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Full text of "Catena aurea : commentary on the four Gospels, collected out of the works of the Fathers"

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Qt a t t tt a a \1 r t t1. 


COMlVIENTARY 


O"S THE 


FOUR 


G 0 S PEL S, 


('OLL}
C'rF.D OUT OF THE 


'YORKS OF THE FATHERS 


BY 


s. THO MAS A QUI N A S. 


VOL. I. 


ST. MATTHEW. PART II. 


OXFORD, 


JOHN HENRY PARKER; 
J. G. F. AXD .T. RTVINGTON, LOXDOX. 
"\.1 DCCCX L I. 




ÅXTER,PRINTER,OXFORD. 



A D'TERTISEl\IENT. 


THE following Cotnpilation not being admissible into tIle 
l..ibrary of the Fathers from the date of some few of tIll' 
authors introduced into it, the Editors of the latter work 
]lave been led to publish it in a separate fonn, being assured 
that those ",'ho have subscribed to their Translations of the 
entire Treatises of the ancient Catholic divines, will not feel 
less interest, or find less benefit, in the use of so very 
judicious aud beautiful a selection froln theln. The Editor
 
refer to the Preface for son1e account of the natural and 
characteristic excellences of the ,vork, which \,"ill be found 
as useful in the private study of the Gospels, as it is \ven 
adapted for fatuily reading, and full of thought for those ,vho 
are engaged in religions instruction. 
Ozford, 
[a!l6, 1841. 




CO)I:\IEN'f AR'f 


OX TH1: 


GOSPEl.. .-\CCORI)l
G TO ST. )I.-\T'rrHE'\
. 


VOL. 1. PART II. 


'oL.!. 


20 




CIIAP. XI. 


1. .\nd it came to pass, \vhen Jesus had made an 
end of COlTIlnanding his t\velve discip1es, he departed 
thence to teach and to preach in their cities. 


11:\ß.\
. The Lord having sent out His disciples to preach 
lvith the foregoing instructions, I) imself no\v fulfils in action 
\\rhat lIe had taught in ,yords, offering His preaching first to the 
Je\vs; .i.lnd it cauze to pass 'll'!ien Jesus !tad ended all tltese 
sayings, lie passed ,l1encc. CHRYS. IIa,.iug sent thelll forth, lIe Chrys. 

rithdrc\v IIin1sclf, gi,.ing then1 o"pportunity and time to do 


j: 
the things that lIe had enjoined; for \vhile He ,vas present 
and ready to heal, no Ulan ".ould como to IIis disciples. 
IlE
IJG. lIe "rell passes froIn the special teaching ,vhich Ire 
had delivered to I lis disciples, to the general \vhich lIe 
})reached in the cities; passing therein as it ""ere from 
hca'
en to earth, that lIe might gi,'e light to alL fly this 
deed of the Lord, all holy preachers are adulonished that 
they 
hOlllc1 study to benefit all. 


2. No\\" \vhen John had heard in the prison the 
,,'orks of Christ, he sent t\VO of his disciplcs, 
3. And said unto him, .L\rt thou he that should 
come, or do \VC look for another? 
4. Jesus ans\vered and said unto them, Go and 
she\v John again those things \vhich ye do hear 
and see: 
5. 
rhc blind receive their sight, and the lame 
''talk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the 
dead are raised up, and the poor have the Go
pel 
preached to then1. 


9D2 



404 


GOSPF:I
 ACCORDI:\IG TO 


CHAP. XI. 


6. And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended 
In me. 


G1o

. GLOSS. The Evangelist had she\vn above how by Christ's 
non occ.1TIiracles and teaching, both His disciples and the multitudes 
had been instructed; he now shews ho,v this instruction 
had reached eyen to John's disciples, so that they seen1ed 
to have some jealousy to,vards Christ; John, u'hen he !tad 
heard in his bonds the works qf Christ, sellt tu'
 if !tis 
disciples to say 'Unto hhn, Art tltOlil !te that should C01Jze, 
Greg. OJ" look u'e for {Ulotlter? GREG. '.Ve must enquire ho\v 
-:.!:I
L ;
 John, \\'ho is a prophet and more than a prophet, who made 
kno\vn the Lord "Then He came to be baptized, saying, 
Behold tlte La'Htb oj' God, that taketh a'l[
ay the sins qf the 
'11)orlcl !-\vhy, \vhen he was after\yards cast into prison, he 
should send his disciples to ask, A1"t t/iolt lie t/iat shoulel 
C01ne, or look we for allotller? Did he not kno\v Him \VhOnl 
he had pointed out to others; or ,vas he uncertain whether 
this \vas He, \vhom by foretelling, hy baptizing, and by 
Ambros.lnaking kno\vn, he had proclaiIned to be He? Al\IBHOSE"; 
i;
:uc.7. 
olne understand it thus; That it was a great thing that 
John should be so far a prophet, as to ackno\vledge Christ, 
and to preach remission of sin; but t]lat like a pious 
prophet, he could not think that lIe ,,-holn he had belie\-ed 
to be lIe that should COlne, ,vas to suffer death; he doubted 
therefore though not in faith, yet in love. So Peter also 
l\Iat.16, doubted, sa,ying, Tllis be far .froJJt thee, Lord; fhis shall not 
22. be unto t/tee. CHRYS. But this seelns hardly reasonable. 
For John was not in ignorance of His death, but \vas the 
first to preach it, saying, BelLold the Lal1lb of God, that 
taketh alray tile sins oj
 the /i'orld. For thus calling Hin1 
the Lanlb, he plainly she\vs forth the Cross; and no 
otherwise than by the Cross did lIe take a\vay the sins 
of the \vodel. Also ho\v is he a greater prophet than these, 
if he kne\v not those things ,,'hich all the prophets ]\.nc\v; 
Is. 53, 7. for Isaiah says, He 'If.:llS led as a slleep to the slaughter. 
,t\ ug. GREG. But this question lTIay be answered in a better ,vay 
ubi sup. if \ve attend to the order of time. At the \vaters of Jordan 
he had affinned that this ,,-as the Redeemer of the \vorld: 
after he \vas thro\yn into prison, he enquires if this \vas 11 e 



\'EH. 2-H. 



T. :\IATTJlE'V. 


10.3 


o that shoul(l COUle-not that he doubtcc1 that this ""as the 
ItedcClner of the \\'orId, but he asks that he Inay know 
whether lIe who in llis 0\\ n person had cOlue into the \vorId, 
would ill 11 is o""n person (lesccl1cl also to the" arid belo\v. 
JEH01IE; Tfence he frames his question thus, .l.1J't Iltnll lie 
Lhat is 10 ('olne? Kat, Art Thou lIe that hast ('olue? .Aud 
the scnse is, ] )il'cct IHC, since L alll about to go do\\rn inte) 
the"' 10\\'er parts of the earth, ,,"hether 1 shan anllounce 'fhee 
to the spirits hcncath also; or whethcr Thou as the 
ou of 
God luay nut taste death, but \vil1 send another to this 
acra- 
I11C1It? CIIRY
. But is tI1is a lllore rcasonable cxplanation 
tllan the other? for ,,,hy tI11"'U did he 1Iot say, 
\rt Thou 
lIe that is cOIning to the world hCH('ath? and not siInph-, 
..11'1 llunt lie Ilull is to cOllie'! _\lld the reason of his 
st'L'l,:Ïug to l
nuw, 11:.u11cl), that he nÚght preach Ililn there, i
 
c\o('n ridiculous. For the present lite is the titHe of gracc, 
and after death the j udglnent and punislllllcnt; therefore 
there \\ as no need of a furernnner thither. .L\gaill, if th("' 
l1Hhelie,.crs ,vllo should bclie,.e after death should be sa,"ed, 
then 1101)(' would perish; all ,,'ould then repent and "porship; 
for er 
ry kllef' R/"'" úow, úulll qt'l1Iiugs in lteal'ell, alld fltiJlgs Phil. 2, 
011 Larll" aud Iltiu.q.'t uuder lite eart/I. GLO
S. But it ought


ss. 
to bc obsen ed, that JcrOUIC and Gregory did Hot 
ay that non occ. 
Jphll was to proclail11 Christ's cOll1illg to the \\"orId beneath, 
to the cnd that the unbc1Ïc\"C'rs thcre nlight be converted to 
the t
tith, hut that the righteous ,vl1o ahùrlc in expectation 
of Christ, should be cOlnforted by His near approacb. 
Ihr. \IlY; .It is indeed ccrtain, that he ".ho as forerunncr 
proelaillled ChrisCs couIing, as prophet l
ne\\r IIilll \,"hen 
lIe 
tood before hiln, and ,,"orshipped J riln as Confe
sol" 
when ] Ie canIe to hiln, could not faB into error froBI such 
ahundant kno\,"lcdge. N or call it be bclicved that the grace 
of the [Iuly 
pirit failed hinl when t11ro".n into prisou, seeing 
11 e shoul(l hereafter 111ÏlIister the light of IIis pon"cr to the 
.\ postles when they wcre in prison. J EROJIE; 'fhercfore he 
does not asl
 as being hilnself ignorant. nut a
 the S
l\.ioul" 
asks where Lazarus is buric(l, in or(lcr that they who shewcd Johu II J 
Ililn the' sepulchre llligl1t ùe so far prepared for Ülith, and 34. 
helic\"c that the (It'
\(l ,,-as ,"crily raised again- so JoIn), ahout 
to 1)(' put to death by II crod, scuds his disciple
 to Christ, 



406 


(ìOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


that by this opportunity of seeing His signs and wonders 
they Inight believe on IIinl, and so lnight learn through their 
Inaster's enquiry. lJut John's disciples had some\vhat of 
hitterness and jealousy to,,"ards the liord, as their fornler 
enquiry she,ved, 1T7/ ly do 'ire and tile PIl01"isees .fast ift, hut 
I" Y disciples .last not? CHTIVS. Yet w hi 1st John was \,"ith 
thelll he held then1 rightly conyinced concerniug Christ. 
TIut ,vhen he \vas going to die, he \yas 1110re concerned on 
their behalf. For he feal'ed that he tnight leave his disciples 
a prey to some pernicious doctrine, and that they should 
relnain separate fronl Christ, to ,,"horn it 11ad been his care 
to bring all his follo\vers from the beginning. Had he said 
to them, Depart froni IDe, for lIe is better than Ine, he \vould 
not ha\re prevailed \"ith them, as they \vould have supposed 
that he spoke this in hnulility, \vhich opinion \vonld have 
drawn thenl 1110re closely to hiln. 'Vhat then does he? He 
"raits to hear througl] them that Christ works t11iracles. 
Nor did he send aIJ, but two only, (\vhom perhaps he chose 
as more ready to belie\re than the rest,) that the reason of his 
enquiry nlight be unsuspected, and that froIn the things 
themselves \vhich they should see they tnight understand the 
difference behveen him and Jesus. HILARY; John then 
is pro\riding 110t for his o\vn, but his disciples' ignorance; 
that they might kno\v that it w"as no other WhOlU he had 
proclaitned, he sent theln to see His ,,,"orks, that the works 
Inight establish \vhat John had spoken; and that they should 
not look for any other Christ, than IIim to wholn lIis 'yorks 
had borne testhl1ony. CHRYS. So also Christ as knowing 
the Inind of John, said not, I atn He; for tbus lIe \vould 
have put an obstacle in the \vay of those that heard Him, 
\vho \vould have at least thought within thelnsehres, if they 
John 0, did not say, \vhat the Jews did say to Christ, Tholll beal'est 
]3. '1cilness if tltyselj: Therefore He \yould have them learn 
froln I-lis n1Íracles, and so presented ITis doctrine to thell1 
1110re clear, and n"ithout suspicion. For the testimony of 
deeds is stronger than the testitllony of ,vords. Therefore 
lIe straighhvay healed a l1ulnber of blind, and lame, and 
lnany other, for the sake not of JolIn \\"ho had kno\vledge, 
but of others who doubted; as it follo\\rs, And Jeslls allSlL"ered 
(flld saitluuto thelll, Go and tell John wllat ye lta-ve lleard 



VEn. 2-6. 


ST. MATTIIE'V. 


107 


and SC('II; Tla J bliud ,,,'ee, '/'e hilllP '/Calk, tlil' l(
pen; aì"(
 
,,'lealls 
d, tIle d 
(!( Ii 
ar, lite d Jlld tre raisl:d, lite poor hal;c 
ll,e Go,"'pll In"caclted lu tI,eln. .J ERO)IE; This last i:-, nu less 
than the first. .And understand it as if it had been said, 
Even Ilu! poor; that SO between noble and lnean, rich and 
pour, there l11ay he no difference in l'reacl1ing. 'rhis ap- 
pro\res the strictncss of the lUa'5ter, this the truth of the 
teacher, tIlat in I lis sight e\-ery one \\'ho can be sa\red i
 
equal. Cn RYS. A ud blessed is he ?l'lto sllal/ not be f!lf'eìlded 
in Ille, is directed against the IneSSCllgers; they "'ere otfended 
in Ilin1. Hut TIe not publishing their doubts, and leaviug 
it to their conscience alone, thus pri\rately introduced a re- 
futatiun of them. IIILARY; 'This saying, that they ,"'ere 
hlcssed fronl WhOlll there should be no oflence in IIÏ1n, 
shewed thelU what it "-as that John had proyided against in 
sending thelll, Ji'or John, through fear of this very thing, 
had scnt his disciples that they ulight hear Christ. GREG. Greg. 
Otherwise; 'The mind of unbelie\rers ".as greatly otlended }!om: in 
Ev.\'I. I. 
concerning Chri
t, he cause after U1al1Y u1iracles done, they 
sa\v IIhn at length put to death; ,,'hence l}aul speaks, 1
/e I Cor. I, 
preach C/Ii risl crucified, to fIle Jeu's a sf 1l1Jlbling-block. '23, 
"That thCll does that Ineall, 11Ies.fwd is lie wl,o .4ílu,1l nul úe 

[fellded in lJlC, but a direct allusion to the hunlÍliation of 
IIis death; as luuch as to 
ay, I do indeed nronderful ".orks, 
hut ùo not disdain to sufler Inunble things. 13ecause then I 
folIo,,' yon in death, InC11 Blust be careful not to dCF-pise iu 
'le l\[y death, while they reverence l\Iy ,,'oIHlerfnl \\"Orl
ð. 
IIIL.\llY; In these things ,,-hich \vere done concerning John, 
there i
 a deep store of mystic lneaning. The yery condition 
tllHl cirCllulstallce
 of a prophet are thenlsehre
 a prophecy. 
John significs the La\\r; for the Law proclailnen Chri
t, 
preaching n\lnission of sins, and gÎ\ ing proluisl- of tho king- 
thnu of hea.ven. l\Iso ,,,hen the La\v 'vas on t11 e point of 
(':\.piriu
, (ha\"ing Lecn, through the SillS of the people, \\"hich 
hindered thClIl frolH nndcrstalldillg ,,"hat it spake of Christ, 
a
 it "rere 
hut up in honds and in pri
on,) it scuds Incn to 
the cunteu1plation uf the Go
pel, that unbelief n1Ï
ht t;eC the 
truth of its words cstablished Ly deeds. ,A:\[BI
OSE; And 
l)crhaps the two tli
cipll's sent arc the two peuple; those of 
th," .Jcw
, alHl those of the Geutilc
 \\'ho belic\ cd. 



('llrp. 
110(\1. 
XXXVII. 


408 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CH\P.XI. 


7. And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto 
the lIlultitudes concerning John, "That ,vent ye out 
into the \vilderness to see? A reed shaken ,vith 
the ,vind ? 
8. But \vhat \vent yc out for to see? A Juan 
clothed in soft raiment? behold, they that wear soft 
clothing are in kings' houses. 
9. But '\vhat ,vent ye out for to see? A prophet? 
yea, I say unto you, and 1110re than a prophet. 
10. For this is he, of whom it is \vritten, Behold, 
I send my meFsenger before thy face, which shall 
vrepare thy \vay before thee. 


CHRYS. Sufficient had been no\\" dune for John's disciples; 
they returned certified concerning Christ by the \vonderful 
\\ror1\:s \vhich they had seen. -But it behoved that the 
nlultitudc also Rhould be corrected, \vhich had conceived 
lnany things amiss froln the question of .J ohu's disciples, not 
knowing the purpose of John in sending them. 'I'hey Inight 
say, lIe \"ho bare such \vitness to Christ, is no\v of another 
Inind, and doubts \,-hether this be fIe. Doth he this because 
he hath jealousy against Jesus? lIas the prison taken a\vay 
his courage? Or spake he before but enlpty and untrue 
,,"ords ? IIIL\.RY; Therefore that this might not lead thell1 
to think of John as though he \vere offended concerning 
Christ, it continues, lVhen they had gone alcay, Jesus began 
to speak 10 the 1Jlullitudes concerning John. CHRYS. 
As they departed, that lIe should not seeln to speak 
flattery of the D1an; and ill correcting the error of the 
nnlltitude, He does not openly expos
 their 
ecret suspi- 
cions, but by franting his \\Tords against ,vhat ,vas in their 
hearts, lIe shews that He kno""s hidden things. But lIe 
said not as to the J C\VS, Tf7/Y think ye enl in your hearl.r.;? 
though indeed it \vas evil that they had thought; yet it 
pI.oc.eeded not fron1 \\.ickedness, hut froln ignorance; there- 
fore He spake not to them harshly, but ans\vered for John, 
she\ving that he had not fallen froln his former opinion. 
This He leaches them, 110t hy His \vord only, but by their 



VEna 7-10. 


ST. 'rATTHE\\r. 


IÜÛ 


own \\"itl1es
, the \\'itness of their O\f'n actions, a
 \Yf\l1 as 
thcir own \\.ords. J r I,at lrelll ye out into flte lcilderne,fOï.f'i in 
SlJe? 1\8 l11uch as to :-;aJ", ""'hy did ye leavc the to\vns and 
go out into the \\'ilùerncss? So great multitudes \\.oul<l not 
hayc gone ,,-ith such haste into the desert, if they had not 
thought that they should see one great, and ,vonderfuI, one nlore 
stable than the rock. PSEUDO-CURYS. They had not gone out PseuJo- 
at this tilue into the desert to see John, for he \'"as not no\v 
h:
:: 
in the desert, but in prison; but lIe speaks of the past tilue 
\"hile John ""as Jet in the desert, and the people flocked to 
hill1. CHRYS. .A nd note that luaking no 11lention of any 
other fault, lIe clears John of fickleness, ,,'hich the multitude 
had 
uspccted hitn of, saying, A reed shaken by tTie 'll'ind? 
GREG. This lIe proposes, not to asscrt, but to deny. For Greg. . 
. f b b h f . h d . 1 ] . II om" In 
1 ut a reat 0 au" touc a ree , It Jen( s It one 'yay or Ev.vi" 2. 
other; a typc of the carnal l1lind, ","hich leans to either sidc, 
according as the brcath of praise or detraction reaches it. 
A reed shaken hy the \vind John ,vas not, for no variety of 
circumstance bent bin} froll1 his uprightness. The Lord's 
lneaning then is, JEHO:\IE; "ras it for this ye \vent out into 
the desert to see a Ulan like unto a reed, and carried about 
by e\'cry \viud, so that in lightness of luind he doubts con- 
cerning IIilIl "horn once he preached? Or it Inay be he is 
roused against )Ie by- the sting of en,")", and he seeks elupty 
honour by his preaching, that he nlay thereof make gain. 
'Yhy should he covet ,,"ealth? that he luay have dainty fare? 
But his food is locusts and ,,"ild honey. That he Il1ay wear 
soft rairnent? But his clothing is calnel's hair. This is that 
lIe aùds, Bllt lclial 'lcent ye out for to see? A l11au clot/ieel 
in sql
 raÏJJ1cnt? CHRYS. Otherwise 
 rThatJohn is not as a 
,,"avinp; reed, yonrseh-es havp shf',vn by going out unto 
the desert to hiln. N or can any say that John \vas once 
firnl, but h,15 since becon1c wilfnl and \Va\ ering; for as SaIne 
are prone to angcr by natural disposition, others becollle so 
by long weakness and indulgcncc, so in inconstancy, some 
are by nature inconstant, son1C bCCOIlIC so by yielding to 
their own lllullour and self-indulgence. But John \vas 
ncither inconstant by natural disposition; this he lUC(lnð 
by 
aJing, rr7ial U"l:JlI ye olll jùr Iv see, a reed shaken by llie 
u"i"cl? 
 either had hp corrupted an cxcellent nature by 



410 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


1 Pet. 
3, 3. 
Aug. 
Doctr. 
Christ. 
iii. 12. 


self-indulgence, for that h(' had not ser\red the flesh is She\Vll 
by his 1.ain)ent, his abode in the desert, his prison. Had he 
sought 80ft raiment, he \vould not have d"relt in the desert, 
but in kings' houses; Lo they that are clothed in soft 
,.aÙnelll, are in kings' houses. JEROME; This teaches that 
an austere life and strict preaching ought to shun kings' 
Greg. courts and the palaces of the rich and luxurious. GREG. Let 
Horn. in 1 h . h . . f I . I d 
Ev. vi,3. no one suppose t lat t ere IS not lUg SIn u In uxury an 
rich dress; if pursuit of such things had been blameless, the 
Lord would not have thus commended John for thc coarse- 
ness of his rainIent, nor \vould Peter have checked the 
desire of fine clothes in \\YOUlen as he does, ]:'/ol in costly 
raÏ1nent. AUG. In all such things "\ve blame not the use 
of the things, but the lust of those that use theln. For 
whoever uses the good things in his reach nlore sparingly 
than are the habits of those \\yith \VhOlll he lives, is either 
temperate or superstitious. '''Thoever again uses them in a 
ll1easure exceeding the practice of the good alnong \vhon) }Ie 
I aliquiù lives, either has SOlne 1 meaning therein, or else is dissolute. 

i
::- CHRYS. IIa\ring described his habits of life from his 
d"
elling-place, his dress, and the concourse of 11len to hear 
him, lIe no\\y brings in that he is also a prophet, But '/chal 
'lcent ye out f'or to see 
 A prophet? yea, I say unto you, 
Greg., and l1l01"e titan a prophet. GREG. The office of a prophet 
Hom. In. .{' 1 I . t } h 
Ev.vi.5.IS to lorete t nugs 0 conle, not to s le\V t en1 present. 
John thcrefore is more than a prophet, because IIim "\VhOU1 
he had foretold by going before IIiln, the 
aIne he shewed 
as present hy pointing HiIn out. J ERO:\IE; In this he is 
also greater than the other prophets, that to his prophetic 
pri \Tilege is added the re\\'ard of the Baptist that he should 
baptize his Lord. CHRYS. Then he shews in \vhat resp
ct 
lIe is greater, saying, Tlti.s is he çl 
rhoJn it is ll"rilleJl, 
Behold, 1 send 1JlY angel be.lore thy..face. JERO:\IE; To add 
to this great \vorthiness of John, He brings a passage ii.OIl} 
l\laI. 3, ::\lalachias, in lvhich he is spoken of as an Angel. 'Ve HUlst 
J. suppose that John is here caned an Angel, not as partaJdng 
the Angelic nature, but [rOll) the dignity of his office as a 
Gl
eg. forerunnel' of the lÁord. GREG. F'or the Greek \vord Angel, 
ubI su D.. . L . N . , , II } [' I 
.. IS 111 abn J.. untIus, a lucsscngcr. e t lcrelore \V 10 caIne 
to ùear a heavenly l1)essage is rightly called an Angel, that 



VEM. L 1. 


ST. :\IATTHE\\. 


411 


he Inay preserve in his title the dignit}' ,,'hich he perfoTnls 
in his ofiice. CHH.YS. lie shc\\'s \\Therein it is that John is 
gTf'atcT thau the Prophets, namely, in that he is nigh unto 
Christ, as he says, I send bc.fore lhy.face, that is, near Thee, 
a
 those that \\'alk next to the king's chariot are lnore illus- 
trious than others, so likewise is John ùecause of his nearness 
to Christ. l>sEcDo-Cnuys. A]so the other Prophets "'ere 
sent to announce Christ's con1Îng, but John to prepare lIis 
\vay, as it follo\vs, U-110 sllalllJlake 'ready lIlY lcay bt:fore thee; 
GLOSS. That is, shall open the hearts of Thy hearers by preach- 
Ioss.. 
. 1 b .. J 1\ 1 . 11 TI interIm. 
lng repentance all( aptlzlng. ERO:\IE; lJ ystIca y; Ie 
desert is that which is deserted of tIle 1101y Spirit, \vhere 
there is no habitation of God; in the reed is signified a lnan 
\vLo in outward sho\v lives a pious life, but lacks all real 
fruit \\-ithin hiInsclf, fair outside, ,,-ithin hollow, mo\'ed ,,-ith 
c'"ery breath of \vind, that is, ,vith e"cry ilnpulse of unclean 
spirits, having 110 finnness to remain still, devoid of the 
lUan"O\'" of the soul; by the gannent \vherc\vith his body is 
clothcd is his luind shc,vn, that it is lost in luxury and self- 
indulgence. The king
 are the fallen angels; thcy aTP they 
".ho are po\ycrful in this life, and the lords of this ,,"orId. 
"rhus, TILey lliat are c/otlied ill s'-!l' raÙneJìI are Í1 king.ç' 
1HUlses,. that i
, thu
l' \\Tho
e hodies are pnervated and 
dc
trolcd by luxury, it is clear arc possessed by dænlolls. 
G UEG. _-\lso John \,.as not clot lied in 80./l raÙnc,Il, that is, he Gr.eg. 
did not cncourage sinners in their sinful life by spcaking ubi sup. 
811100th things, but rebuked theln \vith sharpness and rigonr, 
saying, GeneratiOlt of ripers, 
'c. l\Iat.3,7. 


11. Verily I say unto you, .L\mong them that are 
born of \V0111en there hath not risen a greater than 
John the Baptist: l1ot,\"ithstanding he that is lea:;t ill 
the kingdo111 of heaven is greater than he. 


CURl'S. I[a,-iug first deli,.ered the Prophefs testilHony in 
praise of John, lIe restcd not there, out adùed llis 0\\"11 
decision respecting hinI, saying, ...JfJI01'!1 tl,enl fhat lire vorl 
qJ" l"uI/U!1l there has /10/ II J'isen fl !/J'Cll t er lTulli Joh II tile 
naptisf. Jt\H.\N. As lunch as to say; "That nced to 



412 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


recount one by one the praises of John the Baptist; I say 
verily nuff) you, AlIlong llter]l t"at are born if 'It'OlJ1
lI, 8;'c. He 
says 'YOlnen, not virgins. If the same ,vord nnI1ier, ,,,hich 
denotes a Inarried person, is any ,vhere in the Gospels 
applied to :.\iary, it should be kno\vn that the translator has 
John 19, there used' mulier' for' fen1ina;' as in that, 1f T oullln, beltol{l 
26. thy son ! JEROME; He is then set before an those that are 
born in wedlock, and not before IIiln \vho ,vas born of the 
\Tirgin and the IIoly Spirit; yet these \vords, there has 1101 
a1'isen a greater than. Jokn tlte Baptist, do not hnply that 
J 011n is to be set above the I)ropIlets and Patriarchs and an 
others, hut only 111akes hin] equal to the rest; for it does not 
follo\v that because others are 110t greater than him, 
that therefore he is greater than others. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
flut seeing that righteousness has so great deepness 
that none can be perfect therein but God only, I suppose 
that aU the saints tried by tlle keenness of the divine 
judgment, rank in a fixed order, son1e lo\vcr, sonle before 
other. 'Vhence "re understand that lIe that hath nOllO 
greater tllan I-liInseIf, is gr(1ater than all. CHRYS. That the 
abundance of this praise lnight not beget a "'Tong inclination 
in the J e,ys to set John above Christ, he corrects this, saying, 
He that is least ill the kingdo1Jl q/ liearen is greater than !tr. 
Aug. A
G. The heretic 1 argues froin this verse to prove, that since 
Cout. 
Adv. John did not belong to the kingdoln of heaven, therefore 
Leg. et much less did the other l
rophcts of that people, than "rhonl 
Proph. 
ii, 5. John is greater. But these \vords of the Lord Inay be undcr- 
J l\Iaui- stood in t\vo '''R\.S. Either the kin g dolTI of hea\Tu is 
chee or .J 
l\Ia
- sOlnethillg 'which "re have not yet received, dlat, nalnely, of 

1:t
t;,), ,vl1Ïch lIe speaks, COl1ze, ye blessed of J:!Y Fa/Iter, 1'eceive the 
34. kingd01n, because they in it are Angels, therefore the least 
an10ng theu1 is greater than a righteous luau ,,'ho has a 
corruptible body. Or if 've Dlllst understand the lángdo111 of 
hea\ren of the Church, ,vhose children are all the righteous 
111en from the beginning of the \\rodd until no\v, then tIle 
Lord speal\:s this of Hinlself, \vho 'vas after John in thc ti111C 
of IIis birth, but greater in respect of IIis divine nature and 
SUprelTIC po\ver. ...\ccording then to the first interpretation 
it \\rill be pointed, [-Ie lcho is lcrud in the ldl1gdoul qf hearen, 
is greater thall he; according to the second, He who is le,",
 



YER. 12-15. 


ST. MATTHE'V. 


113 


Ilia Ii II(), i.
 in (It(
 kil1!1dol1l of l,carcll greater t !Ian lte. 
CURYS. 'rhc lángdolu of h
a\'cn, that is, in the spiritual 
".orld, and all relating thereto. 13ut SOUle say that Christ 
spo]
c this of thf' Apostles. .T ERO::\IE; "r C understan<l it 
siuIPly, that e\'cry saint who is already" ith the Lord is 
greatl'r than he ".ho yet stands in the battle; for it is one 
thin
 to havc gained the crO"'ll of ,rictory, another to be yet 
fighting in thc field. 


12. And froln the days of John the Baptist until 
no\v the kingdo111 of heaven suffereth violence, and 
the violent take it by force. 
13. For al1 the prophets and the la\v prophesied 
until John. 
14. And if ye \vill receive it, this is Elias, \vhich 
,,,as for to COlne. 
15. He that hath ears to ear, let him hear. 


GLO
S, That "hat lIe had last said 
hould not lead any Gloss. 
to snppose that John "'as an alien froln the lángdoln 
fnon occ. 
l}(
a\'en, TIe con'eets this by adding, Froln tlu: days 0./' JoInt 
!lie IJllp!ist until nOLl', tIle kiugdOJIl oj' hea
"en sujferetli 
riolence, and tI,e violent take it by force. G REG. By the Greg. . 
]ángdo1l1 of hea\ren is 1l1Cant the heavenly throne, \vhither 

.m;xl.n 
"'hen sinners dcfiled with any e\-il deed return in penitence, 14. 
and alllend thclliselvcs, they entcr as sinners in
o the place 
of another, and take by violence the kingdoll1 of hea\'cn. 
J ERO:\IE; Bccause John the Baptist ".as thc first ,-rho 
prf'ached n'pcntance to the people, saying, Repent ye,./or ihe 
kingdo1Jl 0./ heat"ell is at hand: rightly therefore froIl1 that day 
forth it Inay be said, that lite klngdoJJl 0/ hearen sl
tfèretlt 
l:iolence, and tlte riolenl take -it by./orce. For great indeed 
i
 lhe violence, ,,-hen ,,'c who are born of earth, 
cek an 
abode in hea\'cn, aud obtain by exccllencc what \ve ha\-e 
not by nature. IJILARY; Otherwise; 'rhe Lord bade IIis 
Apostles go /0 lite lost sl,el)p (!l'Israel, but all their preaching 
conveyed profit to the publicans and sinners. Therefore 
tIle kiJlydOJJl. s/
ffcrs violence, and tIle riolcut lake it by 
Jorcf', for the glory of J
rael, due to the Fathers, foretold by 



414 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


ClIAP. XI. 


the Prophets, offered by Christ, is entered and held by force 
by the might of the Gentiles. CHRYS. Or; An ,,-ho COlne 
thereto with haste take by force the kingdoln of God through 
the faith of Christ; "Thence lIe says, .frol11 tile days 0.( Jolin 
until now, and thus lIe brings then1 in haste to His faith, and 
at the saIne tilne adds support to those things \vhich had 
been spoken by John. For if an things ,yere fulfiHed until 
John, then is Jesus He that should come; \vherefore lIe adds, 
All the ProjJhets and the Law J}roJ}hesied 'Until John. 
J ER01tIE; Not that lIe cuts off all Prophets after John; for 
"Te read in the Acts of the" Apostles that Agabus prophesied) 
and also four virgins daughters of Philip; but lIe means that 
the La\v and the Prophets ,vholn ,ve have "Tritten, \\Thatever 
they have prophesied, they have prophesied of the Lord. 
'rhat lIe says, Prophesied until John, she\vs that this ,vas 
no"r the thne of Christ's cOIning; and that \"hOID they had 
foretold should come, Him John she\ved to be already come. 
CHRYS. Then He adds another token of hiln, saying, 
And if ye will 'receive it, this is Elias WllO was to come. 
J\Ial. 4, 'The Lord speaks in l\lalachias, I will send you Elias tIle 
5. T'l.shbite; and of the same again, Behold, I send my rnessenger 
before thy face. JEROME; John then is said to be Elias, 
not according to the foolish philosophers, and certain heretics 
who bring forward their metelnpsychosis, or passing of the 
soul froln one body to another; but because (as it is in 
another passage of the Gospel) he caIne in the spirit and 
power of Elias, and had the same grace and measure of 
the Holy Spirit. But in austerity of life, and fortitude of 
spirit, Elias and John \vere alike; they both d\velt in the 
desert, both \vere girded with a girdle of skins; because 
he reproved Ahab and J ezebel for their \vickedness, Elias was 
compel1ed to fly; because he condemned the unla\vful union 
of Herod and Herodias, John is beheaded. CHRYS. If ye 
u'ill1'ecei'l4e it, she\ving their freedom, and requiring of them a 
\villing mind. John the Baptist is Elias, and Elias is John, 
because both \vere forerunners of Christ. J ER01tIE; That 
He says, This is Elias, is figurative, and needs to be explained, 
as ,,,hat follo\vs, she\vs; He thot hath ea1"S to hea1', let hÍ1n 
llear. REl\lIG. As lnuch as to say, 'Vhoso has ears of the 
heart to hear, that is, to understand, let him understand; for 



VEU. 16-19. 


ST. 1\fA TTHEW. 


.115 


lIe did not say that John ,vas Elias in person, but in th
 
Spidt. 


16. But whereunto shall I liken this generation? 
I t is like unto children sitting in the markets, and 
calling unto their fello\vs, 
17. And saying, \Ve have piped unto you, and ye 
have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and 
ye have not laluented. 
1 S. For John calne neither eating nor drinking, 
and they say, I-Ie hath a devil. 
] 9. The Son of man came eating and drinking, 
and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a wine- 
bibber, a friend of Publicans and sinners. But wisdom 
is justified of her children. 


IIJLAUY; The \vhole of this speech is a reproach of uu- 
belief, and arises out of the foregoing conlP1aint; that the 
stiff-necked people had not learned by tw'o different n10des 
of teaching. CHRYS. 'Vhence lie puts this question, 
shewing that nothing had been olllitted that ought to be done 
for their salvation, saying, To 'U'/iom s/lall I liken this genera- 
tioll. GLOSS. Bv thi.
 gelleratÏfìl1 He means the Jews together Glo

, 
with IIilnself and John. As though lIe had said; John is 

in;:n- 
thus great; but ye \vould believe neither hinl nor l\fe, and 
therefore to \vhom shan I liken you? REMIG. And straight- 
\vay lIe ans\vers IIimself, saying, It is like unto cldldrel1 
.
itlill.tJ ill the 111urket-place, crying unto iltel,. fellou's, and 
saying, J r/e have played 1nusic to you, and ye /tare not danced; 
ll'e !turf' l11011rned, llnd ye lUll'e 110t lall1enfed. fIILARY; By the 
,.IIi/tiren are meant the Prophets, who preached as children 
in singleness of meaning, and in the midst of the synagogue, 
that is i1
 fhe 11larket-ploce, reprove them, that ,vhen they 
played to those to \\'hom they had de\"oted the service 
of their body, tIle). had not obeyed their words, as the 
mOy{\nlent of the dancers are regulated by the Ineasures of 
the 111U8ic. For the Prophets invited them to make con- 
fession by song to God, as it is contained in the song of 



416 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


l\Ioses, of Isaiah, or of David. JEROME; They say therefore, 
'fJ/e ha
.e played music to you, and ye have not danced; i. e. 
'Ve have called on you to ,vork good ,yorks to our songs, 
and ye ,vould not. 'Ve have lamented and caned you to 
repentance, and this ye would not, rejecting both preaching, 
as well of exhortation to virtue, as of repentance for sin. 
RE
IIG. 'Vhat is that He says, To their .fellows? '\T ere the 
unbelieving Jews then fello\vs of the Prophets ? He speaks 
thus only because they were sprung of one stock. J ERO:l.IE ; 
Is. 8,18. The children are they of wholn Isaiah speaks, Behold I, and 
the children who'ln the Lord has gh.en 1Jle. These children 
then sit in the market-place, where are Inany things for sale, 
and say, CHRVS. We have played 1Jlusic to you, and ye 
have not danced; that is, I have shewed you an unrestricted 
life, and ye are not convinced; JT7 e ltalJe rnourned unto YOll, 
and ye l,ave not lanlented; that is, John lived a hard life, and 
ye heeded him not. Yet does not he speak one thing, and 
I another, but both speak the saIne thing, because both have 
one and the same object. For Jolin Clune neither eatiug nor 
drinking, and they say, He hatlt a dælnOll. The Son if man 
Aug. Ca1Jle 
'c. AUG. I would that the Manichæans would tell nle 
F Cont . ,,,,hat Christ ate and drank, who here speaks of Himself as 
aust 
xvi. 3i. eating and drinking in comparison of John, \vho did neither. 

 ot indeed that John drank nothing at all, but that he drank 
neither wine nor strong drink-but water only. Not that 
he dispensed altogether \vith food, but that he ate only 
locusts and \vild honey. 'Yhence then is it said of him that 
he came neither eating nor drinking, except that he used not 
that food \vhich the Je\vs used? Unless therefore the Lord 
had used this food, He would not have been said to have 
been, in con1parison of John, eating and drinking. It \vould 
be strange that he who ate locusts and honey, should be 
said to come neil/ler eatil1g nor drinking, and that he \vho 
ate only bread and herbs, should be. said to come eating and 
drinking. CHRYS. He says therefore, JeSllS Clt1ne, as D1uch 
as to say, I and John came opposite ,vays, to do the same 
thing; as hvo hunters chasing the sanle animal from opposite 
sides, so that it might fall into the hands of one of theln. 
But all mankind adtnire fasting and severity of life; and for 
this reason it \vas ordained from his infancy that John should 



\ En. 16-]H, 


ST. 'L\ TTHF.'V. 


117 


be so brought up, that the things that he should 
ay f-\hould 
rccci,"c credit. 'rile Lord also ,,"alkcd in this ,,'ay \,"hen 1 r c 
fa
tcd forty days; but lIe had other 1neans of teaching Illen 
to ha'"e confidence in IIil}}; for it was a much greater thing 
t}lat John who had ,,"alked iu this ".ay sllonld bear \vitness 
to Ifilll, than that lIe II iUlself 
houhl "-alk in that \'"ay. Again, 
J obn had nothing to she,,- besides his life, and his righteous- 
ness; whereas Christ had al
o the \\'itness of Ilis nliracles. 
J
ea,'ing therefore to John the representation of fasting, lIe 
IJim
eJf \\'a1ked in a contrary ,,-ay, entering to the table of the 
publicans, and eating and drinking ,,-ith thenl. J ER01\fE; If 
fasting then pleases you, ,,"hy \\'ere you not satisfied ,,-itb John? 
Iffulness, ".hy not \\?ith the Son of man? Yet one of these yp 
said had a da'nlon, the other ye called a gluttQnous lnan, 
and drunkard. CHRYS. 'VIlat excuse then shan be gi\.en for 
them? Then'fore lIe adds, And U.iStlOl11 Ù
 jlodified 0..( her 
children; that is, though ye "'ere not conyiuced, yet have 
ye nothin
 whereof to accuse me, as also of the Father the 
Propllet speaks, Thai I/'ou /Jli.qldest be justified in ihy .
a!lin.qs. Ps..SI,4. 
For though nought be effected iu you by that goodness 
which is extended to you, J'ct lIe fulfils an His part that 
)'OU may not have the shado\v of excuse for yonr ungrateful 
doubt. JEHO:\JE; 11 Yist!oln is jzo;tijied qf her children, Ì. e. 
The dispensation or doctrine of God, or Christ IJimself who 
is the po,,'er and \\'isdolll of God, is pro\"ed by the Apostles, 
who are IIis children, to have done righteously. HIL\RV; 
IIp i
 wisdon1 itself not by ITi
 acts, hut by TTis naturc. 
)Iany indeed evade tllat saying of the Apostle's, Christ 1 Cor. ], 
'l.r;; tll.l ,rÙ;r!Oll and pou.er of God, b\y sa ,-ing, that trnl v 24. 
. ' } ' f , .,. . h W .. 1 . 1 I > e f e,g. Paul 
In crpahng [un 0 a ngln t e IS( 0]11 cHI( o',"er 0 o(Samo- 
God ""ere shewn Inightily. 'I'hcrefore that this lnight not sata) &c. 
hp so explained, I I e calls I finlsclf the "Ïsdom of God, 
slJcwin g that it ,,"as ,"erily II e, and not the dl'cds relating to 
I r in), of WhOITI this \\'as Bleant. li'or the po".er itself, and 
tbe rffect of that po""er, are not the same thing; thp efficiput 
is known frOtH the act. AUG. Or, Jf 7 isdoIJI i.
 jus/ijied qlAug. 
II r cllÏldJ"t
lI, becaust' the holy Apostles undcrstood that the 




.I. . 
kill
doln of (
od was not in lneat and drink, hut in patient 
enduring; such persons neither does abundance lift up, nor 
\vant cast down, hnt a
 Panl spoke, I /".nOli" ',oll" to ahou1ld, Phil. 4. 
"OL. I. l. F. ]2, 



419 


GOSPEL \CCORDING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


find to Sl
ffèl' '1eant. JEROME; SOlne copies read, TT7Ùid01Jl Ù.. 
justified C!f Iter 'lcorks, for \visdom does not seek the \vitnesb- 
of \,,"ords, but of ,yorks. CHRYS. Y 011 should not be sur- 
prised at I-lis using trite instances, such as that respecting 
the children; for He spoli:e to the \veakness of IIis hearers; 
as Ezekiel spoke n1any things adapted to the Jews, but 
nnw'orthy of the greatness of God. IIILARY; l\Iystically; 
N either did the preaching of John bend the J e\vs, to \VhOnl 
the la\v seelned burdensome in prescribing meats and eh"inks, 
difficult and grievous, having in it sin \vhich He calls having 
a dælnon
for froln the difficulty of l{eeping it they must sin 
under the Ila \v. N or again did the preaching of the Gospel 
"rith freedom of ]ife in Christ please them-by \vhich the 
hardships and burdens of the I,a\v ,vere remitted, and 
publicans and sinners only believed in it. Thus, then, so 
many and so great \yan1ings of all kinds having been offered 
theln in vain, they are neither justified by the Law, and 
they are cast off from grace; ff 7 isdo1Jl, therefore, ,is justified 
of her cltilrl1"en, by those, that is, \"ho seize the kingdom 
of heaven by the justification of faith, confessing the \york 
of \visdom to be just, that it has b"ansferred its gift frolll 
the rebellious to the faithfuL 


20. Then began he to upbraid the cities \vherein 
most of his mighty ,yorks \vere done, because they 
repented not: 
21. 'V oe unto thee, Chorazin! woe unto thee, 
Bethsaida! for if the mighty ,yorks, \vhich ,vere done 
in you, had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would 
have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes. 
22. But I say unto you, It shall be Inore tolerable 
for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for 
you. 
23. And thou, Capernaum, \vhich art exalted unto 
heaven, shalt be brought dovin to hell: for if the 
Inighty works, which have been done in thee, had 
been done in Sodoln, it would have relTIained until 
this day. 



VEU. 20-2-1. 


ST. 'I \.TTHE"". 


J 1 't 


24. Rut I say unto you, 'I'hat it 
hal1 bp nlorc 
tolerable for the land of SOd0111 in the day of judg- 
luent, than for thee. 


GLO
S. l'hus far lIe had brought IIis accusation against Gluss. 
the J e,ys in COlllIuon; now against certain ton"ns hy naBle, 
t
5elm. 
in w"hich lie had specially preached, and yet they ,,"ould 
not be cOll\"crted; ,vhence it is said, Then begaJl. lie to 
upúraid lite cities in lrltic/t /llOS! oj' his ulÌgldy ll"orks Irere 
dOlle, because they Ilod not repented. JEROME; Ilis up- 
hraiding of the towns of CorozaÏtn, llcthsaida, and Caphar- 
nallln, is set forth in this chapter, because lIe therefore 
upbraided theIn, ùecause after He had such n1Ïghty ,,"'orks 
and wonders in thelu they had not (lonc penitence. 'Yhence 
] Ie adds, lf 7 0 for thee, CorozaÙJl,! 1f'0 fir t/lee, Bellisaida ! 
CHRY
. That you 
hould not say that they ,vere by nature 
evil, fIe nalnes ßethsaida, a to\\"n frolll \vhich the _-\postIes 
had COIne; nalnely, Philip, and t,,-o pair of the chief of the 
Apostles, Peter and _\.ndrcw, J"ulles and John. JEROJIE; 
In this " ord "TO, these ton-ns of Galilee are mourned for 
by the Saviour, that after so IHau)" signs anù Inighty \vork
, 
they had not done penitence. RABA
. CorozaÏJn, \vhich 
is interpreted 'In)" 1l1J'sterJT,' and llethsaida, 'the house 
of fruits,' or, , the house of hunters,' are to\Vl1S of Galilee 
situated on the shore of the :;ea of Galilee. The Lord there- 
fore ITIOUrnS for to,vns which once had the Iuystery of God, 
and \vhich ought to ha\.e brought forth the fruit of ,-irtues, 
and into w'l1Ích spiritual hunters had been sent. .T ERO:\IE ; 
And to thc
c are preferred Tyre and Siùon, cities gi\"en up 
to idolatry and vices; .lòr !lllle 11ligltly lrol'k.ç ,ellicll luo't> 
b
ell done ill you had been done in Tyre and J
fid()n, /hey 
l('ould hare long ago done penilencL in sIlckcloih and ashes. 
G HEG, r n ,"iffcl.c!ofl, is th(' roughness ,vhich (1enotes the Greg. 
pricking of the conscience for sin, llshe.
 dcnote the dust 



. G. 
of the dead; and both are ,,'out to bc clnploycd in pcni- 
tencc, tllat the prickinb of the sackcloth lnay reuIil1d us 
of our sins, and the dust of the ash lllay cause us to reflect 
,,-hat \\ e ha\ e become hy judgl11ent. R.\BAN. Tyre and 
Sidon are cities of Phænicia. Tyre is interprcted 'nar- 
rowne
s,' and Sidon 'hunting;' and denote tI1C Gcntiles 
2E2 



4:l0 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP, XI. 


\VhOln the Devil as a hunter drives into the straits of sin; 
hut Jesus the Saviour sets thell1 free by the Gospel. 
J J<:R0111E; "\Ve ask \vhere it is \vritten that the Lord did 
\vonders in Corozaiu1 and Bethsaida? "\Ve read above, 
ch,9,35. And he went about tlie tOU:llS and 'villages, healing all 
sicknesse,fJ, 8:jc. alllong the rest, therefore, we may suppose 
Aug. that He \vrought signs in CorozaÍ1n and Bethsaida. AUG. 
De Don. I ' h h H . G I h 1 . 
Pers. 9. t IS not t en true t at IS ospe "\-vas not preac ec 111 
those times and places, in which II e forekne\v that all 
would lJe such, as \vere many in Ilis actual presence, 
who \vould not even believe on Hin1 \vhen lIe raised Inen 
froln the dead. For the Lord HÍ1nself bears \vitness that 
they of Tyre and Sidon \vould have done penitence in great 
hUlnility, had the ,vonders of the Divine power been done 
in thern. 
loreover, if the dead are judged according to 
those deeds \vhich they would have done had they lived, 
then because these would have believed had the Gospel 
been preached to them with so great miracles, surely they 
should not be punished at all, and yet in the day of judg- 
Inent they shall be punished; for it follows, But I .r;ay unto 
YOll, It shall be J}1ore tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the day 
qfjttdg1Jlent, thanjòr you. Those then shall be punished \vith 
n)ore, these \vith less severity. J ERO::\IE; This is because 'ryre 
and Sidon had trodden under foot the la\v of nature only, 
but these to\vns after they had transgressed the natural 
and the \vritten Law, also Inade light of those \vonders 
,yhich had been \vrought alnong then1. RABAN. 'Ve at this 
day see the ,vords of the Saviour fulfilled; CorozaiIn and Beth- 
saida \voldd not believe \yhen the Lord caIne to theln in 
person; but Tyre and Sidon ha,.e after\vards believed on the 
preaching of the Apostles. REl\HG. Capharllaum was the 
lnetropolis of Galilee, and a noted to\vn of that province, 
and therefore the Lord mentions it particularly, saying, 
.And thOll, CapliaJ'lIfluln, shalt t!tou indeed he e:ralted to 
hearl'lI! Tholl -s.halt go dOll'JI et'en to hell. J EROl\1 E; In 
other copies \ve find, And thOll, Capluu'lI(lll1n, 'ltat llrt 
eLI'filied 10 heareu, shalt be brought dowlI In hell; and it 111ay 
be understood in t\vo different \vays, Either, thou shalt go 
do\yn to hell because thou hast proudly resisted rny 
preaching; or, thou that hast been exalted to heaven by cn- 



v>-:u. 20-
.J, 



T. 
IATTnE'V. 


.121 


tertailling Il1e, and having )ny 111ighty \\rondcrs done.; in thee, 
shalt be visited ,,"ith the heavier punisll111cnt, hecause thou 
\\"onldc
t not belicve even thesc. ItEl\llG. And they ha\Oe 
tuade the sins not uf Hodolll only and Gonl01Tah, but of 
Tyrc and Sidon light in cOtnparison, and therefore it follows, 
For 
f the 11l;gldy u:orks i['h;elt Itare been d01li> 'n lhee had 
been done ill Sodorn, ;1 1l'ould perhaps !tare 'rel1utÏJlcil 111110 
f !tis dflY, CHHYS. 'I'his Blakes tbe accusation heayicr, for it 
is a proof of extrelne \vickedness, that thcy are \\'orse, not 
only than any then living, but than the ,,"ickedest of all past 
till1C. J ETIOl\IE; In Capharnaunl, "" hich is interpreted' the 
1110st fair to\yn,' J cTusalcln i
 condelnned, to \vhich it i
 

aid hy ]
:zekiel, Solio/II is jll....'lijÙ.d b,1j Ihee. llE:\lIG. l'he Ezek, 
l,on1, who kno"os an things, here uses a ,vord expressing 16, 52, 
uncertainty-perhaps, to she\v that freedom of choice is left 
to Blcn. Bul 1 SflY Ullio y()U, if shall !Je eas;erjòr the laud 
fl' SOdUlll in Ih(J day n..f jud.rJ1Jlellt titan ..for you. And be it 
known, that in speaking of the city or country, the Lord 
docs not chide \"ith the buildiugs and ,,'alls, but ,,"itb 
the In en that inhabit there, by the figure metonYlny, putting 
the thin
 containing for the thing contained. 1'he \vords, 
It sllallbe ('asier ill the day f!l.judgJJlellt, clearly pro\Oe that 
there are di\"crs puni
hnlents in hell, as there are divers 11lall- 
sions in the kingdolll of heavcn. J ERO)IE; The carcful reader 
\vill hesitate here; If Tyre and Sidon could ha'"e done peni- 
tence at the preaching of the Sa\'iour, and flis Iniracles, they 
are not in fault that they believed not; the sin is his \\'ho 
\vould not preach to bring thcul to pcnitence. To this there 
is a ready ans\ver, that we kno,," not God's j udgulcnLs, and 
are ignorant of the sacraillents of I lis peculiar disvensations. 
It,," dS detcrIuined hy the l..onl nut to pass the border
 
of ,J ndæa, that lIe 111Ìght not givp the l
hari:-;ees and l>riests 
a just occasion of persecuting IlitH, as also lIe ga\'c COln- 
)Uandnlcnt to tl1(-- Apostles, an 1101 into tlie lruy f!l 'he (,fell_ 
I ile,". Corozaiu1 and Bethsaida are cOlldellllled because they 
\\'ould not belic\'e, though Christ I [ilnself wa
 among thcm- 
'fyre and Ridon arc justified, hccausp they believed llis 
..\post1cs. \ on should 110t enquire into tilHes whcn you see 
the ::;a.lvation of tho:,c lhat helieyc. HEMIG. ,,?" C )uay also 
"\nsn-cr in another way. 1'here \vcre Iuan)' in Corozaiul and 



422 


GOSPEL ACCOH.DING TO 


CHAP. XI. 


Bethsaida ,,"ho \yould believe, and many in Tyre and Sidon 
,vho ,,"ould not believe, and therefore \vere not worthy of the 
G-ospeL The Lord therefore preached to the d \vellers in 
CorozaiIn and Bethsaida, that they who were to believe, 
n1Ïght be able; and preached not in Tyre and Sid on, lest 
perhaps they ,vho ".ere not to believe, being lllade \vorse 
by contenlpt of the Gospel, should be punished more 
Aug. heavily" ATG. A certain Catholic disputant of some note 

:r


: expounded this place of the Gaspe] in the follo\ving ,yay ; 
That the Lord forekne\v that they of Tyre and Sidon would 
fall frolll the faith after they had belie,.ed the miracles done 
[unong then1; and that therefore in Inercy lIe did not His 
lniracles there, because they \vould ha\'e incurred the 
hea,'ier penalty had they lapsed froln the faith after having 
held it, than if they had never held it at all. Or othenvise ; 
The Lord surely foreknew His Incrcies \vith ,,"hich lIe 
deigns to deliver us. And this is the predestination of the 
saints, namely, the forekno\vledge and making ready the 
mercies of God, by which they are 1110St certainly sa,"ed, 
,,'hosoe,"er are saved. The rest are left to the just judgment 
of God in the general body of the condelnned, \vhere they of 
Tyre and Sidon are left, \\rho n1ight have believed. had they 
seen Christ's many n1Ïracles; but since it \yas not given 
thenl that they should belie\'e, therefore that through ,vhich 
they Inight have belie,.ed ,vas also withheld. Froln \yhich 
it appears, that there are certain \vho have in their dis- 
positions by nature a divine gift of understanding by \vhich 
they \yould be Ino,.ed to faith, if they should either hear 
"'ords or see signs adapted to their minds. But if they 
be not by the high sentence of God set apart from the mass 
of perdition through the predestination of grace, then neither 
\vords 110r \vorks are set before them by G-od, ,vhich yet, 
could they have seen or heard them, \yould have stirred theln 
to believe. In this generallnass of perdition are the J e'vs 
also left, \vho could not belie,'e so great and manifest 
,,'onders "Tought before their eyes. And the cause \vhere- 
fore ther could not belie,"e, the Gospel hath not hidden, 
John 12, speaking thus; Though he diel so great nl'lracles hefore 
37. theIn, yet could fhey not beliere, as Esaias said, I lta
'e 
blinded tlieir eyes, llnd hardened tl1eÙ. ltea1"1. Not in this 



V J',H. -2.,>, 
(i. 



T. M.\TTHE'''. 


I ()
 
-''> 


u'ay thon \\"crc the e)"cs of they of "ryrc and 8idon blinded, 
or thcir hcart hardened, for thcy would have uelic\"üd had 
tln.:} 
CCll buch ,vonders as the
e 
a\\'. But it profited those 
uot that thl
 coul(l have belicved, for that they "Tcre not 
predestinated; ncither \\'ould it hayc been allY hindrancc to 
thcse that they had not po\\' cr to belicvc, had they been 
:50 predestined that God 
houl<1 have enlightened thcir 
b1iudness, and takon a\\"ay the heart of stone fi'Olll ,yithill 
thenl. In. Lulie also gives this as 
poken in continuation Aug. De 
f I t " I L .1' 1 , r. 1 ' ] ' Cons. 
o SOllle ot ler 0 t Ie oru s llscourses; Jr01l1 \\' n ell í F.v,ii.32. 
dppears that he has rather follow cd the actual ordcr of 
events; .àlatthc\v to ha'"c fol1o,ved his recollet:tiou. Or the 
,vorùs of 
Iatthe\v, Then be,tjfln he 10 upbraid the 101lï18, 
nlHst be taken, as senlC think, as expres
ing some particular 
ti)l)c by the word 'hCII, but not referring generally to that 
tiu}c in which the Iuan)' other things here told ""ere done 
and said. "Tboc,'cr, thereforc, thinks thus must suppose 
that this \\Tas spoken tvdce. .And ,,,hen we find in the 
sanle Evangclist sonIC things spoken by the Lord at t".o 
different tilne
-likc that in Luke concerniug the not taking 
a 
crip for their journey,-\\rhat wonder is it if any thing 
else, ,vhich ,vas twice spoken, is found once se\-erally in hvo 
SC\ eral (;-ospels in the actual connexion in \\'hich it 
'\'a
 spoken, which conncxion is different, because they 
are 1\\"0 different occasions on \\Thich it is related to havc 
been spokcn? 


25. At that time Jesus ans\vercd and said
 I thank 
thee, 0 Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because 
thou hast hid these things froln the ,vise and prudent, 
and hast revealed them unto babes. 
26. Even so, Father: for so it seemed good in 
thy sight. 


GLO
S. Decause tlH
 Lord klle\V that 1l1,UIY ,vonId doubt Gloss. 
rc
pcctillg- the foregoing BUttler, namely, that the Jews Don occ. 
,\ uulJ not recei,'e Christ \"hOID the Gentile ,,'orId has so 
,vining1y rccch'cd, I I c herc 1Ilakes answt'r to thcir though tð ; 
Iud .Jc
us ausll'{)rcd and said, I co/{fess 1/11/0 thee, Father 



Gloss, 
ord. 


Aug. 
Senne 
67. I. 


Aug. 
Serm. 
67. 5. 


Greg. 
Mor. 
xxvii. 
13. 
Chrys. 
Horn. 
xxxviii. 


424 


t30S1>EL ACCO}{UI
li TO 


CHAP. XI. 


Lord (1 }tea
'eJt and earl/t. GLOSS. That is, \Vho makest of 
heaven, or leavest in earthliness, whom Thou \vilt. Or lite- 
rally, AUG. If Christ, from \vhom aU sin is far, said, I conjess, 
confession is not proper for the sinner only, but SOllIe times 
also for hÌ1n that gives thanks. \Ve may confess either by 
praising God, or by accusing ourselves. \Vhen He said, I 
confess untv thee, it is, 1 praise Thee, not I accuse l\Iyself. 
J EROl\IE; Let those hear \\.ho falsely argue, that the Saviour 
\-vas not born but created, ho\v He cans His Father Lord of 
Ileat'en and eftrlh. For if lIe be a creature, and the creature 
can call its l\Iaker Father, it \vas surely foolish here to 
address IIim as Lord of heaven and earth, and not of Hinl 
(Christ) like\vise. He gives thanks that His cOIning has 
opened to the Apostles sacraments, which the Scribes and 
Pharisees knew not, \"ho seelned to theInse]ves \vise, and 
understanding in their o\\"n eyes; That t/tOll hast hid these 
things ji'Ol1t tlte wise and understanding, and hast l'evealed 
tltem u/Illo babes. AUG. That the wise and understanding 
are to be taken as the proud, IIilnself opens to us \vhen He 
says, and hast 'revealed the1Jl unto babes; for \vho are babes 
but the humble? GREG. He says not' to the foolish,' but 
to babes, shewing that He condeInns pride, not understand- 
ing. CHRYS. Or \vhen He says, The wise, He does not 
speak of true \visdoln, but of that which the Scribes and 
Pharisees seelned to have by their speech. \Vherefore He 
said not, 'And hast l'evealed them to the foolish,' but, to 
babes, that is, uneducated, or silnple; teaching us in all 
things to keep ourselyes froln pride, and to seek hUlnility. 
HILARY; The hidden things of heavenly words and their 
po\\.er are hid from the \vise, and revealed to the babes; 
babes, that is, in Inalice, not in understanding; hid from the 
,vise because of their presulllption of their O\Vll \visdom, not 
because of their \visdon). CHRYS. That it is re\Tea1ed to the 
one is Inatter of joy, that it is hid froln the other not of joy, 
but of SOlTO\V; He does not therefore joy on this account, 
but He joys that these ha\Te knovrn "That the wise haye not 
known. IIILARY; The justice of this the Lord confirms by 
the sentence of the Father's \vill, that they \vho disdain to 
be nlade babes in God, should become fools in their O\Vll 
\\'i::;dolll; and therefore He add::;, Even 80, Fa/lieI': jor 80 it 



\ EU. "27. 



T. 
IATTHE'V. 


425 


seelJlcd ,tJúod bl:!'ore lltce. GREG. In which ,vorùs \\TC ha\'c a Greg. 
lesson of hUll1Ílity, that we should not rashly presume to 


:'14. 
ùiscuss the COUIlf'cls of heaven concerning the calling of 
some, and the rejcction of oÙ1ers; shewing that that cannot 
Le unrighteous which is \villed by IIiu1 that is righteous. 
Jl.
nOl\I1
; 1n these \\"ords luorcover lIe speaks to the Fathcr 
\vith the desire of one petitioning, that His mercy begun in 
the Apostles n1Ïght be cOlnpleted in theIn, CHRYS. These 
things which the I
ord spoke to IIis disciple
, made them 
Illore zealous. As aftenvards they thought great things of 
thel11sclves, because they cast out dælllons, thcrefore lIe 
here reprO\Tes thenl; for what they had, ,vas by revelation, 
not by their o\\'n efforts. 1'he Scribes \,"ho esteemed thclu- 
sel \"CS \\"ise and understanding \\'cre excluded because of their 
pride, and therefore lle saJs, Since on this account the 
Inysteries of God "'ere hid froln them, fear ye, and abide as 
babes, for this it is that has luade you partakers in dIP 
revelation. But as ,,,hen Paul says, God galee IlteHI- Ot'er to Rom. 
a rep1'obatel11ind, he does not Inean that God did this, but J, 28. 
thc)' who gave IIiIn cause, so here, Tholl hast hid these 
things LfJ'o1J1. the 'lL'ise and understanding. .A..nd "Therefore 
\\Tere they hid fronl theIn? I-Iear Paul speaking, Seeking to Rom. 
set up tlleir OIl'Jl righteousness, they t['ere 1I0t subject to the 10,3. 
ri!!" teollSlless qf God. 


27. .L\11 things are delivered unto me of nlY Father: 
and no lnan kno,veth the Son, but the Father; neither 
kno,veth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to 
\vhomsoever the Son ,,,ill reveal him. 


Cl1RYS, Because He had said, 1 cnnjcss unto thee, Fatller, 
hecallse tltol lta..\t Itid tl,ese ill il1g...; ji'o1Jt / he ,rise, that lOU 
should not suppose that lIe thus thanks the Father as though 
f[e I I iluself was excluded froln this power, II e add
, ...111 
ilLill!Js are cUlnmitled 10 ]')lè by lilY Fa/her. Ilearing the 
\\ onl:s are cUI/II/tilled, do not admit suspicion of any thing 
lannan, for lIe U::;C8 this \vord that you Inay not think there 
be two gods unbegottcn. For at the tilHC that lIe was begotten 
lIe u-as l..ord of al1. JETIU)IE; For if ,ve cOllcci,.c of this 



426 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CH-\.P.XI. 


thing according to our ,veakl1ess, when he ,vho receives 
begins to have, he who gives begins to be \vithont. Or when 
lIe says, All things a1'e cOl1unitied to hint, He may nlean, 
not the heaven and earth and the elements, and the rest 
of the things which He created and made, but those "rho 
through the Son have access to the Father. HILARY; Or 
that \ve Inay not think that there is any thing less in Him 
than in God, therefore He says this. AUG. For if He has 
aught less in IIis power than the Father has, then all that 
the Father has, are not His; for by begetting Hilll the 
Father gave power to the Son, as by begetting Hinl I-Ie ga,Te 
all things \vhich He has in His substance to HÍ1n whon1 He 
begot of His substance. HILARY; And also in the lllutual 
}{nowledge between the Father and the Son, He teaches us 
that there is nothing in the Son beyond \yhat \\Tas in the 
Father; for it follo\vs, And 1I01le knolrellt tIle Son but the 
Fatlter, n01" does any 'Jnan knou) the Fathel' but tlie Sou. 
CHRYS. By this that He only kno\vs the Father, He shews 
covertly that lIe is of one substance \,.ith the Father. As 
though He had saiù, \Vhat ,vonder if I be Lord of all, \"heu 
I have sOlne\vhat yet greater, namely to know the Father and 
to be of the saIne substance \vith Hiln ? HILARY; For this 
mutual knowledge proclaims that they are of one substance, 
since He that should know' the Son, should know the Father 
also in the Son, since all things were delivered to Hill1 by 
the Father. CHRYS. "\Vhen 1-1 e says, Neither does any 
know tlte Father but tlte Son, lIe does not lneall that all 
lnen are altogether ignorant of Him; but that none kno\ys 
Hitn \vith that kno\vledge \vhere\vith He kno\","s Hinl; \\"hich 
i. e. who Inay also be said of the Son, For it is not said of some 
wun
 . 
the unkno\vn God as ßlarclon declares. AUG. And because 
. ? \ reat D or. their substance is inseparable, it is enough sOInetimes to 
.J ug. e . ... 
Tria.i.B. name the Father, sometllnes the Son; nor IS It possIble to 
separate fronl either His Spirit, \vho is especially caned the 
Spirit of truth. JEROME; Let the heretic Eunomius there- 
fore blush hereat \vho claims to himself such a kno\vledge of 
the Father and the Son, as they have one of another 8 . But 


Aug. 
cont. 
l\Iaxi- 
min. ii. 
12. 


3 Eunomius, the chiefofthe Anomæan He is opposed by St. Basil, and by St. 
branch of the Arians, taught that there Chrysostom in his Homilies on 'the 
was no mystery about the Divine nature. incolTIl1rehensible nature of God.' 



VER. 

-30. 


ST. MATTHE\\. 


421 


if hp argnes fronl \\ hat foUo"":;, and props up his madness by 
that, IJltI lie to U.!tOIJl lite Son will rel"eal "l1n, it is one thing 
to lno\v "rhat you kno{\r by equality \vith God, another to 
hno\\ it by IIis vouchsafing to reveal it. ...\.UG. 'The Father A
g. De 
is revealed by the Son, that is, by Ilis '" ord. For if the 
i?n3. 
teluporal and transitory word \\"hich \ve utter both shews 
itsc1f, aud \vhat ".e wish to con\rey, how much more the "Tord 
of God by \vhich all things ".ere made, \vhich so shews the 
Father as lIe is Father, because itself is the same and in the 
salllC lnanner as the Father. ID. 'Yhen lIe said, ....'TOltC kllou'etlt. Aug. 
tlte Son but the Father, lle did not add, And he to \,"hom the 


i
\. 
Father ,,-i11 reveal the Son. But \"hen lIe said, .J.,T one knolce/li 
tile Fallter but tlte SOli, lIe added, Alld he to 'iClt01Jl t!le SOil 
'i .ill ret"cllllLÙIl. But this Illust not be so understood as though 
the Son cou]d be kno,,-n by none but by the Father only; 
\vhile the Father lllay be known not only Ly the Son, but 
also by those to \yhOnl the Son shall reveal IIiln. But it is 
rather e:x.pre

ed tlnIs, that \\rc Inay understand that both the 
Father and the Son llilllsclf are rc'-caled by the Son, inas- 
much as lIe is the ,light of our Inind; and \vhat is after\vards 
added, ....Iud he 10 U'7IOl1l lite Son l["ill re
"eal, is to be under- 
stood as spoken of the Son as ,yell as the Father, and to 
refer to the whole of \,'hat had been said. For the Father 
declares IIiIl1self by Ilis "... ord, but the "1' ord declares not 
only that which is intended to be declared by it, but in 
dec]arin
 this declares itse]f. CUHYS, If then lIe re\ ea]s 
the Father, l-Ie reveals lIiInself also. But the one he 
oIuits as a thing luanifest, but Inentions the other because 
t11cre might be a doubt concerning it. Ilcrein also lIe 
instnlcts us that lIe is so one ,,"ith the Father, that it is nol 
pOf'sible for any to COlne to the Father, but through the Son. 
For this had abo\re aU things given offence, that lIe 
eeilled 
to he against God, and therefore fIe strove by all Ineans 
to o\rerthro\\r this notion. 


28. COlne unto nle, all ye that labour and are 
hcavy laden, and I ,,"ill give you rest. 

9. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for 
I am n1cek and lo\vly in heart: and ye shall find rest 
unto your souls. 



428 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. Àl. 


30. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light. 


CHRYS. By w'hat lIe had said, He brought IIis disciples 
to have a desire towards Him, she\,ril1g them His unspeakable 
excellence; and now He invites thenl to Him, saying, Conie 
A 'ltnto 'ute , all Y e that labour and are heav y laden. AUG. 
ug. 
Serm. "Thence do \ve all thus labour, but that \ve are n10rtal n1en, 
69. I. 
bearing vessels of clay \,"hich cause us much difficulty. But 
if the vessels of flesh are straitened, the regions of love will 
be enlarged. To \vhat end then does He say, Corne u uio 11le, 
all ye t/tat labour, but that ye should not labour? HILARY; 
He calls to Him those that \vere labouring under the hard- 
ships of the La\v, and those who are burdened ,,"ith the 
sins of this \vorld. J EROl\1E; That the burden of sin is bea\'y 
Zech. 5, the Prophet Zachariah bears witness, saying, that \vicked- 
7. ness sitteth upon a talent of lead. And the Psalmist fills it up, 
P
.38J4. T/ty iniqltities are grown heary upon 'Hie. GREG. For a 

Ir
r cruel yoke and hard \veight of servitude it is to be subject to 
xxx, 15. the things of time, to be ambitious of the things of earth, to 
cling to falling things, to seek to stand in things that stand 
not, to desire things that pass away, but to be un\villing to 
pass a"
ay \vith then1. For \vhile all things fly a,,-ay against 
our \vish, those things \yhich had first harassed the lllind 
in desire of gaining them, no\v oppress it \vith fear of losing 
them. CHRYS. He said not, Con1e ye, this luan and that 
Inan, but All \vhosoever are in trouble, in sorro\v, or in sin, 
not that I n1ay exact punishn1ent of you, but that I n1ay 
remit your sins. COlne ye, not that I have need of your 
glory, but that I seek your sal vation. 
llld I will 'J"e./resll .1J Olt ; 
not, I ,,-ill save you, only; but that is llluch greater, I will 
Raban. 1.efreslt you., that is, I "rill set you in all quietness. RAB.\ 
. 
110n occ, I will not only take fron1 you your burden, but \vill satisfy 
you \vith inward refresllluent. REMIG. C01Jze, lIe says, 
not with the feet, but n"ith the life, not in the body, but in 
faith. For that is a spiritual approach by \vhich any luan 
approaches God; and therefore it follo".s, Take l/lll yoke 
upon you. RABAN. The yoke of Christ is Christ's Gospel, 
\vhich joins and yokes together Je\"s and Gentiles in the 
unity of the faith. This we are conHuallded to take upon us, 
that is, to ha\ye in honour; lest perchance setting it beneath 



VEll. 2
-:jO. 



T. 'fA TTfI F.'V. 


J2!J 


us, that is \vrongly despising it, we should tralnplc upon it 
with the Iniry feet of unholiness; \\'hereforc Ire adds, Learn 
of /Ill). ATG, K ot to creaÍl:. a \vorld, or to do Il1Ïracle
 in Aug. 
that ,,'orld; but tlUll I alii 'Jllcek and lou)ly in J
ellrt. 

:I
: 
""'ouldest thou he great? Begin ,,'ith the least. ".,. ouldcst 
thou huild up a n1Íghty fabric of greatness? First think of 
the foundation of Inl1nility; for the mightier building any 

eeks to raise, the deeper let hiln dig for his foundation. 
'\Thither is the slllnruit of our building to rise? To the sight 
of God. IlAn.\
, ""'e must learn then froln our Saviour to 
be Bleck in telllpcr, and 10\\'1)' in mind; let us hurt none, 
let us despise none, and the virtues which \ve have she\vn in 
dec(l let us retain in our heart. CHRYS. ...\nd therefore in 
beginning the Divine Law' lie begins ",ith hU11111ity, and 
sct!'\ hcfore us a great re,,-ard, saying, .And ye shall find ,.est 
jòr your souls. This is the highest reward, you shall not 
only be Blade useful to others, but shall make yourself to 
ha\-t:' peace; and lIe gives you the prollli
e of it hefore it 
COllIes, but ,,-hen it is COlne, you shall rejoice in perpetual 
rest. _-\nd that they might not be afraid because He had 
spoken of a hurden, therefore lIe adds, For IJlY yol...e ,,",ç 
pleasant, and 1J1Y vurden light. IIILARY; lIe holds forth 
the inducelnents of a pleasant yoke, and a light burden, that 
to theln that believe 11e Illay afford the kno\vledge of that 
good which I J e alone kno\\'eth in the Father. GREG. 'Yhat Greg. 
hurden is it to put upon the neck of our lnind that lIe bids 


r. iv. 
us 
hun all desire that disturbs, and turn froDl the toils01ne 
paths of this ".orld? IIILARY; _\11d \\-hat is nlore pleasant 
than that yoke, what lighter than that burden? To he l11ade 
bctter, to abstain from wickedness, to choose the good, and 
refuse the e\'il, to lo,'c all men, to hate none, to gain eternal 
things, not to be taken with things present, to be unwilling 
to do that to another which yourself \vould be pained to suffer. 
R,\IL\S. TInt how is Christ's yoke pleasant, seeing it ''''as said 
aho"e, 1,-rorrOlL" is tlie J(,llY 1l"lticlt leadeth unto life! That \"hich 
Iat. 7, 
. I b . . f . d 14 
IS cntere( upon ya narro\v entrance IS 111 process 0 hnle nla e . 
Lroad by the unspeakaùlc sweetness of lo,'e. ÀUG. 
o tllcn Aug. 
they who with unfearing neck have suhlnitted to the Joke of

:
: 
the Lord endun
 such hardships an(} dangers, that they seeln 
to he caned not frolll labour to rest, but frolH rest to lahouT. 



130 GOSPEL ACCOUnlNG TO ST. MATTHE'V. CHAP. XI. 


But the Holy Spirit \yas there \vho, as the ouhvard lnan 
decayed, rene\ved the inward man day by day, and giving 
a foretaste of spiritual rest in the rich pleasures of God in 
the hope of blessedness to come, smoothed all that seemed 
rough, lightened all that \vas heavy. l\Ien suffer amputations 
and bumings, that at the price of sharper pain they may 
be delivered from torments less but more lasting, as boils or 
swellings. 'Vhat storms and dangers ,viII not merchants 
undergo that they may acquire perishing riches? Even those 
,,'ho love not riches endure the saIne hardships; but those 
that love them endure the saIne, but to them they are not 
hardships. For love makes right easy, and aln10st nought 
all things ho\vever dreadful and monstrous. Ho\v lnuch 
more easily then does 10'ge do that for true happiness, \vhich 
avarice does for lnisery as far as it can? J EHOME; And 
hOl\r is the Gospel lighter than the La\v, seeing in the La\v 
murder and adultery, but under the Gospel anger and con- 
cupiscence also, are punished? Because by the La\v many 
things are cOlnmanded which the Apostle fully teaches us 
cannot be fulfilled; by the Law ,yorks are required, by the 
Gospel the will is sought for, ,vhich even if it goes not into 
act, yet does not lose its reward. The Gospel cOlnlnands 
what we can do, as that \\'I'e lust not; this is in our own 
power; the La\v punishes not the ,viII but the act, as adultery. 
Suppose a virgin to have been violated in time of persecution; 
as here ,vas not the will she is held as a virgin under the 
Gospel; under the La\v she is cast out as defiled. 



CIIAI). XII. 


1. At that tilne Jesus ,vent on the sabbath day 
through the corn; and his disciples ,vere an hungred, 
and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat. 
2. But ,,-hen the Pharisees sa,v it, they said unto 
hinl, Behold, thy disciples do that ,,-hich is not la,vful 
to do upon the sabbath day. 
3. But he said unto then1, Have ye not read ,,,hat 
David did, ,,,hen he ,vas an hungred, and they that 
\vcre ,vith him; 
4. 1-10'" he entered into the house of God, and did 
eat the she,,-bread, ,vhich ,vas not la\vful for hilu to 
cat, neither for them \vhich ,vere ,vith him, but only 
for the Priests 1 
5. Or have ye not read in the law, how that on 
the sabbath days the Priests in the telnple profane 
the sabbath, and are blameless 1 
6. But I say unto you, That in this place is one 
greater than the temple. 
7. But if ye had know-n ,,-hat this lneaneth, 1 ,viII 
have lnercy, and not sacrifice, ye \voldd not have 
condenlned the guiltless. 
8. For the Son of luan is Lord even of the sabbath 
day. 


GLOSS. IIaving related the preaching together \yith the Gloss. 
Iniracles of onc year before J Oh11'S enquiry, TIe passes to ord. 
those of anuther year, nalncly after the death of John, when 
Jesus is already in an things 
pokcn against; and hence it 



432 


GOSPEl.. ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


is said, At tliat ti1ne Jeslls passpd tlrrollgll tlu! C01"n fields 

ug. De on tI,e sahha.ilt day. AUG. This \\Thich here fo]]o\vs is 
Cons, 
Ev.ii.34. related both by Mark and Luke, ,vithout any question of 
discrepancy; indeed they do not say, At that tÙne, so that 
Matthew has here perhaps presenred the order of tilne, they 
that. of their recollection; unless \ve take the \vords in a 
\vider sense, At that tÙne, that is, the tiIne in ,vhich these 
tnany and dh"ers things were done, \vhence \ve may conceive 
that all these things happened after the death of John. For 
he is believed to have been beheaderl a little after lIe sent 
his disciples to Christ. So that \vhen he says at tllat tÙne, 
Chry
, he may mean only an indefinite titue. CHRYS. 'Vhy then 



-
. did lIe lead them through the corn fields on the sabbath, 
seeing lIe kne\v all things, unless He desired to breal{ the 
sabbath? This he desired indeed, but not absolutely; there- 
fore He broke it not without cause, but furnished a sufficient 
reason; so that He both caused the La\v to cease, and yet 
offended not against it. Thus in orùer to soften the J e".s, 
He here introduces a natural necessity; this is \vhat is said, 
Aud In's disciples be-illg an ltuJlgred, hegan to pluck the ears 
qf corn, and to eat. Although in things \vhich are n1anifest1y 
sinfiI1, there can be no excuse; he who kills another cannot 
plead rage, nor he who commits adultery, lust, or any other 
cause; yet here saying that the disciples were hungry, II e 
delivers them from all accusation. JEROME; As we read 
in another Evangelist, they had no opportunity of taking 
food because of the thronging of the multitude, and therefore 
they hungred as men. That they rub the ears of corn in their 
hauds, and with then1 satisfy themselves, is a proof of an 
austere life, and of men "rho needed not prepared meats, but 
sought only simple food. CHRYS. Here a(hnire the disciples, 
\v ho are so lilnited in their desires, that they have no care of the 
things of the body, but despise the support of the flesh; they 
are assailed by hunger, and yet they go not a\vay froin Christ; 
for had not they been hard pressed by hunger, they would 
110t have done thus. 'Vhat the Pharisees said to this is 
added, Tile Pharisees seeing it said unto HÙn, Behold, thy 
Aug, disciples do 'll"hat is not lau:flll to do on the sabbath,. AUG. 

 I e oP I ' The Jews rather char g ed the I
ord's disci p les \vith the 
l\' onae l. 
23, breach of the sabbath than \vith theft; because it \vas 



VER. l-
. 



T. )I.\TTH 
 \". 


4;33 


conunanded the }>('oplc of Israel ill the J ,I a,,", that the) Deut. 
should not lay hold of allY as a thief in their fields, unlcss 23, 25. 
he sought to carry ought a,,'ay with hinl; but if any touchcd 
only ,,"hat he needed tu cat, hill} they suffered to t1epart ,vith 
impunity ii'cc. J EllO
I E; Observe, that the first 
\ )Jostles 
of the 
a\'iour broke the lctter of the sabbath, contrary to the 
opinion of the Ebionitesa, who receive the other Apostles, but 
I'eject l>aul as a transgressor of the La,,'. 1'hen it proceeds 
to their eÀcu
t'; Bill lie said unto lbe1Jl, flare .l/(' IIot read 
l{'''at J)arid did, 1rlu J }I lip Ira," flJl Il/tJlf/reil! To refitte thp 
false accusation of the Pharisees, He calls to nlÍlld the 
ancient history, that 1 )a\"id flying froln Saul carne to 
ubba, 
and bping entcrtained by .AchilllClech the l>riest, aslied for 1 Sam, 
food; he having no counnon bread, ga\-e hinl the consc- 21. 
crated loa,"es, \,-hich it ""as nut lawful for any to eat, but the 
l>rie
t
 ouly and Lc,'ites; estcelllÍng it a Letter action 
to delÙ'cr lllcn fi'OIlI the danger of falnine than to otIer sa- 
crifice to God; for the preser\ ation of Ulan is a sacrificp 
acceptahle to God. 1'hus then the Lord Ineets their ob- 
jection, 
aying, If l)a\"id be a holy Inan, and if you hlarne nut 
the high-priest Achin1eleeh, but consider thl'ir excuse for 
their transgression of the La,," to be valid, and that ,vas 
hunger; ho\\. do ye not approvc in the Apostles the saIne 
plea. ,,
hich you appro\'e in others? 1'hough even here 
there is much difference. These rub ears of corn in their 
hands on the sabbath; thosc ate the Levitical bread, and 
over and abo,"e the soleUlIl sabbath it \vas the seaSOll of lle\V 
moon, during which whcn sought for at the banquet he fled 
from the royal palace. CHRY
. To clear flis disciples, 
lIe brings fOr\\"ard the illstancc of David, whose glory a5 
a Prophet ,va
 great aUlong the Jews. \
 et they could 
not here ans\\"'cr that thi
 was h\.\vful tor hiln, hecansp he was 
a Prophet; for it "'a
 not Proph('ts, hut Priests only ,\"ho 
nlight eat. _\n<.1 the greater "wa!' he ,,"ho did this, th(' greater 
is the defenc(
 of the disciple
; yet though Da\'id "was a 
}>rophet, they that \vere \vith hin} '\"cre not. J ERO
I E ; 
Obscnwe that neither Da\'id nor his 
cn'ants rccci\'pd the 


1\ T11e Ebionite!' received only the apostate, ,rid. Iren. Hær. I. 26, II, 2 
Hebrew Gospel of St, "Matthew muti- Orig. in Cels. ,. G5. Euseb. iii. 27. 
lated. They rejected St. Paul M an 
VOL. I. 
 F 



434 


GOSPEL ACCORIH
G TO 


CHAP. XII. 


10ayes of she,,'-bread, before they had Inade ans\ver that they 
,yere pure fronl ,yomen. CHRYS. But some one ,vill say, 
Ho\v is this instance applicable to the question in hand? 
For David did not transgress the sabbath. Herein is she\vn 
the \visdolu of Christ, that He brings for\vard an instance 
stronger than the sabbath. For it is by no nleans the saIne 
thing to \Tiolate the sabbath, and to touch that sacred table, 
\vhich is la\vful for none. And again, He adds yet another 
ans"
er, saying, Or Itat'e ye not tread in tlte Lall', tltat Oil lite 
.
abbath days tlie Priests ilt 'lte tel11ple }Jrqfluze the sabbath, 
and are bla1Jzeless? JEROl\IE; As though He had said, Ye 
bring c0111plaillts against Iny disciples, that on the sabbath 
they rub ears of corn in their hands, under stress of hunger, 
and ye yoursehres profane the sabbath, slaying victims in the 
teu1ple, killing bulls, burning holocausts on piles of wood; 
John 7, also, on the testimony of another Gospel, ye circumcise 
23. infants on the sabbath; so that in keeping one law, ye break 
that concerning the sabbath. But the laws of God are 
never contrary ODe to another; wisely therefore, wherein 
His disciples Inight be accused of having transgressed theIn, 
He she\vs that therein they follo\ved the exaInples of Achi- 
melech and Da\
id; and this their pretended charge of 
breaking the sabbath lIe retorts truly, and not having the 
plea of necessity, upon those \vho had brought the ac- 
cusation. CHRYS. But that you should not say to me, that to 
.find an instance of another's sin is not to excuse our own- 
indeed ,,,,here the thing done and not the doer of it is 
accused, \ve excuse the thing done. But this is not enough, 
He said \vhat is yet more, that they are blalneless. But see 
no\v great things He brings in; .first, the place, in the 
Temple; secondly, the tin1e, on the sabbath; the setting 
aside the La\v, in the \\
ol'd prcifalle, not merely break; and 
that they are not only free froln punishment but from blame; 
and are bla1neless. And this second instance is not like the 
.first \vhich He gave respecting David; for that \vas done 
but once, by Ða\'id \\
ho \vas not a Priest, and \vas a case 
of necessity; but this second is done every sabbath, and 
by the Priests, and accol'ding to the La\v. So that not only 
by indulgence, as the first case \vould establish, but by the 

t.rict la \V the di
ciplps are to be held blameless. But are 



V
R, l-
. 


ST. 'L\TTIJE\\. 


-13
 


the disciples l)riesls? yea, the)" are Jet greater than Priests, 
fora
lnuch as I I e ,,-as there who i
 the T
orc1 of the Teluple, 
\"ho is the reality and not the type; and therefore it is 
added, fillt I say lOtiO !/Oll,Olle greater tltall tile TenlfJle Ù, 
II ere. J ERO
IE; The ,,-onl Hie is not a pronoun, but an 
ad,"erb of place here, for that place is greater than the 
Telnple "which contains the Lord of the TClnple. AUG. Aug. 
It should be ob
eITed, that one exanlple is taken froTH royal 
u;;
tit. 
per
ons, as l)a,"id, the other fronl prie
tly, as those who q, 10. 
profil.ne the sabbath for the 
en'ice of the Temple, so that 
mnch less can the charge concerning the ruhhing the ears 
of corn attach to IIiIH \\'Ito i
 indeed J,"ing and Priest. 
CHHYS. 
o\.nd bf'cause what TIe had 
ëlid seelned hard to 
tho
e that hC'ard it, lIe again exhort
 to lllcrcy, introducing 
flis discourse ,,-ith elllphasis, saying, Bllililul ye !.,ïiOlCII u'llaf 
tltat meane/It, I lrillltll
.e 111erC!} and not sacrifice, ye lrOlild 
11erer !tatwe conde/IIJ1ed ilu
 innocent. JERO)I E; 'Yhat I will 
harc Illercy, and not sacrifice, signifies, ,,-e have explained 
abo\
e. 'rhe \vords, JTe lroliid nez-pI" lllIlX
 conde1JlJled llie 
Ùlllúcenl, are to be referred to the Apostles, and the lllean- 
ing is, If ye ano\\" the Inerc)' of AchiInelech, in that he re- 
freshed David "'hen in danger of famishing, why do ye 
conden1n 'r
r disciples? CHRYS. Obsen-e again ho,," in 
leading the di
course towards an apology for thein, He 
shew's IIis disciples to Le abo\
e thp need of any apology, 
and to be indeed hhuneless, as lIe had said abo\Te of the 
Priests. '-\nd lIe aùds yet another plea \yhich clears them 
of blaIne, For the SOli cifJlall is Lord also oj
/lle sabbatll. 
RE)IIG. lIe calls I-Jinlsclf the Son of 
Ian, and the nleaning 
is, lIe ,,'hoJ}) ye suppose a Inere Ulan is God, the Lord of all 
creatures, and also of the sabbath, and lIe has therefore 
po" er to change the la,v after TIis pleasure, because He 
Illade it. \UG. lIe did not forbid Ilis disciples to pluck Aug. 
the ears of corn on the 
ahbath, that so lIe nlÌght con,-ict 
::;t. 
both the Jews \yho then were, and the )[anichæans \\"ho xvi, 28. 
""cre to C01l1e, ,,-ho ,,'ill not pluck up a herb lest they should 
be comn1Ïtting a nlul'der. 
HILARY; Figurati\Wel}'; First consider that this discourse \vas 
held at that time, nanlel,y, \vhen lIe had given thanks to the 
Father for giving sah-ation to the Gentiles. The field is tbe 
2F2 



430 


GOSlJEL .\CCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


\yorld, the sabbath is rest, the corn the ripening of theul that 
belic'Te for the harvest; thus Ilis passing through the corn field 
on the sabbath, is the con1Ïng of the Lord into the ,vodd in the 
rest of the Law; the hunger of the disciples is their desire for 
the sah'ation of Dlen. RABAN. They pluck the ears of corn 
\vhen they ,yithdra,v Inen froll1 devotion to the ,yodd; they 
rub them in their hands \vhen they tear a,vay their hearts 
froln the lusts of the flesh; they eat the grain \,Then they 
transfer such as are aUlenderl into the body of the Church. 
Aug. AUG. But no 111'-111 passes into the body of Christ, until he 


.

t2. has been stripped of his fleshly raÏ1nent; according to that 
Eph. 4, of the A postle, Put ye l!.ff tlie old Ulan. R.\BA
. This 
22. they do on the sabbath, that is in the hope of eternal 
rest, to ,,"hich they invite others. Also they \valk through 
the corn fields \vith the Lord, \yho have delight in medi- 
tating on the Scriptures; they are hungry \vhile they desire 
to find the bread of life, that is the lo\'e of God, in theln; 
they pluck the ears of con1 and rub then} in their hands, 
while they examine the testimonies to disco\Ter \yhat lies 
hid under the letter, and this on the sabbath, that is, while 
they are free froll} disquieting thoughts. HILARY; The 
Pharisees, who thought that the lrey of the :kingdom of 
heaven \yas in their hands, accused the disciples of doing 
\vhat was not lawful to do; \vhereon the Lorrl reminded 
then} of deeds in \vhich, under the guise of facts, a prophecy 
\vas concealed; and that He Inight she\v the po\ver of all 
things, lIe further added, that it contained the forn} of that 
\\Tork \vhich "Tas to be, Had ye Á"JlOlO]l. what that 'lJleal1etlt, 
I 'loUt hare '/1lercy; for the \vork of our salvation is not in the 
sacrifice of the La\v, but in ll1ercy; and the Law having 
ceased, \ye are saved by the Inercy of God. . '.Vhich gift if 
they had understood they \vo1.Ild not have condelnned the 
innocent, that is His Apostles, \VhOlll in their jealousy they 
\vere to accuse of having transgressed the La\v, "'here the 
old sacrifices having ceased, the ne\v dispen8ation of Inercy 
caIne through then} to the aid of all. 


9. And ,vhen he was departed thence
 he went into 
their synagogue : 
10. And, behold, there ,vas a man which had his 



\'En. 9-13. 



T. '1.\ TTIIE".. 


.:37 


hand ,vithered. ..\nd they asked hhn, saying, Is it 
]a\\
ful to heal on the sabbath days! that they Inight 
accuse him. 
11. ...\nd he said unto them, 'Vhat Inan shall there 
be nnlong you, that s}1all have one sheep, and if it 
fall into a pit on the sabbath day, ,vill he not lay 
hold on it, and lift it out? 
] 2. I I 0". nluch then is a nlan better than a sheep? 
"Therefore it is la,vful to do "ell on the sabbath 
da ys. 
13. Then saith he to the Ulan, Stretch forth thine 
hand. .A.nd he stretched it forth.; and it ,vas restored 
"'hole, like as the other. 


J ERO:\IE; J3ecause by fair instances TIe had "indicated 
I lis disciplcs fro111 the chargl' of Lr(\aking the sabbath, the 
l)harisccs seek to ùring falsc accusation against llinlself; 
whence it is said, And }Jassiug tlience, lie CIl1ne iulo tllei,. 
S!JJlll!]o.rJlle. TTIL.\RY; For the things that had gOllC before 
were said and <lonp in the open air, and after this lIe entcred 
the synagogue. _\UG. It nlight have been supposed that the Aug. De 
Jnattcf of the ear
 of con1, and this cure following, had been E Co

. 35 
V,1I, . 
done on the "ame day, for it is Inentioncd to ha\-e been the 
sabbath day in both cases, had not Luke 
hewn us that 
they wen" on different days. 80 that \vhat 'IaUhc\\r says, 
.Ind 'll"!teJl !te !tad passed thellce, lie ca17le iI/to i/it!ir syna- 
!/(JgZlC, is to Le taken as that lIe did not entcr into the 
synagog-ue till lIe hac] passed thence; but ,,"hether sc\"cra] 
day
 intcn-cllcd or lIc \\ cnt thither straight is not expressed in 
this Go
p('l, so that place is givcn to the rclation of Luke, wbo 
tells of the healing of this kind of palsy 011 another sabbath. 
I lILARY; \\
hCll II e wa
 entered into the synagogue, they 
bring a luan of a withered haud, asking ITirn \\"hether it \\'a
 
la\yful to heal on the sahbath day, secking an occasion of 
convicting IIiln ont of Ilis aus""cr; as it fono\v
, .And tlley 
!lrouyh! hi /JI a ,nan lUll'iu.fl a u.ilhcl'ed hand, fI ud asked hi1n, 
J;uyill!J, Is il !au:/;Il 10 henl OJI lIlt) ,\'aú!Ja 111 till Y ! C H HYS. Cluys. 
rhe\" ..10 not ask that they lna,. learn, hut that the,. nlav Hom,xJ, 
. . . .. 



43t; 


GOSPEL ACCORDl:NG TO 


CHAP. XII. 


accusp IIitn; as it follo\vs, that they 1I1Ígld aCCllse I,Ùn. 
Though the action itself ,vould have been enough, yet they 
sought occasion again
t Him in His ,yords also, thus pro- 
viding for theulsel \'es greater Inatter of COIn plaint. J EROl\fE ; 
And they ask Him \yhether it is la\vful to heal on the 
sabbath day, that if He should refuse, they Inight charge 
Him \\'ith cruelty, or ,vant of po,ver; if He should heal 
hin1, they Inight charge Hiin ,vith transgressing the Law. 
Aug. De AUG. nut it may raise enquiry ho\v 1\latthe,v can say that 




i. they asked the Lord, Tf 7 hether it 'icere lau:ful to heal 011 tlte 
35. sabbath, seeing l\tlark and Luke relate that it was the Lord 
Luke 6, \vho asked them, TVltellJer it ù
 lau:ful 011 tlte sabballt day 
9. to do good or to dlj el"il? It is to be understood then 
that they first asked the I
ord, Is it lau;jitl to heal on tlte 
sabbat h day? Then understanding their thoughts that they 
sought an occasion to accuse Hirn, He placed in the n1Ïdst 
hin} wholn He ,vas about to heal
 and put to thein the 
question \vhich l\Iark anrl Luke say that He did ask; and 
\vhen they relnail1ed silent, He Inade the cOlllparison respect 4 
iug the sheep, and concluded that they might do good 011 
the sabbath day; as it follo\ys, But he said unto the111, 
JVltat '1nall s!tall there òe a'1nong ?/Oll, tllat sllall J'''ll'e (ìne 
sheep, and if it jaZZ into a pit on the ,r;;abbafll day, 'will he 
not lay !told Oil it, and l
ft it out? JEROME; Thus lIe 
answers their question in such a \\"ay as to convict the 
questioners of covetousness. If ye on the sabbath, saith 
lIe, ,,'ould hasten to lift out a sbeep or any other anÏtl1al 
that might have fallen into a pit, not for the sake of the 
anÏ111al, but to preserve your own property, ho\v Hluch nlore 
ought I to deliver a Ulan \vho is 80 1l1uch better than a 
Gloss. sheep? GLOSS. Thus lIe ans,vers theil' question \vith a 
ord. suitable exalnple, so as to shen T that they profane the 
sabbath by ,yorks of covetousness ,vho \\
ere charging 
Hin1 ,vith profaning it by ,yorks of charity; evil interpreters 
of the La\v, \vho say that on the sabbath ,ve ought to rest 
fron1 good deeds, "yhen it is only evil deeds from which ,ve 
Lev. 23, ought to rest. As it is said, Ire shall do no ,
elTile u'ork 
3. therein, that is, no sin. 'rhus in the everlasting rest, "re 
Aug. De shall rest only froin e\'il, an(
 not fronl good. AUG. After 

o

. 3 _ this cOinparisou concerning the sheep, lIe concludes that 
LV.II. D. 



VER. 9-13. 



T. :\1 \". '1'11 EW, 


1:3H 


it is la\yful to ùo good on the sabbath day, saying, Tllel'liòre 
it is lau-jitl to do good 0/1 0,(' 8a!Jbalh. CHRYS. Observc 
ho\v l--le 
hews 111any reasons tor this breaking of the 
sabbath. 13ut forasmuch as the Ulan ""as incurably sick, 
lIe proceeds straight,,"ay to the \vork, as it follo\vs, Then 
sailh lie to tlle JliliU, Ilpaclt jor/It thy haud: and he reached 
it fortll, and it u'as 1.eslored u:hole as lite other. J ERO:\I E; 
In the Gospel \vhich the N azarenes and Ebionites use, and \'id.llote. 
'which \Ye have lately translated into C;reek out of the p, 433. 
Hebre\v, and \vhich Inany regard as the genuine l\latthew, 
this Ulan \\"'110 has the ,,-ithcred hand is described as a 
builder, and he makes his prayer ill these \\ ord
, 'I \vas 
a builder, and gained IllY living by the labour of Iny hands; 
I pray thee, Jesus, to restore Ine to health, that I Inay not 
disgracefully beg lny bread,' nABA
. Jesus teaches and 
,yorks chiefly on the sabbath, not only on account of the 
spiritual sabbath, but on account of the gathering together 
of the people, 
eeking that all should be saved. 
IIILARY; Figurati\-ely; After their departure from the corn 
field, frollI \vhich the Apostles had received the fruits of their 
so\ving, lIe caIne to the Synagogue, there also to lllake ready 
the \vork of IIis Lan-est; for there ,,'cre afterwards lnan)' with 
the Apostles who "'ere healed. J ERO
IE; (Tntil the con1Îllg of 
the Lord the Sa,"iour, there was the 'withered haud in the Syna- 
gogue of the J e\\'s, and the \\.orks of the Lord were not done 
in it; hut \,"hen lIe caIne upon earth, the loight hand ""as 
restored in the Apostles who belie,.ed, anù gi\'eu back to its 
fortner occupation. IIILARY;.All healing is done by the 
,vord; and the hand is restored as the other; that is, Blade 
like' to the lninistry of the A.postles in the business of be- 
sto\ving sah'ation; and it tcaches the I>luuisces that they 
should not be displeased that the ""ork of lnunan salvation is 
done hy the ...\postle!', seeing that if they ,,"oul(} belic'"c, thcir 
own haud would be Inadc able to the luini:4ry of the salue 
duty. l{AnA
. Otherwise; The luan ".ho had the \vithered 
hand denutes the l11unall race in its barrenness of good 
,vorks dried up ùy the hand which \\'as stretched out to (jen,3,6. 
the fruit; this ""as hcaled by the stretching ont of the 
innocent hand on the Cro
s. And \vell is thi
 \vithered 
hand said to ]J3XC bcen in the 
ynagogue, for ,,"horo till' gift 



440 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


of kno\vledge is greater, there is the greater danger of an 
irreco,'crable infliction. The withered hand ,,'hen it is 
to be healed is first bid to be stretched out, because the 
weakness of a barren Inind is healed bJ' no means better than 
by liberality of ahnsgiving. A lnan's right hand is affected 
\yhen he is renliss in giving alms, his left whole ,,'hen 
he is attentive to his o\vn interests. But "yhen the I.4ord 
comes, the right hand is restored whole as the left, because 
\vhat he had got together greedily, that he distributes 
freel v . 
tI 


14. Then the Pharisees went out, and held a 
council against him, how they might destroy him. 
15. But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself 
froln thence: and great multitudes followed ,him, and 
he healed thelTI all; 
16. And charged them that they should not Inake 
him kno\vn: 
17. Tha.t it might be fulfilled which was spoken by 
Esaias the prophet, saying, 
18. Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; 
Iny beloved, in whom my soul is ,veIl pleased: 
I \vill put my spirit upon him, and he shaH shew 
judgment to the Gentiles. 
19. He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shaH 
any Inal1 hear his voice in the streets. 
20. A bruised reed shaH he not break, and smoking 
flax shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment 
unto victory. 
21. And in his nalne shall the Gentiles trust. 


lIILARY; The Pharisees are moved \vith jealousy at \vhat 
hail been done; because beholding the out\vard body of 
a Ulan, they did not recognize the God in His \yorks; The 
l
harisees 'went out and sOl/ght counsel against ltÙn, IlOU' 
they 11ligld destroy ltÙJl. RABA
, He says, 'teent out 
hecause th
ir n1Ïncl ,vas alien froln the Lord. They 



\ER. 14-21. 


ST. \IATTHE"-. 


411 


took counsel ho'v they Inight destroy lifc, not ho\v thc1n- 
seh'cs nlight find lift--. H IL\UY; .And fIe kno\viug thcir 
plots \\'ithdre\\', that lIe Inight be far fro 111 the counsels 
of the cvil hearted, as it follo\vs, .Jeslls kuotriug it departed 
Illl nee. JEROME; Kno\ving, that is, their designs against 
) filiI ,\'ithdrc\\' llÍ1nself, that lIe nlight rCIllO\'C frOln the 
Pharisees all opportunity of sin. l
E
I1G. Or; lIe \vithdre\v 
from thence as avoiding the designs of IIis o,,?n ,,-hen they 
persecuted lliIn; or because that \vas not the time or place 
for Ifilll to suffer, for Il cannol be l!tal a })rophet should Luke 13, 
perish Ulit ql.Tl'J'lISalelll, as TIe IIimself spake. The Lord 33. 
also shunned those who persccuted IIilll through hatred, and 
\vent thither wl1ere lIe found Inany \vho ,,-ere attached to 
IIinl fron1 affection, "'hence it foHo,,'s, 
lJ1d 'here follou'ell 
lihn 'lJ1l11l!f. IIitn ,,-hOl11 the J>harisees with one consent 
plotted against to destroy, the untaught multitude \vith one 
consC'nt lo\re and [oHo\\'; ""hence they soon received the 
fulfihnent of th{-'ir desires, for it follo\\-s, .J.ll1d he healed Illent 
nil. IIILARY; On those ,,'holn lIe healed He enjoined 
si]pllcP, whence it follows, And he charged tlieut tliat they 
should uol 1}1ake !linl known. For llÏs restored health ,vas a 
\yitness to each 11lan. And by comnlanding thel11 to hold 
their peace, fIe avoids all ostentation of IIirnself, and at the 
salue tiule notwithstanding affords a kllO\vledge of IIÏ111self 
in that very adlnonition to hold their peace; for the 
obsen'ance of silence proceeds fro111 tlhtt ,-cry thing \vhich 
is to be kept silent. H.\ßAN. In this also lIe instructs us, 
that \vhenwe ha\-e done any thing great \\re are not to seck 
praise abroad, H.El\IIG. And Ire also gi\"es thenl conl1nand 
that they should not Inake Hi1n l\.nown, that they Illight not 
by persecuting lIiln be put into a \\.orse state. CHRYS. And 
that yon luay not be troubled at tho
e thiugs n-hich are done, 
and at the incredible u1adllcss of the l)harisees, He introduces 
tIle !>rophct's ".ords. For such ,va
 the carefulness of the 
Prophets, that they had not oIniUcd even this, but had noted 
an I fis ways and InO\.elncnts, and the lneaning- with which 
lIe did thi!'; that you Inight learn that He spoke an things 
hy thp 110].'" Bpirit; for if it he ilnl'o
sible to kno\v the 
thoughts of luen, lunch IH01"(' to know the nlcaning of Christ, 
unless tllp ITaly Spirit rc\'ealcd it. 1'herefore it follo\vs, 



442 


GOSPEL \CCORIHNG TO 


CHAP. XII. 


'fllat it 11ligltl be fuljllled n"hiclt 'll'as spoken by Esaia.f) tile 
Prophet, saying, Behold lny servant whOln I have c/tosen. 
REMIG. The Lord Jesus Christ is caned the servant of the 
Almighty God It, not in respect of His divinity, but in respect 
of the dispensation of the flesh \vhich lie took upon Him, 
because by the cooperation of the Holy Spirit He took flesh 
of the Virgin \vithout stain of sin. Some books ha\
e, Elect, 
'If"ltOl11 I "al'e chosen, for lIe \vas chosen by God the Father, 
that is, predestinaterl that He should be the Son of God, 
proper, not adopted. RABAN. TVho1Jl I hare chosen, he 
says, for a \\Tork which none else has done, that He should 
redeem the human race, and make peace bet\veen God and 
the \\Torld. It follo\vs, lJIy beloz-ed, in 'lvltom 1/ZY sOlll is /f:ell 
pleased, for He alone is the Lamb \vithout spot of sin, of 
l\'Iat.17, whom the Father speaks, This is l1ZY beloved Son, in who1ll I 
5. am 'It'ell pleased. REl\IIG." That he says, AIy soul, is not to 
be understood as though God the Father had a soul, but by 
\vay of adaptation, shewing ho\v God is disposed towards 
Him. And it is no \vonder that a soul is ascribed to God in 
this lllanner, seeing that an other melnbers of the body are 
like\vise. CHRYS. This the Prophet puts in the beginning, 
that you might leanl that that \vhich is here said \vas 
according to the counsel of the Father. For he that is beloved 
does according to his "Till \vho loveth him. And again, he 
that is chosen, does not. as an enemy break the law', nor as 
one being an adversary of the legislator, but as one in 
agreement \vith Him. Because therefore lIe is beloved, 1 
will put my Spirit upon "int. RE!\IIG. rl'hen also God the 
Father put His Spirit upon Him, '''}Ien by the "Torking of 
the Holy Spirit II e took flesh of the .Virgin; and as soon as If e 
became man, He took the fulness of the Holy Spirit. JEH01\IE; 
But the Holy Spirit is put, not on the "T ord of God, but on 
the Only-Begotten, \vho canle forth from the bosoll1 of the 


b Our Lord is said to be properly a the course of the Adoptionist contro- 
servant as regards His human nature, versy, the same heretics who denied 
by S. Athan. Orate in Arian, i. 43. S. that our Lord was the true Son of God 
Hilar. de Trin. xi, 13. S. Greg, N az. in His human nature, a
serting that He 
Orat, xxxvi. p, 578. S. Greg. N yss. de wa
 a servant. Theodoret attributes 
Fide ad Simp1. p,471. S. Ambros. de Fid. the opinion to ApoUinaris, "which 
\-.8,Pse11do-August.Alterc,cumPa
c.15. none of 11S ever dared to utter." 
S.Cyrill, Alex, ad Theodor. in Anathem. Eranist. ii. fin. 
10. p. 223. But it came to be denied in 



VER. }.1-21. 


ST. 
JATTHE'\. 


443 


Fat11er; on II illl, that is, of ,,-holn it is said, Beltold rny 
8I'/T((III. And ,,,hat lIe will do by IIim II e aad
, ,.lucl "e 
shall deelire judgJ/lell1 to tlte Gelltiles. AUG. Seeing lIe 
.ug. D.e 
preached the judgment to come \vhich ,,
a') hidden from the ;

.

IJ 
Gentiles. CHRYS. };'nrther, to 
hew' Ilis 10wlines
, I Ie says, 
lIe Sllltll /lot sfrife; and so lIe \vas oflcrcd up as the Father 
had willed, and gave I-IÏ1nself ,villingly into the hands of 
flis persecutors. J..\Teither slutll !te cry; so [Ie \vas dUInb as 
a lalub before his shearer. J\"r01. shall fillY !tear "is 'Voice in. 
lite slreels. JERO:\IE; For thc \vay is broad and ,,-ide ,vhich 
leads to destruction, and 1uany walk ill it; and being nlan), 
they will not hear the 'Toicc of the Saviour, bccause they are 
not in thc narro". but in the broad ,vay. REMIG. The 
Greek 'lrÀrJ:rÛa., is in Latin called' latitudo.' Noone therefore 
has heard lIis ,.oice in the streets, because lIe has not proInised 
pleasant things in this \vorId to those that love IIim, but 
hardships. CHRYS. The Lord sought to heal the Jews by 
this Inildness. But though they rejected Ilim, yet lIe did 
not resist thenl by destroying thenl; ,,"hence the Prophet, 
displaying His po".er and their ".eakne
s, :says, A bruised 
reed he shall not break, aJld II SlJlvkiJl!J jla.l' he shall nol 
queuch. J EROJIE; lIe that holds not out his hand to a 
sinner, nor bears his brother's burden, he breaks a bruised 
reed; and he ,,-ho despises a \,Teak spark of faith in a little 
one, he quenches a smoking flax. ACG. So lIe neither Au ó . 
bruised nor quenched the Jewish persecutors, ,,-ho are here ubi sup. 
likened to a bruised reed \,'hich has lost its \,-holeness, and 
to a smoking flax which has lo
t its Halllc; but He spared 
them beca11se I Ie ,vas not cOlne to judge them, hut to be 
judged hy thel}}. ID. In thl
 sUloking flax it is obscn.cd, Aug. 
tbat ,,-hen the flaille is out it cau"cs a stink. CHRYS. Or Q E uæ .:. t :, 
v. I. -.I. 
thi
, lIe shall not break bruised reed, she\,.s that it ,vas 
clS casy for I [illl to break thenl an, as to break a reed, 
and that a bruised reed. \.nd, lIe sllall /lot quench a 
.
}noki/lg jla.1,
, 
hew:) that their rage \va
 fired, and that the 
po,,'C'r of Christ ,,"as strong to qucnch 
uch rage \\'ith all 
l'eaùillcss; hence in this is she\\'n the great lllercy of Christ. 
IIILARY; Or, he Ineans this brui
cd reed that is not broken, 
to 
hc\,' that the peri!o'hing and brui
ed bodies uf the 
n PlItill's, arc not to he brokcn, hilt are rather re
en.cd for 



444 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


sahyation. He shall not quenclt a SJJlokÙI.q jlaL
" shew's the 
feebleness of that spark \vhich though not quenched, only 
moulders in the flax, and that among the relnnants of that 
ancient grace, the 
pirit is yet not quite taken away froln 
Israel, but po\ver still remains to them of resuming the 
Jerome, \,"hole flanle thereof in a dav of penitpnce. JEROME; Or, 

.p. 121. the reverse; He calls the Je\
s a bruised reed, \VhOlll tossed 
by the wind and shaken fi'oln one another, the Lord did 
not imnlediately condenln, but patiently endured; and the 
sllloking flax He calls the people gathered out of the 
Gentiles, ,vho, having extinguished the 1ight of the natural 
la,v, were involved in the \vanrlering Inazes of thick darknes8 
of smoke, bitter and hurtful to the eyes; this He not only 
did not extinguish, by reducing then} to ashes, but on the 
contrary froln a snlall spark and one almost dead He raised 
a mighty flame. CHRYS. But one lnight say, "That then, 
shall these things be ah\"ays thus? 'Vill He endure for ever 
those \vho thus lay snares, and are lnad against Hitn? }i'ar 
from it; ,,,,hen His o,vn ,york shaH he all c0111plete, then 
shall He ".ork these things also. And this He signifies, 
saying, [Tntil he shall send .fortlt jlldg1Jzent to 'riclory; 
as much as to say, 'Vhen He shall have accolnplished all 
things ,,"hich are of Himself, then shall He briug in perfect 
vengeance; then shall they receive pnnishnlent \vhen He has 
made his \yictory illustrious, that there be not left to them 
any irre\.erent opportunity of contradiction. HILARY; Or, 
Until lie sliall send fortli judgJnent to l'ictoI'Y, that is, Until 
He shall take away the po,ver of deatl1, and bring in judg- 
ll1ent and the return of His splenòour. RAßAN. Or, Until 
that judgnlent \\.hich ".as being done in IIinl should conle 
forth to victory. For after that by His resurrection He had 
ovcrCOll1e death, and driyen forth the prince of this \yorld, 
He returned as conqueror to IIis kingdoln to sit 011 the right 
hand of the Father, until lIe shall put all I-fis enelnics under 
His feet. CHRY8. But the things of this dispensation \\
in 
not rest in this only, that they who haye 110t belie\"'ed s110uld 
be punished, but lIe ,,
il1 also dra\v the \\.orld to IIim; 
\\.hence it follo\vs, .And in his II(lJlle shall the Gentiles hope. 
Aug,De A VG. This last \\"e no\v see fulfilled; and thus this \\rhich 



.

i, cannot he denied estahlishes the truth of that ,,'hich sonlO 



VEU. 2
-:l L 


:-.T. :\I.\TTIU:\\. 


115 


ha\'c (lenip<! through ignorance, the last judgrnent nanlcly, 
which II C \\"i11 hold up un earth, when II e IIi1l1self ,hall 
come froln hea\-cJ1. Fur who could ha,'c expccted that the 
(ì eutilcð "'ould ha"e hopc in Christ's naIne, n'hen I I e was 
in the ha1lds of I [is clleIllies, whell lIe" as IJuuIHl, scourged, 
set at nought, and crucified; when e"en 11is disciples had 
lost that hope which they had begun to ha\'e in I-Jitn? 1'hat 
which oue tl1Ïef haren,' hoped on the cross, the nations 
scattered far and wide no,," hope. Aud that they luay not 
die for c'"er, they arc Inarkcd \yith that '"cry cross on ,,-hi('h 
I Ie died. Lct 110ne thcn doubt that the last jndglnent win 
he by Christ 1 Iinl
('lf. RE:\IIG. And it should be known, that 
the 1I1{'aning not only of this pa

ag(>, but of many others also, 
is 
upported Ly this testilllony fi"onl the Prophet. The ,,'ords, 
lJe/'old JUY SerrllJl/, nla)' be referred to the place in \vhich 
the Fatllcr had &aid abo\'e, 17,;8 i..; 'In,1J Son. The "Tord
, :\Iat. 3, 
I lcill }Jill 111.1/ '\.ìn'rit upon Ii Ù/l, is referred to the descent 17. 
of the] Ioly Spirit upon the Lord at IIis baptisln; He shall 
declare j/,dYIIU)JlI 10 Ihe Gentiles, to that which lIe says 
bclo,,", ,r "l,en / he 8()1I of' Jilin shall 8it in f he seat of Ii is )'lat. 25, 
J.lltljesl y. 'Yhat IT e adds, lIe sltallll01 sl rit"e nor cry, refers 3l. 
to the Lord ho\\ lIe alls""ered hut little to the Chief l>riests, 
and to Pilate, but to Herod nothing at alL lIe ,,!till! not 
lJrell"" tI,e bruised reed, refers to IIis shunning 1-lis persecutors 
that they tHight not he Blade "'on
e; and that In Ids IUlIue 
shall the Celt/iies hope, refers to what IIimself t:;ays belo,,', 
Go y(
, and teach all nations. l\Iat.20, 
]9. 


