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C JE S A 11 


cj:sar's commentaries 




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N E W Y O R K : 



18 50. 





Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the yeav 1838, by 

CuARi. Ks Anthon, 
In the Clerk's Offico of th-? Soiithem District of New.york. 

T H E R E V. H E N R Y A N T H O N, D. D., 


T H I S W O R K 



P R E F A C E. 

The present edition of Caesar is on the sanie plan 
with the Sallust and Cicero, and, it is hoped, will provs 
equally acceptable. As Caesar's Commentaries aie 
generally placed in the hands of students at an early 
period of their career, the explanatory notes have been 
specially prepared for the use of beginners, and no- 
thing has been in fact omitted, that may tend to facil- 
itate the perusal of the work. The Greek paraphrase 
is but Httle known in this country, and the first book, 
therefore, has been given partly as a literary noveUy, 
and partly as an easy introduction to Greek studies. 
Considerable use has been made of it, as will be seen 
by the notes appended to this volume, in elucidating 
passages of the Latin work that are in any respect 
obscure, or the meaning of which has been disputed 
among previous commentators. It has also been fouud 
of importance on several occasions in setlHng the text. 
From whose pen the paraphrase proceeds is a matter 
of great uncertainty : it has been assigned by some to 
Maxhnus Planudes, by others to Theodore Gaza, while 


by a third class the aulhor has been regarded as alto- 
gether unknown. Planudes, it is conceived, will be 
found, on a careful investigalion of the mattcr, to have 
ihe best claim. The style of the paraphrase deviates, 
it is true, in more than one instance, from classical 
usage, yel still the discrepance is not so marked as to 
occasion any difficulty lo the learner, and may very 
easily be rectified by any competent instructer. 

The wood-cuts, giving plans of battles, sieges, &c., 
cannot but prove useful. They are cxecuted with 
great abihty by that talented artist, Mr. A. J. Mason 

C. A. 

Colnmhia CflUege, Jan. 18, 1838 




Dr. B. What odd-looking volume is that over vvhich you are poring 
80 attentively, Henry Arlington ! Something very rare and curious, I 
suppose, to draw you off from our Oriel College election. 

H. A very singular book, indeed, Dr. Barton, which I discovered 
vesterday, by mere accident, arnong the treasures of the Bodieian. It 
is Berger"s treatise " De naturali pulckritudine Orationis," in whicb 
the Commentaries of Julius Caesar are lauded tc the skies, as a model 
of all that is excellent in wTiting. 

Dr. B. I know the work well, and admire your patience in cultivating 
an acquaintance with it. Were I troubled with sleepless nights, I would 
certainly take to reading Berger, after retiring to my couch, in tlic full 
expectation of speedy and lasting relief. 

H. I think you are too hard uponhim, doctor. Amid a mass of lieavv 
reading, I have found several things to arrest my attention and rcward 
me for the labour expended upon his work. You surely do not regar 
Caesar's Latinity as of inferior merit. 

Dr. B. Quite the reverse, Henry. No writer equals Caesar iu elegaiit 
simplicit)', and in that transparent cleamess of style which forms the 
great charm of historical narrative. Lord Bacon, whom Berger not un- 
aptly calls *' Britannorum Socrafes," has well expressed his wonder, 
that a mind rendered so " turbid" by ambition as Caesar's was, should 
express itself in writing with so much calmness and serenity. My only 
objection is, that Berger pushes his theoiy much farther than either you 
or I will concede, when he undertakes to find, in the Commentaries oi 
Caesar, all the excellences of composition that are noted aud praised, ii\ 
a later age, in the treatise of Longinus. 

H. i am entirely of your opinion, my dear doctor ; and, having now 
^tisficd my 'uriosity respecting Berger's work, will show you anolher, 


of a different character, which I obtained this moming fnim Paiker's 
It is the second part of the " Fasti Hellenici," by Clinton of Christ- 
Church. Are his datcs in the case of Roman authors worthy of reli- 

Dr. B. Most undoubtedly. No scholar of the present day has con- 
fcrred- a more signal service on the literary chronology of Greece and 
Rome than this very able writer, or has contributed more eseentially to 
raise the classical reputation of his country on the continent of Europe 
But come, Henry, as Caesar has been thus far the theme of our conver 
sation, how vv-ould you like that we take up his life and literary charac- 
ter, passing briefly over the former, and dvvelling more ai large upon the 

H. There is no one thing that would delight me morc, Dr. Barton 
and I trust you will forgive me, if I occasionally interrupt you by a 
question or two, when any point seems to me to require any additional 
illustration on your part. 

Dr. B. I shall consider all such interruptions, my dear Henry, as the 
surest proof that my remarks are not uninteresting, and shall be more 
pleased the oftener they occur. Let us proceed, then, to our task. Of 
all those whom history has honoured with the title of great, no one, per- 
haps, deserved it more than the subject of our present remarks. A de- 
scendant of the celebrated Julian house, wliich traced its fabulous origin 
to ^Eneas, he was born in the year of Rome 654, and exactly a century 
before the advent of our Saviour. In his early boyhood he was an eye- 
witness of the civil wars between Sylla and Marius, ihe latter his mater- 
nal uncle ; and when he attained io the beginning of manhood, or the age 
of seventeen, Sylla, who was then supreme, could not forgive him for 
being the nephew of Marius and the son-in-Iaw of Cinna. He even 
issued against him a decree of proscription, which he was only induced 
to revoke by the solicitations of the vestal virgins and thc influcnce of 
the Julian family.' 

H. Was it not on that occasion, doctor, that Sylla said he saw manv 
Mariuses in Caesar l^ 

Dr. B. It was ; and the remark does credit to his sagacity and knowj 
edge of character, while it shovvs plainly, that, even at this early periw 
of life, the young Roman had given some peculiar indications of 'ateni 
talents and ambition. Having escaped from the proscription of Sylla 
he retired from the capital, and sought a retrcat in Asia, where he com 

1. Siieton. Vit. Jul. c. 1 Plutarch's account differs from tliis, but is less a^cu- 
rale , . , 

2 " Ccesari mullns Marios inesse." .'^vetmu ib 


menced his military career in tht suite of Thermus,' the Roman gov- 
emor, from whom he received the civic crown on the capture of Mity- 
lene.^ The death of Sylla, however, recalled him to Rome, and we 
find him soon engaged in conducting a prosecution against Cornehus 
Dnlabella, charged by him with extortion m his province, but success- 
fully defended by Hortensius and Cotta.'' 

H. Was not this a bold step, doctor, for a young man to take against 
a person who stood so high as Dolabella I for, if I remember correctly, 
the latter had both held the consulship, and enjoyed the honours of a 

Dr. B. Not at all bold, Hcnry, but one, on the contrary, of common 
occurrence. The young patricians were fond of accusing distinguished 
mdividuals, not so much from a patrioiic motive, as in order to acquire 
for themselves the reputation of eloquence. After the acquittal of Dol- 
abella, Caesar made a voyage to Rhodes, and became a pupil of ApoUo- 
Dius Molo, a distinguished teacher of the art of oratory. 

H. Ah ! Was not this same Molo the preceptor of Cicero 1 

Dr. B. He was. Cicero heard hira at Rome, B. C. 87, and aftervvard 
at Rhodes, B. C. 78, so that you perceive these two eminent men were 
almost fellow-pupils of the same instructer.* Passing over the story 
about the pirates,® which you can find in the pages of your Plutarch, and 
the services which he rendered to che Roman allies in Asia against the 
encroachments of Mithridates, though possessing himself no actual mil- 
itary command, we come to the period of his second return to Rome, 
when he found Pompey at the head of the senate and republic. Since 
Caesar's known attachment hitherto to the party of Marius operated as 
an obstacle to his ambition, he now went over to the dominant faction 
of the day, and united with Cicero in advocating the passage of the Man- 
ilian law, the object of which was to clothe Pompey with extraordinary 
powers for ending the Mithridatic war. 

H. I cannot see the policy of this step on Caesar's part. He was 
only strengthening the hands of one, who, he must have known, wouW 
one day prove his raost formidable rival. 

1. " Stipendia prima in Asia.^ecit, M. Thermi prcstoris contttbemio." Svcton. 
Vit. Jvl. c. 2. Compare Aurel. Vict. c. 82. 

2. Sueton. ib.—Liv. Epit. lib. 89. 

3. Cic. Brut. Q/2.—Val. Max. 8, 9, ^.—Plut. Ccbs. c. 4. 

4. " Consularem et triumphalem virum." Sueton. 1. c. 
5k Clinton's Fasti HeUenici, part 2 p. 147. 

6. Piutarch places the stor>- of the pirates earlier in point of time, making Csesa; 
to have been taken by thera daring his first visit to Asia. But consnlt Snetonins, 
Vit. /ul. c. 4 and Crusius ml lor. 


Dr. B- Pardon rae, Henry ; it was a stroke of consuinmate policy 
The Maiiilian law, and the high prerogatives conferred by it upou a siii 
gle individual, inlroduced divisions and dissensions among thc leading 
men at Rome, and could not but tend to favour secretly the pretcnsions 
of those, who, like Csesar, vi'ished one day to raise themselves above tho 
laws of their country. The same principle of action governed his con- 
dnct, when, not long after this, he exerted his endeavours, alorig wilp 
other equally ambitious raen, to have the tribunes of the commons, -whost 
power Sylla had wiscly curtailed, restored to all their former privilcges ;* 
Ibr he vi-ell knew that he vvould find, in most of them, so inanv rearly 
tools for the accomplishment of his designs upon tne liberty of hin 

H. But how did thc peoplc, vvith Vvhom Alarius had ever been a fa- 
vourite, relish Cffisar's abandonment of the principles of that leader ; 

Dr. B. You err, Henry, in comrnon with many others, as to this part 
of Caesar^s history. At his first entrance into the political arena, wbeu 
the influence of Pompey was paramount, any professed adherence to the 
principles that governed the parly of Marius would have been fatal to 
CaBsar's advancement in the state. When, however, he felt himself 
more securely established in public favour, Ihe mask was dropped. The 
luemory of Marius, notwithstanding all his enormities, was still cherishcd 
by the Roman populace, for he had, in one sense, been their champion 
ogainst the party of the senate, and Csesar now neglected no opportunity 
of flattering the multitude, by showing respect to the name of iheir 
forincr leader. When quaestor, he had the boldness, on delivering a 
fuucral eulogiura upon his aunt Julia, to produco before the view of the 
pcoplc thc images of Marius, which had not been seen since the dicta- 
torship of Sylla.2 And, vvhen elevatcd to the office of sedile, he caused 
tho statues aud trophies of the conqueror of the Cimbri to be restored 
to their former places.'^ From this period he was suspected of aspiring 
to abiolute power, and was cven accuscd of it in the senate ; but his 
largesses among the populace, and the splendour of his public shows, 
found- hkn too many friends and devoted parlisans for the scnate to ven- 

i ni! 

lure on his condemnation. 

1 " Auctores restUuendm tribwiicim potestatis, nijus vim Sulla deminuerat, eti 
ixissime juvit." {Sueton. Yit Jul. c 5.) Ttio final restoration was made by Pom- 
I-ey and Crassus, when oonsuls, A. U. C. CSl. Compare Vcll. Pat. 2, 30.— Z,!i;. Epi/ 
lib 'Jl.—Cic. Tcrr. 1, 15. 

2 Plut. Vtt. CcBS. c. 5. 

3. Sncton. Vit. Jul. c. 11. P]ularch's accounl is Koine\vli;it difltTcnt; ch-ci^oi 
i^otijaaTO Vlaniov Kpu0a, Kat nVaf raoT^aiOipunovi, uf <Pf(>wi' vvkto., ui ri KairtTuiXivv 
avhTt^rnv. CoinpHre Vtll Pat 2. -13. 


H. This reminds me, doctor, of the timidity of the senate, when hi8 
defence of the accomplices of Catiline, and his conduct generally, in 
relation to that affair, caused him to be more than suspected of a partici- 
pation in the conspiracy. 

Dr. B. Yes, the senato vvere afraid of the peoplo without, who, wilh 
loud cries, were demanding their favourite. His life, howover, wji» 
actually in danger from the Iloman knights that stood around the senate- 
house as a guard, and he was mainly saved by the interference of Cicero. 

H. You made some allusion, a moment ago, to his lavish expendi 
tures. Where did he obtain the means for supporting thcse 1 

Dr. B. By borrowing. He is said, before he enjoyed any public 
office, to have owed 1300 talents, over £300,000.^ And when, aftei 
his praetorship, which was not long subsequent to the period just men- 
tioned by me, he set out for a govemment in Spain, he himself confessed 
that he was, what would be in our own currency morc than £2,000,000, 
worse than nothing ! 

H. These debts, of course, were never paid. 

Dr. B. His extortions in Spain enriched him to such a degree, thal 
he not only liquidated this almost incredible sum, but even had wealth 
sufficient remaining to shield himself from a public prosecution, and to 
purchase the services of a large number of partisans. So much for the 
tender mercies of Roman magistrates in the management of their prov 
inces ! 

H. And for the purity of justice at home. But do tell me, doctor, 
where were Pompey and Crassus at this time 1 

Dr. B. Caesar had reconciled them,'' and thus obtained their united 
aid for the attainment of the consulship. He attached the former also 
still more strongly to himself, by giving him his daughter Julia in mar- 
riage. We have now reached an important era in the history of the 
ambitious Roman whose career we are delineating, and this was the 
govemment of Gaul, which he obtained not long after the union of his 
daughter with Pompey. The Vatinian law gave him this province for 

1. Suetonius states, that his life was threatened by the equites, even vchile he was 
la the senate-house : that the senators sittlng near him moved away in alarm, and 
that only a few remained by him to afTord protection : " Vix pauci comvlexu togaque 
objecta protexerint." (Sueton. Vit. Jul. c. 14.) PIutarch's account is followed, 
however, in the text. Consult Crusius, ad Sueton. 1. c. 

2. Plui. Vit. C<Bs. c. 5. — Appian. B C. 2, 8. Crassus had to become surety for 
him before he could leave Rome for his govemment. PlvX. Vit. Crass. c. l.—Id. Vit 
C<es. c. II. The computation intbe text makes the Attic talent of silver 241i. 13s. 4d 
Compare Knight, Prolegom. ad Hom. §56, and Boeckh^s Public Economy o/Athen: 
vol. i., p. 25. 

3 Sueton. VU. Jvl. c. 19.—Plut. Vii. Ctes. c. 13.— Id. Vit. Crass. 14 


five years, and, at the expiration of this period, his command was 
continued for five years longer. The Gallic war, Ihen, in all its 
branches, continued for the space of nearly ten years,' and, during 
that time, Caesar is said to have reduced by force or by the terror of 
his arms eight hundred cities, to have subjugated three hundred com- 
muiiities or nations, to have defeated in battle at different periods 
three raillions of men, and to have slain one third of this number, and 
led another third into captivity.^ 

H. An exaggerated account, most probably. 

Dr. B. Of course, as such statements alvvays are. Yet still, from the 
known valour of the Gallic race, and the cold-blooded cruelty with 
which, according to Caesar's own account, many of his victories were fol- 
iowed up, the camage of the whole war must have been appalling in the 
extreme. In the midst of his conquests, as may well be imagined, the 
Roman commander neglected no opportunity of amassing the most ex- 
tensive riches, and, with this view, plundered both the temples of the 
Gallic deities, and the land of allies as well as encmies. Everything, 
in fact, that might serve to augment his power, appcared to him just and 
honourable ; and Cicero relates, that he had often on his lips the well- 
known passage of Euripides, that, if justice is to be violated, it ought to 
be for sovercign power. Do you know the lines to which I allude, 

H. It occurs in the " PhcenissEe," in the speech of Etcocles to hia 
mother : 

Etfffp yup uitKUv )(pfi, TvpavviSos vipt 
KdWtaTBV aStKHV — ** 

But was no notice taken by the Roman scnate of the coursc of conduci 
in which he thus openly indulged 1 

Dr. B. His enemies at Rome were by no means inactive, and an 
cffort was made to have commissioners sent by the senatc, for the pur- 
pose of investigating the chargcs preferred against him ; but the sj)len- 
doiir of his numerous victories, the favour of the pcople, and Ihe largc 
sums which he privately distributcd, causcd every attcmpt of the kind to 
prjve inefifectual. 

H. I have seen it remarked somewhere, Doctor Barton, that the sol- 

1. The civil war broke out, according to Suctonius, before the expiration of Iho 
■ocond period of five years. So Plutarch, c. M^crr, yap ovSi diKa iro^tn^aai irtfi 
T(i\aTlnv, K. T. A. 

3. Flvt. 1. c.—U. Vit. Pomp. c. C7. —Appian. B. Celt. (t. p. 73.—Plin. H. li. 7. 55 
Compare, however, the rumarks of Bayle, Dict. Hist. s. v. Cisar. 

3. Ettrip. Phoeniss. v. 534, seg. 


diera of the rcpublic becamc eventually, by reason of his strong personal 
influencc, the soldiers of Caesar. 

Dr. B. The rcmark is perfectly correct. His soldiers becamc 
strongiy attached to him, in consequence of the care that he ever evinced 
for their comfort and emolument. He seemed, indeed, to be merely 
the depositary of the riches which he accumulated from day to day, and 
to set a value on these only as they furnishcd him with prizes for valour, 
and with recompenses for military merit. His character in this rcspect 
bears a striking resemblance to that of the celebrated Napoleon. Though 
perhaps, after all, the motive of each will be found to have been a 
purely selfish one ; for he who labours to accomplish a certain end must, 
in order to succeed, have instniments fitted for his purpose, and under 
his absolute control. If soldiers be devpted to their leader, fie is al- 
ready more than half victorious. 

H Talking of Napoleon, doctor, I have lately seen a French work 
which purports to contain his military criticisms on the campaigns of 
CiEsar.* Do you regard it as possessing any claims to authenticity 1 

Dr. B. I ara surprised at your question, Henry. The work to which 
you refer is a miserable affair, which bears the impress of falsehood on 
its very front. The criticisms which it contains are below contempt, 
and never could have emanated from the great leader of modern times. 
They are the puny offspring of somo anonymous scribbler. Let rac 
give you, in their stead, the reraarks of another vvritcr, ihat are far more 
worthy of your notice. I will read them to you from the volume beforo 
me.* " Though the Conmientaries on the Gallic War comprehend 
bnt a small extent of time, and are not the general history of a nation 
they embrace events of the highest importance, and detail, perhaps, the 
greatest military operations to be found in ancient story. We sce in 
them all that is great and consummate in the art of war. The ablest 
commander of the most warlike people on earth records the history of 
his own campaigns. Placed at the head of the finest army ever formed 
in the world, and one devoted to his fortunes, but opposed by prowess 
only second to their own, he and the soldiers he commanded may be 
praised almost in the words in which Nestor praised the heroes who had 
gone before him ;' for the Gauls and Germans were among the bravest 
and most warlike nations then on earth. In his clear and scientific de- 
tails of military operations, Cffisar is reckoned superior to every one, 
except, perhaps, Polybius. In general, too, when he speaks of himself, 

1 . Pricis des Guerres de Jules Ccsar, par PEmpereur Napoleon, Paris, 1836. 
2 Dunlop's Roman Lileralure, vol. ii,, p. 171, seq. 
t. Dunlop. Rom. Lit. vol. ii. p. 177. 


it is without affectation or arrogancc. He talks of Csesar as of an in- 
different person, and alvvays maintains the cliaractcr vvhich he has thus 
assumed ; indeed, it can hardly bc conccived that he had so small a 
share in the great actions he describes, as would appear from his own 
r<5presentations. With the exception of the false colours with whicli 
he disguises his ambitious projects against the liberties of his country, 
everything seeras to be told with fidelity and candour." 

H. Do you think that he is as accurate in his account of German as 
of Gallic manners 1 

Dr. B. I do not. Hc had remained so long in Gaul, and had so thor- 
oughly studied the habits and customs of its people, for his own politica. 
purposes, that whatever is dehvered concerning tliat country may be 
confidently relied on. But his intercourse with the German tribes was 
only occasional, and chiefiy of a military description. Some of his ob- 
servations on their manners, as their hospitality, the continence of 
their youth, and the successive occupation of differcnt lands by the same 
famiiics, are confirmed by Tacitus ; but in other particulars, especially 
in what relates to their religion, he is contradicted by that gi'eat historian. 
The researches of modern writers have also thrown some doubts on tlio 
accuracy of Ca3sar's German topography.' 

H. With regard to the eighth book of thc Commentaries on the Gallic 
war, is thcre not some doubt which of the two be the author, Hirtius or 
Oppius 1 

Dr. B. There is ; but I belicvc that a careful examination of the point 
will lead to a conviction that the book in question came from the peu of 

H. Is this the same Hirtius that fell at Mutina 1 

Dr. B. The same. Either from affcction or gratitude, he was alvvays 
attached to the party of Caesar ; but, after thc death of the dictator, he 
declared against Antony. Being created consul along with Pansa, he 
set out with his collcague to attack Antony, who was besieging Brutus 
in the city of Mutina, the modern Modena ; and, as you well knov^', 
thcy gained a victory over thcir opponent, but Hirtius was killed in the 
battle, and Pansa dicd a fcw days after of his wound. 

H. You made some rcmarks, doctor, iu the commencement of this 
convcrsation, rcspecting CaEsar's style ; allow me to ask wliat you would 
rcgard as its most diistinguishing characteristic 1 

Dr. B. Its perfect equality of expression. Therc was in the muid of 
Caesar a serene and even dignity. In tempcr nothing appcarcd to agi- 
tate or move him ; in conduct, nothing divcrted him from the attainment 

l. Dunlop. Rom. Lit. vol. ii, p. J77. 


of his end. In like inani>er, in his style, there is nothing swelied or de- 
pressed, and not one word which is not choscn with a view to its ulti- 
mate cffect, without any view towards embellishment. The opinion of 
Cicero, who compared thc style of Caesar to the unadomed simplicity 
of an ancient Greek statue, may be considered as the highest praise, 
since he certainly entertained no favourable feehngs towards Ihe author ; 
. nd the style was very different from that which he himself employed in 
his harangues or philosophical works, or even in his correspondence. 
The same writer thinks, that this exquisite purity was not insensibly ob- 
tained, from domestic habit and familiar conversation, but from assidu- 
3us study and thorough knowledge of the Latin tongue.* 

H. Still, however, notwithstanding its purity and elegance, do you not 
llunk that the style of Caesar is somewhat deficient in both vivacity and 
vigour 1 

Dr. B. I do, Hemy. And you will also occasionally find a term in- 
troduiced that militates even against the acknowledged purity of his lan- 
guage. But still, if we consider, that these memoirs were hastily drawn 
up during the tumult and anxiety of campaigns, and were noted down, 
from day to day, without care or premeditation, we shall be very easily 
inclined to pardon a deficiency of vigour on the one hand, and an occa- 
sional deviation from purity on the other. 

H. The remark v\?hich you have just made, doctor, reminds me of a 
question that occurred to me the other day relative to Csesar^s Ephemeris, 
or Diary. Do you think that this work and the Commentaries are the 
same or difTerent productions 1 

Dr. B. I am inclined to think with Bayle,^ thatthey are distinct works, 
and that the Ephemeris, or Ephcmerides, may have been a journal of 
Ca3sar's life. There are, it is true, several objections to this opinion, 
which are urged with great ability by Fabricius, Vossius, and others. 
But stUI the opposite side of the question appears by far the more rea-' 
sonable one. Servius quotes the Ephemerides, as does also Plutarch, 
and Frontinus and Polyaenus seem to refer to them, since they relate 
many of CoEsar's stratagems not mentioned in the Commentaries, and 
must, in all probability, have read them in the other work. The circum- 
stance quotcd by Servius'' from the Ephemerides is a very remarkable 
one. He states, that Caesar, on one occasion, was made prisoner hy 
the Gauls, and, being hurried along, was met by a Gallic chieftain, who 
exclairaed in an insulting tone, when he beheld him in this state, " Ca- 

1. Brutus, c. 7i.—Dunlnp, Rom. Lit. vol. ii., p. 180. 

2. Dict. Hist. &c., s. v. Ctsar. 

3. Ad. Virs:. ^ii. lib. ii., v. 743. 


sar, Casar." Now, according to Scrvius, this propcr name Cccsar hap- 
pened to mean, in thc Gallic tongue, "lct kim go," and thc consequence 
was, that the persons who held Gaisar prisoner, and who, it seems, were 
igaorant of his rank, mistook the words of the Gallic chief for an order 
to release him, and, in conscquence, allowed him to escape. 

H. Rathcr a whimsical story, doctor. 

Dr. B. Quite so, Henry ; and if Gehic scholars had only viewed it iu 
this light, they would havc been saved a great deal of trouble in endeav- 
ounng to fmd a Gaelic word sounding lilcc CiBsar, and signifying, to 
quote the language of Servius, iimitle. But we have said enough al 
present respecting the life and writings of the lloman commander. His 
other productions will form the subject of a converpation when we meet 
6gain ia Michaelmas term. Farpwell. ' . 






Portrait . . . . ; , , . . Toface the tith-page 

Map of Ancient France Page 1 

Attempt of the Helvetii to cross the Rhone and force the Intrench- 

ments of Cssar G 

Disposition of Caesar's Army to receive the Attack of the Helvetii , 14 

Battle between Csesar and Ariovistus 31 

Camp and Position of Csesar after the Passage of the River Axona. 

and Position of the Forces of the Belgas . . . . ,38 
Arrival of Caesar at the River Sambre, and his Battle with the Belga 42 
Caesar surpriscs and attacks the Camp of the Germans ... 72 
Plan of the Bridge made across the Rhine by Caesar in ten Days . 75 
Titurius Sabinus and Aurunculeius Cotta, being attacked by Ambio- 

rix, form their Troops into an Orb 102 

Labienus, by a pretended Flight, induces the Treviri to cross the 

River in their front, and defeats them 114 

Muri Vegetiani . 152 

Muri Gallicani . 152 

Alesia 177 

Roman Consular Camp according to Polvbius .... 482 







I. Genbral description of Gaul. 

Ghap. 1 . Divisions and dcscription of Gaul. 

[I. The war with thk Helvetii. 

Chap. 2. The Helvetii, dissatisfied with their existing scttlements in 
Gaul, and instigated by Orgetorix, form the design of migrating, and 
seeking a larger and more commodious territory in the same country. 
They have also in view, as an ulterior object, the sovereign control 
of Gaul. 3. Preparations for this step. Orgetorix appointed to su- 
perintend them. He forms a secret plan for self-aggrandizement with 
two influential nobles in two other states. 4. The plot discovered. 
Orgetorix put to his trial. Rescued by his retainers. Death. 5. 
Tjip Helvetii go on notwithstanding with their preparations for remo- 
ving. 6. Two routes present themselves. 7. Caesar resolves to pre- 
vent theb: intended march through the Roman province. They send 
ambassadors requesting permission to pursue this route. 8. Works 
erected by Cajsar. Answer in the negative given to the Helvetian 
ambassadors. The Helvetii attempt to force the passage of the Rhone. 
Are repulsed. 9. They obtain permission from the Sequani to pass 
through their territories. 10. Plans of Csesar to prevent their prog- 
' ress. 11. Complaints of the Gauls respecting the injuries they were 
suflering from ths Helvetii. 12. The Tigurini are defeated by the 
Romans near the r^ver Arar. 13, 14. Ambassadors sent to CaBsar by 
the Helvetii. His answer to them. 15. The cavalry of the Gallic 
auxiliaries dcfeated by the Helvetii, The march of both armie». 


16-20. Casar couiplahis of the dilalory conduct of the Aedui iii sup- 
plying provisions. Liscus replies in e.xtenuation, and discloses the 
ambitious designs and treachery of Dumnori.x. Caesar pardons the 
latter at the instance of his brother Divitiacus. 21, 22. P. Considius 
causes by his fears a favourable opportunity to be lost of attacking the 
Helvetii to advantage. 23-26. Engagemeut between the Romans and 
Helvetii. The latter entirely routed. 27, 28. They submit to thc 
Romans, and are ordered to return to their own country. 29. Com 
parative estimate of the number of the Helvetii that left home, and of 
Ihe number that returned after the war. 
01. War with Aeiovistus. 

Chap. 30-32. A general assembly of Gaul called with Ca;sar's per 
mission. Complaints preferred to him against Ariovistus and Ib.e 
Germans. 33. Caesar resolves to interfere. 34. Sends ambassadors 
to Ariovistus requcsting an interview. Answcr..of Ariovistus declining 
one. 35, 33. A second embassy scnt, with the demands of C;Esar. 
Answer of Ariovistus. 37, 38. Cssar hastens after Ariovistus, and 
occupies Vesontio. 39. Rcmains at Vesontio for a few days to pro- 
cure provisions for his army. The Roman soldiers are seized with a 
panic at the accounts which they receive of the great stature and cour 
age of the Germans. 40. Cffisar's speech to them. 41. Good eflects of 
this harangue. March. 42-46. Intervicw between Caesar and Ario- 
vistus. It is broken ofT by an attack of the German horse. 47. Ne 
gotiations renewed by Ariovistus. Roman ambassadors imprisoned. 

48. Ariovistus avoids coming to a battle. Meantime akirmishes of 
the horse take place daily. German mode of fighting described. 

49, 50. Caesar's two camps. The smaller one attacked by Ariovistus. 
Caesar learns from the Gcrman prisoners why their countrymen 
avoided a general engagement. 51-54. The two armies come at 
last to a confiict, and the Germans are defeated. The ambasaadors 
who had been detained by Ariovistus are retaken by the Romans. 
Caesar places his army in wintcr quarters under the charge of Labienua 
and then sets oif for Cisalpine Gaul to hold his circuit. 

1. 'Gallia est omnis divisa in partes trcs, ^quarun» 
unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, "tertiam, qui ipsorum 
lingua *CeltEe, nostra Gaili, appellantur. Hi onines ^lingiia, 
*institutis, legibus inter se diflerunt. 'Gallos ab Aquitanis 
Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. 
Horum omniuni Tortissimi sunt Belgan, proptcrea quod a 

LIBEU .1 CAP. 11. ;j 

cultu atque humanitate Provinciae longissiine absunt, 'mini- 
meque ad eos mercatores saspe comraeant, atque ea, qiias 
ad effeminandos animos pcrtinent, important ; ^proximique 
sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum coii- 
lincntcr bellum gerunt : qua de causa ^Helvetii quoque reli- 
quos Ciallos \artute praecedunt, quod fere quotidianis prcBliis 
cum Germanis contendunt, ''cum aut suis finibus eos prohi • 
bent, aut ipsi in eorum finibus beilum gerunt. ^Eorum una 
pars, quam Gallos ^obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flu- 
mine Rhodano ; 'continetur Gammna flumine, Oceano, rlni- 
bus Belgarum ; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flu- 
men Rhenum ; Vergit ad septentriones. Belga; ^ab ex- 
tremis Galliae finibus oriuntur ; pertinent ad inferiorem par- 
tem fluminis Rheni ; '°spectant in septentriones et orientem 
solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes, 
"et eam partem Oceani, quae est ad Hispaniam, peitinet ; 
'^spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones. 

2. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus et ditissimus fuit 
"Orgetorix. Is, '"'Marco Messala et Marco Pisone Consul- 
ibus, '^regni cupiditate inductus, conjurationem nobilitatis 
fecit ; et '^civitati persuasit, ut "de finibus suis cum omnibus 
copiis exirent : perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praesta- 
rent, totius Galliae '^imperio potiri. '°Id hoc facilius eis 
persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: 
una ex parte flumine Rheno, latissimo atque altissimo, qui 
agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit : altera ex parte, 
""monte Jura altissimo, qui est intcr Sequanos ct Hehetios ; 
tertia, '^'lacu Lemanno, et flumine Rhodano, qui Provinciam 
nostram ab Helvetiis dividit, His rebus fiebat, ut et^-minus 
late vagarentur, et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre pos- 
sent : qua de causa homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore 
afiiciebantur. ^Pro multitudine autem hominum, et pro 
gloria belli atque fortitudinis, angustos se fines habere arbi 
trabantur, ^''qui in longitudinem millia passuum ducenta et 
quadraginta, in latitudinem centum et octoginta patebant. 


3. 'His rebus adducti, et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti, 
constituerunt ea, quae ad proliciscendtim pertinerent, com- 
parare ; jumentorum et "carrorum quam maximum numerum 
coemere ; ^sementes quam maximas facerc, ut in itinere 
copia frumenti suppeteret ; cum proximis civitatibus pacem 
et amicitiam confirmare. Ad eas res coniiciendas biennium 
sibi satis esse duxemnt ; ''in tertium annum profectionem 
lege confirmant. °Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorix deli- 
gitur. Is sibi legationem ad civitateS suscepit. In eo 
itinere persuadet Castico, Catamantaledis filio, Sequano, 
cujus pater ^regnum in Sequanis raultos annos obtinuerat, 
et ''a senatu populi Komani amicus appellatus erat, ut reg- 
num in civitate sua ^occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat ; 
itemque Dumnorigi iEduo, fratri Divitiaci, qui eo tempore 
^principatum in civitate obtinebat, ac maxime plebi acceptus 
erat, ut idem conaretur persuadet, eique filiam suam in mat- 
rimonium dat. '"Perfacile factu esse, illis probat, conata 
perficere, propterea quod ipse sua? civitatis imperium obten- 
turus esset : non esse dubium, "quin totius Galliae plurimum 
Helvetii possent : se suis copiis suoque exercitu '^illis regna 
conciliaturum, confirmat. Hac oratione adducti, inter se 
fidem et jusjurandum dant, "'et, regno occupato,fper tres po- 
tentissimos ac '''firmissimos popuIos^'^totius Galliae sese 
potiri posse sperant. 

4. '^Ea res ut est Helvetiis per indicium cnunciata, 
"moribus suis Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coe- 
gerunt : 'Mamnatum poenam sequi oportebat, ut igni cre- 
maretur. Die constituta '^causae dictionis, Orgetorix ad ju- 
dicium -°omnem suam familiam, ad horainum millia decera, 
undique coegit ; et omnes clieutes, ^'obseratosque suos, quo- 
rum magnum numerum Iiabebat, "eodera conduxit : per eos, 
ne causam diceret, se eripuit. Cum civitas, ob eam rera 
^'incitata, armis. jus suum exsequi conaretur, multitudinem- 
que hominum ex agris ^"'magistratus cogerent, Orgetorix 
mortuus est : neque abest suspicio, ut Helvfelii arbitrantur, 
^^qum ipse sibi mortem consciverit. 





5. Post ejus mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id, quod con- 
stituerant, facere conantur, ut e finibus suis txeant. Ubi 
jam se ad eam rcm paratos esse arbitrati sunt, 'oppida sua 
omnia, numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos, reliqua 
privata sedificia incendunt ; frumentum omne, praster quod 
secum portaturi erant, comburunt ; ut, Momum reditionis 
s\^e sublata, paratiores ad omnia pericula subeunda essent : 
^trium mensium molita cibaria sibi quemque domo efferre 
jubent. Persuadent Rauracis, et Tulingis, et Latobrigis, 
linitimis, uti, ^eodem usi consilio, oppidis suis vicisque ex- 
ustis, una cum iis proficiscantur : Boiosque, qui ^trans Rhe 
num incoluerant, et in agrum Noricrun transierant Noreiam 
quc oppugnarant, ^receptos ad se, socios sibi adsciscunt. 

6. Erant omnino itinera duo, "quibus itineribus domo 
exire possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difhcile, 
inter montem Juram et flumen Rhodanum, Vix qua singuli 
carri ducerentur ; mons autem altissimus impendebat, 'ut 
facile perpauci prohibere possent : alterum per '"Provinciam 
nostram, multo facilius atque expeditius, propterea quod 
Helvetiorum inter fines, et "AUobrogum, qui nuper pacati 
erant, Rhodanus fiuit, isque nonnullis locis '^vado transitur. 
Extremum oppidum Allobrogimi est, proximumque Helveti- 
orum finibus, Geneva. '^Ex eo oppido pons ai Helvetios 
pertinet. Allobrogibus sese vel persuasuros, quod nondum 
'^bono animo in Populum Romanum viderentur, existima- 
bant ; vel vi coacturos, ut per suos fines eos ire paterentur. 
Omnibus rebus ad profectionem comparatis, '^diem dicunt, 
qua die ad ripam Rhodani omnes conveniant : '^is dies erat 
'"ante diem quintum Kalendas Aprilis, '^Lucio Pisone, Aulo 
Gabinio Consulibus. 

7. Caesari cum id nuntiatum esset, eos per Provinciam 
nostram iter facere conari, m.aturat '^ab urbe proficisci, et, 
^quam maximis potest itineribus, in -'Galliam ulteriorem 
contendit, et ad Genevam pervenit : ^-Provinciae toti quam 
maximum militum mmierum imperat (erat -^omnino in 

A 2 


Gallia ulteriore legio una) ; pontem, qui erat 'ad Genevam, 
jubet rescindi. Ubi de ejus adventu Helvetii 'certiores facti 
sunt. legatos ad eum mittunt, nobilissimos civitatis, cujus 
legationis Nameius et Verudoctius ''prmcipem locum ol)tin- 
ebant, qui dicerent, ^" sibi esse in animo, sine ullo male- 
ficio iter per Provinciam facere, propterea quod aliud iter 
haberent nuUum : rogare, ut ejus voluntate id sibi facere 
liceat." Caesar, quod memoria tenebat, Lucium Cassium 
Consulem ^occisum, exercitumque ejus ab Helvetiis pidsum. 
et ^sub jugum missum, concedendum non putabat : neque 
homines inimico animo, "data facultate per Provinciam itin- 
eris faciundi, temperaturos ab injuria et maleficio existi- 
niabat. Tamen, ^ut spatium intercedere posset, dum milites, 
quos imperaverat, convenirent, legatis respondit, " diem se 
ad deliberandum sumturum ; si quid vellent, ^ante diem Idus 
Apriles reverterentur." 

8. Interea ea legione, quam secum habebat, militibusque, 
qai ex Provincia convenerant, a lacu Lemamio, '"qui in flu- 
men Rhodanum influit, "ad montem Juram, qui fines Sequa- 
norum ab Helvetiis dividit, '^millia passuum decem novem 
murum, in altitudinem pedum sedecim, fossamque perducit 
Eo opere perfecto, prajsidia disponit, '•''castella communit, 
quo facilius, si se invito transire conarentur, prohibere pos- 
sit. Ubi ea dies, '"'quam constituerai cum legatis, venit, et 
legati ad eum reverterunt, '^negat, " se more et exemplo 
Populi Romani posse iter ulli per Provinciam dare ; et, si 
vim facere conentur, prohibiturum ""ostendit." Helvetii, ea 
spe dejecti, '^navibus junctis ratibusque compluribus factis 
alii vadis Rhodani, ''qua minima altitudo fluminis erat. non 
nunquam interdiu, saspius noctu, si perrumpere possent. 
conati, operis munitione et militum concursu et tejis repulsi, 
hoa conatu destitcrunt. 

9. Relinquebatur una per Sequanos via, qua, Sequanis 
invitis, '"propter angustias ire non poterant. His cum sua 
Bponte persuadere non possent, legatoe ad Dumnorieem 

[/"irn ,1111,11, ,i| ~J\~ — ] 

}•',-.". ^-lte^??^J 


'iEduum mittunt, 'ut eo deprecatore a Sequanis impetrarent. 
Dumnorix '^gratia et largitione apud Sequanos plurimum po- 
terat, et Helvetiis erat amicus, quod ex ea civitate Orgeto- 
rigis filiam ^in matrimonium duxerat ; et, cupiditate regni 
adductus, ^novis rebus studebat, et quam plurimas civitates 
^suo sibi beneficio habere obstrictas volebat. Itaque ^rem 
suscipit, et a Sequanis impetrat, ut per fines suos ire Hel- 
vetios patiantur ; obsidesque uti inter sese dent, perficit : 
Sequani, ne itinere Helvetios prohibeant ; Helvetii, ut sine 
maleficio et injuria transeant. 

10. "Cassari renunciatur Helvetiis esse in animo, per 
agrum Sequanorum et ^duorum iter in Santonum fines 
facere, qui non longe a Tolosatium finibus absunt, ^quae civ- 
itas est in Provincia. ®Id si fieret, intelligebat magno cum 
Provinciae periculo futurum, ut homines bellicosos, Populi 
Romani inimicos, '"locis patentibus maximeque frumentariis 
finitimos haberet. Ob eas causas "ci munitioni, quam fe- 
cerat, Titum Labienum legatum praefecit : ipse '^in Italiam 
magnis itineribus contendit, duasque ibi legiones conscribit, 
et tres, quae circum Aquileiam hiemabant, ex hibernis educit ; 
et, '^qua proximum iter in ulteriorem Galliam per Alpes 
erat, cum his quinque legionibus ire contendit. Ibi Cen 
trones, et Graioceli, et Caturiges, locis superioribus occupa 
tis, itinere exercitum prohibere conantur. '''Compluribui 
his proeliis pulsis, ab Ocelo, quod est '^citerioris Provincia 
extremmn, in fines Vocontiorum ulterioris Provinciae die sep 
timo pervenit ; inde in Allobrogum fines : ab Allobrogibu* 
in Segusianos exercitum ducit. Hi sunt extra Provinciam 
trans Rhodanum primi. 

11. Helvetii jam per angustias et fines Sequanorum suas 
copias transduxerant, et in iEduorimi fines pervenerant, 
eorumque agros populabantur. ^Edui, cum se suaque ab 
iis defendere non possent, legatos ad Caesarem mittunt '^ro- 
gatum auxilium : " ita se omni tempore de Popido Romano 
meritos esse, u% paene in conspectu exercitus nostri agri 


vastari, liberi eonim in servitutem abduci, oppida expugnaiv 
non debuerint." Eodem tempore iEdui Ambarri, 'neces 
sarii et consanguinei jEduorum, Cassarem certiorem faciunt, 
sese, depopulatis agris, non facile ab oppidis A-im hostium 
prohibere : item Allobroges, qui trans Rhodanum vicos pos- 
sessionesque habebant, fuga se ad Csesarem recipiunt, et 
Memonstrant, sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui. 
Quibus rebus adductus Ca3sar, non expectandum sibi sta- 
tuit, dum, ^omnibus fortunis sociorum consumtis, in ''San- 
tonos Helvetii pervenirent. 

12. Thmien est Arar, quod per fines ^duorimi et Sc- 
quanorum in Rhodanum iniluit, '^incredibili lenitate, ita ut 
ocuUs, in utram partem fluat, judicari non possit. ''^ld Hel- 
vetii ratibus ac lintrjflfc junctis transibant. Ubi per explo- 
ratores Csesar certioi- factus est, ^tres jam copiarum partes 
Helvetios id flumeh transduxisse, quartam vero partem citra 
flumen Ararim reliquam esse ; Me tertia vigilia cum legi- 
onibus tribus e castris profectus, ad eam partem pervenit, 
quce nondum flumen transierat. Eos '"impeditos et inopi- 
nantes aggressus, magnam eorum partem concidit : rehqui 
fugse sese mandarunt atque in proximas sylvas abdiderunt. 
"Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus : nam omnis civitas Hel- 
vetia ''in quatuor pagos divisa est. "'Hic pagus unus, cum 
domo exisset, patrum nostronmi meraoria, Lucium Cassium 
Consulem interfecerat, et ejus exercitum sub jugiun miserat. 
Ita, sive casu, sive '''consilio Deorum immortalium, quae 
pars ci^atatis Helvetise insignem calamitatem Populo Ro- 
mano intulerat, ea '"princeps pcenas persolvit. Qua in re 
Caesar non solum publicas, sed etiam privatas injurias ultus 
est, '"quod ejus soceri Lucii Pisonis avum, Lucium Piso- 
nem legatum, Tigurini eodem proelio, quo Cassium, inter- 

13. Hoc proelio facto, reliquas copias Helvetioiuni ut 
"consequi posset, pontem in Arare faciendum curat atque 
ita exercitum transducit. Ilolvetii. repentino ejus adventu 


commoii, 'cum id, quod ipsi diebus viginti Begerrinie con 
fecerant, ut flumcn transirent, uno illum die fecisse intclli- 
gerent, legatos ad eum mittunt : ^cujus legat^nis Divico 
princeps fuit, qui bello Cassiano dux Helvetiorum fuerat. 
Is ita 'cum Ca^sare agit : " Si paceni Populus Romanus cum 
Helvetiis faceret, in eam partem ituros ''atque ibi futuru? 
Helvetios, ubi eos Caesar constituisset atque esse voluisset : 
sin bello persequi perseveraret, reminisceretm- et Veteris 
incommodi Populi Romani et pristinas virtutis Helvetiorum. 
*Quod improviso imum pagum adortus esset, cum ii, qui 
flumen transissent, suis auxilium ferre non possent, ne ob 
eam rem aut suae magno opere virtuti tribueret aut ipsos 
despiccret : se ita a patrikus majoribusque suis didicisse, ut 
magis virtute, ^quam dolo aut insidi^, niterentur. Quare 
hie committeret, ut is locus, ubi constitissent, ex calamitate 
Populi Romani et internecione excrcitus nomen caperet, 
aut memoriam proderet." 

14. His Caesar ita respondit : '" Eo sibi minus dubitaii- 
onis dari, quod eas res, quas legati Helvetii commenioras- 
sont, memoria teneret : '"atque co gravius ferre, quo minus 
merito Populi Romani accidissent ; "qui si alicujus injuria; 
sibi conscius fuisset, non fuisse difRcile cavere ; sed eo de- 
ceptum, quod neque commissum a se intelligeret, quare 
limeret ; neque sine causa timendum putaret. '^Quod si 
veteris contumeliae obliAasci vellet ; num etiam recentium 
injuriarum, '^quod eo invito iter per Provinciam per vim 
tentassent, quod iEduos, quod Ambarros, quod Allobrogas 
vexassent, memoriam deponere posse ? Quod sua victoria 
tam insolenter gloriarentur, quodque tam diu se impune 
tulisse injurias admirarentur, eodem pertinere : consuesse 
enim Deos immortales, '^quo gravius homines ex commuta- 
tione rerum doleant, quos pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, 
his secundiores interdum res et diuturniorem impunitatem 
concedere. '^Cum ea ita sint, tamen, si obsides ab iis sibi 
dentur, uti ea, quse poUiceantur, facturos intelligat, et si 


iEduis de injuriis, qiias ipsis sociisque eomm intulerint, 
item si Allobrogibus satisfaciant, sese cum iis pacem esse 
facturum." k Divico respondit : " Ita Helvetios a majoribus 
suis institutos esse, uti obsides accipere, non dare, con 
suerint : 'ejus rei Populum Romanum esse testem." Hoc 
responso dato, discessit. 

15. Postero die castra cx eo loco niovent : idem facit 
Cajsar ; equitatumque omnem, ad numerum quatuor millium, 

quem ex omni Provincia et /Eduis atque eorum sociis co- 
actum habebat, pra^mittit, qui videant, quas in partes hostes 
iter faciant. ''Qui, cupidius novissimum agmen insecuti, 
''alieno loco cum equitatu Helvetiorum proelium commit- 
tunt ; et pauci de nostris cadunt.^ Quo proglio 'sublati Hel- 
vetii, quod quingentis equitibus tantam multitudinem equi- 
tum propul^-ant, audacius subsistere, nonmmquam ex nov- 
issimo agmine prcelio nostros lacessere, coeperunt. Ca^sar 
suos a proelio continebat, ac *^satis habebat in pressentia hos- 
tem raj^nis, pabula!tici»nibus, popuMidnibusque, prohibero. 
Ita dies circiter quindecim iter fecerunt, uti inter 
hostium agmen ct 'nostrum primum riob amplius quinis aut 
senis milhbus passuum interesset. 

16. ^lnterim quotidie Caesar ^Eduos frumentum, quod 
essent publice poUiciti, fiagitare : nam "propter frigora, quod 
Gallia '"sub septentrionibus, ut ante dictum est, posita est, 
non modo frumenta in agris nmtura non erant, sed ne pab- 
uli quidem satis magna copia "suppetebat : '"eo autem fru- 
mento, quod flumine Arare navibus subvexerat, propterea 
uti minus poterat, quod iter ab Arare Helvetii averterant, a 
quibus discedere nolebat. '^Diem ex die ducere -^.dui ; 
"conferri, comportari, adesse dicere. Ubi ''se diutius duci 
intellexit, et diem instare, quo die frumentum militibus 
metiri oporteret ; convocatis eorum principibus, quonun 
magnam copiam in castris habebat, in his Di\itiaco el 
Lisco, '"qui summo magistratu prseerat (quem '''Vergobretum 
appellant iEdui, qui creatur annuus. et vitae necisque io 


suos habet potestatem), graviter eos accusat, quod, cum 
neque erai, neque ex agris sumi posset, 'tam necessario 
tempore, tam propinquis hostibus, ab iis non sublevetur ; 
prae.sertim cum magna ex parte eorum precibus adductus 
bellum susceperit : muUo etiam gravius, ^quod sit destitv.tus, 

17. Tum demum Liscus, oratione Caesaris adductus, 
'quod antea tacuerat, proponit : " Esse nonnullos, quorum 
auctoritas apud plebem ''plurimum valeat ; qui ^privati plus 
possint, quam ipsi magistratus. 'Hos seditiosa atque im- 
proba oratione multitudinem deterrere, ne frumentum con- 
lerant, quod prsestare debeant. 'Si jam principatum Galliae 
obtinere non possint, Gallorum, quam Romanorum imperia 
perferre, satius esse, ^neque dubitare debere, quin, si Hel- 
vetios superaverint Romani, una cum rehqua GaUia ^duis 
Hbertatem sint erepturi. ^Ab iisdem nostra consilia, quseque 
in castris gerantur, hostibus emmciari : hos "'a se coerceri 
non posse. Quin etiam, quod necessario rem coactus 
Caesari enunciarit, intelligere sese, quanto id cum periculo 
fecerit, et ob eam causam, quam diu potuerit, tacuisse." 

18. Csesar hac oratione Lisci Dumnorigem, Divitiaci fra- 
trem, "designari sentiebat: sed, quod pluribus praesentibus 
cas res jactari nolebat, celeriter concilium dimittit, Liscum 
retinet : ''quaerit ex solo ea, qua^. in conventu dixerat. Dicit 
liberius atque audacius. Eadem secreto ab aliis quaerit ; 
reperit esse vera. " Ipsum esse Dumnorigem, summa au- 
dacia, magna apud plebem propter liberalitatem gratia, cu- 
pidum rerum novarum : "complures annos portoria, reliqua- 
que omnia ^Eduoruih vectigaha, parvo pretio redemta ha- 
bere, propterea quod illo '''licente contra liceri audeat nemo. 
His rebus et suam rem familiarem auxisse, et '^facultatea 
ad largiendum magnas comparasse : magnum numerum 
equitatus suo sumtu semper alere ei circum se habere : 
neque solum domi, sed etiam apud finitimas civitates '^lar- 
giter posse : atque hujus potentiee causa matrem in Bituri- 



gibus, liomiiii illic nobilissimo ac potentissimo, 'coliocasse . 
ipsum ex Helvetiis uxorem habere : sororem ex matre et 
propinquas suas nuptum in alias ci^dtates collocasse : -favere 
et cupere Helvetiis propter eam affinitatem : ''odisse etiam 
suo nomine Caesarem ct Romanos, quod eorum adventu po- 
tentia ejus diminuta, et Divitiacus frater ^in antiquum locum 
gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus. 'Si quid accidat Ro- 
manis, summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi 
venire ; '^imperio Populi Romani non modo de regno, sed 
etiam de ea, quam habeat, gratia desperare." 'Reperiebat 
etiam inquirendo Cassar, " quod pronlium equestre adversum 
paucis ante diebus esset factum, initium ejus fuga; factum a 
Dumnorige atque ejus equitibus" (nam ^equitatu, quem 
auxiho Caesari ^Edui miserant, Dumnorix prseerat), " eorum 
fuga reliquum esse equitatum perterritum." 

19. Quibus rebus cognitis, cum ad has suspiciones ^cer- 
tissimaj res accederent, quod per lines Sequanorum Helve- 
tios transduxisset, quod obsides inter eos dandos curasset, 
quod ea omnia non modo "^injussu suo et civitatis, sed etiam 
inscientibus ipsis fecisset, quod a magistratu yEduonun ac- 
cusaretur : satis esse causa; arbitrabatur, "quare in eum aut 
ipse animadverteret, aut civitatem animadvertere juberet. 
His omnibus rebus unum repugnabat, quod Divdtiaei fratris 
summum in Popuhim Romanum studium, smnmam in se 
'Voluntatem, egregiam fidem, justitiam, temperantiam cog- 
noverat : nam, ne ejus supphcio Divitiaci animum ofTende- 
ret, verebatur. Itaque priusquam quicquam conaretiu-, Divit- 
iacum ad se vocari jubet et, quotidianis interpretibus re- 
motis, per ' Caium Valerium Procillum, principem Gallia? 
provinciae, familiarcm suum, "cui summam omnium rerum 
fidcm habebat, cum eo colloquitur : simul comif monefacit 
qua; ipso praesente in conciho Gallorum de Dumnorige sini 
dicta, et '^ostendit, quas separatim quisque de eo apud sn 
dixerit : petit atque hortatur, ut "^sine ejus ofl^ensione animi 
ve! ipse de eo, causa cognita, statuat, vel civitatem statueTe 

1.1BER 1. CAP. XXII 13 

20. Divitiacus multis curn lacrymis, Caesarem coraplexus, 
obsecrare coepit, '"ne quid gravius in fratrem statueret: 
scire se, illa csse vera, nec quenquam ex eo plus, quam se, 
doloris caperc, '^propterea quod, cum ipse gratia plurimiuii 
domi atque in reliqua Gallia, ille minimum propter adoles- 
centiam posset, per se crevisset ; quibus opibus ac nervis, 
non solum ad minuendam gratiara, sed paene ad pemiciem 
suam uteretur : sese tamen et amore fratemo et existima- 
tione vulgi commoveri. Quod si quid 'ei a Ca^sare gravius 
accidisset, cuin ipse eum locum amicitiae apud eura teneret, 
aeminem existimaturam, non sua voluntate factum ; qua ex 
re futurum, uti totius Galliae anirai a se averterentur." Haec 
cum pluribus verbis flens a Caesare peteret, Caesar ejus dex- 
tram prendit ; consolatus rogat, finem orandi 'faciat : tanti 
ejus apud se gratiam esse ostendit, uti et reipublicae inju- 
riam et suum dolorem ejus voluntati ac precibus condonet 
Dumnorigera ad se vocat ; fratrem ^adhibet ; quae in eo rep- 
rehendat, ostendit ; quae ipse intelligat, quae civitas quera- 
tur, proponit ; monet, ut in reliquum terapus omnes suspi- 
ciones vatet ; prseterita se Divitiaco fratri condonare dicit. 
*Duranorigi custodes ponit, ut, quae agat, quibuscura loqua- 
tur, scire possit. 

21. Eodem die ab exploratoribus certior factus, hostes 
sub monte consedisse millia passuum ab ipsius castris octo ; 
'qualis esset natura montis et qualis in circuitu ascensus, 
qui cognoscerent, misit. Renunciatum est, *facilem esse. 
De tertia vigilia Titum Labienum, ^egatum pro praetore, 
cum duabus legionibus, '"et iis ducibus, qui iter cognove- 
fant, suraramn jugum raontis ascendere jubet ; quid sui con- 
silii sit, ostendit. Ipse de quarta vigilia eodem itinere, quo 
hostes ierant, ad eos contendit, equitatumque omnem ante 
ee mittit. Publius Considius, qui rei militaris peritissimus 
habebatur, et in exercitu Lucii Sullae, et postea ' in Marci 
Crassi fuerat, cum exploratoribus praemittitur. 

22. Prima luce, cum '-suramus mons a Tito liabieno 


leneretur, 'ipse ab iKistium castris non longius niillft et 
quingentis passibus abesset, neque, ut postea ex captivi^ 
comperit, aut ipsius adventus, aut Labieni, cognitus esse', 
Considius, ^cquo admisso, ad eum accurrit : dicit, montem 
quem a Labieno occupari voluerit, ab liostibus teneri ; id S6 
*a Gallicis armis atque insignibus cognovisse. Ceesar suaa 
copias in proximum coUem ''subducit, aciem instruit. La- 
bienus, ut erat ei praeceptum a Ca^sare, ne proelium com- 
mitterct, nisi ipsius copise ^prope hostium castra visae essent, 
ut undiquc uno tcmpore in liostes impetus lierct, monte oc- 
cupato nostros expectabat prffilioque abstinebat. ^Multo 
denique die per exploratores Ceesar cognovit, et montem a 
suis teneri, et Helvetios castra movisse, et Considium, 
timore pra3territum, "quod non -vidisset, pro viso sibi renun- 
ciasse. Eo die, "quo consuerat intervallo, hostes sequitur, 
et millia passuum tria ab eorvmi castris castra ponit. 

23. Postridie ejus diei, 'quod omnino biduum supererat, 
cum exercitu fnnnentum metiri oporteret, etquod a Bibracte, 
oppido iEduorum longe maximo et copiosissimo, non am- 
plius millibus passuum octodecim aberat, '"rei frumentaria; 
prospiciendum existimavit, iter ab Helvetiis avertit, ac Bi- 
bracte irc contendit. Ea res per fugitivos Lucii .^milii, 
"decurionis equitum Gallorum, hostibus nunciatur. Hel- 
vetii, seu quod timore perterritos Romanos '"discedere a se 
existimarent, eo magis, quod pridie, superioribus locis oc- 
cupatis, proslium non commovissent ; sive eo, quod re fru- 
mentaria intercludi posse confiderent ; coramutato '^consilio 
atque itinere converso, nostros a novissimo agmine insequi 
ac lacessere coeperunt. 

24. Postquam id '''animum advertit, copias suas Csesar iu 
proximum coUem subducit, equitatumque, qui sustineret 
hostium impetum, misit. Ipse interim '"in coUe medio 
triplicem aciem instruxit legionum quatuor vcterananun, 
ita, uti supra se in summo jugo duas lcgiones, "'quas in 
Gallia citeriorc proxime conscripserat, ot nmnia aiixilia col 


7 e^ 
-= s « g 

^ m H 

LIBER 1. CAP. XWr. 15 

locaret ; ac totum montem hominibus compleri, et interea 
sarcinas in unum locum conferri, 'et eum ab his, qui in su- 
periore acie constiterant, muniri jussit. Helvetii, cum om- 
nibus suis carris secuti, impedimenta in unum locum con- 
tuleiamt : ipsi, '^confertissima acie, rejecto nostro eqmtatu, 
jtialange facta, ''sub primam nostram aciem successerunt. 

25. Cffisar, primum ^suo, deinde "omnium ex conspectu 
icmotis equis, ut, aequato omnium periculo, spem fugae tol- 
leret, cohortatus suos, proelium commisit. Milites, e loco 
superiore pilis missis, facile hostium phalangem perfrege- 
runt. Ea disjecta, gladiis Mestrictis in eos impetum fece- 
runt. "Gallis magno ad pugnam erat impedimento, quod, 
pluribus eorum scutis uno ictu pilorum transfixis et colliga- 
tis, cum ferrum se inflexisset, neque eveUjere, neque, sinis- 
tra impedita, satis coramode pugnare poterant ; multi ut, diu 
jactato brachio, prseoptarent scutum manu emittere, et nudo 
corpore pugnare. Tandem vulneribus defessi, el *pedem 
referre, et, quod mons suberat circiter mille passuum, eo se 
recipere coeperunt. Capto raonte et succedentibus nostris, 
Boii et Tulingi, qm hominum millibus circiter quindecim 
*agmen hostium claudebant, et novissirais praesidio erant, 
'"ex itinere nostros latere aperto aggressi, circumvenere : 
61 id conspicati Helvetii, qui in montem sese receperant, 
nu-sus instare et proelium redintegrare coeperunt. "Eomani 
conversa signa bipartito intulerunt : prima, ac secunda 
acies, ut victis ac summotis resisteret ; tertia, ut venientes 

20. Ita'"*^ancipiti prcelio diu atque acriter pugnatum est, 
Diutms cum nostrorum impetus sustinere non possent, '^al- 
tori se, ut coeperant, in montem receperunt ; alteri ad im- 
pedimenta et carros suos se contulerunt. Nam hoc toto 
pralio, cum ab '"'hora septima ad v/;sperum pugnatum sit, 
' avoisum hostenj iddere nemo potuit. '®Ad multam noctem 
etiam ad impedimenta pugnatum est, propterea quod pro 
vallo carros objecerant. et e loco superiore in nostros veni 


entes tela conjiciebant, et nonnulli, inter carros roiasque 
'mataras ac tragulas subjiciebant nostrosque \Tilnerabant 
Diu cum esset pugnatum, impedimentis castrisque nostri 
potiti sunt. Ibi ^Orgetorigis filia, atque unus e filiis captus 
est. Ex eo prffilio circiter millia hominum centum et trl- 
ginta superfuerunt, eaque tota nocte continenter ierunt . 
^nullam partem noctis itinere intermisso, in fines Lingonum 
die quarto pervenerunt, cum, et propter vulnera militum, et 
propter sepulturam occisorum, nostri, triduum morati, eos 
sequi non potuissent. Cacsar ad Lingonas litcras nuncios- 
que misit, ne cos fiiimento, neve alia re juvarent : ^qui si 
juvissent, se eodcm loco, quo Helvetios, habiturum. Ipse, 
triduo intermisso, cum omnibus copiis eos sequi cospit. 

27. Helvetii, omnium rcrum inopia adducti, legatos de 
deditione ad eum miserunt. ''Qui, cum eum in itinere con- 
venissent, seque ad pedes projecissent, suppliciterque locuti 
flentes pacem petissent, atque eos in eo loco, quo tum es- 
sent, suum adventum expectare jussisset, paruerunt. ^Eo 
postquam Cessar pervenit, obsides, arma, servos, qui ad eos 
perfugissent, poposcit. Dum ea conquiruntur et conferun- 
tur, noctc intermissa, circiter hominum millia sex ejus pagi, 
qui "Verbigenus appellatur, sivc timore perterriti, ne, armis 
traditis, supplicio afiicerentur, sive spe salutis inducti, quod, 
in tanta multitudine dedititiorum, suam fugam aut ^occultari, 
aut omnino ignorari posse existimarent, prima nocte ex cas- 
tris Helvetiorum egi'essi, ad Rhenum finesque Germanorum 

28. Quod ubi Csesar Vesciit, "^quorum per fines ierant. 
his, uti conquirerent et reducerent, si sibi purgati esse vel- 
lent, imperavit : "reductos in liostium numero habuit : reli- 
quos omnes, obsidibus, armis, perfugis traditis, in deditionem 
accepit. Ilelvetios, Tulingos, Latobrigos in fines suos, 
unde erant profecti, revcrti jussit ; et quod, ''omnibus fruc- 
tibus amissis, domi nihil erat, quo famem tolerarent, AUo- 
brogibus imperavit, ut iis frumcnti copiam facerent : "ipso** 


oppida vicosque, quos incenderant, restituere jussit. Id ea 
maxime ratione fecit, quod noluit, eum locum, unde llelvp.tii 
discesserant, 'vacare ; ne propter bonitatem agrorum Ger- 
mani, qui trans Rhenum inoolunt, e suis finibus in Helveti- 
orum fines transirent, et finitimi Gallize provincias Allobro- 
gibusque essent. ^Boios, petentibus JEduis, quod egregia 
virtute erant cogniti, ut in finibus suis collocarent, concessit : 
quibus illi agros dederunt, quosque postea in parem juris 
libertatisque conditionem, atque ipsi erant, receperunt. 

29. In castris Helvetiorum ''tabula; repertae sunt, ''literis 
Graecis confectos et ad Caesarem relatae, quibus in tabulis 
nominatim ^ratio confecta erat, qui numerus domo exisset 
eorum, qui arma ferre possent : et item separatim pueri, 
aenes, mulieresquc. Quarum oinnium rerum ^summa erat, 
'capitum Helvetiorum millia ducenta et sexaginta tria, Tu- 
lingorum millia triginta sex, Latobrigorum quatuordecim, 
Rauracorum viginti tria, Boiomm triginta duo : ex his, qui 
arma ferre possent, ad millia nonaginta duo. Summa om- 
nium fuerunt ad millia trecenta et sexaginta octo. EonirCj 
qui domum redienmt, ^censu habito, ut Caesar imperaverat, 
repertus est numerus millium centum et decem. 

30. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, totius fere ^Galliae legati. 
principes civitatum, ad Caesarem gratulatum convenerunt : 
'"" intelligere sese, tametsi, pro veteribus Helvetiorum in- 
juriis Populi Romani, ab iis pcenas bello repetisset, liamen 
eam rem non minus ex usu "terrae Galliae, quam Populi Ro- 
mani accidisse : propterea quod eo consilio, florentissimis 
rebus, domos suas Helvetii reUquissent, uti toti Galliae bel- 
lum inferrent, imperioque potirentur, locumque domicilio 
'^ex magna copia deligerent, quem ex omni Gallia oppor- 
tunissimum ac fructuosissimum judicassent, reliquasque civ- 
itates "stipendiarias haberent." Petierunt, " uti sibi con- 
cilium totius Galliae '''in diem certam indicere, idque Caesaris 
«foluntate facere, liceret : sese habere quasdam res, quas ex 
communi consensu ab eo petere vellent." Ea re permissa. 


diem concilio constitueruiit, et jurejurando, 'ne quis enun 
ciaret, nisi quibus commuiu consilio mandatum esset, inter 
se sanxerunt. 

31. ^Eo concilio dimisso, iidem principes civitatuin, ''qui 
ante fuerant ad Ca;sarem, reverterunt, petieruntque, uti sibi 
*sei;reto de sua omniumque salute cum eo agere liceret. 
Ea re impetrata, sese omnes flentes Coesari ad pedes pro- 
jecerunt : ^" non minus se id contendere et laborare, ne ea, 
qua; dixissent, enunciarentur, quam uti ea, qua; vellent, im- 
petrarent ; propterea quod, si enunciatum esset, summum in 
cruciatum se venturos viderent." Locutus est pro his Di- 
vitiacus iEduus : " Galliee totius ^factiones esse duas • 
harum alterius '^principatum tenere ^Eduos, alterius Arver- 
nos. Hi cum tantopere de potentatu inter se multos annos 
contenderent, factum esse uti ab Arvernis ^Sequanisque 
Gcrmani mercede arccsserentur. ^Horum primo circiter 
millia quindecim Rhenum transisse : posteaquam agros, et 
cultum, et copias Gallorum homines feri ac barbari adamas- 
sent, transductos plures : nunc esse in Gallia ad centum et 
viginli millium numerum : cum his iEduos eorumque '"cli- 
entes semel atque iterum armis contendisse ; magnam ca- 
lamitatem pulsos accepisse, omnem nobilitatem, omnem 
senatum, omnem equitatum amisisse. Quibus prceliis ca- 
lamitatibusque fractos, qui et sua virtute, et Populi Romani 
"hospitio atque amicitia, plurimum ante in Gallia potuissent, 
coactos esse Sequanis obsides dare, nobilissimos civitatis, 
et jurejurando civitatem obstringere, sese neque obsides 
repetituros, neque auxilium a Populo Romano imploraturos, 
neque recusaturos, quo minus perpetuo sub illorum ditione 
atque imperio essent. '"Unum se esse ex onuii civitate 
.^iduorum, qui adduci non potucrit, ut juraret, aut liberos 
Buos obsides daret. Ob eam rem se ex civitate profugisse, 
et Romam ad senatum venisse, "auxilium postulatum, quod 
Bolus neque jurejurando neque obsidibus teneretur. Sed 
pejus victoribus Sequanis, quam iEduis victis, accidisse • 

LIIiER 1. C.VP. XX.VII. 19 

proplerea quod Ariovistus, rex Germanorum, iu eoruni lini- 
bus consedisset, tertiamque partem agri Sequani, 'qui esset 
optimus totius Galliae, occupavisset, et nunc de altera parte 
tertia Sequanos decedere juberet ; propterea quod, paucis 
mensibus ante, Harudum millia hominum viginti quatuor ad 
eum venissent, ^quibus locus ac sedes pararentur. Futurum 
esse paucis annis, uti omnes ex Galliae finibus pellerentur, 
atque omnes Germani Rhenum transirent : ^neque enim 
conferendum esse Gallicum cum Germanorum agro, ''neque 
iianc consuetudinem victus cum iUa comparandam. Ario- 
vistum autem, ^ut semel Gallorum copias proeUo vicerit, 
quod prcelium factum sit ^ad Magetobriam, superbe et cru- 
deliter. imperare, obsides nobilissimi cujusque liberos pos- 
cere, 'et in eos omnia exempla cruciatusque edere, si qua 
res non ad nutum aut ad voluntatem ejus facta sit : ^homi 
nem esse barbarum, iracundum, temerarium : non posse 
ejus imperia diutius sustineri. ''Nisi si quid in Csesare Pop- 
uloque Romano sit auxilii, omnibus Gailis idem esse faci- 
endum, quod Helvetii fecerint, '"ut domo emigrent, aliud 
domicilium, alias sedes, remotas a Germanis, petant, fortr- 
namque, qusecumque accidat, experiantur. "Haec si enufii' 
ciata Ariovisto sint, non dubitare, quin de omnibus obsidibus, 
qui apud eum sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat. Caesar- 
em vel auctoritate sua '-atque exercitus, vel recenti vic- 
toria, vel nomine Populi Romani deterrere posse, ne major 
muhitudo Germanorum Rhenum transducatur, GaUiaraque 
omnem '^ab Ariovisti injuria posse defendere." 

32. Hac oratione ab Divitiaco '%abita, omnes, qui ad- 
crant, magno fletu auxilium a Csesare petere coeperunt. 
Animadvertit Caesar, unos ex omnibus Sequanos nihil earuin 
rerum facere, quas ceteri facerent ; sed tristes, capite de- 
misso, terram intueri. Ejus rei causa quae esset, miratus, 
»^x ipsis quaesiit. Nihil Sequani '^respondere, sed in eadera 
cristitia taciti permanere. Cum ab iis sagpius quasreret, 
neque ullsm omnino vocem '^exprimere posset. idem Divit 


iacus iEduiis respondit : '" Hoc essc miseriorem gravio 
remque fortunam Sequanorum, prae reliquorum, quod soli 
ne in occulto quidem queri, neque auxilium implorare au- 
derent, ^absentisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si coram 
adesset, horrerenl : propterea quod reliquis tamen fugae 
facultas daretur ; Sequanis vero, qui intra fines suos Ario- 
vistum recepissent, 'quorum oppida omnia in potestate ejus 
essent, ''omnes cruciatus essent perferendi." 

33. His rebus cognitis, CiEsar ^Gallorum animos verbib 
confirmavit, pollicitusque est, sibi eam rem curae futuram : 
magnam se liabere spem, et %eneficio suo et auctoritate 
adductmn Ariovistum finem injuriis facturum. Hac oratione 
liabita, concilium dimisit ; et 'secundum ea ^multae res eum 
liortabantur, quare sibi eam rem cogitandam et suscipien- 
dam putaret ; in primis quod iEduos, "fratres consanguineos- 
que saepenumero ab Senatu appellatos, in servitute atque in 
ditione videbat Germanorum teneri, eorumque obsides esse 
apud Ariovistum ac Sequanos intelligebat : quod in tanto 
imperio Populi Romani turpissimum sibi et reipublicae essc 
arbitrabatur. 'Taulatim autem Germanos consuescere 
Rhenum transire, et in Galliam magnam eorum multitudi- 
nem venire, Populo Romano periculosum videbat : neque 
"sibi homines feros ac barbaros temperaturos existimabat, 
quin, cum omnem Galliam occupassent, ut ante '^Cimbri 
Teutonique fecissent, in Provinciam exirent, atque inde in 
Ttaliam contenderent ; '^prsesertim cum Sequanos a ProAdncia 
nostra Rhodanus divideret. Quibus rebus quam maturrimc 
'"occurrendum putabat. Ipse autem Ariovistus tantos sibi 
spiritus, tantam arrogantiam sumserat, ut ferendus non vi- 

34. Quamobrem placuit ei, ut ad Ariovistum legatos mit- 
teret, qui ab eo postularent, '''uti aUquem locum medium 
utriusque colloquio dicerct : velle sese de republica '^eJ 
Bummis utriusque rebus cum eo agere. Ei legationi Ario- 
vistus respondit : '"" Si quid ipsi a Cecsare opus csset, sese 


ad eum veiiturum fuisse ; si quid 'ille so velit, illum ad se 
venire oportere. Praeterea se neque f-ine exercitu in eas 
partes Galliae venire audere, quas Caesfir possiderct ; neque 
cxercitum "sine magno commeatu alquii emolimento in ununi 
locum contrahere posse : sibi autom mirum videri, ^quid in 
£ua Gallia, ''quam bello vicisset, aut Caesari, aut omnino 
Fopulo Romano negotii esset." 

35. His responsis ad Caesarem relatis, ^iterum ad eum 
Cacsar legatos cum his mandatis mittit : ^" Quoniam tanto 
suo Populique Romani beneficio affectus (cum in consulatu 
suo rex atque amicus a Senatu /ippellatus esset), lianc sibi 
Populoque Romano gratiam vefcrret, ut in colloquium venire 
invitatus gravaretur, neque de communi re dicen lum sibi et 
cognoscendum putaret ; ha;c esse, quai ab eo postularet : 
primum, ne '^quam hominani muhitudinem ainplius trans 
Rhenum in Galliam transdui;eret : deinde obsides, quos ha- 
beret ab ^Eduis, redderet, Sequanisque permitteret, ut, quos 
Jli haberent, ^voluntate ojus reddere illis liceret; neve 
xEduos injuria lacesseret, neve his sociisve oorum bellum 
inferret : si id ita fecisset, sibi Populoque Romano perpet- 
uam gratiam atque ami';iti;im cum eo futuram : si non im- 
petraret, ^sese (quoniam '^Marco IMessala Marco Pisouo 
ConsuUbus, Senatus censuisset, uti, quicumque Galhani 
provinciam "obtineret, '^qu(>d commodo reipublicae faceie 
posset, iEduos ceterosque ainicos Populi Romani defende- 
ret), sese iEduoruni injurias non neglecturum." 

36. Ad haec Ariovistus respondit : " Jus esse belli, ul, 
qui vicissent, iis, quos vicissent, quemadmodum vellent, 
imperarent : '^item Populum Roinanum victis nonad alterius 
prajscriptum, sed ad suum arbitrium, imperare consuessc. 
Si ipse Populo Romano non praescriberet, '''quemadmodum 
Buo jure utereLur ; non oportere sese a Populo Romano in 
6UO jure impediri. ^Eduos sibi, iiuoniam belli fortunam ten- 
tassent et armis congressi ac suporati essent, ''stipendiarios 
esse factos. '^Magnam Caesarem injuriam facere, qui suo 



adventu vectigalia sibi deteriora faceret. ^Eduis se obsid';' 
rcdditurum non esse, neque iis, neque eorum sociis 'injurit 
bellum iilaturum, si in eo manerent, quod convenisset, sti- 
pendiumque quotannis penderent : si id non fecissent, '^longe 
iis fraternum nomen Populi Romani abfuturum. ^Quod sibi 
Caesar denunciaret, se jiEduorum injurias non neglecturum ; 
neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse. Cum vellet. 
congrederetur ; inteJTcoturum, quid invicti Germani, ''extr- 
citatissimi in armis^ qui "inter annos quatuordecim tectum 
non subissent, virtutd possent." 

37. Haec eodem tempore Csesari mandata referebantur, 
et legati ab TEduis et a Trcviris veniebant : ^rEdui questum, 
quod ''Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati essent, 
fines eorum popularentur ; sese ne obsidibus quidem datis 
pacem Ariovisti redimere potuisse : 'Treviri autem, *pagos 
centum Suevorum ad ripas Rheni consedisse, 'qui Rhenuni 
transire conarentur ; iis praeesse Nasuam et Cimberium 
fratres. Quibus rebus Caesar 'Vehementer commotus, ma- 
turanduni sibi existimavit, ne, si nova manus Suevorum cum 
veteribus oopiis Ariovisti sese conjunxisset, minus facilo 
resisti posset. Itaque "rc frumentaria, quam celerrime 
potuit, comparata, magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum conten- 

38. Cum tridui viam proccssisset, nunciatum est ei, Ario- 
vistum cum suis omnibus copiis ad occupandum Vesontio- 
nem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, '-'contendere, 
triduique viam a suis finibus profecisse. Id ne accideret, 
magno opere sibi prsecavendum Ctcsar existimabat : num- 
que omnium rerum, quse ad bellum usui erant, '^summa erat 
in eo oppido facultas ; idque natura loci sic muniebatur, ut 
magnam '''ad ducendum bellum darct facultatem, proplerea 
quod flumen '''Dubis, '^ut circino circumductum, poene totum 
oppidum cingit : reliquum spatium, quod est non amplius 
pedum '^sexcentorum, '\]ua flumen inlermittit, mons '^con- 
tinet magna altitudine, ita ut radices ejus montis ex utraque 

LIBER I. CAl'. XL. 28 

parte ripae fluminis contingant. 'Hunc murus circunidatus 
arcem efficit et cum oppido conjungit. Huc Caesar magnis 
'^nocturnis diumisque ilineribus contendit, occupatoque op- 
pido, ibi praesidium collocat. 

39. Dum paucos dies ad Vcsontionem, rei frumentariee 
commeatusque causa, moratur, ''ex percunctatione nostrorum 
vocibusque Gallorura ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitu- 
dine corporum Germanos, incredibili virtute atque exercita- 
tione in armis esse praedicabant, saepenumero sese, cum eis 
congressos, ne ^vultum quidem atque aciem oculorum ferre 
potuisse, tantus subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit, 
ut non mediocriter omnium mentes animosque perturbaret. 
Hic primum ortus est a ^Tribunis militum, praefectis reli- 
quisque, qui, ex ^urbe amicitiae causa Caesarem secuti, non 
magnum in re militari usum habebant : ^quorum alius, alia 
caijsa illata, quam sibi ad proficiscendum necessariam esse 
dicerent, petebant, ut ejus voluntate discedere liceret : non- 
nuUi, pudore adducti, ut timoris suspicionem vitarent, re- 
manebant. Hi neque ^vultum fingere, neque interdum la- 
cr}'mas tenere poterant : abditi in tabemaculis, aut suum 
fatum querebantur, aut cum familiaribus suis commune pe- 
riculum miserabantur. ^Vulgo totis castris testamenta ob- 
signabantur. Horum vocibus ac timore paulatim etiam ii, 
qui '"magnum in castris usum habebant, milites centuriones- 
que, "quique equitatu praeerant, perturbabantur. '-Qui se 
ex his minus timidos existimari volebant, non se hostera 
vereri. sed angustias itineris et magnitudinem silvarum, 
quae intercederent inter ipsos atque Ariovistum, aut rem 
fnunentariam, '^ut satis commode supportari posset, timere 
dicebant. Nonnulli etiam Caesari renunciabant, cum castra 
raoveri ac '■*signa ferri jussisset, non fore dicto audientes 
milites, '°nec propter timorem signa laturos. 

40. Haec cum animadvertisset, '^convocato consilio, ''om- 
niumque ordinum ad id consilium adhibitis centurionibus, 
vehementer eos incusavit ; '^" primum, quod, aut quam in 


partem, aut quo coiisilio duccrenlur, sibi qusercndum aut 
cogitandum putarent. Ariovistum, se consulc, cupidissime 
Populi Romani amicitiam appetisse ; cur hunc tam temere 
quisquam ab officio discessurum judicaret ? Sibi quidem 
persuaderi, cognitis suis 'postulatis atque aequitate conditi- 
onum perspccta, eum neque suam, ncque Populi Romaiii 
gratiam repudiaturum. Quod si, furore atque amentia im- 
pulsus, boUum intulisset, quid tandem vcrerentur ? "aut cur 
de sua virtute, aut de ipsius diligentia, desperarent ? ^Fac- 
tum cjus hostis periculum patrum nostrorum memoria, cum, 
Cimbris et Teutonis a Caio Mario pulsis, non minorem 
laudem exercitus, quam ipse imperator, meritus vidcbatur : 
''factum ctiam nuper in Ilalia scrvili tumultu, "quos tamen 
aliquid usus ac disciplina, quam a nobis accepissent, sub- 
lcvarent. Ex quo judicari posset, quantum haberet in se 
boni ^constantia ; propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu inermos 
sinc causa timuissent, hos postea armatos ac victores su- 
perassent. Deniquc ho.s csse eosdem, quibuscum stepenu- 
mero Ilelvetii congrcssi, non sohmi in "suis, sed etiam in 
iUorum finibus, plcrumque superarint, qui tamen pares essc 
nostro exercitu non potuerint. Si quos ^adversum prcelium 
et fuga Gallorum commoverct, hos, si quasrerent, reperire 
posse, diuturnitatc bcUi defatigatis Galhs, Ariovistum, cum 
midtos mcnsss castris se ac pahidibus tenuisset, ^eque sui. 
potestat(;m fecisset, despcrantes jam de pugna et dispersos 
subito adortum, magis '"ratione et consiho, quam virtute, 
vicisse. Cui rationi contra homines barbaros atque imper- 
itos locus fuisset, hac, ne ipsum quidem sperare, nostros 
exercitus capi posse. "Qui suum timorem in rei frumcn- 
taria) simuiationem angustiasque itinerum conferrent, facere 
arrogantcr, cum aut de officio imperatoris desperare, aut 
prcescribere viderentur. Hasc sibi esse cura? ; frumentum 
Scquanos, Leucos, Lingonas subministrare ; jamque esse 
in agris frumenta matura : de itinere ipsos '"brevi tempore 
iudicaturos. Quod non fore dicto audientes mihtes, neque 


'gnalaturi dicantur, nihil sc ea rc commoveri : 'scire enim, 
quibuscumque exercitus dicto audiens non fuerit, aut, male 
re gesta, fortunam deluisse ; aut, aliquo facinore comperto, 
avaritiam esse conjimctam. Suam innocentiam ^perpetua 
vita, felicitatem Helvetiorum bello, esse perspectam. ^lta- 
que se, quod in longiorem diem collaturus esset, repraesen- 
taturiim, et proxima nocte de quarta vigilia castra motnrum, 
ut quam primum intelligere posset, utrum apud eos pudoi 
atque officium, an timor valeret. Quod si praeterea nemo 
scquatur, tamen se cum sola Mecima legione iturum, de qua 
non dubitaret ; sibique eam praetoriam coliortem futuram." 
Huic legioni Caesar et indulserat prsecipue, et propter vir- 
tutem confidebat maxime. 

4 1 . Hac oratione habita, mirum in modum conversse sunt 
omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas belli ge- 
rendi innata est, ^princepsque decima legio, per tribunos 
militum, ei gratias egit, quod de se optimum judicium fe- 
cisset ; seque esse ad bellum gerendum paratissimam con- 
firmavit. Deinde reliquae legiones, per tribunos militum et 
*primorum ordinum centuriones, egerunt, uti CECsari satis- 
facerent : se neque unquam dubitasse, neque timuisse, 
'neque de summa belli suum judicium, sed imperatoris 
esse, existimavdsse. Eorum ^satisfactione accepta, et itin- 
ere exquisito per Di-vitiacum, quod ex aliis ei maximam 
fidem habebat, ut millium amplius ^quinquaginta circuitn 
locis apertis exv^^rcitum duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, 
profectus cst. Septimo die, cum iter non intermitteret, ah 
exploratoribus certior factus est, Ariovisti copias a nostris 
millibus passuum quatuor et viginti abesse. 

42. Cognito Cgesaris adventu, Ariovistus legatos ad eum 
mittit : '"quod antea de colloquio postulasset, id per se fieri 
licere, quoniam propius accessisset : seque id sine periculo 
faaere posse "existimare. Non respuit conditionem Cajsar : 
jamque eum ad '"sanitatem reverti axbiti-abatur, cum id, quod 
antea petenti denegasset, uhro polliceretur ; magnansque iiv 



spem veniebat, pro suis tantis Populique Romani in cum 
beneficiis, cogiiitis suis postulatis, fore, uti pertinacia desis- 
teret. Dies colloquio dictus est, ex eo die quintus. Inter- 
im, cum saepe ullro citroque legati inter eos mitterentur, 
Ariovistus postulavit, ne quem peditem ad colloquium Cassar 
adduceret : vcreri se, ne per insidias ab eo circumveniretur -: 
uterque cura equitatu veniret : 'alia ratione se non esse^ 
venturum. Caesar, quod neque coiloquium interposita causa 
tolli volebat, neque salutem suam -Gallorum equitatui com- 
mittere audebat, ^commodissimum esse statuit, omnibus 
equis Gallis equitibus detractis, eo legionarios milites legi- 
onis decimae, cui quam maxime confidebat, imponere, ut 
praesidium quam amicissimum, si quid opus facto esset, ha- 
beret. Quod cum fieret, "'non irridicule quidam ex militibus 
decimae legionis dixit : '• plus, quam poUicitus esset, Ca^sar- 
em ei facere ; poUicitum, se in cohortis prstorias loco de- 
cimam legionem habiturum, ^nunc ad equum rescribere." 

43. Planities erat magna, ct in ea "^tumulus terrenus satis 
grandis. Hic locus a;quo fcre spatio ab castris utrisque 
aberat. Eo, ut erat dictuin, ad colloquium venerunt. Le- 
gionem Caesar, quam equis devexerat, passibus ducentis ab 
60 tumulo constituit. Item equites Ariovisti pari intervallo 
constiterunt. Ariovistus, ''ex equis ut colloquerentur et, 
praeter se, denos ut ad colloquium adducerent, postulavit. 
Ubi eo ventum est, Caesar, initio orationis, sua Senatusque 
in eum beneficia ^commemoravit, " quod rex appellatus 
esset a Senatu, quod amicus, quod munera amplissima missa : 
quam rem et paucis contigisse, et 'pro magnis hominum 
ofiiciis consuesse tribui" docebat : " illum, cum neque adi- 
tum, neque causam postulandi justam haberet, bene.ficio ac 
liberalitate sua ac Senatus ea prsemia consecutum." Do- 
cebat etiam, '•" quam veteres, quanique justaj causae neces- 
situdinis ipsis cum iEduis intercederent, quae Senatus con- 
sulta, quoties, quamque honorifica in eos facta essent : "ul 
omni tempore totius Gallise principatum iEdui tenuissent. 

1.IBER I. CAl'. XLIV. 27 

pnus etiam quam nostram amicitiam appetissent : Populi 
Romani hanc esse consuetudinem, ut socios atque amicos 
non modo 'sui nihil deperdere, sed gratia, dignitate, honore 
auctiores velit esse : ^quod vero ad amicitiam Populi Ro- 
mani attulissent, id iis eripi, quis pati posset ?" ^Postulavit 
deinde eadem, quae legatis in mandatis dederat, " ne aut 
uEduis, aut eorum sociis bellvmi inferret ; obsides redderet : 
si nullam partem Germanorum domum remittere posset, at 
ne quos amplius Rhenum transire pateretur." 

44. Ariovistus ad postulata Ceesaris pauca respondit ; Me 
suis virtutibus inulta praedicavit : " Transisse Rhenum sese, 
non sua sponte, sed rogatum et arcessitum a Gallis ; non 
sine magna spe, magTiisque praemiis, domum propinquosque 
reliquisse ; sedes habero in Gallia, ^ab ipsis concessas ; 
obsides ipsorum voluntate datos ; stipendium capere jure 
belli, quod victores victis imponere consuerint ; non sese 
Gallis, sed Gallos sibi belhim intulisse ; omnes '^Galliag civ- 
itates ad se oppugnandtmi venisse, ac contra se castra habu- 
ibse ; eas omnes copias a se uno proeho fusas ac superatas 
esse ; si iterum experiri velint, iterum paratum sese decer- 
tare ; si pace uti velint, iniquum esse, de stipendio recusare 
quod sua vohmtate ad id tempus pependerint. Amicitiam 
Populi Romani sibi omamento et prsesidio, non detrimento, 
esse oportere, 'idque se ea spe petisse. Si per Popuhim 
Romanum ^stipendium remittatiu*, et dedititii subtrahantur. 
non minus Hbenter sese recusaturum Populi Romani amici- 
tiam, quam appetierit. ^Quod muUitudinem Germanorum 
in Galliam transducat, id se sui muniendi, non Galliae im- 
pugnandae causa facere ; ejus rei testimonium esse, quod, 
nisi rogatus, non venerit, et quod bellum non intulerit, '^sed 
defenderit. "Se prius in Galliam venisse, quam Populum 
Romanum. Nimquam ante hoc tempus exercitum Populi 
Romani GaUise provincise fines egressum. '^Quid ?ibi vel- 
let 1 Cur in suas possessiones veniret ? Provinciam suam 
hanc esse GalHam, sicut illam nostram. Ut ipsi concedi 


non oporteret, si in nostros fines impetum faceret, sic itero 
nos ( sse iniquos, 'qui in suo jure se interpellaremus 
^Quol fratres a Senatu jEduos appellatos diceret, non se 
tam barbarum, neque tam imperitum esse rerum, ut non 
sciiet, neque bello AUobrogum proximo ^Eduos l?omai?iis 
auxilium tulisse, neque ipsos in liis contentionibus, quas 
ilWui secum et cum Sequanis babuissent, ^uxilio Populi 
.Romani usos esse. Debere se suspicari, simulata Caesareir 
amicitia, quod exercitum in Gallia habeat, sui opprimendi 
causa habere. ^Qui nisi decedat atque exercitum deducal 
ex his regionibus, sese illum non pro amico, sed pro hoste 
habiturum : ^quod si eum interfecerit, muUis sese nobilibus 
principibusque Populi Romani gratum esse facturum ; id se 
ab ipsis per eorum nimtios compertum habere, quorum om- 
nium gratiam atque amicitiam ^ejus morte redimere posset. 
Quod si decessisset, ac liberam possessionem GaUia) sibi 
tradidisset, magno se illum pra;mio remuneraturum, et, qua;- 
cumque bella geri vellet, sine ullo ejus labore et periculo 

45. "Multa ab Caesarc in eam sententiam dicta sunt, quare 
negotio desistere non posset, et " neque suam, neque Populi 
Romani consuetudinem pati, uti optime meritos socios de- 
sereret : neque se judicare, Galliam potius esse Ariovisti, 
quam Populi Romani. Bello superatos esse Arvernos ei 
Rutenos ab Q. Fabio Maximo, quibus Populus Romanus 
^ignovisset, neque in provinciam redegisset ; neque stipen- 
dium imposuisset. ^Quod si antiquissimum quodque tempus 
spectari oporteret, Popnli Romani justissimum esse in Gallia 
imperium : si judicium Senatus observari oporteret, liberam 
debere esse Galliam, quam bello victam suis legibus uti vol- 

46. Dum ha3c in colloquio geruntur, Caesari nnnciaturn 
est, equites Ariovisti propius tumulum accedere, et ""ad nos 
tros adequitare, lapides telaque in nostros conjicere. Coesai 
loquendi finem "facit soque ad suos recipit. suisque impe 


ravit, ne quod omnino telum in liostes rejicerent. Nam, sine ullo periculo legionis delectae cum equitatu proe- 
lium fore videbat, tamen committendum non putabat, ut, 
pidsis hostibus, dici posset, eos ab se 'per fidem in colloquio 
circumventos. ^Posteaquam in vulgus militum elatum est, 
qua arrogantia in colloquio Ariovistus usus omni Gallia Ko- 
inanis interdixisset, "impetumque in nostros ejus equites fe< 
cisse, eaque res colloquium ut diremisset : multo major 
alacritas studiumque pugnandi majus exercitu ''injectum 

47. Biduo post Ariovistus ad Caesarem J-^gatos mittit, 
velle se de liis rebus, quae inter eos agi coeptae, ^neque per- 
fectae essent, agere cum eo : uti aut iteiaim colloquio diem 
constitueret ; aut, si id minus vellet, ®ex suis aliquem ad se 
mitteret. Colloquendi Cassari causa visa non est ; et eo 
magis, quod pridie ejus diei Germani Vetineri non poterant, 
quin in nostros tela conjicerent. Legatum ex suis sese 
magno cum periculo ad eum missurum, et hominibus feris 
objecturum, existimabat. Commodissimum visum est, 
Caium Valerium Procillum, Caii Valerii Caburi filium, 
suinma virtute et humanitate adolescentem (cujus pater a 
Caio Valerio Flacco civitate donatus erat), et propter fidem 
et propter linguae Gallicae scientiam, 'qua multa jam Ariovis- 
tus longinqua consuetudine utebatur, et quod in eo peccandi 
Germanis causa non esset, ad eum mittere, et Marcum 
Mettium, '"qui hospitio Ariovisti usus erat. His mandavit, 
ut, "quae diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent et ad se referrent. 
Quos cum apud se in castris Ariovistus conspexisset, exer- 
citu suo praesente, conclama^at : " Quid ad se venirent ■? 
kn speculandi causa ?" Conantes dicere prohibuit et in 
catenas conjecit. 

48. Eodem die castra '-promovit et millibus passuum sex 
a Caenaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie <jus diei 
oraeter castra Caesaris suas copias transduxit, et millibus 
passuum duobus ultra eum castra fecit, eo consiUo, uti fru 


raento comme.ituque, qui cx Sequauis et iEduis supportare- 
lur, Caesarem iutercluderet. 'Ex eo die dies continuos 
quinque Caisar pro castris suas copias produxit, et aciem 
instructara liabuit, ut, si vellet Ariovistus proelio conteudere 
oi potestas non deessct. Ario^istus liis oranibus dicbus ex- 
srcitum castris continuit; equestri proelio quotidie conten- 
uit. ^Genus lioc erat pugnae, quo se Germani exercuerant. 
Equitum raillia crant sex : totidem numero pedites velocis- 
simi ac fortissimi ; 'quos ex omni copia singuli singulos, 
sua3 salutis causa, dclegerant. Cum liis in prceliis versa- 
bantur, ad hos se cquitcs recipiebant : %i, si quid erat du- 
rius, concurrebant : si qui, graviore vulnere accepto, equo 
deciderat, circumsislebant : si quo erat ''longius prodeun- 
dum, aut celerius recipiendum, tanta erat horum "exercita- 
tione celeritas, ut, jubis equorum sublevati, cursum adaequa- 

49. Ubi eum castris se tenere Coesar intellexit, "ne diu- 
lius commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum, quo in loco 
Germani consederant, circiter passus sexcentos ab eis, 
castris idoneum locum delegit, ^acieque triplici instructa, ad 
euni locum venit. Primam et secundam aciem in armis 
esse, tertiam castra munire jussit. Hic locus ab hoste cir- 
citer passus sexcentos, uti dictum est, aberat. Eo ^circiter 
hominum numero sexdecim millia expedita cum omni equi 
tatu Ariovistus misit, quee copicc nostros perterrerent ei 
munitione prohiberent. Nihilo sccius Cassar, ut ante con- 
stituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam opus per- 
ficere jussit. Munitis castris, duas ibi legiones reliquit el 
'"partem auxiliorum : quatuor reliquas in castra majora re- 

50. Pi-oxinio uic, "inslituto suo, CcEsar e castris utrisque 
copias suas cduxit ; paulumque '"a majoribus progi-essus, 
aciem instruxit, hostibusque pugnandi potcstatem fecit. 
Ubi ne tum quidem eos '^prodirc intellexit, circiter meridiem 
exercitum in castra reduxit, Tum domum Ariovistns par- 


tera suarum copiarum, quse castra minora oppug-naret, misit 
'acriter utrinque usque ad vcsperum pugnatum est. Solia 
occasu suas copias Ariovistus, multis et illatis et acceptis 
ATilneribus, in castra reduxit. Cum ex captivis quaereret 
Caesar, quam ob rem Ariovistus ^prcelio non decertarct, hanc 
reperiebat causam, quod apud Germanos ca consuetudo 
esset, ut 'matres familia3 eorum ''sortibus et vaticinationibus 
declararent, utrum proelium committi cx usu esset, nec ne : 
eas ita dicere, ^" Non esse fas, Gennanos superare, si ante 
novam lunam proelio contendissent." 

51. Postridie ejus diei Cajsar praesidio utrisque castris, 
quod satis esse visum est, reliquit ; ^omnes alarios in con- 
spectu hostium 'pro castris minoribus constituit, quod minus 
multitudine militum legionariorum pro hostium numero va- 
lebat, ut ad speciem alariis uteretur. Ipse, triplici instmcta 
acie, usque ad castra hostium accessit. Tum demum ne- 
cessario Germani suas copias castris eduxerunt, ^genera- 
timque constituerunt paribusque intervallis Harudes, Mar- 
comanos, Triboccos, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusios, Sue- 
vos, omiicmque aciem suam Miedis et carris circumdede- 
nmt, ne qua spes in fuga relinqueretur. '"Eo mulieres im- 
posuerunt, qvae in proelium prolicisccntes milites passis cri- 
nibus flentes implorabant, ne se in servitutem Romanis tra- 

52. "Caisar singulis legionibus singulos legatos et qurcs 
torem praefecit, uti '-^eos testes sua^ quisque viitutis haberet 
Ipse a dextro cornu, quod eam partcm minime firmam hos 
tium esse animum adverterat, proelium commisit. Ita nostri 
acriter in hostes, signo dato, impetum fecerunt, '■''itaquo 
hostes repcnte celeriterquo procurrerunt, ut spatium pila in 
hostes conjiciendi non darstur. '''Rejectis pilis, cominu? 
gladiis pugnatum cst : at Gormani, celeriter ex consuetu 
'iine sua '^phalange facta, injpetus gladiorum exceperunt, 
Eeperti sunt complures nostri milites, '"qui in phalangas in- 
sllirent, et scuta manibus revellerent, et desuper ^tilnera- 
rent. Cum hostium acies '"a sinistro cornu pulsa atque iv 

LIBER r. CAP. LIV. 33 

fugam conversa esset, a dextro corau vehementer multitu- 
dine suorum nostram aciem premcbant. Id cum animad- 
vertisset Publius Crassus adolescens, qui 'eqmtatu pra;erat, 
quod expeditior erat, quam hi qui inter aciem versabantiu-, 
tertiam acicm laborantibus nostris subsidio misit. 

53. Ita proelium restitutum cst, atque omnes hostes terga 
vt^rterunt, ^neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad flumen 
Khenum millia passuum ex eo loco circiter quinquaginta 
pervenerint. Ibi perpauci aut, viribus confisi, transuatare 
contenderunt, aut, lintribus inventis, sibi salutem ''repere- 
runt. ^ln his fuit Ariovistus, qui, naAdculam deligatam ad 
ripam nactus, ea profugit : reliquos omnes consecuti equites 
nostri interfecerunt. °Duae fuerunt Ariovisti uxores, una 
Sueva natione, quam ab domo secum eduxerat ; aUera Nor- 
ica, regis Vocionis soror, quam in GaUia "duxerat, a fratre 
missam : utraeque in ea fuga perierunt. ''Dueb filife harum 
aUera occisa, altera capta est. Caius Valerius Procillus 
cum a custodibus in fuga ^trinis catenis vinctus traheretur 
in ipsum Csesarem, hostes equitatu persequentem, incidit. 
Quae quidem res Caesari non minorem, quam ipsa victoria, 
voluptatem attulit ; quod hominem honestissimum provinciae 
Gallise, suum familiarem et hospitem, ereptum e manibus 
hostium, sibi restitutum ^ddebat, "neque ejus calamitate de 
tanta vohiptate et gratulatione quicquam fortuna deminuerat. 
Is, se praesente, dc se^^ter sortibus consuUum dicebat, utrum 
igni statim necaretur, an in aliud tempus reservaretur : sor- 
tium "beneficio se esse incolumem. Item Marcus Mettius 
repertus et ad eum reductus est. 

54. Hoc prcelio trans Rhenum nunciato, Suevi, qui ad 
ripas Rheni venerant, domum reverti cceperunt : '-quos Ubii, 
qui '^proximi Rhenum incolunt, perterritos insecuti, magnum 
ex his numerum occiderunt. Cassar, una asstate "duobus 
maximis bellis confectis, maturius paulo, quam tempus anni 
postulabat, in hiberna in Sequanos exercitum deduxit : hi- 
berais Labienum proeposuit : ipse ^Hn citeriorem Galliam 
•iji conventus agendos profectus ost, 






BOOK 11. 



Chap. 1. The Belgse enter into a confederacy against the Roraai? 
power. 2. Cassar marches against them. 3. The Remi surrender 
ijpon his approach. 4. They inform him of the strength aud de- 
signs of the confederates. 5. March of Caesar, and his encampmenf 
on the banks of the Axona. 6. Bibrax, a town of the Remi, attacked 
by the Belgaj. 7. Relief sent to it by CEesar. Siege raised. 8, 9, 
The armies drawn up on both sides, but without coming to an engagc- 
ment. 10. The Belgae, after a collision with the light troops and 
cavaky of the Romans, in which they are worsted, resolve to returp 
home, in order to defend their nwn territories ajrainst the Aedui. 11 
The Romans attack their rear and raake great slaughter. 12. Ca?sa^ 
marches against tlie Suessiones, and pblige.s them to submit. 13, 14 
Advancing next into the country of the Bellovaci. he pardons them a* 
thc intercession of Divitiacus. 15. Accpunt of the Nenni, who re- 
solve to stand on their defence against tho Romans. 16-28. Wa» 
with the Nervii. Their overtiirow and submission. Great losse» 
euslained by them in this contest. 29-33. "Wi^t with the Aduatici 
They submit, but falhng treacherously upon the Romana during thi» 
night, arc many of them cut to pieccs, and the rest scJd for slaves. 
'L ExPEDiTioN OF P. Ckassus into Ar.mof.ica. 

Chap. 34. Crassus sent against sevcral maritiine states, a.r>A subdup» 


[II. Transactions subsequent to the reduction ok thb Bklo^ 
Chap. 35. High opinion entertained of Ca;sar's success in this war 
by the barbarians. Enibassies sent to hiin evcn from nations beyoud 
the Rhine. Caesar passes into Italy for the purpose of going to Illvr- 
icum, after having placed his army in winter quartcrs among the 
Camutes, Andes, and Turones. A thanksgiving of fifteeii days de- 
crecd by the senate. 

1. 'CuM esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia in hibernis, ita 
uti supra demonstravimus, crebri ad eum rumores afFere- 
bantur, literisque item Labieni certior fiebat, omnes Belgas, 
quam tertiam esse Galliae partem '^dixeramus, contra Popu- 
lum Romanum conjurare, obsidesque inter se dare : conju- 
randi has esse causas : primum, quod vererentur, ne, omni 
pacata Gallia, ad eos exercitus noster adduceretur : deinde, 
quod ab nonnullis Gallis solicitarentur, 'partim qui, ut Ger- 
manos diutius in Gallia versari noluerant, ita Populi Ro- 
mani exercitum hiemare atque inveterascere in Gallia mo- 
leste ferebant ; ''partim qui mobilitate et levitate animi novis 
imperiis studebant : "^ab nonnuUis etiam, quod in Gallia a 
potentioribus atque his. qui ad conducendos homines facul- 
tates habebant, vidgo regna occupabantur, qui minus facile 
*eam rem in imperio nostro consequi poterant. 

2. lis nuntiis literisque commotus, Csesar duas legiones 
in citeriore Gallia novas conscripsit, et, inita aestate, ''in iu- 
teriorem Galliam qui deduceret, ^Quintum Pedium legatum 
misit. Ipse, cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad 
exercitum venit : ®dat negotium Senonibus reliquisque Gal- 
lis, qui finitimi Belgis erant, uti ea, quae apud eos gerantur, 
cognoscant, seque de his rebus certiorem faciant. Hi 
""constanter omnes nunciaverunt, manus cogi, exercitum in 
unum locum conduci. Tum vero dubitandum non existi- 
maAdt, quin ad eos "proficisceretur. Re frumentaria provisa, 
castra movet, diebusque circiter quindecim ad fines Belga- per^^enit. 

3. Eo cum de improviso "^celeriusque omnium opinione 
venisset, Rerai. qui proximi Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad e\m\ 


legatos, Iccium et Antebrogium, primos civitatis, iniserunt, 
qui dicerent, se suaque omnia in fidem atque in potestatem 
Populi Romani permittere : 'neque se cum Belgis reliquis 
consensisse, neque contra Populum Roraanum omnino con 
jurasse : paratosque esse et obsides dare, et imperata facere, 
et oppidis recipere, et frumento ceterisque rebus juvare : 
rcliquos omncs Belgas in armis csse : ^Germanosque, qui 
cis Rhenum incolunt, sese cum his conjunxisse ; tantumque 
esse eorum omnium '^furoreni, ut ne Suessiones quidem. 
iratres consanguincosque suos, qui eodcm jure et eisdem 
lcgibus utantur, unum imperiiim unumque magistratum cum 
ipsis habeant, deterrere potuerint, quin cum his consenti- 

4. Cum ab ''his qusereret, quaj civitates, quantajque in ar- 
mis essent, et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat : plerosque 
Belgas esse ortos ab Germanis : Rhenumque antiquitus trans- 
ductos, propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse, Gallosque, 
qui ea loca incolcrcnt, expulisse ; solosque esse, qui, patrura 
noslrorum memoria, omni Gallia vexata, 'J'eutonos Cimbros- 
que intra fines suos ingredi prohibuerint. Qua ex rc ficri, 
uti carum rerum memoria magnam sibi aiictoritatem, ^mag- 
nosque spiritus in re militari sumerent. De numero eorum 
"omnia se habere explorata, Remi dicebant ; propterea quod 
propinquitatibus affinitatibusque conjuncti, quantam quisque 
multitudinem in communi Belgarum concilio ad id bellum 
poIJicitus sit, cognoverint. Plurimum inter eos Bellovacos 
ct virtute, ct auctoritate, et hominum numero, valcre : hos 
posse conficere armata millia centum : pollicitos ex co nu- 
mcro clccta millia sexaginta, totiusque belli impcrium sibi 
postulai'c. Suessiones suos essc finitimos, latissimos fera- 
cissimosquc agros possiderc. Apud cos fuisse regem nos- 
tra etiam memoria ^Divitiacimi, totius Galliaa potentissimum, 
qui cum magna; partis harum rcgionimi, tum etiam Brittan- 
nia;, impcrium olitinucrit : nunc csse rcgcm ^Galbam : ad 
hunc, j)roj)tcr justitiam prudentiamque, '"totius belli sum- 


mam omnium voluntate deferri : oppida habere numero 
duodecim, polliceri millia armata quinquaginta : totidem 
Nervios, qui maxime feri inter ipsos habeantur 'longissi 
meque absint : quindecim millia Atrebates : Ambianos de 
cem millia : Morinos viginti quinque millia : Menapios no 
vem millia : Caletos decem millia : Velocasses et Vero 
manduos totidem : Aduatucos viginti novem millia, Con 
drusos, Eburones, '^Caera^sos, Paemanos, qui uno nomine 
Germani appellantur, arbitrari ad quadraginta millia. 

5. Cassar, Remos cohortatus ^liberaliterque oratione pro 
secutus, omnem senatum ad se convenire, principumque 
liberos obsides ad se adduci jussit. Quse omnia ab his di 
ligenter ^ad diem facta sunt. Ipse, Divitiacum iEduurr 
magno opere cohortatus, docet, ^quanto opere rei publicae 
coramunisque salutis intersit, manus hostium distineri, ne 
ciun tanta muhitudine uno tempore confligendum sit. Id 
fieri posse, si suas copias iEdui in fines Bellovacorum in- 
troduxerint, et eorum agros populari coeperint. His man- 
datis, eum ab se dimittit. Postquam omnes Belgarum co- 
pias, in unum locum coactas, ad se venire vidit, neque jam 
longe abesse ab his, quos miserat, exploratoribus, et ab 
Remis cognovit, flumen Axonam, quod est in extremis Re- 
morum finibus, exercitum transducere maturavit, ^atque ibi 
castra posuit. '^Quss res et latus unum castrorum ripis flu- 
minis muniebat, et post eum quae essent tuta ab hostibus 
reddebat, et, commeatus ab Remis reliquisque civitatibus ut 
sine periculo ad eum portari pcsset, efficiebat. In eo flu- 
mine pons erat. Ibi preesidium ponit, et in ahera parte flu- 
minis Quintum Titurium Sabinum legatum cum sex ^cohor- 
tibus reliquit : castra in ahitudinem pedum duodecim vallo, 
fossaque ^duodeviginti pedum, '"mimire jubet. 

6. Ab his castris oppidum Remorum, nomine Bibrax, 
aberat milUa passuum octo. Id "ex itinere magno impetu 
Belgae oppugnare coepenmt. JEgre eo die sustentatum esl. 
Jrallorum eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec Ubi, 

D 2 


circumjecta multitudine honiiuuin totis moenibus undique 
lapides in murum jaci ccepti simt, murusque defensoribus 
nudatus est, 'testudine facta ^ortas succedunt miurumque 
subruuut. Quod tum facile fiebat. Nam, cum tanta multi- 
tudo lapides ac tela conjicercnt, ^in muro consistendi potes- 
tas erat nulli. Cum fmem oppugnandi nox fecisset, Icciu':. 
Remus, ■'summa nobilitate et gratia iuter suos, qui tum op 
pido praierat, unus ex his qui legati de pace ad Caesaren 
venerant, nuncios ad eum mittit, nisi siibsidiiun sibi ^sub- 
mittatur, sese diutius sustinere non posse. 

7. Eo Me media nocte Caesar, iisdem ducibus usus qui 
nuncii ab Iccio venerant, "Numidas et Cretas sagittarios, et 
fvmditores Baleares, subsidio oppidanis mittit : ^quorum 
adventu et Remis, cum spe defensionis, studium propug- 
nandi accessit, et hostibus eadem de causa spes potiundi 
oppidi discessit. Itaque, paulisper apud oppidum morati, 
agTosque Rcmorum depopulati, omnibus vicis aedificiisque, 
"quos adire poterant, incensis, ad castra Caisaris '"omnibus 
copiis contenderunt, "et ab millibus passuiun minus duobus 
caslra posuerunt ; quse castra, ut funio atquc igTiibus signi- 
ficabatur, ampUus millibus passuum octo in latitudinem 

8. Csesar primo, ct proplcr muldtudinem hostium, '"ei 
propter exiraiam opinioncm virtutis, proglio supcrsederc 
statuit ; quotidie tamen equestribus proeliis, quid hostis vir- . 
tute posset, et quid nostri auderent, '^soUcitationibus peri- 
cUtabatur. Ubi nostros non esse inferiores intcUcxit, loco 
pro castris, ad aciem instruendam natura opportimo atque 
idoneo (quod is coUis, ubi castra posita crant, paululmn 
ex planitie editus, tantum '''adversus in latitudinem patebat 
quantum loci acies instructa occupare poterat, atque '^ex 
utraque parte lateris dejectus habebat, '"et, frontem leniter 
fastigatus, paulatim ad planitiem redibat), ab utroque latere 
cjus coUis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuim 
quadriiigcntorum ; ct '"ad extvemas fossas casteUa consti 


































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uit, ibique tormenta collocavit, ne, cum aciem instruxisset, 
hostes, 'quod tantum multitudinc poterant, ab lateribus pug- 
nantes suos circumvenire possent. Hoc facto, duabus le- 
gionibus, quas proxime conscripserat, in castris relictis, ut^ 
'si qua opus esset, subsidio duci possent, reliquas sex legi- 
ones pro castris in acie constituit. Hostes item suas copias 
ex castris eductas instruxerant. 

9. "Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium 
exercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent, hostes ''expectabant ; 
nostri autem, si ab iilis initium transeundi fieret, ut imped 
itos aggrederentur, parati in armis erant. Interim proelic 
equestri inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutri tran 
seundi initium faciunt, ''secundiore equitum proelio nostris 
Cajsar suos in castra reduxit. Hostes protinus ex eo locc 
ad flumen Axonara contenderunt, quod esse post nostra cas 
tra Memonstratum est. Ibi vadis repertis, partem suaruir. 
copiarum transducere conati sunt, eo consilio, ut, si possent, 
castellum, cui praeerat Quintus Titurius legatus, expugna- 
rent, ponteraque interscinderent ; 'si minus potuissent, agros 
Remorura popidarentur, qui magno nobis usui ad bellum 
gerendum erant, commeatuque nostros prohiberent. 

10. Cessar, certior factus ab Titurio, omnem equitatiun, 
et ^evis armaturae Numidas, funditores gagittariosque, pon- 
tem transducit, atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco 
pugnatum est. Hostes ^irapeditos nostri in flumine aggressi, 
magnum eoriun nuraerum occiderunt. Per eorum corpora 
rcliquos, '"audacissime transire conantes, muUitudine telo- 
rum repulerunt ; primos, qui transierant, equitatu circum- 
ventos interfecerunt. Hostes, ubi et de expugnando "op- 
pido, et de flumine transeundo, spem se fefellisse intellexe- 
nmt, neque nostros in locum iniquiorem progredi pugnandi 
causa viderunt, atque ipsos res frumentaria deficere ccepit, 
toncilio convocato constituenmt, optimum esse, domum 
suara quemque reverti, ut, '^quorum in fines primum Ro- 
mani exercitum introduxissent, ad eos defendendos undique 


convenirent, ei potius in siiis, quam in alienis finibus, de- 
certarent, 'et domesticis copiis rei frumentariae uterentur. 
Ad eam sententiam, cum reliquis causis, ^hasc quoque ratio 
eos deduxit, quod Divitiacum atque iEduos finibus Bellova 
corum appropinquare cognoverant. ''His persuaderi, ut 
diutius morarentur, neque suis auxilium ferrent, non poterat. 

11. Ea re constituta, secunda vigilia magno cum strepitu 
ac tumultu castris egressi, ''nuUo certo ordine neque imperio, 
''cum sibi quisque primum itineris locum peteret, et domum 
pervenire properaret, fecerunt, ut consimilis fugae profectio 
videretur. Hac re statim, Cassar, per specidatores cognita, 
''insidias veritus, quod, qua de causa discederent, non- 
dum perspexerat, exercitum equitatumque castris continuit. 
Prima luce, confirmata re ab exploratoribus, omnem equita- 
tum, qui novissimum agmen moraretur, pra?misit. His 
Quintum Pedium et Lucium Aurunculeium Cottam legntDs 
praifecit. Titum Labienum legatum cum legionibus tnl)i!s 
subsequi jussit. Hi, novissimos adorti, et multa millia pas- 
suum prosecuti, magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium 
conciderunt, ^cum ab cxtremo agmine, ad quos ventum erat, 
consisterent, fortiterque impelum nostrorum militum susti- 
nerent ; prioresque (quod abesse a periculo viderentur, 
neque ulla necessitate neque imperio continerentur), exau- 
dito clamore, ^erturbatis ordinibus, omnes in fuga sibi 
prcesidium ponerent. Ila sine uUo periculo tantam coruin 
multitudinem nostri interfecerunt, "quantum fuit (iiei spa- 
tium : sub occasumque solis '"destiterunt, seque in castra, 
ut erat imperatum, receperunt. 

12. Postridie ejus diei Caesar, priusquam se hostes ex 
lerrore ac fuga reciperent, in fines Suessionum, qui proximi 
Remis erant, exercitum duxit, et, magno itinere confecto, 
ad oppidum Noviodunum contcndit. Id "ex itinere oppug 
nare conatus, quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audiebat 
propter latitudinem foss?e murique altitudinem, paucis de- 
fendentibua^ expugnarc non potuit. Castris munitis, "^vineas 

MBKIl 11 CAP. XV. 41 

agere, quaeque ad oppugnandum usui erant, comparare 
coepit. Interim omnis ex fuga Suessionum multitudo in op- 
pidum proxima nocte convenit. Celeriter vineis ad oppi- 
dum actis, 'aggere jacto, '^urribusque constituti?, magnitu- 
dine ^operum, quae neque viderant ante Galli neque audie- 
rant, et celeritate Romanorum permoti, legatos ad Caesarem 
de deditione mittunt, et, petentibus Remis ut conservaren- 
tur, impetrant. 

13. Caesar, obsidibus acceptis, primis ci\atatis atque 
ipsius ^Galbae regis duobus filiis, armisque omnibus ex op- 
pido traditis, in deditionem Suessiones accepit, exercitum- 
que in Bellovacos duxit. Qui cum se suaque omnia in op- 
pidum ^Pratuspantium contulissent, atque ab eo oppido 
Caesar cum exercitu circiter millia passuura quinque abes- 
set, omnes ^majores natu, ex oppido egressi, manus ad 
Caesarem tendere, ot voce significare coeperunt, sese in ejus 
tidem ac potestatem venire, neque contra Populum Ro- 
manum armis contendere. Item, cum ad oppidum acces- 
sisset, castraque ibi poneret, pueri mulieresque ex mm"o 
"passis manibus, suo more, pacem ab Romanis petierunt. 

14. Pro liis Divitiacus (nam post discessum Belgamm, 
dimissis ^duorum copiis, ^ad eura reverterat), facit verba : 
" Bellovacos omni tempore ^in fide atque amicitia civitatis 
iEduae fuisse : impulsos a suis principibus, qui dicerent, 
iEduos, a Caesare in servitutem redactos, omnes indigni- 
tates contiuneliasque perferre, et ab ^Eduis defecisse et 
Populo Romano bellum intulisse. '"Qui hujus consilii priu- 
cipes fuissent, quod intelligerent quantam calamitatem civi- 
tati intulissent, in Britanniam profugisse. Petere "non 
solum Bellovacos, sed etiam pro his ^Eduos, ut sua clemen- 
tia ac mansuetudine in eos utatur. Quod si fecerit, jEduo- 
rum auctoritatem apud omnes Belgas amplificaturum , 
'-quorum auxiliis atque opibus, si qua bella inciderint, sus- 
tentare consuerint." 

15. Caesar, ''honoris Divitiaci atque iEduorum causa, 


sese eos in lidem recepturum, ct conservaturum, dixit ; 
sed, quod erat civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate, atquc 
hon)inum multitudine prcestabat, sexcentos obsides popos- 
cit. 'His traditis, omnibusque armis ex oppido collatis, ab 
oo loco in fines Ambianorum pervenit, qui se suaque omnia 
8ine mora dcdiderunt. Eorum fines Nervii attingebant ; 
quorum de natura moribusque Ca^sar cum qusereret, sic re- 
periebat ; " JNuIIum aditum esse ad cos mercatoribus : ^niliil 
pati vini, reliquarumque rerum ^ad luxuriam pertinentium, 
inferri, quod his rebus relanguescere animos et remitti vir- 
tutem existimarent ; esse homines feros, magnaeque virtu- 
tis ; ''increpitare atque incusare reliquos Belgas, qui se Pop- 
ulo Romano dedidissent, patriamque virtutem projecissent ; 
^confirmare, sese neque legatos missuros, neque ullam con- 
ditionem pacis accepturos." 

16. Cum per eorum fines triduuni iter fecisset, invenie- 
bat ex captivis, ^Sabim flumcn ab castris suis non ainplius 
millia passimm decem abesse ; trans id flumen omnes Ncr- 
vios consedisse, ^advcntumque ibi Romanorum expectare, 
una cum Atrebalibus et Veromanduis, finitimis suis (nan) 
his utrisque persuaserant, uti eandem belli fortunam expc- 
rirentur) : expectari etiam ab his Aduatucorum copias, 
atque esse in itinerc ; ^mulieres, quique per setaton ad 
pugnam inutiles viderentur, in cum locum conjecisse, quo 
propter paludes exercitui aditus non esset. 

17. His rebus cognitis, oxploratores centurio)iesque pra;- 
mittit, qui locum ido))eum castiis dcligant. Cunique ex de- 
iititiis Belgis reliquisque Gallis coniplures, Cajsaron secuti, 
i))a iter facerent ; quidam ex his, ut postea ex captivis cog- 
nitiun est, ^corum dierum consuetudine ilineris nostri exi;r- 
citus perspecta, nocte ad Nervios pei-venerunt, atque iis 
lemonstrarunt, inter singulas lcgiones impediinentorum 
nagnum numerum interccdere, '"neque esse quicquam ne- 
gotii, cum prima legio in castra venisset, reliquaeque legio- 
aes magnum spatium al)esse)it, "hanc svib sarcinis adoriri ■ 



'qua pulsa, impedinientisque direptis, futurum, ut reliquae 
contra consistere non auderent. ^Adjuvabat etiam eorum 
consilium qui rem deferebant, quod Nervii antiquitus, cum 
equitatu nihil possent (neque enim ad hoc tempus ^ei rei 
student, sed, quicquid possunt, pedestribus valent copiis), 
quo facilius finitimorum equitatum, si praedandi causa ad 
eos venisset, impedirent, teneris arboribus ^incisis atque in- 
flexis, 'crebris in latitudinem ramis et rubis sentibusque in- 
terjectis effecerant, ut instar muri hae sepes munimenta 
praiberent ; quo ®non modo intrari, sed ne perspici quidem 
possct. His rebus cum iter agminis nostri impediretur, 
"non omittendum sibi consilium Nervii aestimaverunt. 

18. Loci natura erat haec, *quem locum nostri castris de- 
legerant. CoUis, 'ab summo aequaliter declivis, ad flumen 
Sabira, quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine 
pari acclivitate collis nascebatuT, adversus huic et contra- 
rius, '"passus circiter ducentos infima apertus, ab superiore 
parte "silvestris, ut non facile introrsus perspici posset. 
Intra eas silvas hostes in occulto sese continebant : "^in 
aperto loco, secundum flumen, paucae stationes equituro 
videbantur. Fluminis erat altitudo pedum circiter trium. 

19. Csesar, equitatu praemisso, subsequebatur omnibus 
copiis : sed '^atio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat, ac 
Belgae ad Nervios detulerant. Nam, quod ad hostes appro- 
pinquabat, consuetudine sua Caesar sex legiones '■'expeditas 
ducebat : post eas totius exercitus impedimenta collocarat : 
inde '^duae legiones, quae proxime conscriptae erant, totum 
agmen claudebant, praesidioque impedimentis erant. Equi- 
tes nostri, cum funditoribus sagittariisque flumen transgressi, 
cum hostium equitatu proelium commiserunt. Cum se illi 
'^identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent, ac rursus ex silva 
in nostros impetum facerent, neque nostri longius, quam 
■'quem ad finem porrecta ac loca aperta pertinebant, ce- 
dentes insequi auderent : interim legiones sex, quae primae 
venerant, '^opere dimenso, castra munire cceperunt. Ubi 


'prima iinpedimenta nostri exercitus ab his, qui in silvis 
abdili latebant, visa sunt (-quod tempus inter eos coiiunit- 
lendi proelii convenerat), ita, ut intra silvas aciem ordines- 
que constituerant, atque ipsi sese confirmaverant, subito 
omnibus copiis provolaverunt impetumque in nostros equites 
fecerunt. His facile pulsis ac ^proturbatis, incredibili celer- 
itatc ad flumen decucurrerunt, ut paene uno tempore et ad 
silvas, ct in flumine, et jam '^in manibus nostris hostes vide- 
rentur. Eadem autem celeritate 'adverso colle ad nostra 
castra, atque eos, qui in opere occupati erant, contenderunt. 

20. Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda : S-exillum 
proponendum, quod erat insigne, cum ad arma concurri 
oporteret : 'signum tuba dandum : ab opere revocandi mili- 
tes : qui paulo longius ^aggeris petendi causa processerant, 
arcessendi : acies instruenda, milites cohortandi, ^signum 
dandum : quarum rerum magnam partem temporis brevitas, 
et '"successus et incursus hostium impediebat. His diffi- 
cuUatibus duae res "erant subsidio, scientia atque usus mili- 
tum, quod, superioribus proehis exercitati, quid fieri opor- 
teret, non minus commode ipsi sibi prsescribere, quam ab 
aliis doceri poterant ; et quod ab opere '-singuHsque legi- 
onibus singulos legatos Csesar discedere, nisi munitis cas- 
tris, vetuerat. Hi, propter propinquitatem et celeritatem 
hostium, '^nihil jam Caesaris imperium spectabant, sed per 
se, quse videbantur, administrabant. 

21. Cassar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos 
milites, '^quam in partem fors obtulit, decucurrit, et ad le- 
gionem decimam devenit. Militcs non longiore orationc 
cohortatus, quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam reti- 
neront, neu perturbarcntur animo, hostiumque impetum for- 
dter sustinerent ; quod non longius hostes aberant, "quam 
quo telum adjici posset, prceUi committendi signum dedit. 
A.tque in alteram partem item cohortandi causa profectus. 
''pugnantibus occurrit. Tcmporis tanta fuit '"exiguitas, 
hostiumquf tam paratus ad dimicandum ;inimus. ut non 


modo 'ad insignia accommodanda, ^sed etiam ad galcas in- 
duendas scutisque "tegumenta detrahenda tempus defuerit. 
Quam quisque in partem ab opere casu devenit, quaeque 
prima signa conspexit, ''ad haec constitit, ne, in quaerendo 
suos, ^pugnandi tempus dimitteret. 

22. Instructo exercitu, magis ut loci natura, ^dejectusque 
collis, et necessitas temporis, quam ut rei militaris ratio 
atque ordo postulabat, cimi diversis locis legiones, aliae alia 
m parte, hostibus resisterent, sepibusque densissimis, ut ante 
demonstravimus, interjectis ^prospectus impediretur ; neque 
certa subsidia collocari, neque quid in quaque parte opus 
esset provideri, neque ab uno omnia imperia ^administrari 
poterant. Itaque, in tanta rerm.. iniquitate, fortunae quoque 
eventus varii sequebantur. 

23. ^Legionis nonae, ct decimae milites, '°ut in sinistra 
parte acie constiterant, pilis emissis, cursu ac lassitudine 
"exanimatos, vulneribusque confectos Atrebates ('-'nam his 
ea pars obvenerat), celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen 
compulerunt ; et, transire conantes insecutl gladiis, magnam 
partem eorum '^impeditam interfecerunt. Ipsi transire 
flumen non dubitaverunt ; et, in locum iniquum progressi, 
rursus regressos ac resistentes hostes, redintegrato proelio, 
in fugam dederunt. Item alia in parte "diversae duae legi- 
ones, undecima et octava, profligatis Veromanduis, quibus- 
cum erant congressi, '^ex loco superiore in ipsis fluminis 
ripis proeliabantur. '^At tum, totis fere '''a fronte, et ab si- 
nistra parte, nudatis castris, '^cum in dextro comu legio 
(luodecima, et non magno ab ea intervallo septima consti- 
tisset, omnes Nervii confertissimo agmine, duce Boduognato, 
qui summam imperii tenebat, ad eum locum contenderunt ; 
quorum pars '^aperto latere legiones circumvenire, pars 
*°summum castrorum locum petere, coepit. 

24. Eodem tempore equites nostri, ^'levisque armaturaB 
pedites, qui cum iis ima fuerant, quos primo hostium im- 
petu pulsos ^dixeram, cimi se in castra reciperent, adversis 

E 2 


hostibus occurrebant, ac rursus 'aliam in partem fugam pe 
ebant : et '^calones, qui ab Mecumana porta, ac summo jugc 
collis, nostros victores flumen transisse conspexerant, pras- 
dandi causa egressi, cum respexissent et hostes in nostris 
castris Versari vidissent, pracipites fuga? sese mandabant. 
SimuJ eorum, qui cum impedimentis veniebant, clamor frem- 
itusque oriebatur, ^aliique aliam in partem perterriti fcre- 
bantur. Quibus omnibus rebus permoti equites Treviri, 
^quorum inter Gallos virtutis opinio est singularis, qui aux 
ilii causa ab civitate missi ad Caesarem venerant, cum mul- 
titudine hostium castra nostra compleri, legiones premi et 
paene circumventas teneri, calones, equites, funditores, 
Numidas, '^diversos dissipatosquc, in omnes partes fugere 
vidissent, desperatis nostris rebus, domum contenderunt : 
Romanos pulsos superatosque, castris impedimentisque 
eorum hostes potitos, civitati renunciaverunt. 

25. Caisar, **ab decimse legionis cohortatione ad dextrum 
cornu profectus, ubi suos "urgeri, signisque in unuin locmn 
collatis duodecimae legionis confertos milites sibi ipsos ad 
pugnam esse impedimento ; quartae cohortis '"omnibus cen- 
turionibus occisis, signiferoque interfecto, signo amisso, 
reliquarum cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut -voil- 
neratis aut occisis, in his "primopilo, Publio Sextio Baculo, 
fortissimo viro, multis gravibusque vulneribus confecto, '^ut 
jam se sustinere non posset ; reliquos esse tardiores, et 
nonnullos ab novissimis desertos prcslio excedere ac tela 
vitare ; hostes neque '^a fronte ex inferiore loco subeuntes 
intermittere, et ab utroque latere instare ; '^et rem esse in 
angusto vidit, neque uUum esse subsidium, quod submitti 
posset : scuto '^ab novissimis uni militi detracto (quod ipso 
eo sine scuto venerat), in primam aciem processit, centuri- 
onibusque nominatim appcllatis, reliquos cohortatus milites, 
'"signa inferre et manipulos laxare jussit, quo facilius gladiis 
uti possent. "Cujus adventu spe illata militibus, ac redin- 
tegrato animo, cum '^pro sc quisquc, in conspectu impera- 


toris, et jam in extremis suis rebus, operam navare cupe- 
rent, paulum hostium inipetus tardatus est. 

26. Caesar, cum septimam legionem, quae juxta constit- 
erat, item urgeri ab hoste vidisset, tribunos militum monuit, 
ut paulatim sese 'legiones conjungerent, et convcrsa signa 
in hostes inferrent. Quo facto, cum alius alii subsidium 
ferrent, neque timerent ^ne aversi ab hoste circumvenirea- 
tur, audacius resistere ac fortius pugnare coeperunt. In- 
terim milites legionum duarum, quae in novissimo agmine 
praesidio impedimentis fuerant, proelio nunciato, ^cursu in- 
citato, in summo colle ab hostibus conspiciebantur. Et 
Titus Labienus, castris hostium potitus, et ex loco superiore, 
quae res in nostris castris gererentur, conspicatus, Mecimam 
legionem subsidio nostris misit. Qui, cum ex equitum et 
calonum fuga, quo in loco res esset, quantoque in periculo 
et castra, et legiones, et imperator ^versaretur, cognovissent, 
nihil ad celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. 

27. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio facta est, ut 
nostri, etiam qui vulneribus confecti ^procubuissent, scutis 
innixi, prcelium redintegrarent ; tum calones, perterritos 
hostes conspicati, ''etiam inermes armatis occurrerent ; 
equites vero, ut turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, ^omnibus 
in locis pugnae se legionariis militibus prseferrent. At hos- 
tes, etiam in extrema spe salutis, tantam virtutem ^praestite- 
runt, ut, cum primi eorum cecidissent, proximi jacentibus 
insisterent, atque ex eorum corporibus pugnarent; his de- 
jectis, et coacervatis cadaveribus, qui superessent, '°uti ex 
tumulo, tela in nostros conjicerent, et pila intercepta remit- 
terent : "ut non nequicquam tantae virtutis homines judican 
deberet ausos esse transire latissimum flumen, ascendere 
altissimas ripas, subire iniquissimum locum : quae facilia ox 
difficillimis animi magnitudo '^redegerat. 

28. Hoc prcelio facto, et '^rope ad intemecionem gente 
ac nomine Nerviorum redacto, majores natu, quos una cum 
pueris mulieribusque in '''aestuaria ac pahides collectos dix- 


eramus, hac piigiia nunciata, cum victoribus 'nihil impedi 
lum, victis nihil tutum arbitrarentur, omnium, qui supererant, 
consensu legatos ad Cajsarem miserunt seque ei dediderunt • 
et, in commemoranda civitatis calamitate, ex sexcentis ad 
tres senatores, ex hominum milUbus sexaginta vix ad quin- 
gentos, qui arma ferrc possent, sese redactos esse dixenmt. 
Quos Caisar, ut in miscros ac supplices usus misericordia 
videretur, diligentissime conservavit, ^suisque finibus atque 
oppidis uti jussit, et finitimis imperavit, ut ab injuria et ma- 
leficio se suosque prohiberent. 

29. Aduatuci, de quibus supra scripsimus, cum omnibus 
copiis auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugna nunciata, ex 
^itinere donium revertenmt ; cunctis oppidis castellisque 
desertis sua omnia in unum ''nppidum, egTegie natura muni- 
tum, contulerunt. ^Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu par- 
tibus ahissimas rupes despectusque haberet, una ex partc 
leniter acclivis aditus, in latitudinem non amplius ducen- 
torum pedum, relinquebatur : quem locum duplici altissimo 
muro munierant ; tum magni ponderis saxa et prfeacutas 
trabes in muro collocarant. ''Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teuto- 
nisque prognati ; qui, cum iter in provinciam nostram atque 
Itaham facerent, iis impedimentis, quae secum agere ac 
portare non poterant, citra flumen Rhenum depositis cus- 
todiae ex suis ac pra?sidio sex millia Tiominum reliquerunt. 
Hi, *post eorum obitum, multos annos a finitimis exagitati, 
®cum alias bellum inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, con- 
sensu eorum omnium pace facta, hunc sibi domicilio locum 

30. Ac primo adventu exercitus nostri crebras ex oppido 
•"excursiones faciebant, parvulisquc prceliis cum nostris con- 
tendebant : postea, vallo "pedum duodecim, in circuitu qixin- 
decim millium, crobrisque castellis circummuniti, oppido 
ses'; continebant. Ubi, vincis actis, aggere exstructo, '-tur- 
rim procul constitui vidcrunt, primum irridere ex muro, 
Htoue increpitare vocibus, '^quo tanta machinatio nh tanfo 


spatio institueretur ? quibusnam manibus, aut quibus viribus, 
praesertim homines tantulae staturae (nam plerumque homin- 
ibus Gallis, 'prae magnitudine corporum suorum, brevitas 
nostra contemtui est), tanti oneris turrim in muros sese col 
'ocare confiderent ? 

31. Ubi vero ^overi, et appropinquare moenibus ^ade 
nmt, nova atque inusitata specie commoti, legatos ad Cae 
sarera de pace miserunt, qui, ad hunc modum locuti 
*' Non se existimare Romanos sine ope divina bellura 
gerere, qui tantae altitudinis machinationes tanta celeritate 
promovere, ''et ex propinquitate pugnare, possent : se sua- 
que omnia eorum potestati permittere," dixerunt. *" Unum 
petere ac deprecari : si forte, pro sua clementia ac man- 
suetudine, quam ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset, Aduatucos 
esse conservandos, ne se armis despoliaret : sibi omnes 
fere finitimos esse inimicos, ac suae virtuti invidere ; a qui- 
bus se defendere, traditis armis, non possent. ^Sibi prae- 
stare, si in eum casum deducerentur, quamvis fortunam a 
Populo Romano pati, quam ab his 'per cruciatum interfici, 
inter quos dominari consuessent." 

32. Ad haec Caesar respondit : " Se ^agis consuetu- 
dine sua, quam merito eorum, ci^ntatem conservaturum, si 
prius, quam munim aries attigisset, se dedidissent : sed 
deditionis nullam esse conditionem, nisi armis traditis : se 
id, quod ^in Ner^dis fecisset, facturum, finitimisque impera- 
lurum, ne quam dedititiis Populi Romani injuriam inferrent." 
Re nmiciata ad suos, " quae iraperarentur, '"facere" dixe- 
runt. Armorum magna multitudine de muro in fossam, quae 
erat ante oppidum, jacta, sic ut prope summam "muri ag- 
gerisque altitudinem aceni armorum adaequarent ; et tamen 
circiier parte tertia, ut postea perspectum est, celata atque 
in oppido retenta, portis patefactis, eo die pace sunt usi. 

