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Seventh Series — Vol. X 

Conttntttee of |)ttbItcattoti 





1726— 1800 

Vol. II 
1775 — 1800 




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JlJ.1. l^^^' 


THE mercantile correspondence belonging to Hon. 
George Peabody Wetmore, selected documents 
from which have formed volumes LXIX and LXX 
of the printed Collections of this Society, comprised more 
than three thousand pieces. Other known portions of the 
same records, located in the Newport Historical Society and 
in private collections of manuscripts, would bring the total 
to about four thousand five hundred pieces. It is believed 
that what has been printed is sufficient to indicate the char- 
acter of the papers and their value for the study of colonial 
commerce in one of the most important of the trading ports 
of New England. 

Not only did Mr. Wetmore obtain the collection, and thus 
save it from destruction, but he has very generously pro- 
vided the means of publication; and has still further shown 
his interest in the papers and desire for their preservation, 
by presenting his collection to the Society. Within a short 
time these papers, to be known as the "Wetmore Collection," 
will be bound and open to study by those who wish to carry 
their investigations of colonial commerce, and incidentally 
of colonial manufactures, beyond the limits necessarily set by 
the printed volumes. The historical richness of the mate- 
rial will thus be developed, and lead to a better understanding 
of the extent, direction and methods of the trade of the 
British colonies of North America, at a time when the colo- 
nial, or so-called "mercantile system, "was being developed 
and applied. That some misunderstandings of that system, 
whether in its intention or in its results, still exist, is beyond 
question; and only the study of specific examples, such as 
abound in this Wetmore collection, will clear them. 

In aid of this study two collections of merchants' letters 
named in the Prefactory Note of the previous volume of 
Collections will be useful, offering a wider field and at the 
same time special topics, like the tobacco trade of Virginia 


and Maryland. Further similar material on the commerce 
of New England exists in the following merchants' letter 
books in the Newport Historical Society: 

Thomas Bannister, 1695-1712. 

Thomas Richardson, 1710-1715. 

Samuel and William Vernon, 1732-1751, 2 vols. 

John Bannister, 1739-1750, 3 vols. 

William Ellery, 1743-1759. 

Aaron Lopez, 1767, 2 vols. 

Samuel Ayrault, 1767-1778. 

Peleg Clarke, 1771-1782, 2 vols. 

Christopher Champlin, 1774-1804, 7 vols. 

GiBBS and Channing, 1797-1811, 4 vols. 

Worthington Chauncey Ford, 

Boston, October i, 1915 




April io, 1915 



Eec0rlitTifl; S>ea:etar? 

C-orresponHinff ^ecretarp 





iHtmbers at Larp of tl)e Couiuil 







Hon. Samuel Abbott Green, LL.D. 

Charles Card Smith, A.M. 

Hon. Winslow Warren, LL.B. 
Charles WiUiam Eliot, LL.D. 

Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, LL.D. 

John Torrey Morse, Jr., A.B. 

Rev. Henry Fitch Jenks,^A.M. 

Arthur Lord, A.B. 

Edward Channing, Ph.D. 

Edwin PUny Seaver, A.M. 

Albert Bushnell Hart, LL.D. 

Abbott Lawrence Lowell, LL.D. 

Hon. Oliver Wendell Holmes, LL.D. 
Henry Pickering Walcott, LL.D. 

Hon. Charles Russell Codman, LL.B. 
Barrett Wendell, Litt.D. 
James Ford Rhodes, LL.D. 

Rt. Rev. WUham Lawrence, D.D. 
Wmiam Roscoe Thayer, Litt.D. 

Hon.Thomas Jefferson Coolidge, LL.D. 
Hon. WiUiam Wallace Crapo, LL.D. 


Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D. 

Rev. Leverett Wilson Spring, D.D. 
Col. William Roscoe Livermore. 
Hon. Richard Olney, LL.D. 

Rev. George Angier Gordon, D.D. 
Rev. James DeNormandie, D.D. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M. 

Archibald Gary CooKdge, Ph.D. 
Charles Pickering Bowditch, A.M. 



Melville Madison Bigelow, LL.D. 

Thomas Leonard Livermore, A.M. 
Nathaniel Paine, A.M. 
John Osborne Sumner, A.B. 
Arthur Theodore Lyman, A.M. 

Henry Lee Higginson, LL.D. 
Brooks Adams, A.B. 
Grenville Howland Norcross, LL.B. 
Edward Hooker Gilbert, A.B. 

Franklin Benjamin Sanborn, A.B. 
Charles Knowles Bolton, A.B. 
Samuel Savage Shaw, LL.B. 
Ephraim Emerton, Ph.D. 
Waldo Lincoln, A.B. 
Frederic Jesup Stimson, LL.B. 
Edward Stanwood, Litt.D, 
Moorfield Storey, A.M. 


Roger Bigelow Merriman, Ph.D. 
Charles Homer Haskins, Litt.D. 

Theodore Clarke Smith, Ph.D. 
Henry Greenleaf Pearson, A.B. 
Bhss Perry, LL.D. 


Edwin Doak Mead, A.M. 

Edward Henry Clement, Litt.D. 

Lindsay Swift, A.B. 

Hon. George Sheldon. 

Mark Antony DeWolfe Howe, A.M. 

Arnold Augustus Rand, Esq. 

Jonathan Smith, A.B. 
Albert Matthews, A.B. 
Wilham VaU Kellen, LL.D. 

Frederic Winthrop, A.B. 
Hon. Robert Samuel Rantoul, LL.B. 
George Lyman Kittredge, LL.D. 
Charles Pelham Greenough, LL.B. 
Henry Ernest Woods, A.M. 


Worthington Chauncey Ford, A.M. 
WilUam CooUdge Lane, A.B. 

Hon. Samuel Walker McCall, LL.D. 
John Collins Warren, M.D., LL.D. 
Harold Murdock, Esq. 
Henry Morton Lovering, A.M. 
Edward Waldo Emerson, M.D. 
Frederick Jackson Turner, Litt.D. 
Gardner Weld Allen, M.D. 

Henry Herbert Edes, A.M. 
George Hubbard Blakeslee, Ph.D. 
Rev. George Hodges, LL.D. 
Richard Henry Dana, LL.B. 
George Foot Moore, LL.D. 
Gamahel Bradford, A.B. 
Justin Harvey Smith, LL.D. 


John Spencer Bassett, Ph.D. 
Malcolm Storer, M.D. 
Edwin Francis Gay, Ph.D. 

Charles Grenfill Washburn, A.B. 

Frederick Lewis Gay, A.B. 
Rev. Thomas Franklin Waters, A.M. 
Zachary Taylor Hollings worth, Esq. 
Chester Noyes Greenough, Ph.D. 
Joseph Grafton IVIinot, Esq. 
Samuel Eliot Morison, Ph.D. 
Ellery Sedgwick, A.B. 

William Crowninshield Endicott, A.B. 
Rev. Paul Revere Frothingham, D.D. 
Lincoln Newton Kinnicutt, Esq. 
Robert Grant, Esq. 


Rt. Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L. 


Rt. Hon. Sir George Otto Trevelyan, 
Bart., D.C.L. 

Pasquale Villari, D.C.L. 


Adolf Harnack, D.D. 

Rt. Hon. Viscount Morley, D.C.L. 


Ernest Lavisse. 

Henry Adams, LL.D. 

Eduard Meyer, Litt.D. 

Hon. Andrew Dickson White, D.C.L. 


Hubert Howe Bancroft, A.M. 

Joseph Florimond Loubat, LL.D. 
Charles Henry Hart, LL.B. 

Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D. 

Rev. Charles Richmond Weld, LL.D. 

Hon. James Burrill Angell, LL.D. 


Hon. Woodrow Wilson, LL.D. 
Hon. Joseph Hodges Choate, D.C.L. 

John Franklin Jameson, LL.D. 

Rev. William Cunningham, LL.D. 


Hon. Simeon Eben Baldwin, LL.D. 
John Bassett Moore, LL.D. 

1 901. 

Frederic Harrison, Litt.D. 
Frederic Bancroft, LL.D. 
Charles Harding Firth, LL.D. 
William James Ashley, M.A. 


John Bach McMaster, LL.D. 
Albert Venn Dicey, LL.D. 
John Christopher Schwab, Ph.D. 


Rev. Arthur Blake Ellis, LL.B. 

Auguste Moireau. 

Hon. Horace Davis, LL.D. 




Sir Sidney Lee, LL.D. 


William Archibald Dunning, LL.D. 
James Schouler, LL.D. 
Gabriel Hanotaux. 
Hubert HaU. 


Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, 

Hon. Beekman Winthrop, LL.B. 


Hon. James Phinney Baxter, Litt.D. 
Wilberforce Eames, A.M. 
George Walter Prothero, LL.D. 
Hon. Jean Jules Jusserand, LL.D. 
James Kendall Hosmer, LL.D. 


John Bagnell Bury, LL.D. 
Rafael Altamira y Crevea. 
Hon. James Wilberforce Longley, 

Henry Morse Stephens, Litt.D. 
Charles Borgeaud, LL.D. 


Lyon Gardiner Tyler, LL.D. 
Clarence Bloomfield Moore, A.B. 

Edward Doubleday ifarris, Esq. 


Charles William Chadwick Oman, 

Samuel Verplanck Hofifman, Esq. 
William Milligan Sloane, LL.D. 


Rear-Admiral French Ensor Chad- 
William MacDonald, LL.D. 

John Holland Rose, Litt.D. 

Hon. George Peabody Wetmore. 

Commerce of Rhode Island 
[1726— 1800] 

Charles Lyell to Christopher Champlin^ 

Martha's Vineyard, 11 January, 1775. 

I have some baggage on board Captain Coffin's Schooner 
from Nantucket, which I beg the favor of you to enquire 
after and forward to me at Boston. I must Hkewise request 
you to satisfy him for the freight of them and my own and 
Servant's passage from Nantucket to this place and charge 
it to Mr. Brymer's Account. I left London the 13 Novem- 
ber in a Brig belonging to Providence bound to Salem. 
The Master was not acquainted to the Eastward which 
occasioned our tumbling about in the Bay a fortnight and 
were at last obliged to put into Nantucket last Saturday 
Evening where I left her. I have no particular News. I 
breakfasted with Mr. Alex'r Grant the morning before I 
came away, and left him and Mrs. G. with the little one in 
good health. I have sent some Packets and letters for 
Mr. Cheeseborough and Dr. Hunter which you will enquire 
after, and deliver the enclosed if the Hind has not left you. 
If she is gone and no opportunity of forwarding it to An- 
tigua please to send it to me at Boston. Make my best 
Compliments to Mrs. Champlin, Mr. and Mrs. Bell, and 
Dr. Haliburton's family. You will likewise oblige me by 
calling upon Captain Wallace with my Compliments and 
let him know I left his friends well but they had no particu- 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 


[ 1775 

1/^ r 1. 4 

^1 ^ b. 

1775 ] RHODE ISLAND 3 

lar commands. I would have wrote to him, but the Vessel 
is just now upon sailing and Capt. Ayscough is obHging 
enough to send his Boat with me from hence to Falmouth. 
I shall write to you after I get to Boston and again beg 
you will forward my things as quickly as possible, they 
consist of three Trunks and two Boxes and a large painted 
canvas bag with Beding. They are directed for myself but 
if you think there is any hazard of their being stop'd at 
Providence where I am told they are troublesome you will 
please to address them to Mr. Powell or any other person 
you please and give me notice. Excuse great hurry and 
believe me sincerely Your most obedient Servant 

[Endorsed,] by Capt. Coffin. 

William Barron to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, January the 31, 1774 [1775.] 

This is to inform you of my safe Arivel in 36 days and 
find the Markets verry low and know likewoods of being 
aney better there as yet and know freights stirring at present 
and I am at a verry great stand what to do with the Ship 
but I have not had time yet to consult with my friends 
about the Matter, if I can get a freight of Salt for Phila- 
delphia or aney part of Virginia or maryland I think it 
will be best to embrace it for their is nothing to be don 
in the Strats nor to the Islands, flower is at three Mill 
two per Kentle and it [is] thought by the Merchants that 
it will not rise this sum time. I hav talked with Mr. Bulk- 
ley about the accoumpt of the last Voyag and he tells me 
that the Accoumpt is allmost closed and he sase that has 
wrote you all the perticlers of the Voyag and answar to 

4 COMMERCE OF [ 1775 

your Letter, the Ship is verry tite and every thing well 
on board. I find Sir that it is emposable to get clar of 
paying the 21/2 per C, to the Merchants for paying me 
the freight that is due on the Cargo for thay say that it is 
an old Custom and thay will not brake through that Custom 
and I find that I must give up that Point. I shall right 
again in a few days then I hop I shall be better able to 
inform you about maters, their is know News from Eng- 
land yet but the Packets is expected every day and it is 
thought by the Gentlemen hear that she will bring sum 
good news on our side. I will do every thing that is in 
my Power to keep the Ship employd for your intrest which 
you may be well assured of my alwase studdying as my 
own. I remain, Sir Your verry humble Sarv't, 

William Barron 

[Endorsed,] Per favor of Captain Green. 

William Lewis to Christopher Champlin 

Rose, 1st February, 1775. 


The Provisions I have already demanded should be 
glad to be sent on board as soon as convenient. The 
Bread is the last wanted and of that only 8000 lbs. as we 
have a Quantity of Marine Slops stowed in the Bread Room 
is the reason we cant take so much as I proposed: suppose 
the best part may come this week if the weather permits. 
Be pleas'd to send an Invoice with them, pray taste the 
Butter for we have not a Bitt on board fitt to eat for our- 
selves, my Health will not permitt me to stirr out of the 
Ship yet, but I pray God it wont be long first, when you may 
be assured of the first Visit from Your most Humble Servant, 

Wm. Lewis 

We shall compleat to three Months very soon in March, 
to be fitt for Sea. Be so kind to send by my Boy 3 pds. 
Tea. hope Mrs. Champlin and Family are well. Let us 


know when we may expect the provisions of by the Bearer, 
no Beef is wanted now. I suppose the same allowance of 
Callavances as of Pease allowed to the Men. 

Patterson and Hood to Collector of Customs 


On Wednesday the first Instant the Tide Surveyor of 
this Port boarded within four Miles of this Town a Topsail 
Schooner, name unknown, the Masters name (supposed to 
be) Campbell who reported from Casco Bay. soon after 
the Tide Surveyor had boarded the said Schooner the 
Master ordered his people to weigh Anchor and sailed down 
the River, declaring he would go to St. Eustatia and carry 
the Tide Surveyor and people, consisting of four Boatmen, 
with him. next day the Schooner was seen sixty miles down 
the River with the Kings Boat at her Stern; since which 
we have not heard of them, we have full information that 
the above Schooner was loaded with Contraband Goods, 
and have reason to conclude they consist of Tea and 
War-like Stores from Holland. We therefore think it our 
duty to give you the earliest intelligence of this Vessell, 
lest she should attempt to land her Cargo in your Port. 
The above Schooner is deep waisted, with two small Ports 
on each side of the Waist, brown bottom and her Quar- 
ters painted light blue. If such a Vessell should arrive 
in your Port, we request you will be so kind as to let us 
know it. We are. Gentlemen, Your most Obedient Humble 

John Patterson, D. ColVr. 

Zach. Hood, Compt. 

Custom House, Philadelphia 3 February 1775. 

[Addressed] The Collector and Comptroller of His Majestys Customs, Newport. 

[Endorsed,] The Coll'r and Comptroller of His Majesty's Customs at Newport 
Rhode Island. 

[and in another hand,] John Martine Leake Treasury Chambers, WhitehaU. 
Per favour of Mr. Harrison. 

6 commerce of [ i77s 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, 1st February, 1775. 

We are favor'd with your much esteem'd Hnes of 25th 
November handed us by Captain Barron of your Brig 
Peggy, who we find is loaded to another house owing to Flour 
being above our limits, which is well, as we never like to 
encourage our friends to risk their property without a 
prospect of advantage, sorry whenever we draw a Com- 
mission on a losing account. Have now the pleasure to 
advise you of a remittance made the 24 December to your 
friends Messrs. Hayley and Hopkins for Rs. loo^ooo being 
something more than we were in Cash from your 1/3 con- 
cern in the Peggy's Cargo : you may depend on our exertion 
to close this affair as soon as possible by a remittance to 
your friends and furnish you with the accounts. 

We remark what you say respecting our drawing a Com- 
mission on freight money, and reply that it is customary even 
supposing we were to pay the money to the Captain, being 
a gratuity for transacting the ship's business, and we hope 
you will do us the justice to make enquiry into this Charge 
and acquit us accordingly. Respecting the five Barrels 
flour that Captain Barron was deficient, we assure you they 
never appear'd in our store, having renderd sales of that 
Voyage to the concern 'd, and we are certain they never 
were landed in Lisbon, we have frequent short deliveries 
from on board, and the mistake often proves to be on your 
side the water. Cargoes hurried on board without either 
mate or Master keeping count, and bills of Lading sign'd 
from a slight reckoning of the storekeepers. We are far from 
harbouring the least thought of any embezzlement on 
board, but as the bill of Lading expres'd a certain quantity, 
we were under the necessity of charging the deficiency to 
the Ship. 

We shall be happy in rendering Captain Barron every 
service in our power, and wish for our friends sake the 
Peggy had arrived to a better market, never was Lisbon 


in so glutted a state, and wishing for opportunities to sup- 
port a reciprocal correspondence remain with great regard, 
Sir, Your obedient humble Servants, 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co. 

Nominal Prices 

Flour 3^200 Corn 2CX) to 220. 

Wheat 420 to 440 Exchange 66 per $. 

George Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, 10 February, 1775. 

I HAVE before me your favours of the 12th and 24th 
November, for which am greatly obliged. The bills you 
have drawn on me in favour of H. & H. are accepted and 
you may depend shall be punctually discharged. I have 
agreable to your direction made £450 Insurance on Flax 
Seed in the Brittania, Captain Fair, from Newport to her 
port or ports of discharge in Ireland, the Account of which 
you will find enclosed premio etc. being £11.10.6 is to your 
debit. We have received a Letter from the Captain advis- 
ing his arrival at Dubhn, which I desired Mr. Samuel Fowler 
to inform you of in a Letter we wrote him by Captain 
CoUins. I have also made £800 Insurance on 11/16 of the 
Sloop Adventure to Africa and America, the Account of which 
is likewise enclosed premio etc. being £86.12.3. I sincerely 
wish she may make you a succesful Voyage. I have also 
made £450 Insurance agreable to your desire for account of 
Mr. Geo. Champlin as above on the Sloop Adventure^ for 
premio of which have debited your Account £35.11.9 as 
per Account herewith. 

I am sorry to say American affairs bear every day more 
and more a gloomy prospect. Our Administration are de- 
termined to enforce the oppressive Acts of parliament at 
every hazard. Under this circumstance the order you 
send for Goods must remain unexecuted. I hope we shall 
gett into a happier situation some time or other but at 
present it seems to be at some distance and the Issue must 

8 COMMERCEOF [ 1775 

I fear be inevitable ruin to the Commerce of both Countries. 
I am very respectfully, Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Geo. Hayley 

Dr. Mr. Christopher Champlin for the following Insurance on the Brittania, Fare, 
at and from Rhode Island to her port or ports of discharge in Ireland 

£450 on Flaxseed . . . at £2 per Ct £9. — . — 

Policy — •5-6 

Commission 2. 5. — 

£11. 10. 6 

On the Adventure, Champlin, at and from Rhode Island to the Coast of Africa, 
during her Stay and trade there and from thence to her Ports of Discharge in 
British America 

£300 on 11/16 Vessell and outfit valued 
800 Cargo 

£1110 Insured at 7 Guineas per Ct £80. 17. — 

part Policy — . 5. 3 

Commission 5. 10. — 

£86. 12. 3 

■^ Tr 11 I J I on Do. for acct. of Geo. Champlin 

130 on part Vessell valued J 

£450 Insured at 7 Guineas £33. I. 6 

part Policy — . 5. 3 

Commission 2. 5. — 

£35. II. 9 

Endorsed, Per Capt. Lyde, via Salem. 

Hayley and Hopkins to Aaron Lopez 

^. [London,] 20th February, 1775. 

The foregoing is Copy of our last respects. We now 
enclose your Account Current for the last year, ballance 
thereof being £22673.-9 in our favour is carried to your 
debit in new Account which if upon examination found free • 
from Error please note in conformity of which shall be 
obhged by your informing us in your next. 

We have since our last received your esteemed favours 
of the 8th and 23d September, loth October, i6th and 
24th November, 2d and 21st December, to which we now 
propose to answer in the order they lay before us. In that 


of the 8th September you wish to have £100 additional 
Insurance made on the Diana^ but your Letters of the 8th, 
and that of the 23d September in which you advise her 
misfortune both came to our hands the same day by Captain 
Jenkins, and of course the additional £100 could not be 
done. Your care to send this IntelHgence is another proof 
of that Integrity of which we have seen many Instances in 
the course of our correspondence and does you great honour. 
We have very lately received the papers relating to that loss 
via Philadelphia, and have laid them bef[ore] your Under- 
writers. £400 of this Insurance was done upon the Vessel 
and they have agreed to pay that Sum as usual in a Month, 
so that our next will cover the Account of the settlement 
for that part; but the remaining £100 which is done on 
Goods they defer settling till we can furnish them with an 
Invoice of the Cargo which was on board her at the time she 
was lost. By the bill of Lading which you have sent us the 
value (exclusive of the Mules which they suppose were 
landed at Jamaica) does not amount to near £100. We 
must therefore beg the favour of you to send us an Invoice 
with all expedition. 

We have perused with all possible attention what you 
write about your Brig Leviathan, with Capt. Lothrop's 
Letter and your orders to him, which we have also laid be- 
fore your Underwriters, but they will do nothing in it till 
we can furnish them with some more authentic proofs than 
merely the Captain's Letter. This is one of those unhappy 
cases which generally end in litigation at Law. If that 
must be the case our utmost attention shall be given to it 
as soon as we are furnished with legal proofs which we hope 
you will be able to do ere long. We should think it im- 
possible (if Lothrop's state of the case is true) that they 
can detain him or his Vessel much longer; If not, when he 
returns you will easily procure and send us every necessary 
proof and we will then exert every possible diligence to 
procure you justice. 