22. Thcn \vas brought unto hiln one possessed ,,'ith 
a devil, blind and cÏurnu: and he healed hiln, inso- 
much that the blind and dumb both spake and sa\\". 
23. And all the people \vere alnazed, and said, Is 
not thi
 the Son of Dayid ? 
24. But ,vhen the Pharisees heard it, they said, 
rrhis fclIo\v doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub 
the prince of the devils. 


G L()
S, The Lord had refuted the l)harisces abo'"c, when GJoss, 
they brought t
\l
c charges against the tuiraclcs of Christ, as non occ. 



446 


GOSPEL ACCOHDIXG TO 


CHAP. XII. 


if I-Ie had broken the sabbath in doing then1. But inas- 
lnnch as with a yet greater \vickedness they perversely attri- 
buted the miracles of Christ done by divine po\ver to an 
unclean spirit, therefore the E\
angelist places first the 
miracle from \vhich they had taken occasion to blasphelne, 
saying, Tltt"n u:as brought to hÙn one thal !lad a dæ1non, 
blind and dUl1lb. REl\1IG. The "yord Tlien refers to that 
above, where ha\Ting healed the Inan "yho had the \vithered 
hand, He ,vent. out of the synagogue. Or it Inay be taken of 
a lllore extended tilne; 'Then, nalnely, ,,,hen these things 
were being done or said. CHRYS, \Ve may "ronder at the 
wickedness of the dæn10n; he had obstructed both inlets 
by ,vhicl1 he could belie,re, nanlely, hearing and sight. But 
Christ openerl both, "Thence it follo\ys} ,Jnd lie healed llÙn, 
Ùzso1nuch that the blind and du}nb both spake and ,-salC. 
J ERO:
IE; Three n1Ïracles \vere \vrought in one and the same 
person at the saIne tin1e; the blind sees, the dUlnb speaks, 
the possessed is deliyered from the dælllon. This \vas at 
that tilue done in the flesh, but is now daily being fulfilled 
in the con \yersion of them that believe; the dælnon is cast 
out when they first behold the light of the faith, and then 
their mouths ,vhich had before been stopped are opened to 
utter the praises of God. HILARY; Not \vithout reason, 
after ha\Ting lllentioned that all the lnultitude \vas healed 
together, does he bring in the cure of this man separately 
\vho ,vas dælTIoniac, blind and dUlnb. For after the Dlan of 
the \vithered hand had been brought before Him, and been 
healed in the Synagogue, it beho\Ted that the salvation of 
the Gentiles should be represented in the person of SOlne 
other afflicted man; he \vho had been the habitation of a 
dænlon, and blind and dumb, should be made meet to receive 
God, should contain God in Christ, and by confession of God 
.Aug. should gÏ\re praise to the "rorks of Christ. AUG. For he that 

:,

t4. believes not, is truly dæll1oniac, blind, and dumb; and he 
that has not understanding of the faith, :nor confesses, nor 
Aug. De gives praise to God, is subject to the devil. ID. This 
Cons .". b L k . h " I b f 
Ev,ii:37. narratIve IS gIven y 11 Te, not In t IS pace, ut a ter many 
other things intervening, and speaks of hilll as dumb only, 
and not blind. But he is not to be thought to be speaking 
of another Ulan, becauf'\e hp is silent respecting this one 



VER. 25, 26. 



 1'. 
r.\ TTII E\\ . 


j
7 


particular; for in \vhat follo,\'S he agrccs cxactly \vith 
'fauhc\v. f[lL.\R\; .An the multitude \,"ere astonished at 
this \\ hich u"a,; dOlle, but the jealousy of the l->haris('es gre\v 
t1)ereupon, .And all tI,e multitude u'ere astonished and said, 
Is nul II00s tIll' SUit of Da
'id! GLO:o,S. 13ecansp of Ilis Gloss. 
lnerc
 anù llit; goodne
" to thein they proclail11 Ililll the Son rt
ban. 
of David. H.ABAN. The lntdtitudc \"ho sceined less learned, Raban. 
al ways wondered at the ,,"orks of the Lord; they, on the fn B{
:. 
other hand, either denied these things, or \vhat thc)" could 
not deny laboured to pervert by an ill interpretation, as though 
they "-ere wroug-ht not by a Deity, but by an unclean spirit, 
naluely, ]
eelzebub, \\"ho \vas the God of _\charon: The 
Pl,arÙ;ees ll"l,ell they heard if ,'}{âd, This /lLnn does not ca::;t 
oul dæJJI()/ls bill b.'1 lJeelzebllb, tI,e prince qllhe dæJlloll.Y. 
H.E.:\lIG. Beelzebub is the sallIe as Deel or llaal, or Deel- 
phcgor. Beel \"'as father of Ninus king of .A.ssyria; Baal 
'" as so called because he \vas \vorshipped on high; he \Vas 
called Beelphegor from the 1110untain Phegor; Zebub ,vas 
the ser\pant of ..:\bilnelech the son of Gedeon, ,"Tho, having 
slain his se\'enty brothers, built a tell1ple to Baal, and set 
hÌ1n up as Priest th
rein, to drh-e a\vay the flies \vhich were 
col1ected there by the abundant blood of the ,"ictims; for 
ZebuL means, a fiy. Beelzebub therefore is interpreted, The 
man of flies; \\'herefore from this most unclean \vorship they 
called hiln the Prince of the dæl1l0ns. Ha\Ting therefore 
nothing 111 ore Inean to cast upon the Lord, they said that 
He cast out dælTIons by 13eeIzebub. ...-\nd it should be 
kno\vn that this ,,,ord is not to be read \vith d or t at the end, 
as SOlne corrupt copies have, but \vith b. 


23. And Jesus kne\v their thoughts, and said unto 
them, Ev'ery kingdom divided Hòainst itself is brought 
to desolation; and every city or house divided against 
itself 
hall not stand; 
2ß. ,.1nd if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided 
against himse]f; ho\v sha11 then his kingdoln stand? 


J ERO:\IE; The Pharisees ascribed the ,,,"orks of God to the 
Prince of the dælnons; and the Lord Inakes ans\\'er not to 



Chrys. 
Horn. 
xli. 


448 


GOSPEL _\CCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


,,,hat they said, but to \yhat they thought, that cven thus 
they Inight be cOlnpelleù to believe Ilis po\vcr, \Vho sa,,' the 
secrets of the heart; Jesus, /t"llou'ing tl/eir thollgllis, said unto 
theJJl. CHRYS. Abo,'c they had accused Christ of having 
cast out dæIllons by Beelzebub; but then He did not repro\Te 
theIn, suffering theIn, if they ".ould, to acknowledge Hiu1 
fron1 further nliracles, and to learn I-lis greatness froll1 IJ is 
doctrine. I
ut because they continued to Inaintain the saIne 
things, He no\y rebukes theIn, although their accusation had 
been \'ery unreasonable. But jeaJousy recks not \vhat it 
says, so that only it say ßOllJewhat. '-et does not Christ 
contemn thenl, but answers with a gracious l11ildness, teach- 
iug us to be gentle to our enelnies, aud not to be troubled, 
even though they should speak such things against us, as \ve 
neither ackno\\Tledge in us, nor ha\Te any reasonableness in 
theu1selyes. Therein also He proves that the things \yhich 
they had said against lIitn \vere false, for it is not of one 
ha\'il1g a dænlon to she\v such 111ercy, and to kno\v the 
thoughts. l\Ioreover, because this their accusation was \'cry 
unreasonable, and they feared the lliultitude, they did not 
dare to proclai111 it openly, but kept it in their thoughts; 
"Therefore he says, Kuotcillg their thoughts. I-Ie does not 
repeat their thoughts in His ans"rer, not to di\"ulge their 
,,'ickedness; but He brings fOl"\vard an answer; it \yas His 
object to do good to the sinners, not to proclailn their sin. 
I]e does 110t ans\ver then1 out of the Scriptures, because 
they ,yould not hearken to HÍ1n as they explained then1 
differently, but He refutes theln froln COn1I110n opinions. 
For assaults froIH ,vithout are not so destructi,'e as quarrels 
\vithin; and this is so in bodies and in all other things. 
But in the lnean ,vhile He dra,,'s instance
 froI11 Inatters 
nlore kuown, saying, Et'ery kingdolll dÜ"Ùled against itself 
shall be brought to desolation; for there is nothing on 
earth more po,verful than a kingdolll, and yet that is de- 
stroyed by contention. 'Vhat then must \ve say concerning 
a city or a fan1Ïly; that \vhether it be great or slual1, it is 
destroyed \vhen it is at discord \vithin itself. HILARY; 
For a city or fan1Ïly is analogous to a kingdom; as it fol- 
lo\vs, And erery city or house di1.'ided against itself sl,all 
... , 
not stand. J ERO:\IE; For as snlaH things gro,v by concord, 



\'En, 2:>, 
(). 



 1\ 'L\TTHE\V. 


J-H) 



o the grcate
t tall tu picces through (liSSCllSiollS. lhLATIv; 
J3ut the ,yord of God i
 rich, and \vhether taken sÏ1nply, 
or exan1Íned ill\\"ardly, it i
 needful for UHr ad\'ancelnent. 
Lea\.ing therefore \\"hat belongs to the plain understanding 
thereof, let us (h\"ell on SOUJf' of the more secret reasons. 
The Lord is about to Inake answer to that ,,'hich they 
had said concerning Beelzebub, and II e casts upon those 
to \VhOln He llIade answer a condition of their ans\yering. 
Thus; The l
aw was fr0111 God and the pronlis
 of the 
kingdom to Israel w'as by the La\v; but if the kingdom 
of the La\\" be divided in itself, it lnust needs be de- 
stroyed; and thus Israel lost the Law', when the nation 
".hose ".as the Law, rejected the fulfihnent of the La\'. 
in Christ. The city here spoken of is J erusaleln, \vhich 
\vhen it ragel1 "itb the ll1adlless of its people against the 
Lord, and dro\'e out IIis Apostles with the ulultitude uf 
thelu that believed, after this division shall not stand; alid 
tbu
 (which soon happ{'ned in cOlJsequence of this di\'ision) 
the destruf'tion of that city is declared. Again lIe puts 
another case, ...llld if Satan cast Ollt 

'a'an, he is dil:ided 
against ltÙ/lself; liOU" '!ten sltallltis kin,fjdoJll staud ( JER01IE; 
As HIuch as to say, If Satan lìgh t against hilllself, and dæmon 
be an enemy to dælnon, then nlust th e end of the ,yorld be 
at hand, that these hostile po\vers should ha,'e no place there, 
whose 11lutual ,,"ar is peace for IneH. G LOS
. lIe holds then1 Gloss. 
1 l'. . I . ] . 1 C . d ord 
t lerelore In t liS (I enl1na. For hnst casts out æUlons . 
either by the po\ver of God, or hy the Prince of the dælnons. 
If by the po\ver of God, their accusations are Inaliciolls; if 
by the Prince of the dænlons, his kingdoll1 is di\'ided
 and will 
not stand, and therefore let them depart out of his kingdolu. 
And this alternati\.e IT e intilnatcs that tl}('y had chosen for 
thelnseh.es, ,,'hen they refused to bclie,.e in lliln. CHRYS. 
Or thus; If he is dÏ\.ided, he is nlade ,veak, and perishes; 
but if he l)erishes, ho\v can he cast out another? IIIL\RY; 
Otherwise; If the dæmon \\'as drÏ\-en to this division to the 
end that he should thus afflict the dælllon
, even thus must 
,ve attribute higher po\\.er to Iliul ,,'ho Blade the di,.isioll 
than to those \\.ho are thus di\"idcd; thus the killgclolll of 
the Devil, after this division made, is destroyed by Christ. 
.JEROME; But if ye think, ye Scribec; and Pharisees, that the 
vor... I. 2 G 



450 


tJOSl'EL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII, 


dæmons depart out of the possessed in obedience to their 
Prince, that men may be imposed upon by a concerted 
fraud, \vhat can ye say to the healing of diseases which the 
Lord also "Tought? It is something Illore if ye assign to the 
dæmons even bodily infinl1ities, and the signs of spiritual 
virtues. 


27. And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by 
whom do your children cast them out? therefore 
they shall be your judges. 
28. But if I cast out devi]s by the Spirit of God, 
then the kingdom of God is come unto you. 


CHRYS. After the first ans\Yer, He comes to a second more 
plain than the first, saying, And if I by Beelzebub cast out 
dærnol1s, b,1j 'U'},OJ}l do your sons cast t!tern Ollt? Tllerl!.fore 
sltall ihe.lJ be YO'llr ju(l.qes. ,J EROl\IE; lIe alludes, as is His 
manner, under the nan1e children of the J e\VS, either to the 
exorcists of that race, or to the ,Apostles \vho are by race of 
that nation. If I-le n1eans the exorcists \vho by the inyo- 
cation of (.Tod cast out dæmons, He thus constrains the 
Pharisees by a \yise enquiry to confess that their \vork was 
of the IIoly Spirit. If, He \you1c1 say, the casting out of 
the dælnons by your children is Í1nputed to God, and not 
to dæuJons, ,,,hy should the sallJe \vork ,,-rought by l\Ie not 
have the saIne cause? Tlterçfòre shall t!ley be ;ljour judges, 
not by authority but by comparison; they ascribe the casting 
out of the dæmons to God, you to the Prince of the dæmons. 
But if it is of the Apostles also that this is said, (and so \ve 
should rather take it,) then they shall be their judges, for they 
shall sit on t,,'ehre thrones judging the t\vehre tribes of 
IsraeL IIILARY; And they are worthily appointed judges 
over theIn, to \VhOlll Christ is found to ha\re gi \"en that po\ver 
over the dæmons, \vhich it \vas denied that lIe had. RABAN. 
Or, because the A.postles \Ven kne\v \vithin their o\\"n con- 
science that th
y had learnt 110 evil art frOIn Him. CHRYS. 
Yet He said not, My disciples, or ...t\..postles, but YOU1. 
children,. that if they chose to return again to their o\vn 
privileges, they might take occasion hence; but if they 
honJd 



\ J-. TI. -27, '2
, 



T. MATTJI T:\\.. 


4.; I 


be ungrateful, they Blight 110t have c\'cn an impudent excuse.. 
.A.nd the ..\.postlcs cast out dæolons by ,"irtue of power ".hich 
they had frOIn IIi}}), and yet the Pharisees Iuadc no such 
charge against then1; for it \vas not the actions thelnselves, 
hut the person of Christ to which the) \\Tere opposed. 
Desiring then to 
he\\r that the things which \\'ere said 
against IIiln \ycre only jealous suspicions, Ife brings for\\"ard 
the Apostles. 
\.nd also lIe leads thC111 to a kno\"leòge of 
IIbnsclf, shewing ho\v they stood in the \vay of their o\\'n 
good, and resisted thcir OW11 bah"ation; \vhereas they ought 
to be joyful ùecause lIe had conle to besto\v great goods 
upon theu1; I}' I óy i Ill' Spirit oj" God cast out dæ/nolls, 
illen Ù; the kingdo111 (if God cOlne ujJon you. This also 
she\vs that it is a Inatter of great po\\'er to cast out dæmons, 
and not an ordinary grace. And thus it is lIe reasons, 
There/òre is the kingdol/l (if God C01lle upon you, as much as 
to say, If this indeed ùe so, then is the Son of God come 
- upon you, nut this lIe hints darkly, that it Inay not Seelll 
hard to then). .AJ
o to draw their attention, He said not 
merely, TILe killydonl Itallt COlne, but, upon YOll,. that is 
to say, The
e good things arc conling for you; ,,"hy do you 
oppo
e ,,"our on-n 
al\'atioll; for this is the yery sign gi\-en 
by the Prophets of the presence of the Son of God, that 
such \yorks as the
c should be wrought by Di\.ine power. 
JEROME; For the kingdon1 of God denotes IIin1self, of \\-hOl11 
it is "Titten in another place, Tlte kingd0111 q( Cod is flJJlOllg Lukel7, 
YOII; and, There .
fandeth one in the 1nidst '?l you lL'hol/l ye 2 f l , ' 1 

 0 In J. 
know /lot.. Or surely that kingdolll ".hich both John and :Z6. 
the Lord IIim
clf had preached above, Repent ye, 
f()r tile )lat. 3, 
ki1lgdoJ/i f!.f lteare// ',
" at lland. There is also a third '2, 4, 17. 
kingdom of the l-Ioly Scripture '\yhich shall be taken frolll 
the J e\\"s, and be gi,'en to a nation that brings forth the fruit 
thereof. HILARY; If then the disciples ,vork by Christ, 
and Christ by the Spirit of God, already is the kingdonl of 
God transfelTcd to the A postlef' through the office of the 
1\1ediator, C;LOSS. For the \veakening of the kingdoln ofOlos5. 
the Ðe,-il is the increase of the king-dolu of God. A UG. 
p ] , An. 
'-' 
e rn. 
'Yhence the s
ns
 nlight be this, /f 1 óy Bl:elzeóub cast out Aug, 
d h 1 . -. 1 l' d Quæ
t. 
æ1J10llS, ten, accor( Ing to ,your own opnnon, t'le 1t"111l1 011l Ev. i, 5
 
f'!f God is COlnr upon J/Oll, for the kingdom of the Ðc\-i1, being 
2G-2 



452 


(;OSI'EL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


thus divided against itself, cannot stand. Thus calling that 
the kingdom of God, in \vhich the \vicked are condelnned, 
and are separated fron1 the faithful, ,vho are no\v doing 
penitence for their sins. 


29. Or else how can one enter into a strong man's 
house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the 
strong man? and then he will spoil his house. 


CHRYS. Having concluded the second ans\\?er, He brings 
for\yard yet a third, saying, 0'1' /tOlO can allY enter into a 
st'1"ong '1nan's house? :For that Satan cannot cast out Satan 
is clear fron1 ,vhat has been said; and that no other can cast 
him out, till he have first o\?ercome hin}, is plain to al1. 
Thus the saIne as before is established yet more abundantly; 
for He says, So far an1 I fron1 having the Devil for my ally, 
that I rather am at ,var ",ith him, and bind hinl; and in that 
I cast out after this sort, I therein spoil his goods. Thus 
fIe proves the very contrary of that they stro"e to establish. 
They \vould she\v that He did not cast out dæmons of His 
o\vn po\yer; He proves that not only dæmons, yea but tl1e 
prince also of the dæmons He hath bound, as is shewn br 
that which He hath wrought. For if their Prince \\.ere not 
overCOlne, ho". lvere the dæmons \vho are His subjects thus 
spoiled. This s})eech seems also to me to be a prophecy; 
inasmuch as He not only casts out dæl11ons, but ,,,ill take 
away all error out of the \vorld, and dissolve the craft of the 
Devil; and He says not rob, but spoil, she'\ving that lIe \vill 
do it 'with po\ver. J EROl\IE; His house is this \vorId, \vhich 
is set in evil, not by t
 majesty of the Creator, but by the 
greatness of the sinner. The strong n1an is bound and 
chained in tartarus, bruised by the Lord's foot. r-et ought 
we not therefore to be careless; for here the conqueror Hiln- 
self pronounces our adversary to be st'1"ong. CHRYS. He 
calls him stron,q, she\ving therein his old reign, which arose 
Aug. out of our sloth. AUG. F'or he held us, that \\Te should 110t 
ubi sup, by our o\vn strength be able to free ourselves from hÎln, but 
by the grace of God. By liÏ8 gOOd8, he n1eans all the un- 
helievers. He has bound the strong man, in that He ha
 



YEn. :30. 


ST. l\1:\.TTIl.K\\. 


45:1 


taken 
t\vay froBl hÏ1n all pu,\, er of hindering the 1aithful fro111 
following Christ, and gaiuing tho 1.ingdoBl of hca\'cn. 
It\ll.\ N. Therefore lIe has spoiled his house, ill that theln 
'VhOlll lIe foresa\\9 f;honld be 11is own, lIe set free frotH the 
snares of the De,'il, and has joined to the Church. Or in that 
lIe has di\'ided the" hole" orld among l-lis Apostles and their 
successors to be con\"crted. By this plain parable therefore 
lIe she"'s that lIe docs not join in a deceitful \\90rking \\9ith 
the dæluons as they fal
ely accuseù IIil}), but by the lnight 
of I lis di\'inity lIe ii.ees lnen fronl the dælllons. 


30. He that is not \vith Ine is against lIIe; and he 
that gathereth not \vith 111C scattereth abroad. 


CHRYS. After that third reply, here follo"9s a fourth, He 
Ihal Ùs 'Ilot 'll'itlt 'Ine is agnÏlud JJle. HILARY; "Therein He 
shc\ys ho" far lIe is from having borrow"ed any pO\\ger frolu 
the Ðe\'il; teaching us how great the òanger to think an1Ïss 
of Ifin1, not to be \vith 'Vholn, is the same as to be against 
lIinl. JERO)IE; nut let non
 think that this i
 8aid of 
heretics and schisluatics; though ''lye may apply it besides 
to such; but it is she,,-n by the context to refer to the Deyil; 
in that the works of the Sa\-iour cannot be cOlnpared \,"ith 
the \yorks of Beelzebub. lIe seeks to }lold luen's souls 
in capti\'ity, the I..ord to set then1 free; he preaches iòols, 
the Lord the kno,,'ledge of the true God; he dra\vs Iuen to 
sin, the Lord calls them back to virtues. IIo\\' then can 
tl1e
e have agreenlellt together, ,,,hose ,yorks are so opposite? 
C Hla-s. 'I'herefore ,,,hoso gathercth not ,,,ith lue, nor is \,'ith 
Ine, 1I1ay not be cornpared together ,yith TIle, that \vith lne he 
should cast out (h(\IDOnS, but rather seeks to scatter ,vhat is 
nlÍne. Uut tell Ine; If you were to have fought together 
.with souU' one, and he should not be ,vil1ing to COllle to 
your aid, is he not therefore against you? 1.'he Lorù a]80 
IIinv
elf said in another place, He thai is flOt a!laÏ1n
t gOlt is Luke 9, 
for yuu. To which that \"hich is here said is not contrary. 50. 
Ii'or here lie is speaking of the IJe,'il ,,-ho is our ad,'ersary- 
there of SOlne Inan ,,-ho \,as on their side, of ,,,hotn it is 
said, Ir e .wnl" our ('([slil'!1 out dæ/JloJis in illy lUI1J1C. 11('re 
fIe 
('l'nlS to allude to the Jews, classing theln with the 



t54 


(
OSl'El. ACCORDING TO 


ClIAP. XII. 


Devil; for they \\'ere against Him, and scattered \vhat He 
,voldd gather. But it is fair to allo"r that I-Ie spoke this of 
1] imself; for [-le was against the De\'il, and scattered abroad 
the things of the Devil. 


31. 'Vherefore I say unto you., All manner of sin 
and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto nlen: but the 
blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be for- 
given unto 11len. 
32. And \vhosoever speaketh a word against the 
Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but \vhosoever 
speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it sha]] not be 
forgiven him, neither in this ,vorld, neither in the 
,vorld to COlne. 


CHHYS, 1'he Lord had refuted the Pharisees by explaining 
II is own actions, and lIe no\V proceeds to terrify them. 
For this is no s111al1 part of correction, to threaten punish- 
Inent, as ,yell as to set right false accusation. IfILARY; 
lIe conden1ns by a most rigorous sentence this opinion of 
the Pharisees, and of such as thought \vith then), pronlÎsing 
pardon for aU sins, but refusing it to blasphelny against the 
Spirit; TVherq./'ore I say U1Ito you, All Ulallner 0./' sin and 
bla.'?phenzy shall be /o1.giren unto 1JleJl. REl\IIG. But it 
should be k110\Vn that they are not forgi\"en to all men 
uni\'crsally, but to such only as haye perfonncd due peni- 
tence for their guiltinesses. So by these \yords is O\Ter.. 
thrown the error of K ovatian, \\'ho said that tbe faithful 
could not rise by penitence after a fall, nor 111erit pardon of 
Aug. their sins, especially they ,,'ho in persecution denied ". AUG. 
Senn. 
7 For what difference does it Blake to the P ur p ose , ,vhether it 
I. 13. 
be said, The .f\pirit if blflsphenzy shall }lot be .forgiren, or, 
Luke 12, 1Vltoso shall blaspltenle against the l-l01.'/ Spirit it shall not 
10. be fU1"!Jil o en hÙIl, as Luke speaks; except that the saIne sense 


b N ovatian) a presbyter of Rome, com;idered the Church in a state of 

eparated from the Church in the corruption, and they were led to main- 
middle of the third century, and formt:,d tain that none WefP in God's favour 
a sect, on the ground of the Churcl)'s who harl 8inned grievously after Rap- 
restoring the lapserl in persecution upon ti8m, - 
their repentance, In consequence the
" 



VEU. 31, 3
. 


ST. :\L\TTHL\\. 


J55 


is expressed 1l10re clearly in the one place than in the otLer, 
the one E ,.angclist not o\rcrthrowing but eXplaining the 
other? TI,e spiril f?l blaspll(!JJlY it is 
aid 
hortIy, not ex- 
pressing what 
pirit; to Inake ,,'hich clear it is added, 
.1/1d U"l,oso shall speal.; a Irol'd agaiJlst I he li;oJl oj' man, 
it slutll be ./òr!JÙ'eu hiUt. After having I"aid the :'\aUle of all 
Inanner of LlasphcnlY, lIe \vould in a nlorc particular \yay 

pcak of that blasphclll)' \vhich is against the Son of )Ian, 
and which in the Gospel according to John lIe shews to 
be yery hea\.y, ,\"hC1"C lIe bays concerning the lIoly Ghost, 
He shall cOll1:i/lce the u'orld Q/ sin, of r(qhteo1l8JleSS, (111ll qf' 
jlldglltent; qf sin, because t!ley f}{:liere not Oil 'Iue. That then 
\v hich here fo]]o"rs, lIe 1l ho shall speak (l 'Icord ll!Jainst / he 
Hol!! Ghost, it sl,all 1I0t úe .forgÙ'en ltÙJl, neil/,el" ill this 
'll'orld, 1101' ill t!tat 'Ic/ticlt is /0 come, is 110t 
aid because 
the IIo]y Spirit is in the 1'rinity greater than the Son, 
,,,hich no heretic eyer affirmed. IIILARY; _\.nd ".hat is 
so bcyond an pardon as to deny that in Christ "rhich is 
of God, and to take a""ay the substance of the Father's 
Spirit ,,,hieh is in IIiln; seeing that lIe perforn)s e\rery ,"ork 
in the Spirit of God, and in IIilu God is reconciling the 
world unto IIilnself. J EltOl\IE; Or the pa
3age lnay be 
thus unùerstood; "Tho
o speaks a \vord against the Son of 

Ian, as sttunblillg at )ly flesh, and thinking of 
Ie as no 
Inore thall man, such opinion and hlasphe1l1)' though it is not 
free frolH the sin of heresy, yet fInds pardon becaus
 of the 
little ".orth of the hody. But whoso plainly pcrcei,-ing the 
'VOrIiS of Gorl, and being unable to deny the power of 
God, speaks falsely against thel11 prolnpted by jealousy, 
and ca]]s Christ who is the ,V ord of God, and t1)e worlis of the 
IIoly Ghost, Beelzebub, to hiln it shaH not be forgi\ren, 
neither in this \vorld, nor in the \vorld to cOlne. ACG. But Aug. 
if this "-ere' said in such luanner, then e\"ery other kiud of ubi sup. 
blasphelny is oillitted, and that only which is spoken against 
the Son of 
lan, as when lIe is pronounced to be mere luan, 
is to !te forgi,ren. rrhat then that is 
aid, All JJUlJlne/" qt'sill 
and blasphemy .
hall be ..furgÙ-ell UlltO II/en, without doubt 
blasphclny spoken against the Father i
 included in its 
largeness; though here again that aloue is declart:d irre- 
missible "rhich is spolen agaiu
t the IIoly Ghost. 'Vhat 



45H 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


then, hath the Father also taken upon Hiln the fornl of a 
servant, that the Holy Ghost is thus as it \vere spoken of 
as greater? For who could not be convicted of having 
spoken a \\
ord against the Holy Spirit, before He become 
a Christian or a Catholic? First, the Pagans themselves 
,,'hen they say that Christ "Tought miracles by magic arts, 
are they not like those who said that He cast out dæmons 
01 
by the Prince of the dælnons? Like,,-ise the J e\ys and all 
such heretics as confess the Holy Spirit, but deny that He is 
in the body of Christ, ,yhich is the Church Catholic, are like 
the Pharisees, who denied that the Holy Spirit \vas in Christ. 
80111e heretics e\'en contend that the Holy Spirit Hilnself is 
either a creature, as the Arians, Eunomians, and :\Iacedo- 
nians, or deny Hi!ll at least in such sort that they Inay deny 
the Trinity in the C;odhead; others assert that the Father 
alone is God, and the saIne is sometÏ1nes spoken of as the 
Son, s01l1etitneS as the I-Ioly Spirit, as the' Sabellians. The 
Photinians also say, that the Father only is God, and that 
the Son is nothing n10re than a luan, and deny altogether 
that there is any third Person, the IIoly Spirit. It is clear 
then that the Jloly Spirit is blasphelned, "both by Pagans, 
J en-s, and heretics. Are aU 8uch then to be left out, and 
looked upon as haying no hope? For if the ,vord they have 
spoken against the Holy Spirit is not forgiven theIn, then in 
vain is the pro111ise made to them, that in Baptisln or in the 
Church. they should receiye the forgiveness of their sins. 
For it is not said, , It shall not be forgiyen him in Baptisnl ;' 
but, l'Teitller in this lcorld, nor in f he 'll'orld to COlne; and so 
they alone are to be supposed clear of the guilt of this most 
hea\"y sin who haye been Catholics frolD their infancy. Some 
again think that they only sin against the Holy Ghost, ,vho 
haying been ,vashed in the laver of regeneration in the 
Church, do after\vards, as tho
gh ungrateful for such a gift of 
the Saviour, plunge themselves into SOIne deadly sin, such 
as al1ultery, Inllrder, or quitting the Christian name, or the 
Church Catholic. But ,,'hence this Ineaning can be proved, 
I kno'v not; since place for penitence of sins ho,,'e\
er great 
,vas l1e\-er denied in the Church, and even heretics are 
2 Tim. exhorted to elllbrace it by the Apostle. If God peradventure 
2,25. will gire tlteJll repentance to 'he acknolt'ledging ql tIle tl.lltlt. 



V'Ell. :31, 37l. 


ST. '[ATTHE'V. 


.57 


Iú\stly, the 1.on1 says not, , If any Catholic bclicver,' but, 
, f/ Ito,so shall speal.; a 'll"vrd, that is, whosocver, it slutlZ /lot be 
j'or!Jil"cn /, il1l lIett/If!/" in I" is "ù"fJl'Zd, Ilor ill t!te u'orld tv C(jlne. 
I H. ()therwise; The \ postle John 
ay
, TI,ere i,
 a sill uuto Aug. 
tl 'at"; 1 do 1lot srr,y llull Ite shall pray .lor it. J:'his sin of
ne
;
nt. 
th
 hrother unto death I judge to he, ,vhen anyone having I. 22. 
] John 
COlne to the knowledge of God, through the grace of our 5, 16. 
T lord Jesus Christ, opposes IIilnself against the brotherhood, 
or i
 rouseò. hy the fury of jealou
y against that grace by 
which he ,,'as reconciled to God. Thc stain of this sin is so 
grcat, that it 111ay not :,ulHnit to the hlunility of prayer, e,'en 
,,-hen thc sinful conscience is driven to acknowledge and 
proclailn its own sin. \Yhich state of mind because of the 
greatness of their :--in ".e 111Ust suppose SOU1C 111ay be brought 
to; and thi
 perhaps 111ay be to sin against the lloly Ghost, 
that is through malice and jealousy to assail brotherly charity 
after having received tbe grace of the II oly 
pirit; and this 
sin the Lord declares shall be forgi\'el1 neither in this ,vorld, 
nor in tI1aL to COlllC. 'Yhence it ßlay be enquired \vhether 
thc J e\\'s sinned this sill against the Iloly Ghost ,,-hen they 
said that the Lord cast out dæmons hy Beelzebub the Prince 
of the dæulons. Are ".C to 
uppose this spoken of our Lord 
IIiuIself, because lIe said in another place, Ij. tbey !tare :\Iat,lu, 
cnllell Ilu' 1/lasler Qf t lie llollse l1celzébub, bou' 111 licIt J/lore 24. 
tl,'y Oj
 his household? Seeing they tInls spoke out of 
jealousy, ungrateful tor so great prescnt benefits, are they, 
though Hot Christians, to be supposed by the ,'ery greatness 
of that jealous)" to ha,.e siuned the sin against the IToly 
Spirit? rrhis cannot ùe gathered fronl the Lord's \vords. 
\ ct lIc may seelU to ha,-e warned theul that they should 
COlne to grace, and that after that grace recei,'ed they should 
not sin as they no,Y 
inncd. For no\v their e\"il "-vrd had 
been spokcu against the Son of 
Ii.lll, bllt it 111Îght be forgi,'en 
theIn, if they 
ho111d bc con\-erted, and belie, e on Ifilll. But 
if after thC'y had recei,-cd the I [oly Spirit, they should be 
jcalous against the brotherhood, and should fight against 
that grace which they l1ad received, it 
hOllld 1Iot bc forgiven 
tlU'11l neither ill tbis \\"()rld, nor in the ,\"odd to COIllC. For 
if Ill' had therc condeulllcd then1 in such sort that no hope 
reluaincd for thc..n, IT c \vonld not ha, e added all adlnonition, 



458 


GOSPEL ACCORDI'\G TO 


CHAP. XII. 


Aug. Eitltel" 'lnake the tree good, 
.c. ID. But T do not affirn1 this 
Retract. r. . b . h I 1 . k h h h 
i. 19. Jor certaIn, y saYIng t at t 11n t us; yet t us liUC 
Inight ha\-e been added; If he should close thi
 life in this 
impious hardness of heart, yet since we Inay not utterly 
despair of any hO\\Te\'er eyil, so long as he is in this life, so 
neither is it unreasonable to pray for hilll of ,vhom ,ve do 
Aug. not despair. ID. \
et is this enquiry \Tery nlJsterious. Let 
Serm. 
71.8. us then seek the light of exposition froln the Lord. I say 
unto you, belo\Ted, that in all IIoly Scripture there is not 
perhaps so great or so difficult a question as this. First 
then I request you to note tbat the Lord said not, E\Tery 
blasphemy against the Spirit shaH not be forgi\ren, nor, 
'Vhoso shall speak any \yord against-but, TT7liOSO 8ltall speak 
tlte u:ol"d. "Therefore it is not necessary to think that e\'ery 
blasphemy and every "yoI'd spoken against the Holy Spirit 
shall be ,vithout pardon; it is only necessary that there be 
SOlne \yord which if spoken again
t the Holy Spirit shall be 
,vithout pardon. For such is the 111anner of Scripture, that 
,,,,hen any thing is so declared in it as that it is not declared 
"Thether it is said of the \vhole, or a part, it is not necessary 
that because it can apply to the "Thole, it therefore is not to 
be understood of the part. ..:\.s ,yhen the Lord said to the 
John 15, Je\vs, It'I Itad not COJJle and spoken unto tlleJJl, they had not 
22. had 8iJ;, this does not 11lean that the Jews ,,"ould have been 
altogether ,vithout sin, but that there "yas a sin they "Tould 
not have had, if Christ had not COlne. \l"hat then is this 
manner of spealÜng against the Holy Ghost, COUles no,v to 
be explained. K O\V in the :Father is represented io us the 
Author of all things, in the Son birth, in the Holy Spirit 
comlnunitJ; of the Father and the Son. 'Vhat then is C0I11- 
Inon to the Father and the Son, through that they ".ould ha,ye 
Rom, 5, us ha\'e COlnnlunion anlong oursehres and \,-ith the111; Tlie lore 
5. qf" God is shed aùroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost ,rlâclt 
he hath giren liS, and because by onr sins ,ye \vere alienated 
1 Pet. 4, from the posses
ion of true goods, ('harify shall corer the 
8. 'J/uillilude o.l sins. And for that Christ forgi\yes sins through 
the IIoly Spirit, hence Inay be understood how', \\yhen He 
Jobn20, said to his disciples, Receire ye the Holy Spirit, He sub- 
22. joined straight, fVhosesoecer sins ye.fòrgive, they sholl bejor- 
gi'l'cll theln. 
The first benefit therefore of them that believe 



\"En. 31 3
. 


ST. .M \T fHE" . 


159 


is forgh-eu('ss of ",ius in the 1101y Spirit. Against this gift of 
free grace the Í1flpenitcnt heart speaks; ilnpenitence it
elf 
therefore is the hlasphpluy again
t the 
pirit which shan not 
be forgi,-en, neither in this world, nor in that to COnley For 
iudt>cd he speaks the c,-il "ord against the JIolr Spirit eIther 
in his thought, or ,,"ith hi:, tongue, who by his hard and 
iUIpcnitcnt heart treasures up for hiInself wrath against the 
day of wrath. Such Ï1upenitence truly has no forgiveness, 
neither ill this world nor in the ".orld to conle, for penitence 
obtain50 forgi"cne
s in this ,yorld which shall hold in the ,,'orId 
to cOlne. l3ut that ilnpenitence as long as any li"es in the 
flesh Inay not be judged
 for "'e nlust dr'spair of none so long 
as the patience of Goa leads to }-cpentance. For what if those 
,,'hOll1 you discover in any manner of sin, and condeuul as 
DIOst desperate, should before they close this life betake 
thelnsch-es to penitence, and find true life in lh
 ,vor1d to 
cODle? nut this ]Ünd of blasphelny though it be long, and 
cOlnprised in Inany ,,'ords, yet the Scripture is ".ont to 
speak of Iuan)" words as one ,ronI. It was lllore than a 
single "yord which the Lord spoke ".ith the prophet, and 
yet we read, The ""on1 ,\"hich callIe unto this or that 
prophet. IIcre perhaps S011]e Jl1ay enquire ,,'hether the 
I-Ioly Spirit only forgi\ es sin
, or the Father and the :Son like- 
,,-ise. \\YO e an
wer the Father and the Son likewise; fur the 
Son IIiuIsf'lf saith of the Father, }T ollr Fa/her shall.forgil:e 'lat, 6, 
you YOIl r Sill.
, and lIe saith of IIilnself, TIle ,S'on 0.( JIll n 
:
t, 9 
fLat" power on earLIt Lo Jòrgire sins. "-hy then is that 6. ' 
iUJpenilencc ,vhich is ne"er forgi,"cn, spoken of as blasphelny 
against the lIol
 Spirit only? Foraslnuch as he ,,-ho falls 
undcr this 
in of ilnpcllitence seen1S to resist the gift of the 
Jloly Spirit, ùecause ill that gift is con,'eyed ren1Ïssion of 
sin. But 
in
, hecause they are not rcnÜttcd out of the 
Chun'h, Blust 'Lc ren1itted in that Spirit hy ,,-hich the 
Church is gathered into one. Thus this rCIl1Ïssion of sins 
,,'hich is giyC'n by the whole rrrinity is said to be the 
proper office of the ILoly Spirit alone, for it is lIe, 17le Rom. 8, 
,Spirit C!t' ([clop/ioll, in which we cry, Abba làtlier, so that 15. 
to 11iIll \\ e luay pray, }'or.qi re us Ollr f:ins; .A.1HI lierpby 
floC kIlOU', speak
 John, fhat Chrisl abÙ/(J/h in 1I.f;, hy] John 
Ihe ITn!!1 .'iJ;,-il which Ile hatlt gircli Ullio ll.\'. For to 4, 13. 



460 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


HiIn belongs that hond by ,vhich \ve are Inade one body 
of the only-begotten Son of God; for the I-Ioly Spirit 
Hilnself is in a manner the bond of the Fatller and the Son. 
Whosoe'
er then shall be foun(l guilty of impenitence against 
the Holy Spirit, in \VhOlll the Church is gathered together 
in unity and one bond of communion, it is never remitted 
to hiin. CHRYS. Otherwise according to the first exposition. 
The J e\ys ,vere indeed ignorant of Christ, but of the Holy 
Ghost they had had a sufficient cOlnmunication, for the 
l')rophets spake by IIim. 'Vhat He here saith then is this; 
Be it that ye have shnnbled at l\Ie because of the flesh \vhich 
is around l\ie; but can ye in the saIne lnanner say of the 
Holy Spirit, 'Ve kno,v Hilll not? 'Vherefore this blasphemy 
cannot be forgiyen you, and ye shaH be punished both here 
and hereafter, for since to cast out dæmons and to heal 
diseases are of the Holy Spirit, you do not speal{ evil against 
l\le only, but also against Him; and so your condelnnation 
is ineyitable both here and hereafter. For there are \vho 
are punished in this life only; as they ,vho among the 
Corinthians ,vere unl\-orthy partakers of the mysteries; 
others \\?ho are punished only in the life to COlne, as the rich 
Inan in hell; but those here spoken of are to be punished 
both in this ,vorld, and in t11e \yorId to COIne, as were the 
J e,vs, ,,,ho suffered horrible things in the taking of J erusalenl, 
Gloss. and shall there undergo most heavy punishment. GLOSS. 
ape An- This passage destroys that heresy of Origen, who asserted 


:I
' that after many ages all sinners should obtain pardon; for 
infra in it is here said, this shall not be forgi\ren either in this \\?orld, 
ca p. 25.. d 1 
46, or 111 the \yorl to COine. G REG. Hence \\?e n1ay gat ler 
G D '
e
 I -.' that there are SOllIe sins that are remitted in this \vorld, and 
la . I v. 
39. some in the ,vorld to conIe; for ,,,hat is denied of one sin, 
must be supposed to be achnitterl of others. And this Inay 
be belic\.ed in the case of trifling faults; such as much idle 
discourse, iunnoderate laughter, or the sin of carefiI1ness in 
our \vorldly affairs, \vhich indeed can hardly be managed 
,vithout sin eyen by one \"ho kno\vs ho\y he ought to avoid 
sin; or sins through ignorance (if they be lesser sins) ".hich 
burden us even after death, if they have not been relnitted 
to lIS ,vhile yet in this life. But it should be kno\\-n that 
none ,,,ill there obtain any purgation c\-cn of the least 



\ ER, ;J:j-:J5. 


:ST. l\L\TTJlE\V. 


JO) 



in, but he ,vho by good actions has lneritpd the saIne ill 
this life. 


33. Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; 
or else nutkc the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: 
for the tree is kno\vn by his fruit. 
34. 0 generation of vipers, ho\v can ye, being 
evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of 
the heart the mouth speaketh. 
35. .L\ good man out of the good treasure of the 
heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil n1a1Í 
out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. 


CURYS. After his fonner ans"
ers He here again refutes Chry
. 
them in another manner. This He does not in order to do HOin. 
1 . 1 . II . If. b d .. d x Iii, 
a\vay t leu c HU"ges agaulst nnse, ut eSlnng to alnen 
theIn, saying, 
'il/leJ" 'JJla"-.e lite tree good and Itisjj.uil good, 
or 11loke fliP tree C01"-1'llpi, and his ",fruit corrupt. _\s much 
as to say, :K onc of you has said that it is an evil thing for 
a man to he delivered frOin dælllons. But because they did 
not speak evil of the ,,"orks, but said that it ,,'as the Devil 
that wrought theIll, lIe shews that this charge is contrary to 
the COlll1ll0n sense of things, and human conceptions. _\nd 
to invent such charges can only proceed froin unbounded 
in1plldclJce. JERO)IJ..; Thus lIe holds then1 in a syllogisl1l 
,vhich the Greeks call' Aphycton,' the unavoidable; ,,
hich 
shuts in thp person questioned on both sides, and presses 
hilll with either horn. I
 IT e saith, the Devil be evil, he 
cannot do good works; so that if the ,yorks you see be good, 
it fol1o,vs that the Devil was not the agent thereof. For it 
cannot be that good should COine of evil, or evil of good. 
CURYS. For the discf'rlling of a tree i
 done by its fn1Íts, 
not the fruits hy the tree. ..J tree i.
 l.:nOll'lI by its ",frui/s. 
For though the tree is the cause of tIle fruit, yet the fruit is 
the e\-idence of the tree. nut ye do the "cry contrary, 
having no fault to allege' against the "orks, yo pass a 
"entcncc of e,.il against the tree, saying that I have a 
(lælllon. IhL:\RY; Thus dirlIIe at that pre
ent refute the 



Aug. 
Serm. 
72. I. 


,,-l()
 


GOSPEL ACCORDING '1'0 


CHAP. 
IJ. 


.J e,ys, ,,,ho :sceing Christ's \vorks to be of power Itlore than 
hU111an, ,,"ould not\yithstanding not aHou' the hand of God. 
And at the same time lle con\'icts all future errors of the 
faith, such as that of those \vho taking a\yay frolll the Lord 
I-lis di,"inity, and comn1union of the Father's substance, have 
fallen into di\rers heresies; having their habitation neither 
under the plea of ignorance as the Gentiles, nor yet within 
the kno\\rledge of the truth. He figures Hin1self as a tree set 
in the body, seeing that through the inw'ard fruitfulness of 
His po'\'er sprung forth abundant richness of fruit. rrhere- 
fore either nlust he made a good tree \vith good fruits, or an 
evil tree with evil fruits; not that a good tree is to be Inade 
a bad tree, or the reverse; but that in this Inetaphor \ve Inay 
understand that Christ is either to be left in fruitlessness, or 
to be retained in the fruitfulness of good \-yorks. But to 
hold one's self neuter, to attribute some things to Christ, but 
to deny IJim those things that are highest, to \\Torship IIim 
as God, aHd yet to deny Ilin1 a comn10n substance with the 
Father, is blasphemy against the Spirit. In adn1Ïration of 
His so great ,,"arks you dare not take away the nalne of God, 
yet through nlalevolence of soul you debase His high nature 
by denying His participation of the Father's substance. AUG. 
Or this is an achnonition to ourselves that ,ve should be good 
trees that \ve may be aLle to bring forth good fruit; ltlake 
the tree good, llnd itsJruit good, is a precept of health to \yhich 
obedience is necessary. But what He says, lJIake lhe i'J'ee 
corrupt, and its fruU corrupt, is 110t a command to do, but 
a ,yarning to take heed, spoken against those ,,"ho being evil 
thought that they could speak good things, or have good 
\vorks; this the Lord declares is ilupossible. The luan must 
be c}langed first, that his \VOdiS may be changed; for if the 
man renlains in that ,,,,herein he is evil, he cannot have good 
\vorks; if he ren1ains in that ,,'herein he is good, he cannot 
ha,.e evil ,,,"orks. Christ found us all corrupt trees, but gave 
po"'er to become sons of God to them that belie\'e on His 
name. CHRYS. But as speaking not for Himself but for the 
Holy Spirit, lie accordingly rebukes theIn, saying, Genera- 
tion Qf t'ipers, /tou' can ye being evil speak good things? 
This is both a rebuke of them, and a proof in their own 
characters of those things which had been 
aid. As thongh 



\TIt, 3:}--:j.j, 


T. .\1.\1'1'11 E\\. 


4li:j 


lIe had said, Su JC being corrupt trees cannot bring forth 
good fruit. I do not ,,"oIHl('r then that you thus speak, fur 
you arc ill nourished of ill parentage, and have an c\"il u1Ïnd. 
And obsen'c IIp said not, IJow' can yc hpeak good things, 
seeing ye are a generation of vipers? for these two are not 
connected togcther; but lIe 8aid, HOll' can ye being el:il 
speak good I "ill!)8 
 TIe caBs then1 generatioll qf r;pers, 
because ther lnade boast of their forefathers; ill order 
therefore to cut off this their pride, fIe shuts then1 out of 
the race of Abrahaul, a
signing thelH a parentage corre- 
sponding to their characters. RAll,\
. Or the \\"ords, Gene- 
ration of ripen;, n1ay he taken n
 signifying children, or 
in1Ïtators of the Devil, hecause they had wilfully spoken 
against good ,,"orks, ,,'hich is of the De\-il, and thence 
foUo\\"s, lJut 0./ tI,e abundance o.l tIle I,eart '''e 111011ilt 
spea kef". 'rbat nlan 
peaks out of the abundance of the 
heart \vho is not ignorant with ,,-hat intention his \yords 
are uttered; and to declare his lueaning l110re openly Ire 
adds, .d good 1J1all out '!ll"e good treasure if "is I,eart 
brill.'}"'" .forl" good i ldugs. The trf\asure of the heart is the 
intention of the thoughts, by ,\'hich the Judge judges that 
""ork which is produced, so that sOlnetilnes though the 
outward work that i
 she""11 
eenl great, yet because of the 
carelessness of a cold heart, they recei'"e a little re\vard from 
the Lord. Cnuys. Ilerein also He 
he"-s II is Godhead as 
knowing the hidden thiugs of the heart; for not for ,,"ords 
only, yea. but for e\'il thoughts also they shall recei\"e 
punishment. For it is the order of nature that the store 
of the wickedness whicb abounds \vithin should be poured 
forth in ,,"ords through the nlonth. Thus when you shall 
hear any speaking c\"il, you Blust iufer that his wickedness 
is 1l10re than ,,-hat his ,,-ords express; for what is uttered 
,\-ithout is but the o,-erflowing of that within; ,....hich ,,-as 
a sharp reuuke to then1. For if that "" hich ,"as 
pokell b} 
them ""ere so e\"il, consider ho". evil Inu
t be the root froln 
whencp it sprung. Aud this happens naturally; for oftf\n- 
tilues the hesitating tongue does not 
uddenlr ponr forth all 
its evil, \\ bile the heart, to which none other is privy, begets 
whatsoever eyil it will, ,,'ithout fear; for it has little fear of 
God. Hut wh
n the lnnltiturlf' of the e\'il
 which arc 'within 



. 


-164 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


GlIAl'. XII. 


is increased, the things \yhich had been hidden then burst 
forth through the mouth. This is that lIe sars, Out of tile 
abundance of tile lleart tIle 1Jlouth speaketh. JEROME; 
"That lIe says, Tile good 1Jlall out o.l tlte good treasure of 
Ilis Ileart, 

c. is either pointed against the Je\vs, that seeing 
they blaspheuled God, \"hat treasure in their heart must that 
be out of \vhich such blasphenlY proceeded; or it is con- 
nected \vith what had gone before, that like as a good mall 
cannot bring forth e\'il things, nor an evil man good things, 
so Christ cannot do evil \yorks, nor the Ðe\'il good ,,'orks. 


36. But I say unto you, That every idle word that 
tnen shall speak, they shall give account thereof in 
the day of judgment. 
37. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and 
by thy \vords thou shalt be condemned. 


CHRYS. The Lord follo\ys up \yhat He had said before by 
llloving their fears, she\ying that they that have thus sinned 
shall receive the most extreme punishlnent, I say unto you, 
that ere1'g idle u'ord that 'lnen shall speol', tlley sllaU gÙ'e an 
account thereof -in tile day qf judgrneut. J EROl\IE; And the 
meaning is; If e\Tery idle \\Tord \vhich does not edify the 
hearers is not without danger to hinl that speaks it, and if 
each man shall render an account of his \yords in the day of 
judgment, how much III ore shall you, \yho have spokelÎ 
falsely against the \vorks of the Holy Spirit, saying that I 
cast out dænlons through Beelzebub, render an account of 
your false charge? CHRYS. He said not ' \\.hich ye have 
spoken,' but makes His teaching of universal application 
to the "Thole race of mankind, and at the same time His 
,yords less grievous to them that heard them. By an idle 
'U'o1.d is lneant one that is false, that accuses any falsely. 
S0111e indeed say that it includes all light talk, all such as 
stirs iUl1110derate laughter, or shall1eful and immodest ".ords. 
Greg., GREG. Or such as lacks either rightness in itself, or reasons 
Horn. In f . . J b . k . h I fi 
Ev. vi. 0 Just necessIty; EROl\IE; elng spo 
en \vlt out t 1e pro t 
of either the speaker or hearer; as if laying aside weighty 
111atters ,,'e should speak of frivolous trifle:", or relate old 



VEn, 3t;-4o. 


ST. 
I \TTllF"'. 


4 ().) 


filbles. For II(' that cleal
 it) hllfl'oon je
ts to crcate laughter, 
or hrings forth any thing sh:l1neful, h.., will Le h('ld guilty 
not of an idle, but of a sinful \,"ord. ItE)[Hì. The ,,'orels 
wllieh here follo\Y (lepL'nd on those that w'cnt before; 11,'1 llt ,Ij 
ll'ord.
 t!lnll ,f\!ta!t lw jll...diji(Jd, aud by t!ly u.ords 'boil .
'!tnlt 
he <<:ondelllll Jd. Therc is no doubt but that (','cry luan shan 
hc condeulned for hi
 e\.il ,vords ,,'hich he speaks; but nonc 
shall be justificd for his good words, unless tlley proceed 
fronl his inll10st heart, and frOln a entire purpose. CHRY
. 
Sc(' that this sentence is not a Ll1rdensolne onc. The Judge 
"'ill pass sentencc not according to what any other has :-:ai(} 
concerning yon, but according to \vhat you ha"e )'ourself 
spoken. They that arc accused then havc no need to fear, 
Lut thcy that accuse'; for those arc not charged of tho:-.c e,.il 
things that ha"c Leen spoken of theIn, but these of those cyil 
things that thc) ha "Ü spoken. 


38. Then certain of the Scribes and of the Phari- 
sees ans,,'ered, saying, 
Iaster, \ve ,vould see a sign 
from thee. 
3D. But he ans,vered and said unto them, An evil 
and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and 
there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the 
prophet Jonas: 
40. For as Jonas \vas three days and three nights 
in the ,,"hale's belly: so shall the Son of man be three 
days and three nights in the heart of the earth. 


CURYS. ßccause the I
ord had so oft repressed the 
hanle- C'hrys. 
lc:-,s tongue of the Pharisees by IIis sayings, they now turn to 
I

l. 
} Jis works, ,,"hercat thc E,'ange1ist \yondcriug, 
a'y
, Then 
certai" 0/" tlte ScrilJes and j>!tarisees llJl'''''Il"l)/'ed, say;"y, 
..llloiler, Ire ICOltiel see It 
igJl qf t nee; i\nd that at a tilne ,,'hcl) 
they 
houhl havc been IHo,"c{l, whCl) they should han o 
wondered, and Lecn dUlllb ,,"ith astonislnllcnt; )'et C'.Cll at 
such tiInc they dc:--ist not from their malicc. For they say, 
rf e u.'olild see (f si!J1I l!. . t bee, that thc)' IHay take IIin1 ab in 
a snarc. J EHO)I E; 1'hey require a sign of IliIn, as though 
VOL. I. 2 II 




 


466 


GOSPEL A(,(,ORDI
O TO 


CHAP. XII. 


\vhat they hac} seen \vere not signs; and in another Evangelist 
what they required is more ful1y expressed, 1T T e would .f)ee f!f 
thee a sign j
roJJl hearen. Either they \vould have fire from 
heaven as Elias did; or after the example of Samuel they 
\\Tould that in sumlner-time, contrary to the nature of the 
clinlate, thunder should be heard, lightnings gleam, and 
rain descend; as though they could not have spoken falsely 
even against such Iniracles, and said that they befel by 
reason of divers hidden Inotions in the air. For if thou 
cavil1est against \vhat thou not only beholdest \\lith thine eyes, 
but feelest lvith thine hand, and reapest the benefit of, \vhat 
wilt thou do in t110se things which COl1le do\yn from heaven. 
You Inight make ans
7er, that in Egypt the Inagi also had 
given Inany signs fron1 heaven. CHRYS. But their ,yords 
are full of hypocrisy and irony. But no\\r they "Tere railing 
against Hin), saying that He had a dælnon; no\y they fawn 
upon Hin1, calling IIirn, lVlaster. \Vherefore the Lord 
rebukes them severely; He ans/.l:e1 o ed and said unto t/zeJn, 
An evil (lud adulterolls generalion see,,"
efh q(fer a s(qn. 
'Vhen they railed on Hin1, He had ans\vered theln lnildly; 
no\v they approached Him with Slllooth and deceitful \yords, 
He rebulíes theln sharply; she\ying that He \vas above 
either affection, and "Tas neither Inoved to anger by evil 
speaking, nor \yas to be gained by flattery. 'Vhat He says 
is this; 'Vhat \vonder that ye do thus to l\1e \vho am uu- 
kno\vn to you, lvhen JOu have done the saIne to the Father, 
of \Vh0I11 ye have had such large knowledge, in that, de- 
spising Hin1 ye ,vent after dænlons? He calls thelTI an evil 
generation, because they have e\?er been ungrateful to their 
benefactors, and were n1ade lvorse when they recei\7ed 
benefits, '\yhich is the extreme of wickedness. J EROM E ; 
Excellently is that said, and adullel'OllS, seeing she has put 
R\Vay her husband, and, according to Ezekiel, has joined 
herself to many 10\Ters. CHRYS. "\Vhich also proves Him to 
be equal to the Father, if not to belie\7e in Hinl lnal
es theJu 
adulterous. RADAN. Then He begins to ans\ver them, 
giving them a sign not froll1 heaven, \vhich they \vere un- 
worthy to see, but giving it thenl froln the deep beneath. 
But to His o\\"n disciples He gav'e a sign from heaven, to 
Wl10111 II f' sh
,ved the glOlY of Hi
 hlpf'
f'd eternity both in a 



'"ER. 38-40. 


ST. :\L\TTn E\\, 


467 


figure on the Dlount, and after ill ,rcrit.v \vhen lIe \vas taken 
np into hca,pen. "llercfore it 10110\\rs, ...lull there s/tall no 
sign be girel1 ii, bill tlte sigll 0 ' tlu> l)roplu
1 .Tolla,
. CHRYS. 
For the signs lIe wrought \vere not in order to mo\re thcln, 
for II 
 kn,'\v that they ,vere hard a
 stone, but for the profit 
of others. Or hecause they had not recei\ped it \vhen lIe 
had givpn thcn1 a. sign such as they no,,? desired. And a 
sign ,,-as given them, when by thcir 0\\ n punislnnent they 
learned IIis po,vcr. This lIe alludes to when lIe says, .J.Yá 
si.qn shall be .r;il'en it. As Innch as to :-;ay; I have she".n 
you Dlany mercies; yet none of these has brought you to 
honour 1\Iy power, ,,,hich you \vin thc!! kno\v \vhen you 
shall behold your city thro\vn down upon the ground in 
punishment. In the 111ean tilne lIe brings in a saying con- 
cerning the Resurrection 'which they should after understand 
by those things that they should suffer; saying, E.t"cept th(' 
sign qf tlte Prophet Jonas. :For verily His Cross \yould not 
_ha,.e heen believed, unless it had had signs to testify to it. 
Rut if that ',-ere not belie,.cd, truly the Ite
urrection \vould 
not have been bclieved. For this reason also He call
 this a 
sign, and brings for,,-ard a figure thereof, that the verity 
itself 111ay be believed. It fol1o".s, ...1.
 Jonas teas t/tree 
days and three nigh's iu lhe belly 
f the whale. R.\BAN. 
He shews that the J e\vs \vere as critninal as the Kine,-ites, 
and that unless they repented they would be destroyed. 
Out like as pUllislllnent \vas denounced against the Kine\Tites, 
and a.t tlJe satne tirne a ren1edy \"as set before theIn, so 
neither 
h()l1ld the Je\vs despair of pardon, if at least 
after Christ's resun'cction they shoul<l do penitence. For 
.T onas, that is The Do,re, or The mourner, is a sign of 
Hill1 on "'horn the II01y Spirit descended in the fonn of 
a Dove, and ".ho bare nil I" .
oJ'rolCs. The fish "phich Ts,53,4. 
s\vallo,,"cd .Jonas in 1he sea, shews forth the death \vhich 
Christ suffered in the ,,-orIeL Three days and nights "-as 
the one in the ,,-hale's belly, the other in the toulb; the 
one ""as cast up on dry land, the other arose in glory. AUG. .
ug. Dc 
C< k . 1 ". f k . Id Cons. 

Olnc, not -nowing t 1e :O:;cnptnre manner 0 spea -lllg, wou Ev, iii. 
interpret as one night those three hours of darkness ,,-hen 24, 
the sun w'as darkened from the sixth to the ninth hour; and 
a
 a day in like manner thoc;e other three hours in which it WRS 
2H2 



468 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII. 


again l.estored to the \vodd, froln the ninth hour till sunset. 
Then follo\vs the night precedin
 the sabbath, \vhich if 
\ve recl
on \vith its 0\"11 day \ve shaH have thus t,,'o days and 
hvo nights. rrhen after the sabbath fonows the night of 
the sabbath prÏ1ne, that is of tIJe da\vning of the l.4ord's 
day on \yhich the Lord arose. Thus "'e shall only get 1\vo 
nights and t\vo days, ,vith this one night to be added if \ve 
might understand the "Thole of it, and it could not be she,vn 
that that da\vn \vas indeed the latter part of the night. 
So that not even by taking in those six hours, three of 
darl{ness, and three of restored light, can \ve establish the 
cotnputation of three days and three nights. It remains 
therefore that \ve find the explanation in that usual manner 
of Scripture of putting a part for the \vhole. JEROME; Not 
that lIe rell1ained three \vhole days and three nights in 
hell, but that this be understood to itnply a part of the pre- 
})aration clay, and of the Lord's day, and the \vhole sabbath 
Aug,Deday. AUG. For that the three days \vere not three full and 


Iin. iv. entire days, Scripture ,vitnesses; the first day is reckoned 
because the latter end of it COlnes in; and the third day is 
likewise reckoned, because the first part of it is included; 
\vhile the day hehveen, that is the second day, appears in aU 
its twenty-four hours, hvelve of the night and Ì\velve of the 
day. For the succeeding night up to the da\Vll \vhcn the 
Lord's resnn.ection \vas 111ade kno\vn, belongs to the third 
day. For as the first days of creation \vere, because of lnan's 
cOIning fall, COlllputed fronl lllorning to night; so these days 
are because of luan's restoration cOlnputed fr 0 111 night to 
Inorning. CHRYS. He said not openly that [1 e should rise 
again, because they would have derided hiln, but hints it 
distantly that even they lnight believe that He forel{ne\\T it. 
lIe said not in the earth, but in fhe heart qf lite eartlt, 
therein declaring IIis tomb, and that none Inight suspect 
that there \vas only the selublance of death. Therefore 
also lIe spake of three days, that it should be believed that 
lIe \vas dead. But the sign itself proves the truth of it; 
for Jonas "'as in the \vhale's belly not in figure but in deed; 
and surely the sign did not happen in very deed, if the 
thing signified happened only in figure. \Vherefore it is 
Inal1ifest that they are children of the Devil ,vho follo\v 



VEn. 41, 12. 



T. :\IATTIIE'V. 


469 


1\larcion asserting that the pa.:--,sion of Christ \\"as only a 
phantasy. .\nd that II e 
bould sutler for thcII1 also, though 
thcy \yould not profit by it, is shewn by that which lIe 

pcaks, that to this gcncration shuuld be given the sign of 
Jonas the l>rophct. 


41. The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment 
\vith this generation, and shall condenln it: because 
they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, beholò, 
a greater than Jonas is here. 
42. rrhc queen of the south shall rise up in the 
judgnlcnt ,yith this generation, and shall condelnn it : 
for she C
llne frOIH the utterillost parts of the earth to 
hear the ,visdoln of Solomon; and, behold, a greater 
than Sololllon is here. 


CHRYS. 1]lat none should think that the sanIC things 
\\"o1.11d come to pass no\\" among tbe J e\vs, as had of old becn 
ëUllOllg the 
ille\Tite
; that as Jonas converted thClIl and thcir 
city \\Tas (lcli \'crcd out of tlangcr, so th... J e\vs should bc 
convertcd after the resurrection, the Lord uow 
hcws the 
contrary, that they should havc 110 fruit of the henetit of the 
passion, hut should 
uf}cr 1110rCO\ er gl'ie\ ous things, as 
II
 signifies below in the cxau)p]e of the (}ællJOn. Uut no\v 
Ilc first shc\vs what just pUllisllll1Cnt they 
hall 
uffer, 
saying, The 1/lell (
,. .J.'
i/ll'relt sltall ,.Úw ill jUd"fjllll",t willt 
litis rJclIcrulion. ItEi\IIG. l'he Lorù shc\vs in thes(' \\"ords 
that there shan be one resurrection of the goud ana the ])ad 
against certain heretics, who said that ther.e shoulù Lc two, 
one of the good, anothcr of the bad, 'thcse \\'on]s likcwise 
overthro\\ that fable of the J en.s, who use to 
ël.r that the 
l{esurreetion shall be held a thousand ,years bcfore tho 
Judgll1ent; these \vords clcarly proving that the Judg1nenr 
shan cnsue straight upon the Itcsurrcctiou. 
ll1ll shall COIl- 
tI"lIlII it. J EaU)IF.; 
 ot by a scntCllce of .1 udgllH
nt, Lut by 
the cOlllparison of their cxaillplc; a:; lIe adds, }.'or t IIl
Y 1 o e- 
pertlcd aillte preachiu!} OJ.JOlIllS; and, bel/ultl, a greater tl/all 
JV/la.
 is lu:re. 1'his \\ onl ' hie' is to Le taken as an a(h'crh 



470 


GOSiJEL _\'(X'O}{DI
O '1'0 


CHAP. XII, 


Jonah3, of place, not as a pronoun. Jonas (according to the LXX) 
4, 1'1"1 P reached for three da y s , I for this so lon g tÏ1ne , . he to the 
'TeE;; 

fAoÉea'. Assyrians an unbelie\'ing nation, I to God's o\vn 'people 
the J e\vs; he preached with his \'oice only, doing no 
llIiracles, J, doing so Inany \vonders, am falsely accused as 
Beelzehub. CHHYS. \
 et does not the Lord stay here, hut 
adds another denunciation, saying, 1ïle queen oj' tlte south 
shall rise in tlie judglïlent 'willt illi.,; generatioll, and shall 
cOJldeJJlll it,jo'J" she cav
e.f'ro}Jl lhe ends ojllle eartlt 10 hear 
t lte lcÙsdolJl ql 
'0101
/O/l. l'his \yas yet Inore than that first. 
Jonas "Tent to then1; the queen of the south ".aited not for 
8010111011 to conl
 to her, but herself sought him. Both a 
,V0111an and a barbarian, and d\vel1ing so far a".ay, she ,vas 
not afraiù of death in her desire to hear his wise ,,'ords. 'rhis 
\VOlnan \yent to Sololnon, I caIne hither; she rose up ii"OIll 
the ends of the earth, I go round about your to\yns and 
villages; he ::'pake of trees and ,vooel, I of unspeakaùle 
Iflysteries. J E:hOME; SO the queen of the south ,,-in con- 
den1u the J e\Ys in the saIne 111anner as the In en of !\îne,Teh 
\"ill condenln unhe]ic\'ing Israel. This is the queen of 
Saba, of w hOll1 \ve real1 in the book of l{ings and Chronicles, 
\vho leaving her nation and kingdonl caine through so lnany 
difficulties to hear the wisdoln of 8010111on, and brought hiln 
Dlany gifts. AJso in these instances of Killeveh and the 
queen of Saba, tIle faith of the Gentiles is significantly set 
abo\.e that of Israel. RARAN. The Ninevites typi(y those 
who cease froIn sin-the queen those that kno\v not to sin; 
for peniience puts a\vay sin, \\'isdon1 shuns it. REl\llG. 
Beautifully is the Church gathered out of the Gentiles 
spoken of as a queen who 1,no"9s ho\\" to rule her \vays. 
Ps.4S j 9, Of her the Psahuist speaks; The queen stood 011 thy right 
lland. She is the queen of the south because she abouads 
in the fervour of the I-Ioly Spirit. 8010n10n, interpreted 
El,h, 2, 'peaceful,' signifies lIim of ,,'holn it is said, He is our 
1-1- 
peaCf:! . 


-13. "Then the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, 
he \valketh through dry places, seeking rest, and 
findeth none. 



YER. 43-4
. 


SI. MAl'THE\V. 


471 


'14. Then he saith, I ,,"ill return into my house from 
,,-hence I came out; and ,vhen he is caDle, he findeth 
it empty, 
nvcpt, and garnished. 
45. 'fhen gocth he, and taketh ,rith hinlself se,.en 
other spirits more ,vicked than hinlself, and they 
enter in and d,vell there: and the last state of that 
man is ,,-orse than the first. Even so shall it be also 
unto this ,vicked generation. 


CHRiS. 1'he Lord had said to the Je\vs, rite 11len q( 
.J..\Tiuerelt shall rise ill tile judgJnellt u-ith a,is generation, Gild 
shall conde/Jin it; that the)" should not therefore ùe carele
s, 
He tens then1 that not only in the \\'orld to come but 
here also they should sufler grie'Tous things; setting forth 
in a sort of riddle tl1e punishn1ent that should fall upon thcln; 
,,-hence lIe :-;ays, fr hen f he u1Iciean spirit lias gOlle oul oj. a 
II/llll. J FRO:\lE; Son}e suppose that this place is spoken of 
heretics, because the unclean spirit who d\velt in theln before 
when they ""ere Gentiles, is cast out before the confession 
of the true faith; when after they ""ent o,"er to heres.)', and 
garnished their house with fcigned virtues, then it is that the 
IJe,-il, having taken to hin} other se'"en e,il 
pirib, returns 
and dwcl1s in then!; and their last state Lecolnes "-orse than 
their first. ...\nd indecd heretics are in a Innch worse condi- 
tion than the GClltile
; for in the heretics "as a hope of 
fait]), in the Gentiles a "oar of discord. '-et though this 
exposition has a plausibility and a s}le\V of learning, I an1 
doubtful of its truth. For by the concluding \\"onls of this, 
,,-hetheT it be parable or exalnple, 17111S shall il be 10 litis 
eril grlleral ion, we aTe cOlnpelled to rcfer it, not to heretics, 
or to Ulcn in gencral, hut to the J c\\'i
h people, So the 
context of the pass3ge Inay not shift about loosely aud '"aguely, 
and he like unnlcaning 
peeches, Lut lnay be consistent ,,"ith 
ilself fr01l1 first to last. l'he unclean spirit then went out 
from the Jews \\ hen they recei,"cd the La".; Llnd heing cast 
out of the Jews, he \valke(l through the wilderness of the 
Gentiles; as it fo]]o,,"s, lIe Irflll.:l'lll I II rOllgll dr." places seeking 
resl. H.E)lIG. lIe cal1s the heart
 of the l
entiles, dry places, 
as lacking all the n10istllre of wholesoJne ,,-aters, that is of the 



472 


GüSP.EL ACCORDING TO 


eHA!'. XII. 


holy 8criptures, and of spiritual gifts, and strangers to the 
pouring in of the Holy Spirit. !lABAN. Or, the dr.ll places 
are the hearts of the faithful, \vhich after they have been 
purged from the \veakness of loose thoughts, the crafty lier- 
in-\vait tries if by any 11leans he 111ay fix his footsteps there; 
but flying from the chaste spirit, the Devil finds no resting- 
place to his n1Ïnd but in the heart of the .wicked; as it fol1o\vs, 
and .filldeLh nOlle. REl\llG. The Devil supposed he should 
have rest for ever among the G-entiles, but it is added, and 
ji1ldetlt none, because \vhen the Son of God appeared in the 
In.rstery of His incarnation, the Gentiles believed. J EROl\IE ; 
And \vhen they believed on the Lord, the Devil, finding 110 
place alnoDg the nations, said, I will/return 'hilo 'JJl.Y llollse 
'l1./tellce I Ca1Jle oul; I ha'"e the Je\\.s froIll \yhOln I formerly 
departeù. And lclien lie is COlne, he findeih it eJnpl.lf, su.ept, 
and .qarnislled. For the telnple of the J e,,"s was eIllptr, and 
John 14, had not Christ to d,yel1 therein, He having said, Arise, let us 
31. go llence. Seeing then they had not the protection of Angels, 
and ,yere burdened ,yith the useless observances of the La\v, 
and the traditions of the Pharisees, the Devil returns to his 
forl1)cr (hvelling, and, taking to him se,"en other dæmons, 
inhabits it as before. And the last state of that nation is \yorse 
than the first, for they are now' possessed by a larger number 
of dæll10ns in blasphen1ing Jesus Christ in their synagogues, 
than they \\?ere possessed ,vith in Egypt before they had 
knowledge of the La\v; for it is one thing to have no belief 
that He should come, another not to receive Him when He is 
COl1le. A number seven-fold is joined "Tith the DeviJ, either 
because of the sabbath, or fron1 the l1UB1ber of the I-Ioly 
h, ll, 2. Spirit; that as in Isaiah upon the bud ,,,hich COlnes from the 
root of Jesse, se\ren spirits of ,'irtues are related to have 
descended; so on the other hand an equal nUlllber of vices 

houJd he poured forth upon the DeviL Beautifully then are 
se\"ell spirits said to l)e taken to hin), either hecause of the 
breaking of the sabbath, or because of the heinous sins which 
are contrary to the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit. CHRYS. 
Or, herein I Ie lnay be shewing forth thcir puuislnncnt. As 
\"heu dæuloniacs ha\"e bCCH loosed fro 111 their infinnity, if 
they after becollle rClllÍss, they dnl\\r upon thClllSch"es lllore 
gricvous illusions, so 
hall it be alllong you-before yo \vere 



Y.Elt. 13-45. 


ST. 'IATfIIE\\. 


17
J 


possesscd ùy a dælllon, whcn yon ,,"orshipped i{lo]s, aJH} slcn p 
your sons to dæmons; yet I forsook you not, hut cast out 
that dænlon hy the J}ropl1et
, and after\\.arcls canlC :\1 ysc]f 
seeking to purifY JOU altogether. Sincc th(1) Yl' ,,"ou1el not 
hearken to me, but ha\"c fallen into morc heinous crilne, (as it 
is grcater wickednt'ss to slar Christ than to slay the Prophets,) 
therefore yc shan sufter 1l10re heavy calan1Ïties. For ,vhat 
bcfcl thClll under '
espasian and Titus, were Illuch 1110rC 
grievou
 than they had sufIcred in ]
:gypt, in Babylon, and 
nnder A\ntiochus. And this indeed is not all lIe shc\vs con- 
cerning thcn), but also that since thcy \ycrc destitute of every 
virtue, they ,,"ere Juore fit for the habitation of dæluons than 
hcforc. I t is reasonaù]c to suppose that the
l\ things ,,-erc 
said not tn thelll only, hut also to us. If after heing ell1ight- 
cned and deli \"cred froln our fOrIner c\'ils, "pc are again 
POS
('

cd br the saIne ,,"ickedness, thc punisll1uent of thcsc 
latter sius will bc greater than of the first; as Chri
t spake to 
the para1ytic, Behold, illOll al"l JJlac/e whole, siJl 1I0i, lest a John !;, 
'1l'on;e thing cOlne upon thee. nAßA
. For ,,"hen any onc is] 4. 
COll\"crtcd to the faith) the De\"il is cast out of hilll in 13aptislu, 
,,'ho dri\"en thence wauder& up and down through the dry Greg. 
p]accs, that is, thc hearts of the faithful. G REG. The dry places 
Io
:. 3 
XXXIIl, . 
where no \, ater is are the hearts of thc righteous, ,,-hich hy 
the po"per of discipline are dricd frolll all hun10urs of carnal 
Just. 'rhe \vet places arc the n1Ïnds of ".or1dly men, which 
tlle IHllllour of carnal lust fins, and 1l1akes walen;; in such 
the I)e\"il iUlprints his footsteps the more deeply, inasuluch as 
in his \\-anderings he comcs do\\"n upon buch hcarts as upon 
low and Inarshy grouIHl. }{AßAN. And returning to his 
house whence he had gonc out, lie jhllletlt it [J 'ply, of good 
,,"orks through slothfulness, S1rf'pt, that is, of its old \
iccs by 
l
aptisln, a uti ,fj(/ 1"11 ;.'\l'l:d with feignl (1 ,"irtues through hypo- 
crisy. ...\ L"G. 
o that in these ,,'ords the Lord signiiìes that Aug. 
somc sha11 so belic,pe, as not to hayc strength for thc work of<J uæst . 
, l Ev. i. 8. 
contIncnce, auc 
ha]] n'turn to thc ,,"orl(l. I Ie tlll...ellt unto 
"hn other ,
 'rell, is to he understood that when any has fallcn 
froln righteousness, he shaH al
o ha\"c hJ pocrisy. For the 
Just uf the flcsh hcing cast out of its wonted \\"orks by 
pf'lJitcncP) \\ hell it {intIs l1ut allY delights in which it filay 
rest) rcturn
 the Ill0rC greedily, aud again takc
 pu

c
sion of 



474 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
lì To 


CHAP. XII. 


Greg, 
1\101', 
vi:. 1:-. 


the soul, if carelessness has ensued, and there has not been 
introduced as the d\veller in the cleansed abode the ,vord of 
God in sound doctrine. And as he "in not only have the 
seven vices ".hich are the contraries of the spiritual virtues, 
but ,vill hypocritically feign that he has the virtues, therefore 
his old lust, taking to itself se\.en other \vorse, that is, this 
seven-fold hypocrisy, returns to hitll so as to 111ake the last 
state of that man ,vorse than the forn1er. GHEG. For it often 
bappens that the soul in the COllltl1enCeillent of its progress 
is lifted up, and prides itself on its virtues, that it opens an 
entrance to the adversary ".ho is raging against it, and \vho 
shews himself the more violent in breaking into' it, by ho\v 
lTIuch be ',"as grie\Ted at being cast out, though but for a short 
space. 


16. "'hile he yet talke(l to the peoplc, behold, his 
lIlother and his brethren stood \yithout, desiring to 
speak \vith hinl. 
47. Then one said unto hinl, Behold, thy mother 
and thy brethren stand \yithout, desiring to speak 
,vith thee. 
48. But he ans\vered and said unto hilll that told 
hhn, 'Vho is lny Inother 1 and ,,,ho are nlY brethren 1 
49. 

nd he stretched forth his hand to\vard his 
disciples, and said, Beholù 111)' 11lother and my 
brethren! 
50. For \"hosoever shall do the will of lllY Father 
\vhich is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, 
and lllother. 


lIILARY; Because lIe had spol{en aU the aforesaid things 
in the po\ycr of His Father's 1113jesty, therefore the E,range1ist 
proceeds t.o ten \yhat ansn
er ]-1 e Inadc to one that 
told Hinl that I-lis 1110ther and l-lis brethren waited for Him 
without; 1f,T/Úle he yet spake unto tile people, !tis 1notlter and 
Aug. De his brefllrell slood "lL'ifhout desiring to see llÏ1n. AUG. We 




i. are to understand lvithout doubt that this happened close 
40, upon 1110 foregoing; for he begins to tell it ,vith the w'ords, 



YER. 46-5U. 


Sf. 
I.\TTJ1E\\. 


475 


.Iud ll-lli/p lie yet spake. 'Yhat can that ?/elln('an but that 
it was at tl1(' \'er
 tillH.' If c spake the foregoing tllings? 
l\Iark also follows np that \,'hich lIe had said concerning 1\1ark 3, 
hlasphcluy against the Jf01y Ghost, by saying, ,Juri Ilu're 3 1. 
callie lIiò' IIlotlu:r and !tis b}'(lllireu. Luke has not oLscr\'cd 
th(1 order of actiun here, but ha
 placcd this ear1i(r as he 
IHtppencel to reco11ect it. J ERU:\IF.; FroB} this is taken one Hieron. 
of I!elvidins's propositions, on the ground that Inention is 

:
id. 
Ina(1e in the (;ospel of the brethren of the IJord. Jlo"v, ]4, et 
. . seq. 
says he, are they called brcthrtIl of the Lord, If thcy \vere 
not hi
 brethren? But 1l0\Y it should Le h110Wn that in 
.divine Scripture nlen are said to be bretlJrcn in four different 
,,'ays, by nature, by nation, by lándred, and by aflection. 
n y nature, as Esau aue] Jacob. n y nation, as all J e\\'s are 
caned brethren, as in Deutcronolny, TI,olt shall nol ,\'('1 ore}" Deut. 
tllee a .foreiguer U'l,O ;,f; not tllY bl'otlt('}". They are called 17,15. 
brethren br kindred n ho arc of une falni1y, as in Genesis, 
Aúralullll said unto Lot, Let I"pre not be ,,,trife bel'ween Gen. 13, 
illee and 111(', lor 'Ire are brl'llt'ren. .-\Iso n1ell. are called s . 
hrethren by affection; ,,'hich is of t\"\'o 1
inds, special ëlnd 
general. Special, as aU Christians are called l)rethren, as 
the :'a\.iour says, Go tell tn.1f brell,ren. General, inaslnnch J
hn20, 
as an 1l1CU are born of one father, ',"p are bound together II. 
by a tie of consanguinity, as in that, Soy unlo tlleJJl tltat Is. 66, 5. 
ltnle !/Oll, Ire (Ire Olll' brethren. I ask then, after ,,-hich U1an- 

'x. 
Her these are called thc Lorcrs brethren in the Gospel? 
.According to nature? But Scripture saith not, neither calling 
thcll} sons of ::\lary nor of Joseph. By nation? nut it is 
absurd that sonle fen out of all the Jews should be ('aBed 
brethren, seeing that all the J en's who \vere there Inight 
haxe thus been called brethreu. I
y afiectiun, either of a 
hun1an sort, or of the Spirit? If that be true, yet how ,,'cre 
they more 11 is brethren than the ...\post1es, WhOlU lIe in- 
structed in the inlnost 111Jstt:'ries. ()r if Dt'cause they wcre 
Blcn, and an BIen are brethren, it ,,-as foolish to say of theul 
in particular, }Jphold, thy brethren 
eek thee. It ù111)" rc- 
Inains thcn that they :'\hou1<1 be I [is brethren by kindred, 
not by aHèction, not by pri\'ilege of nation, not by nature. 
I D. But some suspect the brethren of the Lord to be sons of HiHon, 
.T oscph h
 another n'ife, fol1owing the i(l1e fancic
 of apo- in Joe. 



476 


GOSPEL ACCOUDIl\;U TO 


CHAP. XII. 


cryphal nrriters, \VhO ha'"e coined a certain 'VOlnan caned Esca. 
nut \ve understand by the ùrethrell of the Lord, not the 
ons of 
Joseph, hut cousins of the Saviour, sons of a sister of .l\Iary, an 
aunt of Our Lord, "rho is said to be the 1110ther of J ailles the 

lark 6, Less, and.J oseph, and Jude, \VhOln in another place of the 
3. Gospel \ve find caned the brethren of the Lord. And that 
cousins are caned brethren, appears from e,rery part of 
Chrys. Scripture. CHRYS. liut lllark the loftiness of IIis brethren a; 
Hom. d . d 
xliv. when they shoul ha,pe cOlne In an hearkened \\
ith the 
cro,vd, or if they \voldd not this, to ha,pe \"aited the enò of 
IIis speech, and then to have approached IIiln- they on the 
contrary can HÌ1n out to theIn, and do this hefore the Inu1ti- 
tude, therein she\villg their superabundant lo,"c of honour, 
and also, that \vith all authority they lay their c0111111ands 
upon Christ. This the Evangelist covertly hints when he 
says, JT 7 hile he yet spake; as nnlch as to say, 'Vas there no 
other tin1e? But \\That did they seek to say? \Vas it aught 
of the dogmas of truth? then should they have brought it 
Jorth before all, that all 111ig}Jt profit thereby. Uut if of other 
things that concerned themseh'es alone, they 8hould not havc 
called Ifill} in such haste, ,vhence it is plain that they did 
Aug. De this out of ,pain glory. AUG. llut \vhate\"er Inay be decided 
Nat et . h b I . h h 1 V . . 
Grai.36. cOnCer1ll11g t ese ret )fen, yet concerrnng t e 0 y Irglll 
.l\lary, (for the honour of Christ,) ,,"hen sin in her is in 
question, I \vould not have it brought into doubt. For 
frOln tbis only \VC nlÌght kno\v that luore abundant grace ,vas 
conferred upon her that she should overCOlne sin on all 
sides, because she Inerited to conceive and bring forth Hitn 
\Vho it is clear had no sin. It follows; Then said olle ulllo 
hÙn, Behold, ihy 'Iuo/her and thy brethren stand u.itltout 
seeking thee. J EROl\IE; He that deli \"ers this Inessage, seClllS 
to lne not to do it casually and n
ithout meaning, but as set- 
ting a snare for Hiln, \VheÙler He \vould prefer flesh and blood 
to the spiritual \\
ork; and thus the Lord refused to go out, not 
because He diso\vned His lllother and His brethren, but that 
lIe Inight confound hÌln that had laid this snare for HÌ1n. 
CHHYS. For lIe said not, Go and say unto ber, She is not l\Iy 
lllothcr, but continues His discourse to him that had brought 
IlÍ1u ,vord; as it follo\vs; But Ite anslL"ered aJld said unto /tillt 


.a The text of S. Chrys. ha
 ifea 'YOU., ",,) aÙ-Tñs xa) iltsíþAlII 'T
" å9l'ólloltltl 



"ER. t6-50. 


:-iT. 'rATfHE\\. 


177 


that told ItÙJI, 1f ILO i8 nlY '/lollier 'I aJld wlto are 111,11 hrcthreJl '! 
I hL.\ ItY; ..\nc1 I Ie cannot 1)(' }lclù to have thought olcanly of 
llis Illothpr, seeing that in II is passion lie evince(l the J}}ost 
c
trelllC carefulness for her. CH llYS. Uut had I [e desired to 
disown T [is nlot1.('r, JIe \vould ha\'e done it at the tilHe \vhen 
the Jews cast llis birth in I lis teeth. JERo
rE; lIe did not 
then, a;:) )Iarcioll and )lanichæus say, disown} I is Inother, so 
as to be thought to be honl of a phantasln, hut lIe preferred 
T I is Apostles to llis kindred, that \ve also in a c01l1parisoll 
of our affections should set the spirit before the flesh. 
A
rBnosE; Kor docs He o\'erthrow the dutv of filial sulnnis- Amhros. 
. I . I ' 1 . h 1 H " - 1 -I". 1 in tile' 

Ion, w HC 1 IS COIl\"CYC( In t e cOlnlnan( , 01/0111' l,/y .laillcr 8. 21. . 
(llid Ili'l'Jlo/lier, hut she,vs that lIe u".es n10re to the Invstc- Ex. 20, 
. . 1 J ' h . f H ' L' 1 1 f ' 11 . h ., J 2 . 
rIes an( rc ahons I)> 0 IS 
'at ler, t Ian 0 IS Inot er; as It 
follows, _.Jull .fiïirelchillg out his hand to his disciples, he said, 
]]el,u/d 1ny II/oilier aJld 111Y brellll.en. G REGOUY; The Lord Greg, 
deigned to call faithful disciples His brethren, saying, Co, tell 

%i.

 
1JlY breiln.ell. Since then a lllan lllay be made a brother of the 
Lord by conling to the faith, it should be enquired ho\v one 
Jnay hecoJne also 1-1 is u10ther. Be it known by us then, that 
he that by belie\'ing is Inade brother or sister of Christ, 
hccollles llis Inolher ùy preaching; for in pouring IIiIn into the 
hcart of the hearer, he 111ay be said to beget the Lord; and 
he is Iua,le the Lord's nlothcr, when by his \vord love of thc 
Lord is begotten in the Inind of his ncighbuur. CHRYS. _\nd 
besides \vhat has bpen said, He taught also soulewhat U10rc, 
nmncly, that \ve should not neglect virtue relying on any 
l
indred. For if it profited Ilis l110ther nothing that she \vas 
such, if she had not had ,'irtne, who is there that shaH he 
saveù by hi
 kindred? For there i
 oue only nobility, to do 
the will of God, anù therefore it fol1o"'8, J fThoso shall do tllf
 
Irill qllJ1!J f'allter wltich Ùi iu lLearell, lite saUle is lU!I brotller, 
and sisler, ({lid lJlolher. )Iany \\'OI11en have blessed that holy 
'Tirgin auù her wOlub, and ha\'e dCf'ired to be nUHle such 
luothers. '\.hat is it then that hind
rs? Uehold, I Ie hath set 
before you a broad ""ay, and not ,,'OIllcn only, hut nlcn 
likewise, Inay becolne the ulother of Goù. JEHO
IE; I Jet us 
also expound in another "-ay. 'fhe Saviour is 
pcakillg to 
the Inu1titutle-that is, lIe teaches the Gentiles the inn-anI 
Iny:-.;terics; IIis l110ther and IIis brethren, that is the synagognc 



47
 GOSPEL ACCOHl)I
G TO ST. MATTHE\V. ('HAP, ÀII. 


and the J c\vish people, stand \\'ithout. IfILARY; Although 
they had like the rest power to come in, yet they abstain froln 
John 1, all approach to IIiln, for he carne unto his OlCJI, and his OiL"n 

lr'eg. 'receired ld1Jl 110t. GREGORY; 'Thus also IIis mother is 
ubi sup" declared to stand \,.ithout, as though she \vas not acknow- 
]edged, becanse the synagogue is therefore not ackno\vledged 
by its Author, because 
t held to the obser,.ance of the 
La\v, and having lost the spiritual discernment thereof, kept 
itself \vithout to guard the letter. JEno:\IE; And ,vhen they 
shall ha,.e asked and enquired, and sent a messenger, they 
shall receive for ans\ver, that their \vill is free, and that they 
can enter in, if they win believe. 



CHAP. XIII. 


1. The same day \vent Jesus out of the house, and 
sat by the sea side. 
2. And great Inl1ltitudes \vere gathered together 
unto him, so that he 'vent into a ship, and sat; and 
the \vhole Inultitude stood on the shore. 
3. .L\nd he spake many things unto them in 
parables, saying, Behold, a sower \vent forth to SO\,,; 
4. And \vhen he so\ved, some seeds fell by the ,yay 
side, and the fo\vls came and devoured theln up : 
5. Some fell upon stony places, \vhere they had 
not lTIuch earth: and forth,vith they sprung up, 
because they had no deepness of earth: 
G. L\nd \"hen the sun ,vas up, they ,,,ere scorched; 
and because they had no root, they ,vithered a\vay. 
7. 
\nd sonle fell among thorns; and the thorns 
sprung up, and choked them: 
R. But other fell into good ground, and brought 
forth fruit, SOITIe an hundredfold, SOITIe sixtyfold, some 
thirt)'fold. 
9. \Vho hath ears to hear, let him hear. 


CHRYS. 'Yhen lIe }lad rebul{cd him that told flim of I-lis 
mother alHI llis brethren, He then did according to their 
request; [Ie departed out of the house, having first corrected 
lIis brethren for their \\ eak desire of yainglory; lIe then 
paid the honour due to Ilis lllother, as it is said, Tltp SfllllP 
da.'1 .Te.'\I1.
 ,,,('ul,107"/I, ouf (!f 11,(' ltn1ls(', and ,
nf d{Jll'll hy /l,P 



4
O 


GOgPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


Aug. De sea side. A uc. By the \vords, The SllIJIC day, he sutIìciently 
i


:41. she\vs that th("l8e things cither foHo\ved imlnediately upon 
\vhat had gone before, or that many things could not have 
inten'ened; unless indeed 'day' here aftcr the Scripture 
lnanner signifies a period. RABAN. For not only the I
ord's 
,vords ana actions, but His journeyings also, and the places 
in \vhich He \vorks His ll1Ïght.r \vorks and preaches, are full 
of heavenly sacraU1ents. After the discourse held in the 
house, \vherein \vith \vicked blasphelllY He had been said 
to have a dæmon, He \yent out and taught by the sea, to 
signify that ha,'ing left J udæa because of their sinfnl un- 
belief, fIe would pass to the salvation of the Gentiles. For 
the hearts of the Gentiles, long proud and unbelieving, are 
rightly likened to the s\velling and bitter \vaves of the sca. 
And \\'ho knows not that J udæa \yas by faith the house of 
the Lord. J EROl\IE; For it I11ust be considered, that the 
multitude could not enter into the house to Jesus, nor be 
there ".here the Apostles heard Inysteries; therefore the 
Lord in lllercy to thén1 depal"ted out of the house, and sat 
near the sea of this \vorlel, that great nUll1bers lllight be 
gathered to lIbn, and that they nlight hear on the sea shore 
what they \yere not \vortby to hear \vithin; Aud .q1"eat 
lllultil'lldes If'pre .qatltered unto lliul, so thai lie lceut into 
a ship, and sat dou'n, and all tIle people stood on the shore. 
CHRYS. The Evangelist did not relate this ,vithout a pur- 
pose, but that he n1Íght she\v the Lord's ,viII therein, \vbo 
desired so tu place the people that He should have none 
behind HiIn, but all should be before IIis face. II IL \RY ; 
There is moreo,.er a reason in the subject of His discourse 
\vhy the Lord should sit in the ship, and the 111u1titude stand 
on the shore. For He \vas about to speak in parables, and by 
this action signifies that they \\'bo \\yere \vithout the Church 
could have no understanding of the Di,'ine 'y ord. The 
ship offers a type of tI1e Church, \vithin \vhich the "TortI of 
life is placed, and is preached to those \vithont, and ,,'ho as 
being barren sand cannot understand it. J EROl\JE ; Jesus is 
in the llÜdst of the Wa'"e8; lIe is beaten to and fro hy the 
".a\Tes, and, secnre in llis 111ajesty, causes IIis \'esse] to COlne 
nigh the laHlI, that the people not being in danger, not being 
surrounded by telnptations ,,,hich they could not endure, 



\.}.'IL I-H. 


ST. "ATTHF.". 


t
l 


Blight 
talld on the !'hore \\'ith a finn stcp, to hear ,,'hat ,vas 
said. It.\nA
. Or, that I Ie \vcnt into a ship and sat on thp 

ea, signifie:-, that Chri
t h) faith should cntcr into the hcarts 
of the Gcntiles, alHl 
hould gather togcther the Church in 
the sea, that is in the lnidst of the nations that spake against 
lIiul. And the cro\\rd that stood on the sea shore, neither in 
the ship nor in the sea, oilers a figure of thosp that receiyc 
the ""ord of God, and are by faith separated frolll the sea, 
that is fronl the reprobate, out are not yet ilnhned ,vith 
heavenlJ luysteries. [t follo,ys; ...Jull he 8pake 11lany things 
1Inlo l/tem in parable,,;. CHRYS. lIe had not done thus on 
the mouut; 1 Ie had not frallled I I is discourse by parables. 
For there \,"ere the lnultitude
 only, and a mixed cro\\"d; 
but hcn
 thl
 bcribes and Phari
ee8. nut lIe speaks in 
paral)les 110t for this reason only, hut to Blake Ifis f'ayings 
plainer, and fix thenl nlore fu11y in the Illelnory, by hringing 
things before the eyes. J ERO:\IE; ...\nd it is to be nuted, tha1 
lIe f'pake 110t all thillg
 to thel11 in parables, but IJlt1UY lllings, 
for had TIe spoken all things in parables, the people ,,'ottld ha,re 
departed ,vithout benefit. lIe lnin
'les things plain with things 
dark, that by those things \\"hich they un(lerstand they Inay be 
incited to get knowledge of the things they understand not. 
The IHultitude also is not of one opinion, but of di\'ers ,,'ills 
in di,"ers Inatters, \vhence lIe speak
 to then1 in 11lallY para- 
bles, that each according to their se'"eral dispositions Inay 
receive SOU1C portion of llis teaching. CURl'S. lIe first sets 
forth a parablc to Inake Jlis hearers lllore aUenti\'e; and 
hecause lIe \vas al,out to speak enigll1atically, lIe attracts the 
attention hy this first parable saying, Behold, a SOl 'er lrell 
fortlt to sow Itis seed. J ERO
I E; By this :,0\\ cr is typifie<l 
tl1e Son of God, w'ho SO\\ ð among the people the ,,"ord of 
the Father. CHR\ s. \Yhence then \vent out I Ie \"ho is 
every \"here present, and how' ,vent I Ie out? X ot in place; 
but by lIis incarnation being brought nearer to us by the 
garb of the flesh. Forasl11uch as \\"e because of our sins could 
not enter in unto Hinl, IT e thereforc canlC forth to us. 
It-\H.\x. Or, TTe u'(>JI(furllt, ,,'hen having left Judea, He pas
eù 
b) the A po
tles to the Gentilcs. J EH01\lE; Or, lie "'as 
within while He ""as yet in thp honse, and !-;pake sacran1l'uts 
to J I i:-- disciples. 1T e \\"('nt t11cn..fore forth frolH the honse, 
"OLo T. :! I 



482 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


that He n1Ìght so\v seed alnong the nudtitudes. CHRYS. 
\Vhen you hear the \\"ords, tlie SOlDer u"ent out to SOU", do not 
suppose that is a tautology. For the so\ver goes out often- 
times for other ends; as, to break up the ground, to pluck up 
noxious weeds, to root up thorns, or perform any other 
species of industry, but this nlan went forth to SO\y. \Vhat 
then becomes of that seed? three parts of it perish, and one 
is preserved; but not aU in the sanle lUanneI', but \"ith a 
certain difference, as it follows, And as he sou'ed, sonze Lfell 
by the 'lrayside. JEROl\IE; This parable Valentinus lays hold 
of to establish his heresy, bringing in three different natures; 
the spiritual, the natural or the anilnal, and the earthly. 
But there are here four nalned, one by the "ayside, one 
stony, one thorny, and a fourth the good grounò. CHRYS. 
Next, ho\v is it according to reason to sow seed alnong 
thorns, or on stony ground, or by the w'ayside? Indeed in the 
n1aterial seed and soil of this \vorld it ,vould not be reason- 
able; for it is ilnpossible that rock should become soil, or 
that the \vay should not be the \vay, or that thorns should not 
be thorn
. Rut \,
ith minds and doctrines it is otherwise; 
there it is possible that the rock be lnade rich soil, that the 
,vay should be no ITIOre trodden upon, and that the thorns 
should be extirpated. That the most part of the seed thpn 
perished, caIne not of hiln that so\ved, but of the soil that 
received it, that is the lnind. For He that so\ved put no 
difference behveen rich and poor, \vise or foolish, but spoke 
to all alike; fining up his O\VI1 part, though foreseeing all 
Is, 5, 4, t11ings that should COlne to pass, so that lIe Inight say, -",VIUlf 
ollght I 10 hare done that I lta
.e 'JIot done? He does not pro- 
nounce 
entence upon then1 openly and say, this the indolent 
recei\Ted and have lost it, this the rich and ha\Te choked it, 
this the careless and have lost it, because He ,vould not 
harshly reprove theIn, that He n1Ïght 110t alienate them alto- 
gether. By this parable also He instructs IIis disciples, that 
though the greater part of those that heard tbeln \vere such 
as perished, yet that they should not therefore be ren1Ïss; for 
the Lord HÏ1nself \,"ho foresa\v all things, did not on this 
account desist froll1 so\ying. JEROME; Note that this is the 
first parable that has been gi,-en ,,-itb its interpretation, and 
\ve Innst be\vare ,vherc the Lord expounds I-lis o\vn teach- 



YFIt. 10-17. 



T. MATTIlE\V. 


p
.) 


ing
, that we <10 not pr('SlllHP to llurlerstalHI any thing cither 
11l0re or lcss, or any "ray otherwise than as so expounded hy 
1 fiB}, l
AH.\X, nut those thing
 which Ire silently left to ou)" 
\l1Hlt'rstanding, should he 
hortly noticed. Thp 1lllyside is thc 
1nind troddpll au(l hardene(] hy the continual passage of e\.il 
thoughts; the rock, thp hardncss of the self-willed u1Ïnd; 
the good soil, the gentleness of the ohl'llient Inind; the snn, 
the heat of a raging persecution. The (lepth of 
oil, is the 
honesty of a Bund trained by hcayenly discipline. But in 
thus expounding thelH "'C should add, that the saIne things 
arc not always put in one and the sallIe allegorical significa- 
tion. .JEno:\IE; AUlI \ye are excited to the understanding of 
J-lis ".ord8, by the advice \\rhich follows, He illat Ita/h ears 
to !tear, l(Jl 1Ii111 hear. REl\IIG. These ears to Ileal', are cars 
of the mind, to understand namely and do those thing
 \vhich 
are commanded. 


10. And the disciples caIne, and said unto him, 
"
hy spcakest thou unto thell1 in parables? 
11. lIe ans\vered and said unto thenl, Because it is 
given unto you to kno\v the ll1ysteries of the kingdoln 
of hea\'en, but to them it is not given. 
l
. For \vhosoever hath, to him shall he given, and 
he shall have 1110re abundance: but ,,'hosoever hath 
110t, from hin1 shall be taken a \\ya y even that he 
hath. 
13. Therefore speak I to thelll in parables: because 
they seeing see not; and hearing they hCdf not, nei- 
ther do they understand. 
14. ...\nd in theln is fulfilled the prophecy of E
aias, 
\\ hich saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not 
undcrstand; and 
eeing yc shall 
('e, and 
han not 
perCCIye : 
15. For this people's heart is ,vaxed gross, and 
their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they 
have closed: lest at any tilne they should see \vith 
their eycs, ana hear with their ears, and should llnder- 
2 I 
 



484 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


stand with their heart, and should be converted, and 
I should heal them. 
16. But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and 
your ears, for they hear. 
17. For verily I say unto you, That many prophets 
and righteous n1en have desired to see those things 
which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear 
those things which ye hear, and have not heard them. 


Glos'\. GLOSS. The disciples understanding that the things \vhich 
:
.m
n- \vere spoken by the Lord to the people \vere obscure, desired 
to hint to Him that He should not speak in parables to them. 
And Ids disciples Cll1ne to llinl, and said, TFTlIy speakest illou- 
Chrys, 10 t/zeln in parables? CHRYS. 'Vherein it is \yorth}T admira- 

:.m, tion, that the disciples who desire to learn of IIim, kno\v 
,,-hen they ought to ask Him, for they do not this before the 
n1ultitude. This 
Iatthe"r declares, \vhen he says, And tlley 
Mark 4, C{l1ne fo Idrn; and 
Iark more expressly says, that tlie,lj came to 
10. hÙn 'IDlu:n lie u.as alone. JEROME; "... e lnust enquire ho\v they 
eould COllle to I-lill1 at that tillle \"hen Jesus \vas sitting in tbe 

hip; w'e may understand that they had at the first entered into 
the ship, and standing there, n1ade this enquiry of IIilll. REMIG. 
The E,-angelist therefore says, callie to !tim, to express that 
they eagerly enquired of HiIn; or they might indeed approach 
IIÏ1n bodily, though the space bet\veen thelll ",Tas small. 
CHRYS. And observe moreoyer their goodness, ho\v great 
their thought for others, that they enquire about \vhat con- 
cerns others, before \vhat relates to themselves. For they say 
not, "'Thy speakest thou to us in parables?' but to tllenl. 
And he flJlSlrered and said unto t/zem, Because it is given to 
YOll to kllou' the 1nystery o.l the killgdol1l 0/ /zea
'ell. REl\IIG. 
To you, I say, \\"ho adhere to }'le, and belie'Te in ::\Ie. By the 
mystery of the kingdom of heav"en, He intends the Gospel 
doctrine. To tllel1l, that is, to them that are without, and 
,,,ho "rould not believe on IIiu1, the Scribes namely and Pha- 
risees, and to the rest \vho continue in unbelief, it is not 
gh'cn. Let us then, \"ith the disciples, come unto the Lord 
,\'ith a pure heart, that He Inay think ns ,,'olthy to interpret 
Deut. to us. t.he evangelic teaching; according to that, Tile!! wllo 
3
, 3. 



VER. 10-17. 


ST. :\r A TTIIE\V. 


485 


tll"(
1t' lIfJlll' to !tis fief, 
"llll receil'e oj' Iti
 doctrille. CUHYS. 
In saying this, [Ie docs not Ï1nply any necessity or fate, hut 
shews at once, that they, to ,,'honl it is not given, are the 
cause of all their own lliiseries, and yet that tht' knowledg(' 
of the Divine lllysteries is the gift of God, and a grace gi\9cU 
from aLo,-e. Yet this does not destroy free 'will, as is ITJani- 
fcst fronl what follows; for to pre,"ent that cither these should 
despair, or those be ren1Ïss, ,,'hen they hear that to YOll it is 
gh'en, lIe shews that the beginning of all lays ,,,ith ourselves, 
and then lIe adds, For ,rlioso hat 11, to IIÙn sliall be gil'ell, and 
lie slLall abound; and 'll'/ioso !tat lL /lot, froln !tiut sltall bp 
taken 'll'IUlt lie hat/t. As nluch as to say, "Thoso has the 
de::5ire and thl' zeal, to hiB} 
hall be gin>ll all those things 
,,'hich are of Go(1; but ,,,h080 lackcth these, and does not con- 
tribute that part that pertains to hiln, to him neither are the 
things ,,-hich are of God gi\-en, but e,'Cll those things that he 
hath are taken froln him; not because God takes theln a\\ay, 
but because he hath lnade hÏInself un\vorthy of those that he 
has. 'Ybercfore ,,'e also, if \\'e see any hearkening carele
sly, 
and haying exhorted hiin to attend, he do not heed us, let us 
Le silent; for 
hould ,,'e pcrse\'cre in urging hiIn, his 
loth- 
fulness will be the Inore charged against hinl. But hill} that 
is zealou
 to learn, '\"e draw' on,,-ards, pouring forth Iuany 
things. ...\nd Hc ,,-ell said according to another Evangelist, 
'I7ull 'lrliic!t lie sef Jlietlt to ',an!; for, in truth, hc has not C\'cn Luke 8, 
that he has. H,.El\1IG. lIe that has a desh"e to read, shaH have 18, 
given to hÏ1n po\yer to understand, and whoso has not de,:;ire 
to read, that undca;tallding ,,"hich by the Lounty of naturo 
he seems to ba"e, e\"en tbat shall bc taken froln hinl. Or, 
"hoso has cllarit.r, to hinl 
hall be given the other \ irlues 
also; and from hinl \\ ho has not charity, the other virtues 
like,,"i
e shall be taken a\\-ay, for ,\-ithout charity there can 
be nothing good. JEHOl\IE; Ur, To the ...\postlcs \"ho believe 
in Christ there is gi\ Cll, but frolll the JC\\9S ,,-ho belic\'cd not 
on the Son of God there is taken away, e\"cn ,vhate'1'er good 
the}" Inight seelll to ha\'c by nature. For they cannot under- 
stand any thing ,,-ith ,,'jsdOl11, sceing they have not the head 
of \visdolll. 11ILAHY; J'or the J e""s not having faith, ha,'e lost 
also the Lan" which thc)" had; and Gospel faith has the perfect 
gift, inasnlllch 
t:-; if recci,'cd it enriches ,,,ith new fnlit, if 



 G "'E.L · 
i. L RAR\ 
'f.e + 
 



486 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


n-:jected it suLtracts fi'Oln the riches of ancient possession. 
CHRY5. But that \vhat He had said might be made lnore 
Juanifest He allds, Therefore spealL I unto tlle1Jl. ill parables, 
because seeing they see not, and hearill.q they I,ear not, '/leit lie}" 
do they understand. Had this been a natural blindness, lle 
ought to have opened their eyes; but forasllluch as it is 
voluntary, therefore He said not simply, , They see not,' but, 
Seeing they see not. For they had seen the dænlons going 
out, and they said, He casts Olit dæ'JJlons by Beelzebub; they 
John 9, heard that lIe dre\v all men to God, and they say, This'1nan 
16. is 'Jiot 0/' God. Therefore because they spake the ycry 
contrary to what they sa\v and hear(l, to see and to hear 
is taken from them; for they profit nothing, but rather fall 
under judgment. For this reason He spake to theln at first 
110t in parables, but \vith much clearness; but because they 
penTcrted all they sa \v and heard, He nO\\7 speaks in parables. 
I-tEl\IIG. And it should be noted, that not only ,,-hat He spake, 
but also what He did, "Tere parables, that is, signs of things 
spiritual, \"hich lIe clearly sbe\,'s "7ben He says, Tliat si:;eillg 
i hey '}uay not see; but \yords are heard and not seen. J ERO:\IE; 
'rhis lIe says of those ,vho 'vel'e standing on the shore, and 
separated frOln Jesus, and \yho because of the dashing of tIle 
\vaves heard not distinctly ,,,hat \yas said. CHRYS. And 
that they should not say, lIe slanders us as an enemy, He 
brings forward the Prophet declaring the saine opinion, as 
it follo\vs, That there nzigltl be/it/filled in thelJl lite prophecy 
Is. 6, 9, of Isaiah, 'il'lio said, Witli tile Itearill.q ye sliall hear and shall 
not '111ulpl'siand, and seeÙ19 ye shall see and shall 'JIot bell old. 
Gloss. GLOSS. That is; 'Vith the hearing ye shan hear ,yords, but 
non occ. shaH not understand the hidden nleaning of those \\rords; 
seeing ye shall see l\Iy flesh indeed, but shall not discern 
the divinity. CHRYS. This He said because they had taken 
a\yay their O\Yl1 sight and hearing, shutting their eyes, and 
hardening their hearts. For not on1y did they not hear 
at all, but they heard obtusely, as it follows, Tlte heart qf 
'"is people is u'a:t
ed gross, and tltey hace !teaI'd Ilardly u'ith 
i IIei)" ears. RAßA
, The healt of the J e\vs is nlade gross 
\vith the grossness of wicl{eduess, and through the abundance 
of their sins they hear hardly the Lord's ".oreIs, because 
they have received then} ungrateflLlly. ,J EHOl\I.E; And that 



VElte 10-17. 


ST. )L\.TTIlE\V. 


4
7 


\\pe should not suppose that this grossness of the heart and 
11ca\'iucss of the cars is of nature, aurl not of choice, 1 fe 
adds the ii.uit of thcir own wilfulness, lòr tlley have shut 
tlu4r lyes. CHRYS. J[crein lIe points out how' cxtrelne 
thcir wickedness, ho\\ dctcnnilled thcir a'?ersiun. Again 
to dra\\? theu1 towards Ilim, lIe adds, Iud he cOIiI'er/ed, llnd 
I ."hollid heal f heut; ,vhich shews that if they ,,'ould be 
cOl1,'crtcd, they should be healed. As if one 
honld say, If 
he ,,-oul(1 a
k Ine I ,,'ould illlinediatcly forgi,>e hilll, this 
,voulll point out ho\v he nlight be reconciled; so here whcn 
lic 
ays, Lesl ilu'y slioulrl be c(Jlln
rted ll/l(l I ,fìhould heal 
t/tenl, lIe shc,,"s that it \vas possible they should be conyertcd, 
and having done penitcnce :-.hould be sayed. ACG. Otherwise; Aug. 
Tlu:y l/llCe sltul Iheir eyps le.')l they should see lrilll Illeir
u
s:
t. 
eyes, that is, thclliselves ,yere the cause that God shut theit'q. 14. 
eyes. For another E,"angelist says, lIe IUllh blinded Illeir 
eyes. But is this to the end that they should ne'-er see? Or 
that they should not see so Illuch as this, that becoilling 
discontent "ith their own blindness and bel\"ailing theln- 
selves, should so be 11ll1nbled, and Ino,red to confession 
of their sins and pious seeking after God. For )Iark thus 
exprl"s
es the sarrIe thing, Lest llte.if s/tould be cOllrerled, a/ld 
llteir -"il"" should be ./urgicell tllelJl. FroIll ,vhich "'C learn, 
that by their sin
 they deselTed not to understand; and that 
yet this was allo,,"ed thel11 in ulercy that they should confess 
their sins, and should turn, and so lucrit to be forgi,"en. 
Hut ,,,hen .Tohn relating this expresses it thus, TI,Pre- John12, 
fore !lIey cuuld not belie
'e because Esaias said o.f}aill, IIe 39 . 
lull" blinded Iheir p!/es and lUl1"lh
/u:d Ilu-ir heart, tluLl 
tltey sllould /lot see u'illt tlteir eyes, and understand 1L"itlt 
tIle;'. hearl, ((ud be COli rer!ed, and I should heal IhelJ1, this 

eenlS to he opposerl to this intcrprctation, and to coulpel us 
to take what is here said, L 
st they sltould see lritlt tlleir 
eyps, nut as though they 111Ïght COIne to see after this fa.shiou, 
but that they 
hould nc\er see at all; for he says it plainly, 
Tltat tltey sltoultlllol see wi! h lite':,. e!/es. _\.nd that he says, 
Tlterej'ore they CÚllld no! lJeliere, sufficiently shc,ys that the 
hlindne
s was not inflicted, to the t'nd that 1110\-ed thcrchy, 
an<1 gric,-ing that thcy uuden;too(l not, they should be con- 
,ertcll through pcnitcnce; for that they could not, unless 



4f;t'3 


GOSPEL ACCORL>IXG TO 


CHA!}. XIII. 


Acts 2, 
:37. 


they had first believed, and by believing had been con\yerted, 
and by conversion had been healed, and having been healed 
understood; but it rather shews that they were therefore 
blinded that they should not believe. For he speaks most 
clearly, Therejòre they could 'Jlot beliel"e. But if it be so, 
\"ho \\yould not rise up in defence of the J e\vs, and pro- 
nounce theln to be free fron1 all blalne for their unbelief? 
For, 11IeJ'l{!ore they could noi belie-l.e, because he hailt blinded 
/ lteÙ. eyes. But because \Ye lnust rather believe God to be 
,vithout fault, '"e are driven to confess that by some other 
sins they had thus deserved to be blinded, and that indeed 
this blinding pre,"pnted then} froin believing; for the \\
ords 
of John are these, Tlte.lJ could not believe, because that Esaias 
:said again, He hath blinded tlleil' eyes. It is in vain then to 
endeavour to understand it that they were therefore blinded 
that they should be converted; seeing they could not be 
converted because they believed not; and they could not 
believe because they were blinded. Or perhaps w"e should 
not say alniss thus-that SOille of the J e\ys ,vere capable of 
being healed, but that being puffed up \vith so great s\velling 
pride, it \vas good for thenl at first that they should not 
believe, that they nlÎght understand the lAord speaking in 
parable
, \vhich if they did not l1nderstand they would not 
believe; and thus not believing on Him, they together with 
the rest who \vere past hope crucified Hin1; and at length 
after Ilis resurrection, they \'rere converted, ,,'hen humbled 
by the guilt of Ilis death they loved Hin} the more because 
of the heavy guilt ,,
hich had been forgiven thelll; for their 
so great pride needed such an hunliliation to overcome it. 
This nlight indeed be thought an inconsistent explanation, 
did \ve not plainly read in the Acts of the Apostles that thus 
it was. 'rhis then that John says, Tlle1'efore they could 1Iot 
believe, because he halli, blinded their eyes t!tat they should 
not sæ, is not repugnant to our holding that they" \vere there- 
fore blinded that they should be converted; that is to say, 
that the Lord's lueaning \vas therefore purposely clothed in 
the obscurities of parables, that after IIis resurrection they 
Inight turn theu} to wisdolll \\'i
h a Illore healthy penitence. 
For by reason of the darkness of llis discourse, they being 
blil1l1ed did not understand the Lord's sayings, and not 



VEU. 10-17. 