33. ''Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi militesque es 
oppido exjre jussit, ne quam noctu oppidani ab militibus in- 
juriam acciperent. IUi, ante inito, ut intellectum est, con- 


silio, quod, deditione facta, nostros 'praesidia deducturos, aut 
denique indiligentius servaturos, crediderant, partim cuni 
his, quae retinuerant et celaverant, armis, partim scutis ex 
cortice factis aut viminibus intextis, quse subito (ut tempo- 
ris exiguilas postulabat), ^pellibus induxerant, tertia vigilia, 
qua minime arduus ad nostras niunitiones ascensus vide- 
batur, omnibus copiis repente ex oppido eruptionem fece- 
runt. Celeriter, iit ante Ca?sar imperarat, ''ignibus signifi- 
catione facta, ex proximis castellis eo concursum est, pug- 
natumque ab hostibus '*ita acriter, ut a viris fortibus, in ex- 
trema spe salutis, iniquo loco, contra eos, qui ex vallo tur- 
ribusque tela jacerent, pugnari debuit, cum in una virtute 
omnis spes salutis consisteret. ^Occisis ad hominum milli- 
bus quatuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt. Postridie ejus 
diei, ''refractis portis, cum jam dcienderet nemo, atque in- 
tromissis militibus nostris, '^sectionem ejus oppidi universam 
Caesar vendidit. ^Ab his, qui emerant, capitum numerus ad 
eum relatus est millium quinquaginta trium. 

34. Eodem tempore a Publio Crasso, quem cum legione 
una miserat ad Venetos, Unellos, Osismios, Curiosolitas, 
Sesuvios, Aulercos, Rhedones, quae sunt maritimae civitates 
^Oceanumque attingunt, certior factus est, omnes eas civi- 
tates in ditionem potestatemque Populi Romani esse re- 

35. His rebus gestis, omni Gallia pacala, tanta hujus 
belli ad barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab his nationibus, 
quae trans Rhenum incolerent, mittorentur legati ad Caesa- 
rem, quae se obsides daturas, imperata facturas, poUiceren- 
tur : quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam '°lllyricumquc 
properabat, inita proxima aestate ad se reverti jussit. Ipse 
in Carnutes, Andes, Turonesque, quae ciAdtates propinquae 
his locis erant, ubi bellum gesserat, lcgionibus in hiberna 
deductis, in Italiam profectus est, ob easquc rcs, ex literis 
Caesaris, "dies quindecim supplicatio decreta csl, quod ante 
id tempus accidit nuUi- 






Chap. 1. Galba, Csesar's lieutenant, sent against the Nantuates, Ve- 
ragri, and Seduni. After some successful battles he brings thern to 
terms, and establishes his winter quarters among them. 2. Secret 
movement of the Gauls. 3-6. They attack the Roman quarters, but 
are defeated in a sally. Galba draws off his troops into the province, 
and winters there. 

II. War with the Veneti. 

Chap. 7, 8. The Veneti, and other states bordering upon the ocean, 
break out into sudden revolt. 9-11. Preparations for the war on the 
part of Caesar. 12, 13. The maritime power of the Veneti, their ad- 
vantages of situation, and a description of their vessels. 14—16. 
Cffisar, finding it in vain to attack them by land, comes to a naval en- 
gagement with them. The Veneti are defeated, and submit. They 
are treated with great rigour. 

[n. War with the Unelli. 

Chap. 17. Q. Titurius Sabinus is sent, during the progress of the 
war with the Veneti, into the country of the Unelli. Viridovix, hader 
of the revolted Gauls, offers battle to Sabinus, who declines an en- 
gagement. Reasons of the latter for this course. 18,19. The GauL-j, 
urged on by the apparent cowardice of Sabinus, attack the Ro.Tian 
ramp, but are defeated vvith great slaughter. 


IV. ExPEDiTiON OF Crassds into Aqhitaxia. 

Chap. 20-22. The Sotiates defeated by Crassus and compeller^ m 
submit. An account of the Soldurii. 23-27. The greater part of 
Aquitania surrenders, after some farther fighting, to Crassus. 


Chap. 28. Ca»sar marches against the Morini and Menapii. They at 
tack him as he is encamping, but are repulsed. 29. Csesar is pre- 
vented from completely subjugating them by violent storms, where- 
upon he leads his army into winter quarters. 

1. CuM in Italiam proficisccretur Caesar, Servium Gal- 
bam cum legione duodecima, et parte equitatus, in Nantua- 
tes, Veragros, Sedunosque misit, qui ab finibus Allobrogum, 
et lacu Lemanno, et flumine Rhodano, ad summas Alpes 
pertinent. Causa mittendi fuit, quod iter per Alpes, 'quo, 
magno cum periculo magnisque cum portoriis, mcrcatorcs 
ire consuerant, patefieri volebat. Huic permisit, si opus 
esse arbitraretur, uti in cis locis l<.gionem hiemandi causa 
collocaret. Galba, secundis aliquot proeliis factis, castel- 
lisque comphiribus eorum expugnatis, missis ad eum undi- 
que legatis, obsidibusque datis, et pace facta, constituit, co- 
hortes duas in Nantuatibus collocare, et ipse cum rehquis 
ejus legionis cohortibus in vico Veragrorum, qui appeliatur 
Octodurus, hiemare : qui vicus, positus in valle, non magna 
adjecta planitie, aUissimis montibus undique continelur. 
Cum ^liic in duas partes flumine divideretur, alteram partein 
ejus vici Galhs concessit, alteram, vacuam ab illis relictam, 
cohortibus ad hiemandum attribuit. ^Eum locum vallo fos- 
saque munivit. 

2. Cum dies ''hibernorum complures transissent, frumen 
tumque eo comportari jussisset, subito per exploratores cer- 
tior factus est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat, 
omnes noctu discessisse, montesque, qui iinpcndcrent, a 
maxima multitudine Sedunorum et Vcragromm teneri. ^ld 
aliquot de causis acciderat, ut subito Galli belH rcnovandi 
legionisque opprimendae consilium capcrent : primum, quod 

LIBER III. CAP. 1 . 53 

legionem, 'neque eam plenissimam, detractis cohortibug 
duabus, et compluribus ^singillatim, qui commeatus petendi 
causa missi erant, absentibus, propter paucitatem despicie- 
bant : tum etiam, quod, propter iniquitatem loci, cum ipsi ex 
montibus in vallem 'decurrercnt, et tela conjicerent, ne pri- 
mum quidem posse impetum sustinere existimabant. ^Ac- 
cedebat, quod suos ab se liberos abstractos obsidum nomine 
dolebaut : et Romanos non solum itinerum causa, sed etiam 
perpetuae possessionis, culmina Alpium occupare conari, el 
ea loca finitimae provinciae adjungere, ^sibi persuasum ha- 

3. His nuntiis acceptis, Galba, ^cum neque opus hiberno- 
rum, munitionesque plene essent perfectas, ''neque de fru- 
mento reliquoque commeatu satis esset provisum, quod, de- 
ditione facta, obsidibusque acceptis, nihil de bello timendum 
existimaverat, consilio celeriter convocato, sententias ex- 
quirere ccepit. Quo in consilio, cum tantum repentini peri- 
culi praeter opinionem accidisset, ac jam omnia fere super- 
iora loca multitudine armatorum completa conspicerentur, 
*neque subsidio veniri, neque commeatus supportari inter- 
chisis itineribus possent, prope jam desperata salute, non- 
nullae hujusmodi sententiae dicebantur, ut, impedimentis re- 
lictis, eruptione facta, iisdem itineribus, quibus eo perve- 
nissent, "ad salutem contenderent. Majori tamen parti 
placuit, '"hoc reservato ad extremum consilio, interim "rei 
eventum experiri et castra defendere. 

4. Brevi spatio interjecto, vix ut his rebus, quas constit 
uissent, '^collocandis atque administrandis tempus daretur, 
hostes ex omnibus partibus, signo dato, decurrere, lapides 
"gaesaque in vallum conjicere : nostri primo '''integris viri 
bus fortiter repugnare, neque ullum frustra telum ex loco 
superiore mittere : ut quaeque pars castrorum nudata defen- 
soribus premi videbatur, '^eo occurrere, et auxilium ferre : 
'^sed hoc superari, '^quod diuturnitate pugnae hostes defessi 
prcelio excedebant, alii integris viribus succedebant : qua- 



rum rerum a nostris propter 'paucitatem fieri nihil poterat ; 
ac non modo defesso ex pugna excedendi, sed ne saucio 
quidem ejus loci, ubi constiterat, relinquendi, ac sui recipi- 
endi, facultas dabatur. 

5. Cum jam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur, 
ac non solum vires, sed etiam tela, nostris ^deficerent, atque 
hostes acrius instarent, languidioribusque nostris vallum 
ecindere, et fossas complere, coepissent, resque esset jani 
'ad extrcmum perducta casum, Publius Sextius Baculus, 
'primi pili centurio, ouem Nervico prcelio compluribus con- 
fectum vulneribus ^diximus, et item Caius Volusenus, tri- 
bmius militum, vir et consilii magni et virtutis, ad Galbam 
accurrunt, atque ''unam esse spem salutis docent, si erup- 
tione facta, extremum auxilium experirentur. Itaque, 'con- 
vocatis centurionibus, celeriter milites certiores facit, pau- 
lisper intermitterent prcelium, ac tantummodo tela missa 
*exciperent, seque ex labore reficerent ; post, dato signo, ex 
castris erumperent, atquc onmem spem salutis in virtute 

6. Quod jussi sunt, faciunt ; ac, subito "omnibus portis 
eruptione facta, '"neque cognoscendi, quid fieret, neque sui 
colligendi, hostibus facultatem relinquunt. Ita commutata 
fortuna, eos, qui "in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant, 
undique circumventos interficiunt, et, ex hominum millibus 
amplius triginta, quem numerum barbarorum ad castra ve- 
nisse constabat, '^plus tertia parte interfecta, reliquos per- 
territos in fugam conjiciunt, ac ne in locis quidem superi- 
oribus consistere patiuntur. Sic, omnibus hostium copiis 
'Yusis, armisque exutis, se in castra munitionesque suas re- 
cipiunt. Quo proBlio facto, quod saepius fortunam tentare 
Galba nolebat, atquc '''alio sese in hiberna cousilio venisse 
nieminerat, aliis occurrisse rebus viderat, maxime frumenti 
conuneatusque inopia permotus, postero die omnibus ejus 
vici aedificiis incensis, in Provinciam reverti contendit ; ac, 
nulb ho&tc prohibente, aut iter demorantc, incolumem legi- 

LIBER lll. CAl'. IX. 55 

oiiem in Nantuatcs, inde in AUobrogas, perduxit, ibiquo 

7. His rebus gestis, cum 'omnibus de causis Caesar pa- 
catam Galliam existimaret, superatis Belgis, expulsis Gcr- 
manis, viclis in Alpibus Sedunis, ^atque ita, inita hieme, in 
[llyricum profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes adire, 
et regiones cognoscere, volebat, subitum bellum in Gallia 
r.oortum est. Ejus belli haec fuit causa. Publius Crassus 
adolescens cum legione septima proximus ^mare Oceanum 
in Andibus hiemarat. Is, quod in his locis inopia frumenti 
erat, ''praefectos tribunosque militum complures in finitimas 
civitates, frumenti commeatusque petendi causa, ^dimisit : 
quo in xiumero erat Titus Terrasidius, missus in Esubios ; 
Marcus Trebius Gallus in Curiosolitas ; Quintus Velanius, 
cum Tito Silio, in Venetos. 

8. Hujus est civitatis longe amplissima auctoritas omnis 
orae maritimae regionum earum ; quod et naves habent Ve- 
neti plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt, 
et ^scientia atque usu nauticarum rerum reliquos antecedunt, 
et, in magno impetu maris atque aperto, paucis portubus in- 
terjectis, quos tenent ^ipsi, omnes fere, qui eo mari uti con- 
suerant, habent vectigales. Ab iis fit initium retinendi Silii 
atque Velanii, quod per eos suos se obsides, quos Crasso 
dedissent, recuperaturos existimabant. Horum auctoritate 
finitimi adducti (^ut sunt Gallorum subita et repentina con- 
silia), eadem de causa Trebium Terrasidiumque retinent, 
et, celeriter missis legatis, per suos principes inter se con- 
jurant, nihil nisi communi consilio acturos, eundemque 
'omnis fortunae exitum esse laturos ; reliquasque civitates 
solicitant, ut in ea libertate, quam a majoribus acceperant, 
permanere, quam Romanorum servitutem perferre, '"mallent. 
Omni ora maritima celeriter ad suam sententiam perducta, 
communem legationem ad Publiura Crassum mittunt, " si 
velit "suos recipere, obsides sibi remittat." 

9. Quibus de rebus Csesar ab Cr^sso certior facUis, 


'quod ipse aberat longius, ^naves interim longas aedificari iu 
flumine Ligeri, quod influit in Oceanum, ^emiges ex Pro- 
vincia institui, nautas gubernatoresque comparari jubet. 
His rebus celeriter administratis, ipse, cum primum jier 
anni tempus potuit, ad exercitum contendit. Veneti, reli- 
quaeque item civitates, cognito Csesaris adventu, simul quod, 
*quantum in se facinus admisissent, intelligebant (legatos. 
^quod nomen apud omnes nationes sanctum invioiatumque 
semper fuisset, retentos ab se et in vincula conjectos), ^pro 
magnitudine periculi bellum parare, et maxime ea, qua) ad 
usum navium pertinent, providere instituunt ; hoc majore 
spe, quod multum natura loci confidebant. "Pedesiria esse 
itinera concisa ajstuariis, navigationem impeditam propter 
inscientiam locorum paucitatemque portuum sciebant : ^ne- 
que nostros exercitus propter frumenti inopiam diutius apud 
se morari posse, confidebant : ac jam, ut omnia contra opi- 
nionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum navibus posse : 
Romanos neque ullam facultaiem habere navium, neque 
eorum locorum, ubi bellum gesturi essent, vada, portus, in- 
sulas novisse : ^ac longe aliam esse navigationem in con- 
cluso mari, atque in vastissimo atque apertissimo Oceano, 
perspiciebant. His initis consiliis, oppida muniunt, fru- 
menta ex agris in oppida comportant, naves '"in Venetiam, 
ubi Cffisarem primimi bellura gesturum constabat, quam 
plurimas possunt, cogimt. Socios sibi ad id bellum Osis- 
mios, Lexovios, Nannetes, Ambiliatos, Morinos, Diabiintes, 
Menapios adsciscunt : auxilia ex Britannia, qnoe contra eas 
egiones posita est, arcessunt. 

10. ''Erant lia^ difticultatcs belli gerendi, quas supra os- 
tendimus ; sed midta Ca^sarem tamen ad id beilum incita- 
bant : "^injuris retentorum equitum Romanorum ; rebellic 
facta post deditionem ; '^defectio datis obsidibus ; lot civita- 
tnm conjuratio ; in priniis, ne, '''liac parte noglccta, rcliqua} 
nationes idcm sibi iicere arbitrarentur. Itaque cum intel- 
.igcrct, omnes fere Giallos '"novis rcbus studere, et ad bel- 


lum mobiliter celeriterque excitari, omnes autem homines 
natura libertati studere, et conditionem servitutis odisse ; 
priusquam plures civitates conspirarent, partiendum sibi ac 
latius distribuendum exercitum putavit. 

11. Itaque Titum Labienum legatum in Treviros, qui 
proximi Rheno flumini sunt, cum equitatu mittit. Huic 
mandat, Remos reliquosque Belgas adeat, atque in officio 
contineat ; Germanosque, qui 'auxiUo a Belgis arcessiti di- 
cebantur, si per vim navibus flumen transire conentur, pro- 
hibeat. Publium Crassum ^cum cohortibus legionariis duo- 
decim, et magno numero equitatus, in Aquitaniara proficisci 
jubet, ne ex his nationibus auxilia in "GalUam mittantur, ac 
tantae nationes conjungantur. Quintum Titurium Sabinum 
legatum cum legionibus tribus in Unellos, Curiosolitas, 
Lexoviosque mittit, ''qui eam manum distinendam curet. 
^Decimum Brutum adolescentem classi, GaUicisque navibus, 
quas ex Pictonibus et Santonis reUquisque pacatis regioni- 
bus convenire jusserat, praeficit, et, cum primum possit, in 
Venetos proficisci jubet. Ipse eo pedestribus copiis con- 

12. Erant ejusmodi fere ^situs oppidorum, ut, posita in 
extremis UnguUs promontoriisque, neque pedibus aditum 
haberent, ''cum ex alto se aestus incitavisset, quod bis acci- 
dit semper horarum viginti quatuor spatio, neque navibus, 
^quod, rursus minuente aestu, naves in vadis afflictarentur. 
Ita \itraque re oppidorum oppugnatio impediebatur ; ac, si 
quando '"magnitudine operis forte superati, "extruso mari 
aggere ac moUbus, '^atque his ferme oppidi mcenibus adae- 
quatis, suis fortunis desperare cceperant, magno numero na 
vium "appulso, cujus rei summam facultatem habebant, sua 
d<!portabant omnia, seque in proxima oppida recipiebant 
Ibi se rursus iisdem opportunitatibus loci defendebant 
Haec eo faciUus magnam partem aestatis faciebant, quod 
nostra; naves tempestatibus detinebantur ; summaque erat 
vasto atque aperto mari, '^magnis aestibus, raris ac prope 
nuUis portubus, difllicuUas navigandi. 


13. Namque ipsorum navb-d ad liunc modum 'factas ar- 
matseque erant. '^Carinae aiiquanto planiores, quam nos- 
trarum navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus excip- 
ere possent : prorae admodum erectge, atque item puppes, 
ad magnitudinem lluctuum tempestatumque accommodatae : 
naves totas factae ex robore, ^ad quamvis vim et contmneliam 
perferendam : transtra pedalibus in latitudinem trabibus 
confixa clavis ferreis, digiti pollicis crassitudine : anclioraj, 
pro funibus, ferreis catenis revinctae : ''pelles pro velis, alu- 
taeque tenuiter confectae, sive propter ^lini inopiam atque 
ejus usus inscientiam, sive eo, quod est magis verisiniile, 
quod tantas tempestates Oceani tantosque impetus ventorum 
sustineri, ac ^tanta oncra navium regi velis non satis com- 
mode, arbitrabantur. '^Cum liis navibus nostrse classi ejus- 
modi congressus erat, ut una celeritate et pulsu remorum 
praestaret, ^reliqua, pro loci natura, pro vi tempestatum, illis 
essent aptiora et accommodatiora : neque enim his nostrae 
^rostro nocere poterant ; tanta in eis erat firmitudo : neque 
propter altitudinem ""facile telum adjiciebatur ; et eadem de 
causa "minus commode copulis continebantur. Accedebat, 
ut, cum sasvire ventus coepisset '-et se vento dedissent, et 
tempestatem ferrent facilius, et '^in vadis consisterent tu- 
tius, et, ab aestu derelictfe, nihil saxa et cautes timerent: 
quarum rerum omnium nostris navibus "casus erant cxtim- 

14. Compluribus expugnatis oppidis, Caesar, ubi intel- 
lexit, frustra tantum laborem sumi, neque hostium fugam 
captis oppidis reprimi, '^neque his noceri posse, statuit ex- 
pectandum classem. Quae ubi convenit, ac primum ab hos- 
tibus visa est, circiter ducentae et viginti naves eorum "^pa- 
ratissimae, atque omni genere armorum ornatissimaj, pro- 
fectffi ex portu, nostris adversae constiterunt : ncquo satis 
Bruto, qui classi praeerat, vel tribunis militum centurioni- 
busque, quibus singulae naves erant attributae, constabat, 
quid agerent, aut '^quam rationem pugiiae insisterent. Ros- 


tro enim noceri non posse cognoverant ; 'turribus autem 
excitatis, tamen has altitudo puppium ex barbaris navibus 
superabat, ut neque ex inleriore loco '^satis commode tela 
adjici possent, et missa ab Gallis gravius acciderent. Una 
erat magno usui res praeparata a nostris, ''falees praeacutss, 
iasertaj affixasque longuriis, uon absimili forma ''muralium 
falcium. His cum funes, qui antennas ad malos destina- 
bant, ^comprehensi adductique erant, navigio remis incitaio 
prajrumpebantur. Quibus abscissis, antennae necessario 
concidebant, ut, cum omnis Gallicis navibus spes in velis 
^armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis, omnis usus navium 
uno tempore eriperetur. "Reliquum erat certamen positum 
in virtute, qua nostri luilites facile superabant, atque eo 
magis, quod in conspectu Cajsaris atque omnis exercitus 
res gerebatur, ^it nullum paulo fortius factum latere posset : 
omnes enim colles ac loca superiora, unde erat propinquus 
despectus in mare, ab exercitu tenebantur. 

15. 'Dejectis, ut diximus, antennis, '"cum singulas binae 
ac temae naves circumsteterant, milites summa vi "tran- 
scendere in hostium naves contendebant. Quod postquain 
barbari fieri aniraadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navi- 
bus, cum ei rei nuUum reperiretur auxilium, fuga salutem 
petere contenderunt : ac, jam conversis in eam partem na- 
vibus, '-quo ventus ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquil- 
litas extitit, ut se ex loco movere non possent. Quae quid- 
em res ad negotium conficiendum maxime fuit opportuna : 
nam '^singulas nostri consectati expugnaverunt, ut perpaucas 
ex omni numero, noctis interventu, ad terram pervenerint, 
cum ab hora fere quarta usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur. 

16. Quo prcelio bellum Venetorum totiusque orae maritimae 
confectum est. Nam, cmii omnis juventus, omnes etiarn 
"gravioris astatis, in quibus aliquid consilii aut dignitatis 
fuit, eo convenerant ; tum, navium quod ubique fuerat, uimrn 
in locum coegerant : quibus amissis, reliqui, neque quo se 
reciperent neque quemadmodum oppida defenderent, habe- 


bant. Itaque se suaque oinnia Ca?sari dediderunt. 'In 
quos eo gravius Csesar vindicandum statuit, quo diligentius 
in reliquum tempus a barbaris jus legatonmi conservaretur. 
Itaque, omni seuatu necato, reliquos ^sub corona vendidit. 

17. Dum hffic in Yenetis geruntur, ^Quintus Titurius Sa- 

binus cura iis copiis. quas a Csesare acceperat, in fines 

UneUonmi pervenit. His prseerat Virido\*i5, ac summam 

imperii tenebat earum omnium civitatum, quse defecerant, 

ex quibus exercitum magnasque copias coegerat. ''Atque 

bis paucis diebus Aulerci Eburovices, Lexoviique, senatu 

suo interfecto, quod auctores belli esse nolebant, portas 

clauserunt seque cum Virido^-ice conjunxerimt : raagnaque 

prseterea multitudo undique ex GaUia ^erditorum bomimnn 

latronumque convenerant, quos spes praedandi, studiumqne 

bellandi, ab agricultura et quotidiano labore revocabat. 

Sabinus ^doneo omnibus rebus loco castris sese tenebat. 

cum Viridovix contra einn 'duum railiium spatio conse- 

disset, quotidieque productis copiis pugnandi potestatem fa- 

ceret ; ut jam non solum bostibus in contemtionem Sabinus 

veniret, sed etiam nostrorum miLitum A'0cibus ^nonnihil car- 

peretur : tantamque opinionem timoris prasbuit, ut jam ad 

vallum castrorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de causa 

faciebat, quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, praesertim ^eo 

absente, qui summamimperiiteneret, nisi Eequo loco, aut op- 

portunitate aliqua data, legato dimicandum non existimabat. 

18. '°Hac confirmata opinione timoris, idoneum quendam 

hominem et caUidiun delegit, Ganum, ex his, quos auxilii 

oausa secum habebat. Huic magnis praemiis pollicitationi- 

busque persuadet, uti ad hostes transeat ; et, quid fieri velit, 

edocet. Qui, ubi pro perfuga ad eos venit, timorem Ro- 

manorum "proponit : " quibus angustiis ipse Caesar a Ve- 

netis prematur," docet : " neque longius abesse, quin prox- 

ima nocte Sabinus clam ex castris exercitum educat, et ad 

Csesarem auxilii ferendi causa proficiscatur." Quod ubi 

auditum est. conclamant omnf^s. occasioneit ncgotii benn 


gerendi amittendam non esse, ad castra iri oportere. 
'Multae res ad hoc consilium Gallos hortabantur : superio- 
rum dierum Sabini cunctatio, ^perfugae confirmatio, inopia 
cibariorum, cm rei parum diligenter ab iis erat provisum, 
'spes Venetici belli, et quod fere libenter homines id, quod 
volunt, credunt. His rebus adducti, *non prius Viridovicem 
reiiquosque duces ex concilio dimittunt, quam ab his sit 
concessum, arma uti capiant et ad castra contendant. Qua 
re concessa, lagti, ut explorata victoria, sarmentis virgultis- 
que collectis, quibus fossas Romanorum compleant, ad cas- 
tra pergunt. 

19. Locus erat castrorum editus, et paulatim ab imo ac- 
clivis ^cixciter passus mille. Huc magno cursu contende- 
nmt, ut quam minimum spatii ad se colligendos armandos- 
que Romanis daretur, ^exanimatique pervenenmt. Sabinus, 
suos hortatus, cupientibus signum dat. Impeditis hostibus 
propter ea, quae ferebant, onera, subito duabus portis enip- 
tionem fieri jubet. Factum est opportunitate loci, hostium 
inscientia ac defatigatione, virtute militum, superiorum pug- 
narum exercitatione, ut ne unum quidem nostrorum impe- 
lum terrent, ac statim terga verterent. Quos impeditos "^in- 
legris viribus milites nostri consecuti, magnum numerum 
eorum occiderunt ; reliquos equites consectati, paucos, qui 
ex fuga evaserant, reUquei-unt. Sic, uno tempore, et de 
navali pugna ^Sabinus, et de Sabini victoria Csesar certior 
factus ; civitatesque omnes se statim Titurio dediderunt. 
^Nam, ut ad bella suscipienda Gallorum alacer ac promtus 
est aniinus, sic moUis ac '"minime resistens ad calamitates 
perferendas mens eorum est. 

20. Eodem fere tempore, Publius Crassus, cum in Aqui- 
taniam pervenisset, quae pars, ut ante dictum est, et regio- 
num latitudine, et multitudine hominum, "ex tertia parte 
Galliae est aestimanda, cimi inteUigeret in his locis sibi bel- 
lum gerendum, ubi '-paucis ante annis Lucius Valenus P*re! 
coninus, legatus, exercitu pulso, interfectus esset, atque 


unde Lucius Manilius, proconsul, impedimentis amissis 
profugisset, non mediocrem sibi diligentiam adhibeudam 
intelligebat. Itaque re frumentaria provisa, auxiliis equi- 
tatuque comparato, multis prseterea viris fortibus Tolosa, 
Carc^tsone, et Narbone, 'quae sunt civitates Galliaj Provin- 
ciae, finitimae his regionibus, nominatim evocatis, in Sotiatum 
fines exercitum introduxit. Cujus adventu cognito, Sotiates, 
magnis copiis coactis, equitatuque, -quo phirimum valebant, 
in itinere agmen nostrum adorti, primum equestre proehum 
commiserunt : deindc, equitatu suo pulso, atque insequen- 
tibus nostris, subito pedestres copias, quas in convalle in 
insidiis collocaverant, ostenderunt. Hi, nostros disjcctos 
adorti, proelium renovarunt. 

21. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, cum Sotiates, super- 
ioribus victoriis freti, in sua virtute totius Aquitaniae salu- 
tem positam putarent ; nostri autem, quid sine imperatoro, 
et sine rehquis legionibus, adolescentulo duce, efficere pos- 
sent, perspici cuperent. 'Tandem, confecti vuhieribus, 
hostes terga vertere. Quorum magno numero interfecto, 
Crassus ex itinere oppidum Sotiatum oppugnare coepit. 
Quibus fortiter resistentibus, vineas turresque egit. Ilh, 
aUas eruptione tentata, aUas ''cunicuUs ad aggerem vineas- 
que actis (^cujus rei sunt longe peritissimi Aquitani, prop- 
terea quod muhis locis apud eos aerari* sectura? sunt), ubi 
diUgentia nostrorum "nihil his rebus profici posse inteUexe- 
runt, legatos ad Crassum mittunt, seque in deditionem ut re- 
cipiat petunt. Qua re impetrata, arma tradere jussi, faciunt. 

22. Atque, 'in ea rc omnium nostrorum intentis animis, 
aUa ex parte oppidi Adcantuannus, qui summam imperii 
tencbat, ^cum sexcentis devotis, quos iUi soldurios appeUant 
('quorum hsec est conditio, uti omnibus in vita commodis 
una cum his fruantur, quorum se amicitia; dediderint ; si 
quid iis per vim accidat, aut eundem casum una feiant, ''^aiit 
sibi mortem consciscant : neque adhuc hominum memoria 
repertDs est quisquam, qui, ro interfccto, cujus se amicitia? 


devovissent, niortem recusaret), 'cum iis Adcantuannus, 
eruptionem facere conatus, clamore ab ea parte munitionis 
sublato, cum ad arma milites concurrissent, vehcmenterque 
ibi pugnatum esset, repulsus in oppidum, ^amen uti eadem 
deditionis conditione uteretur, ab Crasso impetravit. 

23. Armis obsidibusque acceptis, Crassus in fines Voca- 
tium et Tarusatium profectus est. Tum vero "barbari com- 
moti, quod oppidum, et natura loci et manu munitum, ^paucis 
diebus, quibus eo ventum erat, expugnatum cognoverant, le- 
gatos quoquoversus dimittere, conjurare, obsides inter se 
dare, copias parare cceperunt. Mittuntur etiam ad eas ci- 
vitates legati, quae sunt 'citerioris Hispania?, finitimae Aqui- 
taniae : inde auxilia ducesque arcessvmtur. Quorum ad- 
ventu ^magna cum auctoritate, et magna cum hominum mul- 
titudine, bellum gerere conantur. Duces vero ii deliguntur, 
qui una cum ''Quinto Sertorio omnes annos fuerant, sum 
mamque scientiam rei militaris habere existimabantur. Hi 
*consuetudine Populi Romani loca capere, castra munire, 
commeatibus nostros intercludere instituunt. Quod ubi 
Crassus animadvertit, suas copias propter exiguitatem non 
^facile diduci, '"hostem et vagari et vias obsidere et castris 
satis praesidii relinquere ; ob eam causam minus commode 
fruraentum commeatumque sibi supportari ; in dies hostium 
numerum augeri ; non cunctandum existimavit, quin pugna 
decertaret. Hac re ad consilium delata, ubi omnes idem 
sentire intellexit, posterum diem pugnae constituit. 

24. Prima luce, productis omnibus copiis, "duplici acie 
instituta, '^auxiUis in mediam aciem conjectis, quid hostes 
consilii caperent expectabat. Illi, etsi propter multitudi- 
nem, et veterem belli gloriam, paucitatemque nostrorum, se 
tuto dimicaturos existimabant, tamen tutius esse arbitraban- 
tur, obsessis viis, commeatu intercluso, sine uUo \Tilnere 
victoria potiri : et, si propter inopiam rei frumentariae Ro- 
mani sese recipere cogpissent, impeditos in agmine et '^sub 
sarcinis, inferiores animo, adoriri cogitabant. Hoc consiUo 


probato ab ducibus, productis Romaiiorum copiis, sese caa- 
tris tenebant. Hac re perspecta, Crassus, 'cum sua cunc- 
tatione atque opinione timoris hostes nostros milites ala- 
criores ad pugnandum effecissent ; atque omnium voces 
audirentur, expectari diutius non oportere, quin ad caslia 
iretur ; cohortatus suos, omnibus cupientibus, ad h'.istium 
castra contendit. 

25. Ibi cum alii fossas complerent, alii, multis telis con- 
jectis, defensores vallo munitionibusque depellerent, auxili- 
aresque, ^quibus ad pugnam non mullum Crassus confidebat, 
lapidibus telisque subnunistrandis, et ad aggerem cespilibus 
comportandis, speciera atque opinionem pugnantium prae- 
berent ; cum item ab hostibus ^constanter ac non timide 
pugTiaretur, telaque ex loco superiore missa ''non frustra ac- 
ciderent ; equites, circumitis hostium castris, Crasso renun- 
ciaverunt, non eadem esse diligentia ab decumana porta 
castra numita, facilemque aditum habere. 

26. Crassus, equitum praefectos cohortatus, ut magnis 
praemiis poUicitationibusque suos excitarent, quid fieri veHt 
ostendit. lUi, ut erat imperatum, eductis quatuor cohorti 
bus, quae, prassidio castris relictse, ^intritae ab labore erant, 
et longiore itinere circumductis, ne ex hostium castris con 
spici possent, omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam in 
tentis, celeriter ^ad eas, quas diximus, munitiones pervene 
runt, atque, "his prorutis, prius in hostium castris constite- 
runt, quam ^lane ab iis videri, aut, quid rei gereretur, cog- 
nosci possei. Tum vero, clamore ab ea parte audito, nostri 
redintegratis viribus, quod plermnque in spe victoriae accid- 
ere consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. Hostes undi- 
que circumventi, desperatis omnibus rebus, se per muniti- 
ones dejicere et fuga salutem petere 'intenderunt. Quos 
equitatus apertissiniis campis conscctatus, cx millium quin- 
quaginta numero, quae ex Aquitania Cantabrisque convenisse 
constabat, vix quarta parle rclicta, '"mtdta nocte se in castra 

27. Hac audila pugu:t. in:ii;nu nnrs Aquitanioe sese 

LIBER /11. CAP. X\IX. 65 

Crasso dedidit, obsidesque ultro misit : quo in numero fue- 
runt Tarbelli, Bigerriones, Preciani, Vocates, Tarusates, 
Elusates, Garites, Ausci, Garumni, Sibuzates, Cocosates. 
Paucac ultimae nationes, anni tempore confisae, quod hiems 
suberat, hoc facere neglexerunt. 

28. Eodem fere tempore Csesar, etsi prope exacta jam 
aestas erat, tamen, quod, omni Gallia pacata, Morini Mena- 
piique 'supererant, qui in armis essent neque ad eum un- 
quam legatos de pace misissent, arbitratus, id bellum celer- 
iter confici posse, eo exercitum adduxit : ^qui longe aUa 
ratione, ac reliqui Galli, bellum agere instituerunt. Nam 
quod intelligebant, maximas nationes, quae prosHo conten- 
dissent, pulsas superatasque esse, ^continentesque silvas ac 
paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia contulerunt. Ad 
quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar pervenisset, castraque 
"nunire instituisset, neque hostis interim visus esset, dis- 
persis in opere nostris, subito ex omnibus partibus silvae 
evolaverunt et in nostros impetum fecerunt. Nostri celer- 
iter arma ceperunt, eosque in silvas repulerunt, et, com- 
pluribus interfectis, ^longius impeditioribus locis secuti, 
paucos ex siiis deperdiderunt. 

29. Reliquis deinceps diebus Csesar silvas Ccedere instit- 
uit, et, ne quis ^inermibus imprudcntibusque militibus ab 
latere impctus fieri posset, omnem eam ^materiam, quce erat 
csesa, 'conversam ad hostem coUocabat, et pro vallo ad 
utrumque latus exstruebat. Incredibili celeritate ^magno 
spatio paucis diebus confecto, cum jam pecus atque ®ex- 
trema impedimenta ab nostris tenerentur, ipsi densiores 
silvas peterent ; ejusmodi sunt tempestates consecutae, uti 
opus necessario intennitteretur, et, continuatione imbrium 
diutius '"sub pellibus milites contineri non possent. Itaque 
vastatis omnibus eorum agris, vicis aedificiisque incensis, 
Ctesar exercitum reduxit, et in Aulercis, Lexoviisque, reli- 
quis item civitatibus, "quae proxime bellurn fecerant, in hi- 
bemis collocavit. 








I. War with the Usipetes and Tenchtheri. 

Chap. 1-3. The Usipetes and Tenchthcri, two Geiman liations, m. 
ing expelled by the Suevi, pass over into Gaul. A description is 
given of the manners of the Suevi, and their mode of life. 4. The 
Usipetes and Tenchthcri drive out the Menapii from thcir habitations. 
5, 6. Caesar resolves to make war upon the Usipetes and Tcnchtheri. 
7-9. Embassy of the Germans to Caesar, and his reply. 10. De- 
scription of the Meuse and Rhine. 11-15. Pcrfidy of the Germans. 
thcir overthrow, and fiight. 


Chap. 16. Caesar's reasons for crossing the Rhine. 17. Builds a 
bridge over that rivcr. Description of it. 18. Crosscs over into the 
tcrritory of the Sicambri. 19. Passes into the country of the Ubii. 
Rcccives from thcm information respecting the Suevi. Retums into 

III. Cjesar passes into Britain. 

Chap. 20. Ca;sar's reasons for passiug over into Britain. 21. Dn 
spatches C. Voluscnus, in a vessel, to reconnoitcr. Ambassadors 
comc from Britain. 22, 23. Coesar^s passage across. 24-26. Dis- 
cmbarcation. Battle. Flight of thc Britons. 27. Thp Britons send 
ambrissnilors to Ca'siir. wilh nfTcrs nf stirrcnder 2!<, 2'1 Thc Romnn 

tlBER IV. CAP. II. 67 

flect sulTcrs bv a scvere tcmpest. 30-3C. Re\olt oC the BntouH. 
A description of their modc of fighting from chariots. Tliey are sub- 
dued. Caesar retums to Gaul. 
IV. War with the Morini and Menapii. 

Chap. 37. Revolt of the Morini. 38. Labienus is sent against theiix 
Thcir subjugation. Territory of the Menapii ravaged by Tituriue 
and Cotta. Thanksjrivinjr at Rome. 

1. Ea, quae secuta est, hieme, qui fuit annus 'Cneio 
Pompeio, Marco Crasso consulibus, Usipetes Germani, et 
itein Tenchtheri, magna cum mukitudine hominum, flumen 
Rhenum transienint, non longe a mari, *quo Rhenus influit. 
Causa transeundi fuit, quod, ab Suevis complures annos 
exagitati, bello premebantur et agricultura prohibebantur. 
Suevorum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Germa- 
norum omnium. Hi ''centum pagos habere dicuntur, ex 
quibus quotannis singula millia armatorum bellandi causa 
ex finibus educunt. Reliqui, qui domi manserint, se atquc 
illos alunt. Hi rursus invicem anno post in armis sunt ; 
ilU domi remanent. ''Sic neque agricultura, nec ratio atque 
usus belli, intermittitur. Sed ^privati ac separati agri apud 
eos nihil est ; neque longius anno remanere uno in loco in- 
colendi causa Ucet. Neque midtum frumento, sed ^maxi- 
raam partem lacte atque pecore vivunt, multumque sunt ia 
venationibus ; quae res et cibi genere, et quotidiana exerci- 
tatione, et libertate vitae (quod, a pueris '^nullo oflicio aut 
disciplina assuefacti, nihil omnino contra voluntatem faci- 
ant), et vires alit, et immani corporum magnitudine homiues 
efficit. Atque in eam se consuetudinem adduxerunt, ut 
^ocis frigidissimis, neque vestitus, praeter pelles, habeant 
quicquam (quarum propter exiguitatem magna est corporis 
pars aperta), et laventur in fluminibus. 

2. Mercatoribus est ad eos aditus magis eo, ut, \ui£ 
bello ceperint, quibus vendant, habeant, quam quo ullani 
rem ad se importari desiderent : '"quinetiam jumentis, qui- 
bus maxime Gallia delectatur, quajque impenso paran' 


pretio, Germani importatitiis non utuntui 'sed qua3 sunt 
apud eos nata, ^parva atque deformia, liaec quotidiana exer- 
citatione, sununi ut sint laboris, efliciunt. Eq.uestribus 
prcfiliis sa^pe ex equis desiliunt, ac pedibus proeliantur ; 
equosque eodem remanere vestigio assucfaciunt ; ad quos 
se celeriter, cum usus est, recipiunt : neque eorum moribus 
Hurpius quicquam aut inertius habetur, quam epliippiis uti. 
^ltaque ad quemvis numerum ephippiatorum equitum, quam- 
vis pauci, adire audent. Vinum ad se omnino ^importari 
non sinunt, quod ea re ad laborem ferendum remollescerc 
homines, atque effoeminari, arbitrantur. 

3. ^Publice maximam putant esse laudem, quam latissime 
a suis finibus vacare agros : hac re significari, magnum 
numerum "civitatium suam vim sustinere non posse. Ita- 
que, una ex parte, a Suevis, circitcr millia passuum sex- 
centa agri vacare dicuntur. ^Ad aUeram partem succedunt 
Ubii (^quorum fuit civitas ampla atque florens, ut est captus 
Germanorum), '"et paulo quam sunt ejusdem generis ceteri 
humaniores ; propterea quod Rhenum attingunt, multumque 
ad eos mercatores ventitant, et ipsi propter propinquitatem 
Gallicis sunt moribus assuefacti. Hos cum Suevi, multis 
ssepe bellis experti, propter "amplitudinem gravitatemque 
civitatis, finibus expellere non potuissent, tamen vectigales 
sibi fecerunt, ac muUo '*humiliores infirmioresque redege- 

4. '^ln eadem causa fuerunt Usipetes et Tenchtheri, quos 
Bupra diximus, qui comphires annos Suevorum ^dm sustin- 
ucrunt ; ad extremum tamcn, agris expulsi, et multis Ger- 
maniae locis triennium vagati, ad Rhenum pervenerunt : 
"quas regiones Menapii incolebant, et ad utramque ripain 
fluminis agros, a;dificia, vicosque habebant ; sed tantae mul- 
titudinis aditu perterriti, ex his aedificiis, qua; trans flumen 
habuerant, '^demigraverant, ct, cis Rhenum dispositis praj- 
sidiis, Germanos transire prohibebant. Illi, omnia expcrti, 
cuni ncqu(> vi contendore propter inopiam navium, neque 


clam transire propter custodias Menapiorum, possent, re- 
verti se in suas sedes regionesque simulavenmt ; et, tridui 
viam progressi, 'rursus reverterunt, atque, omni hoc itinere 
una nocte equitatu confecto, inscios inopinantesque Mena- 
pios oppresserunt, qui, de Germanorum discessu per ex- 
ploratores certiores facti, sine metu trans Khenum in suos 
vicos remigraverant. His interfectis, navibusque eorum 
occupatis, priusquam ea pars Menapiorum, quae citra Rhe- 
num "quieta in suis sedibus erat, certior fieret, flumen tran- 
isierunt, atque, omnibus eorum aedificiis occupatis, "reliquam 
partem hiemis se eorum copiis aluerunt. 

5. His de rebus Caesar certior factus, et ^infirmitatem 
Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles, 
et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil his committendimi 
existimavit. ^Est autem hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti et 
viatores, etiam invitos, consistere cogant, et, quod quisque 
eorum de quaque re audierit aut cognoverit, quaerant ; et 
mercatores in oppidis ^vulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex 
regionibus veniant, quasque ibi res cognoverint, pronunciare 

ogant. '^His rumoribus atque auditionibus permoti, de 
ummis saepe rebus consilia ineunt, quorum eos e vestigio 
poenitere necesse est, ^cum incertis rumoribus serviant, et 
plerique ad voluntatem eorum ficta respondeant. 

6. Qua consuetudine cognita, Caesar, ®ne graviori beilo 
occurreret, maturius quam consuerat ad exercitum proficis- 
citur. Eo cum venisset, ea, quae fore suspicatus erat, '°facta 
cognovit ; missas legationes a nonnuUis civitatibus "ad 
Germanos, invitatosque eos, uti ab Rheno discederent ; 
omniaque quae postulassent, ab $e fore parata. Qua spe 
adducti Germani latius jam vagabantur, et in fines Eburo- 
num et Condrusorum, qui sunt Trevirorum clientes, perve- 
nerant. Principibus Gallias evocatis, Caesar ea quae cog- 
noverat '"dissimulan^a sibi existimavit, eorumque animis 
permulsis et cenfirmatis, equitatuque imperato, bellum cum 
Germanis gerere constituit. , 



7. Re frumentaria comparata, equitibusquc delectis, iter 
in ea loca facere cojpit, quibusdn locis esse Germanos au- 
diebat. A quibus cum paucorum dierum iter abesset, legati 
ab his venerunt, quorum haec fuit oratio : " Germanos neque 
priores Populo Romano bellum inferre, neque tamen recu- 
sare, si lacessantur, quin armis contendant ; quod Germa- 
norum consuetudo haec sit a majoribus tradita, quicumque 
belkim inferant, 'resistere, neque deprecari : haec tamen 
dicere, venisse invitos, ejectos domo. Si '^siiam gratiam 
Romani velint, posse eis utiles esse amicos : vel sibi agros 
attribuant, vel patiantur ''eos tenere quos armis possederint. 
Sese unis Suevis ''concedere, quibus ne Dii quidem immor- 
tales pares esse possint : reliquum quidem in terris esse 
neminem, quem non superare possint." 

8. Ad heec Caesar, quas visum est, respondit ; sed ^exitus 
fuit orationis : " Sibi nullam cum his amipitiam esse posse, 
si in Gallia remanerent : neque verum essc, qui suos fines 
tuerinon potuerint, aUenos occupare : ^neque uUos in Gallia 
vacare agros qui dari, tantae praesertim raultitudini, sinc in- 
juria possint. Sed licere, si velint, in Ubionim fmibus con- 
sidere, quorum sint legati apud se, et de Suevorum injuriis 
querantur, ct a se auxilium petant : hoc se "ab iis impetra- 
t)u-um." '' 

9. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt, et, re delib- 
erata, post diem tertium ad Caesarcm reversuros : interea 
ne propius se castra moveret, petierunt. Ne id quidem 
Caesar ab se impetrari posse dixit : cognoverat enim, mag- 
nam partem equitatus ab iis aliquot diebus ante pracdandi 
frumentandique causa ad^mbiAreto^trans Mosam missam. 
^Hos expectari equites, atque ejus rei causa moram inter- 
poni, arbitrabatur. 

10. Mosa prolluit ex monte»'Voscgo, qui cst in finibus 
Lingonum, '"et, partc quadam cx Rh^o recepta, quae ap- 
pellatur Vahalis, insulan»efficit Batavorum,*neque longius 
ab eo millibus passuugi octoginta in Oceanum transit. 

LiBER IV t;AP. XII. 7 

Rhenus autem oritur ex Lepontiis, qui Alpes incolunt, et 
longo spatio per fines Nantuatium, Helvetionim, Sequano- 
rum, Mediomatricorum, Tribocorum, Trevirorum 'citatus 
fertur ; et, ubi Oceano appropinquat, ^in plures difBuit par- 
tes^ multis ingentibusque insulis effectis, quarum pars magna 
a feris barbarisque nationibus incolitur (ex quibus sunt, "qui 
piscibus atque ovis avium vivere existimantur), multisque 
capitibus in Oceanum influit. 

11. Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum duodecim 
miUibus abesset, ^ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati rever- 
tuntur : qui, in itinere congressi, magnopere, ne longius 
progrederetur, orabant. Cum id non impetrassent, pete- 
bant, uti ad eos equites, qui agmen antecessissent, praemit- 
teret, eosque pugna prohiberet ; sibique uti potestatem fa- 
ceret, in Ubios legatos mittendi : quorum si Principes ac 
senatus ^sibi jurejurando fidem fecissent, ea conditione, quae 
a Caesare ferretur, se usuros ostendebant : ad has res con- 
ficiendas sibi tridui spatium daret. Haec omnia Caesar 
^eodem illo pertinere arbitrabatur, ut, tridui mora interpos- 
ita, equites eqrum, qui abessent, reverterentur : tamen sese 
non longius miUibus passuum quatuor aquationis causa pro- 
cessurum eo die dixit : huc postero die quam frequentissimi 
convenirent, ut de eorum postulatis cognosceret. Interim 
ad ''praefectos, qui cum omni equitatu antecesserant, mittit, 
qui nunciarent, ne hostes prcelio lacesserent, et, si ipsi la- 
cesserentur, ^sustinerent, quoad ipse cum exercitu propius 

12. At hostes, ubi primum nostros equites conspexerunt, 
quorum erat quinque mUlium numerus, cum ipsi ^on am- 
ptius octingentos equites haberent, quod ii, qui frumentandi 
causa ierant trans Mosam, nondum redierant, nihil timenti- 
bus nostris, quod legati '"eorum paulo ante a Caesare dis- 
cesserant, atque is dies induciis erat ab eis petitus, impetu 
facto, celeriter nostros perturbaverunt. Rursus resisten- 
tibus nostris, consuetudine sua ad pedes desihierunt, sub- 


fossisque equis, compluribusque nostris dejectis, reliquos in 
fugam conjecerunt, alque 'ita perterritos egerunt, ut non 
prius fuga desisterent, quam in conspectu agminis nostri 
venissent. In eo proelio ex equitibus nostris interficiuntur 
quatuor et septuaginta, in liis vir fortissimus, Piso, Aqui- 
tanus, amplissimo genere natus, cujus avus in civitate sua 
legnum obtinuerat, amicus ab Senatu nostro appellatus. 
Hic cum fratri ^intercluso ab hostibus auxilium ferret, illum 
ex periculo eripuit : ipse, equo vulnerato dejectus, quoad 
potuit, fortissime restitit. Cum circumventus, mullis vul- 
neribus acceptis, cecidisset, atque id frater, qui jam prffilio 
excesserat, procul ''animum advertisset, incitato equo se 
hostibus obtulit atque interfectus est. 

13. Hoc facto prcelio, Ca;sar neque jam sibi legatos au- 
diendos, neque conditiones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab his, 
qui '*per dolum atque insidias, petita pace, ultro bellum in- 
tulissent : expectare vero, dum hostium copiae augerentur, 
equitatusque reverteretur, summae dementiae esse judicabat ; 
et, cognita Gallorum ^infirmitate, quantum jam apud eos hos- 
tes uno proslio auctoritatis essent consecuti, sentiebat : qui- 
bus ad consilia capienda nihil spatii dandum existimabat. 
His constitutis rebus, et consiHo cum legatis et quffist- 
ore communicato, 'ne quem diem pugnse pra^termitteret, 
opportunissima res accidit, quod postridie ejus diei mane, 
eadem et perfidia et simulatione usi Germani, frequentes, 
"omnibus principibus majoribusque natu adhibitis, ad eum 
in castra venerunt ; simul, ut dicebatur, ^sui purgandi causa, 
quod contra atque esset dictum, et ipsi petissent, proeliura 
pridie commisissent ; simul ut, si quid possent, '"de in 
duciis fallendo impetrarent. Quos sibi Caesar oblatos "ga 
visus, illico retineri jussit ; ipse omnes copias castris eduxit, 
equitatumque, quod recenti proeHo perterritum esse existi- 
mabat, agmcn subscqui jussit. 

14. Acie triplici instituta, et celeriter octomilliumitinere 
confecto, prius ad hostium castra pervenit, quam, quid age- 






retur, Germani scntire possent. Qui, omnibus rebus subito 
perterriti, et celeritate adventus nostri, ct 'discessu suorum, 
neque consilii habendi neque arma capiendi spatio dato, 
perturbantur, copiasne adversus hostcm educere, an castra 
defendere, an fuga salutem petere, praestare: Quoruin 
timor cum fremitu et concursu significaretur, milites nostri, 
^pristini diei perfidia incitati, in castra irruperunt. Quorum 
qui celeriter arma capere potuerunt, paulisper nostris 
restiterunt, atque inter carros impedimentaque proeUum 
commiserunt : at reliqua multitudo puerorum mulierumque 
(nam cum omnibus suis domo excesserant Rhenumque 
transierant), passim fugere coepit ; ^ad quos consectandos 
Caesar equitatum misit. 

15. Germani, '*post tergum clamore audito, cum suos in- 
terfici viderent, armis abjectis, signisque militaribus relictis, 
se ex castris ejecerunt : et, cum ^ad confluentem Mosae et 
Rheni pervenissent, ^reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero 
interfecto, reliqui se in flumen praecipitaverunt, atque ibi 
timore, lassitudine, vi fluminis oppressi, perierunt. Nostri 
ad unum omnes incoKimes, perpaucis ^nilneratis, ^ex tanti 
belli timore, cum hostium numerus capitum quadringento- 
rum et triginta millium fuisset, se in castra receperunt. 
Caesar his, quos in castris retinuerat, discedendi potestatem 
fecit : illi supplicia cruciatusque Gallorum veriti, quorum 
agros vexaverant, remanere se apud eum velle dixerunt. 
His Cassar libertatem concessit. 

16. Germanico bello confecto, ^ultis de causis Caesar 
statuit, sibi Rhenum esse transeundum : quarum illa fuit 
justissima, quod, cum videret, Germanos tam facile impelli, 
ut in Galliam venirent, ^suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit, 
cum intelligerent, et posse et audere Populi Romani cxer- 
citum Rhenum transire. '"Accessit etiam, quod illa pars 
equitatus Usipetum et Tenchtherorum, quam supra commem- 
oravi, praedandi frumentandique causa Mosam transisse, 
neque prcelio intcrfuisse, post fugam suorum se trans Rhe- 


num in fines Sigambrorum receperat seque cum iis conjunx- 
erat. 'Ad quos cum Caesar nuncios misisset, qui postu- 
larent, eos, qui sibi Galliseque bellum intulissent, sibi dede- 
rent, responderunt : " Populi Komani imperimn Rlienum 
finire : si, se invito Germanos in Galliam transire non 
eequum existimaret, "cur sui quicquam esse imperii aut pot- 
estatis trans Rhenum postularet ?" Ubii autem, qui uni ex 
Transrhenanis ad Caesarem legatos miserant, amicitiam 
fecerant, obsides dederant, magnopere orabant, " ut sibi 
auxilium ferret, quod graviter ab Suevis prcmerentur ; vel, 
si id facere 'occupationibus reipublicaj prohiberetur, exer- 
citum modo Rhenum transportaret : id sibi ad auxilium 
spemque reliqui temporis satis futurum : tantum esse "'no- 
men atque opinionem ejus exercitus, Ariovisto pulso, et hoc 
novissimo proslio facto, etiam ad ultimas Germanorum nati- 
ones, uti opinione et amicitia Populi Romani tuti esse pos- 
sint. Navium magnam copiam ad transportandum cxerci- 
tum poUicebantur." 

17. Cajsar his de causis, quas commemoravi, Rhenum 
transire decreverat ; sed navibus transire, neque satis tutum 
esse arbitrabatur, ^neque sua; neque Populi Romani dignitatis 
esse statuebat. Itaque, etsi summa difhcultas faciendi pon- 
tis "proponebatur, propter latitudinem, rapiditatem, altitudi- 
nemque fluminis, tamen id sibi contendendum, aut alitci 
non transducendum exercitum, existimabat. 'Rationem 
pontis hanc instituit. Tigna bina sesquipedaha, paulum ab 
imo prasacuta, ^dimcnsa ad altitudiiiem fluminis, intervallo 
pediun duorum inter se jungebat. Heec cum machinationi- 
bus immissa in flumen defixerat, "iistucisque adegcrat, '"non 
sublicse modo directa ad perpendiculum, sed prona ac fasti- 
gata, ut secundum naturam fluminis procumberent ; iis item 
contraria bina, ad eundem modum juncta, intervallo pedimi 
quadragenum, '"ab inferiore parle, contra vim atque im- 
pctum fluminis conversa staluebat. 'Tla^c utraque iusuper 
bipedalibus trabibus immissis '^quantum corum tignorum 



X. Two piles. each a foot nnd a haif thick, joincd to^ether at ihe distanccof ahoij' 
iwo feet. B. Two opposile piles similarly joined togelhcr. C. Large beam extendeO 
between them. D. Braces. E. Timbers laid across. F. Slakes sunk in ihe rive: 
as buttresses. G. Fences against trunks of trecs, A:c. sent down ihe river. U. Form 
oflhe beams a foot and a half lliick. I. Form of the bcam e.\terided betwcen thciii. 
K. Figurc of ilic two piles biaced logcihtr. L. Brai.cs. .M. A ilclachcd bracc N 
Spars laid alhwart. O. Ilurdle.s 


jiiiiclura distabat, biiiis utriuique fibulis ab cxtreiiia parte, 
distinebautur : 'quibus disclusis atque in contrariam parten: 
revinctis, ^anta erat operis firmitudo, atque ea rerum natu-ra, 
ut, quo major vis aqujE se incitavisset, hoc arctius illigata 
tenerentur. ^Ha;c directa materie injecta contexebantur, 
et ■'longuriis cratibusque consternebantur : ^ac nihilo sccius 
.sublicse et ad inleriorcm partem lluminis oblique agebantur, 
qua;, ''pro pariete subjectas, et cum omni opere conjunctae 
vim iluminis exciperent : ^ct aliae item supra pontem me- 
diocri spatio, ut, si arborum trmici, sive naves **dejiciendi 
operis essent a barbaris missae, his defensoribus earuni rerum 
vis minueretur, neu ponti nocerent. 

18. Diebus decem, ^quibus materia coepta erat compor- 
lari, omni opere eifecto, exercitus transducitur. Caesar, 
'"ad utramque partem pontis iirmo praesidio relicto, in fines 
Sigambrorum contendit. Interim a compluribus civitatibus 
ad eum legati veniunt, quibus pacem atque amicitiam pe- 
tentibus liberaliter respondit, obsidesque ad se adduci jubet. 
At Sigambri, ex eo tcmpore quo pons institui coeptus cst, 
fuga comparata, "hortantibus iis quos ex Tenchtheris atque 
Usipetibus apud se habcbant, finibus suis excesserant, sua- 
que omnia cxportaverant, seque '"in solitudinem ac silvas 

19. Cajsar, paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus, omni- 
bus vicis ajdiliciisque incensis, frumentisque succisis, se iii 
lines Ubiorum recepit ; atque iis auxilimii suiun pollicitus, 
si ab Suevis prcmerentur, haec ab iis cognovit : Suevos, pos- 
tcaquam pcr exploratores pontem fieri comperissent, morc 
suo concilio habito, nuncios in onmes partcs dimisissc, uli 
de oppidis demigrarent, libcros, uxorcs, suaque oninia '^in 
silviis dcponcrcnt, atquc omnes qui arma ferrc posscnt unum 
in locum convenireat : "hunc csse dclectum mcdium fero 
regionum eamm quas Suevi obtinerent : hic Romanorum 
adventum expectare atque ibi decertarc constituissc. Quod 
uiii Ca.'sar comperit, omnibus his rcbus confectis, quarum 


reruin causa transduccre exercitum constituerat, ut Gemia- 
nis metum injiceret, ut Sigambros 'ulcisceretur, ut Ubios 
obsidione liberarct, diebus omnino decem et octo trans 
Rhenum consumtis, ^satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem pro- 
fectum arbitratus, *se in Galliam recepit, pontemque rescidit. 

20. Exigua parte sestatis reliqua, Caesar, etsi in his locis, 
quod omnis Gallia ad septentriones vergit, ''maturse sunt 
hiemes, tamen *in Britanniam proficisci contendit, quod, 
oinnibus fere Gallicis bellis, hostibus nostris ^inde subminis- 
trata auxilia intelligebat : et, si tempus anni ad bellum ge- 
rendum deficeret, tamen magno sibi usui fore arbitrabatur, 
si modo insulam adisset, genus hominum perspexisset, 
loca, portus, aditus cognovisset : quec omnia fere Gallis 
crant incognita. Neque enim "temere praster mercatores 
illo adit quisquam, neque iis ipsis quicquam, praeter oram 
maritimam atque eas regiones quse sunt contra Gallias, 
notum est. Itaque, evocatis ad se undique mercatoribus, 
neque quanta esset insulee magnitudo, neque quse aut quantae 
nationes incolerent, neque ^quem usura beili haberent, aut 
quibus institutis uterentur, neque qui essent ad majorum 
navium multitudinem idonei portus, reperire poterat. 

21. Ad haec cognoscenda, priusquam periculum faceret, 
idoneum esse arbitratus ^Caium Volusenum, cum navi 
longa '"praemittit. Huic mandat, uti, exploratis omnibus 
rebus, ad se quamprimum revertatur : ipse cum omnibus 
copiis in Morinos proficiscitur, quod inde erat bre^dssimus 
in Britanniam transjectus. Huc naves imdique ex finitimis 
regionibus et, quam superiore aestate ad Veneticum belluin 
fecerat, classem jubet convenire. Interim, consilio ejus 
cognito et per mercatores perlato ad Britannos, a compluri- 
bus ejus insulae civitatibus ad eum legati veniunt, qui pol- 
liceantur obsides "dare, atque imperio Populi Romani ob- 
temperare. Quibus auditis, liberaliter pollicitus, hortatusque 
ut in ea sententia permanerent, eos domum reraittit, et cuna 
his una Commiran, quem ipsc, Atrebatibus superatis, regem 


ibi constituerat, ciijus ct virtutcm et consilium probubat, et 
quem sibi iidelem arbitrabatur, cujusque auctoritas in iis 
regionibus 'magni habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat, quas 
possit adeat civitates, horteturque ^ut Populi Romani fidem 
sequantur ; seque celeriter eo venturum nunciet. Volusenus, 
perspectis regionibus, \juantum ei facuUatis dari potuit, qm 
navi egrcdi ac se barbaris committere non auderet, quinto 
die ad Cajsarem revertitur ; quaeque ibi perspexisset re- 

22. Dum in his locis Ca^sar navium parandarum causa 
moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, 
qui se Me superioris temporis consilio excusarcnt, quod 
homines barbari, et ^nostraj consuetudinis imperiti, bcllum 
Populo Romano fecissent, seque ea, qute imperasset, fac- 
turos pollicerentur. Hoc sibi satis opportune Csesar acci- 
disse arbitratus, quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere 
volebat, neque belli gerendi, propter anni tempus, facuUatem 
habebat, neque Tras tantularum rerum occupationes sibi 
Britannise anteponendas judicabat, magnum his obsidum 
numerum imperat. Quibus adductis, eos in fidem recepit. 
'Navibus circiter octoginta onerariis coactis contractisque, 
quot satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat, 
quicquid prajterea navium longarum habebat, quaestori, le- 
gatis, praefectisque distribuit. Huc accedebant octodecim 
oneraria; naves, quse ex eo loco ab milHbus passuum octo 
vcnto tenebantur, quo minus in cundem portiim pervenire 
possent. Has equitibus distribuit ; reHquum exercituir 
Quinto Titurio Sabino et Lucio Aurunculeio Cottae, legatis, 
in Menapios atque in eos pagos Morinorum, ab quibus ad 
eum *'legati non venerant, deducendum dedit. Publium 
Sulpitium Rufum, legatum, cum co prassidio quod satis esso 
arbitrabatur, portum tenere jussit. 

S3. His constitutis rcbus, nactus idoneam ad navigandum 
tempcstatem, 'tertia ic-i-c vigilia '"solvit, equitesque in "uher- 
iorcm portum progrcdi, et naves conscendcrc, et sc scqui 


jussit ; a quibus cum id paulo lardius essel administratum, 
ipse 'hora diei circiter quarta cum primis navibus '^Britan- 
niam attigit, atque ibi in omnibus collibus "expositas hostium 
copias armatas conspexit. Cujus loci haec erat natura : 
*adeo montibus angustis mare continebatur, uti ex locis 
superioribus in littus telum adjici posset. Hunc ^ad egre- 
diendum nequaquam idoneum arbitratus locum, dum reliquac 
naves eo convenirent, ''ad horam nonam in anchoris expec- 
tavit. Interim legatis tribunisque militum convocatis, et 
quae ex Voluseno cognosset, et quae fieri vellet, ostendit, 
"monuitque (ut rei militaris ratio, maxime ut maritima? res 
postularent, ut quae celerem atque instabilem motum habe- 
rent), ad nutum et ad tempus omnes res ab iis administra- 
rentur. His dimissis, et ventum et aestum uno tempore 
nactus secundum, dato signo, et ^sublatis anchoris, circiter 
millia passuum septem ab eo loco progressus, aperto ac 
plano littore naves constituit. 

24. At barbari, consilio Romanonnn cognito, prsemisso 
equitatu, 'et essedariis, quo plerumque gencre in prceliis uti 
consuerunt, reliquis copiis subsecuti, nostros navibus egredi 
prohibebant. Erat ob has causas summa difficultas, quod 
naves, propter magnitudinem, nisi in aUo, '"constitui non 
poterant ; militibus autem, ignotis locis, impeditis manibus, 
magno et gravi armorum onere oppressis, simul et de na- 
vibus desiliendum, "et in fluctibus consistendura, et cum 
hostibus erat pugnandum : cum illi aut ex arido, aut paulu- 
lum in aquam progressi, '^omnibus membris expediti, no- 
tissimis locis, audacter tela conjicerent, '^et equos insue- 
factos incitarent. Quibus rebus nostri perterriti, atque 
hujus omnino generis pugnae imperiti, non eadem alacritate 
ac studio, quo in pedestribus uti proeliis consueverant, ute- 

25. Quod ubi Caesar animum advertit, naves longas, 
"quarum et species erat barbaris inusitatior, et raotus ad 
usum expeditior, paulum removeri ab '^onerariis navibus. et 


» 1* 

80 DK BKLLU iiALutVrf. 

remis lacitari, ct ad latus apertuni hostium conslitui, alque 
inde 'fundis, sagittis, tormentis, hostes propelli ac submo- 
veri jussit : \[uss res magno usui nostris fuit. Nam, et 
navium figura, et remorum motu, et inusitato genere for- 
mentorum permoti, barbari constiterunt, ac paulum modo 
pedem retulerunt. Afque, nostris niilitibus cuncfantibus, 
maxinie propter altitudinem maris, ^qui decimas legionis 
aquilam ferebat, contestatus Dcos, ut *ea res legioni feli- 
citer eveniret : " Desilite," inquit, " commilitones, nisi vultis 
aquilam hostibus prodere : ego cerfe meum reipublica; atque 
imperatori ofllcium 'prtestitero." Hoc cum magna voce 
dixisset, ex navi se projecit, atque in hostes aquilam ferre 
coepit. Tum nostri, cohorfati inter se, ne ^tantum dedecus 
admitterefur, universi ex navi desimerunt : hos item 'ex 
proximis navibus ^cum conspexissent, subsecuti hostibus 

2G. Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter : nostri tamen, 
qu.od neque ordines servare, 'neque firmifer insistere, neque 
signa subsequi poferant, afque alius alia ex navi, quibus- 
cumque signis occurrerat, se aggregabaf, magno opere per- 
turbabantur. Hosfes vero, notis omnibus vadis, ubi ex lit- 
tore aliquos '"singulares ex navi egredienfes conspexerant, 
incifatis equis impeditos adoriebantur : plures paucos cir- 
cumsistebant : alii ab latere aperto in universos tela conji- 
ciebant. ''Quod cum animum advertisset Csesar, "scapiias 
longarum navium, itcm spcculatoria navigia militibus com- 
pleri jussif, et, quos laborantes conspexeraf, iis subsidia 
submittebat. Nostri, ''simul in arido constiferunt, suis om- 
nibus consecufis, in hostes impefum fecerunf, afque eos in 
fugam dedcrunt, neque longius prosequi potuerunt, quod 
'*equites cursum tenere atquc insulam capere non potucrant. 
Hoc unum ad pristinam fortunam Csesari dcfuif. 

27. Hostes proslio superati, simul atquc se ex fuga rece- 
perunt, sfatim ad Ctrsarem "Icgatos de pace miscrunt : 
obsidcs daluros, qusnque inipcrasset scsc facfuros, polliciti 


8unt. Una cum his legatis Commius Atrebas venit, quem 
'supra demonstraveram a Caesare in Britanniam praemissmn. 
Hunc illi e navi egressum, cum ad eos ^oratoris modo im- 
peratoris mandata perferret, comprehenderant atque in vin- 
cula conjecerant ; tum, proelio facto, ^remiserunt et in pe- 
tenda pace ejus rei culpam in multitudinem contulerunt, et 
propter imprudentiam ut ignosceretur, petiverunt. Caesar 
questus, quod, cum ultro in ^continentem legatis missis 
pacem ab se petissent, bellum sine causa intulissent, ignos- 
cere imprudentiae dixit, obsidesque imperavit : quorum illi 
partem statim dederunt, partem, ex longinquioribus locis 
'^arcessitam, paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt. Interea 
suos remigrare in agros jusserunt, principesque undique 
convenire et se civitatesque suas Caesari commendare 

28. His rebus pace confirmata, ^post diem quartum, quam 
est in Britanniam ventum, naves octodecim, de quibus supra 
demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex superiore 
portu leni vento solverunt. Quaj cum appropinquarent Bri- 
tanniae, et ex castris viderentur, tanta tempestas subito 
coorta est, ut nulla earum ''cursum tenere posset, sed aliae 
eodem, unde erant profectoe, referrentur ; aliae ad inferiorem 
partem insulae, ^quae est propius solis occasum, magno sui 
cum pericido dejicerentur : quae tamen, anchoris jactis Vum 
fluctibus complerentur, necessario adversa nocte in altum 
provectae, continentem petierunt. 

29. Eadem nocte accidit, ut esset luna plena, '"qui dies 
maritimos aestus maximos in Oceano efiicere consuevit ; 
"nostrisque id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et longas 
naves, quibus Cassar exercitum transportandum curaverat, 
quasque in aridum subduxerat, asstus complebat ; et onera- 
rias, quae ad anchoras erant deligatae, tempestas '^fllictabat ; 
neque uUa nostris facultas aut administrandi, aut auxiliandi, 
dabatur. Compluribus navibus fractis, reliquae cum essent, 
funibus, anchoris, reliquisque armamentis amissis, ad navi 


gandum inuliles, magna, id quod necesse crat accidere, 
'totius exercitus perturbatio facta est : neque enim naves 
erant aliae, (juibus reportari possent ; et omnia deerant, quae 
ad reficiendas eas usui svmt, et, ^quod omnibus constabaJ 
hieniari in Gallia oportere, frumentum his in locis in hiemeni 
provisum non erat. 

30. Quibus rebus cognitis, principes Britannise, qui pos. 
proelium factum ad ea, quae jusserat Caesar, facienda con 
venerant, inter se coilocuti, ciun equites et naves et fru 
mentum Romanis deesse intelligerent, et paucitatem militum 
ex castrorum ''exiguitate cognoscerent, qua; hoc erant etiam 
angustiora, quod sine impedimentis Ca^sar legiones trans- 
portaverat, optimum factu esse duxerunt, rebellione facta, 
frumento commeatuque nostros prohibere, et ''rem inhiemem 
producere, quod, iis superatis, aut reditu interclusis, nemi- 
nem postea belli inferendi causa in Britanniam transiturum 
coniidebant. Itaque, rursus conjuratione facta, paulatim ex 
castris discedere, ac suos clam ex agris deducere cceperunt, 

31. At Csesar, etsi nondum eorum consilia cognoverat, 
tamen et ''ex eventu navium suarum, ^et ex eo, quod obsides 
dare intermiscrant, fore id, quod accidit, suspicabatur. 
ltu([ue ''ad omncs casus subsidia comparabat : nam et fru- 
mentum ex agris quotidie in castra conferebat, et, qua2 ^gra 
vissime afflictffi erant naves, earum materia atque a?re ad 
reliquas reficiendas utebatur, et, quse ad eas res erant usui, 
ex continenti comportari jubebat. Itaque, cum id summo 
studio a militibus administraretur, duodecim navibus amissis 
^ieliquis ut navigari commode posset, effecit. 

32. Dum ea geruntur, lcgione ex consuetudine una fru- 
mentatum missa, qua; appellabatur septima, nequc ulla ad 
id tempus belli suspicionc interposita, cum pars "liominum 
in agiis remaneret, "pars etiam in castra ventitaret, ii, qui 
pro portis castrorum ''in stationc erant, Csesari renunciarunt, 
pulvercm majorcm, quam consuetudo ferrct, in ea parte 
v^dcri, quam in partcin Icgio iter fccisset. Caesar id, quod 


erat, siispicatus, aliquid novi a barbaris initum consilii, co- 
hortes, quae in stationibus erant, secum in eam partem pro- 
ficisci, duas ex reliquis 'in stationem succedere, rcliquas 
armari et confestim sese subsequi jussit. Cum paulo lon- 
gius a castris processisset, suos ab hostibus premi, atque 
aegre sustinere, ^et, conferta legione, ex omnibus partibus 
tela conjici, animum advertit. Nam ''quod, omni ex reliquis 
partibus demesso frumento, pars una erat reliqua, suspicati 
hostes, huc nostros esse venturos, noctu in silvis delitue- 
rant : tum dispersos, depositis armis, in metendo occupatos, 
subito adorti, ^paucis interfectis, reliquos incertis ordinibus 
perturbaverant : simul equitatu atque essedis circumdede- 

33. ^Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae : primo per omnes 
partes perequitant, et tela conjiciunt, atque ^ipso terrore 
equorum, et strepitu rotarum, ordines plerumque perturbant ; 
et, ''cum se inter equitum turmas insinuaverint ex essedis 
desiliunt, et pedibus proeliantur. ^'Aurigae interim paulatim 
ex proelio excedunt, ^atque ita curru se coUocant, ut, si illi 
a multitudine hostium premantur, expeditum ad suos re- 
ceptum habeant. '"Ita mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem 
peditum, in prceliis prasstant ; ac tantum usu quotidiano et 
exercitatione efficiunt, uti, in declivi ac prascipiti loco, "in- 
citatos equos sustinere, '^et brevi moderari ac flectere, et 
per temonem percurrere, et in jugo insistere, et inde se in 
currus citissime recipere consuerint. 

34. "Quibus rebus, perturbatis nostris novitate pugnse, 
tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit : namque ejus 
adventu hostes '''constiterunt, nostri se ex timore receperunt. 
Quo facto, ad '^acessendum at ad committendum proelium 
alienum esse tempus arbitratus, suo se loco continuit, et, 
brevi tempore intermisso, in castra legiones '^reduxit. Dum 
haec geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, ''qui erant in 
agris, reliqui discesserunt. Secutae sunt '^continuos com- 
plures dies tempestates, quse et nostros in castris contine- 

84 r>E BEI,l,0 GALI.ICO. 

rent, et liostem a pugna prohiberent. Interim barbari nuH 
cios in omnes partes dimiserunt, paucitalemque nostroruin 
militum 'suis praedicaverunt, et, quanta prEedaj faciendae, 
atquc in perpetuum sui liberandi, facultas daretur, si Ro- 
manos castris expulissent, demonstrave runt His rebus 
celeriter magna multitudine peditatus equitatusque coacta, 
ad castra venerunt. 

35. Cajsar, etsi idem, quod superioribus diebus acciderat, 
fore videbat, ut, si essent liostes pulsi, celeritate pcriculum 
effugerent ; tamcn ^nactus equites circiter triginta, quos 
Commius Atrebas, de quo 'ante dictum est, secum trans- 
])ortaverat, legiones in acie pro castris constituit. Com- 
misso proelio, diutius nostrorum militum impetum hostes 
ferre non potuerunt, ac terga verterunt. '*Quos tanto spatio 
secuti, quantum cursu et viribus efficere potuerunt, com- 
plures ex iis occiderunt ; deinde, ^omnibus longe lateque 
afflictis incensisque, se in castra receperunt. 

30. Eodem die legati, ab hostibus missi ad Caesarem de 
pacc, venerunt. His Caesar numerum obsidum, quem antea 
imperaverat, duplicavit, eosque in continentem adduci jussit, 
quod, ''propinqua die Eequinoctii, infirmis navibus, 'hiemi 
navigationem subjiciendam non existimabat. Ipse, idoneam 
lempestatem nactus, paulo post mediam noctem naves solvit, 
quae omnes incolumes ad continentem pervenerunt ; sed ex 
his onerariae dua? ^eosdem, quos reliquaj, portus capere non 
potuerunt, et paulo infra delataj sunt. 

37. ^Quibus ex navibus cum essent expositi milites cir- 
citcr trecenti, atque in castra contenderent, Morini, quos 
Caesar, in Britanniam proticiscens, pacatos reliquerat, spe 
prajdae adducti, primo '"non ita magno suorum numero cir- 
cumsteterunt, ac, si sese interiici nollcnt, arma ponere jus- 
serunt. Cum illi, "orbe facto, sese defenderent, celcriter 
ad clamorem hominum circiter millia sex convenerunt. 
Qua re nunciata, Caesar omnem ex castris equitatum suis 
auxilio misit. Interim nostri militos impctum hostium sus- 


tinuerunt, alque amplius 'horis quatuor forlissime pugnave- 
runt, et, paucis vulneribus acceptis, complures ex iis occi- 
derunt. Postea vero quam equitatus noster in conspectum 
vcnit, hostes abjectis armis terga verterunt, magnusque 
eorum numerus est occisus. 

38. Caesar postero die Titum Labienum legatum, cum iis 
legionibus, quas ex Britannia reduxerat, in Morinos, qui 
rebelUonem fecerant, misit. Qui, cum "^ropter siccitates 
paludum, quo se reciperent, non haberent (^quo perfugio 
superiore anno fuerant usi), omnes fere in potestatem La- 
bieni venerunt^ At Quintus Titurius et Lucius Cotta, legati, 
qui in Menapiorum fines legiones Muxerant, omnibus eorum 
agris vastatis, frumentis succisis, aedificiis incensis, quod 
Menapii se omnes in densissimas silvas abdiderant, se ad 
Caesarem receperunt. Caesar in Belgis omnium legionum 
hibema constituit. *Eo duae omnino civitates ex Britannia 
obsides miserunt ; reliquae neglexerunt. His rebus gestis, 
ex hteris Caesaris dierum viginti ^supphcatio a Senatu de- 
creta est. 

C O M M E N T A R I I 

B E L L G A L L I C O. 




Chap. 1. Csesar, leaving orders with his lieutenants to build and equip 
a fieet, sets out for Illyricum, where he puts a stop to the incursions 
of the Pirustffi. 2-7. Returning thence into Gaul, he marches against 
the Treviri, and quiets the disturbances in that province. Dumnorix, 
withdrawing from the Roman camp with the Aeduan cavahy, is pur- 
sued and slain. 8. Cssar passes over into Britain. 9. Forces thc 
enemy from the woods in which they had taken sheltcr. 10, 11. 
Cffisar refits his fleet, which had suffered severely in a storm. 12-14. 
A description of Britain and its inhabitants. 15-22. Cassivellaunus, 
the leader of the Britons, is defeated in several encounters. The Ro- 
mans cross tlie Tamesis. Surrender of tho Trinobantes and sevcral 
other British tribes. 23. Ca?sar returns to Gaul. 
II. War with Ambiorix. 

Chap. 24, 25. The Roman anny, in consequence of the scarcity of 
provisions, is distributed over a wider extent of country thaii usual. 
Tasgetius slain among the Carnutcs. 26-37. Revolt of Ambioriy 
and Cativolcus. The camp of Titurius Sabinus is attacked. Am- 
biorix, by an artful speech, induces Titurius to quit his camp, and, at- 
tacking him on his march, cuts him off with his whole party. 38—43. 
The winter quarters of Q. Cicero are attackcd by the Eburones and 
thcir confcderatcs. Brave dcfcix-o of Ciccro 41. Tlic noble eiiu;- 

MBEU V. CAP. I. 87 

/ation of Pulfio and Varcnus. 45-52. Caesar, on being informed of 
the danger in which Cicero was, marchcs to his relief. The Gauls 
raise the siege at his approach, and proceed to give him battle. They 
are dcfeated. 53, 54. Indutiomarus, who had lesolved to attack the 
quarters of Labienus, retreats into the country of the Treviri on hear- 
ing of CjBsar's victory. Caesar resolves to spend the whole winter 
himself in Gaul. Commotions iii diiferent parts of Gaul, and par 
ticularly among the Senones. 
III. Insurrection among the Treviri reprbssed. 

Chap. 55, 56. Commotion among the Treviri. The Germans are 
invited by them to cross the Rhine, but refuse. Cingetorix declared 
a publiG enemy by the Treviri. 57. Labienus, being in a strongly 
fortified camp, sends messengcrs into the diiferent states and collects 
a large body of horse. 58. A sally is made from the Roman camp, 
and Indutiomanis is slain. 

1. 'Ltjcio Domitio, Appio Clautlio, consulibus, discedens 
ab hibernis Caesar in Italiam, iit qiiotannis facere consuerat, 
legatis imperat, quos legionibus praefecerat, uti, quampluri • 
mas possent, liieme naves aedificandas veteresque refici- 
endas curarent. Earum modum formamque Memonstrat. 
Ad celeritatem onerandi subductionesque paulo facit humil- 
iores, quam quibus in ^nostro mari uti consuevimus ; atque 
id eo magis, quod propter crebras commutationes aestuum 
minus magnos ibi fluctus fieri cognoverat : ad onera et ad 
multitudinem jumentorum transportandam paulo latiores, 
quam quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. ''Has omnes 
actuarias imperat fieri, quam ad rem multum humilitas 
adjuvat. Ea, quse sunt usui ^ad armandas naves, ex His- 
pania apportari jubet. Ipse conventibus GaUiae citerioris 
peractis, in ^lllyricum pro^ ^&citur, quod a Pirustis finitimam 
partem Provincise incursion^i^iis vastari audiebat. Eo cum 
vonisset, civitatibus milites imperat, certumque in locum 
convenire jubet. Qua re nunciata, Pirustae legatos ad eum 
mittunt, qui doceant, nihil earum reruni publico factum 
consilio, seseque paratos esse demonstrant, "omnibus rati- 
onibus de injxiriis satisfacere. Accepta oratione eorum 

88 ])E BEI,Lu GAl.MCO. 

Caesar obsides imperat, eosque ad certam diem adduri 
jubet : nisi ita fecerint, sese bello 'civitatem persecuturum. 
denionstrat. Ilis ad diem adductis, ut imperaverat, arbitroa 
inter civitates dat, qui litem aestiment pcenamque constituant. 

2. His confectis rebus ^conventibusque peractis, in cite- 
riorem Galliam revertitur, atque inde ad exercitum proficis- 
citiir. Eo cum venisset, circuitis omnibus hibernis, sin- 
gulari militum studio, in summa omnium renim inopia, 
circifor "sexcentas ejus generis, '^cujus supra demonstravi- 
mus, naves et longas viginti octo invenit ^instructas, ^neque 
multum abesse ab co, quin paucis diebus dcduci possent. 
Collaiidatis militibus atque iis qui negotio prsefuerant, quid 
lieri velit, ostendit, atque omnes ad "portum Itium conveniro 
jubet, quo ex portu commodissimum in Britanniam trans- 
missum esse cognoverat, circiter millium passuum triginta 
a continenti. ^Huic rei quod satis esse -^ isum est militum, 
reliquit : ipse cum legionibus ^expeditis quatuor et equitibus 
octingentis in fines Trevirorum proficiscitur, quod lii neque 
ad conciliaveniebant, neque imperio parebant, Gcrmanosque 
transrhenanos solicitare dicebantur. 

3. Ha;c civitas longe pknimum totius Galliee cquitatu 
valct, magnasque habet copias pcditum, Ehenumque, ut 
supra demonstravimus, tangit. In ea civitate duo de prin- 
cipatu inter se contendebant, Indutiomarus et '°Cingetorix : 
ex quibus "alter, simul atquc de Crosaris iegionumque ad- 
ventu cognitum est, ad eum vcnit ; se suosque omnes in 
officio futuros, neque ab amicntia Populi Eomani defec- 
turos confirmavit ; quseque in Treviris gererentur, ostendit. 
At Indutiomarus cquitatum j,- ('tatumque cogere, iisque, 
qui per a^tatem in armis es^; .ion poterant, iu '-silvam 
Arduennam abditis, qua) ingt-.ifi magnitudinc pcr mcdios 
fines Trcvirorum a fiumine Rheno ad initium Remorurn 
pertinet, bellum parare instituit. tSed postea quam nonnulli 
principes cx ea civitate, ct familiaritate Cingetorigis adducti 
et advenlii nostri ex<>rcitns port(^rriti, ad Ca^sarcm vcnonmt. 


et (le suis privatim robus ab eo petere coepei-unt, 'quoniam 
civitati consulere non possent : Indutiomarus, veritus ne ab 
omnibus desereretur, legatos ad Caesarem mittit ; sese 
idcirco ab suis discedere atque ad eum venire noluisse, 
quo facilius civitatem in officio contineret, ne omnis nobil- 
itatis discessu plcbs propter iinprudentiam '^laberetur. Ita- 
que esse civitatem in sua potestate, seque, si Caesar per- 
mittcret, ad eum in castra venturum, et suas civitatisque 
fortunas ejus fidei ^permissurum. 

4. Caesar, etsi intelligebat, qua de causa ea dicerentur, 
*qu8eque eum res ab instituto consilio deterreret, tamen, ne 
aestatem in Treviris consumere cogeretur, omnibus ad Bri- 
tannicum bellum rebus comparatis, Indutiomarum ad se 
cum ducentis obsidibus venire jussit. His adductis, in iis 
filio propinquisque ejus omnibus, quos ^nominatim evoca- 
verat, consolatus Indutiomarum hortatusque est, uti in officio 
permaneret : nihilo tamen secius, principibus Trevirorum 
ad se convocatis, ^os singillatim Cingetorigi conciliavit : 
quod cum merito ejus ab se fieri intelligebat, tum magni 
^nteresse arbitrabatur, ejus auctoritatem inter suos quam- 
plurimum valere, cujus tam egregiam in se voluntatem per- 
spexisset. Id factum graviter tulit Indutiomarus, 'suam 
gratiam inter suos minui ; et, qui jam ante inimico in nos 
animo fuisset, multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit. 

5. His rebus constitutis, Caesar ad portum Itium cum 
legionibus pervenit. Ibi cognoscit, quadraginta naves, quae 
^in Meldis factas erant, tempestate rejectas, cursum teuere 
non potuisse, atque eodem, unde erant profectae, revertisse : 
reliquas paratas ad navigandum atque omnibus rebus in- 
structas invenit. Eodem totius Gallise equitatus convenit, 
numero millium quatuor, principesque omnibus ex civitati- 
bus : ex quibus perpaucos, quorum in se fidem perspexerat, 
relinquere in Gallia, reliquos obsidum loco secum ducere, 
decreverat ; quod, cum ipse abesset, motum Galliae verebatur. 

fi. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix iEduus, de quo ab 


nobis 'antea tlictum est. Ilunc secuni habere in primis 
constituerat, quod eum ^cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum 
impcrii, magni animi, magnffi intcr Gallos auctoritatis, cog- 
noverat. Accedebat huc, quod ^jain in concilio iEduorum 
Dumnorix dixerat, sibi a Cajsare regnum civitatis delerri : 
quod dictum ^Edui graviter ferebant, neque Vecusandi aut 
deprecandi causa legatos ad Ca;sarem mittere audebant. 
^ld factum ex suis hospitibus Caesar cognoverat. IUe om- 
nibus primo precibus ^petere contondit, ut in Gallia relin- 
queretur; ])artim, quod insuetus navigandi mare timeret ; 
partim, quod religionibus sese diceret inipcdiri. Postea- 
quam id 'obstinate sibi negari vidit, omni spe impetrandi 
ademta, principes Galliae. solicitare, sevocare singidos hor- 
tari.que ccepit, uti in continenti remanerent ; metu teiTitare, 
^non sine causa fieri, ut GalUa omni )iobilitate spoUaretur : 
id esse consiUum Caesaris, ut, quos in conspectu GalUne 
interficere vereretur, 4ios omnes in Britanniam transductos 
necaret : fidcm reliquis interponere, jusjurandum poscere, 
ut, quod esse ex usu Galliae intellexissent, communi consiUo 
administrarent. Haec a compluribus ad Caisarem defero 

7. Qua re cognita, Caesar, '"quod tantum civitati ^Edua) 
dignitatis tribuerat, coercendum atque deterrendum, quibus- 
cumque rebus posset, Dumnorigem statuebat ; "quod lon- 
gius ejus amentiam progredi videbat, prospiciendum, ne 
quid sibi ac rei pubUcao nocere posset. Itaque dies circiter 
viginti quinque in eo h)co commoratus, quod '^Corus vcntus 
navigationem impediebat, qui magnam partem omnis tem- 
poris in his locis flare consuevit, dabat operam, ut in oflicio 
Dumnorigem continerct, '^nihilo tamen secius omnia cjus 
consiUa cognosceret : tandem, idoneam nactus tempestatem, 
milites eqinlesque conscendere naves jubet. At, '^omnium 
impeditis animis, Dumnori.x cum e(]uitibus ^'Eduorum a 
casfris, inscientc Ca^sare, domum discedcre ca'pit. Qua 
rc mmciata, Cjpsnr, interniissa ]nv)frctiono ;itqno omnilms 


rcbus postpositis, magnam partem equitatus ad eum inse 
queiidum mittit, retrahique imperat : si vim faciat ueque 
pareat, iuterfici jubet : niiiil 'hunc se absente pro sano fac 
turum arbitratus, qui praesentis imperium neglexisset. llle 
■^enim revocatus resistere ac se manu defendere suorumque 
fidem implorare ccepit, ssepe clamitans, " liberum se liberae- 
que civitatis esse." llli, ut erat imperatum, circumsistunt 
atque hominem interficiunt ; at ^dui equites ad Caesarem 
omnes revertuntur. 

8. His rebus gestis, Labieno in continente cum tribus 
legionibus et equitum millibus duobus relicto, ut portus 
tueretur et ''rem frumentariam provideret, quacque in Gallia 
gererentur cognosceret, ^consiliumque pro tempore et pro 
re caperet, ipse cum quinque legionibus et ^pari numero 
equitum quem in continenti relinquebat, solis occasu naves 
solvit, et, ^eni Africo provectus, media circiter nocte vento 
intermisso, cursum non tenuit, et, 'longius delatus aestu, 
orta luce, sub sinistra Britanniam relictam conspexit. Tum 
ruxsus, aestus commutationem ^secutus, remis contendit, ut 
eam partera insulae caperet, qua optimum esse egressum 
superiore aestate cognoverat. Qua in re admodum fuit 
militum \irtus laudanda, qui vectoriis gravibusque navigiis, 
non intermisso remigandi labore, longarum navium cursum 
adaequarunt. Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus 
meridiano fere tempore : neque in eo loco hostis est visus, 
sed, ut postea Caesar ex captivis comperit, cum magnae 
manus eo convenissent, multitudine navium perterritae (quae 
'°cum annotinis privatisque, quas "sui quisque commodi 
fecerat, amplius octingentis uno erant visae tempore), a 
littore discesserant ac se in superiora loca abdiderant. 

9. Caesar, exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo capto, 
ubi ex capti^ds cognovit, quo in loco hostium copiae conse- 
dissent, '^cohortibus decem ad mare relictis et equitibus 
trecentis, qui pra;sidio navibus essent, de tertia vigilia ad 
hostes contendit, '^eo minus veritus navibus, quod it Mttore 



molli atque aperto doligatas ad anchoram reliuquebat ; et 
praesidio uavibus Quintum Atrium pra^fecit. Ipse, noctu pro- 
gressus millia passuum circitcr duodecim, hostiiim copias 
conspicatus cst. Illi, equitatu atque essedis ad llumen 
progressi, ex loco superiore nostros prohibere et pru^lium 
committere cosperunt. Repulsi ab equitatu, se in silvas 
abdiderunt, locum nacli, egregie et natura et opere munitum, 
quem domestici belli, ut videbatur, causa jam ante prsepa- 
raverant : nam 'crebris arboribus succisis omnes introitus 
crant priEchisi. Ipsi ex silvis rari ^propugiiabaiif, nostros- 
que intra munitiones ingredi prohibebant. At mihtcs le- 
gionis septimae, ^testudine facta et aggere ad munitiones 
adjecto, locum ceperunt eosque ex silvis expulerunt, paucis 
vulneribus acceptis. Sed eos fugientes longius Caesar 
prosequi vetuit, et quod loci naturam ignorabat, et quod, 
rnagna parte diei consumta, mmiitioni castroruni tempus 
relinqiu volebat. 

10. Postridie cjus diei mane tripartito ''milites equitesquc 
in expeditionem misit, ut eos, qui fugerant, perscqucrcntur. 
His aliquantum itineris progressis, cinu jam extremi essent 
in prospcctu, cquitcs a Quinto Atrio ad CiTsarem venenmt, 
qui nunciarcnt, ^superiore nocte, maxima coorta tempestate, 
prope onmes naves afflictas atque in Uttore ejectas esse ; 
quod neque anchorfe funesque ^subsisterent, neque nautce 
gubernatoresque vim pati tcmpestatis posscnt : itaque ''ex 
co concursu navium magnum esse incommodum acceptum. 
11. His rebus cognitis, Cajsar legiones equitatumque 
revocari atque itinere desistcre jubct : ipse ad naves rever- 
titur : eadem fere, quai ex nuntiis literisque cognoverat, 
*coram perspicit, sic ut, amissis circiter quadraginta navi- 
bus, rehquai tamen refici posse m-agno ncgotio viderentur 
Itaque ex legionibus ''fabros delegit, et cx continenti ahos 
arcessiri jubet ; Labicno scribit, '°ut, quam phirimas posset, 
iis legionibus quaj sint apud eum, naves instituat. Ipse, 
i-lsi res erat nudtteoperiy ac laboris, tamen oommodissinnmi 


esse statiiit omnes naves 'subduci et cum castris una muni- 
lione conjungi. In his rebus circiter dies decem consumit, 
ne nocturnis quidem temporibus ad laborem militum inter- 
missis. Subductis navibus castrisque egregie munitis, 
easdem copias, quas ante, praesidio navibus reliquit : ipse 
eodem, ^unde redierat, proficiscitur. Eo cum venisset, 
majores jam undique in eum locum copias Britannorum 
convenerant, "summa imperii bellique administrandi com- 
muni consilio permissa Cassivellauno, cujus fines a mariti- 
mis civitatibus flumen dividit, quod appellatur Tamesis, a 
raari circiler millia passuum octoginta. Huic ^superiore 
tempore cum reliquis civitatibus continentia bella interces- 
serant : sed nostro adventu permoti Britanni hunc toti bello 
imperioque prajfecerant. 

12. Britanniae pars interior ab iis incolitiir, ^quos natos 
in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt : maritima pars ab 
iis, qui prasdaj ac belli inferendi causa ex Belgis transie- 
rant ; qui omnes fere iis nominibus civitatum appellantur, 
*quibus orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt, et bello illato ibi 
remanserunt atque agros colere coeperunt. '^Hominum est 
infinita multitudo, creberrimaque eedificia, fere Gallicis con- 
simiiia : pecorum magnus numerus. ^Utuntur aut aere, aut 
taleis ferreis, ad certum pondus examinatis, pro nummo. 
'Nascitur ibi phimbum album in mediterraneis regionibus, 
in maritimis ferrum ; sed ejus exigua est copia : aere utuntui 
importato. '"Materia cujusque generis, ut in Gallia, est, 
prseter fagum atque abietem. Leporem et gallinam et 
anserem gustare, fas non putant ; haec tamen alunt "animi 
voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt temperatiora, quam in 
Gallia, remissioribus frigoribus. 

13. Insula natura '^triquetra, cujus unum latus est contra 
Galliam. Hujus lateris alter angulus, qui est "'ad Cantium, 
quo fere omnes ex Gallia naves appelluntur, ad orienteni 
Bolem ; inferior ad meridiem spectat. Hoc latus tenet cir- 
citer millia passuum quingenta. Alterum vcrjiit "ad His- 


paniam atque occidentem solem, qua ex parte est Hibernia, 
'dimidio minor, ut aestimatur, quam Britannia ; "sed pari 
spatio transmissus, atque ex Gallia, est in Britanniam. In 
hoc medio cursu est insula, quae appeilatur ^Mona ; cora- 
plures prffiterea minores objecta; insulae existimantur ; de 
quibus insulis nonnulli scripserunt, ''dies continuos triginta 
sub bruma csse noctcm. Nos nihil de eo percontationibus 
reperiebamus, ^nisi certis ex aqua mensuris breviores esse. 
quam in continente, noctes videbamus. Hujus est longitudo 
lateris, ut fert illorum opinio, ^'septingentorum millium. Ter- 
tium est ''contra septentriones, cui parti nulla est objecta 
terra ; sed ejus angulus lateris maxime ad Germaniam spec- 
tat : huic millia passuum octingenta in longitudinem esse 
existimatur. Ita omnis insula est in circuitu vicies centum 
niillium passuum. 

14. Ex his omnibus longe sunt ^humanissimi, qui Can- 
tium incokmt, quae regio est maritima omnis ; neque multum 
a Gallica diflerunt consuetudine. Interiores pleriq^ie IVu 
menta non serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt, pelhbusque 
sunt vestiti. Omnes vero ^se Britanni vitro inficiunt, quod 
coeruleum efficit colorem, '"atque hoc horridiore sunt in 
pugna aspectu : "capilloque sunt promisso atque omni parte 
corporis rasa, praeter caput et labrum superius. Uxores 
liabent deni duodenique inter se communes, et maxime 
fratres cum fratribus parentesque cum liberis ; sed, si qui 
sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur liberi, '-quo prinium virgo 
quccque deducta est. 

15. Equites hostium essedariique acriter proelio cum 
equitatu nostro in itinere conflixerunt, "'tamen ut nostri 
omnibus partibus superiores fuerint, atque eos in silvas 
collesque compulerint : scd compluribus interfcctis, '''cupid- 
ius insecuti, nonnifllos ex suis amiserunt. At illi, inter- 
misso spatio, imprudentibus nostris atque occupatis in 
munitione castrorum, subito se cx silvis ejecerunt, impe- 
tuquc in cos facto, qui crant in stationc pro castris coUocat' 


acriter pug-naverunt : duabusque 'submissis cohortibus a 
Caesare, ^atque his primis legionum duarum, ^cum hae, per- 
exiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se, constitissent, novo 
genere pugnae perterritis nostris, per medios audacissime 
*perruperunt, seque inde incolumes receperunt. Eo die 
Quintus Laberius Durus, tribunus militum, interficitur. llli, 
pluribus immissis cohortibus, repelluntur. 

16. Toto hoc in genere pugnae, 'cum sub oculis omnimn 
ac pro castris dimicaretur, intellectum est, nostros proptei 
gravitatem armaturae, quod neque insequi ^cedentes possent, 
neque ab signis discedere auderent, minus aptos esse ad 
hujus generis hostem ; equites autem maguo cum periculo 
"dimicare, propterea quod illi etiam consulto plenimque 
cederent, et, cum paulum ab legionibus nostros remo\dssent, 
ex essedis desihrent ^et pedibus dispari proelio contende- 
rent. Equestris autem prcelii ratio et cedentibus et inse- 
quentibus par atque idem periculum inferebat. Accedebat 
huc, ut, nunquam ^conferti, sed rari magnisque intervalhs 
proBharentur, stationesque dispositas haberent, atque ahos 
alii deinceps exciperent, integrique et recentes defatigatis 

17. Postero die procul a castris hostes in coUibus con- 
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere et '"lenius, quam pridie, 
nostros equites prcelio lacessere cosperunt. Sed meridie, 
cum Caesar pabulandi causa tres legiones atque omnem 
equitatum cum Caio Trebonio legato misisset, repente ex 
omnibus partibus ad pabulatores advolaverunt, "sic, uti ab 
signis legionibusque non absisterent. Nostri, acriter in eos 
impetu facto, repulerunt, neque finem sequendi fecenmt, 
'^quoad subsidio confisi equites, cum post se legiones vide- 
rent, praecipites hostes egerunt : magnoque eorum numero 
interfecto, neque svd colUgendi, neque consistendi, aut ex 
essedis desiliendi facultatem dederunt. Ex hac fuga pro- 
tinus, quae undique convenerant, auxiUa discesserunt : neque 
post id tempus unquam '^suimnis nobiscum copiis hoslea 


18. Ciesar, cognito consilio eorum, ad flumen 'ramesin 
in fines Cassivellauiii exercitum duxit ; quod flunien mio 
omniiio ioco pedibus, atque lioc asgre, transiri potest. Eo 
cum vcnissct, 'animum advertit, ad alteram fluminis rjpam 
magnas esse copias hostium instructas : 'ripa autem erat 
acutis sudibus prajfixis munita ; ejusdemque generis sub 
aqua defixac sudes flumine tegebantur. His rebus cognitis 
a captivis perfugisque, Ca3sar, prsemisso equitatu, confestira 
iegioncs subsequi jussit. Sed ea celeritate alque eo impetu 
milites ierunt, ^cum capite solo ex aqua exstareiit, ut liostes 
impctum legionum atque equitum sustinere non possent, 
ripasque dimitterent ac se iugsi mandarent. 

19. Cassivellaunus, Hit supra demonstravimus, omni de- 
posita spe contentiorus, dimissis amplioribus copiis, millibus 
circiter quatuor essedariorum relictis, itinera nostra serva- 
bat, paululumque ''ex via excedebat, locisque impeditis ac 
silvestribus sese occultabat, atque iis regionibus, quibus nos 
iter fucturos cognoverat, pecora atque homines ex agris in 
silvas compellcbat : et, cum equitatus noster, liberius pra:- 
dandi vastandique causa, se in agros cflunderet, omni^i.s 
viis notis semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat, et 
^'magao cum periculo nostrorum equitum cum iis conflige- 
bat, atque hoc metu latius vagari prohibebat. '^Kelin^pie- 
batur, ut ncque longius ab agmine iegionum discedi Cffsar 
pateretur, et tantum in agris vastandis incendiisque facicndis 
hostibus noceretur, quantum labore atque itinere legionarii 
milites efficere poterant. 

20. Interim Trinobantes, prope lirmissima earum regi 
onurn civitas, ex qua Mandubratius adolescens, Cacsans 
fidem secutus, ad eum in ^continentem Gaiiiam vcnerat 
^cujus pater Imanuentius in ea civitale regnum ol)tinuerat, 
'nterfectusquc crat a Cassiveliauno, ipse fuga mortem vita- 
verat), legatos ad Cajsarem miltuuf, poliiccnturque, sese ei 
dedituros atque imperata facturos : petunt, ut Mandubra- 
tiuin ai> injuria Cuosivclhuiiii (Uiciidat, ''at(|uc iii civitalcm 

LlUt;K V. CAT. XXJI. 97 

mitiat, qui praesit imperiumque obtineat. His Caesar im- 
perat obsides quadraginta frumcntumque exercitui, Mandu- 
bratiumque ad eos mittit. lUi imperata celeriter lecerunt, 
'obsides ad numerum frumentaque miserunt. 

21. Trinobantibus defensis atque '^ab omni militum injuria 
prohibitis, Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, 
legationibus missis sese Caesari dedunt. Ab his cognoscit, 
non longe ex eo loco ^oppidum Cassivellauni abesse, silvis 
paludibusque munitum, quo satis magnus hominum pecoris- 
que numerus convenerit. (''Oppidum autem Britanni vo- 
cant, cum silvas impeditas vallo atque fossa munierunt, quo 
incursionis hostium vitandse causa convenire consuerunt.) 
Eo proficiscitur cum legionibus : ^locum reperit egregie 
natura atque opere munitum ; tamen hunc duabus ex par- 
tibus oppugnare contendit. Hostes, paulisper morati, mi- 
litum nostrorum impetum non tulerunt, seseque alia ex 
parte oppidi ejecerunt. Magnus ibi numerus pecoris re- 
pertus, multique in fuga sunt comprehensi atque interfecti. 

22. Dum haec in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad 
Cantium, quod esse "ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus 
regionibus quatuor reges prseerant, Cingetorix, Carvilius, 
Taximagulus, Segonax, nuncios mittit, atque his imperat, 
uti, coactis omnibus copiis, ''castra navalia de improviso 
adoriantur atque oppugnent. li cum ad castra venissent, 
nostri, eruptione facta, multis eorum interfectis, capto etiam 
nobili duce Lugotorige, suos incolumes reduxerunt. Cassi- 
vellaunus, hoc proelio nunciato, tot detrimentis acceptis, 
vastatis finibus, maxime etiam permotus defectione civita- 
tium, legatos per Atrebatem Commium de deditione ad 
Caesarem mittit. Cassar, cum statuisset hiemem in con- 
tinenti propter repentinos Galliae motus agere, neque multum 
aestatis superesset, atque id facile extrahi posse intelligeret, 
obsides imperat, et, quid in annos singxilos vectigalis Pop- 
ulo Romano Britannia penderet, constituit • interdicit at^ 


que imperat Cassivellauno, ne Mandubratio, neu Trin^ban 
tibus bellum faciat. 

23. Obsidibus acceptis, exercitum reducit ad mare, naA^es 
invenit 'refectas. His deductis, quod et captivorum mag- 
num numerum habebat, et nonnuUae tempestate deperierant 
naves, "duobus commeatibus exercitum reportare instituit. 
Ac sic accidit, uti ex tanto navium numero, tot ^avigati- 
onibus, neque hoc, neque superiore anno, ulla omnino navis, 
quaj milites portaret, desideraretur : at ex iis, quas inanes 
ex continenti ad eum remitterentur, et ''prioris commeatus 
expositis militibus, et quas postea Labienus faciendas cu- 
raverat numero sexaginta, perpaucce locum caperent ; reli- 
quae fere omnes rejicerentur. Quas cum aliquamdiu Ca^sar 
fnistra expectasset, ne anni tcmpore a navigatione exclu- 
deretur, quod a^qiunoctium suberat, necessario ^angustius 
niilites collocavit, ac, summa tranquillitate consecuta, se- 
cunda inita cum solvisset vigilia, prima luce terram attigit, 
omnesque incolumes naves perduxit. 

24. ^Subductis navibus, concilioque Gallorum Samaro 
brivze peracto, quod eo anno "frumentum in Gallia propter 
siccitatcs angustius provencrat, coactus cst aliter, ac super- 
ioribus annis, exercituni in hibernis collocare, legionesque 
*in plures civitates distribuere : ex quibus unam in Morinos 
ducendam Caio Fabio lcgato dedit ; alteram in Nervios 
Quintio Ciceroni ; tertiam in Essuos Lucio Roscio ; quartam 
in Remis cum Tito Labieno in confinio Trevirorum hie 
mare jussit ; tres ^in Bclgio collocavit : his INIarcum Crassum 
quajstorem, et Lucium Munatium Plancum et Caium Trebo 
nium, legatos, praifecit. Unam legionem, quam proximo 
trans Padum conscripserat, et cohortes quinque in Eburones, 
quorum pars maxima est inter Mosam ac Rhenum, qui sub 
imperio Arabiorigis et Cativolci erant, misit. His militibus 
Quintum Titurium Sabinum et Lucium Aiirunculcium Cot- 
tam, legatos, praeesse jussit. Ad Imnc modum distributis 
legionibus, facinime inopia: frumentariai scse '"mcdcri posse 


existimavit : atque harum tamen omnium hiberna (praeter 
eam, quam Lucio Roscio in pacatissimam et quietissimara 
partem ducendam dederat), 'millibus passuum centum con 
tinebantur. Ipse interea, quoad legiones collocasset muni 
taque hiberna cognovisset, in Gallia morari constituit. 

25. Erat in Carnutibus summo loco natus Tasgetius, 
cujus majores in sua civitate regnum obtinuerant. Huic 
Caesar, pro ejus virtute atque in se benevolentia, quod in 
omnibus bellis singulari ejus opera fuerat usus, majorum 
locum restituerat. ^Tertium jam hunc annum regnantem 
inimici palam, multis etiam ex civitate auctoribus, interfece- 
runt. Defertur ea res ad Caesarem. Ille veritus, 'quod ad 
plures pertinebat, ne civitas eorum impulsu deficeret, Lucium 
Plancum cum legione ex Belgio celeriter in Carnutes pro- 
ficisci jubet, ibique hiemare ; quorumque opera cognoverit 
Tasgetium interfectum, hos comprehensos ad se mittere. 
Interim ab omnibus legatis queestoribusque, quibus legiones 
Iransdiderat, certior factus est, ^in hibema perventum lo- 
cumque hibemis esse munitum. 

26. Diebus circiter quindecim, quibus in hiberna ventum 
est, initium repentini tumultus ac defectionis ortum est ab 
Ambiorige et Cativolco : qui cum ^ad fines regni sui Sabino 
Cottaeque praesto fuissent, frumentumque in hibema com- 
portavissent, Indutiomari Treviri nunciis impulsi, suos con- 
citaverunt, subitoque oppressis lignatoribus, magna manu 
castra oppugnatum venerunt. Cum celeriter nostri arma 
cepissent vallumque ascendissent, atque, una ex parte His- 
panis equitibus emissis, equestri prselio superiores fuissent, 
desperata re, hostes suos ab oppugnatione reduxerunt. Tum 
suo more conclamaverunt, uti aliqui ex nostris ad colloquium 
prodirent ; habere sese, quae Me re communi dicere vellent, 
quibus rebus controversias minui posse sperarent. 

27. Mittitur ad eos colloquendi causa Caius Arpineius, 
eques Romanus, familiaris Quintii Titurii, et Quintus Ju- 
nius ex Hispania quidam, qui jam ante ^missu Cajsaris ad 



Ambiorigem ventitarc coiisueverat : apud quos Ambionx ad 
hunc modum locutus est : " Sese pro Caesaris in se bene- 
ficiis 'plurimum ei conliteri debere, quod ejus opera stipeii- 
dio liberatus esset, quod Aduatucis finitimis suis pendero 
consuesset : quodque ei et filius et fratris filius ab Caesare 
remissi essent, quos Aduatuci, obsidum numero missos, 
apud se in scrvitute et catcnis tenuissent : neque id, quod 
lecerit "de oppugnatione castrorum, aut judicio aut volun- 
tate sua fecissc, sed coactu civitatis ; ''suaque esse ejusmodi 
imperia, ut non minus haberet juris in se multitudo, quam 
ipse in multitudinem. Civitati porro hanc fuisse belli cau- 
sam, quod repentina^ Gallorum conjurationi resistere non 
potuerit : id se facile *ex humilitate sua probare posse, quod 
non adeo sit imperitus rerum, ut suis copiis Populum Ro- 
manum se superare posse confidat : ^sed esse Gallite coin- 
mune consUium ; omnibus hibernis Caesaris oppugnandis 
hunc esse dictum diem, ne qua legio altera) legioni subsidio 
venire posset : ''non facile Gallos Gallis negarc potuisse, 
prjesertim cum dc recuperanda communi libertate consilium 
initum videretur. "Quibus quoniam pro pietate satisfccerit, 
habere se nunc rationem oflicii pro beneficiis Cassaris ; 
monere, orare Titurium *pro hospitio, ut sua) ac mililum 
saluti consulat : magnam manum Germanorum conductam 
Rhenum transisse ; hanc afibre biduo. "Ipsorum esse cou- 
silium, velintne prius, quam finitimi scntiant, eductos ex 
hibernis milites aut ad Ciccronem aut ad Labicuum dedu- 
cere, quorum alter millia passuum circiter quinquaginta, 
alter paulo amplius ab his absit. Illud se polliceri et jure- 
jurando confirmarc, tutum itcr per fines suos daturum ; 
'"quod cum faciat, et civitati sese consulere, quofl hibernis 
levetur, et Cajsari pro ejus meritis gratiam referre." Hac 
orationc habita, disccdit Ambiorix. 

28. Arpincius ct Junius, qua^ audierint, ad legatos defe- 
rniii. Illi, repcntiiia re pcrturbati, elsi ab hoste ea dice- 
baalur, nun tameu negliucnda cxistimabant : maximcqu* 


hac re erinovebamur, quod, civitatem ignobilem atque 
humilem h. - '•onum sua sponte Populo Romano bellum fa- 
cere ausam, vix erat credendum. Itaque 'ad consilium rem 
deferunt magnaque inter eos existit controversia. Lucius 
Aurunculeius compluresque tribuni militum et primorum ordi- 
imm centuriones " nihil temere agendum, neque ex hibcmis 
injussu Csesaris discedendum," existimabant : " quantasvis, 
magnas etiam copias Germanorum sustineri posse munitis 
hibernis," docebant : ^" rem esse testimonio, quod primum 
hostium impetum, multis ultro vulneribus illatis, fortissime 
sustinuerint : ^re frumentaria non premi : interea et ex 
proximis hibernis et a Csesare conventura subsidia :" pos- 
tremo, " quid esse ''levius aut turpius, quam, auctore hoste, 
de summis rebus capere consilium ?" 

29. Contra ea Titurius, ^" sero facturos," clamitabat, 
" cum majores hostium manus, adjunctis Germanis, conve- 
nissent : aut cum *'aliquid calamitatis in proximis hibemis 
esset acceptum, brevem consulendi esse occasionem : Cae- 
sarem arbitrari profectum in Itaham : neque aUter Carnutcs 
interficiendi Tasgetii consihum fuisse capturos, neque Ebu- 
rones, si ille adesset, tanta cum contemtione nostri ad cas- 
tra venturos esse : '^non hostem auctorem, sed rem spectare ; 
subesse Rhenum ; magno esse Germanis dolori Ariovisti 
moriem et superiores nostras victorias : ^rdere Galliam, 
tot contumeliis acceptis sub Populi Romani imperium re- 
dactam, superiore gloria rei militaris extincta." Postremo, 
" quis hoc sibi persuaderet, ®sine certa re Ambiorigem ad 
ejusmodi consilium descendisse ? Suam sententiam in 
utramque partem esse tutam : '"si nil sit durius, nullo peri- 
culo ad proximam legionem perventuros ; si Gallia omnis 
cum Germanis consentiat, "unam esse in celeritate positam 
sahitem. Cottre quidem atque eorum, qui dissentirent, con- 
sihum quem haberet exitum? In quo si non '-prcEsens 
periculum, at certe longinqua obsidione fames esset per- 


30. Hac iii utramque partem disputatione habita, cum a 
Cotta 'primisque ordinibus acriter resisteretur, 2" Vincite," 
inquit, " si ita -vTjltis," Sabinus, et id clariore voce, ut magna 
pars militum exaudiret : " neque is sum," inquit, " qui grav- 
issime ex vobis mortis pericido terrear : ^ii sapient, et si 
gra\ ius quid acciderit, abs te rationem reposcent : *qui, si 
per te liceat, perendino die cum proximis hibernis conjuncti, 
communem cum reliquis belli casum sustineant, nec ^re- 
jecti et relegati longe ab ccteris autferro autfame intereant." 

31. ^Consurgitur ex consiho ; comprehendunt utrumque 
et orant, " ne sua dissensione et pertinacia rem in summum 
l)ericulum deducant : facilem esse "rem, seu maneant, seu 
])roliciscantur, si modo unum omnes sentiant ac probent ; 
contra in dissensione nullam se salutem perspicere." Res 
disputatione ad mediam noctem perducitur. Tandem Mat 
Cotta permotus manus ; superat sententia Sabini. ^Pro- 
nunciatur, prima luce ituros : "^consumitur vigiliis reliqua 
pars noctis, cum sua quisque miles circumspiceret, quid 
secum portare posset, quid ex instrumento hibernorum re- 
linquere cogeretur. "Omnia excogitantur, quare nec sine 
periculo maneatur et languore militum et vigiliis periculum 
augeatur. Prima luce sic ex castris proficiscuntur, ut qui- 
bus esset persuasum, non ab hoste, sed ab homine amicis- 
simo Ambiorige consilium datmn, longissimo agmine max- 
imisque impedimentis. 

32. At hostes, '^osteaquam ex nocturno fremitu vigiliis- 
(jue de profectione eorum senserunt, collocatis insidiis bi- 
partito in silvis opportuno atque occuUo loco, '^a niillibus 
passuum circiter duobus, Romanorum adventum expecta- 
bant : et, cum se major pars agminis in magnam "convallem 
demisisset, ex utraque parte ejus vallis subito se ostende- 
runt, novissimosque premere et primos prohibere ascensu 
atque iniquissimo nostris loco prcelium committere coeperunt. 

33. Tum demum Titurius, '\it qui nihil ante providisset, 
trc[)idare, concursare, cohortesque disponcre : haec tamen 

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ipsa timide atque iit eum omnia deficere viderentur : quod 
plerumque iis accidcre consuevit, 'qui in ipso negotio con- 
silium capere coguntur. At Cotta, qui cogitasset, hajc 
posse in itinere accidere, atque ob eam causam profectionis 
^auctor non fuisset, nuUa in re communi saluti deerat, et iu 
appellandis cohortandisque militibus, imperatoris ; et in 
pugna, militis officia prasstabat. Cumque propter longitu- 
dinem agminis "minus facile per se omnia obire, et, quid 
quoque loco faciendum esset, providere possent, ^jusserunt 
pronuntiare, ut impedimenta relinquerent atque in orbem 
consisterent. Quod consilium etsi in ejusmodi casu repre- 
hendendum non est, tamcn "incommode accidit : nam et 
nostris militibus ^spem minuit, et hostes ad pugnam alacri- 
ores eflecit, quod non sine summo timore et desperatione 
id factum videbatur. Praeterea accidit, quod fieri necesse 
erat, ut 'vulgo milites ab signis discederent, quae quisque 
eorum carissima haberet, ab impedimentis petere atque ab- 
ripere properaret, clamore ac fletu omnia complerentur 

34. At ^arbaris consilium non defuit : nam duces eorum 
tota acie ^pronuntiare jusserunt, " ne quis ab loco disce- 
deret : '"illorum esse praedam, atque ilHs reservari, quaecum- 
que Romani reUquissent : proinde omnia in victoria posita 
existimarent." "Erant et virtute et numero pugnando pares 
nostri, tamen etsi ab duce et a fortuna deserebantur, tamen 
omnem spem salutis in virtute ponebant, et, quoties quaequo 
cohors '^rocurreret, ab ea parte magnus hostium numeru? 
cadebat. Qua re animadversa, Ambiorix pronuntiari jubet 
ut procul tela conjiciast, neu propius accedant, et, quam in 
partem Romani impetum fecerint, "'cedant ( le^dtate ar 
morum et quotidiana exercitatione nihil iis noceri posse) 
"rursus se ad. signa recipientes insequantur. 

35. Quo praecepto ab iis diligentissime observato, cuni 
i^UBepiam cohors ex orbe '^excesserat atque impetum fecerat. 
hostes velocissime refugiebant. Interim eam partem nudaii 
necessc crat et ab latere aperto tela recipi. Rursus, cum 


in eum locum, undo erant progressi, reverli coeperaut, et ab 
iis, qui cessera,nt, et ab iis, qui proximi steterant, circum- 
veniebantur ; sin autem 'locum tenere vellent, nec virtuti 
locus relinquebatur, neque ab tanta multitudine conjecta tcla 
conferti vitare poterant. Tamen ^tot incommodis conilic- 
tati, multis \ailneribus acceptis, resistebant et, magna parte 
diei consumta, cum a prima luce ''ad horam octavam pug- 
naretiir, nihil, quod ipsis esset indignum, committebant. 
Tum Tito Balventio, qui superiore anno ''primum pilum 
duxerat, viro forti et magnoe auctoritatis, utrumque femur 
tragula transjicitur. Quiirtus Lucanius, ''ejusdem ordinis, 
fortissime pugnans, dum circumvento filio subvenit, interfi- 
citur : Lucius Cotta, legatus, omnes cohortes ordinesque 
adhortans, ^in adversum os funda vnlneratur. 

36. His rebus permotus Quintus Titurius, cum procul 
Ambiorigem suos cohortantem conspexisset, interpretem 
suum, Cneium Pompeium, ad eum mittit, rogatum, ut 
sibi mihtibusque parcat. 'lUe appellatus respondit : " si 
veht secum colloqui, licere ; sperare, a muhitudine impe- 
trari posse, quod ad militum sahitem pertineat ; ipsi vero 
nihil nocitum iri, inque cam rem se suam fidem interpo- 
nere." ^lUc cum Cotta saucio communicat, " si videatur, 
pugna ut cxcedant et cum Ambiorige una coUoquantur : 
sperare, ab eo de sua ac militum salute impetrare posse." 
Cotta se ad armatum hostem itiirum negat ^atque in eo 

37. Sabinus, quos '"in praisentia tribunos mihtum circum 
se habebat et primorum ordinum centuriones, se sequi 
jubct, et, cum propius Ambiorigem accessisset, jussus arma 
abjicere, imperatum facit, suisque, ut idem faciant, imperat. 
Interim, dum de conditionibus inter se agunt, "longiorque 
consuho ab Ambiorige instituilur scrmo, paulatim circum- 
ventus intcrficitur. Tum vero suo more '-'victoriam concla- 
mant atque uhdatum tollunt, impctuque in nostros facto, 
ordincs pcrturbant. llii Lucius Cotta pugnans intcrficitur 


cum maxima parte militum, rcliqui se in castra recipiunt, 
unde erant egressi : ex quibus Lucius Petrosidius aquilifer, 
cum magna multitudine hostium premeretur, aquilam intra 
vallum projecit, ipse pro castris fortissime pugnans occi- 
ditur. 'Ilii segre ad noctem oppugnationem sustinent : 
noctu ad unum omnes, desperata salute, se ipsi interficiunt. 
Pauci ex proelio elapsi, incertis itineribus per silvas ad 
Titum Labienum legatum in hibema perveniunt atque eum 
de rebus gestis certiorem faciunt. 

38. Hac victoria ^sublatus Ambiorix, statim cum equitatu 
in Aduatucos, qui erant ejus regno finitimi, proficiscitur ; 
neque noctem neque diem intermittit, peditatumque se sub- 
sequi jubet. ^Re demonstrata, Aduatucisque concitatis, 
postero die in Nervios pervenit, hortaturque, " ne sui in 
perpetuum liberandi atque ulciscendi Romanos, pro iis, 
quas acceperint, injuriis, occasionem dimittant : interfectos 
esse legatos duo magnamque partem exercitus interisse" 
demonstrat ; *" nihil esse negotii, subito oppressam legio- 
nem, quse cum Cicerone hiemet, interfici ; se ad eara rem 
profitetur adjutorem." Facile hac oratione Nerviis per- 

39. Itaque, confestim dimissis nunciis ad Ceutrones, 
Grudios, Levacos, Pleumoxios, Geidunos, qui oranes sub 
eorum imperio sunt, quam maximas manus possunt, cogimt, 
et de improviso ad Ciceronis hiberna advolant, nondum ad 
eum fama de Titurii morte perlata. ^Huic quoque accidit, 
quod fuit necesse, ut nonnuUi milites, qui ^ignationis muni- 
tionisque causa in silvas discessissent, repentino equitura 
adventu interciperentur. His circumventis, magna manu 
Eburones, Nervii, Aduatuci atque horum omnium socii et 
clientes, legionem oppugnare incipiunt : nostri celeriter ad 
arma concurrunt, vallum conscendunt. JEgre is dies ''sus- 
tentatur, quod omnem spem hostes in celeritate ponebant, 
atque, hanc adepti victoriam, in perpetuum se fore victores 


40. Mittuntur ad Caesarem confeslim ab Cicerone literae 
'magnis propositis praemiis, si pertulissent. Obsessis om 
nibus viis, missi intercipiimtur. Noctu ex ea materia, quam 
nmnitionis causa comportaverant, ^turres admodum centum 
et viginti excitantur incredibili celeritate : quse deesse operi 
videbantur, perficiuntur. Hostes postero die, multo major- 
ibus copiis coactis, castra oppugnant, fossam complent. 
Ab nostris eadem ratione, qua pridie, resistitur : hoc idem 
deinceps reliquis fit diebus. Nulla pars nocturni temporis 
ad laborem intermittitur : non cegris, non vulneratis, facultas 
quietis datur : quaecumque ad proximi diei oppugnationem 
opus sunt, noctu comparantur : multaj 'praeustae sudes, mag- 
nus muralium pilorura numerus instituitur ; ''turres contabu- 
lantur, pinnae loricasque ex cratibus attexuntur. Ipse Ci- 
cero, ^cum tenuissima valetudine esset, ne nocturnum qui- 
dem sibi tempus ad quietem relinquebat, ®ut ultro militum 
concursu ac vocibus sibi parcere cogeretur. 

41. Tunc duces principesque Nervionmi, 'qui aliquem 
sermonis aditum causanique amicitiae cum Cicerone habe- 
bant, coUoqui sese velle dicunt. Facta potestate, eadem, 
quae Ambiorix cum Titurio egerat, commemorant, " omncm 
esse in armis Galliam, Germanos Rhenum transisse, Caesar- 
is roliquorumque hiberna oppiignari." Addunt ctiam de 
Sabini morte. ^Ambiorigem ostentant fidei facicndcE caAisa : 
" errare ^eos" dicunt, " si quicquam ab his praesidii sperent, 
qui suis rebus diflidant ; sese tamen '"hoc esse in Cicero 
nem Popuhmique Romaninn animo, ut nihil nisi hibi^nis 
recusent atque hanc inveterascere consuetudinem noHnt : 
licere "ilUs incohuTiibus per se cx hibernis discedcrc, et, 
quascumque in partes vehnt, sine metu proficisci." ''Cicero 
ad haec \mum modo respondit. " Non esse consuetudinem 
PopuU Romani, uUam acciperc ab hoste armato conditio- 
nem : si ab armis discedere veUnt, se '^adjutore utantur, 
Ingatosque ad Caesarem mittant ; sperarc, '^pro ejus justitia. 
qucr pclierint. impotraturos." 


42. Ab hac \pe repulsi Nervii, 'vallo peduin undccim et 
fossa pedum (luindocim hiberna cingunt. '^Heec et superi- 
orum annorum consuetudine a nostris cognoverant, et, quos- 
dam d(! exercitu nacti captivos, ab his docebantur : ^sed, 
nulla ferramentorum copia, quaj sunt ad hunc usum idonea, 
gladiis cespitem circumcidere, manibus ''sagulisque ^terram 
exhaurire cogebantur. Qua quidem ex re hominum mul- 
titudo cognosci potuit : nam minus horis tribus ^millium 
decem in circuitu munitionem perfecerunt : reliquisque die- 
bus turres '^ad altitudinem valli, falces ^testudinesque, quas 
iidem captivi docuerant, parare ac facere c(Deperunt. 

43. Septimo oppugnationis die, maximo coorto vento, 
^ferventes fusili ex argilla glandes fundis et '"fervefacta ja- 
cula in casas, quse more Gallico stramentis erant tectae, 
jacere coeperunt. Hae celeriter ignem comprehenderunt et 
venti magnitudine in omnem castrorum locum "distulerunt. 
Hostes, maximo clamore insecuti, quasi parta jam atque 
explorata Adctoria, turres testudinesque '^agere et scalis var^- 
lum ascendere coeperunt. At tanta militum virtus atque ea 
praesentia animi fuit, ut, cum undique flamma torrerentur, 
maximaque telorum muhitudine premerentur, suaque omnia 
impedimenta atque omnes fortunas conflagrare intelligerent 
non modo 'Memigrandi causa de vallo decederet nemo, sed 
pffine ne respiceret quidem quisquam ; ac tum omnes acer- 
rime fortissimeque pugnarent. Hic dies nostris longe gra- 
vissimus fuit ; sed tamen '''hunc habuit eventum, ut eo die 
maximus hostium numerus vulneraretur atque interficeretur, 
^^ut se sub ipso vallo constipaverant recessumque primis 
ultimi non dabant. Paulum quidem intennissa flamma, '^et 
quodam loco turri adacta et contingente vaUum, tertia? co- 
hortis centuriones ex eo, quo stabant, loco recesserunt suos- 
que omnes removerunt ; nutu vocibusque hostes, " si in- 
troire vellent," vocare coeperunt, quorum progredi ausus 
est nemo. Tum ex omni parte lapidibus conjeotis "detur- 
bati, turrisque succensaest. 


44. Erant in ca legione Ibrtissimi viri centuriones, 'qui 
jam primis ordinibus appropinquarent, Tito Pulfio et Lucius 
Varenus. Hi perpetuas controversias inter se habebant, 
quinam anteferretur, omnibusque annis ^de loco summis 
simultatibus contendebant. Ex iis Pulfio, cum acerrime ad 
munitiones pugnaretur, " Quid dubitas," inquit, " Varene ? 
aut quem locum probanda; virtutis tua3 "spectas 1 liic, hic 
dies de nostris controversiis judicabit." Haec cum dixisset, 
procedit extra munitiones, '*quaque pars hostium confertis- 
sima visa est, in eam irrumpit. Ne Varenus quidem tum 
vallo sese continet, sed omnium veritus existimationem 
subsequitur. Tum, mediocri spatio relicto, Pulfio pilum in 
hostes mittit atque unum ex multitudine ^procurrentem 
transjicit, quo percusso et exanimato, hunc scutis protegunt 
iiostes, in illum tela universi conjiciunt neque dant regre- 
diendi facultatem. Transfigitur scutum Pulfioni et Verutum 
in baheo defigitur. Avertit hic casus vaginam et gladium 
educere conanti dextram moratur manum ; impeditum hostes 
circumsistunt. Succurrit inimicus illi Varenus et laboranti 
subvenit. Ad ''hunc se confestim a Pulfione omnis multi- 
tudo convertit ; illum veruto transfixum arbitrantur. Oc- 
cursat ocius gladio cominusque rem gerit Varenus atque, 
uno interfecto, reliquos paulum propellit : dum cupidius 
instat, ^in locum dejectus inferiorem concidit. Hiiic rursus 
circumvento fert subsidium Pulfio, atque amho incohmies, 
compluribus interfcctis, summa cum laude sese intra muni- 
tiones recipiunt. Sic fortuna ^in contentione et certamine 
'°utrumque versavit, ut aher alteri iniinicus auxilio sahi1«ique 
esset, neque dijudicari posset, uter utri virtute anteferendus 

45. Quanto erat in dies "gravior atque asperior oppug- 
natio, et maxime quod, magna parte miUtum confecta vul- 
neribus, '^res ad paucitatem defensorum pervenerat, tanto 
crebriores litera; nuntiique ad CcEsarem mittebantur : quo- 
rum pars dojirehensa iu conspeotu nostronim miHtuni cum 


cruciatu necabatur. Erat 'unus intus Nervius, nomine 
Vertico, loco natus honesto, qui a prima obsidione ad Cice- 
ronem perfugerat, '^suamque ei fidem przestiterat. Hic servo 
spe libertatis magnisque persuadet praemiis, ut literas ad 
Caesarem defcrat. Has ille in jaculo illigatas effert, et, 
Gallus inter Gallos sine uUa suspicione versatus, ad Caesar- 
em pervenit. Ab eo de ''periculis Ciceronis legionisque cog- 

46. Cacsar, acceptis literis %ora circiter undecima diei, 
statim nuncium in Bellovacos ad Marcum Crassum quaest- 
orem mittit ; cujus hiberaa aberant ab eo millia passuum 
viginti quinque. Jubet media nocte ^legionem proficisci, 
celeriterque ad se venire. Exiit cum nuncio Crassus. 
Alterum ad Caium Fabium legatum mittit, ut in Atrebatium 
fines legionem adducat, ^qua sibi iter faciendmn sciebat, 
Scribit Labieno, si reipublicas commodo facere posset, cum 
legione ad fines Nerviorum veniat : reliquam partem exer- 
citus, quod paulo aberat longius, non putat expectandam ; 
equites circiter quadringentos ex proximis hibernis cogit. 

47. 'Hora circiter tertia ab antecursoribus de Crassi ad- 
ventu certior factus, eo die millia passuum viginti progre- 
ditur. Crassum Samarobrivae praeficit, ^legionemque ei at- 
tribuit, quod ibi impedimenta exercitus, obsides civitatum, 
'literas publicas, frumentumque omne, quod eo tolerandae 
hiemis causa devexerat, relinquebat. Fabius, ut imperatura 
erat, non ita multum moratus, in itinere cum legione oc- 
currit. Labienus, interitu Sabini et caede cohortium cog- 
nita, cum omnes ad eum Trevirorum copiae venissent, veritus, 
ne, si ex hibernis fugae similem profectionem fecisset, hos- 
tium impetum sustinere non posset, praesertira quos recenti 
victoria efferri sciret, hteras Caesari remittit, quanto cum 
periculo legionem ex hibemis educturus esset : '"rem gestam 
in Eburonibus perscribit : docet, omnes peditatus equita- 
tusque copias Trevirormn tria raiUia passuum longe ab suis 
castris consedisse. 



48. Caesar, consilio ejus probato, ctsi, opinione trium 
legionum dejectus, ad duas redierat, tamen umun communis 
salutis auxilium in celeritate ponebat. Venit magnis itin- 
eribus in Nerviorum fines. Ibi ex captivis cognoscit, quae 
apud Ciceronem gerantur, quantoque in periculo res sit. 
Tum cuidam ex equitibus Gallis magnis pra;miis persuadet, 
uti ad Ciceronem epistolam deferat. Hanc 'Grascis con- 
scriptam literis mittit, ne, intercepta ej)istola, nostra ab hos- 
tibus consilia cognoscantur. ^Si adire non possit, monet, 
ut tragulam cum epistola, ad amentum deligata, intra muni- 
tiones castrorum abjiciat. In literis scribit, se cum legi- 
onibus profectum celeriter afFore : hortatur, ut pristinam 
virtutem retineat. Gallus, periculum veritus, ut erat prse- 
ceptum, tragulam mittit. Haec ''casu ad turrim adhasit, 
neque ab nostris biduo animadversa, tertio die a quodam 
milite conspicitur ; demta ad Ciceronem defertur. ^llle 
perlectam in conventu militum recitat, maximaquc omnes 
Isetitia afficit. Tum *^fumi incendiorum procul videbantur^ 
quae res omnem dubitationem adventus legionum cxpulit. 

49. Galli, re cognita per exploratores, obsidionem re • 
linquunt, ad Ca^sarem omnibus copiis contendunt ; eae erant 
'armatorum circiter millia sexaginta. Cicero, ''data facul- 
tate, Galkim ab eodem Verticone, quem supra demonstrav- 
imus, repetit ; qui literas ad Caesarem referat ; hunc ad- 
monet, iter caute diligenterque faciat : perscribit in literis, 
hostes ab se discessisse, omnemque ad eum muhitudinem 
convertisse. Quibus literis circiter media nocte "Caesar 
allatis suos facit certiores, eosque ad dimicandum animo 
confirmat : postero die hico prima movet castra, et circiter 
milha passuum quatuor progressus, '°trans vallem magnam 
et rivum muhitudinem hostium conspicatur. Erat magni 
pericuh res, cum tantis copiis iniquo loco dimicare. "Tum, 
quoniam hberatum obsidione Ciceronem sciebat, eoque 
omnino remittendum de celeritate existimabat, consedit, et, 
quam aequissimo potest loco, castra commimit. Atque ha^c. 

HCER V. CAP. I,II. 1 1 l 

etsi erant exigua per se, vix hominum raillium septem, prae- 
serlim nuliis cum impcdimentis, 'tamen angustiis viarum 
quam maxime potest, contrahit, eo consilio, ^t in summam 
contemtionem hostibus veniat. Interim, speculatoribus in 
omnes partes dimissis, explorat, quo commodissimo itinere 
vallem transire possit. 

50. Eo die, parvulis equestribus proeliis ad aquam factis, 
utrique sese suo loco continont ; Galli, quod ampliores 
copias, qua; nondum convenerant, expectabant ; Cajsar, si 
forte timoris simulatione hostes in suum locum elicere 
posset, ut ^citra vallem pro castris prcelio contenderet ; si 
id efficere non posset, ut, exploratis itineribus, minore cum 
periculo valiem rivumque transiret. Prima luce hostium 
equitatus ad castra acccdit, proeliumque cum nostris equiti 
bus committit. Caesar consulto equites cedere seque in 
castra recipere jubet ; simul ex omnibus partibus castra 
altiore vallo muniri, ''portasque obstrui, atque in his admin- 
istrandis rebus quara maxirae concursari et cum simulati- 
one timoris agi jubet. 

51. Quibus omnibus rebus hostes invitati copias trans- 
ducunt, aciemque iniquo loco constituunt ; nostris vero 
^etiam de vallo deductis, propius accedunt, et tela intra 
munitionem ex omnibus partibus conjiciunt ; prasconibusque 
circummissis pronuntiari jubent, " seu quis Gallus seu Ro- 
manus velit ante horam tertiam ad se transire, sine periculo 
licere ; post id tempus non fore potestatem :" ^ac sic nos- 
tros contemserunt, ut obstructis in speciem portis singulis 
ordinibus cespitum, quod ea non posse introrumpere vide- 
bantur, alii vallum ^manu scindere, alii fossas complere in- 
ciperent. Tum Caesar, omnibus portis eruptione facta 
equitatuque eraisso, celeriter hostes dat in fugam, sic, uti 
omnino pugnandi causa resisteret nerao ; raagnumquc ex 
eis numerum occidit, atque oranes armis exuit. 

