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Full text of "The commerce of America with Europe [electronic resource] : particularly with France and Great Britain, comparatively stated and explained : shewing the importance of the American revolution to the interests of France, and pointing out the actual situation of the United States of North-America in regard to trade, manufactures and population"

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THE 

COMMERCE 

or 

AMERICA WITH EUROTE; 

PARTICULARLY WITH 

FRANCE AND GREAT-BRITAIN; 
COMPARATIVELY STATED AND EXPLAINED. 

SHEWING 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION" 

TO THE INTERESTS OF FRANCE, 

AND POINTING OUT THE ACTUAL SITUATION 

OF THB 

T'VTTED STATES OF NORTH-AMERICA, 

IN REGARD TO 

Trade, Manuf azures and Population, 



4i,^_y J. P, BRISSOT DE Warville, 

AND 

ETIENNE CLAVIEREo 



Tranilated from the laft French Edition, 

Reviftd by Bris$ot, and called the second Volume ofhia 
View of America. 

With the Life of Brissot, and an Appendix, 
By the Tranjlator. 



NEir^YORK: 

Printed and fold by T. and J. SWORDS, No, 99 Pearl.ftrec? 

—1795.— 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE 



OF 



J. P. B R I S S O T. 

By the Editor, ■ 



1~1e was born nt the village of Ouarville, near 
Ghatres, in Oreannois, on the 14th of January, 
1754. His father was what the Frencn called a 
Iraiteur ; that is, keeper of an eating houfe or an or- 
dinary. He was intended for the profcifion of the 
la'.v, and was articled to an attorney for that pur- 
pofe. But he grew difgufted with the chicane and 
turpitude he was daily obliged to witnefs, and there- 
fore, after the fiwt years of the articlefhip were ex- 
pired, he left Chatres and went to Paris. 

An accident one night at the theatre at Paris plac- 
ed him in the company of an Engliili gentleman. 
Tl 3y became intimate, and from this gentleman he 
obtained fome knowledge of the Englifli language; 
which he afterwards improved by a refidence in 
London. 

He had received a regular clalfical education, and 
acquired, by ilri<fl application, a tolerable knowledge 
of the German, Italian, and Spanifn languages, fuf- 
fjcient to confult the authors who have written in 
thofe languages, On his arrival at Paris, his firft 
a 2. itudy 



IV SKETCH OF THE LIFt 

fludy was jurifprudence, with an intention of be- 
coming an advocate in parliament. No fcience 
however efcaped his attention. He attended lec- 
tures and experiments in every branch of fcience; 
wherein his adive genius found ample exercife. 
Chymiftry was his favourite obje6l of purfuit; but 
his circumflances were too limited to indulge much 
in it. The fmall patrimony which he inherited from 
his father did not exceed forty pounds per annum. 

In the year 1777 he made his iirft tour to London. 
During his ftay in London he became engaged in 
the conduct of a French newfpaper, at that time 
called the Courier de VEurope^ but fince the Courier de 
Londres. Some mifiinderftanding having happened 
concerning the {lamps (at the ftamp-office in Lon- 
don) for this paper, the proprietor took a refolutioa 
of priming it at Boulogne fur-mer; and Briflbt was 
-appointed the Editor, and refided at Boulogne for 
that purpoff. He continued in this capacity at Bou- 
logne about two years. From thence he went to 
Paris, and was admitted Counfellor in Parliament. — 
Early in the year 1782 he went to Neufchatel to fu- 
perintendthe prinringof one of his books (mentioned . 
hereafter). This was the memorable period of the 
revolution at Geneva. Here he became acquainted 
with M. Ciaviereand M. du Rovray, who, with a 
numerous party, were expelled that city, and fought 
an afylum in Ireland. 

Li the autumn of tliisyear, he married a daughter 
of Madame Dupont of Boulogne. This young lady 
had been recommended to the celebrated" Madnms 
de Geniis, who obtained a fituation for her in the 
nurfery of the Duke de Chartres, late Duke of Or- 
leans, who fuffered under the guillotine; in which 
iituation flie continued fome time after her marriage. 
At the beginning of the year 1783, he vifited 
London a fecond time. His view in this journey 
was to eflablifli in London, a Lyceum, or Academy 

of 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. V 

of Arts and Sciences, together with an office of ge- 
neral correfpondence. In this undertaking he was 
encouraged by Ibme of the firft literary men in 
France J and a Monfieur du Forge, nnufician at Pa- 
ris, was To captivated with the fcheme, that he ad- 
vanced four thoufand livres, (166I.) for one third 
fhare of the profits. BrifTot was to have the fole ma- 
nagement, and the other two thirds of the profits. 
He took a houfe in Newman-ilreet, Oxford-ftreet ; 
and publifned a profpe6tus of his undertaking. He 
fent for his wife and his youngefl brother (hiseldeft 
brother was a prieft.) At this time he commenced 
his defcription of the fciences in England (mentioned 
hereafter) to be pubhflitd monthly, - Having in one 
of his publications taken occahon to vindicate the 
Chevalier Launay, editor of the Courier du Ncrd^ 
printed at Maeftricht, the editor' of the Courier de 
r Europe^ now M. du Morandc, was- fo highly of- 
fended by it, that he became from that time BriiTot's 
iTJoft determined enemy. It is to be obferved, that 
the Courier du Nord, and the Courier de I'Europe, 
were rival newfpapers. De Launay quitted Maei- 
irichl, and went to Paris, where he w 2 s. immediately 
put into the Bafiiie, and was never more heard of. 

In the month of May, 17^4., BrilTot vv'as arrefred 
by his printer in London. Although he was at this 
time very well known to feveral perions of rank and 
fortune, yet he v/as too delicate to apply to any of 
them for pecuniary affiftance. But after remaining 
a day or two in a lock-up houfe in Gray's Inn Lanc^ 
he fent his brother to an intimate friend, who in- 
itantly paid the printer his bill, and liberated him. 

The next morning BrilTot fet out for France., 
leaving his wife and brother in England, affuring 
them he would quickly return, which he certainly 
intended. But in this he was feverely difappoirittih 
Thus ended his literary enterprife 0^ eftablifaing a 
X^yccuiii in London, in which he embarked his 
a 3 whok 



VI SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

whole property with a degree of infatuation and zfal 
that fecmed to border upon infanity. During his 
refidence in London he became acquainted with one 
Count de Pellcport, author of feveral pamphlets 
^gainfl the principal perfons of the French Court, 
particularly of one called Soirees d' Antoinette^ for the 
npprehenfion of the author of which the French 
court offered a thoufand pounds (looo Louis) re- 
ward. BrifTot, inftead of proceeding directly to Pa- 
ris, flopped at Boulogne, and refided there with his 
mother-in-law : here he refolved to continue his 
publication on the original plan. Du M know- 
ing that Pelleport was the author of the offenfive 
pamphlet, and that Brifibt and Pelleport were inti- 
jiiate, refolved to obtain the reward, and gratify his 
vefcntment. He applied to Pelleport, offering him 
the fuperintendance of a publication to be carried on 
;U Bruges, (near Ofi:end,) the falary of which was 
'.o be two hundred pounds per annum. Pelleport 
.accepted the offer. But it was neceffary to flop at 
Boulogne, where fome final arrangements were to be 
made. In the month of July, Pelleport embarked for 
Boulogne with Captain Meredith. But the moment 
lie landed, he was feized by the officers of the Police, 
who put him in chains and carried him to Paris, 

where he was fent to the Baflile. Du M was an 

rgent of the Police of Paris. Information being 
given to the Police, that BrifTot was at Boulogne, 
and that he was the intimate friend of Pelleport, he 
was immediately taken into cuflody, carried to Pa- 
ris, and committed to the Baflile. However, it is 
certain that BrifTot never wrote any thing againfl ei- 
ther the King or Queen of France. He was fincere 
in his abhorrence of the arbitrary and defpotic prin- 
ciples of the French government, but with refpedt 
to the private conduct of the King and Queen, he ne- 
ver beflowed the fmallefl attention upon it. \\\ this 
jnagazine of human vidimsj he continued about fix 

week5* 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. Vii 

weeks. His wife applied to Madame Genlis in his 
favoiw, and Madame Genlis mofi: generoufly made 
a point of it with the Duke de Chartres to obtain his 
liberty. The Duke de Chartres's interference does 
not appear by any document; but BriiTot's acquittal 
of the charge brought againft him appears in the 
following report of his examination, made to the 
French minifter, M. Breteuil, on the 5th of September. 

" The Sieur Briflbt de Warvilie was conveyed to 
*' the Baftile on the day after the Sieu r<Je Pelleport, 
" who was arrefted at 13oulogne fur-mer, arrived at 
*' Paris. In confequence of his connections with 
*' this man, guilty of writing libels, he was fufpeded 
*' of having been his coadjutor. Theatteftation of 
*' a boy in the printing-office, from whence one of 
'* thefe libels iffiied, gave ftrength to fufpicioi^s; but 
" this attefration, tranfmitted from London, is dt{- 
".titute of authenticity; and the Sieur Briflbt de 
" Warvilie, v/ho has very fatisfaftorily anfvvered to 
" the interrogatories which were put to him, attri- 
*' butes his crimination to the animofity of enemies 
" whom he conceives to have plotted againft him in 
*' London. The Sieur Brifibt de Warvilie is a man 
*' of talents, and of letters; he appears to have form- 
'' ed fyftems, and to entertain extraordinary princi- 
*' pies; but it is certain that, for the laft feven or 
" eight months, his connexions with the Sieur de 
'• Pelleport had ceafed, and that he employed him- 
** felf folely upon ti periodical paper, which h-; ob- 
" tained permiffion to circulate and fell in France, 
" after having fubmitted it to the examination of a 
*' licenfer." 

It is proper to obferve, that the addition of ^e 
U^arville^ which Brifibt made to his name, (to dif- 
tinguifli himfclf from his elder brother) is a kind of 
local defignation, not uncommon in many countries., 
William of Malmfbury, Geotfry of Monmouth, Ra- 
pin de Thoyras, Joan d'Arc, ^c. &c. But in the 

orthO' 



VlU SKETCH or THE LIFE 

orthography he fubftitutcd the Englifh IV for the 
French dij^thong Ou ; the found of that dipthong 
being fimilar to our W. Thus Ouarville is pro- 
nounced JVarville in both languages. 

In a very fhort time after his rcleafe from theBaf- 
tile, he very honourably difcharged his pecuniary 
obligation to his friend in London. 

In the year 1787, wiiich was the era of the foun- 
dation of the French revolution, the Duke de Char- 
tres, now become Duke of Orleans by the death of 
his father, embraced the party of the parliament 
againft the Court. Upon the principle of gratitude 
BrifTot attached himfelf to the Duke of Orleans. As 
an honeft man he could not do othcrwife. 

We fhall here pafs by his tour to America, and 
fome other circiimflances, becaufe they are intimate- 
ly connected with the account of his writings, which 
is fubjoined. 

Upon his return to France he found that liis cele- 
brity had not been diminiflied by his abfence. He 
voas eleded a member of the ConiVitucnt Aflembly, 
and was much engaged in the committees of refearch, 
of which he was the reporter. He was alfo elected 
a member of theLegiflatlve AfTemibly for the depart- 
ment of Paris. It mufl be obferved, that the revo- 
lution caft a veil over the crimes of all thofe who 
bad been obliged to leave their country. In this 

group who returned to France was Du JNI . He 

oppofed BriiTot in his elecHon for Paris, but BrifTot 
was ele£i:ed by a majority of more than three to one. 
However, Du M 's party were exceflively morti- 
fied; and they unceafingly calumniated BrifTot in the 
moft opi>robrious terms. M. Petion, mayor of Paris, 
and who was Brihot'i. friend and townfman, contri- 
buted much to ftren^then ins interell and afcen- 
dency. 

Briflot now diftinguiflied himfelf as one of the 
Amis des Jloirs (friend of the Negroes) of whom he 

was 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. IX 

was a moft zealous advocate. In a fpeech which he 
dehvered in the AiTembly in the year 1791, there is 
a ftrong trait of philanthropy. 

Of this fpeech the following is a fliort extract: 
** You have heard of enormities that freeze you with 
horror; but Phalaris fpoke not of his brazen bull, 
he lamented only the dagger that his own cruelty 
had raifed againll him. The colonics have related 
inftancesof ferocity; but give me, faid he, an in- 
formed brute, and I will foon make a ferocious mon- 
iler of him. It was a white man who firfl: threw a 
ne'Jro into a burnin^j; oven; who daftied out the 
brains of a child in the prefence of its father; who 
fed a flave with its own proper fle(h. Thefe are the 
monllers that have to account for the barbarity of 
the revolted favages. IMillions of Africans have pe- 
rifhed on this foil of blood. You break, at every ftep, 
the bones of the inhabitants, that nature has given 
to the(e iflands : and you Ihudder at the relation of 
their vengeance. In this dreadful ftruggle the crimes 
of the whites are yet the moft horrible. They are 
the offspring of defpotifm : whilft thofe of the blacks 
originate in the hatred of flavery, and the thirft of 
revenge. Is phi!ofo])hy chargeable with thefe hor- 
rors? Does {lie require the blood of the colonifts ? 
Brethren, flie cries, bejuft, be beneficent, and you 
will profper. — Eternal flavery muft be an eternal 
fource of crimes; — divefl it at leaffc of the epithet 
etertial ; foranguifli that knows no limitation of pe- 
riod can only produce defpair." 

Upon the abolition of the French monarchy, In 
the month of September 1792, the Legiflatlve Af- 
fembly dilToIved itfelf. The conflitution being dif- 
folved by the abolition of the King, they conceived 
that it was the inherent right of the people to choofe 
a new reprefentation, in order to frame a new confli- 
tution, fnited to the wiflies of the people, and to the 
ncceility of the exifting circumllances of the times. 

I a 



:t SKEICH OF THl LIFE 

ill this general eleftion Brillot waselefted one of the 
deputies from the departaient of Eure and Loire. 
Hisabiiities and talents became every day more con- 
fpiciious. He was chofen the Reporter of the Com- 
jnittee of Public Safety; in which fituation he con- 
duced himfelf without reproach, until the treache- 
rous conduct of Dumourier threw a fufpicion on 
the whole of the Gircnde party. 

Although aflLtiled on all fides by his enemies, his 
chara6ter afperfed and depreciated by the bafeft cf 
calumnies, Briffot lliewed bimfelf confiftent with his 
public principles of philanthropy. 

In the dreadful malTacre of the 3d of September, 

his opponents, particularly Du M , fought every 

opportunity to accomplifh his deflrudion, by ac- 
cuiing him of being a principal inftigator of thofe 
horrors. And it muli be owned, that thefe repeated- 
and continual calumnies weakened him in the pub- 
lic efteem. Du M was perfe6tly acquainted 

with the EngliOi method of writing a man down. 

When Condorcet moved for the abolition of roy> 
alty, BrifTot was filent. . 

When the motion was made to pafs fentence of 
rkrath on the King, .Brjflbt fpoke and voted for the 
appeal to the primary affemblies. 

When Fayette was cenfuredjBrifTot defended him. 

When the Duke of Orleans (M. de Hgaiite) was 
ccnfured. BrifTot defended hu\). 

The two firfl feem to have arifen in principles of 
humianity. 

The twolaft,unqueriionabIy,arofe in theflrongefl 
ties of gratitude and friendfnip. 

A confcientipus man cannot fuffer a more feverc 
affli(ftion, than when his private honour places him: 
sijgainft his public duty. 



0/ 



OF J. P. B»I5S0T, XI 

'Of BriJTot^s TP'r kings ; and particularly of this Work. 

Upon the fettlement of the American government 
after the war, he became an enthuiiaftic admirer of 
the new conftitution of that great country. But 
feme French perfons, who had been in America, and 
were returned to France, had publidied their thoughts 
and opinions of America, in a manner that was no- 
thing iliort of illiberality. The reader will find the 
principal names of thefe writers in the thirty-fec(?nd 
chapter of the iirfl volume. Briflbt was fired with 
indignation at this treatment of a people, whom he 
conceived could not in any wife have deferved fuch 
reproach ; and, imagining that the general peace in 
1783, had opened an honourable and free commu- 
nication of reciprocal commercial advantages be- 
tween America and France, he wrote this volume with 
the view of fupportingand eflablifliing that primary- 
id ea,, or /Zw^;3^ of ajFrench commerce with the Unit- 
ed States o 

Upon this point it is no more than ordinary can- 
dour to obferve, that all which BrilTot recom.mends, 
explains, or relates, concerning a French commerce 
•vith the United States, applies equally, and in fome 
points more than equally, to the Britifn commerce 
with them. Every Britifh merchant and trader may 
derive fome advantage from a general view of the 
principles which he has laid down for the eftablifli- 
ment and regulation of a reciprocal commerce be- 
tween France and America. The produce and ma- 
rjufa6tures of England are infinitely better fuited to 
the wants of America; and therefore all his theory, 
which is direfled to the welfare and improvement of 
France, mufl ftrongly attach the attention of the 
Britifii merchant and mechanic; who, in this great 
point, have not at prefent any fuperiors, but have 
f-veral rivals. BrilTot's ambition wa-s tomake France 

th- 



Xai SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

the greateft and moft powerful rival. An' every 
candid perfon nnuft allow that he defervcd much ere-* 
dit of his countrymen for tlie progrefs he made, in 
this firft attempt, to open the eyes of the French 
nation to profpeds of new fources of advantage. AU 
that is further necefTary to fay of this work, is faid by 
Brillbt himfelf in the introduction, from the tenth 
to the twentieth pages. In the laft French edition 
of Briflbt's Travels in America, publiflied by him- 
felf, about feven or eight months before his decapi- 
tation, this volume is placed the lafl of that work. 
We have followed the Author's arrangement, and 
collated the whole by the lall Paris edition. 

Of the preceding volume, entitled, *' New Tra- 
vels in the United States of America," we have no- 
thing to add: the whole of the French edition is now 
before the reader. 

Of Briflbt's other works it is proper to mention 
the following. 

The Theory of Criminal Laws^ i?i two volumes- — Al- 
though M. la Cretelle, at the conclufion of his Eflay 
on the Prejudices attached to Infamy, fpeaks in flat- 
tering terms of this work; for he fays, that it exhi- 
bits an extenfible knowledge, and fhews the writer's 
ambition afcends to great principles; yet to thole 
perfons who have read Becaria's Eflay on Crimes and 
Punifiiments, it will not appear that Briflbt has added 
much novelty to the fubjeft. 

The NeceJ/ity of a Reform of the Criminal Laws. 

Jf^hat Reparatiofi is due to innocent Perfons unjuflly 
accufed. 

Thefe were two difcoiirfes which were crowned 
by the Academy of Chalons fur Marne, and were 
printed in the form of two pamphlets. The minif- 
ters of Louis XVI. were a good deal offended at tl>e 
j>rinciples they contained, and they forbid the Aca- 
<iemy propofing the difcufling of fimilar fubje6ts at 
any of their future meetings. 

This 



% 



OF J. P. ERissof . xiii 

This check ferved but as a ftimulus to Brlfibt to 
continue his fubjeft. He therefore, in two years 
afterwards, pubHfhes his Philofophical Library of tJte 
Crzmhial Lnzvs. This work is now te^i volumes. Brif- 
fot's view in this work was, to diffufe and explain 
thofe grand principles of freedom which produced 
the revohition in England in the year 1688, and the 
revolution in America in the year 1775. Before the 
diflblution of the monarchy in France, thofe princi- 
ples were almoft unknown to the French, and are 
ilill almoft\;nknown to the other parts of Europe. 
But as feveral of the monarchs of Europe approved 
of the American revolution, it may be prefumed 
that their fubje^ls will not long continue ignorant of 
the motives and grounds of a meafure which was 
honoured with the patronage of their fovereigns. 
This circumllance alOne fliould convince the Eng- 
]ifli,that many of the powers of Europe behold with 
pleafnre the diminution of their greatnefs and con- 
fequence, and that very few of thofe powers are ever 
friendly to them., except during the time they are 
receiving a bribe, by virtue of an inftrument, com- 
m.only called afuhjidiary treaty. 

Of Dr. Price of London he was an admirer; but 
of Dr. Prieftley he was alfo an imitator, for he amufed 
himfelf frequently v/ith chymiflry, phyfics, anato- 
my, and religion. On the laft fubjcft there is a pre- 
lumption that he wrote but little; for in his Letter t» 
the Archb'ijhop ofSens{X\\z only trad: on religion, by him, 
that has come to the Editor's knowledge) he fays, 
" That religious tyranny had been prolb-ated by the 
" blows of Volta'ire, RoulTeau, D'Alembert, and 
" D'Iderot." His mind was capacious, and his com- 
prehenfion extenfive. In his zeal to become an imi- 
tator of Prieftley, he publiilied a volume CoTic^min^ 
Truths or Thoughts on the Means of attaining Truth, :>; 
nil the branches of Human Kmzdedge. Here was a wide 
field for the difplay of BrifTot's talents, and induftry. 
b Hi<^ 



■yAV SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

His defign was to have carried on the work to feve- 
ral volumes, and to have invited the communica- 
tions of the literati of all Europe, in all the different 
Jaencej, and, it may be a.dded./pec-uIaiions. But there 
was fuch a freedom of fentiment manifefted in the 
firft volume, that both the author and prmter were 
alarmed with the terrors of the Baftiie. Filled with 
thefe apprehenfions, he left Paris, and went to Neuf- 
chatel. There he printed his profpedus, and he 
caufed it to be alfo printed in London. But when 
thefe copies were attempted to be circulated in 
France, they were feized. Not a fmgie number 
was permitted to be feen in any bookfeller's fliop in 
France. 

Finding the execution of his project thus rendered 
imprafticable, he left Neufchatel, and went to Lon- 
don; where, in order to give currency to his free 
opinions, he altered the title of his book. He pro- 
pofed to publilh the remaining part periodically, un- 
der the name oi A Defcriptio^i of the Sciences and Ai~ts 
in England; great part of which was intended to be 
devoted to an examination of, and to obfervations 
on, the Englilli conftitution. His friends folicited 
the French miniflry to permit this work to be re- 
printed at Paris. At firft they obtained this favour ; 
and the work went on as far as twelve numbers, or 
two volumes; after which it was prohibited, not 
more to the author's mortification than to the injury 
of his pocket. M. de Vergennes, who was at that 
time minifter of France, had fo ftrong a diflike to 
every thing that was Englifh, that he would not en- 
dure the fmalleil commendation upon any part of 
the Englifh conftitution, or commerce, to be pro- 
mulgated in France. He had begun to difcover, 
that the favourite idea of his mafter, of feparating 
the Britifti colonies from the Britifli empire, might 
Jead to an inveftigation of the principles of govern- 
ment 



OIF J. P. ERISSOT. XV 

m<Jnt at home, and prove extremely dangerous to a 
defpotic monarchy. 

Notwithftanding he was thus difappointed a fe- 
cond time, he {till purfued his defign ; but under a 
fecond change of title. He publilhed two volumes 
under the title of Philofophical Letter i on the Hijhry of 
England. The title did not attrad the public atten- 
tion ; becaufe t-.vo volumes under a fnuilar name had 
been publifhed in London, and had, with fome art^ 
been impofed on the public as the produftion of 
Lord Lyttletonj but they were written by Gold- 
fmith, in fupport of tyranny and ariil:ocracy. 

Every circumftance of cruelty and opprefiion met 
with the obfervation of Briflbt. When the late Em- 
peror Jofeph was punifliingHoriah, the leader of the 
revolt in Walachia, and iiFiiing his fnocking edi(5t 
againit emigration, Briiibt addrefied t"joo letters to him 
upon thofe fubje»fts, which were read throughout 
Germany. In one letter he affirmed, that Horiah 
was juftified in his revolt; in the other he held, that 
a privilege to emigrate from one country to another, 
was a facred right derived from nature. 

He was an enthuliaft in his admiration of the 
American revolution, and of the conduft of the 
Americans in rifking every thing to emancipate 
themfelves from the tyranny of Great-Britain. Upon 
comparing the new conftitution of America with 
that of England, he chan-ed his opinion of the lat- 
ter — he ccafed to approve of it. 

Some French gentlemen, who had vifited America, 
having, when they returned to France, written fome 
fevere remarks on the Am.ericans, Bri0bt defended 
the Am.ericans, particularly in hit> book called A Cri- 
tical Examination of the Travels of the Marquis f Cha ■ 
tcikux. But as this work has been already mentioned 
in the preceding volume (fee chapters {i and 32)5 it 
is not necelTary to fiy any thing more of it here. 

It muft never be forgot, that during the period of 
« b 2 the 



wiVl SKETCH CF TH£ LI?!: 

the French monarchy there were more intrigues aK 
ways going on in the French court than in any court 
in Europe. At this time (the year 1787) the court 
was full of intrigues — libidinous as well as political ; 
for though the King had no miftrefles, the Queeft 
had her favourites and her party. Ncckar was dif- 
mifled, and Calonne was appointed by her influence; 
Mon^morin fucceeded Vergennes, and the Duke of 
Orleans was at the head of the party that fought the 
overthrow of the new miniftry. When Calonne 
aflembled the Notables at Verfailles, Briflot pubhfti- 
cd a pamphlet entitled No BanhrupjLcy ; cr Letters to a 
Creditor of the State concer7iing the hnpoj/ibility of a Na- 
tional Battkruptcy^ and the Means of reforing Credit a7id 
Peace, This pamphlet, which contained many fe- 
vere obfervations on Calonne's meafures and plans, 
and feme arguments infupport of certain privileges 
claimed by the people, the Duke of Orleans was 
iiighly pleafed with. He made inquiry after the 
author, for the trad: was anonymous, and having 
difcovered him, he ordered his chancellor to provide 
a fituation for him. He was made fecretary-general 
of the Duke's' chancery. This did not fave him 
from minifterial refentmient. A letter de cachet was 
made out againft him; but having notice of it, he 
inftantly elcaped to the Netherlands. He was for 
ieveral months editor of the Courier Belgique^ printed 
at Mechlin. It was during this voluntary exile that 
he formed Ills prcjc6t of vifiting America. He com- 
inuiiicated his deiign to the Philanthropic Society of 
the Friends of the Negroes at Paris, and was by 
theni afTifled and recommended to feveral perfons in 
America. The produce of this vifit to America 
was the firfr volume of this work, written upon his 
return to France. The French miniflry being 
changed before he left Europe, he embarked at Havre 
de Grace in the month of June, 1788. 

Iritelligence having reached him in America of 

tls 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. XVil 

the rapid progrefs liberty was making in France, he 
returned to his native CGJntry in 1789, in a confi- 
dence that his labours might become ufeful to the 
general intereft. 

His firft publication after his return (except the 
preceding volume of his travels in America) was, ^ 
Flan of Condu^for the Deputies of the People, 

His knowledge and admiration of America natu- 
rally produced a friend fliip with the Marquis de la 
Fayette, who introduced him into the club of the 
Jacobins. 

We fliall pafs by the feveral fteps and meafures 
of the revolution; for to give an account of all Brif- 
fot's concern therein, would be to write a large vo- 
lume upon that event only. But the mention of a 
itw circumflances which are attached to BriiTot pe- 
culiarly, is indifpenfible. . 

By the intereft, or rather influence, of Fayette, he 
was made a member of the Commune of Paris. He 
was agent of the Police, and a member of the Com- 
mittee of Infpedion at Paris ; and afterwards a re- 
prefejitative for the department of Eure and Loire. 

He commenced a newfpaper, which he called 
Patjiote Fran^ais; in which he conftantly defended 
the condu(5^ of la Fayette. He attached himfelf ta ^ 
the party called Girondius.- 

To the Engliih reader this name may require 
fome explanation-. ■ The warm and moft violent 
of the National Convention, having gained the 
confidence and fupport of the city of Paris by 
various arts, but principally bv declaring, upon 
every opportunity, that Paris mud conftantly be the 
place in which the National Reprefentation muft 
hold, their dehberations; to balance againfl: this 
power of Paris, Condcrcet, Petion, Vergniaux, Brif- 
for, Ifnard, and others, all members of ^hc Conven- 
tion, endeavoured to gain the commercial cities in 
their intereft, Bourdeaux was the principal of thofe 
t> 3 cities 



XVIll SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

cities which joined them; it is fituated on the river 
Garonne, locally pronounced Gironde^ which being 
the center of a department, named from the river, 
the appellation of Girondifts was given to the whole 
party. 

The whole was a ftruggle for power: there was 
no other obje6l whatever. It is a foolifli, and an idle 
aflertion, in thofe who fay, that Briflbt and the party 
had engaged in a plot to reftore the monarchy of 
France. Whatever their opinions might have been 
in fome of the early ftages of the revolution^perhaps 
fromanapprehenfion that the people of France might 
helitate at an abrupt proportion of a republican go- 
vernment, they were unqueftionably innocent of 
the charge at the time it was made. Here follow, 
however, the documents as publiflied by authority, 
in juftification of the execution, which, like all other 
ftate papers, in every country, confift of the befl: 
apology, or moil colourable pretence, for a thing 
that has been done by order of government. 

Report againji BriJJot^ and the other arrefted Deputies; 
made Odober 3, 1793. 

The Citizens of Paris, being informed that Amar 
was to prcfent his report from the Committee ofGe- 
jieral Safety this day, filled the galleries at a very 
early hour. 

As foon as he appeared at the bar, the applaufes 
were fo loud and continued, that "he was unable to 
begin for more than a quarter of an hour. 

At length, amidft the moll profound filence, he 
read his report. 

He began by flating, that, before he proceeded to 
the report which had been expedled with fuch im- 
patience, and would amply recompenfe the unavoid- 
able delay that had prevented a more fpeedy gratifi- 
cation of the wiilies of tiie people, he was com- 
manded 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. xiK 

manded by the Committee of General Safety to re- 
queft that none of the members of the Convention 
fhouki be allowed to go out till the decree of accu- 
fation had been adopted. This requeft was imme- 
diately complied with, and a decree being pafled, 
the Prefident gave orders to the Commander of the 
National Guards to allow no members to go beyond 
the bar. 

Amar then affirmed that the gigantic arm of trea- 
fon had been uplifted to ftrike the reprefentative 
majefty of the people, and to level with the ground 
the unity and indivifibility of the French Republic. — ■ 
The arm of treafon had been nerved and fupportcd 
by the united energies of BrifTot, Condorcet, Gaudet, 
Vergniaud, and the other Deputies. 

Briffjt, the leader of this traitorous band, com- 
menced his political career by being a Member of 
the Commune of Paris, to which he was introduced 
by La Fayette, to whofe defigns he had proftituted 
his pen. At this aera of his life he made his ap- 
pearance three times in the Jacobin Club. In the 
firft vifit he propofed thole meafures which have 
proved fo difaitrous to the Colonies ; in the fecond, 
he attempted to produce the afFilTination of the peo- 
ple in the Champ de Mars; and in the third vifit he 
moved the declaration of war againfl Great-Britain. 

Introduced into the Legiflative Aflembly, he im= 
mediately entered into a coalition with Condorcet 
and the Girondine faction, whofe defigns he approv- 
ed and fupported. The confummation of the ob- 
je6t of this coalition was to have been produced by 
the furrender of the Republican body to the viola- 
tion of the Allied Powers, and by the deflru6tion of 
that unity and indivifibilitv which can alone be ex- 
pelled to combat with effect the tyrants who would 
undermine the proud pillar of Liberty, and deftroy 
even the veftige of freedom from the face of the 
earth. 

The 



XX SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

The Court made ufe of their influence to dedarc 
war at a moment when the armies and the fortified 
places were in aflate cf abfolute \vant,orentrulled lo 
traitors chofen by a perjured King. They protefted 
Narbonne, the minifter, whom all France accufed of 
the meafures taken to render this war fatal to liber- 
ty; and in their Journals they calumn'ated the Pa- 
triots who had the courage to refift them. They de^ 
fended Dietriich, convided of being an accomplice 
with La Fayette, and of having offered to give up 
Strafoourg; and while the chiefs of that faction pro- 
tected the confpirators and traitorous Generals, the 
patriotic foldiers were profcribed, and the volunteers 
of Paris fent to be butchered/. 

During the time we were furrounded by the fa- 
tcUites of defpots, when the court was going to 
open the gates of France to them, after-having cauf- 
ed the intrepid defenders of liberty to be murdered 
at Paris, Briffot and his accomplices did all they 
could to counterai£t the generous efforts of the peo- 
ple, and to favc the tyrant. During and after the 
unhappy infurre6tion of the loth of Au^uft, they 
endeavoured to prevent the abdication of Louis XVL 
and topreferve to him the crown. 

In the night of the loth of Augnft, Petion, fliut 
up in the Thuilleries, confuited with the fatelJites of 
tyrants theplan to maflacre the people, and gave or- 
ders to Mandat, Commander of the National Guards, 
to let the people come in, and then to cannonade 
them in the rear. A few days before, Genfcnne 
and Vergniaud engaged to defend Louis XVL on 
condition that the three minifters, Roland, Claviere, 
and Servan were recalled. 

Petion and La Source n^ade ufe of all their means 
to fend the federates from Paris. Brifibt, Kerfaint, 
and Rouyer, according to the letters found in the 
Thuilleries, gave bad advice to the tyrant, and, in 
defiance of the laws, they dared to folicit places in 

the 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. XXI 

trie miniftry, under a promife to extend the deflruc- 
tive authorities of the defpot. 

The projeft to overturn the foundation of the 
Republic, and to murder the friends of Liberty, 
was put in practice in the Legiflative Afiembly, by 
Briflbtjin his infidious harangue on the 20th of July, 
179s, oppofing the abdication of the throne. We 
have ken BrifTjt and his accomplices Republicans 
under Monarchy, and Royalifts under the Repub- 
lic; always conflant in their defigns to ruin the 
French nation, and to abandon it to its enemies. 
At the time the hypocritical tyrant, Louis theXVL 
came into the Aflembly to accufe the people, whofe 
mafTacre he had prepared, — Vergniaud, like a true 
accomplice of the tyrant, told him — " That the Af- 
fembly held it to be one of their mofi; facred duties 
to maintain all conftituted authorities, and confe- 
quently that of Royalty." 

When the Attorney-general, Raderer, came to 
announce, with the accent of grief, that the citi- 
zens in infurrection had taken the refolution not to 
feparate till the Aflembly had pronounced the for- 
feiture of the Crown, Prefident Vergniaud filenced 
the applaufes from the gallaries by telling them, that 
they violated the laws in obflrufting the freedom of 
opinion; and he told Raderer, that the A^flembly 
was going to take into immediate confederation the 
propofal which he, Vergniaud, had made, fliewing 
the necelhty of preferving the exilience of the King. 
Kerfaint feconded the motion. Geradet propofed 
to liberate Mandat, who was arrefted for having 
given orders to fire on the people; or, in the event 
that that commander was no more, to fend a depu- 
tation of twelve Glrondifl: members, authorifed ta 
choofe his fuccedijr, in order by this means to keep the 
public force at the dlfpofition of that mifchievous 
fa(fl:ion. 

In that memorable fitting of the loth of Auguil, 

the 



XXll SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

the Girondifl: chiefs, Vcrgniaud, Guadet, and Gen- 
fonne, look by turns the chair, and went to the 
galleries to flacken the energy of the people, and to 
fave Royalty, under the fhield of the pretended con- 
ftitution. They fpoke of nothing but obedience 
to the conflitutional laws to thofe citizens that came 
to the bar to protect their newly acquired liberty. 

When the municipality came to invite the AfTem- 
bly to fend x\\c prcces-'verbai oi the great operations of 
the loth of Augull, in order to prevent the calum- 
nies of the enemies of liberty, Guadet interrupted 
the members who made that demand, by making a 
motion to recommend anew to the magidrates the 
execution of the laws. — Hs blamed the Council of 
the Commune for hav-ing confined Petion in his own 
houfc; though they did it in order to render it im- 
}>offible for that impofl:or to make even infurredion 
fubfervient to a(ft againft liberty. 

Whea a. deputation from the fuburb St. Antoine 
came to announce the civic affliction of the widows 
and children mafTacred on that day, the perfidious 
Guadet cooly anfwered them, " That the Aflembly 
hoped to reflore public tranquillity and the reign of: 
the law:,." 

Vergniaud,in the name of the extraordinary com- 
million directed by that fadlon, propofed the fuf- 
penfion of the King, who had been dethroned by the 
people, asa limple confervatory a£t of royalty] and 
feemedgreatlvaifcdedat the events which had faved 
the country, and operated the ruin of the tyrants. 
Fie oppofid Choudieu's motion,, tending to exclude 
from the Con^'ention the members of both the Le- 
gifldtive and Conftituent AlTemblies; ' and with the 
fame cunning he prevented the regifters of the civil 
lill from being depofited on the table. 

Gaudst w idled to have a governor named to the 
fon of the lite Ki:^-g, v.?hom he called the Prince 
Eoyal. Briflbt and his accomplices always affected 

to 



OF J. P. BRI5S0T. XXUl 

to invoke the literal execution of the Conftitutiorr, 
while the people, in the name of the martyrs who 
fell before the caftle of the Thuiileiies, demanded 
the complete overthrow of the tyrant. 

Vergniaiid oppofed this demand, faying, that the 
people of Paris were but a feclion of the empire, 
and affected to oppofe it in this manner to the de- 
partments.— He likewife refified the fetition made 
by the Commons to put the tyrant under arreft. He 
■ufed all his effv)rts with BrifTot, Petion, and Manuel, 
to get Louis XVI. confined in the Luxembourg, 
from whence it would have been eafier for him to 
efcape than out of the tower of the temple. 

Genfonne and Gaudet had the ferviiity topublifii, 
at different times, tiiat Louis XVI. had commanded 
theSwifs not to fireuponthe people. From that time, 
the leaders of the Girondifls (Department of Bour- 
deaux), compelled to praife the events of the loth 
of Auguft, continued, notwithftanding, to under- 
mine the Republic. They publiflied the feverefl 
fatires againfl the Jacobins, againft the Commons 
and people of Paris, and in general againft all thofe 
who contributed to the deflrutftion of monarchy. 
Roland's houfe was filled with packets of libels, 
which were to be diflributed among the people, and 
fent iinto the departments. 

'Thefe guilty men protected all the confpirators, 
favoured the pfogrefs of Brunfwick with all their 
power, and were the agents of the EngHHi fadlion 
which has exerted fo fatal an influence during the 
courfe of our revolution. Carra was in league with 
certain characters of the court of Berlin. In his 
Journal Politique of the 25th of Auguft, 1791, he 
formed a wifli, on account of the marriage of the 
Duke of York with thePrincefs of Prufiia, " that the 
Duke might become Grand Duke of Belgium, with 
all the powers of the King of the French." While 
Brunfv/ick was preparing to decide the fate of the 

French 



K:<W SK3ETCH OF THE LIFE 

French nation by the force of arms, Carra, in the 
fame Journal, reprefented him as a great commander, 
the greateft politician, the moft amiable Prince in 
Europe, formed to be the reftorer of liberty in all 
nations. — He publiflied, that this Duke, on his arri- 
val at Paris, would go to the Jacobins, and put on 
the red cap, in order to intereft the people in favour 
of this fatellite of tyrants. Finally, Carra was fo 
audacious as to propofe openly to the Jacobins, for 
the Duke of York to be King of the French. 

From thefe and many other fafts, too tedious to 
mention, there refults, that Carra and his aflbciates 
were iniquitous and deep dliTemblers, penfioned by 
England, Prulfia, and Holland, to enable a Prince 
of that family which rules over thofe countries to 
obtain the crown of France. This fame Carra, to- 
gether with Sillery, the diflionoured confidant of a 
contemptible Prince, was fent by the then reigning 
faction toDumourier, to complete that treafon which 
faved the almoll ruined army of the Pruflian defpot. 
Dumourier came fuddenly to Paris to concert with 
BriiTot, Petion, Guadet, Genfonne, and Carra, th« 
perfidious expedition into the Auftrian Netherlands, 
which he undertook when the Prulhan aimy, waft- 
ing away by contagious diforders, was peaceably re- 
tiring- — while the French army was burning with 
indignation at the inaction in which they were kept. 

It was not the fault of this faction, if the motion 
often made by Carra to receive Brunfwick at Paris, 
was not realized. He meditated, in the beginning 
of September, 1792, to deliver up this city, with- 
out means of defence, by flying beyond the river' 
Loire, with the Legiflative AffemDly, with the Exe- 
cutive Council, and with the captive King. He was 
fupported in it by Roland, Claviere, and le Brun, 
the creatures and hilfruments of BrifTot and his ac- 
complices. 

But thefe perfidious miniflers, having been threat- 
ened 



07 J. P. BRISSOr. XXV 

^litd by one of their colleagues to be denounced to 
the people, it was then that Carra and Sillery were 
fent to Dumourier, to authorize this General to ne- 
gociate with Frederick William, to enable this Prince 
to get out of the kingdom, on condition that he 
ihould leave the Netherlands without the fufficient 
means of defence, and deliver them up to the nume- 
rous and triumphant armies of France. 

The calumnious harangues that were made in the 
Tribunes were prepared or fanftioned at Roland's, 
or in the meetings that were held at Valaze's and ?e- 
tion's. They propofed to furround the Convention 
with a pretorian guard, under the name of Depart- 
mental Force, which was to be the bafis of their 
fcederal fyllem. In the Legiflative Afiembly they 
meditated a flight beyond the Loire, with the Afiem- 
bly, the Executive Council, the Royal Family, and 
the public treafure, Kerfaint, at his return from Se- 
dan, dared to propefe this project to the Executive 
Council; and it v.'as fupported by Roland, Claviere, 
.andle Brun, the creatures and inftruments of Briffot. 

The fa6lion flrove to put off the judgment of the 
tyrant by impeding the difcuffion. They appointed 
a commiilion of twenty-four members to examine 
the papers found in the Thuilleres, in the guilt of 
which fome of thefe members were implicated; and 
they endeavoured, in concert with Roland, to con- 
ceal thofe which tended to difcover their tranfadioti 
with the court. They voted for the appeal to the 
people, which would have been a germ for civil war, 
and afterwards wanted a refpite to the judgment. 

They inceffantly repeated, that the Convention 
could do no ^ood, and that it was not free. Thefe 
declamations milled the departments, and induced 
them to form a coalition v;hich was near being fatal 
to France. 

They patronized an incivic peace, entitled^ L^am: 
^es Loix. 

c On 



XXVI SKETCH OF THE LIFE 

On the 1 4th of January, Barbaroux and his friends 
had given orders to the battalion of Marfeillois to 
furround the Convention. 

On the 20th, Validi wrote to the other deputies, 
*' To-morrow in arms to the Convention — he is a 
coward who does not appear there." 

BrifFot, after the condemnation of Louis Capet, 
cenfured the Convention, and threatened France 
with the vengeance of the European Kings. When 
it was his obje6l to bring on war, he fpoke in en op- 
pofite fenfe, and treated the downfal of all thrones, 
and the conqueft of the univerfe, as the fport of the 
French nation. Being the organ of the Diplomatic 
Committee, compofed almoft entirely of the fame 
fa<5lion, he propofed war fuddenly againft England, 
Holland, and all the powers that had not then de- 
clared themfelves. 

This fa(5lion a6led in coalition with perfidious 
■Generals, particularly with Dumourier. Genfonne 
held a daily correfpondence with him: Petion was 
his friend. He avowed himfelf the Counfellorof 
the Orleans party, and had connexion with Sillery 
and his wife. 

After the revolt of Dumourier, Vergniaud, Gua- 
det, BrifTot, and Genfonne, wiilied to juflify his 
,condu6t to the Committee of General Defence, af- 
ferting that the denunciations made againft him by 
the Jacobins and the Mountain were the caufc of his 
conduct; and that Dumourier was the protedor of 
the found part of the Convention. This was the 
party.of which Petion, BrifTot, Vergniaud, &c. were 
the chiefs and the orators. 

When Dumourier was declared a traitor by the 
Convention, Briflbt, in the Patriote Fran^oi/e^ as well 
as other writers, who were his accomplices, praifed 
him, in defiance of the law. As members of the 
Committee of General Defence, they ought to have 
given information relative to the preparations that 

were; 



OF J. ?. BRISSOT. -XXVi: 

were making in La Vendee. The' Convention, 
however, was not made acquainted with them till 
the war became ferious. 

They armed the Se<5tions where Ariftocracy reign- 
ed, againft thofe where public fpirit was triumphant. 

They affefted to believe that a plot was meditated 
by the Pvepnblicans againfl the National Conven- 
tion, for the purpofs of naming the commiffion ci 
twelve, who, in an arbitrary manner, imprifoned 
the magifirates of the people, and made war againil 
the patriots. 

Ifnard developed the views of the confpiracy^ 
when he ufed this atrocious expreffion : *• The afio- 
niJnied traveller will feek on what banks of the Seine 
Paris once flood." The Convention dilTolved the 
commiffion, which, however, refumed its fun«5tion3 
on its own authority, and continued to aft. 

The faftion, by the addrefTes which it fent to the 
departments, armed them againft Paris and the Con- 
vention. The death of numbers of patriots in the 
fouthern departments, and particularly at Marfeilles, 
where they periflied on the fcaiTold, was the confe- 
quence of thofe fatal divifions in the Conventionj 
vf which they were the authors. — The defeft ion. 
of Marfeilles foon produced that of Lyons. This 
important city became the central point of the coun- 
ter-revolution in the South. The republican muni* 
cipality was difperfed by the rebels, and good citi- 
zens were mafTicred. — Every puniftiment that cruel- 
ty could dcvlfe to increafe the torments of death was 
put in execution. The adminiftrative bodies were 
leagued partly with Lyons, and partly with foreign 
Ariilocrats, and with the Emigrants difperfed through 
the Swifs Cantons. 

The cabinet of London afforded life and energy 
to this rebellious league. Its pretext was the anar- 
chy that reigned at Paris — its leaders, the traitorous 
deputies of the Convention. 

c 2 Whilir 



"iXVlll SKETCH OF THE LIF5 

Whilfl they made this povverfui diverfion in fa- 
vour of the tyrants united againft us, La Vendee 
continued to drink the blood of the patriots. 

Carra and Duchatel were fent to this department 
in quality of Deputies from the National Conven- 
tion. 

Carra publicly exhorted the adminillrators of the 
Maine and Loire to fend troops againft Paris. Both 
thefe deputies were at the fame time conncded with 
the Generals of the combined armies. 

Couflard, fent alfo as a commiffioner, carried his 
treafonable projeds to fuch a length, as even to fur- 
nifli fupplies of provifions and {lores to the rebels. 
The million of the agents of this fa^ion, fent to 
different parts of the republic, was marked by fingu- 
lar traitorous meafurcs. 

Perhaps the column of republican power would 
ere this have meafured its length upon the ground, 
if the confpirators had prefervcd much longer theix* 
inordinate power. On the loth of Auguft, the foun- 
dation of the column was laid; on the 3ifl of May 
]t was preferved from deflrudion. The accufe'd 
publilhed a thoufand feditious addrefles, a thoufand 
counter-revolutionary libels, fuch as that addrelTed 
by Condorcet to the department of the Aifne. They 
are the difgraccful monuments of the treafon by 
which they hoped to involve France in ruin. 

Ducos and Fonfrede formed the flame of the rebel- 
Jion, by their correfpondence and their fpeeches, in 
which they celebrated the virtues of the confpirators. 

Several of thefe confpirators fled, and difperfed 
themfelves through the departments — They eftablifli- 
ed there a kind of National Convention, and invelc- 
ed the admlniftration with independent powers — 
they encircled themfelves with guards and cannon, 
pillaged the public treafuries, intercepted provifions 
that were on the road to Paris, and fent them to the 
revolted inhabitants of the former provinces of Bri- 

tanny. 



OF J. ?. BHISSOT. • XXix 

rauny. They levied a new army, and gave Wimp- 
ien, degraded by his attachment to tyranny, the 
command of this army. . 

They attempted to efFe6l a junction with the re- 
bels of la Vendee, and to furreiider to the enemy the 
])rovinces of Brltanny and Normandy. 

They deputed affallins to Paris, to murder the 
members of the Convention, and particularly I^Iarat, 
whofe deftruclion they bad folemnly fworn to ac- 
compliflii Tiiey put a poignard i^to the hands of a 
woman who was recommended to Duperret by Bar- 
barous and his accomplices. She was conveyed into 
the gallery of the Convention by Fauchet.— The 
enemies of France exalted her as a heroine. Petion 
pronounced her apotheofis at Caen, and threw over 
the bbod-ftained form of alTaHination the fnowy 
robe of virtue. 

Girey Dupre, the colleague of BrilTot, in the pub- 
lication of the Patriote Fra?icais, jn-inted at Caen fe 
veral fongs, which invit-ed, in a formal manner, the 
citizens of Caen to arm thcmfeives with poignards, 
for the purpofe of ftabbing three deputies of the 
Convention, who were pointed out by name. 

BriiTot fled with a lie added to his other crimes 
Had he gone to Switzerland, as the falfe j)afljport 
ftated. it v/ould have beenfor the purpofe of excit- 
ing a new enemy againil France. 

Rabaud St. Etierre, Rebecqui, Duprat, and An- 
tlboul, carried the torch of fedition into the depart- 
ment of le Gard and tl;e neighbouring departments. 
Biroteau, Rouger, and Roland, proie^fled their ter- 
rible plots in Lyons, where they poured the ample 
ftream of patriotic blood, by attaching to the friends 
of their country the appellation of anarchifls and 
monopolizers. 

At Toulon thefe endeavours were fuccefsfu!, and 

Toulon is now in the hands of the Englifn. The 

fume lot was referved for Bourdeaux and Marfeilles. 

c 3 Th& 



XXX 



SKETCH OF THE LIFE 



The reigning fadlon had made {o\ne overtures to 
Lord Hood, whofe iket they e.xpeifled. The entire 
execution of the confpiracy in the South waited only 
for the jun6tion of the Marfeillefe and Lyonefe, 
which was prevented by the viftury gained by the 
Republican army which produced the redu.-^ion of 
Marfeilies. 

The meafures of the confpirators were ex2.^]y 
fimilarto thofe of the enemies of France, and par- 
ticularly of the Englifh. — Their writings differed in 
nothing from thofe of the Englilh minifters, and li- 
bellers in the pay of the Englilh minifters. 



Mr. PJTT. 



to 



The DEPUTIES. 
Attempted to do the fame. 

The deputies procured the 
aflaflinatlon of Marat and Lc 
Pelletier. 

The deptitles did all in their 
power to produce tiiis cffeft. 

The deputies obtained a de- 
claration of war againfk all na- 
tions. 

Carra and Briflbt entered 
Into a panegyric of the Dukes 
of York and Brunfwlck, and 
even went fo far as to propofe 
them for Kings. 

The deputies have produced 
the deftru^ilon of the colcnier. 

Brilibt, Petion, Gaadet, 
Genfonne, Vergniaud, Ducos, 
and Fonfrede, direftcd the 
Hicafuies relative to the colo- 
nies which meafures reduced 
them to the moft lan*tntable 
fituatien. 

Santhonax and Polverel, the guilty Commiffioners 
who ravaged the colonies with lire and fvvord, are 
their accomplices. Proofs of their corruption exift 
in the correfpondence of Raimond, their creature. ^ 



Wi/hed to degrade and 
dlflblve the Convention, 

He wiflcd to atTafiinate the 
membeis of the Convention. 

He wilhed to deftroy Paris. 

He wifhed to arm all na- 
tions againfl France. 

In this Intended partition of 
France> Mr. Pitt wished to 
procure a part for the Duke of 
York, or fome other branch 
of his mafter's family. 

He endeavoured to deftrcy 
our colonies. 



OF J. P. BRISSOT. XXxl 

Of the numerous fa6ls of which the faftion are 
acctifed, fotr.e relate only to particular individuals; 
the general confpiracy, however, is attached to all. 

Upon this aft of accufation they were tried before 
the Revolutionary Tribunal, on the 30th day of 
Odober, 1793. When the a6l of accufation was 
read to them in the court, they refufed to make any 
anfwer to it, unlefs Robefpierre, Barrere, and other 
members of the Committee of Safety, were prefent, 
and interrogated : they infifled upon thofe members 
being fent for; v/hich being refufed, and they ftill 
refufing to make any anfwer, the Judge ftated to the 
Jury, that from the a(ft of accufation it refulted that, 

I. There exifled a confpiracy againft the unity 
and indivifibility of the Republic, the liberty and 
fafety of the French people. 

II. That all the individuals denounced in the aifl 
of accufation are guilty of this confpiracy, as being 
either the authors of, or the accomplices in it. 

The Jury of the Revolutionary Tribunal brought 
in their verdi<fl at eleven o'clock at night, on the 
30tii of Oflober, againft 

BRISSOT, 

Vergniaud Sillery 

Genfonne Fauchet 

Duprat Duperret 

Valaze Lafource 

Lehardi Carra 

Ducos B?auvais 

Fonfrcde Mainvielle 

Borleau Antiboul 

Gardien YlgcQy and 

Duchatel Lacaze, 

who were declared to be the authors and accompli- 
ces of a confpiracy which had exifted againfl the 
nnity and indivifibility of the Republic, againll the 
liberty and fecurity of the French people. 

The 



XXxii SKETCH or THE LIFE OF J. P. ERISSOT. 

The Prefident of the Revolutionary Tribunal im- 
mediately pronounced the fentence decreed by the 
conftitution: — That they iliould fiiffcr the punilh- 
mcnt of death — that their execution fliould take 
place on the fubfequent day, on the Place de Revo- 
lutio7i — that their property fliould be confifcated, and 
that this fentence fliould be printed and pofted up 
throughout the whole extent of the republic, 

As foon as the fentence was pronounced, Vaiase 
pulled a dagger from his pocket and Slabbed him- 
feif. — The Tribunal immediately ordered that the 
body fliould be conveyed on the morrow to the. 
Place de la Revoluiion, with the other dei)uties. 

At eleven o'clock in the forenoon, on the l-iit^ 
the execution, took place. The flreeis were "lined 
with foldiers, and every precaution tnkeii to prevent 
the difturb'ance of the public tranquillity. 

Duchatel, Ducos, Fonfrede, rmd Lehardi, pre- 
ferved a firm and undaunted air, and furveyed the 
engine of death with a compofed and unruffled coun- 
tenance. 

The deportment of BrifTot was manly — he pre- 
ferved a fixed filence, and fubmitted his head to the 
•^uillotine, after furveying ftedfaflly, for a few mo- 
ments, the Deputies, to whom, however, he did not 
fpeak. 

Sillery fainted the people with much refpc(?l, and 
converfed a fliort time with his confcfTor, as did 
Fauchet. — Lafource died in a penitential manner. — 
Garra, Vergniaud, Gcnfonne, Duperret, Gardien, 
Duprat, Beauvais, INIainvielle, Lacazc, Antiboul, 
and Vi'jee, died with firmnefs. and v\ ith the excla- 
mation of " J-^'ive la Republique.^' — The execution 
was concluded in thirtv-fevcn minutes. 



CONTENTS. 



I 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

NTRODUCTION , . . . i 

CHAPTER L 

Of External Commerce; the circnmftances 
which lead to it, and the Means of afTuring 
rt to a Nation . . . , . • 1 7 

CHAPTER IL 

Of External Coinrnerce, confidered in its 
Means of Exchange, and its Balance . . 24 

CHAPTER III. 

Application of the foregoing general Principles 
to the reciprocal Commerce of France and 
the United. States . . , . , 38 

CHAPTER IV. 

That the United States are obliged by their pre- 
fent Neceflities and CircumitariCes to engage 
in foreign Commerce . . , .46 

CHAPTER V, 

Of the Importation to be made from France 
into the United States, or of the Wants of 
the United States and the Produ(5tions of 
France which correfpond thereto . . 64 



XXXr/ CONTENTS. 

Page. 

SeHioH I, Wines . . . . • ^5 

Se^ion II. Brandy ..... 74.. 
Sf:^7^on 111. Oils, Olives, Dry Fruits, &c. 79 

o>^/<7« IV. Cloths ..... 80 
Se^ion V. Linens . . . . .84 

2e^ion VI. Silk^, Ribbons, Silk Stockings, 

Gold and Silver Lace, &c. . . .92 
^eSrknMll. Hats . . . . .96 

ScHionNWl. Leather, Shoes, Boots, Saddles, 

&c. 97 

.V^/Z/t?/; IX. Glafs Houfes . . . .100 
Section X. Iron and Steel . . . -103 

Sexton XI. Jewellery, Gold and Sriverfmiths' 

Articles, Clock-work, &c. . . . 109 

Sc^ion XII Different Sorts of Paper, ftained 

Paper, &c. 112 

^>^/o;z XIII. Printing . . . • n iJ 

SeaionXlY. Salt 117. 

Se^ion XV. General Confidcrations on the 

Catalogue of French Importations into the 

United States. 11? 

CHAPTER VL 

Of the articles which Independent America 
may furnifli in return for Importations from 
France . . . . . . .120 

MonfieurCalonne's Letter to Mr. Jefferfon, the 
American Minifter at Paris . . . ibid- 

Exports of America „ ., , . 125 

Sedioii I. Tobacco .... ibid 

Se^Uon II. Fifheries, Whale-oil, .&c. Sperma- 
ceti Candles . . . . .128 
SeSion III. Corn, Flour, Sec. . • I35- 
Se^ion IV. Mafts, Yards, and other Timber 

for the Navy . . . . '139 

Se.^io?iY, Skins and Furs . . . H^ 



CONTE-N'TS. XXXV 

Page. 

5(?^7/o« VI. Rice, Indigo, Flax-feed . .143 

Seeiion VII. Naval Stores, fuch as Pitch, 
Tar, and Turpentine .... 147 

Seftion VIII. Timber' and Wood, for Car- 
penters and Coopers Work; fuch as Staves, 
Cafks-heads, Planks, Boards, &c. . . 148 

Se^ion IX. VelTels conflru6ted in America, 
to be fold or freighted . . . .150 

Se^ion X. General Confiderations on the pre- 
ceding Catalogue of Importations from the 
United States into France = . .156 

Conclusion, and Reflecflions on the Situation 

of the United States .... 163 

Appei*cix; confining of authentic Papers, and 

Illuftrawons, added by the Editor . • i/i 

Return of the Population of the United States 173 

Ditto of the Territory South of the Ohio . 174 

Dr. Franklin's Obfervations on the Popula- 
tion of America .. . . . .176 

Captain Hutchins's Account of the Weflern 
Territory . . . . . .178 

Thoughts on the Duration of the American 
Commonwealth ..... 206 

Mr. Jefferfon's State of the Commercial In- 
tercourfe between the United States and 
Foreign Nations ..... 209 

Principal Articles of Exportation during the 
Year 1792 ' . 22^ 

Of the Civil Lift and Revenue of the United 
States . . ^ . . . 226 

JMr. Paine's Statement of the Expencesof the 
American government . . . 227 



INTRODUCTION, 



INTRODUCTION, 

By J. P. BRISSOT DE WARVILLE, 



A HE CoKrt of Great-Britain had nofoonerfigned 
the Treaty acknowledging the Independence of her 
late Colonies in North America, than her merchants 
and political writers fought the means of rendering 
to her by commerce an equivalent for her lolTes by 
the war. 

Lord Sheffield has predicted, in his Obfervations 
ton the Commerce of America, " that England would 
always be the liorehoufe of the United States; that 
the Americani, conftantiy attraded by the excel- 
lence of her manufodures, the long experienced in- 
tegrity of her merchants, and the length of credit, 
which they only can oive, would foon forget the 
wounds which the miiiiflerial defpotifm of London, 
as well as the ferocity of the EngHfn and German 
fatellites, had given to America, to form with it new 
and durable connexions."^ 

This politician was the only one who appeared in 
that career; others followed it [Dr. Price, &:c.] 
and the debates, which the new regulations of com- 
merce propcfed for America, produced in Parlia- 
ment, prove that the matter was known, difcuffed, 
and profoundly examined. 

B The 

* Thefe are not Lord Sheffield's words. They are M. Brif- 
fot's ; and ccr.ain his defciiptlon of LcrJ Sheffield's svFposed 
fentiments, rVuin a (:e uUl of that Nobleman's Oi feivatJcnso* 
the Comintsce of America. Euit. 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

The Englifli nation refembled at that time a man 
who, coming out of a long delirium (wherein he had 
broken every thing that he ought to have held moll 
dear,) eagerly ft rives to repair the ravages of his in- 
faiiity. 

As for us, we have triumphed, and the honour of 
the triumph is almcft the only benefit we have reap- 
ed. Tranquil under the Ihatle of our laurels, we fee 
ivith indifference the relations of commerce which 
nature has created between us and the U?iit€d States ; 
— whilfl, to ufe the language of vulgar policy, the 
Englifli, of whom we are jealous as our rivals, whom 
we fear as our enemies, ufe the greateft efforts to 
make it impoffible for us to form .new connexions 
with our new friends. 