ST. l\IATTlI E\\P. 


4
!J 


understanding thl'lO, they did not Lelieve on ] Jim, and not 
belic,ping 011 IIiul they crucified fliul; thus after IIis resur- 
rection, terrified by the llliracles that "'ere wrought in IIis 
nalHe, they had the greater COIHIJtlllCtioll for their great sin, 
and \vcre nlorc prostrated in penitence; and accordingly 
after indulgence granted they turncd to olJc(licnce ,,'ith a 
Inore ardent affection. 
 oÍ\vithstanding, 80nH
 then
 ,vere to 
\VhOlll this blinding profiled not to conversion. l{El\lIG. III 
all the clauses the \vord ' 110t' HUlst he understood; thus; 
'That they should not f'ee ,,'ith their eyes, and should not 
l1ear \vith their ears, and should not understand with their 
heart, and should not be converted, and I should heal them. 
GLO
S. 
o then the eves of thenl that see, and \"ill not belie,'e, Gloss. 
are nliserable, but .r
ur eyes are blessed; \vhence it f01l0,,'s ; 


n- 
Blessed are your eyes,.(or '!iey sec', alld your ear,r.;,for tlley 
hear. J EUO
IB; I f \\
e had not read ahove that iu\'itation to 
his hearers to understand, ,,,hen the Saviour said, He that 
!tat!t ears to !teal. let !tinl hear, we ulight here suppose that 
the eyes and ears ,vhich are no\V blessed are those of the 
hody. Rut I think that those eyes are blessed \vhich can 
discern Christ's sacraluents, and those ears of \vhich Isaiah Is.50,4. 
speaks, Tile Lord ludli giren 'Jne llli ear. GLOSS. The mind Gloss. 
is called an eye, hecause it is intently directed upon "'hat ord. 
is set before it to understand it; and an ear, because it 
learns frol11 the teaching of another. HILARY; Or, lIe 
is speaking of the blessedness of the Apostolic tiules, 
to whose eyes and ears it "'as pennitted to see and to hear 
the sah'ation of God, many Prophets and just 111en having 
desired to see and to hear that \vhich \vas destined to be in the 
fulness of tilues; ".hence it follo".s; Verily I sa
iJ unto you, 
iliai rllany Prophets aud just lJlen !t{u:e desl1'ed to see [he 
fldugs flull ye see, llnd In Ilear the hill!Js that ye hear, {(lid 
Ilare /lot Ileard thenl. .JERO'fE; This place seCIns to be 
contradicted by what is said elscwhere. Abrall(lm rejoiced John 8, 
to see lilY day, a/ld he sale it, and 1l"1l8 glad. R.\BAN. .Also 56. 
Isaiah and 
Iicah, and lllany other Prophets, sa\v the glory of 
the Lord; and werc thencc caned' seers.' J ERO
IE; But lIe 
said not, '1'he Propht'ts and the just Hlen,' hut 1/lflllY j for 
ont of the whole HlnDLer, it luay be that some sa\v, and other:-: 
saw not. But as this is a perilous interpretation, that ,vc 



490 


GOSPEL AUCORDH,G TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


should seelU to be lllaking a distinction bet\veen the nlerits 
of the saints, at least as far as the degree of their faith 
in Christ, therefore we lllay snppose that Abrahanl sa\V in 
eniglna, and not in substance. But ye have truly present 
,,'ith you, and hold, your Lord, enquiring of Hilll at Jour 
1 
o
v
- \\'ill, alld eating \vith HiIn 1. CHRYS. These things then which 
SClmml. the Apostles sa,\' and heard, are such as I-lis presence, I-lis 
voice, Ilis teaching. And in this I-Ie sets thenl before not 
the evil only, but eyen before the good, pronouncing thenl 
lllore Llessed than even tile righteous lHen of old. For they 
sa\\
 not only ,,,hat the Jews -saw not, but also \vhat the 
righteous men and Prophets desired to see, and had not seen. 
:For they had beheld these things only by faith, but these by 
sight, and even yet III ore clearly . You see ho\v He identifies 
the Old Testanlent \vith the N"ew', for had the Prophets been 
the ser\'ants of any strange or hostile Deity, they \vould not 
have desireà to see Christ. 


18. Hear ye therefore the parable of the so,ver. 
19. 'Vhen anyone heareth the \vord of the king- 
òom, and understandeth it not, then cOlneth the 
,,,icked one, and catcheth a\vay that ,vhich ,vas SO\Vll 
in his heart. This is he ,vhich received seed by the 
,vay side. 
20. But he that received the seed into stony places, 
the same is he that heareth the ,vord, and anon with 
joy receiveth it; 
21. Yet hath he not root in hilnself, but dllreth for 
a \vhile: for ,vhen tribulation or persecution ariseth 
because of the ,vord, by and by he is offended. 
22. He also that received seed among the thorns 
is he that heareth the ,,,ord; and the care of this 
,vorld, and the deceitfu]ness of riches, choke the word, 
and he becometh unfruitful. 
23. But he that received seed into the good ground 
is he that heareth the ,vord, and understandeth it; 
,vhich also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, son1e an 
hundredfold, S0111C sixty, some thirty. 



VE H. Ib-:!:
. 


ST. MAl THE"'. 


lUl 


G LOS
. lIe had said aho'"e, that it ""as not gi \"en to the Gloss. 
J C'\\ S to kno\\p the kingdolu of God, ùut to the A }Josllcs, and :


n- 
therefore lIe nO\\ conclude
, ba)'ing-, 11,'a,. ye t!terq/ore tlu
 
plI rubl (!l tile SOl("{'r, 
"C to WhUllI are conunitted the Inyste- 
ri(;:, of hea.\"cn. _\TG. It is certain that the Lord ßpole the \ug, De 
things which the l
:\'angdist has recorded; but ,,-hat the 
t
:Úi
t. 
Lorù spake \\ as a paraùle, ill which it is ne'"cr required that 
the things contained sliould ha\'c actually taken place. 
G LO
s. TIc proceeds then expounding the parable; Ell'ry Gloss. 
1I/1L1l who !tulrs the l("ord f!llhe kill,qtlulU, that is, )lypreach-:
.:n. 
ing which a\'ails to the acquiring thc killgdoln of hCi.l\-en, aud 
IIl1tlel'sta/ldetl/ if /lot; ho\\" he understands it nut, is cxplaiued 
by,.. òr t!tp eril one-that is tile De\.il-coll/ellt a/ld takelh 
(I1ray l!tat u.!tic/t is SOlrn ill Ids !teart; e\'ery ßuch lllan is 
tlltll whic/' is sown hy the lro.'1 side. And llot
 that that 
which is SOW11, is talien in ditlerent senses; for the seed is 
that which is 
own, and the field is that which is sown, ùoth 
of \vhieh ar(' fonnd here. For ,,-here lIe says carrieth ll/ray 
Ilutl "which is so ("11, ,'"c Blust understand it of the seed; that 
,,'hich follo,,'s, is _\01("11 by tlte 1("(lY side, i
 to Le understood 
not of tht' seed, but of the place of the seed, that is, of the 
luan, ,,-bo is as it ""cre the field So\\ n ùy t]Je seed of the Di\'inc 
word. J{ E
IIG. In these \\"onls the Lord. explain
 what the 
seed is, to wit, the ,,'ord of the kingdo1n, that is of the Gos- 
peì teaching. For there arc sonle that rccei\'e the ,,-orù of 
the I
onl with no 
lc\'otion of heart, and so that secd of G OlrS 
word which IS SOWll in their heart, is h)? dælll0nS straight- 
way carried oll
 as it ""cre the seed droppcd by the "Fay side. 
11 follows, FluLl lrhÙ.:lt is SOlL'1l upon tlip rock, is he that 
helll'etlt f he /cortl, 
'c. }1"or the sped or ".ord of God, 
which is SO""!l in the rock, that is, in the hard and un- 
talHed hcart, can bring forth 110 fruit, illa
luuch as its 
hardness i
 gn
at, and its desire of hl"aYclll
 things 
lnë111; 
and because of this great hanlnc:-;s, it has no root in itself. 
JI
no'IE; Xote that which is said, is $/r{1;yldll'ay offended. 
ThC're i
 then 
onle c1iffcrencc bet\\ een hÍ111 \\ ho, by IUallY 
trihl1lation
 and torn1l'nt
, is dri,'en to deny Christ, and hinl 
who at the first pcr
ccution is offended, and fal1
 a \\"ay, of 
,,-hich I It' prol"('('(ls to 
peak, TIlt" II"/,,-,'!t i.
 ,\"01("11 amon!J 
l!torll.";. '1'0 lll{, Ill' Sl'elll
 here tu cxpre
s li
urati,-cly that 



492 


GOSPEL ACCOltDINU TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


Gen. 3, ,vhich ,vas said literally to Adam; Âlllidst briers and t/torus 
18. tltOlt shalt eat tllY bread, that he that has given himself up to 
the delights and the cares of this \vorld, eats heavenly bread 
and the true food al110ng thorns. RABAN. Rightly are they 
called thorns, because they lacerate the soul by the prickings 
of thought, and do not suffer it to bring forth the spiri- 
tual fruit of virtue. JEROME; And it is elegantly added, 
TIle deceitjitluess o.l'riches chuke the 'lDurd; for riches are 
treacherous, promising one thing and doing another. The 
tenure of thelll is slippery as they are borne hither and 
thither, and \vith uncertain step forsake those that ha\"e 
tllem, or revive those that have them not. 'Vhence the 
Lord asserts, that rich luen hardly enter into the kingdolll of 
heaven, because their riches choke the \vord of God, and 
relax the strength of their virtues. REl\IIG. And it should 
be kllO\Vn, that in these three sorts of bad soil are cOlllpre- 
hended all \\"ho can hear the ,vord of God, and yet hav.e not 
strength to bring it forth unto salvation. The Gentiles are 
excepted, who \vere not worthy even to hear it. It follo\vs, 
That 'If}ltich is sou'n 011 tile good grollnd. The good ground is 
the faithful conscience of the elect, or the spirit of the saints 
wbich receÎ\res the \vord of God \vith joy and desire and 
devotion of heart, and manful1y retains it aillid prosperous 
and adverse CirCUlTIstances, and brings it forth in fruit; as 
it fol1o\vs, And brings fOt.tlt .fruit, sOlne a hltnd1"ed-fold, sOlne 
si:t
fy-jold, SOUle tlârty:/òld. JEROME; And it is to be noted, 
tlIat as in the bad ground there \\'ere three degrees of dif- 
ference, to wit, that by the way side, the stony and the 
thorny ground; so in the good soil there is a three-fold 
difference, the hundred-fold, the sixty-fold, and the thirty- 
fold. And in this as in that, 110t the substance but the win 
is changed, and the hearts as \vell of the unbelieving as 
the believing recei\'e seed; as in the first case He said, 
Then cOInetlt the 'tricked one, and ca1Tietlt off illat u'IÛcll. 
is sown in i he heart; and in the second and third case 
of the bad soil He said, '17âs is he that heal'etIt tIle u'ord. 
So also in the exposition of the good soil, This is lie that 
liearetlt tlie u'ord. Therefore ,ye onght first to hear, then to 
understand, and after understanding to bring forth the fruits 
of teaching, either an hundred-fold, or sixty, or thirty. 



v

n. I :"'I-2:}. 


400\T. '1\1:\ TTII E\\
. 


-J 9:3 


AUG. 
omc think that this is to be understood as though Aug, De 
the saints according to th(' degree of their merits delivere(lCi
,D 27 ei, 
XXI. . 

on)(' thirty, sonIC sixty, sonle an hUlldred persons; and this 
they u"ually suppose will happen on the day of judginent, 
not after the judgment. But \vhen this opinion ,vas ubsen'ed 
to encourage Illen in prolnising theinselves Í1llpunity, be- 
canse that by this means all lnight attain to delh
erance, 
it \vas an
nvered, that nlon ought the rather to live ,,?el1, that 
each Jl1ight be found alllong those \vho ".cre to interceùe 
for the liberation of others, lest these should be found to be 
so few' that they should soon ha'.c exhausted the nUIllber 
allotted to theIn, and thus there \vould rClnain Inany un- 
rescued froln torment, aIllong \vhom might be found all such 
as iu Inost \.ain rashness had pron1Ïsed thelnselves to reap 
the fruits of others. REl\IIG. The thirty-fold then is borne 
of him who teaches faith in the lIol)" TrinitJ ; the sixty-fold 
of hinl \"ho enforces the perfection of gooù \\.orks; (for in the 
nUlnber six this ".orld "as conlpleted ,vith an its equiplnents;) Gen.2,J. 
\vhi1p he bean
 the hundred-fold ,,'bo pron1Îses etenlal life. 
}1'or the number one hundred passes frolll the left hand to 
the right; and by the left hand the present life is denoted, 
hy the right hand the life to cOlne. Otherwise, the f\eed of 
the ".ord of God brings forth fruit thirty-fold \\yhen it begets 
good thoughts, sixt
.-fold when good speech, and an hun- 
dred-fold ,,-hen it brings to the fruit of good \\"orks. AUG. Aug. 
Other".ise; There is fruit an hundred-fold of the martyrs Q E uæ.st. g 
v. I. . 
because of their satiety of life or contempt of death; a 
sixty-fold fruit of virgins, because they rest not \varring 
against the use of the flesh; for retirement is allo" ed to 
those of sixty years' age after ser\"ice in "ar or in public 
business; and there i
 a thirty-fold fruit of the ,vedded, 
because theirs is the age of \"arfare, and their stnlggle is 
the nlore arduous that they should not be vanquished by 
their lusts. Or otherwise; "... e must struggle \vith our love 
of temporal goods that reason Inay he Blaster; it should 
either be 
o overcon1(' and subject to us, that \vhen it 
begins to rise it n1ay be casily repressed, or so extinguished 
that it ne"cr arises in us at all. ""'hcncc it eOlnes to pass, 
that death itlõ\e1f is despiscd for truth's sake, by some \vith 
bra'"l' endurance', In. other
 ,,"ith conte'nt, and hy others \"ith 
. . 



494 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


gladness-,vhich three degrees are the three degrees of fruits 
of the earth-thirty-folcl, sixty-fold, and an hluldred-fold. 
And in one of these degrees Inllst one be found at the tilne 
of his death, if any desires to depart ,ven out of this life. 
vide J EROl\1E; Or, The hundred-fold fruit is to be ascribed to 
Cyp. Tr. .. h . r ld . d d . 
iv. ]2. vIrgIns, t e SIxtY-I0 to 'VI o'vs an contInent persons, 
Hieron. the thirty-fold to chaste \vedlock. In. For the joining to- 

p. 48. gether of the hands, as it \vere in the soft embrace of a 
kiss, represents husband and wife. The sixty-fold refers 
to \vidows, ,vho as being set in narro\v circumstances and 
affiiction are denoted by the depression of the finger; for 
by how' lnuch greater is the difficulty of abstaining fron1 
the allurements of pleasure once kno\vn, so much greater 
is the reward. The hundredth nunlber passes from the left 
to the right, and by its turnillg round ,vith the same fingers, 
not on the same hand, it expresses the cro\vn of \?irginity a. 


24. Another parable put he forth unto them, 
saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a 
man ,vhich so,ved good seed in his field: 
25. But while men slept, his enemy came and 
sowed tares among the wheat, and went his ,yay. 
26. But \vhen the blade ,vas sprung up, and 
brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. 
27. So the servants of the householder came and 
said unto him, Sir, didst not thou SO\v good seed in 
thy field; from whence then hath it tares? 
28. He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. 
The servants said unto him, 'Vilt thou then that we 
go and gather theln up ? 
29. But he said, Nay; lest ')I.hile ye gather up the 
tares, ye root up also the ,vheat \vith them. 
30. Let both grow together until the harvest: and 
in the tiule of harvest I will say to the reapers, 


a This alludes to the method of no- tatione,' yo!. i. 131. The expression, 
tatioIl by the fingers described by Bede, 'atque suos jam dextra computat an- 
(with reference to this passage of S, no!ô:,' Juv. will occur immediately to the 
Jerome,) iu his treatise 'De Indigi- dassical reader. 



\'FH. 2-1-30. 



T. 'IATTH F\\. 


H)5 


Gather ye to
ether first the tares, and bind thenl 
in hundles to burn thcln: but gather the \vheat into 
lny barn. 
CHIn s. In the forcgoin
 parab1e the Lord spoke to such Chrys. 
as do not receive the n"onI of God; here of those who ::
i
l. 
rf'ceÏ\ c a corrupting seed. This is the contrivance of the 
Dc\'i1, c\"{'r to mix error wilh truth. J EHO)IE; I [e set forth 
also this other parable, a
 it "gen
 a rich householder refresh- 
ing his gue
ts with various nleat
, that each one according 
to the nature of his stolnach 111ight find some food adapted 
to hiln. J Ie said not' a ...econd parable,' but anotlter; for 
}lad lIe said' a second,' u"e could not have looked for a 
third; but anot/u')" prepares us for 111any Blore. HE:\IIG. 
IIerc TIe cans the ðon of Goel IIitnsclf the kingdonl of 
hea,-ell; for TIe saith, The kinge/oln f!l ltearen i,
 like lInlo 
a 1JU111 l!tal "iou.cd good se d ill !tis .field. CHRYS. l-le then 
point
 out the Inanner of the De, il's snares, saJing, IT/hile 
/len slept,"i,
ell("JlYCllllU
 and sou"eel tares .in fllcnÛdslqf'lte 
'lr!teal, and tll)parled. lIe here she,,'s that error arose after 
1nlth, a
 indeed the c(n1f
e of e,'cnts testifies; for the false pro- 
phets canle after thc Prophets, the false apostles after the l\pO- 
stIes, and A ntichrist after Christ. For unles
 the J)e,'il sees 
sOTnewhat to in1Ïtate, and som
 to lay in ,,"ait against, he 
doe
 not attclllpt auy thing. Therefore becanse he san" that 
this luan bears fruit an hundred) this sixty, and this thirty- 
fold, and that he \\"a
 not able to carry off or to choke that 
,,"hich had taken root, he tnrn
 to other insidious practices, 
Inixing up his o,,"n seed, \\yhich is a counterfeit of the true, 
and thereby illlpose
 upon such a
 are prone to be dccei,"ed. 
So the parable speaks, not of another seed, but of tares 
which Lear a great likene

 to ,,"heat corn. Further, the 
lnalignity of the Ðe,'il is shc\\-n in this, that he sowpd 
w'hen all (\l
e \\9as cou}pleted, that he n1Îght do the greater 
hurt to the ]nlshan(1tnan. A VG. lIe says, 1J 7tile Illeu "
'lepl, Aug. 
for while the heads of tilC Church \,"ere abiding in supine- 





. 
lles
, and after the ...\.postles had received the bleep of death, q. II. 
then calllC the l)c\-iJ and so\\-ed upon the ]Oest those ,,"h0111 
the J JOl"d in I I is interpretation caBs cvil children. II ut "
e 
,,10 \vell to enquire ,,,hether h
9 
uch an') meant heretics, or 



496 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


Catholics who lead eyil li,'es. 'fhat lIe says, that they 
\vere SO\VIl anlong the \vheat, seeU1S to point out that they . 
\"ere all of one COllununion. But forasmuch as He inter- 
prets the field to Iuean not the Church, but the ,,,orId, \ve 
may well understand it of the heretics, \vho in this ,vorld 
are lllingled \vith the good; for they \"ho live alniss in the 
same faith may better be taken of the chaff than of the 
tares, for the chaff has a stem and a root in cominon 
with the grain. \Vhile schismatics again may more fitly 
be likened to ears that have rotted, or to straws that are 
broken, crushed do\vn, and cast forth of the field. Indeed 
it is not necessary that e,yery heretic or schismatic should be 
corporally severed frOIn the Church; for the Church bears 
many who do not so publicly defend their false opinions as 
to attract the attention of the Inultitude, \vhich \vhen they 
do, then are they expelled. 'Vhen then the Devil had so\vn 
upon the true Church di\Ters evil errors and false opinions; 
that is to say, where Christ's nalne had gone before, there 
he scattered errors, hinlself \vas the rather hidden and 
unkno\vn; for He says, Aud lreut his ?cay. Though indeed 
in this parable, as \\Te learn froin His o\\'n interpretation, the 
Lord may be understood to ha\Te signified under the nanu.
 
of tares all sÌlunbling-blocks and such as ,,-ork iniquity. 
CHRYS. In \vhat fo11o,,,,"s lIe more particularly dra\vs the 
picture of an heretic, in the \vords, lVhen. the blade grell', 
and lJul forth "fruit, t/ten appeared tlte tares also. For 
heretics at first keep thelHselves in the shade; but when 
they ha\Te had long license, and ",yhen men have held COIll- 
Inunication \vith them in discourse, then they pour forth 
Aug. their YenOlll. AUG. Or other\yise; ""'hen a lnan begins to 

u


t. be spiritual, discerning between things, then he begins to 
q. 12. see elTors; for he judges concerning \vhatsoever he hears or 
reads, \vhether it departs frotH the rule of truth; but until he 
is perfected in the saIne spiritual things, he Inight be dis- 
turbed at 80 many false heresies ha\'ing existed under the 
Christian name, ,,-hence it follo\ys, Aud the serranls if tI,e 
householder c01Jzillg to hiut said unto hÙn, Didsf tholt 110t sow 
good seed in thy field? 1chence then hatlt it tares.2 Are 
these servants then the saIne as those \VhOlll He after\vards 
calls reapers? Because in His 
xposition of the parahle, If e 



VEna :!.J-:1U. 


ST. 'L\TTJIE\V. 


-tH7 


t'xpou1HI<; the rcapprs to be the \ugels, all<1uonc \\-oul<l dare 
to sa,.. that thp 
\ngel
 \\'cre ignorant ,,"ho had sowed tarcs, 
\,"c Silould the rather ll1Hlerstand that the faithful are here 
intellded In the 
en"ants. And no '\'onder if they are also 
. . 
sig-nifìe<l hy the good seed; for thl' saIne thing a<.hnit!o\ uf 
difll
rent likenesses according to its different significations; 
as speaking of IIi1n
clf lIe says that lIe is the door, lIe is 
the shepherd. l
E
IIG. '.fhey can1l' to the Lord not \"ith 
thl' body, but with the heart and desire of the soul; and 
fro1H I[iul they gather that this ""as done by the craft of the 
I)e,"il, whence it follo\\"s, A lid he Sft ith unio II,p}ll, .An eneln y 
Ilfillt done lids. JERO
[E; The De,'il is caned a man that is an 
l'llen1Y because he has cea
ed to be God; and in the ninth 
Psahn it is "'ritten ofhi1u, LjJ, Lord, and let not lnanllfu.e Ihever. 19. 
71pper!tllnd. 'Vhereforc let not hi1n sleep that is set o"er the 
Church, lcst through his carelessness the enemy should so\v 
therein tares, that is, the dogulas of the heretics. CHUYS. lIe 
is ealled the eneffi y on account of the losses he inflicts on 
llWll; for the a
sault
 of the Ðe,'il are Inade npon us, though 
their origin is not in his ennlity ton"ards us, but in his 
('Htnitv tow'ards God. .L\VG. .And ",hen t]Ul ser"ants of God Au
, 
k . I . 1 D . 1 1 I -, . d I . fj Ù ubi sup. 
'ne\\ t )at It '\'a
 t Ie C'-I \\' 10 lau contrn"e t lIS rau , 
wherchy when he found that he had no po,ver in open 
warfare against a .L\last('r of such great natHe, he had intro- 
duced his fallacies under co,'cr of that name itself, the desire 
n11ght readily al;se in then) to rC1HO\'e such men frOIn out of 
]l1unan afl'airs if opportunity should be gi,'ell thelll; hut they 
fir
t appeal to God's justice \vhether they should 
o do; 
The 

el'l"allls ....aid, 1f"ill l!toll t!tat "we go (olll gftllter f!tpul 
011/ t CHRYS. \Vhe1"e1n obsen'e the thoughtfulllc"s aud 
affection of the servants; they hastcn to root up the tares, 
thu
 shc\vin
 their anxiety about the good 
eed; for this is 
all to ,,'hich they look, not that any should be pUlli
hcd, but 
that that \vhich i() 
o\\'n should not perish. 'l'he Lord's 
ans\\"cr fonow
, ...Iud he 
wlif!t un/o llu'}JI, ,L\Tay. .J EUO'IE; For 
1'(011) for repentance i
 left, aIHl \\"{' are \\"arncd that \ve 
shoulò 110t hastily cut ofT a hrother, 
in('e out-' wlao is to-da) 
corrupted with an errOHeOll
 (log1na, 11lay gro\\ \\-i
('l" to- 
1IlurrO\\, and Legin to defend the truth; wherefore it is 
adde(l, lest in !lalltel.iIlY 10f/ellier lite lllre.
 ye roul Ollt the 
VOL. J. -2 J... 



..U'M 


GOSPEL ACCORD1XG TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


J\ ug, u'lleat also. A DO. 'Yherein lIe renders theln nlore patient 

u
Ì

t. and tranquil. For this He says, because good Inen ,vhile 
q,12. yet \\Teak, ha,Te lleed in SOllIe things of being Ini
ed up with 
bad, either that they nlay be proved by their means, or that 
by cOlnparison ,vith them they may be greatly stimulated 
and dra\vl1 to a better course. Or perhaps the ,,,heat is 
declared to be rooted np if the tares should be gathered out 
of it, on account of many ,vho though at first tares ,,"ould 
after beC0111e ,vheat; yet they would ne\-er attain to this 
C0l11111cudable change \vere they not patiently endured ,vhile 
they ,vere evil. Thus were they rooted up, that .,,,heat 
,vhich tlley \,"ould beC0111e in tinle if spared, would be rooted 
up in them. It is then therefore He forbids that such should 
he taken away out of this life, lest in the endeavour to 
destroy the ,,,icked, those of them should be destroyed 
among the rest ,vho \\Tould turn out good; and lest also 
that benefit should be lost to the good \vhich ,yould accrue 
to them even against their "rill from mixing ,yith the 
,vicked. But this may be done seasonably ,,,hen, in the end 
of all, there remains no lnore time for a change of life, or of 
advancing to the truth by taking opportunity and cOlnparison 
of others' faults; therefore He adds, Let both grolc togetlter 
unfil the harresf, that is, until the judgment. JER01IE; But 
1 Cor,5 this seems to contradict that conlmand, Pul alray the e
.il 
13. .t i ' 01Jl a1n011l/ you. For if the rooting up be forbidden, and 
,ve are to abide in patience tin the har\Test-tÎ111e, ho\v are \\Te 
to cast forth any frOITI among us? But behveen ,,-heat and 
tares (\\'hich in Latin \'ve call' lolinm') so long as it is only 
in blade, before the stalk has put forth an ear, there is \Tery 
great resemblance, and none or little difference to distinguish 
then) by. The Lord then \varns us not to pass a hasty 
sentence on an ambiguous "Tord, but to reseITe it for His 
judglnel1t, that "Then the day of judgulent shall COlne, He 
may cast forth from the asselubly of the saints no longer on 
Aug. suspicion but 011 111anifest guilt. AUG. For \vhen anyone of 
Cont. the nUlllber of Christians included in the Church is found in 
Ep. 
Parm. such sin as to incur an anathema, this is done, \vhere danger 
iii.2. of schisnl is not apprehended, \\Tith tendernes
, not for his 
rooting out, but for his correction. But if he be not con- 
scious øf his sin, nor correct it by penitence, he ,,",ill of his 



VElt.2-1-:3U. 


ST. 'fAT rHE" . 


49( 


own choice goo furth of th · Chul'eh anù b' bcparatcd frol)) 
her cOIlllnullioll; \\9hellce "9hcn the Lord COllllllallded, SI
!f(Jr 
botlt 10 groll' 10.'1 Jl!tCJ- lilllltc !tarresf, tIc a<ltlcd the rca
Oll, 
sayin
, Lesl lcben yr 1could ,f/aITte,. olll thi' lares ye ,.vol llJI 
t he wheal also. 1'his 
n1iicic1) t1 v shc\\r:-:, that when that tear 
has ceased, and \"hen the safety of the crop is certain, that 
i
, when the crilne is kno\\ n to all, and is ackno\vledged a
 
so execrable as to have no defenders, or not such as 1night 
canse any fear of a schisln, then severity of (liscipline does 
not 'Sleep, and its correction of error is so HIuch the lnore 

fficacious as the obsen"ance of lo,yc had been more careful. 
Put when the Sälll{\ infection ha
 spI'ea(l to a large nUlnher 
at once, nothing remains but sorrow and g-roans. 1'herefore 
let a lnan gently repro'"e whate\ycr is in his power; what i
 
not 
f) let hi}}l bear with patience, and Inonrn over with 
affection, until He ii'OIlI abo,"e shall correct and hpa1, aud let 
hin1 dpfer till har,.est-tinle to root out the tares and win no'" 
the chaff. But the 11lultihHIe of the unrighteous is to be 
struck at with a general reproðf, \vhene,'cr thpre is oppor- 
tunity of saying aught an10ng the people; and aho\"e all 
whpn an)' scourge of the Lord from above gi,yes opportunity, 
,,'hen they feel that they are scourged for their deserts; fur 
then the calan1Ïty of the hearer
 opens their ears 
ublnis- 

ivl'Ir to the "'ord
 of their repro\'er, seeing the heart in 
ailliction is e\ er Inore prone to the groans of confession than 
to the 1nnnnurs of resistance. .Antl even \vhen no trihulation 
lays upon them, should occasion serve, a ,,'ord of reproof is 
usefully spent upon the multitude; for when 
eparated it ib 
".out to bp fierce, when in a body it is \VOI1Í to 1HOUr}}, 
CIIRY
. 'This the Lord spake to forbid any putting to death. 
For \\ e ought not to kin an heretic, "ceing that so a ne\Yer- 
endin
 war ,,"ould be introduced into the world; and there- 
fore lIe says, Les !Ie root Ol t U' 'tll fltelll tIle u'/teat nlso; 
that is, if you dra\\ the s\vonl and put the heretic to 
death, it luust needs be that luan)" of the saints ,,"ill fall 
\\'ith them. [-I<.>rebv IIp does not indeed forbid all restraint 
upon hf'retics, that their freedonl of speech 
honld be 
cut otf, that their synods and their confessions shoul<l 
he broken up-but onI) forbids that they should be 
put _to death. ..\.un. This indeed \vas at first mv ow'n Aug.Ep. 
2 K 2 93, 17. 



4 


500 


GOSPEL ACCOUDING TU 


CHAP. XIII. 


opUllon, that no luan "ras to be drÍ\ren by force into the 
unity of Christ; but he "Tas to be led by discoul'se, con- 
tended \vith in contro\rersy, and overcome by argument, that 
,ve might not have men feigning themselves to be Catholics 
\vhom ,ve kne\y to be declared heretics. But this opinion 
of 111ine "ras overCOlne not by the authority of those \vho 
contradicted me, but by the exalnples of those that shewed 
it in fact; for the tenor of those la\vs in enacting 'which 
Princes serve the Lord in fear, has had such good effect, that 
already some say, This "Te desired long ago; but now 
thanks be to God who has made the occasion for us, and 
has cut off our pleas of delay. Others say, This ,ve have 
long kno,vn to be the truth; but \ve \vere held by a kind of 
old habit, thanks be to God "rho has broken our chains. 
Others again ; We knew not that this ,vas true, and had no 
desire to learn it, but fear has driven us to give our attention 
to it, thanks be to the Lord who has banished our careless- 
ness by the spur of terror. Others, 'Ve were deterred from 
entering in by false rUlnours, "rhich \ve should not have 
1\:no,,,n to be false had \\re not entered in, and \ve should not 
have entered in had \ve not been compelled; thanks be to 
God who has broken up our preaching by the SCOUl'ge of 
persecution, and has taught us by experience ho\v empty 
aud false things lying fame had reported concerning His 
Church. Others say, 'Ve thought indeed that it ,vas of 
no Í1nportance in "That place "re held the faith of Christ; 
but thanks be to the Lord "rho has gathered us together out 
of our di \rision, and has shewn us that it is consonant to the 
unity of God that He should be \vorshipped in unity. Let 
then the Kings of the earth shew themsel \res the servants of 
Aug,Ep, Christ by publishing laws in Christ's behalf. ID. But who 



2
2 is there of you ,vho has any ,vish that a heretic should 
perish, nay, that he should so much as lose aught? 1:
 et 
could the house of Da\rid have had peace in no other \vay, 
but by the death of Absalom in that \val' \\rhich he ,vaged 
against his father; nOÌ\vithstanding his father gave strict 
cOlnmands to his Ser\rants that they should save hÍ1n alive 
and unhurt, that on his repentance there might be room for 
fatherly affection to pardon; ,vhat then remained for him 
. but to mourn over him ,vhen lost, and to console his domestic 



\"JUt. 2.{-:30. 



T. '(ATTJIE\V. 


501 


afI1iction by the pf'ace ,,-hich it had brought to his killgdoln. 
'rhus onr Catholic Illother the Church, when uy the loss of 
a fc\\' she gaius luany, soothes the SOITO\V of her nlothcr1y 
heart, healing it by the deli,"crance of so 1lluch pcople. 
'Yhere then is that ,,"hich th{)
c are accustollled to cry out, 
That it is free to aU to belic,'e? \\"'h01H hath Christ done 
yiolellce to? "Tholn hath II e coulpellcd? Lct thCIll take 
the _\postlc Paul; lct the1l1 acknowledge in hint Christ 
first cOlIlpclling and aftcrwards teaching; first slniting and 
afterwards COHlfortiug. .L\nd it is ,vonderfill to see hint 
,vho entered into the Gospel hy the force of a hudily in- 1 Cor. 
11ictioll labouring therein 1110re than all those who are 15, 10. 
callcd by ,vord ouly. 'Yhy then :should not the Church 
constrain her lo
t sons to return to her, ,,'hell her lost sons 
constraincd others to perish? 
IlE:\IH.i. It folIo "'s, J.Jnd ill tlte tÍ1np if lllllTes! I will 
say to (lie 1.eapen.;, Gallier together ji rst lhe tares, llnd bind 
l!tent ill bundles (0 burJt thelll. The harvest is the season 
of reaping which here designates the day of jl1dgl11el1t, in 
\vhich the good are to be separated froIn the bad. CHRYS. 
nut \'" hy docs TIe say, G ather first the tares? 1:'hat the good 
should ha"e no fears lest the \vheat should be rooted up 
,vith theln o o JERO
IE; [n that lIe says that the bundles of 
tan\s are to he cast il1to the fire, and the ".heat gathered 
into barns, it is clear that hcretics also and hypocrites are 
to be cuns1.lIncd in the fires of hell, ,,-hile the saint
 "
who 
arc herc represented by the ,,"heat are received into the 
harn
, that is into hea,'enly Inansion
. _\rG. It Inay he Aug. 
asked ,,'hy IT e cOll11nands 111\.)rc than one bundle or heap 
u::
t(t. 
of tares to be f()rU1ed? l)crhaps because of the variety q. 12. 

f heretics differing not only fro1n the wheat, but also 
atnong thc1l1sd\"es, each 
e'"eral heresy, separated fron1 
com1nunion with all the other:" is designated as a bundle; 
and perhaps th
y l11ay e'"ell then hegin to be bound to- 
gether fur burning, when they fir....t se'-er thetllSelvcs fro1l1 
the Catholic cOlnlnuniun, an(} begin to have their ill- 
c1epenc1cnt church; :-'0 that it is the huruing and not the 
hin<ling into hundles that will take place at the end of the 
\\ orld. Bul werc thi:-. so, there would not be 
o lIUln, who 
""oul<1 h
con1(' wi
(' ag.tÏn, alId return frotH .'ITo1' i11to the 



!S02 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


Catholic Church. \'Therefore \Ve IllU::;t understand the bind- 
ing into bundles to be ,,"hat shall con1e to pass in the end, 
tl1at punishu1ent should fall on thell1 not proluiscuously, but 
in due proportion to the obstinacy and ,vilfulness of each 
separate error. RABAN. And it should be noted that, ,vhen 
He says, JSoll,'ed good seed, He intends that good ,,,ill ,yhich 
is in the elect; ,,,hen He adds, All ellelny Clune, He intinlates 
that ,vatch should be kept against him; when as the tares 
gro\v up, He suffers it patiently, saying, All PlIe1Jzy hath done 
this, He recolumends to us patience; when He says, Lest 
haply in gathering the tares, 
.c, He sets us an example 
of discretion; ".hen He says, Suffer botlt to grow together 
till tlte Itarvest, He teaches us long-suffering; and, lastly, He 
inculcates justice, \yhen He says, Bind tlteJn info bundles to 
hurn. 


31. Another parable put he forth unto them, say- 
ing, The kingdonl of heaven is like to a grain of 
mustard seed, which a man took, and so\ved in his 
field: 
32. \Vhich indeed is the least of all seeds: but 
when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and 
beco111eth a tree, so that the birds of the air come 
and lodge in the branches thereof. 


CHRYS. Seeing the Lord had said above that three parts 
of the seed perish, and one only is preserved, and of that one 
part there is much loss by reason of the tares that are so,yn 
upon it; that none lnight say, "Tho then and how lnany 
shall they be that believe; He renloves this cause of fear by 
the parable of the mustard seed: therefore it is said, Auotlter 
lJal'able put lie forth unto them, saying, Tile killgdol'Jl of 
heal"en is like uuto a grain qf 11111staJ"ll .seed. JERO:\JE; The 
]ángdo1l1 of heaven is the preaching of the Gospel, and the 
kno,v ledge of the Scriptures \vhich leads to ]ife, concerning 
l\Ial,21, \vhich it is said to the Je\ys, The kingdo1Jl ql God shall be 
43. taken jl.o1n you. It is the kingdom of heaven thus under- 
Aug, stood ,vhich is likened to a grain of 111ustard seed. AUG. 

u::
.i. .A. grain of nlustard seed may allude to the ""anllth of faith, 
II. 



\'1.:1
. 31, 32. 


ST. 
J.\ TTIIE'Y. 


;>03 


Of to its property as autidote to poison. It fol1ow
; " "hif'" 
(t Ilan look lll1d SOl 'eel in 'I is field. J ERol\l E; 'fhe Ulan 
who sows is hy 1uosl understood to he th(" 
(1\'iour, who 
so,,'s the seed in thc Ininds of believers; hy others the 111all 
hitl1self,. \\'110 sows in his field, that i
. in hi!) own heart. 
"Tho indeed is he that soweth, but our own nlind and under- 
standing, w'hich recei ,-ing the grain of preaching, aud nurtur- 
iug it by thc dew of faith, 1I1ake:-; it to 
pring np in the field 
of our own breast? rJ Ideli is the least qf all seed.
. 'I'he 
(juspcl preaching i:-- the least uf all the 8JstellJs of the 
schools; at fir
t vic\v it ha
 not e\-en the appearance of truth, 
announcing a 1nan a., God, God put to death, and proclaiIn- 
iug the utIeuce of the cross. COIllparc this teaching ,,"ith 
the Ù()gulas of- the l"}hilosophers, with their books, the 
spìendour of their eloquence, the po]j
h of their style, and 
yon will Sl'C ho\v the 
ced of the G ospe 1 is the least of all 
seeds. CHR\ s. Or; The seed of the Go
pcl is the lea
t of 
seeds, becan
e the di
ciples "
ere \veaker than the \"hole of 
Inallkilld; )'et toraSIllucL as there \\t.1S great u1Ïght in theI)}, 
their preaching spread throughout the ,,-hole world, and 
therefore it fol1o\\P
, Bill wilen it is grown it i,-; 'lie greales 
alllong IIPrvs, Ùlat is all1Ung doglua
, Al"G. [)ognJas arc the Aug. 
decisions of sects I, the points, that is, that they ha\'e clcter- 

J:
r.
 
lnined. .J EnO
JE ; For the ùoguHtS of Philosophers when secta- 
ùley ha\"c grown up, shc\v nothing of life or strcngth, hut rum. 
,,-atery and insipid they gro\v into gra
ses and other greens, 
which quickly dry up and wither anpay. Buf the (;os}Jl'1 
preaching, though it 
CeUl sn1a]) in its beginning, whpn 
own 
ill tl}(' luind of the hearer, or upon the \\porlll, conJe
 up not ..i 
garden herb, but a tree, so that the birds of the air (which 
\\"c lllllst t:luppu
e to he cither thf' souls of helie\'ers or the 
Po".ers of Go(l 
et free ii'oln 
la\-er
) COlne aud abide in its 
branches. 'fhe branchc
 of the Gospel tree which ha\ e 
grown uf the grain of lJHlstanl set'd, J suppose to signi(\. the 
,"arious dogu)i.ls in which each of the Lirùs (as explaine(l 
abuvp) takes his rest. Let us then tak
 tlJC "ing5 of the Ps.55,6, 
do\'c, that flying aloft we llHl) d\\ ell in the Lralll'hes of this 
trl'c, an(llnay luake oUl"sch.es n(;
h of doctl'ilH'S, alHl soaring- 
ahove earthly things ITJay hastell towartls hcavculJ. JIu..\RY; 
Or; 1'hc 1101'(1 cOlnpares Ili1n:;clf to a gr
lill of 11luf'tard 
eed, 



504 


GOSPEI
 ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


sharp to the taste, and the least of an seeds, "Those strength 
Greg. is extracted by bruising. GREG. Christ Himself is the grain 
l\Ior. 
xix. 1. of mustard seed, ,,'ho, planted in the garden of the sepulchre, 
gre\y np a great tree; lIe \vas a grain of seed \"hen He died, 
and a tree \"hen He rose again; a grain of seed in the 
hUIuiliation of the flesh, a tree in the pO""Ter of His lnajesty. 
HILARY; This grain then \vhen so\vn in the field, that is, 
"'hen seized by the people and delivered to death, and as it 
"'ere buried in the ground by a so\ying of the body, gre\v up 
beyond the size of all herbs, and exceeded all the glory of 
the Prophets. For the preaching of the Prophets "-as 
alIa-wed as it \vere herbs to a sick man; but no\y the birds 
of the air lodge in the branches of the tree. By \vhich ""e 
understand the Apostles, ,,'ho pnt forth of Christ's might, and 
o,'ershado\\Ting the ".orld \yith their boughs, are a tree to 
,,'hich the Gentiles flee in hope of life, and ha\'ing been 
long tossed by the \vinds, that is by the spirits of the Devil, 
Greg. n1ay ha\Te rest in its branches. GREG. Tile birds lodge in its 
uùi sup. branches, "'hen holy souls that raise themseh"es aloft fron1 
thoughts of earth on the ,vings of the virtues, breathe again 
froln the troubles of this life in their "yords and comfortings. 


33. Another parable spake he unto them; The 
kingdolll of heaven is like unto leaven, ,vhich a 
',"Olnan took, and hid in three measures of meal, 
till the ,vhole \vas leavened. 


CHRYS. 'I'he saIne thing the Lord sets forth in this 
parable of the leaven; as much as to say to His disciples, 
As leaven changes into its own kind llluch wheat-flour, so 
shall ye change the u'h01e ,yorld. Note here the wisdo111 
of the Saviour; He first brings instances from nature, 
proving that as the one is possible so is the other. .L\nd 
lie says not sitnply , put,' but hid; as nluch as to say, So 
ye, ,,-hen ye shall be cast do\vn by your enemies, then ye 
shall overCOIne thenl. And so leaven is kneaded in, \\'ilhout 
being destroyed, but gradually changes all things into its 
o\vn nature; so shall it COlne to pass \yith your preaching. 
F-'ear ye not then because I said that many tribulations shall 
con1e upon you, for so :;hall ye shiuc fOloth, and shall ove\'- 



"EU. 33. 


ST. )L\TTHE\\. 


5u:> 


cOlne then1 all. I [e says, tl,ree leaSllre.
, to ::;ignify a great 
ahundance; that definite nIuuLer 
tanding for an indefinite 
qUé.ullity. JERO"\lE; The' satuln' is a kind of Ulcasure ill 
US(' in Palestine containing onc modius and a half. A CG. Aug. 
0 - TJ I .. f . 1 b . . , d Quæst 
r, Ie ca'YCl1 !'lgnl ICS O"C, ecausc It causes acllvlty an E . I :.. 
v. I. "'. 
fenllcntation; b)1 the \VOlllan lIe means \visdom. By the 
three nlea
nrcs lIe intcnd
 either those three things in Ulan, 
,vith the \vhule heart, with the ,,"bole soul, ,,'ilh the wbole 
nlind; or the three degrees of fruitfulnes
, the hundred-fold, 
tlH' 
ixty-folò, the thirty-fold; or those three kinds of Incn, 
N oc, Daniel, and Job. R_-\.ß.\N. lIe says, [Tnlil 'lle u-llole 
ll'as h:are/l('d, Lecausc that loyf' inlplanted in our Iuind 
ought to gro\v until it changes the ,,"hole soul illt
) its 
O\Vll perfection; ,,"hich is begun here, but is cOlnplcted hcrc- 
aft('r. J EUO'IE ; Or otherwi:.;e; The \, oman \vho takes the 
leaven and hides it, seCIns to me to be the Apostolic preach- 
ing, or the Church gathered out of divers nations. She takes 
the lca,"cn, that is, the understanding of the Scriptures, and 
hides it in three 11leaSUres of meal, that the three, spirit, 
soul, and body, may be brought into one, and ll1ay not 
differ aU10ug thcll1
elves. Or other" i",e; '\T e read in Plato.R, P. 
} } 1 ' h I ..J IV. 439 
t lat t lcee arc t nee l )arts III t e sou, rcason, an g er, anu '\ . 
^O'Y"'1'I - 
desire; SO" e also if ""e have recei,"ed the e,'angelic leaven ]tall, ;lrl- 
f . 11 I S . . d ' Iv",",,-rl. 
o 0 y cnpture, Illay pOf"sess In our reason pnl cnce, 11) Jt
" Iv- 
onr anger hatred against vice, in our desire love of the f'o.,ðà; 
virtucs, and this will all cOlne to pa
::; br the E\yangc1ic 
teaching "ohich our l11othe1' Church has held out to us. 
I win further mention an interpretation ùf 
Olnc; that the 
wOlnan is the Church, ,,,ho has 1uingled the faith of Ulan 
in thrcc lueasures of Ineal, naulcly, helief in tIle Father, the 
Son, and the Iloly ðpirit; \\ hich when it has fennented into 
OIlC hUHp, brings us not to a thrcefold r
od, but to the kno\\'- 
ledgc of onc IJi ,'inity. 1'his is a piou
 intcrpretation; but 
parahl(\s and douLtful :solutions of dark things, can ne\ er 
bcsto,\ authority on dognla:'. I hL.\ R\; Or othcr\\"i
c; 'I'he 
Lord cOlnpares lliulsclf to ]ea,'cll; for lea'"cn is proòuced 
froln meal, and COllllllUnicalcs the }Ju\\ycr that it has rccci, cd 
to a hcap of its o\vn kiud. 'rhe ""oman, that is the 

)"nagoguc, taking this lcavcn hidc
 it, that is by the 
sentence uf death; hut it ,vorkillg in the three l11eaSl1n:
 



506 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CBAP. XIII. 


of nleal, that is equally in the La\\T, the Prophets, and the 
Gospels, lnakes an one; so that \vhat the La\v ordains, that 
the Prophets announce, that is fulfilled in the de\'elopement
 
of the Gospels. But lnany, as I remelnber, have thought 
that the three llleasures refer to the calling of the three 
nations, out of Shelu, If alIl, and Japhet. But I hardly 
thinl{ that the reason of the thing \vill allo\v this inter- 
pretation; for though these three nations have indeed becn 
called, yet in them Christ is she"'n and not hidden, and in 
so great a multitude of unbelievers the \vhole cannot be ::;aid 
to be leavened. 


34. All these things spake Jesus unto the 111ulti- 
tude in parables; and without a parable spake he 
not unto them. 
35. That it Inight be fulfilled which ,vas spoken 
by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in 
parables; I ,viII utter things ,vhich have been kept 
secret from the foundation of the \vorld. 


Chrys. CHRYS. After the foregoing parables, that none Inight 
Horn. think that Christ \vas brin g in g forward an\T thing' ne\v, the 
xlvii. J 
 
Evangelist quotes the Prophet, foretelling even this IIis 
.Mark 4, nlallner of preaching: l\iark's \vords are, And u'itlt 1/U1JlY 
33. sitch parable,f) spake lie tlte u'ol'd unto tltern, as they 
cere 
able to Itear it. So lnarvel not that, in speaking of the 
kingdolll, He uses the sinÜlitudes of a seed, and of leaven; 
for He ,vas discoursing to COllllnOll Inen, and \\'ho needed to 
be led forw.ard by such aids. RE:\IIG. The Greel\: word 
, Parable,' is rendered in Latin' Similitude,' by \\Thich truth 
is explained; and an image or representation of the reality 
is set forth. JEROME ; Yet lIe spoke not in parables to the 
disciples, but t.o the nndtitude; and even to this day the 
111ultitude hears in parables; and therefore it is said, 
lnd 
'U"itltouf a parable spake he not unto tlu.11Jl. CHRYS. For 
though He had spoken lllany things not in parables, "'hen 
not speaking before the multitudes, yet at this tÏ1ne spake 
Q Au g . He nothing without a parable. AUG. Or, this is said, nol 
uæst. 
in l\latt. that lIe uttered nothing in plain \vords; but that 11 e 
q. 15. 



VEIL 34, 35. 


ST. :\IATTHE". 


507 


eonc1uded no one discourse "ithout introducing a paraLIc 
in the course of it, though tbe chief part of the discourse 
Illig-lIt consist of Inatter not figurativc. And \\'e may in(leed 
lÌIHI discoursc
 of IIis ptlrdbolical throughuut, hut none 
direct throughout. _\nd hy a cou)plete discourse, I Bleau, 
the wholt: of "'hat lIe 
ays on any topic that nlay be 
brought bcfore "{Iilll by circtunstances, before I fe lea\"es 
it, :.\11<1 passes to a ne\v subject. For sOluetirnes oue 
E\"angelist connects \vhat another gives as spoken at 
diflerent tilnes; the n'riter having in such a case fullowed 
not the order of e\'ents, but the order ûf conl1exion in his 
own IncIllory. The reason wllY IT e spake in parahles the 
Evangelist subjoins, saying, TI,a! il 1Jllgld he .lit/filled !Itat 
tl"lIS ....poken by !I,P Propllet, saying', I /Loill Optll 71IY 111nlltl, Ps.78,2. 
in Pill"ahles, I u'ill utter Ihillgs It.'ept secret ji'O}}1 lite 
.folllldalio1t of tI,e u'o1'Zd. J EHO
IE; This passage is taken 
ii.onl the sc\-enty-se\ enth Psahn. I have seen copies" hich 
read, , by Esaias tbe l>rophet,' instead of what \ve ha\'e 
adopted, and what the CùlfllnOll text has hy I lie [>,'opl,el. 
ItE
IIG. FrOln \vhich reading Porphyry took an oq,jectiou 
to thc believers; Such was your Evangelist's ignorance, that 
hc iUlputed to Isaiah ,,"hat is indeed found in the P
alnls. 
J EltO'IE; 13ut because the text ,vas not found in Isaiah, 
his nan1C \\.as, I suppose, therefore erased by such as had 
ohscr\.cd that. But it 
ecms to tne t]lat it \yas first ,,"ritten 
thU8, '..1\ s was written by _\saph the l>rophet, saying;' for 
thc se\.cuty-scventh Psahn out of which this text is ta1icn 
is a
crihed to A
aph the Prophet; and that the copyist not 
undcrstaudiug Asaph, and Ílllputillg it to en.or in the tran- 

cription, 
ub:..tituted the bctter l
no""n nall1e Isaiah. For 
it 
]loul(l hc known that Hut I)a\-id only, but those others 
also ,,-hose n:.unes are set before the Psahns, and hJnnl
, 
and songs of God, are to Le con
idered pruphcts, nal11c1y, 
.\saph, }(1Ït}lll111, 
l1H.l I Il'Jllall the Esraitc, and the rest ,,"ho 
arc nalHed in 
criptllrc. _\nd bO that \\"}1ÏC}l is spoken in 
the Lord"s persoll, I ,('ill UjJ('JI J/1!I JJloullt ill }la rahle,
, if ("011- 
siderc(1 attenti\.el
, will be 10und to be a description of the 
departure of Israel out of Egypt, and a relation of all the 
\\ ondcrs cuntained in the history of Exodus. By \vhich 
\\.c learn, that aU that i:, there \vrittell mav be taken in a 



[j08 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


figurath?e ,vay, and contains hidden sacraUlents; for this is 
,vhat the Saviour is there made to preface by the \\?ords, 
Gloss. I will open 1ny '1noutll in parables. GLOSS. As though Ile 
apo An- had said, I who spoke before by the Prophets, no\v in l\ly 
selm. h . bI I O }] b . 
own person will open 1\1 y nlout In para es, anf 'VI nng 
forth out of 
ly secret store mysteries ,,?hich have been hidden 
ever since the foundation of the ,vorld. 


36. Then Jesus sent the lllultitude a,vay, and ,vent 
into the house: and his disciples came unto hill), 
saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the 
field. 
37. He ans,vered and said unto thenl, He that 
soweth the good seed is the Son of lllan ; 
38. The field is the world; the good seed are the 
children of the kingdom; but the tares are the chil- 
dren of the wicked one; 
39. The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the 
harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are 
the angels. 
40. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned 
in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this \vorld. 
41. The Son of lllan shall send forth his angels, 
and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things 
that offend, and thelll ,vhich do iniquity; - 
42. And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: 
there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth. 
43. Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun 
in the kingdom of their Father. 'Vho hath ears tu 
hear, let him hear. 


CHRYS. The Lord had spoken to the lllultitude iu parables, 
that He might induce theln to ask IIilTI of their nleaning; 
yet, though He had spoken so lnany things in parables, no 
luan had yet asked IIiln aught, and therefore lIe sends them 
a\vay; Then Jeslls sent lite '11l11ltiillde llICIl!!, and /Cent illio 
the hOllse. None of the ScriLes füHo\\Tcd Hilu here, fi'Olll 



'.EIL :J()-..13. 



 r. \IA TTHE" . 


!)UH 


which it is c:lear that they follo\\ cd lIim for IlO other 
pl1rpos(' than that the) tni
ht catch ] IÏ1n in I [is discourse. 
J FHO'lE; The Lord scnds a\\ ay the 1l1ultitude, and cnters 
thc housc that I I is disciples nlight COlliC to llilu and ask 
I I iUl privatcly of those things ,vhich the people neither 
ùeserved to hear, nor "'cre able. It-\B:\
. I
igurativcly; 
1 r
l\-ing 
ent away the 11lllltitncle of unquiet Je,vs, lIe enters 
the Church of the Gentiles, and there expounds to believeI s 
hca,"cnly saCratllcnts, ,,"hence it 10110\'"8, _lud his disciples 
('{fille to I, i Ill, su yillY, L.1:plaill to us lite parable of lite 
lares l!.l lite field. CliRYS. Defore, though desirous to 
learn, they had feared to ask; but no,,' they ask freely 
arHl confìdently becaus(' they had heard, To YOlt it is 
gi,.ell io knoll' ill 
 1uy
tery C!f the kingdolJl 0./' I,eat'en; and 
therefore they a:-,k \\"'hen alone, not envying the Inultitude to 
whOl}} it \vas not so gi\.en. 1'hey pass over the parables of 
the leaven aud lhe Inustard-sced as plain; aud ask con- 
cerning tilt' parable of the tares, which lla
 SOlne agreeInent 
,,-ith the foregoing parable concerning the ðeed, and shews 
soulcwhat nlore than that. And accoròingly the Lord 
()xpounds it to thclu, as it follows, lIe anslcered and said 
UII/O llte}/I, He thal sows lite good sl
ed is tl,c SOil q(ulfln. 
ItE)IIG. The Lord stylcs IfÏ1nself the 
on of .1.\1an, that in 
that title TIc H1ight set an exanlple of hUß1ility; or perhap
 
because it was to come to pass that certain heretics \\?oulcl 
deny IJim to Le really Inan; or that through belief in IIis 
ITulnallity ,ve lllight ascend to kno\\"ledge of His Di\'iuity. 
CURYS. Tlte' þ'eld is ti,e u'orld. Seeing it i
 II e that SO""8 
I [i
 own field, it is plain that this prcst'nt \\ orld is ITis. It 
fo1Jows, Ti,e gond seed art! tile children o..! lite kiuge/Olli. 
H,E)IIG. 'fhat is, the saints, and elect Inen, ,,-ho are counted 
as sons. 
\.UG. The tares the Lord expounds to Blcau, Aug. 
'1 . } ' .. . 1 cont 
110t as anlC læus Interprets, certaIn SpUrIOUS parts 111Serte( Fau;t. 
é.l1nong the true :'cripturc
, but all the children of the E\
il xviii. 7. 
one, that is, the ilnitators of the fraud of the ] )e\'il. As it 
f( .11ows 17u
 iflr(
,t; are lite cltildrell o.l tile el:il one, by ,,"hon1 
lie would ha\
e us understand all the wicked and inlpious. 
I J), For all \n..:eds all101Jg corn are called tares. 1 t Aug. 
follo\\ s, TI,e enc}uy lrlto sowed tltis i8 lile Del..il. CIIRYS. 
:.
.s
o. 
For this is part of the \viles of the De,"il, to be ever Inixing 



510 


, 
GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


up truth u.ith error. Tile harvest is the end of the u'o'rld. 
In another place lIe 8ays, speaking of the Samaritans, 
John 4, Lift up your eyes, and cOllsider tlte fields t!tat they al'e 
t:kelo, ai-read!1 u.ltife .tòr the harvest; and again, Tile lut1Tesl ",.uly 
2. is g1'eat, but tlte labourers are few, in ,vhich words He 
speaks of the harvest as being already present. Ho"v then 
does He here speak of it as something yet to come? Because 
He has used the figure of the harvest in two significations; 
as lIe says there that it is one that soweth, and another that 
reapeth; but here it is the same \vho both so".s and reaps; 
indeed there lIe brings for\vard the Prophets, not to dis- 
tinguish them fi-oln IIinlself, but froln the Apostles, for 
Christ Himself by His Prophets so\ved among the J e\vs 
and Salnaritans. The figure of hanrest is thus applied to 
two different things. Speaking of first conviction and 
turning to the faith, He calls that the har\rest, as that 
in which the "'Thole is accomplished; but ,yhen He 
enquires into the fruits ensuing upon the hearing the 
,vord of God, then He calls the end of the ,vorld the 
hanrest, as here. REMIG. By the harvest is denoted the 
day of judgment, in which the good are to he separated from 
the evil; which ,yill be done by the ministry of Angels, as it 
is said belo",,", that the Son of Man shall come to judgment 
,vith His Angels. As then the tares al'e gathered and burned 
in tlte fire, so shall it be in the ellll of this lù'orld. The 
Son of 'Jnan shall send LfOl'tlt his Angels, anll they shall gather 
out qf his kingdorn all qlfences, and '!tent which, do Ùriquity. 
Aug. De AUG. Out of that kingdom in which are no offences? The 
Civ.Dei k . d h . H . k " d h . h . h ] h 
xx. 9. · ?Ing om t en IS IS -Ing om ,v IC IS ere, name y, t p 
Aug. Church. ID. That the tares are first separated, signifies 




:o. that by tribulation the \vicked shall be separated from the 
righteous; and this is understood to be performed by good 
Angels, because the good can discharge duties of punish- 
Inent ,vith a good spirit, a8 a judge, or as the Law, but th
 
\vicked cannot fulfil offices of Inercy. CHRYS. Or "re Inay 
understand it of the kingdoln of the heavenly Church; and 
then there ,viII be held out here a two-fold punishlnent; first 
that they fall from glory as that is said, And they shall 
gather out qllzis kingdom all ({{fences, to the end, that no 
offences should be seen in His kingdolTI; and then that thev 
_ 01 



'"Elt.JL 



T. 
IATTIIE\\. 


511 


arc burned. -hul/hey !"hall cast II,PIIl inlo II /ill'luu'(> l? 
 ire. 
.J EHO:\fE; 'rhe offences are to be referred to the tares. GLO
S. Gloss. 
1 I .. , 1, d ' . non occ. 
Tltr (!I/i Iu.:e.'\, all(, /lU'I" that l U I1llqUtly, arc to ue lstln- 
guished as hcretics and s
hislnatics; the ojfP/lCPS refcrring to 
he]'(,tic:-;; ,,-hile by thrm 'hat do iniquity are to be understood 
schisll1atics. Otherwise; By oJfence.
 luay he understoud 
those that gi,"c their neighbour an occasion of falling, h
 
Ihu.w' Ihat do iniquity all othcr sinnrrs. R.-\llAN. Obsen"e, 
lIe says, fhose l!tal do iniquity, not, those who have 
done; because not they ,,,ho have turned to penitence, but 
the
. only that abide in their sins are to be deli,'cred to 
eternal tonnents. CURYS. Dehold the unspeakable lo"e of 
GOt} to".ards llwn! lIe is ready to 
he"- mercy, slo\\. to 
punish; ,,-hen fIe sows, lIe sows IJirnself; \",hen IIp 
Plluishes, lie punishes by others, sending His Angels to 
tlhlt. It follows, There ,çlulll he lceeping and gnashing qf 
tel't". RE'IIG. In these ".ords is shewn the reality of thf' 
resurrection of the body; and further, the tnyofold pains of 
hell, extreulP heat, and extrcuIC cohl. Aud as the offences 
are referred to the tares, so the righteous are reckoned aillong 
the children of the kingdom; concerning \VhODl it fo11o".s, 
1'hell I he ri!llt leOll8 shall sit; ne as 11,(' tnl/l in I he 
'ill.rJllo1//' 
l!./ il'eil" Fatlter. For in the present world the light of the 
saints 
hincs hefore lllCn, but after the consllnnnation of an 
thing
, the righteous themselve
 shall shine as the sun in the 
kin
donl of their Father. CIJRYS. Not that they shall not 
shine "ith higher brightness, but because \ye know no 
(l('gree of brightness that surpasses that of the sun, there- 
fure lIe uses an example adaptcd to onr un(h'rstanding. 
}
E
IIG. Tl1a1 lIe says, Then 
hall fhey sltine, implie!i 
that they IlOW' 
hine for an example to others, but they 
shall then shine as thl" sun to the prai
e of G-od. lIe tltal 
hath ('firs 10 h('(ir, /(,t hinl Ileal'. IlAH:\
. rrhat is, Let hiln 
nndc'l'stand who has understanding, becau
e all these thing
 
are to be l1nderstood lnystically, and not literally. 
4 1. .L\gain, the kingdom of heaven is like unto 
treasure hid in a field; the ,vhich ,,-hen a. nlan hath 
found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and 
sell(lth all that he hath, and buyeth that field. 



512 


GOSPEl, ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


CUHYS. The foregoing parables of the leaven, and the 
grain of 111ustard-seed, are referred to the power of the 
Gospel preaching, ,vhich has subdued the \vhole world; 
in order to shew its yalue and splendour, He now puts 
forth parables concerning a pead and a treasure, saying, 
Tile k'ill.qdom o.l/Ieaven is li"
e unto t1'eaSll1"e hid in a field. 
For the Gospel preaching is hidden in this \vorld; and if 
you do not sell your all you \vill not purchase it; and this 
you ought to do with joy; \vherefore it follo\vs, which when 
a nUll' hatlt found, he hideth it. HILARY; This treasure is 
indeed found without cost; for the Gospel preaching is 
open to all, but to use and possess the treasure \vith 
its field ,ve may not ,vilhout price, for hea\renly riches are 
not obtained ,vithout the loss of this ,vodd. J EROJ\IE; That 
hp hides it.1 does not proceed of elnry to,'rards others, but as 
one that treasures up what he would not lose, he hides in 
his heart that \vhich he prizes abo\Te his former possessions. 
Greg., GREGORY; Other\vise; The treasure hidden in the field is 

;.
i.;
 the desire of heaven; the field in \vhich the treasure is 
hidden is the discipline of heavenly learning; this, ,,,hen 
a nlan finds, he hides, in order that he Inay preserve it; 
for zeal and affections heavenw'ard it is not enough that 
,ve protect fro 111 evil spirits, if ,ve do not protect from 
human praises. For in this present life ,ye are in the ,yay 
\-\Thich leads to our country, and evil spirits as robbers beset 
us in our journey. Those therefore ,vho carry their treasure 
openly, they seek to plunder in the way. "Then I say this, 
I do not mean that our neighboul"s should not see our 
,yorks, but that in what ,ve do, \\.e should not seek praise 
from \\Tithout. The kingdoln of hea,Ten is therefore COlll- 
pared to things of earth, that the mind lnay rise frolll things 
familiar to things unkno,vn, and Inay learn to love the 
unkno\vn by that \vhich it knows is loved. \vhen known. 
It follo\ys, And for joy tlte1"eqf he goeth and selleth all that 
he hath, and bltyet!l that field. lIe it is that selleth all he 
hath and buyeth the field, \vho, renouncing fleshly delights, 
tran1ples upon all his worldly desires in his anxiety for the 
CoL2,3, hea'Tenly discipline, J ERO:l\IE; Or, That treasure in 
rhiclt 
a1"e !lid allllle treasures oj' 'lcisdonz and I.:noll'ledge, is either 
God the 'V ord, ,,,ho Seell1S llÍd in Christ's flesh, or the l{oly 



V En. .J;;, It;, 



T. )1.\ T fll i-: \\ . 


:> I :1 



cripltlres, in which are laid up the knowledge ot the 
Saviour. AUG. Or, lIe speaks of the t\\ 0 testaments in .\u
, 
the (ihurch, 'which, when any hath attained to a partial 
u
:
'i. 
understanding of, hc perceives ho\\- great things lie hid 13, 
th('re, and goelll llnd sellellt all tltat he lilltlt, and b!ly
/ll 
thnt; that is, by despising teDlporal things he purchases 
to himself peacc, that he may be rich in the kno\vledge of 
God. 


45. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a 
merchant man, seeking goodly pearls: 
4ô. 'Vho, \vhen he had found one pearl of great 
price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it. 


CHRYS. The Gospel preaching not only offcrs manifold 
gain as a treasure, but is precious as a pearl; ,vherefore 
after the parable concerning the treasure, He gives that 
concerning the pear1. And in preaching, hvo things are 
required, naulely, to be detached from the business of thi
 
life, and to be watchful, \vhich are denoted by this n1erchant- 
man. Truth moreover is one, and not Dlanifold, and for this 
reason it is one pearl that is said to be found. And as one 
".ho is possessed of a pearl, himself indeed kno\vs of his 
wealth, but is not kno\vn to others, ofttinles concealing it in 
his hand becausc of its small bulk, so it is in the preaching 
of the Gospel; they \vho possess it kno\\T that they are rich, 
the unbelievers, not kno\ving of this treasure, kno\v not of 
our \\'calth. JEROME; By the goodly pearls ll1a,y be under- 
stood the La\v and the Prophets. Ileal' then !\Iarcion and 
1\lanichæns; the good pearls arf\ the La\\
 and the Prophct
, 
One pearl, the most precious of all, is the kno\vledge of the 
Saviour and the sacrament of IIis passion and resurrection, 
which \"hen the Il)crchanhnan ha
 found, like Paul tll(' 
Apostle, he slraight\vay despises all the Inysteries of the 
La\v and the Prophets and the old obser\'ances in ,,'hich 
he had li\'f'd blaluclcss, counting then1 as dung that IH:1 
D1ay \vin Christ. Not that the finding of a ne\\" pearl is Phil. 3, 
the condemnation of the old pearl
, but that in c0111parison 8. 
of that, an other pearls arc ,vorthlc
s. G TIF.GORY; ()r by 
:
: in 
\
OI.. I. :l L Ev,xi.'2. 



514 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


the pead of price is to be understood thc s\ycctness of the 
heayenly kingdolll, \vhich, he that hath fonnd it, se11eth all 
and buyeth. For he that, as far as is permitted, has had 
perfect knowledge of the s\veetness of the heavenly life, 
readily lea\-es all things that he has loved on earth; all 
that once pleased hiul among earthly possessions no\\" 
appears to ha,'e lost its beauty, for the splendour of that 
Aug. precious pearl is alone seen in his mind. AUG. Or, A lnan 

u
S

t. seeking goodly pearls has found one pearl of great price; 
q.13. that is, he \vho is seeking good Inen ,vith ".holn he Inay live 
profitably, finds one alone, Christ .T esns, ,vithant sin; or, 
seeking precepts of life, by aid of ,yhich he Inay dwell 
righteously aillong Inen, finds 10ye of his neighbonr, in 
Rom. \vhich one rule, the Apostle says, are cOluprehendcd all 
13t 9. things; or, seeking good thoughts, he finds that \V ord in 
John 1, ,vhich all things are contained, III tlte be9iJ1l1in.q was the 
1. 1f T ord, \\Thich is lustrous with the light of truth, steclfast ,vith 
the strength of eternity, and throughout like to itself ,vith the 
beauty of divinity, and \\'hen \\'e have penetrated the shell 
of the flesh, "'ill he confessed as God. But ,vhiche\Ter of 
these three it n1ay be, or if there be any thing else that 
can occur to us, that can be signified under the figure of 
the one precious pearl, its prßciousness is the possession 
of ourselves, who are not free to possess it unless ,ve despise 
all things that can be possessed in this world. For having 
sold our possessions, \ve receive no other return greater than 
ourselves, (for ,vhile 'we \yere involved in such things we 
,vere not our o\\'n,) that \ve Inayagain gi\Te ourselves for that 
pearl, not because \ve are of equal value to that, but because 
we cal1not give any thing 1110re. 


47. Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a 
net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every 
kind: 
48. 'Vhich, \vhen it ,vas full, they dre\v to shore, 
and sat do\vn, and gathered the good into vessels, but 
cast the bad away. 
49. So shall it be at the end of the ,vorld: the 



YEIt. 17--5u. 


S1'. :\L\ T rHF\Y. 


515 


angcl
 
hall COlne forth, and sc,.cr the \vicked fronl 
the just, 
50. .L\nd shall cast then1 into the furnace of fire: 
there shall he ,,"ailing and gnashing of teeth. 


CHRYS. In the foregoing parahles IIp has cOllunendcd the 
Gospel preaching; no\\", that \ve Inay 110t trust in preaching 
only, nor think that faith alone is sufficient for our sahyation, 
lIe adds anoth{'r fearful parable, saying, A!Jfl in, file kingdon, 
qf lieOl;(,n is like uuto a net cast into the sea. JEHO)IE; In 
fulfihncnt of that prophecy of IJiercluias, who said, I ll"illselld JeT. 16, 
unio YOIl l/lflll,lJ}islu:rs, ,,'hen Peter and _.\.ndre\\", Jal11es and ]6. 
J ohu, heard the \vords, J.òllou.: rue, I 1l'ill 1J1llke YOIl fishers 
qf n/ell, they put together a llet for the111seJ "cs fonned of the 
Old and K ew Tcstalnent
, and cast it into the sea of this 
,,'orId, and tllat rClnains spread until this day, taláng np out 
of the salt and hitter and w'hirIpools whate'>er falls into it, 
that is good llll'll and had; and this is that] Ie add
, ...Iud 
.qafliered ql el"er,1J kind. GREGORY; Or oth{'rwise; The Greg. , 
II 1 ( 1 1 1 . 1 '1 1 b .... Hom. III 
o y lurc 1 IS Ih.cnce to a net, ecan
e It IS gn>cn 111tO Ev. xi.4. 
the hand
 of fìshl'r
, and by it each lnan is dra\\-u into the' 
hca.venly kingdo111 out ot thc \va\yes of this present world. 
that ht' should not be dro\\'ned in the depth of ctcrnal 
death. This net gathers of every kind of fishes, because 
the \vise and the foolish, the fr
e and the sla,'c, the rich 
and the poor, the strong and the \vcak, are caned to forgive- 
ncs
 of sin; it is then fully fined when in the end of all 
things the Slun of the Illunan race is cOlnpletfd; as it 
follows, 1 r 7ticlt, 1['lulI if Il'({.
 ji lied, tlley drru' out, and 
,
illillg rlOlCl1 0/1, Il,e shore galhered lite !Jond into 'l.c'''''.'!o'e!s, 
but II,e bad IluJY cn,f;t au.ay. For a, the sC'a signifies the 
world, fo'O the sea shore significs the ('ud of the world; aud 
as the good are gathcreù into Yes
cls
 hut the ùad cast 
a\\"ay, so each 1nan is recei "e(l into eternal abo(lC's, while 
tI1C reprohatp ha,"iuf{ lost the light of the inward kingdolll 
are cast f")l.th into onter darkness. But no\\r the net of 
faith hold
 good Illnd had Inillgled together in one; hut 
the shore f'hall discover what the llet of the Church has 
hrought to land. JERO
lE; For ,,"hen the net shall he 

L2 



51ü 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XII!. 


drawn to the shore, then shaH be shewn the true test fOI" 
separating the fishes. CHRYS. 'Vherein does this pal"able 
differ from the parable of the tares? There, as here, S0111e 
perish and some are saved; but there, because of their 
heresy of evil dogmas; in the first parable of the sower, 
because of their not attending to \vhat ,vas spoken; here, 
because of their evil life, because of \vhich, though dra\vn 
by the net, that is, enjoying the kl1o\yledge of God, they 
cannot be sa\yed. And "Then you hear that the \vicked 
are cast awa?}, that you may not suppose that this punishment 
may be risked, He adds an exposition shewing its severity, 
saying, TItus sltall it be in lite end of the world; the angels 
shall COl1ze ,,(ol"tll and sever tlie ?l'icked þ"O'JIZ 11lnong tlte just, 
and shall cast tlte'/n into tile fUl'l1ace if fire, tltel.e sllall be 
'lcailillg and gnashing of teeth. Though He else\vhere 
declares, that He shall separate them as a shepherd sepa- 
rates the sheep froln the goats; He here declares, that 
the Angels shall do it, as also in the parable of the tares. 
Greg. GREGORY; To fear becomes us here, rather than to ex- 
ubi sup. d i" h f . d . I . 
ponn ; Jor t e tonnents 0 SInners are pronounce In paIn 
terms, that none might plead his ignorance, should eternal 
punishment be threatened in obscure sayings. J ERO::\TE; For 
\vhen the end of the \vor1d shall be come, then shall be 
she,,'n the true test of separating the fishes, and as in a 
sheltered harbour the good shall be sent into the vessels 
of hea\"enly abodes, but the flame of hell shall seize the 
\vicked to be dried up and withered. 


51. Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all 
these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord. 
52. Then said he unto them, Therefore every 
Scribe \vhich is instructed unto the kingdom of 
heaven is like unto a man that is an householder, 
which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new 
and old. 


Glo5S. GLOSS. When the tnultitude had departed, the Lord 
non oec. spoke to His disciples in parables, by which they were 
instructed only so far as they understood them; wherefore 



\"En. l>l, 52. 


ST. :\IATTHE\V. 


5]1 


lIe asks thc)n, [lare ye il/ldersluud all illese ildllgs I TIley 
say unlo llil1t, Yea, ord. J EnO\J E; li'or this is spoken 
espcciall.v to the Apostles, whonl lIe \\rould have not to 
hear only as the llulltitudc, but to understand as having 
to tcach others. CHRYS. rrhen lIe praises theu1 because 
they had understood; lIe saith unto them; rlit-Tt;/ore el.ery 
Scribe iustruc/ed in tlie kiuge/nut of hearen is lil..-e u/llo till 
lIou..wllolder 1["110 brÎngetlt Dill of lti.f) treasure tlÛngs lieu' dud 
olel. .AeG. lIe said not' old and ne\\',' as lIe surely would 
,ug, u.c 
ha'"c said had He not preferred to preser\"e the order of value 


.

CJ, 
rather than of tinlc. But thc )Ianichæans \vhi1e they think 
they should keep only the ne\\' prolllises of God, reu1ain in 
the old luau of the flesh, and put on newness of error. 
ID. By this conclusion, ,,-hether did lIe desire to 
he\v Aug. 
\VhOIll He intended by the treasure hid in the field-in 
u
S

t. 
\vhich case ,YC Inight und{'rstand the IIoly Scriptures to q. 16. 
be here meant, the 1\\"0 Testanlents by the things nc\y and 
old-or did lIe intend dlat he should be held learned in 
the Church who understood that the Old Scriptures ""cre 
eÀpounJed in parables, taking rules frolu these ne\v Scrip- 
tures, seeing that in them also the Lord proclaimed many 
things in parables. If lIe then, in \VhOln all those old 
Scriptures ha"c their fulfihnC'l1t and lllanifestation, Jet spcal
s 
in parables untilllis passion shall rend the vail, \vhen there 
is nothing hid that shall not be re\"ealed; nluch n10re tho
e 
things \\"hich \vere \\yritten of IIiu1 so long tilne before we 
see to have been clothed in parables; \vhich the J e\\"s took 
literally, being lun,"illing to be learned in the kingdolu of 
hea\'en. C;HEGORY; But if by thillg,
 ueZf) (full old in this Grf>g, 
d d h T d ubi sup. 
passage \\ge un erstan t e Ì\vo estaments, 'we en)" ...\bra- 
ham to ha,.e been learned, \\9ho although he kne\\' indeed 
sonH:' deeds of the Old Testall1C'ut, .ret had not read the 
\vords, X either 
Ioses lllay \\'e cOlnpare to a learned honst'- 
holder, for although he cOlnposed the Old Testaillent, Jet 
had he not the \vords of the Ne\v. But \vhat is here said 
luav ùe understood as Ineant not of those ,,-bo had becn 
. , 
hut of :,uch a
 might hereafter be in the Church, ,,-ho then 
briu!JJortli Ihi/l!J'
 nelf) and old "'hen they speak the preach- 
iugs of both Tcstalnents, in their "rords and in their lives. 
] I IL.\ It\; 
p('aking to IIis disciplc
, lIe calJ
 then1 Scribes 



518 


GOSPEL ACCOn DING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


on account of their l
no\yledge, because they understood the 
things tbat lIe brought fon,"ard, both new' and old, that is 
ii'Olll the La\v and froln the Gospels; both being of the san1C 
}10uscl1oldcr, and both treasures of the saIne o\vner. He 
C0ï11pareS thenl to I-IÏ1nself under the figure of a householder, 
because they had received doctrine of tIlings both ne\v and 
old out of llis treasury of the J 1 oly Spirit. J EUO
IE ; Or 
tbe Apost1es are called Scribes instructed, as being the 

a\yiour's notaries ,,"ho wrote 11is \yorùs and precepts on 
fleshly tables of tI1e heart \"ith the SaCrall1ents of the 
heavenly king-eloIn, and abounded in the "yca1th of a house- 
holder, bringing forth out of the stores of their doctrine 
things nc\v and old; \vhatsoe\yer they preached in the 
Gospels, that they proyed by the ,,'ords of the La\v and 
thc Prophets. 'Vheucc the Bride speal
s in the Song of 
c. 7. 13. Songs; I !tare kept jòr '!lee 'I1l.1} belo
'ed Ille /leu' 'lci/It tILe 
Greg. old. GREGOltY; Other\\yise; The things old are, that the 
ubi sup. 1 .l"' } 11 ff " I . h 
Hunan race lor ItS SIn s )OU ( su -er III eterna puniS 1nent; 
the things nc\v, that they should be cOll\Terted and li\ye in 
the kingdonl. First, lIe brought forward a c0111parison of 
the lángdo111 to a treasure found and a pearl of price; and 
after that, narrated the punisllluent of hell in the burning 
of the \vicked, and then concluded \vith Therr:fo're c

e1"Y 
Scribe, 
'c. as if fIe had said, lIe is a learned preacher 
in the Church \"ho kno\vs to bring forth things new. con- 
cerning the s\\yeetllcss of the lángdoIn, and to speak things 
old concerning the terror of punishment; that at least 
punisllluent Inay dete}' those \vhon1 re\vards do not e
cite. 


53. I\nd it caIne to pass, that ,,,hen Jesus had 
finished these parables, he departed thence. 
5 L 1. j-\.nd "Then he "vas come into his own country, 
he taught them in their synagogue, insolnuch that 
they ,vere astonished, and said, 'Vhence hath this 
man this \visdom, and these mighty ,vorks ? 
55, Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his 
1110ther calJed l\Iary? and his brethren, Jalllcs, and 
J oses, and Sinlon, and Judas? 



VEIL 5;
-5
. 



T. 'IATTIIE\V. 


51!} 


5G. _\nd his 
i
ters, are they not all \\ ith us? 
" hence then hath this Ulan all these things! 
57. And they "'ere offended in him. 11ut Jeslls 
said unto thcIn, A prophet is not ,vithout hOllour, 
sa\'c in hi
 0\\"11 country, and in his o\vn housc. 
5S. ..1nd he did not many l11ighty ,,"orks there 
becausp of thcir unbelief. 


JETIO){E; .L\fter the parahles \\
hich the Lord :-;pake to th(' 
people, and \\'hich the Apostles Duly understand, lIe goes 
over into IIis own country that lIe may teach therc also. 
..\ un. FrOBI the foregoing discourse consisting of these Aug. De 
paraùles, lIe pa::;ses to Wl1é.1t follo\\
S without any ,"cry 


t42. 
c,-ident connexion l)ct\\
('en theln. 1
esidcs whic]), 
Iark 
})asscs fi.Olll these parables to a different eycnt froDI ,,"hat 
::\Iatthc\\r here gi,-es; and Luke agrees with hinl, so con- 
tinuing the thread of the Rtory as to Blake it much more 
probable that that \vhich they relate followed here, nalnely, 
about the ship in ,,-f]ich Jesus slept, and the miracle of the 
dClllons cast out; ,,"hich )Iatthe\v has introduced above. 
CUHYS. By his own country here, lIe llleans Nazareth; fOrChrys. 
it was not there but in Capharnalun that, as is said belo,,", H l o,
. 
x VIII. 
lIe \,"rought 80 luany nliracles; but to these TIe she\vs IIis 
doctrinc, causing no lcss wondcr than 1 lis luiracles. IlE)lIG. 
lie taught in their synagogues \vhere great nUlubers ""ere 
IHet, because it was for tlle salvation of the l11Ultitudc that 
lIe caU1C ii.OIll hca,-eu upon earth. It follo\vs; So thaI tltey 
'1111lrl"('llcd, all(l said, If71ellce !tatlt this rJlan t!ti,r.:; u"i,wlv/ll, 
and tlte,w J JllllI!! llli!Jltl!I'll'orks -I (lis wisdolH is rcfcrred to 
1 I i
 doctrine, I lis llJighty \,"orks to I [is miracles. J ERO)! E ; 
'Yonderful folly of the Nazarclles! They ".onder whence 
'\-isdolD itself has wisdolU, ,,-hence Pon.cr has Inigh t). ,,"orks! 
But the source of thcir error is at hand, ùecause they regard 
Ililn as the 
on uf a carpenter; a
 they say, fs /lot litis tlte 
car/H'lIler's ,'\Oll! CIIHYS. Thereforc ,,-crc they in all things 
inscnsate, seeing thcy lightly e
t{'cnleù llirn on account ùf 
hin1 \\'ho \\.a
 reganlcd a!-' lli
 father, not,,-ithstandillg thc 
))}an
 in
tanl'cs in old tiUlCS of 
on:-, illu
trious :--prllng 1Ì'Ol1l 
ignoble fathcr::-; as Da\"id ,,-as the son of a husbandn1an, 



520 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIII. 


Jesse; AU10S the son of a shepherd, himself a shepherd. 
And they ought to have gÎ\?en Him more abundant honol11', 
because, that coming of such parents, He spake after such 
manner; clearly she\ving that it came not of human industry, 
P
eudo- but of divine grace. PSEUDO-AuG. For the Father of Christ 



.;
n is that Divine \V orkman \vho made all these ,,-orks of nature, 
Serm. ,,'ho set forth Noah's ark, ,vho ordained the tabernacle of 
135. 
A pp. 1\loses, and instituted the Ark of the covenant; that \V orkman 
\vho polishes the stubbon1 Inind, and cuts do\vn the proud 
thoughts. HILARY; And this was the carpenter's son who 
subdues iron by lneans of fire, ,vho tries the virtue of this 
world in the judgluent, and forms the rude Inass to e\.ery 
\vork of hUluan need; the figure of our bodies, for 
exan1ple, to the divers ministrations of the IÌ111bs, and all 
the actions of life eternal. J ERO
IE; And ,,'hen they are 
Inistaken ill IIis Father, no \yonder if they are also mistaken 
in His brethren. 'Vhel1ce it is added, Is not /tis J1lotlter 
Ajar!/, and his brethren, Ja1nes, and Joseplt, and SÙnoll, 
and Judas? And ltis sisters, are t!ley '/lot all with. 'Us? 
!licron. ID. Those \"ho are here caned the Lord's brethren, 

elvid. are the sons of a Mary, His Mother's sister; she is the 
14. mother of this Jalnes and Joseph, that is to say, 1V[ary the 
\vife of Cleophas, and this is the Mary \vho is caned the 
Aug. mother of James the Less. AUG. No wonder then that any 

1J
;

l. kinsmen by the mother's side should be called the Lord's 
q. 17. brethren, when even by their kindred to Joseph SOlne are 
here called His brethren by those \vho thought Him the 
son of Joseph. HILARY; Thus the Lord is held in no 
honour by His own; and though the ,visdol11 of His teach- 
ing, and the power of His working raised their admiration, 
yet do they not be1ieve that He did t11ese things in the 
nalne of the Lord, and they cast His father's trade in His 
teeth. Amid all the \vonderful ,,"orks \vhich He did, they 
,,-ere moved ,vilh the contelnplation of His Body, and 
hence they ask, Tf 7 hence hath tllis 1nnn these things? 
.And t!tus they were offended in ki1Jl. J ERO:\fE; This error 
of the J e\vs is our salvation, and the condelnnation of the 
heretics, for they percei,-ed Jesus Christ to be luan so far 
as to think IIim the son of a carpenter. CHRYS. Observe 
Christ's nlercifulness; lIe is evil spoken of, Jct He ans\vcrs 



\ Ell. 53-5
. 


ST. 'I.\TfIlE\V. 



':.!l 


\\'ith Inildness; Jesus said unto 1/IC1Jl, A prop/let is 1I0t wit/t- 
out /'O/lUllr, !Jut in /ds ou.n country, and in !tis ou"n /lollse. 
Rf

no. I [e caBs IIiulself a Prophet, as ::\Ioses also declares, 
\Vhell he says, A l>ropllcl sllall God raÙ;c up unto yon q/ your Deut. 
hrei/n"ell. And it 
hould be kno,,"u, that nol Christ only, 18, 18, 
,,"ho is the I lead of all the Prophets, but Jeremia}1, Daniel, 
and lhe other lesser Prophets, had more honour and regard 
among strangers than among their o\vn citizcns. JERO)IE; 
For it is ahnost natural for citizens to be jealous to\vards 
one another; for they do not look to tile present w'orks of 
the toan, but remember the frailties of his childhood; as 
if they thelllselves had not passed through the very same 
stages of age to their Dlaturity. lIILARY; Further, lIe 
makes this ans"rer, that a Prophet is \vithout honour in 
his own country, because it \vas in Judæa that lIe \vas to 
he condeulned to the sentence of the cross; and forasmuch 
as the po""er of God is for the faithful alone, He here 
abstained frOID \vorks of divine po\\"er because of their 
unhelief; ,,-hence it foIl O'"f S, Aud he did not tl,Pre rJlany 
luigh/y 'll"orks because o.l their unbelief. JERO)IE; Not that 
because they did not believe lIe could not do IIis Inighty 
,,'orks; but that He n1ight not by doing them be condelnn- 
ing 1 lis fello\v-citizens in their unbelief. CHRYS. But if IIis 
Iniracles raised thcir \\'onder, ,,,hy did lIe not \vol'k Inany i 
Because lIe looked not to display of Himself, but to \\'hat 
"ould profit others; and \\'hen that did not result, He 
despised what pertained only to IIimself that lIe Inight 
not increase their punishment. 'Yhy then did He e'"en 
these fen" miracles? That they should not say, "T e should 
havc believed had any tniracles been done alDong us. 
J ERO)IE; Or we lTIay understand it otherwise, that Jesus 
is dcspised in l-lis o\\"n house and country, signifies in the 
Jewish pcople; and tilerefore lIe did among then. fe\v 
Iniraclcs, that they n1Ïght 110t be altogether \vithout excuse; 
but é.unong the Gentiles lIe does daily greater miracles by 
11 is _\ posHes, not so Hluch in healing their bodies, as in 
!"a\'ing their sonl
. 



CIlf\l">. XI V. 


1. At t.hat tilTIe Herod the tetrarch heard of the 
fame of Jesus. 
2. And said unto his servants, This js John the 
Baptist; he is risen fronl the dead; and therefore 
nlighty ,yorks do she\v forth thelnselves in hiln. 
3. For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound 
him, and put hiln in prison for Herodias' sake, his 
brother Philip's ,vife. 
4. For John said unto hinl, It is not la\vful for 
thee to have her. 
5. A.nd ,vhen he would have put him to death, he 
feared the 11lultitude, because they counted him as a 
prophet. 


Gloss. GLOSS. THE Evangelist had abo\
e she,vll the Pharisees 
non occ. speaking falsely against Christ's miracles, and just no\v His 
fellow-citizens \vondering, yet despising Him; he no\v re- 
lates ,vhat opinion IIerod had fonned concerning Christ 011 
hearing of His miracles, and says, At illat tÙne Herod tIle 
tetrarclt heard tlie janze Qf Jesus. CHRYS. It is not ,vithont 
reason that the Evangelist here specifies the tiIne, but that 
you lllay understand tIle pride and carelessness of the tyrant; 
inasllluch as he had not at the first Blade hhnself acqnaillterl 
,,-ith the things concerning Christ, but no,y only after long 
tÏ1ne. Tlnis they, \vho in authority are fenced about ,vith 
much pomp, learn these things slo\yly, because they do not 
Aug. De luuch regard thein. AUG. l\Iatthc"r says, At tllat tÙJle, not, 



t43. On tl)at day, or, In that saIne hour; for l\Iark relates the 
same CirCUlllstances, hut not in the saIne order. I-Ic places 



\'EH. I-
. GO
PEI.. \(; 'onnl
G TO 
T. l\L\TTllE\,," 52:J 


this after tl1(, nli

ion of th(' disciples to preach, though not 
ilJ)plyillg that it lle('e
sarily 1ülIo""s there; any 1110rC than 
IJukc, who fl>UO\\'s the saIne order as 'fark. Cn IlY:-t. Obsl'n"c 
ho,\ great a t1Jing is virtue; J lerod fears J 0111) c\'cn after he 
is dead, and philosophizes conccruinb' the resurrection; as 
it follows; And he sail! 10 lti.
 .
errllJlI,
, Thi,4; is Johll 'he 
flap! ist, lie is 'ri.
(
Jl jì'Ol1l ti,e cl(Jad, ([lid Iltcre./'ore '/ Jli 9 1tl !J 
'U'orl..'s are 1croIl9'" ill hin,. l{-\n.\
, Fr01H this plac(' ""C 
Inay learn how' great the jealousy of the .Jews "'as; that 
John could ha\.c risen froln the dead, I I erod, an alien-bollI, 
here declares, without allY \\'itness that he had risen: con- 
cerning Christ, ,,,hOIH the l)rophets had loretold, the .J en's 
prcfen"ed to helie,.c, that lIe had not risen, hut had been 
carrier} away by stealth. This inti1uatcs that the Gentile heart 
is lHorc disposed to bclicf than that of the Jews- J ERO
IE ; 
One of thc l:cclesiastical interpreters ask
 what cau
ed 
] [('rod to think that John ,vas ri
ell frolH the dead; as 
though ""c had to account for the errors of an alien, or 
a
 thongh the heresy of luetelnpsychosis ""as at all supported 
hy this place-a heresy which teachcs that souls pass 
throng-h ,'arious hodics after a long period of Jear
- 
for the Lord was thirty years old ,,,hcn John was beheaded. 
HAB:\
. ...\11 nlen have ""ell thonght concerning the po".cr 
of tl1(' resurrcction, that the saints shall havc greater pon'cr 
after thcy have risen fronl the dead, than they had ,,'hilc 
they \\'cre yet weighed down ,,,ith the infirn1Ïty of the flesh; 
\\'h('rcfore Herod says, There.f'nre lJ1 i.'l" ty 'll'orks are Il'roll!Jld 
Ù hinl. AUG. Luke's ,,"oreIs are, .!Ol'll IUIl,:e I beheaded: Aug. 
11'1,0 i
 lie '!.f 'ii"llon I "car 'J'ucTt illi".fp:? As Lule has 

ik:uE; 
thus represented IIcrod as in doubt, we must understand 9. 
rather that hc was after','ards convincC'd of that \vhich 
""3:-, COlnulollly 
aid-or \YC lnnst takc wlult he here 
says h) hi
 sen"ants as expressing a doubt-for they 
achnit of either of these acceptations RE
IIG. Perhaps 
SOlHe onl
 IHay ask how' it call he here said, At t"at tÏJnc 
J/('rud lilJaI'd, 
eeing that \\"C haye long h(
fore read that 
llerod was dead, and that on that the Lurd returncd out of 
Egypt. Thj
 (Pll'stion is answered, if \\"C rClll(,lJ1her that 
there were two IIcrods. On Lhc death of the first Ilcrod, 
hi
 
t HI Archc1au
 succecdcd hiln, and after tcn year8 \\'a
 



524 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CIIAP. xlv. 


sent into exile to Vienne in Gaul. Then Cresar Augustus 
gave command that the kingdom should be divided into 
tetrarchies, and gave three parts to the sons of Herod. This 
Herod then who beheaded J obn is the SOI1 of that greater 
Herod under whom the Lord was born; and this is con- 
Gloss, firmed by the Evangelist adding the lei'rarc". GLOSS. 
oed. Having mentioned this supposition of John's resurrection, 
because he had never yet spoken of his death, he now 
returns, and narrates ho,,' it came to pass. CHRYS. And 
this relation is not set before us as a principal matter, 
because the Evangelist's only object was to tell us con- 
cerning Christ, and nothing beyond, unless so far as it 
furthered this object. He says then, Fo'/" Herod /tad seized 
Aug. De Jolin, and bound /ti'J1t. AVG. Luke does not give this in the 


jt44. same order, but where he is speaking of the Lord's baptism, 
so that he took beforehand an event \vhich happened long 
afterwards. For after that saying of John's concerning the 
Lord, that His fan is in His hand, he straightway adds this, 
\vhich, as we may gather from John's Gospel, did not follow 
immediately. For he relates that after .J esus \yas baptized, 
He \vent into Galilee, and thence returned into Judæa, and 
baptized there near to the Jordan before John ,vas cast into 
prison. But neither l\latthe\v nor Mark have placed John's 
imprisonment in that order in "Thieh it appears from their 
own writings that it took place; for they also say that when 
John was delivered up, the Lord "rent into Galilee, and 
after many things there done, then by occasion of the fame 
of Christ reaching Herod they relate "That took place in the 
imprisonluent and beheading of John. The cause for which 
he had been cast into prison he she\vs w"hen he says, On 
aCCOltnt oj" Herodias ltis brother's u.
fe. For Jo/tn had said 
'llnto lti1n, It is not lau)ful for thee to have iter. JEROME; 
The old history tells us, that Philip the son. of Herod the 
greater, the brother of this Herod, had taken to \v,ife He- 
rodias daughter of Aretas, king of the Arabs; and that he, 
the father-in-law, having after\vards cause of quarrel witb 
his son-in-law, took away his daughter, and to grieve her 
husband gave her in marriage to his enelny Herod. John 
the Baptist therefore, ".ho canIe in the spirit and po\vcr of 
F
lias, \vith the sanIC authority that he had exerted over 



\ ER. G-l:!. 


Sf. 'IATTH E\\'. 


52:j 


Ahal) ant} Jpzchcl, rcbukcd I I cruù al1ù lIcro<1ia s , hccau
e 
that Lhc}' had entcred intu uulan"ful \ve(llock; it bcinb 
unlawful while the O""U brothcl" yet Ii ,'es to take l1Ïs \\ ife. 
lIe preferred to eudanger hitnsclf with the !(illg, than to he 
forgetful of the conll113Ufhncnts of God in cOlnmending 
hilIlself to hÏ1n. CllUYS."\ et he spea1.s not to the" 0lna)) 
but to the husband, as he ""as the chief person. GLO-':
. Anù (jlosc;, 
perhaps he observcd th
 .Jewish Law, according to \vhich ord. 
John forbade hiln this adultery. And desÙ.illg 10 kill lâlll, 
he flared Ole people. J EROl\lE ; lIe feared a disturbance 
al110ug the people for John's sake, for he kne\v that Inulti- 
tudes haù been baptized by him in Jordan; but he \vas 
oyerCOlTJC by love of his \vife, \vhich had already Inade hinl 
neglect the c0l111nands of. God. GLOS:-'. 'fhc fear uf God (j 10"5. 
d f I on). 
amen s us, the fear 0 nlan torments us, but a ters not our 
"ill; it rather renders us Inore itnpatient to sin as it has 
held us hack for a time froul our indulgence. 


G. But \vhen I-Ierod's birthday was kept, the 
daughter of Herodias danced before them, and 
plea:sed Herod. 
7. 'Vhercupon he promised \vith an oath to give 
her ,vhatsoever she \vould ask. 
8. .And she, being before instructed of her Inother, 
said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger. 
9. ...\nd the king ,vas sorry: nevertheless for the 
oath's sake, and them \vhich sat ,vith him at meat, 
he commanded it to be given her. 
10. ...\nd he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. 
11. And his head \vas brought in a charger, and 
given to the damsel: and she brought it to her 
mother. 
12. 
\nd his di
cip]es came, and took up the body, 
and buried it, and \yent and told Jesus. 


GLOSS. '.rhc Evangelist ha\ ing related J ohu's Î111prison- Gloss. 
t 1 t I . . I 1 . B non occ. 
Illcn , proccc( s 0 llS puttIng to (eat), saYIng, ut 011 
Herod's birthday, tlte daughter '!l Herodia.ç dallCell in tlie 



Isidore, 
Lib. 
Syn. ii. 
10. 


526 


HOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAr'. XIV. 


'/}l'id.
i. JEROME; \Ve find no others l
ceping their birthday 
besides IIerod and Pharaoh, that they \"ho \vere alike in 
their \\'icli:edness 111Ïght be a1ike in their festivities. REMIG. 
It should be kno,,'n that it is custolnary not for rich only 
but for poor Blothers alfo:o, to educate their daughters so 
chastely, that they are scarce so luuch as seen by strangers. 
l
ut this unchaste '''Olnan had so brought up her daughter 
after the sanle nlanner, that she had taught her not chastity 
but dancing. Nor is IIerod to be less blalned \vho forgot 
that his \Yas a royal palace, but this WOlllan Inade it a 
theatre; Aud it pleased Herod, 80 t!tat lie swore with an 
oallt that he u'o1lld give her u'ltafsoever she should ask qf 
II irn. J ERO
IE; I do not excuse IIerod that he coullnitted 
this murder against his ,viII by reason of his oath, for 
perhaps he took the oath for the veloy purpose of bringing 
about the l11urder. But if he says that he did it for his oath's 
sake, had she asked the death of her Inother, or her father, 
\vould he ha"e granted it or not? 'Vhat then he ,,'ould have 
refused in his o"'n person, he ought to have r
jected in that 
of the Prophet. ISIDORE; In e\'il pro111ises then break 
faith. That pron1ise is Ìlnpious \vhich Inust be kept by 
crilne; that oath is not to be obser,red by \vhich \ye have 
un,\'ittingly pledged ourseh'es to evil. It follo\vs, .And slle 
being bejore Ù"f)!J'llc!ed qf her lJloflier said, Giee me here 
Jo!tn Baptist's !tead 'ÙI a charger. JERO:\IE; For I-Ierodias, 
fearing that Herod luight SOlne time recover his senses, and 
be reconciled to his brother, and dissolve their unla"rful 
union by a divorce, instructs her daughter to ask at once 
at the banquet the head of John, a re\vard of blood worthy 
of the deed of the dancing. CHRYS. Here is a t\yofold 
accusation against the dau1seJ, that she danced, and that she 
chose to ask an execution as her re\vard. Observe ho\v 
Herod is at once cruel and yielding'; he obliges hilnself by 
an oath, and lea"es her free to choose her request. Yet 
\"hen he kne\v \yhat evil \vas resulting frOll1 her request, 
he \vas gric,red, And the kin,g 'was SOlTY, for virtue gains 
praise anù a(hnlratioll even al110ng the bad. J EROl\lE..; 
Othenvise; It is the manner of Scripture to speak of e\rents 
as they "'ere connnonly vie"
ed at t.he tillle hy all. So 
Joseph is called by l\lary herself the father of Jesus; so here 



VEn. 6-1;2. 



T. 'r.\ TTHE'\' . 


527 


II crocI is saiù to ue sorry, Lccau
e the guests Lclic\.cd that 
he \\ as 
o. 1'hi:-, (liSSeHlbler of hi!' own inclinations, thi
 
contrÏ\'l'r of a Il1lIr<ler di
pla
'ea SOITO'" in his facc, when 
he had joy in his Inind. l'or !tis oal!t'.ft sake, and lli
/Jl 
1l'hich ,.;aI1l"I" !t;,n at 11lCat, he cOl1l1llanded it to !Je lJil'eJt, 
lIe cxcusc
 his criul{-- hy hi
 oath, that his \,'ick{'tlncss 
111ight he donc uuùer a pretence of piety. "That he ad(ls, 
lIntl 111(-'1/1 Ilult ,\i([1 at l1leal 'lpith ltÙn, he ,yould have them 
all sharcr
 in his crilue, that a bloody dish Blight be brought 
in in a luxurious fcast. CIIUYS. If he ,vas afì-aid to ha\
e so 
many ".itnc
scs of his pCljurr, ho\y luuch more ought he to 
ha\ e fcared so many witnesses of a Jnurder? ItE:\IIG. 1 [cre 
is a lc!'s sin done flH" the sake of another greater; he "rould 
not ex.tinguish his lustful desircs, and therefore he bctakes 
him to luxurious living; he \\rould not put any restraint 
on 11 is luxury, and thus he passes to the guilt of Inunler; 
for, lIt' sellt tllltl beheaded ,Juhn ill prison, and Ids head 'u'as 
broll,qlli ill (( charger. .J EHO:\TE; "T e read ill l{olnan history, Hieron. 
that F1anlinius, a Itolnall g eneral, sittin g at SU ! 1 ! )Cr with his Liv., 
X>..XIX. 
Jllistrc
s, on her saying that "he had nc\-er seen a Juan 43. 
hchca<led, ga\"c p('nllis
ion that a Blan undt
r sentence for a 
capital crilnc should be brought in and beheaded during the 
cntertail11ncnt. For this he was expel1cd the senate by the 
censors, hecause he had n1Ïngled feasting \\ ith blood, and 
had elnployed death, though of a criminal, for the amuse- 
Inent uf another, causing nuuder and enjoYlnent to be joined 
together. IIo\\ BIuch Blore wicked IIerod, and IIerodias, 
and the dall1Scl ,\'ho danced; she asked as her bloody 
reward the head of a Proph{'t, that she Inight ha\'e in her 
power the tongue that reproved thp unlawful nuptials. 
GUEG. .uut not \\'ithout most deep \yonder do I consider, Greg, 
that he ,,,ho in his Iuot]ll"}r's ,,-oJnb ""as filled \vith the spirit 
Ior. iii. 
I. 
of prophecy, than ,,-hUIll therp aro
e not a greater alnong 
them that are born of "-OIBen, is cast into prison by ".icked 
nlen, and is beheaded hccauc:;e of the dancing of a girl, and 
that a I1Jan of such sc,-ere life dic
 for the sport of shalneful 
nl(
n. Are we to think that there was any thing in his life 
which this so sl1alnefnl death should \vipe a,,-ay? God thus 
oppresses r 
 is people in tlu\ least things, becau
e IT e see
 
how J Ie J)}L\Y reward thenl in the highest things. .And 



528 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP, XIV. 


hence may be gathered \vhat they \vill suffer \vholn lie casts 
Greg. away, if lIe thus tortures those lIe loves. 10. And John 
1\1 or. . I t t fli . 1 l!:. f . 
x
ix. 7. IS not soug 1 on to su er COnCenllng t 1e conleSSlon 0 
Christ, but for the truth of righteousness. But because 
Christ is truth, he goes to death for Christ in going for 
truth. It foBo\ys, And !tis disciples carne, and took up his 
body, and buried it. JEROME; By \yhich \ve may under- 
stand both the disciples of John himself, and of the Saviour. 
Raban, RABAN. Josephus relates, that John ,vas sent bound to the 

v
:ji:5. castle of l\iecheron, and there beheaded; but ecclesiastical 
Machæ- history relates that he \vas buried in Sebastia, a town of 


;ys. Palestine, \vhich was formerly cal1ed Salnaria. CHRYS. 
H 1 ?m. Observe how John's disciples are henceforth lllore attached 
x IX. 
to Jesus; they it is \vho told Him ,vhat \vas done con- 
cerning John; And tlley ca'J1ze llnd told Jeslls. For leaving 
all they take refuge \vith IIin1, and so by degrees after their 
calalnity, and the ans\ver given by Christ, they are set right. 
HILARY; l\lysticaHy, John represents the Lan-; for the La\v 
preached Christ, and John came of the La\v, preaching 
Christ out of the Law. Herod is the Pl.ìllce of the people, 
and the Prince of the people bears the naUle and the cause of 
the whole body put under hilll. John then \\"arned Herod 
that he should not take to him his brother's \vife. For there 
are and there were two people, of the circumcision, and of 
the Gentiles; and these are brethren, children of the saIne 
parent of the human race, but the Law warned Israel that 
he should not take to him the works of the Gentiles and un- 
belief which was uni ted to them as by the bond of conj ugal 
love. On the birthday, that is amidst the enjoyn1ents of the 
things of the body, the daugbter of Herodias danced; for 
pleasure, as it were springing from unbelie
 \vas carried in its 
alluring course throughout the ,vhole of Israel, and the 
nation bound itself thereto as by an oath, for for sin and 
worldly pleasures the Israelites sold the gifts of eternal life. 
She (Pleasure), at the suggestion of her mother Unbelief, 
begged that there should be given her the head of John, 
that is, the glory of tbe La \V; but the people kno\ving the 
good that \vas in the La\v, yielded these terms to pleasure, 
not ,yithout SOlTO\V for its o,vn danger, conscious that it 
ought not to have given up so great glory of its teachers. 



" }.: R. l:J, l.t. 


"T. ,rATTJlE"". 


f)2D 


nut forced by its sins, as hy the force of an oath, a
 \n,n as 
o\'crCOlne hy the fear, and corrupted hy the c'Xaluplc of the 
neighbouring princes, it SOlT<H' fully yield
 to the blandish- 
1}H'nts of pleasure. So aillong the other gratifications of a 
debauched people the head of John is brought in in a dish, 
that is by tht-' loss of tht
 La\\r, the plcasure
 of the body, 
and \'-orldly lu},.ury is increased. It is carried by thf' d.ul1sel 
to her nlother; thus depra,-ed Israel offered up tIle glory of 
the La,y to pleasure and unbelief. The tilnes of the Lan. 
being e-x.pire<l, and buried \,"ith John, his disciples declare 
what is done to the Lord, con1Ïllg, that is, to the Gospels 
fronl the La".. R.\ß:\
. ()therwi
e; E,.en at this day we 
see that in the head of the Prophet Johu the Je""s ha,-e lost 
Christ, ,,-ho is the head of the Prophct
 J ERO
IE; .\nd the 
Prophet has lost amung them both tongup and ,"oice. 
REMIG. Otherwise; 'fhe beheading of John Inarks the 
increase of that fa1l1e which Christ has alnong the people, 
as the exaltatio1l of the Lord upon the cross luarks the 
progress of the faith; whence John had 
aid, lIe 7/1118/ .h,hn 3, 
. 1. 1 I :
O, 
11lCrell"W, ulii Ill1lSI l ('creaSl'. 


13. 'Vhen Jesus heard of it, he departed thence 
by 
hip into a d('
ert place apart: and ,vhen the 
people had heard thereof, they follo,ved hinl on foot 
out of the citif's. 
11. ,And Jesus" ent forth, and sa\v a great Inulti- 
tude, and" as llloved \vith c01l1passion toward thein, 
and he healed their 
ich. 


GLOSS_ The Saviour ha,-ing heard the death of IIis Baptist, Glo
. 
retired into the desert; as it follo\vs, u'/âch .hell Jeslls ltadaP I . An- 
se m. 
heard, lie departed /lience by ship into a deser/ place. ...\rG. Aug. De 
This the Evangelist relates to have been done ilnlnediatelJ C E o

. 45 
V.I1, . 
after tbe passion of J ohu, therefore after this were those things 
done that "'ere spoken of abo,.e, and lTIO\ ed IT erod to 
say, Tl,Ùf i.
 Jolin. For \\ e nlu
t suppose those things to 
have been after his death which report carried to Herod, 
and \\'hich Dloved hitn to doubt who he could be concerning 
VOL, J, 2 
I 



5:30 


GOSPEL ACCORDI!':G TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


\\"holn he heard snch things; for hinlRclf had put .John to 
death. J ERO:l\lE ;' He did not retire into the desert through 
fear of death, as sonle suppose, but in luercy to Ilis enelnies, 
that they nlight not add lnurder to nnuder; putting off His 
death till the day of His passion; on which day the lalub is 
to be slain as the sacrament, and the posts of them that 
belie\Te to be sprinkled with the blood. Or, lIe retired to 
leave us an exaulple to s11un that rashness ,,'hich leads Iuen 
to surrender theulselves ,'oluntarily, because not all perse,'ere 
,,"ith like constancy under torture \vith the \vhich they 
offered themselves to it. For this reasou He says in another 
place, lT 7 he/l they shall persecute you iu nne ciiy,.flee ye to 
another. 'Vhence the Evangelist says not 'fled,' but 
elegantly, depat'led thellce, (or, '\vithdre\v,') she\ving that 
lIe shunned rather than fearerl persecution. Or for another 
reason He n1Ïght have \vithdra\vn into a desert place on 
hearing of John's death, nanlely, to prove the faith of the 
believers. CHRYS. Or; lIe did this because He desired to 
prolong the æconolny of His hUlllanity, the time not being 
yet COBle for openly lnanifesting His deity; wherefore also 
lIe charged His disciples that they should teU no luan that 
lIe \vas the Christ. But after His resurrection He would 
have this made 111anifest. Therefore although He knew of 
Hiulself what \vas done, yet before it was told HÏ1n He 
\vithdre",- not, that He lnight shew the verity of His incar- 
nation in aU things; for He \vould that this should be 
assured not by sight only, hut by l-fis actions. And when 
He withdre\v, He did not go into the city, but into the 
desert by ship that none ll1ight follow Him. Yet do not the 
Inultitudes leave HilIl e'''en for this, but still follo\v after 
Hiul, not deterred by \vhat had been done. concerning John; 
\vhence it fol1o\ys, And u'hen the multitudes !tad lteo1'd 
thereof, they .followed hÏ1n on foot out of tlte cities. 
JEROME; They fol1o\ved on foot, not riding, or in carriages, 
but with the toil of their O\\Tll legs, to she\v the ardour of 
their n1Ïnd. CHRYS. And they immediately reap the re\vard 
of this; for it follows, Aud lie u'ent out and saw a great 
'Jflllliitude, and he had c017zpassioJI 
lpon the1n, and healed 
tladr sick. :For though great ,vas the affection of those 
,,'ho had lcft their cities, and sought Him carefully, yet the 



\'EU. 15-21. 


Sl. 
(ATTHEW'. 


:- :J 1 


thillrrs that were dune b." IIi])] 
urpa

cd the rc\\"ard of an) 
zca1. 1
Jlt'refi)re ht' assigns cCHllpassioll as 1he ('all
t' of thi
 
healing. \'llÙ it i
 grcat cOlnpa
!";ioll to heal all, and not to 
require faith, IIILAHY; )[Jsticall.r; rrhe 'V onl uf G ud, on 
the close of the La"
, cntpJ'cd the ship, that i
, thp Church; 
and dcparted into the desert, that is, lca\'illg to \'"alk \vith 
Israel, lIe P:bSCS into breasts ,
oid of Divine l\:no\vledge. 
The nulltitude learning this, [')llows the 1..or<.1 out of the city 
into the desert, going, that i
, fronl the Hynagogue to the 
Church, The Lord sees then), and has cOI11pa
sion upon 
thclll, and heal
 all sickness and infinnity, that is, lIe 
cleanscs their obstructcd nlinds, and unhelic,"ing hearts 
for th(' understanding of the new preaching. .JERO'IE; It is 
to bc obsen-ed 11lOrCO'"cr, that ,,"hCll the I..ord caUle into the 
desert, great crowds followed I [in1; fi)1' before lIe "rent 
into the ,,"j1ùerllcss of the Genti1es, lIe was ,,'orshipped 
by only one peop1e. 'rhey leave their cities, that is, their 
fonner con, ersation, and various dogmas. 'fhat.T esu::, \vent 
ont, shews that thp Illu1tituùes had the \"ill to go, hut 
not the streugth to attain, therefore the Sa,-iour departs out 
of I r i') place and goes to lueel theIne 


15. And \vhen it \vas evening, his disciple
 caIne 
to hint, saying, This is a desert place, and the tilue 
is no\v past; 1:>end the Inultitude a\ray, that they 
Inay go into the villages, and buy thelnse]yes victuals. 
16. But Jesus said unto thenl, '"rhey need not 
depart; give ye theln to eat. 
17. 
\nd they say unto him, "r e lun e here but 
five loaves, and t\""O fishe
. 
lS. Hc said, Bring thenl hither to Inc. 
19. .L\.nd he conlnlanded the 11lultitude to sit ùo\vn 
on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the t\VO 
fishes, and looking up to heaven, he bles
eù, and 
brake, and gave the loaves to hi
 disciples, and the 
disciples to the Inultitudc. 
20. And they did all eat, and \\'erp fi]]ed: and 
'2l\J
 



:"32 


(
OSPEL ACCORDJr\U TO 


(,HAP. xn r . 


they took up of the fragnlPnts that rel11ained twelve 
baskets full. 
21. And they that had eaten \vere about five 
thousand men, beside 'VOlnen a nd children. 


