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(Bust in the Museum of the Louvre.) 









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The editors have undertaken the task of reediting entirely 
the well-known Allen & Greenough's Ccesar, to satisfy the ever- 
increasing demands of modern secondary education. In view 
of the improvements lately made in the text of Ccesar by 
Meusel and others, they have changed the readings in many 
places, following chiefly MeusePs as almost a new textus recep- 
tus. Most of the changes will at once commend themselves. 
The editors have in general been conservative in regard to 
spelling, especially the new spelling of old Gallic names, feeling 
that much that is proposed of that kind as yet lacks certainty. 
But they have adopted the spelling -is for the accusative plural 
of i-stems in accordance with the prevailing usage. They have 
allowed themselves full liberty in enriching the notes as to 
grammar, exegesis, and subject-matter. They have added very 
full suggestions for parallel reading, and have spared no pains to 
enrich the study of this famous piece of literature. The trea- 
tises on military affairs and other introductory matters have 
been rewritten and brought out of the notes under one head, 
so that a pupil may have a chance to gain some general infor- 
mation before he begins to read. Special attention has been 
given to indirect discourse, the bugbear of Latin education, 
and throughout the earlier books the direct form has been 
printed in full in the notes, that any teacher who desires may 

iv Preface. 

begin either the first or second book and avoid at the start the 
enormous difficulties of the indirect form. They have endeav- 
ored to put in every kind of illustration that might tend to 
make the story more real to the pupil's imagination. 

In order to encourage pupils to associate words together for 
acquiring a vocabulary they have made a large number of 
groups of words containing the same elements without intro- 
ducing the vague notion of roots. It is hoped that these may 
be found convenient to learn by heart, at least in some measure. 
Attention is also called to the foot-notes which have been added 
to the text. In the first four books these refer backward to 
some previous use of the same word. In the last three books 
reference is made to words of similar or opposite meaning, 
whereby it is thought that sight-reading may be facilitated. The 
editors have not thought it desirable to give any pronouncing 
vocabulary of proper 1 names, as generally these may be pro- 
nounced in the Latin manner, except those few that are familiar 
enough to have become English words, like Caesar and Cicero, 
which of course must be pronounced like English. The vocab- 
ulary has been enriched by a fuller insertion of idioms, and the 
etymological matter has been made clearer without sacrificing 
its peculiar character. 

J. B. G. 
April, 1898. B. L. D. 

M. G. D. 




List of Maps and Illustrations ...... vii 


I. Life of Cesar xiii 

II. Roman Military Affairs xxix 

III. Gaul and the Gauls xlv 

IV. The Britons lii 

V. The Germans liii 

VI. The Campaigns in Gaul liv 

VII. Reading Courses lv 

VIII. Directions for Reading lvii 

Book I i 

Book II 49 

Book III 74 

Book IV 94 

Book V 117 

Book VI 157 

Book VII 186 

Notes 247 

Groups of Related Words 443 




Babelon. — Description historique et chro- 
nologique des Monnaies de la R£pub- 
lique romaine. 1885. 

Baumeister. — Denkmaler des klassischen 
Altertums. 1885-88. 

Bertrand and Perrot. — Revue archeolo- 
gique, 3» S^rie, Tome X. 

Cohen. — Description gen^rale des Mon- 
naies de la Republique romaine, etc. 

Fleury. — Antiquity's et Monuments du 

d^partement de l'Aisne, etc. 1877-78. 
Froehner. — La Colonne trajane d'apres 

le surmoulage execute* a Rome en 1861- 

62, reproduite en phototypographie par 

Gustave Arosa. 1872. 
von Gdler. — Caesar's Gallischer Krieg, etc. 

Grasset. — Costumes de Guerre de Page du 

bronze et de l'ere gauloise. 1886. 
GuhlandKohner. — Ttot Life of the Greeks 

and Romans, described from Antique 

Monuments. 1875. 
Head. — A Guide to the Principal Gold and 

Silver Coins of the Ancients. (Br. 

Mus.) 1881. 
Jeuffrain. — Essai d'Interpr&ation de Types 

de quelques Me'dailles muettes, ^mises 

par les Celtes-Gaulois. 1846. 
von Kampen. — XV ad Caesaris de Bell. 

Gall. Commentaries Tabulae. 1879. 
Lindenschmidt. — Tracht und Bewaffnung 

des Romischen Heeres wahrend der 

Kaiserzeit, etc. 1882. 
Oehler. — Bilder-Atlas zu Caesars Biichern 

de Bell. Gall. 1890. 
Rheinhard. — C. Iulii Caesaris Commen- 

tarii de Bell. Gall. 1806. 
Schreiber. — Atlas of Classical Antiquities. 
Stoffel. — Guerre de C^sar et d'Arioviste. 

Visconti. — Iconographie romaine. 1817-84. 



Caesar. Bust in the Museum of the Louvre . . . Frontispiece. 
Map of Gaul. 

Campaign map of B.C. 58 1 

Two coins of Caesar. (1) Obverse: head of Venus. Re- 
verse : iEneas with Anchises and the palladium. CAE- 
SAR. (2) Obverse: head of Venus. Reverse: trophy 

and captives. CAESAR. Head I 

Pas de l'Ecluse (looking down stream). Photograph ... 5 
Map of Helvetia. Oehler 5 

viii List of Maps and Illustrations. 

Fig. Pagh 

7. Junction of the Rhone and Sa6ne (looking south). Photo- 

graph 9 

8. Coin of Piso. Obverse : head of a youth with winged 

diadem; behind, a star and crown; before, a simpulum. 
Reverse: M. PISO. M[arci] F[ilius] FRUGI ; a patera 
and a secespita, inclosed within a laurel wreath. Cohen . 10 

9. Coin of Cassius. Obverse : head of Apollo with sceptre be- 

hind. Reverse : Q. CASSIUS. Eagle resting on a thun- 
derbolt, between a lituus and a praefericulum. Cohen . 10 

10. Loading boats with supplies. Froehner 14 

11. Gallic remains. Grasset 16 

12. Cavalryman charging. Gravestone in Mainz. Oehler . . 19 

13. Cavalryman with vexillum. Col. of M. Aurelius. Oehler . 19 

14. Soldiers marching with packs (sarcinae). Froehner ... 21 

15. Roman javelins (pila). Oehler 22 

16. Plan of battle with the Helvetii. von Kampen 23 

17. Roman swords. Oehler 25 

18. View of Besancon (Vesontio). From a drawing .... 33 

19. C. Marius. Impression of a coin. Visconti 35 

20. View of the fortress of Belfort. Photograph 38 

21. Coin of the Fabian family. Obverse: ROMA Q. MAX. 

Laurelled head of Apollo, lyre in front. Reverse: horn 
of plenty filled with fruits; thunderbolts; the whole in a 

wreath of grain ears and poppy. Cohen 41 

22. Map of the campaign with Ariovistus. Stoffel 43 

23. Soldiers attacked while encamping. Froehner 44 

24. Ostheim, looking towards Zellenberg. Photograph .... 47 

25. Plan of battle with Ariovistus. Stoffel 47 

26. Campaign map of B.C. 57 48 

27. Writing materials: atramentarium (for black and red ink); 

papyrus letter sealed and addressed (M LVCRETIO 
tycha (folding tablet), stilus, and erasing knife. Wall 
painting. OverbecVs Pompeii 49 

28. Gaul with trumpet. Restoration from carvings on the Arc 

de Triomphe at Orange. Grasset 50 

29. Coin of Diviciacus, king of the Suessiones. Fleury ... 51 

30. Slinger (funditor). Diet, des Antiquith 53 

31. Berry au Bac. Photograph 54 

32. Battle on the Aisne. Oehler 55 

List of Maps and Illustrations. 

Fig. Pagb 

33. Vinea or Testudo. Oehler 58 

34. Hautmont. Photograph 61 

35. Defeat of the Nervii. Oehler 61 

36. Lituus 63 

37. Tuba 63 

38. Cornu 63 

39. Aquilifer. Lmdenschmidt 66 

40. Centurio. Lindenschmidt 66 

41. Citadel of Namur. Photograph 69 

42. Siege of the stronghold of the Aduatuci. From first ed. . 69 

43. Siege works, von Gdler 70 

44. Gallic coins. (1) Obverse : a Gaul running, with torch in 

one hand and torque (?) in the other. Reverse : bear (?). 

(2) Obverse: ox-head. Reverse: bear of the Helvetii. 
Fleury 73 

(3) (4) 0* uncertain interpretation. Some modification 
of the human head is seen, also the form of a horse or 
boar, with ornaments. Jeuffrain 72 

45. Shipbuilder. Grave relief (Ravenna). Schreiber .... 74 

46. Map of Octodurus. von Kampen 75 

47. Caesar. Bust in the British Museum 76 

48. Galley. From the Praeneste relief. Baumeister .... 79 

49. Map of the Veneti neighborhood. Altered from modern 

map 81 

50. View at mouth of the Loire. Photograph 82 

51. Roman battle ship. Wall painting at Pompeii. Oehler . . 83 

52. Trading vessel. Ancient relief. Baumeister 85 

53. Gallic sword-blade. Museum at Namur. Photograph . . 87 

54. Soldiers making camp. Froehner 91 

55. Pack-wagons and carts. Col. of M. Aurelius. Oehler . . 94 

56. Campaign map of B.C. 55-53 94 

57. Coins of Caesar. (1) Obverse: head of Venus. Reverse: 

trophy of Gallic arms. CAESAR. (2) Obverse: veiled 
head of Pietas. CAESAR CO[n]S[ul]TER. Reverse: 
lituus, praefericulum, and axe. A[ulus] HIRTIUS 

PR[aefectus]. Head 96 

58. Scenery on the Meuse. Photograph 99 

59. Bridge. From first ed 103 

60. Cliffs of Dover. u Shakespeare's Cliff." Photograph . . 107 

61. Catapulta. Modern restoration 109 

List of Maps and Illustrations. 

Fig. Pagb 

62. Anchor and tackle. Arc de Triomphe at Orange. Schreiber 1 1 1 

63. Soldiers foraging. Froehner 113 

64. Gallic coin. Jeuffrain 116 

65. Map of campaigns in Britain 116 

66. British coins. (1) Obverse: ear of grain, CAMV[lodunum]. 

Reverse : prancing horse, CVNO[belinus] (the Cymbeline 
of Shakespeare). (2) Obverse : unexplained devices. 
Reverse: horse, TASCOVIANUS. Head 117 

67. Boulogne. Photograph 118 

68. Testudo. Froehner 123 

69. Soldiers building camp, with guards. Froehner 125 

70. Signa Militaria. Guhl and Koner 129 

71. Roman Transports. Froehner 132 

72. Coin of L. Plancus. Obverse : bust of Victory. CAES[ar]. 

DIC[tator]TER. Reverse: a praefericulum. L. 

PLANC[us]. PRAEF(ectus). Head 134 

73. Hollow square. Col. of M. Aurelius. Oehler 139 

74. Roman camp assaulted. Froehner 143 

75. Ballista. Modern restoration 146 

76. Gallic coin. Obverse : human figure seated. Reverse : 

bear, serpent, and stars. Jeuffrain 152 

77. Gallic torques. Museum at Namur. Photograph .... 156 

78. Caesar. Bust in the Naples Museum 1 57 

79. Gallic chief. Museum at Avignon. Photograph .... 160 

80. Bridge. Model in the Museum of St. Germain. Oehler . 162 

81. Gallic coin. Jeuffrain 166 

82. Gallic coins. LVCOTI (Paris ?) ; human eye in profile, sup- 

posed to symbolize the sun. Fleury 168 

83. Statue of Ambiorix at Tongres. Photograph 174 

84. Sacrifice in camp. Military band (Cornicines). Froehner . 178 

85. Soldiers marching in presence of the Imperator. Froehner 182 

86. Chain mail. Fragment found at Mainz. Oehler .... 185 

87. Helmets. Schreiber 186 

88. Campaign map of B.C. 52 186 

89. Coin of Brutus and Albinus. Obverse : head of Mars. 

Reverse: ALBINVS BRVTI F[ilius]. Two Gallic 

trumpets crossed, oval and round shields. Head . . . 191 

90. Siege of Avaricum. von Kampen 194 

91. Bourges. Photograph 196 

92. View of siege works, von Kampen 198 

List of Maps and Illustrations. xi 

Fig. Page 

93. Plan of siege works, von Kampen 199 

94. Gallic wall. Model in the Museum of St. Germain, slightly 

restored from existing remains at Murcens. Oehler . . . 202 

95. Scorpio. Modern restoration 204 

96. Coin of the Bituriges. Obverse: beardless male head. 

Reverse : galloping horse, flying eagle above ; below three 

circles. ABVD OS (name of chief ?). Head 207 

97. Siege of Gergovia. Oehler 209 

98. Care of the wounded. Froehner 216 

99. Expeditio Labieni. von Kampen 225 

100. Defeat of Vercingetorix at the Vingeanne. von Kampen . 231 

101 Alise Ste. Reine (Alesia). Photograph 232 

102. Siege of Alesia. Oehler 234 

103. View of Caesar's line of works before Alesia. Model in the 

Museum of St. Germain. Oehler 236 

104. Light-armed soldier. Lindenschmidt 241 

105. Archer. Lindenschmidt 241 

106. Statue of Vercingetorix. Erected at Alesia by order of Napo- 

leon III. Designed by Bartholdi. Photograph .... 244 

107. The legionary. Slightly altered from Bartholdi's Model in 

the Museum of St. Germain 248 

108. Coin of Caesar. Obverse : head of Augustus. IMP[erator} 

P[ublicae] C[onstituendae]. Reverse: Julius Caesar stand- 
ing in a temple. DIVO IVL[io]. Star and altar. CO[n]- 

S[ul] ITER[um]-ET-TER-DESIG[natus]. Cohen . . 249 

109. Gallic coin. Fleury 252 

no. Gallic coin. Obverse: horse. VIRO (perhaps name of a 

chief), or VIRO[mandui]. Reverse: various devices. 

Fleury 255 

in. Gallic coin. Rude representation of a human head. Fleury 258 

112. Gallic coin. Horse, stars, circles. Fleury 261 

113. Gallic coin. Cock. Fleury 263 

114. Signifer. Lindenschmidt 267 

115. Soldiers. From first ed 273 

116. Scutum. Rheinhard 283 

117. Scutum. Rheinhard 283 

1 18. Wall and ditch. Oehler 307 

119. Castra Romana. Rheinhard 310 

120. General view of siege operations. Rheinhard 332 

xii List of Maps and Illustrations, 

Fig. Pagh 

121. Vexillum 335 

122. Aquila 374 

123. Gallic coin. Reverse: L. Hostilius Sasern[a]. Warrior 

righting, armed with spear and shield, in a Gallic chariot 

(essedum) driven by a charioteer holding a whip. Babeion. 376 

124. Gallic coin. Reverse: Warrior armed with spear and shield, 

and holding a Gallic trumpet (carnyx), standing in a two- 
wheeled chariot, drawn by two galloping horses. L[ucius] 

LIC[inius] CN[aeus] DOM[itius]. Bertrand & Perrot . 377 

125. Caliga. Oehler 379 

126. Oppugnatio. From first ed 390 

127. Signum 393 

128. Tabernaculum. Rheinhard 415 

129. Pluteus. Modern restoration 427 

130. Pluteus. Modern restoration 427 

131. Lilium. Oehler 442 

132. Stimulus. Oehler »..,...... 442 



" Julius Caesar, whose remembrance yet 

Lives in men's eyes, and will to ears and tongues 
Be theme and hearing ever." — Shakespeare. 

" The greatest name in history." — Merivale. 

I. The Political Condition of Italy in the First 
Century b.c. 

The Roman state was in form and name a commonwealth or 
republic. While Rome was a small agricultural community and her 
citizens a body of patriotic, sturdy, and independent freeholders, 
the task of government was easy and the constitution well adapted 
to its purpose. The wars that followed for the establishment and 
extension of her power at first fostered unity and soundness of 
national life. But in course of time Rome became an imperial 
state and took upon herself the guardianship of every country in 
the world. Wealth flowed into her coffers from every quarter of 
the earth, her citizens became corrupt, and the rule of the people 
became the rule of a rich landed aristocracy, whose principal ambi- 
tion was to perpetuate its mischievous power. The organ of this 
aristocracy was the senate, a body of six or seven hundred men, who 
became members of it nominally by virtue of holding certain high 
offices, and who remained senators for life. In theory, therefore, the 
senate was elective, and rested on the popular will ; but the members 
really became such on account of noble blood, wealth, or political, 
social, or other influence. Moreover, the great offices of the state 
came to be bought and sold openly and without shame, and oppos- 
ing factions contended not with ballots alone, but with iron and 

xiv Introduction. 

steel, so that the election place was frequently stained with the blood 
of the slain. It became increasingly difficult for one not possessing 
and willing to use such means to be elected to any office. 

Opposed to the landed aristocracy was a class of wealthy capital- 
ists known as equites, the " Equestrian Order." Many of these 
were as rich as the senators, but their wealth — most of it gained by 
usury, state contracts, slave-dealing, and tax-gathering — consisted 
of money instead of land. They took no active interest in politics 
excepting so far as they could influence legislation to their advan- 
tage by lobbying and bribing. 

There was no industrious middle class among the free citizens of 
Rome. Manufacture on a large scale, as a means of wealth, was 
absolutely unknown ; while all mechanical industries were carried on 
by slaves. The poorer class of citizens, the filebs, were wholly influ- 
enced in their votes by their wealthy patrons or by scheming dema- 
gogues. The freedmen were the only class who could become rich 
by industry. 

The rural portions of Italy were for the most part held in large 
plantations (Jatifundia), owned by nobles and cultivated by slaves, 
or, more frequently, occupied by great droves of cattle. This plan- 
tation system had crowded out the free peasant proprietors in almost 
all parts of the peninsula. After throwing up their farms, which 
foreign competition had made unprofitable, they flocked to Rome to 
swell the idle mob that lived on what their votes would bring. 
There still remained, especially in Northern Jtaly, a considerable 
body of small land owners ; and the municipal towns (municiftia), 
about four hundred in number, whose territories comprised, politi- 
cally speaking, the whole area of Italy, were still the home of a 
fairly prosperous middle class. These had all received Roman citi- 
zenship after the social war (b.c. 90) and might, by their substantial 
character and intelligence, have served as a strong opposition to the 
corrupt aristocracy at Rome ; but they lacked organization and 
leadership, and when they went to Rome to vote, they were wholly 
powerless against the turbulent political clubs of the metropolis, 
whose violence was a regular feature of all public proceedings. Yet 
in this class alone was the old Roman virtue to be found, and in 
it lay whatever hope there was to redeem the state. 

The Life of Caius Julius Ccesar. xv 

Another menace to the government was in the constitution of the 
armies. After a man had been consul, he was given charge of a 
province and was put in command of several legions. While abroad 
he was not amenable to the government at home, and when he 
returned he used his old soldiers to further his political schemes, and 
rewarded them at the expense of the opposing faction, often by 
wholesale spoliation and murder. 

Partisans of the nobility were known as Optimates j those opposed 
to them as Pofiulares. Before Caesar, the most conspicuous leader 
of the former had been Sulla, of the latter, Marius, Caesar's uncle by 
marriage. These two men by their thirst for power and mutual 
hatred filled all Italy with bloodshed and terror for years. Under 
the established rdgime there was no continuity in government, but a 
perpetual see-saw between rivals. Rome was kept in a constant 
electioneering excitement accompanied by the worst forms of demorali- 
zation. All the vast interests of the Roman world were sacrificed to 
the luxury and ambition of a governing class wholly incompetent for 
its task ; and the only resource against anarchy appears to have been 
that some one man, by craft or by force, should get all the reins of 
power into his single hand. That man was destined to be Julius 

II. Caesar's Earlier Career. 

" Better be first, he said, in a little Iberian village, 
Than be second in Rome." — Longfellow. 

Caius Julius Caesar {Gains Julius Caesar) was born July 12th, B.C. 
100, or, according to some authorities, two years earlier. Assuming 
the later date, he was six years younger than Pompey, his great rival, 
and Cicero, the distinguished orator. His ancestry was of the noblest, 
and was supposed to reach back on his mother's side to Ancus 
Marcius, the Roman king, and on the father's to iEneas, the founder 
of the Roman nation and reputed to be the son of a goddess. 

The time of his birth was during the great ascendancy of the 
Popular es under Marius, his uncle ; and his childhood was passed 
amid the horrors of the proscriptions that marked M anus's dictator- 
ship. Though Caesar was connected by blood with the oldest and 

xvi Introduction. 

proudest houses of Rome, he early showed his predilection for the 
party of the people ; and the sturdy Marius, with all his defects, 
doubtless exercised a marked influence over the life and destinies of 
his young nephew. Caesar lost his father early in life, so that most 
of the responsibility for his education and bringing up rested upon 
his mother, Aurelia. She was a typical matron of the old school, 
managing her house with simplicity and frugality, and holding to the 
traditions and virtues of the ancient Romans. Tacitus, the Roman 
historian, couples her name with that of Cornelia,^ the famous mother 
of the Gracchi. Caesar owed much of his future greatness to her 
influence, and his love and reverence for her are highly honorable to 

In the year 86, when Caesar was still a boy, he was appointed a 
priest of Jupiter. This office was a perfunctory one and had little 
real religious significance. In 83 he married Cornelia, the daughter 
of Cinna, an act which identified him thus early with the Populares; 
for Cinna was a very prominent leader of that party. It was soon 
after this that Sulla, the leader of the Optimates, returned from 
Asia Minor with a victorious army, prepared to take a terrible 
revenge for the proscription of Marius. Caesar soon fell under his 
displeasure because of his relationship to Marius. He was ordered 
to divorce his young wife because she was Cinna's daughter. In 
this crisis Caesar showed a prominent trait of his character, a trait 
which led him during all his life to brave every danger rather than 
allow himself to be controlled. Though but a youth, he refused to 
obey Sulla's command. A price was set on his head and he was 
obliged to flee for his life. Often he was in great peril, and once he 
was taken, and escaped only by bribing his captor. His friends 
interceded for him, pleading his youth, and finally obtained his par- 
don, Sulla saying, " Take him, since you will have it so ; but I would 
have you know that the youth for whom you are so earnest, will one 
day overthrow the aristocracy. I see in him many Mariuses." 

Caesar thinking it safer to leave Italy for a time went to Asia 
Minor, where he gained some military experience and distinguished 
himself for valor by saving a comrade's life. Sulla died in j8 and 
Caesar returned to his family and resumed his studies. He was a 
diligent and thorough student and doubtless followed the usual course 

The Life of Cuius Julius Ccesar. xvii 

of Greek, rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, and oratory. To be a good 
speaker was essential to political success, and Caesar was especially 
anxious to excel in that direction. He gave some public exhibitions 
of his skill and won much applause ; but anxious to perfect himself 
still farther he went to Rhodes in 76, to study under Apollonius 
Molon, the most famous teacher of oratory and rhetoric of the day. 
On this journey, when near Miletus, he was captured by pirates and 
held for a heavy ransom. He spent some time among them while 
waiting for the money, and joined in their sports and games with the 
greatest freedom, at the same time assuring them that he would hang 
them all as soon as he was free. They seem to have regarded him 
with mingled awe and admiration. The ransom was paid. Caesar 
was released, went at once to Miletus, where he hastily collected 
a few ships and made a descent on the pirates before they dreamt 
of danger. He recovered the ransom money and punished the pirates 
as he had threatened. 

On his return to Rome, he began his political career (b.c. 68) by 
serving as quaestor, an office connected with the public treasury and 
the first step toward the consulship. This was followed in 65 by the 
aedileship. The taking of this office, which was one of the chief 
magistracies, though it involved only the care of the public buildings 
and the oversight of the great festivals and games, was considered 
a direct bid for a future consulship, and a man's claims upon that 
higher office were determined in large measure by the lavishness and 
splendor of his aedileship. Caesar was poor, but with characteristic 
boldness he played for the highest political stakes and did not hesi- 
tate to incur enormous debts, in fact so enormous that those who had 
not the most perfect confidence in his capacity and his powers believed 
him irretrievably ruined. His aedileship surpassed all before it in 
magnificence ; but he left it — as he remarked with grim humor — 
worth more than a million dollars less than nothing. 

After his aedileship he identified himself more and more with the 
popular faction, and even dared to restore some of the statues and 
trophies of Marius, which had been banished from sight seventeen 
years before by the order of Sulla. The people began to hope for 
a successful revival of the Marian party and to look to Caesar as its 

xviii Introduction. 

In B.C. 63 he was elected pontifex maximus against the strong 
opposition of the Optimates. This office was one of great political 
power and dignity, though not formally a civil office. Caesar held it 
for the rest of his life. In 62 he was elected praetor, an office of a 
judicial character, and this was followed by a year of command in 
Spain as propraetor. Before leaving for Spain, his creditors became 
insistent and threatened to detain him unless he paid them. Caesar 
then obtained a large loan from the richest man in Rome, Crassus, 
who was ambitious for office and doubtless hoped to make good use 
in turn of Caesar's brilliant abilities to further his own ends. 

In Spain Caesar gained valuable military experience and made his 
administration so profitable to himself, as was usual with provincial 
governors, that, though he left Rome owing millions of sesterces, he 
returned in the year 60 with enough money to pay all his debts. His 
design was to run for the consulship, the highest office in the gift of 
the people. To secure his election he effected a union of interests 
between himself and Crassus and Pompey. These were the two 
most powerful men in Rome, — Crassus because of his wealth, Pom- 
pey because of his fame as a general and his popularity with the 
army. The latter was, in fact, really the first man in the state. He 
had but recently returned from Asia Minor laden with the spoils 
of the Mithridatic war, and might easily have seized the dictatorship 
had he so chosen ; but he disbanded his army and preferred to appear 
as a private citizen, but with almost autocratic power. He had quar- 
reled with Crassus, but Caesar reconciled them, and the three formed 
a sort of offensive and defensive alliance known as the first trium- 
virate, — what we should call a political deal. This was for Caesar, 
who was at that time quite their inferior in fame and influence, a 
master stroke of craft and diplomacy. 

In 59 Caesar was elected consul almost without opposition. He 
well understood the critical condition of affairs and saw clearly the 
dangers that threatened the state, and instituted valuable reforms 
looking to its regeneration and salvation. The army and the moneyed 
classes represented by Pompey and Crassus were with him, and he 
could do almost as he pleased. His first act was the passage of an 
agrarian law, by which thousands of acres were to be distributed 
to the poor. This was not a mere act of bribery, but an attempt to 

The Life of Cuius Julius Ccesar. xix 

restore the peasant freeholders, who had been dispossessed by the 
rich. Then he passed the excellent body of laws known as the 
Leges Julia*, which mark an epoch in Roman jurisprudence, and 
which were devised in the interests of individual rights, purity of 
justice, morality, and good government. All that one man could do 
in a single year to save his country from anarchy, Caesar did. 

Caesar was now forty-three years of age. With the exception of 
the time spent in Spain, his life had been employed in petty miser- 
able contests with Roman factions. He longed for a new and larger 
field where he might have freedom to perform deeds worthy of his 
surpassing abilities and unbounded ambition. This opportunity came 
to him when, as proconsul, he was entrusted with the protection of 
the northern frontier against the Gauls, and was assigned the prov- 
inces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum. It was a 
most hazardous post and doubtless many of the Optimates thought 
that they were well rid of him. 

III. Cesar in Gaul. 

" What security men derive from a resolute spirit." — Ceesar. 

By the ' deal ' of the triumvirate, Caesar was to have the govern- 
ment of Gaul for five years, while Crassus and Pompey were to 
remain in the city to look after the interests of the coalition. The 
bond was farther strengthened by the marriage of Pompey with Julia, 
Caesar's young and beautiful daughter. 

Caesar, as we have seen, was over forty when he went to Gaul. 
He was.nore of a civilian than a soldier and was far more at home 
in the Forum than in the camp. Alexander, Hannibal, and Napoleon 
had been trained in war from childhood. The qualities that are most 
potent in war — hope, confidence, audacity, and pugnacity — are 
qualities that belong to youth. So Caesar is an anomaly in military 
history. In spite of his years and his comparative inexperience, he 
leaped at once to the highest place, and is counted to-day among 
the three or four greatest generals in history, if not the greatest 
of them all. He never lost a set battle and he showed infinite versa- 
tility in adapting means to ends, always doing the right thing at the 

xx Introduction. 

right time. He never admits the possibility of defeat and overcomes 
the most stupendous difficulties with such ease that he rarely speaks 
of them. His promptness of decision and rapidity of execution were 
"such that the enemy were constantly overwhelmed with awe and 
were led to regard him as a supernatural being. * Forced marches,' 
1 continuous marching day and night,' * as quickly as possible ' are 
phrases that recur again and again in his narrative. Only a natural 
ruler of men could get things done with such swiftness. He carried 
out his plans with the greatest audacity and, at the same time, with- 
out recklessness. No one could be more minute and thorough in 
preparations than he. No one left less chance for luck, good or bad, 
to enter into the result. In all that was done, his was the masterful 
and presiding genius, and the legions rarely accomplished much in 
his absence. His relations with his soldiers were most cordial. They 
idolized him and he respected and admired them and constantly 
labored for their safety and comfort. He allows them to share in 
the glory of his victories and in his story lingers with delight over 
their heroic exploits. He shared all their dangers and privations, 
he excelled personally in deeds of arms, and he allowed himself no 
luxury but a favorite horse. It is not strange that when trouble 
came upon their master, his soldiers were true to him, and even 
volunteered to serve without pay. Only three of his officers, two 
of them Gauls, went over to the enemy, while thousands came to 
him from the other side. 

After two successful campaigns in Gaul, in the spring of B.C. 56, 
Caesar met his two confederates at Luca, in Etruria, to arrange their 
future schemes. The conference was held with great display, almost 
like a royal court. More than two hundred senators were present, 
and one hundred and twenty lictors were in attendance, attached to 
the several magistrates. At this conference it was agreed that Pom- 
pey and Crassus should hold the consulship the following year, and, 
after their term of office, should receive by popular vote a similar 
command to that held by Caesar, — namely, that Pompey should 
command in Spain and Crassus in Syria for five years each ; also 
that when Caesar's five years were up, he should receive in the 
same way a second term of five years. His ten years' adminis- 
tration would then close at the end of B.C. 49 ; after which time 

The Life of Caius Julius Ccesar. xxi 

— an interval of ten years having elapsed — he would be eligible 
again as consul. 

The programme was duly carried out. Crassus departed (b.c. 54) 
to his province, where he was defeated the next year by the Parthians 
in the battle of Carrhae, and shortly after entrapped and killed. 
Pompey put his province into the hands of one of his subordinates, 
and remained in the neighborhood of Rome, unwilling to remove 
from the seat of his personal influence. 

Caesar served eight campaigns in Gaul, an account of which is 
contained in the eight books of his Commentaries. Seven of these 
he wrote himself. The eighth was written by his friend and staff- 
officer, Hirtius. During these years he stormed more than 800 
towns and subdued 300 tribes, engaged with more than 3,000,000 
men, swept over a million human beings from the earth, and took a 
million more prisoners to be sold into slavery. " He was the first to 
lead an army into interior Gaul, the first to cross the Rhine into Ger- 
many, the first to bring a navy into the Western Ocean or to sail into 
the Atlantic with an army to make war." He left a magnificent 
country for the Romans to appropriate and retain until their increas- 
ing corruption left it in turn an easy prey to the Germans. He 
inspired such terror of the Roman arms that the tide of barbarian 
invasion was stayed for centuries. 

IV. Cesar's Later Career. 

" The foremost man of all this world." — Shakespeare. 

" Caesar could bear no superior, Pompey no equal." — Lucan. 

Meanwhile events had been moving on at Rome. With Crassus 
dead, Caesar and Pompey were left in the enjoyment of almost abso- 
lute authority. They had been friends from youth, but none the less 
rivals, and the death of Julia (b.c. 54) sundered the last ties that bound 
them together. In 52 Pompey had been made sole consul and found 
himself at the head of a party which, under cover of the constitution, 
was determined to destroy Caesar that it might retain the power which 
his reforms threatened to place in worthier hands. 

Caesar's proconsulship of Gaul would expire at the end of B.C. 49. 
He wished to run for a second consulship in B.C. 48. The senate 

xxii Introduction. 

resolved to prevent this, and commanded him to resign his office and 
disband his army several months before the expiration of his term. 
If they could once get him to Rome as a private citizen without an 
army, they knew they could crush him. Caesar knew this too, and 
refused to obey the decree unless Pompey should also disband his 
troops. Pompey would have been willing to agree to this fair propo- 
sition, but his friends would not permit him, and were bent on 
destroying Caesar. Naturally the charge of false play was made 
on both sides, and the strife continued until Caesar was finally 
declared a public enemy. He therefore crossed the Rubicon, a 
small stream which formed the boundary of his province and the 
limit of his authority, and began to march towards Rome. He took 
but a single legion with him and continued his efforts to come to an 
understanding with the Optimates, having hopes of a compromise. 
He made a speech to his soldiers, explaining the situation, and was 
assured of their enthusiastic support. Labienus alone deserted him, 
corrupted, it is said, by Roman gold. 

Caesar's march through Italy was like a triumphal procession ; the 
cities opened their gates to him and he was everywhere hailed with 
enthusiasm. Among the Optimates there was nothing but conster- 
nation and fear. They had pinned their faith to Pompey, who had 
boasted that he had but to stamp his foot on the ground and legions 
would spring from the earth ready to obey him. He had vastly over- 
rated himself (as was his wont), and had no conception of Caesar's 
power and genius. Cicero well sums up the situation in a letter to 
his friend Atticus : " The consuls are helpless. There has been no 
levy. With Caesar pressing forward and our general doing nothing, 
the men will not come to be enrolled. Pompey is prostrate, without 
courage, without purpose, without force, without energy." Pompey 
had been looked upon by his partisans as almost divine. He had 
been peculiarly fortunate throughout his career and had made a great 
military reputation by assuming the laurels that others had won. 
Mommsen says of him : " He was radically a commonplace man, 
formed by nature to make a good corporal, but forced by circum- 
stances to be a general." Now that he was confronted by a really 
serious difficulty and by a really able man, he was paralyzed. 

Pompey with his forces and accompanied by the senators fled in 

The Life of Caius Julius Ccesar. xxiii 

a panic to Brundisium and sailed across the Adriatic to Epirus. 
Caesar meanwhile continued his victorious advance, and in sixty days 
was master of Italy. Then he went to Spain, and before autumn 
closed had met and defeated all opposition there. Returning to 
Rome he made preparations to follow Pompey. Many prominent 
Optimates had fallen into his hands, but he let them all go free, to 
their own great amazement and to Caesar's eternal praise. In a letter 
he says : " I will conquer after a new fashion and fortify myself in 
the possession of the power I acquire by generosity and mercy." 

Caesar followed Pompey across the sea from Brundisium, transport- 
ing his army in two divisions. He encountered considerable diffi- 
culty on account of storms and the lack of ships. After much skir- 
mishing, anxiety, and suffering (on Caesar's part), owing to scarcity 
of food and supplies, he fought a battle at Pharsalia in Thessaly on 
Aug. 9, B.C. 48. Before the battle Pompey 's officers felt so sure of 
victory that a rich banquet was spread awaiting their return from the 
field. In numbers and equipment Pompey was much superior, and 
with him was all the wealth and respectability of Rome. He had 
45,000 infantry and 5000 cavalry against Caesar's 22,000 and 1000, 
respectively ; but he was overwhelmingly defeated and the battle 
ended in a terrible panic and great slaughter, in which 15,000 men 
lost their lives. As Caesar viewed the slain he said sadly : " They 
would have it so. After all that I had done for my country, I, Gaius 
Caesar, should have been condemned as a criminal if I had not 
appealed to my army." 

Pompey fled for his life and took ship to Egypt and was there 
murdered by the king, who hoped thus to win Caesar's favor. When 
Caesar arrived there, however, a few days later, and Pompey's head 
was presented to him, he is said to have turned away from the sight 
with horror and grief. He now overcame all remaining opposition in 
several short and brilliant campaigns. The first of these was in Asia 
Minor, where he conquered so easily that he reported it to the senate 
in the words that have since become famous : " Veni, vidi, via." 
By the battle of Thapsus in Africa (B.C. 46) and that of Munda in 
Spain (B.C. 45), the Pompeian party was finally crushed. 

Caesar now returned to Rome, where he was made imperator — 
possessing the entire imperium^ or military dominion of Rome, not 

xxiv Introduction. 

of a single colony or province merely — and perpetual dictator (dic- 
tator perpetud), which offices clothed him with all the political 
authority of the state. By the powers thus conferred he laid the 
foundations of the Imperial constitution, which was afterwards 
(B.C. 30) set in operation by his grand-nephew and adopted son, 
Octavianus, later known as Augustus. This scheme of government 
eventually became (as was possibly foreseen from the start) an 
hereditary monarchy, under the name and form of a republic. Dur- 
ing the short period of Caesar's rule he continued the good work of 
his first consulship and carried a series of measures of wise and prac- 
tical statesmanship, such as the reform of the calendar, the regula- 
tion of the administrative system, and the policy of checks upon the 
abuses of the money power. He also planned extensive military 
expeditions against Parthia, Scythia, and Germany, and large public 
works and improvements, such as draining the Pomptine marshes 
and cutting through the isthmus of Corinth. With characteristic 
energy he accomplished much in a very short time. 

But the possession of this exalted authority involved the utter over- 
throw of the constitution and necessarily excited alarm and jealousy 
among patriots and demagogues alike. Rumors were abroad that 
Caesar was seeking to be king, a name detested at Rome since the 
foundation of the republic. His rivals were jealous, and not a few 
friends were disappointed at not having received as large favors as 
they thought they deserved. Many of his former enemies were bitter 
against him, because he had been magnanimous enough to forgive 
them. These feelings culminated in a conspiracy against his life. 
The leaders were Cassius, a violent and fearless man driven mad by 
jealousy and baffled ambition ; and Marcus Brutus, who had no 
better friend than Caesar, but who fancied that he must emulate his 
ancestor, Brutus the first consul, who expelled the Tarquins. Caesar 
received many warnings of what was going on, but disregarded them 
all with his usual indifference to danger. The deed was consum- 
mated in the senate-house on the Ides of March, B.C. 44. The 
great dictator was struck down by false friends and fell, pierced 
with wounds, at the foot of Pompey's statue. This dastardly act 
received the condemnation it deserved, and few have dared to 
defend it on the ground of patriotism. Those concerned in it all 

The Life of Caius Julius Ccesar. xxv 

died violent deaths- soon after. Both Brutus and Cassius committed 
suicide, the latter stabbing himself with the very dagger which he 
had used against Caesar. 1 

V. Person and Character of Cesar. 

" Death makes no conquest of this conqueror 

For now he lives in fame, though not in life." — Shakespeare. 
"Great Julius, whom all the world admires." — Milton. 

Suetonius describes Caesar when a youth as tall, slight, and hand- 
some, with dark piercing eyes, a sallow complexion, large nose, lips 
full, features refined and intellectual, neck sinewy and thick. He 
adds further that he was neat to effeminacy about his dress and 
appearance. Fond of athletics, he excelled in all manly sports, 
especially in riding. In danger he knew no fear and often per- 
formed acts of great personal daring. His health was vigorous until 
his later years, and he could endure an apparently unlimited amount 
of labor and hardship. Added years gave him a majestic and com- 
manding presence without detracting from the grace and courtesy 
of his bearing. We judge him to have been a man of singular charm 
and of unusual personal magnetism. 

Thanks to the peculiar skill possessed by the ancients in the art 
of portraiture, we have good reason to believe that we may see the 
great dictator as he was, from existing statues and busts. Two of 
the most noted of these are the busts in the British Museum (Fig. 
47) and that in the Louvre (Fig. i). The one in the Naples Museum 
(Fig. 78) is judged by competent critics to be conventional and not 
modelled after the living man. Those first mentioned are thought to 
be true to life. The one in the British Museum shows us Caesar the 
statesman, the man of peace ; the one in the Louvre, Caesar the man 
of action, the martial hero. 2 

1 For a vivid imaginative account of the conspiracy, see Shakespeare's " Julius 

2 On the portraits of Caesar, see an illustrated article by Mr. John S. Ropes in 
Scribner's Magazine for February, 1887, and S. Baring-Gould's ■ Tragedy of the 
Caesars," VoL I. 

xxvi Introduction. 

What Alexander was to the Greeks, and Hannibal to the Cartha- 
ginians, that and much more was Caesar to the Romans. The two 
former excelled all men of their times in war only ; but Caesar had 
such extraordinary abilities in widely different directions that many 
regard him as the most remarkable man that history records. In 
whatever he did, he always did the best possible. He had the great- 
est diversity of gifts : as a student of language, he composed a treatise 
on grammar while crossing the Alps ; as an orator, Quintilian says 
he would have rivalled Cicero had he devoted his time to this art ; as 
a general, he has had no superior and hardly a peer ; and, above all, 
he was the greatest politician and statesman of his time. To his 
statecraft all his other acts are subordinate, and by this they should 
be interpreted. 

Caesar was too great a man to be without enemies. He has been 
accused of being a traitor to his country, who by a deep-laid scheme 
overthrew its constitution. He was undoubtedly ambitious for power, 
and he used it in making such changes in the constitution as were 
sorely needed to keep it from going to pieces ; but how far the acts 
by which he accomplished this desirable end were the result of a 
plan to further his personal ambition, and how far they were com- 
pelled by the stress of circumstances, we cannot judge. We do 
know, however, that he professed an earnest desire for peace, until 
he was driven into war by the hatred and perversity of his opponents. 

He has also been accused of immorality, cruelty, and irreligion. 
It would be vain to maintain that Caesar was a model of virtue in 
an age that was notoriously and openly wicked and profligate. We 
know that Caesar was a man of perfect self-control, and that he was 
remarkable for extreme abstemiousness in eating and drinking. As 
for the rest, he was probably no worse than the average. 

Doubtless he was cruel, judged by modern standards. He butch- 
ered without mercy thousands of defenceless men, women, and chil- 
dren. But we must remember that Caesar was a Roman, of a people 
naturally cruel and careless of bloodshed, and, again, that he was 
dealing with Gauls and Germans, whom the Romans despised, and 
for whom he had not, nor could have, any feelings of sympathy or 
kindness. The doctrine of human brotherhood is something he never 
heard of. But, on the other hand, contrast with this his constant care 

The Life of Cuius Julius Ccesar. xxvii 

and anxiety for the welfare of his soldiers, his patience and forbear- 
ance with their mistakes, such as no modern commander has exhibited 
in his memoirs, and, above all, recall his mercy to his opponents in 
the Civil War, whom he freely pardoned and restored to honor and 
favor. Contrast Caesar's dictatorship with the horrors of Marius and 
Sulla, and we cannot wonder that his clemency became famous. 

That Caesar was a skeptic is no doubt true. The age was skeptical 
and the learned classes no longer believed in the gods of their fore- 
fathers. What Caesar's real beliefs were, or if he had any, we do 
not know. He often speaks of fortune as ruling in the affairs of men, 
and probably had some vague and dimly denned belief in a supreme 

VI. Cesar's Literary Work. 

As a man of letters Caesar is hardly less eminent. His vast and 
massive intellect could hold in its grasp a great variety of subjects. 
He wrote on many different themes, such as philosophy, language, 
astronomy, and divination. Of all his books only his Commentaries 
on the Gallic and Civil Wars have come down to us in complete 
form. They stand as the best military history that was ever written. 
Their ulterior purpose was to justify him in the eyes of the world 
for the course he took in opposing the senate and the government. 
He does this rarely by argument, but by such a tactful and master- 
ful collocation of facts that the unthinking reader feels himself per- 
suaded that Caesar could hardly have done otherwise. 

The style of these memoirs is remarkable for directness, terseness, 
and simplicity. Cicero, one of the greatest masters of style, says of 
them, " I pronounce them indeed to be very commendable, for they 
are simple, straight-forward, agreeable, with all rhetorical ornament 
stripped from them as one strips off a garment." While the lan- 
guage is lucid, it is packed full of meaning, and even a good Latinist 
needs to read slowly and with deliberation that the full thought of 
each sentence may be gathered. Sometimes a whole sentence is 
crammed into an adjective or a participle. To translate into good 
English requires, therefore, frequent amplification. 

Like all great men, Caesar rarely speaks of himself. In his works 
he refers to himself in the third person and with such modesty and 

xxviii Introduction. 

impartiality that you would never suspect him to be the writer. He 
betrays his identity by three slips of the pen where he uses the first 
person. He never struts or poses for effect, not even when he is 
narrating sublime deeds of heroism. 

Caesar wrote his Commentaries in the midst of intense activity. 
They were jotted down as he journeyed and fought ; mere notes, 
as it were, for future amplification. Hirtius says, " While others 
know how faultlessly they are written, I know with what ease and 
rapidity he dashed them off." 

For us the Gallic War has a peculiar interest because it treats of 
the peoples with whom we are most familiar and from whom most 
of us derive our ancestry. It marks, in a sense, the beginning of 
modern history. Active, keen-sighted, and truthful, Caesar gives us 
such insight into these nations as serves to explain many of their 
present political and social peculiarities. 

VII. Important Events in Cesar's Life. 

c. ioo Born, July 12th. 

83 Marries Cornelia, the Daughter of Cinna. 

80-78 Serves with the Army in Asia. 

76-75 Studies Oratory at Rhodes. 

68 Quaestor. 

65 iEdile. 

63 Pontifex Maximus. 

62 Praetor. 

61 Propraetor in Spain. 

60 Forms the First Triumvirate. 

59 Consul. 

58-49 Proconsul in Gaul. 

56 Meeting of the Triumvirate at Luca. 

50 The Trouble with Pompey begins. 

49 Crosses the Rubicon. Civil War begun. 

48 The Battle of Pharsalia. 

46 The Battle of Thapsus. Declared Dictator for ten years. 

45 The Battle of Munda. Appointed Imperator for life. 

44 The Conspiracy. Assassinated in the Senate House on 
the Ides of March. 

Roman Military Affairs. 




I. The Army and its Divisions. 

i. The Legions. 4. The Engineers and Artisans. 

2. The Cavalry. 5. The Artillery. 

3. The Auxiliaries. 6. The Baggage Train. 

7. The Officers and their Staff. 

II. The Standards. 

III. The Music. 

a. Enlistment. 

b. Clothing. 

c. Armor. 

IV. The Legionary. 

d. Weapons. 

e. Baggage. 
/. Food. 

g. Work. 

h. Pay. 

/'. Discipline. 

V. The Camp. VI. The March. VII. The Battle. 

VIII. The Siege. IX. The Fleet. 

I. The Army and its Divisions. 

1. The Legions. 

The Roman legion corresponded to a modern Division, but was 
more an organic whole, since it was the smallest unit that had sepa- 
rate line officers. What its normal strength was in Caesar's time we 
have no means of knowing ; but a probable estimate puts it at 5000 
men. The actual effective strength in the field, however, was usually 
much less, falling to 3000 men, as at the battle of Pharsalia (on 
Caesar's own authority). This variation in number was due to the 
many absences from duty which always occur in a military organiza- 
tion, and to the losses incurred by the individual legions in previous 
campaigns. Losses in old legions were not usually made good by 
new recruits, but the latter were formed into new legions ; hence the 
older the legion, the smaller usually its enrollment. The average 
effective strength of the legion in the Gallic War was probably near 
3600 men. 

xxx Introduction. 

The subdivisions of the legions were as follows : 

i legion =10 cohorts of about 360 men each. 
1 cohort =3 maniples of 120 men each. 
1 maniple = 2 centuries of 60 men each. 

There were, therefore, 10 cohorts, 30 maniples, and 60 centuries in 
each legion. These divisions did not, however, like our companies, 
have special "commissioned officers," but were commanded by centu- 
rions who came from the ranks. The legions constituted the main 
body of the army and did most of the fighting, but there were other 
arms employed for various purposes (see below). The legions were 
designated by numbers, given in the order of their enlistment. 

2. The Cavalry. 

The cavalry (equitatus), originally of Roman citizens, was in 
Caesar's time composed almost exclusively of recruits from subject or 
allied states. In Caesar's army it was composed of Gauls, Spaniards, 
and Germans. There was no fixed ratio between the number of 
legionaries and cavalry. In the campaign against the Helvetians, 
Caesar had 4000 equites, in the battle of Pharsalia, 1000 ; but the 
number of legions was the same in both. 

The cavalry was divided into regiments (alae) of about 330 horse- 
men each; these were subdivided into 10 squadrons (turmae) of 
33 horsemen each ; and these again into 3 squads (decuriae) of 1 1 
each. See Figs. 12, 13. 

3. The Auxiliaries. 

The auxiliaries (auxilia peditutri) were infantry forces from allied 
and subject states. Caesar nowhere gives the number of his auxilia s 
and it was doubtless as various as that of his cavalry. They were the 
light-armed soldiers (milites levis armaturae), the archers (sagit- 
tarii), and the slingers (funditores). See Figs. 30, 104, 105, 115. 
The best slingers came from the Balearic Islands, the best archers 
from Crete and Numidia. The light-armed soldiers wore no heavy 
armor and carried a light round shield (par ma). The archers had 
neither corselet, helmet, nor shield. The latter they could not carry 
on account of their bows, 

Roman Military Affairs. xxxi 

Caesar placed little reliance on his auxilia for actual fighting, but 
used them for the most part to make a show of force and frighten 
the enemy (Bk. i. 51), and to assist in building fortifications. In 
engagements the bowmen and slingers were usually stationed on the 
wings (alae), and from this were called alarii. 

4. The Engineers and Artisans. 

The engineers and artisans (fabri) sometimes formed a separate 
corps under the command of a chief engineer {praefectus fabrum), 
and sometimes they were called from the ranks of the legions when 
their services were needed. Caesar had a chief engineer, but no 
special body of men (cf. Bk. v. 11). They were employed in build- 
ing bridges, ships, winter quarters, and in repairing weapons and 

5. The Artillery. 

Engines of war were not often used on the battlefield, where 
modern artillery forms such an important branch of the service, but 
mainly in the defence and assault of fortified cities or camps. They 
had a limited use also in the fleet (Bk. iv. 25). 

We have no exact account of the construction of these engines. 
Caesar almost always calls them tormenta (cf. torquere, to twist), a 
name which clearly points to the elasticity of twisted rope, sinew, or 
hair, for the source of their energy. They were of three kinds : 
catapultae, ballistae, and scorpiones (see Figs. 61 , 75, 95). The cata- 
pultae shot great arrows in a horizontal direction, like a cannon ; the 
ballistae hurled great stones or heavy blocks of wood through the 
air in a high curve, as a mortar throws shells. The range of these 
weapons was from 1 500 to 2000 ft. A scorpio was a small catapult 
having a range of about 350 ft. It was an accurate and deadly 
weapon. Caesar tells of one at the siege of Avaricum that marked 
and killed man after man in the same spot (Bk. vii. 25). The 
tormenta were usually served and kept in repair by the fabri, but as 
Caesar had no such corps, they were probably in his army served by 

xxxii Introduction. 

6. The Baggage Train. 

The baggage of the army, except the packs corresponding to 
knapsacks which the soldiers themselves carried (sarcinae), was 
borne by horses and mules (iumentd), and in wagons. The latter, 
however, were used mainly by the traders (mercatores) and sutlers 
(lixae) that followed the legion. The baggage of each legion was 
by no means inconsiderable. It consisted of tents, blankets, tools, 
the tormenta, provisions, etc., and required no less than 500 pack- 
animals to a legion. The inconvenience and delay occasioned by 
the care of so much baggage caused the Romans to call it impedi- 
menta (incumbrances), and a legion marching with its baggage 
was called legio impedita; when without, legio expedita. Along with 
the baggage train went a multitude of drivers, grooms, officers' 
servants, and other menials, all of whom are included in the general 
term calones. Most or all of these were slaves. See Figs. 14, 55. 

7. The Officers and their Staff. 

The superior officers were : (1) the commander-in-chief {imperator 
or dux belli). He possessed the imperium or supreme military 
authority by virtue of his office, but by etiquette first received the 
name imperator from his soldiers after his first victory. In Caesar's 
case it was bestowed after his victory over the Helvetii. 

(2) The legati. These were men of senatorial rank (i.e. who had 
once held a curule magistracy). They were appointed by the senate 
or the people on the nomination of the proconsul. The senate also 
determined the number that a general should have ; Caesar had ten. 
They often acted as ambassadors and made treaties, but their chief 
duties were military. Their powers were in no way independent, but 
derived from the general, who might put them in command of one or 
more legions or confer upon them the imperium in his absence 
(legatus pro praetore). In his battle with Ariovistus Caesar placed 
a legatus at the head of each of his legions (Bk. i. 53), thus giving 
them an independent command, a practice which he afterwards con- 
tinued to the great advantage of the service. 

(3) The quaes tores were officers elected by the people annually to 
administer the financial affairs of the provinces, one for each imperator* 

Roman Military Affairs. xxxiii 

They had charge of the military chest, and saw to the pay, clothing, 
shelter, and general equipment of the legions serving in their respec- 
tive provinces. On occasion they exercised the military authority of 
a legatus (Bk. i. 53); they were the ancient equivalent of a modern 
quartermaster. Besides these general officers, there were attached to 
each legion six tribuni militum, who were probably originally in com- 
mand of the legion. They were divided into three pairs, each pair 
taking command in its turn. In Caesar's time they were no longer 
trained soldiers, but chiefly young men of equestrian rank, who went 
into the army for a year or two to get some military experience and 
thus begin their public career (cf. Bk. i. 39), so that ordinarily the 
legion had no proper commanding officers. Caesar was not slow 
to see that these political and social favorites were not the men 
to lead his legions into battle, and he therefore introduced the 
lasting reform of transferring this duty to the legati, as mentioned 
above (cf. Bk. ii. 20 ; v. 1, 25, 47). Thereafter the duties of the 
tribunes became mainly administrative and judicial ; they cared for 
the levying, the discharge, and the equipment of the troops, and for 
the army supplies, under the orders of the quaestor; and they pre- 
sided at courts-martial and took part in the councils of war. Some- 
times they led the legions on the march and received subordinate 
military commands (cf. Bk. vii. 47, 52). 

Surrounding the superior officers there was always a large number 
of young men, forming a kind of staff, who acted as orderlies and 
body-guards. The only officers " of the line" were the tribunes, and, 
as appears above, their command was limited. 

The real leaders of the men were the inferior (" non-commissioned ") 
officers, the centurions. Corresponding to sergeants and corporals, 
these were always plebeians, often of the lowest birth, who were 
promoted from the ranks entirely on account of their fighting quali- 
ties, and could never rise higher. There were two centurions in 
each maniple, making six for each cohort and sixty for the legion. 
The six centurions of the first cohort outranked the others and were 
called centuriones primorum ordinum, and were the only ones that 
ordinarily sat with the superior officers in the council of war. The 
first cohort always contained the flower of the legion, and the men in 
the first century of this cohort excelled all the others. Their leader, 

xxxiv • Introduction. 

the first centurion of the whole cohort {primus or primi-pilus) and 
so of the whole legion, must needs be a man of great personal prowess 
and skill, an actual fighter, one to whom all could look as to a model 
soldier. Such was, for example, Publius Sextius Baculus, who 
repeatedly deserved the praise of his general (cf. Bk. ii. 25 ; iii. 5 ; 
vi. 38), and Titus Balventius (vir fortis et magnae virtutis, Bk. v. 
35). As a badge of his office the centurion carried a short staff 
(vitis), but he was armed much like the other soldiers (see 
Fig. 40). 

The chief distinction in dress between the officers and men was 
the red tunica militaris worn by the legates and tribunes, and the 
purple cloak (paludamentuiri) worn by the general (Bk. vii. 88). 
The officers wore also coats-of-mail of gilded bronze (see Fig. 86). 

Between the centurions and common soldiers in rank were the 
speculators, evocati, benefciarii, aquiliferi or signiferi, and bucina- 
tores, tubicines, or cornicines. The speculatores or scouts obtained 
news of the enemy and carried despatches. The evocati were veterans 
who had completed their term of service, but remained in the army at 
the request of their commander. The beneficiarii were soldiers that 
had received some gift or privilege for meritorious service. The 
signiferi or aquiliferi were the standard bearers : soldiers selected 
for their courage and fidelity. The bucinatores and tubicines were 
the musicians. All of these had rights and exemptions not enjoyed 
by the common soldiers. See Figs. 39, 84, 114. 

II. The Standards. 

The term signa is applied in a general sense to all the standards 
of the army. That of the legion was an eagle (aquila), usually of 
silver or bronze, about the size of a dove, on a wooden staff. It 
was sometimes carried by the chief centurion (primipilus) of the 
legion. Sometimes it had below it a little red or white banner 
(vexillum), inscribed with the number or name of the legion. See 
Figs. 13, 121, 123. 

In a narrower sense, signum was used for the standard of the cohort 
or the maniple. Each cohort had its own signum (Bk. ii. 21), and 
in earlier times each maniple, but probably not in Caesar's day. 

Roman Military Affairs. xxxv 

The cavalry and light-armed troops and all separate detachments 
carried only the vexillum (Bk. vi. 36). The general's flag at head- 
quarters was also called vexillum. It was a large white banner 
with an inscription in red, giving the name of the general and that 
of his army. A large red vexilli.m displayed at headquarters was 
the signal for battle (Bk. ii. 20). See Fig. 70. 

III. The Music. 

The difficulty of carrying the voice through the din of battle early 
led the Romans to use the penetrating tones of brass instruments for 
giving orders. The four instruments used by them were the bugle 
(bucina), the trumpet {tuba), the cavalry trumpet (lituus), and the 
horn (cornu). See Figs. 36, 37, 38, 84. 

The bucina, whose shape and appearance are uncertain, sounded 
the changes of the night-watch and the reveille in the morning. The 
tuba, a straight trumpet of brass more than three feet long, with a bell- 
shaped mouth, gave the signal for attack or retreat, the signal being 
taken up and repeated by the cornu. The latter was a circular- 
shaped instrument which the performer often placed about his neck. 
The tuba had a deep tone ; the cornu a sharper one. The general's 
call to an assembly (contio) was the classicum, sounded by all the 
instruments at once. 

IV. The Legionary. 

a. Enlistment. — The legion was composed of Romans only. Citi- 
zens were liable to conscription between the ages of seventeen and 
forty-six. The recruit must be of sound health and of suitable height. 
The Romans, as a rule, were rather undersized. Caesar expressly 
mentions the small stature of his troops as compared with that of 
the Germans (Bk. i. 39 ; ii. 30) ; but the Romans had learned the 
lesson of civilization, — that victories are gained not by huge bones 
and big bodies, but by trained skill and scientific tactics. Man for 
man, the Germans were doubtless more than a match for the Romans ; 
but against the organized and disciplined legion — the most effective 
machine for battle that the world had yet seen — they were almost 

xxxvi Introduction. 

powerless. The term of service was twenty years, and after this the 
veteran was discharged with enough to provide for his old age. 
Often he reenlisted for farther service (evocatus). 

b. Clothing. — All the legionaries were clothed alike. Next the 
skin was a nearly or quite sleeveless woollen shirt (tunica), reaching 
nearly to the knees ; over this a leathern coat strengthened by bands 
of metal across the breast, back, and shoulders (lorica). In cold 
or wet weather the soldier wore about him a wide woollen mantle 
(sagum), which was fastened by a clasp (fibula) on the right shoul- 
der, leaving the right arm free. At night the sagum served as a 
blanket. About his waist was a leather belt (cingulum militiae), 
bound with metal and with strips of metal hanging from the front as 
a protection to the lower part of the body. His feet were covered 
with strong half-boots (caligae). This might be called his undress 
uniform. See Figs. 107, 115, 126, etc. 

c. Armor. — The defensive armor consisted of a coat-of-mail 
(lorica, described above), a helmet, and a shield. The helmet (galea 
or cassis), of iron or of leather strengthened with brass, was open 
in front and adorned with a white crest, which was one of the insig- 
nia put on at the beginning of a battle (Bk. ii. 21). See Fig. 87, etc. 
The shield (scutum) was rectangular, about four feet long and two 
feet wide ; it was made of wood slightly curved, and covered with 
linen and heavy leather. About the rim it was bound with metal, and 
also in the centre. There was a single handle on the inside and oppo- 
site it on the outside a boss or knob (umbo) of metal, to divert mis- 
siles and to strengthen the whole. A common device on the outside 
was a winged thunderbolt. See Figs. 116, 117, etc. 

d. Weapons. — The weapons of offence were the sword and spear. 
The sword (gladius Hispanus) was about two feet long, straight and 
two-edged. It was used more for thrusting than for striking, and 
was not usually hung from the body-belt, but from a belt passing over 
the left shoulder to the right hip (balteus). See Figs. 17, 115, etc. 

The spear (pilum) of Caesar's soldiers was between six and seven 
feet long. The shaft was of wood and about four feet long. Into 
this was fitted the slender iron shank that ended in a barbed head. 
From monuments and from remains that have been found in vari- 
ous places, the weight is estimated at about three pounds and the 

Roman Military Affairs. xxxvii 

hurling distance about ioo feet. Each legionary had one of these 
weapons. See Figs. 15, 107. 

e. Baggage (Packs). — Besides his arms and armor, the legionary 
carried tools for digging, cooking utensils (vasa), food for at least 
two weeks (cibaria), his cloak or blanket (sagum), and usually one 
or two stakes (valli) for the rampart of the camp. The weight of 
the whole was about sixty pounds. For convenience in carrying, the 
vasa, cibaria, and other small articles were tied in a compact bundle 
to the end of a forked stick and carried over the shoulder. During 
a halt this rested on the ground and the soldier could lean on it for 
support. Upon a sudden call to battle he could quickly lay it down 
and be ready (expedites) for the fray. The forked sticks were 
named Marius's mules (mult Mariani), after the great Marius who 
introduced their use. The collective personal baggage of the legion- 
ary was called his sarcina (see Figs. 14, 115). 

f. Food. — The food provided for the legionary was coarse flour 
or unground wheat or barley. This he must grind for himself. The 
ration of food for one day was about two pounds. Every fifteen 
days he received two ntodii, — about two pecks. This monotonous 
diet was varied occasionally by meat and such food as he could find 
by foraging ; and there was always the chance of bartering his ra- 
tions for the greater variety carried by the traders (mercatores), who 
followed the army in large numbers and did a thriving business with 
the soldiers. 

g. Work. — It has been truthfully said that Caesar conquered Gaul 
as much with the spade and shovel as with the sword and spear. The 
legionary was above all a skilful digger, and besides the actual fight- 
ing, no small part of his labor was the almost daily task of fortifying 
the camp (castra munire). At least three hours were needed for 
this work. After this there were the watches to keep, the arms to 
burnish, and all the other busy routine of camp life. 

h. Pay. — Caesar paid his legionaries \2.y 2 cents a day or about 
$45 a year. This was nearly the same amount that a day laborer 
could earn at Rome. The soldier was better off than the laborer 
merely by his shelter and by the certainty of employment. A deduc- 
tion from the pay was made for food and equipments furnished by 
the state. Food, however, was very cheap, and a soldier in active 

xxxv iii Introduction, 

service could always expect a considerable increase in his income from 
booty and from the gifts of his general. 

i. Discipline. — The martial spirit of the soldiers and their atten- 
tion to duty were maintained and increased by appropriate rewards 
and punishments. Among the latter the most usual were withholding 
of wages, degradation in rank, corporal punishment, dismissal from 
the service, and, in cases of flagrant offences, death. A minor offence 
committed by a company of soldiers was punished by putting them 
on barley rations and giving them extra work on the fortifications. 
Among rewards may be mentioned public praise in the presence of 
the army, promotion in rank, increase in wages, or the presentation 
of a crown of leaves or grasses, which corresponded to the bestowal 
of a modern military decoration. 

V. The Camp. 

The success of Roman arms in hostile and barbarous countries was 
largely due to the custom of guarding against surprise by making 
fortified camps. The summer camp (castra aestiva) and the winter 
camp {castra hibernal) seem to have been alike in all essential 
features. In the latter, however, more provision was made for the 
comfort and convenience of the men. Instead of tents, huts of tim- 
ber and earth, thatched with straw or covered with hides, were pro- 
vided for them. The camp was regularly in the form of a square, 
often with rounded corners, but the lay of the land necessitated many 
variations from the regular plan (see Fig. 119). Of all the camps of 
Caesar that have been discovered, but one, that on the Aisne (Bk. ii. 
5), approaches a square form. The site was chosen with great care, 
and was always on high ground and near wood and water. An ideal 
spot was the slope of a hill with some kind of natural defence on the 
sides and rear, and with sufficient ground in front for the array of 
the legions. Such a position would give the Romans an opportunity 
for their favorite onslaught e superiore loco (cf. Bk. ii. 8; Bk. v. 50). 

A small force of soldiers under centurions was sent ahead to select 
the site for the camp and stake it out. Two bisecting lines were 
drawn at right angles to each other to mark the four gates (see Fig. 
119); the porta praetoria, facing the enemy; the porta decumana, 

Roman Military Affairs. xxxix 

in the rear ; the porta principalis dtxtra, on the right side ; the 
porta principalis sinistra, on the left. Between the gates on the 
right and left ran a broad street, the via principalis. The forward 
half of the camp was allotted to the soldiers, the rear half to the 
officers and their attendants. All about the inside of the fortifica- 
tions ran a broad space, at least one hundred feet wide, left vacant 
for baggage, evolutions of troops, and to protect the tents within from 
missiles that the enemy might hurl over the walls. Near the middle 
of the camp was an open square {praetorium), in which stood the 
general's tent {tabernaculum ducis). Before this was the altar on 
which he sacrificed, and on the left was a sodded mound of earth 
{tribunal or suggestus; cf. Bk. vi. 3), from which he pronounced 
judgment and addressed the assembled soldiers. The full details of 
the interior arrangement of Caesar's camp are not known ; but every 
officer, every cohort, every maniple, every man had his appointed place. 

No night passed that the army was not housed in such a camp, 
fortified by wall and ditch. As soon as the soldiers arrive at the spot 
marked out for them, laying aside helmet, shield, and spear, they 
begin to dig the ditch {fossa), the earth from which is used in con- 
structing the wall {vallum). If time permits, the sides of the em- 
bankment are covered with sods to hold the earth, or with bundles 
of brush (fascines). The ditch was usually nine feet wide and seven 
feet deep, the wall six to ten feet high, and wide enough on the top 
to afford good standing room for a soldier in action. An ordinary 
camp for a night's sojourn could be fortified in about three hours. If 
the camp was intended for more than one night {castra stativa), the 
fortifications were made stronger. The earth was made firmer by 
imbedding in it several lines of fascines parallel to the length, and on 
its top was set a breastwork of stakes {valli or sudes; cf. Bk. v. 40 ; 
Bk. vii. 72). This breastwork was about four feet high (see Fig. 
118). Often wooden towers were erected on the walls (cf. Bk. v. 40; 
Bk. vii. 72), connected by galleries {pontes). The wall was made 
easy of access on the inner side by steps, of brush. Sometimes small 
redoubts {castella) were built at a distance from the main camp. 
These were made on the same general plan. 

After the camp had been fortified and the leathern tents {tentoria, 
pelles) put up in their assigned places, guards were set at the gates, 
and the regular routine of camp life began. 


VI. The March. 

When the trumpet gave the signal (signum profectionis) to break 
up camp (castra mover e), the soldiers struck their tents and packed 
their baggage (vasa conligere) ; at the second signal the baggage 
(impedimenta) was put on the pack-animals and in the wagons ; 
at the third signal the army (agmen) began its march. The start 
was made usually at sunrise, but it might be made earlier on special 
occasion. The ordinary day's march lasted about seven hours, and 
covered about 15 miles; a forced march (magnum iter) about 25. 
Caesar made many such, his men travelling immense distances with 
incredible swiftness. 

When marching in the enemy's country, the main body of troops 
(agmen) protected itself by a vanguard (agmen primum) of cavalry, 
light-armed infantry, and scouts (exploralores), and by a rear guard 
(agmen novissimum). Sometimes individual spies (speculator es) 
were sent far in advance to reconnoitre the country and the move- 
ments of the enemy's forces. 

The order of march of the main body depended on the nearness of 
the enemy. When no enemy was near, each legion marched in a 
single column and was followed by its baggage train (see Bk. ii. 17). 
In the neighborhood of the enemy, a single column of troops in 
fighting trim (expediti), i.e. without packs (sarcinae), followed 
directly after the vanguard ; then came the baggage of the whole 
army, while the remaining forces acted as a rear guard (cf. Bk. ii. 19). 
Sometimes, for additional security against flank attacks, columns 
of infantry marched on each side of the baggage train, forming a 
hollow square (agmen quadratum ; see Fig. 73). If, when marching 
in this order, the army was compelled to halt and defend itself, the 
soldiers, by facing about, presented to the foe a complete circle (orbis) 
of armed men. When the foe was near and the ground level and 
open, the march was sometimes made in three parallel columns, which, 
by a simple evolution, could be quickly changed to the triple battle 
line (acies triplex), the regular formation for an engagement. 

Streams were crossed either by fords or bridges. Romans could 
cross deeper fords than we, for they had no powder to keep dry 

Roman Military Affairs. xli 

(cf. Bk. v. 1 8). Sometimes a line of cavalry was sent across the 
stream to break the force of the current (cf. Bk. vii. 56). Bridges 
were usually very simple affairs of logs covered with earth and brush, 
or of boats, but Caesar's masterpiece of military engineering was his 
roadway forty feet wide with which he twice spanned the Rhine 
(Bk. iv. 17 ; Bk. vi. 9 ; see Figs. 59, 80). 

VII. The Battle. 

As has been said (V), the camp was so chosen that the ground in 
front of it would be suitable for battle. The usual order of battle 
was triplex acies. The first line of the legion was formed of four 
cohorts and each of the others of three. In each cohort the three 
maniples stood side by side, and in each maniple the two centuries 
stood one behind the other, varying in formation according to the 
depth of the line. As to the distance between the lines we have no 
definite information ; nor even as to whether spaces were left between 
the cohorts. There were probably spaces between the different legions 
and doubtless between the centre (media acies), where the legionaries 
stood, and the wings (cornua), composed of auxiliaries and cavalry. 
Caesar's lines were probably eight men deep. That would give each 
legion, estimated at 3600 men, a front of 180 legionaries, 45 for 
each cohort. When standing in open order for fighting, giving to 
each man the space necessary for the free use of his weapons, the 
front of each legion covered probably about 1000 feet, supposing the 
cohorts to stand close together ; all this, however, is very uncertain. 

When an attacking enemy had reached the right distance, the 
bugle sounded the charge, and the legions rushed forward, sword in 
sheath, and the front ranks with spears uplifted ready to hurl. When 
within range, the spears were thrown in a shower, the swords drawn, 
and a fierce charge made upon the mass of the foe, more or less 
disordered by the volley of spears. Along the front of the cohort 
rages a series of combats. The rear ranks press forward, throw 
their spears over the heads of their comrades, and take their places 
as the latter are wounded or weary. When the first line of cohorts 
has done its best, it makes room for the second line, re-forms, and 
gets breath for a new onset. Thus the battle goes on with the two 

xlii Introduction. 

lines in almost constant motion. The enemy are given no rest and 
are worn out by the repeated charges of the cohorts. The third line, 
however, is held in reserve, and is brought into action only in case 
the other two prove insufficient. 

The cavalry in the rear, or on the wings, stand ready when the 
enemy break and flee to ride down the fugitives and cut them to 

There were times when troops had to be arranged in special forma- 
tions. The most important of these were the cuneus, or wedge, the 
testudo, or tortoise, and the orbis, or circle. The first was an attack 
in column instead of in line, and was of use in cutting through and 
dividing an opposing battle line. The second, in which the shields 
overlapped above like shingles on a roof, was used especially in 
approaching and storming walls, or whenever the enemy were to be 
driven from a higher position (cf. Bk. ii. 6 ; see Fig. 68). The last 
formation was like a modern hollow square with officers in the centre 
— except that from the character of ancient fighting it was rather 
circular than rectangular. It was necessary when the attack came 
from all sides at once (see Bk. iv. 37). 

VIII. The Siege. 

The Romans excelled in the art of taking walled cities, and this 
skill gave them an immense advantage in their warfare with semi- 
barbarous and ignorant peoples. There were three methods of 
doing this : first, by an immediate attack (oppugnatio repentind) ; 
second, by an active siege, brought to a close by an assault (expug- 
natio) ; third, by investment and blockade (obsidid). 

If there seemed to be a chance of success, a city was stormed at 
once with no formal preparation (ex itinere). Its defenders were 
driven from the walls by a shower of missiles (Bk. iii. 25) ; the moat 
was filled with brush and earth ; the assaulters with shields locked in 
a testudo attempted to break open the gates or scale the walls with 

If this method proved unsuccessful or impossible, a regular siege 
was begun. The work of a regular siege centred about the mound 
or agger, and to its construction everything else was subordinated. 

Roman Military Affairs. xliii 

It was begun at a distance from the wall, very nearly out of reach of 
the missiles of the enemy. It was then gradually extended in the 
direction of the point to be attacked, and was at the same time 
gradually increased in height until on a level with the top of the wall, 
or even higher. At Avaricum the mound was 80 feet high (Bk. 
vii. 23-28). Its width was possibly 40 or 50 feet. It was made 
of earth and timber, and had connected galleries running through its 
various stories, through which the soldiers could move under cover 
(see Fig. 120). The men engaged in constructing the agger had to 
be protected from the enemy. Those who were building worked 
behind lines of plutei (see Figs. 130, 131), large standing shields, 
which were moved forward from time to time as the agger progressed. 
Those bringing material for the builders walked under rows of sheds 
called vineae (see Figs. 33, 120), extending the length of the agger. 
The workmen were protected also by archers and slingers and by 
engines of war (tormenta) standing behind lines of filutei or upon 
movable towers (turres). The latter stood on the agger or on 
either side of it, and advanced with it, and as they advanced increased 
in height story by story. As the workmen get nearer the wall the 
filutei will no longer protect them. Then they find refuge under 
strong sheds of wood called testudines or musculi, placed at the 
ends of lines of vineae. 

When the mound has reached the wall, a breach is made through 
it for the final assault (exfiugnatid). Sometimes this was accom- 
plished by undermining the wall, or it was pulled down from the top 
with huge iron hooks {fakes murales). But the most common and 
most effective means was the battering ram (aries), a huge swinging 
beam from 60 to 100 feet long with a heavy mass of metal at one 
end, often shaped like a ram's head. This under a testudo, or in the 
lowest story of a tower, was brought with tremendous force against 
the opposing masonry. When the final assault was made, soldiers 
rushed in from every quarter, over the mound, through the breach, 
and from the movable towers, from whose highest stories draw- 
bridges stretched to the walls. 

Against these forms of assault the inhabitants used such means of 
resistance as they could. The most effective were masses of stone, 
thrown from the wall upon the works, and fire. To guard against 

xliv Introduction. 

the latter, the besiegers had to cover all exposed woodwork with 
green hides. Battering rams and mural hooks were caught in 
slings and held fast, or drawn into the city, and mines were met by 
countermines. See Figs. 92, 93, 127. 

When the location of the place was such that it could not be taken 
by such a siege as that described above, it was invested on every 
side (obsidio) and the inhabitants starved into submission. Among 
sieges of this kind were those of Gergovia (Bk. vii. 44-53) and 
Alesia (Bk. vii. 72-80), of which the last was one of the most 
remarkable of ancient times ; see Figs. 97, 102. 

IX. The Fleet. 

Caesar mentions two principal classes of ships : naves longae, or 
war galleys, -and naves onerariae, or freight and transport vessels. 
As compared with the former, the latter were shorter, broader, and 
deeper ; hence could carry greater burdens and were more seaworthy. 
They depended mainly on their sails, but often had rowers in addi- 
tion. The naves actuariae of Bk. v. 1 were a special class of 
transport vessel, with both sails and oars. Caesar used them to carry 
troops, horses, and munitions of war to Britain. See Figs. 48, 

5i, 52. 

The war galley was long, low, and narrow ; armed at the prow 
with a sharp beam (rostrum) shod with bronze, for ramming the 
enemy's ships ; and propelled by one or two sails and a large force 
of rowers. The seamen (nautae) attended to the steering and the 
managing of the sails, and were freemen. The rowers (remiges) 
were usually slaves. Galleys in Caesar's time mostly had three 
banks of oars. The steering apparatus was two broad-bladed oars 
near the stern, one on each side. The speed of these vessels was 
remarkable, almost equalling that of a modern steamship. 

The fighting men were the legionaries embarked for the purpose. 
In fact, there was no distinct naval service, as with us. A fleet was 
simply an army afloat, and was commanded by military officers. 
Before going into action tormenta were placed on the deck, and also 
a turris j the mast was taken down and the sails and tackle housed. 
See Fig. 62. 

Gaul and the Gauls. xlv 


i. The Gallic Province. 

The district upon whose government Caesar entered in the spring 
of B.C. 58 consisted primarily of the two Gallic provinces, Cisalpine 
and Transalpine. Cisalpine Gaul was the northern portion of Italy, 
which several centuries earlier had been occupied by invaders from 
Gaul proper, and was not yet reckoned politically as a part of Italy; 
it was a wealthy, populous, and orderly country, the proconsul's main 
dependence for troops and supplies, and his regular winter residence. 
Transalpine or Narbonnese Gaul received its name from its capital, 
the Roman colony Narbo. It contained some thriving cities and 
peaceful districts ; but as a whole it had been but recently brought 
under the authority of Rome, and was still essentially a foreign coun- 
try. It comprised the whole coast of the Mediterranean from the 
Pyrenees to the Alps, having for its northern boundary an irregular 
and uncertain line, which separated the territory of the conquered 
nations of Gaul from the states which were still free. To these two 
provinces was added also Illyricum, which was a source of strength, 
but did not receive much of his attention. 

The authority of the governor over his province was that of a 
military commander, whose power was not limited by the laws which 
protected the citizens of Rome. A few privileged cities or nations, 
such as the old Greek city Massilia, were wholly exempted from his 
authority ; but all other parts of the province, including Roman colo- 
nies like Narbo, were liable to tribute and under the jurisdiction of 
the governor, though the rights of Roman citizens were secured to 
them. A consular army consisted regularly of two legions ; to these 
were added auxiliaries, both foot and horse, but the governor had 
power to levy new legions as he required them. Thus we find that 
Caesar had six legions in his campaign against the Nervii. 

The free territories adjoining a Roman province were in no respect 
under the authority of the governor ; but they were regarded as a 
legitimate field for his ambition, if there was any excuse for war, and 

xlvi Introduction. 

of such excuses there was usually no lack. The Roman policy was 
to enter into friendly relations with one of the parties or tribes in the 
free territory, load this with favors and privileges, and make use of 
it to overcome its rivals ; in Gaul the Haedui, attached to Rome 
through some local rivalries, very well served this purpose. 

Caesar's province, at its western extremity, reached to Spain, a 
country which had belonged to the empire for more than a hundred 
and fifty years. To the north lay four great nationalities, with all of 
which he was ultimately brought in contact. These were the Gauls 
proper, the Belgians, the Germans, and the Britons. 

Free Gaul {Libera Gallia) at that time consisted of all the un- 
subdued territory between the Pyrenees and the ocean on the one 
side, and the Rhine and the Alps on the other, thus comprising, in 
general, modern France and Belgium, with parts of Holland, Ger- 
many, and Switzerland. The central portion of this territory, fully a 
half of it in extent and population, was occupied by the Gauls proper, 
or, as they called themselves, Celts, no doubt originally the same 
word. Southwest of these were the Aquitani, a separate people 
of Iberian race, cognate to the Spanish ; of these, the Basques of 
the present day are the representatives. To the northeast lived the 
Belgians, whose ethnic affinities are much disputed ; all that can be 
considered certain is that they were largely mixed with Germans. 
The Belgians occupied more territory than is now known as Belgium, 
including a considerable part of Holland on the one hand, and the 
northern belt of France on the other. 

2. The Gallic People. 

a. Origin and Early History. — The Gauls were a branch of the 
great nations of the Indo-European family that in prehistoric times 
occupied parts of Asia and the greater part of Europe. They were 
known to the ancients as Celts or Gauls, and this name was applied 
without discrimination to all the barbarous peoples of the unknown 
west of Europe. The term was rather geographical than racial. The 
Romans, though they had been brought into contact with the bar- 
barians of the north by war and commerce for many centuries, made 
no distinction, before Caesar's time, between German and Gaul. 

Gaul and the Gauls. xlvii 

The Phoenicians, those pioneer traders and intrepid sailors of antiq- 
uity, had had commercial dealings with the Gauls at a very remote 
period. Several centuries later, but still at an early date (about B.C. 
600), the Greeks had made a settlement near the mouth of the Rhone, 
which afterwards grewinto the prosperous city of Massilia (Marseilles), 
and opened up some trade routes into the interior. Both Phoenicians 
and Greeks found the most powerful part of the Celts already well 
established in western Europe, and showing evidence of previous 
possession for a period going back of any assignable date. 

The Celts had been for centuries a migratory and always a warlike 
people. These characteristics led them into many countries where 
they made settlements of more or less importance. Besides those 
who occupied Gaul proper, there were Iberian Celts (Celtiberi) in 
Spain, British Celts, Belgic Celts, Italian Celts in northern Italy, 
Celts in the Alps (notably the Helvetii), Illyrian Celts, and Asiatic 
Celts, who had settled in Asia Minor and were known as Galatians. 
It was to them, after they were Christianized, that Paul wrote his 
well-known epistle. 

What knowledge the Greeks and Romans had of this powerful 
nation of barbarians was extremely vague. They had long hung like 
a dark storm-cloud on the northern frontier of both countries, and at 
intervals poured forth in overwhelming and destructive numbers. 
Once they spread desolation and dismay through Greece, and all but 
succeeded in plundering the rich temple of Delphi. In B.C. 390 
Rome was destroyed by these same barbarians, and in B.C. 102 it 
was only the military genius of C. Marius that spared Italy a similar 

Long before the time of Caesar, the Romans had succeeded in sub- 
duing the Gauls south of the Alps, making the prosperous and orderly 
province of Cisalpine Gaul, as related above. Transalpine Gaul and 
Illyricum were more recent additions to the empire, and were less 
thoroughly subdued and civilized. They had been finally conquered 
by Q. Fabius Allobrogicus. All to the north had as yet been un- 
explored and uninvaded by Roman arms. The Gauls, according to 
circumstances and location, showed at this time various degrees of 
"civilization. Those to the south and west, being nearer to the refine- 
ment of the province, had made rapid strides, had built many 

xlviii Introduction. 

flourishing cities, enjoyed prosperous and on the whole peaceful com- 
munity life, and practised the arts and commerce. But those farther 
removed in the east and north, and the Britons, were still in a semi- 
savage condition. Caesar's expeditions among these are somewhat 
like similar military expeditions that nations are sending in our day 
to explore and subdue unknown Africa; and the trading posts 
established among them by the enterprising Greek merchants of 
Massilia, like the business ventures formerly sent among the 

b. Character and Customs. — The Gauls are described as tall and 
of great physical strength, with a fair skin and blonde hair, which 
they often reddened by artificial means. Men of rank and of author- 
ity wore the hair and beard long. The more barbarous tribes gave 
themselves a terrible aspect by painting hideous devices on their half- 
naked bodies. Their voices were rough and harsh, their words few, 
and their language obscure and figurative. Disparaging others, 
boastful of themselves, arrogant, fond of idleness, they were very 
quarrelsome and always ready to fight, to relieve the monotony of 
their existence, if for no other reason. They were, however, high- 
spirited and brave to utter recklessness and contempt for death. 

The Gallic women are described by an ancient writer as the most 
beautiful of all barbarian women and as thrifty housewives. He 
adds that, aided by his wife, who is much more formidable than he, 
the Gaul will hold his own in any conflict The Roman invaders 
were often witnesses of the heroism of these veritable Amazons. 

The Gauls lacked stability of character, and are often criticized by 
Caesar for their fickleness ; they were also very avaricious and given 
to superstitions. On the other hand, they were not vicious, but 
naturally of a simple and teachable disposition. They were very 
quick to learn and adopt whatever useful arts their neighbors brought 
to them. Their love of freedom was passionate ; but their long years 
of wandering had not developed in them that feeling of national 
unity and that love of the soil that we include under the term 

The life of the less civilized tribes was rude in the extreme. Their 
houses were little more than huts of clay and wood, thatched with 
straw and branches. The dwelling was open to daylight by the door 

Gaul and the Gauls, xlix 

alone, and had little or no furniture. Their beds were heaps of 
straw or furs. War was their principal occupation. They gave 
some attention to agriculture, raising the coarser grains, the better 
sort of fruits and vegetables being unknown to them. They also had 
large flocks and herds. They ate but little bread, but large quantities 
of meat, which they are described as cutting with their swords and 
eating in a ravenous manner. 

The Gauls knew something of the arts and sciences. They did 
some weaving, and those on the coast had skill in shipbuilding and in 
navigation, and the Aquitanians were skilful miners. Their attempts 
at art were mainly imitations of what other lands brought to them. 
For example, they made more or less successful attempts to imitate 
the artistic coins of the Greeks and Romans. Several illustrations 
of Gallic coins may be found in the text (see Figs. 29, 64, 66, 81, 
etc., etc.). Caesar was the first to bring to the world authentic infor- 
mation about most of these matters, and the student is referred for 
farther interesting details to his narrative (see especially Bk. vi). 

c, Dress. — The details of Gallic dress are not fully known. Like 
most semi-civilized or savage people, they were very fond of bright 
colors and finery. They wore much jewelry — both men and women 
— of gold, if they could afford it, otherwise of bronze. Especially 
characteristic was the heavy collar of twisted gold (Jorquis, see Fig. 
77), worn about the neck. The principal garments were a short, 
bright-colored tunic, either with or without sleeves, confined by a 
girdle of silver or gold, and trousers (bracae). Over the shoulders 
was worn a short cloak (sagum) often of fine material and of gor- 
geous color. The character of the costume depended upon the rank 
and wealth of the wearer. The feet were protected by shoes or by 
soles of wood strapped on with leathern thongs. See Fig. 28. 

d. Arms and Military Tactics. — As has been said, a Gaul's 
chief business was war. He was always a soldier and, whether in 
youth or in old age, hastened to war with the same ardor. His 
principal weapon was a long two-edged sword, hanging from an iron 
or steel chain at the right side. It was adapted for striking and 
cutting, but not so much for thrusting, and was but poorly tempered. 
This in itself gave the Romans a great advantage through the supe- 
riority of their arms. The Gallic bronze sword came into use later, 

1 Introduction. 

and was a much better weapon. In Caesar's time the iron sword 
probably still predominated. They had also various kinds of pikes, 
lances, and javelins, some made with peculiar waving and twisted 
blades to cause an uglier wound. Many weapons are mentioned with 
special names, but they are not capable of identification. Bows and 
slings, too, were used by them. 

Ordinarily the Gaul wore no defensive armor. In fact, the common 
soldier went into battle with body almost bare. But the principal 
warriors wore chain mail (see Fig. 86), which is said to be a Gallic 
invention. At first this was made of iron. Later, better and lighter 
suits were made of bronze, and were sometimes adorned with silver 
and gold. The usual means for defence were the helmet and the 
shield. Shields were of various shapes and sizes and were adorned with 
figures of animals, etc., to suit the caprice or wealth of the owner, but 
the designs were of ancient origin. The helmets were surmounted 
with great horns, forms of birds or beasts, etc., designed to terrify 
the enemy (see Fig. n). These also were, no doubt, survivals of 
earlier barbarism. 

In battle they placed much reliance on their cavalry and in Northern 
Gaul and Britain on their war chariots. The infantry was arranged 
in great masses of men in close order, like the old Greek phalanx, 
with a line of shields before and on the sides, and sometimes with a 
roof of shields overhead, something like the testudo formation of 
the Romans. When they had drawn near, champions were accus- 
tomed to leave the ranks, and, brandishing their arms, challenge the 
foe to single combat. The first onset of the Gallic phalanx was 
terrific and often swept everything before it ; but if that could be 
withstood, the advantage lay with the open and pliable order of the 
legion. In the latter every soldier was called into action, but in the 
former the great bulk of the Gallic warriors was practically imprisoned 
in the mass, and only those on the outside could use their arms. 

e. Government. — The Gauls were not a single nation, but a group 
of nations or tribes, about sixty in number, united by a very slight 
bond of consanguinity and common religion. These tribes, which 
may be loosely compared to those of the North American Indians, 
though most of them were at a very much higher degree of civiliza- 
tion, varied greatly in extent and power, the smaller ones often main- 

Gaul and the Gauls. li 

taining only a nominal independence under the protection of some 
larger one. They were for the most part ruled by a turbulent and 
oppressive aristocracy, sometimes with an elected chief magistrate. 
But sometimes an ambitious leader, like Orgetorix, succeeded in 
establishing for a time a kingly power. Thus the several states 
were torn by hostile parties, and were at the same time grouped into 
national factions, under the lead of the more powerful states. At 
the time of Caesar, royalty had been almost abolished, and yearly 
magistrates {vergobrets) were elected instead. Every year represen- 
tatives from the different states met in assembly, and questions of 
national policy were discussed. Owing to the violent and excitable 
natures of the Gauls, these assemblies often ended in tumultuous 
scenes of disorder. 

At the commencement of war, a call to arms was sounded, to 
which old and young responded. The last man to appear was put 
to death with tortures in the presence of the assembled people. 

f. Religion. — The Druids. — Caesar says that the Gauls were 
devoted to religious matters. They were under the control of a class 
of priests known as Druids, who acted not only as priests, but also as 
arbiters and judges. By them was treasured the religious and philo- 
sophic lore of the Gauls, and to them the Gallic youth went for 
instruction, some of them remaining in training as long as twenty 
years. One of their most important doctrines was that of the trans- 
migration of souls. Belief in immortality gave the Gauls a contempt 
for death which enabled them to face the greatest dangers without 

The Druids gave their instructions and performed their bloody 
sacrifices in the depths of the forest. The oak and the mistletoe 
were sacred in their eyes. The mysterious rites of their worship are 
not well known, but many cruel and horrible practices are attributed 
to them by ancient writers, among them human sacrifices. Caesar 
mentions these, but did not know of their actual occurrence from per- 
sonal observation. 

The principal religious observances of the Gauls were gradually 
abolished under Roman rule, but many of them were 'baptized' 
into Christianity and survive to-day in various modified forms as a 
part of the popular religion. 

Hi Introduction. 

The strange monuments of stone found in many lands, called 
'cromlechs' and 'menhirs,' popularly supposed to be Druidic monu- 
ments, are far older than the Druids and have nothing to do with 
their religion. 

Caesar gives the first authentic information about the Druids in his 
narrative (Bk. vi. 13-16). 

3. Subsequent History of Gaul. 

Caesar left Gaul subdued and open to Roman occupation and 
greed. The country was rapidly colonized and civilized. Augustus 
divided it into four provinces and established the Roman authority 
on a firm basis. Only one great patriotic uprising occurred after 
Caesar's time, though the Gauls took part in the contests later for the 
imperial throne. In course of time the very language of Gaul 
became Latin, and this became the parent of modern French. In 
the fifth century tribes of Germans began to make inroads on the 
Roman domain, and the Franks, under Clovis as king, firmly estab- 
lished themselves in the north. Their power spread ; they subjugated 
the inhabitants, and gave their name to the country, which it bears 
to this day, — France, the lands of the Franks. There were many 
social and political changes after this time, but the same life flowed 
on from Roman Gaul to modern France. The French still display 
many of the characteristics of the ancient Gauls ; they live in sub- 
stantially the same limits ; many of their mountains, cities, and 
streams still bear the old names. 


With Caesar begins the history of England. He found there a 
Celtic people, differing but little from those on the continent, save 
that they were more barbarous. What the condition or history of the 
British Isles was before Caesar's invasion is wrapped in obscurity. 
A few Greek writers refer vaguely to them, and there was an equally 
vague knowledge of the smaller islands lying near. Even Caesar 

The Germans. liii 

gained but little detailed and accurate knowledge of the country, and 
after him the Romans did not go there for nearly one hundred years. 
Subsequently it was subdued and brought under Roman dominion. 
England still shows many traces of the Roman occupation. Many 
of her cities were founded by the Romans and bear Roman names. 
After the Romans came the northern invaders, who drove out or 
destroyed most of the original Celtic population. Those that survived 
are represented to-day by the Irish, the Welsh, and the Highland 
Scotch, among whom a branch of the Celtic language is still spoken 
to a considerable extent. 


The Germans first appear in history in the campaigns of the 
Cimbri and Teutones (B.C. 113-101), the latter of whom were 
undoubtedly of Germanic origin. The Romans obtained their first 
considerable knowledge of the country from Caesar. The ancient 
limits assigned to it were less on the west and south, but indefinitely 
greater on the east and north, than the modern. In those directions 
it was terra incognita to the Romans, and always remained so. 
They never did more than subdue the border tribes along the Rhine 
and Danube. Caesar had relatively little to do with the Germans, 
but made such investigations as he could, the results of which are 
succinctly given in his narrative (Bk. iv. 1-3 ; Bk. vi. 21-28). 
The next account, in greater detail, was given by Tacitus in his 
" Germania," who corroborates Caesar in all important particulars. 

The Germans were much less civilized than most of the Gauls. 
They were just at the end of the nomadic stage, and were settling 
down and beginning community life. Their last onward nomadic 
movement was that under Ariovistus, which it was Caesar's fortune 
to arrest (Bk. i. 31-54). They were a more manly and vigorous 
race than the Gauls, warlike, independent, and virtuous. The 
country is described as a dismal land, covered for the most part 
with forests and swamps, producing little food, and subject to 
almost constant winter. 

liv Introduction, 


The campaigns of Caesar in Gaul lasted through eight seasons 
(B.C. 58-51), and are told in eight books, — the last written by 
Hirtius, an officer of Caesar, — each book containing the operations 
of a single year. The following is a brief outline : 

Book I. B.C. 58. Caesar checks the attempt of the Helvetians to 
settle in Western Gaul, and, after a bloody defeat, forces the remnant 
to return to their own territory. He then engages with a powerful 
tribe of Germans, who had made a military settlement in Eastern Gaul, 
and drives them, with their chief, Ariovistus, back across the Rhine. 

Book II. B.C. 57. A formidable confederacy of the northern popula- 
tions of Gaul is suppressed, with the almost complete extermination of 
the bravest Belgian tribe, the Nervii, in a battle which seems to have 
been one of the most desperate of all that Caesar ever fought. In 
this campaign the coast towns of the west and northwest (Brittany) 
also are reduced to submission. 

Book III. B.C. $6. After a brief conflict with the mountaineers of 
the Alps, who attacked the Roman armies on their march, the chief 
operations are the conquest of the coast tribes of Brittany ( Veneti, 
etc.), in a warfare of curious naval engineering in the shallow tide- 
water inlets and among the rocky shores. During the season, the 
tribes of the southwest (Aquitani), a mining population, allied to 
the Iberians or Basques, are reduced by one of Caesar's officers. 

Book IV. B.C. 55. An inroad of the Germans into Northern Gaul 
is repulsed, and Caesar follows them by a bridge of timber hastily built 
across the Rhine. Returning, he crosses to Britain in the early 
autumn for a visit of exploration. 

Book V. B.C. 54. The partial conquest of Britain (second invasion) 
is followed by various movements in Northern Gaul, in which the des- 
perate condition of the Roman garrisons is relieved after serious losses 
by the prudent and brave conduct of Labienus and Quintus Cicero. 

Book VI. B.C. 53. Caesar makes a second brief expedition across 
the Rhine against the Germans. Some general disturbances are 
quelled, and Northern Gaul is reduced to peace. 

Reading Courses, lv 

Book VII. B.C. 52. Vercingetorix, a brave and high-spirited chief 
of Southern Gaul, effects a confederacy of the whole country, which 
is at length subdued. Vercingetorix surrenders himself to secure the 
quiet of the country, and is taken in chains to Rome, where he was 
afterwards put to death at Caesar's triumph. 

Book VIII. B.C. 51. Slight insurrections breaking out here and 
there are easily subdued ; and by the capture of the last native 
stronghold, Uxellodunum, the subjugation of Gaul is made complete. 



In order to make a wider acquaintance with the Gallic War easy and 
practicable, and, further, to bring greater variety and interest to the 
narrative for teachers and students alike, the following reading courses 
are suggested, any one of which covers an amount equivalent to the 
first four books. 

Course I. 

General Description of Gaul, Bk. i. ch. 1 . 

The War against the Belgian Confederacy, Bk. ii. 

The Campaign against the Usipetes and Tencteri, and the First 
Invasion of Germany, Bk. iv. chs. 1-19. 

The Second Invasion of Germany, and the Customs of the Gauls 
and Germans, Bk. vi. chs. 9-29. 

The General Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix, Bk. vii. 

Course II. 

General Description of Gaul, Bk. i. ch. 1. 

The Campaign against the Helvetii, Bk. i. chs. 2-29. 

The First Invasion of Britain, Bk. iv. chs. 20-36. 

The Second Invasion of Britain, Bk. v. chs. 1-23. 

The General Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix, Bk. vii. 

lvi Introduction. 

Course III. 

General Description of Gaul, Bk. i. ch. i. 
The Campaign against the Helvetii, Bk. i. chs. 2-29. 
The Campaign against Ariovistus, Bk. i. chs. 30-54. 
The Campaign against the Veneti, Bk. iii. chs. 7-16. 
Crassus in Aquitania, Bk. iii. chs. 23-27. 

The Expedition against the Morini and Menapii, Bk. iii. chs. 28, 29. 
The First Invasion of Britain, Bk. iv. chs. 20-36. 
The Second Invasion of Britain, Bk. v. chs. 1-23. 
The Revolt of Ambiorix, Bk. v. chs. 24-53. 
Pursuit of Ambiorix and the Punishment of the Eburones, Bk. vi 
chs. 29-44. 

Course IV. 

General Description of Gaul, Bk. i. ch. 1 . 
The Campaign against the Helvetii, Bk. i. chs. 2-29. 
The Campaign against Ariovistus, Bk. i. chs. 30-54. 
The Customs of the Gauls and Germans, Bk. vi. chs. 11-29. 
The Campaign against the Veneti, Bk. iii. chs. 7-16. 
The Revolt of Ambiorix, Bk. v. chs. 24-53. 

The Pursuit of Ambiorix, and the Punishment of the Eburones, 
Bk. vi. chs. 29-44. 

The Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix, Bk. vii. chs. 1-11. 
The Siege of Alesia, Bk. vii. chs. 68-90. 

Course V. 

General Description of Gaul, Bk. i. ch. 1. 

The War against the Belgian Confederacy, Bk. ii. 

The Campaign against the Usipetes and Tencteri, and the First 
Invasion of Germany, Bk. iv. chs. 1-19. 

The Second Invasion of Germany, and the Customs of the Gauls 
and Germans, Bk. vi. chs. 9-29. 

The First Invasion of Britain, Bk. iv. chs. 20-36. 

The Second Invasion of Britain, Bk. v. chs. 1-23. 

Directions for Reading-. lvii 

The General Rising of Gaul under Vercingetorix, Bk. vii. chs. 1-15. 
The Siege and Sack of Avaricum, Bk. vii. chs. 16-30. 
Operations against Gergovia, and Plots among the Haedui, Bk. vii 
chs. 31-56. 



As " Caesar," though in many respects a book for advanced stu- 
dents, is often the first Latin classic put into the learner's hands, it 
may be well to give a few hints as to the method of study. 

1 . Before beginning to read, the learner should be familiar with 
the forms of Inflection, the simpler rules of Agreement and Con- 
struction of Cases and Moods, the use of Tenses, and the Definitions 
of common grammatical terms such as Sentence, Subject, Predicate, 
Object, Transitive and Intransitive, Phrase, Clause, and the like. 

2. Notice at once the inflectional terminations, so that the num- 
ber, case, tense, person, etc., — which show the corresponding rela- 
tions of the words and ideas to each other, — may be present to your 
mind. If the form of the word gives several possibilities, hold them 
all in your mind, so far as may be, till something occurs in the 
progress of the sentence to settle the doubt. 

3. Always try to take in the ideas in that order in which the 
Latin presents them. Read every word as if it were the last on a 
page and you had to turn over without being able to turn back. 
The mind soon becomes accustomed to the order of any language, 
as we see by the constant and almost unnoticed inversions of com- 
mon speech and poetry. If, however, you are obliged to turn back, 
begin again at the beginning of the sentence and proceed as before. 
The greatest difficulty to a beginner is his inability to remember the 
first parts of a complex idea. This difficulty can often be lessened 
by jotting down, in a loose kind of English, the words as they come 
in the Latin. In this way it is often easy to see what a string of 
words must mean, though we should never say anything like it in 

4. Don't try to translate formally until you have got a com- 
plete idea of some integral part of the sentence. It makes nonsense 

Iviii Introduction. 

to render words mechanically, without thinking the corresponding 

5. From the outset, notice that the emphatic position of words plays 
a most important part in Latin writing, and try to feel the emphasis 
of position as you read. (See § 595-601 (343-346), and compare 
B- 348-351 J G. 671-687; H. 663-685 (559-573)5 H-B. 620-630.) 

As an illustration of § 5 we append a translation of the first chap- 
ter of Book 1 1 with especial reference to the emphasis indicated by 
the order. As the translation is made expressly to bring out explicitly 
the force of order, it should not be taken as a model of desirable 
translation. Such a translation as is here given forces the emphasis 
on the attention more than is perhaps natural in English. The 
force is all present in the Latin, but in English it may often be left 
to be brought out by the context or by some kindred emphasis which 
the English substitutes. A short, easy passage from Book V is also 
given without comment for study and practice. 

And BEING 1 thus in Hither % Cum esset Caesar in citeriore 

Gaul, as I have shown above, n „._ ., ,_ _,__._. 
' ■■ ' Gallia, ita uti supra demonstravi- 

Cesar 3 had frequent * rumors 

brought to him, 5 and de- mi * s > crebri ad eum rumores 
spatches 6 also from Labienus 7 adferebantur, littensque item 

Labieni certior fiebat 

continued to inform him that 
all 8 the BelGjE, 9 who consti- 
tuted a third part 10 of [the whole Belgas, quam tertiam esse Galliae 

of] Gaul, as I had [previously] ,_ 

J ■ . r rP partem dixeramus, contra popu- 

stated, were conspiring [for an 

attack] against the Roman gov- lum Romanum coniurare obsi- 

1 The emphasis on being binds this part of the narrative with the situation left at the end 
of the last book, as if it were " Caesar went to Hither Gaul, — and while he was engaged 

* Opposed to Farther Gaul, where the troops were. 
8 The main subject of discourse. 

* The repetition of the stories is the significant fact, " he kept hearing," but at the same 
time the rumors are opposed to Labienus's despatches. 

6 An emphasis continued in Latin from Casar, the main person, but lost in English. 
See § 598. / (344. ; H-B. 627. 2. 

6 , T Opposed to the rumors. 

8 , • Both words together the subject of discourse, but the adjective most prominent, "thl 
tntire body of the Belgte." 

10 Opposed to the whole, as one might say, "a full third of the whole." 

Directions for Reading. 


ernment n and exchanging hos- 
tages. That for this conspir- 
acy 12 the reasons were these, 18 
namely: in the first place, be- 
cause THEY WERE AFRAID 14 (i.e. 

in their own minds) that when 
Gaul was all 15 subdued, 16 our 
army would be brought against 
them 17 ; and in the second place, 
because some 18 of the Gauls 18 
(i.e. from outside) were tamper- 
ing 18 with them. These Gauls 
were partly those who were dis 
turbed that the Roman 19 army 
should pass the winter™ and get 
a 20 footing in Gaul, just as 21 
they had been unwilling that the 
Germans m should stay any 
longer 7 * there, and partly those 
who from [mere] fickleness™ 

desque inter se dare. Coniu- 
randi has esse causas : primum 
quod vererentur ne omni pacata 
Gallia ad eos exercitus noster 
addticeretur ; deinde quod ab 
non nullis Gallis sollicitarentur, 
— partim qui, ut Germanos 
diutius in Gallia versari nolue- 
rant, ita populi Roman! exerci- 
tum hiemare atque inveterascere 
in Gallia moleste ferebant; par- 
tim qui mobilitate et levitate 

n Here not the conspiracy itself, but the aim of it is the most important part of the idea. 

12 The main subject of discourse, "now this conspiracy, the reports said," etc. 

13 The difference between " the reasons why were these' 1 '' and " these were the reasons 
why" is obvious. Caesar might say either. 

14 A peculiar emphasis not directly carried out. Cicero would very likely have been 
more rhetorical and have opposed "/ear " to " being tampered with." But Caesar changes 
his point of view in the course of the sentence ; and, as if he had said ipsi in the first 
member, opposes to the motives of the Belgae themselves, the Gauls by whom outside influ- 
ence was brought to bear. 

1S , 16 The completion of the business now in hand is first emphasized, then the business 

1T Caesar brings out the whole force of the idea by opposing " them " to " Gaul," which 
has not before been emphatic, but which is now made so by being contrasted with the Belgians ; 
cf. Chiasmus, § 598-/(344./); B. 350. 11, c\ G. 682 and r. ; H. 666. 2 (562) ; H-B. 628. 

M See note 14. 

19 Opposed to the " Germans." 

20 Opposed to " stay any longer." 

,l The English emphasis here represents the position of the two clauses, relative and 

a Opposed to the " Romans." 

** See note 20. 

** Notice that the view of the first party is a rational idea seriously thought out, to which 
Implied state of mind the inconstancy of the second party is opposed. 



and unsteadiness 24 were [always] 
eager for new n forms of govern- 
ment ; [they were stimulated] by 
some also besides, who, inasmuch 
as in Gaul 26 regal power was reg- 
ularly usurped by the more power- 
ful 27 and by those who had 
means to employ soldiers?* 1 could 
not so easily w succeed in such 
usurpations *° under our imperial 
control? 1 

animl novis imperils studebant, 
— ab non nullls etiam, quod in 
Gallia a potentioribus atque els 
qui ad condiicendos homines 
facultatls habebant volgo regna 
occupabantur, qui minus facile 
earn rem imperio nostro conse- 
qui poterant. 

26 A natural consequence of their character. For no good reason they got tired of the 
established order and wanted a change. 

86 Opposed to other countries in which the government was more stable. 
37 , w The two means of attaining regal power. 
29 And consequently wanted to rebel. 

80 The Latin often compresses into an indefinite, and to us unemphatic, word (as rem 
here) a whole important idea. In such cases the true emphasis appears in English only 
when a suitable descriptive word is substituted for the vague one according to our way o\ 
saying things. 

81 This control, of course, tended towards establishing order. 

V. 23. After taking hostages 
he led his army back to the sea 
[where he] found the ships repaired. 
Having launched them, inas- 
much as he had a great number of 
captives, and some of the ships had 
been lost in the storm, he proceeded 
to transport his army in two voyages. 
And [fortunately] it so happened 
that out of so many ships in so many 
voyages not a single one was lost 
that carried soldiers either that year 
or the year before, while of the ships 
which were sent back to him empty 
from the continent after discharging 
the soldiers of the first voyage, as 
well as of the seventy others that 
Labienus had built later, very few 
reached their destination. Almost 
all the rest were driven back. 

Obsidibus acceptis exercitum re- 
ducit ad mare, navis invenit refectas. 
His deductis, quod et captivorum 
magnum numerum habebat, et non 
nullae tempestate deperierant naves, 
duobus commeatibus exercitum re- 
portare Instituit. Ac sic accidit utl 
ex tant5 navium numero, tot naviga- 
tionibus, neque h5c neque superiore 
ann5 ulla omnino navis quae mflites 
portaret desideraretur ; at ex els 
quae inanes ex continent! ad eum 
remitterentur, [et] prioris commea- 
tus expositis militibus, et quas postea 
Labienus faciendas curaverat nu- 
mero lx, perpaucae locum caperent ; 
reliquae fere omnes reicerentur. 

Fig. 4.— Coins of Cesar. 



Campaigns against the Helvetii and Ariovistus. b.c. 58, 

The Nations of Gaul. 

GALLIA est omnis divisa in partis tres ; quarum unam 
incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum 
lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, 
institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis 
Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. 1 s 

Their Characters Compared. 

Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a 
cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, mini- 
meque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae 
ad effeminandos animos pertinent important ; proximique 
sunt Germanis qui trans Rhenum incolunt, 2 quibuscum con- 10 
tinenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque 
reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis 
proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos 
prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. 

Cf. > divisa, 1. 1.— a incolunt, 1 2. 

The Gallic War. [Cesae 

The Territories of Each. 

Eorum una pars, 1 quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, ini- 
tium capit a flumine Rhodano ; continetur Garumna flumine, 
Oceano, finibus Belgarum ; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et 
Helvetiis flumen Rhenum ; vergit ad septentriones. Bel- 
5 gae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad In- 
feriorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentri- 
onem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine 
ad Pyrenaeos montis et earn partem Ocean! quae est ad 

*** Hispaniam pertinet ; 2 spectat inter occasum solis et septen- 

10 triones. 

Orgetorix with his Fellow Nobles Forms a Plan to Invade Gaul. 

2. Apud Helvetios longe 3 nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus 
Orgetorix. Is,' M. Messala et M. Pisone consulibus, regni 
cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civi- 
tati persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent : 
1 S perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totius Gal- 
liae imperio potiri. 

He Persuades his People, the Helvetii. 

Id hoc facilius els persuasit, quod undique loci natura 
Helvetii continentur: 4 una ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo 
atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit ; 
20 altera ex parte monte Iura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos 
et Helvetios ; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui 
provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. 

They Assent, being Warlike and feeling Cramped by their Narrow Limits. 

His rebus fiebat ut et minus late vagarentur et minus 
facile finitimis bellum Inferre possent ; qua ex parte homi- 

Cf. « partis, p. i, 1. i. — 2 pertinent, 1. 5. — * longissime, f, 7.— 
4 continetur, 1. 2. 

B. G. I. 3.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 3 

nes bellandi cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. Pro 
multitudine autem hominum et pro gloria belli atque 
fortitudinis, angustos se finis 1 habere arbitrabantur, qui in 
longitudinem milia passuum ccxl, in latitudinem clxxx 
patebant. 5 

They Employ Two Years in Preparations. 

3. His rebus adducti et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti 
constituerunt ea quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent 2 compa- 
rare, iumentorum et carrorum quam maximum numerum 
coemere, sementis quam maximas facere, ut in itinere copia 
frumenti sup petere t, cum proximis 3 civitatibus pacem et 10 
amicitiam confirmare. Ad eas res conficiendas biennium 
sibi satis esse duxerunt ; in tertium annum profectionem 
lege conformant. 

Orgetorix Conspires with Other Gallic Chiefs. 

Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deligitur. Is sibi lega- 
tionem ad civitatis suscepit. In eo itinere persuadet 4 Cas- 15 
tico, Catamantaloedis filio, Sequano, cuius pater regnum in 
Sequanis multos annos obtinuerat 5 et a senatu populi 
Romani amicus appellatus erat, ut regnum in civitate sua 
occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat ; itemque Dumnorigi 
Haeduo, fratri Diviciaci, qui eo tempore principatum in civi- 20 
tate obtinebat ac maxime plebi acceptus erat, ut idem cona- 
retur persuadet, eique filiam suam in matrimonium dat. 

His Arguments. 

Perfacile factu esse illis probat conata perficere, propterea 
quod ipse suae civitatis imperium obtenturus esset : non 
esse dubium quin totius Galliae plurimum Helvetii possent; 25 
se suis copiis suoque exercitu illis regna conciliatiirum con- 

Cf. 1 finibus, p. 2, 1. 3. — 2 pertinent, 2, 5. — » proximi, i, 9. — 
1 persuasit, 2, 14. — 6 obtinere, 2, I. 

4 The Gallic War. [Casar 

firmat. Hac oratiOne adducti inter se fidem et iusiiirandum 
dant, et regno occupato * per tres potentissimos ac firmissi- 
mos populos totius Galliae sese potiri 2 posse sperant. 

Orgetorix is Brought to Trial. 

4. Ea res est Helvetiis per indicium enuntiata. Moribus 
5 suis Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coegerunt. Dam- 

natum poenam sequi oportebat ut igni cremaretur. 

He Escapes. 

Die constitute 3 causae dictionis Orgetorix ad hldicium 

omnem suam familiam, ad hominum milia decern, undique 

coegit, et omnis clientis obaeratosque suos, quorum magnum 

io numerum habebat, eodem conduxit ; per eos ne causam 

diceret se eripuit. 

His Death. 

Cum civitas ob earn rem incitata armis ius suum exsequi 
conaretur, multitudinemque hominum ex agris magistrates 
cogerent, 4 Orgetorix mortuus est ; neque abest suspicio, ut 
15 Helvetii arbitrantur, quin ipse sibi mortem consciverit. 

Still the Helvetii Persist in the Attempt. 

5. Post eius mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id quod con- 
stituerant facere conantur,* ut e finibus suis exeant. 6 Ubi 
iam se ad earn rem paratos esse arbitrati sunt, oppida sua 
omnia, numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, reliqua 

20 privata aedificia incendunt ; f rumentum 7 omne, praeter quod 
secum portatiiri erant, comburunt, ut — domum reditionis 
spe sublata — paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda essent ; 
trium mensium molita cibaria sibi quemque domo efferre 

Cf. * occuparet, p. 3, 1. 19. — 2 potiri, 2, 16. — 8 constituerunt, 3, 7. 
— 4 coegit, 1. 9. — 5 conaretur, 1. 13. — 6 exirent, 2, 14. — 7 frumenti, 
3» io- 

B. G 1. 6.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 

Other Tribes are Persuaded to Join them. 

Persuadent Rauracis et Tulingis et Latobrigis finitimis 
uti eodem usi consilio, oppidis suis vicisque exustis, una 
cum els proflciscantur l ; Boiosque, qui trans Rhenum inco- 
luerant et in agrum Noricum transierant Noreiamque oppug- 
narant, receptos ad se socios sibi adsciscu nt. S 

Two Routes for Invasion Described. 

6. Erant omnino itinera duo quibus itineribus domo 
exire possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile, 

Fig. 6. — Map of Helvetia. 

inter montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum, vix qua singuli 
carri 2 ducerentur ; mons autem altissimus impendebat, ut 

Cf. 1 proficiscendum, p. 3, 1. 7. — 2 carrSrum, 3, 8. 

6 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

facile perpauci prohibere x possent : alterum per provinciam 
nostram, multo facilius atque expeditius, propterea quod 
inter finis Helvetiorum et Allobrogum, qui nuper pacati 
erant, Rhodanus fluit, isque non nullis locis vado transitur. 3 
5 Extremum oppidum Allobrogum est proximumque 8 Helve- 
tiorum finibus Genava. 

They Decide to March through the Province. 

Ex eo oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet. Allobrogibus 
sese vel persuasuros (quod nondum bono animo in populum 
Romanum viderentur) existimabant, vel vi coacturos 4 ut 
io per suos finis eos ire paterentur. Omnibus rebus ad pro- 
fectionem comparatis diem dicunt qua die ad ripam Rho- 
dani omnes conveniant. Is dies erat a. d. v. Kal. Apr., L. 
Pisone A. Gabinio consulibus. 

Caesar Resolves to Stop them, and Destroys the Bridge near Geneva. 

7. Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset eos per provinciam 
15 nostram iter facere conari, 5 maturat ab urbe proficisci, 6 et 
quam maximis potest itineribus in Galliam ulteriorem con- 
tendit et ad Genavam pervenit. Provinciae toti quam 
maximum potest militum numerum imperat (erat omnino 
in Gallia ulteriore legio una), pontem qui erat ad Genavam 
20 iubet rescindi. 

They Ask Caesar's Permission. 

Ubi de eius adventu Helvetii certiores facti sunt, legat5s 
ad eum mittunt nobilissimos civitatis, cuius legationis 7 
Nammeius et Verudoctius principem locum obtinebant, qui 
dicerent ■ sibi esse in animo sine ullo maleficio iter per pro- 
25 vinciam facere, propterea quod aliud iter 8 haberent nullum ; 
rogare ut eius voluntate id sibi facere liceat.' 

Cf. 1 prohibent, p. 1, 1. 14. — 2 transierant, 5, 4. — 8 proximis, 3, 10. 
— * coegit, 4, 9. — 6 conantur, 4, 17. — 6 proficiscantur, 5, 3. — 7 lega- 
tidnem, 3, 14. — 8 itinera, 5, 6. 

B. G. 1. 8.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 

Caesar Unwilling, but Puts them off to Gain Time. 

Caesar, quod memoria tenebat L. Cassium consulem 
occisum exercitumque eius ab Helvetiis pulsum et sub 
iugum missum, concedendum non putabat ; neque homines 
inimico animo, data facilitate per provinciam itineris faci- 
undi, 1 temperaturos ab iniuria et maleficio existimabat. 2 5 
Tamen, ut spatium intercedere posset dum milites quos 
imperaverat convenlrent, 8 legatis respondit diem se ad 
deliberandum sumpturum ; si quid vellent, ad Id. Apr. 

Caesar Constructs Fortifications to Stop the Helvetii. 

8. Interea ea legione quam secum habebat militibusque 10 
qui ex provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemanno, qui in flumen 
Rhodanum Influit, ad montem Iuram, qui finis Sequanorum 
ab Helvetiis dividit, milia passuum decern novem murum 
in altitudinem pedum sedecim fossamque perducit. Eo 
opere perfecto 4 praesidia disponit, castella communit, quo 15 
facilius, si se invito transire conarentur, prohibere posset. 

The Helvetii Attempt to Pass, but are Repulsed. 

Ubi ea dies quam constituerat cum legatis venit, et legati 
ad eum reverterunt, 6 negat se more et exemplo populi R6- 
mani posse iter ulli per provinciam dare ; et, si vim facere 
conentur, prohibiturum ostendit. Helvetii, ea spe deiecti, 20 
navibus iunctis ratibusque compluribus factls, alii vadis 8 
Rhodani, qua 7 minima altitiido fluminis erat, non numquam 
interdiu,saepius 8 noctu,si perrumpere possent conati, operis 
munltione et militum concursu et tells repulsi, hoc conatu 
destiterunt. 25 

Cf. > facere, p. 6, 1. 25. — 2 existimabant, 6, 9. — 8 conveniant, 6, 12. 
— *perficere, 3, 23. — 6 reverterentur, 1. 9. — 6 vado, 6, 4. — 7 qua, 5, 8. 
— 8 saepe, 1, 8. 

The Gallic War. [C^sar 

Through the Influence of Dumnorix, a Haeduan, they are Allowed to Pass 
through the Sequanian Territory. 

9. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua Sequanis 
invitis ' propter angustias 2 ire non poterant. His cum sua 
sponte persuadere non possent, legatos ad Dumnorigem 
Haeduum mittunt, ut eo deprecatore a Sequanis impetra- 

5 rent. Dumnorix gratia et largitione apud Sequanos pluri- 
mum 8 poterat et Helvetiis erat amicus, quod ex ea civitate 
Orgetorigis filiam in matrimonium duxerat ; et cupiditate 
regni adductus novis rebus studebat et quam plurimas civi- 
tatis suo beneficio habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque rem 
10 suscipit et a Sequanis impetrat ut per finis suos Helvetios 
ire patiantur, 4 obsidesque uti inter sese dent perficit : Se- 
quani, ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant; Helvetii, ut sine 
maleficio et iniuria transeant. 

Caesar Opposes this Movement also. 

10. Caesari renuntiatur Helvetiis esse in animd 5 per 
15 agrum Sequanorum et Haeduorum iter in Santonum finis 

facere, qui non longe 6 a Tolosatium finibus absunt, quae 
civitas est in Provincia. Id si fieret, 7 intellegebat magno 
cum periculo 8 provinciae f utiirum ut homines bellicosos, 
populi Romani inimicos, locis patentibus 9 maximeque fru- 
20 mentariis finitimos haberet. 

He Takes Active Measures. 

Ob eas causas ei miinitioni 10 quam fecerat T. Labienum 
legatum praeflcit ; ipse in Italiam magnis itineribus conten- 
dit duasque ibi legiones conscribit, et tres quae circum 

Cf. 1 invito, p. 7, 1. 16. — 2 angustum, 5, 7.— 8 plurimum, 3, 25.— 
4 paterentur, 6, 10. — 6 esse in animd, 6, 24. — 6 longissime, 1,7. — 7 fie- 
bat, 2, 23. — 8 pericula, 4, 22. — 9 patebant, 3, 5. — 10 munitione, 7, 24. 

B. G. I. ii.] Campaign against Ariovistus. g 

Aquileiam hiemabant ex hibernis educit, et, qua proximum 
iter in ulteriorem 1 Galliam per Alpis erat, cum his quinque 
legionibus ire contendit. 

Some Tribes Resist his March, but he Crosses the Rhone with his Army. 

Ibi Ceutrones et Graioceli et Caturiges locis superioribus 
occupatls itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. Compluri- 5 
bus his proeliis pulsis, 2 ab Ocelo, quod est citerioris provin- 
ciae extremum, in finis Vocontiorum ulterioris provinciae 
die septimo pervenit; 3 inde in Allobrogum finis, ab Allo- 
brogibus in Segusiavos exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra 
provinciam trans Rhodanum primi. 10 

The Helvetii Commit Depredations on their March, and Several Tribes Ask 
for Caesar's Help against them. 

11. Helvetii iam per angustias et finis Sequanorum suas 
copias traduxerant, et in Haeduorum finis pervenerant 
eorumque agros populabantur. Haedui, cum se suaque ab 
eis defendere non possent, legatos ad Caesarem mittunt 
rogatum 4 auxilium : * Ita se omni tempore de populo Ro- 15 
mano meritos esse ut paene in conspectu exercitus nostri 
agri vastari, liberi [eorum] in servitutem abduci, oppida ex- 
pugnari non debuerint.' Eodem tempore Haedui Ambarri, 
necessariLet consanguinei Haeduorum, Caesarem certiorem* 
faciunt sese depopulatis agris non facile ab oppidis vim 20 
hostium prohibere. Item Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum 
vicos 6 possessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Caesarem 
recipiunt et demonstrant sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse 
reliqui. 7 Quibus rebus adductus Caesar non exspectandum 
sibi statuit dum, omnibus fortunis sociorum 8 consumptis, in 25 
Santonos Helvetii pervenirent. 

Cf. 1 ulteriSrem, p. 6, 1. 16. — 2 pulsum, 7, 2. — 8 pervenit, 6, 17. — 
* rogare, 6, 26. — 6 certiores, 6, 21. — • vicSs, 4, 19. — 7 reliqua, 4, 19. 
— 8 socioe, 5, 5. 


The Gallic War. 


The Helvetii Attempt to Cross the Saone. 

12. Flumen est Arar, quod per finis Haeduorum et 
Sequanorum in Rhodanum influit, incredibili lenitate ita 
ut oculis in utram partem fluat iiidicari non possit. Id 
Helvetii ratibus ac lintribus iunctis transibant. Ubi per 
5 exploratores Caesar certior factus est tres iam partis copi- 
arum Helvetios id flumen traduxisse, 1 quartam fere partem 
citra flumen Ararim reliquam esse, de tertia vigilia cum 
legionibus tribus e castris profectus, 2 ad earn partem per- 
venit quae nondum flumen transierat. 

Caesar Cuts to Pieces a Part (the Tigurini), Who had not yet Crossed. 

io Eos impeditos et inopinantis adgressus magnam partem 
eorum concidit ; reliqui sese fugae mandarunt atque in 
proximas 8 silvas abdiderunt. Is pagus appellabatur Tiguri- 
nus ; nam omnis civitas Helvetia in quattuor pagos divisa 
est. Hie pagus unus, cum domo exisset, 4 patrum nostrorum 

15 memoria L. Cassium consulem interfecerat eteius exercitum 
sub iugum miserat. 

Thus he Wipes out a Long-standing Disgrace. 

Ita sive casu sive consilio deorum immortalium, quae pars 

Fig. 8. — Com of Piso. 

Fig. 9. — Coin of Cassius. 

civitatis Helvetiae insignem calamitatem populo Romano 
intulerat, 5 ea princeps poenas persolvit. Qua in re Caesar 

Cf. 1 traduxerant, p. g, I.12. — 2 proficisci, 6, 15. — • proximum, 9, 1. 
* exire, 5, 7. — 6 Inferre, 2, 24. 

B. G. 1. 13.] Campaign against the Helvetii. II 

non solum publicas sed etiam privatas iniurias ultus est ; 
quod eius soceri L. Pisonis avum, L. Pisonem legatum, 
Tigurini eodem proelio quo Cassium interfecerant. 

Caesar Crosses the Saone. 

13. Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetiorum ut 
consequi posset, pontem in Ararl faciendum curat atque 5 
ita exercitum traducit. 

The Helvetii Send an Embassy. 

Helvetii repentino eius adventu 1 commoti, cum id quod 
ipsi diebus xx aegerrime confecerant, 2 ut flumen transirent, 
ilium uno die fecisse intellegerent, 3 legatos ad eum mittunt ; 
cuius legationis Divico princeps fuit, qui bello Cassiano dux 10 
Helvetiorum fuerat. 

Divico's Speech. 

Is ita cum Caesare egit : ■ Si pacem populus Romanus 
cum Helvetiis faceret, in earn partem ituros atque ibi futuros 
Helvetios ubi eos Caesar constituisset 4 atque esse volu- 
isset ; sin bello persequi perseveraret, reminisceretur et 15 
veteris incommodi populi Romani et pristinae virtutis Hel- 
vetiorum. Quod improviso unum pagum adortus esset, 
cum ei qui flumen transissent suis auxilium 5 ferre non 
possent, ne ob earn rem aut suae magnopere virtuti tribu- 
eret aut ipsos despiceret ; se ita a patribus maioribusque 20 
suis didicisse ut magis virtute contenderent quam dolo aut 
insidiis niterentur. Qua re ne committeret ut is locus ubi 
constitissent ex calamitate populi Romani et internecione 
exercitiis nomen caperet aut memoriam proderet.' 

Cf. 1 adventu, p. 6, 1. 21. — a c5nflciendas, 3, 11. — 8 intellegSbtt, 
8, 17. — 4 cOnstituta, 4» 7-— 6 auxilium, 9, 15, 

12 The Gallic War, [Casar 

Caesar's Reply. 

14. His Caesar ita respondit : ' Eo sibi minus dubitationis 
dari quod eas res quas legati Helvetii commemorassent 
memoria teneret, 1 atque eo gravius ferre, quo minus merito 
populi Romani accidissent ; qui si aliciiius iniuriae sibi con- 
5 scius fuisset, non fuisse difficile cavere ; sed eo deceptum, 
quod neque commissum a se intellegeret 2 qua re timeret, 
neque sine causa timendum putaret. 3 Quod si veteris 4 con- 
tumeliae oblivisci vellet, num etiam recentium iniuriarum, 
quod eo invito 5 iter per provinciam per vim temptassent, 

io quod Haeduos, quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas vexassent, 
memoriam deponere posse? Quod sua victoria tam inso- 
lenter gloriarentur, quodque tam diu se impiine iniiirias 
tulisse 6 admirarentur, eodem pertinere. 7 Consuesse enim 
deos immortalis, quo gravius homines ex commutatione 

15 rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci 8 velint, his 
secundiores interdum res et diuturniorem impunitatem 
concedere. 9 

He Proposes Terms, Which are not Accepted. 

Cum ea ita sint, tamen si obsides ab eis sibi dentur, uti 
ea quae polliceantur facturos intellegat, et si Haeduis de 

20 iniuriis quas ipsis sociisque eorum intulerint, item si Alio- 
brogibus satisfaciant, sese cum eis pacem esse facturum.' 
Divico respondit : * Ita Helvetios a maioribus 10 suis insti- 
tutos esse uti obsides accipere, non dare, consuerint ; u eius 
rei populum Romanum esse testem.' Hoc responso dato 

25 discessit. 

Cf. 1 tenebat, p. 7, 1. 1. — 2 intellegebat, 8, 17.— 8 putabat, 7. 3 — 
* veteris, 11, 16. — 6 invit5, 7, 16. — 6 ferre, 1. 3. — 7 pertinent, 1, 9.— 
8 ultus, 11, 1. — • concedendum, 7, 3. — 10 maioribus, 11, 20. — u qon- 
suesse, 1. 13. 

B. G. 1. 16.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 13 

Slight Reverse of Caesar's Cavalry. 

15. Postero die castra ex eo loco movent. Idem facit 
Caesar, equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quattuor milium, 
quem ex omnl provincia et Haeduis atque eorum sociis 
coactum 1 habebat, praemittit qui videant quas in partis 
hostes iter faciant. Qui cupidius 2 novissimum agmen inse- 5 
cuti alieno loco cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium com- 
mittunt ; et pauci de nostris cadunt. 

The Helvetii Move on ; Caesar Follows. 

Quo proelio sublati Helvetii, quod quingentis equitibus 
tantam multitudinem equitum propulerant, audacius subsis- 
tere non numquam 3 et novissimo agmine proelio nostros 10 
lacessere coeperunt. Caesar suos a proelio continebat, ac 
satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapinis [pabulationibus] 
populationibusque prohibere. Ita dies circiter quindecim 
iter fecerunt uti inter novissimum hostium agmen et nos- 
trum primum non amplius quinis aut senis milibus passuum 15 

The Haedui Neglect to Furnish Grain. 

16. Interim cotidie Caesar Haeduos frumentum quod 
essent publice polliciti flagitare. Nam propter frigora, 
quod Gallia sub septentrionibus 4 (ut ante dictum est) posita 
est, non modo frumenta in agris matiira non erant, sed ne 20 
pabuli quidem satis magna copia suppetebat ; 6 eo autem 
frumento quod flumine Arari navibus subvexerat propterea 
minus uti poterat, quod iter ab Arari Helvetii averterant, a 
quibus discedere 6 nolebat. Diem ex die ducere Haedui; 
conferri, comportari, adesse dicere. 25 

Cf. l coegit, p. 4, 1. 9. — 2 cupidi, 3, 1. — s non numquam, 7, 22. — 
* septentriones, 2, 4. — 6 suppeteret, 3, 10. — 6 discessit, 12, 25. 


The Gallic War. 


Caesar Summons their Chiefs and Upbraids them. 

Ubi se diutius duci intellexit 1 et diem instare quo die 
frumentum militibus metiri oporteret, convocatis eorum prin- 
cipibus, quorum magnam copiam in castris habebat, — in 

Fig. io. — Loading Boats with Supplies. 

his Diviciaco et Lisco, qui summo magistratui praeerat quern 
5 vergobretum appellant Haedui, qui creatur annuus et vitae 
necisque in suos habet potestatem, — graviter 2 eos accusat, 
quod, cum neque emi neque ex agris sumi* posset, tarn 
necessario tempore, tam propinquis hostibus, ab eis non 

Cf. x intellegebat, p. 8, 1. 17. — 2 gravius, 12, 14. — » sumpturum, 7,8. 

B. G. 1. 1 8.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 15 

sublevetur ; praesertim cum magna ex parte eorum precibus 
adductus bellum susceperit, 1 multo etiam gravius quod sit 
destitutus queritur. 

Liscus Explains the Situation : a Party Opposed to the Romans Prevents 
the Supply. 

17. Turn demum Liscus oratione Caesaris adductus quod 
antea tacuerat proponit : * Esse non nullos 2 quorum auctori- 5 
tas apud plebem s plurimum valeat, qui privatim plus possint 
quam ipsi magistrates. Hos seditiosa atque improba orati- 
one multitudinem deterrere ne frumentum conferant 4 quod 
debeant : praestare, si iam principatum 5 Galliae obtinere ta 
non possint, Gallorum quam Romandrum imperia perferre; 10 
neque dubitare quin, si Helvetios superaverint Roman!, una 
cum reliqua Gallia Haeduis libertatem sint erepturi. 7 Ab 
eisdem nostra consilia quaeque in castris gerantur hostibus 
enuntiarl; 8 hos a se coerceri non posse. Quin etiam, quod 
necessario rem coactus Caesari eniintiarit, intellegere sese 15 
quanto id cum periculo fecerit, et ob earn causam quam diu 
potuerit tacuisse/ 

Liscus Privately Discloses the Ambition and Treachery of Dumnorix, who 
Favors the Helvetii. 