52. Longius prosequi veritus, quod silves paludesque in- 
tercedebant, ^neque etiam parvido detrimento illorum locum 


relinqui videbat, omnibus suis incolumibus copiis eodem 
die ad Ciceronem pervenit. Institutas turres, testudines, 
munitionesque bostium admiratur : 'producta legione cog- 
noscit, non decimum quemque esse relictum militem sine 
vulnere. Ex bis omnibus judicat rebus, quanto cum peri- 
culo et quanta cum virtute res sint administratae : Ciccronem 
^pro ejus merito legionemque coUaudat : centuriones sin- 
gillatim tribunosque militum appellat, quorum egregiam 
fuisse virtutem testimonio Ciceronis cognoverat. De casu 
Sabini et Cottae certius ex captivis cognoscit. Postero die 
concione habita ''rem gestam proponit, milites consolatur et 
confirmat : quod detrimentum culpa et temeritate legati sit 
acceptum, boc aequiore animo ferendum docet, ''quod, bene- 
ficio Deorum immortaliura et virtute eorum ^expiato incom- 
modo, neque hostibus diutina laetatio, neque ipsis longior 
dolor relinquatur. 

53. Interim ad Labienum per Remos incredibili celeri- 
tato do victoria Caesaris fama perfertur, ut, cum ab hibernis 
Ciceronis abesset millia passuum circiter sexaginta, '^eoque 
post horam nonam diei Caesar perveuisset, ante mediam 
noctem ad portas castrorum clamor onietur, quo clamore 
significatio victoriae gratulatioque ab Remis Labieno fieret. 
Hac fama ad Treviros pcrlata, Indutiomaius, qui postero 
die castra Labieni oppugnare decreverat, noctu profugit, 
copiasque omnes in Treviros reducit. Ca-^ar Fabiuni 
cum legione in sua remittit hiberna, ipse cum triljus 
.cgionibus circum Samarobrivam ''trinis hiberni-s hiemare 
constituit ; et, quod tanti motus Galliff; extiterant, totam 
hiemcm ipse ad exercitum manere decrevit. Nam illo in- 
commodo de Sabini morle ^perlato, omncs fere Galliae civi- 
tates de bello consultabant, nuncios legationesque in omnes 
partcs dimittebant, et, quid reliqui consiHi caperent atque 
unde initium belli fieret, explorabant, nocturnaque in locis 
desertis conciHa habebant. Nequc uHum fcre totius hicmis 
tempus !-tini; soHcitudin<' C;t.>saris intcrccssif, "(piin ri]ii|ue)ii 

LIBER V. CAP. LV. 113 

dc conciliis ac motu Gallorum nuncium acciperet. In his 
ab Lucio Roscio legato, quem legioni decimae tertiae praefe- 
cerat, certior est factus, magnas Gallorum copias earum 
civitatum, quae 'Armoricae appellantur, oppugnandi sui causa 
convenisse : neque longius millia passuum octo ab hibemis 
suis afuisse, sed nuncio allato de victoria Caesaris, disces- 
fiisse, adeo ut fugae similis discessus videretur. 

54. At Caesar, principibus cujusque civitatis ad se evo- 
catis, alias territando, cmn se scire, quae fierent, denuncia- 
ret, alias cohortando, magnam partem Galliae in ofEcio ten- 
viit. Tamen Senones, quae est civitas in prirais firma et mag- 
nae inter Gallos auctoritatis, Cavarinum, quem Caesar apud 
eos regem constituerat (cujus frater Moritasgus, adventu in 
Galliam Caesaris, cujusque majores regnum obtinuerant), 
interficere publico consilio conati, cum ille praesensisset ac 
profugisset, usque ad fines insecuti, regno domoque expule- 
runt : et, missis ad Caesarem satisfaciendi causa legatis, 
cum is omnem ad se senatum venire jussisset, dicto audi- 
entes non fuerunt. '^Tantum apud homines barbaros valuit, 
esse repertos aliquos principes belli inferendi, tantamque 
omnibus voluntatum commutationem attulit, ut praeter iEduos 
et Remos, quos ''praecipuo semper honore Caesar habuit, 
alteros pro vetere ac perpetua erga Populum Romanum fide, 
alteros pro recentibus Gallici belli oflliciis, nulla fere civitas 
fuerit non suspecta nobis. '*Idque adeo haud scio miran- 
dumne sit, cum compluribus aliis de causis, tum maxime, 
^quod, qui virtute belli omnibus gentibus praeferebantur, tan- 
tum se ejus opinionis deperdidisse, ut a Populo Romano 
imperia perferrent, gra\assime dolebant. 

55. Treviri vero atque Indutiomarus totius hiemis nullum 
tempus intermiserunt, qirin trans Rhenum legatos mitterent, 
civitates solicitarent, pecimias pollicerentur, magna parte 
exercitus nostri interfecta, multo minorem superesse dice- 
rcnt partem. Neque tamen uUi civitati Germanorum per- 
.suaderi potuit, ut Rhenum transiret, cum " sc bis expertos" 



dicerentj " Ariovisti bello et Tenchtherorum transitu, non 
esse amplius fortunam tentandam." 'Hac spe lapsus Indu- 
tiomarus, niliilo minus copias cogere, exercere, a finitimia 
equos parare, exules damnatosque tota GalUa magnis prae- 
miis ad se aUicere ctEpit. Ac tantam sibi jam iis rebus in 
Gallia auctoritatem comparaverat, ut undique ad eum lega- 
tiones concurrerent, gratiam atque amicitiam pubiice priva- 
timque peterent. 

56. Ubi intellexit ^idtro ad se veniri, altera ex parte 
Senones Carnutesque conscientia facinoris instigari, altera 
Nervios Aduatucosque bellum Romanis parare, nequc sibi 
vohmtariorum copias defore, si ex finibus suis progredi 
ccepisset : "armatum concilium indicit (hoc more Gallorum 
est initium belli), quo lege commimi omnes puberes armati 
convenire consuerunt ; qui ex iis novissimus venit, in con- 
spectu multitudinis ''omnibus cruciatibus afiectus necatur. 
In eo conciUo Cingetorigem, ^alterius principem factionis, 
generum suum (quem supra demonstravimus, Ca:saris secu- 
tum fidem, ab eo non discessisse), hostem judicat, bonaque 
ejus pubHcat. His rebus confectis, in conciho pronuntiat, 
arcessitum se a Senonibus et Carnutibus aliisque compluri- 
bus Galliae civitatibus, ^huc iter lactiu-um per fines Remo- 
rum, eorumque agros populaturum, ac prius, quam id faciat, 
Labieni castra oppugnaturum : quaj fieri velit, praecipit. 

57. Labienus, cum et loci rwitura et manu munitissimis 
castris sese teneret, dc suo ac legionis periculo nihil time- 
bat ; ne quam occasionem rei bene gerenda) dimitteret, co- 
gitabat. Itaque a Cingetorige atque ejus propinquis ora- 
tione Indutiomari cognita, quam in concilio habuerat, nun- 
cios mittit ad finitimas civitates, equitesque undique evocat : 
iis certum diem conveniendi dicit. Interim prope quotidie 
cum omni equitatu Indutiomarus '^sub castris ejus vagabatur 
alias ut situm castrorimi cognosceret, aUas colloquendi aut 
territandi causa : cquitcs plerumque omncs tela intra vallum 
conjicicbant. Labicnus suos intra munitioncs contincbat 


Himorisque opinionem, quibuscumque poterat rebus, au- 

68. Cum majore in dies conteratione Indutiomarus ad 
castra acccderet, nocte una, ^intromissis equitibus omnium 
finitimarum civitatum, quos arcessendos curaverat, tanta 
diligentia omnes suos custodiis intra castra continuit, ut 
nulla ratione ea res enunciari aut ad Treviros perferri pos- 
set. Interim ex consuetudine quotidiana Indutiomarus ad 
castra accedit, atque ibi magnam partem diei consumit ; 
equites tela conjiciunt, et 'magna cum contumelia verborum 
Siostros ad pugnam evocant. NuUo ab nostris dato re- 
sponso, ubi visum est, sub vesperum Mispersi ac dissipati 
discedunt. Subito Labienus duabus portis omnem equita- 
tum emittit ; ^praecipit atque interdicit, proterritis hostibus 
atque in fugam conjectis (quod fore, sicut accidit, videbat), 
unum omnes petant Indutiomarum ; neu quis quem prius 
vulneret, quam illum interfectum viderit, quod ^mora reli- 
quorum spatium nactum illum effugere nolebat : magna pro- 
ponit iis, qui occiderint, praemia : submittit cohortes equiti- 
bus subsidio. Comprobat 'hominis consilium fortuna ; et, 
cum unum omnes peterent, in ipso flnminis vado deprehen- 
sus Indutiomarus interficitur, ^caputque ejus refertur in cas- 
tra : redeuntes equites, quos possunt, consectantur atque 
occidunt. Hac re cognita, omnes Eburonum et Nerviorum, 
quae convenerant, copiae discedunt ; pauloque habuit post 
id factum Caesar quietiorem Galliam. 







Chap. 1. Cajsar, apprehending commotions in Gaul, augments his 
forccs. 2, 3. Insurrcction of the Treviri. The Nervii overcome by 
a suddcn invasion of their territories. A council of the states of Gaul 
held at Lutctia Parisiorum. 4. The Senones and Carnutes sue for 
peacc, and obtain it from Cajsar. 5, 6. The Menapii overcome. 7, 
8. Labienus, pretcnding fear, suddenly attacks and routs the Trcviri. 
IL C^sar's expedition against the Suevi. 

Chap. 9. Ccesar crosses the Rhine a second limc. 10. The Suevi 
retire on the approach of the Romans. 11-20. Thc manners of the 
Gauls, thcir religion, &c. 21-24. The manncrs of thc Germans. 
35. The Hercyrdan forcst. 26-28. Different kinds of wild animals 
found in the Hercynian forest. 


Chap. 29. Cagsar, fearing the want of provisions, repasscs the Rliinc, 
and marches against Ambiori.x. 30. The great power of fortunc ex- 
cinplified in the cscape of Ambiorix. 31. Ambiorix disbands his 
troops, and counscls thcm to providc for their own safety. 32-34. 
Coesar, having dividcd his forccs, lays wastc thc territories of the Ebu- 
roncs. 35. A body of Sicambri cross tho Rhinc, in ordcr to take part 
iii tjic jiiundcriii;; of llic EbunmCv.:, but Lurn off for .hc [)urj)o:;c of sur- 

LIBEIl VI. CAP. II. 117 

prising Atuatica. 36-43. Tho Roman camp attacked by thc Sicam- 
bri. Some cohorts, which had gone out to forage, are in great danger. 
A part are cut to pieces, the rest make thcir way, by dint of fighiing, 
back to the camp. The Gcrmans retum across the Rhine. The 
alarm of thc Romans dissipated by the arrival of Caesar. 44. The 
country of the Eburones being completely wasted, Caesar holds a coun- 
cil of Gaul, and inquires into the conspiracy of the Senoncs and Car- 
tiutes. Acco punished. Cassar places his troops in winter quartcrs, 
and sets out for Italy to hold the circuits. 

1. MuLTis de causis Caesar, majorem Galliae motum ex- 
pectans, 'per Marcum Silanum, Caium Antistium Reginum, 
Titum Sextium, legatos, ^dilectum habere instituit : simul 
ab Cneio Pompeio ^proconsule petit, ^quoniam ipse ad urbem 
cum imperio reipublicae causa remaneret, quos ex Cisalpina 
Gallia consulis ^sacramento rogavisset, ad signa convenire 
et ad se proiicisci juberet : ^magni interesse etiam in reli- 
quum tempus ad opinionem Galliae existimans, tantas videri 
Italiae facultates, ut, si quid esset in bello detrimenti accep- 
tum, non modo id brevi tempore ''sarciri, sed etiam ^majori- 
bus adaugeri copiis posset. ^Quod cum Pompeius et rei- 
publicae et amicitiae tribuisset, celeriter confecto '"per suos 
dilectu, tribus ante exactam hieraem et constitutis et ad- 
ductis legionibus, duplicatoque earum cohortium numero, 
quas cum Quinto Titurio amiserat, et celeritate et copiis 
docuit, quid "Populi Romani disciplina atque opes possent. 

2. Interfecto Indutiomaro, '^t docuimus, ad ejus propin- 
quos a Treviris imperium defertur. Illi finitimos Germanos 
solicitare et pecuniam polliceri non desistunt : cum ab 
proximis impetrare non possent, ulteriores tentant. Inventis 
nonnullis civitatibus, '"jurejurando inter se confirmant, ob- 
sidibusque de pecunia cavent : Ambiorigem sibi societate 
et foedere adjungimt. Quibus rebus cognitis, Caesar, ciim 
undique bellum parari videret, Nervios, Aduatucos, Mena- 
pios, adjunctis "Cisrhenanis omnibus Germanis, esse in 
armis, Scnones "'ad impcratum non vcnirc, et cum Carnuti- 


bus finitimisque civitati Dus consilia communicare, a TreA-iris 
Germanos crebris legationibus solicitari ; maturius sibi de 
bello cogitandum putavit. 

3. Itaque 'nondum hieme confecta, proximis quatuor co- 
actis legiouibus, de improviso in iines Nerviorum contendit, 
et prius, quam illi aut convenire aut profugere possent, 
magno pecoris atque hominum numero capto, atque ea 
praeda militibus concessa, vastatisque agris, in deditionem 
venire atque obsides sibi dare coegit. Eo celeriter coniecto 
negotio, rursus in hiberna legiones reduxit. Conciho Gal- 
liae primo vere, '^uti instituerat, indicto, cum reliqui, praetei 
Senones, Carnutes, Trevirosque, venissent, initium belli ac 
defectionis hoc esse arbitratus, ut ^omnia postponere vide- 
retur, concihum Lutetiam Parisiorum transfert. Confines 
erant hi Senonibus, civitatemque patrum memoriaconjunxe- 
rant ; ''sed ab hoc consiho afuisse existimabantur. ^Hac 
re pro suggestu pronunciata, eodem die cum legionibus iii 
Senones proficiscitur, magnisque itineribus eo pervenit. 

4. Cognito ejus adventu, Acco, qui princeps ejus consilii 
fuerat, jubet in oppida multitudinem convenire ; ^conantibus, 
priusquam id efiici posset, adesse Romanos nunciatur ; ne- 
cessario sententia desistunt, legatosque deprecandi causa 
ad Csesarem mittunt ; ''adeunt per ^Eduos, quorum antiqui- 
tus erat in fide civitas. Libenter Ca;sar petentibus ^i^duis 
^dat veniam, excusationemque accipit ; quod ffslivum tem- 
pus instantis belH, non quaestionis, csse arbitrabatur. Ob- 
sidibus imperatis centum, hos TEduis custodiendos tradit. 
Eodem Carnutes legatos obsidesque mittunt, usi Mepreca- 
toribus Remis, quorum crant in clientela : eadem ferunt 
lesponsa. Peragit concilium Csesar, equitesquc imperat 

5. Hac parte Galhae pacata, '"totus ot mente ct animo in 
bellum Trevirorum et Ambiorigis insistit. "Cav irinum cum 
equitatu Sononum secum proilcisci jubct, ne quis aut ex 
hMJus iracundia, aut ex eo, quod meruerat, odio civitatis. 


motus exislat. His rebus constitutiu, quod 'pro explorato 
habebat, Ambiorigem prcelio non esse concertaturum, rel- 
iqua ejus consilia animo circiunspiciebat. Erant Menapii 
propinqui Eburonum finibus, ^perpetuis paludibus silvisque 
muniti, qui uni ex Gallia de pace ad Caesarem legatos nun- 
quam miserant. Cum iis esse ''hospitium Ambiorigi scie- 
bat : item per Treviros venisse Germanis in amicitiam, 
cognoverat. Heec prius ^illi detrahenda auxilia existimabat, 
quam ipsum bello lacesseret ; ne, desperata salute, aut se 
*in Menapios abderet, aut cum Transrhenanis ^congredi 
cogeretur. Hoc inito consilio, totius exercitus impedi- 
menta ad Labienum in Treviros mittit, duasque legiones 
ad eum proficisci jubet : ipse cum legionibus expeditis 
quinque in Menapios proficiscitur. Illi, nuUa coacta manu, 
"loci praesidio freti, in silvas paludesque confugiunt, suaque 
eodem conferunt. 

6. Caesar, partitis copiis cum Caio Fabio legato et Marco 
Crasso quaestore, celeriterque effectis pontibus, ^adit tripar- 
tito, sedificia vicosque incendit, magno pecoris atque homi- 
num numero potitur. Quibus rebus coacti Menapii, lega- 
tos ad emn pacis petendae causa mittunt. Ille, obsidibus 
acceptis hostium se habiturum numero confirmat, si aut 
Ambiorigem, aut ejus legatos, finibus suis recepissent. His 
confirmatis rebus, Commium Atrebatem cum equitatu cus- 
todis loco in Menapiis relinquit ; ipse in Treviros proficis- 

7. Dum haec a Caesare geruntur, Treviri, magnis coactis 
peditatus equitatusque copiis, Labienum cum una legione, 
quae in eorum finibus ^hiemabat, adoriri parabant : jamque 
ab eo non longius bidui via aberant, cum duas venisse le- 
giones missu Caesaris cognoscunt. Positis castris '"a mil- 
libus passuum quindecim, auxilia Germanorum expectaro 
constituunt, Labienus, hostium cognito consilio, sperans, 
temeritate eorum fore aliquam dimicandi facuUatem, prae- 
sidio cohortium quinque impedimentis relicto, "cum viginti 



quinquG cohortibus niagnoque equitatu contra liostem pro- 
ticiscitur, et, mille passuum intermisso spatio, castra com- 
munit. Erat inter Labienum atque hostem difBcili transitu 
'llumen ripisque prceruptis : hoc neque ipse transire in 
aniino habebat, neque hostes transituros existimabat. ^Au- 
gebatur auxiliorum quotidie spes. Loquitur in consilio 
palara, " quoniam Germani appropinquare dicantur, sese 
suas exercitusque fortunas ^in dubium non devocaturum, et 
postero die prima luce castra moturum." Celeriter hajc ad 
hostes deferuntur, ^ut ex magno Gallorum equitatus numero 
nonnullis Gallicis rebus favere natura cogebat. Labienus 
noctu, tribunis mihtum ^primisque ordinibus coactis, ''quid 
sui sit consilii, proponit, et, quo facilius hostibus timoris det 
suspicionera, majorc strepitu et tumultu, quam Populi Ro- 
mani fert consuetudo, castra moveri jubet. His rebus "fugaj 
similem profectionem eflicit. Haec quoque per exploratores 
ante lucem, in tanta propinquitate castrorum, ad hostes de 

8. Vix agraen novissimum extra munitiones processerat, 
cum Galli, cohortati inter se, " ne ^speratam prajdam ex 
manibus dimitterent ; ^ongum esse, perterritis Romanis, 
Germanorum auxilium expectare, neque suam pati dignita- 
tem, ut tantis copiis tam exiguam manum, prajsertini fugi- 
entem atque '"impeditam, adoriri non audeant ;" tlumen 
transire et iniquo loco proelium committere non dubitant. 
Quae fore suspicatus Labienus, ut omnes citra flumen eli- 
ceret, "eadem usus simulatione itineris, placide progredie- 
batur. Tum, praemissis paulum impedimentis atque in 
tumulo quodam collocatis, " Habetis," inquit, " milites, 
quam petistis, '"facultatera : hostera impedito atcpie iniquo 
loco tenetis : "praestate eandem nobis ducibus virtutem, 
quam soepcnumero imperatori praestitistis : adesse eum et 
ha;c coram cernere, existimate." Simul signa ad hostem 
converli acieraque dirigi jubet, et, paucis turmis prajsidio 
■■'cid iinpedimenta dimissis, rcliquos equitcs ad latcra dis« 

LIBER VI, CAP. X. 121 

ponit. Celeriter nostri clamorc sublato pila in hostes im- 
mittunt. Illi, ubi praeter spem, quos fugere credebant, 'in- 
festis signis ad se ire viderunt, impetum modo ferre non 
potuerunt, ac, primo concursu in fugam conjccti, proximas 
silvas petierunt : quos Labienus equitatu consectatus, magno 
numero interfecto, compluribus captis, paucis post diebus 
civitatem recepit : nam Germani, qui auxilio veniebant, per- 
cepta Trevirorum fuga, sese domum contulerunt. Cum iis 
^propinqui Indutiomari, qui defectionis auctores fuerant, 
comitati eos, ex civitate excessere. Cingetorigi, quem ab 
initio permansisse in officio demonstravimus, principatus 
atque imperium est traditum. 

9. Caesar, postquam ^ex Menapiis in Treviros venit, dua- 
bus de causis Rhenum transire constit\xit : quarum erat al- 
tera, quod auxilia contra se Treviris miserant ; altera, ne 
Arabiorix ad eos receptum haberet. His constitutis rebus, 
paulum supra eum locvun, quo ante exercitum transduxerat, 
facere pontem instituit. Nota atque instituta ratione, magno 
militum studio, paucis diebus opus efficitur. Firmo in 
Treviris praesidio ad pontem relicto, ne quis ab iis subito 
motus oriretur, reliquas copias equitatumque transducit. 
Ubii, qui ante obsides dederant atque in deditionem vene- 
rant, purgandi sui causa ad eum legatos mittunt, qui do- 
ceant, " neque ex sua civitate auxiUa in Treviros missa, 
neque ab se fidem laesam :" petimt atque orant, " ut sibi 
parcat, '*ne communi odio Germanorum innocentes pro no- 
centibus poenas pendant :" si amplius obsidum velit, dare 
poUicentur. ^Cognita Caesar causa reperit, ab Suevis aux- 
iha missa esse : Ubiorum satisfactionera accipit ; aditus 
viasque in Suevos perquirit. 

10. Interim paucispost diebus fitab Ubiis certior, Suevos 
omnes unum in locum copias cogere, atque iis nationibus, 
quae sub eorum sint imperio, denunciare, uti auxiha pedi- 
tatus equitatusque mittant. His cognitis rebus, rem fru- 
mentariain providet, castris idoneum locurn dohgit, Ubiis 


imperat, ut pecora deducant suaque omnia ex agris in op- 
pida conferant, sperans, 'barbaros atque imperitos homines, 
inopia cibariorum afflictos, ad iniquam pugnandi conditi- 
onem posse deduci : mandat, ut crebros exploratores in 
Suevos mittant, quseque apud eos gerantur, cognoscant. 
IUi imperata faciunt, et, paucis diebus intermissis, referunt, 
" Suevos omnes, posteaquam certiores nuncii de exercitu 
Romanorum venerint, cum omnibus suis sociorumque copiis, 
quas coegissenl, penitus ad extremos fines sese recepisse : 
silvam esse ibi ^infinita magnitudine, quse appellatur Bace- 
nis : hanc longe introrsus pertinere, et, pro nativo muro ob- 
jectam, Cheruscos ''ab Suevis, Suevosque ab Cheruscis, in- 
juriis incursionibusque proliibere : ad ejus initium silvaj 
Suevos adventum Romanorum expectare constituisse." 

11. Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, ''non ali- 
enum, esse videtur, de Galliaj GermanicEque moribus, et 
quo differant efe nationes inter sese, proponere. In Gallia, 
non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque ^in omnibus pagis 
partibusque, sed pame etiam in singulis domibus, factiones 
sunt : ^earumque factionum principes sunt, qui sumniam 
auctoritatem eorum judicio habere existimantur, quorum ad 
arbitrium judiciumque summa omnium rerum consiliorum- 
que redeat. "Idque ejus rei causa antiquitus institutum vi- 
detur, ^ne quis ex plebe contra potentiorem auxilii egeret : 
suos enim ^quisque opprimi ct circumveniri non patitur, 
neque, aliter si faciaiit, uUam intcr suos habcnt auctorita- 
tem. '"Haec eadem ratio est in summa totius Gallioe : nam 
que omnes civitates in partes divisee sunt duas. 

12. Cum Caesar in Galliam vcnit, "aUerius factionis 
principes erant ^dui, aUerius Sequani. Hi cum pcr se 
minus valcrent, quod summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in 
yEduis, magneeque eorum erant clientela?, Germanos atque 
Ariovistum sibi adjunxerant, eosque ad se magnis '-jacturis 
pollicitationibusque perduxerant. Pradiis vcro compluribus 
factis secundis, atquc omni nobilitatc ^Eduorum interfccta. 


Mantum potentia antecesserant, ut magnam partem clientium 
ab iEduis ad se transducerent, obsidcsque ab iis principum 
lilios acciperent, et publice jurare cogerent, nihil se contra 
8equanos consilii inituros ; et partem finitimi agri, per viir 
occupatam, possiderent ; Galliseque totius principatum ob 
merent. Qua necessitate adductus Divitiacus, auxilii pe 
tendi causa '^Romam ad Senatum profectus, infecta re redi 
erat. Adventu Ca^saris facta ^commutatione rerum, obsidi 
bus iEduis redditis, veteribus clientelis restitutis, novis pei 
Ceesarem comparatis (quod hi, qui se ad ^eorum amicitiam 
aggregaverant, meliore conditione atque aequiore imperio se 
uti videbant), ^reliquis rebus eorum, gratia, dignitate ampli- 
ficata, Sequani principatum Mimiserant. In eorum locum 
Remi successerant ; 'quos quod adaequare apud Csesarem 
gratia intelligebatur, ii, qui propter veteres inimicitias nullo 
modo cum iEduis conjungi poterant, ^se Remis in cliente- 
lam dicabant. Hos illi diligenter tuebantur. Ita et novam 
ct repente collectam auctoritatem tenebant. Eo tum statu 
res erat, ut longe principes haberentur ^Edui, secundum loc- 
um dignitatis Remi obtinerent. 

13. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, ®qui aliquo sunt nu 
mero atque honore, '"genera sunt duo : nam plebes paenc 
servorum habetur loco, quae per se nihil audet et nuUo ad- 
hibetur consilio. Plerique, cum aut "«re alieno, aut '^mag 
nitudine tributonim, aut injuria potentiorum premuntur, sesc 
in servitutem dicant nobilibus : "in hos eadem omnia sun^ 
jura, quae dominis in servos. Sed de his duobus generibua 
'■•alterum est Druidum, alterum equitum. '^llli rebus divinis 
intersunt, sacrificia publica ac privata '^procurant, rehgionea 
interpretantur. Ad hos magnus adolescentium numerus 
"disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque '^ii sunt apud eoa 
honore. Nam fere de omnibus controversiio publicis pri- 
vatisque constituunt ; et, si quod est admissum facinus, "si 
coedes facta, si de haereditate, si de finibus controversia fest, 
iidem decernunt ; praemia poenasquc constituunt •. si qui aut 


privatus aut publicus eorum decreto 'non stetit, sacrificiis 
iuterdicunt. Hccc pcena apud eos est gravissima. Quibus 
ita est interdictum, ii numero impiorum ac sceleratorum 
ha".^entur , iis omnes decedunt, "aditum eorum sermonemque 
defugiunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant : 
neque iis petentibus ^jus redditur, neque honos uUus com- 
municatur. His autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui 
summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo, si qui 
ex reliquis excellit dignitate, succedit ; at, si sunt phires 
pares, suffragio Druidum dehgitur, nonnunquam etiam armis 
Me principatu contendunt. Hi certo anni tempore in fini- 
bus Carnutum, quse regio ^totius Gallise media habetur, con- 
sidunt in loco consecrato. Huc omnes undique, qui con- 
troversias habent, conveniunt, eorumque decretis judiciisque 
parent. *DiscipUna in Britannia reperta atque inde in Gal- 
liam translata esse existimatur : et nunc, qui 'diligentius 
eam rem cognoscere vohmt, plerumque illo discendi causa 

14. Druides a bello abcsse consuerunt, neque tributa una 
cum rehquis pendunl ; ^militice vacationem omniumque re- 
rum habent immunitatem. Tantis ^excitati prtemiis, et sua 
sponte muhi in disciphnam conveniunt, et a parentibus pro- 
pinquisque mittuntur. Magnum ibi numerum versuum 
'"ediscere dicuntur : itaque annos nonnuUi vicenos in dis- 
ciphna permanent. Neque fas esse existimant, "ea literis 
mandare, cum in rehquis fere rebus, pubhcis privatisque 
rationibus, Grjccis utantur hteris. '"Id mihi duabus de 
causis instituisse videntur ; quod neque in vulgum disciph- 
nam efferri velint, neque eos, qui discant, literis confisos, 
minus memoriae studere : quod fere plerisque accidit, ut 
prsesidio hterarum dihgcntiam in perdiscendo ac memoriam 
remittant. '^hi primis hoc vohmt persuadere, '*non interire 
animas, sed ab ahis post niortem transire ad alios : atquc 
hoc maxime ad virtutem cxcitari putant, mctu mortis neg- 
lccto Muha priEtcrea de sideribus atque coruni motu, de 


mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de Deo- 
runi immortalium vi ac potestate 'disputant et juventuti 

15. Altenun genus est equitum. Hi, ^cum est usus, atque 
aliquod bellum incidit (quod ante Caesaris adventum fere 
quotannis accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi injurias inferrent, 
aut illatas propulsarent), "omnes in bello versantur : atque 
eorum ut quisque est genere copiisque amplissimus, ita 
■•plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habent. ^Hanc 
unam gratiam potentiamque novenmt. 

16. Natio est omnium Gallorum ^admodum dedita religi- 
onibus, atque ob eam causam, qui sunt affecti gravioribus 
morbis, quique in proBliis periculisque versantur, aut 'pro 
victimis homines immolant, aut se immolaturos vovent, ad- 
ministrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur ; quod, pro 
vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non posse aliter 
Deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur : ^ublice- 
que ejusdem generis habent instituta sacrificia. Alii im» 
mani magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum ^contexta vimi 
nibus membra vivis hominibus complent, quibus succensisj 
circumventi flamma exanimantur homines. '"Supplicia 
eorum, qui in furto, aut in latrocinio, aut aliqua noxa sint 
comprehensi, gratiora Diis immortahbus esse arbitrantur •. 
sed, cum "ejus generis copia deficit, ad innocentium suppli- 
cia descendunt. 

17. '^Deum maxime Mercurium colunt: hujus sunt plu- 
rima simulacra, "'hunc omnium inventorem artium ferunt, 
hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc '%d quaestus pe- 
cuniae mea"caturasque habere vim maximam arbitrantur. 
Posthunc, '^Apollinem et '^Martem et 'Uovem et Minervam : 
'Me his eandem fere, quam reliquae gentes, habent opinio- 
nem ; Apollinem morbos depellere, '^Minervam operum 
atque artificiorum initia transdere ; Jovem imperium coeles- 
tium tenere ; Martem bella regere. Huic, cum pra^Uo di 
micare constituerimt, ca, quiE belio ceperint, plerumque de 


vovent. 'Quae supcraverint, animalia capta immolant ; rel- 
iquas res in unum locum conferunt. Multis in civitaibus 
harum rerum exstructos tumulos locis consecratis conspi- 
cari licet : neque scepe accidit, ut, ^neglecta quispiam reli- 
gione, aut capta apud se occultare, aut posita tollere auderet : 
gravissimumque ei rei supplicium cum cruciatu constitu- 
tum est. 

18. Galli se omnes ^ab Dite patre prognatos praedicant, 
idque ab Druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob eam causam, 
■•spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum, sed noctium, 
fuiiunt ; dies natales et mensium et annorum initia sic ob- 
servant, ^ut noctem dies subsequatur. ''In reliquis vita; in- 
stitutis, hoc fere ab reliquis diiferunt, quod suos liberos, 
nisi cum adoleverint, ut raunus militiae sustinere possint, 
palam ad se adire non patiuntur ; fdiumque puerili setate in 
publico, in conspectu patris, assistere, turpe ducunt. 

19. ''Viri, quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine ac- 
ceperunt, tantas ex suis bonis, aestimatione facta, cum doti- 
bus communicant. Hujus omnis pecuniae ^conjunctim ratio 
habetur, fructusque servantur : uter eorum Vita superarit, 
ad eum pars utriusque cum fructibus superiorum temporum 
pervcnit. Viri in uxores, sicut in liberos, vitas necisque 
habcnt potestatem : et, cum pater famihae, iUustriore loco 
natus, decessit, cjus propinqui conveniunt, et, de morte si 
r(!s in suspicionem venit, de uxoribus '°in servilem modum 
quaestionem habent, et, "si compertum est, igni atque omni 
bus tormentis excruciatas interficiunt. Funera sunt '^pro 
cidtu Gallorum mag-nifica et sumtuosa ; omniaque, quae 
'^vivis cordi fuisse arbitrantur, in ignem inferunt, etiam ard- 
maUa : '^ac paulo supra hanc memoriam serAd et clientes, 
quos ab iis dilectos esse constabat, justis funeribus confec 
tis, una cremabantur. 

20. Quae civitates '^commodius suam rem publicam ad- 
ministrare cxistimantur, habent hjgihus sanctum, si quis 
([uid de re pubUca a linitimis rumore ac fama acceperit, 


uti ad jiiagistratum deferat, neve cum quo alio communicet : 
quod saepe homines temerarios atque 'imperitos falsis ru- 
moribus terreri, et ad facinus impelli, et de summis rebus 
consilium capere cognitum est. Magistratus, ^qua) visa 
Bunt, occultant ; qua;que esse ex usu judicaverint, multitu- 
dini produnt. De re publica nisi ^per concilium loqui non 

21. ^Germani multum ab hac consuetudine diflerunt : 
"nam neque Druides habent, qui rebus divinis pra?sint, '^ne- 
que sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt, 
quos cernunt, et quorum aperte opibus juvantur, Solcm et 
'Vulcanum et Lunam : reliquos ne faraa quidem ''accepe- 
runt. Vita omnis in venationibus atque ®in studiis rei mili- 
taris consistit : ab parvulis labori ac duritiae student. Qui 
diutissime '"impuberes permanserunt, maximam inter suos 
ferunt laudem : hoc ali staturam, ali hoc vires nervosque 
confirmari, putant. Intra annum vero vicesimum fceminae 
notitiam habuisse, in turpissimis habent rebus : "cujus rei 
nulla est occultatio, quod et promiscue in fluminibus per- 
luuntur, et pellibus '-aut parvis rhenonum tegimentis utuntur, 
magna corporis parte nuda. 

22. "'Agriculturae non student ; majorque pars victus 
eorum in lacte, caseo, carne consistit : neque quisquam 
"agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios ; sed magis- 
tratus ac principes in annos singulos '^entibus cognationi- 
busque hominum, qui una coierint, '^quantum, et quo loco 
visum est, agri attribuunt, atque anno post alio transire 
cogunt. '^Ejus rei multas afferunt causas ; ne, assidua 
consuetudine capti, studium belli gerendi agricukura com- 
mutent ; ne '^atos fines parare studeant, potentioresque 
'^humiliores possessionibus expellant ; ne ^"accuratius ad 
frigora atque aestus vitandos Eedificent ; ne qua oriatur pe- 
cunifs cupiditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nas- 
cuntur ; ut '^'animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas 
quisquo opes cum potentissimis sequari videat. 


23. Civitatibus maxinia laus cst, quam lalissimas circiim 
sc 'vastatis iinibus solitudines liabere. Hoc -proprium vir- 
tutis existimant, expulsos agris finitimos cedere, neque 
quenquam prope audere consistere : simul hoc se fore tuti- 
ores arliitrantu^, repentina) incursionis timore sublato. Cum 
bellum civitas aut illatum "defendit, aut infert ; magistrati s, 
qui ei bello praesint, ut vitae necisque habeant potestatem, 
deliguntur. In pace nullus est coinmunis magistratus, ''scd 
principes rcgionum atque pagorum inter suos jus dicunt, 
controversiasque minuunt. Latrocinia nullam habent infa- 
miam, quae extra fines cujusque civitalis fiunt ; atque ea ju- 
ventutis exercendae ac \lesidia3 minuendaj causa fieri pr?s- 
dicant. Atque, ubi quis cx principibus in concilio dixit, 
" se ducem fore ; qui sequi velint, ^profiteantur ;" consur- 
gunt ii, qui et causam et hominem probant, suuinque auxil- 
ium pollicentur, atque ab multitudine collaudantur : qui ex 
iis secuti non sunt, in desertorum ac proditorum numero 
ducuntur, 'omniumque iis rerum postea fides derogatur. 
^Hospites violare, fas non putant ; qui quaque de causa ad 
eos venerint, ab injuria prohibent, sanctosque habent ; iis 
omnium domus patent, victusque communicatur. 

24. Ac fuit antea tempus, cum Gormanos Galli A-irtuto 
superarent, ultro l)ella inferrent, propter hominum multitu- 
dinem agriquc inopiam ^trans Rhcnum colonias mitterent. 
Itaquc ea, quac fertilissima sunt, Germanicc loca circum 
Hcrcyniam silvam (quam '°Eratostheni et quibusdam Grascis 
fama notam esse video, quam illi Orcyniam appellant), 
Volcse Tectosages occupaverunt, atque ibi conscderunt. 
Qua3 gens ad hoc tempus iis sedibus sese continet, "sum- 
mamque habet justitiae et bellicae laudis opinionem : nunc 
quoque '^in eadem inopia, egestate, patientia, qua Germani, 
permanent, eodem victu et cultu corporis utuntur ; '•''Gallis 
autem Provincisc propinquitas, ct transniarinarum rerum 
notitia, "multa ad copiam atque usus largitur. Paulatim 
assucfacti superari, multisque victi pradiis, ne se quidera 
ip!ii cum illis virtutc compjirniit. 


25. IIujus Ilercyniac silvJE, quce supra dcmonslrata est, 
latitudo novem dierum iter 'expedito patet : non enim aliter 
finiri potest, neque mensuras itinenim noverunt. '^Oritur 
ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, recta- 
que fluminis Danubii regione pertinet ad fines Dacorum 
et Anartium : hinc se flcctit ^sinistrorsus, diversis ab flu- 
mine regionibus, multarumque gentium fines propter mag- 
nitudinem attingit : neque quisquam est ''hujus Germania;, 
qui se aut adisse ad initium ejus silvae dicat, cum dierum 
iter sexaginta processerit, aut quo ex loco oriatur, acceperit. 
Multa in ea genera ferarum nasci constat, qua; reliquis in 
locis visa non sint : ex quibus, quae maxime difl^erant ab 
ceteris et ^memoriae prodenda videantur, haec sunt. 

26. ^Est bo^ cervi figura, cujus a media fronte inter aures 
^unum cornu existit, excelsius magisque directum his, quse 
nobis nota sunt, cornibus. Ab ejus summo, ^sicut palmae, 
rami quam late diffunduntur. Eadem est foeminae marisque 
natura, eadem forma magnitudoque cornuum. 

27. Sunt item, quae appellantur ^Alces. Harum est con- 
similis capreis figura et '"varietas pellium ; sed magnitudine 
paulo antecedunt, "mutilaeque sunt cornibus, et crura '^sine 
nodis articulisque habent ; neque quietis causa procumbunt, 
neque, si "'quo afflictae casu conciderint, erigere sese aut 
sublevare possunt. His sunt arbores pro cubilibus : ad eas 
•''se applicant, atque ita, pauhim modo reclinatae, quietem 
capiunt : quarum ex vestigiis cum est animadversum a ve- 
natoribus, quo se recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut '°a 
radicibus subruunt, aut accidunt arbores tantum, ut summa 
species earum stantium relinquatur. Huc cum se consue- 
tudine reclinaverint, '^infirmas arbores pondere afiligunt, 
atque una ipsse concidunt. 

28. '''Tertium est genus eorum, qui Uri appellantur. Hi 
snnt magnitudine '^paulo infra elephantos, specie et colore 
et figura tauri. Magna vis eorum, et magna velocitas • 
neque homini, neque ferae, quam conspexerint,, parcunt 


'Hos studiose fovcis captos interficiunt. Hoc se laboro 
duraiit Wolescentes, atque iioc genere vcnationis exercenl • 
et, qui plurimos ex his interfecerunt, relatis in publicum 
cornibus, ^quae sint testimonio, magnam ferunt laudem. 
*Sed assuescere ad homines, et mansuefieri, ne parvuli 
quidera excepti possunt. ^Amplitudo cornuum et figura et 
species multum a nostrorum boura cornibiis diilert. Ha;c 
Btudiose conquisita ab labris argento circumcludunt, atque 
in amplissimis epulis pro poculis utuntur. 

29. ''Ceesar, postquam per Ubios exploratores comperit, 
Suevos sese in silvas recepisse, 'inopiam frumenti veritus, 
quod, ut supra demonstravimus, minime omncs Gerraani 
agricuhurK student, constituit, non progredi longius : sed, 
ne omnino mctum reditus sui barbaris toUeret, atque ut eorum 
auxiUa tardaret, reducto exercitu, partem ultimam pontis, 
qua} ripas Ubiorum coatingebat, in longitudinem pedum 
ducentorum rescindit ; atque in extremo ponte turrim tabu- 
latorura quatuor constituit, pra^sidiunique cohortium duode- 
cim pontis tuendi causa ponit, magnisque eum locum muni- 
tionibus firmat. Ei loco pra;sidioque Caium Volcatium 
TuUum adolescentem pra^fecit : ipse, cum maturescere fru- 
menta inciperent, ad ^bellum Ambiorigis profectus (per Ar- 
duennam silvam, qu?e est totius Galha) maxima, atquo ab 
ripis Rhcni finibusque Trevirorum ad Nervios pertmet, 
milhbusque araphus quingentis in longitudinera patet), Lu- 
cium iMinuciura Basilum cura omni equitatu pra^mittit, ^si 
quid celeritate itincris atque opportunitate temporis profi- 
cere possit ; monet, ut ignes fieri in castris prohibeat, no 
qua ejus adventus procul significatio fiat : sese confestun 
'"subsequi dicit. 

30. "Basilus, ut imperatum est, facit ; celeriter contraque 
omnium opinionem confecto itinere, multos in agris inopi- 
nantes deprehendit ; corum indicio ad ipsum Ambiorigom 
contendit, quo in loco cum paucis equitibus esse dicebalur 
'^Mullum cum in omnibus rebus, tum in rc militari potost 


iortuna. Nam sicut inagno accidit casu, ut in ipsum incau- 
tum atque etiam imparatum incideret, 'priusque ejus adven- 
tus ab hominibus videretur, quam fama uc nuncius adventus 
aflerretur : sic ^magnae fuit fortuna;, omni militari instrumento, 
quod circum se liabebat, erepto, rhedis equisque compre- 
hensis, ipsum effugere mortem. Sed ''hoc eo factum est, 
quod, aedificio circumdato silva (ut sunt fere domicilia Gal- 
lorum, qui, vitandi a;stus causa, plerumque silvarum ac flu- 
minum petunt propinquitates), comites familiaresque ejus 
^angusto in loco paulisper equitura nostrorum vim sustinue- 
runt His pugnantibus, illum in equum quidam ex suis in- 
tulit : fugientem silvae texerunt. Sic et ad subeundum pe- 
riciUum, et ad vitandum, multum fortuna valuit. 

31. ^Ambiorix copias suas judicione non conduxerit, quod 
prceho dimicandum non existimarit, an tempore exclusus et 
repentino equitum adventu prohibitus, cum reliquum exer- 
citum subsequi crederet, dubium est : ^sed certe, dimissis 
per agros nunciis, sibi quemque consulere jussit : quorum 
pars in Arduennam silvam, pars "in continentes paludes 
profugit : qui proximi Oceanum fuerunt, hi insulis sese oc- 
cultaverunt, quas aestus efficere consuerunt : multi, ex suis 
finibus egressi, se suaque omnia ^alienissimis crediderunt. 
Cativolcus, rex dimidiae partis Eburonum, qui una cum Am- 
biorige consilium inierat, aetate jam confectus, cum laborem 
aut belli aut fugae ferre non posset, 'omnibus precibus de- 
testatus Ambiorigem, qui ejus consilii auctor fuisset, '"taxo, 
cujus magna in Gallia Germaniaque copia est, se exani- 

32. Segni Condrusique, ex gente et numero Germano- 
rum, qui sunt inter Eburones Trevirosque, legatos ad Cie- 
sarem miserunt, oratum, ne se in hostium numero duceret, 
neve "omnium Germanorum, qui essent citra Rhenum, 
unam esse causam judicaret : nihil se de bello cogitavisse, 
nulla Ambiorigi auxilia misisse. Caesar, explorata re 
'-quaestione captivorum, si qui ad eos Eburones ex fuga 



«•onvenissciit, ad se ul reducerentur, imperavit : si ita fecis* 
sent. fines corum se violaturum negavit. Tum copiis in 
irfcs partes distribulis, impedimenta omnium legionum 'Ad- 
uatucam contulit. Id castelli nomen est. Hoc fere est Ui 
mediis Eburonum finibus, ubi Titurius atque Aurunculeius 
hiemandi causa consederant. Hunc cum reiiquis rebus 
locum probabat, tum, quod superioris anni munitiones in- 
tegrae manebant, ut militum laborem sublevaret. Prcesidio 
impedimentis legionem quatuordecimam reliquit, unam ex 
iis tribus, quas proxime conscriptas ex Italia transduxerat. 
Ei legioni castrisque 'Quintum TuUium Ciceronem pra3- 
ficit, ducentosque equites attribuit. 

33. Partito exercitu, Titiim Labienum cum legionibus 
tribus ad Oceanum versus, in eas partes, quae Menapios at- 
tingunt, proficisci jubet : Caium Trebonium cum pari legi- 
onum numero ad eam rcgionem, quas Aduatucis adjacet, 
depopulandam mittit : ipse cum reliquis tribus ad flumen 
^Sabim, quod influit in JMosam, extremasque Arduennai 
partes ire constituit, quo cum paucis equitibus profectum 
Ambiorigem audiebat. Discedens, ''post diem septimum 
sese reversurum, confirmat ; quam ad diem ei legioni, qusc 
in prsesidio relinquebatur, irumentum deberi scicbat. La- 
bienum Treboniumque hortatur, si reipublicae commodo fa- 
cere possint, ad cam diem revertantur ; ut, rursus commu- 
nicato consilio, exploratisque hostium rationious, aliud belli 
initium capere possent. 

34. Erat, ^ut supra aemonstravimus, rnanus cerla nulla, 
non oppidum, non praesidium, quod se armis defenderet ; 
sed omnes in partes dispersa multitudo. IJbi cuique aut 
vallis abdita, aut locus silvestris, aut palus impedita, spem 
praesidii aut salutis aliquam ofterebat, consederat. Ha;c 
loca ^vicinitatibus crant nota, "magnamque res diligentiam 
requircbat, non iu suinma exercitus tuenda (nullum enim 
poterat universis ab perterritis ac dispersis periculum acci 
dere), sed in singulis militibus conservandiw ; quae tamei 

L1B£K VI. CAP. XXXV. 133 

fK parte res ad salutem exercitus pertinebat. Nam et 
praedae cupiditas multos longius evocabat, et silvae incerlis 
occultisque itineribus 'confertos adire prohibebant. Si ne- 
gotium confici stirpemque hominum sceleratorum intcrfici 
vcllet, dimittendae plures manus diducendique erant milites : 
si continere ad signa manipulos ^vellet, ut 'instituta ratio et 
consuetudo exercitus Romani postulabat, locus ipse erat 
praesidio barbaris, neque ex occulto insidiandi et dispersos 
circumveniendi singulis deerat audacia. At in ejusmodi 
difficuhatibus, quantum diligentia provideri poterat, provi- 
debatur ; ut potius '*in nocendo aliquid omitteretur, etsi om- 
nium animi ad ulciscendum ardebant, quam cum aliquo 
militum detrimento noceretur. Cajsar ad finitimas civitates 
nuncios dimittit, omnes ad se evocat spe prcedte, ad diripi- 
endos Eburones, ut potius in silvis Gallorum vita, quam 
Hegiouarius miles, periclitetur ; simul ut, magna multitudino 
circumfusa, ^pro tali facinore, slirps ac nomen civitatis lol- 
latur. Magnus undique numerus celeriter convenit. 

35. Haec in omnibus Eburonum partibus gerebantur, 
diesque ^appetebat septimus, quem ad diem Caesar ad im- 
pedimenta legionemque reverti constituerat. Hic, quantum 
in bello fortuna possit 'et quantos afferat casus, cognosci 
potuit. Dissipatis ac perterritis hostibus, ut demonstravi- 
mus, '"manus erat nuUa, quae parvam modo causam timoris 
dfferret. Trans Rhenum ad Germanos perA'enit fama, diripi 
Eburones, atque "ultro omnes ad praedam evocari. Cogunt 
equitum duo millia Sigambri, qui sunt proximi Rheno, a 
quibus receptos ex fuga Tenchtheros atque Usipetes '^supra 
docuimus : transeunt Rhenum navibus ratibusque, triginta 
millibus passuum infra eum locum, ubi pons '^erat perfectus 
praesidiumque ab Caesare relictum : primos Eburonum finet 
adeunt, '''multos ex fuga dispersos excipiunt, magno pecori» 
numero, cujus sunt cupidissimi barbari, potiuntur. Invitati 
praeda, longius procedunt : '^non hos palus, in bello latro 
ciniisque natos, non silvae morantur : quibus in locis sil 


Ca3sar, ex caplivi^s quaeruiit ; profectum loiigius repenuni, 
ouuieniquc exercitum discessisse cognoscunt. Atque unus 
ex captivis, " Quid vos," inquit, " lianc miseram ac tenuern 
sectamini pra^dam, quibus iicet jam esse 'fortunatissimis ? 
Tribus lioris Aduatucarn venire potestis : liuc omnes suas 
fortunas exercitus Ronianorum contulit : ^praesidii tantum 
est, ut ne niurus quidem cingi possit, neciue quisquam egredi 
extra nuiuitiones auueat." Oblala spe, Germani, quam 
nacli erant pra)dam, in occulto relinquunt, ipsi Aduatucam 
contendiuit, ^usi eodem duce, cujus lifec indicio cognoverant. 

3(3. Cicero, qui per omiies superiores dies pra^ceptis 
Ctesaris summa diligentia milites in castris continuisset, ac 
ne calonem quidcm quemquam extra munitionem egredi 
passus esset, seplimo die, diffidens ''de numero dierum 
Ciesarem fidcm servaturum, quod longius eum progressum 
audiebat, neque idia de rcditu ejus fama afferebatur ; simul 
corum permotus vocibus, "qui illius patientiam pa^ne obses- 
sJonem appellabant, si quidem cx castris egredi non liceret ; 
'^nullum ejusmodi casum expectans, quo, novem o])positis 
legionibus maximoque equitatu, dispersis ac ptcne deletis 
hoslibus, in millil)us j)assuum tribus oflendi possct ; quinque 
coliortes frvuncntatum in proximas segetes misit, quas inter 
et castra unus omnino collis intererat. Complures erant in 
castris ex legionibus eegri relicti ; ex quibiis "qui lioc spatio 
dieruni convaluerant, circiter trecenti sub vexillouna mittun- 
lur : magna prajterea multitudo calonum, magna vis jumen- 
torum, quffi in castris ^subsederat, facta potestate, sequitur. 

37. IIoc ipso tempore, \uisu Germani equites interveni- 
unt, protinusque codem illo, quo vencrant, cursu '°ab decu- 
mana porta in castra irrumperc conantur : nec prius sunt 
cisi, objectis ab ea parte silvis, (luam castris appropinqua- 
reii' usque eo, ut, "qui sub vallo lenderent ''mercatores, re- 
cipiendi rui facultatem non habereiit. Inopinantes nostri 
re uo/j ^j>erturbantur, ac vix priiuum impetum cohors in sta- 
tione sustinct. Circumfunduntur ex reliqids hostes partibus, 


si qucm adituin reperire possent. iEgro 'portas nostri 
tuentur, reliquos aditus locus ipse per se munitioque defen- 
dit. Totis trepidatur castris, atque alius ex alio causam 
tumultus quaerit ; neque quo signa ferantur, '^neque quam in 
partem quisque conveniat, provident. Alius capta jam 
castra pronunciat ; alius, deleto exercitu atque imperatore, 
victores barbaros A^enisse contendit : 'plerique novas sibi 
ex loco religiones fingimt, Cottaeque et Titurii calamitatem, 
qui in eodem occiderint castello, ante oculos ponunt. Tali 
timore omnibus perterritis, confirmatur opinio barbaris, ut 
ex ''captivo audierant, nullum esse intus praesidium. Per- 
rumpere nituntm", seque ipsi adhortantur, ne tantam fortu- 
nam ex manibus dimittant. 

38. Erat seger in praesidio relictus Publius Sextius Bacu- 
lus, ^qui primum pilum ad Caesarem duxerat, cujus nienti- 
onem ^superioribus proeliis fecimus, ac diem jam quintum 
cibo caruerat. Hic, diflisus suse atque omnium saluti, iner- 
mis ex tabernaculo prodit : videt imminere hostes, atque in 
sumrao esse rem discrimine : capit arma a proximis atque 
in porta consistit. Consequuntur hunc centuriones ejus 
cohortis quse "in statione erat : paulisper una prcelium sus- 
tinent. ^Relinquit animus Sextium, gravibus acceptis vul- 
neribus : aegre per manus tractus servatur. Hoc spatio in- 
terposito, reliqui sese confirmant tantum, ut in munitionibus 
consistere audeant, speciemque defensorum preebeant. 

39. Interim confecta frumentatione, milites nostri clamo- 
rem exaudiunt ; praecurrunt equites, quanto sit res in peri- 
culo, cognoscunt. Hic vero nulla munitio est, quae perter- 
ritos recipiat : ^modo conscripti, atque usus militaris impe- 
riti, ad tribunum militum ceiiturionesque ora convertunt : 
quid ab his praecipiatur, expectant. Nemo est tam fortis, 
quin rei novitate perturbetur. Barbari, signa procul conspi 
cati, oppugnatione desistunt : redisse primo legiones cre 
dunt, quas longius discessisse ex captivis cognoverant 
postea, despecta paucitate, ex omnibus partibus impetuni 

N 2 


40. 'Calones in proxiinum tumulum procurrunt : hinc 
celeriter dejecti se in signa munipulosque conjiciun-t: eo 
magis timidos perterrent milites. Alii, ^cuneo facto ut ce- 
leriter perrumpant, censent, quoniam tam propinqua sint 
castra ; et, ^si pars aliqua circumventa ceciderit, at reliquos 
servari posse confidunt : alii, ut in jugo consistant, atque 
eundem omnes ferant casum. Hoc veferes non probant 
milites, quos sub vexillo una profectos docuimus. Itaque 
inter se coliortati, duce Caio Trebonio, cquite Komano, qui 
eis erat praepositus, per medios hostes pcrrumpunt, incol- 
umesque ad unum onmes in castra perveniunt. Hos sub- 
secuti calones equitesque eodem impetu militum virtute ser- 
vantur. At ii, qui in jugo constiterant, ''nullo etiam nunc 
usu rei militaris perccpto, neque in eo, quod probaverant, 
consilio permanere, ut sc loco superiore defenderent, neque 
eam, quam profuisse aliis vim celeritatemque viderant, imi- 
tari potuerunt ; sed, se in castra recipere conati, iniquum in 
locum demiserant. Centuriones, quorum nonnulli, ''cx infe- 
rioribus ordinibus reliquarum legionum, virtutis causa, iu 
superiores crant ordines hujus legionis transducti, ne ante 
parlam rei militaris laudem amittcrent, fortissime pugnantes 
conciderunt. ]\Iilitum pars, horum virtute submotis hosli- 
bus, praitcr spem incoknnis in castra pervenit ; pars a bar- 
baris circumventa periit. 

41. Germani, desperata expugnatione castrorum, quod 
nostros jam constitisse in munitionibus videbant, cum ea 
pra;da, quam in silvis deposucrant, trans Rhenum sese re- 
ceperunt. Ac tantus fuit etiam post discessum hostium 
terror, ut ea nocte, cum Caius Vokisenus missus cum equi- 
tatu ad castra venisset, *'fklem non faceret, adesse cum incol- 
umi Ceesarem exercitu. Sic omnium animos timor praeoc- 
cupaverat, ut, "pa^ne alienata mente, deletis omnibus copiis 
equitatum tantum sc ex fuga recepisse, dicerent, ncque, 
incolumi excrcitu, Germanos castra oppugnaturos fuisse 
contenderent. Quem timorem CfEsaris adventus sustukf. 


42 Reversus ille, eventus bclli non ignorans, 'unum, 
quod cohortes ^ex statione et praesidio essent eniissae, ques- 
tus, ne minimo quidem casu locum relinqui debuisse, mul- 
tum fortunam in repentino hostium adventu potuisse indica< 
vit ; multo etiam amplius, quod paene ab ipso vallo portisque 
castrorum barbaros avertisset. Quarum onmium rerum 
'maxime admirandum videbatur, quod Germani, qui eo cou- 
silio Khenum transierant, ut Ambiorigis fincs depopularen- 
tur, ad castra Romanorum delati, "'optatissimum Ambiorigi 
beneficium obtulerint. 

43. Caesar, rursus ad vexandos hostes profectus, magno 
coacto numero ex finitimis civitatibus, in omnes partes di- 
mittit. ^Omnes vici atque omnia a;dificia, quse quisque con- 
spexerat, incendebantur : praeda ex omnibus locis agebatur : 
frumenta non solum a tanta multitudine jumentorum atque 
hominum consumebantur, sed etiam anni tempore atque 
imbribus procubuerant ; ut, si qui etiam in praesentia se 
occuUassent, tamen iis, deducto exercitu, rerum omnium 
inopia pereundum videretur. ®Ac saepe in eum locum ven- 
tum est, tanto in omnes partes diviso equitatu, ut modo 
visum ab se Ambiorigem in fuga captivi, nec plane etiam 
abisse ex conspectu contenderent, ut, spe consequendi illata 
atque infinito labore suscepto, qui se summam ab Caesare 
gratiam inituros putarent, paene naturam studio vincerent, 
semperque paulum "ad summam felicitatem defuisse vide- 
retur, atque ille latebris aut saltibus se eriperet et noctu oc- 
cultatus alias regiones partesque peteret, non majore equi- 
tuni praesidio, quam quatuor, quibus solis vitam suam com- 
mittere audebat. 

44. Tali modo vastatis regionibus, exercitum Caesar 
•^duarum cohortium damno Durocortorum Remorum reducit, 
concilioque in eum locum Gallise indicto, de conjuratione 
Senonum et Carnutum quaestionem habere instituit ; et 'de 
Accone, qui princeps ejus consiUi fuerat, graviore sententia 
pronunciata, '"moro majorum supplicium pumsit Nonnulli 


judicium veriti profugerunt ; 'quibus cum aqua atque igni 
interdixisset, duas legiones ad fines Trevirorum, dnas in 
Lingonibus, sex reliquas in Senonum finibus Agendici in 
hibernis collocavit ; frumentoque "exercitu proviso, ut insti- 
tuerat, in Italiam ad conventus agendos profectus est. 






The war with Vercixgetorix. 

Chap. 1. The Gauls concert measures for renewing the war. 2, 3. 
The Garnutes massacre a number of Roman citizens at Genabuin. 
4. The command of the confederates given to Vercingetorix. 5. Tha 
Bituriges apply for aid to the Aedui, and, it being withheld, they joiii 
the confederates. 6. Cssar's retum to Gaul. 7, 8. The Arvemi, 
who had revolted at the instigation of Vercingetorix, are overcome. 
9, 10. Vercingetorix besieges Gergovia. Caesar marches against him. 
11. Vellaunodunum and Genabum taken by Caesar. 12. Vercinge- 
torix raiscs the siege of Gergovia, and marches against Caesar, who is 
attacking Noviodunum. Coesar defeats the cavalry of Vercingetorix, 
becomes master of Noviodunum, and marches towards Avaxicum. 
13-15. The Bituriges, by the advice of Vercingetorix, set fire to theii 
towns that they may not furnish subsistence to the Romans. Avari- 
cum alone is spared. 16, 17. The Romans before Avaricum suffet 
greatly for want of provisions. 18-21. Vercingetorix, being accused 
of treason, clears hiinsclf, and receives great applause. 22. The 
Gauls at Avaricum defend their vv'alls with great skill and bravery. 
23. The Gallic manner of building walls around their towns. 2-1—27. 
Avaricum, after a resolute defence, is taken, and the ganison and al) 
the inhabitants put to the sword. 28. Vercingetorix consoles his mer 
by a spcech. 29-31. The war continued by Vercingetorix. 32, 3R 


Dissensions ainong the Aedui. Quietcd by Cassar. 34, 35. Caasar 
marches tovvards Gergovia. Crosses the Elaver by a feint. Vercin- 
getorix retires before him. 36. CtEsar encamps near Gergovia, and 
seizes upon an eminence. 37-39. Revolt of the Aeduan forces. 40. 
Quelled by the pradence and diligence of Caesar. 41, 42. lloman 
camp «ttacked during Caesar^s absence. Fresh disturbances among 
the Aedai. 43-51. Caesar carries three of the enemy's camps beforp 
Gergovia ; but the Romans, pressing the attack too far, are repulseil 
with loss. 52. Cassar reproves in a speech the rashness of his sol- 
diers. 53-56. War begun by the Aedui. Caesar crosses the Liger. 
57-62. Labienus, after a successful espedition against the Parisii, 
retums to Caesar with all his forces. 63, 64. The revolt of the Aedui 
followed by that of ahnost all Gaul. Preparations for war. Vercin- 
getorix reappointed commander-in-chief. 65-67. The Gauls attack 
Caesar, but are routed with great slaughter. 68. Vercingetorix re 
treats to Alesia, whither Csesar pursues him. 69. Description of the 
place. 70. The Gauls again defeated in an engagement between 
the cavalry. 71. Vercingetorix sends away his cavalry. All Gaul 
summoned to the war. 72-74. Caesar surrounds Alesia vnth lines of 
circumvallation and contravallation. 75, 76. The Gallic auxiharies 
assemble from all quarters, and strive to compel Caesar to raise the 
siege. 77, 78. Distress in Alesia. Remarkable speech of Critog- 
natus. The Mandubii compelled to leave their own city. 79-87. 
The Gauls within and without make several attempts upon the Roman 
lines, but are always repulsed with loss. 88. At length the Romaus, 
by a movement of the horse, defeat the Gauls with great slaughter. 
89. Alesia surrenders, and with it Vercingetorix. 90. The Aedui and 
Arvemi submit, Cassar sends his army into wiuter quarters. 

1. QuiETA Gailia, Caesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad 
eonventus agendos proficiscitur. Ibi 'cognoscit de Clodii 
casde : de ^Senatusque consulto certior factus, ^ut omnes 
Italise juniores conjurarent, dilectum tota provincia habere 
instituit. Eae res in Galliam Transalpinam celeriter perfe 
ructur. Addunt ipsi et affingimt rumoribus Galli, quod res 
poscere videbatur, ''retineri urbano motu Csesarem, neque 
in tantis dissensionibus ad exercitum venire posse. Hac 
impulsi occasione, qui jam ante se Populi Romani imperio 
8ubjectos dolerent, liberius atque audacius de brllo consilia 

LIBER VII. CAP. Iir. 141 

inire incipiunt. Indictis inter se principes Galliae conciliis, 
silvestribus ac remotis locis, queruntur 'de Acconis morte ; 
hunc casum ad ipsos recidere posse demonstrant ; mise- 
rantur communem Gallia; fortunam ; omnibus pollicitationi- 
bus ac praemiis Meposcunt, qui belli initium faciant et sui 
capitis periculo Galliam in libertatem vindicent. ''Ejus in 
primis rationem habendam dicunt, priusquam eorum clan- 
destina consilia efferantur, ut Ceesar ab exercitu interclu- 
datur. Id esse facile, quod nequc legiones, absente imper- 
atore, audeant ex hibernis egredi ; neque imperator sine 
praesidio ad legiones pervenire possit : postremo ^in acie 
praestare interfici, quam non veterem belli gloriam liberta- 
temque, quam a majoribus acceperint, recuperare. 

2. His rebus agitatis, profitentur Carnutes, " se nullum 
periculum communis salutis causa recusare, principesque 
ex omnibus bellum facturos pollicentiir ; °et, quoniam in 
prsesentia obsidibus inter se cavere non possint, ne res ef- 
feratur, ut jurejurando ac fide sanciatur, petunt, collatis 
militaribus signis (quo more eorum gxavissimae cerimonife 
continentur), ne, facto initio belli, ab reliquis deserantur."' 
Tum, collaudatis Carnutibus, dato jurejurando ab omnibus 
qui aderant, tempore ejus rei constituto, ab concilio disce- 

3. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes, Cotuato et Conetoduno 
ducibus, desperatis hominibus, Genabum dato signo concur- 
runt, civesque Romanos, qui negotiandi causa %i constite- 
rant (in his Caium Fusium Citam, honestum equitem Ro- 
manum, qui rei frumentariae jussu Caesaris praeerat), inter- 
ficiunt, bonaque eorum diripiunt. Celeriter ad omnes Gai- 
liae civitates fama perfertur : nam, ubi major atque 'iUns- 
trior incidit res, clamore per agros regionesque significant ; 
hunc ahi deinceps excipiunt et proximis tradunt ; ut tum 
accidit : nam, quae Genabi oriente sole gesta essent, ante 
priinam confectam vigiliam in finibus Arvernorum audita 
sunt ; quod spatium est miUium circiter ^centum et sexaginta. 


4. 'Simili ratione ibi Vercingetorix, Celtilli filius, Arver- 
nus, summae potentiae adolescens (cujus pater principatum 
''Galliae totius obtinuerat, et ob eam causam, quod regnum 
appetebat, ab civitate erat interfectus), convocatis suib cli- 
entibus, facile incendit. Cognito ejus consilio, ad arma 
concurritur : ab Gobanitione, patruo suo, reliquisque prin- 
cipibus, qui hanc tentandam fortunam non existimabant, ex- 
pellitur ex oppido Gergovia : non destitit tamen, atque in 
agris habet dilectum egentium ac perditorum. Hac coacta 
manu, ^quoscumque adit ex civitate, ad suam sententiam 
perducit : hortatur, ut communis libertatis causa arma cap- 
iant : magnisque coactis copiis, adversarios suos, a quibus 
paulo ante erat ejectus, expellit ''ex civitate. Rex ab suis 
appellatur ; dimittit quoquoversus legationes ; obtestatur, ut 
in fide maneant. Celeriter sibi Senones, Parisios, PictoneSj 
Cadurcos, Turones, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andes reliquos- 
que omnes, ^qui Oceanum attingimt, adjungit : omnium con- 
sensu ad eum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate, 
omnibus his civitatibus obsides imperat, certum numerum 
militum ad se celeriter adduci jubet, armorum quantum 
qugeque civitas domi, quodque ante tempus ^efficiat, constit- 
uit : in primis equitatui studet. Summae diligentiae ''sum- 
mam imperii severitatem addit ; magnitudine supplicii du- 
bitantes cogit : nam, majore commisso delicto, igni atque 
omnibus tormentis necat : leviore de causa, auribus desec- 
tis, ^aut singulis effossis oculis, domum remittit, ut sint rel- 
iquis documento et magnitudine pcense perterreant alios. 

5. His suppliciis celeriter coacto exercitu, Lucterium 
^Cadurcum, svunmae hominem audacia?, cum parte copiarum 
in Rutenos mittit : ipse in Bituriges proficiscitur. Ejus 
adventu Bfturiges ad iEduos, quorum erant in fide, legatos 
mittunt subsidium rogatum, quo facilius hostium copias sus- 
tinere possint. ^Edui '°de consilio legatorum, quos Caesar 
ad exercitum reliquerat, copias equitatus peditatusque sub- 
sidio Biturigibus mittunt. "Qui cum ad flumen Ligerira 


»enis8ent, quod Bituriges ab iEduis dividit, paucos dies ibi 
morati, neque flumen transire ausi, domum revertuntur, le- 
gatisque nostris renunciant, se Biturigum perfidiam veritos 
revertisse, quibus id consilii fuisse cognoverint, ut, si flumen 
transissent, una ex parte 'ipsi, altera Arverni se circumsis- 
terent. '^ld eane de causa, quam legatis pronunciarunt, an 
perfidia adducti fecerint, "quod nihil nobis constat, non vide- 
tur pro certo esse ponendum. Bituriges eorum discessu 
etatim se cum Arvernis conjungunt. 

6. ''His rebus in Italiam Caesari nunciatis, cum jam ille 
^urbanas res virtute Cneii Pompeii commodiorem in statum 
pervenisse intelligeret, in Transalpinam Galliam profectus 
est. Eo cum venisset, magna difiicultate afficiebatur, qua 
ratione ad exercitum pervenire posset. Nam, si legiones 
in ProArinciam arcesseret, se absente in itinere proelio dimi- 
caturas intelligebat : si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne 
iis quidem, ^qui eo tempore pacati viderentur, suam sabitem 
recte committi videbat. 

7. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus, in Rutenos missus, eam 
civitatem Arvernis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobriges et 
Gabalos, ab utrisque obsides accipit, et, magna coacta manu, 
in Provinciam, Narbonem versus, eruptionem facere con- 
tendit. Quare nunciata, ^Caesar omnibus consiliis antever- 
tendum existimavit, ut Narbonem proficisceretur. Eo cum 
venisset, timentes confirmat, praesidia in ^Rutenis proAdn- 
cialibus, Volcis Arecomicis, Tolosatibus, circumque Nar- 
bonem, quse loca erant hostibus finitima, constituit : partem 
copiarum ex Provincia supplementumque, quod ex Italia 
adduxerat, ^in Helvios, qui fines Arvemorum contingunt, 
convenire jubet. 

8. His rebus comparatis, '°represso jam Lucterio et re- 
moto, quod intrare intra praesidia periculosum putabat, in 
Helvios proficiscitur : etsi mons Cevenna, qui Arvernos ab 
Helviis discludit, "durissimo tempore anni, altissimanive iter 
impediebat : tamen discussa nive sex in altitudinem pedum 



atque ita viis patefactis, summo militum labore ad fines Ar- 
vernorum pervenit. Quibus oppressis inopinantibus, quod 
se Cevenna, iit muro, munitos existimabant, ac ne 'siiigu- 
lari quidem unquam homini eo tempore anni semita; patue- 
rant, equitibus imperat, ut, quam latissime possint, vagentur 
st quam maximum hostibus terrorem inferant. Celeriter 
hasc fama ac nunciis ad Vercingetorigem perferuntur : quem 
perterriti omnes Arverni circumsistunt, atque obsecrant, ut 
suis fortunis consulat, neu se ab hostibus diripi patiatur ; 
praesertim cum videat, omnc ad so bclhnn translatum. 
Quorum ille prccibus permotus, castra ex liitiuigibus mo^Tt 
in Arvernos versus. 

9. At Caesar, bidiumi in iis locis moratus, -'quod ha;c do 
Vercingetorige usu ventura opinione praeceperat, 'per cau- 
sam supplementi equitatusque cogendi ab exercitu discedit ; 
Brutum adolescentem iis copiis prfeficit ; hunc monet, ut in 
omnes partes equites quam latissime pervagentur : daturum 
se operam, ne longius triduo ab castris absit. His consti- 
tutis rebus, suis inopinantibus, quam ma.viaiis potest itineri- 
bus, Viennam pcrvenit. Ibi nactus ''recentem equitatum, 
quem muhis ante diebus eo prcemiserat, neque diurno neque 
nocturno itinere intermisso, per fines iEduonnn in Lingones 
contendit, ubi duae legiones hiemabant, ut, si quid etiam de 
sua sahite ab ^duis iniretur consilii, celeritate pra^curreret. 
Eo cum pervenisset, ad reUquas legiones mittit, priusque 
omnes in unum locum cogit, quam de ejus adventu Arvemis 
nunciari posset. Hac re cognita, Vercingetorix rursus in 
Bituriges exercitum reducit, atque inde profectus Gergo- 
viam, Boiorum oppidum, quos ibi Helvetico prcelio victos 
Csesar coUocaverat ^jEduisque attribuerat, ''oppugnare in- 

10. Magnam h<t?c res Ca^sari diflicidtatem 'ad consilium 
capiendum afferebat : si reliquam partem hiemis imo in 
loco legiones contineret, ne, ^stipendariis iEduorum expug- 
natis, cuncta Gahia deficeret, quod nulhim amicis in eo 


liraesidium \ ideret positmn esse : sin maturius ex hibeniis 
educeret, 'ne ab re frumcntaria, duris subvectionibus, labo- 
raret. Prasstare visum est tamen, omnes difEcultates per- 
peti, ^quam, tanta contumelia accepta, omnium suorum 
voluntates alienare. Itaque cohortatus ^duos Me suppor- 
tando commeatu, prasmittit ad Boios, qui de suo adventu 
doceant, hortenturque, ut in fide maneant atque hostium 
impetum magno animo sustineant. Duabus Agendici legi- 
onibus atque impedimentis totius exercitus relictis, ad Boios 

11. ^Altero die cum ad oppidum Senonum Vellaunodu- 
num venisset, ne quem post se hostem relinqueret, quo ex- 
peditiore re frumentaria uteretur, oppugnare instituit, idque 
biduo circumvallavit : tertio die missis ex oppido legatis 
de deditione, ^arma conferri, jumenta produci, sexcentos 
obsides dari jubet. Ea qui conficeret, Caium Trebonium 
legatum relinquit : ^ipse, ut quam primum iter faceret Ge- 
nabum Carnutum, proficiscitur, qui, tum primum allato nun- 
cio de oppugnatione Vellaunoduni, 'cum longius eam rem 
ductum iri existimarent, praesidium Genabi tuendi causa, 
quod eo mitterent, comparabant. Huc biduo pervenit ; cas- 
tris ante oppidum positis, diei tempore exclusus, in posterum 
oppugnationem differt, quaeque ad eam rem usui sint, milit- 
ibus imperat : ^et, quod oppidum Genabum pons fluminis 
Ligeris continebat, veritus, ne noctu ex oppido profugerent, 
duas legiones in armis 'excubare jubet. Genabenses, paulo 
ante mediam noctem silentio ex oppido egressi, flumen 
transire coeperunt. Qua re per exjJoratores nunciata, 
Caesar legiones, quas expeditas esse jusserat, portis in- 
censis, fntromittit, atque oppido potitur, perpaucis ex hos- 
tium numero desideratis, quin cuncti vivi caperentur, quod 
pontis atque itinerum angustia; multitudini fugam interrhi- 
serant. Oppidum diripit atque incendit, praedam miUtibus 
donat, exercitum Ligerim transducit atque in Biturignm 
fines pprvenit. 


12. Vercingetorix, iibi de Caesaris adventu cognovit, 'op- 
pugnutione destitit atque obviam Cassari proliciscitur. ^iUe 
oppidnm Noviodunum oppugnare instituerat. Quo ex op- 
pido cum legati ad eum venissent, oratum, ut sibi ignosceret 
suseque vitae consuleret ; ut celeritate reliquas res confice- 
ret, qua pleraque erat consecutus, arma 'conferri, equos pro- 
duci, obsides dari jubet. Farte jam obsidum transdita, 
''cum rcliqua administrarentur, centurionibus et paucis milit- 
ibus intromissis, qui arma jumentaque conquirerent, equi- 
tatus hostium procul visus est, qui agmen Vercingetorigis 
antecesserat. Quem simulatque oppidani conspexerunt. 
atque in spem auxilii venerunt ; clamore sublato arma 
capere, portas claudere, murum complere cccperunt. Cen- 
turiones in oppido cum ^ex significatione Gallorum novi 
aliquid ab liis iniri consilii intellexissent, gladiis destrictis 
portas occupaverunt, suosque omnes incolumes receperunt. 

13. Caesar ex castris equitatum educi jubet, prosliumque 
equestre "^committit : laborantibus jam suis Germanos equi- 
tes circiter quadringentos submittit, quos ab initio secum 
habere instituerat. Eorum impetum Galli sustinere non 
potuerunt, atque in fugam conjecti, multis amissis, se ad 
agmen receperunt : quibus profiigatis, rursus oppidani per- 
territi comprehensos eos, quorum opera plebem concitatam 
existimabant, ad Ceesarem perduxerunt, seseque ei dedidc- 
runt. Quibus rebus confectis, Cassar ad oppidum Avari- 
cum, quod crat maximum mimitissimumque in finibus Bitn- 
rigum atque agri fertilissima regione, profcctus est ; quod, 
eo oppido recepto, civitatem Biturigum se in potestatem 
redacturum confidebat. 

14. Vercingetorix, tot continuis incommodis Vellauno- 
duni, Genabi, Novioduni acceptis, suos ad concilium con- 
Tocat. Docet, " longe alia ratione esse lieHum gorendum, 
atque antea sit gestum : omnibus modis huic rei studenckim, 
ut pabulatione et commeatu l^omani prohibeantur : id esse 
fnrilc, quod equitatu ipsi abundent. et, auod 'anni •< mporo 


Bubleventur : pabulum secari non posse : necessario dis 
persos hostes ex aedificiis petere : hos oranes quotidie ab 
equitibus deleri posse. Praeterea salutis causa rei famili- 
aris commoda negligenda ; vicos atque aedificia incendi 
oportere 'hoc spatio, a Boia quoquo versus, quo pabuland. 
causa adire posse videantur. Harum ipsis rerum copiani 
suppetere, quod, quorum in finibus bellum geratur, eorum 
opibus subleventur : Romanos aut inopiam non laturos, aul 
magno cumpericulo longius ab castris progressuros : ^neque 
interesse, ipsosne interficiant impedimentisne exuant, quib- 
us amissis bellum geri non possit. Praeterea oppida in- 
cendi oportere, quaj non munitione et loci natura ab omni 
sint periculo tuta ; ^neu suis sint ad detractandam militiam 
receptacula, neu ''Romanis proposita ad copiam commeatus 
praedamque tollendam. Hsec si gravia aut acerba videantur, 
multo illa gravius sestimare debere, liberos, conjuges in 
ser\dtutem abstrahi, ipsos interfici ; ^quae sit necesse accid- 
ere victis." 

15. Omnium consensu hac sententia probata, uno die 
amplius viginti urbes Biturigiun incenduntw. Hoc idem 
fit in reliquis ciAdtatibus. In omnibus partibus incendia 
conspiciuntur ; quae etsi magno cum dolore omnes ferebant, 
tamen hoc sibi solatii ^proponebant, explorata victoria, ce- 
leriter amissa recuperaturos. Deliberatur de Avarico in 
communi concilio, incendi placeret, an defendi. Procum- 
bunt omnibus Gallis ad pedes Bituriges, " ne pulcherrimam 
prope totius Galliae urbem, quas et praesidio et ornamento 
sit civitati ; suis manibus succendere cogerentur ; facile se 
loci natura defensuros" dicunt, "quod, prope ex omnibus 
partibus ''fiumine et pahide circumdata, unum habeat et 
perangustum aditum." Datur petentibus venia, dissuadente 
primo Vercingetorige, post concedente et precibus ipsoiura 
et misericordia vulgi. Defensores oppido idonei deliguntur. 

16. Vercingetorix minoribus Cessarem itineribus subseq- 
uitur, et locum castris dehgit, paludibus silvisque munitum, 



ab A\'arico longe millia pasauum sexdecim. Ibi 'per certos 
exploratores in smgula diei tempora, quae ad Avaricum 
agerentur, cognoscebat, et, quid fieri vellet, imperabat : 
omnes nostras pabulationes frumentationesque observa- 
bat, dispersosque, cum longiiis necessario procederent, 
adoriebatur, magnoque incommodo afficiebat : etsi, quantun.- 
ratione provideri poterat, ab nostris occurrebatur, ut ^ince 
tis temporibus diversisque itineribus iretur. 

17. Castris ad eam partem oppidi positis, 'Caesar, qure 
intermissa a flumine et palude aditum, ut supra diximus 
angustum habebat, aggerem apparare, vineas agere, turres 
duas constituere coepit : nam circumvallare loci natura pro- 
hibebat. De re frumentaria Boios atque iEduos adhortari 
non destitit : quorum ''alteri, quod nuUo studio agebant, non 
mi Itum adjuvabant ; alteri non magnis facultatibus, quod 
civitas erat exigua et infirma, celeriter, quod habuerunt, 
consumserunt. Summa difficultate rei frumentariae ^afFecto 
exercitu, tenuitate Boiorum, indiligentia ^duorum, incen- 
diis fEdiliciorum, usque eo, ut comphires dies milites fru- 
mento caruerint, "et, pecore e longinquioribus vicis adacto, 
extremam famcm sustentarent, nulla tamen vox est ab iis 
audita, Fopuli Romani majestate et superioribus victoriis 
indigna. Quin etiam 'Cassar cum in opcre singulas legio- 
nes appellaret, et, si acerbius inopiam ferrent, se dimissu- 
rum oppugnationem diceret ; ^universi ab eo, " ne id face- 
ret," petebant : " sic se comphires annos illo imperante 
meruisse, ut nullani ignominiam acciperent, nunquam iu- 
fecta re discederent : hoc se ignominiae laturos loco, si in- 
ceptam oppugnationem rehquissent : prsestare, omnes per- 
ferre acerbitates, 'quam non civibus Romanis, qui '"Genabi 
perfidia Gallorum interissent, parentarent." Haec eadem 
centurionibus tribunisque mihtum mandabant, ut per eos ad 
CEesarem deferrentur. 

18. Cuin jam inuro turres appropinquassent, ex captivis 
Csesar cognovit, Vercingetorigem consumto pabulo castra 


movisse propius Avaricuin, atquc ipsum cum equitatu expe- 
ditisque, qui inter equites proeliari consuessent, insidiarum 
causa eo profectum, quo nostros postero die pabulatum ven- 
turos arbitraretur. Quibus rebus cognitis, media nocte 
silentio profectus, ad hostium castra mane pervenit. IUi, 
celeriter per exploratores adventu Caesaris cognito, carros 
impedimentaque sua 'in arctiores silvas abdiderunt, copias 
omnes in loco edito atque aperto instruxerunt. Qua re 
nunciata, Cassar celeriter sarcinas conferri, arma expediri 

1 9. Collis erat leniter ab infimo acclivis : hunc ex om- 
nibus fere partibus pahis difficihs atque impedita cingebat, 
non latior pedibus quinquaginta. Hoc se colle, interrupti» 
pontibus, Galli fiducia loci continebant, ^generatimque dis- 
tributi in civitates, ^omnia vada ac saltus ejus paludis certis 
custodiis obtinebant, sic animo parati, ut, si eam paludera 
Romani perrumpere conarentur, ''haesitantes premerent ex 
loco superiore : ^ut, qui propinquitatem loci vaderet, paratos 
prope aequo Marte ad dimicandum existimaret ; qui iniqui- 
tatem conditionis perspiceret, inani simulatione sese osten- 
tare cognosceret. Indignantes milites Caesar, quod con- 
spectum suum hostes ferre possent, tantulo spatio interjecto, 
et signum proelii exposcentes, edocet, *" quanto detrimento 
et quot virorum fortium morte necesse sit constare Adcto- 
riam : quos cum sic animo paratos videat, ut nuUum pro sua 
laude periculum recusent, summaj se iniquitatis condemnari 
debere, nisi eorum vitam sua sahite habeat cariorem." Sic 
mihtes consolatus, eodem die reducit in castra ; rehquaque, 
quae ad oppugnationem oppidi pertinebant, administrare in 

20. Vercingetorix, cum ad suos redisset, proditionis in 
simulatus, ''quod castra propius Romanos movisset, quod 
cum omni equitatu discessisset, quod sine imperio tantas 
copias rehquisset, quod ejus discessu Romani tanta oppor- 
lunitate et celeritate venis&ent ; non hsec omnia fortuito au' 


sine consilio accidere potuisse ; regnum illum Galliae malle 
Cassaris concessu, quam ipsorum habere beneficio : tali 
modo accusatus ad hsec respondit : " Quod castra movisset, 
factum inopia pabuli, etiam ipsis hortantibus : quod propius 
Romanos accessisset, persuasum loci opportunitate, qui se 
ipsum 'munitione defcnderet : equitum vero operam neque 
in loco palustri desiderari debuisse, et illic fuisse utilem, 
quo sint profecti : summam imperii se consulto nulli disce- 
dentem tradidisse, ne is muUitudinis studio ad dimicandum 
impelleretur ; ^cui rei propter anirai mollitiem studere omnes 
videret, quod diutius laborem ferre non possent. 'Romani 
si casu intervenerint, fortunse ; si alicujus indicio vocati, 
huic habendam gratiam, quod et paucitatem '*eorum ex loco 
superiore cognoscere, et virtutem despicere, potuerint, qui, 
dimicare non ausi, turpiter se in castra receperint. Im- 
perium se ab Cassare per proditionem nullum desiderare, 
quod habere victoria posset, ques jam csset sibi atque omni- 
bus Gallis explorata : ^quin etiam ipsis remittere, si sibi 
magis honorem tribuere, quam ab se salutem accipere vi- 
deantur. Haec ut intelligatis," inquit, " a me sincere pro- 
nunciari, audite Romanos milites." Producit ^servos, quos 
in pabulatione paucis ante diebus exceperat et fame vincu- 
lisque excruciaverat. Hi, jam ante edocti, quae interrogati 
pronunciarent, " milites se esse legionarios" dicunt : " fame 
et inopia adductos clam ex castris exisse, si quid fmmenti 
aut pecoris in agris reperire possent : simili omnem exer- 
citum inopia premi, nec jam vires sufficere cuiquam, nec 
ferre "operis laborem posse : itaqiie statuisse imperatorem, 
si nihil in oppugnatione oppidi profecisset, triduo exercitiim 
deducere. H<ec," inquit, " a me," Vercingetorix, " bene- 
ficia habetis, quem proditionis insimulatis, cujus opera sine 
vestro sanguine tantum exercitum victorem fame paene con- 
sumtum videtis ; querri, turpiter se ex hac fuga recipien- 
tem, ne qua civitas suis finibus recipiat, a me provisum est.'' 
21. Conclamat omnis multitudo. et suo more ^armis con- 


crepat ; quod facere in eo consuerunt, cujus orationem ap 
probant ; summuin esse Vercingetorigem ducem, nec do 
ejus fida dubitandum ; nec 'majore rationc bellum adminis- 
trari posse. Statuunt, ut decem millia hominum delecta ex 
omnibus copiis in oppidum submittantur, nec solis Bimrigi- 
bus communem salutem committendam censent ; 'quod 
penes eos, si id oppidum retinuissent, summam victoriae 
constare intelligebant. 

22. ^Singulari militum nostrorum virtuti consilia cujusque 
modi Gallorum occurrebant, '*ut est summae genus solertiae 
atque ad omnia imitanda atque efiicienda, quae ab quoque 
tradantur, aptissimum. Nam et ^laqueis falces avertebant, 
^quas cum destinaverant, tormentis introrsus reducebant ; 
et "aggerem cuniculis subtrahebant, eo scientius, quod apud 
eos ^magnae sunt ferrariae, atque omne genus cuniculorum 
notum atque usitatum est. ^Totum autem murum ex omni 
parte turribus contabulaverant, atque has '"coriis intexerant. 
Tum crebris diurnis noctumisque eruptionibus aut "aggeri 
ignem inferebant, aut milites occupatos in opere adorieban- 
tur ; '^et nostrarum turrium altitudinem, quantum has '^quo- 
tidianus agger expresserat, commissis suarum turrium malis, 
adaequabant ; et '^apertos cuniculos praeusta et praeacuta 
materia et pice fervefacta et maximi ponderis saxis mora- 
bantur, moenibusque appropinquare prohibebant. 

23. Muris autem omnibus Gallicis haec fere forma est. 
'^Trabes directae, perpetuae in longitudinem, '^paribus inter- 
vallis distantes inter se binos pedes, in solo collocantur ; 
"hae revinciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur. Ea 
autem, quae diximus, '^intervalla grandibus in fronte saxis 
effarciuntur. His collocatis et coagmentatis alius insuper 
ordo adjicitur, ut '^idem illud intervallum servetur, neque 
mter se contingant trabes, ^"sed, paribus intermissis spatiis, 
gingidae singulis saxis interjectis, arcte contineantur. Sic 
deinceps omne opus contexitur, dum justa muri altitudo 
expleatur. ^'Hoc cum in speciem varietatemque opus de- 




forme nou est, alternis trabibus ac saxis, quae rectis lineis 
suos ordines servant ; tum ad utilitatem et defensionem ur- 
bium summam habet opportunitatem ; 'quod et ab incendio 
apis et ab ariete materia defendit, quae, ^perpetuis trabibus 
pedes quadragenos plerumque introrsus revincta, neque per- 
nunpi, neque distrahi potest. 

24. lis tot rebus impedita oppugnatione, milites, cum toto 
temporc luto, frigore, et assiduis imbribus tardarentur, tamen 
continenti labore omnia liaec superaverunt, et diebus viginti 
quinque aggerem, latum pedes trecentos et triginta, altum 
pedes octoginta, exstruxerunt. Cum is murum hostium 
paene contingeret, et CEesar ad opus consuetudine excubaret 
militesque cohortaretur, ne quod omnino tempus ab opere 
intermitteretur : paulo ante tertiam vigiliam est animadver- 
sum, fumare aggerem, quem cuniculo hostes succenderant : 
eodemque tempore toto muro clamore sublato, duabus portis 
ab utroque latere turrium eruptio fiebat. Alii faces atque 
aridam materiem de muro in aggerem eminus jaciebant, 
'picem reliquasque res, quibus ignis excitari potesr, funde- 
bant, ^ut, quo primum occurreretur, aut cui rei ferretur aux • 
ilium, vix ratio iniri posset. Tamen, quod ^instituto Cae- 
saris duae semper legiones pro castris excubabant, plures- 
que partitis temporibus erant in opere, celeriter factum est, 
ut alii eruptionibus resisterent, aUi ^turres reducerent, ag- 
geremque interscinderent, omnis vero ex castris muhitudo 
ad restinguendmn concurreret. 

25. Cum in omnibus locis, consumta jam reUqua parte 
noctis, pugnaretur, semperque hostibus spes victorias redin- 
tegraretur ; eo magis, ^quod deustos pluteos tunium vide- 
bant, *nec facile adire apertos ad auxihandum animum ad- 
vertebant, semperque ipsi recentes defessis succederGiit, 
omnemque Galliae salutem in illo vestigio temporis positam 
arbitrarentur : accidit, inspectantibus nobis, quod, Mig- 
num memoria \dsum, prcetermittendum non existimavimus. 
Quidam ante portam oppidi GaHus, q-ui '"per manus sevi ac 


picis traasditas glebas in ignem e regione turris projiciebat, 
scorpione ab latere dextro transjectus exanimatusque con- 
cidit. Hunc ex proximis unus jacentem 'transgressus, 
eodem illo munere fungebatur : eadem ratione ictu scorpi- 
onis exanimato altero, successit tertius et tertio quartus ; 
nec prius ille est a ^propugnatoribus vacuus relictus locus, 
quain, ^restincto aggere atque omni parte submotis hostibus, 
finis est pugnandi factus. ^ . 

26. Omnia experti Galli, quod res nulla successerat, 
postero die consilium ceperunt ex oppido ''profugere, hor- 
tante et jubente Vercingetorige. Id, silentio noctis conati, 
non magna jactura suorum sese effecturos sperabant, prop- 
terea quod neque longe ab oppido castra Vercingetorigis 
aberant, et palus perpetua, quae intercedebat, Romanos ad 
msequendum tardabat. Jaraque hoc facere noctu appara- 
bant, cum matres familiae repente in publicum procurrerunt 
flentesque, projectae ad pedes suorum, omnibus precibus 
petierunt, ne se et communes liberos hostibus ad suppHcium 
dederent, quod ad capiendam fugam ^naturae et virium infir- 
mitas impediret. Ubi eos in sententia perstare viderimt, 
quod plcrumque in summo periculo timor ^misericordiara 
non recipit, conclamare et significare de fiiga Romanis 
coeperunt. Quo timore perterriti Galli, ne ab equitatu Ro- 
manorum vice praeoccuparentur, consiUo destiterunt. 

27. Postero die Caesar, promota turri, "directisquc operi- 
bus, quas facere instituerat, magno coorto imbri, ^non inuU- 
Jem hanc ad capiendum consilium tempestatem arbitratus, 
quod paulo incautius custodias in muro dispositas videbat, 
suos quoque languidius in opere versari jussit, et, quid fieri 
vellet, ostendit. Legiones ^intra vineas in occuUo '"expe- 
ditas cohortatur, ut aliquando pro tantis laboribus fructum 
victoriae perciperent : his, qui primi murum ascendissent, 
"praemia proposuit, militibusque signum dedit. IUi subito 
ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt, murumque celeriter com- 
plev erunt 


28. Hostes, rc nova perterriti, muro turribusque dejocti, 
in foro ac locis patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt, hoc 
animo, ut, si qua ex parte 'obviam veniretur, ^acie instructa 
depugnarent. Ubi nemincm in aequum locum sese demit- 
tere, sed toto undique muro circumfundi viderunt, veriti, ne 
omnino spes fuga; toUeretur, abjectis armis, ultimas oppidi 
partes ''continenti impetu petiverunt : parsque ibi, ''cum an- 
gusto portarum exitu se ipsi premerent, a militibus ; pars, 
jam egressa portis, ab equitibus est interfecta : nec fuit 
quisquam, qui prsedae studeret. Sic et ^Genabensi caede et 
labore operis incitati, non aetate confectis, non mulieribus, 
non infanlibus pepercerunt. Denique ex omni eo numero, 
qui fuit circiter quadraginta millium, vix octingenti, qui 
primo clamore audito se ex oppido ejecerant, incolumes ad 
Vercingetorigem pervenerunt. Quos ille, multa jam nocte, 
silentio ex fuga excepit (veritus, ne qua in castris ^ex eorum 
concursu et misericordia vulgi seditio oriretur), ut, procul 
in via dispositis familiaribus suis principibusque civitatum, 
'disparandos deducendosque ad suos curaret, ^qua; cuique 
civitati pars castrorum ab initio obvenerat. 

29. Postero die concilio convocato consolatus cohorta- 
tusque est, " ne se admodum animo demitterent, neve per- 
turbarentur incommodo : non virtute, neque in acie vicisse 
Romanos, sed ^artificio quodam et scientia oppugnationis, 
cujus rei fuerint ipsi imperiti : errare, si qui in bello omnes 
secundos rerum proventus expectent : sibi nunquam pla- 
cuisse, Avaricum defendi, cujus rei testes ipsos haberet ; 
sed factum imprudentia Biturigum, et '"nimia obsequentia 
reliquorum, uti hoc incommodum acciperetur : id tamen se 
celeriter majoribus commodis sanaturum. Nam, quae ab 
reliquis Gallis civitates dissentirent, has sua diligentia ad- 
juncturum, atque unum consilium totius Galliae eifecturum, 
cujus "consensu ne orbis quidem terrarum possit obsistere ; 
idque se prope jam effectum habere. Interea aequum esse, 
ab iis communis sahitis causa impetrari, '^ut castra munire 



instiluereni, quo iaciiius lepcnlijios liostium inipetus susti< 
nere possent." 

30. Fuit htcc oratio non ingrata Galiis, maxime, quod 
ipso aninio non defecerat, tanto accepto incommodo, neque 
se in occultum abdiderat et conspectum multitudinis fugerat : 
'plusquc animo providere et praesentire existimabatur, quod, 
re iutogra, primo incendenduin Avaricum, post deserendum 
censuerat. Ilaque, ut reliquorum imperatorum res adversae 
auctoritatem minuunt, sic hujus ex contrario dignitas, in- 
coiinnodo accepto, in dies augebatur : simul in spem venie- 
baut, ejus afFirmatione, de reliquis adjungendis civitatibus, 
prinunn([ue eo tcmpore Galli castra munire instituerunt, et 
sic sunt animo consternati, honnnes 'insueti laboris, ut 
omnia, quae imperarentur, sibi patienda et perierenda exis- 

31. Nec minus, (iuaui est pollicitus, Vercingetorix animo 
laborabat, ut reliquas civitates adjungeret, atque earum 
principcs donis pollicitationibusque aliiciebat. Iluic rei 
idoncos liouiines deligebat, quorum quisque aut orationc 
subdola aut amicitia laciilinie capi posset. ^Qui Avarico 
oxpugnato refugerant, armandos vestiendosque curat. Sim- 
ul ut demiuutte copioe redintegrarentur, imperat ''certum nu- 
mcrum militum civitatibus, quem, et quam ante diom in 
(^aslra adduci velit ; sagittariosque omnes, quorum erat per- 
inagnus in Gallia luunerus, conquiri et ad se mitti jubet. 
His rebus celeriter id, quod Avarici deperierat, expletiu". 
Interim ^Teutomarus, OUoviconis lilius, rex Nitiobrigum, 
cujus pater ab Senatu nostro amicus erat appellatus, cum 
magno equilum suorum numero, et quos ex Aquitania con- 
duxerat, ad eum pervcnit. 

32. Csesar, *'Avarici conipiures dies connnoratus, sum- 
niamque ibi copiam Irumenti et reliqu\ coinmeatus nactus, 
"exercitum cx laboro at(]^ue inopia refecit. Jam prope 
hieme confecta, cum ipso anni tempore ad gerendum bel- 
ium vocaretur et ad hostem proficisci constituisset, sive 


eum ex paludibas silvisque elicere, sive obsidioue premero 
posset ; legati ad eum principes iEduorum veniunt, oratum, 
" ut maxime necessario tempore civitati subveniat : summo 
esse in periculo rem ; quod, 'cum singuli raagistratus antiqui- 
tus creari atque regiam potestatem annum obtinere consues- 
sent, *duo magistratum gerant, et se uterque eorum legibus 
creatum esse dicat. Horura esse alterum Convictolitanem, 
florentem et illustrem adolescentem ; alterum Cotum, anti- 
quissima familia natum, atque ipsum hominem summse po- 
tentiae et magnae cognationis ; cujus frater Valetiacus prox- 
imo anno eundem magistratum gesserit : civitatem omnem 
esse in armis, divisura senatum, divisum populmn ; ''suas 
cujusque eorum clientelas. Quod si diutius alatur contro- 
versia, fore, uti pars cum parte civitaUs confligat ; id ne ac- 
cidat, positura in ejus diligentia atque auctoritate." 

33. Caesar, etsi a bello atque hoste discedere Metrimen- 
tosum esse existimabat, tamen non ignorans, quanta ex dis- 
sensionibus incommoda oriri consuessent, ne tanta et tam 
conjuucta Populo Romano civitas, quara ipse semper alu- 
isset, omnibusque rebus ornasset, ad vim atque ad arma 
descenderet, atque ^ea pars, quae minus sibi confideret, aux- 
ilia a Vercingetorige arcesseret, huic rei praevertendum ex- 
istimavit ; et quod legibus iEduorum his, qui summum 
magistratum obtinerent, excedere ex finibus non liceret, *ne 
quid de jure aut de legibus eorura derainuisse videretiir, 
ipse in ^Eduos proficisci statuit, senaturaque oranem, et 
quos inter controversia esset, ad se Decetiam evocavit. 
Cum prope omnis civitas eo convenisset, "docereturque, 
paucis clam convocatis, alio loco, aho tempore, atque opor- 
tuerit, fratrera a fratre ^enunciatura, cura leges, duo ex una 
farailia, vivo utroque, non sokim raagistratus creari vetarent, 
sed etiara in senatu esse prohiberent : Cotum imperium 
deponere coegit ; ConvictoUtanem, ^qui per sacerdotes moro 
ci.vitatis, intermissis magistratibus, esset creatus, potestatem 
obtinere jussit. 

f> 'i 


34. Hoc decreto interoosito, cohortatus ^Eduos, ut con- 
controversiarum ac dissensionum obliviscerentur, atque, 
omnibus omissis his rebus, huic bello servirent, eaque, quae 
meruissent, pracmia ab se, devicta Gallia, expectarent, equi- 
tatumque omnem et peditum millia decem sibi celeriler 
mitlerent, 'quaj in praesidiis rei frumentaria; causa dispone- 
ret, exercitum in duas partes divisit ; quatuor legiones in. 
Senoues Parisiosque Labieno ducendas dedit ; sex ipse in 
Arvcrnos, ad oppidum Gergoviam secundum fkmien Elaver, 
duxit : equitatus partem ^illi attribuit, partem sibi reliquit. 
Qua rc cognita, Vercingetorix, omnibus interruptis ejus Ihi- 
minis pontibus, ^ab altera Elaveris parte iter facere coepit. 

35. ^Cum uterque utrique esset exercitus in conspcctu, 
fereque e regione castris castra poneret, dispositis explora- 
toribus, necubi effecto ponte Romani copias transdiicerent 
crat in magnis Cjesari diflicuUatibus res, ne majorem ajsta- 
tis partem flumine impediretur ; ^quod non fere ante autum- 
num Elaver vado transiri solet. Itaque, ne id accideret, 
silvestri loco castris positis, *'e regione unius eorum pontium, 
quos Vercingetorix rescindendos curaverat, postero dic cum 
duabus legionibus iu occuUo restitit ; reliquas copias cum 
omnibus iuipedimentis, ut consueverat, misit, 'captis quibus- 
dam cohortibus, uti nunicrus legionum constare vidcretur. 
His, quam longissime possent, progredi jussis, cum jam ex 
diei tenipore conjecturam caperet in castra perventum, 
^iisdem sublicis, quarum pars inferior integra remanebat, 
pontem reficere ccepit. Celeriter eflecto opere legionibus- 
que transductis, ct loco castris idoneo delecto, rcliquas 
copias revocavit. Vercingetorix, re cognita, ne contr.i 
suam voluntatcm dimicare cogeretur, magnis itineribus an- 

3G C;esar ex eo loco ^quintis castris (ilergovinm pcrvmit, 
equrstrique prtelio eo die levi facto, '"perspecto urliis situ. 
quse, posita in altissinio monte, omnes aditus difiiciles hahe- 
oat, "de expugnatione desperavit ; de 'jbsessione non pruta 


agendum constituit, quam rem frumentariam expedisset, 
At Vercingetorix, castris prope oppidum in monte posilis, 
mediocribus circum se intervallis separatim singularum 
civitatum copias collocaverat ; atque omnibus ejus jugi 
collibus occupatis, 'qua despici poterat, ^honibilem speciem 
praebebat : principesque earum civitatum, quos sibi ad con- 
silium capiendum delegerat, prima luce quotidie ad se jube- 
bat convenire, seu quid communicandum, seu quid adminis- 
trandum videretur : neque ullum fere diem intermittebat, 
quin equestri proelio, interjectis sagittariis, "quid in quoque 
esset animi ac virtutis suorum, periclitaretur. Erat e re- 
gione oppidi collis sub ipsis radicibus montis, egregie mu- 
nitus, atque ex omni parte circumcisus (quem si tenerent 
nostri, et aquas magna parte et pabulatione libera Yroliibituri 
hostes videbantur ; sed is locus praesidio ab iis non nimis 
firmo tenebatur) : tamen silentio noctis Csesar, ex castris 
egressus, prius quam subsidio ex oppido veniri posset, de- 
jecto praesidio, potitus loco, duas ibi legiones collocavit, fos- 
samque duplicem duodenum pedum a majoribus castris ad 
minora perduxit, ^ut tuto ab repentino hostium incursu etiam 
singuli corameare possent. 

37. Dum haec %d Gergoviam geruntur, Convictolitania 
iEduus, cui magistratum assignatum a Csesare demonstra- 
idmus, solicitatus ab Arvernis pecimia, cum quibusdam ado- 
iesce^ntibus ''colloquitur, quorum erat princeps LitaAdcus 
atque ejus fratres, araplissima familia nati adolescentes. 
Cum iis ^praemium communicat, hortaturque, " ut se liberos 
et imperio natos meminerint: unam esse ^duorum civita- 
tem. quae certissimam Galliae victoriam distineat ; ^ejus auc- 
toritate reliquas contineri ; qua transducta, locum consis- 
tendi Romanis in Gallia non fore : '"esse nonnullo se Cae- 
saris beneficio aff^ectum, sic tamen, ut justissimam apud 
eum causam obtinuerit : sed plus comrauni libertati tribuere . 
cur enim potius iEdui de suo jure et de legibus ad Caesarem 
"disceptatorem, quam Romani ad iEduos, veniant ?" Celer- 


iter adolrjscentibiis ct oratione niagistratus et prajmio de- 
ductis, cura se vel principes ejns consilii fore profiterentur 
ratio perficiendi quaerebatur, quod civitatem temere ad sus- 
cipiendum bellum adduci posse non confidebant. Placuit, 
uti Litavicus 'decem illis millibus, qufe Ca;sari ad bellum mit- 
terentur, praeficeretur, SiUue ea ducenda curaret, fratresque 
ejus ad CEesarem praecurrerent. Reliqua, qua ratione agi 
placeaf, constituunt. 

38. Litavicus, accepto exercitu, cura raillia passuum cir- 
citer triginta ab Gergovia abesset, convocatis subito milili- 
bus, lacrimans, " Quo proficiscimur," inquit, " milites ? 
Omnis noster equitatus, omnis nobilitas interiit : principes 
civitatis, Eporedirix et Viridomarus, insimulati proditionis, 
ab Romanis indicta causa interfecti sunt. Hagc ab iis cog- 
noscite, qui ex ipsa csede fugerunt : nam ego, fratribus at- 
que omnibus meis propinquis interfectis, dolore prohibeor, 
qus gesta sunt, pronunciare." Producuntur ii, quos ille 
edocuerat, qure dici veilet, atque eadem, quss Litavicus pro- 
nunciaverat, multitudini exponunt : " omnes equites yEduo- 
rum interfeclos, quod coliocuti cum Arvernis dicereutur; 
ipsos so inter multitudinem militum occultasse atque ex 
media cpede profugisse." ('onclamant jEdui, ct Litavicuui, 
ut sibi consulat, obsecrant. " Quasi vero,"' inquit illc, 
" consilii sit res, ac non necesse sit nobis Gergoviam con- 
tendere et cum Arvernis nosmet conjungere. An dubita- 
mus, ^quin, nefario facinore admisso, Romani jam ad nos 
interficiendos concurrarit ? Proinde, si quid est in nobis 
animi, perscquamur eorum mortem, qui indignissime inter- 
ierunt, atque hos latrones interficiamus." ^Osrendit cives 
Romanos, qui ejus praisidii fiducia ima erant. Coutinuo 
magnum numerum frumenti commeatusquc diripit, ipsos 
crudeliter excruciatos intcrflcit : nuncios tota civitate /Edu- 
orum dimittit, eodcm mendacio, dc caide equitum ei prmci- 
pum permovct ; hortatur, ut simili ratione. atque ipse fecerit. 
*suas iujurias persequantur. 

i.inER VII. c.Ar. XM. 101 

39. Eporedirix iEdiius, summo loco natus adolcscens et 
summae domi potentia?, et una Viridomarus, pari state et 
gratia, sed 'genere dispari, quem Caesar, sibi ab Divitiaco 
transditum, ex humili loco ad summam dignitatem perdux- 
erat, in equitum numero convcnerant, nominatira ab eo evo- 
cati. His erat inter sc de pnncipatu contentio. et in illa 
magistratuum controversia alter pro Convictolitane, alter 
pro Coto, summis opibus pugnaverant. Ex iis Eporedirix, 
cognito Litavici consilio, media fere nocte rem ad Cssarem 
defert ; orat, " ne patiatur, civitatem pravis adolescentium 
consiliis ab armcitia Populi Romani deficere, qnod futunnn 
provideat, sj ye tot hominum millia cum hostibus conjunxe- 
rint, "quoruni salutem neqne propinqui negligere, neque civ- 
itas levi momento aestimare posset." 

40. Magna afFectus solicitudine hoc nuncio Caesar, qnod 
semper ^duorum civitati proscipue indulserat, '^nulla inter- 
posita dubitatione legiones expeditas quatuor equitatumque 
omnem ex castris educit : nec fuit spatium tali tempore ad 
contrahenda castra, quod res posita in celeritate videbatur. 
Caium Fabium legatum cum legionibus duo castris prajsidio 
relinquit. Fratres Litavici cum comprehendi jussisset, 
paulo ante reperit ad hostes profugisse. Adhortatus milites, 
" ne necessario tempore itineris labore permoveantur," cu- 
pidissimis omnibus, progressus millia passuum viginti quin- 
que, agmen iEduorum conspicatus, ^immisso equitatu, iter 
eorum moratiir atque impedit, interdicitque omnibus, ne 
quemquam interficiant. Eporedirigem et Viridomarum, 
quos illi interfectos existiraabant, inter equites versari suos- 
que appellare jubet. lis cognitis et Litavici fraude per- 
specta, iEdui raanus tendere, Meditionem significare, et 
projectis armis mortem deprecari incipiunt. Litavicus 
*cum suis clientibus, quibus more Gallorum nefas est etiam 
in extrema fortuna deserere patronos, Gergoviam profugit. 

41. Caesar, nunciis ad civitatem ^duorum missis, "qui 
8U0 beneficio conservatos docerent, quos jure belli interfi- 


cere potuisset, tribusque horis noctis exercitui ad quietem 
datis, castra 'ad Gergoviam movit. Medio fere itinere 
^equites, ab Fabio missi, quanto res in periculo fuerit, ex- 
ponur.t ; summis copiis castra oppugnata demonstrant ; cum 
crebro integri defessis succederent nostrosque assiduo la- 
bore defatigarent, quibus propter magnitudinem castrorum 
perpetuo esset ^eisdeni in valio permanendum ; multitudine 
sagittarum atque omni genere telorum nuiltos ■^T.ilneratos : 
ad haec sustinenda magno iisui fuisse tormenta : Fabium 
discessu eorum, duabus relictis portis, obstruere ceteras, 
^pluteosque vallo addere, et se in posterum diem similem 
ad casum parare. His rebus cognitis, Cassar summo studio 
railitum ante ortum solis in castra pervenit. 

42. Dum ha;c ad Gergoviam geruntur, ^Edui, primis nun- 
ciis ab Litavico acceptis, nullum sibi ^ad cognoscendum 
spatiuni relinquunt. Impellit alios avaritia, alios iracundia 
et temeritas, quae maxime illi hominum generi est innata, 
ut levem auditionem haboant pro rc comperta. Bona civium 
Romanorum diripiunt, csedes faciunt, in servitutem abstra- 
hunt. ^Adjuvat rem proclinatam Convictolitanis, plebem- 
que ad furorem impellit, ut, facinore admisso, ad sanitatem 
pudeat reverti. Marcum Aristium tribunum militum, itcr 
ad legioncui facientem, Mata fide ex oppido Cabillono edu- 
cunt : idem facere cogunt eos, qui negotiandi causa ibi con- 
stiterant. Hos continuo in itinere adorti, omnibus impedi- 
mentis exuunt ; repugnantes diem noctemque obsident ; 
multis utrimque interfectis, majorem multitudinem ad arma 

43. Interim nuncio allato, omnes eorum milites in potes- 
tate Ca?saris teneri, concurrunt ad Aristium ; nihil publico 
factum consilio demonstrant ; ^quaistionem de bonis direptis 
decernunt ; Litavici fratrumque bona publicant ; legatos ad 
Caesarcm sui purgandi gratia mittunt. Ha;c faciunt ^recu- 
j)erandorum suorum causa : sed, contaminati facinorc et 
capti compendio ex direptis bonis, quod ea res ad rnultos 

LIBER Vir. CAP. XLV. 16^5 

pertinebat, et timore poenoe exterriti, consilia clam de bello 
inire incipiunt, civitatesque reliquas legationibus solicitant 
Quae tametsi Caesar intelligebat, tamen,quam mitissime pot- 
est, legatos appellat : '" nihil se propter inscientiam levi- 
tatemque vulgi gravius de civitate judicare, neque de sua in 
iEduos benevolentia deminuere." Ipse, majorem Galliae 
motum expeclans, ne ab omnibus civitatibus circumsistere- 
tur, consilia inibat, quemadmodum ab Gergovia discederet 
ac rursus ^omnem exercitum contraheret ; ne profectio, 
nata ab timore defectionis, similis fugae videretur. 

44. Hsec cogitanti 'accidere visa est facultas bene ore- 
rendae rei. Nam, cum minora in castra operis perspiciendi 
causa venisset, animadvertit collem, qui ab hostibus tene- 
batur, nudatum hominibus, qui superioribus diebus vix pra; 
multitudine cerni poterat. Admiratus quaerit ex perfugis 
causam, quorum magnus ad eum qujtidie numerus conflue- 
bat. Constabat inter omnes, quod jam ipse Ccesar per ex- 
ploratores cognoverat, ^dorsum esse ejus jugi prope aequum ; 
sed hunc silvestrem et angustum, qua esset aditus ad alte- 
ram oppidi partem : huic loco vehementer illos timere, nec 
jam aliter sentire, ^uno colle ab Romanis occupato, si alte- 
rum amisissent, quin paene circumvallati atque omni exitu 
et pabulatione interclusi viderentur : ad hunc muniendum 
locum omnes a Vercingetorige evocatos. 

45. Hac re cognita, Caesar mittit complures equitum tur- 
mas eo de media nocte : iis imperat, ut paulo tumultuosius 
omnibus in locis pervagarentur. ^Prima luce magnum nu- 
merum impedimentorum ex castris detrahi ''mulionesque 
cum cassidibus, equitum specie ac simulatione, collibus cir- 
cinnvehi jubet. His paucos addit equites, qui latius "osten- 
tationis causa vagarentur. Longo circuitu easdem omnes 
jubet peter^ regiones. Haec procul ex oppido videbantur, 
ut erat a Gergovia despectus in castra ; neque ^tanto spatio, 
certi quid esset, explorari poterat. Legionem unam '"eodem 
jugo mittit, et paulo progrcssam inferiore consiituit loco, 


silvisque occultat. Augetur Gallis suspicio; atque omnes 
'illo ad munitionem copiEe transducuntur. Vacua castra 
hostium Ceesar conspicatus, tectis ^insigTiibus suorum oc- 
cultatisque signis militaribus, ''raros miiites, ne ex oppido 
animadverterentur, ex majoribus castris in minora transdu- 
cit, legatisque, quos singulis legionibus prsefecerat, quid 
fieri vellet, ostendit : in primis monet, ut contineant milites, 
ne studio pugnandi aut spe prcedae longius progrediantur : 
quid iniquitas loci habeat incomraodi, proponit : hoc una 
celeritate posse vitari : ^occasionis esse rem, non proelii 
His rebus expositis, signum dat, ct ab dextera parte alio as- 
censu eodem tempore ^Eduos mittit. 

46. Oppidi murus ab planitie atque initio ascensus, ^recta 
regione, si nulhis anfractus intercederet, mille et ducentos 
passus aberat : "quicquid huic circuitus ad molliendum cli- 
vum accesserat, id spatium itineris augebat. At medio fere 
colle in longitudinem, ut natura montis ferebat, ex gTandi- 
bus saxis sex pedum murum, qui nostrorum impetum tarda- 
ret, "prasduxerant Galli, atque, inferiore omni spatio vacuo 
relicto, superiorem partem collis usque ad murum oppidi 
densissimis castris compleverant. Milites, dato signo, ce- 
leriter ad munitionem perveniunt, eamque transgressi, ^trinis 
castris potiuntur. Ac tanta fuit in castris capiendis celeri- 
tas, ut Teutomarus, rex Nitiobrigum, subito in tabernaculo 
opprcssus, ut meridie conquieverat, ^superiore corporis parte 
nudata, vulnerato equo, vix se ex manibus prasdantium mi- 
Hlum eriperet. 

47. '"Consecutus id, quod animo proposuerat, Csesar re- 
ceptui cani jussit, legionisque decimse, qua tum erat comi- 
tatus, signa constitere. At reliquarum milites legionum, 
uon exaudito tuba; sono, quod satis magna vallis intercede- 
bat, tamen ab tribunis militum legalisque, ut erat a Coesare 
praeceptum, "retinebantur : sed, elati spc celeris victoriae ct 
hostium fuga superiorumque temporum secundis prceliis, 
tiihil adeo arduum sibi existjmabant quod non virtuto con- 


sequi possent ; ncque prius fmem sequendi fecenint, quam 
muro oppidi portisque appropinquarent. Tum vero ex om- 
nibus urbis partibus orto clamore, qui longius aberant, rc- 
pentino tumultu perterriti, cum hostem intra portas esse ex- 
istimarent, sese ex oppido ejecerunt. Matres farailiae de 
muro 'vestem argentumque jactabant, et, ^pectoris tlne pro- 
minentes, passis manibus obtestabantur Romanos, ut sihi 
parcerent, neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne mulieribiis quid- 
em atque infantibus abstincrent. Nonnullse, de muris per 
manus demissre, sese militibus transdebant. Lucius Fabius, 
centurio legionis octavae, quem inter suos eo die dixisse 
constabat, excitari se 'Avaricensibus prsemiis neque com- 
missurum, ut prius quisquam murum ascenderet, ''tres suos 
nactus manipulares, atque ab iis sublevatus, murum ascen- 
dit. Eos ipse nirsus singulos ^exceptans, in murum extulit. 

48. Interim ii, qui ad alteram partem oppidi, ut supra de- 
monstravimus, ^mimitionis causa convenerant, primo exau- 
dito clamore, inde etiam crebris nunciis incitati, oppidaun ab 
Romanis teneri, prcemissis equitibus, magno concursu eo 
contenderunt. Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro 
consistebat, suorumque pugnantium numerum augebat. 
Quorum cum magna multitudo convenisset, matres familiae, 
quse paulo ante Romanis de muro manus tendebant, suos 
obtestari, et more Gallico passum capillum ostentare, li- 
berosque in conspectum proferre coeperunt. Erat Romanis 
''nec loco, nec numero, eequa contentio : simul, et cursu el 
"spatio pugna; defatigati, non facile recentes atque integros 

40. Csesar, cum iniquo loco pugnari hostiumque augen 
copias videret, 'prcsmetuens suis, ad Titum Sextium lega- 
tum, quem minoribus castris prsesidio reliquerat, mittit, ut 
cohortes ex castris celeriter educeret, et sub infimo colle ab 
dextro latere hostium constitueret : ut, si nostros loco de- 
pulsos vidisset, quo minus libere hostes insequerentur, ter- 


reret. Ipse paulum ex eo loco cum legione progressus, ubi 
constiterat, evcntum pugnse expectabat. 

50. Cum acerrimc cominus pugnaretur, hostes loco et 
numero, nostri virtute confiderent, subito sunt iEdui visi, 
'ab latere nostris apcrto, quos Cassar ab dextra parte alio 
asccnsu, manus distinendae causa, miserat. Hi ^similitudine 
annorum vehementer nostros perterruerunt : ac, tamelsi 
dextris humeris ^exertis animadvertebantur, quod insigne 
pacatis esse consuerat, tamen id ipsum sui fallendi causa 
mihtes ab hostibus factum existimabant. Eodem tempore 
Lucius Fabius centurio, quique una murum ascenderant, 
circumventi atque interfecti de muro praccipitantur. Mar- 
cus Petreius, ejusdem legionis centurio, cum portas ^exc'- 
dere conatus esset, a muUitudine oppressus ac sibi dcspe- 
rans, muUis jam vulneribus acceptis, manipularibus suis, 
qui ilhmi secuti erant, " Quoniam," inquit, " me una vobis- 
cum servare non possum, vcstra; quidcm certe vitiB prospi- 
ciam, quos cupiditatc gloria; adductus in pcricuhun doduxi. 
Vos, data facultate, vobis consulite." Simul in medios hos- 
tes irrupit, duobusquc inlerfectis, reUquos a porta paulum 
submovit. Conanlibus auxihari suis, " Frustra," inquit, 
" mese vita; subvenire conamini, quem jam sanguis viresque 
deficiunt : proinde hinc abite, dum est facultas, vosquc ad 
legionem recipite." Ita pugnans post paululum concidit, ''ac 
suis sahiti fuit. 

51. Nostri, cum undiquc premerentur, quadraginta sex 
centurionibus amissis, dejecti sunt loco : sed ^intolerantius 
Gallos insequentes legio decima tardavit, qua; pro subsidio 
paulo ffiquiore loco constiterat. Hanc rursus decimse tertiaj 
legionis cohortes "exceperunt, quee, ex caslris minoribus 
eductae, cum Tito Scxtio lcgato locum ceperant supenorem. 
liCgiones, ubi primum planitiem attigerunt, infestis contra 
liostes signis constiterunt. Vercingctorix ab radicibus collis 
suos intra munitioncs reduxit. Eo die militcg sunt paule 
minus septingcntis desidtirati. 


52. Postero die Caesar, concione advocata, " Temerita 
teni cupiditatemque militum reprehendit, quod sibi ipsi ju 
dicavissent, 'quo procedendum, aut quid agendum videretur, 
neque signo recipiendi dato constitisaent, neque a tribunis 
militum legatisque retineri potuissent : ^exposito, quid ini- 
quitas loci posset, quid ipse ad Avaricum sensisset cuni, 
sine duce et sine equitatu deprehensis hostibus, exploratam 
victoriam Mimisisset, nc parvum modo detrimentum in con- 
lentione propter iniquitatem loci accideret. ^Quanfo opere 
eorum animi raagnitudinem admiraretur, quos non castrorum 
munitiones, non altitudo montis, non murus oppidi tardare 
potuisset ; tanto opere licentiam arrogantiamque reprehen- 
dere, quod ^plus se, quam imperatorem, de victoria atque 
exitu rerum sentire existiraarent : nec minus se in milite 
modestiam et continentiam, quam virtutera atque animi mag- 
nitudinem desiderare." 

53. Hac habita concione, et ^ad extreraum oratione con- 
firmatis militibus, " ne ob hanc causam animo permoveren- 
tur, neu, quod iniquitas loci attulisset, id virtuti hostium trib- 
uerent :" 'eadem de profectione cogitans, quae ante sen- 
serat, legiones ex castris eduxit, aciemque idoneo loco con- 
stituit. Cum Vercingetorix nihilo magis in aequum locum 
descenderet, levi facto equestri proelio atque eo secundo, in 
castra exercitum ^eduxit. Cum hoc idem postero die fe- 
cissct, satis ad Gallicara ostentationem minuendam militum- 
que animos confirmandos factum existimans, in iEduos 
castra movit. Ne tura quidera insecutis hostibus, tertio die 
ad flumen Elaver pontem refecit, atque exercitum tranrduxit. 

54. Ibi a Viridomaro atque Eporedirige ^Eduis ^appel- 
latus, discit, cum omni equitatu Litavicura ad solicitandos 
iEduos profectum esse : opus esse, et ipsos antecedere ad 
confirmandam civitatem. Etsi muUis jam rebus perfidiani 
iEduorum perspectam habebat, atque '"horura disccssu ad 
maturari defec'ionem civitatis existimabat ; tamen eos le 
tincnios non censuit, ne aut inferre injuriam videretur, aut 



dare timoris aliquam siispicioncm. Discedentibushisbrev- 
iter sua in xEduos merita exponit : " quos et quam humiles 
accepisset, compulsos in oppida, 'multatos agris, omnibus 
ereptis copiis, imposito stipendio, obsidibus summa cum con- 
tumeiia extortis ; et quam in fortunam, -quamque in ampli- 
tudinem deduxisset, ut non solum in pristinum statum re- 
dissent, sed ^omnium tempcrum dignitatem et gratiam ante- 
cessisse viderentur." His datis mandatis, eos ab se dimisit. 

55. Noviodunum erat oppidum iEduorum, ad ripas Li- 
geris opportuno loco positum. '*Huc Csesar omnes obsides 
Galli<2, frumentum, pecuniam publicam, suorum atque cxer- 
citus impedimentorum magnam partcm contulerat : huc 
magnum numerum equorum, hujus belli causa in Italia atque 
Hispania coemtum, miscrat. Eo cura Eporedirix Virido- 
marusque venissent et de statu civitatis cognovissent, Lita- 
vicum '^Bibracte ab ^Eduis receptum, quod est oppidum 
apud eos maximae auctoritatis, Convictolitanem magistratum 
magnamque partem senatus ad eum convenisse, legatos ad 
Vercingctorigem de pace et amicitia concilianda publice 
missos : non prcstermittendum "tantum commodum existima- 
A'erunt. Itaque, interfectis Novioduni custodibus, quique eo 
negotiandi aut itineris causa convenerant, pecuniam atqne 
equos inter se partiti sunt ; obsides civitatum Bibracte ad 
magistratum deducendos curaverunt ; oppidum, quod ab so 
teneri non posse judicabant, ne cui esset usui Komanis, in- 
cenderunt ; frumenti quod subito potuerunt, navibus avexe- 
runt ; reliquum flvunine atque incendio corruperunt ; ipsi ex 
fmitimis regionibus copias cogere, precsidia custodiasque ad 
ripas Ligcris disponere, equitatumque omnibus locis, injici- 
endi timoris causa, ostentare cceperunt, "si ab rc frumentaria 
Romanos excludere possent. Quam ad spem multum eos 
adjuvabat, quod Liger ''ex nivibus creverat, ul omnino vado 
iion posse transiri viderctur. 

50. Qiiibus rebus cognitis, Cfinsar maturannum sibi cen 
Buit, -''si in perflcienrlis pontibiis periclitnndnm, u' 


priiis, qiiam essent majorcs eo coactee copiac, dimicaret 
Nam, ut commutato coiisilio iter in Provinciam converte- 
ret, 'id nemo tunc quidem necessario faciendum existima- 
bat, cum quod infamia atque indignitas rei et oppositus 
mons Cevenna viarumque diflicultas impediebat, tum max- 
ime, ^quod abjuncto Labieno atque iis legionibus, quas una 
miserat, vehementer timebat. Itaque, admodum magnis 
diurnis atque nocturnis itineribus confectis, contra omnium 
opinionem ad Ligerim pervenit; vadoque per equites in- 
vento, ^pro rei necessitate opportuno, ut brachia modo atque 
humeri ad sustinenda arma liberi ab aqua esse possent, dis- 
posito equitatu, qui vim fluminis refringeret, atque hostibus 
primo aspectu perturbatis, incolumem exercitum transduxit : 
frumentumque in agris et pecoris copiam nactus, repleto iis 
rebus exercitu, iter in Senonas facere instituit. 

57. Dum haec apud Cessarem geruntur, Labienus eo sup- 
plemento, quod nuper ex Italia venerat, relicto Agendici, ut 
esset impedimentis praesidio, cum quatuor legionibus Lute- 
tiam proficiscitur (id est oppidum Parisiorum, positum in 
insula fluminis Sequanse), Cujus adventu ab hostibus cognito, 
magnse ex finitimis civitatibus copiae convenerunt. Summa 
imperii transditur Camulogeno Aulerco, qui, prope confec- 
tus aetate, tamen propter singularem scientiam rei militaris 
ad eum est honorem evocatus. Is cum animum advertisset, 
Yerpetuam esse pakidem, quae influeret in Sequanam atque 
illum omnem locum magnopere impediret, hic consedit nos- 
trosque transitu prohibere instituit. 

58. Labienus primo vineas agere, cratibus atque aggere 
paludem explere atque iter munire conabatur. Postquam 
id ^difficilius confieri animadvertit, silentio e castris terlia 
vigilia egressus, eodem, quo venerat, itinere Melodunum 
pervenit. Id est oppidum Senonum, in insula Sequanae pos- 
itum, ut paulo ante Lutetiam diximus. Deprehensis navi- 
Ims circiter quinquaginta celeriterque conjunctis, atque eo 
militibus impositi", e* rei noAatate perterritis oppidanis quo- 


rum magna pars ad bellum erat cvocata, sine contentione 
oppido potitur. Refecto ponte, quem superioribus diebus 
liostes resciderant, exercitum transducit et secundo llumine 
ad Lutetiam iter facere ccepit. Hostes, re cognita ab iis 
qui a Meloduno profugerant, Lutetiam incendunt pontesque 
ejus oppidi rescindi jubent : ipsi 'profecti a palude, in ripia 
Sequanffi, e regione Lutetiaa, contra Labieni castra considunt. 

59. Jam Caesar a Gergovia discessisse audiebatur ; jam 
de ^duorum defectione et ^sccundo Gallise motu rumores 
afferebantur, Gallique in colloquiis, intcrclusum itinere et 
Ligeri Csssarem, inopia frumenti coactum, in Provinciam 
contendisse confirmabant. Bellovaci autem, defectione 
^duorum cognita, qui ante erant per se ^inlideles, manus 
cogere atque aperte bellum parare cceperunt. Tum Labie- 
nus, tanta rerum comnmtatione, longe aliud sibi capiendum 
consilium, atque antea senscrat, intelligebat : neque jam, 
ut aliquid acquireret, ''pi'®lioque hostes lacesseret ; sed ut 
incolumem exercitum Agendicum reducerct, cogitabat. 
Namque altera ex parte Bellovaci, quac civitas in Gallia 
•"^maximam habet opinionem virtutis, instabant ; alteram Ca- 
mulogenus parato atque instructo exercitu tencbat : tum 
legiones, a prasidio atque impedimentis interclusas, maxi- 
jnum flumen *^distinebat. Tantis subito difficultalibus ob- 
jectis, ab animi virtute auxilium petendum videbat. 

60. Itaque sub vesperum consilio convocato, coliortatus, 
ut ea, qu33 imperasset, diligenter industrieque administra- 
rent, naves, quas a Melodimo deduxerat, singidas equitibus 
Romanis attribuit, et, prima confecta vigilia, quatuor millia 
passuum secundo flumine silcntio progredi ibique se ex- 
pectari jubet. Quinque coliortes, quas minime firmas ad 
diraicandum csse existimabat, ^castris pra^sidio relinquit: 
quiuque ejusdem legionis reliquas de media nocte cum om- 
nibus impedimentis adverso flumine magno tumultu profi- 
cisci imperat. ''Conquirit etiam lintres : lias, magno sonitu 
remorum incitatas, in oandem ])artcm mittit. Ipse post 

LIUER VII. CAP. LXir. 171 

paulo, silentio egressus, cum tribus legionibus 'eum locum 
petit, quo naves appelli jusserat. 

61. Eo cum esset ventum, exploratores hostium, ut omni 
fluminis parte erant dispositi, inopinantes, quod magna sub- 
ito crat coorta tempestas, ab nostris opprimuntur : ^exerci- 
tus equitatusque, equitibus Romanis ^administrantibus, quos 
ei negotio praefecerat, celeriter transmittitur. Uno fere 
tempore sub lucem hostibus nunciatur, in castris Romanorum 
"•praeter consuetudinem tumultuari et magnum ire agmen 
adverso flumine, sonitumque remorum in eadeiji parte ex- 
audiri, et paulo infra milites na^dbus transportari. Quibus 
rebus auditis, quod existimabant tribus locis transire legi- 
ones, atque omnes, perturbatos defectione ^duorum, fugam 
parare, suas quoque copias in tres partes distribuerunt. 
Nam, et prsesidio e regione castrorum relicto, et parva 
manu ^Metiosedum versus missa, quae tantum progrederetur, 
quantum naves processissent, reliquas copias contra liabie- 
num duxerunt. 

62. Prima luce et nostri omnes erant transportati ct hos- 
tium acies cernebatur. Labienus, milites cohortatus, " ut 
suae pristinae virtutis et tot secundissimorum proeliorum me- 
moriam retinerent, atque ipsum Caesarem, cujus ductu 
saepenumero hostes superassent, praesentem adesse existi- 
marent," dat signum proelii. Primo concursu ab dextro 
cornu, ubi septima legio consisterat, hostes pelluntur atque 
in fugam conjiciuntur : ab sinistro, quem locum duodecima 
legio tcnebat, cum primi ordines hostium transfixi pilis con- 
cidissent, tamen acerrime reliqui resistebant, '^nec dabat 
suspicionem fugae quisquam. Ipse dux hostium Camuloge- 
nus suis aderat atque eos cohortabatur. At, incerto ctiam 
nunc exitu victoriae, cum septimae legionis tribunis esset 
nunciatum, quae in sinistro comu gererentur, post tergum 
hostium legionem ostenderunt signaque intulerunt. Ne eo 
quidem terapore quisquam loco cessit, sed circumvenii om- 
nes interfectique sunt. ''Eandem fortunam tulit Camuloge- 


nus. At ii, qui ])raesicIio 'contra castra Labieni erant relicti, 
cum prceliuni commissum audissent, subsidio suis ierunt 
coUemque ceperunt, neque nostrorum militum victorum im- 
petum sustinere potuerunt. Sic, cum suis fugientibus per- 
mixti, quos non silvae montesque texerunt, ab equitatu sunt 
interfecti. ^Hoc negotio confecto, liabienus revertitm" Agen- 
dicum, ubi impedimenta totius exercitus relicta erant : inde 
cum omnibus copiis ad Caesarem pervenit. 

G3. Defectione iEduorum cogTiita, bellum augetur. Le- 
gationes in omnes partes circummittuntur : quantum gi^atia, 
auctoritate, pecunia valent, ad solicitandas civitates nituntur. 
Nacti obsides, quos Csesar apud eos deposuerat, ^horum 
supplicio dubitantes territant. Petunt a Vercingetorige 
jSdui, ad se veniat, ''rationesque belli gerendi communicct. 
"^lve impetrata, contendunt ut ipsis summa imperii transda- 
rur ; ct, re in controversiam deducta, totius Galliae concilium 
Bibractc indicitur. Eodem conveniunt undique frequentes. 
'^Multitudinis suftragiis res permittitur : ad unum omnes 
Vercingetorigem probant imperatorem. Ab hoc concilio 
Remi, Lingones, Treviri afuerunt : '^illi, quod amicitiam 
Romanorum sequcbantur ; 'J'reviri, quod aberant k)ngius et 
ab Germanis premebantur : quas fuit causa, quare toto abes- 
sent bello et neutris auxilia mitterent. Magno dolore jEdui 
ferunt, se dejectos principatu ; queruntur fortuna; connnuta- 
tioncm, ®et Cff!saris in se indulgentiam rcquirunt ; neque 
tamen, suscepto bello, ^suum consilium ab reliquis separare 
audent. Inviti, summee spei adolescentes, Eporedirix et 
Viridomarus, Vercingetorigi parent. 

04. IUe imperat reliquis civitatibus obsides : '°denique ei 
rei constituit diem : h.uc cmnes equites, "quindccim millia 
numero, celeriter convcnire jubet : pcditatu, quem ante ha- 
buerit, se fore contentum dicit, neque fortunam tentaturum, 
aut in acie dimicaturum ; sed, quoniam abundet equitatu, 
perfacile esse factu, frumentationibus pabulationibusque Ro- 
nianos prohibere : sequo modo animo sua ipsi frumenta cor 


runipant ajdificiaque inccndant, qua rei familiaris jactura 
perpetuum imperium libertatemque se consequi videant. 
His constitutis rebus, jEduis Segusianisque, qui sunt fini- 
timi 'Provinciae, decem millia peditum imperat : huc addit 
equites octingentos. His praeficit fratrem Eporedirigis, bel- 
lumque inferre Allobrogibus jubet. Altera ex parte Gabalos 
proximosque pagos Arvernorum in Helvios, item Rutenos 
Cadurcosque ad fines Volcarum Arecomicorum depopulan- 
dos mittit. Nihilo minus clandestinis nunciis legationibus- 
que Allobrogas solicitat, '^quorum mentes nondum ab supe- 
riore bello resedisse sperabat. Horum principibus pecunias, 
civitati autem imperium totius povinciae pollicetur. 