That the Englilh will fucceed, there is no doubt^ 
if our languor be not foon replaced by n(5tivity ; if 
the greateft and moft generous faculties, on our part, 
do not fmooth this commerce, new, and confequent- 
\w eafy to be facilitated: finally, if our ignorance of 
the ftate of America be not fpeedily diffipa^edby the 
conftant ftudy of her refources of territory, com- 
merce, finance, &c. and affinities 'they may have 
with thofe of their own. 

Our ignorance! This word will undoubtedly 
fliock, — for we have the pride of an ancient people: 
We think we know every thing, — have exhaufted 
every thing: — Yes, we have exhaufted every thing; 
but in what? In futile fciences, in frivolous arts, 
in modes, in luxury, in the art of pleafipg v.'omeu, 
and the relaxation of morals. We make elegant 
courfes of chymiftry, c'.iarming experiments, deli- 
cious verfes, ftrangers at home, little infoinied of any 
thing abroad: this is whnt we are; that is, we know 
every thing except that "which is p-operfor us to knoiu.^ 

It 

* *rhis airertlon will perhaps appear fevrre and falfe, even Co 
pcrlbns who ihiak that we excel in pbytics ani the exaft fcl- 
cpccs» But in granting this, is It thefe kinds of fciences .t«» 



IMTRODUCTIOK. 3 

It would be opening a vaft field to /liew what is 
proper for us to know, therefore I will not under- 
take it. I confine myfelf to a fingle point: I fay- 
that it concerns us elTentially to have a thorough 
knowledge of the ftate of America, and that, never- 
thelefs, we have fcarcely begun the alphabet which 
leads to it. What I advance has been laid before by 
Mr. P^ine, a free American, and who has not a lit- 
tle contributed, by his patriotic writings, to fpread, 
fwpport, and exalt, among his fellow countrymen, 
the enthufiafm of liberty. 1 will remark, fays he, in 
his judicious letter to the Abbe Pxaynal, that I have 
7i9tyet' fcen a d(:fcriptio7i^ given in Europe^ cf America^ 
if ivhich the fidelity can he relied en . 

In France, I fay it with forrovv, the fcience of 
commerce is almoft unknown, becaufe its praftice 
has long been dillionx^ured by prejudice; which pre- 
vents the gentry from thinking of it. This preju- 
dice, which is improperly thought inde{lru6liblc, 
becaufe the nobility are improperly thought one of 
the necefTary elements of a monarchical cnnftitution ; 
this would alone be capable of preventing French 
commerce from having a6rivity, energy, and digni- 
ty, were it not to be hoped, that found philofophy, 
in deilFoyiag it infenfibly, %vouJd bring men tothegvc-dZ 
idea of e/Iimating individuah by their talent}^ and not 
by their birth: without this idea there can be no 
great national commerce, but ariflocratical men will 
abound; that is, men incapable of conceiving any 
elevated view; and men contemptible, not in a (late 
to produce them. 

B 2 Finally, 

which a man who refl<;cls ought at fir-l to give hlmfeif up? 
Does not the ftiidy cf his focinl and civil ftate more nearly con- 
cern him ? Ought not this to intereft him more thnn the num- 
ber of ftars, or the order of chymicat afnnities ? — It is, how- 
ever, the fctence of which we think the leaf!-. We are pafiion- 
arely fond of poetry : we difpu^e ferioufly about mufic; that 
is, we have a great confidcraticn for playthings, and make a 
plaything of our affairs. 



4 ri^TRODUCTION. 

Finally, another prejudice, quite as abfurd, wliich 
has been combated a thoufand times, and is always 
predominant in France, withholds from the eyes of 
the public precious memoirs, and interefting difcuf- 
fions, which would inform France of lier intercfts. 

Who is ignorant that it is to the freedom of de- 
"bate and public dilcufiion thatEngland owes thefm- 
guiar profperity which, till lately, has followed her 
every where, in commerce, in arts, in manuf3(flures, 
as well abroad as at home? a profperity which file 
may enjoy in fpite of the faults of her ininiflers; for 
none but ti^iefe have ever endangered it: and it is to 
the freedom of debate that fhe has often owed her 
falvation from ruin. Who doubts that this liberty 
would not produce the fame happy eiteds in France; 
— that it would not defrroy falfe appearances; — that 
it would n*)t prevent the deftrudive enterprizes of 
peifonal interefl; — that it u'ould not alarm raif- 
chievous indulgence, or the coalition of people in 
place with the enemies of the public welfare? Go- 
vernment feems at prefect to do homage to this in- 
fluence of the freedom of difcuffion. At length, it 
appears to relax of its feverity in the laws of the preis ; 
it has fu ffered fome fliackles, which ref1:rained dif- 
cufijon, to be broken, efpecially in political matters. 
Tlut how f:ir are we ftill from feeling the happy cf- 
fe<5ls of the liberty of the prefs, rather granted to pub- 
lic opinion, than encouraged by a real love of truth ! 

By what fatality are energetic difcourfes of truth 
jneffeftual? This ought to be pointed out; govern- 
ment itfelf invites us to do it; the abufes which ren- 
v'er information ufelefs in France, ought to be laid 

It is becaufe the liberty of thinking and writing 
on political matters is but of recent date. 

Becaufe the liberty of the prefs is environed with 
many difgufting circumftances ; and that an honeft 
man who'difdains libels, but loves franknefs, is dri- 
ven 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

veil from the prefs by all thofe humiliating formali- 
ties which fubjecl the fruit of his m'-ditrition and re- 
fearches to a ccnfure neceflarily arifing from igno- 
rance. 

It is becaufe the cenfor, inftituted to check the 
elevation of a generous liberty, thinks to flatter au- 
thority, by even exceeding the end propofed; fup- 
prcfles truths, which would frequently have been re- 
ceived, for fear of letting too bold ones efcape, with 
which he would have been reproached ; multiplies 
objecStions, gives birth to fears, magnifies dangers, 
and thus difcourages the man of probity, who would 
have enlightened his fellow citizens; whilft this cen- 
for fanftions fcandalous productions, wherein reafon 
is facrificed to farcafms, and fevere morality to ami- 
able vices."* • 

It is becaufe there are but few writers virtuous 
enough, fufficiently organized, or in proper fuuations 
to combat and furmount thefe obftacles. 

Becaufe thefe writers, few in number, have but 
little influence; abufes weakly attacked and ilrongly 
defended, reflft every thing wiiichis oppofed to them. 

Becaufe the neceflity of getting works printed in 
foreign pr^ffes, renders the publication diflicult; but 
few of them efcape from the hands of greedy hawk- 
ers, who monopolize the fale,to fell at a dearer price; 
who poft the myftery, and a falfe rarity, to fell dear 
for a longer time. 

Becaufe thefe books are wanting in the moment 
B 3 when 

* We may put in the rank of thefe produ£lions which dif- 
honour the cenforfhip, the comedy of Figaro, a fcandalous farce, 
therein, under the appearance of defending morality, it is turn- 
ed into ridicule ; and wherein great truths are dlfparaged by the 
contemptible dialogift who prefects them; wherein the end 
fcems to have been to parody the greateft writers of the age, 
in giving their language to a rafcally valet, and to encourage 
cpprefTion, in bringing the people to laugh at their degradation, 
and to applaud themselves for this mad laughter: finally, in 
giving, by culpable impofture, to the whole nation, that chap 
wdcr of negligence and levity which belongs only to her capij:al. 



O INTRODUCTION. 

when they would excite a happy fermentation, and 
dire£l it properly, in giving true principles. 

Becaufe they fall but fucceffively into the hands 
of well-informed men, who are but few in number, 
in the fearch of new truths. 

Becaufe the Journalifts, who ought to render them 
a public homage, are obliged, through fear, to keep 
filence. 

Becaufe the general mafs, abandoned to the tor- 
rent of frivolous literature, lofes the pleafure of me- 
ditation, and with it the love of profound truths. 

Finally, becaufe truth is by this fatal concurrence 
of circumftances never fown in a favourable foil, nor 
in a proper manner; that it is often ftifled in its birth; 
snd if it furvives all adverfe manoeuvres, it gathers 
Itrength but flowly, and with difficulty; confequent- 
ly its cffefts are too circumfcribed for inftrudtioa to 
become popular and national. 

, 'Let government remove all thcfe obftacles: let it 
have the courage, or rather the found policy, to ren- 
der to the prefs its liberty; ar\d good works, fuch as 
nre really ufeful, will have 'more fuccefs; from 
which there will refult much benefit. 

Does it wifli for an example? I will quote one, 
which is recent and well known: the law-fuit of the 
monopolizing merchants againflthe colcnifts of the 
fugar iflands. Would not the laft have, according 
to cuftom, been cruflied, if the difpute had been 
carried on in obfcurltyr They had the liberty of 
fpeech, of writing, and of printing; the public voice 
was raifed in their favour, truth was triumphant; 
2nd the wife minifter, who had permitted a public 
difcuflion, tiiat he might gain information, pro- 
nounced for humanity in pronouncing in their fa- 
vour. 

Let us hope that this example will be followed; 
that government will more and more perceive the 
immenfe advantages which refult from the liberty of 

the 



INTRODUCTION. ^ 

the prefs. There is one which, above all others, 
ought to induce it to accelerate this liberty, becaufc 
it nearly regards the intereft of the prefent moment: 
this liberty is a powerful means to eftablifh, fortify, 
and maintain public credit, which is become, more 
than ever, necefTary to great nations, iince they have 
flood in need of loans. As long as the attempts of 
j)erfonal intereft are feared by the obfcurity v. hich 
covers them, public credit is never firmly eflabljfh- 
cd, nor does it rife to its true height. It is no longer 
calculated upon the intrlnfic ftrength of its refourccs, 
but upon the probability, upon the fear of the dif- 
order, which may either divert them from their real 
employ, or render them flerile. The liberty of the 
prefs keeps perfonal interefl too much in awe not to 
fetter its meafures; and then public credit fupports 
itfrlf if it be eflabliflied, is formed if it be ftill to be 
conftituted, and fortifies itfelf if it has been weaken- 
ed by error. 

Full of thefe ideas, as well as the love of my coun 
try, ^and furmounting the obftacles to the liberty cf 
printing, I have undertaken to throw fome light 
upon our commercial affinities with the United 
States. This objci^ is of the greateft importance; 
the queftion is, to develope the immenfe advantages 
which France may reap from the revolution which 
file has fo powerfully favoured, and to indicate the 
means of extending and confolidating them. 

Jt appears to me that all the importance of this re- 
volution has not been perceived; that it has not beea 
fufficientiy confidered by men of underflanding. 
Let it, therefore, be permitted me to confider it at 
prefent. 

I will not go into a detail of the advantages which 
the United States muft reap from the revolution, 
which afTures them liberty. I will not fpeak of that 
regeneration of the phyfical and moral man", which 
muft be an infaUibJe confequence of their conflitu- 

tions; 



e INTRODUCTION. 

tions; of that perfection to which free America, left 
to its energy, witlioyt other bounds but its own fa- 
culties, mufl: one day carry the arts and fciences. 
America enjoys already the right of free debate, and 
it cannot be too often repeated, that without this de- 
bate, perfection is but a mere chimera. In truth, 
^hnofl every thing is yet to be done in the United 
State-3, but almoft every thing is there underliood: 
the general good is the common end of every indi- 
vidual, — this end cheriflied, im,planted, fo to fpeak, 
by the conftitution in every heart. With this end, 
this intelligence, and this liberty, the greateft mira- 
cles muft be performed. 

I will not fpeak of the advantages which all Ame- 
rica muft one day reap from this revolution; nor of 
the impoffibility that abfurd defpotifm fhould reign 
for a long time in the neighbourhood of liberty. — 
I will confine myfelf to the exanwnation of what 
advantages Europe, and France in particular, may 
draw from this change. There are two which are 
particularly ftriking: the firfc, and greated of the 
revolution, at lead in the eyes of philofcphy, is that 
of its falutary influence on human knowledge, and 
on the reform of local prejudices ; for this war has 
occalicned difcuffions important to public happi- 
nefs, — the difcuffion of the fecial compaCl, — of 
civil liberty, — of the means which can fender a peo- 
ple independent, of the circumftances which give 
fanClion to its infurrC(5lion, and make it legal, — and 
which give this people a place among the powers of 
the earth. 

What good has not refulted from the repeated de- 
scription of the Englifn conftitution, and of its ef- 
fects ? What good has not refulted from the codes 
of Maflachufetts and Nev/.-York, published and 
fpread every where? And what benefits will they 
ftill produce? They will not be wholly taken for 
a model; but defi^Qtirm will pay a gr-eater refpecf, 

either 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

either from neceffity or reafon, to the rights of men, 
which are fo well known and eftablifhed. Enlight- 
ened by this revolution, the governments of Europe 
will be infenfibly obliged to reform their abufes, and 
to dinrtinifh their burdens, in the juft apprehenfiori 
that their fubje«^fs, tired of bearing the weight, will 
take refuge in the afy'um offered to them by the 
United Slates. 

This revolution, favourable to the people, whicli 
is preparing in the cabinets of Europe, will be un- 
doubtedly accelerated, by that which its commerce 
will experience, and which we owe to the enfran- 
chifement of America. The war which procured it 
to her, has made known the influence of commerce 
on power, the neceffity of public credit, and confe- 
quently of public virtue, without which it cannot 
long fubfift: — What raifed the Englifii to that height 
of power, from whence, in fpite of the faults of their 
Miniflers, Generals, and Negociators, they braved, 
for fo many years, the force of the moft powerful 
nations? Their commerce, and their credit; which, 
loaded as they were with an enormous debt, put 
them in a flate to life all the efforts which nations, 
the moft rich by their foil and population, could not 
have done in a like cafe. 

Thefe are the advantages which France, the world, 
and humanity, owe to the American Revolution ; 
and when we confider them, and add thofe we are 
obliged to let remain in obfcurity, we are far from 
regretting the cxpences they occauoned us. 

Were any thing to be regretted, ought not it to 
vanifli at the appearance of the new and immenfe 
commerce which this revolution opens to the French? 
This is the mofl important point at prefent for us, — 
that on which we have the leaft information, which 
confcquently makes it more neceffary to gain all we 
can u{)on the lubje6lj and fuch is the object of this 
work. 

In 



lO^ INTRODUCTION. 

Ih what more favourable moment coultl if appear,, 
when every nation is in a ferment to extend its com- 
merce, feeks new information and fare principles? 
The mind is inceflantly recalled in this book to the 
nature of things^ the firft principle of commerce. — 
At a lime when people, which an ancient rivality, 
an antipathy, fo falfely and unhappily called natu- 
ral, kept at a dirtance one from the other, are in- 
clined to approach each other, and to extinguifiiccl 
in the connexions of commerce the fire of difcord; 
this work fhews that thefe rivalities mufl be efraced 
by the immenfity of. the career which is opened to 
all.r-^At a time when all the parts of univerfal poli- 
cy are enlightened by the flambeau of philofophy, 
even in governmenis v^hich have hitherto profefied 
to be afraid of it, the author of this work has let flip 
no opportu-nity of attacking falfe notions and abufes 
of every kind. 

Never v/asthere a moment more favourable for 
publifliing ufeful tn>ths. Every nation does not 
only do homage to commerce, as to the vivifying 
fplrit of fociety ; but they employ, in the examina'- 
tion of all ihefe connexions and afiinities, that lo- 
gic of fa £ls, v^hafe ufe charaderizes the end of ths 
prefent century,^ — that art truly philofophical, of 
confidering objeds in their nature, and in their nc- 
ceimry confe^^uences: — Never had well informed 
men more cojntempt for thole chimerical fyitems 
folely founded upon the fancies of pride, upon the 
little conceptions of vanity, and upon the prefump- 
tion of the falfe political fciencf, which has too long 
balanced the defliuy of Slates. Never were fo many 
men feen united by the fame defire of an univerfal 
peace, and by the conviction of the misfortune and 
inutility of hate.*^ul rivalities. At length it-appears, 
that men perceive ihat the field of induftry is infi- 
nite; th?t it is open to every (late, whatever JTjay be 
\^- -^^''■jlute or relative pofitions; that all dates may 

thrive 



'tlitive in it, provided that in each of thim the fup- 
port of individual liberty, and the prefervation of 
property, be the principal end of legation. 

This work flill concurs with the patriotic views 
which the I'overeign of France manifefts at prefent: 
he meditates important reformations. He direds 
them towards the happinefs of the people; and con- 
fults the moii refpeftable members of this people, 
whom he v/ifhes to render happy, upon the means of 
infuring the fuccefs of his good intentions. There- 
fore, could there be a more propitious moment to 
offer to the prefent arbitrators of the national prof- 
perity, a work written with deliberation, on th« 
means of eftiibiifhing a new commerce with a new 
people, who unites to an exteu'five foil, and proper 
to nourifli an immenfe population, laws which are 
the inofl favourable to its rapid increafe? 

At firft I had alone undertaken this work, de- 
pending on my own llrength and laborious refearch- 
es; I had collefted all the facls, — all the books, — 
all the proofs which could be certain guides to my 
fteps; but I foon perceived the impolhbility of raif- 
ing upon obje6ls of commerce a folid and ufeful 
theory, if it were not directed by the fl^iil which 
pra«ftice only can give, and pofTefled by a man 
whofe judgment had been long exercifed by reflec- 
tion, and whofe decided love of truth and the public 
welfare had accuftomed to generalize his ideas. I 
found this man, this co-operator, of whofe affiftance 
I liood in need, in a republican; to whom I am 
\3nited by a fimilarity of ideas, as well as by the mod 
tender attachment. 1 have permifTion to name him, 
• — he confents to it: I have conquered his mockfly 
by the confideration of his intereft, and of the law 
which the particular circumflances of his fituatioa 
impofes on him : I have perfuaded him, that the 
befl: means of deftroying calumny was to make 
'known hisprinciplet andopinions on public matters. 

It 



la INTRODTJCTIO'N. 

It is M. Claviere, a Genevefe, exiled vvithoat scnf 
form from his country, by tlie military ariflocracy ; 
which has fiibftituted its iilegel and deftruttive re- 
gimen to the reafonable and legitiniate influence of 
a people, dilVinguiflied by their natural good under- 
ftanding, their knowledge, and their more fimple 
manners. What was his crime? That of having 
defended the rights of thefe people, with a firmnefs 
and ability, which the implacable hatred of his ene- 
mies atteft! This part does too much honour to 
my friend, not to confine myfelf to defcribe him in 
this charafter, the only one which has ever been 
produdive of public good. 

M. Claviere has, during , his abode in France, 
given proofs of his knowledge in the philofophical 
and political part of commerce. It is to his abode 
among us that the public is indebted foi'fome ufeful 
works on thefe a bft raft matters ; works, as remark- 
able for their folidity of prin<iiple and truth of dif- 
culfion, as for the clearnefs and precifion of ideas ; 
works, whofe fuccefs proves that minds may be led 
to the contemplation of thefe matters, by fubftitut- 
ing an exaft and clear analvGs to the metaphyfical 
and obfcure jargon which rellrained them from it. 

Finally, the prefent work will prove at once the 
extent of his knowledge, and that of the fincere 
philanthropy whicii animates him, even for the good 
of a counlry, where a man lefs generous would fee 
nothing, [.^erhaps, but the origiii iMid canfe of his 
♦misfortures. X.)h ! how happy am I, to have it in 
my power to defend my friend againft cowardly ca- 
himniators, in putting him under the fafeguard of 
his own tahnts and virtues! And is it not a facred 
duty for jnp, as the calumny is public, to publilli 
the part he has taken in this work, wherein it is im- 
poflible net to difcover the hor.ell: man, in the man 
eu'ightened ? the friend of mankind, in the propa- 
gation of the wifeit maxims ? In the thinking phi- 

lofopher, 



^5 

Tofoper, accuilori.^.i :& u ..'/t;e logic, to purfue 
"the interefls of pubhc 'g6od, whenever the light of 
truth can clear up fom-e of its afpeds ? This is not 
a vague eulogium ; people will ht convinced of it 
in reading the two chapters which concern the prin- 
ciples of commerce; a great number of notes in 
which he has had a part, and efpecially the article 
of tobacco, which is entirely his own. In g-^neral, 
he will be known in thofe new conliderations which 
the commercial man of reflection only can fuggefl: 
to the philofophical politician. 

The fame motive has guided us both in the com« 
pofition and publication of this work. It was the 
defire of being ufeful to France, to Free America, 
to Humanity ; for nothing which paffes in the United 
States, neither ought to, nor can in future, be in- 
different to humanity. America has revenged it by 
her revolution : fhe ought to enlighten it by her le- 
giflation, and become a perpetual lefibn to all go- 
vernments, as a confolation to individuals. 

It remains to me now to fpeak of the fources to 
which we have had reccurle, in the order of this 
•work, &c. &:c. 

We have joined the information of intelligent per- 
Tons, whofe abode in America has given them an 
opportunity of gaining information, to that with 
which the public papers, the a£ts of Congrefs, of 
different legiflatures, and the different works pub- 
lilhed in the United States, have furniflied us. There- 
fore credit may be given to all the fa6ts which we 
advance. 

In affociating our ideas, we have ilriven to give 
them an uniformity: we have, above every thing, 
endeavoured to e'xprefs them with that clearnefs 
which is fo difficult to introduce into matters of com- 
merce and finance. The poverty of our language, 
and the (ingularity of new circumftances which we 
iiad to defcribe, has ibnietimcs led us to what is callec 
C neology. 



t4 INTRODUCTION. 

neology. We muft create what svc have not, and 
of which we ftand in need, without giving ourfelves 
any trouble about thofe grammarians, but triflingly 
philofophical, whom Cicero defcribes thus in his 
time: Contro-verjies about ivorJs tormetii tJiefc lit tie > Greeks^ 
more dejiroui of contention than of truth.* 

We have carefully avoided certain words much 
ufed in vulgar politics, and which give and perpe- 
tuate falfe ideas and deceitful fyftems. :Such are 
thefe expreflions,; poivas fill the :firft :ihnrade.r^ have 
ihefirfi rank^ the balance of tratie^ the political balance 
ef Europe^ &c. Thefe words, which :ftir up hatred 
and jealoufy, are only proper to feed petulant am- 
bition, and, if I may ufe the cxpreflion, to put the 
policy of difiurbance in the place of that happinefs. 
Minifters, wearied of thefe words and iueas> .will at- 
tach a greater price to real glory, — that of making 
the people happy. 

Many notes will be found in this work; we thought 
it neceffary to give this form to all the ideas, which, 
thrown into the text, might have obfcured the prin- 
cipal OFie. 

A note relaxes the mind, in fufpending the chain 
of the principal thoughts; it excites curioiity, iti 
announcing a new point of view ; it forces the reader 
to a certain degree of attention, in obliging him to 
attach the note to the text, to reap any advantage 
from his reading. 

We have in thefe notes indicated, as often as it 
has been poflible, the ideas of reform which may be 
ufeful to France. We have frequently quoted the 
Englifli nation and government. Let not our read- 
ers be furprifed at it. It is this nation which has 
made moft progrefs in the pradite of fome g-ood 
•principles of political economy. To what nation 
in Europe can we better compare France? If a ri- 
val ity 

* Verbi con^roverfia torquct Grieculos homines contCBtioni* 
cupidiores quam veritatis. 



INTRODUCTION. I^ 

Vality ought to exift between them, is it not in that 
which is good? Ought not we from that moment 
to know all the good meafures taken in England? 
Ought people to be difpleafed with us for mentioning 
thefe m.eafures? The example of thofe who have 
already quoted England has encouraged us. They 
have naturalized in France, happy inftitutions, imi- 
tated from her rival i- 

If our criticifm appears fom.etimes roughly ex- 
prefTed, our readers will be fo good as to coniider, 
that friends to public welfare can but with difficulty 
refrain from being moved by the afpect of certain 
abufes, and from fuffering ihefentiment of indigna- 
tion which it excites in them to break forth. 

Notvvithftanding the numerous precautions we 
have taken to come at truth; notwithftanding the 
extreme attention we have given to this work, errors 
will undoubtedly be found in fome of the ftatements, 
and perhaps in the reafonings. Whether they be 
publicly difcufled, or that we are privately inform- 
ed of them, we fhall fee thsfe refutations with plea- 
fUre; v/e Ihall joyfully receive thefe obfervations, 
and if they be well founded, we fliall be eager to re- 
traft. This is but a fimplc eflliy on an important 
fubje6l. It may become a good work by the aid of 
a concourfe of lisrhts. 

o 

P.^Ris, April I J 1787. 



C % TH« 



I 



THE 



COMMERCE, ^c. 



CHAPTER L 

Of External Commerce ; the drcumftances 'which lead t9 
itf and the Means of a/furin^ it to a Nation* 



VjOMMERCE fignifies an exchange of produc- 
tions, either by barter, or by reprefentative figns of 
their value. 

External commerce is that carried on between two 
or more nations. It fuppofes in them mutual wants, 
and a furplus of produftions eorrefpondent thereto. 

Nations, which nature or the force of things in- 
vites to a commercial intercourfe, are thofe which 
have that correfpondence of wants, and furplus of 
produ6tions. 

This familiarity enables them to trade together, 
direftly or indirectly ; a dire<5l commerce is that which 
cxifts between two nations, without the intervention 
of a third. 

Commerce is indire(5l when one nation trades with 
another by way of a third. This is the cafe of ftates 
which have no fea-ports, and yet wifli to exchange 
their productions for thofe of the Indies. 

That nation, which having it in its power to carry 

on a dire£t commerce with another, yet makes ufe 

of an intermediate one, is neceflarily obliged to di- 

C 3 ' ^ vide 



X8 ON THE COMMERCE Of THE 

vide its profits. However, this diiadvantage may 
fomerim^^s he compenfated by 6ther confidcrations. 

Such, for inflance, is the cafe of a nation which, 
in want of hufbandmen^nd.manufadurers, prefers 
that Grangers (ho uld themfelves come in fearch of its 
fuperfluities, and bring jn exchange thofc of others: 
its want of population impofcs this faw, and whilft 
thefe confiderations exill:, it is both morally and phy- 
lically better that its inhabitants fhould be employed 
in cultivation,' tlian* become carriers of their own 
national productions, or of thofe of others. 

It is impoffible that nations which already have 
communications with each other, fhould be ignorant 
of the.ir mutual prqduftions. Hence ai;ifes the defirc 
of acquiring them in thofe where they do not exift. 
Hence direfl or indirect commerce, which is confe- 
quentiy the inevitable refult of the ftate of things.^ 

From the fame principle, it is the intereft of each 
nation to render its exterior commerce dire(5l as fopn 
as poffible, without doing an injury to its interior 
trade. 

Direft im^portations, not being fubjeCl to the ex- 
pences and'commifiious of agents, procure things at 
a cheaper rate^ 

A moderate price is the.fureft means qf obtaining 
an exteriqr commerce, the beil reafonfpr preference, 
and the guarantee of its continuation.* 

Thf 

* It is^ viiigarly faid tliat 9 thing is dear when once it is above 
(he accu'ft-mcl' price j "ajid it is" cfteemed cheap'the nioment that 
price is f^iniini/hed. 

By th:-- ir i'ctmi that the rlearnefs of a thing -s the compari- 
fon : f its fta.red, with its ufual price. The laft is determined 
by five principal cir uraftaiues. ift. The coft of the raw ma- 
teia' 2d. That of the wprkmanfhip. 3d. The want the. con- 
funicr has <'f >h: thing. 4'h. The ir.eans he has of paying for 
it. ^th. T p propoit'on cf its quantity with the H< mand there 
is for it. Theie clrcumftances increaie or diminish the profit 
of the fe^I^r 3 f nactin^«:s. indeed they qiay prey^nthipn from gain- 
ing at &li/ Circumftftflccs which ii.liucnce the moft aie fcarcity 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. I9 

The country vvhicb can orodiice and fell a thing 
at the cheapeti rate, is that which unites the favour- 
able advantages of that prodadion, whether it be 
witii refpeft to its quality, manufacture, or' its low 
rate of carriage. 

The advantages which render conimodities and 
raw materials cheap, are a fertile foil, eafy of culti- 
vation, climate favourable to the produftiqn, a go- 
vernment which encourages induftry, >and facili- 
tates carriage by the conftrudion of public roads and 
navigable canals; finally, a population not too nu- 
merous relative to the extent of country which of- 
fers itfelf to be cultivated.* 

The fame circu IV fiances are ftill more favourable 
to the manufacture of things common, fimple, or 
little charged with fafhion, if the raw material be a 
natural production of the country, in plenty, and 
eafy to be worked up; becaufe tliefe manufactures 
require but few hands, or are carried oai at that lei- 

fure 

and abundance, exprelTions by which the proportion between the 
"want and the quantity of produftions are defignated. 

If there be a furplus of them, they are naturally fold at a low 
price. Whence it appears, t{i4t nations having great quantities 
of raw materials, various manufaftures and a numerous popu- 
lation, are more particularly invited to an exterior and continued 
commerce, becaufe they have it in their power to carry it 011^ 
wpon better terms. 

An article may be fold at a low price, and enrich him who 
furni^.es it; as it may be fold dear, and ruin the felier. This 
vkpends upon the relation there is between its value and the 
ineajas of its> produdions. Every nation difpofed to exterior 
commerce, in whatfoever article it may be, ought therefore to 
confider two things, the price at which it can afford fuch an ar- 
ticle, and that at which it is fold by rival nations : if it cannot 
equal the laft, it ought to abandon that part of its trade. 

* The fituation of the Unite d States proves the laft afTcrtionj 
which may at firft iight appear parav'.oxical ; things are cheap 
there, becaufe population is not in proportion to the extent of 
lands to be cultivated. In a good foil, a man may, by his la- 
bour, eafily fupply the confumption often men, or even more«. 
Thefe ten men may therefore be employed for exterior confunag- 



aO ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

fure which agriculture affords. Nothing caii equal 
the cheapnefs of this workmanfliip, and in general 
no induftry is more lucrative, or better fupporteJ on 
eafy terms, than that which is employed in the in> 
tervals of repofe from cultivanon : in that cafe cheap- 
nefs is neither the product nor the fign of mifery in 
the manufacturer; it is, on the contrary, the proof 
and confequcnce of his eafy circumftances.* 

The moft neceffary conditions for manufa(5luring, 
at a cheap rate, articles complicated, or extremely 
fine and perfe<^, or which require the union of feve- 
ral kinds of workmanfliip, are a conftant and affidu- 
ous application, and a numerous population ; one 
half of which muft be at a diftance from the labours 
of the field, and applied to manufacture alone. 

Thefe manufactures ought, according to natural 
order, to be the produ(5tions of an excefs of popula- 
tion only, which cannot give its induftry to agricul- 
ture or fimple manufactures; but in general they arc 
the refult of the gathering together of the poor and 
wretched in great cities. f 

Thefc 

• Switzerland, and certain parti of Germany, o.^er a ftriking 
example of this faft, Merchandife is fabricated there, at a 
lower rate than in any other country of Europ-*, by means of this 
employment of leifure hours, and is capable of being tranf- 
ported to diftant countries, without loling its original advantage j 
even acrofs great ftatcs, where nature, left to her own energy, 
would beftillmore favourable to the fame manufaflures. 

+ Thefe manufa£lures are crouded with individuals, who 
having no property, or hope of conftant employ in the country, 
or who are in»Juced bv the allurements of gain and luxury, run 
into cities, and foon become oblige ' to fell their induftry at a 
mean price, proportioned to the number of thofe who are in 
want of employ. When cheapneis of workmajifliip comes from 
this afRifting concurrence of the want of money in men without 
employ, it is not a fign of profperity. On the conti ary, it h the 
refult and proof of a bad focial organization, of too unequal a 
iivifion of propevt), and confequently of an unju'l diftribution 
ef neceffary employments, which comvels induftry to change, 
/*om the fabrication of what is necftflary and ufeful, to that 
«hjxh 15 fimtafiic, forced, «nd peraicious. Kence it folivws. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. SI 

Thefe manufaflures cannot furnifli their produc- 
tions but with difficulty and uncertainty for exterior 
commerce, when they are eftablifhed and fupported 
merely by forced means, fuch as prohibitions, ex- 
clufive privileges, &c. by' which' natural obftacles, 
not to be deftroyed, are pretended to be combated. 
Countries exempt from them prevail in the end, and 
obtain a preference. 

It fometimes happens, that obftacles caufed to 
manufactures by dearnefs of provifions, burthenfome 
impofls, diftance from the raw material, and un- 
ikilfulnefs, or fmall number of hands, are furmounted 
by ingenuity, or the ufe of machines; which make 
the work of one man equal to that of many, and 
render a manufacture capable of fupporting the com- 
merce of populous countries, where fuch manoeu- 
vres and machines are not made ufe of, or known. 

But thefe means are precarious, and fooner or later 
give way to a more happy fituation, where chmate, 
foil, and government efpecially, concur in favouring, 
without eifort, all the adivity and induftry of which 
men are fufceptible.* 

Thus, 

that wretchednefs in any country is In proportion to tkls cheap- 
nsfs of woikmanfhip. 

It is fqually evident from thefe reafonlngs, thatncv/ and well 
coiiftituted llates ouglit not to defire manufaftures produced by 
things i'o badly arranged : they ought not to be anxious abouc 
th*m til! the rate of population and excefs of ufcf-ul labour na- 
turally incline induftry to apply icfeif to improve and carry them 
on. Thefe reafonlngs againft low priced workmanfhip do noc 
hinder us from agreeing, that there is a real advantage in the means 
of exterior comnfierce; and that in the adlual Itate of thinga 
manufacturing and commercial nations may perhaps be obliged 
to feek for it, although it does not compenfate the interior evil 
by which it is produced. 

* Favouring, in political economy, fignifies, for the moft 
part, not to fliackle induftry with too many regulations; how- 
ever favourable certain of thefe may "be, they reftrain it in fome 
refpeft or other. Trade is never better encouraged than whes 
'.cfttoitfdf. 



i^C£- OT* THE COMMERCE OF THS 

Thus, in the final analyfis, the power of furnim- 
ing at a low price belongs inconteftably to countries 
fo favoured, aad they will obtain in all marketsa 
fure preference to thofc to which nature ha^ been 
]efs kind, let their induflry be e-ver fo great, becaufe 
the fame induilry may always be added to natural 
advantages. 

Exterior commerce, more thiin any other, is in- 
timidated by fliackles, cuiloms, vifits, chicaneries, 
and proceiTes; by the manner of deciding them, and 
the felicitations and delays they bring ori.- 

The ftate which would favour fu-ch a cofhttterCe 
fiiould, in the lirfr place, deflroy all thefeobi^^cles. 
it is more to its intercft fo to do, as fi'Om e^t eerier 
commerce refuks an augmentation of the^-n£tionfd 
revenue. 

All things equal, relative to the price of merchan- 
dife, and to the facilities with -which direct ex?frior 
commerce can be carried on, it is more readily efla= 
blifhed between two nations which have afimilarity- 
of political and religio^usprinciples,f manrrers, cuf- 
toms, and efpecially of language-: thefe decifiVe 
means of connexion cannot be combated but by- 
evident advantages from which there refults lefs ex- 
pence and m6re profit; Commercial people gene- 
rally place profit at the head of every thing. 

Nations not having thefe affinities between them, 
ought, in order to compenfate for their deficiency., 
to give great encouragements, and tolerate to the 

utmoft 

•f Religious corsfiJerations had formerly a confiderab'e influ- 
ence on civilized men, and on commerce. The Cathqlic fled 
irOm the Proteftant, the Puritan fufpefted the Quaker., A re- 
ciprocal hatred reigned between the fedY"!. To-day, majOkind 
being more enlightened, all fe^s connected by commerce, and 
cxperisncii having fhevi^n that probity has almoft always been 
independent of religion, it is no more required to know whe« 
ther a m^n goes to the temple, or to ccnfeflion— It is afeed if 
he fultils his engagements with honour. Yet this reUtioa muii 
Ajll be counted among comrqercial connections. 



tTKITED STATES OP AMiilliCA. 2,^ 

iit^nofl degree the religious and political opinions of 
ilrangers, as well as their manners and cuftoms. 

To obtain the preference in exterior comnjerce, 
neither treaties, regulations, nor force muft be de- 
jicaded upon. Force has but a momentary eifeft. 
It dcflroys even that which it means to prote<^, 
treaties and regulations are ufelefs if the interefts 
of two nations do not invite them to a mutual in- 
tercourfe. They are inetfe<5lual if tnat attradion 
does not exift. Treaties, regulations, force, all yield 
to the impulfe or nature of things.* 

This force of things in commerce is but the refult 
of the circumllances in which two nations ire which 
attract one towards the -other, and oblige ihem to 
enter .into an alliance, rather thnn with an/ other 
nation. Thefe terminate in their mutual intereft: 
it is therefore neceflary, in ordei to create a perpetual 
corrynerce between two countries, to give each oi 
them a preponderating intercfi lo to do. 



CHAPTER 



* FoRCi: or things. The po'itical law which governs all, 
in politics as in phyfics. There is a general force whofe aftlon 
ismanifeft, which, in fpite of wars, treaties, and the manceu- 
'vres of cabinets, governs all events, and carries away men and 
nations in its courfe. It is this force oi things which'overturn- 
ed theRon^an empire, when itftocd upon a b*fis difproportionerl 
to its mafs; which in the ;i4th century took from the Engliili 
one half of France, and in the iSth, has taken from them half 
of the new world— which delivered Holland from the yoke of 
Spain, and Sweden from that of Denmark. It is this force 
which deftroyed ths projects of fuch conquerors as Charlemagne, 
Zengjs, and Nadir, They ran from place to place ; they de- 
ftro.yed mankind to build empires. Thefe empires died with 
them. '.This force afts upon commerce as upon revolutions. It 
IE that which, by the difcovery of the Cap- of Good Hope, be- 
reaved the Venetians of the'-r trade to the Indies, and made it 
■pafs over fuccelVively to the Portuguefe, the Dutch, the Englifh, 
ani the French. Finally, it is the force of things which wiU 
iccide the grca^qucdion of thcxoznmcrce of America, 



kCE OF TUT. 



CHAPTER il. 

Of Exterfial Commerce^ conjidered in its Means of Ex- 
chatige^ and its Balance* 



W: 



E are deceived in believing that commerce 
cannot be eftablifhed between two nations without 
gold or filver to balance their accounts. It will be 
interefting to enter into fome detailon this head, on 
account of the deficiency of coin in theUnited States, 
and the neceflity of reducing themfclves to the com- 
merce of exchange, being the two principal objec- 
tions ignorantly brought againft a trade with them.^ 
It has been frequently afferted that the balance will 
be againft them; that they can only offer an exchange 
in merchandife. It is therefore rtecellary to prove 
that this great word, balance, is infignificant; that 

a great 

* The fcarcity of money in the United States of America 
has been greatly exaggerated in France. Jt muft be fear ce in all 
new ftatea, where nothing fhacklcs induRry, .where fo many 
tkirgs are to be created, and where, in every quarter, there are 
fuch <juanrities of lands to be cleared. In order that money 
ihould be plenty in this flate of creation, mines would be necel- 
fary ; and at the fame time a want of hands, and induftry clogged 
with impediments, circumftances much more unfavourable to 
foreign commerce than the fcarcity of money in an adive and 
indudrious country. One fadt feems to prove to us, that in in- 
dependent America money is found in the moft defirable pro- 
portion to population, at jeaft by raking Europe for the term of 
eomparifon. ContraGs cfteemed pood, and of which the in- 
tereft is regularly paid, are fold there at the rate of fix percent. 
per znnum. Yet the clearing of lands mnft produce a much 
greater benefit 3 why then is not all the money fvvallowed up? why 
remains there enough of it to fulfil thefe contrails, *hich pro- 
duce no more than five or fix per cent ? Is it not Lecaufs money 
is not fj fcarce thtre as people in France imagine^ where the 
aftual ftate of the Americans is confounded with the dillref* in 
whkh they were, vhtzi they con.batsd for their liberty ? 



tjfflTEl) STATES OF AMERICA. 25 

s great commerce may be carried on without money, 
and that one of exchange is the moft advantageous 
of any. 

Wiien a nation pays with money the whole, or the 
balance of its importations, it is laid the balance of 
trade is againft it, by which a difadvantageous idea 
of its position is meant to be given. This is a pre- 
judice eafy to be overturned, although entertained 
by men celebrated for their knowledge. 

In effect, whence comes to this country the gold 
it pays? It is either from its mines, and in that cafe 
it pays with one of its own productions; or it owes 
it to artificers who exercife their funftions in a fo- 
reign country, and even then it pays with a produc- 
tion which originates within its dominions. As long 
as a nation pays another, directly orindiredly, with 
its own productions, its pofition cannot be difad- 
vantageous. Therefore, the unfavourable word ba- 
lance, thus attached to the balance of an account 
paid in money, offers no exa<5t and nice idea of the 
favourable or unfavourable ftate of a nation. 

Gold is alfo a merchandife; and it may be con- 
venient to one nation, according to its relations or 
connexions with another, to pay with money, with- 
out its having, for that reafon, an unfavourable ba- 
lance againft it. 

There is but one cafe wherein the balance againft 
a nation can be declared; it is that when having ex- 
haufted its money and treafures, it remains debtor to 
another nation. But things could not remain long 
in this ftate; fo wretched a foil, unequal to the con- 
famption and exchange of its inhabitants, would 
foon be abandoned; this, however, cannot happen. 
Importation prefently becomes in proportion to ex- 
portation; an equilibrium is eftablillied, and the pre- 
tended unfavourable balance has not duration enough 
to give a right of fuppofing even its cxiftence. 

There is as little truth and juftice in faying a na- 
D ' tioa 



26 CN THE COMMERCE OF THE 

tion has the balance of trade in its favour, when it 
receives in money balances due to it upon the amount 
of its exportations. This balance, exifting for a 
certain time, would heap up fpecie in the country, 
and at length render it very miferable. This has 
never been the cafe; yet it would have happened if 
this fyftem had the leaft foundation. 

The circulation of money depends on too many 
caufcs, to deduce from its abundance a certain fign 
of a favourable commercial balance; a thoufand 
combinations and events, which have no relation .to 
that balance, draw money from abroad or fend it 
there; and in general, continuedand various motions 
of commerce, the tables of exportation and impor- 
tation, according to which the fign of a favourable 
or unfavourable balance is regulated, are too uncer- 
tain and defective for the purpofe, as well as for form- 
ing a judgment of the quantities of coin or riches 
of a nation.* 

^Let 

•'* I will give a flrlklng example oF the. deficiency cf thefe 
calculations, of the eftimation of a balance of trade, and of the 
quantity of money. This example will prove that political cal- 
culators negleft, or are ignorant lof forciga events wnKh over- 
turn their calcj^Ulions. 

M. Neckar wlihed to inform himfelf (Chap. iX^ Vol. 3d, 
of his Treatifc on the Adminiftration of Finance) what was 
the fum brought to and preferved in Eur£»pe from 1763 to 1777. 
He eftimates it at one thoufand eight hundred and fifty millions 
of livres, according to the regifter of Lilhon and Cadiz, com. 
prehending that even whrch entered by contraband, and he va- 
lues at three hundred millions of livres that which went out of 
Europe during the fame interval. 

It will only be neceiTxry to quote two or three authenticated 
fafts, to prove the infufficiency of this calculation founded upon 
the regifters of Cuftom-houfes. 

In flating the fum of money entered into Europe, it doee 
not appear that M. Neckar takes account of the gold and fi\- 
ver, which the conqueft and pofTcfiion o'' Bengal by the Eng- 
lifh, and their eftablifhments in tlic Eail-Indies, have caufed 
to pafs into this quarter of the world. But according to the 
calculation of ^e fccret commiuee, appointed by the Parlii- 



XTNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 27 

Let the tables for comparing the exportation and 

importation of raw materials, and of manufadured 

articles, be increafed to what they may ^ let the great- 

D 2 eft 



ment of England, to examine the ftate of Enjlifli polleflions 
in India, the fums drawn from Bengal from 1757 ^^ ^IT^* 
amount to 75i,500;Coc livies.(a) To what will it amount, 
if theie be added to it thofe drawn from the Carn.itic and from 
Ouiie, of which Nabobs have the fhaJow only of ihe property, 
from ihe 'revenue of the Northern Circars, from the theft ccm- 
mitted oa the Emperor of Mogul, from 17; i to t'nc prcfcnt day, 
of his <,wenty-fix millions, from the perpetual increafe of ter- 
ritories and revenues, from the file made in 1773 of the Rohil- 
las to th- Nabob of Ouoe, which produced to the En^liih up- 
wards of fifty millions ?(b) 

finally, what will be the amount, if there le added to it the 
enormous fums exported from the Inuies by individuals, who 
}uve theie enricbtd thennfelves ? Tke fortune of Lord Clive 
was beyond calculation; that of Mr. Haftings, sgainft wliom 
a profccution is now cairying on, is calculated at thirty or for- 
ty millions. Another Governor has, according to feveral well- 
founded reports, recently paid upwards of two millions of livrea 
to filence his accufers. It is true that a part of thefe immcnf* 
riches have been employed to defray the expences incurred by 
the Englifh in guarding their poHeflions in India; that a mors 
confiJerable one has been ftnt into Europe under the form of 
Cierchandize; but it cannot be denied that a third part has been 
brought in gold ;ind filver to our continent. What is the araounC 
cf it-? Thii is impoflible to flate. But whatever it may be, 
It renders the calculation of Mr. Neckar doubtful. — Let the in- 
exhauflible riches of the lanies be judged of by one L^l, an-i 
confequently the immenfe fourcc from which the Europeans 
have drawn them, and by another confequence, the rnoney which 
inuH: have come into Eu^^ope. Nadir Schah, who conquered 
Deliy in 1740, took from India abvjt forty millions fterling.(c) 
This money was circulated in i'crlia, and as that unhappy ilate 

_ (a) The detail of this calculation is given in The Dcfciip- 
tion of the Indie?, Vol. ], pjg.; -49. Jt is neceffaiy to take 
^notice heie of an error cre;.t into ihat work, which is, that th? 
fum total is there given in pounds llerlintj, inftead of 11 vres tour- 
•nois. 

(b) See Macklniofli's Voyage to the Eaft Indle?^ Vul, T, 
page 340. 
vc) See Mackintofh's Voyage*, Vol. I. page 341. 



28 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

eft care and fidelity be employed to render them per- 
feft, the refult will never be more certain or deci- 
iive: for as long as prohibitory laws, which*are al- 
ways accompanied by illicit commerce, fhall exift, 
it will be iii-jpoiliule to know and ftate exadly what 
comes in and goes out;* and if there be a coun- 
try where no fuch'laws exiftjf are exadl regifters of 

the 



is torn by dffpotifm and continual v/ars,(d) produces but little, 
manufaftures nothing, and is confeqiiently dsWior to cxrerior 
connnjerce, which comes almoft entiiely into Burope, it follows 
that two-thirds of the fuma ftolen fiom India by ihe freebooter 
Nadir, have paHcd over to the fame quarter. Thefe event?, 
unnoticed by political calculators, have certainly had great snd 
univerfal influence upon the fludtuat'on and circulation of mo- 
ney. Tfeat which makes it fuppofed that no metals ccme f;om 
India, is the opinion that their importation is dil'advantageous. 
But have the heebootejs who have piilaced that country for the 
Jaft thirty years calculated this difacivantage ? They ftrive to 
fecure their thefts, and do not fpeculate like merchants : bulky 
mercp.andlzt; would betray them. 

AViih refpeft to the ftated fums of money which pzfs from 
Europe or inoia, there is the fame defe^ in the calculafjons of 
Mr. Neckar. He takes no notice of ihe events which obliged 
the Englifh to rem'.t confiderabie fums to India: for inftancc, 
the two v/ars againfl the Msirratas were prooigioufly expenfive, 
th*t againft Hyder Ally in 1769 was not lefs i'o. A fingle con- 
flagration at Calcutta coil nearly twenty-four millions of livres, 
which it was necefTary to replace : yet thefe fums are far fron:i 
balancing thofe which are exported from India. 

(d) See Mr. Capper's Voyage, at the end cf that of MaQkln- 
tofb, Vol. 11. page 454., 

* This is a flirong objc£lion mai!p by the adverfaries of Lord 
Sheffield, to which his LordHiIp has not fati$fa<5^nrily replied. 

Nothing can be more impcfing than the tables of importa- 
tion and exportation, and of the balance of trade in C^rcat- 
Britain, publWhei by Sir Charles Whitworth. Yet fee with 
what facility the Count de Mirabeau reduces to twenty mil- 
lions of livres tournois, the ninety millions which Sir Charles 
Whitworth eftinutes to be the annual balance of Englifh com- 
merce; and t:ufl after this to cuftom-houfe calculations. — See 
Confiderations on tiie Order of Cincinnatus, in this volume. 

f Such a country does exift. There are many States among 
ifac new Republics of America, which rcgifter yed'ih as the/ 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 2^ 

the exports and imports to be found in it? And if 
they were, would it not be a coafiraint which the 
private interefts of merchants would frequently oblige 
them to avoid? 

Moreover, does it appear that, in thefe general 
balances, which are fuppofed to be paid in money, 
notice is taken of the operation of bankers, foreign 
government, and thofe who go abroad, in export- 
ing the public fpecie. •* Knowledge is deceitful which 
is acquired from fiich confequences. 

But how appreciate — how cftimate the increafe 
of the riches and commerce of a nation? — JBy its 
population. If this fenfibly augments, if eafe and 
the conveniencies of life become more general, if 
the caufcs of indigence in an increafing people be 
feen to diminifli, or are confined to inability to work, 
occafioned by accidental illnefles; it is evident, that 
the revenues of that nation exceed its expences, and 
that the balance of trade is in its favour; for if the 
value of its exportation were inferior to that of its 
P 3 importation, 

enter, becaufc duties are paid on Iixportations j but there are 
none on exportation. 

• It is very probable there arc a number of particular caufea 
which inTenfibly diminilh the quantity of coin in thofe nations 
which have the balance of trade conftantly in their favour, 
Wereno fuch caufes to exift, the confcquencc would be that iuph 
nations v^ould be obliged to bury their gold and Clver in the 
earth, to prevent it3 falling into difufc; yet neither of thefe 
cafes happen. Therefore money ncceflarily p<»ir« from fuch 
countries to others, 

M. Cafaiix has proved this to be true, with refpeft to Eng- 
land, in his Conhderr't'onson theMichanismof Society. 
He there explains, that if the calculations of Sir Charles Whit- 
worth be true, England ought to ooflefe at this moment about 
four hundred thoufand niiiiions of livrcs in g-U and filver, as 
the fole balance of her co-nmerce from 1700 to 1775. Yet 
it is certain that {he is far from having that enormous fura. 
She has not even a fcm in propjrtion to her population ami 
.contingencies. She fupplles that deficiency by an irameijfe.ciT- 
^iilHiPD of her bank: paper* 



30 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

importation, a confiderable debt and impoverifhment 
would foon be the confequences: and impoverifli- 
inent falls immediately upon population. It is there- 
fore by rational and well compofed tables upon this 
fubjed only, that a minifter of found judgment, pro- 
found and extended in his plans, will be prevailed 
upon to govern himfelf. It is by them he will judge 
©f the increafe and advantages of exterior commerce, 
as well as of national riches. 

He will be very cautious of decorating with this 
title the amaffing of gold and filver, and equally fo 
of making it the token of riches, or of judging of 
their extent by the quantity of thofe metals. All 
fuch ideas are fordid, dangerous, andfalfe; fordid, 
becaufe they attach to this fign the reprefentation of 
productions, and confequently the extenfion of com- 
merce; dangerous, becaufe they accuftom men to 
look upon gold as real riches, to negleft the thing 
for its fliadovv,* and make them Grangers to their 

country j 

* Could gold and filver be preferved from adulteration and 
the attempts of tyranny and ignorance, they would have a much 
better title to be confidered as real riches. Gold being an uni- 
Tcrfal agent, he who polfefTes it may emigrate to wherever he 
pleafcs, and take his gold with him. This metal is therefore 
every thing with nations unhappy enough to make arbitrary ex- 
ceptions to general maxims, upon which public credit is found- 
ed. But how dearly do they pay for their ignorance cf the ad- 
vantages of public credit! How dearly do governments them- 
selves pay for their errors and ontrages 1 All their meafures are 
forced — nature is liberal in vain} inceflantly employed in re- 
pairing evils which continually prefent themfelves, fhe has not 
time enough allowed her to add to our happinefs. When it was 
faid that money had no particular country, governments were 
emphatically told, that it was neceffary to do without great 
quantities of it: it will never be rcjefted till the ineftimablc ad- 
vantages'tefulting from a refpeft for public credit fhall be pro- 
perly knowft> The lefs individuals love and heap up money, 
the richer, m^re enlightened, and better govemed will a ration 
be. To be attached to money, to hoard it up, is a fign of an 
alarming crifis, of a deficiency of judgment and faith in admi- 
»iftrat:oni fiem whence comes the proof of what has been fai4 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 5I 

country; falfe, becaufe that difplay of figures an- 
nounces the quantity only of money which conti- 
nually difappears; and which, when carried to a cer- 
tain degree, is of no farther confideration.* 

Enquiries on the quantity of coin are like thofe 
on the balance of trade. To eftablifh both one and 
the other with fome degree of certainty, it is necef- 
fary to aflemble notions and details, of which the 
elementary principles vaniih, or inceflantly varv.f 

The 



In the text, that * a writer who extols gold as a fign of riches, 
and recommends it to his fellow aVizens, is deceived, or has a 
bad idea of their ficuation.' In the 'aft cafe he would do much 
better, if inftead of preaching th'S pernicious doiftiioe, he en- 
couraged government to give an immovKabie (lability to national 
credit. 

* It has not yet been remarked, that thoufands of millions 
is a vague expreflion, and does not furn (h a complete idea. The 
imaginat'on cannot exadVly conceive for fuch a fum an employ 
which wouLi ferve as tiic meafure of its power and effe£l. It 
16 known what could be done with twenty or an hundred mil- 
lions of men, but it is not known what could be efFeded with 
an hundred thoufand millions of crowns j yet they are heaped 
upon paper to give an idea of power. 

f in general, the mafs of gold or filver is divided into three 
priHcipal parts. — The firft under the form of money, fervcs 
for daily and unavoidable expences. Each individual, as foon 
as he is charged with the fupport of himfelf and family, muft 
have at leaft (.ime pieces of money for daily exigencies, and 
the payment of imports. To this muft be added that fum 
which is refervtid for cafualties.— This cuftom is more or iefs 
obferved in all countries, in proportion to the probability of dif- 
aftrous events. It is impoffible to calculate this firft part.— 
It is however evident, that it ought to be in proportion to the 
popuiition, and to increafe with i^J and that a decreafe of 
population would foon take place, were many individuals total- 
ly deprived of a pecuniary contingency fufficient to procure thera 
fuch necefTaries as cannot be difpenfed with, and which they 
neither make nor receive thcmfclves. It appears aifo, that this 
part of the coin remains in the country by re^fon of its con- 
tinued application in little funs to daily wants, and of the ab- 
folute ftagnatlon of that which is laid up in referve. 

The fecond part is deftined, under the fame form, to the 
great operations of commsrce. It is equally impoflibie to Hx 



^% OS^ THE CfOMMtfKCfi OF THTB 

The proceedings in theaclmifnilration of finances 
are more ufeful and certain ; by laying afide the pomp 
of falfe riches, and by confideriiig gold and fiiver 
in a point of view relative to Their particular pro- 
perties. They fupply our wants as means of ex- 
change only; they are rtoteb to the bearer, which 
having every where the fame value, are every wiiere 
negociable. Thus they are ambulatory ; they pafs, 
repafs, are accumulated or difperfed like the waves 
of the fea, continually agitated by fucceflive winds 

blowing 

Its quantity, on acioiint of an infinity of combinations which 
continually change and caufe thefe metals to pafs from one 
country to another, D.ily charges, cuftoms, &c. retain a pattj 
but thcfe objf<^s belong quaily ro our firft divrfion. 

The third part cojitains uncoined gold un.l fiiver, under what- 
ev'er fovin they may have: it is, like the fecond, fubjc£l to 
numbers of continual variations, which leave no fatisia^ory 
means of dc'ermining its quantity. 

To pretend to afrcrtain the qurntity in the mafs, by pay- 
ncnts of uncertain commercial bal.inces, and by rhc addititn 
of fpecie produced from mints fince a nev» coinage has taken 
place, is nut a m jre certain means, bec^ufe it v/ould be equal- 
ly neccdary to obfcrve the continual action of commerce upon 
thcfc metals, under all their forms, and of ti»e combinations 
it produces, which fucce/Tively arife from one another. In 
thus eftimating money it is forgotten, that it is an univerfal 
agent, which, by that charafler alone, muft nccfffarily chanf.e 
its fituation perpetually; fmce commerce has produced an af- 
finity among men, by wants, which they have created to them- 
fc'ves, of their reciprvcal productions. It is equally unob- 
ferved, that different circumftances reduce gold to the ftate 
of an ingot; that confequently the fame piece may pafs ffveral 
times under the die in the courfe of a certain nuniber of years. 
This is a reflection which M. Ncckar feems not to have made 
when he ftated the money exifting in France at fo confiderable 
a fum. It will be known when the recoinagc of the old Louis 
is finiflicd, what we ought to think of his calculations. But 
t'DC fum is far fliort of 957 millions, as climated by that mi- 
nifter. It is more than rrobable, that it will never amount to 
jnore than two thirds of it. 

At this moment, fourtean months after the arret for a new- 
coinage, it amouuts to no more than 550 anllions, and every 
j^hinj indicates a rapid decline, 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 33 

blowing from every point of the compafs. To un- 
dertake to make tiiem Hationary, would be driving 
to change their nature, to deprive them of that pro- 
perty from which they derive their value: this ridi- 
culous enierprife is, notwithflanding, a confequence 
of the fyrtem which caufes them to be looked upon as 
real treafures. Theirdifappearance is dreaded, and yet 
their circulation is clogged, and the mind lofes fight 
of the ufe of the moll fimple and univerfal means 
of creating real riches, without which metals would 
be ufelefs, and confequently of no value. 

On the contrary, difdaining vulgar opinions, and 
feeing nothing in gold and filver but the means of 
exchange, but proper agents to facilitate it; tiiemind, 
freed from the fear of the want of them as riches^ con- 
ceives the idea of doing without them as agents^ at 
leaft about man's perfon>' What a vail field is this 
opened to induftry ! Thefe metals are in that cafe 
referved for the bell ufes towhich nations who obtain 

them 

* It Is a(loni:l:irg, that among fo many travellers who have 
gone brer the United States of America, not one of them has 
given a -^etail of the manner of exchanging feveral neceffaries 
of I'fc; they are teciprocally furnifhed in the country with what 
they are in want of, v.'ithout the interference of money. The 
tayior, /hoe- maker, &c. exeicife their profeflions in the houfe 
of the hufoandman who has cccafion for their commodities, 
and who, for tlie moH part, furniHies materials, and pays for 
the workmanfhip in provifions, &c. — This kind of exchange 
cxtenc's to m-sny obje^is; each of thefe people write down what 
iher receive and give, and at the end of the year they clofe an 
account confifting of an infinity of articles, with a very fmall 
fumj this could not be efFefted in Europe, but with a great deal 
of money. Thus it appears, that an eafy means of doing with- 
out great fums of money is given to country people by lnftru£l- 
ing them in writing and arithmetic} that confequently the 
fovereign who fhould eflabllfh fchools for the purpofe of teach- 
ing this moft necefTary art and fcience, would create a consider- 
able means of circulation vvithout the ufe of coin, and that 
this expencc, which feems to alarm fo many governments, is 
in fa£l one of the moil lucrative fpeculations whith the treafurjr 
could make* 



34 ON THE COMMERCE OF TH"E 

them from abroad can put them. They are fentout ta 
feek materials for induflry, new commodities, and 
efpccially increafe the number of citizens; of every 
fpecles of riches this is tlie moft fure and fruitful. 
Thus, when gold is reduced to its exaft vahie, that 
its real ufe is known, the advantageous purpofes to 
which it is proper, are more juftly calculated. It is 
then perceived that paper credit may have the fame 
properties as gold itfelf; and to fucce^d in giving 
them to it, nctning more is neceflary than to preferve 
ihc moft inviolable refpeft for the principles which 
fupport public confidence; for upon what bafis refts 
the value and'general ufe of money, if it be not upon 
the certitude that it v.'ill be received every where in 
payment for things which men's v/ants may require, 
becaufe cf its conventional value? Why fliould a 
paper which prefents the fame conventional value, 
•the fame certitude and folidity, be refufed in pay- 
ment ? I will add more — A more folid bafis than 
gold and (ilver have, may be giveii to paper Jiioney :* 
for we have no guarantee that the value of ihefe me- 
tals will not be all at once diminifhed by the difcovery 
of new and rich mines; we cannot calculate their 
quantities concealed in the earth, and men inceHlmtT 
}y rake up its bowels in fearch of them.f Therefore 
in countries where precious metals are fcarce, but 
where lands may be fuccefsfully cultivated, banks 
fliould bs formed, whofe operations ftiould chiefly 

reft 

* I fay paper monfy, without attaching to th-'s sxpre/fjcn the 
idea of conlirjuiC to rtceiv* ic as fjch : this obligation dimi,- 
nifhes its value — I would fay paper cicdit, if the word credit 
did not fecm to exclude its principal quality, that of being al- 
ways fufceptibie, and in an inflant of bcirij^ converted into mo- 
ney without the leaft Itfs. 