The bill you remitt us for £1000 drawn by Benj. Wright 
on ourselves is accepted and when due shall be placed to 


your credit. We have been hoping to receive further re- 
mittances from Jamaica, but have not heard from Captain 
Wright since our last. The remittances from that quarter 
have fallen greatly short of our expectations. 

The £800 Insurance you directed on the Ship Jacob to 
Newfoundland and back was effected immediately on 
receipt of your Letter and herewith you have the Account 
thereof, premio, etc., being £24.5.6 is to your debit in the 
Account Current now enclosed; as is also the Account of 
£900 Insurance on the Flora from Newfoundland to the 
West Indies and America or Europe, premio, etc. being 
£40.15.6. This was done in consequence of the order in 
yours of the loth October. We had no directions from 
Mr. Sears about it. The premium is to your debit with 
G. H. alone. 

We notice the whole of your remarks on Capt. Storey's 
Vessel and her future proceedings which shall be attended 
to; He has drawn upon us for £400 which shall be duly 
discharged and placed to your debit and the bill you remitt 
us for the same Sum drawn by Mr. Rotch on ourselves shall 
be to your credit, as is also £313.17.11 for nett proceeds of 
the 40 Tierces of Sugar consigned us by Capt. Wright on 
board the Nancy, the money for which was not received 
till after the close of the last year and is therefore to your 
credit in the present years Account. We are glad to see the 
Goods sent you by Thomlinson turned out agreable to In- 
voice, except the trifles mentioned in your Letter of the 
i6th November, for which we debit you as at foot of this 
and are obliged to you for pointing them out to us. We 
have carefully attended to and are obliged by the informa- 
tion you give us respecting your 3 Jamaica Ships. We 
sincerely wish you all the advantage you promise your self 
from that Engagement, but we think the present situation 
of the American Trade is against them and we are sorry to 
say there is a prospect of its becoming worse rather than 
better. Our Ministry, and under them our parliament, 
are determined upon violent measures which must surely 
prove the utter ruin of both countries. We dread the 


fatal consequences. We are glad to see the Jacob was safe 
arrived with you from the Land. The 50 Setts of bills re- 
mitted us by Mr. Sears are come to hand. One of them 
being for £42,13.11 on James Sykes we now return you 
with protest, for charges on which we have debited you 
5/9. The rest are all gone to their proper places of address 
and we hope will prove good, if not, due care shall be taken 
to inform you thereof. We are sorry to say the remittances 
from that quarter fall greatly indeed short of our expecta- 
tion. For what remains of your commands we beg leave 
to refer you to the seperate Letter of our G. H. which goes 
by this Vessell. We are very respectfully. Sir, Your most 
humble Servants, 

Hayley and Hopkins 

Dr. Mr. Aaron Lopez for the following Insurances 
On the Jacob, Peters, at and from Newport to Newfoundland and back 
£400 Vessell valued 
400 Goods 

£800 Insured at £2.10 per Ct £20. — . — 

Policy 5. 6 

Commission 4. — . — 

£24. 5. 6 

On the Flora, Forrester, at and from Newfoundland to Barbados and any other of 
the West India Islands (Jamaica excepted) and at and from thence to America or 
Europe, to return £1.18 per Ct. if she is sold in the West Indies. 

£750 Vessell 
150 Freight 

£900 Insured at £4 per Ct £36. — . — 

Policy 5. 6 

Commission 4.10. — 

£40.15. 6 

George Hayley to Aaron Lopez 

London, 20th February, 1775. 


I HAVE already wrote you in the Name of my late Part- 
nership. I come now to acknowledge receipt of your 
seperate Addresses to me of the 14th and 24th Nov©m^%| 



12 COMMERCE OF [ 1775 

20th and 21st December, for which am obHged. The 4 
Bills drawn on me in favor of H. & H. are therein inclosed, 
the first of them which becomes due the 31 March next, 
shall certainly be discharged, and I hope the same of the 
others as they become due, but the unhappy alteration in 
the American Commerce and the stagnation of remittances 
which it seems probable must take place, in consequence 
thereof, makes me unwilling to lay myself under positive 
Engagements. I hope however I shall accomplish the 
payment of the whole. It is my wish to do so. I shou'd 
greatly prefer that mode of settling the Account of H. & 
H. to any other, but in the mean time as it can make no 
material difference to you whether H. & H. or myself alone 
are your Creditors, I dare say you'll excuse my keeping 
this matter in suspence, under the Assurance of my inten- 
tion of settling it in the manner herein refered to. The 
two Bills you remit, for £157.17.4 on Thos. Lansdown, 
£260.12.7 on the Commissioners of the Victualling, are 
accepted, and when paid, shall be placed to your Credit. 
The eight Bills amounting to £131.2.10 are agreable to your 
directions delivered to Capt: Shand, who has paid me the 
Ballance theron £1.2.10 which is to your Credit, and has 
given up your Acceptance of £130 regularly discharged. 
In my Companys Letter I informed you that I had debited 
you £40.15.6 for £900 Insurance to the West Indies and No. 
America and Europe on the Flora, Forrester. the reason 
for doing it by me, and not the Company was that the 
Order did not come to hand till after the close of the last 
Year, For the same reason the Insurance ordered on your 
Ships bound to Jamaica are done by me, and placed to 
your debit accordingly, the particulars are as follows 

£2200 on the Clarissa, Marsom, and her Cargo, premio, 
etc., being £115.10.6, this Insurance I have charged the 
whole to your Account for the present, as you do not men- 
tion what share Mr. Rotch holds in her. I suppose he has 
1/4 with which his account shall be charged when I am 
favored with your Answer, together with 1/4 also of the 
additional Insurance of £100 on her Cargo, for which last 


you are at present debited also £3. for the whole Cost. 
£2500, being 1/2 of £5000 on the Nancy, Tomlinson, and 
her Cargo, premio, etc., being £145.8.0; £1950, being 3/4 
of £2600 on the JunOy Miller, and her Cargo, premio, etc., 
being £106.6.11. I am, etc. 

George Hayley 

(copy) Original per Lyde via Salem. 

Robert and Nathan Hyde & Co.^ 
TO Christopher Champlin 

Manchester, loth March, 1775. 

Having none of your esteem'd favors to answer, the pres- 
ent serves to advise, that in case you incline to favor us with 
your future orders for our manufactures, we recommend 
your doing it as soon as possible, that we may have them 
ready to ship immediately on the trade opening, you will 
find an advantage in doing this, as you will have better goods 
and patterns, also have them earher at market than those 
people, who put of forwarding their orders till the trade 
opens, many houses with you found an advantage in this, 
on the opening of the former Non-importations, they were 
sensible that it was impossible for us, as manufacturers, 
to ship goods properly sorted for your market, without hav- 
ing time to prepare them. We have reason to believe that 
the present unhappy differences between this Country and 
yours will be settled in a few months. We are with much 
Esteem, Sir, Your most obedient Servants, 

RoBT. and Nathan Hyde & Co. 

[Endorsed,] Per the Elisabeth via New York. 

^ In January, 1775, the firm had been enlarged by taking in as a partner, John 

14 commerceof [ 1775 

Christopher and George Champlin 
TO Robert Champlin 

Newport, March 21, 1775. 
Captain Robert Champlin, 

Since writing our Orders of the 8th day of this month 
(wherein we Hmited the lowest you was to sell for at Bar- 
badoes at £35. Sterling and £36. at the Grenades) we have 
received a Letter from the , Grenades, wherein we have 
advice of 1600 Slaves sold there in the Months of December 
and January and 2000 gone to Leeward, the greater part of 
which to Jamaica. We therefore would have you sell to 
Went and Son, if you cannot obtain any more for £34. 
Sterling round, payable in manner as before directed, rather 
than quit Barbadoes, unless you have a better price promised 
you from Threlfal & Anderson; if not, then you must 
proceed to Jamaica to the House of Murray and Wright at 
Savannah la Mar, as ordered in our said Letter the 8th 
March. We wish you Success and are Your Friends and 

Chris. Champlin 
Geo. Champlin 

[Endorsed,] To Captain Robert Champlin, Master of the Sloop Adventure ex- 
pected from Africa, At Barbadoes. 

William Lewis to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

I AM greatly to apoHgize for my late Impoliteness at your 
House, and hope Mrs. Champlin and yourself will excuse it. 
I should be glad to know the Weight of the Bread return 'd 
as the Steward cannot finish his weekly Accounts without 
it. the Weight of the Sugar and Price is wanted as our Mess 
settles every fortnight. Likewise the Weight of the Cheese, 
Price, and what I am charged in Cheshire, for I have lost 
that you gave me. I think the Captain's Steward talks 
the Captain will pay for it himself. We propose victuahng 
next week, when I shall come on shore and talk with you 


myself, only some of the Rum must be in Casks of 
about 30 Gallons, 6 of them will do the rest as we pro- 
pos'd. this Manoeuvre is a late Whim of the Captains. I 
have nothing perticular to add but remain, Dear Sir, yours 

Wm. Lewis 

Wednesday afternoon. [March 30, 1775.] 

I find by the Steward the Captain expects to be charged 
no more than the weight as Cheshire. Brymer suppUed 
so at Boston, you know best what ships have done here 
before, things are in the same dissagreeable Situation, 
dont let this be seen. 

Leonard Jarvis to Aaron Lopez "~^ 

Dartmouth, April 5th, 1775. 

Your Favour of the 21st Ultimo lays before me. Mr. 
Barney is now making provision for the Rigging for the new 
Ship. He would rather if agreable to you have the number 
of Coils of Cordage of each size that may be wanted, as all 
Riggers do not agree in their Judgement, this memoran- 
dum, if convenient to you I should be much obliged to you 
for and you may depend on the exertion of Mr. Barney that 
you may have the Cordage in season and on his care to 
conform to the Order. 

I call'd on Mr. Greenwood, who was in the Vessell lately 
arrived from Falkland Islands, he it seems was Master 
and not Capt. Martindale, as I suppos'd. From the con- 
versation I had with him I think there is a prospect in the 
Fishery at those Islands well worth attending to, notwith- 
standing the small quantity of Oil this Vessell brought home, 
but then it must be pursued quite differently from what it 
has been, from knowing the Rocks our predecessors have 
split upon I hope we may avoid them. Capt. Greenwood 
promis'd me to call on you shortly and I gave him some 


l6 COMMERCE OF [ 1775 

encouragement to expect a Vessell, but since I left him I 
have heard that he is not so temperate as he ought to be. 
I should therefore think it would not be for our Interest 
to employ him in the Command of a Vessell, tho' as he is 
acquainted among the Islands, and is a man of ability, it 
might, in so large an undertaking as the proposed one, be 
well worth the while of the concernd to make him such 
offers as may be for his Interest to accept. 

I had a letter by the Post from Capt, Stutely Wyat re- 
questing me to forward the Bill of Lading of th-e Fatt Butter 
and Hoops, if I mistake not, it was left with you; if not, 
it is somehow or other mislaid. I shall make a further 
search for it, and if found shall forward it, I should be 
much obliged if you can find the Amount of the Freight, 
if you will be kind enough to pay it and debit the account of 
Mr. Rotch for the same. I am quite ashamed to trespass 
so frequently upon you, but I know you will be good 
enough to excuse it. 

The fifty pounds you was so kind as to lend me I will 
discount with Mr. William Rotch, if agreable to you, for at 
present we have not money enough to discharge it. I 
am. Sir, with my most Respectful Compliments to your 
Lady, Your much obliged and most obedient Servant, 

Leo: Jarvis 

Robert and Nathan Hyde & Co. 
TO Christopher Champlin 

Manchester, 27th April, 1775. 

We rec'd your much esteemd favor of the 24th February 
inclosing a bill value two hundred pounds Sterling when 
paid shall come to your credit with thanks. 

Your directions respecting your order for goods shall be 
punctually complied with, we most sincerely wish that 
the present unhappy disputes between this Country and 
her Colonies may soon subside and confidence and unanimity 
restored which will put Trade on the former footing, when 


we shall be oblig'd by your further orders for our Manu- 
factures. We remain very respectfully, Sir, Your most 
Obedient Servants, 

RoBT. AND Nathan Hyde & Co. 

George Hayley to Aaron Lopez 

30 April, 1775. 

The foregoing is Copy of my last respects, since which I 
am favoured with yours of the 28th February and 3d March. 
I know the House of Livingston and Turnbul of Gibraltar, 
and am upon friendly terms with Davis, Strachan and Co. 
who are their Correspondents in London, with whom I have 
conferred fully since your letter came to my hands. They 
assure me entire dependence may be made upon their 
honour and that whatever bills they may direct you to 
draw shall meet punctual discharge, on which I have no 
doubt you may safely rely. I observe with pleasure the 
arrival of the Nancy and the Clarissa at Jamaica, and in 
consequence of your instructions have made £800 additional 
Insurance on the latter and her freight from thence to 
London, for cost of £600 being ^ thereof I have debited 
you £27. I have also made the following Insurances 

£700 on the Juno, Bissett, additional on Ship and 
freight, for cost of £525 being % thereof I have debited 
you £15.15. from R. Island to Jamaica. 

£1000 on the Flora, Dean, at and from Rhode Island to 
Surinam and back, for, premio, etc., on which I debit you 

£1200 on the Ann, Davis, at and from Jamaica to Phila- 
delphia for premio, etc., I debit you £24.7. being for £800, 
/3 of the £1200, the Accounts of all which you will find 
enclosed and I hope they will meet your approbation. I 
sincerely rejoyce at the good Voyage made for her Owners 
by the last mentioned Vessell and am obliged to you for 
your assurances of turning some considerable remittances 
this way from Jamaica, which will be highly acceptable. 

l8 COMMERCE OF [ 1775 

My expectations from that quarter the last year were dis- 
apointed. The last Letter from Captain Wright is dated 
1st September last, but I flatter myself I shall now hear 
from him very shortly. I am very truly and respectfully, 
Sir, Your most Humble Servant, 

Geo. Hayley 

Stocker and Wharton to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, May 23d, 1775. 


We have before us your favor of the i6th Inst, inclosing 
a letter for Mr. Buchanan of Baltimore which we have this 
day forwarded by Post, We rec'd, a little time since, a 
letter from Mr. Row'd'Norris to the same purport as that 
to Mr. Fowler we suppose, when any further Accounts 
comes to our hands shall communicate them to you. its a 
doubt with us if more than 80/ for the Seed can be obtain'd. 
however this you may depend upon that Mr. Norris will 
consult the Interest of the concernd in the Sale of it. We 
have rec'd the Sales of the Flaxseed from Mr. Conyngham, 
but in our hurry we have omited to transmit you a Copy, 
if we have time to take a Copy before this Vessel goes shall 
send it. The proceeds is £1066.2.7^ Irish, but we think a 
small part of the Proceeds was non remitted. The Sale of 
the Flour Mess. Parr, Bulkeley & Co. have not sent to us — 
which by the by is not very clever. We find Mr. Foxcroft^ 
had discharged the Post Riders, but we hear he has again 
sett them agoing, there is Post between this and N. York 
paid by some private persons, but whether they mean to 
continue it or not if the other is regular we dont know, 
we most heartily wish them unnatural disputes were at 
an end, and Harmony between the two Countrys again 
restored; but if the Americans should now be base enough 
(which however at present there seems to be no danger oQ 
to give up their Liberties, they must ever after be content 

^ Assistant Postmaster General. 


to be ranked amongst Slaves. We remain with respect, 
Sir, Your Very Humble Servants, 

Stocker and Wharton 

[Endorsed,] Per Cap. Whitman, Q D. C. 

Memo. A/C Sales of my 1/3 Peggy Cargo Flour consignd Parr, Bulkeley & Co. 
has been reed by C. C. by which the difference of profit or loss between that and the 
Flaxseed to Ireland must be fixed.^ 

Christopher Champlin to [Brimmer P]^ 

Newport, May 31, 1775. 

Dear Sir, 

This will be handed you by Capt. William Barron of my 
Ship Peggy, who loaded at Baltimore on Freight for Account 
of Mr. Archibald Buchanan and Mr. George Mathews 
Merchants there, consigned to Messrs. Lawton and Brown 
of Cork. 

There to receive orders from Messrs. Wallace Davidson 
and Johnston, Merchants of London, to proceed either to 
Bristol, Liverpool or London for a Market, meeting with 
continued head winds his wood and water proveing short, 
judged it prudent to put in here for a recruit, whereupon 
Capt. Wallace having taken possession of her and Cargo, 
the latter by orders from Admiral Graves, for the use of the 
Fleet and Army at Boston, and has now sent her round 
under command of his officer, this being out of my power 
to prevent have made the necessary Protests which the 
Capt. has with him. this matter is extremely hard on me 
and is attended with much expence. Capt. Wallace assures 
me every farthing of my Freight will be paid me as if 
landed at her port of destination (and will recommend my 

^ April 6, Josiah Hewes reported the following prices at Philadelphia: Jamaica 
rum, 3/7 to 3/9; Windward, 3/1 to 3/2; New England, 2/2; molasses, 2id. to 
22d., scarce; sugars, 42/6 to 50/, plenty; loaf sugar, i^d.; coffee, 8 to gd.; cocoa, 
95/ to 100/; chocolate, 17^.; indigo, 11/, French; fine flour, 19/ to 21/; common 
flour, 14/9 to 15/3; wheat, 6/3; bread, 13/; beef, 57/6; pork, 62/6; horns, 63; 
Izrd, 6d.; cotton 2/2, none. Bills of exchange 573 per cent, no demand." 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

20 COMMERCE OF [ 1775 

case to the admiral), as both Ship, Cargo, and Freight are 
insured, and of course can never have any return of Premium 
upon either, the Voyage having commenced, and also the 
owners of the Cargo will be fully paid if taken for the Kings 
use. but if not required, the Ship will be alowed to proceed 
on her Voyage, paying me a just Demurrage for her de- 
Sention and great expense I am put to in consequence thereof. 
With that hope the Master continues in her, and have 
shiped a new sett of hands, the old ones having quitted. I 
must earnestly ask both your's and Mr. Lyells influence to 
prevail with the Admiral to let her proceed; but if not 
alowed, that I have bills given me at the common exchange 
for the amount of her Freight agreeable to the manifest 
inclosed, and that my Ship is returned to Newport in safety, 
unless you can send her to Quebeck under your direction 
and procure a Freight from thence to Great Britain or 
Ireland, or up the Streights. but the property of the Ship 
must be altered by registering her in some Gentlemans 
name at Quebeck. in fact if I could obtain £1000 Stg. for 
the Ship in good Bills on London well indorsed, had rather 
sell her at Quebeck in earnest, and put an end to my con- 
cern these precarious times, and judge from the stop of 
Northern Ships going there this Season as usual vessels will 
be greatly wanted, therfore, as she is a fine new strong 
Ship will sell quick at a good price, I must therefore sub- 
mit the afair to your Direction, if you judge I can neither 
sell the Ship at Quebeck, for the sum of £1000 Stg., nor can 
you recommend him to any Gentlemen there that will 
cover my Ship and procure me a Freight on the best Terms 
given there, which I think will be 14^ per bush, to Lisbon, 
and in proportion if proceeds farther, then she must return 
to Newport in ballast and lay her by to rot. Shoud she 
proceed to Quebeck a Pilot must be furnished, no employ 
in the Governmental way will do if known, I shoud be 
made very unhappy here therefore [it] will not do. I 
apprehend the Justice Government proceeds upon in cases 
of this kind will intitual me to the highest Freight viz. 
5/9 Stg. per Barr. and I4.d per bush, for the Grain, bills on 

1775 ] RHODE ISLAND 21 

London at common Exchange will do for my Freight, and 
suppose the Proprietors of the Cargo at Baltimore Town 
Maryland will accept of them also. And shoud the Cargo 
be taken for the Crown I coud wish you woud advise them 
per Post of the same and ask their directions, how to act 
for them, as neither Capt. Barron nor my self can meddle 
any farther than to inform them and transmit a Copy of his 
Protests. I will at the same time mention you to them in a 
proper way. youll please to note the Cargo is all superfine 
Flour for the London Market cost 4/ more than common 
per C. Query whither Government may require such and 
do Justice to the owners. Barron will wholy walk by 
your directions shoud the ship be unloaded. I flatter my self 
the admiral will assist the Capt. in ballasting her as she will 
oversett otherwise. 

I think by the restraining act the Ship may proceed to 
Quebeck in my name if cleared out before the ist day of 
July at Salem, though she must proceed from thence in the 
name of some Gentlemen of that Province; and, if possible, 
let her take Freight for the Streights in preference to any 
other, what expences the Ship may be at please to supply 
for my a/c. If he shoud want a hand, you may have in- 
fluence to procure him one, — all which I submit to your 
Friendship and Direction, and am, Dr Sir, Your most humble 

Chris. Champlin 

Samuel and Jacob King Went to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Barbados, June 9th, 1775. 


We are now to acknowledge the receipt of your favours of 
the 20 February 8th and 24th of March, inclosing letters 
for Captain Robert Champlin, which you may depend shall 
be delivered to him on his arrival. 

22 COMMERCEOF [ 1775 

Captain Mowatt arrived here a few days past and tells us 
that when he left the Coast which was the 15th of April 
last Captain Champlin was very well had 50 odd Slaves, and 
expected to be off in about six weeks. We apprehend he 
wrote you by Captain Mowatt and that he has forwarded 
the letter by this conveyance. We are, Gentlemen, Your 
most humble Servants, 

Sam: and Ja: King Went 

William Barron to Christopher Champlin^ 

Boston, June the 10, 1775. 


this is to inform you of my saife arivel hear on the 6 and 
find by Mr. Brimyer that the ship will be discharg'd hear, 
which the Genarle sais he will give all the dispatch he can. 
But I have not discharged one Barrel yet and I dont know 
the time set for thay are in grat confusion hear. Mr. Brim- 
yer tells me that there will be no fair of a freight at Quebeck 
which I shall endeavor to get the high's freight to. it is 
imposable Sir for me to inform you aney thing consarnig 
the setivation of this unhappy place, for every thing is kep 
so silent and the town so well garde with soldiers, that thay 
will not let you go aney way exept just in the middel of the 
town. Mr. Brimyer promises to get me all the Despatch 
that is in power. I have nothing mor at present Sir, but 
shall right again in a few days by Capt. Webster, and I hop 
by that time I shall be better able to inform you abough 
maters, and remain Sir your verry humble Sarvent, 




^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1775 ] rhode island 2$ 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, the 14th June, 1775. 