65. ^Ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia cohortium 
duarum et viginli, quee ex ipsa coacta provincia ab Lucio 
Csesare legato ad omnes partes opponebantur. Helvii, sua 
sponte cum finitimis prffilio congressi, pelluntur, et_ Caio 
Valerio Donotauro, Caburi filio, principe civitatis com])luri' 
busquealiisinterfectis, intra oppida murosque compelluntur. 
Allobroges, crebris ad Rhodanum dispositis prsesidiis, magna 
cum cura et diligentia ^suos fines tuentur. Czesar, quod 
hostes equitatu superiores esse intelligebat, et, interclusis 
omnibus itineribus, nulla re ex Provincia atque Italia suble- 
vari poterat, trans Rhenum in Genuaniam mittit ad eas civ- 
itates, quas superioribus annis pacaverat, equitesque ab his 
arcessit, et levis armatura; pedites, qui inter eos procliari 
consueverant. Eorum adventu, quod minus idoneis equis 
utebantur, a tribunis railitum reliquisque. ^sed et equitibus 
Romanis atque ^evocatis, equos sumit, Germanisque dis- 

60. Interea, dum haec geruntur, hostium copiee ex Arver- 
nis, equitesque, qui "toti Gallise erant imperati, conveniunt. 
Magno horum coacto numero, cum Caesar in Sequanos per 
extremos Lingonum fines iter faceret, quo facilius subsidium 
Provinciae ferri posset, circiter millia passuum decem ab 
Romanis trinis castris Vercingetorix consedit : convocatis- 


que ad conciiium prpefectis equitum, " venisse tempus vio 
toriae," demonstrat : " fugere in Provinciam Roraanos Gal- 
liaque excedere : id sibi ad praesentem obtinendam liberta- 
tem satis esse ; ad reliqui temporis pacem atque otiura 
parum profici : majoribus enira coactis copiis reversuros, 
neque finem belli facturos. Proinde in agmine impeditos 
adoriantur. Si pedites suis auxiliura ferant 'atque in eo 
morentur, iter confici non posse ; si (id quod magis futurum 
confidat), relictis impedimentis, suae saluti consulant, et 
usu rerum necessariarum ^et dignitate spoliatum iri. Nam 
de equitibus hostium, quin nemo eorum progredi modo cxtra 
agmen audeat, ne ipsos quidera debere dubitare. Id quo 
majore faciant animo, ''copias se omnes pro castris habitu- 
rum, et terrori hostibus futurum." Conclaraant equites, 
" sanctissimo jurejurando confirmari oportere, ne tecto reci- 
piatur, ne ad libcros, ne ad parentes, ne ad uxorera aditum 
habeat, qui non bis per agmen hostium perequitarit." 

07. Probata re atque omnibus ad jusjurandum adactis, 
postero die in tres partcs distributo equitatu, ''duaj se acies 
ab duobus lateribus ostcndunt : -'^una a primo agmine iter 
impedire ccepit. Qua re nunciata, Ca;sar suum quoquo 
eqjitatum, tripartito divisum, contra hostem ire jubet. Pug- 
natur una tunc omnibus in partibus : consistit agmen : ira- 
pedimenta inter legiones recipiuntur. Si qua in parte nos- 
tri laborare aut gravius premi videbantur, '^eo signa inferri 
Cessar aciemque converti jubebat : quac res et hostes ad iu- 
sequendum tardabat et nostros ''spe auxilii confirmabat. 
Tandem ^Germani ab dextro latere, summum jugum nacti, 
hostes loco depcUunt ; fugientes usque ad ^flumen, ubi Ver- 
cingetorix cura pedestribus copiis consederat, perscquuntur, 
compluresque interficiunt. Qua re animadversa, reliqui, ne 
circumvenirentur, veriti, se fugos mandant. Omnibus locis 
fit ccedes : tres nobilissimi iEdui capti ad Ca^sarem per^bi 
cuntur : '°Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum 
Convictolitane proximis comiliis habuerat ; ct Cavarillus, 


qui post defectionem Litavici pedestribus copiis piacfuerat; 
et Eporedirix, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris iEdui cum 
Sequanis bello contenderant. 

68. Fugato omni equitatu, Vercingetorix copias suas, 'ut 
pro castris collocaverat, reduxit ; protinusque ^Alesiara, 
quod est oppidum Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit ; celeri- 
terque impedimenta ex castris educi et se subsequi jussit. 
Caesar, impedimentis in proximum coUem deductis, duabus- 
que legionibus prassidio relictis, secutus, quantum diei tem- 
pus est passum, circiter ''tribus raillibus hostium ex novis- 
simo agmine interfectis, altero die ad Alesiara castra fecit. 
Pcrspecto urbis situ, perterritisque hostibus, quod equitatu, 
^quo maxime confidebant, erant pulsi, adhortatus ad laborem 
inilites, Alesiam circumvallare instituit. 

69. Ipsum erat oppidum in coUe summo, admodum edito 
ioco, ut, nisi obsidione, expugnari posse non videretur. 
Cujus collis radices Muo duabus ex partibus flumina sublue- 
bant. Ante id oppidum planities circiter millia passuum 
trium in longitudinem patebat : reliquis ex oranibus parti- 
bus ''colles, mediocri interjecto spatio, pari altitudinis fasti- 
gio, oppidu.n cingebant. Sub muro, quee pars collis ad ori- 
entem solera spectabat, liunc omnera locum copiaj Gallorum 
compleverant, fossamque et 'maceriam sex in altitudinem 
pedum praeduxerant. ^Ejus munitionis, quae ab Roraanis 
instituebatur, circuitus undecim millium passuum tenebat. 
Castra opportunis locis erant posita, ibique ^castella viginti 
tria facta ; quibus in castellis interdiu stationes disponeban- 
tur, ne qua subito eruptio fieret : lifEC eadem noctu '"excu 
bitoribus ac firrais praesidiis tenebantur. 

70. "Opere instituto, fit equestre proeliura in ea planitie. 
quara fntermicsam coUibus tria millia passuura in longitudi- 
nera patere, supra deraonstravimus. Summa vi ab utrisque 
contenditur. Laborantibus nostris Csesar Germanos sub- 
mittit, legionesque pro castris constituit, ne qua subito irrup- 
tio ab hostiura peditatu fiat. Prssidio legionum addito, 


nostris ariiiiius augctur : liostes, in fugam conjecti, se ipsi 
multitudine impediunt 'atque angustioribus portis relictis 
coarctantur. Tum Germani acrius usque ad munitiones se- 
quititur. Fit magna cajdes : nonnulli, relictis equis, fossam 
transire et maceriam transcendere conantur. Paulum legi- 
ones Cicsar, quas pro vallo constituerat, promoveri jubet. 
Non minus, qui intra munitiones erant, Galli perturbantur ; 
"veniri ad se confestim existimantes, ad arma conclamant ; 
nonnulli perterriti in oppidum irrumpunt. Vercingetorix 
portas jubct claudi, ne castra nudentur. Multis interfectis, 
corapluribus equis captis, Germani sese recipiunt. 

71. Vercingetorix, priusquam munitiones ab Romanis 
perficiantur, consilium capit, omnem ab se equitatum noctu 
'dimittere. Discedentibus mandat, " ut suam quisque eorum 
civitatem adeat, omnesque, qui per a;tatem arma ferre pos- 
«int, ad bellum cogant ; sua in illos merita proponit, obtes- 
taturque, ut suse salutis rationem habeant, neu se, de com- 
rnuni libertate optime meritum, hostibus in cruciatura de- 
tlaat : quod si indiligentiores fuerint, millia liominura de- 
iecta octoginta una secura interitura dciiTOnstrat ; ''ratione 
inita, frumentum se exigue dierum triginta habere, sed paulo 
etiam longius tolerare posse parcendo." His datis manda- 
tis, qua erat nostrum opus "intcrmissum, secunda vigilia 
silentio cquitatum dimittit ; frumcntum omne ad se referri 
jubet ; capitis pcenam iis, qui non paruerint, constituit : 
pecus, cujus raagna erat ab Mandubiis compulsa copia, viri- 
tim distribuit ; frumentum parce et paulatim metiri instituit : 
copias oranes, quas pro oppido collocaverat, in oppidum re- 
cipit. His rationibus auxilia Gallite expectare et bellum 
administrare parat. 

72. Quibus rebus ex perfugis et captivis cognitis, Cssar 
hajc genera munitionis instituit. Fossam ''pedum viginti 
directis lateribus duxit, ut ejus fossEe solum tantundem pa- 
teret, quantum summa labra distabant. "Reliquas omnes 
nuimtiones ab ea ibssa pcdes quadringentos rcduxit : id hoc 

:' *:i^P!:pnii-i i'^:!']\WW:T^^WW^^mm&^] 2 




g "^^ 

ij,7>i,!;,^iilili •l-''^ 


-Aia Pim '^! r 


eoiisilio (quoniam tantum esset necessario spatiuni com- 
plexus, 'nec facile totum opus corona militimi cingeretur), 
ne de improviso aut noctu ad munitiones liostium multitudo 
adv^olaret ; aut interdiu tela in nostros, ^operi destinatos, 
conjicere possent. ''Hoc intermisso spatio, duas fossas, 
.■^uindecim pedes latas, eadem altitudine perduxit : quaruni 
mteriorem, campestribus ac demissis locis, aqua ex llumine 
derivata complevit. '^Post eas aggerem ac vallum duodecim 
pedum exstruxit ; huic loricam pinnasque adjecit, ^grandi- 
bus cervis erainentibus ad commissuras pluteorum atque 
aggeris, qui ascensum hostium tardarent ; et ^turres toto 
opere circumdedit, quaj pedes octoginta inter se distarent. 
73. Erat eodem tempore et "materiari et frumentari et 
tantas munitiones fieri necesse, Meminutis nostris copiis 
qua3 longius ab castris progrediebantur : ac nonnunquam 
opera nostra Galli tcntare, atqvse eruptionem ex oppido plu- 
ribus portis summa vi facere conabantur. Quare ad lia^c 
rursus opera addendum Ccesar p;itavit, quo minore numero 
militum munitiones defendi possert. Itaque truncis arbo- 
rum aut admodum firmis ramis ^abstisis, '"atque liorum de- 
libratis ac piseacutis cacuminibus, "peypetuse fossaj, quinos 
pedes altae, ducebantur. '^Huc illi stipites demissi ct ab in- 
fimo revincti, ne revelli possent, ab ramis e;?\inebant. Quini 
erant ordines, conjuncti inter se atque impucati ; '^quo qui 
intraverant, se ipsi acutissimis vallis indueba it. '''Hos cip- 
pos appellabant. Ante hos, obUquis ordinibus in ''^quincun- 
cem dispositos, '^scrobes trium in altitudinem pedum fodie 
bantur, paulatim angustiore ad infimmn fastigio. Huc terc- 
tes stipites, feminis crassitudine, ab summo prajacuti et 
prajusti, demittebantur ita, ut non amplius digitis quatuor ex 
terra eminerent : '^simul, confirmandi et stabiliendi causa, 
singuli ab infimo solo pedes terra exculcabantur : reliqua 
pars scrobis ad occultandas insidias viminibus ac virgultis 
integcbatur. Hujus generis octoui ordines ducti, ternos 
intor se pcdes distabant. '''Id rx simililudine floris lilium 


appellabant. Ante haec 'taleae, pedem longae, ferreis hamis 
infixis, totae in terram infodiebantur ; mediocribusque inter 
missis spatiis, omnibus locis disserebantur, quos stimulos 

74. His rebus perfectis, ^regiones secutus quam potutt 
sequissimas pro loci natura, quatuordecim millia passuum 
complexns, pares ejusdem generis munitiones, diversas ab 
Viis, contra exteriorem hostem perfecit, ut ne magna quidem 
muhitudine, si ita accidat 'ejus discessu, munitionum prae- 
sidia circumfundi possent : '*neu cum periculo ex castris 
egredi cogantur, dierum triginta pabulum frumentumqu(; 
habere omnes convectum jubet. 

75. Dum haec ad Alesiam geruntur, Galli, concilio *prin- 
cipum indicto, non omnes, qui anna ferre possent, ut cen- 
suit Vercingetorix, convocandos statuunt, sed certum nume- 
rum cuique civitati imperandum ; ne, tanta muhitudine con- 
fusa, nec moderari, nec discemere suos, nec ^frumentandi 
rationem habere possent. Imperant ^duis atque eorum 
clientibus, Segusianis, Ambivaretis, 'Aulercis Brannovici- 
bus, millia triginta quinque ; parem numermn Arvemis, ad- 
junctis Eleutetis Cadurcis, Gabalis, Velaunis, qui sub impe- 
rio Arvernorum esse consuemnt ; Senonibus, Sequanis, Bi- 
turigibus, Santonis, Rutenis, Carnutibus duodena millia ; 
Bellovacis decem ; totidem Lemovicibus ; octona Pictoni- 
bus et Turonis et Parisiis et Helviis ; Suessionibus, Am- 
bianis, Mediomatricis, Petrocoriis, Nerviis, Morinis, Nitio- 
brigibus quina millia, Aulercis Cenomanis totidem ; Atreba- 
tibus quatuor ; Bellocassis, Lexoviis, Aulercis Eburovici- 
bus terna ; Rauracis et Boiis triginta ; universis civitatibus, 
quse Oceanum attingunt, quaeque eorum consuetudine Ar- 
moricse appellantur (quo sunt in numero Curiosolites, Rhe- 
dones, Ambibari, Caletes, Osismii, ^Lemovices, Veneti, 
UnelU), sex. Ex his Bellovaci suum numerum non contu- 
lerunt, quod se suo nomine atque arbitrio cum Romanis 
bellum gesturos dicerent, neque cujusquam imperio obtem- 



perafuros : rogati tamen ab Commio, pro ejus nospitio bina 
millia miserunt. 

76. 'Hujus opera Commii, ita ut antea demonstravimus, 
fideli atque utili superioribus annis erat usus in Britannia 
Csesar : quibus ille pro meritis ^civitatem ejus immunem 
esse jusserat, ^jura legesque reddiderat, atque ipsi JMorinos 
attribuerat. Tanta tamen universae Galliae consensio fuit 
libertatis vindicandse, et pristinae belli laudis recuperandse, 
ut neque beneficiis, neque amicitiae memoria, moverentur ; 
omnesque et animo et opibus in id bellum incumberent, 
coactis equitum octo millibus et peditum circiter ducentis 
et quadraginta. "Haec in ^duorum finibus recensebantur 
numerusque inibatur : praefecti constituebantur : Commio 
Atrebati, Viridomaro et Eporedirigi, vEduis, Vergasillauno 
Arverno, consobrino Vercingetorigis, summa imperii trans- 
ditur. His delecti ex civitatibus attribuuntur, quorum con- 
silio bellum administraretur. Omnes alacres et fiduciee 
pleni ad Alesiam proficiscuntur : neque erat omnium quis- 
quam, qui aspectum modo tantse multitudinis sustineri posse 
arbitraretur ; pragsertim ^ancipiti prcelio, cum ex oppido 
eruptione pugnaretur, "foris tantae copiae equitatus peditatus- 
que cernerentur. 

77. At ii, qui Alesiae obsidebantur, "praeterita die, qua 
suorum auxilia expectaverant, consumto omni frumento, 
inscii, quid in iEduis gereretur, concilio coacto, de exitu 
fortunarum suarum consultabant. Apud quos variis dictis 
sententiis, quarum pars deditionera, pars, dum vires suppet- 
erent, eruptionem censebant, non praetereunda videtur ora- 
tio Critognati, propter ejus singularem ac nefariam crudeli- 
tatem. Hic summo in Arvernis ortus loco, et magnae hab- 
itus auctoritatis, " Nihil," inquit, " de eorum sententia 
dicturus sum, qui turpissimam servitutem deditionis nomine 
appellant ; neque hos habendos civium loco, neque ad con- 
cilium adhibendos, censeo. Cum iis mihi res sit, qui erup- 
tionem probant : quorum in consilio, omnium vestrum con- 


sensu, pristinee residere virtutis memoria videtur. Animi 
est ista moUities, non virtus, inopiam paulisper ferre non 
possc. Qui ultro morti offerant, facilius reperiuntur, quam 
qui dolorem patienter ferant. Atque ego hanc sententiam 
probarem ('nam apud me multum dignitas potest), si nuUam, 
praiterquam vitae nostrae, jacturam fieri viderem ; sed in con- 
silio capiendo omnem Galliam respiciamus, quam ad nos- 
trum auxilium concitavimus. Quid, hominum ^millibus oc- 
toginta uno loco interfectis, propinquis consanguineisque 
nostris animi fore existimatis, si paene in ipsis cadaveribus 
proelio decertare cogentur ? Nolite hos vestro auxilio ''ex- 
spoliare, qui vestraj salutis causa suum periculum neglexe- 
rint ; ''nec stultitia ac temeritate vestra, aut imbecillitate 
animi, omnem Galliam prosternere et perpetufe servituti ad- 
dicere. An, quod ad diem non venerunt, de eorum fide 
constantiaque dubitatis ? Quid ergo ? Romanos in illis 
ulterioribus munitionibus ^animine causa quotidie exerceri 
putatis ? Si ^illorum nunciis confirmari non potestis, omni 
aditu praesepto ; iis utimini testibus, appropinquare eoruni 
ajdventum ; cujus rei timore exterriti diem noctemque ia 
opere versantur. Quid ergo mei consilii est ? Facere, 
quod nostri majores, nequaquam pari bello Cimbrorum Teu- 
tonumque, fecerunt ; qui in oppida compulsi, ac simili inop- 
ia subacti, ''eorum corporibus, qui aetate inutiles ad belhira 
videbantur, vitam toleraverunt, neque se hostibus transdide- 
runt. Cujus rei ^si exemphim non haberemus, tamen hber- 
tatis causa institui etposterisprodipulcherrimurh judicarem. 
®Nam quid ilh simile bello fiiit ? '"Depopulata GalUa, Cim- 
bri, magnaque illata calamitate, finibus quidem nostris ah- 
quando excesserunt, atque alias terras petierunt ; jura, leges, 
agros, hbertatem nobis rehquenmt : Romani vero quid pet- 
unt ahud, aut quid vohmt, nisi invidia adducti, quos fama 
nobiles potentesque beUo cognoverunt, horum in agris civi- 
tatibusque considere, atque his seternam injungere servitu- 
tem ? Ncque enim unquam aha conditione bella gesserunt. 


Quod si ea, quae in longinquis nationibus geruntur, ignoratis, 
respicite finitimam Galliam, quae in provinciam redacta, 
jure et legibus commutatis, 'securibus subjecta, perpetua 
premitur servitute." 

78. Sententiis dictis, constituunt, ut, qui valetudine aut 
aetate inutiles sint bello, oppido excedant, atque omnia 
^prius experiantur, quam ad Critognati sententiam descen- 
dant : illo tamen potius utendum consilio, si res cogat atque 
auxilia morentur, quam aut deditionis aut pacis subeundam 
conditionem. Mandubii, qui eos oppido receperant, cum 
liberis atque uxoribus exire coguntur. Hi, cum ad muniti- 
ones Romanorum accessissent, flentes omnibus precibus 
orabant, ut se, in servitutem receptos, cibo juvarent. At 
Caesar, dispositis in vallo custodiis, ''recipi prohibebat. 

79. Interea Commius et reliqui duces, quibus summa 
imperii permissa erat, cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam per- 
veniunt, et, colle exteriore occupato, non longius mille pas- 
sibus ab nostris munitionibus considunt. Postero die equi- 
tatu ex castris educto, omnem eam ''planitiem, quam in lon- 
gitudinem tria millia passuum patere demonstravimus, com- 
plent, pedestresque copias paulum ab eo loco ^abductas in 
locis superioribus constituunt. Erat ex oppido Alesia de- 
spectus in campum. Concurritur, his auxiliis visis : fit gra-, 
tulatio inter eos, atque omnium animi ad lajtitiam excitantur. 
Itaque productis copiis ante oppidum considunt, et proximam 
fossam cratibus integunt atque aggere explent, seque ad 
eruptionem atque omnes casus comparant. 

80. Caesar, omni exercitu %d utramque partem munitio- 
num disposito, ut, si usus veniat, suum quisque locum teneat 
et noverit, equitatum ex castris educi et prnelium committi 
jubet. Erat ex omnibus castris, qua; summum undique 
jugum tenebant, despectus ; atque omnium militum intenri 
animi pugnee "proventum expectabant. Galli inter equites 
*raros sagittarios cxpeditosque levis armaturae interjcccrant, 
qui siiis cedentibus auxilio succurrerent, et nostrorum equi- 


tum impetus sustinerent. Ab his complures de improviso 
vulnerati proelio excedebant. Cum suos 'pugnae superiorea 
esse Galli confiderent et nostros multiludine premi viderent, 
ex omnibus partibus et ii, qui nuuiitionibus continebantur, 
*et ii, qui ad auxilium convenerant, clamore et ululatu suo- 
rum animos conlirmabant. Quod in conspectu omnium res 
gerebatur, neque recte ac turpiter factum celari poterat ; 
utrosque et laudis cupiditas et timor ignominiae ad virtutem 
excitabant. Cum a meridie prope ad solis occasum dubia 
victoria pugnaretur, Germani una in parte 'confertis turmis 
in hostes impetum fecerunt, eosque propulerunt : quibus iiu 
fugam conjectis, sagittarii circumventi interfectique sunt. 
Item ex reliquis partibus nostri, cedentes usque ad castra 
insecuti, sui coUigendi facultatem non dederunt. At ii, qui 
ab Alesia processerant, mcesti, prope victoria desperata, se 
in oppidum receperunt. 

81. Uno die intermisso, Galli, atque hoc spatio magno 
cratium, scalarum, "harpagonum numero effecto, media nocte 
silentio ex castris egressi, ad ^campestres munitiones acce- 
di nt. Subito clamore sublato, qua significatione, qui in op- 
pit obsidebantur, de suo adventu cognoscere possent, cra- 
tes projicere, fundis, sagittis, lapidibus nostros de vallo de- 
turbare, reliquaque, quae ad oppugnationem pertinent, ad- 
ministrare. Eodem tempore, clamore exaudito, dat tuba 
signum suis Vercingetorix atque ex oppido educit. Nostri, 
ut superioribus diebus suus cuique locus erat definitus, ad 
munitiones accedunt : fundis, ^libralibus, sudibusque, quas 
in opere disposuerant, ac 'glandibus Gallos perterrent. 
Prospectu tenebris ademto, multa utrimque vulnera accipi- 
untur ; complura tormentis tela conjiciuntur. At Marcus 
Antonius et Caius Trebonius, legati, quibus eae partes ad 
defendendum obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros premi intel- 
lexerant, iis auxilio ex ^ulterioribus castellis deductos sub- 

82. Duni longius ab munitione aberant Galli, ^plus mul 


titudine telonim proficiebant : posteaquam propius successe- 
runt, aut se ipsi stimulis inopinantes induebant, aut in scrob- 
es delapsi transfodiebantur, aut ex vallo ac turribus trans- 
jecti 'pilis muralibus interibant. Rlultis undique vulneiibus 
acceptis^ nulla munitione perrupta, cum lux ^appeteret, ver- 
iti, ne ab latere aperto ex superioribus castris eruptione 
circumvenirentur, se ad suos receperunt. At ^interiores, 
dum ea, quae a Vercingetorige ad eruptionem praeparata 
erant, proferunt, priores fossas explent ; diutius in iis rebus 
administrandis morati, prius suos discessisse cognoverunt, 
quam munitionibus appropinquarent. Ita, re infecta, in op- 
pidum reverterunt. 

83. Bis magno cum detrimento repulsi Galli, quid agant, 
consulunt : locorum peritos adhibent : ab his ^superiorum 
castrorum situs munitionesque cognoscunt. Erat a septen- 
trionibus coUis, quem propter magnitudinem circuitus opere 
circumplecti non potuerant nostri, necessarioque ^paene ini- 
quo loco et leniter declivi castra fecerant. Haec Caius An- 
tistius Reginus et Caius Caninius Rebilus, legati, cum dua- 
bus Icgionibus obtinebant. Cognitis per exploratorcs regi- 
onibus, duces hostium scxaginta millia ex omni numero de- 
ligunt earum civitatum, quaj maximam virtutis opinionem 
habebant ; quid quoque pacto agi placeat, occulte inter se 
constituunt ; adeundi tempus definiunt, cum meridies esse 
videatur. lis copiis ^Vergassillaunum Arvernum, unum ex 
quatuor ducibus, propinquum Vercingetorigis, praeficiunt. 
Ille ex castris prima vigilia egressus, prope confecto sub 
lucem itinere, post montem se occultavit, militesque ex 
nocturno labore sese reficere jussit. Cum jam meridies 
appropinquare videretur, ad ea castra, quae supra demou- 
stravimus, contendit : eodcmque tempore equitatus ad cam- 
pestres munitiones accedere et reliquae copiae pro castris 
sese ostendere coeperunt. 

84. Vercingetorix ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus, ex 
oppido egroditur ; ''a castris longurios, musculos, falcos rcl- 


iquaque, quae eruptionis causa paraverat, profert. Pugnatur 
uno tempore omnibus locis acriter, atque 'omnia «entantur : 
qua minime visa pars firma est, liuc concurritur. Romano- 
rum manus tantis munitionibus distinetur, nec facile pluribus 
locis occurrit. Multum ad terrendos nostros valuit clamor, 
qui post tergum pugnantibus extitit, ^quod suum periculum 
in aliena vident virtute constare : omnia exiim plerumque, 
quae absunt, vehementius hominum mentes perturbant. 

85. Caesar idoneum locum nactus, quid quaque in parte 
geratur, cognoscit, laborantibus auxUium submittit. ^Utris- 
que ad animum occurrit, unum illud esse tempus, quo max- 
ime contendi conveniat. Galli, nisi perfregerint munitiones, 
de omni salute desperant : Romani, ''si rem obtinuerint, 
finem laborum omnium expectant. Maxime ad superiores 
munitiones laboratur, quo Vergasillaunum missum demon- 
stravimus. "Exiguum loci ad declivitatem fastigium mag- 
num habet momentum. Alii tela conjiciunt ; alii testudine 
facta subeunt ; defatigatis in vicem integri succedunt. 
^Agger, ab universis in munitionem conjectus, et ascensum 
dat Gallis, et 'ea, quae in terram occultaverant Romani, 
contegit : nec jam arma nostris, nec vires suppetunt. 

86. His rebus cognitis, Ceesar Labienum cum cohortibus 
sex subsidio laborantibus mittit : imperat, si sustinere non 
possit, ^deductis cohortibus eruptione pugnet : id, nisi ne- 
cessario, ne faciat. Ipse adit reliquos ; cohortatur, ne la- 
bori succumbant ; omnium superiorum dimicationum fruc- 
tum in eo die atque hora docet consistere. Interiores, de- 
speratis campestribus locis propter magnitudinem munitio- 
num, ®loca praerupta ex ascensu tentant : huc ea, quae para- 
verant, conferunt : multitudine telorum ex turribus propug- 
nantes deturbant : '°aggere et cratibus fossas explent, aditus 
expediunt : falcibus vallum ac loricam rescindunt. 

87. Caesar mittit primo Brutum adolescentem cum co> 
hortibus sex, post cum aliis septem Caium Fabium legatum : 
po^* worxo ;psc, cum vehementius pugnarent, integros sub- 


sidio adducit. Restituto prcjelio ac repulsis hostibus, eo, 
quo Labienum miserat, contendit ; coliortes quatuor ex 
proximo castello deducit ; equitum se partem sequi, partem 
'circumire exteriores munitiones, et ab tergo hostes adoriri 
jubet. Labienus, postquam neque "aggeres, neque fossee 
vim hostium sustinere poterant, coactis undequadraginta 
coliortibus, quas ex proximis praesidiis deductas fors obtulit, 
Ctesarem per nuncios facit certiorem, quid faciendum exis- 
limet. Accelerat Ca;sar, ut proelio intersit. 

88. Ejus adventu ^ex colore Aestitus ''cognito, turmisque 
equitum et cohortibus visis, quas se sequi jusserat, ^ut de 

ocis superioribus hcec dechvia et devexa cernebantur, hos- 
tes prcelium committunt. Utrimque clamore sublato, exci- 
pit rursus ex vallo atque omnibus munitionibus clamor. 
Nostri, omissis pilis, gladiis rem gerunt. Repente post ter- 
gum equitatus cernitm" : cohortes aUae appropinquant : hos- 
tes terga vertunt : fugientibus equites occurrunt : fit magna 
cffides. Seduhus, dux et princeps Li movicum, occiditur • 
VergasiUaunus Arvernus viras in fuga comprehenditur : 
signa miUtai-ia septuaginta quatuor ad Caesarem referuntur : 
pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt. 
Conspicati ex oppido csedem et fugam suorum, desperata 
salute, copias a munitionibus reducunt. Tit protinus, hac 
re audita, ex castris Gallorum fuga. Quod nisi "crebris 
subsidiis ac totius diei labore mihtes essent defessi, omnes 
hostium copias deleri potuissent. De media nocte missus 
equitatus novissimum agmen consequitur : magnus numerus 
capitur atque interlicitur, reliqui ex fuga in civitates disce- 

89. Postero die Vercingetorix, concilio convocato, id s» 
bellum suscepisse non suarum necessitatum, sed communia 
hbertatis causa, demonstrat ; ct quoniam sit fortunae ceden- 
dum, ad utramque rem se iUis offerre, seu morte sua Ro 
manis satisfacere, seu Advum transdere velint. Mittuntui 
de his rebus ad Caesarem legati. Jubet arma transdi, prin- 


cipes produci. Ipse in munitione pro castris consedit : eo 
duces producuntur. 'Vercingetorix deditur, arma projici- 
untur. Reservatis ^duis atque Arvemis, si '^er eos ciW- 
tates recuperare posset, ''ex reliquis captivis toto exercitu 
capita singula praeda; nomine distribuit. 

90. His rebus confectis, in iEduos proficiscitur ; ''civita- 
tem recipit. Eo legati ab Arvemis missi, quae imperaref, 
se facturos pollicentur. Imperat magnum numerum obsi- 
dum. Legiones in biberna mittit : captivorum circiter vi- 
ginti millia iEduis Arvemisque reddit : Titum Labienum 
Juabus cum legionibus et equitatu in Sequanos proficisci 
jubet ; huic Marcum Semprenium Rutilum attribuit : Caium 
Fabium et Lucium Minucium Basilum cum duabus legioni- 
bus in Remis collocat, ne quam ab finitimis Bellovacis ca- 
lamitatem accipiant. Caium Antistium Reginum in Ambi- 
varetos, Titum Sextium in Bituriges, Caium Caninium Re- 
bilum in Rutenos cum singulis legionibus mittit. Quintum 
TuUium Ciceronem et Publium Sulpicium Cabilloni et Ma- 
tiscone in iEduis ad Ararim, rei frumentariaj causa, collocat. 
Ipse Bi<bracte hiemare constituit. His rebus literis Cajsaris 
cognitis, Romae dierum viginti supplicatio indicitux. 

rAior lOYAior kai2:ap02 



IIA-^A /tif T^ /"«Aar/a slg tqIu ^iqrj dirjQTjTai- wv t6 /usf ol 
BiXyut,- t6 de. ol 'Axviravol- t6 tqItov ds ol iTn/MQiwg filv 
KHtoi, xutu. 8ii Ti|»' rjfzeTiQav (jcan'Tj*' ridloi dvo/nuQofisvoi, 
xuTOixouar ^xul ovTOt /.itv nuvieg tg t6 ttj*' diulEXTOv yui Tovg 
rououg xul TtjV dluLTuv utV ^Xk^^.ixtv -yF/utQlduTut. Tovg 8i Ke}.- 
T0i)g unb fiiv twv 'AxvXiuvihv u -^ruQOvfivag- uno Ss tcTj»' BsXywv 
8 te MuTQovug xni 6 ^exdvug diOQCCovai norufioi. IJuvtuv tov- 
Twj' xQixTKTTol slaiv ol Bilyuf nQunov fisv, ort noXv ^(fiaTaai ttjj 
iv TJ] Twv ' Foifinlwv inuQ/la ■^i^fiSQoiijTog Trjg Siuyoiyrig, ov 
uii JiolXuHig sfinoQOi, aqjiaiv intfiiayovTui, ju (fti.oi}VTa lovg 
uvdQWnovg OQvnTsiv xal IxOiiXvvsiv uysiv shvOoTSg- Insnu 8sj 
ort nQ6ayix)Qoi slat, ToTg niQuv tov 'Pi\vov rsQfiavolg, olg 
avvs/ihg noXsfiovai,. AC uvto 8h toDto xal ol ^ ' E1.6i\ti,ov 
xQitxiaioL elaiv iv loXg KilTOig- xaO' sxdaTijv ftev yuQ a/edov 
ftii/tjv ToTg xuff uvTovg rsQfiuvolg avv&nTOvaiv, ix ttjj acfihv 
i^sXuvvovTsg, t) xui slg ttj»' uvtCiv iii6tji.),).ovTsg. ' II fitv ovv KsX- 
Tixq, ixnb ftlv TOv ' Po8uvov uQxofiivi], tu noTufiw 1'uQovfiva, 
ttui T(3 'AT).avTixta ' SLxsuvQ nsQiXafi6ii.verai, xui nQOOif/avst 
T(5 ' Pi]V(p xuTU TOx)g 2exavovg ts xni TOvg ' EkOrjTiovg- Qinsi Ss 
7tQug"AQXT0vg' i) 8e Bs).yixi], dno ftiv twv tjjj KslTixrig fiedo- 
Qiuv liQyofievjj, 8iT/]xei fisxQig sni tu xcItco toO 'Pi\vov TSTQun- 
Ttti, 8e nQog" Aqxtov xui dLvaToXr\v i] 8e 'AxviTuviu 8ir\xsi fikv 
Cind Tov FuQovuva fti/Qig ini tu IIvQQrjvaia oQij, xui tu toD 
'AcXuvitxov 'Jlxeuvov elg ' I^ijqiuv jsivovTa- ucfOQil 8k tu fis- 
Ta^v"AQXTtt)v T6 xui uvaio).wv. 

II. ^IIv 8i noiB :iuQu TOtg'E).Gijiiotg uvi^q nXovatiJTuiog, xai 
i(j yivsf, XufinQOCuTog, cl) ovofia r]v ' OQyiiOQV^. Ovcog fiiv ovv 
inl iinucojv MuQxov Meaaula le xai Muqxov Heiauvog, tou 


6uaii.6iieif fi(!ii.iara i-mdu/jS)!', tt^ojtoi' fjti' /Uf id toj»' siiYSieaiiQuiv 
avvd)iwaf.i" eneiju St xul xr^f ndXir iveneiOB nuvdrjuel rr^g 
XtuQug ixaiQureveiv, ^i^aiov inidel^ui; sJvai avjolg x^urlarotg 
ol>ai, ndarjg irj; rul.urlug iirt^reiv. Toaovroi de fiuXXov avr(5 ol 
Ei.S^iioi inlarevauv, offo) nuvra)(6dev rrjs acpwv ;ifOjp«f airol 
ne^icpQijirrovrur rrj /uev, jw 'P^Va evQvidcra re xul SudvTirca 
^iTt, ri\v 0' ' Ei.6r]iiyti\v ixnii rwv J^sQjuuvibv anoTtfivovri,- rr^ de, 
TW ' lovQCic, OQfi iiprfXor&ra r ovri, xal rr^v 'ElSrjrixiiv Cctio t^j; 
2!exuvixrig diOQlt,ovrr ttj de, rrj rs Aefidiva Xlfivr^, xui tw 'Pod- 
avii^ norufiG avrovg &n6 Trjg ribv 'Pcofiaiuv inaQ%lag diu/iiiQll^- 
ovri. yfvTui ftev oiv r^auv ul ahlai rov airovg rs rov fir^ tioXv 
elg ivQv diuantlQeadui, xul 8va;(SQiaTeQ0v Inl rovg nQoax^QOvg 
n6Xsfiov ix<piQsiv uure uviol ckvSQeg (fiXonoXe fioi fiikkiaia ovrcg, 
diu rovro iXvnovvro laxvQdg. TlQog rovroig de, nQog re t6 riov 
kvoixovvTMV nXrfiog xal r^^v xaru rbv n6Xefiov xal CiQBTr^v acpwi> 
86^av, arevcoKjnrjv /(oouv iv6fiiL,ov exsiv, ^tjxoj fikv, ^^llia iv- 
veuxoaiu xul ei'xoai, arddiu, eiiQog de //A«m rsTQuxoaiu xul eixoai, 

III. Tovroig filv ovv neidofisvot, xul tc5 rov ' OQyer^Qvyog 
(istciuaTt nuQOOfirjdivTsg, id nQog odomoQluv navra iipr^cplactvTO 
nuQuaxsvd^eadui, oiov inoCfiyKk rs xal uQfiaru xul &XXa Totuv- 
ra nuvroduna (bg nkeZara Cjveladui, xal an^QOvg ug nXelaiovg, 
"vu 6 aliog acpiai xad' 6(56»' diuQXolrj, noieladui, elQr^vrjv dk xul 
avfifiu^lav nQog T(ij nsQioixlSug n6Xeig noivflaaOui,. Elg 8h t6 
TttCTa 8i,unQ6.rrEi,v 8vo ^rrj acplai StuQxiaeiv rofilauvrsg, tw 
tqItu) ri]v oSoinoQiav insxvQcoaav. Tbv 8' ' OQyeroQvyu rovro 
xureQyuaofievov unoSsisuvrsg, ixslvog rijv nQsaSeiuv ftiv nQoa- 
edi^uro. Kud' 686v 8e Kdarixov t6*' KurafiavruXiSovg, rov 
noXvv xQovov iv roTg 2exavolg SaaiXsvauvrog, xul cpiXov vno re 
TTjS ysQOvaiag xul tov driftow rav 'Pojfiuiojv xXrjdivrog, t^ rr^g 
eavcov n6Xeoi)g too nuTQog jvQuvviSi, iniy(SiQSiv dvinsias- xul 
rdovfcvoQvya rbv ' E8ovia, tov .diGiriaxov, tov rr^g n6Xsuig ribv 
ESovi(ov iQiaiov te xul uQsaiov Tqj nXridsi bvrog^ dSeXcpov, Tuvro 
imxeiQslv dvunsiaag, rfjv iavrov dvyaiiQu sxeiva '^nQOv^ivrjae, 
Qqarov sivut, cpuaxbjv i^ixveiadai, zatiTJ/j ttj; inixsiQriastag. 01 
Ukv yuQ 'EX6i\tioi, ecprj, ndvrijjv tuj/' KeXrCov SvvuTWraroi sivut 
vfioXoyovvrar iyw Ss alrihv uvufKptXoyaig SuaiXevaw, S)ars ttj t' 
ifirj SvvijLfisi xul T-^ ifiri arQurtil Tcij ^uaiXeiug iniaxvovfiai, i\uiv 
TauTai; avyxursQyiiasadiu. Tovrotg fikv ovv rolg XoyiHg neid6fi- 
evot, xui Sssiug inl rovroig Sovrsg xul XuSovreg,\XQov 
nQoa8oxihvreg, el Taura^ xdi GuaiXeiag rQial Toviotg fieyuXotg 
8r\fioig xarikayoisv, (iCfSiTog ir.v naaav Trj»» uXXtjv ruXarlav 
ino'/siQiov .toir^a&aOut. 


IV. TovTUi' (5' ovx oW onco; jolg 'Ei.GrjTloig ai]fAurdivi(iiy 
uvTol tbv ' OQyeiugvYoi Sr^aavTSS, xaia t6 aqlcri, avrrjdeg i> 
ToXg Ssafxolg Xoyov TUiv TTEngay/niywv didovai ixiXevov kuXu)- 
x6ti (5' avT(L 'Qr]uluv inideauv xb 'Cfi>ov y.avd>\atadai. KvQiug 5h 
Sii r^^iqag iT^g dlx7jg inaWovaTjg, 6 ' OQyiioQV^ naauv ^iv T>jf 
iuvTOv oixlav elg rovg /nvgiovg avdQug ovauv, ndvTug ts nQog 
tovJOig jovg inrjtioovg JS xal %gewq)ei).iTag (n(j.fino}.).oi, da xul 
ovjot i^CTft»') sig j() avvidqiov avvuyayiov^ di aijwv fxev tTvxe 
t6 (uV^ jug evdvvag inodveadur 6oqv6ov 8' ov Jov rv^dvjog 
inl jovJOig ji^v noliv xujuXaGovjog^ xal avJrig t6 ewvtrj dtx- 
(xiiiifia di' on).(jjv (fvXdiTeadai ini/eiQoia?jg, jwv o' (jcq/6vt(j)v 
&ydQag ix jiov (xyQOyv noXlovg inl toutu avvuyeiQ^iJOJV^ fisT- 
■/iXXtt^ev 6 ' OQyiJOQv^, wgye 6n avTCiv ■vnonTevSTui, tw»' 'ElGrj- 
■ziwv, eavTuv dnoacpu^ag. 

V. AiJov 8' ituoQuvovTog, ov8iv ji i^ttov ol 'E}.6i\tioi t6 
TJJ? i^68ov ini/eiQtjfta (xnojeXetv ineiQdaavTO. 'EnetSij friv yuQ 
j(j.XtaJa naQeoxevccadui iv6fitauv, ^ndaug fri vj(xg noXeig 8(t}8exu 
oiiaug, Tci t ciXlu mxiTu XSiu sxaaTog olxoSofn\fiuTu xuT(«f}.i!;- 
avreg, ndvTa Ss ruv alTOv, n}.i]v ov avaxsv(j.i.sa6ut tfisXXov, 
{^vu TTjf in' oixov inav68ov Lcnoyv6vjsg, nQo6vft6jSQOt rovg 
xtv8vvovg ino8votvTo\ ifinQi\auvrsg, sxdaTa fiiv alq^nu suvjQ 
eig jQelg fiiivag oiy.o6sv <fiQea6ut ini\yysi}.uv. Tovg 8i ' Fuiqu- 
xug xul joiig '"TovXiyyovg tuvto non\aua6ul re xixi ufia acflat 
awi^iivut (tvanslauvrsg, Boiovg re TOvg niguv jov 'P>\iou 
niiXat fiiv oiy.i\auvTug, vvv Ss eig jiiv NoQixiiv fjeTuaruvTag, xul 

ri^v JVoQriiuv nOQdi\auvjag, nQoadE^dftsvot avuiK^t^ovg inoir\- 

VI. ^Hauv 81 nuvrdnuaiv oSol Suo, 8t' imv i^iivnt uvrolg 
olov j' -qv 1] fiiv SiiJL Tfjj riiiv ^exuvHiv ;((ijQug oierr] is rjv xui 
8va6urog, fisru^v tou ts ' Iovqu oqovg xcu ^toO ' Fr^fo» noTUfiov, 
Tj fioXig fiv ufiu^u 8t(xyoiro, oQOg 8' ' lovoa nooairt i^Xl^cxTov 
inBXQEfiaTO- wars ('itfn\;(uvogriV uvTrji]686gsiae}.6tlv aiQitrsvuaTi, 
sl xul ollyot xwXvoiav. ' JI Se diii rrig riav ' Foifiulbjv snuQxlug 
noXv Qq,8i(i)riQu j r^v xul iXuTTixiv. Mbtu^v ftiv yuQ tCjv 'E}.6rj- 
ria)V,xul rC&v vewaTl roXg' Fwfiulotg avfifT(jiX(*>v yeyevijftivcav '^-/A- 
Xo6Q6y(x>v, wv iax^TT] noli-g re xal riov ' EX^rjricov iyyvrinrjlaTiv 
il Fevotu, d.cp ?]? xal yicpvQu eig ri^v 'EX6rjjtxiiv 8ir\xst, fwvog 6 

Fo8uv6g iariv ov noQsvatfiog SiaQQSl. Tovg 8i 'Ai.X66Qoyug i) 
nsiactvjsg, cbj ovnct) nqbg TOvg 'Fwfiulovc svvoixibg sxetv acpiat 
doxovvjug, rji' ovv ^tuaixfisvoi, Siot Jrig ixsivwv /W^«f nOQsiaea- 
Out f^Xni^^ov. n6.vra fiiv ovv toc 7io6s oSoinoQluv avaxevuau- 
ixsvoi, ^i^T^g QfjTi]g ■^fiioug iv rals tov ' PoSuyou o/daig niiVTug 


avvei.delv itqoelnov. Avtt] 8' -^v '^elHoaiii byd(>r} tou MaqxLov 
^iTjvbg, inl in&Tcov MdQxov IJelacovog tcal Aiii-ov radrjviov. 

VII. 'Enei8r\ 8e tcIJ KalauQi, sv t^ 'Piojurj Tore ovti, dnrjy- 
yiWr], joig 'EXGjjjlovg Iv jw txeiv 8iu i^j «vtov eV ttj raXuTiq 
inuqxi^^i ■^''^i*' o8bv noieladai, 8tu Td)(Ovg ir^g nbi^eo^g i^-iilaaev, 
xal (hg ii^vvaTO idxiaTU iv ttJ niqav twv 'Alniwv ruXuTtCf na^ 
Quyevd/nevog, ndari fiiv ttj intxQaTeta. onoaovg t' r^dvvuTo xjil 
dQlarovg aTQUjiWTag t6 nQdxeQOv ivbg jdy/aaTOg iv t^ ralajlq 
ovTog inr^yyeiXev- ttjj' 8' ev ttj revoiq yicpvQUV diii.vaev. (jL 
8h ElSriTioi, (bj r^adovTO Td/taTu to»' KalaaQu dcpiy/iivov, nQia- 
6eig airQ nitxnovai, Tovg CnQiaiovg t^s aqpw»' nbXeoig, JVovfxr/tov 
re xal BeQo8o^iov ■fjyovuivcov, einelv- jovg ' EXBrjjLovg ivOv/irj- 
dr\vat uaivibg 8tu xr^g inuQyLag, &g 8iu cptMug, xal Tuvra rov 
KuLauQog acfLat rr\v 68bv avy%ci}QOvvTog ravrriv, enel uXlr] y' 
oix icpuLvero avTOij, nOQeieadat. ' 8e KalauQ rbv fxiv Aoixiov 
Kitaatov rbv vnarov vnb ribv 'ElBrjTLcov redvijy.ivat, riiv 8& 
ixeLvov aTQartuv unaauv 8ia(f.6uor^vui re uul ■vnb rbv 'Qvybv 
ne/Acpdrivai, /ue/iivr]/iivog, exeLvoig ravru avyycoQrjxia eivui ovy 
■fiy^auro. Oix aero /liv yuQ iiv^Qug 8va/ievelg 8tu navrbg rolg 

Pco/iuLotg 8iuyeyevr]/iivovg, vvv avyxciiQr^deLarjg acpLat ravrrjg 
TTJj b8ov, rov 8r]ovv re xal noodelv rr^v iniyQdreiuv dcpi^eadut. 
° 0/tcog 8i, i'va 6 xQovog, iv dj uvdt rr\v inixQCjtietav iTxuyyeWiv- 
Tff aTQarionai avveWelv e/iellov, nuQiWrj, rolg /iiv nQeaSevat 
rovTOig icney.QLvajo, on r^uiQuv nQog rb neQl rovrov 6ov).evea- 
6ai alQi^aeraf el 8i ti uiiQ 6ovi.otvTO, rrj rQirr] 86x6.Tr\ rov 
'AnQLllov /ir]vbg n&Xtv ixeXevev inaviivai. 

VIII. 'Ev rovTCO 8e r(3 re avv «i)tu civrv ruy/iari, xal rolg 
ix TTj? inuQxLug nQoaelr]Xv66ai aviw arQurtchTatg, &nb rr^g elg 
rbv "^"Pr^vov s/i6uX}.ovar]g Ae/idvov i.L/ivrjg /lixQig inl t6 tovj 
Sexavovg dnb rwv ' EX6r]Tioiv 8tOQiQov ' Iovqu OQog, relxog rb 
/lev /ir\xog ^kxurbv xal nevr-r\xovra 8vo ard^ta, t6 8e vipog tk 
xal 8ixa n68ag 8iotxo8o/tr^aag, neQterdcpQevae. Tavra 8s 
notrjaix/xevog, cpQOVQdtv iyxujiarrjaev, iQv/iuru r iuno8lL,eiv ivsxa 
rovg 'Ek6rjTLovg, et ^iq elg rriv intXQ&reiav nuQievut intyetQTf^- 
oeiav, ixQiirvve. 'Prjxrig 8e i\u.iQag, entX6o-vai]g xal xaru t6 avv- 
rediv rwv nQiaSsoiv n^bg avibv inuveX66vTCx)v, (kvrtxQvg avTolg 
i(.nr]Qvr\aaro /ir\ 8vvaa6ai rivi, xarcji. ye rb vo/itL,6/ievov xal 
avvr]6eg twv 'Pco/iuLojv, tt^*' 8iu ttj; irraoxLag avyxcuQelv 686v' 
ei 8e 6lq SteXdelv inixetQr^aeiuv, iuno8Laetv uiijoiig i8Lduax6. 
TavTr]g /tiv oliv ttj; eXnidog ot ' E).6t\Tiot acpaXivre;, ol /xiv 
aircbv noXX^g aye^Lag rs xul noXXu nXola uXXir\Xoig int^ev^- 
«JTes, ol 8b ri 7iOQevat/i6g re xal oix layvQwg r^v 6u6vg 6 

PoSavbg, ivLoxs /lev xu& i^uiQuv, noXXCj nXelov 8h vvxrbs, 


EiaTcrjdq.i> Btg t6 jsVxo; iTie-/e.lQrja«v- riXog di ino i£ ttjj toC 
'iqyov aTSQQdTtjiog, twv ts aTQUTibnihv ini6orfiovvTb)v ts xal 
BiXsaiv avTOvg ^uH6vTb)v dnswafievoi, to^tov tov inixsiQr^/uaTog 

IX. Mia jxiv oliv W STtqa bSog 8i(x ttjj twv ^exavwv ;jfc5^«5 
ai)iolg inoXomog riv, tj 6ia Isvat ov^ oI6v t* i^J'- aTSvri yaq ^»- 
■^ ndioodog. 'Slg 8s jovTOvg ovk ^nsidov^ nqeo6eig noog tc»' 
ESovia ^ovfivoQvyu ^ne/uijjav, 8e6iusvoi aTuTOv, tuvtu acflai, 
ovfinQUTTSiv. 'O 8k dov/uvoQv^ ovTog t6tb iv TOig ^exavolg 
'qvdei, xul 8b)Qo8ox[aig r^v8oit(fiEi- nQOaqpilrig 8' r^v Tolg 'E).6ij- 
Tioig, UTS yEyaftrjHCiig Ik Tr^g avTihv ndlswg oijarjg jijv toZ 
' OQysTOQvyog dvyaTtQU' nQog Tovroig 8e x«i 6uatXeveiv Ini- 
Ouftibv, ivewTiQi'Qs, xul &g i]8vvaT0 n).elaTag n6).etg 8wQodox(Jjv 
uvaQiaadui, ins-(siQei. Tovtw filv ovv tcu nQiiyftari ixsTvog 
iy/stQijaag, nuQd ts twv Sexuvm', TOvg 'El6i]Tiovg 8iu Tr^g 
aqibv /WQug noQsvaeadui, 8isTiQfx^aT0, xai u).Xi'^Xotg 6fn\Q0vg 
diSovat inoiijauTO- icp' w oi ftiv Ssxuvol t^? nuQ68ov Tovg 
' EX6i]Tiovg ovK (jLnsiQ^ovaiv ol 8e 'E),6^tioi, •>} firiv d:aivwc 
noQevaeaOai rolg 2!s)(uvolg dfi6aovai,v. 

X- '0 fiiv oiiv KalauQ xovg 'E).6rpiovg iv0vftTj6r\vai 8iu. Ti]g 
libv SsKavijav yfjg Btg ttj»' Tijiv 2uvt6vwv nOQBveaOat, uxovaug, 
[uvTi] 8' T^ /WQa oi) ftuKQuv TTj? Twv ToXoautihv noXewg iv ttj 
Twv ' Pwftuiwv iniKQUTeia o^arjg, dmi/Ei^ yai ei Tavra avft6i\- 
aSTUt, y.ir8vvevasiv naauv ttjc inuQ/iuv ivOvftcvftsvog, el 
^8vPUTWTUToi TS xul «Q&TtaTOi, av^Qeg, xai nQog jovrotg ToTg 
Pwftuiotg noliftiot, iv j6noig svQVT&TOig ts kuI iveQyojatotg 
nqoa/wQOv t^s iniXQUTsiag yevoivTO- tovto fiiv ovv svBvftovfie- 
vog, TO»' ftiv vnuQ-/ov Tixov Aa6ii]vbv TOviia tw iQvftuTt, neQi 
ov ri^i] iQQtOi], iniaTijasv avibg 8i (hg i^^vv^fiij T<ji./iaTu ttg 
jijv ' lTa)yiuv unuQug, ixeZ t£ 8vo viu rdyfiuTu KUTe/.i^uTO, xnl 
ii.\Xu TQia nQog T^Jj '.Axvlrjici. nuQu/sift(x'C,ovia ix jiav xrtftabiwv 
i^-^iyuys, yul tuvtu nivrs exwv, tj 8t(ji. twv 'A),nEwv slg jr^v 
niQuv FuXaTiuv riv avvTOftwT(xii] b8bg, t«xittj inoQSvsTO. 'Ev- 
TuvOa 8e Tovg te KsvTQOvag xal TOvg I'aQOxi).ovg, rovg xs Ka- 
TOvQvyug, tu axQu twv '^Xniwv xuTaa/bvTug, xal ttjj b8oZ 
rbv aTQurbv ^noxwXvovrag ivrsvOsv (jcnwa&fisvog 6 KaiauQ, 
^nb TTJg ' Oxilov, iaxixrrjg TTJg inl OdrEQa twv '^Xniwv ruka- 
riug nbXswg oijaijg, eig Ti]v rwv BoxovtIoiv /ihQav iv t-^ niQuv 
inuQ/iu ovaav, l^8ofiulog <j.cpixsTO- ivrevOBv 8' elg ttj»' Ak~ 
Xo6Q('>ywv /(OQUv, x(xxe10sv elg ttjj' twi' ^ey.ovaiavwv i]ys Tbv 


iX. 01 8h 'E),6i]Tioi r]8i] 8ta tiov rr^g ^sxavtxr^g aTSvwv slg 
ri^v T(bv '^'E8oviwv /(xiQuv rbv crrQurbv SianoQEvadfiByoi, «titj*' 


{q>eQOi> xttl fiyov. 01 fiir ovi' 'Edoveig eavjovg i6 yul lu acfibv 
dn (xiTWv dtaawQsiv fxr^ Svvrjdivjeg, nQtaGeig taJ Kalaaqi, 
ineiixfjav, deouevot, av/jjua}(lug- joiovjoi dttx navjbg nsQl jovg 
Potfittlovg yeviadai diddaxovjeg, &ajs iidixov eXvai joig je 
a(fU)V uyqovg nOQdeXaOtti, jovg naTdag dLvdQanoSll^eadui, Tdf 
re atpibv noleig dvuajdiovg ylveadat, «ul javja etg oiptv a/edov 
10V jwv 'Pw/nulcov ajQujov ylveadttt. 'Ev xdvTw 8h xal oi ^ytfx- 
&iQQOt, dvuyxaiol re y.ul avyyevelg rdiv 'Edoviojv, nQog jov 
KalaaQu dtucpvydvrsg, ididaaxov thg ov dvvuivro, xal dTjiwdiv- 
icov ys rav (ityQibv, QCtdlcijg rovg nolsfiiovg cJtnd ribv nikecov 
&noao8elv. Oi' rs '^l}.66Qoyeg, ol niQuv rov 'Podavov xchfiag 
re xai njr^fittra ^xovreg, nQog jov KaLauQa dvsxcaQTjaav, avjov 
dtddaxovjeg (hg n).riv jov yr/nidov oidev acfiaiv ii).Xo in6).otnov 
•^*'. Toi-Jotg fiiv oiiv netadslg rotg Xdyoig 6 KuXauQ, ohn dva- 
fisvrjriov ejvai i56xei, avtfci, ew; ov ol 'E).6r^rtot n6.vra ru jijiv 
ittvjov avfifiitxwv xQ^fifuJu i^avaXchaavjeg, eig rr^v 2avjovfxr^v 

XII. "Eaji, Se rtg nojafi6g,^'^QaQtg bvofta, roaavrt] eig rbv 
PoSuvbv ela^(i).)Mv droefiicc, S)are onoi qsi, ttj bijjst firiStaxQl- 
veadai. Tovjov oi^EXSrjJtot, ^noD.d-g a/eSiag (iX).T^Xutg intQev^- 
avjeg, 8ti6atvov. Mudcov Se naoa jSiv xajttax6nojv 6 KuXauQ 
lug fiiv jQsXg ^(fvXug jav 'EX6rjji(i)V riSr] jov nojuftov Sitt6rivui, 
f^v Si JEJUQTrjv inl OdjeQU rov nojuftov SJt, in6Xotnov elvui, ri(v rQljTjV cpvXuxriV aiv jQiai jdyftaai, XddQu jov ojqujo- 
TtiSov iioag, inl Jovg oiincii) to»' ' E).6rjjicx)v jov nOTttfiov 8tu6e- 
6Tjx6rug S)Qfir/a6, xul rovjotg dnQoaSoxrjJOtg je xal dficpl jr^v 
tov nojufiov 8tu6ttaiv daxoXovfiivoig (icpvca ininsaihv, nuun6X- 
Xovg airiJ)V dnixjeivev ol Se Xotnol cpvyr^ inl ju nXT^aiov vdnrj 
Stsacijdrjauv. Avjtj fiiv i^ cpvXri TvyovQivrj ijiexuXeXJO- rirruQeg 
yuo cpvXal rC)V 'EX6rjri(ov Str^Qr/Vjai' S)v uvjt] fibvrj inl jibv nuji- 
Q(x)v ii^eXdovau, avjov re rbv vnujov Aovxtov Kdaatov dnsxjstve, 
xal ndv t6 dxsivov arQdTSvfia vixr^aaau, inb rbv 'Qvybv inifi- 
if/uro. Ouiws oiiv ^ ix avvrvxiug jtvbg, tj t' oiv ix ttjs toO 
dsiov yvcbfiTjg^ ovrot rii)v 'EX6rjjio)v ol jovg ' Pwuttiovg ndXai 
Setvibg xaxcbaavjsg, j6ts jibv dXXoiv fidXtaja Sixug Mitauv. 
Jlobg rovjotg Se ravra 6 KuXauQ xujeQyuadfievog, oi) fibvov 
zZ)v nQog rb STjubaiov^ d/.id xul ribv nQbg suvjbv v^Qeo)v aiuoig 
tjtfiojor^aajo- TO»' fiiv yuQ Kaaaiov jov indjov inoajodiriyov 
Aoiixtov risiacjva, jbv rov Aovxiov IJeioojvog, nsvOeqov jov 
KuiottQog, ndnnov, jr^ avjii rj xul Kdaaiov ftu/q oi ' EX^r^jtOi 

XIII. Tuvja fiiv oiiv noirjadfisvog 6 KaXaaQ, jbv"AQUQi¥ 
nojafibVy Iva Oixjiov rb Xoinbv rihv 'EX^Tjiiojv aiQdxevfia xaju- 


i.n6eif dvvano, iyBcpvQixiae^ xal oiio) i6 aTgiiev/^a Sie6l6aaev 
01 8i ' E).6)'^Tiot, T^ avjov Tu)rlairi icpodo) juSTankuYEfieg, oti 8, 
avToi ininovoii iv eixoaiv r^uequig inon\aavTO, tuvtu ixelvog 
iv fuu iiueQCc Qudlag xajsn^ix^aTO, nqia^eig na^' avjbv inifi- 
xpavio TOvg ttjj ovpibv nii^ewg inKpavsaTdrovg. 'HyEiTO di avtuiv 
^iSiJtog, iv T^ KaTU Kdcaaiov /nii/ri ajQUTijyog tCov ' EWijtIiaiv 
YSv6jxevog, oj x«2 nqbg Tbv Kalaufja ijLcpixofisvog eke^e TOidds- 
'AXV el ftlv , eifij, Kulauq, ifielg ol 'Pwualoi nqog TOvg 'E).6tj- 
Tlovg eiqijvelTe, ol 'El^t^Tiot onoi, iiv idilTjTS xul nQoaTix^rjTS 
TtOQevaovTui ts xul ixel fievovaiv sl d' aiiTolg noXsfiovvTsg 
diuTskelTe, ftifivijads fiovov Tr^g re tu*' 'E).6rjTi(nv diQ-j(alug 
(ipei^f, xui Tr\g tovvuvtIov lijiv '^ Pufiulojv urv/lug. " Oii fiev 
yuQ fitu ■>ifi(bv qoL'^!], xui Tuvrr^ e| ov ngoeiddTOg, xal tCiv to»' 
noTuuov r'idi] dt,a6e6ijx6TOJV ini^xovgeZv kvtt] ftri Svvufjtivoiv, 
ufpvoi ine).66vTeg, TavTijg ixQUTr^aaTe, ^ijrs Sidt tovto fiiya 
(pQOVEiTS, -i) xal rifiag xuxovg vofilQsTS- nuqdi fthv rdg Tav 
r'lfisTiQO)v nQoyovojv fiuXXov diQETr^, i) nXeove^laig ts xui dolo)- 
asai xqaislv 8e8t,8i'xyfisQu. ' jil,V oqu fiTi no)g oIiTog iv ^ vvv 
iaftiv Tonog ix rr^g t&v 'Poifialoiv dvaTv/lag xal Trjg tovtov tov 
ixelvoiv aTQUTOv navo).s6Qlug inavvfiog yivi^Tut, ?] yovv TuvTrig 
fivTjfielov eig to»' dsi snsnu ^Q^^^ov inoXei(f6rj. .dl6ixog fiiv ovv 
ovTCDg slnsv. 

XIV. ' O 8i KulauQ w8e noig avrai dnsxQivuTO- 'yi).).' ^ifisig 
fiiv ol ' Poifiulov Tu vvv aou Qij6ivxa 8iu fivr'ifi?jg e/ovTsg 
^iTOV (xnOQOvfiev- Toaoviio 8e 6aQVTSQOV Tavirjv i/j»' dvaiv^iav 
(fSQOfisv, oao) TOvg 'Paifiuiovg naq' ix^lav acpwv tuvttjv nsnov- 
divut, iaiiev. El fiev yuQ euviolg Ti nsqi -bfiag ridixrjyoai. avvri- 
8eauv, Q(f8io)g &v i(pv)i,i^^avio- vvv 8i i^rjnair'idr^auv, oiiie tI 
taviovg nQU^ut, i(p' d) (po6ela6ut, fiiXXoisv, oiis ye ov8sfiiug ul- 
Tlug oiiarjg (po6>]iiov sivat, vofilQovisg. El8s TuvTijg irjj nulaitig 
vuibv ix8ixlug neqi Tovg 'Poifitxlovg iniluv6ikvsa6ttt. (iovlolfirjv, 
nibg xai TuvTr^g Tr^g nQ(i)i]v {i5^ewj Trjv fiv^ftrjv CinoTi6ea6at 
8vvaifii]v ; nQU)iov fiev yixQ, ifiov uxoviog, 6i(i eig ttji' iniXQiJc- 
TSiav nuQt,ivut, inexeiQ^acxie- eneiiu 8e Tovg 6' 'E8ovEig xal 
Tovg ' Afi6i'xQQ0vg xui lovg 'A).).66Qoyug Seivihg BxuxuiaaTS. 
Oit, 8' ovTo) ao6uQibg iai Tuvir] i^ (ifieTiQix vixr] ixvanieQOvade, 
xai iftHg xoaoviov xq6vov ik'Qr]fi.iovg 8iuyeyevria6ai 6avfid'i^BTS, 
eig TuvTd tovio Qinst. 'iJilel fiev yuq i6 ^slov o'vg dvr' d8ixiag 
a(pu)v TtixQiijg Tiuo)QEla6ui, 6i).ri, roviovg ijc'C,r]uiovg tb xul inl 
nol-vv xQovov svSalfiovug iixv, 2va i^ Tibv nQuyfxijiTOJV fieTu6oi.-^ 
uix).).ov i^uQvvojVTui. Eiev Tuvia ndvTw ofiu)g, t(fr], (xv ofir^QOvg 
8ibie niai^v ti, i^iftag 8id&axeiv (bj ifineSoiaeTe 11 Xeysis, Hv tb 
T(iff nsqi T6 TOiij ' ESovelg xui Tovg 'A).).66Qoyag vSQSig ixslvoig 


ixdixitTS, -fiUeTg TTQog toi)? 'EXGijiiovg slQtjvevaojLtev. Kalaaq 
ijkv ovibjg sjrtev. '0 di dlOixog, 'Jlllu, KulauQ, tcpr}, fifteTg oi 
'EIG)\tioi, djHT^QOvg nuQA to)v ^lkcDv i.ufi6tiveiv^ uW oi diddvut. 
elwdttfiev jovTOv re i/itelg ol 'Fwuaiov fKjcQivQeg iaji. Tuvtu 
('(TTOXQiviiftevog 6 ^lSixog (iniiov ci/eio. 

XV. Kul irj iaTSQata ot 'E)-6i\tioi, fiBTEaiQujOTxedevaavio. 
'0 KulauQ dk jttVTd inon^aujo, ndvjag jovg Inniug ex je jtbv 
Edoviojv xal jwv di).X(ov avftftdxwv elg jbj QUKiaxillovg iuvjf^ 
^ldooiafiivovg, nol noQeiaoivio ol nolifitoi axonijaofiivovg nQo- 
nifnpag. OvTOt 8' ol Innelg <ivdQt'C,6fievoi nhjaMjeQOP ?) sdet 
jo7g noXefiloig }nTjXoi.ovd>]aav- fiaie ev jivi dva;(WQla jolg jCjv 
'ElSrjTlwv Innevai avfifilsuvjsg, r^TTi\6r/auv d}.lyoi fievioi av- 
j(bv sneaov. TavTri 8i i^ 1^'^X'^ ^^ 'EXGr^Jioi inuQdivjeg, oTt 
nevjuxoaioig fiovov Innevai joaovTO Inniwv aitqco; ivlxi^aav, 
douavTBQOv fitv iniftevov, xul ivioTi ye joiig jwv 'Pwuuiwv 
dniadocfvlttxag elg ftdxtjv nQOvxulovvjo. '0 Se KaiauQ jovg 
fikv kuvTOv ajQUTiwjag fiu^eadui ovx elu- r^y&na (5' el fiovov 
dvvano itjJ' jwv eavTOv avfifid/wv ^owav udijwTOV diu(pvXdj- 
jeiv "Slajs rifiiQat nivje xul dixa nuQrjXdov, ev ulg fieTu^ii 
KOJ' ia/djwv jwv 'EX6t]jIwv xul jwv nQWTWV xwv ' Pwfialwv oi 
nXetov loxrw ajudiwv dieXeineTO. 

XVI. 'Ev Touro) 5' 6 fiiv KuiauQ jovg 'Edovelg ov Sijfioaici 
«rru inia^ovjo oXtov (iTrrjret. z/ta filv ydiQ i6 ipvxog {naau 
yuQ fj /'«Aar/«, wg xal ai^w nQoeiQTjTut, ci^xraia iajlv^ ovx onwg 
ninwv r^v iv joTg uyQoTg 6 oTjog, u.Xk'' ovde ;^iAoi5 iv jw ojqutw 
uiTiioxsia rjv. ^'Enstja 8i oiiSe iw 8t(]c jou ' AQijLQSwg insiaixxTW 
o/tg) XQ^riadat ovx si/sv, oti ol ' EX6i\Ttot, hv dcnoXeinsadui ovx 
r^6ovXsTO, (xnd jov " AQdiQSwg uneTQunijauv. 01 8' 'E8oveTg i^ 
i)uiQug eig '^ifiiQuv (ivu6okag inoiovv vvv fiev (j.dQoL'C^ea6(jit lo»' 
aTiov, nojE 8' &yea6at, ulXojs 8e xul naQeTvat Xiyovjeg eaj 
&v nuQijetvov jbv KuiauQu. ' ExeTvog fiiv ovv tbj j&xioju jovjo 
rja6sT0, ^avyxaXeaag avtwv jovg UQXovjug, o'i noXXol iv tQ huv- 
jov aTQUToni8(i> riaav, xal iv jovjotg lo»' je jdi6tJtaxov xal jov 
Alaxov, To fiiytajov jwv ' E8oviwv u^iwfiu BsQyoGQSjov xaXov- 
ftevov 'e/ovTug (toOto 8i j8 jiXog xai' ejog ^^i^QOTOveTTai, xal 
^iov je xal 6av(!tTov XQivsiv jovg inrjx6ovg 8vvujat) nixQwg 
ttvToig ifiifnpuTO, oti ovx o2ov js bvjog aiii© oiJis to»' oTtov 
wvsTa6ai, otiie ye ix jwv ityQWV avyxoftl'QEiv, xul nQog jovjotg 
joaavTTjg icnoQiug oiiaijg, xai jwv noXsftiwv ovtw nXr^alwv, in^ 
av j(hv ovx ^cpeXeTTO, xul javTU 8i' exeivwv lo 7i^£iCTroj' ToCro»' 
jbv n6Xsftov (iQ(iftevog- fiixXXov 8' ort i)7i' aiiwv iyxajeXei^pdt], 

XVII. Tuvja 8' elnovjog xoO Kalaaqog, 6 Aiasiog islg ixei' 


vov Xijyoig neiadal;, tots icpariowaBv S x^injEiP nqdjBqov ■f^y 
naqeaxEvaa/itevog. 'Evlovg /nev yuq ecpaaxev etvai naqcc tqJ 
nXridei, juiyu la^vovTag }cul STj/iOTug ovTug nKelov aiTihv iwv 
dqx6vT0}v dvvujuevoug. Ovtoi d' , ecpT], eiaiv ol lolg acpwv 
araatwSeai je dcvoalotg Xdyoig jo TjXr^dog, fii] i/jlv unododrj 
6 dcpeiXouevog aTjog, dinOT qinov jeg. K&v /uev ol joiovjoi Trj»- 
T^S FuXuTiug dtqx^v /i'^ dvvcovjai xujaXaSelv, /tuU.ov avjiiv 
tCov 'El6r;Tla)v, tj jCov 'Pa)/ialo)v slvai, ^inidv/iovoiv. Ynb 
jovrwv de ntjivja jct. ^-fi/iijiv jOiv 'Poi/iaiojv nquy/iaja rolg 'EX- 
dTjTioig diuyyilkovjcti. Kul ji, eqij, Kulaaq, ori toDto t6 
nqdy/ia aoi CiVuyy.aXov ^vayxaadeig a/sdov tcujElnov, oiix 
'jiyvofb dia jovjo /ley&lug yiv8vveva(x)v- xai diu juvtijv ti^»' 
alrluv lcp' oaov riSvvr^Oijv jovto ianbnrjau. Aiayog /lev oviwg 

XVIII. '0 Se Kalaaq jovrco t(3 ixeivov loyco inoar^/iaiv 
Eodav TOi" ToD ^tSiTiayov ixSelcpov ^ov/tvdqvya jsx/iatqo/isrog^ 
TOvro 8' ivavjlov noXlCov Staaneiqeadui, /ir^ ^ovXo/isvog, ivOiig 
fiiv 8iei.vaE ti^J' Hyoq&v. Tov Se Aiaxov xaTuaxwv, iiqero /tev 
airov xoerd /lovug, sl ju in aijov iv jr^ ixxXrjoia. qrfiivja dXj}~ 
6r\ si'>]. '0 8e rovTO /isrit nlslovog r6jE ESriXcoas nuqqrjoiag. 
"AXXovg Se xal 6 Kulaaq ruvra iqcorCov, ^lrjdrj ovra xari/iudev 
elvut, /liv rov dov/tvoqvya dquavv avSqa, xui rb nXriOog Sooqo- 
Soxiuig Civuqrr^aaadut, veoneqiQeiv 8' iniOv/iovvru, roig re 
cpooovg y.ul rug Xomixg rCov 'ESovicav nqoa68ovg ivwvovg noXXa 
'srt] ia%i]xivai- airov /tev yuq avrug ri/n\aavTog, oiSelg dvriri,- 
/i(}v ir6X/tu. "SlajB ix roirtav, ecpaauv, rov 6' iuvrov )]v^Tjaev 
oixov, xul noXla nqog rovroig sig riig SwqoSoxiag }(qr'iuarbi 
avvsXe^uro- xal Inniag /lev noXXoig ix jr\g avrov rqecpet SunCivrjg, 
xul (j.el TOvrovg nsql havrbv 'e}/si- oi /t6vov 8' ol'xoi, (xXX(x xal 
nXelarov, naqd. rr\ vnsqoqiq. Svvarui,- S)ars rijv /tiv /iTjreqa iv roig 
BiTovqi^iv dvSql inicpavsardrco rs xal ixel SvvurbJT&Tti) avvc^- 
xiasv- airbg S' ix Trjg tu)v 'EX6r/riu)v /(oqag yvvuXxu slg yCi/tov 
^yayBv xal rrjv nqbg ptrjrqbg uvtov Ct.8eXcpAiv, xul n&aug nqbg 
rovToig rag nqoarjxovaug, HXXtjv iv fiAAT^ nbXei, i^iScjxev xal tu 
/isv rCi)v ' EX6t]Ti(x)v cpqovel rs xul airoig 8i(i rr\v iniya/iiav rav- 
rt]v eivoel. Miael Si ae iSict, Kulauq, xul rovg iiXXovg ' Pia- 
/luiovg, clrt iv ttj PaXaricf nuqayev6/tevoi, ttj»» /tev airov 
Svva/Jiv rjXuTT(j)auTS, ^i6iTiaxbv Se rbv (xSeXcpbv iv tw nqoadsv 
d^nb/iari rs xal Svvd/ist xuTsarr'\aarE. '^Slar' , 'ecpaaav, ^\v /tiv 
nojs Seivov ri, mxOdtaiv oi, 'Pco/tuToi, iv /tsy&Xr^ iXniSi, TTJg Sta 
rwv 'EX6i]tIojv 6uaiXsiag iariv- iiv 8e roivavjiov T(i rav 'Pot- 
uuibov iniHqujiajequ yivTjrai, oix onotg rr^g 6aaiXelag, d.XXci 
xtti fjs vvk exei Svvd/isojg nvSsftiav iXniSu noielrai. 01 /«sv 


ovv Tavz' fieyoj'. KuTiundn dk xal nQog rovrotg 6 KuXauQ, (Sj 
^i' iri dX[ya)f riQ^adeP -fifiF^wv tC^v eavrou Innioiv yeyevrjijevy) 
T^TTfif 6 jdov^voQv^ TB xui ol ixelvov iTTnsXg ttjs cpvyrig nQoyuj- 
rfo^uv TOiiTOJV de (pvydvTOiv , naaav ti^v d.i.}.7/V Jnnov TQanr^vul 
TF, xal elg q)vyr]v dgjuriaai- (^twv ftev yag elg avfi/ua%luv ro\j 
Kalaaqog vno twv 'Edoviojv n&fiq>6ivT0)v Innioiv ^nnuq^og 6 
^ouuvoQv^ dnedideixjo.') 

XIX- Tavja fi^v oiiv ^xovaag 6 KuTaaQ, xal, nQog t]»' tjJi^ 
Tov (jLvdgdg elxev inoxpluv, aucprj nQdyfiuTa nQoaelvui, yvovg, 
nqijnov fikv tov ^ovftvdQvyu 8iu TT\g 2 eicavmrig jo-bg ' EXBrjTiovg 
diunoQevauf enena de TOvg ts ^eaavoiig yul ixelvovg ofiriQOvg 
dlXriloig Sovvai nonjauaOut,- xul tuvtu ov-/ onojg kavTod tb xal 
Tibv'Edovio)v dxilevaiov, d/.A(i nal ixelvovg Xuddvia noir^aua- 
6ui- nobg roinotg de xul iin' avTOv tov tojv 'ESoviwv ciQxovjog 
AioKOv xaTTjyoQela6ui ixelvov oqHiv, Ixarng exeiv aliiag 
ivdtttt^ev TOv ^ avTog Ixelvov fteTiQxeaOui, ^ xul tovto Trj Ttbv 
ESoviojv noket nQoaTUjrstv. '^Ev Se lovjo fiovov Tuiiirj rri tov 
Kuiauoog yvcouri ivavjtovTO, ort tov toC ^ovuvdQvyog tovjov 
6.Se}.(pbv dt6ijtuxi)v fiuXiajd ts tu Tb)v ' Poifiaiojv cpQOvovvja, 
la/vQi!)g ff iuvitJS eivoovvju, «al iivSQu nqbg jovjoig afia kuI 
OihcpQOvu xnl fiijQtov ovtu kuiQu- &ajs, fifj jo jou (iSekcpov nddog 
ixelvog GaQeojg cpiQOi, 6 KalauQ neQtecpoBelJO. TotyuQoiyv nQiv 
Tt joiijcov notr^aat, tov ftiv ^tStjiur.ov nQog eavTOv in&Xeae, 
xul n&vrug Toiig aXXovg suvrov fueTaarTjaauerog SQfirjviag, Sia 
rov ratov BaXrjQiov IIqouxIXXov, tov Tr\g iv Trj ruXujict. 
inuQxlag ctQxovjog, suvtC} re cplXov ntajoj&rov ovjog, uiuci 
8ieXi)(6q. ndvja Se tu ^«utou nuQovrog iv T-fJ exxXrjaicc nsQl 
rov ^ovfivoQvyog Qrfiivra, xal '^ixaarog nuQ ^auToi iv dnoQ- 
^TjTQ) ixsivov xarriyoQrjaB, SrjXiaaug aiJTcIi' ^iofiai aov, ecprj, S 
.diSiJtuxk, fii\ Xvneladtxi, iu.v jov abv ^SeXcpov tovtov ^ovfi- 
voQvya fiSTeX6o) ^ xal rrj rav 'ESoviav noXsi ixelvov xoX&n^siv 

XX. TStb 8^ 6 ^i6i.Tittx6g rbv KuiaaQa neQtXa^ibv, avv noX- 
XoTg SaxQvotg XinaQelv ij^laTO, |U7J Tr Setvbv n&Ooi, 6 dSeXcpog. 
IJdvra fiEV ravru, ecprj, a Xeyeig, uXri6r\ bvru ytvwayo)- oiiSeig 
r ifiov Tuvra ^uqvtsqov cpiQSi. 'Efiou filv yciQ nXelov ev tb t^ 
ifirj X^iOQCf xal nuQii tt} cxXXri nuarj ruXuria. ev tc5 nQjadsv 
XQovcx) iaxiiaavTOg, rov S^ dSeXcpov r\rrov Sta Ti\v vsdrrjroi 
Svvrjdivjog, St' kuvrov vvv fteyixXrjv Svvufitv xixjrjjat- r\ oi 
(idvov nQog rb Tr\v iur\v xu6aiQeiv, iiXXii xal nQbg Tr\v ifir\v 
O/eSbv (xnfhXeiav XQr\Tai. ' Eyi>) 8' ofioig rr\g je nQugjbv dSeXcpbv 
tptXoajOQylag xal Tr\g navroiv ivrQinoftat Sd^rjg. Toaovrov fikv 
ydiQ itiiv nuQCi aol iaxvovTog, eneita si' it Seivbv :iu6oi, inb aov 


6 ifubg (idsXqiog, oddelg earat oajig oi //^ vouir\ lov jjfi raina 
ijitov avjunQUTTOviog ysviaOar &aie navTsg &v oi J'(xl}.oi tjv 
rvv exovai, nqug /us sijfoiav TT^orjaoirio. Tuvxu tov ^i6itiukov 
aiv noXloig Saxqvoig naqu toD Kalauqog deo/uivov, u KuTaag 
aiT^»' de^ibjauusvog naQS/nvdriauTO, /ufi nXeiov XinaQelv xeXevutv. 
ToaovTO /uev yuq, e(f)j, nuq i/iol /lovui al aul dsr\aetg dvvavTut, 
S)aTS yul ^v 6 uog d.8sX(fbg rovg 'Pw/iutovg r^dlxrjasv, Ij; t£ dtu 
toDto ej/ov Xvn7]g, ixslvutg /i6vutg avyyivihaxut. Tuvru slnwv, 
xal i.nsLVOv naquXaGwv. to»' ^ov/ivoqvyu /uSTens/tif/uTo- kuI (i 
fiev nvidg ixelvov uiitUTut, & t)t xul ^j noXig tuv 'Edoviiuv 
avTi^) /ti/t(fsrat,drjXb)aug,na()rivet oStw noteTv, w€ri' elgrov enetTU 
XQOvov d.vsnlXrjnT0v dtuTeXeTv, ru nuqeXrjXvdoTu tQ ixelvov 
(it)fiAgr(I) ^iGtrtayto avyyivthanetv Xiyojv. OCtw /tev oiiv eytivov 
vov6sTi\aug iv q:vXuy.^ 8notr\aaro, Ivu rl rs notr^ast, oJg is 
avviasrai, yi,vu)axeiv dvvrjTut. 

XXI. Tavrrj ds ttj i/,u^^a inb rijjv xuruaxonojv /ludiiv o 
KuXaaq, rovg noXs/iiovg, ogog e/tnqoadsv acpwv noujau/iivovg, 
dn^ aiiTOv k^ijxovTu reTruqug oradlovg aTquTonedevauoOut, 
&vdqag nihg sxot rrjg rs (pvasojg xai rrjg xvxXa icpitdov toDto 
rd oqog iniaxsipo/iivovg ini/tyjuTO. Tovruv 8e g(/dtuv sjvai 
unuYystXdvTcov, t(u /rev ^inoarqurrjyw Tlr(i) Aa(jtrjv(a ix riig 
Tqlrtjg (pvXuxTig inl r-i]v dicqu)rv/luv rov oqovg, rolg riiv (5^0»' 
i\8r] nqo/iudouatv ■fjye/xoai /orjad/isvov, dvo ruy/iaru uvu6tG(x'C,- 
siv nuqr]yystXs, rr^v kuvTOv yv(hu.r]V ixsivco (ivuxotvojad/isi og, 
ylvrbg 8h rr^ reT^xqrr^ (fvXuxT] ^qug, rrj uvTr] rolg noXe/tiotg 
6(5(15 in^ (tvTovg r^ysv xal nuaav rr^v 2nnov nqoni/iipag, loi' 
uiv HovnXtov Kovai8iov, uvSqa iv rolg aTqarr^ytxojTdiTOtg 
(jLy6/isvov, xal r(L ylovxldt ^vXXct, /isTinsiru 8e xui tQ Muqx(i) 
Kquaao) avaTqurevaix/isvov , avv rolg xuruaxonotg nqoineit- 

XXII. yl/tu 81 T-tj i^/tiq(t, Tov /liv TItov Au6trjvov 't\8ri inl 
rriv (xxqoivvxiuv rov oqovg avv Tolg 8val ri!iy/i(wiv d.vu66t.vTog, 
xul rov Kaiauqog ov nXelov "^Svo xul 8ixu aiu8ioiv itnb T(hv no- 
Xe/iiotv ix(pearCt)rog, t(J)v 8b noXe/tiojv, (hg xal /ist(x Trjf /t(i/rjv 
sXeyov oi ui//i(xXo)Toti, ruvTrjv T-i\v intGovXi^v '■^eiSoro^v, ovTog 6 
KovalStog l8qovVTt rCi i'nn(a tw Kaiiatxqt nqoa8qa/t(hv, (xni\yyst- 
Xsv, cijfj 6 vnb rov Aa6trjvov sxeoOut -rfiovXsro (jqog, rovTO ol 
noXi/iiOi nqoxuTrjXei(psauv ravru sx rs rdjv arjusiojv xul r&v 
J^uXXixujv onXojv yvojvut Xiyojv. ' O /ilv ovv Kulaaq toDto ('cxov- 
oug, rb arqdTEv/tu vnb rb nXrjaiov oqog {inrjyuys, xul ixei nuq- 
er^^cTiero, iig /iiixrjv noiov/ievog. '0 8i Si] Au6tijvbg inb rsv 
Kaiaixqog xsXsvoOeig, sl /tii rb iavTOv arqdTtv/tu nXtjaiov 
^(ilvoiTO, fiii inbXdblv TOig noXe/iiotg, (iva noXXuxbOev (x/tu 


uiixoifTo) xttTit Tu xBlevadif, 10 oqog xuTaa^ihv, tov Kalaaon 
if^jusvsy od fittx^ti-ievog. "HSij (5' inlnolv n()oeltj).v6si -fj ■i^uioa^ 
fjvtxtt &nayyil.lovai, tw KtttaaQi ol xuTAayonot., tov juev AuSitj- 
vov 10 OQog xarixEiv^ xal TOvg 'EXStjTlovg /ueTaaxQttTonsdev- 
auadut. T6v di Kovaldtov ini) (poGot cJ ovx eldsv ^thg idoiv 
unuyyeTXai. Tavrr^ /uev ovv t-Jj i^fiiQCi. 6 KuiauQ xutu to 6lu)6og 
di(jiaTt]fja Tolg noXeuioig icpeineTO, xui el'xoai TETTaQug arudiovg 
lin' airibv iaTQaroneSevaaTO. 

XXIII. Ttj^' iareQala, oti, fiiv Svo ■^ifiiQat, n&finav CcneXel- 
novTO TOv SsTv alTOV ttj aTQaTtii SiaSiSovai, oii Se noktg ftsy- 
tScXrj TS xal svSuifuov twj' 'ESoviwv, BlBQuXTOg bvofiu, oi3 
ni.Eiov ivTEvdev exttTOV XETTttQ&xovTa lEaaixQMV aTaSlcjv dTiTJr- 
8ovX6ftevog 6 KalauQ tw aiT(a nQOvoelv, Cinb fiav Tutv 'EX6t]- 
tIojv ineTQiint], int S^ Tfjv BlGQaXTOv inoQevero. Tovrtov S' 
sid-ug Tolg 'Ei.6rjTloig inb jivwv und Aovxlov yjifiiXlov, toO 
TW»' r&XXbiv irtn&Qxov, acplav avTOftoXtjaiivTtov , dcnayyeWivTdjr^ 
avTol 7] t£ rovg ' Pwiittlovg Siei acpwv (fevyetv, (o Siu tovto fiu- 
XiOTa Tjyovvro, ori ttj riQoreQalci oi ' Ptaftuloi rb OQog xuTuaxbv- 
reg ftt^xxtjv ov avvrmjuv^ Tqi ovv twv intrrjSeicov avrovg dno- 
xXelaeiv daQQOvvreg^ fiSTSvbrjaav xul ttj^ nQbadsv atpcov bSov 
(xnoTQunivreg, Tovg rwv 'Potfiulcov bnia6o(pvi.axug Skoxsiv ts 
xttl sig fi&xTjv nttQuxaXeiv tj^$m>'io. 

XXIV. TavT, ovv xaTttvotjaufievog 6 KalaaQ, rb arQixTEvfioc 
inb rb nXrjalov ^Qog vnr']yuye, xul rr^v fihv 2nnov iv ruvt(o 
inl t6 riiv nQ^brrjv rij>v noXefiloiv bQftijv iniaxelv enefiipev. jfv- 
rbg 8' iv rovrco iv fiia(o r(o OQev ru riTTttQu ixQxaTa ruyftttTa 
TQixrj Siard^ttg, sneira inixviji) eavTOv tu ersQtt Siio, St vsioail 
^iv rrj ' iTttXla. xttrsyQijcipuTO, rixyftttTu, xal nuv nQog rovroig 
t6 avfiftttXixbv iv rrj uxQOJvvxia toD boovg eartjaev, otaTS nav 
TOvTO rb OQog (xvSQiJ)v livanktiQioaai, Tovro Ss notr^aufiEvog, 
xul niivra rix axEvo^pOQa sig evu rbnov avvuyeiQug^ roTg iv ttj 
xoQv^pij rov OQOvg ovatv aiTU StacpvXdrretv nuQt^iyyetXev. 'Ev rov 
T{p S' oi 'EXGriTiot, naat, aiv rolg axevo(pbQOig rovg ' Pwfialovg 
xuraSi(i)^avreg, rbre fiEV uir(x elg iva rbnov avvrfiQOioav uv- 
rol Se di6Qbot, r^iv ribv 'Pojftaltov innov rosipdftsvoi,, xal stg 
gxiXayya rf^v a^pav t(jc^i,v noirjaicftsvoi, inl rovg nQihiovg rwv 
Po)fialo)v oioftrjattv. 

XXV. 'O Si KalattQ nQmov fiiv rbv kttvrov, ensna Sh 
roig nAvTOJv ribv uXXojv 2nnovg ixnoSihv noirjadfisvog, ?»'«, i'aov 
rtutt nHatv bvrog rov xivSvvov, ovSsfilu Uirolg (pvyrjg iXnlg Xel- 
noiTO' eneiTu Se xal rbv 6vfibv Tibv aTQuTicjiihv ineyelQotg^ xal 
inl t^»' OvroSov airoig i^OTQvvag, rf^v fiuxrjV avvr^ipe. Kai 
nQmov fiev ol iv ttj iiXQo^vvxict. Potualoi T]x6vTt'lbv re xal it^- 

200 C. JULIl C.^SARIS 

Sfvov slg airoii' Cxtxb j«xv t^p ixelfojv (pulayya SiiQQtj^ttv 
enei 5k "^iS.KvaXihaavieg 71]^ TTO^^ojdsv ulxr^v, ^iqiy'^oeig intd- 
^auov acplaij tovtu) /itev rou firi ^a.dlu}g f.tu~/eaBui fKxliaja 
ivenoSl^ovTO r6.XXoi- oti ol n).eiaT0i uiTCov fiiu ^ol.r^ nalTov tccQ 
(xanlSag SiuTeTQrjuivug re rolg wftotg nQoaSeSeftivag E-(OVTeg^ 
snBCTU rfif ai^fiT^g iyAafKfiOtiarig, oijTs uiiv unoanuauoOat, ovts 
ye TTig uQiaTSQug ;ff»o6; uaxo^.ovfiivr^g svnBTwg iiSvvavTO ftu- 
XeaOuf S)ad^ ol nollol fiiv avToyv noXvv ^oovov nQog lo 
antxaaaOav lunaXTu Anb i(bv <ianiSo)v to*' SQUxlova aelaavTec, 
iixg t' (ianiSag ixniQQtijntv, yvftvol nQoeO.ovjo fi('xy_ea6ai. 
Ti).og Ss TQavfiaairV (xnsiQ7j>e(')TSg, inl noStt x ijcvexixaavio, xul 
nijog OQOg ov ni.Blov -isttixocjv OTaSioiv ^niyov ixve/ij)Qijaav. 
'Eaeivojv fiiv ovv tovto t6 iioog )taTitXa66vT0)v, xai tw*' '^1'ui- 
fiulo)v iniStojxdvTOjv, o2ts Boioi, aal ol TovXtyyoi, ^nevray.i,a%iUoi, 
ini naai rwv 'El6r]Titt)v reTayftivoi, ix nlayiov yvftvov rolg 
Ptafiaioig ineXdovTsg, nsQiexvxlovv avTOvg- xai rovTO ol iv tuJ 
hQSi, 'EXGrjTiot xaTiSi^vTeg, ii; uQX^i nuXiv roTg 'Pcouuloig 
inixsivTO, xai Ti^f fiuxrjv uvsvsihaavTO. 01 8i 'Fo)fialoi Stx^ 
kavTOug ra^dfisvot, riXavvov elg avTOvg' xai oi ftev aiiTibv rolg 
TflSrj ^TTTjSeXai T(bv 'EX6i]tIo)v d.vTelxov ol Se nQog rovg vsojari 
intovrag iuuxovTO. 

XXVI. Ovio) 8' laoQQonojg ixiiwv ini ftaXQijTaTOV uyojvi- 
aaftivo)v, riXog ol ' EX6)'itcoi, livrixeiv ovx r^Svvrfiijaav uXX' ev- 
dvg ol ftev avTO)v, (hg aai nQOieQOv, ini t6 ()Qog, ol Se niQog 
rs Tfi aQfiara ra axevocpoQu 6.vex(hQr](Ja^" Slix n('iai]g ftev 
ydo ravTtjg rrjg fiaxfjg, xulneQ fiix^^ SslXrjg ^i^ lo)6ivov Sia- 
yeysv)]ftivrjg, oiiSslg ix vdjTOv iSelv tov noXefiiov iiSvvrfi)]. 'Enl 
noXi) Si X(xi Trjj vvxT(>g ol ' PwfKtloi ini ru axsvoqoQu r^yojvi- 
aavTO- ol fiiv yuQ 'EX6i]tioi uts Sr^ 'tQVfiu ri ru UQftaTa nQo6a- 
Xdvisg, i^ avr'^)v slg loiig snidvTug tw*" ' Po)ftalo)v iio^svov xal 
svioi ys aviwv ftertx^v tw»' 6' uQUi!tTO)v xai T(i)v roox^fiv, naXrit 
noXXix xul Svaiu in^tcpieaav. S)g r' ixel iiQ(hOi]aav noXXoi T(hv 
Po)unlo)v. TiXog S' i'ifti))g xai rovioiv XQttrr^aavreg, ruiv rs axsvo- 
qjOQoiv xuijovavTixiv aTQuroniSov iyxQUTSlg iyivovTO ol'Po)ftaloi, 
'EvKtvdd TS rriv rov' OQyeioovyog dvyariQa, xai evtx twv avTOv 
vlwv it,(i)yQ?]aav ' Ex Sl rctvirjg ttj^ ftaxV? uiSQeg tC)v 'EX6r]Tio)v 
&g TQiaxntStxdtxig fiiiQioi neQiyevoitevot, vXt]v rfiv vvxia tiiv 
vSov ov ^^5i(tXeinovreg, inoQevovro- rZiv ' Poifialaiv, Stit ro 
TQelg ■f^ftiQug nsoi re rix rCov aTQitTioirCtiv rQttvftuTa xctl Ti]v rCbv 
vexQ(j)v uvalQBaiv SiaTQltpai, ixeivovg Subxeiv fii] SvvijdivToiv^ 
iv rrj TU)v Ahyy6t'o)v reraQcaXoi (xcjpixovio. '0 uiv ovv KulaaQ 
xi'iQvxitg nQhg roi^g Aiyyovag neixnwv, ixni]y/iQevs ftijSiv ribv 
iniTijSelojv joTg ' F.X6i]Tloig nnol^^eiv ei Si fi>i, noXefiiotg aiiTolg 


(bf xal TOig 'ElSijiioig xQ^](f^odar xnl aviog (jfinv di) ^^^cov naaav 
tiiv 6UVT0V dvvfxftti'^ ecpslnsio. 

XXVII. 01 S' ' EX6r\iioi iax'')iTri nnPTCov ngay/uiiTwv Anoq- 
lct avvsx^fiBvoi, nqiaSsig nuQa ibv Kaiaaqct neql nqoaxuqi\- 
aeojg eneftxjjav o'i teuO' udov avTG ivTvx6vTsg, nqdg ts Tovg 
nddug aviov nqoaeniaov^ kuI elqvvrjv nuq aiiTOv avv no)-kolg 
duHQvoig r^Trjaav. Kal 6 fihv Kalaaq, unov rjaav t6ts^ ivTuvda 
htvTov neqijitivEiv ixiXevev ol d' insiOovTo. TJqbg avTOvg fttv 
oiv naqayevdfievog, tu onXa, xul ufii^qovg, Tovg rs nqbg avTOvg 
^uiTOfioXTf^a avTag inriTSt. ' Ev cu 8b tuvtu "^ovvjjdqoiQovjo , ftiag 
i'vxibg nqbg to Twifra dianquiTeodai, diaXsmovatjg, uvSqsg ufi- 
cpl joig t^uxiaxiXlovg jijg '^BeqGi.yLvi^g ovju yulovfiivrjg cpvXrjg, 
^ cpbSo) Tov naqudodivTCov juv onXojv inb jCov 'Pcoftulojv xoXaa- 
6r\vni, »j j ohv sXnlSi Tivbg octnrjqlag naqoqfiTjdEVjeg (^tooov- 
TODv fiEV yaq ovjot)v jwv jolg 'Pojfialoig nqoaxotqovvjcxiv^ j^v 
acpwv bXlyoyv cpvyr\v XadeZv dv, t) xal navjunaatv aSrjXov 
■>)YOvvjo elvac), ^iv Tavjr^ ttj vvxtI ix jov acpcbv ajqaTOnidou 
i^riXdov, nqbg js jov 'Piivov j^^v twv rsqftavujv x^Q^^ 


XXVIII. TovTO xuTUfiudwv 6 Kalaaq, d)v diu Trp x^Q^*' 
ovTOi inoqsvovTO, xt/iqvxu snefnpev, el dvalnoi. naq' kavrQ sJvat 
idiXoisv, TOvTOvg un&ysiv xeXevojv. ' Exelvoig fiiv ovv b Kalauq 
nqbg eavTbv dnuxdelaiv chg noXefiioig ixqriouTO- navrag dh jovg 
&XXovQ, Tu onXu xai bfii^qovg jovg ts nqbg wuTOig avTOfioXr^oav 
Tug inoXuCchv, slg nqoax(t)qr]aiv idi^uTO. Kal Toiig fiev ' EXSt]- 
Tlovg, jovg ts TovXlyyovg, xai Toig ylaxoSqiyag, slg ti]i' •Jj? 
i^eXijXvdeoav ;^w^a>', inaviivat ixiXsvaev OTt 8e, n&vTOiv twv 
xaqnwv SiacpdaqivTOJV, ov8iv si ^v iv Trj ;^w§a, o) SvvaivTO 
nqog rbv Xiftbv i^uqxElodui,, Tolg fiiv ^AXXoSqo^i uvrolg aljov 
noqll^Biv Tolg 8' av ' EXSrjTloig, T(i; T6 noXeig xui Tdj xcbfiag 
Tcbv 'ytXXoSqoyojv, ug xaricpXe^av, 6.vuaTriaut ixiXsvoe. Tovjo 
Se Sia TttVTrjv fiuXiOTa ttjv uItIuv 6 Kuloaq inoieiJO, ff^ 6ov- 
Xoftevog jr\v ' EXSrjTcxiiv x^bqav 'eqrjfiov diufiiveiv firi ol niquv 
Tov 'Pif^vov Feqftuvoi Tuvjri iveqyojajr] ovori nsiadivjsg, ix r^j 
acplhv elg aiTi)v Si.u6alvoi.6v, nqoaxojqoi ts ttj? inixquTslug 
xal Tav 'AXXo6q6yojv yivoiVTO. Toig Se Botovg aUovaiv naq' 
iavTOv Tolg 'ESovsvat, ort dXxtfiovg &v8qag ovTug kcjqojv, J 
KuiouQ avvexwqrjae. TovTOig fiev oiv oi 'ESovelg Tore fiiv 
Xcbquv eSojxuv '£nei.Ta 8' iXsvdioovg ts xui uvTOVoftovg ibc 
iuvTOvg inoirjouv. 

XXIX- 'Ev 8i T(i; juiv 'EX6rjTlojv arqaToniSc^ 'EXXrjriaTi ye- 
yquftfiivug siqovjsg nlvaxug ol aTqaTtwjut, tw Kataaqi d.nriv6y- 
xttv ' Ev Tttvjttig 8e t« nuvjcov jcbv ix jr^g ' EX6r]TiKr\g i^XrjXv- 


doTOiv aTQUTKaiHiv, x^Q^iQ de tu rwv re nuldojv xal lixiv yvvui- 
KUiv y.ul TiaiTixiv iwv insQ la aTQujBvatfiu iiT] yejoiOKiov 
bvofxuTu r^QidfiOiivio. ii)v nivTaiv 6 dQiBitog TOiovrog rjv twv fiev 
EXStjtIiop, e? '<«« ftxout ftvQiuSsg xul TQia/iXioi, TovXiyyMV 
8i, TQioftvQioi, xut ^^uxia/llioi,- 'Puvq^cxmv dk, iQiaxlhot. xal 
diofivQioy Boio)v di, dia/lltoi xul rQiaftvQtof tuiv 8t Auxo- 
GQlyMv, ftvQtot yul TETQUHta/lltOf Kal jibv fttv aTQUTtvoftivcov 
avfinuvTwv o uQiOftu;, ivriu fivQtuSeg tb xnl dtaxlXioi' twv 8' 
i^ElTjlvOoTMV TTjg xwQug avitn^xvTojv 6 dcQtOftog, TQtixxovTu s^ 
ftVQi(/8eg xai dyTuyia^lkior tCov d^ inavi6vT0)v yeXavauvTog 
Tou KulauQOg (xQiOftijdivTwv, eiQEdrjaav lo nav evdeyu ftv- 

XXX. TovTb) ftev oiiv TO) noXiuco tou KulauQog teAoj ini- 
QivTog, ix naaibv axsdbv ribv rTjg ruXurlitg niileoiv ol UQiarot 
nuQix rov KuiauQu inl ravTrj tt^ avjov vlyrj avvTjdofievoi v^Kdor, 
Xiyovreg roidde- 'AlV i^fieTg fiev i'aftev, KulauQ, yalneQ aov 
Tolg 'E}.6>]T[oig, (tv9 liiv rb n&Xui rovg 'Pojfialovg ixuyojaav^ 
vvv noXiftco dlyrjv inidivTog, ovx ^ttov Tuvra inl rr^ avftnd- 
arjg ttj; Pukurlug, i^ inl tij tw»' 'Pojfiulwv ojcptXeia. nenQu.y6ui- 
ol fttv yocQ' ElS^Tioi, si) nQixrTovreg Trjv acpCjv /djQav yariXinov, 
iv ro) exovreg ndarj ttJ raXarict ndXefiov sycpeQSiv, yal ravTijv 
KaTuarQeifi&ftevoi, x^Qo^v fiev, rivTiva iveQyoTurrjv yivdaxoiev, 
iavrolg i^eXiaOaf rriv d' iilhjv unaaav rixi.ariuv {inOTsXri 
exeiv. jdedfiedu 8i aov, icpaaav, iaaat 1'ifiijig avvoSov nuarjg 
TTjj ruXarlug non\auadaf sxofisv yixQ avv rrj ndvTwv twv 
T^dXlojv yrwftri rl nixQu aov SelaOui. 01 ftiv obv oviaig elnov. 
rsvoiiirov 8' airolg rovrov nuQU rov KulanQog, avvioftoaav, 
fii]8ivu allov, el //»j roiig ino nuvrojv tw»' TuXIojv inl ravio 
ulosTovg, ravra tw KuLauQt dinuyysXslv. 

XXXI. TuvTijg filv ohv rrjg avriidov ^avvuOQOiadeiaijg, ol 
aiTOl r]St] nQug riiv Kulauou ikOivrsg UQXovTsg ribv ndXeaiv, 
Tors xnl nobg uvrbv inuVTjldov^ Seoftsvoi asyxoiQslv nsQl re rrjg 
acpiiir yui Trj? mivroiv rwv (^Aiw»' TdllMV aojrijQlag nQog aiiTbv 
dtuXiyeaditt. Tovtov ftev ohv rvxbvrsg, nuvreg n^bg rolg noaiv 
aviov SeSayQVftiroi, nQoaineaov, odx ^ttoj' inidvfielv Xiyovrsg 
Tu yoiroXoyrjdivra ui) ixSijuoaieijeaOui, ^ acpiaiv uneQ [iovXovrat, 
naou rov KnlauQog yirsadnr oxi iiv uiija SrjfioaievOii aucp 
Tj&sauv taxvQMg riftaiQTjabftsvoi. 'YnsQ ui^riliv 8e ^tStriuxbg 6 

Edovevg, Xbyovg notovftevog, toi6.8b eXs^sv. ^Eyivovio ftsv, 
eqrj, Svo 71^; J^uluriug axlufiura- inv rov filv ivbg ol 'ESovsig, 
OuTiQov 8' ol \fQfjiQroi '>]qx'>v' 0? ineiSi) noXiiv xQ^vov rolg 
ESovs.vai nsQl ttj; TaXuilug (xQx^? uvTtjyaivlaavro, riXog acplaiv 
aiiTolg ou niarsiovreg, fitaOo)iovg nuoix rCov Feqfiavijjv ftsre- 

r?;TEnpRES anjEcvs. lib. i. 203 

ntfixpav 10- w*' x6 nQwiOf ^tv /.iviiioi, /n6vov xul nsviaxia;(lhot 
ihv 'Fi]vov dii6t]cruv- ensna ds ^v^Qsq ayQioi ovioi, xal Gdto- 
SuQOi, ifi x*^Q^ ''"^ ^^ diuiirj iTJ T£ rG>v rdU.wv dvv&fisi iB^q)- 
diyxBg, nlelovs xni nXelovg insQumOtjaixv &aiB airwv vvv 
eiaiv iv I7J raluria (Lg duidsxa fivpiCtdeg. Tovroig /niv oi' 0' 
Edovelg xai ol ixelvojv ovfijiuxoi ana^ xul dlg avve6al.ov, 
' Htrtjdivreg de, fieyuliDg r^ivxrjauv nuvtug fiiv yuo rovg 
edysveTg, naa&v rs t^v acplhv avyxXjjrov, ndvrug re nQog toi- 
TOtg rovg Inniag dniSulov Siaff ol ttj atpihv nork dvvd/nei, xal 
TTj nqbg rovg 'Pwuulovg ^evlcf re xai qpti/a fiiyiara ioxvaavreg 
'Edovelg, rolg ^exuvolg vvv ofirjQOvg dovvai, joitg n<ivruiv tuv 
TTJ; aqpibv noleMg <jtQlaro)v naldag, xai dfioaai, fj fti^v ftrjSi rovg 
uMrJooujj linuirriaetv, «'jre ^otjdelag nuQu rii)v ' Pojfiaictiv, Serioea- 
Oixi, fii\re ye naQairiiasadat rov fir^ dta navrbg rwv JSexavav 
{inaxovFtv. Kal uir^g ftiv, eeprj, fi6vog elfil iyib, oartg iv naai, 
roig ' ESovevoiv, i) rolg &Xl.oig avvoQXuiuorelv, ^ yovv ofir^Qovg 
rovg etiovg nuldug Sovvui, ovx -ijdvv/^Otjv neiodfivai, Kal Sti 
r^iv aliluv ravirjv ix rr^g ribv ' ESoviwv noXeutg nQoqivytijv eig 
Ti^i' 'P(l)Utjv, neQi Sotjdeiag nQug lijv ysQOvoLav nuQsyevoftrjv^ 
ort fiovog iyw oiirs ye evoQxog rjv^ oijre ofii^Qovg iSeScitxetv. 
\,4ki.' oi yefi-fjv ^sxavoi vevtxrjxoieg, xdxiov vvv rtbv r^rrridiv- 
r(ov 'ESovioiv nQdrrovoiv. ' fiev y<xQ r(bv reQfiavwv SuaiXsvg 
'^QidSiaiog iv ttj ixelvcuv /(oqcc xurafiivet, xui t^j raXarlag 
iveQyoniitjg ^exavixrig yri; ro rQiiov fisQog xurixei- vvv 8' eri 
rov (iXXov jQirov fiEQOvg tovg Sexuvovg i^laraadat oi xeXever 
ort dliyotg n^b rov fiijolv '^qovSojv Svo fiVQidSeg xal rsrQuxia- 
•^lXiot a-bT(D nQoar^XQov, olg x^Qc*' ''''*' erotfxdt^ef S)or' ix 
roviujv avfiGr^aeiut, niiviug fiiv roTug rdlXovg rr^g ocpmv x^Q^? 
iK6hjdi\aeadai- ndvrag Se roiig FeQftavovg toi' 'Pr^vov Stu^r[- 
aeodut. (ou fiiv ydiQ ttJ rav r<^l,X(t)v x^Qf ^ t^^ FsQftuvMV 
oitola, oi)S' ^i rovTutv ^ioisla rr^r (j)v rdXhov nuQaGXfiriu). '0 
Se Si\ '^Q$66iaTog, rovg r&XXovg iv ttj '^fiuysro^Qlcf unu^ 
fiuX'^ v.xr^aug, vniQoyxdv t» xai HyQiov &qxbi- ofir^Qovg fiiv y(\Q 
lovg ndviojv rutv ixQiarojv aliel nulSag, xui e'i'it ye n^dg re tw 
vevuari, xui rrj ixelvov yvditri ov noieliui, oiiSsv o rt rwv Setvo- 
rdrw»' TOurots Tor^ ofir^QOig ov Squ- dviiQ S' iaiiv dQyilogre xal 
')'XQ6uQog, xui nixQ&roXuog, xai to olov i] ixslvov itQX^ ovx ^r' 
ivexiog' uar' sl fii] ino aov, KalaaQ, xai ribv aXi,o)v 'Po)f/a[ojr 
6oiidovfit0<t, ni^ivisg ol r6iXXoi tavjo rolg 'El6rjiloig notelv 
uvuyxaadrio6fieda- ix fiiv rr^g i-^fteriQug yr^g i^eXOfLV, x^Q«* 
Si Tiv<x noQQO) dcno rwv rsQuavibv <l(fscr<j)aav t,r]re2v. Ei Ss 
ys & Xiyot vvv, tw '^4Qio6loi(a innyyeXdrj, oix i^tf/ipl rov fii 
rtvxi uvtiiv rovg nag' eavrio ofii^iQov-- iicpstZioiara ttfiojQr^ascdui, 


y4lXu ai>, KalcTuo, ^] ttJ aavTOv re xal rov di^uou tw^ ' Pot./itccloj^v 
qiiffUT], ^ Kui rri; pecoarl ravirjg ycaxu roiy 'Ei.iyrjrlojy vlitTjg do^r^ 
xwkveiv, fi-q fieiCoiP iLQidfib? reQ/.invu)v elg ti^i' raXazlav (haSrj, 
xal Tiaaav rrQbg rovroig ti^j' rnkarlav rov '^oioSiarov dvvaacb 

XXXII. Tavra rov ^iSiziaxov flrrovtog, ol /uev uXlov nav 
Tsg riUMQOv a(p[ai ysveadau rbv Kalaaqa ululofreg Ixsievov. 
Mdvovg 6h rovg Uexavovg 6 KaZauq ovdlv filv rovioiv rtotovvrug, 
d.vtaoovg S^ , yrtl rag y.ecpaXdg 6.veiftivovg re xdcroi GXirrov- 
rag }tnravot]a&uevog, rl nori r eVrj rovro duvudaag, avroiig 
[ihv rjQdntjaev ixelvcov d' ovdev CcnoicQtvauivoiv, -Aal rov Kaian- 
Qog noXXrx neol tovjmv iQr^nriaavTog, 6 ' Edoveig ^iOiriaxbg oviwg 
aircp dcney.Qlvaro- \^iXV oi 2exavol, KalauQ, roaovTa TU)v &XXwv 
J^dXXojt' x&y.iov nQ&TTOvatv, octq) avrol fibvoi, ovd'' iv dcnooorirco 
ddvoeadai', ov(iF. yeftiiv 6or]6slag ov roXuwai ^deTadai. Tolg fjsv 
yuQ aXXoig FikXXotg (pevysiv oiov x iarl, rolg SsKavolg S' ov. ' 
ftev yaQ 'AQtoStarog ev xs Trj iy.elvoiv /(OQCf xaTufiivet, xal n&aug 
Tug avTwv noXeig icp eavrbv noiTjadfisvog, ovSei o rt aiiols 
TCdv Seivordrojv ou Soa. 

XXXIII. TrxvTu 6 KnTaaQ dxovaug, rovg F&XXovg nuQEfiv- 
driauTO, Tovro havrw fisXijasiv ttiroTg inoax^fisvog- fiey&Xag y(\Q 
iXnlSag '^)(eiv, rbv 'AQtbStaxov noXXu iw airov re xal twv ' Pw- 
fiaiwv evSQyerrjdivru, vvv tovtimv fiefivijftivov navasoOat Tr^g 
vSQeojg. TovTwv fcev rdre siQTjfiivo)v,SiiXvas Tf^v &Y0Qav. Xo)olg 
Se rovro)v noXXrx avrbv rov rovrcp rw nQ&yfJurt eyxsiQsTv nao- 
dSvvs- nQwrov fnEV yuQ Tovg 'ESoveTg noXX&xtg avfifi&xovg ff inb 
Twv ' Pwfialo)v X(xl dSeXcpovg xexXrjuivovg, vvv inl roTg PenuavoTg 
ysvofiivovg, xal noXXovg acpSiv naQu ToTg 2exavoTg ovrag dfirjoovg 
SQjQu- suvTW Ts xul ToTg 'Poiualoig, roauvTrjg oiiatjg rrjg ixsi- 
vwv (JtQxrjg, ulaxQOV ■^ysTro eJvat. "Enetra Sk xal roig PeQfiuvovg 
xaru fiiHQbv Tuv 'Pr^vov StaBaivstv, noXv T ^S-q nXr^Qog avx(ijv 
iv rr\ rnXarlct. sivni ivvootfisvog, ix roirwv ftiyav roTg 'PoJftalorg 
neQie(j)Qa inijQrijfiivov xlvSvvov ovx wsro yuQ ('xv nwnoie rovg 
drjQtdjSetg TovTovg Toig divSQag ndaijg ttj? PuXariag iyxQurelg 
yevofiivovg, dnoaxiadat, &v {onso v^Sr] ol KlfiSQOt rs xal ol Tov- 
Tovot enon\aavTo) rov elg ttjv inaQ;(ictv, x(^vTev6sv elg a-drTjv 
%woeTv tt)v ' IraXiav xal Tavra tov 'PoSarov fibvov Trjv rwv 'Pw- 
(ittio)v inuQ/iav dnb Twv ^Ssy.ovatavwv &noTifivovTog- SjaTS Toi- 
tw»' 6 KaTauQ ^dsXe nQoXaSojv intfisXsTa6af 6 yocQ 'AQtbSiaTog 
oviojg insQSCfiQbvet, re xal ifisyaXrjydQSt, &aie oix ^zs iS6xet 

XXXIV. "ESo^s ftsv ovv Tw KniauQt ai^Toi Sta. ruvTa avyys- 
viadai, xal ^inefitfji ^riva Serjabftevov nirov, tivu Timov iv ftiaca 


ttcaT^QO)v joij' arnntTCoy, noog t6 elg Xuyovg (iAi>jio/s ildtlv, i^ai- 
QETaBai- oti tti)T(o TTSol loj/' itucporeootg av/nq)SQ6vT0Jv ■nQncyud- 
Tw»' /^'jC'" avyylvsadai. 'O 8h '^Qiu6iaTog tu5 tov KulijaQOS 
(ivv^Aw irxsxolvaio. 'yiXV ^Xdov &v, 'i(pr], ej^d) naQO. tuv Kai- 
auQtt, el ixfivov exQTjCov waauTwj ovv ixelvov nuQ' ifis xQi^ 
ildetv, eht, nuQ^ i/uov deXei- nQbg lOvTOig di, ^MQlg aTQaTev/xa- 
Tog eig T)]»' ino tw KalaaQ I^alaTlav iQ/ol/jTjv iiv, oiiie, y* 
iivsv jueydXijg dantivrjg rs xal noXkl^g daxoi-lag ti^i' aTQUTtd.v etg 
evu awuyeiv dvvalfiijv. 'ylki.a yoiQ, eqp^, 6av/Jijc'(^ui, tL iv Tr| 
ijxri ruXuTlq, ^^v iyd xaTenoke/nrjaa, S T6 Kulaao, xal ol aXkoi 
Fu)/iaioi OiXovai,. 

XXXV. TovTbJV tQ KatauQi unayyeXOivTUJv, nQioSetg rtdliv 
nodg Tov 'ytQioSiaTOv, Totdide Xiyeiv avjolg innsiXug, eni/iifjaTO. 
" Ene/tips /liv ■fi/tag KulauQ, w 'yfQi66iaTe- cprjai di, OTt insidfi 
aii Toaavia -bn' uvtov ts xal Tibv ' P(x)/iulu)v ev nsnovdihg, ojctts 
inl T^b ixelvou inuTelug ^uatXiu rs xul cplXov inb t^; yiQOvalag 
^ifuyoQevdr^vai, vvv (xVTi tov x&qiv tovtojv ^ixslvca dnodidovai, 
tovvuvtIov elg Xoyovg iXdslv^ xixlneQ in' uvtov derfielg^ SuQvvt^ 
ovTS neQ't, tCw xoivCov dt//cpoiiooig nQuy/idiojv udrQ SiuXiyeadui> 
diXeig, TuvTu aol iniaTiXXef noCoTov /tiv, nXelovg tw^ reQ/tuviav 
elg T-ffV raXuTiuv /lii di.u6t6(x'Ceiv- eneira di, Tovg '^uiJTCbv nuQi 
aol bvTug 6/ir^QOvg CinodovvuL ts, xat Tolg 2exuvolg avyxojQslv 
waneQ ainol e^ovatv unoni/ineiv, /ir^T.' sti, lovg 'Edovelg i^oiCetv^ 
/n\Te ye ixelvoig, /ir^TS ToTg uiribv av/t/Kxxoig d.8ixo)g n6Xe/tov 
intcpiQE(v ai xeXevei,. Kul si /iiv ovtcj notSig, ixeTp6g ts xul ol 
aXXov 'PbJ/iuToi aol cpiXoi, nsiQ&aovTitt, diuylveadai,' el dk /iri, 
(inl inuTcov /liv yaQ MdtQxov MeaauXu ts xui MaQxov IJeiaco- 
vog, Tl yeQovala Tibv ' Po)/iaiwv , TOi^ tijs iv T-fj FuXaiLcf inuQxiug 
iniTQOnevaovTu, Tovg 6' ' EdoveTg xal Tovg uvtCov av/i/i(jL)(0vg, iv 
tiaCf) ye oi 'Pto/tuTot, /ti] 6X&nToivT0, d6Xu6eTg diuau)'C,eiv iif/rjCfi- 
a«ro) diu tuvtu uiv ovv TOvg 'EdoveTg vvv inb aov iSQit^o/iF.vovg 
ov neQi6ipeTui,. 

XXXVI. 01 fiBV lavia T(S '^Qio^Laro) eXeyov. 'ExeTvog 8' 
u.nexQLvuxo. ' yiXXa dLxuiov tovi' eartv, ecpij, iv lai noXi/m, Tovg 
XQUT-i^auvTag tCiv r^TTr/divTcov, otiwj &v SoiXoovTui, ii.Q/eiv ofre 
Pai/tuToi 5)v ixQdx-ijauv, ov nQog ti^»' diXXojv yvch/trjv, dtXV oncag 

&v acplai, Soxri icQ/ovatv^ ' Slg /tiv oiiv iyii) uiToTg, tov /ir^ iXev- 
diQOjg TO) acpLat, 8ixniu) jj-^jja^at, ovx ivoxXC), (hauviojg tovt6 
us 8eT nuQ' ixeLvcov ndaxeiv. 01 /tiv yuQ ESovsTg TTJi too noXi- 
/lov Tvxrjg netQ&auvreg, xal /idtxr} vn' i/tov ■i^TTrfiivTeg, inoreXsTf 
/101, yeyivTjVTttL. Kul 6 KuTauQ /teydXojg /t (x8ixeT, oartg iv6(i8s 
naQuyevb/ABvog, roig i/iovg TjidTTwae (poQOvg. Tovto 8' uiT^ 
itnuyyeiXaTE- ijg ToTg 'E8oveiat. toig avTUiv o^rj^ouj oix (xnoScii- 

20(> c, jTTLii c;esaris 

aco. '^P.r sl filv yaju rag nQog /ne avv6r\x(xg noiovai, xcxl ibt> 
avvTsdirTix 8aafi6v juot, xax eTog Tskovai, noXeftoi' oi x t^olao} 
in niTovg' sl 8e jUi'/, sv ('ctts, ort n6^()(t} to nQog Tovg ' Futfialovs 
ikdsXcftxov ovofia dniaBrat avTolg. '^ d', ftoi, (hg 
ddtxovfiivovg vn' iftov Toiig ''Edovelg ov nsqidipsTat, ovdelg, scpr], 
OCTTtc ^avfiGnXwv fii] oi'/ ■i]XTr\drj, iyivsTO- waO' 6n6i (xv aijTaJ 
^oxi^, fioX avfiGaXiTOi). 1'vwasTai, ftev yuQ, rivsg oi avv ifiol 
iixuTufiuyjjToi TB xixl sv ToTg onloig ifinstQ^TuTOi, FsquuvoI, iv 
SsxctTiaaaqaiv oAoij 'sTsaiv inuldQioi diafiElvuvTsg, iv tcji 
noXiftci slalv. 

XXXVII. 'Ev TuvTCD de /^o»'(B laCTd: re tco Kulauot, dirjy- 
ysXXovTo, Kul nQia6eig nuQ^ re tw*' 'Edovsojv xal tCdv TqsvIqiov 
aijToJ rikfiov Twv fiEv, fisftcpoftsvoi, oTt ol '^Qovdsg vecoaTl slg 
xriv FuXutLuv nsQaioidivTsg ttjJ' acpcbv x^^quv ih/tCovTO^ Xiyov- 
rig 6' chg siQriVTjg nuQdt jov ' AQt.o6iaTov, xulnsQ ofirjQovg aviu) 
d6vrsg, tvxsIv firj dvvacvTO- Tcbv 8h Tqsviqcjjv, iicuiov cpvXug 
2ovBv(i)v, Naaovu ts xai Kifi6r]Qiov dSekcpCov r^ysfiovcxtv, nQug 
Talg TOv' Privov oxdaig aTQUTonsSevaaadai, xal Tuvrug ini-xsi,- 
QSlv rbv noTUftov 8ia6aivst,v d.yyiXXovTsg. TovTOig fii.v ohv 
nsiadslg 6 KulauQ TOlg X6yotg, ansvaTiov lauTW r^ytjcraio sjvai, 
firj Trj ToD ' AQioGlaTOV nuXaia aTQUTicx xal TuvTTjg Ttjg tCov 
SovsvMV xstQog avf/ftt^ixa7]g, 8vaxsQiaTSQ0v ain^ SvvaiTO dvTs- 
jfsij'. ToiyuQOvv ihg r]8vvi\dT] t&xcotu tov otqutov sntaiTiad- 
fisvog, inl t6v 'AQi66tajov r']knas. 

XXXVIII. Tqi(J)v 8' ■fjfiEQibv oSov avjcj ^8t] dvvauvji, linTjV- 
ysXdr], TOJ' 'yloJO^toTOJ' TiaJ^Ti fruj' tw ajQUjsvfiuTi inl t6 ti^i' 
Beaoi'TiC)vu, n6kiv jCov 2sxuvCov fisyiaTr]V, xuTuku6eXv, untivai, 
^j8)] TS TQiCbv rifiSQCbv 686v ix jr^g savjov /w^af nQOeXTjXvOivac. 

Oioig 8i fir) tovto avfSr^, nQOVor^riov fi&i.iaTa slvai 6 KulauQ 
■fjyeiTO- iv juvTJ\ fisv yCiQ ttj niiksv n&VTWV tCov stg t6v noXsfiov 
XQ)]aifHx)v noklij ivljv licpdovia. Avtt] ts ovicx) cfvaec CoxvQCtiTO, 
WOTS iTQog Tov n6kefiov iniJT]8siOT&TT]v slvui. Tdi ftev yCtQ nora- 
fi(b 'Ak8ovuadov6i, ib? in^ Jivog 8iu6riTOv, nSQikufi6uvofiEvr], 
naaa axsddv nSQiQibvvvTat,- t6 8' in6koinov fisQog iTjg nokstog, 
rj 6 noTuftbg Siukeinsi, ov nkslov ov ^nivTS aTuSlbov, iijiTikoTi!tTC^ 
hQSt, nSQiixSTat,- coaO' ut tovtov ni'Qui. CificpoTiQCiiBsv eig tov no- 
juftbv xud^xovai,. Tovto 8a t6 OQog ToTxog neQioiyo8oiiT]dslg jfj 
nbksi avt^siiyvvai, xal d.XQ6nokiv avT'^? toCto dTTf^yti^STat. 
'Enl juvTT]v ftiv ohv jrpi n6ki,v 6 KaiauQ vvxT6g rs xul ijfiiQug 
68evC))v coQfti]aev, avriiiv ts xujaax^ov, cpQOVQUv iviaTTjaev. 

XXXIX. 'Ev jaiijri 8' avjovTCov intT7]8sio)v evexu ov nokkig 
■fiftiQug 8i,uTQl6ovTog, ol fttv avTov aTQuTiCbiui, (hg scxbg, nsQt 
rdiv J'eQttavwv, bnoToi Tivsg sjev, ^ioi)g rCtkkovg r.ouTOjJ'. 01 8i 


y^puaav, inEQfisyiOeig le xwi ii}.xifi(ax&TOvg elvai, ix^dfiai; zoi)g 
I^SQjuuvovg, aixoiig t* ^fineiQlcfnoXifiov ineQ66.Xi.eiv ndvjug 701)5 
dikXovg tifdQ(I)novg' eavroig yovv no}.i.tixig airolg avuSuXslv, iXk' 
ovd^ xul Tu ngdaoina /uovov xal tu dsivu avTtbv oQdjuura 
Svvr/Orivut (ivi/eo6ar waT' tx roviuiv roaovrog i^alg)vr]g (pdGog 
nauuv riiv rou KalauQOS aTQuxiAv xurihuGev, war' ovx ()kiyov 
ruQarreadui, ndvrag roi/g argari(otug. Kal oviog nQWxov 6 
tp66og rolg rs ra^idQxoi'?, '<«' TOt? ajQurrjYOig, rolg r Ix xr^g 
P(si(ir]g rbv KalauQu xurd (fiiXluv /uovov dxoi.ov6riaaaiv, o,«ws 
Sk ov niivv nQog roiig ivuvxiovg ixixlf/oig ovaiv, ivicpv. OSrot 
fthv yuQ iiXXog dilXT]v nQ6(f)uaiv n QoGuXXofisvoi, di r^v dvuvxulov 
aiflatv blvac rb (jiaeMslv ^Xeyov, rov Kixlaaoog iSiovro avy%(a- 
Qslv (tvxoZg in' oHxov liniivcxi, sviot Si y uvr&v, naQixsiv (p66ov 
SoSav oix d^iouvrsg, xar iftsvov ftiv. Oviov Seovrs axxjfiuri^Q- 
Ea6uL nojg Ixavol ^aav, oxiis y' ivlore rd. SdxQva inixevv 
ijSvvuvro' xaraxQvnrofievoi S' ev rulg acpibv axijvaZg, 1) Tr^v 
a(pihv ^vficpOQav xur(x)Xo(pvQovxo , ryt ohv ftexd ru)v oixsiojv rov 
xoivov xivSvvov enoxviwvxo, xul fteaxd r^v ndvrit xwv rdff 
SiudT^xag noiovvxojv. "Enenu Sk roZg rs xovrojv }.6yoig rs xal 
cp66oig xul uiroi ol tw axQaroniS(o iv roZg axQurr]yi,xu)xdxoig 
dy6fisvoo axQuriaral rs xul x^XIuqxoi. xul innuQ/ot ixuQdxxovro. 
Tovxo)v S' ol }\xxov Ssikoi SoxeZv diXovxeg, ov xuv noXifiiop 
kuvxoig inoxQsZv, dHd icif Te TCd»' oSibv oxsv6x)]rug, xul x6 rav 
fisxa^v a(pCov rs xal rov ' AQio^Larov ivovowv iXihv fiiysdog, ij 
xul rb SvoxoXov TTJg otrayoiyiag SsSiivat 'e(puoxov. "Eviot Si ys 
xai Tw KaiauQt dnriyysiXuv, (hg ottoi' dv fisraarQuxonsSsvsadai 
diXrj, roZg rs arQart(bratg Td arjfieZa aiQea6ut naQuyyiXXrj, 
dnsi6iat nQog xovio roZg axQuxidxatg Sid rov ixeivoiv cp66op 

XL. ' Slg fisv ovv TjCT^ero 6 KuZouq cp66dv Siadiovxa iv xrj 
axQariq, avyxuXsZ ndvrug rovg OLQxovrdg rov axQarevfiarog, 
'Enei Se avv7\X6ov, toxvQwg avxoZg fiefX(p6fievog, sXe^s roidSi;' 
AvSQsg (piXot, rovxo fisv ifiZv fidXiora iyxaXCo, ort onot t£ xul 
i(p' OTM ifidg dyo), noXvnQuyfiovsZxs' nQ(hrov fikv yuQ tov 
'AQio6iarov, ifiov inursvovrog, lOxvQ&g xrig nQog xovg ' Pojfiuiovg 
fptXiag inidvfir'joavrog, sneiru 6avfid'Coj nwg dv rig ixeZvov ovroi 
QaSio)g nQoeoduv Soxoir]. IJoXXa fidXXov S' iyw duQQW, ixsZvov 
Ti^v T ifir\v yv6vra aXrr]Otv, xui xr\v Sixai6xr]xu uirrig xaxavor^' 
auvxa, ovrs x-^v nQ6g fis, ovxe ti]v nQog xoig ' Pojfiuiovg cpiXiav 
nuQutxriaeiv- n^bg xovroig Si ye, el xai dvftCo xs xui dcpQoaivri 
neiadel:, noXsfiov i\fiZv 'snicpiQOt, xi S^f^noxs ovxojg oqqoiSsZts ; ^ 
T-ivog y' evsxu nsQi re tTjc; ifteriQug dXttrjg, xui t^j ifi^g 
ivvXnll^srs nQodvfilug ; Toirov ftkv rov noXsftiou ini rwv 


Ti/uEtigcof narigtav insiorxadiuedoc, unors ruiov Mugiov toi;? ts 
Kiudqovg xni Tovg Tovropovg ix ir^g ' Ixallug i^eXticruPTOg, ovj( 
^liTOv dc^iinaifoi ol aTQUTi^ittb tCov aTQUT?iyCot> evo/uladrjaav. 
' EnEiqdtdrjjxsv 8h kuI iv t&j vscoaTl nqog xovg Sovlovg sv ttj 
' IraXla noli/JU), xuItoi, TOvTOig r\TS xqsIu xui t^ 5ida/^ r-^v nuQ 
■^lfiibv nuQiladov, fiiya avvsG&XXsTO- &g t' ix rovrojv Qudiov 
iari j^rwj'»*, noaov iv t(3 noXifia i) awq^ooavvrj avfiSaXXsTUf 
o\,g nois jUEV yuQ ^dnXovg sixrj necp66)jads, tovtwv snsna 
ihnXia/xivaip re xul viXTjribv ixQUTr^auTS. IlQdg lovioig 5' 
ixslvoi ubToi o^xoi staiv ol rsQfiuvoi, ovg noXldxig ol 'ElCr^Tioi 
ou fiovov iv xri acpCbv, (iAA(i xui iv tt^ ixslvcjv uviCbv /(ri^xj:, fKJ^X''} 
rsvixT^xnaiv, iaonuXslg 8' oimg rr^ ijftsriQCi axQuTtu ysviaOat 
fi^ 8vvr]divxsg. El 8b r] rCov r&lXcxrv inb rov '^QioGlarov rjTTa 
ixcpoSsi, ovToi i^sr&t^ovrsg t6 nQayfia, siQr^aovai, roTg rdO.loig 
inl Tw nolifcca fiuxQOXQovlw "^svofiipcg ^8i] xsxftr/xoai, xui oiux 
sTi fiuxsladui, rov '^QioSiarov vofiiQovai, xui 8iu. rovro (xruxToig 
ovai, ixsivov noXiv )(q6vov ev te tw aTQaToni8(o xui vXd)8sat 
XQvGivru r6noig &(pro] inidsadai- loais fiaXXor dnurrj rs xal 
86Xa), 7| diQETri Ts xni (iXxri nvro-dg vixrjaui. El cxvrrj fiivTOi i^ 
dm&rrj xar (xvSqCov 6uq6(xq(ov rs xui rov noXsfJOv (x8u7]u6v(x)V 
laxvasv, -fj xttl ourw rr^v rjUSTiQuv aTQurtuv r^irr^iasadui, vofil^C,- 
ETS ; 'AXXd yuQ, Ecprj, dQuasZgfiuXiaiijL slaiv ol rbv acpCuv cp66ov 
nqog rs t6>' alrov xui rug Tijg 68ov aTsvoirjTixg (jcvucpiQOvrsg, 
nsol rs rou ifiov diovrog (ivsXnll^Eiv, xai sftoi nQoaT(j.TrEiv 
roXftCovTsg' rovrcov yaQ iftol ftiXst' xal ru ftiv intri(\8sitt ol 
Ssxnvoi olie ^Asvxoi i)u'iv noQlaovat, nsQi 8e Trjc 68ov uviixa 
yvdasads. "Oit 8^ noXXCx aXXu nuQ(x rCiv arQuruoiihv Xoyonotsl- 
rai, xal d-fj xui OTi ifioL r ov nelaovTai, ov8i ys ra arjfisiix 
d.Qovat, roiiotg ov8' onojaovv iyi) ixnXr^Troftnc et8wg, ort 
6n6aoig rb nqiv rovro avviS)], rovroiv uItIu iyivsro, ^ otj. iv 
Toi noXift(g rjrvx^jaav, rj x oiiv rt xuxovQyriaavTsg n&vrwg aSixot 
riXiyxdr]aav iftov 8i rriv fiev 8ixui6Tr]Tu 8td navrbg, t^v 8' 
svrvxlttv ix rov nqbg rovg ' EX6rjriovg noXifiov iyvchxttTS. 'AftiXst 
o ini nXslov &v d.vs6uX6fi)]v, Tovro vvv nttQuarT^ao), xul ix ttjj 
rsrdQrrjg cpvXuxrig ivdsv8s i$eA(iaw- 2ra r^kxtota xttTafi&dca, 
noiSQOv TT^»' ttl8(i) rs xui rb ir8iov, -J) rbv cp66ov nsQi nXsiovog 
ifislg notslads- iiv 8i xui oviojg ov8elg snrjTui, iyih 8' ofttog axrv 
fiovu), w ftdXtOTu duQQis), 8BX(i.r(a rdyfiari noQSvaoftav rovro re 
^8oQV(poQtx6v ftot rdyfitt 'iasrur (rovT(a ftiv yuQ rCo riyftaTt 6 
KuurnQ ftiXiara ianov8u^e, laxvQCbg re 8td r^v dQSiriv iddQQSt 

XIjI- Tixvjtt sln6vTog rov KctiauQog, duvfnxaTwg vidvTsg oi 
orgartwcui fiersvoijauv xul noXXi) nQodvftiu nvjolg jov ftd- 


)(Bo6tti ivtyBVSTo. Kai to fj.t.y dixaioy T&y/nu diu jCiv )(iltuox(t)v 
}(dQtjag aurw, oit joiavri^v nsgl aq)(bv Eix^ d6^uv, (hiuoi.6yi]- 
aav- kxolfiovg Elvai elg tt^J' f^&XV^ XiyovTEg. "EnBna d^ kuI ol 
&i.i.oi' aiQaTimai, did rs rwv /iXi&gx^v xal xav n^fiiriav 
Tu^idQxojv inoljjaav, StaxB tw l^aLauQi 8ia}^Xayi\vai,' ^ovSinoxB 
ipoGijOr^vaL te, o]jis t}\v dioLxrjaiv lov ^iolifiov inl rr^ atpibv 
yvdfiTi, dXla Trj tov uiroxgdroQog eivui, vofiiaai, Xiyovrsg. 
TavTi]v Ti\v nQocpaaiv 6 KaZauQ unods^difisvog, xal diu rod 
^iGtriuxov, aj nHvruiv jav TdXXaiv fi&Xiaru sniaTsvs, t^v odov 
^dftcpi Tu xlXiu diax6aia xai nsvriqxovru OTddia mjLVTodsv B^STd.- 
aug, TT] TeTuoTTj (ihg xui iv jr\ ixxXijalcf Tolg arQuTKhiuig {inia- 
j^j^TJfftKTo) (pvXaxri evTsvdsv avv tcj arQuxs-ufiaTi, (xnrjQSv. ' E6do- 
ftuLtp d' «urcj noQSvofiiKi) dni\yyEi.Xuv ol xurdaxonoi, (hg t6 
TO\>\4Qio6Larov arQdcrsvfiu dcno jov j&v 'PMftaicjv ov nXelov nev- 
TuxooLcov arudLcDV dni;(oi. 