18. Caesar hac oratione Lisci Dumnorigem, Diviciaci 
fratrem, designari sentiebat ; sed, quod pluribus praesenti- 
bus eas res iactari nolebat, 9 celeriter concilium dimittit, 20 
Liscum retinet. Quaerit ex solo ea quae in conventu dix- 
erat. Dicit liberius atque audacius. 10 Eadem secreto ab 
aliis quaerit ; reperit esse vera : < Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, 
summa audacia, magna apud plebem propter liberalitatem 
gratia, 11 cupidum rerum novarum. Compluris annos portoria 25 

Cf. 1 suscipit, p. 8, 1. 10. — a non nullis, 6, 4. — 8 plebi, 3, 21. — * c5n- 
ferri, 13, 25. — 6 principatum, 3, 20. — 6 obtinebant, 6, 23. — 7 eripuit, 
4, 11.— 8 enuntiata, 4, 4. — • nolebat, 13, 24. — 10 audacius, 13, 9. 
11 gratU, 8, 5. 

1 6 The Gallic War. [Cjbsa* 

reliquaque omnia Haeduorum vectigalia parvS pretio re- 
dempta habere, propterea quod illo licente contra liceri 
audeat nemo. His rebus et suam rem familiarem auxisse 
et facultatis ad largiendum magnas comparasse ; magnum 
5 numerum equitatus suo sumptu semper alere et circum se 
habere, neque solum domi sed etiam apud finitimas ! civita- 
tis largiter posse ; atque huius potentiae causa matrem in 
Biturigibus homini illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo conlo- 
casse, ipsum ex Helvetiis uxorem habere, sororem ex matre 

io et propinquas suas nuptum in alias civitatis conlocasse. 
Favere et cupere Helvetiis propter earn adfinitatem, odisse 
etiam suo nomine Caesarem et Romanos, quod eorum ad- 
ventu potentia eius deminuta et Diviciacus frater in antiquum 
locum gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus. Si quid accidat 

15 Romanis, summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi 8 
venire ; imperio populi Romani non modo de regno, sed 
etiam de ea quam habeat gratia, desperare.' Reperiebat 8 
etiam in quaerendo * Caesar, quod proelium equestre adver- 
sum paucis 6 ante diebus esset factum, initium 6 [eius] fugae 

20 factum a Dumnorige atque eius equitibus, — nam equitatui, 
quem auxilio Caesari Haedui miserant, Dumnorix praeerat ; 7 
eorum fuga reliquum esse equitatum perterritum. 

Caesar Thinks that Dumnorix should be Punished. 

19. Quibus rebus cognitis, cum ad has suspiciones certis- 
simae res accederent, — quod per finis Sequanorum Helve- 
25 tios traduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos curasset, 8 
quod ea omnia non modo iniussu suo et civitatis sed etiam 
inscientibus ipsis fecisset, quod a magistratu Haeduorum 
accusaretur, — satis esse causae arbitrabatur 9 qua re in 

Cf. > finitimos, p. 8, 1. 20. — > obtinere, 15, 9- — 8 repcrit, 15, 23. 
— 4 quaerit, 15, 23. — 6 pauci, 13, 7. — « initium, 2, i. — 7 praeerat, 
14, 4. — » curat, 11, 5. — • arbitrantur, 4, 15. 

Fig. ii. — Gallic Remains. 

i and 3. Necklaces with amber and coral pendants, 
trumpet (camyx). 5. Iron boss of shield. 6. 
girdle. 8. Iron helmet. 9. Iron belt-chain. 

2. Military standard. 4. Bronze 
Iron holder. 7. Sword-hilt and 

B. G. I. 20.] Campaign against the Helvetii. \J 

eum aut ipse animadverteret aut civitatem animadvertere 

But Summons Diviciacus, Whom he does not Wish to Offend. 

His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod Diviciaci fratris 
summum in populum Romanum studium, summam in se 
voluntatem, 1 egregiam fidem, iustitiam, temperantiam cogno- 5 
verat : nam ne eius supplicio Diviciaci animum offenderet 
verebatur. Itaque prius quam quicquam conaretur, 2 Divi- 
ciacum ad se vocari iubet, et cotidianis 3 interpretibus 
remotis per C. Valerium Procillum, principem 4 Galliae 
provinciae, familiarem suum, cui summam omnium rerum 10 
fidem habebat, cum eo conloquitur; simul commonefacit 
quae ipso praesente in concilio [Gallorum] de Dumnorige 
sint dicta; et ostendit 5 quae separatim quisque de eo apud 
se dixerit ; petit atque hortatur ut sine eius offensione 
animi vel ipse de eo, causa cognita, statuat 6 vel civitatem 15 
statuere iubeat. 

Diviciacus Pleads for his Brother's Pardon. 

20. Diviciacus, multis cum lacrimls Caesarem complexus, 
obsecrare coepit ne quid gravius in f ratrem statueret : * Scire 
se ilia esse vera, nee quemquam ex eo plus quam se doloris 7 
capere, propterea quod, cum ipse gratia plurimum domi 20 
atque in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter adulescentiam 
posset, per se crevisset ; quibus opibus ac nervis non solum 
ad minuendam gratiam sed paene ad perniciem suam utere- 
tur; 8 sese tamen et amore fraterno et existimatione volgi 
commoveri. Quod si quid ei a Caesare gravius accidisset, 9 25 
cum ipse eum locum amicitiae apud eum teneret, neminem 10 

Cf. 1 voluntate, p. 6, 1. 26. — 2 conari, 6, 1 5. — 8 cotidianis, 1, 12. 
— - 4 principibus, 14, 2. — 6 ostendit, 7, 20. — 6 statuit, 9, 25. — 7 dolore, 
3, i. — 8 uti, 13, 23.— 9 accidat, 16, 14. — w nemo, 16, 3. 

18 The Gallic War. [C*sai 

existimaturum 1 non sua voluntate factum; qua ex re futurum 
uti totius Galliae animi a se averterentur.' * 

And for his Sake Dumnorix is Spared. 

Haec cum pluribus verbis flens a Caesare peteret, Caesar 
eius dextram prendit; consolatus rogat finem orandi faciat; 
5 tanti eius apud se gratiam esse ostendit uti et rei publicae 
iniuriam et suum dolorem eius voluntati ac precibus 8 con- 
donet. Dumnorigem ad se vocat, fratrem adhibet ; quae in 
eo reprehendat ostendit ; quae ipse intellegat, quae civitas 
queratur, 4 proponit ; B monet ut in reliquum tempus omnis 
io suspiciones vitet ; praeterita se Diviciaco fratri condonare 
dicit. Dumnorigi custodes ponit, ut quae agat, quibuscum 
loquatur, scire possit. 

Caesar Prepares for a Battle. 

21. Eodem die ab exploratoribus 6 certior factus hostis 
sub monte consedisse milia passuum ab ipsius castris octo, 

15 qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, qui 
cognoscerent misit. Renuntiatum 7 est facilem esse. De 
tertia vigilia 8 T. Labienum, legatum ^pro praetore, cum 
duabus legionibus et eis ducibus qui iter cognoverant, sum- 
mum iugum montis ascendere iubet ; quid sui consili 9 sit 

20 ostendit. Ipse de quarta vigilia eodem itinere quo hostes 
ierant ad eos contendit, equitatumque omnem ante se mittit. 
P. Considius, qui rei militaris peritissimus habebatur et in 
exercitu L. Sullae et postea in M. Crassi fuerat, cum explo- 
ratoribus praemittitur. 10 

Cf. ' existimabat, p. 7, 1. 5. — 2 averterant, 13, 23. — » precibus, 15, 
1. — 4 queritur, 15, 3. — 6 proponit, 15, 5. — • expldratores, 10, 5. — 
7 renuntiatur, 8, 14. — 8 vigilia, io, 7. — 9 consilia, 15, 13. — 10 prae- 
mittit, 13, 4. 

B. G. I. 22.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 


Considius, being Panic-stricken, Delays the Plan. 

22. Prima luce, cum summus mons a Labieno teneretur, 
ipse ab hostium castris non longius 1 mille et quingentis 
passibus abesset, 2 neque, ut postea ex captivis comperit, aut 

Fig. is. — Cavalryman Charging. Fig. 13. — Cavalryman with Vexillum. 

ipsius adventus aut Labieni cognitus 3 esset, Considius equo 
admisso ad eum accurrit; dicit montem quem a Labieno 5 
occupan 4 voluerit 5 ab hostibus teneri ; id se a Gallicis armis 
atque insignibus cognovisse. Caesar suas copias in proxi- 
mum 6 collem subducit, aciem instruit. Labienus, ut erat ei 
praeceptum a Caesare ne proelium committeret, nisi ipsius 
copiae prope hostium castra visae essent, ut undique uno 10 
tempore in hostis impetus fieret, monte occupato nostros 
exspectabat proelioque abstinebat. Multo denique die per 
exploratores Caesar cognovit et montem a suis teneri et 

Cf. J longe, p. 8,1. 16. — 2 absunt, 1, 7. — 8 c6gnoverat, 17, S«— 4 oo- 
cupatis, 9, 5. — 6 velint, 12, 15. — • proximas, 10, 12. 

20 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

Helvetios castra movisse 1 et Considium timore perterritum 
quod non vidisset pro viso sibi renuntiasse. Eo die, quo 
consuerat intervallo, hostis sequitur et milia passuum tria 
ab eorum castris castra ponit. 

Caesar Turns towards Bibracte to Get Supplies. The Helvetii, Emboldened, 
Follow him. 

5 23. Postridie eius diei, quod omnino 2 biduum supererat 
cum exercitui frumentum metiri 8 oporteret, 4 et quod a Bi- 
bracte, oppido Haeduorum longe maximo et copiosissimo, 
non amplius 5 milibus passuum xvin aberat, rei frumentariae 
prospiciendum existimavit ; itaque iter ab Helvetiis avertit 

10 ac Bibracte ire contendit. 6 Ea res per fugitivos L. Aemili, 
decurionis equitum Gallorum, hostibus nuntiatur. Helvetii, 
seu quod timore perterritos Romanos discedere a se existi- 
marent, eo magis quod pridie superioribus locis occupatis 
proelium non commisissent, 7 sive eo quod re frumentaria* 

15 intercludi posse confiderent, commutato c5nsilio atque iti- 
nere converso nostros a novissimo 9 agmine insequi 10 ac 
lacessere u coeperunt. 

Both Sides Prepare for Battle. 

24. Postquam id animum advertit, copias suas Caesar in 
proximum collem subducit equitatumque qui sustineret 
20 hostium impetum u misit. Ipse interim in colle medio tri- 
plicem aciem instruxit 13 legionum quattuor veteranarum ; sed 
in summo iugo duas legiones quas in Gallia citeriore M prox- 
ime conscripserat et omnia auxilia conlocari, [ac totum mon- 
tem hominibus compleri, et interea] sarcinas in unum locum 

B. G. I. 24.] Campaign against the Helvetia 


conferri, et eum ab his qui in superiore acie constiterant l 
muniri iussit. Helvetii cum omnibus suis carris secuti, 

impedimenta in unum locum contulerunt ; ipsi confertis- 
sima acie, reiecto nostro equitatu, phalange facta, sub 
primam nostram aciem successerunt. 5 

Cf. J constitissent, p. 11, 1. 23. 

22 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

The Battle. 

25. Caesar primum suo deinde omnium ex conspectu 1 
remotis equis, ut aequato omnium periculo spem fugae tol- 
leret, cohortatus suos proelium commisit. Milites e loco 
superiore pills missis facile hostium phalangem perfrege- 
5 runt. Ea disiecta, gladiis destrictis in eos impetum fece- 
runt. Gallis magno ad pugnam erat impedimento quod, 
pluribus eorum scutis uno ictu pilorum transfixis et conli- 
gatis, cum ferrum se Innexisset, neque evellere neque sinistra 


Fig. 15. — Roman Javhuns (J>ila). 

impedita 2 satis commode pugnare poterant, multi ut diu 

10 iactato bracchio praeoptarent scutum manu emittere et nudo 

corpore pugnare. Tandem volneribus defessi et pedem 

referre et, quod mons aberat circiter mille passuum, eo se 

recipere coeperunt. Capto monte et succedentibus 8 nos- 

tris, Boil et Tulingi, qui hominum milibus circiter xv agmen 

15 hostium claudebant et novissimis praesidio erant, ex itinere 

nostros ab latere aperto adgressi 4 circumvenire ; et id conspi- 

cati Helvetii, qui in montem sese receperant, riirsus in stare 

et proelium redintegrare coeperunt. Romani conversa signa 

bipartito intulerunt : prima et secunda acies, ut victis ac 

20 submotis resisteret ; tertia, ut venientis sustineret. 

Cf. ] conspectu, p. 9, 1. 16. — 2 impeditos, 10, 10. — * successerunt, 
ai, 5. — 4 adgressus, io, ia 

B. G. I. 26.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 


»:«Pf ' vif 

Fig. 16. — Defeat of the Helvetii. 

The Helvetii are Defeated with Great Loss. They Retreat. 

26. Ita ancipiti proelio diu atque acriter pugnatum est. 
Diutius cum sustinere x nostrorum impetus non possent, 
alter! se, ut coeperant, in montem receperunt, alter! ad 
impedimenta 2 et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc 
toto proelio, cum ab hora. septima ad vesperum pugnatum 5 

Cf. l sustineret, p. 20, 1. 19. — 2 impedimenta, 21, 3. 

24 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

sit, aversum hostem videre nemo potuit. Ad multam noctem 
etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro 
vallo carros obiecerant et e loco superiore in nostros veni- 
entis tela coniciebant, et non nulli 1 inter carros redasque 

5 mataras ac tragulas subiciebant nostrosque volnerabant. 
Diu cum esset pugnatum, impediments castrisque nostri 
potiti 2 sunt. Ibi Orgetorigis filia atque unus e filiis captus 
est. Ex eo proelio circiter hominum milia cxxx superfue- 
runt, eaque tota nocte continenter 8 ierunt : [nullam partem 

10 noctis itinere intermisso] in finis Lingonum die quarto per- 
venerunt, 4 cum et propter volnera militum et propter sepul- 
turam occisorum 5 nostri [triduum morati] eos sequi non 
potuissent. Caesar ad Lingonas litteras nuntiosque misit 
ne eos frumento neve alia re iuvarent ; qui si iuvissent, se 

15 eodem loco quo Helvetios habiturum. Ipse triduo inter- 
misso cum omnibus copiis 6 eos sequi coepit. 

Negotiations for Surrender. 

27. Helvetii omnium rerum inopia adducti legatos de 
deditione ad eum miserunt. Qui cum eum in itinere con- 
venissent seque ad pedes proiecissent suppliciterque locuti 
20 flentes 7 pacem petissent, 8 atque eos in eo loco quo turn 
essent suum adventum 9 exspectare iussisset, paruerunt. 
Eo postquam Caesar pervenit, obsides, 10 arma, servos qui 
ad eos perfugissent poposcit. 

Six Thousand Helvetii Flee, but Later are Captured. 

Dum ea conquiruntur et conferuntur, 11 [nocte intermissa] 

25 circiter hominum milia vi eius pagi 12 qui Verbigenus appel- 

latur, sive timore perterriti, 13 ne armis traditis supplicio" 

Cf. x non nullos, p. 15, 1. 5. — 2 potiri, 2, 16. — 8 continenter, 1, 10 

— 4 pervenit, 10, 8. — 5 occisum, 7, 2. — 6 c5pias, 19, 7. — 7 flens, 18, 3. 

— «peteret, 18, 3.— 9 adventu, 16, 1 2. — 10 obsides, 12, 18. — u confem, 
21, 1. — 12 pagus, 10, 12. — 18 perterritos, 20, 12. — 14 supplicio, 17, 6 

B. G. I. 28.] Campaign against the Helvetii. 25 

adficerentur, sive spe salutis induct!, quod in tanta. multitu- 
dine dediticiorum suam fugam aut occultari aut omnino 


Fig. 17. — Roman Swords (gladii). 

ignorari posse existimarent, 1 prima nocte e castris Helvetio- 
rum egress! ad Rhenum finisque Germanorum contenderunt. 

28. Quod ubi Caesar resciit, quorum per finis ierant, his 5 
uti conquirerent 2 et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse vellent, 
imperavit ; reductos in hostium numero habuit ; 8 reliquos 
omnis, obsidibus, armis, perfugis traditis in deditionem* 

The Helvetii Forced to Return. 

Helvetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in finis suos, unde erant 10 
profecti, reverti iussit ; et quod omnibus frugibus amissis 
domi nihil erat quo famem tolerarent, Allobrogibus impe- 
ravit ut eis f rumen ti copiam 6 facerent ; ipsos oppida vicos- 
que, quos incenderant, 6 restituere 7 iussit. Id ea maxime 
ration e fecit, quod noluit eum locum unde Helvetii disces- 15 
serant 8 vacare, ne propter bonitatem agrorum Germani, qui 
trans Rhenum incolunt, e suis finibus in Helvetiorum finis 
transirent, et finitimi 9 Galliae provinciae Allobrogibusque 
essent. Boios petentibus Haeduis, quod egregia 10 virtute 
erant cogniti, ut in finibus suis conlocarent, concessit ; u 20 

Cf. ! existimaturum, p. 18, 1. 1. — 2 conquiruntur, 24, 24. — 8 habitu- 
rum, 24, 15. — * deditione, 24, 18. — 6 copiam, 14, 3. — • incendunt, 
4, 20. — 7 restitutus, 16, 14. — 8 discedere, 20, 12. — • finitimas, 16, 6. 
— 10 egregiam, 17, 5. — n concedere, 12, 17. 

26 The Gallic War. [Cjmak 

quibus illi agros dederunt, quosque postea in parem iuris 
libertatisque condicionem atque ipsi erant receperunt. 

Census of the Tribes Before and After their March. 

29. In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertae 1 sunt litteris 
Graecis confectae et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in tabulis 

5 nominatim ratio confectaerat, qui numerus domo exisset eorum 
qui arma ferre possent, et item separatim quot pueri, senes 
mulieresque. Quarum omnium rerum summa erat capitum 
Helvetiorum milium cclxiii, Tulingorum milium xxxvi, Lato- 
brigorum xiiii, Rauracorum xxiii, Boiorum xxxn ; ex his 

io qui arma ferre possent, ad milia xcn. Summa omnium fue- 
runt ad milia ccclxviii. Eorum qui domum redierunt censu 
habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, repertus est numerus milium 
c et x. 

Gallic Chiefs Congratulate Caesar. 

30. Bello Helvetiorum confecto totius fere Galliae legati, 
iS principes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt: 

'Intellegere sese, tametsi pro veteribus 2 Helvetiorum iniuriis 
populi Romani ab his poenas bello repetisset, tamen earn 
rem non minus ex iisu terrae Galliae quam populi Rdmani 
accidisse ; 8 propterea quod eo consilio florentissimis rebus 
20 domos suas Helvetii reliquissent, 4 uti toti Galliae bellum 
inferrent imperioque potirentur 5 locumque domicilio ex 
magna copia deligerent, 6 quem ex omni Gallia opportiinissi- 
mum ac fructuosissimum iudicassent, reliquasque civitatis 
stipendiarias haberent/ 

They Request a Council. 

25 Petierunt uti sibi concilium totius Galliae in diem certam 
indicere idque Caesaris voluntate f acere liceret : 7 sese habere 

Cf. 1 reperiebat, p. 16, 1. 17. — 2 veteris, 12, 7. — 8 accidisset, 17, 25. 
— 4 relinquebatur, 8, 1 . — 6 potiti, 24, 7. — 6 deligitur, 3, 14. — 7 liceat, 
6, 26. 

B. G. I. 31.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 2J 

quasdam res quas ex communi consensu ab eo petere vel- 
lent. Ea re permissa diem concilio constituerunt et iure 
iurando ne quis enuntiaret, 1 nisi quibus communi consilio 
mandatum esset, inter se sanxerunt. 

Private Interview with Caesar. 

31. E6 concilio dimisso idem principes civitatum qui 5 
ante fuerant ad Caesarem reverterunt 2 petieruntque uti 
sibi secreto [in occulto] de sua omniumque salute 3 cum eo 
agere 4 liceret. Ea re impetrata 5 sese omnes flentes Caesari 
ad pedes proiecerunt : * * Non minus se id contendere et 
laborare, ne ea quae dixissent enuntiarentur, quam uti ea 10 
quae vellent impetrarent ; propterea quod, si enuntiatum 
esset, summum in cruciatum se venturos viderent.' 

Speech of Diviciacus the Haeduan. He Complains of the Encroachments 
of the Germans. 

Locutus r est pro his Diviciacus Haeduus : ' Galliae totius 
factiones esse duas ; harum alterius principatum tenere 
Haeduos, alterius Arvernos. Hi cum tantopere de poten- 15 
tatu inter se multos annos contenderent, factum esse uti 
ab Arvernis Sequanisque Germani mercede arcesserentur. 
Horum primo circiter milia xv Rhenum transisse ; postea- 
quam agros et cultum et copias Gallorum homines feri ac 
barbari adamassent, traductos pluris; nunc esse in Gallia 20 
ad centum et xx milium numerum. Cum his Haeduos 
eorumque clientis semel atque iterum armis contendisse; 
magnam calamitatem pulsos 8 accepisse, omnem nobilitatem, 
omnem senatum, omnem equitatum amisisse. 9 Quibus proe- 
liis calamitatibusque fractos, qui et sua virtute et populi 25 
Roman! hospitio atque amicitia plurimum ante in Gallia 

Cf. 1 enuntiari, p. 15,1. 14. — * reverti, 25, 11. — » salutis, 25, 1. — 
— 4 egit, 1 1, 12. — 6 impetrat, 8, 10. — • prdiecissent, 24, 19. — 7 locuti, 
24, 19. — 8 pulsis, 9, 6. — 9 amissis, 25, 11. 

28 The Gallic War. [C^sa* 

potuissent, coactos 1 esse Sequanis obsides dare nobilissimos 
civitatis, et iure iurando civitatem obstringere 2 sese neque 
obsides repetituros 8 neque auxilium a populo Romano implo- 
ratiiros neque recusaturos quo minus perpetuo sub illorum 
5 dicione atque imperio essent. Unum se esse ex omni civi- 
tate Haeduorum qui adduci non potuerit ut iuraret aut 
liberos suos obsides daret. Ob earn rem se ex civitate 
profugisse et Romam ad senatum venisse auxilium pos- 
tulatum, quod solus neque iure iurando neque obsidibus 
io teneretur. 4 

The Hard Lot of the Sequani. 

Sed peius victoribus Sequanis quam Haeduis victis acci- 
disse, propterea quod Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, in eorum 
ftnibus consedisset 5 tertiamque partem agri Sequani, qui 
esset optimus totius Galliae, occupavisset, et nunc de altera 

15 parte tertia Sequanos decedere iuberet, propterea quod pau- 
cis mensibus 6 ante Harudum milia hominum xxim ad eum 
venissent, quibus locus ac sedes pararentur. Futurum esse 
paucis annis uti omnes ex Galliae finibus pellerentur atque 
omnes German! Rhenum transirent ; neque enim conferen- 

20 dum esse Gallicum cum Germanorum agro, neque hanc 
consuetudinem victus cum ilia comparandam. 

Tyranny of Ariovistus. 

Ariovistum autem, ut semel Gallorum copias proelio vice- 
rit, quod proelium factum sit ad Magetobrigam, superbe et 
crudeliter imperare, obsides nobilissimi cuiusque 7 liberos 
25 poscere, 8 et in eos omnia exempla cruciatusque 9 edere, si 
qua res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem eius facta sit. 
Hominem esse barbarum, iracundum, temerarium ; non 
posse eius imperia diutius 10 sustineri. 

Cf. 1 coactus, p. 15, 1. 15. — 2 obstrictas, 8, 9. — 8 repetisset, 26, 17. — 
Heneri, 19, 6. — 6 consedisse, 18, 14— 6 mensium, 4, 23. — 7 quisque, 
17, 13.— 8 poposcit, 24, 23.— »cruciatum, 27, 12. — 10 diu, 23, 1. 

B. G. I. 32.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 29 

The Gauls have no Hope but in Caesar. 

Nisi quid in Caesare populoque Romano sit auxili, om- 
nibus Gallis idem esse faciendum quod Helvetii fecerint, 
ut domo emigrent, aliud domicilium alias sedis remotas a 
Germanis petant fortunamque, quaecumque accidat, experi- 
antur. Haec si enuntiata Ariovisto sint, non dubitare quin 5 
de omnibus obsidibus qui apud eum sint gravissimum sup- 
plicium sumat. Caesarem vel auctoritate sua atque exercitus 
vel recent! victoria vel nomine populi Roman! deterrere 
posse ne maior multitiido Germanorum Rhenum traducatur, 1 
Galliamque omnem ab Ariovisti iniuria posse defendere.' 10 

The Sequani Remain Silent. Diviciacus Shows their Desperate Condition. 

32. Hac oratione ab Dlviciaco habita omnes qui aderant 
magno fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt. 2 Animad- 
vertit Caesar unos 3 ex omnibus Sequanos nihil earum rerum 
facere quas ceteri facerent, sed tristis capite demisso terram 
intueri. Eius rel quae causa esset mlratus ex ipsis quae- 15 
siit. 4 Nihil Sequani respondere, sed in eadem tristitia taciti 
permanere. Cum ab his saepius quaereret neque ullam 
omnlno vocem exprimere posset, idem Diviciacus Haeduus 
respondit : * Hoc esse miseriorem et graviorem fortunam 
Sequanorum quam reliquorum, 5 quod soli ne in occulto 20 
quidem queri 6 neque auxilium implorare auderent ; absen- 
tisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si coram adesset, horre- 
rent, propterea quod reliquis tamen f ugae facultas 7 daretur, 
Sequanis vero, qui intra finis suos Ariovistum recepissent, 
quorum oppida omnia in potestate eius essent, omnes cruci- 25 
atus essent perferendi.' 

Cf. J traductos, p. 27, 1. 20. — 2 coepit, 24, 16. — 8 unum, 28, 5. — 
4 quaerendo, 16, 18. — 6 reliquas, 26, 23.—° qucratur, 18, 9. — 7 facili- 
tate, 7, 4- 

30 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

Cesar's Reasons for Checking Ariovistus. 

33. His rebus cognitis 1 Caesar Gallorum animos verbis 
conf irmavit, pollicitusque 2 est sibi earn rem curae f uturam ; 
magnam se habere spem et beneficio suo et auctoritate 
adductum Ariovistum finem iniuriis facturum. Hac orati- 

5 one habita concilium dimisit. Et secundum ea multae res 
eum hortabantur 8 qua re sibi earn rem cogitandam et susci- 
piendam putaret: imprimis, quod Haeduos, fratres consan- 
guineosque 4 saepenumero a senatu appellatos, in servitute 
atque in dicione* videbat Germanorum teneri, eorumque 

io obsides esse apud Ariovistum ac Sequanos intellegebat ; 
quod in tanto imperio populi Romani turpissimum sibi et 
rei publicae esse arbitrabatur. 6 Paulatim autem German 6s 
consuescere 7 Rhenum transire et in Galliam magnam eorum 
multitudinem venire, populo Romano periculosum videbat ; 

15 neque sibi homines ferosac barbar6stemperaturos 8 existima- 
bat quin, cum omnem Galliam occupavissent, ut ante Cimbri 
Teutonique fecissent, in provinciam exirent atque inde in 
Italiam contenderent ; [praesertim cum Sequanos a provincia 
nostra Rhodanus divideret] ; quibus rebus quam maturrime 

20 occurrendum putabat. Ipse autem Ariovistus tantos sibi 
spiritus, tantam adrogantiam sumpserat, ut ferendus non 

He Requests an Interview with Ariovistus, Who Declines. 

34. Quam ob rem placuit ei ut ad Ariovistum legatos 
mitteret, qui ab eo postularent uti aliquem locum medium 

25 utriusque conloquio deligeret: velle sese de re publica et 
summis utriusque rebus cum eo agere. 9 Ei legationi Ario- 
vistus respondit : ' Si quid ipsi a Caesare opus esset, sese 

Cf. l cognitus, p. 19, 1. 4. — 2 polliciti, 13, 18. — 8 hortatur, 17, 14. 
— 4 consanguine!, 9, 19. — 6 dicione, 28,^5. — 6 arbitrabatur, 16, 28. — 
7 cdnsuerat, 20, 3. — 8 temperatur5s, 7, 5. — • agere, 27, 8. 

B. G. I. 36.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 31 

ad eum venturum fuisse ; si quid ille se velit, ilium ad se 
venire oportere. 1 Praeterea se neque sine exercitii in eas 
partis Galliae venire audere a quas Caesar possideret, neque 
exercitum sine magnd commeatu atque molimento in unum 
locum contrahere posse. Sibi autem mirum videri 8 quid in 5 
sua Gallia, quam bello vicisset, aut Caesari aut omnino 
populo Romano negoti esset.' 

Caesar Sends a Second Message Stating his Demands. 

35. His responsis ad Caesarem relatis, iterum ad eum 
Caesar legatos cum his mandatis mittit: 'Quoniam tanto 
suo populique Romani beneficio adfectus, cum in consulatu 10 
suo rex atque amicus a senatu appellatus esset, hanc sibi 
populoque Romano gratiam referret, ut in conloquium venire 
invitatus gravaretur neque de communi 4 re dicendum sibi 

et cognoscendum putaret, haec esse quae ab eo postularet : 
primum, ne quam multitiidinem hominum amplius 6 trans 15 
Rhenum in Galliam traduceret ; deinde obsides quos habe- 
ret ab Haeduis redderet, Sequanisque permitteret ut quos 
illi haberent voluntate eius reddere illis liceret ; neve Hae- 
duos iniuria lacesseret, 6 neve his sociisque eorum bellum 
inferret. Si id ita fecisset, sibi populoque Romano perpe- 20 
tuam gratiam atque amicitiam cum eo futuram ; si non 
impetraret, 7 sese, — quoniam M. Messala M. Pisone con- 
sulibus senatus censuisset uti quicumque Galliam provinciam 
obtineret, quod commodo rei publicae facere posset, Haeduos 
ceterosque amicos populi Romani defenderet, — se Haeduo- 25 
rum iniurias non neglecturum.' 

Ariovistus's Haughty Reply. 

36. Ad haec Ariovistus respondit : * Ius 8 esse belli ut 

Cf. * oportebat, p. 4, 1. 6. — 2 auderent, 29, si. — * viderentur, 6, 9. 
— * communi, 27, 1. — 6 amplius, 20, 8. — • lacessere, 13, 11. — 7 im- 
petrati, 27, 8. — ■ iurie, 26, 1. 

32 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

qui vicissent eis quos vicissent quern ad modum vellent 
imperarent ; item populum Romanum victis non ad alterius 
praescriptum, sed ad suum arbitrium imperare consuesse. 1 
Si ipse populo Romano non praescriberet quern ad modum 
5 suo iure uteretur, non oportere sese a populo Romano in 
suo iure impediri. Haeduos sibi, quoniam belli fortunam 
temptassent et armis congressi ac superati essent, stipendi- 
aries 2 esse f actos. Magnam Caesarem iniuriam f acere qui 
suo adventu vectigalia 8 sibi deteriora faceret. Haeduis se 

io obsides redditurum non esse, neque his neque eorum sociis 
iniuria bellum inlaturum, 4 si in eo manerent quod convenis- 
set stipendiumque quotannis penderent ; si id non fecis- 
sent, longe eis fraternum nomen populi Romani afuturum. 
Quod sibi Caesar denuntiaret se Haeduorum iniurias non 

15 neglecturum, neminemsecum sine sua pernicie 5 contendisse. 
Cum vellet, congrederetur ; intellecturum quid invicti Ger- 
mani, exercitatissimi in armis, qui inter annos xiv tectum 
non subissent, virtute possent.' 

Complaints of the Haedui and Treveri. Caesar Hastens against Ariovistus. 

37. Haec eodem tempore Caesari mandata referebantur, 6 
20 et legati ab Haeduis et a Treveris veniebant : Haedui ques- 
tum 7 quod Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati 
essent, finis eorum popularentur ; 8 sese ne obsidibus quidem 
datis pacem Ariovisti redimere potuisse ; Treveri autem, 
pagos centum Suevorum ad ripam Rheni consedisse, 9 
25 qui Rhenum transire conarentur ; his praeesse Nasuam et 
Cimberium fratres. Quibus rebus Caesar vehementer com- 
motus maturandum 10 sibi existimavit, ne, si nova man us 
Suevorum cum veteribus copiis Ariovisti sese coniunxisset. 
minus facile resist! posset. Itaque re frumentaria quam 

Cf. 1 c5nsuescere, p. 30, 1. 13. — 2 stipendiarias, 26, 24. — 'vectiga- 
lia, 16, 1. — * inferret, 31, 20. — 6 perniciem, 17, 23. — 6 relatis, 31, 8. 
— 7 queri, 29, 21. — 8 populabantur, 9, 13. — 8 consedisset, 28, 13.— 
w maturat, 6, 15. 

B G. I. 39.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 33 

celerrime l potuit comparata, magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum 

Both Strive to Reach Vesontio. 

38. Cum tridui 2 viam processisset, nuntiatum est ei Ario- 
vistum cum suis omnibus copils ad occupandum Vesontio- 
nem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, contendere, 5 
[triduique viam a suis flnibus processisse]. Id ne accideret s 
magnopere sibi praecavendum Caesar existimabat. Namque 
omnium rerum quae ad bellum usul erant summa erat in 
eo oppido facultas ; idemque natura loci sic muniebatur ut 
magnam ad ducendum bellum daret facultatem, 4 propterea 10 
quod fiumen Dubis, ut circino circumductum, paene totum 
oppidum cingit ; reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius 
pedum sexcentorum, qua flumen intermittit, mons continet 
magna altitudine, ita ut radices montis ex utraque parte 
ripae fluminis contingant. Hunc murus circumdatus arcem 15 
efficit et cum oppido coniungit. Hue Caesar magnis noc- 
turnis diurnisque itineribus contendit, 5 occupatoque oppido 
ibi praesidium conlocat. 

The Roman Soldiers are Panic-stricken. 

39. Dum paucos dies ad Vesontionem rei frumentariae 
eommeatusque 6 causa moratur, 7 ex percontatione nostrorum 20 
vocibusque Gallorum ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitu- 
dine corporum Germanos, incredibili virtute atque exercita- 
tione in armis esse praedicabant, — saepenumero 8 sese enm 
his congressos 9 ne voltum quidem atque aciem oculorum 
dlcebant ferre potuisse, — tantus subito timor omnem exer- 25 
citum occupavit ut non mediocriter omnium mentis animos- 
que perturbaret. Hie primum ortus 10 est a tribunis militum, 

Cf. 1 celeriter, p. 15, 1. 20. — 2 triduum, 24, 12. — 3 accidat, 29, 4. — 
* facultas, 29, 23. — 6 contenderent, 30, 18. — 6 commeatu, 31,4. — 
T morati, 24, 12. — 8 saepenumero, 30, 8. — • congrederetur, 32, 16. — 
oriuntur, 2, 5. 

34 The Gallic War. [C^sak 

praefectis reliquisque, qui ex urbe amicitiae causa Caesarem 
secuti non magnum in re militarl usum habebant; quorum 
alius alia causa inlata quam sibi ad proficiscendum neces- 
sariam esse diceret, petebat ut eius voluntate 1 discedere 
S liceret ; nonnulll pudore adductl, ut timoris suspicionem 
vitarent, 2 remanebant. Hi neque voltum fingere neque 
interdum lacrimas tenere poterant ; abditi 3 in tabernaculis 
aut suum fatum querebantur aut cum f amiliaribus 4 suis 
^commune periculum miserabantur. Volgo totis castris tes- 

10 tamenta obsignabantur. Horum vocibus ac timore paulatim 
etiam el qui magnum in castris usum habebant, milites cen- 
turionesque quique equitatui praeerant, perturbabantur. Qui 
se ex his minus timidos existimari volebant, non se hostem 
vereri, sed angustias itineris et magnitudinem silvarum quae 

15 intercederent inter ipsos atque Ariovistum, aut rem frumen- 
tariam, ut satis commode* supportari posset, timere dicebant. 
Non null! etiam Caesari nuntiabant, cum castra mover! ac 
signa ferri iussisset, non fore dicto audientis milites neque 
propter timorem signa laturos. 

Caesar Makes Light of their Fears, and Proposes to Advance at Once. 

20 40. Haec cum animadvertisset, 6 convocato consilio omni- 
umque ordinum ad id consilium adhibitis 7 centurionibus, 
vehementer eos inciisavit : primum quod aut quam in partem 
aut quo consilio ducerentur sibi quaerendum aut cogitan- 
dum 8 putarent. 'Ariovistum se consule cupidissime populi 

25 RomanI amicitiam adpetlsse ; cur hunc tarn temere quis- 
quam q ab officio discessurum iudicaret ? 10 Sibi quidem 
persuaderl, cognitis suis postulatls atque aequitate condi- 
cionum perspecta, eum neque suam neque populi Roman! 

Cf. > voluntate, p. 31, 1. 18. — 2 vitet, 18, 10. — 8 abdiderunt, 10, 12. 
— * familiarem, 17, 10. — 5 commode, 22, 9. — 6 animadvertit, 29, 12. 
— 7 adhibet, 18, 7. — 8 cogitandam, 30, 6. — • quemquam, 17, 19. — 
10 iudicassent, 26, 23. 

B. G. I. 40.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 35 

gratiam repudiaturum. Quod si furore atque amentia impul- 
sus bellum intulisset, quid tandem vererentur ? aut cur de 
sua virtute aut de ipsius diligentia desperarent ? l Factum 
eius hostis periculum patrum nostrorum memoria, cum Cim- 
bris et Teutonis a Gaio Mario pulsis non minorem laudem 
exercitus quam ipse imperator meritus 2 videbatur ; factum 
etiam nuper in Italia servili tumultu, quos tamen aliquid 

Fig. 19. — Marius. 

usus 9 ac disciplina quam a nobis accepissent sublevarent. 4 
Ex quo iudicari posse quantum haberet in se boni constan- 
tia, propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu inermis sine causa 10 
timuissent, hos postea armatos ac victores superassent. 5 
Denique 6 hos esse eosdem Germanos quibuscum saepe- 
numero Helvetii congress!, non solum in suis sed etiam in 
illorum finibus, plerumque superarint ; qui tamen pares 7 esse 
nostro exercitui non potuerint. Si quos adversum proelium et 15 
fuga Gallorum commoveret, hos, si quaererent, reperire posse 
diuturnitate belli defatigatis Gallis Ariovistum, cum multos 
mensis castris se ac paludibus tenuisset neque sui potesta- 

Cf. ' desperare, p. 16, 1. 17. — a meritos, 9, 16. — 8 usum, 34, 2. — 
* sublevetur, 15, 1 . — 6 superaverint, 15, 11. — 6 denique, 19, 12. — 
7 parem, 26, 1. 

36 The Gallic War. [CiESAii 

tern fecisset, desperantis iam de pugna et disperses subito 
adortum, 1 magis ratione et consilio quam virtute vicisse. 
Cui ration I contra homines barbaros atque imperitos locus 
fuisset, hac ne ipsum quidem sperare nostros exercitus cap! 
5 posse. 

Qui suum timorem in rel frumentariae simulationem an- 
gustiasque itineris conferrent, facere adroganter, cum aut 
de officio 2 imperatoris desperare aut praescrlbere 3 videren- 
tur. Haec sibi esse curae ; frumentum Sequanos, Leucos, 

to Lingones subministrare, iamque esse in agris frumenta ma- 
tura ; 4 de itinere ipsos brevi tempore iudicaturos. 

Quod non fore dicto audientes neque slgna laturi 5 dican- 
tur, nihil se ea re commoveri ; scire enim, quibuscumque 6 
exercitus dicto audiens non fuerit, aut male re gesta fortunam 

1 5 defuisse, aut aliquo 7 facinore comperto avaritiam esse con- 
victam ; suam innocentiam perpetua vita, felicitatem Hel- 
vetiorum bello esse perspectam. 8 

Itaque se quod in longiorem diem conlaturus fuisset re- 
praesentaturum, et proxima nocte de quarta vigilia castra 

20 moturum, ut quam primum intellegere posset utrum apud 
eos pudor 9 atque officium an timor plus valeret. 10 Quod si 
praeterea nemo sequatur, 11 tamen se cum sola decima legione 
iturum, de qua non dubitaret, sibique earn praetoriam cohor- 
tem futuram.' Huic legioni Caesar et indulserat praecipue 

25 et propter virtutem confidebat maxime. 

Effect of Caesar's Speech. He Advances. 

41. Hac oratione habita mirum in modum conversae 
sunt omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas 12 belli 
gerendi innata est ; princepsque 13 decima legio per tribunos 

Cf. 1 adortus, p. 1 1, 1. 17. — 2 officio, 34, 26. — 8 praescriberet, 32, 4. 

— 4 matura, 13, 20. — 6 laturos, 34, 19. — 6 quaecumque, 29, 4. — 7 ali- 
quem, 30, 24. — 8 perspecta, 34, 28. — 9 pudore, 34, 5. — 10 valeat, 15, 5 

— n secuti, 34, 2. — 12 cupiditate, 8, 7. — 18 princeps, 10, 19. 

B. G. I. 42.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 37 

militum ei gratias l egit, quod de se optimum iudicium fecis- 
set, seque esse ad bellum gerendum paratissimam confir- 
mavit. Deinde reliquae legiones cum tribunis militum et 
primorum ordinum centurionibus egerunt uti Caesari satis- 
facerent : 2 ' Se neque umquam dubitasse neque timuisse 5 
neque de summa belli suum iudicium, sed imperatoris esse 
existimavisse.' Eorum satisfactione accepta et itinere ex- 
quisito per Diviciacum, quod ex aliis ei maximam fidem 3 
habebat, ut milium amplius quinquaginta circuitu locis aper- 
tis exercitum duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, profectus 10 
est. Septimo die, cum iter non intermitteret, ab explorato- 
ribus certior factus est Ariovisti copias a nostris milia pas- 
suum quattuor et viginti abesse. 

Ariovistus Requests an Interview. Caesar's Precautions. 

42. Cognito Caesaris adventu Ariovistus legatos ad eum 
mittit : 'Quodantea de conloquio 4 postulasset, id per se 15 
fieri licere, quoniam propius accessisset, seque id sine peri- 
culo facere posse existimaret.' Non respuit condicionem 
Caesar, iamque eum ad sanitatem reverti arbitrabatur, cum 
id quod antea petenti 5 denegasset ultro polliceretur; mag- 
namque in spem veniebat, pro suis tantis populique Romani 20 
in eum beneficiis, cognitis suis postulatis, 6 fore uti pertinacia 

Dies conloquio dictus est ex eo die quintus. Interim 
saepe cum legati ultro citroque inter eos mitterentur, Ario- 
vistus postulavit ne quem peditem ad conloquium Caesar 25 
adduceret: 'Vererise ne per insidias ab eo circumveniretur; 
uterque cum equitatu veniret ; alia ratione sese non esse 
venturum.' Caesar, quod neque conloquium interposita 
causa tolli 7 volebat neque salutem suam Gallorum equi- 

Cf. 1 gratiam, p. 31, 1. 12. — 2 satisfaciant, 12, 21. — 8 fidem, 17, 11. 
— 4 conloquio, 30, 25. — 6 petebat, 34, 4—* postularent, 30, 24. — 
7 tolleret, 22, 2. 

38 The Gallic War. [C«sar 

tatui committere audebat, commodissimum esse statuit, 
omnibus equis Gallls equitibus detractis, eo legionarios 
milites legionis decimae, cui quam maxime confidebat, 1 
imponere, ut praesidium 2 quam amicissimum, si quid opus 3 
5 facto esset, haberet. Quod cum neret, non inridicule qui- 
dam ex militibus decimae legionis dixit plus quam pollicitus 
esset Caesarem facere ; pollicitum se in cohortis praetoriae 
loco decimam legionem habiturum ; * ad equum rescribere. 

Caesar Pleads with Ariovistus, but Renews his Demands. 

43. Planities erat magna et in ea tumulus terrenus satis 

io grandis. Hie locus aequo fere 6 spatio ab castris Ariovisti 
et Caesaris aberat. Eo, ut erat dictum, ad conloquium 
venerunt. Legionem Caesar quam equis devexerat passi- 
bus ducentis ab eo tumulo constituit. Item equites Ariovisti 
pari intervallo constiterunt. 6 Ariovistus ex equis ut conlo- 

15 querentur et praeter se denos ad conloquium adducerent 
postulavit. Ubi eo ventum est, Caesar initio orationis sua 
senatusque in eum beneficia commemoravit, 7 quod rex 
appellatus esset a senatu, quod amicus, quod munera 
amplissime missa ; quam rem et paucis contigisse et pro 

20 magnis hominum officiis consuesse tribui docebat ; ilium, 
cum neque aditum neque causam postulandi iustam haberet, 
beneficio ac liberalitate sua ac senatus ea praemia consecu- 
tum. Docebat etiam quam veteres quamque iustae causae 
necessitudinis ipsis cum Haeduis intercederent, quae senatus 

25 consulta, quotiens quamque honorifica in eos facta essent, 
ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Haedui tenu- 
issent, prius etiam quam nostram amicitiam adpetissent. 
' Populi Romani hanc esse consuetudinem 8 ut socios atque 
amicos non modo sui nihil deperdere, sed gratia, dignitate, 

Cf. * confidebat, p. 36, 1. 25. — 2 praesidi5, 22, 15. — 8 opus, 30, 27. — 
* habuit, 25, 7. — 5 fere, 26, 14. — 6 constiterant, 21, 1. — 7 commemo- 
rassent, 12, 2. — 8 consuetudinem, 28, 21. 

B. G. I. 44.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 39 

honore auctiores vellet esse ; quod vero ad amicitiam populi 
Romani adtulissent, id els eripi l quis pati posset?' Postu- 
lavit deinde eadem quae legatis in mandatis dederat : ne 
aut Haeduis aut eorum sociis bellum inferret ; obsides red- 
deret ; 2 si nullam partem Germanorum domum remittere 5 
posset, at ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur. 

Ariovistus Arrogantly Repeats his Claims. 

44. Ariovistus ad postulata Caesaris pauca respondit ; de 
suis virtutibus multa praedicavit : 3 'Transisse Rhenum sese 
non sua sponte, sed rogatum et arcessltum a Gallls ; non 
sine magna spe magnisque praemiis domum propinquosque 4 10 
reliquisse ; sedis habere in Gallia ab ipsis concessas, obsides 
ipsorum voluntate datos ; stipendium capere iure 5 belli quod 
victores victis imponere consuerint. Non sese Gallls, sed 
Gallos sibi bellum intulisse ; omnis Galliae civitatis ad se 
oppugnandum venisse ac contra se castra habuisse ; eas 15 
omnis copias a se un6 proelio pulsas ac superatas esse. Si 
iterum 6 experiri velint, se iterum paratum esse decertare ; 
si pace uti velint, inlquum esse de stipendio recusare quod 
sua voluntate ad id tempus pependerint. 7 

Amicitiam populi Romani sibi ornamento et praesidio, 8 20 
non detrimento esse oportere, idque se hac spe petisse. Si 
per populum Romanum stipendium remittatur et dediticii 9 
subtrahantur, non minus libenter sese recusaturum populi 
Romani amicitiam quam adpetierit. 10 

Quod multitiidinem Germanorum in Galliam traducat, id 25 
se sui muniendi, non Galliae impugnandae causa facere •. 
eius rei testimonium esse quod nisi rogatus non venerit, et 
quod bellum non intulerit, sed defenderit. Se prius in 

Cf. ' erepturi, p. 15, 1. 12. — 2 redditurum, 32, 10. — 8 praedicabant, 
33, 23. — * propinquas, 16, 10. — * ius, 31, 27. — 6 iterum, 31, 8. — 
7 penderent, 32, 12. — 8 praesidium, 38,4. — 9 dediticiSrum, 25, 2. — 
10 adpetissent, 38, 27. 

40 The Gallic War. [Cjksar 

Galliam venisse quam populum Romanum. Numquam ante 
hoc tempus exercitum populi Roman! Galliae provinciae 
f Inibus egressum. 1 Quid sibi vellet ? Cur in suas posses- 
sionem veniret ? Provinciam suam hanc esse Galliam, sicut 
5 illam nostram. Ut ipsi concedi 2 non oporteret, si in nostros 
finis impetum faceret, sic item nos esse iniquos quod in 
suo iiire se interpellaremus. 

Quod fratres a senatu Haeduos appellatos diceret, non se 
tarn barbarum neque tarn imperitum 3 esse rerum ut non 

io sciret neque bello Allobrogum proximo Haeduos Romanis 
auxilium tulisse, neque ipsos, in his contentionibus quas 
Haedui secum et cum Sequanis habuissent, auxilio populi 
Romani usos esse. 

Debere 4 se suspicari simulata. Caesarem amicitia quern 

15 exercitum in Gallia habeat sui opprimendi causa habere. 
Qui nisi decedat 5 atque exercitum deducat ex his regionibus, 
sese ilium non pro amico, sed pro hoste habiturum. Quod 
si eum interfecerit, 6 multis sese nobilibus principibusque 
populi Romani gratum esse facturum ; id se ab ipsis per 

20 eorum nuntios compertum 7 habere quorum omnium gratiam 
atque amicitiam eius morte redimere 8 posset. Quod si dis- 
cessisset et liberam possessionem Galliae sibi tradidisset, 9 
magno se ilium praemio remuneraturum, etquaecumque bella 
geri vellet sine ullo eius labore et periculo confecturum.' 10 

Caesar Does not Yield. 

2 5 45. Multa ab Caesare in earn sententiam dicta sunt 
qua re negotio u desistere non posset : ' Neque suam neque 
populi Romani consuetudinem pati 12 uti optime meritos 
socios desereret, neque se iudicare Galliam potius esse 

Cf. 1 egressi, p. 25, 1. 4. — 2 concessit, 25, 20. — 8 imperitos, 36, 3. 
— * debeant, 15, 9. — 6 decedere, 28, 15. — 6 interfecerat, 10, 15. — 
7 compertS, 36, 15. — "redimere, 32, 23. — 9 traditis, 25,8. — 10 con- 
fect5, 26, 14. — u negoti, 31,7— u pati, 39, 2. 

B. G. I. 46.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 41 

Ariovisti quam populi Romani. Bello superatos esse 
Arvernos et Rutenos ab Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus populus 
Romanus ignovisset neque in provinciam redegisset neque 
stipendium imposuisset. Quod si antiquissimum quodque 
tempus spectari oporteret, populi Romani iustissimum esse 

Fig. ax. — Coin of the Fabian Family. 

in Gallia imperium ; ■ si iudicium senatus observari opor- 
teret, liberam debere esse Galliam, quam bello victam suis 
legibus uti voluisset.' 

The Germans Make a Treacherous Attack, and Caesar Withdraws. 

46. Dum haec in conloquio geruntur, 2 Caesari nuntiatum 
est equites Ariovisti propius 3 tumulum accedere, 4 et ad nos- 10 
tros adequitare, lapides telaque in nostros conicere. 5 Caesar 
loquendi finem fecit, seque ad suos recepit suisque impera- 
vit ne quod omnino telum in hostis reicerent. Nam etsi 
sine ullo periculo legionis delectae cum equitatu proelium 
fore videbat, tamen committendum non putabat, ut pulsis 15 
hostibus dici posset eos ab se per fidem in conloquio cir- 
cumventos. 6 Posteaquam in volgus militum elatum est 
qua adrogantia. in conloquio Ariovistus usus omni Gallia 
Romanis interdixisset, impetumque 7 in nostros eius equites 
fecissent, eaque res conloquium ut diremisset, multo maior 20 
alacritas studiumque pugnandi maius exercitui iniectum est. 

Cf. 1 imperio, p. 28, 1. 5. — 2 gerantur, 15, 13. — 8 propius, 37, 16. 
— 4 accessisset, 37, 16. — 6 coniciebant, 24, 4. — • circumveniretur, 37, 
26. — 7 impetum, 40, 6. 

42 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

Seizure of Two of Caesar's Envoys by Ariovistus. 

47. Biduo post Ariovistus ad Caesarem legatos mittit : 
'Velle se de his rebus quae inter "eos agi coeptae neque 
perfectae essent agere cum eo ; uti aut iterum conloquio 
diem constitueret, 1 aut, si id minus vellet, e suis legatis 

5 aliquem ad se mitteret.' Conloquendi Caesari causa visa 
non est ; et eo magis quod pridie 2 eius diei German! reti- 
neri non poterant quin tela in nostros conicerent. Legatum 
[e suis] sese magno cum periculo ad eum missurum et homi- 
nibus feris obiecturum existimabat. Commodissimum 3 

io visum est Gaium Valerium Procillum, C. Valeri Caburi 
filium, summa virtute et humanitate adulescentem, — cuius 
pater a Gaio Valerio Flacco civitate donatus erat, et propter 
fidem et propter linguae Gallicae scientiam, qua multa iam 
Ariovistus longinqua consuetudine utebatur, et quod in eo 

15 peccandi Germanis causa non esset, — ad eum mittere, et 
M. Metium, qui hospitio 4 Ariovisti utebatur. His man- 
davit ut quae diceret Ariovistus cognoscerent et ad se 
referrent. 5 Quos cum apud se in castris Ariovistus con- 
spexisset, exercitu suo praesente conclamavit : ' Quid ad se 

20 venirent? an speculandi causa?' Conantis dicere prohibuit 
et in catenas coniecit. 

Manceuvering and Skirmishing. 

48. Eodem die castra promovit et milibus passuum sex a 
Caesaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie 6 eius diei 
praeter castra Caesaris suas copias traduxit et milibus pas- 

25 suum duobus ultra eum castra fecit, eo consilio uti frumento 
commeatiique qui ex Sequanis et Haeduis supportaretur 
Caesarem intercluderet. 7 Ex eo die dies continues quinque 
Caesar pro castris suas copias produxit et aciem instructam 8 

Cf. 1 constituerunt, p. 27, 1. 2. — 2 pridie, 20, 13. — 8 commodissi- 
mum, 38, 1. — 4 hospitio, 27,26. — 6 referebantur, 32, 19. — 6 postridie, 
90, 5. — 7 intercludi, 20, 15. — 8 Instriixit, 20, 21. 

B. G. I. 48.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 




Fig. 22. — Map of the Campaign with Ariovistus. 

habuit, ut, si vellet Ariovistus proelid contendere, ei potes- 
tas 1 non deesset. 2 Ariovistus his omnibus diebus exercitum 
castris continuit, equestri proelio cotidie 3 contendit. 

German Method of Fighting. 

Genus hoc erat pugnae quo se Germani exercuerant. 
Equitum milia erant sex, totidem numero pedites velocissimi 5 

Cf. » potestatem, p. 35, 1. 18. — 2 defuisse, 36, 15. — 8 cotidie, 13, 17. 


The Gallic War. 


ac fortissimi, quos ex omni copia singuli singulos suae salu- 
tis causa delegerant ; cum his in proeliis versabantur. Ad 
eos se equites recipiebant ; l hi, si quid erat durius, concur- 
rebant ; si qui graviore 2 volnere accepto equo deciderat, 
5 circumsistebant ; si quo erat longius prodeundum aut cele- 
rius 3 recipiendum, tanta erat horum exercitatione celeritas 
ut iubis sublevati equorum cursum adaequarent. 

Csesar Fortifies another Camp. 

49. Ubi eum castris se tenere Caesar intellexit, ne diutius 
commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum quo in loco Ger- 

Fig. 23. — Soldiers Attacked while Encamping. 

:o man! consederant, circiter passus sexcentos ab his, castris 
idoneum locum delegit, acieque triplici instructa ad eum 
locum venit. Primam et secundam aciem in armis esse, 
tertiam castra munire 4 iussit. Hie locus ab hoste circiter 

Cf. * recepit, p. 41, 1. 12. — 2 graviorem, 29, 19.— * celerrime, 33, 1. 
— *muniebatur, 33, 9. 

B. G. I. 51.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 45 

passus sexcentos, uti dictum est, aberat. Eo circiter homi- 
num numero sedecim milia expedita cum omni equitatu 
Ariovistus misit, quae copiae nostros terrerent 1 et munl- 
tione prohiberent. Nihilo secius Caesar, ut ante constitu- 
erat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus perficere 5 
iussit. Munitis castris duas ibi legiones reliquit et partem 
auxiliorum, 2 quattuor reliquas in castra maiora reduxit. 

More Skirmishing, but No General Engagement. 

50. Proximo die institiito suo Caesar e castris utrisque 8 
copias suas eduxit, paulumque a maioribus castris progres- 
sus aciem instruxit, hostibus pugnandi potestatem fecit. 10 
Ubi ne turn quidem eos prodire 4 intellexit, circiter meridie 
exercitum in castra reduxit. Turn demum Ariovistus partem 
suarum copiarum quae castra minora 6 oppugnaret misit. 
Acriter utrimque usque ad vesperum pugnatum est. Solis 
occasu 8 suas copias Ariovistus multis et inlatis 7 et acceptis 15 
volneribus in castra reduxit. 

Reason for the Germans' Delay. 

Cum ex captivis quaereret Caesar quam ob rem Ariovistus 
proelio non decertaret, 8 hanc reperiebat causam, quod apud 
Germanos ea consuetudo esset ut matres familiae eorum 
sortibus et vaticinationibus declararent utrum proelium 20 
committi ex usu 9 esset necne ; eas ita dicere : ' Non esse 
fas Germanos superare, si ante novam lunam proelio con- 

Caesar Forces a Battle. 

51. Postridie eius diei Caesar praesidio utrisque castris 
quod satis esse visum est reliquit, alarios omnis in conspectu 25 
hostium pro castris minoribus constituit, 10 quod minus multi- 

Cf. " perterriti, p. 24, 1. 26. — 2 auxilia, 20,23. — 8 uterque, 37. 27. — 
* prddeundum, 44, 5. — 6 minorem, 35, 5.—* occasum, 2, 9. — 7 intule- 
rat, 10, 19. — 8 decertare, 39, 17.— • usu, 26, 18. — 10 constituit, 38, 13. 

46 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

tudine militum legionariorum pro hostium numero valebat, 1 
ut ad speciem alariis uteretur; ipse triplici instructa acie 
usque ad castra hostium accessit. 2 Turn demum necessario 
GermanI suas copias castris eduxerunt generatimque con- 
5 stituerunt paribus intervallis, Harudes, Marcomannos, Tri- 
boces, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusios, Suevos, omnemque 
aciem suam redis et carris circumdederunt, ne qua spes in 
fuga relinqueretur. Eo mulieres 3 imposuerunt, quae ad 
proelium proficiscentis, passis manibus flentes, implorabant 
io ne se in servitutem Romanis traderent. 

Description of the Battle. 

52. Caesar singulis 4 legionibus singulos legatos et quae- 
storem praefecit, 5 uti eos testis 6 suae quisque virtutis habe- 
ret ; ipse a dextro cornu, quod earn partem minime firmam 
hostium esse animadverterat, proelium commisit. Ita nostri 

15 acriter in hostis signo dato impetum fecerunt, ita-que hostes 
repente celeriterque procurrerunt ut spatium 7 pila in hostis 
coniciendi non daretur. Reiectis pilis cominus gladiis pug- 
natum est. At German! celeriter ex consuetudine sua 
phalange facta impetus gladiorum exceperunt. Reperti 

20 sunt complures nostri qui in phalanga 8 insilirent et scuta 
manibus revellerent et desuper volnerarent. Cum hostium 
acies a sinistro 9 cornu pulsa atque in f ugam coniecta esset, 
a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine suorum nostram 
aciem premebant. Id cum animadvertisset P. Crassus 

25 adulescens, 10 qui equitatui praeerat, quod expeditior 11 erat 
quam ei qui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem laboran- 
tibus nostris subsidio misit. 

Cf. 1 valeret, p. 36, 1. 21. — 2 accedere, 41, 10. — 8 mulieres, 26, 7. — 
4 singuli, 44, 1. — 6 praeficit, 8, 22. — 6 testem, 12, 24. — 7 spatium, 7, 
6. — 8 phalange, 21, 4. — • sinistra, 22,8. — 10 adulescentem, 42, 11. — 
11 expedita, 45. «• 

B. G. I. 53.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 


Fig. 25. — Plan of Battle with Ariovistus. 

Complete Defeat of the Germans. Recovery of the Two Envoys. 

53. Ita proelium restitutum est atque omnes hostes terga 
verterunt, neque prius fugere destiterunt x quam ad flumen 

Cf. 1 desistere, p. 40, L 26. 

48 The Gallic War. [c^sak 

Rhenum, milia passuum ex eo loco circiter quinque, 
pervenerunt. Ibi perpauci aut viribus confisi 1 tranare 
contenderunt aut lintribus 2 inventis sibi salutem reppere- 
runt. In his fuit Ariovistus, qui naviculam deligatam ad 
5 ripam nactus ea profugit ; reliquos omnis consecuti equites 
nostri interfecerunt. Duae fuerunt Ariovisti uxores, una 
Sueva natione, quam domo secum duxerat, altera Norica, 
regis Voccionis soror, quam in Gallia duxerat a f nitre 
missam ; utraque in ea fuga, periit. Duae filiae harum 

io altera occisa, altera capta est. Gaius Valerius Procillus, 
cum a custodibus 3 in fuga, trims catenis 4 vinctus trahere- 
tur, in ipsum Caesarem hostis equitatu Insequentem inci- 
dit. Quae quidem res Caesar! non minorem quam ipsa 
victoria voluptatem adtulit, quod hominem honestissimum 

15 provinciae Galliae, suum familiarem et hospitem, ereptum e 
manibus hostium, sibi restitutum videbat ; neque eius calami- 
tate de tanta voluptate et gratulatione quicquam fortuna 
deminuerat. 6 Is se praesente de se ter sortibus 6 consultum 
dicebat utrum Ignl statim necaretur an in aliud tem^us 

20 reservaretur ; sortium beneficio se esse incolumem. Item 
M. Metius repertus et ad eum reductus est. 

The Army Goes into Winter Quarters. Caesar Goes to Hither Gaul. 

54. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nuntiato Suevi, qui ad 
ripas RhenI venerant, domum revert! 7 coeperunt; quos 
Ubii, qui proximi Rhenum incolunt, perterritos insecuti 
25 magnum ex els numerum occiderunt. Caesar una. aestate 
duobus maximis bellis confectls, matiirius 8 paulo quam 
tempus anni postulabat, in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum 
deduxit ; h'ibernis Labienum praeposuit ; ipse in citeriorem 
Galliam ad conventus agendos profectus est. 

Cf. * cSnfidebat, p. 36, 1. 25. — 2 lintribus, 10, 4. — 8 custodes, 18, 11. 
— 4 catenas, 42, 21. — 6 deminiita, 16, 13. — 6 sortibus, 45, 20. — 7 re- 
vert!, 37, 18.— 8 maturrime, 30, 19. 


Fig. 27. — Writing Materials. 


The Belgian Confederacy, b.c. 57. 

All the Belgian Tribes Conspire against the Romans. Reasons for this. 

CUM esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia ita uti supra de- 
monstravimus, crebri ad eum rumores adferebantur, 1 
litterisque item Labieni certior 2 fiebat omnis Belgas, quam 
tertiam esse Galliae partem dixeramus, contra populum 
Romanum coniurare obsidesque inter se dare. Coniurandi 5 
has esse causas : primum quod vererentur 8 ne omni pacata 
Gallia ad eos exercitus noster adduceretur ; deinde quod ab 
non nullis Gallis* sollicitarentur, — partim qui, ut Germanos 
diutius in Gallia versari 4 noluerant, ita populi RomanI exer- 
citum hiemare atque inveterascere in Gallia moleste fere- 10 
bant ; partim qui mobilitate et levitate animi novis imperiis 
studebant, — ab non nullis etiam, quod in Gallia a potentiori- 
bus atque eis qui ad conducendos homines facultatis habe- 
bant volgo regna occupabantur, qui minus facile earn rem 
imperio nostro consequi 5 poterant. 15 

Cf. J adtulit, p. 48, 1. 14. — 2 certior, 37, 12. — • vereri, 34, 14. — 
1 versabantur , 44, 2. — 6 consecutum, 38, 22. 

50 The Gallic War. \Qx&kx 

Caesar promptly Moves against them. 

2. His nuntiis litterisque commotus Caesar duas legiones 
in citeriore Gallia novas conscripsit, et inita aestate 1 in in- 
teriorem Galliam qui deduceret Q. Pedium legatum misit. 
Ipse, cum prlmum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum 

5 venit. Dat negotium Senonibus reliquisque Gallis qui fini- 
timi Belgis erant, uti ea quae apud eos gerantur cognoscant 
seque de his rebus certiorem faciant. Hi constanter omnes 
niintiaverunt manus 2 cogi, exercitum in unum locum con 
duel. Turn vero dubitandum non existimavit quin ad eos 
io proficisceretur. Re frumentaria comparata castra movet 
diebusque circiter quindecim ad finis Belgarum pervenit. 

The Remi Submit and Promise Aid. 

3. Eo cum de improviso celeriusque 3 omnium opinione 
venisset, Remi, qui proximi Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad eum 
legatos Iccium et Andocombogium, primos civitatis, mise- 

i s runt, qui dicerent : * Se suaque omnia in fidem atque in 
potestatem populi Romani permittere ; neque se cum reliquis 
Belgis consensisse neque contra populum Romanum coniu- 
rasse, 4 paratosque esse et obsides dare et imperata facere 
et oppidis recipere et frumento ceterisque 6 rebus iuvare ; b 

20 reliquos omnis Belgas in armis esse, Germanosque, qui cis 
Rhenum incolant, 7 sese cum his coniunxisse, tantumque esse 
eorum omnium furorem ut ne Suessiones quidem, fratres 
consanguineosque 8 suos, qui eodem iure et isdem legibus 
utantur, unum imperium iinumque magistratum cum ipsis 

25 habeant, deterrere 9 potuerint quin cum his consentirent.' 

Origin and Strength of the Belgae as Told by the Remi. 

4. Cum ab his quaereret 10 quae civitates quantaeque in 
armis essent et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat : ple- 

Cf. 1 aestate, p. 48, 1. 25. — 2 manus, 32, 27. — 8 celerius, 44, 5. — * con- 
iurare, 49, 5. — 5 ceteri, 29, 14. — 6 iuvarent, 24, 14. — 7 incolunt, 48, 24. 
— 8 consanguineos, 30, 7. — • deterrere, 29, 8. — 10 quaereret, 45, 17. 


Fig. 28. — Gaul with Trumpet {carnyx). 

B. G. II. 4] The Belgian Confederacy. 5 1 

rosque Belgas esse ortos 1 ab Germanis, Rhenumque anti- 
quitus traductos propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse 
Gallosque qui ea loca incolerent expulisse, solosque 2 esse 
qui patrum nostrorum memoria, omnl Gallia vexata, 3 Teu- 
tonos Cimbrosque intra suos finis ingredi prohibuerint; qua 5 
ex re fieri uti earum rerum memoria magnam sibi auctori- 
tatem magnosque spiritus 4 in re militari sumerent. 5 De 
numero eorum omnia se habere explorata Remi dicebant, 
propterea quod propinquitatibus adfinitatibusque coniuncti, 
quantam quisque multitudinem in communi Belgarum con- 10 

Fig. 29. — Coin of Divici acus, King of thb Sukssionbs. 

cilio ad id bellum pollicitus sit cognoverint. Plurimum inter 
eos Bellovacos et virtute et auctoritate et hominum numero 
valere ; hos posse conficere armata milia centum, pollicitos 6 
ex eo numero electa milia sexaginta, totiusque belli imperium 
sibi postulare. 7 Suessiones suos esse finitimos ; 8 finis latissi- 15 
mos feracissimosque agros possidere. Apud eos fuisse regem 
nostra etiam memoria Diviciacum, totius Galliae potentissi- 
mum,' qui cum magnae partis harum regionum turn etiam 
Britanniae imperium obtinuerit ; nunc esse regem Galbam ; 
ad hunc propter iustitiam prudentiamque summam 10 totius 20 
belli omnium voluntate deferri ; oppida habere numero xn, 
polliceri milia armata quinquaginta. ; totidem Nervios, qui 

Cf. 1 ortus, p. 33, 1. 27. — 2 sola, 36, 22. — 3 vexassent, 12, 10. — ♦spi- 
ritus, 30, 2 1 . — 6 sumpserat, 30, 2 1 . — 6 pollicitum, 38, 7. — 7 postulandi, 
38, 21. — 8 finitimi, 50, 5. — ■ potentioribus, 49, 12. — 10 gumma, 37, 6. 

52 The Gallic War. [C>esar 

maxime feri inter ipsos habeantur longissimeque absint; 1 
quindecim milia Atrebates, Ambianos decern milia, Morinos 
xxv milia, Menapios vn milia, Caletos x milia, Veliocasses 
et Viromanduos totidem, Aduatucos decern et novem milia-, 
5 Condrusos, Eburones, Caerosos, Paemanos, qui uno nomine 
German! appellantur, 3 arbitrari ad xl milia. 

Caesar Marches to the Aisne, and Encamps beyond it. 

5. Caesar Remos cohortatus liberaliterque oratione prose- 
cutus, omnem senatum ad se convenire principumque liberos 
obsides ad se adduci iussit. Quae omnia ab his diligenter 

io ad diem facta sunt. Ipse Diviciacum Haeduum magnopere 3 
cohortatus docet quanto opere rei publicae communisque 
salutis 4 intersit manus 5 hostium distineri, ne cum tanta 
multitudine uno tempore confligendum sit. Id fieri posse, 
si suas copias Haedui in finis Bellovacorum introduxerint 

15 et eorum agros populari 6 coeperint. His datis mandatis eum 
a se dimittit. Postquam omnis Belgarum copias in unum 
locum coactas 7 ad se venire [vidit] neque iam longe abesse 
ab eis quos miserat exploratoribus et ab Remis cognovit, 
flumen Axonam, quod est in extremis Remorum finibus, 

20 exercitum traducere maturavit 8 atque ibi castra posuit. 
Quae res et latus unum castrorum ripis fluminis muniebat 
et post eum quae erant tuta ab hostibus reddebat, et com- 
meatus 9 ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut sine periculo ad 
eum portari possent efficiebat. In eo flumine pons erat. 

25 Ibi praesidium ponit et in altera parte fluminis Q. Titurium 
Sabinum legatum cum sex cohortibus relinquit ; castra in 
altitudinem pedum xn vallo fossaque duodeviginti pedum 
muniri iubet. 

Cf. ! aberat, p. 45, 1. 1. — 2 appellatos, 40, 8. — 8 magnopere, 33, 7 

— 4 salutem, 48, 3. — 6 manus, 50, 8. — 6 popularentur, 32, 22. — 7 cogi, 
50, 8. — 8 maturandum, 32, 27. — • commeatu, 42, 26. 

B. G. II. 6.] The Belgian Confederacy. 53 

The Belgae Attack Bibrax, a Town of the Remi, Eight Miles Away. 

6. Ab his castris oppidum Remorum nomine Bibrax aberat 
milia passuum octo. Id ex itinere magno impetu Belgae 
oppugnare coeperunt. Aegre 1 eo die sustentatum est. Gal- 
lorum eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec. Ubi 
circumiecta multitudine hominum totis moenibus undique in 
murum lapides iaci coepti sunt 2 murusque defensoribus 
nudatus est, testudine facta [portas] succedunt murumque 

Fig. 30. — Slinghr {funditor). 

subniunt. Quod turn facile fiebat. Nam cum tanta multi- 
tudo lapides ac tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas 
erat nulli. Cum finem oppiignandi nox fecisset, Iccius 10 
Remus summa nobilitate et gratia inter suos, qui turn oppido 
praeerat / unus ex eis qui legati de pace ad Caesarem vene- 
rant, nuntium ad eum mittit : nisi subsidium sibi submit- 
tatur, sese diutius 3 sustinere non posse. 

Cf. 1 aegerrime, p. 11, 1. 8. — a coeptae, 42, 2. — 8 diutius, 49, 9. 

54 The Gallic War. [C*sar 

Caesar Sends Relief and the Belgae Advance on his Camp. 

7. Eo de media nocte Caesar isdem ducibus usus qui nun- 
tii ab Iccio venerant, Numidas et Cretas sagittarios et fundi- 
tores Baleares subsidio 1 oppidanls mittit ; quorum adventu 
et Remis cum spe defensionis studium 2 propugnandi acces- 

5 sit, et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiundi oppidi discessit. 
Itaque paulisper apud oppidum morati agrosque Remorum 
depopulati, omnibus vicis 3 aedificiisque quo adire potuerant 
incensis, ad castra Caesaris omnibus copiis contenderunt et 
a milibus passuum minus duobus castra posuerunt ; quae 
io castra, ut fumo atque ignibus significabatur, amplius milibus 
passuum octo in latitudinem patebant. 

Caesar Strengthens his Position. 

8. Caesar primo et propter multitudinem hostium et prop- 
ter eximiam opinionem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit ; 4 
cotidie tamen equestribus proeliis quid hostis virtute posset 

15 et quid nostri auderent 5 periclitabatur. Ubi nostros non 
esse Inferiores intellexit, loco pro castris ad aciem instruen- 
dam natura opportuno 6 atque idoneo, — quod is collis ubi 
castra posita erant paululum ex planitie 7 editus, tan turn ad- 
versus in latitudinem patebat quantum loci acies instructa 

20 occupare poterat, atque ex utraque parte lateris 8 deiectus 
habebat et in fronte leniter fastigatus paulatim 9 ad planitiem 
redibat, — ab utroque latere eius collis transversam fossam 
obduxit circiter passuum quadringentorum et ad extremas 
fossas castella constituit ibique tormenta conlocavit, ne, cum 

25 aciem Instruxisset, hostes, quod tantum multitudine poterant, 
ab lateribus pugnantis suos circumvenire possent. Hoc facto 
duabus legionibus quas proxime conscripserat 10 in castris 

Cf. 1 subsidiS, p. 46, 1. 27. — 2 studium, 41, 21. — 8 vicos, 25, 13. — 
4 statuit, 38, 1. — 6 audebat, 38, 1. — 6 opportunissimum, 26, 22. — 
7 planities, 38, 9. — 8 latus, 52, 21. — » paulatim, 34, 10. — 10 conscrip- 
sit, 50, 2. 

B. G. II. 9.] The Belgian Confederacy. 


relictis, ut, si quo opus esset, subsidio duel possent, reliquas 
sex legiones pro castrls in acie constituit. Hostes item suas 
copias ex castris eductas Instruxerunt. 

The Belgae Try to Cross the Aisne to Attack him in the Rear. 

9. Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium ex- 
ercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent hostes exspectabant ; 
nostri autem, si ab illis initium transeundi fieret, ut impedi- 
tos adgrederentur 1 parati in armis erant. Interim proelio 
equestri inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri trans- 

Fig. 32 — Battlb on the Aisnb (Axona). 

eundi initium faciunt, secundiore 2 equitum proelio nostris 
Caesar suos in castra reduxit. Hostes protinus ex eo loco i 
ad flumen Axonam contenderunt, quod esse post nostra 
castra demonstratum 3 est. Ibi vadis repertis 4 partem sua- 

Cf. J adgressi, p. 22, 1. 16. — a secundidres, 12, 16. — 8 demonstr&vi- 
, 49, 1.— * reperiebtt, 50, 27. 

56 The Gallic War. [C^sae 

rum copiarum traducere conatl sunt, eo consilio ut, si 
possent, castellum cui praeerat r Q. Titurius legatus expug- 
narent pontemque interscinderent ; si minus 2 potuissent, 
agros Remorum popularentur, 8 qui magno nobis usui ad 
5 bellum gerendum erant, commeatuque 4 nostros prohiberent. 

Caesar Crosses, and Defeats them. They Decide to Disband. 

10. Caesar certior factus ab Titurio omnem equitatum et 
levis armaturae Numidas, funditores 5 sagittariosque pontem 
traducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco pugna- 
tum est. Hostis impeditos nostri in flumine adgressi 

io magnum eorum numerum occlderunt ; per eorum corpora 
reliquos audacissime transire conantis multitudine telorum 
reppulerunt, primosque, qui transierant, equitatu circumven- 
tos interfecerunt. Hostes ubi et de expugnando oppido et 
de flumine transeundo spem se fefellisse intellexerunt, neque 

15 nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi pugnandi causa vide- 
runt, atque ipsos res frumentaria 6 deficere coepit, concilio 
convocato constituerunt optimum esse domum suam quem- 
que 7 reverti, et, quorum in finis primum Romani exercitum 
introduxissent, ad eos defendendos undique 8 convenirent, 

20 ut potius in suis quam in alienis finibus decertarent et 
domesticis copiis rei frumentariae uterentur. Ad earn sen- 
tentiam cum reliquis causis haec quoque ratio eos deduxit, 
quod Diviciacum atque Haeduos finibus Beilovacorum 
adpropinquare cognoverant. His persuaderi ut diutius 

25 morarentur 9 neque suis auxilium ferrent non poterat. 

On their Retreat, they are Pursued with Great Slaughter. 

11. Ea re constituta secunda vigilia. magno cum strepitu 
ac tumultu castris egressi nullo certo ordine neque imperio, 

Cf. x praeerat, p. 53, L 12. — 2 minus, 42, 4. — 8 popular!, 52, 15 
— 4 commeatus, 52, 22. — 6 funditores, 54, 2. — 6 frumentariae, 36, 6. 
— 7 quisque. 51, 10. — • undique, 53c f — • morati, 54, 6. 

B. G. II. 12.] The Belgian Confederacy. 57 

cum sibi quisque prlmum itineris locum peteret et domum 
pervenire properaret, fecerunt ut consimilis fugae profectio 1 
videretur. Hac re statim 2 Caesar per speculators cognita, 8 
insidias veritus, quod qua de causa discederent 4 nondum per- 
spexerat, exercitum equitatumque castris continuit. Prima 5 
luce confirmata re ab exploratoribus, omnem equitatum qui 
novissimum agmen moraretur praemisit. His Q. Pedium 
et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatos praefecit ; T. Labienum 
legatum cum legionibus tribus subsequi iussit. Hi novis- 
simos adorti 5 et multa milia passuum prosecuti 6 magnam 10 
multitudinem eorum fugientium conciderunt; cum ab ex- 
tremo agmine, ad quos ventum erat, consisterent fortiterque 
impetum nostrorum militum sustinerent, priores, quod abesse 
a periculo viderentur neque ulla necessitate neque imperio 
continerentur, 7 exaudito clamore perturbatis ordinibus omnes 15 
in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent. Ita sine ullo periculo 
tantam eorum multitudinem nostri interfecerunt quantum 
fuit diei spatium ; sub occasum solis sequi destiterunt seque 
in castra, ut erat imperatum, receperunt. 

The Suessiones, Alarmed by Caesar's Advance, Surrender. 

12. Postridie eius diei Caesar, priusquam se hostes ex 20 
terrore ac fuga reciperent, in finis Suessionum, qui proximi 8 
Remis erant, exercitum duxit et magno itinere ad oppidum 
Noviodunum contendit. Id ex itinere oppiignare 9 conatus, 10 
quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audiebat, propter latitu- 
dinem fossae murique altitudinem paucis defendentibus 25 
j expugnare non potuit. Castris munitis vineas agere quae- 
que ad oppugnandum usui erant comparare coepit. Interim 
omnis ex fuga Suessionum multitudo in oppidum proxima 

Cf. ' profectionem, p. 6, 1. 10. — 2 statim, 48, 19. — 8 cognoscant, 50, 
6 — 4 discessisset, 40, 21. — 5 adortum, 36, 2. — 6 prosecutus, 52, 7. 
~ 7 continebat, 13, 11. — 8 proximi, 50, 13. — 9 oppiignare. 53, 3. — 
10 c5nantis, 56, 11. 

58 The Gallic War, [C^sar 

nocte convenit. Celeriter vineis ad oppidum actis, aggere 
iacto turribusque constitutes, 1 magnitudine operum, quae 

Fig. 33. — Vinka or Tkstudo. 

neque viderant ante Galli neque audierant, et celeritate 

Romanorum permoti, legatos ad Caesarem de deditione 2 

5 mittunt et petentibus Remis ut conservarentur impetrant. 8 

In Like Manner the Bellovaci Surrender. 

13. Caesar obsidibus acceptis prlmis civitatis atque ipsius 
Galbae regis duobus filiis, armisque omnibus ex oppido 
traditis in deditionem Suessiones accipit exercitumque in 
Bellovacos ducit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum 

10 Bratuspantium contulissent, atque ab eo oppido Caesar cum 
exercitu circiter milia passuum quinque abesset, omnes 
maiores natu ex oppido egress! manus ad Caesarem tendere 
et voce significare coeperunt sese in eius fidem 4 ac potesta- 
tem venire neque contra populum Romanum armis conten- 

15 dere. Item, cum ad oppidum accessisset castraque ibi 
poneret, pueri mulieresque ex muro passis 6 manibus suo 
more pacem ab Romanis petierunt. 

Cf. 1 constituit, p. 54, 1. 24. — 2 deditionem, 25, 8. — 8 impetraret, 
31, 22. — 4 fidem, 50, 15. — 6 passis, 46, 9. 

6. G. II. 15.J The Belgian Confederacy. 59 

Diviciacus, Leader of the Heedui, Pleads for the Bellovaci. 

14. Pro his Diviciacus — nam post discessum Belgarum 
dimissis 1 Haeduorum copiis ad eum reverterat — facit 
verba : * Bellovacos omni tempore in fide atque amicitia 
civitatis Haeduae fuisse ; impulsos 2 ab suis principibus, qui 
dicerent Haeduos a Caesare in servitutem redactos 3 omnis 5 
indignitatis contumeliasque perferre, et ab Haeduis defecisse 

et populo Romano bellum intulisse. Qui eius consili 
principes fuissent, quod intellegerent quantam calamitatem 
civitati intulissent, in Britanniam profugisse. Petere non 
solum Bellovacos sed etiam pro his Haeduos ut sua, clemen- 10 
tia ac mansuetudine in eos utatur. Quod si fecerit, Hae- 
duorum auctoritatem 4 apud omnis Belgas amplificaturum, 
quorum auxiliis atque opibus, 6 si qua bella inciderint, 
sustentare 6 consuerint.' 

The Ambiani Surrender. Reports of the Nervii, Who are Waiting to Give 
Battle beyond the Sambre. 

15. Caesar honoris Diviciaci atque Haeduorum causa sese 15 
eos in fidem recepturum et conservatiirum dixit, et quod erat 
civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate atque hominum multi- 
tudine praestabat, sexcentos obsides poposcit. His traditis 
omnibusque armis ex oppido conlatis, ab eo loco in finis 
Ambianorum pervenit, qui se suaque omnia sine mora dedi- 20 
derunt. Eorum finis Nervii attingebant ; quorum de natura 
moribusque Caesar cum quaereret, sic reperiebat : Nullum 
aditum esse ad eos mercatoribus ; nihil pati vini reliquarum- 
que 7 rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium inferri, quod his rebus 
relanguescere animos et remitti virtutem existimarent ; esse 25 
homines feros magnaeque virtutis ; increpitare atque incii- 
sare 8 reliquos Belgas, qui se populo Romano dedidissent 

Cf. ' dimisso, p. 27, L 5. — 2 impulsus, 35, 1. — 8 redegisset, 41,3. 
* auctoritatem, 51, 6. — 6 opibus, 17, 22. — 6 sustentatum, 53, 3. — 
7 reliquis, 50. 5. — 8 incusavit, 34, 22. 

60 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

patriamque virtutem proiecissent ; confirmare x sese neque 
legatos missuros neque ullam condicionem pads accepturos. 

16. Cum per eorum finis triduum iter fecisset, inveniebat 
ex captivis Sabim flumen a castris suis non amplius milia 

5 passuum x abesse ; trans id flumen omnis Nervios conse- 
disse 2 adventumque ibi Romanorum exspectare una cum 
Atrebatibus et Viromanduis, finitimis suis (nam his utrisque 3 
persuaserant uti eandem belli fortunam experirentur 4 ); 
exspectari etiam ab eis Aduatucorum copias atque esse in 
10 itinere; mulieres quique per aetatem ad pugnam inutiles 
viderentur in eum locum coniecisse, quo propter paludes 6 
exercitui aditus non esset. 

The Nervii, on Information Given by Deserters, Decide to Attack Caesar 
while Pitching Camp. 

17. His rebus cognitis exploratores centurionesque prae 
mittit qui locum castris idoneum 6 deligant. 7 Cum ex 

15 dediticiis Belgis reliquisque Gallis complures Caesarem 
seciiti una iter facerent, quidam ex his, ut postea ex captivis 
cognitum est, eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostri 
exercitus perspecta, 8 nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt ; atque 
his demonstrarunt inter singulas legiones impedimentorum 

20 magnum numerum intercedere, neque esse quicquam ne- 
goti, cum prima legio in castra venisset reliquaeque legiones 
magnum spatium abessent, 9 hanc sub sarcinis adoriri ; qua 
pulsa impedimentisque direptis futurum ut reliquae contra 
consistere non auderent. Adiuvabat etiam eorum consilium 

25 qui rem deferebant, quod Nervii antiquitus, 10 cum equitatu 
nihil possent (neque enim ad hoc tempus ei rei student, 11 sed 
quicquid possunt pedestribus valent 12 copiis), quo f acilius 

Cf. 1 confirmavit, p. 37, 1. 2. — 2 consedisse, 51, 2. — 8 utraque, 
54, 20. — 4 experiantur, 29, 4. — 5 palus, 55, 4. — 6 idoneum, 44, n. — 
7 delegerant, 44, 2. — 8 perspectam, 36, 17. — 9 absint, 52, 1. — 10 anti- 
quitus, 51, i. — u 8tudebant, 49, 12.— ^valere, 51, 13. 

B. G. II. 18.] The Belgian Confederacy. 


finitimorum equitatum, si praedandi causa ad eos venissent, 
impedirent, teneris arboribus incisis atque inflexis, crebris- 
que in latitudinem ramis enatis, et rubis sentibusque 
interiectis, effecerant 1 ut instar muri hae saepes munimenta 
praeberent, qu5 non modo non intrari sed ne perspici quidem 
posset. His rebus cum iter agminis nostri impediretur, non 
omittendum sibi consilium Nervii existimaverunt. 

Fig. 35. — Defeat of the Nervii. 

Nature of the Ground. 

18. Loci natura erat haec quem locum nostri castris 
delegerant. Collis ab summo aequaliter declivis ad flumen 
Sabim, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo fliimine 
pari 2 acclivitate collis nascebatur adversus 3 huic et contra- 
rius, passus circiter ducentos infimus apertus, 4 ab superiore 

Cf. 1 efficiebat, p. 52, 1. 24. 
— 4 apertis, 37, 9. 

2 paribus, 46, 5. — 8 adversus, 54, 18. 

62 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

parte silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. 
Intra eas silvas hostes in occulto sese continebant; in 
aperto loco secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum 
videbantur. Fluminis erat altitiido pedum circiter trium. 

The Nervii Make a Furious Assault and Throw the Romans into 

5 19. Caesar equitatu praemisso subsequebatur 1 omnibus 
copiis ; sed ratio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat ac 
Belgae ad Nervios detulerant. Nam quod hostibus adpro- 
pinquabat, consuetudine sua Caesar sex legiones expedites 2 
ducebat ; post eas totius exercitus impedimenta conlocarat ; 

io inde duae legiones quae proxime 3 conscrlptae erant totum 
agmen claudebant praesidioque 4 impedimentis erant. Equi- 
tes nostri cum funditoribus sagittariisque flumen transgress! 
cum hostium equitatu proelium commiserunt. Cum se ill! 
identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent ac rursus 5 ex silva in 

15 nostros impetum facerent, neque nostri longius quam quem 
ad finem porrecta loca aperta pertinebant cedentis insequi 
auderent, 6 interim legiones sex quae primae venerant opere 
dimenso castra munire coeperunt. Ubi prima impedimenta 
nostri exercitus ab els qui in silvls abditi 7 latebant visa sunt, 

20 quod tempus inter eos committendl proeli convenerat, 8 ut 
intra silvas aciem ordinesque constituerant 9 atque ipsl sese 
confirmaverant, subito omnibus copiis provolaverunt impe- 
tumque in nostros equites fecerunt. His facile pulsls ac 
proturbatls, incredibill celeritate ad flumen decucurrerunt, ut 

25 paene uno tempore et ad silvas et in flumine [et iam in 
manibus nostrls] hostes viderentur. Eadem autem celeritate 
adverso colle ad nostra castra atque eos qui in opere occu- 
pati erant contenderunt. 

Cf. > subsequi, p. 57, 1. 9. — 2 expedita, 45. 2. — 8 proximi, 50, 13. 
— * praesidium f 52, 25. — 5 rursus, 22, 17. — 6 auderent, 54. 15- — 
T abditi, 34. 7 •— 8 convenisset, 32, 11.— • constituit, 54, 24. 

B. G. II. 20.] The Belgian Confederacy. 


The Critical Situation. The Discipline of the Roman Army. 

20. Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda : vexillum 
proponendum (quod erat insigne cum ad arma concurri 
oporteret), signum tuba dandum, ab opere revocandi milites, 
qui paulo longius aggeris petendi causa processerant arces- 
sendi, acies Instruenda, 1 milites cohortandl, 2 signum dandum. 
Quarum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas et succes- 
sus hostium impediebat. 3 His difficultatibus duae res erant 

Fig. 36. — Lituus. 

Fig. 37. — Tuba. 

Fig. 38. — Cornu. 

subsidio, 4 — scientia' atque iisus militum, quod superioribus 
proeliis exercitati quid fieri oporteret non minus commode 
ipsi sibi praescrlbere quam ab aliis docerl 6 poterant ; et 10 
quod ab opere singulisque legionibus singulos legatos Cae- 
sar discedere nisi munitis castris vetuerat. Hi propter 
propinquitatem et celeritatem hostium nihil iam Caesaris 
imperium exspectabant, sed per se quae videbantur admi- 


Caesar Addresses the Tenth ; the Rest are Already Engaged. 

21. Caesar necessariis rebus imperatis ad cohortandos 
milites quam in partem fors obtulit decucurrit, et ad 

C£. 1 instruendam, p. 54, 1. 16. — 2 cohortatus, 52, 7. — 8 impedirent, 
61, 2. — * subsidium, 53, 13. — * scientiam, 42, 13. — 6 docet, 52, II. 

64 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

legionem decimam devenit. Milites non longiore oratione 
cohortatus quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam reti- 
nerent neu perturbarentur 1 animo hostiumque impetum 
fortiter sustinerent, quod non longius hostes aberant quam 
5 quo telum adici posset, proeli committendi signum dedit. 
Atque in alteram partem item cohortandi causa profectus, 
pugnantibus occurrit. Temporis tanta fuit exiguitas hos- 
tiumque tam paratus 2 ad dimicandum animus ut non modo 
ad insignia accommodanda sed etiam ad galeas induendas 
10 scutisque tegimenta detrahenda tempus defuerit. Quam 
quisque ab opere in partem casu devenit, quaeque prima 
signa conspexit ad haec constitit, 3 ne in quaerendis suis 
pugnandi tempus dimitteret. 

The Varying Fortunes of the Battle. 

22. Instructo exercitu magis ut loci natura deiectusque 4 
15 collis et necessitas temporis quam ut rei militaris ratio 

atque ordo postulabat, cum diversae legion es aliae alia in 
parte hostibus resisterent, saepibusque 5 densissimis (ut 
ante demonstravimus) interiectis 6 prospectus impediretur, 
neque certa subsidia conlocari neque quid in quaque parte 
20 opus 7 esset providerl neque ab uno omnia imperia adminis- 
trari poterant. Itaque in tanta rerum iniquitate fortunae 
quoque eventus varii sequebantur. 

Two Legions Force the Atrebates into the River ; Two Pursue the Viro- 
mandui, but the Nervii Gain the Camp. 

23. Legionis nonae et decimae milites, ut in sinistra 
. parte acie constiterant, pilis emissis cursii ac lassitudine ex- 
25 animatos volneribusque confectos Atrebates — nam his ea 

pars obvenerat — celeriter ex loco superiore in fliimen com- 
pulerunt, et transire conantis 8 insecuti gladiis magnam 

Cf. x perturbatis, p. 57, 1. 15. — 2 paratissimam, 37, 2. — 8 c5nsis- 
tendi, 53, 9. — 4 deiectus, 54, 20. — 6 saepes, 61, 4. — 6 interiectis, 61, 4. 
— T opus, 55, i. — 8 conatus, 57, 23. 

B. G. II. 24.] The Belgian Confederacy. 65 

partem eorum impeditam interfecerunt. Ipsi translre flu- 
men non dubitaverunt, et in locum iniquum 1 progress! 
rursus resistentis hostis redintegrato proelio in fugam 
coniecerunt. Item alia in parte diversae duae legiones, un- 
decima et octava, profligatis Viromanduis, quibuscum erant 5 
congress!, ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis ripis proelia- 
bantur. At totis fere castris a fronte et ab sinistra parte 
nudatis, 2 cum in dextro cornQ 3 legio duodecima et non 
magno ab ea intervallo septima constitisset, omnes Nervil 
confertissimo agmine duce Boduognato, qui summam 4 im- 10 
peri tenebat, ad eum locum contenderunt ; quorum pars 
aperto latere legiones circumvenire, pars summum castro- 
rum locum petere coepit. 

The Enemy have the Advantage. The Treveri, Panic-stricken, "Withdraw 
to their Homes. 

24. Eodem tempore equites nostri levisque armaturae 5 
pedites, qui cum eis una fuerant, quos primo hostium 15 
impetu pulsos dixeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversis 
hostibus occurrebant ac rursus aliam in partem fugam pete- 
bant ; et calones, qui ab decumana porta ac summo iugo 
collis nostros victores flumen transisse conspexerant, prae- 
dandi 6 causa egressi, cum respexissent et hostis in nostris 20 
castris versari vidissent, praecipites fugae sese mandabant. 7 
Simul eorum qui cum impedimentis veniebant clamor fre- 
mitusque oriebatur, aliique aliam in partem perterriti 
ferebantur. Quibus omnibus rebus permoti equites Treveri, 
quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio 8 est singularis, qui 25 
auxilii causa a civitate missi ad Caesarem venerant, cum 
multitudine hostium castra compleri, legiones premi 9 et 
paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, funditores, 

Cf. 1 iniquiSrem, p. 56, 1. 15. — 2 nudatus, 53, 7. — 8 cornu, 46, 22. 
— 4 summam, 51, 20. — 6 armaturae, 56, 7. — 6 praedandi, 61, 1. — 
7 mandarunt, 10, n. — 8 opinionem, 54, 13. — 9 premebant, 46, 24. 


The Gallic War. 


Numidas dispers5s dissipatosque in omnis partis fugere 
vidissent, desperatis 1 nostrls rebus domum contenderunt ; 
Romanos pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque 
eorum hostis potitos, civitati renuntiaverunt. 

Caesar Enters the Fight in Person and Inspires his Soldiers. 

5 25. Caesar ab decimae legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 
cornu profectus, ubi suos urgeri signisque in unum locum 
conlatis duodecimae legionis confertos 2 milites sibi ipsos 

Fig. 39. — Aquilifer. 

Fig. 40. — Cknturio. 

ad pugnam esse impedimento 8 vidit, — quartae cohortis om- 
nibus centurionibus occisis, 4 signifero interfecto, signo 5 
to amisso, reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus 

Cf. 1 desperantis, p. 36, 1. 1. — 2 confertissimo, 65, 10. — 8 impedi- 
ments, 22, 6. — * occiderunt, 56, 10.— 6 signum, 63, 5. 

B. G. ii. 26.] The Belgian Confederacy. 67 

aut volneratis aut occisis, in his primipilo P. Sextio Baculd, 
fortissimo viro, multis gravibusque volneribus confecto, ut 
iam se sustinere non posset ; reliquos esse tardiores et 
non nullos 1 ab novissimls deserto proelio excedere ac tela 
vitare, hostis neque a fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntis 5 
intermittere et ab utroque latere instare, et rem esse in 
angusto vidit neque ullum esse subsidium quod submitti 2 
posset, — sciito ab novissimis [uni] militi detracto, quod 
ipse eo sine scuto 3 venerat, in primam aciem processit ; 
centurionibusque nominatim appellatis reliquos cohortatus 10 
milites slgna inferre et manipulos laxare iussit, quo facilius 
gladiis uti possent. Cuius adventu spe inlata militibus ac 
redintegrato 4 animo, cum pro se quisque in conspectu im- 
peratoris etiam in extremis suis rebus operam navare 
cuperet, paulum 5 hostium impetus tardatus est. 15 

Meanwhile Labienus, having Taken the Enemy's Camp, Sends a Reinforce- 
ment to Caesar. 

26. Caesar cum septimam legionem, quae iuxta constite- 
rat, item urgeri ab hoste vidisset, tribunos militum monuit 
ut paulatim sese legiones coniungerent et conversa signa in 
hostis inferrent. 6 Quo facto, cum alius alii subsidium ferret 
neque timerent ne aversi ab hoste circumvenirentur, auda- 20 
cius resistere ac fortius piignare coeperunt. Interim milites 
legionum duarum quae in novissimo agmine praesidio im- 
pedimentis fuerant, proelio nuntiato, cursu 7 incitato in 
summo colle ab hostibus conspiciebantur ; et T. Labienus 
castris hostium potitus 8 et ex loco superiore quae res in 25 
nostris castris gererentur 9 conspicatus, decimam legionem 
subsidio nostris misit. Qui, cum ex equitum et calonum 
fuga quo in loco res esset quantoque in periculo et castra et 

Cf. l non niillis, p. 49, 1. 8. — 2 submittatur, 53, 13. — 8 scutis, 64, 10. 
— 4 redintegrato, 65, 3. — 6 paulum, 45, 9. — 6 intulerunt, 22, 19.— 
7 cursu, 64, 24. — 8 potiundi, 54, 5. — • gerantur, 50, 6. 

68 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

legiones et imperator versaretur cognovissent, nihil ad cele- 
ritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. 

The Tide of Battle Turns. 

27. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio est facta ut 
nostri, etiam qui volneribus confecti 1 procubuissent, sciitis 

5 innixl proelium redintegrarent, calories perterritos hostis 
conspicati etiam inermes armatis occurrerent ; 2 equites vero, 
ut turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, omnibus in locis pug- 
nant, quo se legionariis mllitibus praeferrent. At hostes 
etiam in extrema spe saliitis tantam virtutem praestiterunt 

io ut, cum primi eorum cecidissent, proximi iacentibus insiste- 
rent atque ex eorum corporibus pugnarent ; his deiectis et 
coacervatis cadaveribus, qui superessent ut ex tumulo tela 
in nostros conicerent 3 et pila intercepta remitterent ; ut non 
nequiquam tantae virtutis homines iudicari deberet ausos 

15 esse translre latissimum 4 flumen, ascendere altissimas ripas, 
subire iniquissimum 5 locum ; quae facilia ex difficillimis 
animi magnitudo redegerat. 

The Nervii Utterly Routed, and Most of them Slain. 

28. Hoc proelio facto et prope ad internecionem gente ac 
nomine Nerviorum redacto, maiores natu, quos una cum 

20 puerls mulieribusque in aestuaria ac paludes 6 coniectos 
dixeramus, hac pugna nuntiata, cum victoribus nihil impedi- 
tum, victis nihil tutum 7 arbitrarentur, omnium qui supererant 
consensu legatos ad Caesarem miserunt seque ei dediderunt ; 8 
et, in commemoranda 9 civitatis calamitate, ex sexcentis ad 

25 tres senatores, ex hominum milibus lx vix ad quingentos 
qui arma ferre possent sese redactos esse dixerunt. Quos 
Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplices usus misericordia videre- 

Cf. * confectds, p. 64, 1. 25. — 2 occurrebant, 65, 17. — 8 c5nicerent, 
53, 9. — 4 latissimos, 51, 15. — 5 iniquum, 65, 2. — 6 palus, 55, 4 — 
7 tuta, 52, 22. — 8 dediderunt, 59, 20. — • commemoravit, 38, 17. 

B. G. II. 29.] The Belgian Confederacy. 

6 9 

tur, diligentissime conservavit suisque finibus atque oppidis 
uti iussit, et finitimis imperavit ut ab iniuria et maleficio se 
suosque prohiberent. 1 

The Aduatuci Withdraw to a Strongly Fortified Position. 
Account of their Origin. 

29. Aduatuci, de quibus supra diximus, cum omnibus 
copiis auxilio Nervils venirent, hac pugna nuntiata ex itinere 5 
domum reverterunt ; cunctis oppidis castellisque 2 desertis 

Fig. 42. — Siege of the Stronghold of the Aduatuci. 

sua omnia in unum oppidum egregie natura munitum contu- 
lerunt. 3 Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altissi- 
mas rupis despectusque haberet, una ex parte ieniter 4 

Cf « prohibuerint, p. 51, I. 5. — 2 castellum, 56, 2. — 8 contulissent, 
5S, 10. — 4 Ieniter, 54, 21. 

^o The Gallic War. [C^sar 

acclivis aditus in latitudinem non amplius pedum cc relin 
quebatur ; quern locum duplici altissimo muro munierant ; 
turn magni ponderis saxa et praeacutas trabis in muro con- 
locabant. Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teutonlsque prognatl, qui, 
5 cum iter in provinciam nostram atque Italiam facerent, els 
impedlmentis quae secum agere ac portare non poterant 
citra flumen Rhenum depositis, custodiam ex suis ac praesi- 
dium sex milia hominum una rellquerant. Hi post eorum 
obitum multos annos a finitimis exagitati, cum alias bellum 
10 inferrent alias inlatum defenderent, consensu eorum omnium 
pace facta hunc sibi domicilio locum delegerant. 

They Scoff at the Roman Siege Works. 

30. Ac primo adventu 1 exercitus nostri crebras 2 ex oppido 

excursiones faciebant parvulisque proeliis cum nostris con- 

tendebant ; postea vallo pedum xn, in circuitu xv milium, 

i,5 crebrisque castellis circummuniti oppido sese continebant. 


Fig. 43. — Siege Works. 
a, b, Double wall. e, Movable tower. 

c, c, c, Vineae. /, Ditch. 

d, Agger. 

Ubi vineis 8 actis aggere 4 exstructo turrim procul constitui 
viderunt, primum inridere ex muro atque increpitare vocibus 
quod tanta machinatio ab tant5 spatio institueretur : ' Qui- 
busnam manibus aut quibus viribus 5 praesertim homines 
20 tantulae staturae' — nam plerumque hominibus Gallis prae 

Cf. 1 adventum, p. 6o, 1. 6. — 2 crebri, 49, 2. — 8 vineas, 57, 26. — 
* aggere, 58, 1. — 6 viribus, 48, 2. 

B. G. II. 31.] The Belgian Confederacy. Ji 

magnitudine corporum suorum bre vitas nostra contemptui est 
— 'tanti oneris turrim in muro sese conlocare conf Iderent ? ' 

They Become Alarmed, and Offer to Surrender Conditionally. 

31. Ubi vero mover! et adpropinquare l moenibus 2 vide- 
runt, nova atque inusitata specie commoti 3 legatos ad 
Caesarem de pace mlserunt, qui ad hunc modum locuti : 5 
'Non existimare Romanos sine ope divlna bellum gerere, 
qui tantae altitudinis machinationes tanta celeritate 4 pro- 
movere possent ; se suaque omnia eorum potestati permit- 
tere ' * dixerunt. ' Unum petere ac deprecari : si forte pro 
sua dementia ac mansuetudine, 6 quam ipsi ab aliis audi- 10 
rent, statuisset Aduatucos esse conservandos, ne se armls 
despoliaret. Sibi omnls fere finitimos esse inimicos ac suae 
virtuti invidere; a quibus se defendere traditls armls non 
possent. Sibi praestare, si in eum casum deducerentur, 
quamvis fortunam a populo Romano pati quam ab his per 15 
cruciatum 7 interfici inter quos dominari consuessent/ 

They Accept Caesar's Terms, but Treacherously Retain Part of their Arms. 

32. Ad haec Caesar respondit : ' Se magis consuetiidine 
sua quam merito eorum civitatem conservaturum, si, prius 
quam 8 murum aries attigisset, se dedidissent ; sed deditionis 
nullam esse condicionem nisi armls traditls. Se id quod 20 
in 9 Nerviis fecisset facturum, finitimisque imperaturum ne 
quam dediticiis populi Roman! iniuriam Inferrent.' Re 
nuntiata ad suos, quae imperarentur facere dixerunt. Armo- 
rum magna multitudine de muro in fossam quae erat ante 
oppidum iacta, sic ut prope summam muri aggerisque alti- 25 
tudinem acervi armorum adaequarent, 10 et tamen circiter 

Cf. 1 adpropinquare, p. 56, 1. 24. — 2 moenibus, 53, 5. — 8 com- 
mdtus, 50, 1. — * celeritas, 44, 6. — 6 permittere, 50, 16. — 6 man- 
suetudine, 59, 11. — 7 cruciatiis, 28, 25. — 8 priusquam, 57, 20. — 
•in, 42, 14. — 10 adaequarent, 44, 7. 

72 The Gallic War, [Caesar 

parte tertia, ut postea perspectum est, celata atque in op- 
pido retenta, portis patefactis eo die pace sunt usi. 

They Make a Sally from the Town, but are Repulsed. More than 50,000 
Sold as Slaves. 

33. Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi militesque ex 
oppido exire iussit, ne quam noctu oppidan! 1 a mllitibus 

5 iniuriam acciperent. 111! ante inito (ut intellectum est) con- 
silio, quod deditione facta nostros praesidia deducturos aut 
denique indiligentius servaturos crediderant, — partim cum 
els quae retinuerant et celaverant armis, partim scutls ex 
cortice factis aut viminibus intextis, quae subito, ut temporis 

10 exiguitas 2 postulabat, pellibus induxerant, — tertia vigilia, 
qua minime arduus ad nostras munltiones ascensus videba- 
tur, omnibus copils repente ex oppido eruptionem fecerunt. 
Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperarat, Ignibus significatione 
facta, ex proximis castellls eo concursum 8 est, pugnatumque 

15 ab hostibus ita acriter est ut a viris fortibus in extrema spe 
salutis, inlquo loco, contra eos qui ex vallo 4 turribusque tela 
iacerent, pugnari debuit, 5 cum in una virtute omnis spes con- 
sisteret. Occisis ad hominum milibus quattuor reliqui in 
oppidum reiecti sunt. Postridie eius die! refractis portis, 

20 cum iam defenderet nemo, atque intromissis mllitibus nos- 
tris, sectionem eius oppidi universam Caesar vendidit. Ab 
eis qui emerant capitum numerus ad eum relatus est milium 
quinquaginta trium. 

Crassus Subdues many Coast Towns. 

34. Eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quem cum legione 
25 una miserat ad Venetos, Venellos, Osismos, Coriosolitas, 

Esuvios, Aulercos, Redones, quae sunt maritimae civitates 
Oceanumque attingunt, certior factus est omnis eas civi- 

Cf. * oppidanis, p. 54, 1. 3. — 2 exiguitas, 64, 7. — 8 concurri, 63, 2. 
— * vallo, 52, 27. — 6 deberet, 68, 14. 

B. G. II. 35.] The Belgian Confederacy. 


tares in dicionem potestatemque populi Romani esse re- 
dactas. 1 

The Army Goes into Winter Quarters. A Thanksgiving for Caesar's 
Victories is Decreed at Rome. 

35. His rebus gestis, omni Gallia pacata, 2 tanta huius 
belli ad barbaros opinio perlata est uti ab eis nationibus 
quae trans Rhenum incolerent legati ad Caesarem mitteren- 
tur qui se obsides daturas, imperata 8 facturas pollicerentur. 4 
Quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam Tllyricumque pro- 
perabat, inita proxima aestate ad se reverti iussit. Ipse in 
Carnutes, Andes, Turonos, quaeque civitates propinquae 
eis locis erant ubi bellum gesserat, legionibus in hiberna 
deductis in Italiam profectus est. Ob easque res ex litteris 
Caesaris dies quindecim supplicatio decreta est, quod ante 
id tempus accidit nulli. 

Cf. > redacts, p. 68, 1. 19. — 2 pacata, 49, 6. — 8 imperata, 50, 18. — 
* pollicitos, 51 ■, 13. 

Fig. 44. — Gallic Corns. 

Fig. 45. — Shipbuilder. 


Cesar's Third Campaign, b.c. 56. 

Galba is Sent to Guard the Passes of the Alps about the Upper Rhone. 

CUM in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar, Ser. Galbam cum 
legione xn et parte equitatus in Nantuatis, Veragros 
Sedunosque misit, qui a finibus Allobrogum et lacu Lemanno 
et flumine Rhodano ad summas Alpis pertinent. Causa 
5 mittendl fuit quod iter per Alpis, quo magno cum periculo 
magnisque cum portoriis 1 mercatores ire consuerant, pate- 
fieri volebat. Huic permisit, si opus esse arbitraretur, uti 
in his locis legionem hiemandi causa conlocaret. Galba, 
secundis aliquot proeliis factis castellisque compluribus 

10 eorum expugnatis, missis ad eum undique legatis obsidi- 
busque datis et pace facta, constituit cohortis duas in Nantua- 
tibus conlocare et ipse cum reliquis eius legionis cohortibus 
in vico Veragrorum, qui appellatur Octodurus, hiemare ; qui 
vicus positus in valle,non magna adiecta planitie, altissimis 

15 montibus undique continetur. Cum hie in duas partis flu- 
mine divideretur, alteram partem eius vici Gallis [ad hie- 
mandum] concessit, alteram vacuam 2 ab his relictam cohor- 
tibus attribuit. Eum locum vallo fossaque munivit. 

Cf. 1 portoria, p. 15, 1. 25. — 2 vacuum, 57, 24. 

B. G. III. 2.] Campaign in the Alps. 



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Fig. 46. — Map of Octodurus. 

Having Gone into Winter Quarters, He is Threatened by Large Numbers 
of the Native Tribes, Who Occupy the Neighboring Heights. 

2. Cum dies hibernorum complures translssent frumen- 
tumque eo comportari iussisset, subito per exploratores cer- 
tior factus est ex ea parte vici quam Gallis concesserat 
omnis noctu discessisse, montisque qui impenderent a 
maxima multitudine Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri. Id 5 
aliquot de causis acciderat ut subito Galli belli renovandi 
legionisque opprimendae consilium caperent : primum, quod 
legionem — neque earn plenissimam, detractis cohortibus 
duabus et compluribus singillatim, qui commeatus petendi 
causa missi erant — propter paucitatem despiciebant ; x turn 10 
etiam quod propter iniquitatem loci, cum ipsi ex montibus 
in vallem decurrerent et tela conicerent, ne primum quidem 
posse impetum suum sustineri existimabant. Accedebat 

Cf. l despiceret, p. 11, 1. so. 

y6 The Gallic War. [Cbsa» 

quod suos ab se liberos abstractos obsidum nomine dole- 
bant, 1 et Romanos non solum itinerum causa sed etiam per- 
petuae possessions culmina Alpium occupare conari et ea 
loca finitimae provinciae adiungere sibi persuasum habe- 
S bant. 

Galba Calls a Council. He will Defend the Camp, if Possible. 

3. His nuntiis acceptls Galba, cum neque opus hlbernorum 
munitionesque plene essent perfectae neque de frumento 
reliquoque commeatu satis esset provisum, quod deditione 
facta obsidibusque acceptls nihil de bello timendum existi- 

10 maverat, consilio celeriter convocato sententias exquirere 
coepit. Quo in consilio, cum tantum repentini 2 periculi 
praeter opinionem accidisset, ac iam omnia fere superiora 
loca multitudine armatorum completa conspicerentur, neque 
subsidio veniri neque commeatus supportari interclusis 

15 itineribus possent, prope iam desperata salute non nullae 
eius modi sententiae 3 dicebantur ut, impedimentis relictis 
eruptione facta, isdem itineribus quibus eo pervenissent ad 
salutem contenderent. Maiori tamen parti placuit hoc 
reservato ad extremum consilio interim rei even turn experiri 

20 et castra defendere. 

The Gauls Attack Vigorously. 

4. Brevi spatio interiecto, vix ut eis rebus quas constitu- 
issent conlocandis atque administrandis tempus daretur, 
hostes ex omnibus partibus signo dato decurrere, lapides 
gaesaque in vallum conicere. Nostri primo integris viribus 

25 fortiter propugnare neque iillum frustra telum ex loco supe- 
riore mittere, et quaecumque pars castrorum nudata defen- 
soribus premi 4 videbatur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre ; 
sed hoc superari quod diuturnitate pugnae hostes defessi * 
proelio excedebant, alii integris viribus succedebant : quarum 

Cf. 1 doleant, p. 12, 1. 15. — 2 repentino, 11, 7. — 8 sententiam, 56, 
sx. — 4 premi, 65, 27. — 6 defessi, 22, 11. 

FlG> 47> _ Gaius Iulius Caesar. 

B. G. in. 6.] Campaign in the Alps. 77 

rerum a nostris propter paucitatem fieri nihil poterat, ac non 
modo defesso ex pugna excedendi, sed ne saucio quidem 
eius loci ubi constiterat relinquendi ac sui recipiendi facul- 
tas dabatur. 

The Battle Rages for Six Hours. The Only Hope is in Making a Sortie. 

5. Cum iam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur ac 5 
non solum vires sed etiam tela nostros deficerent, 1 atque 
hostes acrius instarent languidioribusque nostris vallum 
scindere et fossas complere coepissent, resque esset iam ad 
extremum perducta casum, P. Sextius Baculus, primi pili 
centurio, quem Nervico proelio compluribus confectum vol- 10 
neribus diximus, et item Gaius Volusenus, tribunus militum, 
vir et consili magni et virtutis, ad Galbam accurrunt atque 
unam esse spem salutis docent, si eruptione facta extremum 
auxilium experirentur. Itaque convocatis centurionibus 
celeriter milites certiores facit paulisper 2 intermitterent 15 
proelium, ac tantummodo tela missa exciperent seque ex 
labore reficerent ; post dato signo ex castris erumperent 
atque omnem spem salutis in virtiite ponerent. 

The Gauls are Defeated with Great Loss; but Galba Withdraws to the 


6. Quod iussi sunt faciunt ac subito omnibus portis erup- 
tione facta neque cognoscendi quid fieret neque sui conli- 20 
gendi hostibus facultatem relinquunt. Ita commutata. 8 for- 
tune eos qui in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant 
undique circumventos interficiunt ; et ex hominum milibus 
amplius xxx, quem numerum barbarorum ad castra venisse 
constabat, plus tertia parte interfecta reliquos perterritos in 25 
fugam coniciunt ac ne in locis quidem superioribus consis- 
tere patiuntur. Sic omnibus hostium copiis fusis armisque 
exutis se intra munitiones suas recipiunt. Quo proelio facto, 
quod saepius fortunam temptare Galba nolebat, atque alio 

Cf. 1 deficere, p. 56, 1. 16. — 3 paulisper, 54, 6. — 8 commutat5, 20, 15. 

78 The Gallic War. [c^sa* 

se in hiberna consilio venisse meminerat, aliis occurrisse 
rebus viderat, maxime frumenti commeatusque inopia 1 per- 
motus, postero die omnibus eius vici aedificiis incensis in 
provinciam revert! contendit, ac nullo hoste prohibente aut 
5 iter demorante incolumem 2 legionem in Nantuatis, inde in 
Allobroges perduxit ibique hiemavit. 

Operations in Northwestern Gaul on the Seacoast. Crassus Sends 
Messengers to Collect Supplies. 

7. His rebus gestis cum omnibus de causis Caesar paca- 
tam Galliam existimaret [superatis Belgis, expulsis Germa- 
n\s, victis in Alpibus Sedunis], atque ita inita hieme in 

io lllyricum profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire et 
regiones cognoscere volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia coor- 
tum est. Eius belli haec fuit causa. P. Crassus adulescens 
cum legione vn proximus mare Oceanum in Andibus h:e- 
mabat. Is, quod in his locis inopia frumenti erat, praefectos 

15 tribunosque militum compluris in finitimas clvitatis frumenti 
causa dimisit ; quo in numero erat T. Terrasidius missus in 
Esuvios, M. Trebius Gallus in Coriosolitas, Q. Velanius cum 
T. Silio in Venetos. 

The Messengers are Seized by the Veneti, under whose Lead the Maritime 
Tribes Demand a Return of their Hostages. 

8. Huius est clvitatis longe amplissima auctoritas omnis 
20 orae maritimae regionum earum, quod et navis habent Veneti 

plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, et 
scientia atque usu rerum nauticarum ceteros antecedunt, et 
in magno impetu maris vdstl atque aperti paucis portibus 
interiectis, quos tenent ipsi, omnis fere qui eo mari uti con- 
25 suerunt habent vectigalis. Ab his fit initium retinendi Sili 
atque Velani, quod per eos suos se obsides quos Crasso 
dedissent recuperaturos existimabant. Horum auctoritate 
finitimi adducti (ut sunt Gallorum subita et repentina con 

Cf. 1 inopia, p. 24, 1. 17. — 2 incolumem, 48, 20. 

B.G. in. 9.] Campaign against the Veneti. 


silia), eadem de causa Trebium Terrasidiumque retinent ; et 
celeriter missis legatls per suos principes inter se coniurant 
nihil nisi communi consilio acturos eundemque omnis for- 
tunae exitum esse laturos ; reliquasque civitates sollicitant l 
ut in ea libertate quam a maioribus acceperint permanere 
quam Romanorum servitutem perferre malint. Omni ora 
maritima celeriter ad suam sententiam perducta communem 
legationem ad P. Crassum mittunt : ' Si velit suos recipere, 
obsides sibi remittat.' 2 

Fig. 48 — Gallky. 

Caesar Orders a Fleet to be Built on the Loire. The Veneti Prepare for 
War and Summon Allies. 

9. Quibus de rebus Caesar ab Crasso certior factus, quod « 
ipse aberat longius, navis interim longas aedificari in flumine 
Ligeri, quod influit in Oceanum, remiges ex provincia insti- 
tui, nautas gubernatoresque comparari iubet. His rebus 

Cf. 1 sollicitarentur, p. 49, 1. 8. — 2 remittere, 39, 5. 


The Gallic War. 


celeriter administratis ipse, cum primum per anni tempus 
potuit, ad exercitum contendit. Veneti reliquaeque item 
civitates cognito Caesaris adventu [certiores facti], simul 
quod quantum in se facinus l admisissent intellegebant, lega- 

Fig. 49. — Map of the Vbnhti Neighborhood. 

5 tos — quod nomen ad omnis nationes sanctum inviolatum- 
que semper f uisset — retentos ab se et in vincula coniectos, 
pro magnitudine periculi bellum parare et maxime ea quae 
ad usum navium pertinent providere instituunt, hoc maiore 
spe quod multum natura loci confidebant. Pedestria esse 
10 itinera conclsa aestuariis, navigationem impeditam propter 
inscientiam locorum paucitatemque portuum sciebant, neque 
nostros exercitus propter frumenti inopiam diiitius apud se 
morari posse confidebant ; ac iam ut omnia contra opinionem 

Cf. 1 facinore, p. 36, 1. 15. 

B. G. III. if.] Campaign against the Veneti. 8 1 

acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse, Romanos 
neque ullam facultatem habere navium, neque eorum loco- 
rum ubi bellum gesturi essent vada, portus, insulas novisse ; 
ac longe aliam esse navigationem in concluso mari atque in 
vastissimo atque apertissimo Oceano perspiciebant. His s 
initis consiliis oppida muniunt, frumenta ex agris in oppida 
comportant, navis in Venetiam, ubi Caesarem primum bel- 
lum gesturum constabat, 1 quam plurimas possunt cogunt. 
Socios sibi ad id bellum Osismos, Lexovios, Namnetes, Am- 
biliatos, Morinos, Diablintes, Menapios adsciscunt; auxilia 10 
ex Britannia, quae contra eas regiones posita est, arcessunt. 2 

Caesar's Reasons for Prosecuting the War. His Strategy " Divide and 


10. Erant hae difficulties belli gerendi quas supra 
ostendimus, sed tamen multa Caesarem ad id bellum 
incitabant : iniuria retentorum equitum Romanorum, rebellio 
facta post deditionem, defectio datis obsidibus, tot civitatum 15 
coniuratio, imprimis ne hac parte neglecta reliquae nationes 
sibi idem licere arbitrarentur. Itaque cum intellegeret 
omnis fere Gallos novis rebus studere et ad bellum mobiliter 
celeritepque excitari, omnis autem homines natura libertati 
studere et condicionem servitutis odisse, 8 priusquam plures 20 
civitates conspirarent, partiendum sibi ac latius distribuen- 
dum exercitum putavit. 

Labienus Sent to the East, Crassus to the South, Sabinus to the North. 
Brutus has Charge of the Fleet. 

11. Itaque T. Labienum legatum in Treveros, qui 
proximi flumini Rheno sunt, cum equitatu mittit. Huic 
mandat Remos reliquosque Belgas adeat atque in officio 25 
contineat ; Germanosque, qui auxilio a Gallis arcessiti dice- 

Cf. l constabat, p. 77, 1. 25. — a arcessendi, 63, 4. — 8 odisse, 16, 11. 

82 The Gallic War. [C^esa* 

bantur, si per vim navibus flumen transire conentur, pro- 
hibeat. P. Crassum cum cohortibus legionariis xn et 
magno numero equitatus in Aquitaniam proficlsci iubet, ne 
ex his nationibus auxilia in Galliam mittantur ac tantae 
5 nationes coniungantur. Q. Titurium Sabinum legatum 
cum legionibus tribus in Venellos, Coriosolitas Lexoviosque 
mittit, qui earn manum distinendam 1 curet. D. Brutum 
adulescentem classl Galliclsque navibus, quas ex Pictonibus 
et Santonis reliquisque pacatis regionibus convenire iusserat, 
10 praeficit, et cum primum possit in Venetos proficisci iubet. 
Ipse eo pedestribus copiis contendit. 

Situation of the Strongholds of the Veneti. 

12. Erant eius modi fere situs oppidorum ut posita in 
extremis lingulis promunturiisque neque pedibus aditum 
haberent, cum ex alto se aestus incitavisset (quod [bis] 

iS accidit semper horarum xn spatio), neque navibus, quod 
rursus minuente 2 aestu naves in vadis adflictarentur. Ita 
utraque re oppidorum oppugnatio impediebatur ; ac si 
quando — magnitudine operis forte superati, extruso mari 
aggere ac molibus atque his oppidi moenibus adaequatis — 

20 desperare fortunis suis coeperant, magno numero navium 
adpulso, cuius rei summam facultatem habebant, sua depor- 
tabant omnia seque in proxima oppida recipiebant ; ibi se 
rursus isdem opportiinitatibus loci defendebant. Haec eo 
facilius magnam partem aestatis faciebant, quod nostrae 

25 naves tempestatibus detinebantur summaque erat vasto 
atque aperto mari, magnis aestibus, raris ac prope nullis 
portibus, difficultas navigaridi. 

Description of their Ships. Comparison with those of the Romans. 

13. Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc modum factae arma- 
taeque erant: carinae aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum 

Cf. 1 distineri, p. 52, 1. 12. — 2 minuendam, 17, 23. 

B.G. ill. 13.] Campaign against the Veneti. 


navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus excipere pos- 
sent ; prorae admodum erectae atque item puppes ad mag- 
nitudinem fluctuum tempestatumque accommodatae ; naves 
totae factae ex robore ad quamvis vim et contumeliam per- 
ferendam ; transtra ex pedalibus in altitudinem trabibus con- 
fixa clavis ferreis digit! pollicis crassitiidine ; ancorae pro 
funibus ferreis catenis x revinctae ; pelles 2 pro velis alutaeque 
tenuiter confectae, sive propter inopiam lini atque eius usus 

Fig. 51. — Roman Battlb Ship. 

inscientiam sive eo (quod est magis verisimile) quod tantas 
tempestatis Oceani tantosque impetus ventorum sustineri ac 10 
tanta onera navium regi velis non satis commode posse 
arbitrabantur. Cum his navibus nostrae classi eius modi 
congressus erat ut una celeritate et pulsu remorum prae- 
staret ; reliqua pro loci natura, pro vi tempestatum, illis 
essent aptiora et accommodatiora. Neque enim eis nostrae 1 5 
rostro nocere poterant — tanta in eis erat firmitudo — neque 

Cf. * catenis, p. 48, 1. 11. — 2 pellibus, 72, ia 

84 The Gallic War. [Casar 

propter altitadinem facile telum adigebatur et eadem de 
causa minus commode copulis continebantur. Accedebat 
ut, cum saevire ventus coepisset et se vento dedissent, et 
tempestatem ferrent facilius et in vadis consisterent tutius 
5 et ab aestu relictae nihil saxa et cotis timerent; quarum 
rerum omnium nostris navibus casus erat extimescendus. 

The Battle. How the Romans Overcame their Disadvantages. 

14. Compluribus expiignatis oppidis Caesar, ubi intellexit 
frustra tantum laborem siimi, neque hostium fugam captis 
oppidis reprimi neque eis noceri posse, statuit exspectan- 

to dam classem. 1 Quae ubi convenit ac primum ab hostibus 
visa est, circiter ccxx naves eorum paratissimae atque 
omni genere armorum ornatissimae profectae ex portu nos- 
tris adversae constiterunt ; neque satis Bruto, qui classi 
praeerat, vel tribiinis militum centurionibusque, quibus sin- 

^5 gulae naves erant attributae, constabat quid agerent aut 
quam rationem pugnae insisterent. Rostro enim noceri 
non posse cognoverant ; turribus autem excitatis tamen has 
altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibus superabat ut neque 
ex inferi5re loco satis commode tela adigi possent et missa 

20 a Gallis gravius acciderent. Una erat magno iisui res prae- 
parata a nostris, — falces praeacutae 2 insertae adfixaeque 
longuriis non absimili forma muralium falcium. His cum 
funes qui antemnas ad malos destinabant comprehensi 
adductique erant, navigio remis incitato praerumpebantur. 

25 Quibus abscisis antemnae necessario concidebant ; ut, cum 
omnis Gallicis navibus spes in velis armamentisque consis- 
teret, his ereptis 8 omnis usus navium uno tempore eripere- 
tur. Reliquum erat certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri 
milites facile superabant atque eo magis, quod in conspectii 

3° Caesaris atque omnis exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum 

Cf . > classi, p. 82, 1. 8. — 2 praeacutas, 70, 3. — 8 eripi, 39, 2. 

B.G. III. 15.] Campaign against the Veneti. 


paulo fortius factum latere 1 posset ; omnes enim colles ac 
loca superiora, unde erat propinquus despectus in mare, ab 
exercitu tenebantur. 

They Defeat the Enemy and Capture their Ships. 

15. Disiectis (ut diximus) antemnis, cum singulis binae 
ac ternae naves circumsteterant, milites summa vi transcen- 
dere in hostium navis contendebant. Quod postquam bar- 
bari fieri animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navibus, 
cum el rei nullum reperiretur auxilium, fuga salutem petere 

Fig. 52. — Trading Vessbi.. 

contenderunt. Ac iam conversis in earn partem navibus quo 
ventus ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas exstitit 10 
ut se ex loco movere non possent. Quae quidem res ad 
negotium conficiendum maxime fuit opportuna ; nam 
singulis nostri consectati expugnaverunt, ut perpaucae ex 
omni numero noctis interventu ad terram pervenerint, cum 
ab hora fere mi usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur. 15 

Cf. 1 latebant, p. 62, 1. 19. 

86 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

The Veneti Surrender. Their Leaders are Put to Death, the Rest Sold as 


16. Quo proelio bellum Venetorum totiusque orae mari- 
timae confectum est. Nam cum omnis iuventus, omnes 
etiam gravioris aetatis, in quibus aliquid consili aut digni- 
tatis fuit, eo convenerant, turn navium quod ubique fuerat in 

5 unum locum coegerant ; quibus amissis reliqui neque quo 
se reciperent neque quern ad modum oppida defenderent 
habebant. Itaque se suaque omnia Caesari dediderunt. 
In quos eo gravius Caesar vindicandum statuit, quo diligen- 
tius in reliquum tempus a barbaris ius legatorum conser- 

to varetur. Itaque omni senatu necato reliquos sub corona 

Meanwhile Sabinus Goes among the Venelli, and is Challenged by them. 
He Avoids an Engagement. 

17. Dum haec in Venetis geruntur, Q. Titurius Sabinus 
cum eis copiis quas a Caesare acceperat in finis Venellorum 
pervenit. His praeerat Viridovix ac summam imperi tene- 

15 bat earum omnium civitatum quae defecerant, 1 ex quibus 
exercitum magnasque copias coegerat ; atque his paucis 
diebus Aulerci, Eburovices, Lexoviique senatu suo inter- 
fecto, quod auctores belli esse nolebant, portas clauserunt 
seque cum Viridovice coniunxerunt ; magnaque praeterea 

20 multitiido undique ex Gallia perditorum hominum latro- 
numque convenerat, et quos spes praedandi studiumque 
bellandi ab agricultura et cotidiano 2 labore revocabat. 
Sabinus idoneo omnibus rebus loco castris sese tenebat, 
cum Viridovix contra eum duorum milium spatio consedisset 

25 cotidieque productis copiis pugnandi potestatem faceret, ut 
iam non solum hostibus in contemptionem Sabinus veniret 
sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus non nihil carperetur; 
tantamque opinionem timoris praebuit ut iam ad vallum cas- 
trorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de causa faciebat 

Cf. 1 defecisse, p. 59, 1. 6. — 2 cotidianis, 17,8. 

B.G.III. 19.] Campaign against the Veneti. 87 

quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, praesertim eo absente 
qui summam imperi teneret, nisi aequo loco aut opportuni- 
tate aliqua data, legato dimicandum non existimabat. 

By a Stratagem he Induces Viridovix to Attack him. 

18. Hac confirmata opinione timoris idoneum quendam 
hominem et callidum delegit, Galium, ex eis quos auxili 5 
causa secum habebat. Huic magnis praemiis pollicitationi- 
busque persuadet uti ad hostis transeat et quid fieri velit 
edocet. Qui ubi pro perfuga 1 ad eos venit, timorem Roma- 
norum proponit; quibus angustiis ipse Caesar a Venetis 
prematur docet ; neque longius abesse quin proxima nocte 10 

Fig. 53. — Gallic Sword-bladb. 

Sabinus clam ex castris exercitum educat et ad Caesarem 
auxili ferendi causa proficiscatur. Quod ubi auditum est, 
conclamant omnes occasionem negoti bene gerendi amitten- 
dam non esse, ad castra iri oportere. Multae res ad hoc 
consilium Gallos hortabantur: superiorum dierum Sabini 15 
cunctatio, perfugae confirmatio, inopia cibariorum, cui rei 
parum diligenter ab eis erat provisum, spes Venetici belli, et 
quod fere libenter 2 homines id quod volunt credunt. His 
rebus adducti non prius Viridovicem reliquosque duces ex 
concilio dimittunt quam ab eis sit concessum arma uti 20 
capiant et ad castra contendant. Qua re concessa laeti ut 
explorata victoria, sarmentis virgultisque conlectis quibus 
fossas Romanorum compleant, 3 ad castra pergunt. 

Complete Victory of Sabinus. 

19. Locus erat castrorum editus 4 et paulatim ab imo ac- 
clivis circiter passus mille. Hue magno cursu contenderunt, 25 

Cf. * perfugis, p. 25, 1. 8. — a libenter, 39, 23.—* completa, 76, 13. 