We had the pleasure of paying you our last respects under 
the 8th March, contents of which we now confirm, are since 
without the pleasure of a single hne from you. the present 
serves chiefly to acquaint you that agreeable to what we 
hinted in our antecedent we remitted your friends Messrs. 
Halley & Hopkins the iid March Rs. 120^000, Exchange 
65I, and have now the pleasure to inform you that by the 
last Packet which sailed the loth Inst, we remitted your 
said London friends Rs. 200^ooor, Exchange 65! per $, 
being what we find ourselves in Cash on your account, and 
may rest assured that efforts shall not be wanting in collect- 
ing the remainder of the outstanding debts, and remittances 
made without loss of time. 

Our Market now begins to gain favour for your produce, 
owing to the late Drought which has greatly prejudiced the 
Wheat harvest, add to this, the advices that we lately 
received, that the New yorkers had shut up their Ports, 
with a probability of every port following their spirited 
plan, so that we are housing three Cargoes that we are 
now unloading with Wheat and Flour, altho our Stores are 
burthened with said articles, and we hope in a few months 
to open a sale at golden prices, and not having worth your 
detention remain with regard and esteem. Sir, Your obedient 
humble Servants, 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co. 

Flour 3.4CXD 
Wheat 440 to 460 
Corn 320 

Exchange Ss^d per $. 

P. S. We are very glad to find Capt. Barron got a freight 
for your Ship to Bristol. 

24 commerce of [ 1775 

Christopher Champlin to James Wallace 
On His Majesty's Service. 

Newport, June 19th, 1775. 

Agreeable to information lodged with you in writing 
of 6th Inst, that I expected from Philadelphia in the Brig. 
Charlotte, John Fryers Master, three hundred cask of Bread, 
thirty Barr's of Pork and some Flour, for the use of the 
Contract which I agreed with Mr. George Gibbs to import 
for that purpose, and accordingly last week advanced him 
fifty pounds lawfull money in part payment for the same, 
Mr. Gibbs now informs me those articles are come agree- 
able to his Contract, but that you have determin'd to send 
the greater part round to Boston. 

It therefore becomes my duty to inform you in behalf 
the contractors, if I am deprived of receiving this Bread 
(being the only resource I have left) it will greatly distress 
the Contract and wholy put it out of my power to comply 
with the future Demands of any of His Majesty's Ships on 
this Station in the article of Bread. 

I therefore rest upon the protection of Captain Wallace 
in behalf of the Contractors, and could wish it was expedient 
with His Majesty's Service that the whole of the Bread 
might be retained here for the use it was imported for, I 
am with much respect. Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Chris. Champlin 

[Memo.] Copy letter James Wallace Esq. Commander of His Majesty's Ship of 
Warr, at Newport. 

George Hayley to Aaron Lopez 

[London,] 17 July, 1775. 

The foregoing Copy of my last respects I confirm; since 
which I am favoured with yours of the 31st May. I am 
obliged to you for your remarks on what I mentioned re- 

1775] RHODE ISLAND 2^ 

specting the 4 bills drawn on me in favour of H. & H. and 
for your leaving me at large to act therein as I may find it 
convenient; I am entirely of the same mind as when I last 
troubled you on the subject and hope I shall be able to 
settle the whole of them, but for the reasons I then men- 
tioned I wish not to be positively bound. That for £4000 
which became due the 30th June I have paid and debited 
you in Account Current for it. I am also obliged to you 
for noting the several Insurances mentioned in your Letter 
now before me in conformity and have agreable to your 
instructions credited your Account and debited Mr. Rotch's 
for 3^ of that on the Clarissa £29.12.7, and as I find neither 
that Vessell nor the Juno will proceed from Jamaica for 
London, I will adjust with the Insurers the return of premio 
for that part of the Voyage and advise you the particulars 
thereof in my next. I shall pay particular attention to all 
you write about the future proceedings of the Nancy, but 
there certainly is no chance of any accomodation so as to 
enable her to load for Newport. I fear that happy time 
is still at a great distance; Whenever it does come, you will 
find me ever disposed to serve you to the utmost of my 
power and in the mean time I have the most entire confi- 
dence that you will be exerting your endeavors to the 
utmost in placing all the remittance you are able in my 
hands, that if a total stagnation of remittance does take 
place it may thereby be made as tolerable as such a dis- 
tressing event will admitt of. 

I have already paid my respects to you under the firm 
of my late partnership and date of the 15th. I therein 
mentioned that I had not had a line from Captain Wright, 
but since writing that Letter I have one from him dated 
the 2 1st May in which he informs me that the Clarissa and 
the Juno would neither of them proceed for London, but 
he says nothing about his intentions respecting the former 
to enable me to govern my self in making the Insurance 
you desire on her future Voyage, which I am therefore 
unable to execute at present; but if any of his future Letters 
should give me the necessary information care shall be 

26 COMMERCEOF [ 1775 

taken to cover her. He tells me the Crops are so short 
that he fears the Nancy will be very far from a full Ship 
but that he is determined to dispatch her in all June. He 
remitts me a bill for £1200 on Meyler & Co. of Bristol at 
4 months sight which is gone thither for acceptance and if 
I have an answer before this Letter goes to Bag, you shall 
find its success noted at foot. I hope it will prove a good 
bill; This is I suppose the bill you mention for part pur- 
chase of the Juno, as he directs ^ of its amount to be 
placed to your credit and the other ]4, to the credit of Mr. 
Rotch, which shall be punctually complied with if the bill is 
paid. He says nothing in his Letter of any further re- 
mittance but I nevertheless hope to receive more from him 
by some of the expected Ships. I am very respectfully, 
Sir, Your most Humble Servant, 

Geo. Hayley 
The £1200 bill on Bristol is accepted. 

Isaac Werden to Aaron Lopez 

Dominica, the 21st of August, 1775. 
Dear Sir, 

Since Capt. Shearrrian left this the times are greatly 
alter'd. we are told here that the kings ships makes re- 
prisals of every thing going into or comming out of the Port 
of Rhode Island, that is, the property of any merchant there, 
and puts me to a great unplush how to behave. I have 
already received the greatest half and soon expect the 
remainder of your demand against Mr. Harris, and as the 
bearer Mr. John Fine, Copartner of Mr. Grant of New 
York, will speedily return, if you have no other opper- 
tunity let me know how and in what manner I am to remitt 
you the money. If in goods of the produce of these Islands 
or if a Bill of Exchange to London your advice and council 
in this precarious matter is truly needfull, and should you 
have any other Commands in these parts that I can serve 
please to command me freely. 




I77S ] 



I find my wife has taken up of Mr. Oliver Smith and 
charged to Messrs Grant and Fine, since my last to you 
which I have paid here this day, some money, so that she 
may not have the need of calling on you for the sum I de- 
sired you to give her; but if she should contrary to my expec- 
tations have need you'l please to supply the sum I directed 
in my last, which I will with greatfull thanks repay you as 
soon as I may know it. Capt. James Clark formally of 
Newport daily expects his wife and daughter from thence. 
If they should come or you may have occation by them or 
any other to draw on me for the Neat Proceeds of what 
I have in hand at a short sight, as I am some times in the 
remote parts of the Country, your Draught will be duly 

I beg my best wishes may attend you and your good 
family and am. Dear Sir, Your most 

[Endorsed,] Favor of Mr. Jno. Fine. 

George Hayley to Aaron Lopez 


London, 31st August, '75. 

I CONFIRM the foregoing Copy of my last respects, and 
have now the pleasure to advise the safe arrival of the 
Nancy, who makes a very poor Voyage, being about 200 
Casks short, she is now unloading, and when that is fin- 
ished I see no way of employing her, but returning her to 
Jamaica in Ballast. I have settled the return of premio 
on the Clarissa and the Juno for not proceeding from 
Jamaica to London, and have credited you £54.9. being 

28 COMMERCEOF [ 1775 

£3.6 per Cent on the £1650 insured on your Account on 
her, and £44.11. being £3.6 per Ct. also on the £1350 in- 
sured for your Account on her, which please notice accord- 
ingly. Capt: Wright has not yet informed me what Voyage 
the Clarissa proceeds on, so am not able to make any In- 
surance on her. I hope she will go safe, he has sent me 
by the Nancy some Pipe and Barrell Staves, for Account of 
the Owners of the Nancy, and some Plank and Barrell 
Staves for Account of the Owners of the Juno, which shall 
be taken care of, and accounted for when sold, he has 
also remitted me a Bill for £150 on William Miles of Bristol 
which is accepted, and when in Cash, be placed }/2 to your 
Credit, agreable to his directions. He remitts likewise a 
Bill for £271.13 on Edw. Minifie, of which he directs ^ to 
be placed to your Credit; but this Bill is noted for Non 
Acceptance, and I fear will be protested, of which you may 
depend due care shall be taken. He does not give me 
hopes of so large remittances as I had flattered myself with, 
for which he gives many reasons, the delay of remittances 
to such an unreasonable length in his hands greatly hurts 
me. I must hope you will be able to fall upon some method 
of quickening him in future. I have since my last received 
your favour of the 30 June, in which you mention having 
noted the Settlement of the £400 Insurance on the Diana 
in conformity. I think my next will give you the Settle- 
ment of the remaining £100. I have had a meeting with 
the Insurer, and he promises to pay it soon. I notice part 
of your Whaling Vessells are sailed for the Vinyard, and 
that the others wou'd soon follow. I shall be very glad 
to hear they are sailed from thence, as the report here is 
they will not be suff'ered to depart. The same I must say 
respecting the Vessell in which you have taken a concern 
with Mr. Rotch, whose arrival here will give me great 
pleasure, as I am not without apprehension of her also 
being stoped. if she has been suffered to sail, I may be 
expecting her here very soon. I am, etc. 

George Hayley. 

Copy. Original per Mr. Hughes via Boston. 

1775 ] rhodeisland 29 

George Hayley to Aaron Lopez 

20 September, 1775. 


Since my last of which the foregoing is Copy I have re- 
ceived from Captain Wright the following bills 

James Miller on Serocold & Co. 90 days sight £100. — 
Eph'm Dunn . . Jas. Margetson Do . . 200. - 

Do Do 9 months 

sight with Interest from the expira- 
tion of 90 days 300. — 

W. H. Ricketts on Long & Co 184. i. 6 

Hugh White on Meyler & Co. of Bristol . . 67.13.- 

Jas. Campbell on John Parkinson 153.11. 5 

Jas. Williams on Edw'd Minifie 624. 5. - 

the one half of each of which bills he directs to be placed to 
your credit. The 4 first mentioned are accepted and his 
orders respecting will of course be complied with when in 
cash. That on Meyler and Maxse for £67.13.-, is gone 
to Bristol and you shall know its success in my next. The 
other two are noted for Non-Acceptance and if not paid 
when due shall be returned with proper protests; but it will 
be a long while before the final fate of that on Minifie will 
be known. He has also remitted me wholly upon your 
Account a bill for £187.11.7 on John Roberts and Son of 
Liverpool, which is gone thither for acceptance, the success 
of which you shall be regularly informed of. Mr. Josiah 
Hewes of Philadelphia has remitted me since my last two 
bills of £250 each, one on John Motteux and Co. and the 
other on Buchanan and Co. both which are accepted, and 
% of each are to be placed to your credit. He has also 
remitted me a bill for £300 drawn by Willing and Morris, 
% for your Account, but this bill is noted for Non-Accept- 
ance. I am however inclined to think it will be paid when 
due, if not you may depend due care shall be taken to 
return it with the needful protest. 

30 COMMERCEOF [ 1775 

I am now to acknowledge receipt of your favour of the 
21 July in which you direct £5000 Insurance on the 
Ship Francis, Captain John Buckley, her cargo and 
freight from Newport, etc., to London, which I have 
effected and herewith you have the Account thereof, 
premio, etc., of £2500, being one half thereof, is placed to 
your debit, in £62.15.3. I shall be very happy in advis- 
ing you of her safe arrival which I hope may be in a few 

The Nancy is now in the dock and will as soon as she is 
ready sail from hence direct for Jamaica in Ballast. I 
have therefore made £3000 Insurance on her and her freight 
to Jamaica and London for account of her Owners, for 
one half of which I have debited your Account £94.7.9 as 
per particulars herewith, which I have no doubt you will 
approve. Youll please observe that I have only made 
£3000 Insurance on her though the Sum insured on her last 
Voyage was £4000; but if you think proper to have another 
£1000 added on her from Jamaica to London please lett 
me know and it shall be done. I am very respectfully, Sir, 
Your most humble Servant, 

Geo. Hayley 

Since writing the above the bill on Meyler and Maxse of 
Bristol for £67.13. is return'd accepted. 

Mayn and Co. to Aaron Lopez 

Lisbon, the 26th September, 1775 

Our last respects to you were under date the 19th June 
which we now confirm, and acknowledge receipt of your 
much esteemed favour of 9th June, with duplicates of what 
you wrote us the 20th April. We sincerely condole with 
you on the unhappy Contests that subsist between Great 
Britain and your Continent, to which we eagerly wish to 
see soon an amicable accommodation, and your trade to 


flourish in its usual train, though we fear from the lengths 
both Parties have carried matters, a reconciliation is some- 
what distant, and the future consequences be of disagreeable 
tendency. Inclosed is a letter from Captain Story for you, 
to whom we referr you for the particulars of the Spanish 
expedition against Algiers, in which he was employed, and 
though it proved very unsuccessfull to them, we hope he 
will find benefit from it as also the concerned in his vessell.^ 
By last Post, we had advice of the dismission of all the 
Transports, and of Captain Storys arrival at Barcelona 
from Alicante, and his intention to proceed to Cadiz, from 
whence we expect to hear from him, as also of his meeting 
with some good employment there, that will be productive 
of great advantage to the concerned. In failure thereof, he 
will either return to the Coast of Barbary to try what 
success he may have in the purchase of a Cargo of Wheat 
or Barley, if he finds it practicable, or proceed to Sicily for 
a loading of Wheat, where the extraction will be granted, 
and may be bought on reasonable terms; he will therefore 
pursue one or other of those plans, as he may think most 
likely to conduce to our benefits; his rout we shall be careful! 
to advise you in course. 

We now beg leave to acquaint you that a Person lately 
arrived from the Rio de Janeiro informs us that Captain 
Lothrop and his mate died both there, of the Small Pox, in 
Prison. The sundry letters we received from him was for- 
warded to your friends Messrs. Hayley and Hopkins of 
London who, we suppose will think it worth their while to 
make application to the Court of Portugal about that 
affair, and we have already wrote you very explicitly on 
the subject. We are on all occasions with perfect regard 
and esteem. Sir, Your obedient Humble Servants, 

Mayn and Co 

1 See Cambridge Modern History, vi. 374. 

32 commerceof [ 1775 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, 4 October, 1775. 

Sir : 

The last we had the pleasure of writing you was the 14th 
June, since which we are without any of your most esteem'd 

We are at this time only 58$675 in cash on your Account, 
too small a sum to be able to get a Bill for, but flatter our- 
selves shall soon be able to prevail on some of your debtors 
to bring in their payments, when we will without loss of 
time forward a remittance, and if possible per our next 
hand you Account Sales of your Adventure per the Peggy. 

Our market is glutted with America produce, and the 
stopage of importations from thence has had no manner of 
efi^ect on this market, as throughout Europe we have had 
most abundant harvests; even Great Britain, which for 
nine years past has not exported a grain of Wheat, and 
for the two last years has imported it from abroad, this 
year abounds therewith, insomuch as to be enabled to 
export, which actually has taken place with a bounty, and 
one Cargoe of it is arrived here, from which we inferr this 
place will be plentifully supplyd, and at a moderate rate, 
which we communicate for youi government in case you 
should think of engageing in your produce. We are most 
Respectfully, Sir, Your most humble Servants, 

Parr, Bulkeley and Co 

Flour 3$ooo, Rice 3^800 per Quintal 
Wheat 42ors, Corn 26ors. per Alq'r. 

Christopher Champlin to the Committee of 
Norwich, Connecticut 


Having reed from Mr. Jacob Watson of N. York one of 
the Freighters of my unfortunate Ship Peggy, William 
Barron Master, a Copy of the Resolve of the Honorable 

1775] RHODE ISLAND 33 

Continental Congress respecting the permitting said ship to 
proceed on her intended voyage with her Cargo of wheat 
taken on board at N. York, baring date at Philadelphia, 
15 Nov., 1775/ upon which I repaired hear with all the 
dispatch in my power, therefore as it apears from said 
Resolution of the Congress the ship ought to proceed [on] 
her intended voyage under your Inspection with the apoint- 
ment of a new Master to be approved by you, and as I am 
the sole owner of said ship I presume it lays with me only 
to appoint. Willing that every possible objection shoud 
be removed with regard to the future destination of the 
ship I am induced to offer for your approbation a Gentle- 
man wholy a stranger to me, and well known to you, to 
command said ship, one who is recommended to me to be 
a Person of Ability and Integrity, viz. Captain Seth Hardin 
of this town, who it cannot be supposed I have the least 
previous Influence over, and I flatter my self you cannot 
have any objection to him. as my ship is now ready to 
take on board said Cargo of wheat having repaired her 
Damages and fitted her for the Sea, I must therefore in the 
name of the Freighters and well as myself, require Permis- 
sion of you to take on board said Cargo of Wheat, agreeable 
to the Resolves of the Congress; and as the Season is now 
so far advanced that its daily expected the navigation of 
your River may be stoped with Ice and my ship continues 
here at a great expence I must earnestly request the favor 

^"Your Committee think there are just grounds to suspect, that William 
Barron, the master of the ship Peggy, would not be very solicitous to prevent the 
cargo, which might be useful to the ministerial army, from falHng into the posses- 
sion of the men of war, he having been before taken in the same ship, in Rhode 
Island, with a cargo from Chesapeak Bay, for Europe, nor can your Committee 
approve the conduct of the Owner of the Ship who continued the captain after- 
wards. Your Committee are therefore of opinion, that another master ought to 
be appointed to the said ship, who shall be approved by the committee of Nor- 
wich, and that the time of her sailing, as well as her tract be appointed by that 
committee, and the master sworn to use his best endeavours to prevent the said 
ship falling into the possession of any men of war or cutter, and to pursue as far 
as he can, the orders of the said committee in navigating the said ship, on which 
terms your committee are of opinion the said ship ought to be permitted to 
proceed with her cargo." Journals of the Continental Congress (L. of C. ed.), 
III. 354. 

34 COMMERCE OF [ 1776 

you will please to take into consideration this afternoon 
these matters and give me your determination thereon 
that I may know how to proceed If it's agreeable I shall 
be ready to wait upon you and answer any questions you 
may think necessary for information, your compliance 
herewith will greatly oblige, Gentlemen, Your most obedi- 
ent humb servant, 

Christopher Champlin 

Norwich in Connecticut, Dec. 5., 1775. 

To the Gentlemen of the Committee for the Town of 
Norwich in Conecticut. 

P. S. I have requested the bearer Mr. Abial Chany to 
Wait upon you with this request. 

A True Copy on file. 

Test Elisha Lathrop, Clerk Pro tempore. 

[On the back of this letter is the following:] 

At a Meeting of the Committee of Correspondence and 
Inspection of the town of Norwich legally convened in 
Norwich aforesaid the 6th day of December, 1775, at the 
Request of Chris: Champlin Esqr, owner of the ship Peggy 
now laying at Norwich landing, Capt. Ebenezer Bauldwin in 
the Chair, Elisha Lathrap was chosen Clerk Protempore. 

Parr, Bulkeley & Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, 12th January, 1776. 


Our last Respects was the 4th October, with Occurrences 
in trade, and being since deprived of the Pleasure of your 
favors, we come now to hand you Account Sales of 1540 bis 
flour, per the Peggy, Captain Barron your i/3d Net Pro- 
ceeds being Rs. 2631^432^ is placed to your Credit, without 

1 Accounts in Portugal were kept in reis, a milreis being the exchange unit, 
worth an uncertain number of pence sterling. The dollar mark separates the figure 
into thousand reis. 

1776] RHODE ISLAND 35 

our prejudice till in Cash, which on finding wright, please 
to have noted in our Conformity. Of your Debtors, have 
collected to this time Rs. 84^351 but we flatter ourselves 
more will come in soon, when we will remit it to your London 
friends. Respecting our Market, it is a very poor one 
particularly for flour, now down to 2800 to 3^ per quintal, 
Cadiz and Ports aloft also Galicia^ and Biscaya are also 
glutted, prices for flour and Wheat low and also nominal, 
and to what a low Ebb would America produce have been, 
had the Trade not been interrupted. We pray for a Recon- 
ciliation of the present Troubles, that Commerce may 
return to its prestine Serenity. Respectfully we are, Sir, 
Your obedient and very humble Servants, 

Parr, Bulkeley & Company 

Flour 2^800 to 3^000 Corn 260 

Wheat 400 to 420 Exchange 65I 

Rice 3$8oo 

Philadelphia, May 6. Reced Via Statia and forwarded by your Humble Servant, 

Wm. Davis. 

Berthon Brothers to Christopher Champlin 

'' Lisbon, the 18th January, 1776. 


We have before us your favor of 30th August, which 
requiring no particular reply we proceed to acquaint you 
that inclosed you have account sale of 1485 barrels flour per 
Peggy, your i/4d of the same neating Rs. 1429^914 is carried 
to your credit. We are sorry that our first connection in 
trade should be attended with loss; but when we consider the 
dismal accounts we shall give of several other concerns in our 
hands, we can but think that the owners of the Peggy's 
cargo are fortunate not to lose more. By the first packett 
we shall remit Mr. Geo. Hayley 200$ on your account, and 
we hope that the remainder will come in in such manner as 
to enable us to remit the ballance quickly. 

^ An old province of Spain at the northwest extremity of the peninsula, form- 
ing the provinces of Corunna, Lugo, Orense and Pontevedra. 

36 COMMERCEOF [ 1776 

"The Act to prohibit all trade and intercourse with the 
Colonies" is passed, it repeals the Boston port bills and the 
fishery and restraining bills, therefore no vessells can either 
clear from or enter at your lower counties, and the trade in 
general must stop. 

We wish you a speedy restoration to that peace and com- 
fort which you enjoy'd before the present unhappy disputes 
commenced, and saluting you we remain with regard. Sir, 
Your most humble and obedient Servants, 

Berthon Brothers 

Jacob Watson to Christopher Champlin^ 

New York, i Mo. 24, 1776. 