XLII. '0 (5' 'AQi66tarog ti^v tov KuLauQog icpoSov yrovg, 
iniaiBiXsv avri5- (hg vvv, sneidii iyyvJSQOv ^lOsv, o nQorsQOV 
TjTTjCTe»', ixsLvco iniTQinoi- NofxLt,siv yaQ eXsysv, vvv dcxifdvvwg 
ToDro dvvaadui noiSLV, Tovio fisv oi naQi]jrj<TSv 6 KalauQ- 
abicpQOvsTv (5' -fjj»/ avjdv ivofiiQsv, ort o nQOrsQOV kuvrG «irrj- 
aavTt dnTjQVT^aaTO, tovjo vvv ixovaiog ^nia/vEijo' iv fteydlv^ 
t' inl Tovroig iXnldt iyivsjo, avjov t^»' avftSaaiv ttjj eauToiJ 
aln^asaig yvoviu, n^d twv tov di^fiov jcbv 'P^aftuicav slg ixelvov 
EvEQyBai(bv navaeadut TTJg v6Qea}g' ■>] fihv ovv tov diaXoyiafiov 
■flfiiQu ix TavJTjg nefinrala tQQidrj. 'Ev Toirco di ducporiQCtiv 
noXXoi)g nQog (kXXn^iXovg nQio6sig neftip&vjciov, 6 'AQi66iarog tQ 
KuLauQi iniarsiXsv- fiV^Ttvug sig tov dtuXoytaftov dnXLrag (iystv. 
<l>o6slad(tt fiiv yuQ, fii[ 86X(a vnb rov KuLauQog nuQaXoyLarjTUf 
uXX' (xftcporiQOvg fisd' Inniojv iXdelv ^XXcsig 8' ovx ecpr} livat. 
fisvTot KulauQ oijxB jdv 8taXoyiafi6v nQOcp<kasat nuQuXei- 
neaOai, oifre ys t^i» ^auroO c(urj]Qiuv rotg t&v PuXXcov iyxsiQiQ- 
stv Innsvat ^ovX6uevog, ^iXtiov T^VTJaaTO elvat, n&vrug roiig 
Tibv rdXXviv 2nnovg (i.V avxav (jccpaiQeiadat, xai Tolg xov 8sx(xrov 
Tii.yftaTog ajQaji(hruig, olg ftuXtaxu iddQQSi, jovjovg 8(aQSio6af 
2vu T^*' (Jejjffij fiu/sadat, cpQOVQUv nQoacptXsaj&xijv sxot. Avtou 
8e 8^1 xavxa noiovvxog, 6iaxsl6v xt xcbv tov 8ex<!crov x&yfiaros 
axQajiooribv ti? icpdsy^ajo, Xiycav Tov KulauQU nXetov, o5 
iSmaj^vrJCTftTO, noff^auaduf inoax6ftevov fihv yuQ x6 Sixujov 
xviyftu iv x^QCf. 8oQvcp6QOV cpdXuyyog e^stv, vvv eig ttjj' lnnix8a 
avj6 xaruyuyslv. 

XLIII. ^Hv di fieyuXr] TieJtds, xal iv jairrj oi fiixQbg 
y-flXocpog, l^ taov <in dcftcporiQcov xibv ajQuroniSbJv ucpsaxcbg- iv 
Tuvxrj je KuIouq xui 6 'AQi66iaiog StaXe/dtjaofisiot r\X6ov 


xctl 6 f.dv KalauQ lovg Iuvtov Imriug anb tov TiQOEiqrjuivov 
yr^Xocpov ^arddirx nEvir^KOvra Maiiuji^aev- oiTs toD 'yfQtoSlaroa 
innelg ix toO 1'aov xaTifieivav. '0 ds '^4oi66iaTog n&hv tq 
ICaiaaoi, iniaTSiAsv, wg 6ovi.oiTO dno lav inmj)v 8in).iyf.a6ubj 
xttl nfjog TOvioig '^dvo Innelg /ued' buvtov ayeiv. 'E:iel dt 
avviikdov, 6 KulauQ wdinojg r|o|aTO toC ^oj^Of 'yiXX' oiadu /niv, 
G) '^Qi66iaTS, d)^ ai r^ ts ysQOvala xal 6 dri/nog twv 'PwjliuIujv 
6aaii.ia TS xal ^(plXov, inaTSvovTog fiov, iif)i]q>lauTO' olada dk 
xal, &g jovjo ov jolg jvxovaiv, iXlu fiovoig jolg noXldc Aynddi 
Tolg 'Pauuloig inovQy/^aaai, avvi6r]- ort ts oijis ^svog &v jwv 
' Pu)fiuiiov, ovis ys uliluv jov tuvju uIjsTv eij).oyov c^ojv, javjn 
ofiojg jrj j ifiij y.ul tijj ouyxXTJrou jibv 'Puifiuiojv svSQyeaici. 
ixjr^aM. Toauvia fiev ovv inb jibv ' Pb)ftai(t)v sv nsnovdihg, vvv. 
TOvjwv fiifivrjao. IJqojjov ftev yixQ noXXai rs xal Siv.aiav jr[g 
t5)v 'P(t)fiuiu)v nQog jovg 'Edovslg (piXiag aljluv dinyeyovaai, 
noi.).ug T aijoXg ■i^ ysQOvala, tu)v 'Pwfiaimv Ttuug eifjT](plaajo. 
'Enena d' ol fiiv 'Edovslg ndarjg ttj; ruXajiag SvvaKOTaTOo 
bvTsg, yal nQOTeQOv toO toij 'Pboftaloig cpiXoi, ysvioOui, Siuys- 
ydvaaiv. 01 Se 'PcofKxTot joiig acpav cpiXovg re xal avuufjc^ovg 
ov fiovov ovSev jr^g acpwv (kno^dXksiv ixvi^ovatv, ulku xni 
aiiovg avfifiu)riaig rs JifiaTg xal Svv&ftsaiv av^sTadai 6oi- 
Xovjui. '^yt fisv ovv ol 'ESovsTg nolv jov cpiXot roTg ' Potftaioig 
yeviaOui el^ov, tuvtu av rig 'ensua adiovg (xcpaiQeTadut ivi- 
XtjTHi ; 'AXXu xul nQug jovroig, a. aov StTaduv ToTg noea^evai 
nQdrsQOV iveTeiXuftrjV, vvv nuQWv nnoovTOg aov Sioitur nnwrov., 
fiT^TB JoTg 'ESovevai, ft-^je ys roTg ixeivojv avuftd^otg noXeftov 
inicpiQetv 'insiTa S' el fisv jovg i^Srj fieja aov reQfinvovg 
dinoniftnsadui, elg rr^v nuJoiSa firi Svvuaai, uXXu. yovv fii\ 
nXeiovg eii, rbv ' Pr^vov Siu6uivsiv (xvixeadui,. KuTauQ fiev oiv 
roatxvTU elnev. 

XLIV- ' (f ' yiQi66i,aTog SjSb Cxnrjfteicpd)], iXiyu fihv nQog 
rcts ToO KuiauQog alTi\aeig (jtnoxoivofievog, noXX^ Sk nsQi rs 
avTOv xal Trjg kavjov la^iog fteyuXtjyoQovftsvog. 'Eyo) fiiv SiiBrjV 
t6v 'Privov, 'i(p)], ovx aiTOxiXevarog, uX)^ in ixvjihv fierdnefin' 
t6? re xal naQuxXijOeig rijjv ruXXbjv oiix &vev Se fteydXojv 
iXniSo)v re xal Scoqojv rr^v r' ifffiv x^Qav xal Tovg (piXovg Stv 
xuTiXmov- xal ^v ftev iv ttj PaXaricc 'c/o) ^(bQav, avrol avve- 
j((i)Qi]aav, ovg re nuQ' avribv 'sxoj off/ioovg, rovrovg ceirofimoi 
[loi nuQiSoixav- Saaftbv Si xar& rb iv r<jj noXiftco Sixtxtov Xnfi~ 
6iivoi, '6v ribv -iiJTrjdivTOJv ol xQari^aravTeg elddaai, Xufi6<iveiv 
Kai oiix iyco roTg' PdXXoig, dXX' avrol fioi nbXefiov ini\veyxav 
unaaat fiev yuQ al ttj? PuXajiag Svv&fieig &g xurafiuxoifteval 
fie ouvriXdov, ifiol rs dvjsarQajoneSsvOavio. 'jTavJag S' ofuog 


iyih ndang /uiif. ivlmjaa iud^crj xnl eiQBifJU. El ^tf ouf uvdi\ 
avftSdXlsiv ftot diXovaiv, iyw ttal eti holfio)g ^i/b) ftd^fBaduf 
bI d' eipTJyjyy nqoaiqovvjrti, icdtxov lanv ixslvovg lov lov 8aa- 
ftbv^ o fiixQi' "^^^ ^^'^ aijouaioi, dnrivByxav, tbXbIv naqaneladni. 
n^bg roiioig <5' i^ fiiv iwv 'Pwftaloiv cpMu te xai, avftfia/ta 
xifii/\v ftoi, xal liacpdleiav, (ilX' ov SkdSrjv xQ^ naqixsw. "Hp 
8e dnjc lovg ' Pbifiulovg o re daaftog oix sti Te^^rat, o?t6 nqoa- 
XwqTfiaaviig ftoi iq^eaTCoai, oi/ ^nov -fideojg, ?) ihg t^? twv 
' Pojfialbjv q)iXlag inedvfirjaa, vvv t^^v ixshoiv crvfifiaxlav na- 
pwiTtJCTW. '^ dh a() qDrjg fie noXv nXr\dog reqftavibv elg ti^»' 
Fa}.ailuv 8ia6i6aQetv^ jovxo Iva fi' (kaifuXlao}, dXX' oi'X l^a rrif 
raXailav xaruaxo) notw' ftaqjvqiov 8e, ott, lov nolefiov nqdxsqog 
oix e^riveyxn, dAAct ftdvov uirbv -^iivvii.ftrjv. Ilqbg joinoig 8i 
xul iyib iv TTJ PaXaJla nqojeqog ■^Xdov jwv 'Pwfiatojv t6 nqlv 
ftsv y&q aTqaria jibr ' Potftalwv ttjj inixquTBlug ovSenibnojB 
ovx i^T^kdev. Ti ovv av fiot deXeig ; ^ rlvog y' svexa iv t^jj 
ifiii x^Q^ '^QXV j c^^V f^^" Y^Q ^ PaXnrla iftrj, &oneq xal ■^ 
HXXt] lav ' Poifiuloiv, eajlv inixqdueta- xul ihg filv et ndXeftov 
Trj Twv 'Pa)Uuio)V inaqxia ixcpiqotfti, oix dvexiiov ftot sjr], 
ovjo) xul iftelg ikSixoi iajs, Tijg ifirig ^qx^? f^oi dvTinoiovfievoi, 
" Oit 8e ai) qirjg Toig 'E8ovslg (fiXovg ts xal avfifi&xovg inb rr^g 
'Piuftalojv ysqovaiag &vuyoqev6rivai, oix ovjwg r]Xidi6g re xul 
d.X6ytaT6g slfti, &aTe ff^ ytviaaxeiv, tbs ovr' elg rbv xarit riov 
'AXXo6q6yo)v ribv 'Po)ftaio)v noXefiov ol 'E8oveTg airoXg eSor^- 
di]aav, oiirs y' ui iv r(5 atpibv nqog fie noXifta rotg 'Pwfiaioig 
avftftdxoig ixq"f\<Javro. ^el 8i fte inovoelv, rijv nqbg roiig 
E8ovslg avuftaxiav ae nqoipaat^oftevov, rov xadutqelv fi svexa 
rauJTjv Ti^v aTquTiuv 'sxstv. ' AXV sl firi dneXdrjg re, xul rb abv 
arqixsvua ivdivSs dLnuy&yrjg, eh iadt, ori oix &S <piXa aot, 
uXV i); noXsfiiu) xqriaoftai. Kqv fiiv a' anoxjsivo), noXXoig, sv 
oiSu, OTt aqxovat rCov ' Po)uaio)V laxvqibg x^^Ql^f^oftat, xal rovro 
ix ri))V ixeivwv dyysXiav xarifiaOov aare riiv n&vrwv rovrav 
(piXiav 7(1) ao) duv&jio dvvr^aoftut xraa^ai. "Av 8' dnsXdr^g re, 
xul iXevdiqav ftot rfiv ttjs PaXuriag dqxr\f xuruXeinrig, iy^ 
aoi lax^iqihg dvTixaqiaoituf t\v fiev y&q Ttf noT^ xur6c aov 
ndXefiog yivrjTut, roviov avsv rs rov aov n6vov re xal xivSvvov 
aot Stanq&^w. Toaavrn fiev einev 6 'Aqi68taTog. 

XLV. JloXXa 8k xai nqbg roirotg sXsyev 6 Kalaaq, SiSiia- 
xa)v aixbv, ihg oi ftr\ Svvuiro roirov rov nqayftarog &fieXeiv, 
Oiiie ydq iyih, scprj, ovff ol 'Pwftalot roig fieyiiXwg (hcpsXlftovg 
r)uiv yeyevtjftivovg avfifiaxovg slihdufiev nqoeaduf 'instra Si 
ovie (prjftl rr\v raXariav ftaXXbv aov ^ ribv 'Pwfialwv slvaf ol 
ftev yuq 'Aq^eqvol, xal ol 'Povdrjvoi, vnb Kotvrov 0a6lov 


Ma^lftov ■fjiTrjdsfrag, ojucjg vnb zfJiv 'Pcd/uuIwv avvsyvwaOTjoat'^ 
oijiF. elg inaqyiav /usraaidvTsg, ovxe ys (poqovg snnaxdsvjsi' 
wore &v fxiv lov f^taxqoiaiov /qdvov axsnno/usdu, dixuwjujol 
tlaiv ol Poj/iaToi, irjg ruXuiLng aqxsiv (iv Sa liiv jr^g 'P(x)fiulujv 
ysQOualag yvujinjv l.oyi.'C,(huBdu, xqr^ zr^v ruXailav, ripnsq xuiu 
atqBipaftsvot. uviovouEladui dqtrixa/Lisv, eXsvdiqav ysviaOui. 

XLVI. JloXXa J' ulla roiuvTu Xiyovri, rQ Kulauqi dnr/yyiX- 
6ij, rovg rou \4qio6iaTOv Inniug iyyit^stv rs rCj bqsi, xul nqog 
roiig avTOv Innsug nqoasXavvsiv, Tqdr] rs aqjsvdovav rs xal 
aKoviit^siv slg avToiig. '0 /uiv oiiv Kulaaq rovTO ixxovaag, 
dvulsyoiiBvog t' inuvauro, xul nqbg rovg suvtov inniag uve- 
XtiJqijasv udiOLg ds naqr\yysi.Xsv, /irj8hv ^iXog rolg noXsftiotg 
dviuqiivut. Einsq ydcq xutbvosi, ro slqr/fisvov rijcyfiu CtxivSvvtag 
lirnofiuxr\aui, ofitag ovk ^dsXs noislv, Sjars rovg noXsftlovg 
■^liTi/diviug dvvaaduo Xiysi,v, d'6X(a iv Toi diaXoyiafiCJ in' aijTOo 
osao(pladui. ^Ensidfi di nqbg to rov Kaiaaqog OTqdrsvfta 
SiijyyiXdi/, no!(x (xXui^ovicc 6 'AqtoSiOTOg iv rQ SiuXoyiafiO) xqij- 
aifisvog, nixai/g Tijj PuXuTiag roiig 'Ptofiulovg dnBiq^sv, ag rs 
ol ixsivov tnrrslg sig roiig ' Pojfiuiovg Sjqfiijouv, rovro rs rbv 
Xljyov rov Kulauqog navaai,- noXXCa fisitojv nqodvfiia tb huI 
anovSrj rod ud/sadai, r] nqbaOsv, rolg aTquridjTuig ivicpv. 

XLVII. Mbtu Si Svo rjfiiqug 6 ' AqioSiaTog nqsaBBig nqbg 
rbv Kulaaqu inBfnparo, Xiytov (hg nsql T(bi' 5)v rjq^uvro SiuXi- 
ysodui ^nquyfidrdjv, xqrfQoi uviiZ avyyLvsadai. 'ESbIto ftev oiv 
uvTOv, J] aii^tf iifiiquv rivd, nqbg rb slg Xoyovg uXXovg sXdelv, 
bqiQstv, ^ yovv rivu rihv suvrov nqbg raviu nuq iuvxbv nifi- 
nstv. '0 Si Kulauq xuiqbv tov StuXiysadui uvdig oiix r^yslro 
slvav- ^nqbg rovioig Ss xai rivu rihv nuq' luvrov inixivSvVdjg 
ixsivci) nifiifjsiv, y.ul olovel Sr^ rolg uyqLoig re xul ^aqSaqtxolg 
dvSqdoi roiiroig iniGuXBlv. 'AfiiXsi, Mdqxov OvaXr^qiov llqoxiX- 
Xov, •^dvSqa qojftaXsdjruTOv, rbv Patov KuGovqov, w rdiog 
BaXr^qiog fJjXdxxog 7wXtiBiav nori eSoiJXEv, Sid re rb rr^g 
PixXixTtxr^g SiuXixTOv, rj Sid t^j' avvr^dsiuv 6 'Aqi66iarog T(i 
noXXix ixqr\TO, iftneiqojg exsiv, xal ort sig avrbv 66qL'Qstv airiav 
oiix slxov oi Peqfiavoi- nqbg roiiroig rs fisr ainov Mdqxov 
TLrtov, ^ivov nork Tui 'Aqto6LaTia yevoftsvov, nqbg uvrbv 
inifiifjaro, Toiiroig, & Xiyoi 6 'Aqi66iaiog dxoiiaavTag, ^auT&J rd 
naq^ iKeivov dnuyyiXXeiv nqoard^ug. 'ExeLvovg S' ineiSii 
tdxtaia xarslSev iv tu) aTqaroniSa 'Aqi66iarog, ndaijg naqoii- 
arjg ttjj aurou OTqurtug, TLvog, ecpr], evexu nqug fte riXdsre ; r] 
rou xnraaxonsZv evsxa ; "' Se avroiig r-ijv uItLuv Xiysiv 
inixetqovvTag cx(i)Xvai rs, xal niSaig aiiioiig ISi/as. 

XLVIII. Tuvrr^ ui.v jr^ ijftiqct nqovxLvijoi le rb aiqdievfia, 


xal TETiuQijtxoyiu (ixTuj OTudiu unu tov tw»' 'i^w«a/w»' Ofgaxo- 
nidov Yi\Xoq)Oy inlnqoadev noiovi^Bvog, taTQciTonBdevauTo. T^ 
d' iaTBQala, nqooM toD aTQUTonidov xov KaiauQog t6 kuvTov 
OlQ&TBviia ^SisdlSaaev, iv yw e^/cjv twv ixn6 ts twv Edovimv 
xal rav ^exavihv ini,TtiSsl(ijv unoxlBlsiv Tdv KalauQu. ' (liv 
olv KulauQ icp i)jueQag ndvrs ig^s^rig ix TaiJr?;? Tr\v orT^aTtdj' 
i)g elg juuxrjv nuonrsTaYfiivrjv slxsv, i'va el BovIovto o^ytQidSia- 
Tog, SvvaiTO t6 aTQ<izevfia avju6(JiXi.eiv 6 S' 'AQidOiarog Taviag 
(ikv n6La'ag Tfig •^jueQug oAaf iv tS aTQaTOniSa» xariiuetv^, 
xad' ixdaTijy S' -^fiiQuv Innou&xTjae- Tovto S' rjv jo fiutxi/g 
sldog, iv (S ft&haTa iavTOvg oi rsQfiavol TJaxou»'. 'ZnnsTg fihv 
't^axiaxlXioi avTolg i^aav, xal netpl fiuXa iXutfQot re xal 
ciXxtfioi, la<jtQidfiOi, ovg iv naaiv ovtoi, ol innsTg inl tt^ a<p5)i> 
txaoTog acaTTjQla, elXovro. ' Ev fihv yuQ xaTg fiaxaig nQog TOvTOvg 
ol inneTg (ivex(t>QOvv- uvtoI Sh, sl' nov t2 Ssivdv ol inneTg n6.a 
XOiev, avviTQBxov ivxnvda' el Se xai Tt,g xuiQiwg nXrjyslg (nnevg 
xuTaninTOi, uvtov niivrodev nsQiiaTuauv el Si nov Sioi i) 
nQoaoJTiQOJ livai, '-•) tuxv uvaxojQeTv, ovTOt ol nsl^ol ToauvTr^ 
i^aav iXacpQdTTjTt ujare ToTg rwv inncov dnr/QTTjuivoig iaoSQdfioi 

XLIX. &nsiS'fi Se xaTiftadsv 6 KuTauQ rbv 'Aqi66iotov 
ix rov o ' QuroniSov ovx i^i6vTU, SeSiiog fii] inl nXeTov tCjv 
sntTtjS^MV (inoxcolirjTut, TrQoao) rs rov rwv rsQfiuvwv ctt^oto- 
niSnv iSiov nQbg arQar^nsSov eJvav ^r6nov, rthv xaraax6nojv 
ixuvaag, rQtx^^ ttjv eavToS aT^aTtd»' Sierdc^aro- xul elg tovtov 
cov ronov naQayev6fievog, Tag fiiv Svo r&^eig iv onXoig xara- 
fiivstv, riiv Se TQirrjv rb arQuronsSov XQUTivsiv nuQTliyysiXev. 
Ohrog fiiv 6 ronog T^TTa^a? (jt6vov araSiovg linb rcov noKefiiutv 
dnriv, ivravda S' 6 'AQt66iaiog SivSQug fjtvQiovg xul l^axiaxi'- 
Xiovg, xul ni'xvTag roig inneag inifnftaro, ivvoovfisvog ravTTjV 
n^y ffT^aTKi»' rovgrs' Poiftaiovg ixcpoSr^aetv xal rov rb arQarb- 
neSov XQarvveiv xcaXvaetv. " Oftcjg 5' 6 KuTauQ, wg xul rb 
nQOTBQOv SteXi^aro, T(ij fisv Sio rd^sig rbv noXifiiov dneiQyei, 
ri^v Sk rQirrjv rb HQyov anoTeXsTv nttQeyyirjae. Tovrov Se rov 
arQaroniSov bxvQtadivrog, ftiQog ftev rov avfiftuxvxov xal Sio 
T&yfiara xariXmsv T(i S' ai^« rirruQa rdyftara inl rb fiiya 
OTQaTonsSov &n-^yaysv. 

L- Ttj S' iaTeoalcf. 6 KaTauQ, 6)g xul nQbadev dievoridrj i^ 
difjicfore QOJv ribv arQaroniSojv t6 aTQdrevfta fiev i^riyuye, bXiyov 
xe (ino toO ftsy&Xov arQUToniSov nQOsXdthv, riiv arQUTidcv 
naQST&^aro re, xul savrbv aroiftov elg fidx^*' ^^'^ noXsftioie 
nuQSixst'. ' EnetSrf S' ovS' nvicjg airovg rov arQuroniSov acp(bv 
Hivsladat xuTevorjoe, neol r»;*' fitaijfiSQluv ivriyays rb aTqdt.- 


levfia. ToTE 5' 6 \4Qi6Gioxoi fxEQog ri loO taviov uiQajevf/atof,^ 
10V To fA.elop tmv. tov KulaaQo; aiqmonidoiv nQoaCuD.eiv, 
i.niiiipaTO, '^ui).E(, iqliixitiivb); iiiicfotEQOi iua/iauvio' neoi ds 
SelXjjv difdav, noXXiitv (xucfOTiQOjdEv XQojdivTojv^ 6 \^Qi6f>iaTog rb 
bavTou aiQaievfia (jLveytiiXEaev. Tw di. KalauQi lovg ai/tiu).u)- 
rovg iQOjTT/divTi, ilvog svexu 6 'ytQtoGiaiog ou avu6u).).ot lo 
OTotxTevfxu, avToi Trjv uItIuv Toiiov eivui scpaauv oit ol TeQ- 
finvoi Tug nQea6elag Iqojhxv, elojddai noreQov ftuxtjv 
avvixmeiv GHtiov eirj, ^ ovx^' ^^'^ ^s TuvTug ).iyF.iv, ovx oiov x' 
elvai loiig rsQftuvovg, ei nQdadev vovftrjvlug fi<jiyi]v avvdniotev, 
vixuf xui dtix TovTO t6>' 'AQioGtOTov ou avftOuXtlv. 

LI. Til ftev ovv vaiEQula. b KulauQ (fQOVQfxv Ixuvr^v ufiqoii- 
QOig x(xTuhn(j)v TOlg aTQUTonidoig, ndivTug 8h Toif Inniug ix 
Tov arouToniSov i^ayay(jjv, oaov ino T(bp noXsfilojv aiTOvg 
OQuadut, ivu, ort d).iyovg ruyuurixovg arQUTKjjTug xuidt. ye rb 
T03V nol-efiiojv nlrpog tl/ev, roviotg nQog otpiv fibvov iv rolg 
nXayioig /Q^^aTjTui- avrbg Se TQix^i t^l" arQuriuv noirjOtcftevog, 
fii/Qig in' avrb rb tw>' no).efilu)v arQUTo.iedov nQor^l-dbv. 
'EvTttvdd Toi ol FeQUavol d.vuyxaiojg ir. rov OTQnroniSov tt,»' 
acpow arQUTticv i^riyayov, y.uru q>vXug tb SiiTu^av i^ taov 
dlXi^Xojv rovg 'AQOvSug, Toiig MuQxofxixvvovg, rovg TQl66xovg, 
Toiig Bayyiovag, roig JVrjuirag, Tobg ^rjSovalovg re, xui tov^ 
Sovevovg, naadv tb t^iv acpwv t<!c^iv, fii] Ttg (fvyi]g ihili 
Xelnoiro, q.oQEloig rs xal uQfiuai neQiiarrjaav, xui ivTuvdu Ttxs 
yvvttlxug (xvE^iGuaav. yi'i SQvnrOfievuL rs xai rtxg xelQug nQOf 
Toig arQurithrug dyEQOfievai, n(xvrug Ixirevov, oTa ivrvy '/ii.voiev (psvysi,v, tlgTriv SovXeiav r(bv' Pmftuiojv xaruXmovTug acfiixg 
dAA' txfivvut xui kavTulg xul acplaiv avrolg. 

LII- ^'Evda Si] b KuTauQ txtxaroig ubv rtxyftuatv vnuQyov 
iniarrjaev, Ivn ovrov fttjtQrvoeg ttjj kx('iarov yevotvro ij.Qeir^i- 
aiibg Se ix tov Se^iov xiQurog, rovro rb fiioog twv noXeulojv 
dadevitfrFQOV elvui xurtSwv, fttx/ijv avvrnps. Toiaiirj] S' iyevirf 
■fj fxuyij- nQunov ftev yuQ oi ' Pojftulot, noodvftojg rb avvdijfto 
Xu6ovTEg, Tolg noXefilotg iniSoufiov sneiTu 8' ol no).ifxioi 
r&xtaTa nirolg enr]XOor, wore ayoXr^v roXg ' Pojuuiois rov lo 
d.x6vrt(n eig uvrovg txtptivut., ftr] Sovv(xt. 01 fiiv roi ' P<jjfiuZoi 
evdvg Tw SoQttTtt 6.noQQl\jjuvreg, ix xetQbg rolg ^lcpeai avaruSb* 
iftiixovro- ol Se FeQUtxvoi Tuxii, xurtx rb aviotg (ruvijOeg, ei, 
XeiQag aiirovg iSiSuvro, elg (ptxluyyn TuxOivTec. 'Eyivovro 
ivTuvOa nolXoi TOJf aiQuriojrojv^ ot eig rf^v (pix).uyya tCjv noXe 
(iloiv elQni]Si/]aavreg, rtxg z' txanlSixg «ijiw»' ix tuj' ;^£t^cu<' 
dtneamljVTO, xal uvroiig irliQoraxov. 'HiiTjOivrojv Si, xaiix rt 
ti(sjvvfiov acpwv xsQag, tCjv noXeftiojv, xuru to svavvfiov T(b> 


Puftalcjv xigag iQ acpwv nXi^dei laxvQfbg aCiovg gtiLeQov. 'O 
ovv riovnXtog KQuaaog veaviag, 8? Innaqxog '^v tov KaiauQog, 
TovTO xuTuvoifiaag, oit tjitov twv bv xr^ fidx'^ bvTUV dniilsTO, 
r^v tqIttjv T(i?tv Tor? 'Pojjualoig ^i^drj novovaiv slg inixovQlav 


LIII. " JlaTB eidvg ol /ukv PwfjLuXoi tt^v fidx^*' uvihQdcjaav 
7iuvTBg d^ oC noXifxioi iviSoaav tb, xul eig qpuyVj»' laqiiriauv, 
ovTB nqdadBv eaTrjaav, nqlv ^ nqbg tw 'Ptjvw, '^TBTxaQ^LXOVTa 
ivxevdev OTudia CcnixovTt,, iyivovTO- onov dliyoi, i) t^ orqcw* 
uQBTTi dai^QovvTeg, to*' noTUfibv diavi/ixBadai, inB/BlQTjaav, -ij 
nXoiuQluiv Tivwv evnoqr^auvTBg, iv avToTg diBawdrjaav ojg 6 
\4gi66iaTog, oj dxdTiov ngog lij yrj dedefiivov Bi)QO}v, iv uvjC^ 
dii^pvys- xal TOvg ftlv u).Xovg nCtvTug, oiw ivTvy/Cxvoisv , oi 
Innslg xarixaivov. ^ Hauv 8k 8vo to» 'y^QioOiaTO) Yvvulxeg- -^ 
fiiv 2ovevrj tb yivog, r^v xul fisd' kuvrov ix ttj; reQfxuvixfig 6 
^ AQtbSiaTog i^r^yuyev- ■^ di IVoQixii xul tov Suaikicug Bovxxlovog 
6.8e).(ffi, 7]v ino tov dSelcpov oottjj Iuvtco nefKfQelauv iv Tr^ 
fuXuTla iyeyufiifixsr a2 iv TuvTr^ itj (pvyr^ ifKpdTBQut dnioi-ovTO' 
Twv Ss BvyuTiQOjv i^ ftlv i(f0VBv6r], i^ 8' Idkcj. ^Afii).ei, xul 8 
MuQxog BaXr^oiog nQOxli.).og, iv TavTijiij (pvyri inoTibv (pvXaxibv 
TQiainiSaig avoofiBvog, slg uvtov tov KalauQu, ti^j' T(bp no).Bfii(>)V 
innov 8i(j)xovTa slainsasv i(p ov/ tjitov 6 KulauQ, tj in 
aiTrj TTJ vlxri si(pQ(jcvdri- uvSqu yuQ ndiarjg Trjg iv ttj ruXuTicx. 
inuQxlug aojcpQOviaTUTOv, cplXov ff suvtCj xui ^ivov ysvofisvov, 
vvv ix ftiv Twv xsiQuv T(bv nolsfilojv SiuaudivTu, nuQ kuvi(o 
8' bvTu ioJQu, ovTS ys Tr\ aixov SvoTv^lcf Ti ToaaixTjg 4^8ovrig i^ 
Tixrj TjXdTTiuasv. "EXsye fziv yuQ ixslvog, Toig rsQiiavovg, 
BuvTOv nuQOVTog, nuTSQOv Tu/v xuvdslr], t) xai Blg ^XXov xuiqov 
TriQridslrj, xXrjQ^hauadaf ttj 8e Ttbv xXr^Qtjv sisQysaici adov 

LIV. TavTTjg T^? f*^XV? nsQUV toD 'Pr^vov StayyeXdslarjg, 

ol TjQog T(i; toD 'Ptjvou bxOag iXrjXvdoxeg 2ovsvot, slg ttjv acpiitv 

X^Quv TOTS itvex<!}QTjaav, ovg ol OvStot, nXr/aiov tov 'Ptjj^ou ol- 

xovvTsg,ne(po6rjfiivovg int8i(i)^uvTsg, av/vovg uvTfhv 8ticpdsiQav 

O 8i KalauQ 8vo ivi dsQSt fisyioTOvg xuTSQyuaufisvog noXi- 

fiOVg, TUXVTSQOV fliv Tt ^ XUZU. Tr^V TOV STOvg (OQUV Toig aTQU- 

TiWTa; iv jolg xetftaSlotg ixudiae, xal avTOlg TIjov Aa6tr]v8v 
rov vnuQxov eniaTrjasv «ijtoj 8i elg Tr^v 'iTuXiav nQdg t^ 
uvv68ovg notslaOat Ctnr^dsv. 



y • 





1 . C. Julii CcBsaris, &c. " Caius Julius Caesar's Commentaries 1 

011 the War in Gaul." By commentaries £Lreto be here understood 

brief narratives of events, composed in a plain, unambitious style, 

and the principal object of which is to preserve the remembrance of 

events for the benefit of those who may subscquently wish to com- 

pose fuller and more elaborate works. Thus Hirtius, in the epistle 

prefixed to the eighth book of the GaHic War, remarks, " Casaris 

commcntarii editi sunt, ne scicntia tantarum rerum scriptoribus de- 

esset." Hence the term appears somewhat analogous to our morf- 

ern expression " memoirs." The corresponding Greek forms axe 

vvofivnfaTa, vitojivti^iiaTianol, and avofivrijiovev^aTa. Hence Strabo, in 

?;peaking of CaBsar's commentaries, has, ' O Katirap h toIs vvoiivnnaa: 

(4, p. 117, ed. Casaub.) ; and hence also the memoirs of Socrates. 

by his pupil Xenophon, are entitled XuiKpdTov; airoitvtiiiovevfiaTa. 

Plutarch {Vit. Cces. c. 22) speaks of a work of Caesar's called 

'E^»)/ifpi^fS, and it has been m^e a matter of discussion whether 

this was the same with the commentaries that we now have, or a 

distinct production. Rualdus (ad. Plut. Vit. Cces. c. 22. — Op. cd. 

Retshc, vol. iv., p. 85S, seq.) maintains the latter opinion, on the 

ground that the ancient writers every where quote, from the Ephem- 

crJdes, passages not to be found in the commentaries. Tliis opinion 

haa found many advocates. On the other hand, Fabricius {Bill. 

Lat. 1, 10, 2) contends that there are many lacuncs in the books 

of Cssar on the Gallic war, as they have come down to our time 

The subject will be resumed in the " Life of CaBsar." 

U 2 



2 1. Gallia est ormiis, &c. " All Gaul is divided into three parts." 

Caesar here means by " Gaul" that part which had not yet been 

subdued by the Romans. The latter had ahready reduced the Allo- 

broges in the south, and had formed in that quarter what was called 

" Gallia Proviyicia," or " Gallia Narhmieiisis," or, as is the case 

in these commentaries, simply " Provincia." Consuh Geographi 

cal Index. 

2. Quarum. Supply parttum. 

3. Tertiam, qui, &c. " The third, they who are called in ihen 
own languagc CcUod, m ours Gani." The order of construction is, 
(ii) qxii appellantur CcltcB ipsorum lingua, Galli nostra (hngua, 
incolunt) tertiam (partem). 

4. CeltcE. The Celtas mark the parent stem, or genuine Galhc 
race. From the extent of their teiTitory, the Greeks gave the whole 
country of Gaul the name of KfXn*-^ {Celtica). Among the earher 
Greeks, the whole of western Europe, at some distance from the 
shores of thc Mechterranean, went by the appellation of the " Celtic 
/awfZ," ;^(ipa KfXn/c»). {Scymn. Ch. v., 166.) Consult Geographical 
Index. The term Galli is only " Gael" Latinized. 

5. Lingua. This is not correct as regards the Belgae and Cehae, 
who merely spokc two different dialects of the same tongue, the 
formcr being of thc Ci/mric, the latter of the Gallic stock. The 
Aquitani, however, would appcar to have belonged to thc Ibcrtan 
race, and to have spoken a language of Iberian origin. {Thierri/, 
Hist. des Gaulois, vol. i., Introd. p. xii., seq.) 

6. Institutis. "Incustoms." — Inter se. " From onc another." 
Literally, " among themselves." 

7. Gallos ab Aquitanis, &c. " The river Garumna separatcs 
ihe GaUi from the Aquitani, the Matrona and Sequana divide ihcm 
from the Belgse." With ^wmen supply dividit. The student wiU 
note, that the singular verb dividit foUows after the two noinina- 
tives Matrona and Scquana, as refcrring to one continuous bound- 
ary, and to thc circumstance also ^ the Matrona being only a tribii- 
tary of thc Sequana. 

8. Fortissimi sunt BelgcE. The sanie idea is expressed in 1'a- 
citus, Hist. 4, 76. — A cultu atquc humanitate Provincice. " From 
the civiUzation and inteUcctual rofinement of thc province." Cultus 
refers here to the mode of Ufc, humanitas to montal improvemcnt 
and cuUure ; and hence cultus is given by Oberlinus, in his Index 
Latinitatis, as " vitce ratio, ah omni ruditate remota." The civih- 
zation and refineinont of ihe Ronian province was principaUy derived 
from tlie Greck city of Ma.ssilia, now Marscillcs. (Justin, 43, 4.> 



1. MinimesapecomTneant. " Least frequently resort,'' i. e., very ^ 

Beldom penetrate to these distant regions. — Ad effeminaTidos ani- 
tnos. "To enervate their minds," i. e., brcak down their warlike 

2. Proximique sunt Gcrmanis. " And because they are nearest 
to the Germans," i. e., are in their immediate neighbourhood. Ac- 
cording to the punctuation which we have adopted, this is the cor- 
responding clause to the one beginning with jrroptcrea quod. 

3. Helvetii quoque. Because they also dwell near the Germans. 

4. Cum. " On which occasions." — Eos. Referring to the 
Germans. — Aut ipsi, &c. " Or else they theraselves carry on war 
in the territories of the latter." Ipsi refers to the Helvetii. 

5. Eorum una pars. " One part of these main divisions of 
Gaul." Eorum refers back to Hi omnes, or, in other words, to the 
Belgae, Celtae, and Aquitani. As, however, the idea of territory is 
necessarily involved, we may, in order to adapt the phrase to our 
idiom, translate as if there weie an eliipsis o( Jinium, though, in re- 
ality, none such is to be supplied. As regards the remote reference 
which sometimes occurs in the case ofhic and is, consult Perizontus, 
ad Sanct. Min. 2, 9 (vol. i., p. 276, ed. Bauer), where the present 
passage comes under review. 

6. Obtinere. " Possess." Obtineo is here used in its primitive 
and genuine sense, " to hold against others," i. e., " to possess" 
or " enjoy." — Initium capit, &c. " Commences at the river 
Rhone." Literally, " takes its beginning from the river Rhone." 

7. Continetur. " Is bounded." Literally, " is encompassed" 
or " hemmed in." — Attingit etiam, &c. " It touches also on the 
Rhine in the quarter of the Sequani and Helvetii." More literally, 
" on the side of the Sequani and Helvetii," i. e., where these two 
communities dwell. 

8. Vergit ad septentriones. " It stretches away towards the 
north." Litcrally, " it inclines" or " tends towards the north," 
\. e., from its point of commencement on the Rhodanus. 

9. Ab extremis Gallice finibus. " From the farthest confines of 
Gaul." By Gaul is liere meant the middle division of the coimtry, 
or that occupied by the Celtse, who have been mentioned in the 
preceding sentence under the name of Galli. By fine^ extremi 
Ccesar means the boundaries most remote from Rome, or, in other 
words, the northern. 

10. Spectant in septentriones, &c. " They look towaids the 
Dorih and the rising sun," i. e., their country, commencing on the 



3 northern borders of Celtica, faces, or stretches away to the norto 

and east. 

11. Et eampartem Oceani, &c. " And that part of the Atlantic 
Ocean which is next to Spain," i. e., in the immediate vicinity of 
Spain, and washing its northem coast. The reference is to the 
lower part of the Bay of Biscay. As regards the force of ad in this 
passage, compare the common form of expression esse ad urbcm, 
" to be near the city," and Cicero {Ep. ad Fam. 15, 2), Castra 
ad Cybistra locavi. " I pitched my camp in the neighbourhood of 

12. Spectat intcr, &c. " It looks betwecn the setting of thc sun 
and the north," i. e., it looks northwest ; it faces towards that point. 
Morus thinks we ought to read in for inter ; but the Greek para- 
phrase sanctions the common lection : dfop^ Si ra ntra^i "Apicrii» rt 
Kai 'AvaroXaiv. 

13. Orgclorix. This name is said by Celtic scholars to mean 
" cliief of a hundred hills," from or, " a hill," ccd, " a hundrcd," 
andrigh, "achief." (Compare Thierry,Hist. des Gaulois,\o].u., 
p. 289.) 

14. Marco Messala, &c. "Marcus Messala and Marcus Pis;c 
being consuls," i. e., in the consulship of Marcus Messala and Mar- 
cusPiso. Svi^^^Xy existentibus. Thedate is A. U. C. 693, B. C. 61. 

15. Regni cupiditate inductus. " Led on by a desire of cnjoying 
the chief authority." Rcgni is to be here regardcd as cquivalent 
to regnandi. — Nobilitatis. The higher class of chieftains are meant. 

16. Civitati. " His state," i. e., the»people. By civitas ai'c 
here meant all the inhabitants of a district or state, under one and 
the same government. This usage is very frequent in our author. 

17. De finibus suis. " From their territories." Fines, in thc 
sense of " territories" or " country," is of very common occur 
rencc in Caesar. 

18. Impcrio potiri. " To possess themselves of the sovercignty," 
i. e., to rule as masters over the other Galhc tribes. 

19. Id hoc facilius, &c. " He persuaded them to that step the 
more easily on this account." The order is, pcrsuasit id eis facil- 
iics hoc. — Undique loci natura continentur. " Arc confmed on ali 
sides bj»the nature of their situation," i. e., are kept in, are pre- 
vented from wandering far. 

20. Monte Jura. The namc, in Celtic, is said to mean " the do- 
main of God," from Jou, an appcUation for tiic Deity, and rag, the 
doniain of a chieftain or ruler. The term appears a very appropriate 



i)ne to be applied by a barbarous people to a lofty mountain-range. 1 

clonsult Gcographical Index. 

21. Lacit Lemanno. Now the Lake of Gcneva. Strabo gives 
ihe form A.iuivva, the Greek paraphrast Af/^aVof. 

22. Minus late. " Less widely," i. e., than they could hav3 
w shed. — Homines bellandi cupidi. "Men(like themselves) fond 
oi warfare." 

23. Pro multitudine, &c. " They thought, besides, that they 
possessed narrow tcrritories, considering the extent of their popula 
tion, and their high character for war and bravery." More literally, 
" narrow territories, in proportion to the number of inhabitants," &c. 

24. Qui in longiludinem, &c. " Which extended in length," &c. 
Cluverius condemns the inaccuracy of this measurcment, both as 
regards lcngth and brcadth. {Germ. 2, 4.) But we must bear in 
mind that Cof^sar, whcn he wrote this, had never been in the land 
of thc Hclvetii, and foUowed, therefore, merely the rude estimate 
furnished him by some of that nation. Ca?sar makes the length of 
Helvetia forty-eight geographical miles ; the true distance, however, 
from Geneva to the Lake of Constance, is only forty. {Manjiert, 
vol. ii., p. 214.) 

1. His rebus adducti. " Induced by these considerations." — Ad ,| 
projiciscendum. " To their departure." 

2 Carrorum. " Of wagons." This term has two forms for the 
nominative, carrus and carrum. Cffisar employs the former, and 
the author of the commentaries on the Spanish vifar the latter (c. 
6). The word is of Celtic origin, and denotes a kind of four- 
wheeled wagon. Compare the German Karre. In later Latinity 
the neuter form prevaiied. {Adelung, Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lat. vol. 
ii., p. 231.) 

3. Sementes quam maximas facere. " To make as extensive 
sowings as possible," i. e., to sow as much land as possible. 

4. In tertium annum, &c. " They fix upon their departure for 
the third year by a law," i. e., they fix upon the third year for their 
departure. The term lege is here employed as denoting merely the 
assent of the general assembly of the nation to the proposition of 
Orgetorix. It is analogous, therefore, in the present instance, to 

5. Ad eas res conficiendas. The repetition of this phrase here 
is extremely inelegant, though it may be cited as one proof, among 
others that raight be adduced, of Caesar^s having hastily written these 
commcntaries, either at the close of each day, or else very soon after 



4 the occurrences detailed in them. Oberlinus suggests ad ea .n 

place of ad eas res conficiendas ; but the emendation, though neat, 

rests on no MSS. authority. 

6. Regnum ohtinuerat. " Had enjoycd the sovereign power." 
(Compare note 6, p. 3.) The sovereign authority was not generally 
hereditary among the Gallic tribes, but was conferred by the pecyle 
on the one whom they judged most worthy. 

7. A senatu Populi Romani. " By the senate of the Roman 
people," i. e., by the senate of Rome. We have here adopted the 
reading of the oldest and bcst MSS. Thc copyists have been mis- 
led by the common form, /S. P. Q. R., i. e., senatu pojmloque Ro- 
mano, and have introduced it here, where it does not at all apply, 
for the title of " amicus" was conferrcd by the senate, not by the 
people. Compare book 4, c. 12, " amicus ab senatu nostro appel- 
latus,'" and 7, 31, ^' cujus patcr ab senatu nostro amicus erat ap- 

8. Occuparet. The studcnt will observe that the leading verb is 
in the present tense, persuadet, and yet the verb following is in the 
past tense, occuparet. The rule that operates in such cases is 
given as follows by Zumpt, L. G. p. 322. "When an historian 
uses the present for the perfect aorist, to transport his reader back 
to the time of which he is speaking, he often joins an imperfect 
with this present, which in sense is past." 

9. Principatximohtinehat. "Enjoyed the chicf authoritv." The 
phrase principatum ohtinere applies to one who is the leadcr of 
his countrymen, but without the name of king. Thus we have in 
Lactantius, de fals. rcl. 1, 13, '' Primus Uranus eminere mtcr 
ccBtcros potenlia cccperit, ct principatiim habere, nmi regnum." 

10. Pcrfacile factu csse, &c. " He proves unto them that it 
was a very easy matter to accompHsh thcir designs," i. c., that the 
accomplishmont of their intended designs woidd be a very casy 

11. Quin totius Gallice, &c. " But that the Helvctu could do 
the most of all Gaul," i. o., were the most powcrful stnte of all 

12. Elis regna concilialuru.m. " Would gain for thcm thc sov- 
crcignty in thcir rcspcctive statcs." 

13. Et, rcgno occupato, &c. " And thcy entertain the hope, that, 
if the sovcreign power be seized by each of them, thcy can mako 
.hcmselves masters of all Gaul, by means of its thrce most power- 
fui and valiant communities." The three cominunities here re- 


terred to are the Helvetii, Sequani, and Aedui, and the intendcd ^ 

change is to bc brought about after Orgetoris, Casticus, and Dum- 

norix shall have scizcd upon the sovereign power in thcir respective 


14. Firmissimos. Some of the carly editions rcad fartissimosy 
bjt it is a mere gloss, explanatory ofjirmissimos. 

15. Totius GallicB potiri. The verb potiri govems the genitive 
or ablative. Cicero, whenever he empioys it to express the acquisi 
tion of sovereignty or political power, uniformly joins it with a geni- 
tive. Caesar, on the othcr hand, sometimes employs the genitive, 
as in the present instance, and somelimes, as in chap. 2, joins thc 
verb to the ablative of imperium. 

16. Ea res. " This design." — Per indicium. " Through in 
formers." Literally, " by a disclosure" or " information." 

17. Moribus suis. "According to their custom." Referring 
10 tho established usagc of the nation in such cases. — Ex vinculis 
causam dicerc. " To plead his causc in chains," i. e., to answer 
the charge in chains. Ex vinculis, literally, " out of chains," i. e., 
" from the midst of chains," encompassed all the time by them. 

IS. Damnatum pccnam, &c. The order is, oportehat pocnatn, 
ut cremarctur igni, sequi (eum) damnatum. " It behooved the puii- 
ishment, that he should be burnt by fire, to attend him if con 
demncd." More freely, " His punishment, in case he were con 
demned, was to be burnt to death." Urere is simply " to bum," 
but cremarc, " to burn to ashes." The punishment here mentioned 
was usual among the Gauls and other barbarous nations in cases 
of high treason. 

19. CauscB dictionis. " For the pleading of lus case." Dictio 
causai is generally applied to the defcndant in a cause, and means a 
full explanation and defence of his conduct. — Ad judiciuni. " To 
the trial." 

20. Omnem suam familiam.. " All his household." The refer- 
ence is to his domestics, and all the individuals employed about his 
private affairs. Familia, in its primitive acceptation, denotes all 
the slaves belonging to one master. 

21. Obceratos. "Debtors." The term oJtcraiws properly deuotes 
one who, being in debt to another, is compelled to ser\e the latter, 
and in this way discharge the debt by lus labour and services. 
Compare Varro, L. L. 6, " Liher, qui suas operas in servitute, pro 
pecuma, qiiam dehcat, dat; dum solveret, nexus vocafur, et ah ctre 



^ 22. Eodem. "To the same place," i. e., the place of trial. — 

Per eos, ne causam diceret, &c. " By th(;ir means he rcscued 

himself from the necessity of pleadmg his cause." More literally, 

" he rescued himself, so that he should not plead his cause." His 

slaves and retainers rescued him out of the hands of his judges. 

23. Incitata. " Incensed." More literally, "aroused." — Jus 
suum exsequi. " To enforce their authority." Literally, " to fol- 
low out their authority," i. e., to carry it onward to its destined 
end, namely, the punishment of Orgetorix. 

24. Magistratus . " The magistrates," i. e., of the Helvetii. — 
Cogerent. " Were coUecting." More literally, " were compelling 
the attendancc." 

25. Quin ip.<!e sibi, &c. " But that he laid violent hands on 
himself." Literally, " but that he resolved on death against him- 

^y l. Oppida sua omnia, &c. Plutarch mentions the same circum 

stance. (Vit. Cas. c. 18.) — Pmtcr quod. Elegantly put for 
prcBter id quod. " Except what." 

2. Domum reditionis. " Of a return home." This is commonly 
cited as an instance of a verbal noun governing the accusative, ac- 
cording to the rules of earlier Latinity. Domum, however, is herc 
construed like the name of a town. A better example of the accu- 
sative, governed by a verbal noun, may he obtained from Plautua 
{Amph. 1, 3, 21), " Quid tibi curatio cst hanc rem?" 

3. Trium mensium, &c. " Ground provisions for three months," 
i. e., meal or llour. The Greek paraphrast cmploys thc term aAi/nra. 

4. Eodcm usi concilio. " Having adopted the same desigu," i. 
e., having formed the same resolution of leaving home. 

5. Trans Rhenum. On the banks of the Saavus and Danube, 
■where ihey continued to dwcll for about 130 years. Thiscountry 
on their leaving it, took the name of Dcscrta Boiorum. (PUn. H 
N. 3, 27.) 

6. Receptos ad se, &c. " Thcy receive, and unite to themselves 
as confederates." A participle and verb, in such constructions, 
are to be translated as two verbs with the connective conjunction. 

7. Quibus itineribvs. The noun to which the relative rcfers is 
sometimcs, as in the present instance, repeated after it, cspccially 
in Cassar. It appears to have beon the style of legal documents. 
{Ziimpl, L. G. p. 237.) 

8. Vix qua, &c. Su^p^Ay parte a.heT qua. " Along wliich a sin- 
gle wagon could with diffii-uhy be lcd at a time." The student 


will note the use of qua parte in the feminine, altiiough the neuter ^ 

gender, unuvi {iter), precedes. Instances of this are far from un- 

frequent. Thus, Cic. pro Ccccin. c. 8, " Ad omnes introitus, qua 

adiri poterit.'" — Ccss. B. G. 5,44, '■'■ Per Alpes, quaproximum iter 

erat," &c. 

9. Ut. " So that." — Prohihtrc possent. " Could prevent a 

10. Provinciam nostram. " Our province." Referring to tho 
Roman province in the south of Gaul. Consult Geographical In- 
dex. — Expedttius. " Readier," i. e., containing fcwer difficulties 
and impediments. 

11. Allobrogum, qui nupcr pacati erant. They had been sub 
dued by Caius Pomptinius, the praetor, and their territory now 
formed part of the Roman province. Adelung makes the name 
Allobrogci denote " highlanders," from Al, " high," and Broga, 
"land." (Mithridates, vol. ii., p. 50.) With this 0'Brien nearly 
agrees in his Irish-English Dictionar)', deducing the term from Aill, 
" a rock," and Brog, " a habitation." 

12. Vado transitur. " Is crossed by a ford," i. e., is fordable. 

13. Ex eo oppido. " From this town a bridge extends across to 
the Helvetii." The bridge began, in fact, a little below the town. 
— Some translate pertinet " belongs," which is altogether errone- 
ous. The Greek paraphrast gives the true idea : 'A^' Tn {Tevofai\ 
KaX yiipvpa th ti)v 'EX6»;ri(fi)v StnKei. 

li. Bonoanimo. " Of a friendly mind," i. e., well disposed. 

15. Diemdicunt. " They appointaday." More literally, " they 
namo a day." — Qua die. Consult note 7. — Omnes conveniant. 
" All are to assemble." 

16. Is dies. The student will note the change from the femi- 
nine qua die to the masculine form. The common rule, that dies 
is masculine when it is spoken of a particular or specified day ; but 
feminine when referring to duration of time, is not sufficiently 
exact : exceptions may be found to it in many writers. {Zumpt, 

L. q. p. 41.) 

17. Ante diem quintum, &c. " The fifth before the Kalends of 
April." This answered to the 28th of March, the Kalends of April 
oeing the first of that month. It must be remembered that tlie 
Romans, in computing their time, alvvays included the day frcm 
jvhich, and also the day to which, they reckoned. In this way the 
^Sth of March became the 5th before the Kalends of the ensuing 
■nonth. Consult the article KaUndcE, in the Archseological Index 




5 As regards the phrase ante diem quinlum Kaleridas, it may bo 

remarked, that the e.x^pression is idiomatic for dic quinto ante Ka 

18. Lit.cio Pisonc, &c. A. U. C. 696, B. C. 58. 

19. Ab urhc, "From the city," i. e., from Rome. Cjesar, fie- 
viously to the expiration of his consulship, had obtained from the 
people, through the tribune Vatinius, the provinces of Galha Cisal- 
pina and IUyricum, with three legions, for five years ; and the senate 
added Gallia Transalpina, with another legion. He set out from 
the city, as appears from the conlext, in the early part of the spring. 

20. Quam maximis potest itineribus. " By as great journeys as 
possible," i. e., with all possible speed. Compare the Greek par- 
aphrast, &$ fiSvvaTO Ta^iora. 

21. Galliam ulteriorcm. " Farther Gaul," i. e., Gaul beyond 
the Alps, or Gallia Transalpina. 

22. Provincia: toli, &c. "He orders as many soldiers as pos- 
sible from the whole province," i. e., commands the whole province 
to furnish as many soldiers as it could. Literally, " he commands 
to the vvhole province as many," &c. 

23. Omnino. " In all." — Legio una. " But a single legion." 
The legion, in the time of Polybius, contained 4200 men, to whom 
were added 300 torse. Lipsius thinks that Caesar^s legions did 
not much esceed this estimate. {De Mil. Rom. lib. 1, dial. 5.) 
Consult remarks under the article lcgio, in the Archseological Index. 

U 1. Ad Genevam. " Near Geneva." So RomcB means " in 

Rome," but ad Romam, " near Rome." 

2. Ccrtiorcs facti sunt. " Were informed." The adjectivc 
certus has frequently the meaning of " sure," "well acquainted," 
&c. Thus, fac me, oro, ut sim certus, an. " Inform me, I en- 
treat, for a certainty, whether ;" and again, certi sumus, te hoc 
fecisse, " we know well that you did this." Hence arises the 
phrase, ^^ certiorem faccre, " to inform," "to make acquainted," 
as referring to information on which reliance may generally be 

3. Principcm locum ohtinehant. " Held the chicf place," i. e.,- 
they were at the head of thc embassy. Compare note 9, page 4. 
— Verudoctius. Thisname is dcrived, by Celtic scholars, from ver^ 
"a man," and dacht, or docht, " speech," as indicating a public 
speaker or orator ; and, though given by Cfesar as a proper name, 
niay bavc becn only, in fact, an appcllation for one of thc leaders of 
the embassv. {Thirrry, Hisf. drs Gaidois, vol. ii , p. 297.) 


4. Sibi essc in animo. "That it was their intention." — Sine i» 
ullo male/iao. " Without doing any harm." — Ejus voluntale. 

— With his consent." 

5. Occisum. Supply/w^sse, and so also afteT pulsum and mjss 
vm. The event alluded to in the text had taken place forty-nine 
ypars previous. A Cimbro-Teutonic horde, the same that were 
afterward dcfeated by iMarius, after devastating central Gaul, united 
with thc Helvetii, and resolved to attack the Roman province simul- 
taneously at different points. The Tigurini, a tribe of the Helvetii, 
under the command of Divico, undertook to invade the territory of 
the Allobroges by the bridge of Geneva and the fords of the Rhone 
a little below this city. The rest of the Helvetii, together with their 
new allies, moved south. This plan of operations compelled the 
Roraans to divide their forces. The Consul Cassius hastened to 
Geneva, while his lieutenant Scaurus made head against the Cimbri 
and Teutones. Both commanders were unfortunate. Cassiusand 
his army were cut to pieces by the Helvetii on the borders of the 
Lacus Lcmaniras, or Lake of Geneva ; while Scaurus was defeated 
and taken prisoner by those whom he had endeavoured to oppose. 
Liv. Epit. 65. — Oros. 5, 15. — Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol ii., 
p. 200, seq. 

6. S%ib jugum missum. " Sent under the yoke." Two spears 
were placed upright in the ground, and a third one was laid across 
them at lop, forming what the Romans called jugum, Under this, 
they who were admitted to surrender upon these terms were com- 
pelled to pass without their arms. 

7. Dala facultate. " If an opportunity. were afforded them."— 
Temperaturos ab injuria, &c. " Would refrain from injury and 
outrage." Literally, " would restrain themselves." Supply se 
after temperaturos. 

8. Ut spatium intercedere posset. " In order that some space of 
time might intervene." — Diem sumturum. " That he would take 
time." Dies is here put, not for the natural day, but for an indef- 
inite period of time. Compare Davies, ad loc. 

9. Ante diem, &c. "On thedaybefore theldesof April." The 
Ides of April fell on the 13th of that month. The date here meant 
is consequently the 12th. As regards theidiomatic expression anle 
diem, compare note 17, page 5. Consult also, for remarks on th 
Roman month. the article Kalenda, in the x^^rchseological Inde.x. 

10. Qui in flumen, &c. The Rhone actuallv flows into the Lake 
ot Geneva ; but Caesar, being unacquainted with the country abovp 



A ihe lake, imagined that the lake flowed into or formed the nver. 

There is no necd, therefore, of the emendation adopted by somo 
editors, who read quem in fiumen Rhodanum infimt, i. e., " into 
which the river Rhone flows." Besides, fiumen Rhodanum, making 
Rhodanum an adjective, agreeing with flumen, is not in Caesar's 
usual style. 

11. Ad montem Jaram. It will be remembered that there werc 
only two ways by which the Helvetii could leave home ; one by 
the fords of the Rhone into the Roman province ; the other by the 
narrow pass between Mount Jura and the Rhone, and vvhich led 
through the territories of the Sequani. Of these two, that which 
led into the province most required the attention of Csesar ; and as 
he could not expect to keep off the vast numbers of the Helvctii by 
the small force which he had with liim, he drevv a vvall along the 
lower bank of the Rhone, in a Hne with the fords, from the point 
where the Lake of Geneva emptied into that river, to the spot where 
the Rhone divides, as it were, the chain of Jura into two parts, and 
forms the pass already mentioned between the river and the moun- 
tain. This narrow passage, moreover, would only lead the Hclvetii 
into the territory of the Sequani ; whereas the other, by the fords 
of the Rhone, would have carried them at once into the Roman 
province. Consult the plan at page 7 of the Latin text. 

12. Millia passuum decem novem. " Nineteen miles in length." 
Literally, " nineteen thousand paces." The Roraan passus, or 
"pace," was I yard, 1.85375 ft. ; and as 1000 of them vvent to the 
milliare, or "mile," the latter was equivalent to 1617 yds. 2.75 ft. 
We have given the reading of all the early editions. Vossius, re- 
garding the length of the wall as too great, omits novem, cntirely on 
his own authority, and is followed by many subsequent editors. 
But the Greek paraphrast has «otJv Kal TrtvT/JKovTa &vo oTdSia, which 
favours the reading decem novem. Besides, what prevents our sup- 
posing tliat the wall was carried on until it reached some part of 
the chain of Jura, and had passed beyond all the fords ! 

13. Castella communit. " He carefully fortifies redoubts." 
Communire is equivalent to valde munire. — Se invito. " Against 
his wil.." Literally, " he himself being unwiUing." 

14. Quam constituerat. " Which he had appointed." The al- 
lusion is to the day before the Ides. 

15. Ncgat, se more, &c. " He declares that he cannot, con- 
sistently with the usageand example of the Roman people," &c., i. 

. .', ., that it was an unusual and unpvccodented thing for the Roman 



people to grant any one a passage through their province. — Exem- g 

lilum refeis to the behaviour of the Romans on similar occasions. 

16. Ostendit. " He shows them plainly," i. e., he explicitiy dc- 
clares. — Ea spe dejecti. " Disappointed in this hope." Literally, 
" cast down from this hope." 

17. Navibus junctis, &lc. " Some by means of boats connected 
togethcr, and numerous rafts constructed for the purpose,", i. e., 
some by a bridge of boats and by numerous rafts, &c. Before na- 
vibus we must understand alii. The common text has it expressed 
after factis. 

18. Qua minima, &c. " Where the depth of the river was least." 
— Si perrumpere possent. " If they could force a passage." — Ope- 
ris mmiitione. " By the strength of our worlis." Alluding to the 
wall which had been constructed between the lake and Jura, to- 
gether with its ditch and numerous redoubts. 

19. Propter angustias. " On account of the narrowness of the 
pass." — Sua sponte. " Of themselves," i. e., by their ovvn appli- 

1. Ut eo deprecatore, &c. " In order that, he being the inter- '7 
cessor, they might obtain what they wished from the Sequani," i. 

e., through his intervention or mediation. With impetrarent supply 
koc, as referring to the passage through their territories. The com- 
mon text has hoc expressed. 

2. Gratia et largitione, &c. "By his personal influence and 
liberality could accomplish a very great deal among the Sequani." 
VVith poterat supply facere. 

3. Inmatrimonium duxerat. " Had married." Literally, "had 
led into matrimony." The Romans said ducere uxorem, " to marry 
a wife," because the female was conducted, as a part of the cere- 
mony, from her father's house to that of her husband. Hence du- 
cere uxorem is for ducere uxorem domum, literally, " to lead a wife 
home." So again, in speaking of a female taking a husband, the 
Latin writers employ the verb nubo. Thus nuhere viro, " to marry 
a husband." Here the ellipsis is nulere se viro, literally, " to veil 
herself for a husband," alluding to the bride's wearing a flame- 
coloured veil during the marriage ceremony. 

4. Novis rebus studebat. " Was aiming at a change in the gov 
emment," i. e., was plotting a revolution in the state. Literally, 
" was desirous of new things." 

5. Suo sibi beneficio obstrictas. " Firmly attached to himself 
oy reason of his kind offices towards them." He wished to have 




"7 these states under strong obligations to hiraself, in order that they 

might aid him in his ambitious designs. 

6. Rem. " The affair," i. e., the negotiation. — Deiit. lleierring 
to both parties, the Helvetii and Sequani. — Sequani, ne, &c. " The 
Sequani, not to prevent the Helvetii from using this route," i. e., 
the Sequani, to give hostages not to prevent, &c. 

7. Casari renunciatur. "Word is brought to Csesar." Re- 
mmciare is properly appHed to intelligence, that is brought to one 
who had bcen previously expecting something of the kind ; and it 
is therefore the very term that is required here. Comparc the re- 
mark of rorcelhni : " Renunciare ■propric adhibctur, cum nuncium 
alicujus rei exspeclanti afferimus.^^ 

8. Qua civitas. " Which state." Referring to the Tolosates 

9. Id si fieret, &c. " Should this be done, he clearly saw it 
would be attended with great danger to the province, that it should 
have for neighbours a vvarhke race," &c., i. e., for it to have in its 
immediate vicinity a warhke race of men. The race alluded to are 
the Helvetii. 

10. Locis patoitibus, &c. " In an open and very fertile tract 
of country." 

11. Ei munitioni. Referring to the wall that had been con 
structed between the lake and Mount Jura. — Legatum. " His 
lieutenant." The number oUegati, or lieutenants-general, depended 
on the importance of the war. 

12. In Italiam. " Into Italy," i. e., into Hither, or Cisalpine 
Gaul. Compare chap. 24, where the two legions here mentioncd 
are said to have been levied " in Galliacitcriorc.''' — Magnis itiner 
ibus. " By great journeys." 

13. Qua proximum iter. " Wliere the route was nearest," i. e., 
shortest. With qua supply parte. Thus, Martial, 3, 91, 5, " Qua 
parte cubaret, qucerunt,^'' and again, 7, 73, 5, " Dic qua te parle 
requiram." (Palairet, Ellips. Lat. p. 140, cd. Barkcr.) 

14. Compluribus his prccliis pulsis. " Thesc having beeii routed 
in numerous encounters." Polyaenus (8, 23) makes mcntiou of a 
stratagcm employcd by Cajsar against these mountaineers. Under 
cover of the morning mist, he led a portion of his forces by a circu- 
itous route to a part of the mountain which overhung the cnemy's 
position. On a sudden a shout was raised by those with him, and 
was answered by the rest of his troops below, on which the barba- 
rians, struck with terror, betook themselves to hasty flight. What 
Polyacnus addsj howevcr, that Cxsar crosscd the Alps on this oc- 


casion, without any fighting iKaiaap aiia\tl toj "AXTr^is hirepfSaXiv), 
appears froin the present passage to be incorrect. 

15. Citerioris Proviucice. " Of the hither province." By citc- 
"ior provincia the Romans mcant Cisalpine Gaul ; by ulterior pro- 
vincia, Transalpine. Both epithets were used with reference to 
Rome. — Extrcmum. Supply oppidum. 

16. Rogatum auxilium. Supply dicentes. " Stating."— ito se 
omiii lempore, &c. " That they had so deserved at al. times of the 
Roman people, that their fields ought not to be ravaged," &.c., i. e., 
that, on account of their constant fidelity to the Romans, they did 
not deserve to have thcir fields ravaged, &c. 

1. Necessarii et consanguinei. " The friends and relations of 
the Aedui." By neccssarii, among the Roman writers, those are 
meant to whora kind ofEces are, as it were necessarily, due, either 
on account of friendship or kindred. 

2. Demonstrant. " Inform him." Equivalent here and else 
where to narrayit. — Sibi prater agri, &c. " That nothinf was left 
them except the soil of their land," i. e., except thebare soil, except 
a devastated country. The genitive reliqui depends on nihil. 

3. Omnibus fortunis socioricm consumtis. " All the resources 
of his allies having been destroyed," i. e., their fortunes haviug be- 
come completely ruined. . 

4. Santonos. The MSS. vary between Santones and Santonos, 
but the better class have Santonos. Both forms are in use. In 
the same way we have Tcutoni and Teutones. Compare Cortius, 
ad Lucan, 1, 422, " Gaudetque amoto Santonus hdste.'" 

5. Flumen est Arar. " There is a river called Arar." Now 
the Saone. Consult Geographical Index. 

6. Incredibili lenitate. " With wonderful smoothness." More 
literally, "with a smoothness exceeding belief" — ludicari non 
possit. " It cannot be determined." 

7. Id transihant. " Were now in the act of crossing it." — Lin 
tribus. " Small boats." These were formed of trees hollowed 
out. Compare Virgil, Gcorg. 1, 266, " Cavat arbore lintres." 
The Grceks called them iiov6^v\oi. (Veget. 3, 7.) Compare also 
Livy (31, 26), " Novasque alias primum Galli, inchoantes, cava 
bant ex sing^tlis arboribvs.''' 

8. Tres jam copiarum partes, &c. " That the Helvetii had by 
this time conveyed three parts of their forces across this river," i. 
e., three fourths of their whole force. Partes is governed hy duxisse 
in composition. anl fluinen by trans. So the passive voice fran.'' 





U duci may take an accusative, which, in reaUty, however, dejiends 

upon trans. Thus Belga Rhenum antiquitus traduct.i. {Zumpt, 

L. G. p. 260.) 

9. De tcriia vigilia. " At the beginning of the third watch,"' i. 
e., at midnight. The Romans divided the night into four watches, 
cach of three hours. The first began at six o'clock in the evening, 
according to our mode of computing time ; the second at nine 
o'clock ; the third at midnight ; the fourth at three o'clock in the 

10. Impedilos et inopinantes. " Encumbered with their baggage, 
and not expecting him." — Aggrcssus. Plutarch (Vit. Cces. 18) 
says that it was Labienus who attacked the Helvetii on this oc- 
casion ; but, according to Csesar's account, which, of course, is to 
be preferred, Labienus had been left m charge of the works along 
the Rhone. Compare chap. 10. 

11. Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus. " This canton was called 
ihe Tigurine," i. e., that of the Tigurini. Pagus here takes the 
place of pars, which had been previously used in speaking of this 
division of the Helvetii. For the etymology of pagus, consult 
Blomfield, Gloss. in Prom. Vinct. v. 20, p. 106. 

12. In quatuor pagos. Cellarius gives these four cantons as 
follovvs : Tigufinus, Urbigenus, Ambronicus, and Tugenus. The 
first two we obtain from Cassar, the remainder from Eutropius, 
Orosius, and Strabo. The only one of the four which is at all 
doubtful is that styled pagus Ambronicus, since the Ambrones 
were of German origin. {Ccllarius, Gcog. Antiq. vol. i., p. 222. 
— Manncrt, vol. ii., p. 215.) 

13. Hic pagus unus. "Thisparticular canton." — Lucium Cas 
sium consulem. Consult note 5, page 6. 

14. Consilio deorum inimortalium. " In accordance with the 
rounsels of the immortal gods," i. e., by their special providence. 

15. Princcps panas persolvit. " Was the first to sufier punish- 
ment. Compare chap. 41 of this book, " Princepsque dccima 
lcgio per tribunos militum ei gratias egit." 

16. Quod ejus soceri, &c. " Because the Tigurini, in thc sime 
battle in which they had slain Cassius, had also slain his lieutenant, 
Lucius Piso, the grandfather of Lucius Piso, Caesar's father-in-law." 
Caesar, after having becn divorced from Pompeia, whose character 
had suffered in the affair of Clodiua and his violation of the rites ot 
the Bona Uea, took, as a second wife, Calpurnia, the daughter of 
Lucius Calpurnius Piso, and procurcd the consulship the next vcax 


or his father-in-law, he himself having held it the year preceding. O 

Sueton. Vit. Cces. 21. — Plut. Vit. Cas. 14. 

17. Cansequi. " To overtake. "—=■/« Arare. " Over the Arar." 

1. Cumid,&c. " Whcn they perceived that he had effectcd in y 
a single day what they thcmselves had with very great difficulty ac- 
comphshed in twenty days, namely, the crossing of the river." 
Literally, "namely, that they might cross the river." Ciacconius 
thinks that the words ut Jlumen Iransirent are a gloss, and not Cae- 
sar's. In this he is clearly wrong, as they appear to have been 
added by Caesar for the sake of perspicuity. 

2. Cujus legationis, &c. " At the head of which embassy was 
Divico." — Dux Helvctioncm. Compare note 5, page 6. — Bello 
Cassiano. " In the war with Cassius," i. e., in the war in which 
Cassius was the commander opposed to them. 

3. Cum Ceesare agit. " Treats with Coesar," i. e., addresses 
Caesar. Compare the Greek paraphrast, s\i^t TotdSt. 

4. Atque ibi futuros. "x\iid would remain there." Compare 
the Greek paraphrast, koi ikiX ftcvdvaiv. 

5. Veteris incommodi. "The old overthrow." AUuding to the 
defeat of Cassius. — Helvetiorum. Referring in particular to the 
Tigurini, who defeated Cassius. 

6. Quod improviso, &c. " As to his having surprised one of 
tiieir cantons." — Nc ob eam rem, &c. " He should not, on that 
account, ascribe anything too highly to his own valour, or greatly 
despise them," i. e., "he should not attribute the defeat of the Hel- 
vetii altogether to his own valour, nor look down with contempt on 
ihem." With tribueret supply quidquam. 

7. Quam dolo. The common text has conte7iderent following 
after dolo. We have rejected it as a mere gloss, in vvhich Hght i* 
is also viewed by Gruter, Davies, and Oudendorp. Bentley recom 
mends nitcrentvr ct contenderent. 

8. Ne committcret. " He should not bring it to pass." More 
freelv, " he should not cause." — Aut memoriam proderct. " Or 
should transmit the remembrance of such an event to posterity." 
The cDnclusion of this speech is in fuU accordance with the boast- 
ful and arrogant character ascribed to the Gauls by ancient vvriters 

9. Eo sibi minus, &c. " That he felt the less hesitation as to 
the course he was to pursue, because he well remembered," &c 
Literally, " that less doubt was given him on this account, because," 
&c. Cossar means that the very circumstances which the Helvetii 
had mentioned for the purpose of intimidating him had only in 



Q duced him to make up his mind more promptly on the question, 

whether he would conclude a peace with them or go on with tlie 

war. For that the defeat of Cassius had happened undeservedly to 

the Romans, and he was resolved to avenge it. 

10. Atque eo gravius ferre, &c. "And that he felt the more 
indignant at them, the less they had happened in accordance with 
the deserts of the Roman people," i. e., that he resented them the 
more strongly, as they had happened undeservedly to his countrv- 
men. — Eo gravius fcrre. Lilerally, " that he bore them the more 

11. Qui si. alicujus, iStc. The relative qui has here Populi lio- 
mani for its antecedent. " For that, had they been conscious to 
themselves of having done any previous injury to the Helvetii, it 
would not have beon difficult for them to be on their guard against 
the latter ; but that they were misled by this, because they were 
not aware that anything had been done by them on account of 
which they should fear ; nor, on the other hand, did they think they 
ought to fear without cause." Csesar means, that the Romans, on 
the occasion alluded to, were rather surprised than defeated by the 
Helvetii. For they were not conscious of ever liaving wronged 
that people, and, of course, expected no danger from them, andhad 
made no preparations to oppose them. 

12. Quod si. " Even if, howcver." — Veteris contumelicE. 
" Their former insult," i. e., the affront put by them upon the Ro- 
man name in the ovcrthrow of Cassms. — Num etiam, &c. " Could 
he also lay asidc the remembrance of recent injuriesr* The order 
is, num etiam posse dcponere memoriam recentium injuriarum ? 

13. Quod tentasscnt. " In that they had attempted." More 
freely, "' in iheirhaving attempted." — Quod gloriarcntur. " That, 
as to their boasting." — Quodque admirarentur. " And as to their 
wondering." — Eodem pertinerc. " Both of these things tended to 
the same effect." Wero of a similar tendency, i. e., only tcuded 
the more surely to provoke his anger. 

14. Quo gravius homines, &c. " That mcn may feel the licavier 
affliction from a change of circumstances," i. e., from a revcrse of 
fortune. — Quos pro scclere, &c The order is, conccdere intetdum 
secundiorcs res et diuturniorcm impunitatem his, quos vellent ulcisci 
pro scelere eorum. 

15. Cum caita sint. " That although ihese things are so," i. 
e., although this is the case. — IJtt ca, qum polliccantur, &c. " Iii 
ordcr that he may pcrceive that thev intcnd to fuifil their promises," 


I. e., that l»e may perceive their sincerity by the fact of their giviiig 

nostages. 'l'he promises referred to are, that they will go into such 

part of Gaul as Caesar may appoint, and will dwell there for the 

time to come. 

1. Ejus rci, &ic. " Tiiat tiie Roman people themselves were a |() 
proof of that cuslom." Alluding to the defeat of Cassius. 

2. Quem ex omni provincia. The Roman infantry were always 
excelient, but their cavalry were comparatively infirm. Hence we 
find them gcncrally employing the cavalry of their allies, and, in par- 
'.icular, Galiic horse. Caesar's cavahy was composed at first of 
Gauls, afterward German horse were also added. 

3. Qui, cupidius, &c. " These, having pursued the enemy's 
'ear too eagerly." — Novissimum agmen. That part of the line of 
iiiarch which is " newest" to a pursuing enemy, since they first 
".ome in contact with it. 

4. Alierto loco. " In a disadvantageous place." Alieno loco is 
ased in this sense in opposition to suo loco, which denotes a favour- 
able place. Sallust, B. I. 54. — Liv. 42, 43. 

5. Sublati. " Being elated." So B. G. 5, 37, " Hac victoria 
oiihlatus Ambiorix," and B. C. 2, 37, " Quibus omnibus rebus suh- 
latus." — Audacius s^tbsistere caperunt. " Began to make a bolder 

6. Satis habelat in prcBsentia. " Deemed it sufficient for the 
present." — Rapinis, &c. " From rapine, foraging, arid laying waste 
thecountry." The common editions omitjpaiM/a<io»tJiMs. Vossius 
fost removed it from the.text. It was restored by Davies, and is 
found in good MSS. 

7. Nostrum primum. " Our van." Supply agnien. Caesar^s 
intention was to join battle with the Helvetii, before they should 
proceed much farther thi-ough Gaul and reach the territory of the 
Santones. His object in foUowing them for so long a period was 
to get the enemy on disadvantageous ground, and then engage and 
conquer them. Thc Helvetii constantly avoiding a general action, 
Cssar left the line of march, and betook himsclf to Bibracte, for 
two reasons : one was in order to procure com for his army ; the 
other was to impress the Helvetii with the belief that the Romans 
were fleeing, and thus to induce them to hazard an action. This 
lafter event actually happened as he expected it would. Compare 
chap. 23. 

8. Interim quotidie, &c. "Mcanwhile Caesar kept daily impor- 
luning thc Aedui for the corn vvhich thcy had promised in the 



■J Q name of the state." Flagitare is precisely the verb to e employcd 

here, since it denotes an eamest and reiterated demand, accom- 

panied with reproaches. The historical infinitive is here used ir 

)lace of the imjterkct Jlagitabat. It serves to impart more of 

inimation to the style than the ordinary imperfect would ; and, be 

ing frequently employed by historiaiis, it gets its name of the his 

torical infinitive. Some, however, supply an elHpsis of cocpit o 

cccperunt, according as the context requires ; but this is unneces 


9. Proptcr frigora. " On account of the severity of the climate."' 
The plaral is here employed to impart additional emphasis. Tho 
climate of Gaul was much colder at the period when Caesar wrote 
than that of modern France is at the present day. The change has 
been brought about by the drying up of marshes, the cuttmg down 
of forests, and the more general cultivation of the soil. These 
forests and marshes covered at that time a large portion of the 

10. Suh scplentrionibus. " Under the north," i. e., towards the 
north. Ccesar here speaks of Gaul in its relation to the morc 
southem position of Italy. 

11. Suppctebat. "Was at hand." Equivalcnt to ad manum 
erat, or the simple adcrat. 

12. Eo autem frumento, &c. " Besides {autcm) he was unable 
to make use of the corn which he had brought up the river Arar in 
vessels, for this reason (propterea), because the Helvetii, from whom 
he was unwilling to depart, had turned away their line of inarch 
from the Arar." Subvehcre has here its primitive meaning, " to 
bring up from a lower place to a higher." 

13. Diem ex die duccre Aedui. . " The Aedui put him oft" from 
day to day." Morc hterally, " protracted the afiair (i. c., the bring 
ing.of com) from day to day." Duccre is hcre the historical infini 
tive used for the imperfect. Compare note 8, abovc. 

14. Conferri, comportari, &.c. " They told him it was collect- 
ing, bringing in, on the road," i. e., they assured him, at one time, 
that the corn was getting collected by individuals ; at another, that 
these individuals were bringing it in to some place specificd by the 
magistrates, in order to form the requisite supply for the Romans ; 
and, at another time again, they told him it was actualiy on the 
Toad to his army, and near at hand. Compare the Greek paraphrast, 
who uses a6pol^e(70ai for conferri, and aytodai for comportari. 

15. Se diutus diici. " That he was put off too long " — Frn 


mtntum. The Roman soldiers had no meal or bread served out to ] Q 

them, but merely so much grain, which they had to pound and makc 

into bread for themselves. Thus Lipsius remarks, " Noleba^U cu 

riose et ab pro/esso opi/ice panem coctum sumi, sed subitarium, et 

quem sua manu miles parasset." {De Mil. Rom. dial. 16.) Com- 

pare Sallust, B. I. 45. 

16. Qui summo magistratu prcBcrat. " Who was invested with 
the chief magistracy." Magistratu is the old dative for magistra- 
tui, a form of frequent recurrence in Caesar. Compare Struve, Lat. 
Declin., &c., p. 36. , 

17. Vergobretum. Gesner, in his Latin Thesaurus, gives this 
word a long penult, but the Greek paraphrast has it short, BfpydBptTos- 
The term is derived, by Celtic scholars, from Fear-go-breith, equiv- 
alent to vir ad judicium, i. e., " a man for judging" or " trying 
cases." In Celtic, /ear is "a man," go "to" or " for," and 
breatam, "a judge." Pelletier, in his Dictionary of the Breton 
tongue, gives breut and brawd, "a trial." 

1. Tam nccessario tempore. " On so urgent an occasion." — J J 
Eorum precibus adductus. Compare chap. 1 1 . 

2. Quod sit destitutus. " Of his having been left unaided by 
them," i. e., not having been suppHed with corn. 

3. Quod antea tacuerat proponit. " Discloses what he had pre- 
viously concealed." Taceo is one of those intransitive verbs which 
obtain a transitive force, because an action exerted upon anothef 
object is implied though not described in them. {Zumpt, L. G. p. 

4. Plurimum valeat. " Is very powerful." The subjunctive is 
employed, as indicating the sentiments and conviction of the speaker, 
not of the historian himself. So possint, immediately after. Com- 
pare Crombie, Gymn. vol. ii., p. 10. 

5. Privati. " Though private individuals." The earlier edi- 
tions and very many of the MSS. have privatim, " in their private 
capacity," which is not by any means a bad reading. R. Stephens 
first gave privati. 

6. Hos. Referring to these same individuals. — Seditiosa atque 
improba oratione. " By seditious and wicked speeches." — Fru' 
mentum. " The com." 

7. Si jam, &c. " Adding, that, if they (the Aedui) cannot 
hold any longer the sovereignty of Gaul, it js better (for them) to 
sdbmit to the dominion of Gauls than of Romans," i. e., it is better 
for them to obey the Helvetii, Gauls like themselves, than 'tota] 




1 2 strangers, like the Roinans. Obiinere is here equivalent to dtuiiiis 

tenere, for the Aedui had at one time, as CaBsar himself infonns us 

(chap. 43), enjoyed the dominion over all Gaul. Compare Davies- 

ad loc. 

8. Neque duhilare debere, &.c. " And that they ought not ic 
sntertain a doubt, but that," &,c. Some editions oinit debere. 

9. Ab iisdem. " By these same individuals," i. e., the ■privatt 
mentioned above. — Quceque. " And whatsoever things." Fot et 

10. A se. " By hiniself," as Vergobretus. — Quod necessario, 
&c. " As to his having, being compelled by nccessity, disclosed 
the affair to Cjesar, he was well aware at how great a risk lie did 
this." Necessario coaclus is here equivalent io necessitate coactus. 

11. Designari. " Was meant." Literally, " wa^ pointed at." 
— Sed quod, &c. " But since he was unwilling that these matters 
should be disclosed, so many being present," i. e., in the presence 
of so many. Pluribus, literally, " a larger number than ordinaiy." 

12. Quarit cx solo ea. " He inquires froin hiin inprivafe about 
those things." Solo refers to Liscus. — Dicit liberius, &c. "Lis- 
cus thereupon expresses himself with greater freedom and boldness." 

13. Complures annos, &c. " That he had, for verj' many years, 
farmed the custoras, and all the other public revenues of the Aedui, 
at a low rate, because, when he bid, no one dared to bid against 
liiin." By portoria the Roman writers mean Ihe duties paid for 
goods iinported or exported ; by vcctigalia the public revenues gen- 
craily. Tliose who farined them were called rcdemlorcs or publi- 
caiii, and the revenues were said in this way esse redempta, " to be 
contracted for," i. e., to be farmed. 

14. Lncente. From the deponent liccri, not from the intraiisiiive 
verb liceo. Several MSS. have illo dicente, and soiae editors m- 
cline to the opinion that this is the true reading. The Venicc edi- 
lion also gives dicentc 

15. Facultates ad largietulum magncu). " Extensive means foi 
the exercise of liberality," i. e., forbestowing presentsandrewards. 

16. Largiter posse. " Exercisedapowerful influence." Equiv- 
alent to potcntissimum. — Hujus potentice causa. " In order 
to maintain this infiucnce." Literally, "for the sake of this influ- 

lO 1- Collocasse. " He had given in inarriage." Sujiply nuplum, 
which is expressed with collocasse iminediately afler. Cvllocurc 
in this sense is a legal e.^spression. — Ijisum cx Hclvctiis, &c. He 


had raarried thc daughter of Orgetorix, as has been stated in 1 9 

chap. 3. 

2. Faverc et cupcre Helvetiis. " That he favoured and wished 
well to the Helvetii." Cupere is herc equivalcnt to bene vetle, as 
volurUas occurs in the next chapter for benevolenlia. 

3. Odisse etiam suo nomine. " That he hated also on his own 
account," i. e., cherished a personal hatred towards. 

4. In antiquum locum, &c. " Had been restored to his former 
degree of influence and consideration," i. e., hadbeen reinstated in 
his former influence, &c. 

5. Si quid accidat Romanis, &c. " That if anything adverse 
happen to the Romans," i. e., " if any disaster in war befall them." 
— Summam in spem venire. " He entertained very great hopes." 

6. Impcrio Populi Romani. "That, under the sway of the Ro- 
man people," i. e., as long as the Roman people possessed the 
chief authority in Gaul. 

7. Reperiebat etiam inquirendo, &c. The eUipsis, in this sen- 
tence, after inquirendo, gives it somewhat the appearance of an ir- 
regular construction, and has occasioned considerable trouble to 
raany editors. Supply as follows : inquirendo (proeho equestri ad- 
verso), quod proelium equestre adversum, &c. " On inquiring into 
the unsuccessful engagement of the horse which had been fought a 
few days previous." The words understood are to be rendered 
fiilly, and quod proelium equestre adversum is merely to be translated 
" which." The common text has w quczrendo. 

8. Equitatuprceerat. " Wasover thecavalry." Equitatuisheie 
the old form for the dative. Compare note 16, page 10. 

9. Certissim<B res accederent. " The most undoubted facts were 
atlded." — Quod. " How that." Crssar here proceeds to give an 
enumeration of the facts to which he refers. 

10. Injussu suo, &c. " Without his own (Caesar's) orders, and 
those of his (Dumnorix's) state, but even without the knowledge 
)f the latter." Ipsis refers to the Aedui. 

11. Quare in eum, &c. " Why he should either himself punish 
oim, or order the state (of the Aedui) so to do." When animad- 
verten is used, with the preposition in, as in the present case, it 
ftlways denotes that the condiii;^, de/??.u£<i reprehensible has been 
carefully inquired into previous to its being punished. 

12. Voluntatem. " AfTection." Voluntas is here equivalejii 
to benevolentia. So, in the 5th book, chapter 4, we have, " Cujut 
egrcgiam in se volunlatcm perspcxissct " Compare the remark of 



]^ Donatus (ad Tcrent. Phorm. Prol. 5, 30), " Voluntaiem pro favore 

13. Caium Valeriurn Procillum. This name is written variously 
in the MSS. Some give Troacillum, olhers Traucillum. Th» 
Greek paraphrast has IlpoaWX^ov. — Princijiem Gallicc Provincice 
" A leading man in the province of Gaul." Principem is her» 
equivalent to inter primores. 

14. Cui summam, &c. " In whom he was accustoraed to place 
the highest confidence on every occasion." More literally, " tho 
highest confidenoe in all things." — In concilio Galloru'^. Com- 
pare chapters 16, 17, and 18. 

15. Ostendit. Some editors omit ostendit, because commoneja 
cit precedes. But its presence is necessary for the meaning. 
Caesar " reminds" (commonefacit) Divitiacus of certain things that 
had been said in the council, and now " shows" him other matters 
that were not previously known to the latter. 

16. Sine ejus offensione animi. " Without any ofifence to his 
(Divitiacus's) fcelings." — Ipse. Referring to Csesar. — Civitatem. 
The Aedui. 

13 1. Ne quid gravius, &c. " That he would not determine any- 
thing too severe against his brother," i. e., would not pass toc 
severe a sentence upon him. — Mla. " That those things which 
Ca3sar had mentioned." 

2. Propterea quod, &c. " For this reason, because, at a twnu 
when he himself could effect a very grcat deal by his influence ac 
home and tliroughout the rest of Gaul, and his brother very little by 
reason of his youth, the latter had bccome powerful through his 
(Divitiacus's) means, which consequence and power he was now 
employing," &c. Opibus and ne~vis, following aftcr crcvisset, aro 
both implied in that verb. Nervis is here cmploycd in the sense of 
" power," the metaphor being borrowed from animals whose strength 
lies in their nerves. 

3. Ei. Referring to Dumnorix. — Ipse. Divitiacus. — Eum 
locum amicitice' apud cum. " Such a place in his friendship." 
Apud eum, i. e., apud Ccesarem. 

4. Faciat. The conjunction ut is elegantly understood. — Tantt 
ejus apud se, &c. " He declares that his (D\vitiacus's) influence 
with him (Ciesar) is so great, that he will pardon both the injury 
done to the republic and the affront offered to himsclf, at his desire 
and entreaty." Litcrally, " to his wish and prayers." 

5. Adhibet. " He brings in." Comparc the Grcek paraphrast, 


tai htivov wapa^aSwv. — Proponit. " He lays before him." — Omnes J^3 
snspiaoncs. " AU grounds of suspicion." — Diviliacofratri. " On 
account of his brother Divitiacus." 

6. Duvinorigi custodes ponit. " He places spies over Dumno- 
rix." The Greek paraphrast translates cuslodcs too literally : Iv <pv\aKjj 

7. Qualis esset natura montis, &c. " He sent persons to ascer- 
tain what might be the nature of the mountain, and what its ascenl 
by a circuitous route," i. e., what sort of a mountain it was, and 
whether it could be ascended, by a circuitous route, from behind. 

8. Facilem esse. Supply ascensum. 

9. Legatum pro praetore. " His lieutenant with prastoriar. 
powers." By a legatus pro prcetore, in the time of the republic, 
was meant a lieutenant, having charge, under the auspices of a pro- 
consul or comraander, of part of an army or province, and exerci- 
sing, when necessary, praetorian powers or the functions of a praetor. 
The expression, as applied in the present case to Labienus, is a 
singular one, since he is elsewhere in these commentaries simply 
called legatus. {Spanhem, de usu et prcBst. NN. p. 560.) At a 
later period, in the time of Augustus, by a legatus pro pratore was 
meant the governor of a whole province. {Dio Cas.sius, 43, 13.) 

10. Et iis ducibus. "And with those persons as guides." — 
Ascendere. Labienus was to take a circuitous route, and ascend 
the raountain in the rear of the enemy, so as to fall upon them by 
surprise when the signal should be given firom below. Count de 
Crisse, after praising the plan of attack, finds fault with Csesar for 
not havmg kept up the communication with Labienus by means of 
couriers, who could have informed him of all the movements of his 
lieutenant, and for not having agreed beforehand upon some signal, 
which was to be given by Labienus when he should have reached 
the summit of the mountain. These simple precautions would have 
prevented the failure of the plan. 

11. In Marci Crassi. " In that of Marcus Crassus." Supplv 

12. Summus mons. " The summit of the mountain." The 
relation expressed by of in English, is frequently denoted in Latin 
by an adjective. So imus mons, " the bottom of the mountain ;" 
timor externus, " the fear of foreign enemies," &;c. 

1. Ipse. "Andwhen he himself," i. e., Caesar. Compare the IJ 

Greek paraphrast, Kal rov Kataapo; a^to-rCrof. 

2. Eijuo admisso. ' " With his horse at full sallon." Admisso 




I J is here equivalent to cancitulo. Tlie Greek paraphrast has lipovvTi 

Ttji tniru, " wJth his horse all in a foam." 

3. A Gallicis armis atque insignibus. " By the Galhc arms and 
ensigns.' Oberhnus and others understand by insignibus, in this 
passage, tne omaments of the helmets ; but the reference undoubt- 
edly is to mihtary standards. The Greek paraplrrast also favours 
the same interpretation, expressing insig7iibus by crifttiuiv. 

4. Subducit. '■ Draws ofif." — Ut erat ci prcEceptum. " Since 
he had been instructed." — Ipsius. Referring to Ca;sar 

5. Prope. The 0.xford MS. gives propter, which Oudendoip 
thinks was the original and genuine lection. 

6. Multo denique die. " At length, after much of the day liad 
passed." Equivalent to " cum multurn diei processerat," as it is 
expressed by Salhist B. J. 51. 

7. Quod non vidisset, &c. " Had brought back to him inteUi- 
gence of what he had not scen, as if it had actually been secn by 
him." The Greek paraphrast expresses this vcry neatly, S ouk ilit^ 
w; ISwv d^TayyeHXat. — Sibi, i. e., Casari. 

8. Quo consuerat intcrvaUo. " At the usual distance." More 
hteraUy, " with the usual interval," i. e., between his own arniy 
and theirs. The fuU expression is (eo) intervaUo, quo (intervallo) 
consuerat (sequi). 

9. Quod omnivo, &c. " Since but two days in aU rcmained 
until the time when," &c. — Exereilu. The old dative for excrci- 
tui. — Mcliri. Compare notc 15, page 10. 

10. Rei frumentarice, &c. " He thought he must provide for a 
supply of corn," i. e., make arrangemcnts to procure it from the 
Aedui, on wliom he rehed mainly for his supplies of grain. Thc 
full expression is, sibi prospiciendum esse. 

11. Decurionis equitum GaUorum. "A captain of the Gallic 
horse." A decurio, at first, as the name imports, commanded only 
ten horse ; and there were three of these officers in every tnrma or 
troop of thirty men, making the whole number in the turma, inclu- 
ding the Derarjowcs, thirty-three. {Varro, L. L. 4, 16.) In the 
time of Cffisar, however, a change had taken place. Tiic turma 
now consisted of thirty-two horsemen, and the whole wcre com- 
manded by one dcciirio, who retained thc old name, although more 
Shan ten wcre now under his orders. Consult Vegetius, 2, ]4, 
" Triginta duo cquites ab uno decurione, sub 7ino vexillo, regun- 
tur,''' &c. 

12. Discederc a se. " Were deparlnig froni them," i. e., weve 


uming off, and changing thoir route. Disceilere is the imperfcct of M 
the infinitive. — Superimibus locis occupalis. " Althoiigh thc higher 
grounds had been seized by them," i. e., by the Romans. — Quod 
re frumentaria, &c. " Because they trusted that the Romans 
could be cut ofF from their supply of corn," i. e., fiattercd thern 
selves with the hope of being ablc to accomphsh this. 

13. Consilio. Compare the commenccment of chap. 10. — Ano 
etssimo agmine. Consult note 3, page 10. 

14. Animum adve.rlit. " Perceives." The same as aaimad- 
vertit. The expression id animum advertit is nothing more ihan 
vertit animum ad id. Several e.xamples of the use of animum ad- 
verto for animadverto are given by Gronovius, ad Liv. 28, 14. A 
familiar instance occurs in Sallust B. I. 93, " Animum advertit 
cochleas," &,c. 

15. In colle mcdio, 6cc. " Drew up, on the middle of the hill, a 
triple line of the four veteran legions, in such a \v»y as to place 
above him, on the very summit, the other two legions which he had 
levied very recently in Hither Gaul, and a!l the auxiliaries," i. e., 
he drew up his fout veteran legions on the slope of the hill, in three 
lines ; and then placed above them, on the top of the hill, the two 
new legions, on whom, as consisting of recent levies, he could less 
safely rely ; and along with these last he stationed also the au.xiliary 
forces. The student will observe that the lines here spoken of are 
not to be considered as composed of one continuous rank, but as so 
many lines of cohorts, and that each cohort had its flank-companies, 
if we may so speak, of velites, or light-armed troops. Compare the 
remark of Count de Crisse, " a chaquc cohorte ttaient ses manches 
de vilites.'" 

16. QuasinGalliaciteriore,&Lc. Comparechap. 10. ^y Gallia 
citerior is meant the northern part of Italy. Compare note 12, 

1. Et eum, &c. "And ordered this place to be guarded by J^ 
those who stood posted in the upper line." The reference is to 
those on the top of the hill. Eum, i. e., eum locum, meaus the 
place in which the baggage was. 

2. Covfertissima acie. " In very close array." — Phalange facto.. 
" A phalans being formed." According to Orosius (6, 7), the 
German phalanx consisted of a large body of men in close array, 
with their «hields locked over their heads. This would resemble 
the testudo of the Romans. The Macedonian phalanx, on the other 
hand, was an oblong battalion of pikemen, consisting of sixtcen iii 



][ ^ flank and five hundred in front. Tlie whole number, of cDurse, waa 
8000. The amount of the Gorman phalanx is not given. The 
phalanx of the Helvetii most probably resembled that of the Ger- 

3. Sub 'primam, &c. " Game up close to our front line." 

4. /Smo. Supply equo. — Omnium. Govemed by eguis. Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrast : TrpuJT-ov litv rhv iavTov, sirciTa Si rovs irayrwy 
Tuiv aX\ii>v ivrrovs (kttoSiov iToiJiadjxivoi. 

5. Omnium. Referring both to his soldiers and himself. — E loco 
superiorc. " From their higlier position," i. e., from the slope of 
the hill. 

6. Destriclis. A more accurate form than districlis. — Impetum 
Jecerunt. " Charged." 

7. Gallis magno, &c. " It proved a greathinderance to the Gauls, 
as regarded the fight, that, several of their shields being transfixed 
and fastened together by a single blow of the javehns, they were 
anable, as the iron point had bent itself, either to pull it out, or, 
their left hand being thus impeded, to make battle with sufEcient 
advantage. So that many, after having for a long time tossed their 
arms to and fro, preferred flinging away the shield from their hands, 
and fighting with their persons unprotected by it." The student 
will bear in mind that their shields were locked above their heads, 
and lapped considerably over one another. Hence a javehn cast 
down from a higher place would pierce, of course, through more 
than pne, and in this way fasten them together. Compare note 2. 

8. Pedemrcfcrre. "Toretrcat." Literally, " to carry back the 
foot." Some editors insert Helvetii after cccperunt, but this is suf- 
ficiently imphed from the context. 

9. Agmen hostium claudehayit. " Closed tlie enemy's Hne of 
march," i. e., brought up the rear. 

10. Ex itinere, &c. " Having attacked our mcn as we pursued, 
on their open flank," i. e., on their right flank, which, on accouni 
of its not being covered by the shields of the soldiers, was more 
open to attack. Caesar was guilty of a great error in pursuing the 
Helvetii on their retreat, without observing the Boii and TuHngi, 
who acted as a body of reserve, and who attacked him in flank as 
he passed by, and then began to surround him in the rear. He 
ehould have ordereJ the two legions ])osted on the top of the hili 
to follow immediately after him, and in this way rnight have opf Keed 
the attack of the Boii. 

11. Romani conversa signa, &c. " The Romans, having facec) 


about, advanced against the enemv in two divisions,'' i. e., thc 1 ^j 
rear rank, consisting of the third line, faced about and advanced 
against thc Boii and Tuhngi, who were coming up in the rear ; 
while the first and second lines continued facing towards, and made 
head against, the Helvetii, who were now coming down again from 
the mounlain to which they had retreated. The two divisions were 
composed, the one of the third Une, the other of the first and second 

{"Z. Ancij)itiproe.lio. " In a divided conflict." This engagemcnt 
is here called anceps, because it was fought in two placcs, i. e., be- 
tween the first division and the Helvetii, and between the second 
division and the Boii. The phrase ancipiti prcclio commonly means, 
" in doubtful conflict." 

13. Alteri. " The one party," i. e., the Helvetii, who had come 
down again from the mountain. — Alteri. The Boii ahd Tuhngi. 

14. Hora septima. The Romans divided the natural day, from 
sunrise to sunset, into twelve hours, which were, of course, of dif- 
ferent lengths at different seasons of the year, being shorter in winter 
than in summer. The seventh hour will coincide with our one 

15. Aversum hostem. " The back of a foe." Literally, " an 
cnemy tumed away," i. e., in fiight. Compare the Greek para- 
phrast : oiiieU ik vuitov litlv rbv TroXifiLOV riSvv/jOri. 

16. Ad multam noctem. "Until late in the night." 

1. Mataras ac tragulas subjicielant. " Kept plying lances and ] ^\ 
javehns from beneath." By matara are meant a kind of GaUic 
lances, of greater weight than the ordinary spear ; and by tragulte, 
light javelins, with a strap attached, by which they were thrown. 
Strabo (4. p. 196, ed. Casaub.) calls the matara irayrov ti ilcof, and 

the Greek paraphrast renders mataras by waXra. Hesychius makes 
mention of itaidpeis, which he defines to be irXaTVTepa Xoyy^^iiia, and 
adds that the word is a Celtic one. The Spanish matar, " to kill," 
and the old French term matrasser, which has the same meaning, 
appear to be deduced from the same root with matara. Compare 
Adelung, Mithridates, vol. ii., p. 64, and Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lat. 
vol. iv., p. 597. 

2. Orgetorigis Jilia. Plutarch {Vit. Cces. c. 18) informs us 
that the very women and children fought on this occasion till thev 
were cut to pieces. 

3. Nullam partem. The accusative, by a Hellenism, for the ab 
lative. Consiilt Vechner, HeUenolex, d. 257. Oudendorp, Grutei, 



1 (^ and many other critics, very properly regard the expression, nuUam 

partem noctis itinere intermisso, as tautological, and a mere gloss 

of the adverb continenter in the previous clause. It is omittedj 

besides, in the Greek paraphrase. 

4. Qui si juvissent, &c. " For that, if they should aid them, he 
would regard them in the same light in vvhich he did the Helvctii," 
i. e., as enemies. The fuU construction is, se hahiturum illos (scil. 
Lingonas) eodem loco quo habeat Helvetios. 

5. Qui,cum. "Whenthese." — Atgue eos in eo loco, &c. "And 
when he had ordered thcm to wait his arrival in the place in which 
they then were, they obeycd." Eos refers to the whole of the Hel- 
vetii, who were ordered nol to rctreat any farther, but to wait 
Cffisar's coming up. Hence we see the force of essent in the sub- 
junctive mood, and the literal mcaning of the clause quo tum essent, 
" where they were said to be." If Caesar had written quo tum 
erant, it would have referred to the ambassadors merely. 

6. Eo. Referring to the place where the Helvetii were when 
they sent the ambassadors, and where Cssar had ordered them to 
remain until he should come up. 

7. Verhigenus. Some commentators are in favour of Urbigenus 
as a reading, and they suppose the original, or Celtic form of tho 
name to have been Urlegoew, from Urba, a town of the Helvetii, 
raentioned in the Itin. Anton., and gow, a tract, or district (i. e., 
" a district near Urba"). The true form, however, is Verhigenus. 
Compare Oberlin. ad loc. and the authorities there citcd. 

8. Occultari. " Be concealed," i. e.,from Csesar. — Autommno 
ignorari. " Or altogether unknown," i. c., remain wholly unno- 
ticed. — Prima noctc. " As soon as it was night." More literallv, 
" at the beginning of the night." Some have ■prima noctis vigilia, 
others prima noctis (scil. hora). 

9. Resciit. The verb rescire is generally employed. when wo 
come to the knowledge of anything which has been songht to be 
concealed from us, or which is unexpected, &c. Compare the 
remark of Aulus Gellius, 2, 19, " Aliter dictum esse rescivi, aul 
rescire, apud eos qui diligenter locuti sunt, nondum invemmus, 
guam super his rchus, quce aut occulto consilio latuerint, aut contra 
spem opinionemve usuvenerint." 

10. Quorum per fines ierant, &c. The order is, imperavit his, 
per fines quoriim lerant, uti, &,c. — Si sibi pxirgati csse vellent. 
" If they wished to be free from all blame in his eyes." 

11. Rcductos in numero hostiuin habuit. "He treated them, 


when brought back, as encmies," i. e., either causcd them to be pnt ] Q 
to death, or sold ihem as slaves ; most probably the latter. 

12. Omnilnts fructibus amissis. " All the productions of tlio 
earth being destroyed." Some editions read frugibus, but less 
elegantly. Fnictus is more extensive inmeaning iha.nfruges, and 
denotes not only the grain, but all the produce of the ficlds in gen- 
eral. Compare Broukhus. ad TibulL 1, 1, 35. 

13. Ipsos. Referring to the Helvctii, Tuhngi, and Latobrigi. — 
Restituere. " To rebuild." Compare chap. 5. 

1. Vacare. " To remain uninhabited." Plutarch ( FiZ. C'<3s. c. ] "7 
18) makes mention of, and bestows just praise on, the policy of 
Caesar, in compelling the Helvetii to reoccupy their country. 

2. Boios, petentibus Aeduis, &c. The construction is, "cow- 
cessit Aeduis, petentibus ut collocarent Boios in suis finibus, quod 
illi (scil. Boii), cogniti erant egregia virtute." — Quibus illi, &c. 
The common text has merely a semicolon after concessit, but a 
fuUer stop is required. Translate as follows : " Whereupon they 
gave them lands, and aftervirard admitted them to an equal partici- 
pation of rights and freedom with thcraselves." More literally, " re- 
ceived them into the same condition with respect to rights and free- 
dom as they themsehes were in." Compare the Greek paraphrast : 
Touroij fiiv oiv o\ 'E&wfTj Tdre fiev ^iipav iouiKav' iiriiTa <5' eXevdipovs re 
Kal aiTOvSiiovi <Lj eavToi; eiroiticrav. 

3. TabulcE. " Lists." Literally, " tablets." The term tabula:, 
as here employed, denotes any bard material, especially wood, ou 
which characters were inscribed. The Roman tabula were of wood 
covered with wax, and the instrument for writing was a stylus, sharp 
at one end and round or flat at the other. The round or flat end 
was used for rubbing the wax over when a correction was to bo 
made. Hence the expression of Horace, sape stylum vertas, " tuni 
the stylus frequently," i. e., " be frequent in your corrections of 
what you write." 

4. Literis Grcecis confectce. " Made out in Greek characters." 
It is a very disputed question among philologists whether Cffisar 
here means to ascribe to the Helvetii a knowledge of the Greek 
language, or only an employment of the Greek characters. The 
latter is undoubtedly the more correct opinion. Caesar, it is true, 
in the sixth book (c. 14), speaks of the Druids employing the Greek 
letters in their private and public transactions, but here again the 
reference appcars to be merely to the characters of the Greek lan- 
guage, not to Greek words themselves. So agam, when Strabn 



17 mforms us(4, p. 181, ed. Cas.) that, a little before his ownage, tha 

custom prevailed in Gaul of writing the forms of agreements, &c., 

in Greek (rd avfi66Xaia 'E>\riviaTi yfxzfovai), he cannot mean the 

Greek language by ' K.Wrivian, but only the letters of the Greek al- 

phaoe, : the words were Celtic, the characters were Greek. Strabo 

likewise states the source whence tliis knowledge of the Greek 

characters was obtained, namely, the Phocean colony of Massilia, in 

the south of Gaul. Even supposing, therefore, that the Gallic 

tribes, in the vicinity of this place, had acquired a familiarity with, 

not merely the written characters, but the language of the Greek.-s 

themselves (a supposition far from probable), the same cannot cer- 

tainly be said of the more northcrn tribes, and among thcm of the 

Helvetii. It will be remembered, too, that Cagsar, on one occasion 

(J5. G. 5, 48), sent a letter to his lieutenant written in Greek char- 

acters, lest it should otherwise, if intercepted, have been read by 

the Nervii. Now this certainly would not have been the case had 

the northern tribe jiist mentioned been acquainted even with the 

Greek characters, for Csesar^s letter was composed of Latin words, 

expressed by Greek letters. 

5. liatio. "An account," or " estimate." — Qui rmmeruf!. 
For quis numerus. — Eonim qui arma ferre possent. Neatly ex- 
pressed in the Greek paraphrase by the single term aTpaTtuiTdv. 

6. Summa. erat. Ancient authorities differ as to these amounls. 
Plutarch (Fn. Cas. c. 18) makes the whole number 300,000 
{TpidKotTa ijvpidca;.) Polysenus (8, 23) gives the number of the 
Helvetii at 80,000 (o/cri ixvptdSas). Strabo states that 400,000 Gauls 
perished, and that the rest returned home (4, p. 193, ed. Cas.). 
Thediscrepance is occasioned, nodoubt, by the errors of the copyists. 

7. Capitum. Best rendered hereby our English word " souls." 
Thus, " two hundred and sixty-three thousand souls of the Helvctii " 

8. Censu habilo. "An estimate having been niade," i. e., an 
ftctual enumeration having taken place. The term census is here 
employed in its general sense. In its Roman acceptation, it meant 
a review of the people, and a valuation of their estates, togethei 
with an estimate of thcir numbers. 

9. GallicB. The division named Celtica is here meant, since 
Belgica was at this time preparing for war. 

10. Intelligere scse, &c. " Adding, that although, on account o. 
fonner injuries done to the Roman people by the Helvetii, he 
(Csesar) had inflictcd punishment on the lattcr in war, still they 
themselves vvore srnsihle ihat tliis liad happened no less lo the ad- 



v&ntage of the land of Gaul, than to that of the Roman pcople." j "Tf 

Supply dicenles after gratulatuin, which is, in fact, however, con- 
fained in it. The student will observe the double genitive, in the 
cxpression injwriis Helvetiorum jxrpuli Romaiii, where populi is 
governed by Hclvetiorum. In constructions of this kind one of the 
genitives is comnionly active in its meaning (to borrow a grammati- 
cal eipression), and the other passtve. Thus, in the present in- 
stanco, Helvetiorum is active, and populi passive. (Compare Peri 
zonius, ad Sanct. Min. 2, 3. — Vol. i., p. 209, ed. Bauer.) 

1 1 . Terrce Gallice. For terra Gallicce. Compare Hirtius, Bell. 
Afr. 3, "■ Namque nullum portum terrce Africa," and Sallust, 
fragm. Hist. 4, " Duce Gallice mulieres." Those critics are wrong, 
therefore, who seek to reject terrm from the text. 

12. Ex magna copia. " From the large number who would in 
that event present themselves," i. e., in case the Helvetii obtained 
the empire of Gaul. 

13. Stipendiarias. "Tributary." By stipendiarii the Roman 
writers, strictly speaking, mean those who paid a certain sum an- 
nually in money ; and by vectigales those who rendered, as tribute, 

certain portion of the produce of the ground. The latter generally 
Daid a tenth of com (rffis» oirfipo/inwv) and a fifth of other produce 
(nji» (pvTtvojiivuv). Compare Crusius, ad Suet. Vit. Jul. c. 20. 

14. In diem certam. " For a particularday." — Sesehabere,&Lc 
" That they had certain matters which they wished to ask of liim, 
in accordance with the general consent," i. e., if the general con- 
sent of tlieir countrymen could be first obtained. 

1. Ne quis enunciaret, &c. " That no one should disclose their J ^ 
deliberations, except those unto whom this oflfice should be assigned 

by the assembly at large," i. e., that the result of their deliberations 
should be communicated to Caesar by individuals whom the general 
assembly should authorize so to do, and by no others. Compare 
the Greek paraphrast : lujSiva aXKov, il ^^ roiis ini zrdvTiav riav rdXX«iii> 
im TodTO alperoiii, raSra rio Kaiaapi aitayytXfXv. 

2. Eo concilio dimisso. " When the assembly, so summoned, 
had beeu held and had broken up." Compare the Greek paraphrase 
ravTtji oZv T^s avvdSov avvaOpoiadeiai];. 

3. Qui ante fuerant ad Coesarem. " Wuo had been with Cssar 
on the previous occasion." Ad is here equivalent to apud. Ciac- 
conius and Scaliger regard these words as a mere interpolatioa. 
Bentley proposes venerant for fuerant. As regards the use of ad 
for apud, consult Drakenborch, ad Liv. 7, 7. 




1 y 4. Secreto. The coinmon text has secreto in occulto, wliich cai>- 

not possibiy be correct. Oudendorp, indeed, endeavours to de.end 

the cominon reading, by making sccreto refer to the absence of all 

who might otherwise overhear the conference, and occulto to tne 

secret nature of the place where the conference was held ; but 

Benth>y, wilh far more correctness, regards in occulto as a mcre 

gloss, and we have thercfore rejected it. 

5. Non minus se id, &c. " That they strove and laboured no 
less anxiously to prevent what they might say from being divulged, 
than to obtain what they wished." 

6. Factioncs. " Parties." Factio, according to Festus, was 
originaliy a term of good import, " honestum vocabuluvi," and de- 
noted merely a certain class or order of persons. Its meaning ol 
" parly" or " faction" arose at a subseqnent period. Compare 
TJacicr, ad loc. 

7. 1'rincipatnm teiicre. " Stood at the hcad." — Hi. Refernng 
to the Acdui and Arverni. — Fotentatii. " Tlie superiority." Po- 
tentatiis is rather aii uncommon word, but still is to be met with in 
some good writers. Thus Livy, 26, 38, " Aemulo potentatus inim- 
icus rcm A^inibali aperit,''' and Laciayiiius (Div. Inst. 6, 17), 
" Opcs istas ct honores et polenlaius el rcgna ipsa condemnet." 

8. iscquanisque. The Sequanl are herc mentioned as having 
been thc allies of the Arvemi. In the sixth book (c. 11) the Sc- 
qnani are said to have been at the head cf one of the two great 
parties, and no mention is madc of the Arverni. 

9. Horum. " Of the latter." Refcrring to the Germans. — 
Postcaquam agros, &c. " That, aftcr these savage and barbarous 
men had grown fond of the lands, and manner of living, and abun- 
<lance of the Gauls, a larger number had been brought over." 
Copi(B is generally used in the plural for " forces," and in the sin- 
gular for " abundance" or " plenty." But sometimes, as in tlie 
present instance, the phiral is uscd in the sensc of "abundance." 
Compare Oudcndorp, ad Frontin. 2, 1, 18. 

10. Clienles. " Dependanls." Referring to thc petty states in 
aihance with and dependant upon their powe.r. When the terni 
ciientcs is applied in thcse commentaries to the relainers of individual 
chieftains, those persons are meant who are elsewherc caJIcd am- 
bncti OT soldurii. Compare book 6, chap. 15 and 19. — Scmcl cUque 
•.terum. " Repeatedly." Literally, " once and again." 

11. Hospitio The reference is to pubhc hospitahty tVTien a 


nation was entitled to this, Ihcir ambassadors were allowed a place 1 ii 

of honour at public spectacles, and were splendidly entertained. 

12. Unum se. " That he alone." Divitiacus alludes here to 

13. Auxilium postulatum. He did not, however, succeed in his 
apphcation. {B. G. 6, 12.) His visit to Rome is incidentally re- 
ferred to by Cicero {de Div. 1, 41), from whose language it appears 
that Divitiacus was one of the order of Druids. 

1. Qui esset. " Which was, according to him." The subjunc- | C) 
tive is here employed to espress the sentiments of the spcciker, not 
those of the writer himself The same rcmark will hold good with 
respect to the other subjunctives in the course of the speech. 

2. Qtdbus locus, &c. " For whom a settlement and habitations 
were to be procured." 

3. Neque enim, &.c. " For neither was the Gallic territoiy to 
be compared with that of the Germans, nor the mode of living here 
to be placed on an equality with that of theirs." The meaning is, ' 
that the Gallic territory was far superior in point of fertility to the 
German, and that the Gallic mode of hfe was more refined and civil- 
ized than that pursued by their German neighbours. The unusual 
mode of expression by which this idea is conveyed (it being more 
customary to place the inferior object in the first clause), has led 
Ciacconius to emend the sentence as follows : " Neque enim confe- 
renduin esse cum Gallico Germanorum agrum." But we may 
easily conceive, that one thing may be so far superior to another as 
not to admit of a comparison with it, and hence the ordinary lection 
is correct enough. 

4. Neque hanc, &c. Some editors, not attending to the pecu- 
liar force of hic and ille, make hanc refer to the Germans, and illa 
to the Gauls. Hic always relates to that which is near or belongs 
to the person speaking ; ille to some remoter person or object 
Zumpt, L. G. p. 244. 

5. Ut semel. " Whcn once," i. e., " as soon as." 

6. Ad Magetobriam. " In the vicinity of Magetobria." The 
place here alluded to is not known, and hence much uncertainty 
prevails about the true reading. Almost all the MSS. have Adma- 
getobricB as one word, which Oudendorp adopts. The early edi- 
tions give Amagetobrice, with whichthe Greek paraphrast agrees, iv 
rji ^AiiaycTo6pL(f. Oberlinus, however, whom we have been induced 
to follow, prefers ad Magetobriam, and thinks that traces of the an- 
cient name may easily be recognised in the modem Moigte cU 



J 9 Broie, at the coufluence of the Arar and Ogno, near the village ol 

Po?Uailler. This opinion derives strong support Iroin the circum- 
stance of a fragment of an ancient urn having been obtained from 
the bed of the Arar, near the place just mentioned, ic the ycai 
1802, on which tho word MAGETOB could be distmctly traced. 
Compare Oberlinus, ad loc. 

7 Et in eos omnia ezempla, &c. " And eiercised upon them 
all manner of cruelties." The expression exempla cruciatiLsque is 
put by an hendiadys for exempla cruciatuum, and excmpla itself is 
equivalent hcre to genera. 

8. Hominem esse barbarum, &.c. " That he was a savage, pas- 
sionate, hot-headed man." Iracundus denotes one who is quick- 
tempered and passionate, iralus one who is merely angry at some 
particular time. 

9. Nisi si. This form is used occasionally by the best wriiers, 
with the same force merely as the simple 7usi. Thus, Cic. Ep. ad 
Fam. 14, 2, " Nisi si quis ad me plura scripsit," and Ovid, Ep. 
Her. 4, 111, " Nisi si 7na7iifesla 7icgamus." Consult Oudcndorp, 
ad loc. 

10. Ut domo emigrc7it. " Namely, emigratc from home." — 
Fortunamquc, quaecumquc accidat, &c. " And make trial of ••vhat- 
cver fortune may befall them," i. e., submit to whatever fortune, &.c. 

11. H<EC. Alluding to ihe disclosures he was now makmg. — Non 
dubitare. Supply scsc. 

12. Atque excrcitus. " And that of his army," i. e., the weight 
which the presence of his army would give to his interference in 
behalf of the Gauls. — Detcrrere. Supply eum, referring to Ario- 
vistus. — Ne major multitudo, &c. " So as to prevent any greater 
number of Germans from being brought by him across the Ilhine." 
Literally, " in order that any greater number of Germans may not 
be led across the Rhine." 

13. Ab Ariovisfi injuria,. " From the outrages of Ariovistu»." 

14. Habila. " llaving been delivered." — Unos ex omnibus Sc- 
quanvs, &c. Hotomannus thinks it altogether incredible that the 
Sequani, who had invited Ariovistus into Gaui against the Aedui, 
and who had been accuslomed to wage continual vvars with them, 
should now be found acting in concert with tlie delegates of tho 
latter people. The cruelty and oppression of Ariovistus, hovvever, 
which the Sequani had experienced in a still stronger degree than 
even tho Acdui, had very naturally brought about this result, and 
united in one common cause thosc vvho had prcviously been opet 


enemies to each olher. It will be seen, moreover, from chap. 35, i Q 

that the Sequani were desirous of reutoring to the Aedui thc hoa- 

tagcs which *hey had in their possessi jn belonging to that nation, if 

Ariovistus would allow this to be done. 

15. Respondere. The historical infinitive, for the imperfect res 
fondehant. So pcrmanere, at the end of the sentence, for perma 

16. Exprimere. " Extort." Some more recent MSS. and many 
editions have possent instead oiposset. This, however, is altogether 
erroneous, unless we read expromere. The phrase expromere vocem 
is applied to one who speaks, but exprimere vocem to one who com- 
pels another to speak. 

1. Hoc. " On this account." — PrcB reliquorum. This is the 20 
reading of the Oxford MS. The common text has quam. 

2. Ahscntis. " Even when absent." — Tamen fuga facidtas 
daretur. " The means of escape were nevertheless afforded," i. e., 
they still had it in their powcr *o escape his cruelty by flight. Some 
editions have tantum, which is an inferior reading. 

3. Quarum oppida omnia, &c. This is explained a little farther 
on where Ariovistus states (ch. 44) that he had settlements in 
Gaul granted by the people of that country themselves. These set- 
tlements were the towns which he had first got possession of by 
agreeing to garrison and defend them, and which he subsequently 
retained in order to keep the Sequani and other Gauls under his 

4. Omnes cruciatus. "All kinds of cruelties." — Essent per- 
ferendi. The granunarians mentioned by Ruddiman (Tnstit. L. G. 
vol ii., p. 252) read esset perferendum, making cruciatus the accu- 
Bative. Compare Ramshom, L. G. p. 373. 

5. Gallorum animos, &c. " Strove to cheer by words the spirits 
of the Gauls." Compare the Greek paraphrast, rwiiy TaAXovj 

6. Beneficio suo. " By his former kindness towards him." Cae- 
sar had, during ^s consulship the year previous, obtained for Ario 
vistus, from the Roman senate, the title of " King and friend.'' 
Compare Dio Cassius, 38, 34 : Plutarch, Vit. C<zs. c. 19, and chap- 
ters 35, 42, and 43 of the present book. 

7. Secundum ea, &c. " Besides these statements (on the part 
of the Gaiils), many circumstances induced him to think that this 
alFair ought to be considered of and undertaken by him." The 




20 preposition secundum has iiere a meaning derived direcily from its 

primitive force of foilowing after something which has gone before. 

8. Mult(Z res. The reasons here assigned are all a mere pre- 
tencc. Ca?sar's rcal object was to subjugate the whole of Gaul, 
and the present state of affairs between the Gauls and Ariovistus 
aflbrded him a favourable opportunity of interfering in the politicai 
concerns of thc country, and of taking the first step towards the ac- 
complishment of his object. 

9. Fratres consanguineosque. " Brothcrs andkinsmen." Com- 
pare Cic. Ep. ad Att. 1, 19, and Tacit. Anri. 11, 25. 

10. Paulatim autcm Germanos, &c. " For the Germans, niore- 
over, to become gradualiy accustomed," &c. — Pcriculosum. Sup- 
ply esse. " Was fraught with danger." 

11. Sibi temperaturos. "Would restrain themselves." Tm- 
perare, with the dative, signifies " to set bounds to anytlring," " to 
moderate," or " restrain." "Wilh the accusative it means " to regu- 
late" or " an^ange." 

12. Cimhri Teutoniquc. Alluding to the famous inroad of these 
barbarian hordes upon the Roman territory. Consult Hist. Index. 

13. PrcEsertim cum Sequanos, &c. " Especially since the 
Rhone alone separated the Sequani," &c. Bentley thinks that 
from prcBsertim to divideret is the interpolalion of some later hand. 

14. Occurrcndum. " He must tliwart." Supjily essc sibi. — 
Tantos spiritv.s. " Such airs of importance." Compare the Greek 
paraphrast, 6 yaf ^ ApiCStoros ovrw; V7rept(pp6vu. 

15. Uti aliquem locum, &c. " To name some intervening place 
for a conference on the part of each," i. e., where a mutual con- 
ference might be held. 

16. Et summis utriusgue rchus. " And about anatters of the 
greatest importance to both of them " Bentley tliinks that, on 
account of the presence of utriusque m this clause, it should be 
throvvn out of the previous one {utriusquc colloquio). Cassar, how- 
ever, often repeats the same word after a very short interval. 

17. Si quid ipsi, &c. " That if he himsclf hadneed of anytiiing 
from Caesar he would have come to him." Opus est is either useJ 
impersonally, in which case it has, like verbs of wanting, an abla- 
tiye ; or pcrsonally, and thcn thc thing wanted is in the nomiiiativc. 
This latter constrnction is most common with the neuters of pro- 
nnuns and adjectives. Zunipt, L. G. p. 299. 

21 ^' ^^^^' " That commandcr." liefcrring to Ciesar. — Se. The 
ablative. Supply thc prrposilion a. Comparc thc Greek paraphrast, 

TT^p* lltOU. 



2. Siiie viagno commeatu atquc cmolimevlo. " Without grcat O i 

expenditure of means and great trouble." Commealus has here a 
general reference to supplies of all kinds, including also those of 
money, or, as Plautus terms it {Pseud. 1, 5, 9), " commeatus ar- 
gentanus." — Emolimentum, in this passage, is equivalent to labor 
ox molitio. For, as eniti is "nitendo efficere aliguid," and nisus 
therefore the same as labor or opera, so emoiiri is " molimdo efficere 
aliqtiid,'" and cmolimentum the same as labor ipse. Consult Moru^, 
ad loc. The Greek paraphrast well e.^presses the Latin terms in 
question : avev ^iydXrjs iaTrdvrii re Kai noX^rJs da^oXiaf. 

3. Quid negotii. '■ What business." — In sua Gallia. These 
words depict very forcibly thc arrogance of Ariovistus. riorus (3, 
10) gives the reply of the Gennan leader as foUows : " Quis est av- 
tem CcEsar ? Si vult, veniat. Quid ad illum quid agat Germama 
nostra 1 Num ego me interpono Romanis V 

4. Quam bello vicisset. The student will again mark the use ot 
the subjunctive, as referring to the scntiments of the speaker, not 

hose of the vvriter. 

">. Itcrum ad eum, &c. Caesar^s object, in sending these ambas- 
sadors a second time, was purposely to irritate Ariovistus, and lead 
him on to some act of hostihty. 

6. Quoniam tanto suo, &c. " That wliereas, after having been 
treated with so much kindness by iiimself and the Roman people 
(since he had been styled king and friend by the senate, during his 
own (Caesar's) consulship), he was now making such a return as 
this to himself and the Roman people, as, when invited to come to 
a conference, to make a difficulty about complying, and to think that 
it was not necessary for him to speak and inform himself about a 
matter of common interest, these were the demands which he (Cas- 
sar) had now to makc of him." 

7. Quam. For aliquam. — Deinde. " Ir. the ne.xt piace." 

8. Voluntate ejus. "With his full consent." Ejus refers to 
Ariovistus. Voluntate sua would have referred to Cssar. 

9. Sese. In the common editions, the pronoun is omitted here, 
tn consequence of its occurring again after the parenthesis. But 
tts presence is requisite in both places for the sake of perspicuity. 

10. Marco Messala, &.c. A. U. C. 693, B. C. 61.— Senatus 
censuisset. " The senate had decreed." Grotius (de Jure B. et P. 
3, 3, 10) shows that Ctesar himself was not free from blame when 
he brought this war upon Ariovistus. There certaihly was no need 
of any formal argumenl on tlvs point, as tho case speaks for itself. 



21 li- Obtineret. " Might hold," i. e., might govern for the 

lime being. Compare note 3, page 6. 

12. Quod commodo, &-c. " Should, as far as he could do so con- 
sistently with the interests of the republic, protect," &c., i. e., 
should take care that, while he was protccting the Aedui and the 
other friendly states, none of the more important interests of the 
Roman people were jeopardized by the step. Qiiod is used in this 
clause for quantum. Consult Sanctius, Min. vol. i., p. 596, where 
the prcsent passage is quoted among others. The grammatical 
constra:tion is, dcfendcrct Acduos, &c., secundum id qxiod posset 
facere, &c. Compare the Greek paraphrast, iv '6a(f yc o\ 'Vuixaioi 

fifj GXdnrowro. 

13. Item. " In like manner." Some MSS. have idem, which 
Scaliger adopts, and in which he is foUowed by several subsequent 
editors. The true reading is item. — Victis. " Their vanquished." 

—Non ad alterius, &c. " Not according to the dictates of anothcr, 
but their own pleasure." 

14. Quemadmodum, &c. " In what way they were to exercise 
iheir own rights." Uteretur refers back to Populo Romano. — In 
suo jure. " In the exercise of his rights." 

15. Stipendiarios. Compare note 13, page 17. 

16. Magnam Ccesarem, &c. " That Cassar was striving to do 
him a grcat injury, sLnce he was endeavouring, by his coming, to 
render his revenues less valuable to him." The student will mark ' 
the forcc of the two imperfects, facere (the imperfcct of the infini- 
tive) and faceret. He will note also the use of the subjunctive 
after the relative, as indicating the reason or causc of the previous 
assertion. Ariovistus had imposed a certain tribute on the Aedui, 
the payment of which was secured by hostages ; Caesar required 
these hostages to be giveaback, an act which, according to Ario- 
vistus, would weakenliis chancc of a faithful payment of the tribute, 
and would rendcr it less valuablc, becausc less certain than before. 

^9 1. Inpiria. "Without just cause." — Si in eo manerent, &c. 
" In case thcy remained steadfast in that which had been agreed 

2. Longe iis, 6ic. " The title of brothcrs, given them by the 
Roman people, would bc far from proving any assistancc to them," 
i. e., would not save thcm from punishment. A metaphbr borrowed 
from things tiiat are far olf, and conscqucntly unable to lend any 
effectual aid. 

3. Quod sihi, &c. " That. as to the monace which Caesar had 



emplcyed towards liira, namely, that he wouid not overlook any in- 22 
iuries done to the Aedui," &c. 

4. Exercitatissimi in armis. Compare Tacitus, Gern. 14, 
" Nec zrare terram aut exspectare annum tam facile persuaaeria, 
quam vocare hostes et vulnera mereri.'" 

5. Inter annos quatuordecim. "During fourteen years." Aj 
xnler signifies the meaium between two extremes, so, when applied 
to time, it expresses the interval between the commencement and 
close of a given period, and may, therefore, be rendered by " while" 
or " during." Bullcr-s Latiii Prep. p. 70. 

6. Harudes. Comparc chapter 31. 

7. Treviri autem. Supply veniehant nuntiatum. 

8. Pagos centum Suevorum. " That the new levies from the 
hundred cantons of the Suevi." The Suevi, according to Caesar 
{B. G. 4, 1), formed a hundred cantons, from each of which a thou- 
sand warriors were annually levied to make war abroad. The force 
mentioned in the text will amount, therefore, to 100,000 men. We 
must not, however, fall into the error of some, who regard it as the 
entire military strength of the Suevi. 

9. Qui conarentur. " Who were endeavouring, as they said." 
The student wLll mark the force of the subjunctive here, as refer- 
ring to the statements of those who speak, not of the wTiter himself. 

10. Vehemeyiter commotus. " Greatly alarmed." — Nova manus. 
" This new body." — Minus facile resisti posset. " He might be 
less easily withstood." The reference is to Ariovistus. 

11. Re frumentaria, &c. " His arrangements for a supply oJ 
com being made as quickly as possible." This is very neatly ex- 
pressed by the Greek paraphrast : u>s fiSvvi',071 Td-^iaTa riv aTpardv 

12. Contendcre. " Was hastening." — Profecisse. "Had ac- 
complished." This is the reading of one of the best MSS., and ia 
adopted by Oudendorp in his smaller edition, Oberlinus, Lemaire, 
and others. The common text has processissc, which eurose prob 
ably from a gloss. Bentley conjectures profcctum esse. 

13. Summa facultas. "A very great plenty." Facultas is 
here equivalent to copia. Most of the copyists, not understandint» 
this, substituted difficultas, which produces a directly opposite 
meaning. Only a few MSS. have the correct r&z.Amg faculfas 
The early editions give the erroneous lection. 

14. Ad ducendam bellum. " For protracting the war." — Facvl- 
t.atem. " Means." The recurrence of this term, after so short as 



22 interva., led Grasvius to suspect that facultas in tlie previous part 

of the sentence was a mere interpolation. It would appear rather 
'f,o be one among the many arguments that might be adduced, in 
'avour of the opinion that these commentaries were hastily penned 
d/n the spot. 

15. Dubis. No MS. has Duhis. All are more or less cor- 
ksspted here, and read Adduabis, Alduadubis, Alduadusius, AdduOf 
a.*Jz5, or Alduasdubis. Araid tliis farrago of uncouth forms, Cel- 
laitus, following Strabo, Ptolemy, and other authorities, gave Dubis 
as ihe true readmg, which has been received ever since. {Geogr. 
Antiq. 2, 2, 17. — Vol. ii., p. 136, ed. Schwartz.) AVhence the 
comiption in the MSS. originated is difficult to say. OberlLnus 
thinks that the earlier name of the river was Addua or Aldua, and 
that some of the copyists placcd its more recent name in the margin 
of a MS., in this form, al. Dubis, that is, alias Dubis, froma blend- 
ing of which two names, through the ignorance of subsequent copy- 
ists, the suange forms above cited arose. Moebius, on tbe other 
hand {Bibi. Crit. Hdd. 1824, p. 232), ingeniously suggests, that 
the tnie reacring may have been quod flumen adductum, ut circino 
circumductam, omitting the name of the river altogether. The 
opinion of Oberhnus, however, is certainly the better tff the two. 

16. Ut circino circumdtictum. " As if traccd round it by a pair 
di compasses," i. e., as if its circular course had been traced by a 
pair of compasses. 

17. Sexcentorum. DWnviWe (Notice de la Gaulc,p.&94:) thinka 
that we Gught to read herc MD in place of DC (i. e., millc et quin- 
gentorum instead of sexccntorum), because the base of the mouut- 
ain in question actually measures 1 500 feet. The MSS. and early 
editions, however, are all the other way. Perhaps Csesar means 
here, in place of the ordinarjr foot, the pace of two and a half feet, 
which would reconcile the text with the actual measurement. 

18. Quaflumen intermittit. " ^^liere the rivcr intermits," i. c, 
breaks off froin its circular course, and ceases to flow round the 
place. Ciacconius thinks that wc ought to read here qua a flu- 
mine intermittitur, because we have, in another part of these com- 
mentaries (7, 17), " o/^ cam jtartem qucE intcrmissa a flumine et 
palude," and again (7, 23), " intermisscz trabcs." But all the MSS. 
giveihe rcceivcd reading, and intermittitur is hcre employed in an 
intransitive seusc. Consult Oudmdorp, sd loc, and Vechncr, Hel- 
lenolex, p. 59, seq. 

19. Continet. " Occupies " i. e., covcrs, or fills up. — Contiri' 


ganl. " Touch it," i. e., tlie bank. Supply eam, scil. rtpam. 2*.> 
Achaintre takes ripce for the nominative plural, agreeing vvhh con- 
tingant, and makes radices the accusative, governed by this verb. 
Our construction, which is the received one, is far preferable. By 
il, ripce becomes the genitive and radices the nominative. 

1. Hunc muriis circumdatus, 6:c. "A wall thrown around it 23 
makes a citadel of this niountain, and connects it with the town."' 
Compare the Greek paraphrast : tovto Se rb Ipos roT^^o; wepiotKoSony}dils 

Tjj ffdXft (n^evyvvat, xai aKp6iTo\tv abTjjs tovto CLTtepyd^eTai. The Student 
will take care not to make hunc depend, in construction, on ciicum 
dalus, as some recommcnd, for then the wall alone will form the 
citadel, and not the mountain ! Some remains of the wall are still 
to be seen at the present day. 

2. Noctumis diurnisque. The more usual order would have 
been diurnis nocturnisquc, and Oudendorp actually adopts this in 
his smaller edition. But Caesar places nocticrnis firstin order here, 
as more stress is to be laid upon it in the idea that we are to form 
of his rapid movements on this occasion. Compare Ramshorn, L. 
G. p. 628, and Daehne, ad loc. 

3. Ex percunctationc, &c. " From the inquiries of our men, 
and the siatements of the Gauls and traders, who assured them," 
&c. Prcedicabant here impHes a positive assertion, made in order 
to impress another with a fuU behef of v;'hat we say. 

4. Vultum. "Theirlook." — Aciem oculorum. " The fierce e.x- 
pression of their eyes." Compare the Greek paraphrast, tCl ittvi 
aiTSv bpditara. 

5. Tribunis militum. " The tribuncs of the soldiers." These 
weie officers in the Roman army, who commanded a part of the 
legion, generally a thousand men. They had also charge of the 
works and camp. There vvere six in every legion. Consult Archae- 
ological Index. — Prcefectis. " The prefects." There were various 
kinds of prafccti in the Roman army. Those here meant, how- 
ever, are the prefects of the allies, who answered to the tribunes of 
the soldiers among the Roman troops. 