88 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

ut quam minimum spati ad se conligendos armandosque 
Romanis daretur, exanimatique pervenerunt. Sabinus suos 
hortatus cupientibus signum dat. Impeditis hostibus prop- 
ter ea quae ferebant onera, subito duabus portis eruptionem 
5 fieri iubet. Factum est opportunitate loci, hostium Insci- 
entia ac defatigatione, virtute militum et superiorum pugna- 
rum exercitatione, ut ne primum quidem nostrorum impetum 
ferrent ac statim terga verterent Quos integris 1 viribus 
milites nostri consecuti magnum numerum eorum occlde- 

10 runt ; reliquos equites consectati paucos qui ex fuga 
evaserant reliquerunt. Sic uno tempore et de navali pugna 
Sabinus et de Sabini victoria Caesar est certior factus ; 
civitatesque omnes se statim Titiirio dediderunt. Nam ut 
ad bella suscipienda Gallorum alacer ac promptus est 

15 animus, sic mollis ac minime resistens ad calamitatis per- 
ferendas mens eorum est. 

In Aquitania Crassus is Attacked by the Sotiates. 

20. Eodem fere tempore P. Crassus cum in Aquitaniam 
pervenisset, — quae, ut ante dictum est, [et regionum latitu- 
dine et multitudine hominum] est tertia pars Galliae [est 

20 aestimanda], — cum intellegeret in eis locis sibi bellum 
gerendum ubi paucis ante annis L. Valerius Praeconinus 
legatus exercitu pulso interfectus esset, atque unde L. Man- 
lius proconsul impedimentis amissis profugisset, non medio- 
crem sibi diligentiam adhibendam intellegebat. Itaque re 

25 frumentaria provisa, auxiliis equitatiique comparato, multis 
praeterea viris fortibus Tolosa et Narbone (quae sunt 
civitates Galliae provinciae finitimae [ex] his regionibus) 
nominatim evocatis, in Sotiatium finis exercitum intro- 
duxit. Cuius adventu cognito Sotiates magnis copiis 

30 coactis equitatuque, quo plurimum valebant, in itinere 
agmen nostrum adorti primum equestre proelium commise- 

Cf. 1 integris, p. 76, 1. 29. 

B. G. III. 22.] Crassus in Aquitania. 89 

runt ; deinde equitatu suo pulso atque insequentibus nostris, 
subito pedestris copias, quas in convalle in insidiis conloca- 
verant, ostenderunt. Hi nostros disiectos adorti proelium 
renovarunt. 1 

He Defeats them in Battle and Besieges their Stronghold. They Surrender. 

21. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, cum Sotiates supe- 5 
rioribus victoriis freti in sua virtute totius Aquitaniae 
salutem positam putarent ; nostri autem quid sine impera- 
tore et sine reliquis legionibus adulescentulo duce efficere 
possent perspici 2 cuperent; tandem confecti volneribus hostes 
terga verterunt. Quorum magno numero interfecto Crassus 10 
ex itinere oppidum Sotiatium oppugnare coepit. Quibus 
fortiter resistentibus vineas turrisque egit. Illi, alias erup- 
tione temptata, alias cuniculis ad aggerem vineasque actis 
(cuius rei sunt longe peritissimi 8 Aquitani, propterea quod 
multis locis apud eos aerariae secturaeque sunt), ubi dili- 15 
gentia nostrorum nihil his rebus profici posse intellexerunt, 
legatos ad Crassum mittunt, seque in deditionem ut recipiat 
petunt. Qua re impetrata, arma tradere iussi, faciunt. 

The Soldurii, or Brothers in Arms. 

22. Atque in earn rem omnium nostrorum intentis animls, 
alia ex parte oppidi Adiatunnus, qui summam imperi tene- 20 
bat, cum dc devotis, quos illi soldurios appellant, — quorum 
haec est condicio uti omnibus in vita commodis 4 una cum 
eis fruantur quorum se amicitiae dediderint ; si quid his per 
vim accidat, aut eundem casum una ferant aut sibi mortem 
consciscant; 5 neque adhuc hominum memoria repertus est 25 
quisquam qui, eo interfecto cuius se amicitiae devovisset, 
mortem reciisaret, — cum his Adiatunnus eruptionem facere 
conatus, clamore ab ea parte munitionis sublato, cum ad 

Cf. J renovandi, p. 75, 1. 6. — 2 perspiciebant, 8i, 5 * peritisai- 

us, 18, 22. — 4 commodo, 31, 24. — 6 consciverit, 4, 15. 

90 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

arma milites concurrissent vehementerque ibi pQgnatum 
esset, repulsus in oppidum tamen uti eadem deditionis con- 
dicione uteretur a Crasso impetravit. 

Crassus Proceeds against Other Aquitanian Tribes Who are Conspiring, 
and Decides to Give Battle. 

23. Armis obsidibusque acceptis Crassus in finis Voca- 
5 tium et Tarusatium profectus est. Turn vero barbari com- 
moti, quod oppidum et natura loci et manu munitum paucis 
diebus quibus eo ventum erat expugnatum cognoverant, 
legatos quoqueversus dimittere, coniurare, obsides inter se 
dare, copias parare coeperunt. Mittuntur etiam ad eas 

io civitatis legati quae sunt citerioris Hispaniae finitimae 
Aquitaniae; inde auxilia ducesque arcessuntur; quorum 
adventu magna cum auctoritate et magna hominum multitti- 
dine bellum gerere conarrtur. Duces vero ei deliguntur qui 
una cum Q. Sertorio omnis annos fuerant summamque sci- 

15 entiam rei militaris habere existimabantur. Hi consuetu- 
dine populi Romani loca capere, castra munire, commeatibus 
nostros intercludere instituunt. 1 Quod ubi Crassus animad- 
vertit, — suas copias propter exiguitatem non facile diduci, 
hostem et vagari et vias obsidere et castris satis praesidi 

20 relinquere, ob earn causam minus commode frumentum 
commeatumque sibi supportari, in dies hostium numerum 
augeri, — non cunctandum existimavit quin pugna decer- 
taret. Hac re ad consilium delata, ubi omnes idem sentire 
intellexit, posterum diem pugnae constituit. 

The Enemy Keep to their Camp, Which Crassus Attacks. 

25 24. Prima luce productis omnibus copiis, duplici acie 
institute, auxiliis in mediam aciem coniectis, quid hostes 
consili caperent exspectabat. Illi, etsi propter multitudi- 
nem et veterem belli gloriam paucitatemque nostrorum se 
tuto dimicaturos existimabant, tamen tutius 2 esse arbitra- 
Cf . 1 instituunt, p. 80, 1. 8. — 2 tutius, 84, 4. 

B.G. in. 25.] Crassus in Aquitania. 91 

bantur obsessis viis, commeatu intercluso, sine volnere vic- 
toria potiri ; et, si propter inopiam rei frumentariae Romani 
sese recipere coepissent, impeditos in agmine et sub sarcinis 
infirmiores animo adoriri cogitabant. Hoc consilio pro- 
band, ab ducibus productis Romanorum copiis, sese castrls 

Fig. 54. — Soldiers Making Camp. 

tenebant. Hac re perspecta Crassus, cum sua cunctatione 
atque opinione timoris hostes nostros milites alacriores ad 
pugnandum effecissent, atque omnium voces audirentur ex- 
spectari diutius non oportere quin ad castra iretur, cohorta- 
tus suos omnibus cupientibus ad hostium castra contendit. 10 

They Hold their Own for a Time. 

25. Ibi cum alii fossas complement, alii multis telis con- 
iectis defensores vallo munitionibusque depellerent, auxilia- 
resque (quibus ad pugnam non multum Crassus confidebat) 
lapidibus telisque subministrandis et ad aggerem caespitibus 
comportandis speciera atque opinionem piignantium prae- 15 

92 The Gallic War. [Ci*sAR 

berent; cum item ab hostibus constanter ac non timide 
pugnaretur telaque ex loco superiore missa non frustra acci- 
derent, equites circumitis hostium castris Crasso renuntiave- 
runt non eadem esse dlligentia ab decumana porta castra 
5 miinita facilemque aditum habere. 

But are Forced to Abandon their Camp and Flee. 

26. Crassus equitum praefectos cohortatus ut magnis 
praemiis pollicitationibusque 1 suos excitarent, quid fieri 
velit ostendit. IllI, ut erat imperatum, devectis eis cohorti- 
bus quae praesidio castris relictae intritae ab labore erant 

io et longiore itinere circumductis, ne ex hostium castris con- 
spici possent, omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam 
intentis, celeriter ad eas quas diximus munitiones pervene- 
runt, atque his prorutis prius in hostium castris constiterunt 
quam plane ab his videri, aut quid rei gereretur cognosci 

iS posset. Turn vero clamore ab ea parte audito nostri 
redintegratis 2 viribus, quod plerumque 3 in spe victdriae acci- 
dere consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. Hostes 
undique circumventi, desperatis omnibus rebus, se per 
munitiones deicere et fuga salutem petere contenderunt. 

20 Quos equitatus apertissimls campls consectatus, ex milium 
l numero, quae ex Aqultania Cantabrisque convenisse con- 
stabat, vix quarta parte relicta, multa nocte se in castra 

Most of the Aquitanian Tribes Surrender to Crassus. 

27. Hac audita piigna maxima pars Aquitaniae sese 
25 Crasso dedidit obsidesque ultro misit ; quo in numero 

fuerunt Tarbelli, Bigerriones, Ptianii, Vocates, Tarusates, 
Elusates, Gates, AuscI, GarumnI, Sibusates, Cocosates ; 
paucae ultimae nationes anni tempore confisae, quod hiems 
suberat, id facere neglexerunt. 

Cf. 1 poUicitati5nibus, p. 87, 1. 6. — - a redintegrato, 67, 13. — • ple- 
rumque, 70, 20. 

B.G. III. 29.] C<Esar in the North. 93 

In the North Caesar Advances against the Morini and Menapii, Who Take 
Refuge in Forests and Marshes. 

28. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, etsi prope exacta iam 
aestas erat, tamen quod omnI Gallia pacata Morini Mena- 
piique supererant qui in armis essent neque ad eum um- 
quam legatos de pace misissent, arbitrates id bellum 
celeriter conficl posse, eo exercitum duxit ; qui longe alia 5 
ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum gerere coeperunt. Nam 
quod intellegebant maximas nationes quae proelio conten- 
dissent pulsas superatasque esse, continentlsque silvas ac 
paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia contulerunt. Ad 
quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar pervenisset castraque 10 
munlre Instituisset neque hostis interim visus esset, dis- 
persls in opere nostrls subito ex omnibus partibus silvae 
evolaverunt et in nostros impetum fecerunt. Nostri cele- 
riter arma ceperunt eosque in silvas repulerunt, et com- 
pluribus interfectis longius impeditioribus locis secuti 15 
paucos ex suis deperdiderunt. 

He Ravages their Territory, and then Goes into Winter Quarters. 

29. Reliquis deinceps diebus Caesar silvas caedere In- 
stituit et, ne quis inermibus 1 impriidentibusque militibus ab 
latere impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiam quae erat 
caesa conversam ad hostem conlocabat et pro vallo ad 20 
utrumque latus exstruebat. 2 Incredibili celeritate magnd 
spatio paucls diebus confecto, cum iam pecus atque extrema 
impedimenta a nostrls tenerentur, ipsi densiores silvas 
peterent, eius modi sunt tempestates consecutae uti opus 
necessario intermitteretur et continuatione imbrium diutius 25 
sub pellibus milites contineri non possent. Itaque vastatis 
omnibus eorum agris, vlcis aedificiisque incensis, Caesar ex- 
ercitum reduxit et in Aulercis Lexoviisque, reliquis item 
civitatibus quae proxime bellum fecerant, in hibernis con- 
locavit. 30 

Cf. 1 inermes, p. 68, 1. 6. — 3 exstructo, 70, 16. 

Fig. 55. — Pack-wagons and Carts. 


Campaign against the Germans. — First Invasion of 
Britain, b.c. 55. 

German Tribes, Pressed by the Suevi, Cross the Rhine. 

EA quae secuta est hieme, qui fuit annus Cn. Pompeio, 
M. Crasso consulibus, Usipetes Germani et item Tenc- 
teri magna [cum] multitudine hominum flumen Rhenum 
transierunt, non longe a marl quo Rhenus influit. Causa 
5 transeundi fuit quod ab Suevis compluris annos exagitati 
bello premebantur et agri cultura prohibebantur. 

Customs of the Suevi. 

Suevorum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Ger- 
man orum omnium. Hi centum pagos habere dicuntur, ex 
quibus quotannis singula milia armatorum bellandi causa 

10 ex finibus educunt. Reliqui, qui domi manserunt, se atque 
illos alunt. 1 Hi rursus in vicem anno post in armis sunt, 
illi domi remanent. Sic neque agri cultura nee ratio atque 
usus belli intermittitur. Sed privati ac separati agri apud 
eos nihil est, neque longius anno remanere uno in loco co- 

15 lendi causa licet. Neque multum frumento, sed maximam 
partem lacte atque pecore vivunt, multumque sunt in vena- 
tionibus ; quae res et cibi genere et cotidiana exercitatione 

Cf. 1 alere, p. 16, 1. 5. 

B. G. IV. 3.J Campaign against the Germans. 95 

et libertate vitae, quod a pueris nullo officio l aut disciplina" 
adsuefacti nihil omnino contra voluntatem faciunt, et viris 
alit et immani corporum magnitudine homines efficit. At- 
que in earn se consuetudinem adduxerunt ut locis frigidissi- 
mis neque vestitus praeter pellis haberent quicquam, quarum 5 
propter exiguitatem magna est corporis pars aperta, et lava- 
rentur in rluminibus. 

Their Intercourse with Other Tribes. 

2. Mercatoribus est aditus magis eo ut quae bell5 ceperint 
quibus vendant 2 habeant, quam quo ullam rem ad se impor- 
ter! desiderent. Quin etiam iumentis, quibus maxime Galli ic 
delectantur quaeque impenso parant pretio, [German!] im- 
portatis non utuntur; sed quae sunt apud eos nata, parva 
atque deformia, haec cotidiana exercitatione summi ut sint 
labor is efficiunt. 

Their Cavalry Tactics. 

Equestribus proeliis saepe ex equis desiliunt ac pedibus 15 
proeliantur, equosque eodem remanere vestigio adsuefece- 
runt, ad quos se celeriter, cum usus est, recipiunt ; neque 
eorum moribus turpius 3 quicquam aut inertius habetur quam 
ephippiis uti. Itaque ad quemvis numerum ephippiatorum 
equitum quam vis pauci adire audent. Vinum omnino ad se 20 
importari non sinunt, quod ea re ad laborem ferendum re- 
mollescere homines atque effeminari arbitrantur. 

The Ubii, Tributaries of the Suevi. 

3. Publice maximam putant esse laudem quam latissime 
a suis finibus vacare agros : hac re significari magnum nu- 
merum civitatum suam vim sustinere non posse. Itaque 25 
una ex parte a Sue vis circiter milia passuum sexcenta agri 
vacare dicuntur. Ad alteram partem succedunt Ubii, qud- 
rum fuit civitas ampla atque florens, ut est captus Germand- 

Cf. J offlci5, p. 8i,l. 25.— ■ vendidit, 86, 11.— * turpissimnm, 30, 11. 

g6 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

rum ; ei paul5, quamquam sunt eiusdem generis, sunt ceteris 
humaniores, propterea quod Rhenum attingunt, multumque 
ad eos mercatores ventitant, et ipsl propter propinquitatem 
[quod] Gallicis sunt moribus adsuefacti. Hos cum Suevi 
S multis saepe bellls expert! propter amplitudinem gravita- 
temque civitatis finibus expellere non potuissent, tamen 
vectigalis sibi fecerunt ac multo humiliores infirmioresque * 

The Usipetes and Tencteri, Expelled from Germany, Overcome the Menapii. 

4. In eadem causa fuerunt Usipetes et Tencteri, quos 

io supra diximus, qui compluris annos Suevorum vim sustinu- 

erunt ; ad extremum tamen agris expulsi et multis locis 

Germaniae triennium vagati 2 ad Rhenum pervenerunt ; quas 

regiones Menapii incolebant. Hi ad utramque ripam flumi- 

Fig. 57. — Coins of Cesar. 

nis agros aedificia vicosque habebant ; sed tantae multitu- 
15 dinis aditu perterriti ex eis aedificiis quae trans flumen 
habuerant demigraverant, et cis Rhenum dispositis praesi- 
diis Germanos transire prohibebant. 111! omnia experti, 
cum neque vi contendere propter inopiam navium neque 
clam transire propter custodies Menapiorum possent, reverti 
20 se in suas sedis regionesque simulaverunt 3 et tridui viam 
progressi rursus reverterunt, atque omni hoc itinere una 
nocte equitatii confecto inscios inopinantisque 4 Menapios 
oppresserunt ; qui de German orum discessu per exploratores 

Cf. 1 lnfirmiores, p. 91, 1. 4. — 3 vagari, 90, 19.— * simulate, 40, 14. 
— 4 inopinantis, 10, 10. 

b. G. iv. 6.] Campaign against the Germans, 97 

certiores facti sine metu trans Rhenum in suos vic5s remi- 
graverant. His interfectis navibusque eorum occupatis, prius- 
quam ea pars Menapiorum quae citra Rhenum erat certior 
fieret, flumen transierunt atque omnibus eorum aedificiis oc- 
cupatis reliquam partem hiemis se eorum copiis aluerunt. 5 

Cesar Distrusts the Gauls on Account of their Fickle Character. He 
Fears their Alliance with Germans. 

5. His de rebus Caesar certior factus et infirmitatem 
Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles 
et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil his committendum 
existimavit. Est enim hoc Gallicae consuetudinis uti et 
viatores etiam invitos 1 consistere cogant, et quid quisque 10 
eorum de quaque re audierit aut cognoverit quaerant ; et 
mercatores in oppidis volgus circumsistat, quibusque ex 
regionibus veniant quasque ibi res cognoverint proniintiare 
cogat. His rebus atque auditionibus permoti de summis 
saepe rebus consilia ineunt, quorum eos in vestigio paenitere 15 
necesse est, cum incertis rumoribus serviant et plerique ad 
voluntatem eorum ficta respondeant. 

He Resolves to Make War on the Germans. 

6. Qua consuetudine cognita Caesar, ne graviori bello 
occurreret, maturius quam consuerat ad exercitum proficisci- 
tur. Eo cum venisset, ea quae fore suspicatus erat facta 20 
cognovit : missas legationes ab non nullis civitatibus ad Ger- 
manos invitatosque eos uti ab Rheno discederent, omnia 
quae [que] postulassent ab se fore parata. Qua spe ad- 
ducti Germani latius iam vagabantur et in finis Eburonum 

et Condrusorum, qui sunt Treverorum clientes, pervenerant. 25 
Principibus Galliae evocatis 2 Caesar ea quae cognoverat 
dissimulanda sibi existimavit, eorumque animis permulsis 
et confirmatis equitatuque imperato bellum cum Germanis 
gerere constituit. 

Cf. > invitt, p. 12, 1. 9. — a ©Yocatis, 88, 28. 

98 The Gallic War, [C^sab 

They Send him a Defiant Message. 

7. Re frumentaria comparata equitibusque delectis, iter 
in ea loca facere coepit quibus in locis esse Germanos au- 
diebat. A quibus cum paucorum dierum iter abesset, legati 
ab eis venerunt, quorum haec fuit oratio : * Germanos neque 
5 priores populo Romano bellum inferre neque tamen recusare, 
si lacessantur, 1 quin armis contendant, quod German orum 
consuetudo [haec] sit a maioribus tradita, quicumque bellum 
inferant, resistere neque deprecari. Haec tamen dicere, 
venisse invitos, eiectos domo ; si suam gratiam Roman! ve- 
io lint, posse eis iitilis esse amicos ; vel sibi agros attribuant 
vel patiantur eos tenere quos armis possederint : sese unis 
Suevis concedere, quibus ne dii quidem immortales pares 
esse possint ; reliquum quidem in terrls esse neminem quem 
non superare possint.' 

He Orders them to Withdraw from Gaul. 

15 8. Ad haec Caesar quae visum 2 est respondit; sed exitus 
fuit orationis : ' Sibi nullam cum his amicitiam esse posse, 
si in Gallia remanerent; neque verum esse qui suos finis 
tueri non potuerint alienos occupare ; neque ullos in Gallia 
vacare agros qui dari tantae praesertim multitudini sine 

20 iniuria possint ; sed licere, si velint, in Ubiorum finibus 
considere, quorum sint legati apud se et de Suevorum 
iniuriis querantur et a se auxilium petant; hoc se Ubiis 
imperaturum. , 

They Delay. 

9. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt et re delibe- 
25 rata post diem tertium ad Caesarem reversiiros ; interea ne 
propius se castra moveret petierunt. Ne id quidem Caesar 
ab se impetrari posse dixit. Cognoverat enim magnam par- 
tem equitatus ab eis aliquot diebus ante praedandi frucaen- 

Cf. I iacesseret, p. 31, 1. 19 — * videbantur, 63, 14^ 

Fig. 58. — Scenery on the Meusk. 

B. G. IV. ii.] Campaign against the Germans. 99 

tandique causa ad Ambivaritos trans Mosam missam ; hos 
exspectari equites atque eius rei causa moram interponi 

The Meuse and the Rhine Described. 

10. Mosa profluit ex monte Vosego, qui est in finibus 
Lingonum, et parte quadam ex Rheno recepta quae appel- 5 
latur Vacalus, insulam efficit Bat'avorum [in Oceanum in- 
fluit] neque longius inde milibus passuum lxxx in Oceanum 
influit. Rhenus autem oritur ex Lepontiis, qui Alpls inco- 
lunt, et longo spatio per finis Nantuatium, Helvetiorum, 
Sequanorum, Mediomatricum, Tribocorum, Treverorum cita- 10 
tus fertur ; et ubi Oceano adpropinquavit, in pluris defluit 
partis multis ingentibusque * insulis eflectis, quarum pars 
magna a feris barbarisque nationibus incolitur, — ex quibus 
sunt qui piscibus atque ovis avium vivere existimantur, — 
multisque capitibus in Oceanum influit. 15 

Caesar Advances. More Parleying to Gain Time. 

11. Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum xn mili- 
bus abesset, ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati revertuntur ; 
qui in itinere congressi magnopere ne longius progrederetur 
orabant. Cum id non impetrassent, petebant uti ad eos 
equites qui agmen antecessissent 2 praemitteret, eosque pugna 20 
prohiberet, sibique ut potestatem faceret in Ubios legatos 
mittendi ; quorum si principes ac senatus sibi iure iurando 
fidem fecisset, ea condicione quae a Caesare ferretur se usu- 
ros ostendebant ; ad has res conficiendas sibi tridui spatium 
daret. Haec omnia Caesar eodem illo pertinere arbitraba- 25 
tur, ut tridui mora interposita equites eorum qui abessent 
reverterentur ; tamen sese non longius milibus passuum 1111 
aquationis causa processurum eo die dixit ; hue postero die 
quam frequentissimi convenirent, ut de eorum postulatis 
cognosceret. Interim ad praefectos 3 qui cum omni equitatu 30 

Cf. ' ingenti, p. 33, 1. 21. — 2 antecedunt, 78, 22. — "praefectos, 92, 6. 

IOO The Gallic War. [C^sar 

antecesserant mittit qui nuntiarent ne hostis proelio lacesse- 
rent; et, si ipsi lacesserentur, sustinerent quoad ipse cum 
exercitu propius accessisset. 

The German Cavalry Treacherously Attack and Rout the Roman. 

12. At hostes, ubi primum nostros equites conspexe- 
5 runt, quorum erat v milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius 
dccc equites haberent, quod ei qui frumentandi causa 
ierant trans Mosam nondum redierant, nihil timentibus 
nostris, quod legati eorum paulo ante a Caesare discesse- 
rant atque is dies indutiis erat ab his petitus, impetu facto 
to celeriter nostros perturbaverunt ; rursus his resistentibus, 
consuetudine sua ad pedes desiluerunt, 1 subfossisque equis 
compluribusque nostris deiectls, reliquos in fugam con- 
iecerunt atque ita perterritos egerunt ut non prius fuga 
desisterent quam in conspectum agminis nostri venissent. 

Gallant Conduct and Death of the Brothers Piso. 

15 In eo proelio ex equitibus nostris interficiuntur nil ct 
lxx; in his vir fortissimus, Piso Aquitanus, amplissimo 
genere natus, cuius avus in civitate sua regnum obtinuerat 
amicus ab senatu nostro appellatus. Hie cum fratri inter- 
cluso ab hostibus auxilium ferret, ilium ex periculo eripuit, 

20 ipse equo volnerato deiectus quoad potuit fortissime restitit; 
cum circumventus multis volneribus acceptis cecidisset, 
atque id frater, qui iam proelio excesserat, procul animad- 
vertisset, incitato equo se hostibus obtulit atque interfectus 

Envoys Come to Caesar, Whom he Detains. Vigorous Action 

25 13. Hoc facto proelio Caesar neque iam sibi legatos 
audiendos neque condiciones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab 
eis qui per dolum atque insidias petita pace ultro bellum 

Cf. 1 desiliunt, p. 95, 1. 15. 

B.G. IV. 14.] Campaign against the Germans. 101 

intulissent : exspectare vero, dum hostium copiae auge 
rentur ■ equitatusque reverteretur, summae dementiae esse 
iudicabat ; et cognita Gallorum Infirmitate quantum iam 
apud eos hostes uno proelio auctoritatis essent consecuti 
sentiebat ; quibus ad consilia capienda nihil spati dandum 5 
existimabat. His constitute rebus et consilio cum legatis 
et quaestore communicato, ne quem diem pugnae praeter- 
mitteret, opportunissima res accidit, quod postridie eius 
die! mane eadem et perfidia et simulatione usi GermanI 
frequentes, omnibus principibus maioribusque natu adhibi- 10 
tis, ad eum in castra venerunt : simul, ut dicebatur, pur- 
gandi 2 sui causa, quod (contra atque esset dictum et ipsi 
petlssent) proelium prldie commisissent ; simul ut, si quid 
possent, de indutiis fallendo 3 impetrarent. Quos sibi 
Caesar oblatos gavisus illos retineri iussit; ipse omnis 15 
copias castris eduxit equitatumque, quod recent! proelio 
perterritum esse existimabat, agmen subsequl iussit. 

Caesar Surprises the German Camp. 

14. Acie triplici institiita et celeriter vin milium itinere 
confecto, prius ad hostium castra pervenit quam quid 
ageretur GermanI sentire possent. Qui omnibus rebus 20 
subito perterriti et celeritate adventus nostri et discessu 
suorum, neque consili habendi neque arma capiendi spatio 
dato perturbantur, copiasne adversus hostem ducere an 
castra defendere an fuga salutem petere praestaret. 4 Quo- 
rum timor cum fremitu et concursu significaretur, milites 25 
nostri pristini diei perfidia incitatl in castra inruperunt. 
Quo loco qui celeriter arma capere potuerunt paulisper 
nostris restiterunt atque inter carros impedimentaque proe- 
lium commiserunt; at reliqua multitudo puerorum mulie- 
rumque — nam cum omnibus suis domo excesserant 3° 

Cf. x augeri, p. 90, 1. 22. — 2 purgati, 25, 6. — 8 fefellisse, 56, 14. — 
4 praestare, 71, 14. 

102 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

Rhenumque transierant — passim fugere coepit ; ad quos 
consectandos Caesar equitatum misit. 

The Germans are Defeated and Flee ; Many are Slain or Perish in the 


15. German! post tergum 1 clamore audito cum suos inter- 
ne! viderent, armis abiectis signisque militaribus relictis se 

5 ex castris eiecerunt, et cum ad confluentem Mosae et Rheni 
pervenissent, reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero inter- 
fecto, reliqui se in flumen praecipitaverunt ; atque ibi 
timore, lassitudine, 2 vi fluminis oppress! perierunt. Nostri 
ad unum omnes incolumes perpaucis volneratis ex tanti 

io belli timore, cum hostium numerus capitum ccccxxx milium 
fuisset, se in castra receperunt. Caesar eis quos in castris 
retinuerat discedendl potestatem fecit. 111! supplicia cru- 
ciatiisque Gallorum veriti, quorum agros vexaverant, rema- 
nere se apud eum velle dixerunt. His Caesar libertatem 

15 concessit. 

Caesar's Reasons for Crossing the Rhine and for Building a Bridge. 

16. Germanico bello confecto multis de causis Caesar 
statuit sibi Rhenum esse transeundum: quarum ilia fuit 
iustissima, quod, cum videret Germanos tarn facile impelli 3 
ut in Galliam venirent, suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit, 

20 cum intellegerent et posse et audere populi Roman! exerci- 
tum Rhenum translre. Accessit etiam quod ilia pars equi- 
tatus Usipetum et Tencterorum, quam supra commemoravi 
praedandi frumentandique causa Mosam transisse, neque 
proelio interfuisse, post fugam suorum se trans Rhenum in 

25 finis Sugambrorum receperat seque cum eis coniunxerat. 
Ad quos cum Caesar nuntios misisset qui postularent eos 
qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent sibi dederent, respon- 
derunt : ' Populi RomanI imperium Rhenum flnlre ; si se 

Cf. » terga, p. 89, 1. 10. — 2 lassitudine, 64, 24. — * impulsos, 59, 4. 

Fig 59 — Pons a Caesare in Rheno factus. 

aa, tisma bina sesquipedalia ; 66, trabes bipedales ; cc, fibulae ; 
dd, derecta materia longuriis cratibusque constrata; 
ee, sublicae ad inferiorem partem fluminis pro ariete oblique actae; 
//. sublicae supra pontem immissae; 
g. castellum ad caput pontis positum. 

B. G. IV. 17.J Campaign against the Germans. 103 

invito Germanos in Galliam transire non aequum existi- 
maret, cur sui quicquam esse imperi aut potestatis trans 
Rhenum postularet?' Ubii autem, qui uni ex Transrhe- 
nanis ad Caesarem legatos miserant, amicitiam fecerant, 
obsides dederant, magnopere orabant ut sibi auxilium 5 
ferret, quod graviter ab Suevis premerentur; vel, si id 
facere occupationibus rei publicae prohiberetur, exercitum 
modo Rhenum transportaret ; id sibi ad auxilium spemque 
reliqui temporis satis futurum. Tantum esse noraen atque 
opinionem eius exercitus Ariovisto pulso et hoc novissimo 10 
proelio facto etiam ad ultimas x Germanorum nationes, uti 
opinione et amicitia populi Romani tuti esse possent. 
Navium magnam copiam ad transportandum exercitum 

Description of the Bridge. 

17. Caesar his de causis quas commemoravi Rhenum 15 
transire decreverat ; sed navibus transire neque satis tutum 
esse arbitrabatur, neque suae neque populi Romani digni- 
tatis esse statuebat. Itaque, etsi summa difficultas faciendi 
pontis proponebatur propter latitudinem, rapiditatem, alti- 
tiidinemque fluminis, tamen id sibi contendendum aut 20 
aliter non traducendum exercitum existimabat. , Rationem 
pontis hanc instituit. Tigna bina sesquipedalia paulum ab 
imo praeacuta, dimensa 2 ad altitudinem fluminis, inter- 
vallo pedum duorum inter se iungebat. Haec cum machi- 
nationibus immissa in flQmen defixerat fistiicisque adegerat, 25 

— non sublicae modo derecte ad perpendiculum, sed prone 
ac fastigate, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent, 

— eis item contraria duo ad eundem modum iuncta inter- 
vallo pedum quadragenum ab inferiore parte contra vim 
atque impetum fluminis conversa statuebat. Haec utraque 30 
insuper bipedalibus trabibus 8 immissis, quantum eorum 

Cf. 1 ultimae, p. 92, 1. 28. — 2 dimenso, 62, 18.— 8 trabibus, 83, 5. 

104 The Gallic War. [Casar 

tigndrum iunctura distabat, binis utrimque fibulis ab ex- 
trema parte distinebantur ; * quibus disclusis atque in con- 
trariam partem revinctis, tanta erat operis firmitudo atque 
ea rerum natura ut, quo maior vis aquae se incitavisset, 
5 hoc artius inligata tenerentur. Haec derecta materia 2 
iniecta contexebantur ac longuriis cratibusque consterne- 
bantur ; ac nihilo secius sublicae et ad inferiorem partem 
fluminis oblique agebantur, quae pro ariete subiectae et 
cum omni opere coniunctae vim fluminis exciperent ; et 
io aliae item supra pontem mediocri 8 spatio, ut, si arborum 
trunci sive naves deiciendi operis essent a barbaris im- 
missae, his defensoribus earum rerum vis minueretur, neu 
ponti nocerent. 4 

Caesar Enters Germany. 

18. Diebus x quibus materia coepta erat comportari 
15 omni opere effecto exercitus traducitur. Caesar ad utram- 
que partem pontis firmo praesidio relicto in finis Sugam- 
brorum contendit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus ad 
eum legati veniunt ; quibus pacem atque amicitiam peten- 
tibus liberaliter respondet obsidesque ad se adduci iubet. 
20 At Sugambri ex eo tempore quo pons institui coeptus est 
fuga comparata, hortantibus eis quos ex Tencteris atque 
Usipetibus apud se habebant, finibus suis excesserant 
suaque omnia exportaverant seque in solitudinem ac silvas 

He Learns that the Suevi are Preparing to Resist him, and after Eighteen 
Days Returns to Gaul. 

2 5 19. Caesar paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus, omni- 
bus vicis aedificiisque incensis frumentisque succisis, se in 
finis Ubiorum recepit ; atque his auxilium suum pollicitus, 
si ab Suevis premerentur, haec ab eis cognovit : * Suevos, 

Cf. 1 distinendam, p. 82, L 7. — a mater iam, 93, 19. — 3 mediocrem, 
88, 23.— *nocere, 83, 16. 

B. G. IV. 20.] First Invasion of Britain. 105 

posteaquam per exploratores pontem fieri comperissent, 
more suo concilio habito nuntios in omnis partis dimisisse, 1 
uti de oppidis demigrarent, liberos, uxores, suaque omnia in 
silvis deponerent, atque omnes qui arma ferre possent 
unum in locum convenirent ; hunc esse delectum medium 5 
fere regionum earum quas Suevi obtinerent ; hie Romano- 
rum adventum exspectare, atque ibi decertare constituisse.' 
Quod ubi Caesar comperit, omnibus eis rebus confectis 
quarum rerum causa traducere exercitum constituerat, ut 
Germanis metum iniceret, 2 ut Sugambros ulcisceretur, ut 10 
Ubios obsidione liberaret, diebus omnino xvin trans 
Rhenum consumptis, satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem 
profectum arbitratus, se in Galliam recepit pontemque 
rescidit. 8 

Caesar Determines to Invade Britain. 

20. Exigua parte aestatis reliqua Caesar, etsi in his locis 15 
(quod omnis Gallia ad septentriones vergit) matiirae sunt 
hiemes, tamen in Britanniam proficisci contendit : quod 
omnibus fere Gallicis bellis hostibus nostris inde submini- 
strata 4 auxilia intellegebat ; et, si tempus [anni] ad bellum 
gerendum deficeret, tamen magno sibi usui fore arbitra- 20 
batur, si modo Insulam adisset, genus hominum perspexis- 
set, loca, portus, aditus cognovisset; quae omnia fere 
Gallis erant incognita. Neque enim temere praeter merca- 
tores illo adit quisquam, neque eis ipsis quicquam praeter 
oram maritimam atque eas regiones quae sunt contra Gal- 25 
lias notum est. Itaque vocatis ad se undique mercatoribus, 
neque quanta esset insulae magnitudo, neque quae aut 
quantae nationes incolerent, neque quern iisum belli habe- 
rent aut quibus Institutis uterentur, neque qui essent ad 
maiorem navium multitudinem idonei portus reperire poterat. 3° 

Cf. x dimittere, p. 90, 1. 8. — a iniectum, 41, 21. — 8 rescind!, 6, 20. 
— 4 rabministrandis, 91, 14. 

106 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

He Sends Volusenus on a Reconnoissance, then Commius. 

21. Ad haec cognoscenda, priusquam perlculum faceret, 
idoneum esse arbitrates, C. Volusenum cum navi longa 
praemittit. Huic mandat lit exploratis omnibus rebus ad 
se quam primum revertatur. Ipse cum omnibus copiis in 

5 Morinos proficiscitur, quod inde erat brevissimus in Britan- 
niam traiectus. Hue navis undique ex finitimls regionibus, 
et quam superiore aestate ad Veneticum bellum fecerat 
classem, iubet convenire. Interim consilio eius cognito et 
per mercatores perlato l ad Britannos, a compluribus in- 

ro sulae civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt qui polliceantur 
obsides dare atque imperio populi Roman! obtemperare. 
Quibus auditis liberaliter pollicitus hortatusque ut in ea 
sententia permanerent, eos domum remittit ; et cum eis una 
Commium, quern ipse Atrebatibus superatis regem ibi con- 

15 stituerat, cuius et virtutem et consilium probabat et quern 
sibi fidelem esse arbitrabatur cuiusque auctoritas in his 
regionibus magni habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat quas 
possit adeat civitatis, horteturque ut populi Romani fidem 
sequantur seque celeriter eo venturum nuntiet. Volu- 

20 senus perspectis regionibus quantum ei facultatis dari 
potuit, qui navi egredi ac se barbaris committere non 
auderet, quinto die ad Caesarem revertitur quaeque ibi 
perspexisset renuntiat. 

The Morini Submit. A Fleet is Prepared. 

22. Dum in his locis Caesar navium parandarum causa 
25 moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati vene- 
runt qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod 
homines barbari et nostrae consuetudinis imperiti 2 bellum 
populo Romano fecissent, seque ea quae imperasset fac- 
turos pollicerentur. Hoc sibi Caesar satis opportune acci- 

Cf. l perlata, p. 73, 1. 4. — a imperitum, 40, 9. 

B. G. iv. 23.] First Invasion of Britain. 107 

disse arbitrates, quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere 
volebat neque belli gerendi propter anni tempus facultatem 
habebat neque has tantularum rerum occupation es 1 Bri- 
tanniae anteponendas iudicabat, magnum eis numerum 
obsidum imperat. Quibus adductis eos in fidem recipit. 5 
Navibus circiter lxxx onerariis coactis [contractisque], 
quot satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat, 
quod praeterea navium longarum habebat quaestori, legatis 
praefectisque distribuit. Hue accedebant xvin onerariae 
naves, quae ex eo loco a milibus passuum viii vento tene- 10 
bantur quo minus in eundem portum venire possent ; has 
equitibus distribuit. Reliquum exercitum Titurio Sabino 
et Aurunculeio Cottae legatis in Menapios atque in eos 
pagos Morinorum a quibus ad eum legati non venerant 
ducendum dedit ; Sulpicium Rufum legatum cum eo prae- 15 
sidio quod satis esse arbitrabatur portum tenere iussit. 

The Fleet Crosses the Channel, Finds Difficulty in Landing, and Comes 
to Anchor. 

23. His constitute rebus nactus 2 idoneam ad navigan- 
dum tempestatem tertia fere vigilia solvit, equitesque in 
ulteriorem portum progredi et navis conscendere et se 
sequi iussit. A quibus cum paulo tardius esset admini- 20 
stratum, ipse hora die! circiter quarta cum primis navibus 
Britanniam attigit atque ibi in omnibus collibus expositas 
hostium copias armatas conspexit. Cuius loci haec erat 
nattira atque ita montibus anguste mare continebatur uti ex 
locis superioribus in litus telum adigl 3 posset. Hunc ad 25 
egrediendum nequaquam idoneum locum arbitratus, dum 
reliquae naves eo convenirent ad horam nonam in ancoris 
exspectavit. Interim legatis tribimlsque militum convo- 
catis et quae ex Voluseno cognovisset et quae fieri vellet 

Cf. > occupationibus, p. 103, 1. 7. — % nactus, 48, 5. — 8 adigebatur, 

108 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

ostendit, monuitque, ut rei militaris ratio, maxime ut mari- 
timae res postularent (ut quae celerem atque Instabilem 
motum haberent), ad nutum 1 et ad tempus omnes res ab 
els administrarentur. His dimissis et ventum et aestum 
5 uno tempore nactus secundum, dato signo et sublatls an- 
corls, circiter milia passuum vn ab eo loco progressus, 
aperto ac piano litore navis constituit. 

The Britons Resist the Landing of the Romans. 

24. At barbari consilio Romanorum cognito, praemisso 
equitatu et essedariis, quo plerumque genere in proeliis uti 

10 consuerunt, reliquis copiis subsecuti nostros navibus egredi 
prohibebant. Erat ob has causas summa difficultas quod 
naves propter magnitudinem nisi in alto constitui non 
poterant ; militibus autem, Ignotis locls, impeditis manibus, 
magn5 et gravi onere armorum oppressis, simul et de navi- 

15 bus desiliendum et in fluctibus consistendum et cum hosti- 
bus erat pugnandum ; cum ill! aut ex arido aut paulum in 
aquam progressl omnibus membris expeditis, notissimis 
locls, audacter tela conicerent et equos insuefactos incita- 
rent. Quibus rebus nostri perterriti atque huius omnino 

20 generis pugnae imperiti non eadem alacritate ac studio quo 
in pedestribus uti proeliis consuerant nltebantur. 

Caesar Manoeuvres for an Advantage. Valor of a Roman Centurion. 

25. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, navis longas, quarum 
et species 2 erat barbarls inusitatior et motus ad usum 
expeditior, paulum remover! ab onerariis navibus et remis 8 

25 incitari et ad latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde 
fundis, sagittis, tormentis hostis propelli ac submoveri 
iussit ; quae res magno usui nostris fuit. Nam et navium 
figura et remorum motii et inusitato genere tormentorum 
permoti barbari constiterunt ac paulum etiam pedem ret- 

Cf. ! ad nutum, p. 28, 1. 26. — 2 specie, 71, 4. — 8 remorum, 83, 13. 

B. G. IV. 26.] First Invasion of Britain. 


tulerunt. Atque nostris militibus cunctantibus, 1 maxime 
propter altitudinem maris, qui K legionis aquilam ferebat 
obtestatus deos ut eares legioni feliciter eveniret, "Desilite," 
inquit, u commilitones, nisi voltis aquilam hostibus prodere ; 

Fig. 61. — Catapulta. 

ego certe meum rei publicae atque imperatorl officium prae- S 
stitero." Hoc cum voce magna dixisset, se ex navi proiecit 
atque in hostis aquilam ferre coepit. Turn nostri cohortati 
inter se ne tantum dedecus admitteretur, universi ex navi 
desiluerunt. Hos item ex proximis [primis] navibus cum 
conspexissent, subseciiti hostibus adpropinquaverunt. 10 

The Romans Effect a Landing, but, Having no Cavalry, Cannot Pursue 
the Fleeing Britons. 

26. Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter. Nostri tamen, 
quod neque ordines servare neque flrmiter insistere neque 
signa subsequi poterant, atque alius alia ex navi quibuscum- 
que signis occurrerat se adgregabat, magnopere perturba- 
bantur; hostes vero notis omnibus vadis, ubi ex litore 15 
aliquos singularis ex navi egredientis conspexerant, inci- 
tatis equis impeditos adoriebantur, pliires paucos circum- 

Cf. 1 cunctacdum, p. 90, 1. 22. 

no The Gallic War. [C^sar 

sistebant, alii ab latere aperto in universos tela coniciebant. 
Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphas longarum navium 
item speculatoria navigia militibus compleri iussit, et quos 
laborantis 1 conspexerat his subsidia submittebat. Nostri 
5 simul in arido constiterunt, suis omnibus consecutis in ho- 
stis impetum fecerunt atque eos in fugam dederunt ; neque 
longius prosequi potuerunt, quod equites cursum tenere 
atque insulam capere non potuerant. Hoc unum ad pristi- 
nam fortunam Caesari defuit. 

Conference with British Envoys, Who Sue for Peace. 

io 27. Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fuga 
receperunt, statim ad Caesarem legatos de pace miserunt ; 
obsides daturos quaeque imperasset facturos esse polliciti 
sunt. Una cum his legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quem 
supra demonstraveram a Caesare in Britanniam praemissum. 

15 Hunc illi e navi egressum, cum ad eos oratoris modo Cae- 
saris mandata deferret, comprehenderant atque in vincula 
coniecerant: turn proelio facto remiserunt ; et in petenda 
pace eius rei culpam in multitudinem contulerunt, et propter 
imprudentiam ut ignosceretur 2 petiverunt. Caesar que- 

20 stus 3 quod, cum ultro in continentem legatis missis pacem 
ab se petissent, bellum sine causa intulissent, ignoscere 
imprudentiae dixit obsidesque imperavit; quorum illi par- 
tem statim dederunt, partem ex longinquioribus locis arces- 
sitam paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt. Interea suos re- 

25 migrare in agros iusserunt, principesque undique convenire 
et se civitatisque suas Caesari commendare coeperunt. 

The Cavalry Transports Driven Back by a Storm. 

28. His rebus pace confirmata, post diem quartum quam 
est in Britanniam ventum, naves xvin de quibus supra 

Cf. 1 lab5rantibus, p. 46, L 26.— 2 ignovisset, 41, 3.— «questum, 


B. G. IV. 29.] First Invasion of Britain. 1 1 1 

demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore 
portu leni vento solverunt. 1 Quae cum adpropinquarent 
Britanniae et ex castris viderentur, tanta tempestas subito 
coorta est ut nulla earum cursum tenere posset ; sed aliae 

Fig. 62. — Anchor and Tackle. 

eodem unde erant profectae referrentur, aliae ad inferiorem 5 
partem insulae, quae est propius solis occasum, magno suo 
cum periculo deicerentur ; quae tamen ancoris iactis cum 
fluctibus complerentur, necessario adversa nocte in altum 
provectae continentem petierunt. 

The Fleet almost Wrecked by Storms and High Tides. 

29. Eadem nocte accidit ut jssset liina plena, qui dies 10 
maritimos aestus maximos in Oceano efficere consuevit, 
nostrisque id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et longas 
navis, [quibus Caesar exercitum transportandum curaverat] 
quas Caesar in aridum subduxerat, aestus compleverat; et 
onerarias, quae ad ancoras erant deligatae, tempestas adflic- 15 
tabat, 2 neque ulla nostris facultas aut administrandi aut 
auxiliandi dabatur. Compluribus navibus fractis 8 reliquae 

Cf. 1 solvit, p. 107, 1. 18. — 2 adflictarentur, 82, 16. — 8 fractos, 27, 25. 

112 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

cum essent — funibus, ancoris reliquisque armamentis amis- 
sis — ad navigandum inutiles, magna (id quod necesse erat 
accidere) totius exercitus perturbatio facta est. Neque 
enim naves erant aliae quibus reportari possent ; et omnia 
5 deerant quae ad reficiendas navis erant usui ; et, quod 
omnibus constabat hiemari in Gallia oportere, frQmentum in 
his locis in hiemem provisum non erat. 

The Britons Seize the Opportunity and Plan to Renew Hostilities. 

30. Quibus rebus cognitis principes Britanniae, qui post 
proelium ad Caesarem convenerant, inter se conlocuti, cum 

io et equites et navis et frumentum Romanis deesse intellege- 
rent, et paucitatem militum ex castrorum exiguitate 1 co- 
gnoscerent, — quae hoc erant etiam angustiora quod sine 
impedimentis Caesar legiones transportaverat, — optimum 
factu esse duxerunt, rebellione facta, frumento commeatuque 

15 nostros prohibere et rem in hiemem producere; quod his 
superatis aut reditu interclusis neminem postea belli infe- 
rendi causa in Britanniam transiturum confidebant. Itaque 
rursus coniuratione facta paulatim ex castris discedere et 
suos clam ex agris dediicere coeperunt. 

Caesar Suspects their Design. 

20 31. At Caesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, 
tamen et ex eventu navium suarum et ex eo quod obsides 
dare intermiserant, fore id quod accidit suspicabatur. 3 
Itaque ad omnis casus subsidia comparabat. Nam et fru- 
mentum ex agris cotidie in castra conferebat et quae gra- 

25 vissime adflictae erant naves, earum materia atque aere ad 
reliquas reficiendas utebatur, et quae ad eas res erant usui 
ex continenti comportari iubebat. Itaque cum summo 
studio a militibus administraretur, xii navibus amissis, 
reliquis ut navigari satis commode posset effecit. 

Cf. x exiguitatem, p. 90, 1. 18. — 2 suspicatus, 97, 20. 

B. G. IV. 32.] First Invasion of Britain. 


He Takes Measures to Thwart them. They Attack a Foraging Party. 

32. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una fru- 
mentatum missa, quae appellabatur vn, neque ulla ad id 
tempus belli suspicione interposita, — cum pars hominum 
in agris remaneret, pars etiam in castra ventitaret, — el 
qui pro portls castrorum in statione erant Caesarl nuntiave- 
runt pulverem maiorem quam consuetudo ferret in ea parte 
videri quam in partem legio iter fecisset. Caesar id quod 

Fig. 63. — Soldiers Foraging. 

erat suspicatus, aliquid novl a barbarls initum consili, 
cohortis quae in stationibus erant secum in earn partem 
proficisci, ex reliquls duas in stationem succedere, reliquas 10 
armari et confestim sese subsequi iussit. Cum paulo lon- 
gius a castrls processisset, su6s ab hostibus premi atque 
aegre sustinere et conferta 1 legione ex omnibus partibus 
tela conic! animadvertit. Nam quod omni ex reliquls par- 
tibus demesso frumento pars una erat reliqua, suspicati 15 

Cf. J confertos, p. 66, 1. 7. 

114 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

hostes hue nostrds esse venturos noctu in silvas delituerant; 
turn dispersos depositis armis in metendo occupatos subito 
adorti, paucis interfectis reliquos incertis ordinibus pertur- 
baverant, simul equitatu atque essedis circumdederant. 

Mode of Fighting with War Chariots. 

5 33. Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae. Primo per omnis 
partis perequitant et tela coniciunt atque ipso terrore equo- 
rum et strepitu 1 rotarum ordines plerumque perturbant ; et 
cum se inter equitum turmas Insinuaverunt, ex essedis 
desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur. Aurigae interim paulatim 

io ex proelio excedunt atque ita currus conlocant uti, si illi a 
multitiidine hostium premantur, expeditum ad suos recep- 
tum habeant. Ita mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem pedi- 
tum in proeliis praestant; ac tantum usu cotidiano et 
exercitatione efficiunt uti in declivi 2 ac praecipiti loco 

15 incitatos equos sustinere et brevi moderari ac flectere, et 
per temonem percurrere et in iugo Insistere et se inde in 
currus citissime recipere consuerint. 

The Foragers Rescued. Large Numbers of Britons Assemble. 

34. Quibus rebus perturbatis nostris novitate pugnae 
tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit ; namque eius 

20 adventu hostes constiterunt, nostri se ex timore receperunt. 
Quo facto ad lacessendum hostem et committendum proelium 
alienum 3 esse tempus arbitratus, suo se loco continuit et 
brevi tempore intermisso in castra legion es reduxit. Dum 
haec geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, qui erant in agris 

25 reliqui discesserunt Secutae sunt continuos* compluris 
dies tempestates, quae et nostros in castris continerent et 
hostem a pugna prohiberent. Interim barbari niintios in 
omnis partis dimiserunt paucitatemque nostrorum militum 

Cf. 1 strepitu, p. 56, 1. 26. — 2 declivis, 61, 9. — * aliens, 13, 6. — 
* continues, 42, 27. 

B. G. IV. 37.] First Invasion of Britain. 115 

suis praedicaverunt, et quanta praedae faciendae atque in 
perpetuum sui liberandi facultas daretur, si Romanos ca- 
stris expulissent, demonstraverunt. His rebus celeriter 
magna multitudine peditatus equitatusque coacta ad castra 
venerunt. 5 

They Give Battle and are Defeated. 

35. Caesar, etsi idem quod superioribus diebus acciderat 
fore videbat, — ut, si essent hostes pulsi, celeritate peri- 
culum effugerent, — tamen nactus equites circiter xxx, 
quos Commius Atrebas (de quo ante dictum est) secum 
transportaverat, legiones in acie pro castris constituit. 10 
Commisso proelio diutius nostrorum militum impetum ho- 
stes ferre non potuerunt ac terga verterunt. Quos tanto 
spatio seciiti quantum cursu et viribus efficere potuerunt, 
compluris ex eis occiderunt ; deinde omnibus longe lateque 
aedificiis incensis se in castra receperunt. 15 

Caesar Returns to Gaul. 

36. Eodem die legati ab hostibus missi ad Caesarem de 
pace venerunt. His Caesar numerum obsidum quem antea 
imperaverat duplicavit, eosque in continentem adduci iussit ; 
quod, propinqua die - aequinocti, infirmis navibus hiemi 
navigationem subiciendam non existimabat. Ipse idoneam 20 
tempestatem nactus paulo post mediam noctem navis solvit ; 
quae omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt ; sed ex 
eis onerariae duae eosdem portiis quos reliquae capere non 
potuerunt et paulo infra delatae sunt. 

Attack of the Morini on Caesar's Troops. 

37. Quibus ex navibus cum essent expositi milites circiter 25 
ccc atque in castra contenderent, Morini, quos Caesar in 
Britanniam proficiscens pacatos reliquerat, spe praedae 
adducti primo non ita magno suorum numero circumstete- 
runt ac, si sese interfici nollent, arma ponere iusserunt. 

n6 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

Cum illi orbe facto sese defenderent, celeriter ad clamorem 
hominum circiter mllia vi convenerunt. Qua re nuntiata, 
Caesar omnem ex castrls equitatum suls auxilio mlsit. 
Interim nostri milites impetum hostium sustinuerunt atque 
5 amplius horis mi fortissime pugnaverunt,. et paucis vol- 
neribus acceptls complures ex his occiderunt. Postea vero 
quam equitatus noster in conspectum venit, hostes abiectis 
armis terga verterunt magnusque eorum numerus est 

The Rebellious Morini Subdued. Thanksgiving at Rome. 

10 38. Caesar postero die T. Labienum legatum cum eis 
legionibus quas ex Britannia reduxerat in Morinos, qui re- 
bellionem fecerant, mlsit. Qui cum propter siccitatis palli- 
dum quo se reciperent non haberent (quo perfugio superiore 
anno erant iisi), omnes fere in potestatem Labieni pervene- 

15 runt. At Q. Titurius et L. Cotta legati, qui in Menapiorum 
finis legiones duxerant, omnibus eorum agris vastatis, fru- 
mentis succisis, aedificiis incensis, quod Menapii se omnes 
in densissimas silvas abdiderant, se ad Caesarem recepe- 
runt. Caesar in Belgis omnium legionum hiberna constituit. 

20 Eo duae omnino civitates ex Britannia obsides miserunt, 
reliquae neglexerunt. His rebus gestis ex litteris Caesaris 
dierum xx supplicatio a senatu decreta est. 

Fig. 64. — Gallic Coin. 

Fig. 66. — British Coins. 


Second Invasion of Britain. — Fresh Risings of the 
Gauls, b.c. 54. 

Caesar, Contemplating a Second Invasion of Britain, Orders a Suitable 
Fleet Built. Settles Disturbances in Illyricum. 

LDOMITIO Ap. Claudio consulibus, discedens ab 
• hibernls Caesar in Italiam, ut quotannis facere 
consuerat, legatis imperat quos legionibus praefecerat uti 
quam plurimas possint hieme navis aedificandas veteresque 
reficiendas curent. Earum modum formamque 1 demonstrat. 5 
Ad celeritatem onerandi subductionisque paulo facit humi- 
liores quam quibus in nostro marl iitl consuevimus ; atque 
id eo magis, quod propter crebras commiitationes aestuum 
minus magnos ibi fluctus fieri cognoverat ; ad onera ac 
multitudinem iumentorum transportandam, paulo latiores 10 
quam quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. Has omnis actu- 
arias imperat fieri, quam ad rem multum humilitas adiuvat. 
Ea quae sunt usui ad armandas 2 navis ex Hispania adpor- 
tari iubet. Ipse conventibus Galliae citerioris peractis in 
Illyricum proficiscitur, quod a Pirustis finitimam 3 partem 15 
provinciae incursionibus vastari audiebat. Eo cum venisset, 
civitatibus milites imperat certumque in locum convenire 
iubet. Qua re nuntiata Pirustae legatos ad eum mittunt 
qui doceant 4 nihil earum rerum publico factum consilio, 

Cf. x figuram. — a ornandas. — 8 opp. ultimam. — * ostendant. 

n8 The Gallic War, [Cesar 

seseque paratos esse demonstrant omnibus rationibus de 
iniuriis satisfacere. Percepta 1 oratione eorum Caesar 
obsides imperat eosque ad certam diem adduci iubet : nisi 
ita fecerint, sese bello civitatem persecuturum demonstrat. 
5 Els ad diem adductis ut imperaverat, arbitros inter civitatis 
dat qui litem aestiment poenamque constituant. 

Returns to Gaul. Orders the New Fleet to Assemble at the Port Itius. 
Finds Trouble Brewing among the Treveri. 

2. His confectis rebus conventibusque peractis, in cite- 
riorem Galliam revertitur 2 atque inde ad exercitum profi- 
ciscitur. Eo cum venisset, circumitis omnibus hibernis, sin- 

io gulari militum studio in summa omnium rerum inopia circiter 
dc eius generis, cuius supra demonstravimus, navis et longas 
xxviii invenit instriictas, 3 neque multum abesse ab eo quin 
paucis diebus deduci possint. Conlaudatis militibus atque 
eis qui hegotio praef uerant, quid fieri velit ostendit 4 atque 

15 omnis ad portum Itium convenire iubet, quo ex portu com- 
modissimum 6 in Britanniam traiectum esse cognoverat cir- 
citer milium passuum xxx [transmissum] a continenti. 
Huic rei quod satis esse visum est militum reliquit; ipse 
cum legionibus expeditis mi et equitibus dccc in finis Tre- 

20 verorum proficiscitur ; quod hi neque ad concilia veniebant 
neque imperio parebant, Germanosque Transrhenanos solli- 
citare dicebantur. 

Indutiomarus and Cingetorix, Rival Chiefs of the Treveri, Appeal to 


3. Haec civitas longe plurimum totius Galliae equitatu 
valet 6 magnasque habet copias peditum, Rhenumque, ut 

2 5 supra demonstravimus, tangit. 7 In ea civitate duo de prin- 
cipal inter se contendebant, 8 Indutiomarus et Cingetorix : 
ex quibus alter, simul atque de Caesaris legionumque ad- 

Cf. * audita, intellects. — 2 redit. — 8 aedificatas. — 4 docet. — 6 op- 
portunissimum. — 6 potest. — 7 attingit. — 8 decertabant. 

B. G. V. 4.] Second Invasion of Britain. 119 

ventu cognitum est, ad eum venit; se suosque omnis in 
officio futuros neque ab amicitia populi Romani defecturos 
conf irmavit ; quaeque in Treveris gererentur * ostendit At 
Indutiomarus equitatum peditatumque cogere, eisque qui 
per aetatem 2 in armis esse non poterant in silvam Arduen- 5 
nam abditis, quae ingenti magnitudine per medios finis Tre- 
verorum a flumine Rheno ad initium Remorum pertinet, 
bellum parare instituit. Sed posteaquam non nulli principes 
ex ea civitate et auctoritate Cingetorigis adducti et adventu 
nostri exercitus perterriti ad Caesarem venerunt et de suis io 
privatis rebus ab eo petere coeperunt, quoniam civitati 
consulere non possent ; veritus ne ab omnibus desereretur. 
Indutiomarus legatos ad Caesarem mittit : ' Sese idcirco ab 
suis discedere atque ad eum venire noluisse, quo facilius 
civitatem in officio contineret, ne omnis nobilitatis discessu 15 
plebs propter imprudentiam laberetur ; 8 itaque civitatem in 
sua potestate esse seque, si Caesar permitteret, ad eum in 
castra venturum et suas civitatisque fortunas eius fidei per- 

He Settles the Dispute in Favor of Cingetorix. 

4. Caesar etsi intellegebat 4 qua de causa ea dicerentur 20 
quaeque eum res ab instituto 5 consilio deterreret, tamen, 
ne aestatem in Treveris consumere cogeretur omnibus rebus 
ad Britannicum bellum comparatis, Indutiomarum ad se 
cum cc obsidibus venire iussit. His adductis, in eis filio 
propinquisque eius omnibus, quos nominatim evocaverat, 25 
consolatus Indutiomarum hortatusque est uti in officio 
maneret; nihilo tamen secius 6 principibus Treverorum ad 
se convocatis hos singillatim 7 Cingetorigi conciliavit ; quod 
cum merito eius a se fieri intellegebat, turn magni interesse 
arbitrabatur eius auctoritatem inter suos quam plurimum 30 

Cf. x agerentur. — 2 arma ferre. — 8 deficeret. — * percipiebat. — 
E incepto.— 8 minus. — 7 singulds. 

120 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

valere, cuius tam egregiam l in se voluntatem perspexisset. 
Id factum graviter tulit Indutiomarus [suam gratiam inter 
suos minul] ; et qui iam ante inimico in nos animo fuisset 
multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit. 2 

Assembling of Troops at the Port Itius. 

5 5. His rebus constitutis Caesar ad portum Itium cum 
legionibus pervenit. Ibi cognoscit lx navis, quae in Mel- 
dis factae erant, tempestate reiectas 3 cursum tenere non 
potuisse atque eodem unde erant profectae revertisse; reli- 
quas paratas ad navigandum atque omnibus rebus instructas 
io invenit. 4 Eodem equitatus totius Galliae convenit, numero 
milia mi, principesque ex omnibus civitatibus; ex quibus 
perpaucos, quorum in se fidem perspexerat, relinquere in 
Gallia, reliquos obsidum loco secum ducere decreverat,* 
quod, cum ipse abesset, motum 6 Galliae verebatur. 

Dumnorix, the Haeduan, Again Appears. 

15 6. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix Haeduus, de quo ante 
ab nobis dictum est. Hunc secum habere in primis con- 
stituerat, 7 quod eum cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum 
imperi, magnl animi, magnae inter Gallos auctoritatis co- 
gnoverat. Accedebat hue quod in concilio Haeduorum 

20 Dumnorix dixerat sibi a Caesare regnum civitatis deferri; 8 
quod dictum Haedui graviter 9 f erebant neque recusandi aut 
deprecandl causa legatos ad Caesarem mittere audebant. 
Id factum ex suls hospitibus Caesar cognoverat. Ille omni- 
bus prlmo precibus petere contendit ut in Gallia relinquere- 

25 tur ; partim quod insuetus navigandl mare timeret, partim 
quod religionibus impediri 10 sese diceret. Posteaquam id 
obstinate sibi negari vidit, omnl spe impetrandl adempta, 

Cf. x eximiam. — 2 c5nflagravit. — 8 repulsas. — 4 reperit. — 6 con- 
stituerat. — 6 tumultum, seditidnem. — 7 decreverat. — 8 tradi. — 
• moleste. — 10 detineri. 

B. G. V. 7.] Second Invasion of Britain. 12 1 

principes Galliae sollicitare, sevocare singulos, hortarique 
coepit uti in continentl remanerent ; metu territare non sine 
causa fieri ut Gallia omnl nobilitate spoliaretur ; * id esse 
consilium Caesaris ut, quos in conspectu Galliae interficere 
vereretur, hos omnis in Britanniam traductos necaret ; fidem 5 
reliquis interponere, ius iurandum poscere ut, quod esse 2 ex 
usu Galliae intellexissent, communi consilio administrarent. 
Haec a compluribus ad Caesarem deferebantur. 

Flight, Capture, and Death of Dumnorix. 

7. Qua re cognita Caesar, quod tantum civitati Haeduae 
dignitatis 3 tribuebat, coercendum 4 atque deterrendum qui- 10 
buscumque rebus posset Dumnorigem statuebat ; quod lon- 
gius eius amentiam progredi 5 videbat, prospiciendum 6 ne 
quid sibi ac rei publicae nocere 7 posset. Itaque dies circi- 
ter xxv in eo loco commoratus, quod Corus ventus naviga- 
tionem impediebat, qui magnam partem omnis temporis in 15 
his locis flare consuevit, 8 9 dabat operam ut in ofiicio Dum- 
norigem contineret ; nihilo tamen secius omnia eius consilia 
cognosceret. Tandem idoneam nactus tempestatem milites 
equitesque conscendere navis iubet. At omnium impeditis 
animis Dumnorix cum equitibus Haedudrum a castris insci- 20 
ente Caesare domum discedere coepit. Qua re nuntiata 
Caesar, intermissa profectione 10 atque omnibus rebus post- 
positis, magnam partem equitatus ad eum insequendum 
mittit retrahique imperat; si n vim faciat neque pareat, 12 in- 
terfici iubet ; nihil hunc se absente pro sand factjrum arbi- 25 
tratus qui praesentis imperium 18 neglexisset. Ille autem 
revocatus resistere ac se manu defendere suorumque fidem 
implorare coepit, saepe clamitans liberum se liberaeque esse 

Cf. 1 privaretur. — 2 usui. — 8 auct5ritatis. — 4 reprimendum. — 
6 procedere. — 6 providendum. — 7 iniurias inferre. — 8 solitus est. — 
9 nitebatur. — 10 discessione. — n resistat. — 12 dicto audiens sit. — 

18 auctoritatem, iussum. 

122 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

civitatis. Illi, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt hominem 
atque interficiunt ; at equites Haedui ad Caesarem omnes 

Caesar Sets Sail for Britain. The Natives in Alarm Withdraw from the 


8. His rebus gestis, 1 Labieno in continente cum in 
5 legionibus et equitum milibus duobus relicto, ut portus 
tueretur et rei frumentariae provideret, quaeque in Gallia 
gererentur cognosceret consiliumque pro tempore et pro re 
caperet, ipse cum v legionibus et pari numero equitum, 
quem in continenti reliquerat, ad 2 solis occasum navis 

io solvit ; et leni Africo provectus media circiter nocte vento 
intermisso, cursum non tenuit ; et longius delatus aestu 
8 orta luce sub sinistra Britanniam relictam conspexit. Turn 
rursus aestus commutationem secutus remis contendit ut 
earn partem insulae caperet qua optimum esse egressum 

15 superiore aestate cognoverat. Qua in re admodum fuit 
militum virtus laudanda, qui vectoriis gravibusque navigiis 
non intermisso remigandi labore longarum navium cursum 
adaequarunt. Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus 
navibus meridiano 4 fere tempore; 4 neque in eo loco hostis 

20 est visus, sed, ut postea Caesar ex captivis cognovit, 5 cum 
magnae mantis 6 eo convenissent, multitudine navium per- 
territae, 7 quae cum annotinis privatisque, quas sui quisque 
commodi fecerat, amplius dccc uno erant visae tempore, a 
litore discesserant 8 ac se in superiora loca abdiderant. 

The ArmjtfLands and Advances. The Natives Resist, but are Defeated. 

25 9. Caesar exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo capto, 
ubi ex captivis cognovit quo in loco hostium copiae conse- 
dissent, cohortibus x ad mare relictis et equitibus ccc qui 
praesidio 9 navibus essent, de tertia vigilia ad hostis contendit, 

Cf. x confectis. — 2 occidentem solem. — 8 prima luce. — 4 meridie, 
— 6 repperit. — 6 copiae. — 7 permotae. — 8 excesserant. — 9 subsidio. 

B. G. V. 9.] Second Invasion of Britain. 


— eo minus veritus navibus, quod in litore molli 1 atque 
aperto deligatas ad ancoras relinquebat. EI praesidio navi- 
busque Q. Atrium praefecit. Ipse noctii progressus 2 milia 
passuum circiter xn hostium copias conspicatus est. 111! 
equitatu atque essedis ad flumen progress! ex loco superiore 
nostros prohibere 3 et proelium committere coeperunt. 

Fig. 68.— Tbstudo. 

Repulsi ab equitatu se in silvas abdiderunt, locum nacti 
egregie et natura et opere munltum, quem domestici belli 
(ut videbantur) causa iam ante praeparaverant ; nam cre- 
bris 4 arboribus succisis omnes introitus 5 erant praeclusi. 10 
Ipsi ex silvis rari propugnabant nostrosque intra munitiones 
ingredi 6 prohibebant. At milites legionis vn, testudine 
facta et aggere ad munitiones adiecto, 7 locum ceperunt 

Cf. > leniter acclivi. — 2 profectus. — 8 impedire. 
6 aditus, opp. exitus. — 6 introire. — 7 exstructo. 

4 multis. — 

124 The Gallic War, [Caesar 

eosque ex silvis expulerunt paucis volneribus acceptis. 
Sed eos fugientis longius Caesar prosequi vetuit, et quod 
loci naturam ignorabat, et quod magna parte diei con- 
sumpta munitioni castrorum tempus 1 relinqui volebat 

The Fleet Suffers from a Storm, is Hastily Repaired and Drawn up on 


5 10. 2 Postridie eius diei mane tripartito milites equitesque 
in expeditionem misit, ut eos qui fugerant persequerentur. 
His aliquantum itineris progressis, cum iam extremi essent 
in prospectu, equites a Q. Atrio ad Caesarem venerunt qui 
nuntiareht, superiore nocte maxima coorta tempestate, prope 

io omnes navis adflictas atque in litus eiectas esse ; quod neque 
ancorae funesque sustinerent neque nautae gubernatoresque 
vim tempestatis pati 3 possent. Itaque ex eo concursu na- 
vium magnum esse incommodum 4 acceptum. 

11. His rebus cognitis Caesar legiones equitatumque 

15 revocari atque in itinere resistere iubet, ipse ad navis rever- 
titur; eadem fere quae ex nuntiis [litteris] cognoverat 
coram perspicit, sic ut amissis s circiter xl navibus reliquae 
tamen refici posse magno negotio 6 viderentur. Itaque ex 
legionibus fabros deligit et ex continenti alios arcessi iubet ; 

20 Labieno scribit 7 ut quam plurimas possit eis legionibus quae 
sunt apud eum navis instituat. 8 Ipse, etsi res erat multae 
operae ac laboris, tamen commodissimum 9 esse statuit 
omnis navis subduci 10 et cum castris una munitione coniungi. 
In his rebus circiter dies x consumit ne nocturnis quidem 

25 temporibus ad laborem militum intermissis. Subductis 
navibus castrisque egregie munitis easdem copias quas ante 
praesidio navibus relinquit ; ipse eodem unde redierat pro- 
ficiscitur. 11 Eo cum venisset, maiores iam undique in eum 

Cf. ' spatium. — a posterd die. — 8 perferre. — 4 detrimentum. — 
* perditis. — 6 labSre. — 7 litteras mittit ad. — 8 comparet. — • utilis- 
simum. — 10 opp. deduci. — u procedit. 

B. G. V. 12.] Second Invasion of Britain. 125 

locum copiae Britannorum convenerant, summa imperi 
bellique administrandi communi consilio permissa 1 Cassi- 
vellauno ; cuius fines a maritimis civitatibus fluraen dividit, 
quod appellator Tamesis, a marl circiter milia passuum 

Fig. 69. — Soldiers Building Camp, with Guards. 

lxxx. Huic superidre tempore cum reliquis civitatibus con- 5 
tinentia 2 bella intercesserant ; sed nostro adventu permoti 
Britanni hunc toti bello imperioque praefecerant. 8 

The Inhabitants of Britain and its Resources. 

12. Britanniae pars interior ab eis incolitur quos natos in 
insula ipsi memoria proditum dicunt ; maritima pars ab eis 
qui praedae ac belli inferendi 4 causa ex Belgio transierunt 1 
(qui omnes fere eis nominibus civitatum appellantur quib 

Cf. 1 mandata. — 2 perpetua. — 8 praeposuerant. — 4 gerendi 

126 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt) et bello inlato ibi 
remanserunt atque agros colere coeperunt. Hominum est 
inf inita multitude! creberrimaque l aedificia fere Gallicis con- 
similia, 2 pecoris magnus numerus. Utuntur aut aere [aut 

5 nummo aereo] aut taleis ferreis ad certum pondus examina- 
tis pro nummo. Nascitur ibi plumbum album in mediter- 
raneis regionibus, in maritimis ferrum, sed eius exigua 3 est 
copia; aere utuntur importato. Materia cuiusque generis 
ut in Gallia est praeter fagum atque abietem. Leporem et 

10 gallinam et anserem gustare fas non putant ; 4 haec tamen 
alunt animi voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt temperatiora 
quam in Gallia remissioribus frigoribus. 

Shape and Size of the Island. 

13. Insula natiira * triquetra, cuius unura latus est contra 
Galliam. Huius lateris alter angulus, qui est ad Cantium, 

15 quo fere omnes ex Gallia naves adpelluntur, ad orientem 
solem, inferior ad meridiem spectat. 6 Hoc latus pertinet 
circiter milia passuum d. Alterum vergit ad Hispaniam 
atque occidentem solem; qua ex parte est Hibernia, Insula 
dimidio minor (ut existimatur) quam Britannia, sed pari 

20 spatio transmissus 7 atque ex Gallia est in Britanniam. In 
hoc medio cursu est Insula quae appellatur 8 Mona ; com- 
plures praeterea minores subiectae 9 insulae exlstimantur ; 
de quibus Insulis 10 non null! scrlpserunt dies continues xxx 
sub brumam esse noctem. Nos nihil de eo percontationi- 

25 bus 11 reperiebamus, nisi certls ex aqua mensurls breviores 
esse quam in continentl noctls videbamus. Huius est 
longitudo lateris, ut fert 12 illorum opinio, 13 dcc milium. 
Tertium est contra septentriones, cui parti nulla est ob- 
iecta 14 terra ; sed eius angulus lateris maxime ad Germa- 

Cf. J frequentis8ima. — 2 paria. — 8 parva. — * arbitrantur. — 6 for- 
ma. — 6 vergit. — 7 traiectus. — 8 nominatur. — 9 propinquae. — 10 qui- 
dam. — n quaestione. — 12 est. — 18 sententia. — H opposita. 

B. G. V. 15.] Second Invasion of Britain. 127 

niam spectat. Hoc milium passuum dccc in longitudinem 
esse existimatur. Ita omnis insula est in circuitu vicies 
centum milium passuum. 

Customs of the Britons. 

14. Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi qui Cantium 
incolunt (quae regio est maritima omnis), neque multum 5 
a Gallica differunt consuetudine. Interiores plerique fru- 
menta non serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt pellibusque 
sunt vestiti. Omnes vero se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod 
caeruleum efficit colorem, atque hoc horridiores sunt in 
pugna adspectu; capilloque sunt promisso 1 atque omni 10 
parte corporis rasa praeter caput et labrum superius. 
Uxores habent deni duodenique inter se communis, et 
maxime fratres cum fratribus parentesque cum liberis; sed 
qui sunt ex his nati eorum habentur 2 liberi quo primum 
virgo quaeque deducta est. 15 

Battle with the Britons, Who are Driven Back. 

15. Equites hostium essedariique acriter proelio cum 
equitatu nostro in itinere conflixerunt, 8 ita tamen ut nostri 
omnibus partibus superiores fuerint atque eos in silvas 
collisque compulerint ; sed compluribus interfectis cupidius 
insecuti non nullos ex suis amiserunt. At illi intermisso 20 
spatio, 4 imprudentibus nostris atque occupatis in muni- 
tione castrorum, subito 5 se ex silvis eiecerunt, impetuque 

in eos facto qui erant in statione pro castris conlocati, 
acriter pugnaverunt; duabusque missis subsidio cohortibus 
a Caesare, atque his primis legionum duarum, cum eae 25 
perexiguo 6 intermisso loci spatio inter se constitissent, novo 
genere 7 pugnae perterritis nostris, per medios audacissime 
perruperunt seque inde incolumis 8 receperunt. Eo die Q. 

Cf. * longo. — 2 existimantur. — 8 contenderunt. — 4 tempore. — 6 re- 
pente. — 6 minim5. — 7 modd. — 8 tutSs. 

128 The Gallic War, [Casar 

Laberius Durus tribunus militum interficitur. 111! pluribus 
submissis cohortibus repelluntur. 

Their Methods of Fighting. 

16. Toto hoc in genere pugnae, cum sub oculis omnium 
ac pro castris dimicaretur, intellectum est nostros propter 

5 gravitatem armorum, quod neque insequi cedentis ' possent 
neque ab signis discedere auderent, minus aptos 2 esse ad 
huius generis hostem ; equites autem magno cum periculo 
proelio dimicare, propterea quod illi etiam consulto ple- 
rumque cederent, et cum paulum ab legionibus nostros 

io removissent, ex essedis desilirent et pedibus dispari proelio 
contenderent. [Equestris autem proeli ratio et cedentibus 
et insequentibus par atque idem perlculum Inferebat] Ac- 
cedebat hue ut numquam conferti 3 sed ran magnisque 
intervallis proeliarentur 4 stationesque 6 dispositas haberent, 

iS atque alios alii deinceps exciperent, integrique et recentes 
defatigatis succederent. 

They are Again Defeated. 

17. 6 Postero die procul a castris hostes in collibus con- 
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere et lenius quam pridie nostros 
equites proelio lacessere 7 coeperunt. Sed meridie, 8 cum 

20 Caesar pabulandi causa in legiones atque omnem equita- 
tum cum C. Trebonio legato misisset, repente ex omnibus 
partibus ad pabulatores advolaverunt, sic uti ab signis legi- 
onibusque non absisterent. 9 Nostri acriter in eos impetu 
facto reppulerunt, neque finem sequendi fecerunt quoad 

25 subsidio confisi equites, cum post se legiones viderent, 
praecipites hostes egerunt ; magnoque eorum numero inter- 
fecto neque sui conligendi neque consistendi aut ex essedis 

Cf. 1 se recipientis,terga vertentis. — 2 idSneos. — 8 densi. — 4 dimi- 
carent. — 6 subsidia. — 6 postridie eius diei. — 7 vexare. — 8 meridiano 
tempore. — 9 discederent. 

B. G. V. 18.] Second Invasion of Britain. 129 

desiliendi facultatem 1 dederunt. Ex hac f uga protinus quae 
undique 2 convenerant auxilia discesserunt; neque 8 post id tem- 
pus umquam summis nobiscum copiis hostes contenderunt. 

Fig. 70. — SlGNA MlLITARIA. 

Caesar Crosses the Thames. 

18. Caesar cognito consilio eorura ad flumen Tamesim in 
finis Cassivellauni exercitum duxit; quod flumen uno om- 5 
nino loco pedibus, 4 atque hoc aegre, transiri potest. E6 
cum venisset, animadvertit 5 ad alteram fluminis ripam 
magnas esse copias hostium instructas; ripa autem erat 
acutis sudibus praefixisque munita, eiusdemque generis sub 
aqua defixae sudes flumine tegebantur. His rebus cognitis 10 
a captivis perfugisque Caesar praemisso equitatu confestim 6 
legiones subsequi iussit. Sed ea celeritate atque eo impetu 
milites ierunt, cum capite solo ex aqua exstarent, ut hostes 
impetum legionum atque equitum sustinere non possent 
ripasque dimitterent 7 ac se f ugae mandarent. 1 5 

Cf. x potestatem. — 2 ex omnibus partibus. — 8 postea. — 4 vado. — 
6 vidit. — 6 continuo. — 7 relinquerent. 

130 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

Cassivellaunus Avoids a General Engagement, but Annoys Caesar by 
Guerilla Tactics. 

19. Cassivellaunus, ut supra demonstravimus, omni depo- 
sits x spe contentionis, dimissis amplioribus 2 copiis, mili- 
bus circiter mi essedariorum relictis itinera nostra servabat ; 
paulumque ex via excedebat locisque impeditis ac silvestri- 

5 bus sese occultabat atque eis regionibus quibus nos iter fac- 
turos cognoverat pecora atque homines ex agris in silvas 
compellebat ; 3 et cum equitatus noster liberius praedandi 4 
vastandique causa se in agros eiecerat, omnibus viis semi- 
tisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat; et magno cum peri- 

10 culo nostrorum equitum cum eis confligebat 5 atque hoc 
metu latius vagari prohibebat. Relinquebatur ut neque 
longius ab agmine legionum disced! Caesar pateretur, 6 et 
tantum in agris vastandis incendiisque faciendis hostibus 
noceretur quantum in labore atque itinere legionarii milites 

15 efficere poterant. 

The Trinobantes Yield to Caesar. 

20. Interim 7 Trinobantes, prope firmissima earum regi- 
onum civitas, ex qua Mandubracius adulescens Caesaris 
fidem secutus ad eum in continentem [Galliam] venerat, — 
cuius pater in ea civitate regnum obtinuerat interfectusque 

20 erat a Cassivellauno, ipse f uga mortem vitaverat, 8 — legatos 
ad Caesarem mittunt pollicenturque sese ei dedituros atque 
imperata f acturos : petunt 9 ut Mandubracium ab iniuria 
Cassivellauni defendat, atque in civitatem mittat qui praesit 
imperiumque 10 obtineat. His Caesar imperat obsides xl 

25 frumentumque exercitui, Mandubraciumque ad eos mittit. 
111! imperata celeriter n f ecerunt, obsides ad numerum fru- 
mentumque miserunt. 

Cf. l sublata. — 2 maidribus. — 8 agebat. — 4 depopulandi. — 6 pug- 
navit. — • permitteret. — 7 interea . — 8 effugerat. — * rogant. — 10 reg- 
num. — n cum celeritate. 

B. G. V. 22.] Second Invasion of Britain. 1 3 1 

Other Tribes also Yield. A British "Oppidum." 

21. Trinobantibus defensis atque ab omnl militum iniu- 
ria prohibitis, Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, 
Cassi legationibus missis sese Caesari dedunt. Ab his 
cognoscit non longe ex eo loco oppidum Cassivellauni 
abesse silvis paludibusque munitum, quo satis magnus 
hominum pecorisque numerus convenerit. Oppidum autem 
Britanni vocant cum silvas impeditas 1 vallo atque fossa 
munierunt, quo incursionis 2 hostium vitandae causa con- 
venire consuerunt. Eo proficiscitur cum legionibus; locum 
reperit 8 egregie natura atque opere munitum ; tamen hunc 
duabus ex partibus oppugnare 4 contendit. Hostes pauli- 
sper morati militum nostrorum impetum non tulerunt seseque 
alia ex parte oppidi eiecerunt. Magnus ibi numerus pecoris 
repertus, multique in fuga sunt comprehensi 5 atque inter- 

Cassivellaunus at Last Submits. 

J 5 

22. Dum haec in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium, quod esse ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus 
regionibus nil reges praeerant, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taxi- 
magulus, Segonax, nuntios mittit atque his imperat uti 
coactis omnibus copiis castra navalia de improviso adori- 20 
antur atque oppugnent. Hi cum ad castra venissent, nostri 
eruptione 6 facta multis eorum interfectis, captoetiam nobili 
duce Lugotorige, suos incolumis reduxerunt. Cassivellaunus 
hoc proelio nuntiato, tot detrimentis 7 acceptis, vastatis fini- 
bus, maxime etiam permotus defectione 8 civitatum, legatos 25 
per Atrebatem Commium de deditione ad Caesarem mittit. 
Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti propter 
repentinos 9 Galliae motus, neque multum aestatis super- 
esset, atque id facile extrahi 10 posse intellegeret, obsides 

Cf. 1 densas. — a inruptionis. — * invenit. — 4 adoriri. — 6 capti. — 
6 excursione. — 7 incommodis . — 8 rebellione. — • subitos. — 10 produci. 


The Gallic War. 


imperat, et quid in annds singulos vectigalis populo Romano 
Britannia penderet constituit. Interdicit atque imperat 
Cassivellauno ne Mandubracio neu Trinobantibus noceat. 

Caesar Returns to Gaul. 

23. Obsidibus acceptis exercitum reducit ad mare, navis 
5 invenit refectas. His deductis, 1 quod et captivorum mag- 
num numerum habebat et 2 non nullae tempestate deperierant 

Fig. 71. — Roman Transports. 

naves, duobus commeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. 

Ac sic accidit uti ex tanto navium numero, 3 tot navigationi- 

bus, neque hoc neque superiore anno ulla omnino navis 

10 quae milites portaret desideraretur ; 4 at ex eis quae inanes 

Cf. 1 opp. subductis. — a aliquot. — 8 multitudine. — 4 deperiret 

B. G. v. 24.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 133 

ex continent! ad eum remitterentur, [et] prioris commeatus 
expositis militibus, et quas postea Labienus faciendas 
curaverat numero lx, perpaucae locum caperent ; ! reliquae 
fere omnes reicerentur. Quas cum aliquamdiu Caesar 
frustra exspectasset, ne anni tempore a navigatione exclu- 5 
deretur, quod aequinoctium suberat, 2 necessario angustius 
milites conlocavit, ac summa tranquillitate 8 consecuta, 
secunda inita cum solvisset vigilia, prima luce terram 
attigit 4 omnisque incolumis navis perduxit. 

On Account of the Scarcity of Supplies, the Army is Widely Distributed 
for Winter Quarters. 

24. Subductis navibus concilioque Gallorum Samaro- 10 
brlvae peracto, quod eo anno frumentum in Gallia propter 
siccitatis angustius provenerat, coactus est aliter ac 6 superi- 
oribus annis exercitum in hibernis conlocare legionesque in 
pluris civitatis distribuere ; 6 ex quibus unam in Morinos 
ducendam C. Fabio legato dedit, alteram in Nervios Q. 15 
Ciceroni, tertiam in Esuvios L. R5scio ; quartam in Remis 
cum T. Labieno in confinio 7 Treverorum hiemare iussit; 
tres in Bellovacis conlocavit ; his M. Crassum et L. 
Munatium Plancum et C. Trebonium legatos praefecit. 
Unam legionem, quam proxime 8 trans Padum conscripserat, 20 
et cohortis v in Eburones, quorum pars maxima est inter 
Mosam ac Rhenum, qui sub imperio Ambiorigis et 
Catuvolci erant, misit. His militibus Q. Titurium Sabinum 
et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatos praeesse iussit. Ad 
hunc modum distributis legionibus facillime inopiae f rumen- 25 
tariae sese mederi posse existimavit. 9 Atque harum tamen 
omnium legionum hiberna, praeter earn quam L. Roscio in 
pacatissimam et quietissimam partem ducendam dederat, 
milibus passuum c continebantur. Ipse interea, quoad 10 

Cf. x pervenirent ad. — 2 aderat. — 8 malacia. — 4 capit. — 6 quam. 
— - • divider©. — 7 f inibus. — 8 niiper. — • putavit. — 10 dum. 

134 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

legiones conlocatas munitaque hiberna cognovisset, 1 in 
Gallia morari constituit. 

Tasgetius, a Friendly Chief, Slain by the Carnutes. 

25. Erat in Carnutibus summo loco 2 natus Tasgetius, 
cuius maiores in sua civitate regnum obtinuerant. Huic 
5 Caesar pro eius virtute atque in se benevolentia, 8 quod in 
omnibus bellis singulari eius opera fuerat usus, maiorum 
locum restituerat. Tertium iam nunc annum regnantem 
inimici palam multis ex civitate auctoribus interfecerunt. 
Defertur 4 ea res ad Caesarem. Ille veritus, a quod ad 

Fig. 72. — Coin of L. Plancus. 

10 pluris pertinebat, ne civitas c eorum impulsu deficeret, L. 
Plancum cum legione ex Belgio celeriter in Carnutes pro- 
ficisci 7 iubet ibique hiemare ; quorumque opera cognoverit 
Tasgetium interfectum, hos comprehensos ad se mittere. 
Interim ab omnibus [legatis quaestoribusque] quibus 

15 legiones tradiderat, 8 certior f actus est in hiberna perventum 
locumque hibernis esse munitum. 

Revolt of Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. Sabinus's Camp Attacked. 

26. Diebus circiter xv quibus in hiberna ventum est, 

initium repentini tumultus ac defectionis 9 ortum est ab 

Ambiorige et Catuvolco; qui, cum ad finis regni sui Sabino 

20 Cottaeque 10 praest6 fuissent frumentumque in hiberna com- 

Cf. a intellexisset. — 2 dignitate. — 8 voluntate. — 4 nuntiatur. — 
* metuens. — 6 ab eis permota. — 7 iter facere. — 8 dederat. — • sedi- 
tionis. — 10 ad fuissent. 

B. G. v. 27.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 135 

portavissent, 1 Indutiomari Treveri nuntiis impulsi suos 
concitaverunt subitoque oppressis lignatoribus magna manu * 
ad castra oppugnanda venerunt. Cum celeriter nostri 
arma cepissent vallumque adscendissent, atque una ex parte 
Hispanis equitibus emissis equestri proelio 8 superiores 5 
fuissent, Mesperata re hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxe- 
runt. Turn suo more conclamaverunt uti aliqui ex nostris 
ad conloquium prodiret :* habere sese quae de re communi 
dicere vellent, quibus rebus controversies 6 minui posse 
sperarent. 10 

Ambiorix Treacherously Advises Sabinus to Abandon his Camp and Join 
Cicero or Labienus. 

( \ 

27. Mittitur ad eos conloquendi causa C. Arpineius, 
eques Romanus, familiaris Q. Tituri, et Q. Iunius ex Hi- 
spania quidam, qui iam ante missu Caesaris ad Ambiorigem 
ventitare consuerat; 7 apud quos Ambiorix ad hunc modum 
locutus est : *Sese pro Caesaris in se beneficiis pliirimum ei 15 
confiteri debere, quod eius opera stipendio liberatus esset 
quod Aduatucis, finitimis suis, pendere consuesset, quodque 
ei et filius et fratris filius ab Caesare remissi essent quds 
Aduatuci obsidum numero missos apud se in servitude et 
catenis tenuissent ; neque id quod f ecerit de oppugnatione 20 
castrorum aut iudicia aut voluntate sua fecisse, sed 8 coactu 
civitatis ; suaque esse eiusmodi imperia ut non minus 
haberet iuris in se multitudo quam ipse in multitudinem. 

'Civitati porro 9 hanc fuisse belli causam, quod repentinae 
Gallorum coniurationi resistere non potuerit ; id se facile ex 25 
humilitate sua probare posse, quod non adeo sit imperitus 10 
rerum ut suis copiis populum Romanum superari posse 
confidat. Sed esse Galliae commune consilium ; omnibus 
hibernis Caesaris oppugn andis hunc esse dictum diem, ne 

Cf. 1 contulissent . — 2 c5piis. — 8 superassent. — * spe deposita. — 
6 progrederetur. — ■ contentionis. — 7 solitus erat. — • I civitate co- 
actus. — • deinde. — 10 insciens. 

136 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

qua legio alter! legion! subsidio 1 venire posset ; non facile 
Gallos Gallis negare potuisse, praesertim cum de recupe- 
randa 2 communi libertate consilium initum videretur. 
'Quibus quoniam pro pietate satisfecerit, habere nunc 
5 se rationem offici pro benefices Caesaris; monere, orare 3 
Titurium pro hospitio ut suae ac militum saluti consulat. 
Magnam manum Germanorum conductam Rhenum trans- 
Isse ; hanc adfore biduo. Ipsorum esse consilium, velintne 
prius quam finitimi sentiant, 4 eductos ex hibernis milites aut 

10 ad Ciceronem aut ad Labienum deducere, quorum alter 
milia passuum circiter l, alter paulo amplius ab els absit. 
Illud se polliceri et iure iurando confirmare tutum se iter 
per suos finis daturum ; quod cum faciat, et civitati sese 
consul ere, quod hibernis levetur, et Caesari pro eius meritis 6 

15 gratiam referre.' Hac oratione habita. discedit Ambiorix. 

Some of his Officers are Opposed to Such a Movement. 

28. Arpineius et Iunius quae audierant 6 ad legatos 
deferunt. 111! repentina re perturbati, 7 etsi ab hoste ea dice- 
bantur, tamen non neglegenda 8 existimabant ; maximeque 
hac re permovebantur, quod civitatem ignobilem atque 

20 humilem Eburonum sua sponte populo Romano bellum 
facere ausam vix erat credendum. Itaque ad consilium 
rem deferunt magnaque inter eos exsistit controversia. 9 
L. Aurunculeius compluresque 10 tribiini militum et primorum 
ordinum centuriones nihil temere agendum, neque ex 

25 hibernis iniussu Caesaris discedendum existimabant ; quan- 
tasvis [magnas] copias etiam Germanorum sustineri 11 posse 
munitis hibernis docebant; rem esse testimonio, quod 
primum hostium impetum multis ultro 12 volneribus inlatis 
fortissime sustinuerint ; re f rumentaria non premi ; 13 interea 

Cf . * auxilio. — 2 recipienda. — 8 obsecrare. — * intellegant. — 6 bene- 
ficiis. — 6 cognoverant. — 7 perm5ti. — 8 praetermittenda. — 9 disputa- 
tio. — M plerique. — u resist!, w dat. — u praeterea. — u urgeri. 

B. G. V. 30.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 137 

et ex proximis hibernis et a Caesare conventura subsidia ; 
postremo, quid esse levius aut turpius quam auctore hoste 
de summis rebus capere 1 consilium? 

But SabinuB Argues in Favor. 

29. Contra, ea Titurius * Serd facturos ■ clamitabat, 'cum 
maiores manus hostium adiunctis Germanis convenissent, aut 5 
cum aliquid calamitatis 2 in proximis hibernis esset accep- 
tum; brevem consulendi esse occasionem. 8 Caesarem se 
arbitrari profectum in Italiam; neque aliter Carnutes inter- 
ficiendi Tasgeti consilium fuisse capturos, neque Eburones, 

si ille adesset, tanta contemptione nostri ad castra ventu- 10 
ros esse. Sese non hostem auctorem sed rem spectare; 
subesse 4 Rhenum ; magno esse Germanis dolori Ariovisti 
mortem et superiores nostras victorias ; ardere 6 Galliam tot 
contumeliis 6 acceptis sub populi Roman! imperium redac- 
tam, superiore gloria rei militaris exstlncta. Postremo, 15 
quis hoc sibi persuaderet sine certa spe Ambiorigem ad 
eiusmodi consilium descendisse? Suam sententiam in 
utramque partem esse tutam: si nihil esset diirius, 7 nullo 
cum periculo ad proximam legionem perventuros ; si Gallia 
omnis cum Germanis consentiret, 8 unam esse in celeritate 20 
positam salutem. Cottae quidem atque eorum qui dissenti- 
rent consilium quem habere exitum? in quo si non prae- 
sens periculum, at certe longinqua obsidione fames esset 

Cotta Throws the Responsibility upon Sabinus. 

30. Hac in utramque partem disputatione 9 habita, cum 25 
a Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, " Vincite," 
inquit, "si ita voltis," Sabinus, et id clariore 10 voce, ut 

Cf. 1 inlre. — 2 incommodi. — 8 spatium. — 4 prope esse. — 6 con- 
flagrare. — • indignitatibus. — 7 gravius. — 8 cdnspiraret. — • contro- 
versy. — 10 miiore, 

138 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

magna pars militum exaudlret; "neque is sum," inquit, 
" qui gravissime * ex vobis mortis periculo terrear : hi 
sapient; si gravius quid accident, abs te rationem repo- 
scent ; qui, si per te liceat, 2 perendino die cum proximis 
5 hibernis coniQncti communem cum reliquis belli casum sus- 
tineant, non reiecti et relegati longe ab ceteris aut ferro aut 
fame intereant." 

Sabinus Prevails, and the Army Marches Out of Camp. 

31. Consurgitur ex consilio; comprehendunt utrumque 
et orant ' Ne sua dissensione 8 et pertinacia rem in summum 

10 periculum deducant; facilem esse rem, seu maneant 4 seu 
proficiscantur,* si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent ; 
contra in dissensione niillam se salutem perspicere.' Res 
disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur. Tandem dat 
Cotta permotus manus ; superat sententia Sabini. Pronun- 

15 tiatur prima luce ittiros. Consumitur vigiliis reliqua pars 
noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid secum 
portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum relinquere 
cogeretur. [Omnia excogitantur qua re nee sine periculo 
maneatur et languore 6 militum et vigiliis periculum auge- 

20 atur.] Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur ut quibus 
esset persuasum non ab hoste sed ab homine amicissimo 
[Ambiorige] consilium datum, longissimo agmine maximis- 
que impedimentis. 

They are Suddenly Attacked in a Narrow Defile. 

32. At hostes, postea quam ex nocturno fremitu 7 vigili- 
25 isque de profectione eorum senserunt, conlocatis insidiis 

bipartito in silvis opportuno 8 atque occulto loco a milibus 
passuum circiter duobus Romanorum adventum exspecta- 
bant ; et cum se maior pars agminis in magnam convallem 

Cf. J vehementissime. — 2 biduo. — 8 controversia. — * morentur. -* 
6 discedant. — 6 lassitudine. — 7 clamore. — 8 idoneo. 

B. G. V. 33.] Fresh Risings of tlie Gauls. 1 39 

demisisset, 1 ex utraque parte eius vallis subito a se ostende- 
runt novissimosque premere et primos prohibere adscensu 
atque inlquissimo 3 nostris loco proelium committere coe- 

Sabinus Loses his Self-possession. Cotta Does Nobly, but Makes a Fatal 

33. Turn demum Titurius, qui nihil ante providisset, tre- 
pidare et concursare cohortisque disponere, 4 haec tamen 
ipsa timide atque ut eum omnia deflcere viderentur; quod 
plerumque els accidere 6 consuevit qui in ipso negotio 6 

Fig. 73. — Hollow Square (agmen quadratum). 

consilium capere coguntur. At Cotta, qui cogitasset haec 
posse in itinere accidere atque ob earn causam protection is 10 
auctor non fuisset, nulla in re communi saluti deerat, et in 
appellandls cohortandlsque militibus imperatoris et in pugna 
militis officia 7 praestabat. Cum propter longitudinem ag- 
minis non facile per se omnia obire et quid quoque loco 
faciendum 8 esset providere possent, iusserunt pronuntiari 15 
ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem consisterent. 

Cf. « descendissent. — 2 exstiterunt. — 8 alienissimo. — 4 distribu- 
te. — 6 evenlre. — 6 discrimine. — 7 miinera. — 8 agendum. 

140 The Gallic War. [Casar 

Quod consilium, etsi in eiusmodi casii 1 reprehendendum 
non est, tamen incommode 2 cecidit ; nam et nostrls militi 
bus spem minuit 8 et hostis ad pugnam alacriores effecit, 
quod non sine summo timore* et desperatione id factum 
5 videbatur. Praeterea accidit, 5 quod fieri necesse erat, ut 
volgo milites ab signis discederent, quaeque quisque eorum 
carissima haberet ab impedimentis petere atque abripere 
properaret ; 6 clamore et fletu omnia complerentur. 

Policy of Ambiorix. 

34. At barbaris consilium non defuit. 7 Nam duces eo 
10 rum tota acie pronuntiari iusserunt ne quis ab loco disce- 

deret; illorum esse praedam atque illis reservari quaecum- 
que Roman! reliquissent ; proinde omnia in victoria posita 
existimarent. [Erant et virtute et numero pugnando pares.] 
Nostri tametsi ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen 

15 omnem spem salutis in virtute ponebant; et quotiens quae- 
que cohors procurrerat, ab ea parte magnus numerus hos- 
tium cadebat. 8 Qua re animadversa Ambiorix pronuntiari 
iubet ut procul tela coniciant neu propius accedant, et quam 
in partem Romani impetum fecerint cedant [levitate armo- 

20 rum et cotidiana exercitatione nihil his noceri posse], rursus 
se ad signa recipientis insequantur. 

The Fight Continues, the Romans Continually Worsted. 

35. Quo praecepto ab eis diligentissime observato, cum 
quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum fecerat, 
hostes velocissime 9 refugiebant. Interim earn partem 

25 nudari necesse erat et ab latere aperto tela recipere. Rur- 
sus, cum in eum locum unde 10 erant progress! reverti coe- 
perant, et ab eis qui cesserant 11 et ab eis qui proximi 

Cf. * discrimine. — 2 male. — 8 detraxit, opp. auxit. — 4 metu. — 
6 fiebat. — • contenderet. — 7 defecit.— 8 occidebat. — 9 celerrime. — 
"exierant. — u terga rerterant, fugam petierant. 

B. G. V. 37.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 141 

steterant circumveniebantur ; sin autem locum tenere vel- 
lent, nee virtuti locus x relinquebatur neque ab tanta multi- 
tudine coniecta tela conferti vitare poterant. Tamen tot 
incommodis conflictati, 2 multis volneribus acceptis resiste- 
bant; 8 et magna parte diei consumpta, cum a prima luce 5 
ad horam octavam pugnaretur, nihil quod ipsis esset indig- 
num committebant. 4 Turn T. Balventio, qui superiore anno 
primum pilum diixerat, viro forti et magnae auctoritatis, 
utrumque femur tragula traicitur ; 5 Q. Lucanius, eiusdem 
ordinis, fortissime pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, 6 10 
interficitur ; L. Cotta legatus omnis cohortis ordinesque 
adhortans in adversum 6s funda volneratur. 

Sabinus Seeks an Interview with Ambiorix. 

36. His rebus permotus Q. Titurius, cum procul Ambio- 
rigem suos cohortantem conspexisset, interpretem suum Cn. 
Pompeium ad eum mittit rogatum 7 ut sibi militibusque par- 15 
cat. 8 Ille appellatus 9 respondet : ' Si velit secum conloqui, 
licere ; sperare a multitudine impetrari posse quod ad mili- 
tum salutem pertineat ; ipsi vero nihil nocitum iri, inque 
earn rem se suam fidem interp6nere. , Ille cum Cotta sau- 
cio communicat, si videatur, pugna ut excedant et cum 20 
Ambiorige una conloquantur : sperare se ab eo de sua ac 
militum salute impetrari posse. Cotta se ad armatum ho- 
stem iturum negat atque in eo perseverat. 10 

He is Treacherously Slain. The Army Utterly Defeated. Few Escape. 

37. Sabinus quos n in praesentia tribunos militum circum 

se habebat et primorum ordinum centuriones se sequi iubet; 25 
et, cum propius Ambiorigem accessisset, iussus arma ab- 
icere, 12 18 imperatum facit suisque ut idem faciant imperat. 

Cf. 1 occasiS. — 2 exagitati. — 8 repugnabant. — 4 admittebant. — 
6 transfigitur. — 6 auxilium fert. — 7 petitum. — 8 dementia iitatur in. 
— • invitatus. — 10 perstat. — u illo tempore. — u deponere. — 18 paret. 

142 The Gallic War. [Cbsar 

Interim, dum de condicionibus inter se agunt longiorque 
consulto ab Ambiorige instituitur sermo, paulatim circum- 
ventus interficitur. Turn vero suo more victoriam concla- 
mant atque ululatum tollunt, impetuque in nostros facto 
5 ordines perturbant. Ibi L. Cotta pugnans interficitur cum 
maxima parte militum. Reliqui se in castra recipiunt unde 
erant egressi ; ex quibus L. Petrosidius aquilifer, cum magna 
multitudine hostium premeretur, l aquilam intra vallum 
proicit, ipse pro castris fortissime pugnans occiditur. Illi 
10 aegre 2 ad noctem oppugnationem sustinent; nocte ad unum 
omnes desperata salute se ipsi interficiunt. Pauci ex proe- 
lio elapsi incertis itineribus per silvas ad T. Labienum lega- 
tum in hiberna perveniunt atque eum de rebus gestis certi- 
orem faciunt. 

Ambiorix Persuades the Aduatuci and Nervii to Join the Revolt. 

15 38. Hac victoria sublatus 8 Ambiorix statim cum equitatu 
in Aduatucos, qui erant eius regno finitimi, 4 proficiscitur ; 
neque noctem neque diem intermittit 6 peditatumque se 
subsequi iubet. Re demonstrata Aduatucisque concitatis, 
postero die in Nervios pervenit, hortaturque ne sui in 

20 perpetuum liberandi atque ulciscendi Romanos pro eis quas 
acceperint iniuriis occasionem dimittant; 6 interfectos esse 
legatos duos magnamque partem exercitiis interisse 7 demon- 
strat; nihil esse negoti subito oppressam legionem quae 
cum Cicerone hiemet interna; se ad earn rem profitetur 

25 adiutorem. Facile hac oratione Nerviis persuadet. 

A Large Force Attacks the Camp of Q. Cicero. 

39. Itaque confestim 8 dimissis nuntils ad Ceutrones, 
Grudios, Levacos, Pleumoxios, Geidumnos, qui omnes sub 
eorum imperio sunt, quam maximas possunt manus cogunt, 

Cf. 1 urgeretur. — 2 vix. — 8 elatus. — 4 proximi. — 6 moratur. — 
6 amittant. — 7 periisse. — 8 statim. 

B. G. V. 40.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 


et de improviso ad Ciceronis hiberna advolant, 1 nondum ad 
eum fama de Tituri morte perlata. Huic quoque accidit, 
quod fuit necesse, ut non null! milites, qui 2 lignationis 
munitionisque causa in silvas discessissent, repentino equi- 
tum adventu interciperentur. His circumventis, magna 

Fig. 74. — Roman Camp Assaulted. 

manu Eburones, Nervii, Aduatuci atque horum omnium 
socii et clientes legionem oppugnare incipiunt. Nostri 
celeriter ad arma concurrunt, vallum conscendunt. Aegre 
is dies sustentatur, quod omnem spem hostes in celeritate 
ponebant atque hanc adept! victoriam 8 in perpetuum se 10 
fore victores confidebant. 

Cicero Makes Vigorous Preparations for Resistance. 

40. Mittuntur ad Caesarem confestim ab Cicerone litte- 
rae, magnis propositis 4 praemiis si pertulissent; obsessis 

Cf. > properant. — s miteriandi. — 8 semper. — 4 c5nstitutis. 

144 The Gallic Wan [C^sar 

omnibus viis missi intercipiuntur. 1 Noctii ex materia quam 
munitionis causa comportaverant turres admodum cxx exci- 
tantur 2 incredibili celeritate ; quae deesse operi videbantur 
perficiuntur. Hostes postero die multo maioribus coactis 
5 copiis castra oppugnant, fossam complent. A nostris eadem 
ration e 8 qua pridie resistitur: hoc idem reliquls deinceps fit 
diebus. Nulla pars nocturni temporis ad laborem inter- 
mittitur; non aegris, non volneratis facultas quietis datur. 
Quaecumque ad proximi die! oppugnationem opus sunt 

to noctu comparantur ; multae praeustae sudes, magnus mura- 
lium pilorum numerus instituitur ; 4 turres contabulantur; 5 
pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus attexuntur. Ipse Cicero, cum 
tenuissima. 6 valetudine esset, ne nocturnum quidem sibi tem- 
pus ad quietem relinquebat, ut ultro militum concursu ac 

15 vocibus sibi parcere cogeretur. 

The Nervian Chiefs Try to Persuade Cicero to Retire. He Refuses. 

41. Tunc duces principesque Nerviorum, qui aliquem 
sermonis aditum causamque amicitiae cum Cicerone habe- 
bant, conloqul sese velle dicunt. Facta, potestate, 7 eadem 
quae Ambiorix cum Titurio egerat commemorant : ' Omnem 

20 esse in armis Galliam, Germanos Rhenum transisse, Caesa- 
ris reliquorumque 8 hiberna oppugning Addunt etiam de 
Sabini morte ; Ambiorigem ostentant fidei faciendae causa. 
Errare eos dicunt, si quicquam ab eis praesidi sperent qui 
suis rebus diffidant; sese tamen hoc esse in Ciceronem 

25 populumque Romanum animo ut nihil nisi hiberna reciisent, 
atque hanc inveterascere 9 consuetudinem nolint ; licere illis 
per se incolumibus 10 ex hibernis discedere 11 et quascumque 
in partis velint sine metu proficisci. Cicero ad haec iinum 
modo respondet : * Non esse consuetudinem M populi R6- 

Cf. 1 deprehenduntur. — 2 c5nstituuntur. — 8 modd. — 4 comparatur. 
— 6 excitantur. — 6 aegerrima. — 7 facultate. — 8 ceterorum. — 9 c5n- 
firmari. — 10 tutis. — u egredi. — 12 morem. 

B. G. V. 43.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 145 

mani accipere ab hoste armato condicionem ; si ab ' armis 
discedere velint, se adiutore utantur legatosque ad Caesa- 
rem mittant; sperare se pro eius iustitia quae petierint 

They Lay Siege to the Camp. 

42. Ab hac spe repulsi Nervii vallo pedum x et fossa 5 
pedum quindecim hiberna cingunt. Haec et superiorum 
annorum consuetudine a nobis cognoverant 2 et quosdam 
de exercitii nacti captivos ab his docebantur; sed nulla 
ferramentorum copia quae essent ad hunc usum idonea, 3 
gladiis caespites circumcidere, manibus sagulisque terram 10 
exhaurire 4 cogebantur. Qua quidem ex re hominum mul- 
titudo cognosci potuit ; nam minus horis tribus milium pas- 
su um xv in circuitu miinitionem 5 perf ecerunt. 6 Reliquisque 
diebus turris ad altitudinem valli, falcis testudinesque, quas 
iidem captivi docuerant, parare ac facere coeperunt. 15 

They Make a Furious Assault, Which is Gallantly Resisted. 

43. Septimo oppugnationis die maximo coorto vento fer- 
ventis fusiles ex argilla glandis fundis et fervefacta iacula 7 
in casas, quae more Gallico stramentis erant tectae, iacere 
coeperunt. Hae celeriter ignem comprehenderunt et venti 
magnitudine in omnem locum 8 castrorum distulerunt. Hos- 20 
tes maximo clamore, sic uti parta iam atque explorata vic- 
toria, turris testudinesque agere et scalis vallum adscendere 
coeperunt. At tanta militum virtus 9 atque ea praesentia 
animi fuit ut, cum undique flamma torrerentur maximaque 
telorum multitudine premerentur suaque omnia impedi- 25 
menta atque omnis fortunas conflagrare 10 intellegerent, 11 non 
modo [demigrandi causa] de vallo decederet nemo, sed 

Cf. 1 bellum relinquere. — 2 didicerant. — 8 apta. — 4 effodere et ex- 
portare. — 6 munimentum. — 6 postea. — 7 tela. — 8 partem. — * forti- 
tudo. — 10 ardere. — n sentirent. 


The Gallic War. 


paene ' ne respiceret quidem quisquam ; ac turn omnes 
acerrime fortissimeque pugnarent. Hie dies nostris longe 
gravissimus fuit ; sed tamen hunc habuit eventum ut eo die 
maximus numerus hostium volneraretur atque interficeretur, 
ut se sub ipso vallo constipaverant 2 recessumque primis 
ultimi n6n dabant. Paulum quidem intermissa flamma et 
quodam loco turri adacta et contingente vallum, tertiae 

Fig. 75. — Ballista. 

cohortis centuriones ex eo quo stabant loco recesserunt 8 
suosque omnis removerunt ; nutu vocibusque hostes si in- 
10 troire vellent vocare coeperunt, quorum progredi ausus est 
nemo. Turn ex omni parte lapidibus coniectis deturbati 4 
turrisque succensa est. 

Rivalry of Two Centurions. 

44. Erant in ea legione fortissimi viri, centuriones, qui 
iam primis ordinibus adpropinquarent, T. Pullo et L. Vore- 

Cf. 1 fere. — 2 conferserant. — 8 se receperunt. — * depulsi. 

B. G. V. 45-] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 147 

nus. Hi perpetuus inter se controversies x habebant uter 
alter! anteferretur, omnibusque annis de loco summis simul- 
tatibus contendebant. Ex his Pullo, cum acerrime ad 
munitiones pugnaretur, "Quid dubitas," inquit, "Vorene? 
aut quem locum 2 tuae probandae virtutis exspectas ? Hie 5 
dies de nostris controversiis iudicabit." Haec cum dixisset, 
procedit 3 extra munitiones, quaque pars hostium confertis- 
sima est visa inrumpit. Ne Vorenus quidem sese turn vallo 
continet, sed omnium veritus existimationem 4 subsequitur. 
Mediocri spatio relicto Pullo pilum in hostis immittit 5 atque 10 
unum ex multitudine procurrentem traicit ; 6 quo percusso 
et exanimato hunc scutis protegunt r hostes, in ilium universi 
tela coniciunt neque dant progrediendi facultatem. Trans- 
figitur scutum Pulloni et veriitum in balteo defigitur. Aver- 
tit hie casus vaginam et gladium ediicere conanti dextram 15 
moratur 8 manum, impeditumque hostes circumsistunt. Suc- 
currit inimicus illi Vorenus et laboranti 9 subvenit. Ad hunc 
se confestim a Pullone omnis multitudo convertit; [ilium 
veruto transfixum arbitrantur]. Gladio comminus 10 rem 
gerit Vorenus atque fino interfecto reliquos paulum pr5- 20 
pellit ; dum cupidius instat, in locum deiectus inferiorem con- 
cidit. Huic rursus circumvento subsidium fert Pullo, atque 
ambo incolumes compluribus interfectis summa cum laude 
sese intra munitiones recipiunt. Sic fortuna in contentione 
et certamine utrumque versa vit ut alter alteri inimicus auxi- 25 
lio salutique esset, neque diiudicari posset uter utri virtute 
anteferendus videretur. 

Efforts to Inform Caesar of the Danger. 

45. Quanto erat in dies gravior atque asperior oppugna- 
tio, et maxime quod magna parte militum confecta 11 vol- 

Cf. J dissensi5nes. — 2 occasionem. — 8 progreditur. — 4 opini5nem. 
— 6 conicit. — 6 transfigit. — 7 defendunt. — 8 impedit. — • presso. — 
10 pugnat. — n defessa, infirma ; opp. vatida. 

148 The Gallic War. [C*sar 

neribus res ad paucitatem defensorum 1 pervenerat, tanto 
crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mittebantur; 
quorum pars deprehensa in conspectu nostrorum militum 
cum cruciatu necabatur. Erat unus intus Nervius nomine 
5 Vertico, loco natus 2 honesto, qui a prima obsidione ad 
Ciceronem perfugerat 3 suamque ei fidem 4 praestiterat. Hie 
servo spe libertatis magnisque persuadet praemiis ut litteras 
ad Caesarem deferat. Has ille in iaculo inligatas effert, 
et Gallus inter Gallos sine ulla suspicione versatus ad 
10 Caesarem pervenit. Ab eo de periculis Ciceronis legionis- 
que cognoscitur. 5 

Caesar Immediately Sends Messages to his Lieutenants. 

46. Caesar acceptis litteris hora circiter xi diei statim 
nuntium in Bellovacos ad M. Crassum mittit, cuius hiberna 
aberant ab eo milia passuum xxv ; iubet media nocte 

15 legionem proficisci celeriterque ad se venire. Exit 6 cum 
nuntio Crassus. Alterum ad C. Fabium legatum mittit, ut 
in Atrebatium finis legionem adducat, qua sibi iter facien- 
dum sciebat. Scribit Labieno, si rei publicae commodo 
facere possit, cum legione ad finis Nerviorum veniat ; reli- 

20 quam partem exercitiis, quod paulo aberat longius, non 
putat exspectandam ; equites circiter cccc ex proximis 
hibernis conligit. 7 

Crassus Meets him ; Labienus Thinks it Best to Stay Where he is. 

47. Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribus 8 de Crassi 
adventu certior factus, eo die milia passuum xx progre- 

25 ditur. Crassum Samarobrivae praeficit 9 legion emque ei 
attribuit, 10 quod ibi impedimenta exercitiis, obsides civitatum, 
litteras publicas, frumentumque omne quod eo tolerandae 
hiemis causa devexerat 11 relinquebat. Fabius, ut impera- 

Cf . 1 propugnat5rum. — a ortus. — 8 confugerat. — 4 officium. — 6 re- 
peritur. — 6 abit. — 7 cogit. — 8 expl5rat5ribus. — • praeponit. — 10 tri- 
didit. — u deportaverat. 

B. G. V. 48.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 149 

turn erat, non ita multum moratus 1 in itinere cum legione 
occurrit. Labienus interitu 2 Sabini et caede 3 cohortium 
cognita, cum oranes ad eum Treverorum copiae venissent, 
veritus ne, si ex hlbernis fugae similem profectionem fecisset, 
hostium impetum sustinere non posset, praesertim quos 5 
recentl victoria efferri sciret, litteras Caesari remittit quanto 
cum periculo legionem ex hibernis educturus esset ; rem 
gestam in Eburonibus perscribit ; docet omnis equitatus 
peditatusque copias Treverorum in milia passuum longe ab 
suis castris consedisse. 4 10 

How a Letter is Conveyed to Cicero. 

48. Caesar consili5 eius probato, etsi opinione trium 
legionum deiectus 5 ad duas reciderat, tamen unum communi 
saluti auxilium in celeritate ponebat. Venit magnis itine- 
ribus in Nerviorum finis. Ibi ex captivis cognoscit 6 quae 
apud Ciceronem gerantur quantoque in periculo res sit. 15 
Turn cuidam ex equitibus Gallis magnis praemils persuadet 
uti ad Ciceronem epistulam 7 deferat. Hanc Graecis con- 
scriptam litteris mittit, ne intercepta epistula nostra ab 
hostibus consilia cognoscantur. Si adire non possit, monet 
ut tragulam cum epistula ad amentum deligata 8 intra 20 
munitiones castrorum abiciat. In litteris scribit se cum 
legionibus profectum celeriter adfore ; hortatur ut pristinam 
virtutem retineat. 9 Gallus periculum veritus, ut erat prae- 
ceptum, 10 tragulam mittit. Haec casu ad turrim adhaesit, 
neque ab nostris biduo animadversa, 11 tertio die a quodam 25 
milite conspicitur ; dempta ad Ciceronem defertur. Ille per- 
lectam in conventii militum recitat maximaque omnis laetitia 
adficit. Turn fumi incendiorum 12 procul 13 videbantur, quae 
res omnem dubitationem adventus legionum expulit. 14 

Cf. * cunctatua. — a morte. — 8 internecidne. — 4 castra posuisse. — 
6 lapsus. — • compcrit. — 7 litteras. — 8 inligata. — • servet. — " im- 
peratum. — u visa. — u ignium. — 18 opp. prope. — w sustulit. 

150 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

The Gauls Abandon the Siege and March against Caesar, Who Avoids a 


49. Galli re cognita per exploratores obsidionem relin- 
quunt ; x ad Caesarem omnibus copiis contendunt ; haec 
erant armata circiter milia lx. Cicero data facultate Galium 
ab eodem Verticone quem supra demonstravimus repetit qui 

5 litteras ad Caesarem deferat; 2 hunc admonet iter caute 
diligenterque faciat ; perscribit in litteris hostis ab se dis- 
cessisse omnemque ad eum multitudinem convertisse. 
Quibus litteris circiter media nocte Caesar adlatis suos facit 
certiores eosque ad dimicandum animo confirmat. 3 Postero 

io die luce prima movet castra, et circiter milia passuum nn 
progressus trans vallem et rivum multitudinem hostium con- 
spicatur. Erat magni periculi res tantulis 4 copiis iniquo 6 
loco dimicare; turn, quoniam obsidione liberatum Cicero- 
nem sciebat, aequo animo remittendum de celeritate exis- 

15 timabat. Considit et quam aequissimo potest loco castra 
communit. Atque haec, etsi erant exigua 6 per se, vix homi- 
num milium vn, praesertim nullis cum impedimentis, tamen 
angustiis viarum quam maxime potest contrahit, eo consilio 
ut in summam contemptionem hostibus veniat. Interim 

20 speculatoribus 7 in omnis partis dimissis explorat 8 quo com- 
modissime itinere vallem transire possit. 

Caesar, Feigning Pear, Draws the Enemy on to his Own Ground. 

50. E6 die parvulis equestribus proeliis ad aquam factis 
utrique sese suo loco continent : Galli, quod ampliores 9 
copias quae nondum convenerant exspectabant ; Caesar, si 

25 forte timoris simulatione hostis in suum locum elicere posset, 
ut citra vallem pro castris proelio contenderet ; si id 
efficere non posset, ut exploratis itineribus minore cum 


& alieno 

— — _ — r __ 7 — r ~ 

1 desistunt, w. abl. — 2 referat. — 8 excitat. — 4 tarn exiguis. — 
16. — 6 parva. — 7 expl6rat5ribus. — 8 cognSscit. — ■ maiores. 

B. G. V. 52.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 1 5 1 

perlculo vallem rivumque transiret. 1 Prima luce hostium 
equitatus ad castra accedit 2 proeliumque cum nostris 
equitibus committit. Caesar consulto equites cedere 8 
seque in castra recipere iubet ; simul ex omnibus partibus 
castra altiore vallo muniri portasque obstrui atque in his 5 
administrandls 4 rebus quam maxime concursarl et cum 
simulatione agi timoris iubet. 

In the Attack which Follows the Enemy are Routed. 

51. Quibus omnibus rebus hostes invitati 6 copias tra- 
ducunt aciemque inlquo loco constituunt ; nostris vero etiarri 
de vallo deductis propius accedunt et tela intra munltionem 10 
ex omnibus partibus coniciunt praeconibusque circummissis 
pronuntiari iubent, seu quis Gallus seu Romanus velit ante 
horam tertiam ad se transire, sine perlculo licere ; post id 
tempus non fore potestatem. Ac sic nostros contempserunt 

ut obstructis in speciem portls singulis ordinibus caespitum, 15 
quod ea non posse introrumpere videbantur, alii vallum 
manu scindere, alii fossas complere inciperent. Turn Caesar 
omnibus portls eruptione facta equitatuque emisso celeriter 
hostis in fugam dat, sic uti omnino pugnandi causa resisteret 
nemo ; magnumque ex els numerum occidit atque omnis 20 
armls exuit. 

Caesar Reaches the Camp of Cicero and Congratulates him and his Men 
on their Gallant Defense. 

52. Longius prosequi veritus, quod silvae paludesque 
intercedebant [neque etiam parvulo detrimento illorum 
locum relinqui videbat], omnibus suis incolumibus eodem 
die ad Ciceronem pervenit. Institutes 6 turris, testudines 25 
munitionesque hostium admlratur ; producta legione co- 
gnoscit non decimum quemque esse reliquum militem sine 

Cf. 1 transgrederetur. — 2 adgreditur. — 8 pedem referre. — 4 ge- 
rendls. — 6 adlecti. — 6 exstructas. 

152 The Gallic War. [Cssab 

volnere. Ex his omnibus iudicat 1 rebus quanto cum 
periculo et quanta virtute res sint administratae. 2 Cicero- 
nem pro eius merito legionemque conlaudat ; centuriones 
singillatim tribunosque militum appellat, quorum egregiam 3 

5 fuisse virtutem testimonio Ciceronis cognoverat. De casu 
Sabini et Cottae certius ex captivis cognoscit. 4 Postero die 
contione habita rem gestam proponit, milites consolatur et 
conflrmat ; quod detrimentum 5 culpa et temeritate legati sit 
acceptum, hoc aequiore animo ferendum docet, quod, 

10 beneficio deorum immortalium et virtute eorum expiato* 
incommodo, neque hostibus diutina 7 laetitia neque ipsis 
longior dolor relinquatur. 

Indutiomarus Defers his Intended Attack on Labienus. All Signs Point to 

a General Uprising of the Gauls, so that Caesar Decides to Spend 

the Winter with his Army. 

53. Interim ad Labienum per Remos incredibili celeritate 

de victoria Caesaris fama perfertur, ut, cum ab hibernis 

15 Ciceronis milia passuum abesset circiter sexaginta, eoque 

post horam nonam diel Caesar pervenisset, ante mediam 

Fig. 76. — Gallic Coin. 

noctem ad portas castrorum clamor oriretur, quo clamore 
significatio victoriae gratulatioque ab Remis Labieno fieret. 
Hac fama ad Treveros perlata Indutiomarus, qui postero 
20 die castra Labieni oppugnare decreverat, 8 noctu profugit 
copiasque omnis in Treveros reducit. Caesar Fabium cum 

Cf. * existimat. — a gestae. — 8 Insignem. — * reperit. — 6 dam- 
num. — 6 sanato. — 7 diuturna. — 8 instituerat. 

B. G. V. 54.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 153 

sua legione remittit in hiberna, ipse cum in legionibus cir- 
cum Samarobrivam trims hibernis hiemare c5nstituit ; * et, 
quod tanti motus 2 Galliae exstiterant, totam hiemem ipse 
ad exercitum manere decrevit. Nam illo incommodo 8 de 
Sabini morte perlato omnes fere Galliae civitates de belld 5 
consultabant ; 4 nuntios legationesque in omnis partis 
dimittebant ; et quid reliqui consili caperent atque unde 
initium belli fieret explorabant, nocturnaque 5 in locis 
desertis 6 concilia habebant. Neque ullum fere totius hiemis 
tempus sine sollicitudine 7 Caesaris intercessit quin aliquem 10 
de consiliis ac motu Gallorum nuntium acciperet. In his 
ab L. Roscio, quem legioni xni praefecerat, certior factus 
est magnas [Gallorum] copias earum civitatum quae 
Aremoricae appellantur oppugnandi sui causa convenisse 
neque longius milibus passuum vin ab hibernis suis afuisse, 15 
sed nuntio adlato de victoria Caesaris, discessisse adeo ut 
fugae similis discessus 8 videretur. 

The Senones and Other Tribes are Ready to Revolt. 

54. At Caesar, principibus cuiusque civitatis ad se evo- 
catis, alias territando, cum se scire quae fierent 9 deniintia- 
ret, 10 alias cohortando, 11 magnam partem Galliae in officio 20 
tenuit. Tamen Senones, quae est civitas 12 in primis f irma 
et magnae inter Gallos auctoritatis, Cavarinum, quem Cae- 
sar apud eos regem constituent (cuius frater Moritasgus 
adventu in Galliam Caesaris, cuiusque maiores regnum obti- 
nuerant), interficere publico consilio conati, cum ille prae- 25 
sensisset ac profugisset, usque ad finis inseciiti regno domo- 
que expulerunt; 13 et missis ad Caesarem satisfaciendi causa 
legatis, cum is omnem ad se senatum venire iussisset, H dicto 
audientes non fuerunt. Ac tantum apud homines barbaros 

Cf. ' decrevit. — 2 tumultus. — 8 detrimento. — 4 deliberabant. — 
8 noctu. — 6 secretis. — 7 cura. — 8 profectio. — 9 gererentur. — 10 mone- 

f. x decrevit. — 2 tumultus. — 8 detrimento. — * deliberate 
noctu. — 6 secretis. — 7 ciira. — 8 profectio. — 9 gererentur. — 10 mone- 
ret. — u conf irmando . — 12 mazime. — 18 eiecerunt. — 14 n5n paruerunt. 

154 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

valuit esse aliqu5s repertos principes belli Inferendl, tan- 
tamque omnibus voluntatum commutationem attulit 1 ut — 
praeter Haeduos et Remos, quos praecipuo semper honore 
Caesar habuit, alteros pro vetere ac perpetua erga populum 
5 Romanum fide, alteros pro recentibus Gallic! belli officiis 2 
— nulla fere civitas f uerit non suspecta nobis. Idque adeo 
haud scio mirandumne sit, cum compluribus aliis de causis, 
turn maxime quod qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus prae- 
ferebantur, 3 tantum se eius opinionis 4 deperdidisse 5 ut 
io populi Romani imperia perferrent, gravissime dolebant. 

Activity of Indutiomarus. 

55. Treveri vero atque Indutiomarus totius hiemis nul- 
lum tempus intermiserunt quin trans Rhenum legatos mit- 
terent, civitatis sollicitarent, pecunias pollicerentur, magna 
parte exercitus nostri interfecta multo minorem superesse 

'5 dicerent partem. Neque tamen ulli civitati Germanorum 
persuaderi potuit ut Rhenum transiret, cum se bis expertos 
dicerent, Ariovisti bello et Tencterorum transitu ; non esse 
amplius fortunam temptaturos. Hac spe lapsus 6 Indutio- 
marus nihilo minus copias cogere, 7 exercere, a finitimis 

20 equos parare, 8 exsules damnatosque tota Gallia magnis 
praemiis ad se adlicere coepit. Ac tantam sibi iam his 
rebus in Gallia auctoritatem comparaverat 9 ut undique ad 
eum legationes concurrerent, gratiam atque amicitiam pu- 
blice privatimque peterent. 

Many Tribes Join him, and he Decides to Attack Labienus. 

25 56. Ubi intellexit ultro ad se veniri, altera ex parte 
Senones Carnutesque conscientiafacinoris 10 instigari, 11 altera 
Nervios Aduatucosque bellum Romanis parare, neque sibi 
voluntariorum copias defore si ex finibus suis progredi coe- 

Cf. J effecit. — 2 opera. — 8 proponebantur. — 4 famae. — 6 amisisse. 
— • deiectus. — 7 conferre. — 8 comparare. — 9 conlegerat. — 10 sceleria 
— "impeUL 

B. G. V. 58.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 155 

pisset, armatum concilium indicit. Hoc more Gallorum est 
initium belli, quo lege communi omnes puberes 1 armati con- 
venire coguntur ; qui ex eis novissimus 2 venit in conspectu 
multitudinis omnibus cruciatibus adfectus necatur. In eo 
concilio Cingetorigem, alterius principem factionis, generum 5 
suum, 8 quern supra demon stravimus Caesaris secutum fidem 
ab eo non discessisse, hostem iudicat bonaque eius publicat. 
His rebus confectis in concilio pronuntiat arcessitum 4 se a 
Senonibus et Carnutibus aliisque compluribus Galliae civi- 
tatibus; hue iturum per finis Remorum eorumque agros 10 
populaturum ; 5 ac prius quam id faciat, castra Labieni 
oppugnaturum : quae fieri velit praecipit. 6 

Labienus Acts Cautiously. 

57. Labienus, cum et loci natura et manii munitissimis 
castris sese teneret, de suo ac legionis periculo nihil time- 
bat; ne quam occasionem rei bene gerendae dimitteret 7 15 
cogitabat. Itaque a Cingetorige atque eius propinquis 8 
oratione Indutiomari cognita quam in concilio habuerat, 
nuntios mittit ad finitimas 9 civitatis equitesque undique 
evocat; 10 his certam diem conveniendi dicit. Interim prope 
cotidie cum omni equitatu Indutiomarus sub castris eius 20 
vagabatur, alias ut situm u castrorum cognosceret, 12 alias 
conloquendi aut territandi causa : equites plerumque 18 om- 
nes tela intra vallum coniciebant. Labienus suos intra 
munitionem 14 continebat timorisque opinionem quibuscumque 
poterat rebus augebat. 25 

Indutiomarus is Defeated by a Sudden Sally, and Slain. 

58. Cum maiore in dies contemptione Indutiomarus ad 
castra accederet, 16 nocte una intromissis equitibus omnium 

Cf . * iuvenes. — 2 postremus. — 8 eius. — * vocatum. — fi vastaturum. 
— 6 imperat. — 7 praetermitteret. — 8 necessariis. — 9 proximas. — 
10 arcessit. — n locum. — la expl5raret. — 18 fere. — 14 castra. — 16 ad- 

156 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

finitimarum civitatum quos arcessendos 1 curaverat, tanta 
diligentia omnis suos custodiis intra castra continuit ut 
nulla ratione 2 ea res enuntiari aut ad Treveros perferri 
posset. Interim ex consuetudine cotldiana Indutiomarus 
5 ad castra accedit 3 atque ibi magnam partem die! consumit; 
equites tela coniciunt et magna cum contumelia 4 verborum 
nostros ad pugnam evocant. Niillo ab nostris dato responso, 
ubi visum est sub vesperum dispersi ac dissipati discedunt. 
Subito Labienus duabus portis omnem equitatum 5 emittit ; 

10 praecipit atque interdicit, 6 proterritis hostibus atque in 
fugam coniectis 7 (quod fore, sicut accidit, videbat), unura 
omnes petant 8 Indutiomarum ; neu quis quern prius volne- 
ret quam ilium interfectum viderit, quod mora reliquorum 9 
spatium nactum ilium effugere nolebat ; magna proponit els 

1 s qui occiderint praemia ; submittit cohortis equitibus subsi- 
dio. Comprobat hominis consilium fortuna ; et cum unum 
omnes peterent, in ipso fluminis vado deprehensus Indutio- 
marus interficitur caputque eius refertur in castra; rede- 
untis equites quos possunt consectantur atque occidunt. 