CHRYS. It is a proof of the faith of these multitudes that 
they endured hunger in \yaiting for the Lord even till 
evening; to vt?hich purpose it fonows, And wI,en it 'll;as 
evening, his disciples caIne unto In'rn, 8aying, This is a desel.t 
place, and fhe tÙne is '/lOW past. 1'he LOl"d purposing to 
feed theln \vaits to be asked, as ahvaJs not stepping forvt?ard 
first to do miracles, but when called upon. None out of the 
cro\\"d approached Him, both because they stood in great 
a".e of Hi1n, and because in their zeal of love they did not 
feel their hunger. But e'"en the disciples do not come and 
say, Give them to eat; for the disciples \"ere as yet in an 
inlperfect condition; but they say, This is a desert place. 
So that ,,'hat ,,,,as proverbial aillong tbe Jews to express a 
Pø.18, miracle, as it is said, Call lie spread a fable in 'he u'ilder- 
19. 1less.2 this also He shews anlong his other \vorks. For this 
cause also He leads then} out into the desert, that the 
miracle nlight be clear of all suspicion, and that none might 
suppose that any thing \vas supplied to,,?ards the feast from 
any neighbouring to\\Tn. But though the place be desert, 
yet is He there \vho feeds the ,\?orld; and though the hour 
is, as they say, past, yet He \\.ho now commanded \vas not 
subjected to hours. And though the Lord had gone before 
His disciples in healing many sick, yet they \vere so im- 
perfect that they could not judge ".hat He would do con- 
cerning food for them, \vherefore they add, Send tlte 
11l'llllitude au'ay, thai they 1Jzny go into the iOWll.
, and huy 
themselves food. Observe the \visdon1 of the l\laster; He 
says not straightway to theIn, , I \\Till give them to eat;' for 
they \vould not easily have received this, but, Jt;suS said 
unto tlle'lJl, They ueed 110t depart, Gh"e ye f/tern to eat. 
JERO
IE; \Vherein lIe caBs the Apostles to breaking of 
bread, that the greatness of the Iniracle might be more 
Aug. De evident by their testimony that they had none. AUG. It 
i

t46. may perplex some how, if the Lord, according to the relation 



VER. 1:>-21. 



T. 1\1.'\ TTIIE"'. 


:> 3:} 


of John, a
ked !>llilip \\ hence bread \\'a
 to be found for 
thcln, that can be true which _\lauhe\,," here relates, that the 
disciples first prayed thc Lord to :send the Inn1titlldcs away, 
that they lnight buy food frotn the ncarest towus. Suppose 
thcn that after thcse words the Lord looked upon thc Inu1ti- 
tude and !'aid what .J ohn relates, hut )[atthe,v anù the others 
ha"e oll1itted. _\nd Ly such cases as this nOlle ought to be 
perplexed, ,,,hen one of the E,'angelists relates ,,,hat the 
rc
t ha\'c oUlitted. CHRYS,)1' et 110t c,'en by these word
 
\\'erc the disciplcs set righ t, but speak yet to IJ in) as to 
D)an; Tiley all.'Hre,.ed unfo HÙn, lf T e I'llre here bul.fh.e 
loa res and t Iro jishe,\'. Froln this '\"e learn the philosophy 
of the disciples, how t
u they despised food; they \vere 
t\yeh"c in nUlllhcr, yet they had hut five loa,-es and two 
fishes; for things of the body were contelnned by theIn, 
they ,,-ere altogether possessed by 
piritual things. But 
becau
e thc disciplcs ,,'ere yet attracted to earth, the Lord 
begins to introduce thc things that ,vere of !} inlself; He 
saillt unto thenl, Briug lllf'l1l hillier 10 ule. 'Yherefore does 
lIc not create out of nothing the bread to feed the multi- 
tude with? 1'hat lie nlight put to silence the lnouth of 
l\Iarcion and 
Ianichæus, ,,,ho take awa\p from God IIis j.e, deny 
creaturcs, and by IIis deeds nlight teacl; that all things
I::
t

d 
that are secn are IIis ""orks and creation, Dnd that it is lIe the visi- 
that ha!'\ gi,'en us the fruits of the earth, ,,'ho said in the 
:rld. 
beginning, Let file ear/It brillg afortlt the gru!1l llerb; for Gen. 1, 
this i
 no less a deeù than that. For of fi,'e loa'"es to Inake II. 
80 many loa\ es, and fishes in 1ike manner, is no less a thing 
than to bring fruits fronl the earth, reptiles and other 
living things frol11 the ,,'aters; which shc,,"ed lliln to be 
Lord both of land and sea. By the exaInple of the disciples 
also "'C ought to be taught, that though \\?e should ha\"e but 
littlc, "'e ought to gi,pe that to such as ha\'e need. 
"'or 
they "'hen bid to bring their fì,.c loa\e
 
ay not, 'Yhence 
shall wc satisfy our own hunger? but iunne(liately obey; 
And lIe cOIII/ull//(lell the 711uliitllde to sit dOll'll Oll lite grass, 
(Iud fook lhejh:e [OUl:)8 llud III ß fu"o isltes, and look111.q lip 
to heal" Il blessed Ilu ß 711, and brlll.."e. '\
hy did lIe look to 
heaven and hle
s? For it ....honld be belie,'ed concerning 
Ifiu) that IJc is froln the Fathe
, and that lIe is equal \\"1th 



,0) ;3 .:1 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


the Fatller. IIis equality lIe she\vs when He does all 
t1JÏngs \vith po\ver. That He is frorn the Father He shew's 
by referring to llinl \Vllatsoever He does, and calling upon 
HÍIn on all occasions. To prove these t\vo things therefore, 
He \,"orks IIis Iniracles at tilnes ,vith po\ver, at other titHes 
,,'ith prayer. T t should be considered also that in lesser 
things He looks to heaven, but in greater lIe does all with 
power. '.Vhen He forga\Te sins, raised the dead, stilled the 
sea, opened the secrets of the heart, opened the eyes of hiln 
that ,vas born blind, \vhich \yere ,,"orks only of God, He is 
not seen to pray; but ,vhen He multiplies the loaves, a ,york 
less than any of these, lIe looks up to hea\Ten, that you Inay 
learn that e\ren in little things He has 110 po\ver but froul 
His Father. And at the same tirne lIe teaches us not to 
touch our food, until ,ve have returned thanks to IIim \"ho 
gives it us. For this reason also He looks up to hea\Ten, 
because [-lis disciples had exaillples of Inany othel. miracles, 
but none of this. J ERÜ'i\1E; 'Vhile the Lord breaks there is 
a so,ving of food; for had the loa\'es been "'hole and not 
broken into fragments, and thus divided into a manifold 
harvest, they could not have fed so great a lnldtitude. The 
llulltitnde receives the food frOIll the Lord through the 
Apostles; as it follo\vs, AfUl he gave llie loaves to his 
disciples, and lite disciples to tlie 1nultitltde. CHRYS. In 
doing ,vhich He not only honoured theIn, but \vould that 
upon this n1iracle they should not be unbelie\Ting, nor forget 
it ,yhen it ,vas past, seeing their own hands had borne 
\vitness to it. Therefore also lIe suffers the multitudes first 
to feel the sense of hunger, and His disciples to COlne to 
I-lim, and to ask Hiln, and lIe took the loaves at their 
hands, that they Inight have many testilnonies of that that 
\yas done, and many things to relnind thelll of the Iniracle. 
}1-'rom this that He gave theIn, nothillg more than bread and 
:fish, and that He set this equalJy before all, He taught 
then1 1110deration, frugality, and that charity by ,vhich they 
should have all things in COlllUlon. This He also taught 
them in the place, in making theln sit do\vn upon the grass; 
for He sought not to feed the body only, but to instruct the 
mind. Hut the bread anù fish lllultiplied iu the disciples' 
hands; whence it follows, 
lnd t!ley diel all ('at, (L1lll 'll"erc 



'"Elt. ]5-21. 



T. :\L\TTJIE"". 


53!> 


Jil/ul. But the llliracle e1)(lcd Hot here; fur 1 T c caus('( I to 
ahound not only whole loavcs, hut tioa
lllellts also; to shc\\ 
that the first 10a\Oes ""cre not so Innch as what ,vas left, and 
that they ,,,ho "ere not present n1Ïght learn \"hat haa been 
(lone, anù that nonc Blight think that what haù Leen done 
"'as a phantasy; _Jlld Ihey touk IlpjiO((.rJlnellts il, at IrCl'C [(:/1, 
ilCelre bllsl.:elsjililo JEHO
IE; I
ach of the Apostles fills his 
baskct of the ti'aglnents lcft ùy his Sa\-iour, that these fi"ag- 
Inent
 luight \,.itneßs that th('y ,,-ere true loa,.es that wcr
 
lullltip1ied. Cn In:-\o For this rcaSCl1 alsJ lIe caused t,,"ch.(' 
haskct
 to renJaill o,'er antI abo\.c, that .J udas ll1Ígh t bcar his 
basket. lIe tooh np tlll
 fragnlcnts, and gavc thenl to the 
disciples and not to the lllultitudes, \,-ho wprc yet 1110re 
iInperfectly traincù than the discipìcs. J .EUO
IE; 'ro the 
nUluber of loa, cS, lh 7 e, the number uf the nlCll that ate i
 
apportioned, fi \'C thousand; 
1 lid llu
 JlllJJ/!JC,. f!.t' l!telll lIlli/ 
!tad eaten Zl"as aúuut fire thousand 1Jlell, úesides U"Olllell and 
c!tildrt:ll. CIIRYS. 'fhis \\ as to the \'er.v great credit of the 
people, that the WOlneu and the lueu 
tood up when these 
remnants still rClnained. llILARY; The fi\.c loa,-cs are not 
1l1ultiplied into 111ore, hut fraglnents succeed to fioagnlcnts; 
the substance growing" \\ hether upon the table
, or in the 
hands that took thClll up, I kno\," not. l{ -\ß.-\.X. \rhen.J ohn 
is to describe this Inirac Ie, he first tells Us that the passo\'(,l" 
is at hand; l\Iauhen' and \lark place it inuHeùiately after 
the execution of John. II ence we Ina)" gather, that he "-as 
beheaded whcn the paschal fcstÍ\'al ,,-as near at hand, and 
that at the passon_'r of the foHowiug year, the 11lystery of the 
Lord's passion was accolnplished. J EHO:\I E '; But all thc'3l1 
things are full of lllysteries; the Lord does tht'
e things 110t 
in the lllorning, nor at llOOll
 but in th(' c'.clling, ,vhen the 
Sun of righteousness ,vas set. ItE:\llt.. By the e\cning t1H
 
Lord's death is dClloted; and after } I e, the true Sun, was set 
on the altar of the cros
, lIe filled thc hungry. Or by 
c,'cnÍllg is denoted the last age of this \yorld, in ,yhich t]Il' 
Son uf God CaIHe and refreshcd th(' n)ultitude
 of tho
e thdt 
helip\Td 011 Ilitn. IL\BA
. \\llCll the discipl

 ask the 1 Jonl 
tu 'end a,vaJ t1.(' nHl1tihl(le
 that they 1night Luy food in 
the' to\' I1S, it signific
 the pride of the r e\\"s tuwards tht' 
1l1ultitudcs of the Gentiles, WhOll1 they judged rather fit 



536 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


to seek for thelnselves food in the asselnblies of the Pharisees 
than to use the pasture of the Divine books. HILARY; l
ut 
the Lord answered, They ltaz:e 110 need to go, shel,'ing that 
those ,vhonl lIe 11eals have no need of the food of luercenary 
doctrine, and ha,re no necessity to return to Judæa to buy 
food; and lIe command
 the .A postles that they give theln 
food. Did lIe not know then that there ,vas nothing to gi\re 
thel11? But there ,vas a cOlnplcte series of types to be set 
forth; for as yet it \vas not gi,'en the A postles to ll)ake 
and n1Ïnister the hea,-enly hread, the food of eternal life; 
and their ans,ycr thus belongs to the chain of spÎ1.itual 
interpretation; they ,vere as yet confined to the fi,'e loavps, 
that is, tIle five bool{s of the Lan., and the t\vo fishes, that 
i
, the preaching of the Prophets and of John. RABAN. Or, 
by the 1\vo fishes ,ve 1l1ay understand the Prophets, and the 
Psalnls, for the ,,,hole of the Old Testall1ent was conlpre- 
hended in these three, the La,,", the l>rophets, and the 
Psalnls. IIILARY; These therefore the .\ postles first set 
forth, because they "gere yct in these things; and from these 
things the preaching of the Gospel gro\vs to its lllore abun- 
dant strength and \'irtue. Then the people is conlll1anded 
to sit down upon the g).ass, as no longer lying upon the 
ground, but resting upon the JJa\v, each one reposing upon 
the fruit of his O\V11 ,,,orks as upon the grass of the earth. 
JERO:\IE; Or, they are bid to lie do,,'n on the grass, and 
that, according to another Evangelist, by fifties and by 
hundreds, that after they ha,'e trampled upon their flesh, 
and have subj ngated the pleasures of the ,,"orld as dried 
grass under then), then by the presence a of the nUlllber 
fifty, they ascend to tIle eminent perfection of a hundred. 
He looks up to hea,'en to teach us that our eyes are 
to be directed thither. The La\\' 'with the Prophets 
is broken, and in the midst of them are bro.ught forward 
my
tel'ies, that ,,,hereas they partook not of it whole, \vhen 
broken into pieces it Inay be food for the Inultitude of the 


a Vallarsi reads pænitentiam, Jerome number fifty; for fifty twice taken 
'has borrowed the interpretation from maKt's a hundrpd; because we must 
Origen who refers to the) ear of jubilee; first rest from evil action
, that the 
and the Glo
sa ordinaria on this verse soul ma)" afterwa.rd!': more fully repo!'e 
i
, " Thp rest of the Jubilee is here in meditation." . 
('()
tained unòer th
 myster
' of th.e 



'
H. 2:?-33. 


.!"T, 'JATTH E \\'. 


:-)37 


fìcntiles. J IILAR\; Then the ]oa'-ec;: are gi,.cn to tbe 
Apostles, l)ccau

 through thelll the giftb of divine grace 
were to bc rpndcred. ...\11<1 the BUluLer of thelll that did eat 
is found to ùe the 
aU1C as that of tho':)c who should bclic,"c; 
for "oe find ill the hook of Act
 that out of the ,past nnmbt'" 
of the pcoplp of I srae1, fi '"C thonsand lnell helic,"c(l. J ..
RO
I F; 
'fhere partook fi '"C thousand who had reached Inaturity; for 
\\ OlDen and children, the ".eaker sex, and the tender age, 
"'cre unworthy of nUlnher; thus in the hook of X un1bcr:--, 
sla,oes, ".omen, childrcn, and an undistinguished crowd, aro 
pa.,
ed over unuun1Lered. H.AB.\X. 1.'he multitude being 
hungry, Ire crcates 110 new \"ialHls, hnt having takcn \,Ohat 
the disciples had, lIe ga'"c thanks. In like Inallllcr when 
lIe C(.ll11e in the flesh, I I e preached no other things than 
what had been foretold, but shewed that the "'rilings of th(' 
Law and th,.. Prophets "-ere big with Inysterie
. That 
,,"hich the 1l1ultitude lea,'e i
 taken up hy thc disciples, 
hecansf' the 1110rc secret lll)"stcrif's which cannot he con1pre- 
hended by the uninstructed, are not to be treated \vith 
neglect, hut arc to be diligently 
ought out by the tweh'c 
A postlcs (who are represented by the twehoe baskets) and 
their successors. For by baskets sen"ilc offices are per- 
funned. and (;od has chosen the weak things of the world 
to cont
:Hll}(1 tl)(-, !'trong. rfhe fi,'p thousand for the fh-e 
benses of thc body are they ,,"lIo in a secular condition 
kno\\O ho\\" to n
c rightly thillg-s \\"ithout, 


22. 
\nd straight\vay Jesus constrained his dis- 
ciplcs to get into [I ship, and to go before hiln unto 
the other sidc, \\'hile he sent the Inultitudc
 a\vay. 
23. \nd ,,"hen he had sent the lllultitudes a\vay, 
he \yent up into a Inountain apart to pray: and ,,"hen 
thc c\'cning \yas COlne, he \\'a
 thcr(\ a Jone. 
2 1. lJut the !'hip \vas no\v in the midst of the sea J 
tossed ,\'ith ".a,.cs: for the \rind \"as contrary. 
25. i\nd in the fourth \\"atch of the nio-ht Jcsu
 
o 
,\ ellt unto thein, "al king on the sea. 
:!(). ..\nd \\ hen the disciple" sa\v hinl ".alliing Oil 



538 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAl'. Xn". 


the sea, they were troubled, saYIng, It is a spirit; 
and they cried out for fear. 
27. But straightway Jesus spake unto them, say- 
ing, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid. 
28. And Peter ans,vered hilll and said, Lord, if it 
be thou, bid HIe COlTIe un to thee on the ,va tel'. 
29. And he said, Come. 1\ nd ,vhen l}eter ,vas 
come down out of the ship, he ,,'alked on the ,vater, 
to go to Jesus. 
30. But when he sa,v the ,vind boisterous, he ,vas 
afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, 
Lord, save me. 
31. And inlInediately Jesus stretched fort.h his 
hand, and caught hinl, and said unto hin], 0 thou of 
little faith, ,vherefore didst thou doubt? 
32. And ,vhen they ,vere come into the ship, the 
wind ceased. 
33. Then they that ,vere in the ship came and 
\vorshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son 
of God. 


CHRYS. Desiring to occasion a diligent exanlÎnation of 
the things that had been done, l-Ie cOlllmanded those ,,'ho 
had beheld the foregoing sign to be separated from IIitn; 
for even if He had continued present it ,,"ould ha\"e been 
said that He had \vrought thc luiracle fantastically, and 110t 
in verity; but it ,vould never be urged against Hilll that lIe 
had done it in I-lis absence; and therefore it is said, And 
straigltflf'ay Jesus c0111pellerl Iii,..; disciples to -'Jet 'into a ship, 
and to go bq(ore kiJl1 to fhe olher side, while he sellt the 
11luliitudes away. JEROl\lE; These ".ords shc\y that they 
left the Lord ul1\villing1y, not desiring throu3h their 10\-e for 
their teacher to be separated frOlll IIiul even for a 1l10111cnt. 
CHRYS. It should he obscn"cd, that \vhen thc Lord \\
orks a 
great luiracle, lIe scuds the lllultitudes away, teaching us 
thereby ne\"er to pursue the praise of t1ll\ lllldtitutle, nor to 
attract the111 to U
. Further, lIc teaches U
 that \\"(' should 



VEIL 
2-3:J. 


ST. :\1.\ rTHE". 


5:3D 


not be c'"cr IJlixcll with crowlls, nor Jet alwa
 s 
hullning 
thena; but that both Inay he done with profit; ","hence it 
follows, lnd trhpn he had SPlit the 11l11liitude au'ay, lie Icent 
lip illto a JJlollllla;n o/Jarl 10 pray; 
hewing ns that 
olitude 
is good, ,,"hen "pe ha,'c need to pray to God. For this also 
I J e f!oes into the desert, and there spends the night in 
prayer, to teach us that fur prayer \\PC should 
cek 
tinllCS& 
both in tilue and place. JERU)IE; That lIe witllllra\vs "to 
pray alonc, 
 un 
hould refer not to IJim \"ho fcd fÏ ,'c thousand 
011 fivc loa\"cs, but to IIinl \\"ho on hearing of the death of 
John withdrew' illto the desert; not that we would separate 
the IJonl'
 persun into t,,'u parts, but that IIis actions are 
lli\'illetl betwecn the God and the luau. .\."GG. This 111ay Aug. De 
SCCln contra.ry to that 
Iatthe\\" saV8, that haying scnt the C E o

' 47 
01 V.u. . 
llHl1titudes tl\\"ay, lIe '"\"(,l1t up into a lnountain that lIe might 
}uay alolle; an{l.J ohn again says, that it ".as on a lllountain 
that r Ie fcd this salnc nnIltitude. But sincc John himself 

aY8 further, that after that 1l1iracle lIe retired to a 1110untain 
that lIe n1Íght not be held by the multitude, who songl)t to 
lua1.e IJill1 a king, it is clear that lIe had conle down froln the 
l11unntain ,,,hcn lIe fed thenl. Xor do 
Iatthe\v's \vords, He 
ICf.:/lt II}J into rt JlIolfJltaiu a[olle to pray, disagree with this, 
though John says, Jf hell 11(' knelL' that they u'ould corne 10 John 6, 
'Ilia ke "l11l a king, he u:illulJ'ell" illlo a //1011 n lain IdlllSL{f alune. 15. 
Fur the cause of lIis praying is not contrary to the cause of 
IIis retiring, for l)crein the Lord teache
 llS that ,ve ha,-e great 
cause f()r prayer ,,"hen "-e ha'"c cau
e for flight. X or, again, 
is it contrary to this that 
Iatthc\Y says first, that lIe badc 
lIis discip1cs go into the hoat, and then that lIe sent the 
Illultitudes away, and ,,'eut into a 1l10untaill alone to pray; 
while John relates that lIe first withdrew' to the mountain, 
and then, U"!len it 'l'{(,
 [ale, !tis die> "Iil[es lcelll dOlcn to t lie 
,"iut, tlllcllrhen they had entered ;lIto a bual, 

;c. for wllo does 
not see that John is relating as after\vards {lone by lIis di
ci- 
plcs ,,-hat .J csus had coullnanùcd before lIe retired into the 
Inountain? JER(HII<.; Rightly had the Ap08tle
 departed fronl 
tlH' Lord as unwilling, and sluw to lea\"e IIilll, lest they 
should sufIcr shipwreck ,,-hib.t lie was not with thcIll, For 
it follows, _\
Oll' lr!lrJ/ ii 1("(18 ereJJiug lie I{"a.
 I h('re alvne; that 
i
, in the 111ouutaill; fJul Ihe boal Irtis ill tlte lJ1iddlr f!.lliu 



:)l10 


GOSPEL ACCORDIKG TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


.
ea tossed 'iri/h lite waves; for tlte wind was cOlltra1"Y. 
CHRYS. Again, the disciples suffer shipwreck, as they had 
done before; but then they had HiIn in the boat, but no\v 
they are alone. 1-'hus gradually 1-1 e leads them to higher 
things, and instructs thell1 to endure all rnanfitlly. JEROl\IE; 
"
hilp the Lord tal'rie
 in the top of the 1110untain, straighhvay 
a ,vincI arises contrary to thenl, and stirs up the sea, and 
the disciples are in inlIniuent peril of shipwreck, which con.. 
tinnes till ,Jesus COlnes. CHHYS. But lIe sutters theln to be 
tossed the whole night, exciting thcir hearts by fear, and 
inspiring theIn with greater desire and more lasting recollec- 
tion of lIiIn; for this l"eaSOn lIe did not stand by thell1 
immediately, Lut as it fo11o\,"s, ill tile ./òurtlt 1t'atclt o..f the 
night he Clnne to thenl u.aZkiug upon tlte sea. J EROl\IE; The 
Inilitary guards and watches aloe divided into portions of three 
hours each. "Then then he says that thp Lord caIne to them 
in t}1e fourth \vatch, this shews that they }1ad been in danger 
the ,,,hole night. CHHY8. Teaching thenl not to seek a 
speedy riddance of cOIning e,-il, but to bear nlanfully such 
things as befal theine But ,,'hen they thongIlt that they \yere 
delivered, then \\Tas their fear increased, ,,'hence it follo\\Ts, 
And seeing liÙn u'alkiJ1.l} llpOll the sea, flley u:ere trúubled, 
saying, It -is a rÙ;Íoll, and /l1rollglt ..fear they cried out. For 
this the Lord ever does 
 ,,,hen II e is to rescue fronl any evil, 
He hrings in things terrible and difficult, For since it is 
ilnpossible that our telllptation should continue a long tilne, 
,,"hen the ,,-arfare of the righteous is to be finished, then lIe 
increases theit" conflicts, desiring to Blake greater gain of 
them; Wllich I Ie did also in Abrahall1, Inakiug his hot con- 
flict his trial of the loss of his son. J El101\fE; A confused 
Hoise and uncertain sonnd is the lnark of great fear. But if, 
according to .:\larcion and 1\lanichæus, onr Lord \vas not 
bonl of a \'irgiu, but was seen in a pllantaS111, ho,,' i
 it that 
the ....\ postles non? fear that they have seen a phantasnl (or 
vision)? CHRY
. Christ then did not re'"eal IIinlself to I-lis 
disciples until they cried out; for the Inore intense their fear, 
the luore did they rejoice in His presence; \,-hence it folJo\vs, 
.And Ùn1Jlrdiafely Jl:SUS spoke to t!tern, saying, Be q{ goo(l 
chee1', ii is I, be 1101 {!(raid. rrhis speech took a\vay their 
fear, and prepared their confidcnce. J EROl\IE; 'Vhereas lIe 



'"EH. 2;...-3:J. 



T. 1\1.\1'1'111-:'\", 


5-J 1 


say
, [i is I, withuut saying who, either the) 11light Lc able' 
to understand I I ill) "'peaking through the darkness of night; 
or th(>y lnight kuu\\ that it Wd
 ] lè who had spoken to jlo
es, 
SaYliJito 11,(' children or 1"/"{,, I, lle Ihat is IUlS ,'tiffllt 1ne unto Exod, 3, 
you. On c,"prJ occasi
n l)cter is found lo be the one of the 14. 
1))05t ardent faith. ...\nd \\"ith the saIne zeal as ever, so no"", 
,,,hile the others are silent, he helie,'es that by the", ill of his 
l\Iaster he ,,"ill be able to do that which by nalure he cannot 
do; whf>ncc it follo\\
, jJ e l e l' 11l1.'iìll"lred llnd said unto ltÙu, 
Lord, !( it be ,hOIl, bid Jill' COJJle zollo 'h
e UpOIl Ilte'li.nier. 
As n1uch as to say, 1)0 thon cOllllnalld, and fo\traightway it 
,,"ill becolne sulid; aud that body ,,'hich is in itself heavy 
will beCOllle light. ^...PG. 1'his I alH not able by Inyself, but Aug. 
in Thee I aU1 able. Peter confessed ,vhat he was in hiInself, 

:
: 
and "'hat he 
hou}d receive from IIill) by ,,-hose will he be- 
lieved he should he enabled to do that which no hUlnan 
infirn1Íty ""as equal to, CURYS. See hO\\F great his \\'armth, 
ho". great his faith. lIe said not, Pray and entreat for n1C ; 
but Bid JIll!; he believes not only that Christ can II in1self 
\valk on the sea, Lnt that IJ e can lead others also thereon; 
also he \\"ishc
 to cOlue to IIiln speedily, and this, so great a 
thing, he asks not froln ostentation, but froln lo\'e. For he 
said not, Bid nlO wall npoll the waters, but, IJid l}1e C01/le 
fOltO 'ltef J . And it seenlS that haying she\\ n in the first 
miracle that lIe has po"'er over the sea, lie no\\' leads thCIU 
to a lnore po\verful sign; He saitlt unlo llÙJl, Come. And 
Peter, going jorlh C!f lite boal, /lalked on l"
 .r;;ea, ll,al he 
nzigltl go to Jeslls. JERO
IE; Let those ,,,ho think that the 
LortI's body was not real, because IIp ,,'alked upon the Jield- 
ing walers as a light æthereal substance, auswer here ho,," 
Peter walked, WhOlll they by no lueans dcny to be man. 
RAB.\X. Lastly, Theodorus wrote that the Lord had not bodily 
weight in respect of Ilis flesh, but without ,,'eight ,,"alked on 
the sea. But the catholic faith preache
 the contrary; for 
Dionysins 
a)'s that lIe walked on the wa\"e, without the feet 
being iUlInersed, ha\-ing borlily weight, and the burden of 
matter. CHR\ s. Peter o\'ercame that ,,-hich \\"as greater, the 
".a\"es, nalnely, of the sea, but is troubled by the lesser, the 
blowing wind, for it fo]]o,,'s, Rut se(
illg the 'Irind boisterous, 
',e u.as n;.fraid. Such is human nature, in great trials ofttinle8 



5J
 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


holding itself aright, and in lesser falling into fault. This 
fear of Peter sllewed the difference between l\Iaster and 
disciple, and thereby appeased the other disciples. For if 
they had indignation when the two brothers prayed to sit on 
the right and left hand, much 1l10re had they now. For they 
,vere not yet made spiritual; afterwards when they had been 
made spiritual, they every where yield the first place to Peter, 
and appoint hill1 to lead in harangues to the people. J ERO:
{E; , 
l\Ioreover he is left to temptation for a short season, that his 
faith Inay be increased, and that he 111ay understand that he is 
saved not by his ability to ask, but by the power of the Lord. 
For faith burned at his heart, but hlunan frailty drew him into 
Aug. the deep. AUG. Peter then presumed on the Lord, he tottered 
Serm. 7 6. 
8. as man, but returned to the Lord, as it fol1o\vs, And 'lrhell 
lie began to sink, he cried out, saying, Lord, sat.e 'Jne. Does 
the Lord then desert him in his peril of failure \VhOll1 he had 
hearkened to \"hen he first called on IIÏ1l1? Inl1Jledialely 
Jesus st1Y:tched forth his hand, al1d caught hÙn. CHRYS. 
He bade not the ,,-inds to cease, but stretched forth His hand 
and caught him, because his faith ""as required. For when 
our o""n nleans fail, then those 'which are of God stand. 
Then to she\v that not the strength of the telnpest, but the 
slnallncss of his faith \vorkf'd the danger, He sail" unto hÙn, 
o thou if little .faith, wh
lJ didst thOlt doubt? "rhich she\vs 
that not even the wind \vould ha\"e been able to hurt him, 
if his faith had been firm. But as the mother bears on her 
\vings and brings back to the nest her chick \vhich has left 
the nest before its tinle and has fallen, so did Christ. Al1d 
u
hen they u,.ere COl1le il1tO tile boat, tile lrind ceased. Then 
they tltat Uiere in tlte boat caIne and lt
o1"slâpped hÙn, saying, 
Raban. T1.uly t!tOlt a'rt the Son qf God. RABAN. This lllay be 
non occ. understood either of the sailors, or of the Apostles. CHRYS. 
Observe ho\v He leads all gradua1Jy to that which is above 
them; He had before rebuked the sea, 1l0\V He she,,'s forth 
His po""er yet nlore by walking upon the sea, by bidding 
another to do the saIne, and by saving hiln in his peril; 
therefore they said unto Hi1n, Trztly thOlt art tile Son of 
God, \vhich they had not said above. JEROME; If then 
upon this single miracle of stilling the sea, a thing which 
.often happens by accid
nt after even great tempests, tbe 



YEn, 2
-3;
, 


ST. )J:\ TTIlE\\'. 


5.:1 


sailors aud pilot
 cunfessed th(\ln to be trulJ. the Hon of Goù, 
hon- does.Arrius preach in the Church itself that lIe is a crea- 
ture? PS.ECDo-Al'u. 
lystically; "fhe llluuntain is loftiness. P:-.eudo. 
nnt "hat is higher than the hea\'cns in the ""odd? Anù 
ug. 
'\1)0 it wa
 that asccJ)(1ed into heaven, that our faith knows. s
;

. 
'rhy did II
 asccnd alonc into heaven? Because no Ulan 72, I. 
ha
 ascended into hea,"cn, but lIe that calllC do,,"u from 
he
l.\"en. I
or e'"cn when I Ie shall COl11C in thc end, and 
shall ha'"e exalted LIS into hca,"en, lIe will yet ascend alone, 
illas:nuch a
 tlH' head "ith its body is One Christ, and now 
thc head ouly is ascended. 11 e ,vent up to pray, because 
I fc is asccnded to lnakc interccssion to IIis .Father for us. 
ITrr.\RY; Or, that I fc is alone in th
 (',"pning, signifies 
I I is 
OITO'" at the tillle of II is passion, when t1)e rest were 
scattered ii'oUI 11 in1 in fpar. J ERO::\IE; .AI
o lIe ascends 
intu the lnountain alone because the Inultitude cannot folIo". 
IIin1 aloft, until 11 e has instructed it by th(' shore of the sea. 
AUti. But while Christ prays on high, tlle boat is tossed A
g, 
. h . I Ù 1 C: } ] ubi sup. 
'Vlt great ,'"a'"cs In t le eep; an( 10raSlnUC) as t Ie ,\'a,pes 
rise, that boat can he tossed; but becausc Christ prays, it 
cannot bc sunk. rrhiuk of that boat as the Church, and the 
stonny sea as this worlù. II IL\RY; That lIe cOllllnands 
J fis disciples to entcr the 
hip and to go acrOð
 the sea, 
while lIe sends the tnultitudes a\\"av, and after that I-Je 
goes up into the Inountaill to pray; lIe therein bids us to 
he \vithin the Church, and to be in peril until such tilne 
as returning in IIic; splendour lIe shan give salvation to all 
thc people that shall he reluaining of T sracl, i.lnd shan for- 
gi,"c their sins; and ha,"ing disll1Ïssed t1)C111 inlo ITis Father's 
kingdom, rcturning thanks to Ilis Father, lIe shaH sit (lo\\-n 
in ITis glory and In(.
jcstr. )Icallwhilc the disciplcs are 
to
"'ed by the ,,-ind and the wa'"es; struggling against all 
thc stonns of this ,,"urId, raiscd by thc opposition of the 
llI1clcan spirit. ...\{-G. For ,,"hcn an\" of a \\"ickcd ,,"ill and .-\u
. 
f I . ., f 1 CI I uhi Sli p . 
n great power, proc aUl1S a pcrsecutIon 0 t IC HIre I, 
thcn it is that a n1ightr ""a'"e riscs against the boat of 
Christ. RAB.\
, 'Yhcnce it is well baid here, that the ship 
""as IU the lHiddle of the sea, and IIc alone on the land, 
hccauCõ\c thc Church is somctiulc::, opprcssed with such per- 
..;ccntion that h(,1" IJord may seem to have forsaken her for 



544 


(::OSPEL AC<":OnnI
U TO 


('HAP. XI\. 


Aug, a season. AUG. The IAord caine to visit. Ilis disciples \\"ho 
ubi sup. are tossed on the sea in the fourth watch of the night-that 
is, at its close; for each watch consisting of three hours, 
the night has thus four \\ratches. HILARY; The first ,vatch 
\vas therefore of the La\v, the second of the Prophets, the 
third flis cOining in the flesh, the fourth ilis return in glory. 
Aug. AUG. Therefore in the fourth watch of the night, that is 
ubi sup. when the night is nearly ended, He shall COlne, in the end 
of the world, "Then the night of iniquity is past, to judge 
the quick and the dead. Hut His cOIning \vas with a wonder. 
The waves s\velled, but they were trodden upon. Thus how- 
soever the pO\\Ters of this "Torld shall sweJl themsehTes, our 
Head shall crush their head. I-IILARY; But Christ cOIning 
in the end shall find His Church ".earied, and tossed by 
the spirit of Anti-Christ, and by the troubles of the ".orld. 
And because by their long experience of Anti-Christ they 
\"ill be troubled at every noyelty of trial, they shaH ha\.e 
fear e\Ten at the approach of the Lord, suspecting deceitful 
appearances. But the good lAord banishes their fear, saying, 
1 t is I; and by proof of Ilis presence talies a way their dread 
Aug. of ilupending shipwreck. ACG. Or; 1'hat the disciples here 




:5. say, It is a phantasln, figures those ,,,,ho yielding to the })e\Til 
shall doubt of the coming of Christ. That Peter cries to 
the Lord for help that he should not be dro,yned, signifies 
that He shall purge His Church ".ith certain trials e"en 
I Cor. 3, after the last persecution; as l
aul also notes, saying, He 
15. sllall be saved, yet so as by fire. IIILARY; Or; That Peter 
alone out of all the nUlnber of those that ,\Tere in the vessel 
has courage to answer, and to pray that the Lord would 
bid him COlne to Hin1 upon the waters, figures the frowardness 
of his will in the Lord's passion, ,\?hen following after the 
Lord's steps he endeayoured to attain to despise death. But 
his fearfulness shews his \\?eakness in his after trial, when 
through fear of death, he \vas dri\
en to the necessity of 
denial. His crying out here is the gt"oaning of his re- 
pentance there. RABAN. The Lord looked back upon him, 
and brought him to repentance; 1-1 e stretched forth His hand, 
and forga\'e hiIn, and thus the disciple found salvation, \vhich 
Rom. 9, ":8 not of lzi1n that 1l"illelh or of ldrn that 1'lllllletll" but C!.f God 
16. fllat sl,e,,'etl, 11lercy. HILARY; That \yhen Peter was seized 



VJ-:R. :14-:16. 



T l\fATTIIE\\. 



45 


with f't'ar, the Lord ga\ t
 hitn not pow'cr of con1ing to IIiw, 
hut hcltl hiu1 b} the hau(l .lnò 
ustail1
rl hÍ1n, this is th
 
signification thereof; that r I e who aloll(, "ras to 
u(fer for 
all alone forga"c the 
ins of all; anù no partncr is admitteù 
into that \\ hich ,,'as bestowed upon tuankind by one. A{;o. Aug. 
For in onc _\ post1c, nalnel)' Pclpr, first ana chief in tbe 


m, 
order of \ po
tlcs in WhOlll "ras figured the Church, both 
kinds wpre to he signified; that is, thc strong, in his walking 
upon the waters; the weal, in that ht, doubted; for to each 
uf Us uur Inst
 are a
 a teulpest. Do
t thou love God? 
rrhon walkest on the :-;ea; the fear of this u'orld is under 
thy feet. Dost thou lo\re the world? It 
\\ allows thee up. 
Hut when thy heart is tossed ,vith desire, then that thou 
Jnaycst overcome thy Inst, ran upon the di\rine person of 
Christ. RE\JIH. And tl1t
 Lord \\ ill be w'ith thee to help 
thet, when lulling to rest the pcrils of thy trials, lIe restores 
the confidence of II is protection, and this to\vards the break 
of ùay; for when hUlnal1 frailty beset" ith difficulties con- 
siders the \\.eakness of it" o\vn po" ers, it looks upon itself a
 
in darkne
s; when it raises its \.ie". to the protection of 
hea\'cn, it ::;traightway bel101ds the rise of the 1110n1Ïng star, 
which gi\rèS its light through the ,,-hole of ÙlC morning ".atch. 
1t.\1L\:\. 
 or should \VC ,,"onder that the \vinrl cea
ed ,,'hen 
the Lord had entcred into tlll
 boat; for in ".hatsoever heart 
the Lord is present by grace, there all wars cease. HILARY; 
Also b
' ù1Îs entrance of Christ into the boat, and the cahn 
of the ,viu(1 and sea thereupon, is pointed out the eternal 
peace of the Church, and that rest which shall be after IIis 
return in glor). _ \I1d forasmuch as lIe shan then appeal 
)nanife
t1y, rightly do they all cry out no,,' in wunder, Truly 
fltOIl art tll SOIL o.l God. For there shall then be a free and 
public cunfe
:"ion of an men that the 
on of God is COlne no 
longer in lowline
s of body, but that lie has gin_'n peace to 
the Church in heavenly glory. \I:G. For it is here con\'eycd Au
. 
to us that His glory \vill then be Inade Iuanifest, 
eeing that Qua:
t, 
1 1 1 k b 1'.. I .. fi E '-, 1.16 
no\\' tIe} W IO wa . y latt I 
cc It III a gure. 


34. And ,,,hen they ,vere gone over, they came 
into the land of Gennesaret. 
35. \nd when the men of that place had kno\v- 
VOL. I. 
 " 



G.Jü 


GOSPEL ACCOIUHl\U TO 


CHAP. XIV. 


ledge of hiln, they sent out into all that country 
round about, and brought unto him all that ,vere 
diseased; 
36. And besought hilTI that they might only touch 
the hem of his garnlent: and as Inany as touched 
'''cre Inade perfectly "Thole. 


REl\fIG. The ]
vangelist had related aboye that the Lord 
had cOlll1uanded IIis disciples to enter the boat, and to go 
before IIinl across the strait; he no\v proceeds ",ith the 
saIne intention to relate ,,-hither they arri\Ted by their passage, 
And 'lohe1l the!! 1rere gone ore}', they caIne into tlte land ql 
GeJ1llezaretlt. RABAN. The land of Gennezar, by the lake of 
Gennezareth, tal{es its naUle frOIl! a natural ponTer \vhich it 
is said to ha\ye of spontaneously nlodulating its ,vaters so as 
to excite a breeze; the Greek \'-ords iInporting, , creating for 
itself the breeze.' CHRYS. nut the E\'ange1ist shc\'Ts that it 
,vas no\\" long till1e since Christ had conle into these parts; 
for it follows, And u"lten tlte JJlen q( t/tat place knew I,ÙJl, 
they sent into all that re,fjiou. JERO
IE; They knew Hiln by 
faIne, not by 
ight; although indeed by reason of the great- 
ness of the signs ,vhich He did alnong the people, He "Tas 
kno,,-n by face to great I1t11nbers. And note 110\V great the 
faith of the lnen of the land of Gennezareth, that they ,,-ere 
not content ,,,ith the healing of the nlen of that country only, 
but sent to aU the to\\Y11S round about. CHRYS. Nor do they 
110\V as before drag HÍ1n to their houses, and seek the touch 
of IIis hanel, but they dra,v HÍ1n by their greater faith, for 
they brought uuto hÏ1n all fhcln that u'ere sick, and besoll.fjld 
hi}}t thai they 111(9'd touch Vilt the !tenl oj'his gar1nellf. For 
the \YOIUan who sufrered under the issue of blood had taught 
thelll all this \visdoln, namely, that hy touching the hell1 only 
of Christ's garnlent they nlight be saved; therefore it follows, 
Aud as lnany as touched, 'lccre 11lllde u,ltole. JERO)lE; If 'Ye 
kne,v ",hat the 'word Gennezareth ,,"oldd COll\'ey in our 
tongue, we IHight understand ho\v under the type of the 
Apostles and the boat, Jesus guides to shore the Church 
,,,hen lIe has deli\"ered it fronl the \\Teck of persecution, and 
Inakes it to rest in a nlost tranquil harbour. RAll.\N. Genezar 



"Elt. 
-!-a(), 


=,f. M.\TTHE"". 


511 


is iutcrpn'ted, 'rise,' 'heginning.' For then will c01nplcte 
rest he gi\"Cll to US, \\ hell Christ shall have restorc(l to us our 
inheritance of Paradi
c, and the jOf of our first robe. I hLARY; 
Otherwise; ''''hen the tiulCs of the Lal\9 \vere endcd, and fÌ"c 
thousand out of Isracl were cntcred ,vi thin tbe Church, it 
\\9
lS then that the people of bclievers Inct IliBI, then thu
c 
that ""crc sa,'cd out of the La" Ly faith set before the Lord 
the rcst of their sick and ,,"cak; and thcy that ""cre thus 
brought songht to touch the heln of IIis ganllcnt, hccau
c 
through thcir faith they "poult! be hcaled. A neL as the virtue 
of thc helll procceded froln the ,,,"hole ganncnt, so thc virtue 
of thc grace of thc IIoly Hpirit w'cnt forth from our Lord 
J e"u
 Christ, and iluparted to the \.postlcs, ,,-ho proceeded 
a
 it ,vcre froln the S<.llUe body, adn1Ïllistcrs sah-ation to such 
a
 desire to touch. JERO:\fF.; ()r, by the henl of the gannent 
ullderstand I[is lcast cOllllllandulcnt, which whosocver trans- 
grcsses, shall bc called least in the kingdolll of heaven; or, 
again, (lis asslunption of the body, by \vhich \,e COlne to the 
""'ord of God. CHln:s. But \\'e ha,'c not a hem or a gannent 
only of Christ, but have e\gen IIis body, that \\.C lnay eat 
thercof. If thcn they ,,-ho touched the helll of flis gannent 
dcri\"cd so luuch ,.irtue thcrcfroln, lnnch lnorc thcy that shall 
rcccÌ\"c II inl
clf ,,-holc. 


2 
 2 



CHAP. xv. 


1. l'hen caIne to Jesus Scribes and Pharisees, 
\vhich were of Jerusalem, saying, 
2. 'Vhy do thy disciples transgress the tradition of 
the elders 1 for they '\vash not their hands when they 
eat bread. 
3. But he ans\vered and said unto them, Why do 
ye also transgress the cOlllmandment of God by your 
tradition 1 
4. For God conlmanded, saying, Honour thy father 
and mother: and, He that curseth father or 11lother, 
Jet hin1 die the death. 
5. But ye say, 'Vhosoever shall say to his father or 
his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest 
be profited by me; 
6. And honour not his father or his mother, he 
shall be free. Thus have ye Inade the comlllandment 
of God of none effect by your tradition. 


RABAN. The Inen of Gennezareth and the less learned 
believe; hut they ,vho seen1 to be wise come to dispute with 
Hi111; according to that, Thou håst llid these things fro'1n tlte 
u,ise and p'l"udent, and Ilast re1'ealed tlle1Jl unto babes. 
"Thence it is said, Tltell ca'Jne to lti1n frO'/1l Jerusalem SC'1"ibes 
Aug. de and Pharisees. AUG. The Evangelist thus constructs the 
E Con
: order of his narrative, Then ca'JJle unto lIÙn, that, as appeared 
v. JI, 
49. in the passage over the lake, the order of the events that 
Chrys, followed that might be she","n. CHRYS. For this reason also 
Hom, Ii. the E vangelifo\t marks the time that He may she\v their 



VFlt. 1-6, (iQSPEL ACCOUDl
G TO 
T. 'JATTHli\\". !j.j
 


ini(luit) 0\ erCOJnc by nothing; for they canle to lJiUl at 
a till)c \\ hen Ill" had wrought lnany l11iracles, ,,"hen lIe laad 
healed the sick by the touch of Ifis heul. 'rhat the Scribes 
and Pharisees are here said to have cOlne froB} J crusalclu, it 
should be kno" n that they \\ erc dispersed through ttlJ the 
tribe
, but those that dwelt in the 
I etropolis "rcrc \vorse thall 
tIll- others, their higher clignit}' inspiring theul ,,"ith a greater 
dC'b'T(,t" of pridc. RE
I It;. 'fhey ""ere faulty for two rea:'>uus; 
because they had COlne frou) ,J erusaleul, frolll thc holy city; 
and becausc they werc elders of the people, and doctors of 
Ihp La\\", and had not conle to learn but tù repro\"c the Lord; 
for it is addcJ, Saying, " It Y do I It.'l diseijJll)s I,.a Jlsgress 111f) 
Il'ud lion qf lite eld JI'S I J ERO)lE; ,\Y onderful infatuation of 
the Pharisec!) and Scribes! They accuse the- 
on of G o{l 
that lIe docs not keep thp traditions anJ cOJlll11andu}('llts of 
lncu. CHit\' s. Obsen-e, ho\\- they are taken in their 0\""11 
qucstion. Thc)" 
ay not, , 'Vhy do they transgress thc Law 
of ,roscs?' but, tlte tradilion uJ" llie eld(>J"s; whence it is 
luanifest that the Pricsts had introduced lllal1Y nc\v things, 
although 'loses had said, J Y e shallll01 ltdd 011.'1'11 10 llll
 U'Ol'd Dent. , 
wl,iel, I set lJl:(ore YUII 11,;s day, '}Ieitlter .'\Iutll !Ie lake oll.fJltl2, 
llway jr01Jl il; and whcn they ought to ha'"e LCCll set fi'cP 
fro III ohscr\"anccs, thcn they bound thcnlSeh"cs hy Ulan) 
nl0rc; fearing lest any 
hould take a\\ ay their rule 
llHI 
pon er, they sought to increa
e the awe in which they were 
held, hy setting thenlseh-c::. forth as legislators. RE
IIG. ()f 
,vhat kind these traditions "rete', .ì\Iark shews ,vhcn he 
avs, 
TluJ 1>lul risee,f) ((lid all I he JCiCS, e"
.ceJJl I hey Icash, llll)ir )Luk 
IHllld., o.{l, ellllloi. J [ere then a]so they find fault \\ ith thc 7,3. 
disciples, saying, For tllLY lcash 1101 II,ei,. liauc s when flll'!! 
Ftli bread. REDE; Taking carnan
 those wonls of the Pro- H
tla in 
phets, ill which it is said, J, "'a.,1" alid be y'
 c/rall, they ;I

c, 
oL
en'eù it ouly in \\"ashing the Lody; hence they had laid I
, 1,16. 
it down that "e on
ht noL to eat with unwashcn haud
. 
.J EUO)IE; But the halHI
 that are to he washed arc the acl
 
110t of the body, hut of thc Inilld; that thc word of God )na, 
he (lone in thenl. C Hlt\
. fill t the di
ciples now {lid not e
t 
with wi.U)hcll h(llld
, hr'eallsP thcy already despiscfl aJI thing
 
superfluons, (111(1 attended nnly to 
lIch a:--. \\ ere llccc

ary; 
1hu"\ thl'.\" accepted neither washin
 110r ]lot washillg' fl'" a 



55lJ 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XV. 


rule, but did either as it happened. For how should they 
,vho even neglected the food that ,vas necessary for them, 
have any care about this rite? REl\I1G. Or the Pharisees 
found tault ,vith the Lord's disciples, not concerning that 
\vashing \vhich ""e do from ordinary habit, and of necessity, 
but of that superfluous \yashing \vhich ""as in,"ented by the 
tradition of the elders. CHRYS. Christ made no excuse for 
theIn, but illu11ediately brought a counter charge, she\ving 
that he that sins in great things ought not to take offence at 
the slight sins of others. He ans'loered and said 'Unto tltell1, 
lVIt.'! do ye also Irans.qress file counnand1l1eut f!f God because 
oj' your tradition? lIe says not that they ùo ""ell to trans- 
gress that He n1ay not give room for calun1ny; nor on the 
other haud does He condeInn ,,,hat the Apostles had done, 
that lIe may not sanction their traditions; nor again does 
lIe bring any charge directly against then} of old, that they 
might not pnt II inl froln then1 as a calulnniator; but He 
points Ilis reproof against those \"ho had COllle to Hin1; thus 
at the saIne tilne touching the elders \"ho had laid do\vn 
such a tradition; saying, J EROl\IE; Since yc because of the 
tradition of Inen neglect the cOlnn1anchnent of God, \,"hy do 
ye take upon you to repro"e IllY disciples, for besto\ving little 
l'egal-d upon the precepts of the elders, that they 111ay obser'"e 
the cOinmands of God? For God hath said, J-Ionollr tlly 
..lather llnd thy 'JJlot!ter. Honour in the Scriptures is she\vn 
not so Il1uch in salutations and courtesies as in alms and 
1 Tim,5, gifts. Honour, says the Apostle, the 'lridoll'S 'll"lto are lDidolCS 
:3. indeed,. here 'honour' signifies a gift. The Lord then 
ha,'ing thought for the infirmity, the age, or the poverty of 
parents, con1n1anded that sons sllould honour their parents in 
pro\'iding them ,yith necessaries of life. CHRYS. He desired 
to she\v the great honour that ought to be paid to parents, 
and therefore attached buth a reward and a penalty. But in 
this occasion the IJord passes o\.er the re\vard promised to 
such as did hononr their parents, naillely, that they should 
li\-e long upon the earth, and brings forward the terrible part 
only, nalnely, the l)unis]ullent, that I Ie u1Ïght strik
 thes
 
dUll1b and attract others; And he t !tal Cll rJ;et It L(al!l[J'}' and 
1J1olhpr, h:1 hil1l die the dealh; thus lIe she""s that thc.'- 
rlesen'ed evcn death. For if he who dishonour:-- hi
 parcnt 


.. 



V l Lt. I-f). 


Sf. 
IAT I'IIE\V. 


JJI 


C\'l'n in wurd is \\'orlh
 of death, luuch 1I10rC )"c who di
- 
hOl1onr hinl in deed; anù yc not only dishonour 'your parcnt:;, 
hut teach otlH'rs to do so likcn isc. '-c thc11 \\.ho do not 
dcscl"\'c e'"Cll to li,.c, how accuse yc tHY ùi
cip]cs? But how 
thl"} transgress the cOl1nnanlhnent of God is clear when (Ic 

l<lds, nlf' ye sa,'I, 11 7,oso shall sfl.'llo !ti.f\ .lll! h(',. (II' his IliolTter, 
/ Ù.: It g
' " 'lc!talsoercr l!toll .17fig/tles! [;;) ]Jl'qjill'd by JJle. 
J EnO
IF; For thc 
crih('s and Pharisecs desiring to 0\ crturn 
this forc
oilJg Jnost pro,.i(lcnt hi\\' of God, th:lt they luight 
hring in thcir ilnpiet) under the Ina
k of piptr, taught bad 
sons, that 
hunld an) de
ire to dcvote to God, \"ho is thc 
true p..uent, tho
e things ,,"hiell ought to Le offcrcd to 
parents, thc oflering to thc Lord should be prcferred to thc 
oficring thcn1 to parcuts, (ì- L(J
S, I II this interpretation t1Jc Gloss. 
sense will he, 'Yhat I offer to (;od will profit hoth you and ::l
n
n- 
In.rsc1f; and therefore .rou ought not to take of Iny goods for 
your own ncc(1s, hut to sufl('r that I oller theln to God. 
.J EUO
IE; \nd thus the par<'Ilts rcfu'\ing ,,-hat they sa'" thus 
dedicated to God, that thcy lllÍght not incur the guilt of 
s.lcrilege, perished of '" ant, and 80 it can1C to pass that what 
the chiltlren offered for the IlPc<Js of the teulple and the 
servicc of God, ".eut to thc gain of thc }>riests. G LOSS. Or Glo

. 
thc sens(' loay he, J r 7losoerer, that is, of you yonng nlen, :
.m
n- 
slulll sa,'I, that is, shall eithcr be able to f'ay, or shall say, to 
!tis .latlter 0)" 1110'''(,1", 0 father, thc gift that is of HIe dcvoted 
to God, 
han it profit thee? a
 it ,,'cre an exchunation of 
surprise; yon ought not to take it that you lnay not incur 
the guilt of sacrilcge. Or, "'e ilIa)" read it with this cllipsis, 
H 7,osoercr .4\h,,1l say to Itj"
 ,falller, ,'J'c. lH
 shall do thc conl- 
111aIHlIncnt of God, or shan fulfil the IJaw, or 
hall he \\'orthv 
of lift, eternal. JEHO:\IJ;; Or it Ina)" Lrietly havc the follow'- 
iug 
ense; \ c cOlnpc] children tu say to their parents, 'Yhat 

ift ::,oc,"C'r T \\'as purposing to offer to (;od, you take and 
consnnlC npon your li\'ing, and so it profits you; as Hluch as 
to say, Do not .::>0. G 1.0
'. .\nd thu
 through thesc argu- Glos
. 
Incllt:-. of yonI' a\ aricc, this youth shall 110110111' 1101 lti"'./(illter :


n- 
nr his 111of!u'r. \s if lie h,1(l said; \P c ha'"c led son
 into 
Ulosl t'\ il deeds; 
o that il win corne to pass that aftcrwar<l
 
they shall uot c\ cn honour their f;ltllcr and Hlolher, \ nd 
1hu
 
.(' ha,l' Illa.tlp thp ('nIU1l1an(hnl'nt of God cone{'rl1i1J
 thC' 



552 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAIf. XV. 


support of parents by their children vain through your 
Aug. traditions, obeying the dictates of avarice. A UG. Christ 
cont. 
Adv. here clearly she\vs both that that law which the heretic 



.

 blasphenlcs is God's law, and that the Jews had their 
ii.1: traditions foreign to the prophetical and canonical books; 
Aug. such as the Apostle calls profane and vain fables. ID. Thp 
cont. 
Faust. Lord here teaches us many things; That it was not He that 
xvi. 24. turned the Jews frOn1 t11eir God; that not only did He not 
infringe the commandments, but convicts them of infringing 
thenl; and that He had ordained no 11lore than those by the 
Aug. hand of l\Ioses. ID. Otherwise; The gift u:/iatsoevel' thou, 




:6.l?ffe1"est on 1ng aCCollnt, shall pl.ofit t!tee; that is to say, 
'Vhatsoever gift thou offerest on Iny account, shall henceforth 
remain \\Tith thee; the son signifying by these \vords that 
there is no longer need that parents should offer for hinl, 
as he is of age to offer for hinlself. And those \vho \vere 
of age to be able to say thus to their parents, the Pharisees 
denied that they w'ere guilty, if they did not she,," honour to 
their parents. 


7. Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you, 
. 
sa YIng, 
8. This people draweth nigh unto me \vith their 
mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their 
heart is far from me. 
9. But in vain they do worship IDe, teaching for 
doctrines the commandments of men. 
10. And he called the multitude, and said unto 
them, Hear, and understand: 
11. Not that which goeth into the lllouth defileth 
a man; but that which cOlneth out of the mouth, 
this defileth a Inan. 


CHRYS. 'l'he Lord had She\Vll that the Pharisees ,vere nut 
,,"orthy to accuse those who transgressed the conlnlal1dð of 
the elders, seeing they ovel"thl'e\v the law of God themselves; 
and lIe again proves this by the testilnony of the Prophet; 
HYPoC1"iies, 
'ell did Esaias p1"ophes!/ qt" YOM, saying, This 



\'J.:u. 7-11. 


'iT. )J ATTU Eo \\ . 


55:1 


p upl' /HI/'UlIl'l'II, Ille lrill ,It'lJ' lips, /Jul their ht'art is jll}" 
/;'UlIl JIll'. HE 'nu. 11,) 1)()cri tc Jo;ignifi('
 disseulh]cr, onc \\' ho 
tèigllS onc thing- ill his outwarù act, aud bears another thing 
in his heart. 'fh 's ' thcn are ,,'cll called h)'pocrilcs, hecause 
unde.. CO\ CI. of Goel's honour they sought to heap up for 
tht'lllseh-e:j carthly gain, R.\ßAN. Esaias ba\\ beforc the 
hypocrisy of the Je\\'s, that the}' would craftily orpos,," 
the (,o:-.p...l, and therefore he said in the person of the 
Lonl, T"i.
 people /uJllourcllt 1I1l' 1rillt their 1;",4\, 
c. 
RE)IIG. For the Jewish nation seelHcd to draw ncar to 
God \\ ith their lips and ITIouth, inaslTIuch as they buasted 
that th('y lIeItl the ,,'orship of thc One God; hut in thr-ir 
hearts lhe
 ùcparte<l li'Olll 11Ï1n, because after they had 
seen I lis 
igns and Iniracles, they \voldd neither ackno\v- 
ledgc flis divinity, nor rccei, l
 IIitu. RAHAN. Also, the) 
honuured IIiln with their lips when they said, JJasler, Ire Mat, 22, 
kllu . I "at ilou art true, Lut their heart was far froln Ifilli 16. 
\\ hcn they 
cnt spic
 to entangle IIitn in Ilis tali. GLOSS, Glos:f. 
Or, 111ey honoured IlilH in conl1nenc1ing oul\vard purity; :
l

n- 
hut in that they lacked the in\\'ard which i
 the true purity, 
thcir heart ,,'as far fro 11 I God, and such honour \\ras of no 
a\-ail tu thcIII; a.s it fullo,,
, IJul wilhou/ !"('((SOIl do they 
/I'ors/tip 'IIle, leac/'''''!I docl,.ines and C01JlIllalUbueuls qf 1llell. 
!{AHAX. Thereforc they shall not ha,-e their re\vard u-ith 
the tnlc \vorshippers, because they teach doctrines and 
cOillillandlncnt
 of JUCl1 to the cOlltclnpt of the-Iau" of God. 
CHRYS. Ilaving added ,,'eight to Ilis accusation of thp 
Pharisees by thc testimon) of the Prophet, and not ha\'ing 
alllclHl('d thein, Ire 110\\" ceases to fo;peak to them, and turns 
to Lhe multitudes, J.1nd he call Jd I'" 'J1l11liitlt l', alld ða'd 
III to tit In, II>a1" and 1 uderslllild. Becausl' I fe was about 
to 
ct hcforc thenl a high dognla, and full of llHlCh philo- 
!o\ophy, lIe does not uttcr it nakedly, but "0 fraJllCS Hi
 
"'peech that it 
hould be receivcd b)" theln. First, h) 
exhibiting anxiet\' on their account, \\ hich the Evangelist 
e
prcsscs b) the word:-., 
ll1d lie (' III >t! tlie IIlultilud 10 
hÙIl. Second])', the tinlc llc chooses l'ecollllTI('nd
 IIi:-. 
"'lW4.'ch; after the ,oictory rIc has just gained o\'cr lhl" 
Phari
ces. ..\nrl Ile not Jllcrel., call
 the 11lullitudc to Ilinl, 



551 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CH.\P. XV. 


but ]'ouscs their attention by tIle ,,'ords, Hear and under- 
stand; that is, Attend, and gi\Te your lninds to ,,,hat ye aloe 
to hear. But I-Ic said not unto theIn, The observance of 
lneats is 110Ught; nor, l\ioses bade you wrongly; but in 
the ,yay of \yarning and ad\'ice, dra\ving lIis testilnollY frol11 
natural things; l'TOt 'lcliat eutereflt ill at tlie J7loulll de.filetlt 
II Ulan, but u'liat goeth. .fortlt qf tI,e 'lnouflt illat defileflt a 
'luau. J EROl\IE; The ,vord here a , makes a man cOlnnlon' 
is peculiar to Scripture, and is not hackneyed in cOllllnon' 
parlance. The Je\vish nation, boasting thelnselves to be 
a part of God, call those Bleats cOlnmon, of which all Inen 
partake; for exalnple, s\vine's flesh, shell fish, hares, and 
those species of anilnals that do not di\'ide the hoof, and 
che\v the cud, and aillong the fish such as have not scales. 
Acts 10, lIenee in the .L.\.cts of the Apostles ,ve read, TVltat God hath 
15. cleansed, t!tat call 'Jl0t t!tOIl C01JlUI0J1. COllllnon then in this 
. sense is that which is free to the rest of Inankind, and as 
though not in part of God, is therefore caned unclean. 
AUG. This declaration of the Lord, ....:'Vot fhat u'hich ellierelh 
iuto lite lnolillt dfijilefll a 'Juan, is not contrary to the Old 
Testalnent. As the Apostle also speaks, To file pure all 
tkings are pure; and Erery creal ure c:f God is good. . Let 
the l\fanichæans understand, if they can, that the A postle 
said this of the \Tery natures and qnalities of things; \vhile 
that letter (of the ritual Ian") declared certain anilnals un- 
clean, not iÙ their nature but typically, for certain figures 
,vhich ,,,ere needed for a tinle. Therefore to take an 
instance in the s\vine and the lalnb, by nature both are 
clean, because naturally e\Tery creature of God is good; but 
in a certain typical Ineanillg the Ianlh is clean, and the 
swine unclean. ':rake the hvo ,vords, , fool,' and' \vise,' in 
their o\vn nature, as sounds, or letters, hoth of theln are 
pure, but one of thenl because of the Ineaning attached to it, 
not because of any thing in its o\\'"n nature, 111ay be said 
to be ilnpurc. And perhaps what the swine are in typical 
representation, that alnong nlankiud is the fool; and the 
auinla], and this \vord of 1\\'"0 syllables (stu1tus) signify S0l11C 


Aug. 
cant. 
Faust. 
vi. 6, 
Tit. I, 
15. 
1 Tim. 
4, 4. 


a Jerome reads' ('ommnnicat,' The Y u1g. has' coinquinat, 



YEn. 7-11. 


ST. '1 -\ TTnE" . 


555 


one and the saillC thing. I'hat allilnal i
 reckoncd unclcan 
in tJ)(O law Le
au
l' it docs not chc\,. the cud; but this is 
not its filUH lJllt its naturc. l
ut thc 1He1l of WhUIIl thi
 
allilnal is t}H.
 l'InhlrllJ, are ilnpnre hy thcir o\,'n fault, not by 
nature; thc} rCiHlily hear the wor<1
 of \\ isdutn, lJut never 
think upon thenl again. ".hatc,'cr of profit .rou lllay bear, 
to 
tl1nmOll lhis up fruln the internal region of the 1l1ctnory 
through the sweetness of recollection into the 1110nth of 
thought, \,'hat is this ùut 
pirituall'y to chc\\- the cud? l'he}" 
,,110 do not this arc represented Ly this 
pccie
 of anitnal. 

t1ch rescIllhlaHces a
 these in 
pecch, or in cerelnonie
, 
ha,"ing figurati,.c signification, profitably and pleasantly 
tI10'"C the lational 1l1ind; hut hy the fonIler people, 111any 
!--uch things wcre not only to he hcanl, hut to bc kept as 
prel'epts. For that \\"a<:\ a titHe when it behovcd not in 
words only, hut iu deccJ
, to prophcsJ those things \vhich 
hereafter \vcre to he rc,'ealed. \'.hen these hacl becn 
rc,'caled through Chri
t, and in Christ, the bnrdell
 of 
ohsernuH'es "erc not imltOsecl on the faith of th(' Gentiles; 
hut the authority of the prophecy ""as yet confinl1cd. But 1 
a
k of the 'IalJicha
an
, \\"hcthcr this declaration of the 
Lord, when lIe 
aid that a Juan is not defiled by what 
enters into his Hlouth, is true or false? If false, why then 
ùocs their doctor _\dinw,ntlls bring it forward against the 
l)ld TestalHcnt? If true, \vhy cuntrary to its tenor do thcy 
c01J
ider that the.,. are thus defiled? J ERO
IE ; The thoughtful 
reader lUa) here ol
cct and say, If that which cntercth into 
the IIlonth defileth not a llUlon, \yhy do \\-e not feed on meats 
offered tu idols? Bt> it known then that tncats a11d c,"cr" 
ereatnn' of (;0<1 is in itself clean; Lut the inyocation of 
idu]
 and dælnons lllal
es theln unclean with tho
e at least 
who with consciencc of the idol eat that ,,"hich' is otlered to 
icluls; and their conscicnce heing ,,'cali is pollutcù, as the 
\ po
tle sa)"s. n E
IIG, But if any olle't:> faith he MJ 
trong 
that hl
 ulllll'rstands that GO(l's creaturc can ill 110 way be 
(Ie filed, let hilll cat what he win, aftcr the food has ùecn 
hallowl'd h
 the word of God and of rra
-('r; Yf'1 
o that 
thl
 his lihl"rt
 he Hot tna(le an Üfrl'lll'C to the weak, as the 
.\ po
tl(' 
pl'al,s. 



556 


GOSIJ.EL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XV. 


12. Then came his disciples, and said unto hiln, 
Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended, after 
they heard this saying? 
13. But he ans\vered and said, Every plant, which Iny 
heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up. 
14. Let theln alone: they be blind leaders of the 
blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall 
fall into the ditch. 


J EROl\JE ; In one of the Lord's discourses tbe ,,,hole 
superstition of Jewish observances had been cut do\vn. 
They placed their \vhole religion in using or abstaining 
ii'oln certain meats. CHRYS. 'Vhen the Pharisees heard 
the things that \vent before, they made no reply to them, 
because He had 80 n1Îghtily overthro\\rn theIn, not only 
refuting their argunlents, but detecting their fraud, but they, 
not the multitudes, \vere offended at them; Then canze his 
disciples unto ltÙn and said, Kuolcesf thou, thai lite Pllarisees 
?{"ere offended after tlley ltea1'd tltis sa.lJillg? JEROME; As 
this word (scandalum' (offence or stunlblingblock) is of 
such frequent use in ecclesiastical writings, \ve \vill shortly 
explain it. \Ve Iuight render it in IJatin, , offendicululn,' or 
, ruina' or 'im p actio" and so when \VC read \,Thosoe\-er 
" , 
shall scandalize, we understand, \Vhoso by ,vord or deed 
has given an occasion of falling to any. CHRYS. Christ 
does not remove the stutnblingblock out of the \vay of the 
Pharisees, but rather rebukes them; as it follo\vs, But lie 
allslL'e1'ed and said, Et
ery plaut 1L'hich 1/zy Itearenly Fatlter 
lias not plal/ted shall be rooted up. This l\Ianichæus 
affiru1ed was spoken of the Law, but \vhat has been already 
said is a sufficient refutation of this. For if lIe had said 
this of the Law, how \vould He have above contended for 
the La\v, saying, J
7lty transgress ye tlie c01Jl'1Jlanduieut ql 
God through your tradition? Or \voldd lIe ha\"e cited the 
Prophet? Or ho\v, if God said, Honour ihy j'ai!u:1' lllld thy 
1Jlotller, is not this, being spoken in the La\v, a plant of 
God? HILARY; 'Vhat He intends then by a plant 110t 
planted of His .Father, is that tradition of 111en under cover 



\ E It. 1 2-1-1. 


ST. M \1' fH E\,"- 


!J57 


of which the La\\' ha(l been transgresseù, thj
 Ilc ill
lruct
 
tht'llI HUlst he rooted up. I
El'\IIG. Evcry false doctrilh' 
anti super
titi(}us ohspr\"an('(' with the \\Forker!'; thercof cannot 
endure; and because it is not fronl God the Father, it shall 
L(' rooted up \\ ith the sallie. And that onl) shan endurt 
which is of Goù. J ERo
n
; Shall that plant also be rootcd 
up ("f which the Apostle says, I pillult..d, 
lpollos u"lllered? I (:or. 
'fhe qucstion is answ'ered hy w'hat follo\ys, !Jut God ga
'e tll 3.0, 
iller tl...e. lIe says also, J7"e are God',
 11IIs!Julldry, a bllildill.( 
rif (ioJ; and in another place, 11.Te are 'o,.ker,
 togetlter II 
God. \n<1 if when l>aul plants, and 
\ponus waters, the)" 
arc in so doing worker
 together with God, then God plant
 
and water::> together with theln. Th is passage is abused 
by SOllie who apply it at onCf\ to Ì\\ 0 different kinds of men; 
thc) say, , If e\'ery plant ,,'hich the Father hath not planted 
shan be rooted lip, then that \vhich lIe has planted cannot 
be rooted up.' But let th(,111 hear these ".ords of Jeren1iah, 
I !lad planted t!lee II true rille, l{'ltolly a right seed, /,OU' Jer. '2, 
II,ell art t!tOlt IU1'l1ed i1lto tlu J bitterness 0/ a .çtrange rine? 21. 
God indced has planted it, and none Inay root up IIis 
plant.ing. But since that plantiug ".as through the dis- 
po
ition of the \viII of hin1 \vhich ,vas planted, llonp 
other can root it up l1uless its own \\ ill consents thereto. 
GLO"':'" Or, the plant herc spoken of may be the doctors of
lo
: 
the La\v ,,,ith their follo".crs, \"ho had not Christ for their mterhn. 
foundation. '\n
' they arc to be rooted up, lIe adds, Lei 
tI, >] l alone; tI,e!! are bli1ld, leaders o.l tile blind. RABAN. 
17lry are hliud, that is, they ""ant tl1e light of God's com- 
InaJ1(hncnts; and they are lenders 0.( ti,e blind, inaslnuch a
 
thcy draw' others headlong, erring, and leadin!) into error; 
"'hence it is addcd, (f the blind lead tlte blilld, tlley bot" 
fall ill/o tlte ditcl,. JERO'[E; This 1
 also the saIne as that 
Apostolic illj lIuction, t "('relic (!/
()r lhe .firs! a lid second Tit. 3, 
adlllOllili01l l'l:ierl, k1to .ill[l thai such a Olle Ù; perl:erse. To iO. 11. 
the 
ame end the 
a\"ionr c01l1mand
 evil teachers to be left 
to their own will, knowing that it is hardly that they can be 
hronght to th(' truth. 


15. Then ans\vered l>eter and said unto hin), De- 
clare unto us this parable. 



558 


GOSPEL ACCOUDING TO 


c HAl). X \' . 


16. And Jesus said, 
L\re ye also yet \vithout under- 
standing? 
17. Do not ye yet understand, that \"hatsoever 
entereth in at the lllouth goeth into the beny
 and is 
cast out into the draught? 
] 8. But those things \vhich proceed out of the 
lTIouth COlne forth fron1 the heart; and they defile 
the man. 
19. For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, 
murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, 
blasphemies : 
20. These are the things \vhich defile a man: 
but to eat with un,vashen hands defileth not a man. 


RE::\IIG. The Lord \vas used to speak in parables, so that 
Peter \vhen he heard, That u'/liell entereth into tlte 1110utll 
difileilt not 0 1nan, thought it \vas spoken as a parable, and 
asked, as it follo\vs; Then luzsu'e'red Peter, and said unto 
llÙn, Declare unto 'Us this lJarable. And because he asked 
this on behalf of the rest, they are all included in the 
rebuke, But lie said, Are ye also ?/et u'ithout understanding? 
J EROl\IE; He is repro\'ed by the LOl'd, because He supposed 
that to be spoken parabolically, \vhich "ras indeed spoken 
plainly. """hich teaches us that that hearer is to be blalned 
\vho would take dark sayings as clear, or clear sayings as 
obscure. CHRYS. Or, The Lord blalnes him, because it wa
 
not frolu any uncertainty that he aslied this, but froln offence 
\vhich he had taken. The lllu1titudes had not understood 
what had been said; but the disciples \\'ere offended at it, 

"hence at the first they had desired to ask Hill} concerning 
the Pharisees, but had been stayed by that lllighty declara- 
tion, Every plant, 
.c. But Peter, \vho is ever zealous, is 
110t silent even so; therefore the Lord reproves hitn, adding 
a reason for IIis reproof, Do ye '/lot 1.l1Zdel'stalld, t/tal 'it'/tat- 
soever ellie,retlt in at tlte '1noullt goet/t into tlie belly, aud is 
cast out into tlte draught? J EROl\IE; Some cavil at this, that 
the Lord is ignorant of physical disputation in saying tllat 
all food goes into the belly, and is cast out into the draught; 



YElL 15-20. 


:ST, 'I \ I'TII E\\ . 


5JH 


f'()r that the fueHI, a:o, 
oon as it is takcn, is distributed through 
the liuJL-;, the \"ci))s, thc' )UaITO\\, anel the Ill'l"\'es. But it 
should Lc kuown, that the lighter juices, and liquid food 
afh'r it has heen reduced and digested ill the '"cins and 
vessels, pa
ses into the lower parts through those pa
sages 
which the Grecks call' pores,' and so goes into the elraught. 
..\f li. 1'])(' nouris]uJlcnt uf the hody being first changed into l
U
, de 
. \ l.ra 
corruption, that is, ha\"ing lost its proper funn, IS ab
orbcd Relig. 
into thp suLstance of the lilllbs, and repairs thcir waste, 40. 
passing through a nll
dill1n into another fornI, and by the 

pontJ.ut'ous luotion of the parts is so separated, that snch 
portions as are adaptt\d for the pnrpose are taken up into 
the structure of this fair \"isihle, while such a
 are unfit are 
rt:jectcd through their own passages. One part consistiug 
of ffeces is restored to earth to reappear again in ne\V foruls; 
anothl\r part gocs 011' in perspiration; and another is taken 
np h) the Hcn'ous s)"stelll for the purposes of reproduction 
of tl)(" specie
. CHIn s. But the Lord in thus speaking 
an
wers I [is disciples after J e\\.i
h infinnity; lIe says that 
the fooù docs not abide, but goes out; but if it did abide, 
Jet \,.ould it not lnalip a 111an unclean. ]1ut they could not 
Jet hear these things. 1'hus 
loses al
o pronounces that 
ÙlCY continued unclean, so long as the food continued in 
t1U\Ul; for he bid
 then} ,,-ash in the c\'ening, and then 
they shoulcl he clean; calculating the tillle of eligestion allel 
cgestion. A t:O. 
\nd the Lord inclllde
 herein luan's t\vo Aug. de 
111ouths, one of the body, Olle of the heart. Fur \Vl}(\ll lIe 
::
'fJ, 
says, 
'Tot all that ,(joetli illlo lite IJlolltli dtjilellt a 'IJlllll, 
] Ie clearly spealis uf the hody's lllouth; but in that which 
fonu\\ s, I Ie' alhHh\s to the BIonth of the heart; flu t I hOSt 
llt;II!1'
 11"1,;('/1 proceed out '?f Ille II/oullt, COllie jorlli ji'OIJl tlte 
It art, ud LIley drjile tl IJUl1l, ClI ItY
. l
or thl; thi))g
 
which are of the heart, rClnaill \, ithin .l luan, and defile 
hinI in guing out of hill), as well as in aùiding in hinl; 

yea, Inore in going uut úf hiln; wherefore lIe adlls, UIII 
f!( Ihe !trarl jJI'IJc(Jl'd ('t'il ,!tou.lJ!tls; lIt' gi\"es these the first 
v lace , hecause ùIÏs ""as the "ery fault of the Jews, who laid 

Hart's for lIilll. J EltO:\1 E.; 'I'he principle therefore of the 
soul is not according to l)lato in the brain, hut according 
to Christ in the heart, aud by this passage ,,'e lnay refute 



560 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. xv. 


those \vho think that evil thoughts are suggestions of the 
De\'il, and do 110t spring from our proper \"ill. The 
Devil may encourage and ahet evil thoughts, but not 
originate thenl. And if he be able, being always on the 
",.atch, to blo\v into flame any stnall spark of thought in 
us, \ve should not thence conclude that he searches the 
hidden places of the heart, but that from our manner and 
motions he judges of what is passing within us. For 
instance, if he see us direct frequent looks towards a fair 
""'oman, he understands that our heart is wounded through 
Gloss. the eye. GLOSS. And from evil thoughts proceed evil deeds 
non occ. and evil ",rords, ,vhich are forbidden by the law; "'hence lIe 
adds I1fllrde1's, which are forbidden by that commandment of 
the Law, ThOlt s/talt not kill; Adulte-ries,fo1.nicatioll,'), \vhich 
are understood to be forbidden by that precept, Thou shalt 
not C01111nit adultery; Thefts, forbidden by the comn1and, 
Tholl shalt not steal; False 'l1'itness, by that, Tltou shalt 
'}lot hear false '/('iiJles.
 agaill,d tlly 'J1eigltbolt1.; Blaspl1e'lllies, 
by that, Thou shalt not take tl,P '/lame o.l God in 
'ai'Jl. 
REMIG. Having nal11ed the vices \\Thich are forbidden by 
the divine Law, the Lord beautifully adds, Tilese a're they 
t!tat dlftle a man, that is, tllake hinl unclean and il11pure. 
Glo

, G LOSS. And because these ,vords of the Lord had been 
non oec. . d b 1 ... f h PI . h r:. 1 
occaSIone y t 1e InIquIty 0 t e 1ansees, ,v 0 prelerre( 
their traditions to the commands of God, He hence con- 
cludes that there was no necessity for the foregoing tradition, 
But to eat 'il'itll. 'll1l1l"asl'f1}1. hands defileth 110t a 1nan. 
CHRYS. He said not that to eat the l11eats forbidden in 
the La,v defiles not a Inan, that they Illight not have 
\vhat to ans\ver to Him again; but He concludes in that 
concerning \vhich th
 disputation had been. 


21. Then Jesus went thence, and departed into 
the coasts of Tyre and Sidon. 
22. And, behold, a ,voman of Canaan caIne out of 
the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have 
mercy on me, 0 Lord, thou Son of David; my 
daughter is grievously vexed with a devil. 



YEn 
3-2H. 


ST. 
IATTIIE'\. 


5H! 


23. Hut he ans,vcrcd her not a \\'ord. ..\nd his 
disciples caIne and besought hinl, 
aying, Send her 
a,vay; for she crieth after us. 
24. But he ans\vered and said, I alll not sent but 
unto the lo::,t sheep of the hou
e of Israel. 
23. Then came she and ,vorshipped hill1, saying, 
Lord, help Inc. 
26. But he ans\vered and said, It is not meet to 
take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs. 
27. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat 
of the crumbs ,vhich fall from their masters' table. 
28. Then Jesus ans\vered and said unto her, 0 
',"oman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even 
as thou ,yilt. And her daughter ,vas made ,vhole 
from that very hour. 


JERO)IE; Leaving the Scribes and l">harisees and those 
cavillers, lIe passes into the parts of Tyre and Sidon, that 
lle may heal the Tyrians and Sidonians; And .Ieslls lcellt 
tltellc(', and departed into tlte coasts '!f Tyre and SidoJ1. 
RE:\IIG. Tyrc and Sidon ,yere Gentile ton-ns, for Tyre 
\vas the luetropolis of the Chananæans, and Sidoll the 
boundary of the Chananæans tow'ards the north. CHRYS. Chrys. 
It should be observed, that ,,,hen lIe deli,-ered the Je\vs l 
om. 
11. 
from the observance of meats, lIe then also opened the 
door to the Gentiles, as Petcr ,vas first bidden in the vision 
to break this la,,,, and \vas afterwards sent to Cornelius. 
But if any should a
k, ho\v it is that lIe bade Jlis disciples 
go /lot into tlte /ray 0./ the Gelltih),
, and yet no\\r IIimself 
,,-alks this \yay; we will ans\ver, first, that that prccept 
,vhich He had gi\.en TIis disciples ,'-as not obligatory 011 
IIilll; secondly, that lIe ,,-ent not to preach, ,,"hence )Iark 
even says, that lIe purposely concealed HilTIself. RE:\IIG. 
lIe ,,-ent that lIe tHight hcal then) of Tyre and Sidon; 
or that lIe might deli,.cr this ,,"oluan's daughter froul the 
dælllon, and so through her faith might condelnn the 
,yickednes
 of the Scribes and Pharisees. Of this ".Olllan 
it procceds; And, belLold, a 'll"Omall, a CliaJllluile, Cll1ne 0111 
YOLo I. 2 0 



562 


GOS
EL _\CCORIHNG TO 


CHAP. x,r. 


jj.01J1, tl,ose parl.fl. CHRYS. The E\pangclist says that she 
,vas a Chananæan, to she,,' the po\ver of Christ's presence. 
For this nation, \vhich had been driven out tllat they nlight 
not corrupt the J e\vs, no\v she\ved thelllseh y es ,viser than 
the .J ew"s, leaving their oW'n borders that they might go 
to Christ. And ,,-hen she came to Him, she asked only 
for mercy, as it follo\\.s, S!le cl'ied 'Unto HÙn, saying, Have 
Gloss. 1Jlercy 011 1/le, L01.d, thou Son if Dacid. GLOSS. The great 
aP I ' An- faith of this Chananæan "yoman is herein she\ved. She 
St' m. 
believes IIim to be God, in that she cans Hilll Lord; 
and 11lan, in that she calls Him Son '!.f Da.vid. She claims 
nothing of her o\vn desert, but craves only God's mercy. 
And she says not, IIa\ye mercy on my daughter, but Have 
'JJlercy on nze; because the affliction of the daugl1ter is the 
afHiction of the l11othe1'. .And the more to excite His 
compassion, she declares to Him the \vhole of her grief, 
]JIy daughter is sore ve:1-
ed by a dæJJlOIl j thus unfolding to 
the Physician the \vonnd, and the extent and nature of the 
disease; its extent, when she says is sore ve.'Ved; its nature, 
Chrys. bJI a dæ1noll. CHRYS. 
 ote the wisdolll of this woman, 
Horn. in she \vent not to men \vho pron1Ïsed fair, she sought not 
quædam 1 1 . I d .. h h 
loca, useless banClages, but eavIng a I eVlhs charms, s e came 
xlvii., to the Lord. She asked not James, she did 110t pray John, 
lpIÀÐ(;O- 
<P1fn or apply to Peter, but putting herself under the protection 
of penitence, she ran alone to the Lord. But, behold, a ne\\" 
trouble. She lnakes her petition, raising her voice into 
a shout, and God, the lover of 111ankind, ans\vers not a 
,,,"ord. J EROl\IE; Not frolll pharisaical pride, or the super- 
ciliousness of the Scribes, but that He might not seem to 
contravene His O\VIl decision, Go not into the 'ivay of tlte 
Gentiles. For He was un\villing to give occasion to their 
cavils, and reser\Ted the cOll1plete sah'ation of the Gentiles 
Gloss. for the season of His passion and resurrection. GLOSS. And 
ape An- by this delay in ans\vering, He she\vs us the patience and 
selm. perseverance of this 'vonlan. And He ans\vered not for this 
reason also, that the disciples might petition for her; she,ving 
herein that the prayers of the Saints are necessary in order 
to obtain any thing; as it follows, Ånd llis disciples ca111e 
unto 1iÍ11l, saying, Send !ler azt.ay, for slle crieth after 'leSe 
JEROl\IE; The disciples, as yet ignorant of the 111yste1'ies 



VER. Q3-28. 


ST. '\lATTßE\\. 


5öa 


of C:otl or 1l1ovc(1 by cOlnpa
sion, beg for thi
 Chananæall 
\\ OI))(lU; or perhaps I"eeking tu be rid of h(,1" itnportunity. 
A "G. _\ question of discrepancy is raiscd upon thi!-ì, that Aug, d,' 
1\Iark says the IJord n'as in the housc whclI tlle "'Olnan 



i, 
caUle' praying for her daugllter. Indeed 1\[ atthe,,' might 4!), 
ha\'c been undcr
tood to have omitted lllention of the house, 
and yet to ha\"c been relating the same e\'cnt; but when he 
says, that the disciples suggested to the Lord, Send Iter 
alroy, .for site crielh a 
e1" us, he seenlS to indicate clearly 
that t1H
 ,yoman raised her voicc in supplication, in follo\\'ing- 
thc Lord who was \\'alkillg. \Ve nUlst understand then, that, 
as :\lark ,,-rites, she entered in where Jesus ,vas, that i
, as 
he had noticed aLo,'e, in the house; then, that as lVlatthew 
,,"rites, lIe llJlSll"erell her /lot (t lcord, and during this silence 
of both sides, Jesus left the house; and then the re'-t fo11ows 
"ithout any discordance. CUIlYS. 1 judge that the disciple
 
were 
orry for the ,,'oman's afI1ictioll, Jet dared not say 
, Grant her this 11lercy,' but only Selld he?' a'lray, as \ve, 
when we ".ould persuade any one, oftentilne
 say the very 
contrary to what "-e ,vish. He llusu'ered and said, I aUI 
1101 ,'\ent but tv tIle 108t sheep '-1.f tI,e hOllse qf Israel. 
J EHO'IE; lIe says that lIe is not sent to the Gentiles, 
hut that lIe is sent first to Israel, so that ,,-heu they ,yould 
not receive thc Gospel, the passing over to the Gentiles 
luight have just cause. REl\lIG. In this ,vay also He was 
sent special1y to the .Jews, because IIc taught thenl by Hi
 
bodily presence. JERO)lE; _\nd TIe adds oj' fhe hOllse of 
Israel, ,vith this de
ign, that we nlight rightly intel1Jret 
by this place that other parable concerning the stray 
heep. 
CHRYS. But when the '\Toman saw that the Apostles had 
no po\ver, t:>h(' becalue bold ,vith cOllullendablc holdnes:-;; 
for before she had not dared to COInc before llis sight; 
but, as it is said, Sill' erietll aj1er liS. nut ".hen it seelued 
that F.he lnust no,,' retire without being relieved, she caIne 
nearer, But she Callle and u.orsltipped llim. .J ERO)JE ; Note 
ho,,' perseveringly thi
 Chananæan W'Oß1an calls JIinl first 
SOil q( 1)arid, then Lord, and lastly carne and u'orsllipJ)erl 
hÏ1n, as God. CHRYS. _\nd therefore 
he said not 
\.sk, or 
Pray God tor me, but lord, help llle. 11ut the' 1110re the 
".OInan urged her petition, the I110re TIe strengthened IIi') 
202 



5G-! 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XV, 


denial; for lIe calls the Je,ys no\v not sheep but sons, and 
the Gentiles dogs; He ails/cered (lInl ,
'aid unto 11(;1", It ,is 
not lJleet to take the children's bread, and gife it to dogs. 
GloF;s. GLOSS. The J e\\
s \\Tere born sons, and hrougl1t up by the 
:
im
n- Law in the \vorship of one God. The bread is the Gospel, 
its n1Ïracles and other things \\Thich pertain to our salvation. 
It is not then lneet that these should be taken from the 
children and given to the Gentiles, \vho are dogs, till the 
Je,vs refuse theln. JERO
IE; The Gentiles are called dogs 
because of their idolatry; 'who, given to the eating of 
blood, and dead bodies, turn to madness. CHTIYS. Observe 
this "rOnJan'S prudence; she does not dare to contradict 
Hiln, nor is she vexed with the cOlnmendation of the Je".s, 
and the evil \vord applied to herself; But site said, Yea, 
Lord, yet the dogs eat ql the crulnbs u'lâch fall froln theÙ. 
1/lllsters' table. He said, It is 110t good; she ans,vers, 'Yet 
even so, J...Jord;' lIe calls the J e\vs children, she calls theln 
lnasters; lIe caned her a dog, she accepts t1Je office of a 
dog; as if she had said, I cannot leave the table of ll1Y Lord. 
J ER01\IE; "r onderful are shen T l1 the faith, patience, and hUlni- 
lity of this \\TOHJan; faith, that she believed that her daughter 
could be healed; patience, that so 111any times overlooked, 
she yet perseveres in her prayers; hlunility, that she com- 
pares herself not to the dogs, but to the ,,'helps. I kno\v, 
she says, that I do not deserve the children's bread, and that 
I cannot have \\Thole Ineat, nor sit at the table \vith the 
Inaster of the house, but I am content \vith that \vhich is 
left for the ,yhelps, that through hUlnble fraglnents I may 
con1e to the amplitude of the perfect bread. CHln-s. ':rhis 
was the cause \vhy Christ ,vas so baclnvard, that lIe knew 
,vhat she \vould say, and ,vould not have her so great 
excellence hid; \vhence it follo\vs, Then Jesus anslrered 
and said unto her, 0 'lL'oman, great is tlLy.faith, be it unto 
t!tee according to illY 'lrill. Ob
erve ho,,- the \VOlnan herself 
had contributed 110t a little to her daughter's healing; and 
therefore Christ said not unto her,' Let thy daughter be 
healed,' Lut, Be it unto t!tee according to tlly ,/pill; that you 
ll1ay perceive that she had spoken in sincerity, and that her 
,vords \vere not \vords of flattery, but of abundant faith. 
Gen. 1, And this \yord of Christ is like that word which said, Let 
6 


. 


. 



\'EH. 
3-
8. 


S f. 
I.\TTII E\\ . 


5.,5 


tltere lJ, 11 ./il'lll(tlJI(>III, alHl it was IJlade; 
() hcrc, A lid IU'I" 
d(III!/I"l
" 1f'(U; lIuule ,rhol) ji'o}Jl IfLat ItOlt,.. OLSCITC ho\v 
she ohtains what the ...\po:-,tlcs t:fJtlld not ohtain it)r her; 
Ú 
great a thing is the earnest1lCSS of prayer. fIc ,,"ould rather 
that we 
hould pray it)r our own oflcnces ourseh"cs, than 
that others 
hOlild pray for Us, ItIDJIG. r 11 these ,,"ords i
 

iven 11"; a pattern of catechizing and haptizing childrcn; 
for the ".OTIlan says not' ] lcal Iny daughtcr,' or' IIclp hcr,' 
but, llllre ul(!n'.'1 IIIWIt Ule, alld help ule. Thus there has 
COlne do\\"n in thc Church thc practice that the faithful arc 
sponsors to God for their young children, bcfore they have 
attaincd such age and reaSOll that they can thell1seh"cs 
luahl' an) pledge to God. So that as by this ".olnall's faith 
her daughter was healed, so hy tll(
 faith of Cathulics of 
Inature agc their sin
 Inight Le It)rgi\"cn to infants. \llcgo- 
rical1y; 1'his WOJnatl figures the Iloly Church gathered out 
of the Gentiles. l'he Lonllt'a'"es thc Scribes and Phari
ees, 
and CaInes into the parts of 1'yre and Sidon; this figures 
T I is lea,"illg the J e\Vs aud going 0'"01" to the Gentiles, This 
''"0 III an calnc out of hcr own country, hccau
e the lloly 
Churc h departed fi.oln fonner errors and sins. J ERO
IE ; 

\nd the daughter of this Chanalla
an 1 suppo
c to be the souls 
of bclic\"l'r
, who werc sorcly vexeù hy a dælllOl1, not knowing 
their Creator, and bo\ving down to 
tonèS. ItEl\IIG. Thuse uf 
,,"holll the Lord "peaks as children are the l)atriarchs and 
}>rophcts of that tilne. lly the table is 
ignified the IIoly Scrip- 
ture, h) the fragnlent
 the best precf'pts, or inward Illy
teries 
on which llòly Church fceds; by the cnl111Ls the carnal pre- 
cept:s ,,"hit:h the J e\\.s keep. The fragnlent
 are said to be eaten 
under the tal)lc, because the Church subn1Ïts it
elf Inl1nbly 
to fulfilling the l)i,"ine conllnands. It\BA
. 1111t the ,,-help:-; 
eat Hot the crust on1\, but the crulnL:-; of the children's 
hreacl, hecause the clespised aUlollg thc Gcutiles on turning 
to the faith, seck ont in Scriptnre n?t the outsid(. uf the 
letter, hut the 
piritnal SCIISC, hy which they IHay be able 
to profit in gooù acts. J FRO'lE; \,.,. onderflll change of 
things! Once Israel the 8on, and "-e the dogs; the chauge 
in faith has led to a change in the order of onr nau)cs. 
COll('('rning then. is that 8aid, Jlany dogs /tare C01Jlf> ahout Ps. 22, 
1/1(:'; while to llS i
 
aid,as to this \VOnla1l, Tl'!I/r,Î/l, "aIIl IG . 



566 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XV. 


1Jlade t!tee 'ii'/tole. RABAN. Great indeed \vas her faith; for 
the Gentiles, neither trained in the Law, nor educated bJ,the 
,vords of the Prophets, straightway on the preaching of the 
Apostles obeyed \vith the hearing of the ear, and therefore 
Gloss. deser'"ed to obtain salvation. GLOSS. And if the Lord delays 
non occ. the salvation of a soul at the first tears of the supplicating 
Church, we ought not to despair, or to cease from our 
A ug. prayers, but rather continue theln earnestly. AUG. And 





'8. that to heal the Centurion's servant, and th
 daughter .of .this 
Chananæan 'VOlnan, lIe does not go to theIr houses, sIgnIfies 
that the Gentiles, among 'VhOlll He llilnself \vent not, should 
be saved by I-lis ,yord. That these are healed on the prayer 
of their parents, ,ve must understand of the Church, which 
is at once Inother and children; the whole body of those 
,,,ho Inake up the Church is the mother, and each individual 
of t1lat body is a son of that Inother. HILARY; Or, This 
ulother represents the proselytes, in that she leaves her o\vn 
country, and forsakes the G-entiles for the name of another 
nation; she prays for her daughter, that is, the body of the 
Gentiles possessed \vith unclean spirits; and having learned 
the Lord by the La\v, calls Ililn the 
on of David. RABAN. 
.AJso \vhosoever has his conscience polluted \vith the defile- 
Ulent of any sin, has a daughter sorely vexed by a dæmon. 
Also \\yhosoe\Ter has defiled any good that he has done by 
the plague of sin, has a daughter tossed by the furies of an 
unclean spirit, and has need to fly to prayers and tears, and 
to seek t1le intercessions and aids of the saints. 
29. And Jesus departed from thence, and came 
nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and ,vent up into a 
mountain, and sat down there. 
30. And great multitudes came unto him, having 
with them those that ,vere lame, blind, dUlnb, 
Inaimed, and Inany others, and cast them down at 
.J estis' feet; and he healed them : 
31. Insollluch that the multitude wondered, ,vhen 
they sa\v the dumb to speak, the mailIled to be 
"'hole, the ]alne to walk, and the blind to see: and 
thcy glorified the God of Israel. 



\ hU. 29-31. 



T. :\JATTHE\V. 


[)H7 


,J I
UO:\J}-:; llaving healed thp dangIlter of tJlÍs ChaU(111æan, 
the Lord rctunlS into Judæa, as it foHows, lncl Jesus 
departed fro11l Illence, and came 11 .glt 11l1tO lhe "eft qf Galilt
e. 
HE;\fHi. 1'his sea is called by "arious uaulCs; tIIC sea of 
Galilee, because of its ncighbourhood to Galilee; the sea of 
Tiberia
, froln thp to\vn of Tiberia
. Alld go ill ,'I lip inlv ( 
'JJ/()llJllaill, he sfll dOll'1I Illere. CUllYS. It should be con- 
sidcrcd that 
o1nctilnes the Lurd goes about to heal the 

ick, 
oluetinles lIe sits aud "aits for tIlc))) to COIJlO; alHl 
accordingly here it is added, llld there ClLJlle 91' Jal l1lUlli- 
ludu; unto ltÙll, IUll"ing u)illt flu:1J lho,'\e that III re dlllJlb, 
lallie, blind, JJIa lJIIl>d, and I/UIIIY olher,foi. J 
Rlnlg; '\
hal 
the Latin translator calls' debiles' (lnailued), is in the (
reck 
xUÀ.À.oùç, ,vhich is not a general tcnu for a Jnailucd person, 
but a pcctÙiar spccics, as he that is lalnc in one foot is 
called' claudus,' so he that is crippled in one hand is cal]ed 
xUÀ.À.ó). CHUY
. 1'he:-:0 shc,ved thcir faith in two poiuts 
especially, in that they \\'ent up th(' luountain, and in 
that they belic\ ed tlUlt they had need of nothing be) ond 
but to cast thelli"ch"es at Jesus' feet; for the)' do nol non 
touch the hetn e\ycn of [[is garnlent, but ha ,-e attained to 
a loftier faith; ...llld cast fl,c/II dOlell at Jesus' j(Jel. The 
\\"Olllan'S daughter lIe healed ,,"jth great slackness, that lIe 
IHight 
hc\\r hcr virtue; hut to thcsc lIe administers healing 
iuul1ediatc!y, not because they ""cre vettcr than that ""OIBan, 
hut that IIp might stop the lllouths of tho unùclic\-ing Jew's; 
as it follo\\.
, ltlill he healed tl,elu all. But tbe multitude' of 
tho:-:e that" cre hcaled, and the ease \\ ith \\"hich it was rIoue, 
struCk then1 \vith astonishnlcnt. 1l1so7nuclt 'hlil lite Illulli- 
lud( Il'olldered ll'heJl they sau 7 lhe dlllJlb to speak. .JEnü"
IE; 
lIe "aid nothing concerning the JnaÏ1ncd, because there \\"a'" 
110 one word which 'was thc oppusite of this 3. 
It-\lL\X. )l.rsticall,\r; Ila\"illg in the daughter of thi
 
Chananæan prefigured the 
ah.ation of the (.('ntilc
, lIe 
canlC into J udæë.t; because, 'lel,ell tl,(> .{ulllo;s ql' he Celli ile-"I Rom. 
.I\llftllllfll'l
 enleric! ill, !luJII shall all israel be safed. GLO,"" 1..1, 
,3, 
'rhe 
ea ncar to wI1Ïch J CSl1:-o. caulC signifies the turbid 


:

_ 

t')m. 


· The Vulgate and old italiC' ha' e \\ hich i:-; .11:0,0 "anting in many ancient 
no clause dn
wering to xu).)..
r 1Í')'II:'"r, 'cr
i()n..._ 
lthl' maime(l tu Pt:' \\ hult,) of the Greek, 



568 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CRAl). XV. 


Gloss. 
ord. 


s\vellings of this ,vorld; it is the sea of Galilee \yhen IneH 
pass fronl virtue to vice. J EROl\IE; He goes up into the 
mountain, that as a bird He may entice the tender nestlings 
to fly. RABAN. Thus raising his hearers to meditate on 
heayenly things. He sat do\vn there to shew that rest is not 
to be sought but in hea\.?cnly things. And as He sits on t1le 
lllountain, that is, in the heavenly height, there come unto 
IIiln multitudes of the faithful, dra\ving near to I)im \vith 
devoted mind, and bringing to JIiln the dumb, and the 
blind, &c. and cast them do\vn at Jesus' feet; because they 
that confess their sins are brought to be healed by Him 
alone. These lIe so heals, that the multitudes Inaryel and 
magnify the God of Israel; because the faithful \vhen they 
see those that have been spiritually sick richly endued with 
an lnanner of \vorks of virtuousness, sing praise to God. 
GLOSS. The dUlnb are they that do not praise God; the 
blind, they 'v ho do not understand the paths of life; the 
deaf, they that obey not; the laIne, they that walk not 
firn11y through the difficult \vays of good works; the n1ain1ed) 
they that are crippled in their good ,yorks. 


32. Then Jesus caned his disciples unto hinI, and 
said, I have cOlllpassiol1 on the 111ultitude, because 
they continue \vith me now three days, and have 
nothing to eat: and I ,vill not send theln a,vay 
fasting, lest they faint in the \vay. 
33. And his disciples say unto hiln, 'Vhence should 
,"c have so much bread in the ,vilderness, as to fill so 
great a nlultitude ? 
34. And Jesus saith unto them, Ho,v Blany loaves 
have ye? And they said
 Seven, and a fe,v little 
fishes. 
35. And he cOlnrnanded the multitude to sit do,vn 
on the ground. 
36. And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, 
and gave thanks
 and brake thenl, and gave to his 
disciples, and the disciples to the 111ultitude. 



VEU. 
2-3t'. 


!'\T. M :\.'1'1'11 E\"r. 


5ü!J 


37. 
 \nd they did all eat, and \verc filled: antI 
they took up of the brolcn lneat that \vas left seven 
baskets full. 
38. 
\nd they that did eat "'ere fonr thousand 
111cn, bc
idc "onlcn an (1 chilclren. 


.JEnO
IE; Christ fin;;t took a\vay the inlìnnities of the sick, 
and afterward" snpplic(l food to tItem that had been healed. 
Also 1 Ie calls Ili!i ùisciples to tell thCIl1 \vhat IIp is about to 
do; rllell .10\118 called Ids disciples 111110 ItÙn, and said, [ 
"are C01Jl/Hlssioll 011 fill) /Jllt/litlltle. 'rhi
 I Ie ùoes that lie. 
Jnay gi\'c an cx
unplc to Blasters of sharing their counsels 
with th
 young, and their disciple:;; or, that by this ùialoguc 
they n1Ïght conIc to llndcrst:lnd thp greatuess of the miracle. 
CIIHY
. For the nndtitude when the,' callIe to he healed, had ChrJ
. 
110t dared to ask for fuod, but I-Ie tÌlat lo\'eth Juan, and hath 
f.m. 
care of all creatures, gÍ\-es it to theln ullaskcd; \vhence TIe 

ays, I lutt'e COlllp(f"
.ÇiOll upon lite 1JlultiLude. That it should 
not be said that the,} had brought pro\"ision ,,-ith thcn1 on 
thcir way, lIe says, /?ectlll.....{' they contillue with '}lIe 1101(" tltrce 
days, ([lid ha't'p 1101/11'119 10 enl. For though ,,"hen they caU1C 
they had fl)O<l, it "as no,," consulned, and for this reason lIe 
did it not ou thc first or "ccond day, but on the third, \\"hen 
all \\ as con
lllncù that they Inight ha\'e brought with thcJn; 
anù thn
 ÙIC)" ha,.ing hC(,11 first placed in necd, lHight take 
th
 food that wa
 no\\y pro\"ided ,,'ith Keencr appetite. That 
t}H'Y had COllH"\ fnnl1 far, au(] that nothing \"as no,," left thcIn, 
is "hewn in what I [c says, 
ll1d I trill 1I0t send thenl ((Icay 
.(as/'ng, Irs! they.(aint by tlte Iray. '-ct I Ie does not iln- 
Inclliatcly procced to \\ ork thc lllirac 10, that TIc Inay rouse 
the (lisciples' attention Ly this questioning, and that thcy 
111:\)" 
he\\Y thcir faith by 
aying to I-liln, Create loa'"cs. 
.\nrl though at th(' tilllC of the Junncr llliraclc Christ hall. 
done lllan
. things to the end that they should reU1Clllhcl" it, 
Hlakiug theul distrihute the 10a\Ye
, and di\"idc the baskets 
anlong' theuI, 
"ct they wcre "-till iUlpcrfectly disposed, as 
appears frolll what follows; 
l11d his cl'sciplrs SlI.'Junlo hilll, 
, r 'luJlice should lre IUI re so JJlIIClt hrend ill t ltr u'lld('J"nrss {l.
 
lo/ill ."jU .IJI"l'ilt a IIl1lllillld(J ( 'fhis they spokl' ont {)f the 



570 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAr. xv. 


infinnity of their thoughts, :yet thereby making the ensuing 
miracle to be beyond suspicion; for that none n1Ïght suspect 
that the loaves had been got from a neighbouring village, 
this miracle is ,,'rought in the \vilderness far distant fron1 
vilJages. Then to arouse I-lis disciples' thoughts, He puts a 
question to them, \vhich may call the foregone 111iracle to their 
n}inds; And Jesus saitll unto tltelJ1, Hale many loat'es hal:e 
ye? Tiley said unto ltirJl, Serell, and a ..few little fishes. 
But they do not add, , But \vhat are the)' alllong so 111any?' 
as they had said before; for they had advanced some\\'hat, 
though they did not yet comprehend the \Y}10le. Achnire in 
the Apostles their love of truth, though theu1selves are the 
,yriters, they do not conceal their o""n great faults; and it is 
no light self-accusation to have so soon forgotten so great a 
111iracle. Observe also their \visdom in another respect, ho\v 
they had overcome their appetite, taking so little care of 
their Ineals, that though they had been tJ1ree days in the 
desert, yet the)" had ,,'ith theln only seven loa\res. SOD1e 
other things also He does like to what had been done before. 
He Inakes them to sit do\vn on the ground, and the bread to 
gro\y in the hands of the disciples; as it follov.s, And he 
C01Jl11lllJl(led tile 'JJZult it ude to sit down all tlie gl'Olllld. 
:Sup. c. JEROl\IE; As \ve have spoken of this abo\re, it ,vould be 
xiv. 15. tedious to repeat what has been already said; \ve snail 
therefore only d"rell on those particulars in \vhich this 
difters fronI the fonner. CHRYS. The end of the 1\\'0 
nliracles is different; And they took lip o.l tlte broken 'Inca! 
that was left set'en baskets full. Þlow they t!tat had eaten 
'l{'ere foul' thousand 'Jnen, besides children and lL'Ol71eJl. 
"
hence are the fraglnents fe\yer in this n1iracle than in the 
former, although they that ate \vere not so Inany? It is 
I 
porta either that the basket 1 in this n1iracle is of larger capacity 
2 copbi- tl1an the basket 2 in the fonner, or that by this point of differ- 
nus } . h b h .. I .c. 
ence t ley nug t relneln er t e 1\vo separate nllrac es; lor 
\"hic}) reason also He then Inade the nU1nbe1' of baskets 
equal to the ntunber of the disciples, but no\\' to the ntunber 
of the loaves. REMIG. In this Gospel lection ,,'e Inust 
consider in Christ the \\rork of His hunlauity, and of His 
divinity. In that lIe has c01npassion on the multitudes, He 
shc\vs that lIe has feeling of htunan frailty; in the l1ndti- 



"EU. 30-3
. 


ST. \IATTfIE\V. 


571 


plicatiou of the loave
, allù thc feeding the lllultitudes, is 
shewn the ,,'orking of I lis divinity. So here is overthro\,.n 
the error of j.:utychcsI, who sai(l, that in Christ "as 011(> Ivid.sup. 
nature only. Avo. 
urely it ,,,ill not be out of place to 
:
. de 
suggest upon this Iniracle, that if any of the Eyangelists \\'ho COl
S. 
had not gi '-Cll thc Iniraclc of the fi '"e lua'"es had related this ;o
. ii. 
of the sc'"cn loa\"es, he "'ould ha\"c been supposed to have 
contradicted the rest. nut hecausc those "rho have related 
the onc, ha"e also related the other, no one is puzzled, but 
it is ullderstood at once that they ".ere two separate luiracles. 
'jhis wc l1a,"(' said, that where,'cr any thing is found done by 
the Lord, ,,'hercin the accounts of any hvo E,"angclists scem 
irrecollcilahle, \Ve luay understand thcln as t".o rlistinct 
occurrcnces, of ,,-hich onc is related by one Evangelist, and 
one by anothcr. GLOSS. It should be noted, that thc Lord Gloss. 
fin
t rCUIO\'CS their sickncsscss, and after that feeds thcnl; ape An
. 
because sin Inust be first wiped a,vay, and then the soul fed 
\vitb the ,yonls of God. IIIL.\RY;..\ s that first nlllltitude 
which Ire fcrt answers to the people al1l0ng the JC\VS that 
hclit','cd; so thiç; i
 c01nparcd to the people of the Gentiles, the 
nlunber of four thousand denoting an innunlerable nUDlber of 
people out of tbe four quarters of the earth. JEUO\IE; :For 
these are not fi\"c, but four thousand; the lllnnber four being 
onc alw'a.p
 uscd in a good sense, and a fOl1r-
ided stone 
is linn and rocks not, for which reason thc Gospels also have 
been sacredly bûsto,,-ed in this nll1nbcr. .Also in the fonner 
Inirac:le, because the people ,vere ncighbour
 unto the ti,'e 
senses", it is the di:::;ciplcs, and not the Lord, that calls to luind 
their condition; but hen
 the Lurd IIi1Jl
elf sa) s, that lIe 
has cnlupas
ion upon theul, beclluse tlley contiulle /lOLL" tllree 
day,') \\ ith 1 I iln, that is, they uelie,-cd on the Father, Son, 
..u1<l Ilolr 
pirit. I-IIL.\RY; Or, they spend the ,,,hole tinle 
of the Lord's pa",,,ion ,,-ith the IJord; either because \vhen 
the)" should conIC to haptistll, they ,,"ould cont(;:,s that they 
Lelic, cd in Tlis passion and resurr('ction; or, because through 
the whole titHe of the Lonl's pa

ion they are joined to thc 
Lord hy fastiug in a kind of uniun uf 
uffcring "ith IIil}). 
HAnA
. Or, thi
 is 
aid because in all titue there haxe only 


o That is. there" ere Jit'f.: tbou
and, and thl'Y "
rc fed with Jive loan:,,,. 



572 


GOSPEL ACCOHDING TO 


CHAI'. XV. 


been t]lree periods \vJlen grace ""as gi,'en; the first, before 
the Law; the second, under the Law; the third, under grace; 
the fourth, is in heaven, to \vhjch as ,YC joun1ey \ye aloe 
refreshed by the \vay. REl\HG. Or, because correcting by 
penitence the sins that they have cOlun1Ïtted, in thought, 
"
ord, and deed, they turn to the Lord. These multitudes 
t
le Lord would not send away fasting, that they should not 
faint by the \vay; because sinners turning in penitence, 
perish in their passage through the ,vorId, if they are sent 
Gloss. away without the nourishment of sacred teaching. GLOSS. 
ord. The sevcn loa '.es are the Scripture of the N e\v Testalnent, in 
\vhich the gracc of the Holy Spirit is revealed and given. 
And these are not as those fonner loavcs, barley, because it 
is not with these, as in the La,v, ,vhere the nutritious sub- 
stance is \\Tapped in types, as in a vcry adhesi,.e husk; here 
are not t\\.o fishes, as under the La\v 1\"90 only lvere anointed, 
the King, and the Priest, but a fe,v, that i
, the saints of the 
New Testament, \vho, snatched fronl the \va,'es of the \vorld, 
sustain this to:;sing sea, and by their exalnple refresh us lest 
we faint by the ,yay. IIILARY; The n1ultitudes sit do,vn 
on the ground; for before they bad not reposed on the 
\vorks of the La"., but they had supported themsehres on 
t11eir own sins, as men standing on their feet. GLOSS. Or, 
1 c. xiv. they sit do\vll there 1 on the grass, that the desires of the flesh 
19. Inay be controlled, here on the ground, because the earth 
itself is COllllnanded to be left. Or, the lllountain in \yhich 
the Lord refreshes them is the height of Christ; there, there- 
fore, is grass upon the ground, because there the height of 
Christ is covered \vith carnal hopes and desires, on account 
of the carnal; here, ,,,here all carnal lust is banished, the 
gnests are solidly placed on the basis of an abiding hope; 
there, are fi,Te thousand, \"ho are the carnal subjected to the 
five senses; here, four thousand, on account of the four 
virtues, by which they are spiritually fortified, telnpel'ance, 
prudence, fortitude, and justice; of which the first is the 
]{nowledgc of things to be sought and avoided; the second, 
the restraining of desire frollI those things that gi\re plcasure 
in the ,,"orId; the third, strength against the pains of life; 
the fourth, ,yhich is sprpad ovcr all the love of God and onr 
neighbour. JJoth there, and here ,VOU1cn and children arc 



VEIl. 32-3!). 



T. :\fATTIIE\\. 


j7
1 


excepted, hecause in the OIJ and Sew Testtuncllt, nono arc 
a(hllitted to the Lord ,,"ho do not endure to the p
rfect lHan, 
,,-hether through the infirmity of their 
trength, or the lc\'ity 
of their tClllpl'rs. Both rcfi'cshill
"'s ""cre perfonned upon a 
Inountain, because the Scriptures of both l'estanlcnts com- 
mend the loftincss of dll' hea,'en1.v COnllllallds and rc".ard:-" 
and hoth preach the hcight of Christ. r.rhe higher tuystr'ril's 
,,"hich the llltdtitudes cannot rccei,"e the Apostles discharge, 
and fill 
e\"cn baskets, to wit, the hearts of the perfect \vhich 
arC' enlightened to understand by the gracc of the sc\"cn-fold 18.11,2. 

pirit. naskets aTC usually \,"ovcn uf rushes, or pahn lca\res; 
these signify thc saillt"i, \\"ho fix the root of their hearts in the 
very fount of lifc, as a bulrush in the \vater, that they lnay 
not ,,"ither a" ay, and retain in their hearts thp pahn of their 
eternal re,,'ant 


39. And he sent a\vay the Inultitude, and took 
ship, and caIne into the coasts of l\lagdala. 
CHAP. X'TI. 1. l'he Pharisees also \"ith the 
Sadducees caIne, and ten1pting desired hin1 that he 
,,"ould shc,,' them a sign from heaven. 
2. He ans\yered and said unto theIn, "Then it 
is evening, ye say, It ,viII be fair ,veather: for the 
sky is red. 
3. And in the n10rning, I t ,,,ill be foul ,veather 
to-day: for the sky is red and 10\\Ting. 0 ye 
hypocrites, yc can discern the face of the sky; but 
can yc not discern the signs of the tillles ? 
4. A ,,'icked and adulterous generation seeketh 
after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, 
but the sign of the prophet Jonas. ,,\.nd he Jeft then1, 
and departed. 


