he 
will be able to take all due precautions, as he understands 
the laws and ordinances. 

Peri. Epidicus, receive my thanks. But I'll attend to 
this with all care. 

Epid. I'll find him and bring him here to you, to whom 
the music-girl belongs ; and I'll take the money along with 
him. {Pointing to x\.PiECiDES.) 

Peei. Eor how much, at the lowest, can she be bought ? 

Epid. What, she ? Perhaps she might possibly be bought 
at the lowest for forty minae ; but if you give me more, I shall 
return it. There's no trickery in this matter. This money, 
too, of yours won't be locked up ten days. 

Peei. How so? Epid. Why, because another young 
man is dying with love for this woman, one abounding in 
money, a great warrior, a Ehodian, a spoiler of his foes^, a 
boaster ; he'll buy her of you, and give the money with plea^ 
sure. You only do it ; there's a large profit for you here. 

Peei. I really pray the Grods it may he so. 

Epid. You'll obtain your prayer. Ap. Why then, don't 

• A Rhodian, a spoiler of his foes)— Ver, 296. The Rhodians were ransidereo 
wealthy, proud, and boastful. 



Act III. OE, THE FOUTUNATE DISCO VEET. 437 

you go in-doors and bring the money out here? I'll go visit 
the Eorum. Epidicua, do you come thither. 

Epid. (^0 Ap^cides). Don't you go di^Sij from there heiovQ 
I come to you. 

Ap. I'LL wait tiU then. 

Peri, {to Epidicus). Do you follow me in-doors. 

Epid. Go and count it out; I'll not detain you at alL 
JExit Apjecides, and Pebiphanes goes into his house.) 

Scene III. — Epidicus, alone. 
Epid. {to himself). I do think that in the Attic land there 
is no spot of land so fertile as is this Periphanes of ours ; why, 
from the locked and sealed-up money-chest I summon forth 
silver just as much as I please. But this, i' troth, I am afraid 
of, that if the old man sliould come to know it, he'll be making 
parasites of elm-twigs^, to be shaving me quite clean. But one 
matter and consideration disturbs me — what music-girl, one 
that goes out on hire, I'm to show to Apaecides. {He muses.) 
And that as well I've got : this morning the old gentleman 
bade me bring for him on hire some music-girl to his house 
here, to sing for him while he was performing a sacrifice-. 
She shall be hired, and be instructed beforeliand in what way 
she's to prove herself cunning towards the old man. I'll 
away in-doors ; I'll get the money out of the swindled old 
fellow. {He goes into the house o/'Pektphanes.) 

Act III. — Scene I. 

Enter Steatippocles and Ch^eibulus, from the house of 

the latter. 

Steat. I'm distractedly in suspense and worn to the heart 

with waiting how the fair promises of Epidicus will turn out 

for me. I've been tormented too long. Whether there is 

to be anything, or whether there is not, I wish to know. 

Ch^e. For all these resources you may still seek some 
other resources for yourself. Eor my part, I knew at the 

> Parasites of dm-twigs) — Ver. 308. He alludes to the propensity of Parasites 
for devouring to the bone all who came in their way. 

2 Performing a sacrifice) — Ver. 313. It was the custom, while private person 
were sacrificing to the Lares or household Gods, to have music performed apa» 
the harp or the pipe. 



438 EPiDicus ; Act III. 

fii'st, on tlie instant, that there was no help for you in 
him^. 

Steat. Upon my faith, I'm ruined ! 

Ch^b. You act absurdly in tormenting yourself in mind. 
By my troth, if I should catch him, I would never allow that 
slave of a fellow to be laughing at us with impunity. 

Stba-T. What can you expect him to do, you, who have 
such great wealth at home, and have not a coin of it, as you 
say, and have in yourself no resources for your friend ? 

Ch^r. I' faith, if I had had it, I should have proifered it 
with pleasure ; but something in some manner^, in some way, 
in some direction, from some person, some hope J Aoye for you, 
that there'll be some good fortune ybr you to share with me. 

Strat. "Woe to you, you sneaking fellow^. 

Ch-ER. Why does it please you to abuse me ? 

Strat. Why, because you are prating to me about some- 
thing in some manner, from somewhere or other, from some 
persons, that nowhere exists, and I won't admit it to my 
ears. Of no more assistance are yo'^ unto me than he who 
never yet has been bom. {They stand near the door of the 

house of CHJiRIBULUS.) 

ScEiTE II. — 'Enter Epidictjs, from the house o/*Periphanes, 
with a hag of money round his neck. 
Epid. {to Periphanes, within the house). You've done 
your duty then ; it now befits me to do mine. Through this 
care of mine, you may be allowed to be at ease. {In a lower 
voice.) This, in fact, is now lost to you; don't at all be 
setting your hopes on it. {Holding some of the coins in his 
hands.) How very shining it is ! You only trust me for 
that. This way I'm going to act, this way my forefathers have 
acted before me. O ye immortal Gods, what a brilliant day 
you have bestowed upon me in this ! how propitious and how 
favourable to my requests ! But why do I delay to take my 

» That there was no help for you in htm) — Ver. 322. " Nullam tibi esse m 
illo copiam." 

* Something in some manner) — Ver. 828. This admirablj shows how hard up 
the stingy Chaeribulus is for an excuse. 

3 Tou sneaking Jellow) — Ver. 330. '' Mureide." Some editions have " muri- 
cide," "you mouse-killing fsllow;" a capital name for a sordid, miserable 
creature. 



Sc. II. OE, THE FORTUNATE DISCOVEET. 439 

departure hence, that I may bear this supply M^th lucky 
auspices to the colony^. I'm delaying while I'm standing 
here. But what means this ? Before the house I see the 
two companions, my master and Chseribulus. (Accosting 
them.) What are you doing? Take this, will you. {Give^ 
Steatippocles the hag of money.') 

Steat. How much is there in this ? 

Epid. As much as is enough, and more than enough ; 
a superabundance ; I've brought more by ten minae than you 
owe to the Banker. So long as I please and obey you, I 
value my own back at a straw. 