-f- Why lliould not difcoveries be made in other counttle?, 
like that in the laft century by two iTiephcrds in Norway, cf 
the rich nriines of Konlberg, where very confiderable mafTes 
c^ fiiver are found ? '1 he Kipg of Denmark has one of 56o;l/c 
^ve'ghjt in his cabinet. 



trNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 35 

fefl upon title deeds and produftions depofited; in 
a word, upon fuch objects only as gold and -iilver 
fliould reprefent.* 

In countries where thefe metals are already ih cir- 
culation, but are ftill foreign produdions, eafy and 
certain means Ihould be fought after to render ex- 
changes lefs dependent on the fecnrity or abundance 
of fpecie. Paper credit fhould be naturalized there, 
becaufe its infallible effetl is to double or treble the 
{quantity of current coin, and even to replace it en- 
tirely, where, as in England, public confidence has 
never received a wound. Tljefe obfervations might 
be more extended if a treatife on the nature of banks 
and CaifTes d'Efcompte were in queflion. But this 
is not my prefent objeft; I have confidered exterior 
commerce in its means of exchange only, like metals 
and paper credit, and in its balance for the purpofe 
of applying thefe principles to the relations and 
commerce xif France and the United States: and 

more 



* It is ntit true that much gold and filver arc necefl'ary to 
eflablifh banks, or create notes which may be thrown into cir- 
culation. A proof of the contrary ai-Ifes from fadts continually 
before our eyes. The mukitude of bills of exchange which 
circulate and crofs each other in every direftion, have not all 
of them, for origin and fecurity, a depofit of gold and filvcr. 
Neither are they all paid when due with thefe metals. Com- 
merce produces an abundance of fuch papers, which falling {!ue 
on the fame day, are difcharged by each oiher without the in- 
tervention of fpecie, efpccially in cities where public banks are 
cftabliflied to facilitate this kind of payment. Thefe are called 
transfers, and the principal objecl of Cailfes d'Efcomptes anl 
!)aak3 is to facilitate them by the payment of bills fallen due by 
thofe which have ftill feme time to run* In fine, thefe Caiflet 
d^fcompcea and banks, are themfelvcs caufes and ftrking proofs 
of the little difficult/ there is in fupplying, by coi>fiuence, the 
places of gold and filver. f iift cftablifiiad by depofits in fpecie, 
they foon circulate their notes fcr fa.-ns more confiderabie than 
thofe depofited : an J what furety ".s there for die payment of fuch 
nf>tcs, if it be not by other bills not due, which the CaiiFes and 
banks receive in exchange for their o.vn notes payable at fight, to 
which nublic confidence gives the fimcvalu: as to gold and filver. 



56 ON THE COMMEUCE OF TH* 

more efpecially to clear up fome difficulties to the 
French, who feem to have a bad opinion of this 
commercial intercoiirie, on account of the want of 
money in America, and to encourage the independent 
Americans, who feem to dread the pretended incon- 
veniencies arifing from its deficiency. 

I think I have proved : 

I ft. That the balance of trade is but an infignlfi- 
cant word : that the balance paid in fpecie is no 
proof of a difadvantageous commerce on the part of 
the nation which pays it, nor advantageous to the 
nation which receives it.* 

2d. That the tables of that commercial balance 
deferve no faith; and that the only method of efti- 
mating the increafe of trade, is by the increafe of 
popiilation.f 

3d. That 



* Obferve what a refpeftable author, well verfed in the matter, 
and whom we {haii hereafter have occalion to quote, thinks of it. 

*' Thefe commercial balances, calculated in different ftates, 
are pitiful 5 vvhen I feeconfequences drawn from ridiculous and 
laboured official accounts, mi fakno dal risocrepare. 

*' To confider France and England only, the two principal 
manufadturing countries, and the moil commercial ones in the 
world, what omjfiions, negligences, double employs, errors, 
coiruptions, no<fVurnal expeditions, duties evaded, and contra- 
band trade! The prodigious quantity of wool which is fcnt 
from England is certainly not regiftered, no more than the filks, 
gold laces, gauzes, blondes, cambrics, brandies, and many other 
articles which are fraudulently introduced there. The fame in 
France: no account can be taken of the immenfe quantities of 
tlrapery, hofiery, and fmall hardware, v/hich the Englifh fend in 
exchange." Voy. en Italic, de M. Roland de la Palatiere, torn. 
i. p. 352. 

-|- The errors in thefe pretended balances njuft be continually 
inf]fl.ed upon: confequences dangerous to the people are fre- 
quently drawn from them. 

Financiers who pillage the kingdom, fay to I'rinces on pre- 
fenting them thefe failacious c-slculatlons, " that things are in 
A profperous way j that commerc- ilourillies, that imp'^lls may 
be laid on, loans ncgociatedj &c, Thefe fophifms are feduc- 
ing: let Princes accuftom themfelves to judge of public prof* 



V 



r^'ITED STATES OF AMERICA. 37 

51!. That it is impoffible to judge exa£lly of the 
quantity of money exifting in a country, and that all 
calculations on that head are founded upon an un- 
certain and defective bafis, becaufe it is injpoflible to 
colled all their elementary principles. 

4th. That metals are not real riches. 

5th. That '"coniidered as agents of exchange, it 
would be more advantageous to fubftitute paper cre- 
dit in interior commerce, and to apply them to ufes 
for which paper is unfit, to wit, all the purpofes of 
exterior commerce. There refiilts from thefe de- 
monllrations, that commerce may be begun between 
two nations without the aid of money; that the 
quantity a nation has of it to exchange for foreign 
produftions is in proportion to its confidential inte- 
rior eftabhlliraents, which advantageoufly fupply its 
place. 

In three words, a good foil, paper credit, and a 
government anxious to fupport it, are the true means 
of opening the refources of a nation, of procuring 
abundance of fpecie, as well as an extenfive exterior 
commerce. 

I have not confidered this commerce in its influ- 
ence upon the manners of the people; fuch a difcuf- 
iion would here be ufelefs, becaufe, whatever that 
influence may be, exterior commerce is a forced ef- 
{c€t of the refpe6tivc fituations of France and the 
-United States, as will hereafter be made appear. I 
E examine" 

ferity by population, and the general cafe of the people; let 
them be eye-witneflsii of this, and miftruft a momentary ap- 
pearance of profperity, which frequently covers profound mifc- 
ry, ana they will not be fo often deceived. 

A King of Sardinia paid a vifit to a part of Savoy, the nobi- 
lity of which had been reprefented to him as being poor and mi- 
ferable : they came to him elegantly drelfed in clothes of cere- 
mony, to make him their court. At this the King expreiTsd 
hit furprile to one of the gentleman, who faid to him, ' Sire, n jus 
faifons pour votre Majcfto tout ce que nous devofiS-j mais nous 
^evons tout ce cjue noua faifons,' 



3? ON THE COxMMER-CC OFTHE 

examine this matter as a politician, not as a philofo- 
pher, and I pray tlie reader not to forget the diftinc- 
tioii. 



CHAPTER III. 

Apjf-lkatim of the foregoing general Prhuiplcsfo the redltrO" 
cal Coimnerce cf France and the . Uniied States. 

That France has every Means of proq^irin_g a great Commercp, 
and thofe which muft afTure it to her in the United States} 
that.her Produdions are proper f>)r thenn ; and that her parti- 
cular interior Circumftances oblrge her to engage in this 
Commerce. 



X HESE truths will not be contefted when thefer- 
tility of the foil of France fliall be confidered, her 
various and particular produ£lions, and the tempe- 
rature of her climate, which favours thofe the moil 
fimple and necel-rary. 

Thefe advantages conftantly aifure her v/orkman- 
fliipat a lower prire than thofe of nations endowed 
with the fame a6livity, but which have not the ad- 
vantages of fuch favourable circumftances. 

Her manufaflures are numerous, and her popu- 
lation is confiderable in comparifon with that of moft 
other nations. Yet thefe are far from the degree to 
which they may be extended ; for in confidering 
France, room for a more extenfive population is 
foon difcovered, and an immenfity of means for a 
great number of manufactures, which only wait for 
the will of government to be efiabliflied. 

. AVhat other nation has more activity? more in- 
duftry? or unites to fo great a degree, all the advanta- 
ges of civilization, and the matter and means of the 
moft varied ti-nd extenfive rntcrior and exterior com- 
merce, independent of completion? What other 

would 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 

\vt>uld have been able to refift, for fo long a time, 
the' chain of misfortunes, and repeated hults of 
which {lie has been the vi6tim ? The force of her 
conftitution, rather than her apparent profperity, 
ought to be calculated by this refifrance. France is 
not \that file might and ought to be. There is nb 
doubt but jilie will become fo if (lie opens her eyes to 
her true interefts, if, unfhackling her interior, file 
does not negled her exterior commerce, and parti- 
ciilarlv that which tlie United States wiHi to open 
with her. The produ6tions of her foil and indu{i:ry 
are proper for them. She can export in exchange, 
from independent America, the raw materials for 
which file may have occafion. Thtfe two countries 
riiay therefore carry on a c/h€(f} commerce of ex- 
change between them, and fo much the more advan- 
tageous, as the raw materials, which nuhfl conftitute 
it, would cofl them mere in any other place. Thefc 
trnths will not be doubted when the double cata- 
logue of the refpedive wants of France and the 
United States, or of their importation and exporta- 
tion, fliall have been examined. 

Intelligent patriots are of opinion, that it cannot 
be advantageous to P'rance, in her prefent fituation, 
to engage in the commerce of the United States. — 
They obferve, that her manufactures being inferior 
to thofe of the Enghfli, fhe will be worfted in the 
-American markets ; they add, that inftead of en- 
couraging this commerce, government would per- 
haps ad more wilely by [)reventing the interior abu- 
fes which Hop the progrefs of cultivation and in- 
duftry. 

1 am far from denying the necefiity there may be 
of ftirring to reform fuch abufes, d to direct our 
efforts to culture and the improvement of manufac- 
tures; but it is eafy to demonftrate, that exterior 
commerce will in a very fliort time infallibly bring 
E 2 ^ . on 



40 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

on fuch a reform, and that France in her prefent 
flate is in the greatefl: need of this exterior trade. 

In etfe(5i:, an active and indiiftrious nation, whofa 
foil is fertile, ought always to have markets for the 
iale of its commodities to animate its indiiftry. Its 
culture and manufa6tures would languifli if the li- 
mits of its confumptioa were perceived. It is even 
neceflary that thefe markets fliould be fuperabun- 
dant; that one may fucceed the other, in cafe of un- 
fufpe(fled events, which might caufe a mom.entary 
change in the ordinary courfe of things. 

What caufe has thrown Ireland into fo continued 
a flate of languor, although one of thofe countries 
the moft favoured by nature, and the bed fituated 
for exterior commerce, if it is net the deprivation of 
that commerce? An embarrafling exuberance of 
prodiiftions was feared : the cultivation of them was 
prefently neglected, and this negligence increafed 
wade lands. This ifland would at length have of- 
fered a rpe(flacle of the moft deplorable mifery, of a 
com.plete depopulation, if, by a rellitution of the li- 
berty of commerce, an end had not been put to fo 
cruel a difcouragemeiit winch choaked induftry, by- 
making it fear a want ©f markets for the vent of its 
produ6lions. 

Let our patriots, ihercfore, ceafe to look upon fo- 
reign commerce as contrary to the reforms which are 
to revive our interior trade: to encourage the firll: 
is not to profcribe the fecond, becaufe one cannot 
fucceed without the other. But, on the contrary, the 
feeds of aftlvi^y arc fown in the latter, by extending 
the boundaries of confumption. 

Alas ! is not France evidently in need of them? 
Are not her magazines crouded with a fuperfiuity 
of the moft neceffary produi.'^ions, for which {i\c has 
no market? Such as, amongfl: others, her wines and 
brandies.* The United States offer to her an im- 

menfe 

* Such is tl.c fituation of Aunis and Salntonge — plentiful 



UKITED 3TATLS OF AMERICA. 4: 

menfe confuniptio:"' ; why does fne refufe to fupply 
them ? 

Even if her wines and brandies were not in fuch 
fuperfluity, it would be j->rfjudicial not to fiipport 
the price of them by foreign confumptions. The 
greateft fcoiirgeof induftry, nnd efpecially of manu- 
facflures, is the low price of thofe liquors which are 
reducing by their ftrcngth. On this account prudent 
manufafturers carefully avoid wine countries. It 
would be fuperfluous to give a detail of their rea- 
fons; but certainly the politician, the moll jealous of 
a free extention of individ'ial enjoyments, will never 
become an advocate for the indulgence of men in 
thofe articles which deprive them of their faculties 
and reafon. 

France ought to defire the commerce of the United 
States. She ought alfo to be anxious for it on ac- 
count of her manufactures, to employ her popula- 
tion which is in want of work. Confequently work- 
manfliip is cheap; whence refults indigence, beg- 
gary, and flrife.* Work and productions are in- 
creafed by opening new markets. Thus, for exam- 
ple, vineyards will remain, which a want of con- 
fumption would foon caufe to be dellroyed; thou- 
fends of labourers, who languifli, will be employ- 
ed; fociety will be increafed by thouH^nds of indivi- 
duals; more corn, more cloth, ike. will be necefiary : 
hence an increafe of interior confumption and po- 
pulation. 

E 3 When 

vintages are there literally feared, and thefe provuices are aC 
this m)ment over-charged with wine, for which the-r have no 
exportation : the f CTpie are mifcrable in the niidft of abundance. 
See Note, Chap. V. Scr:^. i. 

* Means are every day fought to diminiHi and prevent crimes 
—Let property or employ l>e given to thofe who are without 
the.Ti : this is the fecret — It muft notwith^anding be agrcc'i, 
that property is prefeiable to employ in worlcfhops ; under this 
point oi view, commerce with the United States,. in opening to 
us a great market, will be a meaus of dimhiifting mendicity 
and vices in Fra^icc. 



42 OJJ THE COMMERCE OF THE 

When we examine the queftion, if exterior com- 
merce be advantageous and neceflary to a nation; a 
newly conftituted ftate, whofe population is far from 
being in proportion to its foil, where there is fpace 
and property in land for every one, mud be diltin- 
guiflied from that which is ancient, rich in produc- 
tions as well as in men; or, to fpeak with more pre- 
cifion, a fiate where the unequal diftribution of j:)ro- 
perty takes men from the fields, fhuts them up in 
cities, and proftitutes their faculties to the fancies of 
the rich. 

Certainly fuch a new (late cannot increafe its fo- 
reign commerce before it has cleared great quantities 
of lands, and is become confiderably peopled, and 
has a furplus of men and produdions. 

Such a flate, while necefTary, will undoubtedly 
follow this counfel. 

But this counfel would be improper to another 
Hate, which, advanced in its civilization, covered 
xvith a population without property, having manu- 
favflures and money in abundance; whofe induftry 
and territorial riches wait for demands, and whofe 
culture languiflies for want of markets. A foreign 
commerce is necefiary to this flate to vivify ii. 

Such is the fituation of France; neither foil, in- 
duflry, aftivity, nor the thirfl of gain, is there want- 
ing; other pernicious caufes flacken her interior 
commerce. If the n;erchant has not a certainty of 
markets, he does not buy nor give orders ; the ma- 
nufafturer employs fewer hands, has lefb occafion 
for the produ(5tions of the earth. Languor then de- 
fcends from manufadures to cultivation, and dimi- 
jiifhes population. 

The reverfe will be the cafe in the fuppofition of 
a vafl exterior commerce, and will lead to the im- 
} -vivemcnt even of our manufactures; for the ne- 
ceffily of imf^-oving to obtain a preference will ob- 
lige manufadurers to fludy the tafte of the Ameri- 
cans, 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 43 

cans, and to conform themfelves to it, to vary the 
produ6i:ions of their induftry; and will oblige them 
iiot to relax, that they may nor be furpafledby rivals. 

It is here neceflary to make fome reflections on 
the general inferiority found in our manufaftures, 
on comparing them with thofe of the Englifli. This 
h^ has furniilied Lord S'lsffield with his principal 
argument, to maintain that America will always 
prefer the latter. It is neceflary to clear up this 
])oint, which feems not to be well unden^ood. 

Miinufaftures of luxury, of convcniency, and of 
necelfity, mufl be diftinguiflied in a manner hereaf- 
ter pointed out. Lord Sheffield and all foreigners 
■igree, that France has the advantage in the firft clafs 
of manufactures.* His Lordfhip agrees even that 
France makes finer cloths than thofe of England ; 
.>at with refped to manufactures of convenience, 
ur fuch as are intended for th^confumption of the 
people, we mufl, in fpite of patriotifm, agree on 
our part, that we are in many articles inferior to 
the Englifli. This will appear by the fequel. It 
vvould be ridiculous and even dangerous to flatter the 
nation in this particular; the illulion would keep it 
in a ftate of mediocrity. It is for a better conftituted 
patriotifm to prove to the nation, that it may rife 
above mediocrity, and to fliew it by what means 
iliis is to be effeCted. Should any body wifli to 
know the caufe of this double difference between 
ae French and Englifli manufactures, it is as fol- 
'ows: — 

There 

* Our manufa(fli!res of fi'k have proportionably a much 
;;rfa:er fale abroad than that of our wooilens. It is that, Inde- 
j.erKl'^nt of tafte, or, if we will, of fafhion, which we pofTefii, 
;:nd which opens to us a great confumption, the raw material 
\z in a great meafare one of our own produflions; an advantage 
vvhich puts it in our power t) furmount many general inconve- 
iiiencles, whofc effedls are more fenfible upon our other articles 
'-f exportation, fuch as woollp.ns, theprodudion of which ha« 
.tfs relation with the ma.iu failure. 



44- o:s THE COMMERCE OF THl^ 

iThere is in Enghnci a greater numlcr of n>en, 
limong the people, in eaiy circumllances, than iii 
France, and who are confequently in a fituaticn to 
choofe and pay better for fuch articles as they like. 
It is a known facl, that tlie common people of" Eng- 
land, although loaded with taxes, are v. ell clothed 
and fed;* the rags of mifery are not found with the 
pouUe an pot.f The Englilli manufafturer having a 
greater demand for articles of necelTity, and being 
better paid for them, can make improvements in his 
man n fad lire. 

Should it be required to know from whrnce comes 
the cafmefs of circumftances fo general in England, 
independent of the foil and pofition, and the advan- 
tages of that liberty which reigns there, it refnlts 
from the eonfideration attached to induftry in the 
opmion of the public^ from the laws fure protection 
accorded to every individual againft the agents of 
government; and the haughtinefsand infolence, to 
which they are naturally inclined (becaufe in men of 
flender education thefe arc the effcdt of power,) be- 
ing 

* The goodnefi of thing? manufadured is fo generally reqol- 
fite in England, that merchandizes deftined for exportac.cn 
are there diftingu'/h^^.d from thofe for interior ccnfumption. 
There are great warehoufes wherein the fales are for exportation 
only; the objed of others is interior ccnfumption. Peojlewho 
judge haftilv conclude from hence, that thofe '"or exportation are 
badly manvifa£lured. They ate dectived, the ditltrence is in 
the choice of materials. The E^■GL1SKMA^ spares no- 
THING FOR THAT WHICH HE coi-iSUMifi. The workman- 
ftip is the fame ; it would ccl in general mo:e to mar>ufa<r*urers 
to have two fortE of workmanfh p, a good and a bad one, than to 
have one only which is good. an<i £ manufa(f>ure eftab iHied upon 
a bad icinri of woikmanfu'p would foon be decried. A /hoe def- 
tined to foreign commerce is £s well made as ar.other ; but it 
does not \a^ lo long, becaufe the leather is not chcfen from the 
b'cft kind ; and fo of the reft. 

■f A memorable exprefilon of Henry the fourth of France, 
who^ in a conveifation with his favourite Sully, faid, he hoped 
to fee the time when the pooreft of bis fubjefts would have it in 
their pov;er to put a fowl into thf pot for their Sunday's dinner. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 4^ 

!ng continually reprefled, and their being prevented 
from trampling upon the citizen, who mull: be obe- 
dient. He is obedient to the law, and not to him 
tvho puts it in execution.* In fine, it is the confe- 
quence of not blulhing to be a tradefman, artificer^ 
or workman, from father to fon. 

In France there are individuals excefTively rich; 
but the people arc poor. The firft have it in their 
power to pay extremely dear for articles of hixury 
and fancy, which caufe an improvement of manu- 
fadures of this kind. Finer cloths, as it has been 
before obferved, ars to be found in France than in 
England ; but their quantity-is not great, becaufe there 
is not an extenfive demand for thofe of the firil 
quality. 

On the other l:a!id, the property of the people 
being very inconfiderable, they pay badly, and the 
confequence is, that things of conveniency or neccf- 
fity are badly manufadlured for them. 

I will not here enter into the examination of caufes 
which occafion fuch a ftate of things, nor of the 
means of changing it. 1 will leave the difcuffion of 
fuch means for another chapter ; but the following 
conclufions mufl neceflarily be drawn from thefc 
fads: the perfeftion of manufactures depends upon 
the demand, and the demand upon the means of 
payment. Now, becaufe the French have not thofe 
means, they mufl be fought after in y foreign coun- 
try 

* Thee and thou, as terms of contempt, are unknown In 
England: SjR,is ihe general defignalion of every individunl. 
A man accufed of the greatell crimes, and who has the moft 
mi'erable appearance, is never fpoken to in the fingular num- 
ber when he is interrogated by his judges ; and as he becomes 
en objfdl of pity v. hen he is convi<fled, decent appellations, ge- 
nerally in ufe, <sre not changed with re/pe£l to him. ' Can one 
fuppofe that this refpeft for man is p-(judicial to public prof- 
perity ? Man is elevated by it ; it gives him energy, and inclines 
him to eafe. Contempt, which in other places is affeded for 
the people, leads them to mifery, and retains them in it. 



4^ ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

try. Increafe foreign demands for French manufac"" 
turcs, and they will be feen to improve very rapid- 
ly. This is the efFe(5t which the commerce of the 
United States will produce in France. Thefe States 
contain a people accuftomed to be well clothed, to 
make ufe of well manufadured things only, and ca- 
pable of paying for good workmanlliip by their pro- 
ductions. Charged with the furnifliing of articled 
for American confumption, French mannfafturers 
will ftrive to outdo their rivals; and they can ealily 
accomplifh this ivhen Gover/iment Jhall beioilUng. N'a- 
turehas given them the means.- They will become 
fiiperior in almoft every thing when once they iliall 
no longer be obllinately couniera^ed. 

Therefore, the commerce v.'ith the United Stated 
will be the caufe of improvement in French cultiva- 
tion and induftry. Confequently it is neceflary to 
ciribrace and purfue it. 



CHAPTER IV, 

Tluit the United States are obliged by their prefent Necef- 
J: ties and Circiimjlances to engage in foreign Com7nerce. 



OOIME writers, among whom are foil nd the celei 
brated Dr. Price, and the'Abbe Mably, have exhort- 
ed the independent Americans, if not to exclude ex- 
terior commerce entirely froni their ports, at leafl 
to keep it within very contra6ied bounds. They 
pretend, that the ruin of republicanifm in the United 
States can happen only from exteric/ con^merce; be- 
caufe by great quantities of articles of luxury and a 
frivolous tafte, that commerce would corrupt their 
morals, and v»'ithout pure morals a republic cannot 
exift. 

" Alas-! 



tJNiTED STATES OF AMERICA. 4^ 

'' Alas! what can the United States import fro.ii 
^' Europe, continues Dr. Price, except it be infec- 
" tion? I avow it, cries the Do(5lor, I tremble in 
" thinking on the furor for exterior commerce, which 
** is apparently going to turn the heads of the Ame- 
^^ ricans. Every nation fpreads nets around the 
" United States, and carefles them, in order to gaia 
" a preference; but their interefl cautions them to 
" beware of thefe fedudions."* 

I am far from contradicting, in its hajis^ the opinion 
of theie politicians. Moreover, I think, with Dr. 
Price, that the United States will one day be able to 
produce every thing neceflary and convenient; but I 
am alfo of opinion, that thefe two writers have con- 
fidered the independent Americans in a falfe point of 
view ; that they have not futficiently obferved the flate 
of their circumflances; in fine, that their drcum/iances 
and a^ual i^-ants oblige them to have recourfe fo foreign 
commerce. This is a- truth which I propofe to de-" 
monftrate; for I will prove that the independent 
Americans are in want of the necelTaries and con- 
venicncies of life, and in fome ilates, of luxuries, 
and that their habits and nature, added to other cir- 
cumilances, v,'ill always prevent their renouncing 
them entirely. 

I will prove, that having no manufadures, they 
cannot themfelves fuppJy thefe wants, and that they 
can have no manufactures for a long" time to come. 

That although they already pofiefled them, they 
ouglit to prefer to national ones thofe of exterior 
commerce, and that they fliould rather invite Euro- 
peans 

* Price's Obfervation'?, page 76. See the Abbe Mably, 
what he fays of thefe obfervations,. from page 146 Co page 163. 
See alfo what the Count de Mirabeau h-s added tonehe Obfer- 
vations of Dr. Price, in his Rffleftions piiiited at the end of 
his tranflation of lliis work, page 319. London editif.n, 1785^ 

He has, as a fevere philofopher, treated on exterior com- 
merce, and made abftradlion of the aflual fitu:uicn of the 
Americans. 



J^t ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

peans to their ports than frequent thofe of the Euro- 
pean ftates. 

Finally, that by the fame reafon which makes it 
impoflible to exclude exterior commerce, in cafe of 
wants which alone it can fupply, it is equally fo to 
■fix its boundaries. 

When the nature of man is attentively confidered, 
it is {een that it inceifantly difpofes him to render 
his life agreeable. If he has a property, he drives 
to improve it; if the foil he cultivates be fruitful, 
and demands but little in advance, the defire of in- 
creafmg his enjoyments ftimulates him to torture his 
land to draw from it its various productions. One 
idea put in practice gives birth to another; one want 
fatisfied creates a fecond, to have the pleafure of fa- 
tisfyingthis alfo. Such is the nature of man ; his 
activity, which leads him frcmdefires to enjoyments, 
from one change to another, is the fource of what 
are called manufactures. A manufacture is but the 
means of giving to a production of the earth, a form 
which adds to it a new degree of agreeablenefs and 
utility. Want and defire of manufactures are there- 
fore in the nature of man; fo that if we fuppofed 
Europe entirely annihilated, manufactures would 
foon rife up in America, becaufe each individual 
itrives to render his e.xiftence agreeable by means the 
moft fpeedy and efficacious.* 

Manufactures, 

* Perhaps the chaia£^er and life of favages, who are fup- 
pofed to have no manufa<flures among them, wil) be oppofed to 
thefc realjnings ? Men are ccceivcd in judging therrby ; for 
thefe people, which we look upon as only one degree removed 
from a ftate of nature, work up and manufaftuje the earih's 
produftions. , Thus from their corn, before it is ripe, they cx- 
traft a geladt'..v)us ju'ce, with vshich they make palatable cakes. 
"Therefore, before the arrival of Europeans, they knew how to 
make fermented liquors, tools, uienfiis, arms, ornaments, Sec. 
They confined thcmfcivcs to thefe; hunting took them from a 
fedentary life, ard did not give them time enough to extend their 
ide«s. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 49 

Manufaflures, like the wants of civilized men, 
may (as was obferved in the laft chapter) be divided 
into three dalles: ill. thole of neceflity; 2d. thofe 
of convenience; ^d. thofe of fancy or luxury. Food, 
and the natural exigencies of mankind, are compre- 
hended in the firft clafs. 

It is from the wants of convenience efpecially, 
that manufa6tures have their origin. Without doubt, 
fkiuj of fheep were fufficient to defend men from 
the feverities of cold; a cabin or a hut from the in- 
temperature of the atmofpbere ; bat man is no fooner 
preferved from one evil than he feeks to get rid of 
another. Skins areinfufceptible of being we'l join- 
ed togeth r; ufe makes them hard; a cabin is frequent- 
ly thrown down, is confined and fmoaky; whence 
arife the wants of convcniency, which are tran^:foim- 
ed into enjoyments, whofe accuftomed ufe changes 
them into necellities. 

When man has every convenience, he then thinks 
of ornament. Hence the wants of luxury ; tliey are 
entirely in the imagination, and procure imaginary 
pleafures only. Therefore to wear any laced clothes, 
or drink coffee out of a china rather than a delfea 
cup, is a want created by luxury or fancy. 

The nature of thefe three kinds of want being 
pointed out, it is neceffary to know what thofe of the 
Americans are. They have the two firfl: of them. 
Their habitudes contracted in their infancy from 
European emigrants, and their commerce with the 
Englifli, have accuftomed them to the kind of life and 
F tafte 

The paAoral lifs of the Arabians has condu£ted them one 01: 
two degrees farther in the art of manufa<Sluring, becaufe that 
kind of life affords greater leisure, and gives more uniform and 
conftant produflions. Thofe fhepherds, whofe riches cnnfift but 
in their flocks, and who live on milk alone, and are clothed 
with their wool or,!/, have a paflionate defire for coffee, fherbct, 
and fugar. The defire of increafiiig their e;ijoyrt;ent3 is the 
caufe. Let it be therefore agreed, that man by his nature i» 
inclined to enjoyment, and confe<|uently co manufadurca» 



^O ON THE COMMERCE OF THl 

talle of the latter, and it is well known tiiat Engllfii 
induftry has been particularly dire6ted to neceUary 
aijd ufcfui arts. 

The independent Americans, at leafi: thoie who 
inhabit great aiaritime cities, have borrowed from the 
Englilh a tafle for luxuries; they feek for gauzes, 
blond lace, filks, &:c. It is however with pleafure I 
obferve, that if this tafte of modes has infeded Lon- 
don within thefe few years, its ravages have not been 
extended with the fame rapidity in the United States 
as in Europe Their fituation, auftere religion, 
morals, and ancient habits, their rural or marine life, 
prevent their fceking after elegance and drefs, and 
keep them from oflentation and voluptuoufnefs. Al- 
though they may perhaps be changed a few degrees, 
the evil is not yet fenfible, at leaft in the Northern 
States * Therefore our obfervations ought princi- 
pally to reft upon the two firft clades of wants. Now 
it is impoflible that the Americans fliould ever re- 
nounce ther^j; they will be peipctually led and at- 
tached to them by their natui-e and habitudes, and 
by the manner in which their population is in- 
creafed. 

By their nature, becaufe they are men; and it has 
been proved, that man is endowed with that activity 
which perpetually difpofes him to add to his enjoy- 
ments. 

By their habitudes, becauft, as it has l>een ob- 
ferved, they contra^led that of all thofe wants; and 
it is well'known, that ataf^e for pleafure is not to be 
exterminated when rooted by habitude. How can 
it be required of inan to deprive himfelf of wine and 

liquors 

^ * Luxury is certainly to he found in Virginia; and when wc 
fpeak of luxwry with rcfptifl: to free America, it is neceHary to 
diftingu'fh care'ully ihe Son'hern fom the Northern States ; 
cities from thecountiy; maritime cities from interior one?. By 
thefe diftniftions many contrarieties mi tiic account of fuperficial 
travelers may be explained. 



UN'ITED STATES OF AMERICA. 51' 

liquors to which he is accuftomed, and in which he 
places a part of his enjoyments, except we would 
render him unhappy ? I will not quote hermits, fick 
perfons, or philofoph(?rs, who have had that empire 
over themfelves; but let not a like prodigy be expeft" 
ed in a whole nation. An aflbciation of three mil- 
lions of philofophers has not yet been, nor will be 
{ten to confine themfelves to the regimen of Pytha- 
goras,* or the diet of Cornaro. 

The fevere facrifice of tea, which the independent 
Americans made at the beginning of the war, will 
perhaps be alio quoted. The entiiufiafm of liberty 
and influence of example were able, during lome 
time, to overcome their habitudes ;f as religious en- 
thufiafm has combated, l^.)metimes fuccefsfully, the 
pafiions of an hermit. But there Is no caufe power- 
ful enough to produce a like eife6t, except. in the 
crifis which makes the facrilice neceffary and eafy. 
The reafon of the dependence in which the Ameri- 
cans would put themfelves with refpe^ft to the Eu- 
ropeans, and the fear of diflant corruption, are mo- 
tives too feeble to carry men to that point of heroifm! 
It is not fufficiently demonflrated to them that they 
cannot drink wine from Madeira without being 
fome day corrupted by it, and without preparing 
the way for great calamities. 

The manner in which population is renewed and 
F 2 increafed 

* It is not that we ought not to believe that one of the great 
means of regenerating the old people of the Concinent, and of 
fupporling republicanifm in the United States, would be to give 
to children fach an education as Pythagoras exerciied a; Croto- 

.— Seb rm Life of PYTHAGoiiAs. 

■f It is aflured that abilinence from tea was not every whcr? 
fa chfully obfejved, which appears very probable on reflc<fiinj 
that there was a party which fain would have violated ir. I 
have Icnown feveral perfons whom the ueprivacicn of tea had 
made ill f^r a long time, although they had tred illufive means, 
by fubftitutin- the iufufijii of agr^icuLdt fiiTipIea fcr that of tfee 
tea-kaf. 



52 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

increafed in America, does not make it probable- 
that its inhabitants will ever be able to renounce the 
want of Enropean produdUons. 

A prodigious number of individuals emigrate 
every. year from all parts of Europe to America, 
who carry v^ith them wants and inclinations which 
they have from education and habit. If they find 
them in America, they continue to gratify them; 
if they are unknown there, they naturalife them, 
and it is the firli thing they go about; for they do 
not fo much perceive the new pleafures they are go- 
ing to enjoy, as thofe of which they are deprived; 
io great is>|he force of our firft habits and cuftoms. 
.Remembrance, although frequently mixed with the 
cruel idea of fervitude, abandons man in the grave 
only. 

According to this inclination, natural to all men, 
let the immeme variety of wants and appetites be 
calculated which are going to tranlplant themfelves 
from Europe to the United States; and let it be 
judged, whether it be polTible to put bounds to or 
deftroY them. 

Tofucceed in this, it WQnld not only be necef- 
3"'\ry to fhut out foreign commerce from all the Ame- 
rican ports: American induftry muft be circumfcrib- 
ed, and the fonrce of their wants flopped np; it would 
be necefTary to imitate theLacedemonian law, which 
ordained that nothing fiiould be worked up but with 
the heavy hatchet, the more effectually to banifh the 
luxury of elegant furniture. In a word, a miracle 
mufl be operated upon the Americans, to take from 
them all remembrance of what they have been, of all 
they have feen, fmelt, or tafled ; and the fame en- 
chantment muft deprive European emigrants of their 
ideas; as it would be abfurd to hope for a like pro- 
digy, the force of things, which drags the indepen- 
dent Americans into exterior commerce, mufl be 

fubmitted 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. <$ 

filbmitted to.* All is reduced to two words : Ame- 
rica has wants, and Europe has manuf"a<5lure5. 

In the United States fome of the inhabitants lill up 
the leifure afrorded by agriculture (in which the Eu- 
ropeans cannot hope to become their rivals) with an 
attention to manufactures. And they have others 
confined to the mofl neceflary arts; connefted with 
cultivation, fiflieries, and the conftrudtion of veflels. 
But even thefe manufadures are but few in number, 
and inlufficient for the wants of the United States. 
They are therefore obliged to have recourfe to Eu- 
rope. It is not that they neither have, nor can have 
almofl all the raw materials employed in our owa 
2iianufa(5lures. They have hemp, flax and cotton. f 

But, if they had raw materials in plenty, they 
ought to be advifed not to eftablifli manufadures; or, 
to Ipeak more juftly, manufaSlurcs could not he ejia- 
bJifned ; the nature of things ordains it fo. Let us dii- 
cufs this queflion, as it is an important one. 

F 3 There 

* It is with regret that I write this faft, on confidering ic 
philofophicaliy, but it appears to have been demonlirated poli- 
tically. No perfon wiflics more than I do to fee the United 
States feparate themfelves from all the world, ani in this fitua- 
tion to find again the auflerity of the Spartan regimen, with- 
out its cruel principles of military difpofition. It would be a 
Jmart ftrolce in politics 3 but this unhappily js no more than a 
dream. 

f The four Southern States gather great quantities of cot- 
ton. Their poor are clothed with it winter and fummer. In 
winter they wear cotton ihircs, and clothes of wool anc! cotton 
mixed. In fummer their Ihirts are linen, and their outward 
clothes of cotton. Women's drefs is entirely of cotton, and 
made up by themfelves, women of the richcll clafs excepted j 
yet a woman of this clafs has a deal of cotton worked up in 
her houfe, and this callico equals in beauty that of Europe. 
Thofe from the South furnifli a deal of cotton to the States of 
the North, which cannot grow it, the climate being too cold. 

There is fcarcely atiy par: of tne United States without good 
Hour and faw mills. The Northern States have others for flat- 
tening iron. It is in the conflrudlion of mills efpecially, that 
th2 Americans d'.ftinguilh themfelves, in varying^ theli employ 

»ad ytility, aa>J ia tbeir <iiitnbution. 



5-^ ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

There are many reafons for men's engaging in a 
new country in agriculture rather than in manufac- 
tures. There, where two individuals can eafily live 
together, they marry, fays Montefquieu. The la- 
bour of the field offers to them more means of living 
together, of augmenting and fupporting their fami- 
ly, than working at manufactures: in thefe the de- 
pendence of the workman, his precarious and 
changeable ftate, his moderate wages, and the high 
price of provifions in cities, where mofl manufac- 
tures are eflablifhed, put it out of his power to think 
of having a companion; and if he has one, the prof- 
pe6t of mifery which fne mufl have before her eyes 
after his death, impofes on him a law contrary to 
propagation, to avoid the cruelty of caufing children 
to be brought into the world only to be unhappy.* 

In a new country where land is not dear, where it 
requires not much in advance, or an expenfive cul- 
tivation, and is at the fame time fruitful, the num- 
ber of little and happy families muft rapidly increafe. 

What a difference in other refpecls from this pure 
and fimple country life, where man is conftantly in 
the prefence of nature, where his foul is elevated by 
the fpeftacle, where his phyfical principles continu- 
ally regenerate by a falubrious air, and in reviving 
exercifes, where he lives in the miidfl of his relations 
and friends, whom he makes happy : what a difference 
from that to 'the life of manufa(fturers condemned 
to vegetate in difmal prifons, where they refpirc in- 
feftion, and where their minds are abforbed, as well 
as their lives abridged 1 This condud alone ought to 

decide 

* Journeymen manufacturers, and in general men in a ftate 
of dependence, whofe fubfiftence is precarious, and who have 
children, certainly love them lefs than the inhabitants of the 
country who have a fmall property. The pateinity is a bur- 
then, and confequently often odious to the firftj their children 
are ignorant of the fjft Sarefles of paternal love. What kind of 
generation muft arife from fuch ft coan«ilion ! 



VlUTLfi STATES OF AMERICA, ^^ 

decide the Americans to reject the painful ilate of 
maiuifaftures.* 

Befides 

* The Idea of property is one of the ftrongeft tics by which 
man is atcacb-^d to life, to his country, to virtue, and I will 
ad^ even to health. The fatisf.xdllon of a manufa<fturer, who 
at thj end of the week has a guinea in his pocket, is far from 
that of th; little country proprietor, who is felJoTi poHTilTed of 
fuch a fumj but who gathers in his own field every thing ne- 
ceiTary, He loves it, fees it always with pleafure, takes care 
of its cultivation, and, by a confequence of this foft difpofi- 
tion, he attaches hinfifeif to the animals which aflift him in that 
cultivation. 

The labourer fees, as he works, the poflibility of lncrea?iag 
the number of his children j and he has the pleafing hope of 
leaving them after his death a little corner of earth which will 
keep them from indigence. 

The labourer is happy becaufe his contra£^s are with the 
carih only, which gives liberally and d'finterededly, whiifl the 
intereft of the mafter who pays the manufadlurer embitters the 
wages which he receives. 

The labourer is ftill happy, becaufe he is only amongfb his 
equals; inequality is the fource of malice. The fuperior is 
malicious to fupport his opprcfiion. The flave is vindidllve to 
deftroy and revenge it. 

The labourer is amiable and generous, becaufe it would bs 
neceflfary to abandon all cultivation, if there v/as not bitween 
hufbandmen a reciprocity of fervices and confidence. 

Perhaps it would not be difficult to prove that health and 
goodnefs are dimlnifhed in proportion to theincreafe of manu- 
fa£tures, cities, property, and the defertion of rural life j and 
that vices and cnm?.s are increafed in the fame proportion. 

This is not the opinion of the fenfible and interelt'ng author 
of the Study of Nature: *' When I was at Mofcow," fays he, 
(Vol. III.) " an old Genevois, who was in that city, in the 
** time of Peter I. told me, thatfince different means of fub- 
** fiftence had been opened to the people by the eTiabliilimentof 
*' manufailurcs and commerce, feditions, afTani nations, rob- 
** beries, and incendiaries,had been kfs frequent than formerly." 
But this would not have exited, and there would have been 
the fame public and private virtue, if inftead of making the 
RufTiins manufauiurers, they had been made proprietors of 
lands. Hufbandmen are honell people, fays iVI. de St. Perrf 
himfelf, — And workfhops, as I have juft obferved, do not offef 
that necefTity of reciprocal fervice which gives ths habitude of 
goodncfs j they prefe.it intereft flruggliag againft interelt, rich 



56 ON THE COMMERCE Ol THE 

Befides there will be, for a confidenible time to 
come, more to be gained in the United States, by the 
earth, which yields abundantly, than by manufac- 
tures — -^nd man places himfelfin that fituation where 
the greatelKind moft fpeedy gain is to be acquired. 

As population muft, for many ages, be difpropor- 
tioned to the extent of the United States, land will 
be cheap there during the fame length of time, ^ and 
eonfequently the inhabitants will for a long time be 
ciiltivators. 

Thcfe whom amibition, thiril of gain, or igno- 
rance, fhould incline to eftablifh manufaftures, will, 
from that moment, be diibanded from it by thedear- 
nefs of workman fliip. This dearnefs is already very 

confider- 



and indolent ftupidity ftiiving to cheat aftlve indigence. It 
workfhops do not mike men rafcals, they difpole them to be- 
come fo} they make them cgotifts, infcnfible, uncouth, and 
bad fathers. 

Therefore, the fafl quoted by this author does not prove, 
that to prevent crime:, it is necefiary to eftablifh manufac- 
tures 5 b«t that it is better to have manufadlures peopled with 
degraded workmen, than forefts with banditti } it i;; a lefler 
£vil, but it isftill an evil. 

'*' * An idea of the price of lands in the United States, may 
fee formed ftom the following article taken from the Gazette of 
Philadelphia, of 9th of December, 1784: '* Ob/erve that the 
*' ground of Pennfylvania begins to be dear, and that the inha- 
*' bit-nts begin to emigrate to Kentucky."— By this advertife- 
ment there are offered to fale, " 25,000 acres of land, fituated 
•' in the couutv of Northampton, State of Pennfylvania, upon 
*• the Delaware. — A public road, a navigable river, fertile foil, 
*■ excellent for culture— me^do^ns-— places for mills— great fo- 
♦♦ refts — plenty of fi/l.-ponds, &c. at half a guinea an acre. 

*' Another quantity of 25,000 acres, upon the Sufquehannah, 
'* with equal and even greater advantages, at the fame price.— 
** Good title oeedr,— facilities of payment. — A rc-fcrve of three 
*' hundred acres only will be required In each dlftrift for the 
•* maintenance of the clergyman of the parifh 5— one hundred 
** guineas wiicn there fhall be fifty families, to build a parfonage 
•' houfe — ten guineas a year for five years, and proviiion Iw 
** the fchool-raaHcr," 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 57 

confiderablc,'^ and may become flill more fo, as the 
caule which occafions it muil naturally become more 
extended. 

What is the caufe? It has already been intimated 
fo as to be forefeen. 

Cities are built in all quarters ;-f- lands are cleared 
and eftablifliments made every where. In the rtate 
of Kentucky, for infiance, where, in 1771, there 
were fcarcely one hundred inhabitants, there are now 
nearly thirty thoufand; and thefe men have emigrat- 
ed from inhabited coafts or countries. Thus hands 
are taken from the commerce and agriculture of thefe 
lad, which is confequently the caufe of the increaf- 
ed price of workmanfnip. 

From this dearnefs it has been concluded in Eu~ 
rope, that the people in America were wretched; a 
contrary conclufion ought to have been drawn. 
Wherever workmen*govern; wherever they are paid 
a high price, the people are neceiTarily happy; for 
it is of them that the various clafies of workmen arc 
compofed. 

On the contrary, wherever workmanfliip is at a 
low price, the people are wretched; for this cheap- 
nefs proves that there are more workmen than there 
is work to execute, more want of eir.ploy than can 
be fupplied. This is what the rich defire, that thev 
may govern the workmen, and buy the fweat of their 
brows at the ioweft rate poiTible.j 

It 

* Three, four and five livres are frequently paid in the cities 
of the United States fur the day's Vvork of a carpenter, biack- 
fmith, &c. 

•f This is a great evil, as will be hereafter proved, and 
which v/ill contribute more than any other to the ruin of re- 
publican fpirit. 

X To be convinced of this truth, look at England and France j 
workmanfliip is very dear in London but cheap in Paris. The 
workman in London is well fed, clothed and paid j in Parie ha 
is quite the contrary, 

*^ It frequently happens," faid an American one day to ms, 
*^ that I meei". in the United States a ploughnnan, conducting his 



58 •N THE COKf.MERCE OF THE 

It is the revcrfe in America, the workman gives 
the law, and fo much the better, he receives it too 
often every where elfe. 

This dearnefs of workmanfhip is prejudicial to 
manufadures, and flill fo much the better. Thefe 
eftablifhments are fo many tombs which fwallow up 
generaticns entire.* Agriculture, on the contrary, 
perpetually increafes popuhuion. 

By preventing, or at leafr retarding the rife of ma- 
nufactures within their provinces, the Americans 
will Hop the decadency of morals and public fpirit: 
for if manufacfiures bring gold into the States, they 
bring at the fame time a poifon which undermines 
them. They refemble a number of individuals whofe 
nature and morals are at once corrupted : they form 
and accufiom men to fervitude, and give in a repub- 
lic a preponderance to ariftocratical principles, and 
by accumulating riches in a fmall number of hands, 
they caufe republics to incline to arifto'cracy. 

Therefore the independent Americans will do 
wifely to leave to Europe the care of nianufacfturing 
for them, becaufe flie is irrefiftibly dragged into ma- 
nufaif^ures; and as their population and confumption 
niufl: rapidly increafe, it is not impoffible that Eu- 
rope may one day confine herfelf to this kind of oc- 
cupation, and tha: America may one day become 
her fi:orehcufe of grain and raw iviaterials, of which 
file will not be in need. In this cafe nothing will 

be 

*' plough and hoifes, an.l eatir.g a w'rg of a turkey and a piece 
** of g.iod white bread. I have leen," added \>e, <* a v.iTtl arrive 
*' at New-York, full of t-cotchnien, not one ot whom was un- 
*' employed the next da)." 

* There aie f..vcral man jfa£lurt s at Amient, and it is re- 
marked, that the hofpitals are more filled with p-.anufi6lure:s 
than with raafuns or other like ariiz^ns. A manufaduring 
lite makes more people ill and their ccrapLints ra jre cl£ngerout ; 
)t i& becaufe this kind of workmen becomes fooner debauched, 
snd gjC' fooner to the hofpital, belrg mofllv ^ln^!e, ar.J vviihcu. 
a;iy domeilic attjchmcnc. 



trt^ITEC STATES OF AMERICA. ^^ 

be icen in Europe but cities aad vvorkfrup';; in inue- 
pendent America nothing but fieids well ci Itivated. 
I will leave it to be decided wlrca couucry .voiild 
have the moll happy fate. 

Under tiie fame point of view, the iiidependent 
Americans will Hill dS. wife'y by leaving it io rhe 
Europeans to furnilli tbem with necclT-iV arncles ; 
and in feldom frequenting tiiC cities and fea- ports of 
the ancient continent-. . In eff^d, an E iropeaa 
tranfported to independent Ai;?enca is in tne pro- 
portion of one to one hunclred, and fometimes to a 
tho'ifand. — His example has therefore but verv little 
influence; the luxury of which he makes a [^arade 
jn paifing by, excites lefs confiJeration or refpe6t 
than contempt and ridicule. If he leaves a remem- 
brance of himfelf, it is foon effaced by the general 
motion : there are, moreover, fome Europeans, 
who, ftnick and edified by the manners and ciif- 
tom.s of free America, have good fenfe enough to 
i'efpe(5l and conform themfeb-es to them. 

It is the reverfe \^'neA\ an American goes on Hiore 
m Europe, almoll alone, with his fimplicity of man- 
ners in the midil of a vortex of men who efleem the 
eclat of exterior appearance only ; who, agitated and 
led by the general ton, facrifice every thing to the 
furor of making a great figure by the brilliance of 
drefs, eqaipagie, and pomp: this American muft at 
firfl be torn down and tormented, becaufe he finds 
himfelf tiirow.-i into a circle of habitudes contrary 
to his own. Afterwards h- becomes familiarifed by 
little an.l little, and if he does not quite get a tafte 
for them, at leafl: his attachment to a fimplicity of 
life and mnnners is necell^rily weakened. Carrying 
back with iiira to his own country this difpofition of 
mind, he introduces it infenfibly into the minds of 
thofe who are about hinn, upon which it has fome in- 
fluence — upon the minds of his children and friends. 
Their tafte for fimplicity becomes lukewarm by his 

example^ 



6o OV THE COMMERCE OF THE 

example, and the following age fees public virtues 
fiall into indifference. 

It will be lefs dangerous to the public fpirit of the 
independent Americans to admit tlif Euroj^eans into 
the United States, than to go themfelveb into Europe; 
from which it refults that it would be very impolitic 
to encourage tiie former to become the carriers of 
their exterior commerce. 

I have infilled upon this reflecftion becaufe there 
feems to have appeared in fome Slates a difpclition 
to give premiums for diftant navigation. They 
ought to refleft, that they have but few hsnds, and 
that as few as poffible fliould be taken from culture. 
They are in the lituation I have fpoken of in my 
principles of exterior commerce, where a nation 
gains by making carriers of others having lefs foil or 
employ. They ihould alfo recollefl, that republi- 
can morals are better preferved in the bofom of agri- 
culture than upon the fea and in foreign voyages, 
which give to men communications with other mo- 
rals and governments. 

It is a general queftion in the United States, by 
what means it is pofTible to put bounds to exterior 
commerce, and ftop the progrefs of luxury : ftay at 
home, — cultivate, cultivate, I will repeat to them ; 
this is the fecret whereby you will prevent the in- 
creafe of luxury; a fecret much preferable to fump- 
tuary laws and prohibitory regulations, which fome 
ftates have it in contemplation to make. 

There is no power gre^t enough to fet, by regula- 
tions, fuch boundaries to exterior commerce as will 
not be exceeded : to circumfcribc it, for inftance, to 
merchandizes of convenience, without the importa- 
tion of thofe of luxury. The nature or force of 
things only has fuch a power. That force has, as 
has been before explained, the union cf the natural 
circumftancesof a nation; thefecircumftances alone 
mark the limits of commerce. A nation which 

cannot 



tTNITED STATES OF AMLRTCA, 5l 

cannct pay for luxuries with its gwta pio'.uiaion, 
does not piirchafe them. Tlic iavrige can only pro- 
cure with his furs, biandy, guiipovv-ler, and woullen 
coverings ; he buys neither Tuks nor laces. 

If, therefore, the produ(5tIons of the United States 
be fcarcely fufficient to pay for the importations of 
iieceiTity and convenience from Europe, merchan- 
dizes of luxury will not be imported: if thefe be 
carried to it, 'tis becaufe it can pay for them. There 
is no merchant who likes to ruin himfeif. 

If, on the contrary, the United States have pro- 
^u£lions proper for the ancient continent, in quan- 
tities futiicient to procure, by their exchange, not 
only the moft neceflary and convenient things, but 
even thofe of luxury, nothing can hinder the latter 
from being fooner or later imported, by means of 
exterior commerce. 

In truth, to increafe demands of this nature, the 
public opinion, which before treated opprobriouily 
a tafte for modes, muft totally change, and the par» 
.ticular opinions of certain feds equally yield to it. 

But notwithftanding the powerful influence of 
opinion upon merchandizes of luxury, the fate of 
this kind of commerce will be more particularly de- 
termined by the ftate of the independent Americans, 
for when rich they will adopt them. This faft will 
appear certain, if what has been faid on the nature 
of the human heart be recollected, and its inclina- 
tion to improve man's fituation, and to increafe his 
enjoyments. 

Tafte for a rural life alone, if the Americans pre* 
ferve it, will retard the progrefs of luxury, which 
■Iprings up in cities, from fatiety, want of fomething 
to do, and from lallitude: employment preferves the 
country from thofe moral ills. 

There is one lail confideration, which ought to 

perfuade the independent Americans to employ 

^hemfelves in cultivation, and reje6t both manufac- 

G , tureij 



62 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

tures and exterior tranfports ; which is, that in wifli- 
iiig to undertake every thing at once, the fcarcity of 
money, necefTary at leaf! for the mechanical part of 
thefe operations, will always be more perceived, 
whilfl, by giving themfelves up entirely to cultiva- 
tion, they will procure from their foil produ(5lions 
fiifficient fb pay for thefe manufaclures from Europe, 
and to make up for the fcarcity of coin.* 

They appear to be alarn^.ed at this; what has been 
faid upon the fubje6t of money ought to remove their 
fears. It has been demonftrated that a nation may 
carry on a very confiderable commerce without its 
aid. It will hereafter be fcen that the United States* 
produce many raw materials efTentially necelTary to 

France, 

* The independent Americans have but little money; this 
fcarcity arifcs from two caufes ; firfl, from the kind of (om- 
merce they heretofore carried on with England, and afterwards 
from the ravages of -a feven years war. As this commerce was 
purely one of exchange, and that in certain ftates, as Virginia, 
the importations always furpaffed the exportations j the refuit 
was, that they could net but be dehtois to England, and could 
not draw money from that ifland. 

It was a kind of commercial fervTtnde, which the Englifit 
looked upon as the pledge and guarantee of the dependence ol" 
the Colonies upon the mother ccuntr* , 

The money they had came from their illicit commerce with 
the Sugar Iflands and European powers. The war, afterwards, 
by changing labourers into foldiers, caufed a part pf their lanas 
to remain without cultivation. From that -time exchanges in- 
creafed and money decreafed. The little of it remaining io 
America, came firft from money carried and ex^ieniteJ there by 
the English and French armies, and afterwards by the loans ne- 
gociatedin Eu ope by Congrefc. 

But it iscafy to conceive, after what has been faid upon the 
quantity of coir, how a nation, v hich, by an extraordinary 
revolution, u all at once widely deveicped, its population ra- 
pidly increafed, and is thereby (|)liged .to continual advances, 
for clearing of lands, for building, making (>f roads ani canals, 
to pay t'orelgn debts, moftly in fpccie, and which hrs nomines, 
miifi: fee! the fcarci'y of money, r.nd the reafon cf it is citar: 
the w&nt of it is at prefent fuyplie.', in Connefticut, by an »x- 
changc of conrimodities, or thefe 2 g.i:, ft labour. 



UlflTED STATES OF AMERICA. 63 

France, and that fhe can make their exports with 
«reater advantage than thofe of any other country. 

Thus it appears that thefe two countries may carry 
on together a direct trade of exchange without mo- 
ney, confequently an advantageous one; for the ex- 
change between them of produdions is more lucra- 
tive than an exchange of produdions for money; 
ahhough this opinion may not be adopted by men in 
general, who attach a greater price to gold than to 
merchandize, and continually forget its reprefenta- 
tive value, to fubftitute for it a real one. It mud be 
inceflantly repeated to them that money would be 
abfolutely nothing without produ(5lions; that a rich 
people is that which, by its induftry, increafes po- 
pulation, and has confequently an abundance of 
produftions; that the fecret of increafing the quan- 
tity of coin con (ills only in the art of multiplying 
necefiary produ6lions, and it is this to which the 
United States ought to incline, without being anxious 
about the money which they may have at prefent or 
in future. 

Let us refume the different queflions contained in 
this chapter. 

My object has been to make it appear that the 
United States were farced by their neceffity and cir- 
cumliances to engage in exterior commerce. 

To convince my readers of this, I have proved 
that the independent Americans had wants of ne- 
c-rfTity, of convenience, and even fome of luxury, 
wliichthey could neither renounce nor fupply them- 
felves with. 

That having no manufactures of their own, they 
were obliged to have recourfe to thofe of Europe; 
that they could eftabliili none for a long time, having 
but few hands, and tliat cultivation ought to employ 
?.U their cares. 

That according to phyfical, political, and moral 

relations, they ought to perfevere in applying theni- 

G 2 felvcs 



64 ON THE COMME^E OF THE 

lelves to agriculture alone, and even give up alt 
thoughts of tranfporting to Europe, by their own 
means, their proper produdions. 

That this was the only nieans of preferving their 
republican morals, and of retarding the progrefs of 
luxury. 

In fine, that by engaging in agriculture, and ne- 
glefting manufactures, they will lefs perceive the 
want of money, and will find the means of fup- 
plying that want, and of carrying on a very advan- 
tageous exterior commerce cf exchange of commo- 
dities. 

Thefe dilrerent points being firmly eftablifhed, it 
is at prefent neceffary to prove, that of all the nations 
of Europe, France is the mofl: proper to enter into 
a commercial alliance with the United States, and 
that their neceiiities and produ^ions are correfpon- 
dent to each other. It is propofed to lay open this 
truth, by prefenting the double table of reciprocal 
importations and exportations, to be made between. 
France and free America. 



CHAPTER V. 



Of tl-e Importation to he fuarle from France into fit 
United States^ ct* of the Wants cf the United State: ^ 
and the Productions of France zchich correfpond thereto, 

X K 1'". attentive reader will have already been ab!e 
to judge, that if the independent Americans do 
jiot deviate from the career which is open to them, 
Jiurope will, for a longtime, have to furnifii them 
with manufactured merchandize. It has been made 
to appear, that the clearing and cultivation of land?, 
and all that relates to interior commerce, fuch as 
roads and i:anal-5, offered to their induflry the mofi: 

favourab!: 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 65 

favourable and iifefiil employ, efpecially whilfl Im- 
polls do not reftraiii their movements, and that a 
free conftitution equally honours every individual. 

It is now necefl:u-y to take a curfory view of their 
wants, and to point out thofe articles with whicU 
France may pretend to furnifli them in competition 
with other nations, if even (lie cannot do it more 
advantageoufly than her rivals. I will follow, in 
this enumeration, the Englifh publications which 
have treated upon the matter, and particularly that 
of Lord Sheffield: he has omitted nothing, becaufq 
his country pretends to furnifli every thing.* 

SECTION I. 

Wines. 

Wine becomes a real want of thofe who have 
once been acquainted with it. Happy or miferabie, 
rich or poor, every body makes ufe of wine. Wine 
is the delight of the happy or of the rich: it helps 
the unfortunate to fupport his forrow; the poor 
think they find it an equivalent for the food they are 
v/ithout. 

Eafe has lately been too general in the United 
Stares, not to have introduced the ufe of wine ; and 
futurity, by augmenting their means, will only in- 
creafe their want of this liquor. 

The wines which were mofl generally confume<i 
jn the United States, were, as in England, Oporto, 
Madeira, and fome from Spain. French wines, 
charged as in Britain, with enormous duties, were 
introduced by contraband only. 4 

Liberty hascaufed thofe Britannic ftiackles to dif- 
G 3 appear. 