G. Urbe. Rome. — AmicittcE causa. These vvere the young no- 
bility to whom Plutarch alludes (Vit. Ccbs. c. 19), and who, accord- 
iiig to him, had entered into CsRsar^s service only in hopes of living 
hixuiiously and making their fortunes. 

7. Quorum alius, &c. " One of whom havmg assigned one es- 
cuse, another another, which they said raade it necessary," &c. 

8. Vultnm fngere. " To command their conntenance," i. e., 



23 preserve their countenance in its natural state, hidc from view tae 

fear which secretly mfiuenced them. 

9. Vulffo fotis castris, &c. " As a general matter, wills were 
made throughout the whole camp." Soldiers most commonly made 
their wills by \vord of mouth, while girding themselves for battle, 
and such a will was called testamentum in procinctu factuni. (Con 
sult Instit. Justin. 1. 2, t. 2.) On the present occasion, however, 
their wills were formally made in writing, as appears from the 
literal meaning oi obsignabantur, " were sealed." 

10. Magnum usum. " Great experience." — Centuriones. A 
centurion commanded, when the legion was full, a hundred men, 
as the name itself imports. There were two in each maniple, and, 
consequently, si.x; in each cohort, and sixty in each legion. 

11. Quique equitatu prccerant. " And those who were in com- 
mand of the cavalry." Exercitu for exercitui, the old dative. The 
decuriones are here meant. Compare note 11, page 14. 

12. Qui se ex his, &c. " Those individuals of this latter class, 
who wished themselves to be regarded as less timid than the rest 
of the army, declared that they did not dread the enemy, but feared 
the narrowness of the roads, and the extent of woods which inter- 
vened between themselves and Ariovistus, or else, with respect to 
the corn, that it could not be supplied with sufficient readiness." 
By his are meant those, '^ qui magnum in castrisusumhabcbant." 
With rem frumentariam supply quod ad, and comparc Perizonius, 
ad Sanct. Min. 2, 5.— Vol. i,, p. 222, ed. Bauer. 

13. Ut satis commodc, &c. The conjnnction ut, when joined m 
construction with a verb of fearing, such as timeo, metuo, &c., re- 
Oiiires in our idiom the addition of a negative ; while ne, on tho 
other hand, when similarly construed, has an affirmative force. 
Thus timeo ut facias, " I am afraid you will not do it ;" but timeo 
ne facias, " I am afraid you will do it." The esplanation is as fol- 
lows : Timco utfacias is, literally, " I am afraid, in order that you 
may do it," i. e., I want you to do it, but am afraid you will not ; 
and, on the other hand, Timeo ne facias is, literally, " I am afraid 
lest you may do it," i. e., I do not want you to do it, but am afraid 
you will. 

14. Signa ferri. "The standards to be bome onward," i. e. 
the troops to march forvvard. — Dicto audicntes. " Obedient to the 
order." According to Dio Cassius (38, 35), Caesar's soldicrs pro- 
nounced the war an unjust and unauthorizcd one, and allcged that 
it had bsen meroly undertaken by theiv commander to gratify his 


own ambitious views. They threatened also to abandon him unless 03 

he changed his intention of attacking the Germans. 

15. Nec propter timorem signa laturos. " And would not ad- 
vance in consequence of their fear." 

IC. Convocato consilio. " A council of war being called." Dio 
Cassius states (38, 35) that Caesar would not call an assembly of 
ihc soldiers, from a well-groundedapprehension lesthis troopsmight 
break forth into open tumult, and commit some act of violence. 

17. Omniuvique ordi^ium, &c. " And the centurions of all ranks 
bfcing snmmoned to that council." On this occasion, then, all the 
centurions in the army (there were sixty in each legion) were called 
lo the council of war ; whereas, on ordinary occasions, the council 
was composed of the commander-in-chief, the legati or lieutenants, 
the tribunes of the soldiers, and only the chief centurion of each 

18. Primum, quod, &c. " In the first place, for presuming to 
think, that it was for them to inquire or deliberate, either in what 
direction or with what design they were to be led." Literally, 
" because they thought that they must inquire," &c. 

1. Postulatis. Compare chap. 35. — Aequilate. "Thefairness.'' 24 

2. Aut cur de sua virtute, &c. " Or why should they despair 
eiiher of their own valour or of his prudent activity 1" 

3. Factum ejus hostis 'periculum, &c. " That a trial had been 
Kiade of this foe within the memory of our fathers," i. e., in the 
days of our fathers. Compare the Greek paraphrast, em -Zv ^utripuv 

4. Factum etiam. Supply periculum. — Nuper. Fourteen year? 
previous. — Sereili tumultu. " During the insurrection of the 
slaves." Literally, " during the servile tumult." The Romanfi 
f pplied the word tHmultus (a much stronger term than hellum) to a 
,var in Italy or an invasion of the Gauls. The allusion in the text 
is to the war of Spartacus the gladiator. (Consult Historical In- 
dex.) Among the gladiators and slaves, who flocked to ihe stand*. 
ard of this leader, were many of the German race, and hence the re- 
maii of Caesar. 

5. Quos tamen, &c. " And yet thesc last the experience and 
di-icipline, which they had received from us, assisted in some re 
spect." Alluding to their training as gladiators. 

6. Constantia. " A firm and resolute spirit." — Inermos. More 
in accordance with the usage of Caesar than inermes. At first the 
in8..r2ents were without arins to anv grcat extent. and hence, from 

A A 



24 their being so badly fumished with them, ihey are here called " un- 


7 Suis. Keferring to the territories of the Helvetii. — Illontm. 

Referring to the Germans. 

8. Adversum prcrJium etfvga Gallorum. Compare chap. 31. 

9. Neque sui potestatem fecisset. " Without having given them 
an opportunity of coming to an engagement with him." Facere 
potestatcm sui means generally, " to allow one's self to be approach- 
ed," " to allow access to," &c. 

10. liatione ct consilio. " By stratagcm and cvmning." — Cut 
rationi, &c. " That not even Ariovistus himself entertained any 
hope, thatour armies could be ensnared bythat same stratagem, for 
the exercise of which there had been room against a people barbarous 
and unskilled in warfare." 

11. Qui suum timorem, &c. " That they, who ascribed their 
fear to a pretended alarm relative to provisions and the narrowness 
of the roads, acted presumptuously, since they appeared either lo 
distrust thc official quahfications of their commander, or to dictate 
unto him." — Ha^c sibi esse curae. " That these thingswere a care 
to him," i. e., that he had not neglected these things. 

12. Brevi tempore jvdicaluros. '• Would soon have an opj>or- 
tunity of judging." 

13. Quod nonfore, &c. " That, as to the soldiers being repoited 
to be about to disobey his orders," &c., i. e., as to the report which 
had reached hira of the soldiers intending to disobey his orders. 

2.f) 1- Scire enim, &c. "For he knew, that either, in consequence 
of sorae mismanagement of an affair, fortune had failed tliose com- 
manders with whom an army was not obedient to orders ; or else, 
that the charge of avarice had been fastened upon their characters, 
in consequence of some act of misconduct having been discovered." 
— In place of conjunctam some read convictam, in the sense of 
" aperte demonstratam,^^ as in Ovid {Met. 13,89) wc have "furoi 
convictus." Compare Menkcn, Obs. L. L. p. 199. 

2. Perpetua vita. " Throughout the whole of his past hfe." — 
Felicitalem. " His good fortune." 

3. Itaque se, &c. " That he would, therefore, immcdiately do 
what he intended to have put off to a more distant day." ReprcS' 
sentare is a logal term, and denotes " to do a thing before tlie 
tinie." Thus a person is said solutionem repraisentare, who pays 
the monoy before the day. It is frora this ffoncra] meaning that the 


terb also obtains the significaticn of doing ii thing immediaiely. OPj 

Colldturus is used here in thc sense of dilaturus. 

4. Decima legione. The legions were called Jirst, second, &c., 
froni the order in which they were raised. — Prcetoriam cohoitem. 
" A body guard." Among the Romans, the general was usua./y at- 
tended by a select band, called cohors pratoria, so called, according 
to Festus, because it never left the commander, or, as he was called 
in early Latin, the prcEtor (i. e., qui prceit exercitui). 

5. Princcps. In the sense of prima. Compare note 15, page 
8. — Ei graiias egit. " Retumed thanks to him." — Quod de se, 
&c. " For the very high opinion he had formed of them, and as- 
sured him," &c. 

6. Primorum ordinum centuriones. " The centurions of the first 
centuries," i. e., the centurions of the first maniple of the Triarii, 
the centurions of the first maniple of the Principes, and the centuii- 
ons of the first maniple of the Hastati. — Egerunt uti Cccsari satis- 
facercnt. " Strove to excuse themselves to Caesar." 

7. Neque de summa belli, &c. "Nor had thought, that any de- 
cision respecting the management of the war appertained to them, 
but to their commander," i. e., nor had thought, that it was for them 
to decide upon the best mode of conducting the war, but rather for 
their general. 

8. Satisfactione. "Exciise." — Itinere exquisito. " The route 
having been reconnoitred." — Ut millium amplius, &c. " And 
found to be such, that, by means of a circuit of more than fifty miles, 
it would lead his army through an open country," i. e., that, by 
taking a circuit of somewhat more than fifty railes, he might lead 
his army along it through an open country. The student will ob- 
serve, that, in order to connect the clause ut aniplius, &c., with 
itinere exquisito, a new verb must be introduced in translating, 
which is easily implied from the general force of the participle ex- 

9. Quinquaginta. Some read quadraginta. The Greek para- 
phrast has a number very wide of the truth, namely, 1250 stadia, 
equiva.en; to something more than 156 Roman miles. 'A^tdiiTci 
^(Xia itaKdaia Kai ■KtvTijKovra aTaSta. 

IJ, Quod antea de colloquio postulasset, &c. " Stating, that, as 
o his previous demand respecting a conference, this might now be 
carried into effect through his own means, since he had come 

1 1 . K.nstimare. We have here given the reading of Oudendorp, 



95 in place of existimaret, the common lection. So also licere m the 

previous clause, instead of liccrei. 

12. Sanitatem. " A just way of thinking." Literally, " a 

sound mind." Compare the Greekparapluast : a(j><ppovt1v 6'i'iiti avri» 

2(3 1. Aliaralione senonesseventurum. " That he would not corao 
upon any other terms." — Interposita causa tolli. " To be thwarted 
by the interposing of any pretext," i. e., to be thwarted on any pre- 
tence by Ariovistus. 

2. Gallorum equitatui. The cavalry in CiEsar's army were ail 
Gauls. He was afraid, thereforc, lest, if attacked during the con- 
ference by the German horse, they might not prove a sufficient pro- 
tection for his person. Many editions have equitaiu, the old form 
of the dative. 

3. Commodissimum csse statuit, &c. " He deemed it most ex- 
pedient, all their horses having been taken from the Gallic cavaky, 
to mount on them the legionary soldiers," &c. The adverbial fomi 
co is equivalent here to in cos (scil. equos.) By the legionary sol- 
diers are meant the regular troops of the legion, as distinguished 
from the velites. 

4. Non inridicule. " Not without some humour," i. e., humor- 
ously enough. Compare the Greek paraphrast, ac-iUv n i<p9cy^aTo. 
— Ei. " For that legion." 

5. Nunc ad equum rcscribcrc. " Now enrolled them among the 
cavalry." When soldiers were furst enhsted they were said scribi, 
their names being entered in the roll of the legion. If they were af- 
terward transferred, from the corps into which they had been enrolled, 
to some other part of the service, they were said rescribi. The hu- 
mour of the remark made on the present occasion consists in suppo- 
smg, '.nai a regular promotion had taken place to the rank and pay of 
cavairy. When the change of service was from the cavalry to the 
mfantry, it was a miUtary punishment ; but, on the contrary, a mili- 
tary reward when the foot-soldier was transferred to the horse. 
For another explanation, consult Petit, Obs. 1, 6, and Gronoviu~f, 
ad Senec. de BeJief. 5, 6. 

6. Tumulus terrenus satis grandis. " A rising ground of con- 
siderable height." Literally, " a mound (or hill) of earth." — Cas- 
tris utrisque. Referring to the camp of Coesar and that of Ario- 

7. Ex cquis. " On horseback." Compare thc Greek form ol 
expression, <l0' iVirwi/. — J)nnis The Greok naranhrast has (^io. as 



il he read in his Latiu MS. htnos in place of denos. It is higUy itn- <\^ 

probable that only tvvo would be brought to the con(erence on either 

8. Commemoravit. " Recounted." — Qmd. " How that."- 
Munera amplissima. It was customary, with the Romans, to send 
presents to those whom tlie senate had honoured with thc title of 
king. Compare Liv. 30, 15. 

9. Pro magnis hominum officiis. " In return for important ser- 
vices on the part of individuals." — Hlum, cum ncque aditum, <kc. 
" That he (Ariovistus), although he had neithcr the means of deserv- 
ing them, nor just cause to ask for them," &c. Aditum non haberc 
impUes the absenco of aijy services on the part of Ariovistus towards 
tl.e Roman people. Compare the explanation given in the Indez 
l,atinitatis appended to the edition of Obcrhnus : " Aditum non 
liaberc ad aliqucm, nulhs meritis esse, ob qus precari sustineas." 

10. Quam veteres, &c. " What old and just causes of alhance 
existed," &c. The Aedui were the first among the Gauls that 
embraced the friendship of the Romans., Compare Strabo (4, p. 
192, ed. Cas.), 01 ie *E5oCot xai avYytveis 'Puitaltav uivo^a^ovro, xal 
TrpcSroi tZv ravTy ■rrpoor)\6ov irpdj Trjv <pt\iav xai avjiiiay(iav. So also Ta- 
citus {Ann. 11, 25), " Primi Aedui senatorum in urhe jus adeph 
.tunt. Datum idfoederi antiquo, et quia soli Gallorum fraternitatis 
nomen cum Populo Romano zisurpant." Consult also Diod. Sic. 

11. Ut cnnm tcmpore, &c. " How the Aedui had ever enjoy- 
ed," &c. 

1. Sui nihil. "Nothing of their ovvn." Equivalent to riiM s?/z O? 
juris, auctoritatis, opum, or ditionis. — Auctiores csse. " To be 
still farther advanced." 

2. Quod vcro ad amicitiam, &c. " Who then could bear to have 
that taken from them which they brought with them when they ob- 
tained the friendship of the Roman people'!" i. e., to see them rob- 
bed of what they possessed before they became the friends of the 
Roman people. Literally, " for that to be taken from them which 
they had brought to the friendship," &c. 

3. Postulavit deindc eadem, &c. " He then made the same de- 
mand which he had commissioned the ambassadors to make." 

4. De suis virtutibus multa pradicavit. " He spoke much and 
boastfully about his ovvn merits." — Sed rogatum, &c. " But on 
being requested and sent for by the Gauls," i. e., by the Arvemi 
and Sequani. Compare chapter 31. 

A .\2 



27 S. Ab tpsis. " By the Gauls themselves. — Stipendium capete. 

" That hc exacted tribute." 

6. Omnes Gallice civitates. Exaggeration. Only the Aedui 
and their allies fought against him. 

7. Idqiie se, &c. " And that he had sought it with this expec- 
tation." Id here refers to the friendship of the Roman people. Il 
would have been more perspicuous to have said eam, but the MSS, 
all give the other form. 

8. Stipendium remittatur, &c. " The tribute due liim is to be 
withheld, and those vvho have surrendered to him are to be with- 
drawn from their allegiance." 

9. Quod imiltitudinem, &c. " As to his lcading a multitude of 
Germans across the Khine into Gaul." 

10. Sed dcfenderit. " But had warded it off," i. e., had acted 
merely on the defensive. Defenderc is here taken in its primitive 
sense, as equivalent to propulsare. Compare B. C. 1, 7, " Con- 

clamant lcgionis XIII, quce adcrat, militcs sese paratos csse. 

imperatoris sui tribunorumque plebis injunas defenderc.'" 

11. Se prius in Galliam venisse, &c. Here again Ariovistus 
falsely defends his conduct. The Roman commander Domitius 
had conquered the Arverni long bcfore the German leader came 
into Gaul. 

12. Quid sihi vellet ? &c. By sibi Caesar is mcant, hy suas pos- 
sessiones the possessions of himself, Ariovistus. — Provinciam suam, 
&c. " That this part of Gaul was his province, just as that other 
was ours." Tlie student will mark the force of the pronouns here. 
Hanc refers to the quarter where Ariovistus now is, illam to the 
distant Roman province in the south of Gaul. 

23 1- Qui in suo jure, &c. '• Since v.e interrupted him in the en 
joyment of his right." 

2. Quod fratres, &c. "As to Caesar's saying that the Aedui 
had been styled brcthers by the senate." — Bello Allobrogum, &c. 
The Dauphin editor is wrong in supposing that the war here meant 
is the one in which Domitius Aenobarbus and Fabius Maximus 
vvere employed against the Allobroges (Florus, 3, 2.) It is ratiicr 
the one which Cneius Pontinus successfully waged against the samo 

3. Auxilio Populi llomani, &c. " Had derived any assistance 
from the Roman people." — Debere se suspicari, &c. "That he 
-has strong reason to suspect that Csesar, having pretended friend- 
ship for the Aedui, inasmuch as he keeps an army in Gaul, keepa 


It there, in fact, Ibr the purpose of crushing him (Ariovistus)," i. e., 28 
that Caesar, under thc pretence of friendship lowards the Aedui, 
merely keeps an army in Gaul to crush him, Ariovistus. 

4. Qui nisi decedat. " That, unless he dcpart." Qui for ille, 
as it. begins h. clause. 

5. Quod si eum interfecerit, &c. It cannot be supposed, that 
this was a mere idle boast on the part of Ariovistus. CfEsar ahready 
had at Rome many violent pohtical enemies, who were eager for 
his destruction. — Gratum esse facturum. " He would do an agree- 
able thing," i. e., would be doing a favour to, &c. 

6. Ejus morte redimere posset. " He could purchase by his 
(Ca8sar's) death." — Sine ullo ejus labore, &c. " Without any 
trouble aud hazard on his part." Ejus again refers to Caesar. 

7. Multa ab Ccssare, &c. "Many arguments were urged by 
Cjesar to this effect, why, namely, he could not desist from his pur- 
pose," i. e., to show why he could not, &c. 

8. Ignovissct. " Had pardoned." The Romans were said 
" to pardon" a conquered people, when they allowed them to retain 
their freedom, to enjoy iheir own laws, and create their own ma- 
gistrates. On the other hand, a state was said to be reduced to a 
Roman province, when it was deprived of its laws, and was sub- 
iected to the control of Roman magistrates, and to the payment of 
a certain tribute. 

9. Quod si antiquissimum, &c. " If, then, the most distant period 
Diight to be regarded," i. e., if the question was to turn upon the 
claims of earliest possession. — Si judicium senatus, &c. " If, on 
the other hand, the decision of the senate ought to be taken into 
consideration, then was it right that Gaul shouldbe free, since they 
had willed that this country, after bcing conquered in war, shou' 
still enjoy its own laws." 

10. Ad nostros adequitare. Wilh most of the compound verV 
the preposition irray be repeated with its proper case. This is ofte^ 
done to impart strength to the expression. Compare the remarks 
o{ Perizmtius, ad Sanct. Min. 3, 3. — Vol. i., p. 408, ed. Bauer. 

11. Tarit. We have adopted facit and recipit on the recom 
menoaaon o. Oudendorp, although imperavit follows. This change 
Of tense is elegant and frequent among the historical writers. • Con- 
sult Oudendorp, ad loc. 

1. Perfidem. " Under cover of plighted faith." Compare the 29 
explanation of Morus : '■' p-opter fidem datam ct acceptam." Some 
commentators. however, give ner iu this clause the force of contra, 



*29 relying upon the Greek paraphrast, 5(5Xp iv r$ 5jaXoyto/i{i {nr' abrcli 

afooflcdai. Per, however, has rather the force of contra in com- 

position, as perfidus, perjurus, &c. 

2. Posteaquam in vulgus militum, &c. " it was spread 
abroad among the common soldiers."----Omwi Gallia, &c. " Had 
interdicted the Romans from all Gaul." 

3. Impetumque in nostros, &c. All the editions and MSS. ha\< 
fecissent, which we have changed, nevertheless, to fccisse. As the 
text stands in the different editions, it cannot be correct. Some oi 
the MSS. and earlier printed copies give ut before diremisset, bul 
later editions rejected the conjunction until Davies restored it. As 
Clark, howevcr, very correctly remarks, ut ought rather to be placed 
before fecissent ; while, on the other hand, if it can be omitted before 
this verb, it can just as well be omitted before diremisset. In order 
to remove the difficulty, therefore, we have retained ut before di- 
remisset, in the sense of quomodo, " how," but have changed fe- 
cisscnt to fecissc, so as to have a double construction in the same 
sentence. Translate as follows : " and that his cavaby had made 
an attack on our men, and how this circumstance had broken off 
the conference." Oudendorp conjectures vi diremissct for ut di- 

4. Injectum est. " Was infused." The Greck version has 
(vt<l>v, which induced Wasse to conjecture innatum cst for injcctum 
est. {Add. ad Sall. p. 398.) 

5. Neque pcrfccta esscnt. " And liad not been brought to a 
conclusion." — Uli aut, &c. Supply ct postulans. 

6. Ex suis aliquem. The common text has ex suis legatis ali- 
quem, but we have rejected legatis on the suggestion of Bentley. 
This emendatiou is supported also by the Greek version, which has 
merely, riva t&v iavToti. ' 

7. Retincri non poterant, &c. " Could not be restrained from 
casting." — Caium Valerium ProcHlum. Already mentioned in 
chapter 19. 

8. Civitate donaius crat. " Had been presented with the rights 
of citizenship." Foreigners, on whom this favour was conferred, 
prefixed to their own name the prcenomcn and nomen of the indi- 
vidual, thrDugh whose influence the privilege in question had been 
obtained, and regarded that person cver after as their patron. Thus 
Caburus, the father of Procillus, assumed the name of Caius Vale» 
nus Caburus, having taken the furst and second names of Caius Vft' 
terius Flaccus, his patron. . ■ , 



9. Qua multa jam, &c. " Of which Ariovistus now, from long OQ 

hdbit, made frequent use," i. e., which he now spoke fluently. — 
JSt quod in eo, &c. " And because the Germans could have no 
motivc to inflict any personal injury in his case." 

10. Qui hospitio Ariovisti, &,c. " Who had enjoyed the hospi- 
tality of Ariovistus," i. e., was connected with him by the ties of 
hospitality. As the ancients had not proper inns for the accommo- 
dation of travellers, the Romans, when they were in foreign coun- 
tries, or at a distance from home, used to lodge at the houses of 
certain persons, whom they in return entertained at their houses in 
Rome. This was esteemed a very intimate connexion, and was 
called hospitium, or jus hospitii. 

11. Quo£ diceret Ariovistus. " What Ariovistus might have to 
say." — Conclamavit. " He called out in a loud tone and demand- 
ed." — An speculandi causal "Was it to act as spiesl" Liter 
ally, " was it for the sake of spyingl" 

12. Promovit. " He moved forward." Compare the Greek 
vfniKivtiae. — Postridie ejus diei. " The day after that day," i. e., 
the day following. Compare the Greek, tjj 3' vaTigauf. — Prater 
castra CcEsaris. " Past CsBsar's camp." 

1. Ex eo die, &c. " For five successive days after that day." — QQ 
Pro castris. " Before his camp." — Potestas. " An opportunity.'' 
More hterally, " the means of so doing." 

2. Genus hoc erat pugnce, &c. " The following was the kind of 
battle in which the Germans had exercised themselves," i. e., to 
which they had trained themselves. 

3. Quos ex omni copia, &c. " Whom they had selected from 
the whole army, each horseman one, for his own protection." Com 
pare Tacitus, Germ. c. 6. 

4. Hi, s-i quid erat durius, &c. " These, if anything occurred 
of more than ordinary danger, ran to their assistance." Hi refers 
to the foot-soldiers. — Si qui. For si quis. — Circumsistebant. 
"Stood around to defend him." 

5. Longius. "Fartherthanusual." — Celerius. "Withgreater 
epeed than ordinary." 

6. Exercitationc. " From constant practice." — Ui jubis equo- 
rum, &c. " That, being supported by the nianes of the horses, 
ihey could equal their speed," i. e., could keep up with them. 

7. Ne diuiius commeatu, &c. It is a question for military men 
to decide, whether Caesar should have allowed Ariovistus to march 
past his camp, and cut off his communication with the quarter firoin 



30 which his supplies were to come. It is probable ihat his object, m 
delaying a gencral action, was to accustom his men, in the mean 
while, by a succession of slight encounters, to the looks of so for- 
midable a foe, as well as to their manner of fighting. 

8. Acicque triplici instrucia. " And his army being drawn up 
in three lines." Literally, " a triple order of battle being arranged." 
— Priniam et secundam aciem, &c. " He ordered the first and 
second lines to remain under arms." Compare Vegetius, ], 25, 
" Si hostis incumhat, tum omnes equites et viedia pars peditum ad 
pulsandum impetum ordinantur in acie ; reliqui post ipsos, ditclis 
fossis, muniunt castra." 

9. Circifer hominum, &c. " Light troops, about sixteen thou- 
sand men in number." The term expeditus refers to the celerity 
of their movements and thc lightness of theu: equipments. Most 
commonly, however, in our authcr, it merely means unencumbered 
by baggage. 

10. Parlem auxiliorum, &.C. " A part of his auxiliaries." The 
forces sent by foreign states and monarchs were called auxilia. 

IL Instituto suo. "According to his custom." Institutum 
here refers to a custom or practice, in accordance with some settled 
resolution or design. 

12. A majnribus. " From the larger one." Supply castris. 
The larger camp was the one first pitched. Many MSS. and edi- 
tions have castris expressed. 

13. Prodire. " Come forth to battle." 

32 !• Acriter utrinque, &c. Dio Cassius (38, 4S) informs us, that 
Ariovistus came near taking tl.e camp of the Romans on this oc- 
casion : SXlyov koI rb i^apaKu^a airoiv ct\e. The y^apdKiajia of Dio is 
the castra minoia of Cassar. Dio adds, that the German leader, 
elated with his success, disregarded the predictions of the Gennan 
females, and came to an action with Csesar. 

2. Prcelio. " In a general engagement." 

3. Matres familia. Tacitus {Genn. c. 8) states, that the an- 
cient Germans bclieved there was something sacred and prophetic 
m the female sex, and that, therefore, they disdained not their advice, 
but placcd the greatest confidence in them and thcir predictions. 
He speaks of Veleda and Aurinia in particular, as having becn held 
in the highest veneration. The females among the Germans, who 
pretended to the gift of prophecy, werc called Alruncz (i. e., Alrato- 
nen). Muratori gives the name as Alrunnm (vol. i., p. 370), and 
.lornandes, Alyrumna (dc Reh. Gel. c. 21). Coinparc Adclung, 
Gloss. Med. ct Inf Lat. vol. i., p. 18S 



4. Sortibus et valicinatimibus . " fiom lots and auguries. — Ez 32 

tisu. " Advantageously." 

5. Non csse fas. "That it was not the will of heaven." FoJi 
denotes what is in acconlance with the divine law and the rules of 

6. Omnes alarios. " AU the auiiliaries." The allies were called 
ularii frorn their being generally placed on the wings (alce) of an 
anny when drawn up in order of battle. 

7. Pro castris-minoribus. " Before the smaller camp." — Pro 
hostium numcro. " Considering the number of the enemy." — Ut 
ad speciem, &.c. " That he might make use of the auxiliaries for 
appearance," i. e., to make a sbow with them. 

8. Ge7ieratim. " By nations," i. e., by tribes. Compare the 
Greek paraphrast : Kara <pv\as. 

9. Rhedis et carris. " With chariots and wagons." Both of 
these are Gallic terms. The rheda was a kind of four-wheeled 
chariot for traveUing, and was introduced among, and much used 
by, the Romans also. The rhedce appear to have carried the families 
of thc Germans, the carri their baggage and provisions. 

10. Eo. " On these." — Passis crinihus. " With dishevelled 
!ocks." Passis from pando. Most of the MSS. have manibus in- 
stead of crinibus, and the ^Jreek paraphrast appears to favour this 
reading, since he has, ras^frpaj irpdj rovj aTpaTidrai dpeydfKvot. But 
passis crinibus is the more usual form on such occasions. Perhaps, 
hovvever, Ceesar joined them both, passis manibus crinihusque, as 
in the 48th chapter of the 7th book. 

11. Ctesar singvlis legionibus, 6ic. " Caesar piaced a lieutenant 
and quaestor over each legion." — Qucestorem. The ofEce of the 
provincial quDsstor was, to see that provisions and pay were fur- 
nished to the army, to keep an account of all moneys expended, &c. 

VZ. Eos. Referring to the lieutenants and quaestors. — A dextro 
tornu. " From the right wing," i. e., of his own army. — Minime 
firmam. " Weakest." Literally, " least strong." 

13. Itaque hostes, 6cc. " And so suddenly an ' rapidly," &c. 

14. Rejeclis piiis. " Their javehns being fiung aside." Com- 
pare the Greek version, tu Copara a-soppiipavTt^. 

15. Phalange facta. The German phalanx, as has i-Tjadybeen 
r^markcd, was analogous to the Roman testudo, the men being in 
close array, with their shields locked over their heads. (Conipare 
note 2, pagc 1-5.) It vviil be obscrved, that as the Germans fought 
by nations, on this occasion, there vvas as many phalanxes as na- 



32 tions, hence ihe iise oi fhalangas, the pluial forrn, in the next sen- 


16. Qai in phalangas, &c. " WTio leaped upon the phalanxes, 
and tore off wilh thcir hands the shields of the enemy, and wounded 
them from above," i. e., they tore away the shields which the 
enemy held above their heads, and then stabbed dov?nwards. The 
soldiers who did this, kept moving about on the top of the shields, 
which formed a kind of roof beneath them. Oppian, in speaking 
of the war-steed, makes it ascend with the chariot upon the top of 
such a testudo, a plate of which may be seen in Lipsius, Poliorc 
lib. 1, dial. 5, sub. fin. 

17. A sinisiro cornu. " On Ihe left wing." The reference is 
to the army of the enemy. Their left was described above as 
weakest. — A dexlro cornu. Alluding again to the German army. 

23 I. Equitatu. Old dative. — Expeditior. " More disengaged," 
i. e., more at liberty. The Crassus here mentioned was the son 
of Marcus Crassus, and lost his life, along with his father, in the ex- 
pedition against the Parthians. His movement on the present occa- 
sion gained the day for the Romans. 

2. Nequc prius, &c. " Nor did they cease to flee until," &c. 
Prius and quain are separated by tmesis. 

3. Repererunt. The common text has pctierunt, which appears 
to have arisen from reperierunt, a faulty reading in one of the MSS. 
Heinsius conjectured pejiercrunt, of which Bentley approves ; but 
the best MSS. Lave rcpererunt. 

4. In his fuit Ariovistus. He died soon after in Germany, 
either of his wounds, or through ch^grin at his defeat. Compare 
B. G. 5, 29, " Magno esse Gcrrnanis dolori A^-iovisti mortem." 
Plutarch says, that the number of killed in this battle amounted to 
eighty thousand. 

5. DucB fuerunt, &c. The Germans in general, accordmg to 
Tacitus {Germ. 18), had but one wife each. In the case of thcifc 
chieftains, however, who were ansious to strengthen alid enlarge 
their power by family alliances, more than one wife was allowed. 

6. Dxixerat. " He had married." Compare note 6, page 8. 
— UtrcBque in ca fvga perierunt. The common text has utraque 
m ea fuga periit. But the MSS. are the other way. 

7. FilicB. Nominative absolute, unless we understand eranl. 
But Ihis would be far less elegant. 

8. Tris catenis vi^ictus. " Bound with a tripie chain." — }n 
ipsum Casarem incidit. " Fell in with CKsar himself." 



9. Neque ejus calamitate, &c. "Nor had fortune at all dimin- '^Q 

ished, by the sufferings of such a man, the great pleasure and rejoi- 
cing which prcvailed." More literallj', " taken away anythlngfrom 
so great pleasure and rejoicing." 

10. De se ter sortibus, &c. " That the lots had been thrice con- 
Bulted respecting him." Tacitus {Germ. 8) describes the German 
mode of divining by lots as follows : " They cut a twig from a fruit- 

ree, and divide it into small pieces, which, distinguished by certain 
marks, are thrown promiscuously upon a white garment. Then the 
priest of the canton, if the occasion be public ; if private, the master 
of the family ; after an invocation of the gods, with his eyes lifted up 
to heaven, thrice takes out each piece, and, as they come up, inter- 
prets their signification according to the marks fixed upon them. It 
the result prove unfavourable, they are no more consulted on the 
same aSair that day ; if propitious, a :onfirmation by omens is stiH 

11. Beneficio. " By the favour." 

12. Quos Uhii. The common text has ubi in place of Ubii, and 
the advocates for the former insist that Ubii must be an erroneoua 
reading, because the people of that name were too far removed from 
the seat of war. A singular specimen of critical acumen ! just as 
if the relative position of the Ubii and Suevi had anything to dc 
with the theatre of the war between Csesar and Ariovistus. A 
strong eirgument in favour of the reading Ubii may be obtained from 
the 37th chapter of this book, where the Treviri, the immediate 
neighbours of the Ubii, came to Caesar with the intelligence, that the 
Suevi were endeavouring to cross the Rhine in their vicinity. The 
Ubii. moreover, as appears from another part of these commentaries 
(4, 3), were old enemies of the Suevi. Danes, Clarke, Oudendorp, 
and many other editors, declare in favour of Ubii as a reading, 
which was first given by Rhenanus and Hotomannus on conjecture. 
The Greek paraphrast has also ol OiStoi. 

13. Proximi Rhenum. " Next the Rhine," i. e., on the banks 
of that river. There is an ellipsis here of the preposition ad. Con>- 
pare Lucretius, 2, 134, " Proxima sunt ad vireis principiorum.'" 

14. Duobus. The Helvetian and German. — Tempus anni. 
" Tbe season of the year." — Hiberna. " Winter-quarters." The 
Ivinter-quarters of the Romans were strongly fortified, and fumished, 
particularly under the emperors, with every accommodation like a 
citv, as storehouses, workshops, an infirraary, &c. Hence frona 
them many towTis in Europe are supposed to have had their origin ; 




■J3 '1 Eiigland particularly, tliose vvhose naines end in ccs/cr or ckesttr. 
Compare the rcmarks of Adelung, Gloss. Med. ct Inf. Lai. vol. 
li., p. 271, s. V. Caslrum. 

\b. Iii citcriorcm GalHain. Gaul south of the Aips, or, ihe 
northcrn part of the Italian peninsula, otherwise called Cisalpine 
Gaul. — Ad convenlus agcndos. " To hold the assizes." Thc 
govcrnors of provinces generally devoled the sunimer to their mili- 
tary operations, and the winter to the civil part of their administra- 
'.lon, wliich consisted in presiding over the co'irts of jusiice, hearing 
ijetitions, regulating tnxes, &c. 



1. Cum issef Ctesar, &c. The date is A. U. C. 697, in the ^^ 

consulship of Pubiius Cornehus Lentulus and Quintus Metelhas 
Nepos. — Crebri rumores. " Frequent reporls." Compare the 
Greek version, tnxval ayyt\iai. 

2. Dixeramus. Comparebook 1, chap. 1. — Conjurare. " Were 
combining," i. e., were forming a confederacy. — Omiii Gallia. 
Celtic Gaul is here meant, in contradistinction to Belgic. 

3. Partim qui. " Some of whom." — Ut. " As, on the one 
hand." — Ita PopuU Romuni, &c. " So, on the other, they bore it 
impatiently, that an army of the Roman people should winter in 
Gaul, and the thing begin to grow into a custom." Literally, 
" should winter and grow old in GauL" Compare the explanation 
of Donatus, ad Terent, Hec. prol. v. 4, " Inveterascerent, i. e., in 
consuetudinem venirent.'" 

4. Partim qui mobilitate, &c. " While others of them, from a 
natural instability and fickleness of disposition, were desirous of a 
change of govemment," i. e., were anxious for a revolution. 

5. Ah nonnuUis etiam. Supply soUicitarentur, referring still to 
the Belgae. — Qui ad conducendos, &c. " Who possessed means 
for hiring troops." 

6. Eam rem conseqm. "To effect that end," i. e., to usurp 
govemments. — l7i imperio nostro. " While we held the chie/ 
power in Gaul." 

7. In interiorem GaUiam. " Into inner Gaul." Oudendorp 
pre*ers uUeriorem, the reading of several MSS., as more in accord- 
ance with the phraseology of Cassar. But interior, here, has pre- 
cisely the same force as uUerior, with the additional advantage of 
its applying, witii more force, \o one who was to pass from northern 
Italy into farther Gaul, or, in oth«r /vord*, p^anetrate into the interior. 

8. Quintum Pedium. A grandson of Julia, che aiater of Caesar 
Consult Historical Index. 

9. Dat negotium Senonibus. " He directs the Senones." More 



35 iiterally, " he gives a commission." — Uti cognoscant. " To ascer 

10. Constanter. " Uniformly." — Manus cogi. ' That bodie» 
of troops were raising." — Exercilum conduci. " That an army \vat 

1 1 . Pruficiscerctur . The conunon text has duodccimo die bofore 
proficisccrctar. As these words, however, are wanting in most 
MSS., and as they are utterly at variance with the rapidity of move- 
ment which characterized the operations of Csesar, we have ex- 
cluded ihem from our edition. Oudendorp conjectures primo die, 
or primo quoque die ; Frotscher, propere. The Greek version has 
<I)j TaxKrra livai. Most of the editors who retain duodectmo die 
enclose the words between brackets. 

12. Celeriusque omnium opinione. " And sooner than auy ex- 
pected." — Qui proximi GallicE, &.c. " WTio are the nearest of the 
Belgas to Celtic Gaul." Compare the Greek vcrsion : Ik Trdvrav 

tHv BfXywv -nXriciaiTaTOi Trjs FaAaTiaj oikovvtcs. 

3g 1. Ncque se cum Belgis, &c. " That they had neither agreed 
with the rest of the Belgae," i. c., entered into thc confederacy 
along with them. 

2. Gcrmanosque. Tlicse are enumerated towards the close of 
chapter 4, namely, the Condrusi, Eburones, Csresi, and Paemani. — 
Cis Rhenum. Referring to the southern bank of the Rhine, on 
which several of the German tribes had settled. 

3. Furorem. " The infatuation." — Fraires consanguincosquc 
suos. The Remi are here speaking of the Suessiones as " bretlu-en 
and kinsmen of their own." — PoLuerint. Still referring to tlie 
Remi. — His. Referring to the Belgs who had combined agaiust 
the Roman power. 

4. His. The pronoun now refers to thc two ambassadors froiu 
the Remi. — Ouantceque. " And how powerful." — Sic rcperiebat 
" Hc obtained this inibrmation." Literally, " he thus found." 

5. Magnosque spiritus in rc viilitari. " And grcat haughtinesi 
in warlike matters." Conipare the explanation of Achaintre : " Spi- 
ritus, i. c., sensus supcrbia ferociaque plenos. 

6. Omnia sc habere explorata. " That they had all tliings accu- 
rately inquired into," i. e., that they could give him accurate infor- 
nation. — Propinquitatihus, &c. " By neighbourhood and affinity." 
—Quantam multitudincm. " What number of men." 

7. Posse confirere. " Could raise." Literally, "could make 


ap." — Electa millia sexaginta. " Sixty thousand picked men." — Qg 

Imperium. " The management." The control. 

8. Divitiacum. Not to be confounded, of course, with Divilia- 
cus the Aeduan chieftain. He held not only the Suessiones, but 
also the Ambiani under his sway, and from the country of the latter 
passed over into Britain. Caesar is the only ancient writer tliat 
makes mention of this Gallic expedition into the island. 

9. Galbam. Many suppose this name to be an error on the part 
of some copyist, both because Dio Cassius (39, 1 ) has 'A5pa as the 
appellation of the monarch in question, and also because Galba is a 
Roman family name. But Suetonius informs us, that some in his 
time considered Galba to be a term of Gallic origin, signifying 
"corpulent" or " fat." {Yit. Galb. 3.) Perhaps, therefore, ^<ira 
may have been the first part of the name, and Galba the latter. 

10. Totius belli sum^am. " The direction of the whole war." 
Compare the Greek version : 6r« ^ytfjiibv koi o-rpari/yuj xdvruiv ilpriuevos 


1. Longissimcque absint. "And are very far distant." Thes( ^'f 
words have occasioned considerable trouble to the commentators. 
Julius Celsus, who for the most part gives the spirit, if hc does not 
follow the very words, of Csesar, passes over them in silunce. The 
Greek paraphrast has iaxdrovs tHv BfAywv, which is not true, since 
the Menapii are as remote, if not more so. Vossius, thei^tpfore, 
thinks that we must either reject Ihe words in quesstion, or read 
longissimeque ab omni cultu absint, or else must transfer them to 
the close of the chapter, and insert them after appellantur, as apply- 
ing to the foui German tribes that are enumerated last. Davies, 
however, is in favour of retaining the words where they are, and 
giving longissime absint the meaning merely oi valde -emoti sint 
We have adopted his opinion, which is foUowed also by Achaintre 
and Lemaire. 

2. Cccrcesos. Traces of tliis name appear to exist in that of the 
modern river Chiers, and of the Psemani in that of Famenne or Fa- 
mine. Compare D^Anville, Not. de la Gaule, p. 188. 

3. Ldberalitcrque oratione prosecutus. " And having spoken 
kindly to them." Compare B. G. 4, 18, " Quibus pacem et ami- 
citiam petentibus libcraliter respondit." So also B. C. 3, 104. B. 
Alex. 71. The Greek version has <pi\o<j>povri(!djitvos, which amounts 
to the same thing. 

4. Ad diem. " By the day appointed." — Magno opere. " Stren- 




37 uously." The niore correct form for magnopere. So quanto ojiere 

for quantopcre. Compare OudendoTp, ad loc. 

5. Quanto opcre, &c. " How much it concerns the republic and 
the general safety, that the forces of the enemy be prevented from 
uniting." Literally, " be kept apart." Compare Lucretius, b, 
204, " Et mare, quod late terrarum distinet oras," wherc dislinet 
is equivalent, as Davies well remarks, to a se invicem dividit. The 
terms rei puUicce have reference to Rome, and communis salutis 
to the Remi. The army of the Gauls would amount, when united, 
to 300,000 men, to oppose which Csesar had, at farthest, but 60 or 
70,000. It was all important, thereforc, to prevent a junction. 

6. Atque ibi castra posuit. For an account of the Roman camp 
consult Archojological Index. 

7. QucBres. " This position." — Post eum. Referring to Ca;sar. 
Ciacconius, not understanding to what ewmj^ould here refer, changcd 
it into ea. Davies, however, restored the true reading, although he 
himself errs in referring eum to cxcrcitum. 

8. Cohortibus. As there were ten cohorts in a legion, the num- 
ber of men would range from 420 to 600, according to the size of 
the legion itself. Consult Archaeological Index. 

9. Duodeviginti pedum. " Of eighteen feet," i. e., in breadtn. 
Supply in latitudinem. Stewecchius {ad Veget. 3, 8) thinks that 
we ought to read here XIX. instead of XVIII., in consequence of 
the rule which Vegetius lays down respecting an uneven number : 
" imparem enim numerum observare moris est." Caesar, however, 
followed his own rules. The Greek paraphrast makes the ditch 18 
feet deep : Ta<jipeviiaTi 6e dKnaKaiSeKa rb /3a'6oy. 

10. Munire juhet. Supply suos. The more usual, but less 
elegant, form would be muniri jubct. All military WTiters who 
allude to the position of Caesar on the present occasion, speak of it 
in high terms of praise. 

11. Ex itinere. " On their march." Compare the Greek ver- 
sion tv Tfj MiJ). — Sustentatum est. " The attack was supported." — 
Gallorum eadem atque, &c. "The manner of attack on tlic part 
of the Gauls, as well as the Belgae, is as follows." 

3g 1. Testudine /acla. "A testudo being formed." To form a 
teatudo, the soidiers joined their shields above their heads, and those 
on the hanks JocKed theirs so as to defend their sides. This was 
done in order xo secure themselves against the darts of the enemy, 
and from its rescmblancc to the form of a testudo, or " tortoise," 
it derivcd its mintary namc. Under cover of this thcy came up to 



the gates, and tried either to undcrmine the walls or to scale ihem. QW 

Consult Archaeological Index. 

2. Portas succedunt. That succcdere is joined to an accusative 
as well as dative, is shown by Servius, ad Virg. Eclog. 5, 6, from 
Sallust, " Cum muruin hostium successisset.'' Consult Ouden- 
dorp, ad loc. 

3. In muro consistendi, &c. " The power of stauding on t!ic 
wall was to no one," i. e., no one was able to stand on the wall. 

4. Summa noUlitate, d:c. " Of the highest rank and influence 
among his countrymen." — Prcecrat. " Was over," i. e., had the 
conunand of, or was governor of. 

5. Submittatur. Some of the MSS. have the simple mittatur , 
but suhmittatur is preferable, as it denotes the sending secretly 
and unobserved by the foe. 

6. De media nocte. " Soon after midnight." — lisd^m ducibus, 
&.C. " Having used for guides the same persons who had comc as 
raessengers from Iccius." 

7. Numidas. The Numidians were ranked among the light- 
armed troops. (Compare chapter 10.) The Cretanswere remark 
able for their skill in archery. Compare Aelian, V. H. 1, 10, 0{ 
KprjTi; {lal To^ivctv ayaOoi. The inhabitants of the Balearic islands 
(Majorca and Minorca) were excellent slingers. Consult Geograph- 
ical Index, s. v. Numidia, and Baleares. 

8. Quorumadventu,&c. " By the arrival of whom, both courago 
to ward off the attack, together with the hope of a successful de- 
fence, was added to the Remi, and, for the same reason, the espect- 
ation of making themselves masters of the town departed from the 
enemy," i. e., the Remi were inspired with fresh courage, and with 
the hope of finally beating off the enemy, while the latter, on therr 
part, now despaired of accomplishing their object. 

9. Quos. In the masculine as the worthier gender, but referring, 
m fact, to both vicis and cedificiis. The construction of adire with 
an accusative is of common occurrence. 

10. Omnibus copiis. Without the preposition cum, as in chap- 
ters 19 and 33. The preposition, however, is morc commonly 

11. Et ab millibv,s, &c. " And encamped within less than two 
miles of him." 

12. Et propter eximiam, &c. " And on account of their high 
leputation for valour." — Preelio supersedere. " To defer a battle." 

13. Solicitationibus periclitabaiur. " Strovo to ascertain by fro- 


3R quent trials." Solicitatioh'bus is here equivalent m fact to lcvibua 

14. Advcrsus. " Towards !.he enemy," i. e., on the side facing 
the enemy. — Quantum loci, &c. " As far as our arrny, when drawn 
up in Hne of battle, was able to occupy." 

15. Ex utraqueparte, &c. " Had asteepdescent onboth sides ' 
Literally, " had descents of side on cither part." Dejcctus is hero 
used for dejeclio. Compare Livy, 9, 2, " Angustias scptas dejectu 
arborum saxorumque ingerittum ohjaccnte mole ifive^icrimt.'" 

16. Et frontem lenitcr fastigatus, &.c. " And in front, gently 
sloping, sank gradually to the plain." Fastigatus is properly ap- 
plied to what has a pyramidical form, and terminates in a slonder ot 
spiral top. It here refers, however, merely to the descent or slope 
of the hiil. Wilh frontem sujiply quoad. 

17. Ad extremas fossas. " At the exlremities of the ditch," i 
e., at each end. — Tormenta. " Military engines," i. e., CatapuUee, 
and Balistee, for throwing large stones, heavy javehns, &c. These 
would be analogous to our modern batteries. 

29 ^- Qii-od tantum, &c. " Since they could do so inuch by tlieir 
numbers," i. e., were so powerful in numbers. — Pugnantes. 
" While engaged in the fight." 

2. Si qua opus esset. " If there should be need in any quarter." 
With qua supply parte. Some editions havc si quid, others si quo. 
The Greek paraphrast has d n 6iov dtj- 

3. Palus non mag7ia. " A marsh of no large size." 

4. Expcciahant. " Waited to see." — Vtimpeditos, &c. "Wei° 
ready under arms to attack them in their disorder," i. e., while 
more or less embarrassed in their movements by the attempt to 
cross. Compare the Greek paraphrase : dn^pl tovto do-^oXovnhois. 

5. Sccundiore equitum, &c. " The battle of the cavaky proving 
more favourable to our men," i. e., our men having the advantage 
in the battle of the horse. The common text hao equitum nostrorum, 
which savours of a gloss. 

6 Demonstralum est. Compare chapter 5. ~ 

7. Si minus potuissent. " In casc they should no: be able te do 
this." — Ad bcllum gcrendum. " For canying on the war." — Pro- 
hiberentquc. " And might cut off." 

8. Levis armatura Numidas. These vverc armed merely with 
javelins, and, instead of a buckler, merely estendcd a part' of their 
attire with thcir left hand. Compare the graphic description o/ 
I.ivy (3.5, in, '^ Nihil prnno ai^pcclu conlcinptuis. Equi honv 


nesque paulluli et graciles : discinctus et incrmis eques, prcEler- 39 
qtiam quod jacula secum portat : equi sine frcmis : dcformis ipse 
cursus, rigida cervicc et extcnto capite currentium.'''' So also Clau- 
dian, Bell. Gtld. 15, 435, set^. 

" Non contra clypeis tectos, gladiisque micantes 
Ibitis, in solis longe fiducia telis : 
Exarmatus erit, quum missile tarserit, hostis, 
Dextra movet jaculum, pratentat pallia lceva, 
Ccelera nudus cqiies.^' 

9. Impcditos. " Embarrassed in their movements." Compjire 
note G, page 53. 

10. Audacissime. Plutarch's language is at variance with this, 
since he makes the Gauls to have fought badly. (Vit. Ccbs. c. 20), 
nlaxpZs iyaviaajihovi. 

11. Oppido. Referring to Bibrax. — Se fefellisse. " Had dis- 
appointed them." 

12. Quorum in fines. " Into whosesoever territories " — Suis. 
Refcrring to the respective territories of each. 

1. Et domesticis copiis, &CC. " And might avail themselves of J^(J 
the siipplies of provisions which they each had at home." Domes- 
ticis copiis is here put for domcstica copia. 

2. Hcec quoque ratio. " The following consideration also." — 
Divitiacum atque Aeduos, &c. They had done in conformity with 
the request of Csesar. Compare chapter 5. 

3. His. Referring to the Bellovaci. They were desirous of re- 
turning home, and defending their territories against the threatened 
attack of the Aedui. 

4. Nullo certe ordine neque imperio. " In no fixed order and 
under no regular command," i. e., in no order and under no disci 

5. Cum sibi, &c. " Each striving to obtain the foremost place 
on the route." — Consimilis. " Very like." Consimilis is strongei 
in meaning than similis, and not merely a more sonorous term {vox 
sona7itior),&s Forcellini maintains. 

6. Insidias veritus. Caesar feared an ambuscade, because very 
little acquainted with the country. Compare Dio Cassius, 39, 2, 
Kaiaap Se jjadeTO fiev rd yiyvdjnevor, ovk eriXurjae Se a<pas eiBiis, dyvolqi r«S» 
yiaptuiv, e-niSid^ai. 

7. Cum ab extremo agmine, &c. " While those in the rear, 
with vvhom ouv men first came up, Tnado a stand," &c. 



4Q 8. Perturbatis ordbiihus. " Havingbroken their ranks." — iV«- 

sidium. " Their safety." 

9. Quantum fuit diei spatium. " As the knglh of the day al- 
lowed." More literally, "as much as there was space ofday." 

10. Destiterunt. Supply interficerc. The later editions hav» 
destitenmt sequi, an inferior reading. 

11. Ex itinere. " On his vvay," i. e., on the line of march~ 
Paucis defendentibus. " Although only a few defended it," i. c, 
although the garrison was weak. 

12. Vincas agcre. " To move forward the ■yinca:." The vinetB 
were mantlets or sheds, under which the besiegers worked the bat- 
tering ram, or else approached the walls to undermiiie them. Con- 
sult ArchsBological Index. 

4] 1. Aggere jacto. "A mound being throvra up." 7'he agger 
was a mound or rampart composed of earth, wood, hurdles, and 
stones, which gradually increased in height towards the town, 
until it either equalled or overtopped the walls. Towers wero 
erccted on it, from which the soldiers threw darts or stones on the 
besieged by means of engines. Consult Archceological Index. 

2. Turribusque constitutis . " And towers being erected on it." 
The Romans had two kinds of mihtary tovvers, those that were 
erected on the mound, and which are here mcant, and thoso that 
were built at some distance from the besieged place, and were 
moved up to it on wlieels. Consult Archneological Index. 

3. Opcrum. " Of the works." Refening to the aggcr, turrcs, 
&c. — Celerilate. " The despatch." — Impctrant. " They obfain 
this," i. e., that their lives should be spared. 

4. Galbce. Consult note 9, page 36. — Daxit. We havo here 
given the reading of Oudendorp's smaller edition. The Bipout 
cditor gives ducit, on the authority of several MSS., which is also 
followed by Daehne and others. 

5. Bratuspantium. Scaliger and others think that this town was 
the same with Ca?saromagus, now Beauvais. But D^Anville is 
more correct in making it correspond to Bratuspante, an old place 
that onee stood near Brctcuil in Picardic. {^''Anville, Gcogr. 
Anc. vol. i., p. 84.) 

6. Majores natu. " The aged men," or, those advanced iii 
years. Literally, " those greater (i. e., farther advanced) by hirtli." 

7. Passis manibus. " Wiih outstretched hands." Passis is 
from pando. Compare the Greek paraphrase : avariTafiivaii ralt 


. Page 

8. Ad eum. Rcfernng to Caesar. — Facit verba. ' Speaks." A \ 

Literally, " makes words," i. e., a discourse. Verba habcre is 
" to hold a conversation with one ;" but verba dare, " to impose 
opon a pcrson." 

9. In fule atguc amicilia, &c. " Had always been steady in 
iheir attachment and friendship to the state of the Aedui." — Qui 
dtcerent. " Who had assured them." — Omnes indignitates, &c. 
" AU manner of indignities and insults." 

10. Qui hujits, &c. The order is, (Eos), qui fuisscTit principes 
hujus consilii, profugisse in Britanniam, quod inielligcrent, &c. — 
Principes. " The authors." The prirae movers. 

1 1 . Non solum Bellovacos. " That not only the Bellovaci them- 
selves." — Pro his. " In behalf of thcsc." — Ut uto.lur. " To ex 
ercise," i. e., to e.xtend. 

12. Quorum auxiliis, &c. " By whose aid and resources they 
(i. e., the Aedui) were accustomed, in case any war broke out, to 
support them," i. e., to support whatever wars happened to occur. 
Quorv.m refers to the Belgae. 

13. Honoris Divitiaci, &c. " Out of respect for Divitiacus and 
the Aedui." Literally, " for the sake of thc honour of Divitiacus 
and the Aedui." 

1. His traditis. " These hostages haviug been delivered." AO 
Supply obsidihus. 

2. Nihil pati vini, &c. Athenaeus informs us, on ihe authority 
of Posidonius, that the wealthier Gauls were accustomed to drink 
the wines of Italy and Massilia, and these, too, unmised. {Ath. 
Deipnos. 4, 36. — Vol. ii., p. 94, ed. Schiceigh.) 

3. Ad luxuriam perlinciitivm. These words are wanting in 
many MSS., but they are rendered by the Greek paraphrast, and 
are also given by Celsus. 

4. Increpitarc el incusare. " That they inveighed against and 
complained of." — Patriamque virtutem projecissent. " And had 
abandoned the bravery of their fathers." More hterallv, " had 
thrown away." 

5. Confirmare. " That they resolutely declared." 

6. Sabim fluinen. Achaintre anJ Lemaire charge Caesar with 
an error in geography here, and niaintain, that, instead of Sabim, we. 
ought to read either Samaram, or else Scaldim, morc probably the 
latter. Their argument appears to be a plau.sible one. 

7- Advcnlum. " Tlie coming up." 



42 ^- Muliercs, quique, &c. The order is, " conjecisse muliere», 
hominesjue qui pcr cetatcm vidcrc7itur inutiles ad pugnam,'' &c. 

9. Eorum dierum, &.c. " The mode of marching, on the part of 
our army, during those days, having been carefully observcd by 
them." More literally, " the custom of those days, in respect of 
the march of our army." As regards the construction of the geni- 
tive here, compare note 10, page 17. — Perspecta. Davies has 
edited prospecta, which is quite inappropriate. 

10. Neque esse qmcquam negotii. " And that thero would be 
no difRculty." More hterally, " and that it was no labour. " 

11. Ha7ic sub sarcinis adoriri. " In attacking this under its 
baggage," i. e., "in faUing "pon the soldiers of this legion while 
each of them was still bearing his load of baggage." By impedi 
menta are meant the heavier articles of baggage, such as tents, &,c., 
vvhereas sarcincB denotes the load which each soldier carried. The 
impcdimenta were conveyed along by beasts of burden and wag- 
ons, but the sarcina. formed part of the burden of each soldier. 
The load which each of them carried is ahnost incredible ; provisions 
for fifteen days, sometimes more, u-sually corn, as being hghter, 
sometimes dressed food ; utensils, such as a saw, basket, mattock. 
an axe, a reaping hook and leathern thong, a chain, a pot, &c., 
stakes, usually three or four, sometimes twelve, &C., the whole 
amounting to sixty pounds, not including the weight of his arms, 
for a Roman soldier considered these last, not as a burden, but as 
a part of himself. Under this load they commonly marchcd twcnty 
miles a day, somctimes more. Compare Cic. Tusc. Quast. 2, 37. 

43 1. Qua. Supply /c^J0«e. — Rcliqua',. Swpi^ly legioncs. 

2. Adjuvabat ctiam, &c. " It added weight also to the advice 
of those who brought this intelligence, that the Nervii from early 
times," &c. 

3. Ei rei student. " Do they pay much attention to this," i. c , 
to the raming of cavalry. — Sed quicquid possunt, &c. " But 
whatever they are able to do they effect by means of their foot- 
forces." With valent supply ejiccre. 

4. Incisis atque inflexis. " Being cut in and bent," i. e., bemg 
half cut, so that they still continued to grow, the trees were then 
bent longitudinally, and their branches assumed a lateral direction. 

5. Crehris in latitudinem, &c. " Numerous branches, and briers, 
and thorns intcrvening in a lateral direction." The brailches are 
those of the young trees mentioned in the previous notc. The in- 
tervals between these were filled up with briers and ttioriis, which 


intem>ingled, as they grew, vvith the boughs of thc trees, and tne 43 
whole formed an impervious kind of hedge, which answered all the 
purposes of a regular fortification. The common text has enatis 
after ramis, which Oudendorp and others reject very properly as a 
mere gloss. It does not appear in the best MSS. 

6. Non modo. Put for non modo non. This ellipsis is of fre- 
quent occurrence. Compare B. G. 3, 4, and consult Sanct. Min. 
vol. ii., p. 293, ed. Baucr. 

7. Noii omittendum, &c. " That they ought not to neglect the 
advice which had been given them." 

8. Quem locum. This species of repetition.has already been al 
luded to. Compare note 7, page 4. 

9. Ab summo cequalitcr declivis. " Sloping with a regular de- 
scent from the summit." — Collis nascebatur, &c. "Another hill 
arose, over against and facing this," i. e., directly opposite. The 
two epithets adversus and contrarius, being nearly analogous, are 
used to impart additional force to the expression. 

10. Passus circiter ducentos, &c. " Having the lower part clear 
and open for the space of about two hundred paces." In order to 
convey the true meaning of apertus here, we have rendered it by a 
double epithet. The literal meaning of the clause is, " open as to 
the lowest parts," infima being put for quod ad infima loca. 

11. Silvestris. " So woody." Supply zia. The Greek para- 
phrast has SevSpwSei ixdXiara. 

12. In ajperto loco. Referring to the lower part of the hill, where 
there were no trees. — Secundum flumen. " Along the river." — 
Stationes eqicitum. "Troops of horse on guard." 

13. Ratio ordoque, &.c. " The plan and order of the march was 
difTerent from what the Belgae had mentioned to the Nervii." More 
literally, " had itself otherwise thanthe BelgsB had mentioned," &c. 

14. Expeditas. " Free from all enciimbrance," i. e., who had 
laid aside the load of baggage which each soldier was accustomed 
to cirry on the march. Compare note 1 1, page 42. 

15. Du<B legiones. " The two legions." — Totum agmcn clau 
debant. " Closed the whole line of march," i. e., brought up the 

16. Identidem. " From time to time," i. e., every now and then. 

17. Quem ad finem. "As far as." — Porrecta ac loca aperta. 
"The clear and open ground." Porrecia literally refers to what 
Btretches out in front, and is free from any obstacle or impediment. 

18 Opere dimenso. " The work having becn measnred out," 



^^ i. e., a space of ground having been marked out for an encampment. 

Opus here refers to all the labour requisite for fortifying. 

4.4 ' ■ Prima impedimcnta. " The first part of our baggage-tram." 

ileferring to the wagons wluch conveyed the heavier baggage, and, 

on this particular occasion, a part also of the individual burdens of 

the soldiery. 

2. Quod tempus, &c. " Which had been agreed upon between 
thern as the time for joining battlc." — Ita ut intra silvas, &c. 
" Thcy on a sudden darted forth, wilh all their forces, in the same 
order in vviiich they had postcd their line of battle and ranks within 
the woods, and as they themselves had cncouraged each other to 
do. •' Confirmaveranl refers to previous concert and mutual exhor- 

3. Proturbatis. " Repulscd." Theearlyreading was ye?/Mria- 
tis, which, of course, is far inferior. Faernus restored the truc lec- 
tion from an old MS. Compare Frontinus (2, 2, 4) : " Equiia- 
tum peditcs prolurbantem.'" The primitivc meaning oi proturbo ia 
to push ofT, or from, one. 

4. Inmanibus nostris. "Close at hand." The phrase properly 
denotes, that the enemy were so near that thcy could almost b« 
touched by the hand. Comparc Sallust, B. I. 57 : " Cuperc proi 
lium in manibus facerc ;" and Lipsius, Var. Lect. 2, ] 3 : " In 
manibus esse, nisi fallor, dixit pr<zsentes esse, et ita propinquos ut 
•pame manibus tangi possent." 

5. Adverso collc. " Up the hill," i. e., up the opposite hill. or 
the one facing that down which they had rushed. 

6. Vexillvm proponcndum. " The standard to be displayed." 
This was of a crimson colour, and was displayed on the praetorium 
or generaPs tent. Plutarch, in his life of Fabius, c. 15, calls it 
XiTiiv KOKKcvos, and in that of Marcellus, c. 26, foiviKovs x""<^> ^^^ 
it appears t/- have been, in fact, nothing more than a crimson cloak 
or chlainys altached to thc top of a spear, xfruv being used here by 
Plutarch in the sense of x^^f^s- Comparc Schneider, Lex. s. v., 
and Lipsius, Mil. Rom. lib. 4, dial. 12, siib init. 

7. Signum. "The signal of battle." The signal for the conflict 
to commencc ; and hcnce the Greek paraphrast rcndcrs it by ro »0- 
'S.tjjiKiv. — Tiiba. Consult Archseological Indc.x 

8. Aggcris petendi causa. " In order to seek materials for the 
mound." — Milites cohirrtandi. Referring to the harangue, or short 
addrcss to thc troops before the action commenced. 

9. Sitinum duidum. " The wovd to lie given." This is iho 



jatlle-word, called otherwise in Latin tessera, and in Greek avi^dii^, Ai 

as the Greek. paraphrast here correctly renders it. Thc object of 
giving the word was, that the soldiers might bc able to distinguish 
ihose of their own side from the eneiny, in case night should come 
on before the battle was over, or they should be scparated from 
each other. Thc word was generally some auspicious lerm or 
name, such as Victoria, or Lihertas, or Jupiter Servator, &c. 

10. Siiccessus et incursus. " The near approach and onset." 
Csesar is fond of using terms nearly synonymous, one of which serves 
in some degree to explain the other. Thus we have " patienda et 
perferenda," B. G. 7, 30, and " eztremum et ultimum," B. C. 
1, 5, &c. 

11. Erant subsidio. " Proved of advantage." — Sctentiaetusus. 
"■ The knowledge and experience." — Exercitati. " Having been 

12. Singulisque legionihus. " And from their respective le- 
gions." — Nisi munitis castris. " Unless the camp was previously 
fortified," i. e., until after the fortifications of the camp were finished. 

13. Nihil jam, &c. " No longer now looked for any command 
from Caesar," i. e., no longer waited for any orders from him. 
Count Tuq)in de Crisse very justly censures Cajsar, 1. for leading 
his archers, slingers, and cavalry across the Sabis, before his camp 
was at all fortified ; 2. for not having reconnoitred the wood, be- 
fore he attacked the enemy's horse at the bottom of the hill ; 3. for 
rashly joining battle with the enemy on disadvantageous ground, 
vvhen he ought to have kept his light troops on this side the stream, 
until the wood was reconnoitred and a suitable ford was found, and 
siiould have had one legion at the foot of the hill to support them 
if attackcd. The experience of the Roman soldiers alone saved 
the army from utter defeat. 

14. Quam in partem, &c. " In the direction which chance first 
fjresented." The common text has sors, which will not at all an 
8wer hcre. 

15. Quam quo telum, <Scc. " Than whither a dart could be made 
to reach." Adjicere telum is to throw in such a manner that the 
weapon leaches its destined object. 

16. Pugnantihus occurrit. "He found them already fighting." 
Literally, " he met with them," or " came in contact with them." 

17. Exiguitas. " The scantiness," or " shortness." 

J . Ad insignia accommodanda. " For fitting the military in- J k 
signia to their helmets.' The insignia here alluiled to were the 



^tj skins of wild animals, such as bears, wolves, &c. Conr|)aie Polyb- 

1US, 6, 22. Lipsius is wrong, in tiiinking that CKsar here refers in 

particular to crests. {Anal. ad Mil. Rom. dial. 2.) 

2. Scd eliam ad galeas induendas. " But even for putting on 
their very helmets themselves." Oudendorp prefers inducendas^ 
the reading of some MSS. and editions, as the more recondite term, 
and, therefore, the most likely to be the true reading, and to have 
been driven from the text by a glossarial interpretation. But the 
Greek paraphrast settles the point for us by his use of h&vtnQai. 
The Roman soldiers, when on the march, generally had their hel- 
raets hanging down on their breasts or backs, and replaced them on 
their heads when about to attack or be attacked. 

3. Tegumenta. These covers were made of leather, and were 
put upon the shields in order to preserve the polish and omaments 
of the latter. They are called by Cicero [N. D. 1, 14), " Clypeo- 
rum involucra.'" The Roman soldiers were very fond of painting 
and otherwise adorning their shields, and Suetonius informs us, 
that Caesar"s soldiers in particular used to omament their armour 
with silver and gold. {Vit. Cas. c. 67. Compare PolycEnus, 8, 

4. Ad hcEC constitit. " By these he took his station." — In qua- 
rendo suos. We have here adopted the reading of one of Scaliger'8 
MSS. It is far superior to the common lection in quarendis suis. 

5. Pugnandi tcmpus dimitteret. " He might throw away the 
time of fighting." 

6. Dcjectus. " The declivity," or slope.— i\^ecessfias tcmporis. 
" The urgency of the occasion." — Ratio alque ordo. " The priu- 
ciples and systematic arrangement." 

7. Prospcctus impcdirctur. " The view in front was obstracted." 
— Ncque ccrta subsidia coUocari. " Neither could any succours be 
placed anywhere with certainty." 

8. Administrari. " Be given." — In tanta rcrum iniquitate. 
" In so adverse a posture of affairs." 

9. Lcgionis noncc et dccimcc. " Of the niuth and tenth legions." 
Some MSS. and editions have legionum noncE et decimcE, of which 
Oudendorp does not disapprove, though he retains the ordinary lec- 
tion. fThe Greek paraphrast has ItKdTov rt koI iwdrov TdyfiaTos. 

10. Ut in sinistra, &c. " \\Tien they had taken their stationj 
on the left part of the line." Acie is here the old form of the geni- 
tive, ioxaciei. Oudendorp restored this reading from MSS. Com- 


jjare the remark of Aulus Gellus : " Caius CtBsar, in libro de Ana- ^^ 5 
logia secundo, hujus die et hujus specie dicendum putat." 

11. Exanimalos. "Panting," i. e., almost breathless. Ca:sar 
frequdntly employs this term to denote those who with difiiculty 
Jraw their breath through fatigue and exhaustion. 

12. Nam his, &c. " For that part of the enemy had fallen to 
ihe lot of those," i. e., it vvas their lot to come in contact with that 
part of the foe. By his are meant the soldiers of the ninth and tenth 

13. Impeditam. "While impeded in their movements by the 

.4. Diversce du<z legiones. " Two other legions," i. e., two 
icgions different from those just mentioned. Compare the Greek 
paiaphrast, Svo 3XXa Tdyfiara. 

6. Ex loco superiore. " Having descended from the highei 

16. At lum. " At this stage of the fight, however." Compare 
the explanation of Oudendorp, " eo tempore, et ea re." Some of 
the MSS. have cUtonitis for at tum totis, without any sense what- 
ever, while many of the later editions give merely ac totis. Our 
present reading at tum totis is due to the ingenuity of Oudendorp. 

17. A fronte, &,c. The eleventh and eighth legions had occu- 
pied a position in front of the camp, but had been drawn off by their 
pursuit of the Veromandui, and were now fighting on the banks of 
the stream. In like manner, the ninth and tenth legions, which had 
served as a guard for the left of the carap, were gone in pursuit cf 
the Atrebates. 

18. Cumindextrocornu, &CC. " The twelfth legion having taken 
up a position on the right wing, and the seventh also at no great 
distance from it." This remark is added by Coesar, m order to 
show where the two remaining legions were, which, together with 
the four already mentioned, were employed in fortifying the camp 
when the attack was made. 

19. Aperto latere. " On their unprotected flank." The right 
tlank of the twelfth, and the left of the seventh, were exposed, the 
iatter in consequence of the advance of the other legions which had 
Qccupied the centre and left of the line. 

20. Summum castrorum locum. "'Ihe summit on which stood 

the camp." Compare the Greek paraphrast, vpi; ra dxpa Tshuv 

(p{aro. So also m chap. 24, we have, " ab decicmana porta ae 

gummo juffo coUis " 

C c2 



/JL^ 21. Lcvisquc armaturcR peditcs. The same with the ventes 
Consult Archseological Index. 

22. Dixeram. Vid. chapterlQ. — Adversis kostihis occurrebant. 
"Met the enemy in front," i. e., face to face. The enemy were 
now in the Roman camp, and the cavalry and light-armed troops 
met them as they entered. 

(J4J 1. Aliam in partcm, &c. The more usual form of erpression 
is ^' Aliam parfem fuga pctchant," and Ciacconius thinks we should 
read so here. The e.xpression fugam pctcrc, however, as Davies 
rcmarks, is one occasionally met with in the best writers. Com- 
pare Virg. JEn. 12, 2G3. Liii. 9, 23. Ov. A. A. 1, 552, &c. 

2. Caloncs. " The soldiers' servants." The caloncs, in gen- 
eral, merely followed the army as attendants upon the soldiers. Oc- 
casionally they were not allowed at all. At other times, again, they 
formed no bad kind of troops, from their familiarity with the Romau 
©xercise. Comparc, as rcgards this latter point, the remarks of Jo- 
sephus, B. I. 3, 4. 

3. Decumajia porta. " The Decuman gate." This was tho 
name of the gate in the rear of the Roman camp, and was, on this 
occasion, of course, the farthest from the enemy. It derived its 
name from the circumstance of the tcnth cohorts in the legion hav- 
ing their tents in its immediate vicinity. Compare the words of 
Lipsius {Mil. Rom., 5. 5.), " Decumana a cohortihns dccimis, ihi 
teiidentihus, sic d^cta." 

4. Versari. " To be busily employcd." Fc7\<ran may othervvise 
be considered here as equivalent merely to the simple esse. — Pret- 
cipites fugcE, &c. " Consigned themselves headlong to flight." 

5. Aliiqne aliam inpartcm, &ic. " And, being greatly alarmed, 
they were carried some in one direction, others in another," i. e., 
they betook themselves to fiight in different directions. 

6. Quorum intcr Gallos, &c. "Of whose valour thcrc is a pe- 
culiarly high opinion among the Gauls." 

7. Divcrsos dissipatosque. " Each in a diffcrent quarter, and 
scattered herc and thcre." Divcrsos is here equivalcnt to alios 
alio loco. 

8. Ah dccimce legionis cohortalione. Lipsius {Elect. 2, 7) bold- 
ly, but without any authority, conjectures cvm decimce. legionis co- 

9. Urgcri. " To bo hard prcssed." Signis in unuin locum rol' 
latis. " The standarJs havin" been brought togelher iiito one 


place," 1. e , in ronsequence of their having been brought, &c. — AQ 
Siln ipsos. M)re elegant than sihi ipsis, the coinmon reading. 

10. Omnibus centurionibus. Therc were six centurions in each 
cohort. — Sigiio amisso. To lose the standards was estccmed very 
disgraccful among thc Romans, and the standard-bearer was pun- 
ishcd with death, if the ioss was occasioned by any misconduct of 
his. Somctimes a conmiander, in order to urge on his soldiers, 
threw the standard into the midst of the foe. Compare Lips. Mil. 
Rom. 4, 5. 

11. Primopilo. " The cbief centurion of the legion." The 
first centurion of the first maniple of the Triarii received this name. 
He was also called primtis pilus, was intrusted with the eagle or 
main standard of the legion, ranked among the equites as regarded 
pay, and had a place in the council of war with the consul and 

12. Ut. " So that." — Tardiores. " Less active in their exer- 
tions." — Et normullos, &c. "And that some in the rear, being 
deserted by their leaders," i. e., having no leaders or inferior ofEcera 
to urge them on to the fight. 

13. A fronte. "Infront." — Subeuntes. "Comingup." 

14. Etrem esseinangusto. " And that affairs were desperate." 
Supply loco, and compare the Greek paraphrast : Koi rd Trpay/^a ^^ti h 
-y ea^dra chai. Appian {de Reh. Gall. 4) makes Caesar to have 
been for a time completely encompassed on the hill by the forces of 
the Nervii : rij Xrf^or nva. fieTU tHv bTraaviaroiv ireiptvydTa irtpiea-^ov 
KiK\(f (o{ N/pSioi). 

15. Ah novissimis, &c. " Having been snatched by him froni a 
soldier inthe rear." Uni militi is by a Hellenism fora6 uno milite. 
According to Florus (3, 10), the soldier was at the time in the act 
of fleeing from the battle. Celsus, however, makes him to have 
been contending with but little spirit. 

16. Signa inferre, &c. " He ordered the troops to advance and 
open their files." Literally, " to e.xtend, or widen, their maniples." 
They had been previously crowded together ; he now ordered them 
to station themselves apart, or at intervals from each other, and in 
ihis way to keep the maniples distinct. 

17. Cujus. Equivalent to kujus, as it begins the clause. The 
common text has hujus, but it is less elegant. — Rcdintegrato animo. 
" Their courage having revived." Literally, " being reneived." 

18. Pro se. " To the best of his ability." Equivalent to pro 
sua vjrili partc. — In cxtremis sws rehus. " In the last extremity 


Page. / 

AQ of their affairs/' i. e., when their aiTairs were ia the last exlreimty. 

Compare the Greek paraphrast : h toij ^^oXfTrwrdTotj irpdyiiaai. 
^'Y 1. Legioncs. The seventh and twelfth. — Et convcrsa iigna, 
&c. " And should advance with a double front against the foe." 
Cmivertere signa properly means, " to face about," and the literal 
signification of the clause, therefore, is, " should advance the starjd- 
ards turned about against the foe." It must be borne in mind, 
however, that, when the legions united, the seventh formed in the 
rear of the twelfth. WTien, thercfore, the word was given, conver' 
tere signa, the seventh faced about against the foe in their rear, and 
the tvvo legions then stood back to back, the twelfth having con- 
tinued all the time facing in front. In this way conversa signa tn- 
Jerre, which, elsewherc, would meau " to face about and advance," 
gets here the signification, " toadvance with adouble front." Tho 
passage is generally misunderstood by commentators, but the meaa- 
Jng is well expressed by Count Turpin de Crisse : " CSsar ordonne 
aux offlciers dc fairc joinArc pcu, a pcu les deux legions, ct, riunies, 
de ^''adosser l^mie a Vaulre, faisant froiit de tous les cotes." 

2. Ne aversi, 6ic. " Lest, being turned away, they should be 
surrouiKled by the eneray," i. e., of being attacked behind and sur- 
rounded. Their rear was defended by the other legion, who now 
stood with their backs towards them, and fronting the foe. 

3. Cursu incitato. "Advancing at full speed." Literallv, 
" their pace being quickened," 

4. Dccimam. Plutarch erroneously makes it the twclfth. 

5. Vcrsurelur. " Were." Equivalent to esset. — Nihil ad cele- 
Titatcm, &c. " Made all the haste they could." Literally, " caused 
nothing to remain unaccOmplislied by them as regarded speed." 
The Greek paraphrast gives this elegant e.xpression rather tamely : 
ohliiv avUaav ttjs Tax.irTjro;. 

6. Procubuissent. " Had reclined upon the ground." — Scutis 
innixi. "Having supported themselves on their shields." 

7. Etiam inermes, &c. "Even though imarmed encountered 
them armed." — Delcrent. " They might wipe away." 

8. Omnibus in locis, &,c. " Put themselves forward in every 
quarter for the fight before the legionary soldiers," i. e., strove tj> 
surpass them in valour. The common text has omnibus in locis 
jrugnabant, quo se, &c., which is not a bad reading. 

9. Fra-.stitcrunt. " Displayed." — Jaccntihus insistcrcnt. " Stood 
on them as they lay." — His. Referring to those just mentioned 
who had been standing on, and fighting from, the bodrcs of their 



10. Uti ex tumulo. "Asiffroman eminence." Compare tiie A'! 

Greek paraphrase : <lj ik nvbi yn^i^pov, " As from a kind of liill." 

11. Ut non nequidquam, &.C. " So that it ought to be conchided, 
that men of so great valour had not, without good reason, dared to 
cross a very broad river, ascend very high banks, enter upon a very 
disadvantageous position ; for their resolute spirit had rendered 
these things easy from having been most difficult," i. e., their con- 
duct on this occasion was not the mere result of a momentary im- 
pulse, but in perfect accordance with the opinion always entertained 
of their valour. Nequidquam is here equivalent tofrustra, or sine 
causa. The Greek paraphrast renders it by ^0x171'. 

13. Redegerat. Inthesenscoi reddiderat. The term, as Davies 
observes, is one of uncommon occurrence, though used by Caesar 
B. G. 4, 3, " Vectigales sibi feccrunt ac multo humiliores infirmi 
oresque redegerunt." 

13. Prope ad internecionem redacto. " Being ahnost extermina- 
ted." Literally, "reducedto extermination." So inter^iecivum bel 
lum, "a war of extermination ;" internecivum odium, "a deadly 
hatrcd," i. e., which is only to be satisfied by the destruction of 
one or other of the parties. 

14. jEstuaria ac paludes. " Thailow grounds and fens." By 
(Estuaria are here meant low grounds, in which the waters settle 
after an inundation or heavy rains. TheieTm eestuarium, however, 
is generally applied to an estuary, or arm of the sea, where the tide 
ebbs and flows. — Dixeramus. Consult chapter 16. 

1. Nihil impeditum. " That nothing was a hinderance," i. e., 4g 
that nothing was too difncult. — Victis nihil tutum. " That nothing 
was safe for the vanquishcd." 

2. Suisque finihus, &c. "And directed them to continue to 
occupy their own territories and towns," i. e., allowed them to re- 
tain their lands and towns. 

3. Itinere. In one of the MSS. itere occurs, which is the old 
form of declining: viz., iter, iteris, itcri, &c. 

4. Oppidum. Thought by CAnville to have been situate on the 
hill where stands the inodem Falais. 

5. Quod cum ex mnnihus, &c. " For while it had on every side, 
round about, very steep rocks, and commanded a view of the coun- 
try below." Literally, " very high rocks and lookings do^vn."— 
Qtiem locum. Referring to the appvoach to the town. 

6. Ipsi. The Aduatici. — Ex Cimhris. Appian erroneously 
makes th's remark conceming the Nervii {de Reb. Gall. 4). Dio 



43 Cassius, on the other hand, gives the correct account, in accords,.ice 

with Csesar'^ (39, 4). 'Arouart/toJ Koi rt yivos rb rt ^prfvjj/m 

rd Tuv K//i6p(i)v t^oiTf f. 

7. Hominum. After this word ahnost all the editioiis have una. 
But it is difficult to conceive what need there is of it in the sen- 
tence, and it is more than probable that it arose from the carelesj 
repptition, on the part of some copyist, of the termination of hcnni- 
nurn. It is found, however, in almost all the MSS. But still, as 
it does not appear in others, and is omitted by the Greek paraphrast, 
we have thrown it out from our test. 

8. Post corum ohttum. " After the destruction of their country- 
men." Referring to the disastrous overthrow of the Cimbri and 
Teutones by Marius. — Exagitati. " Having been harassed." 

9. Cum alias, &c. " When at one time they made wai on 
them, at another warded it off when made upon themselves," i. e., 
when at one time they acted on the offensive, at another on the do- 

10. Excursiones. " Sallies." — Parvulis prctltis. " In shght 

11. Pedum duodecim. " Of twelve feet in height." Supply ju 

12. Turrim. This was a moveable tower, to be brought forward 
on wheels. Consult Archsological Index. 

13. Quo. " For what purpose." This is the reading of Lipsius, 
Scaliger, and others. The MSS. and early editions have quod. 
Oudendorp thinks that perhaps quoi had been used here and clso- 
where, for which cui was in later times the prevalent form. 

^9 1. Pra magnitudine, &c. " Compared with the large size of 
their own frames." — In muros. " Near the walls." Equivalent 
to juxla muros. 

2. Moveri ct appropinquarc. " Was set in motion, and was ap- 
proaching." — Ad hunc modum. " After this manner," or " to this 

3. Non. To be joined in construction with sine. — Qai possent. 
" Since they were able." 

4. Et ex propinquitate pugnarc. These words arc omitted in 
many MSS. As they are retained, however, by others of good note, 
and are translated also by the Greek paraphrast, we have decmed il 
best to retain them. 

5. Unum petere ac deprecari. " That they beggcd and earnestly 
entreated one tliing." — Pro sua clcmentia, &c. ' In accordance 



with his wonted clemency andcompassion." — Audirenl. Tne sub- ^^Q 

iunctive is here used, because it refers to ihe sentiments of the 
«peakcrs, not to those of the historian, and hence audirent is equiv- 
aleut, in fact, to " had heard, as they said." 

6. Sibi prastare. " That it was better for them." — Si in eum 
casum deducerentur. " If they should be reduced to that state." 
More literally, " to that unhappy condition." 

7. Pcr cructatum interfici. " To be tortured to death." 

8. Magis consuetudine, &c. " In accordance rather vvith hia 
usual custom, than from any meril on their part," i. e., than because 
they were at all deserving of lenity. — Aries. Consult Archaeolog- 
ical Index. The Romans generally spared those who surrendered , 
before the battering-ram struck their walls. 

9. In Nermis. " In the case of the Nervii." The common text 
has 171 Nervios, which is an iuferior reading. Consuit Burmann, 
ad Quintil. Decl. 15, 6. 

10. Facerc. The present with the force of the future. Consult 
Sanct. Min. 1 , l'i, and Perizonius, ad loc. 

11. Muri aggerisquc. The wall was that of the town, while the 
agger or mound was that of the Romans. The arms were cast 
between the wall and mound. 

12. Sub vesperum. " Towards evening." 

1. Prasidia dcducturos. "Would draw off the guards." — Aul ^Q 
deniquc, &lc. " Or, at least, would keep watch less carefully than 
usual." Denique is here equivalent to saltem. Compare Seneca, 

de Ira, 3, 18, " Quid instabatl quod ■pcriculum aut privatum aut 
jniblicum una nox minabatur ? quantulum fuit, lucem exspectare ^ 
denique nc senatores Populi Romani soleatus occideret." 

2. Pellibus induxerant. " They had covered with hides." — Ter 
tia vigilia. The third watch began at twelve and ended at three. 

3. Ignibus. " By signal-fires." Compare the Greek paraplirase, 
wvpKaraif- — Proximis. Nearest that part of the town from which 
thc sally was made. 

4 Ita acriler, &c. " As fiercely as it ought to have been fought 
by brave men," &c., i. e., with that spirit which might have been 
expected from brave men so situated. 

5. Occisis ad hominum, &.C. " About four thousand having been 
elain." The preposition is here to be rendered as an adverb, though, 
when the ellipsis is supplied, it will be found to govem a case aa 
usual : thus, occisis millibus hominum ad numerum quaiuor millium 
Comparc the remarks of Perizonius, ad Sanct. Min. 1, 16. 



/)() 6. Re/Tactis portis. " The gates beingbroken open." Strongei 

than the simple fractis. — Quum jam defenderet nemo. The earlv 
editions add captmn oppidum, probably from a gloss. 

7. Scctionem ejus oppidi, &c. " Cspsar sold all the booty of that 
town," i. e., sold all the inhabitants as slaves, and their eflects along 
with them. The inhabitants constituted the principal booty of tho 
place. The primitive meaning of scctio is a cutting, or dividing 
into small portions. It is then applied to the purchasing of the booty 
of a captured place, or of tlic goods of a condemned or proscribed 
person ; because the purchaser, in such cases, bought by the quan- 
tity, and sold out in small portions to others, or, as we vvould say, 
by retail. Sometimes, however, as in the present instance, the 
term sectio is taken to denote the booty or goods theraselves. Our 
own expression, " retail," from the French retailler, which is itself 
compounded of re and taillcr, " to cut," illustrates very forcibly tho 
peculiar meaning of sectio. 

8. Ab his qui emerant, &C. " The return made to him by those 
who had purchased, was fifty-three thousand souls." Literally, 
" there was returncd unto him, by those who had piurchased, the 
number of fifty-three thousand heads." The highest bidders made 
returns to Caesar of the numberwhich theyhad respectively bought, 
and the sum total was 53,000. Compare the Greek paraphrase : 
ol £' wvrjadfuvoi afidjtbv tlvai e(paaav avipSiv irtvraKiaixvplwv icai irpia^iXioiv. 

9. Oceanum. The Atlantic. The tribes referred to in the tcxt 
were situated in the westemmost portion of Gaul, partly along the 
coast from the Liger (Loire) to the Sequana (Seine), and partly a 
short distance in the interior. 

10. Blyricum. Cassar's authority cxtended over Illyricum, which 
had been given him with the province of Gaul. 

IL Dies quindccim, &c. " A thanksgiving for fifteen days was 
decreed." A supplicatio, or thanksgiving, was decreed by the sen- 
ate, for any signal victory, and was solemnly made in all the tem- 
ples. On such occasions, the senators and people at large, crovvned 
with garlands, attended the sacrifices. A lectisternium also took 
place, couches being spread for the gods, as if about to feast, and 
their images being taken from their pedestals, and placed upon 
these couches, roimd the altars, which were loaded with the richest 
dishes. Compare the language of Plntarch in relation to the pres- 
ent occasion (Vit. Cces. c. 21). 'H ovyK^rjTos nfVTeKaiSiKa fifJpai 
/\f)ri<ptaaTO &iiiv toTs ^(o7i- Kal a\o\d^ftv coprd^ovTas. 



1. Qvo "Bywhich." Sopply iiinere. — Magnisque cum por- /jO 

toiiis. " AnJ with heavy imposts." It was this circumstaiice that 
causcd thc articles, which were brought into Gaul by the traders, 
rbr thc use of Ca3sar's army, to command so high a price, and Cs- 
sar, therefore, wishcd to lower this price, by breaking up the system 
fcf taxation which tho inhabitants of the Alps had imposed upon all 
merchandise conveyed through theircountry. Portorium originally 
signified the duty levied on goods in a harbour (m portu), whence 
the name. The signification was afterward extended, and, as in 
the present instance, denoted the tax paid for liberty to carry goods 
through a particular country. 

2. Hic. " This village." Supply vicus. — Flumine. Orosiiis, 
6, 8, gives torrcnte. The Greek paraphrast omits the term. 

3. Eum locum. " This latter part," i. e., that part of the village 
in which the cohorts were to have their winter quarters. 

4. Hib^norum. " Of their wintering," i. e., of their being in 
winter quarters. The term hiberna usually signifies the winter quar- 
ters themselves ; it is here, however, taken for the time of remain- 
ing in them. 

5. M aliquot de causis, &c. " It had happcned, on several ac- 
counts, that the Gauls had suddenly formed the design of renew- 
ing thc war and crushing the legion." 

1. Nequeeamplenissimam. " Which was not, in fact, a complete 'JQ 
one." More literally, "nor it completely full." Equivalent to et 
eam qmdem non plenissimam. Compare Cic. Phil. 2, 18, " Certa 
Hagitii merces, nec ea parva ;" and Liv. 5, 33, " Prater sonum lin- 
gucB, nec eum incm-ruptum retinent. By lcgio plenissima is meant 
one with the fuU complement of men as fixed by the usage or lavf 

of the day. This complement varied at different times. Consult. 
Archaeological Index, and compare note 23, page 5. 

2. Sinsillatim. " Individnally." Compare the explanation of 
Morus : Singulorum militum, qui singuli discesserant. 

3 Decurrerent. " Should run down." Compare the Greek, 



')'>. iavTiHv KaTaSpaitovftiviov. — Ne ■primum quidem, &c. The comniwi 

text has suuin aftcr impetiim, on the authority of some ?iISS., and 

suslincri iuslcad of suslmerc. The reading which \ve have adopt- 

ed is far niore elegant, and harmonizes with the Greek paraphrase : 

Ohii t!jv Trpiirriv cpiiv bpitfiv Tovi'rui(taiovi iileodai. Wi*h SUStilierevie 

must supply lcgioncin illam. 

4. Acccdchat. " Another reason was." More literally, " to 
this was added." — Suos &h sc, &c. " Tbat their childrcn were 
torn from them," cic. 

5. Sibi pcrsuasum hahehant. " Tliey were firmly persuaded." 
More literally, " they had it persuaded unto thcmselves." 

G. Cu7n neque opus, &c. " As neither the labour of constructing 
winter qnarters, and the requisite fortifications, were completed." 
More literally, " completely gone through v^dth." Davies, Morus, 
and many other commentators, regard opus hihernorum munitiones- 
que as a hendiadys for opus munitionum hibernarum, " the labour 
of fortifying winter quarters." This, however, is incorrect. Opus 
hibcrnorum refers to the erecting of suitable buildings to accommo- 
datc thc soldiers, and also of hospitals, armories, workshops, &c., 
all of which were contained in the winter quarters of the Romans. 

7. Ncque de /rumento, &c. " Nor had a sufficient supply of 
grain and other provisions been procured." More literally, " uor 
had sufllcicnt provision bccn jnade with respcct to grain and other 
sustonance." « 

8. Ncquc suhsidio veniri. The verb ijeyitn is hcre takcn imper- 
sonally, possct being understood. " Neither could assistance come 
to them." I.iterally, " neither could it be come unto thcm with 

9. Ad salulem contenderent. " They should hasten to somo 
place of safety." — Majori ta.mcn parti placuit. " It pleased, how- 
ever, the greatcr part," i c., it was the opinioH of the majority of 
the council. 

10. Hoc consilio. Kclerring to the design, as rccommended, of 
leaving thcir baggage behind, and sallying forth from their winter 

11. Rei eventum experiri. " To avvait the issue." Literally, 
" to try the issue of the affair." 

12. CoUocandis atque administrandis. " For arranging and e.f- 
eculing." — Dccurrcre. The historical infinitive for dccurrchant. 
So conjicere for conjicichant, repufcnare for repngnahant. &c Com- 
pare note 8, page 10. 


13. Gasaque. " An<l javelins." The g^ffiiMm was a Gauic ^ave- fj^ 
lin, entirely of iron. Compare Uesyckius, yatais iji&6\iov bkoai&tifov, 
and Pollax, 7, 33. The latter makes it to have been used also by 
the Africans. Servius is equaliy eiplicit, but terms it a Gallic 
weapon. " Pilum, proprie est hasla Romana, ut Gessa Gallo- 
lum,." Compare .S'. Augustin, loc. dc Josue, lib. 6, " Septuaginta 
iiiterprelc.s, qui posucrunt Geson {Jos. 8, 18), miror, si et in Grceca 
lingua haslam vel lanccam GalUcanam intelligi voluerunt, ea quippi 
dicuntur Gesa." Consult Adelung, Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lat. vol. 
iii., p. 785. 

li. Intcgris vtribus. " \MiiIe their strength was fresh." — Frv^- 
tra. " In vain," i. e., without eflect.— jEz /oco supcriore. " From 
ihe higher position which they occupied," i. e., from the rampart on 
which they stood. 

15. Eo occurrere. " Thither they ran." Occurro here denotes, 
" to nm up to and confront." Cassar means, that, wherever dangei 
presented itself, thither the Roman soldiers ran and met it. 

16. Sed hoc superari. " But in this they were overcome," i. e., 
the enemy had in this the advantage over them. 

17. Quod diutumitate pugncB, &c. " Because the enem)', wea- 
ried by the long continuance of their e.xertions, from time to time 
kept retiring from the baltle, while others kept succeeding to them 
with fresh strength." Pugna, when opposed, as in the present in- 
stauce, to prcelium, denotes the closeness of the fight, and the phys- 
ical exertions of the combatants. Prcelium, on the contrary, ex- 
presses rather the state of the battle, in whatever manner conducted. 
Pugna, too, may be either long or short, with or wiihout prepara- 
tion ; whereas prcdium refers to a contest of some length, for which, 
generally, preparation is made. Crombie, Gymn. vol. i., p. 128. 

1. Paucitatem. " Their smallness of number." Literally, ^a 
" their fewness." — Non modo. Put for 7ion modo non. Comparf- 
note 6, page 43. — Sui recipiendi. " Of recovering himself," i. e. 
of having his wound attended to, and of othenvise reinvigorating 

3. Dejiccrent. " Were failing." — Atque. " "VVhile." — Langui- 
diorihusque nostris, &c. "And, our men growing every moment 
more and more faint, had begun to hew down the rampart," &c. 

3. Ad extrcmum casum. " To ihe last extremity." 

4. Primi pili centurio. " The chief centurion of the legion," i. 
e., thc first centurion of the first maniple of the triarii. Primopilus 
has already occurrcd in tlie scconJ book (c. 25), as a military title 



54 applied to the oldest centurion (compare note 11, page -16). Here, 

howeverf though the same office is meant, the exprefsion changes, 

and cenlurio ■primi jnli is emplcyed. In this latter case, the term 

■pilus, from which pili comes in the genitive, stands for centuria. 

Thus, Forccllini remarks, " Differunt autcm primipilus ct primus 

pihis ; nam primus pilus est prima centuria; primipilus vcro ejus 

centuricE ductor." Compare B. G. 5, 35, " Superiore anno pri- 

mum pilnm duxerat ;" and Sueton. Calig. 44, " Plerisque centurio- 

num, maturis jam, prtmos pilos ademit." The term jrilus gets tliis 

meaning, from the circumstance of the soldiers coniposing it being 

armed with the jiaveHn or pilum. 

5. Diximus. Compare B. G. 2, 25. — Tribunus militum. Com- 
pare note 5, page 23, and consult Archoeological Index. 

6. Unam esse spem salulis. " That the only hope of safety 
was," i. e., that their only chance of saving themselves consistcd 
in making a sally. — Extremum auxilium. " A last resource." 

7. Convocatis centurionibus . The centurions were called to- 
gether, in order that the necessary instructions might be passcd 
through them to the soldiers. — Celeriter mililcs, &c. " He quickly 
gives orders to the soldiers tlirough them." Literally, " mfornis 
ihe soldiers." 

8. Exciperent. " To take up." Compare the Greek, ^vXdTriiv. 
As their own missiles had begun to fail them, they were directed to 
supply themselves, with a suflicient number for the intended sally, 
from the javelins cast by the enemy. 

9. Omnibus portis. A Roman encampment had always foui 
gates, porta prtztoria, in front ; decumana, in the rear, opposite the 
former ; principalis dextra, on the right ; principalis sinistra, ou 
the left. Consult Archaeological Index. 

10. Neque cognoscendi, &c. " They allow the enemy iio op- 
portunity either of ascertaining what was doing, or of rallying thcm- 

11. hi spcm, &c. " Had entertained the hope of gctting pos- 
session of Ihe camp." Literally, " had come into the hope." 

12. Plus tertia parte. Celsus gives 10,000 as the number cf 
the slain, Orosius 30,000. 

13. Fusis armisque cxutis. " Being routed and stripped of 
their arms." 

14. Alio consilio. " With one view," i. e., for one purpose.— 
Aliis occurrisse rehus. " That he had encountered things very dif- 
ferent from tliis," i. o., had been une.fpectedly involved in matters 


Terj different from the object which had called him tliither. He ^4 

had conie to make the route ovcr the Alps safer and less expensive 

for the tradurs, but had met with thiirgs quite difierent in their na- 

ture, namciy, an insurreclion on the part of the Gauls, and hard 

fighting. He prudently rcsolved, therefore, to try fortune no farther. 

1. Omnibus de causis, <kc. " Cajsar had evcry reason to sup- ^5 
pose that Gaul was reduced to a state of peace." More literally, 

" imagined from all reasons." Compare, as regards thc force of 
pacalam, the Greek paraphrase : t)iv TaXariav eipnvtwdai. 

2. Atque ila, &c. " And vvhen he had, therefore, set out for II- 
lyricum, in the beginning of winter." With atqve supply cum. 
Some editions omit the preposilion before Hlyricum. This latter 
country, as has already been remarked, formed part of Cassar's gov- 

;}. Mare Oceanum. "The ocean," i. e., the Atlantic. Ocea- 
num, added herc to mare, shows the sense in which the latter term 
is to be taken, as referring, namely, to the Atlantic, and not to the 
Mediterranean. Compare Catullus, 115, 6, " Usque ad Hyper- 
loreos, et mare ad Oceanum;" Pomp. Mela, 2, 6, " Paulattm se iv 
nostrum et Oceanum mare extendit ;" and L. Ampelius, hb. mem. 
c. 1, ^'^ Atque, ex qua mare Oceanum.'" 

4. Prcefectos tribunosque militum. By prafecti miiitum are hert 
meant the oiBcers of thc allies, of equal rank with the tribuni mili- 
tum, or officers of the Roman troops. Each Roman legion con- 
tained si.x tribuni militum, and each legion of the ailies six prcz ectx 
militum. Consult Archasological Index. 

5. Dimisxt. They were not sent for the purposc of employing 
•'jrce, but to procure the corn by asking it from the Gauls. Hence 
*he tenn legati, or " ambassadors," is applied to some of them 'n, 
chapters 9 and 16. 

6. Scientia atque usu. " In the knowledge and experience." — 
In magno impetu maris atque aperto. " Amid the strong and out- 
spread ocean surge." Caesar means, that the heav^ swells of the At- 
lantic compelled the small Gallic vessels to keep close to the shore, 
and to run into the harbours of the Veneti whenevera storm threat- 
encd. Tliis circumstance, of course, rendered them, in a manner, 
tributary to that nation. The term aperto is applied to thc Atlantic 
in ccntradistinction to the Mediterranean, where there is iand on 
evcry sidc. Forcellini explains impetus maris, in this passage, bj 
" Spalium er latitudo maris, ubi libere fertur impetu suo atque agi 

D d2 



.^5 ^'^'i'-''-" So in Lucretius, 5, 201, tmpetus coeli is explained by Gi- 
fanius (^Collcct. p. 359) as meaning celerrimvs cocli ambitus. 

7. Ipsi. Referring to the Veneti. — Vectigalcs. " Tributary to 
them," i. e., the Veneti levied a regular tax or impost upon them. 

8. Ut sunt, &c. " Since the resolves of the Gauls are always 
nasty and sudden." Ut is here employed in an explanatory sense. 
Consult Tursellinus, de Part. Lat. p. 448, ed. Bailey. 

9. Omnis. The accusative plural for omnes. Some, with less 
propriety, make it the genitive singular, agreeing vii\h fortuna. 

10. Mallcnt. There is no nccessity for substituting malint. 
Caesar, on other occasions, also uses the imperfect subjunctive after 
the present tense : thus, B. C. 2, 39, " Accelerat ut posset ,-" B. 
C. 3, 109, " Ut in potestate haberet, efficit ;" B. Afr. 37, " Imperat 
ut essent prcesto,'''' &c. 

11. Sms. " His countrymen." Referring to those persons 
whom they had detained. 

^(3 1. Quod ipse aberat longius. " Since he himsclf was at too 
great a distance," i. e., couid not come at once to the scene of 
action and superintend the preparations in person. 

2. Naves longas. " Vessels of war." The naves longcE were 
so called, from their being much longer than vessels of burden 
{naves OTieraricB). They were impelled chiefly by oars, the sliips 
of burden by sails. Consult ArchKological Index. 

3. Remigcs. Freedmen and slaves were employed as marines 
and rowers. — Institui. " To be raised." 

4. Quantum in se, &c. " How great a crime they Iiad com 
iiiitted against themselves," i. e., how much they had injured thcm- 
selves by their violation of the rights of the Roman ambassadors. 
(Conipare note 5, page 55.) This conduct would recoil upon them- 

5. Quod nomen. "A title, which," i. e., a class cf persons 
who. W^e may very reasonably doubt, whether the persons here 
alfuded to came under the denomination of ambassadors. Ctesar, 
however, was determined to regard them in this light, and, there- 
fore, made their detention a plea for hostilities. 

6. Pro magmtudine. " \n proportion to the greatness." — Hoc 
majore spe. " With the greater confidence on this account." 

7. Pedcstria esse itinera, &c. " They knew that the approaches 
by land were interrupted by arms of the sca, and that access by sea 
was difllcult through our ignorancc of thc country and the fewness 
of huibours." ]'cdcst/ ia itincra, litcrally, " the foot-roads." So 


namgulionem invpedttam, literally, " that navigation was einbar- i\U 


8. Ncque noslros, &c. " And they were confident, that our ar- 
mies could not remain for any lengih of time among them," &c. — 
Ac jam, ut omnia, &c. " And, besides, even though all things 
should turn out contrary to their expectations." Ut is here ele- 
gantly used for quamvis. 

9. Ac longe aliam, &c. " And that the navigation was far other 
in a confined sea, than in a very wide and open ocean," i. e., was 
very diflerent in a confined sea from what it was in a very wide, &c. 
The confined sea is the Mediterranean, to the navigation of wiiich 
the Romans were accustomed. 

10. In Venetiam. The accusative implies, that they were brough; 
to the country of the Veneti from other quarters. The ablative 
would have denoted, that the vessels were abready at different parts 
of the coasl of that country, and were merely brought together to 
some general place of assemblage. 

1 1 . Erant hcB, &lc. " Were such as we have abready mentioned." 

12. Injurice retentorum, &c. "The insolent wrong done in de- 
taining Roman knights." Injurice is here what grammarians term 
the plural of excellence, and hence, in translating, is entitled to an 
epithet, in order to erpress its force more fuUy. The peculiar force 
of the genitive will also be noted by the student. Csesar does not 
mean the wrong suffered by the Roman knights in their private ca- 
pacity, but the insult offered to the state by detaining its ambassadors. 
The Greek paraphrase gives the meaning very clearly ; !} rt elg 
Vuftaiov; vppii tov rouj Jn-fffaj^Pu^aiotj Karaa^eiv. 

13. Defectio datis ohsidibus . " A revolt after hostages had been 
given." The student will mark the difference between defectio and 
rebellio. The former denotes a mere " revolt," or refusal of obedi- 
ence to established authority. Rebellio, on the other hand, meaus 
" a renewal of hostilities." 

14. Hac parte neglecta. " If this part were overlooked," i. e., 
ihe movements in this part of Gaul. Strabo (4, 4, p. 195, Cas.) 
assigns a reason, for the commencement of hostilities against the 
Veiieti, far different from any here mentioned by Caesar. He says 
that this nation were prepared to interfere with that commander's 
sailing to Britain, since they had this island as an emporium or 
mart : iTOifiOi yup Tiaav KiitXietv riv els rriv BpeTTavtKr)v tc\ovv, ^(^pdiitvoi r^5 

1.5 Norts nbu.v sludere. •' .■\re foud«of cbange.'' The lefer- 



^g enc6 is in particular to changes of government or authority. — JSiUu- 

ra iibertati studere. " Are naturally desirous of freedom." 

57 '• AuxiHo. The MSS., witlronly a single exception, give aux- 

tlio. Tius exception is in the case of one of the earhest of the nuin- 

ber, which reads in aiixilio, ' among the auxiliaries." If severai 

MSS. confirmed this lection, 'jbserves Oudendorp, I should not con- 

demn it. 

2. Cum cohortibus legionariis duodecim. Each legion vvas divi- 
ded into ten cohorts. Csesar sent, therefore, onc complete legion and 
two coliorts besides. 

3. Galliam. Celtic Gaul is meant, or Gaul properly so called. — 
Conjungantur. " Become united," i. e., form a union against him. 

4. Qui earn nianum, &c. " To keep that force from eflecting a 
juiiction vvith the rest." Literally, " to take care that that body of 
men should be kcpt separated or apart." Compare the Greek, rttv 
iKelvotv ivvaiiiv iuipytiv. 

o. D. Brutum. Not to be confounded wilh M. Brutus, one of 
the conspirators against Cajsar. Consult Historical Index. 

6. Situs. " The situations." — In extremis lingulis, &c. " On 
the extreme points of tongues of land and promontories." The lin- 
gulcE are lower than the promoniorii. Compare the remark of Fes- 
tus : " Lingua est Promontorn quoque genus non cxccllentis, sed mul- 
liter in planum devexi." 

7. Cum ex alto, &c. " When ihe tide had conie in from ihe 
deep," i. e., ■when it was full tide. — Qmd bis accidit, &c. ^\'e 
have adopted the emendation of Bcrtius, as proposed by him in 
Sallengre's Thcsaurus Ant. Rom. vol. ii., p. 948, namely, vigintt 
qucUuor, or XXIV., in place of the comnion reading, duodecim, or 
XII. The ordinary lection is a blunder either of CKsar's or somp 
copyisfs, most probably the latter, since, where the motion of the 
water is free, as on the shores of the Atlantic Occan, the period 
which elapses bctvvccn two successivc tides is never less than 
tvvelve hours and eighteen minutcs, nor more than twelve hours 
and forty-tvvo minutes. Perhaps, aftcr all, the reading of the Ox- 
ford MS. is the tnie onc, which omits the vvord bis, but retains 

8. Quod rursu.<!, &c. " Bccause vvhen the tidc again ebbed, tho 
ships were thrown upon thc shoals." With minuentc supply sese. 
The student will note thc expression in vadis. Csesar uses this 
form and not in vada, to denote that the vessels not only struck 
upon the shoals, but renmined there Tho expression in eada, ob 


(he otherhand, would refer merely to their striking Morus, jq hia ^TT 
Indcx LiUt., eiplainb adjliclan by veluli hxErenlem leneri, but, as we 
have just remarked, this idea is rather derived Irom in vadis than 
from the verb itself. 

9. Utraqtte re. "By either circumstance," i. e., in either case, 
whether the tide were high or low. 

10. Magnitudine opens. " By the greatness of oux worka." — 
Superati. Referring to the tovtmemen, and equivalent to victi, 
" overcome," or overpowered. Morus erroneously makes it tbe 
genitive singular, agreeing with operis in the sense of " completed," 
or, to use his ov;n vvords, " absoluli, adfincm perducli." 

11. Extruso mari, &c. " The sea being forced out by a mound 
afid largc dams." We have here, in reality, a species of hendiadys. 
The terms agger and moles both refer to the same works, the former 
denoting their intended mihtary use, Sls a mound on which to erect 
towers aud plant machines ; the latter referring to their being rnade to 
serve also as a species of dike or dam against the waters of the ocean. 
Lipiius makes extruso equiralent here to excluso. In this he 18 
wrong. It is more properly to be explained by submoto ac veliUi 
repidso. Compare the Greek : ifojo^eia»?; ■^(i/iaat Tfji ^aXdcati;, 

12. Atque his, &c. "And these being almost made equal in 
height to the walls of the town." His refers to the mound and 
dams, or, keeping up still the idea of a hendiadys, to the mound 

13. Appulso. " Being brought to the spot." yl^^peZ/ejeis, liter- 
ally, to impel or bring to any place, by either oars or sails, or both. 
— Cujus rci, &c. " Of which kind of force they had a large sup- 
ply. Compare the Greek: axirCiv {scil. vctav) (imopouvreg. 

14. Magnis astibus, &c. " Where the tides ran high, aiid 
where there were few and almost no hajbours." 

1. FcLctm armatmque erant. " Were built and equipped." fjQ 
Arma, besides its warlike reference, is nsed by the Latin writers 

for instruments or implements of every kind, and, when applied to a 
vessel, denotes the rigging and equipment, either in whole or in 
part, according to the context. 

2. Cariruz aliquanto planiores. " Their bottoms considerably 
flatter." — Excipere. "To withstand." More literally, " to re- 
ceive" fhe collision of. Compare the Greek paraphrase : iiroipipitt. 

3. Ad quamvis, &c. " For the pu^ose of enduring any force 
and thock." Contumelia, as here applied to inanimate objects, de- 
DOtss any shock, brunt, or violence. — Transtra pedcUibus, &c. _ 



5fJ " The rowers' benches, of beams a foot in breadth, were fastenod 

down with iron spikes, of the thickness of one's thumb." 

4. Pelles pro velis, &c. " For sails they had raw hides, and 
thin dressed skins." Aluta, {lom alumen, " alum," with which it 
was dressed, denotes the skin or hide after it has been conveited 
into leather by the process of tanning. Pellis, the raw hide, or a 
skin of any kind stripped off. 

5. Liyd. " Of canvass." Literally, " of linen." — Eo. " On 
this account." — Quod est magis verisimile. " As is more likely." 

6. Tanta onera navium. " So heavy vessels." — Satis commode. 
" With sufficient ease," i. e., very readily, or easily. 

7. Cum his navihus, &.c. " The meeting of our fleet with these 
vessels was of such a nature, that the former had the advantage in 
agility only and the working of the oars," i. e., in engaging with 
tbem, our ships had no advantage but in agility, &c. Gruter sus- 
pects that pulsii has been received into the text from a gloss in the 
margin of some MS., because one MS. has pulsJi remorum incita- 
tione. His conjecture is very probably correct, as CjBsar, on such 
occasions, is accustomed to ernploy some part ofinciiare or incitatio ; 
80 that the true reading here would appear to have been incitatione 
'•emorum, or rather remorum incitatione. In either case, whether 
we have pulsu or incitatione, the literal reference is to the impulse 
given to the vessel by the oars, which we have rendered freely by 
the term "working." 

8. Reliqua. " AII other things." — Pro. " Considcring." — 
Ulis. Referring to the Gauls. 

9. Rostro. " With their beak." Ships of war had their prows 
armed with a sharp beak, usuaily covered with brass, with which 
they endeavoured to run into their antagonists' vessel. 

10. Facile tehim adjiciebatur. " Was a dart easily thrown so 
as to reach." Adjicicbatur is equivalent here to jaciebatur ad. 

11. Minus commodc, &c. "They were less easily held by the 
grappling irons," i. e., the ships of the Veneti were too high to al- 
k)w the grappling irons of the Roman vessels to be conveniently ap» 
plied. We have given copvlis (from copula) instead of the common 
reading scopulis. It is difficult to comprehend what the height of 
ihe Gallic vesscls had to do with the rocks, but it is ver>' easy to 
perceive the bcaring which it has as regards the application of grajv 
pling irons. The rcading copulis rests on the authority of thc Pal- 
atinc MS., and was first suggested by Hotomannus. It has been 

^ approvcd of by Bentley, Davies, Oudendorp, Monjs, and many 


otherK Scaliger, in order to save the common lection, conjectured 5g 

infomviode in place of commode, but the original difficulty is not 

completely obviated by tlus emendation. Scaliger's reading, how- 

ever, was followed by many editors until the time of Clark, who 

restored commode. 

12. Et sc vcnto dedissent. These words labour very justly un- 
•Jer fiie suspicion of being a gloss, and, as such, they are enclosed 
within brackets by Oudendorp, in his smaller edition. 

13. In vadis consisterent tutius. " Could lie with more safety 
among the shallows." 

14. Casus. " The chances," or dangers. — Extimescendi. 
" Greatly to be feared." 

15. Neque his noceri posse. " Nor could any serious injury be 
done them." Noceri is here used impersonally. — Expectandum. 
The common text has expectandam, for which we have given expec- 
tandum, with Drakenborch, on MS. authority. Consult Drakenb. 
ad Liv. 40, 3S. 

16. Paratissimce, &c. " In the best order, and the best prepa- 
red vvith every species of equipment." Arma here refers to the sails, 
ropes, and other things of the kind, not to arms. The Greeks use 
SttAo frequently in the same way : 6VXo, rd r?";? viws a\;o(i/ia. 

17. QuamrationempugncE insisterent. " What mode of fightino' 
they should adopt." Ciacconius suggests institxurent for insiste- 
rent, but there is no necessity for the change. As Oudendorp re- 

.marks, the verb insistere involves the idea of ardour, zeal, and the 
most intense application to what we have in hand. 

1. Turribus autem excitatis. " While if towers should be raised." KQ 
6tiips, when about to engage, had towers erected on them, whence 
stones and missive weapons were discharged from engines. 

2. Satis commode. " With sufficient eifect." — Gravius accide- 
rent. " Fell with greater force." 

3. Falces prceacutce. " Hooks with sharp edges towards the 
points." A description of these is given by Vegetius (4, 46), " Falx 
dicitur acutissimum ferrum, curvatum ad similitudincm falcis, quod 
contis longioribus inditum, collatorios funes, quibus antenna sus- 
penditur, repente prcecidit," &c. 

4. Muralium falcium. " Mural hooks," i. e., hooks used for 
pulling dowTi the walls of besieged towns. Strabo calls them 

5. Comprehensi adductiquc erant. " Were grappled and pulled 
towards us." 



^Q 6. Armamcntisque. " And rigging." The term ar^namcnta 

here refers to the ropes, sail-yards, &.c. — Omnis usus namum 

"All advantage from their ships." 

7. Reliquum crat cerlamcn, &c. " The contest afterward de- 
pended on valour." Literally, " the rest of the contest," &c. 

8. U nullum, &c. " So that no action a httle braver tnan crdi- 
nary could escape observation." 

9. Dejcctis. The sail-yards were thrown down (i. e., fell by 
reason of the ropes being cut), either upon the deck of the vessel, 
or into the sea. The common reading, disjcctts, is erroneous, and 
does not suit the case. Compare the Greek paraplirase, karaS^riOivTttv. 

10. Cum singulas, &c. " When two and tliree of our ships, at 
a time, had surrounded a single one of the enemy's." Some edilors 
erroneuusly rcfer bina ac ternai naves to the Gallic vessels, and sin- 
gulas to the Roman, giving cum the meaning of " although." The 
Greek paraphrast understands the passage correctly : ivo ?} rpf ij tHv 
'Vtiifiamv vijes fdav rCjv -iro^t^iiiiv ■ni^iuBTaotv. 

11. Transcendere in hostium 7iaves. " To board the enemies' 

12. Quo ventus ferebat. " Whithcr the wind bore them." — 
Malacia, ac tranquiUitas. " Cahn and stilhiess." Compare Fes- 
tus : " Flustra dicuntur cum in mari fluctus non moventur, quam 
GrcRci fiaXaKiav vocant. 

13. Singulas consectati, &c. " Having pursucd, took thcm oue 
by one." — Ut. " Insomuch that." — Hora quarta. Ansvvcriug to 
ten o'clock in the morning, according to our mode of reckoniiig 

14. Gravicrris cetatis. " Of more advanced years." The literal 
reference in gravioris is to the increasing burden of years. — Ali- 
quid consilii aut dignitatis. " Aught of wisdom or respectability." 
— Navium quod uhique fuerat. " What of ships thcy had anywhere 

gQ 1. In quos eo gravius, &c. " CKsar determined topunish them 
with the greater severity." 

2. Suh corona vendidit. " He sold as slavcs." Various ex- 
planations are given to this phrase, some referring it to the circle 
or ring {corona) of Roman soldiers, who stood around the captives 
during the sale ; others to the circumstance of the captives being 
ranged in a circle, the better to be inspccted by purchascrs ; and 
othcrs again cxplain it by the persons who werc sold wearing gar- 
landa on their heads. This last appears to be the true reaaon, 


from the language of Cffilius Sabinus, and Cato, as quoted by Aulua (jQ 

Gellius (7, 4). The former remarks, " Sicuti antiquilus, mayicipia, 

jurc belli capta, coronis induta veniebant, et idcirco dicehantur sub 

corona venire." So also Cato : " Ut populus sua opera potius ob 

rem bene gestam coronatus supplicatum eat, quam re male gesta 

eoTonatus vencat.'" 

3. Quintus Titurius, &c. Compare chapter 11. 

4. Atque his paucis dicbus. " A few days before also." Litei- 
a.jy, " vvithin these few days." — Aulerci Eburovices. There were 
four nations or tribes of the Aulerci. Consult Geographical Index. 

5. Perditorum hominum. " Of men of desperate fortunes." 
Literally, "of ruined men." 

6. Idoneo omnilms rebus. " Convenient for all things." Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrase, rrpos ■ndvTa nriTri&tia, and the e.^cplanation 
of Morus : " Idoneo omnibus rebus, ratione omnium rcrum." 

7. Duum. Old forra for duorum. 

8. Nonnihil carperctur. " Was in some degree carped at," i. 
e., censured, found fault with. — Prcebuit. " Gave rise to." 

9. Eo ahscnte. " In the absence of that individual." AUuding 
o Caesar. — Legato. Ciacconius thinks legato superfluous here, but 
t is required, in fact, by the opposition of " qui summam imperii 


10. Hac confirmata, &c. " Having confirmed the enemy in thei/ 
opinionof his cowardice." Literally, " this opinionofhiscowardice 
being confirmed." — Auxilii causa. "Araong the auxiliaries " 
Literally, " for the sake of aid." 

11. Proponit. " Makes known to them." Literally, " lays oe- 
fore them." — Quibus angustiis. " By what difficulties." — Neque 
longius abesse, quin, &c. " And that at no more distant period 
than the very next night, Sabinus intends to lead forth his army 
secretly from the camp," &c. More literally, " and that it was not 
farther off," but that on the next night Sabinus intends," &c. The 
comparative form longius alters somewhat the usual force of the 
phrase. The ordinary phraseology is as follows : " Haud multum 
abfuit quin interfi^eretur." " He wanted very little of being slain," 
i. e., was on the point of being slain. — Ncm longe abcst quin faciat. 
" He is very near doing it." 

1. MultcE res. " Many circumstances." Dio Cassius is here gj 
iirectly at variance with Caesar, for he informs us, that the Gauls 
!»cted on this occasion without any reflection at all, being sated at 
i.he time with food and drink : ndvv ydf toi SioKopas Kai t^j Tpo<prjs koI 
'eS KOTov riaav. 

E K 



^l 2. PcrfugcB confirmatio. " The positive assertioii of ihe de 
serter." — Inopia cibariorum. Compare note 1. 

3. Spcs Venetici helli. " The expectations thcy had fornied 
froin thc war of the Veneti," i. e., of Cffisar^s being defeatcd by 
thcm. Tiiey were not aware that this war had alrcady been brouglit 
to a close. 

4. No7i prius Viryloticcin, &c. " Thcy do not allow \'iridovix 
and the other officers to leave tlie council, before," &c. 

5. Circiter ^mssus mille. " For about a mile." — Magno cursu. 
"With great speed." — Quani minimum spatii. "As little tinie 
as possible." 

6. Exanimali. " Out of breath." Exanimatus, in other aulhors, 
generally has the meaning of " alarmed," " in constcrnation." 
The literal reference, however, is the same in either case, namely, 
thal of excessive palpitation, or a difficulty in drawing the breath, 
whether the result of fcar or exhaustion. 

7. Iiitegris viribus. " With their strength still Ircsh." — Paucos 
" But few." 

8. Sahtnus. Supply ccrtior faclus est. 

9. Nam uf ad bella suscipicnda, &c. Coinparc with this the 
language of Livy : " Gallos primo impetu feroces esse, quos siisli- 
neri satis sit ; eorum corpora inlolcrantissima laboris atque astiis 

fiucrc, ■primaquc pralia plus quam virorum, postrcma miuus quam 
feininarum essc." 

10. Minime rcsistcns. " By no meaiis firm." Moie litcrally, 
"by no means capable of rcsistance." 

11. Ex tertia parte Gallice cst astiinanda. " Is to bc reckoncd 
as the third part of Gaul." We have an expression hcre (er terlia 
partc) which is far from being either elegant or usual. If the text 
be corrcct, about which, however, there is considerable doubt, ex 
tertia parte must bc regardcd as equivalent to jrro tertia parte. 
Some MSS. give Gallia instead of Gallice, a reading which is very 
t'ar from bcing a bad onc. 

12. ante armis. The event here alludcd to happened in 
ihe war with Sertorius, vvhose sidc thc Aquitani favourcd. The 
Sertorian war had been ended twenty-seven years. — Lucius Manil- 
ius. One of the MSS. gives Lucius Manlius, and thc Greek para- 
phrase has Aovkioj MaXXioj. Lcmaire reads Lucius Mallius. 

g'2 1. QncB sunt civitatcs. " AVhich are cities." Civitas gemxMy 
has the meaning of " a state," but here that of urhs. — His rcgto- 
rrihus. Rcferring to Aquitania, where Crassus was carrying on his 


jperat.ons. The common text had Quee sunt cicitates, Gallia: pro- (jO 

mncia finitima, ex his regionibiis ; but, as this was geographically 

false, the cities in question lying, not in Aquitania, but in the prov- 

ince itself, Ciacconius, by omitting ex, and changing the punctuation, 

gave us what is now the received and true reading. 

2. Quo plurimum valebant. " In which they wero very power- 

3. Tandem. We have adopted here the reading of several MSS. 
ii.d early editions in place of tamen, the common lection, and have, 
(vith Giani, placed a period after cuperent, where the other edi- 
tions have a colon. Those who retain tamen give it the force of 
iandem, instances of which usage are occasionally found. It is bet- 
(er, however, to make the actual change at once, of tandem for ta- 
men, when we can do so on MSS. authority. Scaliger conjectures 
landem tamen. The Greek paraphrast has Ti\os, which furnishes au 
additional argument in favour of tandem. 

4. Cuniculis cLd aggerem, &c. " Mines having been worked up 
to our mound and vineae." The object of these mines was to de- 
stroy the Roman works, by either drawing away the earth from the 
mound, or by first propping up the roof of the mine with wooden 
supports, and then setting fire to these, in order that, when the props 
were burnt through, the superincumbent mass, and, along with it, 
the Roman works, might fall in. 

5. Citjus rei, &c. " In which all the Aquitani are by far the 
most expert." — Aerarice secturce. " Copper mines." The com- 
mentators make a very great difEculty here about the true reading, 
and look upon sectura, in the sense of " a mine," as an aira^ 
\ey6fitvov. The truth is, however, we may very easily obtdn this 
meaning from sectura, if we only bear in mind its derivation fron; 
seco, for it will denote a place whcre they cut and follow the veins 
or lodes of copper. (Compare Gesner, Thesaur. L. L. s. v.) 
Those who are in favour of reqding stricturce find it no easy matter 
to fix its meaning in the present case. Strictura, according to 
^Tonius (1, 77, and 12, 23), properly signifies a spark that flies ofi 
from a piece of metal struck with the hammer while red hot. It is 
then applied to a mass of metal in the furnace, and also to a mass 
of unwrought metal, and it is from this last that a signification is 
etill farther sought to be obtained, about the correctness of which 
we may well entertain doubts, namely, " a mass of earth and stoue 
from whi^h ore is obtained by means of the furnace." This is the 
meaning which the advocates for stricturoe wish to give it in tho 


Page. _ "_ 

(^9 present case. Another reading is struetura, which is certaiuly f 

superior to strictura, and may, after all, be the true lection, for it Ib 

found in some of the MSS. 

6. Nihil his rebus ■profici possc. " That no advantage couhl be 
derived by them from these things." 

7. In ea re mtentis. " Were wholly engaged in this matter." 

8. Cum sexcentis devotis. " With six hundred devoted foUow- 
ers, whom they call Soldurii.'' There is some doubt whether we 
ought to read here Soldurios or Saldunas. The term Soldurii ia 
supposed to be of Celtic origin, soldure, and the same with the 
Welsh sawldior, with which lerms also the French soldat is con- 
nected, although some would derive it from the pay received, a so- 
lidis, vel a soldo. The other reading, Salduiias, finds some support 
from the language of AthcniEus (6, 54), who, in quoting from JN'ico- 
laus Damascenus, calls thepersonsreferred to in our text 'ZiXoiovvovs, 
vvhich Schweighaeuser, however, has changed to YiXoioipov;, m 
order to reconcile it with the received text of Caesar. It is worthy 
of remark, moreover, that in the Basque languagc Saldi means " a 
horse," and Salduna " a cavaher." Still, as "Zt^oSovpovs is ex- 
plamed in Athensus by tvy(o\ijialovi, which is equivalent to the 
Latin devotos, the reading Soldurios must not be disturbed. Con- 
tiult Thierry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol ii., p. 14, and 391, in nolis, and 
Adelung, Gloss. vol. vi., p. 277. 

9. Quorum h(zc est conditio. " The condition of whose associa- 
tion is this." 

10. Aut sibi, &,c. " Or make away with themselves." Thc 
primitive meaning of consciscere is to determine, or resolve, after 
previous dehberation either with one's self or another. It then gets 
the additional signification of " to put in execution, to bring about 
what has been determined upon." Hence thc phrase consciscere 
mortem sibi, " to lay violent hands upon one's self," is well explain- 
cd by Forcellini, " ncmpc exsequi id quod delihcrareris et decre- 

(53 1. Cum ii.s Adcantuannus. These words are here added, for 
the sake of perspictiity, after the long parenthesis which intervenes, 
and hence the words Adcantuannus cum scxcentis dcootis, in the 
beginning of the chapter, stand, as it were, absolutely. 

2. Tamen uti, &c. " Obtained, notwithstanding, permission 
from Crassus to avail himself of the same terms of surrender with 
the rest." 

3. Barhari. " Thcse barbarous Iribes." Rcferring to the Vo 


sates and Tjirusates. — Et natura loci et manu. " By both the na- ^3 

ture of its situation and the hand of man," i. e., both by nature and 


4. Paucis diebus guibus, &c. " In a few days aftcr the Romans 
had come thither." The relative is here employed, agreeing witb 
diebus, in place of the more usual form poslquam. or ex quo {Zumpt 
L. G. p. 307). With ventum est supply a Romams, or a nostris. 

5. Citcrioris Hispanice. Hither Spain, the saune with Hispania 
Tarraconensis, may be said, in general language, to have formed 
the northem part of the country, comprehending an extent equal 
to three fourths of modern Spain. The remaining part was called 
Ulterior, or Farther. The limits of each, however, are given with 
more accuracy in the Geographical Index. 

6. Magna cum auctoritate. " With great confidence," i. e., 
with a high opinion of their own resources. Compare the expla- 
uation of Morus : " Cum opinione majoris dignitatis auctarumque 

7. Quinto Sertorio. The famous commander. — Omnes annos 
" During all the ycars of his warfare in Spain." — Summamque sci- 
cntiam, &c. They were thought to possess great military skill from 
their having served under so able a commander, and for so great a 
length of time. 

8. Consuetudine PopuJi Romam. " FoUowing tbecustomofthe 
Roman people." They had leamed this under Sertorius. — Loca 
capere, &c. " Begin by selecting proper ground, fortifying a camp," 
&c. By loca is meant ground fit for an encampment. With re- 
gard to the use of instituo in the sense of incipio, compare Quintil. 
1, 5, 63, and Burmann, ad loc. 

9. Facile. " With safety." Equivalent here to tuto. Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrast : aafa^Sii ye. 

10. Hostem et vagari, &,c. " That the enemy both roamed at 
iarge over the country, and possessed themselves of the passes, and 
yet, at the same time, left a sufBcient guard for their camp." Obsi- 
dire is here a verb of the third conjugation, from obsido, not obsideo. 

1 1 . Duplici acie instituta. The usual arrangement, on the part 
of the Romans, was three Hnes. On the present occasion, however, 
only tvvo were formed, as the Roman army was inferior in num- 
bers to that of the enemy : and, besides, the mountainous nature of 
tbe country enabled Crassus to dispense with the usual order of 

12. yiuxiliis. The auxiliary forces were usually stationed on 

E E 2 



(j J the wings ; here, however, they occupy the centre, because Craasus 

did not place much rehance upon them. 

13. >Su.b sarciais. Compare note 11, pagc 42. — Infcriores ani- 
riiu. " Dcpressed in spirit." Compare the Greek paraphrase : 
Q,- I. Cuia sua cimctatione, &c. " When thc enemy had, by their 
own delay, and the opinion which was now enteriained of their 
cowardice, made our soldiers the more eager for battle." Thc 
commorily received reading is timiiiores hostes (i. e., hostes timuh- 
ores jam facti), tlie adjective timidiores agreeing with hostes in the 
nominative. This reading, although it has the sanction of some 
great names, appears to us a very inferior one, and not much in uni- 
son with the context. We have not hesitated, therefore, to substi- 
tute timoris, the emendation of Robert Stephens and Vossius, of 
which Oudendorp thinks highly, although he retains timidiores. By 
opinione timoris is meant the opinion, which the Roman soldiers 
began to entertain of the enemy's cowardice, from seeing them, al- 
though saperior in numbers, keeping in their camp ; and this lection 
receivcs support also from the Greck paraphrase : fi (p66ov na(>tixov 
Sd^fi, wliich is equivalent to rg (j)66ov >)v ffapfTx"*' ''<*fn- Compare also 
the language of Juhus Celsus : " Romani hostium tarditatcm non 
consilio imputanlcs, scd pavori,'^ &c. 

2. Qioibus ad, pugnam, iStc. Compare note 12, page 63. — Spe- 
ciem atque opinionem, &c. " Gave rise to the appearance and 
opinion of their being actually engaged in the fight," i. e., produced 
the appcarance, and gave rise to the opinion on the part of the en- 
emy, of their beingactuallycombatants. 

3. Constantcr ac non timidc. " Steadily and boldly." Tho 
Greek paraphrast either follows a difTerent read^ng, or else very 
strangely mistakes the meaning of constanter, for he renders it by 

4. Non frusfra accidercnt. " Fell not without effect." — Ab 
Decumana porta. " In the quarter of the Decuman gate." As 
the Gallic camp, on this occasion, was fortified after the Roman 
manner, it had the same number of gates, and in the same quarters. 
Hence the name " Decuman gate" applied to the entrance in the rear. 

5. IntritcB ab labore. " Not fatigued by any previous labour." 
The common text has integrtT., but this savours of a gloss. Intritm 
is equivalent wilh non tritce, or non defatigatce. A large number 
of MSS. have intcrritct, but Ihis appears to have arisen from a cor 
ruption of nilnfir. 


K. Ad eas muniliones. " To that part of the enemy's works." AJ 

\lluding to Ihe fortifications near the Decuman gate. 

7. His prorutis. " These being pulled down." The cominon 
«ditions have praruptis and perruptis, especially the latter. Pro 
rutis was first given by Faernus from one of his MSS., and has 
since been adopted into the best texts. It is far more graphic and 
vivid thau either of the other tvvo readings, and is, moreover, in ac- 
cordance with the Greek paraphrase, which has KaTa6a.\6vTis. 

8. Plane ab iis videri posset. " It could be clearly seen by 
<hem," i. e., the movement on the part of the Romans could be 
clearly discovered by the enemy. 

9. Inteuderunt. " Strove." This is the reading of nearly all 
the MSS. and early editions. The common teit has contenderunt, 
"hastened." The Greek paraphrase has incx^dpTiaav, in accordame 
with our lection. 

10. Multa nocte. " Late at night," i. e., after much of the 
night had passed. 

1. Supererant. " Alone remained." Q^ 

2. Qui longe alia raiione, &c. " 'Who resolved to carry on the 
war in a very different manner from the rest of the Gauls." The 
expression bellumagere, which rests on MSS. authority, is rarer and 
more elegant than bellum gercre, the reading of the common teit. 
rhus Pomponius Mela, 1, 16, " Ut aliena etiam bella mercede age- 
rerU;" and Quintilian, 10, J , " Quis enim caneret bella melius quam 
qui sic egerit.^' 

3. Continentes. " Extensive." The Greek paraphrast takes 
contincntes here in the sense of " contiguous to their own country." 
The term is certainly susceptible of this meaning, but the other sig- 
nification is more natural in the present instance. 

4. Longius, &c. " Having pursued them too far, amid the more 
mtricate parts." — Deperdiderunt. Some MSS. give disperdiderunt. 
One of the Oxford MSS. has desideraverunt, which is rather an in- 
ttrpretation of deperdiderunt. 

5. Inermibus imprudentibusque. " While unarmed and off their 
guard," i. e., while occupied in felhng the trees of the forest, and 
unprovided, consequently, for any regular resistance. 

6. Materiam. " Timber." This term is elsewhere used in the 
same sense, or in that of " wood," by CjBsar. Comparc also Cur 
Ums, 6, 6, 28 : " Multam materiam ceciderat miles." 

7 Conversam ad hostem. " Directly facing the enemy." — Ez- 


(;J5 siruebat. '• Piled it up." The timber was to supply the place of a 
regular rampart. 

8. Magno spatio confecto. "A large space being cleared." 
Litcrally, "being completed," or " finished," i. e., a large number 
of trees having been felled. 

9. Extrema impedimcnta. " The rear of their baggage." — Deii- 
siores silvas. " Still thicker parts of the woods." 

10. Sub pellibus. " In tenls." Literally, " under the skins." 
The tents of the Roman soldicrs were covered with skins. In 
winter quarters huts were erected. Canvass does not appear-to 
have been cmployed until a comparatively late period. Lipsius, 
Mil. Rom. lib. 5, dial. 5. 

1 1 . Qu<E proxime bcllum fecerant. " Which had made war upon 
nim last." Bellum facere is hcre put for bcllum infcrre ; thus, B. 
€. 7, 2, " Frincipesqur se cx ovinibus bellum fucluros pollicentur." 



1. C7ieio Pompeio, &c. B. C. 55, A. IJ. C. 699. — Germani. ^"7 

* A people of Germany." — Et etiam Tcnchtheri. These were also 
\ German tribe. 

2. Quo Rhenus infiuit. " Where the Rhine flows into it," i. e , 
near the mouth of that river. 

3. Cc7itum pagos. "A hundred cantons." — Ex quibus, &c. 
" From each of which they led forth annually, beyond their confines, 
athousand armed men," &c. E fijiibus is equivalent here to extra 
pat.riam. — Bellandi causa. We have retained causa, though it is 
omitted by some MSS., and though the omission is approved of by 
Oudendorp and others. For instances of this ellipsis, comparo 
chap. 17, near its close, and also B. G. 5, 8, and consult Ruddi- 
man, Instit. 2, 2, vol. ii., p. 245, and Perizon. ad Sanct. Min. 4, 4. 

4. Sic neque agricultura, &c. " In this way neither is agricul- 
ture, nor are the art and practice of war, iniermitted," i. e., dis- 
continued, or forgotten. 

5. Privati ac separati agri, &c. Tacitus makes a similar rc- 
mark : M. G. 3, 9, " Arva per annos mutant, et superest ager " • 
— Incolendi causa. " For the sake of a residence." 