20 Hac re cognita omnes Eburonum et Nerviorum quae con- 
venerant copiae discedunt ; pauloque habuit post id factum 
Caesar quietiorem Galliam. 

Cf. 1 evocandSs. — 2 modo. — 8 opp. discedit. — 4 convicio. - 
tes. — 6 prohibet. — 7 datis. — 8 adgrediantur. — 9 ceterorum. 

. — 6 equi- 

Fig. 77 — Gallic Torques. 

Fig. 78. — Gaius Iulius Caesar. 

Second Expedition into Germany, b.c. 53. 

Caesar Increases his Forces in Order to Cope with the Rebellious Gauls. 

ULTlS de causis Caesar maior em Galliae motum l ex- 


spectans, per M. Silanum, C. Antistium Reginum, 
T. Sextium legatos delectum habere instituit ; 2 simul ab Cn. 
Pompeio proconsule petit, quoniam ipse ad urbem cum im- 
perio rei publicae causa remaneret, quos ex Cisalpina Gallia 
consul sacramento 3 rogavisset ad signa convenire et ad se 
proficlsci iuberet ; magni interesse etiam in reliquum tempus 
ad opinionem Galliae existimans tantas videri Ttaliae facul- 

Cf. 1 tumultum. — 2 decrevit. — 8 iure iurando. 

158 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

tatis l ut, si quid esset in bello detrimentl a acceptum, non 
modo id brevi tempore sarciri, 8 sed etiam maioribus auger! 4 
copiis posset. Quod cum Pompeius et rei publicae et ami- 
citiae tribuisset, celeriter confecto per suos delectu, tribus 
5 ante exactam hiemem et constitutis et adductis legionibus, 
duplicatoque earum cohortium numero quas cum Q. Titurio 
amiserat, et celeritate et copiis docuit 5 quid populi Romani 
disciplina atque opes possent. 

2. Interfecto Indutiomaro, ut docuimus, ad eius propin- 
10 quos a Treveris imperium 6 defertur. 111! f Initimos Germanos 

sollicitare et pecuniam polliceri non desistunt. Cum a 
proximis impetrare non possent, ulteriores temptant. 7 In- 
ventis *non nullis civitatibus iure iurando inter se conflrmant 
obsidibusque de pecunia cavent ; Ambiorigem sibi societate 

15 et foedere adiungunt. Quibus rebus cognitis Caesar, cum 
undique bellum parari videret, Nervios, Aduatucos, Mena- 
pios, adiunctis Cisrhenanis omnibus Germanis, esse in armis, 
Senones ad imperatum non venire et cum Carnutibus finiti- 
misque civitatibus consilia communicare, a Treveris Ger- 

20 manos crebrls legationibus sollicitari, matiirius sibi de bello 
cogitandum putavit. 

He Again Ravages the Nervian Territory and Marches against the Senones. 

3. Itaque nondum hieme confecta, 9 proximis mi coactis 
legionibus 10 de improvlso in finis Nerviorum contendit, 11 et 
prius quam ill! aut convenire aut profugere possent, magno 

25 pecoris atque hominum numero capto atque ea praeda mili- 
tibus concessa 12 vastatlsque agrls, in deditionem venire atque 
obsides sibi dare coegit. Eo celeriter confecto negotio 
rursus 13 in hiberna legiones reduxit. Concilio Galliae primo 
vere, ut Instituerat, indicto, cum reliqul praeter Senones, 

Cf. 2 op€s. — 2 calamitatis. — 8 expleri. — 4 amplificari. — 5 demon- 
stravit. — 6 principatus. — 7 sollicitant. — 8 aliquot. — • exacta. — 
10 repente. — u properavit. — 12 data. — 18 iterum. 

B. G. VI. 5.] Second Expedition into Germany. 1 59 

Carnutes, Treverosque venissent, 1 initium belli ac defec- 
tionis 2 hoc esse arbitratus, ut omnia postponere videretur, 
concilium Lutetiam Parisiorum transfert. Confines 8 erant 
hi Senonibus civitatemque patrum memoria coniunxerant ; 
sed ab hoc consilio afuisse existimabantur. Hac re pro 5 
suggestu pronuntiata eodem die cum legionibus in Senones 
proficiscitur magnisque itineribus eo pervenit. 

The Senones and Carnutes Submit. 

4. Cognito eius adVentu Acco, qui princeps eius consili 
fuerat, iubet in oppida multitudinem convenire ; conantibus, 
prius quam id effici posset, adesse Romanos nuntiatur. 10 
Necessario sententia 4 desistunt legatosque deprecandi 
causa ad Caesarem mittunt ; adeunt per Haeduos, quorum 
antiquitus erat in fide civitas. Libenter Caesar petentibus 
Haeduis dat veniam excusationemque s accipit, quod 6 aesti- 
vum tempus instantis belli, non quaestionis esse arbitrabatur ; 15 
obsidibus imperatis c, hos Haeduis custodiendos tradit. 
Eodem Carnutes legatos obsidesque mittunt, usi depreca- 
toribus Remis, quorum erant in clientela ; eadem ferunt 
responsa. Peragit concilium Caesar equitesque imperat 
civitatibus. 20 

Next he Goes against the Menapii ; he Forbids them to Harbor Ambiorix. 

5. Hac parte Galliae pacata totus et mente et animo in 
bellum Treverorum et Ambiorigis insistit. 7 Cavarinum cum 
equitatu Senonum secum proficisci iubet, ne quis aut ex 
huius iracundia, 8 aut ex eo quod meruerat odio, civitatis 
motus exsistat. His rebus constitiitis, quod pro explorato 9 25 
habebat Ambiorigem proelio non esse contenturum, 10 reliqua 
eius consilia animo circumspiciebat. Erant Menapii propin- 

Cf. 1 convenissent. — 2 motus. — 8 proximi. — * consili5. — 6 satis- 
f actionem. — 6 aestatem. — 7 incubuit. — * acerbitate. — • certo. — 
10 concertaturum. 

160 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

qui * Eburonum f inibus, perpetuis 2 paludibus silvisque 
munltl, qui uni ex Gallia de pace ad Caesarem legatos num- 
quam miserant. Cum his esse hospitium Ambiorlgl sciebat ; 
item per Treveros venisse Germanls in amicitiam cogno- 
5 verat. Haec prius ill! detrahenda 3 auxilia existimabat quam 
ipsum bello lacesseret, ne desperata salute aut se in Mena- 
pios abderet aut cum Transrhenanis congredi cogeretur. 
Hoc inito consilio totlus exercitus impedimenta ad Labienum 
in Treveros mittit duasque ad eum legiones proficisci iubet ; 
10 ipse cum legionibus expeditis qulnque in Menapios proflci- 
scitur. 111! nulla coacta manu, 4 loci praesidio freti, 5 in silvas 
paludesque confugiunt suaque eodem conferunt. 

6. Caesar, partitis 6 copiis cum C. Fabio legato et M. 
Crasso quaestore celeriterque effectis 7 pontibus, adit tripar- 

15 tito, aedificia vicosque incendit, magno pecoris atque homi- 
num numero potitur. Quibus rebus coacti 8 Menapii legatos 
ad eum pads petendae causa mittunt. Ille obsidibus 
acceptis hostium se habiturum numero confirmat, si aut 
Ambiorigem aut eius legatos finibus suis recepissent. His 

to conflrmatls 9 rebus Commium Atrebatem cum equitatu cus- 
todis loco in Menapiis relinquit ; ipse in Treveros profi- 

Labienus among the Treveri. 

7. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treveri magnis coactis 
peditatus 10 equitatusque n copiis Labienum cum una legione 

25 quae in eorum finibus hiemabat adorlri 12 parabant; iamque 
ab eo non longius bidui via 13 aberant, cum duas venisse 
legiones 14 missu Caesaris cognoscunt. Positis castrls a mlli- 
bus passuum xv auxilia Germanorum exspectare con- 
stituunt. Labienus, hostium cognito consilio, sperans 

30 temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimicandi facultatem, prae- 

Cf. l confines. — 2 continuis. — 8 adimenda. — 4 vi. — 5 confisi. — 
• divisis. — 7 institiitis. — 8 permoti. — 9 c5nstitutis. — 10 peditum. — 
n cquitum. — 12 adgredi. — 18 itinere. — 14 a Caesare missas. 

Fig. 79. — Ancient Statub of Gallic Chief. 

B.G. VI. 8.] Second Expedition into Germany. 161 

sidio v cohortium impedimentis relicto, cum xxv cohortibus 
magnoque equitatu contra hostem proficiscitur, et mille 
passuum intermisso spatio castra communit. Erat inter 
Labienum atque hostem difficili transitu flumen ripisque 
praeruptis. 1 Hoc neque ipse transire habebat in animo 5 
neque hostis transituros exlstimabat. Augebatur auxiliorum 
cotidie spes. 2 Loquitur in concilio palam : ' Quoniam Ger- 
mani adpropinquare dicantur, sese suas exercitusque for- 
tunes 3 in dubium non devocaturum, et postero die prima 
luce castra m6turum. , Celeriter haec ad hostis deferuntur, 10 
ut ex magno Gallorum equitum numero non nullos Gallicis 
rebus favere natura cogebat. Labienus nocte, tribunis mili- 
tum primisque ordinibus convocatis, quid sui sit consili pro- 
ponit, 4 et quo facilius hostibus timoris det suspicionem, 
maiore strepitii et tumultu quam populi Roman! fert consue- 15 
tudo castra mover!* iubet. His rebus fugae similem profec- 
tionem efficit. Haec quoque per exploratores ante liicem in 
tanta propinquitate castrorum ad hostis deferuntur. 

After Much Manoeuvring he Brings on an Engagement and Utterly 
Defeats them. 

8. Vix agmen novissimum extra munitiones processerat, 
cum Galli — cohortatl inter se ne speratam praedam ex 20 
manibus demitterent ; 6 longum esse perterritis Romanis 
Germanorum auxilium exspectare ; neque suam patl 7 digni- 
tatem ut tantis copils tam exiguam 8 manum praesertim 
fugientem atque impedltam adoriri non audeant — flumen 
transire et iniquo 9 loco committere proelium non dubitant. 25 
Quae fore suspicatus Labienus, ut omnls citra flumen eliceret, 
eadem usus simulatione itineris placide progrediebatur. 10 
Turn praemissis paulum impedimentis atque in tumulo 11 

Cf. ' opp. leniter acclivibus. — a opp. desperati5. — 8 in periculum 
n5n deducturum. — 4 docet. — 6 opp. poni. — ■ amitterent. — 7 permit- 
tere. — 8 opp. magnam. — • alieno. — 10 procedebat. — u colle. 

1 62 The Gallic War. [Cbsa* 

quodam conlocatis, u Habetis," inquit, " milites, quam 
petistis facultatem ; hostem impedito atque iniquo l loco 
tenetis ; praestate 2 eandem nobis ducibus virtutem quam 
saepenumero imperatori praestitistis ; atque ilium adesse et 
5 haec coram cernere existimate." Simul signa ad hostem 
convertl aciemque derigi 3 iubet ; et paucis turmis praesidio 
ad impedimenta dimissls reliquos equites ad latera disponit. 
Celeriter nostrl clamore sublato pila in hostis immittunt.* 
IllI, ubi praeter spem quos fugere credebant infestis signis 

10 ad se ire viderunt, impetum nostrorum ferre 5 non potuerunt, 
ac primo concursu in fugam coniecti proximas silvas petie- 
runt. Quos Labienus equitatu consectatus, 6 magno numero 
interfecto, compluribus captis, paucis post diebus civitatem 
recepit. Nam Germani qui auxilio veniebant percepta Tre- 

15 verorum fuga sese domum contulerunt. 7 Cum his propin- 
qui Indutiomari, qui defectionis auctores fuerant, 8 comitati 
eos ex civitate excesserunt. Cingetorigi, quem ab initio 
permansisse in officio demon stravimus, principatus atque 
imperium est traditum. 

Caesar Again Crosses the Rhine. 

20 9. Caesar postquam ex Menapiis in Treveros venit, dua- 
bus de causis Rhenum transire constituit : quarum una erat 
quod Germani auxilia contra se Treveris miserant; altera, 
ne ad eos Ambiorix receptum 9 haberet. His constitutis 
rebus paulo supra eum locum quo ante exercitum traduxe- 

25 rat facere pontem instituit. Nota atque institute ratione, 
magno militum studio, paucis diebus opus efficitur. Firmo 
in Treveris ad pontem praesidio relicto, ne quis ab his subito 
motus 10 oriretur, 11 reliquas copias equitatumque traducit. 
Ubii, qui ante obsides dederant atque in deditionem vene- 

Cf. J opp. idone5. — 2 praebete. — 8 instrui. — 4 coniciunt. — 6 sus- 
tinere. — 6 insecutus. — 7 retulerunt. — 8 cum els. — 9 recessum. — 
10 seditio. — u cooreretur. 

B. G. VI. io.] Second Expedition into Germany. 163 

rant, purgandi 1 sui causa ad eum legatos mittunt qui doceant 
neque auxilia ex sua civitate in Treveros missa neque ab se 
fidem laesam : 2 petunt atque orant ut sibi parcat, ne com- 
muni odio Germanorum innocentes pro nocentibus poenas 
pendant ; 8 si amplius obsidum velit dari, pollicentur. Cog- 5 
nita Caesar causa reperit ab Suevis auxilia missa esse; 
Ubiorum satisfactionem 4 accipit ; aditiis viasque in Suevos 
perquirit. 5 

He Learns from the Ubii that the Suevi have Retreated to the 
Forest Bacenis. 

10. Interim paucis post diebus fit ab Ubiis certior Suevos 
omnis in unura locum copias cogere, atque eis nationibus 10 
quae sub eorum sint imperio denuntiare ut auxilia peditatus 
equitatusque mittant. His coghitis rebus rem frumentariam 
providet, castris idoneum 6 locum deligit, Ubiis imperat ut 
pecora deducant suaque omnia ex agris in oppida conferant, 
— sperans barbaros atque imperitos homines inopia cibario- 15 
rum r adductos ad iniquam pugnandi condicionem posse 
deduci ; mandat ut crebros 8 exploratores in Suevos mittant 
quaeque apud eos gerantur cognoscant. 9 Illi imperata faci- 
unt et paucis diebus intermissis referunt : 10 * Suevos omnis, 
posteaquam certiores nuntii de exercitii Romanorum vene- 20 
rint, cum omnibus suis sociorumque copiis quas coegissent, 
penitus ad extremos u finis se recepisse ; 12 silvam esse ibi 
infinita magnitudine, quae appellatur Bacenis; hanc longe 
introrsus 13 pertinere, et pro nativo muro obiectam Cheruscos 
ab Suevorum Suevosque ab Cheruscorum iniuriis incursioni- 25 
busque prohibere ; ad eius silvae initium Suevos adventum I4 
Romanorum exspectare constituisse.' 

Cf. I excusandi. — 2 viola tam. — 8 persolvant. — 4 excu3ationem. — 
6 explorat. — 6 opp. iniquum. — 7 rerum frumentariarum. — 8 frequen- 
tes. — • perquirant. — 10 defemnt. — u ultimos. — u contulisse. — 
u penitus. — 1 * opp. profecti5nem. 

1 64 The Gallic War. [CiESAR 

Customs of the Gauls. The Two Parties among them. 

11. Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum 
esse videtur de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et quo diffe- 
rant hae nationes inter sese proponere. 

In Gallia non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque in 
5 omnibus pagis partibusque, sed paene etiam in singulis 
domibus factiones sunt; earumque factionum principes sunt 
qui summam auctoritatem x eorum iudicio 2 habere existi- 
mantur, quorum ad arbitrium iudiciumque summa omnium 
rerum consiliorumque redeat. 3 Idque eius rei causa anti- 
io quitus institutum videtur, ne quis ex plebe contra potentio- 
rem auxili egeret; 4 suos enim quisque opprimi et circumveniri 
non patitur, neque, aliter si faciat, ullam inter suos habeat 
auctoritatem. Haec eadem ratio est in summa totius 
Galliae ; namque omnes civitates divisae sunt in duas partis. 5 

Influence of the Romans upon the Relations of the Parties in Gaul. 
They Favor the Haedui. 

15 12. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, alterius factionis prin- 
cipes erant Haedui, alterius Sequani. Hi, cum per se 
minus 6 valerent (quod summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in 
Haeduis magnaeque eorum erant clientelae), Germanos 
atque Ariovistum sibi adiiinxerant 7 eosque ad se magnis 

^o iacturis 8 pollicitationibusque perduxerant. Proeliis vero 
compluribus factis secundis atque omni nobilitate Haeduo- 
rum interf ecta, tantum potentia 9 antecesserant 10 ut magnam 
partem clientium ab Haeduis ad se tradiicerent obsidesque 
ab his principum filios acciperent, et publice iurare cogerent 

25 nihil se contra Sequanos consili inituros,et partem finitimi 
agri per vim occupatam possiderent, Galliaeque totius prin- 
cipatum obtinerent. Qua necessitate adductus Diviciacus 

Cf. * imperium. — 2 sententia. — s revertatur. — 4 careret, w. abl. — 
6 factiones. — 6 non. — 7 adsciverant. — 8 praemiis. — 9 potestate. — 
M praestiterant. 

B.G. VI. i3] Second Expedition into Germany. 165 

auxili petendi causa Romam ad senatum profectus infecta 
re redierat. Adventu Caesaris facta commutatione rerum, 
obsidibus Haeduis redditis, veteribus 1 clientelis restitutis, 
novis per Caesarem comparatis, quod el qui se ad eorum 
amicitiam adgregaverant 2 meliore condicione atque aequiore 5 
imperio se uti videbant, reliquls rebus eorum gratia dignita- 
teque amplificata, 3 Sequani principatum dimiserant. In 
eorum locum Rem! successerant ; quos quod adaequare 
apud Caesarem gratia intellegebatur, el qui propter veteres 
inimicitias 4 nullo modo cum Haeduis coniungi poterant se 10 
Remis in clientelam dicabant. Hos illi diligenter tueban- 
tur ; 6 ita et novam et repente conlectam auctoritatem tene- 
bant. Eo tamen statu 6 res erat ut longe principes haberentur 
Haedui, secundum locum dignitatis Rem! obtinerent. 

Two Classes of Gallic Nobility, Druids and Knights. The Druids and 
their Power. 

13. In omni Gallia eorum hominum qui aliquo sunt nu- 15 
mero 7 atque honore genera sunt duo. Nam plebes paene 
servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, null! adhibe- 
tur 8 consilio. Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magnitu- 
dine tributorum 9 aut iniuria potentiorum premuntur, sese in 
servitutem dicant 10 nobilibus; quibus in hos eadem omnia 20 
sunt iura quae dominis in servos. Sed de his duobus gene- 
ribus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. 111! rebus 
dlvlnis intersunt, sacrincia publica ac privata procurant, 
religiones interpretantur. Ad eos magnus adulescentium 
numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, 11 magnoque hi sunt 25 
apud eos honore. Nam fere de omnibus controversils pu- 
blicis privatisque constituunt ; 12 et, si quod est admissum 13 
facinus, si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de finibus contro- 

Cf. 1 antiquis. — a concurrerant. — 8 aucta. — * opp. amicitias. — 
f defendebant. — 6 condicione. — 7 dignitate. — 8 invitatur. — 9 sti- 
pendi5rum. — * dedunt. — u se adgregat. — u decernunt. — 18 com- 

1 66 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

versia est, idem decernunt ; praemia poenasque constituunt ; 
si qui aut privatus aut populus eorum decreto non stetit, 1 
sacrificiis interdicunt. 2 Haec poena apud eos est gravis- 
sima. Quibus ita est interdictum, hi numero impiorum ac 
5 sceleratorum habentur, his omnes decedunt, aditum eorum 
sermonemque defugiunt, 8 ne quid ex contagione incommodi 
accipiant, neque eis petentibus ius redditur neque honos 

Fig. 8i. — Gallic Coir 

ullus communicator. 4 His autem omnibus druidibus praeest 
unus, qui summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc 

io mortuo, aut si qui ex reliquis excellit 6 dignitate, succedit, 
aut, si sunt plures pares, suffragio druidum, 6 non numquam 
etiam armis de principatu contendunt. Hi certo anni tem- 
pore in finibus Carnutum, quae regio totius Galliae media 
habetur, considunt in loco consecrato ; hue omnes undique 

15 qui controversies habent conveniunt eorumque decretis 
iudiciisque parent. Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque 
inde in Galliam translata 7 existimatur ; et nunc qui diligen- 
tius earn rem cognoscere volunt plerumque illo discendi 
causa proficiscuntur. 

Their Privileges and Immunities. Their Education and Beliefs. 

20 14. Druides a bello abesse 8 consuerunt neque tribiita una 
cum reliquis pendunt; [militiae vacationem omniumque 
rerum habent immunitatem], Tantis excitati 9 praemiis et 

Cf. » p&rait. — 9 prohibent. — 8 vltant. — 4 tribuitur. — * praestat 
— • interdum. — 7 traducta. ~ 8 opp. adesse. — • incitatJ. 

B.G. VI. 16.] Second Expedition into Germany. 167 

sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus 
propinquisque mittuntur. Magnum ibi numerum versuum 
ediscere dicuntur. Itaque annos non null! vicenos in disci- 
pline permanent. Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris 
mandare, 1 cum in reliquis 2 fere rebus, publicis privatisque 5 
rationibus, Graecis litteris utantur. Id mihi duabus de 
causis instituisse videntur ; quod neque in volgus disciplinam 
efferri 8 velint neque eos qui discunt litteris conf isos minus 
memoriae studere, — quod fere plerisque accidit 4 ut praesi- 
dio litterarum diligentiam in perdiscendo ac memoriam 10 
remittant. In primis hoc volunt persuadere, non interire 5 
animas, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios; atque 
hoc maxime ad virtutem excitarl putant metu mortis ne- 
glecto. 6 Multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de 
mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum 1 5 
immortalium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt. 

The Knights are the Fighting Men. 

15. Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est iisus atque 
aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris adventum 7 
quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias 8 inferrent 
aut inlatas propulsarent 9 ), omnes in bello versantur; atque 20 
eorum ut quisque est genere copiisque amplissimus, 10 ita 
plurimos circum se ambactos clientisque habet. Hanc unam 
gratiam potentiamque noverunt. 

Human Sacrifices. 

16. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita religioni- 
bus; atque ob earn causam qui sunt adfecti gravioribus 25 
morbis, quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, 11 aut pro 
victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, 

Cf. ! confldere. — 2 ceteris. — 8 divolgari. — * fit. — 6 perire. — 
8 omissS. — T opp. profectionem. — 8 bellum. — • defenderent. — 10 po- 
tentissimus. — n sunt. 

1 68 The Gallic War. [C/esar 

administrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur, — quod, 
pro vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non posse deo- 
rum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur ; publiceque 
eiusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii immani 1 

Fig. 82. — Gallic Coins. 

5 magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum contexta viminibus 
membra vivis hominibus complent; quibus succensis 2 cir- 
cumventi flamma exanimantur homines. Supplicia eorum 
qui in f urto aut latrocinio aut alia noxia 3 sint comprehensi 
gratiora dis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed, cum eius 
10 generis cppia deficit, 4 etiam ad innocentium supplicia de- 

Gallic Deities. Consecration of the Spoils of War to Mars. 

17. Deorum maxime Mercurium colunt. Huius sunt plu- 
rima simulacra ; hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, 
hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad quaestus pecu- 

15 niae mercaturasque * habere vim maximam arbitrantur. 
Post hunc Apollinem et Martem et Iovem et Minervam. De 
his eandem fere quam reliquae gentes habent opinionem : 6 
Apollinem morbos depellere, Minervam operum atque artifi- 
ciorum initia tradere, Iovem imperium caelestium tenere, 

20 Martem bella regere. Huic, cum 7 proelio dimicare consti- 
tuerunt, ea quae bello ceperint plerumque devovent ; cum 
superaverunt, animalia capta immolant,reliquas res in unum 
locum conferunt. Multis in civitatibus harum rerum exstruc- 

Cf. x ingenti. — a incensis. — 8 scelere. — * opp. suppetit. — 6 plu- 
rimum valere. — 6 sententiam. — 7 proelium committere. 

B. G. VI. 19.] Second Expedition into Germany. 1 69 

tos cumulos l locis consecratis conspicari licet. Neque saepe 
accidit ut neglecta quispiam religione aut capta apud se 
occultare 2 aut posita tollere 3 auderet; gravissimumque ei 
rei 4 supplicium cum cruciatu constitutum est. 

They Claim Descent from Pluto. Peculiar Treatment of Boys. 

18. Gall! se omnis ab Dite patre prognatos 5 praedicant 5 
idque ab druidibus proditum 6 dicunt. Ob earn causam 
spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum sed noctium 

f iniunt ; dies natalis et mensium et annorum initia sic obser- 
vant ut noctem dies subsequatur. In reliquls vitae Institutis 7 
hoc fere ab reliquls differunt, quod suos liberos, nisi cum 10 
adoleverunt ut munus militiae sustinere possint, palam ad 
se adire non patiuntur ; f Iliumque puerili aetate in publico 
in conspectu patris adsistere turpe 8 ducunt. 

Dowries. Power of Husbands over Wives. Funeral Rites. 

19. Viri, quantas peciinias ab uxoribus dotis nomine 
acceperunt, tantas ex suis bonis aestimatione facta cum doti- 1 5 
bus communicant. Huius omnis pecuniae coniunctim ratio 
habetur 9 fructusque servantur; uter eorum vita superavit, ad 
eum pars utriusque cum fructibus superiorum 10 temporum 
pervenit. Viri in uxores sicut in liberos vitae necisque 
habent potestatem; et cum paterfamiliae inlustriore loco 20 
natus decessit, 11 eius propinqui conveniunt et de morte, si 
res in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus in servilem 12 modum 
quaestionem habent, et si compertum est, Igni atque omni- 
bus tormentis 18 excruciatas interficiunt. Funera sunt pro 
cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumptuosa; omniaque quae 25 
vlvis cordi 14 fuisse arbitrantur in Ignem Inferunt, 15 etiam ani- 
malia; ac paulo supra hanc memoriam servi et clientes, 

Cf. * tumul5s. — 2 celare. — 8 eflerre. — 4 facto. — 6 ortos. — • tradi- 
tum. — 7 mSribus. — 8 opp. honestum. — 9 conficitur. — 10 priorum. — 
11 mortuus est. — 12 servorum. — 18 cruciatis. — 14 cira. — 16 proiciunt. 

170 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

quos ab els dilectos 1 esse constabat, iustis funebribus con- 
fectis una cremabantur. 

All Rumors from Outside to be Reported to the Magistrates. 

20. Quae civitates commodius 2 suam rem publicam 
administrate 3 existimantur habent legibus sanctum, si quis 

5 quid de re publica a finitimis riimore aut fama acceperit/ 
uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum quo alio communicet ; 
quod saepe homines temerarios atque imperitos falsis rumo^ 
ribus terreri et ad f acinus impelli et de summis rebus con- 
silium capere cognitum est. Magistrates quae visa sunt 
10 occultant, quae esse 6 ex usu iudicaverunt multitudini pro- 
dunt. 6 De re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conce- 

Customs of the Germans. 

21. GermanI multum ab hac consuetudine differunt. Nam 
neque druides habent qui rebus dlvinis praesint neque 

15 sacrifices student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt 7 quos 
cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et Volca- 
num et Lunam ; reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt. Vita 
omnis in venationibus atque in studils rei mllitaris consistit ; 
a parvis labor! ac duritiae student. Qui diutissime 8 impu- 

20 beres permanserunt maximam inter suos ferunt laudem ; hoc 
ali statiiram, all viris nervosque confirmari putant. Intra 
annum vero vicesimum feminae notitiam habuisse in turpissi- 
mis habent 9 rebus : cuius rei nulla est occultatio, quod et 
promiscue in fluminibus perluuntur, 10 et pellibus aut parvis 

25 renonum tegimentis utuntur, magna corporis parte nuda. 

No Agriculture or Private Ownership of Land. 

22. Agri culturae non student, maiorque pars eorum victus 
in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam agri mo- 

Cf. * amatos.— 2 melius. — 8 gerere. — * reppererit.— 6 utilia.^ 
8 efferunt — 7 putant. — 8 opp. brevissime. — • ducunt. — 10 lavantur. 

B. G. VI. 23.] Second Expedition into Germany. 171 

dum certum aut finis habet proprios ; 1 sed magistrates ac 
principes 2 in annos singulos gentibus cognationibusque 
hominum, quique una coierunt, quantum et quo loco visum 
est agri attribuunt, atque anno post alio transire 8 cogunt. 
Eius rei multas adferunt causas: ne adsidua 4 consuetudine 5 
capti studium belli gerendi agri cultura commutent ; ne latos 
finis parare 6 studeant potentiores atque humiliores posses- 
sionibus expellant ; ne accuratius 6 ad frigora atque aestus 
vitandos aedificent ; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupiditas, qua ex 
re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur; ut 'animi aequitate 10 
plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes cum potentissimis 
aequari videat. 

Their Isolation. How Chiefs are Appointed ; their Power. Freebooting 
no Disgrace. Rites of Hospitality Observed. 

23. Civitatibus maxima laus est quam latissime circum se 
vastatis f inibus solitudines 8 habere. Hoc proprium virtutis 
existimant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, neque quemquam 15 
prope se audere consistere: 9 simul hoc se fore tutiores 
arbitrantur, repentinae incursionis timore sublato. Cum 
bellum civitas aut inlatum defendit aut infert, magistratiis qui 
ei bello praesint, et vitae necisque habeant potestatem, deli- 
guntur. In pace nullus est communis magistratus, sed 2c 
principes regionum atque pagorum inter suos ius dicunt con- 
troversiasque minuunt. 10 Latrocinia nullam habent infa- 
miam 11 quae extra finis cuiusque civitatis fiunt, atque ea 
iuventutis exercendae ac desidiae minuendae causa fieri 
praedicant. Atque ubi quis ex principibus in concilio dixit 2^ 
1 se ducem fore, qui sequi velint profiteantur,' — consurgunt 
ei qui et causam et hominem probant suumque auxilium 
pollicentur, atque a multitudine conlaudantur ; qui ex his 

Cf . J privatos. — 2 quotannis. — 8 demigrare. — * perpetua. — 6 ad- 
quirere. — • diligentius. — 7 aequo animS. — 8 loca deserta. — 9 consi- 
dere. — 10 componunt. — n ignominiam. 

172 The Gallic War. [C^sa* 

secuti non sunt in desertorum l ac proditorum numero 
ducuntur 2 omniumque his rerum postea fides derogatur. 3 
Hospitem violare fas non putant ; qui quacumque de causa 
ad eos venerunt ab iniuria, prohibent sanctosque habent; 
5 hisque omnium domus patent victusque communicatur. 

Migration of Certain Gallic Tribes to Germany. 

24. Ac fuit antea tempus cum Germanos Galli virtute 
superarent, ultro bella inferrent, propter hominum multitu- 
dinem agrique inopiam trans Rhenum colonias mitterent. 
Itaque ea quae fertilissima Germaniae sunt loca, circum 

io Hercyniam silvam (quam Eratostheni et quibusdam Graecis 
fama notam esse video, quam illi Orcyniam appellant), Vol- 
cae Tectosages occupaverunt atque ibi consederunt. Quae 
gens 4 ad hoc tempus his sedibus sese continet summamque 
habet iustitiae et bellicae laudis opinionem. 5 Nunc quidem 

15 in eadem inopia, egestate, patientiaque Germani permanent, 
eodem victu et cultu corporis iituntur; Gallis autem provin- 
ciarum propinquitas et transmarinarum rerum notitia 6 multa 
ad copiam atque usum largitur. 7 Paulatim adsuefacti supe- 
rari multisque victi proeliis, ne se quidem ipsi cum illis vir- 

20 tute comparant. 

The Hercynian Forest and its Fauna. The Reindeer (?). 

25. Huius Hercyniae silvae, quae supra demonstrata est, 
latitudo vim dierum iter expedito 8 patet; non enim aliter 
finiri potest, neque mensiiras 9 itinerum noverunt. Oritur 10 
ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, recta- 

25 que fluminis Danuvi regione pertinet ad finis Dacorum et 
Anartium ; hinc se flectit n sinistrorsus diversis ab flumine 
regionibus multarumque gentium finis propter magnitudi- 

Cf . 2 perf ugarum. — 2 habentur. — 3 detrahitur. — 4 adhuc. — 6 fa- 
mam. — 6 scientia. — 7 ddnat. — 8 opp. impeditd. — 9 longitudinem. — 
10 initium capit. — n convertit. 

B.G. VI. 28.] Second Expedition into Germany. 173 

nem attingit. Neque quisquam est huius Germaniae qui 
se [aut audisse] aut adisse * ad initium 2 eius silvae dicat, 
cum dierum iter lx processerit, aut quo ex loco oriatur 
acceperit. Multaque in ea genera ferarum 3 nasci constat 
quae reliquis in locis visa non sint ; ex quibus quae maxime 5 
differant ab ceteris et memoriae prodenda 4 videantur haec 

26. Est bos cervi figura, 6 cuius a media fronte inter auris 
unum cornu exsistit excelsius 6 magisque derectum his quae 
nobis nota sunt cornibus. Ab eius summo 7 sicut palmae 10 
ramique late diffunduntur. Eadem est feminae marisque 
natura, eadem forma magnitudoque cornuum. 

The Elk and its Habits. 

27. Sunt item quae appellantur alces. Harum est consi- 
milis capris figura et varietas pellium; sed magnitiidine 
paulo antecedunt 8 mutilaeque sunt cornibus et crura sine 15 
nodis articulisque habent ; neque quietis 9 causa procum- 
bunt neque, si quo adflictae 10 casu conciderunt, "erigere 
sese ac sublevare possunt. His sunt arbores pro cubilibus; 
ad eas se adplicant 12 atque ita paulum modo reclinatae qui- 
etem capiunt. Quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum 13 20 
a venatoribus quo se recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut 
ab radicibus subruunt u aut accidunt arbores, tantum ut 
summa species earum stantium relinquatur. Hue cum se 
consuetudine reclinaverunt, infirmas arbores pondere adfli- 
gunt atque una ipsae concidunt. 25 

The Wild Ox. 

28. Tertium est genus eorum qui uri appellantur. Hi 
sunt magnitudine paulo infra 16 elephantos ; specie et colore 

Cf. ' adpropinquasse. — 2 opp. finem. — 8 animalium. — 4 tradenda. 
— 6 forma. — 6 altius. — 7 opp. imo. — 8 carent. — 9 somni. — 10 pro- 
stratae. — n opp. procumbere. — 12 adiungunt. — 18 compertum. — 
14 suffodiunt. — 16 opp. supra. 

174 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

et figura. tauri. Magna vis eorum est et magna velocitas ; 
neque homini neque ferae quam conspexerunt parcunt. 
Hos studiose 1 foveis captos interficiunt. Hoc se labore 
durant adulescentes atque hoc genere venationis exercent , 

5 et qui plurimos ex his interfecerunt, relatis in publicum cor- 
nibus quae sint testimonio, magnam f erunt 2 laudem. Sed 
adsuescere ad homines et mansuefieri ne parvuli quidem 
exceptl possunt. Amplitude) cornuum et figura et species 
multum a nostrorum boum cornibus differt. Haec studiose 8 

10 conquisita ab labrls argento circumcludunt atque in amplis- 
simis 4 epulis pro poculis utuntur. 

Caesar Returns to Gaul and Proceeds against Ambiorix. 

29. Caesar, postquam per Ubios exploratores comperit 5 
Suevos sese in silvas recepisse, inopiam 6 frumenti veritus 
(quod, ut supra demonstravimus, minime 7 omnes German! 

i 5 agri culturae student), constituit non progredi longius ; sed, 
ne omnino metum reditus sui barbaris tolleret, atque ut 
eorum auxilia tardaret, 8 reducto exercitu partem ultimam ■ 
pontis, quae ripas Ubiorum contingebat, in longitudinem 
pedum cc rescind it, atque in extremo ponte turrim tabula- 

20 torum mi constituit 10 praesidiumque cohortium xn pontis 
tuendi causa ponit magnisque eum locum munitionibus fir- 
mat. Ei loco praesidioque C. Volcatium Tullum adulescen- 
tem praeficit; ipse, cum maturescere frumenta inciperent, 
ad bellum Ambiorigis prof ectus, per Arduen nam silvam — 

25 quae est totius Galliae maxima atque ab ripis Rheni fini- 
busque Treverorum ad Nervios pertinet, milibusque amplius 
d in longitudinem patet — L. Minucium Basilum cum omni 
equitatu praemittit, si quid celeritate itineris atque opportu- 
nitate 11 temporis proficere possit; monet ut ignis in castris 

Cf. 1 diligenter. — 2 pariunt. — 8 cupide. — 4 magnificentissimis. — 
6 cognovit. — 6 opp. copiam. — 7 opp. maxime. — 8 moraretur. — • opp 
primam. — M contabulavit . — " occasione. 

Fig. 83. — Status of Ambiorix. 

B. G. vi. 3 1 . J Second Expedition into Germany. 175 

fieri prohibeat, ne qua eius adventus 1 procul significatio 
fiat ; sese confestim 2 subsequi dicit. 

Ambiorix Has the Good Luck to Escape. 

30. Basilus ut imperatum est facit. Celeriter contraque 
omnium opinionem confecto itinere multos in agris inopi- 
nantis 8 deprehendit; eorum indicio ad ipsum Ambiorigem 5 
contendit, quo in loco cum paucis equitibus esse dicebatur. 
Multum cum in omnibus rebus turn in re militari potest 4 
fortiina. Nam ut magno accidit casu ut in ipsum incautum 
etiam atque imparatum incideret, priusque eius adventus ab 
omnibus videretur quam fama ac nuntius adferretur, sic 10 
magnae fuit fortunae, omni militari instruments 6 quod cir- 
cum se habebat erepto, redis equisque comprehensis, ip- 
sum effugere mortem. Sed hoc factum est, quod, aedificid 
circumdato silva, ut sunt fere domicilia Gallorum, qui 
vitandi aestus 6 causa plerumque sil varum ac fliiminum 15 
petunt propinquitatis, comites f amiliaresque 7 eius angusto 

in loco paulisper equitum nostrorum vim 8 sustinuerunt. 
His pugnantibus ilium in equum quidam ex suis intulit; 9 
fugientem silvae texerunt. Sic et ad subeundum periculum 
et ad vitandum multum fortuna valuit. 10 20 

His Forces Disband and Withdraw to the Forest and Marshes. Catuvol- 
cus Commits Suicide. 

31. Ambiorix copias suas iudicione 11 non conduxerit, quod 
proelio dimicandum non existimaret, an tempore exclusus et 
repentino equitum adventu prohibitus, cum reliquum exer- 
citum subsequi crederet, dubium est. Sed certe dimissis 
per agros nuntiis sibi quemque consulere iussit. Quorum 25 
pars in Arduennam silvam, pars in continentis 12 paludes 

Cf. 1 opp. discessio. — 2 statim. — 8 inscios. — 4 valet. — 5 arma- 
mentis. — • opp. frigoris. — 7 amici. — 8 impetum. — 9 imposuit. — 
10 potuit. — » cSnsultS. — ia perpetuis. 

176 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

prof ugit ; qui proximi Oceano fuerunt hi insulis sese occul- 
taverunt 1 quas aestus efficere consuerunt ; multi ex suis 
finibus egressi se suaque omnia alienissimis crediderunt. 2 
Catuvolcus, rex dimidiae partis Eburonum, qui una cum 
5 Ambiorige consilium inierat, 8 aetate iam confectus, cum 
laborem belli aut fugae ferre non posset, omnibus precibus 
detestatus Ambiorigem, qui eius consili auctor fuisset, taxo 
(cuius magna in Gallia Germaniaque copia est) 4 se exani- 

Caesar Proceeds to Aduatuca and Puts Q. Cicero in Command there. 

10 32, Segni Condrusique, ex gente et numero Germanorum, 
qui sunt inter Eburones Treverosque, legatos ad Caesarem 
miserunt oratum 8 'ne se in hostium numero duceret neve 
omnium Germanorum qui essent citra Rhenum unam 6 esse 
causam iudicaret ; nihil se de bello cogitavisse, nulla Ambi 

1 5 origi auxilia misisse.' Caesar explorata 7 re quaestione cap- 
tivorum, si qui ad eos Eburones ex fuga convenissent, ad se 
ut reducerentur imperavit ; si ita fecissent, finis eorum se 
violaturum 8 negavit. Turn copiis in tres partis distributis 
impedimenta omnium legionum Aduatucam contulit. Id 

20 castelli nomen est. Hoc fere 9 est in mediis Eburonum 
finibus, ubi Titurius atque Aurunculeius hiemandi causa 
consederant. Hunc cum reliquis rebus locum probabat, 
turn quod superioris anni munitiones integrae manebant, ut 
militum laborem sublevaret. 10 Praesidio impedimentis legi- 

25 onem xiiii reliquit, unam ex his tribus quas proxime con- 
scriptas ex Italia traduxerat. Ei legioni castrisque Q. Tul- 
lium Ciceronem praefecit ducentosque equites attribuit. 

Cf. J abdiderunt. — 2 commlserunt. — 8 ceperat. — 4 sibi mortem 
conscivit. — 6 petitum. — c eandem. — 7 perquisita. — 8 vastaturum. 
— 9 prope. — w minueret. 

B. G. VI. 34] Second Expedition into Germany. IJJ 

Divides his Forces and Proceeds in Search of Ambiorix. 

33. Partito l exercitu T. Labienum cum legionibus tribus 
ad Oceanum versus in eas partis quae Menapios attingunt 
proncisci iubet ; C. Trebonium cum pari * legionum numero 
ad earn regionem quae Aduatucis adiacet depopulandam 3 
mittit ; ipse cum reliquis ill ad flumen Scaldim, quod influit 5 
in Mosam, extremasque 4 Arduennae partis ire constituit, 
quo cum paucis equitibus profectum Ambiorigem audiebat. 
Discedens post diem vn sese reversurum 5 confirmat ; quam 
ad diem ei legioni quae in praesidio relinquebatur frumen 
turn deberi sciebat. Labienum Treboniumque hortatur, si 10 
rei publicae commodo facere possint, ad eum diem revertan- 
tur; ut, rursus communicato consilio exploratisque hostium 
rationibus, 6 aliud initium belli capere possint. 

The Difficulties of the Situation Explained. Caesar Seeks Alliance with 
Gallic Tribes against the Eburones. 

34. Erat, ut supra demonstravimus, manus certa nulla, 
non oppidum, non praesidium quod se armis defenderet, 15 
sed in omnis partis dispersa 7 multitudo. Ubi cuique aut 
valles abdita 8 aut locus silvestris aut palQs impedita spem 
praesidi aut salutis aliquam oflerebat, consederat. Haec 
loca vicinitatibus 9 erant nota, magnamque res diligentiam 10 
requirebat, non in summa exercitus tuenda (nullum enim 20 
poterat universis a perterritis ac dispersis periculum acci- 
dere), sed in singulis militibus conservandis ; quae tamen 

11 ex parte res ad salutem exercitus pertinebat. Nam et 
praedae cupiditas multos longius sevocabat, et silvae incer- 
tis occultisque itineribus confertos adire prohibebant. Si 25 
negotium 12 confici stirpemque 13 hominum sceleratorum inter- 
fici vellet, dimittendae plures manus diducendique 14 erant 

Cf. 1 divisd. — 2 e5dem. — 8 vastandam. — 4 ultimas. — 6 rediturum. 
— • consiliis. — 7 dissipata. — 8 remota. — 9 propinquitatibus. — 10 cu- 
ram. — u partim. — M operam. — 18 genus. — 14 opp. cogendi. 

178 The Gallic War, [C^sar 

milites; si continere ad signa manipulos vellet, ut Instituta 
ratio et consuetudo exercitus Roman! postulabat, 1 locus ipse 
erat praesidio barbaris, neque ex occulto insidiandi et di- 
sperses circumveniendi singulis deerat audacia. Ut in eius 
5 modi difficultatibus, quantum diligentia provider! poterat 
providebatur ; ut potius in nocendo aliquid praetermittere- 

Fig. 84. — Sacrifice in Camp. Military Band 

tur, etsi omnium animi ad ulciscendum ardebant, quam cum 
aliquo militum detriments noceretur. Dimittit ad finitimas 
civitatis nuntios Caesar; omnis evocat spe praedae ad 
10 diripiendos 2 Eburones, ut potius in silvis Gallorum vita 
quam legionarius miles periclitetur ; simul ut magna multi* 
tudine circumfusa pro tali facinore stirps ac nomen civitatis 
tollatur. 8 Magnus undique numerus celeriter convenit. 

Cf. x requlrebat. — 2 depopulandos. — 8 deleatur. 

B. G. VI. 35.] Second Expedition into Germany. 1 79 

An Invasion from Germany. The Sugambri Come for a Share in the 
Plunder of the Eburones. They Advance towards Caesar's Camp. 

35. Haec in omnibus Eburonum partibus gerebantur, 
diesque adpetebat 1 vn, quem ad diem Caesar ad impedi- 
menta legionemque revert! constituerat. Hie quantum in 
bello fortuna possit et quantos adferat casus cognosci potuit. 
Dissipatis 2 ac perterritis hostibus, ut demon stravimus, ma- 5 
nus erat nulla quae parvam modo causam timoris adferret. 
Trans Rhenum ad Germanos pervenit 3 fama diripi Eburo- 
nes atque ultro omnis ad praedam evocari. 4 Cogunt equi- 
tum duo milia Sugambri, qui sunt proximi Rheno, a quibus 
receptos ex fuga Tencteros atque Usipetes supra docuimus. 10 
Transeunt Rhenum navibus ratibusque xxx milibus pas- 
suum infra eum locum ubi pons erat perfectus 5 praesidium- 
que ab Caesare relictum. Primos Eburonum finis adeunt ; 
multos ex fuga dispersos excipiunt, 6 magno pecoris numero, 
cuius sunt cupidissimi barbari, potiuntur. Invitati 7 praeda 15 
longius procedunt. Non hos paludes bello latrociniisque 
natos, non silvae morantur. 8 Quibus in locis sit Caesar ex 
captivis quaerunt; profectum longius reperiunt omnemque 
exercitum discessisse cognoscunt. Atque unus ex captivis : 
" Quid vos," inquit, " hanc miseram ac tenuem sectamini 20 
praedam, quibus licet iam esse f ortunatissimos ? Tribus 
horis Aduatucam venire potestis ; hue omnis suas fortunas * 
exercitus Romanorum contulit. Praesidi tantum est ut ne 
murus quidem cingi 10 possit, neque quisquam egredi extra 
munitiones audeat." Hac oblata spe Germani quam nacti u 25 
erant praedam in occulta relinquunt ; ipsi Aduatucam con- 
tendunt iisi eodem duce cuius haec indicio cognoverant. 

Cf . 2 accedebat. — 2 disiectis. — 8 perfertur. — 4 arcessi. — 6 f actus. 
— 6 deprehendunt. — 7 inducti. — 8 tardant . — 9 res f amiliaris. — 10 de- 
fend!. — u invenerant. 

180 The Gallic War, [Caesar 

Cicero Unwisely Sends Large Numbers out to Forage. 

36. Cicero (qui omnls superiores dies praeceptis 1 Caesa- 
ris summa diligentia milites in castris continuisset, ac ne 
calonem quidem quemquam extra munitionem egredi pas- 
sus 2 esset) vn die, diffldens 3 de numero dierum Caesarem 

5 fidem servaturum, quod longius progressum audiebat neque 
ulla de reditu eius fama 4 adferebatur; simul eorum per- 
motus vocibus 5 qui illius patientiam paene obsessionem tt 
appellabant, si quidem ex castris egredi non liceret ; nullum 
eius modi casum exspectans quo, vim oppositis legionibus 

io maximoque equitatu, dispersis ac paene deletis hostibus, in 
milibus passuum tribus offend! posset, — v cohortis frumen- 
tatum in proximas segetes 7 mittit, quas inter et castra unus 
omnino collis intererat. Complures erant in castris ex legi- 
onibus aegri relict! ; ex quibus qui 8 hoc spatio dierum con- 

15 valuerant, circiter ccc, sub vexillo una mittuntur; magna 
praeterea multitudo calonum, magna vis 9 iumentorum, quae 
in castris subsederat, facta, potestate sequitur. 

The Germans Assault the Camp. Panic Within. 

37. Hoc ipso tempore 10 [et] casu GermanI equites inter- 
veniunt, protinusque eodem illo quo venerant cursu ab de- 

20 cumana porta in castra inrumpere conantur ; nee prius sunt 
visi, obiectls ab ea parte silvis, quam, castris adpropinqua- 
rent, usque eo ut qui sub vallo tenderent 11 mercatores reci- 
piendi sui facultatem non haberent. Inopinantes nostri re 
nova perturbantur, ac vix primum impetum cohors in stati- 

25 one sustinet. Circumfunduntur hostes ex reliquis partibus, 
si quem aditum 12 reperire possint. Aegre 13 portas nostri 
tuentur, 14 reliquos aditus locus ipse per se miinitioque defen- 
dit. Totis trepidatur castris atque alius ex alio causam 

Cf. 1 mandatis. — 2 permisisset. — 8 opp. confidens. — 4 rumor. — 
6 verbis. — 6 obsidi5nem. — 7 agros. — 8 his diebus. — 9 numerus. — 
10 discrimine.— n considerent.— u introitum. — u vix.— 14 defendunt. 

B. G. VI. 39.] Second Expedition into Germany. 181 

tumultus quaerit; neque quo signa ferantur neque quam in 
partem quisque conveniat 1 provident. Alius castra iam 
capta pronuntiat; alius deleto exercitii atque imperatore 
victores barbaros venisse contendit ; plerique novas sibi ex 
loco religiones fingunt, Cottaeque et Tituri calamitatem, 2 qui 5 
in eodem occiderint castello, ante oculos ponunt. Tali 
timore omnibus perterritis 3 confirmatur opinio barbaris, ut 
ex captivo audierant, nullum esse intus praesidium. Per- 
rumpere * nituntur 5 seque ipsi adhortantur ne tantam fortu- 
nam ex manibus dimittant. 10 

P. Sextius Baculus again Distinguishes Himself. 

38. Erat aeger in praesidio relictus P. Sextius Baculus, 
qui primum pilum apud Caesarem duxerat, cuius mentionem 
superioribus proeliis fecimus, ac diem iam quintum cibo 
caruerat. Hie diffisus suae atque omnium saluti inermis 6 
ex tabernaculo prodit ; videt imminere hostis atque in 15 
summo rem esse discrimine; capit arma a proximis atque 

in porta consistit : consequuntur hunc centuriones eius 
cohortis quae in statione erat; paulisper una proelium sus- 
tinent. Relinquit animus Sextium gravibus acceptis volne- 
ribus ; aegre per manus traditus r servatur. Hoc spatio 8 20 
interposito reliqui sese confirmant 9 tantum ut in munitioni- 
bus consistere audeant speciemque defensorum 10 praebeant. 

The Foragers Return and Reach the Camp with Some Difficulty and Loss. 

39. Interim confecta frumentatione milites nostri clamo- 
rem exaudiunt; praecurrunt equites; quanta res sit in peri- 
culo cognoscunt. Hie vero nulla miinitio est quae perterritos 25 
recipiat ; modo u conscripti atque usus militaris imperiti ad 
tribunum militum centurionesque ora convertunt; quid ab 
his praecipiatur exspectant: nemo est tam fortis quin rei 

Cf. 1 se conferat. — 2 caedem. — 8 commotis. — 4 perfringere. — 
ft cSnantur. — 6 sine armis. — 7 ductus. — 8 tempore. — 9 adhortantur. 
— l0 defensionis. — n nuper. 

1 82 

The Gallic War. 


novitate perturbetur. Barbari signa procul conspicati oppug- 
natione desistunt : l redisse primo legiones credunt quas 
longius discessisse ex captivis cognoverant; postea despecta* 
paucitate ex omnibus partibus impetum faciunt. 

Fig. 85. — Soldiers Marching in Presence of the Imperator. 

5 40. Calories in proximum tumulum procurrunt. 3 Hinc 
celeriter deiecti 4 se in signa manipulosque coniciunt ; eo 
magis timidos perterrent milites. Alii cuneo facto ut celeri- 
ter perrumpant censent, quoniam tam propinqua 5 sint castra ; 
etsi pars aliqua circumventa 6 ceciderit, at reliquos servari 

10 posse [confidunt]; alii ut in iugo consistant atque eundem 
omnes ferant casum. Hoc veteres 7 non probant milites, 
quos sub vexillo una profectos docuimus. Itaque inter se 
cohortati, duce C. Trebonio, equite Romano, qui eis erat 
praepositus, per medios hostis perrumpunt incolumesque ad 

Cf . 1 relinquunt, w. ace. — 2 contempta. — 8 profugiunt. — * depulsi. 
— 6 prope. — 6 circumclusa. — 7 veteran!. 

B.G.VI.42.] Second Expedition into Germany. 183 

unum omnes in castra perveniunt. Hos subsecuti calones 
equitesque eodem impetu militum virtute servantur. At el 
qui in iugo constiterant, nullo etiam nunc usu rel militaris 
percepto, neque in eo quod probaverant consilio permanere, 
ut se loco superiore defenderent, neque earn quam profuisse l 5 
aliis vim celeritatemque viderant, imitari potuerunt ; sed se 
in castra recipere 2 conati iniquum in locum demiserunt. 8 
Centuriones, quorum non nulli ex inferioribus ordinibus 
reliquarum legionum virtutis causa in superiores erant 
ordines huius legionis traducti, ne ante partam rel militaris 10 
laudem amitterent, 4 fortissime pugnantes conciderunt. Mili- 
tum pars, horum virtute submotis hostibus, praeter spem 
incolumis in castra pervenit ; pars a barbaris circumventa 

The Germans Withdraw. Arrival of Caesar. Flight of Ambiorix. 

41. Germani desperata expugnatione castrorum, quod 15 
nostros iam constitisse in munitionibus videbant, cum ea 
praeda quam in silvis deposuerant 6 trans Rhenum sese 
receperunt. Ac tantus f uit etiam post discessum 7 hostium 
terror ut ea nocte, cum C. Volusenus missus cum equitatu 

in castra venisset, fidem non faceret adesse cum incolumi 20 
Caesarem exercitu. Sic omnium animos timor 8 praeoccu- 
paverat ut paene 9 alienata mente, deletis omnibus copiis, 
equitatum se ex fuga recepisse dicerent, neque incolumi 
exercitu Germanos castra oppugnaturos fuisse contenderent. 
Quem timorem Caesaris adventus sustulit. 25 

42. Reversus ille, — eventus 10 belli "non ignorans, unum" 
quod cohortes ex statione et praesidio essent emissae ques- 
tus, ne minimum quidem casui locum relinqui debuisse, — 
multum fortiinam in repentino 13 hostium adventu potuisse 
iudicavit ; multo etiam amplius, quod paene ab ipso vallo 30 

Cf. * iuvisse, w. ace. — 2 referre. — 8 descenderunt. — 4 demitterent. 
— 6 interiit. — • celaverant. — 7 profectionem. — 8 metus. — 9 amentia 
impulsi. — 10 casus. — n sciens. — * tantum. — 18 subito. 

1 84 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

portisque castrorum barbaros avertisset. 1 Quarum omnium 
rerum maxime admirandum videbatur, quod Germani, qui 
eo consilio Rhenum transierant ut Ambiorigis finis depopu- 
larentur, ad castra Romanorum delati 2 optatissimum Ambi- 
5 origi beneficium obtulerant. 

After Inflicting Further Military Severities upon the Resisting Tribes, 
Caesar Returns to Italy. 

43. Caesar, rursus ad vexandos hostis profectus, magno 
equitum coacto numero ex finitimis civitatibus, in omnis 
partis dimittit. 3 Omnes vici atque omnia aedificia quae 
quisque conspexerat incendebantur ; praeda ex omnibus 

io locis agebatur ; frumenta non solum a tanta multitudine 
iumentorum atque hominum consumebantur, sed etiam anni 
tempore atque imbribus procubuerant ; ut, si qui etiam in 
praesentia se occultassent, 4 tamen his deducto exercitu 
rerum omnium inopia pereundum 5 videretur. Ac saepe in 

15 eum locum ventum est, tanto in omnis partis dimisso equi- 
tatu, ut [non] modo visum ab se Ambiorigem in fuga cir- 
cumspicerent captivi, nee plane etiam abisse ex conspectu 
contenderent ; ut, spe consequendi inlata atque infinito 6 
labore suscepto, qui se summam a Caesare gratiam inituros 

20 putarent, paene naturam studio vincerent, semperque pau- 
lum ad summam felicitatem defuisse videretur; atque ille 
latebris aut saltibus 7 se eriperet ; et rioctu occultatus alias 
regiones partisque peteret non maiore equitum praesidio 
quam mi, quibus solis vitam suam committere 8 audebat. 

25 44. Tali modo vastatis 9 regionibus exercitum Caesar 
duarum cohortium damno 10 Durocortorum Remorum deducit; 
concilioque in eum locum Galliae indicto de coniuratione 
Senonum et Carnutum quaestionem habere instituit ; et de 
Accone, qui princeps eius consili fuerat, graviore sententia 

Cf. 1 pepulisset. — 2 deduct!. — 3 dissipat. — * abdidissent. — 6 morien- 
dum. — 6 summ6. — 7 evaderet. — 8 credere. — 9 direptis. — 10 detri- 

B.G. VI. 44.] Second Expedition into Germany. 185 

pronuntiata, more maiorum supplicium l sumpsit. Non nulli 
indicium veriti profugerunt; quibus cum aqua atque igni 
interdixisset, duas legiones ad finis Treverorum, duas in 
Lingonibus, sex reliquas in Senonum finibus Agedinci in 
hibernis conlocavit ; frumentoque 2 exercitui proviso, 3 ut 
mstituerat, in Italiam ad conventus agendos profectus est. 

Cf . 1 poenas. — 2 re frumentaria comparata. 

Fig. 86. — Chain Mail (lorica hamata). 

FlG. 87. — Helmets (galeat). 

Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. b.c. 52. 

General Movement among the Gauls for Independence. 

QUIETA 1 Gallia Caesar, ut constituerat, in Ttaliam ad 
conventus agendos proficlscitur. Ibi cognoscit de 
P. Clodi caede ; de senatusque consulto certior factus ut 
omnes iuniores Italiae coniurarent, delectum tota provincia 
5 habere Instituit. Eae res in Galliam Transalpinam celeriter 
perferuntur. Addunt ipsi et adfingunt riimoribus Galli 
(quod res poscere 2 videbatur) retinerl urbano motu 8 Caesa- 
rem neque in tantis dissensionibus ad exercitum venire 
posse. Hac impulsi 4 occasione qui iam ante se populi 

10 Romani imperio subiectos dolerent 6 liberius atque audacius 
de bello consilia inire 6 incipiunt. Indictis 7 inter se princi- 
pes Galliae conciliis silvestribus aG remotis 8 locis queruntur 
de Acconis morte ; posse hunc casum ad ipsos recidere 
demonstrant ; 9 miserantur communem Galliae fortunam ; 

15 omnibus pollicitationibus ac praemiis deposcunt qui belli 

Cf . l pacata. — a postulare. — 8 tumultii. — 4 incitati. — 6 moleste 
ferrent. — * capere. — 7 opp. interdictis. — 8 desertis. — 9 ostendunt. 

B. G. VII. 3.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 187 

initium faciant et sui capitis ' periculo Galliam in libertatem 
vindicent. In primis rationem 2 esse habendam dicunt. 
priusquam eorum clandestina consilia efferantur, ut Caesar 
ab exercitu intercliidatur. Id esse facile, quod neque legiones 
audeant absente imperatore ex hibernis egredi, neque impe- s 
rator sine praesidio ad legiones pervenire possit; postremo, 8 
in acie praestare 4 interfici quam non veterem belli gloriam 
libertatemque quam a maioribus acceperint recuperare. 

The Carnutes Begin the Revolt. Rapid Spread of the News. 

2. His rebus agitatis 5 profitentur Carnutes se nullum 
periculum communis salutis causa recusare, principesque 6 10 
ex omnibus bellum facturos pollicentur; et, quoniam in 
praesentia obsidibus cavere inter se non possint, ne res 
efferatur, ut iure iurando ac fide sanciatur 7 petunt, conlatis 
militaribus signis (quo more eorum gravissima caerimonia 
continetur), ne facto initio belli ab reliquis deserantur. Turn 15 
conlaudatis Carnutibus, dato iure iurando ab omnibus qui 
aderant, tempore eius rei constituto, a concilio disceditur. 

3. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes Cotuato et Conconneto- 
dumno ducibus, desperatis hominibus, Cenabum signo dato 
concurrunt, 8 civisque Romanos qui negotiandi causa ibi 20 
constiterant, in his C. Fufium Citam, honestum equitem 
Romanum, qui rei frumentariae iiissu Caesaris praeerat, 
interficiunt bonaque eorum diripiunt. Celeriter ad omnis 
Galliae civitatis fama perfertur. Nam ubi quae maior atque 
inlustrior incidit 9 res, clamore per agros regionesque signi- 25 
ficant; hunc alii deinceps excipiunt et proximis tradunt, ut 
turn accidit. Nam quae Cenabi oriente 10 sole gesta essent 
ante primam confectam vigiliam in finibus Arvernorum 
audita sunt, quod spatium est milium passuum circiter clx. 

Cf. x vitae. — 2 curam. — 3 denique. — 4 melius esse. — 6 deliberatis. 
— * primos. — 7 confirmetur. — 8 conveniunt. — 9 contingit. — 10 opp. 

88 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

Vercingetorix, Chief of the Arverni, Takes the Lead, and Induces Many 
Tribes to Join him. Severity of his Rule. 

4. Simili ratione ibi Vercingetorix, Celtilli filius, Arvernus, 
summae potentiae * adulescens, — cuius pater principatum 
totius Galliae obtinuerat, et ob earn causam quod regnum 
adpetebat 2 a civitate erat interfectus, — convocatis suis 
5 clientibus facile incendit. 3 Cognito eius consilio ad arma 
concurritur. Prohibetur a Gobannitione, patruo suo, reliquis- 
que principibus, qui hanc temptandam fortunam non existi- 
mabant ; expellitur 4 ex oppido Gergovia ; non destitit tamen 
atque in agris habet delectum egentium ac perditorum. Hac 

io coacta manu quoscumque adit ex civitate ad suam senten- 
tiam perducit; hortatur ut communis libertatis causa arma 
capiant ; magnisque coactis copiis adversarios 5 suos, a qui- 
bus paulo ante erat eiectus, expellit ex civitate. Rex ab 
suis appellatur. Dimittit quoque versus legationes ; obtes- 

15 tatur 6 ut in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones, Parisios, 
Pictones, Cadurcos, Turonos, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andos, 
reliquosque omnis qui Oceanum attingunt adiungit 7 ; omnium 
consensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata 8 potestate 
omnibus his civitatibus obsides imperat ; certum numerum 

20 militum ad se celeriter adduci iubet ; armorum quantum 
quaeque civitas domi, quodque ante tempus efficiat, 9 con- 
stituit; in primis equitatui studet. Summae diligentiae 
summam imperi severitatem addit; magnitudine supplici 
dubitantis cogit 10 : nam maiore commisso delicto 11 igni 

25 atque omnibus tormentis necat; leviore de causa auribus 
desectis aut singulis effossis oculis domum remittit, ut sint 
reliquis documento 12 et magnitudine poenae perterreant 

Cf. x potestatis. — 2 cupiebat. — 8 incitavit. — 4 eicitur. — 5 inimi- 
s. — 6 obsecratur. — 7 adsciscit. — 8 tradita. — 9 paret. — 10 perducit. 

11 f acinore. — 12 exemplo. 

c5s. — 6 obsecratur. — 7 ads< 
— u f acinore. — 12 exemplo 

B. G. VII. 6.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 1 89 

He Goes among the Bituriges, Who Appeal to the Haedui for Help. 
Being Refused, They Join him. 

5. His suppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu Lucterium Ca- 
durcum, summae hominem audaciae, cum parte copiarum in 
Rutenos mittit ; ipse in Bituriges proficiscitur. Eius adventu 
Bituriges ad Haeduos (quorum erant in fide) legatos mittunt 
subsidium rogatum, quo facilius hostium copias sustinere 1 5 
possint. Haedui de consilio legatorum, quos Caesar ad 
exercitum reliquerat, copias equitatus peditatusque subsidio 
Biturigibus mittunt. Qui cum ad flumen Ligerim venissent, 
quod Bituriges ab Haeduis dividit, paucos dies ibi morati 
neque flumen transire ausi, domum revertuntur, 2 legatisque 10 
nostris renuntiant 3 se Biturigum perfidiam veritos revertisse, 
quibus id consili fuisse cognoverint ut, si flumen transissent, 
una ex parte ipsi, altera Arverni se circumsisterent. 4 Id 
eane de causa quam legatis pronuntiarunt an perfidia adducti 
fecerint, quod nihil nobis constat, non videturpro certo esse 15 
ponendum. Bituriges eorum discessu statim se cum Arver- 
nis iungunt. 

Caesar's Difficulty in Reaching his Army. He Proceeds to Narbo to 
Counteract the Plans of Lucterius. 

6. His rebus in Italiam Caesari ntintiatis,* cum iam ille 
urbanas res virtute Cn. Pompei commodiorem 6 in statum 
pervenisse intellegeret, in Transalpinam Galliam profectus 20 
est. Eo cum venisset, magna difficultate adficiebatur, 7 qua 
ratione ad exercitum pervenire posset. Nam si legiones in 
provinciam arcesseret, se absente in itinere proelio dimica- 
turas 8 intellegebat ; si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne eis 
quidem eo tempore qui quieti viderentur suam salutem recte 25 
committi videbat. 

Cf. 1 resistere, w. dat. — a se recipiunt. — * referunt. — 4 circumveni- 
rent. — 6 perlatis. — 6 meliorem. — 7 permovebatur. — 8 pugnaturaa. 

190 The Gallic War. [G«sak 

7. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus in Rutenos missus earn 
civitatem Arvernis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobriges et 
Gabalos ab utrisque obsides accipit, et magna coacta manu 
in provinciam Narbonem versus l inruptionem 2 fccere con- 

5 tendit. Qua re nuntiata Caesar omnibus consiliis antever- 
tendum 3 existimavit, ut Narbonem proficisceretur. E6 cum 
venisset, timentis confirmat, praesidia in Rutenis provincia- 
libus, Volcis Arecomicis, Tolosatibus circumque Narbonem, 
quae loca hostibus erant f initima, 4 constituit ; partem copia- 
10 rum ex provincia, supplementumque quod ex Italia addiixe- 
rat in Helvios, qui finis Arvernorum contingunt, 5 con venire 

Caesar Crosses the Cevennes Mountains through the Snow. Vercin- 
getorix Goes to Protect the Arverni. 

8. His rebus comparatis, 6 represso iam Lucterio et re- 
moto, 7 quod intrare intra praesidia periculosum putabat, in 

15 Helvios proficiscitur. Etsi mons Cevenna, qui Arvernos ab 
Helviis discludit, 8 durissimo tempore anni altissima nive iter 
impediebat ; tamen, discussa nive in altitudinem pedum vi 
atque ita viis patefactis, 9 summo militum labore ad finis 
Arvernorum pervenit. Quibus oppressis inopinantibus, 

20 quod se Cevenna ut muro munitos existimabant, ac ne 

singulari 10 quidem umquam homini eo tempore anni semitae u 

patuerant, equitibus imperat ut quam latissime possint va- 

gentur et quam maximum hostibus terrorem inferant. 

Celeriter haec fama ac nuntii ad Vercingetorigem perfe- 

25 runtur ; quem perterriti omnes Arverni circumsistunt atque 
obsecrant M ut suis fortunis consulat, neu se ab hostibus diripi 
patiatur ; praesertim cum videat 13 omne ad se bellum trans- 
latum. Quorum ille precibus permotus castra ex Biturigibus 
movet in Arvernos versus. 

Cf. 1 adversus. — 2 incursionem. — 3 anteponendum. — 4 proxima. 
— * attingunt. — 6 gestis. — 7 repulso. — 8 dividit. — 9 apertis.— 
10 uni. — u viae. — u implorant. — 18 perspiciat 

B. G. VII. 10.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix . 191 

Caesar Leaves Brutus in Command and Seeks Reinforcements. Ver- 
cingetorix Moves towards Gorgobina, a Town of the Boii. 

9. At Caesar biduum in his locis moratus, quod haec de 
Vercingetorige usu ventura opinion e praeceperat, per causam 
supplement! 1 equitatusque cogendi ab exercitu discedit ; 
Brutum adulescentem his copiis praeficit ; hunc monet ut in 
omnis partis equites quam latissime pervagentur 2 ; daturum 
se operam ne longius triduo a castris absit. His constitutis 
rebus, suis inopinantibus, quam maximis potest itineribus 
Viennam pervenit. Ibi nactus 8 recentem equitatum, quem 

Fig. 89. — Com of Brutus and Albinus. 

multis ante diebus eo praemiserat, neque diurno neque 
nocturno itinere intermisso, per finis Haeduorum in Lingo- 10 
nes contendit, ubi duae legiones hiemabant; ut, si quid 
etiam de sua salute ab Haeduis iniretur 4 consili, celeritate 
praecurreret. Eo cum pervenisset, ad reliquas legiones 
mittit, priusque omnis in unum locum cogit quam de eius 
adventu Arvernis niintiari posset. Hac re cognita* Vercin- 15 
getorix riirsus in Bituriges exercitum reducit, atque inde 
profectus Gorgobinam, Boiorum oppidum, quos ibi Helvetico 
proelio victos 6 Caesar conlocaverat Haeduisque attribuerat, 7 
oppugnare instituit. 

Caesar, though Much Perplexed, Determines to Relieve the Boii. 

10. Magnam haec res Caesari difficultatem ad consilium 20 
capiendum adferebat: si reliquam partem hiemis uno loco 

Cf. 1 auxili5rum. — a vagentur. — 8 adeptus, inveniens. — * capere- 
tur. — 6 audita. — 6 superatos. — 7 adiunxerat. 

192 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

legiones contineret, 1 ne stipendiariis Haeduorum expugnatis 
cuncta 2 Gallia deficeret, quod nullum amlcls in eo praesi- 
dium positum videret ; si maturius ex hibernis educeret, ne 
ab re frumentaria duris subvectionibus laboraret. Praestare 8 
5 visum est tamen omnis difficultatis perpeti 4 quam, tanta 
contumelia accepta, omnium suorum voluntatis 5 alienare. 
Itaque cohortatus Haeduos de supportando commeatu, 
praemittit ad Boios qui de suo adventu doceant, hortentur- 
que ut in fide maneant atque hostium impetum magno 
10 animo 6 sustineant. Duabus Agedinci legionibus atque 
impedimentis totius exercitus relictis ad Boios proficiscitur. 

Caesar Takes Two Towns near the Loire. 

11. Altero die cum ad oppidum Senonum, Vellaunodunum, 
venisset, ne quern post se hostem relinqueret, et quo expedi- 
tion re frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare instituit, eoque 

15 biduo circumvallavit ; tertio die missis ex oppido legatis de 
deditione, arma conferri, 7 iumenta produci, sexcentos obsides 
dari iubet. Ea qui conficeret 8 C. Trebonium legatum 
relinquit ; ipse ut quam primum iter conficeret, Cenabum 
Carnutum proficiscitur; qui turn primum adlato nuntio de 

20 oppugnatione Vellaunoduni, cum longius earn rem ductum 
iri existimarent, praesidium Cenabi tuendi 9 causa, quod eo 
mitterent, comparabant. 

Hue biduo pervenit. Castris ante oppidum positis, diei 
tempore exclusus 10 in posterum oppugnationem differt, quae- 

25 que ad earn rem usui 11 sint militibus imperat ; et, quod oppi- 
dum Cenabum pons fluminis Ligeris contingebat, veritus ne 
noctii ex oppido profugerent, duas legiones in armis excubare 
iubet. Cenabenses, paulo ante mediam noctem silentio ex 
oppido egressi flumen transire coeperunt. Qua re per explo- 

Cf. 1 retineret. — 2 t5ta. — 8 optimum esse. — * perferre. — 6 ani- 
mos. — • virtiite. — 7 comportari. — 8 perficeret. — • defendendi. — 
10 prohibitus. — u ex usu. 

B. G. vii. 13.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 193 

ratores nuntiata Caesar legiones, quas expedites esse iusserat, 
portis incensis, 1 intromittit atque oppido potitur, perpaucis ex 
hostium numero desideratis quin cuncti caperentur, quod pon- 
tis atque itinerum angustiae multitudini fugam intercluserant. , 
Oppidum diripit atque incendit, praedam militibus donat; 5 
exercitum Ligerim traducit atque in Biturigum finis pervenit. 

Noviodunum Surrenders, but the Inhabitants, Seeing Vercingetorix 
Approaching, Prepare for Defense. 

12. Vercingetorix ubi de Caesaris adventu cognovit, oppug- 
natione desistit atque obviam Caesari proficiscitur. Ille 
oppidum Biturigum positum in via Noviodunum oppugnare 
instituerat. Quo ex oppido cum legati ad eum venissent 10 
oratum 3 ut sibi ignosceret suaeque vitae consuleret, 4 ut cele- 
ritate reliquas res conficeret qua pleraque erat consecutus,* 
arma conferri, equos produci, obsides dari iubet. Parte 
iam obsidum tradita, cum reliqua administrarentur, centu- 
rionibus et paucis militibus intromissis qui arma iumentaque 15 
conquirerent,* equitatus hostium procul visus est, qui agmen 
Vercingetorigis antecesserat. Quem 7 simul atque oppidani 
conspexerunt atque in spem auxili venerunt, clamore sublato 
arma capere, portas claudere, murum complere coeperunt. 
Centuriones in oppido, cum ex significatione Gallorum novi 20 
aliquid ab his iniri consili intellexissent, gladiis destrictis 
portas occupaverunt suosque omnis incolumis 8 receperunt. 

Caesar Takes Noviodunum and Marches towards Avaricum. 

13. Caesar ex castris equitatum educi iubet, proeliumque 
equestre committit ; laborantibus iam suis Germanos equites 
circiter cccc submittit, 9 quos 10 ab initio secum habere insti- 25' 
tuerat. Eorum impetum Galli sustinere non potuerunt, 

Cf. * exustis. — 2 impedierant. — 8 obsecratum.— * parceret. — 5 c5n- 
fecerat. — ■ quaererent. — 7 ut semel. — 8 tutos. — • auxilid mittit. — 
10 primo. 


The Gallic War, 


atque ia fugam coniecti l multis amissis se ad agmen rece- 
perunt ; quibus profligatis 2 rursus 8 oppidan! perterriti com- 
prehensos eos quorum opera plebem concitatam existimabant 
ad Caesarem perdiixerunt seseque el dediderunt. Quibus 


2°24' Greenwich 

Fig. 90. — Siege of Avaricum. 

5 rebus confectis Caesar ad oppidum Avaricum, quod erat 
maximum munitissimumque in finibus Biturigum atque agri 
fertilissima regione, profectus est; quod eo oppido recepto 4 
civitat^m Biturigum se in potestatem redacturum confidebaL 

Cf. J conversi. — 2 depulsls. — 8 iterum. — 4 opp. amiss5 r 

B.G. Vll. 15.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 195 

Vercingetorix Advises the Gauls to Lay Waste their Country, and 
thus Keep the Romans from Supplies. 

14. Vercingetorix tot continuis incommodis 1 Vellauno- 
duni, Cenabi, Novioduni acceptis suos ad concilium convo- 
cat. Docet ' longe alia ratione esse bellum gerendum atque 
antea gestum sit ; omnibus modis huic rei studendum ut 
pabulatione et commeatu Roman! prohibeantur : id esse 5 
facile, quod equitatu ipsi abundent 2 et quod anni tempore 
subleventur; pabulum secari non posse ; necessario 8 disper- 
sos hostis ex aedificiis petere; hos omnis cotidie ab equiti- 
bus delerl posse. Praeterea, salutis causa rei familiaris 
commoda neglegenda; vicos atque aedificia incendi oportere 10 
hoc spatio [a Boia] 4 quoque versus, quo pabulandi causa 
adire posse videantur. Harum ipsis rerum copiam suppe- 
tere, quod quorum in finibus bellum geratur eorum opibus 
subleventur 5 : Romanos aut inopiam 6 non laturos aut 
magno cum periculo longius a castris processuros; neque 15 
interesse ipsosne internciant an impedimentis exuant, 7 qui- 
bus amissis bellum geri non possit. Praeterea, oppida 
incendi oportere quae non munitione et loci natura ab omni 
sint periculo tuta; ne suis sint ad detrectandam 8 militiam 
receptacula, neu Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus 20 
praedamque tollendam. Haec si gravia aut acerba videan- 
tur, multo ilia gravius aestimari debere, liberos, coniuges in 
servitutem abstrahi, ipsos interficl ; quae sit necesse accidere 

They Burn Many Cities, but Spare Avaricum. 

15. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata uno die 25 
amplius xx urbes Biturigum incenduntur. 9 Hoc idem fit 10 
in reliquis civitatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia con- 

Cf. \ cladibus. — 2 plurimum possint. — 8 necessitate adductds. — 
4 undique. — 5 iuventur. — 6 opp. copiam. — 7 despolient. — 8 vitan- 
dam. — 9 comburuntur. — 10 accidit. 

196 The Gallic War. [Cjesar 

spiciuntur; quae etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, 
tamen hoc sibi solaci proponebant, quod se prope explorata l 
victoria celeriter amissa recuperaturos confidebant. Deli- 
beratur 2 de Avarico in communi concilio,incendi placeat an 
5 defend!. Procumbunt omnibus Gallis ad pedes Bituriges, 
ne pulcherrimam prope totius Galliae urbem, quae et prae- 
sidio et ornamento sit civitati, suls manibus succendere 
cogantur; facile se loci natura defensuros dicunt, quod, 
prope ex omnibus partibus flumine et palude circumdata, 
10 unum habeat et perangustum 3 aditum. Datur petentibus 
venia, dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente, 
et precibus ipsorum et misericordia volgi. Def en sores 
oppido idonei deliguntur. 

16. Vercingetorix minoribus Caesarem itineribus subse- 
ts quitur, et locum castris deligit paludibus silvisque munitum, 

ab Avarico longe milia passuum xvi. Ibi per certos explo- 
ratores in singula die! tempora quae ad Avaricum gererentur 
cognoscebat, et quid fieri vellet imperabat. Omnls nostras 
pabulationes frumentationesque observabat, 4 dispersosque, 
20 cum longius necessario procederent, adoriebatur magnoque 
incommodo adficiebat ; etsi, quantum ratione provideri pote- 
rat, ab nostris occurrebatur, 5 ut incertis temporibus diver- 
sisque 6 itineribus iretur. 

Although Suffering from Lack of Supplies, the Roman Soldiers 
Maintain a Resolute Spirit. 

17. Castris ad earn partem oppidi positis Caesar quae 
25 intermissa [a] flumine et palude aditum, ut supra diximus, 

angustum habebat, aggerem adparare, 7 vineas agere, turris 
duas constituere 8 coepit ; nam circumvallare loci natura 
prohibebat. De re frumentaria Boios atque Haeduos adhor- 
tari non destitit : quorum alteri, quod nullo studio 9 agebant, 

Cf. x conf irmata. — 2 consultatur. — 8 angustissimum. — * specula - 
batur. — 6 obsistebatur. — • varus. — 7 iacere. — 8 excitare. — • opp. 


B.G.VII. 18.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 197 

non multum adiuvabant ; alter! non magnis facultatibus, 1 
quod civitas erat exigua 2 et inf Irma, celeriter quod habue- 
runt consumpserunt. Summa difficultate rei frumentariae 
adfecto exercitu, tenuitate 3 Boiorum, indiligentia Haeduo- 
rum, incendiis aedificiorum, — usque eo ut compluris dies 5 
frumento milites caruerint, 4 et pecore e longinquioribus 6 
vicis adacto extremam famem sustentarint, — nulla tamen 
vox est ab els audita populi Roman! maiestate 6 et superio- 
ribus victoriis indigna. Quin etiam Caesar cum in opere 
singulas legiones appellaret, 7 et, si acerbius inopiam ferrent, 10 
se dimissurum 8 oppiignationem diceret, universi ab eo ne id 
faceret petebant : ' Sic se compluris annos illo imperante 
meruisse ut nullam ignominiam acciperent, numquam infecta 9 
re discederent ; hoc se ignominiae laturos loco, si inceptam 
oppiignationem reliquissent 10 : praestare omnls perferre acer- 15 
bitatis 11 quam non civibus Romanis qui Cenabi perfidia 
Gallorum interissent 12 parentarent.' Haec eadem centurioni- 
bus tribunisque militum mandabant, 18 ut per eos ad Caesarem 

Caesar Marches towards Vercingetorix. 

18. Cum iam muro turres adpropinquassent, ex captfvis 20 
Caesar cognovit M Vercingetorigem consiimpto pabulo castra 
movisse propius Avaricum, atque ipsum cum equitatu 
expeditisque qui inter equites proeliari consuessent, Insidi- 
andi causa eo profectum quo nostros postero die pabulatum 
venturos arbitraretur. Quibus rebus cognitis media nocte 25 
silentio profectus ad hostium castra mane pervenit. Illi, 
celeriter per exploratores adventu Caesaris cognito, carros 
impedimentaque sua in artiores u silvas abdiderunt, copias 

Cf. % opibus. — 2 parva. — 8 exiguitate. — 4 eguerint. — 5 opp. pro- 
pioribus. — 6 dignitate. — 7 cohortaretur. — 8 relicturum. — 9 opp. con- 
fecta. — 10 dimisissent. — u duritias. — la periissent. — 18 tradebant. 
— 1* comperit. — 16 densi5res. 


The Gallic War. 


omnis in loco edito 1 atque aperto Instruxerunt. Qua 
re nuntiata Caesar celeriter sarcinas conferri, arma ex- 
pediri iussit. 

He Finds him too Strongly Intrenched to Warrant an Attack. 

19. Collis erat leniter ab Infimo acclivis. Hunc ex 

5 omnibus fere partibus palus difficilis atque impedita cinge- 

bat, non latior pedibus l. Hoc se colle interrupts 2 ponti- 

FlG. 9a. — VlBW OK SlKGB WORBS. 

bus Galli fiducia loci continebant, generatimque distributi 
[in civitatis] omnia vada [ac saltus] eius paludis obtinebant, 
sic animo parati ut, si earn paludem Roman! perrumpere 

10 conarentur, haesitantis 3 premerent ex loco superiore; ut, 
qui propinquitatem loci videret, paratos prope aequo Marte 
ad dimicandum existimaret ; qui iniquitatem 4 condicionis 
perspiceret, inani simulatione sese ostentare cognosceret. 
Indignantis milites Caesar, quod conspectum suum hostes 

15 ferre possent tantulo spatio interiecto, et signum proeli 

Cf . 1 excelsd. — 2 rescissis. — 8 impeditos. — * opp. aequitatem. 

B. G. VII. 20.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix . 199 

exposcentis, 1 edocet quanto detrimento 2 et quot virorum 
fortium morte necesse sit constare victoriam ; quos cum sic 
animo paratos videat ut nullum pro sua laude 3 perlculum 
recusent, summae se iniquitatis condemnari debere, nisi 
eorum vitam laude sua habeat 4 cariorem. Sic milites con- 
solatus eodem die reducit in castra; reliquaque quae ad 
oppugn ationem oppidi pertinebant administrare 6 instituit. 


Fig. 93. — Plan of Siege Works. 

Suspicions against Vercingetorix, Who Makes a Successful Defense 
and Appeal to his Countrymen. 

20. Vercingetorix cum ad suos redisset, proditionis insi- 
mulatus, 6 — quod castra propius Romanos movisset, quod 
cum omni equitatu discessisset, quod sine imperio T tantas 10 
copias reliquisset, quod eius discessu Romani tanta opportu- 
nitate 8 et celeritate venissent ; non haec omnia fortuito 9 aut 

Cf. 1 petentis. — a damno. — 8 gloria. — 4 existimet. — 6 comparare. 
— • accusatus. — 7 imperatore. — 8 occasione. — 9 forte, casu. 

200 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

sine consilio accidere potuisse ; regnum ilium Galliae malle 
Caesaris concessu * quam ipsorum habere beneficio, — tall 
modo accusatus ad haec respondit : ' Quod castra movisset, 
factum inopia pabuli, etiam ipsis hortantibus 2 ; quod propius 
5 Romanos accessisset, persuasum loci opportunitate, qui se 
ipse sine munitione defenderet; equitum vero operam 3 
neque in loco palustri desiderari debuisse, et illic fuisse 
utilem quo sint profecti. Summam imperi se consulto nulli 
discedentem tradidisse, ne is multitudinis studio ad dimican- 

10 dum impelleretur; cui rei propter animi mollitiem 4 studere 
omnis videret, quod diutius laborem ferre non possent. 
Romani si casu 5 intervenerint, fortunae ; si alicuius indicio 
vocati, huic habendam gratiam, quod et paucitatem eorum 
ex loco superiore cognoscere et virtutem despicere 6 potue- 

15 rint, qui dimicare non ausi turpiter se in castra receperint. 
Imperium se a Caesare per proditionem nullum desiderare, 7 
quod habere victoria pbsset, quae iam esset sibi atque omni- 
bus Gallis explorata: quin etiam ipsis remittere, si sibi 
magis honorem tribuere quam ab se salutem accipere vide- 

20 antur.' "Haec ut intellegatis," inquit, "a me sincere pro- 
nuntiari, audite Romanos milites." Producit servos, quos 
in pabulatione paucis ante diebus exceperat, 8 et fame vincu- 
lisque excruciaverat. Hi, iam ante edocti quae interrogati 
pronuntiarent, milites se esse legionarios dicunt; fame et 

25 inopia adductos clam 9 ex castris exisse, si quid frumenti aut 
pecoris in agris reperire 10 possent ; simili omnem exercitum 
inopia premi, nee iam viris sufficere n cuiusquam nee ferre 
operis laborem posse : itaque statuisse imperatorem, si nihil in 
oppugnatione oppidi profecissent, triduo exercitum deducere. 

30 " Haec," inquit, " a me," [Vercingetorix] " beneficia habetis, 
quern proditionis insimulatis; cuius opera sine vestro san- 

Cf. x gratia. — 2 monentibus. — 8 officium. — 4 infirmitatem. — 
6 fortuito. — 6 contemnere. — 7 cupere. — 8 deprehenderat. — 9 opp. 
palam. — 10 invenire. — n satis esse. 

B. G. VII. 22.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 201 

guine tantum exercitum victorem fame consumptum videtis ; 
quem turpiter se ex hac fuga recipientem ne qua civitas suis 
finibus recipiat, a me provisum x est." 

21. Conclamat omnis multitudo et suo more armis con- 
crepat, — quod facere in eo consuerunt cuius orationem 5 
adprobant : * Summum esse Vercingetorigem ducem, nee de 
eius fide dubitandum, nee maiore ratione 2 bellum admini- 
strari 8 posse.' Statuunt ut x milia hominum delecta ex omni- 
bus copiis in oppidum submittantur, nee solis Biturigibus 
communem salutem committendam 4 censent; quod paene 10 
in eo, si id oppidum retinuissent, summam victoriae constare 

The Gauls Make a Most Skilful Defense against the Roman Works. 

22. Singularl* militum nostrorum virtuti consilia ciiiusque 
modi Gallorum occurrebant, 6 ut est summae genus sollertiae, 
atque ad omnia imitanda et efficienda quae a quoque tra- 15 
duntur aptissimum. Nam et laqueis f alcis avertebant, quas, 
cum destinaverant, 7 tormentis introrsus reducebant; et 
aggerem cuniculis subtrahebant, 8 eo scientius quod apud 
eos magnae sunt ferrariae, atque omne genus cuniculorum 
notum atque usitatum est. Totum autem murum ex omnl 20 
parte turribus contabulaverant atque has coriis intexerant. 
Turn crebris diurnis nocturnisque eruptionibus aut aggeri 
ignem Inferebant 9 aut milites occupatos in opere adorie- 
bantur 10 ; et nostrarum turrium altitudinem, quantum has 
cotidianus agger expresserat, 11 commissis suarum turrium 25 
malis adaequabant ; et apertos cuniculos praeusta et praea- 
cuta materia et pice fervefacta et maximi ponderis saxis 
morabantur moenibusque u adpropinquare prohibebant. 

Cf. 1 cautum. — 2 arte. — 8 geri. — * mandandam. — 6 eximiae. - 
6 obsistebant. — 7 adfixerant. — 8 subruebant. — 9 iniciebant. — 10 ad- 
grediebantur. — u erexerat. — u muris. 

202 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

Description of a Gallic Wall. 

23. Muri autem omnes Gallic! hac fere forma sunt. Tra- 
bes directae, perpetuae 1 in longitiidinem paribus intervallis, 
distantes inter se binos pedes, in solo conlocantur. Hae 
revinciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur 2 ; ea autem 
5 quae diximus intervalla grandibus in fronte saxis effarciun- 
tur. 8 His conlocatis et coagmentatis 4 alius insuper ordo 

Fig. 94. — Gallic Wall. 

additur, ut idem illud intervallum servetur neque inter se 
contingant trabes, sed, paribus intermissis spatiis, singulae 
singulis saxis interiectis arte contineantur. Sic deinceps 

io omne opus contexitur dum iusta muri altitudo expleatur. 
Hoc cum in speciem varietatemque opus deforme non est, 
alternis trabibus ac saxis, quae rectis lineis suos ordines 
servant, turn ad utilitatem et defensionem urbium summam 
habet opportunitatem ; quod et ab incendio lapis et ab ariete 

15 materia defendit, quae perpetuis trabibus pedum quadra- 

Cf. 1 opp. intermissae. — 2 integuntur. — 3 complentur. — 4 confixis. 

B. G. vii. 25.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 203 

genum plerumque l introrsus revincta neque perrumpi* 
neque distrahi potest. 

The Gauls Set Fire to the Roman Works and Make a Sortie. 

24. His tot rebus impedita oppugnatione milites, cum 
toto tempore frigore et adsiduis 8 imbnbus tardarentur, 
tamen continent! labore omnia haec superaverunt, et diebus 5 
xxv aggerem latum pedes cccxxx, altum pedes lxxx 
exstruxerunt. Cum is murum hostium paene contingeret, 

et Caesar ad opus consuetudine excubaret militesque hor- 
taretur ne quod omnino tempus ab opere intermitteretur, 
— paulo ante tertiam vigiliam est animadversum fumare ag- 10 
gerem, quern cuniculo hostes succenderant 4 ; eodemque tem- 
pore, toto muro clamore sublato, duabus portis ab utroque 
latere turrium eruptio fiebat. Alii facis atque aridam 
materiam de muro in aggerem eminus 5 iaciebant ; picem 
reliquasque 6 res quibus ignis excitarl 7 potest fundebant; 15 
ut, quo primum occurreretur aut cui rei ferretur auxilium, 
vix ratio iniri posset. Tamen, quod Instituto 8 Caesaris 
duae semper legiones pro castris excubabant, pluresque 
partltis temporibus erant in opere, celeriter factum est ut 
alii eruption ibus resisterent, alii turris reducerent 9 aggerem- 20 
que interscinderent, omnis vero ex castris multitudo ad 
restinguendum concurreret. 

Heroism of the Gauls. 

25. Cum in omnibus locis, consiimpta iam reliqua parte 
noctis, pugnaretur semperque hostibus spes victoriae redin- 
tegraretur, 10 — eo magis quod deustos pluteos turrium 25 
videbant, nee facile adire apertos ad auxiliandum n animad- 
vertebant, — semperque ipsi recentes 12 defessis succederent, 

Cf. l fere. — 2 perfringi. — 8 perpetuis. — 4 incenderant. — 6 opp. 
comminus. — 6 ceteris. — 7 opp. restingui. — 8 consiliS, iussu. — • re- 
moverent. — 10 renovaretur. — n auxilium f erendum. — u integri. 

204 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

omnemque Galliae salutem in illo vestigio temporis positam 
arbitrarentur ; accidit inspectantibus nobis quod dignum 
memoria visum praetereundum 1 non existimavimus. Quidam 
ante portam oppidi Gallus per manus sebi ac picis traditas 
5 glebas in ignem 2 e regione turris proiciebat ; scorpione ab 

Fig. 95. — Scorpio. 

latere dextro traiectus 3 exanimatusque concidit. Hunc ex 
proximis Onus iacentem transgressus eodem illo munere 4 
fungebatur; eadem ratione ictu scorpionis exanimato altero 
successit tertius et tertio quartus ; nee prius ille est a pro- 
10 pugnatoribus vacuus relictus locus quam, restincto aggere 
atque omni parte submotis hostibus, finis est pugnandi 

The Gauls Prepare to Abandon the Town, but are Dissuaded by the 

26. Omnia experti Galli, quod a res nulla successerat, 
postero die consilium ceperunt ex oppido profugere hortante 
»5 et iubente Vercingetorige. Id silentio noctis conati non 
magna iactura 6 suorum sese effectiiros sperabant ; propterea 
quod neque longe ab oppido castra Vercingetorigis aberant, 
et palus perpetua, quae intercedebat, Romanos ad Insequen- 

Cf. l omittendum. — 2 ex advers5. — 8 transfossus. — 4 officio. — 
6 nihil profecerant. — 6 detrimento. 

B. G. Vll. 28.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 205 

dum tardabat. 1 Iamque hoc facere noctu adparabant, cum 
matres f amiliae repente in publicum procurrerunt flentesque, 
proiectae ad pedes suorum, omnibus precibus petierunt 2 ne 
se et communis liberos hostibus ad supplicium dederent, 
quos ad capiendam f ugam naturae et virium infirmitas impe- 5 
diret. Ubi eos in sententia 8 perstare 4 viderunt, quod ple- 
rumque in summo periculo timor 5 misericordiam non recipit, 
conclamare et significare de fuga Romanis coeperunt. Quo 
timore perterriti Galli, ne ab equitatu Romanorum viae prae- 
occuparentur, consilio destiterunt. 10 

Storming of the Walls. 

27. Postero die Caesar promota 6 turri directisque operi- 
bus quae facere instituerat, magna coorto imbri, non inutilem 
hanc ad capiendum 7 consilium tempestatem arbitratus, quod 
paulo incautius custodies in muro dispositas videbat, suds 
quoque languidius in opere versari iussit, et quid fieri vellet 15 
ostendit. Legionibusque [intra vineas] in occulta expeditis, 
cohortatus ut aliquanda pra tantis labaribus fructum 8 victo- 
riae perciperent, eis qui primi murum adscendissent praemia 
praposuit militibusque signum dedit. 111! subita ex omni- 
bus partibus evolaverunt murumque celeriter compleverunt. 20 

The Town is Taken, and Most of the Inhabitants are Butchered. 

28. Hostes re nova perterriti, mura turribusque deiecti, 
in fora ac locis patentiaribus 9 cuneatim canstiterunt, hac 
anima 10 ut, si qua ex parte obviam [contra] veniretur, acie 
instriicta depugnarent. Ubi neminem in aequum locum u sese 
demittere, sed tota undique mura circumfundi viderunt, 25 
veriti ne omnina spes fugae tolleretur, abiectis armis ulti- 
mas 12 oppidi partis continenti impetu petiverunt; parsque 

Cf. 1 morabatur. — 2 obsecraverunt. — 8 cSnsilio. — 4 permanere.— 
6 opp. fortitudo. — 6 opp. reducta. — 7 opp. omittendum. — 8 prae- 
mium. — 9 apertioribus. — 10 consilio. — n descendere. — u opp. proxi- 

206 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

ibi, cum angusto 1 exitu portarum se ipsi premerent, a militi- 
bus, pars iam egressa portis ab equitibus est interfecta ; nee 
fuit quisquam qui praedae studeret. Sic et Cenabensi 
caede et labore operis incitati non aetate confectis, non 
5 mulieribus, 2 non infantibus pepercerunt. 8 Denique ex 
omni numero, qui fuit circiter milium xl, vix dccc, qui 
primo clamore audito se ex oppido eiecerant, incolumes ad 
Vercingetorigem pervenerunt. Quos ille multa iam nocte 
silentio ex fuga excepit, et veritus ne qua in castris ex eorum 
to concursu et misericordia volgi seditio oreretur, [ut,] procul 
in via dispositis familiaribus 4 suis principibusque civitatum, 
disparandos 5 deducendosque ad suds curavit, quae cuique 
civitati pars castrorum ab initio 6 obvenerat. 

Vercingetorix Appeals to the Gauls to Continue the War. 

29. Postero die concilio 7 convocato consolatus cohorta- 

15 tusque est: *Ne se admodum animo demitterent, neve per- 
turbarentur incommodo ; non virtute neque in acie vicisse 
Romanos, sed artificio quodam et scientia oppugnationis, 
cuius rei fuerint ipsi imperiti; errare, si qui in bello omnis 
secundos 8 rerum proventiis 9 exspectent; sibi numquam 

20 placuisse Avaricum defendi, cuius rei testis ipsos haberet, 
sed factum imprudentia Biturigum et nimia obsequentia 
reliquorum uti hoc incommodum acciperetur; id tamen se 
celeriter maioribus commodis sanaturum. Nam, quae ab 
reliquis Gallis civitates dissentirent, 10 has sua diligentia 

25 adiuncturum atqueunum consilium totius Galliae effecturum, 
cuius consensui ne orbis quidem terrarum possit obsistere ; 
idque se prope iam effectum habere. Interea aequum 
esse ab eis communis salutis causa impetrari 11 ut castra 
munire instituerent, quo facilius repentinos M hostium impe- 

30 tus sustinere possent.' 

Cf. J opp. Iat5. — 2 feminls. — * opp. occiderunt. — 4 amicis. — 
8 distribuendos. — 6 opp. fine. — 7 contione. — 8 opp. adversos. — 
• eventus. — 10 discederent. — 1! obtineri. — la improvisSs, 

B. G. vil. 31.J Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 207 

They are Inspired by his Appeal to Renewed Efforts. 

30. Fuit haec oratio non ingrata Gallis, et maxime quod 
ipse animo non defecerat * tanto accepto incommodo, neque 
se in occultum 2 abdiderat et conspectum multitudinis fuge- 
rat 3 ; plusque animo providere et praesentire existimabatur, 
quod re integra primo incendendum Avaricum, post deseren- 
dum censuerat. Itaque, ut reliquorum imperatorum res 
adversae 4 auctoritatem minuunt, sic 5 huius ex contrario 

Fig. 96. — Coin of the Bituriges. 

dignitas incommodo accepto in dies augebatur. Simul in 
spem veniebant eius adfirmatione de reliquis adiungendis 
civitatibus ; primumque eo tempore Galli castra munire 10 
instituerunt, et sic erant animo confirmati, homines insueti 
laboris, ut omnia quae imperarentur sibi patienda 6 existi- 

He Levies New Troops. 

31. Nec minus quam est pollicitus Vercingetorix animo 
laborabat ut reliquas civitatis adiungeret, atque earum prin- 15 
cipes donis pollicitationibusque adliciebat. 7 Huic rei ido- 
neos 8 homines deligebat, quorum quisque aut oratione 
subdola 9 aut amicitia f acillime capere posset. Qui Avaricd 
expugnato refugerant, armandos vestiendosque curat. Simul, 
ut deminutae 10 copiae redintegrarentur, imperat certum 20 
numerum militum civitatibus, quem, et quam ante diem, in 

Cf . * defuerat. — 2 opp. apertum. — 8 vitaverat. — 4 opp. secundae. 
— 6 ita. — • perferenda. — 7 conciliabat. — 8 aptos. — 9 callidi. — 
10 opp. auctae. 

208 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

castra adduci velit 1 ; sagittariosque omnis, quorum erat 
permagnus in Gallia numerus, conquiri 2 et ad se mitti iubet. 
His rebus celeriter id quod Avarici deperierat 3 expletur. 
Interim Teutomatus, Olloviconis filius, rex Nitiobrigum, 
5 cuius pater ab senatu nostro amicus erat appellatus, cum 
magno numero equitum suorum et quos ex Aquitania con- 
duxerat ad eum pervenit. 4 

The Hsedui Appeal to Caesar to Settle a Dispute. 

32. Caesar Avarici compluris dies commoratus summam- 
que ibi copiam frumenti et reliqui 5 commeatus nactus, exer- 
10 citum ex labore 6 atque inopia reficit. lam prope hieme 
confecta, — cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bellum 
vocaretur et ad hostem proficisci constituisset, sive eum ex 
paludibus silvisque elicere sive obsidione 7 premere posset, 

— legati ad eum principes Haeduorum veniunt oratum ut 
15 maxime necessario tempore civitati subveniat 8 : 'Summo 

esse in periculo rem ; quod, cum singuli magistrates anti- 
quitus creari atque regiam potestatem annum obtinere con- 
suessent, duo magistratum gerant, et se uterque eorum 
legibus creatum dicat. Horum esse alterum Convictolita- 

20 vem, florentem 9 et inlustrem adulescentem ; alterum Cotum, 
antiquissima 10 familia natum, atque ipsum hominem summae 
potentiae ll et magnae cognationis, cuius frater Valetiacus 
proximo anno eundem magistratum gesserit. Civitatem esse 
omnem in armis, divisum senatum, divisum populum, suas 

25 cuiusque eorum clientelas. 12 Quod si diutius alatur 18 con- 
troversia, fore uti pars cum parte civitatis confligat; id ne 
accidat positum in eius diligentia atque auctoritate.' 

Cf. 1 opp. n51it. — 2 c5gi. — 8 interierat. — 4 opp. discessit. — 6 alius. 

— 6 opp. quiete. — 7 obsessione. — 8 succurrat. — 9 amplum. — 10 opp. 
novissima. — n auctSritatis. — 12 clientes. — 13 augeatur. 

B. G. VII. 34.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix : 209 

He Goes to them in Person and Decides the Case. 

33. Caesar etsi a bello atque hoste discedere detrimento- 
sum esse existimabat, tamen non ignorans quanta ex dissen- 
sionibus incommoda oriri 1 consuessent, ne tanta et tarn 
coniuncta populo Romano civitas, quam ipse semper aluisset 
omnibusque rebus ornasset, ad vim atque arma descenderet, 5 
atque ea pars quae minus 2 sibi conf Ideret auxilia a Vercin- 
getorige arcesseret, 8 huic rei praevertendum 4 existimavit ; et 
quod legibus Haeduorum eis qui summum magistratum obti- 
nerent 5 excedere ex finibus non liceret, ne quid de iure aut 
de legibus eorum deminuisse 6 videretur, ipse in Haeduos 10 
proficisci statuit, senatumque omnem et quos inter contro- 
versia esset ad se Decetiam evocavit. Cum prope omnis 
civitas eo convenisset, docereturque, paucis clam 7 convocatis, 
alio loco, alio tempore atque 8 oportuerit, fratrem a fratre 
renuntiatum, cum leges duo ex una familia vivo 9 utroque 15 
non solum magistratus creari vetarent, 10 sed etiam in senatu 
esse prohiberent, — Cotum imperium deponere coegit ; Con- 
victolitavem, qui per sacerdotes more civitatis intermissis 
magistratibus esset creatus, potestatem obtinere iussit. 

Caesar Sends Labienus Northward and himself Proceeds towards 

34. Hoc decreto interposito, — cohortatus Haeduos ut 20 
controversiarum ac dissensionis obliviscerentur atque omni- 
bus omissis 11 [his] rebus huic bello servirent, eaque quae 
meruissent praemia ab se devicta 12 Gallia exspectarent, equi- 
tatumque omnem et peditum milia decern sibi celeriter 
mitterent, quae in praesidiis rei frumentariae causa dispo- 25 
neret, 13 — exercitum in duas partis divisit : quattuor legiones 

in Senones Parisiosque Labieno ducendas dedit; sex ipse 

Cf. l exsistere. — 2 opp. plus. — 8 vocaret. — 4 praecipiendum. — 
6 gererent. — 6 opp. auxisse. — 7 opp. palam. — 8 quam. — * opp. mor- 
tu5. — 10 opp. inherent. — u depositls. — 12 pacita. — ls distribueret. 

210 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

in Arvernos ad oppidum Gergoviam secundum flumen Elaver 
diixit; equitatus partem ill! attribuit, partem sibi reliquit. 
Qua re cognita Vercingetorix, omnibus interrupts 1 eius 
fluminis pontibus, ab altera fluminis parte iter facere coepit. 

He Succeeds in Crossing the Allier River. 

5 35. Cum uterque utrimque exisset exercitus, in conspectu 
fereque 2 e regione castris castra ponebant. Dispositis 
exploratoribus, necubi effecto ponte Romani copias tradu- 
cerent, erat in magnis Caesari difficultatibus res ne maiorem 
aestatis partem flumine impediretur; quod non fere ante 

i° autumnum Elaver vado transiri solet. Itaque, ne id acci- 
deret, silvestri loco castris positis, 3 e regione unius eorum 
pontium quos Vercingetorix rescindendos curaverat, postero 
die cum duabus legionibus in occulto restitit 4 ; reliquas 
copias cum omnibus impedimentis, ut consuerat, misit, dis- 

15 tractis quibusdam cohortibus, ut numerus legionum con- 
stare 6 videretur. His quam longissime possent progredi 
iussis, cum iam ex diei tempore coniecturam caperet in 
castra perventum, Isdem sublicis, quarum pars inferior 8 
integra remanebat, pontem reficere coepit. 7 Celeriter effecto 

20 opere legionibusque traductis et loco castris idoneo 8 delecto, 
reliquas copias revocavit. Vercingetorix re cognita, ne 
contra suam voluntatem dimicare cogeretur, magnis itineri- 
bus antecessit. 

At Gergovia he Gains an Advantage of Position over Vercingetorix. 

36. Caesar ex eo loco 9 quintis castris Gergoviam per- 

25 venit, equestrique eo die proelio levi facto, perspecto urbis 

situ, quae posita in altissimo monte omnis aditus difficilis 10 

habebat, de oppiignatione desperavit 11 ; de obsessione non 

Cf. x interscissis. — 2 adversus, w. ace. — * opp. motis. — 4 remansit. 
— 6 expleri. — 6 opp. superior. — 7 incepit. — 8 opp. iniquo. — 9 die 
sexto. — 10 opp. leniter adclivis. — u spem deposuit. 

B. G. VII. 37.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 211 

prius agendum constituit quam rem frumentariam expedis- 
set. 1 At Vercingetorix castris prope oppidum in monte 
positis, mediocribus circum se intervallis separatim singula- 
rum civitatum copias conlocaverat ; atque omnibus eius iugi 
collibus occupatis qua despici poterat, horribilem speciem 5 
praebebat 2 ; principesque earum civitatum, quos sibi ad 
consilium capiendum delegerat, prima luce cotidie ad se 
convenire iubebat, seu quid communicandum seu quid 
administrandum 3 videretur; neque ullum fere diem inter- 
mittebat quin equestri proelio, interiectis sagittariis, quid in 10 
quoque esset animi ac virtutis suorum periclitaretur. Erat 
e regione oppidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis egregie 
munitus atque ex omni parte circumcisus, 4 quern si tenerent 
nostri, et aquae magna parte et pabulatione libera prohibi- 
curi hostis videbantur; sed is locus praesidio ab his non 15 
inf irmo 5 tenebatur ; tamen silentio noctis Gaesar ex castris 
egressus, priusquam subsidio ex oppido veniri posset, deiecto 
praesidio potitus loco, duas ibi legiones conlocavit 6 fossam- 
que duplicem duodenum pedum a maioribus castris ad 
minora perduxit, uttuto ab repentino hostium incursu 7 etiam 20 
singuli commeare possent. 

Some of the Haedui Organize a Revolt. 

37. Dum haec ad Gergoviam geruntur, Convictolitavis 
Haeduus, cui magistratum adiudicatum a Caesare demon- 
stravimus, sollicitatus ab Arvernis pecunia cum quibusdam 
adulescentibus conloquitur, quorum erat princeps Litavicus 25 
atque eius fratres, amplissima familia nati 8 adulescentes. 
Cum his praemium communicat 9 hortaturque ut se liberos 
et imperio natos meminerint : *Unam 10 esse Haeduorum civi- 
tatem quae certissimam u Galliae victoriam distineat ; eius 

Cf. l pr5vidisset. — a praestabat. — 8 gerendum. — 4 praeruptus. — 
6 opp. valid5. — 6 posuit. — 7 impetu. — 8 orti. — 9 partitur. ~ 10 solam. 
— u explSratam. 

212 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

auctoritate reliquas contineri ; qua traducta locum consi- 
stendl Romanis in Gallia non fore. Esse non nullo se Cae- 
saris beneficio 1 adfectum, sictamen ut iustissimam apud eum 
causam obtinuerit ; sed plus communi libertati 2 tribuere. 
5 Cur enim potius Haedui de suo iure et de legibus ad Caesa- 
rem disceptatorem, 3 quam Roman! ad Haeduos veniant?' 
Celeriter adulescentibus et oratione magistrates et praemio 
deductis, cum se vel principes eius consili fore profiteren- 
tur, 4 ratio 6 perficiendl quaerebatur, quod civitatem temere 
io ad suscipiendum bellum adduci posse non confidebant. 
Placuit 6 ut Litavicus decern illis milibus quae Caesari ad 
bellum mitterentur praeficeretur, atque ea ducenda curaret 
fratresque eius ad Caesarem praecurrerent. Reliqua qua 
ratione agl placeat constituunt. 

Litavicus at the Head of the Haeduan Contingent Stops at Some 

Distance from Gergovia, and Incites his Troops to Abandon 

the Roman Cause. 

15 38. Litavicus accepto exercitu, cum milia passuum circi- 
ter xxx a Gergovia abesset, convocatis subito militibus 
lacrimans, 7 "Quo pronclscimur," inquit, "milites? Omnis 
noster equitatus, omnis nobilitas interiit; principes civitatis, 
Eporedorix et Viridomarus, insimulati 8 proditionis, ab Ro- 

20 manis indicta 9 causa interfecti sunt. Haec ab his cognoscite 
qui ex ipsa caede effugerunt ; nam ego, fratribus atque omni- 
bus meis propinquis interfectis, dolore prohibeor quae gesta 
sunt pronuntiare." Producuntur ei quos ille edocuerat quae 
dici vellet, 10 atque eadem quae Litavicus proniintiaverat 

25 multitudini exponunt : ' Omnes equites Haeduorum interfec- 
tos, quod conlocuti cum Arvernis dicerentur ; ipsos se inter 
multitudinem militum occultasse n atque ex media caede 
efTugisse.' Conclamant Haedui et Litavicum obsecrant ut 

Cf. x opp. maleficio. — 2 opp. servituti. — 8 arbitrum. — 4 pollice- 
rentur. — 6 consilium. — 6 constitutum est. — 7 flens. — 9 accusati. — 
9 opp. dicta. — 10 opp. nollet. — n abdidisse. 

B. G. VII. 40.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 213 

sibi consulat. " Quasi vero," inquit ille, " consili sit res, ac 
non necesse sit nobis Gergoviam contendere ' et cum Arver- 
nis nosmet coniungerel An dubitamus quin nefario faci- 
nore admisso Romani iam ad nos interficiendos concurrant? 
Proinde, si quid in nobis animi 2 est, persequamur 8 eorum 5 
mortem qui indignissime interierunt, atque hos latrones 
interficiamus ! " Ostendit civis Romanos qui eius praesidi 
fiducia 4 una erant; continuo magnum numerum frumenti 
commeatusque diripit ; ipsos crudeliter excruciatos interficit. 
Nuntios totacivitate Haeduorum dimittit ; eodem mendacio 5 10 
de caede equitum et principum permovet; hortatur ut simili 
ratione atque ipse fecerit suas iniurias persequantur. 

Eporedorix Conveys the News to Caesar. 

39. Eporedorix Haeduus, summo 6 loco natus adulescens 
et summae domi potentiae, et una Viridomarus, pari aetate 

et gratia 7 sed genere dispari, quem Caesar ab Diviciaco sibi 15 
traditum ex humili loco ad summam dignitatem perduxerat, 
in equitum numero convenerant nominatim ab eo evocati. 
His erat inter se de principatu contentio; et in ilia magistra- 
tuum controversia alter pro Convictolitave alter pro Cot;6, 
summis opibus 8 pugnaverant. Ex eis Eporedorix cognito 20 
Litavici consilio media fere nocte rem ad Caesarem defert; 
orat ne patiatur civitatem pravis 9 adulescentium consiliis ab 
amicitia populi Romani deficere ; quod futurum provideat, 
si se tot hominum milia cum hostibus coniunxerint, quorum 
salutem neque propinqui neglegere neque civitas levi 10 25 
momento aestimare possit. 

Caesar Immediately Goes to the Haedui and Suppresses the Revolt. 

40. Magna adfectus sollicitudine u hoc nuntio Caesar, 
quod semper Haeduorum civitati praecipue indulserat, 12 

Cf. x concurrere. — 2 virtutis, opp. timoris. — 8 ulciscamur. — 4 opp. 
perfidia. — 6 simulatione. — 6 opp. humili. — 7 auctoritate. — 8 facul- 
tatibus. — • opp. bonis. — 10 opp. gravi. — n ciira. — 12 faverat. 

214 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

1 nulla interposita dubitatione legiones expedites quattuor 
equitatumque omnem ex castris educit ; nee fuit spatium tali 
tempore ad contrahenda castra, quod res posita in celeritate 
videbatur. C. Fabium legatum cum legionibus duabus 

5 castris praesidio relinquit. Fratres Litavici cum compre- 
hendi 2 iussisset, paulo ante reperit ad hostis profugisse. 
Adhortatus milites ne necessario tempore itineris labore 
permoveantur, 8 cupidissimis omnibus progressus milia pas- 
suum xxv, agmen Haeduorum conspicatur, immisso equi- 

io tatu iter eorum moratur atque impedit; interdicitque 4 
omnibus ne quemquam interficiant. Eporedorlgem et Viri- 
domarum, quos ill! interfectos existimabant, inter equites 
versari suosque appellare iubet. His cognitis et Litavici 
fraude* perspecta, Haedui manus tendere, 6 et deditionem 

15 significare, et proiectis armis mortem deprecari 7 incipiunt. 
Litavicus cum suis clientibus, quibus more Gallorum nefas 
est etiam in extrema fortuna deserere 8 patronos, Gergoviam 

Hastens Back to Gergovia to Relieve Pabius. 

41. Caesar nuntiis ad civitatem Haeduorum missis qui 
20 suo beneficio conservatos docerent, quos iure belli interficere 
potuisset, tribusque horis [noctis] exercitui ad quietem datis 
castra ad Gergoviam movet. 9 Medio fere itinere equites a 
Fabio missi quanto res in periculo fuerit exponunt; 10 sum- 
mis c5piis castra oppugnata demdnstrant, cum crebro 11 
25 integri defessis succederent nostrosque adsiduo 12 labore 
defatigarent, quibus propter magnitudinem castrorum per- 
petuo esset Isdem in vallo permanendum ; multitudine sagit- 
tarum atque omni genere telorum multSs volneratos; ad 
haec sustinenda magno usui fuissetormenta ; Fabium discessu 

Cf. x sine mora. — 2 opp. liberari. — 3 se animo demittant. — 4 vetat, 
w. ace. and inf. — 5 mendacio. — 6 pandere. — 7 opp. petere. — 8 relin- 
quere. — • opp. ponit. — 10 nuntiant. — n opp. rard. - - 12 continuo. 

B. G. VII. 43.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 2 1 5 

eorum, duabus relictis portis, obstruere ceteras pluteosque 
valid addere et se in posterum diem similemque casum 1 
adparare. His rebus cognitis Caesar summo studio militum 
ante ortum solis in castra pervenit. 

Further Plots among the Gauls. 

42. Dum haec ad Gergoviam geruntur, Haedui primis 5 
nuntiis ab Litavico acceptis nullum sibi ad cognoscendum 
spatium relinquunt. Impellit 2 alios avaritia, alios iracundia 

et temeritas, 3 quae maxime ill! hominum generi est innata, 
ut levem audltionem 4 habeant pro re comperta. Bona 
civium Romanorum diripiunt, caedis faciunt, in servitutem 10 
abstrahunt. 5 Adiuvat rem procllnatam Convictolitavis ple- 
bemque ad furorem 6 impellit, ut facinore admisso ad sanita- 
tem revert! pudeat. M. Aristium, tribunum militum, iter ad 
legiones facientem, fide data, ex oppido Cabillono educunt 7 ; 
idem facere cogunt eos qui negotiandi causa ibi constiterant. 8 15 
Hos continuo in itinere adorti omnibus impedimentis exuunt ; 
repiignantis diem noctemque obsident; multis utrimque 
interfectis maiorem multitudinem ad arma concitant. 

The Haedui Seek Reconciliation with Caesar, but do not Cease Plotting. 

43. Interim nuntio adlato omnls eorum milites in potestate 
Caesaris teneri, concurrunt ad Aristium ; nihil publico 9 fac- 20 
turn consilio demonstrant; quaestionem de bonis direptis 
decernunt ; Litavici f ratrumque bona publicant ; legatos ad 
Caesarem purgandi 10 sui gratia mittunt. Haec faciunt recu- 
perandorum u suorum causa ; sed contaminati facinore et 
capti compendio u ex direptis bonis, quod ea res ad multos 25 
pertinebat, et timore poenae exterriti cdnsilia clam de bello 
inire incipiunt civitatisque reliquas legationibus sollicitant. 13 

Cf * fortunam. — 2 inducit. — 8 opp. prudentia. — 4 rumorem. — 
6 abducunt. — 6 amentiam. — 7 adliciunt. — 8 consederant. — 9 opp. 
privato. — 10 excusandi. — n opp. amittendorum. — 12 quaestu. — 
18 concitant. 


The Gallic War. 


Quae tametsi Caesar intellegebat, tamen quam mitissime l 
potest legatos appellat : * Nihil se propter inscientiam levita- 
temque volgi gravius de civitate iudicare, neque de sua in 
Haeduos benevolentia deminuere.' Ipse maiorem Galliae 

Fig. 98. —Cars of the Wounded. 

5 motum exspectans, ne ab omnibus civitatibus circumsistere- 
tur, consilia inibat 2 quern ad modum a Gergovia discederet 
ac rursus omnem exercitum contraheret, ne profectio nata 
ab timore defectionis similisque fugae videretur. 

Cf. l lenissime. — 2 qua ratione. 

B. G. VII. 45.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 2 1 7 

Caesar now Devotes himself to the Capture of Gergovia. 

44. Haec cogitanti accidere visa est facultas bene geren- 
dae rei. Nam cum in minora castra operis perspiciendi 
causa venisset, animadvertit collem qui ab hostibus teneba- 
tur nudatum l hominibus, qui superioribus diebus vix prae 
multitiidine cerni poterat. Admiratus quaerit ex perfugis 5 
causam, quorum magnus ad eum cotidie numerus confluebat. 2 
Constabat inter omnis, quod iam ipse Caesar per explora- 
tores cognoverat, 8 dorsum 4 esse eius iugi 4 prope aequum, 
sed silvestre et angustum, 5 qua esset aditus ad alteram par- 
tem oppidi ; vehementer huic illos loco timere, nee iam aliter 10 
sentire, uno colle ab Romanis occupato, si alterum amisis- 
sent, quin paene circumvallati 6 atque omni exitu et pabula- 
tione interclusi viderentur ; ad hunc muniendum omnis a 
Vercingetorige evocatos. 

He Skilfully Arranges his Troops. 

45. Hac re cognita Caesar mittit compluris equitum tur- 15 
mas eo de media nocte; imperat ut paulo tumultuosius 
omnibus locis pervagentur. Prima luce magnum numerum 
impedimentorum ex castris mulorumque produci deque his 
stramenta detrahi 7 mulionesque cum cassidibus, equitum 
specie ac simulatione, collibus circumvehi iubet His pau- 20 
cos addit equites qui latius ostentationis 8 causa vagentur. 
Longo circuitu easdem omnis iubet petere regiones. Haec 
procul ex oppido videbantur, 9 ut erat a Gergovia despectus 

in castra; neque tanto spatio, 10 certi quid esset, explorari 
poterat. Legionem x eodem luce mittit et paulum progres- 25 
sam inferiore constituit n loco silvisque occultat. 12 Augetur 
(Jallis suspicio atque omnes illo ad munitionem copiae tradu- 

Cf. ' vacuum. — f concurrebat. — 8 reppererat. — 4 summum iugum. 
— 6 opp. latum. — • circumdati. — 7 opp. indui. — 8 specie!. — 9 conspi- 
ciebantur. — 10 intervailo. — n conlocavit. — l2 celat. 

218 The Gallic War. [C*sa* 

cuntur. Vacua castra hostium Caesar conspicatus, tectis 
insignibus suorum occultatisque signis militaribus, raros 1 
milites (ne ex oppido animadverterentur) ex maioribus 
castris in minora traducit, legatisque quos singulis legioni- 

5 bus praefecerat quid fieri velit ostendit : in prlmls monet ut 
contineant milites ne studio pugnandi aut spe praedae 
longius progrediantur ; quid iniquitas loci habeat incommodi 
proponit ; hoc una celeritate posse vitari 2 ; occasionis esse 
rem, non proeli. His rebus expositis signum dat et ab 

io dextra 3 parte alio ascensu eodem tempore Haeduos mittit 

He Makes a Sudden Attack and Captures the Enemy's Camp. 

46. Murus oppidi a planitie atque initio ascensus recta 
regione, si nullus anfractus intercederet, mcc passus aberat ; 
quicquid hue circuitiis ad molliendum clivum accesserat, id 
spatium itineris augebat. 4 A medio fere colle in longitudi- 

1 5 nem, ut natura montis f erebat, ex grandibus 6 saxis vi pedum 
murum qui nostrorum impetum tardaret praeduxerant Galli 
atque, inferiore omni spatio vacuo relicto, superiorem partem 
collis usque ad murum oppidi densissimis 6 castris compleve- 
rant. Milites dato signo celeriter ad munitionem perveni- 

20 unt eamque transgressi trinis castris potiuntur. Ac tanta 
fuit in castris capiendis 7 celeritas ut Teutomatus, rex Nitio- 
brigum, subito in tabernaculo oppressus, 8 ut meridie con- 
quieverat, superiore parte corporis nuda, volnerato equo vix 
se 9 ex manibus praedantium militum eriperet. 9 

The Troops are Eager to Assault the Town. 

25 47. Consecutus id quod animo proposuerat Caesar recep- 
tui cani iussit, legionisque x, quacum erat, contionatus, 
signa constituit. At reliquarum legionum milites non audito 

Cf. * opp. densos, confertos. — 2 sanari. — 8 opp. sinistra. — 4 opp. 
minuebat. — 6 ingentibus. — 6 opp. rarissimis. — 7 occupandis. — 8 de- 
prehensus. — 9 effngeret. 

B. G. VII. 48.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix . 219 

son 6 tubae, quod satis magna valles intercedebat, tamen a 
tribunis militum legatisque, ut erat a Caesare praeceptum, 1 
retinebantur. Sed elati spe celeris victoriae et hostium fuga 
et superiorum temporum secundis 2 proeliis, nihil adeo 
arduum 3 sibi existimabant quod non virtute consequi 4 pos- 5 
sent ; neque finem prius sequendi fecerunt quam muro 
oppidi portisque adpropinquarunt. 6 Turn vero ex omnibus 
urbis partibus orto clamore, qui longius aberant repentino 
tumultu perterriti, cum hostem intra 6 portas esse existima- 
rent, se ex oppido eiecerunt. Matres familiae de muro 10 
vestem argentumque iactabant ; et pectore nudo 7 prominen- 
tes, passis manibus obtestabantur Romanos ut sibi parce- 
rent; neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne a mulieribus quidem 
atque Infantibus abstinerent. Non nullae de muro per manus 
demissae sese militibus tradebant. 8 L. Fabius, centurio 15 
legionis viii, quem inter suos eo die dixisse constabat exci- 
tari se Avaricensibus praemiis, neque commissurum ut prius 
quisquam murum ascenderet, tres suos nactus manipularis 
atque ab els sublevatus 9 murum ascendit. Hos ipse rursus 
singulos exceptans in murum extulit. 20 

The Gauls are Reenforced. 

48. Interim el qui ad alteram partem oppidi, ut supra 10 
demonstravimus, munition is causa convenerant, primo exau- 
dito clamore, inde etiam crebris nuntiis incitati oppidum ab 
Romanis teneri, praemissis equitibus u magno cursu eo con- 
tenderunt. Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro 25 
consistebat suorumque pugnantium numerum augebat. Quo- 
rum cum magna multitudo 12 convenisset, matres familiae, 
quae paulo ante Romanis de muro manus tendebant, 18 suos 
obtestarl et more Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberos- 

Cf . 1 mandatum. — 2 opp. adversis. — 8 difficile. — 4 adipisci. — 6 sub- 
ierunt, w. ace. — 6 opp. extra. — 7 apertd. — 8 dedebant. — 9 sublatus. 
— 10 opp. infra. — u summa celeritate. — 12 numerus. — 18 pandebant. 

220 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

que in conspectum proferre coeperunt. Erat Romanis nee 
loco nee numero aequa 1 contentio; simul et cursu et spatio 2 
pugnae defatigati non facile recentis atque integros sustine- 

Close and Doubtful Struggle. Gallant Exploit of Petronius. 

5 49. Caesar cum iniquo 8 loco pugnari hostiumque copias 
augeri videret, praemetuens suis ad T. Sextium legatum, quern 
minoribus castris praesidio reliquerat, misit ut cohortis ex 
castris celeriter 4 educeret et sub innmo 6 colle ab dextro 
latere hostium constitueret ; ut, si nostros loco depulsos 6 

10 vidisset, quo minus libere hostes insequerentur terreret. 
Ipse, paulum ex eo loco cum legione progressus ubi consti- 
terat, eventum pugnae exspectabat. 

50. Cum acerrime comminus 7 pugnaretur, hostes loco et 
numero, nostri virtute confiderent, subito sunt Haedui visi 

15 ab latere nostris aperto, 8 quos Caesar ab dextra parte alio 
ascensu manus distinendae causa, miserat. Hi similitudine 
armorum vehementer nostros perterruerunt ; ac, tametsi 
dextris umeris exsertis 9 animadvertebantur, quod inslgne 
pactum esse consuerat, tamen id ipsum sui fallendl causa 

20 milites ab hostibus factum existimabant. Eodem tempore L. 
Fabius centurio quique una murum ascenderant circumventi 
atque interfecti de muro praecipitabantur. 10 M. Petronius, 
eiusdem legionis centurio, cum portas excidere 11 conatus 
esset, a multitudine oppressus ac sibi desperans, multis iam 

25 volneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis qui ilium secuti 
erant, "Quoniam," inquit, "me una vobiscum servare non 
possum, vestrae quidem certe vitae prospiciam, quos cupidi- 
tate 12 gloriae adductus in periculum dedtixi. Vos data 
facultate 18 vobis consulite." Simul in medios hostis inrupit 

Cf. 1 par, opp. dispar. — 2 diuturnitate. — 8 alieno. — 4 opp. tarde. 
— 6 opp. summo. — 6 eiectSs. — 7 opp. eminus. — 8 nudo. — • nudis. —■ 
10 deiciebantur. — n rescindere. — 12 studi5. — 18 occasione. 

B. G. VII. 52.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix : 221 

duobusque interfectis reliquos a porta paulum submovit. 
Conantibus auxiliari ! suis, " Frustra," inquit, " meae vitae 
subvenire 2 conamini, quem iam sanguis viresque deficiunt. 
Proinde abite dum est facultas 8 vosque ad legionem reci- 
pite." 4 Ita pugnans post paulum concidit ac suis saluti 5 

The Romans are Driven Back. 

51. Nostri cum undique premerentur, 5 xlvi centurionibus 
amissis deiecti 6 sunt loco; sed intolerantius Gallos inse- 
quentis legio x tardavit, quae pro subsidio paulo aequiore 
loco constiterat. Hanc rursus xni legionis cohortes excepe- 10 
runt, quae ex castris minoribus eductae cum T. Sextio 
legato ceperant locum superiorem. Legiones ubi primum 
plan idem attigerunt, Infestis contra hostem signis constite- 
runt. Vercingetorix ab 7 radicibus collis suos intra muni- 
tiones reduxit. Eo die milites sunt paulo minus dcc 15 

Caesar Reproves his Soldiers for too Great Eagerness, but Praises 
their Courage. 

52. Postero die Caesar condone advocata temeritatem 8 
cupiditatemque militum reprehendit, 9 quod sibi ipsi iudica- 
vissent quo procedendum aut quid agendum videretur, neque 
signo recipiendi dato constitissent neque a tribunis militum 20 
legatisque retineri potuissent. Exposuit quid iniquitas loci 
posset, quod ipse ad Avaricum sensisset, cum sine duce et 
sine equitatu deprehensis hostibus exploratam 10 victoriam 
dimisisset, ne parvum modo detrimentum in contentione 
propter iniquitatem loci accideret. Quanto opere eorum 25 
animi magnitudinem admiraretur, quos non castrorum muni- 
tiones, non altitudo montis, non murus oppidi tardare potuis- 

Cf. 2 iuvare. — 2 auxilium ferre. — 8 potestas. — 4 referte. — 6 urge- 
rentur. — * repulsi — 7 infimS colle. — 8 opp. prudentiam. — 9 incusa- 
▼it.— ^certam. 

222 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

set, tanto opere licentiam 1 adrogantiamque 2 reprehendere, 
quod plus se quam imperatorem de victoria atque exitu 
rerum sentire existimarent ; nee minus se a milite modestiam 
et continentiam quam virtutem atque 3 animi magnitudinem 
5 deslderare. 

After Some Skirmishing, Caesar Moves towards the Haedui. 

53. Hac habita contione et ad extremam 4 orationem con- 
firmatis militibus, ne ob hanc causam animo permoverentur, 
neu, quod iniquitas loci attulisset, id virtuti 5 hostium tribue- 
rent; eadem de profectione cogitans quae ante senserat, 

io legiones ex castris eduxit aciemque idoneo loco constituit. 
Cum Vercingetorix nihilo magis in aequum locum descen- 
deret, levi facto equestri proelio atque eo secundo, in castra 
exercitum reduxit. Cum hoc idem postero die fecisset, satis 
ad Gallicam ostentationem 6 minuendam militumque animos 

15 confirmandos factum existimans, in Haeduos movit castra. 
Ne turn quidem insecutis hostibus, tertio die ad flumen 
Elaver venit ; pontis refecit atque exercitum traduxit. 

He is Confirmed in his Suspicion that the Haedui Mean to Revolt, 
but Tries to Dissuade them. 

54. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedorige Haeduis appella- 
tus, discit cum omni equitatu Litavicum ad sollicitandos 

20 Haeduos profectum ; opus 7 esse ipsos antecedere ad con- 
firmandam civitatem. Etsi multis iam rebus perfidiam 
Haeduorum perspectam habebat, atque horum discessu 
maturari 8 defectionem 9 civitatis existimabat ; tamen eos 
retinendos 10 non censuit, ne aut inferre iniuriam videretur 

25 aut daret timoris aliquam suspicionem. Discedentibus els 
breviter sua in Haeduos merita exposuit; quos et quam 

Cf. * opp, continentiam. — a opp. modestiam. — 8 opp. turpitudinem. 
— 4 °PP- primam. — 6 fortitudini. — 6 adrogantiam. — 7 necessc. — 
8 opp. tardari. — 8 seditionem. — 10 opp. dimittendos. 

B. G. VII. 55.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 223 

humilis ' accepisset, compulsos in oppida, multatos 2 agris, 
omnibus ereptis copiis, imposito stipendio, obsidibus summa 
cum contumelia extortis ; et quam in fortunam quamque in 
amplitudinem duxisset, ut non solum in pristinum 3 statum 
redissent, sed omnium temporum dignitatem et gratiam 5 
antecessisse 4 viderentur. His datis mandatis eos ab 
se dimisit. 