Respected Friend^ 

Thy favour of 11. was handed me by thy brother. we 
had encouragement from one of the Delegates of the Con- 
tinental Congress that we should not be sufferers by the 
P^gij'^ Cargo of wheat. 

I intend waiting on them once more. if they take the 
Wheat I will use my best endeavours to get employment for 
thy ship, likewise damages for her detention if in my power. 

Should I not succeed in that, intend to request that on our 
selling the Wheat at Norwich to have the Liberty to ship 
the like quantity from this port in thine or any other Vessell.^ 

Should thou decline to let thy ship come down and take 
it in would be glad to be inform'd as soon and convenient. 
Perhaps at my return we may be straighten'd for time to 
write, for should thou not chuse thy ship to come here we 
wo'd engage another. 

Its uncertain when I shall set out, as General Lee^ is 
coming to Town and am desirous to know what steps he 
intends to take before I leave home. 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

"^ See Journals of the Continental Congress (L. of C. ed.), iv. 117, 120, 124. 

8 Major General Charles Lee, sent to superintend the defense of Philadelphia. 

1776 ] RHODEISLAND 37 

I forwarded the protests with thy letter to George Haley, 
per SampsoUy Capt. Coupar, who sail'd from this port about 
12 Inst. shall send Copies per next conveyance, believes 
via Phil'a. I am thy Respect'll Friend, 

Jacob Watson^ 

P. S. If thee would take £1000 for thy ship N. York 
currency^ believes wo'd take her. 

[Endorsed,] South Kingston, R. I. 

Thomas Dolbear to Aaron Lopez 

Kingston, Jamaica, 24th January, 1776. 

Dear SzV, 

I WAS favoured with yours some time since, and am very 

sorry that I can't acquaint you with the adjustment of Cox's 

account, as he has been at the north side of the Island, which 

has been the only preventive. he will soon be here, when I 

will not fail of settling so long standing troublesome affair. 

I find by your account you have charged £40 freight of Iron 

to Jamaica, which we have long since settled with Captain 

Wright. I find also that instead of Dollars being reckoned 

at 6/8d, the Sterling should be brot into Currency which 

makes an odds on the two £157.10/ of £17.6.6 in my favour, 

Dollars being at 6/8d from the Policy of this Island, not 

from the Par of Exchange or intrinsic value. be pleased 

(as I am in haste) to acquaint Mr. Reveira I have sold 

about I /3d of his Candles at 3/9d, for which I expect the 

remainder will sell, but cannot sell whole at more than 3/i| 

to make the remittance immediately. I therefore thot it 

most adviseable to retail them at 3/9d. I shall remit Geo. 

Hayley Esq. as fast as I can get Bills and make sale. as 

soon as I receive the Balance of Mr. Cox will remit it 

agreeable to orders. I remain very sincerely Your much 

obliged obedient Servant, rr- t^ 

*= ' Ihos. Dolbear 

Endorsed, Per Captain Remington. 

1 In 1768 he was partner of John Murray, general importers of European and 
Indian goods, with a shop near Burling's shp. 
* New York counted eight shilHngs to the dollar. 

38 commerceof [ 1776 

John Jepson to Christopher Champlin 

Portsmouth, ist February, 1776. 

Please to settle my negro man Serloues Wages on bord 
Captain Barren with Captain Benjamin Hicks and pay him 
whats due, which will oblige, Sir, Your humble Servant, 

John Jepson 

Newport, February i, 1776. 

Reed, of Chris. Champlin One hundred and Forty-six 
pounds ten shillings and 8d in full of Wages due to Captain 
Jepson on account of his Negro Sirloise. 

£146: 10:8. 

Benj. Hicks 

Zebediah Story to Aaron Lopez^ 

Mallaga, February 3, 1776. 


On the 9th December last I sailed from Sisciley with a 
Cargo of Wheat which I loaded on account of Messrs. 
Maynes & Co. of Lisboji, to whom the same is to be delivered 
except the Spainish Merkits might aford a better price which 
seems not to be the case. I have been detained in this Port 
with a westerly wind sence the 5 Jan'y, in which time I have 
rec'd a Letter from our worthey friend Mr. Edward Mayne 
Esqr. of London signifying that those confused disturbances 
between Great Brittain and america were become verry 
alarming and that a Bill was depending in Parliment which 
was thoat would pass, to seize on the Property of the ameri- 
cans wherever the same might be found, makeing no dis- 
tinction between the innocent and guilty (the Unjustness of 
which Act would make a Barbarian blush). In consequence 
of those infernal Storms riseing which threttens our Destruc- 
tion, I have ben induced to sell our 2/3 of the Venus to 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1776 ] RHODEISLAND 39 

Messrs. Kirk Partrick & Co. altho what they have given is 
considerably less than what I realy think she is worth. I 
have given those Gentlemen a Bill of Saile of our 2/3 of the 
Venus in the Name of Messrs. Maynes & Co. of Lisbon in 
consideration for which they have given me their Bill of 
Exchange on Messrs. Maynes and Co. of Lisbon payable 
in London for five hundred pounds Sterling the first of which 
I have forwarded for acceptance the second I keep with me 
as I am bound their my self with this Cargo the first fair 
wind, the Net Proceeds of your one third part I shall give 
orders to be remitted as you shall direct. 

I have none of your favours later than July last. I am 
verry uneasey for my little famuley and the only thing that 
tends to passify me is the friendship of so able a Person as 
your worthey self, from whom I have reason to expect my 
little flock will have every timely assistance they may want. 
I have recomended it to Mrs. Story to remoove into the 
Country in Preston where I have a Brother for fear sum 
voilent methods may be taken against Newport next Spring. 
I wish this may not be the case before this reaches you. I 
think after that crewil Proclamation from the E. of Dunmore 
you have little reason to expect Mercy.^ May the Almighty 
direct and protect you from those barbarous insults pre- 
pairing for you, is the sincere Prayer of Sir your Most 
Humble Servant 

Zeb. Story 

Francis Rotch to Aaron Lopez 

London, 20th February, 1776. 

My dear Sir, 

I HARDLY expect from the accounts I have been able to 
collect that it is posible for this to find you at Jamaica, but 
let it meet you where it will you will I presume be astonish'd 
at hearing from me in London at so late a date. The 
various unfortunate occurrences that has attended this 

1 May 6, 1775. Force, American Jr chives, 4th Ser., 11. 516. 

40 COMMERCE OF [1776 

pursuit had nearly defeated all our purposes, the most 
material of which are a seizure of five of our Vessells on their 
voyage and bringing them to England, to wit. the Falkland, 
Enterprise, Abigail, Minerva, and Diana. This was done 
previous to the restraining act being pass'd, and by tedious 
application I got them released again but attended with the 
loss of all our men, the replacing of which occasion'd such 
delay as subjected us to the greatest severity of weather 
almost ever known in England. 

The Thames was froze for a month that nothing could be 
done, but we have at last got the Nancy ready for departure 
and expect to be at Sea in 5 or 6 days. 

The three first mentioned whalemen we got to Sea before 
the cold weather come on. they sailed the forepart of 
January and had a fine time off. 

The Minerva stranded upon the ways and is orderd to be 
sold for the most she will fetch. the Diana is unfit for Sea. 
The Flora has been sailed some time and the Francis is to 
take the Minerva's stores and the Diana's and to come after 
us in a few days. 

I have wrote to Captain Wright concerning his part of 
the Nancy to whom must refer you, and at same time beg 
you will adjust this matter with him. This Ship was 
valued as she came last from Sea, in the Thames at £1700. 
I have ofFer'd Captain Wright £600 for his quarter. I dare 
not be very particular in writeing to you at this time, not 
knowing where this letter may fall. Should you be at 
Jamaica and the communication with London should be safe, 
I must refer you to our mutual friend, George Hayley Esqr. 
for intelligence of what has been done here. Mr. Smith by 
mutual concent is dismis'd from the Concern. Should any 
of our whalemen be seized by the late restraining act and 
carried to any port in the West Indies, you will doubtless 
direct the master to make a claim for yourself, a resident at 
Jamaica and for me a resident in London and appeal to the 
Lords Commissioners as the act directs, and bring the case 
to England where these claims may be supported and the 
property sav'd. I have desird Captain Wright to do the 


same, wishing you all happiness with Mrs. Lopez and 
family, Mr. Rivera and family, I subsc[r]ibe, Dr. Sir, Your 
assured friend and Servant, 

Francis Rotch 

Archibald Buchanan to Christopher Champlin 

Cambridg, 14 March, 1776. 


I AM sorry its not in my power to call upon you as I return. 
I have Companions that want to go the Upper Road to see 
the Country, and I cannot prevaile upon them to go by little 
Rusk [Rest?] I coud not obtain the liberty of meeting Mr. 
Brymer^ at the Lines as our Generall [Washington] had re- 
fused it to severall before and he told me it was out of his 
power, but allowed me to send in Letters. I wrote Mr. 
Brymer and Chamier^ they wrote me out and appointed a 
day to meet me. I made the second application for a per- 
sonal interview but to no purpose. however the General 
sent Coll. Mifflin^ to the Lines to do any business I might 
have. I wrote Mr. Brymer fully and gave Coll. Mifflin 
full directions. he met Mr. Chamier and Brymer on the 
Lines where they both expected me. Mr. Brymer told Coll 
Mifflin he wanted to see me very much but as it was impos- 
sible desired him to acquaint me that since his letter to you 
wherein he promised to remitt me Bills for the Amount of 
the Certificate (conditionally) he had taken the advice of 
Consul and found he shoud be liable if he drew such Bills if 
Goverment refus'd paying the Certificate but that my 
Money was safe and if I w[ou]d write him my friends in 
London he woud order the money to be paid into their 
hands. this is all the satisfaction I receiv'd from Mr. 
Brymer. I wrote to him that Conditional Bills might be 
drawn. You are acquainted with him and can guess our 

1 Martin Brimmer, a merchant of Boston, or John B. Brimmer, mentioned in a 
later letter. 

2 Daniel Chamier, British Commissary General. 
» Thomas Miflflin. 

42 COMMERCEOF [ 1776 

chance. I hope we shall get paid some day. You kno 
doubt have heard of the Troops, that they are about leaving 
Boston. about 60 sale fell down before I left it. I waited 
some days with an intention of writing Mr. Brymer my 
Friends in London but canot get no Flag, as it is expected 
their destination will be somewhere convenient to Long 
Island or Rhode Island, I shoud be oblig'd to you to drop 
Mr. Brymer a few Lines and mention my friends in London 
Messrs. Wallace, Davidson and Johnson and if payment of 
the Certificates are to be had order the Money to be paid 
there. The Papers you gave me that I promised to return 
I will take care oflF. I have a Brother in [Lo]ndon which I 
shall send Copys to as soon as I [return] to Maryland, and 
shall by a private oppertunity in[form] you as soon as I 
return, as I am much deeper in than you, be assurd that the 
Papers will be taken care off on both our Accounts, but you 
shall have a proper attested Copy. pray excuse my not 
calling, it was a disagreeable Rode alone. if you should 
at any time have any commands with us or any plan of 
business can be brought about I shoud with pleasure cor- 
respondent with you. My Compliments to Mrs. Champlin, 
and I sincerely wish you and your Family may get happily 
fixd again. I am, Sir, Your Obedient Humble Servant, 

Arch'd Buchanan 

[Endorsed,] Mr. Christopher Champlin, Little Rusk. 

James McComb to Christopher Champlin^ 

Norwich, 16 March 1776. 


I HAVE just seen yours to Mr. Clement, who has given me 
one for Mr. Watson, which shall immediately forward to 
him by a vessel who sails this day for N. York. Mr. Clem- 
ent^ informs me he had acquainted you of the order of the 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 
* Jeremiah Clement. 

1777 ] RHODEISLAND 43 

Continental Congress of the 9th ulto.,'^ for shipping the 
Cargo of wheat. Last tuesday I laid said Order before 
the Committee of this place, who, after mature deliberation, 
were of opinion that a Gen'l Order of the said Congress of 
the 26th ulto. prohibiting the sailing of any vessel for any 
part of Gt. Britain, Ireland or the British West Indies,^ in- 
tirely supercedes their Order of the 9th ulto. and so leaves 
it not with them to say whether the vessel with her Cargo 
shall sail or not. The Congress have publish'd another 
Order of the 6th [4th] currant,^ which seems to repeal that 
of the 26th ulto. 'tho' terms of it seem rather ambiguous. 
I shall however make another application to the Committee 
here on the strength of it, and immediately acquaint you 
should they think it gives liberty for shipping the Wheat. 
In the Interim, I am. Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

James McComb 

[Endorsed, C. C] at South Kingston, Rhode Island. 

TO John Parish'* 

Boston, I May, 1777. 

Messrs. Sam and Wm. Vernon having done us the favour 
of recommending us and the consignment of the Brigantine 
Sally and Cargo to your House, for which purpose we have 
order'd her to South Carolina, there to take a Cargo suitable 
for your Market, and make all possible dispatch for your 
City, and address himself to you for the Sales and returns of 
his Cargo, we have inclos'd a Mem'm of those articles which 
we chuse for returns. we have been advised to have our 
Invoice and Bills Loading made out for and in some Gentl- 
man's Name at St. Croix, also to make the Brigantine a 
Danish Bottom, for the better security of our Property, 
however shall leave it with you to do as you judge most 

^ Journals, I v. 124. 

2 lb., 172. 

3 lb., 183. 

* An American merchant in Hamburg. 

44 COMMERCEOF [ 1777 

expedient. we have agreed with Capt. Harris to go the 
Voyage without receiving Primage. therefore you will not 
make him any allowance for this Custom, we have agreed 
to pay the People one Months Wages at Hamburgh, there- 
fore if they demand it you will please to advance them that 

Sailing Orders to Benjamin Harris 

Boston, 1st May, 1777. 

You being appointed Master of our Brigantine Salley, 
and ready to sail, its our Orders you improve the first suitable 
Opportunity and proceed to South Carolina: we think it 
safest to run for Winyaw, where its most probabil you will 
here if the Coast off Ch's Town is clear of the Enemie. if 
it is not, its best to run your Vessil into Winway, and there 
sell your Cargo; as we think the Season is so farr advanced, 
no time is to be lost in loading your Vessil, with Rice and 
Tobacco, if to be had reasonable and of a good quality, 
imagining that article will yeild as good or better profit then 
Rice. therefore it will be best to take near one half of your 
Cargo in that article, if it can be had upon good Terms, but 
you will doubtless consult Mr. Nath'l Russel what will be 
the most advantageous. If you have not Cargo sufficient 
to load your Vessil with what Mr. Russel puts on board 
belonging to your Owners, take as much Freight as will fill 
your Vessil. after being loaded, make all possible dispatch 
to the City of Hamburgh, going North about, and judge it 
will be safest to go to the Northward of Shutland, and keep 
the Coast of Norway aboard. when you come up with the 
Island of Heylego Land, near the mouth of the Elbe, doubt- 
less you will meet with Pilot boats that will take charge of 
your Vessil and carry you up to Hamburgh, when you get 
up the River as far as Stade, where a Guard Ship lays, you 
must go on board of her and. make report of your Cargo and 
where from, therefore its best to report from Florida with the 
manifest of your Cargo, belonging to Ireland, they never 

1777 ] RHODEISLAND 45 

require a sight of any of your Papers, and therefore by no 
means necessary to carry them on board. this report is 
only a matter of form and custom. upon your Arrival at 
the City dehver your Cargo and Letters to Mr. John Parish 
to whom you are addressed, and follow his directions, at the 
same time urge him to give you all possible dispatch and to 
take every precaution to avoid danger and difficulty. as 
soon as you have got your Cargo on board proceed North 
about on your way Home avoiding if possible speaking with 
any Vessil dureing your whole Voyage, endeavouring to get 
into any Port of Safety in these States. we wish you 
Success and safe return. 

You are to have by agreement the following Allowances 
vizt. Privilidge in the Brigantine 15 Cask of Rice, Commis- 
sions 5 per Ct. on Sale, 2f on Returns, Wages £7.10 per 
Month, and one Dollar a Day allowed for your expences 
while in Hamburgh, no Vendue Masters Com'n to be allowed 
by the Owners. 


JosiAH Hewes to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 26 May, 1777. 

Yours of the 30 March I receved and have advertized 
your Ship for Sale; for some time but have not yet had any 
Application for her, worth Notice, our River has been long 
blocked up by Men of warr, that many fine Vessels lay idle 
here, our Merchants seem discouraged, and knowing that 
Vessels have been sold very cheap in New England, wont 
talk with me at any thing near the price you mention, 
8.000 dollars, was shee here and our port released from the 
British Ships would readaly sell for the Sum above men- 
tioned, but cant find any of them incHned to purchase her 
as she is. however, if you choose to fix a prise on her, and 
forward Inventory of what Stores Rigen Sailes etc. she has 
that is to go with her wil continue my applications for the 
seling her, and am with Sincerety yours 

Josiah Hewes 

46 commerce of [ 1778 

Christopher Mardenbrough, Jr. to 
Christopher Champlin 

St. Christopher, December 13th, 1777. 

Dear Sir, 

I yesterday was happy in the sight of my Children, in 
good health. my Sister and Brother have mentiond to 
me your and Mrs. Champlin's great kindness to them and 
my Children, in their distress, that only is the time to know 
our friends. I can't find words to express the Obligation 
you have laid me under, this I will say that not only your 
private family but every friend that you wou'd wish to serve 
shall look on myself equally bound. you have acted the 
Samaritan; you have been a friend to my Children in a strange 
Land, you will ever command every thing in my power, 
can you point any Service that I cou'd render you here. 
Mrs. Mardenbrough and my Children join me in sincere 
regard to you, Mrs. Champlin and your Children. Sally 
writes Miss Peggy by this Opportunity. I am Yours truly, 
Christopher Mardenbrough, Jr. 

[Endorsed,] Mr. Christopher Champlin at Little Rest, Conecticut. To the 
Care of Mr. Jno. Baker Brimmer. 

Received and forwarded by Your Humble Servant, John B. Brimmer. 

Joseph Gardner^ to Robert Stevens & Co. 

Onboard the Greenwick, 3rd March, 1778. 


This is to acquaint you the third day after the Sloop left 
Bedford we came a cross a Ship of Fourteen Guns and Fifty 
men, we engag'd her and fought her three glasses but being 
cutt and much shatter'd to pieces was oblig'd to quit her. 
we had the misfortune to loose poor Moses Casey in the 
Fray and four more wounded. This is likewise to acquaint 

1 In May, 1776, he was interested in the privateer Lady Washington, with Joseph 
Cunningham and Ebenezer Dorr. Lincoln, Naval Records of the American Revo- 
ution, 1775-1788, II. 




you the eighteen of February we tooke a Schooner Transport 
from Hallifax bound to Newport loaded with Codfish and 
Coal but was blown off the coast and was bound to Antigua, 
we put a Prize Master on board and sent her to Martinico, 
this is likewise to acquaint you that the third of March we 
tooke another Schooner from Hallifax bound for Tobago, 
her cargo consists of sixty four hogsheads and eight tierces 
of Codfish eighty five barrells of Pickled Fish and seventeen 
hundred feet of Lumber and Staves. we likewise put a 
Prize Master on board of her and sent her to Martinico. 
This is likewise to acquaint you we are now cruising in the 
Latitude of Barbadoes and shall cruise back and forth about 
six weeks longer with the provisor we shoud not take any 
thing else till then and with the provisor we shoud take 
another Hallifaxman we shall go with her to Martinico. if 
we shoud take a Britainer we shall proceed direct for 
America. This is to acquaint you that I have ordered one 
half the proceeds to be laid out in Produce and the other 
half to be shipt home in Cash. 

[Endorsed,] To Robert Stevens & Co. owners of the Sloop Greenwich, State of 
Rhode Island. 




1779 ] rhodeisland 49 

Thomas Forrester to 

Q. Newport, December 30th, [1778.] 

This is the fourth Letter and I have rec'd no answer from 
you, I cannot think they have come to hand, for if they had 
you would in Justice to me and your self as you are a Gentle- 
man granted my request at this time. Sir you know that 
the times is very hard. Sir I beg you would send one 100 
Dollars in Silver or an order upon sum Gentleman that you 
think will answer the purpose for I should have come before 
now if I had the sum only requested of you Sir for my 
Family is large and must suffer unavoidably unless you 
relieve me. I must conclude beging you will grant my 
request, your Sincere Friend, 

Thos. Forrester 

Joseph Anthony to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Exeter Township, [Penn.,] 27th January, 1779. 

My very Dear and Worthy Sir, 

By a letter of the 21th from our mutual Friend Mr. 
Hewes, I have the pleasure to hear you are well, and safe 
arriv'd at Philadelphia; but that pleasure wo'd have been 
greatly increas'd if I had been so fortunate as to have met 
with you when I was down. my Anxiety for the distress'd 
Inhabitants of Newport is great; and whenever I hear of 
(any) person from that quarter, I am very desirous of seeing 
them, more especially Mr. Lopez, whom I know to be very 
intilegeble, and tho no doubt the account would be dis- 
tressing yet one is fond of knowing the particulars. if 
you have Leasure I would thank you for a few lines, and if 
you could agree to take this rout home, and spend a day or 
two here, it would give us inexpresable pleasure. I hope 
you left Mrs. Lopez and famaly well, and that they are in 
secure quarters, in a land of peace and plenty; How is that 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

50 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

worthy old Gentleman Mr. Rivera, where does he live and 
how does he content himself. poor Newport, what is to be 
its fate at last; I fear Destruction, Its Inhabitants are 
already scatterd to the four corners of the Earth, my good 
Sir when I reflect on the happy days we have spent there, 
and with what ease and pleasure yourself and some others 
went through a multiplicity of business, I can hardly per- 
suade myself that I am awake, but as I have something to 
do on my little farm, I endeavour to pass the time as cheerful 
as possible, and patiently wait for better times. I desire 
to thank god my famaly enjoy health and plenty, and have 
been seated in a part of the Country, where they have (as 
yet) liv'd free from Ravage or Insult. The farming business 
I am quite unacquainted with, and find it by no means 
profitable, yet I spend much less then I should in town. if 
I could see any prospect I should be glad to engage in some 
Business that I was better acquainted with, but it looks dark 
on every side that I know not what coarse to steer. Mrs. 
Anthony joins me in our best Respects to Mrs. Lopez, your 
self and famaly, and likewise to Mr. and Mrs. Rivera etc., 
and believe me to be Your Very Sincere Friend and Humble 

Joseph Anthony 

N. B. can you inform me how Capt. Wright is and 
where his famaly are. 

[Endorsed,] To Mr. Aaron Lopez, To the Care of Mr. Josiah Hewes Merchant, 
in Philadelphia. Per favour Mr. Lee. 