* I will not defcend to the minutiae his Lordflilp has done, 
but 1 will prove, in every important article, the French, if 
they know how to profit by their natural advantages, ir;uf^ ob- 
tain a preference. 



66 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

appear. French wines are freely imported into the 
United States, and pay but little duty. 

Such is the flate of things, and it leads me to the 
diculTion of three queftions: 

Does it fuit the United States to cultivate vines, 
and to make wine? 

Ought they not, in renouncing this cultivation, 
to give the preference to French wines? 

And what means ought the French to ufe, in order 
to obtain and preferve this preference? 

It would be abfurd to deny that the United States 
can produce wine, becaufe the experiments hitherto 
made have been fruitlefs. Extended as they are, and 
having countries as fouthern as Europe, it is im- 
poffible thpre Hiould not be, in many places, a foil 
proper for the vine. 

The little fuccefs of attempts may therefore^ 
without hazarding too much, be attributed either to 
the ignorance of the cultivator, his want of perfe- 
verance, or a bad choice of plants. 

However that may be, if the Americans will 
hearken to the counfels of able obferver*, and reap 
advantage from the errors of other nations, they 
will carefully avoid the cultivation of vines. In 
every country where they have been cultivated, for 
one rich man, they have made a number wretched. 

The long and confiderable advances which vines 
require, the preparation, prefervation, and fale of 
their produce, have put all the good vineyard plots 
into the hands of rich people, who not cultivating 
thefe themfelvcs, pay the real cultivator very badly. 
'The falary of the wretched vine-drefTer is every 
where inevitably fixed; the time he does network 
not being calculated, and few wine countries offer 
any employ by which loft time may be filled up; and 
otherwife, the variations in the prices of the mofl 
iieceflary commodities occafioned by a thoufand 

cau fes, 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 67 

caufes, by the abundance or even fcarcity of wine, 
are not confidered for him. 

Would it be believed, that abundance is the moft 
unfortunate thing that can happen, either to the pro- 
prietv>r or the vine-dreflTer? In faft, the cxpence of 
gathering augments, and the price of the thing di- 
miniflies. There is more work to be done, more 
hands are necelTary, and they are paid more wages; 
more hogflieads are wanted, the expences of carnage 
greater, more fpace i^ required, the fale is lefs, and 
confeqnently the income."* 

The fcarcity of wines, or the fterility of the vine- 
yard, is perhaps lefs unfortunate than the abundance, 
at leaft to the proprietor. But it is cruelly feh by 
the vine-dreflt-T, and thofe wandering troops of day 
labourers, whom the ingratitude of their foil, or a 
bad government, forces to go from home in fearch 
of employ. 

The numerous variations which have an influence 
upon the produce of the vineyard, make it very in- 
convenient property, and triflingly advantageous. f 

The 

* The day's work of a vintager varies according to the fcarcity 
or sbundance of wine, from fix to fiftj (ols. The price of 
hogfheads has likewife variations in a difterent pnce, from 
three to fifteen livres. There are years wherein the piice cf 
the hogihead is higher than that of the wine which it contains. 

The proprietor who eilabliOics his expences upon his reve- 
nues, 13 every year deceived by thofe of the vineyard. In one 
ye.ir he receives at the rate of 20 for 100 ; the fecond yeir his 
vineyard is perhaps cleltroyed by hail j the third he is expofed 
to bankrupcy, or to fuffer by it, or his wines turn four j the 
fourth he may have but a moderate produce, which will not 
compenfate for his preceding lofleis. In ten years time a pro- 
prietor would fcarcely fini an average year which was tolerably 
good j yet, as rHcn love to exaggerate their riches and means, 
each proprietor calculates his revenue upon the higheft produce 
that his vineyard has ever yielded: the greateft part of them 
fpend in confequence, and are ruined. 

f It is a proverb in France, that there is no property worfc 
conditioned ih^a that of the vineyard. 



63 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

The return muft be waited for when much has been 
gathered; payments mufl be made when there has 
been but little. The proprietor muft therefore have 
other refources, whether it be to wait or to pay. 
The vine-drrner, unhappy enough to have a pro- 
perty,* without any of thefe refources, ruins him- 
fcif fooner cr later. He is obliged to fell at a low 
price.f or to confume his wines himfelf ; thence re- 
fults his ftupidity and idlenefs, his difcouragement, 
his dull and quarrelfome humour, and efpecially the 
ruin of his health. Too much wine in the time 
of abundance, no bread in that of fcarcityj thefe 
are the two alternatives which divide his life. 

Therefore countries covered with vineyards are 
generally lefs peopled, and prefent a pifture of a de- 
generated, weak, and wretched population. For the 
moft- part they want hands to cultivate the vineyard 
in a feafon when work cannot be delayed. It is 
cone by thelc bands of ftrangers, of whom I have 

already 

* The fituatlon of a vinc-drefTer is different according to the 
cuftom of countries. In fome he is hired only by the day, and 
there he is completely wretched. In others, as in Switzcrisnd, 
he has half of the produce. But an unjuft and lyrannical tEX, 
laid on by the pioprietors themfelves, reduces this half to a 
quarter part. 

■f Such is nearly the ficuation of moft of the vine-dielfers 
of AuNis, who are proprietors. They are at the mercy of the 
rich farmers of that country. When winter comes, the vine- 
dred'er has neither bread nor money. He goes to the farmer, 
a/ks him for both: the farmer fays I will accammod.Ue yt.u, 
give me your note. The bufnel of wheat is worth fix livres, 
oblige yourfelf to return me, at a certain cpochaj the quanti- 
ty of wheat whicii fhall be fold for fix iivres. He always takes 
Care to lix the time when corn i.^ at a low price. The obliga. 
tion is paffed, the moment of payment arrive?, j the vine-dreffer, 
who has corn, gives more than he has received. If he has none, 
he is ftill more cmbarrafTed 5 the farmer prcfTis him— you have 
wine, fays he, fell it me. But at wliat price ? T.'^he farmer of- 
fers a very low one. It is refufed — he threatens— the poor vine- 
drefler is obliged to ruin hirafelf, and this fccne is annually 
repeated. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 69^ 

already fpokeu, and who come to fell fome days 
work to the poor vine-dreiTer. 

The cuhivation of a vineyard cannot be better 
compared than to thofe manufa<5rures, of which the 
hopes of fuccefs are founded upon the low price of 
workmanfliip, and which enrich none but the under- 
takers, and retailers or fnopkeepers. 

The pernicious influence of the vine is extended, 
■■1 wine countries, to even thofe who do not cultivate 
.; for the cheap nefs of v»'ine leads to excelTes, and 
confequently it become? a poifon for all ranks of 
fociety, for thofe efpecially who hnd in it a means of 
forgetting their forrows. 

Therefore, as I have already refiiarked, induftry 
carefully avoids ihefedangerous vineyard plots. None 
of the great manufaftures, whofe fuccefs is the con- 
fequence of order, afTiduiry, and labour, are (ccn in 
the neighbourhood of them. 

The refult of all thefe obfervations is, that the 
Americans ought to profcribe the cultivation of the 
vine. 

It would infailibiy render miferable that clafs of 
fjciety which (hould apply itfelf to it, and in a re- 
j^ubiic there fliould be none who are wretched, be- 
aufe want obliges them to difturb civil order, or^ 
•vhat is worfe, becaufe they are at the command of 
ihe rich, by whom they are paid, and v.'ho may make 
ufe of them to deftroy republicanlfm.'* 

Confidered with refpe«:? to the proprietors, the 
vine ought ftill to be profcribed by the United States; 
becaufe every profellion or calling, fjfccptible of 
too great a variation of fortune, which fometimes 
heaps up riches to one perfon, and at other reduces 
to indigence individuals in eai'y circum.fi:ances, ought 

carefully 

* The mean language of iliopkeepers, who humbly offer 
their merchandize, has already be^un to find its way into the 
American paper;-. 



C/N THE COMMERCE OF THE 



carefully to be avoided. — Economy, Simplicity, pri- 
vate virtues, are not attached to fiich changeablenef?. 

They are found in the bofom of mediocrity only, 
from cafinefs of circumftances, founded upon thaf 
kind of toil whofe produce is conftant.* Such is 
that of agriculture in general; it embraces divers 
produ6t:ions, which, in cafe of accident, replace 
etich othcr.f 

Finally, if it be infjiled that wine is neceflary to 
man, let it not ftupify him ; it fliould be ufed with 
moderation, and its dearnefs alone may oblige men 
to be moderate in the ufe of it. It being greatly the 
intereft of the American lUpublics to remove all 
cxcefies from individuals, in order to prevent this 
degeneracy, they ought to keep perpetually at a dif- 
tance from them a produ6:ion, whofe dearnefs v\ lil 
prevent the abule of it, whofe cultivation would 
render it cheap, and confequently bring on dangerous 
excefles both to policy and morals. + 

The catalogue which I havejuft gone over, of the 
evils and abufes occadoned by the culture of vines, 
will not induce the French to pull up theirs. But it 
ought at leaft to excite them to increafe'in foreign 

markets 

* The Indians are alniosT all ciltlvators or weavers, v.hich 
iS the Tiiafon why private morals have been bscter preferved 
among ihefe peyple than any where elfe, in fplte of the excelJes 
of defpotifm. 

-j" What recempence would be confiderable enough for an in- 
genious rndn, who fhould give to humanity the meant of pre- 
ferving potutoes for fevera! years, efpecialiy if the orocefs vvtie 
fimple and not expenfive ? In that cafe want would be no longer 
feared. The embarralTmeRt about the legifiation of corn woul- 
difappcar, . and mifery perhaps be driven from among men. 

X It vi'ili be obje£led, that men employed in agricuUure have 
need of v»inc to i'upport thero in their lab.)ur. This is but an 
opinion: there are found, in countries wheie it is leaft xifcd, 
vigorous and indefatigable men. In truth, wine contains an 
aftive fpirit which may fupply the want of fubftantial aliment, 
and it is for ihis reafon the peafanis have recourfe to wine or 
brandy, which is moie wlUiin their reach. Give them mcvU 
and potatoes, and th?y will eifily do without wine. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. fl 

.arkets the confuniption of wines, in order to keep 
up their price, and confequently to diminifli a part 
of the evils which ihey produce. This will be 
doubly advantac;eous, by an additional exterior pro- 
lit, and a diminution of interior ilL Nobody will 
deny that French wines mufi: obtain the preference 
in the United States. They are the moil agreeable, 
the mofl varied, and wholefome, if moderately ufed; 
the leaft prejudicial, if ufed to excefs. They ought 
to be the bafis of our exportations to America; no 
nation can raife a competition with us. Lord Shef- 
field himfelf pays this homage to our wines; but m 
order to affure to them this advantage for ever, the 
art of making, preferving, and tranfporting them 
mufl be improved. 

In general we are at prefent far from this:^' igno- 
rance, old prejudices, difcouragement of the people, 
impoft on exportation; all concur to retard the pro* 
grefs of improvement. & 

The United States (thefe ftates of fo new a date) 
already furnifh us the model of an infritution, which 
alone would encourage the culture of corn and vines, 

and 

* I will quote, for inftance, the wines of f'rovence, which* 
by their ftrength, ought to be eatable of fupporting the longeft 
voyages; an>l bv iheir analogy to the wines of PortU|ial, would 
have th« greateft fuccefs in the Unitetl States, if they were pro- 
perly preparc'-i. Thcfe wines have hitherto been in t!ie lowefl 
repute in the North, in the Indian and American colonies; and 
that becaufe, on one hand, the fitfcrs out of velTe'is brought 
ihem without choonng, and on the o:her, th« individual having 
no idea of ths culture of vines, nor of the preparaiion of wine, 
mixed the white grape with the red, did nordiftinguifh the plant*, 
tht foil, nor fituation ; cured it by rote, without paying atten- 
tion to the difl'erence of years and qualities j put into his tubs, 
to ^ivc, as he pretended, a higher flavour to his wine, ail fcri;j 
of deteftablein^'redients, fuch as fait, lime, plaifter, and pigeon's 
dung; put itinlo bad cafks of chrfnut-tree ; left in them a yeats 
fediment, and rever drew off the wine, fo that it was always 
more incliped to turn four than any other wine, and therefore 
feecame little fit for a foreign voyage. 



^i OK THE C0MM2RCE OF IHE 

and make the momentary inconvenience of ribundai/t 
vintages, which ruin the proprietor and farmer^ 
difappear. 

This inftiti^tion, eafy to be naturalized in France, 
would have two branches, a depofit in the public 
magazines of the produdions of the earth; certificate 
or billets of depofit which v/ould form an authentic 
title for the difpofmg proprietor, transierable without 
formalities at the current price, like all other public 
effe(51s. 

It is thus, that in Virginia means have been found 
to fupply the want of money,* and to give at the 
time of reaping, a real and ufeful value to tobacco, 
which, without that, waiting for a demand, lies 
heavy upon the proprietor. 

This is not the place to examine this idea pro- 
foundly, neither to deflroy the objedions which will 
be made againfl it. This proje^ may conflitute the 
matter of a memoir by itfelf. I give here nothing 
more than the title. f 

People 

• The Virginians have given another example which proves 
how eafy it is to do witbouc money. Many countries near to 
the Ohio having none of it, the general alTembly refolved, ihey 
fhould pay their quota of imports in hemp and flax, which Hiould 
be dcpofited in the public magazines, 

•f If it were wi/hed that this proje£i Haould fucceed, it would 
be abfolutely necellary to puc away all poUihility of .^n abufe 
, unpunifted. It would perhap^be neceflary, that government 
/hould take no part nor have any influence in it. This precau- 
tion will be exclaimed ag^alnit 5 but let us once more caft our eyes 
upon E.'igland. If tiiere be a government upon earth v.hofe hands 
are tied, whofe fteps are watched, whofe aflions are brought to 
light, to public cenfure, and, confeqiiently, whofe fecret attempts 
are Jefs to be feared by the people, it is that of England, See 
what the aftoni/hingMinifTer, who is now at the head of affairs, 
propofes to hinder the inicrvention and influence of the Englifh 
govermnent in the new plan of redemption of the public eflefls 
and of their decreafe. He inflfls, that the commiflioners who 
■(hall be charged with it, fliall be always independent of govein- 
Hicntj that they ihiW be public agents, and that no force ihall 



^niTED STATfeS OF AMERICA. 73 

I'eople in the United States complain of an abufe 
in the commerce of the French wines, which abufe 
it is of importance to remedy in the moft fpeedy 
■manner, if we would not deftroy the commerce in 
its origin. Illicit commerce produced there before 
the revolution good Bourdeaux wine, becaufc it is 
a property of fmuggung to ghe that ichich is of fuperior 
■qufiUty^ and at a cheaper rate. 

Now, fince the peace, wines fcnt from France 
have not been, as it is averted, of a good quality. 
It is impoflible that from greedinefs they may fome- 
/imes have been adulterated. Bat this tranfient 
abufe, which the merchant may eafily deftroy when- 
ever he pleafes, by chooilng in the United States 
H com- 

conftrttn them to alienate from its objeft the money deftlned to 
pay off or leiren the public debt. 

This miniver clearly perceived, that the confidence of the 
people ought to be gained at any price, for the eilablirtiment 
which exifts but by confidence 5 and that in fuch a cafe, the 
<facrjfice of power would lignify nothing to a government which 
is really willing to prevent abufes. 

The advantages refulting from a plan like this are vifible. 
Public depofitories would fupply the defed of ability in thofc 
who could not lay up the produdtions of the earth. They 
would prevent fquandering^ lolfeF, and fcarcity, and eftablifil 
a more conftant uniformity in prices as well as in quantities: 
vvant of confidence would at firft perhaps hinder the ufe of 
thefe magscinej, caves, or cellars of thefe public refervoirs. 
Bqc this would not long be the cafe, if fincerity, order, and 
economy, reigned in thefe en:abliniments. It is an advantage 
which might have been procured, by means of provincial admi- 
niftrations, and which perhaps will never be enjoyed but under 
their aufpices. 

With refpefl to the billets, opnotes of commodities 
OR PRODUCTIOKS, it is fcen how greatly they would increafc 
national riches, how quickly the mifery of the peafants would 
cifappear, if thefe notes circulated as value in commerce, and 
,if the vine-drelfer could change his note of depofit for produc- 
tioas of which he *as in need. The monopoly of rich culii- 
vator? would then be overturned} of cultivators who fuck up 
the whole fubfilenc.- of the vine-drefler, and, by avaricious 
adva.iccs, reduce him to their will. 



74 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

tommiliioners whofe reputation is untouched; tlli- 
abufe, I fay, ought not to Hop the exporcations oi 
France. — Wine, if it be good, will always. find con- 
fumers. — Nothing but intelligence and fincerity are 
neceffary to fucceed in this, for nature has done the 
left for France. 

The Americans prefer, in general, the wine which 
is carried to them in bottles, becaufelhey believe it 
lefs fnbje(5l to become fharp, or to change on the 
voyage. On the firft view it feems advantageous to 
France to furnifii its wines with this envelope, be- 
caufe it is a new opening for its glafs-ware. But if 
at be recolleded. what a prodigious quantity of com- 
buftibles glafs manufadures require, to the fenfible 
rieilruction of forefts, it appears imprudent to en- 
courage a commerce which cannot but augment it 
rapidly. At leaft, before it be encouraged, it would 
be neceJTary to have very certain accounts of the 
number of glafs manufa(n"ories in the kingdom, cr 
their confumption of wood and charcoal, of their 
produce and exportation, and, finally, of our forefts 
and mines. 

SECTION IL 

Brandy. 

The rapid progrefs lately made in chymiflry has 
difcovered, in moft of the frnits of the earth, the 
faltsand fpirits which conftitute the effence of bran- 
dy; this difcovery has been turned to advantage; 
there refults from it a confiderable abatement in the 
price of that liquor, that is to fay, a very great evil; 
this proves, by the way, that there are difcoveries 
in phyfics which fliould not be revealed without 
having firfl confidered their moral and political ef- 
fects, and having indicated to government themean» 
of preventing their inconveniencies ; it alfo proves, 

tiiat 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 75 

di:U a chymifi: ought not to be a chymift only, but 
. politician alfo. 

Tiie brandies of France are generally looked upon 
as the beft, that is to lay, the mofl delicate and leaft 
pernicious: therefore they obtain the preference with 
people in eafy circumftances. 

A great deal of brandy is^confumed by the com- 
mon people; but this is counter-balanced at home 
and abroad by fpirits drawn from grain, fruit, or 
fugar. 

Rum, which °iS produced from the latter, has had, 
and ever will have, in the United States, the pre- 
i'erence over our brandies, by reafon of its cheap- 
icfs. The Americans, efpecially the Boltonians, 
nport melafTes from the fugar iflands, and diftil it, 
:nd independently of their confumption, they re- 
fell a great'part of it to the inhabitants of the fame 
Iilands, who cannot diftil it for want of combuftibles. 

Befide rum, the Americans make ftrong fpirits 
from grain, potatoes, &c. They are indebted for 
this to the Iridi aiui Germans who have gone to 
fettle in the United States. A pernicious prefent: 
thofe emigrants have made them. 

In Ireland the cheapnefs of fpirits made from 
grain places them within the reach of the poorefc 
man. The loweft clafles of fociety nfe them to an 
incredible excels; and this excefs contributes not a 
little 'to promote that quarrelfome humour which 
charac^erifes thelrifli, to plunge them into ihipidity, 
and hinder them from rifing to that degree of prof- 
perity to which the liberty of commerce they have 
lately obtained ought to carry them. 

The Americans would already have experienced 
2 part of that degradation of which the exceffive ufe 
of ftrong liqnors is the caufe, if they were not almoft 
ail proprietors, in eafy circumilances, and fathers of 
families; if inftruc^ion and morals were not more 
generally propagated among them than among any 
H 2 ©ther 



76 ON THE COMMERCE OF THX 

Other people; and, finally, if the quick and confix 
derable profits which workmen there obtain by the 
high price of workmanfliip, did not give them a 
falutary ambition which keeps them from intem- 
perance.* 

Thofe of the United States, f where the people 
have gone from fimple and primitive manners, 
where luxury begins to reign> where flavery ftill 

exifl?, 

* The temperance of the Americans proves, that a man 
3S HONEST WHEN HE IS HAPPY, He is neither vicious no? 
criminal, except when he is wretched. "What, there- 
fore, is the firft caufe of his vices and Crimea ? The caufe of 
his wretchecJnefs. The genealogy of almoft all ciimes is— no 
property or want of employ— caufe of wretchednefs of the peo- 
ple— vvretchednefs the caufe of druiil-cennefi — drunkennefs the 
caufe of quarrels, of idleiiefs, of mfery, of thefcs. Thefts 
caufe imprifonment and capital pup.'.flixents. 

The firft link only to which a dffedt of property is attached, 
remr.lns to be rercraiked. It is not neceiTary to name it. Bat 
it arifes from this genealogy, that in the adtual order of things, 
the people being drawn into vices and crimes, are lefs culp.'.ble 
than they are imagined j confc<jiicntly ihey ought not to hz (o 
fevcrely punifliei!, and that govcrnn.ent flTL-nild fupprcfs foo 
fevere pain'. This truth cannot be too often repeated, and it 
ought to be juined to every circumftance when opportunity of- 
fers, feeing that the lift of bloody executicns is every whers 
augmented, and that narrow minds, which fee the atrocity only 
of the crime, without perceiving its caufe, inceflantly dem.in 1 
blood for ex'.iation. There would be but few fcaffolds if none 
but real criminals mounted them. 

f See Smith's Voyage to tht fouthern United States, where 
a defcriptionof the life of the Carolinians is given. This au- 
thor makes it appear, that they drinlt to excefs the ftrongcft li- 
quors, although the climate be extremely h./t. By this they 
abridge their lives, and appear old in the flower of youth. Thin 
is one of the caufes of the mortality among the Engliih in the 
Eaft-Indies; they have introduced there the ufc of wines ani 
ftrong liquors, aiid they are vidtims to them. The Indians malce 
no ufeof thcfe, and live to a great age. 

In quoting Smith, the European readers ought to be put on 
their guard againft Englifn partiality, which re'gns througho'iC 
the work. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 77 

exills, are daily witnefles to the ravages cauCed by 
the exceffive ufe of fpirits made from grain.* 

A long habit is difficult, and often iipp-:(rible, to 
■(liake cif, efpecially when it procures enjoyments. 
Therefore, it is not to be expecled that the Ameri- 
cans will ever renounce the ufe of thefe iiquor?. 
The philofopher fighs at this; commercial nations, 
which turn to profit the misfortunes and caprices of 
mankind, drive to take advantage of it. France 
will have the advantage, f if (lie can reduce the 
price of' brandies to the level of that of rum. Go- 
vernment, in order to aim at this point, has already 
perceived the neceflity of lowering the duties on the 
exportation of thefe fpirits. 

But ought it to favour, with fo much complaifance, 
the difiiilation and exportation of brandies? I do 
not think fo; this new opinion feems to be a para- 
dox; it will ceafe to appear fo, when it flaall have 
been examined with attention. 

The diftillation of brandies caufe a great decay of 
combuftibles: one great evil in a country v.'herc 
combuftibles daily become more rare.:^ 

H 3 The 

* All brandies, etcept thofe from fugar and wine, are pcrni- 
cicus, efpecially when new. They cannot be drank withcui: 
'immediately dlfordering the body. The moft trifling excefs \v 
fuffirlent to caufe death. 

f Lord Sheffield agrees that the brandies of France are pre 
ferable to thofc of Spain and PortugaI,»of which there is ncver- 
thelefs fime confumption in the United Stales. 

X All the provinces of France, thofe even to which nature ha'; 
refufel ^he means of tranfporting their wood to others, feel the 
fcarcity of this article. Lorrain may be quoted as an inftance. 
The forefls of that province decay, as it Is reported in the prof. 
pe(5lL'3 of a price upon pit-coal, propofed by the academy or 
Narci — the dearnefs of \v->od is exceflive there. The caule o: 
this inconvenience is not difficult to aflign j it Is ths neceiiary 
confequence of forges, glafs-houtes, falt-pits. Sec. Tiie academy 
requires pit-co.U to be fought for, to ferve inftead of wood. A 
more fin^plc means would be fo deftroy forges and glafj-hovfe?, 
and to get iron and glafs from Americat 



78 ON IKE COMMERCE OF THE 

The exportation of brandy produces but little to 
the revenue. To encourage this article, it has been 
iieceflary to take off the impoft, which at prefent is 
no more than five fols per hogfhead, vv'hilft wine 
pays a duty of at leaft an hundred fols, and in the 
liordelois, from that fum to twenty-eight livres.* 

Government ought to have done the reverfe, to 
have reduced the duties on wines, and augmented 
thofe upon brandies. 

The exportation of brandies is prejudicial to th« 
confumption of our wines, for it is the bafis of all 
made wines in countries where wine is not produced. 
It is put into a great quantity of water; to which are 
added bay-berries, every where to be found. Wine 
brandies are indifpenfable in this fabrication; no 
other can fupply their place, becaufe they only can 
give to artificial wines the winy tafte which is cflen- 
tial to naake them drinkable. 

What immenfe gain to ftrangers in this procefs — 
and v;hat lofs to France! A barrel of brandy which 
pays a trifling duty on exportation, whofe tranfport 
cofts but little, on account of its contracted bulk, 
may be added to five or fix barrels of water, which 
coll nothing, and by the aid of fugared ingredients^ 
which give colours, may enter into competition with 
fix barrels of wine, that pay confiderable duties on 
exportation, and whofe exportation and tranfport 
are very expenfive. 

Therefore, in diftilling and exporting brandies, 
we work for the intereft of our rivals ; we give them 
an eafy means of doing without our wines. What 

folly! 

* Government has, fince this work has been written, fuf. 
pcnded the duties paid by the wines of Bourdeaux and Langue- 
doc. This fu(penfion was granted upon a remonftrance, im- 
porting that there was an enormous quantity of wines at Bour- 
deaux, and which the holders dared not export, that they might 
not be obliged to acvance the high dutiest This proves, that 
jinpofts occafioi) a ftagnation. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 7?) 

folly ! What would people fay of an alchymlft, who, 
having found the philofopher's ftone, fhould com- 
municate his fecret to his rivab, who would make 
ufe of it to his prejudice. 

And yet this operation, fo prejudicial to France, 
has been favoured by government. It encourages 
diftillers; that is, it raifes up enemies againftthe 
meliorating vineyards and wines, and efpecially 
againft the art of preferving the latter. It would be 
much more prudent and advantageous to difcourage 
diftilleries. In fa6t, the diftillation of brandies is 
for the vineyard proprietor a laft refource, which 
proves his ruin. ■* 

SECTION III. 

Oils, Olives, dry Frtiits, ^c. 

Thefe articles are fo many wants with the Ame- 
ricans of eafy fortune, and efpecially thofe in the 
northern States. Our fouthern Provinces, which 
pcoduce luch delicious fruits, cannot in this refpe6t 
fear any competition. They are alfo articles which 
have hitherto befl fucceeded in adventures made 
from Marfeilles. 

Moreover, all that Europe will be able to furnifh 
of them, will find room in the United States; they 

will 

* In the Orleanols, fix barrels at leafl: of wine are neceftajy 
to qnake one of brandy. The w;ne of this comitr , when it is 
drinkable, Is fold on an average at thirty livres a barrel. The fix 
barrels produce one hundred and eighty livres, and reducer! to 
l>randy they fcarcely produce eighty. Thus the proprietor fufFers 
a lofs of one hundred. Brandies fent abroad, where they dimi- 
nifh the fale of wine, can bear no exportation duty. Wines, on 
the contrary, pay a coijfiderable one. Let thefe calculations be 
anfwered. The En^ifh themfelves ought not to admit the bran- 
dies of France, becaufe, in filling lingl^nd with artificial wines, 
they are prejudicial to their wine duty. The prohibition of 
brandies would, under this double afpeft, be advautageous to 
both couAtiicsi 



So ON TH2 COMMtRCE OF THE 

will accompany onr wines, and we can join wit' 
the fame cafe and certainty of fale, perfumeries, 
anchovies, verdigreafe, &:c. as well as an hundred 
other little things taken by the Englifli from Mar- 
feilles, and of which they have created a want to 
the Americans. 

Lord Sheffield, in his work, makes Spain, Por- 
tugal, and Italy, furnifli the United States with thefe 
commodities. I wifli he had been fmcere enough 
to give the advantage to France. France is fo ge- 
nerally known to fell thefe produtlions in the States 
of America, that it is equally aflonifhing this writer 
Ihould have been ignorant of it, or filent upon the 
fubjecl. This fad, by proving his partiality, ought 
to put readers upon their guard againft his alTertions. 

SECTION IV. 

Cloths, < 

People governed by a free conftitution are natu- 
rally grave and deliberate. They prefer, in every 
thing they ufe, goodnefs to elegance, what is folid 
to that which is fubjeft to the caprices of mode. 
Therefore, as long as the independent Americans en- 
joy their excellent conftitution, they will prefer 
clothes of cloth to thofe of the mofl: brilliant fluffs. 

Moreover, its beauty, pliancy, ilrength, and du- 
ration, render it more generally fit for this ufe in any 
climate whatfoever: cloth fecures the body from 
the exceffes of cold . as well as from thofe of heat. 
It refifls rain; in a word, it unites every conveni- 
ence; and if it be the univerfal clothing of people 
in a middling ftate, it offers equally to the rich, but 
reafonable man, a choice proper to fatisfy his tafle, 
and to proportion his expences toiiis means. 

The manufadure of cloths is in the number of 
thofe complicated manufa(5lures which employ 
throughout the year a great number of workmen by 

the 



VWITED STATES OF AMERICA. ^£ 

the (liy; therefore it will not be fuitableto the Amc» 
r!cans> fo long as that clafs of men which produces 
thefe workmen fhall be able to employ themfelves 
n:iore ufefully in the clearing of lands, and in culti- 
vation in general. 

A manufadure of woollen Huffs, proper for the 
clothing of the country proprietor, his family and 
fervants, may, without doubt,, be airociated into the 
labours of the field ; but manufaftures of this kind, 
although very important in themfelves, can only be 
applied to coarfe and unfiniflied fluffs. The inter- 
rupted leifure. of the peafant permits him to do no* 
thing which is complicated. Card, fpin, weave, 
md bleach, is all that he can do.* If it be necef- 
lary for him to go beyond thefe, he will find a grcatee 
advantage in felling his raw materials, or even with 
-heir fi^il preparations, if they be fmiple, and to 
iraw from the manufactures.^ properly fo called, the 
articles of which he is in need. 

We owe little gratitude to tliofe of our f[)ecuIator3 
who immediately after the peace difperfed our cloths 
in the United States. If one fpark of pubhc fpirit 
had animated, them, they would have perceived tlis 
precious and honourable fervice which they were 
able to render to their country in thefe firft adven- 
tures, by giving to the Americans a great idea of 
theftate of our manufaflures. Thefe people were 
well difpofed, by the fuccour France had given 
them, to cherifh its inhabitants, to eiteem their cha- 
rafter, and receive their produ6lions. They were 

well 

* As long as there are lands to be cleared, the leifure whicia 
agriculture affords will be very fliort, becaufe every fcafon is pro- 
per ior this employ, except wheri too great a qaancity of fnovv 
(tops the work. The inccrvals of leifure become regalarly ella- 
blifhed, when the fyllem of cultivation is fixeJ, and the foil en- 
tirely difpofed thereto. Then undertakings are calculated upoa 
their (kiration j but, in general, fimple work, which requires no 
workfhop, no confiderable apparatus, is that gnly which agrees 
with a^jriwuiture. 



S2 ON THE COMWERCE OF TflE 

well difpofed to abjure the contempt and averfiaa 
with which the Englifli had infpired them for their 
rivals and their productions, and to give France the 
preference in every thing. Why hatj avarice, by a 
miferable calculation, rendered thefe good difpofi- 
lions of no effect? Men were v.'illing to gain, to 
gain greatly; to make what is called a good llroke> 
in taking advantage of the diftrefs of the Ameiicans, 
and forcing them to take thofe commodities which 
were unfit for every other market.''^*" 

This diflionefty has counterbalanced the fervice 
rendered them; for the imprudent and wretched 
young man, whofe throat is cut by an ufurer, owes 
liim no acknowledgment; A greater evil to France 
has been the confequence— her cloths have loft iheir 
reputation in the United States. 13ut let the An-e- 
ricsns undeceive themfelves; let them not ifnribute 
to the nation the iault of a few individuals; let thtni 
not have a bad opinion- of our cloths, becaufe foire 
bad ones have been Tent to them. The fame acci- 
dent would have happened to Englifn cloths if, in ■ 
like cafe, there had been Englifli merchants avarici- 
ous enough, and fo far Grangers to the public good, 
*s to fend their refufe to the United States.f . 

The 

*' I G3 not accufc any boc'y j but I can certify, upon the an • 
thority of the na fl refpedtable eye-witneflcs, tbut fome of ttieie 
outc:uT: cloths fell at the end of fix months wear into ftireds. 

The Americans weie To flruck by this, that Mr. Laurens, 
after havirg received two millions, which Fr?;nce lent to th.e 
United States, employed a part of that (um to buy Englifh cloths. 
Complaints were made, he anfvvered that it v.as his duty to buy 
better and cheaper cloths. 

i" EngliHi merchants love, as well as others, to get n>oney, 
and there are among them thofe who, for the love of gain, would 
trample under foot every patriotic confideration. But the public 
fpirit of the generality of thsm puts, in England more than elfc- 
where, a check upon the fhameful enterprizes of avarice j con- 
fequenvly the greater part of the merchants never abandon the 
national interefts in their fpeculations, neither the hcnoiirof Eng- 
lifh commerce, nor the reputation of their manufactures. It 



•UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. gj 

The Americans who come among us, uudy the 
lature of the intercourfe which we fliall one day 
have with the United States; they know that our 
iianufa<flurers polTefs all the means which give to 
Englifli cloths their reputation ; that they make them 
in the fame manner, and that the fuperfines are fu- 
perior to thofe of England; that in general dying is 
better underftood with us, and carried to greater 
perfection: in fliort, that it depends but on fome 
circumliances eafy to be got over, to make the cheap- 
nefs of our workmanfliip a Jure us the preference to 
the Englifli with rcfpeft to cloths. 

Lord Sheffield, in avowing the fuperiority of our 
line cloths, and of their cheapnefs, obferves, that 
the greateft confumption of the Americans is of 
common cloths, with refpeft to which France cannot 
enter into a competition with England. And he 
di-aws from it this confequence, that the inconveni- 
ence of dividing the demands to compofe aifort- 
nients, and the confideration of the fmall quantity 
of fine cloth necefTary to form them, will caufe thefe 
to be ordered in England, notwithftanding the ad- 
vantage there would be in getting them from France, 

But why fhould we not furnilh common cloths 
to the United States, fmce the labour of our manu- 
facturers is cheaper than that of England? It is be- 
caufe the Englifli wool is cheaper than ours. The 
Englifli grow their own wool, and ftand in no need 

of 

is thus they are become the principal agents for furnifhing evsry 
fpecles of manufa<£lure to the vvliole world. When it happens 
that any of thepj facrifice national reputation to views of private 
interefl, honeft patriots generally perf'.-r accufations againft them 
before a public tribunal, and tiien the culprit ?3 not fufFered to 
anfv/cr hy clandeftine memoirs to public and fubftantial accufa- 
tions; this obfcure and cowardly refource is held in too great 
contrmpt to be made ufe cf. There remains nothing to the 
culprit but filc^'-t or f^lfhood ; in both cafos he is diHionoureci 
in rh'; npiniou • rhe ublic, which affefts an'^ marks every in- 
dividual, without refpeft to rank, power^ or riches. 



€: 'ON THE COMMERCE OF TKt 

of foreign wool, except a little Spanifh, indifp-en- 
fable to fuperfine cloths. On the contrary, we im- 
port more than half of the wool we manufacture 
into cloth. M. la Platiere fays there are thirty-five 
millions of flieep kept in Great-Britain, each of 
which, he afiirms, produces on an average at leaft 
fix pounds of wool. It is the breed of fheq) which 
gives to England fuch an amazing fuperiority over 
all other nations in her woollen manufactures. 
France ought to encourage the breed of flieep and 
the defl:ru6lion of wolves.* M. 1<-^ Platiere faw this 
evil, and had courage to publifti it in the Encyclo- 
pediae Methodique. Platiere was called a man of 
pretenfioiis. The fame title was given to Dr. Price 
in London, when he predi<5led the lofs of the Colo- 
mes. The minifterial heads of that country laughed 
<it the prophet, but the event proved he was right. 

SECTION V. 
Linens. 

There are two principal fpecies of linen-draperv, 
which are fubdivided into a multitude of others. 

The firfl fpecies contains linen properly fo called; 
that is to fay, linen which ferves to make fhirts, 
llieets, table linen, and till the linen made ufe of 
for every purpofe of cleanlinefs. 

Thefe linens are made with hemp, flax, or cotton; 
this lafl: nrticle is employed when the two former ones 
are fcarce: it is fometimes mixed with flax. 

The 

* In the time of the monarchy there was an office called Lou - 
viTERlE, or Mafter of the Fvench King's wolf-h'unds, and 
his fTociaCes received a tritlini; recompence for the head of every 
wolf they killei : of whom this fa£t is well atttfted. There 
is a fmall dirtrift, the Tub- delegate of v/liich put into his account 
the price often thoufand wolves head$. The quantity appeared 
extraordinary to the minifter. The afia'.t was exa.nVned. The] 
dub-delegate was difcharged. But he who prompted him to the] 
a£t went unpunifhed. 



\Jir:TED STA.T£S OF AMERICA. 8^' 

The manner of making thefe linens is very fim- 
ole; ihey are iP,ade in all parts of Europe.* Thofe 
countries wliere religious or political defpotifm di- 
icourages induflry ; where the numerous inftitutions 
cf charity, invented to divert the attention of de- 
i pair from mifery, nourilh Idlenefs ; thefe countries 
?.re the only ones wherein this manufacture does not 
merit the attention of the political obferver. 

Every where elfe, the country people employ, 
more or lefs, the leifure which their kind of life af- 
fords them to f{)in and weave linen. Mod of the 
farmers and proprietors who enjoy a little eafe, or 
v/ho are not afraid of letting it appear, fow hemp 
or flax, and draw from their foil and the work of 
I their 

* If there be a country ^:h<tre the nn.anufadure of linens Is 
encouraged, it is in Ireland, particularly fince its lefurredliou 
into the political world. Parliament has ertabllfhed a ftom- 
mittee which is particularly employed about this manufaclure, 
2nd which grants very con/iderable fuccours to manufad^irers. 
There is one who has obtained more than, thirty thoufand pounds 
sterling from government, and whofe manufa£lure employs two 
thoufand men and women, and fix hundred children. 

This comTiittee names infpeftors to examine the ft^te of ma- 
nufactures, and afterwards to make reports, or give a generil 
defcription of their fituation, of the number of workmen they 
employ, of their produce, refources, wants, &c.l| 

Still more ha? been done in Irelanvi, to encourage the com- 
merce of linen 5 great edifices have been bulk, and deiVmed to 
receive them, z% v/ell as thofe who ccme to offer them for fale. 
The moil confiderable market being at Dublin, three or four 
times a year, linen merchants from the North, who have blf ?ch- 
yards, come to Dublin with their affortments. They find ia 
fhefe edifices, places for their linens and for themfeives to lodge 
in, all at no expence. — They meet Englifh buyers or others, 
who go there to gather together all their purchafes. — Like depo- 
iicories are cftablifned in the North ; they are elTcntialiy necellary 
to thofe manufatiures, the articles of which are gathered in the 
countr/. — Where they exift, expences are lefs, and work is bet- 
ter paid for. 

jl When thefe infpcftors are honefl:, and men of unierftand- 
ing, their reports are eviaences of fucccfs. Then example haa 
a lingular influence upon in<luftry. 



86 ON THE COMMERCE OV THE 

their hands the linen which covers their bodies aiii 
Supplies their family. 

The Englifli have added otEcr caufes to thofe 
which produce low-priced workmanfliip: their afto- 
nifliing induftry, their obferving genius, their ever 
calculating mind, have invented for the fpinning, &c. 
of cotton, and for weaving, feveral machines which 
Hill furpafs the cheapnefs to be expelled from the 
leifure of the inhabitants of the country. 

As thefe machines are infenfibly introduced into 
countries, it may be expe6ted that the low price of 
linen-drapery will be every where eftablifhed. 

But notwithflanding the multiplication of thefe 
machines, nations v^^hich groan under a bad govern- 
ment, or are grown nifty in old and wretched habits, 
will always depend, for that article of neceflity, upon 
thofe which have eftablillied bounds to their govern- 
ment, but none for their induftry, which muft con- 
Itantly increafe. 

Ityefults from thefe fa(5ls, that the United States 
will always have, in proportion to the increafe of 
their population and culture, lefs recourfe to Gran- 
gers for that principal kind of linen-drapery whofe 
manufadure is fo well aflbciated with the labours of 
thefield.->^ 

Very fine linens muft be excepted ; they are def- 
tined for luxury, and the individuals employed in 
manufafturing them are condemned to vegetate mi- 
ferably in cities, rolling perpetually in the fame circle 
of mechanical labours. f It is the unhappy fate of 

all 

* The American women are renowned for their induftry in the 
Conduil cf tlieir houfes j they fpin a great deal of wooJ or flax; 
tliey would !ofs their reputation and be dcffifed, if tlieir whole 
family were rot ?,!mf ft entirely clothed with the cloth &< d linen 
m: de in the houfe— if the whole interior of their ruftic liabita- 
tion did n(^t bear evident marks of their clearlinefs and indu.lry. 

•f ^lanufaiftures ?re much boafted of, becaufe children arc 
employed therein from their moft tender age 5 that is to fay, 
th;;t raea co.nsratuUte thcmfelves upon making early martyr* 



VNITKD STATES 09 AMERICA. S.^ 

5tl thoie who are born in Europe without property, 
and will not debaie themfelves by domeftic labour. 

The United States, where laborious individuals 
may with lb much facility become proprietors, are 
far from that degradation ; and if they are wife, they 
will have, for a long time, the happinefs not to fee' 
fpun or woven among them, any of thofe delicate 
kinds of thread and fine linens, which, fought after 
and bought up by the opulent, are the real produc- 
tions of European mifery. 

The fecond fpecies of linens contains what is 
more properly called linen-drapery; that is to fliy, 
cloth made of thread of different colours, whether 
ilax or cotton; or thefe two fubi^ances nu;icd with 
others. 

The greater part of this drapery requires too com- 
plicated a procefs, too varied an apijaratus, too con- 
tinued a labour, to be manufactured otherways than 
in thofe particular efiablifliments, filiated from ne- 
cefTity in the neighbourhood of cities, and which 
have no affinity with a rural life. 

The art of making well the tilTue, of mixing the 

colours, of contrafting them, of imaginary agreeable 

i 2 . uefigns, 

cf i\\'i(& innocent crr.at'jres j for is it not a torment to thefe poof 
iitt e beings, v/h-bm nature commands us to permit to take the 
airand their fports, until they are of riper years, and their flrenguh 
h liccome conficierabie^ — Is it nor n torment to ihem to be a whole 
day, and almoll every day of their lives, employed at the fame 
work, in an obrca^e irA infeded piifon? Muft not the weari- 
nefs and vexation vaoich tliey fiiifer, obftru£i the opening of their 
phyfical and intelleflual faculties, and ftupify thein ? Muft not 
there refilt from this a degenerate rac", inclined to automa. 
toni'm and llavery ? For moft manufaftnres require no oth-.r 
than mechanical kbcurs, which a machine would perform as 
weil as a man. It is therefore imponible that a man condemnci 
to rliiskind of employ should not become a machine 5 and Cu- 
pidity and fervitude are joined to each other. — Thefe truths cm - 
not be too often repeated, not to difgult the Europeans v/ith the 
rnania of man-ifaclnres j they arc too far advanced to retr.iti j 
l»i*t to. hinder ihe Americsris from eve;- foUovvirg the (■.w.it c.atpei> 



S8 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

defigns, of preparing the linen when it is finiflied; 
See. this art, extenfive, varied and delicate, requires 
the greateil; attention. The mofl important thing is 
to do a great deal in it at a little expence, and it is 
the point to which the Engliih are arrived, with re- 
fpe£t to that kind generally known under the name 
of printed callico. 

This will be for a long time a confiderable article 
of commerce, between Europe and the United 
States, which confumes a great d-cal of it; and it is 
an article wherein French indiiflry, left to its natural 
force, and not being reftrained by any obftacle, need 
not fear competition.* In thi^j as in moft other 
articles, the nature of things is entirely in favour of 
France, and fuccefs depends wholly on the will of 
her gov^ernment. 

In the year 1785 the government of France in- 
•vited, by an arret, foreign manufacfturers of ihtfe 
linens to come an.d fettle in France. 

But this invitation is not made in term.s fufficiently 
clear, or flattering, to indues frrangers to come and 
fettle amongf]: us; efpecially not fuch as have a little 
energy and elevation in their charaiflers, and it is o-f 
thefc alone that we are in need. 

Ainong diiierent favoiirs granted them, there i:; 
one wliich entitles them to the enjoyment of their ftat- 
or profejjlon^ and of their ufnges ; in that vchlch Jhall ?io: 
he contrary to the laws of the kindom, ^d'c. 

Bui 

* Lord ShefBsld maintain? in tils work, that France has 
not even linen enough for her own confumption. A coro- 
mercial diftionary, printed at Lyons in 1763, affuie* on the 
contrary, that France lends a great deal abroad. It the com- 
piler of the difVionary fpoke truth, he might be anfvvercd ac- 
cording 10 the author of Le.s Etudes de la Nature — " Of wha: 
<* ufc is it to a ftute to clothe foreign nations, when one's own 
** people are quite naked ?"-^Thefe two writers may be made 
to agree, by faying that France^ reilored to her energy, would 
cafily furnifh linens to foreigners and her own citizens, and that 
various inrenor caufes have hi chcito prevented her from doing :to. 



BT^iTED STATES O? AMERICA. 89 

But what fignifies all the vague expreffions of en- 
joyment, of ftate and profefflun, liberty and ufages? 
What ftate is here fpoken of? Is it of the political, 
civil, religious, or domeftic ftate? Englillimen, in- 
dependent Americans, have a political Hate, a poli- 
tical liberty, that is, a right to take part in the ad- 
miniilration of public affairs: is this flate under- 
flood ? Is the liberty of having a temple for commu- 
nion, for marriage according to that communion, 
underflood by the liberty of ufages? Why are not 
thefe ufages fpccihed? 

And above all, what fignifies thefe words, in thar 
ichich Jliall not be contrary to the laws of the kingdom. If 
they convey a clear meaning, do they not completely 
deftroy the preceding favours granted ? or, at leaft, 
do not they leave a great uncertainty upon that 
which is or is not granted? ' 

Why is not a language clear and without evnfioii 
made ufe of, efpecially in treating with Grangers ^• 
Inilead of an equivocal jargon, dangerous in its na- 
ture, becaufe it producer miflruft, and may give an 
opening for deceit, why not fay to them in clear 
terms, '* If you come within our flates, accompanied 
by your wives and children, — if you bring your 
manufa6lures, if you eflablifli yourfelves among us, 
you fliall enjoy all thexights of our fubje6ls ? Thefe 
rights are, to pofTefs property in the fulleft fecurity, 
and not to be deprived of it but. by the laws, tri- 
bunals, &:c. If you fix your abode among us, your 
children .will, without obflacle, be your heirs: yon 
iliall alfo preferve your religious opinions. When 
there iliall be a certain, number of you, you fnall 
have a temple wherein'to worfliip, according to your 
own manner, the Everlafting Father ; and you (hail 
have minillers, and holdaflemblies; Ihall intermarry 
according to your rules, &c. If France be no't 
agreeable to you, nothing, abfolutely nothing, fliall 
Kinder you from leaving it, and carrying with you 
■ I 3 ' your 



90 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

your riches." It faall be told that all this was meant 
to be faid by the arret: it was necelTary then to ex- 
plain it clearly, and why were thefe obfcure words 
added, — in that ivhich Jhall net be contrary to the laws of 
the kingdom ? 

How fliould a German, an Italian, an Englifii- 
man, who fhould-be tempted to eftablifli themfelves 
in France, be acquainted with your ancient laws and 
ordinances? Will they turn over your innumerable 
folios? Certainly they will not, they will flay at 
home; you will therefore have failed in your inten- 
tions. On the other hand, do not they know that 
a century ago, and ever fince that time, thoufands 
of ordinances were, and have been made againil 
the Calvinifts, and that thefe ordinances are not yet 
repealed? Ought not they to be afraid that thefe 
would be brought forth againft them if they gave the 
le^ft offence? They will remain at home, and once 
more you have mifled your aim. 

It is the more necellary for monarchies not to 
difguife under a captious form the advantages by 
which they feek to entice f^rangers; as free ftatei;, 
fuch as Ireland and Independent America, do not 
fubjed: emigrants to any capitulation or conftraint: 
they offer them all the rights of citizens the moment 
they fet their feet on free ground: and what rights! 
In Ireland that of voting at ele(5lions; in the United 
States, that of being elected themfelves; and con- 
fequently the moft feducing right, becaufe it is the 
mofl proper one to maintain the dignity of a man 
■who has dignity; the moil proper to give it to him 
who has it not. 

"When a nation perceives the neceffity of enticing 
Grangers to fettle in it, nothing ought to be fpared^ 
efpecially in ftatesfar advanced in civilization. 

It is a means of regenerating morals, if it be pof- 
fiblc to regenerate them^ and efpecially to encourage 

induftry; 



UNITED STATES OF AM:ERiCA, ^* 

induftry; for in order to exiil in a frrange land, and 
to gain in it confideration and confidence, emigrants 
are forced to have good morals, probity, and 5xa(fti- 
tude. Their example cannot but have a iahitary in- 
fluence upon the nation which receives them into 
its bofom. 

Otherwife, having opinions, habitudes, and knov/- 
ledge, different from thofe of that nation, they mav 
help it to break its bad cuftoms, to give it a greater 
extent in its views, more cofmopolitifm, or of that 
•chara^ler proper for approaching nations to each 
other, and for diminifhing national antipa.thies. 

When the advantages which a country acquires 
by llrangers who fix themfelves in it are confidered, 
it is aftonifbing to fee governments think fo little 
about them, and frequently not to refpec^ their rights. 
They ought, on the contrary, to proted a ftranger fo 
much the more as he feems lefs fupported by the laws 
than a citizen; that he is unacquainted with them; 
that he may eafily be the viftim of artifice and chi- 
canery ; that it frequently happens that he does not 
underftand the language; finally, that being alone, 
he has neither family, friends, nor patrons. 

In this fituation, the Granger ought to be envi- 
roned by the fafeguard of a particular adminiftration, 
which fliould watch over his fafety; but it is the - 
reverfe of this in many ftates.* 

Thus, whilft Vv'e fee in thofe llates who under- 
Hand their interefts better, Frenchmen dired the 

greatefi; 

* If a ftranger be fufpefted, few examinations- are made; 
he is arrefted— liberty is left to a citizen, or at leaft he is treat- 
ed mildly j the ftranger is imprifoned : the fabaltern, infolenC 
by reafon of the indifference of his f'jper',ors, treats him with 
feverity : for what is there to fear fiom him ? Is the word 
with them all,— fet at liberty— will that ilranger go and make 
the temple of chicane ring with his complaints? He Tears^ 
left it may be a new forc.%— he files, curfing th*t inhofpitable 
CGu>->tpy-» - 



^2 ON THE- COiMMSRCE OF THE 

greatert part of their manufadliures; few firangers 
are fcsn to come and eftablifh themfelves amongft us. 
I conld quote, as a proof of what I advance 
known fa6ts, quite recent; but I will not writer, 
book upon every article of exportation; I will con- 
fine myfelf to faying that great liberty, and feiv regu- 
lationsy* are the two bed means of improving the 
linen manufactures in all countries, as well as ir. 
France. 

SECTION VL 

Silks y Rzbho?2S^ Silk Stcchngs^ Gold and Si her Lace^ CuV 

There are upwards of feventy thoufand looms 
and frames employed in thefe articles, and one half 
of the filk made ufe of is produced in the kingdom 

The other flates of Europe, except Spain an. 
Italy, are obliged to procure from abroad the whole 
of the filk neceifary for the manufactures which thev 
have eriablidied, in imitation of thofe of France. 

If there be added to the advantage which thefc 
circumftances give to the French, their fingular ap- 
titude for the manufacture of every article of luxury ; 
their incredible fecundity in varying thefe articler • 
the abfolute and general empire allowed, them over 
the tafte and mode which prefide in thefe manufac- 
tures; an empire fo particular, as to be every where 
copied; no doubt will remain, that French filkc 

ribbons, 

* I might quote, as a proof of what I have faid in the cov.rfe 
of this work, that c\fen the regulations which appear favour- 
able to induftry, are prejudicial to it^ the new arret palfed in 
favour of French linens, fubjccls them to a ftam?> duty, under 
the pretext of preventing fraud. The duty appears moderate, 
jier the manufafturers are fenlibly injured by it j; moreover ic 
reftrains them, in fubjeding them to the capr'ces of revenue 
clerk?; and this does not prevent fraud j therefore, to prevent 
the manufacturer from being robbed, his money is taken f.om 
him, and the robbery ftiil takes place j h? would prefer being; 
i5f:. to defend himfcyf againft thieves^ 



X7NITED STATES OF AMERICA. ryi,: 

ribbons, (ilk flocking^, and lace, will be preferred 
to all others in ihe United Srates.* 

It is not to be feared that they will be manufac- 
tured there; from the cares which the infe6i: that 
produces the lilk requires, to the arrival of the fluff 
in the warehoufe where it is to be fold, almoft all is 
workmanfliip; and the workmanlhip of Europe muil 
for a long time, if not for ever, be even cheaper 
than that of the United States. 

The confumptionf of thefe articles cannot be 

very 

* Yet Lord Sheffield gives for coinpetltlon witji France, Eng- 
land and Spain. It is to be obferved that England cannot un- 
dertake with advantage thofe manufadures wherein gold and 
fiSver are intioduced, nor in general thofe which have for their 
bafis the ufe of brilliant metals. Fire is necelTary as an agen£ 
In fuch jTianui^acJures, and a coa! fire is prejudicial to them. 
The atmofphere in England is perpetually charged with ful- 
phurecus vjpours, where contact tarni/hes, in a very little time, 
gold and filver lace, &c. and this perhaps is the motive, which 
more than manners has bani/hcd, and will for ever exclude this 
kind of luxury from England ; and if. is not a misfortune. 

■\ Our defign being to dilluade the free Americans from wiflr-o 
ing for manufaflures, we ought not to lofe the prefent oppor- 
tunity of defcribing to them the abufes and inconveniencies in- 
feparable from thefe eftablifiTiments. There is none wliich has 
had more fuccefs in France than that of filk. Yet fee the fright- 
ful defcription given of it by M. Mayet, director of the manu-» 
failures of the King of FrufTia, in his Memoir on the mar.u- 
fadures cf Lyon?. (Paris, Moutard 17S6.) He indicates as 
caufcs of the decadency of the manufadiures, the drunkennefs 
of workmen op. Sundays, the inreftlon of tlieir difmal lodgings, 
bankruptcies which are the refult of ignorance and difhoneity, 
the celTation of work during court mourning?, which occafions 
fome woikmen to emigrate, and others to fleal, the mifcondudl 
of r.'.venue officers, the monupj!y of filk, &c, abufes fo mu^h 
the more alarming., fays M. Mayet, as they are, for the moil: 
part, the offsprings of luxurr, and which are produced either 
by acquired riches, or the thir f: of acquiring themj it feems as 
if they could not but fpring up in manufactures. 

Who can recommend the eftabli/hment of manufa£lures, on 
reading the following rededtions of the fame author ? 

*' The concurrence of manufadtures ncceflitates their chea^- 
" nefs: to have a preference q( falcjit is necelTary to fell ?.t.a:, 



94 O^ THB COMMERCE OF TH2- 

very confiderable there,* if America takes advan- 
tage of that opening to which nature calls her. Rib- 
bons excepted, the reft are proper for great cities 
only; where vanity being incefiantly excited, makes 
dreis a defirable and alm-old. necefiiiry object. But 
thefe great cities Vv'ill, without doubt, be very rare 
in the United States. It is ftill more certain that the 
confumption of fUks does not, at prefent, form 
there a confidcrable article; that it will augment but 
very flowly, and in a manner alraoll infenfible. The 
Americans ought undoubtedly to be congratulated 
upon it. Their manners v/ill be good and fimple as 
long as they do not contracl a want of thefe articles; 
but if they do not v/ant them for themfelves, tiiey 
will haveoccafion for them to form branches of their 
fmuggling commerce with the Spaniards. Nature 
invites them to carry on this commerce in an advan- 
tageous manner, both by fea and land.f 

It 

^* lower price j the wages of workmen muft therefore be mede- 
*' rate, and they mull gain no mora than will find them in 
** recefTaries: the workman muit never be rmtetcd to enrich 
*' himf'lf. In becoming rich, he becomes dilTicutr, exafling, 
*' entfirs into combination-:, iir.pofes laws, becomes difTipated 
*' and idle, he caufes the piice of vporkmaniliip to Incrcafe, and 
*' manufaclures to faii." Thus rich srvrfs oucht to 

BS WATSRED WITH THE TEARS OF THE WuRKMAN WHO 
MANUFACTURES TMZM. . 

Ought not this lafc phr-fe to dlfguft the free Americans for 
ever with the mania of manufafture.s of luxury? — Let rhera 
rcfleft, that to fupport the filk manufad^ures of I.yonf, the fame- 
author propofes, to.the King of France, to facrifice his tafte for 
Umplicicy cf drefs, and to wear brilliant clothes, &c. 

* Lord Shefiield (ays, that it is not the fifth part of Indian 
filks, &c. but what fignifies this calculation? The country 
which confiirres the greateil: cuantity of fiik ftuiTs, dees nor, 
pe-haps, ccnfam: the rweniieLla part of that which Lord Shef- . 
fit Id means by Indian fuks. 

•f- This commerce will be better eftablifhcd by land — The • 
rl.^As there Vsrill be lefs— '•The great rivers which water thofe im- 
wenfe countries will favour it. A maritime commerce muil . 
be protefled by a naval force, and the nature cf things will hin--' 
•'. ii-- ;. -v.^r ■ ■■-: f,-nr>^ '-■•i'/ing one for ? ;"•■<- "'•-■'.'•'r. -.-■■•«. 



tJXtTKD STATES Of AIvILRICA. 9^ 

II is known that wretched individuals, who vege- 
■ -.te in South-America, mailers and flaves, all figh 
nfter nothing hut hi xury, pomp and drefs. Elegant 
and (hining fluffs of France; her filks and laces will 
therefore be fought after, demanded, and bought up 
with avidity. 

However it may be with refpe<5l to this commerce, 
which cxifts but in futurity, and which mufl be pre- 
ceded by other circumflances, there is at prefent a 
certain confumption of filks, ribbons, &c. in the 
United States ; and the French ought to be anxious 
to fuppiy them. 

I will obferve upon this fubjeft, that if the French 
government ordered that the regular packet-boats 
going from France and America fnould receive ae 
much merchandize on board as their defii nation 
would permit, little ventures of cur filks, ftuffs, rib- 
bons, gauzes, fi:ocking.s, &c. would be frequently 
fent out, and thefe articles v/ouid ferve better than 
any other toeftablifli uninterrupted connexions, and 
which by the infight they give, and the experiments 
vhich they afford an opportunity of making, con- 
du6l nature herfetf to thofe great commercial inter- 
courfes to which we ought to afpire. 

The facilities which packet-boats offer for the 
fending out of merchandize of value and of little 
incumbrance ought not to be neglefted, fince, in 
this clafs of merchandize, we have things which have 
a decided preference. I Vv'ill return to thofe packet- 
beats which it is important to keep upand to increafe., 
and it is to bewiflied, that no monopoly of right or 
fa(5l may take poflefTion of them, in order to carry 
one branch of commerce in exclufion of others. 



SECTION 



^§ ON THE COMM-ERCEOF THE 

SECTION VII. 

Hats. 

•Although a fine hat be called a beaver, it does not 
follow that Canrida and the United Northern States 
are mure favourable to the fobrication of hats than 
France. Hats, purely of beaver, do not wear vvell^ 
and are inconvenient on account of their weight. 
The fineft, handfomeft, and beft hats, contain but 
little of the fur of that animal, which we efteem at 
too high a price, when we think of the lofs of Ca- 
nada. "Wool, the furs of the hares and rabbits; the 
hair of goats, which, in fa6b, is wool, and camefi 
hair, are more neceffary for making of hats than tlu^ 
.fur of beavers. 