6. Mazimam partem. " For the most part." Supply secun- 
dum. A Hellenism of frequent recurrence in Caesar. — Multumque 
sunt in venationibus. "Are much addicted to hunting." Liter- 
ally, " are much in hunts," i. e., are much engaged in them. 

7. Nullo ofiicio, &c. " Accustomed to the control of no rules 
ol duty or of education." — Alit. " Nourishes," i. e., increases. — 
Et immani corporum, &c. " And makes them men of prodigioua 
size of body." Scahger rejects homines contrary to the MSS. 
The Greek paraphrase sanctions its being retained :.«ai tic^iapiovs, 
&S etTreh', fttycdov; avipa; irapi)(et. 

8. Locis frigidissimis. " In the coldest parts of their country," 
i. e., in the parts farthest to the north, and the most exposed to the 
rigours of their climate. — Exiguitatem. " Scantiness." — Apota. 
"E.Tposed," i e , in a state of nudity. 



(^'J 9. QucB bello ceperint, &c. The order is, ut habcanl (illos) qd 

hus vendant (ea) qucB ceperint bello. 

10. Quinetiam jumentis, &c. " The Germans, moreover, d> 
not use imported cattle, in which the Gauls take the greatest delight, 
and which they procure at an extravagant price." All the MSS. 
give importatis his, but his is wanting m some of the earlier edi- 
jons. Oudendorp, therefore, very neatly conjectures importatitiis, 
which he introduces into the text of his smaller edition, and in 
which he is followed by Oberlin. We have adopted ihe conjecturo 
without any hesitation. Bentley, however, is in favour of importalis 
omitting his, and this rejding is givcn by many editors. 
{jQ 1. Sed qucE sunt, &c. The grammatical construction is as fol 
lovvs : Sed (quod attinet ad) parva atque deformia (jumenta) quce 
nata sunt apud eos, efficiunt quotidiana exercitatione ut hczc sint 
summi laboris. In rendering, however, into our idiom, it will be 
neater to translate without reference to the actual elhpsis of quod 
attinet ad : " But the small and ill-shaped cattle which are bred 
among them, these they render, by daily exercise, capable of en- 
during the greatest toil." 

2. Parva atquc deformia. The common test has prava atque 
deformia, which savours strongly of a pleonasm. We have, there- 
fore, adopted parva in place of prava, which is the reading of Ou- 
dendorp's smaller edition, and is given also by eight MSS. The 
Greek paraphrast, moreover, has liiKpds, and Tacitus {M. G. 5), in 
speaking of the German cattle, says expressly that they were for the 
most part of small sizc : " plerumqxie improeera." 

3. Turpius aut inertius. " More shameful or spiritless." — 
Ephippiis. " Housings." The term ephippium does not (Jenote a 
saddle, but a cloth laid on the back of a horse {((f Imrov). Saddles 
were not used by the ancients. It is extremely probable, that they 
were not invented until the middle of the fourth century of our era. 
The earliest proof of their use is an order of the Emperor Theodo- 
sius, A. D. 385, by which those who wished to ride post-horscs. 
were forbidden to use saddles that weighed more than sixty pounds. 
Codex Theodos. 8, 5, 47. — Beckmann^s History of Inventions, vol. 
ii., p. 251, seqq. 

4. Itaque ad quemvis, &c. "And hence they dare, however 
few they may be, to advancc against any number of cavalry that 
use housings." 

5. Importari non sinunt. At a later pcriod, in thc time of Ta- 
cilus, the Germans along the Rhine purchased wiiu « fniia tlie Ro- 
mau Iradcrs. Taril. M. (1 . 23 




6. Publice. " In a public point of view," i. e., to the slate at gJJ 

large. — Vacare agros. " For the lands to He desolate," i. e., un- 
inhabited and waste. Literally, " to be empty." — Hac re signifi- 
cari. " That by this it is shown." 

7. Civitatium. The common form is civitatum, but many ex- 
amples of genitives plural in ium, where the rules of the gramma- 
rians would lead us to expect the termination in um, may be found 
in Vossius, Anal. 2, 14, and Ruddiman, Instit. 1, 2, 59, in notis, 
vol. i., p. 93. 

8. Ad alteram partem, &c. " On the other side the Ubii are 
next to them." More literally, " the Ubii come up to the other 
side," i. e., are in their immediate vicinity. 

9. Quorum fuit civitas, &c. " Whose state was at one time ex- 
tensive and fiourishing, considering the condition of the Germans," 
i. e., who once possessed an extensive and flourishing state for Ger- 
mans. More hterally, " as the state of the Germans is." 

10. Et pajilo, quam sunt, &c. The true reading here is ex- 
tremely doubtful, owing to the discrepancy of the MSS. and edi- 
tions. The generally reccived lection is ct paulo, quam sunt ejus- 
dem generis, et ceteris humaniores. Now to this there are two 
serious objections ; one, that by it two difFerent constructions are 
joined with one and the sarae comparative, of which but a very few 
instances can be found elsewhere ; and the other, that by (homines) 
ejusdem generis, and ceteris, the very same persons are meant, 
namely, the Germans ; for it is absurd to say, that by the former of 
these expressions the Ubii are meant, since Caesar would make them, 
in that event, a little more civilized than themselves ! We have 
adopted, therefore, the emendation of Bentley. By celeri ejusdem 
generis are meant the rest of the German nation. 

11. Ampliiudinem gravitatemque civitalis. " The extent and 
populousness of their state," i. e., the state of the Ubii. Gravita- 
tem is here equivalent to frequentiam. 

12. Humiliores iufirmioresque. The former epithet refers to 
the diminution of their ampliludo, which embraces the ideas of both 
extent of territory and abundance of resources ; the latter alludes 
to ..he lessening of their numbers. 

13. In eadem causa. "In a similar case," i. e., similarly situ- 
ated, subjcct to the same treatment from the Suevi as that which 
ihe Ubii had endured. Compare the Greek paraphraso • TaM roiroit 
e\ OhaiK{TeT; tc xai oi T/)xSfp<" eiraOov. 



(^f^ 14. Quas regiones . Those namely in the vicinity of the Rhine. 
— Adilu. " At the approach." Compare the Greek, iij)iSa. 

15. Demigravcrant. We have adopted the pluperfect, as reccm- 
mended by Morus, instead of the perfect, as given in the common 
teit. The former of these tenses harmonzies better with the conte.xt 

AQ 1. Rursus reverterunt. A pleonasm, of which examples often 
occur m the best writers : thus, Curtius, 3, 11, 14, ^^ Rursus in 
jprcelium redeunt ;" and Petronius, c. 10, " Rursus in memoriam 

2. Quicta in suis sedihus. These words are not in the common 
text. They werc first restored by Oudendorp, from MSS. 

3. Rcliquam partem hiemis, &c. " They lived, for the remain- 
der of the winter, on their provisions," i. e., on the provisions 
which they, the Menapii, had collected for theu: own consumption. 
Aluerunt se, hterally, " they maintained," or " supported them 
selves." As regards the use of copiis, here, in the sense of " pro- 
visions," compare Tacitus, A?in. 15, 16: " Contraque prodiderit 
Corbulo, Parthos inopcs copiarum, et, pahulo atirito, relicturos op- 

4. Infirmitatem. " The ficlvleness." — Mohiles. " Ohangeable." 
Nihil his committendum. " That no trust should be reposed iu 
them," i. e., that none of his plans ought to be made known to 
them, and that thcir fidelity and attachment ought not to be takeu 
for granted. 

5. Est autem huc GalliccB consuetudinis. " For this is one of 
the Gallic customs." More literally, " this appertains," or " be- 
longs to Gallic custom," i. e., forms a part of it ; is one of their 

6. Vulgus circumsistat. " The mob gather around." — Pro- 
nuntiare. " To declare." 

7. His rumoribus, &c. " Influenced by these reports and hear- 
says, they often concert measures respecting the most importaut 
affairs." Literally, " enter intoconsultations." — E vestigio. " lu- 

8. Cum incertis rumoribus serviant. " Since they are mere 
slaves to uncertain rumours," i. e., have blind faith in them. — El 
plerique ad voluntatcm, &c. " And since most persons give them 
false answers adapted to their wishes." More htcrally, " answer 
things feigned according to thcir wish," i. e., feigned designedly to 
please them. 

9. Ne graviori bcllo occurreret. " That he might not meet with 


a more formidable war (than he had originally expected),'' i. e., be gQ 

involved in a more formidable one. The phraseology here employed 

by Caesar is equivalent to ^^ ne in gravius belliun iucideret." Caesar 

feared lest the Gauls, wiih their known fickleness, should make 

common causc against him along with the Germans. 

10. Facta. " Had been abeady done," i. e., had already takei. 
place. Compare the Greek : av/jiScSriKdTa f)(SVj. 

11. Ad Germanos. Referring to the Usipetes and Tenchtheri. 

— Uti ab Rhcno discederent. " To leave the vicinity of the Rhine," 
i. e., to advance into Gaul. Compare the language of Ceisus, c. 66 . 
" Seque inferrent in intima Galbarum." 

12. Dissimulanda sibi. " Should be concealed by him." Com 
pare the Greek paraphrase : Kpvirria fiy^aaTo tlvai. 

1. Resistere. Supply ms. — Neque deprecari. " And not to sup- "^Q 
plicate for peace." Compare the Greek : jtfiTt KaOtxtTtvtiv. — Venis- 

se. Supply se, and compare the previous chapter, " ijwitatosque 
eos,'^ &c. 

2. Suam gratiam. " Their friendship." — Vel sibi, &c. " Let 
them either assign lands to them." 

3. Eos teiiere. "To retain those subject to them." — Possede 
rint. The subjunctive is here employed, as indicating what they, the 
speakers, asserted of themselves. So again possint expresses their 
own opinion, not that of Caesar also. 

4. Concedere. " Yieided," i. e., acknowledged themselves in- 
ferior to. — Ne dii quidem, &c. Compare the Homeric ivTiQios, as 
applied by the poet to his heroes. — In terris. " On the earth." 

5. Exitu^. " The conclusion." — Neque verum esse. " That it 
neither vvas right. Verum here denotes what is right, just, or 
.iroper. Compare Horace, Sat. 2, 3 ; " An cBCunque facit Mcb- 
tcnas, te qxioque verum estV and again, Epist. 1, 7: " Metiri se 
quemque suo modulo ac pede verum est." 

6. Neque ullos, &c. " Nor were there any lands vacant in 
Gaul." — Sine injuria. " Without injury," i. e., without positive 
injustice to the Gauls, or injury of some kind to the Roman sway. 

— Sint. " Are," i. e., are, as he informs them. 

7. Ab iis. " From them," i. e., from the Ubii. The common 
t23t has ab Uhiis. We have adopted, however, the conjectnre of 
Brutus, which Oberhn erroneously ascribes to Morus. The Greek 
paraphrase accords with this : n-ap' atiruii'. 

8. Hos expectari equites. " That the retum of this body of cav- 
b.liV was only waited for." 

F F 



'^{J 9. \'oscgo. Tliis nanie is variously vvritlen : Voicgus, Vogesuv 
und Vosagus. We have given the preference to Vosegus, as sant; 
lioned by MSS., by the language of an ancient inscription, and th*- 
usage of wrilers in the middle ages. Consult Venant. Fortunal 
7. 4, and Grcg. Turon, 10, 10, as cited by Cellarius, Geog. Ani. 
voi. li., 7). 141. Cortius, however, prefers Vogesus {ad Lucan. l. 
397), but cousult Bentlier on the other side. {Anhiiadv. Hist. c. 
5, p. 75.) 

10. Et parte qvadani, &c. We have adopted heie the Bipoin 
reading with Oberlin, Morus, Leinaire, and Daehne. Oudendorj 
aives a very different leclion, and one far inferior, as follows : iu- 
.\ula.mque efficit Batavorum, in Occanum influit, neque longius al 
Occano millil/us jtassuum octogitila in Rhenum transit. 

^J 1. Citatus. " In rapid course." — Occano a.ppropinquat. Soint 
of the MSS. givc occanum, but Cresar more frequenlly employs tht 
dative with this verb. Compare B. G. 5, 44, and 7, 82. 

2. In plurcs diffiuit parles. " Divides into several branches." 

3. Qui piscibus atquc ovis, &c. Compare FVmy, H N. 16, 1. — 
Mu.Uis capitibus. " By many mouths." Compare the Greek jiar- 
aphrase : noXXot{ ard^aoiv. Vossius denies that any other Latin 
writer empIoy.s caput in the sense of ostium ; but compare Lucan, 
3, 201, and Cortiu.s, ad loc. Consult also Lio. 33, 41, and Creviej 
ad loc. 

4. Ut crat constitutum. " As liad been mentioncd by them." 
Equivalent to ut erat dictum. It appears to be, in truth, a careless 
manner of expression in.the present instance, since, as appears from 
chapter 9, CcEsar had not consented to any such arrangement. 

5. Sibi jurepirando Jidem fecissent. " Should give theni security 
by an oath." Fidem faccre is here the same as fidein dare. — Ea 
conditionc, &c. " They assured him, that they would avail them- 
selves of ihose conditions that might be proposed by Caesar," i, e., 
of whatever conditions might be proposed. 

G. Eodern illo pertinere. " Tended to the same end," i. c., had 
this one object in view. — Qui abcsscnt. " Who were said to be 

7. Pnefcclos. Tlie commanders of lurma. are hcre meant, bring 
analogous to the Greek /Aapxoi. — Mittit. Supply quosdam. 

8. Susti7icrcnl. " Only to stand their ground." Literally, "10 
sustain the attack." 

9. Non amplius quingcntos, &c. Supply quam after amplius. 
So B C 3, 99, "■ Amplius millia viginti quatuor ;" Livy, 33, 7. 


" Ainplius Iria millia militum amissa ^" and Nepcs, 16, 2, 3, "7 1 

" ?/an amplius centum adolcsccntuH." The reason vvhy so small a 

number of German horse dared to attack so large a body of Iloman 

cavalry, was the conterapt which the former entertained for the 

latter from the circumstance of their using ephippia. Compare 

ihapter 3. 

10. Eorum. Referring to the Germans. 

11. Rursus. " In turn." Equivalent here to vicissim. — Sub- 
fossisque equis. " And having stabbed our horses in the belly " — 
Dejectis. "Being dismounted." 

1. Ita perterritos. "In such dismay." — In conspectu. The H^ 
common text has in conspectum, but some of the MSS. exhibit in 
conspectu, which is undoubtedly the true reading. In conspectum 
venire refers merely to the action of the moment , but in conspectu 
venire, as Clarke well explains it, is to come into the sight of 
another, or of others, and remain there for some length of time. 
Compare Vechner, Hellenolex. p. 261, s.nA Ramshorn, L. G. ^ 150. 

p. 290. 

2. Intercluso. " Intercepted," i. e., cut off by the enemy froni 
the rest of our troops. 

3. Animum advertisset. Tox animadvertisset,\\\ac\\\s the read- 
ing of the common text. — Incitato equo. " Spurring on his horse." 

4. Per dolum atque insidias. "Bydeceit and treachery," i. e., 
with a deceitful and treacherous design. — Expectare. " To wait," 
i. e., to delay coming to an action. — Summa. dementiee esse. " To 
be the height of folly." Dementia, want of judgment on particular 
occasions ; amcntia, madness, total alienation of reason. 

5. Ififirmitate. " The fickleness." — Quantum jam, (kc. " He 
was sensible how much reputation the enemy had already gained 
among them by the issue of a single battle." Eos refers to the 
Gauls, and hostes to the Germans. 

6. Quibus. Referring back to eos, i. e., to the Gauls. 

7. Ne quem diem, &c. " Not to let aday pass without bringing 
Ihe enemy to an engagement." Quem for aliquem. 

8. Omnibus principibus, &c. " All their leading men and elders 
being brought along." Literally, "being taken unto them." 

9. Sui purgandi causa. " For the sake of clearing themselves." 
- — Quod contra atque, &c. " Because, contrary to what had been 
said by them, and to what ihey themselves had requested, they had 
actually joined battle the day previous," i. e., had fallen upon onr 



"72 10. De induciis fallendo im-petrarcnt. " They injght obtain a 
farther truce by deceiving him." It is more than probable, that both 
this and the previous statement are false, and that Caesar acted with 
bad failh towards the Germans, not they towards him. It is difTi- 
cult to conceive, that their leading"men would have put themselves 
so completely into the hands of the Romans, had their object been 
a treacherous one. On the other hand, Plutarch informs us {Vit. 
CtES. c. 12, seq.), that Cato actually charged Caesar with a violation 
of good faith on this occasion, and was for giving him up to the 
enemy. (Comparc Suet07i. Vit. Jul. c. 24.) The breach of good 
faith with which Cato charged him, seems to have consisted in his 
attacking the Germans v^^hile he had their ambassadors with him ; 
more especially sincc Dio Cassius informs us (39, 47, seq.), that 
the battle was owing to the uncontrollable ardour of the youngei 
warriors among the Germans, which their elders disapproved of to 
such a degree, as to send an embassy to Caesar for the purpose of 
explaining what had been done. This embass}', therefore, Cassar 
detained, and, in the mean time, marched against and eonquercrt 
those for whom they had come to intercede. 

11. Oamsus. Nearly all the MSS. and earlier editions givc 
gravius without any meaning at all, and gavisus, therefore, has 
been substituted by all the more recent editors. With this latter 
reading also tlie Greek paraplurase concurs : Tovrotg St Trapotoiv b 
Kaiaap fiadiii, {«iVov; fiiv KaTia^tv. — HUco. The common text has 
illos, and the pronoun is said to be here redundant. (Consult 
Arntzenius, ad Aurel. Vict. c. 27, 43.) We have preferred, how- 
ever, ilLico, the very neat emendation of Daehne, which is iu somc 
degree bome out by the language of Celsus : " Quos uli C<zsnr 
adspexit, nulla penitus de re auditos illico capi jussit." 

'^^ 1. Discessu suorum. " By the departure of their own country- 
men," i. e., by the absence of the leading men and elders, who 
had been detained by Cffisar. — Perturbaniur. " Are thrown into 
great confusion, and are altogether at a loss." 

2. Pristini diei. " Of thcday before." Pm//n? is here put for 
pridiani, examplcs of vvhich usagc also occur in Cic. de Orat. 1, 
8. Quint. Curt. 8, 4. Suet. A%t.g. 94. Compare also the lan- 
guage of Aulus Gellius (10, 24), " Die Pristino, id est priorc, quod 
vulgo pridie dicitur." 

3. Ad quos consectandos. The barbarity of this transaction ad 
mits of no cxcuse. Hottoman endcavours to save the credit of 
Cffi^ar, Iiy roaclinir conserrandos (or conscclandos.hui this is dircctlv 



contradicted by thc language of the next cliapter, " suos interjici" "7") 

&c. The Greek paraphrase also is ezpress on this point : xal i 
fiiv Kaioap Tffv lincov enl tovtovs i-irifitpaTO. 

4. Pust tcrgum clamorc audilv. This proceeded from the out- 
cries of those who were pursued by the Roman cavabry. — Suos. 
Referring principally to their children and wives. 

5. Ad confluentem, &c. " To the confluence of the Meuse 
and Rhine." The batlle appears to have been fought near the spot 
where now stands the modem Aix-la-Cha.pelle. By the confluence 
of Jhe Meuse and Khine is meant the junction of the former river 
with the Vahalis or Waal, a little above the modem Bommel, 

6. Reliqua fuga desperata. " The rest of their fiight being de- 
spaired of," i. e., all hope of farther flight being taken away. 

7. Ex tanti belli timore. " After the alarm of so great a war,*" 
i. e., a war of so formidable a nature being ended. — Quadringento-. 
Tum, &c. Orosius makes the number 440,000 ; Plutarch 400,000. 
But both these numbers are very probably exaggerated. 

S. Multis de causis. According to Plutarch, Capsar's true mo- 
tive was a wish to be recorded as the first Roman who had ever 
crossed the Rhine in a hostile manner. {Vit. Ccts. c. 22.) Dio 
Cassius makes a similar statement (39, 48). 

9. Suis quoque rebus, &c. " He wdshed them to be alarmed for 
their own possessions also." Literally, " to fear for their own 

10. Accessit etiam. " Another reason likewise was." More 
literally, "it was added also." — Quam supra commemoravi. Con- 
sult chapter 12. 

1. Ad quos. Referring to the Sigambri. — Eos. The Usipetes 7J 
and Tenchtheri. 

2. CuT sui quicquam csse, &LC. " AS hy should he insist that any 
right of commanding, or any authority whatsoever, belonged to him 
across the Rhine V Sui is the personal pronoun, govemed by esse. 

3. Occupationibus reipublicce. " By his public engagements." 
More literally, "by the occupation which the republic (i. e., public 
affairs) afibrded." Some MSS. have populi R. instead of reipuMi- 
ae, with which reading the Greek paraphrase (tCi' 'Piaiialwv) appeara 
lo agree. Celsus, on the other hand, has " reipubliccs negotiis oc- 

4. Nomen cUque opinionem. "The name and reputation." — Ad 
ultimas, &c. The preposition ad is here used in the same sense 
is.apud, which latter is the reading of the common text. C/ompare 
Sanrt. Min. 4, 6 and Pcrizonius, ad lcc. 

F F " 



"74 ^- I^eqiic su(E, &c. " Nor consistent with his ovvn character oi 

the dignity of the Roman people." Dignilatis here varies shghtly 

iu meaning, according as it refers to Caesar or the Roman people at 

6. Proponclalur. " Was nianifest." Literally, " was placed 
before the view." — Id sibi contcndendum. " Tlmt he must strive to 
efTect this." 

7. Rationem ■pontis, &c. " He determined upon the following 
plan of a bridge." — Tigna lina sesquipcdalia, &c. " At the dis- 
tance of two feet from one another, he joined together two piles, 
cach a foot and a half thick, sharpened a little at the bottom, and 
proportioned to the depth of the stream." We havc preferrcd 
rendering tigna by the vvord " piles," as more intelhgiblc than 
"beains" in ihe present instance. The distributive bina refers lo 
jthe circumstance of their being many pairs of thcse piles or beams. 

8. Dimcnsa ad altitudinem jluminis. The meaning is, that they 
were of greater or less length, according to the various depths of 
the stream, being longest in the middle of the river, and diminishing 
ia leugth accordmg to thc proximity to the banks. All, however, 
projected equally above the lcvel of the water. 

9. Hoec cum machinationibus , &c. " When he had, by means of 
engines, sunk these into the river and held them down there, and had 
then driven them home by rammers." Thc participle and verb, 
immissa dejixcrat, are to bc rendercd as two verbs witli the con- 
nective, immiserat et dr.fixerat. 

10. Fistucis. Thc fistucce here meant are not hand-rammers, 
but machines worked with ropes and pullies, by which weights are 
raised to a considerable height, and then allowed to fall upon tht) 
pile beneath. Compare Vitruvius, 3, 3, and 10, 3, and also the cx 
planation of Morus, ad loc. 

11. Non sublicce modo, &c. " Notquite perpendicular, after thc 
manner of a stake, but bending forward and sloping, so as to incline 
according to the direction of the stream." The slope of the piles 
will be perceived from the plan that is given of the bridge. The 
piles here spoken of vvere those on the upper part of the rivcr, and 
which looked dovvnward, or secundum Jlumcn. In other worda, 
tb^y pointed down the stream. 

13- lis item contraria hina, &c. " Opposilc these, at thc dis- 
•ance of forty fect, lower dovvn the river, hc placed othcr pair.s, 
oined in thc samc manner, and turned against the force and cur- 
rent of the river." Thc commoti te.Kt has contraria duo, for wliich 


Clarke firs ^a\e conlraria bina. Cassar very probably wrote con- '7.1 

traria II., and hcnce the error arose. The context requires bina. 

So the distributive quadragemim refers to the scveral pairs. The 

piles here spoken of lay on the lovvcr part of the river, and pointcd 

up tke stream. In either case, therefore, whcthcr in the upper or 

tov*er part of the river, they were prona ac fastigaia. 

13. Ab inferiore parte. Su^ppi^y flayninis. 

14. Hac utraquc, &c. " Each of these pairs of piles, moreovei, 
>vere kept from closing by beams let in betvveen them, two feet 
thick, which was the space from one pile to another, fastened on 
Doth sides, at either extrcmity, by two braces." 

15. Quantum corum tignorum, &c. Literally, " as far as the 
'oining of thcse piles was apart." The reference is to the space of 
two feet which was lcft betwecn the two piles of each pair, when 
they were first sunk into the river. 

1. Quibus disclusis, &c. " pairs being thus kept apart /7/) 
(by the beams let in), and, at the same time, firmly clasped by the 
braces in the opposite direction."' This sentence is explanatory of 

the preceding one, hcBC utraque, &c., and contains, if the expression 
be allowed, the key to the whole structure. The beams let in be- 
iween the two piles would have a tendency, of course, to keep them 
apart, while the braces above and below would have an opposite 
tendency, and would serve to keep the piles together. The greater 
the pressure, therefore, one way, the stronger the resistance thc 
olher ; and tlie cohstantly acting power would be the current of the 
stream itself. 

2. Tanta crat, &c. " So great v^-as the firmness of the whole 
structure, and such was the nature of the materials employed, that 
the more powerfully the force of the current drove itself against the 
different parts, the more closely were they connected together and 
kept in their places." Literally, " by liow much a greater force of 
waterhad urged itself on." 

3. Hac directa materie, &c. " These cross-beams were overlaid 
and connected together, by rafters placed in the length of the bridge, 
and these again were covered over with poles and hurdles." Htec 
lefers to the beams running across from one pair of piles to the op- 
posite pair. — Direcla materie. The term materie is very errone- 
ously rendered " planks" by some editors. Planks would not be 
strong enough for the purpose. Directa is well explained by Clarke, 
from Lipsius : " secundum longitudinem ponlis.'" 

4 Longu iis. The / mgurii were long poles, placed across the 



"7(3 raflers, vei^ close to onc another, and the hurdles were streAcd ovei 
ihese, in order to produce a more level surface. 

5. Ac nihilo secius, &c. " And, besides all this, piles were 
likewise drivcn in obliquely, at the lower part of thc stream," &c. 
These pilcs, as will be perceived from the plan, served as props, or 
rathe~ buttresses against the impulse of the waters. Had they nol 
been placed where they wcrc, thc violence of the current might 
have carricd thc bridge ovcr to the opposiie side of the river. — 
Nihilo sccius. Lilerally, " nevcrtheless," i. e., notwilhstanding 
all that had been donc, a still farthcr prccaution was cxercised by 
driving in piles, &c. 

6. Pro pariele. Somc of the MSS. and cditions havc pro arietc, 
which is not so bad a reading as it may at first appcar to be ; ihe 
piles in question being compared by it to the appearance which a 
battering-ram presents, when raised for the purpose of inflicting a 
blow. The Greek paraphrasc has also ^'iKrjv Kpwv. Still, however, 
the true lection is pro pariete, the idea inlendcd to be conveyed 
being that of a butlress, or wall of support. 

7. Et alicB item, &c. These last, which Csesar immediatcly after 
calls defensores, were merely stakcs flxed abovte the bridge to act 
as fenders. In the ordinary plans of Coesar's bridge they are ar- 
ranged in a Iriangular form, with thc apex of the triangle pointing 
up the stream. This is all wrong. They were placcd in a row, 
very probably a double one, directly across, from one bank to tho 
other, for in this way alone could they afford perfect security to the 

8. Dcjicicndi opcris. " For the purpose of demolishing the 
work." According to the gcncrality of grammarians, we must here 
Kupply causa. {Sanct. Mincrv. 4, 4. — Vol. ii., p. 49, cd. Baucr.) 
Zumpt, howcver, inclines to thc opinion, that this form of c.xpression 
arose from thc construction of the genitivc with csse. (^Zumpt, L. 
G. p. 388.) 

9. Quihus matcria, &c. " Aftcr thc materials had becn begun 
to be brought together to thc spot." Compare, as regards the force 
qf quibus, note 4, page 63. Plutarch regards thc ercction of this 
bridge as a very wonderful act on the part of Ca?sar. In a lato 
French work, howcver, on Ca;sar's wars, ascribed to the Emperor 
Napoleon, that disiinguishcd commander is made to say, that this 
work of Caesar^s has nothing cxtraordinarjr jn it whatever, and that 
the bridgcs constructed over the Danube, in 1809, by General Ber- 
trand, displayed far morc skill, Ihc dillicnltios to ovcrcomc being far 


giealer. (_Pricis des Guerres de Jules Cisar, par l^Empcrcur "JQ 

Napoleon. Paris, 1836.) 

10. Ad utramque parlem. "At either end." Compare thc 
Greek, iKaTipuidiv rqj yf^upaj. 

il. Hortantibus lis. " By the advice of those." — Quos ex 
Tenchtlieris, &c. These werc the cavalry, who had taken refuge, 
as already stated, with the Sigambri, and vvhom the latter had re- 
fused to deliver up to the Romans. Consult chap. 16. 

12. In solitudinem ac silcas. Better than in solitudine ac silvti, 
as some read. The former expresses the idea of going into a place, 
and conceahng one's self there ; the latter of being abready in thc 
place before the attempt at conceaknent is made. 

13. In silvas deponercnt. " Should convey into the woods and 
deposite therc for safe-keeping." Compare preceding note. 

14. Hunc essc dclectum, &c. " That this was selected, as being 
nearly in the centre of those regions which the Suevi possessed," i. 
e., as being almost the centre of their country. 

1. Ulcisceretur. " That he might punish." Equivalent to 'yj 

2. Satis profectum "That enough had been done by him." 
Prjfectum (from proficio, not from proficiscor) is here elegautly 
ui ed for perfectum, which latter is the reading of some MSS. Com- 
pare B. G. 7, 65, " Ad rcliqui temporis pacem parum profici ;" 
Livy, 3, 14, " Ibi plurimum profectum est;'" and Ovid, A. A. 2, 
589, " Hoc tibi profcclum Vulcane ;" with thcnote of N. Heinsius. 

3. Se in Galliam recepit. His true motive for retreating was 
the fear entertained by him of the Suevi. Hence Lucan (2, 570) 
makes Pompey say, that CaBsar fled from the Rhine : " Rheni 
gelidis quodfugit ab undis." 

4. Matura: sunt. " Are early," i. e., set in early. Comparo 
the Greek, rpuijuuv oVrcjv twv •)(^cijiu>vutv. 

5. I>i Britanniam, &c. Dio Cassius (39, 53) remarks, that no 
benefit whatever resulted either to Caesar himself, or to the state, 
from this expedition into Britain, and that CaBsar's only motive, in 
going thilher, was the honour of having bcen the first Roman that 
invaded the island. Plutarch's observations are pretty much to the 
same effect. {Vit. Cir.s. c. 23.) Suetonius, on the other hand, iu- 
lorms us, that Csesar wasattracted thitherby the fame of the British 
pearls. {Vit. Jul. c. 47.) Pliny states, that this commaiider cou- 
secrated to Venus Genitrix a cuirass adomed with British pearls, 
" ex Britannicis margaritis factnm.''' {'X. H. 9, 57 1 



'7'7 6. Inde. " From that quar">r." Referring to Britain. — Magnv 

sibi ustii. " A source ot great utiiity to him." Usui is here put 

for utililaii. Compare B. C. 2, 8, " Invenlum est magno esse usin 

posse, si hcec esset in altitudinem turris elatay 

7. Tcmere. "Commonly." More literally, " upon any siighf 
occasion," " for any slight reason." The Greek paraphrast renders 
it by oh pifSiiiis. 

8. Quem usmri belli haherent. " In what way they carried on 
war." Compare the version of De Crisse, " sur la maniere dont 
ces peuples faisoient la guerre." — Aut quibus institutis uteren- 
tur, " Or what customs they followed," i. e., what their customs 

9. Caium Voluscnum. The punctuation adopted in the texi. 
namely, the comma after Volusemcm, connecting it with the pre- 
ceding clause, is the suggestion of Bentley, who also rccommeiids 
the insertion of cum before cum. This latter emendation, how- 
ever, is quite unnecessary. 

10. Pramittit. Suetonius ( Vit. Jul. 58) states, that Coesar re- 
connoitred the island in person. Of course the remark must be an 
erroneous one, since Caesars own assertion is entitled to far more 
credit. Some editors, however, and among them Ernesti, have en- 
deavoured, by altering the text of Suetonius, to make it harmonizo 
with that of the commentaries. Consult Crusius ad. loc. 

1 1 . Dare. For se daturos. So oblcmpcrare for se oblempera- 
turos. Comparc B. G. 2, 32, " Illi se qvcz tmperarentur facerc 
dixerwit ;" and 7, 14, " Ncr.cssario dispersos kostcs ex tzdificiis 

^Q 1. Magni hahcbalur, " Was rogarded as extensive." The 
genitive of value. More litcrally, " was cstimatcd highly." 

2. Ut Populi Romani fidcm scquantur. " To embrace the alli- 
anee of the Roraan people." 

3- Quantum eifacultatis, &c. " As far as opportunity could be 
afforded him." — Qui no7i auderet. " Since he did not venture '' 
The student will note the force of the subiunctive. 

4. De superioris temporis consiUo. " For their past conduct.'' 

5. NostrcB consuetudinis. AUuding to the Roman custom, of 
exercising humanity towards those who had yielded to their powcr, 
and of protecting them from the aggressions of the neighbouring 

6. Has tantularum, &c. " That thcse engagemcnts in such 
trifling alTairs ouglit to be prcferred bv him to Britain," i. e., to the 
invaKioti of Drilain. 


7. Navibas onerariis. " Vessels of burdeu." Consult Arcliao- 'JU 

louical Inde.v. — Navium longarum. " Of vessels of war." Anal- 

ogous to the Greck liaKpu itXoia. Consult Archseological Index. 

y. Legati non vencra.nt. This arose from dissensions among 

tlie Morini, some embracing the party of Caesar, othcrs opposing it. 

9. Tcrtia fere vigilia solvit. " He set sail about the third 
watch." The third watch began at midniglit. The placc from 
vvhich Caesar sailed on this occasion was the portus Itius or Iccius, 
a httle south of Calais, and, according to D'AnvilIe, the same witli 
the modern Witsand. (<S7raAo, 4, 5, p. 199, Cas. — D'Anvillc, Not 
dc la Gaule, p. 389). 

10. Solvit. Supply naves. Literally, " loosens his vessels," i. 
e., from the shore. The full form of expression is given in chapter 
36 ; 5. C. 1, 28, &c. So in Ovid, Her. 7, 9, « Certus es, Aenea, 
cum foedere solvere naves.'^ 

11. Vlteriorcm 'poTtum. Called sw^crior /)orto in chapter 28. 

1. Hora dici circitcr quarta. "About the fourth hour of the 
day," i. e., about ten o'clock iii the morning. He sailed, it will be 
remembered, about midnight. 

2. Brilanniam attigit. D'Anville thinks that Ca.'siar landed at 
the pwtvs Lemanis, now Lymnc, a litllc bclow Dovcr. 

3. Expositas hostium cnpias armaias. " Thc forces of the enemv 
drawn up under arms." — Cujus loci. " Of the spot." 

4. Adeo montUms, &c. " The sea was confincd by mountains so 
close to it." Many commentators give angxistis, in this passage, the 
sense of prceruptis. But this is erroneous ; the adjective carries 
vvith it here the idea rather of something that contracts, or makes ' 
narrower, any space. Compare Ramshorn, L. G. () 206. p. 69r'- 

5. Ad cgridicndum. " For disembarking." Supply vflyjiM,?. 

6. Ad horam nonam. " Until the ninth," i. e., three o'clock ii. 
thc afternoon. 

7. Monuitgue, &c. " And cautioned them, that all things should 
be performed by them at a beck and in a moment, as the principles 
«fmilitary ^iscipline, and especially as naval operations reqnired, 
since these are characterized by ranid and evei-varying movements.'' 
More literally, " have a rapid and unstable motion." There is a 
good deal of doubt respecting the latmity of some parts of this pas- 
sage, and it is more than probable that somc corruption has crepf 
liito the text. 

8 Suhlatis anchnris " The anchors being weighed." — Aperte 



■79 ac plano litlore. This was probably the porlus Lemanis, aruded to 
under iiote 2, page 79. 

9. Et essedariis. " And Essedarii." We have preferred aii 
ghcizing the Latin term to paraplirasing it in our idiom. By esse- 
darii are meant those who fought from the esseda, or British cha- 
riots of war. Essedum is said by the ancient writers to be a word 
of Galhc origin, and denotes a species of two-wheeled chariot in 
usc among the Gauls and Britons. It is said to have been invented 
among the Belgae. Compare the authorities cited by Adelung, 
Gloss. Med. et Inf. Lat. vol. iii., p. 359. 

10. Quogcnerc. " Which kind of force." — Prohibehant. " En- 
deavoured to prevent." 

11. Constitui non polerant. " Could not be moored." — Ignotus 
locis. " On a strange coast." — Inipeditis manibus. " With their 
hands already engaged." 

12. Et in fluctibus consistendum. " And to kecp themselvts 
steady amid the waves." Compare the Greek paraphrasc, iv np ^(J5 

13. Omnihus membris expediti. " Having the free use of all 
cheir limbs." — Nolissimis locis. " In places which they knew per- 

14. Et equos insuefactos incitarent. " And spurred on their 
horses accustomed to such exercise." Insuefactos, equivalent to 
valde assuctos. 

15. Quarum ct specics, &.c. " Both whose figure was moro 
novel to the barbarians, and whose movcments were quicker for 

•use," i. e., and which were more easy to be managed. Thc bar- 
barians, in corisequencc of the commerce carried on with thcir 
shores by the merchants of Gaul, were accustomed to the sight of 
vcssels of l)urden, but not to the figure of ships of war. 

IG. Onerariis navibus. Thc vcssels of burden wcre cmployed on 
this occasion, it will be remembercd, as transports. — Et rcmis in- 
cttari. " And to be rowed briskly forward." 
l\C\ 1. Fundis. "Byslings." — Tormentis. "Engines.'^ The /o»-- 
mentawere engines for discharging heavy iron javehns, large stones. 
&c. The term itself is derived from torqueo, as referring to the 
mode of working the machine. Thus, " torment^vni, quasi tnrqui- 
vientum, mackina, qua tcla, saxa, aliave missilia, nervo aut fum 
contento torqucntur ct jaciuntur.'" 

2. QucE res magno usui, &;c. " Which thing was of great ser 
vice to our mcn." — Navium. Rcfrrnng to the vcssels of war. 


y. Qui dccimcc legionis, &c. " He who bore the eagle of the H() 
liinth legion." The cagle, or main standard of the lcgion, was bome 
by the centurio primi piii, or primoptlus, who was the oldest cen- 
turion in the legion. Consu!t Archeeological Index, s. v., ceniurio 
and aquila. 

4. Ea res. " This thing," i. e., what he intended to do. — Aqui 
,am hostibus prodere. It was considered very disgraceful to lose 
any standard, but particularly so the main one of the legion. Com 
manders of ten availed themselves of this circumstance, for the pur- 
iose of urging on their troops, by casting the standard into the midst 
tX the foe. 

5. Prcestitero. " Will promptly discharge." The future per- 
ect (or, as it is more frequently, but very erroneously called, the 

hiture subjunctive) is here used to express prompt execution, the fu 
tu.e being thus represented as already past. Compare Zumpt, L 
G. •p. 320. 

6. Tuntum dedecus. AUuding to the disgrace consequent on the 
abandonment of their standards. Compare the language of Lip- 
sius {Mil. Rom. 4, 5), " Suadebat enim repetere (signa) non poena 
tantum, qu<z manebat iis amissis, sed etiam pudor et religio, et 
guasi de-ts ac sacra sua prodidissent." 

7. Ex vroximis navibus. AW. i\ie MSS. ha.-ve exproximis primis 
navibus, Init we have rejected primis with Hotomann, Scahger, and 
some morc recent editors, as savouring strongly of a pleonasm. 
The Greek paraphrast, moreover, has only ck tuv fyyvs viSiv. Ou- 
dendorp, indeed {a'd Suet. Cces. 30, p. 82), endeavours to explain 
ex proximis primis navibus, by raaking it equivalent to ex iis navi- 
hus qua. in proximo ordine erant primce ; few, however, will agree 
with him. 

8. Cum compexissent. Supply milites. 

9. Neque firmiter insistere. " Nor to get a firra footing." Lit- 
crally, " nor to stand firmly." — Atque alius alia ex navi, &c. " And 
kept joining, one from one vessel, another froni another, whatever 
standard each had chanced to meet," i. e., the men from different 
ships being compelk-d to join whatever standard tliey first came up 

10. Singulares eg edientes. " Coming forth individually," cr 
one by one. — Impeditcj. "Embarrassed in their movements." — 
In universos. " At our collected force." 

11. Quod cum animum advertissct. For quod cum animadver' 
tisset. The strict grammatical construction, however, is cum ad» 
Tftisset animvm quod, i. e.. vertisset animum ad qyod. 

G o 



^() VZ. Scaphas lo/igarum iiavinm. " The hoats belonging to ttie 

fhips of vvar." — Speadatoria navigia. "The hght vessels of ob- 
Kervation," i. e., spy-vessels. These were bght and fast saihng 
cutters, generally used to explore coasts, and to watch thc inove- 
mcnts of an enemy's fleet. According to Vegetius (4, 37), they 
were painted of a greenish blue colour, in order to escape observa- 
tion. The sails and cordage were also greenish blue, and even the 
dress of the mariners and soldiers on board. " Nc tanien explorato- 
rice naves candore prodantur, colwe vencto (qui marinis est fiuclihus 
sirnilis) vela tinguntur et funcs : cera ct.iam qua ungerc solent 7mves 
inficilur. Nauta quoqiie et milites venetam vcstem induunt, ut non 
solum per noctcm, sed etiam per diem facilius latcant explorantes." 
With regard to the " cem" incntioned in this passagc, consolt Pliny, 
H.N. 35,11. 

13. Simul. For simul ac. " As soon as." 

14. Equitcs. Alluding to the cavalry which had enibarked in 
the eighteen transports. These had not been able to " hold on 
their course and rcach the island." It will be seen, from chapter 
28, that they had encountered a violent storm. Tenere cursum is 
applied to a vessel passing vvith a favourable wind to her point of 
destinatioii, and is vvell e.xplained in the Greck paraphrasc hy 

15. Legatos. Dio Cassius (39, 51) says, that thcse amba.^sadors 
were some of thc Morini, vvho were on friendly terms with them : 
■nlfi-Kovai irpof tov Kalaapa rwv Mofiiviav riruj, ^(>uv aipiaiv Svroiv. 

fVi ^- '^"7'™- Consult chaptcr 21. 

2. Oratoris modo. " In character of ambassador." \Vc have 
recalled thcse words into the text with some of the best cditors. 
Thcy are found in numcrous MSS., and in all the early editions 
until the Aldine. Tiie rcason urged for their omission is, that thcy 
eavour of a mere gloss. But it may be stated, on the othcr hand, 
that the Greek paraphrase has dij iTpiaBvv, and, besides. that Csesar 
would very naturally employ the words in question, to sliow that the 
iaws of nations had been violated by thc barbarians, in imprisoning 
a Roman ambassador. 

3. Remiserunt. " They senthirAback." — Contulerunt. "Laia- 
— Proptcr imprudentiam. " On account of thc-ir indisciclion," i. 
e., as it was merely an act of indiscretion. 

4. Continentcm. llefcrring to Gaul. 

5. Arcessitam. " Scnt for," i. e., since thcy had fo bc sent for. 
— Remigrarr in agros. " To rotiro to thcir lands," i c, to go 


Odck to llieir nsiial occupations, ihe war being at an end. — Conve- U\ 
nire. Many editions have convencre, which is inferior, and makes 
the sentcncc flow less smoothly. 

6. Post dicm quarlum quam, &c. " On the fourth day afler." 
— Supra dcmonstratum cst. Consult chapter 23. 

7. Cursum tenere. " Hold on its course," i. e., make any head- 
way. Compare the Greek eb9vS(i6iii€iv. — Rcferrentur. " Were car- 
ried back." 

8. Qum est propius, &c. " Which hes more to the west." — 
Dejicerentur. Ciacconius, without any necessity, reads rejicerentur. 
The verb dejicere is very properly employed here, as the vessels 
" were carried down" to the lower part of the island. 

9. Cum. " When." — Necessario adversa nocte, &c. " Having, 
ihrough necessity, put to sea during an unfavourable night." 

10. Qui dies. " Which period," i. e., which day of the month. 
All the MSS. have this reading. Some editions, however, omit 
dies, and have merely qute, which then refers to luna. Compare, 
however, the foUowing expressions : " Jussu Pompeii, qucc man- 
data" (B. C. 3, 22); and, ^^ Ante comitia, quod tempus." {Sal- 
lusf, B. I. 36. Compare Cortius, ad loc.) So also Horat. Od. 4. 
11, 14, '^ Idu^ tibi sunt agend(E,~Qui dies," &c. 

11. Nostrisque id erat incognitum. The Romans were accus- 
tomed to the navigation of the Mediterranean, where the tides aro 
comparatively slight, and in some parts of which they hardly deserve 
the name. 

12. Afflictahat. " Broke from their moorings and dashed agaiust 
each other." — Administrandi. " Of managing them." 

1. Totius exercitus, &c. Count Turpin de Cfisse censures Cae- PO 
sar very deservedly, for his imprudence in making this descent upoii 
Britain, before he had either obtained an accurate knowiedge of the 
coasts of the island, or had procured a sufficient supply of provis- 
lons. Caesar's wonted good fortune, however, once more saved him. 

2. Quod omnibus constahat. " Because it was evident to all." 
LiterEitly. " because it was agreed upon by all." — His in locis. Re- 
ferring to Britain. 

3. Exiguitate. "The small size." — Hoc. " On this account." 

4. Rem producere. " To prolong the war." — Reditu. Hoto- 
nianti very unnecessarily conjectures auditu. By reditu is meant, 
of course, a return to Gaul. — Ex agris deducere. Compare the 
conclusion of chapter 27. " Suos remigrare in agros jusserunt.'" 

5 Ex eventu namum suarum. " From what liad happened to 



(^2 b's ships." Compare Hirtius, B. G. 8, "1 : " Quce BeUovacorum 
speculabantur evenlum ;" and Livy, 33, 48 : "/te Africa Hannibal 
excessit, sctpius patricB, quam suorum evcntus miseratus.''^ 

6. Et ex eo quod inlermiserant. " And from iheir having inter 
mitted." Literally, " andfrom this circumstance, because they had 

7. Ad omnes casus. " Against every emergency." More lit 
erally, " against evcrything that might happen." 

8. GramssimeaJJlictcE. " Mostseriouslyinjured." — Aere. Thf 
Romans made use of brass in the construction of their ships mort 
frequently than iron. Thus, thcy covered the rostrum or beak, anc 
occasionally the sides, with this metal. The nails or spikes, also 
employed in securing ihe timbers of the vessel, were generally ot 
ihis same metal. Compare Vegetius (5, 4) : " Utilius conjigitur 
Liburna clavis cBreis quam ferreis.''^ It must be borne in mind, 
that what we here call brass was, strictly speaking, a kind of bronze. 
The term a:s is indiscriminately used by the Roman writers to de- 
note copper, brass, or bronze. It was not till a late period that 
mineralogists, in order to distinguish them, gave the name of cu- 
prum to copper. The oldest writer who uses the word cuprum is 
Spartianus {Vit. Caracall. c. 9), which appears to have beenformed 
from the cyprium of Phny {H. N. 33, 5). 

9. Reliquis ut navigari, <Scc. " He brought it to pass, that it 
couid be safely navigated with the rest," i. e., he enabled himself 
to put to sea safely with the rest. 

10. Hominum. Referring to the Britons, not to the Romans. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase : jiipovs twv Bpfravuiv sti iv toIs aypoli 
fievCvTiiiv. The British chieftains, it will be remembered, had at first 
disbanded their forces, and thcn had begun to withdraw Ihem se- 
crelly from the fields agam, in ordcr to renew hostilities. The per- 
60ns mentioned in ihe text are those who still remained in the fields 
(i. e., at home), and had not yet obeyed the latter call. 

11. Pars etiam in castra venlitaret. " A part kept even com- 
ing frequently into our camp." Comparc the Greek, nipovi ii^Kai i» 
T(J) tCov 'Pu)/ua/uv aTpaTO-iriSii) ■Sajuj^dirui;'. 

12. Instatione. "Onguard." — Quamconsuetudoferret. "Than 
was customary." Literally, " than custom used to bring with it." 
— In ea parte, &c. Compare note 7, pagc 5. 

^3 1- ^'^ stationcm succcderc. " To take their post," i. e., to.suc 
ceed themas a guard forthe gates. Compare the Greek, TivUilvuv 
Tirov haii^^raPii. ■ . . .m, /«, 



2. Et, confertalegione, &c. " And that, the legionbeing crowd- fJ^J 

ed together, darts were huricd upon it from ali sidcs." 

3. Quod. " Inasinuch as." — Ex reliquis partihus. " From the 
other parts of the adjacent country." — Pars xma. " One quarter." 

4. Paucis interfectis. Dio Cassius (39, 52) makes the loss to 
have been a more serious one. — Heliquos incertis ordinibus, &c. 
" They threw the rest into confusion for want of knowing their 
lanks." The Romans were out 6f their ranks, and mowing down 
thc grain when the enemy attacked them. Hence the confusion 
wluch ensued from their inability to rcgain their ranks in so sudden 
an onset. 

5. Genus hoc est, &c. " Their manner of fighting from chariols 
is as foUows." — Per omncs partes. " In evary direction." Com 
pare the Greek : -rdvToOev. 

G. Ipso terrore equorum, &c. " By ihe very alarm occasioned to 
the horscs of the foe, and the noise of their wheels," i. e., by the 
aiarm which they excite in the horses of the foe, through their rapid 
movements up and down, and ihe rattling of their chariot wheels. 

7. Cum se insinuaverint. " When they have insinuated them» 
Belves," i. e., have worked their way into. 

8. AurigtB. " The charioteers." Each chariot held tvi'o per- 
sons, the auriga, or driver, and the essedarius, or one who fought. 
So, in Homeric Antiquities, thc chariot is called Si(ppos (quasi Sl<po- 
pos), from its carrying two persons {lls and (pipia), namely, the chari- 
oteer, or l)viox,t>s, and the warrior, or TrapaiBdTti;. {Terpstra, Antiq. 
Hom. p. 306.) 

9. Atque ita cum, &c. " And place themselves in such a situa- 
tion with their chariot, that if their masters are overpowered by a, 
number of the foe, they may have a ready retreat to their friends." 
By illi are here meant the essedarii. 

10. Ita mobilitatem, &c. " Thus they exhibit in battles the 
agility of horse, the steadiness of foot," i. e., they answer a double 
purpose, serving both for cavalry and infantry. 

1 1 . Incitatos equos sustinere. " To rein in their horses when at 
full gallop," Sustinere is here equivalent to retinere. Compare 
Ovid, Fast. 5, 301 : 

" Sape Jovem vidi, cumjam sua mitlere vellet 
Fulmina, ture dalo sustinuisse manum." 

12. Et brevi, &c " And in one instant to manage and tam 
them." Many editors supply loco after brevi, but the sense recuirea 
an ellipsis of iemport. 



f{3 13 Quibus rebus. " In this statc of affairs." Quibus Telnit 

inay also be tlie dative, depending on tulit. Tiie former construc- 

tion, Iiowever, is tlie simpler of the two. 

14. Consiiterunt. " Stood inotionless," i. e., stopped drivmg lo 
and fro with their chariots. 

15. Laccssendum. Some of the later editioiis, contrary to tlie 
' best MSS., insert hostcm aftcr this word. Coinpare hwy, 33, 7, 

und Virgil, .^ii. 5, 429. 

16. lieduxit. Cffisar here very artfully glosses over what waa 
in reality a kind of flight on his part. Hence Lucan (2, 572) makc» 
Poinpey say of him on this occasion, " Tcrrita 'jua:.s-ttis os/endil 
terga Britannis.'' 

17. Quicrant inagns, &,c. " The rest of ihe Britons, who vvere 
in thc fields, dcparted," i. c, left the fields tojoin thc army of their 
coiintrymen. Comparc chapter 32. 

18. Conlinuos complures dies. " For very inany days iu suc- 

JJ^ 1. Suis pnedicaveruut. " Published to their countr}'meu." — 
Sui liberandi. " Of freeing theinselves," i. e., from the Romaii 
yoke, with which they were threatened. — His rcbus. " By iheso 

2. Nactus equitcs circitcr triginta. " Having got about llurty 
horse." This small nuinber surprises soine of the commeulators, 
who therefore read CCC. (i. e., trecentos, " three hundred") in- 
stead of XXX. {triginta). But the MSS. have all the latter num- 
ber, and the Grcek paraphrase, too, gives rptdKovra. A parallel 
instance occurs in the cointnentaries on the African war (c. (J), 
where less than thirty Gallic horsc put to flight two thousand Mauri- 
tanian cavalry. 

'■i. Aii/c dictum cst, &,c. Compare chaptcrs 21 aiid 27. 

4. Quos tanto spatio, &c. " Our men having pursued thein as 
far as their speed and strength enabled them," i. e., as far as their 
strength enabled tlicm to run. Literally, " having pursued thcui 
over as great a spacc as they were able to traverse by rumiing anj 

5. Omnihus longc Jalcquc, &ic. " All thiiigs far and widc being 
pii^stratcd and burnt." Afflic/is is here equivalent to cversis nr 
stratis. The common te.^t has merely in place of afflictis incoisi.s- 
quc, tlie reading cedificiis iuccnsis. 

6. Propinquadic (cquinoc/ii. " The equino.x bciiig at haiid. " lu 
tlie 20th chaptcr, it was said, " cxigua parte a.statis reliquu,^' &e. 
Hcnre the autiim la cininor is horc, of conrsc, nipant ^he fuuj- 



nox (or tiine vvheii llie days aiid nights are eqiial, over all the globe) UA 

happens twice a year, on the 2^d of Marcli and 22d of Septemher, 
the former being callcd tlie vernal, thc latler tiie autumnal equinox. 

7. Hiemi navigalionein suhjiciendam. " That his voyage ought 
to be exposed to a storm." The weather about the time of tli» 
«(juinox is generally very stormy. 

8. Eosdem, quos reliqucE, cStc. " Were all able to raake the 
same port vvith the rest." — Faido infra. " A little lovver down," 
i. G., lovver dovvn along the Gallic coast. 

9. Qiiibus ex navibus. " From these two ships." Referring to 
the two naves oncrarice, or transports. 

10. Nonita magno numero. " With no very large number." 
Ita in such phrases is equivalent to valde. Consult Turscllin. 
Part. Lat., and SchcUer, Prcecept. StyL vol. i., p. 208. 

11. Orbe facto.- The orb, or circular order, was a disposition of 
which Ctesar speaks in his commentaries, as highly advantageous in 
cases of danger and extremity. It vvas resorted to on the present 
occasion as a means of defence. 

1. Horis. Soine editors read lioras, which requires an ellipsis ^^ 
of qiuim. The ablative, however, is more customary with Caesar. 

2. Propter siccilates paludum. " On account of the dryness of 
the marshes." The marshes, which had formerly protected them, 
and had served as a barrier against the Romans, were now dry, it 
being the end of summer. Hence they were deprived of their usual 
|)lace of retreat. 

3. Quo perfugio, &c. " Of which refuge they had availed them- 
seives the year before." Th« MSS. and editions vary here in a 
surprising degree. We have given the reading which harmonizes 
with the Greek paraphrase : ravrfj yiip Tij dvo\((jjp)i<!ii rip 7ro6a0ev BTit 

4. Du.wrant. Compare chapter 22. — Onmibus eorumagris vas- 
taiis, &c. Caesar appears to have acted here upon the principle, 
that severe measures alone could check the natural tendency of thp 
Gauls for insurrection and change. 

5. Eo. " Thither," i. e., to his vvinter quarters among ihe 
Belgffi. — Reliqua neglexerunt. Dio Cassius (40, 1) assigns this 
circumstance as a pretext on the part of Ceesar for making a second 
dcscent on Britain. 

6. Supplicatio. Compare Suetonius (Fu. C<zs. c. 24), " Pros- 
pere decentibus rehus, ct sapius et plurimuin quam quisquam die- 
Tum supplicatlones impetravit.'" Consult also note 11, page 50. 


' ^tr^^' 

f{7 1. Lucio Lomitio, &c. A. U. C. 700, B. C. M.—Itcdiain. Hith 
er, or Cisalpine, Gaul is meant. Tiiis was Ca;sar's province. 

2. Demonstrat. " He paintsout," i. e., gives a plan of. — Suh 
ductionesque. " And drawing them on shore." Comparc chap. 1 1 . 
Subduceie naves is to draw vessels ou shore ; dcduccre navcs, to 
draw them down from the land into th€ water. 

3. Noslromari. The Mediterranean. CompareMela, 1, 1 : " Id 
omne, qiia venit, quaque dispergilur, uno vocabulo nosiruin mare 

4. Has omncs actuarias, &c. " He ordered them all to be made 
of a light construction, to which purpose their lowness in the watei 
contributes greatly." By act^iaricB naves are meant vesscls remark- 
able for lightness and swiftness, and so callcd from the ease with 
which they vvere impelled {quia facile agi potuerunt). Thcy were 
managed by sails and oars, having but one bank of the latter, or, at 
farthest, tviro. Compare Livy (.38, 38) : " Decem naves actuarias 
{nulla quarum plusquam triginla rc.mis agatur) habcto.^'' 

5. Ad armandas naves. " For equippingthevessels." — Ex His- 
pania. Among other things requisite for fitting out ships, Spain 
furnished lnrgeqa-eLnMies oi Spartum, or Spanish brooni, much used 
for making ropes. Compare Strabo, 3, p. 160, and Plin. H. N, 
19, 2. 

6. lUyrinira. Tliis counlry, it vvill be rememliered, was attached 
to, and formed part of, Caesar's province of Hither Gaul. The 
whole province was Cisalpine or Hither Gaul, Illyricum, and Tran>- 
alpine Gaul. Compare Suetonius, Vit. Cas. c. 22. 

7. Omnihus rationibus. " By all reasonable means," i. e , to 
niake every reasonable compensation for the injury. 

Qf{ 1. Civitatcm. " Their whole slate." — Arbitros intcrcivitatcs dat, 
&c. " Hc appoints arbitrators among the states, to cstimate tho 
damage, and fix the compensation." Compare the language of For- 
( elliui, iu explunation of thc phrase aslimare litem " Aestiraare 



btcin est, decernerc quanta pecunia a reo post damnationcm svlven- QQ 

da sit : atquc hac ratione lis ponitur pro re dc qua hs est." 

2. Conventibusque peractis. Compare note 15, page 33. The 
idea intended to be conveyed by this phrase is, that the business 
of the supreme tribunal of the province had been performed in its 
eeveral circuits. 

3. Sex':entas. Lipsius thinks this /lumber incredible, consider- 
Ing ihe shortness of the time ; tut the reference is to old vessels 
that had been repaired, as well as to new ones that had been built. 

4. Cujus supra demonstravimus . Referring to the naves actua- 
itcB mentioned in the previous chapter. Cvjus is here put by at- 
traction for quod, in imitation of the Greek. 

5. Ijistructcis. " Got ready." The proper term to be employed 
in such cases. Some editions have constructas, which is far infe- 
rior, and does not suit the number of vessels as well as instructas. 
Compare note 3. 

6. Nequc multum aiesse, &c. " AnJ that there was not much 
wanting of their being able to be launched in a few days," i. e., 
and that not many days were required to make them fit for launching. 

7. Portum Itium. Consult Geographical Index, and compaie 
note 9, page 78. — Transmissum. " Passage across." — A con- 
tinenti. " From the continent," i. e., from the continent of Gac^ 
to the island of Britain ; or, as we would say, from land to land. 

$. Huic rei. " For this purpose," i. e., to execute these order». 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, wpSj ri ii raSra SidKpaTrtiv. 

9. Expeditis. "Disencumbered of baggage." Supply impedt- 
mentis, and compare note 1 1, page 42. 

10. Cingetorix. 0'Brien, in his Irish and English Dictionary, 
makes this name equivalent in Celtic to Cin-go-toir, i. e., " caputad 
expeditionem," with Ver (" a man") prefixed. The name will then 
signify, the chief, or leader, of an expedition. Sir W. Beetham, 
on the other hand (" The Gael and Cymbri," p. 197), makes the 
name come from cingead, " valiant," and rig, " aking," with a sim- 
ilar prefix of Ver. 

11. Alter. Referring to Cingetorix. — Confirmavit. " Assur&i 

12. Silvam Arduennam. ' '^he forest Arduenna," i. e., the 
forest of Ardennes. Compare B G. 6, 29, and consult Geograph- 
ical Index. The student will mari^ he construction in silvam Ar- 
duennam abditis, which implies a go.ii orconveying into the vi'ood, 
previous to the art of concealment, whereas f/i siha Arduenna ab- 



J{{j ditis would inean that the persons concealed had been in the wood 

some period before the conceahnent took place. 

g9 ^- Quo7ii(im civitati consulere v.on possent. " Since they could 

not take any measures for the common welfare." The dissensions 

between Indutiomarus and Cingetorix prevented them frjm doing 

anything for the interests of the state at large. and they therefore 

r.ame to Cassar to entreat his protection for themselves individually- 

a. Labcretur. " Might falloff," i. e., might revolt. — Itaque csse 

cimtalcm, &c. " That the state, therefore, was completely under 

his control." 

3. Pcrmissurum. Some read com77iissurum, but the former is 
ihe true lection. The distinction between commtttere and permii- 
tere is drawn by Cicero, Verr.2, 1, 32, '■^ Incommoda sua nostris 
committcre lcgihus, quam dolori suo permittere malucrunt." 

4. QucBque eum res, &c. " And what cause detained him fron^ 
his projected purpose." — Omnibus ad Briltanicum, &c. " When 
everything was prepared for the British war," i. e., now that every- 
thing was ready, &c. 

5. Nominatim. "Erpressly." — Consolalus, . &c. "He con- 
soled Indutiomarus, and exhorted him," &c. Coesar consoled In- 
dutiomarus, for the temporary depriyation of his son and relations, 
vvhom he intended carrying with him, as hostagcs, into Britain, and 
assured him that they should suffer no injury. 

6. Hos singillatim, &c. " He reconciled these, man by maii, to 
Cingctorix." — Quod cum mcrito, &c. " Tliis he both thought was 
done by him in accordance wilh the deserts of the latter, and at thc 
same time imagined it was greally his interest, that the authority of 
one, whose signal attachment towards himself he had clearly per 
reived, should be as great as possible among his own countrymen." 

7. Suam gratiam, &c. " That his influence was lessened among 
his countrymen." His influence was lessened by the reconciliatiou 
which had been effected between Cingetorix-and the other chief- 
tains. — Multo gravius hoc dolore exarsit. " Blazed out with aug- 
mented fury, through resentment at this." 

8. In Mcldis. The Meldi here referred to were situate on the 
Scaldis, or Scheldt, befween what are now Gand and Bruaes. 
Some editors, imagining that therc was only one Callic tribe of this 
name, that situate on the Mediterranean coast, have changed Meldis 
into Bclgis, but the old reading is correct. 

0|) 1. Antca dictum cst. Compare book 1', chapter 3. 

2. Cupidum novarum rcrum " Fond of change,' i. e., fond of 


r^ilitical cliangcs, or o( revolutions iii the state. — Magm aHimi. C)Q 

" Of a high spirit." 

3. Jani. " Already before tliis." — Sibi de/erri. " ^^'^as bestowed 
npon him." Was vested in him. 

4. Rccusandi axU dcprecandi i,ausa. " For the purpose eitJier ot 
refusing his appointmcnt, or entreating to have it revolced." 

n. Id factum. " This fact." — Ex S7iis hospitibus. " Frorn his 
fr ends." More literally, "from those connected with him by tiie 
ties of hospitality." 

6. Petere contendii. " Strove lo obtain." — Religionibus . " By 
rfligious scruples." What ihese were we are not informed. Ho- 
toniann thinks, that the allusion is to the performance of some vow, 
ox of funeral rites, while Rhellicanus and Glandorp supposc Dum- 
nori.^c to have pretended that the omens or auspices were unfavour- 
able. This latler is. the more probable opinion. 

7. Olstinatc. " Peremptorily." — Scvocare singulos. " To call 
them aside onc by one." 

8. Non sine causa ficri, &c. " That it was not done wiihout 
i^ome secret motive, that Gaul was stripped of all her nobility." 

9. Hos omnes in Britanniam, &c. Alluding to the hostages 
which Coesar intended taking with him into Britain, as a means of 
keeping the Gauls quiet during his absence. — Fidem rcliquis inter- 
vonerc. " He pledged his word to the rest." — Quod csseexusu, 
&c. " Whatever they should understand to be for Ihe interest ol 

10. Quod iantum, &c. " Because he had ever paid so much 
respect to the Aeduan statc." 

11. Quod longius, &c. " And that, since he saw his niad folly 
going too far, he ought to take care, lest the other might have it in 
bis power to do any injury to himself and the Roman govemment." 
The construction of the lattcr part of the clause is, prospiciendum 
(esse sibi, i. e., Caesari) ne (ille, i. e., Dumnoiix) posset nocere quid 
sibi (Caesari) ac reipubliccc. 

12. Corus ventus. " The northwest wind." Some editions 
have Caurus vcntus, but the form Corus is more common. The 
wind here meant is the same with the dpyiaT)]s of the Greeks. 

'. 3. Nihilo tamcn sccius, &c. " But still, not the less on that 
account, to make Irimself acquainted with all his designs." SuppU 
ut jefore cognoiccret, from the previous clause. 

14. Omnium impeditis ammis. " WTiile the attention of ali was 
engaged," i. c, with the embarcation. 



92 1. Hunc. Referring to Dumnorix. — Pro sano. "Asaprudent 

man," i. e., as might be expccted from, or as became, a prudent 

man. Literally, "as a man in his senses." — Qui neglexisset. 

" Since he had shghted." The student vvill note the force of the 

relative here with the subjunctive mood. 

2. Emm. " However." Ejiim. is here used as an adversative 
particle, with the force of autcm, instances of which are of no un- 
frequent occurrence in Tacitus, Plautus, and other wTiters. Com- 
pare the words of Gronovius {ad Liv. 34, 32), " Observarunt eru- 
diti ex Plauto, hanc parliculam (enim) intcrdum a fronte oratioms 
tnduere vim adversativcB." 

3. Rem frumentariam. Thc common text has rei frvmentarice, 
but Ihe accusative is far preferable. Consult Sanctius, Min. 3, 3, 
vol. i., p. 514. 

4. Consiliumquc pro tempore, &c. " And might take measures 
according to time and circumstance," i. e., such mcasures as timc 
and circumstance might require. 

5. Pari numcro equitum, &c. " A body of cavalry equal to that 
which he was leaving on the continent." The student will mark 
the elegance of the construction in the text. It is equivalent to 
numero equitum pari ci numero quem relinquebat. The number of 
horse referred to is two thousand. 

6. Leni Africo. " By a gentle southwest wind." The south 
west wind was called Africus by the Romans, because coming to 
them in the direction of Africa Propria, the modern district of 

7. Longius dclatus (tstu. " Being carricd down a considerable 
distance by the tide." Longius, literally, " a grcaterdistance thari 
ordinary." — Sub sinistra relictam. " Far away on the left." 

8. Secutus. " Having taken advantage of." 

9. Virtus. " The patient endurance." Virtus here denotes 
patient endin-ance of the fatigue of rowing, or, in other words, 
bodily labour resolutely endured. — Vcctoriis gravibusquc navigiis. 
" Though in transports and heavily laden vesscls." 

10. Cum annotinis. "With the ships employed the previous 
year." More literally, " with the ships of thc previous ycar." 
Annotinus means, " of only one ycar." Comparc the Greek para- 
pJirase : auv roT; Tov vpdadtv CTovf. Some, very incorrectly, read an- 
nonariis, refcrring to vessels of burden used in transporting pro- 

11. Sui commodi. Supply causa So in Grcek fWKa is oftfn 



12. Cohortibus decem. Ten cohorts formed a legion, and the Q| 

complement of cavalry for each legion was three hundred. Caesar, 
however, calls the force referred to " ten cohorts," and not " one 
logion," most probably because the cohorts in question belonged to 
d.fferent legions. 

13. Eo minus ventus navibus. A somewhat unusual phrase, 
DQt occurring also in Cicero, Acad. 4, 45, " Vos mihi veremini." 
•^ln littore molli atque aperto. " On a smooth and open shore." 
Compare the explanation of Morus : " Molli, nullis scopulis pericu 
loso ; aperto, nullis rupibus aut prominentiis impedito.'' 

1. Crebris arboribus succisis. The trees thus felled were QO 
placed together in form of an abattis or breastwork. — Prcecluti 

" Blocked up." 

2. Propugnabant. " Came forth to fight." 

3. Tcstudine. Consult Archseological Index. — Aggere ad mu- 
nitiones adjecto. " A mound having been throvvn up against the 
fortifications of the enemy." A mound is properly said to be 
thrown up, paci ; while a tower is said agi (or excitari. B. G. 5, 

4. Milites. " The foot." Milites is here opposed to equites, 
and is to be taken, therefore, in the sense o{ pedites. So in the 
6Ist chapter of the 7th book, " exercitus equitatusque." 

5. Superiore noctc. " On the preceding night." — Afflictas, &c. 
•' Had been dashed against each other, and driven on shore." Some 
read in littus, but in littore is more graphic, since it implies, that 
the vessels had not only been driven on shore, but were still lying 

6. Subsisterent. " Could hold out," i. e., could stand firm 
against. Compare Livy, 27, 7, " Vix Annibali atque ejus «rrrew 

7. Ex eo concursu navium. " Frotn this collision of the ves- 
sels," i. e., from the ships thus running foul of one another. 

8. Coram perspicit. " He sees with his own eyes," i. e., before 
him, on the spot. Compare the Greek paraphrase, x<^P<^v avrog 
tvravda Kareldev. — Magrio negolio. " With great trouble." 

9. Fabros. " The artificers." Each legion had its proper 
complement of artificers. Compare Vegetius, 2, 11, " Habet 
praterea legio fabros lignarios, instructores, carpentarios, ferra- 
rios,'" &c., and consult Steicecchius, ad loc. p. 16S. Under the 
iexmfabri Caesar here includes the /airi lignarii, or carpenterB, 
and the fabri ferrarii, or smiths. 




92 10. Ut quam plurimas," &c. " To build as many vesseis es 

possible with the legions that are with him," i. e., wilh the legion» 
which hc commanded. 

93 1. Subduci. "To be drawn on shore." Supply in aridum 
Tlie full form is given B. G. 4, 29. — JJna munitime. "By om 
general fortification," i. e., the same rampart and ditch were ta en- 
compass the vessels and the tents. 

2. Unde. Referring to the place where he was when the new? 
reached liim of the disaster of his vessels. 

3. Summa imperii, &.c. " The supreme command and directiop 
of the war." — Cassivellauno. The derivation which Sir Wilharo 
Beetham gives for this proper name is extremely amusing, and shows 
the reckless handiwork of a professed etymologist. He deduces it 
from Cass, a man's name, and bealln " a little moulh," and makea 
Cassivellaunus equivalent, therefore, to " Cass with the httle 
mouth !" 

4. Swperiore tempore. " At a former period." — Contincntia. 
Put for continua. So continentes silvce (S. G. 3, 28), and conti- 
nentes paludes {B. G. 6, 31). 

5. Quos nalos, 6cc. " Who they say it has been handed down 
by tradition were bom in the island itself," i. e., of whom they have 
a tradition that thoy were sprung from the very soil of the island 
itself. This is in accordance with the erroneous, but very preva 
lent, belief among so many of the nations of antiquity, that their 
first ancestors were produced or bom from the earth. The Athe 
nians in particular were remarkable for this, and hence thc namo 
aiTdxOons which they applicd to Iheir race. Thus Thucydides re 
marks (1,2), rfiv yovv ^Attikiiv uvdpwKOi WKOVV o\ aiTol iii. Wliere the 
scholiast adds, T(Ji yivtt irjXovdn, ov yap i/cav addvaToi. The most 

ancient nations thought themselves indigenous, bccause, having long 
dwelt in the same country, they at length forgot their origin. 

6. Ouibus orti ex civitatibus. " From which being sprung." 
Civilatibus is here repeated with the relative, according to Cwsar'9 
not unfrequent custom. Compare note 7, page 5. — Bcllo IUa,'o. 
"The war having been waged," i. e., when the war was over. 

7. Hominum est injinita muUiludo. " The number of inhabi- 
tants is unbounded," i. c., the population is immense. — Gallicis 
consimilia. Comparc Jornandes 2, 2 : " Virgeas habitant casas, 
cammunia tecta cum pccore, silvaque illis smpe sunt domus." 

8. Utuntur aut cBre, &c. " They employ for money either cop- 
per >r oblotig piecea of iron, ascertained to be of a certain weight.'' 


Literally, "tried by a certain weight." The term taleis, in this 03 

paasige, occasions great trouble to the commentators, and they give 

it, generally speaking, the meaning of " rings," because the Greek 

paraphrast renders it by &aKTv\loii. Nothing, however, can be more 

erroneous than this interpretation. Talea properly denotes a wood- 

en pin, or sraall piece of wood shaped likc a spike, used in archi- 

tecture for connecting together the timbers of an edifice. ( Vilruv. 

1, 5.) It is then applicd to agricultural operations, and means a 

emall branch of a tree, sharpened like a spike or stake, and pianted 

in the ground to produce another tree. {Varro, R. R. 1, 40.) 

Caesar employs the term here in precisely the same sense, as far as 

regards shape ; but as talea properly means something of wood, he 

appends the adjective ferreus, in order to show that the talea here 

meant were pieces of iron. The Britons, therefore, according to 

him, employed for money either copper, or small pieces of iron shaped 

like spikes. This view of the subject receives a striking confirma- 

tion from the custom said to have prevailed among the eailier 

Greeks. The earlier 6So)^St according to ancient authorities, deno- 

ted originally " a spit," i. e., a piece of iron or copper fashioned like 

a small spit, and used for money, and six of these made a drachma 

{Spaxffi), or, " handful," these being as many as the hand can grasp. 

Consult on this point, Plutarch, Vit. Lys. c. 17. Julius Pollux, 

9, 6, l) 77, who refers to Aristotle in support of this asserlion. Eus 

tath, ad E. 1, 465. Etymol. Mag. s. v., i^iXicKos. 

9. Nascitur ihi plumbum album. " Tin is found there." Lit- 
erally, " is produced there." By plumbum album is meant tho 
KaooiTfpof of the Greeks. Compare Plin. H. N. 36, 16. The tm 
mines of England are situated in Comwall, which occupies the south- 
westem extremity of the country. — In medilerraneis regionibus. 
This statement of CaBsar's is incorrect. Tin is not brought from 
the interior. 

10. Materia. " Wood," i. e., trees. — Fagum. " The beech." 
The ftiybg of Dioscorides (1, 121), and i^Ca pf Theophrastus (3, 10). 

11. Animi voluptatisque causa. "For the sake of amusement 
and pleasure. — Loca sunt temperatiora, &c. " The climate is 
more temperate than in Gaul, the cold bcing less intense." The 
account which Tacitus gives of the climafe of Britain {Vit. Agiic. 
12), agrees very well with what it is at present : " Coelum crehria 
imbrihus ac nebulis foedum : asperitas frigorum abest." 

12. Triquetra. " Triangular." This, taking the general fonn 
of the island, is not very far from the trnth. Cseear must have ob- 



93 tained his information, respecting the shape of the island, frorn the 

account of others, since Britain was not circumnavigated by ihe 
Romans till the time of Agricola. {Tacit. Agric. 10.) In the saiae 
way are we to account for Caesars acquaintance with the manners 
and customs of the Britons, since he never penetrated inlo the in- 

13. Ad Cantium. " At Kent." — Ad orientem solem. Supply 
spectai. — Tenet circiter, &c. " Contains about five hundred miles." 
Measuring in a straight hne from Bolerium Promontoncti, or Land^s 
End, to Cantium Promontorium, or North Foreland i..6 clisU-ince 
does not exceed 344 Briiish, or 356 Roman miles. If Ocesar in- 
cluded the irregularities of the coast, the measurement viould be 
greatly enlarged. 

14. Ad Hispaniam. This statement is very erroneous, ae Spain 
lies to the south, not to the west of Britain. 

CkA 1. Dimidio minor, &c. ''Less than Britain, as is supposed, by 
a half." The superficial extent of Great Britain is computeJ at 
77,370 square miles, and that of Ireland at 30,370 ; hence the 
magnitude of the fonner is upvvard of two and a half times that of 
the latter. 

2. Scd pari spatio transmissus, &c. " But the passage acrosH 
to Britain is the same distance as from Gaul." 

3. Mona. The Isle of Man. Consult Geographical Index. — 
Complures prceterea minores, &c. " Besides several other smallejr 
islands are thought to lie facing in the channel." Some read suh- 
jectcB for objectcB, but the Greek paraphrase has avTiKtTadai. The 
Orkney and Shetland Islands are meant, but that they are properly 
speaking objcctcc is, of course, untrue. 

4. Dics continuos triginta, &c. " That there is night for thirty 
successive days at the winter-solstice," i. e., 22d December. This 
report was without any foundation in truth. 

5. Nisi certis ex aqua, &c. " But we perceived, by accurato 
water measures, that the nights were shorter than on the continent," 
i. e., but measuring the time by water-glasses, &c. The allusion 
here is to the clepsydra, or, as we vv-ould call it, water-clock. The 
clepsydra, as its name imports, was a Grecian invention, and was 
flrst adopted at Rome in the third consulship of Pompey. (Auctor 
dial. de caus. cor. eloq. 38.) In the most common kind of water- 
clocks, the water issued drop by drop tiirough a hole in one vessel, 
and fell into another, in which a light body that floated marked the 
height of the fluid as it rose, by pointing to a .tcnje of houra on tli« 


Bide of the vessel, and thus indicated the time. AU the clepsy. QA 

dra, however, had this defect in common, that the water at first 

flowed out rapidly, and afterward more slowly, so that they required 

much care and regulation. Consult Beckman, History of Iwceiv- 

Hons, vo' :., p. 136. 

6. Heptingentorum millium. "Seven hundred miles." A cal 
culation which exceeds the truth 90 Roman miles. The length 
of the western coast is 590 British, nearly equal to 610 Roman, 

7. Contia Septeniriones. " Opposite the north." This is nol 
corrcct ; the east is much nearer the truth. — Octingenta. This 
greatly exceeds the real measurement. The exact length is about 
550 British, or 570 Roman, miles. 

8. Humanissimi. " The most civilized." — A Gallica consTietvr 
dine. " From the customs of Gaul." Compare B. G. 6, 21, 

' Gcrmam multum ab kac consuetudine differunt.'^ 

9. Se vitro injiciunt. " Stain themselves with woad," i. e., of 
a blue colour. The Greek name for this plant is isatis ; its other 
appellation in Latin, besides vitrum, is glastum. This last is sup- 
posed to be derived from the old British word glas, which means 
not only "green," but also "blue." The Romans, it is thought, 
confounded the glas of the Britons with the old German word glas, 
applied firfit to " amber," and afterward to "glass," and hence gave 
the name :>f vitrum to the plant in question. 

10. At^ue hoc, &c. " And hence they are of a more frightfiil 
appearance in battle." The Greek paraphrast very neatly expressea 
this by, tluTe tv Tois jid^^ats KaTar\r]KTtK<i>TaToi ri ^fdfid iiai. 

11. Capilloque sunt promisso, &♦ " They have, moreover, 
long hair, and every part of the body shaved except," &c. — Uxores 
habent, &c. The order is, deni duodenique (Britanni) habent uxores 
communes inter se. JiendeT deni duodenique, "parties of ten or 

12. Quo primum, &c. " By whom each female when a virgitt 
was first married." With deducta est supply domum, and compare 
the phrase ducere domum, " to many." 

13. Tamen ut. " In such a way, however, that," i. e., with so 
little success ihat. Before tamen supply ita, and consult Palairet, 
EUips. Lat. p. 157. 

14. Cupidiiis insecuti. " Our men having pursued them too 
eagerly." — Illi. Referring to the Britons. — Intermisso spatio. 
" Some interval having elapsed." — Imvrudentibu^ nostris. " Our 
men not expecting f^em.*' 



95 1. Submissis. " Being sent to their aid." Put for Cassar'» 

mjre usual form 6f expression, subsidio missis. Oudendorp is in 

favour of immissis. 

2. Atque his primis, &c. " And these the first of two legions." 
The first cohort of a legion not only exceeded the rest in number, 
but contained the bravest men. Thus Vegetius remarks (2, 6), 
" Prima cohors reliquas ct ■numero militum ct dignitate pracedit." 
Lipsius, however, insists, that vvhat Vegetius here says about supe- 

; riority of numbers merely applies to later warfare, and that the first 
cohOTt only surpassed the rest in its containing braver men. (Mil. 
Rom. 1, dial. 4, p. 67, seq.) 

3. Cum hcE, &c. "When these had taken their ground at a 
very small distance from each other." The common fext incor- 
rectly punctuates after spalio, connecting inter se with cmistitisscnt. 
The Greek paraphrast gives the true meaning, d\iybv a-' i.Wt'i\ia9 

4. Perruperunt. Supply hostes. — Tmmissis. " Being sent out 
against them." Compare the Greek, Tr\ti6vii)v hf^BovaCiv ovetpZv. 

5. Cum dimicarclur. " As the battle was fought." — Intellectum 
tst. Supply a nubis. " We perceived." 

6. Cedcntcs. " Those who gave ground." 

7. Dimicare. Before this word pralio occurs in some editions. 
But, as it does not appear in many MSS., and is not at all needed, 
we have thrown it out. — Illi. Referring to the Britons. 

8. Et pedibus, &c. " And fought with great advantage on foot." 
Literally, " fought on foot in unequal combat." — Equestris autcm 
proelii ratio, &c. " The manner of fighting, however, on the part 
of the British horse, broughWwith it equal and the same danger to 
our cavalry, whether the foriricr retreatcd or pursued." Compare 
the explanation of Lemaire : " Ratio qua equitcs Britanni pugna- 
banf idem periculum Rov.nnis infercbat, seu ii (Barbari scil.) cede- 
rent scu insequerentur.'" 

9. Conferti. " In cl/jse array." — Ran. " Scattered here and 
there." The referen'.:e is to the cavalry of the Britons. — Atque 
alii alios, &c. " A.r.d kept relieving one anothcr in succession, 
while the vigoro'.s and fresh took tho places of those that were 

10. Lenius. " With less spirit " 

11. Sic, uti ab .lignis, &c. " With so much fury, as to be close 
np with tb^ standards and legions." Non absLitcrenl, literally, " not 
to staw' .t a distance from." is herc pquivalent lo prope starerU. 



12. Quoad. " Until." — Subsidio eonfisi. " Confident of being 95 


13. Summis copiis. '* With any very numerous force." Liter- 
aily, " with numerous forces." Some render summis copiis, " with 
all their forces," but the Greek paraphrast favours the other inter- 
pretation, olKtri ttoWtj Snvdiiei toTj 'Puiialois avviiii^av. 

1. Animum advertit. For animadvertit, which appears in the 9() 
common text, Gra3vius observes (ad Cic. Off. 2, 19) that the 
copyists have in many places altered this elegant form of expression, 
substituting for it the latter. 

2. Ripa autem erat, &.c. " The bank, moreover, was defended 
by sharp stakes fastened in front of it, while other stakes of the same 
kind, fixed down beneath the water, were covered by the river." 
Lipsius {Poliorcet. 5, dial. 3) thinks we ought to read here plumbo 
mstead o[ flumine, because Bede, who lived in ihe eighth century, 
speaks in his history (1, 11) of certain stakes, still seen in his time 
in this quarter, which had lead attached to them in order to keep 
ihem in their places. Caesar, however, says they were sharpened 
at the end, which would supersede, of course, the necessity of any 
lead being employed ; and besides, Bede may easily have been led 
into error with regard to the particular spot. Stakes kept in theii 
places by means of lead indicate, moreover, a higher degree of civ- 
ilization than that to which the Britons had thus far attained. 

3. Ctim capite solo, &c. " Though they were above the water 
with the head only," i- e., though their heads only were above the 
water. Ijiterally, " though they were out of the water with the 
head alone." 

4. Ut supra demonstravimus. Compare chapter 17. — Servabat. 
" Kept watching." Servabal is here put for observabat. Compare 
the Greek paraphrase, iraper^pei. Servare for observare is of fre- 
quent occurrence. Compare Sil. Ital. 6, 384. Terence, Andr. 1, 
8, 7. Lucan, 1, 601, &c. 

5. Ex via. " From the beaten track." i. e., pubUc road or high- 
way. — Impeditis. " Intricate." 

6. Magno cum periculo, &c. " Withgreatdangerto our horse." 
—Hoc metu. " By the fear of this." 

7. Relinquebatur . " It remained." — Discedi. Supply ab equi- 
tihus. " The cavalry to depart." — Et hostibus noceretur. "And 
the enemy were injured." — Quantum labore, &c. " As far as the 
legionary soldier j could effect this amid fatigue and marching," i. e., 
amid the fatigue of a long march. 



Qg 8. Continentem GaUiam So Livy, 31, 45, " Contincns Attu 

ca," and Nepos, Themist. 3, " Continens terra.^'' 

9. Atque in civitatcm mittat, &c. "And to send him into ihe 

Etate, to preside over H and hold the government." Compare the 

Greek paraphrase : koi aiTov rjj; mjXfuj irat a(puv ap^ovra riiiitttv. Tho 

reference is to Mandubratius. 

f)7 ^- Obsides ad numerum, &c. " Hostages, to tlie number re- 

quirod, and an abundant supply of corn." The student will mark 

the force of the plural in frumenta. 

2. Ab omni militum, &c. " And secured from all violence on tho 
part of thc soldiery." — Cenimagni. Most probably the Cenoinani, 
who had come over from Gaul and settled in Britain. The Greek 
paraphrase has K.cviiiavo\. 

3. Oppidum Cassivellauni, Bede {Hist. Ang. 1, 2) calls this» 
town Cas.ribcllauin. 

4. Oppidiim autem, &.c. " Now the Britons call it a town, 
when," &c. The native term was Caer. Compare Caesar's de- 
scription of a British town with that given by Strabo, 4. p. 200 : 
iriXeis Bperaviov elatv ol ipvitoi, k. r. X. 

5. Locum. "The place in question." One MS. has lucum, 
which Oudendorp pronounces no inelegant reading. 

6. Ad mare. " On the seacoast." Compare the Greek paro- 
phrase, vapada^aaaia. — Supra. Chapter 13. 

7. Castra navalia. " The naval camp." This has already been 
mentioned in the llth chapter. — Oppugnent. "Storm." Uscd 
here for expugnent, as adoriantur precedes. 

8. In continenli. " On the continent," i. e., in Gaul. — Quid 
vectigalis. " How much tribute." Literally, " what of tribute." 

Qg 1. Refectas. " Repaired." — His dcductis. " These bcing launch- 
ed." Supply ad mare. Literally, " being drawn down to the sca." 

2. Duobus commeatibus. " By two embarcations." 

3. Navigationibus. " Voyages." — Desideraretur. " Was mis- 
sing," i. e., was lost. The Greek paraphrast has KaraTrcvriaQTipai, 
" was sunk." 

4. Prioris commeatus. " Of the previoiis convoy." — Locum 
aperent. " Made good the harbour," i. e., reached the island. 

More literally, " reached the (deslined) place." 

5. Avgustius milites collocavit. " Stowed his troops in a narrow- 
«r ccmpass than usual." 

6. Subductis navibus. " The ships being drawn on shorn " 
Supp'y in aridi m. 



7. Frumentum angustius provenerat. " Grain had been pro- QQ 

duced in less quantities than usual," i. e., the crop had partially 
failed, or there vvas a scarcity of grain. 

8. In plures civitates. " Among a greater number of states," i. 
e., than had before been customary. — Essuos. Some editors sug- 
gest Aeduos as a reading, because no mention is elsewhere made 
o*" the Essui But Caesar is here speaking of nations near the lower 
Rhine, whcreas the Aedui wcre at a considcrable distance from that 

9. Belgio, By Belgium is here meant a part of Gallia Belgica, 
uot the whole. It comprehended the tcrritory of the Bellovaci, 
Atrebates, and Ambiani. Consult Cellarius, Geog. Antiq. vol. ii., 
p. 307. 

10. Mederi. " Remedy." 

1. Millibus passuum centum. There is an error in this, for from QQ 
the confines of the Eburones to the winter quarters of Crassus the 
distance was nearly 180 miles. The Greek paraphrast, on the other 
hand, errsby excess, forhe has hi iyloiiKovTa (rTdStoiv /jvpia<ri Trtpttl)(tTo 

2. Tertium jam hunc, &c. The true reading of this passage is 
very much disputed. The one vvhich we have givcn rests in part 
on the editions of Basle, Aldus (15S0), Glareanus, &c., and partly 
on the Greek paraphrase : nji &t r^s PanXtias avTou rpiTo ertt, ol SvaitiV' 

tiS avTOv, ToWwv Ttjg Trd.Xfu); dp\69TWV rovrov tov vpdyitaTo; alrtav 

ytytvrjnhutv, i^ ijjKpavoui dTTiKTtivav. Hunc refers to Tasgetius, not to 

3. Quod ad plures pertinehat. " Because several persons were 
concerned." Literally, " because it pertained to more persons 
than one." 

4. In hibema perventuvi, &.c. " That they had reached their 
respective quarters, and that a place for wintering in had been for- 
tified by each." 

5. Ad fines regni sui, &c. "Had met Sabinus and Cotta od 
the borders of their kingdom." 

6. De re communi. " Relative to their common interests." — 
Minui posse " Could be adjusted*" 

7. Missu Casaris. Equivalent to mittente Ccesare. " Being 
despatched for this purpose by Caesar." 

1. Plurimum ei, &c. " Acknowledgcd he vvas under very great J (jQ 
obligations to him." — Stipendio Uberatus esset. " He had teen 
iiberated from tribute," i. e., freed from the payment of it. 

2. De oppugnatimie castrorum. " As regarded thie attack oq 
our camp " 



100 ^- 'Sm'^"^ <^**« imperia, &,c. " And that his authority -\'as of 
such a nature, that the people at large had no less power over hiin 
than he had over them." 

4. Ex humilitate sua. " From his o\\ti weakness." Conipare 
the Greek paraphrase, tovtov 6i r<ipai/ rfiv ififi)/ TanavdTrira iCvaiiai 

5. Sed esse GallicB commune consilium. " But that it was iho 
common design of Gaul," i. e., that it was a common and precoii- 
certed plan on the part of the vvhole nation. 

6. Non facile Gallos, &.c. " That it was no easj' niatter for 
Gauls to give a rcfusal to Gauls," i. e., a refusal to join with them. 

7. Quibus quonimn, &c. " That since he had satisfied them, as 
far as duty to his conntry vvas concerned, so novv he had respect to 
the claims of duty, as regarded the favours bestowcd upon him by 
Caesar," i. e., as he had discharged his duty to his country, he 
would now discharge that which he owed to Csesar in return for his 
numerous kindnesses. — Pielate. The term pictas among the Ro- 
man writers has a very extensive meaning, denoting the duty which 
we owe to our parents, relations, friends, country, and the Deity. 
The refereiice in the present passage is to country merely. 

8. Pro hospilio. " lu consideration of the ties of hospitaUty." 
— Conductam Rhenum transisse. " Having been hired for tbe 
purpose, had crossed the Rhine." — Hanc. " That this band." 

9. Ipsorum esse consUium. " That it was for ihemselves to 
consider." Ipsorum refers to Titurius and Cotla. Compare the 
eaplanation of Lcmaire : " Delibcrent ergo intcr se (scil. Sabinus et 
Cotta), seu videant Romani, au veli^it," &c. 

10. Quod cum faciat, &c. " That in doing this, he vvas both 
consulting for the good of his own state, in its being frced from the 
burden of winter quarters, and was making a proper rcturn to Caesar 
for his acts of kindiiess towards him." 

\Q\ 1- Ad consilium rcm deferunt. " They lay the matter before a 
council of vvar." — Existit. " Arises." 

2. Rem essc tcstimonio. " That the fact spoke for itself." — 
MuUls ultro, &c. "Many wounds having been inflicted upon the 
lattcr, without any being receivcd in return." Compare the e.x- 
planation of Lemaire : " nam Romani intulcrant hostibus rulnera; 
ipsi vero non acceperant.''' 

3. Re fmmentaria non premi. " That they vvere not distressed 
for corn.' Compare tie Greck paraphrase, ii\miM(ov iviiets oi* 



4. Levitui aul turpius. " Weaker or more cowardly." — Auc- \()\ 

iore hoste, 6cc. " To deliberate concerning matters of the utmost 
importance when an enemy was the author of the step." Com- 

pare the Greek, kutu t^k tu>v ToXtiiioiv yvdiiqv irtpt tuv rdvTuv fiov^tv- 

to6ai. The reference is to the information derived from the enemy, 
on which iheir deliberations would be based. 

5. Sero. "Toolate." — Clamitabat. " Kept crying out londly 
and repeatedly." The frequentative is here very emphatic. 

6. Aliquid calamilatis. " Some disaster." — Brevem cmisulendi, 
&c. " That the time for deliberation was short." — Arbitraru 
" That he supposed." Supply se. 

7. Non hostem auctorem, &c. " That he did not look to the 
enemy as an authority for thc step which he recommended, but to 
the fact itself." — Subesse. "Was near." Compare the Greek" 
jrXriatov fiiv yap h 'P^voj. 

8. Ardere Galliam, &c. " That Gaul burned with resentment, 
at having been reduced, after so many insults had been received by 
it, under the sway of the Roman people." 

9. Sine certa re. " Without accurate information," i. e., unless 
on sure grounds. 

10. Si nil sit durius. " If no greater difficulty came in their 
way," i. e., if no attack were made by the Gauls. 

11. Unam salulem. " Their only safety." Compare Virgil, 
jEn. 2, 354, " Una salus victis." 

12. PrcEsens. " Immediate." — Longinqua obsidiojie. " Result- 
ing from a protracted siege." Longinquus is here put for diutur- 
nus. Compare Broukhus. ad Propert. 1, 6, 27. 

1. Primisque ordinibus. " And theprincipalcenturions," i. e., IQM 
the centurions of the first ranks. Consult ArchaBological Index, 

and compare note 11, page 46. 

2. Vincite. " Prevail," i. e., carry your point. — Neque is sum 
qui, &.C. '• For I am not the man among you to be very greatly 
alarmed at the danger of death." 

3. Hi sapient, .&c. " These will discover which of us is right, 
and, in case any disaster occur, will demand satisfaction, Cotta, from 
You," i. e., will call you to account for it. Hi refers to the Romaa 
soldicrs standing without, but near enough to hear what was said. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase : oItoi ii (ppovoivTwv oTpartcSrai, 

K. r. X. 

4. Qui. " Since they." — Perendino die. " On the third day 
nence.^ Perendie, from which the adjcctive perendinus comes, M 



1 02 <ierived, according to the grammarians, from peremptus and dies, 
and is tiie same as perempta die, tlie intervening day being meant 
by die. 

5. Rejerti et relcgati, &c. " As if forced away and banished by 
you to a distance from their countr)'men." By cateris are meant 
the Romans in the other vvinter quarters, while by rejecii and rele- 
gati is figuratively expressed the forced separation, by the command 
of their officcrs, of the troops of Cotta frora those in the neighbour- 
ing provinces. Compare the Greek : dXX' ov riav aXXwv, ctj ov KtXevusi 

Airo)(wpi<T6ivTts, fl fia^a/pa, Ti Xi/iw, aiV-^puif StKoOavovai. 

6. Consurgitur ex concilio, &c. " The members rise from the 
council, they embrace and beseech both Cotta and Sabmus." 

7. Rem. " Affairs." — Facile esse rcm. " That it was an easy 
matter." — Rcs disputatione perducitur . " The debate is pro- 

8. Dat 7nanus. "Yields." Literally, " gives his hands." A 
figurative expression, borrowed from the form of making a surrender, 
hy stretching forth, or holding up, hands. 

9. Pronunciatur, &c. " Orders are issued for the troops to 
maxch at daybreak." Literally, " it is announced that they wil 
depart," &c. 

10. Consumitur vigiliis, &c. " Is spent without slcep, cach 
Boldier looking about among his efTects, to see what he might be 
able to carrv with him, what part of his winter stores he would be 
compelled to leave behind." The espression cx instrumento hi- 
hernorum is rendered by the Greek paraphrast ix rwv cKtvCiv. 

11. Oninia excogitantur, &c. " Every rcason is suggested, to 
show why they could not stay without danger, and why that da iger 
would be now increascd by the languor of the soldiers, and their 
want of sleep." The meaning of this passage has given rise to 
much controvcrsy. Its import appears to us to be as follows : 
The Roman soldiers felt the disgrace of the step which they were 
aliout to take, and kept suggesting, thereforc, in conversation with 
one another, various plausible arguments, to show that it was the 
only plan they could safely pursue in the present crisis. 

12. Posteaquam cx nocturno fremitu, &c. " After they got in- 
timation of their intcnded departure, by the noise whi«:h prevailed 
during the night, and thcir not retiring to repose." 

13. A millibus, &c. " At the distance of about two mileu." 
An idiom analogous to our own mode of e.xpression. " about two 
ir.iles off." « 


14. Convallem. The terra conrai/is, though generally rendered 1Q2 

" valley," yet conveys in strictness the idea of a long and extend- 

ed one. Compare Festus, s. v. — Demisisset se. " Had descend 


15.* Ut qui nihil ante, &c. " Since he had not at all foreseen' 

the danger, was thrown into the greatest alarm, ran up and down," 

&c — Alque ut. " And in such a way that." Supply ita before ut. 

1. Qui in ipso negotio, &c. " Who are compelled to dehber- 1()3 
ate in the very moment of action," i. e., when they ought to act. 

2. Auctor. " An adviser." — In appellandis. " In addressing." 

3. Minus facile per se, &c. " They could less easily perform 
everything themselves," i. e., every part of their duty could not 
be readily performed by them in person ; or, they could not easily 
visit every part. The reference is to Titurius and Cotta. 

4. Jusserunt pronunciare. " They ordered the officers to an 
nounce to their men." Supply duces before pronunciare. We 
have here adopted the reading of the earliest MSS. The common 
text has pro7iunciari. 

5. Incommode accidit. " It turned out untowardly on the pres- 
ent occasion," i. e., proved unfortunate. 

6. Spem minuit. This was produced by the abandonment of 
their baggage, since the soldiers easily perceived from this step that 
affairs were considered to be at the last extremity. — Quod videbatur 
" Bacause it was apparent." 

7. Vulgo. " Everywhere." Compare the Greek paraphrase, 
vdvroBev. — Abripere. " Tear away." A much more forcible read- 
ing than arripere. 

8. Barharis consilium non defuit. " Judgment was not wanting 
to the barbarians," i. e., the barbarians were not deficient in judgment 
on this occasion. 

9. Pronunciare jusserunt. " Ordered the different chieftains to 
«nnounce," i. e., to give orders to their respective' followers. 

10. Hlorum. Referring to the Gauls. 

11. Erant el virtute, &c. " Our men, by both their value and 
numbers, were a match for the enemy in lighting." The meaninjj 
is, not that the numbers of the Romans were equal to those of the 
Gauls, but that the former had troops enough, considering their 
bravery and discipline, to keep the latter in check. 

12. Procurreret. "Made a charge," i. e., rushed fcrth from the 

13. Cedant. " To give wav before them." — Levilate armorum, 




1(J3 ^- " That, from the lightness of their armour and daily practice, 

they could receive no harm," i. e., the agihly which daily practice 

gave, and the light weight of their armour, would enable them to 

make a rapid and safe retreat whenever the Romans charged upon 


14. Rursus se ad signa, &c. " To pursue them in tuni when 
retreating to their standards," i. e., when returning to their for- 
mer station in the orb. 

15. Excesserat. " Had issued forth." — Inlcrim eam pariem, 
&c. " In the mean time, it was necessary for that part to be e.x 
posed, and for a shower of darts to be received by our men on their 
naked flanks." 

JQA 1. Locum teyicre. " To retain their place in the orb," and not 
sally forth. — Virtuti locus. " Room for displaying valour." — 
Nec confcrti vitare poterant. " Nor could they, being crowded to- 
gether into a small compass, avoid," &c. 

2. Tot incommodis conflictati. " Although harassed by so many 
disadvantages." More freely, " although having to struggle with 
80 many," &c. 

3. Ad horam octavam. This would answer to two o'clock iu the 
aftemoon ; the first hour, according to the Roman computation, 
being from six to sevcn in the morning, or, more strictly, from suu- 
rise to the beginning of the second hour. 

4. Primuni piium duxerat. " Had been chief centurion." Con- 
8ult Archffiological Index, and compare note 11, page IC. 

5. Ejusdem ordinis. " Of the same rank," i. e., a primipilus, 
or centm-ion of the first rank. — Suhvenit. , " Is striving to aid." 

6. In advcrsum os. " FuU in the mouth." Conipare B. C. 3. 
99, " Gladio in os adversum cmijeclo.^' 

7. Ille. Referring to Ambiorix. — Ipsi vero, &c. "That no 
hann, howevev, shouid be done to hiinself," i. e., he himself should 
be uninjured, whatever might be determined upon in relation to ihe 
lives of the soldiers. 

8. Ille. Rcferring to Titurius. — Cum Cotta saucio, &c. " Com- 
municates the answer of Ambiorix to the wounded Cotta, request- 
uig him, if the step appear to him a proper one, to leaxe tlie bat- 
tle," &c. 

9. Atque in eo constitit. " And persisted in this resolve," i. e., 
of not going to Ambiorix. 

10. In pr<tsentia. " At the time." In the Greek jiaraphrase, 
T«rt. — Impcralum facit " Does vviiat is commanded." 



Jl. Lo7igiorque considto, &,c. " And a discourse longer than 1Q4 

ordinary is designedly begun by Ambiorix," i. e., and the confer- 
ence is dcsignedly protracted by Ambiorix. 

12. Victoriam conclamant. " Shout out ' Victory .' " — Ululatum. 
"A yell." — Cotla mterficitur. Suetonius {Vit. C<ts. c. 26) says 
that this disaster took place in the country of the Germans, " in 
GermanoTum finibus." The mistake arose from the Eburones be- 
ing near neighbours to the Germans. 

1. Illi. Referring to those who had retreated to the camp. — 10^1 
Ad unum. " To a man." — Incertis itineribus. " By uncertain 
routes," i. e., wandering at hazard. 

2. Sublaius. " Being elated." 

3. Re denwnstrata. "The whole affairbeing laidbefore them,'' 
i. e., having acquainted themwith his success, and having erplained 
to tbem the desiga which he had in view. 

4. Nihil esse ncgotii. " That it was an easy matter." — Se pro- 
fitetur. " He offers himself " 

5. Huic. " To this officer." Referring to Cicero. Hotomann 
and Davies give hic, on conjecture, which agrees with the ivTavOa of 
ihe paraphrase, but some good MSS. sanction huic, which is cer- 
tainly the more spirited reading. 

6. Lignationis munitionisque causa. " To procure wood, and 
materials for the fortifications," i. e., stakes for the ramparts, &c. 

?. Sustejitatur . "They hold out." Supply a nos^rw. 

1. Magnis prapositis ■pramiis, &c. " Great rewards being JQfi 
offered to the messengers, if they should convey them to their 
destination." Literally, " if they should carry them through," i. e., 

ia safety through the intervening dangers. 

2. Turres admodum, &c. '^One hundred and twenty lowers in 
iU." More literally, " up to a hundred and twenty towers." Ho- 
tomann thinks this number incredible, and it certainly appears a 
very large one if we take the term turris in its literal sense. Per- 
haps, however, nothing more is meant than a species of bastion, of 
which ISO might ver) easily have been raised during the period 
specified in the text. 

3. PrccustcB. sudes. 'Stakes burnt at the end." These were 
Esed in defending the rampart. — Muralium pilorum. " Of mural 
avehns." These were thrown from the walls against those who 
were endeavouring to scale them. They were larger and heavier 
than those used in the field. Lipsius is silent respecting them. 

4. Turres contabida7itur. ■' Towes* of several storiesare raised." 



\{)Q ITiis languag.e woiild seem to sanction the conjecture given under 

note 2. — PinncE loricczque, &c. " Battlements and parapets axe 

constructed of intervvoven hurdles." 

5. Cum tenuissima, &c. " Although he was in a very feeble 
slate of health." 

6. Ut ultrn mihtum concursu, &c. " So that he was compelled 
at length, as their spontaneous act, by the flocking together and 
the entreaties of the soldiers, to show himself sonie indulgence." 

7. Qui aliqucm sermonis aditum, &c. " Who had any intimacy 
and grounds of friendship with Cicero." By scrmonis aditum ha- 
behant is meant, literally, the having been accustomed to have in- 
terviews from time to time with the Roman ofRcer. 

8. Ambiorigem ostentant, &c. " In order to gain credit for 
what they said, they inform him with a boastful air of the arrival of 
Ambiorix." Compare the e.xplanation of Morus : " Amhiorigcm 
adesse jactahundi dicxnit.'" They thought that Cicero would be- 
lieve what they asserted, when he saw that so humble a state as the 
Eburones had actually commenced hostilities. against the Roman 
power, and that Ambiorix himself was in arms against Cassar, from 
whom he had herctofore rcceived so many favours. 

9. Eos. Referring lo Cicero and the forces under him. — His. 
Alluding to the Romans in other winter quarters. 

10. Hoc csse in animo. " Were so favourably disposed." Had 
S'jch a regard. — Hanc invetcrascere consuetudinem. " That this 
custom should grow into a precedent," i. e., should gather strengtb 
by long continuance. 

11. Ilhs. The Romans. — Per se. " As far as dcpended upon 

12. Ctcero ad hccc, &c. This officer had already been apprized 
of the defeat and death of Sabinus by one of the fugitives. 

13. Adjutorc. " As an intercessor," or advocate. The Greek 
paraphrase gives awfpyo, "a co-operator." 

14. Pro ejus justilia. " Through his wonted clemency." Jus- 
titia loses here a portion of its strict meaning, and denotes, not so 
much the desire to rcnder to every one his due, as clemency or 
compassion. Compare Terence, Heaiit., 1, 1, 33, " Mcce siultitia 
in justitia tua sit ahquod ])ra:sidii." 

I Qy 1. Vallo pedum vndecim, &c. " With a rampart eleven fect 

. high, and a ditch iifteen feet wide." Some commentators suppose 

that the ditch was also fifteen feet deep, but this is unnecessary. 


The Greek paraphrase, however, translates merely with reference J ()7 

tO depth : xai rdiffio TrivTlKaliiKa ri PdOo;. 

2. Ileec. Referring to their knowledge of fortification. — Con- 
suetudine. " By the experience." — Cognoverant. " They had 

3. Sed nulla ferramentorum copia. " But having no supply of 
iron tools." The ablative absolute. Supply existente. — Ad hunc 
usum. " For this purpose." 

4. Saoulisque. " And short cloaks." The term sagum (of 
which sagulum is a diminutive) is said to be of Gallic origin. Its 
ehape was square, and hence Isidorus (Orig. c. 24) remarks, " Sa- 
gum Gallicum nomen est : diclum autem sagum quadrum, eo quod 
apud eos primum quadratumvel quadruplex erat." It was fastened 
by a clasp around the neck. The old French word saie points to 
the Celtic root. Thc Tartan plaid of modern times may be traced 
to the same costume. Consult Adelung, Gloss. vol. vi., p. 26. 

5. Terram exhaurire. " To remove the earth." A very poeti- 
cal form of expression for so plain a writer as Caesar. The Greek 
paraphrast imitates it very neatly by i^avr^Xuv. 

6. Millium decem. Supply passuum. The MSS. and editions 
vary here, many having millium passuum XV. (i. e., quindecim).. 
We have adopted the smallest number, although even this appears 

7. Ad altitudinem valli. " Equalling the height of the rampart." 
Literally, " to the height." — Falces. " Grappling hooks." These 
were the falces murales, or what the Greeks called SopvSpiTrava. 
The hooks were bent into the shape of a pruning hook, and were 
fastened to long poles. They were employed for tearing dowu 

8. Testudinesque. " And mantlets." These were different from 
the testudos hitherto described in the notes to the previous books. 
They were a kind of mantlet or shed, very similar to the vinecB, 
which were moved up to the ramparts oy means of wheels, and tin- 
der which the assailants worked the battering-ram, or undermined 
the walls. 

y. Ferventes fusili, &c. " Red hot balls of cast clay." As re- 
gards the epithet fusilis here applied to argilla, compare the remark 
of Fjrcellini, " qualis est, ex qua statucs fictiles fiunt." 

10. Fervefacta jacula. " Fiery javelins," i. e., javelins, or darte, 
With ignited combustibles attached to the head. — In casas quce, &c. 
Against the huts, which were covered with thatch after the Gallic 



IQ'^ fashion." By casce here are meant the winter huta of the sol- 

diers. The Antonine column ofiers representations of siHiilar 


11. Distulcrmit. " Spread thc flames." 

12. Agere. " To advance." Compare, as regards the testudt- 
nes, what has been remarked under note 8. 

13. Demigrandi. " Of retiring from the fight." Equivalent to 
loco cedendi. Compare the Greek paraphrase, oiix 3nwj (pvyrji intnv- 
rjvTo. — Respiceret. " Looked behind him," i. e., at his effects fall- 
ing a prey to the fiames. Compare the language of Celsus : " Cum 
fortunce eoruni incendio omnes ahsumerentur, nunquam aliquis ad 
illas oculum rejlccicret. 

14. Hunc hahiit exitum. " It had this issue," i. e., was attend- 
ed with this good consequence. 

15. Ut se sub ipso vallo, &c. "As they had crowded them- 
selves togcther beneath the very rampart, and those farthest off gave 
no means of retreat to the foremost," i. e., prevented the foremost 
from retreating. 

16. Et quodam loco, &.c. " And a tower of the enemy's having 
been moved up in one quarter to our rampart, and touching it." 
The reference is to a moveable tower, of course. 

17. Deturbati. " The ertemy were dislodged." — Turrisquc suc- 
censa est. " And the tovver was set fire to from below." 

108 ^' Qui jcLni primis, &c. " Who were now approaching the 
first ranks," i. e., wcre rising fast to the rank of primipilus, or 
chief centurion. 

2. De loco. " For precedence." — Suinmis simultatihus. " With 
the greatest secret enmity." 

3. Spcctas. " Do you look for." Equivalent to circumspicis oi 
qumris. The common text has exspectas. — Hic, hic dies. We 
have adopted the reading of Oberlin, as more spirited than the com- 
mon lection, hic dies, hic dies. Compare Sallust, Cat. 20, " En 
illa, illa liberlas.''^ 

4. Quaque pars, &c. " And where appeared to be the thickest 
part of the cnemy." — Omnium veritus cxistimationcm. " Having 
feared the opinion of all," i. e., anxious to preserve his reputation 
among all. 

5. Procurrcntcm. " liunning forward to engage him." — Exani 
mato. " Dcprivcd of hfe." 

6. Verutum. " A javelin." By vcrutum is meant a Hght, slen- 
der javeiin, shaped sornewhat likc a epit, or else as taporing as a 


epU. — Hic casus. " This accident." — Impeditum. "Thusem- |()8 


7. Hunc. Referring to Varenus. — Illum veruto, &c. " They 
Buppose that the other was transfixed by the javelin." 

8. In locum dejectus, &c. " He stumbled and fell into a hol- 

9. In contenlione, &c. " In this honourable striving and cou 
test." Contentione refers to the spirit of einulation by which they 
were both actuated, certamine to their collision with the foe. • 

10. Utrumque versavit. " Directed altemately the movements 
ofeach." Compare the explanation of Morus : '^ Modo hac, modo 
illa sorte, per vices, uti vobdt.'" — Ut alter alteri, &c. "That the 
one rival brought assistance and security to the other," i. e., the 
one rival assisted and protected the other. 

11. Gravior atque aspcrior. " More severe and difficult to en- 
dure." Compare the Greek paraphrase, fia^vripa rs koX ■xakcitvtTifa 
roii 'Ftiiiiatoi;. 

12. Res ad paucitatem, &c. " Matters had come to a small 
lamber of defenders." 

1. Unus Nervius. " A certain Nervian." I/wms is here put 109 
for quidam. Compare the Greek paraphrase, nj Nfpouioy, and B. 

G. 2, 25, B. C. 2, 27. 

2. Suamque in fidem prczstiterat. " And had given him proofs 
of his attachment." — Servo. " A slave of his." Supply suo. 

3. Periculis. " The imminent danger." What grammarians 
call the plural of excellence. 

4. Hora undecima. Corresponding to our five o'cIock in the 

5. Legionem. Caesar had placed three legions in Belgium, the 
one here referred to under the command of CrasSus, and two othera, 
one under Lucius Munatius Plancus, and the other under Caius 
Trebonius. Compare chapter 24. 

6. Qua sihi iter faciendum sciebat. " Where he knew he would 
have to pass." — Reipublicce commodo. " With advantage to the 
Btatc," i. e., to what the public interests required. 

7. Hora tertia. " Nine o'clock in the moming." 

8. Legionem. "A legion." Not the one which Crassus had 
brcught, but one which Csesar had with him probably at the time. 

9. Literas publicas. " The public documents." — Quod eo, &c. 
" 'Wliich he had brought thither for the sake of enduring the winter," 
L e., which he had stored thcie for the winter supply. 




109 ^®- -^^"^ gestam, &c. " Ke writes him a full account of what 
had taken place among the Eburones." — Pedilaius equitatusque 

copias. A fuller form of expiession than what other writers em- 
ploy. Compare B. G. 6, 6, " Magnis coactis peditatus equitatus- 
que copiis." 

110 ^" (^onsilio ejus prohato. " His conduct being approved of.' — 
Etsi, opinione trium, 6cc. " Although, being disappointed ii. his 

expectation of three legions, he had been reduced to two." Liier- 
ally, '"had rcturned to two." — Unum communis salutis, 6cc. " The 
only means of subserving the common safety." 

3. GrcEcis conscriptam literis. " Written throughout in Greek 
characters," i. e., Latin words in Greek characters. Polyaenus 
(8, 23, 6) alludes to this circumstance. 

3. Si adire non possit, monet. " He cautions the messcnger, if 
he cannot gain access to the camp." — Ad amentum deligata. 
" Fastened to the strap." By amentum is meant the strap used. 
for hurling the javelin. Compare Festus : " Amenta, quibus iii 
emitti possint, vinciunlur jacula.'^ The strap appears to have been 
fastened to the middle of the spcar. 

4. Casu. Dio Cassius (40, 9) says, that this was done purposely 
by the niessenger, but the account of Cassar is, of course, to be 

5. Ule perlectam, cStc. " He read it over, and then recited it 
aloud in an assembly of the soldiers." The student will mark tho 
distinction between lego, " to read to one's self," and recito, " to 
read aloud," in order that others may hear. 

6. Fumi incendiorum. It was the constant custom of Cassar to 
bum the buildings of an enemy. — Expulit. " Dispelled." 

7. Armatorum. " Men in arms." Put for niilitum. Compare 
Livy, 1, 29, " Curstis armatorum ;^' and Nepos, Dion. 9, '^ Navem 
armatis ornat.'' 

8. Data facullate. " An opportunity being thus afforded," i. e., 
by the departure of the enemy. — Gallum repetit. " Begs the 
Gaul again." — Qui literas, &c. "To carry back an answer to 

♦ 9. CcEsar. The position of this word between quihus literis and 
allatis, is intended to indicate to whom the letter was brought, and 
js regarded as a great clegance. Compare Hunter, ad Liv. 1 , 7, 
p. 302, and Crombie, Gymnas. vol. ii., p. 389. 

10. Trans vallem magnam. Some editors objcct to the presence 
of mag7iani in the text, and it does not, in reality, appear to bo 


»ery concct. The Greek paraphrase, however, has litydXtis JJQ 
fapdyyot. Caesar refers to a large valley, traversed by a stream, 
and on the opposite slope of which, across the stream, the army of 
the enemy was stationed. 

11. Tum. " For the present, therefore." We have adopted 
hcre the meaning recommended by Flade {Obs. 1), who makes tum 
equivalent in this passage to "fiir dre Gegenwart," or "/tir den 
Zcilpunkt.'" With this the Greck paraphrase agrees, Tdrt ftiv oi». 
Morus thinks the connexion obscure, and that Caesar ought to have 
written ergo tum quidem. This would have been too languid and 

1. Tamen angustiis, &c. " Yet he contracts it as much as 1 M 
he can by making the streets between the tents narrow." By 

vice are here meant the streets or lanes separating the tents of the 
diflFerent divisions of troops from each other. Of these avenues there 
were generally five running in the length of the camp, that is, from 
♦he porta prcetoria to the porta decumana, and three across. Con- 
8ult Archaeological Index, s. v. Castra. 

2. Ut in summam contemtionem, &c. This stratagem is meu- 
lioned by Frontinus, 3, 17, 6. Compare Stewecchius and Ouden- 
dorp, ad loc. — Quo commodissimo itinere. " By what most con- 
venient route." 

3. Citra vallem. His object was to entice them across tho 
stream ; or, if he could not efifect this, to cross the stream himself at 
that point vvhere he might do it with least danger. 

4. Portasqueobstrui. " And the gates blocked up." Themode 
of doing this is esplained in the next chapter. It was meant, of 
course, as a feint. — Alque in his administrandis, &c. " And he 
directs them, in executing these orders, to run to and fro as much as 
possible, and act with the greatest degree of feigned alarm." 

5. Etiam de vallo. In order to give rise still more strongly to an 
appearance of alarm on their part. 

6. Ac sic nostros contemserunt, &c. " And to such a degree 
did they carry their contempt for our men, that the gate, being ap- 
parently blocked up, though, in fact, only by a single row of sods " 
'—Ea. " That way," i. e., by the gates. Used adverbially. 

7. Manu. The reference, of course, is to suitable instrumects 
wielded by the hand. Compare the Greek paraphrase, to Ipvna t3 

\tipl TlplTiflVtlV 

8. Neque etiam, &c. " And because he saw, that their position 
WH8 ibandoned by the enemy v\-il'\ no small loss on their part.'' 



1 J 1 The enemy lost great numbers amid the marshes and forejts, on 

abandoning thc position which they had previously occupied, and 

Csesar was afraid of encountering a similar loss, in case Jie pursued 

them too far. The reading and interpretation of this passage have 

been very much disputed. We havo followed in both the authority 

of Oberlinus. 

112 ^- Producta legione. " The legion being drawn out frora the 

camp." — No7i decimum quemque, &c. " That every tentli man 

was not left unwounded," i. e., that less than every tenth man, &c. 

2. Pro ejus mcrilo. "As he deserved," i. e., in handsome 
terms. Literally, " according to his merit." — Appellat. " He 
addresses by name," i. e., he calls unto him and compiiments bv 
name. Compare the Greek paraphrase, ^o/io(tti irapeKd\(atv. 

3. Rem gestam proponit. " He informs them of what had been 
done," i. e., of what had happened to Cotta and Sabinus. 

4. Quod. " Inasmuch as." — Hoc. " On this account." 

5. Expiato incommodo. " The disaster having been remedied." 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, Toirov iTravopBwdivTos-- — La.tatio. A 
word not occurring elsewhere in any classical author, though sanc- 
tioned here by good MSS. 

6. Eo. " To the latter place," i. e., the winter quarters of Ci- 
cero. — Horamnonam. " Three o'cIock in the afternoon. — Signifi- 
catio. " An intimation." 

* 7. Trinis hibernis. " In thrce difTeront quarters." Compare 
the Greek paraphrase, ava rpla xttiid^ia. 

8. Perlalo. " Being- brought unto them," i. e., being curcula- 
ted among them. — Consultahant. " Were consulting." The uso 
of thc iniperfect in this and the succeeding clauses is very graphic. 

9. Quin acciperct. " Or without his receiving." 

2^3 !• Armorica:. Corresponding-to the modern Brctagne. The 
name Armorica is said to be derivcd from ar, " upon," and moir, 
" the sea," and refers to a country lying along the ocean. Consult 
Geographical Indcx. 

2. Tantum apud hommes, &c. " So powerful an ii.fluence did 
itesercise among barbarous men, that some were found," &c., i. e., 
R ich was the force of c.xample among a savage people. 

3. Prcccipuo honorc hahuit. " Treated with peculiar honour," i. 
e., onwlwm hehadahvays bestowed distinguished marks of honour. 
— Alteros. " The former '" — Alteros. " The latler." — Officiis. 
" Services," i. e., good offices. 

4. Idqur adeo. &(^. " .-Xnd I do not know indeed wliethcr thts 


JB to be wondered at." A remarkable deviation from Caesar's usual 1 1 3 

mode of speaking in the third person. He alludei i^ the sudden 

changc of sentiment on the part of the Gauls. 

5. Quod, qui, d:c. " Because they, who were accustomed to be 

rankcd before all nations in martial valour, had lost so much of that 

reputalion, as to have endured the command of the Roman people." 

The reference in qui virtute belli, &c., is to the Gauls in general. 

Tlie expression a Populo Romano imperia is the same iu effect as 

Populi Romani imperia. So " legioncs a Deiolaro," B. Alex. 3 ; 

and " litcrcB a Ccesare," B. C. 1, 1. 

1. Hac spe lapsus. " Disappointed in this hope." Literally, j]4 
"having fallen from this hope." — Exercere. The common text 

has exigere a finitimis. But exercere is sanctioned by the bes*. 
MSS., and also by the term aoKtTr employed in the Greek para- 

2. Ultro ad se veniri. " That men were coming in unto him of 
their own accord." — Conscientia facinoris. The Senones on ac- 
count of the espulsion of their king Cavarinus (chap. 54), the Car- 
nutes on account of the assassination of Tasgetius (chap. 25). 

3. Armatum concilium. Tacitus refers to the same custom as 
existing among the Germans. (M. G. 11.) Compare, as regards 
the Gallic custom, the remark of Stobaeus (1. ] 3), KfAroT aiSripo^po- 
oovfTii ra Kara TroXtv irdvTa TtpdrTovai ; and Livy (21, 20), " In his 
nova terrililisque species visa cst, quod armali {ita mos gentis erat) 
.n concilium venerunt." The early Franks only quitted their arms 
when going to church. Consult the Capitularies of Charlemagiie, 
1. 7, p. 202. 

4. Omnibus cruciatibu^, &c. " Is subjected to, and put to 
death by, the cniellest tortures." More literally, " by every species 
of torture." 

5. Alterius principem factionis. " The leader of the opposite 
party." — Supra demonstravimus. Consult chapter 3. — Ccesaris 
tecutum fidcm. " Had put himself under the protection of Caesar " 

6. Huc. " To them." In the Greek paraphrase npbs avTovs. 

7. Sub castris ejus. " Close to hiscamp." — Cognosceret. "Ile 
might reconnoitre." 

1. Timorisque opinionem. Compare chapter 49, where Caesar J ] 5 
had recourse to the same stratagem against the Nervii. 

2. Intromissis. " Being received within" the Roman works.— 
NuUa ratione. " In no way." 



115 ^' ^'^OS'"-"' ^''^^ contumelia verborum. " In very insultiug lan- 

4. Dispersi ac dissipati. " In a scattereJ and disorderly man- 

5. PrcBcipit atque interdicit, &c. " He commands them, that 
wben the enemy should be terrified and put to flight (which he fore- 
saw would happen, as it did), they all aim at Indutiomarus alone , 
and he forbids any one wounding a man before he sees that chief- 
tain slain." We have separated prcecipit and interdicit in transla- 
ting, in order to convey Cffisar's meaning more clearly. 

6. Mora reliquorum, &c. " Having gained time by the delay 
occasioned in pursuing the rest." 

7. Hominis. Referring to Labienus. — Fluminis. The river 
Mosa is meant, which separated the territory of the Remi from that 
of the Treveri. Compare Cluverius, 2, 14. 

8. Caputque ejus. Florus (3, 10), by an error of memory, makes 
Dolabella, not Labienus, the Roman comraander on this occasion. 



r. Per Marcum Silanum, &c. Persons so appointed to levy |17 
tvRCes were called conquisitores, from their seeking after those 
wno endeavoued to avoid miljtary duty. Sometimes senators, 
and, as in the present instance, legati were appointed to this duty. 
Uomparc Lipsius, Mil. Rom. 1, dial. 9, " Vidcs honestiores quos 
dam, atquc e senatu conquisitores : imo ipsos legatos." 

2. Dilectum habere. " To hold a levy," i. e., to raise forces. 
The common text has delectum, but dilectum is the more accurate 
form. Compare Gothofred, ad Fest. s. v. {Lindemann, Corp. 
Gramm. Lat. vol. ii., p. 405.) 

3. Proconsule. Pompey had been consul the year previoue, and 
was now proconsul, having had the province of Spain assigned him 
for the space of five years. 

4. Quoniam ipse ad urhem, &c. " Since he himself (i. e., Pom- 
pey) was remaining near the city with military command, on ac- 
count of the affairs of the republic, that he would order the troops 
vvhich he (Pompey) had raised from Cisalpine Gaul, and which had 
taken the oath of fideUty to the consul, to repau: to their standards 
and come to him (Cjesar)." Pompey, as has already been remarked 
in the previous no'.e, had decreed unto him, while still in his con- 
salship, the province of Spain, with proconsular powers, for the 
space of five years to come, and was allowed permission to levy as 
many troops as, and from whatever quarter, he pleased. {Dio Cass. 
39, 33.) He levied, therefore, a part of his forces in Cisalpine 
Gaul, wh» tc-eii the military oalh to hira as consul. When he was 
preparing, however, to set out for his province, he was opposed by 
certain of the tribunes of the commons, and the result was that Af- 
ranius and Petreius, his lieutenants, were sent into Spain, whll? 
Pompey himself was compelled to remain in Italy. Being invested 
with military command (c«7?i tmperio), he could not by law enter 

he citv, but forced to stay jn its vicinity, or, in other words, 
K K 



1 I "7 witaout ihe walls {ad tirhem). To avoid, however, the appcar- 

ance of compulsory detenlion, Pompey pretended, that he remained 

for the purpose of superintending the supplies of corn for the capital, 

which Coesar here calls " revpublicai causa." (Compare Dic CaS' 

sius, 39, 39.) This duty had been assigned to Pompey, two ycars 

previous, by a law of which Cicero was the proposer. {Cic. ■pio 

Dom. c. 4, seq. — Dio Cass. 1. c.) Now, while Pompey was thus 

remaining near the city, CsEsar requested him to send into Gaul the 

troops which the formcr had levied in Gallia Cisalpina, or Northern 

Italy. Pompey assented to the request, and the forces in question, 

amounting to one legion, were accordingly sent. It is worthy ol 

remark, that this same legion was very artfully obtained back by 

Pompey, near the commencement of the conlest betw-een him and 

Caesar ; a step which gave great offence to the latter {Hirtius, B. G. 

8, 54. — Appian, B. C. p. 446, cd. Stepk.), and which, according to 

Plutarch {Vit. Cces. c. 25), was one of the immediate causes of the 

outbreaking of ihe civil conflict. 

5. Sacramcnto. Consult Archaeological Inde.x. — Rogavissct. 
The subjunctive here, and also in rcmancrct which precedes, rcfers 
to what Caesar had heard from others. The verb rogarc has in tbis 
clause its secondarj' or derivative meaning. It signifies, properly, 
" to ask;" then " to elect to any office," the peoplc being asked 
their opinion relative to the merits of the candidatc, and in the prcs- 
ont instance it means " lo select" or " choose soldiers in a levy," 
tiiey being interrogatcd as to their willingness to bind themselvca 
by the military oath and act the part of good soldiers. Hence \vq 
have in Festus (p. 264, ed. Lind.), "■ Sacramento intcrrogari." 

6. Magni intcressc, &c. " Thinking it of great importancc even 
for the time to come, as regarded the opinions which might bo 
formed by the Gauls, that the resources of Italy should appear so 
great," &c., i. e., thinking it of great importance towards formiiig 
thi» future opinions of the Gauls. 

7. Sarciri. " Be rcpaired." Sarcirc properly means " to rt;- 
pair a garment, or article of clothing generally." Here, howevcr, 
it is employed in a scnse which is very ccmmon among legal 
writers, viz., " to repair dainage," " to makc whole." Thus we 
have in the laws of tlie twelvc tables, " Si quadrupcs paupericm 
faxit, dominus sarcito." On which Festus remarks : " Sarcito, m 
XII., Scr. Siilpicius ait significare damnum solvito, prs^stato." 

8. Majorihus adaugeri copiis. " Bc more than compensated by 
an increasc of forces," i. e., by a more powerful army than beforc 


y. Quod cum Pompeius, &c. " Pompey having granted tliis |J7 
to both the interests of the republic and the claiins of private 
friendship," i. e., both through regard for the republic and privato 
fiiendship. Literally, " to both the repubhc and friendship." 

10. Per suos. " By his officers," i. e., the legati already meri 
Uoned. — Et constilutis et adductis. " Being both formed and 
brought to him." 

1 1 . Popidi Romani disciplina. Corapare the spirited eulogium 
of Valerius Maximus on the discipline of the Roman armies (2, 8) . 
" Disciplina militaris, acriler retenla, principatum Italice Romano 
tmperio pcperit ; multarum urbiv.m, magnorum regum, ct validissi- 
marum gentium rcgimen largita est ; fauccs Poniici sinus patejecit ; 
Alpium Taurique montis convulsa claustra tradidit, ortumque t 
parvula Romuli casa, totius terrarum orhis fecit columen." 

12. Ut docuimus. Consult chapter 58, book 5. — Ncni desistunt. 
Consult chapter 55, book 5. 

13. Jurejurando inter se, &c. "The two parties bind them- 
selves to one another by an oath, and secure the payment of the 
money bymeans of hostages," i. e., the Treviri give hostages to the 
Germans as a security for the money. The verb cavco is used here 
in its legal sense. Compare the explanation of Forcellini : " Ca- 
vere re aliqua est re aliqua, vcluti pignore, sccurum facere.'''' So ca^ 
vere ab aliquo is " to obtain security from one." 

14. Cisrhcnanis omnibus Germanis. The reference is to that 
part of the Belgae who dwelt near the Rhine, namely, the Condrusi, 
Eburones, Cersesi, and Paemani. Compare Davies, ad loc. 

15. Ad imperatum. " To perform what had been commanded 
them." Equivalent to, " ad id prccstandum quod impcratum erat." 

1. Nondum hicme confecta. " Winter being not yet ended," ] 13 
i. e., before the end of winter. 

2. Uti instituerat. " As he had been accustomed to do." He 
was accustomed to hold a council of the states of Gaul every year. 
Compare chapter 44. 

3. Omnia. " Everything else." — Lutetiam Parisiorum. The 
modem Paris. — Hi. Referring to the Parisii. 

4. Sed ab hoc consilio, &LC. " But were supposed not to be con- 
cemed in this plot." More hterally, " to have been away from this 
design." Compare the Greek paraphrase, tth tZv Y.tvdvoiv 0ov\rjs oi 

5. Hac rc, &c. " This adjoumment having been announced 
from the tribunal." The suggestus (called also suggestum) wa» 



1 ] g an elevaled place formed of turf, stone, or wood, accordiiig to cir- 

cumstances. From this speeches were delivered, and the presiding 

officer of a public assembly pronounced his opinion or judgment. 

Representations of it frequently occur upon Roman c«iB6. 

6. Conantibus, &c. " To tbem attempting to do so, before il 
could bc accomplished, word ia bjought," &c. — Deprecandi. " Of 
excusing their acts." Compare the explanation of Davies : " Coe- 
pta siia excusandi." 

7. Adeunt per Aeduos, &c. " They make their application 
through the Aedui, under whosc protection their state was in former 
days." Quorum depcnds in construction on /uie, not on civitas. 
The Senones had been clients and allies of thc Aedui. Compare 
the explanation of Morus : " Scnones crant clientes et socii Aedjio- 
rum ;" and the language of the Greek paraphrase, ToSro Si iia t&v 
'EtSoviuiv, wv Ik tov rdXai vvfiKooi ij<jav, SuTrpd^avTO. 

8. Dat vcniam. " Grants them pardon." — Qttod ccstivum tem- 
pus, &c. " Because he thought, that the summer season was tho 
time for prosecuting war, not for legal investigations." More liter- 
ally, " belonged to war pressing on," or " at hand." 

9. Deprecatoribus . " As intercessors." — Ferunt. " They bear 
away," i. e., receive from Caesar. — Pcragit. " Breaks up." Lit^ 
erally, " finishes." 

10. Totus ct mentc, &c. " Hc applies himself with his whole 
lieart and thoughts." \Ve have altered, in translating, the ordcr of 
menle and animo, in order to adapt the phraseology more to the 
Enghsh idiom. 

11. Cavarijium. Compare chapter 54, book 5. — Ex hujus ira- 
cundia. " From this man"s vioient temper," i. e., his desire of re- 
venge acting upon a disposition naturally irascible. — Ex eo qund 
mcrucrat, &c. " From that hatred on the part of the state, which 
he had incurred." He had bccomc odious to the statc, because 
Caesar had made him king over it. 

IJQ 1. Pro cxplorato. " For certain." — Rcliqua cjus consiaa, 6:c. 
" He watched his other plans attentively," i. e., narrowly ob- 
sorved all his movements. Ejus refcrs to Ambiorix. 

2. Perpeiuis paludthus, &c. " Protected by one continucd ex- 
tent of marshes and woods." Compare ihe Greek paraphrase, cruv- 

lytoi. },iiivati Tt Kat v\ats vdvToOiv -rtpif^ojiivoi. 

3. Hospitium. " A friendship founded upon the ties of hosDi- 
talitv." — Amiciliam. " An alliance." 



4. IUi. Referring to Ambiorix. — Ipsum. AUuding to the JJQ 
name, and put in opposition to auxilia. 

5. In Menapios se abderet. " Might take refuge among the Meu- 
apii," i. e., "might go among the Menapii and hide himself there," 
as the accusative plainly indicates. In Menapiis se abderet would 
imply that he had been for some time among the Menapii before he 
concealed himself. 

6. Congredi. " To connect himself with," i. e., to go and unite 
with. Compare the Greek paraphrase, aviJfiaxiav ■aouXadat. 

7. Loci prcEsidio. " On the strength of their situation." More 
literally, " on the aid which their situation afforded." 

8. Adit tripartito. " Marches against them in three divisions." 
Tripartito is equivalent here to per tres partes simul. The Greek 
paraphrase, in iike manner, has Tfi-xjj. 

9. Hiemabat. Some read hiemaverat ; but hiemabat is the true 
lection, for the winter was not yet over. Oudendorp restored hie- 
mabat lo the test from good MSS., and the authority of the Greek 
paraphrase, which has ■j^djid^ovn rip AaBifjva. 

10. A milUbus, &c. Compare chapter 22, book 4, and consult 
note 13, page 102. 

11. Cum viginti quinque cohortibus. Five-and-twenty cohorts 
were the same as two legions and a half, ten cohorts making a 
legion. Caesar adopts here the former phraseology, as the cohorta 
probably belonged to several different legions. 

1. Flumen. Rhellicanus and Mauutius make this river to have J 20 
been the Mosella, but on this point there is no certainty what- 

2. Augebatur auxiliorum, &c. Referring to the enemy. — Lo- 
quitur. Referring to Labienus. 

3. In dubium non devocaturum. " Will not involve in danger." 
Some read revocaturum, which is altogether incorrect, for he had 
not before exposed them to risk. 

'4. Ut ex magno, &c. " Since, out of a large number of Galhc 
cavalry, nature compelled some to favour the Gallic interests," i. 
e., since it was very natural, that, out of so large a number of Gallic 
horse as were then in the Roman camp, some should be found to 
favour the interests of their countrymen, and convey to them intel 
ligencc of the Roman movements. 

5. Primisque ordinibus. " And chief centurions." Compare 
chapter 30, book 5. 

6. Quid sui sit consilii propontt. " Lays before them his real 

K K 2 


1 20 '''• -f'^5''^ shnilcm jiro/ectionem. Fronlinus (2, 5, 20) makei 
mention of this stratagem of liabienus. 