Aaron Lopez to Joseph Anthony 

Philadelphia, February 3d, 1779. 

My Dear and very worthy Friend, 

How shall I express my gratitude to you for the satis- 
faction you have given me with the rec't of your friendly 
and obliging Favor of the 27th ulto. which this moment has 
been handed me by our mutual Friend Mr. Hewes, who 
telling me its Bearer returns again to Exeter tomorrow morn- 


ing, I would not miss the opportunity of acknowledging its 
agreeable contents, and gratifying your wishes of hearing 
from me, from my family, and some thing from the dis- 
tress'd Inhabitants of our once flourishing Hand; ^ But 
before I render you this intelligence, permit me to tell you, 
that I am extreamly happy to learn, that the Almighty has 
been pleased to guide you and good Family to so safe an 
Asylum, and that there he has blest you with health, peace, 
and plenty arround you, during these times of pubHck and 
almost universal Callamity; But what I esteem still a greater 
Blessing, endowed you with a gratefull heart, susceptible 
of all those divine bounties, which I pray may be continued 
you with all the additional felicities this sublunary World 
is capable of affording. For my part I have the pleasure 
to acquaint my good Friend, that I consider myself under 
still greater obligations to Heaven; having hitherto enjoy'd 
every one of those inestimable Blessings you are pleased to 
tell me of, without the least Merit or Title to them; am 
therefore to acknowledge myself infinitely more thankfull 
for so mercifull Dispensations. 

Since we left our Island my principal object was to look out 
for a Spot, where I could place my Family, secured from 
sudden Allarms and the Cruel Ravages of an enraged Enemy; 
Such a one I have hitherto found in the small inland Town- 
ship of Leicester in the Massachusetts Bay, where I pitch'd 
my Tent, erecting a proportionable one to the extent of my 
numerous Family on the Sumit of an high healthy Hill, 
where we have experienc'd the civilities and hospitality of a 
kind Neighbourhood; and moved in the same Sphere of 
Business I have been used to follow, which, altho much more 
contracted, it has fully answer'd my wishes, and you know 
my Friend, when that is the case, it never fails of constituting 
real happiness: Add to this the satisfaction of having for 

^ In a letter from Governor Greene to the Assembly of Connecticut, January 21, 
1779, it was stated that two thousand persons had been driven from their homes, 
and were dependent on public or private charity. The neighboring states contri- 
buted to their relief, and the Continental Congress reduced the amount of taxes 
required from the state. Journals, xiii. 269. 

52 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

a next door neighbour your truly well wishing Friend, my 
Father in Law Mr. Rivera, who with his Family I left in 
good health, spending in peace the fruits of his last summer's 
Labour on a small Farm, the Old Gentleman improves with 
much the same Farming Faculties, you tell me you cultivate 
yours; ^ and I can farther inform you that while his hands 
have been imploy'd in that usefull Art, his agitated Mind 
has uniformly accompanied yours to poor Newport; where 
I do still hope we shall soon have the pleasure of meeting 
each other again and re-enjoy those injurd habitations, we 
have so long been deprived of, with all satisfaction. 

By this Weeks Post Mrs. Lopez has informd me that the 
Widow Lee, who had the Liberty of going down from Provi- 
dence in a Flag to Newport, after staying there some days, 
she had the indulgency of returning to Providence, and being 
engaged to nurse my Daughter Mrs. Mendez (who I have 
the consolation to tell you leaves [lives] also near me and next 
door to our good Neighbour Capt. Jno. Lyon formerly of 
Newport). This Mrs. Lee coming directly on her return 
into our Family inform'd Mrs. Lopez, that the poor Inhabi- 
tants of that Town, have been very much distress'd this 
Winter for the want of fewell and provisions, those 
Individuals of my Society in particular, who she said had not 
tasted any meat, but once in two months: Fish there was 
none at this Season of the Year, and they were reduced to 
the alternative of leaving upon Chocolate and CofFe. These 
and many other Callamities and Insults the wretched 

1 Among those Jews who came from Newport to Leicester in 1777 were Abraham 
Mendez, Jacob Rod Rivera, and the Lopez family. Rivera purchased of Nathan 
White thirty-one acres opposite the meeting-house. Lopez bought of Henry Bass 
and Joseph Allen a plot of land afterwards occupied by the Leicester Academy. 
All, but Lopez, returned to Newport after the peace of 1783. Aaron Lopez was 
drowned in Smithfield May 20, 1782, when driving with his family to Providence. 
The following tribute appeared in the newspaper of the time: "He was a merchant 
of eminence, of polite and amiable manners. Hospitality and benevolence were 
his true characteristics, an ornament and a valuable pillar in the Jewish society 
of which he was a member. His knowledge in commerce was unbounded; and his 
integrity irreproachable. Thus he lived, and thus he died; much regretted, 
esteemed, and loved by all." Washburn, Historical Sketches of the Town of Leices- 
tety 121-124. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 53 

Inhabitants experience, ought to excite our thanks to that 
Great Being, who gave us resolution to exchange at so early 
a period that melancholy Spot for that we now are enjoying. 
Your Dweling house I understand has sufer'd much. Your 
Neighbour Augustus Johnson ^ was found dead at his house. 
My Neighbour Gideon Sesson's Wife is crazy, and what I 
lament most, is, that the vertue of several of our Reputable 
Ladys has been attacked and sullied by our destructive 
Enemys, — so much for poor Newport. Capt. Benj. 
Wright continues at Jamaica, his zeallous wishes to put me 
in possession of some part of the large property I have had 
lock'd up in his hands since the commencement of this 
war, led him to address me with three Vessels loaded on my 
sole and proper account, all which have been taken by our 
American Cruizers; the first falling in honest hands was 
delivered up to me by a reference agreed to by the parties. 
The other two were libelled and contested, one of them was 
adjudged at Providence to be restored to me: the opposite 
party appealed to Congress. The third and most valuable 
was (contrary to the opinion and expectation of every 
spectator) condemn'd at a Connecticut Court of Admiralty. 
I appeald to Congress, which has brought me here in full 
hopes of obtaining redress.^ Mrs. Wright was left porly at 
Newport, when Nurse Lee came away, which prevented 
Mrs. Wright coming off in the same Flagg, as she intended, 
but will do it soon, as she recovers. 

I have oferd the poor distressed Woman all the assistance 
in my power to grant her, as I esteeme her an object of real 

Now my Dear Friend I have only to add my sincere thanks 
for your kind invitation to spend a day or two with you at 
your habitation. I shall inform myself (not being ac- 
quainted where Exeter lays) and if I can anyways make it 
convenient to call on you, may expect to see me; meantime 
permit me to announce you and Mrs. Anthony every good 

1 Augustus Johnson had been the royal Attorney General of the colony and had 
been burned in effigy in 1765. See Mason, Annals of Trinity Church, 106 n. 

2 Journals, xiii. 162. 

54 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

wish pure esteem can suggest being very truly, Dear Sir, 
Your affectionate Friend and humble Servant. 


Richard Matthewson to Christopher Champlin 

East Greenwich, February 6th, 1779. 

I AM sorry to inform you of the Sloop Speedwell's being 
condemn'd by the Carpenters as unfit for the sea. Mr. 
Nightingale says he was never so much deceived before, 
when we purchased the vessel she lay in the mud with her 
hold full of ice. What part of her we could see was exceeding 
good, and Mr. Nightingale being acquainted with her before 
supposed there to be no Danger in purchasing her; and never 
found out that her Timber was rotten till she was hove out 
to grave. 

He however thinks he can retail her out for as much as 
she cost us, as she has 2 good Cables and her other rigging 
very good. Colonel Nightingale, John Brown and myself 
have purchased a snow of about 160 Tons, well built, an 
excellent sailer, and if you choose you may have a part in 
her on good terms, to proceed on the same voyage. You 
will inform me what you will do within a day or two; other- 
wise I shall very likely dispose of her. I am Sir your very 
Humble Servant, 

Richard Matthewson 

N. B. The Snow as she now is Cost 25oo£. 

Meeting of Court of Appeals^ 

If Mr. Paca, Mr. Ellery and Mr. Henry can attend a Court 
of Appeals this Even at seven oclock, parties are desirous of 
being heard, and the Court will meet accordingly. But it 

1 Of the Continental Congress, for hearing prize causes. It probably relates to 
the petition of Aaron Lopez. 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 55 

being five oclock before an application was made, Mr. 
Drayton being previously occupied will not be able to attend. 

W. H. Drayton 
April 9, 1779. 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Providence, 3d May, 1779. 

Dear and Respected Sir, 

With inexpressible pleasure I rec'd your most acceptable 
and pleasing favours of the 29th March and 12th Ulto. 
announcing the pleasing intilligence of your happy success 
in the recovery of your captured property from the hands of 
those voracious pirates, on which joyfull event, permit me 
most sincerly to felicitate you, and to add my hearty wishes, 
that you may ever be enabled to render futile the attempts 
of all such designing Villains, hope before this reaches 
Leicester, my Dearest Aunt may be render'd happy, and that 
joy may be diffused in the hearts of all our extensive familys, 
by your safe Arrivall to them in health. 

My having engaged with Mr. Welcome Arnold to accom- 
pany him on a Speculating Journey to the Eastward, in 
order to improve some Moneys I have in my hands for my 
hon'd Uncle Jacob, prevents me the pleasure of paying you 
my Respects personally, and of participating in that joy 
which I proposed to myself in being among the first to bid 
you Welcome to the arms of your longing family, on my 
return I intend myself the happiness of kissing your hands, 
and of enjoying with you and our dear fam'lys the approach- 
ing Festivalls. interim beg leave most respectfully to tender 
you and my Dear Aunt my most Cordiall Congratulations 
on your return and success. 

Your favor per Capt. James Duncan with the draught you 
was pleased to advise having drawn on me in his favor, has 
not yet come to hand, nor have I been able to obtain any 
tidings of him, whenever he appears you may rely Sir, due 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

56 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

attention and honor shall be observ'd in its punctual! 

having adjusted and ballanc'd our Accounts to the i6th 
ulto. with the assistance of Mr. Mendes and Cousin Jos., 
have not since been enab'ld to make any remitances to Mr. 
Smith of Boston conformable to your orders, not being yet 
more in Cash, than to answer Capt. Duncan's Draught, and 
having advanc'd to Mr. Mendes while here £236.12. which 
sum be pleased to receive of him and note to our Credit in 
new Acct. Should you have occasion still to continue 
those orders, will with pleasure execute them as soon as in 
Cash, for which purpose request you'll please to advise me 
per first oppertunity for my goverment. 

hope on examination our Acct. and Transactions for the 
year past may merit your approbation. 

I have according to your orders, apply'd to Mr. Reynolds ^ 
respecting the Deerskin Breeches etc. he says that his 
orders some time past were to make no further purchases 
on account of the Continent, but as they are now in great 
want and no supplys on hand, he expects daily to have those 
orders revoked, and then its probable he may have occasion, 
and will emediately advise me. good Indigo is not to be 
had here at present. Common is sold from 7 to 9 Dollars, 
and if none arrives soon I imagine a few Casks may answer 
very well. Goods of almost every kind are continually 
advancing, particularly those calculated for the summer. 
West India goods at present are rather at a stand, but wines 
in great demand and very high, when I [was] at Leicester, 
I purchaced a quarter cask of Cousin Joseph, which I have 
now engaged at 20 Dollars per Gallon, and make no doubt 
could obtain the same price for more of that kind. Shall 
esteem it a singular favor if you'll be pleased to request him 
to endeavor to forward it as soon as posible and to let the 
quality be as good as any there is on hand, as it is for the 
Gen'lls Table.2 Mr. Mendes promised to forward some 

' John Reynolds, "cloathier agent" for Rhode Island. See Journals., XIl. 

^ Sullivan. 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 57 

Goods from Tafts Tavern for old Mr. Trevett which with the 
Wine and a bb. of Cosher Beef he engaged to send us may 
probably make a load sufficient to induce a Teamster to come 

Mr. Jacobs and Capt. Sisson requests their Compliments 
of Congratulation may be made acceptable, which with a 
reiteration of my respectfull Salutations to your goodself 
my Dear Aunt and family concludes me with the greatest 
defFerence and esteem, Dear Sir, 

Since closing the above have been handed a letter from 
Capt. Hathaway,^ with the disagreeable advise of his being 
unfortunately captured and carried into Antigua, on his 
passage home 11 days out. as I conceive it needless to add 
to the loss by the expence of postage, and having no room 
in this, have inserted a Coppy of it in a letter I am just 
closing to my hon'd Uncle Jacob, for your perusall. by 
first direct opp'ty shall forward the orriginall. 

Should you deliberate on forwarding any articles of 
bulk, this way, beg you'll be pleased to remember the 
privilidge I have of receiving goods to my private 

[Endorsed, To Mr. A. L.,] Merchant, Leicester. To the Care of Jon'a Has- 
tings Esq., Boston. 

1 Probably Nathaniel Hathaway, who in 1781 commanded the letter of marque 

58 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

Samuel Fayerweather to Aaron Lopez 

Potosi, South Kingston, May loth, 1779. 

My dear Sir, 

By this opportunity Captain Bardwine let me ask you how 
you do, and how your very worthy Lady does, as well as 
all your good Family. And be pleased to let me know, how 
good Mr. Rivery my kind Friend, his Lady and whole family 
do, now in this dismal pestilential Warr: that has so cruelly 
seperated us at an awful Distance one from another, 

I rejoyce that in Tribulation you have had Success as to 
securing and recovering your vessel and that the Congress 
are all your staunch Friends. What is become of David 
your Brother.? if alive present my Regards to him. 

Be pleased to let me know whether you have any Pattern, 
for Breeches, by sending me one of them, / mean Breeches 
Patterns. And send me also enough of the inclos'd for a 
Jackquett if you have any by you. And I will pay you 
either Silver Money or Paper which you please. 

Accept my Profession of Regard and Friendship both to 
you and Lady. Accept much Love I say in a little: and 
favour me with a line of your elegant writing. And I am 
with great truth Sir your sincere hearty Friend and obedient 
humble Servant, 

Samuel Fayerweather 

Moses Michael Hays to Aaron Lopez ^ 

South Kingstown, 8th June, 1779. 

Dear Sir, 

Permit me to offer my respects to your self and Family, 
and enquire their wellfare. May their days be maney, with 
FeHcity and the Smiles of Heaven! I presume I am rightly 
informed respecting Myn Heer, that he is now soliciting 
Congress for a rehearing, endeavoring to prevail on the 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. Many references to Hays 
may be found in the Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 59 

Authority in Conecticut, to prevent the decree, and using 
every measure, to procrastinate the day of Payment. The 
Convulsions of the day, make attention very serious, your 
Penetration wants no aid yet, I would as a Friend, recom- 
mend a very watchfull eye. The State where Myn Heer 
resides reigns by Art and disimulation, posibly beyond 
your conception; 

If you have Bohea Tea, and the Price is not too extrava- 
gant, shall take it a favor to have 2 or 3 li. per the Bearer 
Mr. Haszard. Shall pay you its amount, when I have the 
pleasure of taking you by the hand again, which I hope will 
be this Summer; Assure your good Mrs. Lopez of my cordial 
wishes for her health and a happy moment. Mrs. Hays 
is yet up, joins in affectionate regards, to all under your 
Roof, with those under Wings of my good Friend Mr. 
Revire and am Truly Your Affect, hb. Servant, 

M. M. Hays 

Bermond to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Cape franfois, the 20th June, 1779. 


On my Journey thro Salem in the month of September 
last I had the pleasure of seeing you at the Tavern of the 
Rising Sun ^ where I had the advantage of making you a 
tender of my best Services in the name of my House here 
(under the title of Brassier and Bermond) which I now 
reiterate to you and expect youll give us the prefFerance of 
the Consignments of your Vessels that you may have oc- 
casion to send here and you may depend that we shall not 
detain them here more than 12 or 15 days at furthest; And 
if it shoud happen that we cannot sell the Cargoes to advan- 
tage immediately on their arrival we shall keep them in our 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

^ Formerly known as the King's Arms Tavern, but became the Rising Sun at the 
outbreak of the Revolution. It was at the head of Central Street, and was kept by 
William Goodhue. About 1800 it was torn down by William Gray to make room 
for his brick house. 



[ 1779 

^/{Mu/r f?/iamJi/^n 


Lifbon 16th. March, 177S'- 

THE term ot the Piirtnerlhip which from the beginning of the year 1771, 
exilted- under the firm of Parr^ Bulkeleyy and Company, (and confifted of 
Thomas Parr^ John Bulkeley^ and PFHliam Tonkin) being expired, in conformity to 
tlie tenour of its firft eflablifhment, and the Partnerlhip accordingly diflblved, oc- 
cafions us to ufe the freedom to confirm the fame to you, and having feparately 
acquainted you of ^he firft fubfcribed having retired from bufinefs, and that the 
fecond underwritten fucceeds in the houfe, we now take the liberty to mention that 
during our affociation proportionate degree of merit is due to our other Partner 
Mr. William Tonkin, and the Houfe and their conftituents adequately benefited by 
his Efforts and Afliduities. With thefe difpofitions and in every refpeft an unex- 
ceptionable charafter, he retires from -the houfe to purfue bufinefs feparately, 
■wherein we wilh him fuccefs. He was in England when the partnerfhip expired 
and being now returned enables us to mention the manner in which he propofes to 
follow bufinefs, and for your government hereunder is his firm. We are moft 


Your moft obed ient fer vants> 




The firm of your moli oheclUnt'i 
Jervcnt fiTilUam^ Zonkin. 5 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 6l 

Stores untill some favourable opportunity shou'd offer, 
and with pleasure shall advance you the Returns, besides 
we shall charge you no more than what we have done to 
several Houses of your place Boston and Salem, which is 
only 7I per % on the Sales and Returns, but on provisor that 
the Vessels be directly consign'd to our House and that it 
be mention'd in the Captain's written orders to deliver the 
Cargoes immediately on their arrival into our hands. 

We shall be extremely glad that the above mention'd 
may be agreable to you, and as we have not the pleasure of 
being acquainted or known by you, you may get some 
Informations from our friends Messrs. Clark and Nightingale 
concerning our House. And in expectation of your speedy 
Commands, we remain, with great Esteem, Your most 
obedient hi Servant, 


P. S. The Bills of Exchange drawn by Mr. Holker fils 
or Mr. Gerard our Ambassadour on Paris at 2 months sight 
are generally negotiated here at a Par but must be endors'd 
by some responsable House here. Notwithstanding we 
were oblig'd to give this day 5 per % Discount, owing to 
no Vessels offering at present for old France. 

Prices Current of the jollowing articles. 

Dry Fish 85 to 90 Livres per %. 

Herrings 72 to 75 Livres per Barril. 

Mackarel 85 to 90 Livres per Ditto. 

Hogs feet 35 to 40 Sols per //. 

Rice 45 to 48 Livres per %. 

Tobacco 27 to 30 do. do. 

Fish Oil 7'' icy to 8'» per Gallon. 

Boards 225 Livres per thousand. 

Sugar Hogshd. Staves . . 350^'- per °°/oo. 

Molasses Hogd. Ditto . . 90''- per °°/oo. 

Hoops 25o'»- per °°/oo 

Molasses 25 to 26 Sols per Velt each Velt containing 2 Gallons. 

Muscovado Sugar ... 20 to 24 Livres per %. 

Coffee 7J-. to 7§ Sols per li. 

Coco 7I Sols per li. 

Taffia 8i''- per Cask. 

Cordage 150''- per %. 

62 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

Oliver Gardner to Christopher Champlin 

^^y Warwick, July 11, 1779. 

According to your request I send you the merandom of 
my Cargo as neair as I could recolect when I was run on shour 
on the Island of St. thomases five thousands gallons of Rum 
and seven thousands weight of shugar. I entered a regular 
Protest at St. Croix and tuck a Copy of the same but on 
my Passage had my Chest brook open and lost it. if you 
wold be at the Expence of entering another it shall be dun. 
I left my bisiness with Mr. Nicholas Croger ^ at St. Croix 
and likewise the govener he told me he should lay in a 
Clame for my vessel and Cargo and had sent up to St. 
Christophers in order for triall the Costom as I was informed 
theair by Croger if the vesel is recovered I am to have two 
thirds and goverment the other third. I was run on shour 
about twelve clock at night by two priverteers belonging 
to totalor [Tortola] the one name was John Strickling and 
the other John Graham ^ that is the captain names of the 
proverteers allso I made my escape from them, when I came 
away when theay hade me under examination, the[y] 
offered me if I wold sine a Instrement of theare drawing in 
order to have my vessel condemed theay wold gave me all 
my ventur that I had on b^ard when run on shour. Sir your 
most humbel Servent, ^^^^^^ Gardner 

[Memo.] In a letter Gardner wrote me which I returnd, he mentions 2 hhds. 
Rum on board for me. [Christopher Champlin.] 

[Endorsed,] Mr. Christopher Champlain att Littel Rest. 

David Lopez, Junior, to Aaron Lopez 

Dear Sir, Providence, July 13th, 1779- 

1 HAVE now the pleasure of advising you my Arrivall here 
last evening from Leicester were I left all the famlys in 
health Sunday noon. 

^ Nephew of Henry Cruger. 

2 One of this name, of Baltimore or Virginia, was interested in a Maryland 
letter of marque, in 1780, the Eagle. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 63 

Nothing of moment I find has occur'd since my absence, 
bussiness still continues at a stand, and the prospect of 
appriciating the Currency I conceive to appear rather doubt- 
full. West India Goods have fallen very rapidly of late, 
tho' other articles with country produce keep up, and are 
withheld by those who have them on hand, from an oppinion 
that the mode adopted for reducing the prices cannot be 
attended with that salutary effect which was proposed by the 
fraimers, but as our policy and marketts are intirely governed 
by those of Boston, you can be better able to judge of the 
situation of affairs there, than from what information I 
can give from this quarter. 