CHUYS.. 
\s the Lord sent the 11lUltitudcs a""ay after the 
Iniracle of the five loaves, so al
o no\v, 1lot on foot, but 



574 


GOSPEl, ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


by boat, that the Inultitndes Inay not follo\v IIiln; And he 
sent (Uliay ti,e 1llllltitude, and entered into a ship, and 
Aug. de came into lite coasts q( lJlagedall. AUG. l\Iark says Dal- 




i. Inanutha; no doubt the saBle place under a different nalne ; 
5]. for Inany copies of the Gospel according to l\lark have 
Magedan. RABAN. This l\iagedan is the country opposite 
Gerasa, and is interpreted ' fruits,' or 'a Inessenger.' It 
Song of signifies a garden, of \vhich it is said, A garden enclosed, 



. 4, a fountain sealed, \vherein the fruits of virtues gro\v, and 
\vhere the nalne of the Lord is announced. It teaches 
us that preachers having nlinistered the \vord to the 11lUI- 
titude ought to be refreshed thelnselves ,vith the fruits of the 
\'irtues \vithin the chanl ber of their o\vn heart. It follo\\rs; 
And there C01Jle unto kÙn Pharisees and Sadducees tempting 
ltirn, and desÙ'ed /d1Jl to s/ieU) thent a si.qn j1'01n heaven. 
REMIG. 'V ondrous blindness of the Pharisees and Sadducees! 
'They asked a sign frolll heaven, as though the things they 
now sa\v were not signs. John shews \vhat sign it \vas they 
John 6, desired; for he relates, that after the feeding \vith the five 
30. loaves, the multitudes canle to the Lord and said, rVI,at 
sign doest thou, l
lat u'e may see it and believe on thee? 
OU1. ..fathers did eat 11Ul1nUl in tlte desert, as it is 'U'1.itten, 
He gave the,}}l bread to eat fr01n l,eaVe1t. Therefore \vhen 
they say here, She\\"' us a sign fronl heaven, they 11lean, 
Cause that it rain manna for one or t\yo days, that the 
whole people 11lay eat, as \vas done for a long tÏ1ne in the 
desert. He looking into their thoughts as God, and lulo\ving 
that even if a sign froln heaven should be shewed theln 
they would not believe, would not give them the sign 
for \vhich they asked, as it follows, But lie allS1L'ered and 
said unto theIn, JT7J,en the evening is conze, ye say, It UJill 
be fair u'eatlter; ..(01. tlle sky is Ired, s,.c. JEROME; This 
is not found in most copies of the Greek text p. But the 
sense is clear, that fair and rainy days may be foretold by the 
condition and harmony of the elements. But the Scribes 
and Pharisees \vho seemed to be doctors of the La\v could 
not discern the Saviour's cOining by the predictions of 
Aug. the Prophets. AUG. We 111Ïght also understand this saying, 
Quæst. 
Ev. i.20. 


P That is, yer 2. and 3. They are omitted in many 1\'18s. and Versions. 



VEU. 1-4. 


S l'. l\JA TTIIE'V. 


57.) 


Tf IU'Il il i,ç erl'll;"y, ye say, 1 It"ill be .fair ,rea III PI", .t01 
III .'tk!! it) l' 'll, in this way, By the hlood of Christ's passioll 
at T I i
 first cOIning, ilHlulJ.{encc of 
ill is gi ,PCIl. ...l"d Ùl ill 
I/lOrJl;lIf/, [I 11";11 be ./011/ 1f'(J(/flIfJr h}-day, flU' flll' sk.1l is red 
llnd [nuTi,,!!; that is, at IIis secoud eOluing Ill' will COlne 
\\ i th fìfl
 he fore Ilinl. G LOS
. Other,,'ise; Tile sky is red 
a lid /rJlrriu.fJ; that is, th(' ...\ postles suffer after the re
UITeC- 
tion, hy which J e 111a) know that I shall judge hereafter; for 
if I :-.parc not the good who are mine froln present suf1èring, 
I shall not spare others hereafter; Ye can tllerejor(' discprll 
tile .thee oj" t be sky, bllt tltp signs oj" tlle thlles ye Cllnllot. 
R.-\ß.\x. Tlu' sig/ls l!f I he i iUZêS TIc Ineans of IIi
 own 
cOIning, or passion, to w hieh the evening redness of the 
hca'9cus Ina) be likened; and the tribulation ,,'hich shall bc 
before IIi
 cOBling, tu \\ hich the nlorning redness with the 
lo,,"ring sky l11ay he cOHlpared. CHRYS. As thcn in the 
ky 
there is one 
ign of fair weather, and another of rain, so 
ought ye to think concen1Íng nle; now., in this 
ly first 
coming, there is need of these signs which are done in the 
earth; but those \vhich are done in heaven are reser\"ed for 
th(' tiule of the 
cconc1 couling. Now I con1e as a physician, 
then as a judge; no"" I come in sccret, then \vith luuch 
porn]>, when thc po"pcrs of the hea'"cns shall be shaken. 
nut no\\ is not the tillle of th('
c signs, now ha\re I conle to 
dic, and to suller humiliations; as it folIo\vs, An el:il and 
adillferoll.t; general ion seekelll aj1er a ,çign, and i here shall 
no sign be giren it, bilt tile sign l!r Jonas tlte prophet. 
AeG. 1'his )IaUhc"9 has already given; \"hence \ve Inay A
g. 
store up for our infonnation, that the Lord spoke the same ubi sup. 
thiuf!S luau)' tinles, that" here there are contradictions ,,"lúch 
cannot be explained, it may be undcrstood that the same 
sa,"ing
 were uttered 011 two different occasion
. GLOSS. Glos
, 
II
 says, Eril a lid adll!t('rolls genera tinll, that is, tmbelieving, intp-rlin. 
ha\.ing carnal, and 110t spiritual understanding. RABAN. 
To Lhi
 generation that thus telnpted the Lord is not given 
a sign froIH heaven, such as they sought for, though IHan)' 
signs are given 011 the earth; but only to the generation of 
Fouch a
 sought the Lord, in \vho
t; sight TIe ascended into 
heaven, and :-.ent the IToly Spirit. .J ERO)lE ; But "'hat is 



576 


GOSPEL .\CCORDIKG TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


Ineant by the sign of Jonas has been eXplained abo'
e. 
CHRYS. _\nd when the Pharisees heard this, they ought 
to have asked IIiln, 'Vhat it ,vas He 111eant? But they had 
not asked at first \vith any desire of learning, and therefore 
the Lord leaves theIn, as it fûl1o\vs, And he leJ
 t IU:111, 
and uoell! Ids 
l'ay. JERO:\IE; That is, leaving the evil 
generation of the Jews, lIe passed o\'er the strait, and the 
people of the Gentiles follo'wed Hilll. HILARY; ObsenTe, 
\ve do not read here as in other places, that lIe sent the 
multitudes a\vay and departed; but because the error of 
unbelief held the minds of the presumptuous, it is said that 
He left theIne 


5. And \vhen his disciples \vere come to the other 
side, they had forgotten to take bread. 
6. Then Jesus said unto theIn, Take heed and 
be\vare of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the 
Sadducees. 
7. And they reasoned among thelllseives, saying, 
It is because \ve have taken no bread. 
s. "\tVhich when Jesus perceived, he said unto 
them, 0 ye of little faith, \vhy reason ye among 
yourselves, because ye have brought no bread? 
9. Do ye not yet understand, neither remember 
the five loaves of the five thousand, and ho\v many 
baskets ye took up ? 
1 o. Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, 
and ho\v lIlany baskets ye took up ? 
11. How is it that ye do not understand that 
I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye 
should be\vare of the leaven of the Pharisees and 
of the Sadducees "? 
12. Then understood they ho\v that he bade them 
not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine 
of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees. 



VEIL :,)-I
. 


ST. 
IATTHFW'. 


5iï 


(; LO
:-). ...\S the I..onl had left t]1('; Pharisecs on account of Glo
s. 
their unbelief, 80 no\\ J Ip teachc
 llis disciples to be 011 non occ. 
their guard against thcir doctrine; whence it follou'&, ..Iud 
wIn-ii Ilis disciples l('(1r{' COllie 10 111(1 01 Iter side, 1 lie!! had 
.(orgollen to lake ôr Jad. LtE'llG. rrhcy were bound to their 
)[aster ,,'ith so grcat affection, that the) \verc U11\\ il1ing to 
part frolu Ifilll for e\ ell fi 1110111cnt of tilne. And herein it 
should be obsen"cd hon- far they "'cre fronI any longing fOf 
delicacies, when thúy took so slllall care for ncccs
arics, that 
thcy had eyen forgotten to take bread, \\ ithout which hllluan 
n"eakne
s cannot 
l1pport itself. lIe sltid 111110 tlu:IJl, 1àke lleed 
a lid bt:iCa;'e l! " lie leaven o.lt he l)!tariseestlJld 0./ lite S lddtlcee8. 
IIIL.\HY; llerein the 
\postles are adn10nished not to be 
partakers in the doctrine of the Jews; for the ,,"orks of the 
Law werc estab]ish('(l to produce faith, and to prefigure the 
things that ,,-ere to follow; and they on who
e tilnes truth 
itself had chanced 
hould 1001. for no further types of truth; 
lest the teaching of the Pharisees, ,,-hich knc\v not of 
Christ, 
hol1l<Ì 
tay the effect of Gospel truth. JEROME; Fot 
he that takes heed of the l('a'"en of thc l>harisees and the 
Sadducees, dol's not ubsclTe the precepts of the Lan' and 
of the lett('r, and neglects the traditions of IHen that he Hla) 
do the cOlllluanùnlcnts of God. 'rhis is thc lca\'en of which 
the Apostle speal:-., A little leal'ell leavene/II flip il'llule luilip. 1 Cor. õ, 
ßy l}\ ery lHeans al
o ""C should a\-oid that leaven which 6. 
1\larcioll, ,... alentinus, and an the heretics had. For the 
nature of lca"en i
 f'uch, that wlH.
n n1Ïxed \,-ith flour, that 
which seclHed a little increasc
 to 3. large quantity, and 
brings the ,,"hole 111Îxture to its G" n fla,-our. Thus heretical 
doctrine if it ha\ e ea...t ùut a s1l1all 
park into your breast, 
in a 
hort tiIHe a IHighty flamc lli rai...eù, and drivcs the whole 
t('rnpef of the luan along with it. CßRYS. \Vhy did He 
not Sd}' plainly, Take heed of thp doetrinf' of the Pharisces? 
Bccansf' 1 I p would remind thCHl of tho
c things that had 
bel'H ùone in the lllultiplicatioJl uf tIle loa\-c
, knowing theu1 
to he t()rgetful. To h
l\"e bri\"cn thl'lll this charge at once 
bluntly \vould ha\"c scen1ed ullrea
oIlable; but to find fault 
with th(,111 011 occasion f1.1rnished ùy thcll1
eh cs prepa.red the 
wa) for th(' charge; therefore it is that the Evangelist brings 
fo",.ard their thoughts; 1111t they thought u'it1âu tlte1l1,\'( h'es, 
VOL. I. 2 p 



578 


GOSPEL ACCORDJXG TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


sflyiug, It is !Jpcaus(' 'Ice hare tal.:ell 110 !Jrpad. JEHOl\IE; 
flow had they no bread, seeing that as soon as they had 
filled seven baskets they entered into the boat, and came 
into the parts of l\lagedan? There they hear that they ought 
to take heed of the leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees. 
But the Scripture is witness that they had forgotten to take 
the baskets with them. CHRYS. Because the disciples stin 
grovelled about Jewish ohservance
, the Lord sharply rebukes 
them for the benefit of all; whence it follo\ys, But Jesus 
knou'illg their thoughts said 'Unto f!te1Jl, 0 ye if little faith, 
why consider ye 111JlOllg YOll1'seh.:es because ye llllve 'll0 bread? 
Glos
. GLOSS. As lnuch as to say; 'Vhy do ye think that I 
pake 
ord. of earthly bread, for which ye ought not to have a thought, 
having beheld l\le of so little nlake such abundant overplus? 
CURYS. This lIe does that He Inay put away from thenl all 
care for food. But why did He not reprove them, when they 
said, Jf 7 ltence should 'Ire !tare so 'lnuclt bread in tile wilder- 
ness? for that seenled a more :fitting occasion. He did not 
hlanle thelu at that tilue that He IHight not seeln to be by 
that urged on to do n1Íracles, and He 'was unwilling to find 
fatùt ,vith them before the people. Also there was Illore 
reason in the charge, when after t,,
o miracles of lllultiplication 
of loaves, they had anxiety about food. Observe with what 
luildness He rebukes then1; lIe lllakes an excuse in answer 
Himself, saying, Do ye not yet undel'stand, nor renle'JJlber tile 
Gloss. fixe loares? GLOSS. As llluch as to say, Do ye not understand 
interlin. the mystery, nor rel1lenlber the nliracle? CHRYS. By this 
calling to 1l1incl what was past, and rousing their attention to 
what was to come. J ERO
IE; Thus lIe takes this occasion 
to instruct thenl what is meant by the :five loaves and the 
seven loaves, the five thousand and the four thousand, who 
,vere fed in the desert. For if the leaven of the Pharisees 
and Sadducees signified not earthly food, but conl1pt tradi- 
tions and heretical dogmas, why should not the food with 
which the people of God is nourished signify the true and 
uncomlpt doctrine? CHRYS. But that you may learn what 
force Christ's reproofhad upon His disciples, and ho,v it roused 
their sluggish 
pirit, hear what says the Evangelist; Then 
t!ley 'understood how that he bade tltel11 'not bell;al'e if the 
leaven of bread, but q! the d?ctl'ille qf the Pharisees and 



VEU. 13-HJ. 



T. MATTHE"., 


fJ7H 


tlll
 Sadducees; yet IIc had 110t illtel1Jrete(1 this to thclll. 
This iu:-,truction of the I.Jorcl then drew th{\ln away frO]11 
J e\\ ish ohser\"anct's, and nl(u1<
 t11Cl11 attcntin' instead of 
careless, anti raised thclll out of their little faith, that whcn- 
c'"cr ther should :-,Ccln to havc but little provision of bread 
they sholùd. ha'"l' 110 fear about food, hut should despise an 
those things. 


13. 'Vhen Jesus came into the coasts of Cæsarca 
Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, 'Vhom do 
tnen say that I the Son of man am ? 
14. ...t\nd they said, Some say that thou art John 
the Baptist; SOlne, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or 
one of the prophets. 
15. lIe saith unto thenI, But ,,,hol11 say ye that 
I am? 
16. And Simon Peter ans,vered and said, Thou 
art the Christ, the Son of the living God. 
17. And Jesus ans\vercd and said unto him, Blessed 
art thou, Silnon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath 
not revealed it unto thee, but my Father ,vhich is 
in heaven. 
18. And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, 
and upon this rock I ,vill build my Church: and the 
gates of hell shall not prevail against it. 
19. And I ,vill give unto thee the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven: and "hatsoever thou shalt bind 
on earth shall be bound in heaven: and ,vhatsoever 
thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. 


GLOSS. As soon as the Lord had taken IIis disciples out of GJo
s. 
the teaching of thc Phal;sces, lIt' thell 
uitahl
 proceeds to non occ. 
la
 deep tilt.. foundations of the Gospel doctrine; and to gi\ e 
thi.... the grcater SOICll111Ïty, it is introduced hy thc l1aHIP of the 
place, JrTJ,ell ,Tf.-Sl S C01ne into the coasts of Cæ.\'aJ.CI(, Philippi. 
ClI HY
. IT e adds C of Philip,' to di...tillgnish it thnu thp otlll'r Chry
, 
Cæsarea, of Strato. _\nd lIe asks this qucstion in the fonner 

m. 
2p2 



5
O 


liOSPEL AC<:ORDING TO 


CHAF. XYí. 


place, leading J lis disciple
 far out of the way of the Jews, that 
being set free froln all fear, they might say :freely what was in 
their Inind. J EHO:\IE; This Philip wa
 the brother of I-Ierod, 
the tetrarch of 1 turæa, and the region of 'l'rachonitis, who 
gaye to the eity, which is now called Panæas, the naI11e of 
Gloss, Cæsarea in honour of Tiberius Cæsar. GLOSS. 'Vhen about 

P I ' ...'\n- to confinn the di
ci l )les in the faith, lIe ,,"ould first take awa y 
S
 ill. ' 
frolll their Ininds the errors and opinions of others, whence it 
follo,,"s, Aud he asl..'ed 'I is disciples, s{1yil1
q, Jr 7 l101n do 1J1en 
say that the Son (!f .J.
IaJl is? ORIGEN; Christ puts tIlls 
question to 11 is disciples, that frolll their answer we inay learn 
that there were at that tin1e alnong the Jews various opinions 
concerning Christ; and to the end that we should always 
in'
estigate what opinion nlen 111a
T fornl of us; that if any in be 
said of us, we ll1ay cut off the occasions of it; or if any good, 
Glos
. we n1ay Il1Ultiply the occasions of it. GLOSS; So by this instance 
non occ. of the Apostles, the followers of the Bishops are instructed, that 
whatever opinions they may hear Oltt of doors concerning 
their Bishop
, they should tell thelll to then1. J ERO:\IE; 
Beautiful1y is the question put, Who1Jl do 'J/lell .çay that the 
SOli Ql.JIan is? For they who speak of the Son of l\lan, 
are Inen: but they who understood IIis di,'ine nature are 
called nut 111en but Gods. CHRY8. He says not, 'Vhom do 
the Scribes and Pharisees say that I am? but, "Thol11 do men 
say that I an1? searching into the minds of the common 
people, which were not perverted to evil. For though their 
opinion concerning Christ \-vas much belo\v \",hat it ought to 
have been, yet it was free froln \vilful ,,'ickedness; but the 
opinion of the Pharisees concerning Christ ,,"as full of much 
Inalice. HILARY; By asking, TT/ho1Jl do 1nen sa!! lltat lite 
SOil Q[ JIan is? He implied that something ought to be 
thuught respecting Hiln beyond \\That appeared, for lIe was 
the SOI1 of l\fan. And in thus enquiring after 111en's opinion 
respecting Himself, \ye are not to think that lIe made con- 
fession ofIIÍ1nself; for that \vhich lIe asked for \vas sOlnething 
concealed, to lvhich the faith of believers ought to extend itself: 
"r e must hold that form of confession, that we so Inention the 
Son of God as not to forget the Son of 
Iall, for the one without 
the other offers us no hope of salyation; and therefore He said 
emphatically, TT 7 1101Jl do 1Jlen say tllal tlte Son 0/ Alan i
? 



\'I-.n. 1:3-IH. 


ST. '1.\ TTHE\\r. 


'Jt)1 


JERO
IE; J It, says not, "Y}l<HHtlo IueH say that I :L1Jl? hut, Jf7/01/1 
do 1Jlell 
fl!!tII(Llllle ,
'(JJll! . J.JJllll i,t\ I that Ill' shotù(l not seeUl 
to a
k ostentatiousl) l;oncerning ] IiIH:-.elf. Oh:-;('n e, that 
WIH'rl',-er tIle 01(1 tTeslalHl'llt has' Hon of 'Iall,' the phrase ill 
th 
 Hehrew is ' Son of Adalll.' OlUGE
; 'Ihl'll th · clis('iples 
r('('unnt thc eli, er
 opinions of tIlt" .J e" s relating to C}u;st; 
And 'Ii I!I said, SO/JlC S '!! JolIn lite Baplist, tollowing llerod's vid. 
. , 1 1.' / ' .. 1 I ] ' 1 ' 1 I 'Iatt. 
opnuon; oltlel'S ú Ul.r;, t'llppn
lng CIt Jer t lat !. la
 I.H gone 14, 2. 
through a sec'ond lJirth, or that having (.'ontinul'd alive jn tIll' 
Lody, lIe .had at this tiUIC appcarcd; otlters Jerel/Ûas, whoHI 
tilt" Lord had ordained to he' Prophet anuJng the Gentile
, not 
tllHl('rstalHlillg that .J ercmias was a type of Christ; or olle (!l 
tI,e j)ropltels, in a like way, because of tho
û things which 
G od 
l'oke to theHI through the Prophets yet they were 110t 
fultìllt'ù in thCIU, ùut in CIuist JERO'JE; It wa
 as easy for 
th
 I1lultitudes to ]Jl' wrong in 
uppo
ing ] I inl to be Elias 
and J en'lnia
, a
 I fcrod in :-;upl'o:-;ing II inl to be John the 
ßaptbt; whence I wonder that SOlllC iuterpreters should ha,-e 
sought fl)r the C'au
e:-' of thesf" 
e'eral cITor
. CURYS. TIlt" 
di
('ipl{'s having rccountctl the opinion of the ('Ollllllon people, 
lIe then by a s 'contI qucstion iu,"itcs thC111 to higher thoughts 
conccn1Ïng I lill1; and t11('T('(.)r(' i1 foUow
, JCSllð' ,wd/II unto 
Ilu 1 1/1, Jf 110111 sa!1 ye t/tall a III I You who al'l
 with )lc alway
, 
and hare s 
cn b'Teatcr Iniracl
s than the Iuu1titu(ll':o., ought Hot 
tt) agn't' in the opinion of the Jllultitude
. For this rca
Oll lIe 
did not pnt thi
 que
tion to t11eul at the COllllllCllcelucllt of 
llis preaching, hut after II e had done Inany 
ig-ns; then al
u 
I h. spo1..l' '1l1allY thing
 to thelll conccrning 1Iis Deity. 
.J ERO
IE; OL
crYc how by thi
 connexion of th(' discoursc 
the Apost).'s are not I--tylecl In('H hut Gods. For whell Ill' 
had 
ai(l, J r .holJl '\(/ y !!e l/ull l!tr SOil ql J/a II i.\? 1J c aùù
, 
11 1101/1 Sll!!!! 
 that 1 .I.7I? as nllll:h a
 to sa
., 1'hl'Y heing 
Illcn think of \Ie al-- Ulan, Ye who are Gods, WIU)}ll do ,-on 
. 
 
think 1\[e? It\n,\
. Ill' enquires the opinions of IIi!-; (li':)cipl p s 
alHl of those without, not hl'('an
l' I If' was i
'11orant uf theHI; 
IIis dis('iple
 lIe asks that] Ie Inay reward with (Iue reward 
tlll'ir cOllfè.'s
i( HI of cl l;ght faith; a;Hl the opinion:o-. of thtJ
l
 
without Ill' enquires, that ha\ il1g the wrong opinions Hrst set 
1orth, it ll1Ïght ùe pro,-ed that the di-.:ciple...; had reeei\-cd the 
truth ot thf'ir cont(>
sion not froJß connnon opinion, hut ()ut 



582 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


of the hidden treasure uf the Lord's reyelatiun. CHRYS. 
When the Lord enquires concerning the opinion of the 
multitudes, all the disciples ans"rer; but when all the 
I "ø
u. disciples are asked, Peter as the mouth and head I of the 

aifJr 
Apostles answers for all, as it follows, SÙnon Peter allsu.ered 
and said, Thou lll.t Christ, the SOli of/he lz.vil1g God. ORIGEN; 
Peter denied that Jesus was any of those things which the 
Jews supposed, by his confession, TlIolt art the Christ, which 
the Jews were ignorant of; but he added what was more, the 
Ezek. Son oj'tlle living God, who had said by his Prophets, I live, 
33, 11. 
sa it It the Lord. And therefore was He called the IhTing 
Lord, but in a more especial Inanner as being eminent above 
all that had life; for He alone has immortality, and is the 
fount of life, wherefore He is rightly called God the Father; 
for He is life as it were flowing out of a fountain, ,vho said, 
John14, I aUl tlie life. JERO:\IE; He calls Him tile lit.ing God, in 
6. cOlnparison of those gods who are esteemed gods, but are 
dead; such, I Inean, as Saturn, .Jupiter, Venus, Hercules, and 
the other monsters of idols. HILARY; This is the true and 
unalterable faith, that froln God came forth God the Son, 
who has eternity out of the eternity of the Father. That this 
God took unto Him a body and was n1ade Iuall is a pelfect 
confession. Thus He embraced all in that He here expresses 
Luth I-lis natlue and His nanle, in which is the sum of \TÏ11ues. 
RABAN. And by a remarkable distinction it was that the 
Lord Hllnself puts forward the lowliness of the humanity 
which He had taken upon IIim, while IIis disciple shews us 
the excellence of His divine eternity. HILARY; This con- 
fession of Peter met a worthy reward, for that he had seen 
the Son of God in the Inan. "Thence it follows, Jesus 
allsu;ered and said unto ltÙn, Blessed art thou, Sinlon Bar- 
jO/las,.fòrjlesh and blood Itas not 'ret'ealed this unto tllee, but 
111.lJ Fatlter 'll'ho is in heaven. J EROl\IE; This return Christ 
makes to the Apostle for the testimony which Peter had 
spoken concerning Hiln, Tlloll art Cln.ist, the Son of the living 
God. The J
ord said unto hillI, Blessed art tholt, ShJlon Bar- 
jonas? \Vhy? Because flesh and blood has not re\realed this 
unto thee, hut 1\1 y Father. That which fle
h and blood could 
not re\'cal, was revealed by the grace of the Holy Spirit. By 
his confession then he obtains a title, which should signify that 



v En. 13-1 H. 


"1', 
AT rilE" . 


.')r;:J 


he laa(1 receÏ\ed 
.. n.',clation fi"01)) the Iioly 
pÏl"it, whus' 
son h' shall also be called; It)r 1 
atjollas 111 our tOJlguc 
signifies 'r}u, '011 of a d,),'e. Others take it in the ",iulple 
:o;ensl', that Peter is the 
on of John q, according to that 
qU('"tiOll in anotlH'r plaec, SÙl/OIl, SOil l!f Juhn, lures/thull IIle I :;
1II21, 
af1ìnning that it i
 an Cn"Of of the copyi
ts ill writiug here 
Baljollils tor 13atjoa1}n
l:-', dropping ont' 
yl1ahlc. Now J (Janna 
is intell)Ictcd ,rrhe grace of (;od.' But cither JHlIlle has 
its Inf
tical interpretation; the do\
e 
igllifics the IIuly Spil;t; 
ana tht' b'1'ac(' of G od 
ib'llÏfies tlw 
piritnal brift. Cnuys. 1 t 
would be without lllcauiug to 
aJ, 1'hou art the son of 
JOlla
, unless he intended to shew that Clnist is as natural1y 
the 
on of God, as Petcr is tJu' son of .J 01las, that is, of the 
saUl' suhstance as hiIll that begot hiIu. J I::RO 'II.;; C()nlpar
 
what is ht'rc 
aid, lesli and blood lia/It llúl re
'enled it unto 
t"(>(
, with the A postolÏe declaration, IUII//(Jdifllely I 'it"as Gal. 1, 
lOt cO"lIillll l "ill jf 
slt a.nd blood, Ineaning there by this 16. 
cxprc
sion tht, J ew:-\; so that here 
ll
o the 
ë.lI11C thiug is t-\hewIJ 
in ditlè.>f('nt words, tllat }lot hy the teal' hing of the Pharisees, but 
bf the b'1'acc of God, Christ wa-.; re,'calcd to hint the Son of 
God. IIILARY; Otht'l"Wi
e; 1ft.' i" hles
l'(l, hel'an:-\e to ha"e 
looh.cd and to have seell hl'youd l111111all sight is Iuatter of 
}Jrai
 ", not beholding that which is of flesh an(1 bloud, hut 

l'l'ing the Son of God h) the re,"elatioll of the he<l\'clllj 
Father; anù he wa" held worthy to bc th.. fir
t to acknowledge 
tht" <Ii, initr which ,-ra
 in Christ. OUIG E
; It IJ1nst bt' 
enquired in thi
 place whether, when t1w'y Wcn" first St'ut out, 
the discipl 'S kneW' that lIe was the Christ. For this speech 
she', s that Petcr then first c(,nfe

l'd lIilll to be tl)l' SOil of 
the Ii, in
 God. All(llook wh('t1ter yon can 
ohpe a questioJl 
of this sort, b) saying that to bclic\pc J e
HS to he tIll' Christ 
i!--. lc

 than to know II ilU; and 
(J SUPpOM' that w])('1) they 
"cre seut to preach thl'Y ht'lievt'd that Jesll
 Wa
 tilt' Christ, 
and aftcn\rard
 as thcy luade progrcss thc) knc". Iliul to be 
so. Or must ""c an
wcr thu
; 1'hat th(,11 the -\po
tles had 
the heginning's of a. knowh>c1gc of Chri"t, anù kneu' SOlllC little 
cOI1('crlliug lliw; aud that they 1llade pro
re
s afterwards in 
the know ledge of I lilli, 
o that they were aule to recei '"C tilC 
knowlcdge of Christ r(', t'alc(l h
 the Father, as Peter, who is 
· In John 21, Iõ. the Yutgatl' has' Johanni
; hut in J(lhn I. 4J. ' Jpna.' 



:>84 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


here blessed, not only for that he says, Tholl 01.t tlie Christ, 
but luuch more for that he adds, the SOll of tlte liring God. 
CURYS. And truly if Peter had not confessed that Christ ,vas 
in a peculiar sense born of the Father, there had been no need 
of revelation; nor \vould he have heen \yorthy of this blessing 
for confessing Christ to be one of many adopted sons; for 
before this they who v{ere \vith Ilim in the ship had said, 
John 1, Truly tlton 01.t the SOI1 qf God. Nathanael also said, Rabbi, 
49. '/lOll art lite Sou Qf God. Yet \\"ere not these blessed because 
they did not confess such sonsbip as does Peter here, b
t 
t110ught IIim one alnong many, not in the true sense a son; 
or, if chief abo\"e all, yet not the substance of the Father" 
But see ho\v the Father reveals the Son, and the Son the 
Father; froln none other conles it to confess the Son than of 
the Father, and fronl none other to confess the Father than 
of the Son; so that fronl this place eyen it is lnanifest that 
the Son is of the same substance, and to be \vorshipped 
together \vith the Father. Christ then proceeds to she\\' that 
many \vould hereafter believe what Peter had now confessed, 
"'hence He adds, And I say unto tllee, that thou art Pele'l\ 
JERO)IE; 
..\.s much as to say, Yon ha\Te said to me, Tholl art 
Cln'isf, lite Son 0..( tlte }Ü'iJl.9 God, therefore I say unto thee, 
not in a lnere speech, and that goes not on into operation; 
but I say unto thee, and for 1\le to speak is to make it so t, that 
thou art Peter. For as from Christ proceeded that light 
to the Apostles, "'hereby they were called the light of the 
,,'odd, and those other names ,,'hich \"ere Îlnposed upon 
then) by the 1-1ord, so upon Silnon \vho belie\Ted in Christ 
Aug. the Rock, He besto,ved the nallle of Peter (Rock.) ArG. 
de Com
. B t 1 th P . d I 1 
Ev. ii. u et none suppose at eter recel\Te t lat name lere; 
63. be receiyed it at no other time than where John relates that 
:

n 1, it ,vas said unto llÏll1, TllOll shalt lJe called C(.Jplu(R, uJu'clt 
is intel'preted, Peter. JERO:\IE; And pursuing the metaphor 
of the rock, it is rightly said to hiln as follol\Ts: .Llnd upon 
this 'fock l'lrill bu'ild 1UY CIllt1'ch. CHHYS. That is, On this 
faith and confession I win build my Church. Herein shel\Ting 
that luany should belie\'e ,,,hat Peter had confessed, and 
)'aising his undcr
tanding, and 111aking hÏ1n I-lis shepherd. 
R Aug . Al'G. I ha\Te said in a certain place of the Apostle Peter, that 
etract. 

. 21. I' S.ee ::\Ir. Ne\unan'l3 Lectures on Justification, Lect iii. p. 8L', 



'ER. I3-ln. 


ST. :\JATTHI:.\\. 


t>85 


it was on hitn, as on a rock, that the Church was buill. Uut 
1 kno\v that since that 1 ha'"c oftcn cÅplained thc
e ,,-ord!'; of 
t11(" Lunl, rltOlt art l)(:l'r, llud 01 litis 1.ol'k lri/! I build 
1J
Y ('!lllreh, a
 IIlCaniug upon lIitn wlunn Pctcr had conf
ssed 
in the \\ ords, 111011 fl rl C." risl / "e SOli (! 'till' Ii rill,'/ ()od; 
\nd 

o that Peter, taking his 11atne fnun this rock, ,,"oulù represcnt 
th
 Church, which is huilt upon this rocl
. For it is not 
aid I Cor. 
to hinl, Thou art the rock, Lut, TI'OII art 1)('I('r. 13ut the 10,4. 
1.o('1
 \, as Christ ,,"honl becauc;(
 f,illlon thus confl
sC)ed, as the 
\,-hole Church confesses I I inl, he was nrl1nod Peter. Tlct the 
readcr choo:'l" whethcr of these two <'pinions SCCIUS to hiln the 
IHorp probable. I[n..\HY; nut in this Lcstowing of a 11('''" nanle 
i
 a happy foundation of the Church, anù a ].ock \\ orth)" ot 
that buih1ing, ,vhich should hreak up the la\\'s of holl, burst 
th(' gates of Tartaru
, and 3.11 the :-.hacldc!'; of d("ath. ...\nd to 
shc\'" thc lÌrmness of this Church thus built upon a ro(:k, lIe 
adds, ...'nd I he gales l!l hell shall not pre.o '/ a.'Illlnst it. 
G LOS
, That is, shall not separate it frolH tIle 10\ e and faith Glos
. 
of !\Ie. JhltO'lE; 1 suppose the gates of helI to Bleau vice interlin. 
and 
in, or at lcast the doctrines of heretics by which In en are 
cllsnared and t1ra\\ 11 into hcll. OnI<a:x; Uut in heavenly 
things e\"er
' Cõ\piritual e;;in is a gate of hen, to \\'hich are op- 
!Jo'c(l the gates of 1.ighteousne

. ItuL\x. The gates of hell 
are the tonHent
 and prolHises of thp persecutors. Also, th(" 
c\'il \vorks of the unbclie\ ere;;, and yaill cOll,'crsatioll, are gates 
of hell, l)l
cau
e the,r shew the path of destruction. OUIG EX ; 
IIc does not c
press what it is \\'hich they shaH not pre\'ail 
again
t, whethcr the rock on which lIe builds the Church, 
or t]1f o Church which lie build
 un the rock; hut ir is cleal 
that ncither against the rock nor against the Church "'ill the 
gat "s of hen prc\"ail. 'YHII.'; .A('conling to this prolni
e of 
thp Lord, thp ..:\ po
tolic Churr h of Peter f('1l1ains pnn" antI 
spotlc

 frolll all leading intu ("rror, or h 'rctieal fraud, abo\-c all 
Ileacls and 13ishop
, and Prilllatcs of Chure hcs and people, 


· Thi
 pa
c;age i
 quoted in the 3. ar.d in his bo')k
 ' contr. impugn.re1iq! 
Catena from · Cvril in Lib. The
.' and' contra errOfl':'1 Græc,' He i
 ap- 
but rlOt.'s not occu; in any of S, L'Hil'
 parenti)" the nr
t to cite them, :md the) 
\\ ork!l. On the I'Ubject "()f thi
 fnter- 
eem to have been written later than 
pol
tion, ,.id. Launoy'!oI Epistll'
1 part i. :'\ichola!õl 1. and I"eo IX, (A, D, 
67- 
Ep. 1-:1, andv. Ep.Ð.c, 6-12, From 10.}4,)Hewas:roung'whenheu
edthem, 
him it appear!' that, heo;;ides the p
age and he is silent ahout thcm in his Summa, 
introduced into the Catena, 
,Thomas (which W3!' the \\ ork (If his la!'t tt-n 
I
('fibc
 
imil.u nne!!! to 
, CHil in hi
 years.) in three or four p1acep; where the 

'(I\nmcnt (In tlU' 
t.'nt('ncc::. Lih. i\". d. 2 &. rcf('f{'ncl' miJ!ht have l1ccn expectt'rl, 



586 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


with its o\vn Pontiffs, with most abundant faith, and the 
authority of Peter. And \vhile other Churches have to blush 
for the error of some of their members, this reigns alone iUl- 
moveably established, enforcing silence, and stopping the 
mouths of all heretics; and we t, not drunken \vith the wine of 
pride, confess together with it the type of truth, and of the 
holy apostolic tradition. J EROl\1E; Let none think that this 
is said of death, implying that the Apostles should nut be 
subject to the condition of death, w'hen \ve see their lllar- 
tyrdoms so illustrious. ORIGEN; \Vherefore if \ve, by the 
revelation of our Father \vho is in heaven, shall confess that 
Jesus Christ is the Son of God, having also our conversation 
in heaven, to us also shall be said, Tholl art Peter; for e\'cry 
one is a Rock who is an imitator of Christ. But against 
whomsoever the gates of hell prevail, he is neither to be 
called a rock upon which Christ builds His Church; neither 
a Church, or part of the Church, which Christ builds upon 
a rock. CHRYS. Then He speaks of another honour of 
Peter, when He adds, And I will gi
'e t/tee tile keys ojïlte 
kingdom if heaven; as much as to say, As the Father hath 
given thee to kno\v l\Ie, I also \vill give sOll1ething unto thee, 
namely, the keys of the kingdoln of heaven. RABAN. For 
as \vith a zeal beyond the others he had confessed the King 
of heaven, he is deservedly entrusted more than the others 
with the keys of the heavenly kingdom, that it lnight be 
clear to all, that "7ithout that confession and faith none ought 
to enter the kingdom of heaven. By the ke'ys of the kingdom 
I, discre- He means discernment 1 and power; power, by ,vhich he 
ho. binds and looses; discernment, by \vhich he separates the 

loss: worthy froln the illlworthy. GLOSS. It follows, And wl/at- 
mterlIn. - 1 l b . d h . h h 1 I . d 
soever thou Slla t In ; t at IS, \V oUlsoever t ou s la t JU ge 
unworthy of forgiveness while he liyes, shall be judged un- 
worthy with God; and whatsoever t/tOli s/talt loose, that is, 
whomsoever thou shalt judge wOlthy to be forgiven while 
he lives, shall obtain forgiveness of his sins fi.'onl God. 
ORIGEN; See how great power has that rock upon which the 
Church is built, that its sentences ID.e to continue fÌnn as 
though God gave sentence by it. CHRYS. See ho"r Cluist 
leads Peter to a high understanding concerning hinlself. 


t The editions read here, 'et nog says Nicolai, it is impos
ible to dh"ine. 
neces
ario salutis,' the mea ning of which, 



VER. 13-I!J. 


ST. 1\JATTHE'V. 


587 


These things that lIe here pr0111i8c
 to give hint, belong to 
God alone, llronel}" to forgive t-\in'J, and to luake the Church 
iU1Juo,.cable an1Ïdst the storms of so many persecutions 
and hials. RAll.\:'J. nut this power of binding and loosing, 
though it See)ll
 gi,-en by the Lord to Peter alone, is indeed 
g1.,-cn also to the other .Apostles, and is e'gen no\v in the vid, 
Bishops and Presbyters in e,-ery Church. nut Peter re- 

:t:8. 
ceived in a special manner the keys of the kingdom of heaven, 
and a huprenlacy of judicial power, that all the faithful 
throughout the world might understand that all who in any 
1uanncr ðcparate theulseh g es frOll1 the unity of the faith, or 
frotH cotl1tllunion with hinI, such ,;hould neither be able to 
be loosed from the bonds of sin, nor to enter the gate of 
the heayenly kingdolll. GLOSS. This power was committed Gloss. 
t-'pccia}]y to Peter, t11at \ve n1Ïgllt thereby be invited to unity. :
".n
n- 
For lIe therefore appointed him the head of the Apostles, 
that the Church ntÏght ha ve one principal 'Ticar of Christ, 
to Wll(Hll the different members of the Church should ha'
e 
recourse, if ever they should ha,"e dissensions among them. 
TInt if there were many heads in the Church, the bond of 
unity wotÙd be broken. SOJlle 
ay that the words upon earth 
denote tha.t power was not giyen to men to bind and loo
e 
the dead, but the living; for he who ....hOlÙd loose the dead 
would do this not upon earth, but after the earth. SECOND ConcH. 
COUXCIL OF COXSTA
TIXOPLE; IIow is it that some do pre- g




. 
SU111P to say that thes(ì things are said only of the living? 8. 
!{no,," ther not that the sentence of anathema is nothing 
cl
c but separation? Ther are to be d,-oided who are lleld 
of b'TÍeyoUs faults, whether they are an10ng the living, or not. 
}:i'or it is always behoveful to fly frOln the wicked. JIorcoycr 
there arc divers lctters read of ,A.ugustine of rcligioUb melllory, vide 
who was of great renown alllong thc African bishops, which E Au
 1 . 8 Þ 
p. a. 
affinned that heretics ought to be anathematized even after 4. 
death. Such an ecclesiastical tradition other African ]
ishops 
al...o have prescITed. And the Holr ROlnan Church also 
has anathcluatized 80rl1(> Bishops after death, although no ac- 
cn
ation ha(l been brought against their faith in their life- 
titne u . JERO:\IE; Bishops and Presblter
, not understanding 


u Thi
 pa'sage is quoted from the of whose lost \\orks against Theodoru
 
-=enrence of the Council. It alleges the sentence beginning, "They are 
the authority of S, Cyril. from one to be avoided, &c," i8 quoted, 



:)88 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


this passage, aSSUlne to thelnselves sOlnething of the lofty })re- 
tensions of the Pharisees, and suppose that they lllay either 
condenln the innocent, or absolve the guilty; \vherea
 what 
,vill be enquired into before the Lord will be not the sentence 
of the Priests, but the life of hÍIn that is being judged. \Ve 
read in Leviticus of the lepers, how they are COlnll1anded to 
she,v theluselves to the Priests; and if they ha'
e the leprosy, 
then they are lnade unclean by the Pliest; not that the 
Priest lnakes thenl leprous and unclean, hut that the Priest 
has knowledge of what is leprosy and what is not 1eprosy, 
and can discelìl ,vho is clean, and who is unclean. In the 
saIne ,yay then as there the Priest makes the leper unclean, 
here the Bishop or Presbyter binds or looses not those who 
are without sin, or guilt, but in discharge of his function 
,vhen he has heard the varieties of their sins, he kno\vs who 
is to be bound, and who loosed. OIUGE:N; Let lUlll then he 
,vithout blalne who binds or looses another, that he lnay be 
found worthy to bind or loose in heaven. 
Ioreover, to hinl 
,vho shall be able by his virtues to shut the gates of hell, 
are given in reward the keys of the kingdoln of heaven. 
For every kind of virtue ,,
hen any has begun to practise it, 
as it \\?ere opens itself before Him, the Lord, narnely, opening 
it through His grace, 80 that the saIne virtue is found to be 
both the gate, and the key of the gate. But it may be that 
each virtue is itself the kingdom of heaven. 


20. Then charged he his disciples that they should 
tell no man that he ,vas Jesus the Christ. 
21. Fronl that time forth began Jesus to shew 
unto his disciples, how that he must go unto J eru- 
sa]elll, and suffer many things of the elders and Chief 
Priests and Scribes, and be killed, and be raised again 
the third day. 


ORIGE
; Seeing Peter had confessed Him to be Chlist 
the Son of the li\'ing God, because He \you]rl not have them 
})reach this in the mean tÍ1ue, He adds, Then charged he 
Ids disciples fltal Ihey should fell no 1uan fllat lie u"as 
.Jeslls lite Christ. JERO:\IE; \VhCll then abo\-c lIe sends 
Jlis disciplcs to preach, and c0l111nands them to pl':Qclaim 



\ LR, 20 21. 



T. '1 \TTI1FW. 


5
!t 


11 is ad\'('ut, this 
CCIns coutrary to 1 lis COll11Halld here, that 
they shuuld not 
a)' that lIe is .J esns tllC ihrist. To 1I1C 
it MTln
 that it is onc thing to preach Christ, and anotllCr 
to preach .J eSl1S tht, Christ. Christ is a COU1UlOll titlc of 
di
nity, J e
us the proper nanIC of tlH
 Sa,-iour. UnH3E
; 
Or they tllc)) 
pakc of II iln in lowl.r words, as only a great 
and ,,"olltlerful tHall, hut as yet proclaitncd (] int not as the 
Christ. \,. et if an
 will ba\"c it that Ire was e\ en at thp 
first proclainlf'd to IJC Christ, he Ina.r 
ay that no,," lIe chose 
that first fo'hort announCC1Hcnt of llis natllC to be left in 

ilencc and not repeateù, that tbat little which they had heald 
cOllcerning Chri
t Inight bp digcsted into their u1Ïnds. Or 
tbe diflicnlty 1Hay 1)(' soh"ed thus: that thc fi)}lnCr rclation 
concen1Ïng their preachin
 Christ dues llut helong to the 
tillUo hefore TIib Resurrection, Lnt to the titne that should be 
after the l
esulTection; and that the cOllllnand now gi,"en is 
meant for the ti1He prcscnt; for it were of uo use to preach 
J litH, and to he 
ilent l'ol1l'l'I"l1ing fJis cro

, 
Iorco\'er, lIe 
cOllllllallded t11Cl11 that they 
houltl t('l1 no 1Han that IIp was 
the Christ, and prepared thenl that they 
houhl aftcrn"ards 

ay that ] Ie wa
 Christ ,,"ho wa
 crucified, and whu rO
t'" again 
frolll the dead. J EHO'I E; Hut that none 
hould 
uppose that 
this i:-- only Iny" explanation, and not an evangclic interpre. 
tation, \\"Ilat 1'0110\\ s explains the reason
 of II is forbidding 
thenl tu preach lIilll at that time; Tllen b(J!Jlln JeSllS to 
s/tel" ulilo llis di.w:iples lltallie 1/lllSlnee IS90 unlo JerusalelJl, 
(IneZ ,"/
tf(Jr IJllllIY I hill!Js fl.f I he elders a lid Scribes, lllld Cldf:l 
]Jriesls, and be put to deal/I, and 1"Ù;e a!Jain lite lltird day. 
'rht a 1neaning i
; Th{\n preach 1\lt\ when [ bhall ha\"c buffered 
thest' things, for it wi}] he of no a\'ail that Christ he preached 
puhlicly, and l1is 
lajesty spread abroad atuong tbe people, 
when c.lfter a little ti111e they ::-hall 
ec I fin1 scourged and 
crucified. C IITI' s. For "'hat ha \-ing once had rOot has 
afterwards bcen torn up, if it is a
ain planteù, is WiÙl dif- 
ficulty retained a1nong thc tnultitudc; hut what having been 
oncc rooted has continued ("'cr after un111oved, i
 easily 
brought on to a fiuÙler growth. lIe thercfore dwells on these 
son"owful thing
, and repeats Ilis di
('our
c upon theIn, that 
ICe lIta) open the 1ninds of IIis ùisciple
. ORIGE
; And 
oLsen"e that it is not said, , lie began to ,:--ay,' or ' to teach,' 



590 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP.X\"!. 


but to shew; for as things are said to be she\vn to the sense, 
so the things which Christ spake are said to be she\vn by 
Him. Nor indeed do I think, that to those who sa\v IIim 
suffering Inany things in the flesh, ,vere those things \vhich 
they saw so she\yn as this representation in ,yords she\ved 
to the disciples the mystery of the passion and resurrection 
of Christ. ...t\t that time, indeed, He only began to sllelt' 
tlteln, and after".ards when they 'were more able to receive it, 
He she\ved theIll more fully; for all that Jesus began to do, 
that He accomplished. He must needs go to Jerusalem, to 
be put to death indeed in the JerusaleIll \vhich is below, 
but to rise again and reign in the heavenly Jerusalem. But 
when Christ rose again, and others ".ere risen with Him, they 
no longer sought the Jerusaleln which is beneath, or the 
house of prayer in it, but that \vhich is above. He suffers 
many things froln the elders of the earthly Jerusalem, that 
lIe may be glorified by those heavenly elders \vho recei,e 
His lnercies. He rose again froIll the dead on the thixd day, 
that He may deliver froln the evil one, and purchase for 
such as are so delivered this gift, that they be baptized in 
spirit, soul, and body, in the name of the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Spirit, \yho are three days peI}>etually 
present to those that through them ha\re been made children 
of light. 


22. Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke 
him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not 
be unto thee. 
23. But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee 
behind me, Satan: thou art an offence unto me: for 
thou savourest not the things that be of God, but 
those that be of men. 


ORIGEN; 'Vhile Christ wa!" yet speaking the beginnings of 
the things which He ,vas she\ving unto theIn, Peter considered 
them un\vorthy of the Son of the living God. And forgetting 
that the Son of the living God does nothing, and acts in no 
way worthy of blame, he began to rebuke Him; and this is 
w'hat is said, And Peter too/c llim, and began to ,.ebuke 



'"J: H.:!:l :'!=J. 


sT, M \T rIlF\\. 


.)!H 


ltilli. JEHfnfE; \\"'l' havc oftcn 
aid that P
ter had too 
hot a. zeal, and a ycry grcat afIectioll to\\.ards the Lord 
th(' 
a\piour. rrhcreforc aftcr that his confession, and the 
rc\\ anI of which h<-, had heard fhull the Saviour, hc \vould 
not h:u-e that his confession destroycd, and thought it impos- 
sible that the Sun of God could be put to death, but 
takcs llilll to hÍ111 affectionately, or takes IIim a
ide that hl. 
may not !'CCln to Lc rebuking hi
 l\Iastcr in the presencc of 
his feno\\ (lisciples, and bCbrills to chide TIÍ1n ,vith thc feeling 
of one that lo,-ed IIiIn, and to contradict IIim, and say, B.J 
it fnr froll1 IhcfJ, Lord; or as it is better in th... Greek, 1^EtfJ
 
ero. Kúg.:, où p..
 :erTcu ero. 1"OÜTO, that is, Be propitious to '111Jself, 
Lord, this 
hal1 Dot be unto 111ee. OUIGEX; As though 
Christ II imsl'lf had npeded a propitiation, Iris affection 
Christ allows, hut charges hi III \\'ith ignorance; as it folIous, 
He 11lJ'/lrcl and said 1IIIto Peler, Gel thee behind me, Satan, 
t/'Ol art all offence unto 'JJte. lIILARY; The Lord, kno\\r- 
. ing the suggcstion of the craft of the dc,-il, says to Peter, 
Gl)f thee úlJhilld 1/1e; that is, that hl
 should f()lJO\V the 
exalllple of (lis passion; but to hilu by whonl t11Ïs expres- 
sion ".as suggestcd, lIe turns and says, Satan, t!tOll art 
(Ill '!U(JJlc(, Ullio me. For \,pe cannot snppose that the D'lme 
of Satan, and the sin of being an offence, ,vould be inlputcd to 
Peter after those so grcat dec]aration
 of blcssl'dne
8 and 
power that had been graute(l hinl. J EROllE; But to llle thie; 
error of the ...\postle, proceeding fronl the ".annth of his 
affection, will nc\"cr scenl a sugge
tion of the dedI. Lei the 
thoughtful"reader consider that that blesscdness of po".er ,va
 
prolni
(;d to Petcr in time to l.:OlIlC) not gi,.en him at the 
tillle present; had it heen COU\"c.red to hiln illllucdiat{'ly, the 
('rror of a fal",c confe

ioll ".ould never have founù place in 
hiln. CURYS. For what ,yonder is it that this 
hould befal 
})etcr, "pho had nc, cr received a revclation cOl1cernin
 these 
things? For that you Inay learn that that confcs"ioll nphich 
he luadc concerning Christ was not spoken of hilnsclf, obsen c 
how' in thc
' things which had not becn re'.ealed to hinl, he 
is at a loss. Estilllating the things of Christ by hUlllan and 
earthly principles, he judged it Incan and unworthy of T-linl 
that lIe <;hould 
llffl'r. Thercfure the Lord added, For illOIl 
.f;flvourpsl 1101 tI,e fllin!Js il,al be oj" God, but tIle fldngs ilull 



592 


GOSPEL ACCORnI
G TO 


CI-L\P. XVI. 


be f!f 'Jllen. J EUO
IE; As 111ucb as to say; It is of l\ly \vill, 
and of the Father's \\
ill, that I should die for the salvation of 
Inen; you considering only your o"
n 'will would not that the 
grain of wheat should fall into the ground, that it Inay bring 
forth nluch fruit;, therefore as you speak \vhat is opposed to 
l\1.r will, you ought to be called l\ly adversary. For Satan 
is interpreted 'ad\"erse' or 'contrary.' ORIGEN; 1-et the 
\-vords in \vhich Peter and those in \\Thich Satan are re- 
buked, are not, as is comlnonly thought, the saIne; to Peter it 
is said, Get thee behind 'JJle, Satan; that is, follow Ine, thou 
that art contrary to my \vill; to the Ðe\'il it is said, Go tlly 
'ica.'!, Satan, understanding not 'behind me,' but 'into ever... 
lasting fire.' He said therefore to Peter, Get thee behind me, as 
to one ,,'ho through ignorance '\vas ceasing to '\valk after 
Christ. And He called hÎ1n Satan, as one, who through 
ignorance had son1ewhat contrary to God. But he is blessed 
to wholn Christ turns, even though lIe turn in order to rebuke 
hitn. But \vhy said He to Peter, Thull art art ojfell
'e unto 
Ps. 119, 'lne, ,,-hen in the Psahll it is said, G)"eal peace ha"ve 
165. they that love th.'! law, aud there is no qifellce to then/,? It 
must be ans\yerecl, that not only is Jesus not offended, but 
neither is any Inan ,,-ho is perfect in the lo\
e of God; and 
yet he ,vho does or speaks any thjng of the nature of an 
offence, ll1ay be an offence e\Ten to one ,vho is incapable of 
being offended. Or he lllay hold every disciple that sin- 
2 Cor. neth as an offence, as Paul speaks, 1/Vlto is offended, and 
11, 29. I burn not? 


24. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, If any man 
will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up 
his cross, and follow Ine. 
25. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: 
and whosoever will lose his life for my sake shall 
find it. 


Chrys. CHRYS. Peter had said, Be it far fro1ll t!tee, Lord; this 
Hom.Iv's/tall not be unto t!tee; and had been answered, Get thee 
behind 'Ine, Satan; but the Lord ,vas not satisfied with this 
rebuke, but over and above desired to shew' the ilupropriety 



v En. 2 j-25. 


fiT. ,rATTIIE'\. 


5!J3 


of tho 
 things which Pcter had said, and the fruit of JIis 
Own pas
ion; \\'henc(' it is added, T!t 'Il ,
a 'd Jeslis to Iti,t; 
d;s(';plp.
, I ' fillY 1/1(111 will to C(J/l1f' 1!/1 
r l1te, l)l !tiut d JJlg 
!tÙJlse( ; lLud take 'lip his cros...,', fllldj'ul/rJlc Ilil'; as nll1ch as tu 
say, 'You sar unto IlIC, IJe it Jàr jroJJI Ilu:e j hut [ say unto 
)' ou, that not only is it hanllful for you to hindcr 1\lc from 
Iy 
Passion, uut )'oursclf will not he ahle to hc ba\ ed ullle
s yon 
sutler and die, and renounce your life always. .L\nd 1l0t,., that 
Ill' dues not speak of it as cOlnpulsorr, for lie does llut say, 
'l'hough )'C will not Jet nlust ye sutler this, but, {( any nut/t 
1rill. fly sa)'illg thi
 I If' rather attracted them; f()}' hc who 
lea, es his auditor at liberty, attracts hiln the nlore; whercas 
he that uses violence oftentil11cS hinders hinl. And lip 
proposcs this doctrinc, not to IJis disciples only, but in COl11- 
mon to t11P whole \,,"orld, saying, 1.( any man ll'ill, that is, if 
\VOIDan, if Juan, if king', if frce, if slave; there are thrce 
things luentioncd; lei !tilll dell.'! liÍ1Jlse{f, fake up I,is cross, 

11l(l.foll()If' ,,,('. GUEGORY; For unlcss a nlan dcparts frolll Greg. 
)lil11self, he does not dra\v Ilear to IIÎ1n who is abu'
e hinl. :f:. m . in 
llut if ,vc lea"c ourseh-es, whithcr :o-hall we go out of oursch"es ? xxxii.2. 
Or if we ha,.c forsaken oursch.cs, who is it then that goe:> ? 
Indced, W'C arc one thing ,\"hCll fallen by sin, another thing as 
"'c "'cre made hy nature. [t is theTl'fon' thell that wc lca\"o and 
deny ourselves, ,,-hen wc a\"oid that \vhich \vC were of old, and 

tri"f"e t()\vard
 that to which ,ve are caned in newness. 
lB. lIe denit's hilnsclf whosoc\"cr is changed for the better, Greg. in 
and begins to be \vhat he was not, and ccases to be "'hat 
zech: 
he was. 11). lIe also denies hil11sclf, ,,-ho ha\'ing trode IO
m, I. 
under foot the risings of pride, shcws hinlsclf in the eycs of
 l reg. 
it or. 
God to be cstranged frolll himsclf. OUIGE
; 1\ut though xxxiii. 
a nlan lnay seen1 to kcep ii'onl sin, yet if he docs not belie,'e G. 
in the cross of Christ, hr' cannot be 
Ltid to h(' crucificd with 
Christ; whence it follows, 
l/1d lake lip I,Ù
 cross. CHIn-". 
Otherwisc; lie that disowns another, ,,'hether a hrother, 
or a se1\ ant, or ,,"hosoen.'r it be', he Inay sec hinl hcaten, or 

nfl{'rill
 alight else, and neither succoun; nor befriends 
hiJu; thu
 it i-s lic ,,"ould ha,.e us deny onr body, and 
\vhcthcr it be' beatcn or afIlicted in any other ,,'ay, not to 

pare it. For this is to spare. So parcnts do thcn 1110,t 
parc 
their children when they hand theln o,.cr tc I tutors,lJi(hling thenl 
VOl.. T. 2 Q 



594 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


110t to spare theln. And that you should not think that this 
denial of self extends only to words or affronts, he shews to what 
degree \ve should deny oursehTes, naInely, to death the 1110st 
shalneful, eyen that of the cross; this He signifies \Vhell lIe 
says, And taJ.:e up 1z.i,
 cross, and follo'U' 'Inc. IfILARY; 'Ve are 
to follow our LOl"d by talång up the cross of IIis passion; and 
if not in deed, yet in 'will, bear II im cOlnpany. CHRYS. And 
because lualeftlctors often suffer grievous things, that you 
should not suppose that silnply to suffer evil is enough, He 
adds the reason of suffering, \yhen He I'ays, Aud follow 'Ine. 
For IIis sake you are to endure all, and to learn His other 
yirtues; for t.his is to follow Christ aright, to be diligent in 
the practice of virtues, and to suffer all things for IIis sak
. 
Greg.. GREG. There are t\\"o ways of taking our cross; \vhen the 


.m. III body is afflicted hy abstinence, or \yhen the heart is pained 
xxxii. by compassion for another. Forasllluch as our very virtues 
3. are beset \vith faults, \ve nlust declare that vainglory SOl11e- 
tillles attends abF\tineuce of flesh, for the elnaciated body 
and pale countenance bctray this l1igh \Tirtue to the praise 
of the ,yodel. COll1passion again is son1etÏ111es attended by 
a false affection, which is hereby led to be consenting unto 
sin; to shut out these, He adds, and ..follolc 'Ine. JERO)IE; 
Otherwise; He takes up his cross 'W ho is crucified to the 
,vorId; and he to \VhOI11 the world is crucified, follows his 
crucified LOl"d. CURYS. And then because this seellled 
se\'ere, lIe softens it by she\ving the abundant rewards of 
our pains, and the punishl11ent of e\"il, He that 'UJill sare !tis 
life shalllf)se it. ORIGE
; This 111ay belunderstood in Ì\VO 
,vays. First thus; if any lover of this present life spares 
his life, fearing to die, and supposing that his life is ended \vith 
this death; he seeking in this way to sa\re his life, shall lose it, 
estranging it from life eternal. Hut if any, despising the pre- 
sent life, shall contend for the truth unto death, he shall lose 
his life as far as this pl'esent life is concerned, but forasluuch as 
he loses it for Christ, he shan the more save it for life eternal. 
Otherwise thus; if any understand what is true salyation, 
and desire to obtain it for the sah T atiol1 of his o\vn life, he 
by denying hin18elf loses his life as [to the eujoyments of the 
flesh, but saves it by works of piety. He shews by saying, 
Fol' he t!lal will, that this passage n1ust be connected in 



VEH. 2(1-2"'. 



T. :\L\TTIIE"-. 


5H.j 


sense with that whit' h \vpnt hefore. ] f then \\ C und('rsta.nd 
th, lir:-\t, I t lI.Ùll d JlY Itl1J1seif, of the deaÙl of the bo(l), 
\VC nln
t take this that folJo\\-
 of death onh-; lUll if 
\V.
 understand the first of Hlortifying th(\ propensities of 
th{\ flesh, thcn, to lo:se Ids l{fe, signi1ìes to gi\'û np carnal 
plcasurc
, 


26. For \"hat is a man profited, if he shall gain 
the \vhole \vorId, and lose his o\vn soul! or \"hat shall 
a ll1an give in exchange for his soul? 
27. For the Son of man shall cOlne in the glory of 
hi
 Father ,,,ith his angels; and then he shall re\vard 
every man according to. his \vorks. 
28. Verily] say unto you, There be son1C standing 
here, \vhich shall not taste of death, till they 
ee the 
Son of man coming in his kingdom. 


CUR\
. necau
c lIe had 
aid, "Tho
o will save', shalllosc, 
and whoso will lose 
hall 
a'-c, opposing saving to lo,-,ing, 
that nOllC should hence conclude that there wa
 any equality 
betwecn the lo:-\ing on one side, and thc 
aving on the other, IT c 
adds, 1f lUll due.ft it projil a luau, [flip sllall gain the lcllole 
'world, but s1tjl'er tIle 10.'\.'; qf 11l..
 801l1? As though lIe had said, 
Say not that he who escapcs the dangers which threaten hinl for 
Christ's sake, :-,a,-es his :-,oul, that is, his temporal life ; but add to 
his teBlporal life thl
 \\"holt"' ,\"orld, and what of all thcse things 
will profit a luan if his soul perishes for c'"cr? 
uppose J"on 
f'hould see all your 
ervants in joy, and yourself pla
ed in 
the greatest e,-ils, what profit \voul(l you reap from being 
thl'Ü' nla"'tcr? l'hink ovcr this within Jour o""n soul, ,,-hen 
hy du' indulgence of thc fIe-sl) that :::>oul looks tor it", own 
de
tructiol1. OIUGEX; T ::;nppose also that he gains the 
world \\"ho does not dt'ny lillllsclf, nor loses his own life as to 
canlal pleasures, and thcnce suffers th
 lú
s of his 
ou1. 
1.'hcsc two things ùcilIg 
ct ùcfore u
, Wl
 Blust rather choose 
to lose diP wor1d, ana gain our f-oul
. CURl'S. But if you 
should reign over the \vhole world, yOU would not ùc ahlc to 
buy your soul; whe-nce it follows, (),. 111lflf ,.,hall tl II/all !lire 
i e.rcltan!/e /'or Ilis .'\oul.2 As HIuch as to say, if ) on lOSt' 
2 (l 
 



596 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVI. 


goods, you may have it in your power to give other goods to 
recover theln; but if you lose your soul, you can neither 
give another soul, nor any thing else in ransom for it. An(1 
what marvel is it if this happen in the soul, \vhen ,ve see 
the same happen in the body; for if you Rhould sun'ound 
a body afflicted 'with an incurable disease \\,ith ten thousand 
diadenls, they ,vonld not heal it. ORIGEN; And at first sight 
indeed the ransom of the soul n1Ïght be supposed to be in 
his substance, that a Ulan should give his substance to the 
poor, and so should save his soul. But I SUPIJose that 
a man has nothing that giving a
 a ransom for his soul he 
should delivcr it fronl death. God gave the ransom for the 
Greg" souls of men, nan1ely the precious blood of Ilis Son. GREG. 

;m. III Or the connexion lllay be thus; The Holy Church has a 
xxxii. period of persecution, and a period of peace; and our Re- 
4. deelner accordingly distinguishes bet\\Teen these periods in 
His cOlnmands; in time of persecution the life is to be laid 
down; but in time of peace, those earthly lusts which might 
gain too great power over us are to be bl'oken through; 
whence He says, TVltat does it prqjit a '/Jlal1? J ERO
IE ; 
Haying thus called upon Ilis disciples to deny thelnsehrcs 
and take up their cross, the hearers were filled with ßl'eat 
telTor, thel'efore these severe tidings are foUowed by more 
joyful; For the Son of lJIall shall conle in tlte glory Qf I,Ùt 
Father ?ritlt tIle ltol.1J Angels. Dost thou fear death? Hear 
the glory of the triulnph. Dost thou dread the cross? Hear 
the attendance of the Angels, ORIGE
; As Hluch as to say; 
The Son of l\1an is no,v COlne, but not in glory; for He 
ought not to have been ordained in His glory to bear our 
sins; but then He shall come in His glory, ,vhen He shall 
first haye Inade ready His disciples, being made as they are, 
that He might make them as He is Himself, in the likeness 
of Jlis glory. CHRYS. He said not in such glory as is that 
of the Father, that you might not suppose a difference of glOlY, 
but He says, Tlte glo')oy qf the Fatller, that it might be she\vn to 
be the same glory. But if the glory is one, it is evident that 
the substance is one. 'Vhat then fearest thou, Peter, hearing 
of death? For then shalt thou see l\le in glory. But if I be 
in glory, so also shall ye be. But in 11laking mention of IIis 
glory, lIe Iningleth therewith things terrible, bringing forward 



VER. 2H-2'j. 


ST. ltL\TTIlE\\. 


5U7 


thl' judgnlent as it fol1u\, s, .Jllcl 'hell shall 11(1 render to cae! 
'lUllU L "urdÙI!/ 10 hi.,' l("()rks. J ERO\IE; For there is no 
ditlcrl'ncC' of JC\V or Gentile, luan or \\ Olnan, poor or rich, 
wllt'ro not !H-rSOns but wOTl
 arc accepted. CIIHYS. 'fhis 
lIe said to call to their lllilHls 110t only tIlt.' punisll111l"nt of 
sinuers, but the prizcs and crowns of the righteous. .J EHO
(J
 ; 
Bu1 the 
(;l'ret thought of the _\postIcs Blight ha,ye suficrcd 
an o tlèIlCt' of this sort; The killings and dcath
 yon 
peak 
of as to be no\\Y, but the promise of }your COJllillg in glory 
i
 put utI' to a long distant tilnc. lIe that knows secret things 
thereforC', 
eeìllg that they nlight ubject thi
, requitc
 a present 
fear with a pr<,"ent reward, saying, Verily 1 say unto you, 
There úe sonle l!.f those s/anding here t"ai sllftll not taste 
(/('((/" ull/il tilt> SOli qf Jlfin C01J1(! il1 liis kill.fjdo,'JI. CUUYs. ChTJS. 
'Yilling to shcw what i:-\ that glory in which LIe shall COlne l:i
m. 
})creaficr, I Ie rc,-ealed it to theln in this present life, 
u 
far a:-\ it was po
sihle for thcln to receive it, that tl1(,)-" Blight 
not ha'"c 
orrow in tlH.'ir Lor<r
 death. l:E
lJG. "?hat i:s hcre 
said, therefore, was fulfilled in the three disciple
 to wholn the vide 
J.ord, wlll'U transtìgurC'd in thc' nlount, sh(',,
cd the joys of the 


: 
: 
eternal illhelitancc; these 
aw 1 [in) COl1lillg ill Ilis kiugdfJ1Jl,2i. 
that is, shining in II is efI'ulgent radiance, in ,vhieh, after the 
judglllCnt pa

ell, ] Ie shall bc bcheld by all the 
aints. 
CHR\
, Theref()I"c TIc docs not rc\yeal the nanles of tho!'e 
who 
hould ascend into the lllount, because the rest would 
be' verr dcsirous to accolnpany theln ,,-hithcr they nlight 
look upon tIIP pattcrn of I I is glory, and would be grie,.ed 
as thoug-h thcy were passc(l o'"e1". GREG, Or, by the king... Greg. 
dOln of God is Iucant the present Church, and because 
ome ubi sup. 
ofTli
 (1isciplt...
 \\ycre to li\ye so long- in thp body l:'\ to behold 
the Church of God huilt np and raised agÍ-únst the glorvof 
this ,vorld, this coulfortahle promise i.
 givcn thcln, There úe 
SOflle of "ll III sia IldiJ1g "ere. 
OnIGEX; :àlurally; 1'0 tho
l' who i.n"c nearly brought to 
the faith, the \V onl of Go(1 wears the fonn of a scnrant; 
but to those that arc pcrfect, I Ie COU1CS in the glory of 
the Father. II is angels arc the words of the Prophets, 
,\yhich it is not po
sible to cOlnprehend spiritually, until 
the- won 1 of Christ has heen first spiritually cOJnprehCllded, 
and thcn will their words be seen in like InL\lesty ,viù. 



598 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO ST. l\IATTHE'V. CHAP. XVI. 


IIis. Then \viU He give of His own glory to every man 
according to his deeds; for the better each man is in his 
deeds, so much the more spiritually does he understand 
Christ and His Prophets. They that stand where Jesus 
stands, are they that have the foundations of their souls rested 
upon Jesus; of \yhOlll such as stood finnest are said not to 
taste death till they see the 'V ord of God; which comes in 
His kingdom \vhen they see that excellence of God \vhich 
they cannot see \vhile they are involved in divers sins, which 
is to taste death, forasmuch as the soul that sinneth, dies. 
For as life, and the living bread, is He that came do\vn from 
heaven, so IIis enenlY death is the bread of death. And of 
t11ese breads there are SOlne that eat but a little, just tasting 
them, while some eat more abundantly. They that sin 
neither often, nor gt'eatly, these only taste death; they that 
ha\
c partaken more perfectly of spiritual virtue do not taste it 
only, but feed ever on the living bread. That He says, 
Until they see, does not fix any tinle at "Thich shall be done 
what had not been done before, but mentions just what is 
necessary; for he that once sees Hilll in His g101Y, shan after 
Raban. that by no llleans taste death. RABAN. It is of the saints He 
L
:.d

 speaks as tasting death, by \vhom the death of the body is 
tasted just as it were sipping, while the life of the soul is 
held fast in possession. 



CIL\P. X\'II. 


1. And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, J atTIes, 
and J olIn his brother, and bringcth thetn up into 
an high lllountain a part, 
2. And ,vas transfigured before theln: and his 
face did shine as the sun, and his railnent \vas white 
as the light. 
3. ...\nd, behold, there appeared unto them :i\loses 
and l
lia
 talking \vith him. 
4. '"fhcn an
\vered Peter, and said unto Jesus, 
Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou \vilt, let 
us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and 
one for 'loses, aud one for Elias. 


ItE:\llG. in this Tran
fìguratioll undergone 011 the Inount, 
01(' Lord fulfill cd ".ithin six daJs the pron1Ïse lllade to IIis 
disciple
, that they 
hould IUl\ e a sight of I Tis glory; as it 
is 
aiù, 
llId fl.fJer .
i.t, day.f\ lie look j)elel', aud .hulles, and 
John liis brollter. J EHO:\IE; I t is luadc a question ho\y it 
could be aft(,f 
ix day
 that Jle took thl"'m, when I..uke 
ays l..ule 9, 
eight. 'r1H' answer is easy, that here one reckoned only the 2
. 
intervening day
, there the first and the last are al
o added. 
CUill'S. lIe does not take theln up Ï1nllwdiately npon th.. 
prolui
e Lcillg nliHh', hut si:\. days after, ft)). this reason, that 
the other (lisl'iples 1uight Hot he touched with any lunnan 
pa")
ioll, as a fc 'ling of jealousy; or else that during these 
days' 
pacc, thu:-\c (lisciplcs who ".cre to he taken up tHight 
hCl'ollle ]
il)(ll{.d with a lllorc eager desire. It \B \
. Justly Raban. 
wa, it after SL
 da) s that lIe shewed I li
 glory, because e Bed. 
after six ages is to be t1.(' rcsurrectioll d. U UIG F.
; Or hccan
c 


,I 
(,l' thl' Oxford Translation of
. C)prian, Tr. xiii. n, 3. 



Raban. 
e Bed. 


600 


GOSPEL ACCORDING 'TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


in six days this whole visible w'ol"ld was made; so he \vho 
is above all the things of this \vorld, may ascend into the high 
mountain, and there see the glory of the 'V ord of God. 
CHRYS. He took these three because He set them before 
others. But obserre how l\fatthe\v does not conceal who 
\vere prefen"ed to hiluself; the like does John also when he 
recol"ds the preeminent praise given to Peter. For the con1- 
pany of Apostles w'as free frollI jealousy and vain glory. 
lIILARY; In the three thus taken up \yith Ifin1, the election 
of people out of the three stocks of Sell1, Carn, and J aphet 
is figut"cd. RABAN. Or; lIe took only three disciples with 
Hin1, because lnany arc caned but few chosen. Or because 
they wbo no\v hold in incorrupt Inind the faith of the Holy 
Trinity, shall then joy in the eyerlasting beholding of it. 
RE
nG. ""'hen the J--Âord \vas about to she\v IIis disciples 
the glory of His brightness, He led them into the mountain, 
as it follow's, And lie took tlle11l up into a hig!t 1Jloulllailll 
apart. Ifereln teaching, that it is necessary for all 'who seek 
to contelnplate God, that they should not gro,'el in weak 
pleasures, but by love of things abovc should be ever raising 
thelllSeh T es to\varc1s heavenly things; and to she,v His dis- 
ciplcs that they sbould not look for the glory of the divine 
brightness in the gu,lph of the pl"eSent \\Torld, but in the 
lÜngdoul of the hcayenly blessedness. He leads them 
apart, because the saints are separated fron1 the \vicked by 
their \vhole soul and derotion of their faith, and shall be 
utterly separated in the future; or because Inany are called, 
but few chosen. It follo\\7s, And lie 'lcas lroll.y-igll1"ed Dfffore 
thelJl. J ERO::\IE; Sl
ch as II e is to be in the tÏIne of the 
J udgn1ent, such was He no\v seen of the Apostles. Let 
none suppose that He lost His forn1er fonn and lineaments, 
or laid aside His bodily reality, taking upon Hiu1 a spiritual 
or ethereal Body. I-fo\v IIis transfiguration was aCC0111- 
l)lished, the Evangelist she\vs, saying, And !tis face did 
s!tiue as lite sun, and his 'j"lll1nent Deca1ne u;ldte as SIIOW.. 
For that His face is said to shine, and His railnent described 
to beCOlne ,vhite, does not take aw'ay substance, but confer 
glory. In truth, the Lord ,vas transfonned into that glory 
in which fIe shall hereafter COlne in His l{ingdoul. The 
transfonnation enhanced the brightness, but did Dot destroy 



lEU. 1-4. 


:O:T. 'f.\TTHE". 


nOl 


the countenance, although the hody were 
piritual; whence 
al
u IIis raiulCnt w
 changed and bccalne white to such 
n dcg-rec, a:--. in the cxpres
ioJ1 of another E,-angelist, no 
funer on earth can whiten t}l(.'IU. But all this is the pro- 
perty of mattcr, and is the suhject of the touch, not. of spirit 
and ethereal, an illusion upon the sight onl}
 beheld in 
phantasl)). H.El'tIIG. If then the face uf the Lord shune ah 
tlH
 sun, and the saiuts shall shine as the "un, are lhcJ) the 
brightness of the Lord and the brightness of llis scn.ants 
to he equal? U
 no nlean
. nut fora
llluch as n,--)thing is 
known Inore bright than the sun, therefore to give SOllIe illus- 
tration of the future resurrection, it is cxpres
ed to u
 that 
thl' hrightne

 of the Lord'
 countenance, and the hrightness 
of the righteous, shall he as thc sun. OnH;]:
; )[ystically; 
\Vhen anyone has pa

eù the six days acconling as \,"0 havc 
sait}, he lJeholds J psus transfigured before the eyes of hi!) 
heart. For the ".,. unl of God has various fanus, appearing 
to each Ulan according as lIe knows that it ,,-ill be e
pedicnt 
for hinl; and lIe shews lIiulself to none in a Inanner beyond 
11Ï:--. capacity; whence he 
ays not sinl}>l}", He u;as t1'UllS- 
Ji!lllr(>d, hut, lJr:.fure llteJIl. For Jesus, in the Go
pels, is nlerely 
uIH]er
to0ù h)" tho
e ,vho do not Inount by lllcans of exalting 
,,-orks and words upon the high l110untain of ,vif'doln; but to 
theu} that (10 11l01111t up thus, lIe is no longer klJo\vn according 
to th
 lle:"\h, hut is und.:rstood to be God the "TonI. Before 
these then Jesus is transfigured, and not before those "rho 
1i\'c 
llnk in \\'orldl)" cOll,-crsation. Bnt the
e, Leforo wholn 
IJ e i
 trausfigured, ha\-e been Inadc 
ons of God, and lIe is 
shewn to theln as the 
nn of righteousness. IIi
 railnent is 
1ua(le wl)ite as the 1iliht, that is, the "-ord
 and 
aJillgs of the 
Gu"pel
 \\rith which J C
\lS is (lathed according to those things 
\vhich ,\\Cl.e spol\.cn of I Iilll by thl
 ..\p()
tle!'\. GI..OSS. Or; thCGlo
":. 
railllt'nt of Christ :-.hadows out the 1-'aints, of \yhoJJ) J.
saias 
ars, 
 B L ed. 
'" In uc. 
JJ rilll all llle.
e .r;;hllll Iholl clollll> tItC(> (IS 1.cilli II gar/nelll ; Isa. 49, 
aud tlH'yare likened to SIlOW because they shall be white with 18. 
,irtuc
, and all the heat of ,ices :::>hall ùe put far away fruln 
thel)). It follows, Ind Iltere a}Jp,>(IJ"l>t! 11/110 IJIl'JJI Jlose.\' tllI(l 
E'li"s lalking wilh !lil'/II. CUitys. "rhere are IHan)" reasùll:, why 
the
p 1-'holll.l appear. 1'he fin:l i
 l1ai
; hccau
è the Ilnlltitudcs 

aid IIp ".as Elias, or JcrCluias, or onc of the Prophets lIe here 



602 


GOSPEL ACCOnDI
G TO 


CHAP. XVII, 


ùrings \Vith Ilill) the chief of the J>rophets, that hence at least 
Illay be seen the difference between the servants and their I
ord. 
Another reason is this; because the J e\\'s were ever charging 
Jesus ,,'ith being a transgressor of the Law and blasphemer, 
and usurping to Himself the glory of the Father, that lIe 
n1Ïght prove HÏ1uself guiltless of both charges, He brings 
forward those who \\rere eminent in both particulars; 
loses, 
who gave the Law, and Elias, who was jealous for the glOI'Y 
of G où. Another reason is, that they Illight learn that He 
has the po\ver of life and death; by producing l\Ioses, ,vho 
,vas dead, and Elias, ,,,ho had nut yet experienced death. A 
further reason also the Eyangelist disco,.ers, that He might 
shew the glory of His cross, and thus soothe Peter, and the 
other disciples, \vho \vere fearing His death; for they talked, 
as another Evangelist declares, qf His decease u'lticlt He 
should accol1'lplish at Je'rusllle'JJl. "Therefore He brings 
fonvard those ,vho had exposed themselves to death for God's 
pleasure, and for the people that believed; for both had 
\villingly stood before tyrants, l\loses before Pharaoh, Elias 
before Ahab. Lastly, also, He brings them fOI'ward, that the 
disciples should elIlulate their 11rivileges, and be lneek as 
l\'Ioses, and zealous as Elias. HILARY; Also that l\loses and 
Elias only out of the \vhole number of the saints stood 
'with Christ, nJeans, that Christ, in His kingdoln, is beÌ\veen 
the La\y and the Prophets; for lIe shaH judge Israel in 
the presence of the same by whol}) He \\9as preached to 
then1. OIUGEN; Ho,vever, if any Inan discerns a spiritual 
sense in the La,v agreeing 'with the teaching of Jesus, and in 
I Cor. the Prophets finds tile !tidden 'U.isdo'JH of ClIrist, he beholds 
2,7, Moses and Elias in the saIne glory \"ith Jesus. JERO
IE; 
It is to be l'emelnbered also, that when the Scribes and 
Pharisees asked signs froIll heaven, lIe ,,"ould not give any; 
but no\v, to increase the Apostles' faith, lIe gives a sign; 
Elias descends frOIH heaven, ,,-hither he \yas gone up, and 
Is. 7,lO.1\loses arises from hell; as A.haz is bidden by Esaias 
to ask hilll a sign in the heaven above, or in the depth 
beneath. CHRYS. Hereupon follo\,"s what the warn} Peter 
spake, Pete'}" anS1L"erell and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good 
}'o'I" tiS to be here. Because he had h("'ard that lIe HUlst go 
up to J erusaleln, he yet fcars for Christ; but after IJis 



\" Ell. ð-t'. 


"1'. \L\.TT 111:. w. 


;oa 


r 'Luke he ùarc
 Hot again 
a)', 1J propitious ll.y'" 'if, 
[ rd, hut 
uggest
 tlu' 
aJ})e co,'crtl) under other guise. 
For sccilJg ill this placc great (l'lietlless 
L1)(1 solitude, he 
thought that this wou}(l hc a lit place to tahc up thcir abode 
in, saying, Jord, it is good for 11.41 Lo be lure. .\uù he 
ought 
to rCluail1 hcre c\"cr, thcrefor(\ he propo
es the tahcrnac les, 
1. f f hOIl will, It'! 1I.
 l/1f1l'c IIl're / h rei' /tllJ()rnllcles. :For lH' 
concluùed if he 
ho\lld do this, Christ would not go up to 
J l.'rH
alc}lI, and if I r (' f'houhl not go up to .J enlsalc))}, 1 I e 
should 110t die, ten. hn knc\\ that there the 
crilH_'s laicl wait 
for IIilu. I{In1l0. Otherwise; L\t this ,"ic\v of the 11l;.
esty 
of the Lord, and IIi!' t,,"O scn"ants, l)elcr wa
 so dl'liglJted, 
that, fi))'getting c' cry thing cl
e in the" orId, hc ,,"ould ahiùe 
here for c,"cr. But if l)cter was then so fÌrcd with athllira- 
tion, what ra\"islullcnt will it not bc to Lchold dIe King 
in llis proper beauty, and to luingle in the choir of the 
AngcJs, and of al1 the 
aints? In that Peter 
àYS, 
o,'d, !f 
tllflll will, hc shews the 
ul)]llission of a dutiful and obedient 
s('r'"ant. .J EHO:\[E ; Yet art thou wrong, I>cter, and as anothcr 
I
\'angclist 
ay
, kno,\"est not ,,,hat thou sayest. Think not Luke 9, 
of thrcp tahcrnacles, whcn th('re is òut on(' taòcnlacle of33. 
the Go"pcl in which both La,v and Prophets are to be re- 
peated. JJnt if thou" ilt ha, e three tabernach:", Sèt not the 

en ants e(}llal \, ith thcir Lord, hut luahe three taben1acles, 
lca lllakc one fin" the Father, Son, and IIoly Spirit, that They 
who
c di,-illit) is one, Dlay ha'"c but one tabernacle, in thy 
bosonl. ItE:\IIG. lIe' "a
 wrong morcoycr, in desiring tha1 
the kingdo1l1 of the elect 
hould be 
et up on cartI., whcn tho 
Lord had promi...;cd to give it in hea'"cn. lIe ""as wrong 
also in lorgl'tting that hinlself and his fellows were lllortal, 
and in desiring to COITIP to eternal felicit) without taste 
of (It'ath. H.\R\
. ...\l
o in 
upposi
)g that tabt'rllacles ""cre 
to he Luilt for cOll"cr
atioll in hca,"cn, in ,,-hich hOJl
es arc 
not needed, as it is ,,-rittpn in the 4\ pocalyp
t', I SaiL" 'Rot any Rcv. 
l, 
I 1 . Q.J 
It'lnp e f flcri>l 11. M..... 


5. "hilc he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud 
0\ crshado\vcd then1: and behold a voice out of the 
cloud, which said, This i
 IllY belo\ cd Son, in \"hOlll 
I alll \,"cll pleased; hear )'C hinl. 



60-1 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


G. And \vhen the disciples heard it, they fell on 
their face, and were sore afraid. 
7. And Jesus calne and touched theIn, and said, 
Arise, and be not afraid. 
8. And \vhen they had lifted up their eyes, they 
sa\v no man, save Jesus only. 
9. And as they came down from the mountain, 
Jesus charged thenl, saying, Tell tbe vision to no 
nlan, until the Son of lllan be risen again from the 
dead. 


J EROl\IE; 'Vhile they thought only of an earthly tabernacle 
of boughs or tents, they are overðhado"red by the coyering 
of a bright cloud; If/Idle lie yet spake, there cauze a bright 
cloud and ove.rsllodou'ed ilte'ln. CHRYS. "Then the Lord 
Exod. threatens, lIe shews a dark cloud, as on Sinai; but here 
19,9.16. where He sought not to telTify but to teach, there appeared 
a bright cloud. ORIGEN; The bright cloud overshado\ring 
the Saints is the Po\yer of the Father, or perhaps the I-Ioly 
Spirit; or I may also venture to call the Sayiour that 
bright cloud \vhich o\
crshadows the Gospel, the La\v, and 
the Prophets, as they understand \vho can behold His light 
in an these three. J ER01Il<:; Forasn1uch as Peter had 
asked un\visely, he deserres not any ans"
er; but the 
Father n1akes answer for the Son, that the Lord's "rord 
John 5, n1Ìght be fulfilled, He that sent 1ne, he bearetli lcitness of 
87. 1Jle. CHRYS. Neither 
Ioses, nor Elias speak, but the Father 
greater than all sends a voice out of the cloud, that the 
disciples Inight believe that this yoice was fronl God. For 
God has ordinarily she\vn Hitnself in a cloud, as it is ,vritten, 
PtS.97,2. (--'louds and darl.:ness are 1.ouud about HÙn; and this is 
,vhat is said, Behold, a 
'oice out if tlie cloud. JERO:\IE; 
The voice of the Father is heard speaking from heaven, 
ghing testimony to the Son, and teaching Peter the truth, taking 
away his error, and through Peter the other disciples also; 
,vhence he proceeds, This is '1ny belot.ed SOl1. For Hilu 
make the tabernacle, H in1 obey; this is the Son, they are 
but 
ervants; and they also ought as rou to Blake ready a 
tabernacle for the Lord in the mInost parts of their heart. 



\YEn. 
-9. 


ST. 'fATTßE\\. 


605 


CIIRY
. Fear not d1 on, l>ct >r; for if God is 1nighty, it is 
Juanifest that tl)(\ Son j
 al
o Inight); \vhcrcforc if III' is 
h)\ ed, fl>ar Hot thou; for nont' f()fsakes IIiul \\ hOll1 11(> 10\ ('S; 
)lor dust thou lo\'e IIitn equaHy with the Father. Neither 
dut,:-o I I \ lo\"e II iIU Jncrc1y hccau
 > lIe begot IIiIu, but 
l>ecallSP lIt\ is uf On(a will with 11 imsclf; as it fono""
, [". 
'1.("1'01/1 J al/1 I("ell plt'a.wld; \\"hich is to say, 111 \\ hont T 
rc"t contcnt, wholn I accept, for all things of the Ji'ather 
I L . perfi)nJ1s with l:are, and 1 I is will is onc with the Father; 
so if ] Ie win to he cl"ucifi(>d, do not thcn speaJ.. against it. 
I hL\.HY; 1'his is the Son, this the Be lo,"cd, this the 
Accepted; and T h' it is who is to bc hcard, as the voice out of 
tlU' ('loud signifies, sa
 ing, II('(f1" ,Ill) Jlilli. For IT e is a fit 
tcacher of doing thc things lIe has done, who has gi,"en the 
,,"eight úf IIis own ex(unph.> to the loss of the' \\"0rld, the joy 
of the cros
, tl)(' death of the ho(l."', and after that the glory 
of the hea\"ellly killgÙOlll. ItE'IlG. lIe 
ays therefore, Hear 
ye HÙu, a
 llluch as to say, Let the shadow of the La,," be 
IM
t, (lnd the types of tll(
 Prophets, and fonO'W' yo the onp 

hiniIlg- light of the (;ospe1. Or lIe 
ays, Ilelfl" ye I fh/l, 
to shew' that it wa<; I [e whonl :\loscs had foretold, The 
ord Deut. 
YOU1. fiod ,t;lutll ra;M lip {( Pr()phet 1Inlo gOIl C!f .11()lIr 18, 18. 
brell,,"en like 111110 lilt), JIÙn shal1 gP "car. Thus thp 
Lord had witnesses on an 
iùes; frOI11 hea\"cn thp ,'oicc of 
the Father, Elia!'\ out of Paradise, 
[oses out of IIades, the 
Apostlc:-, froni among 1llen, that at the naJne of J c
n
 evcl} 
thing should hü\\" the knee, of things in hea,-en, things 011 earth, 
and thill
'" bencath. ORIGEN; The ,'oice out of the cloud 
speaks either to ::\Io
es or EIia
, who desired to see the Son 
of God, and to hear IfÏ111; or it is for the tCclehillg of the 
.\ postlt'!-.. (; LOS
. I 1 i
 (0 bt' ob"t'rn.\ù, tbat the un""ter, of Gloq.q. 
th. "econd re
eneratioll, that, to wit, which :--ha11 be in . the aP I . An- 

e m. 
resurrection, when the 1le
h shall be raised again, agrees \,"en 
with th:) Ill) stcry of the fir...t whiel. is in haptisIn, ,,'heu tht' 
soul is raist'd again. For in ÙIC bapti"'lli of Christ is ...hewn 
th(" working of the ,\'hole "rrillit
.; there wa
 the Son in- 
carnate, ù. \ I loIr Ghost appearing in the figure uf a do\"e, 
and thl' Father Inade known h,y the \ oice. In Jikf' InannCr 
in the tran
tiguratioJl, \\ hich i" the sacramput of the \o;econd 
regeneration, th(> wholp 1'rinity appeared; the Father in the 



600 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


voice, the Son in the 1uan, and the IIoly Spirit in the cloud. 
It is 111ade a question ho\v the Holy Spirit \vas she\yn thel'C 
in the dove, here in the cloud. Because it is His 1nanner to 
mark His gifts by specific outward fonns. .And the gift of 
baptism is innocence, \vhich is denoted by the bird of purity. 
But as in the resurrection, He is to give splendour and 
refi'eshment, therefore in the cloud are denoted both the 
refreshl11ent and the brightllcss of the rising bodies. It 
follows, And u'hen the disc'iples lieard it, they fell on their 
faces, and feared greatly. JERO:\IE; Their cause of telTor is 
threefold. Becanse they kne\v that they had done an1Ïss; or 
because the bright cloud had covered them; or because they 
had heard the voice of God the Father speaking; for hlunan 
frailty cannot endure to look upon so great glory, and falls to 
the earth trel11bling through both soul and body. And by 
how 111uch higher anyone has aÏ1ned, by so n1uch lower ,,,ill 
be l1Ïs fall, if he shall be ignorant of his O'Yl1 111easure. 
REl\IIG. 'Vhereas the holy Apostles fell upon their faces, 
that was a proof of their sanctity, for the saints are always 
described to fall upon their faces, but the ,vicked to fall 
backwards 3. CHRYS. But when before in Christ's baptisn1, 
such a voice caIne fronl heaven, yet none of the llulltitude 
then present suffered any thing of this kind, how is it that the 
disciples on the nlount fell prostrate? Because in sooth their 
solicitude was nll1ch, the height and loneliness of the spot 
great, and the transfiguration itself attended ,vith terrors, 
the clear light and the sprearling cloud; all these things 
together wrought to terrify thenl. J ERO)IE; And whereas 
they ,yere laid do,,
n, and could not raise thelnseh
es again, He 
approaches theIn, touches thel11 gentlr, that by His touch 
their fear Inight be banished, and their unnerved liInbs gain 
strength; And Jeslls drew near, and tOllclied thenl. But lIe 
further added His ,vord to His hand, And said unto theIn, 
Aríse,fear not. lIe first banishes their fear, that He n1ay 
after itnpart teaching. It follow's, And lclten tlte.'J l
fted up 
tlteir eyes, they saw 110 lllan, save Jesus only; ,,,hich \vas 
done \vith good reason; for had .1\loses and Elias continued 


a Abraham, Gen. 17, 3; J\loses and :1\1 att. 26, 39. On the other hand, of 
Aaron, Numb. 16. 4, 22; Tobias and the wicked, see Gen. 49, 7. Is. 28, 13. 
Sarah, Tob. 12, 16; and our Lord John 18, 6. Nicol. 



\EU. 1()-1:3 


ST. 
r.\ TTII E" . 


007 


with the Lord, it l}1ight JI
\\.C ,",cetlled uncertain to ,,"hich in 
particular the witness of the Father was Laruc. \ l
u they 
see Jc
n
 
tanding after the cloud has lwen renlo'9cd, and 
l\loses 
uHl E]ias disappeared, ùecause after t]Il' "h.\(10\\" of 
the lJa,," and l)rophet
 has departed, Loth are found in the 
Gospel. I t follows; ..llId as / !icy cn ne dOli'n .1'1"01/1 tlic 
1J10IlJlt, Jesll.
 cllar,qed Ilu J I1l, ,wlyin!l, Tell 10 1/1(//1 Ihi,
 Tl.f\;OJl, 
unlillhe 1\'UII (!llIllJt .
hall rise ..lrn1Jl tlie d Jad. lIe will not 
bc preached al1l0ng the people, le
t the Inan"cl of the thing 
should 
een1 incrt'dibh
, and lest the cross fol1owing after 
so great glory 
h()uld cause oflence. ItF:\Ho. Or, beeauso 
if TIis nu
jesty should be puhlished anlong the people, they 
should hindcr the dispensation of 11 is passion, hy resistance 
to the chief Priests; and thus the rcc1clllption of the llllluan 
race shouhl sufler ilnpediulent. IhL.\RY; lIe enjoins silcnce 
respccting ""hat theJ had seen, for this Tl
a
on, that ,,,hen 
they should be fined with tla-' IToly Spirit, thcy shoulù then 
Leconle witnesses of these spiritual deeds. 


10. .And his disciples asked hiIn, saying, "'hy then 
say the Scribes that Elias Inust first come 1 
11. ...\nd Jesus ans\vered and said unto thcm, Elias 
truly shall first conIC, and rcstore all things. 
12. But I say unto you, That Elias is conle already, 
and they kne\y hin1 not, but have done unto him what- 
soever thcy listed. Like\"ise shall also the Son of 
man suffer of thcIn. 
13. Thcn the disciples undcrstood that he spake 
unto them of John the ßaptist. 


J EUO:\[E; It ""as a tradition of the Pharisees f()llo" ing the 
Prophet 
Ialachi, that Elias should cOlne before the conlin
 
of the Sa\"iour, and Lring Lack the heart of the fathers to 
the children, and the children to the fathers, and restore all 
thin
s to their (lncient 
tate. The disci] tIes thell consider 
that this transfonnation \\"hich tIlC) had seen in the 1l10Ullt 
\,"a
 II i:-- cOIning in glory, and therefore it is 
aid, 
lJ1d "is 
dÙìciplf:'
 asku/ Ii;'/I, ,WlY; Jig, Ilvlr t lien say I he Scribes lliat 



608 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


Elilt,
 rnllst first conle? As though they had saiù, If you 
have already COlne in glory, ])O\V is it that your forerunner 
appears not yet? And this they say chiefly hecause they see 
Chrys. that Elias is departed again. CHRYS. The disciples knew 
:;i

. not of the con1Ïng of Elias out of the Scriptures; but the 
Scribes lllade it kno\\'n to theln; and this report "vas current 
among the ignorant Inultitude, as \Yas that concerning Christ. 
Yet the Scribes did not explain the cOIning of Christ and 
of Elias, as they ought to have done. For the Scriptures 
speak of t\""O cOlnings of Christ; that which has tal{en place, 
and that \vhich is yet to be. But the Scribes, blinding the 
people, spake to then1 only of His second coming, and said, 
If this be the Christ, then should Elias have COlne before 
IIim. Christ thus resohres the difficulty, He aJlslre'red and 
.t;;aid, Elias truly sllall collle, and 'resto're all things; hut I 
say 'Unto you, illat Elias has alTeady C01ne. Think not that 
IH
re is a co"ntradiction in His speech, if He first say that 
Elias shall CODle, and then that he is conle. For ,,'hen He 
says that Elias shall COlne and restore all things, lIe speaks 
of Elias hiInself in his o\vn proper person, \vho indeed shall 
restore aU things, in that he shall correct the un belief of the 
Aug. J e\Ys, \"ho shall then be to be found; and that is the turning 





"t. the hearts of the fathers to the children, that is, the hearts 
of the Je\vs to the Apostles. AUG. Or; lIe shnllreslo1"e all 
tldngs, that is those \vhorn the persecution of Antichrist 
shall have o\yerthro\vn; as He Himself should restore by 
His death those \yhOnl He ought. CHRYS. But if there shall 
so much good al'ise out of the presence of Elias, \vhy did 
He not send hin1 at that tinle? "T e shall say, Because they 
then held Christ to be Elias, and yet believed not on Hiln. 
But they shall })ereafter belie,re Elias, because \vhen he 
hall 
COlne after so great expectation announcing Jesus, they ,viII 
more readily receive \vhat shall be taught by I--lim. But 
'v hen He says that Elias is conle already, He calls John the 
Baptist Elias frOln the reselnblance of theil" nlinistry; for as 
Elias shall be the forerunner of His second cOIning, so ,vas 
John the forerunner of His first. And He calls John Elias, 
to shew that His first con1Íng \vas agreeable to the Old 
Testament, and to prophecy. JEROl\IE; He then \vho at 
t.he Saviour's second cOIning should COllle in the truth of 



VEn. 1.1- I 
. 


ST. 
1.\TTIlE\\.. 


· HUH 


] lis hody, COn1f" no\\" in ,John in po\\"cr and Spilit. It follows, 
.alnd illey kill)" "hll liot, bllt did Ulllo 'lil" '1l'lllllso('l'(Jr Ilu)y 
u.ould, that is, ùcspised and beheaded hin1. lIIL.\RY;-\.S 
he announced the Lord'
 cOIning, so he \va
 also to forcshcu. 
IIis passion hy the exaluple of his 0\\"11 sntlerin
 and "'rong ; 
\\.hence it follows, So also shall Ilu) Sou nf Jl(f II s'
/fe,. if 
t"LIII. CUR\
. lIe takes the opportunitJ' frOlll the pas
ion 
of John to rcfer to ITis own passion, thus gi\'ing thcln much 
COlnfort. JERO)IE; It is cnqull'cd ho\\", sceing that lIen)(1 
and Tlerodias \,"cre they that" killed John, it can he said that 
Jesus also \vas crucified hy thcnl ,,"hen \\ e read that IT e 
was put to death by the Scribes and l>harisccs? It must 1)0 
ans\\-ered bri('flJ, that the. part) of the Pharisces consentc(l 
to the (leath of John, and that in the J 
or<rs cnll
ifixion 
llerod unitcd his appro\ral, \"hcn ha,.ing mocked and set 
Hiln at nought, he sent Ililn back to Pilate, tl1at he should 
crucify lIiul. 11.\11.-\.:\. FrolH the 1nention of IIis own passion 
\vhich the Lord had often furetold to thelu, and frolll that 
of IIi
 forerunncr, ,,-hich they beheld already accolnplished, 
the disciples percch"ed that John was set forth to thellJ 
undcr the name of Elias; ".hence it follo\\"s; Then If nd(Jr- 
8too l the dis 'ipl(
s tlial lie spake to tILe-Ill l!.f Jolin tIle 
/lnplisf. OIUGE
; That TIe says uf John, Elias is alrntdy 
COlne, is not to be understood of the soul of Elias, that we 
fall not into the doctrine oflnctclnpsychosis, ,,"hieh is foreign to 
the truth of Church doctrine, but, as the Angel had foretold, 
he came ill tlte spiriland pOll"er of Elias. 


14. And when they "rere come to the IDultitude, 
there can1e to him a certain Inan, kneeling do\vn to 
]1Ïm, and saying, 
] 5. Lord, have mercy on Iny son: for he is Iunatick, 
and sore vexed: for ofttin1es he falleth into the fire, 
and oft into the \vater. 
1 ô. i\.nd I brought hinl to thy disciplcs, and they 
could not cure hin1. 
17. Then Jesus al1s\\.ered and said, 0 faithle

 
and perverse generation, ho\v long shall I be \vith 
VOL. I. 2 R 



610 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


you 
 how long shall I suffer you 
 bring hinl hither 
to me. 
18. And Jesus rebuked the devil; and he departed 
out of hilll: and the child was cured frolll that very 
hour. 


ORIGEN; Peter, anxious for such desirable life, and pre- 
ferring his o\vn benefit to that of lnany, had said, It is good 
for us to be here. But since charity seeks not her own, 
Jesus did not this \vhich seemed good to Peter, but de- 
scended to the multitude, as it \Vere from the high mount 
of His divinity, that He might be of use to such as could 
110t ascend because of the ,veakness of their souls; whence 
it is said, And when he was COJ7ze to fllp 'll11lltitude; for if 
He had not gone to the ulllltitude \vith His elect disciples, 
there would not haye COlne near to HÏ1n the man of \VhOlll 
it is added, There caIne to h i1n a 'lnan kneeling dOlOll, and 
saying, Lord, ha.ve 1uercy on 'IllY SOl1. Consider here, that 
sometimes those that are themsehTes the sufferers believe 
and entreat for their own healing, sometÎInes others for theIn, 
as he \\"ho kneels before Hill1 praying for his son, and S0111e- 
times the Saviour heals of I-limself unasked by any. First, 
let us see \vhat this Ineans that follo\vs, For he is lunatic, 
and sore rexed. Let the physicians talk as they list; for they 
think it no unclean spirit, but SOlne bodily disorder, and 
say, that the humours in the head are governed in their 
motions by sYlnpathy \"ith the phases of the moon, ,"Those 
light is of the nature of humours. But we \vho believe 
the Gospel say that it is an unclean spirit that \-vorks such 
disorders in n1en. The spirit observes the Inoon's changes, 
that it may cheat men into the belief that the moon is 
the cause of their sufferings, and so prov.e God's creation to 
be evil; as other dæmons lay ,yait for Inen following the times 
and courses of the stars, that they may speak \vickedness in 
high places, calling some stars ll1alignant, others benign; 
\vhereas no star \vas made by God that it should produce evil. 
In this that is added, For qfttÙnes he falls into tlte fire, and oft 
into tile u:ater, CHRYS. is to be noted, that were not man for- 
tified here by Providence, he would long since have perished; 
for the dælnon who cast him into the fire, and into the water, 



\'I-.H. ) I-lf,- 


ST. 
I.\TTJI E" . 


(ill 


\\ ould ha'.c killed him outright, had God not re
trained hint. 
JEIUJ
E; In saying, '"d I lJrollgld I,Ùn 10 Ihy tli.'\cijJh
.
, find 
llley could not ILeal ILÙll, he co,"crtly accuses the Ap05tle
, 
whereas that a curc is ilnpos
ible is 
olnctiIlles the effect not of 
\,"ant of power in those that undertake it, but of want of faith 
in those that are to be healed. CIIRY
. See herein al",o his 
foUy, in that Lcfore the multitude he appeals to Jesus against 
I I is disciples. Hut] I c clears thell. frolll ShalllC, illputin
 
their failure to the patient hinlself; for nlany things shc" 
that he \,"as \,"eak in faith. Uut lIe atl(lresses Ilis reproof not 
to the Iuan singly, that lI
 may not trouble hinI, but to the 
Jews in generaL For 111any of those present, it is likely, had 
Ïtnproper thoughts concerning the disciples, and therefore it 
follows, Jeslls ansll'ered all(l said, O.laitldess lllld perrersf' 
genet'alioll, l,ow 10llg sltal' I be u'it h YOll, hOIl) lOllg sILall I 
suffer YOll? IIi
 [lole long sILall I be "witll. YOll? she\vs that 
death was dcsired by IIiIn, and that lIe longed for IIis ".ith- 
drawal. RE
nG. It nlay be known also, that not now for the 
first tinlc, but of a long tillIe, the Lord had borne the Jews' 
stubbornnc"'s, whence lIe says, HOll' lOll!! shall I sl
tle,. you! 
bf'causc I ha'.c no\\ a long while endured your iniquities, 
and) e are unworthy of 'Iy presence. OnIGE
; Or; lJecausl
 
the disciples could not heal hiIll as ùeing weak in faith, I Ie 
said to theIn, O./åitld ISS generation, adding perren;e, to 
he\V 
that their pel"\
ersene
s had introduced evil beyond their 
naturc. But I suppose, that bccause of the pen-ersencss of 
the wholc hUInan race, as it wcre oppresscd with their e,i] 
nature, lIe' "aid, 1101' IU/lg ",ball I be IriU, YOIl? .r Enl)
IE ; 
K ot that we IHust think that lIe was o,'erCOllle by \Vearillcss 
of thcIn, and that The nleck and gentle bro]
e ont into \vords 
of \vrath, but as a physician who 1u!gl1t 
ee the sick Ulan 
acting against his injunctions, would say, IloVt long shaH I 
frequent your chamber? 110\\. long thro". a,vay the e
crcisp 
of 1HY skill, while I prcscribe one thing, and you do another? 
1'hat it is the sin, and not the lllan with WhOlll lIe i
 
angry, and that in the person of this one man TIe cOl1\'ictç; 
the Je\\"s of unbelief, is clear fr01H ,vhat lle adds, Bring !lillt 
to 'Inc. CB RYS. ''"hen He had ,"indicated lIis disciples, If e 
leads thè bo)"s father to a cheering hope of believing tJlat he 
shall be delivered out of this ('vi]; and that the father might 
2R2 



612 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


be led to believe the 111iracle that was coming, seeing the 
dælnon ,vas disturbed e,rcn when the child \vas only called; 
JEROl\IE; He rebuked lti1n, that is, not the sufferer, but the 
dæl110n. RE
nG. In which deed He left an exalnple to 
preachers to attack sins, but to assist Inen. J EROl\IE; Or, 
His reproof was to the child, because for his sins he had 
been seized on by the dæmon. 
RABA.
. The lunatic is figuratively one who is hUITied 
into fresh vices every hour, one ,vhile is cast into the fire, 
Hos.7, with which the hearts of the adulterers burn; or again 
4. 6. into the "raters of pleasures or lusts, \vhich yet have not 
Q Au g . strength to quench love. A UG. Or the fire pertains to 
uæst, .. 
Ev.Ì, 22. anger, wInch alnlS upwards, water to the lusts of the flesh. 
ORIGEN; Of the changefulness of the sinner it is said, The 
Ecclus. fool changes as tlte 'JnOOll. 'Ve may see sOlnetimes that an 
27, 12. . d 1 , 
Impulse towar s gOO( works COlnes over such, \vhen, 10. 
again as by a sudden seizure of a spirit they are laid hold 
of by their passions, and fall fronl that good state in which 
they ,"ere supposed to stand. Perhaps his father stands for 
the Angel to whom was allotted the care of this lunatic, 
praying the Physician of souls, that He ,voldd set fi'ee his 
son, \vho could not be delivered from his suffering by the 
simple \-vord of Christ's disciples, because as a deaf person 
he cannot receive their instruction, and therefore he needs 
Christ's \vord, that henceforth he may not act without reason. 
19. Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and 
said, Why could not \ve cast him out? 
20. And Jesus said unto them, Because of your 
unbelief: for verily I say unto you, If ye have faith 
as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this 
mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it 
shall remoye; and nothing shall be impossible unto 
you. 
21. Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer 
and fasting. 
CHRYS. '.rhe disciples had received froln the Lord the 
power over unclean spirits, and when they could not heal the 
dæll10niac thus brought to them, they seem to have had luis- 



VEU. 1!J-21. 


ST. :\IATTIIE\\P. 


(j I :3 


gi,;ngs le
t they had J()}-fcitcd th. grace once ,..ri\ en to the))) ; 
hence tllt'ir (luestiou. And they ask it apart, 110t out of 
shal11c, but Lccaus
 of the unspeakable Inatter of which 
they were tt) a
k. Je,çl s said unto tlte/It, lJ(
CllU.\L u..f ynur 
II 11 belÙ:.f. TIH..ARY; TIlt' A postle!'; had helic,.cd, yet their 
faith \vas Í1npcrfect; ,,'hile the Lord tarried in the Ulount, 
and they abode helow ,vith the nnlltitudc, their faith had 
beCOIlH' 
tab'lldllt. CIIRY
. "lICHee it is plain that tht
 dis- 
ciples' faith ,vas grown weal, Jet not all, fOf those pillars 
W 'fe... there, J}ctcr, and J 
unes, and John. J EHo:\n;; This is 
"rhat tlH
 Lord 
ays in another place, Jf7tat.fiìoerer ?/e s/'all Jolm 16, 
a.fiìk ill IllY JlllJlle belieriJlg, ye ,fiiltallreceiloe. 'rherefore ,,,hen 


t, 21, 
we recei'9c not, it i
 not th(' weakne
s of Ifinl that gÏ\.c
, bnt 22 . 
thl' fault of thenl that aSh. CURYS. Rut it is to be known, 
that, as ontjm
s the 1ilith of hinl that draweth near to rccei\"(.
 
supplics the luiraculous ,-irtue, so ofuiulcs thc power of tho
(' 
that "90rk the Hliraclc i
 
ufficient even ,,
ithout tIu' faith 
of those who sought (0 rl'cei,'c. Cornelius and his house- Acts 10, 
hold, ùJ thcir faith, attracted to thClll the grace of the IIoly 4. 
Spirit; but the dcad man who" as cast into the sepulchre 2 Kin
s 
of Elisha, \vas re,-ived soleI) hy virtue of thl
 holy hody. It 13, 21. 
happeIlcd that the disciples wcre then ".oak in faith; for 
indeed they ".cre hut in an illlperfcct condition before tlu> 
cross; whcrcfon' lIt' here tells theIn, that f;Üth is dlC luean 
of miracles, Terily I say UJlto you, !l ye shaUltalOe faitlt ((s 
grain of l1111stard-seed, ye shall say to tltÙ; 11Io11utail1, llenlore 
helice, alld it shall 1.enlure. J ERO:\IE; SOBIC think that the 
faith that i:; cOlllpared to a grain of nll1
tard-seed is a litt1e 
faiÙl, \,Ohereas the .-\postle says, .(f I shall haloe sllch/ititlt '!tall Cor. 
I could rent,ore 111011lllai".I;. 1ìH' f
lith therefore whieh i" 13, 2. 
conlparcd to a grain of nlustanl-8cf.d is a great faith. GREG. Greg. 
The mustard-seed, unlcss it hc hruised, docs not give out its l\lo f. r. 2 
pre .c. . 
qUð.litics, so if per
ecution fall npon a holy Ulau, 
traight".ay 
"hat had 
ePlncd weak and cOlltell1ptihh
 in hilll is rouseù 
into the heat and fen.our of ,irtue. OHIGE
; Or, all faith 
i
 likened to a grain of nlustard-
ccd, because faith is lookcd 
on \\;t11 contenlpt hy men, and 
hcws as sOlnething poor and 
l11ean; but when a I"eed of thig kina lights upon a good heart 
as its ",oil, it hCCOD1CS a great trce. l'hc weakness of this 
lunatic's faith is Jct so great, and Christ i
 so strong to hcal 



d14 


GOSPEL ACCOUDIXG TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


hiln all1Ïdst all his evils, that lIe likens it to a nlountain 
\vhich cannot be cast out but by the ,vhole faith of l1im who 
desires to heal afflictions of this sort. CHRYS. So He not 
only promises the removal of nlountains, but goes beyond, 
saying, And nothing shall be Ï1npossible to you. RABAN. For 
faith gh
es our 111Ïnds such a capacity for the heavenly gifts, 
that ,vhatsoever ,ve will "re may easily obtain from a faithful 
J\Iaster. CHRYS. If you shall ask, 'Vhere did the Apostles 
l'emove lnonntains? I ans\ver, that they did greater things, 
bringing many dead to life. It is told also of some saints, 
\vho canle after the ....\postles, that they have in urgent 
necessity reuloved lllountains b. But if nlountains were not 
removed in t:\1e Apostles' tilne, this was 110t because they 
could not, but because they wOlùd not, there being no pressing 
occasion. And the Lord said not that they should do this 
thing, but that they should have power to do it. Yet it 

s likely that they did do this, but that it is not written, for 
indeed not _ all the miracles that they wrought are written. 
J ERO::\IE ; Or; the 1110untail1 is not said of that which we see 
with the eyes of the body, but signifi
d that spirit which ,vas 
relTIoyed br the Lord out of the lunatic, who is said by the 

j.loss: Propl)et to be the corrupter of the \\'1)01e earth. GLOSS. So 
mterhn. h h 1 . V 7 il h . . h t . 
t at t e sense t len IS, .I. e Still sa!! to t lS l1lolultaln, t a IS 
to the proud devil, Renlove hence, that is froln the possessed 
body into the sea, that is into the depths of hell, and it shall 
'l"el710Ve, and nothing shall be Ï1npossible to you, that is, no 
Aug. sickness shall be incurable. AUG. Otherwise; That the 
ubi 
up. d . . I . ki h . . I h uld b 1 . r. d 
ISClp es In \vor T ng t eU" rnlrac es s 0 not e 11Ìe up 
,,"ith pride, they are ,yarned }.ather by the humbleness of their 
faith, as by a grain of lnustard-seed, to take care that they 
remo'"e all pride of earth, which is signified by the mountain 
in this place. R_-\BA.
. But while fIe teaches the Apostles 
110W the dæmon ought to he cast out, lIe instrl.lcts all in 


b St. Augu
tine says,that he had neyer ii. p. 982.) Pope Gregory, Dial. i. 7. 
read or heard of a mountain being trans- calls it a rock, or even a mountain. H
 
ported into the 8ea by faith. Sp. et mentions it while relating the like mira- 
Jit. n. 62. St, Chrysostom appears to de in the history of St. Benedict. In 
refer to t.he occurrence recorded in t.he volcanic countries, changes in monDtain
 
history of Gregory of N eo-Cæsarea, and rivers occur even from natural 
called Thaumaturgus, A,D. 2ûO, whose causes, much more might prayer cause 
miracles are reported t.o us by his name- them, Rut St. Augustine's remark 
sake of Nyssa. Ny
sen, howeyer, fihew
 that there is very little evidence 

peaks only of his moving a 
tone, (\'01. for the fact. 