Steat. But why so ? 

Epid. Because I shall make your father a bag-murderer-. 

Steat. What kind of expression is that ? 

Epid. I don't at all care for your old-fashioned and every- 
day words ; you chouse by purses fulF, but I'll chouse by bags 
full. Eor the procurer took away a whole lot of money for 
the music-girl (I paid it ; with these hands I counted it out), 
her whom your fatlier supposes to be his own daughter. 
Now, again, that your father may be deceived, and assistance 
be provided for you, I've discovered a method. In such a 
way have I persuaded the old gentleman — and had a talk to 
this effect, that, when you returned, you might not have pos- 
session of her* 

Steat. Bravo! — bravo! 

Epid. She's now at your house^ in place of her. 

* To the colony) — Ver. 342. He means the house of Chaeribulus, which has 
jnst been peopled by his master. 

2 A hag -murderer) — Ver. 348. " Perenticidam." A word coined by the author 
for the occasion, on account of its resemblance to " parenticida," " a parricide." 

3 Chouse by purses full) — Ver. 350. Echard gives a particular meaning te 
this passage, and Warner seems to adopt his notion, which certainly seems far- 
fetched. The former says, in a Note, " Epidicus here carries on the fancy ot 
• perenticida,' and ' parenticide, and the Poet has luckily hit upon a line that 
exactly agrees with either. For the common punishment of parricides was to put 
tliem into a sack with a cock, a serpent, and an ape, and then throw them into 
the river. Now the ward ' ductare' signifies equally * to bring a man into 
punishment,' or ' to cheat him ;' so that the phrase ' peratim ductare' is the 
same thing; only ' follis' was a much larger sack than 'pera.' " M. Guiet con- 
siders this passage to be spurious. 

* Possession of her)— Yer. 355. Madame Dacier is of opinion that some lines 
are wanting here. Echard and Warner are also of that opinion. 

* She's now. at your house)— Ver. 356. That is, the first mistress of Stra- 
tippocles 18 at his father's house personating the lost daughter. 



MO EPiDicus ; Act 111* 

Steat. I understand. Epid. Now he has given me Apae- 
cides by way of guarantee in this matter (he's waiting for 
me at the Porum), as if to seem the purchaser. 

Stkat. Not a bad precaution ! 

Epid. The cautious man's now taken in himself; your own 
father himself placed this purse around my neck^. He's 
making preparation, that immediately on your arrival home 
you shall be married. 

Steat. In one way only will he persuade me; if Orcus 
takes her away from me, who has been brought with me. 

Epid. Now I've hit upon this scheme : I'll go by myself 
alone to the procurer's house ; I'll instruct him, if any one 
comes to him, to say that the money has been paid him for 
tlie music-girl ; inasmuch as, the day before yesterday, I paid 
it down with my own hands for this mistress of yours, whom 
your father takes to be his own daughter. Then the procurer, 
unknowingly, will be staking his accursed head, as though 
he had received the money for her who has now been brought 
here together with you. 

Ch^e. You are more versatile than a potter's-wheel. 

Epid. Now I'll get ready some artful music-girl, who's 
hired at a didrachm, to pretend that she has been purchased, 
and cleverly to trick the two old fellows : Apsecides, together 
with her, will bring her to your father. 

Steat. How adroitly managed ! 

Epid. Her, prepared beforehand with my devices, and 
provided with my schemes, I shall send to him. But I'm 
talking at too great length ; you have delayed me too long : 
you now know these things how they are to be ; I'll be off. 

Steat. Success attend you ! {Exit EpiDictrs.) 

CHiEE. He is very clever at artful tricks. 

Steat. Indeed, by his plans, he has saved me, that's sure. 

Ch^e. Let's go hence into my house. 

Steat. Yes, and a little more joyfully than I came out of 
your house, by the courage and conduct of Epidicus, do I 
return into camp with the spoil. {They go into the hoiise.) 

» This purse around my neclc) — Ver. 359. Purses containing large sums ol 
money were generally slung round the neck by a string. See the Aalulario, 
L 2^ Asinaria, L 661 ; and Tniculentos, L 648. 



Act I\. OR. THE FOBTUNATE DlSCOTEUT. 411 

Act IV. — Scene I. 
Unter Peeiphanes. 
Peei. (to herself). Not only for the sake of tlie face were 
it right for men to have a mirror for themselves wherein to 
look at their faces ; but one with which they might be enabled 
to examine the heart of discretion, and therefore be able to 
examine the resources of the mind ; when they had looked 
in that, they might afterwards consider how they had once 
passed their lives in youth. Just as myself, for instance, 
who, for the sake of my son, began to torment myself in 
mind, as though my son bad been guilty of some oftence against 
me, or as though my own misdeeds had not been most heavy 
in my youth. In truth, we old fellows are out of our senses 
sometimes. This, in my own opinion at least, has proved ad- 
vantageous. But my friend Apsecides is coming with the 
spoil. I'm glad that the negotiator has returned safe. 

Scene II. — Unter Ap-ecides, mth a Music-girl. 

Peri. How goes it ? Ap. The Gods and Goddesses are 
favouring you. 

Peri. The omen pleases me. Ap. A person with whom 
all things go on prosperously. But do you order her to 
be taken in-doors. 

Peri, {going to the door of his house, and calling). Hallo 
there ! come out of doors here, some one. {A Servant comes 
out.) Take that woman into the house ! And, do you hear f 

Sert. What do you desire ? 

Peei. Take care you don't permit this woman to as- 
sociate with my daughter, or to see her. Now do you un- 
derstand? I wish her to be shut up apart in that little 
chamber ; there's a great difference between the manners of 
a maiden and a courtesan. {The Servant leads the Music- 
girl into the house.) 

Aie. You speak cleverly and judiciously ; each man cannot 
keep too strict a guard upon the chastity of his daughter. 
Upon my faith, we certainly did forestall this woman from 
your son just in time. 

Pert. Why so? Ap. Because another person told me 
that he had just seen your son here. 

Pebt. I' troth, he was stirring in this b'^ sineas. 