Eporedorix and Viridomarus Kill the Roman Garrison at Noviodunum, 
Seize and Destroy Caesar's Stores, and Burn the Town. 

55. Noviodunum erat oppidum Haeduorum ad ripas Li- 
geris opportimo loco positum. Hue Caesar omnis obsides 
Galliae, frumentum, pecuniam publicam, suorum atque exer- 10 
citus impedimentorum magnam partem contulerat; hue 
magnum numerum equorum, huius belli causa in Italia atque 
Hispania coemptum, miserat. E6 cum Eporedorix Virido- 
marusque venissent et de statu civitatis cognovissent, Lita- 
vicum Bibracte ab Haeduis receptum, quod est oppidum 15 
apud eos maximae auctoritatis, Convictolitavim magistratum 
magnamque partem senatus ad eum convenisse, legatos ad 
Vercingetorigem de pace et amicitia concilianda publice 
missos; non praetermittendum 5 tantum commodum 6 existi- 
maverunt. Itaque interfectis Novioduni custodibus 7 quique 20 
eo negotiandi causa convenerant, pecuniam atque equos 
inter se 8 partiti sunt ; obsides civitatum Bibracte ad magis- 
tratum deducendos curaverunt ; oppidum, quod a se teneri • 
non posse iudicabant, ne cui esset usui Romanis, incende- 
runt; frumenti quod subito potuerunt navibus avexerunt, 25 
reliquum flumine atque incendio corruperunt. Ipsi ex finiti- 
mis regionibus copias cogere, 10 praesidia custodiasque ad 
ripas Ligeris disponere, equitatumque omnibus locis inici- 

Cf. } opp, elatos. — 2 exutos. — 3 priorem. — 4 superasse. — 6 ne- 
glegendum. — 6 opp. incommodum. — 7 praesidiis. — 8 diviscrunt. — 
9 defend!. — 10 opp. dimittere. 

224 The Gallic War. [Cesar 

endl timoris causa ostentare coeperunt; si ab re frumentaria 
Romanos excludere [aut adductos inopia in provinciam 
expellere *] possent. Quam ad spem multum eos adiuvabat * 
quod Liger ex nivibus creverat, ut omnino vado non posse 
5 transiri videretur. 

Caesar Makes a Successful Crossing to the North Side of the Loire. 

56. Quibus rebus cognitis Caesar maturandum 8 sibi 
censuit, 4 si esset in perficiendis pontibus periclitandum, ut 
prius quam essent maiores eo coactae 6 copiae dimicaret. 
Nam ne commutato consilio iter in provinciam converteret, 

io ut non nemo turn quidem necessario faciundum existimabat, 
cum infamia 6 atque indignitas 7 rei et oppositus mons 
Cevenna viarumque difficultas impediebat; turn maxime 
quod abiuncto 8 Labieno atque eis legionibus quas una mi- 
serat vehementer timebat. 9 Itaque admodum magnis diurnis 

15 nocturnisque itineribus confectis, contra omnium opinionem 
ad Ligerim venit ; vadoque per equites invento pro rei neces- 
sitate opportuno, ut bracchia modo 10 atque umeri ad susti 
nenda arma liberi u ab aqua esse possent, disposito equitatu 
qui vim fluminis refringeret, atque hostibus primo adspectu 

20 perturbatis, 12 incolumem exercitum traduxit ; frumentumque 
in agris et pecoris copiam nactus, repleto his rebus exercitu 
iter in Senones facere instituit. 

Labienus Marches towards Lutetia. Camulogenus Opposes him. 

57. Dum haec apud Caesarem geruntur, Labienus eo 
supplemento u quod nuper ex Italia venerat relicto Agedinci, 

25 ut esset impedimentis praesidio, cum quattuor legionibus 
Lutetiam proficiscitur. Id est oppidum Parisiorum positum 
in insula fluminis Sequanae. Cuius adventu ab hostibus 

Cf. l eicere. — a opp. impediebat. — 8 properandum. — 4 sensit . — 
6 conlectae. — 6 igndminia. — 7 turpitudo. — 8 detracts. — * metuebat. 
— M tantum. — u exserti. — u permotis. — u auxiliis. 

B. G. VII. 57.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 225 

cognito magnae ex finitimis civitatibus copiae convenerunt. 
Summa imperi traditur Camulogeno Aulerco, qui prope con- 
fectus l aetate tamen propter singularem scientiam rei mili- 


taris ad eum est honorem evocatus. 2 Is cum animadvertisset 
perpetuam esse paludem, quae influeret in Sequanam atque 
ilium omnem locum magnopere impediret, hie consedit no- 
strosque transitu prohibere instituit. 

Cf. 1 consumptus. — 2 sublatua. 

226 The Gallic War. [Cjesar 

Labienus Falls back to Metiosedum, Which he Captures. The Enemy 
Follow him. 

58. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munire 1 conabatur. Postquam 
id difficilius fieri animadvertit, silentio e castris tertia vigilia 
egressus, eodem quo venerat itinere Metiosedum pervenit. 

5 Id est oppidum Senonum in insula Sequanae positum, ut 
paulo ante de Lutetia diximus. Deprehensis * navibus cir- 
citer l celeriterque coniunctis atque eo militibus impositis 3 
et rei novitate perterritis 4 oppidanis, quorum magna pars 
erat ad bellum evocata, sine contentione oppido potitur. 

io Refecto 6 ponte, quern superioribus diebus hostes resciderant, 
exercitum traducit et secundo 6 flumine ad Lutetiam iter 
facere coepit. Hostes re cognita ab eis qui a Metiosedo 
profugerant, Lutetiam incendi, 7 pontisque eius oppidi re- 
scindi iubent; ipsi profecti a palude in ripa Sequanae e 

15 regione Lutetiae contri Labieni castra considunt. 

Labienus Learns of Caesar's Repulse at Gergovia and of the Spread of 
the Gallic Revolt. 

59. lam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur; iam 
de Haeduorum defectione et secundo Galliae motu rumores 
adferebantur ; Gallique in conloquiis interclusum 8 itinere et 
Ligeri Caesarem, inopia frumenti coactum, 9 in provinciam 

20 contendisse confirmabant. ' Bellovaci autem defectione 
Haeduorum cognita, qui iam ante erant per se infideles, 19 
maniis cogere atque aperte bellum parare coeperunt. Turn 
Labienus tanta rerum commutatione longe aliud sibi capien- 
dum consilium atque antea 11 senserat intellegebat ; neque 

25 iam ut aliquid acquireret proelioque hostis lacesseret, 12 sed 
ut incolumem exercitum Agedincum reduceret cogitabat 

Cf. x efficere. — 2 captis. — 8 iniectis. — 4 perturbatis. — 6 opp. re- 
scissd. — 6 opp. adverso. — 7 succendi. — 8 excludo, with ab and the abl. 
— 9 adductum. — 10 perfidi. — u opp. postea. — u vexarot. 

B. G. VII. 6 1.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 227 

Namque altera ex parte Bellovaci, quae civitas in Gallia 
maxim am habet opinionem virtutis, Instabant ; * alteram 
Camulogenus parato atque instructo exercitu tenebat; turn 
legiones a praesidio atque impedimentis interclusas maxi- 
mum flumen distinebat. 2 Tantis subito difficultatibus ob- 5 
iectis ab animi virtute auxilium petendum videbat. 

Successful Stratagem of Labienus. 

60. Itaque 3 sub vesperum consilio 4 convocato, cohorta- 
tus ut ea quae imperasset diligenter industrieque 5 admini- 
strarent, navis quas Metiosedo deduxerat singulas equitibus 
Romanls attribuit; et prima confecta 6 vigilia 1111 milia 10 
passuum secundo flumine silentio progredi ibique se exspec- 
tare iubet. V cohortis quas minime firmas ad dimicandum 
esse existimabat castris praesidio relinquit; v eiusdem 
legionis reliquas de media nocte cum omnibus impedimentis 
adverso flumine magno tumultu 7 proficlsci imperat. Con- 15 
quirit etiam lintris ; has magno sonitu remorum incitatas 8 in 
eandem partem mittit. Ipse post paulo silentio egressus cum 
tribus legionibus eum locum petit quo navis adpelli iusserat. 

The Enemy Divide their Forces, as Labienus Desired. 

61. Eo cum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, ut omni 
fluminis parte erant dispositi, inopinantes, quod magna 20 
subito erat coorta tempestas, 9 a nostris opprimuntur ; exer- 
citus equitatusque, equitibus Romanls administrantibus quos 

ei negotio praefecerat, 10 celeriter transmittitur. 11 Uno fere 
tempore sub lucem hostibus nuntiatur in castris Roma- 
norum praeter consuetudinem tumultuari, 12 et magnum ire 25 
agmen adverso flumine sonitumque remorum in eadem parte 
exaudiri, et paulo Infra milites navibus transportari. Quibus 

Cf. * premebant. — 2 opp. coniungebat. — 8 opp. sub lucem. — 4 cod- 
tione. — * opp. tarde. — 6 opp. inita. — 7 opp. silentio. — 8 actas. — 
» opp. malacia. — 10 praeposuerat. — u transpSrtatur. — u trepidare. 

228 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

rebus auditis, quod existimabant tribus locis transire legiones, 
[atque omnis perturbatos defectione Haeduorum fugam 
parare], suas quoque copias in tres partis distribuerunt. 
Nam praesidio * e regione castrorum relicto, et parva manu 
5 Metiosedum versus missa quae tantum progrederetur quan- 
tum naves processissent, reliquas copias contra Labienum 

Labienus, having Attacked and Routed the Gauls, Joins Caesar. 

62. Prima luce et nostri omnes erant transportati et hos- 
tium acies cernebatur. 2 Labienus, milites cohortatus ut 

10 suae pristinae virtutis et tot secundissimorum proeliorum 
retinerent memoriam, atque ipsum Caesarem, 8 cuius ductu 
saepe numero hostls superassent, praesentem adesse exlsti- 
marent, dat signum proeli. Primo concursu 4 ab dextro 
cornii, ubi septima legio constiterat, hostes pelluntur atque 

«5 in fugam coniciuntur 5 ; ab sinistro, quem locum xn legio 
tenebat, cum primi ordines hostium transfix! pills concidis- 
sent, tamen acerrime reliqui resistebant, nee dabat suspicio- 
nem fugae quisquam. Ipse dux hostium Camulogenus suis 
aderat atque eos cohortabatur. At incerto 6 etiam nunc 

20 exitu victoriae, cum vn legionis tribunls esset nuntiatum 
quae in sinistro cornu gererentur, post tergum hostium legio- 
nem ostenderunt 7 signaque intulerunt. Ne eo quidem 
tempore quisquam 8 loco cessit, sed circumvent! omnes inter- 
fectique sunt. Eandem fortunam 9 tulit Camulogenus. At ei 

25 qui in praesidio 10 contra castra Labieni erant relicti, cum 
proelium commissum audissent, subsidio suis ierunt collem- 
que ceperunt, neque nostrorum militum victorum impetum 
sustinere potuerunt. Sic cum suis fugientibus permixti, 
quos non silvae montesque texerunt, ab equitatu sunt inter^ 

Cf. 1 adversus, w. ace. — 2 perspiciebatur. — 8 qud duce. — 4 im- 
peti. — 6 dantur. — 6 opp. expldratd. — 7 impetum fecerunt. — 8 pedem 
retulit, se recepit. — • casum. — 10 e region© castrorum. 

B. G. VII. 64.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 229 

fecti. Hoc negotio 1 confecto Labienus revertitur Agedin- 
cum, ubi impedimenta totius exercitus relicta erant. Inde 
cum omnibus copiis ad Caesarem pervenit. 

Further Spread of the Revolt. Vercingetorix Appointed Commander- 
in-chief by a General Vote. The Haedui Dissatisfied. 

63. Defectione Haeduorum cognita bellum augetur. 2 Le- 
gationes in omnis partis circummittuntur ; quantum gratia, 5 
auctoritate, pecunia valent, ad sollicitandas civitatis nituntur. 
Nacti obsides quos Caesar apud eos deposuerat, horum sup- 
plicio dubitantis territant. Petunt a Vercingetorlge Haedui 

ut ad se veniat rationesque 3 belli gerundi communicet. Re 
impetrata 4 contendunt * ut ipsis summa imperi tradatur 5 et 10 
re in controversiam deducta, totius Galliae concilium Bibracte 
indicitur. Conveniunt undique frequentes. 6 Multitudinis 
suffrages res permittitur ; ad unum oranes Vercingetorigem 
probant imperatorem. Ab hoc concilio Remi, Lingones, 
Treveri afuerunt : illi, quod amicitiam Romanorum seque- 15 
bantur; Treveri, quod aberant longius et aGermanis preme- 
bantur, quae fuit causa qua re toto abessent bello et neutris 
auxilia mitterent. Magno dolore Haedui ferunt se deiectos 
principatu ; queruntur fortunae commutationem et Caesaris 
in se indulgentiam requirunt 7 ; neque tamen suscepto bello 20 
suum consilium ab reliquis separare 8 audent. Inviti sum- 
mae spei adulescentes, Eporedorix et Viridomarus, Vercinge- 
torigi parent. 

Vercingetorix Lays Extensive Plans to Extend the Revolt and Weaken 
the Romans. 

64. Ipse imperat reliquis civitatibus obsides; denique ei 
rei constituit diem. Hue omnis equites, xv milia numero, 25 
celeriter convenire iubet; peditatu quern ante habuerit se 
fore contentum dicit, neque fortiinam temptaturum aut acie 

Cf. 1 re. — 2 opp. minuitur. — 8 consilia. — 4 opp. recusata. — 6 pos- 
tulant. — • plurimi. — 7 desiderant. — 8 distinere. 

230 The Gallic War. [Cvesab 

dimicaturum 1 ; sed quoniam abundet * equitatu, perf acile 
esse factu frumentationibus pabulationibusque Romanos 
prohibere ; aequo modo animo sua ipsi frumenta corrum- 
pant, 3 aedificiaque incendant ; qua rei familiaris iactura per- 
5 petuum imperium libertatemque se consequi 4 videant. His 
constitutes rebus Haeduls Segusiavisque, qui sunt finitimi 
[ei] provinciae, x milia peditum imperat ; hue addit equites 
dccc. His praeflcit fratrem Eporedorigis bellumque inferri 
Allobrogibus iubet. Altera ex parte Gabalos proximosque 

10 pagos Arvernorum in Helvios, item Rutenos Cadurcosque 
ad finis Volcarum Arecomicorum depopulandos 6 mittit. 
Nihilo minus clandestinis nuntiis legationibusque Allobrogas 
sollicitat, 6 quorum mentis nondum ab superiore 7 bello rese- 
disse sperabat. Horum principibus pecunias, civitati autem 

15 imperium 8 totius provinciae pollicetur. 

Caesar Sends to Germany for Cavalry. 

65. Ad hos omnis casus provisa erant praesidia cohortium 
duarum et viginti, quae ex ipsa coacta provincia ab L. Cae- 
sare legato ad omnis partis opponebantur. Helvii sua 
sponte cum finitimis proelio congress! pelluntur, et C. Vale- 

20 rio Donnotauro, Caburi filio, principe civitatis, compluri- 
busque aliis interfectis, intra oppida miirosque compelluntur. 
Allobroges crebris ad Rhodanum dispositis praesidiis magna 
cum cura et diligentia suos finis tuentur. 9 Caesar, quod 
hostis equitatu superiores esse intellegebat, et interclusis 1C 

25 omnibus itineribus nulla re ex provincia atque Italia suble- 
vari 11 poterat, trans Rhenum in Germaniam mittit ad eas 
civitatis quas superioribus annis pacaverat; equitesque ab 
his arcessit 12 et levis armatiirae pedites, qui inter eos proe- 
liari consuerant. Eorum adventu, quod minus idoneis equis 

Cf. 1 contenturum. — 2 opp. caret. — 8 perdant. — 4 adipiscl. — 
6 vastandos. — 6 temptat. — 7 vetere. — 8 principatum. — 9 defendant 
— 10 obsessls. — ll iu van. — ■ postula vit. 

ft H«A K!/sL»B')te»T' 

\Pressant w / -.jts -■■■-■■-■- yjy ""/^Hg 

l^k* ^^^S^' > I^%W Montour 


"—--Saqoieii ay- 

East from Greenwich 

Fig. ioo. — Defeat of Vercingetorix at the Vingeanne. 

A . Caesar's camp the day before the battle. 

B. The three camps of Vercingetorix. 

C. Roman column of march at the time the attack was made, 

D. Gallic lines of infantry. 

E. Caesar's camp the night after the battle. 

a. Roman cavalry. 

b. German cavalry. 

c. Gallic cavalry. 

B. G. VII. 67.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix . 23 1 

utebantur, a tribunis militum reliquisque [sed et] equitibus 
Romanis atque evocatls equos sumit Germanisque distribuit. 

Vercingetorix Addresses a Council of Cavalry Officers, Urging an 
Attack upon the Romans. They Eagerly Assent. 

66. Interea, dum haec geruntur, hostium copiae ex 
Arvernls, equitesque qui toti Galliae erant imperati con- 
veniunt. Magno horum coacto numero, cum Caesar in 5 
Sequanos per extremSs Lingonum finis iter faceret, quo 
facilius subsidium provinciae ferre posset, circiter milia 
passuum x ab Romanis trinis castrls Vercingetorix consedit ; 
convocatlsque ad consilium praefectls equitum venisse 
tempus victoriae demonstrat 1 : ' Fugere in provinciam Ro- 10 
manos Galliaque excedere. Id sibi ad praesentem obtinen- 
dam libertatem 2 satis esse; ad reliqui temporis pacem atque 
6tium 3 parum proficl; maioribus enim coactls copils rever- 
suros neque finem bellandi facturos. Proinde 4 in agmine 
impedltos adoriantur. Si pedites suis auxilium f erant atque 15 
in eo morentur, 5 iter facere non posse ; si, id quod magis 
futurum confldat, 6 relictls impedimentis suae salutl consulant, 
et usu rerum necessariarum et dlgnitate spoliatum Irl. Nam 
de equitibus hostium, quln nemo eorum progredi modo extra 
agmen audeat, ne ipsos quidem debere dubitare. Id quo 20 
maiore faciant animo, 7 copias se omnls pro castrls habiturum 8 
et terrorl hostibus futurum.' Conclamant equites : ' Sanctis- 
simo iure iurando confirmarl oportere ne tecto recipiatur, ne 
ad liberos, ne ad parentis, ne ad uxorem aditum habeat, qui 
non bis per agmen hostium perequitarit.' 25 

The Attack is Made, and the Gauls are Defeated with Considerable Loss. 

67. Probata re atque omnibus ad ius iurandum adactls, 9 
postero die in tres partis distributo 10 equitatu duae se acies 

Cf. 1 ostendit. — 2 opp. servitutem. — 8 opp. negotium. — 4 quam 
ob rem. — 6 cunctentur. — 6 speret. — 7 virtute. — 8 Instructurum. — 
• obstrictis. — 10 diviso. 

232 The Gallic War. [Caesar 

ab duobus lateribus ostendunt, una a primo agmine iter 
impedire coepit. 1 Qua re nuntiata, Caesar suum quoque 
equitatum tripartite) divisum contra hostem ire iubet. Pug- 
natur una omnibus in partibus. Consistit 2 agmen ; impedi- 

5 menta intra legiones recipiuntur. Si qua in parte nostri 
laborare aut gravius premi videbantur, eo signa inferri Cae- 
sar aciemque converti iubebat ; quae res et hostis ad 
insequendum tardabat et nostros spe auxili confirmabat. 
Tandem German! ab dextro latere summum iugum nacti 

to hostis loco depellunt 8 : fugientis usque ad flumen, ubi Ver- 
cingetorix cum pedestribus copiis consederat, persequuntur 
complurisque interficiunt. Qua re animadversa reliqui, ne 
circumvenirentur veriti, 4 se fugae mandant. Omnibus locis 
fit caedes. Tres nobilissimi Haedui capti ad Caesarem per- 

5 ducuntur : Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum 
Convictolitavi proximis comitiis habuerat; et Cavarillus, qui 
post defectionem Litavici pedestribus copiis praefuerat ; et 
Eporedorix, 5 quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Haedui curt 
Sequanis bello contenderant. 

Vercingetorix Retires to Alesia, Which Caesar Determines to Invest. 

20 68. Fugato omni equitatu Vercingetorix copias suas, ut 
pro castris conlocaverat, reduxit protinusque 6 Alesiam, quod 
est oppidum Mandubiorum, iter f acere coepit ; celeriterque 
impedimenta ex castris ediici et se subsequi iussit. Caesar 
impedimentis in proximum collem ductis, duabus legionibus 

25 praesidio relictis, secutus hostis quantum diei tempus est 
passum, circiter in milibus exnovissimo 7 agmine interfectis, 
altero die ad Alesiam castra fecit. 8 Perspecto 9 urbis situ 
perterritisque hostibus, quod equitatu (qua maxime parte 
exercitus conf idebant 10 ) erant pulsi, adhortatus ad laborem 

30 milites Alesiam circumvallare u instituit. 

Cf. 2 incepit. — 2 opp. progressum est. — 8 deiciunt. — 4 terga \er- 
tunt. — 5 cuius ductii. — 6 continuo. — 7 opp. primS. — 8 posuit. — 9 ex 
pl6rat6.— M opp. diffidebant. — u obsidere. 

B. G. VII. 70.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 233 

Description of Alesia and its Defenses. 

69. Ipsum erat oppidum in colle summo ^dmodum edito 
loco, ut nisi obsidione expugnari non posse videretur. Cuius 
collis radices duo duabus ex partibus flumina subluebant. 
Ante oppidum planities circiter milia passuum in in longitu- 
dinem patebat 2 ; reliquis ex omnibus partibus colles, medi- 5 
ocrl interiecto spatio, pari altitudinis fastigio oppidum 
cingebant. Sub muro, quae pars collis ad orientem solem 
spectabat, hunc omnem locum copiae Gallorum compleve- 
rant, fossamque et maceriam 3 in altitudinem vi pedum prae- 
duxerant. Eius munitionis quae ab Romanis Instituebatur 10 
circuitus xi milia passuum teneb'at. 4 Castra opportunis 
locis erant posita viii castellaque xxm facta ; quibus in 
castellls interdiu 5 stationes ponebantur, ne qua subito erup- 
tio 6 fieret; haec eadem noctu excubitoribus 7 ac flrmis prae- 
sidiis tenebantur. 15 

A Cavalry Battle in the Plain. The Gauls Defeated with Great 

70. Opere instituto fit equestre proelium in ea planitie 
quam intermissam collibus tria milia passuum in longitudi- 
nem patere supra demonstravimus. Summa vi ab utrisque 
contenditur. Laborantibus nostris Caesar Germanos sub- 
mittit legionesque pro castrls constituit, ne qua subito inrup- 20 
tio 8 ab hostium peditatu fiat. Praesidio legionum addito 
nostris animus augetur ; hostes in f ugam coniecti 9 se ipsi 
multitudine impediunt atque angustioribus 10 portis relictis 
coartantur. Germani acrius usque ad munitiones sequuntur. 
Fit magna caedes ; non nulll relictis equis fossam transire 25 
et maceriam transcendere conantur. Paulum legiones Cae- 
sar quas pro vallo constituerat promoveri iubet. Non 

Cf. ' altissimo. — 2 pertinebat. — 8 murum. — 4 patebat. — 6 opp. 
noctu. — 6 excursio. — 7 yigiliis. — 8 incursid. — 9 dati. — 10 opp. latiO- 


234 TJie Gallic War. [Caesar 

minus qui intra munitiones erant Galli perturbantur; veniri 
ad se confestim 1 existimantes ad arma conclamant ; non 
null! perterriti in oppidum inrumpunt. Vercingetorix iubet 
portas claudi, 2 ne castra nudentur. Multis interfectis, com- 
5 pluribus equis captis, Germani sese recipiunt. 

Vercingetorix Sends Away his Cavalry and Calls for Help from 

71. Vercingetorix, priusquam munitiones ab Romanis 
perficiantur, consilium capit 3 omnem ab se equitatum noctu 
dimittere. Discedentibus mandat ut suam quisque eorum 
civitatem adeat omnisque qui per aetatem arma ferre possint 

to ad bellum cogant. 4 Sua in illos merita 5 proponit, obtes- 
taturque ut suae salutis ration em habeant, neu se optime de 
communi libertate meritum in cruciatum hostibus dedant. 
Quod si indiligentiores 6 fuerint, milia hominum delecta 
lxxx una secum interitura demonstrat Ratione inita fru- 

15 mentum se exigue dierum xxx habere, sed paulo etiam 
longius tolerare 7 posse parcendo. His datis mandatis, qua 
nostrum opus intermissum, secunda vigilia silentio equitatum 
dimittit ; frumentum omne ad se referri iubet ; capitis poe- 
nam eis qui non paruerint constituit ; pecus, cuius magna 

20 erat copia a Mandubiis compulsa, viritim distribuit ; fru- 
mentum parce et paulatim metiri Instituit; copias omnis 
quas pro oppido conlocaverat 8 in oppidum recipit. His 
rationibus 9 auxilia Galliae exspectare et bellum administrare 

Description of Csesar's Works of Circumvallation. 

25 72. Quibus rebus cognitis ex perfugis et captivis Caesar 
haec genera munitionis instituit: fossam pedum viginti 
directis 10 lateribus duxit, ut eius fossae solum tantundem 

Cf. 2 protinus. — 2 opp. aperiri. — 8 init. — * conquirant. — 6 officia. 
— 6 neglegentiores. — 7 sustinere. — 8 constituerat. — • modis. — 10 di 
recte ad perpendiculum. 

B. G. VII. 73.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 235 

pateret quantum summa labra distarent. Reliquas omnis 
munitiones ab ea fossa pedes cccc reduxit : [id] hoc con- 
silio (quoniam tantum esset necessarid spatium complexus, 
nee facile totum opus corona militum cingeretur), ne de 
improviso aut noctu ad munitiones multitudo hostium advo- 5 
laret, aut interdiu tela in nostros 1 operi destinatos conicere 
possent. Hoc intermisso spatio duas fossas xv pedes latas, 
eadem altitudine perduxit ; quarum interiorem campestribus 
ac demissis 2 locis aqua ex flumine derivata 8 complevit. 
Post eas aggerem ac vallum xn pedum exstruxit : huic to 
loricam pinnasque adiecit, grandibus cervis eminentibus ad 
commissuras pluteorum atque aggeris, qui ascensum hostium 
tardarent 4 ; et turris toto opere circumdedit quae pedes lxxx 
inter se distarent. 

73. Erat eodem tempore et materiari et frumentari et tan- 15 
tas munitiones fieri necesse, deminutis nostris copiis, quae 
longius 5 a castris progrediebantur ; ac non numquam opera 
nostra Galli temptare 6 atque eruptionem ex oppido pluribus 
portis summa vi facere conabantur. Qua re ad haec rursus 
opera addendum Caesar putavit, quo minore numero militum 20 
munitiones defendl possent. Itaque truncis arborum aut 
admodum firmls ramis abscisis, atque horum delibratis 7 ac 
praeacutis cacuminibus, perpetuae fossae quinos pedes altae 
ducebantur. Hue ill! stipites demissi et ab infimo revincti, 8 
ne revelli possent, ab ramis eminebant. 9 Quini erant ordi- 25 
nes coniuncti inter se atque implicati ; quo qui intraverant, 10 
se ipsi acutissimis vallis induebant. 11 Hos cippos appella- 
bant. Ante hos obliquis ordinibus in quincuncem dispo- 
sitis scrobes in altitudinem trium pedum fodiebantur paulatim 
angustiore ad infimum u f astigio. Hue teretes stipites femi- 3° 
nis crassitudine ab summo praeacuti et praeusti demitteban- 

Cf. 1 in opere occupatos. — 2 humilibus. — * deducta. — 4 impedi- 
rent. — 6 opp. propius. — 8 adoriri. — 7 exutis. — 8 infixi. — 9 exsta- 
bant. — 10 opp. exierant. — u transfodiebantur. — u opp. summum. 

236 The Gallic War. [Obsak 

tur, ita ut non amplius digitis mi ex terra * eminerent ; 
simul confirmandi et stabiliendi causa singuli ab infimo 
solo pedes terra exculcabantur ; reliqua pars scrobis ad 
occultandas 2 insidias viminibus ac virgultis integebatur. 
5 Huius generis octoni ordines ducti ternos inter se pedes 
distabant. Id ex similitudine floris lilium appellabant. 
Ante haec taleae pedem longae ferreis hamis infixis totae in 
terram infodiebantur, 3 mediocribusque intermissis spatils 
omnibus locis disserebantur, quos stimulos nominabant. 

10 74. His rebus perfectis, regiones secutus quam potuit 
aequissimas 4 pro loci natura, xiv milia passuum complexus 
paris 6 eiusdem generis munitiones, diversas ab his, contra 
exteriorem hostem perfecit, ut ne magna quidem multitudine 
[si ita accidat 6 eius discessu], munitionum praesidia circum- 

15 fundi 7 possent; ne autem cum periculo ex castris egredi 
cogatur, dierum xxx pabulum frumentumque habere omnis 
convectum 8 iubet. 

Levy of Troops from All Gaul for the Relief of Alesia. 

75. Dum haec apud Alesiam geruntur, Galli concilio prin- 
cipum indicto non omnis qui arma ferre possent, ut censuit 

20 Vercingetorix, convocandos statuunt, sed certum numerum 
cuique civitati imperandum ; ne tanta multitudine confusa 
nee moderari <J nee discernere suos nee frumentandi rationem 
habere possent. Imperant Haeduis atque eorum clientibus, 
Segusiavis, Ambivaretis, Aulercis, Brannovicibus, [Blanno- 

25 viis,] milia xxxv ; parem numerum Arvernis, adiunctis 
Eleutetis, Cadurcis, Gabalis, Vellaviis, qui sub imperio Arver- 
norum esse consuerunt ; Sequanis, Senonibus, Biturigibus, 
Santonis, Rutenis, Carnutibus duodena milia; Bellovacis 
x; totidem Lemovicibus ; octona Pictonibus et Turonis 

Cf. 1 solo. — 2 opp. patefaciendas. — 8 demittebantur. — * opp. ini- 
qui8sima8. — 8 similis. — 6 fiat. — ' circumveniri. — 8 comportatum. 
— • continere, regere. 

< * 

« ... 


a i 

u ;? 

c 5 


i 5 


B. G. VII. 76.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 237 

et Parisiis et Helvetiis; sena Andibus, Ambianis, Medio- 
matricis, Petrocoriis, Nerviis, Morinis, Nitiobrigibus ; quina 
milia Aulercis Cenomanis ; totidem Atrebatibus ; 1111 Velio- 
cassis ; [Lexoviis, et] Aulercis Eburovicibus in ; Rauracis et 
Boiis bina ; x universis civitatibus quae Oceanum attingunt 5 
quaeque eorum consuetudine Aremoricae appellantur, quo 
sunt in numero Coriosolites, Redones, Ambibarii, Caletes, 
Osismi, Veneti, Lexovii, Venelli. Ex his Bellovaci suum 
numerum non contuierunt, quod se suo nomine atque arbi- 
trio cum Romanis bellum gesturos dicerent, neque cuius- 10 
quam imperio obtemperaturos l ; rogati tamen a Commio 
pro eius hospitio duo milia miserunt. 

The Gauls under Commius Approach Alesia with High Hopes. 

76. Huius opera Commi, ut antea demonstravimus, fideli 
atque xitili superioribus annis erat usus in Britannia Caesar ; 
pr5 quibus meritis civitatem eius immunem 2 esse iusserat, 15 
iura legesque reddiderat atque ipsi Morinos attribuerat. 
Tanta tamen universae Galliae consensio 8 fuit libertatis vin- 
dicandae et pristinae belli laudis 4 recuperandae ut neque 
beneficiis neque amicitiae memoria moveretur, omnesque et 
animo et opibus in id bellum incumberent. 5 Coactis equi- 20 
turn milibus vni et peditum circiter ccl, haec in Haeduorum 
f inibus recensebantur, numerusque inibatur, praefecti 6 con- 
stituebantur ; Commio Atrebati, Viridomaro et Eporedorigi 
Haeduis, Vercassivellauno Arverno, consobrino Vercinge- 
torigis, summa imperi traditur. His delecti ex civitatibus 25 
attribuuntur quorum consilio bellum administraretur. Om- 
nes alacres et fidiiciae pleni ad Alesiam proficiscuntur ; 
neque erat omnium quisquam qui adspectum modo tantae 
multitudinis sustineri posse arbitraretur, praesertim ancipiti 
proelio, cum ex oppido eruptione piignaretur, foris tantae 30 
copiae equitatus peditatusque cernerentur. 7 

Cf. x concessuros. — 2 opp. stipendiariam. — 8 opp. dissensio. — 
* gloriae. — 6 Insisterent. — 6 duces. — 7 c5nspicerentur. 

238 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

A Council is Held in Alesia. Speech of Critognatua and his Desperate 

77. At el qui Alesiae obsidebantur, praeterita die qua 
auxilia suorum exspectaverant, consumptd omni frumento, 
inscii l quid in Haeduis gereretur, concilio coacto de exitu 
suarum fortunarum consultabant. Ac variis 2 dictis senten- 
5 tils, quarum pars deditionem, pars, dum vires suppeterent, 3 
eruptionem censebat, non praetereunda 4 oratio Critognati 
videtur propter eius singularem ac nefariam criidelitatem. 5 

Hie summo in Arvernis ortus 6 loco et magnae habitus auc- 
toritatis : " Nihil," inquit, " de eorum sententia dicturus sum 

10 qui turpissimam servitutem deditionis nomine appellant, 
neque hos habendos civium loco neque ad concilium adhi- 
bendos censeo. Cum his mihi res est qui eruptionem pro- 
bant; quorum in consilio omnium vestrum consensu pristinae 
residere 7 virtutis memoria videtur. Animi est ista mollitia, 

15 non virtus, paulisper inopiam 8 ferre 9 non posse. Qui se 
ultro morti offerant facilius reperiuntur quam qui dolorem 
patienter ferant. Atque ego hanc sententiam probarem 
(tantum apud me dignitas potest), si nullam praeterquam 
vitae nostrae iacturam fieri viderem ; sed in consilio capi- 

20 endo omnem Galliam respiciamus, quam ad nostrum auxilium 
concitavimus. 10 Quid, hominum milibus lxxx uno loco 
interfectis, propinquis consanguineisque nostris animi u fore 
existimatis, si paene in ipsis cadaveribus proelio decertare 
cogentur? Nolite hos vestro auxilio exspoliare qui vestrae 

25 salutis causa suum periculum neglexerunt ; nee stultitia ac 
temeritate u vestra, aut animi imbecillitate, omnem Galliam 
prosternere et perpetuae servituti subicere. An, quod ad 
diem non venerunt, de eorum fide constantiaque ■* dubitatis ? 

Cf. 1 ignorantes. — 2 diversis. — 8 superessent. — * praetermittenda. 
— 6 opp. clementiam. — 6 natus. — 7 manere. — 8 opp. copiam. — • tole- 
rare. — 10 convocavimus. — u fortitudinis. — u opp. prudentia. — 
" opp. imbecillitate. 

B. G. vil. 78.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 239 

Quid ergo? Romanos in illis ulterioribus munitionibus 
animine 1 causa cotidie exerceri putatis? Si illorum nuntiis 
confirmari non potestis omni aditu praesepto, his utimini 
testibus adpropinquare eorum adventum; cuius rei timore 
exterriti diem noctemque in opere versantur. 5 

" Quid ergo mei consili est ? Facere quod nostri maiores 
nequaquam pari bello Cimbrorum Teutonumque fecerunt ; qui 
in oppida compulsi ac simili inopia subacti, eorum corporibus 
qui aetate ad bellum inutiles videbantur vitam toleraverunt, 
neque se hostibus tradiderunt. 2 Cuius rei si exemplum non 10 
haberemus, tamen libertatis causa institui et posteris prodi 
pulcherrimum iiidicarem. Nam quid illi simile bello fuit? 
Depopulate Gallia Cimbri, magnaque inlata calamitate, fini- 
bus quidem nostris aliquando excesserunt atque alias terras 
petierunt; iura, leges, agros, libertatem nobis reliquerunt. 15 
Romani vero quid petunt aliud aut quid volunt, nisi invidia 
adducti, quos fama nobilis potentisque bello cognoverunt, 
horum in agris civitatibusque considere atque his aeternam 8 
iniungere 4 servitutem? Neque enim umquam alia condi- 
cione bella gesserunt. Quod si ea quae in longinquis natio- 20 
nibus geruntur ignoratis, respicite finitimam Galliam, quae 
in provinciam redacta, iiire etlegibus commutatis, securibus* 
subiecta perpetua premitur servitute ! " 

The Mandubii are Compelled to Leave the Town. Caesar Declines to 
Receive them. 

78. Sententiis dictis constituunt ut ei qui valetudine aut 
aetate inutiles sint bello oppido excedant, 6 atque omnia 25 
prius experiantur 7 quam ad Critognati sententiam descen- 
dant : illo tamen potius utendum 8 consilio, si res cogat 
atque auxilia morentur, quam aut deditionis aut pacis sube- 
undam condicionem. Mandubii, qui eos oppido receperant, 

Cf. 1 voluptatis. — 2 dediderunt. — 8 perpetuam. — 4 imponere. — 
6 imperio Romano. — • exeant. — 7 temptent. — 8 opp. omittendum. 

240 The Gallic War. [Cjesar 

cum liberis atque uxoribus exire coguntur. Hi cum ad 
munitiones Romanorum accessissent, fieri tes omnibus pre- 
cibus orabant ut se in servitutem receptos cibo iuvarent. 
At Caesar dispositis in vallo custodiis recipi prohibebat. 

Arrival of Commius with the Army of Relief. Joy of the Besieged. 

5 79. Interea Commius reliquique duces, 1 quibus summa 
imperi permissa 2 erat, cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam per- 
veniunt, et colle exteriore occupato non longius mille passi 
bus a nostris munitionibus considunt. Postero die equitatu 
ex castris educto omnem earn planitiem, quam in longitudi- 

io nem milia passuum in patere demonstravimus, complent ; 
pedestrisque copias paulum ab eo loco abductas in locis 
superioribus constituunt. Erat ex oppido Alesia despectus 
in campum. Concurrunt his auxiliis visis 3 ; fit gratulatio 
inter eos atque omnium animi ad laetitiam excitantur. Ita- 

15 que productis copiis ante oppidum consistunt, et proximam 
fossam cratibus integunt atque aggere 4 explent, seque ad 
eruptionem atque omnis casus comparant. 

A Fierce Engagement Takes Place in the Valley. The Gauls are 

80. Caesar omni exercitu ad utramque partem munitio- 
num disposito, ut, si usus veniat, suum quisque locum teneat 5 

20 et noverit, equitatum ex castris ediici et proelium committi 
iubet. Erat ex omnibus castris, quae summum undique 
iugum tenebant, despectus; atque omnes milites intenti 
pugnae proventum 6 exspectabant. Galli inter equites raros 7 
sagittarios expeditosque levis armaturae interiecerant, qui 

25 suis cedentibus auxilio succurrerent et nostrorum equitum 
impetus sustinerent. Ab his complures de improviso volne- 
rati proelio excedebant. Cum suos pugna superiores esse 

Cf. 1 praefecti. — 2 commissa. — 8 conspectw. — * terra. — 6 opp. de- 
serat. — * eventum. — 7 opp. dens5s. 

B. G. VII. 80.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix . 241 

Galli conf iderent l et nostros multitudine premi viderent, ex 
omnibus partibus et ei qui munitionibus continebantur et ei 
qui ad auxilium convenerant clamore et ululatu suorum ani-. 
mos confirmabant. Quod in conspectu omnium res gereba- 
tur, neque recte ac turpiter factum celari 2 poterat ; utrosque 5 

Fig. 104. — Light-armed Soldier. 

Fig. 105. — Archer. 

et laudis cupiditas et timor ignominiae ad virtutem excita- 
bat. Cum a meridie prope ad solis occasum dubia victoria 
pugnaretur, Germani una in parte confertis turmis in hostis 
impetum fecerunt eosque propulerunt. Quibus in fugam 
coniectis sagittarii circumventi interfectique sunt. Item ex 10 
reliquis partibus nostri cedentis usque ad castra insecuti sui 
conligendi facultatem non dederunt. At ei qui Alesia pro- 

Cf. 1 crcderent. — 3 occultari. 

242 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

cesserant, maesti l prope victoria desperate se in oppidum 

The Gauls Make a Night Attack. 

81. Uno die intermisso Galli atque hoc spatio magno 
cratium,scalarum, harpagonum numero effecto, media nocte 
5 silentio ex castris egressi ad campestris munitiones acce- 
dunt. Subito clamore sublato, qua significatione qui in 
oppido obsidebantur de suo adventu cognoscere possent, 
cratis proicere, fundis, sagittis, lapidibus nostros de vallo 
proturbare, 2 reliquaque quae ad oppugnationem pertinent 

io parant administrate. Eodem tempore clamore exaudito 
dat tuba signum suis Vercingetorix atque ex oppido educit. 
Nostri, ut superioribus diebus suus cuique erat locus attri- 
biitus, ad munltiones accedunt ; fundis librilibus, sudibusque 
quas in opere disposuerant, ac glandibus Gallos proterrent. 

15 Prospectu tenebris 8 adempto multa utrimque volnera accipi- 
untur ; complura tormentis tela coniciuntur. At M. Antonius 
et C. Trebonius legati, quibus hae partes ad defendendum 
obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros premi intellexerant, his 
auxilio ex ulterioribus castellis deductos submittebant. 

They Retire Discomfited. 

20 82. Dum longius a munitione aberant Galli, plus multitu- 
dine telorum proficiebant ; posteaquam propius successerunt, 
aut se stimulis inopinantes induebant aut in scrobis delati 
transfodiebantur aut ex vallo ac turribus traiecti pilis mura- 
libus interibant. Multis undique volneribus acceptis, nulla 

25 munitione perrupta, cum lux adpeteret, 4 veriti ne ab latere 
aperto ex superioribus castris eruptione circumvenirentur, se 
ad suos receperunt. At interiores, dum ea quae a Vercin- 
getorige ad eruptionem praeparata erant proferunt, priores 
fossas explent ; diutius in his rebus administrandis morati, 

Cf. x tristes. — 2 propellere. — 8 opp. luce. — * adiret. 

B. G. vii. 84.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 243 

prius suos discessisse cognoverunt quam munitionibus ad- 
propinquarent. Ita re infecta in oppidum reverterunt 

The Army of Relief Makes Another Attempt. 

83. Bis magno cum detrimento x repulsi Galli quid agant 
consulunt. Locorum peritos 2 adhibent ; ex his superiorum 
castrorum situs munitionesque cognoscunt. Erat a septen- 5 
trionibus collis, quera propter magnitudinem circuitus 8 opere 
circumplecti non potuerant nostri ; necessarioque paene 
iniquo loco et leniter declivi castra fecerant. Haec C. An- 
tistius Reginus et C. Caninius Rebilus legati cum duabus 
legion ibus obtinebant. Cognitis per exploratores regionibus 10 
duces hostium lx milia ex omni numero deligunt, earum 
civitatum quae maximam virtutis opinionem habebant; quid 
quoque pacta agi placeat occulte inter se constituunt ; ade- 
undi tempus definiunt cum meridies esse videatur. His 
copiis Vercassivellaunum Arvernum, iinum ex 1111 ducibus, 15 
propinquum Vercingetorigis, praeficiunt. Ille ex castris 
prima vigilia egressus, prope confecto sub lucem itinere, 
post montem se occultavit militesque ex nocturno labore 
sese reficere iussit. Cum iam meridies adpropinquare vide- 
retur, ad ea castra quae supra demonstravimus contendit ; 20 
eodemque tempore equitatus ad campestris munitiones acce- 
dere et reliquae copiae pro castris sese ostendere coeperunt. 

Vercingetorix Cooperates. Difficulties of the Romans. 

84. Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus ex 
oppido egreditur : cratis, longurios, musculos, falcis, reliqua- 
que quae eruptionis causa paraverat profert. Pugnatur iino 25 
tempore omnibus locis atque omnia temptantur ; quae minime 
visa pars firma est hue concurritur. Romanorum manus 
tantis munitionibus distinetur nee facile pluribus locis occur- 
rit. Multum ad terrendos nostros valet clamor, qui post 

Cf. l caede. — 2 opp. imperitos. — 8 circumvallare. 

244 The Gallic War. [C^sar 

tergum pugnantibus exstitit, quod suum periculum in aliena 
vident virtute constare ; omnia enim plerumque quae absunt 
vehementius hominum mentis perturbant. 

Fighting Continues with Energy on Both Sides. 

85. Caesar idoneum locum nactus quid quaque ex parte 
5 geratur cognoscit ; laborantibus subsidium submittit. Utris- 

que ad animum occurrit unum esse illud tempus quo maxime 
contendl conveniat : Galli, nisi perfregerint munitiones, de 
omni salute desperant ; Romani, si rem obtinuerint, finem 
laborum omnium exspectant. Maxime ad superiores muni- 

io tiones laboratur, quo Vercassivellaunum missum demonstra- 
vimus. Iniquum loci ad declivitatem fastigium magnum 
habet momentum. Alii tela coniciunt, alii testudine facta 
subeunt; defatigatis in vicem integri succedunt. Agger ab 
universis in munitionem coniectus et ascensum dat Gallis, 

15 et ea quae in terra occultaverant Romani contegit ; nee iam 
arma nostris nee vires suppetunt. 

Caesar Personally Encourages his Troops. 

86. His rebus cognitis Caesar Labienum cum cohortibus 
VI subsidio laborantibus mittit. Imperat, si sustinere non 
possit, deductis cohortibus eruptione pugnet ; id nisi neces- 

20 sario ne faciat. Ipse adit reliquos ; cohortatur ne labori 
succumbant ; omnium superiorum dimicationum fructum in 
eo die atque hora docet consistere. Interiores, desperatis 
campestribus locis propter magnitudinem munitionum, loca 
praerupta [ex] ascensu temptant; hue ea quae paraverant 

25 conferunt. Multitudine telorum ex turribus propugnantis 
deturbant, aggere et cratibus fossas explent, falcibus vallum 
ac loricam rescindunt. 

His Activity in Various Parts of the Field. 

87. Mittit primum Brutum adulescentem cum cohortibus 
Caesar, post cum aliis C. Fabium legatum ; postremo ipse, 

Fig. 106. — Statuh of Vbrcingbtorix. 

B. G. VII. 88.] Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 245 

cum vehementius pugnaretur, integros subsidio adducit. 
Restituto proelio ac repulsis hostibus, eo quo Labienum 
miserat contendit; cohortis nil ex proximo castello deducit, 
equitum partem se sequi, partem circumire exteriores muni- 
tiones et a tergo hostis adoriri iubet. Labienus, postquam 5 
neque aggeres neque fossae vim hostium sustinere poterant, 
coactis xl cohortibus, quas ex proximis praesidiis deductas 
fors obtulit, Caesarem per nuntios facit certiorem quid faci- 
endum existimet. Accelerat Caesar ut proelio intersit 

Utter Defeat of the Gauls with Great Slaughter. 

88. Eius adventu ex colore vestitiis cognito, [quo insigni 10 
in proeliis uti consuerat], turmisque equitum et cohortibus 
visis quas se sequi iusserat, ut de locis superioribus haec 
declivia et devexa cernebantur, hostes proelium committunt. 
Utrimque clamore sublato excipit rursus ex vallo atque om- 
nibus munitionibus clamor. Nostri omissis pills gladiis rem 1 5 
gerunt. Repente post tergum equitatus cernitur ; cohortes 
aliae adpropin quant. Hostes terga vertunt ; fugientibus 
equites occurrunt ; fit magna caedes. Sedulius, dux et prin- 
ceps Lemovicum, occiditur; Vercassivellaunus Arvernus 
vivus in fuga comprehenditur ; signa militaria lxxiiii ad 20 
Caesarem referuntur ; pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes 
in castra recipiunt. Conspicati ex oppido caedem et fugam 
suorum, desperata salute, copias a munitionibus reducunt 
Fit protinus hac re audita ex castris Gallorum fuga. Quod 
nisi crebris subsidiis ac totius diei labore milites essent 25 
defessi, omnes hostium copiae deleri potuissent. De media 
nocte missus equitatus novissimum agmen consequitur: 
magnus numerus capitur atque interficitur ; reliqui ex fuga 
in civitatis discedunt. 

246 The Gallic War. [c^sar 

Vercingetorix Surrenders. 

89. Postero die Vercingetorix concilio convocato id bel- 
lum se suscepisse non suarum necessitatum sed communis 
libertatis causa demonstrat ; et quoniam sit fortunae ceden- 
dum, ad utramque rem se illis offerre, seu morte sua Roma- 

5 nis satisfacere seu vivum tradere velint. Mittuntur de his 
rebus ad Caesarem legati. Iubet arma tradl, principes pro- 
duel. Ipse in munitione pro castrls considit; eo duces 
producuntur. Vercingetorix deditur ; arma proiciuntur. 
Reservatis Haeduis atque Arvernls, si per eos civitatis recu- 
10 perare posset, ex reliquls captlvis toti exercitui capita singula 
praedae nomine distribuit. 

Caesar's Distribution of his Forces for the Winter. A Twenty Days' 
Thanksgiving Decreed at Rome. 

90. His rebus confectis in Haeduos proficiscitur; clvita- 
tem recipit. Eo legatl ab Arvernls missi quae imperaret se 
facturos pollicentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsidum. 

15 Legiones in hiberna mittit; captlvorum circiter xx milia 
Haeduis Arvernlsque reddit. T. Labienum cum duabus 
legionibus et equitatu in Sequanos proficisci iubet ; huic 
M. Sempronium Rutilum attribuit. C. Fabium legatum et 
L. Minucium Basilum cum legionibus duabus in Remis 

20 conlocat, ne quam a finitimis Bellovacis calamitatem accipi- 
ant. C. Antistium Reginum in Ambivaretos, T. Sextium in 
Bituriges, C. Caninium Rebilum in Rutenos, cum singulis 
legionibus mittit. Q. Tullium Ciceronem et P. Sulpicium 
Cabilloni et Matiscone in Haeduis ad Ararim rei frumenta- 

25 riae causa, conlocat. Ipse Bibracte hiemare constituit. 

His rebus ex Caesaris litteris cognitis Romae dierum viginti 
supplicatio redditur. 


Fig. 107. — Thb Legionary. 

Fig. 108. — Coin of C<esar. 

Book First. — B.C. 58. 

The Helvetian War. — Early in the year 58 B.C. the whole population of 
Helvetia (northern Switzerland), amounting to about 360,000, attempted to pass by 
an armed emigration through the heart of Gaul, in order to settle somewhere near 
the shore of the Bay of Biscay, possibly with the hope of becoming masters of the whole 
country. They were hemmed in by the great natural barriers of the Alps, the Lake 
of Geneva, and the Jura Mountains on the south and west, and pressed on the 
north by great hordes of Germans, who kept up a continual border war. Their fields 
were scant, their harvests insufficient, their people hardy and fearless. Their ambi- 
tious chief, Orgetorix, had prepared them so well for this enterprise that his flight 
and death — when he was charged with guilty conspiracy and put on trial for his 
life — caused no delay. The attempt was held in check by Caesar, during a fort- 
night's parley, till sufficient earthworks had been thrown up along the Rhone to 
withstand their advance across the river ; the advance was then made in force along 
the narrow pass between that river and the Jura. But the Helvetians did not suc- 
ceed in getting more than fifty miles beyond the frontier when they were overtaken 
by Caesar, who, by a few light skirmishes and two bloody battles, forced them back 
to their own territories with the loss of more than 200,000 lives. This brief cam- 
paign, lasting only from March to June, is called the Helvetian War. 

Reading References on the Helvetian War. 

Dodge's Caesar, pp. 50-81. 

Froude's Caesar, pp. 214-231. 

Trollope's Caesar, pp. 35-38. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 8. 

Guizot's Hist, of France, Vol. I. pp. 47-51. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, pp. 26-36. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 237-254. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 289-295. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 3. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

N.B. The grammars cited are those of Allen and Greenough (§), Bennett (B.), Gilder, 
sleeve (G.), Harkness (H.), and Hale and Buck (H-B.). References in parentheses are to 
the old editions. Cf. {confer) = compare ; sc. {scilicet) = supply ; ff . = and following ; subjv 
= subjunctive ; imv. = imperative ; ftn. = footnote. 


250 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G 

Page 1. Line 1. Gallia: that is, Transalpine Gaul, excluding the 
Roman province (Provincia) in the southeast, as well as Gallia Cisalpina, 
now northern Italy. It occupied the territory of France, including the 
country to the Rhine boundary, with most of the Netherlands and Switzer- 
land (see map, Fig. 2). — omnis (predicate), as a whole. — est divisa, is 
divided: the adjective use of the participle, not the perfect passive ; § 495 
(291. b)\ B. 337. 2; G. 250. R. 2 i H. 640. 3 (550. n. 2 ); H-B. 320. iil — 
unam: sc. partem. 

1 2 incolunt : in translation (not in reading the Latin to make out the 
sense) change the voice to the passive in order to preserve the empha 
sis in the English idiom. It is well to acquire the habit of making such 
changes. The natural English form would be : of which one is inhabited by 
the Belgians, etc., but the Latin uses the active voice. The moment you 
find an accusative beginning a sentence, if it seems from its meaning to be 
a direct object, you can at once think of it as a subject in the nominative 
(at the same time noticing that the Latin does not make it such). The verb can 
then be instantly thought of as a passive and the subject as agent. This 
inversion is so common in Latin for purposes of rhetoric that such a device 
is a very helpful one, and if properly used from the start need not obscure 
the Latin construction. The Latin plays upon the position of words to pro- 
duce all sorts of shades of rhetorical expression, and it is never too early 
to observe these shades and try to render them in our own idiom. — 
Belgae : probably of the Cymric branch of the Celtic race, allied to the 
Britons and the modern Welsh ; they inhabited the modern Belgium and 
northern France, and were considerably mixed with Germans (see Bk. it 
ch. 1). — Aquitani: of the Spanish Iberians (the modern Basques) inhabit 
ing the districts of the southwest (see Bk. iii. ch. 20). — aliam : here alteram 
would be more usual as meaning the second in the list. — qui . . . appel 
lantur : notice that in Latin any relative may suggest its own antecedent 
as with the indefinite relative (whoever) in English. In English we have to 
supply a demonstrative (those) who. So here tertiam qui = tertiam partem 
ei incolunt qui; see § 307. c (200. c) ; B. 251. 1 ; G. 619 ; H. 399. 4 (445. 6) ; 
H-B. 284. 1. — ipsorum, etc.: notice that the position of words is so sig- 
nificant in Latin, through its indicated emphasis, that it may allow words 
to be omitted which must be supplied in the thought. In this case the 
English idiom is the same : in their own tongue ... in ours. 

1 3 Celtae : probably of the Gaelic branch, represented by the Irish and 
the Highland Scotch. — lingua: abl. of specification ; § 418 (253) ; B. 226; 
G. 397 ; H. 480 (424) ; H-B. 441. 

1 4 differunt : the language of the Aquitani was Basque ; of the Gauls 
proper, Celtic; of the Belgians, another dialect of Celtic mixed with German. 


Li.] The Helvetian War, 251 

1 4 inter %t,from one another : the pieposition inter may be used to 
show any reciprocal relation; § 301./ (196./) ; B. 245; G. 221; H. 502. 
t (448. n.); H-B. 266. — Gallos: see note on incolunt, 1. 2. 

1 5 dividit : the verb is singular, because the two rivers make one 
boundary; § 317. b (205. b)\ B. 255. 3; G. Bit. R. 1 ; H. 392. 4 (463. il 3) ; 
H-B. 331. 3. 

1 6 horum: part. gen. with fortissimi; § 346. a. 2 (216. a) ; B. 201. 1 ; 
G. 372; H. 442 (397. 3) ; H-B. 346. — propterea quod, because; lit. because 
0/ this, that, etc. The difference between this and the simple quod is only 
one of greater emphasis — almost as strong as and the reason is or and it is 

1 7 cultu, civilization, as shown by outward signs, dress, and habits 
of life. — humanitate, refinement, of mind or feeling. — provinciae: the 
province of Gallia Narbonensis, organized about B.C. 120. Its chief cities 
were Massilia {Marseilles), an old Greek free city, and the capital, Narbo 
{Narbonne), a Roman colony. The name Provincia has come down to us 
in the modern Provence. 

1 8 mercatores : these were traders or peddlers, mostly from the sea- 
port of Massilia ; they travelled with pack-horses, mules, and wagons. A 
very common article of traffic, as with our Indian traders, was intoxicating 
drinks, — wines from the southern coast, which, especially, as Caesar says, 
M tend to debauch the character." These people, it is said, would give the 
traders a boy for a jar of wine. — commeant : this verb means, especially, 
to go back and forth in the way of traffic. The main line of trade lay across 
the country, by the river Liger {Loire). — ea : object of important. 

1 9 effeminandos : § 506 (300) ; B. 339. 2 ; G. 427 ; H. 628 (544) ; H-B. 
612. iii. — proximi: notice how the three superlatives, longissime, minime, 
and proximi are arranged. After the emphatic idea of cultu, etc., is com- 
pleted, the superlatives begin each its own phrase. 

1 10 Germanis: dat. with an adjective of nearness; § 384 (234. a); B. 
192. 1; G. 359; H. 434. 2 (391. 1); H-B. 362. iii. — trans Rhenum: the 
Rhine was, in general, the boundary between the Gauls and the Germans, 
and has so remained till modern times. — continenter (adverb from the 
participle of contineo, hold together), incessantly ; strictly, without any inter- 
ruption. The pupil should begin at once to notice the way in which words 
develop into groups expressing the same idea in the forms of the various 
parts of speech. See p. 449. 

1 11 qua de causa, and for this reason: § 308-/(180./) ; B. 251. 6; G. 
610; H. 510 (453); H-B. 284. 8; referring back to proximi, etc., and 
further explained by quod . . . contendunt. — Helvetii : here, it will be 

ticed, reckoned as Gauls. — quoque : Le. just as the Belgians. 

252 Notes: Casar. [B. G. 

1 12 reliquos, the rest of: § 293 (193); B. 241. 1; G. 291. r. 2 ; H. 
497. 4 (440. 2. N. 1 ' 2 ) ; H-B. 346. c ; notice the emphasis of position ; the 
others as opposed to the Helvetii. — virtute, not virtue, but courage ; for 
construction, see note on lingua, 1. 3. — praecedunt, excel ; lit. go ahead of. 

1 13 proeliis : abl. of means ; finibus : abl. of separation. — cum pro- 
hibent, while they keep them off (pro-habeo). 

1 14 ipsi (emphatic), themselves, the Helvetians ; eos and eorum refer 
to the Germans. 

2 l eorum una pars, one division of them (the Gauls or Celts), the 
people being identified with the country. — quam . . . dictum est, which, 
it has been (already) said, the Gauls hold. Notice that in direct discourse 
it would be Galli obtinent: the subject nom. is changed to ace. and the 
indie, to the infin. after the verb of saying, dictum est; § 561. a (272. R.) ; 
B. 330 ; G. 527 ; H. 613. 2 (535. 1) ; H-B. 534. 1, 590. 1. Here quam is the 
object and Gallos the subject of obtinere, while the clause is the subject 
of dictum est; § 560, 561, 566. b (329, 330. a. 2); B. 330; G. 528; H. 615 
(538); H-B. 238, 590. 1. a. — obtinere (ob-teneo), not obtain, but occupy; 
strictly, hold against all claimants. Ob in composition almost always has 
the sense of opposing or coming in the way of something. This is one of 
the many words which have entirely changed their meaning in their descent 
from the Latin. Always be on your guard against rendering Latin words 
by the English one corresponding. Obtineo does not mean obtain, nor 
occupo, occupy. The corresponding word is often suggestive as a guide to 
the meaning, but must not be used without careful examination. 

2 3 ab Sequanis, on the side of, etc., regarded from the point of view of 
the Province ; a very common use of ab ; § 429. b (260. b) ; G. 390. 2. N. 6 ; 
H. 490 (434. 1); H-B. 406. 2. 

2 4 vergit, etc., slopes to the north ; the highlands (Cevennes) are 
along the southern boundary, and the rivers in that quarter flow in their 

main course northerly. — septentriones 
(septem triones, " the seven plough-oxen ") : 
i.e. the constellations of the Great and 
Little Bears. The word is used both in 
the singular, as below, and in the plural, 
as here. 

Fig. 109. — Gallic Coin. 2 5 Galliae : i.e. Celtic Gaul, the 

country just described, not Gallia omnis. 
2 6 spectant : i.e. considered from the Province, it lies in that direc- 

2 8 ad Hispaniam, next to Spain, i.e. the Bay of Biscay : § 428. d (259./); 
H. 420. 1 (433- i)- 

I.i,2.] The Helvetian War. 253 

2 9 spectat : cf . spectant above. — inter occasum, etc., northwest, i.e. 
from the Province. 

2 11 Chap. 2. nobilissimus, of highest birth. Popular revolutions had, 
among the Gauls as among the Greeks and Romans, mostly dispossessed 
the old chiefs, or kings; and they had established an annual magistrate 
called Vergobret (ch. 16). But the heads of the ruling families would 
naturally be ambitious to recover what they could of the old class power, 
and Orgetorix is represented as aspiring to create a monarchy in Gaul. 

2 12 M.= Marco. Always read and translate these names without 
abbreviation. — Messala, etc. : this was B.C. 61, three years before Caesar's 
first campaign in Gaul. This construction of consulibus was the usual 
way of denoting the year ; not so formal in English as while Messala and 
Piso were consuls, but merely in the consulship of; abl. abs., § 419. a (255. 
a) ; B. 227. 1 ; G. 409, 410; H. 489 and 1 (431 and 2) ; H-B. 421. 1. 

2 13 cupiditate: abl. of means; § 409 (248. c) ; B. 218; G. 401; H. 
476 (420) ; H-B. 423. — coniurationem, a league sworn to fidelity by oath 
(iuro). — nobilitatis : from the account given in ch. 4, we see how immense 
was the class power still held by the nobles, and why they would naturally 
join in such a combination. 

2 13 civitati persuasit: § 367 (227); B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 1 
(385. ii) ; H-B. 362. ftn. 3 and 1 ; the direct object of persuasit is the clause 
ut . . . exirent; § 563 (331); B. 295. 1; G. 546; H. 564. i (498); H-B. 502. 
3. a ; translate the latter by the infinitive according to the English idiom. 
Votes were easily " persuaded " by such means as Orgetorix possessed. For 
the sequence of tenses in exirent, see § 484 (286. r.) ; B. 267 ; G. 510; H. 
545. ii. 1 (493. 1) ; H-B. 476; and for the plur., see § 280. a (182. a) ; B. 
254. 4; G. 211. R.i ; H. 389 (636. iv. 4) ; H-B. 325. 

2 15 perfacile: predicate with esse, while its subject is the infin. 
clause with potiri ; § 289. d (189. d) ; G. 422. 3 ; H. 394. 4 (438. 3) ; cf. H-B. 
325. b; showing that it was quite easy, since they exceeded all men in valor, 
to win the empire of all Gaul. — esse : indir. disc, depending on some 
word implied in persuasit; § 580. a (336. 2. n. 2 ) ; B. 314. 2; G. 546. r. 1 , 
649. R. 2 ; H. 642. 1 (523. i. N.) ; cf. H-B. 534. 1. a. Notice that the 
Latin has the power of putting various dependent clauses after a single 
verb. Here the idea of persuading takes the thing that was to be done 
in an «/-clause. The facts of which they were persuaded take the indir. 
disc. Careful attention to this usage will make many difficult passages 
easy. It is not the verb used, but the meaning, that decides the construc- 
tion. — cum praestarent: subjv. after cum meaning since ; § 549 (326); 
B. 286. 2; G. 586; H. 598 (517); H-B. 526. 

2 16 imperio : § 410 (249) ; B. 218. 1 ; G. 407 ; H. 477 (421. i) ; H-B. 429. 

254 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

2 17 hoc facilius, all the easier: originally degree of difference, as in 
all ablatives with comparative ; but hardly different in sense from the abl. 
of cause; § 404 (245); B. 219; G. 408; H. 475 (416); H-B. 424. a. — id: 
object of persuasit; §369 (227./); B. 176.2. a; G. 345; H. 426.6 
(384. 2) ; H-B. 364. 4 : we should say, persuaded them of it. Usually with 
persuadere the dat. and ace. are both used only when the latter is a pro- 
noun. — loci natura, by the nature of the country. 

2 18 una ex parte, on one side : cf. ab Sequanis above, so undique, on 
(lit. front) all sides ; hinc, on this side, etc. The effect on the senses is 
supposed to come from the direction referred to. — latissimo, very broad. 

2 19 qui takes its gender not from flumine, but from Rheno ; § 306 
(199); B. 250. 3; G. 614. 3-3; H. 396. 2 (445. 4) ; H-B. 326. 

2 23 his rebus, etc. : lit. from these things it was coming about that they 
roamed about less widely and could less easily make war, etc. But this is 
obviously not an English mode of thought, nor a form which any English 
speaking person would ever naturally use. So here, as always, you must 
see from this clumsy expression what is meant and then express it in the 
natural vernacular, something like, from all this they were getting less free 
to wander and having less opportunity to make war, etc. Several other 
ways of expressing this may be imagined. One of the greatest advantages 
of classical study is to set the mind free from forms, and bring into prom- 
inence the possibility of saying the same thing in fundamentally different 
ways. — fiebat : the imperfect expresses the continued effect of the causes ; 
§470 (277); B. 260. 1; G. 231; H. 534 (468, 469); H-B. 468. 2; the 
subject of fiebat is the clause ut . . . possent ; § 569 (332. a) ; B. 297. 2, 
cf. 284. 1 ; G. 553. 3, 4; H. 571. 1 (501. i); H-B. 521. 3. a. 

2 24 qua ex parte : here in which respect hardly differs from from which 
cause. — homines (a sort of apposition) = being (as they were) men eager 
for war. 

3 1 bellandi: § 349. a (218. a) ; B. 338. 1. b; G. 374. 5; H. 626, 451. 1 
(542. 1, 399. i. 1); H-B. 612. 1. — zdiiciebaintvLT = ajiciebantur : for the 
assimilation of consonants, see § 16 (11) ; B. 8. 4; G. 9; H. 374. 2 (344. 5) ; 
H-B. 51. 2. In this edition the unchanged form of the preposition is 
usually preferred. — pro, in proportion to ; cf. our force oifor. 

3 2 multitudine : their numbers, including some small dependent popu 
lations, were 368,000 (see ch. 29). 

3 3 angustos finis, too narrow limits. So in English such words often 
suggest a negative idea ; cf. a " scant pattern." 

3 4 milia passuum, miles (1000 paces), the regular way of stating this 
measure, milia being ace. of extent of space, and passuum part. gen. The 
passus was the stretch from heel to heel, i.e. from where one heel is raised 

1.2,3-] The Helvetian War. 255 

to where it is set down again, and is reckoned at five Roman feet. A 
Roman mile (mille passuum) was about 400 feet less than ours ; it meas- 
ures the distance which a soldier would march in a thousand double 
paces. — CCXL = ducenta quadraginta. 
Always give the Latin words for nu- 
merals in reading the text. 

3 5 patebant : throughout the latter 
part of this chapter notice the use of 

the imperfect of description or general 

v ,,...**.. Fig. no. — Gallic Coin. 

statement, compared with the perfect of 

simple narrative in persuasit above and constituerunt, etc., below. This 
distinction is very marked in Latin, and must always be noticed, though 
not always translated. Our progressive imperfect is much more limited in 
its use than the Latin imperfect. But the latter always describes a situa- 
tion and never advances the narrative of occurrences. 

3 7 Chap. 3. quae . . . pertinerent : dependent clause in indir. disc. ; 
§ 592. 3 (341. d) ; B. 323 ; G. 628; H. 649. i (528. 1) ; H-B. 535. 1 and a. 
The mood shows that its clause expresses not the writer's statement, but 
that of the speaker or actor or some other person concerned. Always 
bear in mind that Caesar uses the subjunctive to express something differ- 
ent from the indicative, whether you can find the technical rule for it or 
not. — comparare . . . confirmare : these infinitives correspond exactly 
with our idiom to prepare, etc., but the same meaning is of tener expressed 
by a subjunctive clause with ut ; § 457 (271. a); B. 328. 1; G. 423; H. 

607. 1 (533- i- 5 H " B - 586. e. 

3 8 iumentorum, beasts of burden ; properly, yoke-animals (kindred with 
iungo, join, and iugum, yoke) ; carrorum, a Celtic word, two-wheeled carts. 
See Fig. 55, p. 94. — quam maximum, as great as possible : § 291. c, 321 
(93. b, 207) ; B. 240. 3, 177-3 5 G - 3°3 ; H - !59- 2 (170. 2) ; H-B. 241. 4. 

3 9 coemere . . . f acere . . . confirmare : notice that the Latin more 
easily dispenses with connectives than we do. 

3 11 conficiendas, completing : con in composition may mean together ; 
or, as here, may be simply intensive (cf. do a thing up). This word is 
shown to be a gerundive by having a noun with which it agrees. Cf. pro- 
ficiscendum, 3 7, where there is no noun ; § 503 (296) ; B. 339. 2 ; G. 427 ; 
H. 623 (544. 1); H-B. 613. 1. 

3 13 lege : probably a resolution passed in a public assembly. 

3 12 in tertium annum confnmaiat, fx for the third year. 

3 14 sibi . . . suscepit, took on himself: for construction, see § 370 
(228) ; B. 187. iii; G. 347 ; H. 429 (386) ; H-B. 376. Observe the force of 
sub, as if he put his shoulders under the load. 

256 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

3 15 civitatis, dans, such as the Haedui, Sequani, etc., each constituting 
a commonwealth (civitas), — about 60 in all. Their territory had no local 
name, but was known only by that of the clan, which was sovereign and 
wholly independent, except for voluntary alliances (see ch. 30). The name 
Gallia itself — as was said of Italy a few years ago — was only "a geo- 
graphical expression," implying no united political sovereignty. — per- 
suadet, prevails on : suadet would be simply urges. 

3 16 filio, Sequano : appositives with Castico. 

3 17 obtinuerat, had held: see note on obtinere, 2 I. The pluperfect 
implies that he had held it formerly, but had been ousted by some popular 

3 18 amicus : an honorary title given by the Roman Senate to friendly 
powers; § 283, 284, 393. a (185, 239. 1. N. 2 ) ; B. 168. 2. b\ G. 206; H. 
393. 8 (362. 2. 2); H-B. 319. ii, 392. b. — ut . . . occuparet, to lay hands 
on: this clause is the object of persuadet; § 563 (331); B. 295.1; 
G. 546 ; H. 565 (498. ii) ; H-B. 502. 3. a ; for the sequence of tenses, see 
§ 485. e (287. e) ; B. 268. 3; G. 511. R. 1 ; H. 546 (495. ii) ; H-B. 491. 2 ; in 
English it would be expressed by the infin. — regnum : here, not hereditary 
authority, but personal rule, — what the Greeks called tyranny. 

3 19 quod : the relative. — ante : i.e. before the popular movement. — 
Dumnorigi (dat. after persuadet) : Dumnorix, a younger brother, restless, 
ambitious, and strongly attached to the old aristocracy of the clan ; there- 
fore a bitter enemy of the Roman supremacy. He afterwards headed a 
desertion of Caesar's cavalry just before the second invasion of Britain, 
but was pursued and killed (Bk. v. ch. 6). It is implied that in the popu- 
lar movement Dumnorix had come into prominence. It must be borne in 
mind that the personal rule of a chief {regnum) was an entirely different 
thing from the prominence (principatum) which one man or another might 
have in the national councils, as the latter had no constitutional or official 

3 20 Diviciaci : this Haeduan chief was of the order of Druids (see pp. 
165-168) ; he had been in Rome where he made the acquaintance of Cicero 
and other eminent Romans. He was thoroughly impressed with the power 
and superiority of the Romans, and was a faithful friend and ally of Caesar. 
The party of Druids, represented by Diviciacus and Liscus (ch. 16), was 
in a manner the popular party, strong especially in the large towns ; it was 
opposed to the old clan feeling kept up for ambitious purposes by military 
or tribal chiefs {principes) such as Orgetorix and Dumnorix. The former, 
or popular party, was headed by the Haedui; the latter, or aristocratic, 
by the Sequani and Arverni. The Druids were a religious or priestly 
order, jealous of the aristocracy {equites) of the tribe or clan, which latter 

I. 3.] The Helvetian War. 257 

represented what may be called the patriotic or " native-Celtic " party (see 
Bk. vi. chs. 12-17). -^ knowledge of this division helps to clear up many 
of the events of Caesar's campaigns. In fact, Gaul was conquered by the 
strategy underlying the maxim '■'■divide et impera." — qui: i.e. Dumnorix. 
The regular rule is that the relative should refer to the last person named. 
But this in all languages is often overborne by the prominence of some 
preceding person. — principatum, highest rank, as distinct from political 
power (see above). 

3 21 plebi acceptus, a favorite with the people (acceptable to the 
people). — ut idem conaretur : i.e. put down the constitutional authority, 
and establish a rule of military chiefs. The expression here is a striking 
example of the tendency of the Latin to say things by verbs which we say 
by nouns ; Lat. attempt the same thing, Eng. make the same attempt. 

3 23 perfacile factu: § 510. n. 2 (303. r.) ; B. 340. 2 j G. 436. n. 1 ; H. 635 
(547) ; H-B. 619. 1 ; in predicate agreement with conata perficere, which is 
subject of esse, depending on probat. — illis probat, undertakes to show 
them, i.e. Casticus and Dumnorix : conative present ; § 467 (276. b) ; 
B. 259. 2; G. 227. n. 2 ; H. 530 (467. 6); H-B. 484. — propterea quod: see 
note on 1 6. 

3 24 ipse, etc., i.e. and so they could count on him for a powerful ally. 
— non esse dubium quin, there was no doubt (he said) that : here esse is 
infin. of indir. disc; for the construction of quin, see § 558. a (319. d) ; 
B. 284. 3; G. 555; H. 595. 1 (504. 3. 2) ; H-B. 521. 3. b. For purposes of 
analysis we may consider the quin clause a subject of esse, and dubium as 
a predicate adjective in the neuter to agree with the subject. 

3 25 Galliae : part. gen. with plurimum; § 346. a. 2 (216. a. 2) ; B. 201. 
1 ; G. 372 ; H. 442 (397. 3) ; H-B. 346. 

3 26 se suis : begin as soon as possible to master the use of the reflexive 
in Latin, to which we have nothing that exactly corresponds in English. 
Our forms with self are emphatic and not ordinarily reflexive. The forms 
of se and suus refer (without emphasis) to the subject of their clauses, and 
in indir. disc, to the speaker. They take the place of an / or mine of the 
direct. Where no ambiguity would arise in English translate them by he 
and his. In case of ambiguity some device must be used to avoid it. 
Here there is an emphasis on se, but it comes from position. — regna : 
translate by the singular. To a Roman each man's power would be a 
separate regnum, hence the plural here. — conciliaturum : sc. esse, which 
is often omitted with the fut. infin. 

4 1 oratione, plea, or argument (abl. of means). — fidem et iusiuran- 
dum : i.e. assurance confirmed by oath ; hendiadys ; § 640 (385) ; B. 374. 4 
G. 698; H. 751. 3. n.i (636. iii. 2); H-B. 631. 5. 

258 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

4 2 regno occupato: abl. abs., expressing condition; § 419. 4, 521. a 
(255. 4, 310. a); B. 227. 2. 3; G. 409, 593. 2; H. 489. i, 638. 2 (431. 2, 
549. 2) ; H-B. 421. 6, 578. 6 ; *» ra^ /<£<?;/ should get in their hands the royal 
power = si occupaverimus in the direct. — per tres . . . populos : i.e. Hel- 
vetii, Haedui, and Sequani ; a league between these, they hope, will secure 
their power over all Gaul. — firmissimos, most stable. 

4 3 Galliae : governed by potiri ; § 410. a (249. a) ; B. 212. 2 ; G. 407. d; 
H.458. 3 (410. v 3); H-B. 353. — posse: equivalent to a 
fut. infin. ; § 584. b\ B. 270. 3 ; G. 248. R.; H. 618. I (537. 
N.i) ; H-B. 472. d. 

4 4 Chap. 4. ea res, this (i.e. the conspiracy). The 

word res is constantly used in Latin where we use some 

more specific word in English, as action, fact, event, estate, 

~ etc., according to the passage. The conduct of Orgetorix 

Coin. was treated as criminal because, though the Helvetians 

were prepared to emigrate in a body and subdue the rest 

of Gaul, they would not give to Orgetorix the power thus acquired. — 

moribus suis, according to their custom : abl. of spec. ; § 418. a and N. 

(253. N.) ; B. 220. 3; G. 397 ; H. 475. 3 (416) ; H-B. 441, cf. 414 and a. 

4 5 ex vinculis, out of chains, i.e. (standing) in chains ; a Latin idiom ; 
cf. ex equo, on horseback. — causam dicere : a technical expression for 
being brought to trial. — damnatum (sc. eum, object of sequi), if con- 
demned— si damnatus esset. The Latin may almost always omit a pronoun 
of reference, if there is a participle or adjective to show what its form 
would be if expressed. In this sentence the subject of oportebat is the 
clause damnatum . . . sequi; the subject of sequi is poenam; and ut . . . 
cremaretur is in apposition with poenam, defining the punishment : § 562. 
1, 571. c (329. 2, 332./); B. 294, cf. 297. 3; G. 557; H. 571. 4 (501. hi); 
H-B. 502. 3. a. N. Translate, he was doomed, if condemned, to be burned by 
fire (lit. it must needs be that the penalty should overtake him, condemned, of 
being burned with fire). For the abl. in i, see § 76. b. 1 (57. b. 1) ; B. 38; 
G. 57. 2 ; H. 102. 4 (62. iv) ; H-B. 88. 2. c. 

4 7 die COnstituta, on the day appointed: § 423 (256) ; B. 230 ; G. 393 ; 
H. 486 (429); H-B. 439. For the gender of die, see § 97 (30. a, 73) ; B. 53; 
G. 64; H. 135 (113) ; H-B. 101. — causae dictionis, /or the trial (it would 
be more usual to say dicendae) ; dictionis depends on die, and causae is 
the objective gen. after dictionis. 

4 8 f amiliam, clansmen : ordinarily this word means slaves ; but it is 
more probable that it here means all who bore his name or regarded him 
as their chief. — ad (adv.) . . . milia decern (in apposition with familiam), 
to (the number of) ten thousand. 

I. 3-5.] The Helvetian War. 259 

4 9 clientis, retainers : volunteer or adopted followers. — obaeratos, 
debtors: the only class of slaves that seems to have been known in Gaul; 
see Bk. vi. ch. 13. 

4 10 eodem: an adverb. — per eos, by their means: § 405. b (246. b)\ 
G. 401 ; H. 468. 3 (415. L 1. n. 1 ); H-B. 380. d. — ne . . . diceret: a pur- 
pose clause. 

4 12 cum . . . conaretur, when the state attempted. The force of the 
subjv. here cannot easily be made apparent in translation, and may be 
disregarded as too subtle for this stage of the pupil's advancement. It is 
perfectly manifest, however, and can be learned later ; § 546 (323) ; B. 288. 
1. b; G. 585; H. 600, ii. 1 (521. ii. 2); H-B. 524. 

4 15 quin . . . consciverit (conscisco), that he decreed death to himself 
(his own death), i.e. committed suicide. The construction of the clause is 
analogous to that with non dubito, etc. ; § 558 (319. d) ; B. 284. 3 ; G. 555. 
2; H. 595. 1 (504. 3. 2); H-B. 521. 3. b. Observe that ipse, self, agrees 
in Latin rather with the subject ; not, as in English, with the object. 

4 16 Chap. 5. nihilo minus (often written in one word, as in English), 
nevertheless. — constituerant, had resolved: observe the pluperfect, as 
following not a real but a historical present. 

4 17 ut . . . exeant, in apposition with id : as we should say, " namely, 
to go forth." Clauses thus used in apposition with a noun or pronoun 
take the form required by the verb on which the appositional word 
depends. Here facere would take a result clause with ut, and so this 
clause has that form. — ubi . . . arbitrati sunt, when they judged ' : observe 
the regular use of the perfect indie, with ubi, postquam, etc., and cf. cum 
. . . conaretur above; § 543 (324); B. 287. 1; G. 561 ; H. 602 (518. n. 1 ) ; 
H-B. 557. 

4 18 rem, enterprise; cf. note on ea res, L 4. — oppida, towns, fortified 
and capable of defence. 

4 19 vicos, villages, i.e. groups of houses about a single spot. The 
villages and houses were burned ; partly to cut off hope of return, partly 
to prevent their being occupied by the Germans. — ad: cf. 1. 8 above. — 
reliqua, etc. : i.e. isolated farmhouses not collected in villages. 

4 21 portaturi erant, intended to carry: § 194. a (129); B. 115; G. 247; 
H. 236 (233); H-B. 162. — domum: following the verbal noun reditionis ; 
§ 427. 2 (258. b); B. 182. 1. b>, G. 337; H. 419. 1 (380. 2, 1) ; H-B. 450. b. 

4 23 molita cibaria, meal. Food for 368,000 people (cf. 26 11) for 
three months required five or six thousand wagons and about twenty-five 
thousand draught animals. This would make a line of march of over thirty 
miles. — domo : §427. 1 (258. a); B. 229. 1.6; G. 390. 2; H.462. 4 (412. ii 1); 
H-B. 451. a. 

260 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

5 1 Rauracis, etc.: § 367 (227); B. 187. ii. ; G. 346; H. 426. 2 (385, ii); 
H-B. 362 and 1 : German tribes from the banks of the Rhine. 

5 2 uti : the older form for ut, common in Caesar. — eodem usi consilio, 
adopting the same plan : § 410 (249) ; B. 218. I ; G. 407. N. 8 ; H. 477 (421. 1); 
H-B. 429. — una cume is, along with them. The use of eis avoids ambi- 
guity, though secum would be more regular, referring to the subject of the 
main clause; cf. note en se, 3 26. — oppidis . . . exustis, having burned, 
etc.: §493. 2 (113. c. N.); B. 356. 2. b\ G. 410. R.i; H. 640. 4 (550. N.*); 
H-B. 602. 1. 

5 3 Boios (from whom the name Bohemia is derived) : a Celtic tribe, 
whom the great German advance had cut off from their kinspeople towards 
the west, and who were now wandering homeless, some of them within the 
limits of Gaul. 

5 4 Noricum, etc. : now eastern Bavaria and upper Austria. — oppug- 
narant = oppugnaverant : § 181.0(128.0); B. 116.1 ; G. 131. 1; H. 238(235); 
H-B. 163. 

5 5 receptos . . . adsciscunt : in English, in a sentence like this, we 
should use a separate verb instead of the participle ; § 496. n. 2 (292. r.) ; 
B. 337. 2 ; G. 664. R. 1 ; H. 639 (549. 5) ; H-B. 604. 1. Translate, they receive 
the Boii into their own number (ad se), and vote them in as their allies. They 
do not merely unite with them, but incorporate them into their own body 
as a homeless people. 

5 6 Chap. 6. erant omnino, there were in all, i.e. only. — itinera . . . 
itineribus : observe the form of this relative sentence, common in Caesar, 
which gives the antecedent noun in both clauses. It is usually omitted in 
cne or the other ; in English, almost always in the relative clause ; in Latin, 
quite as often in the other; § 307 (200); B. 251. 3; G. 615 ; H. 399. 5 
(445. 8) ; H-B. 284. 4. 

5 7 possent: subjv. in a relative clause of characteristic; § 535 (320); 
B. 283; G. 631. 1; H. 591. 1 (503. 1); cf. H-B. 521. 1 ; i.e. not merely by 
which they could, but of the sort by which they could. In such clauses, 
which describe something by its qualities, the subjv. is regular in Latin. — 
Sequanos : i.e. the region now called Franche-Comti, north of the Rhone. 

5 8 inter . . . Rhodanum : the pass now guarded by the Fort l'Ecluse, 
about nineteen Roman (seventeen and a half English) miles below Geneva 
(see note on 7 13). The Rhone at this part was the boundary of the Roman 
province. The choice was either to cross the river and go through the 
country held by the Romans, or to proceed along its northern bank through 
the friendly Sequani. — vix qua, etc., where carts could scarcely be hauled in 
single file: § 137.0 (95.0); B. 81. 4. 0; G. 97 ; H. 164. 1 (174. 2, l); H-B. 
133. See Fig. 55, p. 94. 

I. 5» 6 J The Helvetian War, 261 

5 9 ducerentur: the same "characteristic subjv." as in possent The 
distinction is one that we rarely express in English ; but a little study will 
make it appear in most cases. — autem, then again. 

61 possent: §537 (319); B. 284. 1; G. 552; H. 570(500. ii); H-B. 521. 2. 

6 2 multo facilius (cf. nihilo minus, 4 16), much easier in itself; but it 
required them to crush the Roman legion at Geneva, and force their way 
through about fifty miles of territory occupied by the Roman arms. — 
propterea quod : see note on 1 6. 

6 3 nuper pacati erant: a rebellion "of despair" (b.c. 61) had been 
subdued by C. Pomptinus. 

6 4 locis : loc. abl. ; § 429. 2 (258./) ; B. 228. 1. b ; G. 385. N.l ; H. 485. 1 
(425. ii. 2); H-B. 436. — vado: by ford {wading, vadendo). The bed of 
the Rhone must have changed somewhat since Caesar's 
time. There is now but one ford between Geneva and 
the Pas-de l'Ecluse. 

6 8 sese persuasuros [esse] : notice that in the fut. 
infin., used in indir. disc, esse is usually omitted (cf. con- 
ciliaturum, 3 26 ; in dir. disc, we should have persuade- 
bimus), they thought they should persuade ; its object is _. —Gallic 

Allobrogibus (cf. Rauracis, etc., 5 1). — bono animo, coin 

well disposed ; §415(251); B. 224. 1; G. 400; H. 473. 2 
(419. ii) ; H-B. 443. Five years before, their envoys in Rome had intrigued 
with Catiline's agents, whom they at length betrayed (see Cicero, Cat. 
iii. ch. 9). 

6 9 viderentur: § 580 (336. 2); B. 314. 1; G. 650; H. 643 (524); H-B. 

535- 2. 

6 10 eos : again the demonstrative to avoid ambiguity ; see note on eis, 
5 2. — paterentur : the subjv. with ut is the regular form of object clause 
after all verbs of commanding, inducing, and the like ; § 563 (331)', B. 295. 1 ; 
G. 546 ; H. 564. 1 (498, ii) ; H-B. 502. 3. a. 

6 11 diem ... die: cf. itinera . . . itineribus, 5 6 and note. 

6 12 conveniant : the subjv. is used because diem dicunt has the force 
of a command. The indie, would mean " on which they do assemble " ; this 
means " on which they should" Technically, the clause is a purpose clause ; 
§529 (317); B. 282. 2; G. 544. ii; H. 590 (497. 1); H-B. 502. 2. — a. d. v. 
Kal. Apr. (ante diem quintum Kalendas Aprilis): nominally March 28; 
§ 631, 424. g (376, 259. e)\ B. 371 and 6, 372 ; G. App. ; H. 754, 755 (642- 
644); H-B. 664, 667. But the calendar was in a state of great confusion 
at this time, and till Caesar's reform twelve years later. — L. Pisone, etc. : 
notice again the regular Roman method of giving dates; see note on 
Messala, 2 12. Piso was Caesar's father-in-law. 

262 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

6 14 Chap. 7. Caesari: the tendency is so strong in Latin to put the 
most emphatic word first that it is so placed even when the first clause is 
a dependent one, as here. We should say : Ccesar, when it was reported, 
etc., hastened; the Latin says: to Ccesar, when it was reported, etc., [he] 
(which in such cases is unnecessary, having already been expressed in a 
different form) hastened. He was at this time at Rome, having laid down 
his consulship, preparing to set out for his province. Every consul was 
entitled to the governorship of a province for one year after his term of 
office, and, by a special law, Caesar's government (consisting of the three 
provinces of Cisalpine and Transalpine Gaul and Illyricum) had been con- 
ferred for a term of five years. The news of the emigration hastened his 
movements. — nuntiatum esset: the same idiomatic use of the subjv. with 
cum as in 4 12. The relation here, however, is more apparent. The clause 
gives not the time merely, but the circumstances, " upon this being," etc. — 
id in apposition with eos . . . conari (the real subject of nuntiatum esset), 
that they were attempting. 

6 15 maturat : travelling, his biographers say, one hundred miles in a 
day, and reaching the Rhone in a week, according to Plutarch. — ab urbe ■ 
this word, unless some other place is indicated, always means Rome, the 
city. Caesar was near, but not in the city, not being permitted to enter 
it while holding the military authority (imperium) of proconsul. Hence 
he says ab, not ex. — proficisci : the so-called complementary infin., used 
like our own with verbs which require another action to complete their 

6 16 quam maximis potest itineribus : § 291. c (93. b) ; B. 240. 3 ; G. 303 ; 
H. 159. 2 (170. 2); H-B. 241. 4; potest is usual with Caesar in this phrase, 
which is elliptical. In full it would be tarn magnis quam maximis, as 
great as the greatest, i.e. the greatest possible. — ulteriorem : i.e. beyond the 
Alps. The northern part of modern Italy was still called Gallia Cisalpina, 
and was a part of Caesar's province. 

6 17 ad, near to, as far as. — provinciae : dat. ; §369(227./); B. i87.ii.a; 
G. 346 ; H. 426. 1 (385. i) ; H-B. 364. 4. — imperat : i.e. Transalpine Gaul. 
Here impero is used in what seems to have been its original meaning, make 
requisition upon; see Vocab. 

6 18 erat omnino: cf. erant omnino, 5 6 and note. 

6 19 legio : the tenth legion, which afterwards became so famous. With 
reference to the Roman legions, see chapter on military affairs, 1. 1. 

6 20 rescindi : notice that iubeo and veto, unlike other verbs of com- 
manding and forbidding, take the ace. and the infin. 

6 21 certiores facti sunt, were informed (made more certain) : a tech- 
nical expression for official communication or certain information. 

I. 7-] The Helvetian War. 263 

6 23 qui dicerent, who were (instructed) to say : the same construction 
as qua die conveniant above, 1. 1 1, see note. Notice the difference between 
obtinebant, who did-, etc., and dicerent, who should, etc. Treat your sub- 
junctives according to the sense, and use the rules only to formulate the 
usages; § 531 (317); B. 282. 2; G. 544; H. 590 (497. i) ; H-B. 502. 2. 

6 24 sibi . . . liceat : observe carefully the construction of the indir. 
disc; § 584, 585 (336. A. B.); B. 317, 318; G. 650; H. 642-653 (523-531); 
H-B. 534. 1. 2 ; in dir. disc, it would be : Nobis est in animo sine ullo 
maleficio iter per provinciam facere, propterea quod aliud iter habemus 
nullum ; rogamus, ut tua voluntate id nobis facere liceat. Careful atten- 
tion to this construction in the beginning will be amply repaid later. — sibl: 
dat. of possession; § 373 (231) ; B. 190; G. 349; H. 430 (387) ; H-B. 374; 
the subject of esse is the clause iter . . . facere, while the whole passage, 
sibi . . . liceat, is the object of dicerent. Render, that they had (it was to 
them) in mind to march, etc. 

6 26 rogare: of this verb the subject is se, understood (often omitted 
by Caesar, contrary to the rule), and the object is the object clause ut . . . 
liceat; § 563 (331); B. 295. 1 ; G. 546 and *.*; H. 565 
(498. 1); H-B. 530. 2. — voluntate: abl. in accordance 
with which; § 418. a (253. n.) ; cf. B. 220. 3; G. 397; 
cf. H. 475. 3 (416) ; cf. H-B. 414. a. 

7 l L. Cassium . . . occisum [esse] : object of me- 

moria tenebat, as a phrase of knowing; § 459 (272) ; 

B. 330; G. 527. 2; H. 613 (535. i. 1); H-B. 589. This „ 
. »\ m J . "7 .' . . , , Fig. 113. — Gallic 

defeat happened B.C. 107, m the terrible invasion of the CoiN 

Cimbri or Teutons, to whom the Helvetians were joined 

as allies " The army of Cassius was one of six swept away by these 


7 2 sub iugum, under the yoke (hence the word subjugate). The iugum 
was made by sticking two spears in the ground and laying another across 
them above. To pass under this was equivalent to laying down arms by a 
modern army. 

7 3 concedendum [esse] : impersonal depending on putabat, thought 
that no concession should be made (lit. that it must not be yielded). — 
homines: subject of temperaturos [esse], depending on existimabat. 

7 4 inimico animo : abl. of quality ; cf . bono animo, 6 8. — data 
facultate: abl. abs., expressing a condition; § 496, 521. a (292, 310. a) ; 
B. 227. 2. b ; G. 593. 2 ; H. 575. 9 (507. 3. n. 7 ) ; H-B. 421. 6 ; cf. 4 2. — faci- 
undi: gerundive; § 504 (297, 298); B. 339. 1; G. 428; H. 626 (544. i)* 
H-B. 612. 1. 

7 5 iniuria : not " injury " in our sense, but wrong, outrage. 

264 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

7 6 dum . . . convenient : notice again the purpose expressed in this 
clause, until the men should, etc. Cf. qua die conveniant, 6 11, and qui 
dicerent, 6 23; § 553 (328); B. 293. iii. 2; G. 572; H. 603. iL 2 (519. 
ii. 2) ; cf. H-B. 507. 5. 

7 9 reverterentur : subjv. for imv. ; § 588 (339); B. 316; G. 652; H. 
642 (523. iii); H-B. 538. In dir. disc: diem (= time) ad deliberandum 
sumam ; si quid vultis, ad. Id. Apr. revertimini. Note the changes made, 
and the reasons for them. 

7 10 Chap. 8. ea legione, with that legion (abl. of instrum.). In this 
sentence observe how all the qualifying clauses come first and the direct 
objects, murum, fossam, come next before the leading verb perducit ; 
§ 596 and a (343) ; B. 348, 349 ; G. 674 ; H. 664 (560) ; cf. H-B. 623 ; while 
each relative belongs to the verb which comes next after it unless another 
relative intervenes, — a very convenient rule in analyzing a long and difficult 

7 13 milia: ace. of extent of space; cf. 3 4; § 425 (257); B. 181. 1; 
G. 335; H. 417 (379); H-B. 387. — decern novem, nineteen: following the 
windings of the river (see note on 5 8). — murum: this rampart, or earth- 
work, was on the south side of the river, leaving the passage undisputed 
along the northern bank. 

The banks of the Rhone in this part are generally rugged and steep, 
with sharp ravines ; there are only five short reaches — a little over three 
miles in all — requiring defences. The current is in general quite rapid. 
Some remains of Caesar's works can still be traced, according to the French 
engineers who surveyed the ground under the orders of Napoleon III. 
According to Caesar's statement the work was continuous (this is the 
meaning of perducit). This undoubtedly means that, after the five acces- 
sible points were strengthened by artificial defences, the entire left bank of 
the Rhone, from Geneva to Pas-de-rEcluse (17^ English miles), formed a 
continuous barrier against the Helvetians. The construction of any one 
of the fortifications may be described as follows : Along the crest of the 
ridge facing the river the slope was cut so as to be vertical, or nearly so, 
and then a trench was hollowed. The earth dug out was partly thrown up 
to increase the height of the wall, and quite likely in part thrown down the 
hill. At all events, it seems probable that the measure of 16 feet is the dis- 
tance from the bottom of the ditch to the top of the wall. Thus the work 
formed really little more than a trench with scarp higher than the counter- 
scarp. Then the crest was fortified with a breastwork of palisades, behind 
which the soldiers were protected while hurling their missiles at the enemy. 
This entire series of works, with the force at Caesar's command, could not 
have occupied more than two or three days. See Map, p. 5. 

1. 7-9-] The Helvetian War, 265 

7 14 pedum: § 345. M 2I 5- b) ; B. 203. 2; G. 365; H. 440. 3 (396. v); 
H-B. 355. 

7 15 castella (lit. little fortifications), redoubts. See treatise on military 
affairs, v. In them were stationed guards (praesidia). The redoubts 
were sufficiently numerous so that the guard from one or another could 
quickly reach any point in the lines that might be threatened. — quo 
facilius . . . posset, that he may the more easily : the usual construction 
where a comparative is to be used ; without the comparative it would be 
ut . . .posset; § 531. a (317. b) ; B. 282. 1. a; G. 545. 2 ; H. 568. 7 (497. ii 
2 ; H-B. 502. 2 and b. 

7 16 se invito (abl. abs.), against his will : se is used because this is a 
part of what Caesar had in his mind; § 300. 2 (196. a. 2); B. 244. ii. a\ 
G. 521 ; H. 504 (449. 1); H-B. 262. 2. — conarentur . . . posset: note the 
sequence of tenses after the historical presents disponit and communit. 

7 17 ubi . . . venit : notice the difference between this clause and those 
above noted with cum and the subjv. This one expresses a real time and 
not circumstance like the others. You cannot render it by " upon the 
coming" or any similar phrase. 

7 18 negat se . . . posse, says he cannot, etc. His words would be : 
More et exemplo populi Romani non possum iter ulli per provinciam dare ; 
si vim facere conabimini, prohibebo. — more et exemplo, according to the 
custom and precedents : always constituting the rule of conduct with the 
conservative Romans. 

7 19 si . . . conentur : future condition in indir. disc. ; see the direct as 
given in note to 1. 18. 

7 20 prohibiturum [esse] : sc. se subject and eos, object. — deiecti, 
cast down : de in composition generally has the meaning down. 

7 22 non numquam, sometimes: § 326 and a (150 and a); B. 347. 2; 
G. 449 and R.*; H. 656. 1 (553. 1) ; H-B. 298. 2. 

7 23 si . . . possent : practically an indir. quest, depending on conati, 
trying if (whether) they could break through ; § 576. a (334./") ; B. 300. 3 ; 
G. 601, 460. 1. (b) ; H. 649. ii. 3 (529. ii. 1. N. 1 ) ; H~B. 582. 2 and a. 

7 24 conatu : abl. of separation, following destiterunt ; § 400 (243) ; B. 
214; G. 390. 2; H. 462 (414); H-B. 408. 2. 

8 l Chap. 9. una: emphatic. — via, only the way. — qua: abl. of the 
way by which; § 429. a (258.^); B. 218. 9; G. 389; H. 476 (420. 1. 3); 
H-B. 426. — Sequanis invitis (abl. abs. expressing a condition), in case 
the, etc. 

8 2 sua sponte, by their own influence ; a rare meaning of this phrase, 
which is generally of their own accord. 

8 3 possent : cf . note on nuntiatum esset, 6 14. 

266 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

8 4 eo deprecatore (abl. abs. denoting means), by his means as advocate. 
— impetrarent, they might obtain (it): a purpose clause; § 531 (317); B, 
282 ; G. 545 ; H. 568 (497. ii) ; H-B. 502. 2. 

8 5 gratia, personal influence. — largitione, lavish gifts and hospital 
ities : like those of old chiefs of the clan. These words are ablatives oi 
cause; § 404 (245); B. 219; G. 408; H. 475 (416); H-B. 444. 

8 7 duxerat : this word is used only of the man who marries a wife, i.e. 
he leads her to his own house. 

8 8 novis rebus: revolution, change in government, dat.; § 368. 3 (227. 
e. 3); B. 187. ii. a\ G. 346, R.*; H. 426. 1 (385. 1) ; H-B. 362. ii. 

8 9 habere obstrictas, to keep close bound: § 497. b (292. c) ; B. 337. 6; 
G. 238; H. 431. 3 (388. 1. n.) ; H-B. 605. 5. 

8 10 impetrat has for object ut . . . patiantur, and perficit has uti . . . 
dent, — clauses of result ; § 568 (332); B. 297. 1 ; G. 553; H. 571.3 (501. ii. 1); 
H-B. 521. 3. a. 

8 11 obsides: these were persons of prominence given by one state to 
another as security for fidelity. If the compact were broken, the hostages, 
usually children of prominent persons, would be held responsible and 

8 12 ne . . . prohibeant ; ut transeant : object clauses of purpose, 
depending on the idea of agreement implied in obsides . . . dent. — itinere : 
abl. of separation ; cf. conatu, 7 24. 

8 14 Chap. 10. renuntiatur, word is brought back : i.e. by messengers 
sent to ascertain, as the prefix re implies; the subject is the clause Helve- 
tiis esse, etc. ; see note on 6 24. 

8 15 Santonum : a people north of the Garonne, on the Bay of Biscay 
This is so far from the borders of the province as to show that Caesar wa* 
only searching for a pretext. But the conquest of Gaul was already deter 
mined upon, and the warlike Helvetii were too dangerous a people to bf 
allowed to add their strength to that of the present inhabitants. 

8 16 Tolosatium : the people of Tolosa, the modern Toulouse. 

8 17 Id refers to the Helvetii marching into the territory of the San 
tones. — fieret: the subjv. of indir. disc, after intellegebat. 

8 18 futurum [esse] ut . . . haberet, etc., it would be to the great peril oj 
the province that it should have, etc. : § 561. N. 1 (329. N.) ; B. 294 ; G. 506 ; H. 
571 (540); H-B. 238. — ut . . . haberet: a substantive clause of result used 
as the subject of futurum [esse] ; § 537, 569 (319, 332. a) ; B. 284. 1, 297. 2 ; 
G. 553. 4. r. 8 ; H. 571. 1 (501. i. 1) ; H-B. 521. 3. a. Caesar's thought would 
be : " Id si fiet, magno . . . futurum est ut populus Romanus . . . habeat." 

8 19 locis (loc. abl.) patentibus, in an open country : the southwest part 
of Gaul is a broad river valley, giving easy access to the province. 

I. 9. io.] 

The Helvetian War. 


8 20 finitimos : predicate, have as neighbors, etc. 

8 21 munitioni . . . praeficit, he put in command of the fortification. — 
Labienum: this was Caesar's best officer, a prominent and influential poli- 
tician of strongly democratic sympathies. He served Caesar faithfully 
through the Gallic wars, but when the Civil War broke out he joined what 
he conceived to be the party of the repub- 
lic, went over to Pompey, and was killed at 
Munda, B.C. 45. 

8 22 legatum, aide, lieutenant: no Eng- 
lish word exactly translates this word. — 
magnis itineribus: cf. quam maximis 
potest itineribus, 6 16. It is the usual 
phrase for forced marches of an army. 
The ordinary day's march of the Romans 
was about 1 5 miles ; a magnum iter was 
from 20 to 25 miles. — Italiam: probably 
only into his province of Cisalpine Gaul, 
but this was already regarded as a part of 

9 1 Aquileiam: an important Roman 
colony at the head of the Adriatic. It 
continued to be the chief port of trade 
for this region till outgrown by Venice. — 
qua proximum iter : i.e. by way of Turin 
and Susa, by Mt. Genevre. Ocelum has 
been variously identified with Briancon 
and probably Grenoble. 

9 5 compluribus . . . pulsis : the order 
is interlocked, his agreeing with pulsis ; 

§ 597- ^ (344- h)\ B- 35°- «•<* 

9 7 Vocontiorum : this people extended 
from the Durance to the Isere. 

9 6 Allobrogum : these extended as far south as the Isere, and had 
possessions north of the Rhone in the sharp angle at St. Didier. 

9 9 Segusiavos : these were west of the Rhone in the region of Lyons 
and opposite Vienne. They probably extended across the Saone above 
Lyons, so that Caesar only crossed the Rhone above its junction with the 
Saone and did not cross the Saone also. He evidently had his camp in 
the heights above Lyons in the angle of the two rivers. His army amounted 
to six legions of nearly 25,000 men and an uncertain number of Gallic cav- 
alry. He had doubtless been joined by Labienus with his legion from 

14. — SlGNIFER. 

268 Notes: Casar. [B. G. 

Geneva, though that fact is not mentioned. Caesar evidently went beyond 
his province without the order of the Senate, hence his explanatory tone. 

9 ll Chap. ii. iam, by this time. — angustias: i.e. the Pas-de-FEcluse 
before described ; see Figs. 5, 6. The entire train of the Helvetii has been 
reckoned at 8500 four-horse wagons, extending some fifty miles (cf. note on 
4 23). The passage must have been extremely slow. They probably fol- 
lowed in the line of the modern railroad as far as Culoz, then to Amberieu 
and across the plateau des Dombes to the Saone between Lyons and 
Macon, a distance of nearly a hundred miles. It is calculated that Caesar 
must have been absent two months in Italy, and the march of the Helve- 
tians probably took about the same time. This would make the time of 
these events about the latter part of June. 

9 12 Haeduorum : it does not appear that these occupied the left bank 
of the Saone. But predatory excursions may have been made across the 
river, and in ch. 12 the Helvetians were engaged in crossing. 

9 13 cum . . . possent, not being able, etc. 

9 15 rogatum : supine ; § 509 (302) ; B. 340 ; G. 435 ; H. 633 (546) ; 
H-B. 618. — ita se, etc. : in English supply saying or some such word. In 
Latin, after the idea of speech or thought is suggested, as here by legatos 
and rogatum, no further expression of saying is necessary. In dir. disc, 
this would be, " Ita [nos] . . . tneriti sumus, ut paene in conspectu exercitus 
vestri, . . . liberi nostri . . . non debuerint" ; i.e. our services have been such, 
etc., that we did not deserve to have this happen (as it has). Probably the 
account is somewhat exaggerated. 

9 16 meritos : " Alone among the Gauls," says Tacitus, " the Haedui 
claim the name of brotherhood with the Roman people" (Ann. xi. 25). 
So, also, Cicero calls them fratres nostri. 

9 17 [eorum] : words thus inclosed in brackets are of doubtful authen- 

9 18 debuerint : if this were stated not as a result but independently, 
the form would be perf. indie, implying that the thing had happened con- 
trary to what ought to be. According to the Latin idiom, the same tense 
is retained in such cases, contrary to the sequence of tenses ; see § 485. c. 
N. 2 (287. c. n.); B. 268. 6; G. 513; H. 550 (495. vi); H-B. 478. The Eng- 
lish idiom is that our lands, etc., ought not to have been, etc., putting the 
past idea into the infin.; § 486. a (288. a)\ B. 270. 2 ; H. 618. 2 (537. 1); 
H-B. 582. 3. a. ftn. 2 . — Haedui Ambarri, the ffadui near the Arar (or Saone), 
occupying the angle between that river and the Rhone. They were evi- 
dently closely akin to the Haedui and were their allies. 

9 19 necessarii, bound by necessitudo, or community of interests of any 
kind. — consanejuinei, akin by blood. 

1. 10-12.] The Helvetian War, 269 

9 20 depopulatis agris . . . prohibere : i.e. their lands were already 
wasted, and it was with difficulty that they could keep off, etc. ; see § 496. 
n.i (292. r.); B. 337. 2; G. 664. r. 1 ; H. 639 (549. 5); H-B. 421. 4; de- 
populatis is pass., though from a dep. verb; see § 190. b (135. b) ; B. 112. 
b; G. 167. n. 2 ; H. 222. 2 (231. 2) ; H-B. 291. d. 

9 21 Allobroges : from Culoz the Rhone flows almost south and then 
makes a very sharp turn to the northwest. It was probably in this angle 
that the Allobroges overlapped the river. 

9 23 sibi: § 373 (23O; B - !9o; G. 349; H. 430 (387); H-B. 374 .— 
solum is a noun. — nihil esse reliqui : part, gen., a common usage with 
neut. adjectives; § 346. a. 1 (216. a. 1); B. 201. 2; G. 369; H. 440. 5. n. 
(397- » H-B. 346; i.e. they had nothing left, etc.; the land was com- 
pletely stripped. 

9 24 non exspectandum [esse] : impers., as this construction is always 
passive. Translate by the act., He must not, etc.; see § 374 (232) ; B. 189. 
« S G. 355, 251. 1 ; H. 302. 7, 431 (301. 2, 388) ; H-B. yjT,. 1. 

9 25 sociorum : the Helvetians would be sure to levy upon the allies 
of the Romans wherever they found them. 

9 26 Santonos: cf. 8 15. — pervenirent: § 553 (328); B. 293. iii. 2; G. 
572; H. 603. ii. 2 (519. ii. 2); H-B. 507. 5. The subjv. is used because 
of the idea, they should come, technically called purpose. 

10 l Chap. 12. flumen, etc., the Arar (Saone) is a river which flows 
through, etc. ; not between, which would be expressed by dividit. The 
Sa6ne joins the Rhone about seventy-five miles southwest of Lake 

10 2 lenitate, sluggish current, abl. of description. 

10 3 in . . . fluat : indir. quest., subject of iudicari possit : see § 574. n. 
(334. n.) ; B. 300; G. 467 ; H. 649. ii (529. i) ; H-B. 537. 

10 4 ratibus, rafts of logs; lintribus, canoes of hollowed logs, joined 
to make a kind of bridge. — transibant : notice the imperf. ; they were in 
the act of crossing. 

10 5 partis: object of duxisse; flumen, governed by trans in composi- 
tion; § 395 (239. b); B. 179. 1 ; G. 331. R.i; H. 413 (376); H-B. 386. 

10 7 citra: i.e. on the east side. — Ararim: for the ace. in im, see § 74. 
d, 75. a. 1 (55. d, 56. a. 1) ; B. 38. 1 ; G. 57. 1 ; H. 102. 2 (62. iii. 1) ; H-B. 
88. 1. It is to be noticed that Gallic names were felt by the Romans as 
Greek, and were treated accordingly. — reliquam = relictam : in fact, this 
adjective is, from its meaning, a kind of participle. — de tertia vigilia: the 
night, from sunset to sunrise, was divided into four equal watches, the third 
beginning at midnight. This movement took place soon after (de) the 
watch began. 

270 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

10 10 eos impeditos, etc. : the emphasis gives a force like "while these 
were hampered and not expecting, he engaged them," etc. In Latin the 
two sentences are made into one ; such telescoping of two coordinate ideas 
is almost regular in Latin. 

10 11 concidit: see Vocab. — mandarunt = mandaverunt: § 181. a 
(128. a); B. 116. 1 ; G. 131; H. 238 (235) ; H-B. 163. 

10 12 pagus: this "district" (Tigurinus) was about the modern Zu- 
rich. The inhabitants of the pagus probably composed a clan, and formed 
a division of the force. 

10 15 L. Cassium : see 7 1, 2. 

10 17 deorum : this reference to a special providence is noticeable in so 
stern a realist as Caesar, and was possibly for political effect. Yet he often 
speaks of fortune as powerful in human affairs (cf. Bk. vi. ch. 42), and men- 
tions divine omens which accompanied his victory over Pompey (Bell. Civ. 
in. 105). A disbeliever in the superstitions of his day, he yet seems to 
acknowledge the presence of a controlling power. — quae pars . . . intulerat 
. . . ea . . . persolvit, render that part which, etc. : see § 307. b. N. (200. b. 
N.); cf. B. 251. 4; G. 620; H. 399. s (445. 9); H-B. 284. 6. 

10 19 princeps poenas persolvit, was the first to pay the penalty : § 290 
(191); B. 239; H. 497. 3 (442. n.) ; H-B. 243; referring to the complete 
overthrow of the rest later. Punishment was regarded among the ancients, 
not as suffering to be inflicted, but as of the nature of a fine or penally to 
be paid ; hence sumere, capere, to inflict, and dare or solvere, to suffer. 

In 1862 numerous remains buried in two trenches were discovered near 
this spot, possibly of those slain in this battle. 

Ill iniurias, wrongs, not simply damage, as the word came to mean 
afterwards. From Caesar's point of view, an offensive war against Rome 
is necessarily wrong. 

11 2 soceri : L. Calpurnius Piso, father of Caesar's wife, Calpurnia 
(Shakespeare's Calpurnia), and consul of the present year (see end of 
ch. 6). — legatum: notice how carefully titles are given, a matter of mili- 
tary and social etiquette ; cf. consulem, 10 15. 

11 4 Chap. 13. reliquas : the emphasis on this word displaces the 
connective ut, which would naturally stand first in its clause. 

11 5 COnsequi, overtake (hence the frequent meaning acquire). — pon- 
tem . . . faciendum curat, has a bridge made : § 500. 4 (294. d) ; B. 337. 7. 
b. 2; G. 430; H. 622 (544. 2. n. 2 ); H-B. 612. iii. — pontem: see chapter on 
military affairs, vi. 

11 7 cum . . . intellegerent : § 546 (323, 325); B. 288. 1. b; G. 585; 
H. 600. ii. 1 (521. ii. 2); H-B. 525; cf. notes on 4 12, 6 14, 7 17. Here 
cum may be translated when, but the clause gives the state of mind of the 

I. i2, 13.] The Helvetian War. 271 

Helvetii as the main feature of the situation, and really expresses no time 
at all, but circumstance only, hence the subjunctive. — id : object of fecisse. 

11 8 diebus XX, in the course of twenty days : § 423 (256) ; B. 231 ; G. 
393 ; H. 486 (429) ; H-B. 439. — ut . . . transirent: this clause is in app. with 
id, but, as it is through that app. the object of fecisse, it takes the result 
construction just as if it depended immediately on the verb of effecting ; cf: 
note on 4 17; and see § 568 (332); B. 297. 1 ; G. 553; H. 571. 3 (501. ii 1); 
H-B. 521. 3. a. N. 

11 9 legatos : a participle of lego (depute), used as a noun ; hence, dip- 
lomatically envoy or ambassador, and in military affairs lieutenant. 

11 10 Divico : now an old man, since the battle in which he was com- 
mander took place forty-nine years before. It was, of course, a piece of 
arrogance to send him. 

11 12 si pacem, etc. : Direct, — 

Si pacem p. R. cum Helvetiis faciei, in earn partem ibunt atque ibi erunt 
Helvetii, ubi eos tu, Caesar, constitueris atque esse volueris (or Caesar con- 
stituent . . . voluerit) ; sin bello . . . perseverabit, reminiscere et veteris in- 
commodi p. R. et pristinae virtutis Helvetiorum. Quod improviso unum 
pagum adortus es, cum ei qui flumen transierant suis auxilium ferre non 
possent, noli ob earn rem aut tuae magnopere virtuti tribuere, aut nos de- 
spicere ; nos ita a patribus maioribusque nostris didicimus ut magis virtute 
contender emus (contendamus) quam dolo aut insidiis niteremur (nitamur). 
Qua re noli committere ut is locus ubi constitimus ex calamitate . . . nomen 
capiat aut memoriam prodat. 

This discourse, as well as Caesar's answer, is confused by a partial iden- 
tification of Caesar and the Roman people. Hence, many of the forms 
might be either third person as referring to the Roman people, or second 
or first as addressed to Caesar, or spoken by him. 

The indirect discourse is found in almost all languages, and each one 
has its own methods of change from the direct. In English it is regularly 
introduced by that. This word, however, is often omitted, in which case 
only the persons and the tenses are changed to fit the new relations. 
Dependent clauses keep their connectives, but change, like others, their 
persons and tenses. In long passages, if that is omitted, parenthetical 
phrases are frequently introduced to keep the connection of the thought, 
like " he said," " he asked," " he urged," " he begged." The passage here 
may be translated : " If the Roman people would make peace, etc., [that] the 
Helvetii would go . . . and remain where Caesar should settle them and 
desire them to be ; but if they (the Roman people) should persist in pur- 
suing them, etc., let him remember [he said] (or he begged him to remem- 
ber), etc. As to the fact that (because) he had attacked, etc., he should 

272 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G, 

not ascribe it, etc., or despise them (the Helvetians). [That] they had [he 
said] been taught rather to contend, etc. Let him therefore not allow 
that place ... to be," etc. So in 12 8, num . . . posse, " could they, he 

11 13 in earn partem . . . ubi, to whatever part, i.e. of GauL They 
were not, however, to be turned back from their migration. 

11 15 bello : note the emphatic position as opposed to emphatic pacem, 
1. 12. — reminisceretur, subjv. for imv. of the dir. : he should remember, or 
let him remember. 

11 16 incommodi, disaster (lit. inconvenience), a euphemism: cf. "the 
late unpleasantness" for our Civil War. For the government of the gen., 
see § 350. c (219) ; B. 206. 2 ; G. 376; H. 454 (406. ii) ; H-B. 350. 

11 17 quod: conj., as to the fact that; § 572. a (333. a); B. 299. 2 ; G. 
525. 2; H. 588. 3. n. (516. ii. 2, n.); H-B. 552. 2. — pagum: the Tigurini. 

11 18 suis, to their people: § 302. d (190. a) ; B. 236. i ; G. 204. N. 1 ; 
H. 494. 1 (441. 1) ; H-B. 250. 2. a. 

11 19 ne tribueret, he should not ascribe it: cf. reminisceretur, 1. 15. 

11 21 contenderent, niterentur: subjv. of result. — dolo, craft; insidiis, 
ambuscade. For these ablatives, see § 431 (254. b) ; B. 218. 3 ; G. 401. N. 6 ; 
H. 476. 3 (425. ii. 1, N.) ; H-B. 438. 1. 

11 22 ne committeret ut, etc. : § 568. n. 1 (332. e) ; B. 297. 1 ; G. 553. I; 
H. 566. 1 (498. ii. n. 2 ). — ubi constitissent, where they had taken their 

12 l Chap. 14. eosibi, etc. : Direct,— 

Eo tnihi minus dubitationis datur, quod eas res quas legati Helvetii com- 
memoraverunt (or vos commemorastis) memoria teneo, atque eo gravius 7^7-0, 
quo minus merito populi Romani acciderunt ; qui si . . . sibi conscius fuisset, 
non fuit difficile cavere ; sed eo deceptus est, quod neque commissum a se 
intellegebat qua re timeret, neque sine causa timendum putabat. Quod si 
. . . oblivisci velit (velim), num etiam recentium iniuriarum, quod me invito 
iter . . . temptastis, quod Haeduos, . . . vexastis, memoriam deponere potest 
{possum) ? Quod vestra victoria . . . gloriamini, quodque tarn diu vos 
impune iniurias tulisse admiramini, eodem pertinet. Consuerunt enim di 
immortales quo gravius homines . . . doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci 
volunt . . . his . . . impunitatem concedere. Cum ea ita sint, tamen si obsides 
a vobis mihi dabuntur, uti ea quae pollicemini [vos] facturos intellegam, et 
si Haeduis de iniuriis quas . . . intulistis . . . satisfacietis [ego], vobiscum 
pacem faciam. 

12 1 eo (cf. note on quo minus, 1. 3) minus . . . dari, he had all the 
less hesitation. — dubitationis: § 346. a. 2 (216. a. 2); B. 201. 2; G. 369; 
H. 442 (397. 3) ; H-B. 346. 

1. 13, 14] 

The Helvetian War. 


12 3 eo gravius . . . quo minus, he was the more incensed . . . in that 
. . . not, etc. : § 414. a (106. c, 250. R.) ; B. 223 ; G. 403 ; H. 479 (423) ; cf. 
H-B. 424 and a. 

12 4 qui si . . . fuisset, now if they (the Roman people) had been. 

12 5 non fuisse (for fuit of dir. disc): translate as if futurum fuisse, 
it would not have been ; and see § 437. a (264. b, 308 d. N.) ; B. 271. 1. 6, 
322. b; G. 597. 3 (a); H. 525. 2, 583 (476. 5, 511. 1. N.3) ; H-B. 582. 3. a. 
N. 2 — eo deceptum [esse], they had been deceived by this. 


Fig. 115. 
2, 2. mlliths levis armaturab. 

12 6 quare timeret = propter quod, with quicquam for its understood 
antecedent. The clause stands as subject of commissum [esse], which in 
turn depends on intellegeret : because they (the Roman people) did not know 
they had done anything to cause them to fear. 

12 7 quod si . . . vellet, but if they (or he) should consent to forget, etc. : 
§ 397. a (240./); B. 185. 2; G. 333. 1, 610. R.i; H. 510. 9 (453. 6); H-B. 
388. a. — contumeliae: for construction, cf. incommodi, 11 16. 

12 8 num . . . posse, could they (or he), he asked, etc. : § 586 (338) ; B. 
315. 2 ; G. 651. R. 1 ; H. 642. 2 (523. ii. 2) ; H-B. 591. a. The infin. is used 
because the question is not a real one expecting an answer, but a rhetorical 
one asked for effect, and implying its own answer. Such questions are 
treated in indir. disc, as declarative sentences. — iniuriarum depends on 
memoriam below. 

274 Notes: Casar. [B. G. 

12 9 eo invito, against his will ; we should expect se, referring to the 
subject of posse, but Caesar's mind wavers between himself and the Roman 
people, so that the pronoun does not exactly refer to the subject. 

12 10 quod . . . vexassent is a clause of fact, properly indie. : §572 
(333) 5 B - 2 &6 ; G. 525 ; H. 588 (516) ; H-B. 555 ; it is subjv. by indir. disc. 

12 11 quod: cf. note on quod, 11 17. — sua: i.e. the Helvetians; so 
se tulisse, that they had committed. — quod . . . admirarentur : the two 
quod clauses are used as the subject of pertinere, as for their boasting, 
etc., and as for their wondering, etc., it tended in the same direction; i.e. it 
all belonged together in the divine purpose of exalting them expressly to 
make the fall more marked. " Divico had not said anything in the way of 
direct boasting. This eloquent passage was perhaps an answer to his manner, 
or to the fact that he was the same Divico who had slain Lucius Cassius." 

12 13 consuesse: present in force ; § 205. n. 2 (143. c. n.) ; B. 262. a ; G. 
175. 5; H. 299. 2 (297. i. 2) ; H-B. 487. 

12 14 quo : cf. note on 7 15. 

12 15 quos . . . his, to grant an interval of prosperity and longer im- 
punity to those whom they wish to punish for their guilt ; the relative 
clause, as usual, preceding: §308. d (201. c) ; G. 620; H. 683. 2. N. 
(572. ii. n.) ; H-B. 284. 5. Observe the change to primary tenses, when 
the language of Caesar expresses a general truth. 

12 18 cum, though: § 549 (326); B. 309; G. 587; H. 598 (515. iii) ; 
H-B. 526. — sibi, to him, Caesar. 

12 19 facturos [esse] : sc. eos. — Haeduis : dat. after satisfaciant 
supplied from the next clause, pay damages. 

12 20 ipsis (the Haedui) : dat. after intulerint. 

12 22 Write Divico's reply in dir. disc. 

12 24 testem : another allusion to the victory over Cassius. 

13 2 Chap. 15. equitatum. Who made up the cavalry? See chapter 
on military affairs, I. 2. 

13 4 coactum habebat, lit. had collected, more strictly held (had in 
hand) after being collected: § 497. b (292. c); B. 337. 7 ; G. 238; H. 431. 3 
(388. 1. n.) ; H-B. 605. 5. — videant: subjv. of purpose. 

13 5 faciant : subjv. of indir. quest., quas being interrog. — cupidius, too 
eagerly: § 291. a (93. a); B. 240. 1 ; G. 297. 2; H. 498 (444. 1); H-B. 
241. 2. — novissimum agmen, the rear ; agmen is the army in line of march 
(ago), and its newest part is that which comes along last. See chapter on 
military affairs, vi. 

13 6 alieno lOCO, on unfavorable ground ; so suo would be favorable (cf. 
" one's own ground "). For construction, see § 429. 1 (258./. 1) ; B. 228. I. b\ 
G. 385. n. 1 ; H. 485. 1 (425. ii. 2) ; H-B. 436. 

1. 14-16.] The Helvetian War. 275 

13 8 equitibus : abl. of means. 

13 10 novissimo agmine (loc. abl.), at their rear. — proelio: abl. of 
manner or means. 

13 12 satis habebat, held it sufficient. — hostem . . . prohibere : in a 
kind of pred. agreement with satis, as object of habebat. — rapinis: § 400 
(243); B. 214. 2; G. 390. 2; H. 462 (414. 1); H-B. 408. 2. 

13 13 ita . . . uti, in such a way that (correlative). — dies : cf . with 
diebus, 11 8, and note the difference between the ace. and the abl. of time. 

13 15 quinis aut senis : distributives, implying that this was the con- 
stant or average daily distance between the two armies. They apparently 
marched along the Saone, in the direction of Chalon. Their exact route 
from the Saone towards Autun is uncertain. The country here is very 
irregular and broken; so that it was impossible for Caesar to get any 
advantage by a rapid march or by an attack on the Helvetian rear. He 
consequently followed them, watching his chance. — milibus: § 406 (247); 
B. 217; G. 296; H. 471 (417); H-B. 416. d. 

13 17 Chap. 16. Haeduos frumentum, demanded corn of the Hadui: 
§ 396 (239 c) ; B. 178. 1. a; G. 339; H. 411 (374) j H-B. 393. 

13 18 essent polliciti: subjv. because of the implied indir. disc, which 
(he said) they had promised. — flagitare : histor. infin. ; § 463 (275) ; B. 335 ; 
G. 647; H. 610 (536. 1); H-B. 595. Notice that this construction, like 
the imperfect tense, only describes a situation, and never advances the 
narrative. The word expresses an earnest and repeated demand accom- 
panied with reproaches. — frigora, the cold seasons, or spells of cold ; not 
the cold in general. The climate of Gaul in Caesar's day was much colder 
than that of France now. The change has come from clearing away the 
forests and draining the marshes, which then covered much of the country. 

13 20 frumenta : the plur. is regularly used of standing grain. The 
crops of grain were not ripe because it was too early in the season (about 
the last of June) ; the green fodder (pabuli) was scarce because Caesar was 
following in the path of the Helvetians, whose thousands of cattle had 
almost swept the country bare. — ne . . . quidem, not even : § 322./ (151.*); 
B. 347. 1 ; G. 448. 2 ; H. 569. iii. 2. 

13 22 frumento : abl. after uti. — flumine : § 429. a (258. g) ; B. 218. 9 ; 
but G. 389; H. 476 (420. 1. 3); H-B. 426. — navibus : §409 (248.^ 1); 
B. 218; G. 401 ; H. 476 (420) ; H-B. 423. — propterea . . . quod : see 1 6. 

13 23 ab Arari : i.e. towards the valley of the Loire, westerly, but by 
what road is unknown. 

13 24 diem : ace. expressing duration of time. — ducere : histor. infin. 

13 25 conferri, etc. [frumentum'] : a climax. They said it was being 
gathered, it was on the way, it was already at hand. 

276 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

14 l quo die : note the repetition of the antecedent in the relative 
clause, but do not translate it; see §307. a (200. a); B. 251. 3; G. 615; 
H. 399 (445. 8) ; H-B. 284. 4- 

14 2 metiri, serve ; see chapter on military affairs, iv.f. 

14 4 Diviciaco et Lisco : abl. in apposition with principibus. — summo 
magistratui praeerat, held the chief office, of which the Celtic title was 
guergbreth, "executor of judgment," represented in Latin by vergobretus. 

14 6 in suos, over his people. 

14 7 posset: sc. frumentum. For the subjv., see § 593 (342) ; B. 324; 
G. 663. 1 ; H. 652 (529. ii) ; H-B. 539. 

14 8 propinquis, with the enemy so near: not attribute, but predicate; 
an abl. abs. 

15 1 sublevetur: cf. essent polliciti, 13 18, and note; also sit desti- 
tute just below; § 592. 3 (341. d) ; B. 323; G. 508. 3; H. 649. 1 (528. 1) ; 
H-B. 535. 2. a. 

15 4 Chap. 17. quod: sc. id, object of proponit. 

15 5 esse non nullos, etc. : Direct, — 

Sunt non nulli quorum auctoritas . . . valeat, qui privatim plus possint 
quam ipsi magistratus. Hi . . . multitudinem deterrent ne frumentum 
conferant quod debent : praestat, si iam principatum . . . obtinere non pos- 
sunt, Gallorum . . . imperia . . . perferre ; neque dubitant quin, si Helvetios 
superaverint Romani, . . . libertatem sint erepturi. Ab eisdem vestra (or 
Romanorum) consilia quaeque in castris gerantur (geruntur) hostibus 
enuntiantur ; hi a me coerceri non possunt. Quin etiam, quod necessario 
. . . coactus Caesari (tibi) enuntiavi, intellego . . . quanto id cum periculo 
fecerim, et ob earn causam quam Am potui tacui. 

15 6 privatim plus possint, have more power in private station : see 
note on 3 20. 

15 7 improba oratione, reckless talk. 

15 8 ne . . . conferant, from bringing: § 558. b (331. e. 2); B. 295. 3; 
G. 548 ; H. 596. 2 (505. ii) ; H-B. 502. 3. b. 

15 11 neque dubitare quin: § 537. a (319. a); B. 284. 3; G. 555. 2; 
**• 595- l (5°4- 3- 2 )> H-B. 521.3. b. — superaverint: perf. subjv. — una: 
an adv. 

15 12 Haeduis: dat. ; § 558 (229); B. 188. 2. d; G. 347; H. 427 (385. 
ii. 2); H-B. 371. — sint erepturi: the first periphrastic conjugation. It 
almost equals eripiant, but emphasizes the future intention of the 

15 14 a se: i.e. by Liscus, as chief magistrate. — quod . . . enuntiarit: 
cf. 11 17, 12 11, and notes. 

15 15 coactus, on compulsion (lit. being forced). 

1. 1 6- 1 8.] The Helvetian War. 277 

15 16 quanto . . . fecerit: cf. quas . . . faciant, 13 5 and note. — id: 
i.e. quod . . . enuntiarit. 

15 19 Chap. 18. pluribus praesentibus, in the presence of many; 
observe that the abl. abs. will rarely bear a literal translation, but its force 
must be brought out in various ways. 

15 20 iactari, bandied about (frequentative of iacio). 

15 21 Liscum retinet, [but] keeps Liscus. The omission of the conj. 
(asyndeton) is very common in Caesar's rapid narrative. — ex solo, from 
him in private. 

15 22 secrelO-(from secerno), each by himself 

15 23 esse vera (sc. haec), that the facts are these. — ipsum esse Dum- 
norigem, etc. : Direct, — 

Ipse est Dumnorix . . . cupidus rerum novarum. Compluris annos por- 
toria . . . redempta habet, . . . quod illo licente contra liceri audetnemo. His 
rebus et suam rem . . . auxit et f acultatis . . . comparavit ; magnum nume- 
rum equitatus . . . a/it et circum se habet, neque solum domi sed etiam apud 
. . . civitatis largiter potest ; atque . . . matrem . . . conlocavit, ipse . . . uxo- 
rem habet, sororem . . . conlocavit. Favet et cupit Helvetiis . . . odit . . . 
Caesarem . . . quod . . . frater . . . est restitutus. Si quid accidat Romanis, 
summam in spem . . . venit ; imperio populi Romani . . . de ea quam habet 
gratia, desperat. 

15 24 summa audacia, [a man] of the utmost boldness. The general 
word is rarely, as here, omitted after a proper name with an abl. of 

15 25 rerum novarum : the regular expression for a change of govern- 
ment, revolution, or coup d'etat. Such overturnings seem to have been 
frequent in Gaul. — portoria, customs dues or tolls, levied at the frontier ; 
collected, apparently, as by the Romans, through publicani, who bid for the 
contract at public auction and made what they could above the contract 
price. The Haedui controlled at least a part of the Saone, which was a 
water-way into the centre of Gaul. It was customary among the ancients 
to levy tolls or blackmail on goods passing through their territories. 

16 1 redempta : agreeing with vectigalia, and taken with habere, had 
bought in (cf. 8 9, 13 4). 

16 2 illo licente, when he bid: see note on 15 19. 

16 4 ad largiendum, for bribery, to buy political support : § 506 (300) ; 
B. 338. 3 ; G. 432 ; H. 628 (541. iii. n.«) ; H-B. 612. iii. 