I have conformable to your orders, made enquiry respect- 
ing Velvetts and Indigo. Messrs. Clark and Nightingale are 
the only persons who have any Velvetts on hand. I have 
call'd at their Store severall times and found it shut, the 
Bearer intending to sett out emediately does not leave me 
time to apply again before his departure, must therefore 
advise the result of my enquiry by the next conveyance 
which you may rely Sir, I shall particularly attend to. 
Indigo is not to be had here by the Quantity, what little is 
retailed goes at £5.10 and £6 per lb. at foot have inserted 
the Sums delivered you in Cash when here last as you was 
pleased to request, which being the needfuU that at present 
occurs, have only to add my most respectfull Salutations, 
and to subscribe with the greatest defference and esteem, 
Dear Sir, Your Obedient Nephew and Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun'r 

Cash del'd at Providence i6th June. 

2900 Dollars 

2385 Ditto del'd same evening 

5285 Dollars 


64 commerce of [ 1779 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Amsterdam, 25 July, 1779. 

We received with a great pleasure your Favour of 22th 
May by Captain Haydon with inclosed bill of £ st 30 on 
George Hayley, Esquire, in London which we forwarded 
directly for acceptance, but as we did not receive yet the 
tidings of its being accepted before Captain Magee got all 
his cargo we were at a Loss how to proceed imagining it might 
be but disagreable to you to have the Goods shiped in case 
the bill should not be paid, wherefore as we hope to have 
in short another opportunity we imagine as safe as this we 
determined to wait for it. but foreseing the Bohea Tea 
should rise in price we procured yet at 19 sh. st.^ the Chest 
you wanted and will procure one Canester of soachong if 
the money left will suffer it addressing the whole to Tho. 
Russel Esquire in Boston, Bohea Tea is now already at 
2o| sh. St. we were further happy to see that it meight come 
in your way to consign us a Vessel in more peaceable Time 
in which case as in maney others you may depend on our 
greatest Care for your interest this being still enlivened by 
the friendship we bore from the beginning towards the 
American Case which is so like to ours. 

May but a general peace take place in short and leave 
more Room for an open and flourishent trade we are mean- 
while very respectfully, Sir, Your most humble Servants, 

John de Neufville and Son 
Seth Read to Aaron Lopez 

Uxbridge, August 17, 1779. 

Dear Sir, 

This day have seen Moses Jones and Lynde the Persons 
for which I became Surety to you for sundry Goods for 
which you call'd upon me to make up the depreciation of 

1 Exchange on London was quoted at so many "schellings" to the pound 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 65 

the Money. I like an honest Man (whether it is so or not) 
gave you £50 per cent, on all that was not paid, at the same 
time expecting these Gentlemen to make me whole; but they 
utterly refuse doing one Farthing. 

You calling for depreciation, and they on the other hand 
refusing one farthing, you may easily draw the Consequence. 
To deal at this rate am determin'd not. I am your humble 

Seth Read 

Aaron Lopez to David Lopez, Jr. 

Lecester, August 25, 1779. 

Altho much incomoded with a Rheumatick pain in my 
heep [hip] and much huried with atending sundry large 
purchasers who in their return from Boston have visited 
my Store and taken off considerable parcells of Goods, I 
would not ommit embracing this opportunity to tell you 
that I have read the Contents of your two last agreable 
Letters of the 3d and 10 Inst, and conformable to what you 
write in your first respecting the Errors in Invoice No. 23 
I have t[h]ought best to make out a new one and destroy that 
I sent you from Boston, therefore you'll find here enclos'd 
a right Invoice and to avoid making out a ceperate one for 
the Tobacco etc. have inserted it under same head which 
desire you'll notice that our Entrys may agree. The Sale 
you made of the other 4 half pipes wine canot but merit 
my approbation and doubt not but you'll be seasonable in 
Cash for amount of same as I esteem those men good. I 
made sale here to the same purchaser of 8 pipes more at 
same price, and wish him well with them. The French 
Doct. accounted with me at Boston for the Error you dis- 
cover'd in one of his half pipes. Joseph returned here safe 
with Nurse and delivered in good order the 2 ps. figured Vel- 
vet you purchased for me Cost of which being £484 stands 
enterd to the credit of Lopez and Jacobs account with my 
thanks for your attention to this purchase; the said Account 
is also credited with £2100 being for cash you transmited 

66 COMMERCE OF [ 1779 

also by Joseph. As the manufactory of money keeps on 
briskly at Philadelphia I expect you'll soon find a brisk 
Demand for our Goods which when sold I cannot flatter 
myself with the hopes of replacing without a Loss. I trust 
therefore you'll guard as much as possible against this pre- 
vailing evil and see in particular that all those goods 
comprehended in Invoice No. 20 being part of many old 
Invoices are at this present time from 4 to 6 times (nominaly) 
higher than they were then charged. You'll probably 
receive my next from Hartford. Now I am not able to add 
more than to repeat that I continue, Your affectionate 

Your Aunt desires Love to you. Your Sister Sally con- 
tinues poorly tho something better. What news from 

David Lopez, Jr., to Aaron Lopez 

Providence, 30th August, 1779. 

Dear Sir, 

I HAVE to acknowledge with much pleasure, receipt of 
your most esteemed favor of the 25th current, the contents 
of which have with a due attention noticed. The in- 
closed Correct Invoice No. 23. is carefully compared and 
finding it right have conformably regulated my Entrys 

Observe the two pieces figured Velvetts had reached your 
hands safe, in the purchace of which together with the sales 
of the last four pipes Wine, I am fortunate to merit your 
approbation, a circumstance that cannot but prove ex- 
tremely flattering and pleasing to me. am happy to find 
that the price I obtain'd of Captain Wiley for those sold 
him here, had establish'd so good a precedent for the 8 
more which you furnish'd him at Leicester as I remark you 
had not before held them so high. That article is now re- 
tailing her at 78/ per Gall'n. 

I note likewise with a particular sattisfaction, that not- 
withstanding the introduction again, of that vexatious plan 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 67 

for regulating the prices of Goods, you had recently found 
an advantageous vent for a considerable Quantity of Goods 
to some returning purchacers, who had prefer'd your store 
to the many they left at Boston, an incident which I do not 
think indicates a present strict adherence to, or long contin- 
uance of, that perplexing evil. I shall you may depend Sir, 
pay due Obedience to your Order respecting the prices of 
the Goods included in Invoice No. 20, tho I have not omited 
heretofore to advance them in a graduall pace with the 
depreciation, and as high as our Market would admit. In 
mine of the 3d. Inst. I requested to be advised wither the 
ballance due me from Mr. Sam'l Page ^ of Salem had been 
accounted for, to you, as I desired, to which I have not as 
yet' received any reply, suppose it has through hurry, 
escaped your notice, shall now esteem it a favor to be 
inform'd of that matter for my government. 

Mr. Ward has this moment handed me the inclosed from 
Capt. Wright which has just come to hand from Warwick, 
where a Flagg arrived last evening from Rhd. Island, am 
much surpris'd at his not having rec'd the Letter which I 
forwarded some time past in your behalf, as Gov. Bowen 
assur'd me he deliver'd it to the Capt. of the Cartell with 
his own hands, by what I can learn from Mr. Ward, we 
shall soon have frequent oppertunitys of conveyances to 
Newport, a Cartell being in agitation to be establish'd 
between the 2 Generalls. Blake being at my elbow im- 
patient to return, leaves me only time to return a tender 
of my most respectfull Salutations and Love to my Dear 
Aunt, and to assure you that I continue with the utmost 
respect and esteem. Dear Sir, Your most Obedient Nephew 
and humble Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun'r 

^ Captain of a foot company in 1781, and a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives, 1783-1785. 

68 commerce of [ 1779 

Joseph Fay ^ to Aaron Lopez 

Bennington, 8th September, 1779. 


The Ballance of my last Bill, the Bearer (my brother) will 
discharge; after which you will please to furnish him with 
such articles as he may want to purchase of you particularly 
one more P's of Irish Linnin such as I purchased of you last 

I am in want of a considerable Quantity of Powder, Lead, 
and flints, for the use of the Militia of this State, should 
you be able to supply me with those articles (which must be 
of the best kind of English powder for Hunters) you will 
please to write me by the bearer, also upon what conditions, 
and wheather United States Loan ofiice Certificates will be 
rec'd in payment. 

I shall soon want to supply myself with a considerable 
Quantity or assortment of winter goods, and if I can be 
supplied by you at as reasonable a rate as at Boston (Portage 
excepted) shall be willing to open a Trade with you. You 
will please to signify to me wheather Flower will be rec'd 
in payment or wheather Cash will be more agreeable. I 
am, Sir, Your Humble Servant, 

Joseph Fay 

David Lopez, Jr., to Aaron Lopez 

P^ Q, . Leicester, i6th September, 1779. 

I have now the pleasure of addressing you my Respects, 
from this, where I arriv'd again this day, and have the happi- 
ness to find my Dear Aunt and all the branches of our dear 
Connections in health. I pray the same blessing may be 
extended to my ever honored Uncle, that he may enjoy the 
approaching festivities, with a tranquill sattisfaction, and be 
wrote and seal'd in the Book of long Life and Felicity. 

^ Secretary to the Council of Vermont. Records of Governor and Council, Ver- 
mont, I. 122. 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 69 

Emediately on my return an oppertunity presented to the 
Island, which I did not fail to improve, in repeating dupli- 
cate of what I before wrote to Capt. Wright in your behalf, 
to which I also added a verball and explicit message by Mr. 
Townsend, who went down at same time, and promised to 
be the bearer. The return of that Cartell was so sudden as 
not to afford time for a reply, another Flag is daily ex- 
pected from that quarter, and should any letter from Capt. 
Wright come to hand, I have directed it to be emediately 
forwarded here, with a duplicate to Hartford, that you 
might be seasonably apprised of its contents for your gover- 
ment. Bills of Exchange I found to be exceeding scarce and 
in great demand at Providence. I have however fortunately 
obtain'd a sett for three Hundred Dollars at 12 for one, and 
have a further prospect of another for 800 Dollars more in 
about 10 days at same advance. I have likewise left 
directions with Mr. Jacobs to procure as many as posible 
during my absence, and hope we may be able to accomplish 
a good proportion towards your occasions. 

The opperation of the State Bill renders Buisseness still 
extremely dull and perplexing, tho' with us it has the appear- 
ance of a very short duration, our marketts being most 
badly provided, and scarce any attention paid to the regu- 
lations by those who expose their articles to sale. at 
Boston, its dictates seem to be but little better regarded, 
on application for the Velvetts which I advised you were 
offer'd me at £6 per yard, I was told that they were sent to 
that markett and readily sold for £9. dry goods insted of 
descending 20 per Ct. keep daily rissing, and have become 
very scarce. On my arrivall I apply'd to Jno. Reynolds 
with the Samples of the Broad Cloths you was pleased to 
deliver me when here last, he says that he has just made a 
purchase of a quantity of equall quality at the Eastward, at 
£10, and offers to take those 5 ps. at £12 provided Loan 
Certificates will be taken in payment. I wait your reply 
and orders respecting them. 

I did not omit attending to your Commission respecting 
Colo. Reed. on my way down he promised the money 

70 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

should be ready against my return, but when I now call'd 
at his house was told he was gone to Boston and had not 
left the Necessary to discharge your Bill, I shall again 
wait on him when I leave this and endeavor if posible to 
obtain it. 

I am with perfect Sentiments of the utmost Respects and 
Esteem, Dear Sir, Your most Obedient Nephew and humble 

David Lopez, Jun'r. 

[Endorsed,] To Mr. Aaron Lopez, Merchant, Hartford. 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

j^. Amsterdam, 27 Sept., 1779. 


Craving reference to the annex'd Copy of our last respects 
of 25 July and your remittance of £ St. 30 your account was 
creditted for it as follow at Fs. 36^ per £ St. F. Bk money 
326.5 agio 4I per ct. F. 13.17 = 340.2 Currency whereof 
please to pass writing in comformity but as there will not be 
sufficient for a cannester Souchon Tea we only shall ship 
the chest bohea by the first opportunity, Captain Greely 
being not able to take anything. 

We have no particular news on this side of the water but 
sincerely congratulate you on the good Luck of the American 
arms got this summer. Remaining with due Regard, Sir, 
Your most humble Servants, 

John de Neufville & Son 

Forwarded from St. Eustatia, by Y. M. H. S. Hy. Godet. 

EzEKiEL Hall^ and Samuel Cooke to 
Aaron Lopez 

P,. Watertown, 10 October, 1779. 


Your favour of 8th have receivd covering an Invoice of 
Goods purchas'd of you which we find far exceeding the 

^ An inn holder in Watertown, 1770, 


Quantity talk'd of, but as the one half is to be paid for in 
Rum think the Advantage will be mutuale. have this 
morning also receivd the 2 Hhds. of Goods and one Piece 
Baize to outward appearance in good order by Mr. Wicker, 
have fiird 8 Bbs. Rum for Mr. Wicker to take for you but 
upon applying to our Committee for a Certificate find 
that its not in their Power to give a proper Certificate to 
secure your team in their way to Leicester they say it must 
come from your Committee. in this disagreable Situation 
tho't it prudent to advise Mr. Wicker back to your Town 
for a proper Certificate which hope will meet with your 
Approbation. --^ 

Mrs. Hall and daughter had an agreable Return on Thurs- 
day last. Mrs. Hall and Miss Betsey and Mr. Cooke joins 
me in presenting our Respects to you Mrs. Lopez and Ladies, 
being very assuredly Your Most Humble Servants, 

Ezek'l Hall and Sam'l Cooke 

David Lopez Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

r\ r>,' Providence, 1 2th October, 1779. 

Dear bir, 

Cousin Jos. handed me your much esteem'd favor of the 
loth Current to the contents of which have duly attended, 
and note your orders respecting the goods we have on hand, 
the Sundrys you are pleased to order by Cousin Josy, are 
deliver'd him, the others shall be punctual'y conformed to 
your pleasure, altho' must beg leave to observe that the 
prevailing sentiment in this quarter, respecting the prospect 
before us, does not appear to coincide exactly with yours, 
particularly in regard to the disposall of Goods; for notwith- 
standing the Certainty of Mons. De Estaing's Arrivall at 
the Southward, and the Success that has attended him in 
that quarter, the price of goods has not decended in the 
least, nor has the speculators, or holders of them, in any 
degree slack'n'd their avidity in collecting and enhancing 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

72 COMMERCE OF [ 1779 

their value. not a Merchant or Shopkeeper here will 
willingly part with any article by wholesale, and when they 
do which is rare, nothing is abated from the retail price, the 
truth of which Josy can fully evince from his own observa- 
tions, and fruitless Essays to procure a few articles that were 
wanting. to him therefore I beg leave to refer you for 
further particulars, and the reasons urged for this rule of 

Bills on France are equally scarce and in demand. Mr. 
Clark has not as yet been able to purchace any, but promises 
to continue his best endeavors. I have now deliver'd Cousin 
Joseph 5 small setts amounting 192 Dollars, which I wrested 
by the dint of persuation from a Farmer who was passing 
through here on his way to Boston, to ship them; he had 
before refused I2| that was ofFer'd him by Clark and Night- 
ingale, therefore was constrain'd to allow him 13 for one. I 
am inform'd the same price has since been given by those 

Messrs. Tillinghast and Holroyd have punctually dis- 
charged the order drawn on them by Capt. Wiley, which sum 
together with what we have collected in the Shop being about 
Ten Thousand Dollars, have thought best to hold till your 
further orders, for the purchace of what Exchange may be 
obtain'd by Mr. Clark and self. 

Since my return, two Flaggs have arrived from the Island 
without any tidings from Capt. Wright, and within this day 
or two has appeared here, one of those Ganahim,^ from 
Connecticut. his Business is to collect the evidences of all 
the Newport refugees, respecting the Character of Capt. 
Wright and Maudsly.^ Mr. Bowler informs me he was 
summon'd to give his deposition, that the questions that 
were demanded from him, were whether Capt. Maudsley 
did not subscribe to the Association, and was not accounted 

^ Gammadims. Ezek. xxvii. ii. 

^ John Maudsley, who was charged with being a "rebel "until the occupation 
of Rhode Island by the British, when he asserted his loyalty. He is said to have 
sworn allegiance to the new government after the peace, and certainly, in 1783, 
petitioned the British government for land in Nova Scotia. Sabine, American 
Loyalists, 11. 52. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 73 

a friend to Goverment, and whether Mrs. Wright had been 
continually on the Island since the first arrivall of the British 
Troops, to both which questions he answer'd in the affirma- 
tive, he says he was present and heard severall others 
interogated to the same questions. I cannot devise what 
handle they mean to make of Capt. Maudsley in that affair, 
but fear those Villians will occasion you much trouble before 
they can be brought to render you due Justice, which at 
length I cannot but flatter myself they will be compell'd 
to do, altho their Rascally, peaked. Bearded Judges may by 
their Chicane, procrastinate the period. should I discover 
any further particulars of their Intentions you may rely on 
being seasonably apprised. I am with the greatest respect 
and esteem, Hon'd Sir, Your Obedient Nephew and Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun. 

14th October. 

Accounts from below say the Enemy are certainly embark- 
ing, that their heavy Cannon are on the wharfs and every 
thing in the outmost readiness for evacuating the Town, 
should they quit it I shall not fail conveying you the earliest 
Intiligence, as it will prove an excelent oppert'y of convers- 
ing with Capt. Wright who I do not think will emediately 
follow them. Cousin Joe will be able to furnish you the 
particulars of this account. 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

r\ (>• Providence 2 1 St October 1779. 

Your most estemm'd favor of the 19th is just handed me 
by the Teamster, and in conformity to its contents have now 
del'd him the three Hhds. Dry Goods which hope may reach 
you safe and meet an advantageous sale. Inclosed is a 
minute of what has been taken out of each Cask since they 
were first packed for your Goverment. Mrs. Williams left 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

74 COMMERCE OF [ 1779 

me 32I li Tallow to be forwarded to you at 12/ which have 
paid her and debited your Account with Lopez & Co. it 
will be delivered by the Bearer, who being importunate to 
be dispatched prevents my enlarging. We have this moment 
an express from below advising the Enemy's being all em- 
barked, the wind being now favourable. the Troops here 
are all order'd to embark in Boats and follow the Gen'l who 
has gone down post haste with his retinue. They burnt the 
light house last night and have blown up severall other of 
their works near the Town this morning.^ many of the 
Inhabitants have also imbarked among whom is Colo. 
Wanton ^ and fam'ly. This we have from a person that was 
taken off the Island last Night by Colo. Barton.^ every 
appearance now indicates a speedy Evacuation, in which 
hope we may not by some unforseen event be disapointed. 
I am with respectfull Salutations to your hon'd self my 
Dear Aunt and famly, Dear Sir, Your Respectfull Nephew 
and Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun. 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

TT 'JO* Providence, 24th October, 1779. 

Hon a oiTy 

I HAD the pleasure of paying you my respects under the 
2ist Current by Mr. Hathaway with whome I forwarded the 
three Casks Dry Goods you was pleased to order. hope 
they are safe with you e'r this, and that you may find a vent 

^ "Our best Accounts from Rhode Island are, that the Enemy had nearly Com- 
pleated the embarkation of their Cannon, Baggage and Stores, and were employed 
in plundering the Inhabitants, taking the Bells from the Houses of Worship, etc. 
The North Battery was levelled a few Days since, and the platforms burnt; on 
Wednesday morning they burnt the Mast and other Wood-Work of the Light- 
House on Beaver-Tail, and yesterday were destroying their Works near the Town. 
Their Departure is daily expected." Providence Gazette, October 23, 1779. The 
embarkation took place on the evening of October 25. 

^ Joseph Wanton, Jr., and WiUiam Wanton were among those who accompanied 
the British. 

3 William Barton (1748-183 1). 

* The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 75 

for them equall to your best wishes. We have not had 
anything remarkable since my last from below, the Enemy 
still continue their preparations to evacuate the Island, but 
the wind proving unfavourable till now they could not 
depart. The Gen'l has just sent an express from Bristol 
advising the embarkation of part of the Troops, and he con- 
jectures they will go off this evening. by advise from New 
London we learn the Capture of Capt. Jno. Andrews in a 
Brigantine from New York, bound to Newport with whome 
were passengers, Capt. Maudsly, and Sam'l Goldthwait. 
They had on board a quantity of Goods just arrived at 
N. Yk on their accounts from England, its said to a consid- 
erable amount. They were taken by a small Schooner out 
of this river; ^ I am with due Sentiments of Respect and 
Esteem, Hon'd Sir, Your Obedient Nephew and Most 
Humble Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun'r 

Monday noon. An express just arrived from Gen'l Wash- 
ington, confirming the Capture of the British Garison at 
Beauford, with Sir James Wallace and his fleet, by the Count 
De Estaing. The attack was made on the i6th ulto. and 
carried after a very severe Conflict. They have taken 
prisoners 700 British with 200 Tories and negroes, and dis- 
persed the rest through the woods, where the Militia were 
pursuing them on all quarters. 13 Transports i Ship of 50 
Guns and severall Frigates is what the Fleet consisted of 
that fell into the Counts hand's. The Count after this pro- 
ceeded to attack Savanah.^ The wind continues North 
East and we momently expect to hear the departure of the 
Britons from Newport. 

1 "The Privateer Schooner Lively, Capt. Esek Hopkins, jun. of this Port, in 
Company with a Privateer belonging to Connecticut, has taken three Vessels from 
New York, one of them very valuable, and sent them into New-London." Provi- 
dence Gazette, October 30, 1779. 

2 The story is far from the facts. See Winsor, Narrative and Critical History, 
VI. 522. 

"j^ commerce of [ 1779 

Daniel Gardner to 

Brother Cons't.f 

Rec'd yours this day by Mr. Channing and find by the 
Contents Mr. Lopez agrees to my Terms in part. if Mr. 
Lopez will agree to allow me two Months Wages in case I 
am taken and can't proceed on my Voige, to get home, thats 
all I desire; but you know we may get taken and caried to 
the British Island. in that case if we are not detain'd we 
can proceed down to Jamaica and lose no time. Then I 
shall expect my Wages to go on and my Expences born. if 
Mr. Lopez agrees to the above Terms I am ready at any 
time to take Passage with Mr. Right and hope it will be 
early in December. Sally desires me to remind you of your 
promis of a Visit. I am yours, etc., 

Dan'l Gardner 

So. Kingston, 13 th November, 1779. 

Abraham Pereira Mendez to Aaron Lopez ^ 

-. Ttf T Newport, 25th November, 1779. 