\'Ell. :!2, :?3. 


ST. 'L\TTB F\\ . 


Ul5 


regulation of lite; that we Inay all kllO\\' that aU the heavier 
intliction
, whether.)f unclcan 
pirits, or tCluptatiollfS ot' nH'n, 
11la
 he r(,1I10'l'd hy Ül
ts and prayers; and that the \\Tdth 
also of the Lonl lnay he appeased hy this rellH'dy alone; 
,vhcllce he adds, llou'úeit tllis kind is not cast out !Jut !Jy 
praYl r Oill/ ..(ru;tiIlY. Cnuys. \ncl this 11<<. :o...lYS not of 
luuatics in particular, but of the "'hole class of dæJllOns. For 
fast endues with great \\pisdom, Inakcs a luan as an Angel fÌoln 
}lea\PCn, an<l l)cat:s don n the nnSCf'n po\V'ers of evil. nut 
there is need of prayer as e,'pIl 
tiU Illore ilnportant. .And 
'who prays as he ought, and fasts, had necd of litùe I))Ore, and 
so i
 not CU\'ctous, but ready to alnu;gÏ\-ing. For he \,,110 
Íïlsts, is light and active, and prays wakefully, and <luenches 
his cvillusts, lllakes God propitious, and humbles his proud 
stolllach. And he who prays with his fasting, has two 
".jugs, lighter than the \vinds thcIll
eh C:-'. For he is not 
heél\'y and wandering iu his prayers, (as is the case \"ith 
luany,) hut hi
 zeal i
 as thc warnlth of fire, and his COll- 
stanl'Y as lhl' finnne
s uf the earth. Such an one i
 mo:"t 
able to contcnd with d:'
'lllOUS, for then) is nothing Inore 
powerful lhan a Iuan who prays propcrly. But if your 
heallh lJc too 'weak for strict fast, yet is it not for prayer, 
and if yon cannot f
lst, you can ahstain fruln indulgcnces. 
And this is not a little, and not '"cry difierCllt ii"om 
L'lst. OnIGE
; If then we shall C\Pcr be required to be 
l'lnplo
'e<l ill the healing uf those who arp sufTering any thing 
of this sort, we shall not at\jure thelll, nor ash. them questions, 
nor e\'en 
peak, as though the unclean spirit could hear us, 
hut hy uur Ül
ting and our prayers dri\'c a""ay the cvil spirits. 
Gr.oss. (Jr; 1ì1Ïs class of d:'CIllOllS, that is the \ê.lriety of canlal Gloss. 
pleaslues, is not overcome unless tile spirit be strengthened ord. 
hy prayer, and the flesh cufccbl..d by fast. ltE
IIG. Or, 
làsting is here understuod generally as ah:,tinence not frolll 
food only, but Üom all canl:'Ù allnrelnents, and sinful pa
- 
SiOll:o,. In like lllauuer prayer is to be understood in general 
a
 c()nsi
ting in pious and good act
, concerning which the 
A postle 
pt 'akl'o., PJ'a y wit !tOil t ceasing. 1 Thess. 
5, t 7. 
2
. \nd \vhile they abode in Galilee, Jesus said 
unto thcIU, 'rhe Son of HUHl shall be bctrayed into 
the hands of IneH. 



616 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


23. And they shall kin him, and the third day 
he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding 
sorry. 
RE
IIG. The Lord often foretold to His disciples the mys- 
teries of IIis passion, in order that \vhen they come to pass, 
they might be the lighter to them froin having been known 
beforehand. ORIGEN; This seems to be so like a warning 
lIe had given above, that a man n1Ìght easily say that the 
Lord now repeated \vhat lIe had said Lefore; yet is it not so; 
He had 110t before said that lIe must be betrayed, but we 
hear now not only that lIe must be betrayed, but that 
JIe must be betrayed into tile 'lands of1nen. The Son of
Ian 
Rom. s, indeed \vas delivered up by God the Father according to the 
32. Apostle, but different po\vers gave hin} up into the hands of 
D1en. J ERO
IE; Thus does He ever mix the joyful and the 
grievous; if it grieves the!11 that He is to be put to death, 
they ought to be gladdened "Then they hear, And shall rise 
again tlie third day. CHRYS. For this is no long time that 
He speaks of continuing in death, when lIe says that He 
shall rise again on the third day. ORIGEN; By this an- 
nouncement of the Lord the disciples were made very 
sorrowful, not attending to that He sairl, Aud shall 'rise 
again the third day, nor considering \vhat He must be to 
WhOI11 the space of three days was enough to destroy death. 
JEROME; That they were thus lllade exceeding SOlìO,vful, 
caIne not of their lack of faith; but out of their love of their 
Master they could not endure to hear of any hurt or indignity 
for Ifin). 


24. And when they were come to Capernaum, they 
that received tribute Inoney CalTIe to Peter, and said, 
Doth not your master pay tribute? 
25. He saith, Yes. And when he was come into 
the house, Jesus prevented hin), saying, 'Vhat thinkest 
thou, Sinlon? of whom do the kings of the earth 
take custom or tribute 1 of their own children, or of 
strangers? 
26
 Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith 
unto him, Then are the children free. 



\'F H. :! 1-
7. 


s r. \1..\.TTllEW'. 


()17 


27. Not\\"ithstanding, lest \ve should offend them, 
go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up 
tbe fish that first cometh up; and \vhen thou hast 
opcned his lnouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: 
that take, and give unto them for me anll thee. 


G LO

. 'j'he disciples \\'ere e
ceeding sorro\\ ful when thcJ Gloss. 
hcard uf the Lord's passion, and therefore that none n1Íght non occ. 
ascribe 11 is sutlering to c()Jllpulsion, anù not to a voluntary 
su1)lni
:iion, he adds an incident which instances Christ's 
po"cr, alld Ilis 
uLnlÏ
sion; Illd 'Ic}, they l Jre com to 
('t//JlJrll(lIlJJI, there ('(I1IU1 10 ]Jeter those 'U'l,o receÏt'cd tI,e 
tlidrflcll1Jla, alld sa.d lito Iihn, DotlL /lot your lIasler pay 
tlte didracll1na? I hL.\R\ ; The Lord is caned upon to pay 
the didrac]llna, (that is, two denarii,) for this the La" had 
enjoined upon all l
rael for the rcdcHlption of their body 
and 
oul, and th(' us," ûf those th3t ser,.ed in the temple. 
CnRYs. For ,,,hen God slcn the firsthorn of Egypt, lIe 
then accepteù the tribe of Le,"i for them. But bccause the Numb. 
nUlnber
 of this trihe were Jess than the nUluber of firstborn 3, 44. 
anlong the Jews, it Was ordained that redt.nlPtion 1l10ncy 
8hotÙd be paid for the nUlIlbcr Ùlat came 
hort; and thence 
sprang the cnstoln of paying thi:, tax. Because th..en Christ 
\\"a:-, a firsthon1 
on, dud Petcr sceulcd to be the first aluong 
the disciplcs, tbey came to him. And as it sccnlS to tIle 
this ".as not deInanded in cvery district, they COlne to Christ 
in Capcnlaum, because that was considered II is nativC' place. 
J EHo
n:; Or othl'r,,'ise; Frolll the time of .Augustu
 Cæsar 
Judæa was luadc tributary, and all the inhabitants ,verc 
regi
tered, as Joseph \\'ith 
Iary his 1.inswolllall gave in fli:--. 
nalllC at Bcthlehl'lu. .Again, hccau"e the Lord \\'as hrought 
up at N a7arcth, which is a to\\'11 of Galilee subject to Caper- 
naUlll, it i
 there that the tribut
 i
 asked of IIiJu; but for 
that ] Ii:-, JlIÏraclcs ".cre so great those who collected it did 
not (lare to ash lliIllseIf, but Inakc up to Ùle disciple. 
CUH\ s. t\.nd hin1 the) address not ".ith boldnes:-., but cour- 
teonsly; for they du not arraib'll, but ask a question, DolII 
/l0/ your lIfl.
ter pay tI,e clidrac}l1Jla? JEUOME; Or, l.ney 
enquire with lualicious purpo
c whether lIe pays tribute, or 
r('sist
 Cæsar's \\ ill. CHRYS, '\11at then docs Peter 
ay? 



018 


GOSl'EL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XVII. 


He sait}., ITea. To these then he said that lIe did pay, but 
to Christ he said not so, blushing perhaps to speak of such 
Gloss. Inatters. GLOSS. Otherwise; Peter answered, Yea; meaning, 
ap, An- H 1 A d P . h 
selm. yea, e (oes not pay. n eter sought to acquaInt t e 
Lord that the Herodians had delnanded tribute, but the 
Lord prevented hinI; as it folIo\vs, And u'hen he had entered 
into the Ilouse, Jesus prevented hi1n, saying, Of whom do the 
kings qf the earth receive C'llstOJn or tribute, (i. e. head- 
1110ncy,) qf the'll' children, or of strangers.2 JEROl\IE; Before 
any hint froln Peter, the Lord puts the question to hin1, that 
His disciples might not be offended at the demand of tribute, 
,vhcn they see that He kno,Ys even those things that are done 
in IIis absence. It follows, But he said, Froln strangers; 
Jesus said unto hÙn, Then are the childrenfree. ORIGE
; 
This speech has a Í\yofold meaning. First, that the children 
of the kings of the earth are free \vith the kings of the earth; 
but strangers, foreigners in the land, are not free, because of 
those that oppress them, as the Egyptians did the children 
of Israel. The second sense is; foraslnuch as there be some 
,vho are strangers to the sons of the kings of the earth, and 
are yet sons of God, therefore it is they that abide in the 
\vords of Jesus; these are free, for they have known the truth, 
and the truth has set thenI free fronl the ser\Tice of sin: but 
John 8, the sons of the kings of the earth are not free; for u,!loso 
34. doth sin, he is the SeJTant of sin. JERO::\IE; But our Lord 
was the son of the king, both according to the flesh, and 
according to the Spirit; whether as sprnng of the seed of 
David, or as the "r ord of the Ahnighty Father; therefore as 
Aug. the king's son lIe o,ved no tribute. ACG. For, saith He, in 





.3. every kingdonl the cl1ildren are free, that is, not under tax. 
l\luch lllore therefore should they be free in any earthly 
kingdoln, ,vho are children of that yery king-doln under which 
are all the kingdoms of the earth. CHRYS. B.ut this instance 
"Tere brought to no purpose if lIe \vere not a son. But some 
one Inay say, He is son indeed, but not an O\\Tn son. But then 
He ,vere a stranger; and so this instance \voldd not apply; for 
He speaks only of o\vn sons, distinct from \vho111 lIe calls 
them strangers "Tho are actual1y born of parents. l\Iark ho\v 
here also Christ certifies that relationship \vhich was revealed 
to Peter frolu God, Thou art Ghrist, the Son of the living 
God. J ERO:\iE; IIowsoc\Tcr free then lIe ,vas, yet seeing He 



'ElL 
 I-
i . 


sr. 
I.\TTII E\\ . 


lu 


hat} tal<.'11 to I linl lowline
s uf the flesh, lie oUl-{ht to thltil all 
rig-htcotlsIles
; whencf' it t(-,11o\\ s, Bul Ilull IIt:y 
h()llld /lut be 
(1f
Jld 
d, go tf tIle sen. Ol
J(.iEN; \Ve luay hellce gather a!i 
n. COIl
e(pl('nc' of this, that ,,"hen any cOlne \vith justice 
deulalldillg our carthl
 go()(ls, it is the lings of the earth that 
scud thCIll, to claim of us what is their O'''D; and l)y IIis own 
l'xalnpI' the l.JÛrd torhids any offence to be given c\"cn to 
thesl', "hl'thl'l" that they :-.hunhl 
ill no nlore, or that the) 
shouhl be 
a\-l'(l. For the Son of God, ,,"ho did JlO 
cn"i1e 
work, yct as ha\-ing the tonn of a 
Ia'"e, which lIe took on 
]] iUl for ulan's 
akl', ga'"c CU'\tOTl1 alld tribute. J EHU:\(f;; rani 
at a loss what first to adJlIÎre ill tbi", pas....age; whether the 
forclllowlcdgc, or the nIighty pon-pr of the 
a,"iour. IIiö 
fort'knowledg-e, in that lIt. knc". that a fish had a stater in 
its 1l10tlth, and that that fish should he the first taken; Ilis 
Inighty power, if the stater ""ere crcat
d in the tish's IH01Üh 
at T lis "ord, and if hy TIis cOllllnalld that n hieh \,.as to 
happen ""as ordered. Chri
t then, for llis clniucllt 10' e, 
endured the cross, and paid tribute; how wrctchcd \\"0 who are 
called h
 the nalOC of Christ, though we do nothing ,vorthJ 
of so great dignity, Jet in respect of I lis Inajesty, pay no 
trihute, hut are cxelllpt fr01H tax as the I
ing's sons. 13ut 
even in it;:) literal iUlport it edifie
 the hcarer to learn, that 
o 
great was the Lord's ]>o,.crt,}", that lIe had not ".hence to pay 
the tribute for I Iilnself and IIis Apostle. Should any object 
that J uda
 hore InOne) in a bag, "pc 
ban answ'er, J esu
 held 
it a fraud to di'.crt that which \'"as the poor's to I lis 0\\ n 
use, and left us an exaulple therein. CHRYS. Or lIe does 
110t dir 'ct it to be paid out fA' that they had at hand, that 
II,"" I1light she". that TIc ""as Lord also of the 
('a and the 
fish. c; I.os
. ()r hl'cause .Jesus had not any iUlage of Cæsar, GIo..:;. 
(for the prince of this world ba(1 nothing in II iln,) therefore non occ. 
] J e furnished an image of C:csar, Hot out of tbcir own 
tocl, 
but out of the 
ca. llut II e takc
 Hot the 
tatcr into llis O\\"n 
possession, that thcre should 11 ""cr be fonnd an image of 
(\
"'<lr upon the IUlage of the iuvisiblt' God. CIIR\ s. ()bser\"e 
also the wis(loul of Christ; 11 
 llC'ithcr rl'fllse
 the tribute, 110r 
l11erely 
onllnan(ls that it b. paid; hut first pro\"c
 that lIe 
is of right eXCHlpt, and th(,11 bids to g-i,.c the 1110ncy; the 
Inone)" wa
 pai(1 to a\ oid otlènce to the collcctors; the ,"indi- 
eation of I lis ex-cll1ption '\"as to a'"oid the offence to the 



620 GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO ST. MATTHE\V. CHAP. XYII. 


disciples. Indeed in another place He disregards the offence 
. 
of the Pharisees, in disputing of meats; teachinK us herein 
to know the seasons in \v hich we must attend to, and those 
in \vhich we must slight the thoughts of, those who are 1ike 
Greg. in to be scandalized. GREG. For we must cast about how, 
Ezech r. . h . . d . . d I 
7.4. · as lar as \ve may ,vIt out SIn, to avol giVIng scan a to our 
. neighbours. But if offence is taken from truth, it is better 
that offence should come, though truth be forsaken. CHRYS. 
As you \vonder at Christ's power, so admire Peter's faith, 
\vho \vas obedient in no easy matter. In reward of his 
faith he was joined ,,,ith his Lord in the paYlnent. An 
abundant honour! TllOli shalt find a sfate1', ii/at lake and 
Glos
. give 'Lento tllem for thee and .for me. GLOSS. For by custom 
=
.:-n- every several man paid a didrachma for hÍ1nself; now a 
stater is equal to two didrachlnas. 
ORIGEN; Mystïcally; In the :field of comfort, (for so 
is Capernaum expounded,) He comforts each one of His 
disciples, and pronounces him to be a son and free, and 
gives him the power of taking the fil'st fish, that after His 
ascension Peter Inay have conlfort over that which he 
has caught. HILARY; 'Vhen Peter is instructed to take 
the first fish, it is shewn thel"ein that he shall catch 
more than one. The blessed first martyr Stephen ".as 
the first that came up, having in his Inouth a stater, which 
contained the didrachma of the new preaching, divided. a
 
two denarii, for he preached as he beheld in his passion 
the glory of God, and Christ the Lord. J ERO:\IE ; Or; 
That fish 'which was first taken is the first Adam, \vho is 
set tree by the second Adam; and that \vhich is found 
in his mouth, that is, in his confession, is given for Peter 
and for the Lord. ORIGEN; And when you see any miser 
rebuked by SOlne Peter ,vho takes the speech of his Inoney 
out of his mouth, you may say that he is risen out of the sea 
of covetousness to the hook of reason, and is caught and 
saved by some Peter, \\"ho has taught him the truth, that he 
should change his stater for the Ï1nage of God, that is for 
the oracles of God. J EROl\IE; And beautifuUy is this very stater 
given for the tribute'; but it is di\'ided; for Peter as for a sinner 
a ransonl is to be paid, but the Lord had not sin. Yet herein 
is shew'n the likeness of their flesh, when the Lord and His 
servants are redeemed with the same price. 



ClIAP. XVIII. 


1. At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, 
saying, \\'ho is the greatest in the kingdoln of 
hca ycn ? 
2. And Jesus called a little child unto hiln, and set 
hilu in the midst of them, 
3. And said, Veri]y 1 say unto you, Except ye be 
converted, and become as little children, ye shall not 
enter into the kingdom of heaven. 
1. "Thosoever therefore shall humble himself as 
this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom 
of heaven. 
5. And "h050 shall receive one such little child in 
my name rcceiveth me. 
û. But \,"h080 shall offend one of these little ones 
\vhich beÌieve in me, it \vere better for him that a 
nlÏllstone \vere hanged about his neck, and that he 
\vere dro\vned in the depth of the sea. 


J EHO:\lF.; 'rhe disciples seeing one piece of nloney paid 
both for Peter a.nd the I-,ord, conceived froln tJ}is equality of 
ran
onl that l>ctcr "'"as preferred before an the rest of the 
Apo
tlcs. CHR\"
. 'rhu
 they suffered a hUlnan passion, 
\vhich the Evangelist denotes by 
aying, At the 8allil' tÙne 
C(/1JU
 tIle di:sciples to .Je:su8, saying, 117iO, u'e jJ}"flY thee, is 
II e greal 
st ill the kiugdoJ 1., qf hearC1z? Ashalned to 
he\v 
the feeling ,,-hich \vas working within, they do not say 
openly, \\ hy ha\-e you honoured Pctcr above us? but they 
ask in general, \\Yho is the greatest? "Then in the trans- 
figuration they sa\v three distinguished, llalnely, Petcr, James, 



622 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XVIII. 


anrl John, they had no such feeling, but no\v that one is 
singled out fot especial honour, then they are grie\
ed. But do 
you remember, first, that it was nothing in this \vorld that 
they sought; and, secondly, that they after"rards laid aside 
this feeling? E\7en their failings are above us, whose enquiry 
is not, 'Vho is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven? but, 
'Vho is greatest in the kingdom of the ,vodd? OIUGEN; 
IIerein ".e ought to be in1Îtators of the disciples, that \vhen 
any question of doubt arises among us, and \ve find not how 
to settle it, we should \vith one consent go to Jesus, 'Vho 
is able to enlighten the hearts of llleh to the explication 
of e\Tery perplexity. 'Ve shall also consult some of the 
doctors, \vho are thought most eminent in the Churches. 
But in that they asked this question, the disciples kne\v that 
there \vas not an equality among the saints in the kingdom 
of hea\.en; "That they yet sought to learn was, how they \vere 
so, and lived as greater and less. Or, froin what the Lord 
had said abo\Te, they kne\v \vho \vas the best and \vho \Vas great; 
but out of many great, who \vas the greatest, this \,"as not 
clear to them. J ERO:\IE ; Jesus seeing their thoughts would 
heal their alnbitious strivings, by arousiug an elnulation in 
lo".liness; whence it follo\ys) And Jesus calling a little child, 
set hÙn in the midst if tlleln. CHRYS. He chose, I suppose, 
quite an infant, de\70id of any of the passions. JEROME; 
One \vhose tender age should express to then1 the innocence 
which they should have. But truly He set IIimself in the 
Mat.20, midst of them, a little one ,vho had COlne 110t to be 'lninÙ;tered 
28. 'Unto, but to 'lninister, that He n1ight be a pattern of holiness. 
vid. qri- Others interpret the little one of the Holy Spirit, wholn He 
f:c
. In set in the hearts of His disciples, to change their pride into 
humility, And he said, Verily I say unto yO'll, Except ye be 
conver ted, and become as little children, ye s/tall not enter 
into the kingdon
 Q/ Ileaven. He does not enj oin on the 
.A.postles the age, but the innocence of infants, which they 
have by virtue of their years, but to \vhich these luight attain 
by strhTing; that they should be children in malice, not in 
understanding. As though He had said, As this child, whom 
I set before you as a pattern, is not obstinate in anger, when 
injured does not bear it in mind, has no eluotioll at the sight 
of a fair woman, does not think one thing while he speaks 



\TER. 1-6. 


ST. M.\TTU E\\ . 


()2:j 


another; 80 ye) unless} c have the like innocence and purity 
of u1Ïuù, shall not he ahlp to enter iuto the killgÙOlll of 
heavcn. llIL.\l
\'; lIe calls illf<.u}ts all who belicvc tluough 
tIlt' hearing of fitith; 1(H' such follow thcir fatlH'r, love thcir 
Inother, kllO\\
 not to \\"in that ,vhich i
 c\'il, do n(,t bcar hate, 
or speak lies, trust \\That is tolù theIn, and 1,elicYl' what 
th(,y hcar tu lw truc. But the lettcr is thus interpreteù. 
(;LOSS. E.rClïJt ye be cU/lrerlerl from this alnLition and Gloss. 
. 1 . } ' 1 11 II f interlin. 
Jea ousy III W He 1 yon arc at present, ant )('colne a 0 you 
as innocent and hUlllhlt. in disposition as you arc weak in 
JOIU" years, ye shall Jl{)! enter into the kingdom (ú lu!at'en; 
and Eince there is nOH(\ other road to cntcr ill, u'hnso s}lllll 
/tu nble hilllself as this little clâld, the sal/le is greatest 'in 
the kingdonl Q/ Ilearen; for by how luuch a Ulau is hllluble 
now, by so luuch shall he he exalted in the kingdolll of 
heaYen. R E:\IIG. In the understanding of grace, or in eccle- 
siastical dignity, or at least ill e,'erlasting blessedncss. 
J ERO:\IE; Or otherwise; JVllOSO shall IlU1JlÚle IlÙllse{f as tllis 
little child, that is, ,,-ho
o shall lnunblt' l1imsclf after l\Iy 
cXtuuple, be slutll ellter into the kiJlgdullt QJ' hea'cen. It 
follows, And u'ltoSO receireth one such little one in 1ny 
nanle, receivetlt 'JJle. CHRY
. K ot only if yc be
onle such 
yourl;\clves, ùut a]"o if for '1)" sake you shall pa) honour to 
other such, yu receive re\\'ard; and as the retnrn for the 
honour you pa) t]Wl11, I entail upon 
 ou the kil1gdolU. II e 
puts indced what is far greater, lleceiceth 'Jne. JERO
lE; For 
,,-hoe\'er is such that he Í1nitates Christ's lnunility and 
innocencf', Clni:,t is reechoed ùy hi}}}; and ùy way of caution, 
that the Apostles 
hould not thin1., when such are COlne to 
theIn, that it is to thelnSelyes that the honour is paid, lie 
adds, that they arc to be rccehred not for their 0\\']1 desert, but 
in honour of their 'laster. Clllty:,\. And to nlake thi
 ,,'ord 
the rather recei\"cd, I fl, suhj oins a penalty in what follows, 
Jrhoso nffendeth une qf these littlt? Olles, 9'c. as though He 
had said, _\'; those who for ....'ly sake honour one of these, 
have their re"
ard, so they \v ho dishonour 
hall undergo thp 
cxtreln
 punis11111ent. .And lualTel not that lIe calls an evil 
,\'ord an offcnce, for Ulan) of feeble spirit are offended by only 
being despised. JERO)IE; Obscn-c that he \\"hu is offended 
is a little one, for the greatl'r hearts do not take offences, 



624 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP,ÀYIII. 


And though it lllay be a general declaration against all who 
scandalize any, yet fron1 the connection of the discourse it 
may be said specially to the ...ð,. postles; for in asking who 
should be greatest in the kingdom of heaven, they seenled to 
be contending for preen1Ïnence among themsehres; and if 
they had persisted in this fault, they might have scandalized 
those \vhom they called to the faith, seeing the Apostles con- 
tending among themselves for the preference. ORIGEN; But 
how can he who has been converted, and become as a little 
child, be yet liable to be scandalized? This lliay be thus 
explained. Ey"ery one \v ho believes on the Son of God, and 
'\\-alks after evangelic acts, is converted and "Talks as a little 
child; but he "rho is not converted that he may beconle as a 
child, it is impossible that he should enter into the kingdo111 
of heaven. But in every congregation of believers, there are 
some only ne\vly converted that they lllay becon1e as little 
children, but not yet Inade such; these are the little ones in 
Christ, and these are they that receive offence. JERO::\IE; 
'Vhen it is said, It is better f01. ltinl that a rnill-stone be 
llanged about ltis neck, He speaks according to the custOIll 
of the province; for among the Jews this ,vas the punishnlent 
of the greatet criminals, to drown them by a stone tied to 
them. It is better for him, because it is far better to receive 
a brief punishment for a fault, than to be reselTed for eternal 
torments. CHRYS. To correspond ,vith the foregoing, He 
should have said here, Receiveth not Me, which "Tere bitterer 
than any punishment; but becauEe they,vere dun, and the 
before-named punishlnent did not move them, by a fan1Ìliar 
instance He shews that punishu1ent a"raited then1; for II e 
therefore says, it u"ere better .toJ" llirn, because another n10re 
grievous punishment awaits hinl. 
HILARY; 1\1 ystically ; The work of the mill is a toil of 
blindness, for the beasts having their eyes closed are driven 
round in a circle, and under the type of an ass we often 
find the Gentiles figured, who are held in the ignorance of 
blind labour; while the Je\vs have the path of kno\vledge 
set before them in the La\v, ,vho if they offend Christ's 
Apostles it were better for them, that haring their necks 
made fast to a mill-stone, they should be drowned in the 
sea, that is, kept under labour and in the depths of ignorance, 
as the Gentiles; for it w'ere better for them that they should 



\ JUt. 7-9. 


ST. 'L\TTllEW. 


t;2t.) 


ha\ C' ne\'cr kuown Christ, than nut to ha\re received the Lord 
of the Prophet
, G HEGüHY; Otherwise; \Vhat is denoted by Greg. 
the sea, ùut the ""01"1(1, and what by the IHill-
tone, lJut 


r. vi. 
earthly action? which, ,,-hen it Lind
 the neck in the )Toke of 
,"ain desires, sends it to .t dull round of toil. There arc :-'Olne 
\vho leave ea.rthly action, and ùend thelHsch cs to aiHls of 
contC1nplation beyond the reach of intellect, laying aside 
Inunility, and so not only throw themseh cs intu error, but also 
cast Inany weak ones out of the hOSOln of truth. \\Thoso then 
ofli'l1ds one of the least of nlÍne, it ""ere better for hiln that a 
utill-stunr' he ticd abuut his neck, anù he be cast into the sea; 
that is, it '''"ere bcttl'r for a pelTerted heart to be cntirely 
occupicd \vith ,,"orldly business, than to be at leisure for 
contelnplative studies to the hurt of ulany. AUG. Other\visc; Aug. 
JVJlOSO offendetlt one of Ihese little ones, that is so hUlnble as 



4. 
lIe would ha,.e his disciples to be, by not obeying, or by 
()pposing, (as the ...\ postle says of .\lexander,) it llYJre befler 2 Tim. 
for hhn f!tat a ulill-slvue should be llr("!l ed alJollt !tis nee!..., 4, 15. 
and lie be dJ'Oll'Jled in tile depths f!( the sell, that is, it \vere 
better for hiln that desire of the things of the world, to which 
the blind and foolish are tied down, ShOlÙÙ f\ink hilll by its 
load to destruction. 


7. \V oe unto the ,vorld because of offences! for it 
must nceds be that offences come; but \voe to that 
man by ,vhom the offence cometh. 
8. "Therefore if thy hand or thy foot offend thec, 
cut them oft and cast them from thce: it is bcttcr 
for thee to enter into lifc halt or lnaimcd, rather than 
having t\\"o hands or t,,"o feet to be cast into ever- 
lasting fire. 
9. .And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and 
cast it from thce: it is bettcr for thce to entcr into 
life \vith onc eye, rather than having t\VO cyes to he 
cast into hcll fire. 


G LOSS. The l.ord had said, that it i
 better for him" ho Gloss. 
gÍ\.es offence, that a Inill-stone be hanged ahout his l1Pck, ofnono('
. 
which lIe now 
uhjoins tht, rca
on, JJ Toe unto tlU J 1l"orldfrolJl 
VOl., I. 2 
 



626 


GOSPEL ACCOUDING TO 


CHAI}. XVIII. 


offe J1ces ! i. e. because of offences. ORIG EN; ï'his \ve Inay 
understand not of the 111aterial e1enlcnts of the \yorlel; but 
here the Ineu who are in the \vorld, are called the \vorld a. 
But Christ's disciples are not of this \vorld, whence there 
cannot be \voe to theln fronl offences; for though there be 
many offences, they do not touch him ,,"ho is not of this 
"Torld. But if he be yet of this \vorld in loving the \vorld, 
and the things in it, as nlany offences will seize him as 
those by which he was ellcolnpassed in the \yorld. It fol.. 
Chrys. lo\vs, For it fJlllSi 1lee(ls be that q,ffeJlces COllle. CHRYS. This 
f!x
mo does not sub\"ert the liberty of the \vill, or ilnpose a necessity 
of any act, but foreshe\vs \vhat lUust con1e to pass. Offences 
are hindrances in the l o ight \vay. But Christ's prophecy 
does not bring in the offences, for it is not done because He 
foretold it, but lIe foretold it because it \vas certainly to 
come to pass. But SOlne one \vill say, If all luen are 
recovercd, and if there be none to bring the offences, \viII 
not His speech be convicted of falsehood? By no means; 
for seeing that n1C11 \vere incuraùle, IT e therefore said, It 
llllfSt needs be thaf q,ffel1ces CO/He; that is, they surely "Till 
COlne; \vhich He ne\'er \voldd have said, if allinen n1ight be 
Gloss. amended. GLOSS. Or thC'y I/lUst needs conle because they 
] I 'nt c erlin. arc necessary, that is, useful, that by this mean they that a1 0 e 
or. 
11, 19. llpprOl"ed 'JJlay bp 'lnade 1Jlall
fe.gt. CHRYS. For offences 
rouse men, and luake thCIU Inore attentive; and he \vho 
falls by theln speedily rises again, and is n10re careful. 
HILARY; Or; The lo\vliness of IIis passion is the scandal 
of the ,,
orld, \vhich refused to recei\Te the Lord of eternal 
glory under the disgrace of the Cross. ...\.nd \vhat more 
dangerous for the world than to ha\Te r
jected Christ? And 
He says that offences must needs come, forasn1uch as in the 
sacrament of restoring to us eternal life, all lo\vliness of 
suffering \vas to be fulfilled in Hilu. ORIG EN; Or; The 
scandals tl1at are to COIne are the Angels of Satan. But do 
not look that these offences should she\v then1selves in a 

ubstantial or natural shape, for in SOlU
 the freedon1 of the 
will has been t.he origin of offence, not liking to undergo 
toil for virtue's sake. But there cannot be real good, without 
the opposition of evil. It nUlst needs be then that offences 


. i. e. Mllndus-whereas the word commonly used in this sense is secuilim. 



\'En. 7-9. 


Sf. M.\TTUF". 


H27 


C0I11C', as it tllust necùs be that \VC f'nC01111tf'r t1IC C\ il assau1tF. 
of 
pirit11al pon ûrs; whose ]Jatred is the Inore stirred up, as 
Christ's worù iu,'a<1illg Incn (lri\ ('
 out the evil influences froln 
thCln. ...\nd they seck in
tnunents h,r ",honl the offences 
tnay tho rather \vork; and to such instnunents is Ulore \voe; 
for hill} who gi\'cs, it shall be \vorse than for hin1 \\'110 takes, 
the offence, as it follows, But u'oe unto tlLat Ulan /Jy 1rl'01JZ 
III '!/fl'lIcec()1l1cfh. JERO)IE; As much as to say, \Voe to that 
Ulan tluongh whose fault it conIes to pass, that offences 111Ust 
needs he in the \yorlel. And under this general declaration, 
.J ndas is particularly condeInncd, \\"ho had made ready his 
soul for the act of hetrayal. IIILARY; Or; lly the Iuan is 
denoted the Jewish people, as the introducers of all this 
olll\l1Ce that is about Christ's passion; for they brought upon 
the \yorld all the danger of denying 
hrist in lIis passion, of 
\vhom the La\v and the Prophcts had prcached that lIe 
f'hould snf1cr. CHRYS. TIut that you may learn that there 
is no absolute necessit) for offences, hear \vbat foIlo\ys, If 
illY hand or ilty foot offend tllee, 
.c. This is not said of 
the 1itnbs of the body, but of friends \,'IIOnl \VC esteclll as 
limbs necessary to us; for nothing is so hurtful as e,.il COln- 
tnunications." RAßAX. Scandal (offence) is a Greek word, 
\\'hich \ve lua}" call a sbl1nbling-block, or a fall, or }1ÏUing of 
the foot. lIe then scandalizes his brother, who by \\yord or 
deed amiss givcs hinl occasion of falling. JERO)IE; So al1 
affection, our whole kindred, arc sC\"ered fronl us; lest undcr 
co"cr of duty any believer should be exposed to offencc. If, 
lIe safs, he be united to thee as close as is thf hand, or 
foot, or eye, and is uspful to thee, an
ious and quick to 
di,cenl, and 'yet cau
s thee offence, and is by the UUlueet.. 
ncs
 of his beha,'iour drawing thee into hen; it is bettcr for 
thee that thou lack his kindred, and his profitableness to 
thec, than that whilst thou seekest to gain tl1)" kindred or 
friend
, thou shouldcst have cau
e of J
lllings. For c\cry 
1,clieycr knows what is doing hilTI hann, what troubles and 
tl'lnpts hitn, for it is better to lead a solitary life, than to lose' 
ctcnlal life, in order to ha,y(' the things neCeS
al) for this 
pr('
('nt life. OHIGE
; Or, The pricsts nHl} with gOOl} reason 
h(' callcd the ('yes of thl' Church, 
illce thC}9 are con
idcrcd 
he)" watelnnl'H 
 hut t]}(' {h'aCOH
 and tht' rl'
t her halld
, fOT 

 
 -2 



628 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. ÀVIII. 


by them spiritual deeds are wrought; the people are the feet 
of the body, the Church; and all these it behoves not to 
spare, if they become an offence to the Church. Or, by the 
offending hand is understood an act of the mind; a motion of 
the Inind is the offending foot, and a vision of the nlind is 
the sinning eye, which we ought to cut off if they give 
offence, for thus the acts of the limbs are often put in Scrip- 
ture for the litnbs themsehTes. 


10. Take heed that ye despise not one of these 
little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their 
angels do always behold the face of my Father which 
is in heaven. 
11. For the Son of man is come to save that 
which was lost. 
12. How think ye? if a man have an hundred 
sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not 
leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the moun- 
tains, and seeketh that which is gone astray 
 
13. And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto 
you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the 
ninety and nine which \vent not astray. 
14. Even so it is not the will of your Father ,vhich is 
in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish. 


J EROl\IE; The Lord had said, under the type of hand, 
foot, and eye, that all kin and connection which could afford 
scandal must be cut off: The harshness of this declaration 
He accordingly tempers with the following precept, saying, 
Take lteed that ye despise llot one qf these little ones; Î. e. 
As far as you may avoid despising them, but next to your 
own salvation seek also to heal them. But if ye see that 
they hold to their sins, it is better that ye be saved, than 
that ye perish in much cOlnpany. CHRYS. Or otherwise; 
As to shun the evil, so to honour the good, has great recom- 
pense. Aboye then II e had bid thcln to cut off the fri
nd- 
ships of those that ga,Te offence, here He teaches them to 
Glos A s. shew honour and scrvice to the saints. GLOSS. Or otherwise; 
ape n- 
selm. 



VElte 10-14 


ST. 
IATl'IU'':'\. 


G29 


Because so great evils cOlue of ùrethren Leing scalldaJizcd, 
Take 'll ed Ilull ye despise not ont of these lilile 0lles. 
OIUGE:\; 1'he lilll" OJ/()!\ arc those that are hut lately born in 
Christ, or those \vho abide \vithout aù\'ance, as though lately 
Lonl. nut Christ judged it needless to give comlnand con- 
cerning not ùefo'pi
iug the Illorc perfect believers, but con- 
cerning the little ones, as lIe haJ said aùove, If allY mall, 
shall offend olle oj" t!tese little one,'). ..\. man Inay perhaps 
say that a little one here lllcans a pcrfcct Christian, according 
to that lIe sa}'s elsewhere, Jf ltoBo is least al1l0llg you, Ite Luke 9, 
sllall hi' great. CURYS. Or because the perfcct are estecIIled 4B. 
of nuulY as little ones, as poor, nanlcly, and despicable. 
OIUGE
; But this exposition does not seeID to agree with 
that which was said, If allY one .
Callclllbzes one '!lthese 
lillie Diles; for the perfect man is not scandalized, nor does 
he perish. But he who thinks this the true exposition, says, 
that the Inind of 3 righteous n13n is ,ariable, and is SOlnetÍ1nes 
offended, but not easily. GLOSS. Thercfore are they not to Gloss. 
be despised for that they are so dear to God, that Angels are :
.m
n- 
deputed to be their guardians; For I sayuJllo you, t/tat ill 
heat'eu, tlteir Angels do allDays beltohltlle face of 'illY Fatlter 
u-/ticll i.') ill Ileaz:ell. ORIGEX; SOlllC \vill have it that an 
Angel is gÏ\"cn as tin attendant nlinistcr fronl the tin1e \vhen 
in thc laycr of regeneration the infant is born in Christ; for, 
say they, it is incredible that a holy,A.ngel \vatches over those 
who are unbclieving and in error, but in his time of unbelief 
and sin nUlll is unùer the Angels of Satan. Others \,"ill have 
it, that those \vho are foreknown of God, havc straightwa) from 
thcir very birth a guardian Angel. J ERO:\fE; IIigh dignity 
of souls, that each frOID its birth has an _\ngel set in charge 
over it! CHRYS. 11ere lIe is speaking not of any Angels, but 
of the higher sort; for ,,"hen (lp says, Bel101d tile ..face oj" IllY 
Father, lIe shews that their presence before God is frce and 
open, and their honour great. GUF.G. nut Dionysius saJs, that Greg. 
it is fronl the ranks of the '1css('r Angels that thesc are sent to 

.m31
 
perform this ministry, either visibly or invisibly, for that tho
e 12. 
.higher ranks ha\re not the etnplo} ruent of au outward ministry. 
I D. ..\.nd therefore the Angcls always behold the face of the Greg... 
Fatl ' 1 t tl 1'. b .. I :\lor. 11. 
1('1, 31H yc l(,} COlllC to US; lOr y a Splntua prcsence 3, 
the). COIllC forth to U
, and yet by int<.'nlal contcluplatiun 



6;:10 


GOSPEL \VCOUDI:\O TO 


CHAP. XVIII. 


keep thelllscl \'CS there whence t11ey come forth; for they cülne 
not so forth froln the divine vision, as to }]inder the joys of 
inward contemplation. IIILARY; The Angels offer daily to 
God the prayers of those that are to be saved by Christ; it 
is therefore perilous to despise hinl whose desires and 
requests are conveyed to the eternal and invisible God, by 

,ug. d,e the service and ministry of Angels. AUG. Or; They are 
(;lv.Del, all d A h . d d d 
xxii. 29. C e our ngels "T 0 are In ee the Angels of Go ; they 
are Gods because they have not forsaken Hin1; they are 
ours because they have begun to have us for their fëllo\Y- 
citizens. As they now behold God, so shall we also behold 
JJohn3, Hin1 face to face, of \vhich vision John speaks, rVe shall see 
2. 'iÙn as he is. For by the face of God is to be understood 
the manifestation of Hilllself, not a lnember or feature of the 
body, such as \ve call by that nalne. CHRYS. He gÍ\res yet 
another reason ,veightier than the foregoing, why the little 
ones are not to be despised, For tlte S011 of l1Ian is C01Jle to 
save tltat 'lDlticll 'loas losl. RE
nG. A s much as to say, 
Despise not little ones, for I also for men condescended to 
become man. By lliat u71âclt U'llS lost, understand the 
hlllnan race; for all the elelnents have kept their place, but 
Inan ,vas lost, because he has broken his ordained place. 
CHRYS. And to this reasoning He adds a parable, in ,vhic}} 
He sets forth the Father as seeking the salvation of men, 
and saying, What think YO'll, If a 'lnan ltat'e a hundred 
Greg. sheep. GREG. This refers to the Creator of nlan Hitnself; 


.m. in for a hundred is a perfect nnn1ber, and If e had a hundred 
xxxiv.3. sheep \vhen He created the substance of Angels and men. 
HILARY; But by the one sheep is to be understood one man, 
and under this one luan is comprehended the \vhole human 
race. He that seeks lnan is Christ, and the ninety and nine 
G
eg. are the host of the heavenly glory ,vhich He left. GREG. 
ubI sup. The Evangelist says they were left on tile mOltlltail1S, to 
signify that the sheep which \vere not lost abode on high. 
Bede BEDE; The Lord found the sheep \vhen He restored man, 
:


n- and over that sheep that is found there is lllore joy in hea\Ten 
than over the ninety and nine, because there is a greateI 
Inatter for thanksgiving to God in the restoration of luan 
than in the ("reation of the Angels. "T onderfulIy arc the 
Angels mad(', but more \vonùelfully Juan restored. RAnAN. 



VER 1 ()- J 4. 


ST. 1\1-\1'1' II E'" . 


Hal 


Notl', that llilll' wants only onc to lnake it ten, and ninct) 
and nine the sa.lne to he a hundred. Thus IlICln1Jcrs \\'hich 
",.ant 011(' only to be perfect, IULlY he larger or smaHer, but 
)'et tllC unit rCll1ainilJg invariablc, \\,hen it is added lUakCS tbe 
rest perfect. .Aud that the llulllLer of shccp IHight he Jnade 
up perfect in hca\'cn, lost man \vas sOl1ght on earth. J EHO
fF.; 
Otllcrs thin1. that Ly t1)c nincty and nine gheep arc under- 
stood the IHuuLer of the righteous, and by the onc sheep the 
sinners, according to that said in anoÙlcr place, I lllli no/lUatt.9, 
, 1.' G 13. 
C011l 
 Lv call L1u, rlgltleolls uul SLJll1erS 10 1.epeJltltllce. HEG. Greg. 
,\T e Hllist con
ider \\'hence it is that the Lord declares that ubi sup. 
lle has joy rather o\'cr tbe cOIl\'erted sinners, than oyer the 
righteous that 
tand. Because these last are often slotl)ful 
and slack to practi
e the grcater good würks, as being \T('ry 
secure ".ithin thclllselves, for that they hav'c C01l1111ittcd none 
of the llcavier sins. ""'hile on the other hand tho
e ,\"110 
ba\.e their \\ icked deeds to renlclnher, do often through the 
compunction of sorrow glo\v ,vith the D)OrC heat in their love 
of God, antI ,,"hen they think ho\y they Ila' e strayed fronl 
Him, they replace their formcr 10sf'cS by gains follo\ving. 
So the general in a battle loves best that soldier who turns 
in his flight and couragcously presses the cnelllY, than him 
who ne"cr turned his Lack, Jet ncvcr did auy \.alorous dced. 
Y ct there be some righteous over whonl is joy so great, tha.t 
no pcnitcnt can be prcfcn'ed before thenl, those, \\ 110 though 
not conscious to thenlseh"es of sins, yet reject things la\vful, 
and hUlnblc thcn1
eh es in aU things. I-Io\v great is the joy 
when the righteous JUoums, and humbles hinlself, if there be 
joy \vhcn the unrighteous cOndClnllS hiln
clf wherein he has 
done alui
s? 13EBE r; Or; l
) the ninety-nine 
hccp, \\.hich DeJc 
lIe lcft on the lllowltaius, arc siguificd the proud to \\"hom :
.IJ
n- 
a unit i!-. still wanting for perfection. 'Vhen then I I e has 
founù the sinner, lie rejoices o'"er hi})), that is, IJ C 111akcs his 
O\Vll to njoicc Q\'er hinl, ra.ther than o'.cr the fal
e righteous. 
JEROME; 'Vhat fol1o\\'s, El:l!1l ð(J it i.') /lot Ilu' icill, 
.<-'. is to 
be rcfcncd to what was 
aiù abovc, Take lleed Ilull ye de,f
pi,"e 
/lot ()Jll
 0 . lli'se rUle ones; and so lIe shc\\"s that this 
l>arable "'as sel forth tu enforce that saBlC t-ïaying. -\1::;0 in 
f These h\o pa."sagl's, to \\hich the selm's' Enarrationes,' and the latter 
name of BClle is prcfixCd in all the may perhaps be originally clcri\l'd frum 
edition.., ha\c bcen sougbt for ill Heile Aug. Qu..cst. E\. ii. 32. 
..... ithout 
U'..;cc

. fhl')" OCCUl in An- 



632 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XV Ill. 


saying, It is not the u.:ill of l1lY Fathelr wllÍch is in "ell'veJl, 
that one of these lillle olles should pel"ish, lIe shews that so 
oft as one of thesc little ones does perish, it is not by the 
Father's win that it perishes. 


15. Moreover if thy brother shall trespass against 
thee", go and tell him his fault between thee and him 
alone: if he shall hear thee", thou hast gained thy 
brother. 
16. But if he \vill not hear thee", tIlen take \vith 
thee one or t\VO In ore, that in the mouth of two or 
three witnesses every \vord may be established. 
17. And if he shall neglect to hear them", tell it 
unto the Church: but if he neglect to hear the 
Church, let him be unto thee as an heathen man 
and a Publican. 


Chrys. CURYS. Having above given a severe sentence against 
Hom.lx. those w'ho \ycre the cause of offence, ulaking then1 to fear on 
all sides; so now that they to \VhOnl the offence is offered 
should 110t fall into the . opposite fault of supineness and 
indifference, seeking to spare thelnselves in all things, and so 
be puffed up; the Lord here checks such a tendency, com- 
Inanding that they be l'cpro\"ed, sa}ing, If illY broilier s/lall 
11"espass against tllee, go, tell hÍ1n Ids .fault betzceen Illee and 
Aug. lâlJl alone. AUG. Our Lord adlllonishes us not to overlook 
Serm. 
8 l one another's faults, vet not so as seekin o O' for matter of blaIne, 
2. . J 
but watching what you nlay anlend. For our rebul{e should 
be in love, not eager to \vound, but anxious to alnend. If 
you pass it by, you are become \vorse than he. He by doing 
you a \"fong hath done himself a great hurt; you slight your 
brother's wound, and are more to blame for your silence than 
A
g. d
 he for his ill \\?ords to you. ID. For often we \vrongly 


:Del, shun to teach and adlnol1ish, or to rebuke and check the 
wicked, either because the task is irksome, or because we 
\vould escape their enluity, lest they s}lotdd harm or obstruct 
us in temporal things, \vhether in gaining objects \ve desire, 
or in holding \vhat OUI" frailty fcars to love. But if anyone 
spares reproof of evil doers, because he seeks fitter occasion, 
or fcars to Inake them ,vorsc, or that they Ina)' be an impcdi- 



VJ..H, 15-17. 



T. 'f.\TTH.E'V. 


633 


Jllellt to tlu' good .uHI pions living of othcr weak ones, 01" 
Ula) gric\ c thl'ln, or turn thelll fr0111 the fait11; herein there 
i
 :'l'CIl 110 con
idcrations uf cU,.ctulL"uess, hut the prudenco 
of charit)'. .And llluch weightier reason ha\.c thcy who d.re 
set u"er the churches, to thp end thl'Y shoultl not "'pare to 
rchlll,c 
il1; though not C"CIl he is free fn)}n this blanlc, who, 
though 110t in authority, ,vot
 of nlany thing
 in thcTn to 
WhOlll he is hound h) the tics of t11is life, which shonhl be 
touched by adnlonitioll or corrcction, but neglects to do so; 

hullning their di:-.plca
urc on account uf thing:-; which hp 
docs 110t UIl<lul} use in this life, but whl'rewith he is unduly 
tlelighted. CUllYS. [t is to be noted, that ollcwhile thc J Jord 
Lriugs the offender to hiln WIUHIl hl' ha
 offended; as wIlcn 
lIe sars, .I./' tltou re1J/(
J/lber I hllt / II!! brol her "a,t; ought 'lat. 
agaillsl Illee, go, b 
 reco/lciled to t II!! bra/Iter: otherwhiles lIe 5,23. 
Lids hill} that has 
nffl'red the wrong to torgh.c his llcighbour; 
as ,,-here he says, Forgit'e liS all}' debts, as Ire also for!JÙ.e !\fat. 
our debtors. Jlcre lIe has de\'Ísed )"ct another luethod, fi)r lIe G, ]:1. 
brings hint \vho has been gricyed to hiul that grif'ved hiln, and 
therefore "ay
, J./ illY brotlter sin agaillst !Itee; for because 
he that Jid the wrong would not rcaJily come to make anI(
nds, 
be('au
c of his 
hallll', TIe draws to hinJ hint that has suffered 
the wrong; and not only draws him therc, but with the ,"crr 
purpose of con'ccting what was done aU1iss; whence lIe sa)Ts, 
Go fllld tell hin/, lti.ç Jltillt. ItuJA:S. lIe does not cOH1malld 
u:-; to lor!,rÏ'-c iudi:5crirnillately, but hiul only that will hearken 
and 1,,: ohediell t, ana do penitencc; that 11l:ithcr should for- 
b"in.'lll'
s he ullattainahle, nor sutlerallce be too far relaxed. 
CUltys. And Ill' says not, Accuse hinI, 11or, Chide with hint, 
nor, ])l'I1talld rcdre
s,-but, Tell ItÙn f!.f his ..ftlull; that is, 
rClllind hilll of his sin, tell hÏ1u what things you h
l\'c sufIered 
ii'orn hiut. For he is held ùown hy anger or b) shanle, 
stupefied a
 unc in a ùeep slull1ber. "Yhcref()rc it heho\ cS 
)"O\l "ho an' in your right 
ensl':-; to go to him \\ ho is in a 
disease. J .EROlI E; If thl'1l )"our brother ha\Tc 
illlled against 
you, or hurt you in any nlatter, rou havc power, indeed 1l1Ust 
lll'ctl:-. f()rbrÏYC hill1, fin' we are eharg('(l lo forgi'T our dcbtor
 
thl'ir delJt:'\. Hut if a tHall sill against Gnd, it is nu longer in 
our decisioll. But \\ e do an tIlt' contrary of this; whelc God 
i
 "rongc( I "l' are llll'rciful, where the aflhnll is to olu
ch'cs 



03J 


GOSPEL ACCORDIl\G TO 


CHAP. XVIII. 


we prosecute the quarrel. CHRYS. \V c are to tell his fault 
to the Ulan hiIllself who did it, and not to another, because 
the party takes it with the 1110re pati0nce frolH hinl, and 
above all when they are together alone. For when he who 
had a right to demand reparatiou, shews rather a carefulness 
Aug. to heal the sore, this has great po\ver to propitiate. AUG. 
Senne 
2 8 'Vhen an y one therefore offends a g ainst us, let us be very 
8, . 
careful, not for ourselves, for it is glorious to forget an injury; 
forget therefore your own wrong, but not the wound your 
brother has sustained; and tell him of his fault between hinl 
and you alone, seeláng his alnelldulent and sparing his shalue. 
For it Inay be that out of shame he will seek to defend his 
falùt, and thus you will only harden, while you sought to do 
him good. J ERO:\IE; Thy brother is to be reproved in pri- 
vate, lest if once he has lost a sense of shalue, he sholùd con- 
Aug. tinue in sin. AUG. But the Apostle says, Tlteln that sin 
ubi 
up. rebuke bif01'e all, that oiltel'S 'Inay fear to do tlte li/..c. SOllle- 
1 TIm. . l' b 1 . I h 
5, 20. tlme
 thereloro your rot leI' IS to be spo {ell to between t ee 
and him alone, sometinIes to be rebuked before all. \Vhat 
you Innst do first, attend and leanl; lj. t]"y brolher, says He, 
sin against t!tee, telllti'ln oj. ltis fault bet'lf;een thee and him 
alone. 'Vhy? Because he has sinned against you? \Vhat 
is it that he has sinned against you ? You know that he has 
sinned, and therefore since his sin was in prÍ\
ate, let your 
rebuke be in private too. For if you alone know of his 
trespass, and proceed to rebuke hinl before all, you do not 
COlTect but betray hilll. 1" our brother has sinned against you; 
if you alone kno,v thereof, then he has sinned against you only; 
but if he did you a wrong in the presence of 111 any , then he 
has sinned against those also who were witnesses of his fault. 
Those faults then are tu be reLuked before all, that are 
cOllllnitted before all; those which are done in priyate, aloe to 
be rebuked in pIivate. Discern tÍ1nes, and the Scriptures 
are consistent. But why do JOU correct Jour neighbour? 
Because his trespass ha
 hurt your
clf? I?ar be it frolll 
thee. If you do it froln self-Io,-e, JOU do nought; if you do 
it froln love of hint, you do 1nost rightly. Lastly, in what JOu 
shall say to hiln, keep in view for whose sake it is that you ought 
to do it, for your O\Yll or for his, for it follows, ljolle Ileal" tllee, 
t/tOlt Ilast gained illY broilte',.; do it therefore for his 
akc, 



VElte 13-17, 


S1. 
I.\ TT If I:" . 


(j
5 


that ) on Iuay gain ltilll, And do you <,:ollfess that by 
 our 
sin against lllan you" ere lost; for if you ,vcre not lost, how 
bas he gaincd you? l,et nonc tIU'Il 1l1al..c light of it when he 
sill
 against 1lis ùrother. CHIns. III this it is ]Jlatlc plai1l 
that t'1l1nitics are a loss to both sides; for he 
aiù 11ot, he 
113" gained hÏ1llse1f
 but, you ha Vp gained hinl; \\ hich shews 
that both of you 1lad suffered loss by Jour ùisagrecllJcuL 
J EHO:\lE; For ill saving another, sah"ation is gained for our- 
sch-c::; also. CUHYS. "That .you sllould do if he (loes llOt 
yield is added, {lite 'lrill 1Iot !tear 'liee, lake 'Ii.illl llice Due 
OJ I wo. For the Inore shaulelcss and stuhborn he S11C""8 
hilllsclf; the Inore sluùious ShOlÙd we be of applJing the 
lllediciuc, and not turn tu ".rath and hate. _\s the pll)"sician, if 
hc see that the diseasc does not ahatc, hl" does not slack, buf 
rcdouùlcs his eflln1s to heaL And ob
cn"e ho\\" this reproof 
i
 not for rcvenge, but for correction, seeing his cOlnInand is 
not to take two with hinl at first, but whell he ,vould not 
alllcnd; and c,-ell then he docs not send a 111ultitude to hinl, 
but one ur t\\"O, alleging the law, 17,at ill lite IIIOIi/1t of /""0 Dent. 
,. I I TI ' . 1 19 15 
01" t" ree Il'llue,f"se." el.ery 1('01'f 111(( Y stlllll . liS IS t )at you ' · 
Inay ha\'c witnesses that JOU have done all ).our part. 
JEROl\lE; Or it is to IJC understood in thið \\
ay; If he wiU 
not hear thee, take ,,'ith thee one broÙll
r only; if be yet will 
not hear, ta]\:e a third, either frolH your zeal for his alnend- 
., 
ment, that sha111e or a(hnonition Inay 1I10ve hil}); or for the 
purpose of ulccting hefore witne
"es. G LOSS. Or, that if he Gloss. 
fl ' I .. } I h . h ap An. 
a lrIll t lat It IS no trcs I )asR, t lat t lev n1aV } Jrovc to 1111 t at I . 
. 'J se m. 
it is a trc
pass. JERO)IE; If yet h(' willllot hear thcIll, then 
it Inust ùe tolù to lliany, that he Inay be held in abhorrcnce; 
so that he who could not be f.\ayed by l1Ïs own 
Cllse of 
shame, IHay he 
a\"cd 1)
 pllùlic di
gracc; ,,"hl'nCe it foHows, 
.{f he will "(Jf hear lit 'Ill, I JIl it 10 Ihp (,'11111'("/,. CnRYs. 
'"rhat is, to those that arc over the Church. r"; LO
S. Or, tcll GI{)
s. 
it to the whole Chllr
h, that his infal})v Illar ùe the g rèatcr. a
 l ' An- 
. . Sc Ill, 
Aftcr all these thing
 follows l'xco1111nunication, wllich ought 
to be inflicted bv t1)(
 ]11outh of th
 Church that is Inr thl' 
. , , J 
Priest, aud when he l'XColll1uu])icat('
, tlu' wholc Church 
\\'orks \\ith hilll; as it f'l.l1nws, 
'lId 
(1,,
 will 1101 IU'flr the 
(1Itu}"("h, lei hÏ1Jl be UJlto lIu.'[ (/.4; all IIlJalliell, flll ill publicall. Aug. 
\ . '" f ' } ' 1 I ' 1 . 
crm 

 t G, lal I
) f('gar<. lUll no onger Jß the nUJubpr of thy 82, 7: 



63G 


GOSPEL ACCORDING Tu 


CHAP. XVIII. 


brethren. Though even thus \ve are not to neglect his salva- 
tion; for the heathens theulselves, that is, the gentiles and 
pagans, we do not indeed regard in the nun1ber of our 
brethren, Jet \ye ever seek their salvation. CHHYS. Yet the 
Lord e
joins nothing of this sort to be observed towards 
those \vho are \yithout the Church, such as lIe does in 
Mat. reproving a brother. Of those that are without He says, If 
õ, 39. 
any sl/lite thee 0# tlie one cheek, offer to hint lite olher also. 
1 Cor. 5, as Paul speaks, TVIlll1 have J to do to judge t!lent t/tat are 
12. willtoul? nut brethren he bids us reprove, and turn a\vay 
{ron1. JI<:RO:\lE; rrhat He says, As a heathen and a pub- 
lican, shews that he is to be more abhorred, \vho under the 
name of a believer does the deeds of an unbeliever, than 
those that are openly gentiles. Those He calls publicans, 
,vho pursue worldly gain, and levy contributions by trading, 
cheating, and villainous frauds, and peljuries. ORIGEN; Let 
us look well \vhether this precept exte11ds to all sin; for 
what if anyone sin any ot those sins which are unto death, 
such as unnatural crimes, adultery, hOlnicide, or effeminacy, 
it cannot be meant that such as these are to be admonished 
privately, and if he hear you, forth\vith to say that you have 
gained him. And not rather first put him out of the Church, 
or only when remaining obstinate after nlonition before wit- 
nesses, and by the Church? One man, looking at the infinite 
nlercy of Christ, will say, that since the \vords of Christ make no 
distinction of sins, it is to go against Christ's nlercy to limit 
His words only to little sins. Another, on the other hand, con- 
sidering the words carefullJ, \"ill aver, that they are not spoken 
of every sin; for that he that is guilty of those great sins is not a 
brother, but is called a brother, with \vhom, according to the 
Apostle, we ought not so much as to eat. But as they \vho 
expound this as referring to every sin give encouragelnent to 
the careless to sin; so, on the other hand, he, \\?ho teaches 
that one having sinned in little sins and such as are not 
deadly, is, \vhen he has spurned the adnlonition of the \vit- 
nesses and the Church, to be held as a heathen and a pub- 
lican, seelns to introduce too great severity. For whether 
he finally perishes, we are not able to decide. First, because 
he \vho has been thrice told of his fault and not hearkened, 
luay hearken the fourth tilue ; secondly, because sometimes 



VEH.. lti-2U. 


ST. 'fATTHE\\. 


(,a7 


a luan òocs not reccivc according to his lll'eds, but beyond 
his trespa

, \vhich is good l()r hiln in this world; lastly, 
Lccau
e lIe said not alone, Lcl hÙn be as II lienthen, but 
Let I,ÙIl be to lltrc. 'Vho::;oc,-er then when rcpro,'e<1 thre(' 
tilncs in a light trespass, docs not anlcnd, hilll wc ought to 
hold fcn. a heathcn and a publican, 
f\?oiding hiln, that hl
 
luay he brought to confusion. But whether he is esteelned 
of Gud al
o a
 a heathen and a publican, is not ours to 
decide, hut is in tht' jndgJl1ent of God. 


] 8. Verily I say unto you, "Thatsoever ye shaH 
bind on earth shall be bound in heaven: and \vhat- 
soever ye shall loose on earth shall be loosed in 
heaven. 
19. Again I say unto you, That if t\VO of you shall 
agree on earth as touching any thing that they shall 
ask, it shall be done for then1 of Iny Father \vhich is 
in heaven. 
20. For \vhere t\VO or three are gathered together 
in my name, there am I in the midst of them. 


JERO:\IE; Decause lIe had said, {f he u'ill not I,ear tIle 
C"UJ'C}" Ie! J,ÙIl bp tu !lIee as a lieathen, and a publican, 
,vhcreupoll the brother so contelnncd might ans\\'cr, or think 
\vithin himsclf, If you despise IDC, I also ,,,in despise you; 
if you condclun 1I1C) you f'hall be condclnned hy Iny sentence. 
lIe thcrefore confers p()\ycrs upon the Apostles, that they 
IDa}" be assured that ,,,hen any are condenu1cd after this 
Inanner, the 
cntence uf lnan is ratified by the sentence of 
God. rerily I say 'Unto you, If hals( ere,. ye shall bind on carl!" 
.
liall be bound in Ilearen; llnd 'Il:habwel:er ye sl,allioose upon 
the earth ,
lt(tll bp loosed in ',eavell. ORIGEN; 11(-. said not 
in the hca'.cu
 (ill cælis), as w}1cn lIe 
poke to Pct
r, but in 
heavcn (in cælo), for thcy are not yct attaincd to the like 
perfection \vith Peter. IIILARY; To hold out a. great and 
terrible fear, by \"hich all tHcn should be reached in this 
pre
cnt life, lIe pronounces that the judgulcnt of the _\postlcs 
should be ratified, !--o that who
(Jc'.cr they bound on earth, 



638 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XVIII. 


i. c. left entangled in the noose of sin, and \vhosoever tIley 
loosed, i. e. accorded the pardon of God's 111crcy to their 
salvation, that these should be Lonnd and loosed in heaven. 
, g'eOí
eð' CIIRYS. A.nd be it noted, that He SairlllOt to the Pril11ate. of 
tIle Church, Bind such a Inan; but, If ye shall bind him, the 
bonds shall be indissoluble; leaving the other to his dis- 
cretion. And see ho\v I J c has set the incorrigible person 
under the yoke of a t\\ of old necessity; to wit, the pnnish- 
l11ent that is here, namely, the casting forth out of the Church, 
\vhen He said, Let ltiJn be to thee as a heatlten; and the 
future punishlnent, saying, that h
 shan be bound in heaven; 
thus by the \veight of his penalties lessening his brotIler's 
A'
g. wrath against him. AUG. Otherwise; 'Vhen yon begin to 
ubI sup, . 
hold your brother as a publIcan you bind him on earth, but 
take heed that you bind him ,vith just cause; for an unjust 
cause breaks rightful bonds. But \vhen JOu l1ave cOITected 
him, and agreed ,vith him, you have loosed hÏ1n upon earth, 
and ,vhen you have loosed hirn upon earth, he shall be loosed 
also in heaven. You confer a great boon not on yourself, 
but on him, as he had done the hurt not to you but to him- 
Gloss. self. GLOSS. But He holds out a ratification not only of 
:
.m
n- sentences of excomnlunication, but of every petition which 
is offered by men holding together in the unity of the Church; 
for lIe adds, Again I sa,lj unto YOlf, that if [ZDO 0/ you shall 
agree 'Upon ea1-th, \vhether in adnlitting a penitent, or casting 
out a fro\vard person, touclling al1,Y tiling u'hic/t they shall ask, 
any tIling, that is, that is not against the unity of the Church, 
it sliall be done Lfo1. thel1l by 111Y Faihe1. which is in heaven. 
By saying, 'lo"ic/z. is in "earen, He points HiIn out as above 
all, and therefore able to fulfil all that shall be asked of 
HÏ1n. Or, I-Ie is in the heavens, that is, ,vith saints, proof 
enough that whatever \vorthy thing they shall ask shall be 
<<one unto them, because they have with theln [I.im of ".hom 
they ask. For this cause is the sentence of those t11at agree 
together ratified, because God d \vells in then1, For 'loltere 
two 01. three a1.e [lathered tvgetlte1. Ùz ruy nauze, tlle1"e (un I 
ill the nlÏdst if theut. CHRYS. Or, because He had said, 
It shall be done unto theln by My Father; therefore, to she\v 
that He is the Gi\Ter together ".ith His Father, lie adds this, 
1clle1"e lu'o 01" 1111'ee, 
'c. ()nIGEN; And lIe said not, Ill'ill 



\'F.TI. 2], 22. 


ST. 
IATTIlE\\'. 


u3U 


be, hut I (tin in fIll' lIzids/ '!.( il'Plll; bccan
(' 
traighhvay, 
as soon as they ha'"c agrecd togcth('r, Christ i
 found 
1l11011
 
thenl. J hLARY; ..For lIe ,,"lIo is peace and chality, will set 
Ilis place and llabitation in good and peaceable dispositions. 
J EltO'lL; ()r otherwise; 
 \ 11 T lis foregoing discourse had 
itl\"itcd n
 to union; no\v to luake us embrace peace lllore 
anxiously, lIe holds out a rcward, pr01nising to be in the 
n1Ïdst of two or three. CUHYS. '- ct lIe said not harely, 
H/u. r they are gallterecllogellter, but added, ill 11lY 11( me, 
as nutch as to say, If any man look upon l\le as the chief 
moti\"c of hi
 lovc to his u('ighour, 1 will he ,,"ith hi1n, thong}) 
his virtue be 
llcwn towards other InCH. 110\\" is it then 
that tbo
e who tInIS agrc
 tog(,ther do not obtain what they 
ask for? First, because they ask things nol expedient, and 
Lecau
l' they do not bring on their part
 that which they 
ought to cOlltIihutp; ,,"hercforc lIe says, Ij'( if () qf you, that 
is, who shew an cvangelic cou'"crsatiol1. Thirdly, because 
they pray seeking vcngeance against those \vho hR\Te gricved 
thcIn. .And fourthly, ùecan
e thcy Reek Jncrcy for sinncrs 
,,'ho havc not rppcntcd. ORIGEN; 
t\lld this also is the 
Tcason \\"h)" our prayers are not granted, bccan
e \VC ùO not 
agree togcther in an things upon earth, neithcr in doctrine, 
nor in con\"ersation. For as in Inusic, unless the ,"oiccs are 
in tilllC there is no plcasure to the hearer, so in the Church, 
unless they are united God is not pleased therein, nor does 
lIe hear their words. 
.TEno
n;:; "T e Inay also understand this 
piritua11y; where vid,. 
. . } d b d . I h OrJgen. 
our SpInt, sou, an 0 y arc In agrcement, au< a,"c 110t illloc. 
within them conflicting ,,,ins, they shall ohtain fro 111 
Iy 
Fatllcr C\"Cl'
 tIling the) 
han ask; for none can doubt that 
that dClnand is good, ,vhere the body wills the 
alne thing as 
tllC spirit. OUIGEX; Or, In ,,'hatcver the 1\\"0 testaments are in 
agrcclllcnt, for this every praY(,T i
 found acccptahlc to God. 


21. rrhcn canle Peter to hill], and said, I
ord, 
ho\v oft sha1l nlY brother sin against me, and I forgive 
him? till seycn tin1cs ? 
22. Jesus saith unto hitn, I say not unto thee, Until 
seven tiInes: hut, Until seventy times seven. 



6-10 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. X\ III. 


JERO
IE; TIle J-Jord hail said above, See llllli ye despise 
'/IOt oue of illese liUZe ones, and 11ad added, If t lty b1"olller sin 
o.qaillst thee, &c, making also a promise, If tu'o 0/ you, &c. 
by which the Apostle Peter \\Tas led to ask, Lord, how qft 
shall 1ny brol her sin against 'JJze, and I forgive him? And 
to his question he adds an opinion, Uutil se
'e1t tÙnes? 
Chrys. CHRYS. Peter thought that he had made a large allo\vance ; 
Horn. but \vhat answers Christ the Lover of men? it follo\vs, Jeslls 
lxi. 
saitlt unto IIÍ1Jl, I say '1101 unto t/tee, [Intil seven ti1nes, but, 
Aug. Until seventy tiJl
es seven. AUG. I am bold to say, that if he 

m. . d r 
83. 3. shall sin se\Tenty-elght times, thou shoul est lorgive him; yea, 
and if a hundred; and how oft soever he sin against thee, 
forgive him. For if Christ found a thousand sins, yet for- 
ga\Te them all, do not you \vithdraw your forgiveness. For 
Col.3, the Apostle says, Forgiving one another, if allY l1zan ',ath 
13. a quarrel against any, even as God ill Christ forga1:e you. 
CHRYS. 'Vhen He saJs, Until seventy ti1nes Set"ell, lIe does 
not limit a definite number \yithin w11ich forgiven
s
 must 
be kept; but He signifies thereby sOlnething endless and 
Aug. ever enduring. AUG. Yet not \vithout reason did the Lord 
ubi sup. S . r h L . t" } ' 
say, et'enfy tUlles set"en; lor t e aw IS set 10rt 1 111 ten 
precepts; and the Law is signified by the nlunher ten, sin 
by eleven, because it is passing the denary line. Se\Ten is 
used to be put for a whole, because time goes round in seven 
days. Take eleven seven times, and you have seventy. 
He would therefore have aU trespasses forgi\"en, for this is 
what He signifies by the number seventy-seven. ORIGEN; 
Or, because the nlunber six seems to denote toil and labour, 
and the number seven repose, He says that forgiveness 
should be given to aU brethren who live in this world, and 
sin in the things of this world. But if any cOllllnit trans- 
gressions beyond these things, he shall then ha \"e no further 
forgiveness. J ERO:\IE; Or understand it of fOlU' hundred and 
ninety times, that He bids us forgive our bl'other so oft. 
RABAN. It is one thing to gi,re pardon to a LJ.
 
'9r ,,,,hen he 
seeks it, that he Inay live with us in social charity, as Joseph 
to his brethren; and another to a hostil
 foe, t11at \ve may 
wish him good, and if \ve can do him good, as David 
mourning for Saul. 



\"Eft. 23-:j3. 


...T. \1:\1' rH E\\ . 


64] 


23. Therefore is the kingdolll of heaven likened 
unto a certain king, \vhich \yould take account of his 
servants. 
2.1. l\nd \vhcn he had begnn to reckon, one ,vas 
brought unto hin), ,,,hich o\ved him ten thousand 
talents. 
25. But fora5lliuch as he had.. not to pay, his lord 
conln1anrled hin1 to be sold, and his wife, and children, 
und all that he had, and payn1ent to be made. 
26. The servant therefore fell do\vn, and wor- 
shipped hiln, saying, Lord, have patience ,vith me, 
and I ,,,ill pay thee all. 
27. Then the lord of that servant ,vas moved \vith 
compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the 
debt. 
2
. }jut the salue servant ,vent out, and found one 
of his fello\v-servants, \vhich o\ved him an hundred 
pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by 
the throat, saying, l)ay Ine that thou O\vcst. 
29. And his fello\vservant fell down at his feet, 
and besought hirn, saying, Have patience with me, 
and I ,\,ill pay thee all. 
30. And he ,vould not: but went and cast him 
into prison, till he should pay the debt. 
31. So ,,'hen his fello\vservants saw \vhat \\'as done, 
they ,,"ere very sorry, and came and told unto their 
lord all that was done. 
32. rrhen his lord, after that he had called him, 
said unto him, 0 thou wicked 
ervant, I forgave thee 
an that debt, because thou desiredst me : 
... 
33. ShOUld
st not thou also have had compassion on 
thy fello\vservant, c\'en as I had pity on thee 
 
34. And his lord ,vas \vroth, and delivered him to 
the torn1entors, till he should pay all that \vas due 
unto hin1. 


'OL. 1. 


:.!'J' 



642 


GOSPEl. A('('OnnI
G 1'0 


CHAP. XVIII. 


:35. So like,vise shall my heavenly Father do also 
unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not everyone 
his brother their trespasses. 
CHRYS. That none should think that the Lord had en- 
joined something great and burdensolne in saying that 
we lnust forgive tin se,'enty times seven, lIe adds a parable. 
J ERo
rE; For it is customary ,vi th the Syrians, especiaHy 
they of Palestine, to add a parable to \"hat they speak; 
that "That their hearers nlight not retain simply, and in itself, 
the instance anrl sÏ1nilitude may be the means of retaining. 
viù, ORIG EN; The Son of God, as He is wisdom, righteousness, 
1 Cor. 
1, 30. and truth, so is He a kingdom; not indeed any of those 
which are beneath, but all those which are above, reigning 
over those in ,vhose senses reigns justice and the other 
yirtues; thesp are Inadp of beaven because they bear the 
image of the heavenly. This kingdoln of heaven then, i. e. 
the Son of God, \y hen He ,vas made in the likeness of sinful 
flesh, "Tas then like to a king, in uniting man to himself. 
REMIG. Or, by the kingdolll of heaven is reasonably under- 
stood the holy Church, in \vhich the Lord works what I-Ie 
spealu; of in this parable. By the man is sometilnes repre- 
sented the Father, as in that, The kingdonl q,f !leaven is lil..'e 
to a kil1,Q, u,IIo 171ade a 11Z11rrÎn.qe .foJ" Ids son; and sometÏ1nes 
the Son; but here ,ve lnay take it for both, the Father and 
the Son, who are ODe G-od. God is called a King, inasmuch 
as He created and go"\'erns all things. OUIGEN; The ser- 
vants, in these parables, are only they who are emplored 
in dispensing the word, and to WhOl11 this business is ('0111- 
mitted. IlEl\IIG. Or, by the servants of this King are signi- 
fied all 111ankind ,,'hom He has created for His o"\vn praise, 
and to \"hOI11 He gave the la\v of nature; He takes account 
with thenl, ,,'hen lIe would look into each man's manners, 
life, and deeds, that He 111ay render to each according to 
that He Ilas done; as it fullo\\'s, And u'hen He !tad begun to 
'reckon, one 1l'llS hroll,qllf unto HÙn u'lliclt olred Hinl ten 
thousand talents. OUIGEN; The King takes account of our 
2 Cor.5, w'hole life then, WhPll u'e '1nust all be presented before the 
10. J
lldglnent-Se(lt qf Christ. 'Ve 111ean not this so as that any 
f;hould think t.hat tIle business itself must n('ed
 require a long 



'"Elt. 23-
35. 



T. 
Lo\ TTll E\\ . 


ö-tl3 


till1l'. For Uo(l, whclI II... win scrutinize the Inincls of a11, will 
hv '-;Oll1C unùl's
rihabh
 power cau:-:e c\ ery thing that every Inan 
h
s ùone to pa

 spel'dily hefore the 1Ilind of each. JI(' !'\ays, 

I"d lrllcJI lie b(Jg(1I1 10 tal.e accouul, because the beginning 
of tlH
 judgl11cnt is that it hegin froln the hOU
l" of God. At 1 Pet.4, 
".. k } . 1 1 11 . 17. 
11is hL:glllnlng to ta -e account t }{;re 1" woug It unto 1m 
one who owes J [i III I})an
 talents; one, that is, \\ ho had 
wroll
ht great c,.ib.; one ou \\"hOlll ll1uch had lH:"'en enjoined, 
and hall yet hr()u
ht no gain; who perhaps had ch:stroyed as 
Inany Ineu as he owed talents; 011e" 110 ""as therefore becolnc 
a (lehtor of Inany talents, because he had followed the ""01I1an Zech. 5, 
sitting upon a taient of lead, whose uaUle i
 luiquity. JEItO.llE; 7. 
I know that sOlne il1tt'rpret t111
 luan \\"ho owed the ten 
thousand talent:--. tn be the l!e\"i
, and hy his wife and chiltlreu 
,,"ho \Yere to ùe sold when he perse\-ered iu hi!" wickedncsç;, 
und('rstand foolishne
", and hurtful thoughts. For as wisdon1 
is ca11ed the \,"if(
 of the righteou') 111an, so the wife of the 
unrighteous and the 
inner is cl.l11ed foolishness. nut ho\\" the 
l,ord rl'luit
 to the ,le,"il ten thousand talent
, and ho\\" he would 
not remit ten denarii to us hi
 fellow-ser,-ants, of this there is no 
ecclesiastical interpretation, nor is it to he adll1itted by thought- 
ful 111el1. 
\.rG. 'rherefore let u
 say, that because the Law is Aug. 
set forth in h'll precepts, the ten thousand talents whieh hp 
 3 erm 6 . 

 , . 
o\ved denotè a11 
illS which can be donc under the La,,". 
ItE
IIG. 'fan who 
i11ned ûf his own will hnd choice, ha"3 no 
power to rise ag-ain by his own endeavour, and has not 
wherewith to pay, because he fiuds nothing in hinlself by 
\\-hich he Inav loos " hiln
elf froln hi
 sins , ' wlIcnce it folluws 
. , 
Alld 'ILP/l he !tad 1101 fo pa!l, lti,
 lord COUIIJlllndprl IIi1/1 to be 
sold, and Id.f\ u'(fe and cltilJrell, llnd all '''a! lIe !tad, and 
paY1l1enf 10 Ill) 11/(((/(', The fool's ,,';fp i
 fony, and the plea- 
sur" or lust of the flesh. \.CG. This signifies that the trans- A 
ug. 
gres
or of the decalogue dc:-,en.es pnni
]lInent for hi
 lusts Quæ
t. 
Ù ' 1 d d 1 I . I . . i". h . E v i 25 
an en ce s; aUl t Iat IS lIS pncp; lor t e pnce for which ., . 
they sell ÎI:) thp punislnuent of hiln that i
 daluned. CHRYS. 
This cOllunanrl i
snl"d not of 
ruclt), but of unspeakabh
 
tenùerlles:-., }'or he "ceks by these tCITors to bring hil11 to 
plcad that he be not sold, \\"hich fell out, as he she" s when 
lIt" add
, The sel't'l1llt II,pl'('.fore jèll dOll"1l alld besull!Jlli l1.hll, 
sayiJ,!/, llá,.e jJaliel1re 'wilh 111e, and I frill pay thee all. 
2 T 2 



ü44 


GOSltEL ACCORVI
G TO 


CHAP. X\'III. 


I
E)nG. That he says,,(alliIl9 dOlen, 
he\vs hu\v the sinner 
Inunhled hilnself, and offered alnends. [-fare patience 'If"illt 
111e, expresses the sinner's prayer, begging respite, and space 
to correct his error. A.bulldant is the bounty of Goel, and 
IIis clenlPl1cy to sinners con,'el ted, se('ing lIe is ever ready 
to forgi,"e sins by baptis111 or penit
nce, as it follows, But tI,e 
lord qf t!tat servant had 1ì1ercy "pon ltÙn, and loosed 'lÙn, 
{{ud,(vr,'l(u:e liilll thp debt. CHRYS. Ree the exuberance of 
hea,"enly 10,'e! The selTant asked only a brief respite, but 
he gi,'es hÌ1n 1110re than he had asked, a fuU relnittance and 
cancelling of the \,"hole deht. lIe was Ininderl to ha\"e 
forgi\'eu l1Ïln froln the very first, but he \vould not have it 
to be of his o".n n1ere nlotion, Lut also of the other's suit, 
that he ulight not depart \\"ithout a gift. But he did not 
l'eulit the debt till hp had ta1\:en account, because he would 
lla\"e hinl know' hO\\T great debts he set hiln free o
 that by 
this he should at the least be Inaele Inore merciful to his 
fello,,, sen" ants. And indeed a
 far as what has gone he "'as 
\vorthy to be accepted; for he made confession, and proluised 
that he ".ould pay the debt, and fell do\vn and begged, and 
confessed the greatness of his debt. But his after deeds 
\vere un\\
orthy of the fonner, for it follows, But the sonle 
serrant u'enl out, and found one q( llis ,felloll:-Se1'ranls ;u,lticlt 
Aug. olL'ed hinl a "ulldr(
d denarii. AGG. That lIe says he owed 
Serm. 
83. 6. 'lÙn a hundred denarii is taken froln the saIne nUlnher, ten, 
the l1ulnber of the La\\r. For a hundred tillles a hundred are 
ten thousand, and ten tiules ten are a hundred; and those 
ten tllousand talents and these huntlred denarii are still 
keeping to tile nunlber of the La\\
; in both of them you find 
81ns. Both are debtors, both are suitors for renlission; so 
every luan is hinlself a debtor to God, and has his brother 
his debtor. CHRYS. But tllere is as great difference beh\Teen 
sins cOlnnlitteJ against Inen, and sins cOlllll1itted against God, 
as behvcen ten thousand talents and a hundred deuarii; yea 
rathel' there is still greater difference. This appears from the 
difference of the persons, and frOlll the fe\vness of the of- 
fenders. For when ,ve are seen of 111an \ve \vithhold and are 
loath to sin, but \ve cease not daily though God see us, but act 
and speak all things fearle
sly . Not by this only are our 
sins against God she\vn to be lllore heinous, but also by 



\- En. 
s-a!J. 


sr. \L\Tl'HF". 


ij.j .J 


n'aSOJl of the bcncfits which ""C ha,re recei,'cc1 frotH J liTH; 
11 (' g-avc u
 heing', an(1 has donc all things in our bcha1t; 
has Lreathl'(l into ns a rational sonl, has sent Iris 
nn, ha
 
opened hea'"eIl to ns, anù tnad(' us II is SOJl
. If then ,ve 
should c'"cry llay dic f<H. 1 linl, could ".C tnakp flim any 
worth
 return? By no 1I1cans; it 
h()uld rather rc(lonnd again 
to our a(h"anta
c. But, 011 thc contrary, we ofIcnù against II is 
lan.s. ItK\I U;. SO In h1111 ,,1.0 0\\ ed ten thousand talents 
are represented those tliat conuuit the greater crinH.'s; by 
the dehtor Of.1 hundred dcnarii thusc who cOlll1llit the les
er. 
.J Eno
rE; That thi
 Hlay 1)(
 10a( Ie plainer, let ns t--pcak it 
in instances. If any Olle of you slH.ùl have cOlluniu('cl an 
a(hùtery, a h01l1ieide, or a sacrilege, these greater sins of tcn 
thonsan
l talcllb :shaH bc ren1Îtted when yon beg for it, if 
you also shall reJuit les
er odences to those that tre"pas
 
against you. _\t:'ü. But this unworthy, unjust ser\"antAug. 
"auld not render that which had been rcndered to hinl, ubI 
up. 
tor it fÓllo\\"s, ..lut! he Iflid h""t/s 01/ ltÏln, (lnd held /till, by 
the I h rot1t, say; II.'/, })(/.'1 Jne f Itat /lU)U o1l.esf. ItE:\IJa. That 
is he pre
sed hiul hardly, that hc Blight exact ,'cngcance 
froln hitu. ORHa:
; lIe therefore, as I suppose, tou1. hiul 
hy the throat, hecause he hall caIne forth frunl thl
 king; 
for he ""auld not ha'"c "0 handled hi
 fèllow sernlut, if he 
had not gone forth fruln the king. CHRYS. By saying, ús 
'/(> ICi'lIl Ollt, fIe shews that it was not after long titHe, but 
inHllcdiately; ,,"bile the fa\"our he had rccei,'ed still sounded 
in hi
 ear
, he aùu
cd to \yicl
edncs
 the lihcrtJ his lord had 
accorded hiBI. ""'hat the other (lid is ad(lpd; .JJ1d Iti...; 
èllow-serrfl II t LfeU do/ell, llnd bpsollgh I hÙn, sayiug, JIll f(! 
patÙ)J/ 'C Iriill. 11lC, llnd ('i'il/pay ,ltU) fill. OUIGEX; Ob
crYe 
the exactness of 
cI;pturc; the 
l'rn\llt who owed UJal1Y talcnts 
fèll dnwn, and ,\'or,hippcd the king; he ,,"h:> Q\'"cd the hundred 
dcnarii falling' clown, di(lllot worship, hut Lcsought hi:-. fèllo\v 

cn.ant, 
a
 iug, IIlI re pfl I ieul'lJ. I1nt the ungratefnl 
en"allt 
did uot C\('11 respect the ,'cry wurùs which had sa,.cd hiu]self, 
fcn. it foHows, bllt !tp would Jlul. ...\ eG. 'rhat is h
 nOtni
hcd Aug. 
such thoughts to,,-anls hiJ)} that hc 
ought his pnnishIlH\ut. 


.si5. 
IJul he /C()ul hi.
 Il"fl,lJ. ItE'IHi. 'fhat is
 his ""rath was the 
rather ill11allll'd, to exact "cngcd.nec' of hinl; 
IJld he cast him 
illlo pri^nl1, ulllil he ,
It{)lIld pay lite "('bl; that i
, he 
l'ized 



64tS 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAI>. XVIII. 


lJÎs brother, and exacted \rengeance of hiln. CHRYS. Observe 
the Lord's tenilerlless, and the servant's cl o ne1t)'"; the one for 
tcn thousand talents, the other for ten denarii; the one a 
suitor to his fellow; the other to his lorù; the one obtained 
entire relnission, the other sought only respite, but he got it 
not. They ,,'ho owed nought grieyed ,,"ith hinl; /,is .t'el- 

-\ug. lou.-serrflJlt.
, seein,fJ u1/(ll 'U'as dOlle, 1rere rery sO}'}'.'I. ArG. 




õ. By the fellow-servants is understood the Churc}}, which binds 
one and looses another. RK\IIG. Or perhaps they represent 
the Angels, or the preachers of the holy Church, or any of 
the faithful, "rho \vhen they see a brother ,,,,hose sins ar(' 
forgiyen refusing to forgive his fellow-selTant, they are sor- 
rowful oyer his perdition. And fhey erline, and told their lord 
'loJ,at 'lcas dOJ1P. They caIne not in body, but in spirit. To 
tell their Lord, is to she\v the ,,'oe and sorro\\" of the heart 
in their carriage. It follo,,'s, Then Itis lord called hÙn. II e 
called hin1 by the sentence of death, and bade him pass out 
of this ,yorlel, and said unto hiln, Tholl wicked ,f}e1'l"auf, I 
.(or,qal'e t!teo all thai debt, hecause (liolt prayedst ute. CHRYS. 
\Vhen he o\ved hinl ten thousand talents, he did not call hint 
,vicked, nor did he at all chide hiln, but had mercy on hiln; 
hut 110W ,,-hen he l]ad been ungenerous to his fello\v-SelTant, 
then he says to hin1, Thou l.l"ic/a'ed serl.an(; and this is "'hat 
is said, O",ql-ttest t!tOli '/lot to lUH'e "ad mercy upon tlty.fellou.- 
,(,'errnul. }{El\I10. And it is to be known, that ,ve read no 
answer n1ade by that sen
ant to his lord; by which it is shewn 
us, that in the day of judglnent, and altogether after this life, 
all excusing of ourseh'es shall be cut off. CHRYS. Because 
kindness had not Inended hhn, it ren1ains that he be conoected 
by }Junislllnellt; whenco it follows, And tlte lord l!f f !tat 
-"errant 'was an.qrg, and delÜ.ered ltÙn to tlie torture'J's until 
lIe should pay f he u.!tole debt. lIe said 110t lllercly, Delil'ered 
'tÙn, but U'((S an.rJry, this he had not said before; when his 
Lord counnanded that he should be sold; for that ,vas not 
in \\'rath, but in }O\'o, for his correction; no\v this is a sen- 
tence of penalty and punishlnent. RE
IIG. For God is said 
then to be wroth, when he tal
es \'engeance on sinners. Tor- 
turers an
 intended for t.he dæn10ns, vdlo are always ready 
to take np lost son1
', and tortnre theln in the pangs of 
('ternal pUl1islullcnt. "TiH any who is once sunk into e'Tr- 



\' ER. 23-3:'>. 



'I'. M.\ TTII E\\. 


().j 7 


lasting condeluuation c'.er COIlIC to find !Season of repentancp, 
30(1 a wa.y to escape? X e,'er; that unlil is put for infinity; 
and the Illt'aning is, II e 
hal1 he e\ er paying, and shalluever 
(luit the Jeut, but shaH he e\'cr ull,ler puni,lullcnt. CIlRl'S. 
13) this i
 
hewn that his punishtncnt 
hall he increasing 
and eternal, atHl that he 
hall npvcr pay. A 11<1 howc\"er 
irre,.ocable are the graces aud callings of God, yet wickedness 
JU1S that foret., that it :,cCUIS to Lreak (;'"('11 thi
 laW'. . \rG, Aug. 
, ( ' 1 C" I 1 II 7. .. 1 } fi Serm. 
JOCH IOC says, .l.'{)I'!)Ire, flU( ye sua ue,lorfl'rclI; la'"e u
tR3, 7. 
fOl"(J'i\'en l()r(rÌ\'e YOU then after 
Ie' for if von fi))o g i\'c not Luke 6, 
ð , t"I .. -'.. , 37. 
1 will cJ.l1 ) on hack, and win rCf]uin
 again all that I hacl 
f(.'uliued to you. For Christ neither dccci,'es nor is (lccci,'cd; 
and lie adds here, Titus 7rill lilY ltearcJlly [<"'ather do unto 
lloll, {l Yf' ,1hJJII yo" r JIf}(J rt,
 jlJ1'.rfÏt'(J /lot PlY'".'! Olll> It;s lJro[ her 
111f>;r I J"(',"'PfiSSPS. It is better that you should <:1} out with 
) our Illonth, and forgi,pc in your hcart, than that you 
h()nld 
f'peak s1l1oothly, and he unrelenting in your hcm1. For the 
I
ard add
, Frol/t y()lI,. hClIrt,ç, to the cnfl that though, uut 
of affection you put hill) to discipline, yet gentlcness Rhc)lùd 
not depart out uf Jour hcart. 'Vhat is Blore beneficial than 
the knife ûf the snrgeon? He is rough with the 
orc that 
dIe tHan Ina)" be hpaled; should he be tcndcr with thl" 
sore, the Juan were lost. J EHO
I E; Al
o thi
, .tì"()1JI !/[Jll r 
!IParls, is added to take awa
. an t(
igned reconciliations. 
Thcrefore the Lurd's cotnmand to Peter un(lcr this 
Ï111ili- 
tude of tht' kin#! and his 
ef\"ant who owed hin1 tCll 
thousand tal{'nts, and was forg-Ï\-en by his Jonl upon 1lis 
entreaty, is, that lIe also s110uld forgi\"e his fenow-sen'ant
 
their le
ser trespasses. OTIl<a:x; ] Ie Recks to instruct us, 
that Wf" 
hoHld hp ready to ,hew clp1nenc
 to thOSl" w'ho 
ha\T done us harnl, e
pecially if they oflt'r atl1cnds, and 
plead to ha,'c forgi,"cuess. 
R.\ß.\x. A llegorically; 'I"he scr'.ant h('re who 0\\ ed the 
H'n thousand ta.1f'nt
't i
 tht 1 J en-ish people hound to the 
'Ten Conl1Uandnlents in the Law. These the Lorel oft 
forgavc their trespa,
e
, when heing in difficulties thev 
besought I Ii
 lJ1crc,.; hut when tiH" Wt'rc ,ct frec the
. 
. .. , .. 
exact .d the ntnlost with great S(',"PritJ frOll1 all thcir debtors; 
and of the gentile pcople which the
' hated, they reqnin'<1 
CirCU11lcisioll and the c(\r('monics of the 1-1a\\.; yea, the 



648 GOSPEl.. ACCORDI
G TO ST. ::\IATTHE'V. CHAP. XVIII. 


Prophets and Apostles tIley barbarously put to death. For 
an this the Lord gaye thenl over into the hands of the 
R01l1ans as to evil spirits, who should punish them with 
eternal tortures. 



CIIA.P. ÀIX. 


1. \ud it calue to pas
, that \"hen Jesus had 
tini
hcd these sayings, he departed fronl Galilee, and 
canlC into the coasts of J udæa beyond Jordan; 
2. 
\nd great Inultitudes follo\yed him; and he 
healcd thenl there. 
:3. 'I'11l 1 Pharisees al
o came unto him tempting 
hiln, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a Ulan to 
. put a\vay his \"ife for every cause? 
4. L\nd he ans\ycred and said unto theIn, Have ye 
not read, that he ,vhich Inade them at the beginning 
Jnade theI11 nlaIc and femgIe, 
5. ..\nd said, For this canse shall a man leave 
father and 111othcr, and shall cleave to his ,vife: and 
thcy t\vain 
hall be one flesh? 
6. "Thereforc they are no nlore t\vain, but one 
flesh. "That therefore God hath joined together, let 
not man put asunder. 
ï. 1"'hey say unto him, 'Vhy did l\Ioses then COlll- 
Inand to givc a \vriting of divorcclnent, and to put 
her a\vay? 
s. lIe 
aid unto thcIn, 'Io
e
 because of the hard- 
ness of your hearts suffered you to put 3\YUY your 
,\'iyc
: but frolu the beginning it \vas not so. 


C liIU.... rfhe Lord had hefore lcft J udæa becau
e of their Chry;,. 
jcalous
', hut now I Ie kecps TIiulsl'lf 1110re to it, hecausl' Ilis 


. 
pa
:-.ioll was near at hLWd. \ ct does lIe not go up to J udæa 
itst'lf
 but into the hordcrs of J Ud
l\a; "hellce it is :-;aid, Aud 



H50 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


if caIne to }lllSS ?i'hen Jesus 'Iall endf:d all these sayill.qs, he 
departed .t'roln Galilee. RABA:\!. Hen"' then He begins to 
relate what 1-Ie did, taught, or suffered in J uda
a. .At first 
beyond Jordan eastward, afterwards on this side Jordan when 
l1e canlC to Jericho, Bethphagc, and Jerusalel11; whence it 
follows, And He Clune info lite coasts C!l Jlldæa be.ljond 
Jorda}l. P:-\ErDo-CHHYSI
. As the righteous Lord of all, \yho 
10\"e8 these selTan ts so as not to despise those. RABA:\!. 
It should lH-' known, that the whole territory of the Israelites 
was called Jurlæa, to distinguish it froln other nations. But 
its southern purtion, inhabited by the tribes of Judah and 
BenjanlÍn, was caned Judæa proper, to distinguish it froln 
other distriets in the same province as Sal11aria, Galilee, 
Decapolis, and the rest. It foHon"s, AJlcl great 1111tltiludes 
.folloll'ed 1Ii111. PSEL"DO-CHRYS. They were conducting I1iln 
forth, as the }.OUllg children of a father going on a far journey. 
And He setting forth as a father, left thel11 as pledges of II is 
lo,"e the healing of their diseases, as it is said, .Aud he helllell 
t',eul. CHRYS. It should be also ohsenTed, that the I.Jord is 
not either ever delivering doctrine, or e\.er working nlÌracles, 
but one while does this, and again turns to that; that by llis 
miracles faith Inight be g1\'en to what He said, and by IIis 
teaching nligh t be shen"ed the profit of those things which He 
"Tought. ORIGE
; The Lord healed the ll1u1titudes beyond 
Jordan, ,,"here baptism was ghTen. For all aloe truly healed 
from spiritual sickness in baptism; and Inan)" follo\y Christ 
as did these lllultitndes, but not rising up as l\Iatthe"r, who 
arose and follo\yccl the Lord. ]] ILARV; Also He cures the 
Galileans on the horders of J udæa, that He 111ight a(hnit the 
f'ins of the Gentiles to that pardon \\"hich was prepared for 
the J e'vs. CHRYS. For indeed Chi"Ïst so healed l11en, as to 
do good both to theu1selves, and through them to Inany 
other. For these l11ell's healing was to others the occasion 
of their knowledge of God; but not to the Pharisees, who 
"-ere. only hardened hy the 111iracles; whence it fo11ows; 
And the Phnrisee.fJ caJJ/e to hin" ielnptill,q hÙn, and saying, 
Is it lall:lul.for a Ulan to put au.ay !tis u'ife.for efe1"Y cause? 
JERO)IE; That they might ha\.e HÍ1n as it ""ere bet\veen the 


ø The Latin commentary that goes again at the first yerse of this char- 
under the name of Chrysostom's resumes ter. 



\"ER. 1-t:S. 


ST. )tA 1''1'11 E\\'. 


ü
J 


horns of a syl1ugisln, 
o that, whatcver answer I Ie 
hould 
make, it \\-ould lie open to ca\ il. Shoul(l II e allo\\ a wife 
to h 
 pnt a""ay for any cause, and the luan'iage of another, 
he ".ould 
ecnl to contradict I rilnself a" a preacher of chastity. 

houl(l fIe answer that she Inay not hr' put away for any 
cause what
oc\-cr, lie ,,"ill be judgc(l tt) ha,-e 
poken iUl- 
piously, and to IHal
p against the teaching of )Ioses and of 
(;od. C llIlYS. Ohsc1"\'c their wicke(llles
 c\-en in the wa.v 
of putting th'ir question. Thl' Lord had aho'.c di
putecl 
cOllcellliu o ' this law , hut the," now ask llilH as though I I e 

 . 
had spoken nothing thereof
 supposinß Ire had forgot what 
llf' ha(l bpfc)1"c (leli,.ered in this nlattcr. J>sf.rno-Cnuys. 
J\llt, as when yon s
e one l11uch pursuing thp acquaintance 
of phYlo\icians, you know that he is sick, so, ,,,hen you see 
either 1lH\1l or "'onJan enquiring concerning diyol'cc, kllO\\
 
that that nlan is lustful and that WOInan unchaste. !,"'or 
chastity has pleasure in wedlock, but desire is tonnented as 
. though under a sla\"ish bondage therein. And knowing that 
they had no snHiciellt cause to allt'gt' for their putting away 
their wi,"cs, sa'-c their own lewdness, thcy feigned Inany 
di,
ers causes. They feared to ask IIiul for "'hat cause, lest 
tht'Y "houl{l ùe tiecl clown within the lil1lits of fixed and 
ccrtain call"C
; and therefore they m
ked if it "
ere lawful for 
c,.ery can
p; tì)r they ],.new that appetite kno\n
 no lilnits, 
and eannot hol(l itself within the bounds of one luarriage, but 
the 1l10re it i:-- illdulged the more it i
 kindled. ORIGEX; 

eeing th
 Lord thus tCllJptcd, let nunc of IIis di
ciplcs ,,-ho 
i
 set to teach think it hard if he al
o be by SOUle tcnlptcd. 
IIowbf'it, lIe replies to Ilis tPIlJpters with the d()('trillcs of 
piety. J E1l0
IE; But lIe so frauH:s I Tis answeI as to e,.ade 
their snare. lIe hrings in the t('stilllony of Uoly \Y"rit, and 
the law of nature, and opposing God'
 first 
clltencc to this 
second, lIe all,\ill'(}r()t! and ,wlirT 11/110 Ilu:JJ1, l/are!Jt 1101 }"()fld, 
lIul/ he which JJlf1{lf) tlU)JJI at the beginnillg '1Jlud 
 [helll lnale 
alld j()JJut!()! 'rhis i:--. written in thc behrinning uf Genesis. 
'l'hi:-: t('ache
 that I'\('cond luarriagcs are to be axoided, for 
llc.-' said 110t l11ale aud fClnales, ,,'hich was ".bat \\"as sought 
hy the rutting away of the first, but, '1nale and jCllulle, im- 
plying only onc tie of wedlock. ItAB:\
. For by the whole. 
S(Hne design of God it ""as ordainf'd that a Inan shotùd ha,-e 
in the '\"Olnall a part of his own body, and !'hould not look upon 



();j;l 


GOSPEL ACCORDINti TO 


CHAP, XIX. 


as separate fronl hill1self that which he lUlCW \\'as formed out 
of hilllself. PSEUDO-CHRYS. If then God created the lnale 
and feluale out of one, to this end that they should be one, 
\vhy then henceforth were not they born luan and wife at one 
birth, as it is with certain insects? Because God created 111ale 
and fenlale for the continuance of the species, yet is lIe ever 
a ]o\rer of chastity, and proll1oter of continence. Therefore 
did TIe 110t follow this pattern in all kinds, to the end that, 
if any Ulan choose to luarry, he lnay kno\" what is, according 
to the first disposition of the creation, the condition of lnan 
and \vife; but if he choose not to lUan"y, he shall not be 
under necessity to lnanT by the circlunstances of his birth, 
Jest he should by his continence be the destruction of the 
other \"ho was 110t willing to be continent; for which same 
cause God forbids that after being joined in \ve(llock one 
should separate if the other be unwilling, CHRYS. But not 
by the la\v of creation only, but also by the practice of the 
lan', lIe she".s that they ought to be joined one and one, and 
never put asunder; And Ite said, F'o,. t/iÙ; cause shall a Ulan 
lern'e kis.fatlter aud his JJlotlte'r, anrl shall cle(u'e to his 1f'[/è. 
J ERO)IE; In like lnanner He says !tis 1r
tè, and not \yives, 
and adds expressly, and they tu'{ÛJI shall be one flesh. For 
it is the re"rard of lnarriage that one flesh, naIllely in the 
Gloss. offspring, is Inacle of two. GLOSS. Or, one .flesh, that is in 
interlin. carnal conl1exion. PSEUDO-CHRYS. If then because the wife 
is Inade of the n1an, and both one of one flesh, a lnan shall 
leave his father and his n10ther, then there should he yet 
greater affection between brothers and sisters, for these COlne 
of the saIne parents, but Blan and wife of different, But this 
is saying too lnnch, because the ordinance of God is of more 
force tban the la-\y of nature. For (loers precepts are not 
subject to the law of nature, but nature bends to the precepts 
of God. .,.\lso brethren are born of one, that they should seek 
out different roads; but the Ulan and the wife are born of 
different persons, that they should eoalesce in onc. The 
order of nature also follows the appointlllPnt of God. For as 
is the sap iti trees, so is afIection in nlan. The sap ascends 
frolll the roots into the leayes, and passes forth into the seed. 
Therefore parents lo\"e their children, but are not so lo\"ed of 
theIn, for the desire of a luan is not to\vards his parents, but 
towards the 
ons 'VhOUl he ha
 begot; and this is what is_said, 



\ En, l-
. 



T. I\I..\ TTIJ E\\'. 


()5:
 


11t '}"(J(ore shflll it l/lfllI !eflre l,i8 (allit,,, ((ud Iti... ,,/olher, find 
, ' 
.fiìltlll" cleat') uulo hi.,' 1rUiJ. l'IJln
. 
ee the ,\i
.;(loln of the 
1'('aeher. Being asked, 1.'\ il luujill, I h
 
aid nut 
traight, 
It i:-; )lot lawfÜl, lest th,'.'" should he tronl,l('(I, hut estahlislH's 
it throug-h a proof. ror God Blade thelll ti'oJI1 the beginning 
Blah. al1(1 f
'111i.de, and not lllcrely joined thelll together, hl1t 
badc th"lll (pÜt t
tther and HlotheJ"; ancIllot haclL' the husùand 
1Ilcre1

 approach his wif', but he joined to her, sht.'\\'ing by 
this 111i.U111er of speaking the ill
('parahle houd, 1 Ie even a<lde(l 
a 
till elospr union, sayiHg, Iud they lu:aill shall úe ollefieslt. 
\T G, \,"'hereas 
criptun' witnesses that these \\
ords were Aug. 
said b\1' the lìr"t 111i.lll and the Lord here declares that God } ? t e,n" I R g d 
J' I ,IX. . 
Spahl' thell), hence ""c 
hould uIHlerstand that hy reason 
of the ce:4as} which had passed upon 
\<hl1n, he "-as enahled 
tu speak this as a prophecy. ItlDlItt. rIhe _\.po:-\tle says that Eph. õ, 
this is a 11l
 stery ill Christ and the Chureh; fi)r thp Lord 3-}. 
.Jc"us Christ left ] lis Father when lIe Ci.une down frolH 
hca\"e)1 to earth; and [Ic left Ili
 l11other, that i
, the S\"lla- 
gognc, bl'can
c of its unbelief, and cla"c unto TTis \,"ife, that 
i
, the Iloly Church, and they two are one fl('
h, that is, 
Chri
t and the Church arc one Loay. CHUYS. "
hen lIe 
had In"ought fon, anI the words and facts of the old Ian", 
J le thcn interprets it with authority, aud lays down a la\\., 
saying, Tltel.e.l re tile!! are /lu //lore /wain, bu / one flesh. For 
as those \\"ho ]o\-e one another 
pirituall) arc f'aid to be one 
soul, ...J'ld nIl they /!tal úelil!ret! !tad one !teart and one soul, Act.i 4, 
3"' 
so husband and wifc who lo\"c each other after the flesh, are -. 
said to he onl' flesh. 
\nd as it is a wretched thing to cut 
the flesh, so j" it an nlljn
t thing to put awa) a ,,-ife. .\.rG. 
.ug. 
For they are cane,] one, eithcr fi'OlU their union, or froln the 


:xÏ\. 
(lel;'-ation of the WOIuau, who was taken out of the side of22. 
the Juan. Cnuys.] I c bring
 in G 0<1 yet again, sayiug, 
Jf7,al (iod lifts joined, le/l10 111(111 IJllf a.'\lIlld(Jr, shewing that 
it is ag-aillst ùoth naturc and God's law to put a,,-ay a \\
ifc; 
against nature., lwcanse one fle
h is thl'l"cil1 <1i,-ided; against. 
1 a". , because God has join{'d and forbidùcll to sunder theine 
.J EHO
IE; God has joined by ulaking Ulan and \
Onlan one 
fle"h; thic;; then ll1an Hlay not put asunder, hut C;od ouly. 
::\Iall puts <l
lu}(ler, ,,-hen fi'oln ùesirc of a second ,,,ife the 
fir
t i
 put away; God put:, asuu(ler, ,,,ho a150 had joined, 



65-1 


lio:'.;J)EJ. A('COHl H
h TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


] Cor. 7, \vhen by consent for the 
ervice of Go(l we so have our \vives 
:;
g. as though \'.e had thCIIl not. A CG. 13ehold now out of the books 

o
t. of l\Ioses it is pro\rcd to the Jews that a wife luay not he put 
J. a u!'t. F h I 1 I I d . 1 . 
:xi"". 29. an'a)'. or t ey t long 1t t lat t ley were OIUg accorc lUg to 
the purport of l\luscs' law \,'hen they did put thCIH away. 
This also we learn hence L)7 the testiInol1Y of Christ Hinlself, 
that it \Yas God who uHldc i
 thus, and joined theln ulale and 
feulale; which when the :\lanichæans deny, they are con- 
denlned, resisting the Gospel of Chri

t. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
This sentence of chastity seelHed hard to tlJcse adulterers; 
but they could not Inake answer to the arglunent. IIowbeit, 
they willllot subn1Ît to the truth, but betake theillselves for 
shelter to l\loses, as Inen ha,ying a bad canse fly to SOlne 
po\verful personage, that where justice is not, his countenance 
111ay prcyail; Tile.'! say unto lti1n, lT T !i!/ did Jloses then com- 
'Inane! to girea u-ritill.q f"!l dit{)l'Cenlellt, llud to put he1. aUJay? 
J ERO)IE; IIere they reveal the cavil which they had pre- 
pared; albeit the lolord bad not giyen sentence of IIÏ1nself, 
but had recalled to their 111inds al1cient history, al1d the 
comlnands of God. CURYS.] lad the Lord been opposed to 
the Old Testament, II C ".ould not thus ha,.e contended in 
1\loses' behalf, nor have gone about to I'lle,,' that \vhat ""as 
his \vas in agrecnlent with the things of old. But the 
unspeakable wisdoln of Christ made ans\ver and excuse for 
these in this Inanner, He saitli Ullto theIn, JI08es for tile 
hardness of your hearts sl
tfered YOll to put au'ay your 
tl"ires, By this He clears l\Ioses from their charge, and 
A
g. retorts it all upon their own head. AUG. For ho'v great \vas 
ubI sup. that hardness! 'Vhen not even the intervention of a bill of 
divorce, which gave rOOln for just and prudent Inel1 to endea- 
your to dissuade, could l1love thell1 to rene\v the conjugal 
affection. A nd with what ,,,it do the l\lal1ichæans blame 
1\10ses, as severing \vedlock by a bill of divorce, al1d com- 
mend Christ as, on the contrary, confirn1Îng its force? 
\Vhereas according to their ilnpious science they should 
have praised .1\Joses for putting asul1der what the devil had 
joined, and found fault \\"ith Christ \vho riveted the bonds of 
the devil. CHRYS. ..At last, because \vhat lIe had said \vas 
severe, He goes back to the old la\v, saying, F'l.om the begin- 
" ;119 it 1t'{fS not so. J ERO
fE; 'Vhat II e says is to this pur- 



\'FU. H. 



T. 'L\TTIIE\'p. 


(;55 


pose. Is it possible that God should so contradict ITim
clf, 
Rs to cOllllllalHl OUt' thing- at first, and after defeat I I is own 
orùinance br a nc". statute? 1'hillk not so; but, whereas 
2\Ioscs saw that through de
irc of s('cond wÏ\ c:-, who should 
he lieher, younger, or fairf'r, that tlle first \VC1"P put to death, 
or treated in, he chose rather to suffer separation, than the 
continn
nl'C of 11atred and a

a

ination. Oh
erYe moreoV'('r 
tllat lIe said not (;0<1 StInt'reel yon hut, ,roses; shewing 
that it wa:-:, as the _\po!-\tle speak
, a coun
el of lHan, not a 1 Cor. 
C01l1nland of (:0<1. P
EfTDO-CIIR\S. 1'hercforc 
aiù fIe \, e11, 7,12. 

roses 
uffercd, not cOlllmand('(1. For what \\pe cOlllluand, 
that ".C c'.cr wish; lHlt when ,vc suffer, 'vc yield against onr 
".ill, hecause we ha"(O Hot the power to put full restraint npon 
the e,'il wins of !llcn. I I e therefore suffered JOU Lo do c,"il 
that rou might not do worse; thus in 
uffcring this Ill" ".a
 
not enforcing the rightpon
ness of C;od, hut takin
 
l\vay its 
sinfulness fronJ a sin; that while )POU di(l it according to Ilis 
la "-, yonr 
in s110uld nnt appear 
in. 


9. And I say unto you, 'Vhosoever shall put a,vay 
his ,vife, except it be for fornication, and shaH marry 
another, committeth adultery: and ,\,h050 marrieth 
her \vhich is put éHvay cloth conlnlit adultery. 


CUR\""S, IT aving stopped thcir ulouths, IT ("' now 
et forth 
tlIp La,,' with authority, sa
'ing, But I say 111/10 you, il,at 
'1l"!tosoere,. .'\/,all put a/ray !tis '/l'{fe, e.
.cepl for /orl1icafion, 
alld nUl rrietl, (( /llIllter, C(}III1/1 illel" atlulip/,y. OnH;Ex; Per- 
haps SOJue one will say, that Jesus in thus speaking, suffered 
,,"ives to Le put away for the same cause that 
I()se
 suffered 
theIn, which TIc sa, s ""as for the 11ardness of the hearts of 
the Je\'"\\. nut to this it is to be answered, that if by the 
T ..aw an adulteress i
 
toncd, that sin i
 not to be understood 
as tlu' Rhall1('ful thin
 for which )loses fo\ufff'rs a "'Titing Dent. 
of divorcetncnt; for in a cause of adlùtcry it was not lawful 24, L 
to gi,.e a "Titing of dh"orCClnent. 13ut)T o
e
 perhaps calls 
("'{'r
 sin in a wOlnan a. shalHcful thing, \vhich if it he found 
in her, a LiB of di\"orCenlcllt is written against her. 13ut we 
should enquire, If it is lawful to put an"ay a wif(' for the 
can
fI of fornication only, what is it if a \,"Olnan bp not an 



ü5() 


GOSPEL A('COnDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


adulteress, but have done any other heinou
 criule; haye 
been found a poisoner, or to ha,-e 1l1urùered her children? 
The Lord has explained this Blatter in another place, saying, 

at. 5, TVltoso pl/ltelli Iter (lIf"O.IJ, e.Tcept jor tlte calise qljornicatioJl, 
3"". '1naketli her to ('OllllUit adlllter,lJ, giving her an opportunity 
of a second Inarriage. JEHO
IE; It is fornication alone \vhich 
destroys the relation
hip of the \vife; for \"hen she has 
di \rided one flesh into bYo, and has separated herself by 
fornication fronl her husband, she is not to be retained, lest 
she should bring her husband a1so under the curse, "yhich 
Provo Scripture has spoken, He that ke(
petlt all adulteress is afool 
18, 23. 1. P . 
alld 'iricned. SEUDO-CHRYS. :For as he is cruel and unjust 
that puts away a chaste "vife, 
o is he a fool and unjust that 
retains an unchaste; for in that he hides the guilt of his wife, he 
Aug.Deis an encourager of foulness. ArG. For a reunion of the wed- 



l

' lock, even after actual cOlnnlission of adultery, is neither shame- 
ii.9. fnI nor difficult, ,,
here there is an undoubted renlission of sin 
through the keys of the kingdonl of hea\ren; not that after 
heing divorced froln lIeI' husband an adulteress should be 
called back again, but that after her union with Christ she 
should no longer be called an adulteress. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
For e\
ery thing by \yhatsoe\
er causes it is created, by the 
saIne is it destroyed. It is not InatrÍ1nony but the \vill that 
luakes the union; and therefore it i
 not a separation of 
bodies but a separation of wills that dissolves it. He then 
"vho puts a"
ay his ,yife and does not take another is still her 
husband; for though their bodies be not united, their wills are 
united. But whcn he takes another, thcll he manifestly puts 
his wife away; \vherefore the Lord says not, "Thoso putteth 
away his ,vife, but, Tf/hoso '1narrietlt anot/ie/", c017unittetlt 
adultery. RABA
. There is then but one carnal cause why 
a \"ife should be put away, that is, fornication; and but one 
spiritual, that is, the fear of God. But there is no cause why 
\vhile she \\
ho has been put a\\
ay is alive, another should be 
luarried. J EROl\IE; For it might be that a Ulan might falsely 
charge an innocent wife, and for the sake of another woman 
lnight fasten an accusation upon her. Therefore it is com- 
manded so to put a\vay the first, that a second be not mar- 
ried \vhile the first is yet alive. .Also because it might 
happen that by the saIne la\v a ,vife ,vould divorce her 



"ElL 10-1-2. 