442 EPiDicuB ; Act IV» 

Ap. Upon my faith, it really is so, clearly. You really 
have a clever servant, and worth any price. 

Pebi. At his weight in gold he would not be dear. 

Ap. How well he kept^ that Music-girl quite in ignorance 
that she was purchased for you ; so full of joke and fun did 
he bring her hither along with him. 

Peri. It's wonderful how that could be managed. 

Ap. He said that you were going to offer a sacrifice at 
home for your son, because he had returned safe from Thebes. 

Peri. He hit upon the right thing. 

Ap. Yes, and he himself told her that she had been hired 
to assist you here in the sacrifice. He said that you were 
about to perform it, and that you had a sacrifice at home. But 
I then made pretence that I was ignorant, as it were, inas- 
much as I made myself out half-witted^. 

Peri. Why yes ; it was right to do so. 

Ap. An important trial of a friend is going on at th* 
Porum ; I want to go as his advocate. 

Peri. Gro, and when you have leisure, return to me 
mediately. 

AP. I'll be here just now. (Exit, 

Peri, {to himself). Nothing is there more opportune to 
man than a friend in need ; without labour of your own, what? 
you want is done nevertheless. If I had commissioned any 
pne upon this business, a less skilful person, and less fitted 
for this matter, he would have been gulled ; and so, grinning 
with his white teeth, my son would have most deservedly 
laughed at me. But who is this I see coming this way, that 
with his swaggering makes his scarf to be streaming in the 
wind ? {lie stands aside.) 

Scene III. — Enter a Captain, with his Servant. 

Capt. {to his Servant). Take care not to pass by any 
house without asking where lives the old gentleman, Peri- 

» How toeU he jfcep<)— Ver. 411. The cunning of Epidicus is admirably shown 
here. He pretends to the old man that they together are deceiving the Music- 
girl, while, in reality, he is imposing on the old man. 

2 Made myself oiU half-witted^ — Ver. 420. This in his wisdom he pretended, 
that she might not fancy that he was a cunning fellow, going to put a trick upos 
her, in combination with Epidicus* 



So. Ill OB, THE FORTUNATE DISCOVEET. 44)3 

phanes of Plothea^. Take care that you don't return to me 
without knowing it. 

Peri, {coming forward^. Young man, if I point out to you 
the person whom you are in search of, what thanks shall I 
get of you ? 

Capt. In arms, by the might of war, I've deserved that all 
people ought to give me thanks. 

Peri. You haven't found out, young man, a tranquil spot 
where to recount your virtues as you wish ; for, if an inferior 
vaunts his battles to a superior, by his lips they become 
soiled ; but this Periphanes of Plothea whom you are seeking, 
I am he, if you want him for anything. 

Capt. Him, you mean, who in his youth among kings in 
arms, by his skill in war, gained vast wealth ? 

Peri. Aye, if you were to hear of my achievements, drop 
ping your hands you would run off" home. 

Capt. I' faith, I'm rather in search of one to whom to 
speak of my own, than ot one to be speaking of his to me. 

Peri. This is not the place ybreY. Do you then look out for 
another person, into whom to stuff your scraps of nonsense^. 
(Aside.) And yet this is folly, for me to impute that to him as 
a fault, which I myself used to do in my youth when I was a 
soldier ; in recounting my battles I used to tear out men's 
ears by the roots, when I had once begun. 

Capt. Lend your attention, that you may learn what I've 
come to you about. I've heard that you have purchased my 
mistress. 

Peri, {aside). Heyday! now at last I know who he is; the 
officer whom Epidicus was telling me about a short time 
since. {To the Officer.) Young man, it is as you say; I 
have purchased Tier. 

Capt. I want a few words with you, if it is not incon- 
venient to you. 

Peri. Upon my faith, I don't know whether it's convenient 
or not, until perhaps you say what you want. 

' Periphanes of Plothea) — Ver. 433. " Plothenius." Most of the editions have 
here " Plataenius" " of Plataea." As this was in Bceotia, the other is far more 
likely to be the right reading, Plothea being a Demus of Attica. 

* Your scraps of nonsense) — Ver. 450. " Centones.'' These were properly 
(Mtchwork tales, or poems, made up of scraps from various works. 



444 £111)1015 8 ; Act IV 

Capt. I want you to transfer lier to me, and take the 
ransom. Peei. You may have her. 

Capt. But why should I hesitate to speak out to you ? I 
wish at once to make her my freed-woman, that she may be 
my mistress^. 

Peri. I'll make short work with you; she was bought for me 
for fifty minse of silver ; if sixty minse are paid down to me, 
I'll let the damsel employ your holidays^, and so assuredly so, 
that, if you like, you may remove her from this country. 

Capt. Is she then purchased by me ? 

Peri. On those terms you may have her. You have made 
a good bargain. {Going to the door of his house.) Hallo 
there ! bring out of doors the Music-girl you took in. The 
harp, too, as well, that was thrown in with her, I'll make you 
a present of it for nothing. 

Enter a Servant, yr(wre the house, leading out the Music- 
girl. 

Peri, {taking her hy the hand and leading her to the Cap- 
tain). Come, take her, please. 

Capt. What madness possesses you ? "What mystery are 
you devising for me ? Why don't you order the Music-girl^ 
to be brought from in-doors ? 

Peri. Why, this is the Music-girl. There's no other one 
here. 

Capt. You can't impose on me. Why don't you bring 
out here the Music-girl Acropolistis ? 

Peri. This, I tell you, is she. 

Capt. This, I tell you, is not she. Do you suppose that 1 
can't know my own mistress ? 

Peri. It was this Music-girl, I tell you, for whom my son 
was dying with love. 

' That she may he my mvitress) — Ver. 464. The swaggering, careless cTiarac- 
t«r of the Captain, is admirably depicted here, as he does not hesitate to tel' a 
perfect stranger, and him an aged man, his intentions, at the possible risk ol 
shocking him. 

2 Employ your holidays)— Ver. 468. The " feriae," or " holidays," are men- 
tioned in the Captivi, 1. 473. See the Note to the passage. 