16 7 causa, for the sake : as always when thus following a gen. — poten- 
tiae, power, as an attribute of the person ; potestas is power to do anything , 
facultas, opportunity; imperium, military authority. 

16 8 Biturigibus : near the modern Bourges, west of the Haedui. 

278 Notes: Caesar. [B. G. 

16 9 uxorem : the daughter of Orgetorix ; see 3 22. — ex matre, on the 
mother's side (a half-sister). 

16 10 nuptum: supine; § 509 (302); B. 340. 1 ; G. 435; H. 633 (546); 
H-B. 618; see Vocab. under conlocare. 

16 11 Helvetiis: dat. ; §367 (227); B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 1 
(385. 1); H-B. 362. ii. 

16 12 suo nomine, on his own account: a mercantile phrase applying to 
business debts, etc. 

16 14 si quid accidat: a mild phrase, in case of any disaster; future 
less vivid protasis with venire as apodosis ; § 589 (337) ; B. 319. B ; G. 658 ; 
H. 646(527.^); cf. H-B. 580. 

16 15 obtinendi: gerund or gerundive? See 3 11 and note. 

16 16 imperio (abl. of time and cause), under the rule. 

16 18 quod . . . factum, in regard to the unsuccessful cavalry skirmish 
fought the other day. The idea expressed in English by whereas, as to the 
fact that, and the like is regularly expressed in Latin by a ^*W-clause with 
the indie, almost independent of the rest of the sentence ; cf. 11 17, 12 11, 
15 14, and notes. 

16 19 initium fugae : it is implied that this action was treacherous. 

16 21 auxilio Caesari: §382. 1 (233. a); B. 191. 2.6; G. 356; H. 433 
(390. ii) ; H-B. 360 and 6. 

16 24 Chap. 19. res, facts; see note on 4 4. — accederent: §546 
(325); B. 288. 1. b; G. 585; H. 600. ii. 1 (521. ii. 2); H-B. 525. This 
word is used as a kind of pass, of addo. — quod . . . traduxisset, the fact 
that (as he learned) he had led, etc. The verbs in these ^*W-clauses are in 
the subjv. on the principle of implied or informal indir. disc. ; cf. 13 18, 
15 l, and notes. 
y 16 25 inter eos: i.e. the Helvetii and Sequani. — dandos: cf . pontem 
faciendum curat, 11 5 and note. 

16 26 iniussu SUO, etc., without his authority or that of the state. For 
form, see § 94. c (71. b) ; B. 57. 1 ; G. 70. A ; H. 143. 1 (134) ; H-B. 106. 1 ; 
here suo is equivalent to a genitive. 

16 27 ipsis : himself and the Hasdui. — magistratu : see 14 4. 

16 28 causae : gen. depending on satis, which is used as a noun. — in 
eum . . . ammSi&vtTteret, should proceed against or punish him (see Vocab.): 
a clause of characteristic; § 535 (320); B. 283. 1; G. 631. 1; H. 591 (503); 
cf. H-B. 521. 1. 

17 3 quod . . . COgnoverat, that he well knew, etc. (the present inceptive, 
cognosco, having the meaning to learn). This clause, in apposition with 

t unum (only one thing), might in English be introduced by some such word 
as namely. 

1. 18-20.] The Helvetian War. 279 

17 4 studium, attachment, as a partisan. 

17 5 YQluntatem, good will, as a friend. Note the absence of connectives 
in vivid narration. 

17 6 eius : i.e. of Dumnorix. — supplicio, punishment or execution. This 
word is derived from the adj. supplex, down-bent, signifying on the bended 
knee ; i.e. either as a suppliant for mercy, or, as here, to receive the blow 
of the executioner. 

17 7 prius quam conaretur, before he should attempt: § 556. b (327); 
B. 292. 1. a; G. 577; H. 605. ii (520. ii) ; H-B. 507. 4. a. 

17 10 cui, etc.: an easier construction would be cuius fidei omnes res 
credebat. — summam . . . fidem,/«// confidence. 

17 11 eo : i.e. Diviciacus. — commonefacit, reminds or notifies (see 

17 12 ipso: i.e. Diviciacus. 

17 13 apud se, in his (Cassar's) presence. 

17 14 ut . . . statuat : cf. note on 6 10. — offensione animi, displeasure (of 
Diviciacus); ipse, which follows, refers to Caesar: the gist of the request 
is in sine eius offensione. Caesar hopes, in what steps he takes or orders 
to be taken against Dumnorix,. not to incur the resentment of his brother. 

17 17 Chap. 20. complexus : i.e. he embraces Caesar's knees or falls 
at his feet. 

17 18 ne quid gravius (a common euphemistic phrase), no severe meas- 
ures. Notice that gravius is an adj., modifying quid {anything), a subst. — 
scire se, etc. : Direct, — 

Scio haec esse vera, nee quisquam ex eo plus quam ego doloris capit, prop- 
terea quod, cum ego gratia plurimum [possem] . . . ille minimum . . . posset, 
per me crevit; quibus opibus . . . paene ad perniciem meam utitur. Ego 
tamen et amore . . . commoveor. Quod si quid ei a le ac cider it, cum ego hunc 
locum . . . apudte teneam (teneo), nemo existimabit non mea voluntate factum ; 
qua ex re . . . totius Galliae animi a me avertentur. 

17 19 plus doloris : except as an adv., this comparative is mostly used, 
as here, with the part. gen. 

17 20 ipse, se, suam, sese : all refer to Diviciacus ; ille to Dumnorix, 
which is also the subject of crevisset and uteretur. 

17 22 opibus ac nervis, sinews of power, after uteretur: § 410 (249); 
B. 218. 1; G. 407; H. 477 (421. i); H-B. 429. 

17 23 gratiam, as well as perniciem, takes suam. 

17 24 amore fraterno, love to his brother: § 348. a (217. a); B. 353. 5. b\ 
H - 439- 3 (395- n. 2 ); H-B. 354../. 

17 25 si quid accidisset (a euphemism ; cf. incommodi, 11 16 and note) : 
pluperf. representing fut. perf. indie, (acciderit) of the direct by sequence 

280 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

of tenses; a future condition; § 516. / (307./); B. 319. B; G. 656, 657; 
H. 644. 2 (525. 2); H-B. 580. b and n. — ei: i.e. Dumnorix. 

18 l futurum [esse] uti . . . averterentur, the hearts of all the Gauls 
would be turned from him: periphrastic fut. infin.; § 569. a (147. c. 3, 288./") ; 
B. 115, 270. 3; G. 248; H. 619. 2 (537. 3); H-B. 472. c. Cf. 8 18. 

18 4 rogat [ut] . . . faciat: § 565. a (331./ R.); B. 295.8; G. 546. R. a ; 
H. 565. 4 (499- 2). 

18 5 tanti, of so great account : §417 (252. a); B. 203. 3; G. 380. i; H. 
448.4(405); H-B. 356. 1. 

18 6 eius . . . precibus, in deference to his wish and prayers. — condonet 
(subjv. of result) : this word means to give up a right to some one ; here 
the just resentment of Caesar was given up to Diviciacus. 
> 18 8 reprehendat: why subjv.? cf. 15 16. Note the same construction 
in the next clause. 

18 10 praeterita, things bygone, the past. 

18 11 custodes : i.e. spies. 

18 15 Chap. 21. qualis esset, etc.: indir. quest, after cognoscerent. — 
natura, character. — qualis . . . ascensus : i.e. what kind of an ascent there 
was at various points of its circuit. — qui cognoscerent: §531. 2 (317. 2); 
B. 282. 2; G. 630; H. 589. ii (497. 1); H-B. 502. 2; the antecedent of qui 
is eos, quosdam, or some such word, to be supplied as object of misit, he 
sent men to ascertain. Such a relative may in Latin always imply its own 
antecedent, as in English the relatives whoever and what ; cf. qui . . . appel- 
lantur, 1 2 and note. 

18 16 facilem : sc. ascensum. — de tertia vigilia : cf. 10 7 and note. 

18 17 pro praetore, with powers ofprcetor. The praetor, like the consul, 
held the imperium or power to command ; a legatus, not possessing this in 
his own right, might be temporarily invested with it by his commander. 
Labienus, and perhaps others of Caesar's lieutenants, had the imperium in 
their own right, by special grant. 

18 18 ducibus: a kind of predicate apposition, as guides ; § 284 (185. a) ; 
B. 168; G. 325; H-B. 319. 1. — qui . . . cognoverant: i.e. who had been 
of the reconnoitering party. 

18 19 consili : a predicate gen. after quid sit ; § 343. b (214. c) ; B. 198. 3 ; 
G. 366; H. 447 (402); H-B. 340. Such genitives are not rare in Caesar, 
but are probably more or less colloquial. — sit: cf. reprehendat, 1. 8, 

18 20 de quarta vigilia: about 2 a.m., the sun at this season rising here 
about four o'clock. 

18 22 rei: §349. a (218. a); B. 204. 1; G. 374; H. 451. 1 (399. L 2); 
H-B. 354. 

i. 20-23.] The Helvetian War, 281 

18 23 Sullae, Crassi : Sulla, the dictator, had conducted the war against 
Mithridates about thirty years before (b.c. 88-84), and Crassus that against 
Spartacus some years later (B.C. 71). — in: sc. exercitu. 

19 1 Chap. 22. teneretur : subjv. after cum, describing the situation ; 
cf. 4 12, 6 14, 7 17, and notes. 

19 2 ipse : Caesar. 

19 3 passibus : abl. of degree of difference after abesset ; § 425. b (257. b) ; 
B. 223; G. 403; H. 479 (423); cf. H-B. 424; not after longius; §407. c 
(247. c)\ B. 217. 3; G. 296. R. 4 ; H. 471. 4 (417. 1. n.2); cf. H-B. 416. d. 

19 4 aut Labieni : after adventus and coordinate with ipsius. — equo > 
admisso, at full speed (with reins thrown loose). 

19 6 armis : the shields and helmets of the Gauls were distinctly different * 
from those of the Romans; see Fig. 11, Fig. 28, Fig. 87, etc. 

19 7 insignibus : i.e. devices on shields and helmets, — stags' horns, 
eagles' plumes, etc.; see Fig. 11. The inference from this report would 
be that Labienus and his force had been cut to pieces, and Caesar must 
expect an attack at once. This accounts for his next movement, which 
was to fall back and wait in line of battle, while Labienus was vainly 
expecting him. 

19 8 ut, as. 

19 9 ne . . . committeret . . . essent: subject of erat praeceptum; 
§566(331. h)\ B. 295. 1. 

19 10 ut . . . fieret, in order that the attack might be made on all sides 
at once : a purpose clause. 1 

19 11 monte occupato, etc., having seized the height, continued to look out 
for our men. Observe how the imperfects exspectabat and abstinebat 
describe the situation ; see note on 3 5. 

19 12 multo die: abl. of time, late in the day. — denique, not till: see 

20 2 quod non vidisset, what he had not seen; sc. id, object of renun- 
tiasse. — pro viso, as if seen; viso is used here as a noun. — quo, sc. eodem, 
at the same interval as usual, i.e. five or six miles ; see 13 15. 

20 3 milia: ace. of extent; §425. b (257. b); B. 223; G. 335; H. 417 
(379); H-B. 387. 

20 5 Chap. 23. diei: §359- b (214.^); B. 201. 3. a ; G. 360; H. 446. 5 
(398. 5) ; H-B. 380. c ; making postridie more formal and precise. — omnino, 
in all (i.e. only). 

20 6' cum, within which, a common Latin idiom. — metiri : cf . 14 2 and y 
note. — Bibracte, the modern Mont Beuvray, a considerable hill, about ten 
miles west of Autun (Augustodunum). The place afterwards became a 
Roman colony, and contains numerous Roman remains. 


282 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

20 8 milibus: cf. 19 3 and note. — rei frumentariae (dat.), the supply 
of corn. 

20 9 prospiciendum : impers. ; sc. esse. — Hague : words in italics are 
conjectural readings. — avertit: towards the north, as the Helvetii were 
travelling westward to reach the Loire. 

20 10 fugitivos, runaways, i.e. fugitive slaves. 

20 11 decurionis: see chapter on military affairs, I. 2. 

20 12 existimarent : the subj v. is here used idiomatically because Caesai 
was not sure of the real reason ; § 540 (321) ; B. 286. 1 ; G. 541 ; H. 588. ii 
(516. ii); H-B. 535. 2. a. 

20 13 eo magis, all the more: cf. note on 2 17. — superioribus, etc.: 
concessive, i.e. though they had gained an advantageous position, still they 
did not attack the Helvetii. 

20 14 commisissent: see note on existimarent above, 1. 12. — eo quod, 
etc., for this reason, because they felt sure that they (the Romans) could be 
cut off from their supplies ; eo is abl. of cause, not different in sense from 
eo (magis) above, though its origin is different. — re: abl. of separation. 

20 15 itinere converso : i.e. instead of continuing on their way, by 
which they might have reached the coast, their vain confidence led them 
to return and give Caesar the chance that he had been waiting for. 

20 18 Chap. 24. id: governed by animum advertit treated as an 
active compound verb. The tense of the verb is perfect, as usual after 
postquam ; cf. note on arbitrati sunt, 4 IT. 

20 19 sustineret : subjv. of purpose ; § 531. 2 (317. 2) ; B. 282. 2 ; G. 630; 
H. 589. ii (497. i) ; H-B. 502. 2. 

20 20 ipse : Caesar himself as opposed to the cavalry, which he had 
sent elsewhere. — medio: see Vocab. and cf. §293 (193); B. 241. 1; G. 
291. r. 2 ; H. 497. 4 (440. 2. n. 1 ) ; H-B. 244. — triplicem aciem: see chap- 
ter on military affairs, vii. 

20 21 legionum: gen. of material; § 344 (214. e) ; B. 197; H-B. 349. 
The four veteran legions stood side by side, each in three lines ; see plan, 
Fig. 16. 

20 22 summo : cf. note on medio, 1. 20. — proxime : these new legions 
last raised (cf. 8 23) were not as yet sufficiently steady to bear the brunt of 
a battle, and so they were set to guard the camp. 

20 23 auxilia : see chapter on military affairs, 1. 3. — [ac totum, etc.] ; 
this clause may well be read in this connection, though many editors omit 
it ; cf. note on eorum, 9 17. The force of ac is and thus ; see Vocab. 

20 24 sarcinas : see chapter on military affairs, 1. 6 and iv. e, and 
Fig. 14. In a regular battle these were left behind in camp. So here, they 
were deposited in one spot, which was to be the site of the camp when made 

fc 23-25.] 

The Helvetian War. 


Fig. 116. — Scutum. 

(muniri, 21 2) by the less trustworthy troops. Nothing is said of the bag- 
gage train (impedimenta), but it probably was sent on towards Bibracte. 

21 1 eum: i.e. the spot chosen (locum, 20 24). — his: i.e. the soldiers 
last mentioned. — superiore : i.e. those who were at the top of the hill. — 

COnstiterant, were stationed ; cf. § 476 (279. e); B. 262. 
a; G. 241. 3. R.; H. 538. 4 (471. 3) ; H-B. 487. 

21 2 cum omnibus suis carris, etc. : i.e. not send- 
ing a force of fighting men, but following with their 
whole train. It seems to have been the habit of these 
peoples to go to battle with their families and their carts 
for encouragement as well as for defence. 

21 3 confertissima acie . . . phalange facta : see 
introductory chapter on Gaul and the Gauls. 

21 4 reiecto, etc. : the ancient cavalry were no 
match for any considerable number of foot-soldiers, 
and hence were not depended upon for the main en- 
gagement. They opened the fight, but were expected 
to flee as soon as the foot advanced. 

22 1 Chap. 25. suo \equo remoto~\, etc. : i.e. his own and those of the 
officers and staff. This was often done before an engagement (cf. Sail. 
Cat. 59). Caesar is reported to have said to his men, " I will mount again 
when the enemy run." — omnium: notice that the poss. gen. and the 
poss. adj. have the same sense, and so may be coordinated; cf. 19 4 
and note. 

22 4 pilis : see chapter on military affairs, IV. d 
and Fig. 15. 

22 6 Gall is . . . impedimento : dat. of service and 
of person affected; § 382. 1. n. 1 (233. a) ; B. 191. 2. b\ 
G. 356; H. 433 (390) ; H-B. 360 and b. 

22 7 pluribus, several. 

22 8 inflexisset: subjv. with cum causal; cf . prae- 
starent, 2 15. — sinistra impedita, since the left hand 
was hampered, which carried the shield. 

22 9 multi ut, so that in the case of many, niulti 
being placed first for emphasis. 

22 12 mons: see battle plan, Fig. 16. — eo: an 
adv. — mille: ace. of distance. 

22 13 capto monte, etc. : i.e. after the Helvetii had gained the mountain 
and the Romans were going up to attack them. 

22 14 agmen claudebant, brought up their rear. The Boii or Tulingi, 
with about 15,000 men, had been in front of the Helvetian line of march, 

Fig. 117. — Scutum. 

284 Notes: Ccesar. [B. a 

and were consequently in the rear when they faced round to attack Caesar. 
They now struck at his exposed right flank (latere aperto) as they came 
on the field from the road (hence ex itinere). 

22 15 novissimis praesidio : cf . Gallis . . . impedimento, 1. 6. 

22 16 circumvenire : sc. coeperunt. 

22 18 conversa signa . . . intulerunt, faced about (lit. bore their re- 
versed ensigns upon the enemy), and charged in two divisions. The divisions 
stood not back to back, but at an angle, facing outward, — the two front 
lines facing forward, while the third met the flank attack of the new-comers 
(venientis), i.e. the Boii and Tulingi. The phrase conversa signa refers only 
to the movement of the third line, while intulerunt denotes the action of 
the entire army. The exact position of this battle is uncertain. It is 
usually placed at a point between Chides and Luzy, near the river Alene, 
and about ten miles south of Mont Beuvray. 

23 1 Chap. 26. ancipiti : i.e. facing in both directions. — pugnatum 
est: impers. expressions should not be translated literally; here, a contest 
went on, the fighting continued, or something of the kind. 

23 3 alteri: the Helvetians; alteri: the Boii, etc. 
23 4 nam: in reference to the previous sentence ; i.e. they did not flee, 
but retired in good order, for, etc. 

23 5 proelio : abl. of time. — ab hora septima : i.e. from a little past 
1 P.m. ; sunset was about eight, so that each of the twelve daylight hours 
was about an hour and a quarter of our time. In the Roman reckoning an 
hour was one-twelfth of the time, whether long or short, between sunrise 
and sunset, and varied from about forty-five minutes to an hour and a 
quarter. — pugnatum sit: cf. note on 1. 1. For mood, cf. sint, 12 18. 

24 1 aversum hostem, a fleeing enemy. — ad multam noctem, till late 
in the night. 

24 2 pro vallo, as a barricade. 

24 3 e loco superiore, from vantage-ground, i.e. the height of the 
carts, etc. 

24 4 coniciebant, subiciebant, hurled (from above), thrust (from below). 
For the form of these words, see § 6. d (1 1. b. 2) ; B. 9. 3 ; H. 58. 6 (36. 4); 
H-B. 30. 1. — carros redasque: the former a two-wheeled cart, the latter 
a four-wheeled wagon. See Fig. 55. 

24 5 mataras ac tragulas : these were peculiar forms of pike or lance 
used by the western nations of Europe, not yet certainly identified. 

24 6 impedimentis castrisque : § 410 (249) ; B. 218. 1 ; G. 407 -, H. 477 
(421. i) ; H-B. 429. 

24 7 potiti sunt : notice the use of tenses in the above passage. The 
narrative proceeds as far as pugnatum est (histor. perfect), then, as if 

I.25-27.] The Helvetian War. 285 

answering a question why the fight continued thus, Caesar gives a descrip- 
tion of the situation with pluperfect and imperfects. " The Gauls had made 
a rampart of their carts and from this they kept discharging missiles and 
using other means of defence." Then the narrative is resumed in the 
clause with potiti sunt : cf. note on 3 5. — captus est : observe that the 
agreement is with the nearer subject ; § 317. c (205. d) ; B. 255. 2 ; G. 285. 1 ; 
H. 392 (463. 1); H-B. 329. 2. 

24 10 Lingonum : i.e. the southern part of Champagne, towards the 
north ; see map of Gaul, Fig. 2. The chief town of that region, now 
Langres, is about ninety miles from Mont Beuvray. It is very likely, how- 
ever, that they reached the Lingones farther west. Napoleon III puts the 
end of their flight at Tonnerre, sixty miles west of Langres. 

24 11 propter, etc. : gives the reason of morati. — cum . . . potuissent : 
here the description of the situation (see notes on 6 14, 7 17, 11 7) is so clearly 
the cause of the main action that we may translate cum since and refer the 
subjv. to cum causal (cf. cum praestarent, 2 15 ; cum inflexisset, 22 8). 

24 13 Lingonas : Greek form of the ace. common in these names of 
tribes; § 81, 82 (63./, 64) ; B. 47. 3 ; G. 66. 4; H. 109. 5 (68) ; cf. H-B. 95. 

24 14 qui si iuvissent, for if they should, etc. ; the direct would be si 
iuveritis. — se, etc. = se {Lingonas) eodem loco habiturum (esse) quo Helve- 
tios (haberet). 

24 20 Chap. 27. eos : i.e. Helvetios. 

24 21 essent : subjv. of integral part or attraction ; § 593 (342) ; B. 324. 1 ; 
G. 629 ; H. 652 (529. ii) ; H-B. 539. — iussisset : i.e. Caesar ; this change of 
subject, though unusual in Latin, is justified by the mention of eum in 1. 18. 

24 22 qui . . . perfugissent : i.e. fugitive slaves. Caesar in his demand 
would say qui perfugerunt, but the subjv. is used in the indir. form; 
§ 592. 2 (341. c) ; B. 323; G. 663. 2 ; H. 649- 1 (528. i) ; H-B. 535. 1. a. 

24 24 conquiruntur, conferuntur : to express the pass, it is often better 
in English to use the act. form, while they were hunting these up, etc. ; the 
present tense is regular with dum ; § 556 (276. e) ; B. 293. 1 ; G. 229. R. ; 
H - 533- 4 (467- 4) 5 H-B. 559. 

24 25 Verbigenus : from the parts between Beme and Lucerne. 

24 26 perterriti : agreeing with the persons referred to in milia. — ne 
armis, etc. : i.e. either in sheer desperation or in the hope of escape. 
Note that after verbs of fearing ne is translated by that or lest. 

25 2 occultari, be hid from Caesar; ignorari, unknown to anybody. 

25 3 existimarent : the supposed reason of the Helvetii, hence the 
subjv.; § 540 (321); B. 286. 1; G. 541; H. 588. ii (516. ii) ; H~B. 535. 2. 
a ; cf. 20 12 and note. 

25 4 contenderunt ad, made (rapidly) for. 

286 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

25 5 Chap. 28. quod : accustom yourself to the common use of the 
relative, where our idiom expects a demonstrative or personal. — quorum : 
the antecedent is his (dat.) following imperavit, the dir. object of which is 
uti . . . reducerent. 

25 6 sibi: dat. of reference; § 378 (235. b) ; B. 188. 1. n. ; G. 352 ; 
H. 425. 4 (384. 4. n. 8 ) ; H-B. 370. — purgati : perfect participle used as 
an adj.; §495 (291. b) ; B. 337. 2; G. 250. R. 2 ; H. 640. 3 (550. N. 2 ) ; 
H-B. 320. iii. 

25 7 reductos . . . habuit : i.e. he massacred them all. 

25 8 in deditionem accepit : by this act they became formally the 
subjects of the Republic, and were entitled to its protection, as well as 
required to obey its requisitions and pay tribute. 

25 11 reverti, turn back (from a march or journey; redire,go back, from 
a place of rest). — frugibus : grain and other field produce. 

25 12 tolerarent : best regarded as a purpose clause like, " nothing [for] 
to eat," — §531. 2 (317), — but referred by many grammarians to the 
"characteristic" use of the relative; B. 283. 2; G. 631. 2; H. 591. 1 
(503. i) ; H-B. 517. 2 and a. The two constructions, having grown up side 
by side in Latin, were very often confounded. 

25 13 ipsos : the Helvetians and their allies as opposed to the others 
who were to provide food. 

25 14 ea ratione, with this view. 

25 18 Allobrogibus : these were within the Province, but the Latin 
often adds an explanatory word by means of que. The Helvetii were 
thus in the Roman manner stationed as a kind of colony on the frontier 
towards Germany. The wisdom of the Romans in the defence of theii 
Empire is not less remarkable than their prowess in war. 

25 19 petentibus Haeduis, to the Hcedui, at their request: dat. after 
concessit, of which the object is ut Boios conlocarent. The Haedui were 
anxious for this accession to their strength because they were oppressed 
by the Sequani (cf. 27 21 ff.). It will be remembered that the Boii were 
emigrating when they joined the Helvetians and had no proper home to 
return to. The Haedui gave them land between the Elaver and the Liger 
rivers, and they appear later in several parts of Gaul. Their prowess in 
war made them valuable allies. 

26 1 parem . . . atque ipsi erant, equal with themselves : § 324. c (156. 
a. 4) ; B. 341. i.c\ G. 643; H. 508. 5 (451. 5) ; H-B. 307. 2. a. 

26 3 Chap. 29. tabulae, tablets, of the shape of a folding slate, with 
wax spread inside, written on with a pointed instrument called stilus. 
See Fig. 27. — litteris Graecis: not in the Greek language, but in Greek 
letters. These were probably learned from colonists at Marseilles, as the 

1. 28, 29.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 287 

Gauls had no alphabet of their own. The Druids made use of Greek let- 
ters (Bk. vi. ch. 14), but the Gauls in general seem to have been ignorant of 
them (Bk. v. ch. 48). Specimens of Gallic names on coins appear in *he 
names dubnorex, Aiviciacos, vercingetorixs. See Fig. 29, Fig. 82. 
26 5 ratio, an account: followed by the indir. quest, qui . . . exisset 
26 6 possent : not the subjv. of indir. quest., but of characteristic ; 

§ 535- a (3 20 - a ) 5 B - 28 3- 2 i G - 6 3 J - 2 ; H - 59 1 - 1 (5°3- 5 H_B - S 21 - «• «• 
26 10 ad milia XCII, about 92,000. — summa, the sum ; fuerunt agree- 
ing with the plur. predicate. Deducting the Boii, who were adopted by the 
Haedui, this reckoning would show an actual loss, in slain or captives 
(to be sold as slaves), in this short campaign, of nearly 250,000, includ- 
ing probably about 150,000 women and children or other non-combatants. 
The carnage seems extraordinary even under the conditions of ancient 
warfare. But, as in all battles, many more must have escaped than the 
record showed. 

Campaign against Ariovistus. — The latter half of this Book is taken up 
with the expulsion of a military settlement of Germans, which had been made a few 
years before under Ariovistus, a chief of the Suevi. 

The occasion of this new campaign was the following: The Haedui, jealous of 
the Sequani, who lived a little to the north, had laid excessive tolls on their trade, 
which consisted chiefly in the export of salted meats for the southern market. This 
led to a war, in which the Sequani had invited the aid of the Germans under Ario- 
vistus, about three years before the campaign of Caesar. The Germans, once in 
Gaul, had exacted a large share of territory and proved to be grasping and oppres- 
sive masters. Meanwhile the Helvetian war began to threaten. The Roman Senate, 
to make safe, passed the decrees before mentioned, promising favor and friendship 
to the Haedui (ch. n) ; and at the same time sent messengers to Ariovistus, saluting 
him as king and friend (ch. 35), recognizing his claims on Gaul, and, it was said, 
inviting him to Rome. This was the year before, in Caesar's consulship. Now, 
however, that the fear of the Helvetians was passed, Caesar found himself obliged to 
take sides in the old quarrel. 

Reading References on the Campaign against Ariovistus. 

Abbott's Caesar, pp. 86-93. 

Dodge's Caesar, pp. 82-99. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 9. 

Froude's Caesar, pp. 231-238. 

Guizot's Hist, of France, Vol. I. pp. 51-53. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, pp. 36-46. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 254-562. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 295-300. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 4. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

Trollope's Caesar, pp. 38-44. 

288 Notes; Ccesar. [B. G. 

26 15 Chap. 30. gratulatum.: § 509 (302) ; B. 340. 1 ; G. 435; H. 633 
(546) ; H-B. 618. 

26 16 intellegere, etc. : Direct, — 

Intellegimus nos, tametsi pro veteribus Helvetiorum iniuriis populi 
Romani ab his poenas bello repetisti (repetieris), tamen earn rem non 
minus ex usu terrae Galliae quam populi Romani accidisse ; propterea 
quod ea consilio florentissimis rebus domos suas Helvetii reliquerunt, uti 
toti Galliae bellum inferrent imperioque potirentur locumque domicilio ex 
magna copia deligerent, quern ex omni Gallia opportunissimum . . . iudi- 
cassent, reliquasque civitatis stipendiarias haberent. 

26 17 populi Romani, against, etc. (obj. gen. after iniuriis). — ab his 
repetisset, had inflicted on them ; see Vocab., and cf. 10 14-18. 

26 19 eo consilio, with this design : explained by the purpose clause 
uti . . . haberent; § 531. 1. n.i (317. a); G. 546. n. 2 ; H. 564. iii (499. 3); 
H-B. 502. 2. a. — florentissimis rebus: i.e. with no plea of necessity. Trans- 
late by a concessive clause. 

26 21 domicilio,/^ habitation : dat. of service. 

26 25 concilium totius Galliae : of course Caesar had no authority 
either to allow or to prohibit a congress of independent Gaul. But, con- 
sidering his power and ambition, the Gauls thought it best to secure his 
countenance (voluntate, not auctoritate) beforehand. They also had busi- 
ness that specially concerned him. 

27 2 iure iurando . . . sanxerunt, ordained under oath [of secrecy] ; 
the object is ne quis, etc. 

27 3 enuntiaret : subjv. with ne, after sanxerunt, used as a verb of 
commanding; § 563. </ (331. d) ; B. 295. 4; G. 546. 2; H. 565 (498. 1); 
H-B. 502. 3. a; cf. also 6 10 and note. — nisi quibus, etc., except (to those) 
to whom some commission should be assigned (pluperf. for fut. perf. in dir. 
disc). For omission of the antecedent of quibus, cf. note on qui . . . 
appellantur, 1 2. 

27 5 Chap. 31. eo concilio dimisso, when this assembly had been (held 
and) dissolved: i.e. after providing for the business now to be described. 
— idem (eidem) : nom. plur. 

27 7 secreto, apart. — in occulto, in a secret place. These words are 
probably genuine. 

27 8 Caesari ad pedes, at Ccesar 's feet. Caesari is dat. of reference ; 
§ 377 (235- «) ; B. 188. 1 ; G. 350. 1 ; H. 425. 4. n. (384. 4- n. 2 ); H-B. 368. 

27 9 non minus, etc.: sc. dixerunt: Direct, — 

Non minus id contendimus et laboramus, ne ea quae, dixerimus enuntien* 
tur, quam uti ea quae volumus impetremus ; propterea quod, si enuntiatum 
erit, summum in cruciatum nos venturos videmus. 

1. 30, 31.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 289 

27 9 id : in app. with ne . . . enuntiarentur. 

27 13 Galliae, etc. : Direct, — 

Galliae totius factiones sunt duae ; harum alterius principatum tenent 
Haedui, alterius Arverni. Hi cum . . . multos annos contenderent, factum 
est uti . . . Germani . . . arcesserentur. Horum primo . . . milia . . . trans- 
ierunt ; posteaquam agros . . . homines . . . adamarunt, traducti sunt 
plures ; nunc sunt in Gallia ad cxx milium numerum (more probably ad 
. . . milia nutnerd). Cum his Haedui . . . armis contenderunt ; magnam 
calamitatem pulsi acceperunt, omnem nobilitatem . . . amiserunt. Quibus 
proeliis . . . fracti, qui . . . plurimum ante . . . potuerant, coacti sunt . . . ob- 
sides dare, etc. Unus ego sum ex omni civitate . . . qui adduci non potue- 
rim ut iurarem aut liberos meos obsides darem. Ob earn rem . . . profugi 
et Romam ad senatum vent . . . quod solus neque iure iurando neque obsi- 
dibus tenebar. • 

Sed peius victoribus Sequanis accidit, . . . quod Ariovistus . . . consedit 
tertiamque partem agri . . . qui est optimus . . . occupavit, et nunc . . . dece- 
dere iubet, propterea quod . . . milia hominum xxmi . . . venerunt, quibus 
locus ac sedes parentur (possibly pa rarentur). . . . Paucis annis . . . omnes 
. . . pellentur atque omnes Germani Rhenum transibunt ; . . . neque enim 
conferendus est Gallicus cum Germanorum agro, neque haec consuetudo vic- 
tus cum ilia comparanda. 

Ariovistus . . . ut semel . . . copias . . . vicit, quod proelium factum est 
ad Magetobrigam, superbe . . . imperat, obsides . . . poscit, et . . . exempla 
cruciatusque edit, si qua res non ad nutum . . . eius facta est. Homo est 
barbarus, iracundus, temerarius ; non possunt eius imperia diutius sustineri. 

Nisi quid in Caesare . . . erit auxili, omnibus . . . idem est faciendum 
quod Helvetii fecerunt, ut domo emigrent, aliud domicilium . . . petanl 
fortunamque, quaecumque accidat, experiantur. Haec si enuntiata Ario- 
visto sint, non dubito quin de omnibus ... qui apud eum sint (sunt) . . . 
supplicium sumat. Caesar . . . deterrere potest ne maior multitudo . . . tra- 
ducatur Galliamque . . . potest defendere. 

27 13 Galliae totius : not to be taken literally, but referring to the 
eastern part of Celtic Gaul. 

27 14 factiones duas : see note on 3 20. — alterius : notice that this 
word may mean the one as well as the other. It depends on which one you 
look at first. — principatum, the head. 

27 15 Arvemos : these inhabited the mountainous country southwest 
of the Haedui, the modern Auvergne. They had been conquered in B.C. 
121, but not reduced to a province. Before their conquest they had been 
one of the most powerful tribes. Apparently in the earlier wars the Haedui 
had befriended the Roman people from antagonism to these rivals. 

290 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

27 16 contenderent : translate as if pluperf ; § 471. £(277. b); B. 260. 4: 
G. 234; H. 535 (469. 2); H-B. 485. — factum esse uti, it came to pass 
that, etc. 

27 17 Sequanis : these were the rivals of the Haedui on the north. — 
mercede: § 416 (252); B. 225; G. 404; H. 478 (422); H-B. 427. 1. 

27 19 copias ( = opes), resources. — feri ac barbari : as to the condition 
of the Germans, see Introduction. 

27 20 adamassent ( = adamavissent) : § 181. a (128. a); B. 116. 1; G. 
131 ; H. 238 (235); H-B. 163. — traductos pluris —pluris (Germanos) tra- 
ductos (esse). 

27 22 clientis: the subject states of the Ambarri, Segusiavi, etc. 

27 23 omnem . . . equitatum : of course an exaggeration ; Diviciacus 
was himself a noble, probably a senator ; while his brother Dumnorix was 
a commander of the Haeduan cavalry. 

27 25 qui . . . potuissent, coactos esse, (they) who had once, etc., were 

28 4 quo minus: following a verb of refusing; § 558. b (317. b. n. 1 ); 
B. 295. 3; G. 547; H. 568. 8 (497. ii. 2); H-B. 502. 3. b\ see also note on 
7 15. 

28 5 dicione : i.e. to do the bidding of the Sequani. 

28 6 potuerit : the same in dir. disc. ; § 535. b (320. b) ; B. 283. 2 ; G. 
631. 1 ; H. 591. 5 (503. ii. 1) ; H-B. 521. 1. a and ftn. The tense has been 
retained, as is usual in result clauses ; see note on 9 18. 

28 8 Romam . . . venisse : see note on 3 20. His application was not 
successful. See Bk. vi. ch. 12. — postulatum: cf. gratulatum, 26 15. 

28 11 peius . . . accidisse, a worse fate had befallen. Observe that a 
misfortune is usually said accidere, as if it fell on one, while a good thing 
is said evenire. — victoribus : here used as an adj., as often. 

28 12 Ariovistus : supposed to be the German word Heerfurst, "prince 
of the host." 

28 13 tertiam partem : i.e. upper Alsace, a part of the German conquest 
of 1870. This was the same proportion of conquered land taken by the 
German invaders (Burgundians) in this very territory in the fifth century 
of the Christian era. Such " annexation " seems to have been the ancient 
common law of conquest (Liv. 11. 41). 

28 14 optimus : this district (Franche-Comte) is one of the most beauti- 
ful in France. — nunc . . . iuberet : the same thing was afterwards done by 
the Burgundians. — altera, a second. 

28 17 quibus . . .\ir= to be provided with a place for habitation 
(subjv. of purpose). — futurum esse uti (periphrastic fut. ; cf. note on 18 l). 
the result would be that. 

1. 3 l >3 2 -] Campaign against Ariovistus. 291 

28 19 neque enim introduces an explanation admitting no doubt : for 
you see, for you know, for of course. 

28 20 Gallicum: sc. agrum. — hanc = nostram : § 297. a (102. a); B. 
87; G. 305; H. 505 (450); H-B. 271. ii. a. n. ; said with some feeling of 
superiority or contempt. The Gauls looked upon the Germans as savages. 

28 22 ut . . . vicerit : for mood and tense, see dir. disc. ; cf . tense of 
potuerit, 1. 6, above. 

28 23 Magetobrigam : somewhere a little northwest of Vesontio (Be- 

28 25 exempla cruciatusque : a so-called hendiadys. The Latin likes 
to dwell on an idea by giving its parts separately ; edere exempla means 
to use every known form of (something) on the victims ; cruciatus edere 
would mean to employ tortures. The whole combines the two ideas. 

28 27 barbarum, etc., rude, passionate, and hasty. 

29 1 nisi, etc., unless they find some aid. 

29 2 idem : in apposition with ut . . . experiantur ; cf. 4 17, 11 8. 

29 3 ut domo emigrent : i.e. to forsake their home. 

29 5 haec : notice the emphasis, as if he said : " Why ! if this very 
colloquy should be reported," etc. — dubitare: sc. se, i.e. Diviciacum. — 
quin . . . sumat: § 558. a (332. g. r.) ; B. 284. 3; G. 555. 2; H. 594. ii 
(501. ii. 2) ; H-B. 507. 2. b; cf. note on poenas persolvit, 10 19. 

29 7 auctoritate : i.e. his reputation and the fear it inspires. 

29 9 Rhenum: ace. after trans in traducatur; §395. n. 2 (239. 2. b. 
N.2; B. 179. 3; G. 331. R. 1 ; H. 406 (372); H-B. 386. a. 

29 13 Chap. 32. unos, alone: § 134. a (94. a); cf. B. 66; G. 95. r. 1 ; 
H. 175. n. 1 . This whole scene is illustrative of the Gallic character. 

29 15 quae esset: indir. quest, after miratus; cf. 13 5, 15 16, 18 15. 

29 16 respondere: histor. infin. ; cf. flagitare, 13 18 and note. 

29 19 hoc : we may translate, in this respect, but for the real construc- 
tion compare hoc facilius, 2 17. — hoc esse, etc. : Direct, — 

Hoc est . . . gravior fortuna Sequanorum . . . quod soli ne in occulto 
quidem queri . . . audmt ; absentisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si coram 
adsit, horrent, propterea quod reliquis tamen fugae facultas datur, Sequanis 
vero, qui . . . Ariovistum receperunt, quorum oppida ... in potestate eius 
sunt, omnes cruciatus sunt perferendi. 

29 20 ne . . . quidem : notice the position of these words before and 
after the emphatic word or phrase. 

29 21 absentis (predicate), even when absent. 

29 22 crudelitatem: object of horrerent; § 274. b. (177. c); B. 175. 2. 
b; G. 330. r. ; H. 405. 1 (371. Hi. n. 1 ) ; H-B. 391. 1. — adesset: § 524 
(312); B. 307. 1. 2 ; G. 602 ; H. 584 (513. ii) ; H-B. 504. 3 and a. 

292 Notes : Casar. [B. G. 

29 23 tamen, after all, whatever they might have to suffer. — facultas: 
on the force of this word, cf. note on potentiae, 16 7. 

29 24 Sequanis : dat. of apparent agent with perferendi ; § 374 (232) ; 
B. 189. 1 ; G. 355; H. 431 (388); H-B. 373. 1 ; the Sequani must endure 
(changing the voice). 

30 2 Chap. 33. sibi curae : dat. of service ; § 382. 1 and n. 1 (233. a) ; 
B. 191. 2. a; G. 356; H. 433 (390) ; H-B. 360 and b; cf. 22 6, 22 15. 

30 3 et . . . et : construe after adductum, induced by both . . . and. — 
beneficio . . . auctoritate: the first refers to services which would inspire 
gratitude, the second to the prestige which would inspire fear in Ariovistus. 

30 5 secundum, in accordance with {^..following). 

30 7 putaret: subjv. after qua re, which may be considered equal to 
propter quas^ut propter eas. — quod, because, or that. — Haeduos, subject 
of teneri below. 

30 8 appellatos (pred.), who had been often called. 

30 11 quod : relative ; the antecedent is the preceding clause Haeduos 
. . . Sequanos. 

30 14 periculosum : pred., agreeing with Germanos consuescere, etc., 
he saw it was dangerous to the Roman people for the Germans, little by little, 
to get in the way of crossing the Rhine, etc. 

30 15 sibi : : : temperaturos . . . quin . . . exirent, would refrain (check 
themselves) from going forth. — sibi : § 367 (227) ; B. 187. ii. a; G. 346. 2 ; 
H. 426. 4 (385. i) ; H-B. 362. 

30 16 ut, as ; fecissent being subjv. as dependent on exirent ; § 593 
(342); B. 324; G. 663. 1 ; H. 652. 1 (529. ii. n.i. i); H-B. 539. — Cimbri 
Teutonique: these German tribes had been crushed by l^arius (b.c. 
102, 101), after having been for several years a terror upon the Italian 

30 17 exirent: § 558 (319. d); B. 284. 3; G. 555; H. 595. 2 (504); 
H-B. 502. 3. b. 

30 18 [praesertim, etc.] : this clause makes good sense and may be 

30 19 Rhodanus = only the Rhone. — rebus: dat. following occurren- 
dum [sibi]; § 370 (228); B. 187. iii; G. 347; H. 429 (386); H-B. 376; 
possibilities which he thought must be met at once. In this clause two things 
are to be noticed : first, that the Latin regularly puts an antecedent which 
is in apposition with something preceding in the relative clause, e.g. " which 
kind," not " a kind which " ; and, second, that a verb which governs the 
dat. cannot be used in the pass, with a personal subject. In both these 
respects the form must be altered in translating to suit the English 

I - 3 2 ~35-] Campaign against Ariovistus. 293 

30 21 ferendus, etc. : in Latin the negative has an attraction for the 
main verb. We should say, " seemed unendurable," connecting the nega- 
tive with the adjective idea. 

30 23 Chap. 34. ut . . . mitteret : a purpose clause, subject of 

30 24 medium utriusque, between the two. 

30 25 conloquio (dat.), for a conference. — velle, etc., depends on the 
idea of saying in postularent. Give the direct words of Caesar. 

30 27 si quid, etc. : Direct, — 

Si quid mihi a Caesare opus esset, ego ad eum venissem ; si quid ille me 
vult, ilium ad me venire oportet. [The first condition is contrary to fact ; 
§589^(337^); B.321.B; G.597.R.*; H. 647 (527. iii) ; H-B. 581 and b. 1 ; 
cf. 12 4: the second is a simple present condition; § 589. a. 1 (337. a. 1) ; 
B. 319. B; G. 595. R. 1 ; H. 646 (527. i) ; cf. H-B. 536.] Praeterea ego neque 
... in eas partis . . . venire audeo quas Caesar possidet, neque exercitum 
... in unum locum contrahere possum. Mihi autem mirum videtur quid 
in mea Gallia, quam bello vici (vicerim), aut Caesari aut omnino populo 
Romano negoti sit. 

30 27 Opus: § 411. b (243. e. R.) ; B. 218. 2. a; G. 406; H. 477. iii. N. 
(414. iv. N.4); H-B. 430. 2. a.— ipsi: dat. of poss.; § 373 (231); B. 190; 
G. 349; H. 430 (387); H-B. 374. Observe in this sentence that the 
reflexives ipse and se refer to Ariovistus; § 298. e (195. k); B. 249. 3; 
G. 521. N. 8 ; H. 509. 5 (452. 5) ; H-B. 263. 1 ; and that the demonstratives 
is and ille refer to Caesar; cf. also note on 3 26. 

31 1 quid . . . se velit, wants anything of him (lit. wants him for 
anything) : a colloquial construction ; § 390. d (238. b) ; B. 1 76. 2 ; G. 

333. R.2; H. 416. 2 (378. 2); H-B. 397. I. 

31 5 mirum . . . quid . . . esset : a sort of indir. quest. ; it seemed strange 
to him, i.e. he wondered, what business, etc. — in sua Gallia, in His (part 
of) Gaul. Notice the emphasis of sua. 

31 7 negoti: part. gen. with quid; § 346. a. 3 (216. a. 3); B. 201. 2; 
G. 369; H. 442 (397. 3); H-B. 346. 

31 9 Chap. 35. quoniam, etc. : Direct,— 

Quoniam tanto meo populique Romani beneficio adfectus, cum in con- 
sulatu meo rex . . . appellatus sit, hanc mihi . . . gratiam refert, ut in conlo- 
quium venire . . . gravetur neque de communi re dicendum sibi . . . putet, 
haec sunt quae ab eo postulo : primum, ne quam multitudinem ... in Gal- 
liam traducat ; deinde obsides quos habet ab Haeduis reddat, Sequanisque 
permittat ut quos illi hdbent (habeant) voluntate eius reddere . . . liceat ; 
neve Haeduos . . . lacessat, neve his . . . bellum inferat. Si id ita fecerit, 
mihi . . . perpetua gratia . . . cum eo erit ; si non impetrabo, ego, — quoniam 

294 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

. . . senatus censuit uti quicumque Galliam provinciam obtineret . . . Hae- 
duos . . . defenderet, — {ego) Haeduorum iniurias non neglegam. 

31 9 tanto . . . adfectus : see introductory note to this campaign, p. 287. 

31 10 beneficio is explained by cum . . . esset, and gratiam referret 
by ut . . . putaret ; the first sibi refers to Caesar and the second to Ario- 
vistus. In this sentence the causal clause is quoniam . . . putaret, and 
the leading verb is esse: Since, though so greatly favored by the Romans, he 
made such an (ill) return (hanc gratiam referret) as to grudge coming to a 
conference when invited, and did not consider that he ought to speak or hear 
about their common business, (therefore) these were the demands he made 
(the things he required) of him, etc. Observe that in Latin the significant 
word, the verb (postularet), becomes in English the noun {demands'). 

31 15 ne quam, not any. 

31 18 eius : Ariovistus ; illis : the Sequani. 

31 21 si non impetraret : i.e. this pledge or assurance. 

31 22 M. Messala, etc. : cf. note on 2 12. This was in B.c. 61. 

31 24 obtineret, should hold (as governor), not obtain. Avoid the 
kindred word in translation. Words are liable to change their meanings 
in 2000 years. See note on obtinere, 2 1. For construction, cf. note on 
6 10. — quod, so far as. — commodo (abl. of specification) rei publicae, 
to the advantage of the state. 

31 25 defenderet : see the reasons in the note on the campaign against 
Ariovistus, p. 287. — se : a repetition of sese above on account of the long 

31 27 Chap. 36. ius esse, etc. : Direct, — 

Ius est belli ut qui vicerunt eis quos vicerunt quern ad modum velint 
imperent ; item populus Romanus victis non ad alterius praescriptum . . . 
imperare consuevit. Si ego populo Romano non praescribo quem ad modum 
suo iure utatur, non oportet me ... in meo iure impediri. Haedui mihi, quo- 
niam belli fortunam temptaverunt et . . . superati sunt, stipendiarii sunt 
facti. Magnam Caesar iniuriam facit qui suo adventu vectigalia mihi 
deteriorayfo-w/. Haeduis {ego) obsides non reddam, neque his . . . bellum 
inferam, si in eo manebunt quod convenit stipendiumque . . .pendent ; si 
id non fecerint, longe eis fratemum nomen populi Romani aberit. Quod 
mihi Caesar denuntiat se Haeduorum iniurias non neglecturum, nemo 
mecum sine sua pernicie contendit. Cum volet, congrediatur ; intelleget 
quid invicti Germani . . . qui inter annos' xiv tectum non subierunt 
(subierint), virtute possint. 

32 l eis : governed by imperarent. The verbs are in the past by 
sequence of tenses: § 482, 485 (285, 287. d) ; B. 267; G. 518; H. 548 
(495. iv) ; H-B. 476, 482. J- 

1 35-37] Campaign against Ariovistus, 295 

32 2 victis : governed by imperare. — alterius, any one else's. 

32 5 suo: i.e. the Roman people. — uteretur: subjv. in an indir. quest. 

32 6 SUO : i.e. Ariovistus. — sibi . . . stipendiaries, tributary to him. 

32 8 qui faceret, in making : subjv. also in dir. disc. ; § 535. e (320. e) ; 
B. 283. 3; G. 633; H. 598 (517); H-B. 523. 

32 10 non . . . neque, (on the one hand) he would not restore, etc., but 
(on the other) he would not wrongfully, etc. 

32 11 iniuria, abl. of manner, § 412. b (248. iv.) ; B. 220. 2 ; G. 399. n. 1 ; 
H. 473- 3 (419- iii- n. 2 ); H-B. 445. 1. 

32 13 longe . . . afuturum, the name of brothers would be a great way 
off from them, i.e. too far to help them. 

32 14 quod, etc. : the whole clause is construed as an adv. ace. : as to 
Ccesar's threat, etc. ; cf. note on 16 18, and § 572. a (233- a ) '■> B. 299. 2 ; 
G. 525. 2; H. 588. iii. N. (516. ii. 2. N.) ; H-B. 552. 2. 

32 15 secum, sua: observe that these refer, one to Ariovistus, the 
other to his antagonist ; § 300 (196. a) ; B. 244 ; G. 520 ; H. 504. 2 (449. 6) ; 
H-B. 262. 

32 16 cum vellet, congrederetur, he might come on when he would. 

32 17 inter refers to something coming between two extremes. Hence, 
when applied to time, it means the entire interval between the beginning 
and the end of a given period, and may be rendered during. 

32 19 Chap. 37. eodem tempore, etc. : in Latin the two actions are 
made coordinate, but in English we should be more likely to make one 
subordinate, at the same time that, etc. 

32 20 Treveris : from the region of Treves in the valley of the Moselle. 
— questum. : supine (after veniebant, supplied from the one preceding) ; 
see 26 15, 28 8, and notes. 

32 21 qui . . . essent: § 592. 3 (341. d) ; B. 323 ; G. 650; H. 643 (524) ; 
H-B. 535. 1. a. The following passage is a goodexample of what is called 
informal indir. disc. The formal indir. disc, introduced by a verb of say- 
ing has the main clause in the infin. and dependent clauses in the subjv. 
But often the verb of saying and the thing said are expressed together in 
some one word or phrase, as here questum. In such cases the depend- 
ent clauses have the subjv. just as in formal indir. disc. ; cf. 13 17, 15 2, 
16 24 for similar examples. 

32 22 ne . . . quidem : cf. note on 29 20. 

32 24 pagos (see note on 10 12) : these divisions were those known as 
hundreds, meaning not only the people but the district they occupied. — 
Suevorum : this is a general name, embracing a number of tribes that lived 
in the interior of Germany. Their habits and customs are described in the 
opening chapters of Book iv. 

296 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

32 27 maturandum sibi (sc. esse) : impers. ; § 208. d (146. d) ; B. 138. 
iv; G. 208. 2; H. 518. 1 (465. 1); H-B. 600. 3. a\ cf. exspectandum, 9 24 
and note. 

32 29 minus facile, not very easily : i.e. it would be impossible ; but 
this is avoided as a word of ill omen. — resisti : impers. ; § 372 (230) ; B. 
187. ii. b\ G. 217; H. 426. 3 (384. 5); H-B. 364. 2; cf. note on rebus, 
30 19. 

33 1 magnis itineribus : see chapter on military affairs, vi. 

33 2 contendit : the place from which Caesar started is uncertain. 
After the destruction of the Helvetian force he appears in the country of 
the Lingones, sixty to eighty miles north of Bibracte. In that vicinity he 
held a council of the Gallic chiefs (ch. 30), but whether he remained there 
is not stated. He probably came towards the north in the direction of 

33 3 Chap. 38. tridui : gen. of measure. — viam : § 390 (238) ; B. 
176. 4. a; G. 333. 2; H. 409. 2 (371. ii. N.) ; H-B. 396. I. 

33 4 occupandum : gerundive agreeing with Vesontionem. — Veson- 
tionem: the modern Besancon, about ninety miles E.N.E. of the former 
battle ground. There are many Roman remains here. 

33 5 quod relates to Vesontionem, but agrees in gender with oppidum: 
§ 3° 6 ( x 99) ; B. 250. 3; G. 614. 3. b\ H. 396. 2 (445. 4) ; H-B. 326. 1. 

33 6 finibus : the country which he had taken from the Sequani 
(Upper Alsace). — processisse, had advanced. The bracketed words are 
probably authentic, and at any rate may be translated. — ne, following 
praecavendum : § 558. b (331. e. 2); B. 295. 3; G. 548; H. 568 (497. ii); 
H-B. 502. 3. b. 

33 10 ducendum : cf. occupandum above, and note. 

33 11 Dubis: the modern Doubs. This name is said to mean "black 
river." — ut, as it were. 

33 12 spatium : object of continet. 

33 13 pedum : pred. gen. after est ; for construction with amplius, see 
§ 407. c (247. c) ; B. 217. 3 ; G. 296. R.* ; H. 471. 4 (417. N.2) ; H-B. 416. d. 

— sexcentorum: the real distance is about 1600 feet, but in other respects 
the present site exactly corresponds to Caesar's words. See view, Fig. 18. 

— qua, where. 

33 14 altitudine: abl. of quality or description. — radices: object, and 
ripae, subject of contingant. 

33 15 hunc [montem], etc., this an encompassing wall makes into a 

33 17 oppido : the town must be regarded as having occupied the 
lower ground towards the bend in the river. 

1. 37-40-] Campaign against Ariovistus. 297 

33 20 Chap. 39. moratur: cf. 24 24 and note. — percontatione, ques- 
tions. — nostrorum : i.e. the soldiers who inquired in regard to the enemy. 

33 21 vocibus, talk. — Gallorum : these, it would seem, volunteered 
reports. The whole indicates a great deal of talk on the subject, and to this 
Caesar attributes the panic. — mercatorum: see note on 1 8. — magnitu- 
dine: cf. altitudine, 1. 14. Roman writers frequently speak of the huge 
size of the barbarians of the north as compared with themselves. 

33 24 congressos, having met them. 

33 27 hie : i.e. timor. 

34 l reliquis : i.e. aids or attache's {contubernales, comites), who attended 
the governor or commander of a province for the sake of military practice. 
These were often appointed from mere personal or political motives, and 
were of small use in the service, as it proved here. See chapter on military 
affairs, 1. 7. 

34 2 quorum . . . inlata, these on various pretexts : § 315. <r (203. c) ; B. 
253. 2; G. 319; H. 516. 1 (459- 1); H ' B - 2 79- 3- 

34 3 quam . . . diceret, which, they said: § 592. 3. N. (341. d. R.) ; B. 323 ; 
G. 626. R. ; H. 649. 1 (528. 1); H-B. 535. 2. a. n. 8 . See also note on qui 
. . . essent, 32 21. The verb is singular in Latin on account of alius. 

34 6 voltum fingere, put on a brave face (voltum refers to the expres- 
sion of the face). 

34 7 tabernaculis : see Fig. 128. 

34 9 totis castris: § 429. 2 (258./ 2); B. 228. 1.*; G. 388; H. 485. 1 
(425. ii. 2) ; H-B. 436. a. — testamenta obsignabantur : indicating utter 

34 11 in castris, in service. 

34 15 rem frumentariam . . . timere, feared (for) the supply of corn, 
lest it might not be conveniently brought in: § 564 (331. f)\ B. 296. 2; 
G. 550; H. 567 (498. iii); H-B. 502. 4. Observe the force of ut after 

34 17 nuntiabant i what did they say in dir. disc. ? — cum . . . iussisset, 
for cum iusseris (fut. perf.) of dir. disc. — castra moveri, to break camp ; 
the regular expression. 

34 19 signa laturos : i.e. advance. This is the technical term, as the 
standards were planted in the ground during a halt. 

34 20 Chap. 40. omnium ordinum, of all ranks. Was this usual ? 
See chapter on military affairs, 1. 7. 

34 22 quam . . . ducerentur : indir. quest. ; cf. 10 3. 

34 23 sibi quaerendum, etc., that they had a right to inquire (lit. ii 
ought to be inquired) or consider (lit. it ought to be thought). 

34 24 putarent : see note on 32 21. — Ariovistum, etc. : Direct, — 

298 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

Ariovistus me consule . . . populiRomaniamicitiama<#<r/»V; curhunc . . . 
quisquam ab officio discessurum iudicet? Mihi quidem persuadetur, cognitis 
meis postulatis . . . eum neque meam neque populi Romani gratiam repudia- 
turum. Quod si furore . . . impulsus bellum intulerit, quid tandem verea- 
mini ? aut cur de vestra virtute aut de mea diligentia desperetis ? Factum (est) 
eius hostis periculum . . . ; factum (est) etiam nuper in Italia servili tumultu, 
quos tamen aliquid usus ac disciplina quam a nobis acceperant sublevabant. 
Ex quo iudicari potest quantum habeat in se boni constantia, propterea 
quod, quos . . . inermis sine causa timuistis (timueritis), hos postea arma- 
tos superavistis. 

Denique hi sunt idem Germani quibuscum saepenumero Helvetii con- 
gressi, non solum in suis sed etiam in illorum finibus, plerumque supera- 
verunt ; qui tamen pares esse nostro exercitui non potuerunt. Si quos 
adversum proelium . . . commovet, hi, si quaerent (quaerant), reperire pos- 
sunt . . . Ariovistum . . . dispersos subito adortum, magis ratione . . . quam 
virtute vicisse. Cui rationi contra homines barbaros . . . locus fuit, hac ne 
ipse quidem sperat nostros exercitus capi posse. 

Qui suum timorem in rei frumentariae simulationem . . . conferunt, faci- 
unt adroganter, cum . . . de officio imperatoris desperare . . . videantur (vi- 
dentur). Haec mihi sunt curae ; frumentum Sequani, . . . subministrant, 
iamque sunt . . . frumenta matura ; de itinere (vos) ipsi . . . iudicabitis. 

Quod non fore dicto audientes . . . dicimini (more probably dicuntur 
mi/ites), nihil (ego) ea re commoveor ; scio enim, quibuscumque exercitus 
dicto audiens non fuerit, . . . avaritiam esse convictam; mea innocentia 
perpetua vita, felicitas . . . bello est perspecta. 

Itaque (ego) quod . . . conlaturus fui repraesentabo, et . . . castra movebo, 
ut . . . intellegere possim utrum apud vos pudor ... an timor plus valeat. 
Quod si praeterea nemo sequetur, tamen (ego) cum sola decima legione ibo, 
de qua non dubito, mihique ea praetoria cohors erit. 

This speech, one of the most remarkable, if not of the most famous, of 
antiquity, stamps Caesar as a consummate orator as well as an able gen- 
eral His whole fortunes may be said to have depended on this campaign, 
at the outset of which he is confronted with a mutiny. By this skilfully 
contrived address, in which he glosses over the difficulties of the under- 
taking, which he must have known well, he contrives to inspire in his 
soldiers the Roman spirit, which was invincible whenever it was really 
roused. Caesar's marvellous conquest of Gaul depended quite as much on 
the devotion of his soldiers as on his unequalled ability as a general. 

34 25 cur quisquam iudicaret, why should any one think ? For the 
form of question, see § 586 (338) ; B. 315. 3; G. 651. R. 2 ; H. 642. 3 (523. 
il N.); cf. H-B. 513. 1 (dir., iudicet, dubit. subjv.). For the use of 

1.40.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 299 

quisquam, implying a negative, see § 311 (105. h)\ B. 252. 4; G. 317; 
H. 513(457); H-B. 276. 7. 

34 26 sibi persuaderi: see note on 30 19 ; the subject of persuaderi is 
eum . . . repudiaturum. 

35 1 quod . . . si intulisset, but if he should, etc. 

35 2 quid tandem, etc., what, pray should they be afraid of? 

35 3 sua, their OWN ; ipsius, his ; ipse, used in this way to avoid the 
repetition of sua, is an indirect reflexive ; § 300. b (196. a. 2. N.) ; B. 249. 3 ; 
G. 660. 5 ; H. 509. 5 (452. 5) ; H-B. 263. 2. 

35 4 periculum (root in experior), a trial. — Cimbris, etc.: this was 
in B.C. 102 and 101, a little more than forty years before, and was the 
worst danger that had threatened the Romans since the destruction of the 
city by the Gauls three centuries before. See Roman histories. — cum 
. . . videbatur: although this clause was a part of Caesar's speech to 
his officers, yet the indie, is used to emphasize to the reader the reality 
of the fact it asserts; § 583. a (336. d) ; B. 314. 3; H. 652. 1 (529. N.M); 
H-B. 535. 1. d. 

35 6 meritus : sc. esse. 

35 7 servili tumultu (abl. of time) : the insurrection of the slaves and 
gladiators under Spartacus, B.C. 73-71. These consisted, in part, at any 
rate, of Germans captured by Marius. A war at home, i.e. in Italy or on 
its borders, was called tumultus. — quos (referring to servos implied in 
servili) . . . sublevarent (change to pass, in translation, so as to keep the 
emphasis), who yet were considerably helped by the training and discipline 
which they had got from us. — aliquid : adv. ace. 

35 9 quantum . . . boni, etc., how much advantage firmness has: § 289. a 
(189. a); B. 237. 2. a; G. 204. N. 2 ; H. 442 (397. 3); H-B. 249. 1 ; for the 
tense of haberet, see § 485. d (287. d) ; H. 549 (495. v) ; H-B. 482. 1. 

35 10 quos . . . hos : notice the antecedent following the relative. — 
inermis : i.e. the slaves of Spartacus's force. 

35 12 hos esse: the Germans with Ariovistus. — quibuscum . . . con- 
gressi, etc. (changing the relative clause), whom the Helvetii had often met 
and beaten not only on their own ground, but even, etc. 

35 14 qui: i.e. the Helvetii. — tamen: i.e. though they were strong 
enough to beat the Germans, after all, etc. 

35 15 potuerint: § 485. c. n. 1 (287. c. r.) ; B. 268. 6; G. 513; H. 550 
(495. vi and ftn. 2 ) ; cf. H-B. 491 ; cf. also 9 18 and 28 6. — adversum 
proelium : see 27 21 ff. — si quos . . . commoveret, if any were alarmed by 
(lit., if the disastrous battle disturbed any). 

35 17 Ariovistum : subject of vicisse. 

35 18 neque . . . fecisset, and had given them no chance at him. 

300 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

36 2 adortum agrees with Ariovistum and governs desperantis, with 
which a pronoun {cos) must be supplied in English. This may always be 
omitted in Latin if any word appears to show its case. 

36 3 cui rationi . . . hac = hac rationi cut : the noun being attracted 
to the relative clause ; by this stratagem, for which there had been room 
against unskilled barbarians, not even Ariovistus himself hoped that our 
armies could be taken in ; § 307. b (200. b) ; B. 251. 4. a ; G. 616 ; H. 399. 5 
(445. 9) ; H-B. 284. 6 ; cf. note on 30 19. 

36 6 qui . . . conferrent, (those) who laid their own cowardice to the 
pretended difficulty about provisions, etc. 

36 8 desperare, etc., to be discouraged about the commander's doing his 
duty. Such words as officium have a wider range of meaning in Latin than 
similar words in English, as duty, a duty, sense of duty, discharge of duty. — 
praescribere : sc. officium ; i.e. that they were dictating to him what his 
duty was. 

36 9 sibi . . . curae : cf. 22 6, 22 15. 

36 10 subministrare, were (now) furnishing. — esse, were beginning to 
be. — frumenta, crops ; note the plur. and cf. with meaning of the sing. 

36 12 quod . . . dicantur, as to its being said that they would not, etc. ; 
cf. 12 11, 15 14, 32 14. — dicto audientes, etc. : cf. 34 18. 

36 13 nihil, no way. — re: see note on 4 4. — quibuscumque : dat. after 
audiens dicto ; i.e. no one has ever had a mutinous army who has not 
either been unsuccessful through his own fault, so that his men had no 
confidence in his ability, or else has been convicted of avarice by some 
overt act, so that they had no confidence in his integrity. 

36 16 suam, his own : emphatic by position ; equivalent to in his case. 
— innocentiam : the technical word, meaning freedom from the charge of 
plunder and extortion. In fact, Caesar's fault lay just the other way, — a 
lavish and reckless generosity at the expense of subjects or allies. In this 
sentence, in opposite (chiastic) order, innocentiam is opposed to avar itiam, 
and felicitatem to male re gesta ; a peculiarly Latin turn. 

36 18 quod . . . fuisset, what he had intended to defer. — repraesentatu- 
rum, he would do at once. This is a legal term, meaning to do a thing before 
the time. 

36 21 officium : cf. note on 36 8. 

36 22 decima legione : this was the legion which had been stationed 
in the province of Gallia Transalpina (cf. 6 19) ; it was distinguished for 
discipline and courage. 

36 23 praetoriam cohortem, body-guard, made up of the bravest men. 

36 28 Chap. 41. innata est : agreeing with the last noun ; cf. cap- 
tus est 24 7. 

I.40-42] Campaign against Ariovistus. 301 

37 1 optimum iudicium fecisset, had expressed the very highest opinion 
(a technical phrase). 

37 3 cum tribunis . . . egerunt, etc., urged upon the tribunes . . . to 

37 4 primorum : see chapter on military affairs, 1. 7. 

37 6 summa belli, the policy of the campaign. — suum . . . sed impe- 
ratoris : predicates after esse ; § 343. b (214. c) ; B. 198. 3 ; G. 366 ; H. 447 
(402) ; H-B. 340. 

37 7 satisfactione, apology; cf. satisfacerent, above. 

37 8 ei, in him ; after the phrase fidem habere =fidere, which takes the 
dat. or abl. 

37 9 ut . . . duceret (result) : depends upon itinere exquisito ; duce- 
ret refers to itinere. The sense is, such (a route) that it led, etc., a road 
which led. Caesar might have said quod duceret but for the quod in the 
previous line. The valley of the Doubs above Besancon is very narrow 
and the mountains are precipitous ; but, turning first to the north by the 
railroad coming from Vesoul and then up the valley of the Oignon River, 
the country becomes tolerably open to Villersexel and to Belfort, which 
lies in the gap between the Vosges and the Jura. This pass is interest- 
ing as having been for ages one of the great avenues from Germany into 
Gaul. See view, Fig. 20 and map, Fig. 22. — milium [passuum] limits 
circuitu, by a circuit of more than fifty miles. This must be reckoned as 
the distance to be traversed before coming to the main road again at about 

37 11 septimo die, etc. : at this time Caesar must have been somewhere 
near Miihlhausen (Mulhouse), about seventy-five miles from Besancon (see 
maps, Figs. 3, 22) ; at any rate, at some point beyond Belfort on the route 
from Besancon to Strasburg (120 miles), having passed beyond the gap 
into the valley of the Rhine. Ariovistus was then some twenty-four miles 
farther on. 

37 12 a nostris : i.e. forces. 

37 15 Chap. 42. quod: a relative; antecedent is id. — per se, so far 
as he was concerned (a common expression with licet). 

37 16 accessisset: the subject is Caesar. 

37 17 non respuit, etc. : notice the emphasis. Caesar did not reject the 
offer (as one might have supposed he would do). 

37 18 iam . . . reverti, that he was beginning to return. — arbitrabatur : 
the imperfect indicating the beginning of an action. 

37 19 petenti [Caesari], when he asked it. — ultro : opposed to petenti. 

37 21 fore uti . . . desisteret: periphrastic future (cf. 18 l, 28 17) fol 
lowing spem ; that he would cease from his stubbornness. 

302 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

37 23 conloquio : dat. of purpose; §382. 2 (233.^)5 B. 191; G. 356. 
N.i; H. 433 (390. ii); H-B. 361. 

37 26 vereri : sc. verb of saying from postulavit. Note the force of ne 
after vereri and cf. ut, 34 16. 

37 27 veniret: for veniat (hortatory) of dir. disc. — alia ratione, on 
any other terms. 

37 28 interposita causa (abl. abs.), by putting in an excuse. 

37 29 Gallorum equitatui : he had no other ; see chapter on military 
affairs, I. 2. They numbered about 4000, about the same as a legion. 

38 1 commodissimum : pred. adj. after esse, whose subject is the 
infin. clause eo . . . imponere. 

38 2 Gallis equitibus, dat. following detractis: § 381 (229); B. 188. 
2. d; G. 345. R. 1 ; H. 427 (385. ii. 2); H-B. 371. — eo (=in eos), upon 

38 4 si quid, etc., if there should be need of any active measures ; quid 
is adv. ace. ; § 390. c. d and n. 2 (240. a) ; B. 176. 3 ; G. ^33- ! J H. 416. 2 
(378) ; cf. H-B. 387. iii. 

38 5 facto: §243. e. N. ; B. 218. 2. c\ G. 406; H. 477. iii (414. n. 8 ) ; 
H-B. 430. 2. b. — quod cum fieret, while this was going on. On the use of 
the rel., see note on 58 9. 

38 7 pollicitum : see 36 23. 

38 8 ad equum rescribere, he enrolled them among the knights. The 
word equites means not only the cavalry service in war but a special 
privileged class in Roman society. 

38 9 Chap. 43. tumulus terrenus, a smooth (i.e. not rocky) hill. 

38 10 spatio : abl. of degree of difference. 

38 12 equis, on horseback, abl. of means. — passibus ducentis (abl. of 
distance, or degree of difference) = 320 yards. 

38 15 se : plural. — denos, ten on each side. 

38 18 appellatus esset : see note on 32 21. — amicus : sc. appellatus 
esset. — munera: according to Livy (xxx. 15), tho gifts sent to Masinissa, 
king of Numidia, were " a golden crown and bowl, a curule chair, an ivory 
staff, an embroidered toga, and a tunic with palm-leaf figures," such as were 
worn in triumphal processions. 

38 19 quam rem, a tribute which ; see note on 30 19. 

38 20 docebat, showed him. — ilium: emphatic as opposed to other 
beneficiaries implied in the preceding. 

38 21 aditum : i.e. right to approach the Senate. 

38 22 ea praemia consecutum, had attained these prizes, as if he had 
eagerly sought them (cf. introductory note to campaign against Ariovistus, 
p. 287). 

1. 42-44-] Campaign against Ariovistus. 303 

38 24 ipsis (instead of sibi, which might refer to Caesar alone) : the 
Romans. — intercederent, existed between, indir. quest. 

38 27 adpetissent: §592.1 (341. £); B. 323; G. 633; H. 652 (529. ii); 
H-B. 535. 1. a. In the dir. this might be either perf. indie, or the same as 
here. If only priority of time is meant, it would be indie. ; if there is any 
internal relation between the main clause and the time clause, it would 
require the subjv. In this case the latter seems more probable. 

38 28 populi, etc. : Direct, — 

Populi Romani haec est consuetudo ut socios atque amicos non modo sui 
nihil deperdere, sed gratia . . . auctiores velit esse ; quod vero ad amicitiam 
populi Romani adtulerunt, id eis eripi quis pati possit ? 

38 29 sui nihil, nothing 0/ their own (dignity, etc.) ; sui is used substan- 
tively, and is a part. gen. 

39 1 quod . . . adtulissent, what they had brought to the alliance ; i.e. 
the independence and dignity which they had possessed. 

39 2 posset: § 587 (338. a); B. 300. 2; G. 651. r. 2 ; H. 642. 3 (523. 
ii. 1. N.) ; cf. H-B. 503. — postulavit eadem, he made the same demands. 

39 3 ne, etc. : these clauses are in apposition with eadem, and are 
indirectly quoted from imperative forms of the dir. disc. 

39 8 Chap. 44. transisse, etc. : Direct, — 

Transii Rhenum (ego) non mea sponte, sed rogatus et arcessitus a Gallis ; 
non sine magna spe . . . domum . . . reliqui ; sedis habeo in Gallia ab ipsis 
concessas, obsides ipsorum voluntate datos ; stipendium capio iure belli 
quod victores victis imponere consuerunt. Non ego Gallis, sed Galli mihi 
bellum intulerunt ; omjtes Galliae c ivitq fes ad me oppugnandum venerunt 
ac contra me castra habuerunt ; eae omnes copiae a me uno proelio pulsae ac 
superatae sunt. Si iterum experiri volunt, (ego) iterum paratus sum decer- 
tare ; si pace uti volunt, iniquum est de stipendio recusare quod sua volun- 
tate ad hoc tempus pependerunt. 

Amicitiam populi Romani mihi ornamento et praesidio, non detrimento 
esse oportet, idque . . . hac spe petit. Si per populum Romanum stipendium 
remittetur et dediticii subtrahentur, non minus libenter . . . recusabo populi 
Romani amicitiam quam adpetii. 

Quod multitudinem Germanorum in Galliam traduco, id mei muniendi, 
non Galliae impugnandae causa facio : eius rei testimonium est quod nisi 
rogatus non veni, et quod bellum non intuli, sed defendi. Ego prius in 
Galliam veni quam populus Romanus. Numquam ante hoc tempus exer- 
citus populi Romani . . . provinciae finibus egressus (est). Quid tibi vis ? 
Cur in meas possessiones venis ? Provincia mea haec est Gallia, sicut ilia 
vestra. Ut mihi concedi non oportet, si in vestros finis impetum faciam, sic 
item vos estis iniqui quod in meo iure me inierpellitis. 

304 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

Quod fratres a senatu Haeduos appellatos diets, non {ego) tarn barbarus 
. . . sum . . . ut non sciam neque bello Allobrogum proximo Haeduos Roma- 
nis auxilium tulisse, neque ipsos, in his contentionibus quas Haedui mecum 
. . . habuerunt {habuerint), auxilio populi Romani usos esse. 

Debeo suspicari simulata te amicitia quern exercitum in Gallia habes met 
opprimendi causa habere. Tu nisi decedes atque exercitum deduces . . . 
ego te non pro amico, sed pro hoste habebo. Quod si te interfecero, multis 
{ego) nobilibus . . . gratum . . . faciam ; id {ego) ab ipsis . . . compertum 
habeo quorum omnium gratiam . . . tua morte redimere possum. Quod 
si discesseris et . . . possessionem Galliae mihi tradideris, magno ego te 
praemio remunerabo, et quaecumque bella geri voles sine ullo tuo labore 
. . . conficiam. 

39 9 rogatum et arcessitum : participles expressing cause. 

39 10 sine magna spe magnisque praemiis = sine magna spe magno- 
rum praemiorum ; hendiadys, cf. 28 25 and note. 

39 11 obsides : object of habere. Translate the participles concessas 
and datos by relative clauses. 

39 14 sibi, on him, referring to the main subject, Ariovistus. — ad se 
oppugnandum : gerundive expressing purpose ; cf. 33 4, 33 10. 

39 21 oportere: impers. ; its subject is amicitiam . . . esse. — id, not 
earn, because it refers to the idea, ut amicus populi Romani esset. — si 
remittatur: fut. cond. ; § 516, 589 (307, 337) j B. 268. 7 ; G. 656; H. 573. 1, 
646 (507. i, 527. i) ; H-B. 536, 579. a ; the pres. for imperf., contrary to 
regular sequence, for greater vividness. 

39 22 per, through the action of. 

39 23 subtrahantur, are got away (by underhand means). 

39 25 quod . . . traducat, as for his bringing over ; made subjv. by 
indir. disc. 

39 26 impugnandae : observe the gerundive. 

40 4 provinciam : emphatic ; i.e. he had a right to govern it as the 
Romans did their provinces. — hanc Galliam, this part of Gaul. 

40 5 ut . . . sic, as ... so. — ipsi : i.e. Ariovistus (used as an indirect 
reflexive) ; see note on 35 3. 

40 8 quod, in that. 

40 9 imperitum rerum : i.e. unsophisticated ; for construction, cf . 18 22. 

40 10 bello proximo : i.e. b.c. 62. 

40 14 debere se suspicari, etc., he had ground to suspect that Ccesar, 
in keeping an army in Gaul, kept it under the pretence of friendship ', [but 
really] for the purpose of crushing him (Ariovistus). 

40 15 sui opprimendi causa: gerund; § 504. c (298. a); cf. B. 339. 5; 
cf. G. 428. R.; H. 626. 3 (542. i. N. 1 ); cf. H-B. 614. 

1. 44-46] Campaign against Ariovistus. 305 

40 18 nobilibus . . . gratum: Caesar was the recognized head of the 
party opposed to the Senate and nobility. Many of the aristocracy would 
have been glad of any safe way to be rid of him. 

40 20 compertum habere has almost the force of comperisse ; § 497. b 
(292. c); B. 337. 7; G. 238; H. 431. 3 (388. 1. n.) ; H-B. 605. 5. 

The three relatives qui (1. 16), quod (1. 17), and quod JL 2I ) illustrate 
the principle that the relative, serving to connect with the previous propo- 
sition, may represent various conjunctions: if then he should not withdraw 
(qui = is igitur) ; and if he should kill him (quod, adv. ace.) ; but if he 
should withdraw (qaod = sed, etc.). 

40 25 Chap. 45. in earn sententiam qua re, to this effect (to show) why. 

40 26 negotio : abl. of separation. — posset : indir. quest. ; cf . 18 15, 
29 15, 38 23 — neque suam, etc. : Direct, — 

Neque mea neque populi Romani consuetudo patitur uti optime meritos 
socios deseram, neque ego iudico Galliam potius esse Ariovisti quam populi 
Romani. Bello superati sunt Arverni et Ruteni ab Q. Fabio Maximo, 
quibus populus Romanus ignovit neque in provinciam redegit neque stipen- 
dium imposuit. Quod si antiquissimum quodque tempus spectari oportet, 
populi Romani iustissimum est in Gallia imperium ; si iudicium senatus 
observari oportet, libera debet esse Gallia, quam bello victam suis legibus 
uti voluerit. 

40 28 neque se iudicare, and he did not consider ; notice the emphasis. 

41 1 bello superatos : B.C. 121, when the Allobroges also were sub- 
dued, and the Province probably organized ; notice the emphasis. These 
peoples had been conquered, a fact which gave special rights to the 

41 3 ignovisset : but, in fact, their country lay beyond the naturally 
strong frontier of the Cevennes, and so could not then be conveniently 
occupied by the Romans. 

41 4 antiquissimum quodque: § 313. b (93. c) ; cf. B. 252. 5. c; G. 318. 
2; H. 515. 2 (458. 1); H-B. 278. 2. b; Caesar, referring to the statement 
of Ariovistus in 39 28, claims priority of conquest for the Romans. 

41 7 suis, its own, referring through quam to Galliam. 

41 8 voluisset: the subject is senatus understood. 

41 9 Chap. 46. geruntur : for tense after dum, cf. 24 24, 33 19. 

41 10 tumulum : governed by propius, which sometimes has the force 
of a prep.; § 432. a (261. a); B. 141. 3; G. 416. 22; H. 420. 5 (437. 1); 
H-B. 380. b. 

41 14 periculo legionis, danger to the legion ; notice that in Latin the 
gen. is the regular form of one noun dependent on another, whatever prep, 
we may use to express the relation. 

306 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

41 15 committendum non putabat, ut dici posset, he thought that 
no ground should be given for saying. The subject of committendum 
is the ut-clause: § 568. N. 1 (332. e) ; B. 297. 2; G. 553. 1; H. 571. 1 
(501. i. 1). 

41 16 per fidem, through (misplaced) trust. 

41 17 elatum est, it was reported. Observe the regular mood and tense 
after posteaquam ; cf. 4 17 and note. 

41 18 omni Gallia: abl. of separation with interdixisset ; § 400 (243); 
B. 214; G. 390; H. 462 (413) ; H-B. 408. 3. 

41 20 ut, how, with indir. quest. 

42 2 Chap. 47. coeptae : this verb is regularly pass, when used, as 
here, with a pass, infin. (agi). 

42 3 uti constitueret : following velle; § 563. £ (331. b) ; B. 296. 1; 
G. 546 ; H. 565 (498. i) ; H-B. 587. a. 

42 4 suis : refers to Caesar ; se (1. 5) to Ariovistus. 

42 6 eo magis : cf. hoc facilius, 2 17 and note. — retineri quin, be kepi 
from : § 558 (319. d) ; B. 284. 3 ; G. 554 ; H. 595. 2 (504. 4) ; H-B. 502. 3. b. 

42 7 legatum [e suis] = one of his ow?i (officers) as an envoy. 

42 8 [e suis] : this may either be translated or omitted. The meaning 
is essentially the same. — magno . . . missurum, it would be at great risk 
that, etc. This meaning is given by the emphatic position of magno, etc. 
The Latin often puts into one sentence ideas which we are inclined to 
express (for emphasis) in two. 

42 11 humanitate: not humanity (cf. note on obtinere, 2 1) ; the word 
refers to his education. 

42 12 Flacco : governor of Gaul B.C. 83. It was customary for slaves 
or aliens to become clients of the person from whom they received freedom 
or citizenship and to take his gentile name: § 108 (80. a) ; G. p. 493; H. 
354 (649) ; H-B. 678. 1. Thus, here Procillus takes the name (C. Vale- 
rius) of his patron Flaccus, retaining his own as cognomen. — civitate 
donatus erat: § 364 (225. d) ; B. 187. i. a ; G. 348; H. 426. 6 (384. ii. 2) ; 
H-B. 365. b. 

42 13 qua multa . . . utebatur, which Ariovistus spoke freely. 

42 14 in eo, in him. 

42 15 peccandi causa, ground of offence : i.e. the Germans had no reason 
to commit any outrage on him, as they might on a Roman. 

42 16 hospitio : the relation of hospes, existing between two persons of 
different cities or nations, made a sacred bond far closer than that of simple 
hospitality ; see Vocab. 

42 18 quos: cf. note on 25 5. — conspexisset : note the subjv. and cf. 
4 12, 6 14, 7 17, and notes. 

1. 46-48., 

Campaign against Ariovistus, 


42 20 venirent : indir. disc, for venitis. — conantis, etc. : this proceed- 
ing was evidently for effect upon the army which was in attendance. Ario- 
vistus cried out aloud and did not allow the messengers to be heard. 

42 22 Chap. 48. a Caesaris castris : this camp is placed by Napoleon 
III at the southern foot of the Vosges Mountains near Cernay (Sennheim), 
a few miles northwest of Muhlhausen, and thirty miles beyond Belfort 
(Fig. 20), the fortress which now defends this pass on the frontier between 
France and Germany. The march of Ariovistus placed him nearer the 
passage, so as to cut off Caesar's supplies. 

42 25 Whether this camp was between Caesar and the Vosges Moun- 
tains or merely beyond him in the open is uncertain. 

18. — Wall and Ditch. 

abed, fossa fastigata ; ab, scarp; cd, counterscarp; w« = 
6 ft. ; mp = \ ad; fc = $ ad; rs, fascines to strengthen 
the earthwork ; xy, valli ; kl, steps. 

42 26 supportaretur : § 593 (342); B. 324. 1; G. 629; H. 652 (529. ii); 
H-B. 539; and cf. 14 7, 24 21. 

42 28 instructam habuit : cf . 40 20 and note. 

43 1 vellet: for construction, cf. supportaretur, 42 26. 

43 3 castris : the place where may omit the prep, when the idea of 
means is prominent; § 429 (258./) ; B. 228. 1 ; G. 389; H. 485. 2. (425. ii 
1. 1); cf. H-B. 446. 1. 

43 4 hoc : pointing to the description which follows. — se exercuerant, 
were trained: § 476 (279. e) ; B. 262. A; G. 241. 3. R. ; H. 299. 2 (297, 
L 2) ; H-B. 487. 

44 1 singuli [equites] singulos [pedites] : i.e. one apiece. 

44 5 si quo . . . prodeundum, if there was occasion for advancing to any 

44 7 cursum adaequarent: Tacitus (Ger. 6) says: "They fight in 
combination [infantry and cavalry], and the foot soldiers, picked out of 

308 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

the entire body of young men and placed in front of the line, are able to 
keep up with the cavalry in speed." This method of fighting, peculiar to 
the Germans, seemed so advantageous to Caesar that he employed it him- 
self on occasion, notably at the battle of Pharsalia. 

44 10 Chap. 49. consederant : cf. exercuerant, above. 

44 11 acie triplici: see chapter on military affairs, vii. 

44 13 castra munire : the spade and pickaxe were as familiar to the 
Roman soldier as the sword or javelin. See chapter on military affairs, v, 
also Figs. 23, 54, 69, 118, 119. In this case Caesar had one larger camp 
about two miles east of the Germans, and a smaller one rather more than 
half a mile to the south of them. 

45 8 Chap. 50. instituto suo, according to his previous practice: 
§ 418. a (253. n.) ; B. 220. 3; G. 397; H. 475. 3 (416); H-B. 414. 

45 11 turn: note the emphasis. 

45 13 quae . . . oppugnaret : a purpose clause ; cf. 1. 3 above. 

45 14 pugnatum est : how translated ? Cf. note on 23 1. 

45 19 matres familiae : according to Tacitus (Ger. 8), it was not 
matrons only, but women as a class, or most of them, to whom this 
prophetic power was ascribed. 

45 20 sortibus : lots of leaves or twigs marked with certain signs and 
drawn by chance. — vaticinationibus : perhaps omens interpreted from 
the noise of waters, river eddies, etc., or possibly the mere prophetic 
impressions analogous to "second sight." — declararent: § 568 (332); B. 
297. 1 ; G. 557; H. 571. 2 (501. i. 2) ; H-B. 521. 3. a. — utrum . . . necne: 
§ 335 (211) ; B. 162. 4; G. 458 ; H. 380 (353) ; H-B. 234. a. 

45 21 non esse fas, it was not fated. 

45 22 novam lunam : a common superstition among semicivilized 
peoples (cf. Tacitus, Ger. 11); so the Spartans refused to advance to 
Marathon before the full moon. 

45 25 Chap. 51. alarios: the auxiliaries as distinguished from the 
legionary (Roman) troops. They were usually stationed on the wings of 
the line of battle ; hence their name, from ala, a wing. 

45 26 pro : note the force of the prep, here as distinguished from its 
meaning in 46 1 ; cf. also 3 1. 

46 2 ad speciem, to make a show, as if the two legions were still there, 
while in fact they had joined the other force at the greater camp. — acie: 
of the legionaries alone. The six legions in battle array (triplici acie) 
presented a front of more than a mile in length. 

46 3 necessario : the necessity seems to have come from the fact 
that the tactics of the Germans demanded more room than a crowded 
stronghold could give. Rarely in ancient warfare was a fortified camp 

1. 48-53.] Campaign against Ariovistus. 309 

assailed. The usual way was to form two battle lines between the forti 
fied camps. 

46 5 intervallis: § 412 (248); B. 220. 1 ; G. 399; H. 473. 3 (419. iii); 
H-B. 445. 

46 8 eo, thereon, i.e. the carts and wagons ; cf. note on eo, 38 2. 

46 9 proficiscentis, (the men) as they advanced (object of implora- 

46 11 Chap. 52. See chapter on military affairs, vn, for description 
of a battle. — singulos legatos, etc.: i.e. a legatus in command of each 
legion. This was the beginning of a very important reform in the military 
organization. Caesar felt so keenly the evil of the command being divided 
among six tribunes that he detailed one of his legati nominally to assist 
the tribunes. After this time we find the legatus as the regular com- 
mander of a legion, with the six tribunes under him. On this occasion, 
having only five legati, he also appointed his quartermaster (quaestor) to 
that one of the six legions which was intended to be under his own special 

46 13 earn partem : that, of course, would be the enemy's left. 

46 14 ita acriter . . . ut, so fiercely that. 

46 17 coniciendi : observe the gerund with a dir. object (pila). Give 
the corresponding gerundive construction. 

46 20 in phalanga, upon the phalanx. This was a compact body of 
men with shields close locked in front and above, lapping over one another 
like shingles on a roof. See Fig. 68, the Roman testudo. 

46 21 revellerent, etc. : i.e. they leaped upon the roof of shields, 
pulled them up, and so thrust their swords down from above (desuper). 

46 24 P. Crassus : son of Marcus Crassus the triumvir. He next 
appears at the head of an important expedition against the Aquitanians. 
pp. 88-92. 

46 25 adulescens: like our junior, to distinguish him from his father. 
— expedition more free. 

46 26 tertiam aciem : the line of reserves, kept for just such emer- 

47 1 Chap. 53. restitutum est : contrasted with laborantibus, above. 

47 2 prius . . . quam . . . pervenerunt : see note on 38 27. 

48 1 Rhenum : the nearest point on this river was a little below Bile, 
somewhat more than five miles distant from the supposed place of the 
engagement. But the Germans may have fled down the valley of the 111, 
reaching the Rhine near Rheinau, some fifty miles from the battlefield. 

48 2 tranare contenderunt, by great effort swam across. 
48 5 reliquos omnis : said to be 80,000. 


Notes: Ccesar. 

[B. G. 


48 6 duae uxores : only chiefs among the Germans, says Tacitus 
(Ger. 1 8), had more than one wife ; and this was for the sake of honor 
and alliances. 

48 7 Sueva : for character and customs of the Suevi, see Bk. iv. chs. 


48 8 duxerat : cf. note on 8 7. Observe that duxerat in the line 
above has a different meaning. 

48 10 Procillus : see 42 10. 

48 11 trinis catenis, three (sets of) manacles. 

48 16 eius calamitate, by any harm to him ; eius is obj. gen., and 

refers to Procillus. 

iiiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiii^iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiinnnni iiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiEiDiiig 48 17 q U i cqU am : 

adv. ace; § 390. d 
and n. 2 (240. a) ; B. 
176. 3 5 G. 333 . 1; 
H. 416. 2 (378. 2) ; 
cf. H-B. 396. 2. 

48 18 se prae- 
sente, in his pres- 
ence. — ter : it was 
the regular usage of 
the Germans to con- 
sult the lot thrice 
(Tacitus, Ger. 10). 
This has come down 
to the present day 
in sundry games, 
etc. — consultum: 



tea | ex 



Peditea kquites 

Qua*- 1 



Equite\ Peditet 

| Tribuni | | Tribuni \ 





g_<5 i--- 

-— -f--- 







00 ! 00 




00 1 00 
«J 1 — v— 

ft, { ■»■] 

: C|S," 

>-i est 



GO j 



00 l _« 

,-ji_.L W 

est ; <» 
--6T-T — ftr 


t'liNiinii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiiiii nun 11111111 |||i||iill|[||llllllll|||||||||||||||||||||||||l|||i||||||||||||||||||||||||||lia 

Fig. 119. — Castra Rom ana. impers., sc. esse. 

48 19 necaref ur : 
indir. quest. ; the dir. was a dubit. subjv., necetur. The site of this battle 
is still very uncertain. The account of Caesar's march would seem to point 
to some place from thirty to fifty miles beyond Belfort, and accordingly it 
has been located by some near Cernay and by others near Gemar, twenty 
miles farther down the valley. Perhaps it may have been even nearer the 
gap than Cernay. The plan in the text, that of Col. Stoffel, must be taken, 
therefore, only as a supposable arrangement. The country is nearly the 
same in all that region, and a few miles can make no difference. The 
great point is that for the first time a Roman army ventured beyond one 
of the natural bounds of Gaul into the valley of the Rhine and defeated 
a German horde on its own ground, as it were. The campaign against 

I- 53' 54. II- * •] The Belgian Confederacy. 31 1 

Ariovistus settled the question of sovereignty over Gaul for several centuries 
to come. The Germans did not gain possession of it until after the fall of 
the western Roman empire. 

48 24 Chap. 54. Ubii: these lived near the modern Cologne, and were 
deadly enemies of the Suevi, and therefore generally in alliance with 
the Romans (Bk. iv. ch. 3). — Rhenum : governed by proximi; § 432. a 
(261. a)\ B. 141. 3; G. 359. N. 1 ; H. 420. 5 (391. ii. 2); H-B. 380. b and 
cf. propius tumulum, 41 10. 

48 26 maturius, earlier ; the decisive battle with Ariovistus was fought 
somewhere about the 10th of September. 

48 28 in citeriorem Galliam : south of the Alps. 

48 29 conventus : the proconsular courts held for the administration of 
justice. A further reason for going was to be nearer Rome and to watch 
political movements there. 

Book Second. — b.c. 57. 

The Belgian Confederacy. — The people of northern Gaul, including 
Flanders and the Netherlands, were far remote from any country hitherto occu- 
pied by the Roman arms. They lived amid forests and swamps hard to penetrate ; 
they claimed kindred with the German tribes rather than with the more fickle and 
effeminate Celts ; and they had a fierce and resolute spirit of independence, like that 
which their descendants, the Dutch, exhibited long after in the same regions against 
the armies of Spain. The Belgian tribes, and particularly the Nervii, appear to 
have offered to Caesar a more formidable and desperate resistance than any he met 
elsewhere until the great rising of B.C. 52. When their spirit was once broken, the 
conquest of the whole country was simply a question of time. 

Reading References on the Campaign against the Belgian Confederacy. 

Dodge's Caesar, chaps. 7, 8. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 10. 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 14. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, chap. 3. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 267-281. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 300-304. 

Motley's Rise of the Dutch Republic, Vol. I. pp. n, 12. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 5. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

Trollope's Caesar, chap. 3. 

49 l Chap. i. cum esset, etc., while Casar was: subjv. with cum 
temporal; §546(325); B. 288. i.B; G. 585; H. 600. ii (521. ii. 2); H-B. 524. 

312 Notes ; Ccesar, [B. G. 

For discussion of the principle, see notes on 6 14, 7 17, 11 7. The verb 
comes in this emphatic place on account of the close connection of these 
words with the preceding book; something like and being thus in, etc. 
See translation of this chapter in "Directions for Reading," p. lvii. — 
citeriore Gallia: northern Italy. — ita uti (=«/), as: correlatives; the 
demonstrative word so is often omitted in English : § 323. £• (107) ; G. 1 10. 3 ; 
H. 305; cf. H-B. 144. — demonstravimus, dixeramus: the perfect here 
implies an act done before the time of writing (see end of Bk. i) ; the 
pluperf., what took place before the time of demonstravimus. 

49 2 adferebantur, certior fiebat : imperf. of repeated action ; § 470 
(277) ; B. 260. 2 ; G. 231 ; H. 534. 3 (469. ii) ; H-B. 484. Translate kept 
coming in ; he was informed from time to time. 

49 3 litteris, by despatches: abl. of means; § 409 (248. c) ; B. 218; G. 
401 ; H. 476 (420) ; H-B. 423. — Belgas . . . coniurare . . . dare, that the 
Belgians, etc. : indir. disc, ace. and infin. following the verbal phrase certior 
fiebat; § 459 (272); B. 331. i; G. 527; H. 613 (535); H-B. 589; direct,— 
Belgae coniurant. Caesar had not yet advanced farther north than the 
country of the Lingones, so that the Belgae were as yet unattacked. — quam 
agrees with partem, though the proper antecedent is Belgas : § 306 (199) ; 
B. 250. 3; G. 614. R. 3 . b\ H. 396. 2 (445. 4) ; H-B. 326. 1. 

49 4 esse: indir. disc, (with subj. ace. quam), after dixeramus. — 
dixeramus is in the indie, because, though a relative clause, it is paren- 
thetical merely, and not a part of the report of Labienus : § 583 (336. b) ; 
B. 314. 3; G. 628. R. a; H. 643. 3 (524. 2. 1) ; H-B. 535. 1. d. 

49 5 coniurare : from the point of view of the Romans, any war against 
Rome is a " conspiracy " ; a nation enslaved by Rome is " pacified." — 
Obsides: see note on 8 11. — inter se, to one another: § 301./ (196./) ; B. 
245; G. 221; H. 502. 1 (448. N.); H-B. 266. — coniurandi: gerund; § 504 
(298) ; B. 338. 1. a; G. 428; H. 626 (542. i); H-B. 612. i. 

49 6 has esse causas, that the reasons were as follows : the report of 
Labienus continued, indir. disc. — quod vererentur, sollicitarentur : subjv. 
because subord. clauses in indir. disc; § 580 (336. 2) ; B. 314. 1 ; G. 541 ; 
H. 643 (524) ; H-B. 535. 2. The two clauses introduced by primum and 
deinde contain the two reasons for the conspiracy, and so the gist of the 
sentence. The rest, which makes the whole seem complicated, defines the 
classes of disaffected Gauls who, though conquered, hoped still to recover 
their liberty by means of their more warlike neighbors. These classes are 
two (partim . . . partim), but to these are added in Caesar's words, but in 
a different construction (ab non nullis), some who had personal reasons 
for wishing to expel the Romans. — ne . . . adduceretur: subst. clause, 
object of vererentur; § 564 (331. /); B. 296. 2; G. 550; H. 567 (498. 

II.i,2.] The Belgian Confederacy, 313 

iii); H-B. 502. 4. — omni pacata Gallia: translate the abl. abs. freely, 
often by an active construction, having subdued, etc., or by a temporal, con- 
ditional, or such other clause as will best bring out the thought. 

49 7 Gallia: i.e. Celtic Gaul, within which the previous campaigns had 
been conducted; § 521. a (310. a); B. 305. i; G. 667; H. 638. 2 (549. 2); 
H-B. 578. 6. — exercitus noster: i.e. to subdue them in their turn. — ab 
non nullis Gallis: § 405 (246); B. 216; G. 401; H. 468 (415. i); H-B. 
406. 1. 

49 8 partim qui, etc. : not part, of Labienus's report, but explanatory 
remarks added by Caesar; hence the indie. — ut . . . ita: correlatives; 
§ 3 2 3- g ( io 7) ; G - ! IO - 3 ; H - (3°5) ! H_B - J 44> 563. — Germanos . . . versari : 
object of noluerant; § 457. 5 6 3- b («7«- <*» 33°- 3) '> B - 2 95- N -» 33 l - iv J 
G. 532 ; H. 614 (535. ii) ; H-B. 587 and a. 

49 9 exercitum hiemare, etc., they took it hard (moleste ferebant) that 
an army of the Roman people was wintering and getting a foothold (invetera- 
scere, Ht.grow old) in Gaul. The infinitives, with their subj. ace. exerci- 
tum, are in indir. disc, after moleste ferebant: § 572. b (333. b); B. 331. v; 
G. 650; H. 642. ii (523. n.) ; H-B. 594. 

49 11 mobilitate: abl. of cause; §404 (245); B. 219; G. 408; H. 475 
(416); H-B. 444. — novis imperiis studebant = were eager for a change of 
government (lit. new ruling powers) : dat. ; § 367 (227) ; B. 187. ii. a ; G. 346 ; 
H. 426 (385) ; H-B. 362. Notice that novis is emphatic. 

49 12 ab non nullis, by some also (sc. sollicitabantur) ; these were petty 
chiefs of clans. — quod (causal) . . . OCCUpabantur, because royal power was 
(constantly) usurped. Notice the indie. ; Caesar explains the statement of 
Labienus (quod . . . sollicitarentur) by facts from his own knowledge ; 
§ 540 (321); B. 286. 1; G. 540; H. 588 (516); H-B. 555. A clause with 
the subjv. (occuparentur) would indicate that the reason assigned formed 
part of the letter of Labienus. — potentioribus : used substantively; 
the more powerful. 

49 13 ad . . . facultatis, the means to take men into their pay. — condu- 
cendos : gerundive in an expression of purpose ; § 506 (300) ; B. 338. 3, 339 ; 
G. 432; H. 622 (544. N. 2 ); H-B. 612. iii. 

49 14 rem : cf. note on 4 4. 

49 15 imperio nostro : strictly a loc. abl., implying time, place, or con- 
dition, under our dominion. — consequi, complementary infin. : § 456 and N. 
(271 and N.); B. 328. 1 ; G. 423; H. 607. 2 (533. i. 2); H-B. 586 and a. 

50 1 Chap. 2. nuntiis: abl. of cause; cf. mobilitate, 49 11. — duas 
legiones . . . misit : these were numbered xm and xiv, making with the 
others (vii-xii) eight in all, amounting (with auxiliaries) to perhaps 60,000 

314 Notes: C&sar. TB. G. 

50 2 inita aestate: abl. abs., expressing time when; § 419 (255); B. 227. 
2. a; G. 665; H. 489. 1 (431. 1); H-B. 421. 1; aestas is the period from 
the spring equinox to that of autumn. 

50 3 qui deduceret (the antecedent is Q. Pedium) : relative clause of 
purpose; § 531 (317. 2); B. 282. 2; G. 630; H. 589. ii (497. i); H-B. 502. 2. 
— Pedium : Pedius was Caesar's nephew, son of his sister Julia. — legatum : 
see note on 8 22. 

50 4 cum primum, etc. : i.e. when grass and young grain began to be 
abundant, so that the cavalry and baggage animals could subsist. — inci- 
peret : cf. note on esset, 49 1. — ad exercitum : i.e. to Vesontio, in the 
country of the Sequani. See Map, Fig. 26. 

50 5 Senonibus : these were north of the Haedui, on the upper course 
of the Seine ; their name is preserved in Sens. — reliquis Gallis, the rest 
of the Gauls: § 293 (193); cf. B. 241. 1; H. 497. 4 (440. n. 1 ); H-B. 
346. c. 

50 6 Belgis: dat. with finitimi; §384 (234. a); B. 192. 1; G. 359; H. 
434. 2 (391. i); H-B. 362. — uti . . . cognoscant, to find out. This is a 
subst. clause of purpose in apposition with negotium; §563 (331); B. 
295. I; G. 546; H. 564. iii (499. iii); H-B. 502. 3. a. — gerantur: subjv. 
as depending on cognoscant; §593 (342); B. 324. 1; G. 629; H. 652 
(529. ii); H-B. 539. 

50 7 seque . . . faciant, and inform him (Caesar) ; se is here used as 
the indirect reflexive; §300. 2 (196. a. 2); B. 244. ii. a\ G. 521; H. 504 
(449. 1); H-B. 262. 2. — const anter, consistently (with one another); their 
accounts all agreed. 

50 8 manus (ace. plur., subject of cogi) : small bands or companies. 

50 9 turn vero : see Vocab. and observe the emphatic position. — dubi- 
tandum non [esset], he must no longer hesitate; the infin. of the second 
periphrastic conjugation, here used in indir. disc, after existimavit; 
§ i58.</.n. (113. d. n.); B. 115; G. 251; H. 531 (466. n.); H-B. 162; dubi- 
tandum is impers. ; §208. d (146. d) ; B. 337. 7. b\ G. 208. 2; H. 192. 1 
(195. ii. 1); H-B. 600. 3. a. — quin can follow only a negative expression, 
as here non existimavit, etc. — quin . . . proficisceretur, to set out (lit. but 
that he should, etc.): relative clause of result depending on dubitandum 
[esse] ; § 558. a (319. d) ; B. 284. 3 ; G. 555 ; H. 596. 1 (505. i. 1) ; cf. H-B. 502. 
3. b. In the sense of hesitate, dubito regularly takes the infin. and not quin. 
but exceptions occur, as here. 

50 10 re comparata : on translation of the abl. abs., cf . note on 49 6. 

50 11 diebus: abl. of time within which; § 423 (256); B. 231 ; G. 393 ; 
H. 486 (429); H-B. 439. — finis: i.e. north of the Matrona (Marne), cross* 
ing somewhere between Bois ie Due and Chalons (sur Marne). The marcb 

II. 2, 3-] The Belgian Confederacy. 315 

from Besanccm would be about one hundred and forty miles, or ten miles a 
day. He would so be about thirty-five or forty miles southeast of Durocor- 
torum (Rheims), the capital of the Remi. 

50 12 Chap. 3. eo: adv. — omnium opinione, than any one expected 
(following the comparative celerius) : § 406. a (247. b)\ B. 217. 4; G. 398. N. 1 ; 
H. 471. 7 (417. i. N. 6 ); H-B. 416. e. 

50 13 Remi : these were friendly to the Romans, who by their victory 
over Ariovistus (see Bk. i) had made them the second power in Gaul ; cf . 
Bk. vi. ch. 12. — proximi Galliae, nearest to Gaul; for the dat., see §384 
(234. a); B. 192. 1 ; G. 359; H. 444 (391. i); H-B. 346. e. — ex Belgis, of 
the Belgce, for part. gen. Belgarum ; see § 346. c (216. c) ; B. 201. 1. a ; G. 372. 
R. 2 ; H. 434. 2 (397. 3. n. 8 ); H-B. 362; translate with proximi. 

50 14 legatos, as ambassadors, predicate apposition. 

50 15 qui dicerent: a relative clause of purpose; § 531. 2 (317. 2); 
B. 282. 2; G. 630; H. 595. ii (497. i); H-B. 502. 2. 

The rest of the chapter consists of the speech of the ambassadors, as 
reported by Caesar in indir. disc. Notice that the principal clauses arc in 
the infin. with subj. ace, and all dependent clauses in the subjv. : § 580 ff. 
(336 ff.); B. 313 ff.; G. 650; H. 642-644 (522-524); H-B. 534. i, ii. In 
dir. disc, this speech would read as follows : 

Nos nostraque ovinia in fidem atque in potestatem populi Romani per- 
mittimus ; neque \nos~\ cum reliquis Belgis consensimus neque contra popu- 
lum Romanum coniuravimus, paratique sumus et obsides dare et imperata 
facere et oppidis recipere et frumento ceterisque rebus iuvare ; reliqui omnes 
Belgae in armis sunt, Germanique, qui cis Rhenum incolunt, sese cum his 
coniunxerunt, tantusque est eorum omnium furor ut ne Suessiones quidem, 
fratres consanguineosque nostros, qui eodem iure et isdem legibus utuntur 
(utantur), unum imperium unumque magistratum nobiscum habent (habeant), 
deterrere potuerimus quin cum his consentirent (consentiant). 

50 15 se in fidem permittere, put themselves under the protection 
(good faith), etc.; more commonly with dat. — se suaque omnia, them- 
selves and all their (possessions) (" their all ") : object of permittere. The 
subj. ace. is regularly expressed in the indir. disc; but here it is omitted 
to prevent the awkward repetition se (subject) se (object). In the next 
clause se is expressed. 

50 16 neque, and (had) not: § 328. a (156. a); B. 341. i.d; G. 480; H. 
657. 1 (554. i. 2); H-B. 307. 3. — cum Belgis: accompaniment; §413 (248. a): 
B. 222; G. 392; H. 473. 1 (419. i); H-B. 419. 1. 

50 18 paratos (participial adj.), ready. — dare, facere, etc.: infinitives 
following paratos; § 460. b (273. b)\ B. 326. n.; G. 423; H. 608. 4 (533 3)- 
H-B. 586./ 

316 Notes: Casar. [B. G. 

50 19 oppidis recipere, receive [the Romans] into their strongholds; 
Oppidis is abl. of place without in: §429 (258./); B. 228. 1, cf. 218. 7; 
G. 389 ; H. 485. 2 (425. ii. 1) ; H-B. 436, cf. 446. 1. — frumento : abl. of means ; 
cf. litteris, 49 3. — ceterisque rebus, everything else (necessary) ; see Vocab. 
— recipere, iuvare: sc. eos (i.e. the Romans) as object. 

50 20 cis : i.e. the west or Gallic side. 

50 21 sese . . . coniunxisse, had united; it often happens that a verb 
used as active in Latin and requiring a reflexive object may be best trans- 
lated in English by an intransitive. The reverse of this must not be for- 
gotten in writing Latin. — tantum . . . ut: correlatives; § 537. 2. N. 2 (319. 
R.); B. 284. 1; G. 552; H. 500. ii. N. 1 ; H-B. 521. 2. a. 

50 22 furorem, madness (blind and unreasoning passion). — ut . . . potu- 
erint: result clause; § 537 (319); B. 284. 1; G. 552; H. 570 (500. ii); H-B. 
521. 2; for tense, see § 485. c. N. 1 (287. c. R.); B. 268. 7; G. 513; H. 550 (495. 
vi); cf. H-B. 491 ; cf. also note on 28 6. — ne . . . quidem: §322./ (151. e)\ 
B. 347. 1 ; G. 445; H - 6 5 6 - 2 (553- 2 » 5 6 9- *"• 2 ); cf- H-B. 302. 1. — Sues- 
siones (obj. of deterrere): they occupied territory west of the Remi, about 
the modern Soissons. 

50 23 iure et legibus: rights and laws; for case, see § 410 (249); B. 
218. 1; G. 407; H. 477 (421. i); H~B. 429. — isdem : for eisdem. 

50 24 unum imperium, etc. : i.e. their close confederacy did not prevent 
the Suessiones from leaguing with the other party. — cum ipsis: i.e. the 
Remi ; in the indir. disc, se is regularly used to refer to the speaker, but 
the oblique cases of ipse are occasionally used instead. Here ipse is used 
apparently for emphasis: § 298. e (195. k)\ B. 249. 3; G. 311. 2; H. 509. 5 
(452.5); H-B. 263. 

50 25 quin . . . consentirent, from leaguing with : relative clause of 
result depending on deterrere; §558 (319. d); B. 284. 3; G. 555; H. 595. 2 
(504); cf. H-B. 502. 3. b. (Notice that deterrere is negatived by ne . . . 
quidem above, which make the whole clause negative, though they are 
attached only to the emphatic word.) 

50 26 Chap. 4. ab his : i.e. of the envoys ; § 396. a (239. c. N. 1 ) ; B. 
p. 126, top; G. 339. R.i; H. 411. 4 (374. N.*); H-B. 393. c. — quae . . . 
essent : indir. quest. ; § 574 (334) ; B. 300. I ; G. 460 ; H. 649. ii (529) ; 
H-B. 537. b. 

50 27 quid . . possent, what strength they had in war; quid is cognate 
ace. with adv. force; §390. c and d. n. 2 (240. a); B. 176. 3; G. 334; H, 
409. 1, 416. 2 (371. ii (2), 378. 2); cf. H-B. 387. iii. — sic, as follows. — 
reperiebat : for force of the tense, cf . adferebantur, 49 2 and note. Observe 
that the rest of the chapter is in indir. disc, except the words Remi dicebant, 
51 8. — plerosque, etc. : Direct, — 

n. 3» 4-] The Belgian Confederacy. 317 

Plerique Belgae sunt orti ab Germanis, Rhenumque . . . traducti proptei 
loci f ertilitatem ibi consederunt, Gallosque qui ea loca incolebant expulerunt, 
solique sunt qui patrum nostrorum memoria, . . . Teutonos Cimbrosque 
intra suos finis ingredi prohibuerint ; qua ex re fit uti . . . magnam sibi 
auctoritatem . . . sumant. De numero eorum omnia (nos) habemus explo- 
rata . . . propterea quod propinquitatibus . . . coniuncti, quantam quisque 
multitudinem ... ad id bellum pollicitus sit cognovimus. Plurimum inter 
eos Bellovaci . . . valent ; hi possunt conficere armata milia centum, polliciti 
ex eo numero electa milia sexaginta, totiusque belli imperium sibi postulant. 
Suessiones nostri sunt finitimi ; finis latissimos feracissimosque agros pos si- 
dent. Apud eos fuit rex nostra etiam memoria Diviciacus, totius Galliae 
potentissimus, qui cum magnae partis harum regionum turn etiam Britan- 
niae imperium obtinuit ; nunc est rex Galba ; ad hunc . . . summa totius 
belli . . . defertur ; oppida habent numero xn, pollicentur milia armata 
quinquaginta ; totidem Nervii, qui maxime feri inter ipsos habentur, lon- 
gissimeque absunt ; quindecim milia Atrebates, (likewise) Ambiani, Morini, 
etc. . . . Condrusos, Eburones, etc. . . . qui . . . Germani appellantur, arbi- 
tratnur {conficere posse or polliceri) ad XL milia. 

50 27 plerosque, most of: § 293 (193) ; B. 241. 1 ; H. 497. 4 (440. n. 2 ); 
H-B. 244 ; see the end of the chapter, and compare, regarding the Nervii, 
Tacitus (Ger. 28). The Belgians were, no doubt, chiefly of Celtic blood ; but 
possibly they considered the Germans a more proud and heroic ancestry. 

51 1 ab Germanis : abl. of source ; § 403. a. n. 1 (244. a. r.) ; B. 215. 2 ; 
G. 395; H. 469. 1 (415. ii. n.) ; H-B. 413. b. — Rhenum: ace. governed by 
trans in traductos; § 395 (239. 2. b) ; B. 179. 1 ; G. 331 ; H. 413 (376. n.); 
H-B. 386. a. 

51 2 traductos : participle agreeing with Belgas. — propter fertilita- 
tem: construe with consedisse. 

51 4 qui ... prohibuerint : rel. clause of characteristic with solos; 
§ 535- * (320. *); B. 283. 2; G. 631. 2; H. 591. 5 (503. ii. 1); H-B. 521. 1. 
a and ftn. 1 . Note the retention of the perfect tense contrary to tense 
sequence, and cf . ut . . . potuerint, 50 22 and note. — memoria : cf . diebus, 
50 11. — Teutonos, etc. : cf. 35 5. 

51 5 ingredi: the subjv. might have been used ; § 457 (271. a) ; B. 295. 1 ; 
G. 532. R. 1 ; H. 596. 2 (505. ii. 1, 2) ; H-B. 587 and a. — qua ex re, in con- 
sequence 0/ which (fact); abl. of cause; §404 (245); B. 219; G. 408. N. 7 ; 
H. 475. 4 (416. i) ; H-B. 444. b. 

51 6 fieri uti, it was coming to be the case that: the subject of fieri 
is the clause uti . . . sumerent; § 569 (332. a) ; B. 297. 2; G. 553. 3; H. 
571. 1 (501. i. 1); cf. H-B. 521. 3. a. — memoria: abl. of cause. — sibi- 
§ 376 (235) ; B. 188. 1. N.) ; G. 352; H. 425. 2 (384. ii. 1, 2) ; H-B. 366. 

3 18 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

51 7 de numero, etc. : the rest of the chapter depends on Remi 

51 8 se habere explorata, had found out all about (de), etc.: habere 
explorata differs but little in sense from explorasse ; § 497. b (292. c) ; 
B. 337. 6 ; G. 238 ; H. 431. 3 (388. 1. N.) ; H-B. 605. 5 and a ; in construction 
explorata agrees with omnia, which is obj. of habere. See note on com- 
pertum habere, 40 20. 

51 9 propinquitatibus, ties 0/ blood. — adfinitatibus, alliances by marriage. 

51 10 quantam quisque . . . pollicitus sit: indir. quest., object of 
cognoverint ; cf. 50 26. 

51 11 cognoverint : the primary tense is used in violation of the sequence 
of tenses. The statement is made more vivid by putting it in the same 
tense that was used by the speakers. They said cognovimus, we know 
(lit. have found out). The perfect is very often retained in indir. discourse. 

51 12 virtute, etc. : abl. of specification. 

5113 armata milia centum = arm atorum hominum milia centum. 
As here expressed, milia is the noun with which the adj. armata agrees; 
§ 134. d (94. e) ; B. 80. 5 ; G. 293 ; H. 168 (178) ; H-B. 131. 3. 

51 14 electa, choice troops, picked men. 

51 15 sibi : dat. of reference ; cf. sibi, 1. 6, above ; it refers to the 
Bellovaci. — suos, their own (i.e. of the Remi) ; notice that the reflexive 
regularly refers to the speaker. See note on cum ipsis, 50 24. 

51 16 possidere: sc. eos, i.e. the Suessiones. — fuisse . . . esse: notice 
the difference of time ; fuisse (in the dir. disc, fuit) refers to time past, 
esse (dir. est) to time/ra^«/, with respect to the verb of saying (dicebant, 
1. 8). — regem: showing that royal power had not yet been overthrown 
among the Belgians. 

51 18 cum . . . turn, not only . . . but also. 

51 19 Britanniae : the first mention of Britain by a Roman author. — - 
obtinuerit, had held ; in the dir. obtinuil, held. For tense, cf. note on 
cognoverint, 1. 11, above. 

51 20 summam: subject of deferri. 

51 21 voluntate: abl. of manner; § 412. b and n. (248. R.) ; B. 220. 2; 
G. 399; H. 474. 1 (419. hi. n. 2 ) ; H-B. 445. 1. — habere: the subject must 
be supplied from Suessiones, above. — numero : abl. of specif. ; cf. 51 12. 

51 22 Nervios, etc. (see Map, Fig. 26) : the names of several of these 
tribes are found in the modern towns, as: Atrebates, Arras; Ambiani, 
Amiens; Caleti, Calais ; Viromandui, Vermandois ; Condrusi, Condroz. 

52 1 feri : pred. after habeantur, are regarded. 

52 5 Condrusos, etc. : subjects of pollice ri or conficeri posse understood. 
— qui . . . appellantur : the indie, shows that this is an explanatory note 

II. 4» 5] The Belgian Confederacy. 319 

added by Caesar, and not a part of the indir. disc, while qui . . . habean- 
tur above, on the other hand, is a remark made by the Remi, as is shown 
by the subjunctive. 

52 6 Germani: this name seems to belong especially to the four last 
named (Condrusi, Eburones, etc.). — arbitrari : in dir., arbitramur ; in trans- 
lation we may say they thought, parenthetically, as in the English usage in 
indir. disc. 

52 7 Chap. 5. cohortatus, prosecutus : for the tense of these parti- 
ciples, cf. § 491 (290. b); B. 336. 5; G. 282. N.; H. 640. 1 (550. N. 1 ) ; H-B. 
601. 1. 

52 9 obsides (pred. appos.), as hostages : if the chiefs should break their 
faith, these boys would probably be sold as slaves; cf. also note on 8 11. 
— quae omnia, and all this. Latin very frequently connects clauses by 
a relative where our idiom prefers a conj. with a demonstrative: § 308./ 
(201. e); B. 251. 6; G. 610. R. 1 ; H. 510 (453); H-B. 284. 8. 

52 11 quanto opere . . . intersit, how greatly it concerns both the repub- 
lic and their common safety. For the genitives, see § 355 (222) ; B. 211. 1 ; 
G. 381 ; H. 449- 1 (4©6. iii) ; H-B. 345. 

52 12 intersit: indir. quest. ; cf. 50 26, 51 10. — manus (ace. plur.) . . . 
distineri: infin. clause, subject of intersit. — ne confligendum sit, lest they 
should have to contend: clause of purpose depending on distineri; § 530 
(317) ; B. 282. 1 ; G. 545. 3 ; H. 568 (497. ii) ; H-B. 502. 2. — confligendum 
sit is an impers. 2d periphrastic; § 193, 208. ^(129, 146. d) ; B. 115, 138; G. 
208, 251. 2; H. 237, 302. 7 (234, 301. 2) ; H-B. 162, 600. 3. a. 

52 13 id fieri posse, etc., this, he said, could be done, etc. Notice that 
no new word of saying is necessary in Latin, but in English one is usually 
inserted parenthetically. 

52 14 suas copias : the emphatic position opposes the forces of the 
Haedui to the Roman army. — Bellovacorum : these lay farthest west and 
most remote from Caesar's field of operations ; so that the manoeuvre indi- 
cated would divide the enemy (cf. 56 21-25). — introduxerint . . . coeperint : 
fut. condition; in the dir. disc, these would be fut. perf. ; § 516. c (307. c) ; 
B. 303; G. 596. 1 ; H. 574 (508) ; H-B. 579. a, 577. a. 

52 15 eorum: i.e. Bellovacorum. — datis : words in the text thus printed 
in italics are conjectural readings not found in the MSS. 

52 16 dimittit : the effect of his mission appears in 56 23, and he has 
returned to Caesar in 59 2. — postquam . . . vidit, as soon as he saw: § 543 
(324); B. 287; G. 561; H. 508 (518); H-B. 557. 

52 17 neque: -que connects vidit and cognovit; ne- with iam = «0 
longer. — [vidit] : see note on [eorum], 9 17. 

52 18 ab eis : construed with cognovit. 

320 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

52 19 Axonam (apposition), the Aisne ; here flowing nearly due west, 
and joining the Seine below Paris, through the Oise. — in extremis . . . 
finibus, in the remotest part of the territory of the Remi : § 293 (193) ; B. 
241. 1 ; H. 497. 4 (440. 2, notes 1 and 2) ; H-B. 244; the phrase is used in 
a general sense merely, for Bibrax, a town of the Remi, lay eight miles 
farther off. 

52 20 exercitum is dir. object of traducere; flumen (1. 19) is secondary 
object, depending on trans (tra-duco — trans-duco) ; § 395 (239. 2. b) ; B. 
179. 1; G. 331. R. 1 ; H. 413 (376); H-B. 386. — castra: the site of this 
camp has been made out at Berry au Bac (Fig. 31), a little village about 
twelve miles north by west of Rheims and about twenty-five miles east of 
Soissons. Traces of Caesar's works at this place were discovered in 1862, 
on a low hill called Mauchamp (see Map, Fig. 32). 

52 21 quae res, this movement (or manoeuvre), i.e. his having crossed 
the river and then pitched his camp where he did. Caesar's camp was 
protected in the rear by the Axona, and in front by a small marshy stream. 
— ripis : cf. frumento, 50 19. 

52 22 post eum quae erant, the rear of his army (lit. [those things'] 
which were behind him). — tuta : pred. ace. ; § 393. N. (239. a. N. 1 ) ; B. 177. 2; 
G. 340; H. 410. 3 (373. 1. N. 2 ) ; H-B. 392. a; the dir. object is ea, the 
omitted antecedent of quae. — commeatus: subject of possent. 

52 23 ut . . . possent: subst. clause of result, object of efficiebat; 

§ 5 68 (33 2 ) ; B - 2 97- 1 ; G- 553- l ; H - 57i- 3 (5 01 - u - Oi H_B - 5 21 - 3- a '> 
cf. this with the pure result clause, 50 22, and with the subject clause of 
result, 51 6. 

52 24 efficiebat : the subject is still quae res ; observe the imperfect 
tenses describing the situation, and cf. note on 3 5. 

52 25 in altera parte, on the other side, i.e. on the left bank of the 
Aisne, towards the Remi. Caesar had crossed the stream and encamped 
on the side towards the Suessiones. 

52 27 pedum xii : gen. of measure, with vallo; § 345. b (215. b); B. 
203. 2 ; G. 365. R. 2 ; H. 440. 3 (396. v) ; H-B. 355. When pronouncing 
the Latin, always give the Latin words for numerals. — duodeviginti 
pedum : i.e. a moat eighteen feet in width. See chapter on military affairs, 
v, and Fig. 118. 

53 1 Chap. 6. nomine : cf. the ablatives in 51 12. — Bibrax : this town 
has been variously identified as Vieux Laon, about the proper distance to 
the northwest, and Beaurieux to the west, more probably the latter. 

53 2 milia passuum octo, eight miles: ace. of extent of space; § 425 
(257); B. 181. 1; G. 335; H. 417 (379) ; H-B. 387. 1 ; passuum is part, 
gen.; § 346 (216); B. 201; G. 367; H. 440. 5 (397); H-B. 346; cf. note 

II. 5-7] The Belgian Confederacy. 321 

on 3 4. — ex itinere, on the march, i.e. turning aside from their course to 
attack the town. — magno impetu : abl. of manner ; cf. voluntate, 51 21. 

53 3 aegre sustentatum est (impers.), *'/ was with difficulty that they 
held out. In English we are often inclined to put into two clauses what 
the Latin crowds into one. — Gallorum . . . haec, the attack (mode of 
attacking) of the Gauls, being the same as (atque) that of the Belgians, is 
this (the following). 

53 5 circumiecta multitudine (abl. abs.) . . . moenibus, a host of men 
being thrown round all the walls: § 370 (228); B. 187. iii; G. 347; H. 
429. 2 (386. 2) ; H-B. 376. Here the English absolute construction is 
admissible, though usually to be avoided. 

53 6 iaci : complem. infin. ; cf. consequi, 49 15 and note. — coepti 
sunt : the pass, is used with the pass, infin. — defensoribus : abl. of sepa- 
ration ; § 401 (243. a) ; B. 214; G. 405 ; H. 462 (414. i) ; H-B. 408. 3. 

53 7 testudine facta, making a testudo. See chapter on military affairs, 
vii (last part), and Fig. 68. 

53 8 quod, this, i.e. the movements just described. — turn, in the present 
instance. — multitude subject of conicerent: § 317. d (2) (205. c. 1); B. 
254. 4. a; G. 211. Exc. (a); H. 389. I (461. 1) ; H-B. 331. 1. — cum . . . 
conicerent : cum describing the situation, but almost causal ; see note on 49 1. 

53 9 consistendi : gen. of gerund with potestas ; § 504 (298) ; B. 338. 
1. a; G. 428; H. 626 (542. i) ; H-B. 612. i. 

53 10 nulli: dat. of poss. ; § 373 (231) ; B. 190; G. 349; H. 430 (387); 
H-B. 374 : nobody could keep a foothold on the wall (lit. power of standing 
on the wall was to nobody). — cum . . . fecisset : again describing the situ- 
ation. — oppugnandi: gerund; cf. coniurandi, 49 5. 

53 11 summa nobilitate et gratia, [a man] of the highest, etc. ; abl. of 
quality; § 415 (251); B. 224; G. 400; H. 473. 2 (419. ii) ; H-B. 443- — 
inter suos, among his [fellow-citizens]. — oppido : dat. with praeerat ; 
§ 370 (228); B. 187. 3; G. 347; H. 429 (386); H-B. 376. 

53 12 unus ex eis, one of those: after numerals ex with the ablative is 
preferred to the part. gen. — legati, as ambassadors : pred. appos. 

53 13 nisi . . . posse: indir. disc, depending on the idea of reporting 
contained in nuntium mittit. Trans, unless reinforcements, he said, etc. 
— sibi : i.e. Iccius ; the dat. is used instead of ad se with subsidium sub- 
mittatur, because the idea of help (for him) is more prominent than that 
of motion (towards him). In the dir. disc, the message of Iccius was: 

Nisi subsidium mihi submittetur, (ego) diutius sustinere non possum. 

54 1 Chap. 7. eo, thither, to that place, i.e. Bibrax. — isdem ducibus 
usus, employing the same men [as] guides : for the ablative, cf. hire, 50 23. 
Observe that ducibus is pred. appos. ; cf. legati, 53 12. 

322 Notes: Caesar. [B. G 

54 2 Numidas et Cretas : both these (especially the Cretans) were 
famous bowmen. See Fig. 105. 

54 3 Baleares (adj.) : the inhabitants of the Balearic Islands, east of 
Spain, were famous slingers. See Fig. 30. These nations served as auxili- 
aries in the Roman armies. — subsidio oppidanis : dat. of service with dat. 
of person affected; § 382. 1 and N. 1 (233. a) ; B. 191. 2. b\ G. 356; H. 433 
(390) ; H-B. 360. b. 

54 4 et . . . et : see Vocab. — studium . . . accessit, eagerness for a 
vigorous defence was inspired in the Remi. — propugnandi : obj. gen. of 
the gerund; cf. coniurandi, 49 5. 

54 5 hostibus, from the enemy: dat.; § 376 (235) ; B. 188. 1 ; G. 352; 
H. 425. 4 (384. 4. n. 3 ) ; H-B. 366. — potiundi oppidi : gerundive ; § 503. 
N.2 (296. R.); B. 339. 4; G. 427. n. b ; H. 623. 1 (544. 2. N. 6 ); H-B. 613. N. 

54 6 morati . . . depopulati . . . vicis . . . incensis : observe the change 
of construction. The Latin can use a perf. part, with active meaning only 
(as here) of deponent verbs. The corresponding construction with other 
verbs is the abl. abs. with the perf. pass. part. ; as here, vicis incensis, 
which is to be translated accordingly. See last note on 49 6. 

54 7 quo, to which (or the like). 

54 8 omnibus copiis : cf. 50 16, and for the omission of cum, see 
§ 413. a (248. a. N.); B. 222. 1; G. 392. R. 1 ; H. 474. 2 (419. iii. 1) ; 
H-B. 420. 

54 9 a milibus passuum minus duobus, less than two miles off: a is 
used adverbially; § 433 (261. d) ; B. 144. 1 ; G. 335. N. ; H. 417. 3 (379. 2. 
n.); cf. H-B. 303. c: milibus is abl. of degree of difference: § 414 (250); 
B. 223; G. 403; H. 479 (423); H-B. 424: minus does not affect the con- 
struction : § 407. c (247. c) ; B. 217. 3 ; G. 296. R. 4 ; H. 471. 4 (417. 1. N. 2 ) ; 
H-B. 416. d: amplius (1. 10) is ace. of extent of space: § 425 (257); B. 
181. 1; G. 335; H. 417 (379); H-B. 387: and milibus (1. 10), abl. after 
the comparative: § 406 (247); B. 217. 1 ; G. 398; H. 471 (417); H-B. 416. 
We have here both of the two constructions allowable with these neuter 
comparatives ; see reference under minus. 

54 13 Chap. 8. eximiam opinionem virtutis, their high reputation 
for valor : obj. gen. ; § 348 (217) ; B. 200 ; G. 363. 2 ; H. 440. 2 (396. iii) ; 
H-B. 354. — proelio supersedere, to defer the engagement: for the abl., cf. 
defensoribus, 53 6, and see § 401 (243. a); B. 214. 1; G. 390; H. 462 
(414. i); H-B. 408. 3. 

54 14 quid . . . posset . . . quid . . . auderent, indir. questions. — virtute: 
abl. of specif. But the whole is best rendered, tested the prowess of the 
enemy, and the daring of our own soldiers. Notice that the form of thought 
is entirely different in Latin and in English. 

II. 7-9-] The Belgian Confederacy, 323 

54 15 periclitabatur : note the tense and cf. adferebantur, 49 2 and 

54 16 loco . . . idoneo : abl. abs. expressing cause. — ad . . . instru- 
endam : gerundive expression of purpose ; cf. 49 13. 

54 18 tantum, etc., spread over as much (tantum) ground as (quan- 
tum), etc. — adversus, right in front. 

54 19 in latitudinem, in breadth, i.e. from the camp towards the con- 
fluence of the Aisne with a little stream, the Miette, which here makes a 
swamp. — loci : part. gen. with quantum, but more conveniently translated 
with the correlative tantum, with which it has to be supplied to complete 
the sense. 

54 20 lateris deiectus (ace. plur.), lateral slopes (lit. slopes of the side). 

54 21 in fronte, etc., falling with an easy slope in front (i.e. to the 
west), sank gently to the plain (see battle plan, Fig. 32). 

54 22 transversam : i.e. at right angles to his line of battle. 

54 23 passuum quadringentorum : gen. of measures cf. pedum, 52 27. 
— extremas, the ends of: § 293 (193); B. 241. 1; H. 497. 4 (440. n. 2 ); 
H-B. 244. 

54 24 tormenta: see chapter on military affairs, 1. 5, and Figs. 61, 75, 
and 95. 

54 25 instruxisset : subjv. by attraction for fut. perf. ind. ; § 593, 547 
(342, 325. <:); B. 324. 1, 289; G. 662 at end, 580; 11.652,600(529.11,521.1); 
H-B. 539, cf. 524. d. — tantum 1 adv. ace. ; cf. quid, 50 27. — poterant : 
this clause is parenthetical, and hence is not (like instruxisset) attracted 
into the subjv. 

54 26 ab lateribus, on the flanks: § 429. b (260. b) ; II. (434. i) ; H-B. 406. 
2 ; modifying circumvenire. — suos : i.e. Caesar's, referring back to the sub- 
ject of conlocavit. 