ST. :\I.\TTII E".. 


U:')7 


hn
balld, it is also pro,"iùed that 8he take not another 
husband; and Lecau::;c one who had hccolnc an adu!tprcss 
".ould Ia
n p no tinther ii-a.. of disgrace, it is comlnand..d that 

he luanT not another husband. nnt if she do lImIT\" another, 
. " 
sh - is ill the guilt of adultery; ,\"hcrcforc it f()llow
, A lid 
tl-I'(J,
o IIlnrrirlh It ßr thai i.I) ]Jul alcay, cotlllllilt Jilt dull Jry. 
G I.OSS. lIe 
a '"S this to tl1('> tprror of hitn tl1at ,\ oulcl tal\:c Iter Glos
. 
to ,,"ife, for thc. adulteress ,,'ould have 110 fear of di:.:grace. orJ. 


10. IIis disciples say unto hiln, If the case of the 
nlan be so ,vith his ,vife, it is not good to nlarry. 
11. I3ut he saill unto them, All men cannot re- 
ceive this saying, save they to ,,-hon1 it is giv'en. 
12. For there are sonle eunuchs, ,,,hich ,vcre so 
born from their mother's ,,"om b: and there are some 
eunuchs, ,vhich ,,"ere Blade eunuchs of men: and 
there be eunuchs, ,vhich have Inade thelnselves eu- 
nuchs for the kingdom of heavcn's sake. lIe that is 
nhle to receive it, let hiln receive it. 


J F.RO:\IE; ..:\, ,,"ifc i
 a griCYOUS burden, if it is not pcnniUed 
to put her a\\'a,y except for the cause of fornication. For 
,,,hat if she be a drunkard, an eyil tClnpcr, or of evil habit
, 
is she to be kept? The ...\postlcs, pcrcei,-ing this burden- 

Onll'lleSS, t.
xpress what they feel; IIi.\' disciph:s say "Jllo 
ltÙII, If ill 'llse of tILe rllall be so u."tlt ltis u'{fe, it is 1101 
good to mnrry. CHR\S. }1'or it i
 a lighter thing tu contend 
,,-ith 1111Hself, and his own lust, than with an e\,il WOlnall. 
l)ðECDO-CIIUYs. And the Lord said not, [t h
 good, but rather 
a

cntcd that it is 110t good. Ilo\ve\'er, I [l' con
idcrcd thl
 
weakness of the flesh; /Jul he .wtid 1/1210 f !telll, 
 III cnllllol reCl'Ù-() 
tltÙ; sayin!!; that is, All arc not ahle to do this. JERo,n:; 
nut let none think, that wherein lIe add
, Sll
.e they 10 lrltonl 
il i.t; !lit-ell, that either fatt
 or t(wtnne is ilnplied, as thongh 
they wcre vircrins onh r WhOIl) chance has led to such a 
.. 0 J 
fortune. For that i
 gi, en to tho
c who ha\ e sought it of 
God, who ha, e longcd for it, who ha'.c striyen that they 
nligllt obtain it. .PsErDo-Cn HYS. But all cannot obtain it, 
YOL, I. '2 n 



öJ8 


GOSPEL ACÇORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


because all do not desire to obtain it. The prize is before 
thelll; he who desires the honour will not consider the toil. 
K one ,vould e,
er \ranquish, if all shunned the struggle. 
Because then some have fallen froln their purpose of con- 
tinence, \ye ought not therefore to faint froll1 that \-irtue; 
for they that fall in the battle do not slay the rest. That 
He says therefore, Safe they to u-'hoJ]l it is given, 
shews that unless we receive the aid of grace, we have 
not strength. But this aid of grace is not denied to such 
as seek it, for the Lord says above, Ask, and ye shall 

receive. CHRYS. Then to shew. that this is possible, He says, 
For there are SOUle eunuchs, 
('Izicll were 1nade eunuchs Q/ 
'Jnen; as 1l1uch as to say, Consider, had you been so luade 
of others, you \\Tould haye lost the pleasure 'without gaining 
the rew'ard. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For as the deed \vithout the 
,viII does not constitute a sin; so a righteous act is not in 
the deed unless the ,,,ill go with it. That therefore is 
honolu"able continence, not which ll1utilation of body of 
necessity enforces, but ,vhich the ,,,ill of holy purpose embraces. 
JERO:\IE; He speaks of three kinds of eunuchs, of ,,,b0I11 two 
are carnal, and one spiritual. One, those who are so born of 
their mother's \vomb; another, thpse wholl1 enen1Íes or courtly 
luxury has made so; a third, those who hav"e made the1uselves 
so for the lángdolu of heaven, and \,,110 ll1ight 11ayo been n1en, 
but becolne eunuchs for Christ. To theln the re,vard is 
prolnised, for to the others ,vhost' continence was involuntary, 
nothing is due. HILARY; The cause in one item he assigns 
nature; in the next yiolence, and in the last his own choice, 
in hin1, namely, that detern1Íned to be so froln hope of the 
kingdon1 of heayen. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For they are born such, 
just as others are born having six or four fingers. For if 
God according as He forlHed our bodies in the beginning, 
had continued the same order unchangeably, the working of 
God "rou]d have been brought into- oblivion aluong Inen. 
The order of nature is therefore changed at times fi"On1 its 
nature, that God the fralner of nature 111ay be had in relnelU- 
?f. Orig. brance. JEROJ\IE; Or ,ve may say otherwise. The eunuchs 
III loco fr h . h b h h . d 
"om t elf 1110t ers' won1 s are t ey W ose nature IS col er, 
and not prone to lust. And they that are n1ade so of luen 
are they WhOlll physicians Inade so, or they whon) worship of 



VEIL },J-I!). 


"r. 
J.\ TTITE\\ . 


fj;j!j 


iùol::; ha
 Ina(le ('fll
nlinatc, or who Ji.OIll th
 iufluence of 
her'tieal teaching pret 'ud to chastity, that they Illay there- 
upon claiul truth if)!" thcir tcncts. nut nonc of th(,lll obtain 
the lingtloUl of hea\ ell, 
a,re he olllr wbo has becomc a 
eunuch if)}. Christ's !'akc. "
hcncc it follow:-" lie II l is úle 
t() rcceÙ:c it, let hillt rcceitOe it,. let cach ca!culat,. his own 
strength, whl'ther he is ahle.' to fulfil the rules of yirginit
 
and abstinencc. For in its ,If eontiucnce is 
wcct alHl 
alluring, hut each Inan Hnl
t cOll
i(ler hi
 :strength, that he 
unly that i'3 able l11a)" rt.:cci "C it. I'his is the ,'oice of the 
I 
lJrd l'
horting- and encouraging on ] li
 soldiers to dIe reward 
of chastity, that h<-' who can fig]lt 1llight lìght and conquer 
aud trill111ph. CURl'S. ""hen he says, Jrho hare lJlade 
th II/settees euuuchs, lIe dol's not lucan cutting oft' of lueulbers 
but a putting away of c\.il thoughts. For hc that CUIS ofr a 
linlb is under a curse, for such an one lllHlerlakcs the deeds 
of Illurderers, and opens a door to )lanichcans who .deprcciatc 
the creature, and cut oft' the san1e Illt'lubers as (10 the Gl'ntile:-;. 
For to cut off ulclllbers is of the tClllptation of flælnolls. nut by 
the JlleanS uf which" e ha\'c !'pokl'n desire is not diu1inished 
but Iuadc lllorc urg('nt; f()r it has its source elsewhere, and 
chictl y in a weak purpose and an unguarded heart. For if the 
heart 1)(' well goven1ed, there is no danger froll1 the natural 
luotion:;; nor docs the alnputation of a Illclllbcr bring such 
pcacc1Ì11nt:
s and i llllllunity froln tClllPtation as doe
 a bridl(' 
upon the thoughts. 


13. Then ,vere there brought unto him little 
children, that he should put his hands on thenl, and 
pray: and the disciplcs rebuked then1. 
11. But J eSl1S said, Suffer little children, and 
forbid then1 not, to COllIe unto HIe: for of such is 
the kingdoll1 of heayen. 
13. And he laid his hands on theIn, and departed 
thence. 


J?::;EL' DO-CH RYS. The Lord had been holding discourse of 
cha
tity; and s0111e of IIis llearer:-; no\v brought unto IIin1 infants, 
who in respect of chastity are the pnre
t; for the
Y 
upposerl 

..:2 



GOO 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CIL\.P. XIX. 


that it \vas the pure in body only WhOlll He had appro,.ed; 
and this is that which is said, T!len were brought unto hÙn 
little children, that he should put his hands on the1n, and 
JJray. ORIGEN; For they no\\r understood from IIis previous 
mighty \'
orks, that by laying on of IIis hands and by prayer 
evils were ob, iated. They bring therefore children to Hinl, 
judging that it were impossible that after the Lord had by 
IIis touch con,reyed divine virtue into theIn, han}] or any 
demon should COlne nigh theln. REl\UG. For it was a custonl 
all10ng the ancients that little children should be brought to 
aged persons, to receive benediction by their hand or tongue; 
and according to this custoln little children are now brought 
to the Lord. PSEeDO-CHRYS. The flesh as it delights not in 
good, if it hear any good readily forgets it; but the evil that 
it has it retains e\rer. But a little while before Christ took 
:Matt. a little child and said, Except ye becoJne as tlu.s child, !/e 
18, 3. 
shall not enter into the kingdoJn if !leaven, yet IIis disciples, 
present1y forgetting this innocence of children, now forbid 
chilùren, as tID\yorthy to COlne to Christ. J ERO:\IE; Not 
because they liked not that they should ha'
e benediction of 
the Saviour's hand and mouth; but foraslnuch as their faith 
was not yet perfect, they thought that lIe like other Inen 
would be "rearied by the applications of those that brought 
them. CHRYS. Or the disciples would ha\
e thrust then} 
là
;ld.u", a\vay, fronl respect to ,Christ's dignity 1. But the Lord teaching 
then! holy thoughts, and to subdue the pride of this \vorld, 
took the children into His arms, and pronrised to such the 
kil1gdo111 of hea,.en; But Jeslls saith 
lnto the17
, Suffer little 
children andforbid them not to COJne 'Unto 'Jne,for if suclz 'is 
the k'ingdoJn if Ileaven. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For who \vere 
worthy to COIne to Christ, if simple infancy'were thrust a\vay ? 
Therefore he said, Forúid the1n not. :For if they shall turn 
out saints, why hinder ye the sons froll1 cOIning to their 
J1-'ather? And if sinners, why do ,ye pronounce a sentence of 
condeInnation, before you see any fatùt in them? J ERO:\IE ; 
Anù He said distinctly, Of such -is the k'ingdoJn if heat'ell, 
not Of these, to she"r that it was not years, but disposition 
that determined His judgInent, and that the leward was 
promised to such as had like innocence and silnplicity. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. The present passage instnlcts all parents to 



\ .EU. 13-15. 


sT. 'J.\TTllt:\\. 


()Ul 


hring thcir cJálùren to the priests, fur it is not the priest who 
lays his hanrl
 on thc1n, but Christ, in whose n
lmc hanc1
 arc 
laid. For if he that offers his food ill prayer to G où cats it 

anctificd, for it is sanctified by the 'v.ord of God, and h) 
prayer, as th(' ...\postle 
p('a'ks, ho\\- nIuch rather ought children] Tim. 
to be ofIcred to God, and sanctified? \nd t11is is thl' rea
on 4, õ. 
of hlessing of food, B )cause the u'hole 'U.:orld licth in u'Ícked- 1 John 
}less; so that aU thing:-, that ha'"c hody, ,vhich an\ a great 5, 19. 
part of the world, lic in wickedness. Con
equently infants 
when IJUnl, are as rc!'\pccts t1lcir flesh lving in "ickedness. 
OUIG EN; \IysticaUy; '\'r c c
ùl thenl childrcn who are yet 
canlal in Chri
t, ha\-ing nc 'd of 1nilk. 'rhey who blin
 the babes 
to the Sa, iour, are they 'who prof('s
 to have knowled
e of the 
word, Lut are still 
imple, and haye for their food childrcn's 
lessons, bcing yet novices. They u"ho seCln more pertect, 
and arc therefore the <1i
ciples of Je
us, before they han,' 
learnt the war of righteousness which is for chilùren, rebuke 
tho
e \yho hy 
inlple doctrine Lring to Christ children and 
haùes, that is, such as are less learned. But the 1..on1 ex- 
horting ] lis disciplcs no\v Lecollic 1l1Cn to condescend to 
the Heeds of ùabc
, to be habcs to baLes, that they may 
g-ain habes, 
ays, For if sue/I, is tnp /,,'iJlgdolli if neatY!Jl. For 
lIe J limsclf all)o, ,,"hen lIe ,vas in the fornl of God, was 
111ade a bahe. The
c thing
 we 
hould. attcnd to, lcst in 
clo\tcc1ning tbat more excellent wi"doln, and f'piritual ad- 
yancemcnt, as though wc were becolne great \VC should 
de
pi
c t1IC liulp ones of tht. Church, forbidding children to 
bé brought to Jesus. But since children cannot follow all 
thing" that are cOlnlllanded theIn, Jesuç; laid [lis hand
 upon 
then), anel leaving virtue in thcn1 hv I lis touch, wcnt a".ay 
"' . 
froul thcIn, seeing they ""ere not able to foUow IIÏIll, like dIC 
other 1110rc perfect disciples. RE
IItì. ...\l
o laying I I is hands 
npon then1, I Ie hll'ssed thcIn, to signi(v that tho lowly 
in spirit arc "rorthr Jlis grace and blessing. GLOSS. I Ie GJ(J
S, 
laid 11 is hands upon thctH \vhill' 1Hen held thcln, to sib'llify non occ. 
that thl' grace of I lis aid \\'a
 necessary. II IL \UY; The 
infants are a type of thc Gcntiles, to ","horn sah"atioll is 
rendered by faith and hcaring. JJut the di
ciplc
, in their 
first zeal for thc 
al\"ation of lsrael, forbid thClll to approach, 
IJut the Lord ùeclares that t1H'Y are not to be forhidden. For 



û()2 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


the gift of the lIoly Ghost was to Le conferred upon the 
Gentiles by laying on of hands, as soon as the Law had 
ceased. 


16. And, behold, one canle and said unto him
 
Good Master, ,vhat good thing shall I do, that I 111ay 
have eternal life ? 
17. And he said unto hin1, 'Vhy callest thou 111e 
good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but 
if thou ,vilt enter into life, keep the comlnandillents. 
18. lIe saith unto him, "Thich? Jesus said, Thou 
shalt do no murder, Thou shalt not conlrnit adultery, 
"Tholl shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false 
".itness, 
19. Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou 
shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. 
20. The young lTIan saith unto him, All these things 
}lave I kept from my youth up: ,,,hat lack I yet? 
21. Jesus said unto hinl, If thou ,vilt be perfect, 
go and sel1 that thou hast, and give to the poor, 
and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come 
and follo,v IIle. 
22. But \vhen the young man heard that saying, 
he went away sorro,vful: for he had great pos- 
seSSIons. 


Raban. RABAN. This lnan had, it 111ay be, heard of the Lord, that 
e Bed.in only they who \vere ]ike to little children ,,?ere ".orthy to 
Luc. 
l\Iat.18, enter into the heayenly kingdoll1; but desiring to know n10re 
3. certainly, he asks to ha,-e it declared to hin} not in parables, 
but expressly, by ,vhat 111erits he n1Ïght attJ.1n eten1al life. 
Therefore it is said; Aud, bellold, one canle and said unlo 
h hn, Good lJIaster, 1chat ,qood tlu'n.q .s/lall I do tbat I l1lay 
hare eternal life? JER03IE; He that asks this question is 
both young, rich, and proud, and he asks not as one that 
desires to learn, but as teu1pting HiuJ. This 'ye can pro\'e 
by this, that when the Lord had said lU1tO him, If f hOli It'ilt 



\ ElL 1 ()-:!:l. 


ST. :\J.\TTH En. 


ô()3 


{'Iller ;1110 '!Ie, kt:t!jJ tl, C011l/JlllIUlllleJlls, he further insi- 
<1iollSh' ask"" which are the cOl11Iuandl11cIHS? as if he could 
uot read thenl for hilnc;;elf, or a
 if tho Lord could coulluand 
any thing contrary to thCHI. CHIn:o.. l
ut I for lilY part- Chrys. 
1 } } . b lIotn. 
though I (cny not t lat 10 ,,'as a 10' cr ot 1l10ncy, ecaliSC lxiii. 
Christ COIl' icts hinl a:-- :'\uch, cannot consider hilll to ha,'c 
heen a hypocrite, hecause it is unsafe to decide in uncertain 
cases, and especially in Inaking charges against any. )Iorc- 
0' er ì\lark relllO\"CS all suspicion uf this kind, for he says that l\Iark 
he caBle to IIilll, and l\IlClt before JIilll; and that Jesus 10, Ii. 
,,'hen lIe looked on hiln, lo,'cd hilll. And if he had COlue to 
telllpt 1 Iinl, the E,'angcli
t \vould IUl\"e 
ignified a
 llluch, a
 
he has done in other places. ()r if he had said nothing 
thcreof
 Christ would not hayo sufiered hinI to be hid, but 
would either lun 0 COIn iCh.d hiln openly, or ha\"e co'"ertly 
suggested it. But lIe docs not this; for it fol1ows, Ill' sa ;11t 
unto hÙn, If hy lu;kest thou lJle concerning !lood? ,.lcG. This Aug', 
1 . I ' 1 I 1 . . lf 7 /. de Cons. 
Bray Seenl a (lSCrcpancy, t Iat H aU 10\V lcrc gn-es It, '!I Ev. ii. 
((ski'sl thou Ille cOllc('r,,;ng goud? whercas l\Iark and Luke ü3. 
ha\pe, IT.lty callesl tholl Ule !lood? For thi'":>, JV'hy askesl thOll 
}JlP concerning good? Inay sceln rather to be referred tu his 
quc,",tiou, rr7llit good thing .'ilu,1l I do? for in that he both 
11ll'ntiol1ed good, and asked a question. But this, Good 
.J.1111sler, is Hut Jct 3 (lucstion. Either sentence Iua)" be 
u1H.1erstood ÙIU
 ,'cry appropriatel) to the passage. J.ERO)lE; 
But hL'can
e he had sty led IIinl Guod 
laster, and had not 
cOllfe
sed 11illl as God, or as the 
Oll of God, II c tells hilU, 
that in cOluparison of God there is nu saint to be called good, 
of ,,110]11 it is 
aid, CfOI!lè
s unto 'he I úrd,..for he is good; Ps. us, 
and thcrcfè)rc lIe 
ay
, There is one good, tit l is, God. I
ut 1. 
that nonc should suppose that hy this the Ron of l; otI j..: 
exellldl.d ii.Olll heing- good, "c rca,..! in another place, 11,e JohnlO, 
good I
flll)p" JJ'd la!le/Ii dUlcn !tis liJè ./'01' Itis sltclïJ. \CG. Or, 
I 
 . de 
becau
' h(' ...ought ctcrnal life, ((lud l'terllal life con
ists in Tri
. i. 

llch COIlH..nlplatioll in which God is beheld not {'(nO punish- 13. 
Hlcnt, but for c\'erlasting joy.) and kllC'W nut "with w}l(nn he 

pake, but thought 11 iln only a Son of 
Ian, therc{{noe lIe 
says, If by fiske....! II'OIl /lIe cOl/l'eruil/!/ !loud, calling HIe in 
re
p 'ct of what 
 ou sce in Ine, Good 
lastcr? 'This fonn uf 
the 
on uf \Ian 
lrall appear in the jndgnlent
 not to the 



66-1 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CH
\.r. XIX. 


righteous only, but to the \vicked, and the very sight shall be 
to thcln an c\Til, and their punishment. But there is a sight of 
l\fy fOrIn, in \vhich I am equal to God. That one God therefore, 
Fathcr, Son, and Holy Spirit, is alone good, because none see 
Him to mourning and SOlTO'V, but only to salvation and true 
joy. J ERO:l\IE; For Our Sa\YÍour does not r
ject this \yitness to 
His goodness, but cOl"rected the error of calling IIÏ1n Good 
l\Iaster apart froln God. C HRYS. 'Vherein then \vas the profit 
that lIe answered thus? He leads hiIn by degrees, and teaches 
hilll to lay aside false flattery, and rising above the things 
,,"hich are upon earth to cleave to God, to seek things to 
COlnc, and to know lIiln that is truly good, the root and 
source of CYel"Y good. ORIGEN; Christ also ans\rers thus, 
because of that lIe said, JJ 7 hat good thing shall I do? For 
\v hen \\TC depart fro1n cvil and do good, that \'" hich we do 
is called good by cOlnparison \vith \\'hat other men do. But 
,vhen cOll1pared with absolute good, in the sense in which 
it is here said, There is one good, our good is not good. But 
some one may say, that because the Lord knew that the 
IJurpose of him \\'ho thus asked Him \vas not eycn to do 
such good as lnan can do, that therefore He said, 1VltU 
asl.:esl t!tOZl 1ne concerning good? as much as to say, 'Vhy 
do YOll ask lne concerning good, seeing you aloe not prepared 
to do what is good. nut after this He says, If thOlt wilt 
enter info Iffi', keep the COJll1JZalldJnents. 'Vhcre note, that 
lIe speaks to him as yet standing \vithout life; for that man 
is in one sense \vithout life, \vho is without Hiln \vho said, 
I ant the I ij'e. Other\vise, every luan upon earth may be, 
not in life itself, but only in its shado,v, while he is clad in a 
hody of death. But any InaIl shall en tel" into life, if he keep 
11ÏlTIself froln dead works, and seek living works. But there 
are dead ,yords and Ii \'iug ,vords, also dead thoughts and 
li\Ying thoughts, and therefore lIe says, If t'tOll u"ilt enter 
An
. into lij'e, keep the C0111lllaudnzenls. AUG. And fIe said not, 
Ser
n" r I' l 
84, 1. If thou desirest }ife eternal; but, 
 thOll u"ilt enter into ife, 
calling that sill1ply life, ,vhich shall be everlasting. II ere 
'vc should consider how eternal life should be lo,'ed, when 
this n1Ïserable and finite life is so lO\Tcd. l{El\IIG. These 
,yords pro\'e that the La\v ga\'e to such as kept it not only 
ten1poral pron1Ïses, but also life eternal. And because the 



\' 11: H. 16-
:!. 


ST. '1 \TTHE\V. 


f.()j 


hearing tllesl' things lnadc hilll thoughtful, lIe 
'llitlt Ullto 
";'11, JJ7,ich I CIlIrn'\o 'fhis he 
aid not to telnpt ] lilli, Inlt 
bccau...e he Co\upposed that t)wy were other tlmn tlu\ COJIJ- 
lnan<1nlellts of the Law, which should be the III cans of life to 
hiIJI. RF.:\IIG. ",\n<1 .Jcsn
, condescending as to a ,\"eak one, Illost 
graciously set out to hillllhe precepts of the I..a\\; .Jeslls said, 
17uJU shalt c/u /10 111111"der; and of all these preccpts folIo,,'s 
the cxpo
itiou, ,Aud Iholl shalt lore Ih!! 11l'ighboll1" a,
 tltYSLlJ: 
For the _\ po::.;tle say:;, J r /ioso Lv . Jilt Ilis IIrigltúoul" luts jìtlJi'hJd Provo 
o . 1 [ d 1 13, 10. 
flu J liur? ]Jut It !'hould Le cnqlllred, why t IC ....01' la
 
cllu1uerated only the precepts of the Secoud Table? Perhap
 
bccaus' this Joung luan waC) zealous ill the love of God, 
or bc(:au
w lo'"c uf our neighbour is thc step 1)' which \\"c 
a'-'cclld to the love of (;0<1. ()Inca::\; Or perhaps these 
prec(;pts arc cnough to introduce one, if I Inay say so, to 
t)u.\ entrancc of lifc; but neither these, nor an,,. like them, 
arc enough to conduct one to the Illore inward parts of life. 
]Jnt;. whoso transgresses one of thcse cOllllnandulcnts, shall 
not c'-en cOBle to the entrance in unto life. CIIRY
. nut 
ùecause all the COllllllanduH:l1t,; that the Lord had recounted 
wen
 contaiued in th(\ Law, The YOU11g 111a1l saillt unto ltÙll, 
.A lllltcsc Ita It' I kept .(1"0111 III Y youllt 'Up. ...\.nd did not c\ en 
rc"t there, but a"ked fiuther, JT 7ult lac/.: 1 yel? which alone 
is c.1. IHark of his intense desire. RE:\IIG. ßut to thos(\ who 
,ronld be perfcct in grace, Ill' she" s how they lUa) COlne to 
pcrfection, Jeslls saillt unto llÙJl, 1}' thou 'U"ilt be pe
rect, go, 
and sell nil tltill thOll !iasl, and giz-e to llu" poor. 
rark the 
wonls; 11 e said not, Go, and consuluc all thou hast; hut 
("'0, UJul s ,lli aud 110t SOIlle, as did ...\nanias and Sapphira, 
hut ..Ill. And \ycll lIe added, tl,at II,VIl hast, for \\hat \'"c 
ha,.c arc our lawful possessions. 1'ho
e therefore Ùlat he 
justly possess '<1 '\.crc to be sold; ,\"hat had heen gained 
unjustly were to be restored to those froul whoul they had 
becn taken. \lld lie ",aid not, Gi,'e to thy llcighbours, nor 
to the rich, but to lite poor. ...\CG. Xor need it b
 Jl1ade a Aug. de 
1 . 1 " 1 . ) ' L 1 f Op. "0- 
scrup C 111 W lat IllOllastencs, or to t lC IIll 1gent ret Iren 0 nach.2:>. 
what place, any one brj'"e
 those things that hc ha
, for there 
j" hut onc cOlnnlonwea1th of all Chri
tialls. 11lCrcfon
 where- 
soever any C)n;
tian has lai(I out his good
, in all places 
alike he ,hall receÍ\ c what is necessary for hiu1sclf, 
hall 
r('cei,"c it of that which i6 Christ's, H.\ll.\
, Hce 1\\'0 ],:inds 



(}üû 


GOsPEI
 ..\.CCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XIX, 


of life "Thich we ha\Te heard set before Inen; the Active, to 
which pertains, Tholl shalt not kill, and the rest of the Law; 
and the Contenlplative, to which pertains this, If thOll u'ilt 
be pel:fect. The actiye pertains to the La\v, the conteulpla- 
tive to the G-ospel; for as the Old Testa1nent \vent before 
Aug. the New, so good action goes before contelnplation. A VG. 
cont. 
Fau
t, Nor are such only partakers in the kingdoln of heaven, "rho, 
v, 9. to the end they lnay be perfect, sell or part with aU that they 
haye; but in these Christian ranks are nunlbered by reason 
of a certain cOInmunication of their charity a multitude of 
hired troops; those to ,yhom it shall be said in the end, 
l\Iat.25, I u;as hungry, and ye gal.e llze to eat
. wholn be it far from 
35. us to consider excluded from life eternal, as they \"ho obey 
Hieron: not the conllllands of the Gospel. J ERO:l\IE; That Yïgilantius 
cont, V 1- th h I . h f I . I 
gilant. asserts at t ey W 10 retaIn tense 0 t lell. property, anc 
15, fronl tilne to titHe divide their inc01ues anlong the poor, do 
better than they ".ho sell their possessions and lavish theln 
in one act of charity, to hill}, not 1, but God shall Inake 
ans,,'er, If thou ,,'ilt be perfect, Go and sell. That \vhich 
you so extol, is but the second or third grade; \rhich we 
indeed adlnit, only rClllelnbering that what is first is to be 

enna- set before what is third or second. PSEUDO-.ÅTG. It is good 
dms, de d ' " b . I d . ... I . . b 
Ec
les. to 1st1'1 ute wIt 1 1SCnUllnatlon to t le poor; It IS etter, 
D,ogm, with resohTe of following the I
ord, to strip one's self of all at 
36, once, and freed froln anxiety to suffer want ,,-ith Christ. 
CHRYS, And because lIe spal{e of riches warning us to strip 
oursehTes of thenl, He pron1Ïses to repay things greater, by 
how luuch heaven is greater than earth, and therefore He 
says, And t/tOlt shalt haee treasure Ùt /te{ll'en. By the word 
treasure He denotes the abundance and endurance of the 
reward. 
ORIGEN; If every conllnandlnent is fulfilled in this one 
\vord, Tholl shalt loee thy ueighbolll" as tllyselj, and if he 
is perfect \vho has fulfilled every cOl1lluand, ho\v is it that 
the Lord said to the young Inan, If thou ,yilt be pelfect, 
\vhen he had declared, AUtllese llat"e I kept fronl lny youth 
up. Perhaps that he says, Tholl shalt lore thy neighbour as 
thyself, was not said by the Lord, but added by SOllIe one, 
for neither 
lark nor Luke ha'"c gÏ\Ten it in this place. Or 
other\yise; It is written in the Go
pel a according to th(' 
a See abon', r" 4, note h, 



\" E H. I (j':-
:,? 



 1'. l\L\TTIII:\\Oo 


(;(;7 


Ilt:brews, that, whl'll the Lord 
aic1, (,
o, (lJul .\flU all ilia 
tltOI hast, the rich lIHUl hegan to scratch his head, being 
displeased with the ::.aying. 111C11 the Lord saitl uuto hill), 
] [ow sayest thou, I ha'"c kept the La,,", and thp Prophcts, 
since it is \\Titt \ll in the La\'", Tlwil shalt lorc thy ueif/hbollr 
(l.
 tlt!/s('(f! For ho\\- 1l1any uf thy hrethren sons of Abrahalu, 
cluthed in filth, perish for hunger? 11l)' house is full of 
1nany good thing
, and nothing goes thcrcout to thCIU. The 
Lord theIl, desiring to COIl' ict this rich Inan, ha) s to hinI, 

,. iholt lcili b 
 per 'eet, go aud sell all I Itat i hOll lUNd, 
((lid !lire to tile poor; for so it will bc seen if thou dost 
indecd ]O\'C thy lleighhour as thy
elf. TInt if IH' i
 perfect 
who has all the virtues, how does he bcconlC perfèct who 

C'llh .111 that he has ..lIul gÏ\-cc; to thc poor? For 
llppOSC onc 
to ha,.c llone this, will he therehy becoIllc forthwith free rroln 
anger, desire, ha\ iug e,-cry \-irtuc, and abandoning aU vice? 
Perhap
 wisdollI Jnay suggest, that he that ha
 gi\.Cll his 
goods to the poor, is aided by their prayers, recci,"ing of their 

piritnal abundance to his ,,-ant, and is 1uade in this way 
pertl'et, though he Inay ha\'(' SOll1P l11unan pa,
ion
. Or 
thus; [Ie that thus cxchangcù hi" riches for poverty, in order 
that h(' lllight becomc perfect, shall ha'9c as,istanc(' to becolue 
,,"ise in Christ, ju
t, chaste also, and dc\"oid of an passion; 
but not so as that in thc nlOlllent ,,"hen he ga'"c up all his 
good
, hc should fort11\\Oith bl'colnc perfect; but only that fi.onl 
that day forward the contc1l1plation of God \\ ill begin to 
brin
 l1iln to all \-irtues. Or again, it \viH pass into a l110ral 
('xposition, and :-;ay, that the posscssions of a lHan an' the 
acts of hi, Inind. Christ then bids a luan to sell all his c\"il 
P{)

c

ions, and a
 it were to gi'9c thcln o\"er to the \"irhlC'b 
,,"hieh :-;honld work the salllC, wh:'-'h ".cre poor in all that is 
good. For as the peacc of the \po,-,tle::; returns to thcm again, ,rat.IO, 
unlc
:o, thert' b,. a bon of pcace, so all sins return upon their 13. 
actors, when onc win no longer iJHll1]gc his C\ ìl propensitie
; 
and thu
 there can hc no doubt that he will ::;traightway 
b,\conl P perfect who in thi
 !'\cn
c sells 
ùl hi:-- po

eb
ions. [t 
is lnanitc
t that he that docs these things, has trca
nre in 
hca'-en, and i
 hilll
C]f Leconlc of hea\"cn; and ]ll"' will haxe 
in hea,'en treasnr(' of Gocl'
 glory, and riches in all (;od'
 
".is(lonl. :-:11(' h an onf' will h(' ahl(' to follow Christ, for h ' 
has no c\ it po!'
e

ion to (Ira\\ hinl ocr fronl '0 1l,l1owing" 



668 


GOSPEL ACCOnDI
O TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


JEROl\IE; For many who lea\'e their I"iches do not therefore 
folIo\v the Lord; and it is not sufficient for perfection that. 
they despise Inoney, unless they also follo\v the Sa\'iour, that 
unless haying forsaken evil, they also do ,,,hat is good. For 
it is easier to contemn the hoard than quit the propensity b ; 
therefore it follo\vs, And COlne and follow 'Jne; for he follows 
the Lord \\.ho is his imitator, and who \\Talks in his steps. It 
follo\vs, And wlten tlte young 'Jnan llad lleard these w01'ds, lte 
'lrent alray SOl"1"OlEful. This is the sorrow that leads to death. 
And the cause of his SOlTO\V is added, fO'l' lie llad great 
jJosSeSSiol1s, thon1s, that is, and briars, ,,'hich choked the 
110ly lea,"en. CHRYS. For they that llave little, and they that 
abound, are not in like measure enculnbered. For the acqui- 
sition of riches raises a greater Halne, and desire is Il10re 
Aug. violently kindled. ACG. I kno,v not how, but in the love of 

p. 31, worldly superfluities, it is what we haye already got, rather 
than w.bat \ve desire to get, that 1110St strictly enthrals us. For 
,,'hence \-yent this young Inan a \yay sorrowful, but that he 
had great possessions? It is one thing to lay aside thoughts 
of fUI"ther acquisition, and another to strip ourselves of ,,,hat 
we haye already made our o""n; one is only rejecting ,,-hat 
is not ours, the other is like parting \vith one of our O\Vn 
limbs. ORIGEN; But historically, the young man is to be 
praised for that he did not kill, did not commit adultery; but 
is to be blalned for that he sorro\\.ed at Christ's ,vords calling 
him to perfection. He \-vas young indeed in soul, and there- 
fore leaving Christ, he \vent his "Tay. 


23. Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily I 
say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into 
the kingdom of heaven. 
24. And again I say unto you, It is easier for a 
cainel to go through the eye of a needle, than for 
a rich Inan to enter into the kingdolll of God. 
25. 'Vhen his disciples heard it, they were ex- 
ceedingly amazed, saying, 'Vho then can be saved '1 
26. But Jesus beheld them, and said unto theIn, 


b Vallarsi reads '\"oluptas,' which 'It is easier to reliLquish avarice_than 
would seem to make the passage mean, pleasure.' 



VEIL 23-72ö. 


sT. \L\TTllE\\". 


tj(j9 


'''"ith nlcn this is ilnpossible; but \vith God all things 
are possible. 


GLO
:-\. The l.4ord took occasion from this rich Ulan to Gloss. 
hold di
coursc concen1Ïll!! the CO\yctous; Then .
aid Je"Hlb" aP I . An- 
'-" se 111. 
fl1lio Ilis disciples, l T erily I say Ullto you, 
.c. CUUYs. "That 
IT c spoke ".a
 not condelnning ric lIes in themseh-cs, but those 
\\"ho \verc eusla\'c<l h) thell}; also cncouraging Jlis disciples 
that hcing poor they should not be ashallled by rcason of 
their PO\ erty. I [IL.\RY; To ha,.c ricl1cs is no sin; but 
lllodcration i
 to be observcd in our having
. For ho\v 
hal1 
w ' connnullicate to the necessitics of thc saint
, if \YC ha,pc 
not out of what we tnay cOllullunicate? R_\BA
. TIut though 
there be a ùillcreuce bctwecn having and loving riches, yet 
it is safer neither to have nor to love them. RE
IIG. 'Vhence 
in l\Iark the Lord expounding t11e 111eaning of this saying, 

pcaks thus, It is !tard .(or tltenl t!tat trust ill ric!tes to enter l\Iark 
into tile kingdol1l of lUlal"el1. They tnlst in riche
, who build 10, 24. 
all thcir hOI)es on thelll. J EHO\lE; Because riches once 
gained are hard to be despised, TIe 
aith not it is ilnpossible, 
but it is hard. Difficulty docs not illlply the ilnpossihility, 
hut points out the infrequcllcy of the occurrencc. IIILARY; 
11 is a dangerous toil to bcconlc rich; and guiltlessness 
occupied in incrcasing its ""l'alth has takcn upon itself 
a sore burden; thc sen.allt of God gains not the thing
 
of the \vorld, clear of the sins of the world. IIcHce is the 
difficulty of entering the kingdom of hca,'cn. CHUYS. IIaving 
sai(l that it was hard for a rich luan to enter into thp kingdo1n 
of lu.'a,.en, lIe no\v procccd
 to 
hc". that it is ÏInpossiblc, 
.And nJflin I say unto you, It is eosier for a calìlel to gn 
inrollgli the eye if a needle, tllan for a rich lnan in enter 
into th kiJl!}dom if hear 
Jl. JERO:\IF.; ..\ccording to this, no 
rich Inan l'an be saved. nut if \\ e read I
aiab, ho\\y thc Is. GO, 
caulcls of 
lidi
n and T:phah calnc to Jcrusa1elTI \\"ith gifts 6. 
and presents, and the)" \\"ho once '\"cre crooked and bowcd 
down U} the weight ()f thcir sill
, cntcr the gatcs of J erllsalcul, 
"c shall see how' these cau1eh., to which the rich are likened 
".hcn thev ha\"e laid &.l
idc the he
l\ y load of 
in
, and the 
distortion uf their whole bodies, Inay then entcr Ly that 
narrow auel 
(rait way that leads to life. 



(;70 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CIL\.P. XIX. 


PSEUDO-CHRYS. The Gentile souls are likened to the ùefonned 
body of the calnel, in \vhich is seen the hUlllpback of idolatry; 
for the kno\\Tledge of God is the exaltation of the soul. The 
needle is the Son of God, the fine point of\vhich is I-lis divinity, 
and the thicker part ,,,hat He is according to His incarnation. 
But it is altogether straight and \\rithout turning; and through 
the wonlb of His passion, the Gentiles have entered into life 
eternal. By this needle is se\\rn the robe of inunortality; it is 
this needle that has se\Vn the flesh to the spirit, that has 
joined together the J e\vs and the Gentiles, and coupled man 
in friendship \vith angels. It is easier therefore for the 
Gentiles to pass through the needle's eye, than for the rich 
Je\vs to enter into the kingdon1 of heayen. For if the 
Gentiles are ,vith such difficulty withdra\vn fron1 the irra- 
tional \vorship of idols, ho\v much 1110re har<Uy shall th
 
J e\vs be \vithdra\\Tn froln the reasonable sen-ice of God? 
Gloss. GLOSS. It is eXplained otherwise; That at J erusalen1 there 


n
n- \vas a certain gate, called, The needle's eye, through which 
a camel could not pass, but on its bended knees, and after 
its burden had been taken off; and so the rich should not 
be able to pass along the narro\v way that leads to life, till 
he had put off the burden of sin, and of riches, that is, by 
Gn'g. ceasing to love theu1. GREG. Or, by the rich Ulan He intends 
Mol', an y one who is l )roud , bv the caulel he denotes the ri g ht 
xxxv. J 
16, hUI1Ülity. The can1el passed through the needle's eye, when 
our Redeenler through the narro\V \vay of suffering entered 
in to the taking upon IIÎ1n death; for that passion 'was as a 
needle \vhich pricked the body with pain. But the can1el 
enters the needle's eye easier than the rich Ulan enters the 
kingdo1l1 of heaven; because if I--Ie had not first shewn us by 
His passion the fonn of His humility, our proud stiffness 
would ne,'er have bent itself to His lowliness. CHRYS. The 
disciples though poor are troubled for the sah
ation of others, 
Aug. beginning even no\v to have the bo\vels of doctors. 
\.CG. 
Quæst. 'Vhereas the rich are fen" in cOlllparison of the nuùtitude of 
"Ey, I, 
26, the poor, we nl11st suppose that the disciples understood aU 
who ,vish for riches, as included in the nUJl1ber of the rich. 
CHRYS. This therefore lIe proceeds to she\v is the work of 
God, there needing much grace to guide a man in the n1Îdst 
of riches; But JeSllS belteld theJu, and srtid unto theJn, TrUll 
1nen tlds is Ùnposs
'ble, but 1citlt God all thin!Js are possible. 



\ EI{. 
1-:30. 


"T, 'I.\TTIIL\\, 


671 


Jh tIll' wortllJ('/u4d III( J 1It, the 14:'"aIlge1i
t cou\'ey
 that lIe 
soothed tlH'ir trouùlc(} s0ul hy I lis l11crciflll eye. HE
IIG. 
'l'his 111114 uot he 
o understoud a
 tllongh it "eft.' possihlc 
lèn' GO(} to cause that the rich, the l'O,"ctOllS, the avaricioll
, 
and the proud should cuter into thp kingdolll of hea, en; but 
to canst.' hilll to Lt. con\ l'rteò, and 
o enter. CJIRY
, \nd 
this is 110t said that )"ou should 
it 
lll'inely, and let alOlll wbat 
nla
 SCûIl1 iUlpossihilities; but consiò .ring the greatnt..ss of 
righteol1Slll\SS, ) on should ::-tri, (' to enter ill "ith entreaty 
to G 0<1. 


'27. Then ëU1s,vcred l>etcr and said unto hin1, 
]
('hohl, ,,"c ha, c forsaken all, and follo,,"cd thee; 
,vhat shall \YC have thcrcfore ! 
28. .\nd Jesus said unto them, 'crily I say unto 
)"Oll, fhat yc ,,,hich have follo,,"cd Ine, in thc rege- 
neration ,vhcn the Son of rnan 
hall sit in the throne 
of his glory, yc also shall sit upon t,velye thrones, 
judging the twel\"e tribes of IsraeL 
29. .L\nd everyone that l1ath forsaken houses, or 
brethren, or sisters, or father, or 111other, or ,,"ife, or 
children, or lands, for lUY naInc's sake, shall receive 
an hundred fold, and shall inherit cvcrlasting life. 
30. But Inany that are first shall be last; and the 
last shall be first. 


()HHi E:\; Peter had heard the ""on1 of Christ when I [e 
said, 1)" tlioll wilt he lJe/fi'ct, 9 (lnd 8)11 all tluLl thou Ilast. 
1'hcn he obsen ed that the )"oung Ulan had departed 
orrowful, 
and considerc(l the di1Jìeu1ty of ri('he
 t}ntering into the kiHgdolll 
of hean:n; and thereupo11 he put tbis (lllestioJ) c o nli(lentlyas 
on(' \vhu had achic,'ed 110 l asr lnatt('T. ],'or though what he 
"ith his brother had }('ft bellind thClfl \{"ere hut little thing..., 
yet. were they not l'
:teelllcd a
 little with God, who consiòereò 
that out of the tlllncss of thcir love thc\ had 
o forsaken those 
lca
l things, a:-, they ,,"ould have for
ah.l'n the greatc
t thing's 
if th(,y had had theIne 
o ]>eter, thinking rather of his ,,"in 
than of the intrinsic, alnc of the 
acrific(', a,ked I finl confi- 



{j7
 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


Chr)rs. dent1y, Behold, we have left all. CHRYS. 'Vhat \vas this all, 

f

' 0 blessed Peter? The reeds, YOlU net, and boat. But this 
he says, not to can to Inind his o\vn IuagnanÏ1nity, but in 
order to propose the case of the nlultitude of poor. .L<\ poor 
Jnan migllt have said, If I have nought, I cannot becolne 
perfect. l
eter therefore puts this question that you, poor 
Jnan, may lean1 that you are in nothing behind. For he had 
already received the kingdom of heaven, and therefore secure 
of \vhat was already there, he no\v asks for the \vhole world. 
And see how carefully he fralnes his question after Christ's 
requirements: Christ required t\\"o things of a rich luan, to 
give what he had to the poor, and to follow Jlinl; \vhereforc 
he adds, and have ...follo'lced thee. ORIGEN; It n1ay be said, 
In all things ,,
hich the Father re\
ealed to Peter that the 
Son "'as, righteousness, sanctification, and the like, in all 
\ve ha\re follo\,red Thee. Therefore as a ,
ictorious athlete, 
he no\v asks what are the prizes of his contest. J ERO
IE ; 
Because to forsake is not enough, he adds that which 
makes pelfection, and have follou'ed tltee. \Ve have done 
,vhat thou con1mandedst us, what reward wilt thou then give 
us? T-JI"ltat shall u.e have? JERO:\IE; He said not only, 
Ye 'll"ho have left all, for this did the philosopher Crates, 
and n1any other \vho have despised riches, but added, and 
have follolDed 1ne, ,,
hich is peculiar to the Apostles and 
belie\7ers. HILARY; 'The disciples had followed Christ in 
tlte regeneration, that is, in the la\Tcr of baptism, in the sancti- 
fication of faith, for this is that regeneration \vhich the Apo- 
stles follo\ved, and which the Law could not bestow. J ERO:\IE; 
Or it Inay be constructed thus, Ye -which llave follo'loed 'JJle, 
sltall in tile 'J o egenel'atioll sit, 

c.; that is, "7hen the dead 
shall rise froln con'uption incorrupt, you also sllall sit on 
thrones of judges, condeull1Íng the tweh
e tribes of Israel, 
Aug. de for that they \voldd 110t believe \vhen you belie\"ed. AUG. 
Civ.Dei, Thus our flesh will be regenerated by inconLlPtion, as our 
xx. õ. 
soul also shall be regenerated by faith. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For 
it \vould come to pass, that in the day of judgnlent the Jews 


h The later editions of the Catena, named by Origen whom S. Jerome in 
and nearly all the Mss. of Jerome, this place foHow::;, and as being often 
read 'Socrates.' but Vallarsi adopts alluded to by S. Jerome. This is fur- 
the reading of a few Mss., Crates, as ther supported by the ED. PR. of the 
more agreeable to hi
tory, as being Catena. 



\'EI
. 
7-8u. 


ST. 'I.\TTHL". 


(i 7:j 


would 
l1lcg-c, I Jon1 we linc,,- 'I'IICf' 1llJt to be the ::)on of { ; u(1 
\\ }WIl Thou wast in the' lIc
h. For who can (lisc('rn a tn'asnrt' 
huric(l ill the g-rouIHl, or th 
 :'llU WhCll oL"curcd hy a cloud? 
'rh,. disciple,.., th 'rcforc win thcn ans\\,pr, ".. e also ".cre Illcn, 
and pca
ants, ol)sL'ure H1Hollg the nlu1titl\de lHlt you l'ril'sls 
alH] scrihcs; but in us a right will 1)CraBle as it were a lalliI' 
of our ignorance, hut yon1" .,yil will betalue to yon a h1il1din
 
uf) onr 
cil'n('('. CIIRY:,\. IIp thcref()TC 
aid not the (Jcnti1t,s 
and the whoh
 ,,-orld, but, 111(' t,.ifle!>; (!f Isruel, 1H'cause th.> 
.\ postlú
 and th
.J cws had been hronght up uncI 'r the 
a1l1e 
Jaws I1IHl l'UstOIHS. So that when tlIp .Jews "honhI ple:ul 
that the)" cunltl not l)('lievc in Chri
t, hecause they ""ere 
hindered hy their La,,-, tht" disciph's ,,-in be hrought f()..ward, 
,,"hn had the 
anH' La,,". J\ut 
Ollle OIlC Inar say, ""hat gn'at 
thing is thig, ,,-hell both the 
ïIlC,"itcs aud tht' (}llCell of the 
South will ha'"c th<, sanlc? lie had ùeforc and will again 
pron1Îst' thenl thc highcst rewards; and eYf"H no\\" 1 Ie ta<:itl
. 
con\"cys s01l1ething of the sallH
. For of those others lIe ha(l 
nn]y said, that thcy :::,hall 
it, and 
han conc1clllll this gen<,ra- 
tion; but lip no\\ says to t1h' (lisciplc
, If7/('JI lite S(JlI (
r 
J/flll t hall sit, ye alsu shall sil. It is clear the1l that thcr 
shall reib'11 with TTiIU, anrl shall 
harc in that glory; for it 
is such honour ..\11<1 glory utlspC'akahh' that TIp intcnds 1).v 
thp t!t ron 's. I [ow is this pron1Ïsc fulfilled? 
hall J uùas 
sit t\111ong thcln? By no Inean
. For the law W3(.) t11u") 
nrdainl'd of the Lonl hy J crl'u1Ïah thc Prophet, I will ð}WlIk Jcr. 18, 
it IIprll 1J1Y peoplt., and UpOIl lltc killgdoJlI, 'hal I IJlfty build, 9. 
alld plll'" ii, JJul (l it do cril il1 111!1 ..âgltl, tliel lrill l 
repcnl 1/1(' (J 'l1u' !load Ic!t;ch 1 ,
lIid [ would d J 10 Ihenl; 
3
 Innch as to 
ay, If th 'Y 1llake tl1 'Insch"cc; unworthy of the 
prolllisl
, I ,,"ill no 111orf' pcrfonn that T proluiscl1. But 
J ndas "hewed hil)l
l'1f uuworthy of the prel'IHiIleIH.
('; ,dH'n'- 
for(' when I I,. ga\ e this prolui')' to 1 Ii;:) discipl'8, Ill' did not 
protlliH' it ahsulntcly f()r TIe "aiel not, Y'l' 
han sit, hut, Ye 
lrhich hall'. ùll()lced I/1C ."lutll sit; ..It ollce l'xclndin
 Jllda
, 
and :uhnitting Sl1
h ac; should be in afl 
r tinle; for neither \nlS 
the proluisp COil tined to thcll1 only, nor yet did it il1C]lldt. 
J l1tlas ,,-ho ha(l alrea(ly shewn hi U1ScIf nu( lC
:l'n'illg, II II..\ HY; 
1'hcir following Christ in thus c
a1tiIlg the ...\po
tle" to tWeh'(
 
thronc
 to judge t h<, twe h"e trihc
 of I 
fLl. '1, :\:':"-tlciatcd thcJn 


,or.. I. 



 \. 



G7-1 


Gu:,-PEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


Aug.ubi in the glory of the twelve Patriarchs. ArG. Froln this pas- 
sup. sage ".e learn that Jesus will judge ,vith His disciples; 
l\!at.12, whence lIe says in another place to the Jews, Tlterefo'J"e shall 
21. they be YOU1" judges. And \yhereas lIe says ther shall sit 
upon t\velye thrones, we need not think that twelye persons 
only shall judge with Hilll. For by the nunlber twelve is 
signified the whole nlunber of those that shall judge; and 
that because the nUlnber seven which generally represents 
cOlnpleteness contains the t\yO nUlnbers four and three, which 
nluhiplied together nlake twelve. For if it were not so, as 
l\Iatthias was elected into the place of the traitor Judas, the 
Apostle Paul \yho laboured lnore than they all should not 
have place to sit to judge; but he shews that he ,vith the 
l'est of the saints pertains to the nlullber of judges, when he 
1 Cor. 6, says, Know ye 120t that u'e shall judge Angels? ID. In the 

l1g. nunlber of judges therefore are included all that ha\Te left 
Serm. their all and followed the Lord. GREG. For whosoeyer, 

r
g
' urged by the spur of divine lo,-e, shall forsake ,,,hat he 


r, x. possesses here, shall ,,"ithout doubt gain there the elninence 
of judicial authorit.y; and shall appear as judge ,,,ith the 
Judge, for that he no\v in consideration of the judgulE;nt 
Aug, de chastens hinlself bv a voluntary poverty. ALG. The saIne 
Civ,Dei, h d d ol f . . f 1 
xx. 5. 01 s goo , by reason 0 thIS ntlln bel" t\velye, 0 those t tat 
are to be judged. For ,,,hen it is said, Judging the tll"elre 
tJ ibes, yet is not the tribe of Le\
, \vhich is the thirteenth, 
to be exelnpt froln being judged by then1; nor shall they 
judge this nation alone, and not also other nations. PSEUDO- 
CHRYS. Or, by that, In the 1"egelleralioll, Christ designs 
the period of Christianitr that should be after I-lis ascension, 
in which men were regenerated by baptisnl; and that is the 
tÍ1ne in which Christ sate on the throne of IIis glory. And 
hereby you Inay see that He spake not of the tÏ1ne of the 
judgnlent to COlne, but of the calling of the Gentiles, in that 
He said not, IVhen the Son of 11Ian shall COJlle sitting 'Upon 
the th rone qf his 71zajesty; but only, In tIle regeneration 
'lvhen he shall sit, \,"hich ,vas froln the tilne that the Gentiles 
Ps.47, began to believe on Christ; according to that, God shall reign 
t(. orer lite Iteafhen; God sltfetlt upon his holy throne. FroIl) 
that tilne also the Apostles ha\Te sat upon t\\"clye thrones, 
that i
, oyer aU Chri
tian
; for eyer,V Christian" ho recci,"es 



\ I..H. -27 -30. 


ST. '1.\rnll'W. 


(i7., 


111" word uf J Jeter, U<"<':OI11 'S Peter's throne, and bo of the rest 
of thl' A postll'
. ()IJ thl'sl' tll1()nc
 th(,11 thl' Apostles ,-,it, 
parcelled into t\n.l\-c di, isiolls, after the \'ariet)" of lllinds 
and hearts, known to G od onl
. For as tht: .J 'wi
h nation 
""as split into t\\ l
ln' trihes, 
() is the wholc Chri
tian }H'ople 
di,-idl'd into tweh-e, so as that SOlllC sOtùs are llUl11bl'r'll 
with thp trihl
 of l
eubell, and 
o of th(' rest, according to 
their sC\-l'ral (Lualities. For all ha\'(' not all graces alike, 011C 
i", excellent in thi
, another in that. _\nel so thp _'\po
tle
 
will judge the tweln' triLc
 of lsra('l, that i
, all thc .TC\\ =', 
by this, that the Gentiles recci,"cd the A {Jostles' word, "fhc 
whole hody of Christian
 arc indeed twel ,'e thrones for 
tll
 A po:-;tll'
, hut one throne? for Christ. For alll
' cen('ncic
 
arc Lut oue throne for Christ, for IJe alone is equal]y pC'lfc('t 
in an \-irtucs, But of the .\ po
tlcs each oUC' is n10rl' perfe<..t 
111 So111(' 011(' particular cxce]]l'ncc, as Peter in faith; so PeÍt'r 
tcstç; npon his faith, John on his innocence. and so of tllf' 
rl'st. 4\n(1 that Cll1ist spake' of reward to IJP gi'-Cll to th(' 
_\postll'S in this worl(l, i
 she"-u hy what fnl1ow:-;, oICIJld (Jl'rry 
oue Ilull "a'" .(ursa kell hOllses, or brei Ii I'en, or si.'\lcn;, 
'c. 
Vor if these shall rccei,.c an hundred {()hl in thi
 li1l
, without 
douht to the Apo
th's dlso was prolllÍsed a reward in this 
prescnt life. Clln\:-o. Or; lIe holds out rc\\'ard
 in the future 
liff' to the ,,\ p{)
tlcs, because they were already looking aho\-C'. 
and dcsired nothing of thiHg
 prc'-'cnt; hut to others Ill' 
pronli
c
 things present. OUIfiEX; Or otherwise; \\9h080- 
C\Oer shaH ]l'a\"c an and fonow (
hri:-;t, he al
o 
hJIl rCl.'ci, c 
those things that were proll)i
ed to Peter. llut if he has 
not left all, hut only those things in 
rccial 11cr" ('nunlC- 
rat<'d, lit. shaH f('Cl'Ï\ l' l11anif()ld, alHl shall po

e

 l'tl'nlal 
li!l'. J )'Hfnn:; 11lf'rt, an' that t:\l
l' oPca
i()n fi'OIH thi:-: pa

ag(' 
to hriut{ forward the' thou'iand years aftcr the rc
urrl'ctiou, 
al1(1 
i\
 that thC'n Wt O 
han ha\ e a hUlldn'd told of thL
 things 
\\ c ha\ e h.;n'n up, and IHOH'(Wer lit., etcrnal. But though 
thp prol11ise Le in ()thcr things worthy, iu the Blatter 01 
wi\ C
 it :::'Cl'ln
 to ha\ e 
onlC" hat s11anlC'flll, if he who has 
t
)r
akl'n one wife (tn' the Lord's sake, shall receive a huudrl'cl 
in the world to cOlnc. rrh 
 uleauing is therefore, that he that 
h
.... forsaken 
anlal things tor the Sa\ iour'
 saie, shan n'c.'ei\'c 
"pil;tual thing
, wllÏe1t ill a 
olnparison of \ïlIne arc as a 
'1 \. '2 


. 



6iö 


GOSPEL ACCOUDIXG TO 


CHAP. XIX. 


hundre(l to a slnall lltunber. ORIGEN; And In this world, 
because for his brethren after the flesh hc shall findlnany 
brethrcll in the faith; for parents, all the Bishops and Pres- 
by tel's; for sons, all that have the age of sons. The Angels 
also are brethren, and all they are sisters that have offered 
then1seh-es chaste \-irgins to Christ, as well they that still 
continue on earth, as they that now li\-c in heaven. 'rhe 
houses and lands nlanifold Inore suppose in the repose of 
Paradise, and thc city of God. And besides all these things 
Aug., ther shall possess eternal life. 
.\C"G. 'That He says, An 

:i,C:
: !tun dred 
fold, is explained Ly the J-\.postle, when he says, 

. Cor. As lta
'iJlg notllillg, and yet possessing all things. For a 
6, 10. I1tlnùred is sometill1es put for the wholc uniyersc. J ERO:\IE; 
.And that, And everyone that Itatlt fòrsaken brethren, agrees 
l\Iat.IO, with that He had said before, I Gl7l COllie 10 .'Jet a Ulan at 
35. 1"ariance 'lciilt his .falher. For they who for the faith of 
Christ and the preaching of thc Gospel shall despise all 
the ties, the rit:hes, and plcJ.sures of this "TorId, they shall 
receive an hundred fold, and shall possess eternal life. CHRYS. 
But when lIe says, He that hasforsaken u'ife, it is not to he 
taken of actual se\Tcring of the luarriage tie, but that \\'e should 
hold the ties of the faith dearer than any other. And here is, [ 
think, a co\'ert allusion to tillleS of persecution; for because there 
should be nlany who ,,"oll1d dra\\T a\\9ay their son
 to heathen- 
iSl}), \vhen that should happen, they should be held neither 
as fathers, nor husbands. RAnAs. But because Il1any with 
\vhat zeal they take up the pursuit of virtue, do not with the 
saDIe cOlnplete it; but either grow cool, or faU away rapidly; 
it follows, But l1zany il,at are first shall be last, llnfl the last 
.first. ORIGEX; By this lIe exhorts those that COlne late to 
the hea\-enly ,,-orcl, to haste to a
cend to perfection before 
Inany \"hOnl they see to ha\'e grown old in the faith. This 
sense Inay also o\Terthro\v those that boast to have been 
educated in Christianity by Christian parents, especially if 
those parents ha\
e filled the Episcopal see, or the office 
of Priests or Deacons in the Church; and hinder them 
fron1 desponding \\'ho ha\Te entertained the Christian doc- 
trines Inore newly. It has also anothcr llleaning; the 
fin;t, are the Israelites, \"ho becolne last because of their 
unbrlief; and the Gentiles who were last beCOll1e first. TIc 



\"1:' h, -27- :JO, 


:-\T. 
I.\TTIIE\L 


(;77 


is careful tu say, JIliJl!!,. for nut all whl) are first shall Le 
last, nor aU last first. For hefinc this ha\ c utany of Inankind, 
,,-ho hr nature an' th(' last, hel'1l 1)Jadt' hy an ang'l'li(' lifl" 
aLo\"c the _\.ngels; and sonlC Angels \\"ho \\"cre first ha\"c 
heen nladl' Ii.l
t through their 
in. JlE:\IIG. It HillY abo he 
rdcn"cd in particular to the rich luan, ,,-ho scelued to ùe first, 
by hi" fillfihnent of thp precepts of the Law', ùut ""as BJade 
]a
t b
 his preferring his \\.orl(l1y 
ubsta1Jce to God. The 
hol
. A pusHes seellled to be last, but by lca,.illg all they 
""cr(' Blade first by tIll' grace uf hUlnility. 'l'herc ar(' Inany 
,,-bo ha,-illg entered upon good work
, fan thcrefrolH, and 
ii-OUI ha\"ing becn fìrst, hecolllc last. 



CHAP. XX. 


]. For the kingdolll of heaven is like unto a man 
that is an housholder, which ,vent out early in the 
1110rning to hire labourers into his vineyard. 
2. And \vhen he had agreed ,vith the labourers for 
a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. 
3. And he ,vent out about the third hour, and 
sa\v others standing idle in the nlarket-place, 
4. And said unto thenl; Go ye also into the 
vineyard, and \vhatsoever is right I ,viII give you. 
And they ,vent their way. 
5. Again he ,vent out about the sixth and ninth 
hour, and did like,vise. 
6. And a bout the eleventh hour he \vent out, and 
found others standing idle, and saith unto theIn, "Thy 
stand ye here all the day idle? 
7. They say unto hilll, Because no IliaD hath 
hired us. He saith unto theIn, Go ye also into the 
vineyard; and "Thatsoever is right, that shaH ye 
l"eCel v e. 
8. So ,,,hen even was come, the lord of the vine- 
yard saith unto his ste,vard, Call the labourers, and 
give theln their hire, beginning from the last unto 
the first. 
9. And ,vhen they came that \vere hired about the 
eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. 
10. But ,vhen the first caIne, they supposed that 
they should have received n10re; and they like\vise 
received eycry man a penny. 



YFIL I-It). 


GOSPEL .\CCOltDI'Ili TO ST. 11.\1'1'11 E\\", 


()i
J 


11. .c\nd \yhen they had received it, they mUfITIUreÙ 
against the gooulnan of the house, 
12. Saying, These last have "'fought but one hour, 
and thou hast luade thenl equal unto us, \"hich have 
borne the burden and heat of the day. 
] 3. But he ans\rered one of theln, and said, Friend, 
I do thee no "Tong: didst not thou agree ,vith me 
for 
\ penny? 
] 1. Take that thine is, and go thy \vay: I \vill 
give unto this last, even as unto thee. 
15. Is it not la\rful for Ine to do ,,,hat I ,,,ill \vith 
Inine 0\"11? Is thine eye e\Til, because I al11 good! 
1 G. So the last shall he first, and the first Llst : 
for Inany be called, but fe\v chosen. 


IlE1\IIG. To establish the truth of this saying, TI/cre are 
'J}lflJlyfirsl that shall be last, lIuellas! firsl, the Lord subjoins 
a sin1Ïlitude. !)SEUDO-CURYS. The :\Iaster of the household 
is Christ, whose huuse are the hca,'ens and the earth; and 
the creatures of the hea\TnS, and the ('arth, and bcncath the 
calih, J Jis f
l1nily. I-lis vineyard is righteousncss, in ,,,hich 
ar
 set di"crs 
orts of rightcou
nc
s as villes, as 11leel
1l(,
s, 
chastity, patience, and the othcr yirtues; aU of \vhich are 
called hy one COßnnon llaHll
 righteousness. )1<-'11 are the 
cu1ti,'ators of this vineyard, ,,-hence it is ::;aid, If710 went out 
early ill 'lip 11l01.ning to hire labourers lulu Ills rincyarrl. 
For God placcù I [is righteousness in onr scu:-,es, not for Ilis 
own hut for our bcnefit. l{now then that we are the hirt'd 
lahourcrs. nut a
 no lnall gi\-cs \'"ages to a labourer, to the 
euù he shoul(l (10 nothing sa\'c only to eat, so li1c\\"ise we 
"'CI.l' )lut thereto called by Christ, that we should labour such 
things only as pertain to uur o,,-n good, lnlt to the glory of 
(;ud. .And like a, the hired labourer looks first to his task, 
and after to his daily foo(I,:-.u oup:ht we to Ininc1 first t11o,<-, 
things which concern thc glory of (
ocl, then those ,,'hich 
concern our own profit. Also as the hired labourer oc- 
<'upi....s the whoh' llay in hb Lon1':" "(Irk, and takes but a 



680 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XX. 


single hour for his O\Y11 Ineal; so ought \\
e to uccupy our 
".hole life in the glory of God, taking but a ,?ery 
anan 
portion of it for the uses of this world. And as- the hired 
labourer \vhen he has done no ".ork is ashan1ed that day 
to enter the house, and ask his food; ho\y should not you be 
ashan1ecl to enter the church, and stand before t1H' filce of 
God, when yon ha,.e done nothing good in the sight of 
Greg, God? GREG. Or; The 3Iaster of t.he household, that is, our 

,
.m
i

 
Iaker, has a vineyard, that is, the Church universal, ,vhich 
]. has borne so n1any stocks, as Inany saints as it has put forth 
fron1 righteous 
-\bcl to the very last saint ,\'ho shall he born 
in the end of the \,"odd. To instruct this His people as for 
the dressing of a vineyaTd, the Lord has ne,.er ceased to send 
out [-lis labourers; fir:;t by the P
ltriarchs, next by t11e teachers 
of the La\y, then by the Prophets, and at the last by the 
Apostles, lIe has toiled in the culti,.ation of llis vine) ard ; 
though every 111an, in whatsoe,.er lneasurc or degree be 
has joined good action with right faith, has been a labourer 
in the vineyard. ORIGEN; For the whole of this present 
life luay l)e caned one day, long to us, short cOlnparcd 
G
{'g. to the existence of God. GREG. The morning is that 
UbI sup. age of the world \vhich 'vas fron1 

dan1 and K oab, and 
therefore it is said, 1f7l0 u'ent out eaTly in the 'lnorning to 
hire laúourens into his t'ineyard. The tenns of tIleir hiring 
lIe adds, .Lind wIlen Ile hnd agreed with tIle labourers for a 
denarius a day. ORIGE
; The denarius I snppose here to 
mean sah.ation. RE
IIG. A denarius was a coin anciently 
equal to ten sesterces, and bearing the king's image. "Tell 
therefore does the denarius l.epresent the .re,vard of the 
keeping of t1le decalogue. And that, Having agreed u'ith 
tlleln fOT a denarius a day, is well said, to she\v that e,Tery 
n1an labours in the field of the holy Churcl1 in hope of tbe future 
Greg. ren.ard. GREG. The third hour is the period fron1 Noah to 
ubi sup. Abrahalll; of which it is said, And Ize u'ent out about the third 
huur;andsawothersstanding in the 7narket-place idle. ORIGEX; 
The Inarket-place is all that is ".itbout the vineyard, that is, 
,vithout the Church of Christ. P
EUDO-CHRYS. For in this 
\yodd n1en liye by buying and selling, and gain their support 
Greg. by defrauding each other. GREG. 1-1e that li,-cs to hinlself, 
ubi sup. and fecds on the de1ights of the fl('sh, is rightly accused a
 



VElt. 1-1(;. 


sT. :\L\TTIIE\'. 


()
l 


idll', foras1nuch as he docs not 
eek the ii'uit of g()(lly labour. 
]):,I,:rIJ()-CIIHYS. Or; 'fhc idle ,U'(,Jlot :,inllcrs,forthcy arc called 
dealt Bllt he is i(llc who \\'orh
 110t tlu' \vork of G 0(1. ])0 
Jon df'!-\in
 to bc not idle? "rake not that which i
 another's; 
and gi, c of that which i
 Jour own, antI you ha,'c lahoured 
in tIll" 1 Jonl's ,.incyanl, cn1ti"atillg thc yiJle of IlICr\.' y. 1 t 
1üllows, 41nrlllc 8f1irlllnlo IluJ}n, Gn ye ((Iso into }uy rinfJ!J"rrl. 
Obscrn.
 that it i\o\ with the first alonc that Ill' ab'TCCS upon 
tllf' stun to he gi,'cn, a llcnarins; the others arc hired on no 
cxprc
s stipulation, but lrhflt is ri!lht I u'ill !Jive you. For 
thè Lord kno\\'ing that A.ùanl wuul(l fall, and that all should 
1lcrcafter perish ill the deluge, l1lade conditions for hilll, that 
hc I'hould llc,'cr sar that he therefi)re neglected righteousllcss, 
bccal1
l:\ hl' knc', Hot what re\\'ard he 
hould ha"c. But \\;th 
tlH
 rest 1[(' nlade no contract, secing I I e "ras prepared to 
gi,'c lnore than th(' labourers could hope. ORIGEX; Or, lIe 
did not can upon thc labourers of t11(' third hour for a 
cOinpletc task, hut left to thl'ir own choice, how lunch they 

houhl \\'ork, For the
" might perforn1 in the ,.ineyard ,york 
equal to that of those who had \\Tonght since t111
 Illorning, if 
they chose to put forth upon their task an operati,-e energy, 
such as hall not vet hel'n exerted. G REG. The sixth hour Greg. 
is that ii'oIn \..ùra1;aIu to Jloses, the ninth that froin 
[oses to ubi sup. 
thc conting of the Lord. PSFUDO-CURY:-'. These t\VO hours 
arC' couplcd together, bccause in the 8ixth and ninth it was 
that lIe cancd the gencration of thp Je\\'s, and 1nuhiplied to 
publish IIis testanlcnts (uTIong mCH, \\'hereas the appointed 
tilllC of salvation now drew' High. GREG. The ele\'cnth hour Greg. 
is that frorn thp con1Ïng of the Lord to the end of the ,,'orId. ubi sup. 
"rhl
 lahourer in thl
 ITIorning, at thp third 
i
th, and llillth 
hour..., <lenotes the ancient IIehre,,," p('()ple, ,,'hich in its elect 
fronl the '"cry Leginuing of the "ror1d, ,,"hile it zcalously and 
\yith ri
ht faith :::,en"cd the Lord, cea
eJ not to labour ill thl' 
hushandry of the \"iul'yard. But at the elc,"cnth the Gentiles 
an' callcd. For the) who through so luan)' ages of the 
worlel had n('
lccted to lahol1r for their li\"ing, were they 
,,,ho had 
tooa the wholf' dllY idle. IJut consider their 
an
\\.er; TIIPY ðny unto liiJn, fJeraus un }Jl(tn hftth llired us; 
i()r neither Patriarch nor Prophet h(\(1 C01nè to theln. 
\nd 
what is it to 
.l\-, .LY.n l1lrll1 lioth liir,," us, hut to sa v, 
onp 
, . 


.- 



ß82 


l;OSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. ÀX. 


has preached to us the \vay of life. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For 
\vhat is our hiring, and the \vages of that hiring? The 
proluise of eternal life; for the Gentiles kne\v neither God, 
nor God's prolnises. I-IIL
\.RY; These then are sent into the 
yineyard, Go ye also ÙÜo lJ1,Y'l:ineyard. RAllAN. But \yhell 
they had rendered their day's task, at the fitting tilue for 
})aYlnent, Tr'heu et'en 'lcas conte, that is, \vhen the day of tIus 
world ""as drawing to its close. })SEUDO-CHRYS. Consj<1er, 
lIe gi\Tes the reward not the next 111orning, but in the e\"ening. 
Thus the judgnlent shall take place \vhile this \vorld is still 
standing, and each 1113.n shall receive that \vhich is due to 
hilU. This is on 1\\'0 accounts. First, because the happiness 
of the world to COlne is to be itself the renTard of righteous- 
ness; so the award is lllade before, and not in that world. 
Secondly, that sinners may not behold the blessedness of that 
day, The Lord sa ith unto his steward, that is, the Son to the 
Gloss. Holy Spirit. GLOSS. Or, if you choose, the Father saith unto 
non Dec. 1 
sed vid, the Son; for the Father wrought by the Son, and the Son by 
Raban. the IIoly Spirit, not that there is any difference of substance, 
or l11ajesty. ORIGEX; Or; The Lord said to Ids steward, 
that is, to one of the Angels who 'Yas set oyer the payment 
of the labourers; or to one of those nl3.ny guardians, according 
Gal. 4, to what is written, that The heir as long as he is a child is 
2, 'Under tutors and governors. REl\UG. Or, the Lord Jesus 
Christ Hiulself is the master of the household, and also the 
steward, like as lIe is the door, and also the keeper of the 
door. For He IIilnself will come to judglllcnt, to render to 
each luan according to that he has done. lIe therefore calls 
I-lis labourers, and renders to thenl their wages, so that \\?hen 
they shall be gathered together in the judglnent, each lnan 
shall recei\Te according to his works. ORIGEN; But the first 
Heb,ll, labourers ha\?ing the 'witness through faith ha\Te not received 
40, the pron1Ïse of God, the lord of the household providing sonle 
better thing for us, that they without us should not be made 
perfect. And because we have obtained n1crcy, we hope to 
receive the reward first, \ve, that is, who are Christ's, and after 
us they that wrought before us; wherefore it is said, Call the 
labourers, and git"e theJn their hire, beginning froJJ
 tile last 
unto the first. P
ErDO-CIIRYS. For ,ve always give l110re 
willingly, where we give without return, seeing it is for onr 



\ EH. 1-1(;, 



T. M.\TTII E\\ . 


(;
:1 


own honour that we gi\ c. J'hcref(n"c God ill gi\'illg reward 
to all the 
aillt
 :-\hc\\ s hinl..;clf just; in gÏ\ ing to us, nlcrciflll; 
as the ...\rostle speaks, That the Gentiles lIlÏght glurify God"fom.16, 
for I is nerry; and thence it is said, Bp!JÎ}lllill!J fro))t tIle u. 
l(1s/ ez'en ?lnlu the first. ()r surely that GoJ }Ilay shew IIi
 -- 
inc
tiInable IlICrcy, lIe first rewards the la
t and Inore 
unworthy, and afterwards dIP first; for of llis great lncrcy lie 
n,o'arded not order of Inerit. .Aru. Or; 1'he lesser arc Aug. de 
b . 
pir. d 
thercforp taken a
 first, because the lesser are to be lnadc nch. Lit, 24. 
GREti. They get alike a dcnarius ,,-ho have "Tonght since G
eg. 
the elevcnth hour, (tor they sought it \vith their whole soul,) ubI sup. 
and ,,'ho have wrought sinc{' the first. 1'hey, that i
, ,,-ho 
',"ere called {i.Olll the beginning of the ,,-orld have a1ike 
rccei,-ed the re,,'ard of eternal happines
, ,,-ith those \"ho 
cOlne to the Lord in the end of the ,yorld. P
ErDO-CHR\ s. 
And this not ,,-ith injustice. For he who ".as born in the 
fir
t period of the world, lived no longer than the detcnnined 
tiIHe of his life, and ,,"hat ha1"1u wa:-; it to hinI, though t1le 
".01'1<1 continued after his leaving it? And they that shaH 
he ùorn towards its close ,vill not liye less than t1le days 
t11at arc numbered to them. And ho\v does it cut their 
labour 
horteT, that the \vorld is !'\pepdily ended, when they 
han' accolliplished tlleir thread of life h('fore? )Ioreo,-{'r 
it is not of luan to be born sooncr or later, but of the power 
of God. Therefore hp that i
 Lorn first cannot clailll to 
hilu...elf a higher place, nor ought he to be held in contelnpt 
that "að born later. And lrhen they had receiz'ed it, they 
I1llfnnllrcd against lite goodllluU ú..f tlte hOllse, sflyiug. But 
if this" c have 
aid be true, that both first and last have lived 
their own tin1e, and neither n10re nor le
s; and that each 
tuan's death is his consumulatioD. ".hat llleans this that they 
say, If T e /tare borne tI,e burden and !teat o..f lite day? Decause 
to know that the end of the \vorld is at hand is of great force 
to lua1.e us do righteou
ness. ".hercfore Christ in IIis lo,.e to 
U
 !'\aid, Tl,p kingdone oj'heltren ,,'!tall dl'alc 'nigh. '\11creas :\Iatt. 4, 
it ".a
 a ,,-cakening of them to know that the duration of the 2. 
\\.orld was to be yet long. t;o that though th(\) did not 
indeed lire through the wholf' of tilHe, they seeni in a 
luanncr to IUl\"e borne its weight. Or, by the burden of the 
day is nleaut the burdcnsome prec('pt
 of the La\y; and th<.> 



681 


(;OSl)EL ACCOUDIXG TO 


CHAr. xx, 


heat 111ay be tbat con
lulling tenIptation to error which 
e,'il spirits contri,'ed for theIn, stirring thenl to imitate 
the Gentiles; froIH all ,,'hich things the G
ntiles ,,-ere 
exelnpt, belie,'ing on Christ, and by cOInpendiousness of 
Greg. grace being sa"ed cOIHplctely. GREG. Or; To bear the 
ubi sup. burden and heat of the day, is to be wcaried through a life 
of long duration ,,'ith the hcats of the flesh. 13ut it Inay 
be asked, IIow can they be said to nlunnur, when they are 
called to the lángdoln of heaven? l
or none who InUl1lHUS 
shan recei,-e the kingdoln, and none ,yho recei,'es that can 
llllUlnltr. CHRYS. But ,ye ought not to pursue through every 
particular the circUlllstances of a paraùle; but enter into its 
general scope, and seek nothing further. This then is not 
introduced in order to represent sOlne as nlo,.cd ,,'ith en,'y, 
but to exhibit the honour that shall be givcn us as so great 
Greg. as that it lnight stir the jealousy of others. GREn. Or 
ubi sup. because the old fathers do\vn to th(' Lord's cOIning, notwith- 
standing their righteous li,.es, were not brought to the king- 
dom, this nlurnlur is theirs. But we \vho haye conle at the 
ele,'enth hour, do not Illurmur after our labours, foraslnuch 
as ha,.ing corne into this ,vorld after the coming of the 
l\Iediator, ,,-e are brought to the kingdonl as soon as eyer ,ye 
depart out of the body. J ERO)IE; Or, all that \vere 
alled 
of old envy the Gentiles, and are pained at the grace of the 
Gospel. HILARY; And this Illunnur of the labourers cor- 
responds ,yith the frowardness of this nation, ,vl1Ìch even 
in the tilne of 310se8 "-ere stiff-necked. RE)IIG. By this 
one to whonl his answer is given, Inay be understood all the 
believing Jew's, ,,,holn he calls friends because of their faith. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. Their cOlnplaint was not that they were 
defrauded of their rightful recolnpense, but that the others 
had recei,.ed Inore than they desen'ed. For the envious 
ha,-e as ll1uch pain at others' success as "at their on-n loss. 
Froln \vhich it is clear, that ellYY flo,,-s frol11 ,.aill glory. 
A Ulan is grie,"ed to be second, because he ,,,ishes to be 
first. He retnovcs this feeling of enyy by saying, Didst t"OI/, 
'Jlot agree u'ith Ille.lor (l dell a rills ? JER01IE; _\. denarius 
bears the figun
 of the king. 1.
ou l1aye therefore recei,'"ed 
thl' reward which I pron1Ïsed you, that is, IHY iInagc and 
likcncss; ,vhat dcsirest thou nlore? An(1 yef, it is not that 



VEIL I-It), 


ST. '1.\1''1'11 E'L 


t: 
;j 


thuu shouhlcst havt' l)lOr(', 1Hlt that another should ha,'c less 
that thou s 'el,:clooit. I'uk 
 IIUII ;,
 t!tille, alid !lU thy lcay. 
n 1.::\1 [(w. That i
, ta1.c thy rewarù, and l'uter into glory. 1 u.ill 
!Jil"e to I !tis la.lit, that is, to the gentile people, acconling tu their 
deserts, llS 10 thee. OHlfiEN; Perhaps it i
 to \(tun 11 e 

a
 s, Friend, I du t !tee 110 ll'rollg; d id.sl Iholl not lIyree lcit Ii 
1J1e jor II delltlriu.f\? Take Ihal l!tille is, aud go thy u'o.'/. 
Sah'ation is th in(', that is, thc (lenariu
. 1 Irill !lire 111110 l!t ;.f) 
'((sf also ((.f; Ullto thee. 4\ person Inight not ilnproLabIy 
suppose, that tbi
 last ,vas t]1(" .A postle Panl, \vItu wrought 
hut one hour, and was n1ade equal with all \\'ho had hecn 
hefi)l'c hill!. .\.CG. necaH
c that lite ëternal 
hall he equal Aug. de 
11 I . 1 ... 11 l f . I Sane. 
to a t Ie saInts, a <. enanu
 l
 given to a ; Hlt OraS1l1U(' I as Virgo 
ill that life l't('rnal the light of Inerits shall shine divcrs<:Iy,26. 
there are with the Fath(:r 1113.ny nlansion
; so that under 
this salllC d('uarius Lestowcd unequaJ1y one 
haJl not li,'e 
10nger than another, hut in th(" nlan

 Inansions onc shaH 
shiue with lllorc Rplcndour than anuther. GREh. And because Greg. 
th(' attaininent of this kingdolll i'5 of the goodncss of II is will, ubi sup. 
it is ad(led, Is it nut lau}i" ./'01' lIie 10 do li!tal 1 lrill wi I It. ..E.. \....
!. 
nlille OU'1l I For it is a foolif'h CUlllphünt of IHan to lllunllur t 
agaiIJ
t the goodne
s of God. For c01l1plaint is not when a - L RAR'a 
nUll I giyC'1ooi not what he is uot bound to gin.', but if 11(" gives 
110t what he is bound to gi,'c; ,,-hencc it is added, Is thille 
eye l'flï !Jl)C((U
(' I (011 good? IlE:\IlG. TIy the l'Je is uuder- 
stood his pnrpose. The Jews had an evil cyc, that is, an 
evil purposc, seeing the
 ,,"ere grie,'ed at thc ::;ah'ation of 
the Gcntiles. '\
hcrcto tllis parable pointed, I [c 
hcws by 
adding, So the first ,çltall he last, and the last }irst; and 
so the J C\\.s of the head arc become thl. tail, and 'YC uf the 
tail are bccoille the head. P
I.:rDI}-CIlnY:,. ()r; lIe 
a}s 
the first 
han bl' la...t, and the last lirst, not that the last are 
to he exalted before thp first, hut that they 
hould be pnt 
on an cquality, 
o that thc dint'renee of tilHC should male 
no diflcrcllce in their statioll. 'I'hat I Ie 
ay:-., I-vr l11allY are 
ctllled, !Jill jelt: cllosen is not to Le ta1.ell of the elder saints, 
lnlt of the Gentiles; for of the Gentiles who ""ere caned 
being Iuany, but few werc chosen. G ItEG. 'I'here be ycry Greg. 
IUan) COlne to the faith, yC't but fc,v aITin-"" at the hea"enIy ubi sup. 
kingdolll; lnany foHo\\ Gnd in words, hut shun IIilTI in their 


fJ+ 



6f;ö 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XX. 


1 'Y
':'
" 


1i \yes. \Vhereof spring t\\,.o things to be thought upon. 1
hc 
first, that none should presume ought concerning hilnself; 
for though he ùe caned to the faith, he kno\ys not \vhether 
he. shan be chosen to the kiugdoln. Secondly, that none 
should despair of his neighbour, e,"en though he see hÏ1n 
lying in ,
ices; because he kno,,"s not the riches of the 
Di,"ine mercy. 
Or otherwise. The 1l10rning is our childhood; the 
third hour 111ay be understood as our youth, the sun a
 
it were n10unting to his height is the a(h'ance of the 
heat of age; the sixth hour is 111allhood, when the sun 
is steady in his 111eridian height, representing as it ,,"ere 
the maturity of strength; by the ninth is understood old age, 
in \vhich the sun descends froln his vertical height, as our 
age falls a,yay froln t})e fer,"our of youth; the eleventh hour 
is that age ,,-hich is called decrepit, and doting. CURYS. 
That He called not all of theIl1 at once, but SOlne in the 
nlorning, son1C at the third hour, and so forth, proceeded frOlH 
the difference of their n1inds 1. He then caned them \"hen 
ther ,vould obey; as lIe also called the thief when he would 
obey. "Thereas ther say, Bpcllllse '110 Ulan hatlt hired US, 
"e ought not to force a sense out of e\Tery particular in a 
parable. Further, it is the labourers and not the Lord \\"ho 
speak thus; for that lIe, as far as it pertains to :ailn, calls all 
n1en from their earliest years, is She\\"l1 in this, He u'cnl Oltt 
early in tlte 1Jlo1"nil1g to !tire labourers. GREG. The.r then 
,,,ho ha'''e neglected till extren1e old age to live unto God, 
have stood idle to the eleyenth hour, yet eyen these the 
Ina
ter of the household cans, and oftentilnes gi,"es then1 
their re,vard before other, inasn1uch as they depart out of 
the body into the kingdol11 before those that seelued to be 
called in their childhood. ORIGEX; But this, TVhy stand ye 
here all tlte day idle? is not said to such as ha\'ing begun 
in tlte spirit, have been 7Jlade pelfect by the.flesh, as inviting 
thel11 to return again, and to li,.e in the Spirit. This \\Te 
speak 110t to dissuade prodigal sons, ,,"110 have consulned 
their substance of e,"angelic doctrine in riotous li,.ing, fr01l1 
returning to their father's house; but because they are not 
like those \vho sinned in their youth, before they had learnt 
the things of the faith, CHRYS. 'Vhen J Ie says, The .first 


G a1. 3, 
3. 



'"LI:.17-1t). 


ST. 
L\TTHE'
., 


H87 


s},oll be IllSI, alld lite iali!. jil's!, lIe alludes secretl) to f'uch 
as ,,-ere at the first clnillcnt, i.uicl aftcr\\'ard
 set at nought 
\ irtuc; and to others who havp bcen reclaitlled frotH wickeclllc
s, 
and ha\'P surpasscd luany. So that this parahlc ,vas luade 
to (llliLI
cn the 
cal of those who are cOl1,.crtcd in cxtrclne 
old agc, that they should not suppose that they 
hall ha,'c 
leb
 than othcrs. 
17. ...\nd Jesus going up to Jerusalem took the 
t,vcl\"c disciplcs apart in the \vay, and said unto 
then}, 
13. Behold,,, e go up to J erusalen1; and the Son 
of n1an shall be betrayed unto the Chief Priests and 
unto the Scribes, and they shall condell111 hill1 to 
death, 
19. ...\nd shall deliver him to the Gentiles to Inock, 
and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third 
day he shaH rise again. 
Cnuys. The' Lordlcaying Galilee, did not go np straight- Chf)"s. 
"'"ay to Jerusalen1, Lut first ,,"rought Iniracles, refuted the 


. 
pharisecs, and taught the di:-;ciples concerning perfection of 
life, and its reward; no\\" ,,"hen about to go up to ,J eru:,aleln, 
lIe again speal
s to thClTI of Ilis passion. ORIGE
; Judas 
""as yet an10ng the tweh.c; for he was perhaps still ,,"orthy 
to hear in private along with the rest the things which his 
:\Iaster should suffer. PSJ'PDu-CURYS. For thp salvation 
of lllCH elltircly re
ts upon Christ's dcath; nor is there any 
thing for which \\'c arc l110rc bound tú render thanks to (;od, 
tlU1I1 for JIi
 death. IIp il11partcd the 111ystery of Iris death 
to IIis disciples for this reason, nalliely, because thp 1110ro 
precious treasure i
 c'ocr cOlllluiUcd to the 1110re \yorthv 
vessels. TIaù the rest beanl uf the passiol1 of Christ, the 
111cn IHight ha,'e Lt.'él1 troubled Lecause of the \\"eal
lless of 
their faith, and the ".0111el1 becau
t.' of t]H
 tencl(,1J.ll'ss of 
their nature, \rhich such 111atters do COlll1l1011ly l110\'e to tcar:-;. 
CURl'S. lIe had inùeed told it, and to n1an)9, but obst:urely, 
as in that, Des/ro,l} this temple; and again, There slutll no Jphn 2, 
si!J1I IJt> gil"l
n it !Jul llie ,si!Jn qf Jonas the Propllet. But ntH'" ;i;t,12 
I I {' iUlpartt'd it clearJy to 1 Ii
 (lisciplrs, V
F.(TDO-C II RY
. 39. ' 



688 


GOSPEL .:\.CCüHDI!\G TO 


CHAP. XX. 


That word Behold, is a \vord of stress, to bid theln lay up 
in their hearts the lnelllory of this present. He says, IT/e 
go up; as lnnch as to say, \
 e see that I go of l\Iy free-\rill 
to death. "....hen then ye shall see l\Ie hang upon the cross, 
deern not that I alu no ll101'e than luan; for though to be 
able to die is hUlnan; .ret to be \\Tilling to die is 1110re than 
hunlan, ÛRIGEX; l\leditating then of this, \ve ought to kno\v 
that often eyen \v hen there is certain trial to be undergone, 
"ye ought to offer ourseh-es to it. But forasllluch as it \vas 
J\Iat.lO, said above, TT7/ len tbey persecute !JOlt in oue cily,jlee ye to 
23. auother, it belongs to the wise in Christ io judge \vhen the 
season requires that he shun, and "'hen that he go to meet 
dangers. J ER03IE; lIe had often told His disciples of IIis pas- 
sion, but because it luight haye slipped out of their recol- 
lection by reason of the luany things they had heard in the 
Inean ,,"hile, no\\" \vhen He is going to Jerusaleln, and going 
to take I-lis disciples \vith IIiln, He fortifies then1 against 
the trial, that they should not be scandaliz-ed when the 
persecution and shalne of the Cross should COlne. PSEUDO- 
CHRYS. For when son"o\v conIes at a tinle ,,'c are looking for 
it, it is found lighter than it \,,"ould have been, had it taken 
us by surprise. CHRYS. lIe fore\varns then1 also in order 
that they should learn that lIe COUles to IIis passion witting1y, 
and \villingly. .lnd at the first lIe had foretold only IIis 
death, but no\v that they are luore disciplined, lIe brings 
forth yet lnore, as, They shall deZil,'er Jilin to tlte Gentiles. 
R_-\.BAX. For Judas deli,'ered the Lord to the Je\ys, and they 
deli,rered Hill) to the Gentiles, that is to Pilate, and the 
ROlnan power. To thi::, end the Lord refused to be pro:s- 
perous in this \,"orId, but rather chose to suffer affliction, that 
lie lnight :she\v us, who ha\Te yielded to delights, through 
ho\v great bitterness we lnust needs return; whence it follows, 
Aug, To 'Illock, all(l to scourge, and to crllc
fy. A.L"G. In IIis 
de 
iv. Passion ,ve see what \ye ought to suffer for the truth, and in 
Del," " I I I ' . 
xviii.49. I-IIS reSUrrf'ctIon \V lat \ye oug It to lOpe In eternIty; "rhence 
it is said, And shall/rise again tlte third day. CHRY
. This 
""as added, that ,,"hen they should see the sufferings, they 
Aug. de should look for the resurrection. ...-\CG. For one death, that 
Jrin. iv, nanlely of the Saviour according to the body, \vas to us a 
salvation froin two deaths, both of sOld and body, and Jlis 



VI.:U. 2u-23. 


sT. l\I\TTIIE\". 


H
H 


one resuITPction g-ained for us two rcsurrections. 'Ihis ratio 
of two to oue 
prings out of tlH' nUllJhcr tIncl'; tor o11e and 
t".o arc three. 
()nIGE
; rrhel" , i
 110 l11(."11tio11 that thf' disciple
 eithcr 
said or did any thing npon hearing of thesc 
uncrillgs that 
should thus COlnc Up011 Chri"-t; rClllcluberiug what the Lord 
had 
aid to Petlr, they 'Yfre atraid they should hayc had the 
like or ,vor
' addressed to thClllsch.c:-;. Auel vct there he 
scribe:-t who 
u1'P()
C that they kno"r the divine writings, who 
condclll11 Jesus to death, sconrge Ilinl with their t()llgue
, 
and crucifY lliln herein, that they seck to take away llis doc- 
trine; l)ut lIe, \.ani
hing fe)}. a season, again rise
 to appear 
to tho
c who rccci,"cd })is word that it could be so. 


20. Then c
une to hinl the nlother of Zebedee's 
children \vith her sons, \\"ofshipping hinl, and desiring 
a certain thing of hinl. 
21. And he said un to her, \ Vha t \vil t thou? She 
saith unto him, Grant that these my t\'"O sons Inay 
sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the 
left, in thy kingdo1l1. 
22. But J esu
 ans\vercd and said, Ye kno\v not 
\,"hat ye ask. ...\re ye able to drink of the cup that 
I shall drink of, and to be baptized \rith the baptisnl 
that I an1 baptized \vith 
 'fhey say unto 111n1, '" e 
are able. 
23. .L\nd he saith unto thenl, )7 e shall drink indeed 
of lllY cup, and be baptized \vith the baptisn1 that 
I anl baptized \vith: but to 
it 011 nlY right hand, 
and on my left, is not n1Íne to give, but it shall be 
given to them for \vhom it is prepared of tny Father. 


J ERO
E; rrhc Lord h
t\ ing concluded b} saying, And 
shl II ris 
 oguin th ) tldrd d !/; the WOl11an thought that after 
} J is re
nrrectiol1 lIt' 
honld forthwith reih'1.1, and ,çith WOlnan- 
ish cagen1ess grasps at what is present, forgeÛul of the future. 
PSEC DO-CHRYS. 'rhi
 nlother of the 
OIlS ùf Zebedee is 
Iark 
Salome, as her nallH
 is gi'-en by another f:,-angelist, herse]f

: :
; 
\"01.. I. 2 \ 



()!)U 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CRA P. XX. 


truly peaceful, and the IHother of sons of peace. Fron1 this 
place ,ve learn the eminent Inerit of this woman; not only 
had her sons left their father, but she had left her husband, 
and had foHowed Christ; for He could live without her, but 
she could not he saved \vithont Christ. Except any will say 
that behveen the tin1e of the Apostle's caning, and the suffer- 
ing of Christ, Zebedee 'was dead, and that thus her sex 
helpless, her age advanced, she "Tas following Christ's steps; 
for faith ne'-er grows old, and religion feels ne,-er weary. 
lIer Inatcrnal affection luade her bold to ask, \vhence it 
is said, She u;orshi}Jped Hi1n, and desired a certain t!ting 
if Hhn; i. e. she did Hill1 reverence, requesting that what 
she should ask, should be granted her. It follo\vs, He said 
'unto her, 1Vhal u'ouldest thou.2 He asks not because He 
knows not, but that by its '"ery statement, the unreasonable- 
ness of her petition Illight be shewn; She saith unto him, 
Aug. de Grant tllat these lny tu'o sons 'Inay sit. AUG. 'Vhat l\Iatthew 




i, has here represented as being said by the mother, l\Iark relates 

. k that the two sons of Zebedee spake thenlselves, \vhen she had 
lO
r35. presented their wish before the Lord; so that fron1l\Iark's brief 
notice it should rather seen1, that they, and not she, had said 
that \vhich \vas said. CHRYS. 'They sa\\" the disciples honoured 
l\lat, 1 9, before others, and had heard that ye shall sit 'll}Jon twelve 
28. thrones, ,,,hereupon they sought to have the prin1acy of that 
seat. And that others \vere in greater honour with Christ 
they kne\v, and they feared that Peter was preferred before 
then} ; wherefore (as is luentioned by another Evangelist) 
because they \vere no\v near to J erusalen1, they thought that 
the kingdolll of God \vas at the door, that is, \vas something 
to be percei,yed by sense. "Thence it is clear that they 
sought nothing spiritual, and had no conception of a kingdoln 
abo\Te. ORIGEN; For if in an earthly kingdolu they are 
thought to be in honour who sit with the king, no wonder 
if a 'YOlllan with \vomanish sinlplici ty or ".ant of experience 
concei\Tcd that she n1Ïgh t ask such things, and that the 
brethren thenlseh T es being not perfect, and having no more 
lofty thoughts concerning Christ's kingdon1, conceived such 
things concerning those who shall sit with Jesus. PSEUDO- 
CHRYS. Or otherwise. 'Ve affinn not that this ,,'oman's 
reqnest \vas a lawful one; but this \ve affirm, that it was 



YEn. 20-23. 


ST. 
r:\TTHE".. 


()Ul 


not t.arthly thiuf!s, but hea' ellly things that I'hc asl,,('(l for 
her SOIlS. !i'or she felt Hut as ordinary luothers, whose afli'c- 
tion is to thl' hodies of their children, while th
y neglect 
their lllinds; they desire that they I-'ho1l1<1 prosper in thi:-. 
n
orld, uot caring wbat they f'hal1 sulIer in the next, thereh) 
she\ving- theillsel n;
 to ùe lllother
 of their hodies (lllI y, lUll 
not of their souls. ...\na I inlagiup that these hrcthrcn, ha,-illg 
heard the Lord prophe

'ing of IIis passion and resurrection, 
l)l'g
LIl to say aJlIOlJg themschres, seeing they helic\'ed; Behold, 
the lung of hean'n is going down to the reahns of Tartanls, 
that lie Inay destroy the king of death. J3ut when thp 
\"icto1
 8hall be c01llpll'ted, ,,-hat remains hut that the glory 
of the kingdolll shaH fuUow? ORU.EX; For wlu\n sin is 
destroyed, \\'hich reigned in l11en's Inortal boùics, with the 
el1tire dyna
ty of lualignant pO\\9crs, Christ shan recci, c 
exaltation of lIi
 kingdoll1 al110ug lllcn; that is, II is sitting 
on the throne of II is J.{lnr
.. That God disposes aU thilJg-
 
both on IIis right hand and on Ilis left, this is that there shan 
be then n() more e,-ïl in llis presence. rrhey that are the 
Inorc excellent alllong :-ouch as dn.H\9 Hear to Christ, are they 
on llis right hand; they that are inferior, arc tlh\Y on IT is left 
}land. Or by Christ's right hand look if you Inay understand 
the invisihle creatioll; l}J I Tis lcit hand the visible and ho(liIy. 
For of those who are bl'Ol1ght nigh to Christ, SOlllt' obtain .1 
place on [} is right hand, a:- the intellig('nt, sonIC on [I is left 
hallù, as the sentient creation. P
El7UU-CHnYs. I[c that ga\.c 
1 Iinlself to Inan, how 
hall II è not gi,-c then] the fellowship of 
Iris kingdo111? 1'hp 
npineness of the petitioner is in fault, 
,,-here the graciousne
s of the gi,-er i
 undoubted. But if we 
oursph e
 ask onr Inastcr, perchance "-e "DUlld th.. hcart
 of 
tlll rest of our brethren, \\"ho thoug-h they can no long{'r h(' 
overCOllle by dIP flesh, s
eing they are no\V spiritual, Inay 
y
t 'be wounded as carnal. Let us therefore pnt fOl'ward onr 
u10ther, that 
hc may l1lakc her petition f(.)r ns in her 0""11 
p
rson. For though 
llf'
 he to ht' bhlllled therein, yet 
ht" 
,,;11 readily ohtain ft)}'gin'l1(,
s, her se-x pleadin
 {tH' h{'r. 
For the Lord II Í1nself, who has filled the 
ouls of 111other!'; 
with affection t() their on;;prillg, will 1llorp readily listen to 
their desin's. Then the Lord, ,,-ho knows 
('cr('t
, Jlwke
 
answer not to the \yonl
 of the mother'
 petition, but to 
21'2 



Luke 
9, 33. 


ön:! 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XX. 


the design of the H0118 who suggested it. Their wish \vas 
cOilllnendable, but their request inconsiderate; therefol'e, 
though it was not fight that it F-hould be granted to them, 
yet the silllplicity of their petition did not deserve a harsh 
rebuke, forasHluch as it proceeded of love of the Lord. Where- 
fore it is their ignorance that the Lord finds fault with; Jesus 
ansu'ered and said unto them, Ye know not v.:hat ye ask. 
J ERO::\lE; AJld no ,yonder, if she is convicted of inexperi- 
ence, seeing it is said of Peter, f.rot knou'ing u:/zat Ile 
aid. 
PSEfTDO-CIIRYS. For ofttÏ1nes the Lord suffers IIis disciples 
either to do or to think sonlewhat amiss, that froln their en'or 
He may take occasion to set forth a nIle of piety; knowing 
that their fault harnu; not \yhen the Master is present, while 
IIis doctrine edifies them not for the present only, but for 
the future. CHRYS. This }f e says to s11ew either that they 
sought nothing spiritual, or that had they known for what 
tIler a
ked, they would not have asked that which was so far 
beyond their faculties, HILARY; They knoW' not what they 
ask, beca.use there was no doubt of the future glory of the 
_J\.postles; His fonuer discourse had assured them that they 
should judge the world. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or, JTe know not 
'u.:hat ye ask: as rnuch as to say, I have called you to IVly 
right hand a\vay from ::\ly left, and no\v you wilfully desire 
to be on .àfy Ipft. Hence perhaps they did this through 
the nlother. For the devil betook him to his well-known 
tool the WOlnan, that as he made prey of ,A_danl by his 
\vife, so he sholùd sever these by their Inother. But 
now that the sahTation of all had proceeded from a \voman, 
destruction could no longer enter in alllong the saints by 
a. WOlnan. Or lIe says, Ye knou' not 'u,'hat ye ask, seeing 
we ought not only to consider the glory to \vhich we mar 
attain, but hon" ,ve may escape the ruin of sin. For 80 
in secular war, he who is e\Ter thinking of the plunder, 
hardly "ins the fight; they should have asked, Gh"e us 
the aid of Thy grace, that we may overconle an e,'il. RABAX. 
They knew not what they asked, for they \vere asking of 
the Lord a seat in glory, \yhich they had not yet meli.ted. 
The honourable en1Ïnence lil{ed theln "Tell, but they had first 
to practise the laborious path thereto; Gan ye drink if the 
Clip that I shall drÜ
k if.! JERO'IE; By the cup in the 



"'FR. 2U-23. 


s 1'. :\1 \TTHE\\. 


f)f}3 


eli, iJ}(1 Hcriptl1rf':o-. \\pe under::;tand snOering, as in the P5ahu, 
I will tllk(
 tIt) ('up qf salvation; ;111(1 :-;tr..light" a, JIc P:-I. 116, 
1 ] I ' } P "I" . 1 13. 15. 
procece s to I' IC,," W I,ll IS t IC cup, r('('IfJ1f,"( ,,, fliP SI9"1 
if tI,(' Lurd is tIle d Jath llf llis saints. P=,I:.CDO-CUllYS. 
1')w Lord knl'\v tllal they \Ven
 able to follow lIis passiou, 
but lIe puts the question to thell1 thaL \\"C lllay all hear, 
that no Juan can rl'i b'l 1 ,,"ith Christ, unless llc i
 con- 
formed to Christ in IIis passiou; for that which is pre- 
cious is only to be purchased at a costly price. I'he 
l,ord's passiou n'e lllay call not onl) the persecution of 
the Gentiles, but all the hardships we go through iu strug- 
gling against our sins. CIIRYS. J Ie says therefore, Can y 
drillk it? as uluch as to say, '
on ask HI(") of honours and 
crowns, hut [ speak to you of labour and travai1, for this is 
no tiulO for re\yards. lIe dra""s their attention by the Blan- 
)leI' of lIis question, for lIe says not, ...\re yc ahle to 
hed your 
blood? ùut, ...lre ye able 10 drillk 0/ the Clip I then lie aùds, 
'1l'ldcli I ,f
li(/ll drilll.. o.f? RE)[JG. That by 
nch partaking 
they Inay blUïl with the 11101"0 zeal towards lIillL Uut they, 
already sharing the readiness and constancy of luartvrdolu, 
proulisc that they \\""ould drink of it; \\ h('nc
 it follo\\"s, They 
,WIY unto hÙIl, Jf 7 e are able. !>....Erno-CnRYs. ()r, they 
ay 
this not so lunch ont of reliance on their o""n fortitude, as out 
of ignoraIH'C'; for to the inexperienced the trial of suffering 
and death appears slight. CllllYS. ()r they otll
r this ill the 
eagerne
S of their desir(.', expecting that for their thus 
pcak- 
iug they should have \,"hat they desired. JJnt fIe forete1s 
great blessings for then1, to wit, that they should be nlade 
,,9ort]lY of Inartvnlo111. FIe ,wlil], unto '''('111, J-(' shall indrrd 
. . 
drillk {!f" lilY Clip. ORIGEX; Chri
t dot's not 
ay, \-c are able 
to ùrink of 
ly cup, but looláng to tlu>ir future perfection 11(' 
said, Je ,r;;"all indeed driuk f!.flUY ("up. .JEllO'IE; It is madí' 
a question ho,," tJle sons of Zeùedce, Jal11e
, and John, did 
drink tho cnp of luartyrdoln, sel'ing Scripture relates that Acts 12, 
JaUles onl) was heheaded hy Ilcrod, whilt> John euded his 2. 
1ifc by ..l peaccful death. But when we read in ecclesiastical 
history that J ohn hiTll
l>1f was thro"ì1 into a can1dron of 
boiling oil with intent to Inartyr hilU, anel that he was 
baui...hed to the i">le of PatInos, ".C 
hall see that he lackc(l 
not th(' win for InartyrdollJ, and that .TO]Ul had (11 nnk the 



694 


GOSPEL ACCORDIXG 1'0 


CHAP. XX. 


cup of confession, the which also the Three Children in the 
fiery furnace did drink of, albeit the pel'secutor did not shed 
their blood. IIILARY; r.rhe Lord therefore comlllends their 
faith, in that He says that they are able to suffer martyrdom 
together with Him; but, To sit on 11lY -right hand and 011, 
'Iny left is not mine to gire, but for 'lVllOlll it is pl.epa-red qf 
'IllY Father. Though indeed, as far as we can judge, that 
honour is so set apart for others, as that the Apostles shaU 
not be strangers to it, who shall sit on the throne of the Twelve 
Patriarchs to judge Israel; also, as lllay be collected out of 
the Gospels thelllsel ves, l\foses and Elias shaH sit with them 
in the kingdom of heaven, seeing that it ,vas in their company 
that lIe appeared on the lllOlUlt in His apparel of splendour. 
J EROl\IE; But to U1C this seeIllS not so. Rather the names of 
thelll that shall sit in the kingdolll of heayeu are not llalned, 
lest that, if SOllle few ",,-ere nauled, the rest sholùd think them- 
schres shut out; for the killgdolll of heaven is not of him 
that gives it, but of hin1 that recei \yes it. Not that there is 
respect of persons ,vith God, but whosoever shall shew him- 
self such as to be "rorthy of the kingdolll of heaven, shall 
receive it, for it is prepared not for condition, but for conduct. 
Therefore if you shall be found to be such as to be fit for 
that kingdonl of heaven which 
Iy Father has made ready 
for the conquerors, ye shall receive the saIne. He said not, 
Ye shall not sit there, that He might not discourage the two 
brethren; while He said not, 1:- e shall sit there, that He 
någht not stir the others to envy. CHRYS. Or otherwise. 
That seat scenIS to be unapproachable to all, not only men, 
but .Angels also; for so Paul assigns it peculiarly to the 

eb. 1, Only-Begotten, saying, To 'icldeli qf tlie Angels said lie at 
.13. any thue, Sit t/tOli on l1lY rigId haud? The Lord therefore 
makes an
wer, not a:-; though in verity there \,yere any that 
should sit therc, but as condescending to the "apprehensions , 
of the petitioners. They asked but this one grant, to be 
before others near HÜn; but the Lord ans\vers, Ye shall die 
for 
Iy sake, yet is 110t that sufficient to 11lake you obtain the 
first rank. For if thcre 
hall conle another with luartyrdom, 
and haying virtue greater than yours, I will not, because ] 
love you, put hitn out, and gi\re yon precedence. But that 
they should not suppose that hl' laclicd power, He said not 



VEU. 2-J-;'?ts. 


ST. 'L\TTH E\\. 


t H Þ;) 


absolut 'ly, It i not )Iille to give, but, 1l is nol JJliJle to girL 
to you, hilt to tlUJS '..for ,.!tOlll ï ic: pTl'pared j that i
, tu those 
who are luade illustrious by their dcc{l
. HE,rHi. Or other- 
wi
e; It is not nlÍne It gi oe to YOll, that is, to proud Incn 
such a" yon arc, but to the lowly in lll"art,.for 1('hUl/l it is 
prepared of IJl.lJ J?atlLer. \rG. Or otherwise; I'he Lord Au
" . 
k I I ' ]' . 1 . II ' 1 f de Trm. 
ma -e
 ans" er to IS OISClp es In IS C laracter 0 sen-ant; i. 12. 
though ,,-hate\ cr is prepared by the Father is also prepared 
by the 80n, for I Ip and the Father are one. 


2.1. 
\nd \\
hen the ten heard it, they "'ere moved 
\vith indignation againt the t\'"O brethren. 
25. But Jesus called thel11 unto hill1, and said, \-e 
kno\y that the princes of the Gentiles exercisc 
dominion over thcln, and they that are great exer- 
cise authority Up
ll them. 
26. But it shall not be so anlong you: but ,vho- 
soever ,,'ill be great among you, let him be your 
minister; 
27. .L'-\nd \\.hosoever ,,,ill be chief among you, let 
him be your ser\"'ant : 
28. Even as the Son of Ulan calllC not to be ll1in- 
istered unto, but to luinister, and to give his life a 
ransonl for Inany. 


Cn RYS, Ho long as the judgment of Christ upou this 
request \\'as in snspensl', the other disciplc!'\ were not illÙig'- 
nant. Lut when they heard I riln rebukc thell1 thev were 
'.. , .. 
::>OITO\\ fid; whcnce it is said, .l.111d lrJlen 'Ii" fen hell r
l it, t /iry 
11(/(1 indi.fJJlfll;oJl against lite twu lJrclltJ"()Il. JEIltßIE; l'he) 
do not la.y it npon the forwarc1nc

 of the luother who 
poke 
the Tl'tpll'st, hut upon T1l'r SOIlS, who, Hot kno\\;ng their 11ll'i.\SUrC, 
hunled with '-'0 imlHoùeratc ùc...in's. CUH\S. 1.'01 0 when the 
Lord r 'bul\:(\d tIt 'In, then they percei,"cd that thi
 rl'que
t wa
 
fnHu thl' disl'iples, For thon
h tlu.')" \'
{'rc gri{',-ed in their 
hearts when ther 
aw thenl so especially honour('(l in the 
transfiguration, they J l't dar('d not 
o l'Xprl'S thelllseh.cs, 
ont of respect to their teacher, PSFT'f)O-CHln s. But as the 



696 


GOSPE L ACCOUDIXG TO 


CHAP. XX. 


two had asked can1ally, 
o now the ten are grieved carnally. 
For as to seek to be above all is blame-worthy, so to have 
another above us is mortifying to our vanity. JEROl\IE; But 
the Ineek and lowly 1\1aster neither charges the two with 
alnbition, nor rebukes the ten for their spleen and jealousy; 
but, Jeslls called t!tent unto ItÙn. CHRYS. By thus calling 
them to Him, and speaking to them face to face, he sooths 
them in their discolnposure; for the two had been speaking 
with the Lord apart by thel11selves. But not now as before 
does He it by bringing forward a cl1ild, but He pro'
es it to 
them by reasoning :&0111 contraries; Ye know that tlte princes 
of the Gentiles e:t'ercise d01JlÍnion over t!lem. ORIGEN; That 
is, not contf'nt lnerely to rule over their subjects, they are 
se\.ere and oppressi,"e. But al110ng 
"ou who are l\Iine these 
things shaH not be so; for as all carnal things are done by 
cOlnpulsion, but spiritual things by free-,viII, so those rulers 
,vho aloe spiritual ought to rest their power in the love of their 
subjects, not in their fears. CHRY8. He shews here that it is 
of the Gentiles to desire preeminence; and by this com- 
parison of the Gentiles He calms their troubled souls. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. Indeed, to desire a good 'work is good, 
for it is within our ,viII, and ours is the re,,"ard; but 
to de
ire a prilnacy of honour is yanity. For when 
,ve attain this 'we are judged of God, because ,ve know' not 
'whether ill our precedence of honour we deser\pe tIle re- 
ward of righteousness. For not even an Apostle will have 
praise with God, because he is an Apostle, but if he 
has well fulfilled tl1e duties of his Apostleship; nor was an 
Apostle placed in }10nonr as an Apostle, for any previous 
merit of his; but 'was judged meet for that ministry, on account 
of the disposition of his Inind. For higll place courts hitn who 
flies fronl it, and shuns him ".ho courts it. A better life then, 
and not a more \vorthy degree, should be om" <?
ject. The 
Lord therefore, willing to check the ambition of the two sons 
of Zebedee, and the indignation of the others, points out this 
distinction between the chief Inen of the \\Todd, and those of 
the Church, she\\"ing that the primacy in Christ is neither 
to be sought by hiln \vbo has it not, nor envied by him \vho 
has it. For Inen become luasters in this world that they 
TIlay exercise domination oyer their inferiors, and reduce 



V EH. 2 t-
t:'. 


ST, MA"J TllhW. 


ûÐ7 


thClll to 
la\'ery, and rob tl1t'ln, and C'lnploy thC1n e\"ell to 
death for their own profit and glory. But IHen l)eCOIHC 
gO\"CnlOrS in the Church, that they may '-'er\"e those who are 
undcr them, and Inillistcr to theln whatl'vc!" thcy have recci\"t.
d 
of Christ, that tlH'Y tnay postpOlll' their own con'"enieucc, 
and Inind that of other
, and not rcfuse cven to die for the 
sake of those beneath thcul. To seck therefore a cOlunulnd 
in the Church is ncither righteous, nor profitable. X 0 
pnldcnt man ,,"ill ,-oluntarily subject hÏ1nself to slavery, nor 
to stand in such peril wherein he willlun"c to rell<.1er account 
for the whole Church; unless it be one perchance who fears 
not (,od's jlHlglllcnt, ,vho abuses IIis ecclesiastical prinlacy to 
it secular end, 
o that lIe converts it into a secular priu]ac,y. 
J EHO'IE; Lastly, lIe set
 before thent IIis own example, 
that so 
hould they little ,\ eigh IIiI' word
, IIis deeds luight 
s11
uue theIn, whence lIe aùds, ,As also the Son 'If lIan 
cOllzelh Jlot to be ministered unto, but to ntÏnister. ORIGEX; 
f""or though th(--, ...\llgcls and 
Iart1la Iuinistered to IIiul, yet :l\Iat. 4, 
ùid lIe not conle to be nlinistered unto, but to u1Ínister; 

im 
yea, 1lis Ininistr} extended so far, that lIe illlfiHed en:
Il ]2, 2. 
what follows, .A.Jld tv give his life a ranS01Jl for 1JUIJlY, 
they, that is, who belie,-ed on IIilll; and ga\-e it, i. e. to 
cleath. But since II e ,vas alone free tunong the dead, and 
n1Ïghtier than the power of death, lIe has set iree irOnl death 
all who ,,"cre ,,'illing to follow HÍ1n. The heads of the 
Chureh ought therefore to iluitatf' Christ in being aft
lble, 
adapting ilinl,elf to ""OIllCn, la
"ing IIis hands on children, 
and wa
hing IIis disciples' fcet, that they also should do the 

anle to their brethren. llut \, e are 
uch, that \\"P ht'CIH to go 
bcyond th(' pride e'"en of the great ones of tJ]is ,,"orId; as to 
the cOInlnand of Christ, either not uTlflerstanding it or setting 
it at noug}lt. Like princes ,ve seek host:-. to go l)cf<<Jre U
, 
we 1llake ourselves awful and difficult of acccs:.., especially to 
the poor, neither approaching thCIll Bur sutfcI;ng them to 
approach ns. CURl
. 110\\ Hluch soe\ er you hUlllble yourself, 
)"Ou callnot (le,",celld so far as (lid your IJord. 