8. Speratam prcedam. Ciacconius suggests paralam for sptra- 
tam, contrary to all the MSS. The Greek paraphrase has conectly, 
i\iriodetaav 'Xeiav. 

9. Longum esse. " That it was too long," i. e., that it would 
be folly. 

10. Impedilam. " Encumbered with baggage." 

11. EademxLsus, &.c. " Practising the same deception as le- 
garded his march," i. e., kee[iing up the appearance of a retreat. 

12. Facultatcm. " The opportunity." — Tmpcdilo alquc iniquo 
loco. " In an embarrassed and disadvantageous situation." 

13. PrcEstate. " Display." — Adesse eum, &c. " Imagine that 
he is prcsent, and sees these things with his own eyes,"' i. e., and 
is an eyewitness of your actions. 

14. Ad impedimenta dimissis. " Being detached to guard the 
baggage." — Ad laiera. " On the flanks." 

] 21 i. Infestis signis ad se venire. " Coming towards them with 
hostile standards," i. e., marching to attack them. — Impelum 
modo. " Our charge meiely," i. e., even our charge. 

2. Propinqui Indutiomari. Consult chapter 2. —Cingetorigi. 
Consult chapter 3 and 56, book 5. 

3. Ex Mcnapiis. The narrative now goes back lo thc close of 
chaptcr G. — Quarum crat altera. " The one of which was." Some 
editions have una, which is far inferior. 

4. Ne communi odio, &c. " Lest in his common hatred of the 
Germans." — Poenas pendant. " Suffer." 

5. Cognita causa. " On an investigation of the case." 

I 09 1. Barharos afque imperitos homines. " That abarbarous and 
ignorant peoplc." The reference is to the Suevi. 

2. Infinita magnitvdine. " Of prodigious extent." — Bacem.,': 
A part, very probably, of the Hercynian forest. 

3. Ab Sucvis. " On the side of the Suevi." — A''' Cheruscis. 
" On the side of the Cherusci." 

4. Non alienum. " No way foreign to our purpose." — Propo- 
nere. "To treat." More literaUy, " to lay before'' (the reader au 

5. In omnibus pagis, &c. " In all the cantons and parts of can« 
lons." — In singulis domilms. " In each family." 

6. Earumqztc factionvm, (kc. " And the heads of thesc parties 
arp per.^^oiis, who, in thcir «pinion, are supposed to possess th« 


greatesl iiifluence : to whose will and decision the direction of all 123 
aiTairs and counsels is referred," i. e., on whose will and decision 
all their most important affairs and resolutions depend. 

7. Idquc ejns rei causa, &c. " And this custom seems to have 
peen instituted from early times, for the following reason." 

^. Ne qtiis cx plebe, &,c. The reason here assigned was ir. like 
manner the basis of the Roinan institution of patrons and clients. 

9. Quisque. " Each leader," i. e., each patron. — Neque, aliter 
si factant. We have here what grammarians call a syllepsis of 
number, or change from the singular to the plural. Compare Sanct. 
Min. 4, 10 (vol. ii., p. 365, ed. Baucr). 

10. H(Bc eadem ralio est, &c. " This same principle prevails in 
ihe general administration of all Gaul." Compare the explanation 
of Morus : " In summa rerum publicarum, sive in administratione 
elforma universcB civitatis GalliceE." 

11. Alterius factionis, &c. "The Aedui were at tlie head of 
one party." — Hi. " The latter." Referring to the Sequani. — Sum- 
ma auctoritas. "The chief influence." 

12. Jacturis. " Sacrifices," i. e., expenses or gifts. Jactura 
properly denotes what is thrown overboard in a storm in order to 
«ave the rest of the cargo. (Compare Cic. Off. 3, 23.) Here, how- 
ever, it is employed in the sense of pecuniary sacrifices orexpendi- 
tures, or, in other words, of a present loss, in espectation of future 
benefit. Compare B. C. 3, 112, and Cic. ad Att. 6, 1. Consult 
also Gronovius, de Pec. Vet. 4, 4, p. 285. 

1. Tantum poteyUia antecesserant. " The Sequani had so fnr ] 23 
surpassed the latter in power." — lis. Referring to the Aedui. 

2. Romam ad Senalum, &c. Compare note 13, page 18. — In- 
fecta re. " His object being unaccomplished," i. e., without suc- 

3. Commutationc. " A change." This change was brought 
bbout by Caesar's defeat of Ariovistus. — Obsidibus Acduis redditis. 
" Their hostages being given back to the Aedui." 

4. Eorum. Referring to the Aedui. — Aggregaverant. " Had 
attached." — JEquiore imperio. " A more equitable government." 

5. Reliquis rebus eorum, &c. " The rest of their afiairs, their 
Qifluence, their dignity being augmented." In order to avoid am- 
oiguity, amplijicata is here made to agree with dignitate instead of 

6. lyimiscrant. Used here for amiscrant, but more graphic. 

7 Quos ([ uod adceqitarc, &c. As quos begins the clause, it is to 



123 ^^ regarded as equivalent to et eos. " And that, since it wae 
knovvn that they equalled the Aedui in Caesar's favour," &c. 

Quos refers to the Remi, and after adcBqicare we must supply eos, 

i. e., Aeduos. 

8. Se Remis, &c. " Put themselves under the protection of the 
Kemi." More literally, " consigned themselves to clientship under 
the Remi." — Illi. Referring to the Remi. — Collectam. "Ac- 

9. Qui aliquo sunt in numero, &lc. " Who are of any note and 
are held in any estimation." Compare the explanation of Lemaire : 
" Digni hahiti qui recenseantur et numerentur, quasi spectali homi 

10. Genera. " Classes." Literally, "kinds," or " orders.'' 

11. Aere alieno. " By debt." Aes alienum means literally, 
" the money of another," i. e., due or owing to another. The first 
money coined by the Romans was of brass, and hence the use of as 
in this sense. 

12. Magnitudine trihutorum. " The weight of taxes." — Injwna 
" The oppression." More literally, " the injurious," or "insolent 
treatment." — Sese dicant. " Give themselves up." 

13. In hos. " Over these." — Quce dominis, &c. "Asmasters 
possess over their slaves." Equivalent to qua jura sunt dominis, 

14. Alterum est Druidum. " The one is that of tho Druids." 
As regards this priesthood, consult Historical Index, s. v. Dniides. 

15. Illi rebus diviiiis intersunt. " The former take part in sa- 
cred matters," i. e., ofSciate in them. This is explained immedi- 
ately after. The people are said adesse, " to be present" at sacri- 
fices ; the Druids inleresse, " to be present and take a part." 

16. Procurant. " They have charge of." Compare Strabo (4, 
p. 198, Cas.) : cdvov 6e ovk avev SpvioCiv. — Religiones interprttantur. 
"They expound the principles-of rehgion." Compare the Greek 
paraphrase, rriv S^priaKtiav ipn^vdovat. 

17. DisciplincB causa. " For instruction." The Druids wero 
ako a class of public instructers, and taught the doctrines of nst- 
Viial and moral pliilosophy to lie young. Compare Strabo, 4, p. 
197 : ApViiat Si it(>j6s t^ ipvaioXoyiq, Kal rfiv ri9tKi)v ipiSoaoftav iaKOiai. 

18. li. Referring to the Druids. — Eos. Their pupils. 

19. Si ccEdes facta. " If murder has been committed." Supply 
sit. — Proemia poenasque. " The sum to be paid, and the punish- 
ment to bc endured." 



1. Non stetit. " Has not abided by." — Sacrijlciis interdicunt . ] ^A 

•^ They interdict from the sacred rites," i. e., they excommunicate 

2. Adttum eorum, &.c. " AU shun their company and converse." 
—FjX contagione. " By their contact," i. c., by cotning in contact 
with them. 

3. JiLS redditur. " Is justice dispensed." — Neque honos ullus 
communicatur. " Nor do they share any of the honours of the 

4. Dc principaiu. " For the office of presiding Druid." 

5. Totius GallicB media, &c. This remark must not be taken 
in a very strict sense. Compare Cellarius, Geogr. Ant. vol. ii., 
p. 163. 

6. Disciplina. "This institution." Referring to the Dniidical 
system. — Reperla. " To have originated."' 

7. Diligentiu^ eam rem cognoscere. " To become more accu- 
lately acquainted with it." — Illo. " To that island." 

8. Mditice vacationem, (Scc. " They enjoy an exemption from 
military service, and immunities of every kind." 

9. Excitati. " Urged on." Encouraged. — Prcemiis. " Privi- 
leges," or advantages. — In disciplinam conveniunt. " Embrac" 
this profession." 

10. Ediscere. " To leam by heart." — In disciplina. " Ucder 

11. Ea literis mandare. "To commit these things to writing." 
— Cum. " Whereas." — Rationihis. " Transactions." 

12. Idinstituisse. " To have established this custom." — Qiwwi 
ruque in vulgum, &c. " Because they wish neither the doctrines 
of their order to be published to ihe common people, nor those who 
leam, to rely on books and exercise their memory less." 

13. In primis hoc volunt persuadere. " The Draids wish in par- 
ticular to inculcaie this idea," i. e., it is a favourite doctrine with 
the Druids. 

14. Non interire animas, &c. " That the souls of men do not 
|)irish but pass, after dissolution, from one body to another." This 
is the famous doctrine of the transmigration of souls, or metempsy- 
chosis. Compare Strabo (4, p. 196), aipddpTovi ras ^l^vx"? ^'V'""" 
TaXarai. Consult also Lucan, Pharsal. 1, 450 ; Mela, 3, 2 ; Amm. 
MarccU. 15, 9, &c. 

l. Disputant. "They reason." — Et juventuti transdunt "And ]25 
impart theii reflections to the young." 



22} 2. Cumestusus. '• Whenever there is need." 

3. Onines ia hdlo vcrsantur. " Are all engaged in war." 

4. Plurimos ambactos clicntesque. " The greatest iTumber (»f re- 
lainers and clients." Amlaclus is a Gallic term, and signifies a 
retainer, a person attached to a household, who receives a certain 
nire for his services, &;c. Ilence in the old glossaries it is explained 
oy ^ouXoj jHadiaTOi, although ^oSXoj here comes nearer, in meaning, to 
»hcfeudal tcrm " vassal," than tothe Romanword " servus.'" The 
Latin " rninistcr'' would explain its mcaning better than scrvus. In 
Uie Gothic vcrsion of St. Paurs epistle to ihe Romans, we have 
" Waldufni ist andbahts goths," i. e., potestas est ministra dei (J3, 
3, 4) ; and again, 6tdKovos (i. e., ministcr) is rendercd by andbaAts. 
ft is easy to see, therefore, that Dacier is quite wrong, when he 
seeks to make ambactus a word of Latin origin, and to derive it 
from Ambigcre. 

5. Hanc wiam gratiam, &c. " This is the oiily kind of influ- 
ence and authority with which they are acquainted." Compare, as 
regards the force oi gratiam here, the remark of Morus : " Gratiam, 
Benevolentiam, non quam quis aliis ipse gratijicando exhibet, sed in 
qua ipse est apud alios, quam init ab aliis, et per quam sibi concili- 
at potestatcm.'" 

6. Admodum dcdita religionibus. " Exceedingl)' addicted to 
euperstitious rites and observances," i. e., is exceedingly supersti- 
*ious. Religionibus is here equivalent, as Morus remarks, to 
" ritibus sacris, iisque superstitiosis." 

7. Pro victimis homincs immolant. This cruel and barbarous 
.;ustom on thc part of the Gauls is alluded to by many ancient 
writers. Consult Strabo, 4, p. 198, and Diod. Sic. 5, 31. They 
had a custom, also, of divining from such sacrifices the eventsof the 
future, deriving their omens from the palpitations of the hmbs and 
fibres, the flowing of the blood, &c. 

8. Puhliceque ejusdem generis, &.c. Compare the language of 
Placidus Lactantius {in Stat. Theh. 10, p. 368), " Lustrare tivi- 
tatem humana hostla Gallicus mos cst. Nam aliquis dc egentissi' 
niis pcllicichatur prcemiis, ut se ad hoc venderet : qui anno toto pub- 
licis sumtihus ahbatxir puriorihis cibis, denique certo et solemni 
dic, per totam civitatem ductus, ex urbe cxtra pomoeria saxis occidc- 
batur a populu." 

9. Contextaviminibus. " Formcd of interwoven osiers." Slrabo 
1. C.) calls it a colossus of hay, KaTaaKlvdaavTti Ko\o(rai>' ydpTov. 

10. Supplir.ia. " That thc unmolation." Litcrally, " the pun 


islunent," i. c, by ihe species of iinmolation just dcscribed, J^O 
namoly, burning. Diodorus Siculus (5, 32) informs us, that they 
kept iheir criminals for five years, and then bumt them all togelher. 

11. Ejns generis. " Of this class of offenders." S upply «occn- 
tium. — Eliam ad innocentium supplicia. " Even to thc offering up 
of the innocent." 

12. Dcum maxime, &c. " They chiefly worship the god Mer 
cury," i. e., Mercury is the principal or favourite deity of the Gauls. 
By Mercury, Csesar here meaus a Gallic deity whose attributcs in 
some degree resemble those of Mercur}'. This deity is thought by 
some to have been the samc with Woden, whence Wodensdach, or 
wonstag, i. e., Wednesday, or dies Mercurii. Others, however, 
are infavour of Tewia^cs (compare the Mercuriu»-Tcutates oi lAvy, 
26, 44, according to the old reading), and this name Teutates re ■ 
calls the Phcenician Theut. Now, as commerce came into Gaul 
from Phoenicia, it is more than probable that this latter opinion is 
the correct one. 

13. Hunc ferunt. " They regard this deity as." Literally, 
" they report that he is." — Viarum atqueitinerum ducem. " Their 
guide in travelUng and on journeys." 

14. Ad qucestus pecunice, &c. " Exercises a very powerful in- 
fluence over the acquisition of gain and over traffic." 

15. Appollinem. Supply colunl, " they worship." According 
to Ausonius {Prof. 2), the god here styled Apollo was called in 
the Gallic tongue Beleyius. Herodian, however (8, 3), gives the 
Celtic appellation as Belis, which approxiinates more closely to the 
name of the oviental sun-god Baal, to the early Greek form dfiihoi 
(i. e., iXioj with the Doric a and the digamma), and the old Latin 
Apello (i. c., A-hcll-o or Apollo). 

16. Martcm. By Mars is here thought to be meant a Gallic 
deity named Esus, Hcsus, or Heusus. {Lactant. de F. S. 1, 21. 
— Lucan, 1, 445.) Others, hov^-ever, make Hesus to have been 
ihe same with Jove. Compare the Hu^Gadarn ("Hu the power- 
ful") of Welsh tradition. 

17. Jovem. The Gallic name of the deity here raeant was Taran, 
from which Lucan (1, 446) forms Taranis. The root of Tarun 
appears to be the same with Thor, the German Jupiter. In Gaelic, 
Tarann or Torann means " thunder." — Minervam. We have iio 
Cellic name for the deity here meant. 

18. De his eandem fcrc, &.c. In CiDsar's time the resemblance 
bere spoken of wa.s comi)araiively .slight. At a later day, doring 



125 '^® ^'°^^ of theRoman cmperors, the religious systems af Ital» 
and Greece were ingrafted on the Gallic creed, and the points of 

similarity becanie, of course, more manifest. TheVace of the Druids 
also passed away with the ancient faith. 

19. Mi7tcrvam, 6ic. •' That Minerva imparted to mankind tho 
lirst knowledge of manufactures and arts," i. e., first taught the 
principles of arts and trades. Minerva, in the Greek and Roman 
creed, vvas the parent of all the Uberal as well as domestic arts. 

126 ^' QuoR superaverint, 6i.c. " They sacrifice whatever captureJ 
animals may have remained after the conflict." Supply ex cladc 

or prcelio. By animalia capta is here meant live booty in general, 
under which head captives are also included. Hence Athenaeus 
(4, 51, p. 160) remarks, that it was custdmary vvith the Gauls to 
sacrifice their prisoners taken in battle, Svnv tois ■SfoTj rov; aixfiaXiiTovs. 

2. Neglccta religione. " Tlirough disregard of rehgion." — 
Posita tollere. " To remove those things that have been depos- 
ited," i. e., in sacred places. — Ei rei. " For such au offence as 

3. Ah Ditc palrc. " From Dis as th»ir progenitor," i. e., from 
Pluto. Who is actually meant here by Dis, is very hard to say. 
The idea, however, intended to be conveyed would appear to bp, 
that the Gauls were an aboriginal race, and sprung from the earth. 

4. Spatia omnis tcmporis, &c. " They compute all their divis- 
ions of time, not by the number of days, but by that of nights." 
This mode of computation was not confined to the Celtic race. We 
have traces of it even in Scripture, " and the evening and the morn- 
ing were the first day." The Gauls, according to this account of 
Ca3sar's, would not say, for example, aftcr scvcn days, but aftc} 
sevcji nights. Compare the English forms of expression, " seve7i- 
night," and " fortnight." 

5. Ut noctem dies suhsequatur. The meaning is, that they count 
ed their days from sunset to sunset, not from sunrise to suurise. 

6. In reliquis vitcc institutis. " In the other regulations of life." 
— Fcre. " Chiefly." — Ut possint. " So as to be able." — Palain 
ad se adire. " To appear pubUcly before them." 

7. Viri, quantas, &c. " WTiatever sum of money the husbands 
feceive from thoir wives, undcr the Bamc of a dowrj', so much of 
their own property, a valuation having been made, do they add to 
thebe dowries." 

8. Conjunctim ratio hahetur. " A joint account is kept." — Fn/c- 
Ivsque servantuT- " And the interest is laid by." 



9. Vila superarit. "Shall survive the other." — Pars utriusque, ]26 

&c. " The portion of both, together with the interest of the pre- 
vious period," i. e., the joint sum with all the profits till then an- 
eing from it. 

10. In servilem modum, &c. " They examine the wives by toi- 
ture, after the maimer of slaves," i. e., just as slaves are treated 
among us. Among the Romans, citizens gave their evidence upor. 
oath, but could not be put to the rack. Slaves only could be exam- 
ined by torture. 

11. Si compertum est. " If any discovery is made," i. e., if it 
be discovered that the husband was destroyed by poison, assassina 
tion, &c. 

12. Pro cultu Gallorum. " For the Gallic mode of life," i. e., 
considering the little progress which they have made in refinement 
and elegances of life. 

13. Vivis cordi fuisse. " To have been pleasing to the living.' 
The custom here alluded to was common to many of the barbarous 
nations of antiquity. Articles of clotliing, drinking vessels, favour- 
ite slaves, horses, &c., were consumed together with the deceased. 

Id. Ac paulo supra hanc memoriam. " And not long before our 
own time." — Justis funeribus confectis. " After the regular cere- 
monies had been performed." Great diiference of opinion exists 
about the reading as well as sense of this passage. One source 
of difficulty arises from the circumstance of justa being often used 
by the Latin writers as equivalent iofunera, which has made some 
commentators xegzxd. funerihus as a gloss. We have retained, how- 
ever, the common reading, and have given justis the force of legit- 

15. Commodius. "To greater advantage than others," i. e. 
more judiciously, with greater judgment. — Habent legibus sanctum. 
' Ha^e it enacted by law." Sanctum is contracted for sancitum. 

1. Imperitos. " Inexperienced in public affairs." Compare 127 
the Greek paraphrase, intipov; wpaYf^arwv. 

2. Qucz visa sunt. " ^\Tiat they think proper." More liter- 
ally, " what appears proper to be concealed." — Ex usu. " Of ad- 

3. Per concilium. " In council." More literally, " while the 
» ouncil is sitting." 

4. Germani multum, &c. " The Germans, on the other hand, 
diflfer widely from these customs," i. e., differ widely in custom 
from all this. 



J 27 ^- -^'^'*"' neque Druides hahent. Caesar means merely that tbe 
Druidical system did not extend into Germany, not that the Ger- 
rrvans were without priests and priestesses of any kind. Compare 
Tacitus, Hist. 4, 61, 65. — Id. de Mor. Germ. c. 8. 

6. Neque sacrijiciis student. " Nor do they pay much attcntion 
to sacrifices," i. e., they have sacrifices among them, but do not 
pay by any means so miich attention to them as the Ga\ils. 

7. Vulcanum. " Fire." The Germans worshipped the sun ou 
account of -its genial influence ; fire, from its aiding them as a pro- 
tection against cold, and also in the preparation of their food ; and 
*he moon, from its assisting them with its rays during the long 

8. Acceperunt. Ca3sar's statemcnt is contradicted by that of 
Tacitus {de Mar. Germ. 9), who expressly informs us, thatthe Ger- 
mans worshipped Mercury, Hercules, and Mars ; and that a part 
of the Suevi sacrificed to Isis. Ca;sar might easily have been 
deceived, as he passed only a few days within the limits of Ger- 

9. In studiis rei mililaris. " In military pursuits." — Ab parvu- 
!is, &c. " From their very infancy they inure themselves to toil 
and hardship." 

10. Impuhercs. " Chaste." — Maximam inicr suos, &c. Com- 
pare Tacitus (M. G. 20), " Sera juvenum vemis," and Pomponius 
Mela, 3, 3, " Longissima apud eos pueriiia est." 

11. Cujus rci nulla est occultatio. Compare the explanation of 
Lemaire : " Incognita cst apud eos occultatio partium virilium. 
Non occultant scxum ; ideo facile dignoscuntur ii qid commercium 
aliquod hahuerunt cum feminis.'" 

12. Aut parvis rhenorum, &c. " Or smjll coverings of deer- 
tiides." By rheno is here meant a covering of the skin of the rein- 
deer. The name is supposed to come from rhen (rane or rein), a 
epecies of animal which we term reindcer. Compare Isidorus (19, 
23), " Rhenoncs sunt vclamina humerorum ct pectoris usque ad 

13. Agricultura non student. " They do not pay much atten- 
ion to agriculture." The expression non studcre rei is equivalent 

to non magnopere operam dare. Cajsar does not mean, that the 
Germans ncglected agriculture entircly, but merely that il did not 
occupy any large share of their attention. Compare note 6. — Con- 
sistit. "Is spent." 

14. Agri modum certum, &c. " Any fixed portion of land, or 


lunits which he can call his own," i. e., or ground especially ap- J27 

propriated to him in ownership. 

15. Gentihus cognationibusque, &c. " To the tribes and fam- 
ihes," <Stc. The term gentilms is here equivalent to the Greek 

16. Quantum, &c. " As much land as, and where, they see 
fit." — Alio. " To a different quarter." 

17. Ejus rei, &c. " They advance many reasons for this prac- 
tice." — Assidua consueludine. " By long continued custom," the 
custom of residing in, and cultivating, the same places. — Studium. 
belli gerendi, &c. " They may exchange their attention to war for 

18. Latos fines. " Extensive possessions," i. e., extensive 
landed property. 

19. Humiliores. " The weaker." Equivalent to tenuiores or 
tnfirmiores. Compare Seneca {de Ira, 1, 3), " Nemo tam humilis 
est, qui poenam vel summi hominis sperare non possit." 

20. Accuratius. " With greater care." — Qua cupiditas. Qua 
for aliqua. 

21. Animi (Zquilate. " In evenness of temper," i. e., in a cou- 
tented frame of mind. 

1. Vastatis finibus . " By the desolation of their frontiers," i. 128 
e., by laying waste the country that lies on their borders, and 
driving out the nations by whom it had been inhabited. 

2. Propriumvirtut^s. " A peculiar proof of their valour." More 
hteraHy, " peculiar to th^iir valour." 

3. Defendit. " Repels." Equivalent to propulsat. Compare 
Ennius : " Serva cives, defende hostes, cum poles defendere ;" and 
Quintus Claudigarius : " Defendchat hostes a pinnis facillime." 
{Enn. Fragm. ed. Hessel. p. 219.) 

4. Sed principes, &c. " But the chiefs of the provinces and 
cantons administer justice, and decide controversies among theii 
tespective followers." 

5. DesidicR minuenda. " Of removing sloth." Minuenda is 
liere equivalent to tollendce, a meaning which this verb not unfre- 
quently has among the best writers. Compare the e.Tpression " con- 
iroversias minuunt,'" just preceding, and also B. G. 5, 26. The 
Lacedaemonians permitted predatory excursions, for a reason exactly 
similar to the one here assigned. {Davies, ad loc. — Cragius, de 
Rcp. Laced. 3, p. 181.) 

6. Profiteantur. "May give in theirnames." — Causam. "The 



128 eiiterprise." — Ex iis. " Of thcse," i. e., of the individuals wKo 
have given in their naraes, and e.xpressed their readiness to fo.low 

him as a leader. 

7. Omniumque rerum, &c. " And all credit in everything is 
after this withheld from them." 

8. Hospites violare. " To offer violence to strangers." — Qui. 
" All persons who." Supply omnes before qui. 

9. Trans Rhenum colonias, &c. Csesar refers probably to the 
same period that Livy mentions, 5, 34. The latter speaks of a 
GalUc colony having migrated, when Tarquinius Priscus was king 
at Rome, from Iheir own country, towards the Hercynian forest. 

10. Eratostheni. Consult Historical Index. — Orcyniam. The 
true root of the name is the German Hartz, i. e., Hartzwald. 
Consult Geographical Index. 

11. Summamque hahet, &lc. " And enjoya very high reputatiou 
for justice and military prowess." Laus is here employed to sig- 
nify, not prais€ itself, but what calls for praise. Compare Forcel- 
iini : " Laus metonymicc dicitur de recte factis, et virtutc, quia hi.j 
laudem meremur." 

12. In eadem inopia, &c. " In the same scarcity, want, and 
hardiness as the Germans." — Eodem victu, &c. " The same sort 
of diet and clothing." 

13. Gallis. Referring to those of the Volcoe Tectosages who 
had not migrated with the rest of that nation into Germany, but 
had remained in Gaul. — Et transmarinarum, &c. " And their ac- 
quaintance with foreign commodities." More literally, " things 
r.hat have crossed the sea." 

14. Multa ad copiam, &c. " Supplies many articles of luxury 
as well as convenience." 

129 ^- Expedito. " To an expeditious traveller." — Finiri. " Be 
computed." Put here for dimetiri, i. e., to ascertain a space from 

limit to hmit. 

2. Oritur ab Helvetiorum, &c. " It begins at the confines of the 
Helvetii," &c. — Rectaque fluminis, &c. " And stretches directly 
along the river Danube." More literally, " in a direct line {recta 
regione) as regards the river Danube." The direction hcre meant 
is an eastern one. 

3. Sinistrorsus, divcrsis ah flumine rrgionibas. " To the left 
hand, in a different direction from thc river," i. e., it turns off froi» 
tho left bank of the Danube, and stretchcs to the north. 

4. Hitjus Germaniae. " In thi.s part of Germany."— Cum 
" Althougl.." 


b. Memorice prodenda. " Worthy of being handed down to ro- ] OQ 

membrance." Compare the Greek paraphrase : roC a-nofivrinovtita- 

Bat u^iu. 

6. Est bos cervi Jigura. The animal here described is, accord- 
ing to Cuvier, the reindeer. To the same effect are Buffon {Hist. 
Nal. vol. xii., p. 82, cd. 1764, 4to) and Beckmann (Buschings Ab- 
handhmgen). The term bos employed by Caesar has misled many, 
and induced them to imagine that the bison was meant, than which 
uothing can be more erroneous. The Romans were accustomed to 
iise the term bos when speaking of any large-sized animal before 
unseen. Compare the expression Lucasboves appliedto elephants. 
(Varro, L. L. 6, Z.—Plin, H. N. 8, 6.) 

7. Unum cornu existit. " There grovvs a single horn." 

8. SicutpalmcB. "Likepalms." The reference is to the leaves, 
uot to the tree itself. Beckmann, however, understands by palmce 
hcre the blades of oars. 

9. Alces. According to Cuvier, the animal here meant is the 
" elk," or " elendthier" of the Germans, and elan of the French. 
Caesars description, however, he very justly regards as altogether 
false, but remarks, that the very same disadvantages under which 
the alces labour according to Csesar, are ascribed in popular be- 
lief to the elk, whence its German name " elend," which means 
" miserable." Compare Buffon, Hist. Nat. vol. xii., p. 83. 

10. Varietas pellium. " The varied colour of their skins," i. e., 
their dappled or spotted skins. 

11. Mutilceque sunt cornibus. This account does not, of course, 
suit the elk, unless Caesar saw merely the female animal. Perhaps, 
however, he merely describes the elk from the account of others, 
and in this way has fallen into error. Compare note 9. 

12. Siue nodis articulisque. " Without ligatures and joints.' 
This, of course, is incorrect. A stiff appearance of the limbs ma^ 
have given rise to the opinion. 

13. Quo afflictcR casu. " Having been thrown down by any ac- 
cident," i. e., having accidentally fallen. — Erigere sese, &c. " Tc 
raise or help themselves." 

14. Se applicant. "They lean." — Pauhcm modo recUnata. 
" Reclining only a little." 

15. A radicibus subruunt. " Loosen at the roots." — Accidum 
tantum. " Cut in so far."— Summa species. " The full appear- 

16. Infirmas arbores, iScc. " They throw down bv their weigh', 
the trees " 

L L 2 



129 ^^- Tertium cst genvs eoruni, &c. " The third kind of these 
animals consists of those which are called Uri." According to 
Cuvier, a species of mountain bull is here meant. The same dis- 
tinguished naturalist thinks, that the bison and urus mark two dis- 
cinct species, and that those writers, therefore, are in error who 
make the urus and bison the same animal. The German term for 
the urus is auer-ochs, contracted into wrochs (whence the Latin 
urus), and meaning "bull," or " o.x, of the mountain," i. e., wild 
bull, or wild ox. 

18. Paulo infra elcplMiitos. " A little less than elephants." 
Here again Caesar speaks from hearsay, as tlie exaggoration respect- 
ing the size of the urus plainly indicates. 

J 30 1- Hos studiose fovcis, &:.c. " These they take pains to catch 
in pits, and so kill them." 

2. In the common text homincs aiolescentes, but 
homines is not found in several MSS., and is quite uimccessary. — 
Exercent. Supply se. 

3. Qucesint testimonio. " To serv'e as a proof." Equivalent tc, 
vt ea sint teslimonio. 

4. Sed assuescere ad homines, &c. " These animals, however 
cannot, even though taken quite young, become accustonied to'man 
ind tamed," i. e., become domesticated and tamed. Compare, as 
regards the expression parvuli excepti, the languagc of the Greek 
oaraphrase : veoyvobi ^aSSvTts. 

5. Amplitudo cornuum, &c. " The size, shape, and species of 
their horns." — Hctc studiose conquisita, &c. " These horns thcy 
carefully seek after, encompass them with silver around the rim.s, 
and use them for drinkmg cups at their most splendid feasts." 
This custom appears to have been very common among all the 
northem nations of Europe. Drinking vessels entirely of gold and 
silver, and fashioned like horns, have been dug up in Denmark. 
In the Runic calendars, moreovcr, festal days are marked by horns. 
Consult also Athenjeus, 2, 51. 

6. CcRsar yostquam, &LC. Havingiinishedhisdigressionrespect- 
ing the manners, &c., of the Gauls and Germans, Cxsar here 
resumes his narrative, from which hc had broken ofF at chaptcr 11. 

7. Inopiam frumenli ventus. Dio Cassius says (40, 32), tiiat 
Caesar was in fact afraid of the Suevi ; but this is not probable. — 
Supra demonstravimus . Consult chapter 22. 

8. Bellum Amhiorigis. Compare chapter 5. — Pcr A' duennam 
silvam, &c. These words and all that follow, as far as patet, m- 



ciiisive, are strongly suspected of being an interpolation, for they \ 3Q 

are absent from the Greek paraphrase, and appear, moreover, to 
clash with what has been stated in the third chapter of the 5th book. 
The nuraber, too, of miles in length (five hundred), is altogether too 
great. D'Anville thinks that the true reading was CL. (i. e., ccn- 
tiim et qxmiquagitUa), from which, by an easy error on the part of 
the copyist, arose the other lection D. (i. e., quingentis). 

9. Si quid celcritate, &c. " To see if he may be able to gain 
any advantage by rapidity of march and favourable opportunity." 

10. Subsequi. According to the grammarians, the present is 
here employed for the future, subsecuturum esse. {Perizon. ad 
Sanct. Min. 1,13.) In truth, however, Cassar here uses the pres- 
ent purposely, instead of the future, to give the narrative a more 
animated air, and bring the actions more directly before the eyes of 

reader. Translate, therefore, "that he follows." 
' 1. Basilus. He was afterward one of the conspirators vvho 
•ssassinated Cassar." — Ut impcratum est. " As was ordered." 

12. Multum potest. " Exercises a powerful influence." — Magno 
casu. " By a singular accident." — Ipsum. " Ambiorix himself." 

1. Priusque ejus adventus,&.c. " And his arrival itself was ob- 13 I 
served by the people, before any rumour or intelligence of that ar- 
rival was brought." AU this is wanting m the Greek paraphrase. 
The true reading, moreover, is rendered very uncertain by the vari- 
ations of the MSS. 

2. MagruB fuit foTtuna, &c. " It was a piece of great good 
fortune on his part, that, after every implement of war, which he 
had around him, was taken away," &c. 

3. Hoc eo factum est. " It happened in this way." More liter- 
ally, " on this account." 

4. Anguslo in loco. " In a narrow pass." — Ulum in equum, &c. 
" One of his friends mounted him on horseback." 

5. Amhioriz copias suas, &c. " It is a matterof doubt whether 
Ambiorix did not draw together his forces through choice," i. e., 
purposely avoided assembling his forces. — An tempore exclusus, 
&c. " Or whether he was excluded from this step by the shortness 
of the time, and prevented from so doing by the sudden arrival of 
our horse, believing, at the same time, that the rest of our army was 
coming after." 

6. Sed certe, &c. " But one thing is certain, that he ordered," 

7. In continentes paludes. The Greek paraphrast orrs in render- 



131 ^^S ^^^ *^f '■" ^^voiov «X17. The term continentes is here equiva- 
lent to continuas. Compare B. G. 3, 28. 

8. Alienissimis. " To total strangers." — Cativolcus. The 
Greek paraphrast calls him KarifiouXfcoj. 

9. Onuiibus prccibus, &c. " Having, with every kind of execra- 
tion, devoted Ambiorix to the gods below, for having been the 
author of that design, killed himself with yew, of which tree there 
is an abundance in Gaul and Germany." The expression precibus 
detcstari is equivalent here to diris devovere, i. e., to devoln a per- 
son to destruction with bitter imprecations. Compare the Oreek 
paraphrase, ■Kdaats KaTtipdaaro Kardpaii. 

10. Taxo. With the juice of the berry, or a decoction of the 
leaves, both of which are regarded as extremely poisonous to men 
and animals. (Compare PHn. H. N. 16, 10.) A modem writer, 
however, cited by Fee {Flore de Virgile, p. 159), maintains, that 
the yew is harmless and may be used with advantage in medicine. 

11. Omniutn Germanorum, &c. "Thatthere was one common 
cause for all the Germans," &c., i. e., that they were all joined in 
one common cause. 

12. Quccstione captivorum. " From an examination of the pris- 

J 32 ^- ■^'luatucam. All the MSS. and early editions had ad Vatu- 

cam, which Ursinus first, and after him Valesius {Notit. Gall. p 

566), joined into one word -Aduatucam. A town of the Eburones 

is meant, as appears from what is iminediately after added, and not 

the city of the Aduatici. 

2. Quintum Tulimm Ciceronem. The brolher of the orator, 
and already mentioned in the fifth book, chapters 38, 39, &c. 

3. Sabim. The editions have Scaldem, which creates very great 
difEcuIty, since the Scheldt does not flow into the Meuse, and the 
" Sylva Arduenna" did not extend to the confines of the Menapii, 
and the junction of the Scaldis and Mosa, if auch junction ever ex- 
isted. The Greek paraphrase, moreover, has "ZdBiv. They who de- 
fend the reading Scaldcm, suppose that the Scheldt and Meuse 
formed a junction in Csesar's time, and that the aspect of the coun- 
try has become subsequently altered. 

4. Post dicm septimum. Supply inchoatum. The phrase is 
cquivalent to antc diem scptimum Jlnitum. Consult Clericus, Art. 
Crit. 2, 1, c. 10, 5. 

5. Vt supra demonstravimus. Coinpare chapter 31. — Manus 


terta nulla. " No regular force."' Because Ambiorix had riot ] ^J^ 

drawn togethcr his forces, but had ordered them to lie concealed. 

6. Vicinitatibus. '* To those who dvvelt in the neighbourhood." 
Compare Nepos, Alcih. 3, " Vicinitati negotium dant ;^^ and Sue- 
tonius, Vit. Aug. 6, " Tenetgue vicinitatem opi7iio." Wehave here, 
to adopt thc language of grammarians, the abstract for the concrcte. 

7. Magnamque diligentiam, &.c. "And it required great vigi- 
lance, on the part of Caesar, not indeed to secure the safety of the 
whole army (for no danger could happen to them in a body, from a 
terrified and scattered foe), but to save the soldiers individually." — 
Ex parte. " In some measure." 

1. Confertos. " In large parties." 133 

2. Vellet. Supply Ccesar. — Diducendi. Equivalent to divi- 
dendi. Compare the Greek paraphrase, xai cls TroXXa iiajitpiaTtov >jv 
rd aTpdTiVjjia. 

3. Instituta ratio. " The established discipliue." Comparetho 
Greek paraphrase, i; raiv 'Puftalnv 6iSa)(rj. 

4. In 7iocendo aliquid omitteretur. Csesar means, that he rather 
omitted an opportunity of injuring the enemy, than injured them to 
the detriment of his own soldiers. 

5. Legionarius miles. " The soldiery of the legions," i. e., tho 
Rocian soldiers, who composed the regular legions. 

6. Pro tali facinore. " As a punishment for such an offence," 
i. e., as was that which they had committed. — Stirps. "The 
race." — Tollatur.' " May be annihilated." Those of the Eburones 
who survived on this occasion became merged in the name and na- 
tion of the Tungri. Compare Rittcr, Hist. Gall. p. 107. 

7. Magmis undiq^ie, &c. There is nothing corresponding to this 
in the Greek paraphrase. 

8. Appetebat. " Was drawing near." — Reverti constituerat. 
Compare chapter 33. 

9. Et quanlos afferat casus. " And what changes she brings 
about." Literally, "how great accidents she brings with her" 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, koI ndaas a-irepyd^tTai avvTv^^las- 

10. Manus erat nulla. " There was no collected body." 

11. Ultro. "Freely." 

12. Supra docuimus. Compare book 4, chapter 16. 

13. Erat perfectus. " Had been constructed." Perfectus ia 
oere equivalent to confectiim, or the simple factus. Many read im- 
<oerfectus, and translate the clause, " where the bridge was incom- 
j)l«te," i. e., partially destroyed, or broken oft". by Cajsar. This 



133 usage of iviperfeclus, however, is estremely harsh, arid hardly in 

accordance with the idiom of the language. The term would 
rather carry with it the idea of somethmg that had never been com- 
pleted. If any change be allowed in the text, it would be perhaps 
the conjecture of Achaintre, who suggests pcrsectus for pcrfectus. 

14. Mullos ex fuga, &c. " They intercept many stragglers at- 
lempting to escape." 

15. Non hos palus, &c. " No marsh, no woods retard these 
men, bred up amid war and depredations." 

134 1- Fortunatissimis. A GrEecism (or fortunatissimos. This 
construction is classed by grammarians under the head of attrac- 

tion. Compare Zumpt, L. G. p. 366. 

2. Prcesidii tantum cst. " There is so little of a garrison." 
Tantum is equivalent here to tam parum. Compare B. C. 3, 2, 
" Tantum navium." — Ut 7ie murus, &c. " That the walls cannot 
even be manned." Compare the Greek paraphrase, loarc Kai itfi 
6vvaa6ai av ri tov tpvfxaTOi «r^oj ava^irXripovv. 

3. Usi eodem duce. " Having taken the same individual for a 

4. De Jiumcro dierum, &c. " That Cssar would keep his promise 
respecting the number of days," i. e., during which he intended to 
be absent. Compare chapter 33. 

5. Qui illius patientiam, &c. " Who called his forbearance al- 
most a siege," i. e., complained that he kept them within the camp, 
with almost the same strictness as if an cnemy were besieging the 

6. Nullum ejusmodi casum, &c. " Expecting no event of such 
a nature, as that by means of it any harm could be received within 
tfiree miles of his camp, while there were nine legions, and a very 
large body of cavalry opposed to the foe, and the enemy themselves 
were dispersed and ahnost annihilated." The nine legions, here 
referred to, were stationed in various quarters against the enemy. 
Cicero had with him the thirteenth legion and two hundred horse. 

7. Qui koc spatio, &c. " As many as had recovered in those 
few days," i. e., the days which had elapsed since Caesar^s depar- 
ture. — Suh vexillo una mittuntur. " Are sent out along with the de- 
tachment, under a standard of their own," i. e., in a scparate body 
By vexillum is commonly meant the standard or banner of the cav 
alry ; here, however, it denotes one urj^er whicli the veteran fool 
who belonged to no particular legion. or the soldiers who were de- 
tached from their lcgion, were accustomed to fight. Compare Lip- 
eius, Mil. Rom. p. 4S. 



8. Subxcdcrat. " Rcmained." | iA 

9. Casu. Thc common tcxt has ct casu, but we have rejected 
the copulative as Clarkc and Oudendorp recommend. Compare 
the Greek paraphrase : iv tout<^ Se icaro avvTv^^tav. 

10. Ab decumana porta. " By thc decuman gate." This was 
Ihe gate in the rear of the camp. Consult Archaeological Indes. 

11. Qui sub vallo, &c. " The sutlers, who had their tents 
pitched close to the ramparts." Tenderent is equivalent hcre to 
tcntoria habcrcnt. Compare Virgil, JEn. 2, 29 : '^ Hic Dolopum 
manus, hic savus tendebat Achilles." On the other hand detenderc 
is to break up an encampment. Compare B. C. 3, 85 : " Taber- 
naculisque detensis.'" 

12. Mercatores . The sutlers were not allowed to reside within 
the camp, but pitched their tents without. They werc so iiear, 
however, as easily to take refuge within the encanipment, in case of 
any alarm. On thc present occasion, the German horse came too 
suddenly upon them to allow of any escape. 

1. Portas yiostri tucntur. The German horse came directly 13/) 
up to the gates, as there were no ditches in front of these. — Re- 
liquos aditus. " The other avenucs of cntrance." 

2. Neque quam in partem, &c. " Nor to what quarter each one 
is to betake himself " 

3. Plerique novas, &c. " Most of them form unto themselves 
strange superstitious notions, from the place where they were." 
The encampment ^ore an ill-omened appearance in their eyes, as 
connected with the overthrow of Sabinus and Cotta. 

'1. Captivo. The prisoner mentioned in chapter 35, and whom 
they had taken as a guide. 

5. Qui primum pilum, &c. " Who had been chief centurion 
with Caesar." Compare note 11, page 46. 

6. Superioribus prcBliis. Consult book 2, chapter 25, and book 
3, chapter 5. 

7. In stationc. " On guard." The term statio gets the mean- 
iug here given it from its referring to a body " standing'" at their 
post on guard. 

8. Relinquit animum Scxtius. " Sextius faints." Davies is 
wrong in translating this, " Sextius dies." The Greek paraphrast 
givcs thc true meaning, iXmo^vxvt- From what follows, it will 
be perceived thal Sextius was still alive, for how can one be said to 
be dead who is immediately after said to have been saved 1 The 
error arcse Irom confounding the phrase rclinquere animum, " to 
fauit," with relinquere animam, " to die." 



I o;^ 9. Modo coriscripH, &;c. '■ Those who had been only lately en- 

listed, and were, consequently, not famdiarwith the usages of war." 

] 30 ^- (^'O^loncs. " The servants." Compare book 2, cbapter 

24, and consult Archaeological Index. — In signa, manipulosque. 

" Among the standards and maniples," i. e., among the very ranks 

of the soldiers. Compare the Greek paraphrase, d; auroj toj ri» 

2. Cuneo facto. " Having formed a wedge." Soldiers vven; 
drawn up in the form of a wedge, in order to cut through the ene- 
my'shnes. Accordingto Vegetius (3, 19), the Roman soldiers call 
this arrangement caput porcinum. It seldom failed of proving suc- 
cessful, since the missiles of those who composed it were all aimed 
at one point. 

3. Si. " Even if."— ^;. " Yet." 

4. Nullo etiam nmic, &c. " Having as yet acquired no military 
experience." Compare the explanation of Achaintre, " Qui non- 
dum rei militaris expericnliam habebant." 

5. Ex inferioribus ordinibus. " From the lower ranks." — Erani 
transducti. " Had been promoted." More literally, " had been 

6. Fidem non facerct. " He could not induce them to belicve." 
Literally, " he could not gain credit," i. e., for himself. — Adesse 
Ccesarem. Hotomannus thinks that the following passage of Sue- 
tonius has reference to the events mentioned in this chapter. 
" CcEsar obsessionc castrorum in Germania nunciata, per stationes 
hostium, Gallico habitu penetravit ad suos." The opinion is a veni 
probable one ; but for in Germania, we must read in Gallia a Get 

7. Pane alienata mente. " As if almost divested of reason " 
Literally, " with an almost alienated mind." 

37 1. Unumquestus. " Having found fault with only one thing." 
Literally, " having complained of," &c. 

2. Ex statione ct prcesidio csscnt cmisscz. " Had been sent ofl 
from guard and garrison." — Casu. Old form of the dative for casui. 

3. Maxime mirandum videbatur. " It appeared the most sur- 

4. Optatissimum Ambiorigi, &c. " Had incidentallv rendered 
a most acceptableservice to Ambiori.T." 

5. Omnes vici, &c. A dreadful picture. Compare ihe remark 
of Barron : " Harrenda malorum et cenimnartim qucB bellum seaim 
ajjcrt imago hic iiobis rcprcrsentatur.''' 


•. Ac saepe in eum locum, &c. " And matters often canie ta 1 ^T* 

Buch a pass (i. e., it often happened) from the number of horse 

ihat were scattered in all dircctions, that the captives declared Am- 

worix had just been seen by them in his flight, and was not even yet 

gone entirely out of sight ; insomuch that some, who thought to 

stand high in the favour of Cssar, being inspired with the hope of 

ovcrtaking him, and having assumed a task of infinite labour, almost 

overpowered natare by their zeal." 

7. Ad summam fellcitatem. " To complete success." — Atque 
tlle, &c. " Wliilc he kept snatching himsclf from their hands by 
tlie aid of lurking-plac«s Dr forests." 

8. Duarum cohorttum damno. Referring to the two cohorts cut 
to picces by the Sicambri. 

9. De Accone. ConsuR chapter 4. 

10. More majorum supplicium surrisit. " He inflicted punish 
jnent according to the custom of our ancestors," i. e., he pvmished 
*ccording to ancientRoman ujage. WTiat this punishment was we 
Jeam from Suetonius {Ner. 4!>i) : " Nudi hominis cervicem inseri 
'urcce, corpus virgis ad nccem cjedi." 

1. Quibus cum aqua, &c. '* After he had interdicted these 138 
v^om firo and water," i. e., had feanished them. The expression 
tLqucB ct ignis interdictio, or the forbidding one the use of fire and 
water, was the Roman judicial form of inflicting the sentence of 
banishment. By the operation of this formula the individual was 
banishcd from Italy, but might go to any other place he chose. In 
the present case, it means banishment from the land of Gaui. 

i. Exercitu. Old dative for exercitui 

M y 



140 ^- Cognoscit de Clodii cade. " He rcceivfs intclligcnce of tbe 

death of Clodius." A turbulent and licentious Roman, slain in 
an encounter by Milo, or rather by the retinue of the latter at tho 
command of their master. 

2. Senatus consulto. In consequence of the troubles attendant 
npon the death of Clodius, the Senate passed a decree that the In- 
terrex for the time being, the tribunes of the commons, and Pompey, 
who vvas outside the city, and proconsul, should see that the re- 
public suffered no injury, and that the last-mentioned individual 
should hold a general levy throughout all Italy. 

3. Ut omnes, &c. " That all the youth of Italy should take up 
arms." In dangerous wars, or on sudden emergencies, the rcgular 
raodc of raising soldiers was dispensed with. Two fiags v^-ere dis- 
played from the capitol, one red for the infantry, and the other of a 
green colour for the cavalry. On such occasions, as there was no 
time for taking the mihtary oath in due form, the consul or com- 
mander mercly said, " Qui rcmpuhlicam salvam esse imlt, me sc- 
quatur.^' This was called conjuratio, or evocatio, and men thus 
raised were styled conjurati, as being bound all at once by a mili- 
tary oath or engagement, i. e., quia simul jurabant. On the con- 
trary, when the regular oath was taken, one soldier was chosen to 
repeat over the words, and the rcst swore after him, every one as he 
passed along, saying, " idem in mc." Consult Lipsius, Mil. Rom. 
1, dial. 6, p. 42, and Stcwecchius, ad Veget. c. 6, p. 20. 

4. Retineri urhano motu Ccesarem. Plutarch well rcmarks, that 
had Vercingetorix waited a little longer, until Cojsar was actually 
engaged in the civil war, the rising of the Gauls would have ap- 
peared not less formidable to the Romans than the inrcad of the 
Cimbri and Teutones. {Vit. Cces. c. 27.) 

141 ^- J^e Acconis morte. Consult the last chaptcr of the previc us 
book. — Hunc casum, &c. "That this fate may fal! in turn on 




2. Deposcunt, qui bclli, &c. " They call on some to begiii thc 1 4 1 
war, and assert the freedom of Gaul at the hazard of their own 

3. E)us in primis rationem habendam. " That care should be 
(aljen in particular of this," i. e., that this point ought particularly 
lo be attended to. 

4. In acic prcEstare interfici. " That it was better to be slain in 
battle." Comparc the Greek paraphrase, KdXXiov tlvai c\eyov fia-^ofii- 

vnvi a(pai iv vapard^ti aJToOvijaKiiv. 

5. Et quoniam, &c. " And since they cannot, at present, give 
hostages among themselves, as a security that the affair shall not 
be divulged, they require that an assurance be given them, by oath 
and on honour, the military standards being brought together for this 
purpose, by which custom their most sacred ceremonies are guarded." 
Continere is here employed in the sense of custodire. Compare 
Cic. in Vatin. c. 5, " Non custodem ad continendas, sed portitorem 
ad partiendas merces missum putatis ;" and Terence, Eun. 1, 2, 
23, " QucB vera audivi taceo, et contineo optime.^^ 

6. Ihiconstilcrant. " Had established themselves there." Su[j 
ply sese. — Honestum equitern Romanum. The term honestus was 
specially applied to the knights, as illustris was to the senators. 
The Greek paraphrast well espresses honestum here by Ka^Av 

7. Illustrior. " More remarkable than ordinary." 

8. Centum et sexaginta. Supply passuum, which appears in 
the common text, though omitted in many MSS. 

1. Simili ratione. " In like manner." — Vercingetorix. The 1 19 
narae Cingetorix is equivalent, according to Celtic scholars, to 
Cim-cedo-righ, i. e., " chieftain of a hundred heads," or, in other 
words, " a captain," or " leader." Vercingetorix is the same ap- 
pellation strengthened by a prefi.t, Ver-cim-cedo-righ, and means 
"great captain," or " generalissimo." These are evidently two 
litles of office, and the personal or proper names of the two indi- 
viduals have perished. {TTiicrry, Hist. des Gaulois, vol. iii., p. 97, 

2. GallicB totius. The reference is to Celtic Gaul, not to the 
whole country. Gompare B. G. 1, 1. 

3. Quoscunque adit, &c. " As many of his countrymen as he 
has access to." Civitate is here equivalent in effect to tota regione. 

4. Ex civifate. " From the state," i. e., from the country of the 
Arverni at large. Campare note 6, page 175, and the nsage of tho 



1 42 ^■'■^^^ language in the case of the substautive riJXif . — Appellalur 
*• He is saluted." 

5. Qui occanum attingunt. The Armoric states are meant. 
Comparc book 2, chapter 34, and book 5, chapter 53. 

6. EJficiat. " Is to prepare." — Quodquc wKte tcmpus. "And 
before what time." — hi primis equitatui studcf. " He tums his 
attention in particular to cavabry." 

7. Summam imperii sevcritatem. " The utmost rigour of au- 
thority." — Magnitudine supplicii, &c. " He brings over the waver- 
ing by the severity of his punishments." 

8. Aut singulis ejfossis oculis. " Or having put out one of their 
eyes." Some give a dififerent turn to the clause, " haviiig put out 
their eyes for each," making singulis the dative. Thc formcr, 
however, is preferable. 

9. Cadurcum. " The Cadurcan," i. c., one of thc Cadurci. So 
the Greek paraphrase has tov KaHovpKov. 

10. De consilio legatorum. " By the advicc of the lieutenants." 
— Ad cxercitum. " With the army." 

11. Qui. An instance of what grammanans call syncsis, where 
the relative agrees in gender, not with the antecedent, but with tlie 
pcrson or thing to which that antecedent refers. 

1^3 1- Jp^i- Referring to tlie Bituriges. 

2. Id cane de causa, &c. " Whether they acted thus for the 
reason which they mentioned to thc lieutenants," &c. 

3. Quod nihil nohis constat. " Inasmuch as wc havc no proof 
on the subject." 

4. His rcbus in Italiam, &c. " Irvtelligcnce of thcsc things 
being brought into Italy to Ca3sar." The student vvill mark the 
force of the construction in Italiam. 

5. Vrlanas res, &c. Alluding to the agency of Pompcy iii 
quieting the disturbanccs that cnsued after the death of Clodius. — 
Commodiorem in statum. " Into a more settled state." 

6. Qui co tempore pacati vidcrcntur. For thcy might still enter- 
tain hostile feehngs towards him, and would, thereforc, gladly seize 
this opportunity of gratifying those feelings. 

7. Omnihus consiliis, &c. " That he ought to prcfer a setting 
out for Narbo, to all other plans," i. e. ought to go to Narbo before 
hc did anythiiig else. 

8. Rutcnis provincialilus. " The Ruteiii of the Roinan prov- 
ince." The allusion is to those of the Rutcni whose towns werc 
incorporatod in thc provincc, F»r there wcu» others without its 



liiDils. Compare the Greek paraphrase, tuv iv rjj tKapxiq 'fovTtivuv 143 


9. Iii Hclvios comenire. " To rendezvous among the Hclvii," 
i. e., to go unto the Helvii and assemble there. 

10. Reprcsso jam, &.c. " Lucterius being novv checked and 
obligcd to retire." — Inlra prasidia. " Within the line of Roman 

11. Durissimo, &c. " It being the most inclement season of 
the year." — Discussa. " Being cleared away." Oudendorp pre- 
fers discisa, " being cut away," i. e., with axes, &c., as referrino- 
to the^frozen snow. 

1. Singulari qmdem homini. " Even to a single person." 14.1 
Much less, therefore, to an army. The passage of Mount Ce- 
benna is to be ranked among the most memorable achievements of 

2. Quod hcBc de Vercingetorige, &c. " Because he had already 
conceived in mind, that these things would happen in the case of 
Vercingetorix," i. c., that Vercingetorix would act in this way 
In Latin, usu venire is equivalent to accidcre or evenire. Compare 
Cic. in Verr. 4, " Quod ego in paucis tamcn usu venisse eo mo- 
lesle fcro.''^ 

3. Per causam. " Under pretence." 

4. Rccentem equitatum. " A fresh body of cavalry," i. e., a fresh 

5. Aeduisque attribuerat. " And had made tributary to the 
Aedui." Cpmpare the explanation of Morus : " Ut iis stipcndia 
et tributa solverent." 

6. Oppugnare instituit. The boldness and despatch of Vercin 
getorix place him here in a very favourable hght. 

7. Ad consiUum capiendum. " As to what measures he should 
pursue." More literally, " with regard to the forming of a plan." 

. 8. Stipendiariis. " The tributaries." Compare note 13, page 
1 7. — Expugnatis. Equivalent here to oppugnatis. 

1. Ne ab re frximentaria, &c. " Lest he might sutfer mcon- ] 4 ^) 
venience from the want of provisions, the conveyance being dif- 

2. Quam, tanta contumelia, &c. " Than by submitting to so 
great an affront, to alienate from him the affections of all his friends." 

3. De supportandocommealu. " To supply him withprovisions " 
literally, "respecting the supplying of provisions." 

4. Altero die. " On the second day." 

M M 2 



|4/j 5. Arma conferri. The common text has proferri, which we 

have changed to conferri, on the authority ot some of the MSS. 

The latter is more in accordance with the manner of Ccesar, and 

prevents the awkward similarity of sound between froferri anJ 


6. Ipsc ut quarn primum, &lc. " He himself sets out, iii order 
to arrive as soon as possible at Genabum, a town of i'he Carnutes," 
i. e., with the intention of reaching Genabum as quickly as possi- 
ble. We have retained the common reading /accrei, instead of con- 
ficeret, which latter does not sound well after conficeret in the pre- 
vious clause. The meaning and reading of the passage baveboth 
been much disputed, but the punctuation of Oberlin, namely, a com- 
ma after Carnutum, removes all the difficulty. 

7. Cum longius, &c. " Thinking that it could be protracted to 
a still longer period," i. e., thinking that the placc could hold out 
for some time longer. 

8. Et, quod oppidiim Genahum, &c. " And because a bridge 
over the Liger afibrded the only means of egress from the town of 
Genabum." Continebat is well explained by Daehne, ^' ita coer- 
cehat, ut alius non esset exitus." Oudendorp and most other editors 
make conlinebat equivalent here to " was adjacent" or " contiguous 
to," but the propriety of such an explanation is more than ques- 

9. Excuhare. " To keep watch there," i. e., at the bridge. 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, irQo^vkaKtiv. 

J |g 1. Oppugnalione destitit. " Desisted from the siege of Ger- 
govia." Supply Gergomce. 

2. Ille oppidum, &c. After oppidum there follow-s in the coni- 
mon text Biturigum, positum in via, but as these vvords are want- 
ing in most of the MSS. and earlier editions, and are included in 
brackets by many cditors, we have rejected them at once from 
the text. The Noviodunum here meant was not the tovra of tho 
Aedui, known by that name, but another place, between Gcnabum 
and Avaricum, novv Neuvi-sur-Baranjon. 

3. Conferri. The common text has proferri. Compare note 5, 
page 145. 

4. Cum reliqua administrarentnr. " While the other things 
were getting performed." 

5. Ex significatione Gallorum. " From the signs made to one 
another by the Gauls." Compare the explanation of Achaintrt" 
" rx sigriis rcZ nufibus qnibus inter se GaUi ntcbanlur.'" 



6. Committit. Hotomann suggests committi, because Csesar 14(5 

did not, as appears from what follows, engage personally in the 
tight. The objection is quite unnecessary, since committit and 
other vcrbs of the kind do not always imply personal agency or 

7. Anni tempore. The winter season, when the fodder was 
stored away within doors. — Ex adificiis petere. " Seek it from the 
houses." — Deleri posse. " Can be cut off." 

1. Hor spatio, a Boia, &c. "At such a distance from Boia, 147 
m every direction, as it appeared possible for the Romans to go 

in order to obtain forage." Great difference of opinion exists as to 
Ihe true reading of this passage, some editors suggesting a Boiis, 
others in place of a Boia giving ab hoste. We have retained the 
common lection, though labouring under strong suspicions of being 
corrupt. Bota, according to Bavies, refers to the territory of the 
Boii, just as Venctia is used for the country of the Veneti. B. G. 
3, 9. We would rather regard it as an appellation, on the part of 
the Boii, for the city of Gergovia. Thus Gergovia Boia, i. e., Ger- 
gotia Boiorum. 

2. Ncque interessc, &c. " And that it makes no difference 
whether they cut to pieces the latter themselves, or strip them ot 
their baggage, since if this be lost, the war cannot be carried on by 
them." Quihis refers to impedimenlis. 

3. Neu suis sijit, &c- " That they may ncither be places of re- 
^reat for such of their countr)'men as wished to avoid the war " 
Liierally, " to their own countrymen, for avoiding the war." 

4. Romanis proposita. " Placed as so many invitations to the 
Romans." Literally, " placed before their view unto the Romans." 
— Tollendam. Hotomann"thinks this word superfluous here, but it 
is found in all the MSS., and, as Oudendorp remarks, its presence 
suits the plain and unelliptical style of Caesar. 

5. QucE sit necesse, &c. There is a striking resemblance be- 
tween the advice here offered by Vercingetoris, and that on which 

he Russians acted in the memorable campaign of 1812. Vercin- 
getorix would have done better, however, had he not spared Avari- 

6. Proponehant. After this word there follows in the common 
text, quod se, prope, and the sentence is made to close with confide- 
lant after recuperatiiros . We have thrown out the words in ques- 
tion as manifest interpolations, in accordance with the opinions of 
Oqden^rp, Moru.«!, and many other editors. Rome MSS. omit 



147 jw^ *^) prope, others want sc ■prope, while others again for con/s- 
debant have ponebant. As Morus well remarks, " Hcec surU 
certa i^idicia verborum assutorum." 

7. Flumine. The river here meant is the Avera, now Euvre, 
from which the city derived its name. Compare Mannert, Gcogr. 
\o\ ii., p. 129. 
'Id.Q 1- Per certos cxploratores. " By trusty scouts." The Greek 
paraphrast errs in rendering this iia KaraoK6nit)v tivHv. — In singula 
diei tcmpora. " Every hour." Equivalent to '' per singuloi 
horas." So the Greek paraphrasc has correctly, koO' iKdcTijv wpav. 

2. Incertis tcmporibus. " At iYregular times." Coinpare the 
Greek paraphrase, iv aoptaToi; xaipoTj. 

3. CcEsar. As regards the position of ihis word in the sentence, 
compare note 9, page 110. In constructing take it first in order.— 
QucB intermissa, &c. " Which, not being surrounded by the rivei 
and marsh, had, as we have before said, a narrow approach," i. e., 
where the intermission of the river and marsh left a narrow pas 

4. Alteri. Referring to the Aedui. — Nullo stndio. " Wiftiout 
any zeal." — Alteri non magnis facultatibus. " The others, having 
no great rcsources." Referring to the Boii. 

5. Affecto. " Being straitened." — Tcnuilate Boiorum, &c. 
" Through the poverty of the Boii, the negligence of the Acdui." 

6. Et pecore, &c. " And vvere forced to satisfy their extreme 
hunger by cattle driven to the camp from thc more distant villagcs." 
Ciacconius and Ursinus suggest abacto, but adacto is far prefcrable, 
»nd has all the MSS. in its favour. 

7. CcBsar cum, &c. " When Caesar addressed himsclf to the le- 
gions one by one, while at work." — Sv acerhius inopiam ferrent. 
"Ifthey felt the scarcity too severe for them." Literally, "ifthey 
bore the scarcity too severely." 

8. Universi. " They all with one accord." — Sic sc complures, 
&c. " That they had, for several ycars, so conducted themselves 
imder his command, as to have incurred," &c. 

9. Quamnonparentarent. " Than not avenge." Theprimitive 
meaning of parcnlare is " to perform thc funcral rites of parents,' 
or " near relations," i. e., to appease by snch rites the shades of thc 
departed. Its secondary meaning, as in the present case, is " tc 
avenge," i. e , to appease Ihe shade of a dcceased friend, or coun 
tryman, by ihe death of the one who had deprived him of life. 

l(t. Gcnabi. Compare chapter third of this book. % 



1. In arctiores silcas. " ln the thicker part of the woods," i. J ^9 
e., where the crowded state of the trees prevented access. The 
explanation of Davies is to the point : " Ita vocat densiores, quia 
crebris arborihus arcebatur hominum aditus." 

2. Generatimque, &c. " And being arranged tribe by tribe, ac- 
cording to their respective states." We must either adopt this 
mode of translating the clause, or else agree with Morus, that in ci- 
vitates is superfluous, for it would be a inanifest pleonasm to say, 
as some do, " being arranged by nations and states." 

3. Omnia vada ac saltus, &.c. " They held all the fords and 
passages of this morass with strong guards." More literally, witb 
guards on which reliance could be placed. Compare the versiou 
of De Crisse, " ils occupoient par de forteseardes les gues et les 
passages etroits qui se trouvoient dans le marais." 

4. Hczsitantes premerent, &c. " They would overpower them, 
while sticking in the mire, from the higher grounds." 

5. Ut quipropinquitatem, &LC. " So that whoever saw the near 
position of the two armies, would imagine that they were prepared 
to fight on almost equal terms ; vvhile whoever regarded the ine- 
quality of situation would discover, that the Gauls displayed them 
selves to the view with only an empty assumption of courage," i. e., 
made only an empty show of courage. Cajsar means, that, if any ono 
observed how very favourably the Gauls were posted, he would per- 
ceive, in a moment, that they derived all their courage from their 
situation, and, throwing this advantage aside, were mere empty 

6. Quanto detrimenlo, &lc^ " With how great loss, and with 
the lives of how many men, even victory must necessarily be piir- 
chased." More literaily, " how great loss, &c., victory must uece» 
•sarily cost." 

7. Quod castra^ &c. " That, as to his having moved his camp, 
this was done," &c. 

1. Munitione. " By a natural fortification," i. e., by its owu |50 
strength. Supply naturali. 

2. Cui rei, &c. " To which step he saw them inclined through 
the effeminacy of their minds." 

3. Romani si casu, &c. " That, if the Romans came up by 
chance, they should thank fortune ; if invited by the information of 
any.person, they should thank the informer, that they were en- 
afiled," &c. 

4. Eorum. Refening to the Romans — VirtuJcm. Ironical. — 
Qui. Keferring stiU to the Romans. 



1 50 ^- Q'^^^ eliam ipsis, &c. " Nay, that he even gave back the 
command unto them, if they appear to bestow more honour upon 
liim, than receive safety at his hands." 

6. Scrvos. " Some soldiers' servants." Called on other occa- 
sions calones. 

7. Operis laborem. " The fatigue of the work," i. e., the labfjr 
ofpushing the siege, &c. Compare chapter 28. 

8. Armis concrepat. " Clash their arms." — In eo. " In the 
case of hmi." 

151 1- Majorc ratione. " With greater prudence." 

2. Quod penes eos, &c. The common test has pcene in eo, 
which is inferior to the reading here given. — Summam victorice. 
" The glory of the vict(yy." Compare the explanation of Cellarius : 
" ne scrvati oppidi gloria solorum esset Biturigum, sed Gallorum 

3. Singulari militum nostrorum, &c. " Devices of every kind, 
on the part of the Gauls, opposed the uncommon bravery of our 
soldiers," i. e., the Gauls opposed, by devices of every kind, the 
valour of our soldiers, thougli displayed in a remarkable degrec. 

4. Ut est summce, &c. " Since they are a race of consummate 
ingenuity." — Qua ab quoque tradanlur. " That are imparted bv 
any one," i. e., which they see done by others. 

5. Laqueis falces averiebant. " They tiimed aside the hooks 
with nooses." The falces, referred to here, are diflerent from the 
mural hooks mentioned in the previous part of this work. {B. G. 
3, 14, and 5, 43.) They appear to have been a species of ram, 
difFering froin the ordinary kind in having a curved, or hookhke, 
instead of a round iron, head. (Compare Vegetius, 4, 23.) Thc 
process, alludcu lu m the text, consisted in catching the head of this 
species of ram wirn a noose, and either drawing it within by means 
of engines, or else raising the head on high, and thus overturning 
the vineas under which the hook or ram vvas worked. (^Vcgetius, 1. 
c.—Appian, B. M. 74.; 

6. Quas cum destinaverant, &c. " Atid when they had caught 
hold of them firmly, they drew them in by means of engines." 
Destinarc is here cquivalent to " laqveo prchensas falces figere." 
The term tormrntum was applied by the Romans to any species of 
military engine or machine. Compare Cic. Ep. ad Fam. 15, 4, 
" Aggere, vineis, turribus, oppugnavi, ususque tormentis viullis.'" 
Tlie reference in our text appears to be to a spccies of cranc. ' 

7. Aggerem rnmcidis, &c. " Thev reniovcd tlic eanh of ihu 


inound by mines," i. e., they undermine the mound. Wooden 1^1 

props were erected until the excavation was completed, aad then, 

fire being communicated and the props thus consumed, the mound 

fell in. Compare Vcgetiu^; 4, 23, and Slewecchius, ad loc. 

8. Magnce fcrraria. " Large iron mines." — Omne genus cuni- 
'.ulorum. " Every species of mining." 

9. Totum aulem murum, &c. " They had covered, moreover, 
.he whole wall, on every side with towers of several stories." The 
expression murum turribus centabulaverant is equivalent in effect 
to murum turribus contabulatis instruxerant. The ordinary mean- 
ing of contabulare is " to cover over with boards or planks," " to 
plank or floor with boards," " to raiseor frame a building of timber, 
and of several stories," &c. 

10. Cjiriis. Towers of the kind mentioned in the text were 
usually covered with raw hides, as a protection against fire. 

11. Aggeri. The mound was fenced or kept in by stakes, and 
to these the besiegers applied fire. The reference, however, is not 
merely to the"mound itself, but to the wooden works and engines 
both upon and before it. 

12. Et twstrarum turrium, &c. " Moreover, by splicing the up- 
right timbers of their own towers, they kept equalling the height of 
ours as fast as the mound had daily raised them ; and, havmg 
countermined them, they impeded the working of our mines by 
ineans of stakes burnt and sharpened at the end, and by throvdng 
opon our men boiling pitch and stones of very great weight, and 
did not suffer them to get near the walls." 

13. Quotidianus agger. As the mound kept increasing in size, 
by the addition^of fresh earth, the tovvers erected on it were like- 
wise increased in the numbor of their stories. These the enemy, 
on their side, kept equalhng. — Expreseerat. Coesar has here em- 
ployed a technical term. Deprimere is " to let down," and expri- 
mere, "toraise," or " elevale." 

14. Apertos cuniculos, &c. The term apertos has given rise to 
inuch discussion, and great diversity of opinion. We have adopted 
'he explanation of De Crisse. According to a well-known mle, 
tpertos morabantur is equivalent to aperuerunt et morabantur. 
(."^ompare the version of De Crisse, " Si nous ouvrions une mine, 
ili 1'eTentaient, ct la remplissaient de pieux pointtis," &c. 

15. Trahes directce, &c. " Straight bearas, connected togcther 
tn long rows," i. e., long rows of straight beams, formed by con- 
necting thcm at their extremities, and each row lying parallel to the 



1^1 other. The cxprossion pcrpetuce in longiludinem is equivalent to 

continuala serie nexce.. The corresponding Greek form would be 

iir]V{KCii or irpoafx*'^^» ^^ '^ shown by Bos, Animadv. in Cccs. p. 21, 

trom Josephus, B. I. 7, 33. 

16. Parihus intervallis distantcs, &c. These long parallel rows 
of beams were each two feet apart. 

17. Hce revinciuntur, &c. " These are mortised together un 
the inside, and then covered with a large quantity of earth," i. e., 
one row is mortised to another. Introrsus is hcre the same as in 

18. Intervalla. The space of two feet between the rows. — In 
fronte saxis, &c. " Are stoppcd closely in frunl with large stones." 
The interior of the wall is filled up vvith earth, the facing is of stonc. 

19. Idcm illud intcrvallum. AUuding to the distance of two 
feet between each row. — Ncque inler se contiiigant, &.c. TExccjit- 
ing, of course, where they are mortiscd. 

,20. Sed, paribus, &c. " But, equal spaces intervening, each 
row of beams is kept firmly in its place, by a row of stones." We 
have changed intcrmissa. of the common text into intermissis, as 
more in accordance with the manner of Cajsar, and as sanctioned by 
B. C. 1,20, "■ Nam ccrtis spatiis intci-missis,'''' &c. 

21. Hoc cum in specicm, &c. " This work, both as regards 
appearance and varicty, is not unpleasing to the eye, beams and 
stones being placed alternatcly, which kecp thcir ovvn places iii 
straight lincs ; and, besides, it posscsscs very great advantage, as 
regards actual utihty and the defence of cities." 
1 53 '■ Q"0'^ ^' "^ incendio, &c. " For the stone facing defends 

it from fire, and thc timbcrfrom the battering-ram," i. c., and the 
well-compacted timbcr forms a secunty against the blows of the ram. 

^. Perpetuis trabibus, &c. " Long rows of beams, each beani 
»i»r the most part forty fcet in length, being mortised on the inside." 
Compare the cxplanation of Achaintre, " Trahes crant perpetu<z in 
longitudinc, quadrage.nis pcdihus constantes.'''' 

3. Piccm. Hotomann inserts alii herc, and is followcd by Sical- 
iger. Tho emendation is unneccssary. 

4. Ut, quo prirnum, &c. " So that a plan coukl hardly be formed 
at the moment, as to whcre we should first make opposition," &c., 
i. e., so that it could hardly bc deterrained at the momcnt, &c. 

5. Institnto Casaris. " By an estabbshed rule of Ca;sar's."— 
Partitis tcmporibus. " At stated t ,mcs," Literally, " at thnci 
{).»rcelled out betwecn them." 



6. Turres reduccrent. " Drevv back the towers." Thesewere 153 

tbe roveablc towers, and were placed on wheels. — Aggeremque in- 
terscinderent. " And made a cut across the mound," i. e., severed 
the conomunication between the part on fire and the rest of the 

7. Quod deustos plutcos, &c. " Because they saw the coverings 
of our towers bumt away." The plutei here meant, were cover- 
ings or defences erected on the tops of the towers, like a kind of 
roof, in order to protect the men while fighting. Hence the Greek 
paraphrast correctly calls tbem aTiyn- Another species of plutei 
wcrc in the form of moveable sheds, under which the soldiers 
worked. In either case, the plutci appear to have been formed of 
a framework covered with hides. Compare Vcgetius, 4, ]5. At 
first they wcre nJade of beams and planks, as the name pluteus lit- 
erally denotes ; afterward lighter materiais, such as osiers, were em- 
ployed. {Lips Poliorc. 1, dial. 7, p. 492, seq.) 

8. NecfacHe, &c. " And perceived that we couW not easily go 
exposed to give assistance." — In illo vestigio temporis positam. 
" Depcnded on that very juncture." 

9. Dignum memoria visum. " Having appeared to us worthy of 

10. Per manus transditas. " Handed from one to another." — 
Scorpione ah lalere dcxtro, &c. " Wounded in the right side, and 
deprived of life, by a crossbow." As regards the term scorpio, con- 
sult Archsological Index. 

1. Transgrcssus. " Striding across." — Eodcm illo munere, I ^J 
&c. " Performed the same office," i. e., of casting balls at our 
works. — Altero. " The second." 

2. Propugnatorihus. "Defenders." Propugnator ■pjo^pexly mea,r\s 
one, who, being besieged, defends the ramparts of a fortified posi- 
tion ; or, in nautical operations, one who fights from the deck of a 

3. Restincto aggere. " The fire of the mound being extin- 
guished." Compare Achaintre, " restincto igne qui aggcrem com- 

4. Profagere. A Hellenism for profugiendi. The infinitive for 
the gcrund is more frequent, however, in poetry than in prose^ 
Compare Vechner, Hellenolex. p. 265. 

5 NaturcE et virium infirmitas. " The weakncss of their naturp 
and strength," i. e., thc natural weakness of their bodily pcwers 



154 ■^" hendiadys for '■ naturalis virium in/Lrmilas.'" So iu Justm, 
2, 2 : " la'n(B usus ac vestium," for " lanearum usus vestium." 

6. Misericordiam non recipit. " Admits not pity," i. e., turns a 
deaf ear to every feeling of pity. — Significare. " To give notice." 

7. Directisquc operibus. " ^nd the «'orks bcing novv complete- 
ly arranged," i. e., completed and arranged preparatory to the as 
sault. Compare the explanation of Oudendorp ; " ita dispositis, -ut 
operihus illis jam factis noccri et appropinquari jjossct urbi. The 
reading of the MSS. varies here, several of thein having pcrfectts 
instead of dircctis ; but the former is evidently a mere gloss or in- 
terpretation of the latter. The idea of completion is impHed in di- 
rectis. Some editions have derelictis, which is' altogether wrong. 

8. Non inutilem, &c. " Tliinking this no bad time for formmg 
a plan," i. e., for making some attempt on the town. 

9. Intra vineas in occulto. Oberlin thinks that in occulto ought 
to be rejected, as being a mere explanation of intra vineas. Not 
80. The expression int7-a vineas does not mean " under the vineas," 
but "within" (i. e., behind) "the vinea;." If the troops then were 
slationed behind the vineze, they must, of course, be concealcd some 
way, in order to escape the observation of the foc. Compare Bar- 
ron, ad loc. 

10. Expeditas. " Ready for battle," i. c., without any personal 
encumbrance except their mcre armour. 

11. Prcemia. Pecuniary rewards are nieant. Compare B. H. 
26, " CcBsar, ob virtutcm turmce Cassiance donavit millia trcdccim, 
et prcefecto torques aureos quinque, et levi armaturcc milHa dccem.^' 

155 ^' Obviam vcnirelur. " An attack should be made." The 
common text has obviam contra veniretur, but contra after ohviavi 

is an awkward pleonasm, or, at best, a mere interpretation of obviam. 
We have therefore rejected it in accordance with the opinion of 
Morus, Hotomann, Ursinus, Faernus, and others. 

2. Acie in.ftructa. " Wilh their force drawn up to receive it," 
i. e., the attack. 

3. Contine7iti impctu. " Without stopping," i. e., in the greatest 
haste. Continenti is here equivalent to contiimo. 

4. Cum se ipsi prcmcrent. " Crowding upon each olher." — 
^ecfuit quisquam, &c. " Nor was thcre Jny one of our nien who 
aeemed anxious for phindcr." 

5. Gcnahensi cccdc. " By thc mas.sacre at Genabum." Com- 
}»are chapter 3. — Laborc upcris. Compare note 7, page 150. The 
refcrenco i.s to tho fatigues of thc siegc 



6. Ex coruin concursu. " From their comiiig in a body " 155 

7. Disparandos. " That they should be separated." Two 
MSS. have disper/iendos, which is certainly the more usual form. 
Disparare, however, though of rare occurrence, is found in Plautus, 
Prol. Rud. 6, and in Cicero, de Inv. 1, 28 : " Disparatum autetn 
!st id, quod ab aliqua re per oppositionem negatioms separatur." 

8. QucB cuique civitati, 6cc. " Whatever part of the camp had 
fallen to each state originally," i. e., according as a particular part 
of the camp had originally been assigned to each state. 

9. Artificio quodam, &c. " By a sort of art and knowledge m 
assault." — Errare, si qui, &c. " That they were mistaken, who 
think that all the issues of affairs, in war, are going to prove suc- 
cessful," i. e., who expect the issues of war to prove constantly 

10. Nimia ohsequentia. " The too ready compliance." Com- 
pare chapter 15, and the explanation of Achaintre : " Nimia facili- 
tate, qua duces Gallorum atque ipse Vercingetorix precibus Bituri- 
g-um cesserant." 

1 1 . Consensu. Old form for consensui. 

12. Ut castra munire inslitucrent. " That they vvould set about 
lortifying their camp." 

1. Plusque animo, &c. " And he was thought to possess ] 56 
greater forecast and sounder judgment than the rest." 

2. Insueti laboris. " Unused to labour." — Patienda et perfer- 
enda. " Must be patiently endured." Csesar here employs two 
terms nearly synonymous, in order to strengthen the signification. ' 

'3. Qui Avarico expugnalo refugerant. " Who had escaped from 
Avaricum, after it was taken." 

•4. Certum numerum. " A definite number," i. e., a fixed 

5. Avarici. Several MSS. have Avarico, but this is later Latin- 
ity. Compare Ji(./iMs Obsequens, c. 114, " Asculo per ludos Ro- 
mani trvcidati;" and Justin. 2, 13, " Consilium ineunt pontis iii- 
terrumpcndi, quem illit Abydo veluti victor maris fecerat." 

6. Teutomams. The MSS. vary surprisingly as regards this 
proper name. The common text has Teutomatus, but the Greek 
paraphrast gives Touro/iavos. We have adopted the form suggested 
bv Oberlin. The Celtic termination in 7nar (i. e., illustrious, or 
ceiebrated) is of very frequent occurrence, as in Viridomarus, &c. 

7. Exercitum ex lahwe, &c. " Refreshed his army afler their 
fatigue and scarcity." 



2 ^'7 1. Cum. " Whereas." — Singuli magislratus. "A single 
magistrate." — Aiinum. " For a single year." Soine editions 
have annuam, but this savours of a gloss. 

2. Duo nxigistratum gerant. " Two persons now exercise this 
office." — Eorum. Referring to the nation of the Aedui. 

3. Suas cujusque eorum clientelas. "That each of thcm has 
his own adherents," i. e., his own clients or dependants. Clien- 
tela is here used for clientes, as elsewhere servitia for servi. 

4. Detrimentosum. Two MSS. have dctrimento suo, one delri- 
mentum summum. Bentley suspects that we ought to read detri- 
mento sibifore. The objection to dctrimentosum is, that it does 
not occur in any other writer, but still it is formed according t<. 
analogy, from detrimcnlum, just as jjortentosus from portentum. 

5. Ea pars, quce minus sihi, &c. Alluding to the defeated, or 
weaker faction. 

6. Ne quid de jurc, &c. " That hc might not appear in any 
degree to infringe upon their privileges and laws." 

7. Docereturquc, &c. " And he was informed, that, only a fev» 
persons having been privately assembled for the purpose, one broth- 
er had been declared magistrate by the other, at a ditfercnt place 
and different time from what he ought to have been." Cotus had 
been declared magistrate by his brother Valetiacus, before only a 
few, and at an unusual time and placc. 

8. Renuntiatum. Equivalent here to deelaratum. The formai 
word, in such cases, is renuntiare. Thus, renuntiatur consul, tri- 
lunus, &c., i. e., declaratur factus . 

9. Qwi pcr sacerdoies, &c. " Who had bcen elected by the 
priests, after the usual manner of the statc, the infcrior magistrates 
being prcsent." Oberlin gives intermissis magistralihus, but ac- 
knowledgcs intromissis to be the prcferable rcading. This last is 
also in accordance with the Greek paraphrase, naQdvTwv rflv ap^^diTMf. 
The grounds of Cffisar's sclection of Convictolitanis were, his having 
been created magistrate by the priests, the regular authority in such 
cases, and, secondly, this having been done in the presencc of ihe 
magistrates, not of a small and sccrct number of partisans. 

\^\^ 1. Qua: in pra'sidtis,&c. " Which he might place in different 
garrisons, to protcct his convoys of provisions." 

2. Illi. " To that officcr." Referring to Ijabicnus. 

3. Ab allera parle, &c. " Began to march on the opposite sido 
of the PJaver." The two armies wcre now pursuing a parailcl route, 
ilong the banks of the Elavcr, vvith thc rivcr betwccn iheni. 


I 9ge 

4. Cum utcrquc ulrique, &.C. " As cach arrny was in sight of [58 
the olher." — E rcgione. " Opposite." 

5. Quod, nonfcre antc autumnum, &c. The Elaver was greater 
in the summer, in consequence of the melting of the- snow on thc 
mountains. By the time autumn arrived this increase of waters 
would have passed away. 

6. E regione, &c. " Opposite one of those bridges." 

7. Captis quibusdam, &c. " Certain cohorts being selected, 
that the number of the legions might appear complete," i. e., in or- 
der to deccive the encmy, Csesar selected certain cohorts from the 
four legions which were ordered to march on, and arranged these 
cohorts in such a way as to give them the appearanre of two addi- 
tional legions, making up, together with the other, the whole num- 
ber, as the enemy would suppose, of six legions, which they knew 
to Ije the strength of Caesar's army. Meanwhile he himself lay con- 
cealed near the ruins of the bridge with the tvsro legions which he 
had kept back. The verb capere is here used in the sense of eligere. 
Compare Terence, Hec. 4, 1, 22, and the remark of Donatus, ad 
Tercnt Phorm. 2, 3, 23 : " Capere dicimus, quum id, quod in no- 
his est, adsumimus, undc capere pro eligendo ponitur." The rcad- 
ing of the passage we have just been considering is involved in much 
uncertainty. We have followed that of the . best editors. The 
common text has captis quartis quihusque cohortibus. " Having 
selccted every fourthcohort." 

8. lisdcm suhlicis. " On the same piles." 

9. Quintis castris. " In five days' march." Literally, " by five 
encampments," an encampment being made at the end of each day's 
march, according to Roman military usage. Castra is here equiv- 
alent to the Greek aTaOjidi, or the mansio of later Latinity. Com- 
pare Xcn. Anab. 1, 2, 5, and Zcune, Ind. Grcec. s. v. 

10. Pcrspecto urhis situ. " The situation of the place being 
carefully reconnoitred." 

11. Dc cxpugnatione, &lc. The meaniiig is, that Cassar saw it was 
impossible to take the place by any sudden assault or storm (onJ 
Kpdroi, as the paraphrase has it), and he must therefore seek to re- 
duce it by a siege. Before, however, he entered upon the latter 
course, he would be compelled to make proper arrangements for a 
supply of provisions. Some MSS. omit the words desferavit ; de 
obsidionc, and they are not followed also by Julius Celsus ; whilc, 
on the other hand, some give oppugnatione in place of expugnatione. 
Hence Oudendorp is led to suspect, that Caesar merely wrote, " de 
oppugnatione non prius agendum constituit. 

■ Nn2 



159 ^* Qua despici poterat. " Where there was a view down into 
tbe Roman encampmeiit." Supply m castra Romana, and com- 
pare chapter 45. 

2. Horribilem specicm. " A formidable appcarance," i. e., m 
consequence of the immense multitude he had in arms. 

3. Quid in quoque, &c. " What spirit and valour thcre was in 
each one of his own men." 

4. Prohibituri. " Likely to prevent." — Non Jiimisfirmo. Sorae 
recommend non minus fvrmo, on account of tamen, which follows ; 
but the pointing which we have adopted for the whole sentence, 
from erat a regione, &c., makes the meaning clearly apparent. 
Cfflsar is speaksng of a particular post, the possession of which 
would enable his men to cut off the enemy from water and forage. 
This post, it is true, was remarkably well fortified, and steep oh 
every side ; Ctesar, however, marched against it by night, &c., be- 
cause it was only defended by a weak garrison. Tamen refers 
back, therefore, to the clause ending with circumcisus, and the pa- 
renthesis is merely explanator)'. 

5. Ut tuto, &c. " So that his soldiers could even singly pass 
secure from any sudden attack on the part of the enemy." 

6. Ad Gergoviam. " In the neighbourhood of Gergovia," i. e., 
under the walls of the city. — Assignatum. We have adopted this 
reading, as given in Oudendorp's smaller edition, from five of the 
best MSS. The common text has adjudicatum, which is a mere 
gloss. Assignare is often used in the sense here given to it, by 
Cicero, Tacitus, Suetonius, &c. 

7. CoUoquitur . " Holds a conference." 

8. Prcemium communicat. " He divides the bribe." Some 
MSS. and early editions have primum communicat, which appears 
to have been the reading of the Greek paraphrast, and also of Julius 
Celsus. Scaliger, however, correctly defends the common rcading, 
as raore in accordance with the context. Compare what follovvs a 
little after, " celeriter adolescentibus et oratione magistratus et 
prsemio deductis," &c. 

9. Ejus. Referring to the stateof the Aedui. — Qua transducla. 
" And that if it were brought over," i. e., to the common Gallic 

10. Esse nonmdlo, &c. " That he had, it vvas truc, received 
eome marks of frlendship from Caasar, yet only so far as to have 

btained at his hands a decision that was peifectly just in itsolf. 


That he owed more, however, to the cause of their coinmon frec- 159 
dom," i. e., than to the claims of private friendship. 

11. Disceptatorem. " As an arbitrator." Compare, in defence 
of this reading, the remarks of Gronovius, ad Liv. 38, 35. 

1. Decem illis millibus. Compare chapter 34. 160 

2. Qum, nefario, &c. " But that, after having committed so 
nefarious a deed, the Romans are now hurrying hither to put us to 

3. Ostendit cives Romanos, &c. " He points, with these words, 
at some Roman citizens, who were proceeding in company with 
them, relying upon his protection." — Magnum numerum frumenti, 
&c. The persons plundered were Roman traders, who were con- 
Teying provisions to the army. 

4. Suas injurias. " The wrongs they had received."' Suas .s 
aere equivalent to sibi illatas, and is taken, as the grammarians 
term it, passively. 

1. Generc dispari. " Of inferior descent." — Transditum. Jg] 
" Recommended." — In equitum numero convenerant. " Had 
come in the number of the horse." — Ab eo. Referring to Caesar. 

2. Quorurn, salutem, &c. " Since their relations could neither 
neglect their safety, nor the state regard it as a matter of small 
amount," i. e., the Aedui would not abandon so many thousand of 
their countrymen, nor unite with Csesar against them. 

3. Nulla interposita dubitatione. " Without a moment's hesi- 
tation." — Necfuit spatium, &c. This remark is made to show the 
urgency of the crisis, since the Roman camp occupied a wide space 
of ground, and ought, as a matter of common prudence, to have 
been contracted in its limits on the departure of so large a force. 

4. Immisso equitatu. " The horse being sent on." — Interdicit- 
que. " But charges." — Inter equites versari. " To move about 
among the horse." 

5. Deditionem significare . " To make signs of submission." 

6. Cum suis clientibus. " With his followers." These were 
the same with the Soldurii, mentioned in the 22d chapter of the 
third book. — Gergoviam profugit. Caesar would appear to have 
allowed Litavicus and his followers to escape for the following 
reasons : Ist. These turbulent men would be less formidable 
among the enemy, than in the bosom of the Aeduan state ; and, 
2d. He wished to concihate the favour of the Aedui, vshom ho 
might have offendcd by any severity towards Litavicus. Had it 



I (j J not bcen for these or similar motives, he mignt easily have stoppod 

the fugitivcs vvilh his cavalry. 

7. Qui suo henejicio, &c. " To inform them that they had oeen 
spared through his kindness, whcn he niight have put them to the 
sword by the right of war."' 
102 1- ^^ Gergoviam. " To the vicinity of Gergovia." Moro 

literally, " to before Gergovia." Compare Zunipi, L. G. p. 265. 

2. Equites. "A party of horse." — Fucrit. Clarke suggests 
csset, because the horsemen announced, according to him, in how 
great danger affairs then were {tunc temporis esset). In this he is 
wrong. The horsemen announced, on the contrary, in how great 
danger affairs were whcn they left thc camp, i. e., quanto in pcri- 
culo res fuerit, quum equites missi sunt. 

3. Eisdem in vallo, &c. Because they vvere too few in number 
to allow of some succeeding to others. Hence there is no neces- 
eity for our reading eodem in place of eisdem, as some suggest. 

4. Pluteosque vallo addere. " And was adding parapets to the 
rampart." By plutei are here meant a kind of breastwork. Com- 
pare note 7, page 153, where the same term is employed to denote 
a species of roof for a tovver. 

5. Ad cognosccndum. " To become fuliy mformed." Compare 
the Greek paraphrase : r<;i' tov irpdynaTos dhjddav yivuioKav. 

6. Adjuvat rem, &c. " Convictolitanis hclps forward the sink- 
ing posture of affairs," i. e., he fomented the disturbance, brought 
about and carried thus far through his own and the schemes of Litav- 
icus. — Ad furorem. " To open outrage." More hterally, " to 
some mad act." 

7. Dalafide, &c. " They entice from the town Cabillonum, on 
a promise of safety," i. e., of bcing allowed to proceed safely to his 
place of destination. — Idem facere. To follow him out of the tovvn, 
and take their departure. 

8. QucEstionem de honis, &c. " Order an inquiry to be mado 
concerning the plundered property." i. e., the property of which 
the Roman traders had just been pLIlaged. By quastio is hero 
meant a judicial investigation. 

9. Recuperandorum suorum causa. Alluding to those of their 
countrymen at prescnt in the hands of Cscsar. — Scd contammati 
facinorc, &c. " But being tainted with guilt, and charmed vvith 
the gain arising from thc plundered goods, bccausc many persons 
had a share in this," &c. The term compendium is wcll rendered 
in the jiaraphraso by w^i^Stjna, and dcnotcs, in gcneral, any bcnefit or 


advantage (liicrum iemporis, pecuma vel opera), though here re- 1 (52 
fsrring specially to a sharc of the plunder. 

1. Nihil se propter inscientiam, &c. " That he did not con- ] (j^J 
ceive a worse opinion of the state, for the ignorance and fickleness 

of the lower orders, nor lessened in aught his regajrd for the Aedui." 
Compare the Greek paraphrase, o&< fxOpfij irpbs ri^v rdfnv SiaKeloSai, 
Kai oi6ev ^ttov Sia TavTa abrrj fSvov; elvai \eyiav. 

2. Omncm exercitum. Referring to his own and the forces of 
Labienus. — Ne profectio, &c. " Lest a departure, proceeding from 
a fear of revolt, might wear the appearance of a flight." 

3. Accidcre visa est facultas. " An opportunity appeared to of- 
fer." — Minora castra. Compare chapter 56. — Operis. Referring 
to the fortifications of the enemy. 

4. Dorsum esse ejus )ugi, &c. " That the top of this hill was 
almost lcvel, but that it was likevvise covered with woods and nar- 
row, and that by it there was a passage to the other part of the 
town." The reading here given is that of almost all the MSS. 
Davies, however, suggests hac (scil. parte) silvestre et angustum, 
qua, &c. ; and Oudendorp, on the other hand, gives, on conjecture, 
hinc sihestrem, &c. We have preferrcd rctaining the common lec- 
tion with Barron, Achaintre, and others. The opponents of this 
reading consider hunc silvestrem a violation of the grammatical rulc 
of gender ; but the truth is, that Caesar here employs, for the sake 
of pcrspicuity, the old Latin form dorsus, of the masculine gender. 
Thus, in Plautus {Mil. Glor. 2, 4, 44), we have, " Timeo quid re- 
rum gesserim : ita dorsus totus prurit.'" 

5. Uno colle ah Romanis, &c. Compare chapter 36. 

6. Prima luce, &c. The common text has, after castris, the fol- 
lowing, mulorumque produci, eque iis stramenta. We have rc- 
jected all this with some of the best editors. Nothing analogous in 
meaning is found either in Celsus or the Greek paraphrase ; and, 
besides, the words in question are omitted in several MSS., as also 
in the Basle edition. The idea implied in mulorum is already ex- 
pressed by impcdimentorum, while the words eque iis stramenta 
appcar to have crept into the text from the margin, where they vvcre 
originally inserted as an interpretation of the erroncous reading mu- 
lorum. The Greek paraphrase is as follows : Ila/ijroXu Ss Kal cKevo<p- 
ipuv ffX^floj, aixa rfj hy^epa, eK tov CTparoireSov i^ayayiov, Tots Iitkok6iiois 
Kpdvt] Ivivmas, SxTTe l-r-rewv Sd^av toTj rroXffJiois vape^etv, k. t. X. 

7. Mulioncsque cum cassidihus. " And the muleteers, with hel- 
mets on tliem." By muliones are meant thc drivers of the baggage. 



163 ^- Oslcnlaiionis causa. "To make a shovv." — Easdem rigi 
ones. " One and the same quarler." 

9. Tanto spalio. " At so great a distance." — Explorari. Siip 
ply a Gallis. RefeiTing to thc Gauls in Gergovia. 

10. Eodcm jugo. "Towards the same hill." On theoccasion 
al use of the dative, to mark motion tovvards a place, instead of tho 
accusative, consult the remarks of Perizonius, ad Sanct. Min. 3, 
14 (vol. i., p. 749, cd Baucr), and compare the Latin forms, quo., 
co, huc, &c. 

j Ij^ 1. Illo ad munitionem. "To that quarter, for the purpose oi 
defending it." We have adopted the emendation of Vossius, 
which rests on the authority of one of his MSS. The expression 
ad mnnitionem is equivalent to ad locum defendendum, and dcrives 
additional confirmation from the words munitionis causa, which 
occur near the commencement of chapter 48. The common text 
has illo munitiomim copiix, &c., and they who adopt it make muni- 
lionum depend in construction upon copice, i. e., " the forces 
throughout the fortifications." It would be better to make illo 
govern munitionum, i. e., " to that quarter of the fortifications." 

2. Insignibus. " Thc military insignia." These vvere of vari- 
ous kinds, according to the rank of the vvearer. The standard- 
bearers, for example, had helmets covered vvith bearskin, the pilani 
worc on thcirs the skins of wolves, &c. Compare Lipsius, Mil 
Rom. Analcct. ad dial. 2, p. 436. 

3. Raros, "In smallparties." Compare the Grcek paraphrase . 
dXiyovs KaT dyiyovi. 

4. Occasionis cssc rcm, &c. " That the aflair depcnded upon 
opportunity, not upon valour," i. e., upon the sudden seizing of 
an opportunity, &c. 

5. Recta rcgione, &c. " In a straight line, if no winding inter- 
vened." Morus regards recta regione as a mere marginal gloss. 
It is found, hovvever, in all the MSS. Besides, if there bc a gloss 
anywhere, it is rather in wliat follows, viz., " si millus anfraclus 

6. Quicquid huic, &c. " Whatever of circuit was added to this 
ascent, in ordcr to render the declivity less difilcult, this served to 
increase the length of thc route," i. e., whatever circuit thcy were 
obliged to take in ordcr to lessen the steepncss of the hill, only 
incrcased the- length of the journey. — Huic. Supply ascensui. 
The reference is to the ascent in a straight linc. 

7. Prcfduxeranl. Thfi (imendalion of Scaligor, in j)Iare of 


the common reading produxerant. It is supported by good ] (',1 

8. Trinis castris. " Of three separate camps," i. e., the camps 
jf three separate Gallic nations. Caesar purposely uses the dis- 
tributive here, as denoting that ihe diflferent Gallic states, in thc 
combined army, had separate encampments, according to vvhat has 
oeen said in the 36th chapter. Of these camps he here takes three, 
lu one and the same onset. 

9. Superiore corporis parte, &.C. He appears to have laid aside, 
as Hotomann remarks, his thorax, or piece of armour that covered 
the breast. 

10. Consecutus id, 6cc. Achaintre does not exactly see what 
object Caesar had in view by this movement. The answer to this 
may be given in the words of the Rornan commander himself 
(chap. 53), " ad Gallicam ostentationem minuendam militumque 
animos confirmandos." 

11. Retinehantur. "Were sought to be kept back." The im- 
perfect here denotes the efforts of the ofEeers to restrain their troops 
from advancing too far. With what success this was done is statcd 
mimediately after, sed, elati, &c. '• But our men, notwithstanduig 
their efforts (i. e., the efforts of their officers to restrain thcm), 
flushed with the hope of a speedy victory," &c. 

1. Vestem. This term may be rendered here by " vestments," 1 fi^ 
but it refers, in fact, to various other articles besides mere cloth 

ing, such as coverings for couches, hangings, &c. 

2. Pectoris fine prominentes. " Bending forward over the walls 
as far as the lower part of the bosom." ■ Some MSS. have pectore 
nudo, and with this the Greek paraphrase agrees, yvijivu Tip arfidd 
vpovcvdftivai. The reading we bave adopted, however, is far more 
elegant. Compare B. A. 85, " Umbilici fine ;" Apuleius, Flor. N. 
15, " Scapularum finibus," &c. 

3. Avaricensibus prcemiis. " By the rewards obtaiued iu tho 
storming of Avaricum," i. e., by the plunder obtained on that oc- 
casion. — Neque commissurum, &c. " And would not allovv aay 
one to scale the city wall before him." 

4. Tres suos manipulares. " Three men of his own company." 

5. Exceptans. " Taking hold of." — Extulit. " Drew them up." 

6. Munitionis causa. " To defend that quarter." This exprea- 
sion appears to confirm the emendation of Vossius, mentioned in 
note 1, p. 164. 

7. Ner loco nec numero. " Neither as regarded situation nor 



J Qfj numbers." Well expressed by the Greek paraphrase, Kara tov 

t6kov Kai avopdv apiBiibv. 

8. Spatio pugncz. " The long continuance of the fight." Spa- 
tium is here equivalent to longinquitas or diuturnitas. 

9. Prametuens. " Being apprehensive." A very elegant term. 
Compare Lucretius, 3, 1031 : 

'■^ At mens sihi conscia facti, 
PrcEmetucns adhibct stimulos, torrctquc fiagellis." 

I (3(3 1. Ah latere nostris aperto. " On our exposed flank." 

2. Sinulitudine armorum. The Aedui were armed aflcr tho 
general Gallic manner, and hcnce were mistaken for encmies by the 
Roman soldiers. 

3. Exsertis. " Bare," i. e., left bareand unencumbered of dress. 
The custom here alluded to by Coesar has given rise to much dis- 
cussion. Among thc Romans, the bare shoulder was a sign of war 
or of the hmit ; but among the Gauls, as he himself informs us, onc 
of peace. It is most probable that there was some regulation be- 
tween ihc Roman and those of the Gallic states that were subdued, 
by virtue of which, thc forces of the latter, \vhen engaging in battle 
with the Romans against their countrymen, wore one shoulder bare 
in order to be more easily distinguished from the rest of the Gauls. 

4. Excidere. We have here given the reading of the best MSS. 
The common text has exscindere. Consult Duker, ad Flor. 2, 
2, 37. 

5. Ac suis saluti fuit. " And preserved his own mcn by his 
death." Clarkegivesri^cz in place of «a^Mii, from some MSS. But 
saluti is the preferable reading, as vitce is used only a short distance 

6. Intolerantius. " Too eagerly." A uiuch more cxpressivo 
term, in Latin, than cupidius. 

7. Exccpcrunt.- " Suppori.^d.'" 

I 07 ^- ^"° procedendum. " How far ihcy ought to procecd."— 
Neque cojistitisscnt. " And becauso they had not haltcd." — 
Neque a trihunis. Compare note 5, page 23. 

2. Exposito, quid, &c. " Having set before them what disad- 
vantagcousncss of situation could offcct," i. e., the evil vvhich migj]! 
accrue from a disadvantagcous situation. 

3. Dimisisset. " Hc had given up." — Parvum modo dctrimeti 
ium. " Only a trifling loss." 

4. Quanto opcrc. " By how much," i. e., as greatly as. 


b. Plus se sentiTe. " That they knew better." — Desidemie. ] (j7 

" Wished to see." 

6. Adextremum. " At theconclusion." — Ne animo permoveren- 
tur. " Not to be dispirited." 

7. Eadem de profectione, &c. " Entertaining the same views 
as regarded his leaving ihe place» that he previously had." Caesar 
alludes here to his original intention of going to the Aedui, who 
were on the eve of revolt, and whom he was desirous of retaining in 
their allegiance to Rome. Compare chapter 43. 

8. Reduxil. Referring to Coesar. 

9. Appellatus. " Having been applied to," i. e., having been 
waited upon. — Et ipsos antecedere. " For themselves also to go 
before him. Some editions have prcecedere, which amounts to the 
same thing. 

10. Horum discessu admaturari. " Would only be hastened by 
the departure of these." — Eos retinendos non censuit. De Crisse 
indulges in some very able remarks, condemnatory of Caesar^s con 
duct upon this occasion, as being deficient in militafy foresight and 

1. Multatos agris. " Deprivedof theirlands." Mullare aliqua 158 
re is to deprive one of anything, as a mulct, or fine, in punishment 

for some oflfence that has been comraitted. CiBsar refers bere to 
what has been stated in the tiiirty-first chapter of the first book. 

2. Quamque in amplitudinem. " And to what poUtical conse- 
quence." The Aedui, at this time, numbered among their clients 
the Segusiani, Ambivareti, Brannovii, Aulerci Brannovices, Boii, 
and Mandubii. 

3. Omnium temporum, &c. " The dignity and influence of all 
the previous periods of their state." — His datis mandatis. " Hav- 
ing charged them to bear these things in mind." 

4. Huc CcBsar, &c. Caesar, in military language, had made No- 
viodunum his centre of operations, what the Greeks call bpiurrfjpiov. 

5. Bibracte ab Aeduis receptum. " Had been received by the 
Aedui into Bibracte." 

6. Tantum commodum. " So advantageous an occasion." 

7. Si re frumentaria, &c. We have adopted the reading recom- 
mended by Morus, excluding as a mere interpolation the words aut 
adductos inopia ex Provincia excludere, which are made to follow 
jifter Romanos excludere. The reasons for this lection are ably 
givcn by Morus. 

8. Ex nivibus. " By the melting of the snows." 




1 (38 ^- "^* esset iii perficicndis, &c. " Eveii if some risk was Xo 
be run in completing the bridges." Ccmpare the explanation of 
Baron, " Eliamsi aliquid periculi in ferjiciendis ponlibvs subeun- 
dum fuisset." 

1 69 ^* ^'^ nemo, 6cc. We have given the reading of Morus, whicli 
hsLS been adopted also by Oberlin and Daehne. The ordinary 
lection is {ut nemo non tunc quidem neccssario faciendum existima- 
hat), cum infamia, &c. 

, 2. Quod abjuncto Labieno, &c. " Because he feared greatly 
for Labienus, separated from him, and for the legions which he had 
sent along with that ofRcer." We have given abjuncto on the 
authority of several MSS., with OberUnus, Le Maire, and Daehue. 
This same reading meets with the approbation also of Davies and 
Morus, and is in accordance, too, with the language of the paraphrase, 
airdvTt AaBiTivip. Oudendorp, following the conjectural emendation 
of Ciacconius, gives Agcndico in place of abjuncto, but the forraer 
is a far inferior reading. 

3. Pro rei necessitate opportuno. " Sufficiently suitable, con 
sidering the urgency of the case." 

4. Perpetuam paludem. This, according to Achaintre, Ls tho 
part of Paris now known by the name of le Marais. 

5. Difficilius. " With more difficulty than he imagined." — 
Egressus. Labienus having tried the city on the soulh, and being 
impeded by the marsh, determined to make an attack on the north, 
and marched, therefore, to Melodunum, the modem Mclun. 

170 1. Profecti a palude. The MSS. vary. We have givcn tho 

reading which is foUowed by most edilors, and which is in accord- 

ance with the Greek paraphrase : tV rij; 'Xliivrji i^iKOSvTii. Ciacco- 

nius, however, conjectures protecti, which Achaintre adopts aad 

strongly advocates. 

2. Secundo Gallice motu. " A successful commotion in Gaul." 
Secundo is here, according to Hotomannus and Morus, equivalenl 
to " qui prospere successerat." Many, however, translate it as u 
mere numeral. — Interclusum itinere et Ligeri. " Stopped ou his 
route by the Liger." Equivalent to interclusum itinere Ligeris 
transitu. Literally, " cut off from his route and (from croasing) 
the Ligei;." 

3. Infideles. " Not firm in their attachment." Compare Cicero, 
Ep. ad Fam. 15, 4, " Ex alicnissimis sooiis amicissimos, ex infl- 
ddissimis firmissimos reddcrcm.'^ 

i. Prcelioque hostes acesseret, &c. The fighting that took 


piace, after he had fonued the rcsolution of leading oflf his artny J^fk 

Mfe to Agendicum, was rendered necessary by the circumstances 

of the case, since he could not retreat without some coUision wiih 

the foe ; his chief object being to avoid, if possible, a general en- 


5. Maximam opinionevi. " The highest reputation." 

6. Distinclat. Render interchisas distinebat as two verbs 
'•cut off and kept away." The river was the Sequana ; the bag- 
gage vi^as at Agendicum. Compare chapter 57. 

7. Sccundo Jlumine. " Down the river," i. e., folloicing the 
current of the stream {secundo quasi sequmdo). So a little farther 
on we have adverso Jlumine, " up the river," i. e., against the 

8. Castris. According to Achaintre, the Roman camp waa 
pitched on the slope of what is now Monnt Saint Genevieve : " in 
dejectu montis Sanctoe Gcnovefce.'''' 

9. Conquirit etiam linlres. " He collects also some small 

1. Eum locum petit, &c. The Roman army was thus divided ) 7 I 
mto three separate bodies, and the object of this skilful arrange- 
ment was, to leave the enemy in uncertainty as to the particular 
spot, where Labienus intended to convey his troops across. 

2. Exercitus. " The infantry." So called here because forimng 
the main part of the army (exercitus maxima ■pars). Comparo nol" 
4, page 92. 

3. Administrantihus . " Superintending." 

4. Prceter consuetudinem tunvultuari. " That there was an un- 
iisual tumult." Tumultuari being a common verb, not merely a 
deponent, is here employed impersonally in the passive. By a com- 
mon verb is meant one which, under a passive form, has both aii 
active (i. e., deponent) and passive meaning. The truth is, depo- 
nent verbs in Latin are regular middle verbs ; and when we speak 
of a common verb, we refer in fact to the middle and passive voices 
of one and the same verb. What tends to confirm this remark is 
the fact of so many old active forms of such verbs being found in 
the fragments, that have reached us, of the earlier Latin writers 
6uch as cono, horto, &c. 

5. Metiosedum. The place here meant appears tobe the moderi» 
Josay, a name arising probably from Josedum, itself an abbreviatio» 
of Mctiosedum. The place is a short distance above Paris. D'An 
ville errs in inaking Metiosedum the sarae with .Melodunum, Con 



{'J \ sult Cellarius, Geogr. Ant. vol ii., p. 166, and Le BoueJ, 

Recueil de divers icrits servant a VHist. de France, vol. i., p 

169. ~ 

6. Nec dahat suspicionem fugce quisquam. " Nor did any one 
of them betray the slightest suspicion of an intention to flee." 

7. Eandem fortunam tulit. " Met the same fate." Literally, 
" bore off the same fortune." 

\.1'2i ^" ^ontra castra Lalieni. " Over against the camp of Labi 

2. Hoc negotio confecto. Cssar says nothing here of ihe five 
cohorts that were lcft as a guard for the camp. They would appear 
to have followed, when tlie battle was over, the fivc other cohorts 
that went up the river with the baggage. So, also, no mention is 
made of that part of the Gallic forces, which was stationed on the 
opposite side of the river, over against the Roman camp. It is prob- 
able, that they fied through the woods, and joined the rest of the fu- 
gitives, when they heard of the defeat of their countrymen. 

3. Horum supplicio, &c. Hotomann thinks it incredible, that 
Gauls would treat their own countrymen thus, when the latter were 
Roman hostages. The fact, however, is expressly stated by Cel- 
sus, and is onlv anitlier proof, after all, of the barbarous habits even 
of the mrii<j civilized part of the Gauls. 

4. Rationesque helli sectim communicet. " And communicate to 
them his plans for conducting the war." Compare the Greek para- 
phrase : Iva n o^pioi Tript rov no\i'ftov dvaKOii'ti>aaiTO. 

P. Re impetrata, &c. " Their request being granted, they insist 
that the chief command be made over to them," i. e., the supreme 
administration of affairs. 

6. MuUitudinis suffragiis, &,c. " Thc decision is left to tho 
votes of the multitude. To a man they all make choice of Ver- 
cingetorix as commander." Literally, " approve of," i. e., by their 

7. lUi. " The former two." Referring to the Remi and Lin- 

8. El Ccesaris in se, &,c. " And they miss CjBsar's mdulgenco 
towards them," i. e., they regrct, feel the loss of, &c. The Aedui 
found Vcrcingetori.t far different from CjEsar, and felt the loss of 
that importancc which they had enjoyed as a people through ihe 
favour of Cscsar. Compare the cxplanation given to rcquirunt by 
Clarke, " desidenint, amissam sentiunt.''^ 

9. Siium consiliuni, &c. " They dare not pursue their owu 


measures separately from the rest," i. e., pursue a separatc inter- ] '^'•y 
est from the rest. 

10. Denique. Hotomannus suspects an error of the text here, 
and proposes Diemque ei rei constiluit. But denique here denotes, 
" in a word," and must not be changed. 

1 1 . Quindecim millia. Some read millium, but millia is by epex- 
egesis, or opposition with equites. 

1. Provincice. In many MSS., and in some editions, ei is in- |73 
serted before provincice, and by ei provincicB the Aedui are thought 

to be meant. This is altogether erroneous. The Roman province 
is referred to. 

2. Quorum mentes, dtc. " Whose mmds, he hoped, had not set- 
tled down into a calm state irom tne former war," i. e., were not 
vet reconciled to the losses they had susiained in their former war 
with the Romans. The war, here alluded to, is that in which the 
AUobroges lost their independence, and were biought under the Ro- 
man yoke. Nine years had now elapsed since that period. 

3. Ad hos om7ies casus. " Against all these contingences." 

4. Suos fines. . We have recalled fines mto the te.xt, with 
Achaintre, on MSS. authority. Compare the Greek paraphrase : 
rfiv oipSiti ^tipav iiaipvkdTrovai. 

5. Sed et equitibus Rortianis. " Nay, even from the Roman 
koights." By equitibus Romanis are here meant, not the Roman 
cavalry, but persons of the equestrian order, who were at that time 
with Cassar. The expression sed et has given rise to some discus- 
sion, as it almost always does when it occurs by itself, as in the pres- 
ent instance, in a Latin text. The reason is, that, since non modo, 
or some equivalent form, does not precede, it is a matter of uncer- 
tainty whether the conjunction sed has proceeded from the writer 
himself, or has been inserted by sorae copyist. (Compare Crusius, 
Ind. Lat. ad Saeton. vol. iii., p. 337.) In the present case it must 
certainly be retained. As regards the peculiar nature of this fonn 
of expression, consult Bauer, ad Sanct. Min. 4, 7, vol. ii., p. 30£^ 
and compare the remarks of Hoogeveen on «iXXa koi, p. 20, Glasg. ed. 

6. Evocatis. Consult Archasological Index. 

7. Toti GallicB. The whole of Gaul, and not merely Celtica is 
meant. So a little farther on, " Galliaque excedere." Some edi- 
lions have tota Gallia, which will be equivalent to fer totam Galliam. 

1. Atqxie in eo morentur. " And delay for this purpose," i. e., 1 74 
stop marching and tum about for this purpose — Magis futurum 
•« Would rather be the case." 




174 '•i- El dtgnUulc. •• And of their honoiir/' 

3. Copias omncs, &c. The whole army was to be drawn out 
uuder arms bcfore the camp, both to strike terror into the foe, and 
to encourage also by their presence the Gallic cavalry, while cu- 
gaged willi the enemy's horse. 

4. DucB acics. " Two of these divisions." — A primo agminc. 
" In front." The Roman army is called agmc7i, because on its 
inarch, while the divisions of Gallic horse, being prepared for battli) 
and for acting on the offensivc, are denominated acics. 

5. Una. " At one and thc same time." According to Plularcli 
( Vit. CcEs. c. 26), Caesar lost his sword in this battle, and the Ar- 
vemi suspcnded it in one of their temples. His friends having 
pointed it out to him on a subsequent occasion, and urging him to 
have it taken down, he smiled, and declined granting their requebt, 
regarding the sword as a thing consecrated to the gods. If tho 
story be true, Coesar must, as Plutarch remarks, have received some 
check in the commencement of the action. 

6. Eo signa inferri, &c. " Caesar ordered the staudards to be 
advanced and the army to face about towards that quarter," i. e., 
the army to face to fhat part and charge the foe, 

7. Spe auxiiii. Because they knew from this, that if ihey wnro 
))ressed too heavily Cassar would come to their aid. 

8. Germani. We learn two things very clearly from these com- 
mcntaries, that the Gallic cavalry was superior to the Roman, and 
the German to the Gallic. 

9. Flumcn. Rhellicanus thinks the Arar(iSao?ie) is here meant ; 
but Achaintre, with more propriety, declares in favour of the Se- 

10. Cotus. Compare chapter 33. — Proximis comi(»?s. " At 
the last election." Caesar speaks here more Romano. 

175 ^- ^^'- " In the same order as." 

2. Alesiam. This is the true form of ihc name. (Constilt 
Vossius, axl VeU. Paterc. 2, 47, and Ursinus, in loc.) Paterculus 
has Alexia, and the Greek paraphrast the same, 'k\tlta, togcthe» 
with some eariy cditions. For the derivation of the name, accord- 
ing to the Greek writers, cons\iIt Geographical Index. 

3. Tribus milltbus. Julius Celsus says ten thousand : " Iritet 
cundum decern millibus liostium oblriincatis ." 

4. Qno maximc confidebant. We havc followed here the readms 
of Achaintre, from one of his best MSS. It is far simpler and 
nwre elcgant than the common lection, (jua mu.<ime parle cxercilus 



cotifidebant. The words parte cxcrcilus are evid«ntly a mere in- ]75 

5. Duo Jlumina. The Lutosa and Osera, now the Lozc and 

6. Colles. Sevea or eight in nuraber, according to Achaintro. 

7. Maccriam. " A stone wall." By maceria is here meant a 
wall of stones, piled one upon the other without cement, or, as the 
Komans expressed it, raade sicco lapide. 

8. Ejus munitionis . Keferring to the Roraan lines of circum- 
vallation, consisting of a rampart and ditch. 

9. Castella. " Redoubts." Compare Guischard, Memoire», 
&c., vol. iv., p. 137. — Quihus in castellis. A phraseology of no 
unfrequent occurrence in Cssar. Compare note 7, page 5. — Sta- 
tiones dispofnebantur. " Guards were placed." 

10. Excubitoribus. "Bywatches." 

11. Opere instituto. "The work having been begun," i. e., 
while the work of circumvallation was in hands. — Intermissam 
collibus. " Being free from hills." Equivalent to colle non tectam. 
The plain lay between hills on every side. 

1. Atque angustioribus, &CC. "And, onlythe narrower gates 17A 
having been left open, are crowded together in thera." Vossius 
recomraends that relictis be expunged ; and, if this could be done, 

the sentence would certainly be benefited by it ; but all the MSS. 
have the word in question. Oudendorp therefore explains it, by 
supposing that the larger gates of the town had been obstructed or 
blocked up by the ditch and stone wall {maccria), and that only the 
narrow gates were left by which they could enter. 

2. Veniri ad se confestim. " That the enemy were coming that 
vory instant against them." This mistake arose from the legions 
having been ordered to advance a little, which the Gauls took for a 
demonstration against the works. 

3. Dimittere. For dimittendi. 

4. Batione inita, &c. " That, having made a computation, he 
had a short allowance of com for thirty days, but that, by economy, 
he might hold out a little longer." More literally, " that he had 
scantily the com of thiny days." 

5. Iniermissum. " Were intermitted," i. e., where a space was 
yet free from our works, the line of circumvaliation not having as 
yet been carried so far. 

6. Pedum viginti. " Of twenty feet inwidth." — Directis lateri- 
bus. " With pcrpendif alar sides." — Ut ejus fossce, &c. " So that 



176 ^^^ bottom of this ditch might extend as far, as the brinks were 
apart at top," i. e., so that the breadth at the bottom might be equal 
to that at the top. 

7. Reliquas omnes, &c. " All his other works he executed four 
hundred feet back from thal ditch." Literally, " he drew back." 
We have recalled with Achaintre the reading of all the MSS. ar.d 
best editions, namely, jicdes instead oi passus. Guischard first sug 
gested passus, and this is also given by De Crisse and Oberhnus. 
Achaintre's argument against passus is conclusive. If the dis- 
tance be 400 paces, and the whole circuit of the works only 11,000 
paces, the ditch would have to be so near the city, as hardly to leavo 
Vercingetorix room for his camp. 

I 7g 1. Nec facile totum opus, &c. " Nor could the whole work 
be easily manned with soldiers." 

2. Operi dcstiyxatos. " While occupied on the works." Com- 
pare the Greek paraphrase, an^fi to cpyov ey^ovra;. 

3. Hoc intermisso spatio. Alluding to the four huudred feet, tho 
space between the ditch and the other works. 

4. Post eas. Behind the tvvo fifteen-feet-ditches just mentioucd, 
or, including the outermost one, of twenty feet, behiud the thrce 
ditches. — Loricam pinnasquc. " A parapet and battlemeuts." 

5. Grandibus cervis, &c. " Large stakes, cut in the forni o. 
stags' horns, projecting out at the junction of the parapet and ram- 
part, to retard the ascent of the enemy," i. e., to prevent thc enemy 
from quickly scaling the works. These stakes projected horizon- 
tally. — Pluteorum. Referring to the larica and pinna; combhied. 

6. Turrcs. Fixcd towers. They must, besides, not be confouud 
ed with the redoubts mentioned in a previous chapter. 

7. Materiari. " To procure timber for the rampart," i. e., tc 
fell timber in tlie adjacent forests, and drag it thence to the camp. 

8. Dcminutis nostris copiis. " Our troops being, in consequence 
of this, reduced in number." 

9. Abscisis. Somc have ahscissis, but the most ancient MSS., 
as well of CsBsar as of othcr authors, do not doubie the sibilaut. 
Compare Vossiiis, Anal. 3, 26, p. 97. 

10. Atque horum, &c. " And the ends of these being stripped 
of their bark and sharpened into a ppint." The common reading 
is dolabratis, "being lopped off with axes." The Roman writers, 
however, do not say dolabrarc, but dolare ; and, besides, the 
MSS. give delibratis, which harmonizcs with the airo^iaai of the 


Ureek paiapbiase. We have given the latter fonn, thercfore, ] 7 JJ 

with Oudendorp and the bcst editors. 

11. PerpetucB fosscE. "A continuod trench." The Latin ex- 
prcssion conveys the idea of a number of trenches united together 
and forming one continucd trench. Hcnce the distributivenumeral 
quinos is envployed, as referring separately lo each of thesc supposed 
trenches, ttough, in fact, there is but one trench ; and hence, in 
translating quinos pcdes alta, we must say, in our idiom, " every- 
where five fect deep." The distinction between these perpetucB 
fosscB and the scrohes mentioned a httle after, is well pointed out by 
a modem writer, Berlinghieri, in his work on Alesia, pubhshed at 
Lucca, in 1812 : " Scrobes sont aussi des fossis, mais coniques ou 
cylindriques, au lieu que le perpetuae fossae est une fosse longitudi' 
Tiale ou un ■parallelipipede ; par excmple, supposons que, dans une 
ligne de vingt pieds, il y eul dix trous cylindriques, d'un picd de 
diametre chaque, ils auraient entr'' eux neuf intervalles d'un pied 
chaque. T appellerais d^abord ces trous scrobes, mais si fenlevais 
le terrain qui forme les neuf intervalles, en etablissant unc communi- 
cation entre les dix trous, faurais fait un fosse que fappellerais 
fossa perpetua," p. 86. 

12. Huc illi stipites, &c. " These stakes being sunk into this 
trench and fastened at the bottom, to prevent thelr being pulled out, 
projected above the levelof the ground with their branches merely." 
By the stipites are meant the trunks of trees and large branches just 
mentioncd, and the rami are the smaller boughs at the estremities 
of these, or at the place where boughs begin to grow. Compare the 
explanation of Morus : " Ab ramis eminebant, ea parte tenus, qua 
rami enati erant, tegehantur ; ab ea inde parte eminebant.'" 

13. Quo qui intraverant, &c. " Aud they who entered withm 
those impaled themselves on exceedingly sharp stakes." We have 
here an imitationof the Greek idiom. Compare Xenophon, Cyrop. 
1, 6, 40, 'iva IV Ttf a<p6Spa rfxiiyfiv avrds lavTdv tfiiriirrav iviSu. 

14. Hos cippos appellabant. " These the soldiers called cippi." 
Cippus properly means a trunk of a tree standing erect, and hence 
in one of the old glossaries it is explained by the Greek Kopftis. It 
then denotes a little square pillar placed ovcr graves, wilh the name, 
&c., of thedeceased engraved onit, and also a landmark, or bound- 
ary stone for fields. Achaintre, laking this last meaning for his 
guide, thinks that the Roman soldiers called the stakes in question 
cippi, because they served as so many limits to the enemy's prog- 
ress. This is rather too fanciful. They would appear, on the 



173 contrary, to have derived their name from their general reseni- 

blance to erect trunks of trees. 

15. Quincuncem. The form of the quincunx was as ioUows . 

16. Scrobes. " Pits." Compare remarks under note 11. — 
Paulatim angustiore, &c. " With a depth gradually narrowing 
towards the bottom." Fastigium denotes depth as well as height. 
Compare Virgil {Gearg. 2, 288), " Forsitan et scrobibus quce sint 
fastigia qucsras." Where see Heyne, and consult Gesner's Lcc- 
icon Rusticum, s. v. appended to his edition of the Scrrpt. Hcx 

17. Simiil conjirmandi, &c. " At the same time, for the pur- 
pose of giving strength and stabihty, one foot from the bottom iii 
each was filled with trampled clay." Compare the explanation of 
Lip.sius {Poliorcet. 2, dial. 2, p. 518), " Sententia est, e tribus illis 
■pedibus altitudinis, terfmm ab imo dcperissc ; terra aggesta ad 
slabiUendum stipitem, et circa cum stipata et exculcata." 

18. Id ex similitudinc, &c. " This they called a lily, from its 
resemblance to that flower." The pit resembled the caly.x of the 
lily, and the inserted stake the pistil that projects from it. 

]79 ^- Talecc. " Stakes." — Fcrreis hamis infixis. "With iron 
hooks fastened in them." — Omnibus locis. Referring to the 
space between the 20 feet ditch and the one 400 feet distant. 

2. Regiones secutus, &c. " Having followed the course of thc 
country, as evenly as the nature of the ground admitted, and having 
enclosed a space of fourteen miles, he constructed fortifications of 
the same kind in every respect, opposite to these, against an external 
foe." Dtvcrsas is well e.xpr^ssed by the kut ivavHa of the Greek 
paraphrase. Oberlinus thinks that pares ejusdem generis savours 
of a pleonasm, but quite unnecessarily. It is equivalent to similes 
et simili modo factas, or, as we have rendered it, "of the same 
kind in every rcspect." 

3. Ejus discessu. There is evidently some error of the text 
here, and cjus has arisen out of some corruption or abbreviation of 
eguitatus. For the reference is undoubtedly to the departure of the 
Gallic horsfe, mentioned in chapter 71, and the consequent danger 
of a large army's being brought against the fortifications from with- 
out. All we can do is to translate ejus discessu, " in consequencn 
of the dcparlurc of tlic foc," makin^ rju.v refcr to tne iattcr, and 


jriderstanding by " the foe," the cavalry that had left Alesia. (79 
^jus zannot in any vvay apply to Caesar, as some would insist. 

4. Neu egredi cogantur. The common text has erroneously co- 
gerenlur. — Convectum. " Brought together," i. e., collected with- 
in the Roman works. 

5. Principum. " Of the leading chieftains." 

6. Frumentandi rationem hahere. " To have any means for a 
rcgular supply of corn." Compare the Greek paraphrase, /i^re 
\Kaviiv TTpovoitfiv C)(liv OvvaivTO. 

7. Aulcrcis Brannovicibus. The ordinary text has Brannovits 
following after Brannovicihus, but it has evidently arisen from some 
various readings of this latter name. Oberlinus and Daehne enclose 
it within brackets. We have rejected it from the te.xt. 

8. Lemovices. This reading is extremely doubtful. Consult 
Geographical Index. 

1. Hujus opera, &c. " Coesar had, as we have before shown, ] gQ 
availed himself of the faithful and valuable co-operation of this 
Commius in Britain." Compare chapter 21, book 4. 

2. Civilatem ejus. The Atrebates. — Immunem. " Free from 
taxes." The reference is to imposts of every kind. 

3. Jura legesque, &c. " Had restored its ancient rights and 
privileges, and had conferred on Commius himself the country of 
tho Morini." 

4. Hacin Aeduorum,&c. " These were reviewed in the country 
of the Aedui, and their number was taken down." Literally, " and 
an enumeration was entered into." The pronoun hac refers to 
tnillia understood. 

5. Ancipiti prcelio. " In an engagement pressing on both the 
front and rear." The front of the Romans would be attacked by 
Vercingetorix from the town, the rear by the confederate Gauls 
1'rom without. 

6. Foris. " Without," i. e., on the outside of the hnes of coi- 

7. Prceterita die. Compare chapter 71. 

1 . Na7n apud me, &c. " For honour has a powerfui influence \Q[ 
over me." 

2. Millibus octoginta. This was the amount of thc force which 
Vercingetorix had with him in the town. Compare chapter 71. 

3. Exspoliare. " Utterly to deprive." Equivalent to pemtiis 
spoliare. The common text has spoliare ; the reading which we 
give is Oudendorp's. 



181 "^- ■^'^''- ^^^ have here with the nolilc that precedes a doubl* 
negative in imitation of the Greeks, unless we prefer understand- 
ing velitis after nec. But this last is not so elegant. Coinpare 
Terence, Andr. 1, 2, 35, " Ncque tu haiid dicas tibi non prctdic- 
lum,'^ and consult the other instances adduced by Vechner, Hcl- 
tenolex. p. 381. 

5. Animi causa. " For mere amusement." Compare th» 
Greek paraphrase : j/ Tfpi^f&jj n^pHv IvtKa. 

6. Illorum. Referring to the confederate Gauls without, who 
were coming to the relief of Alesia. — Eorum. Referring to tho 

7. Eorum corporibus, &c. They killed the children and those 
vvho were old and infirm, and subsisted on their flesh. 

8. Si. "Evenif." — Institui. " Forcne tobe nowestabhshed." 

9. Nam quid illi, &c. " For what had ihat war like this which 
is now waged against us V i. e., what wers the miseries we then 
endured to these under which we are now suffering 1 Compare 
Morus, ad loc. 

10. DepopuJata Gallia. The verb depopulari, though regarded 
as a deponent, is, in fact, a common verb. Or rather, strictlv 
speaking, the active, passive, and middle voices are all in use ; for 
Valerius Flaccus, 6, 531, has " depopulare greges,^'' and the autha- 
of the Commentaries on the Spanish War (c. 42), has " depopu- 
lavit." Compare note 4, page 171. 

] 82 ^ • Securibus. Referring to the lictors and axes of the Roman 
magistrates. Compare Brant. ad loc. 

2. Prius experiayitur, &c. They resolve to have recourse to the 
horrid expedient recommcnded by Critognatus, only after havincf 
tried everything else. 

3. Recipi prohibebat. According to Dio Cassius (40, 40), the 
whole of this miserable multilude perished with hunger in the space 
between the town and Roman camp ! koi o5 hcv oBtws iv t^ jiia<^ 
Ttii TrdAf&is KaX Tov aTpaTOiriSov, /i^S' iTipdtv a<pdi Of^Ojiiviav, olKTpdraTa 


4. Planitiem. Compare chapter G9. 

5. Abductas. One of the MSS. gives adductas, from which Ou- 
dendorp conjectured abducias, which we have received into the 
text. Oberiin retains abditas, tho rcading of thc common editions, 
but explains it by sejunctas. The verb abdo certainly has on some 
ocoasions the meaning of removeo (compare Tibull. 2, 1, 82, and 
Gronov. de pec. vel. 4, 8), but always with niore or less of conceal* 



ment accompanying the act. Now there was no concealment "1JJ2 
whatever in the present case, since it is stated, in the next chap- 
ter, that the infantry on the higher grounds were spectators of the 
battle with the cavalry, and cheered their countrymen with their 

6. Ad utramque partem. " On both sides," i. e., on the Hne of 
sircumvallation, against the beseiged, and on that of contravallation 
against the foe without. 

7. Praventum. The reading of the best MSS. The common 
taxt has eventum, which appears to be a mere gloss. 

8. Raros. " Here and there." 

1. PugncB superiores. The reading of the best MSS., and 183 
much more elegant than pugna superiores, which is given in the 
common text. Compare ihe expressions acer animi, disciplintz 
clarus, &c. 

2. Et ii qui, &c. Referring to the Gallic infantry, who beheld 
the equestrian conflict from the neighbouring heights. Compare 
uote 5, page 182. 

3. Confertis turmis. " In a compact body," i. e., with the sev- 
eral turma, or troops of horse, united into one. Compare the e.x- 
planation of Achaintre : " iSMr un seul front, sans intervalle." 

4. Harpagonum. " Grappling hooks." A species of mural- 
hooks attached to long poles, and used to pull dowri the rampart, 

5 Campestres munitiones. Those described in chapter 74, 
which had been erected against the Gauls from without. 

6. Libralibus. " Large stones." Supplysaxis. The reference 
is to large stones thrown by the hand. So the Greek paraphrase 
has ixiydXoii Tt XWoij. This species of missile is mentioned by Ve- 
getius (2, 3), " Sed et manu sola omncs milites meditabantur libra- 
lia saxa jactare." The soldiers who threw them were called libra- 
tores. Compare Tacitus, Ann. 2, 20, " Funditores libratorcsque 
excutere tela et proturbare hostem jubet ;" and also Ann. 13, 39, 
" Libratoribus funditoribusque attributus locus, unde eminus glan- 
des torquerent." By the Greeks they were called XifloSdXoi. Com- 
pare Thucyd. 6, 69. Oudendorp and many others read librilibus, , 

and refer in support of this lection to Festus, who explains librilia 
as follows : " Librilia appellahantur instrumenta bellica, saxa scili- 
cet ad brachii crassitiidinem, in modum flagellorum loris revincta.''^ 
From this description, thc librilia would appear to have been largo 
Btones, attached to a thong or strap, which were dra^vn back aftor 




183 having been hiirled at the foe ; and so Lipdius regards them : 
" Videliir emissum telum fuissc, et reduclum. {Poliorcct. 4, dial. 
3, p. 602.) Now it can hardly be supposed, that such weapons as 
these could have been used on the present occasion, when the Gauls 
were as yet at a distance ; and Lipsius himself appears to favour 
this view of the subject : " In Festi librihbus hcireo ; nam in Cas ■ 
aris verbis longinquum non proptnquum est tcluni.^^ Libralibus, 
iherefore, is evidently the true reading, not librilibus. 

7. Glandibus. " BuUets." These were of lead, and of diiferent 
shapes, somc round, some trilateral, some oblong, &c. Coiisult 
Lipsius, Poliorcct. 4, dial. 3, p. 604, whero dehneations of them aro 

8. Ulterioribus castellis. Referring to the rcdoubts that wero 
more remote from the immediate points of attack. 

9. Plus proficiebant. " They did morc execution." 

1^4 L Pilis muralibus. " By the mural javelins." These wero 
heavy iron javehns discharged from the ramparts by means of eu- 

2. Appeteret. " Was approaching." Some editions have appa- 
reret, but this is a mere gloss on appetcrct. 

3. Interiorcs. " Those within," i. e., the Gauls from Alesia. 
Compare Morus : " Interiores, oppido inclusi." — Proferunt. " Aro 
bearing forlh from the town." 

4. Superiurum castrorum. " Of the upper camp." TLis is e.x- 
plained immediately after. 

5. Pcene iniquo loco, &c. The situation was a disadvantageous 
one for the Romans, because the slope of the hill favoured thc 
enemy, and the camp was commanded by the summit of the hill. 

6. Vergasillaunum. 0'Brien makes this to have been, uot a 
proper name, but an appellation of dignity ; and derives it from tho 
Gehic, fear-go-saighlean, i. e., " vir ad vexillum," or " vexiilarius," 
in English " a banneret." 

7. A castris. The reference is to the Gallic encampment under 
ihe walls of Alesia. Compare chapter 69. — Longurios, musctdos, 
&c. " Long poles, moveable pont-houses, mural hooks." For an 
account of tlie musculus, and the origin of its name, consult Archre 
clogical Index. 

\\^~) L Omnia tentantur. " Every expedient is tried." — Pars. 
" Any part of our works." 

2. Quod suum periculum, &c. " Because they perceive, tiiat 
their danger dopends upon tlie valonr of others," i. e., that it rests 


wlth others eitherto make them safe by a valiant resistance, or to J g5 

bring them into danger by an abandonment of their posts. In other 

words, their safety depended on thc valour of the other legions. 

3. Utrisque ad animum occurrit. " The same idea presents it- 
eclf to the minds of either party." 

4. Si rcm obtinuerint. " If thcy stand their ground." Moro 
literally, "if they hold the affair as their own," i. c, if they hold 
their own. Compare the explanation of Baron, " Si in munitio- 
nihus restiterint ;