55 1 si quo (adv.): sc. duci, but translate freely if they were needed 
anywhere. — esset : protasis of a fut. condition (si . . . erit) ; here in the 
imperf. subjv. because depending on the final clause ut . . . possent; § 593 
(342) ; B. 324. 1 ; G. 663 ; H. 652 (529. ii) ; H~B. 539. — subsidio : dat. of 
purpose or end ; cf . note on 54 3. 

55 2 sex: see note on 50 1. — suas: notice the emphatic position, 
THEIR forces too. 

55 3 copias . . . eductas instruxerunt, had led out and drawn up, etc. : 
the Latin is fond of using a participle for what is practically a coordinate 
clause, instead of an additional finite verb. 

55 4 Chap. 9. nostrum: poss. pron. ; poss. gen. could not be used; 
§ 302. a (197. a); B. 243; G. 362. R. 1 ; H. 440. 1. N. 2 (396. ii n.); H-B, 
339. * 

324 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

55 5 hanc : i.e. paludem. — si . . . transirent, (to see) if our men would 
cross: § 576. a (334/); B. 300. 3; G. 460; H. 649. 3 (529. ii. 1. n. 1 ); cf. 
H-B. 582. 2. 

55 6 si . . . fieret, in case they should begin the passage (lit. a beginning 
of crossing should be made by them)', fut. condition (si . . .fet); here in the 
subjv. because part of the final clause ut . . . adgrederentur ; ct. note on 
esset, 1. 1. 

55 7 adgrederentur : purpose, depending on parati, etc. 

55 8 contendebatur : impers. ; cf. note on 23 1. 

55 9 nostris: §384 (234. a); B. 192. 1; G. 359; H. 434. 2 (391. i); 
H-B. 362. 

55 11 ad flumen, etc. : evidently somewhat lower down, so that they 
were concealed by the hills beyond the marsh. 

56 1 eo consilio ut, etc. : the final clauses are in apposition with 
consilio; § 531. I. n. 1 (317. a); G. 545. 1; H. 564. iii (499. 3); H-B. 
502. 2. a. , 

56 2 castellum, the redoubt beyond the river, held by Sabinus (52 25). 

— cui: cf. oppido, 53 11. 

56 3 pontem : the bridge held at one end by a garrison, at the other 
by the redoubt (52 25). By destroying this, the Belgae would cut off 
Caesar's supplies and hinder his retreat; cf. 52 21-24. — si possent (1. 1), 
si minus potuissent : fut. conditions; possent represents the fut., potuis- 
sent the fut. perf. indie. ; for change of mood and tense cf. note on 55 1. 

— minus, not. 

56 4 popularentur, prohiberent : in same construction as expugnarent. 

— magno nobis usui : cf. note on subsidio oppidanis, 54 3. — ad bellum 
gerendum (gerundive), for carrying on the war ; cf. 49 13. 

56 5 commeatu: abl. of separation; cf. defensoribus, 53 6. 

56 6 Chap. 10. ab Titurio : abl. of voluntary agent. 

56 7 levis armaturae (gen. of description), of light equipment = light- 
armed (see chapter on military affairs, 1. 3, and Figs. 104, 115). — Numidas, 
etc. : these light-armed troops were trained runners, and so could arrive at 
the ford in time to stop the passage of the Belgians. 

56 8 traducit : with two accusatives ; cf. 52 20 and note. — pugnatum 
est : cf. contendebatur, 55 8. 

56 11 conantis : with reliquos. 

56 12 equitatu: considered here as means or instrument; therefore, no 
prep. — circumventos interfecerunt : cf. note on eductas, 55 3. 

56 13 ubi . . . intellexerunt : the regular mood and tense with ubi ; cf. 
53 4. — de, with regard to. 

56 14 neque, and . . . not. 

II. 9-1 1 •] The Belgian Confederacy. 325 

56 15 pugnandi causa : gerund construction, expressing purpose : § 404. 

c, 533. b (245. c, 318. b)\ B. 338. 1. c; G. 373; H. 626 (542. i); H-R 444. 

d, 612. i. 

56 16 ipsos : i.e. the enemy. The superiority of the Roman commissa- 
riat was a most important factor in winning their victories. The enemy 
could not carry on a long campaign with a large army for lack of provisions, 
and when they were compelled to disband, the Romans destroyed them 
piecemeal at their leisure. 

56 17 constituerunt here has two objects : (1) optimum esse, etc. (indir. 
disc), (2) [ut] convenirent (subst. clause of purpose); § 580. d (332. A); 
B. 295. 1 and N. ; G. 546. R. 1 ; H. 565. 5 (498. i. N.) ; H-B. 589. a ; cf. note 
on 2 15. The subject of esse is the infin. clause quemque reverti : § 452 
(330); B. 330; G. 422; H. 615 (538); H-B. 585. Thus the confederacy 
dissolves into a mere defensive alliance, and all the members are cut to 
pieces in detail. — domum : § 427. 2 (258. b); B. 182. 1. b; G. 337; H. 419. 
1 (380. 2. 1); H-B. 450. b. 

56 18 quorum: the antecedent is eos. 

56 19 introduxissent stands for the fut. perf., and is attracted into the 
pluperf. subjv. by being made part of the purpose clause ; cf. potuissent, 
56 3. — convenirent : sc. ut; § 565. a (331. / r.); B. 295. 8; G. 546. R. 2 ; 
H. 565. 2 (499. 2) ; H-B. 502. 3. a. ftn. 2 . 

56 20 suis, alienis, domesticis : notice the emphatic position of the 

56 23 quod . . . cognoverant : indie, because Caesar gives the reason 
on his own authority ; cf. 49 12 and note. The clause is in apposition 
with haec ratio. — Diviciacum . . . adpropinquare : see 52 14. — finibus : 
dat. after adpropinquare. 

56 24 his persuaderi, etc., these could not be persuaded, etc. (lit. it could 
not be persuaded to these). Verbs that take the dat. in the act. are used 
impers. in the pass, and retain the dat. — ut, etc. : subst. clause of purpose, 
depending for its construction on persuaderi, but (in the impers. construc- 
tion) used as subject of poterat. 

56 25 neque . . . ferrent, and so fail to carry (lit. and not carry). — suis: 
§ 363 (225. b); B. 193 ; H-B. 365. ftn. par. 2. 

56 26 Chap. 11. strepitu, tumultu, ordine, imperio: abl. of manner; 
cf. impetu, 53 2. 

57 l cum, where, describing the situation, but approaching in sense a 
causal clause : § 549. n. 2 (326. n. 2 ); B. 288. b ; G. 586; H. 598 (517) ; H-R 


57 2 fecerunt : notice the emphatic position ; cf. the English, " the 
result was." — ut . . . videretur: subst. clause of result, object of fecerunt; 

326 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

§ 568 (332); B. 297. 1 ; G. 553. 1 ; H. 571. 3 (501. ii. 1); H-B. 521. 3. a.— 
fugae: § 384 (234. a); B. 192. 1 ; G. 359; H. 434. 2 (391. i); H-B. 362. 

57 3 per : the agent, when considered as instrument or means, is gen- 
erally expressed by per with the ace. ; § 405. b (246. b) ; G. 401 ; H. 468. 3 
(415. i. N. 1 ); H-B. 380. d. — speculators, spies: they obtained information 
by mingling in disguise with the enemy ; while the scouts, exploratores, were 
squads of cavalry who ranged the country in the vicinity of the army. 

57 4 veritus, fearing; cf. note on 52 7. — discederent : indir. quest.; 
cf. 51 10, 52 11, 55 5. 

57 5 castris, in camp: § 429. 7(258./) ; B. 218. 7 ; G. 389; H. 485. 2 
(425. ii. 1); cf. H-B. 446. 1. 

57 6 re: i.e. the fact that the enemy were really retreating. — ab ex- 
ploratoribus : abl. of agent ; cf . above, per speculatores. — qui moraretur : 
rel. clause of purpose ; cf. 50 15. 

57 7 his: dat. with praefecit; cf. construction of oppido, 53 11. 

57 10 milia: cf. 53 2. 

57 11 cum: causal; cf. 57 1 and note. — ab extremo agmine, in tht 

57 12 quos : relates to the implied subject of consisterent. — ventum 
erat: § 208. d (146. d)\ B. 256. 3; G. 208. 2; H. 302. 6 (301. 1) ; H-B. 
290. a. 1. 

57 13 priores: sc. and in English. This refers to the van of the 
retreating enemy. — quod . . . viderentur, because they seemed (i.e. they 
thought themselves). This word and continerentur are subjunctives as 
being part of the subjv. clause cum . . . ponerent. For similar cases of 
attraction, see 55 l, 55 6, 56 l, 56 19. 

57 15 exaudito clamore, perturbatis ordinibus (abl. abs., the first defin- 
ing the time of the second), breaking ranks on hearing the outcry (of those 
engaged in the rear). 

57 16 sibi : § 376 (235) ; B. 188. 1. N. ; G. 345 ; H. 425. 4 (384. 4) \ H-B. 
366* — ponerent : same construction as consisterent and sustinerent. 

57 17 tantam . . . spatium, killed as great a number of them as the time 
(before night) allowed (lit. as the day was long) ; notice the correlatives 
tantam . . . quantum; § 152 (106); G. 642. 1; H. 189 (191); H-B. 144; 
cf. 54 18-20. 

57 20 Chap. 12. postridie eius diei, next day (lit. on the day after that 
day)-, for the gen., see § 359. b (223. e) ; B. 201. 3. a; H. 446. 5 (398. 5) : 
H-B. 380. c. — priusquam . . . reciperent, before the enemy could recover 
themselves: § 551. b (327); B. 292; G. 577; H. 605 (520); H-B. 507. 4. b. 

57 21 in finis . . . duxit : i.e. following his plan of subduing the tribes 
one after the other. 

1. 11-13.] The Belgian Confederacy. 327 

57 22 Remis : cf. Galliae, 50 13. — magno itinere : see chapter on mili- 
tary affairs, vi. 

57 23 Noviodunum (now Soissons) : about twenty miles west of Bibrax. 
Celtic dunum = English town ; hence Noviodunum = Newton or Neiuburg. 
Soissons is derived from Suessiones. — ex itinere : i.e. as soon as he arrived, 
by filling up the ditch and scaling the walls, without waiting to throw up 
ivorks or form regular lines of approach ; cf. 53 2. 

57 24 esse : sc. oppidum for subject. 

57 25 paucis defendentibus (abl. abs. denoting concession), though 
there were few defenders. — oppugnare means to attack ; expugnare, to take 
(by storm). Unable to take the town by storm, Caesar was obliged to begin 
a regular siege. See chapter on military affairs, vin, and Figs. 43, 92, 93, 
118, 120. 

57 26 quaeque, etc. : i.e. wood, earth, stones, etc. ; the antecedent of 
quae, if expressed, would be ea. 

57 27 ad oppugnandum : § 506, 385. a (300, 234. b) ; B. 338. 3, 192. 2. n.; 
G. 43 2 >359- R - 8 ; H.628, 435. 1 (542. iii, 391. ii) ; H-B. 612. iii, 364. 6. 

58 2 magnitudine : i.e. by the extent of these offensive operations. — 
quae, which (i.e. the like of which). 

58 3 ante : adv. 

58 5 petentibus Remis, at the request of the Remi. — ut conservarentur : 
subst. clause of result, obj. of impetrant ; § 568 (332) ; B. 297. 1 ; G. 553. 1 ; 
H. 571. 1 (501) ; H-B. 521. 3. a. 

58 6 Chap. 13. obsidibus acceptis primis, after he had received as 
hostages the chief men, etc. 

58 7 Galbae : see 51 19-21. 

58 9 Bellovacos : their territory lay thirty or forty miles due north of 
Paris, about Beauvais. — qui cum, and when they. A relative is often used 
to begin a new sentence where the English idiom would lead us to expect 
a demonstrative with a connective (here hi autem). The relative serves to 
bind the new sentence more closely to the preceding. — se suaque omnia : 
cf. 50 15 and note. 

58 10 Bratuspantium : probably Breteuil, at the head of the Somme 
valley. Notice that Bratuspantium is in apposition with oppidum, not in 
the gen. according to the English usage. 

58 11 circiter, etc., [only] about five miles. — milia passuum: cf. 53 2, 
57 10. 

58 12 maiores natu: § 131. c (91. c)\ B. 226. 1 ; G. 87. 9; H-B. 122; 
natu is abl. of specification. 

58 13 voce significare, show by the tones of their voice (of course they 
could not talk Latin). — in eius fidem . . . venire: i.e. surrendered at 

328 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

discretion ; cf. the clause se in fidem permittere, 50 15. Notice that the 
reflexive sese refers to the speakers, and represents the first person of the 
dir. disc. ; eius refers to Ccesar, the person spoken to. 

58 14 neque, and [that they would] not 

58 16 pueri mulieresque, women and children. — ex muro : English says 
on the wall, from another point of view. 

58 17 ab Romanis: § 396. a (239. c. n. 1 ); B. 178. 1. a\ G. 339. n. 2 ; 
H. 411. 4(374. N>); H-B.393.^. 

59 l Chap. 14. pro his, in behalf of these, i.e. the BellovacL 
59 2 eum : i.e. Caesar. 

59 3 Bellovacos, etc. : the rest of this chapter is in indir. disc, depend- 
ing on facit verba. Direct, — 

Bellovaci omni tempore in fide atque amicitia civitatis Ha.edua.e fuerunt ; 
impulsi ab suis principibus, qui dicebant Haeduos a Caesare in servitutem 
redactos omnis indignitatis . . . perferre, et ab Haeduis defecerunt et populo 
Romano bellum intulerunt. Qui eius consili principes/«*ra«/, quod intel- 
legebant quantam calamitatem civitati intulissent, in Britanniam profugerunt. 
Petunt non solum Bellovaci sed etiam pro his Haedui ut tua dementia ac 
mansuetudine in eos utaris. Quod si feceris, Haeduorum auctoritatem 
apud omnis Belgas amplificabis, quorum auxiliis atque opibus, si qua bella 
inciderunt, sustentare consuerunt. 

59 3 omni tempore, always. — in fide atque amicitia : i.e. they had 
been subject-allies of the Haedui. 

59 4 impulsos (notice the emphatic position : not of their own accord, 
but induced by their chiefs) : agreeing with the subject (eos) of defecisse 
and intulisse, which is to be supplied from Bellovacos. 

59 5 dicerent : this word introduces another clause in the indir. disc, 
the statement of the chiefs, which is thus reported at second-hand by Caesar 
as a part of the speech of Diviciacus. The subject is Haeduos; the verb, 
perferre. — omnis, all (kinds of). 

59 7 qui, (those) who. — eius consili, in this design : § 348 (217) ; B. 200; 
G. 363. 2 ; H. 440. 2 (396. iii) ; H-B. 354. Notice that the gen. expresses 
nearly all the relations of one noun to another, and may be translated by 
in, to, and many other forms of speech in English. 

59 8 quantam . . . intulissent : cf. 50 26 and note. 

59 9 civitati: § 370 (228); B. 187. iii; G. 347; H. 429 (386); H-B. 
376. — Britanniam : the support and sympathy which the Gauls received 
from Britain was Caesar's excuse for his subsequent expedition there. — 
profugisse: the subject is the implied antecedent of qui. 

59 10 sua dementia, his (characteristic or well-known) clemency : for 
the case, cf. 50 23, 54 1. 

II. 1 3-1 5.] The Belgian Confederacy. 329 

59 ll in eos : but for the interposition of Haeduos, this would be in se ; 
§300. b (196. 2); B. 244. ii; G. 520, 521 ; H. 504 (449. 1) ; H-B. 262. 2, 
here, as often, the last word or thought governs the construction. — utatur : 
subst. clause of purpose, after petere; § 563. d (331. d) ; B. 295. 4; G. 546; 
H. 564. iii (499. 3) ; H-B. 530. 2. ftn. 1 ; cf. also 6 10 and note. Observe that 
from this point the present and perfect tenses of the subjv. are used; cf. 
cognoverint, 51 11 and note. — quod si fecerit: fut. condition (more vivid) ; 
fecerit is perf. subjv. for the fut. perf. indie, of the dir. disc. The apodosis 
is amplificaturum : § 516. a (307. a) ; B. 302; G. 595 ; H. 574. 2 (508. 2); 
H-B. 579. a ; on the use of quod, see note on qui cum, 58 9. 

59 13 quorum : the antecedent is Belgas. — si qua bella inciderint, 
sustentare consuerint \ general condition ; see dir. disc, above. For the 
tenses used in general conditions, see § 518. b (309. c) ; G. 594. N. ; H. 578. 
1 (508. 5) ; cf. H-B. 579, 577. a. 

59 14 consuerint: present in force ; § 205. b. n. 2 (143. c. N.) ; B. 262. a; 
G. 175. 5, 236. R. ; H. 299. 2 (297. i. 2) ; H~B. 487. 

59 15 Chap. 15. honoris Diviciaci . . . causa, out of respect for Divici- 
ac us (lit. for the sake of honor). — Diviciaci: obj. gen. ; §348(217); B. 200; 
G. 363. 2 ; H. 440. 2 (396. iii) ; H-B. 354. — causa : abl. of cause ; § 404. c 
(245. c) ; B. 198. 1 ; G. 373, 408; H. 475. 2 (416. ftn. 2 ) ; H-B. 444. d, 339. d; 
used almost like a preposition with the gen., and always following its noun, 
as here honoris. 

59 16 recepturum [esse] : the fut. act. infin. commonly omits esse, as 
here. — quod erat : the indie, implies that this was the real reason, not 
merely one given by Caesar at the time (which would require quod esset) ; 
cf. 49 12. 

59 17 magna . . . auctoritate: cf. 53 11. — multitudine : cf. 51 12. 

59 20 Ambianorum : about Amiens, near the coast of the Channel. 

59 21 eorum finis : notice the emphatic position. Their territories 
reach to the Nervii. — natura: i.e. what sort of people they were, like 
quales essent. 

59 22 reperiebat : cf. note on 49 2. — nullum aditum, etc. : Direct, — 

Nullus aditus est ad eos mercatoribus ; nihil patiuntur vini . . . inf erri, 
quod his rebus relanguescere animos . . . existimant ; sunt homines feri 
magnaeque virtutis; increpitant atque incusant reliquos Belgas, qui se 
populo Romano dediderint patriamque virtutem proiecerint ; conformant 
sese neque legatos missuros neque ullam condicionem pacis accepturos. 

59 23 mercatoribus (dat. of poss. ; cf. nulli, 53 10), traders have. — 
pati (subj. eos understood) : the subj. ace. of the infin. in indir. disc, 
should regularly be expressed, but occasionally it is omitted when the 
sense is clear. Caesar is very free in this respect, because his work is 

330 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

only brief notes of his campaigns (commentarii). — nihil . . . vini : § 346. 
a. 1 (216. a. 1) ; B. 201. 1 ; G. 369; H. 440. 5 (397. 1) ; H-B. 346. 

59 25 relanguescere : an inceptive verb (ending, -sco) ; § 263. 1 (167. 
a) ; B. 155. 1 ; G. 133. v ; H. 277 (280) ; H-B. 212. 2. — esse, that they are. 

59 26 magnae virtutis: § 345 (215); B. 203. 1; G. 365; H. 440. 3 
(396. v) ; H-B. 355. Note that th ». descriptive gen. has exactly the force 
of an adj., so that it is even connected with feros by a coordinate conj. : 
§ 223. a (154. a); B. 341; G. 474; H. 657 (554); H-B. 305. i. 

59 27 Belgas : object. — qui . . . dedidissent . . . proiecissent, who 
[they said] had surrendered, etc.: § 592. 3 (341. d) ; B. 323; G. 628; H. 
649. 1 (528. 1) ; H-B. 535. 1. a; cf. also note on 32 21. 

60 l patriam : an adjective. 

60 2 missuros . . . accepturos : on the omission of esse, cf. note on 
59 16. The subject of the infinitives is sese, which refers back to the 
omitted subject (eos) of confirmare. 

60 3 Chap. 16. cum . . . f ecisset : for similar cum -clauses, cf. 49 1, 
53 8, 53 10. — eorum: i.e. of the Nervii. — triduum: § 423 (256) ; B. 181 j 
G. 336; H. 417(379); H-B. 387. 

60 4 Sabim flumen, etc. : Direct, — 

Sabis flumen a castris . . . milia passuum X abest ; trans id flumen omnes 
Nervii consederunt adventumque Romanorum exspectant una cum Atreba- 
tibus . . . (nam his . . . persuaserunt uti eandem belli fortunam experiren- 
tur) ; exspectantur etiam ab eis Aduatucorum copiae atque sunt in itinere ; 
mulieres quique . . . inutiles videbantur in eum locum coniecerunt, quo 
propter paludes exercitui aditus non esset. 

60 4 Sabim : the Sambre, which flows northeasterly into the Meuse 
(Mosa) ; § 75. a. 1 (56. a. 1) ; B. 37 ; G. 57. R. 1 ; H. 102. 2 (62. ii. 2. (1) ) ; 
H-B. 88. 1. The Nervii occupied the basin of this river and of the upper 
Scheldt. — non amplius milia, etc.: milia is ace. of extent, and is not 
affected in construction by amplius ; cf. a similar construction, 54 9, and 
see § 407. c (247. c); B. 217. 3; G. 296. R. 4 ; H. 471. 4 (417. i. n. 2 ); H-B. 
416. d. 

60 7 Atrebatibus, etc. : small tribes to the south and west ; modern 
Arras, Vermandois. — his: § 367 (227); B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 2 
(385. ii) ; H-B. 362. i. 

60 8 experirentur : subst. clause of purpose ; cf. 59 10. 

60 9 exspectari: note throughout this indir. disc, the variation between 
pres. and perf. infin., according as the dir. disc, has the pres. or perf. indie 

60 10 quique, and (those) who (not to be confounded with the plur. of 
quisque with the same form) ; qui, as so often, implies its own antecedent 
eos, the obj. of coniecisse. 

II. 15-17] The Belgian Confederacy. 331 

60 11 quo = in quern. 

60 12 esset : already in dir. disc, a rel. clause of characteristic ; § 535 
(320); B. 283. 1 ; G. 631. 1 ; H. 591. 1 (503. i) ; cf. H-B. 521. 1 ; cf. 51 4. 
The emphasis is shown in " to which on account of the marshes an army 
could not get access." 

60 14 Chap. 17. locum . . . idoneum : see chapter on military affairs, 
v. — deligant : cf . construction of dicerent, 50 15. — ex . . . Belgis : for 
part. gen. following complures, cf. 50 13, 53 12. 

60 15 dediticiis : i.e. the three states just subdued. 

60 16 una, along (with him). 

60 17 eorum dierum, during those days: see note on consili, 59 7. 

60 19 inter singulas legiones, between each two legions. — imped imen- 
torum magnum numerum, a great number of baggage-animals (i.e. a very 
long baggage-train). See chapter on military affairs, 1. 6. 

60 20 neque, and that . . . not (or no) ; notice that in Latin the con- 
nective has a strong attraction for the negative where our idiom separates 
them. — negoti : part. gen. ; cf. nihil vini, 59 23. 

60 21 cum . . . venisset . . . abessent : subjv. because subordinate 
clauses in the indir. disc. ; the verbs refer to future time, and represent 
respectively the fut. perf. and the fut. indie, of the dir. disc. 

60 22 hanc : i.e. the first legion. — sarcinis : see chapter on military 
affairs, iv. e, and Fig. 14. — adoriri: subject of esse (1. 20), quicquam 
being in the predicate. — qua pulsa impedimentisque direptis (abl. abs. 
= protasis of a future condition), if this should be routed, etc. 

60 23 futurum [esse] : apodosis of the condition. — ut . . . non aude- 
rent : subst. clause of result, subject of futurum [esse] ; § 569 (332. a) ; 
B. 297. 2; G. 553.3; H. 571. 1 (501. i); H-B. 521. 3. a; the whole is little 
more than a roundabout way of expressing the fut. infin. ; § 569. a (147. 
c. 3) ; B. 270. 3 ; G. 248. 2 ; H. 619. 2 (537. 3) ; H-B. 472. c. — contra con- 
sistere, to withstand their attack. 

60 24 adiuvabat: the subject is the subst. clause quod Nervii . . . 
effecerant, the advice of those who reported the matter was reen forced by 
the fact that the Nervii, etc. Notice the emphatic position of adiuvabat, 
which may be expressed in English by using the pass, as above. 

60 25 antiquitus : adv. ; the use of the hedges described below was 
an immemorial custom, and they are still, it is said, common in this 
region. Traces of such about 400 years old still exist in England. — 
cum : causal. 

60 26 nihil (adv. ace.) possent, had no strength. — neque enim, and in 
fact . . . not. — ad hoc tempus: opp. to antiquitus. — rei: cf. construction 
of imperiis, 49 11. 


Notes: Ccesar. 

[B. G. 

60 27 quicquid (cf. nihil above) possunt, etc., all the strength they have 
is in infantry. — quo facilius . . . impedirent, in order to check the more 

Fig. 120. — General View of Siege Operations. 

A BCD, hostile wall ; ss, testudines aggestitiae, protecting those levelling the 
ground; hk, agger; xx, x'x", etc., plutei, protecting those working on the 
agger I efg, line of plutei, manned with archers and slingers ; tt, turres, also 
manned with archers and slingers and provided with tormenta ; ro, covered 
way of vineae, giving approach to archers and slingers ; Iq, covered way of 
vineae approaching the point of beginning the agger ; f'g', position of plutei, 
covering the beginning of the agger ; tnn, covered gallery through the agger; 
nnn, etc., steps and platforms of the several stories. 

II. 1 7-i 9-] The Belgian Confederacy. 333 

easily ; quo is the regular conj. introducing a purpose clause which con. 
tains a comparative; § 531. a. (317. b) ; B. 282. \.a\ G. 545. 2; H. 568 
(497. ii) ; H-B. 502. 2. b. 

61 1 praedandi causa : cf. 56 15. — venissent : attracted from the fut 
perf.; § 593 (342) ; B. 324. 1 ; G. 663. 1 ; H. 652 (529. ii) j H-B. 539. 

61 3 in latitudinem, etc. : i.e. when the tree was bent over, shoots 
sprang from its sides so as to make a thick mass of small branches. 
Among these were planted briars and thorns. These hedges were of 
course for the defence of individual farms to hinder cavalry from raiding 
across country. 

61 4 ut . . . praeberent: object clause of result, depending on effece- 
rant; cf. 57 2. — instar muri : § 359. b (214. g); B. 198. 2; G. 273 ; H - 
446. 4 (398. 4) ; H-B. 339. d. 

61 5 quo (adv.) : i.e. into which. 

61 6 posset : result clause. 

61 7 sibi : dat. of agent with omittendum [esse], 

61 8 Chap. 18. loci . . . quern locum: § 307. a (200. a); B. 251. 3; 
G. 615; H. 399 (445. 8); H-B. 284. 4. — castris: the dat. of purpose of 
concrete nouns is used in prose in a few military expressions; § 382. 2 
(233. b) ; B. 191. 1 ; G. 356; H. 425. 3 (384. ii. 1. 3) ; H-B. 361. 

61 9 aequaliter declivis, with even downward slope. 

61 10 quod agrees in gender with flumen. — vergebat : imperf. of 
description ; cf. note on 3 5. — ab : i.e. on the other side. 

61 11 pari acclivitate : abl. of quality; cf. 53 11, 59 17. Notice the 
opposition to declivis, above. — ad versus . . . contrarius,./^*^ this, and 
on the other side (of the stream). 

61 12 passus: cf. 53 2, 57 10. — apertus: i.e. cleared of woods. — 
iufimus, at the foot: § 293 (193); B. 241. 1; G. 290. R. 2 ; H. 497. 4 (440. 
2. n. 2 ) ; H-B. 244 ; opposed to ab superiore parte, along the upper por- 
tion: § 429. b (260. b); G. 390. 1 ; H. 434. i ; H-B. 406. 2. 

62 1 ut non : observe that a negative result is expressed by ut non, 
while a negative purpose is expressed by ne. 

62 3 secundum : preposition. 

62 4 pedum trium : gen. of measure, here in the predicate; cf. 54 23. 

62 6 Chap. 19. copiis : cf. 50 16, 54 8. — ratio ordoque: as these 
two words convey but a single thought, the verb is singular. — aliter . . . ac, 
etc. (see Vocab.), was different from what the Belgce had reported (lit. had 
itself otherwise [than] as, etc.) : § 324. c (156. d)\ B. 341. I. c j G. 643 ; H. 
516. 3 (459. 2) ; H-B. 307. 2. a. 

62 7 ad Nervios: § 363 (225. b); B. 358. 2. a; G. 340. R. 2 ; H. 429. 3 
(386. 3). 

3 34 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

62 8 consuetudine sua, in accordance with his custom. 

62 9 ducebat : for the order of march, see chapter on military affairs, 
VI. — conlocarat, had put in place [of greatest safety] ; this verb {conloco) 
is often confounded by beginners with conligo, collect. 

62 10 proxime conscriptae, latest levied. These were legions xin and 
xiv, mentioned in 50 l, 2, which were not yet sufficiently trained to bear 
the brunt of the fight. 

62 n praesidio impedimentis : cf. 54 3, 55 l, 56 4. 

62 13 cum, etc. : this clause describes the situation, and is shown to 
be temporal by interim, which follows (cf. 53 8, 53 10, 60 3). This move- 
ment is important because it allowed time for the main body to arrive and 
begin the camp, contrary to the expectation of the Nervii. 

62 14 reciperent . . . facerent, kept retiring, etc. (strengthened by 

62 15 quern ad finem : the antecedent attracted into the relative 
clause, according to the Latin idiom. Translate as if it were ad finem ad 
quern, which, however, the Romans would rarely say. 

62 16 cedentis agrees with eos, the understood object of insequi. 
Notice that the Romans can always omit a pronoun if its case is deter- 
mined by some word in agreement. 

62 17 opere dimenso, having staked out the works. See chapter on 
military affairs, v. 

62 18 ubi . . . visa sunt: cf. 53 4, 56 13. Notice that this is purely 
temporal. Caesar might have used cum with the subjv., but in that case it 
would describe the situation. A comparison of this with 62 13 shows the 
difference clearly. 

62 20 quod tempus, the moment which. Notice the difference of the 
Latin and the English idiom ; tempus is in apposition with the clause ubi 
. . . visa sunt. The attraction of the antecedent into the relative clause 
is regular when it is in apposition with something preceding (cf. 30 19, 
38 19, and notes). — committendi proeli: depending on tempus. Notice 
that the gen. is the regular form to connect one noun with another, though 
we use various prepositions. — ut {just as) . . . confirmaverant : i.e. the 
movement was not a confused sally on the individual impulse of savages, 
but an organized attack with the united and settled determination to resist 
the invaders. He may have said this only to enhance the glory of his 
victory, but he more than once pays tribute to the prowess of the enemy, 
and he probably does so here. 

62 24 ut, so that (result). 

62 25 [et iam in manibus nostris] : i.e. within reach of our weapons 
This makes sense, and may be so translated. 

II.i9.2o.] The Belgian Confederacy. 335 

62 27 adverso colle, etc., pushed straight up the hill. The way by 
which is put in the abl. without a preposition. — eos : after ad. — occupati, 
still at work on the fortifications (in opere) ; occupatus is regularly used as 
an adj. 

63 l Chap. 20. Caesari : dat. of agent ; cf. sibi, 61 7. Notice the 
emphatic position of omnia. Caesar had to do everything at one time. — 
vexillum : the large banner hoisted at headquarters to announce an en- 
gagement impending. See Fig. 121, and chapter on military affairs, 11. 

63 2 proponendum[mz/] : second periphrastic, like agenda erant above ; 
so also dandum, etc. 

63 3 tuba : the signal to take their places in the ranks. See Fig. 37. 
— ab opere, etc.: those who were already detailed must have needed 
further orders before going into battle. 

63 4 qui relates to the understood subject (ei) 
of arcessendi [erant]. — aggeris, materials for a 
mound, an unusual meaning. — arcessendi : soldiers 
who were out of hearing of the customary signals 
would need a messenger. 

63 5 cohortandi: pass., as always, though from 
a deponent verb; § 190. d (135. d) ; B. 112. b; G. 
251; H. p. 114, ftn. at end; H-B. 291. — signum 
dandum : the last signal for immediate action ; cf. 
64 5. This list includes all the functions of the Fig. 121. — Vexillum. 
commander, ordinarily extended over a consider- 
able time. In this emergency Caesar says these needed to be done at 
once, and this was impossible (cf. impediebat). But the difficulty was 
partially remedied by the good sense and discipline of the soldiers who 
did what was proper without orders. 

63 7 difficultatibus . . . subsidio : cf. 54 3, 62 11. 

63 9 quid . . . oporteret : indir. quest., object of praescribere ; cf. 50 26. 

63 10 quam connects similar constructions : § 323. a (208. a) ; H-B. 

305- I- 

63 11 quod: i.e. the second of the two things mentioned. — singulos, 
etc., had forbidden the several lieutenants to leave the work and their several 

63 12 nisi munitis castris : abl. abs. ; see note on 49 6. The mean- 
ing here is not until after, etc. 

63 13 nihil: adv. ace; § 390. d. n. 2 (240. a); B. 176. 3. a; G. ^3- J ! 
H. 416. 2 (378. 2); cf. H-B. 387. iii; it is stronger than non ; nihil iaz:- 
no longer. 

63 14 quae videbantur, what seemed best. 

336 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

63 16 Chap. 21. necessariis : i.e. such as were (absolutely) necessary ; 
observe emphasis. — ad cohortandos milites . gerundive of purpose ; cf. 
49 13, 54 16. 

63 17 quam in partem = in earn partem in quant ; cf. note on quern 
ad rinem. 62 15. 

64 1 decimam: Caesar's favorite legion; cf. 36 24. — non longiore 
. . . quam uti, with no more words than that they should, etc. 

64 2 retinerent, perturbarentur, sustinerent: object clauses of pur- 
pose with ut, etc., expressing indirectly the commands given in his address. 

64 4 quam quo . . . posset : rel. clause of characteristic ; § 535 (320. c) ; 
B. 283. 2. a\ G. 298; H. 591. 6 (503. ii. 3); cf. H-B. 521. 1 and 2. c. 

64 7 pugnantibus : sc. eis, and see note on cedentis, 62 16. — hostium 
depends on animus. 

64 8 paratus (adj.) ad dimicandum, ready for battle. 

64 9 ad insignia accommodanda, for fitting on the decorations (of the 
helmets, etc.). Some of these indicated the rank of the wearer. Perhaps, 
too, the different legions were distinguished by the insignia of the helmets. 
At all events, these were considered important and were always put on 
before an engagement. See chapter on military affairs, vn. 

64 10 scutis : abl. of separation ; cf. 53 6, 56 5. On the march hel- 
mets were slung upon the breast, shields covered with leather, and orna- 
ments kept in some unexposed place. See Fig. 14. — defuerit, failed, i.e. 
there was not time enough to, etc. ; for tense, cf. 50 25, 51 5. — quam in 
partem, to whatever place. 

64 11 ab opere: i.e. from his position in the work of fortifying. — 
quaeque, etc., and whatever standards he saw first (prima, adj. with signa), 
he fell in (lit. took his stand) there. The Roman soldier was so well drilled 
that, to whatever part of the legion he found his way, he knew perfectly 
the duties belonging to it. 

64 12 haec {signa) : antecedent to quae, but implying also the ante- 
cedent (in hac parte) of quam above, for w T hich it is really substituted. — 
in quaerendis suis [signis] : gerundive. The standards distinguished the 
different cohorts, and hence they here refer to the place of each soldier in 
the ranks, as we might speak of a company or platoon. See chapter on 
military affairs, 11 ; also Figs. 70, 114. 

64 14 Chap. 22. ut . . . quamut: as . . . than as. The military science 
of the ancients was adapted to level, open ground, in which the troops 
could be drawn up and kept in regular lines. 

64 16 cum: causal ; cf. 57 1. — aliae alia in parte, some in one position, 
some in another: § 315. c (203. c) ; B. 253. 2; H. 516. 1 (459. 1) ; H-B. 
265. For position of the various legions, see battle plan, Fig. 35. 

II. 21-23.] The Belgian Confederacy. 337 

64 17 saepibus . . . interiectis : cf. note on 60 25. 

64 18 ante: ie. in ch. 17. — impediretur : connected with resisterent 
by -que in L 17. 

64 19 neque : here begins the main clause, the verb of which is 

64 20 provideri : complem. infin. with poterat supplied from poterant. 
The subject of this poterat is the indir. quest, quid . . . opus esset. — ab 
uno (emphatic), by only one man. 

64 21 fortunae : emphatic, set off against rerum. The circumstances 
were diversified; the fortune that attended them consequently had various 

64 22 eventus (nom. plur.): subject of sequebantur. 

64 23 Chap. 23. ut, as, i.e. in the position in which they were. The 
clause is nearly equivalent to an English participle, having taken up their 
position : cf. § 493. d. 2 (290. d.) ; B. 356. 2. c ; H-B. 602. 1. Observe that in 
the sense of as, ut is not followed by the subjv. — sinistra: here Labienus 
was in command. 

64 24 acie: gen.; § 98. N. (74. a); B. 52. 3; G. 63. N. 1 ; H. 134. 2 
(120); H-B. 100. 2. — pilis emissis: see chapter on military affairs, vii, 
and Fig. 15, p. 22. — exanimatos: agrees with Atrebates (object of 

64 26 ex loco superiore : i.e. from the higher ground up which the Atre- 
bates had rushed after crossing the river. 

65 1 impeditam, embarrassed (in their attempt to cross). — ipsi : refer- 
ring to milites, 64 23. 

65 2 progressi : i.e. continuing the charge up the wooded hill on the 
other side of the river. See description of the ground, ch. 18. 

65 3 rursus resistentis (ace), when they again made a stand. 

65 6 ex loco superiore : i.e. starting from, etc. — in ripis modifies 
proeliabantur {were continuing the fight). 

65 7 totis : emphatic position (cf. English " exposed entirely almost "). 

65 8 nudatis, being exposed, i.e. by the absence of the other legions, 
which were pursuing the enemy. The only ones left near the camp were 
vii and xii, in dextro cornu. 

t55 9 constitisset : causal, showing why the enemy charged in that 
quarter; but it is often impossible to say when the description of a situation 
passes over into cause. — magno intervallo, confertissimo agmine: best 
regarded as ablatives of manner, though we must remember that the 
Romans did not trouble themselves about our classifications. The ablative 
was the proper form for all these ideas ; and so they used it for all withou? 
distinction, as we should use in, at, or by. 

338 Notes: Ccesar. [a. G. 

65 10 duce : abl. abs, ; translate under the leadership of 

65 12 aperto latere I i.e. the right, not protected by shields ; for omis- 
sion of prep., see § 429 (258./) ; B. 228. I. b. ; G. 338 ; H. 485. 2 (425. ii) ; 
H-B. 436. — legiones: the twelfth and the seventh. — castrorum: not 
part., but poss. gen. (i.e. the height on which the camp stood). 

65 14 Chap. 24. levis armaturae : descriptive gen. ; note how it is 
naturally translated in English by a descriptive adj., light-armed. See 
chapter on military affairs, I. 3, and Figs. 104, 115. 

65 15 una : adverb. 

65 16 pulsos [esse] : irifin. of indir. disc, with subj. ace. quos. — 
adversis hostibus, etc., met the enemy face to face-. § 370 (228) ; B. 187 iii; 
G. 347; H. 429(386); H-B. 376. 

65 17 occurrebant . . . ferebantur : these descriptive imperfects belong 
to the side action ; the main narrative, which is interrupted by them, is 
resumed in the perfects contenderunt, etc., at the end of the chapter. See 
note on 3 5. 

65 18 ab decumana porta: i.e. the rear gate; see chapter on military 
affairs, v, and Fig. 119. The camp was partly on a slope, and the rear 
commanded a wide view of the surrounding country. 

65 20 cum respexissent, on looking back. Notice that this descriptive 
^/^-construction has a great variety of translations, but all indicate an 
inner connection; cf. cum . . . vidissent, 1. 26, below. 

65 21 praecipites: adj., agreeing with calones, but with the force of 
an adv., pell-mell, in utter confusion; § 290 (191); B. 239; G. 325. 6; H. 

497 (443) ! H_B - 2 45- 

65 22 qui, etc. : this refers to the baggage-train which was coming up 
with legions xui and xiv as a rear guard ; see 62 9-11. 

65 23 oriebatur : observe the sing, number, and cf. 62 6 and note. — 
alii aliam: §315. c (203. c) ; B. 253. 2 ; G. 323; H. 516. 1 (459. 1) ; H-B. 
265. — perterriti, frantic with fear, panic-stricken (thoroughly frightened). 
Observe the force of per- (see Vocab.). 

65 25 quorum (poss.) virtutis (obj.) opinio, whose reputation for valor: 
§ 348. b(2\7.b); B. 200 ; G. 363. R. 2 ; H. 446. 2 (398. 2) ; H-B. 354. 

65 26 a civitate : abl. of agent, the state being thought of as a body of 

65 27 compleri (was filing) . . . premi . . . teneri . . . fugere : indir. 
disc, with vidissent. The present tenses indicate what they saw going on 
before their eyes (dir. complentur . . . premuntur . . . tenentur . . .fugiunt). 
The beginner should notice that difference of idiom requires a change 
of tense in translation. 

66 2 domum : cf. 56 17 and note. 

II. 23-25.] The Belgian Confederacy, 339 

66 3 pulsos superatosque [esse]: indir. disc; the subject is Romanos. 

— castris: § 410 (249) ; B. 218. 1 ; G. 407; H. 477 (421. i) ; H-B. 429. 
66 4 hostis : ace, subject of potitos [esse]. 

66 5 Chap. 25. Caesar: subject of processit, 67 9. In this charac- 
teristic example of Latin style notice that the main verb of the sentence is 
not expressed until the attendant circumstances have been introduced in 
the form of modifying phrases, dependent clauses, etc. Thus the sense 
and construction are suspended. Such a sentence is called a Period : §600, 
601 (346); B. 351. 5; G. 684, 685. 2; H. 685 (573); H-B. 629, 630. An 
English writer would have used several short, independent sentences, each 
describing a single act or circumstance ; and a really good translation should 
have that form, thus : — 

Caesar, after addressing the tenth legion, passed to the right wing. 
Here he saw his men were hard pressed. The standards were all huddled 
together and the soldiers of the twelfth, massed in a solid body, were in 
each other's way. All the centurions of the fourth cohort had fallen, the 
standard-bearer was killed, and the standard lost. In the other cohorts 
almost all the centurions were either killed or wounded. Among these the 
first centurion, P. Sextius Baculus, one of the bravest of soldiers, was dis- 
abled by many severe wounds so that he could no longer stand on his feet. 
The rest were showing no spirit, and some in the rear had abandoned the 
fight and were drawing back to get out of range of the missiles. The 
enemy meanwhile continued to come up in front from below without cessa- 
tion, and to press them hard also on both Hanks. The situation was des- 
perate. Seeing this, and realizing that there were no reserves that could be 
sent in, Caesar snatched a shield from a man in the rear rank — it happened 
that he had come there without a shield himself — and advanced to the front. 

66 6 ubi : construe with vidit, 1. 8. — in unum locum : i.e. the soldiers 
were so crowded together that they could not keep their alignment, and 
the standards were bunched in a confused mass in the crowd. 

66 7 sibi . . . impedimento, hindered one another in fighting (lit. were 
for a hindrance themselves to themselves) ; cf. 56 4, 62 11. 

66 8 quartae cohortis : this stood on the left of the front line and so 
bore the brunt of the attack. See chapter on military affairs, vi and vn. 

— omnibus centurionibus occisis: notice that seven different events are 
expressed in this sentence by ablatives absolute. See note on omni 
pacata Gallia, 49 6. 

66 9 signo : i.e. the standard of the cohort. 

67 1 in his, among these. — primipilo : see chapter on military affairs, 
I. 7. — Baculo : this was one of Caesar's best centurions. His further 
exploits are mentioned in Bk. iii. ch. 5 and Bk. vi. ch. 38. 

34-0 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

67 3 iam . . . non, no longer. — tardiores, rather slack (discouraged) : 
§ 291. a (93. a) ; B. 240. 1 ; G. 297 ; H. 498 (444. 1) ; H-B. 241. 2. 

67 4 ab novissimis, in the rear: so below, 1. 8. — deserto proelio, 
withdrawing from the fight (abl. abs.). 

67 5 neque : correl. to et = both . . . not . . . and. 

67 7 vidit : repeated from 66 8 on account of the length of the sen- 
tence. — neque ullum subsidium : the rear guard, legions xm and xiv, had 
not yet arrived. 

67 8 posset : rel. clause of characteristic ; cf. 51 4, 64 5. — militi : dat. 
after detracto ; cf. construction of hostibus, 54 5 and note. 

67 11 signa . . . laxare, to charge and [thus] open out the ranks, i.e. 
as they advanced, the space between the ranks would be increased, and 
so more room obtained for the use of the sword. — quo . . . possent : 

Cf . 60 27. 

67 12 gladiis ; cf. castris, 66 3. — militibus : dat. with inlata. 

67 14 etiam . . . rebus, even in his own extreme peril. 

67 16 Chap. 26. constiterat (from consisto) : not had stood, but had 
taken up a position, and so stood; cf. consuerint, 59 14; § 476 (279. e) ; 
B. 262. a; G. 241. r.; H. 538. 4(471. 3); H-B. 487. 

67 18 ut . . . coniungerent . . . inferrent: subst. clause, secondary obj. of 
monuit; cf. 6 10, 59 10, and notes. — conversa, etc., should face about and 
charge the enemy in opposite directions (lit. bear turned standards against). 
The two united thus formed a kind of hollow square. It is not necessary 
to suppose that the soldiers stood immediately back to back, though this 
is probable, inasmuch as the attack was on both flanks and in front. 

67 19 alii: dat. after a verbal phrase of helping; § 367 (227); B. 187. 
ii. a\ G. 346; H. 426. 1 (385. i) ; H-B. 365. ftn. 1 . 2d par. 

67 20 ne . . . circumvenirentur : cf . ne . . . adduceretur, 49 6. — aversi, 
in the rear (lit. while their backs were turned). — ab hoste : collectively, 
in which sense the plur. is more common. 

67 22 legionum duarum : i.e. xm and xiv ; see plan, Fig. 35. 

67 24 colle : i.e. the site of the Roman camp. — Labienus : he, with 
legions ix and x, had been pursuing the Atrebates ; see first lines of ch. 23. 

67 26 gererentur : indir. quest. 

67 27 qui : i.e. the soldiers of the tenth legion. 

67 28 esset : indir. quest. 

68 l nihil . . . fecerunt, left nothing undone in the way of speed (i.e. 
hastened as fast as they could). 

68 2 reliqui : a pred. gen. Various genitives of this sort are used 
with facere: § 343. b (214. c) ; B. iq8. 3; G. 369. R. a j H. 447 (403) ; H-B, 
340. a. 

II. 25-28.] The Belgian Confederacy. 341 

684 Chap. 27. etiam qui, even such as. — procubuissent, subjv. of 
characteristic; cf. 67 8. — scutis : abl. with innixi ; § 431 (254. b) ; B. 218. 
3; G. 401. 6; H. 476. 3 (425. i. 1. n.) ; H-B. 438. 2. a. 

68 6 inermes armatis, etc., (though) unarmed, threw themselves upon 
the armed (enemy). — occurrerent : result, like redintegrarent. 

68 7 delerent, praeferrent : purpose clauses, but in slightly different 
relations, dependent on pugnant. The use of quo as a conj. to introduce 
a purpose clause when the clause contains no comparative is rare. It is 
used regularly in 60 27, 67 11. Here we should expect ut. 

68 8 at : marks with emphasis the change of the narrative from the 
Romans to the enemy. 

68 9 tantam virtutem praestiterunt : on this clause depend the fol- 
lowing subjunctives of result, — insisterent, pugnarent, conicerent, remit- 

68 10 primi, foremost. — iacentibus (sc. eis, dat. after insisterent), stood 
upon them as they lay fallen (lit. them lying). 

68 12 qui superessent : characteristic clause. — ut ex tumulo, as if from 
a mound. 

68 13 ut . . . deberet, so that we may consider (lit. it must be judged) 
that not without good hope of success (nequiquam) did men, etc. ; ut . . . 
deberet is a result clause dependent on the whole of the preceding sen- 
tence. The subject of deberet is the infin. clause homines ausos esse. 

68 16 quae : the antecedents are the preceding infin. clauses describing 
the acts of the enemy; translate deeds which. — facilia: pred. adj.; § 285. 
2, 282. b (186) ; B. 233. 2 ; G. 211 ; H. 382. 2 (438. 2) ; H-B. 320. iii. 

The battle with the Nervii and their allies was the most desperate of 
the Gallic War. Their surprise of the Romans was complete, their courage 
such as to evoke Caesar's wonder and admiration. Had the Romans come 
up in the order of march expected, — a legion at a time with intervening 
baggage, — they could hardly have escaped defeat or even annihilation. 
As it was, only the steadiness and discipline of the troops and the inspira- 
tion of Caesar's presence and example at a critical moment saved the day. 

68 18 Chap. 28. prope ad internecionem : the Nervii were not by any 
means exterminated. Three years later they revolted again (Bk. v. ch. 38), 
and two years after that they sent a force of 5000 men to Alesia to relieve 
Vercingetorix (Bk. vii. ch. 75). 

68 20 aestuaria : the country lying to the north, the modern Zealand, 
is low and marshy, cut up with bays and tide-water inlets. 

68 21 dixeramus : for tense, cf. note on the same word, 49 4. — cum : 
causal; cf. 57 l. — impeditum [esse], etc., there was no obstacle in the way 
of (lit. nothing hindered to) the conquerors. 

342 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

68 24 in . . . calamitate : gerundive construction. 
68 26 qui . . . possent t this would naturally be a characteristic su'djv. 
in the dir. ; cf. 26 10. — quos : see note on 58 9. 

68 27 usus [esse] : § 582 (330. b) ; B. 332. b; G. 528. 1; H. 611. N.* 
(534. 1. n. 1 ); cf. H-B. 590. 2. — misericordia (abl.), mercy: it has been 
observed that Caesar's dealings with the Gauls were comparatively merciful 
for a Roman dealing with barbarians, but his cruelty seems to us atrocious. 

69 2 ut . . . prohiberent: subst. clause of purpose, obj. of imperavit; 
cf. this construction with that of uti iussit just before. 

69 4 Chap. 29. supra : see 60 9. — cum . . . venirent, while on the 
way. — omnibus copiis : cf . 50 16, 54 8. 

69 7 sua omnia : cf. 50 15 and note. — oppidum : often identified with 
the citadel of Namur, at the confluence of the Meuse and Sambre (see 
Fig. 41). For a striking description of the locality, see Motley's "Dutch 
Republic," iii. 224. Others place it more probably at Falhize, opposite 
Huy, on the Meuse below Namur, though neither place quite agrees with 
Caesar's description. 

69 8 quod cum : cf . qui cum, 58 9 and note. 

70 1 pedum : cf. 52 27. 

70 3 conlocabant : notice the change of tense from the pluperf. 

70 4 ex Cimbris Teutonisque : abl. of source ; cf. 51 1 ; see note 
on 7 l. 

70 6 impedimentis refers to cattle as well as portable baggage ; hence 
the two verbs, agere and portare. Ci./erre et agere, to plunder. 

70 7 custodiam, a guard, whose duty it was to keep an eye on the 
booty, etc.; praesidium, a garrison, who were to hold the place. The 
words are in apposition with milia. 

70 8 sex milia : this Teutonic military colony was probably merely 
adopted into the Celtic tribe of the Aduatuci, thus giving rise to the story 
that the whole tribe were of Teutonic descent. — una (adv.), with it, i.e. 
the impedimenta — hi : i.e. the six thousand. — eorum : i.e. the Cimbri 
and Teutons. 

70 9 obitum, destruction : the Teutons were totally defeated by Gaius 
Marius at Aquae Sextiae (Aix-les-Bains), B.C. 102 ; the Cimbri, by Marius 
and Catulus, the next year, at Vercellae. — alias: adv. 

70 10 inferrent : the regular word for offensive war. — inlatum [sibi 
bellum] defenderent, defended themselves when attacked. — consensu eorum 
omnium, by mutual agreement, i.e. between themselves and all their 

70 11 sibi domicilio: cf. 54 3. — nunc locum: the land between the 
Meuse and the Scheldt. 

II. 28-31.] Ttie Belgian Confederacy, 343 

70 12 Chap. 30. adventu : abl. of time. 

70 13 f aciebant : notice the tense, and cf. 49 9 and note. — parvulis : 
for the formation of the word, see § 243 (164. a) ; B. 153 ; G. 189. 6; H. 340 
(332); H-B. 207. 1. 

70 14 pedum XII : i.e. in height. — XV milium : three miles (sc. 
pedum, from the same line of the text ; not passuum, which is the usual 
word to be supplied). 

70 15 oppido : for the omission of *'«, cf. castris, 57 5 and note. For 
the siege operations, see chapter on military affairs, vin, and Figs. 43, 92, 
93, 120. 

70 17 viderunt : note the regular mood and tense in the temporal clause 
with ubi ; cf. 62 18 and note. — inridere : histor. infin. ; see note on 13 18. 

70 18 quod . . . institueretur : because (as they said), etc. : subjv. on 
the principle of implied indir. disc; § 540, 592. 3 (321, 341. d) ; B. 286. 1, 
323; G. 663. 1; H. 652 (529. ii); H-B. 555. a. — ab tanto spatio, so far 
off (lit. away by so great a space) : abl. of degree of difference, ab having an 
adv. force. — quibusnam, etc. : the enclitic nam gives a sarcastic emphasis 
to this jeering question of the barbarians, by what hands ; pray, or what 
strength ? 

71 2 conlocare: indir. disc; we should have expected the fut. infin., 
conlocaturos \esse\ Apparently the Gauls thought the Romans meant to 
lift the tower and set it up on the wall (in muro); and such an idea, of 
course, seemed very amusing. But when the tower began to roll forward 
they saw their error. 

71 3 Chap. 31. moveri, that it was actually moving: for the omission 
of the subj. ace turrim, see § 581. n. 1 (336. a. N.); B. 314. 5; G. 527. 4; 
H. 642 (p. 296, ftn. 2 ) ; H-B. 592. 

71 5 locuti, speaking: cf. 52 7. 

71 6 existimare (sc se, and cf. 59 23 and note), that they thought: 
depending on locuti. 

71 8 possent : a rel. clause expressing cause ; § 535. e (320. e) ; B. 283. 3. a\ 
G. 633; H. 592 (517); H-B. 523. — se (obj.) . . . permittere, that they sur- 
rendered themselves, etc. : depending on dixerunt. 

71 9 unum, only one thing; notice the emphatic position of the word.— 
pro sua, etc., in accordance with his usual, etc. ; cf. 68 27. 

71 10 quam . . . audirent, which they were [all the time] hearing of: 
repeated action. 

71 11 statuisset : for the fut. perf. (statueris) of the dir. disc; § 516. 1 
(307. c); B. 264. a; G. 595; H. 540. 2 (473. 2); cf. H-B. 536, 470. ftn.* — 
ne . . . despoliaret : subst. clause of purpose, in app. with unum, but reallj 
depending on deprecari for its form ; see note on 4 17. 

344 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

71 12 inimicos : cf. 70 10. 

7113 virtuti: §367 (227); B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 2 (385. ii); 
H-B. 362. — traditis armis (==si arma tradita essent)'. abl. abs., equivalent 
to a protasis ; § 521. a (310. a) ; B. 227. 2. b ; G. 593. 2 ; H. 489. 2 (431. 2) ; 
H-B. 578. 6. In the dir. disc, a vivid fut. condition, si arma tradita erunt, 
non poterimus. 

71 14 sibi praestare, that it was better for them : impers.; the subject is 
the following infin. clause. — si . . . deducerentur (fut. condition), if they 
should be reduced to such an extremity. 

71 15 quamvis : from quivis. 

7116 consuessent: for the form, see § 181. a (128. a); B. 116. 1; G. 
131. 1; H. 238 (235); H-B. 163. 1. Give the speech of the ambassadors 
of the Aduatuci in dir. disc, and also Caesar's reply, ch. 32. 

71 17 Chap. 32. consuetudine . . . merito : cf. note on 65 9. This is 
a good example of the free use of the ablative case in Latin. If consuetu- 
dine were alone we should call it manner, " that in accordance," etc. ; if 
merito were alone we should call it cause. Caesar in using them both did 
not think of either category; to him they were both ablatives and needed 
no classification. We may call them cause if we like. 

71 19 aries : a long beam with an iron head (like a ram's), suspended 
from a framework, and swung with great force against a wall, crumbling the 
strongest masonry (see Fig. 126). — attigisset . . . dedidissent stand for 
attigerit . . . dedideritis (fut. perf.) of the dir.: § 551. c (327. a); B. 291. 1; 
G. 574 ; H. 605 (520) ; H-B. 507. 4. b. 

71 20 nisi armis traditis : cf. nisi munitis castris, 63 12. 

71 21 facturum : i.e. in case they came to terms. — ne quam, lest any : 
§310. a (105. d)\ B. 91. 5; G. 315; H. 512. 1 (455. 1); H-B. 142. 

71 22 re nuntiata ad suos : the idea of motion causes the use of ad ; 
the dat. would refer simply to the utterance of the message, not to its being 

71 23 imperarentur : the subjv. shows that this subordinate clause is a 
part of the indir. disc. ; § 580 (336. 2) ; B. 314. 1 ; G. 650 ; H. 643 (524) ; H-B. 
534. 2. — facere: sc. se as subj. ace, which is very often omitted by Caesar; 
cf. 59 23. We should expect facturos [esse]. The pres. infin. standing for 
facimus of the dir. is somewhat colloquial ; § 468 (276. c) ; G. 228 ; H. 533. 2 
(467. 5); cf. H-B. 571. — dixerunt: i.e. the ambassadors on their return. 

71 25 ut prope . . . adaequarent : i.e. the arms filled the ditch and the 
deep space between the wall and the end of the agger almost to the top. 
See Figs. 43, 118. 

72 2 eo die : the day is thought of as fixing the time, not as marking 
its duration, hence the abl.; §423 (256); B. 230; G. 393; H. 486 (429); 

II. 31-35] The Belgian Confederacy. 345 

H-B. 439. — pace . . . usi: i.e. they enjoyed the cessation of war and were 
peaceable, opposed to their later conduct. 

72 3 Chap. ^. ex oppido exire : for the repetition of ex, see § 402 
(243. b); B. 214. 2; G. 390; H. 462. 1 (413. n. 8 ); H-B. 408. I. 

72 4 ne quam : see note on 71 21. 

72 5 ante inito consilio, in accordance with a plan previously agreed 

72 6 quod crediderant : a reason stated on the writer's own authority, 
hence the indie; cf. 49 12, 56 23. — praesidia: i.e. those stationed in the 
caste I la. 

72 8 ex COrtice : abl. of material ; § 403 (244) ; B. 224 ; G. 396 ; H. 470 
(415. iii); H-B. 406. 4. 

72 9 viminibus intextis : in the same construction as cortice. 

72 10 pellibus: abl.; §364 (225. d); B. 187. i. a ; G. 348; H. 426. 6 
(384. ii. 2); H-B. 376. b. 

72 11 qua, where ; an abl. or instrumental form, used adverbially. 

72 13 celeriter : note the emphatic position. Caesar had ordered them 
to give the signal, in case of any disturbance, and to do it instantly. — igni- 
bus : this signal was given by stretching out a great flaming torch from the 
side of a watch-tower. 

72 14 eo, to that place. — concursum . . . pugnatum : impers. use of 
pass.; §208. d (146. d); B. 256. 3; G. 208. 2; H. 302. 6 (301. 1); H-B. 
290. a. 1 ; see note on 23 1. 

72 15 ita . . . ut, they fought as fiercely as brave men ought to fight. — in 
extrema spe, for their last chance (lit. in the last hope). 

72 16 iniquo loco: § 429. 1 (258./); B. 228. 1. b\ G. 385. N. 1 ; H. 485. 2 
(425. 2); H-B. 436. — qui . . . iacerent: subjv. of characteristic; cf. 51 4, 
68 12, 68 26. 

72 n in una virtute, in valor alone. — cum . . . consisteret, at a time 
when, etc. ; see note on 62 18. 

72 18 ad, about. 

72 19 postridie eius diei : cf . 20 5 and note. 

72 21 sectionem . . . universam : i.e. the whole people, as slaves, with 
all their possessions. 

72 22 capitum: cf. 26 7. — milium: pred. gen., after esse understood. 

72 25 Chap. 34. Venetos, etc. : the name of the Veneti survives in the 
modern Vannes ; that of the Redones, in Rennes. 

72 26 maritimae civitates : inhabiting the modern Brittany and Nor- 
mandy; they are spoken of at length in Bk. iii. chs. 7-16. 

73 4 Chap. 35. perlata : notice the force of per ; the news travelled 
from tribe to tribe. 

346 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

73 5 incolerent : subjv. of integral part ; § 593 (342) ; B. 324. t ; G. 663. 1 ; 
H. 652. 1 (529. ii. N. 1 1); H-B. 539. 

73 6 se . . . daturas : fern, because they were representatives sent by 
the tribes and spoke for them. 

73 7 in Italiam : i.e. Cisalpine Gaul. Caesar's province extended to 
the Rubicon. — Illyricum: this province formed part of Caesar's govern- 
ment, but he went there only during the winter season ; see 78 9 and 117 14. 

73 9 Carnutes : their country lay between the Seine and the Loire, 
comprising the modern Orleans, formerly their capital ; their name is pre- 
served in the modern Chartres. — Andes (whence Anjou): near the lower 
Loire. — Turonos : preserved in Tours. These camps made a cordon from 
Orleans through Angiers and Tours and probably Vannes along the Loire 
to the sea-coast. — quaeque civitates : translate as if et civitates quae. 

73 12 supplicatio, a public thanksgiving: ten days was the longest time 
that had ever been granted before, except to Pompey, who was honored 
with twelve for his victory over Mithridates. But Caesar's party was now 
all-powerful at Rome. — quod : for id quod ; § 307. d. n. (200. e. N.) ; B. 247. 
\.b\ G. 614. R. 2 ; H. 399. 6 (445. 7); H-B. 325. a. n. 2 

Book Third. — B.C. 56. 

Alpine Campaign. — The higher valleys of the Alps were inhabited by tribes 
who got a scanty living by working in mines, and often waylaid and plundered expe- 
ditions on the march. The two legions sent by Caesar under Q. Pedius (Bk. ii. ch. 2) 
had been attacked by these predatory people while passing into the valley of the 
Rhone above Lake Geneva; hence this expedition, sent in the fall of 57, which was 
intended to strike terror into the mountain tribes. 

Reading References on Caesar's Third Campaign. 

Dodge's Caesar, chap. 9. 
Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 11. 
Froude's Caesar, chap. 16. 
Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, chap. 4. 
Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 289-297. 
Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 304-309, 
Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 6. 
Trollope's Caesar, chap. 4. 

74 l cum in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar : cf. this with the begin- 
ning of the second book, cum esset Caesar in, etc. There the verb is made 
emphatic because the place where he was has been already named, and his 

III. i, 2.] Alpine Campaign, 347 

being absent is the most important idea. Here he is going to speak about 
a road to Italy across the Alps. Hence his destination becomes important 
and so takes the first place. If this were the first book, it would begin 
with Caesar, the principal personage in the narrative. If his going away 
were the main thing, it would begin with proficisccretur. But as it is, 
the route across, and so his destination, is here the main thing. Hence 
instantly the Latin order corresponds to the thought, and we have the 
form here presented. — proficisceretur: the familiar use of the subjv. with 
cum in descriptive clauses ; cf. 11 7, 62 13. — Galbam : this officer was 
one of the assassins of Caesar, his old general. The emperor Galba was 
his great-grandson. 

74 9 qui a finibus, etc. : Geneva seems to have been at the northeast 
corner of the Allobroges' territory. Between that point and the entrance 
to the Rhone must have been the country of the Nantuates. On the other 
side of the Rhone were the Seduni and Veragri. See maps, Figs. 6, 46. 

74 5 iter per Alpis : the pass of the Great St. Bernard, which reaches 
the Rhone valley at Martigny (the ancient Octodurus) at the great bend 
of the river. This was the shortest route across the Alps at this period. 
Hannibal is said to have crossed by the Little St. Bernard, and the pass by 
Mont Genevre was also in use. — magno cum periculo, but only with great 
danger, referring probably rather to the savage tribes than to the dangers 
of the way. 

74 6 magnis portoriis, heavy transit-duties : portoriis and periculo are 
ablatives of manner ; for meaning, see note on 15 25. — mercatores : see 
note on 1 8. 

74 7 arbitraretur : informal indir. disc. The form of the original would 
be arbitraris with an imv. in the conclusion, which is absorbed in permisit 
and the following uti-clause ; see note on 32 21. 

74 8 hiemandi causa : cf. 39 26, 56 15. 

74 9 secundis . . . factis, etc. : see notes on 15 19, 49 6 (last note). 

74 15 hie, eius : both refer to vicus. — flumine, the Dranse. 

74 17 concessit, etc. : he seems to have deprived the natives of one- 
half of their village to accommodate his troops, and to have left the rest 
to them. 

75 3 Chap. 2. concesserat : indie, because not part of the indir. disc. ; 
cf. qui . . . appellantur, 52 5 and note. 

75 4 montis : not the higher ranges, but the lower heights directly 
upon the valley. 

75 5 id, this, in apposition with ut . . . caperent ; cf. note on 4 17. 

75 8 neque earn plenissimam, etc., and that not entirely full. The 
twelfth legion had suffered severely in the battle on the Sambre (Bk. ii 

348 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

ch. 25), and was probably already below the normal strength before the 
detachments were sent off. — detractis: see 74 11. 

75 9 commeatus . . . causa : gerundive of purpose ; cf. gerund, 74 8. 

75 10 despiciebant, existimabant, etc. : notice the imperfects describ- 
ing the situation ; see note on 3 5. 

75 11 cum ipsi . . . decurrerent, when they should charge down from 
the hills upon the valley. The imperf. subjv. of indir. disc, with cum is 
here equivalent to the fut. indie, of dir. disc. 

75 13 accedebat quod, and besides (lit. it was added that). The subject 
of accedebat is the clause quod . . . dolebant ; cf . 60 25. 

76 2 Romanos . . . adiungere : indir. disc, after persuasum habebant 
— they had persuaded themselves (lit. they had it persuaded to themselves). 
With persuasum habebant cf. coactum habebat, 13 4, compertum habere, 
40 20, habere explorata, 51 8, and notes. 

76 6 Chap. 3. hibernorum : see chapter on military affairs, v. In 
the present case, Galba saved labor by appropriating a part of the Gallic 
buildings without much ceremony ; but he proceeded to lay out the usual 
fortifications (munitiones). 

76 7 perfectae : referring both to opus and munitiones, but agreeing 
with the nearer; cf. 24 7. 

76 10 consilio : i.e. of tribunes, cavalry officers, and first centurions. 

76 11 quo in consilio : cf. 25 5, 58 9, and notes. 

76 14 subsidio veniri, that any one should come to their aid: veniri is 
impers., sc. posset implied in possent ; subsidio is dat. of service or end 
for which. 

76 15 non nullae . . . sententiae, several opinions (or votes) given by the 
officers in council. 

76 18 maiori . . . placuit, it was determined by the majority. — hoc . . . 
defendere, to reserve this course for the extremity, and meanwhile, etc. 

76 21 Chap. 4. rebus . . . administrandis : dat. of the gerundive, ex- 
pressing purpose ; an unusual construction, the ace. with ad or in or the 
gen. with causa being much more common. Why is constituissent in 
the subjv. ? 

76 23 decurrere, conicere, propugnare, mittere, occurrere, ferre, supe- 
rari : histor. infinitives, describing the scene and implying incessant action ; 
cf. 13 18, 70 17, and notes. 

76 24 gaesa : Gallic javelins of unknown form. — integris viribus (abl. 
abs.), as long as their strength was unimpaired. 

76 27 eo: adv. — occurrere, ran to meet the danger. 

76 29 alii, while others. — quarum rerum, things of which ; cf. 30 19, 
38 19, 62 QO. and notes. The gen. is partitive with nihil. 

III. 2-7.] Campaign against the Veneti. 349 

77 1 non modo . . . sed ne . . . quidem, not only not, but not even, 
etc. ; we should expect another negative after modo, but the Latin regu- 
larly omits it where both parts have the same predicate. Note the empha- 
sis on saucio. 

77 3 sui recipiendi : cf. 40 15 and note. 

77 5 Chap. 5. cum . . . pugnaretur, when the fight had been (and was 
still) going on: § 471. b (277. b) ; B. 260. 4; G. 234; H. 535 (469. ii 2); 
H-B. 485. 

77 7 languidioribus nostris : abl. abs., expressing cause. 

77 9 Baculus : see 67 l and note. 

77 13 unam : note the emphasis, only one. 

11 14 experirentur : note that the histor. pres. docent has the effect of 
a secondary tense on the dependent verb. 

77 15 intermitterent : a command in indir. disc, following certiores 
facit in the sense of instructs. 

11 16 tela . . . exciperent : i.e. the Romans were to gather up the 
spent weapons to use them against the enemy, as their weapons were 
almost exhausted (1. 6). 

77 19 Chap. 6. quod = id quod: cf. 73 12. 

li 20 cognoscendi facultatem, opportunity of finding out. — sui cocli- 
gendi, of collecting their wits : observe that sui is plural in meaning ; cf. 
sui recipiendi, 1. 3, above, and note. 

77 23 circumventos interficiunt, they surround and kill. — ex milibus : 
for part. gen. after parte. 

77 27 armis : abl. of separation. 

77 28 exutis : agreeing with copiis ; § 364 (225. d) ; B. 187. i. a ; G. 348 ; 
H. 462 (414. 1) ; H-B. 408. 3. ftn. 2 ; in their flight they threw their arms 
away. Of course the Romans did not catch them and strip off their arms. 

77 29 fortunam temptare : cf. English " to tempt Providence." — alio 
COnsilio . . . aliis rebus viderat, remembered that he had come with one 
design, and saw that he had met a different state of things. 

Naval Campaign against the Veneti. — The Veneti inhabited the penin- 
sula of Aremorica called Bretagne, Brittany, or Little Britain, since the emigration 
from Great Britain to escape the Saxon invasion. It has always been the home of 
the hardiest, most independent, and most strongly characterized of all the Gallic 
populations. Its scenery is wild and secluded, the character of its coast being 
clearly given in Caesar's narrative. Its language remains Celtic to this day. No 
one of Caesar's campaigns shows more strikingly his boldness and fertility of 
resource than this. 

78 8 Chap. 7. Germanis : i.e. under Ariovistus. It will be noticed 
that the geographical order, and not the order of events, is followed in 

35° Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

this summary. Of the Alpine tribes the Seduni are mentioned as the most 
important. The passage in brackets makes sense, and may be translated. 

78 10 Illyricum : part of Caesar's province. 

78 12 Crassus : see 46 24-27, 72 24 if. ; for force of adulescens, see 
note on 46 25. 

78 13 mare : following proximus with the construction oiprope ; § 432. a 
(261. a) ; B. 141. 3 ; G. 359. N. 1 ; H. 435. 2 (391. 2) ; H-B. 380. b. 

78 14 praefectos : officers of cavalry and auxiliaries. 

78 15 compluris goes with civitatis. 

78 19 Chap. 8. huius civitatis : i.e. the Veneti, on the southern coast 
of Brittany, the modern Morbihan. 

78 20 orae : part. gen. — regionum : added to describe and limit orae. 

78 21 Britanniam : at this time an important Celtic country, having 
close commercial and social relations with the mainland. Doubtless a 
large part of the shipping trade was in the hands of the Veneti and theii 
allies, whose commerce extended from Ireland to Spain. — consuerunt, art 
accustomed : § 476 (279. e) ; B. 262. A ; G. 236. R. ; H. 299. 2 (297. 1. 2); 
H : B. 487. Cf. 59 14. 

78 23 in magno . . . aperti : i.e. on a sea exposed to great and violent 

78 24 omnis . . . habent vectigalis : i.e. levy tolls upon them all ; 
vectigalis is in pred. app. with omnis. 

78 28 subita . . . consilia : this national characteristic of the Gauls is 
often alluded to by Caesar and other Roman historians. 

79 5 quam acceperint: § 592 (341); B. 323; G. 628; H. 643 (524) ; 
H-B. 535. 1. a. 

79 6 quam perferre, than to endure, following the comparative con- 
tained in malint. 

79 9 remittat : subjv. expressing a command in indir. disc, depending 
on the message implied in legationem mittunt. The dir. disc, would be 
si vis, etc., remitte. 

79 11 Chap. 9. aberat longius, was too far off, i.e. to take command at 
once in person. — navis longas, galleys. See chapter on military affairs, 
IX, and Figs. 48, 51. The Gallic ships, it seems, used sails alone, with- 
out oars ; see 84 25-28. 

79 12 Ligeri : the Loire, on the banks of which Crassus was wintering 
— institui, to be organized, i.e. in gangs for the several galleys. 

80 1 cum primum: the first moment when (lit. when first). Caesar 
had spent the winter as usual in Cisalpine Gaul. He reached his army 
perhaps in April or early in May. 

80 3 [certiores facti] : omit in translation. 

III. 7-1 1.] Campaign against the Veneti. 351 

80 4 admisissent : indir. quest. — legates . . . coniectos (the specific 
act) : in app. with facinus, but the construction is determined by intelie- 
gebant ; see note on 4 17 ; legatos : they were hardly such in the sense of 
international law. They were only Caesar's legati or lieutenants. 

80 5 quod nomen : cf . quarum rerum, 76 29 and note. 

80 8 hoc : abl. of degree of difference, approaching the idea of cause. 

80 9 pedestria itinera, etc., approaches by land. 

80 10 concisa, impeditam : with esse. They depend upon sciebant. 

80 11 inscientium : i.e. the Romans' lack of acquaintance. — neque 
. . . confidebant, and they trusted that our armies could not, etc. Notice 
that connective and negative have an attraction for each other, though we 
separate them. 

80 13 lit . . . acciderent, etc., granting that, etc. : ut here introduces a 
concessive clause. This is the only instance in the "Gallic War." Note 
that when so used the subjv. mood follows ; § 440 (266. c) ; B. 278 ; G. 
608 ; H. 586. ii (515. iii) ; H-B. 532. 2. b. 

81 l posse and the following infinitives depend upon perspiciebant, 1. 5. 
81 3 gesturi essent : subjv. of indir. disc. Observe the first periphras- 
tic conj. referring to future time. 

81 4 longe aliam . . . atque, very different . . sfrom ; cf. aliter ac, 
62 6. — concluso : i.e. like the Mediterranean, where there is no tide, and 
which is quiet as compared with the Atlantic. 

81 9 socios : pred. apposition ; cf. vectigalis, 78 25. — Osismos, etc. : 
the coast tribes as far as Flanders. The name Lexovii remains in Lisieux ; 
Namnetes in Nantes ; Diablintes in J ablins. 

81 14 Chap. 10. iniuria retentorum equitum, the wrong done by 
detaining the knights: § 497 (292. a); B. 337. 5; G. 664. R. 2 ; H. 636. 4 
(549. 5. N. 2 ) ; H-B. 608. 2. — rebellio, renewal of hostilities (not rebellion). 

81 16 ne . . . arbitrarentur : a new rising was threatened by the Bel- 
gians, while the maritime tribes, it is said, were already fearful of a Roman 
attempt upon Britain. (Observe that this purpose clause is under the same 
construction as the nominatives iniuria, defectio, etc., which express 
other reasons for Caesar's action, and are all in apposition with multa.) 

81 17 idem: subj. of licere. 

81 19 excitari: the pres. infin. here corresponds to the .pres. of a gen- 
eral truth; while odisse answers to oderunt taken as a pres., all men 
naturally hate. 

81 20 priusquam . . . conspirarent : see note on 38 27. 

81 24 Chap. ii. flumini: dat. with proximi, but cf. 78 13. 

81 25 adeat: after mandat, a command; cf. 6 10 and note; § 565. a 
(331./ R.); B. 295. 8; G. 546. R. 2 ; H. 565. 4 (499. 2); H-B. 502. 3. a. 

352 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

81 26 auxilio : dat. of service or end for which. — arcessiti [esse] 
dicebantur, were reported to have been invited. 

82 2 Crassum : cf. 78 12 and note. 

82 3 Aquitaniam : in southwest Gaul ; see 2 7-10. These peoples were 
of different race and language from the other Gauls, and took little interest 
in their affairs, not even joining in the great revolt described in Book vii. 

82 6 Venellos, etc. : in Normandy. 

82 7 distinendam : cf. pontem faciendum curat, 11 5 and note. — 
Brutum : afterwards one of the conspirators against Caesar, with the more 
celebrated Marcus Brutus. 

82 8 Pictonibus, Santonis : on the coast south of the Loire (Poitou 
and Saintonge). 

82 12 Chap. 12. eius modi . . . ut, of such sort that. 

82 13 lingulis : some of these narrow tongues of land run out to sea 
several miles. 

82 H cum . . . incitavisset : i.e. at high tide. — [bis] : apparently an 
error of the MSS. Some editors read xxiv instead of xn ; others refer it 
to the general ignorance or carelessness of ancient writers. 

82 15 quod . . . adflictarentur : subjv. as an integral part of the result 

82 16 minuente, at the ebb: intransitive. 

82 17 utraque re, in either case. 

82 18 superati, agreeing with the subject of coeperant. 

82 19 his (aggere ac molibus) . . . adaequatis, when these were brought 
level with the walls. 

General von Goler explains the Roman works as follows : " A dike was 
extended along each side of the isthmus in the direction of the town. 
While these were building, of course with each rise of the tide the space 
within would be overflowed. When the dikes were nearly completed, the 
Romans waited until the ebb had carried off the water, and then rapidly 
pushed their works to completion before the next turn of the tide. Thus 
the sea was shut out and the isthmus left dry. Meanwhile the dikes them- 
selves, being raised to the height of the walls, each served the purpose of 
an agger for approach to the town." 

82 23 haec . . . faciebant, this they continued to do : repeated action. 

82 24 partem : duration of time. 

82 25 summa : with difficultas ; note the emphasis. — vasto mari, etc. : 
in each of these points the ocean is contrasted with the sheltered and tide- 
less waters of the Mediterranean. The words are abl. abs., which in ex- 
pressions of time is closely related to the locative; see §419 (255) ftn.; cf, 
H-B. 421. 4. 

III. u-14.] Campaign against the Veneti. 353 

82 28 Chap. 13. namque ; introduces the reason for the fewer troubles 
of the Veneti, " (but the Veneti had less trouble) for." — ipsorum, their own. 

82 29 aliquanto : abl. of degree of difference. 

83 l navium : depending on carinae understood. — quo . . . possent : 
cf. 7 15, 60 27. 

83 2 atque item puppes, and the sterns too : accommodatae (being 
adapted) standing as an additional predicate. 

83 4 quamvis : from quivis. 

83 5 transtia, etc., the cross benches (for the rowers) of timbers a foot 
thick, fastened with iron bolts the thickness of a [man's] thumb. 

83 7 pelles : the Romans used sails made of flax, the Veneti of skins 
untanned {pelles) or tanned (alulae). 

83 11 tanta onera navium, ships of so great weight. — non satis com- 
mode, not very well. 

83 12 nostrae classi : dat. of possession, but translate, the encounter of 
our fleet ivith, etc. 

83 13 praestaret, had the advantage (i.e. our fleet). 

83 14 reliqua : here a neut. plur. substantive, everything else. 

83 15 eis: dat. with nocere ; § 367 (227); B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 
1(385.1); H-B.362. 

83 16 rostro: see Figs. 48, 51. 

84 2 copulis : the Romans were not very skilful in naval tactics, and 
they always aimed, by means of grappling hooks and boarding bridges, to 
get aboard the enemy's ship and reduce the conflict as soon as possible to 
a hand-to-hand combat, in which they excelled. — accedebat ut, there was 
this additional advantage that, followed by the result clauses, ferrent, COn- 
sisterent, and timerent ; cf. 41 15, 51 6. 

84 3 se vento dedissent, ran before the wind. The phrase is a nautical 
one ; hence ventus is repeated to give the complete expression. 

84 4 consisterent, rode at anchor. 

84 5 ab aestu relictae : trans. */ or when, etc. ; § 496 (292) ; B. 337. 
2. a, b; G. 664 ff. ; H. 638. 2 (549. 2); H-B. 604. 3. — nihil: cf. 63 13 and 

84 8 Chap. 14. neque: see note on 80 11. 

84 9 eis noceri posse, they could be harmed. Observe that the expres- 
sion is impers., and cf. 56 24 and note. 

84 10 quae ubi : cf. note on qui cum, 58 9. 

84 11 paratissimae,/«//y equipped; ornatissimae, thoroughly furnished. 
The battle was probably fought in the bay of Quiberon, off the heights of 
St. Gildas, on which Caesar was encamped. The fleet of Crassus issued 
from the Loire and took a northwesterly course. Meanwhile the fleet oi 

354 Notes: Ccesar. f B - G - 

the Veneti came out of the Auray estuary, and passing through the 
Morbihan entrance to the bay, encountered the Romans directly opposite 
Caesar's camp. See Fig. 49. 

84 13 neque satis Bruto . . . constabat, and Brutus could not make out. 
agerent and insisterent refer to Brutus and his officers. 

84 14 tribunis militum, etc. : in the ancient modes of fighting, the fleet 
was only a part of the army, and was commanded by the military officers, 
as here. 

84 16 noceri, etc. : cf. similar phrase above, 1. 9. 

84 17 excitatis, raised. The abl. abs. has a concessive force, as is 
shown by the following tamen. 

84 18 ex barbaris navibus, on the enemy's ships ; for force of ex, cf. 
una ex parte, ex itinere, etc. 

84 20 magno usui, of great service (cf. auxilio, 81 26), in fact turning 
threatened disaster to victory; but Caesar will not use words that hint at 
possible defeat. 

84 22 muralium falcium, -wall-hooks, long poles with sickle-shaped 
hooks attached, like those used by hook-and-ladder companies for pulling 
down walls (see Fig. 126). The gen. limits formae understood, which 
would be dat., after absimili. — cum = whenever, as often as, and the sen- 
tence following is a general condition, the verbs comprehensi adductique 
erant being in the protasis, and praerumpebantur in the apodosis express- 
ing repeated action, which is regularly expressed in Latin by the indie. ; cf. 
59 13 and note. 

84 24 praerumpebantur, etc., they [the halyards] were torn away by 
driving the ship forward with the oars. 

84 26 Gallicis navibus : dat. of reference used for poss. gen. 

85 1 paulo fortius factum : one of Caesar's mild expressions for an act 
of remarkable daring. 

85 4 Chap. 15. cum, etc.: another general condition; see note on 
84 22. — singulas, etc. : i.e. two or three ships surround each one of the 

85 6 contendebant, expressing repeated action ; cf. with contenderunt 
below, which describes a single act; cf. 75 10. — quod postquam : cf. 
quae ubi, 84 10 and note. 

85 8 cum . . . reperiretur : a causal clause : cf. 2 15, 57 l. 

85 9 conversis . . . navibus : i.e. steered so as to run before the wind. 

The prevailing winds at present towards the end of summer in this 
quarter are from the east or northeast, — the precise winds needed for the 
two fleets to have met as indicated above. Further, when these winds 
have blown during the morning, it usually falls calm at noon. This is 

III. 14-18.] Campaign against the Veneti. 355 

just what happened on the day of the battle. The calm was probably just 
after midday. 

85 14 pervenerint, came to land ; for the tense, cf. 28 6, 50 22, the perf. 
subjv. being used, as usual, to express past time in a result clause, without 
regard to sequence of tense. 

85 15 hora mi (quarta) : about 10 a.m. 

86 2 Chap. 16. cum . . . turn, while . . . at the same lime. 

86 4 convenerant, coegerant : i.e. for this war. — quod ubique, all that 
there were anywhere, followed by the part. gen. navium. 

86 5 quo, whither : i.e. any refuge. 

86 8 eo gravius . . . quo, the more severely, etc., in order that. — vin- 
dicandum [esse] (impers.), punishment should be inflicted. 

86 10 sub corona vendidit, sold [as slaves] at public auction ; lit. under 
the wreath, since the captives were crowned like animals to be sacrificed, 
as indeed they had been in earlier times. Thus the only naval power in 
Gallia that could be formidable to the Romans was totally destroyed, and 
neither the Veneti nor their allies gave the proconsul any more trouble. 

86 13 Chap. 17. Venellorum: along the Channel coast of Normandy. 

86 14 his : cf. classi, 84 13. 

86 16 magnas copias : most likely meaning here irregular troops as 
opposed to exercitum. — his paucis diebus : i.e. about the same time. 

86 17 Eburovices : this branch of the Aulerci lived on the south side of 
the lower Seine. 

86 18 nolebant : i.e. the Senate. — clauserunt: i.e. against the Romans. 

86 20 perditorum, desperate: there might well be many such, as it was 
now the third year of constant war in Gaul. 

86 23 loco, castris: locative ablatives without a prep.; cf. 13 6, 57 5 
and note. 

86 24 cum : concessive. 

87 1 eo absente : i.e. Caesar. A legatus regularly had no imperium, or 
independent command, but served under that of his superior. 

87 3 dimicandum [esse] : impers., with legato as dat. of apparent agent. 

87 8 Chap. 18. pro perfuga, in the character of a deserter. 

87 10 neque longius ab esse quin : an idiomatic shorthand expression 
amounting to that not later than the following night Sabinus would, etc. 

87 14 iri : depending on oportere. 

87 15 superiorum dierum, on the previous days: see note on belli, below. 

87 17 spes . . . belli: subj. gen. denoting the source; notice that the 
regular way to express the relation between two substantive ideas is by the 
genitive. One idea is conceived as belonging to the other in some sense. 
See note, 62 20. 

356 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G 

87 18 fere . . . credunt, most men are glad to believe, etc. 
87 19 non prius . . . quam, not . . . until : cf. 81 20. 
87 21 ut . . . victoria (abl. abs.), as if victory were already assured, 
87 22 sarmentis, cuttings, young growth trimmed off from trees. — vir 
gultis, brushwood. 

87 25 Chap. 19. mille: an indecl. adj. in agreement with passus. 

88 l quam . . . spati, as little time as possible, subj. of daretur. 
88 2 que, and (consequently), as often with -que. 

88 7 Note the emphasis on primum and statim. 
88 8 quos : the antecedent is eorum. 
88 15 animus, etc. : cf. 78 28 and note. 

Southern Gaul. — The campaign in Aquitania was made merely for strategic 
reasons, was not provoked by any attack or threat of war, and appears to have been 
quite unnecessary (see note on 82 3) as well as difficult and dangerous. The Aqui- 
tani had no strong military league or combination, but consisted of small, isolated 
clans, and were besides of more industrious habits than the Gauls, being good miners 
and engineers. As a mere narrative, however, this is an interesting episode of 
the war. 

88 17 Chap. 20. P. Crassus, etc. : cf. 82 2-5. 

88 18 ante dictum est : i.e. in 2 7-10. Omit bracketed words in lines 

88 19 tertia pars : these statements show extreme ignorance, as would 
be natural (cf. the account of Britain, Bk. v. chs. 12-14). 

88 21 Praeconinus, Manlius : these defeats were twenty-two years 
before (B.C. 78), when the Aquitani united with Sertorius, the leader of the 
Marian party, who held Spain for six years against Rome. (See Plutarch's 
" Life of Sertorius.") 

88 26 Tolosa et Narbone : Tolosa was an old Gallic town ; Narbo, a 
Roman colony established by the policy of Gaius Gracchus, B.C. 118. It 
became the capital of the Roman province, to which it gave its name, 

88 27 his regionibus : dat. after finitimae, which agrees with civitates. 
Omit [ex]. 

88 28 nominatim evocatis : i.e. veterans who had served their term, 
but were willing to reenlist. See chapter on military affairs, iv. a. — So- 
tiatium : south of the Garonne, southeast of the modern Bordeaux ; the 
name remains in the modern Sos. 

89 5 Chap. 21. superioribus victoriis: i.e. those just related; 
§ 431. a (254. & 2) ; B. 218. 3 ; G. 401. n.« ; H. 476. 3 (425. ii. 1. N.) ; H-B. 

III. 18-23.] Campaign in Aquitania. 357 

89 7 sine imperatore . . . adulescentulo duce i an imperator is the chief 
commander of an army, holding the imperium, or power of military com- 
mand conferred on him by regular formalities ; dux is a general designation 
for any person holding a command, and might be given to a subordinate 
officer, like Crassus, who acted as an agent and under the imperium of his 

89 9 perspici: the subject is the indir. quest, quid . . . possent. 

89 12 vineas turrisque egit : see chapter on military affairs, vni, and 

Fi g s - 33» 43» 92, 93. I2 °- 

89 13 cuniculis, mines (lit. rabbits), so called from their likeness to rab- 
bits' burrows. The mine was intended to run under the Roman agger. The 
roof was carefully propped up with wooden posts, and these being set on 
fire, when they were burned through, the entire mass of Roman works would 
fall into the pit. 

89 15 aerariae secturaeque : this seems to mean copper mines and 
quarries (not entirely underground) ; but the meaning of the words is not 
perfectly clear. — diligentia : the Romans doubtless met the attack with 

89 18 faciunt, they do (it). 

89 21 Chap. 22. soldurios, paid retainers (hence soldiers), a Gallic 
word. It is related that these soldurii were dressed in royal garments 
like their chief. 

89 22 condicio : the same condition of service was found among the 
Germans (Bk. vi. ch. 23), and was the foundation of feudal vassalage. — 
commodis : abl. with fruantur. 

89 23 quorum amicitiae, to whose friendship. — si quid . . . accidat : a 
euphemism, cf. 16 14. 

89 24 sibi mortem, etc. : cf. 4 15. 

89 26 qui . . . recusaret : rel. clause of characteristic ; cf. 5 6, 51 4. 

89 27 cum his (repeated from cum devotis ; cf. repetition of vidit, 
67 7), with these (I say). 

90 4 Chap. 23. Vocatium, etc. : these were farther west. 
90 7 quibus, within which. 

90 8 quoqueversus, in every direction (quoque, the adverb of place 
formed from the distributive quisque ; versus, the adverb of direction 
usually connected with prepositions, as ad-versus). It is often written 

90 10 citerioris : i.e. from the standpoint of Rome ; now northern 
Spain. — Hispaniae : these Iberian populations were allied to the Aqui- 
tani (Bk. i. ch. 1). Spain had been subject to Rome for more than 150 
years, but was always rather mutinous, and had made several attempts at 

358 Notes: Ctzsar. [B. G 

independence, especially under Sertorius, who defied Rome for ten years, 
B.C. 82-72 ; see note on 88 21. It was also the last stronghold of Pompey's 
party in the Civil War, till finally subdued at Munda, B.C. 45. — finitimae : 
pred. adj. agreeing with quae. 

90 15 consuetudine populi Romani: a custom which they had learned 
in the service with Sertorius. 

90 16 loca capere, etc. : i.e. to practise Roman tactics. 

90 18 suas . . . augeri, etc. : these infin. clauses are in app. with quod. 
— diduci, be stationed in various places, to keep track of the enemy and 
prevent being surrounded. 

90 22 decertaret: subjv. of result with quin after cunctandum [esse] ; 
§ 558 (319. d) ; B. 283. 4; G. 555 ; H. 595. 2 (504) ; cf. H-B. 502. 3. b\ cf. 
29 5, 50 9, 50 25. 

90 25 Chap. 24. duplici : i.e. two cohorts in depth. His numbers 
were too few to allow the usual formation of three {triplex acies). 

90 26 in mediam aciem : i.e. where they would be kept steady by his 
legionaries. Their ordinary position was on the wings. 

90 27 exspectabat, waited (to see) what, etc. 

91 1 Obsessis viis . . . potiri, to block the roads, cut off supplies, and 
win the victory without a wound. 

91 3 sese recipere : i.e. to withdraw from Aquitania. 

91 4 infirmiores animo, dispirited: § 253 ; B. 226 ; G. 397 ; H. 480 
(424) ; H-B. 441. — adoriri cogitabant, had in mind to attack ; sc. eos for 
obj., and see note on 62 16. 

91 5 productis copiis: concessive ( = although, etc.). 

91 6 sua, their own. 

91 7 opinione timoris, the notion (they had given) of their own cow- 

91 9 oportere : depending on some word of saying implied in voces. — 
iretur: cf. note on decertaret, 90 22. Translate freely, that they should go 
to the camp without further delay. 

91 10 ad hostium castra : this is the only instance in the Commentaries 
of an attack by Romans on a fortified Gallic camp. The fight usually took 
place on a level stretch between the hostile camps. The Romans always 
chose their battle-ground with great care. 

91 11 Chap. 25. telis coniectis (abl. abs.), by hurling weapons. 

9113 quibus: abl. with confidebat ; § 431 (254. b) ; B. 219. i.a\ G. 
401. 6 ; H. 476. 3 (425. i. 1. n.) ; H-B. 437. 

91 14 lapidibus . . . comportandis : gerundive expression of means. — 
aggerem : i.e. Crassus was building a mound of turf to equal the height of 
the enemy's rampart, as in the siege of a city. 

III. 23-29.] Campaign in Aquitania, 359 

91 15 opinionem pugnantium : i.e. they made an impression as if 
actually engaged. 

92 2 ex loco, etc. : i.e. as they stood on the rampart of the camp. 

92 4 ab decumana porta : i.e. in the rear, where this gate was situated 
(see Fig. 119). The Gauls appear here to have adopted the Roman mode 
of constructing camps, probably under the instruction of the Sertorian 

92 9 Chap. 26. praesidio castris : cf. 22 6, 54 3. 

92 13 prius . . . quam : this is often used with the indie, to show that 
one actual fact precedes another, just as succession is denoted by postquam. 
Here the subjv. subordinates the temporal clause to the main idea, like the 
subjv. with cum; cf. also 57 20 and note. 

92 14 videri : sc. possent from the following posset. — rei : part. gen. 

92 18 per, over. 

92 20 apertissimis campis (see note on 62 27) : i.e. the broad, treeless 
plains which abound in this part of the country. 

92 21 quae : ace. plur. ; the antecedent is milium. — Cantabris : a very 
hardy people of the western Pyrenees. 

92 26 Chap. 27. Tarbelli, etc. : some of the names will be recognized 
in the modern Tarbes, Bigorre, Garonne. 

92 28 tempore : cf. note on 91 13. 

93 2 Chap. 28. omni Gallia pacata, while all the rest of Gaul was 
subdued. — Morini, etc. : on the islands and low coast lands of Flanders 
and further north. 

93 3 qui . . . essent: cf. 89 26 and note. — neque : cf. 80 11. 

93 4 arbitratus, thinking: the perf. part, of dep. verbs often has a 
present force. 

93 5 alia . . . ac : cf. 62 6. 

93 8 continentis, continuous : i.e. far-stretching. 

93 15 longius, too far (farther than was safe). — locis : loc. abl., as 
usual without a prep. 

93 17 Chap. 29. deinceps : i.e. in the days next following. 

93 18 inermibus . . . militibus : abl. abs. 

93 20 conversam, fronting, i.e. with the boughs turned towards the 
enemy. — pro vallo, as a palisade. 

93 23 tenerentur, etc. : Le. were just being seized. 

93 24 eius modi . . . uti . . . intermitteretur, such that the work was 
constantly interrupted. 

93 26 sub pellibus : the tents were of leather. 

93 28 Aulercis, etc. 1 along the Seine, near Evreux and Lisieux. 

360 Notes : Ccesar. [B. a 

Book Fourth. — b.c. 55. 

Campaign against the Germans. — The year b.c. 55 appears to have been 
marked by a general movement in the migration of the German tribes. An advance, 
consisting of two tribes, the Usipetes and Tencteri, crowded forward by the more 
powerful Suevi, crossed the lower Rhine into northern Gaul. Caesar assumed the 
defence of the country he had just conquered, drove them back across the Rhine, 
followed them up by an expedition into their own territories, and fully established 
the supremacy of the Roman arms. Another brief campaign in Germany two years 
later confirmed this success, and the Rhine became the military frontier, recognized 
for many centuries, between the Roman Empire and the barbarian world. 

Reading References on the Campaign against the Germans. 

Dodge's Caesar, chap. 10. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 12. 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 16. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, chap. 5. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 365-375. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 309-312. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 7. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

Tacitus's Germania. 

Trollope's Caesar, chap. 5. 

94 1 ea quae, etc. : mark the emphasis as shown by the order and 
compare the opening of Bk. iii and note. — Pompeio, Crasso : i.e. the year 
B.C. 55. Observe that the usual way of fixing a year is by naming the con- 
suls for that year. The coalition between Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, 
sometimes called the First Triumvirate, had been formed five years before. 
In carrying out the scheme, Caesar held the government of Gaul, while the 
others took into their own hands the whole control of affairs at home (see 
Introduction, " Life of Caesar"). 

94 2 Usipetes, Tencteri : beyond the Rhine, a little below Cologne. 

94 4 quo : adv. = in quod. 

94 5 quod . . . prohibebantur : Caesar states this reason as his own, 
therefore the indie. — Suevis : this people (the modern Swabians) occupied 
the greater part of central Germany, and was made up of several tribes. 

94 6 premebantur, prohibebantur : the imperfects here express that 
which was still going on, they were being hard pressed, etc. 

94 8 centum pagos (see 10 12) : there is probably some confusion 
here with the ancient German institution of the Hundred, a division of the 
population giving its name to a district of territory. Each hundred seems 

IV. i,2.] Campaign against the Germans. 361 

to have sent 1000 men (singula milia) to the army. The term early lost 
its numerical value, and became a mere local designation. 

94 9 bellandi causa \ gerund, expressing purpose with causa. Observe 
that causa in this use always follows its case ; cf. above causa transeundi, 
with a totally different meaning. 

94 11 hi . . . illi, the latter . . . the former. — anno post, the following 
year : § 424.7(259. d) ; B. 357. 1 ; G. 403. N. 4 ; H. 488. 1 (430) ; cf. H-B. 424. 

94 12 ratio, theory (theoretical knowledge) ; usus, practice (knowledge 
derived from experience). 

94 13 sed : i.e. they attended to agriculture systematically, but, etc. — 
privati . . . agri : i.e. the land was held in tribal communities. 

94 14 longius anno : i.e. the community had no fixed possessions, but 
was transferred yearly from one tract to another, its place being taken by 
another community. As is shown in Bk. vi. ch. 22, the community was 
composed of persons kindred by birth. The annual shifting of occupancy 
would prevent at once forming local attachments, building up large prop- 
erties, and too rapidly exhausting the soil. 

94 15 frumento (abl. of means), etc. : they were still in a half-nomadic 
state, though with some little advance in agriculture (cf. Bk. vi. ch. 22, and 
Tacitus, Ger. 27). — maximam partem: adv. ace; it is worth while to 
learn the few words that commonly occur in this construction ; § 390. c , 
397. a (240. a, b) ; B. 185. 1 ; G. 334. R. 2 ! H. 416. 2 (378. 2) ; cf. H-B. 388. 

94 17 quae res : cf . note on 30 19. 

95 1 quod . . . faciunt : this clause is a parenthesis ; because, having 
been trained from childhood to no service or discipline, they do nothing what- 
ever against their will, — a lively contrast of barbarous manners with the 
severity of Roman family and civil discipline. 

95 3 alit : the subject is quae res. — homines [eos] efficit, makes 
[them] men, etc. 

95 4 earn : correl. with ut, introducing a clause of result. — locis (abl. 
abs., concessive) frigidissimis, even in their extreme climate. 

95 5 vestitus : part. gen. with quicquam. — haberent, have; lava- 
rentur, bathe : imperf. bysequence of tenses following adduxerunt ; § 485. 
a (287. a); B. 268. 1 ; G. 511. R. 8 ; H. 546 (495. i) ; H-B. 481. 

95 8 Chap. 2. eo ut . . . habeant, so (on this account) that they may 
have (some one) to whom, etc. 

95 9 quam quo . . . desiderent, than that they want, etc. For the 
use of quo expressing cause with the implied negative, see § 592. n. (341. 
R.) ; B. 323 ; G. 541. N. 2 ; H. 588. ii. 2 (516. 2) ; H-B. 535. 2. b. 

95 11 impenso pretio, at high cost. — importatis non utuntur, do not 
import for use (lit. do not use imported). 

362 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

95 13 deformia, ill-shaped. — summi laboris, (capable) of great labor 
(gen. of quality). 

95 20 quamvis pauci, however few. — vinum : cf . the description of 
the Nervii, 59 22-26. They drank a kind of beer, however, and mead 
made of honey. 

95 23 Chap. 3. publice, as a community. 

95 26 una . . . Suevis, extending from (the territory of) the Suevi in 
one direction. — sexcenta: probably exaggerated. — agri, their lands. 

95 27 Ubii : along the Rhine, opposite Cologne. 

96 l pauio . • . humaniores, somewhat more civilized than the others, 
although they are of the same race (Germans). 

96 4 cum : concessive, as shown by the following tamen. 

96 5 gravitatem, importance, referring to the warlike character and 
extensive resources of the people ; while amplitudinem refers to their 
great numbers. 

96 7 vectigalis : sc. eos referring to the Ubii. — humiliores (pred.) : in 
translating sc. so as to be. 

96 9 Chap. 4. in eadem causa, in the same situation. 

96 12 quas regiones : North Brabant, with the north bank of the 

96 13 ad utramque ripam, along both banks. 

96 14 multitudinis : see 102 10. 

96 16 cis Rhenum : i.e. the west side. 

96 18 vi contendere, to force a passage. 

96 22 confecto : with itinere. 

96 23 oppresserunt : not oppressed; see note on obtinere, 2 1. 

97 2 priusquam . . . fieret: § 551. b (327); B. 292; G. 577; H. 605. 
ii (520. ii) ; H-B. 507. 4. b ; see also note on 38 27. 

97 5 partem : ace. of time. — eorum copiis, on their supplies (cattle 
and grain). 

97 6 Chap. 5. infirmitatem, weakness of purpose = fickleness. 

97 8 nihil . . . committendum, no confidence should be placed in them. 
Observe that committendum [esse] is impers. and nihil adv. ace. 

97 9 est . . . consuetudinis, it is [a point] of Gallic custom : § 343. c 
(214. d); B. 198. 3; G. 366. R.i; H. 439 (401); H-B. 340. — uti... 
COgant, etc. : we have here a number of clauses of result in app. with hoc. 

97 14 rebus atque auditionibus,/«r/j and hearsays. 

97 15 quorum eos . . . paenitere : § 354. b (221. b) ; B. 209. 1 ; G. 377; 
H. 457 (409. iii) ; H-B. 352. — in vestigio, on the spot: cf. 95 16. 

97 16 serviant, are slaves to. — plerique : i.e. the travellers and traders. 

97 17 eorum : i.e. the questioners. 

IV. 2-9.] Campaign against the Germans, 363 

97 18 Chap. 6. graviori bello, too serious a war (i.e. unmanageable) : 
§ 370 (228) ; B. 187. iii; G. 347 J H. 429 (386) ; H-B. 376. 

97 19 maturius, earlier, i.e. in the season. — ad exercitum : the army 
was now in Normandy ; see 93 28. 

97 20 facta : sc. esse ; so with missas below^ 

97 21 missas legationes, etc. : these infin. clauses explain ea. 

97 22 uti . . . discederent : i.e. further into Gaul. The Belgae, it will 
be remembered, claimed kindred with the Germans, and were no doubt 
ready to assist them against the Romans. 

97 23 postulassent : for fut. perf. of dir. disc. ; § 478, 519, 585 (281, 316^ 
336, b) ; B. 264, 312. 2, 318; G. 244, 516 ; H. 644. 2 (525. 2) ; H-B. 468. 6, 
536, 470. ftn. 1 — fore parata, should be made ready (used for the fut. infin. 
pass.). It depends on some word of saying, like promiserunt, implied in 
invitatos. Instead of fore parata, we might expect fore ut pararentur. 

97 24 Eburonum, etc. : German tribes. 

97 27 permulsis, calmed from their terror (lit. soothed by stroking, like 
a nervous horse). 

98 1 Chap. 7. equitibus delectis : each of the allied states furnished 
its quota of cavalry. 

98 3 a quibus : refers to locis. 

98 5 priores, first, or, as aggressors (cf. the language of Ariovistus, 
Bk. i. ch. 36). — neque recusare, they do not decline, followed by quin and 
subjv. ; cf. 50 25. 

98 7 [haec] : may be translated. — quicumque : the antecedent is eh 
(dat.) implied with resistere. 

98 8 neque deprecari, and ask no quarter (lit. and not beg off). — haec 
tamen dicere, this however they did say ; supply se for subj. of dicere and 
following infinitives. For similar instances, see 59 23, 71 6, 71 23. 

98 10 eis : i.e. to the Romans. — attribuant, subjv. in indir. disc, for 
imv. of the direct. 

98 11 eos: sc. agros. 

98 12 concedere, yield, as inferior. 

98 13 reliquum . . . neminem : the position gives a force like, besides 
these there was no one else on earth, etc. 

98 15 Chap. 8. quae visum est, what (it) seemed proper (to answer). 
He probably answered somewhat as in Bk. i. chs, 14 and 43. 

98 20 Ubionim : see ch. 3. 

98 21 quorum sint, etc., whose envoys (he informs them) are now with 
him to (lit. and) complain, etc. 

98 25 Chap. 9. post diem tertium (= tertio die), i.e. the next day but 
one. The first and last days are usually counted in the Roman reckoning 

364 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G, 

98 26 propius se : cf. 41 10. — id : i.e. the two days' delay (expressed 
by ne . . . moveret). 

99 l trans : i.e. westwardly. 

99 2 exspectari : change the voice and translate as active, they were 
•waiting for. 

99 4 Chap. 10. Vosego, the Vosges : in fact, the Meuse flows from the 
plateau of Langres. 

99 5 parte . . . recepta : the Rhine branches in these low, marshy 
regions ; one branch (Vacalus, the modern Waal) unites with the Meuse 
near Bois le Due (see note, ch. 15). 

99 6 Omit the words in brackets. 

99 9 Nantuatium: cf. Bk. iii. ch. 1, where they are placed upon the 
Rhone, just above Lake Geneva; this was perhaps a branch or kindred 
tribe. The list of names here is incomplete. 

99 12 multis . . . effectis : translate actively, making many, etc. 

99 13 feris . . . nationibus : see the introduction to Motley's " Dutch 

99 15 capitibus, mouths (more commonly, sources). 

99 17 Chap. ii. ut erat constitutum, as had been arranged (i.e. the 
return of the envoys). Either this is a careless expression, or Caesar's 
consent is omitted in ch. 9. It is there stated merely that they said they 
would return. 

99 19 eos equites (antecedent to qui), the cavalry who, etc. 

99 20 antecessissent : attracted into the subjv. by the ut-clause ; cf. 
73 5. — praemitteret : used without an object ; translate send word. 

99 21 sibi : i.e. the Germans. — potestatem : see note on 16 7. 

99 22 quorum si, and if their: cf. note on qui cum, 58 9. 

99 23 condicione . . . usuros, would accept the terms : see ch. 8. 

99 25 daret: sc. petebant uti from 1. 19. — eodem illo pertinere, tended 
the same way (see ch. 9), i.e. to gain time till the German cavalry should 
arrive (eodem and illo are adverbs). 

99 28 aquationis causa : a small stream (probably the Niers) lay 
between him and the German encampment. 

100 3 accessisset: § 553 (328); B. 293. iii. 2; G. 572; H. 603. ii. 2 
(519. ii. 2); H-B. 507.5. 

100 5 Chap. 12. amplius DCCC, more than eight hundred: § 407. c 
(247. c); B. 217. 3; G. 296. R.*; H. 471. 4 (417. 1. N. 2 ) ; H-B. 416. d. 
Tacitus in his " Germania " (chap. 32) says that this tribe was distinguished 
for cavalry. 

100 9 indutiis : dat. of the end for which. 

100 10 resistentibus : sc. nostris. 

IV. 9- 1 4-] Campaign against the Germans. 365 

100 11 subfossis, etc. : after stabbing our horses underneath and dis- 
mounting several of our men ; observe again, as in 99 12, that an abl. abs. 
with a pass. part, is often best translated actively. 

100 14 venissent: cf. 97 2. 

100 17 genere: abl. of source; § 403. a (244. a); B. 215; G. 395; H. 
469. 2 (415. ii) ; H-B. 413. — regnum obtinuerat, had held supreme power. 

100 20 quoad : cf. this use and construction with that in 1. 2. 

100 25 Chap. 13. neque iam, no longer: knowing how little his own 
cavalry (of Gauls) were to be trusted, and that the arrival of the main body 
of the Germans would put them at once to flight, Caesar resolved to attack 
at the first opportunity, right or wrong. 

100 26 ab eis qui, from men -who, etc., followed by the subjv, of 

101 l exspectare: subject of esse; note the emphasis of position. 
101 2 pementiae : pred. gen. 

101 3 quantum . . . auctoritatis, etc., how great prestige the enemy had 
gained by one battle. 

101 5 quibus: i.e. the enemy (dat., indir. obj. of dandum [esse - ]); on 
the relative serving as a connective, see note, 40 20. 

101 7 quaestore: see Bk. i. ch. 52. — ne quern, etc.: cf. 71 21. 

101 8 res, in app. with quod . . . venerunt. 

101 9 eadem perfidia : their perfidy Caesar takes for granted, as the 
best apology for his own; but the presence of the chiefs and old men 
looks more as if they came, as they said, to offer amends for the attack of 
the day before. 

101 11 simul . . . simul, partly . . .partly. — purgandi sui: cf. 77 3, 
and see § 504. c (298. a); B. 339. 5; G. 428. R. 1 ; H. 626. 3 (542. 1. N. 1 ) ; 
H-B. 614. 

101 12 contra atque, contrary to what ; see Vocab. Observe the sub- 
junctives of implied indir. disc, in this passage. 

101 13 si quid . . . de indutiis, whatever (lit. if anything) they could in 
the way of truce. 

101 14 fallendo : i.e. by another trick. — quos, illos : both refer to the 
same subject. — quos oblatos [esse] gavisus, delighted that they were put in 
his power (gavisus, from gaudeo). By detaining their chief men, he would 
at once perplex and disable them. 

101 17 subsequi, to follow in the rear ; they usually went in advance 
(cf. 99 20), but now he could not trust them in the intended attack. 

101 18 Chap. 14. acie triplici: i.e. a march in line of battle; see 
chapter on military affairs, vi and vn. 

101 19 quid ageretur, what was going on. 

366 Notes : Ccesar, [B. a 

101 20 possent : cf. 97 2, 100 14. 

101 21 et . . . et, both . . . and. 

10123 ne ... an ... an: § 335 (211); B. 162. 4; G. 458; H. 38c 
(353); H-B. 234; the three infinitives all belong to praestaret, whether 
it was better. 

101 24 quorum timor cum : note the emphatic order. 

101 29 reliqua multitudo : the presence of women and children shows 
that it was a migration for settlement, not a mere inroad for plunder. 

102 1 ad quos consectandos (freq. of sequor), to hunt them down. 
Referring to this massacre of helpless fugitives, Plutarch, in his " Life of 
Caesar," writes that when the Senate was voting public thanksgiving and 
processions on account of the victory, Cato proposed that Caesar should 
be given up to the barbarians to expiate that breach of faith, in order that 
the divine vengeance might fall upon its author rather than upon Rome 
Cato was Caesar's bitter political and personal enemy, but still Caesar's 
cruelty and perfidy in this transaction can be justified only on the ground 
of absolute necessity. To secure the Roman power, he must destroy these 
Germans in order to establish the Rhine as the Gallic frontier and deter 
others from crossing. 

102 3 Chap. 15. Germani: i.e. those who were fighting. — clamore.- 
i.e. of those who were being massacred. 

102 4 signis: figures of animals carried on poles; see Figs. 11, 70, 127. 

102 6 reliqua fuga, further flight. 

This action is usually placed at the junction of the Rhine and the 
Meuse. There are many reasons against this, but no other location seems 
possible without doing violence to the text, and for this no sufficient case 
is made out. 

102 9 ex . . . timore, (relieved) from the apprehension of so great a 

102 12 discedendi potestatem, permission to depart. This was a prac- 
tical acquittal of the charge of treachery. 

102 13 veriti : regularly pres. act. in force, fearing. 

102 17 Chap. 16. ilia, the following. 

102 19 suis : note the emphasis on this word. 

102 20 cum intellegerent : here nearly equivalent to a participle. 

102 21 accessit quod, and besides : see Vocab. 

102 22 quam . . . transisse, which, as I mentioned above, had crossed: 
see 98 27 ff. (the conj. that of indir. disc, cannot be used in English to 
introduce a rel. clause). Observe that Caesar the writer uses the first 
person (commemoravi) ; Caesar the actor is always in the third. 

102 25 Sugambrorum: living just north of the Ubii 

IV. I4-I7-] Campaign against the Germans. 367 

102 27 intulissent : cf. antecessissent, 99 20. — dederent : observe the 
omission of ut ; § 565. a (331./. R-) ; B. 295. 8; G. 546. R. 2 ; H. 565. 4 
(499. 2); H-B. 502. 3. a. ftn. 2 . 

102 28 finire : see introductory note to Bk. iv. 

103 1 aequum: pred. adj. agreeing with the infin. clause Germanos 
. . . transire. 

103 2 sui . . . imperi : pred. gen. of possession after esse, under his 

103 7 OCCUpationibus rei publicae, by the demands of state affairs. 

103 8 transportaret : same construction as ferret. 

103 9 futurum [esse] : sc. verb of saying from orabant, 1. 5 ; so, too, 
for the following sentence. 

103 17 Chap. 17. dignitatis: cf. 103 2. 

103 19 latitudinem, etc. : Caesar's passage of the Rhine was most 
probably at Bonn, where the high and rocky banks begin ; or at Neuwied, 
20 or 25 miles further south, where there is a break in the chain of hills, 
though here, it is said, the bottom is rock, and not fit for driving piles. 
The width of the river at either place is about 1400 feet, and its depth is 
very variable. It is now crossed in these parts by bridges. 

103 21 rationem, plan. The brief description which Caesar gives of 
his rough-and-ready but very serviceable engineering may be made clearer 
by giving its different points as follows (see Fig. 59) : — 

1. A pair of unhewn logs, a foot and a half thick (tigna bina sesquipe- 
dalia), braced two feet apart and sharpened at the end, are set up by 
derricks and driven with pile drivers (fistucis) into the bottom, sloping a 
little with the stream. 

2. A similar pair is driven in opposite, 40 feet below, sloping a little in 
the other direction against the stream ; the upper ends of the two pairs 
would thus be some 25 or 30 feet apart, the width of the roadway. It is 
possible, as Riistow thinks, that the 40 feet refer to the top and not to the 
bottom of the piles. 

3. A beam of square timber, two feet thick (trabs bipedalis), and about 
30 feet long, is made fast at the ends by ties {Jibulis) between the logs of 
each pair, — which are thus kept at a proper distance apart, while they are 
strongly braced against the current. 

4. A suitable number (probably about 60) of these trestles, or timber- 
arches, having been built and connected by cross-ties, — this part of the 
structure must be taken for granted, — planks are then laid lengthwise of 
the bridge (directa materia), resting on the heavy floor-timbers ; and upon 
these, again, saplings and twigs (/ongurii, crates) are spread, to prevent the 
jar and wear of the carts and hoofs of the pack-animals on the flooring. 

368 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

5. Piles {sublicae) are then driven in below, resting obliquely against 
the logs, to which they serve as shores or buttresses {pro ariete), and 
other heavier piles a little way above, to break the force of floating logs 
or boats sent down to destroy the bridge. 

103 22 tigna, probably unhewn logs. — bina, two and two, i.e. in pairs. 

103 24 pedum duorum : i.e. between the timbers of each pair. — cum 
. . . defixerat, etc. \ cum here equals whenever or as often as and the clause 
is equivalent to the protasis of a general condition ; hence the use of the 
pluperf. indie. ; cf. 84 22 and note. 

103 26 sublicae modo, like a pile. 

103 27 ut . . . procumberent, so as to lean forward in the direction of the 

103 29 ab inferiore parte, downstream. — contra . . . conversa, slanting 
against, agrees with duo [tigna]. 

103 30 haec utraque . . . distinebantur, these two sets (or pairs) were 
held apart by two foot timbers laid on above, equal [in thickness] to the inter- 
val left by the fastening of the piles (quantum . . . distabat), with a pair of 
ties at each end. For number of utraque, see Vocab. 

104 2 quibus [tignis] . . . revinctis, after these were held apart and 
secured in opposite directions: i.e. the horizontal beams held the piles 
{tigna) apart, which, sloping in opposite directions, had been secured by 
the clamps. 

104 4 rerum, structure: see note on 4 4. — quo maior . . . hoc artius: 
the greater . . . the more closely, abl. of degree of difference. The only 
doubtful part of the description is in fibulis, of which the exact meaning is 
somewhat uncertain. They are thought by some to be cross-ties (as in 
Fig. 80). But, as the word means properly a kind of clasp exactly like a 
modern safety-pin, it seems better to suppose they were clamps joining the 
two piles with perhaps an iron bolt put through, answering to the pin of 
the fibula. 

104 5 haec . . . contexebantur, these (the framework of timber) were 
covered with boards placed lengthwise. 

104 7 sublicae . . . agebantur, piles also were driven on the lower side 
in a slanting direction, so as to prop the bridge against the current. 

104 8 pro ariete, as a buttress. 

104 10 aliae item : other piles a little way above, to serve as a break- 
water. There is nothing in the text to show whether these were attached 
to the bridge or not. — spatio : abl. of degree of difference. 

104 11 deiciendi operis, to throw down the work: pred. gen. expressing 
tendency or purpose ; § 504. a. N. 1 (298. R.) ; B. 339. 6 ; G. 428. R. 2 ; H. 
626. 5 (544. n. 2 ) ; H-B. 616, last example. 

IV. 17-19] First Invasion of Britain. 369 

104 12 neu . . . nocerent, and that they [trunci, etc.] might not harm the 

104 14 Chap. 18. diebus X quibus, within ten days from the time when. 
— coepta erat : pass, because used with the pass, infin. ; cf . 53 6 ; see also 
1. 20 below. 

104 15 traducitur : the histor. pres., resumed from 102 21. 

104 16 Sugambrorum : these were a little to the northeast of the bridge. 

104 21 hortantibus eis, etc. : i.e. the few who had escaped the massacre 
of ch. 15, and had taken refuge across the Rhine. 

104 23 in solitudinem : notice that the Latin construction is that fol- 
lowing verbs of motion, on account of the meaning of abdiderant ; we say 
hid in, etc. 

104 27 Chap. 19. pollicitus: this word implies a main clause in the 
infin., se daturum, on which the conditional clause would depend. This 
clause does not appear, but the dependent clause remains in the subjv. 
according to the rule. 

104 28 premerentur : a good example of the subjv. in implied indir. 
disc; see note on 32 21. 

105 1 per exploratores : cf. note on 57 3. 

105 3 uti . . . convenirent : object clauses of purpose, following the 
verbal phrase nuntios . . . dimisisse, which involves an idea of sending 
orders or advice. The rest of the sentence contains only statements and 
is therefore in the indir. disc, construction. 

105 5 nunc, etc., this had been selected about the middle, etc. : medium 
is used as a pred. agreeing with nunc in preference to an adverbial phrase 
in medio; § 293 (193); B. 241. i; G. 325. R.6; H. 497. 4 (440. N. 2 ); 
H-B. 244. 

105 7 decertare : not merely fight, but fight the decisive battle or decide 
the issue. This force of de is very common. 

105 10 ut . . . liberaret, etc. : these clauses are in app. with rebus, and 
their form as result clauses is determined by confectis ; see note on 4 17. 
In English some change of construction is often necessary in such cases. 
Here, having accomplished, etc. (namely), inspired, . . . chastised, . . . relieved. 

105 13 arbitratus : cf . 52 7 and note. 

First Invasion of Britain. — What is called the First Invasion of Britain, 
though it marks an interesting date in history, gave fresh stimulus to Roman curi- 
osity and ambition, and had a significant moral effect, was in itself an affair of small 
account. It was, in fact, only meant for a reconnaissance, or, perhaps, to open the 
way to further schemes. Towards the end of summer, Caesar sailed across to the 
cliffs of Dover, coasted a few miles towards the west, and established a camp 

370 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

on the British coast. His cavalry, meanwhile, had been weatherbound in their 
transports, and then, after crossing, were driven back by rough winds, so that they 
did not even come to land. After holding an uneasy and perilous position for about 
three weeks, he returned to Gaul without accomplishing anything beyond a barren 
display of daring. This expedition was, in fact, only intended for a " demonstration." 
Yet, as the beginning of the national history of England, the event assumes great 
interest and importance, so that it has given rise to volumes of comment and discus- 
sion both in France and England. 

Reading References on the First Invasion of Britain. 

Abbott's Julius Caesar, pp. 97-106. 

Dodge's Caesar, chap. n. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 12. 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 16. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 375-383. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 312, 313. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 7. 

Scarth's Roman Britain, chap. 2. 

Tacitus's Agricola. 

105 15 Chap. 20. exigua . . . reliqua : abl. abs. ; translate by a tempo- 
ral clause. 

105 16 ad septentriones, towards the north (see Vocab.) : cf . 1 1 ff . 

105 18 omnibus bellis : abl. of time. — hostibus : dat. after submini- 

105 19 si . . . tamen, even if time should fail, still, etc. 

105 20 fore : the subject is practically the clause si . . . cognovisset, he 
thought it would be of great advantage if, etc. In all languages the proper 
subject is often absorbed in some different form of expression; here it is 
properly " that fact," " that result," implied in the conditional clause. The 
idiom is the same in English except that we supply " it." 

105 21 adisset, etc. : the pluperf. represents the fut. perf. adierit of dir. 
disc. Observe in this sentence that while Caesar's action is given in the 
perf. (contendit), his reasons are in the imperf. (intellegebat, arbitrabatur) ; 
cf. note on 3 5. The conditional clauses si deficeret, si adisset, etc., are 
strictly fut. conditions carried into the past by the indir. disc. 

105 22 quae omnia, all of which: § 346. e (216. e); B. 201. 1. b\ G. 
370. R. 2 ; H. 442. 2 (397. 2. N.); H-B. 346. c. For the order, cf. 94 17, 
30 19 and note. 

105 23 Gallis . . . incognita : probably they were not so uninformed as 
they seemed ; cf. the relations of Commius, 106 13-17, and of the Veneti, 
78 19. — neque enim : neg. of etenitn, to be rendered with quisquam,/^r no 
on'! § 324. <4 (156. </); cf. B. 341. 2.d; G.498.N. 8 ; cf. H-B. 31 1.6. a and A 

IV. 20, 2i.] First Invasion of Britain. 37 1 

105 24 illo: adv.; see Vocab. — neque . . . quicquam, and nothing: 
observe that, as usual, the negative combines with the connective. — eis : 
dat. after notum; §375 (232. a); B. 189. 2; G. 354; H. 431. 2 (388. 1); 
H-B. 373 . 2. 

105 25 Gallias : i.e. Celtic and Belgic Gaul. 

105 26 vocatis . . . mercatoribus, etc., he called the traders^ but could 
not, etc. 

105 27 quanta . . . portus : these indir. questions follow reperire 
poterat. Notice that the imperf. poterat is used rather than potuit, refer- 
ring to his repeated questions to the different traders. 

105 28 quem usum, what degree of skill. — belli : cf. note on 41 14. 

106 1 Chap. 21. faceret: the subjv. here indicates a purpose or cal- 
culation in Caesar's mind. The perf. ind. would refer only to priority of 
time ; § 551 (327); B. 292 ; G. 577 ; H. 605. 2 (520. i. 2) ; cf. H-B. 507. 4. a ; 
see also 38 27 and note. The English idiom expresses this by some such 
phrase as "before making the attempt." 

106 2 idoneum : this remark seems to have reference to his actual 
want of success, as appears later. — Volusenum : one of Caesar's tribunes ; 
see 77 11. — navi longa: see chapter on military affairs, IX, and Figs. 

48, 51. 

106 5 Morinos, occupying the nearest point to Britain (Boulogne, 
Calais, Ostend, etc.) : in clear weather the British coast is in sight from 
these shores. 

106 7 quam . . . classem : §307. b (200. b) ; B. 251. 4; G. 616; 
H. 399. 5 (445. 9); H-B. 284. 6. — Veneticum bellum: see Bk. iii. chs. 

106 9 insulae : Britain was supposed to be an island, but the fact was 
not established, so far as we know, until more than a century later, when 
the Romans sailed around it. 

106 10 qui polliceantur : a purpose clause, but in English best expressed 
by the pres. part. 

106 11 dare : complem. infin., instead of se daturos [esse], a use not un- 
common in Caesar, and apparently somewhat colloquial ; § 580. c. N. (330. 
/ n.); cf. B. 328. 1; G. 531. N.*; H. 618. 1 (537. N.) ; H-B. 593.^ — 
imperio: § 367 (227) ; B. 187. ii. a; G. 346; H. 426. 1 (385) ; H-B. 362. 

106 14 Atrebatibus (see Bk. ii. chs. 4, 16, 23) : the same people, it is 
said, had occupied Berkshire in England, whence the supposed influence 
of Commius. — ibi : i.e. among the Atrebates ; § 321. a (207. a) ; G. 61 1. R. 1 ; 
H. 308. 2 (304. iii. 2). 

106 16 fidelem, etc. : perhaps Caesar says this in view of the fact that 
Commius afterwards turned against him ; see Bk. vii. ch. 76. 

372 Notes: Cczsar. [B. G. 

106 17 magni: gen. of indefinite value; §417 (252. a); B. 203. 3; G. 
380; H. 448 (404) ; H-B. 356. 1. — huic : indir. obj. of imperat ; the order 
he gave is the whole clause down to nuntiet. 

106 18 fidem sequantur, i.e. accept the protection of. 

106 19 se : i.e. Caesar, the main subject, as usual in indir. disc. 

106 20 quantum (sc. tantum) . . . auderet, so far as opportunity could 
be given to one who did not venture, etc. 

106 22 auderet : subjv. of characteristic. 

106 23 perspexisset : for tense, see § 485. e (287. e) ; B. 268. 3 ; G. 51 1. 
R. 1 ; H. 546 (495. ii) ; H-B. 491 and 2; the sequence of tenses does not 
depend upon the form of statement, but on the time as conceived in the 
writer's mind. 

106 26 Chap. 22. superioris temporis, of the season before (see Bk. hi. 
ch. 28). 

106 27 homines barbari, being (as they were) barbarians. — consuetu- 
dinis : § 349. a (2 1 8. a) ; B. 204. 1 ; G. 374 ; H. 45 1 . 1 (399. i. 2) ; H-B. 354. 

106 28 fecissent : the statement of the ambassadors, hence subjv. on 
the principle of implied indir. disc. 

106 29 pollicerentur : the same construction as excusarent, above. 

107 l arbitratus : translate as present, as often with the perf. part, of 
dep. verbs. 

107 2 belli gerendi: obj. gen. ; connect with facultatem. 

107 3 has . . . anteponendas, that occupation about these little matters 
should take precedence of [the invasion of] Britain. For the number of 
occupationes, see § 100. c (75. c) ; B. 55. 4. c ; G. 204. n. 5 ; H. 138. 2 (130. 2) ; 
H-B. 240. 5. b. 

107 4 iudicabat : note this and the preceding descriptive imperfects ; 
cf. note on 3 5. 

107 6 navibus : see chapter on military affairs, ix. — coactis, gathered 
from various quarters ; [contractis] (which may well be translated), brought 
together into port. This must have been either at Boulogne or a few miles 
farther north, at Wissant. The port has never been satisfactorily deter- 
mined, but it must have been between Boulogne and Calais, about twenty 
miles apart in a straight line, which is near enough to give a definite idea 
of the place (see map, Fig. 56). This whole coast has suffered enormous 
alterations since Caesar's time, and everything is much changed. 

107 7 duas legiones : the seventh and tenth. 

107 8 quod . . . habebat, what galleys he had besides. 

107 10 ex eo loco, etc. : this would be at Ambleteuse or at Calais, 
according to the location of the main port. — tenebantur quo minus, were 
detained from , the usual construction after verbs of hindering: §558. b 

IV. 21-24.] First Invasion of Britain, 373 

(317. b. N.l, 319. c)\ B. 295. 3; G. 549; H. 568. 8 (499. 3. N.2); H-B. 
502. 3. b. 

107 12 equitibus : of these there were 450. 

107 18 Chap. 23. tertia . . . vigilia, at midnight. The date was very 
near August 26, when high water would be about half past seven p.m. ; the 
ships, therefore, could go out at about half -tide. — solvit, cast off the ships : 
a technical phrase used like our weighed anchor. — equites : these were to 
embark at Ambleteuse, as stated above. 

107 20 paulo tardius : they sailed after a delay of three days (ch. 28). 

107 21 hora . . . quarta : this would be about ten a.m., an hour after 
high tide. The distance across is about thirty miles, and the landing was 
near Dover, where he lay at anchor till half past three. 

107 24 montibus anguste, etc. : i.e. the cliffs came close to the shore. 

107 26 dum . . . COnvenirent, until the other ships should come up : 
§ 553 (3 28 )5 B - 2 93- iii. 2 ; G. 572; H. 603. ii. 2 (519. ii. 2); H-B. 507. 5. 
When is dum followed by the indie. ? cf. 24 24, 33 20, 41 9. 

107 29 Voluseno : cf. 106 2 and 19. 

108 1 ut . . . postularent, as military science and especially seamanship 
require : rel. clause following monuit [ut] . . . administrarentur, enjoined 
that everything should be done promptly. Ut is omitted after monuit, as is 
often the case after verbs of directing or urging. The rel. clause has the 
subjv. because an integral part of the command. 

108 2 ut quae . . . haberent, since they have, etc. : the imperf. is used 
by sequence of tenses ; § 535. e (320. e) ; B. 283. 3 ; G. 633 ; H. 592. 1 
(517.3. 1); H-B. 523 and b. 

108 4 his dimissis, when they were sent to their posts (observe the dis- 
tributive effect of di-). — aestum . . . secundum : the tide in this place 
would not turn east and north until about half past six. 

108 6 progressus : towards the north. 

108 7 aperto . . . litore : thought to be somewhere near Deal and 
Walmer Castle. 

108 9 Chap. 24. essedariis: the essedum was a two-wheeled war 
chariot; see Figs. 123, 124. — quo . . . genere: i.e. including both cavalry 
and chariots, as described below, 114 5 ff. 

108 10 consuerunt : to be translated by what tense ? cf. 59 14 and 
note. — egredi : infin. for the more usual ne or quominus with the subjv. ; 
cf. 107 10 and note. 

108 12 alto : here a noun ; see Vocab. 

108 13 militibus (dat. after desiliendum), the men had to leap down. 

108 14 oppressis (taken with militibus), weighted as they were. Notice 
n this passage the free use of participles and phrases to modify the main 


Notes: Ccesar. 

LB. G. 

idea, first the abl. of place, then the abl. abs., then a participle agreeing 
directly with militibus. 

108 16 cum . . . conicerent, while they (the Britons), etc. : a good 
example of cum and the subjv. describing the situation ; cf. 11 7, 62 13. 

108 18 insuefactos, trained to it, i.e. to charge to the water's edge. 

108 20 generis : gen. ; cf. 106 27. 

108 21 pedestribus, on land, where the main strength lay in infantry. 

108 22 Chap. 25. navis: subject of removeri; § 563. a (330. b. 2); B. 
331. ii, 587. b\ G. 423. n.«; H. 613. 2 (535. ii); H-B. 587. b. 

108 23 inusitatior, quite strange. 

108 25 latus apertum : i.e. the right, unprotected by their shields. — 
inde : connect with propelli ac submoveri. 