3 Order the Music-girl') — Ver. 476. Periphanes has ordered the girl who has 
just come, and whom he takes to be Acropolistis, to be brought out ; whereas th« 
Captain is in love with the first, who is passing for the old gentleman's da::ghter 
and this mistake occasions the disputa 



Sc, III. OE, THE FORTUNATE DlSCOVEliT. 4:15 

Capt. This is not she. Peei. How, not she ? 

Capt. It is not. Peei. Where in the world, then, dooa 
she come from ? Por my part, i' faith, I certainly paid the 
money for her. 

Capt. Poolishly paid, I guess, and a mighty mistake. 

Peei. Nay, but this is she ; for I sent the servant who is in 
the habit of attending my son ; he himself this moment pur- 
chased the Music-girl. 

Capt. Well then, this feUow has cut you up joint by joint, 
old gentleman, this servant of yours. Peei. How, cut me up ? 

Capt. Such is my suspicion ; for she has been palmed upon 
you for that Music-girl. Old gentleman, you've been bubbled 
clearly and cleverly. I shall now go seek her wherever she is. 
Warrior, farewell ! {Exeunt the Oeficee and Seetant. 

Peei. {stamping with rage). Bravo, bravo! Epidicus 
Tou're a clever fellow! You have fought well — you're a 
man ! you've wiped my nose when snivelling, worthless fellow 
that I am ! {To the Music-giel.) Did Apaecides purchase 
you to-day of the procurer ? {A pause.) Come now, tell me. 

Mtts.-G-. I never heard of that person before to-day, nor, 
indeed, was any one able to purchase me for any money ; I've 
been free now for more than five years. 

Peei. What business have you, then, at my house ? 

Mus.-Gt. You shall hear ; I came, being hired to perform 
for an old gentleman while he was sacrificing. 

Peei. I do confess that I am the most worthless of all 
men in Athens of Attica. But do you know Acropolistia 
the Music-girl ? 

Mus.-Gr. As well as my own self. Peei. Where does she 
live ? 

MiJS.-Gr. Since she has been made free, I don't know for 
certain. Peei. Well now, I should like to know who has 
made her free, if you know P 

Mus.-Gr. That which I have heard, you shall hear ; I heard 
that Stratippocles^, the son of Periphanes, had provided in 
his absence that she should be made free. 

* / heard that Stratippocles) — Ver. 506. She discloses to him what she has 
heard as the fact, and which is the real state of the case. Although Acropolistis 
is in his house, in the character of his daughter, he, not knowing who she really 
is, is alarmed at hearing that his son has procured her liberation, whict he hai 
just taken so much pains to prevent. 



446 EPiDicus ; Act lY. 

Peri. By lieavena, I'm undone^, most clear y, if these 
tilings are true. Epidicus has disembowelled my purse ! 

Mus.-G-. I've heard to that effect. Do you want me for 
anything else ? 

Pebi. Away to perdition in the veriest torments, and off 
this instant ! 

Mus.-Gr. Won't you give me back my harp ? 

Peri. Neither harp nor pipes. Make haste, then, and 
escape from here, if the Grods love you ! 

Mus.-Gr. I'll be off. At a future time, however, you'll re- 
store it, with the greater disgrace^ to yourself. {Exit. 

Peei. (to himself ) . What now? Shall I, who have been 
placed before so many edicts^, allow him to get o^with im- 
punity? No; even though as much again should be re- 
quired to be lost, I'll lose it rather than allow myself to be 
held in derision with impunity and plundered by them. That 
I should have been thus cheated openly to my face, and that 
I should have been set at nought before this Apcecides, who 
is famed as being the framer and founder of all the laws and 
ordinances ! He too declares that he is a wise man ! that 
the hammer, forsooth, should be wiser than the handle* ! {He 
stands aside.) 

Scene IV. — Enter Philippa, at a distance. 

Phil, {to herself). If a mortal being has aught of miser}% 

through which, miserable creature, to be wretched from the 

heart, that same do I experience, for whom full many a woe 

unites in the same spot, which, aZZ, at the same instant are 

* Pm undone) — Ver. 508. Having now detected tliis piece of roguery of 
which Epidicus has been guilty. 

* With tfie greater disgrace) — Ver. 514. Probably by being sued, and obliged 
to give it up, whether he will or no. 

' Before so many edicts) — Ver. 515. " Qui in tantis positus sum sententiis." 
This passage has been explained various ways; but Madame Dacier seems justi- 
fied in thinkmg that Gronovius has found the right meaning, and that the allusion 
is to the custom of placing the name of the proposer at the head of the yl^r)(f>ia-fiaTay 
or public edicts of the Greeks ; this of course implied that the proposer was a 
man of standing, and of some fair pretensions to a reputation for wisdom. 

* Than the handle) — Ver. 523. He seems to compare Apaecides to the head of 
the hammer, and himself to the handle, and says that they are equally outwitted. 
He probably implies thereby that he has been in the habit of giving the impetra 
to Apaecides in the same way that the handle of the hammer does to the head. 



8c. TV. on, THE roBTtJNATE uTscnvEnr. 447 

beating against my breast. A multitude of troubles keep 
me in suspense. Poverty and misery alarm the thougbts of 
my heart ; nor have I anywhere a spot of safety where to fix 
my hopes ; in such a way has my daughter fallen into the 
power of the enemy^ ; nor do I know where she now is. 

Peei. (apart)' Who is this woman coming from a distance 
with a breast filled with alarms, and who thus bewails her lot ? 

Phil, (to herself). It was told me that Periphanes was 
living in this neighbourhood. 

Peei. (apart). She's mentioning me ; need of hospitality 
has befallen her, I suppose. 

Phil, (to herself). I would be very willing to give a re- 
ward to any one who would point me out that man, or 
where he dwells. 

Peei. (apart). I recognize her; for I think I have seen 
her bofore; where, I know not. Is it, or is it not she, 
whom my mind suspects her to be ? 

Phil, (seeing him). Good Gods! I have seen this person 
bofore ! 