The few hats made of beaver in the United Stat: • 
will be fufRcient for their confumption. — The Ame- 
ricans mud:, however, be incelTantly told this great 
truth, that manufactures are not proper for them ex- 
cept in thofe articles which are immediately afibciatet 
with agriculture, and which facilitate its operation:. 
That of hats is not of this kind. 

Europe will therefore furnilli hats to the Ameri- 
cans. And of what great importance is this objecfl, 
when the rapid increafe of their population is con- 
fidered? It may be affirmed, that every nation ca- 
pable of fending them out merchandize, will fend 
them hats; but thofe of France will have the prefe-. 
rence. This manufacture had there its origin. The 
French alone have carried it elfewhere, like many 
other things; but it has never ceafed to improve in 
France. 

French hats are always the befl fulled and dyed, 
and the moft agreeable. When government flialL,'^ 
havereColved.to do for wools that which it has donei 
for mulberry trees, the manufacture of hats will be 
io much the more advantageous, as we jfhall be lefs 

tributary 



r^'lTED STATES 07 A^IETH'CA. i)J 

r.ibutary to foreigners for tlie articles employed 
therein. 

SECTION YllL 

Leather. 

Shoes^ Boots, Saddles, ^€. 

To what caufe ought the great fuperiority of Eng- 
Hfh leather to be attributed over ours? Why is there 
in this leather-work of all kinds that neatnefs, that 
reducing appearance, which we have not yet ap- 
proached? It muft be repeated, that in England 
men honour the profellion of a tanner, and pride' 
themfelves upon it, whilft it is the contrary in France. 
An Englifli tanner, flioemaker, or faddler, does not 
^uit his trade when he is rich; but makes his riches 
ferve, in proportion as they augment, to give luftre 
to his profeffion, to multiply his workfliops, to ex- 
tend his affairs, to become important even in the 
Article which has furniflied him the means of doing 
it. The leather which comies from the tanneries 
whofe owner is in eafy circumftances, is always well 
prepared, becaufe he can advance fums of money, 
and give to hides the time neceflary for their progrefs 
through his tan-yard. A poor tanner is always 
prefled by his wanting to take the leather out of the 
tan-pit, where it is neceflary it fliould remain a long 
time to acquire a good quality. In general, it is im.- 
poflible with this penury, unknown to the Englifli, 
that there fhould be time to manufacture or fabricate 
good merchandize. Thofe who employ the leather, 
acquire no reputation in their profeflions but in 
proportion to great provifions made before hand, 
which puts itin their power to furnifii nothing but 
•leather improved by being kept. It will be afked, 
'how the wholefale dealers manage when they begin 
^bufincfs? They find credit, if in their apprenticc- 
K fliips. 



98 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

fhlps, which precede their eftablifliments, they hav^ 
acquired a good reputation.* 

This credit is then fupported, not only by the 
certainty of fuccefs, but alfo by that of feeing them 
become a conftant means of confumption. 

Such is the art of the Englifh to fupport and in- 
creafe their commerce in every thing, and every 
where. If we could put it in pradflice, all our comi- 
modities of leather would foon equal the perfection 
of theirs, fince we do not otherwife v.'ant materials. 
Their being beforehand with lis, ought not to dif- 
courage any body ; but it is neceflary to the fuccefs 
of this rivality, that government fliould deliver the 
tanners from the fiiackleo with which they have fet- 
tered 



* We may readily perceive, that this hope of being fome day 
well eflabllfhed with great fuccours, is worth all the books o"f 
morality. The engravings of Hogarth, which reprefent the 
fate of the idle apprentice, paint, to the life, Engli/h manners. 
The intention of the workman is not to become Secretaire 
l>u Roi.jj He marries the daughter of the good mafter who 
has brought him up, and fucc^eds him in the fame bufwicfs which 
he has contributed to extend. 

It is not that the French tanner, who barters his profefllon 
againft a brevet of Secretaire du Roi, or commifl'ary of war, 
ought to be blamed. He reafons well. He fees that no con* 
fideration is attached to talents and induftry, and he delays not 
to buy himfclf a title. It is therefore wrong to j'">ke mer):hants 
and artizans, who, for money, get themfelves enregiftered in a 
privileged clafs. It is an evil to the ftate,-butic is not the fault 
of thofe who purchafe. The fault is due to th«; kind of difgrace 
from which government has not yet delivered the ignoble. 

It ought to be obfcrved here, how fatal the fpeculation which 
cftabliihed this order of things has been to the nation. To pro- 
cure money, offices were created jv»'liich, b/ ennobling, induces 
the ignoble to purchafe them ; they are difgufted with their fitua- 
tion by being difhonoured, and for a few millions of Twres, 
which this pitiful operation fl'j^vly procures, commerce is ruined 
by having its cap'.tal diminifiied : that connmerce, which, by- 
being fupported, would continually produce millions to the ftate. 

II A petty title of bought diftinftion, which, in the language 

. of ridiculous, pride, is.conflrucd into nobllit)'. 



UNITED STA-TES OF AMERICA. 99 

tered them,* and fupprefs or diminifli the enormous 
duties with which the tanneries are loaded. f 

K 2 SECTION 



■* Two caufes have fingularly contributed to ruin the tan- 
neries in France. The confiderable duties impofed fucccfiively 
upon leather (fuppreiJed afterwards in part through prudence^ 
and ellentially the fevere infpeftion that the commis (in this 
cjfe a kind of excifeman) may make every hour of ihe day and 
nif^ht at the tanners. Nothing dif^jufts a man, who has nme 
eiierj.y, more wkh his profeflion, than this difgrncefu! fervitude, 
than the fear, than the conftraint which arifcs ftuvn the idea of 
being diilurb.^d at every moment, by his firs- fide, by contempti- 
ble faceilites who live on the mifchief oaly which they do, and 
whom the certainty of impunity, intcreft and habitude, renders 
unmerciful, infolcnt, and frequently perjured. 

Ccnfidcralle prccefles have been feen to arife from thefe 
Tifits, and very rich tanners to quit a profeiiion which promifed 
them nothing but torment, anguifli, lofs and law fuitr. It 
will be a long time before the evil which the farm has done 
to the tannaries be repaired. Interefted men, who thi-ik to 
confole us for real evils, which we f'.if/;:r, by thofe which they 
Inppofe among our neighbours, fay and repeat, that the fame 
vexation of com mis and of cufcoms produces in England the 
fam; efFeds. This may fometimes happen j but there Is a hw 
to punifh them, without a hope of pardon, when they overleap 
the boundaries prefcribed to them. And ihefe boundaries are 
much more contraQed than our.^, wliith the following fad will 
convince u?. 

Two officers of the exclH?, hiv'ng taxsn 'clnio their heads 
to foliov? a man carrying a hamper of wine to the boufe of a 
{articular perfon, entered with him in contempt of the lawj 
the mafler of the houfe called fome conftables and charged them 
with the officer! : they were taken before Alderman Hamett, 
who read the Aft of Parliament to the culprits, and fent their* 
to prifon, fur having violated the rights of citizens. 

Mercure politique 1786, p. 286, 

f The following Is a lift of duties paid en leather, whether 
It be French cr foreign j and ic muft be here obferved, that 
the leather of France is far from fupplying our wants. 7/e 
get the greatefl part of that which we confume from the ^pa- 



ICO ON THE COMMERCE OF TH* 

SECTION IX. 

Glafs Houfes. 

EngHlIi glafs ware is brought to great perfe6l ion „ 
and England makes it a great objed of exportation. 

America 

nifli and Portuguefe colonies, from the Levant, and from t-he 
coaficff Barbary. 

Green leather, French or foreign, pays on llvres fols 
entering the kindom by the hundredweight i 5 

Leather worked up or tanned, pays after- 
wards the following duties 

Leather and flcins - 2 f. per pound. 

Goat fjtins - 4 , 

Ten fols per pound, which gives more up- 
on leather _ _ j 

Goat fkins - , ^ 

General average - 4 6, 
and by the hundred vveight .. _ j^ I© 

Cu.iom to the general farm - - 20 

Total 25 15 



Leather and flcins pcy a duty of a third of their value. 

When in 1759 a duty was impofcd, the king ordained that 
thefe tv/o fols upon leather and flcins, and the Umt fols upon 
goat /kins, fhould be reimburfed to the manufadurer, when hs 
fliuuid hav2 fent his nn.erchandize abroad. 

But adminiilratioa demanded and obtained leave to reim- 
Jjurfe two-thircis only, 

3ince that time thers has been a new Impoll of ten fob p«c 
pound, v>ii!ch makes the duty one fol "more upon leather, and 
twe fols upon goat fkinr. 

This new duty ha", completed the ruin of the tanneries. 

There is ai. other abufe, which merits to be obferved. It 's 
that the adrniuiftration receives its duties undiminii'hed upon 
leather half rotten, fcraped or tanned. 

After thefe facts, it nny be comprehendeel, that the t:nr.ers 
in Fiance are reduced to a faiall number, and are in general 
mlfirable. 

jln importar.t iKte relative to the article of leather. 
The note on the duties paid on leather, is true with refpe£l 
tc 'he reaiiiy of the duties } but \v<r have been convinced, finca 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. lOI 

America ought to prefer Englifli glafs to ours, be- 
caufe we ourfelves prefer it to that of our own ma- 
nufa<5lory, common bottles excepted, which we 
make better, and which are of a finer glafs than that 
of the Englifli. But although this opinion may hurt 
the intereil of thofe who have fuch eftablifliments, 
it is neceffary to fay, that France, far from encou- 
raging them., ought to wifli for their deftrudion. 
This kind of manufafture deflroys combuflibles, of 
which the rapid progrefs is alarming, when it is com- 
pared to the Hownefs with which they are produced. 
The Englifli, feated upon tiieir coal mines, are little 
uneafy about the voracity of furnaces wherein glafs. 
is melted; but although it be faid that we have the 
iame advantage, it is ftill permitted to doubt of it. 
And moreover it is not fufficient to have immenfe 
coal mines under foot, it is neceffary to be able to 
work them at a little expence. Glafs manufaftories, 
placed within the reach of mines, fliould not be too 
far ditlant from the fea, for the tranfports becoming 
expenfive, would give to the Englifh an advantage 
over us, who, from every part of their ifland, can eafily 
get to the fea. Finally, our own confumption of 
giafs-ware, much greater than that of the Engllfii, 
may already be too conliderable, if it be compared 
with the means to which the ever growing fcarcity 
of combuflibles reduces us.- 

K % To 



the note was printed, that a middle fr!cv°cannot be fettled bc» 
tween hides and calf and goat fkins. There are at leafb two 
hundred of the tw© firft for one of the laft. V7e have been 
equally convinced, that the hundred weight of iklns bou^^ht at 
thirty-feven IJvres, and fold after the tanning at fixty-four 
livres fixteen fols, produces to the tanner a profit of no nior« 
than £ve livres five fols. 

This eafily explains hov/ the tanners have been ruined, 

TrANSL ATOE. 

* The fcarcity of wood, which begins to be manifcft, bC" 
comes fo much the more alarming, as combuftibles which have 
bwsn attempted to be fubftltuted for it havs not, fuccccdcd, ajid 



t02 ON THE COMMERCE Oiv THE 

To be fully convinced that we ought not to pyt 
glafs-'.vare into the lift of articles of exportation to 
America, it is only necedliry to reflecft upon the fitua- 
tion of the United States. They have immenfe forefts 
to clear, confequently it is highly proper that they 
ihould eftabhfh glafs manufa£lories, and increafe 
them as much as poffible. The labour employed to 
deftroy the woods for the clearing of lands, at the 
iame time that it difpofes the land to culture, will 
ferve for the production of a very extenfive object 
of manufacture, therefore the utility of this deftruc- 
tion is double to the Americans.-^ It cannot be 
do\ibted^ that this confideration will ftrike them, that 
they will one day conceive the project of furniftiing 
Europe v/ith glafs-ware, of adding this article to thofe 
which they can exchange for fuch European pro- 
ductions as are improper for little ftates to cultivate 
or m-anufa6ture within themfelves. It can be no 
more doubted, that France will gain greatly by feeing 
her glafs manufactories deftroyed by thofe of the Ar- 
mericans, who will fell us glafs-ware in exchange 
for our wines, cloths, printed linens, filks, &c. In 
the mean time, it would undoubtedly be a falutary 
meafure, to open the kingdom to the importation of 
foreign glafs, 

SECTION 

that luxury and population naturaliy inclined to increafe, efps- 
cially with commerce, the confunoption of combuftibles will be 
doubled. 

* This is. what is done in New-Jerfey for the forges. It Is 
jmpoffible, fays the author of the Cultivatiur Ameri- 
CAiN, to travel acrofs this provincewithout meeting with fome 
little iron forges. If a proprietor has a great marih full of 
wood, and that he wifhes to clear it, he begins by making a. 
dyke at one extremity to ftop the water of the rivulets which 
run acrofs it. He fi:ies in this water the wheels necefTary for 
the manufacture of iron, &c. And in a fmail number of years 
the traveller, who had ictn in pafling by nothing but a vafr 
pond full of trees thrown down, and had heard thenoifeof ham-- 
sicrs and an'^ils^ fees w.^Uisdofcdfidds^ vaitme%dows; &C:, 



©TflTED STATES aF AMERICA, roj- 

SEGTION X. 

Iron and Steel. 

The confumption of thefe two articles is immenle 
in the United States; the fingle article of nails 
amounts to confiderablc fums. This will not appear 
extraordinary, when it is remembered, that all the 
houfes, all the inclofures of the Ameicans, are of 
wood, that they build a great number of fliips, which 
require frequent reparations. 

It is the fame with refped to faws, fliovels, hoes, 
and in general all the inflruments neceffary to agri- 
culture and navigation. 

The Americans are fingularly curious in the choice 
of the firfl neceffity. They have therein the gene- 
ral tafte of the Englidi; they will have that only 
which is good. On comparing thofe which they 
make themfelves with the tools made in France, it 
nnift be acknowledged that we are far from that per- 
fe(ftion at which they are arrived in themi this per- 
fection is owing to the eafe of the labourer, and to 
the confideration attached to agriculture. Imper- 
fedion is a neceflary confequence of reftraint and 
diflionour. 

The Americans have attempted to make Iron and 
ileel. Many manufactories have been fet up at New- 
York, in New-Jerfcy, and in Pennfylvania: it is 
true that thefe manufa(5cures are few in number, but 
they will neceffarily increafe for the reafons which 
I lliall hereafter give. 

England heretofore exported a confiderable quan- 
tity of iron and fleeh* her mines not having yet fur- 

ni filed 

* To favour the exportation of thefe articles, th? parliament: 
had forbidden all the eitablifhmenc of mills and other machines 
in the United States for making of flecl. See 25 Geo. II ch. 
^g, feft. 10. 

it may be judged by this circymftance to what a. poinX ths 



ro4 



ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 



niflied iron proper for certain inftriiments, flie had 
recourfe to thofe of RufTia, and efpecially to thofe of 
Sweden, whofe iron and fteelare mofl elleemed. She 
did no more with regard to America than (land be- 
tween her and others, and this circuit augmented the 
expences of the colonifl, without procuring him any 
benefit. This will exiir no longer, becaufe the A- 
mericans are about to trade direftly with the Swedes 
and Ruffians. 

Lord Sheffield calculates, that one year with ano- 
ther England imported 50,000 tons of foreign iron, 
of which from 15 to 20,000 was afterwards exported 
to the colonies either in its natural ilate or worked up. 

The profit to the mother country was, according 
to his Lordfiiip, 12,000,000 lives, or thereabouts. 

During the war, and fince the peace, fome exports 
of this kind have been made from France to the 
United States; but they did not fucceed. Accuftom.- 
ed, according to the principles of monopolizers, who 
hpve hitherto direc^led our foreign commerce, to fur- 
nifh our colonies with brittle utenfils, and otherwife 
very imperfe<ft, our merchants were willing to treat 
the independent Americans like their flaves in their 
illandsj* and the Americans refufed our merchan- 

dife. 



mother country, or rather the monopolizers, can carry avar;- 
eioufnefsj fince the Anrjtricans were forbidden to enjoy thofe 
advantages which nature had thrown before them. Mono- 
poly refpe£Vs nothing. When thefe attempts are confidered, 
ought we to be furprifed at the eternal mifanderftanding be- 
tween colonies and the mother country, a mifimderftanding 
which finifhes either by the ruin of the former, or their fepa- 
j-ation from the latter ? 

* The Chamber of Commerce of Marfeilles, in an inftruc- 
tion very well drawn up, addrefled in lyS^^^to the merchants, 
had recommended them to aftcontrarily — ** Recoiled','" faid it, 
** that you have not ignorant or enflaved colonifts to treat with^ 
** but a free people; and, confequcntly, rapidly tending to per- 
*f f«dlion. If you wilh to fuxceed, adl with fidelity, upon cx= 
**■ tended and liberal views," &c. &:c. 

I have not read this iuftroftion. A roan of letters, who hzi 



UNITED STATES OP AMERICA. 10^ 

dife. They faid, that we did not even know how 
to inake nails; and, in flri(ft truth, they were right 
in their aflertion. They preferred the iron and (leel 
of England, although the duties on exportation in- 
creafed their dearnefs. 

It is probable enough that the En^hfh legiHature 
will fupprefs them according to the advice of Lord 
Sheffield J and this, joined to the benefit of the ceco- 
nomy procured by the difcovery of LordDundonald, 
and of Mefli's, Watts and Boulton, for heating fur- 
naces at half the common expence, will undoubtedly 
produce a reducflion in the price of iron. 

This diminution is one of the caufes which muft 
neceflarily hinder us from attempting a rivality in this 
particular with the Englifti; but there is anotherj 
which is flill more decifive. 

In fact, the obfervations made heretofore upon the 
necelTity of deflroying our glafs manufactories, ap' 
ply naturally to that confidcrable branch of iron- 
work, of which the workmanfliip is the leall ex- 
pence, and which requires a great quantity of com- 
buflibie materials. The United States are obliged 
to deftroy their immenfe forefls: France ought, on 
the contrary, to think of re-producing hers: there- 
fore, the founderies and forges will offer in Am.erica 
tlie advantage of turning to profit woods, which, 
without thefe manufa<5tures, it would be equally ne- 
cefFjry to burn: vvhilll in France, wood and char- 
coal becoming every day more fcarce and dear, ren- 
ders thefe eftablifliments more expcnfive. Now, ss 
the abundance in which iron mines are every wiiere 

found, 

reHded a long time in the country, ha3 given me the idea? of '% 
which I have reiated. V/z murt not be furprifcd to find \n the 
merchants of Marfeilles inreliigcnce on commerce so rarf. 
ANY v;ri£REELS2. Lcfs lliacklcd, commerce mail offer moie 
folid ideas. 

The fame energy is found In an excellert Memorial on ths 
Fr.ancliifes of this c;ty, lardy pubiiihcd againfl the general farmj,. 
and of which we, ihall have occafion to fpesk. 



ro6 ©N THE COMMEKCS OF THS 

found, -^ makes the price of iron depend almoft en- 
tirely on that of combuftibles neceilliry to melt it, it 
is evident that the United States have over us, and 
even over the Englifli, a confiderable advantage. 

Moreover, forges are a part of the equipage necef- 
fary to country labour; for,, if it were necelTary to 
feek at a diflance the utenfils of agriculture, the pro- 
grefs of clearing of lands would foon be flopped — 
the productions would not pay the expences. Thefe 
would flill be increafed by the repeated necelTity of 
fubilituting new utenfils to thofe which there v/ould 
be no means of repairing. As foon as the people 
have mines of iron- — as foon as they are led by the 
nature of things, and by neceffity, to eftablifli foun- 
deries and forges, it is not a long time before they 
renounce all foreign aid in the articles of iron; f 
therefore, the Americans are, as I have obferved, 
already provided with thsfe eftablifhments: and as 
Englifli induflry has eftablifned and dire6led them, 
they are all at that degree of perfedion vvh\ch we 
have not yet attained,. 

Let it be remarked, that thefe manufactures being 
joined to a life of agriculture, and carried on in the 
midfl of it for its ufes, can have none of the perni- 
cious influences Vi^hich ought to be feared in thofe 
somplicated manufacSlures which are obliged to b^ 
concentrated in the inclofures of cities, whofe de- 

ftru6tive 



• It is now proved, that there are nnany tf them in Ame^ 
a-ica. Mines of tin, and of very good copj;er, have alfo been 
<iircovered there. 

f Perhaps nails muft be excepted. Their price will be a 
long time in Europe lower than in America. If, as Mr. Smith 
afTerts in his Treatifeon the Wealtli cf Nations, a young man 
of twenty years of age can make 2,400 na:h a day, let it be 
judged to what a di-gree of cheapnefs low priced workmaniTiip 
ought to reduce them j therefore, wherever workmanfliip is dear, 
jiails caii'iot be made. Yet we read in the American G^tettesj. 
that there his been eftabli/hed in one of the States a nianufadure 
of mils, Y/i!l this facceed? — Futurity will fliew us* 



UKITED STATE-S 01 AMIiRICA. I07 

fiTiKftive employ ejdiaufls th€ natural llrength of 
men, by corrupting their morals. 

Therefore, to refume thi.^ article — far from en- 
couraging the exportation of iron mannfadured in 
France, we ought, for our own intereft, to encou- 
rage the importation of foreign iron, becaufc manu- 
factures of this kind take away combuftibles from 
things morepreffingly wanted, and from lefs deftruc- 
tive manufa(ftures, where wor'kmanfnip produces a 
greater profit. 

This, however, is not the cafe with every article 
of curiofity of iron, ileel, or copper work, wherein 
the workmanfhip exceeds the other expences. They 
belong to that weak organization which the Ameri- 
cans ought not to envy. But it muft not be difiimu- 
lated, that a competition with the Englifli will, on 
this head, be difficult to maintain: their great abilitv 
and addrefs in the diftribution of work and diiferent 
procefles, the invention of which has not been con- 
firained by any error* or falfe view of the admini- 

flration 

* Thofe falfe views cannot be too much deplored — thnfe nar- 
row ideas — thofe fears of i^aorance, which fnatch from the 
hands of induftry the happy inventions which are proper to en- 
•yich a whole nation ! Who can calculate the riches that England 
owes to the fole application of the coining-mill, or engine and 
dye, whofe free ufe has been left to all the manufa£lures which 
it was capable of improving in accelerating their efFeds ? How 
manjr proceedings more ingenious and expeditious has this ma- 
chine produced? Happily for England, there have not been 
■found in her bofom thofe able minifters, who, feeing that this 
machine is of ufe in making money, have drawn from it the 
profound confequence that every one would make falfe money 
if the free ufe of it were permitted : as if it was poflible to -rake 
fahe money for a long time; as if the more general ufe of the 
machine di-l not awaken the public, and even private interell, 
and render them more attentive to abufes which might be com- 
mitted j as if its ufe would not produce much more bei.cfit to 
the revenue, than it could deprive it of by the falfe coinage of 
money, which can never be either extenfive or dangerous.— 
When, therefore, will thofe who hold the reins of empire calce- 
latc like iUtefmcn? 



Id3 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

ftration of England, give them over us a coiifickr* 
able advantage; yet it is not iinpofiible for us to bi 
lance it, for this diftribution of work and procee<i- 
ings are neither fecrets nor fiiperlor to French induf 
try. Let government adopt and follow the trivij; 
maxim — * Whowillhavetheendu-illfind the mean^/ 
Let it in confequence not interdic^l; any of the means, 
and this induftry will not have to envy the fiiccefs ot 
cur rivals. 

SECTION 



It is true that at prefent art'fts are permitted to have nvMs^ 
/cc. by conforming thenifelves to certain formaritjes,— always 
formalities? No other are required in England than thofe of 
being able to pay the expence of the machine, — and has Eng- 
land perceived from it any pernicious effc£ts ? Has falfe money 
overturned public order, impoveriflied the nation, or diminrfiied 
her revenues ? 

With what difficulty has the invention of the coining-mill 
made its way into France ? It is due to an induftrious French- 
man of the fifteenth century, named Briois. Perfscuted for 
this difcovery, he was obliged to take refuge in England} the 
English received him favourably, and put his invention into 
execution. Another Frenchman of the name of Warin, of 
the laft century, wifted to procure the advantages of it to his 
countrymen; he experienced a like abfurd perfecution ; and with- 
out the fupport of the Chancellor Sequier, he would have failed 
in his attempt.— I do not allow myfelf to fpeak of the per- 
fection to which M. Droz pretends to have brought the coin- 
ing mill at prefent; but by the vexations he fuffers, it may be 
judged that he has in fadl fimplified that machine, that he has 
rendered fewer hands neceiTary, and the coinage of money more 
perfeft and expeditious; two advantages very precious in this art, 
as the expences of it cannot be too much reduced, and the ex- 
aftitude and perfeiftion of the flamp of money are the fureft 
means of difconcerting coiners. What fatal genius is it there- 
fore which parfues induftry in France ? That of companies, 
of corporations, of privileges. As foon as a happy difcovery 
attacks their profits, they employ even the bafeft m.eans to de- 
fend them ; intrigue, falfehood, fedudion, are all legitimate 
with the people which compofe thofe affociations, whilft the 
man of genius, {landing alone for the moft part, and who at- 
taches too great a value to bis time to profVitute it to ihefe 
manc8uvfcs, generally experiences the moft humiliating difijofU. 



'1!KITED STATES OF AMERICA. IO9 

SECTION XL 

'■'e^veileiy^Goi^l andSilvcrf?nit}is^ Articles ^Clock-iuorh^ ^c. 

If the inhabitants of the United States concentrate 

heir labours and pleafure iii a life of huibandry ; if 

hey continue to feek happinels, not in pomp, but in 

nature herfelf, and in a fimplicity of manners; in 

■ that fimpUcity which naturally produces eafe, and 

the population and profperlty of dates; they will not 

cek after, but dildain plate and jewels, to which we 

utacli fo great a price. They will referve precious 

mf tals for mints ajid commerce. It is not, however, 

-o Be prefumed, that this order of things fliould long 

fubfid in great cities, and efpecially in frequented 

ports; European tafle and wants prevail in America,- 

and French induftry ought to be anxious to fupply 

their confumption, feeing that the French can uu- 

derfell the Englifli in thefe articles. 

But it is probable that the plated ware (copper 
plated with filver) invented in England will take 
olace in the United States of that of filver plate, as 
>ainted paper has replaced there much more expen- 
ive hanging ; this new fort of plate has for ufe all 
-he advantages of the other, and cofls a great deal lefs. 
How cornes it that the Englifli are already fo ad- 
vanced in this branch of induftry, whilft there exifls 
in France but one or two manufa(5i:ures where copper 
is plated on one Ude only, and lilvered over on the 
other? How have the Englifli already carried this in- 
vention to fo high a degree of perfection ? How 
have they made of it a matter of extenflve cornmerce, 
L whilft 

* Plate isufed in the Southern States— magnificence Is {ctn 
there; on which account, travellers having but little philofophy, 
fpealc highly of them •. — but obfervc what is attaclicd to this 
luxury,— 11 a very reigns in the South, and there are many poor* 
—There arc none in the Northern Stiie5,«-»no plate is thare 



no ON THE COMMERCi: O? TKS 

whilfl we are reduced to the tw^o maniifa<!liire« 
wherein no progrefs is feen, and where the inferiority 
of the workman fliip difgufts thofe who would other- 
^vife find it to their advantage to make ufe of this 
kind of plate ? 

Thefe manufa6lure5 have an exchifive privilege : 
there is the word — Government fearing left falfe mo- 
ney might be made in them, has forbidden even the 
plating on both fides. 

Reafoning would here be fuperfluous: it is {uf- 
iicient to open the eyes to fee which of the two ad- 
miniftrations has beft ferved its country; whether it 
be that of England, by not cramping induftry, and 
in not giving way to fears, whofe illufion is fliewii 
by the moft trifling obfervation, or ours, in follow- 
ing a contrary plan. Again, was it apprehended, 
that counterfeit crowns would be made by millions; 
«s a facrifice is made to this fear of an induftry 
which would certainly produce many millions of 
them? 

Thiis, when we confider all thefe articles, wherein 
trifling confiderations fliall be our induftry, and con- 
demn to mediocrity our means of profperity; when 
we thence turn our attention towards the different 
fpirit which governs England, it is aftonifliing tha^ 
induftry ftill exifts in France, and that the nation 
does not fall into floth, and remain there. Lefus 
■give thanks unto nature, who has richly gifted us, and 
iier guardian ftrength has hitherto demonftrated itfelf 
-fuperior to the malignant influence of the falfe fcience 
of our adminiftrators.* 

Shall 

* A curious and more ufeful work would be, a faUhfuI and 
nacre rational hiftoiy of all the errors into which the rage of 
regulating and prohibiting has thrown adminiftration. It is 
very probable :hat the refult would be, that Prench coramerce 
iias always profpered, in proportion to the iuexecution of re- 
gulations 5 that in caufing them to be rigoroufly executed, 
foreign commerce has been favoured and enriched. The fplrlc 
of inv«ntion and induftry which our prohibitory regimen J?aa 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Tit 

ohail we remain behind the Englifh and Swifs in 
slock-work? The Americans mull have watches; 
this admirable invention carries with it fiich a degree 
of utility for even the poor clafTes of fociety, that it 
eu'i'ht not to be confidered as a fimple acquifition of 
luxury, efpecially in the United States, where the 
diftance- of habitations one from another m.akes the 
neceffity of it moft fully perceived. 

But watches mufc be made good and afa cheap rate; 
thefe two conditions will aflure them a prodigious 
^ile wherever civilization exifts;' time is there a pre- 
cious property, and its price renders the infi:run^ent 
aecelTary which divides it: they will be made good 
and at a cheap rate, when able artifts are confulted.-* 

This fpecies of manufafture will always belong to 
great cities, where the excefs of population keeps 
workmanfliip at a low price, where the difficulty of 
f-ubfifting enflaves that crowd of weak and indolent 
beings which are under the law of the rich under- 
L z taker. 



(icveloped on foreign nat'ons, v.'3s never' pei haps fufpecleJ j 
.ntither the innumerable quantity of workiLops v.'hich are there 
conftruded, in proportion to the multiplication of exclufive 
jii-ivileges in France. Thus, that of the Iwdia Company has 
made Switzerland like the Eaft-Inticp, for the manufacture of 
rauflins, and plain and oainted linens. 

* l^aris has produced fome very diftingniflied ones; thcy 
honoured their art becaufe they had great fenfe and ingenuity, 
an:! had been well inRraifled 5 but their pupils, for the moft pari 
Grangers, ind not having the fame means of gaining coiifide- 
ration, were afraid of our injudicious manner of defpifing the 
bands which work at mechanical employmentr, and quitteci the 
country. We have at piefent a Swifs, M. Brequet, whofe ta- 
lents arc equal, if not fuperior, to thofe of the moft celebrated 
Englifh WRtch-makeiS. Happily for us, his chara£ler, his ele- 
vated views, his obliging zeal, command rcfpeft in fome njea- 
fure, and place him above prejudices. Let government confult 
him, and he will foon indicate certain means whereby France 
may have a national manufaij^ure of c'cck and watch-work. 

We are informed that he has prefent3d to the Miniftry a ^10^ 
found naem-Hial upon this fubjed. 



112 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

taker. The United States are far from luffering'this 
difficulty of fubfiflence, this excefs of population; 
they are therefore far from thefe maiiufadnres, 

SECTION ?:IL 

Difei-ent Sorts cf Faper^ Jlained Paper y iufc. 

This iifeful produ<5lion from old rags, thrown off 
by people at eafe, and gathered with care by the in- 
digent, is daily improved in France..* The Englifh 
thcmfeives buy our paper for printing, and our writ- 
ing 

* The manufactory of M. M. Johannot d'Auronay, pro- 
duces finer paper than any otlier manufactory in Europe, and 
the proof is fimplc, — There is more demand from Rufli«, Eng-r 
land, and Holland, for this pzper than tiie manufaflurer can 
furniih} this fca:cenefs of paper a'Aunonay explains, for why,. 
our fhopkeepers fliil get paper from Holland. To d.minifh this 
fcarclty, thefe good citizens have generoufly offered tocomn»u- 
nicate their procefs to all the manufafturers of paper in the 
ration, and even to form fchools, wherein, the a;t of p^rer- 
maklng may be taught. Many perfons have profited by thefe 
offers J the Ilatcs of Burgundy have lately fent three pupilj— 
Thefe manufacturers have proved that it was not' more ext-en- 
five, to make^ood and excellent paper than that of a middliDg 
quality. M, Le Clcrc, who has a great p^per manufadlory at 
EfTonc, found with concern that his manufadory coft him a girat 
t!ea], and produced bad paper only : he communicated his rc= 
gret to M. Johannot J the latter went to EfTone and produced 
good paper with common pafte. This was certainly a great fer- 
vlce done to France, and a good example given to the fordid 
avarice of monopolizers, who, not being able to do and embrace 
«very thing, hinder others from doing it. May thef: generous, 
patriots receive that honour which they d^ferve : may their ex- 
ample be followed every where and by z\). This will be to them 
a more flatteiing eulogium, a more brilliant and lafting reccm- 
penfe than cordons and ribbons, unwonhy of true merit, be- 
caufe they are frequently the price of intrigue, and the ornr.ment 
of mediocrity, 1'he pleafure ©f well-doing, and the fuffrages 6f 
honeft men, arc pure and unchangeable recomj-enfcs. — The artifi 
who does not know how to confine h'mfelf to thsfe, wiii nevci 
do any thing which I? great. 



IT?^ITED STATES OF AMERICA. Jf^ 

fng paper will not be long unequal to theirs, if it does 
not furpafs it.* 

But if there be an obie-il of commerce for which 
Europeans need not fear a reciprocal competition; 
if there be an article which offers to all European 
manufaftures a certain and lucrative employ, it is 
that of paper: the confumption will always be equal 
at lead to the production, and its numerous ufes in- 
fure a ftill greater confumption, in proportion as po- 
pulation, commerce, and knowledge, iliall increafe. 

Every nation ought therefore to obferve without 
jealoufy, that each country drives to have within 
itfelf manufadures of this kind. 

The Americans cannot however enjoy this ad- 
vantage for a long time to come: befides the dearnefs 
of workmanfliip, their population cannot furnilh- 
them old rags in quantities futticient to eilablifli 
paper mills v;hofe productions would be- equal to the- 
confumption of the inhabitants. 

Will their population ever furnilh them withthis- 
fufficiency ? This is a queftion difficult to refolve. 
In fact, in proportion to the knowledge which na- 
tions may acquire, and to the liberty of the prefs, 
which may be enjoyed in America, a prodigious 
quantity of paper miift be confumed there; but 
can the population of this country produce rags in 
the fame proportion? It cannot reafonably be hoped 
that it will.. It is therefore probable that the Ame- 
rican markets will not for a long time be provided 
with any other than European paper, and that this 
will find a place there. f 

L 3 But 

* Rags are nriore fcarce.. and confequently dearer, in Erg- 
land than in France, and they are articles ot illicit commerce 
between the two countries. There are very fevers laws againd 
this com5nerce 5 but it is, and evtr wiii be, carried on, as long 
as there fhal! be any thing to be gained by it. 

■f Rags are exceflively dear in America : but the time is sr- 
Hving when, by an increafe of population, they will becoms 
plenty. In Fennfylvanla they already mal<e very good pares. 



J 14 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

. But fince the ufe of paper is fo advantageous to 
jnen, fince it is fo varied, it behoves every nation 
to look upon foreign confumption as a fuppleinent 
only, as an open port in the cafe of a fufpenfion of 
interior commerce. It behoves every nation to keep 
paper at a moderate price within itfelf, and to attain 
this end, means muft be thought of to increafc ma- 
terials which ferve to compofe this article, and to 
purfue the happy attempts already made to do it.'^ 
Thefe refearches are fo much the more effential, fo 
much the more urgent, as the happy invention of 
coloured paper for hanging is of a nature always to 
caufe a greater confumption of paper; and this man- 
ner of hanging with |>aper will fubfift for a long 

time* 



* In the rKcment cf writing this note, I hare before me very 
?ntciefjng efTays on vegetables, and on the bark of feveral 
trees, to transfor.Ti them into paper; thefe edays are due to 
the refearches of M. Delille, to whofe care the manufadlurc of 
Montargis is indebted for a great part of its reputation. He 
lias far furpafTed that Scheffe, whom our men cf erudition 
have quoted with fo much emphafis. On feeing the books 
which M. Dclillc has printed, on paper made from a fpecies of 
mallows, and the bark of the linden treej and on perceiving 
the advantages which might be reaped fiom this invention, at 
if\{\ in packing and flained paper, of which fo great a con- 
sumption is made; we wifh that this invention may be mor« 
ind more known, received and adopted, as a means of remedy- 
ing the want of rags and the dearnefs of paper, which ought 
to have more irflwcnce than is commonly believed on the pro- 
gref. of knowledge. 

It is alraoft impoflible that this invention fiioald not foon 
Vecomc general, and it is greatly the intereft of the free Ame- 
ricans to naturalize it among them. 

Slrr-ng lies of lime and pot-ffii, and the intelligent ufe of 
vitriolic acid, are great means of reducing hemp and flax to 
that kind of fubftance extremely attenuated, foft and brittle, 
which is proper for making of paper. It might be contrived 
by thefe means to fupply the want of rags by old cordage, 
Thefe would even ferve to make good paper, fince being re- 
<'.uced to tow, it may eafily be bleached. The attenuation to 
be feared for Tmcn is not fo for the material of which paper if 
made* 



i 



tTNITED STATES OF AMERICA. ir^" 

time, becaufe it gives a neat and agreeable appear- 
ance to apartinents. 

Nootlierisknovvn in the United States; it is there 
univerfal; almofl all the houfes are neat and decent. 

SECTION XIII. 

Printing. 

The liberty of the prefs being a fundamental 
principle of the American conilitution, there can 
be no doubt that printing will increafe there. But 
it muft be obferved, that extenfive printing requires 
workmen at a little expence; that is- to fay, men 
without property, talents, orcondu£^; whom great- 
cities produce and employ in work which requires 
neither intelligence nor emulation ; and it has already 
been obferved, that the United States, nnlefs the 
rage of great cities takes pofTeffion of them, will 
contain but few of thefe wretched beings. 

Printing will not, therefore, it may be prefumed,- 
be extended among the free Americans, at leaft be- 
yond that which is neceffary for the public prints.* 
Their conftant and confiderable fale, permitting a 
greater expence in workmanfiiip,confequcntly draws 
about the prefs many individuals, becaufe they have, 
in a good falary, a view of the means of becominof 
proprietors or traders. f 

The 

* Gazettes are fingularly multiplied in the United States. 
They will become ftill more fo with an increafe of population, 
ancf this is an advantage, for they are what that excellent pa- 
triot, Dr. Jebb, called them, ** Centincls which >vatch over 
public liberty and the prefervavion of truth." 

\ However, confiderable works are fometimes printed in the 
United States, and of which the edition is carefully enough 
corre6led. I have feen, for inlan'-.e, the Memoirc, in quarto, 
of the Academies of Bofton and Philadelphia, of the laft year, 
which proves at the fame time that free America is not f) totally 
without typographical eftablilbments, and that the inhabitants 
are not all fuch idiot* at a prejudi-ced German drcanjcd they 



lir> ON THE COIMMERCE OF THE 

The furnirning of books of fcience and amufe- 
ment mufl therefore make a confidersble objeft of 
importation into the United States. It is for France 
to appropriate to herfelf this commerce, and to en- 
"courage the imprelTtoii of Englifli books. Our 
workmanfliip being cheaper than that of England, 
and the EngliHi making ufe of our paper, our bind- 
ing being lefs expenfive, why fliould not all the 
books in which the Americans flaiid in need of. be 
pri'UedMQ France? 

It will be faid that we do nof enjoy the liberty of 
the prefs, — be it fo: — But it is only with refpeft 
to our books;* for undoubtedly the adminiflratioii 
does not pretend to extend its coercive principles to 
books written in foreign languages; it would not 
attain its end, feeing that it does not do it with re- 
fpefc to French books ;f and by this impolitical ri- 

sour 



* Under the reign of Louis XIV. whofe ambition extended 
to every thing, it was fericuily attempted to make the French 
language univerfal. This abfurd pretenfion was ridiculoufly 
fupported by the tyranny exerclfed upon books and autliors. 
This tyranny could not but produce bad ones, and confequent-- 
ly difguft ilrangers. Happily foir/e judicious men had the 
courage to make facrlfices, and to get their works printed 
abroad. It is thefe prohibited books which have enriched the 
French language and increafed the reputation of French litera- 
ture. What authors are heard quoted in every country ? Rouf- 
feau, Voltaire, Helvetjus, Ivioatc/quieu, &c. that is to fay, 
men who have besn patriotic enough to violate the tyrant's laws 
of the prefs. 

■f So that even more than half of the libraries in France ars 
compofed of French books, printed abroad, for which there are 
two caufcs — the cheapnefs and goodness of the books; the 
OCTAVO leaf printed, is commonly fold in Switzerland to the 
public at nine ccrniers or a fol, and it cofirs three or four fols 
in France. Prohibited books are fold at Paris at the fanie price 
as books permitted, which proves the dearnefs of French print- 
ing. — For to the original price of prohibited books, there muft 
be added the expences of carriage, rifrts of entry, the commif- 
fions of dilTcrent agents, &c. With refpeft to the goodnefs of th3 
works, tiie beft, as I have already obkived, are printed abroad :.. 



UNITED STATES O? AMERICA. HJ 

gaur France would be deprived of a lucrative article 
of commerce, certain, and of continual increafe. 

The Dutch, fo active and vigilant in feizing the 
rifing branches of commerce, have for a long time 
fpeculated on books in the United States: many bi- 
bles and books of prayer, for the ufe of the Am,e- 
ricans, are printed in Holland. Lord Sheffield is 
obliged to acknowledge, that printing in Holland is 
by far more cheap than that of England, and of 
courfe mud have the preference. They will fomc 
day extend this commerce to clafTical bocks.* 

SECTION XIV. 

Salf. 

This article, fo neceflary to the Americans, and fo 
sbnndant in France, muft not be forgotten in tlic enu- 
meration of commodities to be imported into Ame- 
rica. The Ainericans will for a long time be obliged 
to get it from Europe; not that they have no fait 
marfhes upon tiie coails, and fait pits in the interior 
parts of the country; but thefe marllies, thefe fait 
pits, muft have hands to work them; and hands are 
better employed in the United States. f The fait ex- 
ported 

Helvetius has faid with reafon, *' Ok ke dit la veritf., 

<iyz DANS LES LIVRES, PROHIBES, ON M E W T 1»AN8 LSS 
AUTR£S." 

* A man of letters, uho had remarked the dcarnefs of Eng-„ 
]\(h book? in France, and how dlTHcult it was to get them from 
England, thought of getting the bcft Englifh works re-printed 
in Paris. This was afpecujation re illy patriotic— he abandansd 
it afier having got a few volumes re-{.rinted, probably becagfe 
the confumption in France was not great enough, and that of 
England was not open to him* He might at prefent revive it j, 
independent America prefents a great opening to hirn. 

■f Salt, during the late war, was very dear in America; it 
was worth twenty times its ordinary price — The deprivation of 
this article was very fenfibly felt by the Americans, who con* 
ffimc much falted provifion, and give a great c^^mntity of fait t©. 
Uieir cattle. 



ri8' OVr THE COM^lERCE OF TH2" 

ported from Europe will for this rcafoii be a long* 
time cheaper than that of America :-^moreover, its- 
freight will coft but little, as veflels from Europe may- 
be ballalted with it. The Americans ought to give" 
rhe preference to French fait; it is lefs lliarp, lefs 
corrofive, and poiTelfes a better quality for faking,, 
rhan any other European fait. 

The three millions of inbabitant^which thcUnited' 
States contaiji at prefent, are fuppofed to confume' 
Ifxty million pound weight of fait, without reckon- 
ing that which is given to cattle, and that employed- 
in faking provifions: of which great quantity is 
confumed in the United States, and with which- 
they will carry on a comm.ei'ce more and more con- 
fiderable: I will not at prefent go into a calculation 
of the imm.enfe nchej* which thefurniiliing of made 
fak to foreign population, continually increafmg, 
would produce to France: 1 ought to guard againlt 
exaggerations: but it may not be improper to ob- 
ferve, that a contiderable part of the States of the 
North will never make any fait. It is therefore pof- 
fible that French fait may have a preference am^ong. 
them, as being cheaper and more within their reach i- 
the population of thefe f:ates- will be more rapid tharr 
that of the others, and the commerce more varied, 
and exlenfive.. 

SECTION XV. 

General ConJiclerat'tGns on the Catalogue cf French Lnfor^ 
taiions into the United States. 

I will exfend no further the Hil of articles which 
French commerce may furjiilh to the United States:- 
there are many others whicih I omit, becaufe the 
bounds of my work will not permit me to examine- 
sny n-.ore than the principal ones. 

If faith be given to the calculations of Lord Shef- 
£dd,. and of other political writers, it appears tl;at 



I 



UKITKD STATES OF AMERICA. 71^ 

'the amount of the exportations of Great-Britain into 
free America was, upon an average, calculated upon 
three years, taken before 1773, near three millions 
fterling, upwards of feventy-two millions of livres 
tournois. How much will it increafe in following 
the progreffion of population, and clearing of lands? 
It is efpecially for this future Hate of things that 
France ought to prepare her means. 

Let it be alfo obferved, that this commerce em- 
ployed {even or eight hundred velTels, .and about ten 
thoufand failorc. 

Ought France to let flip fo important a commerce, 
and a means {o natural of fupporting her marine? 
For without commerce there can be no marine. Has 
not fhe, in the richnefs of her foil, in a variety of 
her maniifa6lures, in the low pric-e of her Tvorkman- 
lliip, in the induftry and tafte of her inhab-itants, in 
her population, and in the iltuation of her ports, an 
'iifinity of means fiifficient to eRablifh in America a 
/jlid and extennve commerce ? It mufl be continual- 
ly repeated, that if it be wiflied that peace fliould 
reign upon the earth, the words preferejice anil cowpe- 
fiticfi, which are frequently lignals of difcord, muft 
be uied with circumfpe6lion. Why ihould there be 
any jealoufy with refpefl.to this comm.erce? In the 
■c^ourfe of time independent America will offer a field 
■ide enough for all the European manufaftures. 



CHAPTER 



:30 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 



CHAPTER VI. 

Of the Ariicks lohich Independent America mayfurni^, 
in return fw Importations from France, 

XjLRRIVED at this part of my work, I cannot do 
better than confign to it the letter addrefled by M. dc 
Calonne to Mr. JefFerfon, Minifter Plenipotentiary 
from the United States of America. 

• 

LETTER 

Addreffed to M. Jefferfon^ Minifter Plenipotentiary from 
the United States of America to the Court of France, 

Fontainhleau^ 2.zd Odober^ 1786. 
Sir, 

The King's intention being to favour as much as 
poffible the commerce of the United States, I haVe 
the honour to communicate to you fome difpofitioiis 
made for that purpofe. 

By a letter of the 9th of January, 1784, to the 
Marquis de la Fayette, I informed him, that inftead 
of two free ports, promifed by the treaty to the 
United States, the king had determined to grant them 
four, which has been effected; and I promifed him 
to confider the cuftoms and duties on importation 
and exportation which fliackle commerce; obferv- 
ing to him, that thefe objects required confiderable 
application; they have not yet been completed. By 
another letter I informed the Marquis, tliat his Ma- 
jefty had fuppreffed the duties on the exportation of 
brandy, a meafure which he^hoped would be ufeful 
to American commerce; I allured him alfo, that 
the duties of the king and admiralty, payable by an 

AmerlcaMi 



UNITLD STATES OF AMERICA. 121 

■ risrican veflel on its arrival in a port of France, 
'jOLild be diminiflied; and afterwards that fuch of 
:hem as remained, fliould be reduced to a fingle 
duty, to be regulated according to the number of 
niafts or draught of water, and not according to the 
two uncertain eftimation of gauging. Thisreduclion 
requires an exa<ft knowledge of all the duties received 
in the ports, and as they are of various fpecies, the 
ifate which I ordered to be drawn up of them has not 
■yet been given in. 

You know. Sir, the king has charged a particular 
committee, to examine our commercial connexions 
1th the United States, and that the Marquis de la 
'ayerte has laid before it a proje6t analogous to the 
ideas contained in your letter to the Count de Ver- 
gennes: but)ou muft perceive, how imprudent it 
would be to hazard, by a change of fyftem, the pro- 
duce of a branch of revenue, which amounts to twen- 
ty-eight millions of livres, without falling iipon any 
object of the firll neccfTity. After an ample difcuf- 
iion of every thing which might at prefent favour the 
importation of tobacco from America to France, it 
has been decreed, not that the agreement made witii 
Mr. Morris fliould be departed from, but that, after 
tiie expiration of it, no other of the fame import 
■fliould be made; and that in the me^n time the Far- 
iners Gen.'ral ftiould be obliged to purchafe annually 
about fifteen thoufand hogflieads of American tobac- 
co, coming dircftly from the United States in French 
or American fliips, at the fame prices as flipulaled in 
ihe contrad made with Mr. Morris. 

You will recoiled. Sir, that whilfl the demands 
which had been made for whale oil were under con- 
fideration, the Marquis de la Fayette made a private 
arrangement with M. Sangrain, permitting him to 
receive as much of that article as fliould amount to 
eight hundred thoufand livres tournois, and that I 
^ad granted palTports to exempt this iirfl quantity 
M front 



122 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

from all duties vvhatfoever. M. Sangrain made aT 
tenvards an agreement with the mercliants of'Boflon 
for whale oil, to the amount of four fiundred thou- 
fand livres a year, for fix years, for which his Ma- 
jefly has promifed the fame favours as enjoyed by 
the Hanfe towns. 

This manner having lately been examined under 
a more general point of view, the adminiflration, to 
which the committee has made its report comform- 
able to the requeft of the Marquis de la Fayette, and 
fo your opinion, relative to the entire abolition of all 
duties on oils, has difcovered that it cannot confent 
to it for the prcfent, en account of engagements en- 
tered into with other powers. All that could be 
done was to infure, for ten years, whale oil, fper- 
niaceti, and every thing comprehended under thefe 
denominations, coming from the United States in 
French or American {liips,the fame favours and mo- 
deration of duties as are enjoyed by the Hanle towns. 

His Majefiy hopes commercial connexions be- 
tween the United States and France will become ex- 
tenfive enough to engage him to continue the effect 
of this provifionary decifion ; and as it has been ob- 
ferved in thecommittee, that a confiderableduty was 
paid upon the making of the raofi favoured whale 
oils, and even upon national ones, his Majefly con- 
fents to abolifn this duty with refped to the former, 
and upon fpermaceti coming immediately from the 
United States in French and American fliips; fo 
that fpeiTnaccti and thefe oils will have to pay, for 
ten years to come, no more than feven livres ten 
fols, and the ten fols per pound, for all manner of 
duty; the laft augmentation often fols per pound to, 
ceafe in 1790. 

It has been determined to gain particular infor- 
mation upon the confumplion in France of ricefroi 
Carolina, and that encouragement fliould be giv( 
to the exportation of that article. 

UpoaJ 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 123 

Upon the reprefentations which have been made, 
.'ouching the confiderable duties paid on the entry of 
pot afli and pearl alli, as well as relative to thofe of 
beaver ikms and fur, and raw hides, his Majefly hai) 
fuppreifed all the duties on pot afli — on the fur and 
Ikins of beavers — vMd on hides, coming raw froni 
t!ie United States, on board American or French 
veOeis. H^ will alfo confider of proper encourage- 
ments to be given to every article of the fkin and fi'.r 
trade. 

His Majefly has equally confented to free from all 
duties, mails and yards of every fpecies, red cedar, 
green oak, in fliorr, all timber proper for the con- 
ftruflion of vefieis, coming from the United States 
in Frejich or American fhips. 

The committee having alfo reprefented, that there 
was a duty of five per cent, upon the purchafe of 
velfels built abroad, and tliat this duty was prejudi- 
cial to the fale of American veflels, his Majefly hai 
taken this into bis confidcration, and exempted tlie 
purchafe of all mips, which fhall be proved to have 
been conftru6ted in the United States, from everv 
vhity of the kind. 

Trees, fm all ill rubs, and feeds of trees alfo, pay 
■ligh duties, which his Majefly has agreed to abolifh 
upon fuch as fliall be fent from the United States to 
France, on board French or American fliips. 

It having been reprefented, that the Hate of Vir~ 
vinia had ordered drms for its militia to be made in 
France, it has been determined, that the prohibitions 
which have hitherto hindered the exportation of 
arms and gunpowder, as well as the duties required 
in cafes of particular permiliions, fliould be abolifh- 
ed, and that whenever the United States fliall wiik 
to have from France, arms, fufils, and gunpowder, 
ihey fnall have full liberty to do it, provided it be in 
French or American fliips, and that thofe articles 
M 2 fl3-a!l 



X«4 - ®^ '^^^ COMMERCE OF TH2 

fliall be fubje£l to a very moderate duty only-, folely 
for the purpofe of calculating the exportations. 

Finally, his Majefty has received in the fame fa- 
vourable manner the demand made to the commit- 
tee to fupprefs the confiderable duties hitherto paid 
on books and paper of every kind. His Majefty 
fupprefles all duties on articles of this kind, dellined 
to the United States, and put into French or Ame- 
rican vcflels. 

It is with pleafure, Sir, I announce to you thefe 
(^jfpofitions of his Majefty, which are a new proof 
to you of his defire to unite clofely the commerce of 
the two nations, and of the favourable attention he 
will always give to propofitions which fliall be 
made to him in the name of the United States of 
America. 

I have rhe honour to be, with a fincere attachment^ 
Sir, 
Your very humble 

and very obedient fervant. 
-(Signed) ' DE CALONNE. 

Your nation, Sir, will undoubtedly fee, with plea- 
fure, the facilities the king has juft given to the ex- 
portation of the wines of Bourdeaux, Guienn'^, and 
Touraine, and th.e fuppreiTions of duties granted to 
that effect, by oilferent Arrets of Council, with which 
the Marquis i^e la Fayette will be able to acquaint you. 



EXPORTS 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. I2s 



EXPORTS OF AMERICA. 



I 



WILL treat but of a few of the articles which 
America furnifhes, on account of the attention \vhich 
they all merit, 

SECTION I. 

Tobacco, 

Of ail the articles which France may procure from 
the United States, tobacco is the moll important one 
to the inhabitants of the two countries. If it cannot 
oe clalfed with our mod urgent neceffities, it follows 
them fo clofe, that excepting cafes wherein the ufe 
of it excites difgufl, the deprivation of it ordinarily 
difcovers the laft degree of raifery. 

We muft not be furprifed at its general ufe. — 
The man greedy of fenfations has found one lively 
enough in tobacco: it is perhaps the only one which 
he can enjoy at pleafure without injuring his health, 
diminifliing his ftrength, or fufpending his work or 
meditations. Tobacco awakens the mind agree- 
ably, and obfervers who have remarked the innocent 
pleafure, the fpecies of inflantaneous comfort, which 
a little tobacco procures to a poor man, borne down 
by the weight of affliftion, have always wiflied that 
fo fimple an enjoyment fliould be improved and be- 
come lefs and lefs expenfive; and they cannot re- 
flect v/ithout horror on the crime of that fifcal in- 
duftry, which, hardened by monopoly to increaib 
its profits, adulterates fnuff fo much, as to make it 
pernicious to health. 

M3 The 



326 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

The coniumption of tobacco mufl therefore be- 
come more and more confiderable, and the com- 
merce of this leaf, already very important, cannot 
be decreafed but by the dhinnution of its cultivation ; 
which the policy of America will never permit. 

The cultivation of tobacco is by no means proper 
for the European States, which have acquired popu- 
lation enough to apply another kind of cultivation 
to all their good lands. 

It is true the Alfaciens cultivate a little tobacco, 
and they boad of it; but they would make a greater 
profit if they cultivated their lands for provifions. 
This experience is decifive for France, where none 
of thofe rich lands exifl which are fo well known in 
America. It is therefore the intereft of France to get 
tobacco from abroad, but it muft be paid for by her 
manufactures : file may enjoy this advantage more 
fully with free America than with any other country. 
I will not repeat the reafons of it; I will obferve only, 
that the free Americans, having an immenfe extent 
of lands which cannot be cleared but in the courfe 
of feveral centuries, muft have^ for a long time to 
come, tobacco to fend to Europe, fince this produc- 
tion pays with ufury the expences of clearing. 

It is true, that the cultivation of tobacco'in Ame- 
rica muft be farlherand farther from the fea, and that 
the expences of carriage may become confiderable. 

But different confiderations place this epocha at 
a diftance; firft, in cultivating tobacco in none but 
abfolute new lands, the cultivation is much lefs ex- 
pcnlive, and the produce confiderably. more abun- 
dant; confcquently it will coft much lefs in a new foil 
than when the foil requires more labour and ma- 
nure. Secondly, America, interfe(f^ed in every di- 
rection by rivers and lakes, has infinite refources for 
rendering water carriage every where eafy, and con- 
fcquently never expenfive. It is eafy to multiply 
canals, and confequently communications: no part 

of 



UNITED STATES 0? AMERICA. 127 

of the world is io nuich favoured in this refpe<rr as 
America. Thirdly, The banks of the Ohio and the 
Miffifiippi offer immenfe lands to be cleared: the 
Ohio falls into the Miffidippi, which falls in its turn 
into the fea : thefe two rivers arealmoil: everywhere 
navigable, and the lands near them produce already- 
excellent tobacco, and will continue to do {o for a 
long time.- Fourthly, If the price of tobacco fliould 
be increafcd, France would not feel the ditference,. 
if the free Americans, preferring the culture, con- 
tinued to want European manufa6lures, and gave the 
preference to thofe of France. According to this 
fyllem, the exchange of merchandize, manufactured 
in France for the produdlions of the foil of America^ 
may be ftill made with advantage, if even thefe pro- 
dudions were fold in France below the firll coll in 
America. We have long feen the French commerce 
of the Levant produce great profits, although the 
merchandize brought in return was fold at a lefs 
price in France than it coftat the place where it was 
produced. This circumftance flill exifts. 

Therefore the fpeculation, moft to the intereft of 
France, is to take as much tobacco as fhe can con- 
fume 



* It is.impc.Tible to view, without indignation, that narrow 
policy of Spain, v.hich would fli'jt out the Americans from all, 
communication witli th« fea by the Mifnflippi. How is it, that 
flie cannot perceive, that her mercantile intereft invites her, on 
the contrary, to favour this navigation, by erefting ilorc houfes 
upon the banks of this river near to its mouth ? Is fhe ignorant 
of the advantages of depofitories ? And with refpeft to her po- 
liiical interelt, is there a greatf^r one for her in thefe countries, 
than to make herfelf immediately neceftary to American efta- 
blifhtients, within the reach of the Ohio? Mull flie wait tiil 
they adopt other means ? What wilibe gained by creating dif- 
content among a free people ? If it be wifhed that thefe people 
ihould not become powerful, they muft be deftroyed ; and if this 
bjrb.-irity belongs not to the ei^,iteenth century, it is neceHary 
to make friends of them. Expedients in politics arc, chiidilh 
and vain* 



1-28 OK THE COMMKRCE OF THE 

fume from the Americans, and pay for it with he' 
manufactures.* 

SECTION II. 

FiJJierles^ Whale Oil^ ^c. Spermaceti Candles. 

Among the articles of fubfifience which nature 
has hberally given to men, fifli is one oi the moft 
abundant, the moft eafy to be procured, and the moit 
proper to preferve their health and ftrength.f Bv 
what fatal privilege is this food confined in JFranc;. 
aimoft to the rich ? Why does not fifh abound in all 
places, where this tribute of the fea can be received 
in its original ftate, and without being charged witii 
the expences of two long a carriage? Since it is Ic 
well known, that it is advantageous to a ftate, and to 
every clafs of citizens, to procure an abundance, 
and a variety of eatables, let them come from where 
they will, or of whatever nature they be, provided 
they be cheap and wholefome: why is this political 
rule departed from, with refpeft to iifli, to that ali- 
ment which nature produces every where with fuch 
fecundity? Whatever may be the motives which 
may repel it by an overcharge of duties, they can 
proceed from nothing but a culpable ignorance. 

Fully convinced of the benefit whicii muft refiilt 
to mankind from an abundance of provifions, and 
from the facility of piT>ducing this abundance, \\\ 
receiving from each nation the fuperfiuity which na- 
ture has given it, I fliall take great care not to copy 
the narrow fyftem of Lord Sheffield with refpeCt to 

fiflieries. 