108 26 tormentis : see chapter on mili- 
tary affairs, I. 5, and Figs. 61, 75, 95. — ac : 
notice that this word always adds some- 
thing with emphasis. 

108 27 quae res, a manoeuvre which : 
cf. 94 17 and see note on 30 19. 

109 2 qui . . . ferebat, the one who 
carried: the antecedent of qui is the un- 
derstood subject of inquit. — X legionis: 
again the splendid tenth distinguishes it- 
self ; cf. 36 24, 67 26. 

109 3 obtestatus, appealing to. Such 
prayers almost always preceded any formal 
address among the Romans, like "God 
save the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts." The words would be Quod vobis 
feliciter eveniat, desilite, etc. — legioni, imperatori : dat. of reference. 

109 4 nisi voltis : a present simple condition ; §515 and a (306 and a) ; 
B. 302 and 4; G. 595; H. 574, 580 (508 and 4) ; H-B. 579, 582. 1. 

109 5 ego certe . . . praestitero, / at any rate shall have done, etc. : 
§ 478. n. (281. R.) ; B. 264. a\ G. 244; H. 540 (473) ; cf. H-B. 494. 

109 8 inter se, one another : § 30i./(i96./) ; B. 245. 1 ; G. 221 ; H. 502. 1 
(448. N.) ; H-B. 266. — universi, in a body. 

109 9 ex proximis navibus,/r<w* the nearest ships. Omit [primis]. 

109 10 adpropinquaverunt : the subject is the soldiers, implied. 

109 11 Chap. 26. ab utrisque, on both sides : cf . utraque, 103 30. 

109 13 poterant . . . submittebat : notice the numerous imperfects in 
this description, implying repeated or continuous action. — alius alia ex 
navi, men from different ships : § 31 5. c (203. c) \ B. 253. 2 ; G. 319 ; H. 516. 1 

Fig. 122. — Aquila. 

IV. 24-28.] First Invasion of Britain, 375 

(459. i) ; H-B. 265. — quibuscumque signis : dat. after occurrerat ; the 
antecedent noun and pronoun (eis signis), if expressed, would be dat. after 

109 15 ubi . . . conspexerant . . . adoriebantur, etc. : a general condi- 
tion, whenever they saw, etc. ; cf. 84 22, 103 24, and notes. 

109 16 singularis, scattered soldiers. 

109 17 adoriebantur, would attack: to express the repeated action. 
So, too, circumsistebant and coniciebant. 

llOl ab latere aperto: see 108 25. — in universos, upon the whole 
body. This word means not merely all, but all at once, or all together, and 
the like ; cf. universi, 109 8. 

110 3 speculatoria navigia : swift, light boats for reconnaissance. — 
quos . . . conspexerat . . . submittebat: another general condition, pre- 
cisely like the one noted above (109 15), quos equalling whomsoever, or 
if any. 

110 5 simul [atque], as soon as. — suis omnibus consecutis, and all 
their comrades had joined them, 

110 7 longius, very far. — quod equites, etc. : they were wind-bound 
at the upper harbor, 107 9-12. 

110 9 f ortunam : this is not a mere casual remark, but an expression 
of his belief in " his star," always an important factor in the greatness of a 
commander ; cf. 36 14 and note on 10 17. 

110 12 Chap. 27. quae imperasset, what he should require (in dir. 
disc, quae imperaveris). 

110 13 quern . . . praemissum [esse - ] : cf. 106 13-19. 

110 15 nunc, etc. : it is not unlikely that his imprisonment was a mere 
pretence. — oratoris modo, in the character of envoy (or spokesman). 

110 19 ut ignosceretur, that their act might be pardoned: ignosco may 
take a dir. obj. of the thing, with an indir. obj. of the person ; § 369 (227./) ; 
B. 187. i. a; H-B. 364. 4; hence the word here may be either personal or 

110 20 cum ultro, etc. : cf. 106 10. 

110 21 bellum . . . intulissent : these barbarous people might well be 
pardoned for mistaking Caesar's expedition for an invasion. — ignoscere : 
for the omission of the subject, cf. note on 59 23. 

110 23 arcessitam, after they had been fetched. 

110 24 remigrare, to move back, i.e. from the strongholds to their farms. 

110 27 Chap. 28. post diem quartum quam, three days after (accord- 
ing to English reckoning): § 424./ (259. d); B. 357. 1 ; G. 403. N. 4 a; 
H. 488. 1 (430) ; H-B. 550. c. 

110 28 naves, etc. 1 see 107 9. 

376 Notes: Casar. [B. G. 

Ill 3 Britanniae: § 370 (228); B. 187. iii; G. 347; H. 429 (386); 
H-B. 376, cf. 362. — tempestas: from the northeast. 
Ill 4 aliae . . . aliae, some . . . others. 
Ill 6 propius . . . occasum : cf . 98 26. 

Ill 7 cum . . . complerentur, since they began to fill: the imperf. shows 
that the action was not completed. 

Ill 8 adversa nocte, in spite of the darkness. 

Ill 10 Chap. 29. eadem nocte : this was probably the night of Aug- 
ust 30 ; the moon was then full at 3 a.m. 

Ill 11 aestus maximos, very high tides. The ocean tides, rising here 
between twenty and thirty feet, were a strange phenomenon to those who 
had known only the tideless waters of the Mediterranean. One is at a loss 
to understand why the Romans had not learned more about the tides in 
the war with the Veneti. 

Ill 13 navis: obj. of compleverat. — [quibus, etc.]: an unnecessary 
explanation, and may be omitted. 

Ill 15 adflictabat (intensive), dashed about. 

111 16 facultas, etc. : i.e. chance to manage their own ships or help 
their companions. 

112 1 funibus . . . amissis, etc., from the loss of, etc. 

112 2 id quod: § 307. d (200. e) ; B. 247. 1. b; G. 614. R. 2 ; H. 399. 6 
(445. 7) ; H-B. 325. a. N.2. 

112 4 quibus = ut eis : result. 

112 5 quod . . . constabat, because it was understood: the subject is 
Oportere, of which the subject is hiemari, that it was best to winter in Gaul. 
112 7 provisum : see note on 56 16. 
112 8 Chap. 30. principes: subject of duxerunt in 

112 12 hoc : abl. of cause, originally degree of dif- 
ference ; see note on 2 17. 

112 13 optimum : in pred. agreement with frumento 
. . . producere. 

Fl °' * Com GALLIC 112 14 factu: ^ 3 23 — duxenmt: see Vocab.— 
frumento commeatuque, corn and other supplies. 
112 15 rem, the campaign. — his . . . interclusis, if these should be over- 
come, etc. : abl. abs. expressing condition. 

112 18 rursus: not a second time, which would be iterum, but back 
again from negotiations to hostilities. 

112 19 deducere : i.e. from their farms ; cf. 110 24. 
112 20 Chap. 31. at Caesar: emphatic transition to Caesar from what 
the soldiers feared and the Britons planned ; cf . 68 8. 

IV. 28-32.] First Invasion of Britain. 377 

112 21 ex eventtl navium, from what had befallen the ships. — ex eo 
quod, from the fact that. 

112 22 suspicabatur, began to suspect. 

112 24 quae . . . naves, earum, etc., the timber and the bronze of those 
ships which, etc.: § 307. b (200. b) ; B. 251. 4; G. 616; H. 399. 5 (445. 9) ; 
H-B. 284. 6. 

112 25 aere : the Romans used the word aes both for copper and 
bronze. These metals were more common than iron in the Roman ships, 
as they do not rust. They were employed to sheathe 
the rostrum, or beak, and to make the spikes that held 
the timbers together. 

112 26 quae . . . usui : the antecedent of quae is 
ea, the understood subject of comportari ; see note on 
qui . . . appellantur, 1 2. 

112 29 reliquis . . . effecit, he managed so that they 
could sail (navigari, impers.) tolerably with the rest. l "c ~n 

113 1 Chap. 32. geruntur: § 556 (276. e)\ B. 
293. i; G. 229. r. ; H. 533. 4 (467. iii. 4); H-B. 559. Notice that this 
present is regular with dum when there is no contrast of time. Cf. the 
use of dum, 107 26. — f rumentatum : supine ; cf . 26 15. 

113 3 pars hominum, some of the people. 

113 4 remaneret : indicating peaceable intentions on the part of the 
enemy. — ventitaret, returned from time to time : freq. or iter. ; § 263. 2 
(167. b) ; B. 155. 2 ; G. 191. 1 ; H. 364 (336) ? H-B. 212. 1. 

113 5 statione : such outposts or pickets were always on duty to guard 
the camp, usually a cohort at each gate. 

113 6 quam . . . ferret, than usual. 

113 7 id quod erat, what was the fact. 

113 8 aliquid . . . consili (part, gen.), that some new design was on 
foot; infin. clause in app. with id. 

113 11 armari, to arm : in verbs thus used reflexively, English prefers 
the active and Latin the passive form. — paulo longius, some little dis- 

113 12 premi . . . sustinere, were getting hard pushed, and hardly held 
their ground. 

113 13 conferta legione (abl. abs.), the legion was closely crowded 
together, while weapons were hurled, etc. Observe the tendency of Latin 
to convey a description, as here, by a participial phrase. 

113 15 una, only one. — suspicati, supposing: cf. 107 1 and note. 

114 2 dispersos, occupatos: agreeing with nostros understood from 
the preceding line. 

378 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

114 3 incertis ordinibus (abl. abs.), because the ranks were unsteady. 

114 5 Chap. 33. ex essedis: these chariots held six men {essedarii) 
each besides the driver (auriga), and were drawn by two horses. 
Su6o- 1146 terrore equorum: obj. gen., the terror that the horses arouse. 

114 8 cum se . . . insinuaverunt, when they have worked their way 
between : the protasis of a general condition, ex essedis . . . proeliantur, 
being the apodosis ; cf . 103 24. The perf. indie, with cum is here used as 
a protasis because a repeated action is spoken of. — equitum, the cavalry 
of the Britons. When the essedarii had dismounted, the British line was 
composed of alternate bodies of horse and foot. 

114 10 illi : i.e. the fighting men spoken of above. 

114 11 expeditum . . . receptum, a ready retreat. 

114 13 praestant, exhibit. Caesar was much struck with the efficiency 
of the German and British horse (see ch. 12), and later made it the basis 
of important changes in the Roman army. The ordinary cavalry was 
never able to cope with infantry; cf. Caesar's stratagem in 38 l. 

114 14 uti . . . consuerint : clause of result following efficiunt. — 
declivi ac praecipiti loco, a steep downward slope. 

114 15 incitatos equos sustinere, to check their horses in full gallop 
(complem. infin. after consuerint). — brevi, within a short space. 

114 16 iugo : made of straight or curved wood, resting on the necks 
of the horses and holding up the pole of the chariot. 

114 18 Chap. 34. quibus rebus, under these circumstances : abl. of 
means. — nostris : dat. following auxilium tulit. — novitate : depends on 

114 22 alienum : see note on 13 6. 

114 26 quae . . . continerent : note the subjv. 

115 l quanta ... facultas daretur: indir. quest, following demon- 

115 2 sui liberandi : cf 40 15 and note. 

115 7 Chap. 35. ut . . . effugerent : a result clause in app. with idem, 
the subject of fore, namely, that if etc. 

115 8 effugerent, would escape : the future idea is given by fore. — 
equites XXX : these few cavalry would be of no service in an engagement, 
but only in pursuit. To chase and cut down the beaten army was con- 
sidered an essential part of the battle. 

115 9 ante: i.e. 106 13-19, 110 13-17. 

115 12 tanto spatio, over as much ground: § 425. b (257. b) ; B. 223; 
G. 389 ; H. 417. 3 (379. 2) ; cf. H-B. 426. c. 

115 19 Chap. 36. die aequinocti, etc. (Sept. 24, always held to be a 
stormy season), since the time of the equinox tuas near and his ships were 

IV. 32-3 8 -] Second Invasion of Britain. 


unseaworthy. Napoleon III estimates that the return to Gaul occurred 
Sept. ii or 12. This would make the stay about three weeks. 

115 23 eosdem portus, the same ports with the others. 

115 24 paulo infra : the west current sets in on the French coast, while 
the east current is still running in mid-channel. 

115 28 Chap. 37. primo : adv. ; see Vocab. 

HO 1 orbe: the circle was formed by a small body of troops when 
entirely surrounded by the enemy. It was generally hollow, with officers 
and baggage in the centre. See 
chapter on military affairs, VII, 
last part. 

116 5 horis : abl. of com- 
parison with amplius ; the more 
common construction would be 
horas ; cf. note on 54 9. 

116 6 postea vero quam, but 
as soon as. 

116 12 Chap. 38. siccitatis : 
see § 100. c (75. c) ; B. 55. 4. c\ G. 204. 5 ; H. 138. 2 (130. 2) ; H-B. 24a 
5. b\ the tempestates of ch. 34 were apparently merely gusty weather 
without rain. 

116 13 reciperent : a purpose clause. — superiore anno : see Bk. iii. 
ch. 28. 

116 22 supplicatio : cf. end of Bk. ii. The crossing of the Rhine 
strongly impressed the minds of the Romans at home, and so, too, the 
passage into Britain, though the last was in fact a failure. But, though 
Caesar had added nothing to Roman power, he had opened a new world to 
Roman ambition. 

Fig. 125. — Caliga. 

Book Fifth. — b.c. 54. 

Second Invasion of Britain. — The landing of the previous year had been 
only a reconnaissance. Caesar now determines upon a regular advance and occupa- 
tion. The earlier part of the season was chiefly taken up with naval preparations. 
The ships were apparently built on the inland streams, and the rigging and outfit 
brought from Spain, which was considerably in advance of Gaul in civilization. 
It abounded in metals, and, in particular, furnished the esparto, or Spanish grass, 
whose long, tough fibre made the best of cordage. Caesar sails (by the reckoning of 
Napoleon III) on the 20th of July from Portus Itius, at or near Boulogne, drifting 
first with wind and tide some distance to the northeast, then making his way to his 
former landing. 

380 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

Reading References on the Second Invasion of Britain. 

Abbott's Julius Caesar, pp. 97-106. 
Dodge's Caesar, chap. 12. 
Fowler's Julius Caesar, pp. 199-206. 
Froude's Caesar, last part of chap. 16. 
Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 384-389. 
Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 313-315. 
Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 8. 
Scarth's Roman Britain, chaps. 2 and 3. 
Tacitus's Agricola. 
Trollope's Caesar, chap. 6. 

117 1 Chap. i. L. Domitio, etc.: cf. 94 l and note. The consuls 
entered on their office Jan. 1, according to the official calendar; the real 
date appears to have been Dec. 12. Caesar's visit to Italy was therefore 
probably later. 

117 2 ut quotannis, etc. : cf. 48 28, 73 7. 

117 4 navis: see chapter on military affairs, ix. — navis . . . curent, 
have as many vessels as possible built during the winter and the old ones 
repaired: cf. 82 7, 11 5 and note. 

117 5 modum formamque, style of build. 

117 6 subductionis : the vessels of the ancients were usually "beached" 
and not Jeft at anchor. — humiliores : agrees with eas, the understood object 
of facit ; see note on 62 16. 

117 7 nostro : i.e. the Mediterranean. 

117 8 id: sc. facit; § 319 (206. c) ; B. 166. 3; H. 388. 5 (368. 3. N. 1 ); 
H-B. 222. a. 

117 9 minus magnos seems to refer to the smooth ocean swell, com- 
pared with the angry " chopping seas " of the Mediterranean. 

117 10 iumentorum : not pack-animals so much as horses for his cav- 
alry, the lack of which he felt so seriously the year before ; see 110 6-9. 

117 11 actuarias, fitted with oars as well as sails. The Gallic ships, it 
will be remembered, did not have oars. See Bk. iii. ch. 14. 

117 12 humilitas : as compared with the high-banked galleys. 

117 13 armandas, fitting out : see introductory note. 

117 14 conventibus, proconsular or provincial courts. These courts 
were regularly held in the winter ; cf . 48 29. 

117 15 Illyricum: cf. 73 7. — Pirustis: a tribe long allied with Rome, 
inhabiting the valley of the Drina. 

117 17 imperat : in the sense of to levy, to make requisition for, im- 
pero takes the ace. of the thing levied and the dat. of the person upon 
whom the levy is made. 

V. i-3-] Second Invasion of Britain. 381 

118 5 arbitros, arbitrators. 

118 6 litem, amount of damages. — poenam : i.e. the amount of com- 
pensation to be paid. 

118 8 Chap. 2. Galliam revertitur: Caesar's activity during these 
winter months had been remarkable. He left his troops in Belgium about 
Jan. 1, travelled all through Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul, crossed over 
to Illyricum, and returned to his army again early in the spring. The dis- 
tance was at least 2000 miles. 

118 9 circumitis, having inspected: see last note on 49 6 ; § 388. b 
(237. d) ; B. 175. 2. a; G. 331 ; H. 406 (372) ; H-B. 391. 2. ftn. 

118 10 studio, etc. : i.e. the energy of the soldiers in building the ves- 
sels under difficulties. 

118 12 neque . . . quin, and are not far from the condition that ; eo is 
antecedent to the vague relative idea in quin, etc. 

118 15 Itium : Boulogne or Wissant, either of which agrees with the 
account (cf. Bk. iv. ch. 23, and note on 107 6). 

118 17 XXX : a little less than 28 English miles. — [transmissum] : 
omit in translation. 

118 18 satis . . . militum, enough soldiers : part. gen. 

118 19 Treverorum : a tribe reckoned as Gauls or Celts, but believed 
to be, in part at least, of German origin. Their name appears in the mod- 
ern Treves. This, their principal town {Augusta Treverorum), was long 
the seat of Roman power in northern Gaul. 

118 20 concilia, assemblies, held by a province or confederacy for con- 
sultation or law-making. Caesar seems to have organized such assemblies 
under his own authority in Belgic Gaul after its conquest. — veniebant, 
etc.: notice the force of the imperf. tense; § 471. f (277. g) ; G. 233. 

118 22 dicebantur : the personal form is regularly used with the tenses 
of incomplete action. 

118 23 Chap. 3. Galliae: part. gen. ; § 346. a. 2 (216. a. 2) ; B. 201. 1 ; 
G. 372 ; H. 442 (397. 3) ; H-B. 346. 

118 24 ut supra demonstravimus : cf. Bk. iii. ch. 11. 

118 27 alter, the latter, Cingetorix, the son-in-law of Indutiomarus. 
110 1 suos: i.e. clansmen, retainers, etc. Cingetorix offers to bring 

his nation under Roman authority on condition of ruling them himself as 
a subject or friend of Rome. 

119 3 at : marking the transition to the other man. 
119 4 cogere : with instituit, 1. 8. 

119 5 Arduennam : this hilly and forest region makes the natural 
frontier between Gaul and the Netherlands, and is the seat of the famous 
Belgian iron mines. 

382 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G, 

X19 11 petere : used absolutely (i.e. without an object) ; ask his decision 
or assistance. — civitati, etc. : they were prevented by Indutiomarus from 
taking any measures for the general good, and so asked favors of Caesar 
for themselves individually. 

119 12 possent: the reason given by these Gauls, hence the subjv. 

119 16 laberetur, lit. fall off (from obedience). 

119 17 se . . . eius fidei permissurum, to put . . . under his protection. 

119 22 Chap. 4. omnibus . . . comparatis, now that, etc. 

119 28 quod cum, etc. : Caesar seems to think this double dealing 
needs some excuse. 

119 29 cum . . . intellegebat, considered on the one hand. — cum . . . 
turn : see Vocab. ; eius refers to Cingetorix, se to Caesar. — merito eius, 
according to his deserts : § 418. a (253. N.) ; cf. B. 220. 3; G. 397 ; H. 480 
(424) ; cf. H-B. 414. — magni interesse: § 417 (252. a); cf. B. 203. 3; G. 
380 ; H. 440. 3 (396. v) ; H-B. 356. 1. 

120 2 [suam . . . minui] : in app. with id factum, and may be trans- 
lated, though not necessary to the sense. 

120 3 qui . . . fuisset, while, etc. : § 535. e (320. e) ; cf . B. 283. 3. b ; 
G. 634; H. 586. ii (515. iii); H-B. 523. 

120 4 hoc dolore, this grievance ; properly, indignation at this. 

120 6 Chap. 5. in Meldis: these people were on the Marne, near 
Meaux. The ships were built here, probably for convenience of timber ; 
they were low and of light draft (ch. 1), and proved too frail for the Chan- 
nel waters (ch. 10; cf. Bk. iii. ch. 9, where sturdier craft are built upon the 

120 8 eodem (adv.) = in eundem locum. 

120 13 loco, in the condition : § 429. 3 (254. a) ; B. 228. I. b; G. 385. N. 1 ; 
H. 485. 2 (425. 2) ; H-B. 436. 

120 14 cum . . . abesset, while he should be away: a fut. idea {cum 
abero) thrown into the past by verebatur. 

120 15 Chap. 6. Dumnorix : as it appears, he had been kept four 
years under strict surveillance (18 ll). 

120 19 accedebat hue quod, to this was added the fact that: cf. 84 2 for 
a different construction after accedebat. 

• 120 20 deferri : the present expresses the action as in process of com- 
pletion, i.e. that Caesar was making arrangements, or intended, or the like. 

120 21 neque, and yet not, a very common force of the word ; cf . note 
on 80 11. 

120 25 timeret, diceret : cf. possent, 119 12. 

120 26 religionibus, scruples, perhaps in regard to leaving the country 
or crossing the sea ; among superstitious peoples such ideas are common. 

V. 3-8.] Second Invasion of Britain, 383 

121 2 territare: histor. infin. ; see 13 18 and note. 

121 3 fieri ut, etc., /'/ was coming to pass that, etc. ; or may be trans- 
lated, that Gaul was, etc., compressing the two clauses into — esse : 
depending on a verb of saying implied in metu territare. 

121 6 interponere : same constr. as territare. — ex usu, to the advantage. 

121 7 intellexissent : here represents the fut. perf. of dir. disc. 

121 8 def erebantur : note the force of the tense. 

121 9 Chap. 7. quod . . . statuebat: i.e. the severity shown to Dum- 
norix was proportioned to the favor and consequence granted by Caesar to 
his state. 

121 11 longius, too far. 

121 12 prospiciendum [esse - ], that precautions must be taken : depends 
on statuebat. 

121 13 quid . . . nocere, to do some harm to : quid is cognate or adv. 
ace. ; § 390. d. n. 2 (240. a. n.) ; B. 176. 3. a ; G. 333 ; H. 409. 1 (371. ii, 378) ; 
cf. H-B. 396. 2, cf. 387. iii. 

121 14 commoratus : i.e. during the delay ; cf . 93 4. — Corus (or Caurus), 
the northwest wind. 

121 15 omnis temporis, every season of the year ; the windmills on this 
coast are said to have had their sails set permanently to the northwest. 

121 18 milites : i.e. the legionary infantry. 

121 19 at : note its force and cf. 119 3. — omnium impeditis animis, 
while the attention of all was occupied. 

121 24 si vim . . . iubet : informal indir. disc. The direct would be 
si vim facit neque paret, interficite \eum\ 

121 25 pro sano, rationally. 

121 26 neglexisset : the tense depends on arbitratus, which is, how- 
ever, essentially present in meaning; see note on commoratus, 1. 14. 

121 28 liberum, ecc. : Caesar takes no pains to conceal the violence of 
his acts. He had no authority over Dumnorix except that of the stronger. 

122 7 Chap. 8. pro tempore et pro re, to suit the time and circumstance. 
122 8 pari . . . quern, the same . . . as, etc. : i.e. 2000, as in 1. 5. 

122 10 Africo : the southwest wind. 

122 12 sub sinistra: i.e. he had drifted to the northeast (see map, 
Fig. 65). 

The voyage has been carefully calculated as follows : Caesar weighed 
anchor at sunset (about 8 p.m.). A gentle breeze was then blowing from 
the southwest ; but at the same time a tidal current was setting towards 
the southwest. Under the impulse of these two forces, the fleet kept a 
northwesterly course until about midnight. The wind then died down, 
and the current also began to set in the opposite direction (northeast), 

384 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

With this current the Romans drifted, and at dawn the British coast 
appeared on their left. They had passed by (relictam) the North Foreland, 
and were drifting farther away from the land. But at about this time 
(5 a.m.) the tide changed, and the current again began to flow towards the 
southwest. With its help, and that of the oars, the fleet now began to 
move towards the land, aiming to reach the same point that had been 
found in the previous expedition to be the most convenient for debarking. 
Here they arrived at about noon, (von Goler.) 

122 15 superiore aestate : cf. Bk. iv. ch. 23. 

122 16 virtus, pluck, spirit. — gravibusque, and heavy-laden besides. — 
navigiis : abl. of means. 

122 18 accessum, est (impers.) : the landing was probably near Walmer 

122 20 cum : concessive. 

122 22 quae . . . amplius DCCC, more than 800 of which : subject of 
visae erant. — annotinis, those built the year before. — sui commodi : pred. 
gen.; § 343. h (214- c) ; B. 198. 3; G. 366. R. 1 ; H. 447 (403); H-B. 340, 
here expressing purpose; cf. note on deiciendi, 104 11. 

These were vessels that the rich members of Caesar's staff had had built 
for their own use. 

122 27 Chap. 9. cohortibus X: i.e. two from a legion. 

123 l navibus : dat. 

123 3 noctu : not nocte ; see Vocab. 

123 5 equitatu atque essedis: abl. of accomp. without cum ; § 413. a 
(248. a. N.) ; B. 222. 1 ; G. 392. R. 1 ; H. 474. 2 (419. iii. 1. 1); H-B. 420. — 
flumen : the Stour, which flows northeasterly through Canterbury. — 
superiore : the north bank is higher ground than the opposite. 

123 11 ipsi . . . propugnabant, they themselves rushed out of the woods 
in small parties to fight. 

123 12 testudine facta et aggere . . . adiecto : from the rapidity with 
which this agger was completed, it is evident that it was not the elaborate 
structure required in attacking more formidable defences, but more like 
that described in Bk. iii. ch. 25. We may also infer that the British strong- 
hold was only rudely fortified. 

124:5 Chap. 10. tripartito : i.e. following different roads. 

124 7 extremi : i.e. the rear of the retreating enemy. 

124 8 Atrio : who had been placed in command of the camp, 123 3. 

124 12 concursu : referring to the violent driving together of the ships 
after they had broken from their moorings. 

124 15 Chap. ii. revocari : i.e. those who were in advance and out of 
sight. — resistere, to halt : i.e. those who were near. 

V. 8-i 2. J Second Invasion of Britain. 385 

124 17 coram perspicit : i.e. after a careful and thorough personal 
examination. Caesar did not leave important duties of this sort to subordi- 
nates. — sic ut, etc. : i.e. he sees that the account of the disaster is true to 
the extent that, etc. ; ut and similar words often have a limiting meaning ; 
cf. tantum, meaning only so much. 

124 19 fabros deligit : a certain number of carpenters (fabri lignarii) 
was attached to the engineer corps of the army, but Caesar seems to have 
had no regular engineer corps, except that a praefectus fabrum was on his 
staff. See chapter on military affairs, 1. 4. 

124 20 legionibus : abl. of means. 

124 26 easdem quas, the same as: see 122 27. 

124 27 eodem: i.e. to the British defences on the Stour. ; cf. note on 
120 8. 

1 25 4 a mari : probably from Caesar's place of landing. The distance 
is reckoned, not in a straight line, but by the roads, as the army marched. 

125 5 huic, etc. : " The brave and cautious prince Cassivellaunus 
(Caswallon), who ruled in what is now Middlesex and the surrounding dis- 
trict, — formerly the terror of the Celts to the south of the Thames, but 
now the protector and champion of the whole nation." (Mommsen.) — huic 
. . . cum reliquis civitatibus . . . intercesserant, had occurred between him 
and the other states ; note the idiomatic construction. 

125 8 Chap. 12. natos in insula : they were not, however, indigenous, 
but a Celtic population following an earlier Iberian race. 

125 9 proditum [esse] : the subject is quos natos [esse] in insula. — 
pars : sc. incolitur. 

125 11 eis nominibus : for example, Atrebates and Belgce. 

126 3 Gallicis : brief references to the Gallic customs of building are 
made in Bk. v. ch. 43, and Bk. vi. ch. 30 ; see also introductory chapter on 
Gaul and the Gauls. 

126 4 [aut nummo aereo] : omit in translation. 

126 6 plumbum album : Caesar is mistaken in placing tin mines inland 
and iron on the coast ; it was just the other way. The tin mines of Corn- 
wall were known to the Phoenicians from the earliest times. He does not 
say whether iron was used in the arts, which, if true, would imply a pretty 
advanced civilization. 

126 7 exigua : the great mineral wealth of England was then unknown. 

126 9 fagum atque abietem : another error ; the beech and fir are both 
native to Britain. 

126 10 gallinam, etc. : it is of interest to note that these domestic 
fowls were known to the savage Britons; see Fig. 113. 

126 12 frigoribus, seasons of cold. 

386 Notes: Casar. [B.G. 

126 17 Chap. 13. ad Hispaniam, etc. : i.e. he places Spain west of 
Britain on the same side as Ireland. For this crude geography, cf. Tacitus 
(Agric. 34), who says that Ireland is between Britain and Spain. Caesar 
conceives Britain as lying somewhat in the accompanying form. 

126 20 atque, as: § 324. c (156. d)\ B. 
341. 1. c, G. 643; H. 657. 1. n. (554. i. 2. 
N.); H-B. 307. 2. a; i.e. the distance from 
Ireland to Britain is the same as that from 
Britain to Gaul. 

126 21 Mona : the Isle of Man, or 
confounded with it ; but Tacitus evidently 
gives this name to Anglesea. 

126 25 ex aqua mensuris : the clep- 
sydra, or water-clock, measured time by 
the dropping of fixed measures of water through a small pipe or aperture 
something like a sand-glass. — breviores : naturally, as this was in the 

127 1 hoc: sc.latus. 

127 6 Chap. 14. interiores : the ruder barbarians here described are 
probably represented by the later Picts, whose name Picti (cf. picti, painted) 
has been thought to denote their woad-staining. The woad plant, Isatis 
tinctoria, akin to the common shepherd's purse, is still used somewhat for 

127 11 parte: §415(251); B. 224; G. 400; 11.473.11(419. ii) ; H-B. 443. 

127 13 sed qui sunt, etc., but the children of these wives are regarded as 
belonging to the man to whom each maiden was first espoused. 

127 14 quo (adv.) here stands for ad quos : § 321. a (207. a); G. 611. 
R. 1 ; H. 307. 4 (304. ii. 3. N.) ; H-B. 284. 10. 

127 16 Chap. 15. essedarii: see Bk. iv. ch. ^3- 

127 18 fuerint: for tense, see 85 14 and note. 

127 25 atque his, and these, too. — primis: the first cohorts had the 
best soldier; see chapter on military affairs, 1. 7 (last part). 

127 27 per medios : i.e. through the interval between the two cohorts. 

128 11 Chap. 16. [equestris, etc.] : this parenthesis may be trans- 
lated. — cedentibus et insequentibus (abl. abs.) : with eis understood, refer- 
ring to the Britons. Whether advancing or retreating, the islanders were 
equally formidable. 

128 14 proeliarentur : this clause is conceived as a result, and hence 
is expressed by ut with the subjv. instead of the usual construction with 
quod and indie. ; cf. 120 19 and note. — stationes, supports. It will be 
observed that the Britons showed considerable military skill and that theii 

V. 13-21.] Second Invasion of Britain, 387 

mode of battle somewhat resembled that of the Romans themselves. They 
used an open and flexible array, rather than the dense masses {phalanges) 
of the Gauls and Germans. 

128 24 Chap. 17. quoad: followed by the indie; cf. 100 a and note. 

128 25 subsidio confisi: cf. 91 13. 

128 27 sui conligendi: cf. 77 3, 115 2. 

129 1 facultatem: cf. note on 16 7. — ex, directly after. 

129 5 Chap. 18. uno loco: somewhere between Brentford and the 
mouth of the Wey. The details of Caesar's march are here uncertain. 

129 13 capite solo : a most hazardous depth. By the rule for modern 
infantry, a ford should not be more than three feet deep. But, says Meri- 
vale, " the swimming and fording of rivers were among the regular exercises 
of the Roman legionary. Though immersed up to his chin in water, he was 
expert in plying his hatchet against the stakes which opposed his progress, 
while he held his buckler over his head not less steadily than on dry land. 
Behind him a constant storm of stones and darts was impelled against the 
enemy from the engines which always accompanied the Roman armies." 

130l Chap. 19. supra: i.e. 129 1-3. 

130 3 servabat, excedebat, etc. : note the imperfects, expressing cus- 
tomary and repeated action, he used to ; cf. 121 8. 

130 4 locis, regionibus : loc. abl. — locisque impeditis ac silvestribus : 
from this description we must infer that the British chariots were very 
narrow, to pass through the forest roads, and had high wheels, to go easily 
over rough ground. 

130 7 cum . . . eiecerat -. a general condition ; see note on cum, 84 22. 
Other instances of general conditions occur in 103 24, 109 15, 110 3. 

130 9 emittebat, confligebat, prohibebat: the subj. is Cassivellaunus. 

130 10 hoc . . . prohibebat, by fear of this kept them [sc. eos] from 
roving too widely. 

130 11 relinquebatur ut, the consequence was that. 

130 12 discedi : impersonal. 

130 13 tantum . . . quantum : correlatives ; see Vocab. 

130 14 noceretur : impers., governs the dat. hostibus ; cf. note on 56 24. 

130 16 Chap. 20. Trinobantes : in Essex. Their chief place was 
Camulodunum, later Colonia Castrum, now Colchester. This defection 
was soon followed by the break-up of the Briton confederacy. 

130 18 [Galliam] : omit in translation. 

130 23 mittat : sc. aliquem. * 

130 24 his imperat obsides : see note on 117 17. 

131 2 Chap. 21. Cenimagni, etc.: these were petty populations of 
the vicinity. 

388 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

131 4 oppidum Cassivellauni \ thought to be the modern St. Albans. 

131 6 oppidum, etc . : the Britons, like the Germans, did not live in 
towns, but used these strongholds simply for defence against attack. 

131 7 cum, whenever, another general condition : cf . 130 7 and note. 
The preceding case refers to repeated action in past time, this to the pres- 
ent of a general truth. Notice the difference between these cases and the 
regular descriptive cum in narration. 

131 9 consuerunt : what tense in translation ? 

131 14 multi : i.e. the people, not the cattle. 

131 17 Chap. 22. supra : see 127 5. 

13118 regionibus: implying that Kent (Cantium) was divided into 
four recognized military commands. 

131 20 castra navalia : i.e. the fortified camp on the beach, surround- 
ing the beached ships ; see 124 21-25. 

131 28 neque multum aestatis : Caesar had now been in Britain about 
two months (cf. ch. 23). The dates assigned by Napoleon III for his sail- 
ing and return are July 20 and Sept. 21. 

131 29 extrahi, protracted, i.e. wasted. Besides, Caesar had just 
learned of the death of his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, which threatened 
the dissolution of the triumvirate and gave him strong reason for wishing 
to be nearer home. 

132 l vectigalis (part, gen.) : this was mere form, as no means were 
left to enforce the tribute. 

132 7 Chap. 23. commeatibus : has its original meaning ; see Vocab. 
132 8 accidit uti, etc. : cf. 130 11 for a similar construction. 

132 10 portaret, remitterentur : subjv. of characteristic. 

133 1 [et] : omit. — prioris commeatus, etc., after the soldiers of the 
first trip had been landed. 

133 2 quas : refers back to ex eis. — faciendas curaverat, had had 
made : cf . 82 7, 11 5. Labienus had been ordered to build these directly 
after the big storm ; see 124 20. 

133 3 locum: i.e. Britain. — caperent, reicerentur: in the same con- 
struction as desideraretur. 

133 6 aequinoctium : cf. 115 19 and note. 

Fresh Risings of the Gauls. — The remaining events of this campaign are 
among the most critical of the entire Gallic War, and show to what extreme peril 
Caesar had exposed his conquests by his expedition across the Channel. They 
serve, besides, to bring out in very marked relief the personal qualities of his several 
lieutenants. As a series of episodes, this Book is, in fact, the most interesting 
of the eight, The Romans did not visit Britain again till a.d. 43, in the reign of 

V. 21-25.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls, 3S9 

Reading References on the Gallic Rebellions. 

Dodge's Caesar, chap. 13. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 13 (first part). 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 17. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, pp. 76-93. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I. pp. 390-398. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV. pp. 317-323. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II. chap. 8 (last part); see also Appendix D, 

on Caesar's Lieutenants. 
Trollope's Caesar, chap. 6 (last part). 

133 10 Chap. 24. Samarobrivae (locative) : the chief town of the 
Ambiani, whose name is found in the modern Amiens. 

133 IS aliter ac : i.e. distributing them where supplies were most abun 
dant, not where there was most danger of disturbance, as in previous years 

The location of these camps has been much disputed. The most com 
mon view puts Fabius at St. Pol, Cicero at Charleroi (or possibly Namur) 
Roscius at Seez in Normandy, Labienus on the Ourthe (in Luxembourg) 
Crassus, Plancus, and Trebonius not far from Amiens, Sabinus and Cotta 
at Tongres. These places do not quite agree with the description unless 
we take the hundred mile limit (133 29) as the radius of a circle, a meaning 
which seems improbable. But this division is perhaps near enough. 

133 15 ducendam : gerundive expressing purpose ; cf . faciendas, 1. 2 ; 
§ 500. 4 (294. d) ; B. 337. 7. b. 2 ; G. 430 ; H. 622 (544. 2. N. 2 ) ; H-B. 605. 2. 
— Q. Ciceroni : the younger brother of the orator, and a man of tougher 
fibre and of great military and executive ability. He had joined Caesar's 
army that very year and had taken part in the expedition to Britain. Quin- 
tus, like his brother Marcus, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and met 
a similar fate in the same year (b.c. 43) at the command of the triumvirs. 

133 20 proxime, latest This was the 14th legion, enrolled in B.C. 57. 

133 21 cohortis : these must have been troops not organized into a 
legion, probably provincials. 

133 25 inopiae: dat. with mederi; §367. b (227. b)\ G. 346. n.*; H. 
385. ii. n.8; H-B. 364. 5. 

133 29 quoad . . . cognovisset : cf . 128 24. Why is the indie, used 
there and the subjv. here ? 

134 3 Chap. 25. Carnutibus : in the vicinity of Chartres. 
134 4 huic : indir. obj. of restituerat. 

134 7 restituerat : this act of restoring chiefs exiled by the democracy 
of the tribes was peculiarly odious to the Gauls, as here appears. 

134 8 auctoribus (abl. abs.) : i.e. either at their instigation, or, at any 
rate, with their consent. 


Notes: Ccesar. 

[B. G. 

134 12 quorum : the antecedent is hos. 
134 13 comprehensos . . . mittere : cf. 5 5, 55 3, and notes. 
134 14 [legatis quaestoribusque] : omit in translation. 
134 17 Chap. 26. diebus . . . quibus, within a fortnight after, etc. 
134 19 cum: concessive ; cf. 122 20. — Sabino : § 367. a. n. 2 (227. n. 2 ); 
H-B. 362. ftn.8 b. 

134 20 praesto, in attendance upon, as obedient subjects. 

135 1 Indutiomari : for the bitter offence given him by Caesar, see 
above, ch. 4. 

135 2 subitoque, etc., and after suddenly surprising the wood-cutters. 
135 7 aliqui: the usual form is aliquis ; § 151. e (105. d); B. 252. 2. 
G. 107; H. 187. N.i (190. N. 2 ); H-B. 142. 


Note. — This cut represents an attack both by land and water, in which no agger is 
employed. While in these respects unlike the attack on the Gallic towns, it shows very 
clearly some siege implements in active use. 

135 12 Chap. 27. eques, a knight, a member of the equestrian order 
the commercial aristocracy of Rome. 

135 19 Aduatuci : subject of tenuissent 

135 20 fecerit : by sequence of tense we should have fecisset, but see 
note on 51 11. Note several similar cases in this speech. 

135 22 imperia, sovereignty. The word is used in English abstractly, 
referring to all cases ; while in Latin each act of sovereignty is regarded 
as a separate imperium. Observe the emphasis on sua, that His own 
sovereignty was of such a nature. 

135 26 humilitate, weakness. 

135 27 rerum: § 349. a (218. d)\ B. 204. 1 ; G. 374; H. 451. 1 (399. L 2} 
H-B. 354. 

V. 2S" 2 9«] Fresh Risings of the Gauls, 391 

135 28 omnibus . . . oppugnandis : dat. of gerundive expressing pur- 
pose ; see 76 21 and note. 

136 1 non . . . potuisse, that Gauls could not easily say " no" to Gauls. 
136 4 pro pietate : pietas implies the love of a child to a parent ; here, 

of course, to his native land, patriotism. 

136 5 rationem offici, regard to his duty. 

136 8 hanc : i.e. manum. — ipsorum, etc. : i.e. it was for themselves to 

136 13 quod cum faciat, in so doing, subjv. merely because of indir. disc. 

136 14 hibernis : i.e. the burden of providing grain for the soldiers. 

136 21 Chap. 28. ausam [esse], with civitatem. — consilium: as the 
two legates had one and one-half legions under their command, the council 
of war contained, besides the legates, nine military tribunes, and either nine 
or six centurions, according as the half legion did or did not include the 
first cohort. Thus there were in the council either twenty or seventeen 

136 2« [magnas] : may be omitted. 

136 27 quod . . . sustinuerint : in apposition with rem. 

137 2 quid esse, etc. : see note on 12 8. — auctore hoste, on the advice 
of the enemy. 

137 6 Chap. 29. prozimis, nearest. This camp was farthest off from 
the main body, and hence if the nearest camps should be taken, the forces 
could not easily withdraw in safety. 

137 7 se : i.e. Titurius. 

137 9 fuisse capturos : in direct, cepissent, a contrary-to-fact apodosis ; 
§ 517 (308); B. 304; G. 597; H. 579 (510); H-B. 581. 

137 10 nostri: obj. gen.; § 295. b (194. b)\ B. 242. 2; G. 304. 2; H. 
500. 4 (446. N. 8 ); H-B. 254. a. — venturos esse: for venirent of the direct, 
the apodosis of a pres. condition contrary to fact. We should expect 
venturos fuisse : § 589. N. s (337. b. N. 8 ) ; B. 321. 1. a ; G. 659 ; H. 647 (527. iii) ; 
H-B. 581. b. 1. 

137 11 auctorem *. cf. auctore hoste, 1. 2. 

137 12 Ariovisti mortem: he had, however, escaped after the battle 
(Bk. i. ch. 53). 

137 13 ardere, is in a blaze. 

137 16 persuaderet : direct, persuadeat, a deliberative question. 

137 18 esset : direct, erit, a fut. protasis ; § 516. a (307. a); B. 302. I ; G. 
595J H. 574(508); H-B. 579. a. 

137 20 consentiret : pres. ind. in direct, a simple condition. — esse . . 
positam: direct, estposita, a past apodosis with a pres. protasis. 

137 23 habere 1 cf. ease, 1. 2. 

392 • Notes : Ccesar, [B. Gk 

137 23 csset : direct, est 

137 26 Chap. 30. primis ordinibus •=primorum ordinum centurioni- 

137 27 id : sc. he said from preceding inquit. 

138 2 ex vobis : instead of a part. gen. after gravissime. — hi : i.e. the 
magna pars militura who were listening. 

138 3 acciderit, etc. : a more vivid f ut. condition ; for the tense, see 
§ 516. c (307. c); B. 303; G. 244; H. 540. 2 (473); cf. H-B. 577. a. 

138 4 liceat, etc. : a less vivid fut. condition. 

138 8 Chap. 31. comprehendunt : i.e. the centurions. — utrumque: 
Le. Sabinus and Cotta. 

138 12 res disputatione perducitur, the question is debated at length. 

138 13 dat manus (a formal sign of surrender), gives in. 

138 14 prommtiatur, word is given out. 

138 15 ituros [esse] : sc. eos ; see second note on 59 23. 

138 18 [omnia, etc.] : this passage has been questioned, but it seems 
to mean that all the measures taken were devised as if on purpose to make 
it dangerous to remain, and to increase the danger of departure through 
the fatigue and demoralization of the men. 

138 20 ut quibus, etc., as if they were convinced that : § 535. <?, 372 {320. e, 
230); B. 283. 3. a, 187. ii. b; G. 634, 217; H. 586. ii, 426. 3- (515. iii, 384. 5); 

H_B - 5 2 3» 3 6 4- 2. 

138 22 [Ambiorige] : omit in translation. — longissimo : the line of 
march was very long, as it might well be under a guaranteed safe conduct, 
and consequently very weak. 

138 24 Chap. 32. at: note the force and cf. 119 3, 121 19. — fremitu 
vigiliisque : almost a hendiadys, i.e. the noise caused by the soldiers who 
took no rest ; cf. 28 25 and note. 

138 26 a milibus, etc., about two miles off. On this use of a, cf. 54 9. 

138 28 convallem : a valley inclosed on all sides. In such a place of 
course the Romans were at a disadvantage. 

139 1 ex utraque, etc. : at each end, attacking the advance which was 
coming up out of the glen, and the rear from the heights at the other end. 

139 5 Chap. 33. turn demum : implying, as always, " not till then " ; 
here with the further idea that he ought to have roused himself before. 
— providisset : a rel. clause of cause ; § 535. e (320. e) ; B. 283. 3 ; G. 633 ; 
H. 592 (517) ; H-B. 523. — trepidare : histor. infin. ; for use, cf. note on 
flagitare, 13 18. 

139 9 cogitasset : cf. providisset, 1. 5. 

139 14 quoque : from quisque. 

139 15 possent : the subj. is Cotta and Titurius. 

V. 29-36.] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 393 

139 16 in orbem: see note on 116 l. A modern army would form a 
hollow square. The or bis also was hollow, having room within for the 
higher officers, the non-combatants, the wounded, etc. 

140 5 accidit . . . ut, etc. (cf. 132 8) : this clause is divided into three 
parts with the verbs discederent, properaret, complerentur, the first two 
being connected by -que (quaeque). 

140 8 fletu : not from cowardice. These men fought with splendid 
courage. It was their way of showing their feelings. 

140 9 Chap. 34. at barbaris, etc. : showing the con- 
trast with the behavior of the Romans about their 

140 13 existimarent : for imv. of dir. disc. ; § 588 
(339); B. 316; G. 652; H. 642 (523. iii); H-B. 538.— 
[erant, etc.] : these bracketed words may be omitted, as 
also in the passage below. 

140 14 a fortuna : i.e. the goddess fortune, as is 
shown by the preposition. 

140 15 quotiens . . . procurrerat, . . . cadebat ; a gen- fig. 127.— Signum. 
eral condition referring to past time ; cf. 130 7, 131 7. 

140 21 ad signa recipientis : the standards remained fixed during these 
sorties, thus indicating the alignment of the circle. 

140 22 Chap. 35. cum . . . excesserat, as often as, etc., equivalent to 
a general condition; cf. note on 1. 15 above: § 518. b (309. c) ; B. 288. 3; 
G. 584 ; H. 601. 4 (521. ii. 1), with last example. 

140 24 earn partem, etc. : when the soldiers from one side of the orbis 
made a sally, that side, of course, had no defenders. 

140 27 proximi, etc. : only those immediately opposite the sally had 
fled, and so the party on its return was attacked at once by the enemy 
remaining on both flanks and also by the late fugitives. 

141 1 vellent : not contrary to fact, but a future condition thrown into 
the past; § 516-/(307./); H-B. 580. b. 

141 4 resistebant, they kept on fighting. Note the force of the tense. 

1416 esset: characteristic subj v. 

141 7 Balventio : connect with femur ; dat. of reference where we 
might have expected a gen. of possession. — qui . . . duxerat : as he had 
been chief centurion the year before, we infer that he was now serving in 
the corps of veterans called evocati ; see chapter on military affairs, iv. a. 

141 15 Chap. 36. rogatum: supine; cf. 26 15. 

142 18 ipsi vero, etc., that to him, certainly, no harm will be done ; 
nihil is ace. of specif, and nocitum iri impers. Instead of the latter we 
should expect fore ut noceatur. 

394 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G 

141 21 sperare se, etc., that he hopes to be able to obtain a request from 
him so far as pertains to their own safety and that of the soldiers. 

141 24 Chap. 37. quos . . . tribunos militum = <rar tribunos militum 

141 26 Ambiorigem : cf. 41 10 and note. 

142 1 condicionibus : i.e. of surrender. 

142 8 aquilam : he thus saved the standard from disgrace, — a char- 
acteristic and truly heroic act. 

142 11 se interficiunt: a death worthy of Roman soldiers. 

This was the most serious loss that Caesar sustained during the Gallic 
War. There must have been at least 5000 men in the ill-fated command of 
Cotta and Sabinus. From this time on Caesar makes it his duty to avenge 
his massacred legion, and he carries on a relentless warfare against the 
Eburones and Ambiorix, until the former are exterminated and the latter 
becomes a hunted fugitive. 

142 17 Chap. 38. neque noctem neque diem intermittit: Ambiorix 
marched only one night and one day. More than that would have been 
expressed by nocturnis diurnisque itineribus : cf. 33 16. 

142 19 in Nervios : see introductory note to Bk. ii and note pn 
68 18. 

142 23 nihil esse negoti, that it was a matter of no difficulty. — oppres- 
sam . . . interfici : render by two verbs, to be surprised and slain ; § 496 N. a 
(292. r.); B. 237- 2; G. 664. r. 1 ; H. 639 (549. 5); H-B. 604. 1. 

142 27 Chap. 39. qui omnes: why not omnes qui? See note on 
30 19. 

1 43 1 advolant : note the speed expressed in this verb. 
143 3 lit non nulli, etc. : cf. 135 2. 

143 13 Chap. 40. pertulissent : for the fut. perf. implied indir. disc. 

144 2 turres : these were open at the sides and behind, solidly 
timbered towards the enemy, and their object was, like that of the modern 
bastion, to shorten the length of wall to be occupied by the defence as 
well as to give the soldiers a still higher position from which to throw 
their missiles. In this case they were probably not more than three stories, 
or perhaps thirty feet, high. Each story was floored with a platform on 
which the soldiers stood. The front and sides of each platform were pro- 
tected by a parapet (loricae) of hurdles, to the height of about four feet. 
Above this projected a sort of battlement of stakes (pinnae), or of hurdles 
standing erect, with spaces at intervals, through which the spears were 
hurled. The structure was square, of about ten feet on a side. Of these 
towers it appears that on the first night only the framework was erected 
On succeeding nights they were completed. Cf. Fig. 103. 

V. 36-43O Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 395 

144 10 praeustae sudes : heavy stakes or piles of wood, sharpened 
at the end, and charred to harden the point. They were hurled by the 
tormenta; see Fig. 61. — muralium pilorum: javelins heavier than usual 
for the defence of the wall. 

144 11 contabulantur, were floored with plank. Possibly also the 
towers were connected by galleries, one for each story. 

144 12 cum: concessive. 

144 14 concursu ac vocibus, by the spontaneous movement and entreaties. 

144 18 Chap. 41. potestate: see note on 16 7. 

144 23 errare . . . si . . . sperent : simple condition, indir. disc. ; cf. 
137 19. — qui : referring to eis. 

144 24 hoc : with animo. 

144 25 ut, etc. : i.e. they will be friends, but not subjects ; they only 
refuse to admit a standing military force. 

145 2 se adiutore utantur (for the imv. of dir. disc), they may use him 
a.< an advocate. 

145 5 Chap. 42. hac spe: i.e. of betraying Cicero as they had be- 
trayed Sabinus. — fossa pedum quindecim : a ditch 1 5 ft. wide would be 
11 ft. deep. 

145 8 ab his : Le. the captives. — nulla . . . copia, having no supply, 
etc. (a sort of abl. abs.). " They were not yet used, like the Romans, to 
fight with the spade." 

145 10 manibus sagulisque . . exhaurire, to dig out with their hands, 
and [carry] in their cloaks. A kind of zeugma, §640 (385) ; B. 374. 2. a; 
G. 690; H. 751. 2. N. (636. ii. 1) ; H-B. 631. 7 ; but, as usual in such cases, 
the meaning of the verb really covers the thought by implication. 

145 13 XV : probably an error, as a circuit of fifteen miles seems out 
of the question ; perhaps pedum, or else V, instead of XV. 

145 14 falcis, hooks: see note on 84 22. — testudines: wooden gal- 
leries or sheds, to protect the undermining (see Figs. ^3* 126). 

145 16 Chap. 43. ferventis . . . glandis, red-hot balls of clay. 

145 18 casas : the huts of the encampment, thatched with straw. 

145 20 distulerunt : sc. ignem. 

145 21 clamore : see 142 4. 

145 26 non modo, etc. : needs a " pulpit " paraphrase, which, after all, 
would be, like many, less forcible than the original. Omit the bracketed 

146 2 pugnarent : same construction as respiceret and decederet. 
146 5 ut, etc. : this use of ut, as, is almost precisely parallel to the 

English causal, as, inasmuch as. In fact, the expressions have really the 
same origin. 

396 Notes: Casar. [B. a 

146 6 intermissa, etc. : while the flames were raging, such exploits of 
attack and defence were of course impossible. 

146 7 turri : this advance of a tower was quite in the manner of 
Roman attack. 

146 10 vellent : implied indir. disc. ; in their words, si . . . vultis, cf. 
121 24; § 592. 2 (341. c) ; B. 323 ; G. 662 ; H. 652 (529. ii) ; H-B. 536. a. 

146 11 deturbati: i.e. the enemy. 

146 13 Chap. 44. erant, etc. : this superb bit of narrative, marvellous 
for its matter and its manner, shows the kind of soldiers with which the 
Romans conquered the world. Everywhere, where great deeds are done in 
personal prowess, you will find this mixture of rivalry and common spirit. 
These are the conditions of the great feats of the world. 

146 14 primis ordinibus : see chapter on military affairs, 1. 7. 

147 l habebant, used to have. 

147 2 de loco, for promotion or rank. 
147 5 locum, opportunity. 

147 8 sese vallo continet, remain within the wall. 
147 15 hie casus, etc. : i.e. the javelin, piercing his sword belt, twisted 
the scabbard of his sword out of his reach. 
147 18 Translate the bracketed words. 

147 21 in locum deiectus, etc., slipping into a hollow, he fell. 
147 24 in contentione, in their rivalry. 

147 28 Chap. 45. quanto . . . gravior . . . tanto crebriores, the more 
severe . . . the more frequent. 

148 5 a prima obsidione, at the beginning of the siege. 

148 8 in iaculo : i.e. the shaft of the spear was probably hollow and 
the letter was inserted in it. 

148 9 versatus, going about. 

148 12 Chap. 46. hora XI: i.e. about five or six o'clock. In this 
chapter and the following note the wonderful celerity of Caesar's move- 
ments and the quick obedience of his officers. 

148 14 milia passuum XXV: i.e. from Amiens to (probably) Mont- 

148 18 rei publicae, etc.: cf. 31 24 and last note. 

148 19 reliquam partem : the detachments under Roscius and Plancus 
were too far away. 

148 23 Chap. 47. antecursoribus : the vanguard of Crassus's cavalry, 
or his scouts. 

149 1 non ita, etc., not delaying for a moment. 

149 4 veritus ne: § 564 (331./); B. 296. 2; G. 550. 2; H. 567 (49ft 
tii) ; H-B. 502. 4. 

v - 43-5°] Fresh Risings of the Gauls, 397 

149 5 quos . . . sciret = cum eos sciret : a causal clause. 

149 6 quanto . . . esset : indir. quest, depending on the verb of telling 
implied in litteras remittit. 

149 7 rem : i.e. the loss of Sabinus and Cotta. 

149 12 Chap. 48. duas : Caesar thus had only his own legion and that 
of Fabius, — a very small force to face the multitude of the enemy. 

149 17 Graecis litteris: i.e. in Greek letters. The Gauls were well 
acquainted with the Greek characters (26 4-6, 167 6). According to 
Polyaenus, the despatch contained merely the words, "Caesar to Cicero. 
Be of good courage. Expect aid." 

149 20 amentum : the amentum was a small strap fastened to the 
middle of a light spear, in some cases, at any rate, giving it a whirling 
motion, like the rifle-ball of modern times. By its use the spear could be 
thrown twice as far and with better aim than without it, as has been 
proved by experiment. 

149 25 biduo, for two days: § 424. c (259. c)\ cf. B. 231. 1 ; G. 393; 
H. 486 (429) ; H-B. 439. 

149 26 perlectam . . . recitat, having read it through (to himself), he 
then recited it aloud in the assembly of the soldiers. 

150 3 Chap. 49. Galium . . . repetit, asks again for the Gaul. 
150 4 supra: see 148 4-6. 

150 6 faciat: ut omitted; cf. note on 108 l. — se . . . eum: notice 
the difference in meaning. 

150 9 animo : abl. of specification. 

150 14 aequo animo, etc., he thought that he might well be content to 
slacken his speed. 

150 16 haec: referring to castra, and obj. of contrahit. — hominum. 
a pred. gen. after erant. 

150 17 milium VII: these legions averaged, then, 3500 men each, and 
this was somewhat less than the normal strength ; see chapter on military 
affairs, I. I. 

150 18 angustiis viarum : i.e. narrow paths or streets within the camp ; 
angustiis, a loose use of abl. of means, a very elastic construction. The 
abl. in Latin contains three different cases, from, with or by, and at, so that 
its range of meaning is very wide. 

150 19 hostibus : dat. of reference. 

150 23 Chap. 50. Galli : sc. sese continent. 

150 24 Caesar, etc. : translate as if Caesar sese continet ut, si, etc. — si 
. . . posset : future protasis of ut . . . contenderet, which, expressing a 
purpose, has a future force; § 516. d (307. d) ; G. 595; cf. H-B. 582. 2. 
The same construction is repeated in the next sentence. 

398 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

151 3 equites . . . castra: notice that with iubeo and veto either the 
person or the thing may be the subject of the dependent infin., or the verb 
may even be used impersonally, as in concursari. 

151 12 Chap. 51. velit: direct, volet. 

151 16 ea : an adverb. 

151 21 exuit : i.e. by forcing them to throw their arms away as they 

151 23 Chap. 52. Omit the bracketed words. 

151 27 decimum quemque, one man in ten. 

152 6 certius : the letter of Labienus had given him the first news of 
this calamity ; see 149 7. 

152 7 rem gestam [esse] : i.e. the destruction of Sabinus and Cotta. 

152 8 quod detrimentum = detrimentum quod; observe that a rel, 
clause standing first usually incorporates its antecedent. 

152 9 hoc : the usual abl. of cause (properly degree of difference) with 

152 10 beneficio deorum : see 10 17 and note. 

152 15 Chap. 53. eo: i.e. at Cicero's camp. Caesar arrived there about 
three o'clock, and the news of his victory reached Labienus, sixty miles 
away, before midnight. See 187 24-27 for the Gallic method of sending 
news across the country. 

152 19 Indutiomanis : see 120 2-4, 135 1. 

153 2 trinis: § 137. b (95. b) ; B. 81. 4. b\ G. 97. r. 8 ; H. 164. 3 (174, 
2. 3); H-B. 247. 1. a. 

153 4 ad exercitum manere : contrary to his usual course, which was, 
for political reasons, to keep in near communication with Italy. 

153 7 quid . . . caperent: what future plan they should adopt. 

153 10 quin . . . acciperet : result clause after neque . . . intercessit | 
§ 55 8 (3 10 - d ) ; B - 28 4- 3 1 G - 554 ; H. 570 (500. ii) ; cf. H-B. 521. 2. 

153 11 in his I i.e. consiliis or nuntiis. 

153 12 L. Roscio : see 133 16. 

153 13 [Gallorum] : may be translated. 

153 14 Aremoricae : i.e. the natives along the coast of the Atlantic. 

153 15 afuisse : notice the tense, they had been, but, etc. 

153 19 Chap. 54. alias . . . alias: see Vocab. — cum . . . denuntiaret, 
by announcing, etc. The descriptive cum-clause admits a great variety of 

153 22 Cavarinum: obj. of interficere. 

153 23 Moritasgus : sc. regnum obtinebat, from regnum obtinuerant in 
the next line. » 

153 24 adventu (abl. of time), at the time of, etc. 

V. 5°-5 8 -] Fresh Risings of the Gauls. 399 

153 25 publico consilio, by general consent, or on the authority of thi 
people, not a private act of revenge, or the like. — conati : agreeing with 
Senones. — ille : i.e. Cavarinus. 

153 26 regno domoque : i.e. as a king and as a citizen as well. 

154 l valuit . . . attulit: these verbs have for their subject esse, etc.; 
and such an influence did it have that some had been found, etc. . . . and such 
a change did this fact produce that, etc. 

154 4 alteros . . . alteros : see Vocab. 

154 6 adeo (emphatic), in fact. 

154 7 cum . . . turn maxime quod, not only for several other reasons^ 
but especially because. 

154 8 praeferebantur, used to be held superior. 

154 12 Chap. 55. quin . . . mitterent, etc. : cf. 153 10. 

154 15 ulli civitati, etc. : cf. 56 24. 

154 16 cum . . . dicerent: a common periphrasis for our pres. part. — 
bis: see Bk. i. chs. 31-54; Bk. iv. chs. 1— 15. 

154 2« tota Gallia, throughout Gaul ; see note on 150 18. 

154 25 Chap. 56. ultro veniri : i.e. that there was a spontaneous ris- 
ing for his support. 

154 26 Senones, Carnutes : about Sens and Chartres. The latter are 
not mentioned before, but seem to have taken part against Cavarinus 
(ch. 54). 

154 28 defore si . . . coepisset : a fut. condition. What would it be in 
direct discourse ? 

155 1 hoc : subj. of est. 

155 2 quo, at -which (lit. whither). 
155 6 supra : see 118 25 ff . 

155 10 hue : i.e. on his way to the Senones and Carnutes he will go 
through the territory of the Remi. 

155 26 Chap. 58. in dies : see Vocab. 

156 1 arcessendos curaverat : cf. 117 4. 

156 10 praecipit : refers to petant ; interdicit to neu volneret. — pro- 
territis hostibus, etc. : translate by a temporal clause, when, etc. 

156 13 mora reliquorum: lit. the delay of the others. The regular way 
of expressing the relation between two nouns is by the use of the genitive. 
Here the delay caused by the pursuit of the others is characteristically 
looked upon as belonging to them. Translate, by waiting to attack thi 

156 14 spatium nactum, gaining time. 

156 18 redeuntis : i.e. from the pursuit of Indutiomarus. 

400 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

Book Sixth. — b.c. 53. 

Second Passage of the Rhine. — The last campaign had been a series of 
disappointments and reverses. The expedition to Britain had been only moderately 
successful and led to no permanent results ; Caesar's return found the Gauls in a state 
of unrest, which culminated in open revolt and in the annihilation of the division of 
Sabinus and the attacks upon the winter quarters of Quintus Cicero and of Labienus. 
Cxsar, to be sure, rescued Cicero in the nick of time and Labienus was successful 
against Indutiomarus ; but, on the whole, the advantage had been with the Gauls, 
and they had gained fresh hope in their desperate struggle for independence. The 
strength of their resistance was in the north and east, where they had the support of 
raids from across the Rhine, — a danger which it was especially the business of 
Caesar to check by a daring blow ; hence the policy of this new, but idle, advance 
into Germany. It may be borne in mind that this campaign was the more critical, 
as it followed closely upon the defeat and destruction of the Roman armies under 
Crassus in the East. 

Reading References on Cesar's Sixth Campaign. 

Dodge's Caesar, chap. 14. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 13. 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 17 (last part). 

Holmes's Cassar's Conquest of Gaul, chap. 6. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. I, pp. 398-405. 

Napoleon's Caesar, Vol. II, chap. 9. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

Tacitus's Germania. 

Taylor's Hist, of Germany, chaps. 1 and 2. 

Trollope's Caesar, chap. 7. 

157 1 Chap. i. multis de causis : viz. the profitless expedition to 
Britain, the desertion of Dumnorix, the loss of Cotta and Sabinus, and the 
sudden revolt led by Indutiomarus (see Bk. v. chs. 55-58). 

157 2 per Silanum : the regular construction of the means when it is 
a person ; cf. 57 3 and note. 

157 3 delectum : i.e. in Italy. 

157 4 proconsule: Pompey had been consul B.C. 55. He was now 
nominally proconsul of Spain, with six legions ; but he remained in Italy, 
ruling his province through legati. — ad urbem (not in urbe) : as long as he 
was in military command {cum imperid) he could not enter the city. 

157 5 rei publicae causa : this business was the superintending of 
the corn supply {cura annonae). — quos . . . rogavisset, whom he had enlisted 
from Cisalpine Gaul when consul ; the verb rogare is used of a commandei 

VI. i-3-] Second Passage of the Rhine. 401 

who exacts an oath of allegiance from his men ; hence sacramento rogart 
means to enlist ; quos : sc. the antecedent eos as obj. of iuberet and subj. 
of convenire and proficisci. — Cisalpina Gallia: this was Caesar's own 
province. But Pompey and Crassus had received authority to raise troops 
where they pleased, and in whatever number. 

157 7 iuberet : subj v. of purpose, with ut omitted, following petit ; 
cf. 108 l. — magni : cf. 52 11 and note. — etiam, etc. : i.e. not merely for 
this campaign, but for the Roman prestige in future. 

157 8 opinionem Galliae : subj. gen. 

158 2 augeri : does not refer to detrimentum, but to Caesar's forces 
(implied), This linking of different ideas with a word that properly belongs 
only to one is called zeugma. 

158 3 quod : i.e. the loan of the legion. — amicitiae : Caesar and 
Pompey were still openly friends, though by the recent death of Julia, 
Caesar's daughter and Pompey's wife, as well as by the death of Crassus, 
the political coalition which united them had been dissolved, and an open 
rupture soon followed. The legion now forwarded to Caesar was demanded 
back two or three years later. 

158 5 constitutis et adductis : i.e. two levied and one borrowed. 

158 6 duplicato : fifteen cohorts had been lost under Sabinus (Bk. v. 
chs. 26-37). The three legions now received had of course thirty cohorts. 
The new legions were known as 1, m, and xiv, the last taking the place 
of the legion and a half that had been lost under Sabinus at Aduatuca. 
Caesar now led ten legions. 

Chap. 2. In the details of this chapter, notice the formidable appear- 
ance, but the really long, weak, and broken line of the Gallic confederacy. 

158 9 ut docuimus : see Bk. v. ch. 58. 

158 13 civitatibus : i.e. of the Germans. — inter se, each other, a 
common use of the phrase in any reciprocal relation. 

158 14 obsidibus . . . cavent, by hostages give security for the money, 
Le. the money promised the Germans for their help. — Ambiorigem : the 
clever chief of the Eburones, who had entrapped and destroyed Sabinus. 

158 20 maturius : i.e. earlier than usual. 

158 22 Chap. 3. nondum, etc. : notice that it is the promptness and 
dash of Caesar's operations that win the victory in almost every case. 

158 23 Nerviorum : see note on 68 18. 

158 24 possent: for mood, see § 551. b (327); B. 292; G. 577; H. 
605. 2 (520. i. 2) ; H-B. 507. 4. b ; cf. 38 27 and note. Here, as with cum, 
there is an inner connection between the two clauses. It is not merely 
before they were in a position to gathet, but before they could get a chanct 
to gather. 

402 Notes: Ccesar. [B.G. 

158 25 praeda, as booty ; ea (referring to magno . . . numero) agrees 
by attraction with the appositive : § 296. a (195. d) ; B. 250. 3 ; G. 21 1. r. 6 . 
H. 396. 2 (445. 4) ; H-B. 326. 1. 

158 27 coegit : sc. eos. 

159 2 ut . . . videretur : i.e. to show that he was determined to put 
down the rising at once. 

159 3 Lutetiam : the first mention in nistory of Paris, which was a 
place of no great importance until its occupation as a royal town by the 
Franks in a.d. 502. The original place of meeting had perhaps been 
Samarobriva (Amiens). Caesar apparently considered Lutetia a point 
nearer the scene of operations, and proceeded at once to the affected 

159 4 civitatem . . . coniunxerant : i.e. with the Senones. This was 
a close political union, not a mere military league (foedus). 

159 5 hoc consilio : the new confederacy (cf. Bk. vii. ch. 75). — hac 
re: the removal to Lutetia. — pro suggestu, in front of the platform ; i.e. 
by public announcement, not special notification to the commanders. See 
chapter on military affairs, v. 

159 9 Chap. 4. conantibus (sc. eis, abl. abs.), while they were attempt- 
ing to effect the gathering. 

159 12 quorum in fide, under whose protection ; i.e. of the Haedui, 
whose supremacy had once extended over the greater part of Gaul. 

159 13 libenter, etc. : but Acco was afterwards put to death ; see ch. 44. 

159 15 instantis belli (pred. gen.) : i.e. the war against the Treveri 
and Ambiorix. 

159 16 custodiendos : gerundive expressing purpose ; § 500. 4 (294. d) ; 
B * 337- 7- £• 2 ; G. 430; H. 622 (544. 2. n. 2 ) ; H-B. 605. 2 ; cf. also 117 4, 
156 1. 

159 19 equites : the cavalry of the Roman armies was wholly fur- 
nished by the subject-allies. 

159 22 Chap. 5. Cavarinum : a chief appointed at Caesar's dictation, 
and odious to his tribe (153 21-29). Hence came his animosity (iracundia) 
against the state which had driven him into exile. 

159 24 meruerat : implying a harsh and tyrannical rule, which had 
aroused the hatred of the state. Either the old odium of Cavarinus or 
his new animosity against the state might cause a disturbance. 

159 25 pro exploratO habebat, he considered certain. 

159 26 reliqua, etc. : i.e. what else Ambiorix would be likely to do. 

160 4 venisse : understand eum (Ambiorix). 

160 5 haec . . . auxilia : i.e. both the Menapii and the Germans. — 
prius, with quam. Notice that the parts of this word are very often 

VI. 3-8] Second Passage of the Rhine, 403 

separated. — illi, a dat. rendered by from, instead of the abl. of separation : 
§ 381 (229); B. 188. 2. d\ G. 345. R.i; H. 427 (385. ii. 2); H-B. 371. 

160 6 lacesseret : subjv. in indir. disc, following existimabat. 

160 7 congredi, to form an alliance with. 

160 14 Chap. 6. tripartito : in three columns, on different roads. 

160 20 Commium : appointed king of the Atrebates by Caesar (106 
13-17). He served as Caesar's friend and ally in Britain and elsewhere, but 
finally joined in the great revolt against him (Bk. vii. ch. 76). — custodis 
lOCO, as a guard. 

160 23 Chap. 7. dum geruntur : the regular construction with dum ; 
cf. 113 1 and note. 

160 25 in eorum finibus : see Bk. v. ch. 24. 

160 26 via : abl. after longius. — cum . . . cognoscunt : not like the 
descriptive cum, but really the main proposition ; § 546. a (325. b) ; B. 288. 
2 ; G. 581 ; H. 600. i. 1 ; H-B. 566. a. 

160 27 a (adverbial), away. 

161 l impedimentis : i.e. the greater part of the heavy baggage. He 
took a small baggage-train with him (see 161 28) ; but probably only what 
was necessary. 

161 4 flumen : probably some stream flowing into the Meuse (Mosa). 

161 5 transire, transituros : notice the regular use of these two con- 
structions side by side ; the first verb (habebat in animo) expresses inten- 
tion and has the simple complem. infin. ; the second (existimabat) is a verb 
of thinking and takes the indir. disc. This is one of the most important 
distinctions in Latin grammar. 

161 6 augebatur : i.e. in the minds of the Treveri. 

161 7 spes, their (the Treveri) hope. — loquitur: i.e. Labienus. — 
palam, freely or openly, on purpose to be heard, but not in a set 

161 10 castra moturum : of course to withdraw. 

161 12 natura : i.e. their natural attachment to their own land. 

161 13 consili : pred. gen. ; cf. 18 19. 

161 20 Chap. 8. cum : see note on 160 26. 

161 21 longum esse, it would be tedious : § 437. a (264. b) ; B. 271. i.b ; 
G. 254. R. 1 ; H. 525. 2 (476. 5) ; H-B. 582. 3 and b. 

162 4 imperatori : Caesar, who alone had the imperium, or military 
authority. Labienus was only dux. 

162 6 derigi: i.e. to be formed and aligned ; the verb properly has 
only the latter meaning, the former is only implied. 

162 8 celeriter, etc. : see chapter on military affairs, vii. 

162 14 recepit, recovered to obedience. — auxilio : dat. of service. 

404 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

162 16 comitati eos, in company with them (the Germans). 

162 18 demonstravimus : see Bk. v. chs. 3, 4, and 56. 

162 24 Chap. 9. paulo supra, a little above, or to the south. 

162 25 nota . . , ratione, on the plan already tried and approved (c£ 
Bk. iv. ch. 17). 

163 1 purgandi sui : § 504. c (298. a) ; B. 339. 5 ; G. 428. r. 1 ; H. 
626. 3 (542. i. N.i) ; H-B. 614; cf. 77 3, 115 2. 

163 5 COgnita, having inquired into. 

163 9 Chap. 10. paucis post diebus : § 424./ (259. d); B. 357. 1; 
G. 403. n.*; H. 488. 1 (430); H-B. 424. 

163 10 eis . . . imperio : subject tribes, not confederate allies. Tacitus, 
however (Ger. 38), represents the Suevi as a confederacy ; its former sub- 
jects may, after Caesar's time, have been admitted to alliance. 

163 18 quaeque : -que connects mittant and cognoscant. 

163 22 silvam : this was the natural frontier and defence {pro nativo 
muro) of the north German plain towards the south. A range of wooded 
hills still borders the Saxon duchies on the north. The Cherusci held the 
valleys of the Weser and Elbe. 

164 l Chap. ii. locum, etc. : here there is really nothing to tell, as 
Csesar found the country deserted (ch. 29), and returned at once to Gaul. 
We owe to this void in the narrative a most curious and entertaining 
glimpse into the geographic and ethnographic knowledge of the time. See 
the introductory chapters on Gaul and Germany. 

164 7 existimantur : is only explanatory, hence the indicative. 

164 8 quorum : the antecedent is principes. 

164 9 redeat: is characteristic; § 535 (320); B. 283; G. 631. 1; H. 
591. 1 (503. i) ; cf. H-B. 521. 1. The idea seems to be : It is the chief 
men of these factions (those namely who are regarded as most influential) 
who have the supreme authority. Hence the effort of each of the chief- 
tains to look out for his dependents. 

164 10 ne . . . egeret : in app. with eius rei, the past tense (egeret) 
taking its time from institutum [esse] : § 485.7, 585. a (287. *', 336. B. n. 2 ) ; 
B. 268. 7. b, 268. 2 ; G. 518; H. 548 (495. iv); H-B. 483. 

164 13 haec . . . Galliae, this same state of things exists in general 
throughout entire Gaul. 

164 14 divisae : adj. use of the participle ; cf. divisa, 1 1. 

164 15 Chap. 12. cum . . . venit: notice the difference between this 
and the cum in descriptive clauses (cf. 11 7, 49 1). Here it means merely "at 
the time when," and there is no inner connection with the main clause. 

164 16 Sequani : these succeeded to the domination of the Arverni 
(see Bk. i. ch. 31). — hi, the latter. 

VI. 8-i 3-] Second Passage of the Rhine. 405 

164 17 antiquitus : really only a little while before, as the Haedui had 
risen by favor of the Romans. 

164 18 clientelae, dependencies. These were the petty tribes which 
grouped themselves about one or the other of the great rival states. 

164 24 iurare: i.e. the Haedui. 

164 25 nihil . . . consili, no plans, part. gen. — et : connects cogerent 
and possiderent. 

164 27 Diviciacus : cf. 27 13. 

165 1 infecta re, without effecting his object. 

165 2 adventu Caesaris . . . dimiserant : this long Latin periodic 
sentence should in our idiom be rendered by several coordinate sentences 
(cf. note on 66 5). — facta commutatione : i.e. by his friendship to the 
Haedui and the defeat of Ariovistus (Bk. i. chs. 31-53). 

165 4 ei: subj. of videbant. 

165 6 reliquis rebus : abl. of specification. 

165 8 adaequare, were equal ; i.e. to the Haedui. (The infin. clause 
quos adaequare is the subj. of intellegebatur, which is used impersonally.) 

165 9 gratia : abl. of specification. 

165 1 1 dicabant : distinguish from dicebant. 

165 13 statu : loc. abl. 

165 16 Chap. 13. plebes: here a noun of the fifth declen.; cf. 

165 18 cum . . . premuntur : a general condition expressing repeated 
action, cum meaning whenever or as often as. The perf. indie, would be 
more usual ; cf. 59 13, 131 7. 

165 21 quae dominis (dat. of poss.), as masters have. 

165 22 druidum (pred. gen.), that of the druids. — illi : the former. 

165 25 hi : i.e. the druids. 

165 26 eos : i.e. the Gauls. 

165 27 quod facinus, any crime. 

166 1 idem : nom. plural. 

166 2 qui: why not quis ? Observe also si qui in 1. 10 below. 

166 3 sacrificiis : abl. of separation ; understand eos with interdicunt. 
— poena: like an excommunication, taboo, or boycott. 

166 5 decedunt (with dat.) : sc. de via (i.e. " make way for " them in 
the street). 

166 6 incommodi : part. gen. following quid. 

166 13 Carnutum : this central spot was at or near the modern town 
of Dreux, where, it is said, traces of these assemblies may still be found. 

166 16 disciplina, system of doctrine ; cf. meaning of the same word 
in 165 25. — Britannia: many think that druidism originated in Gaul and 

406 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

was carried thence to Britain, where it still flourished, but that it had 
declined for various political reasons in the mother country. 

166 21 Chap. 14. The bracketed words merely repeat the thought 
of the preceding sentence and may be omitted. 

167 2 numerum versuum : i.e. their lore was put into verse to assist 
the memory. 

167 4 fas : the words fas and nefas refer to what is religiously right 
and wrong ; ius and iniuria refer to human obligations only. 

167 8 litteris confisos, by trusting to written words, a useful hint to 

167 11 hoc (ace), more usually Mud, refers to what follows ; hoc (abl.) 
to what has just been said. 

167 12 transire : the belief in the transmigration of souls was common 
to many ancient peoples, and is still a tenet of some Eastern religions, 
especially of the Buddhists. 

167 15 mundi, the universe (system of things) ; terrarum (cf. orbis 
terraruni), the world. 

167 17 Chap. 15. equitum : these made a sort of military nobility. 
It is interesting to compare the two " upper classes " here described with 
the ecclesiastics and feudal noblesse of France before the Revolution. — 
cum est : notice the force of the indicative. See note on cum . . . premun- 
tur, 165 18. — usus : a noun ; see Vocab. 

167 21 ut quisque . . . amplissimus, ita plurimos, the more powerful 
. . . the greater number: § 313. b (93. c, at end); G. 642. R. 2 ; H. 515. 5 
(458. 2). 

167 22 ambactos : this Celtic word was known as the equivalent 
of servus, "slave," as early as the time of Ennius, 150 years before. 
Cf. 165 16-21. 

167 27 Chap. 16. homines immolant : it is not certain that the prac- 
tice of human sacrifice existed so late as this in Gaul. Caesar appears not 
to have known any actual instances of it. 

168 3 placari : distinguished from placere. — publico : as opposed 
to the private ones just referred to. 

168 4 habent instituta : cf. 40 20, 51 8, and notes. 

168 9 cum . . . deficit : cf. cum est, 167 17. 

168 12 Chap. 17. Mercurium : the gods had no such names, nor were 
they, in fact, the same gods ; but they were identified with similar Roman 
divinities as nearly as possible. The name of the god whom the Romans 
identified with Mercury is lost ( Teutates ?) ; but it appears from inscriptions 
and images that his worship was very widespread and important through- 
out the period of the Empire. The other deities here mentioned appear 

VI. 1 3-1 9-] Second Passage of the Rhine. 407 

under numerous epithets. Jupiter was probably the Gallic Taranis, whose 
name appears to indicate that he was a god of thunder. He has been iden- 
tified by some with a statuette bearing in its hand a long hammer or mallet, 
like the Scandinavian Thor. 

168 20 cum, etc. : see 165 18 and note. 

168 21 ceperint : subjv. of informal indir. disc, for the fut. perf. ind. 
of the direct. 

169 2 neglect* religione : i.e. in violation of his vow. — capta, taken 
9s spoil. — apud se, at his house. 

169 3 posita, consecrated as a gift. 

169 5 Chap. 18. Dite, Pluto, the god of Darkness, or of the Under- 
world, meaning that they believe themselves to have sprung from the soil, 
the world below them: see § 403. a. N. 1 (244. a. R.) ; B. 215. 2; G. 395; 
H. 469. 1 (415. ii. N.); H-B. 413. b. 

169 7 noctium, etc. : this usage is common to many primitive peoples ; 
e.g. the Germans (Tac. Ger. 11). Our word "fortnight" is a relic of it. 
It doubtless had its origin in keeping time by the changes of the moon. 

169 9 ut . . . subsequatur : i.e. the calendar day began at sunset. 

169 10 fere (with hoc) : i.e. speaking loosely. — suos liberos, etc. 
The Romans, on the other hand, accustomed their sons to public life, and 
In early times even took them with them into the Senate. Again cum 
with the perf. ind. expressing repeated or customary action ; cf . 168 20. 
Observe that this perf. becomes a present in our idiom, expressing repeated 
action or a general truth. 

169 13 turpe ducunt, they consider it disgraceful, turpe being pred. 
adj. agreeing with the infin. clause. 

169 14 Chap. 19. quantas ... communicant : i.e. the husband 
deposits, in a common fund, an amount equal to the wife's marriage 

169 16 ratio habetur, a reckoning is kept. 

169 17 fructus, revenues ox profits. — vita: abl. of specification. 

169 19 viri in uxores, etc. : cf. the Roman patria potestas ; the rank 
of the wife was much higher among the Germans. 

169 22 de uxoribus : this would seem to imply polygamy among the 
Gauls. Probably it was limited to the chiefs, as among the Germans ; see 
note on 48 6. — in servilem modum, after the manner of slaves, i.e. by 

169 23 compertum est : i.e. that there has been foul play. 

169 24 excruciatas interficiunt : cf. 5 5, 55 3, and notes. — pro cultu, 
considering the degree of civilization. 

169 27 hanc = nostram (cf. 51 17), i.e. a generation ago. 

408 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

1 70 1 dilectos : distinguish from delectos. — iustis, regular \ by con- 
ventional rule. When these had been fulfilled, the sacrifice of dependents 
was added. These usages are in accordance with the belief of the Gauls 
in immortality, which is fully attested. 

170 3 Chap. 20. quae civitates = eae civitates quae; a relative 
clause standing first generally incorporates its antecedent. 

170 4 legibus sanctum, established by law, agreeing with the sentence 
si . . . communicet (obj. of habent) ; cf. 40 20, 51 8. 

170 6 neve, and that not, the regular connective for a negative purpose 
clause. — quo : indef., any one. 

170 7 quod saepe, etc. : cf. the lively account 97 9-17. 

170 9 quae visa sunt, what they think Jit to conceal (understand 

170 11 per concilium, by means (or, in the proceedings) of the public 

170 14 Chap. 21. neque druides habent : i.e. this particular hierarchy. 
They had, however, both priests and priestesses, with religious forms public 
and private. 

170 15 deorum numero, etc. In this, Caesar's testimony is directly 
contradicted by Tacitus, who speaks (Ger. 9) of their worship of Mercury, 
Mars, and Hercules. This is almost the only contradiction between these 
writers, in whose accounts of political and other institutions there is a strik- 
ing agreement. This is all the more remarkable when we bear in mind 
that Caesar went but little beyond the German frontier and had relatively 
little to do with them. This description of the Germans may be profitably 
compared with Caesar's account of the Suevi in the opening chapters of 
Bk. iv. 

170 19 a j>3irvis t from childhood. — qui . . . permanserunt : i.e. " who 
are slowest to outgrow " their boyhood. Cf. Tacitus : serajuvenum venus, 
;oque inexhausta pubertas ; and contrast the premature debaucheries of the 
Roman youth. 

170 20 hoc : abl. of cause. 

170 23 nulla occultatio : like the English there is no hiding. 

170 25 renonum: i.e. small cloaks of hide. — magna . . . nuda: 
abl. abs. 

170 26 Chap. 22. agri culturae : as to this chapter, cf. what is said 
in the general Introduction to the volume and in Bk. iv. ch. I, where it 
is shown that the soil was tilled, not by the labor of old men, women, or 
slaves, but by that of the fighting men. In other words, the Germans 
were, though " barbarians," not (in one sense) a barbarous people. 

170 27 neque quisquam, etc. : this temporary and shifting occupation 

VI. 19-23] Second Passage of the Rhine, 409 

of land, as well as the holding of it by the family or clan (cognationidus), 
is characteristic of a primitive society. Cf. the Introduction, as above. 

171 1 finis proprios, private lands. 

171 2 gentibus, etc.: in the general gathering for this assignment 
each clan must have met by itself, and have been represented by its chief. 

171 3 quantum agri, as much land ; agri is part. gen. 

171 6 agri cultura : notice the use of the abl. here to be rendered 
for; § 416 (252); B. 225; G. 404; H. 478. 4 (422. n. 2 ) ; H-B. 427. 1, cf. 
431. — ne . . . expellant: this was a flagrant evil in Italy, which Caesar 
in his own consulship had attempted to check, following the precedent of 
the Gracchi. There the potentiores had already succeeded in ousting the 
humiliores, and enormous plantations, cultivated by slaves, had taken the 
place of the earlier peasant freeholds. 

171 11 cum . . . videat : this looks as if the land was portioned in 
equal shares to rich and poor alike. But on this question there are many 
and various opinions, and, at any rate, the words do not prove a division to 
each man as a freehold. 

171 13 Chap. 23. maxima laus : so in Bk. iv. ch. 3. 

171 14 virtutis : § 385. c (234. d) ; B. 204. 2 ; G. 359. r. 1 ; H. 435. 4 
(391. ii. 4) ; H-B. 339. c. 

171 16 prope, near ; consistere, to stay or settle. The infin. clauses 
are in app. with hoc. 

171 17 cum . . . infert : note the force of pres. indie, with cum ; cf. 
165 18 and note. 

171 18 magistrates . . . deliguntur : by lot, according to the Saxon 
Bede, from among existing magistrates. The Goths, Burgundians, Franks, 
and Lombards, on the other hand, had real kings. 

171 19 praesint, habeant : subjv. of characteristic. 

171 21 principes . . . pagorum : these local and village chiefs, form- 
ing a sort of governing body, were probably the natural leaders each of his 
own district. They are said, however, to have been elected, no doubt for 
life, by an assembly of the tribe or nation (Tac. Ger. 12). 

171 22 latrocinia . . . extra finis : as with the " cattle-lifting raids " 
of the Scottish Borderers. 

171 25 ubi quis, etc., whenever any one, equivalent to the protasis of a 
general condition. This is the manner in which volunteers were mustered 
for the raids in question. 

171 26 profiteantur : representing an imv. form in the dir. disc. 

1 72 2 omnium rerum fides, confidence in anything. 

172 3 qui . . . venerunt : again the perf. indie, in the protasis of a 
general condition, — whoever comes to them for any reason whatsoever. 

410 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

172 6 Chap. 24. cum . . . superarent : a clause of characteristic, such 
that, etc.; see § 535. a. N. 3 (322. R.) ; G. 631. 2; H. 591. 4 (503. i. n. 2 ) ; 
H-B. 521. 1. 

172 7 superarent, inferrent, mitterent : asyndeton, i.e. omission of 

172 10 Hercyniam silvam : the great wooded range extending from 
the Black Forest to the Bohemian Highlands. — Graecis : i.e. other Greeks, 
as Eratosthenes was a Greek, though not of Greece proper. 

172 11 Volcae Tectosages, etc. : occupying the southern part of Gaul, 
about Narbonne or Toulouse. A portion only had migrated to Germany; 
or, perhaps, had stayed behind from an early Celtic migration westward. 

172 16 Gallis: indir. obj. of largitur, multa being the dir. obj. 

172 22 Chap. 25. iter: ace. of extent; cf. 98 3. — expedito (dat.): 
i.e. to a man unencumbered with baggage. — non . . . noverunt : i.e. the 
Germans who live there. So at the present day, in the mountain regions 
of Germany and Switzerland, distance is measured by " hours " (stunden) 
instead of miles. 

172 24 Nemetum, etc. : along the middle course of the Rhine, where 
it flows northward from Bale. — recta regione : i.e. parallel. 

172 25 Dacorum, etc. : occupying the eastern and western portions of 

172 26 sinistrorsus : in reality it is the river which leaves the course 
of the forest or highland, bending abruptly to the right, or southward. 

1 73 1 huius : that familiar to the Romans, viz. western. 

173 2 [aut audisse] : may be omitted in translation. — initium : as 
we should say the end, eastward, where it is lost in the Carpathian range. 
Its extent, in a direct line, is stated as 1600 miles. 

173 3 processerit : subjv. as an intermediate clause in ind. disc, for 
perf. indie 

173 4 acceperit : subjv. of characteristic. 

173 5 quae, such as, followed by the subjv. of characteristic. 

173 6 differant : subjv. of characteristic. 

173 8 Chap. 26. bos : this name seems to have been given loosely 
to any large-horned, unfamiliar beast, and even to the elephant ; here it is 
perhaps the reindeer, which had anciently a wide-scattered range. 

173 9 unum cornu : this description is unintelligible. 

173 10 palmae lamique (hendiadys; cf. note on 2825), branching ant- 
lers, evidently comparing the horns to a flat hand with branches like fingers. 

173 13 Chap. 27. alces: this name is undoubtedly elks, but the 
description is widely unlike and quite unrecognizable. 

173 15 crura . . . habent : for the same story,cf. Pliny, H. N. viii. 16, 39, 

VI. 24-30] Second Passage of the Rhine. 411 

173 17 si . . . conciderunt : cf. 172 3 and note. By what tense 
should this perfect be rendered? The same construction occurs below 
in 1. 20, cum est animadversum, and in 1. 23, cum reclinaverunt. 

173 21 omnes : with arbores. 

173 22 ab radicibus, at the roots. — accidunt, cat into. — tantum ut, 
etc.: lit. so far that the perfect appearance of them standing is left ; trans- 
late, so that to all appearances they are standing firmly. 

173 26 Chap. 28. uri : this name is generally understood to refer to 
the German Urochs (the primitive or wild ox, probably buffalo) , said still to 
be found in the forests of Lithuania. Caesar evidently describes a very dif- 
ferent animal, with spreading horns like those of a reindeer or moose ; but 
the whole description must have been derived from a confused account. 

1 74 6 quae sint testimonio, to serve as evidence, a purpose clause. 
174 7 ne . . . excepti, not even when caught quite young. 

174 12 Chap. 29. Caesar, etc. This chapter directly follows ch. 10 
in the narrative, the intervening passage being a digression. 

174 14 supra : see 170 26. 

174 16 ne . . . tolleret : as would be done by completely destroying 
the bridge. — barbaris : dat. ; § 381 (229); B. 188. 2. d; G. 345. r. 1 ; H. 
427 (385. ii. 2); H-B. 371. — atque, and at the same time. — ut tardaret : 
which he did by making the bridge practically useless. 

174 17 auxilia : i.e. which the Germans might send to aid the Gauls. 

174 19 in extremo ponte. There seems to have been an island in the 
river at this place, so that the bridge was in two sections. The section 
between the island and the east bank was destroyed, and at what was now 
the end of the bridge (extremo), on the island, the tower was built. There 
was probably a redoubt, as usual, at the entrance to the bridge on the 
mainland ; see Fig. 59. 

174 20 cohortium : these were auxiliaries, as it appears in ch. 33 that 
he took all his legions with him. 

174 23 cum maturescere, etc. : i.e. early in August. 

174 24 Ardueonam : the modern Ardennes. 

174 27 D : an obvious mistake, possibly of some copyist. The dis- 
tance is about 1 50 miles. — Basilum : afterwards one of the conspirators 
against Caesar. 

174 28 si . . . possit, (to see) whether he can, etc.: see § 576. a 
(334./); B. 300. 3; G. 460. {b)\ H. 649. 3 (529. ii. 1. N.i); H-B. 582. 2 
and a. 

1 75 1 qua : why not quae ? 

175 2 subsequi : notice the pres. for the fut. 

175 7 Chap. 30. multum potest, has great power ; see note on 10 17 

412 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

175 8 nam ut, etc., for as it happened by a remarkable chance that, etc.; 
the following clause being subj. of accidit. — ipsum: referring to Ambi- 
orix; so too in 1. 12. 

175 9 prius . . . quam : render as one word, before ; in English we 
omit the relative particle. — eius : i.e. Basili. 

175 10 videretur : in the same construction as incideret. — adferre- 
tur : cf . 158 24 and note. 

175 11 magnae fortunae (pred. gen.), a great piece of luck. 

175 13 hoc : abl. of means, explained by quod, etc. 

175 14 sunt fere, generally are. 

175 16 propinquitatis : use the singular in English; § 100. c (75. c)\ 
B. 55. 4. c ; G. 204. n. 5 ; H. 138. 2 (130. 2) ; H-B. 240. 5. b. 

175 18 his pugnantibus : notice the force of the Latin order. While 
these were fighting, time was given for the chief to be placed on horseback 
by some of his followers, and, as soon as he actually got away, he was cov- 
ered by the woods. 

175 21 Chap. 31. iudicione . . . an, whether by design . . . or, etc. 

176 2 quas aestus : i.e. islands only at high tide. 
176 3 alienissimis, entire strangers. 

176 4 Catuvolcus : see 133 20-23, 134 17-19. 

176 6 precibus ietestatus, cursing with formal imprecations, which, 
from a dying man, were thought to have efficacy with the gods. 

176 7 f uisset : informal indir. disc. — taxo : perhaps with a decoction 
of yew leaves, as the berries are said to be harmless. 

176 12 Chap. 32. neve : see note on 170 6. 

176 13 unam esse causam, that the case was the same ; i.e. that they 
were all included in the league. 

176 16 convenissent, reducerentur : in dir. disc, convenerint, redu- 

176 19 id castelli nomen est, that is the (German) name of a strongs 
hold. It will be remembered that the Aduatuci were of German descent, 
and it is thought that Aduatuca is an old German word, meaning a strong- 
hold. Then the Aduatuci would be the people who held such a place of 
safety. There were several towns of this name, which fact adds force to 
the conjecture. 

176 21 Titurius, etc. (Sabinus and Cotta) : see 133 20-24. 

176 24 laborem : i.e. of making a new fortified camp. 

176 25 unam ex his, etc. : see 158 4 ff. 

176 26 Q. Ciceronem : see Bk. v. chs. 39-52. 

177 2 Chap. 33. ad . . . versus, towards. 

177 5 Scaldim, the Scheldt. There seems to be some confused 

VI -3°-35-] Second Passage of the Rhine. 413 

geography here, but the many and confused mouths of these rivers doubt 
less gave rise to this idea. 

177 8 vii = septimum. Cf . a different idiom, 163 9. — quam ad 
diem : cf . 179 2 {quern ad diem). Observe that dies is often fern, when 
it means time. 

177 9 frumentum deberi : see chapter on military affairs, iv./. 

177 U commodo (abl.), to (properly in accordance with) the advantage, 
etc. — rei publicae : gen.; cf. 31 24, 148 18. 

177 14 Chap. 34. supra : in ch. 31. 

177 15 quod se defenderet, capable of, etc. (subjv. of charac- 

177 16 cuique, to each ; notice the Latin idiom. We should put the 
distributive with the leading verb (consederat), each had taken position 
where, etc. 

177 21 universis, to men gathered in one body. 

177 23 ex parte, in a measure. 

177 26 hominum sceleratorum, those scoundrels; an expression of 
temper which Caesar does not often permit himself towards his foes. It 
shows his bitter hatred against the hapless Eburones, who had destroyed 
his officers and legion. 

177 27 vellet : not contrary to fact, but in both cases a future protasis 
thrown back into past time ; cf. note on 141 l. 

1 78 4 ut in, etc., considering that it was in, etc. ; a not uncommon 
use of ut. 

178 6 ut potius, etc. : we may translate so that some opportunities for 
doing injury were neglected, though the clause is properly one of purpose. 
Connect potius with quam. The thought is that Caesar's plan was to save 
the lives of his soldiers, even at the expense of neglecting to punish the 
enemy, and to employ others to carry out his vengeance. 

178 7 ulciscendum: i.e. to avenge the destruction of the force of 
Sabinus and Cotta (Bk. v. chs. 27-38). 

178 8 noceretur (impers.), harm should be done to the enemy. 

179 4 Chap. 35. fortuna: cf. 175 7. — possit, adferat : present 
tense to express a general truth ; though usually in Latin such expressions 
follow the sequence of tenses. 

179 8 ultro, freely; i.e. any that would; as a general invitation, 
extending beyond those immediately concerned. 
179 10 supra docuimus : see 102 21-25. 
179 13 primos finis, the nearest limits. 
179 16 paludes : subj. of morantur. 
179 18 profectum : i.e. eum profectum esse. 

414 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G 

179 22. Aduatucam : i.e. where Cicero with a single legion was guard 
ing the baggage of the whole army ; see ch. 32. 
179 23 tantum, only so much, really, so feeble. 
179 24 cingi, surrounded ; i.e. manned (with a line of defenders). 

179 27 duce, as guide (pred. app.). 

180 1 Chap. 36. Cicero : up to this time he had shown himself to 
be an unusually discreet and courageous officer. 

180 2 continuisset (concessive subjv.), though he had, etc. 

180 4 vii = septimo. — de numero : construe with fidem servaturum. 

180 5 progressum : cf. profectum, 179 18. 

180 7 illius, etc., who called his quiet waiting a blockade. 

180 8 si quidem, since : with subjv., indicating the ground of their com- 

180 9 quo (following eius modi, of such sort that), with posset as 
subjv. of result. — oppositis, had gone to meet the enemy ; the abl. abs. 
expresses cause. 

180 10 in milibus passuum tribus : i.e. within three miles of his camp, 

180 11 offendi (impers.), an attack could be made. 

180 12 quas inter : several prepositions sometimes follow their cases 

180 14 hoc spatio : i.e. since Caesar's departure. 

180 15 sub vexillo : here the vexillum was a little scarlet flag (quite 
distinct from the metal signum), used by small bodies detached for some 
special service. The name vexillarii was given to the soldiers of such a 
corps; see chapter on military affairs, II, and Figs. 121, 127. 

180 16 calonum : i.e. officers' servants and grooms for the horses. 
These were slaves. — iumentorum : to bring in the expected supplies. 

180 17 subsederat, had remained behind when Caesar left. — facta 
potestate, obtaining leave. 

180 18 Chap. 37. [et] : omit in translation. 

180 19 ab decumana porta, at the rear gate (see Fig. 119). The camp 
fronted in the direction where the enemy were supposed to be, i.e. towards the 
Gallic tribes, so that its more exposed part lay nearest the German attack. 

180 20 nee prius . . . quam, and not till ; for the mood following, see 
158 24 and note. 

180 21 silvis : it was considered bad generalship to place a camp so 
near the woods as to conceal the approach of the enemy. The pickets., 
too, must have been either very carelessly stationed or very negligent. 

180 22 usque eo, so close. — qui . . . mercatores, the traders who spread 
their booths (tentoria) under the shelter of the wall. — recipiendi sui : for 
construction, see § 504. c (298. a) ; B. 339. 5 ; G. 428. R. 1 ; H. 626. 3 
(542. i. n. 1 ) ; H-B. 614 ; cf. 40 15, 77 3, 77 20. 

VI. 35-4Q-] Second Passage of the Rhine, 415 

180 24 in statione : i.e. before the gate. 

180 25 circumf unduntur : the middle or reflexive use of the passive, 
rendered in English by the active intransitive form ; pour in or about. 

180 26 si: interrog., [to see] whether ; cf. 174 28. 

181 1 signa, etc. : i.e. as the whole camp was in confusion the soldiers 
could not tell in which direction the line was to be formed {signa ferantur) 
nor where each man should rally {quisque conveniat). It is noticeable that 
Cicero is not spoken of after the beginning of ch. 36. Ordinarily this would 
be just the moment when a commander would be most active. It seems 
to show that he shared in the general panic. 

181 3 imperatore: Caesar. Observe the force of atque : and the gen- 
eral \ too! 

181 4 novas religiones, a sudden superstition, as if the spot itself 
were unlucky to the Romans (see 176 20-22). 

181 5 qui occiderint, who (as they recalled ; hence subjv.) had fallen. 

181 7 barbaris : dat. of reference. 

181 12 Chap. 38. apud Caesarem, with Casar. 

181 13 proeliis (abl. of time) : see Bk. ii. ch. 25; Bk. iii. ch. 5. 

181 17 consequuntur nunc : as primus pilus, he had authority to com- 
mand all other centurions ; although generally, 
as here, he really only formed a rallying point. 
See chapter on military affairs, I. 7. 

181 18 cohortis : cf. 180 23-25. 

181 19 relinquit animus, his breath (or 
consciousness) fails him (he faints). 

181 20 per manus traditus, passed along 

, , , % ', . Fig. 128. — Tabkrnaculum. 

from hand to hand by his comrades. — hoc 

spatio : i.e. the time gained by this short resistance. 

181 25 Chap. 39. hie : i.e. in the open field. 

181 26 modo . . . exspectant : the Roman discipline was so perfect 
that, in general, every man knew just what to do in any emergency (as in 
the fight with the Nervii, Bk. ii. ch. 21); but these new levies (see 176 24-27) 
were helpless till the exact order had been given, even the boldest of them 
(nemo est tarn fortis, etc.). 

182 2 legiones : those of Caesar and his legati ; see ch. 33. 

182 4 paucitate : i.e. five cohorts and the 300 convalescent veterans. 

182 6 Chap. 40. in signa manipulosque, among the cohorts and 
maniples. In their panic the servants rushed among the ranks of the 
cohorts {signa) and the maniples. 

182 7 alii . . . alii : these seem to have had some presence of mind, as 
is implied in the expression censent, the regular expression for voting in a 
public assembly. 

416 Notes: Ccesar. [B.G. 

182 8 quoniam . . . sint, since [as they say], etc. 

182 10 [confidunt] : may be omitted in translation, the infin. posse 
depending on the idea of saying involved in censent. — alii : sc. censent. 

182 11 hoc : the latter counsel, which was that of the raw recruits. — 
docuimus : cf. 180 13-15. 

182 13 C. Trebonio : this can hardly be the man referred to in ch. 33. 
He was away with the three legions intrusted to him, as there recorded. 

183 2 militum virtute: i.e. of the infantry; the cavalry, it will be 
remembered, were not Romans, but Gauls and other allies. 

183 3 nullo usu percepto, having gained no experience ; i.e. even after 
seeing the successful action of the veterans. 

183 4 eo consilio: with ut . . . defenderent in app. — permanere: 
compl. infin. with potuerunt. 

183 5 quam : the antecedent is earn vim celeritatemque. 

183 7 demiserunt : se has already been expressed with recipere. 

183 8 ex inferioribus ordinibus : the officers of a new legion were 
usually obtained in this way, being promoted from the lower grades of 
veteran cohorts. 

183 10 ne ante partam, etc. : notice again the esprit de corps of the 
Roman soldier; cf. 109 1-9, 142 7-11, 146 13 ff. 

183 13 pars periit : two cohorts ; see 184 26. 

183 16 Chap. 41. constitisse, etc., had now gained a position. 

183 17 praeda : see 179 26. 

183 20 fidem non faceret, could not make them believe. 

183 22 alienata mente, beside themselves with terror. — deletis . . . 
recepisse : after dicerent. 

183 23 neque: the negative belonging with oppugnaturos fuisse is, 
as often in Latin, combined with the general connective of the sentence. — 
incolumi exercitu (abl. abs. denoting condition), in case the army were safe. 

183 24 oppugnaturos fuisse : the regular form in indir. disc, for oppug- 
navissent, a contrary-to-fact apodosis. 

" Brave as they were, the Roman soldiers seem to have been curiously liable 
to panics of this kind. The faith with which they relied upon their general 
avenged itself through the completeness with which they were accustomed 
to depend upon him. He returned on the day which he had fixed, and 
not unnaturally was displeased at the disregard of his orders. He did not, 
or does not in his Commentaries, professedly blame Cicero. But the 
Ciceros perhaps resented the loss of confidence which one of them had 
brought upon himself. Quintus Cicero cooled in his zeal, and afterwards 
amused the leisure of his winter quarters with composing worthless 
dramas." — Fronde's " Caesar." 

VI. 4o-44] Second Passage of the Rhine. 417 

183 26 Chap. 42. eventus (ace. plur.) belli, the fortune of war (in 
general). — unum, only one thing. 

183 28 casui : dat. with relinqui. — relinqui debuisse : § 486. a (288. a) ; 
B. 270. 2 ; H. 618. 2 (537. 1); H-B. 582. 3. a. ftn. 2 ; as usual added without 
any other word of saying beyond that involved in questus. 

183 39 multum fortunam . . . potuisse : cf. 175 7 ff. 

184 l avertisset: sc. fortuna. 

184 2 rerum: part. gen. with maxime. — videbatur : the subj. is 
quod . . . obtulerunt. 

184 5 beneficium : i.e. by giving him opportunity to escape. He was 
never captured. In honor of his splendid resistance to the invader a colos- 
sal statue has lately been erected to him at Tongres ; see Fig. 83. 

184 10 Chap. 43. agebatur: i.e. especially cattle. — frumenta : dis- 
tinguish from frumentum. 

184 11 anni tempore : it was now late in the fall, but the unfortunate 
people had not been able to harvest their crops. 

184 13 his . . . pereundum [esse], that these must needs perish; his 
is dat. of agent. 

184 14 in eum locum ventum est, matters were brought to such a pass, 
i.e. they were so close upon him. 

184 16 ut ([non] omit) . . . contenderent, that prisoners who were 
brought in looked round among their number for Ambiorix, whom they had 
just seen in flight — supposing that he must have been taken also — and 
insisted that he was not yet quite out of sight. 

184 20 paene . . . vincerent : i.e. almost surpassed the bounds of 
nature in their eagerness. 

184 21 summam f elicitatem : i.e. complete success. — atque : almost 
equals but. 

184 22 eriperet, peteret : in the same construction as the preceding 
verbs depending on ut. 

184 96 Chap. 44. damno : abl. of manner. The reference is to those 
killed by the German raid, chs. 37-40. 

184 27 coniuratione : see chs. 3 and 4. 

185 l more maiorum : the ancient Roman mode of punishment was 
to flog the criminal to death, after which he was beheaded, — an extraor- 
dinary sentence to pronounce on a prisoner of war. It was this mode of 
punishment that was symbolized directly by the X\c\.oxs> fasces. Concerted 
resistance (coniuratio) had come to be regarded as a flagrant crime, and 
its penalty was more and more bloody as time went on — as we see in the 
two succeeding Books. 

185 2 aqua . . . interdixisset : i.e. banished them, forbade them to 
return to Gaul. 

4 1 8 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G 

185 4 Agedinci: locative. 

185 6 ad conventus agendos : cf . 48 28. 

Book Seventh. — B.C. 52. 

War of Vercingetorix. — The last three campaigns had been conducted 
wholly in the north, with a view either to crush the bolder and more restless northern 
populations, or to overawe the more barbarous Britons and Germans beyond the 
frontier. It is not quite clear why the discontented spirits of the south did not seize 
the occasion to join forces with the formidable Belgian revolt. At all events, they 
seemed quiet and submissive after their defeats in the earlier campaigns, and might 
have continued so but for the execution of Acco (Bk. vi. ch. 44), which had aroused 
the spirit of all the Gallic nobility, and the news from Rome, where the hostile aris- 
tocracy had long been waiting for some opportunity to check Caesar in his career of 
conquest and call him home. 

This opportunity seemed to offer in the disorders which followed the death of 
Clodius. Clodius was a bully and professional politician belonging to the popular 
party, a bitter enemy of Cicero, whom he had succeeded, a few years before, in driv- 
ing into exije. He was killed in a street brawl on the 20th of January of this year 
by Milo, a ruffian of the senatorial or aristocratic party. For the time, all regular 
and orderly government was at an end, till at length Pompey was invested with dicta- 
torial powers, and quiet was restored. The news of these events coming to Gaul gave 
the native leaders reasonable ground to hope that a new uprising might be success- 
ful Their plan, it will appear, was, by a sudden movement, to cut off Caesar's com- 
munications with his military posts in the north, which would thus be speedily 
starved into surrender. This plan Caesar foiled by striking, with his usual rapidity, 
through their line, and through the neutral or hostile populations of Central Gaul, 
and so advancing upon his assailants with the support of his legions from the north. 
His campaign of this year was the most fiercely contested, as well as the most 
important and decisive, of the entire war. 

N. B. — In this book the editors have purposely abstained from grammatical com- 
ment except such as seemed necessary for the interpretation of the text, in order 
that the student might have one book of Caesar's Commentaries, and that one of the 
finest pieces of simple narrative in literature, to enjoy without trying to see how the 
words were parsed. Grammar is absolutely necessary for Latin, but there is much in 
Latin besides grammar. Intelligent reading presupposes that, but does not always 
have it uppermost. 

VIL i-3-] War of Vercingetorix. 419 

Reading References on the Uprising of Gaul under Vercingetorix. 

Dodge's Caesar, chaps. 15-20. 

Fowler's Julius Caesar, chap. 13. 

Froude's Caesar, chap. 19. 

Guizot's Hist, of France, Vol. I, pp. 56-65. 

Holmes's Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, chap. 7. 

Merivale's Hist, of Rome, Vol. II, chap, 12. 

Mommsen's Hist, of Rome, Vol. IV, pp. 323-340. 

Napoleon's Caesar, chap. 10. 

Plutarch's Lives, Caesar. 

Trollope's Cassar, chap. 8. 

186 1 Chap. i. quieta Gallia: cf. 73 3, 93 2. — in Italiam: i.e. 
Cisalpine Gaul. 

186 3 Clodi : see note above. — ut . . . coniurarent (clause depending 
on senatus consulto) : this was not an ordinary conscription, but a levy in 
mass, in which the entire population of Italy of military age took the oath. 
In addition, Caesar orders a levy throughout his own province, in which 
were included Gallia Cisalpina, Gallia Transalpina, and Illyricum. 

186 7 quod videbatur : it naturally seemed to them impossible for 
Caesar to quit Italy at this crisis (urbano motu). 

186 9 qui dolerent : trans, by pres. part., being indignant, etc. ; the 
characteristic subjv. constantly has this meaning ; cf. the use of cum. It 
approaches a causal relation, but has properly no notion of cause. — ante : 
adv. modifying dolerent. 

186 11 principes Galliae: subj. of queruntur. — locis : loc. abl., 
without a prep., as usual. 

186 13 Acconis : see Bk. vi. ch. 44. 

186 15 qui : sc. eos, i.e. some state to begin hostilities. 

187 1 capitis, of their lives ; the sing, is idiomatic in Latin. 

187 3 ut . . . intercludatur (see introductory note) : depends on 
rationem, a plan (of campaign). 

187 9 Chap. 2. Carnutes : this name is represented by Chartres. 

187 12 cavere inter se, take security from each other. — ne res effera- 
tur : as the exchange of hostages would be a conspicuous and public act. 

187 13 conlatis, etc. : an armed or symbolically armed council seems 
to have been the most binding form of public ratification of concerted 
measures. Here the standards were gathered in a sheaf and the oath was 
taken by this symbol of unity. 

187 15 deserantur : it seems to have needed the most solemn forms 
of agreement to bind the discordant and jealous Gauls. 

187 19 Chap. 3. Cenabum : now Orleans, on the Loire. 

420 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G 

187 20 negotiandi : their business was money-lending, the farming of 
taxes, purchase of slaves or corn, and the like. Cicero had said, some 
years before, that business affairs in Gaul were wholly controlled by Roman 

187 21 constiterant, had settled. 

187 24 maior atque inlustrior : i.e. than usual. 

187 25 clamore : a sort of vocal telegraph, by which, as also by signal- 
fires, messages were conveyed, it is said, from towers 500 yards apart. 

187 27 Cenabi: locative. 

187 28 ante . . . vigiliam : between nine and ten at night ; the send- 
ing of the message thus occupying about sixteen hours. — Arvernorum : 
i.e. the country now called Auvergne, a region always noted for the vigor 
and hardihood of its people, who now became leaders in the great revolt, 
and furnished its dauntless chief Vercingetorix. 

188 l Chap. 4. Vercingetorix: a name or title explained as mean- 
ing " very brave lord," and well calculated (says the historian Floras) to 
inspire terror. 

188 2 principatum, etc. : see 27 14 and last note on 2 1. 

188 3 totius Galliae : i.e. all Celtic Gaul. 

188 5 incendit : sc. eos. 

188 6 prohibetur: conative present ; i.e. they try to prevent him. This 
discouragement of the elders was of evil omen to his enterprise from the 

188 8 Gergovia : the chief town of the Arverni, on an eminence near 

188 9 perditorum : men of ruined fortunes, desperate. This is the 
usual course of things and the usual accusation. The well-to-do are rarely 
ardent patriots. When trouble comes, they either make terms or flee to 
the provinces. 

188 15 Senones, etc. : several of these names are preserved in the 
modern Sens, Paris, Poitiers, Tours, Limoges. The league included all 
Celtic Gaul south of the Seine and west of the loyal (or doubtful) Haedui 
and Bituriges, who were drawn into it later on. 

188 19 imperat, he levies, with ace. and dat. 

188 20 quantum armorum, how many arms. 

188 21 quod (interrog.) : agrees with tempus, and before what time. 

188 25 necat : i.e. the offenders. 

189 3 Chap. 5. Rutenos : these, as well as the Cadurci, lay between 
the Arverni and the Roman province. It was important, therefore, to secure 
them as a frontier defence. 

189 6 de consilio, by the advice. 

VII. 3-8-] War of Vercingetorix, 42 1 

189 8 qui : agrees with the persons implied in equitatus peditatusque ; 
§ 280. a (182. a) ; B. 235. B. 2. c, G. til. R. 1 ; H. 397 (445. 5); H-B. 325. 

189 11 veritos : translate by a causal clause. 

189 12 quibus id, etc., who they knew had this plan. 

189 13 ipsi : i.e. the Bituriges. — id eane, etc., whether they did this 
for the reason which, etc. 

189 15 quod (adv. ace), because (the reason for non videtur, etc.). 
This is a bit which goes to show that the commentaries, notwithstanding 
their aim at political effect, are substantially true. Caesar was too great a 
man to deceive others except when he deceived himself. 

189 19 Chap. 6. virtute = vigor. This word is in Latin often used 
in a vague sense equivalent to our ' thanks to ' or the like. 

189 21 qua . . . posset: indir. quest, following difficultate, which 
implies doubt. 

189 23 se absente: Caesar knew well his own influence over his 
army. See also introductory notes. — dimicaturas [esse]: sc. eas, i.e. the 

189 24 ipse, etc. : the most submissive Gauls at such a time were not 
to be depended upon, if they had the slightest chance to capture him. — 
eis : indir. obj. of committi, the subj. of which is suam salutem. 

190 l Chap. 7. Lucterius, etc. : an officer of Vercingetorix ; see 
189 l. He endeavored to rouse the border tribes against the Romans, but 
was checked by the promptness and farsightedness of Caesar. 

190 2 Nitiobriges et Gabalos : these completed the Arvernian frontier, 
the Volcae and Helvii being within the limits of the Province. 

190 4 Narbonem, Narbonne, the chief town of Gallia Narbonensis, 
founded by C. Gracchus. 

190 5 antevertendum [esse] has for its subj. ut . . . proficisceretur, 
and is followed by the dat. consiliis. 

190 7 provincialibus : a portion of the Ruteni had been incorporated 
in the Province. 

190 14 Chap. 8. quod . . . putabat : referring to Lucterius. 

190 15 Cevenna : the pass crossing this range is about 4000 feet high. 

190 16 durissimo, etc. : Pompey was put in authority February 25 (by 
the old calendar, which was now about six weeks ahead of the actual time); 
Caesar, who left Italy directly after, probably crossed the Cevennes about 
the middle of January. 

190 18 summo labore : "these admirable soldiers were worthy of the 
genius of their chief," but such men as Caesar and Napoleon make that 
kind of soldiers. 

190 21 singulari homini, a solitary wayfarer, to say nothing of an army. 

422 Notes: Ccesar. (B. G. 

191 l Chap. 9. at : marks a transition as usual ; translate mean* 

191 2 usu . . . praeceperat, had suspected would come to pass. — per 
causam, on the pretext (so elsewhere in Caesar) : his real motive was to 
join his force. 

191 4 Brutum : Decimus Junius Brutus, afterward one of Caesar's 
assassins. This same officer had command of the fleet in the famous 
battle with the Veneti ; see 82 7-10. 

191 6 triduo : this was a pretence, and was given out to conceal his 
real design. 

191 8 Viennam, Vienne, a. little below Lyons on the Rhone. — recen- 
tem : i.e. they were well rested and in good condition for a forced march. 

191 11 hiemabant : see Bk. vi. ch. 44. His route would lie due north 
up the Saone along the eastern line of the Haedui. The distance of this 
rapid winter journey was above 300 miles. — quid : with consili. 

191 12 de sua salute, affecting his own safety ; opposed to any design 
on his forces. 

191 13 reliquas, etc. : two of them were somewhere near Luxem- 
bourg, and six at Sens, about 140 miles apart. 

191 14 prius : with quam. — unum locum : evidently Sens. 

191 17 Gorgobinam : this was situated probably on the Allier, a south- 
ern confluent of the Loire. 

191 18 Haeduis attribuerat : see 25 19 ff. 

191 20 difficultatem : the dilemma in which Caesar finds himself is 
expressed by the two parallel conditions, si . . . contineret, ne . . . deficeret, 
and si . . . educeret, ne . . . laboraret. 

192 1 Chap. 10. stipendiariis : i.e. the Boii, who were tributaries 
of the Haedui. 

192 2 amicis, etc., since his friends would find there was no help for 
them in him. 

192 4 ab, in respect to his supply of corn. 

192 10 Agedinci : now Sens, the chief town of the Senones. 

192 12 Chap. ii. altero die, on the second day of the march. — 
Vellaunodunum : the position of this town is somewhat uncertain, but 
Caesar apparently did not march directly towards Gorgobina, but made a 
detour towards the north in order to cross the Loire at Orleans. 

192 13 quo, in order that. 

192 15 circumvallavit : the circumvallation consisted of a line of wall 
and trench surrounding the town. 

192 18 iter : i.e. to the relief of the Boii at Gorgobina. 

192 19 qui turn primum, etc. : i.e. they had just heard of the invest- 

vil. 9-i 4-] War of Vercingetorix. 423 

ment of Veliaunodunum and, thinking the siege would last longer, were 
raising a force to defend their chief town about 120 miles off. 

192 20 earn rem : i.e. the siege. 

192 21 quod mitterent, to send, giving the purpose of comparabant. 

192 24 in posterum : sc. diem. 

192 25 militibus imperat, he orders the soldiers to prepare. The dir. 
obj. of imperat being a demonstrative antecedent of quae, not expressed 
in Latin, and in Eng. absorbed in ' what.' 

192 26 contingebat, touched: i.e. led directly to. The town being on 
the north bank, the bridge would allow its defenders to cross to the friendly 

193 3 desideratis quin, etc. : a loose use of the ^///-construction ; 
all, with very few exceptions, were captured. 

193 5 diripit : cf. the fate of Avaricum, ch. 28. 

193 8 Chap. 12. ille: i.e. Caesar. 

193 9 Noviodunum : the position is uncertain. Caesar's march, how- 
ever, was certainly to the south up the Loire. This town is to be distin- 
guished from Noviodunum of ch. 55, a city of the Haedui. 

193 11 celeritate: we may supply in Eng. a demon, as antecedent to qua. 

193 20 novi aliquid consili, some new design. 

193 22 omnis incolumis: see 1. 15 above ; construe with receperunt, 
got their men all back safe to Caesar's camp. 

193 24 Chap. 13. Germanos : this force was much superior to the 
Gallic cavalry, and was destined to turn the battle in Caesar's favor at 
many critical times; see chs. 67, 70, 80. The tactics of the German 
cavalry are described 43 4 ff. 

193 25 ab initio : the meaning of this is not clear. He had no Ger- 
man cavalry at the beginning of his campaigns. He may have obtained 
thtm after his struggle with Ariovistus. 

194 2 quibus, and these (the Gallic horse). 

194 3 eos (obj. of perduxerunt) : i.e. the leaders in the sudden move- 
ment described above, ch. 12. 

194 5 Avaricum : the modern Bourges, an important town of 40,000 
inhabitants, the geographical centre of France. 

195 3 Chap. 14. longe alia ratione atque, in a way quite different 
from, etc. ; by purely defensive or guerilla war. 

195 6 anni tempore : i.e. scarcely yet spring, long before harvest ; all 
supplies must be got from granaries or storehouses (aedificia), which might 
easily be destroyed. 

195 8 hos omnis : i.e. hostis. 

195 10 incendi : cf. the course of the Helvetians, Bk. i. ch. 5. 

424 Notes : Ccesar. [B. G. 

195 11 hoc spatio : explained by quo, etc., i.e. the range of the Roman 
foraging parties. — [a Boia] : omit. 

195 13 quorum : the antecedent is eorum. 

195 15 neque interesse, and it makes no difference [he says]. — ne 
, . . an, whether . . . or. 

195 19 sint receptacula, serve as retreats. 

195 20 neu, and lest, sc. sint from preceding clause. — proposita, 
offered to be captured by the Romans. The method of warfare here advised 
by Vercingetorix and afterwards consistently followed by him stamps him 
as a general of first-rate ability. We may fitly compare Fabius Maximus 
harassing and weakening the army of Hannibal, and the burning of Moscow 
by the Russians to drive out Napoleon. 

195 26 Chap. 15. urbes : Caesar more commonly calls them oppida. 
Rome alone is always urbs. 

196 2 solaci : part. gen. with hoc. 

196 3 amissa, all they had lost (obj. of recuperaturos). 

196 4 incendi, etc. : a double indir. quest., whether . . . or. 

196 9 flumine: the city was just above the junction of the Auron 
with the Yevre. 

196 12 volgi : obj. gen. ; i.e. his compassion for the poor people, who 
would be turned out of house and home in the winter, if the town should 
be burned. 

196 16 Chap. 16. longe, distant. — certos {cerno), regular. 

196 17 in . . . tempora,/rtfw hour to hour. 

196 21 etsi, etc., although so far as skilful planning (ratione) could 
provide (against this danger), our men took the precaution of going at uncer- 
tain times and in different directions. 

196 22 ut . . . iretur : a clause of purpose, taking its construction from 
provideri, though not immediately connected with it. The verbs are used 

196 24 Chap. 17. quae . . . habebat: i.e. the neck of the peninsula 
on which the town was situated (196 8 ff.). 

196 25 intermissa, left free. — [a] : omit. 

196 26 aggerem, etc. : see chapter on military affairs, vm. 

Between the Yevre and the Auron was a plateau, some 1200 to 160c 
feet high, with rather steep banks. As this plateau approached the town, 
it narrowed to a ridge only about 400 feet wide, with the Auron on one 
side and a swampy brook, the Yevrette, on the other. From the Yevrette 
to the Yevre extended a morass. At a distance of about 300 feet from the 
city wall the ridge was intersected by a sudden depression like a trench, 
perhaps 50 feet deep (see plan, Fig. 90). Caesar pitched his camp on the 

VII. i4-2o.] War of Vercingetorix. 425 

plateau just back of the ridge, a little over half a mile from Avaricum. 
Along the ridge, right across the intersecting ravine, he built the agger. 

196 29 alteri : the Haedui, already wavering in their allegiance ; alteri 
(next line) : the Boii, a fragment of the defeated Helvetians (Bk. i. ch. 28). 

197 8 ab eis : the source of vox, not the agent of audita. Notice 
again in this passage the invincible endurance of these soldiers. 

197 14 ignominiae loco, in the place of (i.e. as) a disgrace. 

197 16 Cenabi: locative. 

197 17 parentarent = ut parentarent, the natural construction. As 
one might say irregularly in English, " It is better to suffer anything than 
not avenge our comrades," omitting " to." 

197 23 Chap. 18. qui . . . consuessent : see Bk. i. ch. 48. 

198 2 sarcinas, etc. : the regular preparation for battle. 

198 5 Chap. 19. difflcilis, hard to cross ; impedita, embarrassing. 

198 7 fiducia loci, trusting to the strength of the position. 

198 8 [in civitatis] : omit. — vada [ac saltus], fords and open spaces, 
where the way seemed practicable. 

198 10 haesitantis, struggling -in the mud or bushes. — premerent : a 
purpose clause, taking its construction from sic animo parati, determined ; 
cf. 199 3, where the same words take a result clause. The two construc- 
tions approach each other, but the first refers to future time, the last to 

198 11 propinquitatem : i.e. the armies were separated only by the 
swamp. — videret : the contrast is between the casual observer and the 
careful inspector (qui . . . perspiceret). — prope, etc., on nearly equal 
terms ; iniquitatem (next line), unfair advantage, showing that their offer- 
ing battle was inanis simulatio. 

198 14 quod . . . possent : follows indignantis, chafittg that, etc. — 
conspectum suum, the sight of them. 

199 2 necesse sit, etc., a victory must needs cost, with the abl. of 

199 4 iniquitatis : § 352 (220) ; B. 208. 2. a ; G. 378 ; H. 456 (409. ii) ; 
H-B. 342. 

199 8 Chap. 20. proditionis : see last note. 

199 10 discessisset and venissent refer to the action in ch. 18. — 
imperio = imperatore. 

199 12 non haec, etc., all these things could not [they said]. 

200 l ilium : connect with malle . . . habere. 
200 2 ipsorum : sc. concessu. 

200 5 persuasum [esse] : impers., that it had been recommended. — ■ 
qui se . . . defenderet, which was its own defence (ch. 19). 

426 Notes : Ccesar. [B. a 

200 12 fortunae (dat.) : as well as huic (referring to alicuius), to be 
construed with habendam gratiam, thanks were due. 

200 16 imperium : the same as regnum Galliae above. 

200 18 quin etiam, nay even. Distinguish carefully from quin intro- 
ducing a neg. result. — remittere, is ready to resign; in dir. disc, remitto, 
I resign. — Bi= [to see] whether (indir. quest.). 

200 27 nee iam viris, etc., that no one any longer has sufficient strength ; 
viris is from vis. 

200 28 posse : sc. quemquam, supplied from cuiusquam. 

200 30 [Vercingetorix] : may be omitted. 

201 2 quern : construe with ne . . . recipiat, subj. of provisum est, 
and as it basely flees from this spot, I have provided that no state shall receive 
it within its boundaries. 

201 4 Chap. 21. suo more: cf. Tacitus (Ger. 11), si placuit sen- 
tentia, frameas concutiunt. 

201 5 in eo, in the case of him. 

201 6 summum : this word is often used where we should say " a great." 

201 7 maiore ratione, with better generalship. 

201 11 si . . . retinuissent : in app. with eo {that condition). 

201 14 Chap. 22. genus : i.e. the Gauls. 

201 15 atque . . . aptissimum : cf. Bk. iv. ch. 5 ; at que connects the 
descriptive gen. summae sollertiae and the descriptive adj. aptissimum. 

201 16 laqueis, etc. : see Fig. 126. 

201 17 cum destinaverant, . . . reducebant : a general condition ex- 
pressing repeated action in past time ; cf. 130 7. 

201 19 ferrariae : so of the copper mines of the Aquitani ; see 89 11-18. 

201 25 cotidianus agger : i.e. the daily increase in the height of the 
ogger. — commissis malis, by splicing the upright timbers; these were the 
high corner beams of the towers, by which they were raised in successive 
stages, so that each increase in the height of the Roman works was met by 
a corresponding increase in the height of the defences. The towers on the 
walls were probably connected by covered galleries, one for each story. 

201 26 apertos cuniculos . . . morabantur, etc.: this refers to the 
obstructions put by the Gauls in the way of the open passage ways which ran 
through the agger, and which the soldiers used in carrying material for its 
advance and completion ; morabantur has the force of blocked or obstructed. 
See Figs. 92, 93, 1 20, and chapter on military affairs, viii. 

202 2 Chap. 23. directae, at right angles with the course of the 
wall. — perpetuae in longitudinem, along the whole length. 

202 4 revinciuntur, are fastened by beams some forty feet in length, 
miming lengthwise of the wall. 

VII. 20-25-] 

War of Vercingetorix. 


202 5 intervalla : i.e. the two feet between each two of the beams in 
the lower tier {or do). 

202 7 ut idem, etc., in such a way that the same space (between the 
beams) is preserved, and that the beams do not touch each other ; but, placed 
at equal intervals, the individual beams are firmly bound together by the cor- 
responding stones placed between them ; i.e. 
so alternating in the successive layers that 
beams rested on stone, and stone on beams. 

202 11 cum: correlative with turn 

202 15 quadragenum: note the dis- 
tributive, forty each. 

203 1 introrsus revincta: i.e. the 
beams were mortised together at some 
distance from the exposed ends, making it next to impossible to force them 
apart ; see Fig. 94. 

203 4 Chap. 24. frigore : it was still very early in the year, scarcely 
spring ; see 208 10. 

203 6 latum : as a width of over 300 feet is incredible, some have 
supposed that this is an error for longum ; others, that the numeral should 
be xxxx. — altum pedes lxxx: it must be remembered that the height 
of the agger had to equal the depth of the ravine it 
crossed, and also the height of the Gallic wall. 
The latter may have been thirty feet. 

203 11 cuniculo : i.e. a mine running under 
the agger. It should be remembered that the agger 
was built largely of wood. 

203 13 turrium : the Roman towers, mounted 
on wheels or rollers, and here referring to those 
flanking the agger ; see Figs. 43, 92, 1 26. 

203 19 partitis temporibus : i.e. in their turn. 

203 20 reducerent : i.e. out of reach of the fire. 

203 21 interscinderent : i.e. they cut away the 

unfinished end of the agger, which was in flames. 

Thus the rest was saved. 

203 25 Chap. 25. pluteos : here the high 
wooden bulwarks (loricae) protecting each story of 
the tower ; see note on 144 2. 

203 26 nee . . . animadvertebant, and noticed that the exposed men 
did not readily approach to give assistance. 

204 2 accidit, etc., an incident occurred before my eyes, which, seem 

Fig. 130. 

428 Notes: Ccesar. [B. G. 

ing worthy of record, I thought ought not to be omitted. Observe the use of 
the plural pronoun, the ' editorial we,' extremely common in Latin. 

204 4 per manus traditas : i.e. his companions passed them to him to 

204 5 scorpione : this was a powerful cross-bow, for hurling darts or 
bolts; see chapter on military affairs, I. 5 and Fig. 95. 

204 18 palus : probably the watery valley of the Auron. 

205 3 Chap. 26. suorum, their husbands. 
205 5 quos : refers to se as well as to liberos. 

205 8 quo timore : the regular Latin idiom where we should expect 
cuius rei timore. 

205 16 Chap. 27. [intra vineas] : it would be impossible for legions 
to find room inside the vineae. Either legiones here refers to the storming 
columns, or intra vineas means within the line of the sheds, and so out of 
sight. Many editors omit the words altogether. — expeditis, put infighting 

205 18 adscendissent : informal indir. disc, for the fut. perf . of the 

205 22 Chap. 28. cuneatim, in a compact body; (lit. wedge-fashion) 
implying tactics like those of the Romans. 

205 23 si qua . . . veniretur, if an attack should be made from any 
side ; [contra] may be omitted ; veniretur is impersonal. 

205 25 circumfundi (impers. pass.) = that men were pouring in. 

205 27 continenti impetu, without stopping. 

206 l exitu : abl. of cause. 

206 3 quisquam: i.e. Romanorum. — Cenabensi caede: see ch. 3. 

206 10 [ut] : omit. — procul in via, etc., placing his friends and the 
chiefs of the states at in