Peei. (to himself). It surely is she, a poor woman whom 
I remember having an intrigue with at Epidaurus. 

Phil, (to herself). Surely it is he, who at Epidaurus first 
violated my maiden modesty. 

Peei. (to himself). She who had the daughter by me whom 
I've now got at home. 

Phil, (to herself) . What if I accost him ? 

Peei. (to himself). I don't know whether to make up to 
her. If this is she 

Phil, (to herself). But if it is the man, as length of years 
renders me doubtful 

Peei. (to himself). Length of time renders my mind un- 
certain. But if it is she, whom with some doubt I conjecture 
it to be, I'll accost her circumspectly. 

Phil, (to herself). A woman's artfulness must be em- 
ployed by me. 

Peei. (to himself'). I'll address her. 

' Into the power of the enemy) — ^Ver. 530. Though this has happened probably 
some time since, Philippa has not had an opportunity till now of coming in search 
of her daughter, by reason of the continuance of war. As soon as peace is made^ 
«be repairs to Atliens, 



LIS EPIDICU8 ; Act IV. 

PfliL. (to lierself). I'll bring my powers of conversation 
to bear against him. 

Peei. {accosting Tier). Health to you! 

Phil. That health I accept for me and mine. 

Peri. "What besides ? 

Phil. Health to yourself ; what you lent me, I return. 

Peei. I don't impeach your punctuality. Don't I know 
you? 

Phil. If I know you, I'll move your feelings, so that you 
shall know me. 

Peei. Where have I been in the habit of seeing you ? 

Phil. You are unfairly hard upon me. 

Peei. "Why so ? Phil. Because you think it right that I 
should be the prompter of your memory. 

Peei. You speak to the purpose. 

Phil. You say what's strange tome, Periphanes. 

Peei. Ah now! that's better. Do you remember, Phi- 
\ippa- 



Phil. Yes, I remember that. Peei. At Epidaurus- 



Phil. Ah ! you have moistened my burning breast with a 
little drop of comfort. 

Peei. How I relieved the poverty of you, a poor young 
maiden, and your mother? 

Phil. "What, are you he who for your own gratification 
brought heavy troubles upon me ? 

Peei. I am he. Health to you. 

Phil. I am in health, since I see you in health. 

Peei. Give me your hand. 

Phil, {extending her hand, which he takes'). Take it — you 
hold hy the hand a woman distrest and full of woes. 

Peei. What is it that disturbs your features ? 

Phil. The daughter whom I had by you 

Peei. What of her ? Phil. When I had brought her up, 
I lost her ; she fell into the hands of the enemy. 

Peei. Keep your mind in quiet and at rest. Why look, 
she's here at my house safe and sound. For immediately 
I heard from my servant that she was a captive, instantly 
I gave the money for her to be purchased; he managed 
this affair as discreetly and frugally aa in other matters be 
is egregiously — dishonest: 



Sc- V. OR, THE FOETUNATE DISCOVERT. 449 

Phil. Let me see her, whether it is she or no. 

Peri, {going to the door of his house). Hallo there! you 
— Canthara, this instant bid my daughter^ come out before 
the house, that she may see her mother. 

Phil. My spirits now at last return to me. 

Scene V. — Enter AcEOPOLisTis,yro7» the house. 

AcRO. "Why is it, father, that you have called me out 
before the house ? 

Peri. That you may see and accost your mother, and wish 
her health on her arrival, and give her kisses. 

AcRO. {looking about). What mother of mine? 

Pert. ( i^ointing to Philippa) . She who, half dead, is follow- 
ing your gaze. 

Phil. Who is this that you are requesting to kiss me ? 

Peri. Tout own daughter. Phil. "What, she ? 

Peri. She. Phil. What — am I to kiss her ? 

Peri. AVhy not, her who was born of you ? 

Phil. Man, you are mad. Peri. What, I ? 

Phil. Yes, you. Peri. Why ? 

Phil. Because this woman — I neither know nor understand 
who she is, nor have I beheld her with my eyes before this day. 

Peri. I know why you are mistaken ; because this woman 
has her dress and ornaments changed. 

Phil. Puppies have one smelP, pigs quite another ; I say 
that I do not know her, who she is. 

Peri, {stamping with rage). Oh ! by our trust in Gods and 
men, what is this ? Am I following the calling of a Procurer, 
to be keeping strange women in my house, and to be empty- 
ing my house of my money ? {To Acropolistis.) What 
are you to be calling me your father and kissing me ? Why 
stand you stupidly there ? Why do you keep silent ? 

» Bid my daughter) — Ver. 568. " Acropolistidem" is here inserted in the 
editions evidently by mistake, and is pui-posely omitted in this Translation. It was 
probably inserted by some careless or injudicious transcriber in the middle ages, 
m the place of " Telestidem," as Periplianes knows the girl in his house as 
Telestis, and fancies that she is his daughter. At the same time he knows that 
Acropolistis is the name of his son's mistress, whom he has so recently tried UD- 
snccessfully (as he supposes) to get into his power. 

2 Have one smell) — Ver. 577. She means that all aaimals have an instbct bv 
which they recognize their own young. 

VOL. II. ' 2 a 



450 EPiDicus ; Act IV 

AcEO. What do you want me to say ? 

Peei. {'pointing to Philippa). She denies that she is your 
mother. 

AcEO. Don't let her be so, if she don't choose. Yov my 
own part, whether she likes it or not, I shall be my mother's 
daughter still. It isn't right for me to compel this woman to 
be my mother if she doesn't like. 

Peei. "Why then did you call me father ? 

AcRO. That is your own fault, not mine ; ought I not to 
call you father when you call me daughter? Her too, as 
well {pointing to Philippa), if she were to call me daughter, 
I should call mother. She declares that I am not her 
daughter ; then she is not my mother. In fine, this is no 
fault of mine ; what I've been taught, I've told you all of 
it. Epidicus was my instructor. 

Peei. I'm undone ! I've upset my waggon^ ! 

AcEO. Have I done anything amiss towards that ? 