* The tobacco leaf, of which the farmers general had the 
entire monopoly, orexclufive fale, produced to tlie king a clear 
nett revenue, annually, of between twenty-eight and twenty- 
nine millions of livres. 

"f Such is. the powerful influence on population, of the abun- 
dance of articles of fubfiPcence.. and efpecially tliat of fiHi, that 
It is principally to this article of life that the empire of China 
owes the incredible number of its inhabitants. 



TTNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 1^9 

nfiieries. — Kls Lorciiliip agrees, that the inciepen- 
ient Americans have, for the great fifliery, natural 
advantages, with which it is impoffible for the Eii- 
ropeano to contend. 

in fa6l, the Americans are oear that part of the 
Atlantic where great fifli abound; therefore their 
nfliery mufl: be lefs expenfive to them. If accidents 
happen, they are foon repaired; all their operations 
are more promj>t and fure; having a better know- 
ledge of thefe feas, they are expofed to lefs rifks than 
Europeans: finally, their proximity to the fiflieries 
r^fuires them provifions more frefti,* and puts it ia 
'■heir power to renew them more frequently; confe- 
.]uently their fifliermen enjoy more conflant health, 
and have older officers and failors among them : thefe 
are ineflimable advantages to America. 

The Englifli have very few of thefe advantages; 
the French fcarcely any. — But ought we to conclude 
r.'ith Lord Shefiield, from this order of things, that 
American fifn fhould be charged with duties, in ori 
der to fupport the national fifliery, againfl this com- 
petition? the nature of things dilates to France more 
wife and advantageous means. — Fifh is nourifliing 
—whatever is nourifhing is prolific: if the Ameri- 
cans hfli at lefs expence than the French, fo iiiuch 
the better for the lafl; fifli will be more abundant, 
and at a lower price in France. Let France open 
her po/ts; the Americans will bring fifli into them, 
and will pay themfelves with either the produftions 
of the foil of France, or of her induftry; and the po- 
pulation to which this abundance and cheapnefsare 
favourable, will increafc the productions of French 
induflry. 

-Moreoverj 

* Such Is the advantage of the /iircricanj, that they furnlih 
provifions to the feJentary n.;.eries of the Eaglllh. According 
to Colonel Champion, the provifions of Europe are more dear, 
3nd not fo good ; t!ie difference in favour of the Americans is 
in the proportion of four to hvsn', and itcannct be oiherivi!>. 



rjO- ON THE COMMERCE OF TBL" 

Moreover, it is neceflary, either to renounce ^a- 
terior commence, or to conient that there flirill be 
fomething to- exchange on both fides. To wifli ta 
eliabliili and encourage a commerce with a foreigr 
nation, and not to leave it to the care of furnifliine 
that which it colletfls with the greatefi: facility, is :: 
manifeft contradiclion. The enlightened policy o: 
commerce is not to invade all the branches of it, but 
to do nothing but that which can be done better and 
cheaper than any other. Therefore, fincethe Ame- 
ricans havefifb on their coafts, fmce they are in the 
neighbourhood of Newfoundland, leave to their in- 
duftry that branch which nature has given to them 
in preference; let us not difpute it with them: firll, 
becaufe it would be in vain to do it, and in the next 
place, becaufe France m;ay reap, without fiiliing, more 
sdvantageoufly the fruit of the American fiflierits. 

*' But," fays Lord Sheffield, " fnilorsmuftbefounci 
" for the navy; and the fiflieries are the nurferies for 
*' them; therefore the ftflienes mufl be fapported 
*' and no fifli confumed but that which we take our- 
*' felves; on which account premiums arc neceffary.' 

There is no doubt but failors are formed in the 
£flieries, butitisnot in throwing nets or hooks, in cur- 
ing or preparing fifn, that this is done; it is by a fre- 
quent and long exercife on board veffels in laboriouj- 
manoeuvres, in living, fo tofpeak, among rocks, ane 
in Teas, which the vicinity or nearnefs of oppoOtr 
coafls makes ccntinualiy dangerous: now this exei- 
cife of vigilance, agility, and intelligence, is perform- 
ed by the faiior in coafiing and fifliing on the coafr 
of his own country. Let coafiing be frequent, anc^ 
let not this fifliery be difcouraged in France, and ii 
will not be. neceflary, in order to form failors, to fend 
them fo far to take fifli, which they cannot bring to 
Europe without great expence: by which the con- 
fumption is confequently limited, and whichdeprivc 



liSof the inefiimable advantage of receiving in abunO 

anccj 



i 



TTNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 2 3I 

nnce, that which the independent Americans can take 
:it mnch lefs expencc. 

Without doubt the exercife of the fiflieries of the 
North forms intrepid faiiors; and this paiiiful life 
mull be confented to. But when nature has placed 
men in a climate where they have but a few fteps to 
make to the interior of the country,^ to Hiid an oc- 
cupation exempt from dangers and lefs fatiguing, 
vv'he!i they can get their bread upon land, under a 
clear aftd calm iky, if he reafons, how will he be en- 
t';aged to tnift his life to boards, and to brave icy feas, 
\o txpofe himfelf during the finefi: months in the year 
10 perpetual ftorms, which aflail thefe fifliing banks, 
lb frequently ftained, by means of the moft fatal 
errors, with European blood? 

It will be anfvveredj by premiums, f by privileges, 

and 



* The French nfh but a part of the year ; moft of the fi/h- 
crmen are day lib)urers, employed on land, vvh'ch they leave 
m the month of February, and return to it in July. 

-f England g^ives confiderable premiums to her iifliermen,— • 
But the inconvenlencies and abufes of the firft premiums render 
them of no cffecSl. Thefe abufes are chiefly as follows: The 
'lining veifel muft go co a certain port; the equipage mull pafs 
in review before the OfHccrs of the Coft;->ms ; the fliip muft com- 
plete her cargo, or r-^inain three m.onths at fca to do it :— fo rhac 
if in the firfl: week His procured nine-tenths of it, /he would be 
obliged to keep the fea for the other tenth. The /hip can take 
no inftruments but thofe proper for the fiihery, to which the 
premium is applied j tlie cargo cannot be difcharged but in a 
certain port; there are general formalities to be obferved with 
refpedl to the fait which fhe carries out and brings home; the 
owners are expofed to vexar'ons from Cultom-houfe Officers, to 
law fuits v/hich they are cj'ij^ed to carry on in courcs of juftice, 
far from their refulcnce.— Judge if a poor filherman can expofe 
himfelf to thefe inconveniencies; this Is what has caufcd fi/he- 
ries to decline, efpecialiy thofe of Scntland,— It is what has 
given fo much afcendancy to the Dutch, who have no premi- 
ums. It is that which has rendered premiums ufelefs. Otlicr 
Governments aiopt this method of giving premiums : the fame 
difficulties are a-itjched to them, aiid jet people are ailoni/laei 
tjiat thing"! go not on better. 



?3i t>N TKE COMMERCB OF THE 

and by prohibitions or overcharges of duties, which 
are equi^'alent to prohibitions on foreign intluflry. 

But it mud not be forgotten, that articles of fub- 
fiftence are here in queftion, that rhofe forced means 
make them dearer, that their confumption is then H- 
mited, and their effect reilrained; tiiat in forcing na- 
ture in this manner, is doing it at the expence ofpo- 
pulation, for by this barbarous regimen, men are de- 
llroyed inflead of being produced, whiift permiflion 
to bring into fea-portsthe fi(h of thofe who have no- 
thing better to do than to take it, would infallibly in- 
creafe population. 

Moreover, to whom are thefe premiums and all 
other favours, with which it is wi{hed to combat the 
nature of things, diftributed? Does the individual 
of whom it is intended to make a failor enjoy any 
advantage from them? Let not men be deceived in 
this; they are the prey of the navigator, who goes 
out of his clofct but to walk about, and who directs 
his fteps fometimes toward the fca fide.' He begins 
by taking liis own fhare, and be perfuaded that the 
wages which he offers to thofe whom he employs to 
conduiSi his perilous enterprize are parfimonioufly 
calc^uiatcd; therefore the end is not attained. 

If there be an abfolute want of failors who have 
pafled their noviciate about the banks of Newfound- 
land, and in the North feas, there is a more fimplc 
and fure means, lefs expenfive, and what is more 
important, one which is exempt from deftru6tive 
confequences, to form them. Choofe from honed 
families young, robuii:, tmd intelligent men ; infure 
to them a perfonal recompenfe, if, after a certain 
number of voyages on board filliing veflels, they 
bring certificates of good behaviour, and of experi- 
ence acquired by practice. Oblige them to go on 
board veflels belonging to nations r-r cities, to which 
thefe difficult fiflieries are a neceffary refource. It 
is there they will acquire real knowledge. Thefe, 

added 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA* 133 

added afterwards to failors exercifed in the coafriiig 
and in the filTieries on their own coafls, will form 
tor the navy experienced failors. 

IFhak oil belongs to the fiflieries : it is another great: 
article of commerce with the United States. AH oil 
ef this denomination is not produced by whales only; 
great quantities of it is drawn from feals, and other 
fpecies of fifh. 

The ufe of tiiis oil is much reftrained in France:^ 
that of the white oT the whale, and of which fuch 
fine candles are made, is little known there. The 
life of oil will become more geiieral. 

Lord Sheffield is of opinion, that found policy 
makes its neceflary that the Eiiglifli fliould prohibit^ 
or at lead difcourage by duties, American oil. It 
was with this idea that the government of England 
impofed a duty of four hundred and fifty livres tour- 
nois per ton on oils imported by the independent 
Americans, to favour the oils of Canada and Nova- 
Scotia. 

This rigour fhould make this produftion, which 
has been hitherto profcribed, received in France. 
The introdudion of it is fo muchthemore neceflkry, 
as the French whale fifliery is ruined. Bayon, for- 
merly celebrated for this fifliery, has abandoned it; 
Dunkirk, which continues to fit out veflels, furnifhes 
but little of this oil, at a very high price. 

Whether the French go to the North, or towards 
Brafil, they will labour under a difadvantage : — 
Without afylum in cafe of misfortune, their naviga- 
tion is always longer and more expenfive than that 
of other nations which carry on a whale fifhery. It 
is therefore more to the advantage of France to re- 
N . ceivc 



* By ftatements which deferve f^me faith It appears, that 
in 1784, the irriportation into Frdnce of whaJe oil, and thai of 
other fifh taken by the French, was 1,610,619 lb. Foreig* 
«il, 2,748^099 lb. Portugal furnifhed almoll half of the lail^/ 



34 



ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 



ceive American oil, and to pay for it with her wines 
and manufl\6tures. 

Tlie French government foon perceived the ne- 
ceffity of receiving the oils of America, Had not 
this been done, an emigration of American fiilier* 
men into Canada and Nova- Scotia would have been 
the confeqnence. This was near happening, fome 
time after the peace, in the ifland of Nantucket. In 
defpair on feeing the ports of England fliut, and not 
itnovving where to fell their oils, which alone fup- 
plied all their wants, tlie inhabitants had refolved to 
emigrate to Nova-Scotia, when, on the moment of 
departure, they received a letter from the Marquis 
de la Fayette, whom they juftly looked upon as their 
patron and father. He perfuaded them to be pati- 
ent until the French government fhould fupprefs or 
reduce the duties on oils, which have been reduced 
for a limited time; but during this time the indepen- 
dent Americans are to enjoy, with refpefl to their 
oils, all the advantages given to the moft favoured • 
nation;* and this favour, joined to all their other 
advantages, cannot fail to give them a great fuperio- 
rity in this branch of commerce, as beneficial to 
France as to them. 

The white of the whale muft be added, and the 
candles made with this fubftance: they are known 
by the name of fpermaceti candles, and ferve inftead 
of very fine bougies or wax candles. The American 
Colonies exported of them, according to Lord Shef- 
field, to the amount of five hundred thoufand livres 

tournois, 

* Such are the duties on whale oil, &c. paid in France, ac- 
cording to the tarifs of 1664, and 1667^ whale bone, cut and 
prepared by the French, thirty Ibis per cwt. fin?, three livres per 
cwt. a barrel of oil of five hundred pounds weight, three livies. 
Whale bone from foreign fiflaeries pays, in the firft inftance, 
nineteen livres, in tlie fecond, thirty livres, and twelve livres in 
the third. The Hanfe Towns pay nine livres in the firft in- 
ftance, and fevcn livres ten fols in '.he third.— It isthclaft duty 
tvhich the Atncrican oils now pay. 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. I 35; 

tonrnois, in the y.ars 1768, 1769, and 1770, cal- 
cuiatijig'hefe candles at thirty-two Ibis a pound. It is 
probable, that theie would b^ better made in France. 

SECTION III. 

Foreign corn and flour enter France on paying a 
duty too inconfiderable to make any fenfible increafe 
in their price. The principles laid down in the pre- 
ceding article, with reipecl to articles of fubiiilence, 
niufi be adopted for the commodities of corn and 
flour. 

The corn merchant, the mo ft ufefiil of all nier- 
chants (whatever the vulgar, who, from a want of 
inforniation, confounds 3 dealer in corn with a mo- 
]iopoiizer, may think of him,) fears arbitrary excep- 
tions, fudden prohibitions, and imexpefted llrokes of 
authority. This flate of uncertainty prevents the 
folid eftablifliment of the true fyftem of liberty, 
whence refult innumerable inconvcniencies, which 
no other fyftem would bring on provided it were 
fixed, and that it afforded a certain bafis of calcula- 
tion. 

But how could a legiflation for corn be formed 
v.'hich fiiould not be one of liberty, and which fhould 
neverthelefs afford a like bafis? This is impoffible: 
feeking, firfl of all, the particular rules for every cafe, 
when thefe are of a nature nor to be forefeen, is feek- 
\vi2^ for a chimera. 

Not to fall into contradiction it is neceflarv to 
choofe between arbitrary powcrand liberty — But that 
which is arbitrary prefents notliing but ' a perfpec- 
tive which is naturally difcouraging. No property 
is fafe under this fyftem; when it e>:ifls, the mer- 
chant and the cultivator are obliged to hazard their 
property in a lottery, of which the chicaneries can- 
not be calculated; for it is neceHarv to forcfee the 
N - ' falfe 



156 OK THE COMMERCE OF THE 

fiilfe informations, errors, and manoeuvres, of an in- 
tereft different from their own, and even from that 
of the public, the attempts of power, &c. and if all 
thefe confiderations ought to enter into the elements 
of their calculations, how can they found hopes on 
luch a variable bafis? 

Liberty conliils, on the contrary, in the choice 
tvhich every one may make of that which is mof^ 
agreeable to him, according to the circumftances of 
the moment. This is a general rule; it is applicable 
\o every cafe, and the hope of gain is always ac- 
companied by the decifive certainty that aft indivi- 
'iual will be mailer of all his induflry, and of com- 
bining^ his fpeculations according to circumftances, 
which human power cannot govern. 

From this demonflrated truth, that in every (late 
of circumftances, the firfl thing needful to the com- 
merce of grain is a fixed rule, refults the necefiity of 
embracing the fyftem of liberty, and of proteclijig 
it ill its fuiieft extent, without oppofing any refiri(5live 
condition.* 

Governments fnould be determined by the necef- 
Bty alone of this fixed rule, if the fyflem of liberty 
<vas not even demoufirated to be tlie beft in every 
refpe6i. But this fyftem is moreover the moil cer- 
tain prefervative agninfl the alternatives of ruinous 
.ibundiHiceand fcarcity ftill more ruinous, w hichare 
both calamities, wherever impofts are confiderable. 

Lord Shelneld obferves, that Europe, not being 

orflantly under tlie neccffity of recurring to Ame- 

ican corn, the United States cannot put corn and 

lioiirinto liie c'af; of producftion;;, which found an 

eirciitiai 



P The E?iglu'h fometimes prohibit importat'on or exporta- 
tion,— But it muft be obfervcd, that the E'>gll/li previouilv fix 
the pricr; cf corn, which determi;ies prohibitions. This is 
'.herefore a fixed lav.', and which, confequently deranges not 
f:ecutator:i like an arbitrary iiuv= 



tlNITED STATES OF AMERICA. l^J 

clTential and durable commerce.* Lord Shellield is 
imftaken. It is a truth, which every man of obfer- 
vatioii 15 acquainted with, that not a year comes 
forward without fliewing that fome one or more na- 
tions in Europe are in want of corn. This want of 
grain therefore being occafionally extended to allEu- 
rope, France ought to be anxious to become the ma- 
gazine of it, fince England was fo formerly. There- 
fore it would be advantageous to conftrudl in tlie 
free ports opened to the United States commodious 
depofitories to receive and preferve American corn. 
By this means corn would be always ready to be 
tranfported to- the place where the bed price was to 
be had for it. Thefe frte ports being depofitories 
where articles neceflary to the United States would 
be colle6red, the commerce of corn would thereby 
acquire a continuation, advantageous to the two 
nations; — advantageous to America, becaufe the 
certainty of a place of depofit, fafe and little expen- 
iive, would caufe grain to be fent more frequently; 
advantageous to France, becaufe, befides the conti- 
nual pofieflion of an important ccm.modity, and 
which would guarantee it from every manoeuvre of 
interior monopolv, thefe depofitories would furnifh 
N 3 the- 

* We have no fimple exprefTion in France for ' ftaple commo->' 
siltles }' words by which the Englifh term thofe forts of produc- 
iJons uf foil or induftry, fo naturalized as to form an efiential. 
part of national riches, and of v.'hich the commerce is fa- 
voured by great eftablilliments, fuch as public buildings, depofi- 
tories, and places or markets, defined to thefe produftions. 
Thefe are called the staple, wheace the expreificn ' ftaple 
commodities' v^a*: naturally formed. 

We have not, like the EngliHi, the happy liberty of making 
words ; their language becomes more rich, their elocution rapid, 
and v/e lofe ouri-jlvesin long circumlocutions, to defcribe a thing, 
of which we want the name; an inconvenience more pernicious 
to inftruftion than is believed. This remark is not at pre(ent. 
ill timed : it is to thofe who conduct affairs, who live among, 
them, whofe vocation it in t6 treat thereon, to create words 
which explain thesi clsarly and properly. 



238 OM THE COMMERCE OF THE 

the means of a coafting trade, almofl continual, from 
the north of France to the farthell part of the Me- 
diterranean. 

France does not grow all the corn fhe confumes;* 
file is obliged to get it from the north, from Sicily, 
and the coafts of Africa: that of the United States 
ought to be more proper for her, for two reafons: 
Firft, it muft be cheaper, being the produce of a 
cultivating people. Secondly, the people have more 
various and general wants of frelh provifions than 
the fouthern countries of Europe. The American 
may receive wines, fine oils, and fruits of France, 
•jn exchange for his corn. The Ncopolitan, the 
Sicilian, and the African, cannot be paid in tlie 
fame manner. 

Finally, there is another confideration favourable 
to the importation of American corn: it may eafily 
arrive at Honfleur;f there it may be ftored up, and 
undergo all tlieprocelTes neceffary to itsprefervation; 
procefies which are become very fimple and little ex- 
penfxve.J Thefe eftablillmients would keep up a 

confiderable 

* This is a faft, though contrary to the common opinion. 
Another fadt, wiiicli proves the neceffity of admitting corn at 
a l9ff rate, fuch as the corn of Amerca, is, that threc-fourtha 
of the inhabitants of the province of Beauce, which produces 
• uch fine corn, eat black bread and no other, and of wliich 
shey have not even enough. What muft this fcarcity be in 
(Bthcr provinces where no corn ii grown ? 

■j- I quote Hcnfleur, becaufe this port, from various circum- 
•flances, ufelefs to mention here, is deftined by nature to be- 
come the depcficory of a great commerce, and that efpecially of 
?he United States with France. The projeft of making it a 
free port has been under confideration ; and itis to thegreateft in- 
tere/t of France that this projeftfliould be carried into execution. 

+ Thefe confift in nothing but placing magazines in the open 
s*r, opened to dry winds, and conftrudled in fuch a manner as 
to bs entirely removed. This operation, performed once a fort- 
3)ight, in proper weather, needs only to be repeated a certain 
number of times J after which the corn may be left in aheap, 
■without fear of its heating. Ej?periments of this kind have 
jbeea carefully m^de, The method of prefcrving corn ufcd a? 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 15-9 

confiderable quantity of foreign corn within the 
reach of the capital, a greater advantage than may be 
imagined. 

There are fiiill other motives which ought to en- 
gage the French to encourage the importation of A- 
merican corn. They have need of it for the vaft 
magazines which the land and fea forces, and fre- 
quently fcarcity, oblige them to keep ftored. 

What fhould hinder government from forming 
magazines of American corn in the French Aigar in- 
lands, which tempcfts, conflagrations, and other 
unforefeen accidents, expofe fo frequently to famine^ 
becaufe contraded viftualling is carried on bv mo- 
nopolizers, who fend but little in order to fell dear? 

SECTION IV. 

Ma/is f Yards J and other Timber for the Navy. 

France, like other European fVates which have a 
royal navy and fleets of merchant fliips to keep in 
repair, imports timber from Livonia and Ruflia, 
This general magazine begins to be cxhaufl:cd; the 
quality of its mails is not io good as form.erly. This 
commerce is, moreover, attended with the difad- 
vantage to France of requiring confiderable remit- 
tances of money, without reckoning the inconve- 
niencies of a dangerous navigation, frequently inter- 
rupted by ice; alfo the competition of feveral na- 
tions, which their proximity and many other cir- 
cumftances naturalize, fo to fpeak, in the ports and 
feas of the Norths advantages which the French 
cannot have. 

Thefe 

Geneva may be quoted : The government has eflablifhed one of 
itcgreateft revenues in the fale of corn to the people, and its 
interefc has, coniequently^ led it to improve the art of preferv- 
ing thia commodity. Bcfides, in depofitories deftincd wholly 
to the corn dealers, the fame corn never remains long enough- 
to render its prefervation difficult. There isfome reafon to b«-. 
I'lfive that the fait air of the lea is favourable, for it* 



140 ON THi: COMMERCI^ Ob Ttih 

Thefe confiderations ought to determine Fj-aucc 
to turn her attention to the United States, to procure 
from them the timber neceilary for her navy, and 
mall timber efpecially. There is but one objection 
to this, and it arifes from prejudice. It is pretend- 
ed in France, that the quaUty of American timber 
is very much inferior to that of the Baltic. Some 
people go fo far as to maintain that it is im{>roper for 
the conflrudion of vefiels. I have reafon to believe 
that this judgment is not only hafty, but didated 
either by ignorance, or the partiality of perfons in* 
terefted in the Baltic timber. 

It is not in the laws of nature, that immenfe coun- 
tries, whofe afpefts are as varied as thofe of Europe 
can be, and in whofe foil there are the fame diverfi- 
ties, fhould produce no timber but of a quality infe- 
rior to that of the timber of Europe. 

Better directed inquiries, and a more attentive ex- 
amination, will foon deftroy this prejudice againfr 
thequality of American timber; a prejudice fomuch 
the more difagreeable, as it would deprive the com- 
merce between France and the United States of an 
r.rticle important to the two nations. 

if France will inform herfelf ferioufly of this mat- 
ter, let her confult even the enemies of America; let 
her confult Lord Sheliield, fo moderate in his eulo- 
giums, when it is neceffary to give them to the inde- 
pendent Americans. His Lordfhip fays exprefflVj. 
••' that the negociators of the treaty of peace, who 
*'' have ceded the territory of Penobfcot, to the ealb 
" of Cafco-bay, belonging to Great-Britain, defervc 
*' the fevereft cenfurc; as this country produce;:^ 
** \vithoutcontradi6tion, thebeft timber. Thecoaft," 
adds his Lordfliip, " is covered with timber proper 
** for navigation and other ufes, and in quantities 
*' fufficient to the wants of Great-Britain for centu- 
** ries to come. The white pine, known in England 
♦* b^ the nan;ie of the Weymouth Pine, or the Pine 



tJNITED STATES OF AMERICA. I4r 

'■• Qi New-England, abounds in this territory; it is 
•' inconteftably the befr for malh, and grows there 
'' to a prodigious heiglit." 

This is confirmed to us by men vho have travelled 
and refided in the United States. Thefe men aiTiire 
us, that the States produce all kinds of timber of 
which we are in need, and that the white pine of tlie 
Connecticut, Penobfcot, and Kennebeck rivers is, 
at lead, equal in quality to that of the north of Eu- 
rope. The fiiip-biiilders of Philadelphia tlleem it 
fo much, that they begin to make ufe of it for fide 
planks above the furface of the u'ater. 

Green oak, of which there are fuch fine forefls in 
Georgia, unites the rr.oH precious qualities; it may 
be procured from St. ?>^aiy's, of a more confiderable 
fcantling than that which comes from the Levant 
and the ifiand of Ccrficf. ; it is compact, the worms 
never attack it, and its duration is unequalled. The 
green oak cf Carolina is the hardeft timber known ; 
— the veiTcls built with it are of a very lougduratiou. 

SECTION V. 

Skins and Furs, 

In this trade Lord ShelTield looks upon the United 
States as dangerous rivals to Canada; and it is not 
without reafon that his Lordfiiip is of this opinion. 

The proximity of the great eftablifiiments which 
the independent Americans form at prefent at Pitf- 
burgh^ and, in many other places of their polfeflions 
beyond the mountains, mud iijienfibly give them 
great advantages in this commerce, and n^ake thtm 
partake with Canada a large fiiare of the profits. 

In fa6t, the regions fituated between the waters of 
the lake Ontario^ and thcfe of the Miifilfippi, inter- 
fected by the numerous rivers v^hich fall into the 
'South ar>d North- Weft of i^ieiir/Vj of the Michigan^ 

and 



14a ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

mid of the Su/>eri or, as far as the Ouifcovjhig,'^ and 
even to \}cit lac des bits ; ihe great Uiulertakings in 
\vliich the Virginians are at prefent en^.ploycd, to 
improve the navigation cf tlie Pctj\vmack,\o the foot 
of the Allegheny; the probability of another coni- 
miinicatioa with the tiltranioniane waters, by mean^^ 
of the weftcrn branches oi \\\ii SKfquchcinnah ; without 
omitting, the facility with which the iniiabitants of 
the ftate of New-York went to t^lagara before the 
war, in going up the Hudlon's river from their ca- 
pital to Albany, beyond that of the Mohawks, crof- 
ling the little lake of Oneida, and by means of an 
cafy carriage going down the river of OJh'ccgo^ in the 
mouth of which the Ontario forms au exctllent har- 
bour; all thefe reafons, and many others which re- 
late not only to geography, but to climate, jToximi- 
ty, <S:c. mull' in a few years put the Americans in 
poirefiion of the greatell part of the fur trade. 

Thefe advantages will hz ui!l more certain, when 
the Englifa fliall have evacuated the forts of Niagara, f 
the great eftabliduTient of the fireight,^ and that of 
the MichillimakinacK.§. 

The annual files in London of furs from Canada, 
produced in 1 782, four millions {txtw hundred thou- 
land livres tournois, fomething more in 1783, and in 
1784 they amounted to upwards of five millions. All 
thefe furs are paid for with Englifli manufadures,. 
arid the fourth part is])re])ared in England, by which 

their 



* A great river which falls into the MIlTiiuppi; at fsven hun- 
dred leagues fiom tl.e fca. 

T A very important one, which comniands the fppce of tlie 
thirteen leagues v.hich feparates the lalces Erie anii Ontario. 

t A city" founded by the French, on the height of St. Claire, 
which carries the waters of tlie lakes Michigan and Kuion into 
the Erie. 

§ A fort and eftalliftrnent at the point, in the ifland of this 
name, which commands the palfage of the fails of bt. Mary, 
through which ihs w;tcr- of the upper hks f:tU into iLcfc cS 
she Hurcn» 



I'KITED STATES OF AMERICA. I43 

their value is doubled. Now, this rich commerce, 
carried on by way of Quebec, will certainly fall as 
foon as the forts and the countries which they com- 
mand fliall be reflored to the Americans. It is from 
this coniideration that the refliuition of thefe forts is 
withheld, to the period of which the Englifli look 
forward with pain. 

SECTION VI. 
Rice, Indigo^ Flax -f ted. 

It is not poffiblc to fpeak of American rice with- 
out thinkinoof the pernicious inconveniencies which 
its cultivation produces. The wretched flaves who 
cultivate it, obliged to be half the year in water, are 
expofed to fcrophulous diforders and a premature 
death. It is faid, that this confideration prevents 
the ftates wherein rice is produced, from abolifliing 
llavery. Free men -would not devote themfelves 
willingly to this deftru6live labour.* 

Were this even true, and that in the fyflem of li- 
berty means could not be f^und to reconcile this cul- 
ture to the health of the labourers, a fufficient mo- 
tive could not be drawn from it to condemn to death, 
or to cruel difeafes, a part of our fellow creatures, 
born free, equal us,f and with an e«^ual right to live. 

Were 

* Rice Is cultivated In Piedmont and in Italy, by people wlio 
have no habitations, end are known by the name of Banditti, 
the fruit of the bad political conftitutions of that part of Europe. 
When thefc Banditti have finifhed thtir work, the Sbirres con- 
duct them to the fronf.iers, for-t"earof tiie diforders to v/hlch 
their inaftion and mifery might incline them. 

■\ They are of a different colour from that of the Europeans 5 
but does the quality of man depend on colour ? Are not the ne- 
groes orgatiized as we are ? Hav-e not they like us, every thing 
which belongs to the produ£lion of the fpecies, to the formation 
of ideas, and to their deveiopement ? If their black colour ought 
to have any nioral tfFe£V, to have any influence over their fate, 
or to determine our conduct towards them, it /hould be that of 
Jipdttcini; us to leave them where fihey arc, and not to force them 



144 ^^ "^^^ t:orYiME.RCE cf rns, 

Were the culture of this commodity even abfohitcly 
neceilary, this neceility would give us no right over 
the lives of negroes; or it would be the etfcidl of a 
ilate of war; for fervitude was never a right. 

There is a fpecies of dry rice no v/ay dangerous to 
cultivate. Moreover, the example of the Chinefe and 
the Indians, among udioin the culture of rice makes 
not inch ravages, ought to make us hope, thai in 
imitating them life and health would be reftored to 
men of which we have never had a right to deprive- 
them. 

After having confulered this production as a man 
fliould confider it, I muft novv' confider it as a mer- 
chant ought to do. 

The French government has not yet taken a dc- 
termined refolution relative to the introduftion of 
American rice. It is a wholefome and fimple arti- 
cle of fubfiftence, properto fupplythe place of prin- 
cipal commodities. It cannot be too often repeated, 
that the multiplication of articles of fubfiltenceoiigh: 
to be encouraged; it would render life lefs painful 
to the people, increafe population, and confequently 
natural riches. 

If France wifiies to have a great and folid com- 
merce with the United States, flie ought to admit all 
the produif ions of the United States. 

The 

away from the'r country; not to punilh them by the moft bar- 
barous treatment on account of their colour; not to drajj them 
into a foreign lane', to condemn them there to the vile and 
painful life of animals. Do they come and offer themfelves vo- 
luntarily as flaves? Do they afk to leave thofe torrid zones, 
vkrherein natwre feems to have circumfcribed them by their co- 
lour, as /he has done by us in more temperate ones by our white 
complexions? Their wants being few, keep them in ignorance; 
wc add every thing capable of changing it inco imbecility, and 
we argue upon this degradation, of which we are the culpable 
authors, to ttanquilize ourfelves on the juft reproaches which 
nature makes us ! Can we boaft thercfure of our knowledge, as 
long aj it remains an accomplrce in thefe horrors? See on this 
fubje£l, * r-jxamen critique des Voyages,' de M. de Chaftelux. 



, 



VltlTLiy STATliS OP AMERICA. T45 

The Americans exported annually, during the 
•ears 1768, 1769, and 1770,* to Great-Britain and 
ihe foiith of Europe, a hundred and fifteen thoufand 
barrels of rice, worth iix millions and a half of livres 
■ournois.* It is the moft confiderable article of ex- 
'porration after tobacco, wheat, and flour. It de- 
serves therefore that France iliould think of it for her 
commerce, and endeavour to bring it into her ports, 
ro be diftributed there to other European markets. 

Indigo, 

The fame thing m.ay be faid of the indigo of the 
Carolinas and Georgia; it makes a part of the im- 
portant productions of the United States, and is con- 
sumed in Europe; — it is therefore neccflary to open 
lor its rsception all the French ports, and afterward:; 
to give it eafy communications. The EngliQi re- 
v'eived of it annually, during the years 1768, 1769, 
and 1770, to the amount of three millions of livres 
tournois.f It was principally confumed in England, 
Ireland, and the northof Europe, by reafon of its low 
price. The indigo of St. Domingo is much dearer. 

The indigo of Carolina and Georgia has acquired 
;i much better quality fince the £rft quantities of it 
.irrived in England; but I have not learned that it 
is to be compared with the indigo of Domingo. Tra- 
• vellers fay, that Carolina produces indigo almoil as 
good as that of the French iflands. 

There are kinds of dying to which low priced in- 
digo is proper; and, for this reafon, certain dyers 
life that of the Carolinas and Georgia. In thefe cafes 
it will always have the preference. Therefore Ame- 
rican indigo iliould be admitted as long as there is a 
confumption for it, for the Americans will continue 
O to 

* The exporfation from Chsrleilon, from December 17S4, 
to December 1785, aiiounted to 67.713 barrels. 

f The exportation of dye-ftuff, ;nade in 17S5, from Charlcf- 

ton, amounted to 500,920 pound weight. 



to cultivate it; anci fince this cultivation cannot be 
prevented, the moil advantageous thing is to ftrive 
•9 become agents in the general commerce oi' Ame- 
•:ca. 

Flax- Seed. 

North-America fent to England and Ireland, dur- 
ing the years 1768, 1769, and 1770, flax-feed to the 
anionntof tu'o millions and a hali- of livTcs tournois ; 
it was all confumed in Great-Britain. Tiie advan- 
tage of paying for this feed with Irifli linens, gave it 
the preference to that of Flanders and the Baltic. 
Flax-feed from thefe countries is, moreover, very 
dear. 

It is the bufmefs of thofe French merchants, who 
may be interefted in the commerce with the United 
States, to confider what advantages thev may derive 
from this commerce. If the culture of flax becomes 
cxtenfive in PVance, foreign feed ought to be pre- 
ferred for two reafons:- — the quality of the produc- 
tion is improved by it, and there is. more advantage 
in fpinning flax in peopled and induftrious countries, 
than in letting it ripen to gather feed. It appears, 
that flax-feed comes not in abundance, but from 
countries v/here there are not hands fuflicient tofpin, 
or give the firft preparation, even to the flax they 
produce : it is then proper to cultivate it for its {^tCi, 
which becomes a confiderable article of commerce: 
as long as this ftatc of things fubflft:s, it muitalfo be 
proper for peopled countries to get flax-feed from 
abroad. 

Flanders feems to be an exception ; but the expor- 
tation of flax is there prohibited, for the purpofe of 
encouraging fpinning, &:c. in this cafe Flanders, be- 
inga country very proper for the cultivation of flax, 
may lepve to many cultivators of this plant no other 
refource than the commerce of the feed. It is ])ro- 
babie, that if the flax coidd be fent from Flanders, 

rtfter 



U^riTLD STATES OF AMEHICA. 147 

r.-icr the firfi preparation for f[ inning. • - - '7 
would triiiik ol gathering the leccl. 

SECTIO:. 

Naval Starts, .fuch as Pitch, Tar, :znd T:.r;u.;::., 

Before the emancipation of x-\merica, England re- 
ceived comiderable fupplies of thefe articles Uov.\ 
America, parti cubriy from Carolina and the So 1:1, . 
The quantities of thefe articles amounted annu.<:/.;-, 
during the years 1768, 1769, and 1770, to. i\\ .: :■ 
\'t\iQx\ limiiland feven hundred barrels of pitch ; 
ty-t\vo thoufand four hundred baireli of tar ; asid 
twenty-eight thoufand one hundred of turpentine: 
the whole amounting, in the port of exportation, to 
o\^t million two hundred :xi\<\ rwenty-eight thoufan.l 
livres tournois. 

Thefe ilores were very valuable to the Englirn, as 
well for their commerce as for their proper conliurjp- 
tion. Two con fide rable manufactures, eftab'.ilhed 
at Hull, were fupported by them; tar was thertj 
coiiverLed into pitch, conridcrable quantities of ic 
were exported to the fouth, where it was received 
iu Competition with tiiat from the north of Europe. 
Turper.iine, converted in tliefe manufacLures inro 
o'.i or ipirit, furniilied a confiderable chjecT: of coiV;- 
merce^ England confumes a great deal of it in the 
p:er)3ration of colours, varnifnes, &c. 

Tiie American revolution has not made the Ehlj;- 
liih lofe light of thefe (lores : the want they have. of 
them makes it imprudent to trull: wholly to the ex- 
portation of thefe articles from RuiTia and Swede:), 
where the Englifa have the Dutch for cotiipelitGr^. 
Moreouer, the navigation of America, lefs dangerous 
lium that of the Baltic, is not, like the iafi:, limited 
to a certain time of the year; it is ccnfeqiiently more 
frequent and lefs expennve; fo that thefe flores will 
conie for a long time from America at a lower price 
O s than 



143 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

than from the north. American tar Is as good aj 
that of Europe, thicker and more proper for making 
pitch; it is preferred for flieep, even at a higher 
price. American turpentine is inferior to none but 
that of France. 

An Englifli merchant has taught the Ruffians how 
to fnrnifli as good turpentine as that from any other 
nation: this produdion will be in great abundance 
there, by the nuinerous and immenfe forcfrs of firs in 
ihe neighbourhood of Archangel, where their crops 
•ire depofited. 

The llate of things fhews to France what value file 
ought to attach to the naval ftores which may be fur- 
niiiied from America. The quantities of them ex- 
ported from Cliarlefton become more and more 
oonfiderable.'^ The fandy foil near the fea, in North 
Carolina and the foiith of Virginia, produces a great 
quantity of iirs, from which tar and turpentine are 
extrafted; this is done without much trouble, and 
the facility of l"ening and preparing the trees is a great 
encouragement. 

SECTION VIII. 

TtniUr and Wood ^ for Carpenters afid Coopers work ; f itch 
as StarfSy Cajk-heads^ Pla?iks, Boards^ CsTr. 

France, as well as England, ought to be, for their 
own interefts, engaged to favour the importation of 
(hefe articles^ of wliich the United States can furnifit 
luch great quantities. 

Timber 



» In 17S2;,— 2041 barrels of pitch, tar, and furpentine, v.ers 
expoiced from Charl-jilon. Jn J 783,-1/1697 barrels. I know 
not how many barrels the exportalion of i 784 amounted to j 
but that of 1785 confifted of 17,000. The fame increafe is 
obfervcd in other articles. The n)oft confiderable is rice,, af* 
terwards indigo; — the other articles are, tobacco, deer-Zkins, 
timber, wheat, butter, wax, and leather. This cxportcitioij 
amounts to near four hundred dioufaad pounds flerling. 



•NfTED STATES OF AMERICA. 149 

f uiiu< ( i'-tils in France, anJ will become more 
r.\ more Icarce; "population dtilroys it: — yet tini- 
oer tnuii: be found for houfes, mills, &c. — hogfliead i 
muft be made for fiigars; calks and barrels for wine, 
brundv, &c. Thefe articles of tiniber are principally 
fiirnifiied from the North to the ports of France — 
but they become dear, their quality diminiihes, and 
the Americans have the advantage in the carriage. ■^■ 

The value of thefe articles, exported from Ameri- 
ca to Great-Britain only, amounted to two millions 
of livres tournois in the year 1770, according to a 
ftatement drawn up in the Cuftom-Houfe of Bollon, 
The general exportations to the Enghfh, French, 
Am.erican, and Spanilh iflands, and to the different 
parts of Europe, are Immenfe and become daily mor; 
confiderable. Were not this timber of a good qua- 
lity, the increafe of this commerce v>onld not be fo 
rapid. The French have in this refpet:!: fonie preju- 
dices, which it is of importance to deilroy. If riie 
American flaves are eileemed in making rum cafks, 
&c. they will undoubtedly prefeuve our brandies. 

* It Is neceiTary to give our readers an idea of die price of 
r.ome of thefs articles : an American very converfant in them 
lus furnifhed us with the r.ecefiary particular^. 

White oak planks, of two inches and a hslf tljick, faweii by 
the hand, were fold in i7^5j at fifteen pialtres., or two huu- 
<ired and fixty livres ten fols tournoii, the thoufand feer. 

Ordinary planks of hne white pine, an inck thich, fouttcen 
i<r fifteen fee: iong, and from a foot to fourteeri inches wide, 
vcrc fold at the fame time at feven piaflres, cr thirty-fc vch 
livres tournois, the thoufand feet. — Thofe of a double thic!:- 
nefs, double the price. 

Planks, from two to five inches thick, and from iir'cern to 
sixty feet long, at twenty-one pounds New- York money, or 
f.o hi;ndred and feventy- three livres tournois, tha thoufm I 
Uzl. — The fame perfon faid he had feen cutn; or b^nt tiinbrr, 
at ten fhlUingis Nevv-Yoik ncney a ton. the cxp:r>-^ oi r x^-'r.-, 
iki, not iniiud<-i. 



3 ^O ON TKt COMMERCE OF THE 

SECTION IX. 

VeJTeh cojijiru^ed in America^ to be Johl orfreighiea. 

It has been obferved that the bulk of the commo- 
di'iies which might be exchanged by the commerce 
between France and the United States, was, at an 
equal value,' much more confiderable on the fide of 
America than that of France. There refults from 
ihis,thatin thefe exchanges, a great number of Ame- 
rican veffels muft be fubjed to return to America in 
ballafl. This ftate of things would certainly be pre- 
judicial to the commerce between the two nations, 
if fom.e compenfation could not be eflablillicd 
which ftiould remove the inequality. 

This compenfation may be made in a very advan- 
tageous manner to both. The independent Ameri- 
cans conftruiffc vefTels for fale: if it be agreeable to a 
nation to purchafe of another the articles which this 
manufa(5lure3 at a lefs expence, and with more means, 
it follows, that the French ought to buy American 
vefTels ; and, in f:i6f, this commerce begins to be 
eilabliflied. 

Lord Sheffield reprobates this commerce with re- 
fpe£t to his own country. — " Its exiftence," fays 
Jiis Lordfhip, '* depends on its navy; this depends 
" as much on Englifh fliip-builders as on Englifli 
** failors; therefore, of all trades, that of fliip-build- 
*' ing is the moft important to be preferved in Great- 
*' Britain." The advances, according to his Lord- 
fhip, are of little confequence, and thefe vefTels not 
being deflined to*be fold to foreigners, what they coft 
ought to be confidered fo much the lefs, as the ex- 
pence is incurred in the country. 

Lord Sheffield prefumes alio, that fliip-building 
will be encouraged in New-Scotland, Canada, the 
Ifland of St. John, &c. Finally, his Lordflfip declares, 
'' that tl:e encouragement of Hiip-building in tl^^ 

** United 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, I ^'S 

'* United States is ruinous to Great-Britain; that it 
" is the fame to thofe who may purchafe American 
" Ijiirit vefTels; becaufe, notwithftanding their cheap- 
*' nefs, thefe veffels are little durable, from the na- 
*' ture of their materials," This obfervation relates 
particularly to veflels built forfale, which, his Lord- 
fliip favs, " are verv inferior to thofe which are be • 
" fpoken." 

It cannot be denied, that it h of confquence to a 
nation which attaches a great importance to its navy, 
to have fliip-builders. The repairs, &:c. of whici, 
vefTels are conltantly in want, would be badly di- 
refled, if there were not, in the clafs of workmen 
to whom this induftry belongs, men capable of 
conftruftingavelTel,and habituated to this conflruc- 
tion. What is flill more, as foon as a Ration has a 
navy, it is greatly to its intereft to poflefs every 
means of improving it; and the poffeflion of thefe 
means is fo much more fecure when there are efta- 
blifliments in the country which, in this cafe, fup- 
port emulation, by the conftant excrcife of the art. 

But it does not follow, that to preferve fuch zii 
advantage, a nation ought to have no other veiTels 
than thofe which are home built: it is here neceflary 
to diilinguifli fliips belonging to the royal navy from 
merchant fnips. The firfl are alone fufficient to 
employ a requifite number cf able builders, and to 
fupply every thing which the conftruclion and re- 
pairsof velTels require. But merchant (liips, of which 
a confiderable number is wanted, may be procured 
from abroad, if thofe of an eqaal quality can be had 
at a price confiderably lefs. 

Will it be faid, thy^t a nation becomes fo much 
the more powerful at fea, as the con{lru(£tion of vef- 
fels is encouraged in her ports? that under this point 
of view it is neceflary to be cautious not to furnifli the 
iiidependent Americanr with the means of forming a 

navy,- 



r :;:, ON iHii co^^MKRCi 

navy, which would render them formidable : that/ 
is at ieaft unnecefTary to liallcn thcie nieans? 

If this confideration were true, it would in {owe 
meafure impofe on France a law to encourage \hx: 
United States to form their navy; for, however fo; - 
midable her own may be, fhe has too many natur: ' 
obftacles to remove for her navy to be the effccfl c ; 
any thing but painful efforts, and confequently th> : 
it fliould be an ellablifliment very difficult to maij. 
tain, — very expcnfive, and fcbje6l to long intermi - 
(ions. And fince it is neceflary to fpeak conifaiitly 
of a threatening rivality, — of an armed rivality,-- 
France has the greateft intereff, to balance more i'uic- 
]y the force of her rivals, by calling to her aid tlvc 
naval force of a friendly people, — of a people t 
whom nat^ire has been prodigal in the means fliehr; 
given them of having a confiderable one. 

But the policy which refufed to purchafe Amer'- 
can veilels, for fear the Americans fhould become 
formidable at Tea, would be badly founded. A fure 
manner of retarding the effabiifiiment of a navy, by 
a nation which pofleiTes the m.eans and materials; the 
power and activity which fuch a great eflablifliment 
requires, is to employ it continually in theconflruc- 
tion of vefTels for fale, and to habituate it to this kind 
of commerce. If this nation, and fuch is the pofi- 
tioti of the United States, has nothing to fear inte- 
riorly from any other power, it will certainly defpiic 
all fuch military preparations, whofe profit and utility 
will not be fo immediately perceived, as the frequent 
, gains of peaceful commerce. Therefore, let the inde- 
jjendent Americans be perfuaded to build vcfTels for 
lale: let them not be provoked to build fliips for dt- 
feniive and offenfive operations, and they will neg- 
Ie6l the great means with which nature has furniflied 
them, of having a refpe6lablc navy: they will even 
jiegled them, when greater riche;^, and a more co!a- 
••; . lidcrabl:' 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. I55 

iiderable population, fliall faciliuite to them the iif'c 
of their natural means. 

Far from futfering by this new arrangement of 
things, France would gain thereby. This idea will 
undoubtedly appear extraordinary, becaufe, in a- 
bandoning worknianfliip to American fliip-builder-j-, 
France is deprived of it : but how eafily may flie 
compenfate this apparent lofs ! In fact, when no- 
tiiing is to be had without labour, it is then confi- 
dered as real riches : therefore, it ought to be em- 
ployed with a prudent economy, efpecialiy in the 
lyffem of national rivalities. The workmen wh.o 
will not build vefiels, will make cloth, with which 
veflels may be paid for. The expence of manufac- 
turing thefe cloths will be paid at home, as that for 
the conftru<5lion of velTels would have been; by 
which means thefe will be had at a cheaper rate. 
This labour and expence will therefore produce 
greater advantages, and place the nation in a more 
deiirable relation with its rivals. 

Finally, Lord ShefKcld, whofe narrow policy is 
here refuted, propofes that ftiip-building Ihould be 
encouraged in Canada, New-Scotland, &c. But do 
phyfical circumftances favour thefe countries as 
much as the United States? Can England reap real 
advantages from this encouragement? It is a quef- 
tion with which feveral writers have combated Lord 
Sheffield, and on which I cannot decide. 

But if England had this refource, France would 
be without it. Veflels built in America will always 
coft her lefs than her own, or thofe conftru6led elfe- 
where: Hie ought therefore to favour the introduc- 
tion of the hrft. 

A celebrated minifler, whom France has reafon 
to regret, thought as follows : his defign \v\s to get 
a part of the veHels of the French navy conflrufted 
in Sweden; he thereby expected to make great fav- 

ings;; 



154 ^^ TKll COMMERCE 0? TKS 

ings : they will be greater and more real, 
the veir.'ls conrrru6ie(J in tlie United Slates. 

The Englilh.t remlt'ives will 'not be. able to refift 
the lorce of things; they will fooner or latter retursi 
to the life of American vtflels; for thele colt but a 
third* of what Entjiifli vefels are buihfor: aiid ti,£ 
cheapnefs is tht tirft law of commerce. 

- 'i'iie bad. quality attributed to America:. - . 

a fable, ariling from the following circumllances: ii; 
the. contention for independence, the Americar..; 
built, vellels in hsite, to arm them as cruifers : thev 
were forced to make ufe of wood which was green, 
and unprepared; other things were either Wt.nrij;,' 
to thefe velVels, or precipitately prepared. Confe- 
quenily the vetlels were imperfe6t j but this imper 
fcftion was but accidental A cruife is a lottery. 
wherein no notice is taken of the goodnefs and dura 
bility of the veflel. It is fufTiciejU that it be a good 
laJIer, this is t-he etFential quality. 

Peace has re-cllabliftied, the conftruftion of vefieis 
in the manner it ought to be; and there are American 
veilHs built before tlie war, and Ibme thirty years ago, 
which for.goodaefi and duration are not inferior lo 
any iiugiiili veflbLj • 

More progrefs has been made in America than any 
where elfe in the art of ihip-buildjng; this is eafi-y 
e.xpbined : — it muft not be forgotten, whe)i the indt • 
pendent Americans are fpoken ofj that they are n(^L 
recovering from a (late of barbarity. They are men 
efcaped frojn European civilization, employed, fo to 
fpe:^k, in creating their country and refources: ro 
ibackles reftrain their efforts, every thing in Europe 
i>5 looked upon as perfect, and made ufe of, without 
thinking of improving it. Thefe two eflential dif- 
ferences 

* In New-Englp.n(1 the conftruifilors of veflels make their bar- 
gains at the rate cf three pounds fterling per tor>, carpenter 
wcikinchided^ On the 'Xh.imes, the price is nine pounds dts- 
I'wz for ihe woik iilur.e of ;he carperiier* 



\;l?ITED STATES OF AMERICA. I-^ 

. c ....-..; caufe a very condderable one in the intenfity 
■f induftry. 

Boflon has produced a man aftonifaing in the art 
>i^ fliip- building. Long and clofcly employed in the 
i>arch of means to unite fwiftnefs of failing in veffels 
to their folidity^ Mr. Peck has had the greatefl: fiic- 
cei's. It was his hand which produced the BeUfarins, 
the Hazard, and the Rartlefnake, which were To par- 
ticularly diftinguifhed during, the late war by their 
Twiftnefs of failing. Yeflels conilrufted by this able 
builder have quahties which odiers -hr.ve not ; they 
carry a fourth more, and lail fafler. Tbefe h£ts are 
authenticated by a number of ex}-)eriments. 

The Englifli themfelves acknowledge the fupe- 
riority of American (liip-buildvng: '' Thefineftvef- 
*• fels','' fays Colonel Champion, " are built at Fhila- 
'^ delphia; the art of (liip-building has attained in 
'' that city the higheil degree of prefe6lion. Great 
'' veflels are built in New-York, alfo in the Chefa- 
*' peak, and in South-Carolina: thefe lall:, made of 
'•' ereen oak, are of an unequalled folidity aiid dura- 
" bihty." 

The American Proverb fays : T/ial to have a perfeSi 
vejfel^ it fuiift ha-ve a Bojzon bottom and PhilaJelp/tiaJides, 

The French, if connoifleurs be believed, are very 
inferior to the Argericans in the minutia; of (liip- 
building. This fuperiority of America ought not 
to furprife us : it will flill increafe. The indepen- 
dent Americans who inhabit the coalls, live by the 
fea, and pride themfelves in navigation. As they 
have competitors, their genius will never fleep, nor 
will its efforts be fhackled in any manner whatever. 
In France, the people are, and ought to be culiva- 
tors; the marine is but a fubordinate part, and by 
the nature of things, it muft ei^joy but a very preca- 
rious conlideration. Honour, which a{ie<^s the 
head of every Frenchman, is diftributed but at Pa- 
ris and "at Court ; and there men arc, and pnufl iiil: 

be, 



2^6 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

be, far from perceiving the importance of attachiiig 
merit to the improvement of Ihip-build-ing ; it mull 
therefore langiiilb, or yield to that of the Ameri- 
cans. Hence it refuks, that the French, in prc- 
ferving every tiling which can maintain amongii 
them an able claft: of fhip- builders, muft buy veflels 
of the Americans; becaufc every convenience is 
united to that of facilitating their reciprocal impor- 
tations and exporf^tions, of which the bulks are fo 
djiferentin one nation from thofe of the other. 

This circumftance is attended with the advantage 
«>f procuring the French merchant an American vef- 
lel at a lefs price than if he had ordered it to be built, 
or if he bought it in America, becaufe it will always 
be more to the intereft of the American to fell his 
velTel, than to take it back in ballad. 

Such is the fitnefs of American velTels for the 
French marine, and efpecially for merchant fervice; 
fuch is that fitnefs for all the European powers who 
have harbours and fea-port towns, that I think a fure: 
and commodious road in Europe would foon be af- 
forted with American veffels for fale, if every thing 
which can encourage a like depofitory were granted 
to the^port wherein this road might be. This mar- 
ket for veflels will be eftabliflied; — the Englifli reje6> 
it. France will, in a Ihort tim.c, encourage it. 

SECTION X. 

General Conjiderations on the preceding Catalogue of Im- 
portations from the United States into France. 

The lift which I have gone through of the arti- 
cles with which the independent Americans may 
furnifli Europe in exchange for lier merchandize i<; 
not very long; but thefe articles are confiderable, 
and important enough in themfelves to merit the at- 
tention of European merchants: they are fufficient 
to deflroy the preiudic-es of thofe who, under the 

falfc 



•UNIT-ED STATES OF AMERICA. I 57 

•falfe pretext of the inability of the Americans to fur- 
iiifli articles of exchange, difdain a reciprocal com- 
merce with the United States. Thefe articles are not, 
however, the only ones which France may receive 
from. them. Independently ofpot-afli, fo precious 
to manufaccures, and of which the fcarcity becomes 
xiaily more fenfible, iron, vegetable-wax, wool, flax, 
hemp, &c. may increafe the number. The Englifb 
received of pot-afh to the amount of four hundred 
thoufand livres per annum, during the years 176S, 
1769, and 1770: pot-afli being the produce of the 
wood burnt by the Americans, and as the burning 
of wood muft increafe v;ith the number of people, 
rthe quantities of pot-afii mull have increafed with 
population. 

I ought to hope that the work, once known in 
the United States, will excite the independent Ame- 
ricans to co-operate with jr.e, in what I have pro- 
pofed to myfelf, which is to fpread inftruftion on 
^every thing which relates to their country. They 
will make known to Europe, in a more extenfive 
and complete manner, every thing which can main- 
tain that reciprocal commerce in favour of which 
i write: they will aflemble in a work correfpondent 
to this, all that I have been able to expofe but im- 
perfectly: they will resflify my errors. I invite them 
to apply to this inter efl'ing fu'bjeft: I pray them to 
give it for a bafis, more philofophical, and philan- 
throphical principles, than thofe which have hither- 
to direded the jealous induftry of each fociety. For 
each, led on by a blind ambition, has wifiied to 
embrace every thing, to do every thing at home, 
and furiiifh every thing to others; each has taken 
for principle to receive nothing from others, except 
it be gold; each has accuflomt;d itfeif to look upon 
.every produ(5iion, manufaftured or unmanufa6lured, 
which it fent abroad as a profit, and all thofe which 
it received as fo many loiTes. Such is the falfe pi in- 
P ciple, 



I 50 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

ciple, according to which all the European natioFi& 
have directed their exterior commerce. 

What would be the confequence of a like fyflem, 
if it continued to prevail? All nations would be 
ftrangers to each other, and exterior commerce ab- 
folutely annihilated; becaufe it tends to 'take from 
this commerce that which fupports it. For the gold 
which is wiflicd for in payment for exportations is 
'I'efufed to thofe who would obtain it; all nations 
look upon the neceffity of giving it alike; that it is 
difadvantugeous: — ^^and ftrive to avoid it. If, thercr 
fore, on one {ide, none will take return in kind, anc^ 
on the other, nobody will difpoflefs himfelf of his 
gold, what will become of excuang,es? what will 
become of commerce? 

Nature, which intended to make m.en fo many 
brothers, and nations {o many families; — nature, 
which, to unite all men by the fame tie, has given 
them wants, which place them in a flate of depen- 
dence one on the other;— this wife nature has, by 
the diftribution of her gifts, anticipated and con- 
demned this^'exclufive fyltem. She has faid to the 
inhabitants of Nantucket, The rock which thou in- 
habit is rude and ilormy:; renounce, therefore, the 
defire of drawing from it the delicious wines and 
fruits which more calm and temperate climates pror 
duce. Look at the fea which furrounds thee, — that 
is thy property and thy treafure; I have made it inex- 
hauftible; and if thou knoweil how to make ufe of 
it; if thou wilt couiine thyfelf thereto, all the enjoy- 
ments of the other continent are thine: a fingk 
ftroke of a harpoon, dexteroufly thrown, will pro- 
duce a thoufand times more wine in thy cellar, than 
if by a painful cultivation thou continued obHinate, 
in aifling contrary to my intentions. 

Nature holds the fame language to the other inha^ 
bitants of the earth: Ihe tells the French to ufe all 
:their efforts in the fruitful foil which flie has giveii, 

thei??. 



t'NTrKD STAIES OF AMERICA. I 39 

'hem, and to ceafe traverfmg foreign feas to obtain, 
at {in immenle expence and much rifk, the Hfli and 
oil v/hich the inhabitants of Nantucket procure witli 
greater facihty and more fuccefs and economy. 

Why fliouid not all nations underitand a language 
lb iimple, fo wife, and lb })roper to produce univer- 
fal harmony? But iiow are they to be made to un- 
deriland it? By what means are they to be prevail- 
ed upon to adopt it ? What means are proper to en- 
gage nations which might have a direct commerce 
between them, to fign a treaty of commerce, which 
f^iould leave each at liberty to furnilli that which it 
could export better and cheaper than otheri;; and 
thus efiablilli exehanaies on t!ie immutable laws of 
nature? 

As foon a'3 nations" fnall be enlightened enough to 
perceive the advantage of fuch a treaty, from that 
moment it will ceafe to be neceflary, and every other 
treaty will be ftill lefs {o. It \v\\\ then be feen, that 
they all center in the fingle Vv^ord liberty. It will be 
difcovered that liberty can put every thing in its 
place; that liberty alone, without negociation or 
parchment, can every where give birth to an advan- 
tageous induftry. Finally, that every where, and at 
all times, file has fported with thofe commercial 
conventions, of which politicians "have fo ridicu- 
loufly boafted ; of thofe conventions wherein the 
contra6ling parties are incelHintly on the defenfivc 
with refpect to each other — inceflantly difpofed to 
deceive, and frequently multiply the feeds of war in 
a work of peace. 

Under fuch a fyftem of liberty, there would be no 
longer occafion for craftinefs in national policy with 
refpe£ftQ commerce: — of what ufe would it bcr" 
No more ftrife; for it would have no objed : i.o 
morejealoufy or rivality; no more fear of n^aking 
others profper and become rich; becaufe the riches 
cf e.ich (late would be advautagecuii to the whole. 
P51 la 



l6o ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

In a word, according to this fyftem, each nation 
would willi the other more means, in order to have 
inore to give and more to receive. Commerce 
would become what it ought to be, the exchange of 
jnduftry againft induftry ; of enjoyments againft en- 
joyments, and not r.gainfl deprivations: finally, a 
Hate of riches, without poverty on any fide. 

What people have more right and title than the 
Americans, to be the firlt in adopting fo philanthro- 
pical a fyflem, and v^'lvich is fo conformable to the 
laws of nature — at leal^ to do nothing which fliall 
retard it among them? Let their Congrefs, — that 
refpedable afiembly, which may become the light 
of nations, and from whole deliberations univerfal 
happinefs may refult, — remain faithful to the indica- 
tions of this nature; let it interrogate her conflantly, 
and give every nation the fame lalutary habitude. 