2U. _ \nd as they departed froln .Jericho, a great 
1l1ultitudc follo\vcd hitn. 



{jUS 


GOSPEL ACCOUDING TO 


CHAIt. XX. 


30. And, behold, two blind filen sitting by the way 
side, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried 
out, saying, Have mercy on us, 0 Lord, thou Son 
of David. 
31. And the multitude rebuked them, because 
they should hold their peace: but they cried the 
more, saying, Have mercy on us, 0 Lord, thou Son 
of David. 
32. And Jesus stood still, and called thein, and 
said, 'Vhat will ye that I shall do unto you? 
33. They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may 
be opened. 
34. So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched 
their eyes: and irnlnediately their eyes received sight, 
and they followed him. 


PSEUDO-CHRYS. As the proof of the husbandman's industry 
lies in the abundance of his crop, so the fulness of the Church 
is the evidence of an industrious teacher; so it is here said, 
And as they departed froln Jericho, a great 1n'ltltitude fol- 
lowed him. No one was deterred by the toilsomeness 
of the journey, for spiritual love feels no fatigue; no one 
,,,,as kept a\vay by the thought of suffetings, for they \vere 
going into possession of the kingdom of heaven. For he 
who has in very deed tasted the reality of hea,?enly good, 
has nothing to attach him to earth. In good season these 
blind men come before Christ, that having their eyes opened, 
they may go up \yith Him to Jerusalen1 as witnesses to His 
po\ver. They heard the sound of the passers by, but saw not 
their persons, and having nothing free about them but their 
voice, because they could not follow Him with their feet, 
they pursued Hjnl with their voice; When they hea1.d that 
Jes'ltS passed by, they cried out, saying, Hare 'Jne1'CY on 'ltS, 
Aug. de 0 1
o1'd, thou Son of David. ArG. 
Iark relates this 111iracle, 
E Co

: but S I Jeaks of only one blind man. This difficulty is thus 
'\:. 11. 
65. explained; of the hvo blind men \vhom l\Iatthew has intro- 
f

r
. duced, one \vas ,veIl kno\vn in that city, as appears by l\Iark's 
mentioning both his name, and that of his father. Bartimæus 



\ï.:U. 
H-:3.1. 


8 r. )1.\1' I'll F\,'. 


tHJV 


the son of l'iIuæus was" en kuo\m a
 haviub sunk from great 
a1Hnellcc, and now 
ittiug not only Lliud, but a beggar. l
or 
this reason then it is that 
\Iark cho
c to mention hinl alone, 
bccau"e the restoration of hi
 f'ight procured faUl(' to the 
Iuiraclc, in proportion to the notoriety of the fuct of his 
ùlindness, 1'hough what LUhC relates \,'a
 done after the 
saUle lUal111er, yet his account is to bc tal,:eIl of another l..ukelR, 
though silnilar .111iraclc. 'That \vhich he brivcs was done as 35. 
they dre" near to Jericho; this in the other two a,,, they 
caUl 
 out of Jericho. lllll the JJudlilude rplJuked f!telli t!tat 
llu>y s!tuuld livId Il,eil" peace. IJsEcDo-CHUYs. For they 
t-'aw how Inean their clothl'
, and considered 110t ho" pure 
their consciences. 
ee the foolish wisdoIll of luen! The} 
think great Blcn are hurt ".hCll they receive the homag' of 
the poor. ""'hat poor man dare 
alute a lich Jnan in pub1ic? 
IT ILAHY; Or, 'l'hcy bid them hold thcir peace, not fTOID 
rc\'crcnce tor Christ, but because they were gri('vcd to hear 
froIn the hlind what they denied, nalnely, that the Lord \vas 
th(\ Son of Da\-id. ORIGEX; Or; Those that believed rebuked 
thenl thai they should not di
honour IIiln Ly styling IIiul 
Inerch
 Son of Daviù, but should rathcr say, Son of God, 
. . 
ha'
e Inercy on us. PSEt7"DO-CUHYS. 'rhey ,,"cre rather ("n- 
cow'aged than repelled hy this l"ehul,:c. For f'O filith i
 
quickcned by being prohibited; aud hence is 
ccure in dan- 
gers, and in security is cndangered; ,,-heuce it follows, IJut 
they cried out the luore, saying, Hare 1/lercy upon U8, Sou- of 
]Jarid. They crierl out at the first because they \vere blind, 
no\\' they rather cried out because they \vere forLidden to C01UP 
to tllC Light. CURY". Christ suffered thenl to be iorbiddcn, Cbryt'. 
tl1.1t their desire tHight Le the nlore evidenced. ITellcl' learI1 1 Ho
. 
xn. 
that though \no' ht ì rl'pul
ed, ) ct ;f we COllll
 to (;0(1 with 
l'arne
tn('s
, of ourseh.e
, we 
hall obtain that \'"(' ask. It 
follows, Anti .J,,
'US 8100 sl ii, 11 d .alled Iii 11/, lInd .wlld, 
II !tal n"ill .lIP fhal I s!tould do ,,"10 you I JERO'IE; Jesus 
stood still, becaus ' they bcing- hlillù could not see their way. 
.\hunt Jelil'ho WPl"C Inan
 pit

 crags, and abrupt precipices; 
thl'rl'forc thl' Lonl stallds still that they 1lli
ht COllIe to IIinl. 
ÛHhÏE:\; ()r; J 'su:, docs not pa
s n, but 
tands súll, that 
h.\ I [i') standing II i:-. b()()dul'
" tn
l) not pa.

 by, but as fron} 
an ahi(ling fount nU'l"CY Inn} tIn" fortI. upon them. J ERO:\IE; 



700 


GOSPEl. -\CCOHDIXG TO 


(' lL\P. XX 


tIe comlnanrls that they be called to Him that the Illultituùe 
1nay not withhold thel11; and He asks them \"hat they \vould, 
that by their answer, their necessity may be made apparent, 
and IIis power be she\\"n in their healing. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
Or; lIe asks them on account of their faith, that \vhcreas 
they who were blind confess Christ to be the Son of God, 
t110se who had their sight might be put to shalne for their 
esteeming Hill1 only man. They had indeed caned Christ 
Lord, and they had spoken true; but by calling Hirn the 
Son of David, they obliterated this their good confession. 
F or indeed by a Inisuse of words men are called Lords, but 
none is truly Lord, but God only. ""'hen therefore they say, 
o Lord, tltO'll SOil of DarÙl, they thus n1Ïsapply the tenn to 
Christ, as esteelning Hitn nlan; had they only called IIin1 
Lord, they would have confessed His Godhead. ""'hen then 
lIe asks them, rr/zat would ye? they no longer style Hinl 
Son of David, but only Lord; They say unto HÙJl, Lord, 
that Oll'J" eyes '1nay be opened. For the Son of David cannot 
open the eyes of the blind, but the Son of God can. So 
long then as they cried, 0 Lord, thou Son qf Da.vid, their 
cure ,vas delayed; as soon as they said, Lord, only, healing 
was shed upon then1; for it follows, And Jeslls had C01JlpaS- 
sion'Upon Ilte1Jl, and touched their eyes, and stl'a(qlthray 
they sa-.w. fIe touched thelll canlally as luan, He healed 
then1 as God. J ERO:l\IE; The Creator bestows \vhat nature 
had not given; or at least Inercy accords what weakness had 
withheld. CHRYS. But as before this bounty they had been 
pel'severing, so after the recei\Ting it they 'v ere not ungrateful. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. On bcing healed they rendered a high 
service to Christ; for it follows, And f hey jòllouied II ÙIl. For 
this the Lord requires of thee, according to the Prophet, that 
:rv1ic.6, t!tOlt be Cfl1'e.ful to 1l'alk u.itlt tile Lord thy God. JEROME; 
8. They then \vho had sat shut up in Jericho, and kne,v only to 
cry \vith their voice, afterwards follo,v Jesus, not so lTIuch with 
their feet as in their virtues. 
RABAN. But Jericho, which is interpreted 'the moon,' 
denotes the infinnity of our changefulness. ORI6EN; Fign- 
rath-ely , .Jericho is taken to be the ,,"orId, into which 
Christ can1e c1o\vn. They \\"ho are in Jericho, know not 
ho\v to escape frotn the wisdom of the n 9 orld, unless thf'Y 



\ï.:H 2H-;3.t. 


sl'. 'l.\rTllf
\'. 


7uI 


:-.ee not Jesus only COlllillg out of Jericho, hut also TI is 
discipl('s. This when tIleY 
aw, great luultitudc,; followed 
llilu, de....pisillg thc world ana all worldly things, that under 
I (is guidance' they lllay go up to the hea,"enly J crusalcln. 
TIll' two blind tIlen n g e nlay call Judah and Israel, who 
before the eouting of Christ were hlil1d, not secing the 
true \yonl ".ì1Ích \\.a
 in the La\\r and the l>rophcts, Yl't 
sitting by the wayside of the J
aw aud dlt. Prophets, and 
understanding llilll only as after tllt' flesh, they cried to IIiul 
who \\'as lUafl,. of the s
cd of Da\'id according to the flesh. 
J EH(ßfE; By the two blind 11len afe gencrally understood 
the l>hari
ces and Sadducees. AUG. Otherwise; 1'he t\VO Aug. 
LI ' 1 .. 1 1 . d d ' f b I Quæ
t. 
Ill( Hwn 
lttlIl
 )y t IC n aysl c, enotl' certaIn 0 ot 1 E\',i,2S. 
nations alrca(ly by faith cOll1Íng in to that tClnporal dis- 
pensation, according to which Christ is the war, and seek- 
ing to he enlightened, that is, to know son1cthing con- 
cerning the eternity of the "r ord. This they desired to 
obtain froln the Lord as He passed by, for the merit of 
that faith hy which II
 is be1ip,"C'ù Ít) be the Son of 
God, to ha\'e becn born luau, and to have suffered for 
11:-.; for in this dispensation, Jesus, as it ""cre, p
scs by, 
fur all action i
 of this world. .Also it belu)Yl'd that they 
shoulll CfY out so loud as to o'"crpowcr the din of the lllUlti- 
tude tlJat withstoud thcln; that is, 
o to forti
\T tht>ir tninds 
by perseverance and prayer, and InortitYing continually the 
usage of fie
hly lusts, (whie h as a crowd c\'er ùeset one that 
is endea.Yourin
 to COllle to the sight of etl'fIlal truth,) and by 
the straitest paiuflÙness to get the better of the lllultitude of 
carnal Incn who hinder spiritual aspirations. ID. For bad Aug. 
1 k CI ' , 1 . d d ( 1 } .. Serm. 
or u -('wann 111.
tIaIlS are au 1111 rance to goo Insnans,88, 13. 
who seck to pl'rfol"ln the cOlll1l1andlllèuts of God. Notwith- 
I'\tanding thesf' cry and faint 11ut; for every Christian at his 
first sctting about to live ,,,ell and to de:-;pise the \vorId, has 
tù endure at the first the ccnsures uf cold Christians; hut if 
he pcr
en_'re, they win soon cc)]uply, who but now with
tood 
hÍ1n. ID. Jesu:o' theref()l"c, tht' same who said, To him Allg. 
thai ',"/lo('Á(
th it shall be ope/lpd, hearillg them, stands still, 



i

. 
touches theIn, and gi,.cs thenl light. Faith in I [is tClnporal2
. 
incarnation preparc::> u!'\ for the understandiug of things cternaL 
By tIt(' passing h
 of .Je.",u
 they arc admonished that they 



702 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO ST. )IATTHE'V. 


CHAI). XX. 


should be enlightened, and when He stands still they 
U'C 
enlightened; fOI" things temporal pass hy, but things eternal 
stand still. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Some interpret that the t\VO 
blind men are the Gentiles; one sprung from Cham, the 
other froin Japhet; they sat by the ,yay-side, that is, they 
,valked hard by the tnlth, but they could not find it out; or 
they were placed in reason, not having yet received kno\\'ledge 
of the 'V ord. RABAN. But recognizing the l'U1nour of Christ, 
they desired to be made partakers of IIiln. l\Iany spake 
against then1; first the Jews, as \ve read in the Acts; then 
the Gentiles harassed thelu by pel'secution; but yet they 
might not deprive those \vho were preordained to life of 
sah-ation. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Accordingly Jesus touched the 
eyes of the Gentile mind, giving them the grace of the Holy 
Spirit;-alld when enlightened they followed Him with good 
works. ORIGEN; 'Ve also now sitting by the w'ayside of 
the Scriptures, and understanding \vhereil1 we are blind, 
if \ve ask ,vith desire, lIe will touch the eyes of OlU' souls, 
and tbe gloom of ignorance shall depart froln our minds, 
that in the light of knowledge we 1nay folIo,," Hil11, who 
gave us power to see to no other end than that \ye should 
follow Rinl. 



CII 
P. XXI. 


1. .c\nd \\"hen they ùre\v nigh unto J erusalenl, and 
\, ere COIne to Bethphage, unto the l110unt of Olives, 
then sent J psus t\\"o disciples, 
2. Saying unto thcln, Go into the village over 
against you, and straight\vay ye shall find an ass 
tied, and a colt \yith her: loose them, anù bring them 
unto mc. 
3. Ând if any lnan say ought unto you, ye shall 
say, The I.Jord hath need of them; and stra.ight,vay 
he \vill send thcm. 
4. ...\.nd this \vas done, that it Inight be fulfilled 
,vlrich \vas spoken by the prophet, saying, 
5. Tcll ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King 
cODleth unto thee, lueei, and sitting upon an ass, 
and a colt the foal of an ass. 
6. 
\nd the disciples ,vent, and did as Jesus com- 
manded theIn, 
7. And brought the ass, and the colt, and put on 
theln their clothes, and they set hiln thereon. 
8. l\.nd a very great multitude ðpread their gar- 
ments in the "ray; others cut t1o\\.n branches from 
the trees, and stra".cd thcln in the ,yay. 
9. And the multitudes that \rent before, and that 
follo,ved, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: 
Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; 
l-Iosanna in the highest. 



70J 


GO:'\PET.. ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


REMIG. The Evangelist related above that the Lord 
departed from Galilee, and began to go up to J erusalenl. 
Being no\v occupied with telling what He did by the way, 
he proceeds in his purpose, saying, And 'when tliey dreu' 
nig!t to Jerusalem, and were COlne to Bethphage. Bethphage 
,vas a slnall village of the priests, situated on the declivity 
of l\Iount Olivet, one 111Ïle distant ii"om Jerusaleln. For the 
priests \yho ministered in the temple their apportioned time, 
\vhen their office of lninistration was discharged, \"ithdrew to 
this village to abide; as also did they "Tho "Ten
 to take their 
place. Because it was eOlnmanded by their La\v that none 
should travel on the Sabùath nlore than a n1Ïle. ORIGEN; 
'Vhence Bethphage is interpl"eted, The house of the Shoulder; 
for the shoulder was the priest's portion in the La\v. It 
follows, Then Jesus sent t'lÐO oj. !tis disciples., PSEUDO- 
CHRYS. He said not to His disciples, Say, Thy Lord, or 
Your Lord, hath need of theln; that they 111ay understand, 
that He is Lord alone, not of the beasts only, but of all men; 
for even sinners are by the law of nature His, though by their 
own will they are the Devil's. CHRYS. And thinl\: not this 
a little thing "Thich was now done, for who was it that 
\vrought with the o,,'ners of the beasts that they refused not, 
but yielded them? By this also He instructs His disciples 
that He could have restrained the Jews, but would not; and 
further teaches them that they should grant \vhatever is 
asked of thetTI; for if they \vho knew not Christ, no\\r granted 
this, much more it becomes His disciples to give unto all. 
For that \\Thich is said, But u'ill straightway let thelJt go, 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. it is to be understood, that after He had 
entered into Jerusalem, the beast was returned by Christ 
Gloss. to its o\vner. GLOSS. Or, The o"rner of the beasts will 
a P I . An- straight\vay send them to be engaged for Christ's service. 
se ua. . 
Hereto is added the testimony of the Prophet, that It may 
be shewn that the Lord fulfilled all things which were \Vrittel
 
of Him, but that the Scribes and Pharisees, blinded by envy, 
would not understand the things that they read; All lhis 
was done, that it rnight be fulfilled 'll'lt.iclt was spoken by 
Zech. the Prophet; to wit, Zacharias. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For the 
9, 9. Prophet kno\\,ing the malice of the Jews, that they would 
speak against Christ when He went up to the Tenlple, gave 



YI,'H. 1-9. 



T. 
lATTII E\\ , 


, U,) 


thell. Lhi.., sign bet(H"challd, whereby thc) uJight kno\\" their 
King, Say ye to ,,,(' dailY" Ie,' (!f J,,'i()lI. H.\B \
, r 11 history, 
Uaughtf'r of Sian is the naBIC gi,'en tu the cit.\r of .JcrnsalC1u, 
which stands on Blount Rion. But lllysticaHy, it is tI)(O 
Church of the fi1Ïth fnI pertaining to the J crnSc.llelll \\yhic h i
 
aho\"e. PSErno-CHRl s. lJ(Jhold, is a \vonl used in point- 
ing out any thing; look, that is, not \vith the Loùily cye, but 
with the 
piritual understanding, at the works of II is power. 
Also af()retiules ] I e oft said, Bpllolrl, that I If> l11ight shew 
that I I c of whol11 lie 
pakc bcforc ICc \Vas Lorn ,va
 c"eu 
thcn thy Kiug. "rICU then ye 
11aH 
Cf" IliIn, sa) not, n'-a John 
nlll:e n() Kill!} but Cæsar. lie cUJJleth to thee, if thou wilt 19, 15. 
apprchcnd IIiuI, that lIe Inar save thee; if thou wilt not 
apprehend IIÏ1n, ] Ie cOlneth against thee; .J.1Ieek, so that lIe i:- 
not to be feared for IIis po\\
er, but lo,.cd for IIis 11lcekl1css; 
whcrefore He sitìeth Dot on a golùen car, refulgcnt in coSÙy 
pUl1)le, 1101' is Inounted on a luettled steed, rejoicing in strife 
and battle, but upon a she-ass, that 10\ es peace and quiet. 
AI.JG. In thi
 quotation froin the Prophet, thcre is 80111C Aug. de 
. , I d ' fl ' G I "" I I .. f I Cons 
VarIcty 111 t It' I erent ospe S. 
,aU lew quotes It as 1 t Je Ev. ii. 
Prophet had expressly 111l'utioncd the she-ass; but it is 110t G6. 
so quoted by Jo11n, nor in thc Church-copies of the trans- John 
lation in COIHnlun uSC. 111is SCCIllS to Ine tu ht, accounted 12, lõ. 
for by the account, t11at 1\Iatthc\v wrote his Gospel in the 
IIcLrc\\" language. And it is clear that the translation called 
the T-IXX, has SOUle t1Úngs different frol11 what are found ill 
tIIC Hcbrew, by those \vho kno\v that tongue, and who ha' c 
rendercd the 
alne books out of thc Hebrcw. If the reason 
of this di
crepancy be asked, I consider nothing Ulore likely 
thau that the LXX intcrprcted \\.ith the selfsanlc 
pirit with 
".hich the original was written, which i
 confirmed hy that 
wonderful agreelllcn t tll1l0ng thenl ['If ,v}Üe h ,v(' are told. 
ny thus varying the l':x.pressiou, wIllie tl1(.') did not dcpart 
from thc Ineaning of that God ,,-hose \\yords they \\ycrc, t11CY 
conveJ to U
 th(' ,.cry salHe thing as we gather frolll this 
agreenlent, with slight yariety, among the E, '-lngelists. 1]1Ìs 
8be".s us that it is no lie, when 011C relatcs anr thing ,,-ith 
such di\'en..itic
 in detail, a
 that he dues not dl'part fronl 
1lÌs intention \\ ith whonl he ought to agrec. 1'0 know this 
is useful in luoré.Ùs in avoiding lies; and for troth itSlolf
 that 
VOL. I. 2 z 



706 


GO!'PEI. ACCOHDING TO 


CIIAl'. XXI 


we 
hould not suppose that 1.h(' truth is 
('curcd in sacred 
sounds, as though God illlpartcd to us not the Inatter only, 
but the ,vords in ,vhich the lnatter is conv'cyed. TIatllcr the 
nlatter is in such sort conveyed in words, that \ve ought not 
to ,vant ,vords at all, if it \vere possible that the nlatter could 
be known by us without ,vords, as God and IIis Angels 
kno\\" it. It follows, But tlte disciJÛes u'ent and did as 
Jesus c01n1J
anded the1n, and bro1lgltl the ass, and the ('olt. 
The other E,
angelists say nothing of the ass. And if l\Iatthew 
hac1not Inentioned the colt, as they do not nlention the ass, 
the reader ought not to have been surprised. How llluch 
less then should it nlove hiln, \vhen one has so lnentioned 
the ass ,,,bich the others have on1Ïtted, as not to forget the 
colt \vhich they have lncntioned. For there is no discre- 
pancy where both cirClunstances nlay have occurred, though 
one only related one, and another another; ho\\' much less 
then \vhere one mentions both, though another lncntions only 
one? It follo\vs, And tlley put on theln their clothes, and 
set hÍ1n thereon. J EllO::\IE; But it seems that the Lord could 
not in so short a distance have sate npon both aninlals; 
seeing then that the history has either an Ï1npossibility or 
a meanness, \ve are sent to higher things, that is, to tbe 
:figurati,'e sense. l1E:\lIG. Notwithstanding, it was possible 
that the Lord lllight have sate upon both aniluals. CHRYS. 
To lnc it seeIllS that He was mounted upon the ass, not only 
because of the mystery, but to give us a lesson of \visdom, 
teaching us therein that it needs not to be 1110unted on 
110rses, but that it is sutIiciel1t to eluploy an ass, and be 
content \vith that \vhich is necessary. But enquire of the 
Je\vs, what I{ing has entered Jerusalenl 11lounted upon an ass? 
'rhey can nanle none other, but this one only. JEUO)lE; 
The lllultitudes that came out of Jericho, and followed the 
Saviour, cast down their gannents, and stre\ved the \\?ay with 
branches of trees; and therefore it follows, But the 1nultitudes 
spread tlleir gannents in tIle U'(lY; that is, beneath the feet 
of the ass, that it should not stumble against a stone, nor 
tread upon a thorn, nor fall into a ditch. Others cut down 
branches ji'01Jl the trees, and slrelccd theHt in tlte ll'ay; froln 
the fruit-trees, that is, with \vhich lllount Olivet was clothed. 
And w'hen all that could be done \vas done, they added also 


.... 



\I.n.l-H, 


sr. \1 \TTII ("'V. 


70i 


tht' trilHlh. of the tongue, as it f
)now
, 'lid Ilu' 1111Ii/ill/dt>., 
lluil 1,"111 !Jr:,(o,.(', (lnd Iltal,/,fJllol('('d, (T'f'd, ,
f1yiJl!I, l/(J.I\(IIIJI' 
Iv IIIl ..
{ 11 (!( j)arid. 1 shall shortly e"
11Hillt' \\ hat j... th(" 
lI1l'allillg' of this upon 1 Ilosalllla, I H the hlludrcel aneI se\"t'Il- 
tcellth l)\oìuhll, which is clearly writ1('U of the Sa\"iour't s ceHuiul-{, Ps. ll
, 
"e read this arnong other things; ..'.fa' t ( 1I0lr, () I
(}r j 2,.. 
U J 
(J,.d, s(Jnd I/VI{ prosperil y. IJIt',';s(,d ilr! ! hUI/ I hat art 
10 (XiI/Ie ill I he IIn IJI 
 (y' 'he Lord. For that which thc L 
X 
gixe 'f,!2, KÚgH UW(J'OJI G
, Sa
' /lOll", U Lo,'d; 'Yè read in thl. 
II ebre\\, ' ,A Hna, rHlollai osianllu,' \\' hich S) Illlnachlls fl'IHll'rs 
luore plainly, 1 pray lit >e, 0 Iord, sare, 1 pray '"C('. Let 
nOIl(' think that it is a \\.ord Inade up of two words, aile 
Grl'ek auel one Jfehrew, for it is pun' TTehrew. ItE'IH;. 
\nel 
it is confounded of onc pcrfect and one iUlperfcct ".0reI. For 
'IIosi' 
ignifies 'save;' 'anna' is an intcljcction used in 
cntreating. JEHO
IE; For it signifies that the cOluing of 
Christ is the salnttion of the ".odd, whence it follows, Illl'ssed 
is he 'hat cOlJlclh ill 'he llalne ql the Lord. 'Yhich saIne 
thing the 
ayiour in the Go
pel coufinlls, Ill", COllie ill 111!/ John 5) 
Fal/Ii)"'''; 1l(lIlle. IlE
nG. Becau
e, n
ullely, in all I Tis gooe1 43 . 
actions, lIe 
ought not Ilis own but ] lis Father'::; glory. 
G r.o:--:-.. .A nd the ulcaning' i:-., flle.'i.w-,Li, that is, Glorious, is GllJ:;;
. 
II 1 1 I . . . '1 r 1 ap. A H- 
e I"a/ ('UJJIC"I, t lilt IS, I
 l1H:arllute; III ",e nfl/II(> (! lue 
t'lm. 
Lord; that i
, of the Father, hy glorif)"ing 1] iUl. Again thc.'y 
repcat, ll(jsall /Ill, that is, Sa fe, I pra!/ i !tee, and define whither 
they would he 
a\'ed,;/I lite hi!/lles!, that is in the hea\-enly, 
not in the c<lrthly places. J EUO:\IE; Or by that which j':) 
a(leled, Ilo.wlIl/UI, that is, 
ah-ation, in tli(>" i.f}ltesf, it i
 clearl) 

hewn that the conlÏng of Chri
t is not the 
ah'ation of Blan 
only, Lut 01 the whole \\.orld, joining earthly thing-s to things 
hea\"l'nl
. ÛnIGE
; Or when tlJ
r sa
, f/o.WIlI/1ft /0 I Ill') 
SfJIl (!f nlll'id; IJltwsetl is lI( IIIat {'OIlIl,lIi ill /1,(> n(l/lle '!( 11u' 
fIord, it is the eli:-;pcnsatioll of Christ'
 hnrnanit) that the') 
set f(n.th; but TTi:-- restoration to the 11(1) placf's when thl'
 
sa), 1losllllJlff ';11 Ill(
 Ili!l!te,
f. )1:-.ECDO-CIITIYc;.., Ilo,Wll/llfl, 
SOlllC intcrpr<'t 'glory,' SOlllC 'rc(lclnption;' alHI glory is Ilis 
due, an(l rC1leHlption bl'lollg's to II inl who has re<1l'CIHt'd all 
men. III L.\UY; l
hc worcl
 of their son
 of prai
(', express 
Hi
 powèr of l"èc.ll'lllptioll; ill calling lTim tht' Son of T)a\ ie1. 
tlH'
. :U:hHO\\]Cage IIi" hcrcc1itar.\ title' to tIle 1..ingcloHI 
:! 7 
 



708 


GOSPEl., ACCORDING TO 


CIL\P. xxi. 


PSEUDO-CHRYS. N e\rer before had the Lord clnployed the 
ser\rices of beasts, nor surrounded Himself with the onla- 
nlents of green boughs, till no,,," when He is going up to 
Jerusalem to suffer. lIe moved them that beheld to do that 
which they had before desired to do; so it \vas opportunity 
that ,vas nO"T given then1, not their purpose that was changed. 
J EROl\IR ; l\;f ysticall y; The Lord draws near to .J erusalenl 
departing fronl .Jericho, and taking great Inultitudes with 
II iIn, because great and laden with great \vares, that is, the 
salvation of believers that has been entrusted to Hiln, lIe 
seeks to enter the city of peace, the place of the beholding 
of God. And lIe comes to Bethphage, that is, to The house 
of the jawbones; lIe bare also the type of confessioll; and 
halted on l\iount Olivet, where is the light of knowledge, 
and the repo
e fron) toils and pains. By the village over 
against the Apostles is denoted this ,vorld; for that was 
against the Apostles, and was not willing to receive the light 
of their teaching. RE
nu. The Lord therefore sent His 
disciples fronl mount Olivet to the vil1age, ,,'hen lIe guided 
the preachers forth from the priIniti,re Church into the world. 
lIe sent t"ro, because there \vere hvo orders of preachers, as 
Ga1.2,8. the Apostle shews, saying, He that u;rougJd ill Pete'r to fhe 
Apostleship of Ci1'Cil1JlCision, tile Sal71e u"as 'JJligltly in 'Ule 
lowa'rds the Gentiles; or, because the precept
 of cllarity 
are t\VO; or, because there are two testaments; or, because 
there is Jetter and spirit. .JEROl\IE; Or, because there is 
dleory and practice, that is, knowledge and \yorks. By 
the ass which had been under the yoke, and was broken, 
the synagogue is understood. By the ass's colt wild and 
unbroken, the Gentile people; for the Jewish nation is 
to\vards God the mother of the Gentiles. RABAN. 'Vhence 
l\latthew, who wrote his Gospel to the Jews, is the only 
one who mentions that the ass was brought to the Lord, 
to shew that this same IIebrew nation, if it repent, need 
not despair of salvation. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Men are likened 
to animals, froln some l"esemblance they bear in their not 
recognising the Son of God. And this anÏ1nal is unclean, 
and beyond all other brutes incapable of reasoning, a stupid, 
helpless, ignoble drudge. Such ,vere men before the coming 
of Christ, unclean with divers passions; unreasoning, that is, 



\'... H. 1-0. 



T. '1-\1' 1'11}' \\. 


70H 


lacking the rC&l"iOll of the \V ord; stupi(l, in thpir disregard 
of God; \\"cak in 
O\ll; ignohle, bt'callsP forgetting thcir 
hea\'c})]
 birth tlH'Y heeél1lw I"la\"cs of thcir pas...ion;o;, anù uf 
the da.:1l10I1S; ùrudges, Lt'causc they toiled undcr t11t> load of 
CITor laid UPo)} thenl by the da
11101l
, (,r the Pharist'cs. '1'1lP 
ass \\ as tiC'd, that i
, hound ill the chaiu of diabolic crror, so 
that it had llol liben . to go whither it woulù; for heforc \\ c 
do any ::,in we ha,'c fi'cP will to follow', or nnt, the win of tht.' 
l)e\'il; l>>ut if once hy sinning \\ c have hound our
eh'es to 
do hi
 works, \,"e are no longer able to c...capc by our OWl} 

trl'llgth hut, 1i1.e a ,
e::':--cl that has lo:-,t it
 ntdder is tossed 
at the lllcrcy of the storIn, so Ulan, when by sill he has for- 
fcited the aid of Di,'ille grace, no longer acts as he "ins, but 
as tht> l)evil wins. 
\nd if God, by tht, nìighty ann uf I [is 
lllcrcy, ùo not loose hilll, he will abide till dcaÙl in thc chain 
of his sins. 'fhcrcfore lIe saith to llis clisciples, Loose 'hem, 
that is, by your teaching and 111iracle
, for all the Jews and 
Gcntiles \\'ere loos
d by the ,Apostles; and bring lllelll. 10 file, 
that is, convert thel11 to 'Iy glory. OUIGEX; 'Yhence also, 
,,-hen TIe a
cended into hea,.cn, I[e gave cOlllfiland to IIis 
di...ciples that they should loos<:, sinners, for which al'\o lIe 
ga\ c theln the Lloly 
pirit. But being loosed, and Inaking 
progre
s, and bcing nourished by the Divinity of the "
 01'<1, 
they arc held n orthy to 1,e 
('nt bach to the place whcnce 
they \\'cre taken, but no luorc to their fonncr labours, hut 
to preach to thcnl the 
on ùf God, and this is ,,9hat Ill' 
signifies wh('n I Ie 
ays, ,,Jnt! 8/I'a ighlil'fl y He ,("ill send tlte1Jl. 
IIIL.\RY; Or Ly the ass and the colt i
 shewn th(\ twofold 
caning fro111 anlon
 thc Gentiles. For tIle 
alnaritans did 
scr\'p aftf>r a certain fashion of obctlience, antI they are sib'11Ï- 
iÌl'd by the as
; Lut tilC other Gcntiles ,,'ild and unbrokcn 
arc signified by the colt. 1'hcrctorc tn 0 ar{\ scnt to loose 
them that. are bOU1H} by th(' chail1
 of error; S:,ullaria helie,'ed 
through Philip, antI Cornelius as the first-fruits of the Gentilcs 
\\'a
: hrought 11) Peter to Chri
t. l
E
lIG. But 
L
 it was thcn 
saitl to tllt' \post]es, (I' an!l mall '
(/!I o/lght to !I()II, sa !I !Ie, 
FILe lord ltul It lle 
ll ql" ilt >lIl; so now it is coullllandeù to the 
preae hers, that though any oppo
ition he luade to thcIu, thcy 
shoultlllot slac1. to preach. J ERO
IF; TIll' 
\pu
tll's' clothl'
 
\\.hich arc laitl upon the beasts Ilia)" he nllder
tood either 
as th{' t('a('hin
 of \ irtllcs, or discenl1ncnt of Scriptures, or 



710 


GO
rEL ACCORIHS& Tv 


f'H_\P. XXI. 


verities of ecclesiastical dogmas, with whicll, unle
s the soul 
be furnished and instructed, it dcselTcs not to have the Lord 
take 11 is scat there. I
E:\nG. The IJord :-;itting upon the ass 
goes towards J erusalelu, because presiding o"cr the IloIy 
Church, or the faithful soul, l-Ie both guides it in this life, 
and after this life leads it to the "ien" of the heaxenly country. 
But tIle Apostles and other teachers set their gannents upon 
the ass, ,,,hen they gave to the Gentiles the glory \vhich 
they had received fron1 Christ. The nHIHitudes spread their 
gannents in the ,va}", ,,,hen they of the circluncision ,vho 
belie,yed, dcspised the glory ,vhich they had by the Law. 
Is. 11,1. They cut down branches frOIn the trces, because out of the 
;,er. 23, l)rophets they had heard of the green Bra Nell as an elnblenl 
of Christ. Or, the 1l1ultitndes \vho spread their garnlents in the 
,yay, are the lnartyrs ,,,,ho gave to 111artyrdolll for Christ their 
bodies, ,vhich are the clothing of their 111inds. Or, they are 
signified, who subdue their bodies by abstinence. They who 
cut down the branches of the trees, are they \vho seek 
out the sayings and exalnplcs of the holy fathers for their 
o"Tn or their children's salvation. J EROl\1E; 'Vhen lIe says, 
The '}}utltitudes that u'ent úçfore a.nd thrttfollou.:ed, lIe shews 
that both people, those W]10 before the Gospel, and those 
\V}10 after the Gospel, believed on the Lord, praise Jesus with 
the hannollious \yoicc of confession. PSErDO-CHRYS. Those 
prophesying spoke of Christ \vho was to cOlne; these speak 
in praise of the con1Ïng of Christ already fulfilled. 
10. And \vhen he was con1e into Jerusalem, all the 
city ,vas moved, saying, 'Vho is this? 
11. And the nlultitude said, This is J eSllS the 
prophet of Nazareth of Galilee. 
12. And Jesus \vent into the temple of God, and 
cast out all them that sold and bought in the 
temple, and overthrew the tables of the money- 
changers, and the seats of theln that sold doves, 
13. And said unto them, It is ,vritten, l\Iy house 
shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have 
Blade it a den of thieves. 
14. .L\nd thc blind and th
 hllne Cê111lC to him in 
the tenlple; and he healed thcin. 



\.' H. lO-l(). 


ST. )[\TrIlE\\. 


711 


I fi. A I III \vhen the Chief Priests and 
cribes sa\v 
the ,vonclcrful things that he did, and the children 
crying in the tClnp]e, and saying, IIosanna to the 
Son of J)avid; they \vere ;:,ore displeascd, 
1 G. 
\nd said unto hin1, IIearc
t thou ,,,hat these 
say? .A.lld Jesus saith unto them, Y Ca; ha,-e ye never 
read, Out of the lllouth of babes and sucklilJgð thou 
hast perfected praise? 


J ERo:\n;; "?hen J l'
US èntcr
d with the l)}ultitl1de:" the 
whole 
it
 of J eru
al(,ln ,vas ]lH)\.
d, wootll'ring at the cr()\vd
, 
and not ]
llowing the power. l)SE('Do-CllHY
. \\
iÙl guuù 
rC(l
on were thc
 n10\ ed at 
ight ()f a thing ::;0 to be wonder
d 
at. 
Ian was prai
e(l a
 God, but it \\?LlS the Go<1 that was 
praiscd in the luau. 13ut, I suppo"c, that ncithpr they \\'ho 
praised knew what thcy praisèd, Lut the 
pÎl.it that suddenly 
Í1lspirc(l then) poured forth the "90nls of truth. ÜnIGF.X; 
)loreo\"cr, when Je
us entcred the true Jerusalclu, thcy cried 
out, ,,'olHlcring at II is heavcnly ,-inues, and :--ai(1, 117'(1 is this 
KiJl!} (If glory I J EHO)IE; \\l1ile othcr
 Were in dunlJt or 
ellq uiring, the ,,'orthlcss ul1lltitude cOllfc::;::;cdlliul; Eut the PI. 24, 
]J 
()l)le s if!, 1ïtis is JesllS tIle j)r Jlhet frum .LYà=flrellt in 8. 
(,alilee. They hl'gin with the lc::;sl'r that they HILlr COlllC to 
thc greater. They hail llilll as that 1>ro1'11ct ,,"hOlll :\loses Deut. 
had 
aid should conIC lile to hi1I1
elf
 which is rightly writtcn 15, 18. 
ill G reek with the t('
tilnoll
 of the article, F'.VJJl i\''''Ú=o relIt ; ftcf)
I- 
(If Galilee, for there lie haù Lcen brought up, that the ".", 
tlo"'cr of the field lllÏght be nouri
hed with t1lt
 lIu\\ <.'r of 
an e),.t'l'lll'1lcil's. n \B.\
. l
llt it i
 to Le Hotl'(l, that thi
 t'1ltry 
of llis into J
rusaJt'1l1 "'as li\ C tlays befure the pa

o' cr. For 
.Jphn rclat '
, that six. days l,cforc the Pa"ðo"l'r lie caUl' to 
John 
Bethan5, 
llltl on tlH' luUrrow :.,ittillg on the Ll

 enterc(l Jeru- 12, I. 

all'lll. III this oLsen c th(' corre s polHlcllt'c hctwl'L'n the lHd 
..llul :\ '\\'1\'
talllellt::>, not only in thillg
 but in 
ca
f)Il:--. For 
on th(' tl'lIth tlay of the first l11onth, the hunb that wa
 to he l
xoJ. 

acriticl't1 f,)r tht' pa

O\.l'r was 10 he taken into the hou,t', 12,3. 
1.ccau..e on the :"aUIP day ùf the :-.<11l1C 111011tl1, that i::" ii\ · 
da)" hef\)}.c the pa

u\.l'r, the Lor( I 
 as to l'lIter the cit.\ ill 
whi
h ll(
 \\a
 to :--nllt'l". P
r:t nt)-CJlH\
. ...Illd JU'l'U8 (JlIl.J"t'd 
into tlu' b..'lIiple '1. (joll, 'I'his \\ as the part of a guod 
ou to 



712 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. X
I. 


haste to IIis Father's house, and do HiIn hGllOUr; so you then 
becoming an in1Ïtator of Christ as soon as you enter into any 
city, first run to the Church. Further, it ,vas the part of a 
good physician, that having entered to heal the sick city, 
he should first apply hÍ1nself to the source of the sickness; 
for as eyery thing good cometh out of the temple, so also doth 
every eyil. For \vhen the priesthood is sound, the whole 
Church flourishes, but if it is corrupt, faith is itnpaired; and 
as \rhen you see a tree whose leaves are pale-coloured you 
kno\v that it is diseased at its root, so when you see an 
undisciplined people conclude without hesitation that their 
priesthood is unsound. J EROI\IE; And he cast out all theln 
fllat sold and bought. It should be kno\vn that in obedience 
to the Law, in the Telnple of the Lord \renerated throughout 
the whole world, and resorted to by Jews out of e\yel") 
quarter, innumerable victin1s \\-ere sacrificed, especially on 
festival days, bulls, raIllS, goats; the poor offering young 
pigeons and turtle-doves, that they might not onÜt all sacrifice. 
But it would happen that those who can1e froIn a distance \vonld 
have no victiln. The Priests therefore contrived a plan for 
Inaking a gain out of the people, selling to such as had no 
victim the aniInals which they had need of fOI' sacrifice, and 
thelnselves receiving then1 hack again as soon as sold. But 
this fraudulent practice \vas often defeated by the poverty of 
the visitors, who lacking Ineans had neither victims, nor 
whence to purchase the In. They therefore appointed bankers 
who Il1ight lend to them under a bond. But because the 
Law forbade usury, and money lent without interest was pro- 
fitless, besides sOInetÍ1nes a loss of the principal, they be- 
thought then1seh r es of another scheme; instead of bankers 
they appointed' collybistæ 8 ,' a word for \vhich the I
atin has 
no equivalent. Sweetmeats and other trifling presents ther 
called' collyba,' such, for exalnple, as parcl1ed pulse, raisins, 
and apples of di\?ers sorts. As then they could not take 


a "St. Jerome here gives a different pretation, so far as to make the word 
Bense ofthe word, from what is commonly stand for a small coin. Hence Colly- 
received among ancient writers. Hesy- bists were those who gave change in 
chius, as far as I know, is the only one small coin. Origen too, to whom St. 
who agrees with him, and he interprets Jerome is indebted for a great part of 
collyba "sweetmeats," At the same his exposition, understands by Collybists 
time Hesychil1s himself makes it
 proper tho
e who change good coin for bad, to 
sense to be " a kind of coin, with an ox the injury of those who employ them," 
stamped on the brass," Pollu"X. and "traUm'S. in loco 
Snidas and. others agree with thi:-: intcr- 



\"Eft, lU-IH. 


ST, \fATTll E\V. 


71 ;J 


nsury, tJw)" ac('{"ptc(l the ,-"<llut> in 
ind, takiug thin
s tha1 
ar > Lought with 111ont'), as if this was not \\ hat E
ekiel 
preached of, saying, }"'e shall Il I Tee 'ive llsury nor Ùu:r as . EZt>k... 
1'hi
 kind of tralJic, or cheating rather, thl. Lord sc('in!{ in 1
, 1,. 
II is Father's hOUSl', and IHo\-ed thf'reat with 
piritllal . eal 
cast out of the 
rclllple this great lunltitude of UIcn. 0 lUG ES ; 
For in that they ought neithcr to 
eU nor to buy, hut to gi\ e 
thcir tilHe to prayer, heing assCluhlc(1 in a 110use of prayer, 
whence it folIo\\ s, _1/ d IL 
 sill ullio l/1(Il11, It's "rill>ll, Y. .66, i. 
lily I,Oll.,'e .'ilulll b
 called a IIlJluW vi prayer. ,.ltG. IJct no Aug. 
one therefore do ought in the oratory, Lut tl1'\t for which it 
e



. 
""as luaùc and whenc(' it got it
 n
l1ue. It f()Uows, lJul I e Dei 3. 
I,al 
 l/lflde it a dell olllli'PH"'. J ERO)U:; For he is indeed 
a thief
 and turns the temple of God into a den of thieves, 
who Inakes a gain of his religion. 
\mong all the miracles 
"Tought bJ our Lord, this 
ecnl
 to fne the Ulost" ouderful, 
that one luan, tlIld lIe at that tiUIC mean to such a degree 
that J [e wa
 afi.erward
 crucificd, and "" hile th(; Scribes and 
l)hari
ce
 "ere L'
aspcratl'd against II in1 
cl'ing their gaill
 
thus cut on; was able by the Llo\\'
 of one f'courge to cast 
out so great a Inu1titudc. Surely a flame and starr)" ray darted 
fTonl hi
 eyes, and thr' Inajcsty of the Godhead was radiant 
in his countenance. ArG, It i::; manifc::;t that the Lord (lid Aug.de 
this thing not onc(' hut twicp; tl1c first tinlc i
 told bv John, i


i, 
thi
 second occasion by tl1c other tllrec. Cnuys, '\11i('h (j C "
 h ' 
, rys. 
aggra\-ates the fault of the Jews, who after I [e had done thc Horn. 
I .. . 1 . } ' 1 I Ixvii. 
l'aln 
 t nug: tWll:e, ,yet pers1
te( In t leu 13r( ness, 
ORIGF.X; 'Iystieally; The 1'enJple of God is the Church of 
Chri'4, whcrein arc luany, who li\
e not, as thcy ought, 
piri- 
tually, hut aft 'r the flesh; and that housp of pra) ef \vhich is 
huilt of living 
tone
 they IlJakf' by tl 1 cir actions to be a. den of 
t11ie,-es. nut if we lliill't cxpre'
 more closel)" the due' kinds of 
IHen cast out of th(' TClnplc, w' Inay 
ay thu
. 'Yho
oev('r 
alllon
 a Cll1;
tiall people "'pl'nd their ti1He in nothing el
e bIlt 
bu) iJl
 and selling, continuing bllt little in praJ'cr
 or in ûthl'r 
ri
ht action
) the
c are the hu) ers and 
l'ncr
 in the Tel)}p]" 
of (;od. }Jl'aCOl1S who do not layout \, ell the tÌ1uds of their 
Chllrehc", but grow rich out of the poor luan's portion, these 
ar
 tht" 1noneY-l'1)angcr
 who
e tal)ll'
 rhrist 0\ el"tllni
. But 
that th(' (l
al'()n:, preside O'"l'r th(' table:" of Church InOnC\, 
. , . . Acts 6, 
""(' learn frol11 the .\ct
 01 the .Apo
tlps. Ihshops" ho COU1- 2. 



714 


GOSPEL ACCOHDING TO 


CHAP. x..XI. 


ulÏt Churches to those tllCY ought not, are they that sell the 
do,'cs, that is, the grace of the Holy Spirit, \vhose scats Christ 
overturns. .JEROME; But, according to the plain sense, tIlC 
doves were not in seats, but in cages; unless indecd the 
sellers of the doves wero sitting in seats; but that \vere 
absurd, for the scat denotes the dignity of the teacher, which 
is brought do\\'n to nothing when it is mixed with covetous- 
ness. l\Iark also, that through the aval'ice of the Priests, the 
altars of God are called tables of n10ney-changers. 'V hat 
we have spoken of Churches let each nlan understand of 
2 Cor. 6, hinlsclf, for the Apostle says, Ye are the feulple oj. God. 
16. Lot thore not be therefore in the abode of your breast the 
spirit of bargaining, nor the desire of gifts, lcst Jesus, entering 
in anger and sternness, should purify llis ten1ple not \vithout 
scourging, that from a den of thieves lIe should nlake it a 
house of prayers. ORIG EN; Or, in IIis second coming lIe 
shall cast forth and overturn those whonl He shall find un- 
,vorthy in God's tC1nple. PSEUDO-CHRYS. For this reason 
also lIe overturns the tables of the money-changcrs, to signify 
that in the temple of God ough t to be no coin save spiritual, 
such as bClli'S the iluage of God, not an earthly Ï111age. He 
overturns the seats of those that sold do\'es, saying by that 
deed, 'Vhat lnal\:e in l\ly te1nple so Inany doves for sale, since 
that one Doye descended of free gift upon the temple of l\ly 
Body? 'Vhat the nnlltitude had proclaiIned by their shouts, 
the Lord shevtrs in deeds; whence it follo\ys, .And tlie blÙlll 
and the faille ca1ne to hÙn in the telnple, and he llealed tlleln. 
ORIGEN; For in the teInple of Goò, that is in the Church, 
all ha\Te not eyesight, nor do an ,valli uprightly, but only tlley 
,vho understand that there is need of Christ and of none other 
to heal them; they cOIning to the 'V ord of God are healed. 
ItEl\uG. That they are healed in the Tenlple signifies, that 
Inen cannot be healf'd but in the Church, to which is givcn 
thc po,,'er of binding and loosing. J ERO:\IE; For had lIe 
not oyerthrown thc tables of the Inoney-challgers and the 
scats of thcln that sold doycs, thc blind and the lanle would 
not havc desen"cd that their \\'onteò sight and POWCl' of 
Illotion 
houlcl bc restorcd to thCIU in the tcn1ple. CHltYS. 
llut not c\'cn thus \vere the Chief Priests cOllvinccd, but at 
IIis 111iraclcs and thc shouts of the childrcn they had indigna- 
tion. J ERo.l\IE; For, not daring to lay hands on Ilhn, the 



\'EIL IO-I(), 



T. ;\I.\TTIIE". 


715 


Priests (ll'f:\1IlP his works, a11d tlu' tt'stilIl011
 of tllc ehih1rl'1I 
who crif'(I, 1/ sauna tv llle .f.,'f VJI {!/' Ðllrid, hl.ss.r/ is he thai 
C01/l ,/1, in tIlt' IIfl111C (!f'Ii fIord, as though this Inight he' 
said to 1101U' hut to the S011 of (;0<1 ouly. I.let then Bishops 
:lIHl a11 holy JlICU tal
c heed ho\\ they 
ufl'er these nlillgs to 
be said to thcln, if thi
 is chargc(l ah a fault in IIilH who i:) 
truly Lord to ,,"hcn)} this \'"as said, hecan
c the faith uf the 
hclie\'ers was 110t yet confinueù. l)
El.no-CnHYs. For as 
a pillar a little out ,,1' the perpcndicular, if luorc ,,'eight ùe 
lai(lllpoll it, is (Irh"l'll to ll'all stin Inore to one 
ide; so also t110 
heart of luan whcn once tlUllC(l aside, is only stirred the tHOn' 
with jealoll
Y hy secing- or hearing deeds of sOlne righteous 
Inan. In this way the 1)riests werc stilTCd up against (
1n;:-;t, 
and said, IltJflresl t!LOlt l("IUll t"e.
e say I J EUO'lE; But th(' 
answer of Chri
t w'as cantions. I Ic spa.1...c not what the Rl'rihc
 
would fain ha\'c heard, l'he ehih1ren do wen that they ùear 
witncss to HIC; nor on the other hand, 'They do ,\'hat ib 
"Tong, they arp hut chilùrC'll, you ought to be iudtùgcnt to 
their tender :years. ] 
 ut I [e hrings a quotation froll1 the 
eighth Psahn, that though the Lord "'ere silent, the testinlony I'
.
,
, 
of Scripture n1ight defend thc words ùf the children, as it 
fl)UOWS, 1]11 t .JeslIs .Wl id 1(11 to t hell1, Jell, llfH'c ye l1('rer read, 

.c. PSEt:DO-CUHY:S. J.s though I [c haù 
aid, Be it _ so, it is 
::\fy fault that these cry thus. llnt is it j)Iy fault that 
o luany 
thousa1Hl :years hcforc the Prophet forl'tol(1 that so it shoul(l 
he? But babes and sucklings cannot kuo\v or prai
c any 
01}<,. 1'herefore they are called haùc
, Bot in age, lnlt in 
guih'lessncss of heart; sucklings, l)l'caus(' th{'
' cri('(} out h{'ing 
1l10"cd hy their joy at the wonderful things they Leheh1, 
as by the sweetIH.:SS of util1\:" :\Iiracnlous WOTh
 aTc caned 
lllilk, l)ecatl
w th(' beholding of IHirac1es is no toil, hut rather 
cxcites wOllùer, and gently ill\ ites to the faiÙI. Bread is the 
(loctrill' of perfect ri
hteonsnc

, which none can recei, e 
hut they who ha'"c their seHses e
t'rcist'd ahont 
pilitual 
things. Cn HY:,. 'l'his wa
 at once a type of the Geuti] '''", 
aud no slnall cOlufort to the ...\ }Jostlcs; for that they luight 
])ot 1)(' perpll'''(('(1, l'ontriving how ha,"ing no e<hl(:atinn f'l)l' 
th(' purpo:-;c thL" 8houl(1 preach thc G o
pl'l, the,c children 
going' hl'ÍlH'l' thclll <li(1 awa
 that fear; f
n. 11(' who IIla(lc 
thc:-;t' to 
in
 1 Ii.... prai:-;.'
.. 
hall fÚ'"C 
pel'ch to those, 'j'hi
 



716 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


(,HAP. XXI. 


IniracJe al
u she\vs that Christ \vas the Fran1er of nature. 
, 
seeing the children spoke things fun of Inealling, and agreeing 
\vitb the Prophets, ,vhereas the nlen uttered things Inean- 
ingless, and fun of frenzy_ 


] 7. And he left them, and went out of the city 
into Bethany; and he lodged there. 
18. N o,v in the n10rning as he returned into the 
city, he hungered. 
19. And \vhen he sa,v a fig tree in the ,vay, he 
came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves 
only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee 
henceforward for ever. And presently the fig tree 
withered a\vay. 
20. And ,vhen the disciples saw it, they marvelled, 
saying, Ho,v soon is the fig tree withered a\vay! 
21. Jesus ans,vered and said unto them, Verily 
I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye 
shall not only do this \vhich is done to the fig tree, 
but also if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou 
removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be 
done. 
22. And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask In 
prayer believing, ye shaH receive. 


PSEUDO-CHRYS. A bad man is better overCOlne by giving 
way to binl than hy replying to hinl; for wickedness is not 
instructed but stimulated by reproof. The Lord accordingly 
sought by withdrawing HÍ1nself to check those \Vh01l1 His 
words could not check; whence it is said, And He lej
 thenl, 
and ,/pent out 0./ the city into Bethany. J EROl\IE; Hence 
it is to be understood that the Lord was in so great poverty, 
and so far ii.oln having courted any-one, that He had found 
in an that city neither entertainer, nor abode, but He lllade 
His home in a little village, in the house of Lazarus and bis 
8ister
; for their village \vas Bethany; and it follo\ys, and 
He lodged I he-re. PSErDO-CHRYS. Seeking 
urely to lodge 
in the body ,vhere His spirit also reposed; for so it is ,vith 



\ FH. 17-:?:!. 


ST. 
I \T rilL", 


717 


an holy luen, thc) }O,.C to be not wht'n' 
lllllptll()U
 l)an(l'lt'l
 
arc, hut ,\ hCT' holiness flourishes. .J ERO
1J'4; "Y'hcn the 

hadcs of night \ver{' dispersed, au<l IT (' \\ as rctnrnillb to 
thc city, the Lord wa
 an huugrc(l, thus 
hcwing the reality 
of I lis Illunan IJody. G r o
s. For in pennitting I Lis flesh Glh"". 
to suffer that ,,,hicll properly pertains to . flesh, I Ie fOf{'- :
'I1
n. 

h '\\ s I Li
 pao..:!'iou. )[ark the earnco..:t zeal of the acti,.c 
lahourer, "110 i
 said to have gone early into the cit
 
to preach, and to 
aill 
onl{, to ] Tis Father. .T ERO'\IE; TIlt" 
Lord ahout to sufll'r aUlong the nations, and to take UpOll 
II iu) the otfellC(" of the Cros
, f'onght to strengthen the 
Juinds of II is disciplc
 by a previolls lniracle; whence it 
follows, lnd seeing a i!l-tree by file /rayside, /1 
 Cfl1Jl 
to it, alld found /Iv/hill!! fhereon but leat'es only, CHRY
. 
lIe came not because lIe was an hUll
rcd, hut fen' 11 is dis- 
ciples' sake; for because lIe {',per <lid good and inflicted 
suffering on none, it l)ehoycd that lIe should 
et forth an 
cxalllple of II is powl'r of pUllislnnt..nt; and this lIe would 
not exert upon 1uan, but upon a plant. IIIL\.RY; IIcrein 
also 'Ve find proof of thl
 IJord's goodncss; whcr{' I It" \\'a
 
Inin<lcd to she" {,)l"th an instance of the 
ah"ation procured 
by Ilis Ineans, IJ e exerted the power of 11 is Illight on Ùle 
per1'\on
 of men; h.r healing their pre
ent sicknt's
es, en- 
couraging thelu to hop<, for the future, and to look f.)r tho 
healing of their 
ou1. But now' when lIe ".olùd exhibit a 
t) pc of IIi
 judglncnt
 on the rcbeniolls, 11 t'\ reprc
ent
 th(" 
futlll"P hy the òestruction of a trec; f.(>f 110 fr/l if groll' on flu' 
lteJlce.fol'l "ai'll jor er'r. J ERO'lE; Fur erer, (in 
c1npitcmlln),) 
or, To the end 
,. tlip u'orld, (in sæculnm,) for the Greek ,yonl 
txiwlI f'ignifi(.s both. Cnuys. 'I11is was only a f'upposition of 
the disciples that it was curscd because it ha(1 not fruit; for 
another E\"augclist says that it "
as not Jet the season. 'Vhy 
then was it curs 'd ? For the disciples' 
ake, that th{'y 1uight 
]{'arn that lIe had po"er to wither up thOSl' who crucifÌed 
Ilinl. t\.nd lIe \,orkcd this nJÏracle ill that which of all plants 
is the nlost juicJ, that the grcatll{,

 of the nlÎraclc nlight be' 
more apparput. Aud whcn augh.t of thi
 kind is done to 
brutes or YCJ!l.tahll's, ask 110t ,\-heth('r the fig "ere with justice 
with.'red up, seeiug it was not the "" 'aSOll for its fruit; for to 
enquire thus ""cre cxtrC1l1è InadnL'

, tor in such creclturcs 



718 


GOSPEL ACCORDIKG TO 


CIL\P. XXI. 


t11erc can he neithC'l" Ü\ult nor puni
.lnl1ent; hut consider the 
Glm:
. miracle, and adlnirc the 'V orker of it. GLOSS. The Creator 
ord. 
does no ""rong to the owner, hut l-lis creature at IIis will is 
converted to the profit of others. CHRYS. And that you 
Inay lean 1 that this ""as don
 for their sakes, to the en a, 
nall1ely, that they should be stirred up to confidence, hear 
,vhat is said further. .leslls auswered and said 'Unto the1Jl, 
JTerily I say unto YOlt, 
f ye s!tallhave faith. J EROl\IE; The 
G-entile dogs bark against us, affinning that the Apostles had 
not faith, because they were not able to relnove nlountains. 
To WhOlll \ve answer, that l11any wonders were done by the 
Lord "rhich are not written; and therefore \yo bc1ic\"e tho 
A postles to have done S0111C not written; and that thcy wcre 
therefore not written, that the unbelie\"ing Inight not haye in 
then1 larger roon1 for cavilling. For let us ask thenl, dd they 
believe the llliracles which are \'Titten, or do they not? .And 
when they look incredulous, we can then establish that they 
who believe not the lesser would not have bclic\red the greater. 
CURYS. This that the Lord spea1\:s of He ascribc
 to praycr 
and faith; whence 110 continues, .Lind all things u;llltfsoerer 
ye shall ask in prayer believing ye shall receive. ORIGE
 ; 
For Christ's disciples pray for nothing that they ought not, 
and as confiding in their l\Iaster they pray only for things 
great and heayenly. RAn.-\
. nut whenever ""0 are not heard 
\\'hen ,ve pray, it is either bccause \ve ask s0111ething adverse 
to the nleans of our sahration; or because the pefyerSencss of 
those for whom woe ask hinders its being- granted to theln; 
or because the perfonnance of OlU" request is put off to a 
future tÏ1ne, that our desires llla} wax stronger, and so lnay 
have lnore perfect capacity for the joys they seek after, 
Aug. de AUG. It must be considered that 
Iark relates the wonder of 
E Con
: the disci J )les at the \vithering of the tre
, and the ans\vcr of 
v. 11. 
68. the l
ord concerning faith, to haye been not on the day fol- 
lowing the cursing of the tree, but on the third day after; 
and that on the second day l\lark relates the casting of the 
merchants out of the Telnple, which he had olnitted on the 
first day. On the second day then he says that lIe went 
fOlih out of the city in the cvening, and that as they passed 
by in the 1110rning, the disciples then saw that the fig tree wa
 
\\ritherc(l. TInt 
latthew speaks as though a11 this had ],('('11 



VJ:Il. 17-2:2, 


ST. '1,\T1'IIE\\'. 


719 


(lone on the (la
 following. 'rhj
 HUlst 1>0 so taken as that 
when 
laTth(\w, ha,-ing relat{'(l th:lt the fig tree was (lri,>(l up, 
a<1l1:, inlnH.diate}
, oluitting' all the c' cnt
 of the secoud day, 
And '1rlu!1I III ' dis'iples Slur ii, t lu)y 1//(lITcl ' )d, he yet Incant 
that it \\ as 011 .lliother day that thcy ulan dIed. For the tn>(> 
HIll"t Le snpposl'cl to havc wit1H'l"l'll at the tilDC it was 
cursed, not at the tilHc thcy saw it. For tht'y dill Hot see it 
\"it1H'nng-, hut wllCn it was witht'recl, an(l hy that thl'Y unlIl'r- 
stoollthat it hall \\ it11('rell 11l1111cdiately upon the I Jonl"
 word
. 
OIUGE:\"; ::\Iystically; the Lord ICíu ing the Chicf Priests 
anlI 
crihes withdrew \\-ithout the ea11hl
 Jl'11.ISale1l1, \\ hie]. 
thereforc 1(,11. I [e canlC to Bethany to ' 'rhe hnl1"c of obedi- 
ence,' that i
, to the Church, ,,'here ,,'hen lIe had taken rcst 
aftcr the first erecting of the Church, ] Ie reÌlu11cd to thl> 
city which lie ha(lleft a little while hefore, and retnrning, Ill' 
".a.s an hungreù. !>SEl" DO-C U ltYSo For had Ilj
 hunger been 
as nlal1 lor carnal foud, lIe would not ha\"e hnnb'1ocd in thl' 
Juol-niu cr . he trllh" hnl1(r('rs in the ulornin cT who }n1l10"er
 
h' LbO 
 . 
after the 
ah-ation of othcrs. JEHO)IR; The tree whit:ll 
lIe sa\v h
 the ,vayside We' understand as the' f\
 na- 
gogue, which wa
 nigh to the way illaS1l1Uch a
 it had Ùle 
I.Ja\\r, but yet believcd not. on the way, that is, on Christ. 
Iln..\TIY; ...\nd that is conlp.lred to a fig tree, bccall:'c the 
A po
tle'" ÙCillg the first belie"l'l"s out of I
nlel, like green 
figs shall iu the glorr, and the tilne, of their resurrection, Le 
before the rest. I):-.E{;DO-CIIRY
. ...\lso the fig in respect of 
the lllultitudc of seeds unùer one skin is as it were an aSSC1l1- 
blr of the l
lÍthfÜL But lIe find:-, nothing on it but lea'.c
 
only, that i
, phari
aical traditions, an outward sll1'w of the 
Law \vithont tI1f> ii"nits of truth. OHIGF
; And Lecau"e this 
plaut was figuratin.'l) a li,'ing creature, ha,'iug a soul, lIe 
f\pea.ks to it 
 though it heard. I {'I 1I0.fruil groll' (JJ1 thee 
Itencl'..(orlcflrll.lòr e
'er. Therefore is the J c,,;:,h 
ynagoguc 
harren, an(I 
han continue 
o until the end of the world, when 
the 1l1ultitude of the Gentiles shall COllie in; and tIll> fig tree 
withered while Christ wa
 ) ct 
ojourning in this life; and 
the di
('iples seeing by thcir 
piritllal c1isccnlllleut tho 
Inystery of thc withered 1itith, wondered; and having 1
tÏth, 
and 110t clOllhtiug, they bare it, 
lnll so it withc1:" when their 
lifegi,-ing virtue passes to the Gentiles; and hy each one 



Aug. 
Quæst. 
Ev. i. 
29. 


Acts 8, 
21. 


7
O 


GOSP
L A(,COHDI
G 1'0 


CHAP. XXI. 


\vho is hrought to the fi"Üth, that rnountain Satan is lifted up 
and cast into the sea, that is, into the abyss. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
Or; Into the sea, that is, into the world where the waters are 
salt, i. e. the people are wicked. RABAN. And he avcnges his 
exclusion froln tllt
 elect by lnore cruel treatInent of thp 
reprobate. AUG. Or, this is to be said by each sernult of 
God in his oW'n case respecting the mountain of pride, to 
cast it froln him. Or, be('anse by Jews the Gospel was 
preached, the Lord Himself, who is called the Inount, is by 
the Jews cast among the Gentiles as into a sea. ORIGE
; 
For every lnan ,,
ho is obedient to the word of God is 
Bethany, and Christ abides in hill1; but the wicked and the 
sinners He leaves. And when He has been with the righ- 
teous, He goes to other righteous after theIn, and accolllpanied 
by the In ; for it is not said that He left Bethany and went 
into the city. The Lord ever is an hungred a1110ng the 
righteous, desiring to eat among theln the fruit of the I-Ioly 
Spirit, which are love, joy, peace. But this fig tree ,,'hich 
hall leaves only \vithout fruit, grew by the wayside. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. That is, nigh to the \vol'ld; for if a luan 
lives nigh to the \vorld, he cannot preserve in hilnself the 
fruit of righteousness. ORIGEN; But if the Lord COll1e 
seeking fruit ,vith temptations, and one be found having 
nought of righteousness but only a profession of faith, which 
is leaves without fruit, he is soon withered, losing e\pen his 
seen1Ìng faith; and every disciple luakes this fig tree to 
wither, by lnalång it be seen that he is void of Christ, as 
Peter said to SinIon, Thy heart is not frigllt in tile sight of 
God. For it is better that a deceitful fig tree which is thought 
to be alive, yet brings forth no fruit, should be \vithered up 
at the ,vord of Christ's disciples, than that by an in1posture 
it sholùd steal aawy innocent hearts. Also there :is in every 
unbeliever a mountain great in 
proportion to his unbelief, 
which is remo\
ed by the words of Christ's disciples. 


23. And when he ,vas come into the temple, the 
Chief Priests and the elders of the people came unto 
him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority 



YEn. 23-27. 



T. :\I.\TTIIF'V. 


721 


eloest thou these things '? and ,vho gave thee this 
authority? 
21. And Jesus ans\vered and said unto them, ) 
also ,viII ask you one thing, \vhich if ye tell ITIe, r in 
like ,vise ,rill tell you by ,vhat authority I do these 
things. 
25. The baptism of John, ".hence "ras it? frolU 
hea Yen, or of Inen? And they reasoned ,vith theul- 
selves, saying, If ,ve bha}} say, From heaven; he ,viII 
say unto us, "Thy did ye not then believe him? 
26. But if \VC shall say, Of men; \ve fear the 
people; for all hold John as a prophet. 
27. And they ans\vered Jesus, and said, "r c cannot 
tell. ..And he said unto thein, Neither tell I you by 
\"hat authority I do these things. 


!>SEUDO-CHHYS. The Priests wcrc torn1cntcd with jealousy, 
because th{\
 had scen Christ entering the Teluple in glcat 
glory. Anù not bcing ablc to Ina"ter the fire of jea1on
r 
,vhieh burnt in their breasts, they lJreak forth in speech. 
CURYS. ForaslHuch as they could not detract fronl His 
núracl(
s, they bring Inatter of blanle tronl IIis forbidding to sell 
in thp TClnplc. ...\s though thc
 had 
aid, IIast Thou ass1.uHed 
the s('at of authority? IIast 1'hou been iUlointed l>ricst, 
that Thou exertest this power? PSEUDO-CHRYð. By that 
they add, Or u'llo ga
'e t!tee lItis authorily? they :-\lJen
 that 
then
 be lnany persons who gi\ e po\ver to 1uen, whether 
corporal or spiritual! as though the
' had said, Thou art not 
COIn' of a prie
tly fan1Ïly; the 
enatc has not conferred on 
Thel' this po"
cr, neither has Cê.csar gran ted it. But had 
they Lelic'-ed that all power is ii'om Go(l, ther,volIld ne,er 
ha,.c asked, lVltO ga
'
 tl,ee 'his flutltority? For every IHan 
judges of oth('rs by hiIHSc1f. 1'ne fon1Ïcator thinkc;; that none 
arc chaste; the cha'jt doe
 not readily suspect an

 of fonli- 
cation; he who is not a I J riest of God, thinks no ulan's 
Priesthood to he of Gnd. JERO:\LE; Or in the
e \vords they 
urge the 
aUlC cayil as above, whcn they said, He casteth out 
VOL. I. 3 .\ 



722 


GOSPEL ACCORDI
G TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


Mat,12' de17lous tllJ'ough Beelzebub tlte Prince 0/ the delll011 S. Fot" 
24 \vhen they say, By u./iat authority doest t!lOll these things? 
they doubt concerning the power of God, and ,vouId have it 
undf'rstood that the things lIe does are of the De,
iL But 
when they add, lT 7 lto gal:e t!tee tltis authority? they most 
clearly deny the Son of God, whom they suppose to work 
Iniracles, not by His own, but by others' strength. The Lord 
could have confuted the calunlny of His tempters by a sin1ple 
ans"?er, but lIe put a question to them of such skilful con- 
trivance, that they must be condelnned either by their silence 
or their knowledge; Jesus anslcel'ed and said unto tltem, I 
also will ask you one question. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Not that 
they should answer it, and thereupon hear of Christ the answer 
to their question, but that being puzzled they should ask 
Him no farther; according to that precept He had given 
Mat.7, above, Give not that wltic/t is holy to tlte dogs. For even if 
6. He had told thel11, it \\?ould have profited nothing, because 
the darkened \vill cannot perceive the things that are of the 
light. For hÏ1n that enquires we ought to instruct, but him 
that tempts, to overthrow by a stroke of reasoning, but not to 
publish to hiln the power of the mystery. The Lord thus 

ets before them in His question a dilemma; and that they 
might not escape Hiln, says, lVlzich if ye tell me, I in like 
u."ise l('ill tell you by 'iL'ltat aztllto1"ity I do these things. His 
question is this; The baptisrn if Jolin wlience u'as it? from 
Aug. in IzeaL'en, or of' '1nen? AUG. John received his authority to 




: 4. baptize from Hitn, \vhom he afterwards baptized; and that 
\ baptism which \vas comlnitted to him is here called the 
baptisln of John. He alone received such a gift; no righ- 
teous Inan before or after him was entrusted with a baptism to 
be called from himself. For John caIne to baptize in the 
\\Tater of repentance, to prepare the way for the Lord, not to 
ghTe in\vard cleansing, which 111ere man cannot do. JEROME; 
"That the Priests revohTed in their malice is she\vn when he 
adds, But Ihe!1 reasoned with tlte1nselves. For had they 
replied that it was from heaven, the question \vas inevitable, 
"Thy then were ye not baptized by John? But should they 
reply that it \vas an inyention of human de'Tice, and had in it 
nothing divine, they feared a tumult among the people. For 
all the asselnbled l11tlltitudes had received John's baptism, 



\'EJL :?3 -
7 



 f. 'I \1' rIlE" . 


ï
;J 



\1HI hl'l(l hiln accof(lillgly f()r a Prophet. 'l'his godless party 
th('rl'forl' )Ilal
t' answer, and h) a 
ecJlling hnrni1ity of 
peech 
confessing that thcy kl1o'\ Hot, tunlCÙ to hiùe their insidious 
designs. IItlllu'y lllls/cered Jeslo:, nlltl s(lit!, 1J Te knnll' nol. 
J n saying that they kne'v 110t, they lied; and it }uight ha'
e 
fc)llo\,.cc111pOll thcir all
wcring thus, that the Lord also should 
say, I kn()\\
 not; hnt truth cannot lic, and therefore it fo11ows, 
And he said Ullto liUJIN, .J.Veiflu>/" fell I YOIl by what authority 
I do these Ihill.fJ.f\. This she\\'s that they 1.ne"., l)ut would 
not answer, and that lit" also kne\v, hut would not answer, 
lu'canse thl'
 \\ ould not speak \dla.t they l
lle\\ . URIGEX; 
But SOllle one win say in opposition to thi
., that it was ahsurcl 
to ask by what authority Jcsu
 (lid thc:'c things. For that it 
coul(lnot he that T r c would answer, that lIe (lid these hy the 
De,"i]'s authority; and] Ie would not ten then) as it truly ".as, 
that I fe did lhcln by IIi!' o,vn powcr. If it 
huuld bc said, 
that the rulers put this qnl'stion to Ilil}} in order to deter 
lliul fi'01l1 llis proceedings; as when \ve say to onc who is 
dealing with what is onr
 in a \vay which we do not likl', \n:\ 
say to hilu, 'Yho badt' thee do this? Ineauillg to deter hinl 
frolu what he is so doing ;-if it is to he taken 80, what Inean"t 
(.}u;st's alls\Vcr, Do you tell )[e thi
, and I ,,"ill tcll yûu hy 
what authority I do these" thill
s, l)erhap:-, tlH
r('fi)r(', flu"' 
place should Le understood as follows. 'There are in the 
general t\VO opposite po\vers, one on the side of Goò, the 
otJ}('r on the side of the Dc,'il; hut of particular powcr:-; 
thcre are Iuan)'; tor it was nut one and the :')aUlC po\ver that 
\,"rought in all the Prophets to enahle then} to do Il}iracle
, hut 
one in thest', auoth(.r in those; tUH1, it lllay he, lor le"ser 
things a les::)cr power, for greatcr things a grC'ater power. 
The Chief Pricsts had 
ccn J esus '\.orkin
 nlany ll1Ïraclcs, 
,\'hen'llpon tnp.v desirf'd to know tht' sppcial dc
ree and 
properties of that power which wrought in I (iu). ],"or others 
who ha\'c "rought Inlracles wronght thcln at first in OIll) 
power, and afterwards when H1ort' a(h-anct.cì in another and 
greater po" er; but the Sa\-iour wrought aB in onc po".er, 
that whie h I h. recei,"cd of the Father. lJut hpcause tlu.y 
wcrt' not \yorthy to hear ...nc h III y
teric
, t hf'reforp 11 e gi'-es 
theIl1 no all...wer, hut on the contrary put a que...tion to theIne 
R.\B:\
. 1-'here are two reasons why the knowledgc of truth 
3 _\ 2 



724 


GOSPEL ACCORDINu TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


should be kept back froln those who ask; either when he 
who asks is unfit to receive, or from his hatred or contenlpt 
of the truth is un\vorthy to have that \vhich he asks opened 
to him. 


28. But what think ye? A certain man had two 
sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go 
work to day in my vineyard. 
29. He ans\vered and said, I will not: but after- 
ward he repented, and went. 
30. And he came to the second, and said likewise. 
And he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not. 
3]. 'Vhether of them twain did the win of his fa- 
ther? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto 
them, Verily I say unto you, That the Publicans and 
the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you. 
32. For John came unto you in the way of righ- 
teousness, and ye believed him not: but the Publicans 
and the harlots believed hitn: and ye, \vhen ye had 
seen it, repented not afterward, that ye might believe 
him. 


J ERO:l\'IE; Thus much prefaced, the Lord brings forward a 
parable, to convict thelu of their irreligion, and shew them 
that the kingdom of God should be transferred to the G-entiles. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. Those \vho are to be judged in this cause, 
lIe applies to as judges, that condenlning themselves they 
n1Îght be shewn to be nn\vorthy to be acquitted by any other. 
It is high confidence of the justness of a cause, that \vill 
entrust it to the decision of an adversary. TIut lIe \Teils the 
allusion to thelll in a parable, that they might not perceive 
that they were passing sentence upon themselves; A certain 
man had two sons. 'Vho is he but God, \vho created all 
Iuen, \vho being by nature Lord of an, yet \vou1d rather be 
loved as a father, than feared as a Lord. The elder son was 
the Gentile people, the younger the Jews, since from the 
time of Noah thelc had becn Gentiles. And lie calne to tlte 



VEIL 

-32, 


:-\T. 'fA TTHE'V. 


7tJ 


first, and said, Son, yo 'ii' rk t(j dig III }Jty l"i1lt
yard. Fo 
day, Ì. e. during t11Ís agc. lIe spoke with hiul, not face to 
facc as Ulall, hut to his heart as God, instilling understanding 
through thc senses. To \\
ork in the vineyard is to do righ- 
t(>Oll"l1C
S; t()r to clI1ti,
atû tlH' \,'hole tlH.'rt'of, I kuow 110t that 
anyone lllan is sufficient. J EIlO)IE; lIc speaks to the 
Ge11tilc people first, through their 1.no\vlcdge of the la\\ of 
nature; Go alld work in }JI Y 'rine g ll I'd j i. e. 1f lUll !l Oif 'ii'Quld Tobit 4-, 
16 
1l0L !tat' done 0 you, lliat do 1101 you Lo olltel'.
. lIe answers . 
11aughtil
, I 'lrill not. PSEFUO-CHRYS. For thl
 Gentiles 
fronI the heginning ll'a\'ing (:0<1 and his righteousness, and 
going over to idols and sins, seClll to Inakc answer in their 
tlloughts, "T e will 110t do the righteousne
s of Gud. J EHO
IF:; 
nut ,,"hcn, at the ('ouÜng of the Rayionr, the Gelltile people, 
having done penitence, labourcd in God's vineyard, and 
atoned b) thcir 1abour for th
 obstinacy of their refusal, this 
is what is fo'ai(1, /Jilt fl.f
erlL"flrd lu: repel/fed, (lud lrent. 
Th(1 second son is the.J ewish people \vho made answer to 

lost's, All that fl,p Lord /If/th said unto liS U'P ?l"ill do. E>..od. 
])SEUDO-CURYS. But afterwards tUl1.1ing their backs, thcy 24,3, 
lied unto God, according to that in thc Psahll
, 17,e S01lS Ps. IS, 
l!f Ill(
 st }'(fI/!Jer.4\ hare lied II uto '!/le. This is what is sai(1,44. 
But lie u'e1l1 /lot. The Lord accordingly asks it'liiell of 
Iltenl f11"ain dill lite u'l'll f!f Ids .fallter I Tltey say unto ltim, 
The Jirst. See ho\v th('y ha,'e first sentence upon thclllsel\'es, 

aying, that the elder son, that is, the Gcntile people, did dIP 
\vill of his father. For it is bctter not to promisc righteous- 
llCSS before (;0(1, and to do it, t]lan to proll1Íse, and to fail. 
OUlljE
; "Thcnce we nlay gather, that in this parablc the 
Lonl 
pukc tv such as proTnise little or nothing, but in thcir 
"
orks shinc forth; and against those who proluisc great thil1g
 
but do none of these things that they h.\\.c pnHllised. J ERO.llE; 
It 
hould h(; known that in the correct copies it is read not 
The last, hut Tl,p first, that thc) nlight bl' conde-HIned L.r 
ùH:ir O\\
ll 
clltellce. But should \\ e I )rl't
'r to read, a
 SOlllC 
havc it, The 11M!, the explanation i:" ob\'ious, to 
a'y that thl" 
.J C\\ S 1nulerstood the truth, but di
M'lllblcd, and ".onld Hot 
say what thc) thought; just as though thl'.\T k11l'W tllat the 
ùaptislu of John \Vab frOIH heaven, they would not say so. 
PSEUDo-Cn R\
. The Lon1 ahnudantly \.'ollfinll
 thcir decision, 



72{j 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


whence it follo\\Ts, Jeslls said 'ltnto tlieln, Verily I say u/Jlfo 
YOlt, that tlie pltblicans and harlots shall go before YO'lt in tI,e 
kiugdolJl qf God; as 111uch as to say, Not only the Gentiles 
are "before you, but even the publicans and the harlots. 
RABAN. ì- et the kingdoIll of God may be understood of the 
Gentiles, or of the present Church, in which the Gentiles go 
before the J e\vs, because they \vere lllore ready to believe. 
ORIGEN; Notwithstanding, the Je\ys are not shut out that 
Rom.II, they should never enter into the kingdom of God; but, 'If'hen 
25. tile fitlness qf tile Gentiles shall have entered -in, then nll 
IS1'ael shall be sa red. PSECDO-CRRYS. I suppose that lite pub- 
licans here are to }'epresent all sinful men, and the llarlots all 
sinful WOHlen; because a\rarice is found the I1l0St prevailing vice 
alnong Inen, and fornication anlong \VOUlen, For a WOlnan's 
life is passed in idleness and seclusion, \vhich are great 
telnptations to that sin, while a Juan, constantly occupied in 
various active duties, falls readily into the snare of covetous- 
ness, and not so comlnonly into fornication, as the anxieties 
of Inallly cares preclude thoughts of pleasure, which engage 
rather the young and idle. Then follows the I'eason of what 
He had said, Fo'l" Jult 11 carne unto you in the way if'riglde- 
Ollsness, and ye believed ltÙn not. RABAN. John caIne 
preaching the way of righteousness, because he pointed to 
Christ, ,vho is the fulfilling of the Law. P
EUDO-CHRYS. 
Or, because his venerable conversation Slnote the hearts of 
sinners, as it follo,vs, But tlte Publicans alld IUll'lots beliet'ed 
on kiln. l\:Iark how the good life of the preacher gives its 
force to his preaching, so as to subdue unsubdued hearts. 
And ye, 1rltell ye had seen it, 1'epented not (!/ler'll'ard, that 
?/e 1nigltt believe hint; as much as to say, They have done 
that which is more by believing on Hitn, ye have not even 
repented, which is less. But in this exposition which we 
have set forth according to the n1Ïnd of many interpreteI's, 
theI'e seems to lTIe something inconsistent, For if by the 
two sons are to be understood the Jews and Gentiles, as 
soon as the Priests had answered that it was the first son that 
clid his father's \vi)], then Christ should have concluded His 
parable with these ,vords, Verily I say unto you, that the 
Gentiles shaH go into the kingdoITI of God before you. But 
tIe says, Tlte Publicans llnd ltarlot,
, a class rather of Jewf'. 



VEH. 3:3-..J L 


"'T. )1.\TTI1I-:\\. 


7"27 


thau of Gentiles. {r nle:o,
 thi:o, i
 to Lè takcn <l:-; wa:-; 
aid 
aoo\'c; Ho IllllCh rather the (-ìentilc people pleasc God thau 
you, that c\'cn the Publicans and harlots are more acceptahle 
to Ililll thall you. JEUO)IE; "lIence others think that tht 
parahle docs not rclatc to Gcntiles and J e\\
s, but Silllply to 
th{\ righteous and to sinners. 1.'hc:,c by their cvil deeds had 
n
ected God's :-\en.ice, but after received frout John the 
Laptisll1 of repentance; \vhile the l>harisecs who luadp a 

hc\\
 of righteousness, and ùoa
tecl that they did the la\v of 
God, despising John's oHptisln, did l10t follo\v his precepts. 
l)
;)
UDO-CIIRYS. l-'his J Ie hrings in bf'CaUSl' the Priests had 
asked not in order to learn, but to tClupt TIiHl. Rut of the 
COlnmon folk lllany had believed; and for that reason [Ie 
bring:-.. for\vard the parable of the t".o sons, shewing thenl 
therein that the COnlHH)]} sort, who ii'onl the first professed 
secular li\
es, \yere better than the Priests who frolll the first 
prote
sed the 
crvice (.f God, inasDluch as the people at length 
turned repenhult to God, but the Priesls ilnpenitent, nc\-er 
left off to sin against God. A.nd the elder son represents tht
 
people; lJccause the people is not for the f-iakc of the Priests, 
but the l>riests are for tl1p sake of the people. 


33. Ilear another parable.: There \vas a. certain 
housholder, \vhich planted a vineyard, aud hedged it 
round about, and digged a \vinepress in it, and built 
a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and ,vent into 
a far country: 
34. .L\nd ,,,hen the time of the fruit drew ncar, he 
sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they Inight 
receive the fruits of it. 
35. ..\nd the hu
bandmcn took his servants, anù 
beat one, and killed another, and stoned another. 
3G. Again, he sent other servants n10re than the 
first: and they did unto thcln like\'áse. 
37. ßut last of all he sent unto thenl his son, 

aying, They will reverence my SOI1. 
38. But ,vhcn the hllsbandlncn sa" the 
on, they 



728 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let 
us kin him, and let us seize on his inheritance. 
39. And they caught him, and cast him out of 
the vineyard, and slew him. 
40. When the lord therefore of the vineyard 
cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen? 
41. They say unto him, He will miserably destroy 
those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto 
other husbandnlen, which shall render him the fruits 
in their seasons. 
42. Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in 
the Scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, 
the same is beconle the head of the corner: this is 
the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? 
43. Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of 
God shall be taken from yon, and given to a nation 
bringing forth the fruits thereof. 
44. And ,vhosoevcr shall faU on this stone shall be 
broken: but on ,vhomsoever it shan fall, it will grind 
him to powder. 


Chrys. CHRYS. The design of this fluiher parable is to shew that 



i. their guilt was heinous, and un\vortby to be forgiven. 
ORIGEN; The householder is God, who in SOll1e parables is 
represented as a Inan. As it were a father condescending to 
the infant lisp of his little child, in order to instruct him. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. He is caned Inan, by title, not by nature; 
in a kind of likeness, not in verity. For tbe Son kno\ving 
that by occasion of IIis hlunan nalne He himself sholùd be 
blasphemed as though he were Inere 11lan, spoke therefore of 
the Invisible God the Father as D1an; He \vho by natlu.e 
is Lord of Angels and Inen, but by goodness their Father. 
J EROl\IE; He hath planted a rine of which Isaiah speaks, 
Isa.5,7. The t.ille qftlle Lord qf Hosts is tlte house 0/ Israel. ,And 
hedged it 'round abQut; i. e. either the wall of tbe city, or the 
guardianship of Angels. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or, by the hedge 
understand the protection of tIle holy fathel's, who were set 



'"EH. :J:
4-t. 


81'. :\1.\ TTH E"-. 


72!J 


as a \vall round the people of Israel. ORIGE'l; Or, the 
hedg-c nrhich God s"'t round hie:; people \vas IIis o\vn Provi- 
dence; and the \yineprcss was the place of offerings. JEROJfE; 
11rhu'JJI'ess, that is to sa), An altar; or those willeprcs...es after 
\vhich the three Psahlls, thc 8th, the 8Uth, anù the 8
d are 
entitled-, that is to say, the Juartyrs. IIILARY; Or, lIe set forth 
the l>rophcts as it "-ere winepresses, into which an abundant 
Ineë.L
Ure of the lloly Spirit, as oìnewwine, might flow in a tceln- 
ing stream. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Or, the winepress is tho ".ord 
of God, which tonures Juan WhCll it contradicts his fleshly 
nature. J ERO:\IE; .dull built a iou'er t/ierein, that is, the 
TenIple, of \yhich it is said hy '[icah, 
lJld thou, 0 cloudy 
lic. 4, 
tOll' 'r oj' 'lie d lug/tier OJ'SiOll. lIILARY; Or, The tower is the 8. 
eminence of the La\v, which a
(:t'n(led irom earth to heaven, 
antI froul which, as fronl a watch-tower, the coming of Christ 
might be spied. Iud let it out to ltusballdllZell. PSEUDO- 
CHRYS. 'Yllen, that is, Priest
 and Le,'itcs ,vere constituted 
by the Law, anù undertook the direction of the people. And 
as an hnsban(hnan, though he offer to his Lord of his own 

toc k, does 110t please. hin1 so Dluch as by brÏving him the 
iruit of hi
 own vineyard; so the l
ricst doe
 not so Hluch 
please God by his own riglltcousness, as by teaching the 
people uf God holiJle
s; for his own righteousness i:s but 
one, but that of the people Inanifold. And zeellt into a flir 
country. JERO:\IE; Not a change of place, for God, by WhUIll 
all things arl' filled, cannot b(
 aùseut fron1 any place; but 
lIe SCl'lUS to be absent ii'Oill tIll' vincyard, that lIe may 
lca'9c the vine-dressers a frecdolu of acting. CHRYS. Or, it 
applies to I lis long-suffering, in that lIe did not ah\ ays 
hrill
 down iUllucdiate Pllnislnul'ut on their sins. OUIGEX; Or, 
hccau
e Go(l who had been with theul in the clond by day, Exod. 
and in the pillar of fire hy night, never after "hc" ed I-IÌ1n
elf)3, '21. 
to then1 in likl' lnanner. In Isaiah the people of tl11
 Jew's i" Is. 0, 7. 
called th.. yineyard, c.UHl the threats of the hOlllicholùer are 
again::;t the, ÏIu.'yard; but in the Gospel 110t the vineyard but 


a .aÎ'f..'1
 Ps. 8, 81, b4, Hebr. from 
11
 the wine pre
, and so the Vulgate 
TorcuIaria,38 f:.t. Jerome read:.-. Others 
consider it a mu
ical instrument u:o:ed 
at the villt
l.'. St. Augustine take
 it 
for an oil prbs, Enarr. in Ps. 
O. init. 


in Ps. b3. init. of vines or olives. "ïth 
St. Jerome he interprets it of martyr- 
doms in Pt!. 8. n. 3. just before he intcr- 
prds it of Christian Churches, as does 
Athanasius in loco 



730 


tiOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. X.XI. 


the husballdulen are blalIled. For perchance in the Gospel 
the vineyard is the kingdom of God, that is, the doctrine 
which is contained in holy Scripture; and a man's blan1cless 
life is the fruit of the vineyard. .And the letter of Scripture 
is the hedge set round the vineyard, that the fruits which arc 
hid in it should not be seen bv those who are without. The 
depth of the oracles of God is" the \vinepress of the vineyard, 
into \vhich such as haye profited in the oracles of God pour 
out their studies like fruit. The to\ver built therein is the 
word conccrning God IlÏInself, and concerning Christ's dis- 
pensations. This vineyard He comlnitted to husbandlnen, 
that is, to the people that was before us, both priests and 
laity, and went into a far country, by His departure giving 
opportunity to the husbandmen. The tÎIne of the vintage 
drawing near may be taken of indiyiduals, and of nations. 
The fil'st season of life is in infancy, ,,
hen the vineyard has 
nought to she,v, but that it has in it the vital po\ver. As 
soon as it COlnes to be able to speak, then is the tinle of 
putting forth buds. And as the child's soul prof,rresses, so 
also does the vineyard, that is, the \vord of God; and after 
such progress the vineyard brings forth the ripe fruit of love, 
joy, peace, and the like. 
foreover to the nation v.ho received 
the Law by Moses, the tilne of fruit draweth near. RABAN. 
Tlte season Qf j1'u it, He says, not of rent-paying, because this 
stiff-necked nation brings forth no fruit. CHRYS. lIe calls 
non Dee. the Prophets servants, who as the Lord's Priests offer the 

hrys. fruits of the people, and the proofs of their obedience in 
their \vorks. But they shewed their wickedness not only in 
refusing the fruits, but in having indignation against those 
that come to theIn, as it follows, And tile ltllsbandJneJl took 
Ids servants, and beat one, and killed llnother, and stoned 
another. JEROME; Beat theIn, as Jeremiah, killed theIn, as 
T saiah, stoned theIn, as N aboth and Zacharias, whom they 
slew between the ten1ple and the altar. PSEUDO-CHRYS. At 
each step of their \vickedness the Inercr of God was increased, 
and at each step of the Divine mercy the wickedness of the 
Jews increased; thus there was a strife bet\\reen hlunan 
\vickcdness and Divine goodness. IIILARY; These '1Jlore 
tltall tlie first who \vcre scnt, denot(' that tinIc, \vhen, after 
t.he preaching of singlc Prophets, a great nUlnber \vas sent 



"EH. 3;J- 1 t. 


:-;r. )L\T1'III-:\\'. 


i:3 I 


forth together. H.\H.\N. ()r, the 1irst 
en'ants who were sent 
"('fl' thc Lawgi\-cr \lu"es hiInsclf, and ,Aaron the first l}ricst 
of God; w]}())n, ]u\\-ing heatcn theln with tht, scourge of thcir 
tungtH', tJH'
r s('nt awa
 CHlpty; by th(' other 
('l\ ants ullder- 

tand th(' ('olHpany of thc l>rophets. 11 Il...\RY; By the Son 
sent at last, is <1('not('(1 the advcnt of our Lord. CURl'S. 
"YhcT('forl' th(,11 did TIe Hot send IIiul iU1lIlcdiateJy? 1'hat 
frol11 what th(')" had donc to the uthers thc} u1ight accnse 
thclllseh.e
, anti pntting il"ray their luadness they Inight 
rc\-crenc(" 11 is 
on wh(,11 lIe ClUne, P
EfT])()-CHR\ s. Ill' 
sent T [i III not as the ùcarer of a scntence of punis]lIl1Cllt 
against the guilty, but of an oHer of repentancc; 1 [(' sent 
II iln to put thcn} to Shal11l', not to punish thelu. .T EHO\[E; 
But when I Ie "'il.r
, FIIl'Y will 'j'()l:erellc(, lilY SOli, ] Ie does 
not "} )(,ilk as in ignorance. For \v hat is there that this 
hou
L'h()ldl'r (by \,-holl1 in this place (;od is intcJl(led) know
 
)lot? lint God is thus 
poken of as bcing uncertain, ill order 
that fÌ'ce-will Inay ùc n'ser,yed for Inan. CHRYS. Or He 

peaks as (leclarillg what ought to bp; they ought to rc" e- 
rencc IIÍ111; thus shewing that thcir sin was great, and yoid 
of all eXCUSl'. ORIG E
; Or we lnay 
upposc thi:, fulfilled in 
th,. case of thos(' Jews who, knowing Chri:,t, helie,ycd in 
lIiIll. But what folh)\vs, lJut 1 .!telt lite ltusballdJJlen WIU' 
tIlt! ,'Jon, they ,4\(/ ill fl111fJIlg / hel11.'oielres, Tltis is lltr heir, 
l'OJ/I( let liS kill 1,;'11, (Iud let liS 8ciz{' on flu' illheritance, 
\\Ta5 fi1ltillcd in those who saw Christ, and knc\v 11 illl to 
be th,. Son of C;'od, yet crucificd IIinl. JERO)[E; Ll't us 
enquire of ,Arrius and Eunou1Ïus. Sce here th(' Fathcr is 
said not to know SOluc\vhat. 'Vhate,"cr anS\Ver they 1llake 
for the Father, let thcn1 nnderstand the 
anH' of the 
on, 
\vlu'n 11l' sav
 that I Ie l
ll()ws Hut the da,- of tll(' con
unnlla- '\lat.22, 
. l ' II " 1 . I > C ß . h . 3G. 
hOll t) a t nngs. :SEt" DO- HRY', ut SOllIe say, t at 1t 
\\"a
 aÜcr ITi
 incarnation, that Christ \\-a
 caned a :-;011 in 
right of 11 is haptis1l1 likp the other 
aints, wlunn the ] Aonl 
l'efutt's hy this plac(', saying, 11l"ill S'lld lilY .S'OJI. Thcrefore 
when IIp thus n1pditated 
ending IIi
 Sun aftl'l" tht, Prophets, 
Ill' )1l11sl lla.n' heen a1r(,
Hl., ITis 
Oll. Vurthl'r, if TIp had 
h('cn (lis 
Oll ill the Sau}
 \\'ay as all the "aillts to wholl} 
thp wurd of God \\ a
 

Ilt, IlL' ought to ha,ye caneù tllf
 
Proph('t
 .\l
n IIis 
ons, a
 II,. can
 Chri
t, or to c
lll Christ 



732 


GOSPEL ACCORDING TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


His ser\"ant, as He cans the Prophets. RABAN. By what 
they say, Tlli,s is the Son, He Iuanifestly proves that the 
rulers of the J e".s crucified the Son of God, not through 
ignorance, but through jealousy. For they understood that 
Ps. 2,8. it was He to \vholn the Father speaks by the Prophet, Ask 
lý"'Jne, and I shall give thee the heathen for t/tine inheritance. 
The inheritance given to the Son is the holy Church; an 
inhelitance not left Him by His Father when dying, but 
wonderfully purchased by His o\Vll death. PSEUDO-CHRYS. 
After His entry into the Ten1ple, and having cast out those 
who sold the animals for the sacrifices, then they took counsel 
to kill HÏ1n, CO'lne, let 'liS killlâl1z" For they reasoned among 
themselves, It will happen that the people hereby shall 
disuse the practice of sacrificing, which pertains to our 
gain, and shall be content to offer the sacrifice of righteous- 
ness, which pertains to the glory of G-od; and so the nation 
shall no more be our possession, but shall become God's. 
But if we shall kill HiIn, then there being none to seek the 
fruit of righteousness froln the people, the practice of offering 
sacrifice shall continue, and so this people shall become our 
possession; as it follows, And tlie inheritance ,,,!tall he ours. 
These are the usual thoughts of all woddly Priests, who take 
no thought ho\v the people shall liye without sin, but look to 
how luuch is offered in the Church, and esteelu that the 
profit of their luinistry. RABAN. Or, The Jews endeavoured 
by putting Him to death to seize upon the inheritance, \vhen 
they strove to o,"erthrow the faith which is through Hbn, 
and to substitute their own righteousness \vhich is by the 
Law, and therewith to imbue the Gentiles. It follows, And 
they caught 'IÙn, and cast ldl1l out of tlte vineyard, and slew 
hÏ1Jl. HILARY; Christ ".as cast out of Jerusalem, as out of 
the vineyard, to His sentence of punishlnent. ORIGE
; Or, 
what He says, And cast hiJn out of lhe vineyard, seems to 
1He to be this; As far as they were concerned they judged 
HÏ1n a stt"anger both to the vineyard, and the husbandmen. 
When therefore the Lord of the villeya1-d c01netlz, u,hal will 
he do unto those husband?Jlen? JERO:
IE; The Lord asks 
theln not as though He did not know what they \yould 
answer, but that they might be condenu1ed by their own 
answer. PSEUDO-CHRYS. That their allS\Ver is true, comes 



YER. 3;3-4
J. 


ST. .M \TTHF\\". 


73:J 


not of any righteou
 juclglnent in thcln, but froIll tl1' case 
it'\clf; trllth constrained th('I)). ORInE
; Like Caiaphas so .John 11, 
did they, not froui tht'lns('l\"e
, prophesy against t]1Clnseh'es,49. 
that the oracles of God \vere to hc taken fr01l1 then1, and 
gÏ\-en to thl' Gentiles, ,vho could lHing forth fruit in clul' 
season. GLO......... Or, the L9rd ,,,honl they killed, c
une inllllc- Glosf'. 
diately rising froln the dead, and brought to an c,"il end thosc ord. 
wicked hn....hau(huell, and ga\ e up IIis vineyard to other 
husLau(hllCn, that is, to the '\.postles. ArG. l\Iark does not Aog'. de 
gi,'c this as their cUIS\YCr, but relates that th. Lord after C E on
: 
..v. 11. 
Ilis qne
tion put to thenl, Blade this answer to IIilHself. But 70. 
it nla}' be easily cxplaincd, that their words are subj oined 
in such a "ay as to she\\" that they spoke theIn, without 
putting in ' \nd they answered.' Or this ans,,'cr is attri- 
buted to the Lord, because, what they said being truc, Inight 
n"ell be said to ha'"e been "poken by IJ il}} who is truth. 
C HUYS. Or there is no contradiction, because both are 
right; they first nlad(' answer in these ".ords, and then the 
Lord repeated thenl. .AeG. This trouble:-' us more, ho,," Aug. 
it is that Luke not onlr does not relate this to ha\pe been ubi sup. 
thcir answer, but attributes to thel11 a contrar
. ans" ere IIis 
\vords are, And ii'lien tlley h 
llrcl it they s ill, God forbid. Luke20, 
The only n"ay that relnains for understanding this i
, thcrcfore, 16. 
that of the listf'ning luultitudes S(HUe alls\\"cred as 
latthe\\ 
relates, and SOine as Luke. And let it PCIl)lcx no one that 
l\Iatthew says that the Chief Páests and cIders of the people 
came to the Lord, and that he connects thc "9hole of this 
discourse in one down to this parable of the vineyard, without 
intcrposing any other speaker. For it Inay Le suppo....cù that lle 
spoke all thl'
e things with the Chief Priests, hut that !\lalt11ew 
for hreyitr'
 sake omitted ,,,hat Lnk.. Inclltions, ualuely, that 
this parahle "as 
pokcn not to dIose only who asked Ilinl con- 
cerrnng I [is authority, but to the poplÙace, aUlong whonl were 
some ,,"ho "aid, lie shall destroy theIn, ilnd brlve thl' ,incyard 
to others. And at thl' smne titHt' this saying is lightly 
thought to haxe been the Lord's, either for its trnth, or for 
the unity of Ilis lncInbers with their head. ...\.nd there 'Yl're 
also tho:-.c who said, Gotl.lòrùid, those Halnely, ,r!to perceit'ed 
that 1/ 8po
.e Ihi,,, parable against III 
ln. !>SEUDO-CURYS. 
Otherwise: Luke h
 gi\"cn th(' answer uf their lips, 
Iatthe\\. 



7:3.j 


HOSPEL \CCUH1H:\'li TO 


CI-L\.P. XXI. 


that of their hearts. For SOlne lnade anSWCl' OpCll1y con- 
tradicting IliIn, anù saying, God jorbid, but their consciences 
took it up with He shall1Jziserably destroy these u:icked 'Jnen. 
For so ,vhen a IHan is detected in any wickedness, he eXCUSCR 
hilnself in ,yords, but his conscience within pleads guilty. 
CHR1"S, Or otherwise: the Lord proposed this parable to then1 
with this intent, that not understanding it they should give 
scntence against theIll
eIves; as was done by Nathan to 
David. Again, when they perceiyed the meaning of the 
things that had been said against theIn, they said, God .forbid. 
RABAX. :\IoralIy; a vineyard has heen let out to each of us 
to dress, when the luystery of baptisin was given us, to he 
culti\yated by action. SelTantR one, two, and three are sent 
us when La\v, Psahn, and Prophecy are read, after whose 
instructions \\re are to work "Tell. He that is sent is beaten 
and cast out when the \yord is contelnned, or, which is worse, 
is blasphelned. lIe kills (as far as in hÎ1n lies) the heir, "rho 
traluples under foot the Son, and docs despite to the Spirit of 
grace. The wicked hU8bandnlan is destroyed, and the 
vineyard is given to another, when the gift of grace which 
the proud has conteluncd is gi\Ten to the lo\vly. 
PSEUDO-CHRYS. 'Vl)en they seelned discontent, lIe brings 
fOl"\\rard Scripture testinlony; as lunch as to say, If ye under- 
stood not :\Iy parable, at least acknowledge this Scripture. 
J ERO:
IE; The saIne things are treated under various :figures; 
whonl ahove lIe called labourers and husbandll1en, lIe now calls 
builders. CHRYS. Christ is the stone, the builders are tbe 
John 9, J e\vish teachers who rejected Christ, saying, This nUl1l is l10t 
16. oj' God. RABAX. But despite of their displeasure, the sallIe 
stone furnished the head stone of the corner, for out of both 
nations lIe has joined by faith in IIiln as 111any as He would. 
J-IILARY; lIe i
 becolne the head of the corner, because He 
is the union of both sides bet,,"een the La\\T and the Gentiles. 
CHRYS. And that they Blight kno\v that nothing that had 
been done was against God's will, He adds, Ii is 'lie Lord's 
doing, ORIGEX; That is, the stone is the gift of God to the 
whole building, and is "Tonderflù in our eyes, ,,,ho can 
discern it ,vith the eyes of the mind. PSEUDO-CHRYS. As 
Innch as to say, Ilow do ye not understand in what building 
that stone is to be set, not in yonrs, seeing it is rejected, but 



,...:n, S:
-4 L 



T. 1\I.\TrIIE\\. 


73:> 


in allotJ)(..'r; hut if th(' ùllil(ling is to he ot]1('1", ) onr huildin:! 
,,'ill be rt.:jccte,l. OIUGEX; lly thc kingù01l1 of C;od, lIe 
111l
anS t1)(
 }Jlystcric
 of the kingdoJn of Gl)d, that is, the 
di,.jJll
 Seliplnres, ,\.hich t1l(.
 Lord cOllllniUc(l, lin
t to that 
rOn11Cr pc(\plc who had the oracles of (;0<1, hut sccondly to 
the Gcntiles who brought fi)rth fnlÍt. "For the word of God 
is gi\"Cll to nOlle hut IO ]tÏIl1 who hring" fruit thereo
 and the 
kingdolll of God is given to nonc in WhOlll 
in reign
. 
"ThCl1C{' CaIne it then that it was gi,'cn to thcnl frOlll \\PhOlll 
it was afterwara
 taken away? ItelllCIU1H'r that "hate\ er is 
gÍ\'en is gi\'cll of free gift. To wholH thcn Ill' let out thp 
vineyard, I Ie let it out not a
 to elect already and believing; 
but to ,,"holn Ill' ga\'l' it, lIe gave it ".ith a scntencp of 
elt'ction, PSEL"'DO-CUR\ g, Chri
t is cal1cd _\ Stonc, not 
onlr becan
(' of IIis strength, hut bccause lIe mightily 
crushes IIis eneluie
; whence it fono\vs, ... tnd 'I 'l,osoerer 
shall .fall OJ tltis slone shall be broken, and Oil 'll.ll011l- 
soet'er it ,
hllll fall, it shall grilld "l1n to pOll:der. J ERO)IE ; 
'\
h()so 
inllcth, 'yet belie\.{'th on I I iJll, falls indeed npon a 
stone and is brokpn, yet is not altogether cru')hed, but i
 
prcst'T\"cd to 
ah'ation through endurancc. But ull whomso- 
cver it shall fall, that i:s, whomsoever t]tis stone shall it"clf 

\.::)"au1t, and whosoc\'cr shall utterly dcny Christ, it 
hall so 
crush hinl, that not a bunC' of hiu) shall ht' lcft in which a 
ùrop of water could be taken up. 1)
ErDo-CHRYs. [t i" one 
thing to be brokcn, and another to Le ground tu powder. 
Of what is hroken there reulains SOI11cthing; hul ".]lat is 
groluHI to powder is as it \\.ere converted into dust. _\nd 
what falls upon a :::;tonc is not broken hy any PO\\ er of the 
stone, lHlt hecau
(' it f('11 hC'a\"ily, either 1,.v rC'ason of its 
\,"C'ight, or of its faB froln a great h{'ighl. So a Christian in 
sinning, l'erishc
, but not to the ubnost that Christ can 
destro); but only so far a
 he destroys hilns('lf, (.ithcr hy 
the grcatnes
 of his 
in, or by his exalted rank. 13ut the 
unbelicvcr\::) perish to the utnlo
t that Christ can destroy 
them. CHI{\
. ()r, lIe llcre points out thcir twofold de- 

tructi()n; first in their 
hl111bling and L(.iug oflendl'(l at IIilll, 
signifif'd in that, JJ7,osoel.' 'I" .
ltall fall upon tltis sioll"; the 
other in the captivity that 
hould conll
 upon then., 
ignificd 
hv that, lJllf npon Wllollisoerer if ,f\11Ctll fitll. .A rn. Or, Those A Q u
. 
. . uæs(. 
LV. i.30. 



736 


GOSPEl. ACCORDIXG TO 


CHAP. XXI. 


that fall upon Him, are those that despise and afflict HÏ1n. 
These do not perish utterly, but are broken so that they walk 
not upright. But upon these He shall fall ,vhen He shall COlne 
from aboye in judgment with a punishment of destruction, 
and thence lIe says, Shall griud theul to pou'der, because 
Ps. 1,4. tile zcicked are like tlte dust '1Ðltich the wind 8catte1.etlt abroad 
011 the ..face if t he earth. 


45. And when the Chief Priests and Pharisees had 
heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of 
them. 
46. But when they sought to lay hands on him, 
they feared the multitude, because they took him for 
a prophet. 


JEROME; Hard as were the hearts of the Jenrs in unbelief, 
they yet perceived that the Lord's sentence "ras directed 
Pseudo- against themselves. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Here is the difference 

h


. between good and bad lnen. The good lnan "rhen taken in 
Ho
. a sin has sorrow because he has sinned, the bad luan is 
XXXIX. grieyed not because he has sinned, but because he is found 
out in his sin; and he not only does not }"epent, but is 
indign3:nt ,vith him that repro\red hÏ1n. Thus they being 
taken in their sins were stirred up to still greater wickedness; 
And they sought to lay Ilands 011 hÙn, but feared tIle 
multitude, because t!ley took lthJl for a Prophet. OUIGEN; 
One thing they kno\v ,vhich is true concerning IIim; they 
esteemed Him a Prophet, though 110t undel"standing His 
greatness in respect of His being the Son of God. But the 
rulers feared the multitude ,,'ho thought thus of Hiln, and 
""ere ready to fight for Hiln; for they could not attain to the 
underf"tanding which the 1l1ultitude had, seeing they thought 
nothing ,vorthy concerning HÏ1n. Further, know that there 
are two different kinds of desires to lay hands on Jesus. 
The desire of the I"ulers and Pharisees was one kind; another 
Song of that of the Bride, I held ldrn, and would not let ltÙn go; 



}::: intending to try Hitn still 
ul"Ìher, as she saith, 1 'lvill get IJU! 
up into the pahn tree, I 'll"illiay /told 0/ its /teigltt. 4t\1l ,vho 
think not rightly concerning His divinity, seek to lay hands 



vEn.15 46. 



T. "\IATTHl-.\V. 


13 


on J csus ill ordcr to put llim to deatll. Othcr \vords indeed 
excepting the word of Christ it is po
sible to seize and to 
}lold, but the word of truth none can seize, that is, under- 
stand; none can hold it, that is, convict; Dor separate it 
from the conviction of those that believe; llór do it to death, 
that is, destroy it. PSEUDO-CHRYS. Every wicked Inan also, 
as far as his will is concerned, lays hauds on God, and puts 
IIim to death. For whoso tramples upon God's command- 
ments, or munnurs against God, or raises a sullen look to 
heaven, \vould not he, if he had the power, lay hands on God, 
and kill HiD1, that he might sin without restraint? RABA
. 
This, that they are afraid to lay hands on Jesus because 
of the multitudes, is daily acted in the Church, when any \vho 
is a brother only in nanle, is ashalned or afraid to assail the 
unity of faith and peace \vhich he docs not love, because of 
the good mcn with whom he Ii\ es. 


. )" ,,") (I X 
_1J'I'A 



 


"nf.. t 


3 ß 



tII 



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4 


THEOLOGICAL WORKS, (continued). 


THE LATE REV. H. NEWLAND. 
A NEW CATENA ON 81'. PAUL'S EPISTLES,-A PRACTICAL 
A
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ENTARY ON THE EPISTLES OF ST, PAUL TO THE EPHE- 
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K 0, 5,-1V ILD SCENES A:UONGST THE 
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Xo, 13,-THE CROSS 11\ SWEDE
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No, ID.-LuCIA'S 
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No, 22,- THE DOVE OF TABENNA.- 
THE RESCUE. 
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N 0, 2
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P.\RKER'S CHURCH CALEXDAR FOR 1864, prIce 6d" being 
tht> 
inth Year of ]s
ue. 
COXTEXT
 :-THE CALE='DAR, with the Daily Leggons.-TuE CULRCH: Statistics of the 
Church in Eng-Iand, II ('land, 
cotl:lnrl, the c()l()itÏ('
, &c, CO
YOCAl JOS: Proyince of Cantt 1'- 
b1ir
'; Plo,"jnce of Y 01 k, fhe Arch bi!'ho)ls a' d Bishops of E
GL"\='D; ne
ns; Archdp:lcoJl!'; 
Proctor
 of Con\ ocation; Benenc(>8; Church and oth(>r Sitt!ngs, .xc. The Ar<:hbi!'hops and 
Fist'o)ls in In
 J.A='JI. :0;1 OTJ,A
]), ann thp COI 0='11'8; anl\ other infoT11Ia i. n. The Bishops in 
A \JERICA, with St:lti...ti('s of the I>.oce
e,., Extf:'Jlt, Population, ('}prg-
', &c" &c. ; Fin-1 Bishops of 
the Am. rkan ehun 11; 
tati-tj('al 
un:nlaI h S,-TI'E r
I\TI\
ITIFS, &e,: The LJlht r,.ity of 
OXJ--ORII; theLJlÌ\f'r!'ity OiC.A)lBRlnGI--; imd ot. er Cniqr-ities. ThcI,]og-ical CI/l.Pp"' !'; Irainirg 
]nstitut1On,.; Publ;c 
(:hcols. 
oci{' i('
 ;111<1 In
titutii ns; Chmch l"ni<.ns; CollI g'n.- liE 

TATE. &e,: The Slate ami non,1 Family, 1\1 1111 er,., f 1Iw House of Pel'r!' and C0111l1lon!', The 
I-\i Jr
 ,,1111 QU(>I'ns of England: 
tath;lÏts of the Population. l)lo
tal }{egulaÚOl.s, anti a variety 
of other infunnation, 


Crown 8\'0.. prif'e 1 s,; 140 pages of close t
"pe, in wrarrer, 
THE OX:FOHD DI{}CE
AK CAI.l
XIL\H, AXD CLEHGY LIST 
for 1864. l::;sued uIlder tLe sanction of tile Lorù Bi
hop of the Diocl.se. 
A Iso, 
THE LOXDO
 DIOCES.AX CALE
D.AR, AXD CLERGY LIST 
fur 1864. 


A. JJiar!J i.
 also printed. uniform 'ldill the Calendar. 
l'he two tosether, bound in 1'oan, 3s. 
Oxford and London: J. H. and J. P .umER. 





p
 
51 0 1. 2- 
,'Lcf1 
v. ( 
pt. 2. 



Thomas Aquinas, St. 
AUTHOR 



 


TITLE 


.C3 
1:-1:- 
part 2. 


Caten Aurea. 


DATE DUE 


BORROWER'S NAME 


J _ 


ThOT:'as Aquinas, St. 
Catena ur 
ea. 


EQ 
6856 
.C3 
vol. 1. 
part 2. 



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