Peei. Upon my faith, if I ever hear you call me father, 
I'll put an end to your life, you jade ! 

AcEO. I shan't call you so. "When you want to be my father^ 
then be so ; when you don't want, don't be my father. 

Phil, {to Peeiphanes). What? Did you purchase her 
for that reason, because you supposed her to be your daugh- 
ter ? By what signs did you recognize her ? 

Peei. By none. 

Phil. Why did you suppose her to be our daughter ? 

Peei. My servant Epidicus told me so. 

Phil. What if it had seemed to your servant otherwise P 
Prithee, could you not have known ? 

Peei. How should I, who had never seen her after having 
once beheld her. 

Phil. Wretched creature, I'm quite undone ! {Begins to 
weep.) 

Peei. Don't weep, madam ; go in-doors ; be of good cou- 
rage ; I'll find her out. 

Phil. An Attic citizen from Athens here purchased her 
Indeed, they said it was a young man who had bought her. 

Peei. I will find her ; hold your peace. Only do go in-doors 

' Vve upset my waggon) — Ver. 591. Evidently a proverbial expression bor<^ 
rowed from rustic life. " To upset a man's apple-cart," is used in cant pbra 
oiogj in our day, as meaning to do a person a disservice. 



Act A^ OB, THE FOBTUNATE DISCOTEBl. 451 

and keep an eye upon this Circe^, tJiis daughter of the Sun. 
{She goes into the house, followed hy Aceopolistis.) All 
business laid aside, I'll give my attention to seeking for 
Epidicus. If I find him, I'll make this day become the final 
one for him. {JExit, 

Act V. — Scene I. 

Enter Steatippocles,^ow the house o/" Ch^bibultjs. 

Stbat. {to himself). The Banker^ is inattentive to me, not 
ta seek the money of me, or bring this woman who has been 
purchased out of the spoil. But see — here comes Epidicus 
How's this, that in gloominess his brow is wrinkled ? 

Enter Epidicus, at a distance. 

Epid. (to himself). If Jupiter unto himself were to take 
the eleven Gods^ beside himself, even then, all of them would 
not be able to rescue Epidicus from torture. I've seen Peri- 
phanes buying the thongs ; Apaecides was together with him ; 
now, I do believe that these persons are in search of me. 
They have found it out ; they know that they've been im- 
posed upon. 

Stbat. (coming forward). What are you about, my ready 
occasion ? 

Epid. That which a wretched fellow is alout. 

Stbat. "What's the matter with you ? 

Epid. Why don't you prepare for me the necessaries for 
flight before I'm quite undone? Eor the two fleeced old 
gentlemen are hunting for me through the city; they are 
carrying in their hands handcuffs an inch and a half thick. 

* Upon this Circe) — Ver. 603. He calls her a Circe, because she has laid a 
spell upon him, as it were by enchantments, for which Circe was famous. Per- 
haps, too, he calls her a daughter of the Sun, from his not knowing who her 
father really is, when he has so recently supposed himself to be so. 

* The Banker) — Ver. 606. " Danista." This was from a Greek word, signi* 
fying a "banker," or "usurer." With an extraordinary degree of cai«les&. 
ness, Cotter takes it to be the proper name of a man, and calls him Danista. 

» The eleven Gods) — Ver. 609. He alludes to the eleven who, with Jujnte^ 
made the " Dii majores." They are thus enumerated in two rugged lines or 
Eimius: 

I Juno, Vesta, Ceres, Diana, Minerva, Venus, Mars, 

Mercuriu.^ Jovi, Neptunus, Vulcanus, Apollo. 
2 tt2 



452 EPiDicus ; Act V. 

Steat. Be of good heart- 



Epio. Of course I will, whose freedom is so close at hand^. 

Stb.\.t. I will preserve you. Epld. I' faith, they'll do it 
better for me, if they catch me. But who's this young 
woman, this greyish old fellow, too, that's coming along ? 

The Banker and Telestis are seen at a distance. 

Stbat. This IS the Banker, and this is the woman whom 
I purchased out of the spoil. 

Epid. What, is this she ? 

Strat. It is she. Isn't she just like what I told you? 
Look at her. 

Epid. Is it she ? 

Strat. Survey her, Epidicus. Even from her nail to the 
top of her hair she is most lovely ! Is she not ? Do look at 
her ! Observe her ! You'll be looking at a picture beauti- 
fully painted. 

Epid. Judging from your words you are foretelling that my 
hide will be beautifully^«m^e^; 7we,whomApelles and Zeuxis^, 
tiie pair of them, will be painting with elm-tree pigments. 

Scene II. — Unter th^ Banker and Telestis. 

Strat. {to the Banker). Immortal Grods! I'm surprised 
at your slowness. The man that's spoken of in the proverb 
with swollen feet, would have got here sooner than you 
hftve arrived for me. 

Ban. {pointing to Telestis). I' faith, 'twas she delayed me. 

Strat. If indeed you delayed for her sake, because she 
wished it, you have come too quickly. 

Ban. Well, well, dispatch with me and count out the 
money, that I mayn't be detaining my friends. 

Strat. It has been counted out. 

Ban. {giving him a lag). Take this bag; put it into it. 

Strat. You come discreetly provided ! Wait till I bring 
out the money to you. 

Ban. Make haste. 

Strat. It's at home, ( Goes into the house ©/"C e^ribulus.) 

1 7s so close at hand) — Ver. 617. " Quoi libertas in mundo sita est." This 
expression, n doubt, is intended to be used ironically by Epidicus. 

" Apelles and Zeiixiis) — Ver. 625. See the Notes to the Poenulus, 1. 1289. H« 
alludes to Periphanes and Apaecides, who will cause his back to be marked with 
nlmrtwi^s. 



Sc. II. OE, THE I'OETUNATE DISCOVERT. 453 

Epid. {looking steadily at Telestis). Have I the use of 
my eyes quite unimpaired, or is it otherwise ? Do I not 
behold in you, Telestis, the daughter of Periphanes, bom at 
Thebes of your mother Philippa, and conceived at Epidaurus ? 