Jf Europe refufes to admit the productions of the 
United States, let Congrefs, rejecting the poor policy 
cf reprifals, open, by a great and republican refolu- 
tlcn, their ports to all European produdions. What 
evil can refult from this to the independent Ameri- 
cans? If European prohibitions rendered their 
means of exchange ufelefs, European merchandize 
mufl: of courlc be without a market in iVmerica ; or, 
falling to a mean price in the United Srates, it would 
become profitable to the Americans in paying for it 
even with gold. 

The law may be given to an idle and degraded na- 
tion, but never to one which is active and induftri- 
ous. This always punifhes, in fome manner or 
other, the tyrannical proceedings of other nations. 
The forcf of things is alone fufticient to revenge it. 

It is a misfortune to the United States, in not 
having been able to eftablifli at firfi: the noble fyftem 
of which I have fpoken, and to be obliged to have 
recourfe to the raiferablc means of other govern- 
ments, — that of impcfmg duties on foreign merchan- 
dize 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. l6i 

dize to pay their debts. Every impoiiJon bu^ a qviit- 
rc.'it upon laiid is a foiirce of errors. T\\t prcttrJcJ 
j-rotiBing duties impofed in Europe are out; coni'e- 
quence of thefe errors, and of vvhicli the effccft leads 
government altray, fo far as to perfuade them, tiiat 
they poiTefs a creative force equal to that of the Divi- 
nity himfelf. And what are thefe entsrpiifes by 
u'hich men would force nature? Miferable hot- 
lioufes, — wherein every thing is haftened to £:di.h 
the fooner; wherein ind.ifb-y vainly exhai;fts ilfelf 
to fupport an unnatural exigence; an-l wherein a vi- 
gorous whole is frequently facrificed to a corrupted. 
part. 

Let the Americans carefully avoid thefe erronecua- 
enterprifes: to iufure themfeWes therefrom, let t hern- 
confider the Itate of Europe. The Ejropeans have 
no longer any judgment in matters of imp ?fl: fimjJf; 
ideas are loft, and become impoflible to be realized; 
by the metaphyficianj which it is necefHiry to empioy 
to combat ignorance^ rirejudices and habitudes: ail 
ideas of juitice and propriety are confoui^ded.. A 
truth cannot be advanced without meetiiig, at every 
moment, falfe notions to combat. The man of in- 
formation is fatigued,, difgufted, and freqtientiy at a 
iofs what to anfwer to objecftions proceeding from' 
habits of error.. He perceives with concern, that 
the laws of happinefi; cannot be written, but upon 
tables from which there is nothing to be effaced : and 
inch, I flatter myfelf, is the lltuation of the Vuitei 
States. They are yet virgin ftates — they are unac- 
quainted with the inftiuitions which end in chaos, 
wherein the love of public gnod loiVs all its force. 

Montefquieu obferves, that the enterprifes of nrjer- 
cbants are always necefllifilv mixed with public af- 
fairs; but that in monarchies, public affairs are f.^r 
the m'^ft part fufpicious in the eyes of th : merchants.. 
But profperity and natiouai glory depend on ^.m- 
merte, as much in inonatc'dea as in other comtitt- 
P 3 tLua.,. 



102 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

tions. It is therefore tlie interell: of monarchies to 
give to merchants that hope of profperity which they 
have in repvibhcs, and which incHncs them with ar- 
dour to every kind of commercial enterprife. 

Provincial adminiflrations are the furefl: means of 
producing this happy effe<5l. If they were already 
eftablifhed, the French would comprehend, how ab- 
furb it is to imagine that the United States will not 
difcharge their public debt; how impoflible it is that 
Republicans fliould make ufe of the diilionourable 
refou3;ce of bankruptcy and deception; and that their 
public fpirit, their morals, and interefi', require them 
to difcharge this debt, contracted for the moft legiti- 
mate and honourable caufe that ever exifled ; and 
which is otherways but an atom when compared 
with their immenfe refources. French merchants 
■would then give themfelves Icfs concern about the 
manner in which their merchandize vvas to be paid 
for in America. For in the improbable cafe of a 
want of American produdions, or of precious me- 
tals, they have, as a lafl refource, the paper of Con- 
grefs and the States ; which paper it is an advantage 
to acquire, by the price at v.'hich it is obtained, by 
the intereli it bears, the certainty of its being paid, 
and by the confequent iranfmillion which may be 
jnade of it in commerce to the Dutch merchant, to 
•whom the paper of the whole world becomes necef- 
iary the moment it merits confidence. 

I have mentioned precious metals. The Ameri- 
cans are in the neighbourhood of the countries which 
produce them. Thefe countries are the abodes of 
indolence, which difpenfes not with necelTaries. 
Skins, &c. of animals, and fome metals, are every 
thing that can be given there in exchange for articles 
of fubfiftence, which the inhabitants have not the 
courage to make their lands produce, and for the 
p.eceflaries, for which they find it more convenient 
to pay with gold than with their induftry. The in- 

dependenv 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 163^ 

dependent Americans will become fablers, advanta- 
geoufly placed between European manufacflures, and 
the inhabitants of regions condemned by nature to 
the (lerile prodiidions of metals. All the powers of 
Spain cannot prevent this, nor ought even to under- 
take it. This new confideration promifing to the 
French payment, fo fooliflily defired in gold, ought 
to encourage them to prepare for a commercial con- 
nexion with the United States. 



CONCLUSION, 

Ajid Reflexions on the Siiuation of the United State:, 

It will be proper to hnifn this volume by fome- 
cxplanations of the pretended troubles which agi- 
tate the United States. Thefe explanations are ne- 
ceflary to deftroy the unfavourable impreffions which 
muft be made by the unfaithful recitals of gazette 
writers, who, from fervile prejudices or mean inte- 
reft, affect to fpread doubts of the happy confequen- 
ces of the revolution. If we believe thefe people, 
the independent Americans are plunged into inextri- 
cable embarralTments, forced to become bankrupts, 
given up to the moft violent anarchy, expofed to the 
tomahawk of the implacable Indians, &c. How is 
it poffible to refolve to carry on a commerce with 
people whofe fituatlon is fo deplorable? Ought not 
their ruin to be feared rather than their fortune hoped 
for, in the connexions which it is wiflied to form 
with them ? 

It is neceflary to refute thefe falfehoods. It is (o 
much the more fo., as ignorance eafily leads people, 
little acc^uainted with republican coartitutions, into 

errors 



jr6.f ON THE cOMMEP.CE OF THE 

error; and that, led aflrav by the prejudices of thei? 
educations, a great number of Frenchmen look upon 
this form of g,overnment as a flate perpetually in a 
ferment, wherein life and property are continually 
expofed to the greateft dangers. 

Thefe prejudices lead to the belief of the moft 
puerile and abfurd fables. The leafl attention is not 
paid to circumftances. Would the United State > 
have a Congrefs of magiftrates if it were true that 
the people were at war with them? For how could 
Gongrefs and the magirtrates defend themfelvesr 
They have no other defence but the refpedl which 
each individu-al has for the law ; this is their only 
force. It is the obligation that the conltitution im- 
pofes on them, in common with the meaneft citi- 
zens, of being obedient to the law, as the laii 
means which confiitute their only fi\fety, and which 
maintains, in all cafes and every where, the authority 
which the people have confided in them. They 
cannot employ a phyfical force farther than the peo- 
ple are willing to lend them, becaufe they have nei^ 
ther an army nor foldiers in pay. 

A diverfity of opinion exifts wherever there are 
men. It belongs nor to one conditution more than 
to another; but the efiencc of a republican govern- 
ment is to leave to each individual the liberty of ex- 
prefiing his fentiments on every fubjeft. 

In the United States, legiflation is more and more 
formed in proportion as things relative to each other 
are verified, extended, and multiplied. Is it afto- 
nifliing that debates fhould arife on account of the 
different laws which are propofed, difculTed, and 
adopted? Thefe debates become public, animate 
Converfation, and make it highly interefting. But 
is this anarchy? 

The word anarchy is one of thofe words which 
has been moft abufed and mifapplicd. It is thercr 
fore iiecciriiry to explain it, 

^ Where 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 10::; 

Where anarchy reigns, there is neither chief, go- 
vernment, laws, nor fafety. Each individual be- 
comes the defender of his own perfon, the focial 
contract is broken, and there is no longer any con- 
fidence or tranfaclions, becaiife there can be no 
more contrails. Authority, changing at every in- 
ftant its rules, principles, and aim, becomes cruel 
or contemptible; it deflroys, or is deftroyed. Sucii 
a flare exifls not long; or if it does exift, it foon di- 
vides fociety into armed herds, enemies to each 
other, and which fubfift but in proportion as they 
fear and counterbalance each other's power. 

Is any thing like this feen in the United States ? 
Are there difputes even about the principles of the 
conftitution, the fundamental laws, or the propof^d 
end? Has not every thing relative to this been long 
fince agreed upon? The prelent debates relate 
wholly to fome rules of adminiitration : it is upon 
the beft manner of ferving the public caufe, and of 
fiipponing it, that minds are flill in a falutury agita- 
tion; and this agitation hinders not more the regular 
courfe of public a (Fairs and tranfaftions, than the 
debates in the Englifn Parliament hinder the mo- 
narch from naming to offices and conferring rank — 
than they flop the courfe of jullice, or are inipedi- 
ments to the affairs of every clals of citizens. 

The word <j»<2/T^ is proper to ftatcs which, like 
Egypt, have twenty-four fovereigns, and neither 
laws nor government. It is applicable to the dege- 
nerated conflitutions of Afia, where the adminlfira- 
tion is divided into feveral departments, independent 
of each other, traverfing one another in their views 
and pretenfions, the operations of one part interfer- 
ing with thofe of the other, all having the power of 
making particular lav^s, or of fufpending the effe<^ 
of thofe which exilh There a real anarchy reigns, 
becanfe it is not known wiiere the government is, 
nor in whom the legiilaiive power is vefted. This 

incertitude. 



1 66 0>; THE COMMERCE OF THE 

incertitude brings on diforder, renders property en- 
viable, and endangers perl on a i fafety. 

None of thefe evils exift in the United Stater= 
America is not yet gnawed by the vermin which 
devour Europe, by indeilruftible mendicity r tiiieves 
render not lier torefls dangerous; lier public roads 
r.re not llained with blood flied by affaiiins. How 
fliGuid there be allaffins and robbers? There are no 
beggars, no indigent perfons, no lubjeds forced tc 
Heal tliefubnftence ofoihersto procure one to theni- 
felves. Every man finds there lands to produce him 
articles of fubfiftence ;■ it is not leaded with taxes,, 
but renders to each, with ufury, a recoinpenfe for 
his labour. A man who cai live ealy and honour- 
ably, ncN'^r conlents to difhonour himielf by ufeleh 
crimes, whichdeliver him ro thetcnnentiol rsmcrfcj 
difnonour, and the vengeance offociety. 

The ravages of the (qvcu years war were undoubt- 
edly terrible; but as foon as thefaulchion could be 
converted into a plough-fliare, the land became fer- 
tile, and mifery difappeared.. The American foldiers 
were citizens; and they were alfo proprietors before 
they became foldiers; they remained citizens in uni- 
form, and returned to their profefTions on quitting 
it; they did not fight for money, nor by profefiiouj 
but for their liberty, their wives, chilidi-en, and pro ■ 
perty; and fach foldiers never rsfembled the banditti 
of the old continent, who are paid for killing thei: 
fcliow-creatures, and who. kill on the highways foi 
their own account, when peace obliges their maflers 
to diiband them. There has been leen in America 
(what the annals of the worldi prefcMit not in any 
ilate, except that- of Rome): a General, adored by his 
foklicrs, diveft himfelf o^ his power as foon as hiy 
fervices became no longer necefiary, and retire into 
the bofpm of peace and obfcurit\ ; a nunierous ar- 
sny, whicli was not paid, was feen generoufly to con- 
lent to diiband without payment; the foldiers to re- 
tire ♦ 



VNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 167 

't'ire, each to his home, without committing the leaf?: 
difordcr, and where each tranquilly retook either his 
plough, or his firft trade or profcffion; thofe trades 
?.vhich we in Europe look upon as vile. 

The following advertifement is taken from the 
American papers, in which there are a thoufai^d 
others of a like nature. 

Two brothers, Captains whodiftingiiiflied them- 
felves during the war, returned at the peace to their 
trade of hat-making; — they infv^rted in the gazette 
an advertifement as follows : 

" The brother's Bickers inform the public, that 
" they are returned to theii- old profeflion of hatters, 
•" which they had abandoned to defend the liberty 
" of their country. They hope that their fellow-ci- 
" tizens will be pleafed, in confideration of their 
•" courage and fervjces, to favour them in their bu= 
*' finefs, and prefer them to others." What Euro?- 
pean Captain would put his name to a like advertife- 
inent? 

This is what refulcs from liberty; but what is in^ 
.conceivable in moft European ftates, a military fpi- 
xii reigns there, and its prejudices are predominant. 
War is the road to glory, ambition, and fortune; ancji 
to preferve to this profelTion its luftre and prepon- 
derance, it is an elhblidied principle, that •ijianding 
jarmy is neceffary to maintain order in fociety; that 
it ought always to threaten the citizens, although 
peaceful, to keep them in ful)mi{Iion to authority. 
This ufelefs burden, this pernicious fpirit, is un- 
}:nown to the United States ; — public fpirit, much 
.more favourable to good order, takes its place, and 
peace and fafety reign without marecha-ulTee or fpies, 
.or that police which difparages the morals and cha- 
racflers of citizens. Public fpirit Tupplies the place 
,of all thefe means, whilfl they will never fupply the 
.w.nit of public fpirit; nor, like it, produce the hap^- 
pincfs of fociety. 

in 



l68 ON THE COMMERCE OF THE 

In vain will prejudiced men exclaim, that this is 
declamation — I offer them fa^ls. It is necefTary to 
.read the American gazettes — not thofe altered by the 
Englifli gazette-writers, but thofe which are printed 
in America: thefe only can give a juft idea of the 
fituation of the United States. 

The American fhould rather defpife Europe, in 
remarking to us the continual (laughter we make of 
thieves and aiTaffins; in comparing the immenfe 
number of dungeons, prifons, holpitals, and eftab- 
lifliments of every kind, inflituted to cure or palliate 
the incurable ulcers of the old inftitutions : in com- 
paring this difgufting lift with the very few murders 
and thefts committed in the United States, with the 
hofpitals, truly domeflic and humane, which are eftab- 
liihed there, with the happinefs of each American 
jamily and their fimple manners; and in proving to 
us, by their example, that a wife liberty regulates the 
iccial man, and renders ufelefs thole ruinous ma- 
chines with which he is cruflied, left he fliould do 
any harm. 

Thefe are the men, the Iav;s, and the govern- 
•nient, which Europeans have calumniated. Thefe 
men who are deftined to regenerate the dignity of 
the human fpecies.'-^Thefe laws which fcourge no- 
thing but crimes, — which puniflithem every where, 
and are never filent in the face of power ! — This go- 
vernment, which is the firft that ever prefented the 
image of a numerous famUy, well united, and com- 
pletely happy ; wherein power is ju{l,becaufe it circu- 
lates through every hand, and refts in none; where- 
in obedience, becauf^ it is voluntary, anticipates 
command ; wherein adminiflratlon is fimple and cafy ; 
becaufe u Laves indufrry to itfelf; wherein the ma- 
giftrate has little to d 3, becaufe the citizen is free, 
and that a citizen always refpe^lis the law and his 
•feilou c eaturi's! Tiiefe are the prodigies which wt 
calumniate: »ve, Europeans, enllaved by antiquated 

conftitution:.. 



UIJITED SIATES OF AMEltlCA. 169 

..conftitutlons, and by the habitudes given to us by 
prejudices, of which we know not either the barba- 
rity or the frivoloufnefs ! We fpeak well, but a(5t 
badly; why, therefore, do we calumniate men, who 
not only fpeak but aft well ? If it be not permitted 
us to have their virtues, nor to enjoy their happi-» 
iiefs, let us not decry them ; let us refpefl that Su- 
periority to which we cannot attain. 

It will, perhaps, be objefted, that the government 
of England has deferred the conchifion of a treaty of 
commerce with the United States, under the pre- 
text that their conftitutions were not yet fufficiently 
eftabliflied. But can it be imagined that the Englilli, 
who trade in Turky, with the Algerines, and at Grand 
Cairo, were ferious when they decried and rejected 
-commercial connexions with the United States, un- 
der the pretence that their legiflation was not yet well 
enough eftablilbed? 

It cannot be doubted that the difference of pofition 
between the French and Englilli merchants, refpeft- 
;ing their governments, has a great influence upon 
their reciprocal profperity; and for this reafon, it 
fliould be incefl'antly repeated to the French govern- 
ment, that if it wiflies to infure profperity to its com- 
merce, it ought to adopt the means, which are, liberty 
of a^ing^-^the right of protejiing againfi the attempts 
■made on that liberty ^-^-and the certainty of jujiice, — » 
ivithout ref[>eFt to perfoNs .'-^the^e are the bafis of the 
genius, indullry, and greatnefs of a ftate; and with- 
out which, a great commerce cannot exift: this bafis 
may be eafily conciliated with the Fret^ch conftitu* 
tion. 

iPavis, February y 1 78-5. 



APPENDIX. 






APPENDIX; 

• CONSISTING OF 

AUTHENTIC PAPERS 

AND 

ILLUSTRATIONS; 

Jdded by the Editor, 



O-'^ 



APPENDIX. 

Keturn of ths -ohole Numher of Perfons luithin tJie fever al Dlf 
tri^s of the United States^ according to " an Aft providing 
for the Enumeration cfthe Inhabitants of the United States;^*, 
faffed March the ifi^ i 7 9 1 . 

The return for South-Carolina having been made fince the following 
Schedule was originally printed, the whole Enumeration is here 
given complete, except for the North- V/e(lern Territory, of which 
no Retwrn has yet been publllTied, 







■ 




6 .» -^ 


_4J 
















_w '-^ 


c 








li'? 


s 


i'o 


^o 








S H'-S 


4> V 


^^ 


i. 






UISTRICXS. 


2^5 


IS, 


II 


1 


Slaves. 


Total. 




%l^ 


g ^ 










^ t'-^ <f> 


U "^ 


S5^ «; 


^ 
tJ 








i; " 3 u 




^1^ 











^.is 


c- 

3 


.£ S 


< 






Vermont 


22.435; 22.328 40,505 


255 


16 


85,535 


M.Hampfliirt 


36,0^6 34,851 70,16c 


630 


358 


141,8-85 


Maine 


24>384| 24,748! 46,87c 


538 


NONE 


96,54c 


iMaffachufett- 


95 453j S7,2S9; 190,5^2 


5463 


N0N2 


378,787 


Rhade-inand 


16,019 


15,7991 32>652 


3407 


948 


63^25 


Connecticut 


60,523 


54.403; 117,448 


2S08 


2764 


237,946 


N'ew-York 


83,700 


78,122! i52,32cj 465,1 


21, 32^ 


340,12c 


New-Jerfey 


45,251 


4x,4i6| 83,287, 2762 


11,423 


184,139 


Peunfyivania 


110,788106,948 . 206)363 6537 


3737 


434,373 


Delaware 


11,783 12,143!- 2^,384 3899 


8887 


59,094 


Maryland 


55.915 5I--339,' iOi,395' 8043 


103,0 36 


319,728 


Virginia 


110,936116,135! 2i5,o46'i3,b66 


20.11,637 


747,610 


Kentucky 


15,154! I7'057i 20,922 


. t M 


1 2,43c- 


73.677 


M. Caroliaa 


69,988 77,506 
35,57^ 37.722 


140,710 


4975 


loo 372 


393'75» 


S. Carolina 


66,880 


180J 


107,094 


249,073 


Georgia 


13,103 14,044 


25>735 


39'^' 
SQ>T5C 


29,264 


82,548 


807,0911701,850 


T,-4!,26j 


694^3o'3.89!,63.;[ 




at d 


3 2 


= 


'1 

1 


■ 


" 




wh. m 

years 
rds. 








Slaves. 


Total. 




Si rt & 


u u y 


«J "-5 


, 








•j:^ §- 


.- CJ -JO 

- — ) -1 


r^ ^ 


-fl -2 






S.W.Terri). 
^. ditto. 


6271 


iO,z77 


15,305 301 


J4i7| 35>69ij 



Q.3 



i^ckduk 



J 74 



APPENDIX. 



Schedule of the whole 'Number of Perfctis in the Territory of 
the United States of America^ South of the River Ohio^ as 
taken on the laf Saturday of July, ^79I> fy ^^^^ Captains 
9f the Militia ivitliin the Limits of their reJpeHive Dijiri^s. 





l.k& 


i ii 


S 




>^ 


ctJ 




^ vT'e 


u 


1^ 


^0 




s 


1 




« -T3 r: 




0) 











V t- u: 


c« 


.« c» 


t. 




u 


"O 




11"^ 


!^ 


li S 


H 




^ 

u 


•s 




wo.. 
U 3 ^ 


4; 52 


la-^ 


li 










111 


15 w 
5 ^ 


^ ^ 
JJ--5 ^ 




„. 


•^ 




•-- 


WASHINGTON 


I Si 


-0 


w 3 <u 





i 








DISTRICT. 




.5 & 


< 


7r> 


H 


H 


^ fWafiiington 


1009 


1792 


2524 


12 


535 


5872 




,5 1 SuUivan 


3c6 


1242 


»995 


IC7 


297 


4447 




c ^ Greene 


1293 


2374 


3580 


40 


454 


774' 




c j Hawkins 


1204 


197c 


2921 


68 


807 


6970 




^ LS. of F. Broad 


681 


1082 


1627 


66 


163 


3619 


28,649 


MERO 
















nSTRlCT. 
















^ r Davidfon 


639 


855 


1288 


18 


65c, 


3459 




3 < Sumner 


404 


582 


854 


8 


34'--^ 


2196 




t; /.Tenneflee 


^35 


3SO 


576 


4a 


154 


i3«/ 


7042 




6271 


io,a77 


15,36^ 


361341: 




35>69i 



Note. There are feveral Captains who have not as yet returned 

the Schedules of the numbers of their Di.tridts, namely ; — in Greene 
County, three — in Davidfon, one— and South of French-Board, one 
Diftridt. 

Sep«n,b„,9.h,.79.. W.BLOUNT. 

By the Governor, 

Daniel S.\sith, Secretary, 

Truly ftated from the original returns depofited in the 
•ffice of the Secretary of State. 

T. JEFFERSON. 

OMci'Z^^ 1791. 



I^ 



APPENDIX. 173I. 

In point of fize the towns in the United States- 
may be ranked in this order: — Philadelphia, New- 
York, Bofton, Baltimore, Charlefton, &c. In point 
of trade, New-York, Philadelphia, Bofton, Charlef- 
ton, Baltimore, &:c. 

From the preceding tables it is indubitable that 
the number of inhabitants in the United States con- 
fiderably exceeded four millions in the year 1791-, 
exclufive of thofe in the Northern Territory, and 
fome other diftri6ls. If to this we add Dr. Frank- 
lin's calculation, " That the number of the inha- 
bitants of America is double every twenty years," 
this number muft be increafed to confiderably above 
eight millions in the year 181 1, exclufive of emi^ 
grants from the Old World. 

The Englifti reader, we hope, will not be offend- 
ed, if, in this place, we fay a word or two on the 
population of Great-Britain. It is a current opi- 
nion, that the population of our idand is yearly in- 
creafmg. The h^ is quite the reverfe: but the af* 
fertion would fignify nothing, if there were not in= 
conteftible proofs of it. The proofs are thefe ;-— 

Number of houfes in England and 
Wales, takert from the return of the fur- 
veyors of the houfe and window duries; 
wherein they are ftated diftindly, charg- 
ed^ chargenble and exciifed. 
Total of houles in 1759 . . 986,48;^ 

in 1 761 , . 980,692, 

— in 1777 . . 952^734 

Total of houfes according to the 
hearth-books in 1690, as ftated by Dr. 
Davenant (fee his works, vol. i. page 38) 1,319,215 

In Scotland the number of houfes paying the 
houfe and window duties was, in 1777, only 
16,206. 

If the diftrifl returns of the parifties are examin- 
«d, it will be manifeft, that a calculation of five 

perfons 



IfG APPENDIX. 

perfons to every houfe is a large allowance. From 
all which this refuk is obvious — That the number 
of inhabitants in England and Wales is confiderably 
faoxX. oi five millions ! that, perhaps, inchiding Scot- 
land, the ivhole ifland of Great-Britain does not ex- 
ceed that number. 

- The curiofity of the prefent moment may allow 
us to caft our eye upon France, concerning this fub- 
jeft. The intendants of the provinces of France 
were ordered, in the years 1771 and 1772, to make 
a return of the number of inhabitants in their re- 
fpedive diftrids. The return of 1772 ftates the 
number to be 25,741,320. See Re c here he s fur la po- 
pulation de la France^ par M. Moheau. 

It would be a right meafure in every government 
to caufe a furvey to be made annually of the num- 
ber of inhabitants. It is done at Naples by order of 
the King, and is publifhed annually in the Court 
Calendars* America will probably foliow the ex? 
ample. 



Ohfervations on the Population of America. Written by 
Dr, Benjamin Franklin, Printed at PhiladelpJda iv. 
the Year 1755. 

Tables of the proportion of marriages- to birth?, 
of deaths to births, of marriages to the numbers of 
inhabitants, &:c. formed ou obfervations made on 
the bills of mortality,. chriftenings, &c. of populous 
cities, will not fuit countries; nor v/ill tables formed 
on obfervations made on full fettled old countries, 
as Europe, fuit new countries as America. 

For people increafe in proportion to the number 
of marriages, and that is greater in proportion to 
the eafe and convenience of fupporting a family. 
When families can be eafily fupported, more per- 
fcii5 marry, and earlier in life.. 

Ill- 



111 cities, where all trades, occupations, and of- 
^ces are full, many delay until they can fee how to 
bear the charges of a family j which charges are 
greater in cities, as luxury is more common ; many 
live fingle during life, and continue fervants to fa-^ 
milies, journeymen to trades, &c. hence cities do 
not by natural generation fupply themfelves with 
inhabitants ; the deaths are more than the births. 

In countries full fettled the cafe mud be nearly 
the fame ; all lands being occupied and improved to 
the height, thofe who cannot get land mufl labour 
for thofc who have it; when labourers are plenty, 
their wages will be low; by low wages a family is 
fupported with difficulty ; this difficulty deters many 
from marriage, who therefore long continue fervants 
and fingle. Only as cities take fupplies of people 
from the country, and thereby make a little more 
room in the country, marriage is a little more en- 
couraged there, and the births exceed the deaths. 

Great part of Europe is full fettled with hufoand- 
men, manufadurers, &c. and therefore cannot now 
much increafe in people. Land being plenty in 
America, and fo cheap as that a labouring man, 
who underftands husbandry, can in a fhort time fave 
money enough to purchafe a piece of nevv land fuf- 
ficient for a plantation, whereon he m>ay fubfift a 
family, fuch are not afraid to marry ; for even if 
they look far enough forward to confider how their 
children, when grown, are to be provided for, they 
fee that more land is to be had at rates equally eaf;/^ 
all circum-ftances confidered. 

Hence marriages in America arc more general, 
and more generally early, than in Europe. And if 
it is reckoned ther^, that there is but one marriage 
per annum among one hundi-ed perfons, perhaps we 
may here reckon two; and if in Europe they have 
but four births to a marriage (many of their marri- 
ages being late) wc may here reckon eight; of which, 

if 



178 APPEWDIX. 

if one half grow up, and our marriages are made, 
yechoniiig one ivith another^ at tiuenty years cf age^ our 
peoph muji at leaf, be (hubJed every tiventy years. 

But notvvithftanding this increafe, fo vaft is the 
territory of North-America, that it will. req\i ire 
many ages to fettle it fully; and until it is fully fet- 
tled, labour will never be cheap here, where no maii 
continues long a labourer for others, but gets a plan- 
tation of his own; no man continues long a jour- 
neyman to a trade, but goes among thefc new fet- 
tlers, and fets up for himfelf, &c. Hence labour is 
no cheaper now in Pennfylvania than it was thirty 
years ago, though fo many thoufand labouring peo- 
ple have been imported from Germany and Ireland. 

In proportion to the increafe of the colonies, a. 
vafl dem.and is growing for Britifh manufactures; a 
glorious market wholly in the power of Britain, in 
which foreignei's cannot interfere, which will in- 
creafe in a lliort time even beyond her power of 
fupplying,, though ber whole trade fliould be to her 
tolouie^. 

Of the Wefern Terrltciy. . 

It is a miflake in thofe who imagine that the new 
iftate of Kentucky comprifes the Weftern Territoiy 
of North-America. That new (late includes but 
a fmall part of this great domain. The fiate ot 
Kentucky is defcribed to be bounded on the fouth 
by North-Carolina, on the north by Sandy creek, 
on the weft by Cumberland river, making about 
two hundred and fifty miles in length, and two hun- 
dred miles in biTsadth; whereas the whole Weflern 
Territory is infmirely more extenfive. The limits 
are unknown; but that part of it which was fur- 
veyed by Captain Hutchins, geographer to the Con- 
grefs, he has given us a fiiort account of. From his 

account,, 



account, becaufe it is known to be authentic, we 
have extraded the following. 

The part he furveyed lies between the 33d and 
45th degrees of latitude, and the 70th and 94th de- 
grees of longitude, containing an extent of terri- 
tory, which, for healthfulnefs, fertility of foil, and 
variety of produin:ions, is not perhaps furpafied by 
any on the habitable globe. 

*' The lands comprehended between the river 
Ohio, at Fort-Pitt, and the Laurel mountain, and 
thence continuing the fame breadth from Fort-Pitt 
to the Great Kanhawa river, may, according to my 
own obfervations, and thoie of the late Mr. Gill, 
of Virginia, be gcoerally, and judly defcribed as 
follows. 

" The vallies adjoining to the branches or fprings 
of the middle forks of Youghiogeny, are narrow 
towards its fource; but there is a confiderable quan- 
tity of good farming grounds on the hills, near the 
largeft branch of that river. The lands within a 
fmall diflance of the Laurel mountain (through 
which the Youghiogeny runs) are in many places 
broken and ftony, but rich and well timbered; and 
in fome places, and particularly on Laurel creek, 
they are rocky and mountainous. 

*' From the Laurel mountain to Monongahela, 
the firft feven miles are good, level farming grounds, 
with fine meadows; the timber, white oak, chefnut, 
hickory, Sec. The fame kind of land continues- 
foutherly (twelve miles) to the upper branches or 
forks of this river, and about fifteen miles northerly 
to the place where the Youghiogeny falls into the 
Monongahela. The lands, for about eighteen miles 
in the fame courfe of the laft-menrioned river, on 
each fide of it, though hilly, are rich and well tim- 
bered. The trees are walnut, locufl, chefnut, pop- 
lar, and fugar or fvveet maple. The low lands, near 
^the river, are about a mile, and in feveral places 

.tw.Q 



sjSo appendix. 

lu'o miles wide. For a confiderable way down tht 
river, on the eaftern fide of it, the intervals are ex- 
tremely rich, and about a mile wide. The upland 
for about twelve miles eaftwardly, are uncommonly 
fertile, and well timbered; the low lands, on the 
weftern lide, are narrow; but the uplands, on the 
caftern fide of the river, both up and down, are ex- 
cellent, and covered with fugar trees, &:c. 

*' Such parts of the country which lie on fome of 
the branches of the Monongahtia, and acrofs the 
heads of feveral rivers that run into the Ohio, 
though in general hilly, are exceedingly fruitful and 
well watered. The timber is walnut, chefnut, afh, 
,oak, fugar trees, .&c. and the interval or meadow- 
lands are from two hundred and fifty yards to a 
r quarter of a mile wid.e. 

" The lands lying nearly in a north-wefterly di- 
rection from the Great Kauhawa river to the Ohio, 
and thence north-eafterly, and alfo upon Le Tort's 
creek. Little Kanhawa river, Buftaloe, Fifhing, 
Weeling, and the two upper, and two lower, and 
feveral other very confiderable creeks, (or what, in 
Europe, would be called large rivers) and thence 
eaft, and fouth^eaft to the river Monongahela, are, 
in point of quality, as follows. 

" The borders or meadow lands are a mile, and 
in fome places near two miles wide; and the uplands 
tire in common of a moft fertile foil, capable of 
abundantly producing wheat, hemp, flax, &c. 

" The lands which lie upon the Ohio, at the 
Miouths of, and between the above creeks, alfo con- 
fift.of rich intervals and very fine farming grounds. 
The whole country abounds in bears, elks, buffaloe, 
deer, turkics, &c. An unqueftionab'e proof of the 
extraordinary goodnefs of its foil ! Indiana lies 
within the territory here deTcribed. ' It contains 
• about three millions and an half of acres, and was 
,|; ranted to Samuel Wharton, William Trent, and 

jGeorgij 



APPEKDI3:. l8l 

George Morgan, Erquires, and a few other perfons, 
in the year 1768. 

" Fort-Pitt ftands at the confluence of the Alleg- 
heny and Monongaheh rivers; in latitude 40^ 31^ 
44'', and about five degrees wedward of Philadel- 
phia. In the year 1760, a fmall town, called Pittf- 
burgh, was built near Fort-Pitt, and about two 
hundred families refided in it; but upon the Indian 
war breaking out (in the month of May, 1763) 
t-hey abandoned their houfes, and retired into the 
fort. 

" In the year 176^ the prefent town of Pittfbtjrgh 
was laid out. It is built on the eaflern bank of the 
river Monongahcla, about two hundred yards from 
Fort-Pitt. ^ ' 

" The jun<flIon of the Allegheny and Mononga* 
hela rivers forms the river Ohio, and this difcharges 
Itfelf into the Miffi(rippi,f(in latitude j,6^ 43') about 
one thoufand one hundred and eighty-eight com- 
puted miles from Fort-Pitt. The Ohio, in its paf- 
fagc to the Miffiffippi, glides through a pleafant, 
fruitful, and healthy country, and carries a great 
uniformity of breadth, from four hundred to fix 
hundred yards, except at its confluence with 'the 
Miffiffippi, and for one hundred miles above it, 
where it is one thoufand yards wide. The Ohio, 
for the greater part of the way to the Miffiffippi, 
has many meanders, or windings, and riling grounds 
upon both fides of it. 

" The reaches in the Ohio arc in fome parts from 
two to four miles in length, and one of them, above 
the Mufkingum river, called the Long Reach, is 
fixteen miles and an half long. The (3hio, about 
100 miles above, or northerly of the Rapids, (for- 
merly called the Falls) is in many places 700 yards 
wide; and as it approaches them, the high grounds 
on its borders gradually diminifli, and the country 
becomes more level. Some of the banks, or heights 
R or 



102. APPEKDIX. 

of this river, are at times overflowed by great frefhes; 
yet there is fcarce a place between Fort-Pitt and the 
Rapids, (a diftance of 705 computed miles) where 
a good road may not be made ; and horfes employ- 
ed in drawing up large barges (as is done on the mar- 
gin of the river Thames in England, and the Seine 
m France) again ft a ftream remarkably gentle, ex- 
cept in high frefhes. The heights of the banks of 
the Ohio admit them every where to be fettled, as 
they are not liable to crumble away. 

" To thefe remarks it may be proper to add the 
following obfervations of the ingenious Mr. Lewis 
Evans. He fays, that ' the Ohio river, as the win- 
ter fnows are thawed by the warmth or rains in the 
fpring, rifes in vaft floods, in fome places exceeding 
twenty feet in height, but fcarce any where over- 
flowing its high and upright banks. Thefe floods,' 
Mr. Evans adds, * continue of fome height for at 
leail a month or two, according to the late or early 
breaking up of the winter. Veflels from 100 to 200 
tons burthen, by taking the advantage of thefe floods, 
may go from Pittfburgh to the fea with fafety, as 
then the falls, rifts, and flioals, are covered to an e- 
quality with the refl of the rivers ;' — and though the 
diftance is upwards of 2000 miles from Fort-Fitt to 
the fea, yet as there are no obftru£tions to prevent 
vefTels from proceeding both day and night, I am 
perfuaded that this extraordinary inland voyage may 
be performed, during the feafon of the floods, by 
vowing, in fixteen or feventeen days. 

" The navigation of the Ohio in a dry feafon, is 
/ather troublefome from Fort-Pitt to the Mingo 
town (about 75 miles) but from thence to the Mif- 
fiflippi there is always a fufficient depth of water for 
barges, carrying from 100 to 200 tons burthen, built 
in the manner as thofe are which are ufed on the ri- 
ver Thames, between London and Oxford; — to wit, 
from IQO to 120 feet in the keel, fixteen to eighteen 

feet 



XPPENDI:^. l33 

feet ill breadth, and four feet in depth, and when 
loaded, drawing about three feet water. 

" The Rapids, in a dry feafon, are difficult to de* 
fcend with loaded boats or barges. 

[But inftead of the carrying place now ufed, it is 
intended to fubftitute a canal on the contrary fide of 
the river.] 

*' Moft of the hills on both fides of the Ohio are 
filled with excellent coal, a-nd a coal mine was in the 
year 1760, opened oppofite to Fort-Pitt, on, the river 
Monongahela, for the ufe of that garrifon. Salt 
fpringi, as well as iron ore, and rich lead mines, are 
found bordering upon the river Ohio. One of the 
latter is opened on a branch of the Scioto river, and 
there the Indian natives fupply themfelves with a 
conliderable part of the lead which they ufe in their 
wars and hunting. 

" About 584 miles below Fort-Pitt, and on tire 
caftern fide of the Ohio river, about three miles from 
it, at the head of a fmall creek or run, where are fe- 
veral large and miry fait fprings, are found numbers 
of large bones, teeth, and tufKs, comm,only fuppqfcii 
to be thofe of elephants: — but the celebrated Do<5lor 
Hunter of London, in his ingenious and curious 
obfervations on tl^efe bones, &c. has fuppofed thein 
to belong to fome carnivorous animal, larger than 
an ordinary elephant. 

" On the nortli-weftern fide of Ohio, about eleven 
Hiiles- below t he Cherokee-river, on a high bank, are 
the remains of Fort-Maflac, built by the French, 
nnd intended as a check to the ibuthern Indians. It 
-.vas deltroyed by them in the year 1763. This is a 
high, healthy, and delightful fituation. A great va- 
riety of game, buffaloe, bear, deer, iScc. as well as 
ducks, geefe, fwans, turkies, pheafants, patridges, 
Sec. abounds in every part of this country. 

" The Ohio, and the rivers emptying into it, af- 
ford green and other turtle, and' fifii of varit.ui 
R2 forts; 



184 A?PEKD1X. 

forts; particularly carp, fturgeon, perch, and cats;: 
the two latter of an uncommon fize, viz. perch from 
eight to twelve pounds weight, and cats from fifty 
to one hundred pounds weight. 

" The lands upon the Ohio, and its branches, are 
differently timbered according to their quality and 
fituation. The high and dry lands are covered with 
red, white and black oak, hickory, walnut, red 
and white mulberry and afli trees, grape-vines, &c. 
the low and meadow lands are filled with fycamorc, 
poplar, red and white mulberry, cherry, beach, 
elm, afpen, maple, or fugar trees, grape-vines, 
&c. and below, or fouthwardly of the Rapids, arc 
feveral large cedar and cyprefs ivvamps, where the 
cedar and cyprefs trees grow to a remarkable fize, 
i^nd where alfo is a great abundance of canes, fuch 
as grow in South-Carolina. The country on both 
iides of the Ohio, extending fouth-eafterly, andfouth- 
wefterly from Fort-Pitt to the Mifiiflippi, and water- 
ed by the Ohio river, and its branches, contains at 
leafl a million of fquare miles, and it may, with 
truth, be afifirmed,that no part of the globe is blelTed 
with a more healthful air, or climate; watered with 
more navigable rivers and branches communicating 
with the Atlantic Ocean, by the rivers Potowmack, 
James, Rappahannock, MiffifTippi, and St. Law- 
rence, or capable of producing, with lefs labour and 
cxpence, wheat, Indian corn, buck-wheat, rye, oats, 
barley, flax, hemp, tobacco, rice, filk, pot-afh, &c. 
than the country under confideration. And although 
there are confiderable quantities of high lands for 
about 250 miles (on both (ides of the river Ohio) 
fouthwardly from Fort- Pitt, yet even the fummits 
of moll of the hills are covered with a deep rich foil, 
fit for the culture of flax and hemp; and it may alfo 
be added, that no foil can pofTibly yield larger crops 
of red and white clover, and other ufefui grafs, than 
\]:^s doe?. 

*'Oi\ 



APPENDIX, iB^ 

*• Oil the north-weft and foLith-eaft fides of the 
Ohio, below the great Kanhawa river, at a little dii- . 
Cancefrom it, are extenfive natural meadows, or fa- 
vannahs. Thefe meadows are from 20 to 50 miles 
in circuit. They have many beautiful groves of 
trees interfperfed, as if by art, in them, and which 
ferve as a flicker for the innumerable herds of butta- 
loe, deer, &c. with which they abound* 

•' I am obliged to a worthy friend and country-- 
man for the following juil: and judicious obferva- 
tions. They were addiefild to the Earl of HilHbo- 
rough, in the year 1770, when fecretary of flate for 
the North- American department; and were written 
by Mr. Samuel Wharton of Philadelphia, who at 
that time redded in London, having fome bulinefi 
there with Mr. Strahan, IMr. Almon, Sec. 

" No part of North- America," he fays, " will re- 
quire lefs encouragement for the produdion of na- 
val ilore?, and raw materials for manufactories In. 
Europe, and for fupplying the Weft-India iflands 
with lumbef, provihons, &c. than the country of the 
Ohio; — and for the following reafons: — 

•* Firft, The lands are excellent, the climate tem- 
perate, the native grapes, filk worms, and mulberry 
trees, abound every where: hemp, hops, and rye, 
grow fpontaneoufly in the vallies and low lands ; lead 
and iron ore are plenty in the hills; fait fprino-s are 
innumerable; and no foil is better adapted to the cul- 
ture of tobacco, fiax,' and cotton, than that of the 
Ohio. 

" Second, The country is well watered by feveral 
navigable rivers, communicating with each other; bv 
which, and a fliorc land carriage, the produce of the 
landsof the Ohio can, even now (in tlie year 1772) be 
fent cheaper to the fea-port town of Alexandria, on the 
river Potowmack in Virginia (where General Brad- 
dock's tranfports landed his troops,) than any kind 
of merchandize is fent from Northampton to London^ 
R3 _'^Thirdj. 



l86 APPI-NDIX. 

" Third, The river Ohio is, at all feafons of the 
year, navigable with large boats, like the weft coun- 
try barges, rowed only by four or five men ; and from 
the month of February to April large fhips may be 
built on the Ohio, and fent to fea laden with hemp, 
iron, flax, filk, tobacco, cotton, pot-afh, &c. 

*' Fourth, Flour, corn, beef, fhip.-plank, and other 
ufeful articles, can be fent down the flream of the 
Ohio to Weft-Florida, and from thence to the Weft- 
India iilands, much cheaper, and in better order, 
than from New-York or Philadelphia to thefe ifiands. 

*' Fifth, Hemp, tobacco, iron, and fuch bulky ar- 
ticles, may alfo be fent down the ftream of the Ohio 
to the fea, and at Icaft 50 per cent, cheaper than 
thefe articles were ever carried by land carriage, of 
only 60 miles, in Pennfylvania: where waggonage is 
cheaper than in any other part of North-America. 

*' Sixth, The expencc of tranfporting European 
manufaftories from the fea to the Ohio, will not be 
fo much as is now paid, and muft ever be paid, to a 
great part of the counties of Pennfylvania, Virginia, 
and Maryland. Whenever the farmers or merchants 
of Ohio fhall properly vindcrftand the bufmefs of 
tranfportation, they will build fchooners, iloops, &c. 
on the Ohio, fuitable for the Weft-India, or Euro- 
pean markets; or, by having black- v/alnm, cherry- 
tree, oak, &c. properly fa wed for foreign markets, 
and formed into rafts, in the manner that is now 
done by the fettlers near the upper parts of Dela- 
ware-river in Pennfylvania, and thereon ftow their 
hemp, iron, tobacco, &c. and proceed with them to 
New -Orleans. 

" It may not, perhaps, be amifs, to obferve, that 
iarge quantities of flour are made in the diftant (wel- 
tern) counties of Pennfylvania, and fent by an ex- 
penfive land carriage to the city of Philadelphia, and 
from thence fliipped to South-Carolina and to Eaft 
kni Weft floridaj there being little or no wheat 

r^iifed 



APPENDIX. 187 

faifed in thefe provinces. The river Ohio feems 
kindly defigned by nature as the channel through 
which the two Fioridas may be fuppHcd with flour, 
not only for their own confumption, but alfo for the 
carrying on an extenfive commerce with Jamaica 
and the Spanilh fettlements in the Bay of Mexico, 
Millftones in abundance are to be obtained in the 
hills near the Ohio, and the country is every where 
well watered with large and conflant fprings and 
llreams, for grill and other mills. 

" The paflage from Philadelphia to Penfacola 
is feldom made in lefs than a month, and lixty Hiil- 
Jings fterling per ton freight (confifting of fixteen bar- 
rels) is ufually paid for flour, &c. thither. Boats 
carrying 800 or 1000 barrels of flour, may go in 
about the fame time from the Ohio (even from Pittf- 
burgh) as from Philadelphia to Penfacola; and for 
half the above freight the Ohio merchants would be 
able to deliver flour, &c. there in much better order 
than from Philadelphia, and without incurring the 
damage and delay of the fea, and charges of infur- 
ance, &c. as from thence to Penfacola. 

'• This is not mere fpeculation; for it is a fa^t, 
that about the year 1746, there was a great fcarcity 
of proviflons at New-Orleans, and the French fet- 
tlements, at the lUinois, fmall as they then were, fent 
thither in one winter, upwards of eight hundred thou- 
land weight of flour." 

*' I fhall now proceed to gi\''e a brief account of 
the fevcral rivers and creeks which fall into the river 
Ohio. 

" Canawagy, when raiied by frefhes, is paflable 
with fmali batteaux, to a little lake at its head; — from 
thence there is a portage of twenty miles to lake 
Erie, at the mouth of Jadaghque. The portage is 
feldom ufed, becaufe Canawagy hasfcarcely any wa- 
ter in it in a dry feafon, 

*« Bughaloons, 



loo; At-t't.'.\bi.^^ 

" Bughaioons is not navigable, but is remarkabld 
for exteniive meadows bordering upon it. 

" French Creek affords the neareil pafTage to lake 
Erie. It is navigable with fmali boats to Le Beiif, 
by a very crooked channel; the portage thence to 
Prefquile, from an adjoining peninfula, is 15 miles. 
This is the iifual route from Quebec to Ohio. 

" Licking and Lacomic Creeks do not afford any 
navigation; but there is plenty of coals and ftonei 
for building in the hills which adjoin them. 

'' Toby's Creek is deep enough for batteaux for a 
confiderable way up, thence by a fhort portage to the 
weft branch of Sufquehannah, a good communica- 
tion is carried on between Ohio and the eaftern part j 
of Pennfylvania. 

" Moghulbughkitum is paflable alfo by fiat bot- 
tom boats in the fame manner as Toby's Creek is to 
Sufquehannah, and from thence to;ill the fettiements 
in Northumberland county, 8cc. in Pennfylvania. 

'• Kiflikeminetas is navigable in like manner as the 
preceding creeks, for between 40 and 50 miles, and 
good portages are found between Kifhkeminetiis, Ju- 
niatta, and Potowmack rivers. — Coal and fait are 
difcovered in the neighbourhood of thefe rivers. 

*' Monongahela is a large river, and at its junc- 
tion with the Allegheny river, flanos Fort-Pitt*i It 
IS deep, and gentle, and navigable wi:n batteaux and 
barges, beyond Rtd-Stoi*e creek, and i>iil farther witU 
lighter craft. At lixteen miles from its mouth is 
Youghiogeny; this river is navigable with batteaux 
or barges, to the foot of Laurel- hill. 

" Beaver Creek has water fufScient for flat bot. 
torn boats. At Kiflikuflies, (about 16 miles up) are 
two branches of this creek, which fpread oppofite 
ways; ont interlocks with French Creek and Che- 
rage, — the other, with Mulkingum and Cayahoga; 
©n this brcinch, about thirty-five miles above the 

forksj 



APPENDIX. :gg 

ibrks, are many falt-fprings. — Caynhoga is prafti- 
cable with canoes about twenty miles farther. 

" Miiikingum is a fine gentle river, confined by 
high banks, which prevent its floods from overliow- 
ing the furrounding land. It is 250 yards wide at 
its confluence with the Ohio, and navigable, with- 
out any ob{l:ru<5tions, by large batteaux or barges, 
to the Three Legs, and by fmali ones to a little lake 
at its head. 

*' PVom thence to Cayahoga (the creek that leads 
to lake Erie) the Mufkingum is muddy, and not very 
fwift, but no where obllrufted with fails or rifts. 
Here are fine uplands, extenfive meadows, oak and 
mulberry trees fit for fhip-building, and walnut, chef- 
nut, and poplar trees, fuitable for domeflic fervices. 
— Cayalioga furnifhes the befl portage between Ohio 
and lake Eric ; at its mouth it is wide and deep enough 
to receive large (loops from the lake. It will hereafter 
be a place of great importance. 

" Mufkingum, in all its wide-extended branches, 
is furrounded by moft excellent land, and abounds 
in fprings, and conveniencies particularly adapted 
to fettlements remote from fea navigations; — fuch as 
fait fprings, coal, clay, and free flone. In 1784 a 
coal mine oppofite to Lamenfliicola mouth took fire, 
fcnd continued burning about twelve months, but 
great quantities of coal flill remain in it. Near the 
fame place are excellent whetftones, and about eight 
miles higher up the river, is plenty of white and blue 
clay for glafs works and pottery. 

" Hockhocking is navigable with large fiat bot- 
tom boats between fevenly and ei, .ty miles; it has 
fine meadows with high banks, which feldom over- 
flow, and rich uplands on its borders. Coal and 
quarries of free-flone are found about 15 miles up 
this creek. 

** Big Kanhawa falls into the Ohio upon its fouth- 
eaftern fide, and is fo confidcrable a branch of this 

river J 



igO APPENDIX. 

river, that it may be miftaken for the Ohio itfelf 6y 
perfons afcending it. It is flow ior ten niiles, to lit- 
tle broken hills, — the low land is vsry rich, and of 
about the fame breadth, (from the pipe hills to the 
falls) as upon the Ohio. After going ten miles up 
Kanhawa, the land is hilly, and the water a little 
rapid for 50 or 60 miles further to the falls, yet bat- 
teaux or barges may be eafily rowed thither. Thefe 
falls were formerly thought impafTable ; but late dif-- 
eoveries have proved, that a waggon road may be 
made through the mountain, which occafions the 
falls, and that by a portage of a few milts only, a 
communication n>ay be had between the waters of 
Great Kanhawa and Ohio, and thofe of James river^ 
in Virginia. 

*' Tottery lies upon the fouth-eafi.ern fide of the 
Ohio, and is navigable with batteaux to the Ouafioto 
mountains. It. is a long river, has few branches, and 
interlocks with Red. Creek, or Glinche's River (a 
branch of the Guttawa;.) and has b-elow the moun- 
tains, efpecially for i; m.iles from its mouth, ver^ 
good land.. Here is a perceptible diiference of cli- 
mate between the upper and this part of Ohio. Hero 
the large reed,, or Carolina cane, grows in plenty, 
even upon the upland, and the winter is fo moderate 
as not to deftroy it.. The fame moderation of cli- 
mate continues down Ohio, efpecially on the fouth- 
fait fide, to the rapids, and thence on both fides of 
that river to the jVliffiffippi; 

" Great Salt Lick Creek is remarkable for fiii^ 
land, plenty of buffiLiloes, fait fprings,. white clay, 
and lime-flone. l^Smali boats may go to the crofling 
of the war-path without any impediment. The fait 
ipiings render the waters unfit/or drinking,, but the 
plenty of frefn fprings in their vicinity makes fuf- 
iicicnr amends for this inconvenience. 

'* Kentucky is larger than the preceding creek; 
it is furroundexi with high clay banks, fertile landr^ 



APTENDIX. I-gi 

^niil larse fait fprlngs. Its navigation is interrupted 
by fhoals, but palTable with Imall boats to the gap, 
where the war-path goes through the Ouafioto 
mountains. 

" Scioto is a large gentle river, bordered with 
rich flats, or meadows. It overflows in the fpring, 
and then fpreads about half a mile, though when 
confined within its banks, it is fcarce a furlong wide. 

*' If it floods early, it feldom retires within its 
banks in lefs than a month, and is not fordable fre- 
quently in lefs than two months. 

*' The Scioto, befides having a great extent of 
mofl excellent land on both fides of the river, is 
furniflaed with fait, on an eaftern branch, and red 
bole on Necuniia Skeintat. The {Vream of Scioto is 
gentle and payable, with large batteaux or barges, 
for a confiderable way, and with fmaller boats near 
200 miles, to a portage of only four miles to San- 
dufky. 

*' Sandufky is a confiderable river abounding in 
level land; its ftream gentle all the way to the mouth, 
where -it is large enough to receive floops. The 
northern Indians crofs Lake Erie herefrom ifland to 
ifland, land at Sandufl^y, and go by a diredl path to 
the Lower Shawanoe town, and thence to the gap of 
the Ouafioto mountain, in their way to the Cutta- 
wa country. 

*' Little Mineami river is too fmall to navigate 
with batteaux. It has much fine land and fevcral 
faltfprings; its high banks and gentle current pre- 
ycnt its much overflowing the furrounding lands 
in frefhes. 

■*' Great Mineami, Aflereniet or Rocky river, has 
a very ftony channel ; a fwift ftream, but no falls. 
It has feveral large branches, paflable with boats a 
great way; one extending weftward towards the 
Quiaghtena river, another towards a branch of Mi- 
neami river (which runs into Lake Erie,) to which 

therfc 



Z()Z API^ENDIX. 

there is a portage, and a third has a portage to the 
weft branch of Sandiifky, befides Mad Creek, where 
the French formerly eftablifned themfelves. Rifing 
ground, here and there a little ftony, begins in the 
northern part of the peninfula, J3etween the lakes 
Eric, Huron, and Michigan, and extends acrofs little 
Mineami river below the Forks, and fouthwai'dly 
slong the Rocky river, to Ohio. 

*' Buffaloe river falls into the Ohio on the eaftern 
fide of it, at thediftance of 925 computed miles from 
Fort-Fitt. It is a very confiderable branch of the 
Ohio; is 200 yards wide, navigable upwards of 150 
miles for batteaux or barges, of 30 feet long, five feet 
broad, and three feet deep, carrying about feven tons, 
and can be navigated much farther with large ca- 
noes. The ftream is moderate. The lands on both 
fides of the river arc of a moft luxuriant -quality, for 
the production of liemp, flax, wheat, tobacco, &:c. 
They are covered with a great variety of lofty and 
nfeful timber; as oak, hickory, mulberry, elm, &€. 
Several perfons who have afcended this river fay, 
that fait fprings, coal, lime, and frce-ftone, Scq. are 
to be found in a variety of places. 

*' The Wabafti is a beautiful river, with high and 
upright banks, lefs fubie<fl to overflow than any 
other river, (the Ohio excepted) in this part of Ame- 
rica. It difcharges itfelf into the Ohio, one thou- 
fand and twenty-two miles below Fort-Pitt, in lati- 
tude 37° 41^ — At its mouth it is 270 yards wide; 
is navigable to Ouiatanon (412 miles) in the fpring, 
fummer, and autumn, with batteaux or barges, 
drawing about three feet water. From thence, on 
account of a rocky bottom, and flioal water, large 
canoes are chiefly employed, except when the river 
is fvv'elled with rains, at which time it may be af- 
cended with boats, fuch as I have juft defcribed, 
(197 miles further) to the Miami carrying place, 
which is nine miles from the Miami village, and 

thi? 



APPENDIX.. 195 

this Is fituated on a river of the fame name, that 
runs into the fouth-fouth-well pail of Lake Erie. — 
The Ih'eam of the Waballi is generally gentle to 
Fort-Ouiatanon, and no where obftru6ted with falls, 
but is by feveral rapids, both above and below that 
fort, fome of which are pretty coniiderable. There 
is alfo a part of the river, for about three miles, and 
30 miles from the carrying place, where the channel 
is fo narrow, that it is necelTary to make ufe of fet- 
ting poles inflead of oars. The land on this river 
is remarkably fertile, and feveral parts of it are na- 
tural meadows, of great extent, covered with fine 
long grafs. The timber is Urge and high, and in 
iuch variety, that almofc all the different kinds grow- 
ing upon the Ohio and its branches (but with a 
j^reater proportion of black and vvhite mulberry- 
trees) may be found here. — A filyer mine has been 
difcovered about 28 miles above Ouiatanon, on the 
northern lidc of the Wabafli, and probably others 
may be found hereafter. The Wabafli abounds 
with fait fprings, and any quantity of fait may be 
made from them, in the mariner now done at the 
Saline in the Illinois country: — the hills are reple- 
nifhed with the bed coal, and there is plenty of lime 
and free ftone, blue, yellow and white clay, for 
glafs works and pottery. Two French feltlemcnts 
^re eflablifhed on the Wabafli, called Poll Vincient 
and Ouiatanon; the firfl: is 150 miles, and the of her 
{i6z miles from its mouth. The former is on the 
callern fide of the river, and confifts of 60 fettiers 
and tlwir families. They raife Indian corn, wheat, 
and tobacco of an extraordinary good quality, fu- 
perior, it is faid, to that produced in Virginia. 
They ha-ve a fine brsed of horfes (brought originally 
by the Indians from the Spanifli fcttleinents on the 
weftern fide of the river MiflifTippi), and large flocks 
of fwine and black cattle. The fettiers deal with 
the natives for furs and deer flvins, to the amount of 
S ' :;bou? 



294 APPENDIX, 

about 5;oool. annually. Hemp of a good texture 
grows fpontaneoufly ia the iow lands of the Wabafh, 
as do grapes in the greateft abunditnce, having a 
black, thin fliin, and of which the inhabitants in the 
autumn make a fufficicnt quantity (for their own 
confumption) of well-tailed red-wine. Hops, large 
and good are found in many places, and the lands arc 
particularly adapted to the culture of rice. All 
European fruiis; — apples, peaches, pears, cherries, 
currants, goolberries, melons, &c. thrive well, both 
here and in the country bordering on the river 
Ohio.. 

'* Ouiatanon is a fmall ftockaded fort on the weft- 
ern fide of the Wabafli, in which about a dozen fa- 
milies refide. The neighbouring Indians are the 
Kickapoos, IMufquitons, Pyankifhuws, and a princi- 
pal part of the Ouiatanons. The whole of tnefe tribes 
confift, it is fuppofed, of about one thoiifand war- 
riors. The fertility of foil, and diverhty of timber 
in this country, are the fame as in the vicinity of 
Poft Vincient. The annual amount of fkins and 
furs obtained .at Ouiatanon is about 8000I. By the 
river Wabafli, the inhabitants of Detroit move to the 
fouthern parts ofOhioand the Illinois country. Their 
rout is by the Miami riverto a carrying place, wliich, 
as before ftated, is nine miles to the Wabafli, when 
this river is raifed with frcllies ; but at other feafons, 
the diftance is from t8 to 30 miles, including the 
portage. The whole of the lairer is through a level 
country. Carts are ufr.aily employed in tranfport- 
ing boats and merchandize from the Miami to the 
^ Wabalh river, 

" Tlie Shrwanoe river empties itfclf on the eafterm 
fide of Ohics aboat 95 miles fouthwardly of the 
Wabafh river. It is 750 yard? T^'?cle at its mouth, 
has been navngated 180 miler in ^atttsux of thecon- 
flru^lionof thofc mentioned in the preceding article, 
and. from the depth af wiiter, ut that diftance from 

m 



APPENDIX. 19^ 

its mtoutn, it is prefumed, it may be nav'gated much 
further. The foil and timber of the lands iipoa 
this river are exaclly the fame as thole upon Buf- 
faloe river, 

" The Cherokee river dilcharges itfelf into the 
Ohio on tlie fame fide that the Shavvanoe river does, 
that is, 13 miles below or foutherly of it, and 11 
miles above, or northerly of the place where Fort- 
Mafiac formerly Itood, and 57 n>iles from the con- 
fluence of the Ohio with the river Miffiffippi. The 
Cherokee river has been navigated 900 miles from its 
mouth. At the diflance of 220 miles from thence, 
it widens from 400 yards, (its general width) to be- 
tween two and three miles, and continues this breadth 
for near thirty miles farther. The whole of this dif» 
tance is called the Mufcle Shoals. Here the char^- 
rel is obftru^ted with a number of iflands, formed 
by trees and drifted wood, brought hither, at differ- 
ent feafons of the year, in frefnes and floods. In 
pafiing thefe iflands, the middle of the widefl: inter- 
mediate water is to be navigated, as there it isdeepell. 
From the mowth of the Cherokee river to Mufcle 
Shoals the current is moderate, and both the high 
and lowlands are rich, and abundantly covered with 
oaks, walnut, fugar-trees, hickory, Sec. About 200 
miles above thefe flioalsis, what is called, the Whirl, 
or Suck, occafioned, I imagine, by the high moun- 
tain, which there confines the river (fuppafed to be 
the Laurel mountain.) The Whirl, or Suck, con- 
tinues rapid for about three miles. Its width about 
fifty yards. Afccnding the Cherokee river, and at 
about 100 miles from the Suck, and upon thefouth- 
eaflern fide of that river, is Highwafee river. Vafl 
tracfts of level and ricl\ land border on tliis river,- but 
at a fm.all diflance from it, the country is much bro- 
ken, and fome parts of it produce only pine treei. 
Forty miles higher up the Cherokee river, on the 
north -weftern fide, isClinche's river. It i.^ 150 yards 
S a wide. 