Dear Mr. Lopez, v y ^ , //y 

After a pleasant journey, I arrived here last Evening and 
found all our friends wel]; It has not been in my power to 
settle with Geo. Sears, as his Indisposition for these many 
days prevented it, however shall loose no time to see it 
done. Since I have been in town I procured 4 Boxes of Oil 
6/ Stg cheaper per box than you expected to give Sears, 
have therefore made bold to buy it in preference to those. 
On my journey here, I reflected much on your troublesome 
Lawsuit, and would beg leave to mention, that if the Jury 
should return their Verdict larger than you could reasonably 
expect, it would be adviseable to petition the Court for a 
Rehearing, which will enable you to put your intended plan 
in Execution, and frustrate the design of your vilanous 
Antagonist; This will answer if you can obtain your petition 
without giving Security for the damages, however your 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1779] RHODE ISLAND 77 

Attorney will be able to give you a further advice on this 

All those that were confind in the Provo, was liberated 
last Friday on giving Security. 

Wishing you every felicity you can wish am, with great 
Esteem, Yours very Affectionately, 

Abr'm p. Mendez 

The people in Town, have totaly refusd paper Money, 
and I suppose the Affair of a totall defeat of Count De 
Estaing and Gen'l Lincoln at Georgia, will help greatly to 
reduce our Currency. I make no doubt by this time, you 
have had a particular account, and shall only say, that a 
Vessell from Augustean bound to N York, and was obligd to 
put in here, in full confidence that this place was still in 
possession of the British Troops, have bro't the News, that 
of the Action of the 9th October the Count headed his 
troops and made a regular approach after being defeated 
the 16 Sep'r at last was totally repuls'd with a great Loss, 
and have divid'd his fleet, some to Delaware and others to 

Abraham Pereira Mendez to Aaron Lopez ^ 

TN 11 4^ r Newport, 2Qth November, 1770. 

Dear Mr. Lopez, h , y , //v 

My last was by Mr. Goldthw't which I expected would 
leave this last Thursday, but was much surpriz'd to find he 
did not sett out untill this morning; This day I waited on 
Geo. Sears and have paid him the amo't of his Invoice. The 
mistake in the threads was discover'd previous to your letter. 
I shall use my means to have them packt tomorrow and 
shipp'd before I leave this which suppose will be the begin- 
ning of the week. David sett out for Providence yesterday 
morning: Christopher gott in Prov. last Friday and made 
his appearance here Saba. Capt. Wright waits for a wind 
to goe by water and probably will have one in the Morning; 
Capt. Story arrivd in Town yesterday, he says he was taken 

* The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

yS COMMERCE OF [ 1779 

by our people from Long Island, but am apt to think it was 
a concerted plan, and suppose he finished what business he 
went after at N York and put himself in the way of being 
taken. He express's a great desire of seeing you. 

Christopher left the families well, and Sally Lopez much 
recoverd. your Bro. David left this for home yesterday, 
and Mr. Mears ^ expect to keep Saba at Leicester; Paper 
Money no Currency in this place and no manner of price 
for that Currency. 

God grant you Success with your present contest, and wish 
to have the agreeable News from you, and that you have 
triump'd over those Scoundrells, that would rob you of your 

Our friends here are all well and am, Yours very AiFect'ly, 

Abr'm p. Mendez 
David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

rj 'jq- Leicester, 7th December, 1779. 

1 DID myself the honor of addressing you my respects 
from Newport per Mr. Goldthwait, which have the pleasure 
since my Arrivall here to learn had reached your hands. 

The ill state of my Sisters health, and her anxious desire 
of seeing me stimulated me to leave the Island before Capt. 
Sears could attend to the delivery of the goods, Mr. Mendez 
being on the spot has taken charge and forwarded them to 
Providence, where I have the pleasure to advise you they 
arrived safe a few hours before my departure. Mr. Jacobs 
promised to attend emeadiately to their land'g and our 
faith full Christovall (who arrived here with Capt. Wright 
last Even'g) tells me that he assisted in putting them safe in 
our Store, where they wait your further orders. The imprac- 
ticability of obtaining Bills at this juncture in our quarter 
and the shocking disrepute of paper Medium has not per- 
mited me to improve what we have of it on hand for your 

^ Samson Mears. 

2 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 79 

acct. at Newport they still hold it in the same point of 
view as when you was there, and with us at Providence, 
those who have goods of any kind, rather prefer holding 
them than our fleeting phantom of a Currency, I have left 
the Bundle you was pleased to put in my care, together with 
what we were in Cash (say about Ten Thousand Dollars) 
in Mr. Jacobs hands to attend your orders, hope it may 
not suffer from a further depriciation before you are able to 
invest it in something more permanent. Mr. Mears accom- 
pany'd me to the happy Hills of Leicester, he requests a 
tender of his best regards to you. we left Providence 
Sunday morning and reached here after a tedious Storm of 
Snow about lo oClock yesterday, and found all our dear 
families in health excepting my good Aunt Rivera who is 
much indisposed with a Cold, and my poor Sister who is 
in a very low condition and I fear not long for this life. 

hope e'r this Justice may have placed you secure from 
the dread of rancourous Envy and Villany, in terminating 
the troublesome litigation which has so long disturbed your 
tranquility agreeable to your most sanguine expectations. 
Accept Dear Sir my best wishes for your Success and happi- 
ness and believe me to continue with the utmost Respect 
and Esteem, Your Most Obedient Nephew and very Humble 

Servant, t^ t t 

David Lopez, Jun. 

Benjamin Wright to Aaron Lopez ^ 

TT7 ,1 T^ ' J Leicester, I ith December, 1779. 

frorthey rnendy 

After making a verry harty dinner, I am now alone in 
your Store, sorounded with Leather Breeches all serene and 
quiet, when in the hour of my serious Meditations I am sur- 
prised to find you inclined to tarry among a people who by 
there own confession are strongly attached to the political 
Laws and government of inferno, the Lord have mercy on 
them, and what adds to my astonishment, is when I consider 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

80 COMMERCEOF [l779 

the rapid depreciation of our paper money, how they can 
support Two wives and are not ashamed to have the matter 
debaited in a Boston Court of Justice — be that as it may. 
I have been at your House one whole week, Hving on the 
fatt of the Land, and my attendance fit for a Noble man. 
Your family at present are in number only 99 and still there 
is a vacancy for one more, and I desire you will return with 
all Expedition and fill it, then we shall be able to proseed to 
business, to prevent your inattention to what I have said, 
permitt me to hint, your Family if I mistake not, inclines to 
imbrace the Presbyterian Faith, a Religion of all now extant 
is the most fatal, to Humanity and Common Honesty; 
fraught with. Superstition and oppression, (whatever I may 
think I will not say — Rebellion) if this piece of Intelligence 
will not bring you home I must suppose you are inclined to 
take to your self, another wife, should that prove to be the 
case my friend, the first ox slead you see aproach the greate 
Town, prepare your self to meet a man Red with uncommon 
Rath to blast the man who oweth his greatness to paper 
Money. Yours most respectfully, 

Redemption Doudle 

[Memo.3 from Capt. Benj. Wright. 

James Wilson to Aaron Lopez^ 

I HAVE been favoured with your Letter of the 23d of last 
Month, addressed to Mr. Lewis and myself, together with 
the Inclosure. Mr. Lewis is now indisposed: You will 
therefore be kind enough to accept of this as an answer from 
him as well as from me. Your Application for a Protection 
in Favour of Captain Gardner and Captain Wright, I will 
take the very first Opportunity of laying before the Gentle- 
men you mention; and you may rest assured that my best 
Advice and Assistance will not be wanting in order to pro- 
mote its Success. The Event will be communicated to you 
so soon as I shall know it. I am sorry for the very long 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1779 ] RHODEISLAND 8l 

Delays you have experienced with regard to the Schooner 
Hope} You have indeed reason to be dissatisfied with the 
Treatment which you have received in Connecticut. An 
unfortunate Concurrence of several Circumstances has 
hitherto prevented the Argument of the Motion for rehearing 
your Cause. But it is the first, or almost the first matter 
that will come on: And I hope, by next Post, to have the 
Pleasure of informing you that it is finally determined in 
your Favour. 

I am, with great Regard, Sir, Your very humble Servant, 

„,,,.,. T^ . James Wilson 

Philadelphia, 13 th December, 1779. 

William and Rod'c Lawrence to Aaron Lopez 


We now transmit you by Mr. Hide three Setts of bills of 
Exchange for 36 Dollars each, and one for 30 Dollars in 
favor of Alexander Catlin, also two Setts for 36 Dollars each, 
and one for 30, and one for 12 Dollars, in the name of Jos. 
Mather, which we have procured at 18 for one. We likewise 
forward One Sett for 30, four for 24, and three for 18 Dollars 
each, in favor John Robbins, also one for 24 Dollars, in 
favor of Seth Stanly, which were purchased at 20 for one. 
We trust we shall be able to forward on a sufficiency to make 
up the sum which you left with us, and are, Sir, with every 
Sentiment of Esteem Your Most Obedient Humble Servants, 

Will'm and Rod'c Lawrence 

Hartford, December 13th, 1779. 

Thomas Mumford to Christopher Champlin 

Q • Providence, 19 November, 1779. 

I AM now on my way Home from Boston. Left our 
Daughters well there last Evening, they are very happy. 

^ The papers in the case of Brooks vs. Lopez, claimant of Schooner Hope, 
and of Lopez vs. Grifl&th, et al., 1778, are in the office of the Clerk of the U. S. 
Supreme Court. 

82 COMMERCEOF [ 1779 

my Daughter is in want of Half a Dozen Black feathers such 
as you sent your Daughter. I will be much obliged to you 
to procure for my good Girl that number or less if they are 
scarce, send them by some carefull hand to Mr. John 
Mumford at Clark and Nightingales in Providence, the 
amount of which shall be paid on first notice in either silver 
or paper, which you are obliged to pay for them, and if good 
handsome purple and white Calicho to make her two Gowns 
can be procured you will renew the Obligation to procure 
and send me to said John Mumford sufficient for that pur- 
pose say ten or 12 yards, or a whole piece if more convenient. 
I give you this trouble as I understand by your Daughter 
you bought the Black feathers for her at Newport and they 
cannot be had in Boston, excuse this freedom and oblige. 
Sir, Your most Humble Servant 

Thos. Mumford 

P. S. if eight scanes of Silk and hair of the Colours of the 
inclosed patterns can be procurd (four of each) pray send me 
them also, and continue the obligation to 

T. M. 

Wiley ^ and Cowperthwait to [Aaron Lopez?] 

T~. Q,. " Stratford, 31st December, 1779. 

We address you at Leicester fully persuaded that the 
malicious and vexatious cause of your detention has 'ere 
this terminated (as it should) to the confusion of the prose- 
cutors, and that your family are once more happy in your 
return to them. Our Journey has been attended with every 
Inconveniency that inclement weather, (such as we have 
lately had) coud involve us in. two days was intirely spent 
between this and New haven distant only fourteen miles, 
and after forcing a passage through a snow of nearly three 
feet deep, were oblig'd to leave our Carriage and one horse 
when within five miles and by dint of perseverance arriv'd 
here with the other (one of us walking the whole time), we 

^ John Wiley. 

1780 ] RHODEISLAND 83 

shall not be enabled to give you a perfect state of Markets 
as the post this moment waits for our letter sufficient to say- 
that from the general appearance we do not doubt of selling 
our goods to advantage, we have not as yet received any 
intelligence from Mr. Blake, have left instructions for him 
with Mr. Pitkin^ with a reinforcement of Cash and expect 
to wait here in hopes of a line per return of the post. Immedi- 
ately on receiving information of our goods passing through 
Hartford (of which Mr. Pitkin will acquaint us), we shall 
proceed for Fishkill from whence we shall again write you. 
we are Sir with compliments to Capt. Wright, Mr. Rivera, 
Mrs. Rivera, your good Lady, and all other Friends at 
Leicester your obhg'd and humble Servants, 

Wiley and Cowperthwait 

P. S. Please to inform Mr. Rivera that we have had an 
offer for his Tea of 50 Dollars if we w^oud deliver it here, 
which we may possibly accept of if nothing better offers 
within a day or two, as a strong rumor prevails that Holland 
has certainly acceeded to a loan of several Millions and that 
Congress has drawn to a large amount, this whether true 
or false serves to stagnate Business. 

Samson Mears to Aaron Lopez 

Dear Sir, Wilton, January 31st, 1780. 

The Tuesday morning after leaving you and encountering 
a severe cold Journey I had the happiness of joining our 
Families here, who I found in great anxiety about my long 
absence; the means I took to advise them of the cause, 
fail'd, and of course their conjectures were many, some not 
of the most favorable kind; however my arrival put an end 
to every painful feelling and gave way to the inexpressible 
enjoyment of embracing each other in perfect health. My 
intention of going to New London, was obstructed by the 
information I rec'd at the place where I was to take that 

1 Daniel Pitkin. 

84 COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

Road, of its being shut up; The only Road I could then take, 
was from Hartford, which would have encreased my journey 
70 miles; My being out so long, and the great risque I run 
of being as much longer detained out by another fall of 
snow; and the infirmity of my Horse, were strong induce- 
ments for me to avoid that, and proceed home immediately 
and defer my business at New London for a future Journey. 
From the information I obtain'd on the Road of the price 
of Produce that way. Coffee was mention'd at 6 dollars, so 
that if I had got there, there was no probability of effecting 
your order respecting that article. I cannot pass over in 
silence yours and every Branch of your worthy Family's 
friendly Civilities during my stay at your hospitable house. 
It fills me with every sentiment of Gratitude while I offer 
my grateful acknowledgements for the many kindness I 
have repeatedly received. , . . 

Samson Mears 

Sale of Share in Vessel 

Boston 16 February 1780. Receiv'd of Sam Vernon 
Tertius One Hundred and Sixty four Pounds Nineteen 
Shillings and Ten Pence in full for One Sixteenth part of the 
Sloop Lady Washington'^ and Appurtenances. 

August Newman 

[On the reverse of sheet,] Ninety pounds of the Within 
was paid by Sam Brown in a Balance due him for fiting 
the Lady Washington his third Cruise. 

Daniel Pitkin to Aaron Lopez 

T-v Q. Hartford, 21 February, 1780. 

I received a letter from Mr. Wiley Stratford January 29 
1780 wherein is the following words. "Mr. Lopez intends 

^ In 1782 and 1783 a Massachusetts vessel, engaged as privateer, bore this name. 

1780] RHODE ISLAND 85 

sending on one Load of Currants and 2 Hdds. West India 
Rum. Should you have an offer for the Rum as high as 
65 Dollars please to dispose of it. the Current send on as 
above likewise the Rum if you do not sell it. Yours 
etc. John Wiley." 

The 2 Hdds. Rum 10 BBs. of Currants an Two Tierces of 
White Sugar is now in the Store Rum unsold although 
offered for Sale. Capt. Wiley left in my hands one Tierce 
of Tea to sell for him to best advantage. We have not sold 
more than | doz. lbs. as that article seems at this time to be 
rather plenty, the Teams that carried on the 4I pipes of 
Wine from my Store to Fish Kill returned last Saturday 
night in the evening. Left Sleds Yoaks and sold 2 Yoak of 
their oxen on account of the scarcity of keeping as they say. 
had but few words with them on account of the night, but 
understood they had delivered their Load to Major Bush, 
had rec'd no pay fo[r] Transportation but expect it from me 
which I shall do. They say Capt. Wiley went from fish Kill 
that day before they arived. The badness of the Roads I 
think it not prudent to send on the Goods now nor do I know 
whether I can get any Teams that would be willing to go on 
now. I advanced One Thousand Dolers to carry Mr. Blake 
forward and One Thousand for the Wine for I could not get 
any Team under 10 Doller per mile which is a high price so 
that I have not Money enough to send on the two Loads 
unless I should sell Tea or Rum faster than I have done. I 
thought proper to make you Sir acquainted with the matter 
as it stands. I suppose that wind and weather hath been 
much against Capt. Wileys proceedings. Notwithstanding 
be willing to advance any Sum for him knowing that I have 
Goods of his in my hands to much greater amount if sold to 
carry all forward. What little Money I have now on hand is 
chiefly in hard Cash which should be loth to stir as the times 
are. I should be glad to purchase one Tierce or half a Tierce 
of your White Sugar in my Store if it suited you to sell it 
and if you conclude to let me have one please to let me 
know by the next post the price etc. the price in paper Bills 
and the price in hard money. Shall want a Hdd or Tierce 



[ 1780 

of Good West India Rum for the purpose of keeping Tavern 
or retailing if you could let me have it by and by. if I can 
be of any service in selling any Goods in my Store for you 
shall be willing on low Commissions. You will be pleased 
to let me know your Mind next post, as Capt. Wiley is at 
great distance from me thought the best and earliest instruc- 
tions might be had from you. I am with Highest Esteem 

Your Humble Servant t^ r> 

Daniel Fitkin 

John De Neufville to Christopher Champlin 

§if Amsterdam, the 24 February, 1780. 

We have lately received the bad news that our Brigg 
Lady Amelia ^ met with the misfortune of being droven on 
shore near Madeira by a violent gale of wind where she has 
been obliged to put in, for want of water, an English priva- 
teer having robbed her of all she had on board, the Vessel 
is intirely lost the Crew saved and also part of the Cargoe 
which will be sold at Madeira the management of the matters 
being confided there to M[ess]rs. John Searle and Comp. a 
very respectable house, and due care will be taken of every 
thing as soon as we have the generall account of sales. We 
will accordingly make an exact repartition and hope to be 
in the case to restore you some part of the loss. We hope 
also you'll meet with better luck in the future where to we 
will contribute what lays in our power, being in the mean 
after tenders of our best service With all regard, 

* The master's name was Wiirtze Gurts de Bour. 

1780] rhode island 87 

Thomas Smart to Aaron Lopez 

_, . Providence, February 28th, 1780. 

Your favour of the 24th came duly to hand by Mr. David 
Lopez in whose favour find you have drawn on me for 
£2568 being the amount of those Cambricks I rec'd from Mr. 

But as I presume my taking the whole in some measure 
disappointed you on your arrival in Boston expecting I 
might have taken but part according to Agreement, obliges 
me to make some Apology on that head; the day I rec'd 
the Cambricks from Mr. Coburn I rec'd orders to set out for 
Camp for which place made immediate preparations for, 
and knowing you would have taken them with you to Leices- 
ter had not the Evening hurried you out of Town determined 
in my own mind (as I expected to come your way) to wait 
on you and pay as much as might be then in my power 
towards the whole, making no doubt but you would have 
been willing to indulge me with so long time as I could have 
remitted the Ballance from Camp; but the weather coming 
on so severe and the roads being for some time impassable 
has detained me till now being under the necessity of alter- 
ing my rout on account of those Stockings I had to receive 
here, as likewise to have what things I had in Boston brought 
this way to pack the Stockings with, which things on their 
passage here unfortunately got wet and five peices of Cam- 
brick were staind which has done them no other damage 
than not appearing so merchantable as the rest, on which 
event I had wrote to acquaint you of the matter which would 
have been forwarded some days ago had the regular post 
arrived, but yours coming on Saturday last have substituted 

I have therefore paid Mr. David Lopez the sum of £1208 
for 5 of the peices Number as follows 640, 680, 710, 720, 850. 
the remaining 5 should be extremely glad to have, if I could 
be favourd with so long time as I can remit the Balance 
from Camp, which would not be more than five or six weeks. 

88 COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

your compliance to this will greatly oblige, Sir, Your humble 


Thomas Smart 

P. S. Should the above be not convenient for you to 
comply with as prior engagements might probably prevent 
it will lodge the 5 remaining peices with Mr. David Lopez 
on receipt of your order. 

Davis and Benson to Aaron Lopez 

„. Boston, 2ist March, 1780. 

We have now to advise you that on Saturday last, the 
Snow Happy Return, together with her sails, rigging, stores 
and Guns, were sold at publick auction per Account hereto 
annex'd. Your proportion of the Money we shall receive 
and retain 'till we are favour'd with your Orders for its 
delivery, the exact amount we cannot yet ascertain. Capt. 
Minthurn was on the spot and thought it adviseable to have 
her sold, in which we concur'd. with sentiments of due 
esteem. We are Sir, Your Obedient Friends, 

Davis and Benson 

The conditions of Sale are, that the Money for the Snow 
be paid on Thursday next and that the late Owners defray 
the expense and risque the arrival of the Guns from Chatham, 
which are to be paid for on the delivery. 

Sales of the Snow Happy Return, etc., etc. Boston, i8th March, 1780. 

Snow Happy Return with her sails, rigging and stores .... £23,700. 

10 Swivel Guns ... at £100 1,000. 

Powder (more or less, wt. not ascertain'd) at £6.15/ 
Musquet Shott Do. . . ditto ... at 21/ per Cwt. 
Swivel Shott (number not Do.) at 4/6 per do. 
Wooden Guns . . .do. £12. each, . 

15 small Arms . . . at £18.10/ per peice 277. 10 

2 pair four pound Cannon at £2500 per Pair S>ooo. — 

Cannistre and Langrage Qangrel] Shott £61 for the whole . . 61. — 

1780 ] RHODEISLAND §9 

Wheeler Coit to Christopher Champlin 

p^ Q. Preston, Monday, April 17th, 1780. 

I HAVE just now had a man with me that had about 220 
Dollars in Exchange his price is 45 for i in Continental or 
hard money to make it equal to that allowing 50 for i. I 
have not the Continentall or think should chose to have paid 
him in that. I offered him 100 Silver Dollars for 120 in 
Bills which is little more than 83 for 100. Believe I shall be 
able to procure about 400 Dollars at 85 for 100.^ in case I 
should not be able to get Esquire Leffingwells that I men- 
tioned to you tho I here his Vessel is sailed that he wanted 
to send hard money in. purpose to see him tomorrow, the 
people I have seen since I came home had all heard that 
Bills were par in Boston. 

Since writing the above this moment have heard that 
considerable part of the Bills is going to be sent to Boston 
tomorrow mean to see after them this night and can add no 
more. I am Sir your most Humble Servant, 

Wheeler Coit 

[Endorsed,] favoured by Mr. Lester. 

Wheeler Coit to Christopher Champlin 

Preston, May 12th, 1780. 