Tel. What person are you who are making mention of 
the name of my parents and my own ? 

Epid. Don't you know me ? Tel. Not, indeed, so far as 
recurs to my mind just now. 

Epid. Don't you remember my bringing you a crescent 
upon your birthday, and a little gold ring for your finger ? 
(Steatippocles returns with the money?) 

Tel. I remember it. "What, are you that person ? 

Epid. I am, and (^pointing to Steatippocles, at a distance^ 
he there is your brother by another mother and the same 
fether. 

Tel. {in agitation). What of my father? Is he alive ? 

Epid. Be of calm and composed feelings; hold your 
peace. 

Tel. The Gods will that from being lost I should be 
saved, if you speak the truth. 

Epid. I have no occasion to be telling untruths to you. 

Steat. {to the Bakkee). Take this money. Banker ; here 
are forty minae. If any piece shall be doubtful I'll change 
it. {Gives him the money.) 

Ban. You do well. Kindly farewell. {Exit. 

Steat. {to Telestis). Now then you are my own 

Tel. Why yes — sister, i' faith, that you may know it as 
well. Greetings to you, brother. 

Steat. {to Epidictjs). Is this woman in her senses ? 

Epid. In her senses, if she calls you her hrother. 

Steat. How's this ? Have I just now become her bro- 
ther while going in-doors and coming out ? 

Epid. What good fortune there is, do you in silence keep 
your peace thereon and rejoice. 

Steat. Sister, you have hoth lost and found me ! 

Epid. Simpleton, hold your tongue! Through my en- 
deavours, there's ready for you at home, in fact, a Music-girl 
for you to make love to ; I too, through my endeavours, have 
restored your sister to liberty. 

Steat. Epidicus, I confess 

Epid. B3 off into the house, and order the wat^r to be 



I 



454 EPiDiCxrs; Act V. 

made warm"^ for lier. The rest I'll let you know afterwards, 
when there's leisure. 

Strat. Follow me this way, sister. 

Epid. I'll bid Thesprio^ come across to you. But re- 
member, if the old gentlemen are at all savage, you, with 
your sister, to run and help me. 

Strat. That will be easy. (^He and Telestis go into the 
house o/Teriphanes.) 

Epid. {going to the door of the house of Ch^ribulus). 
Thesprio, come this way through the garden. Come to my 
rescue at home ! The matter's of importance ! ( To himself) I 
care much lest ibr the old fellows than I did^yx^t now. I'll 
return in-doors, that the strangers may be attended to on 
their arrival. I'll tell these same tilings that I know, in-doors 
to Stratippocles. I shall not take to flight ; I'm determined to 
be there at home, and he shan't throw it in my teeth that he 
has been provoked by my running away''. I'll away in-doors ; 
I've been talking too long. {Ooes into the house o/Tebi- 

PHANES.) 

Scene III. — Enter Periphanes and Apjecides, vnth thongs 
in their hands. 

Peri. Hasn't this fellow quite made a laughing-stock of 
us two decrepit old people* ? 

Ap. "Why yes, I' faith, you've really kept me plagued in 
a shocking fashion. 

* The water to he made wami) — Ver. 653. A bath was usually taken by th« 
middle and upper classes immediately on arriving from a journey. 

2 ril bid Thesprio) — Ver. 655. Thesprio only appears once, and that at the 
beginning of the Play. This is certainly a prevalent fault with Plautus, who does 
not make tne most of Ins characters. Artotrogus, the Parasite, in the Miles 
Gloriosus, is lost to us after the First Scene. Sceparnio only appears in the First 
and Second Acts of the Rudens, and the honest Grumio is lost siglit of after th» 
First Act of the Mostellaria. It is not a sufficient excuse to plead that Arto- 
trogus and Thesprio are what were called " personse protaticse," characters whose 
business it is to introduce the plot, and do no more ; even though this example 
is followed by Terence, who similarly introduces Sosia in the Andria, Davus iu 
the Phormio, and Philotis in the Hecyra. 

3 By my running away)— Ver. 663. " Pedibus." Literally, " by my feet." 

* Decrepit oM people) — Ver. 664. " Decrepitos." From the verb " docrepo," 
*' to crackle," or " make a sputtering," as a candle does when going out, or ti.t 
iriek of a lamp when the oil fkils. 



Sc. III. OE, THE rOETUNATE DISCOVERT. 455 

Peri. Now do hold your tongue. Only let me catch the 
fellow! 

Ap. I'll tell you now, that you may know it. It's best for 
you to seek another companion; so much, while I've been 
following you, has the congested blood, from weariness, 
come down into the knees of poor me. 

Peri. xA.fter how many fashions has this fellow made sport 
of me and you to-day ! besides, how he has disembowelled my 
silver resources for me ! 

Ap. Away with him from me; for surely he's the son of 
Vulcan in his wrath : wherever he touches, he sets all on 
fire ; if you stand by him, he scorches you with his heat. 

Enter Epidicus, unperceived, from the house. 

Epid. (to himself). More than the twelve Gods, the im- 
mortal Grods as many as are in the heavens, are now assistants 
in my rescue, and are fighting on my side. As to whatever 
I liave ofiended in, I have aid and assistance at home^. All 
my enemies I quite spurn by the heels^. 

Peri, (looking about). "Where in the world shall I look 
for him ? 

Ap. So long as you look for him without me, you may look 
for him even in the middle of the sea, as far as I'm concerned. 

Epid. (coming forward, and addressing YEm:PKA.T!{E8). Why 
are you looking for me ? Why are you taking this trouble ? 
AVhy are you worrying him ? (Pointing to Ap^cides.) See, 
here I am. Have I run away from you ? Have I betaken 
myself from the house ? Have I hid myself from your sight ? 
I don't entreat you either. Do you wish to bind me ? Look 
then, I present my hands. (Holding out his hands.) You 
have got thongs ; I saw you purchase them. Why do you 
delay now ? Do bind me ! 

Peri. It's aU over^. He gives bail to me of his own ac- 
cord for his appearance. 