296 APPENDIX. 

wide, and about fifty miles Up it feveral families are 
fettled. From Clinche's to Tencfee river is one 
hundred miles. It comes in on the eaftern fide, 
*nd is 250 yards wide. About ten miles up this ri- 
ver is a Cherokee town, called Chota, and further 
up this branch are feveral other Indian towns, pof- 
feded by Indians, called, the Overhill Cherokees. 
The navigation of this branch is much interrupted 
by rocks, as is aifo the river called French Broad, 
which comes into the Cherokee river fifty miles 
above the Tenefee, and on the fame fide. One hun- 
dred and fifty miles above French Broad is Long- 
lOand, (three miles in length) and from thence to the 
fourceof the Cherokee river is fixty miles, and the 
whole diftance is fo rocky as to be fcarcely navi- 
gable with a canoe. 

" By the Cherokee river, the emigrants from the 
frontier counties of Virginia and North-Carolina, 
pafs to the fettlements in Weft-Florida, upon the 
river Miffiffippi. They embark at Long-Ifland. 

*' I will now proceed to give a defcription of that 
part called the Illinois country, lying between the 
MifTiffippi wefterly, the Illinois river northerly, the 
Wabafli eaflerly, and the Ohio foutherly. 

" The land a't the confluence, or fork of the rivers 
MifSffippi and Ohio, is above twenty feet higher 
than the common furface of thefe rivers; yet fo con- 
fiderable are the fpring floods, that it is generally 
overflowed for about a week, as are the lands for 
feveral miles back in the country.— The foil at the 
fork is compofed of mud, earth, and fand, accumu- 
lated from the-Ohio and MifTiffippi rivers. It is ex- 
ceedingly fertile, and in its natural fiate yields hemp, 
pea-vinVs, grafs, 'Sec. and a great variety of trees, and 
in particular the afpen tree, of an unufual height 
and thick nefs. 

*' For 25 mileS' up the Mifliffippi (from the Ohio) 
the country is rich, level, and well timbered j and 

then 



APPENDIX. 197 

then feveral gentle rifing grounds appear, which 
gradually diminifli at the dillance of betweeen four 
and five miles eaftward from the river. From thence 
to the Kafkafkias river is 65 miles. The country is 
a mixture of hills and vallies; fome of the former are 
Tocky and-fleep; but they, as well as the vallies, are 
fliaded with fine oaks, hickory, walnut, afli, and 
mulberry trees, Sec. Some of the high grounds af- 
ford mofl pleafant lituations for fettlements. Their 
elevated and airy pofitions, together with the great 
luxuriance of the foil, every where yielding plenty 
of grafs, and ufeful plants, promife health, and 
ample returns to induftrious fettlers.. 

" Many quarries of lime, free-flone, and marble, 
have been difcovered in this part of the country. 

" Several creeks and rivers fall into the Miffiiiippi^. 
in the above diflance (of 65 miles), but no remark- 
able onesj. except the rivers a'Vafe and Kafl-iafkias: 
the former is navigable for batteaux about 60, and 
the latter for about 130 miles. Both thcfe rivers run- 
through a rich country, abounding in extenfive, na* 
tural meadows, and numberlefs herds of buffaloe, 
deer, &c,. 

" The high grounds, juft mentioned, continue 
along the eallern fids of the Kafkafkias river, at a 
fmall diftance from it, for the fpace of five miles and 
a half, to the Kafkafkias village;, then they incline 
moretov/ards that river, and run nearly parallel \^ ith 
the eaftern bank.of the MiflifTippi, atthe diftance of 
about three miles in fom.e parts, and four miles in 
other parts from it; Thefe are principally com- 
pofed of lime and free-ftone, and from 100 to 130 
feet high, divided in feveral places by deep cavities, 
through, which many fmall rivulets paf^ before thev 
fall into the Miffiirippi. The fides of tiiefe hills,, 
fronting this river, are in many places perpendicu' 
hr, and appear like folid pieces of flone maf jnry,, 
0^ various colours, figures, and fizes. 

S3. " Tha- 



19^ APPENDIX. 

" The low land between the hills and the Mif- 
fiffippi begins on the north Ude of the Kafkafl^ias 
river, and continues for three miles above the river 
Mifouri, where a high ridge terminates it, and forms 
the eaftern bank of the Miflillippi. This interval 
land is level, has few trees, and is of a very rich foil, 
yielding fln-ubs and moft fragrant flowers, which, 
added u the number and extent of meadows and 
ponds difperfed through this charming valley, ren- 
der it exceedingly beautiful and agreeable. 

" In this vale (land the following villages, viz. 
Kafkafkias,which^as already mentioned, is five miles 
and a half up a river of the fame name, running 
northerly and foutherly. This village contains 80 
houfes, many of them well built — feveral of Hone, 
with gardens and large lots adjoining. It confif^s of 
about 500 white inhabitants, and between four and 
five hundred negroes. The former have large flocks 
ef black cattle, fwine, &c. 

" Three miles northerly of Kafkafkias, is a village 
of Illinois Indians (of the Kaikafkias tribe) contain- 
ing about 210 perfons and 60 warriors. They were 
formerly brave and warlike, but are degenerated into 
a drunken and debauched tribe, and fo indolent, 
as fcarcely to procure a fufficiency of fkins and fur.Sr 
to barter for clothing. 

" Nine miles further northward than the laft men- 
tioned village, is another, called La Prairie duRo- 
cher, or the Rock Meadows. It confifls of one hun- 
dred white inhabitants, and eighty negroes. 

*' Three miles northerly of this place, on the 
banks of the MiiTifTippi, ftood Fort-Chartres. It 
was abandoned in the year 1772, as it was rendered- 
untenable by the confiant wafhings of the River 
MIffifllppi in high floods. — The village of Fort- 
Chartres, a little Southward of the fort, contained (o 
few inhabitants as not to deferve my notice.; 

*' One mile higher up the Miiiiflippi than Fort- 
Chartres, 



APPENDIX. 199,' 

ChartreSy is a village fettled by 170 warriors of the 
Piorias and Mitchigamias (two other tribes of the 
Illinois Indians). They are as idle and debauched, 
as the tribe of Kafkafkias which I have juft de- 
fcribed. 

*' Four miles higher than the preceding village, 
is St. Philip's. It was formerly inhabited by about 
a dozen families, but at prefent is pofTefTed only by 
two or three. The others have retired to the weft— 
ern fide of the MilTiflippi. 

" Forty-five miles further northwards than St, 
Philip's (and one mile up a fmall river on the fouth- 
ern fide of it) ftands the village of Cahokia. It has 
50 houfes, many of them well built, and 300 inha- 
bitants, pofieiung 80 negroes, and large ftecks of' 
black cattle, fwine, &c. 

*' Four miles above Cahokia, on the weftern or- 
Spanifhfideof theMiflifiippi, ftands the village of 
St. Louis, on a high piece ^f ground. It is the 
moft healthy and pleafurablefituation of any known 
in this part of the country. Here the Spanifli com- 
mandant and the principal Indian traders refide; 
who, by conciliating the affections of the natives, 
have drawn all the Indian trade of the Mifouri, 
part of thatof theMifliffippi (northwards) and of the 
tribes of Indians refiding near the Ouifconfing and 
Illinois rivers, to this village. In St. Louis are 120 
houfes, moftly built of ftone. Thev are large and 
commodious. This village has 800 inhabitants, 
chiefly French; — fome of them have had a liberal 
education, are polite, and hofpitable. They have 
about 150 negroes, and large flocks of black cat- 
tle, &c. 

" Twelve miles below, orfoutherly of Fort-C-liar- 
tres, on the wefiern bank of the Mifiiflippi, and 
nearly oppofite to the village of Kafkafkias, is the 
village of St. Genevieve, or Mifiire. It contains up- 
wards of 100 houfes, and 460 inhabitants, befides 

negroes i 



200 APPENDIX. 

negroes. This and St. Louis are all the villages that 
are upoa the weltern or Spanifli fide of the Mif- 
fiifippi. 

" Four miles below St. Genevieve, (on the weft- 
cm bank of the iMiffiffippi,) at the mouth of a creek, 
is a hamlet, called the Saline. Here all the fait is 
made which is ufed in the Illinois country, from a 
fait fpring that is at this place. 

" In the feveral villa^Tes on the Miifiilippi, which 
I have juft defcribed, tlicre were, fo long ago as the 
year 1771, twelve hundred and feventy-three fen- 
cible men. 

" The ridge which forms the eallern bank of the 
Miffiilippi, above the Mifouri river, continues north- 
erly to the Illinois river, and then diredls its courfe 
along the eaftern (ide of that river for about 220 
milci, when it declines in gentle dopes, and ends in 
extenfive rich favannahs. On the top of this ridge, 
at the mouth of the Illinois river, is an agreeable 
and commanding liquation for a fort, and though 
the ridge is high and fteep (about 130 feet high), and 
rather difficult to afcend, yet when afcended, it 
affords a moft delightful profpedt.— The Milfiffippi 
is diflin6lly feen from its fummit for more than 
twenty mJles, as are the beautiful meanderings of 
the ininois river for many leagues; — next a level, 
fruitful meadow prcfents itfelf, of at leafl one hun- 
dred miles in circuit on the weflern fide of the Mif- 
fiinppi, watered by feveral lakes, and fliaded by 
fmall groves or copies of trees, fcattered in different 
parts of it, and then the eye with rapture furveys, 
as well the high lands bordering upon the river Mi- 
fouri, as thofe at a greater diftance up the Miffiflippi. 
In fine, this charming ridge is covered v;ith excel- 
lent grafs, large oak, walnut-trees, &c. and at the 
diitance of about nine miles from the Miffiflippi, up 
the Illinois river, are feen many large favannahs, or 
Siieadowsj abounding in buftaloe, deer, &c. 



APPENDIX. SOI 

** In afcendlng the Miffillippi, Cape au Gres par- 
ticularly attradsd my attention. It is about eigh: 
leagues above the Illinois river, on the eaftern fide 
of the Miffiirippi, and continues above five leagues 
on that river. There is a gradual defcent back to 
delighted meadows, and to beautiful and fertile up- 
lands, watered by feveral rivulets, which fall into 
the Illinois river, between thirty and forty miles from 
its entrance into the Miffiffippi, and into the latter 
at Cape au Gres. The diftance from the Mifiiflippi 
to the River Illinois acrofs the country, is lelTened or 
increafed, according to the windings of the former 
river; — the fmallefl: diftance is at Cape au Gres, and 
there it is between four and five miles. The lands 
in this intermediate fpace between the above two 
rivers are rich, almofi: beyond parallel, covered with 
large oaks, walnut, &c. and not a ficne is to be feen 
except upon the fides of the river. It is even ac- 
knowledged by the French inhabitants, that if fet- 
tlements were only begun at Cape au Gres, thofe 
upon the Spanifli fide of the Miififfippi would be 
abandoned, as the former would excite a conftant 
fuccefiion of fettlers, and intercept all the trade of 
the upper Miffillippi. 

" The Illinois river furnifnes a communication 
with Lake Michigan, by the Chicago river, and by- 
two portages between the latter and the Illinois river; 
the longeft of which does not exceed four miles. 

" The lilinoij country is in general of a fuperior 
foil to any other part of North America that I have 
feen. It produces fine oak, hickory, cedar, mul- 
berry-trees, &c. fome dying roots and medicinal 
plants; — hops and excellent wild grapes, and in the 
year 1769, one hundred and ten hogflieads of well- 
tafied and ftrong wine were made by the French 
fettiers from thefe gripes, — a large quantity of fugar 
is alio annually made from the juice of the maple- 
tree; and as the mulberry-trees are long and nume- 

rousj 



i20a , APPENDIX.. 

roiis, I prefuaie the making of filk will employ thtf' 
attendon and induflry of the fetllers, when the 
country ib more fully inhabited than it is at prcfcnt, 
<ind efpeciaily as the winters are much more mode- 
rate, and favourable for the breed of fiik worms, 
lh?.n they are in many of the fca-coaft provinces. — 
Indigo may hkewife be fuccefsfully cultivaled (but 
not more than two cuttings in a year); wheat, peasy 
.and Indian corn thrive well, as does every fort of 
grain and pulfe, that is produced in any of the old 
colornes. Great qiiantities of tobacco are alfo yearly 
raifed by the inhabitants of the Illinois, both for 
tiieir own confumption, and that of the Indians; 
'but little has hitherto been exported to Europe, 
Hemp grows fpontaneoufly, and is of a good»tex- 
ture; its common height is lo feet, audits t-hicknefs 
three inches (the latier reckoned within about a foot 
of the root), and with little labour any quantity 
may be cultivated. Flax feed has hitherto been only 
ruifed in fmall quantities. There has however beea 
enough produced to fliew that it may be fown to the 
greateit advantage. Apples, pears, peaches^ and all 
other Euroj>€an fruits, fuccced admirably. Iron,, 
copper, and lead mine?, as alfo fait fprings, have 
been difcovered in different parts of this territory. 
'The two latter are worked on the Spanifli fide of the 
Mifiiffippi, with confiderable advantage to their 
owners. There is plenty of fifh in the rivers, par- 
ticularly cat, carp, and perch, of an uncommon 
lize. — Savannahs, or natural meadov/s, are both nu- 
merous and extenfive; yielding excellent grafs, and 
feeding great herds of butfaloe, deer) &c. — Ducks,, 
teal, geefe, Avans, cranes, pelicans, turkeys, phea- 
fants, partridges, ^c. fuch as are feen in the fea^ 
coaft colonies, are In the great-eit variety and abun- 
dance. — In fliort, every thing that a reafonable mind 
can defire is to be found, or may, with little pains, 
be produced here. 

" Niagara 



*^ Niagara fort is a mofl important polT. It fe- 
c\ires a greater ntimber of ccmmuiiications through 
a larger couatry than probably any other pafs in in- 
terior America; — ^it ftancis at the entrance of a flrait, 
by whieh lake Ontario is joined to lake Erie, and 
the latter is •conne<fted with die three great lakes, 
Huron, Michegan, and Superior. About nine miles 
above Fort Niagara the czirrying place begins. It is 
occafioned by theflupendous catara6l of that name. 
Tlie quantity of vvntcr which tumbles over this fall is 
unparalleled in America; its heighth is not lefs tiian 
137 feet. This fail would interrupt the communi- 
cation between the lakes Ontario and Erie, if a road 
vv.'s not made up the liilly country that borders upon 
the iliiitc. This road extends to a fmall poll eigh- 
teen miles from Fort Niagara. Here the traveller 
embarks in a batteau or canoe, and proceeds eigh- 
teen miles to a fmall fort at La^kc Erie. It may be 
proper aifo to add, that at the end of the firft two 
miles, in the lad-mentioned diftance of 18 miles, 
the (Ireara of the river is divided by a large ifland, 
-above nine miles in length ; and at the upper end of 
it, about a mile from Lake Erie, are three or four 
inlands, not far from each other; — thcfe iflands, by. 
Interrupting and confining the waters difcharge'd 
from the lake, greatly increafe the rapidity of the 
ftream ; vi'hich indeed is fo violent, that the ilifFefl 
gale is fcarcely fiifficicnt to enable a large veffel to 
Item it; but it is fuecefsfully refifted in fmall batteaux 
or canoes, that are rowed near the faore. 

"Lake Erie is about 225 miles in length, and 
iipon a medium about 40 miles in breadth. It af- 
fords a good navigation for fliipping of any burthen. 
The coaft, on both fides of the lake, is generally fa- 
vourable for the paflage of batteaux and canoes. Its 
banks in many places have a flat fandy fliorc, parti- 
cularly to the eaflward of the peninfula called Long- 
Point,, which. extends mto the lake, in a fouth-tail- 

cm 



204 APPENDIX. 

ern dlre(ftion, for upwards of 1 8 miles, and is more 
than five miles wide in the broadeft part; but the 
iflhumus, by which itjoins the continent, is fcarcely 
two hundred yards wide. The peninfula is com- 
pofed of fand, and is very convenient to haul boats 
out of the furf upon (as is almofl every other part 
of the fliore) when the lake is too rough for rowing 
or failing; yet there arefome places where, in boifter- 
ous weather, (on account of their great perpendicu - 
lar height,) it would be dangerous to approach, and 
impoOible to land. Mofl of thefe places are marked 
in my m.ap with the letter X. 

*' Lake Hrie has a great variety of fine fifli, fueh 
as frurgeon, eel, white fifii, trout, perch, &:c. 

*' The country, northward of this lake, is in many 
parts fwelled with moderate hills, but no high moun- 
tains. The climate is temperate, and the air health- 
ful. The lands are well timbered (but not generally 
fo rich as thofe upon the fouthern fide of the lake), 
and for a confiderable diflance from it, and for fe- 
veral miles eafi:ward of Cayahoga river, they appear 
quite level and extremely fertile; and except where 
extenfive favannahs, or natural meadovv's intervene, 
are covered with large oaks, walnut, afli, hickory, 
mulberry, fafiafras, &c. &c. and produce a great va- 
riety of flirubs and medicinal roots. — Here alfo is 
great plenty of buffaloe,deer, turkics, partridges, &c. 

" Fort Detroit is of an oblong figure, built with 
flcckadcs, and advantageoufly fituated, with one 
entire fide commanding the river, called Detroit. 
This fort is near a mile in -circunTiference, and en- 
clofes about one hundred houfes, built in a regular 
manner, with parallel ftreets, crolfiUg each other at 
right angles. Its fituation is delightful, and La the 
centre of a pleafant, fruitful counuy. 

" The ftrait St. Clair (commonly called the De- 
troit river) is at its entrance more than three milei; 
wide, but in afcending it, its width perceptibly di- 



APPENDIX. 20^ 

miniSies, fo that oppofite to the fort (which is 18 
iTiiles from Lake Erie) it does not exceed half a mile 
in width. From thence to Lake St. Clair it widens to 
more than a mile. The channel of the ftrait is gentle 
and wide, and deep enough for fliipping of great 
burden, although it is incommoded by feveral ifland?, 
one of which is more than feven miles in length. 
Thefe iflands are of a fertile foil, and from their fitua- 
tion afford a very agreeable appearance. For eight 
miles below, and the fame diftance above Fort De- 
troit, on both fides of the river, the country is divided 
into regular and well-cultivated plantations, and frora 
the contiguity of the farmers' houfes to each other, 
they appear as two long extended villages. Tlie in- 
habitants, who are m.oftly French, are about 2000 in 
number, ^00 of whom are as good markfmen, and 
as well accuftomcd to the u^oods, as the Indian na- 
tives themfelves. They raife large flocks of black 
cattle, and great quantities of corn, which they grind 
by wind-mills and manufacture into excellent flour. 
The chief trade of Detroit confifts in a barter of 
x:oarfe European goods with. the natives for. furs, deer 
iTkins, tallow, Sec. &c. 

" The rout from Lake St. Clair to Lake Huron 19 
lip a ftrait or river, about 400 yards wide. This river 
derives itfelf from Lak€Huron,and at the diflance of 
3 3 miles lofes itfelf in Lake St. Clair. It is in general 
rapid, but particularly fo near its fource: its channel, 
.and alfo that of Lake St. Clair, are fufficicntly deep for 
fliipping of a very confiderable burthen. This ftrait 
•has feveral mouths, and the lands lying betv/een them 
are fine meadows. The country on both fides of it, 
for 1.5 miles, has a very level appearance, but from 
.thence to Lake Huron it is in many places broken, 
-and covered with white pines, oaks, maple, ^. ch, 
.and beech." 



Thought 



£06 APPENDIX. 



Tlioughts on the Duration of the American Commonioeaith 

J. HERE is a greater probability that the duration 
of the American commonwealth will be longer than 
any empire that has hitherto exifted. For it is a truth, 
univerfally admitted, that all the advantages which 
ever attended any of the monarchies in the old world, 
all center in the new, together with many others 
which they never enjoy. The four great empires, 
and the dominions of Charlemaign and the 1'urks, 
all rofe by conqucfts — none by the arts of peace. On 
the contrary, the territory of the United States has 
been planted and reared by a union of liberty, good 
Condu<5l, and all the comforts of domeftic virtue. 

All the greater monarchies wer-e formed by the 
conqueft of kingdoms, different in arts, manners, 
language, temper, or religion, from the conquerors; 
fo that the union, though in fome cafes very ftrong, 
was never the real and intimate connexion of the 
fame people; and this circumftance principally acce- 
lerated their ruin, and was abfolutely the caufe of it 
in fome. This will be very different in the Ameri- 
cans. They will, in their greatefl extent and popu- 
lation, be one and the fame people — the fame in lan- 
guage, religion, laws, manners, tempers and purfjits; 
for the fmall variation in fome diftrids, owing to the 
fettlement of Germans, is an exception fovery flight, 
that in a few ages it will be unknown, 

Tlie AfTyrian and Roman empires were of very 
flow growth, and therefore lafted.the longeft; but flill 
their increafe was by conqueft, and the union of dif- 
fbnant parts. The Perfian and Macedonian monar- 
chiofe were foon founded and prefently overturned; 
the former not lafting fo long as the AfTyrian, nor a 
jjxth of the duration of the Roman; and as to the 
Macedonian^ it lafted but fix years. This advantage 

of 



APPENDIX. £07 

of a flow growth is ftrong in favour of the Ameri- 
cans; the wonderful iiicreafe of their numbers is the 
natural etFed of plenty of land, a good climate, and 
a mild and beneficent government, in which cor- 
ruption and tyranny are wholly unknown. Some 
centuries are already pafl fince their firft fettlement, 
and many more will pafs before their power appears 
in its full fplendour; but the quicknefs of a growth 
that is entirely natural will carry with it no marks of 
decay, being entirely different from monarchies fou nd- 
ed by force of arms. The Roman empire perifhed 
by the hands of northern barbarians, whom the maf- 
ters of the world difdained to conquer: it will not be 
fo with the Americans; they fpread gradually over 
the whole continent, infomuch that two hundred 
years hence there probably will be nobody but them- 
felves in the whole northern continent: from whence 
therefore fhouM their Goths and Vandals come? Nor 
can they ever have any thing to fear from the fouth; 
firft, becaufe that country will never be populous, 
owing to the poiTeflion of mines: fecondly, there 
are feveral nations and languages planted and re- 
rrjaining in it: thirdly, the mod confiderable part of 
it lies in the torrid zone; a region that never yet fent 
forth nations of conquerors. 

In extent the habitable parts of North-America 
exceed that of any of the four empires, and confe- 
quently can feed and maintain a people much more 
numerous than the Airyrians or the Romans. The 
fituation of the region is fo advantageous that it 
leaves nothing to be wiflied for; it can have no 
neighbours from whom there is a polTibility of attack 
or moleflatlon ; it will pofTefi all the foHd advantages 
of theChinefe empire, without the fatal neighbour- 
hood of the Tartars. * 

It will have further the fingular felicity of all the 

advantages of an ifland, that is, a freedom from the 

rittacks of others, and too many difficulties, with 

T 2 tco 



^08 ATVKlimX. 

too great a diftance, to engage in enterprifes thai 
heretofore proved the rnin of other monarchies. 

The foil, the climate, prodii6ti-on, and face of the 
continent, are formed by nature for a great, indepen- 
dent, and permanent government: fill it with people 
-who will of themfclves, of courfe, pofiefs all forts of 
inanufactures, and you will find it yielding every 
.Jieceflary and convenience of life. Such a vafl lYcuEt 
of country, pofTeffing fuch fingular advantages, be-- 
(Coming inhabited by one people, fpeaking the fame 
ianguage, profeffing the fame religion, and having 
the fame manners; attaining a population equal to 
that of thegreateil empire; fprung from an adlive 
and induftrious nation, who have transfufed into 
them their own induftry and fpirit, and feen them 
•wortliy of their original; inhabiting a foil not dan- 
geroully fertile, nor a clime generally conducive to 
effeminacy; accuftomed to commerce: fuch a peo- 
ple mufl found a commonwealth as indiflToluble as 
humanity will allow. Suffice it for England, that 
ihe will have been the origin of a commonwealth, 
greaterand more durable than any former monarchy; 
that her languageand her manners will flourifli among 
a people who v.'ill one day become a fplcndid fpec- 
tacle in the vail eye of the nniverfe. This flattering 
idea of immortality no other nation can hope to at- 
tain. 

And here let me make an obfervation that fliould 
animate the authors in the Engiifn language with an 
?irdour tliat cannot be infufcd into thofe of any other 
nation; it is the pleafing idea of living among fo 
great a people, through almoft a perpetuity of fame, 
)i\id under almofl an im.poffibility of becoming, like 
the Greek and Lntii\.tongi]cs, dead; known only by 
^■the learned. — Increafing time will bring increafing 
readers, until their "names become repeated with 
^:''.fafure by ."bove an Iv-Tndred millions of people! 



APPENDIX. 209 

AJiatc of the Conmerctal Intercourfe bctioeen the United 
States of Afnetica and Foreign Nations. I'Fritten in 
the Month of June^ 1792. By Thomas Jefferfon^ Ef(i', 
Secretary of State to the f aid United States. 

The countries with which the United States have 
had their chief commercial intercourfe, are Spain, 
Portugal, France, Great-Britain, the United Ne- 
therlands, Denmark, and Sweden, and their Ame- 
rican pofTeffions; and the articles of export which 
conftitute the bafis of that commerce, with their re- 
fpe(Elive amounts, are — 
Bread ftufF, that is to fay, bread-grains, 

meals, and bread, to the annual a- Dols. 

mount of--^ 7,649,887 

Tobacco 4,349,567 

Rice 1,753,796 

Wood »--- 1,263,534 

Salted fifii --- 941,696 

Pot and pearl afli 839,093, 

Salted meats -- 599,130 

In^ig^ 537,379 

Horfes and mules - ----- 339)753 

Whale oil -„-- 252,591 

Fiax feed --------- 236,07s 

Tar, pitch, and turpentine - - - - 217,177 

Live provifions i37j743 

Ships 

Foreign goods - ------ 620,274 

To defcend to arLicIes of fmaller value than thefe, 
would lead' into a minutenefs of detail neither ne~ 
celTary nor ufeful to the prefent objed. 

The proportions of our exports, which go to the 
nations before mentioned, and to their dominions, 
refpe6tively, are as follows; 



T3 To 



^lO APPENDIX. 

To Spain ^nd its dominions - - w 2,005,907 

Portugal and its dominions - - - 1,2,83, 4.6:1 

France and its dominions - - - 4.698,735 

Great-Britain and its dominions - - 9,363,416 

The U.Netherlands and their dominions 1,963,880 

Denmark and its dominions - - - 224,415 

Sweden and its dominions - - - 47,240 

Our Imports from the fame countries are — 

Spain and its dominions - - - . 335,110 
Portugal and its dominions - - - - 595^763 
France and its dominions - - - . 2,068,348 
Great-Britain and its dominions - - 15,285,428 
United Netherlands and their dominions 1,172,692 
Denmark and its dominions - - - - 351,394 
Sweden and its dominions - - - - 14,325" 

Thefe imports confiit mollly of articles on which 
induflry has been exhaufted. 

Our navigation, depending on the fame com- 
merce, will appear by the following ftatement of 
the tonnage of our own vefTtls, entering into our 
ports, from thofe feveral nations and their pol'- 
ielFions, in one year, that is to fay, from October, 
1789, to September, 1790, inclufive, as follows: 

Tons. 

Spain .--- ^9,69 5 

Portugal --------- 23,576 

Vrance 116,410 

Great-Britain -------- 43,580 

United Netherlands 58>858 

Denmark - 14^655 

Sweden -- 750 

Of our commercial obje(fl:s, Spain receives fa> 
vourably our bread fluff, falted filh, wood, fliips, 
tar, pitch, and turpentine. On our meals, how- 
ever, as well as on thofe of other foreign countries, 
when re-exported to their colonies, they have lately 

impofed 



APPENDIX. filj. 

jmpofed duties of from half a dollar to two dollars 
the barrel, the duties being fo proportioned to the 
current price of their own flour, as that both toge- 
ther are to make the conftant fum of nine dollars 
per barrel. 

They do not difcourage our rice, pot and pearl 
afli, falted provifions, or whale oil: but thefe articles 
being in fmall demand at their markets, are carried, 
thither but in a fmall degree. Their demand for 
rice, however, is increaiing. Neither tobacco nor 
indigo are received there. Our commerce is per- 
mitted with their Canary Iflands, under the fame 
conditions. 

Themfelves and their colonies are the a(5lual con- 
fumers of what they receive from us. 

Our navigation is free with the kingdom of Spain ; 
foreign goods being received there in our fhips, on 
the fame conditions as if carried in their own, or in 
the veffels of the country of which fuch goods are 
the manufafture or produce. 

Portugal receives favourably our grain and bread, 
laited fifli and other falted provifions, wood, tar^ 
pitch, and turpentine. 

For flax-feed, pot and pearl afli, though not dif- 
couraged, there is little demand. 

Our (hips pay 20 per cent, on being fold to their. 
fubje(fts, and are then free bottoms. 

Foreign goods, (except thofe of the Eall-Indics) 
are received on the fame footing in our vclfels as iti 
their own, or any others; that is to fay, on general 
duties of from twenty to twenty-eight per cent, and 
confequently our navigation unobiiru6ted by them* 
Tobacco, rice, and meals, are prohibited. 

Themfelves and their colonies confume what they 
receive from us. 

Thefe re;^ulaticns extend to the Azores, Madeira, 
and the Cape de Verd Iflands, except that in thefe 
mealj and rice are received freely, 

France 



213 APPENDIX. 

France receives favourably our bread fluff, rice, 
wood, pot and pearl aflies. 

A duty of five fous the kental, or nearly four 
and a half cents, is paid on our tar, pitch, and tur- 
pentine. Our whale oil pays fix livrcs the kental, 
and are the only foreign whale oils admitted. Our 
indigo pays five livres on the kental; their own, two 
and an half : but a difference of quallity, ftill more 
than a difference of duty, prevents its feeking that 
market. 

Salted beef is received freely for re-exportation, 
but if for home confumption, it pays five livres the 
kental. Other falted provifions pay that duty in all 
cafes, and faked fifli is made lately to pay the prohi- 
bitory one of twenty livres in the kental. 

Our fliips are free to carry thither all foreign goods 
which may be carried in their own or any other 
vefTels, "except tobaccoes not of our own growth^ 
and they participate with their's the exclulive car- 
riage of our whale oils and tobaccoes. 

During their former government, our tobacco was 
under a monopoly, but paid no duties ; and our fliips 
were freely fold in their ports, and converted into 
national bottoins. The iirfl: National Aflembiy 
took from our fhips this privilege: they emancipated 
tobacco from its monopoly, but fubjeded it to du- 
ties of eighteen livres lifteen fous the kental, carried 
in their own velTels, and twenty-five livres carried in 
ours, a difference more than equal to the freight of 
the article. 

They and their colonies confume what they re- 
ceive' from us. 

.. Great-Britain receives our pot and pearl aflits 
free, while thofe of other nations pay a duty of two 
fliillings and three pence the kental. There is an 
equal diftin6^ion in favour of our bar ir'^n, of which 
article, however, we do not produce enough for our 
ovvii ufe. Woods are free from us, whilft they pay 

lome 



APPENDIX. 215 

iome frriall duty from other countries. Our tar and 
pitch pay i id. fterling the barrel; from other alien 
countries they pay about a penny and a third more. 

Our tobacco, for their own confumption, pays 
2S. 3d. fterl'fng the pound, cuftom and excife, be- 
fides heavy expences of collection. And rice, in the 
fame cafe, pays 7s. 4d. fterling the hundred weight; 
which rendering it too dear as an article of common 
food, it is confequently ufed in very fmall quantity. 

Our faked fifh, and other faked provifions, ex- 
cept bacon, are prohibited. Bacon and whale oil 
are under prohibitory ^luies; fo are our grains, meals, 
and bread, as to internal confumption, unlefs in 
times of fueh fcarcity as may raife the price ot^ 
wheat to 50s. fterling the quarter, and other grains 
and meals in proportion. 

Our (hips, though purchafcd and navigated by 
their own fubjefts, are not permitted to be ufed, 
even in their trade with us. 

While the vefiels of other nations are fecured by 
ftanding laws, which cannot be altered but by the 
concurrent v/ill of the three branches of the Britifh 
legillature, in carrying thither any produce or ma- 
nufacture of the country to which they belong, 
which may be lawfully carried in any veltels, ours, 
with the fame prohibition of what is foreign, are 
further prohibited by a ftandinglaw (12 Car. 11. 28. 
§ 3) from carrying thither all and any of our own 
domefric productions and manufactures. A fubfe- 
quent aCt^, iadeed, authorifed their executive to per- 
mit the carriage of our own productions in our own 
bottoms, at its fole difcretion; and the permillion 
has been given from year to year by proclamation, 
but fubjc'ft 'every moment to be withdrawn on that 
fingle will, in which event our veilels having any 
thing on board, fland interdicted from the entry of 
all Briiifii ports. The difadvantage of a tenura 
which may be fo fuddenly difcontinued was experi- 
enced, 



214 APPENDIX. 

cnced by our merchants on a late occafion, when an? 
official notification that this law would be ftriftly 
enforced, gave them ju ft apprehenfions for the fate 
of their velTels and cargoes difpatched or diftined to 
the ports of Great-Britain. The minifter of that 
court, indeed, frankly exprefied his perfonal con- 
vi(!ition that the words of the order went farther than 
was intended, and fo he afterwards officially inform- 
ed us; but tlie embarraiTments of the moment were 
real and great, and the poffibility of their renewal 
lays our commerce to that country under the fame 
fpecies of difcouragement as to other countries where 
it is regulated by a (ingle legiflator; and the diftinc- 
tion is too remarkable not to be noticed, that our 
navigation is excluded from the fecurity of fixed 
laws, while that fecurity is given to the navigation 
of others. 

Ourveffels pay their ports is. 9d. fterling per ton,, 
light and trinity dues, miore than is paid by Britifh 
f(iips, except in the port of London, where they 
pay the lame as Britifh. 

The greater part of what they receive from us is 
re-exported to other countries, uader the ufeleii; 
charges of an intermediate depofit and double voy- 
age. From tables publiflied in England, and com- 
poled, as is faid, from the books of their cuftom- 
Ijoufes, it appears that of the indigo imported there 
in the years 1773 — 4 — 5, one third was re-exported ; 
and from a docum.ent of authority, we learn that of 
the rice and tobacco imported there before the war» 
four -fifths were re-exported. We are affured, in- 
deed, that the quantities fent thither for re-exporta- 
tion lince the war, are confiderably diminlfiied, yet 
lefs fo than reafon and national interefl would dic- 
tate. The whole of our grain is re-exported when 
wheat is below 3OS. the quarter, and oflier grains ia 
proy>ortion. 

Tiic United Netherlands prohibit pur pickled beef 

and 



ArrENDIX. 21^, 

tind pork, meals and bread of all forts, and lay a 
prohibitory duty on fpirits diftilkd from grain. 

All other of our produilions are received on va- 
ried duties, which may be reckoned on a medium at 
about three per cent. 

They confur ■ but a fmall proportion of what 
they receive; the refidiie is partly forwarded for con- 
fumpiion in the inland parts of Europe, and partly 
re-fliipped to other maritime countries. On the 
latter proportion they intercept between us and the 
confumer (o much of the vahie as is abforbed by the 
charges attending an intermediate dtpoi]t. 

Foreign goods, except fome Eaft-India articles, 
are received in vefiels of any nation. 

Our (liips may be fold and naturalized there with 
exceptions of one or two privileges, which fome- 
what leflen their value. 

Denmark lays confiderable duties on our tobacco 
and rice carried in their own veflels, and half as 
much more if carried in ours; but the exaft amount 
of thefe duties is not perfeflly known here. They 
lay fuch as amount to prohibitions on our indiga 
and corn. 

Sweden receives favourably our grains and meals, 
falted provijGions, indigo, and whale oil. 

They fubje«ft our rice to duties of fixteen mills 
the pound weight carried in their own velTels, and 
of forty percent, additional on that, or 22,410 mills, 
carried in ours or any others. Being thus rendered 
too dear as an article of common food, little of it is 
confumed with them. They confume more of our 
lobaccoes, which they take circuitoufly through 
Great-Britain, levying heavy duties on them alfo; 
their duties of entry, town duties, and excife, being 
,4 dols. 34 cents, the hundred weight, if carried in 
their own velFels, and of 40 per cent, on that addi- 
tional, if carx-ied in our own or any other veflels. 

They prohibit altogether our bread, fifl], pot and 

pearl 



«r6 APPENDIX. 

pearl aflies, flax-feed, tar, pitch and turpentine, 
wood (except oak timber and mails), and all foreign 
manufadures. 

Under fo many reftri6lions and prohibitions, our 
navigation with them is reduced ahnoft to nothing. 

With our neighbours, an order of things much 
harder prefents itfelf. 

Spain and Portugal refufe to thofe parts of Ame- 
rica which they govern, ail dired: intercourfe with 
any people but themfelves. The commodities in 
mutual demand between them and their neighbours 
muft be carried to be exchanged in fome port of the 
dominant country, and the tranfportation between 
that and the fubjedt Hate muft be in a domeflic 
bottom. 

J'rance, by a (landing law, permits her Weft- 
India polFefTions to receive dire6lly our vegetables, 
live provifions, horfes, wood, tar, pitch and turpen- 
tine, rice and maize, and prohibits our other bread 
ftuff; but a fufpenfion of this prohibition having 
been left to the colonial legifiatures in times of fcar- 
eity, it was formerly fuipended occafionally, but 
latterly without interruption. 

Our freili and falted provifions (except pork) are 
received in their illands under a duty of three colonial 
llvres the kental, and our velTels arc as free as their 
own to carry our commodities thither, and to bring 
away rum and moIalTes. 

Great-Britain admits in her iflands our vegetables, 
live provifions, horfes, wood, tar, pitch and turpen- 
tine, rice and bread fluff, by a proclamation of her 
executive, limited always to the term of a year. 
She prohibits our falted provifions: flie does not 
permit our veflels to carry thither our own produce. 
Her vefTels alone may take it from us, and bring in 
exchange, rum, molafles, fugar, coffee, cocoa nuts, 
ginger, and pimento. There are, indeed, fomc 
'fc-eedoms in the iiland of Dominica, but under fuch 

circumftancas 



APPENDIX'. 217 

circumftances as to be little ufed by us. In the 
Britifh continental colonies, and in Newfoundland, 
all our produftions arc prohibited, and our veflels 
forbidden to enter their ports; their governors how- 
ever, in times of diftrefs, have power to permit a 
temporary importation of certain articles in their 
own bottoms, but not in ours. 

Our citizens cannot refide as merchants orfa6lor» 
vithin any of the Britifli plantations, this being ex*- 
prcfsly prohibited by the lame ftatute of 12 Car. IIo 
C. 18. commonly called the Navigation Aft. 

In the Danifh American poffcffions, a duty of 
five per cent, is levied on our corn, corn-meal, rice, 
tobacco, v/ood, falted fifli, indigo, horfes, mules^, 
and live flock; and of ten per cent, on our flour, 
ialted pork and beef, tar, pitch, and turpentine. 

In the American iflands of the United Nether- 
lands and Sweden, our velfels and produce are re* 
ceived, fubjed to duties, not fo heavy as to have 
been complained of; but they arc heavier in the 
Dutch pofTcffions on the continent. 

To inm up thefe reilriftions, fo far as they arc 
..mportant : 

1/?. I?i Europe — - 

Our bread fluff is at mofl times under prohibitory 
duties in England, and confiderably dutied on ex- 
portation from Spain to her colonies. 

Our tobaccoes are heavily tfuticd in England, 
Sweden, and France, and prohibited in Spain and 
Portugal. 

Our rice is heavily dutied in England and Sweden, 
and prohibited in Portugal. 

Our iifti and flilted provifions are prohibited ia 
iingland, and under prohibitory duties in France. 

Our v/hale-oils are prohibited in England and Vov^ 
tugal. 

And our vefTels are denied naturalization in Eng- 
land, and of late in France. 



£lS APPENDIX. 

Zcl. In the Weji-Indies. 

All intercourfe is prohibited with the pofleffion* 
of Spain and Portugal. 

Our faked provifions and fifh are prohibited by 
England. 

Our falted pork, and bread fluff (except maize,) 
are received under temporary laws only, in the do- 
minions of France, and our falted fifli pays there a 
weighty duty. 

3d. In the Article of Na^vlgaticn. 

Our own carriage of our own tobacco is heavily 
dutied in Sweden, and lately in France. 

We can carry no article, not of our own produc- 
tion, to the Britifh ports in Europe. 

Nor even our own produce to her American 
poiTeffions. 

Such being the reftriftions on the commerce and 
navigation of the United States, the queftion is, in 
what way they may beft be removed, m.odified, o.r 
counteraded? 

As to the commerce, two methods occur, i. By 
friendly arrangements with the feveral nations with 
whom thefc rclh*i(5lions exifl: or, 2d. By the fepa- 
rate acl of our own legiflatures for countervailing 
their effedts. 

There can be no doubt, but that of thefe two, 
friendly arrangement is the moft eligible. Inflead 
of embarraffing commerce under piles of regulating 
laws, duties, and prohibitions, could it be relieved 
from all its fhackles in all parts of the world — could 
every country be employed in producing that which 
nature has beft fitted it to produce, and each be free 
to exchange with others mutual furplufles for mutual 
wants, the greateft mafs poifible would then be pro- 
duced of thofe things which contribute to human 
•life and human happinefs: the numbers of mankind 
wculd be increafed, and their condition bettered. 



At'FENDIX. 219 

tVould even a fingle nation begin with the United 
States this fylleni of free eommerce, it would be 
advifable to begin it with that nation > fince it is by 
one only that it can be extended to all. Where the 
circumilances of either party render it expedient to 
levy a revenue, by way of impoft, on comnKrce, 
its freedonj might be modified, in that particular, by 
mutual and equivalent meafures, prelerving it entire 
in all others. 

Some nations, not yet ripe for free commerce, m 
all its extent, might f^Iil be willing to mollify its re- 
flriclions and regulations for us in proportion to the 
advantages which an intercourfe with us mio;ht: 
offer. Particularly they may concur with us in re- 
ciprocating the duties to be levied on each fide, or 
in compenfating any excels of duty, by equivalent 
advantages of another nature. Our commerce is 
certainly of a charader to entitle it to favour in moft 
countries. The commodities we offer are either 
neceflaries of life, or m.aterials for manufacture, or 
convenient fubjefts of revenue; and we take in ex- 
change, either manufacxures, when they have re- 
ceived the lafl: finifn of art and indufiry, or mere 
luxuries. Such cullomers may reafonably expedlt 
welcome, and friendly treatmient at every market j 
cuftomers too, whofe demands, increafing with their 
wealth and population, muft very (hortly give full 
employment to the whole indufiry of any nation 
whatever, in any line of fupply they may get into 
the habit of calling for from it. 

But fliould any nation, contrary to our wiflies, 
fuppofe it may better find its advantages by continu- 
ing its fyftem of prohibitions, duties, and regula- 
tions, it behoves us to proted our citizens, their 
commerce, and navigation, by counter-prohibitions, 
duties, and regulations alfo. Free commerce and 
navigation are not to be given in exchange for re- 
flriClions and vexations; nor are they likely to pro- 
duce a relaxation of them. 

V 2, Dur 



CiO APPENDIX. 

Our navigation involves flill V^g^^i* conndera- 
tions. As a branch of induftry, it is valuable; but 
as a refource, efTential. 

Its value, as a branch of induftry, is enhanced by 
the dependence of fo many other branches on it. In 
limes of general peace it multiplies competitors for 
employment in tranfportation, and fo keeps that at 
5ts proper level; and in times of war, that is to fay, 
when thofe nations who may be our principal car- 
riers, ihall be at war with each other, if we have not 
within ourfelves the means of tranTportation, our 
produce mufl be exported in belligerent veiiels at 
the increafed expence of warfreight and infurance, 
and the articles which will not bear that, mufl perifh 
on our hands. 

But it is a refource for defence that our navigation 
will admit neither neglect nor forbearance. The 
pofition and circumllances of the United States leave 
them nothing to fear on their land-board, and nothing 
to delire beyond their prcfent rights. But on their 
fea- board, they are open to injury, and they have 
thtrc, too, a commerce which muft be protedled. 
This can only be done by pofieffing a refpe^flable 
body of citizen-feamen, and of artifts and eflablifli- 
ments in readinefs for ihip-building. 

Were the ocean, which is the common property 
of all, open to the induftry of all, fo that every per- 
fon and veflel fliould be free to take employment 
wherever it could be found, the United States would 
certainly not fet the example of appropriating to 
themfelves, exclufively, any portion of the commoa 
flock of occupation. They would rely ontheen- 
terprife and aftivity of their citizens for a due parti- 
cipation of the benefits of tiie feafaring bufinefs,and 
for keeping the marine clafs of citizens equal to their 
object. But if particular nations grafp at undue 
fliares,and more efpecially if they feize on the means 
of the United States to convert them into aliment for 
their own ltrength,and withdraw them entirely from 

the 



APPENDIX. 221 

tUe fupport of thofe to whom they belong, defenfive 
and proteding meafures become neceirary on the 
part of the nation whofe marine refources are thus 
invaded, or it will be difarmed of its defence; its 
prodinftions will lie at the mercy of the nation 
which has pofTelTed itfelf exclufively of the means of 
carrying them, and its politics may be influenced 
by thofe who command its commerce. The carri- 
age of our own commodities, if once eflablillied in 
another channel, cannot be refumed in the moment 
we may defire. If we lofe the feamen and artifts 
whom it now occupies, we lofe the prefent means 
of marine defence, and time will be requifite to raife 
up others, when difgrace or loiTes fnall bring home 
to our feelings the error of having abandoned them. 
The materials for maintaining our due fliare of na- 
vigation are ours in abundance; and as to the m.ode 
of uling them,, we have only to adopt the principles 
of thofe who thus put us on the defenfive, or others 
equivalent and better fitted to our circumflances. 

The following principles being founded in reci- 
procity, appear perfectly jufl, and to offer no caufe 
of coiiiplaint to any nation... 

lii. Where a nation impofes high dutie-j oii our 
produdions, or prohibits them altogether, it maybe 
proper for us to do the fame by theirs, firfl burthen-^ 
Tng or excluding thofe produ6lions which they bring 
here in competition vv^Ith our own of the fame kirid; 
feieding next fuch manufaftures as we take from 
them in greateft quantity, and wliicli at the fame 
time we could the foonefl furnilh to ourfelves, or 
obtain from other countries; impoling on them du*- 
ties lighter at firif, but heavier and heavier afterwards, 
as other channels of fupply open. Such duties hav- 
ing the etfe6f of indirect encouragement to domedic 
manufaiftures of the fame kind, may induce the 
manufacturer to come himfelf into, thofe ftates; 
where cheaper fubfillence, equal laws, and a vent 
rd his wares, fre-;) of duty, may infure him the 
U 3 higiiei?: 



322 AfPEKDIX. 

higheft profits from his fkill and inciuftry. And 
here it would be in the power of tlie flate govern- 
ments to co-operate eflentially, by opening the re- 
fources of encouragement which are under their 
controul, extending them liberally to artilts in thofe 
particular branches of manufa^lure, for whicli their 
foil, climate, population, and otlier circumftances 
have matured them, and foftering the precious efforts 
and progrefs of houfehold manuTa6lure, by fome pa- 
tronage fuitcd to the nature of its objects, guided by 
the local informations they poflefs, and guarded 
againft abufe by their prefence and attentions. The 
oppreffions on our agriculture in foreign ports 
would thus be made the occauon of relieving it froni 
a dependence on the councils and conduct of others, 
and of promoting arts, manufadures, and popula- 
tion, at home. 

2(\. Where a nation refufes permiflion to our 
Xi:ierchants and faftors to refide within certain parts 
of their dominions, we may, if it fliould be thought 
expedient, refufe refidence to theirs in any and every 
part of ours, or modify their tranfadions. 

3. Where a nation refufes to receive in our vefTels 
any produ<5lions but our own, we may refufe to re- 
ceive, in theirs, any but their own productions. 
The firfl and fecond claufes of the bill reported by 
the committee are well formed to effect this objeft. 

4th. Where a nation refufes to confider any \c(^d 
as ours which has not been built within our territo- 
ries, v.'e fliould refufe to condder as theirs any vef- 
fel not built within their territories. 

5th. Where a nation refufes to our veflels the 
carriage even of our own produ6lions to certain 
countries under their domination, we might refufe to 
theirs, of every dcfcription, the carriage of the fame 
producftions to the fame countries. Butasjuflice 
and good neighbourhood w^ould diftate, that thofe 
■who have no part in impofing the reftri6lion on us, 
fiiould not be the vidtuTis of meafures adopted to de- 
feat 



APPENDIX. 223: 

feat its effe(5l, it may be proper to confine the re- 
{Iriftion of veflels owned or navigated by any fub^ 
je6ts of the fame dominant power, other than the in- 
habitants of the country to which the fald produc- 
tions are to be carried.' — And to prevent all incon- 
venience to the faid inhabitants, and to our ownj 
by too fudden a check on the means of tranfporta- 
tion, we may continue to admit the veflels marked 
for future exclufion, on an advanced tonnage, and 
for fuch length of time only, as may be fuppofed ne- 
ceflary to provide againft that inconvenience. 

The eftabliftiment of fome of thefe principles by 
Great-Britain alone has already loll us, in our com- 
merce with that country and its polTeflions, between 
eight and nine hundred veffels of near 40,000 tons 
burthen, according to ftatcments from official mate- 
rials, in which they have confidence. This involves 
a proportional lofs of feamen, fhipwrights, and fnip- 
building, and is too ferious a lofs to admit forbear- 
ance of fome effectual remedy. 

It is true we mufl expert fome inconvenience 
in practice, from the eftabliflimentof difcriminating 
duties. But in this, as in fo many other cafes, we 
are left to choofe between tv/o evils. Thefe incon- 
veniences are nothing when weighed againft the lofr; 
of wealth and lofs of force, which will follow our 
perfeverance in the plan of indifcrimination. — 
When once it fhall be perceived that we are either 
in the fyflem or the habit of giv^ing equal advantages 
to thofe v/ho extinguifli our commerce and naviga- 
tion, by duties and prohibitions, as to thofe who 
treat both with liberality and juftice, liberality and 
juflice will be converted by all into duties and pro- 
hibitions. It is not to the moderation and juflice 
of others we are to trufl for fair and equal accefs to 
market with our produdions, or for our due fliare 
in the tranfportation of them; but to our means of 
independence, and the firm will to ufe them. Nor 
do the ioconveniencies of difcrimination merit con- 

fideratioa. 



il4 AP?£NDIK. 

jfideratlon. Not one of the nations before iiiciii;iou- 
ed, perhaps not a commercial nation on earth, is 
without them. In our cafe one diftinclion alone 
will fuffice, that is to fay, between nations wiiO fa- 
vour our produflions and navigation, and thofe 
who do not favour them. One fst of moderate du- 
ties, fay the prefent duties, for the firft, and a fixed 
advance on thefe as to fome articles, and prohibitions 
as to others, for the laft. 

Still it mufl be repeated, that friendly arrange- 
ments are preferable with all who will come into 
them; and that we fnould carry into fuch arrange- 
ments all the liberality ajid fpirit ofaccommodation^ 
^vhich the nature of the cafe will admit. 

France has, of her own accord, prcpofed negc- 
ciations for improving, by a new treaty, on fair and 
equal principles, the commercial relations of the two 
countries. Eat her internal diihirbances have hi- 
therto prevented the profecution of them to eftec>j 
though we have had repeated afiurances of a conti- 
nuance of the difpoiition. . 

FYopofals of friendly arrangement have been mads 
on our part by the prefent government to that of 
Great-Britain, as the meifigeftates; but, being already 
on as good a footing in law, and a better in fa(5t, than 
the moO: favoured nation, they have not as yet dif- 
covcred anv difpoiition to have it meddled with. 

We have no reafon to conclude that friendly ar- 
rangements would be declined by the other nations 
with whom we have fuch commercial intercourfe as 
may render them important. In the mean while, it 
would reft v»'ith the wifdom of Congrefs to determine 
whether, as to thofe nations, they will not furceafe 
exparte regulations, on the reafonable prefumptioii 
that they will concur in doing whatever juftice and 
moderation dictate fliould be done, 

THOiMAS JEFFERSON. 

P. S. Since writing the above, fome alterations of 
ihe condition of our commerce with fome fovereiga 

nations 



APPENDIX", £2* 



Jlations have taken place. France has propofed to 
enter into a new treaty of commerce with us, on- 
liberal principles; and has, in the mean t'me, relaxed 
fome of the reflraints mentioned in the Report. 
Spain has, by an ordinance of June laft, eftabiilhecl 
New Orleans, Penfacola, and St. Auguftine, into 
free ports, for the veffels of friendly nations having 
treaties of commerce with her, provided they touch 
for a permit at Corcubion in Gallicia, or at Alicant; 
and our rice is by the fame ordinance excluded froi:ft 
that country. 

T/:e folloiMing are fome of the principal Articles of Ex- 
portation from the United States of America during 
the Year ending in September^ i79^' 

Three millions one hundred and forty thoufand 
two hundred and fifty-five bufliels of grain (princi- 
pally wheat). 

One million four hundred and fixty-nine thoufand 
feven hundred and twenty-three barrels of flour, 
meal, bifciiit, and rice (reducing calks of various 
iizes to the proportion of flour barrels). 

Sixty million fix hundred and forty-fix thoufand 
eight hundred and fixty-one feet of boards, plank, 
and fcantling (inch board meafure). 

Thirty-one million {evtn hundred and fixty thou- 
fand {tven hundred and two flavcs and hoops. 

Seventy-one million fix hundred and ninety-three: 
thoufand eight hundred and fixty-tree fliingles. 

Nineteen thoufand three hundred and ninety-one 
and a half tons of timber. 

Eighteen thoufand three hundred and fevcnty-foui" 
pieces of timber. 

One thoufand andeighty cedar andoak fliipknecs. 

One hundred and ninety-one fraanes of houfes. 

Seventy-three thoufand three hundred and eigh- 
teen oars, rafters for oars, and handfpikes. • 

Forty-eight thoufand eight hundred and fixty 
fliook or knock down cafks. 

One 



220 ■. :. „- " : X'. 

One hundred and forty-fix thoufand nine hundred 
and nine barrels of tar, pitch", turpentine and ronn. 

Nine hundred and forty-eight thoufand one hun- 
dred and fifteen gallons of Ipirits, diftilled in the 
United Srates. 

One hundred and fixteen thoufand eight hundred 
and three birrels of beef, pork, bacon, mutton, oyf- 
ters, &c. (reducing caiks of various fizes to the pro- 
portion of beef and pork barrels.) 

Two hundred and thirty-one thoufand feven hun- 
dred and feventy-lix barrels of dried andpickled fifli. 

Seven thoufand eight hundred and twenty-three 
tons twelve c\vt.and4ro. of potafiies and pearl aflies« 

One hundred and twelve thoufand four hundred- 
and twenty-eight hogflieads of tobacco. 

Fifty-two thoufand three, hundred and eighty-one 
hogflieads of flax- feed. 

Forty-four thoufand feven hundred and fifty-two 
horfes, horned cattle, mules, atid flieep. 

The precedingextra<5t from the copy of an authen- 
tic official return of all the exports from the United 
States of America, wiriiin the year, ending in Sep- 
tember laft, conveys an idea of the wealth, import- 
ance, and progreflive profperity of that country, far 
furpaffing vyiii.t has been heretofore entertained on, 
the fubjei^t, 

P. S. From the ifb of January, 1793, to the ift of 
January, 1794, there were exported from the port of 
Philadelphia, 422,075 barrels of iiour. 

Of the Civil Lift, and Revenue of the U?uted States. 

Abftraft of an Eftimate of the Expenditures of the 
civil lift of the United States, for the year 1793, re- 
ported by A. H.imilton, Secretary of the Treafurj 
to the Houfe of Reprefentatives^ 

Dollars. 

Prefident's Salary 25,000 

Vice-Prefident's dittro 5,000 

Chief Juftice 4,000 

f ive Ailbciate Juflices ^7^500 

All 



Appendix. 227 



All ihe diftria Judges 


21,700 


Congrefs 


143,59^ 


Treafury Department 


55.050 


Department of State 


6,300 


Deparinieiit of War 


11,250 


Commillioners of old accounts 


13,300 


Loan Offices 


.13^250 


Weflern Territorv 


11,000 


Amount of Peniions 


5-.267 


Contingencies 


20,264 



Total 352,466 or 

In Brit ifli Money ^.79,304 17 oftcrl 

The Rf venues. 
The American revenue, for 1793, is flated to be 
4,400,000 dollars, exchifive of what may arife from 
the fale of lands in the Wefrern Territory; there is 
likevvife upwards of the value of 5,000.000 dollars 
in bullion, lying in the Bank of the United States. 
Eftlmaie cf Expence for the Y^^r 1794. 

Dois. Cent:?. 

The whole Civil Lifl for 1794, is 397,201 6 
■- — Extraordinaries for Pub- 
lic Works, Benevolences, &:c. - i47}69J 43 
^. Eftimate of the War Ex- 



pences for 1794 1,457,936 



Total 2,002,830 50 

The Dollar is 4s. 6d. fierling^ arid the Cent is ilie 
hundredth part of a Dollar. 

The celebrated Mr. Thomas Paine, in his letter 
to Mr. Secretary Dundas, publifiied in London in 
the month of June, 1792, and who on this fubje^, 
(without offending any party) may be entitled to 
credit, gives a flatement of the cxpenccs of the Ame- 
•rican government in the following words : 

The expences of all the feveral departments of the 
General Reprefentative Government of the United 
States of America, extending over a fpace of country 

r early 



£' 


s. 


5,625 


Q 


1,135 


O 


900 


O 


3^957 


lO 



«,2i5 APPENDIX. 

nearly ten times larger than England, is two hun- 
dred and ninety-four thou fand five hundred and fifty- 
eight dollars, which at 4s. 6d. per dollar, is 66,275!. 
IIS. fterhng, and is thus apportioned: 

Expences of the Executive Department. 
The Office of the Prefidency, at which 
the Prcfident receives nothing for 
himfclf . - - - . 
Vice Prefident - » - - 

Chief Juftice . - . . 

Five aflbciate Juflices - - - 
Nineteen Judges of Diftri<fts and Attor- 
ney General - . _ - 6,873 ^S 
Legijlaiive Department. 
iMembers of Congrefs at fix dollars 
(il. 7s.) per day, their Secretaries, 
Clerks, Chaplains, MefTengers, Door- 
keepers, Uz. ' - - - 25,515 c 
Treafiiry Depart7nent. 
Secretary, AiTiftant, Comptroller, Audi- 
tor, Treafurer, Reglfler, and Loan- 
Office-Kecper, in each flate, together 
with all necefTary Clerks, Office- 
Keepers, &c. ' 13,825 9 
Department of State^ including Foreign Affairs. 
Secretary, Clerks, &c. &c. - - 1,406 5 

Department of War, 
Secretary, Clerks, Pay mailers, Commif- 

fioner, &c. - - - , 1,462 10 

CommiJJicners for fettli?ig Old Aceotmtu 
The whole Board, Clerks, &c. - - 2,598 15 

Incidental and Contingent Expetices, 
For Fire Wood, Stationary, Print- 
ing, &c. - - - - - 4,006 16 

Total 66,275 II 

F I N I S. 



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