" Assistance at home) — Ver. 675. He alludes to Stratippocles, Telestis, Phi- 
lippa, Thesprio, and probably Chaeribulns, who are all ready to take his part j 
and, indeed, have good reason to do so, from the opportune discovery which he htM 
just made. 

■^ Spurn by the heels') — Ver. 676. 'A7roXaKrifu>. It has been more than once 
remarked that the use of Greek words was much affected by the Romans, in th» 
tsame way that we make use of French phrases. 

^ It's all over) —Ver. 682. " Ilicet." Literally, "you may begone;" tiM 
word used when judicial proceedings had terminated. 



456 EPIUICU3; Act Y, 

Epid. Why don't you bind me ? 

Ap. a wicked slave, upon my faith ! 

Epid. Eeally, Apaecides, I don't want you to intercede 
for me. 

Ap. You easily obtain your wish, Epidicus. 

Epid. {to Periphanes). Are you going to do anything? 

Peri. What, at your pleasure ? Epid. Troth, at my own, 
indeed, and not at yours, are these hands to be bound by 
you to-day. 

Pert. But I don't choose ; I shan't bind them. 

Ap. (to Periphanes). He's preparing to throw a drag- 
net over you ; he's frainiiig some plan, I know not what. 

Epid. You are causing delay to yourself, while I stand un- 
bound ; bind them, I tell you, bind them together. 

Peri. But I choose rather to question you unbound. 

Epid. But you shall know nothing. 

Peri, {turning to Ap^cides). What am I to do ? 

Ap. What are you to do ? Let him be complied with. 

Epid. You are a worthy person, Apaecides. 

Peri. Hold out your hands then. 

Epid. {holding out his hands). They don't at all object; 
bind them fast together too. Don't be afraid. (Periphanes 
hinds his hands.) Tm submissive. When the job is done, 
then pronounce your judgment^. 

Peri. There, that is good. Epid, Now then, to the point, 
with your enquiries of me ; ask me what you please. 

Peri. In the first place, with what assurance did you pre- 
sume to say that she who was bought the day before yester- 
day was my daughter ? 

Epid. I chose to ; on that assurance. 

Peri. Do you say so ? You chose to ? 

Epid. I do say so. Even lay me a wager that she is not 
the daughter • 

Peri. A woman whom the mother declares she doesn't 
know? 

Epid. Then, if she isn't the daughter of her mother, make 
me a bet ahout it, my didrachm to your talent^. 

Peri. Why, that's a mere catch. But who is this woman ? 

* Pronounce your judgment') — Ver. 692. " Arbitraminor" seems a better reading 
than " arhitramino." 

« My didrachm to your talent) — Ver. 698. The moderate odds of thre« 
hcasund to one. 



Sc. III. OR, THE rORTUNATE DISCOYERT. 457 

Epid. The mistress of your son, that you may know the 
whole matter. 

Peri. Did I not give you the thirty minae for my daughter ? 

Epid. I confess that they were given, and that with tliat 
money I purchased this Music-girl, your son's mistress, 
instead of your daughter. As to those thirty minae, in fact, 
I imposed upon you. 

Peri. For what reason did you play a trick upon me about 
that hired Music-girl ? 

Epid. T faith, I really did do it, and I think it was 
rightly done. 

Peri. In the last place, what has been done with the silver 
I gave 1/ou? 

Epid. I'll tell you ; I gave it to a person neither bad nor 
yet good^ — your son Stratippocles. 

Peri. Why did you dare to give it him ? 

Epid. Because it pleased me. Peri, (stamping). Plague 
on it ! what insolence is this ? 

Epid. Am I to be bawled at just as if I were a slave ? 

Peri, {ironically). As you are a free man, I rejoice. 

Epid. I have deserved to become so. 

Peri. Ton — deserved ? Epid. Go look in-doors ; I'll let 
you know that this is the truth. 

Peri. What's the matter? Epid. The thing itself will 
tell you so at once. Only do go in-doors. 

Peri. Aye, aye ! this is not without its meaning. Do you 
keep an eye on him, Apsecides. {Goes into his hovse.) 

Ap. What's the meaning of this, Epidicus ? 

Epid. I' faith, it's with the greatest injustice that I'm 
standing here bound, through whose aid his daughter has 
been discovered to-day. 

Ap. Do you say that you have found his daughter? 

Epid. I have found her^ and she is at home. But how 
hard it is, when, for services done, you reap a harvest of evil. 

A p. What, her whom this day we've both been weary 
with seeking throughout the city ? 

Epid. I'm weary with finding, you weary with seeking. 

^ Nor yet good) — Ver. 706. " Indigno" is read here in some editions fo\ 
"benigno," and is, perhaps, a better reading; though Epidicus may, possibly, iis 
Rest suggests, intend to allude satirically to the undecided and versatile character 
tf Stratippocles. 



458 EPiDiccs. Act V 

Enter PERiPHANES,/rom tlie home. 

Peri, (jat the door, to those within). AVhy do you entreat 
me thus earnestly in his behalf? For I find that he does 
deserve that I should be pleased to act according to hia 
deserts. {To Epidictjs.) Hold out your hands, you, that 
I may unbind them. 

Epid. Don't you touch them. Peei. But do you present 
them to me. 

Epid. I don't choose. Peri. Tou don't do right. 

Epid. Upon my faith, I'll never allow myself to be un- 
bound this day, unless you give me satisfaction. 

Peei. You ask what's very fair and very just. Shoes, a 
tunic, and a cloak I'll give you. 

Epid. What next, after that ? Peei. Tour freedom. 

Epid. But after that? There's need for a new-made 
freed-man to pick a bit^. 

Peei. It shall be given ; I'll find you food. 

Epid. On my word, never this day shall you release me, 
unless you beg my pardon. 

Peei. I do entreat you, Epidicus, to forgive me, if un- 
awares in fault I've done anything wrong. But by way of 
return for this matter, be a free man. 

Epid. Against my inclination do I grant you this pardon, 
but I'm compelled by necessity. Unbind them then, if 
you choose. (^He holds out his han