Dear Sir, Yours of the 9th Instant is before me. observe 
what you say about Bills. I think you told me when I 
met you on Boston Neck to engage you about 400 Dollars 
in Bills there was not any particular limit'd price then 
mention'd. I have stop'd about that Sum being sent to 
Boston purposely for to serve you. am afraid have bro't 
my self into some trouble, tho I shall endeavour to return 

1 "The price of exchange is hard to determine as there is no Bills at market. 
People generally receeve @ 40 for one. Hard money has fell from 85 to 65 for 
one, and some People say 55 for i. West India goods are or have been upon the 
fall. N. E. Rum, 41 Dollars per Gallon; W. L Rum, 18 to £20; Tea £21 per lb; 
sugar £180 per Ct." Jarvis and Russell to Aaron Lopez, Boston, July 27, 1780. 

90 COMMERCEOF [ 1780 

them to the Owners, those who sent their Bills to Boston 
some have received par others 95 for 100 in hard money. 

have sent you a Bill of three hundred Dollars of my own 
which I told you I thought I chose to risque, which if you 
will take the one half and pay in Bills again, or risque it 
with me as propos'd pleas to take a Receipt of the master in 
your Name and mine the neat proceeds to be laid out in 
German Steel or Bohea Tea. I will risque so much with 
you in another vessel if it suits best pleas to write me and 
send Coppy of the Receipt, the black fellow is impatient 
to wait so can ad no more. I am. Sir, your most Humble 

^^^''^"^' Wheeler Coit 

Thomas Smart to Aaron Lopez 

_. Highlands, May 20, 1780. 


Must beg your pardon for not forwarding the Ballance 
due to you for the Cambricks, but there has not been one 
farthing these three months in Camp nor no expectations of 
any at present, can send Notes issued from the State of 
Massachusetts Bay if agreable to you, which should they be 
please to direct a Line by way of Fish Kill for me in the 
13th Massachusetts Regiment now lying in the Highlands, 
expect to make an allowance for the depreciation. I am 
Sir with great regard Your Obedient Servant 

Thomas Smart 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons^ to Aaron Lopez 

^. Amsterdam, 21 May, 1780. 


Here with you've the Third Copy of our last respects 
under date of the 24 March, to its contents we beg you'll 
be referr'd. have now again the satisfaction to acknowledge 
the receipt of the duplicate of your favor of the 14 Xber and 

1 The CrommeUns were a Dutch banking house with American connections. 
Daniel and Charles Crommelin took the freeman's oath at New York in 1698, 
and their descendants long held a prominent position among the merchants of 
that city. 


original of the 20 do., by the last we saw with much pleasure 
the safe arrival of the Sloop Diamond Capt. Cooke and are 
much obliged at your attention to communicate the same to 
our good Friend Mr. Rivera; As by the Postscript of your 
letter you give us Liberty to ship your Goods on Board of 
the Brig Ketty which was not arrived induced us to apply 
to William Haydon Commander of the Hannah, how to 
oblige us, consented to take the same; and in consequence 
have loaded it as per inclosed Bill of Lading and Invoice, 
amount bo. £929: 5. - which Sum we have passed to your 
debit; be pleased to note the same in conformity, we 
heartily wish the whole safe to hand and hope will prove to 
your satisfaction, we have sent you the glazes of such sorts 
as we thought woud sute your purpose and added a few of 
the most fachionable at present, thinking they woud be 
agreeable, if not for sale, for your own use. You will find 
also mentioned in the Bill of Lading a Case markd AL No. 3 
which we have taken the Liberty to address to your Care for 
our good friend Mr. Jacob Rodriguez Rivera. We beg as a 
particular favor to receive it and settle the freight of it with 
Capt. Haydon. for your Governo its Value is £[blank], 
contains [blank] Ells of Deaper Table cloth, after receipt 
be pleased to follow said Gentlemen directions thereon and 
account with him for your charges. Your forwarding him 
the inclosed as also the others to their address will be a new 
obligation conferred on us. 

We have obtained the acceptance of your four Bills on the 
Commiss's at Paris for Dollars 120 is at 5 £600. negociated 

at ^2^d per Ecu^ of £3 is Bo. . . . £262 .10 — 
Agio 4^ p Ct £ II ■ 16 — 

£274. 6. - - 
Commission ^ p £1.7.- 
Brokerage 19m .6.- 2.13. — 

Postage of Let. i . - . - 

The same we have passed to your Credit. 

1 A silver coin passing at seven livres or less. 

92 COMMERCEOF [ 1780 

It was not well possible for us to close exactly your account 
without much trouble and dare say it will be a matter of 
indifference to you, as we flatter ourselves to be further 
favored with your commands. 

You've here inclosed the answer of Mr. Leake on the 
Letter we transmitted him at your desire. 

There is as yet no alteration in the Political Sistem of 
Europe, and war seems to be going on with the same vigor 
as former years. For your Governo you've here inclosed a 
price current of our Market and beg here to reiterate you 
our offers of best services, and to such of your friends as 
you may be pleased to recommand our house. We remain 
Very respectfully, Sir: Your most obedient Servants, 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

P. S. We have also received per Capt. Haydon the Copy 
of your favors of 17 and 18 May and 2 July of last year but 
as they required no answer we've passed them under Silence. 
You've here also a Letter for Mr. Henry Bowers Junior, 
which we beg youll forward him by the first safe conveyance, 
and as said gentleman has also two chests of Tea on board, 
shoud he not give in time the needful directions thereon, we 
beg you'll taken them under your care, untill you've his 
directions, they are marked H.B. No. i and 2. 

Thomas Smart to Aaron Lopez 

Q,. Providence, June nth, 1780. 

About 3 weeks ago I wrote to you from the Highlands 
acquainting you it was not in my Power to fulfil my Engage- 
ment, by reason there had no Money been paid to our Troops 
since the ist day of last November, and my health continue- 
ing much impaired was under the necessity of leaving Camp 
before the arrival of any Cash, which not only has been 
attended with many Inconveniences to our Officers in fur- 
nishing themselves with necessary supplies, but disappointed 
me in discharging such Contracts I have made for their use; 

1780 ] RHODEISLAND 93 

I have arranged my affairs in such manner as to have im- 
mediate Remittances to this place as soon as the first Pay- 
ments are made, therefore must beg your indulgence for a 
short time longer, expecting to make such reasonable Com- 
pensation for the time that has elapsed as in your good 
judgment shall require, being sensible you will take into 
Consideration the present Circumstances of our Officers who 
are sufferers for the want of their Pay being made to them 
in Season; if our State notes for the first year which are 
calculated at 32^ for one should be agreable will endeavour 

to pay you in them. I am, Sir, etc. ^ ^ 

'^ Ihomas Smart 

Joseph Lopez to Aaron Lopez 

TT > 7 o • Leicester, June 27: 1780. 

Hon a Sify 

I HAVE the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your 
two very acceptable letters per last Post, and am truly happy 
to hear you and Mama had returned safe and well from New- 
burry after an agreable excursion. In compliance to your 
desire have now transmitted per the Post Rider all the Money 
we can at present command in a Bundle seal'd containing 
Thirty five Thousand Dollars, and all the first Bills of each 
Sett I received from Mr. Vanderwoort. 

I beg leave to congratulate you on the safe arrival of Capt. 
Earl at Newport from a Voyage to the West Indies in seven 
weeks only. In this Vessell your good self Mama and self are 
interested eith. it is said Capt. Earl has made a fine voyage. 

I being now in so much haste have not time to add much 

more, to-day being Training, they find it extreemly difficult 

to raise our Quoto of Men, and a continual throng of people 

around me, obliges me to close in haste, tho' not without 

presenting my Duty to Mama, and to believe that I am Your 

Dutiful Son, T T 

Joseph Lopez 

P. S. I had forgot to send the last Post the Bottle Mus- 
tard you desired, but have now deld it to the Rider. I have 
paid the Rider 85 dollars for postage of the Money. 

94 commerce of [ 1780 

Richard Woodman to Christopher Champlin 

^. Wethersfield, July 18, 1780. 


I HAVE this oportunity riting you a few Lines to let you 
no that Salt and Rum is very dull I have this moment offered 
it for the Salt for 6 Dollars per bushel and the Rum at 6 
ShiUings and take Bills at 95 and 60 Days after Site and thay 
will not give it and if I cant git that I shall store the same 
and com home for hard money I cant git at any rate and I 
cant by any Cind of goods on acount of debeting Com- 
mesereys ingaging too Mr. Wordworth will do me all the 
good he can. I am yours, 

Richard Woodman 

I am in hast you may [know] by the riting. 

Samson Mears to Aaron Lopez 

_^ P, . St. Georges, Granada, July 19th, 1780. 

Dear biTy 

I HAVE the Pleasure to advise you of my safe arrival here 
yesterday, after a Passage of 36 Days, and as these Vessels 
are bound to Salem where you are well acquainted, and 
anxious to get the agreeable Tidings as soon as possible to 
my anxious Family, induces me to put the Letters under 
cover to you, not doubting but you will forward them on 
with the greatest expedition. I shall improve an opportu- 
nity of a Danish Bottom that goes this Morning for Statia 
under the Sanction of an Act of the Br. Parliament pass'd 
last May in favor of the Inhabitants of this Island, who are 
indulged to ship the Produce of this Island on Board any 
Nieutral Bottom to pass unmolested by any of their Cruisers; 
which circumstance affords a very advantageous Trade 
between this and Statia. You'll please to understand this 
Indulgence only extends to this Island and the Granadines 
as it surrendered at discretion, the other Islands capitulated 
under some advantages this did not. 

1780 ] RHODEISLAND 95 

There is nothing new to communicate and hurry compels 
me to conclude, which is with the sincerest regard to you 
and your extensive Family from Dear Sir your esteem'd 
Friend and Humble Servant, 

Samson Mears 

De Valnais ^ TO Christopher Champlin 

Q. Boston, the 20th July, 1780. 

The hurry I was in to set out for Boston, has hindered me 
to wait upon [you] before my Departure. I expected you 
would call upon me when I was at New Port. Mr. Bell the 
Bearer of this will pay you what you have been so kind as to 
advance for Messieurs de Villemarais and Chadirac. M. 
Bell as Correspondent and agent of M. Holker will supply 
the wants of the french Fleet; so it is not in my power to do 
anything on that Head; but I have strongly recommended 
M. Bell to give you the preference when opportunity will 
present for articles of Goods you may have to dispose of. 
I expect to go to New Port some time in the next week. 
. . . I have, etc. 

De Valnais 

Joseph and John Rogers to Christopher Champlin 

Q- Providence, 28th July, 1780. 

We received yours of yesterday's date about 8 o'clock this 
Morning and in consequence of your requisitions our Jno. 
Rogers made immediate Application at Mr. Bacon's house 
who we find went to Boston the day before yesterday, he 
is expected by the Family to return tomorrow or the day 
after, perhaps it may not be too late to have the Rum 
lodg'd in Attleborough about 9 or 10 Miles from hence which 
will be attended with the additional Expence of a Man's 
going out there to procure a safe place to lodge it at as we 

1 Consul of France at Boston. 

g6 COMMERCEOF [ 1780 

presume the Teamsters will not make any Allowance from 
their Contract to deliver it in this Town. As West India 
Goods are in little demand and Continental Money very 
scarce in this Town at present we shall be oblig'd perhaps 
to sell the Rum under its real worth for the purpose of raising 
the Cash and wish for your more particular directions in this 

At present we are in a Scene of Confusion, the Militia are 
all order'd to be in readiness and expect momently orders to 
repair to the Island in consequence of the intelligence rec'd 
of a British Army marching Eastward on Long Island.^ 
their Embarkation and appearance of Newport will at once 
prevent the removal of a single article of private property 
be it where it will, in or near this State, give me your 
further directions respecting the Rum and the Tenor of 
them shall be comply'd with, with as much punctuality as is 

the Salt have stor'd agreeable to your directions on a 
Wharf Store which saves Trunkage Expence and the Freight 
being £90 Currency paid the Skipper and his rec't del'd up. 

We enclose you a price current in Boston by a Gentleman's 
Letter of the 22d inst. date, who informs us the Gen'l Starks 
out of Cape Ann a 20-Gun Ship has captur'd 3 valuable 
Ships bound to Quebec with 350 Hhds. of Rum a large 
Quantity of Dry Goods among which it is said there is 12000 
ps. of Irish Linnen. 

the Air Furnace for casting Iron Cannon in this Town was 
last night entirely consum'd by Fire. 

Nothing further material occuring at present We beg to 
subscribe ourselves with Sincere Esteem, Sir, Your very 
humble Servants 

Jos. AND Jno. Rogers 

P. S. We shall write you again at Mr. Bacon's return 

^ The French fleet with an army had reached Newport a few days before this 
letter was written. 



R H O D 

E I S L A N D 97 

Price Current Boston July 22d. 

W. I. Rum 

£i8 to £20 Gal'n 

Indigo £24 to £30 lb. 

N. E. Do. 

£12 to £13.4/ 

Bar Iron £5. to 6000 per Ton. 

Lf Sugar 

96/ to 120/ 

Wheat Flour £140 to £150. 

Brown Do. 

£180. to £200. 

Rye £90. to £100. 

Tea, Bohea 

£21. to £24. 

French Bills of Exchange 50 to 60 for one, 


60/ to 72/. 

Hard Money, 60 to 70. 


80/ to 90/. 

Joseph and John Rogers to Christopher Champlin 


Providence, 31st July, 1780. 
Monday, 9 o'Clock Morning. 

We just now received yours of yesterday's date previous 
to which we convers'd with Mr. Bacon concerning the Rum, 
who return'd from Boston Yesterday and informs us it is 
not to be mov'd untill his further directions, in consequence 
of which we have order'd that it shall not be sent on untill 
he receives yours or our Orders for that purpose which he 
engages to comply with. 

The Salt shall be delivered your Order, the person whose 
Favour it is in paying Freight, Storage, Wharfage, and Roll- 
ing to the Store, agreeable to the Tenor of your Letter. The 
Freight £90, Rolling £6, and Wharfage and Storage not yet 
ascertain'd but at the Customary Rate. 

We are greatly at a Loss in our Opinion respecting the 
Movements of the Enemy but believe their immediate Object 
is a general Stroke at the Fleet and Army in your Town, or to 
frustrate the Attempts of our Allies against Jamaica — the 
former appears by far the most feasable tho the Dismission 
of all the Militia this Morning is a favourable Omen. That 
you will still be in a more happy Situation, than the confus'd 
Noise of War, Thunder of Cannon and Death at your very 
Doors, that you may be deliver'd from those horrid Scenes 
is the ardent Wish of Sir Your very humble Servants 

Jos. AND Jno. Rogers 

98 COMMERCEOF [ 1780 

George Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

• London, 3d August, 1780. 

My last bore date 8th April 1778 since which I have 
received your favours of 7th January 1779, 9th, 17th April 
and loth May, 1780. The bills you advise to have drawn 
upon me for £30 in favour of Mr. John De Neufville and 
£200 in favour of Henry Greig are paid and placed to your 
debit. I have just received a remittance from Stephen 
Deblois for £199.15.7 which will be placed to your credit. 
With this remittance I received your memorandum for a few 
Goods to be forwarded to Messrs. John DeNeufville and Son 
of Amsterdam for your Account which was dispatched to 
them in a few days, and herewith you have the Invoice 
thereof amounting to £84.14.11 which is placed to your 
debit. You say nothing about Insurance on these Goods. 

1 therefore make none from hence to Amsterdam, and as 
the risk is very trifling I hope they will arrive in safety. 
From Amsterdam I suppose Messrs. De Neufville's have 
your instructions to insure them, for which purpose I give 
them the amount of the Invoice. 

Your letter of the 7th Janry., 1779, respecting the remain- 
ing £100 Insurance on t4ie Peggy s freight has been laid before 
the Insurers but I have not been able to obtain a settlement. 
By the Laws of Insurance here Insurers are not liable to any 
expence which arises from detention. If your Vessel had 
proceeded from Norwich to her destined port, you must 
have born the expence of transporting her thither before 
you could have been entitled to your full freight. If there- 
fore the Insurers pay your full freight, they must be allowed 
the expence that was saved by her not proceeding from 
Norwich. This they think could not have been less than 
£100 for Wages, provisions, port charges, and expence of 
unloading, and other small charges. In this calculation 
however I suppose they over rate it; but I must beg the 
favour of you to make out and send to me as regular an 
Estimate as you can of what those charges would have been 

1780 ] RHODEISLAND 99 

and no time shall be lost in getting it adjusted. I notice 
that you think the remittances received from Mr. Trant 
cannot be in full, to which I can only say that he calls them 
in full, and says he allows Interest for part of the time the 
money lay in his hands. I can do nothing with Mr. Brymer, 
he denies having any orders from his Nephew. If you can 
procure and send me such an order he shall be diligently 
followed. I am. Sir, Your very humble Servant, 

[Endorsed,] Via Amsterdair. ^^°- HaYLEY 

Samson Mears to Aaron Lopez 

rj o • St. Eustatia, August 6th, 1780. 

I HAVE the happiness to advise you of safe arrival to this 
Island, which I found strangely altered; filld with Strangers, 
Goods and Shipping. There has been a very advantageous 
Trade carried on here for some time past, but the reduction 
of Carolina and the Huricane Season, has given it a sudden 
check. At a more leisure opportunity I shall descant more 
largely on commercial matters, and then I hope to be able 
to give you some account of your Bill on Is. Werden Esqr. 
which I am sorry to say is yet unsettled; it shall be a matter 
of my attention to effect a settlement and of which shall 
advise you hereafter. In the mean time beg your care in 
forwarding the inclosed and crave your acceptance of the 
annex'd Price Current with my respectful regard to you and 
all your good Family, being with real esteem Dr. Sir Your 
Friend and humble Servant 

Samson Mears 



Clay'd Su 


8^ to 14 ps. 

Russ Sheeting 

18 ps. 

Musco. D 


7 to 8 ps. 

Oznab [urg]s 

6 to 7 St. 


2 Bitts. 

Russ. Drilling 

10 to 1 1 ps. 


3I to 4§ Bt. 

Cordage scarce 

16 to 18 ps. 


I Bt. 


4I to 6 ps. 


15 to 16 Stiv's. 

N 2 Checks 

4I ps. 


9 ps- 

3 do. 

5 to si ps. 


4 to 4^ ps. 


i8§ to 20 Bts, 


C O M M E 


L 1780 

Brandy the keg 

6 ps. 


II to 12 ps. 

Hol'd Duck 

24 to 26 ps. 

Engl'h do. 

II at 8| ps. 36 yds. ps. 

Russ. Do. 

i6j to 17 ps 

Dutch Blankett 

16 to 18 B'ts. 

Rav. Do. 

14 ps. 

Engl'h do. Comm'n 20 to 30 Bts. 

Cinamon and 

Com. Negro 




II to 12 ps. a ps. 


3^ ps. Nutm's 2j ps. 

Bath Coating 

10 to 12/ yd. 

Selissia Hank's 

4^ to 12 ps. 


Ind. Chintz 

10 to icx) ps. Patern 

Col. Romal Do. 

4A to si ps. 

. 15 in ps. 

Virgin. Tobac. 

14 to 20 ps. 

Barcelong do. 

12 to 16 ps. 


M. Land do. 

8 to II ps. 

Com. Callicoes 

4 to 8 Bts. 


Cowpen no sale for. 


4 to 7 ps. 

Carolina Indigo 

3 to 7 B't. 


7 to 30 ps. 

French do. 

12 B'ts. 


10 to 40 ps. 

24 Ells ps. 

Irish Linens 

3 to 16 B'ts yd. 


4 to II B'ts yd. 

Bohea Tea 

6 B'ts. 


8 to 30 ps. 

\2\ El's ps. 

Green Do. 

16 to 20 B'ts. 

Dutch Ribbons 

6 to 33 Bts 

. 20 do. ps. 

Bl. Pepper scarce 5 Bits. 


55 ps- m. 

Light do. 

14 ps. 

W. 0. Staves 

Tl ps. do. 


22 ps. 

R. 0. do. 

55 ps. do. 


i3| firk. 

Hoops fit for 


8 ps. 

Tobacco Hh'ds 

80 ps. 


10 ps. 


81 ps. 


12 ps. B'l. 

Congress Bills on 

Best heavy beef 

■ 18 ps. 


8 to 8§ Bitts the Dollar. 

Assignees of William Stead to 
Christopher Champlin 


London, 9th August, 1780. 

Misfortunes, the want of remittances, and an infirm state 
of health hath induced Mr. Stead to put all his affairs into 
the hands of Assignees for the benefit of himself and Credi- 
tors. We have therefore, in order to facilitate a close of his 
Estates and Effects in America, disposed of the whole to the 
bearer, George Rome, and have this day executed proper 
Deeds of Conveyances to him, with powers to recover by 
and give the necessary discharges; And whereas it appears 
to us, that Mr. Robert Jenkins, Junior, deceased, as attorney 
to Messrs. WilHam Stead and Son, alias Mr. William Stead, 
took a Mortgage on some Lands in Rutland in order to 
secure a Debt of £800 Stg: And as that Debt and Mortgage 
is now assigned over to Mr. Rome, and he is apprehensive a 


quitclaim or Deed of conveyance from Mr. Jenkins's Heirs 
or Executors, etc., may be necessary; We, therefore, hereby 
request, you will either separately, or jointly with Mr. 
Bulkley's Heirs, give him such further Conveyances as the 
Law may require to annul so far the transactions of the said 
Robert Jenkins, as to render Mr. Romes title to the premises 
compleat against his Heirs etc. We are, Sir, Your Most 
Obedient Humble Servants, 

William Stead ] 

Martin Petrie \ Assignees 

Charles Jacomby J 

Joseph and John Rogers to Christopher Champlin 

Q • Providence, August 19th, 1780. 

Our John Rogers forgot calling on you in Newport as 
promis'd but takes this Opportunity of requesting you 
wou'd send up 500 Dollars which shall be credited your 
Account, 320 being already paid, and the Storage and 
Wharfage yet unsettl'd. Your further directions respecting 
this or any other Business shall be with pleasure accom- 
plish'd to the best of our Abilities. 

Have annex'd you a price current which cannot if of no 

Service, be the contrary. Mr. Bacon informs me the 

Merchants in Boston sell their Goods for Hard and paper 

Currency at as much odds as 75 for One, the Exchange here 

is about 70. I refus'd 100 Hard Dollars ofFer'd at that the 

day before Yesterday. Please to give us a general price 

current with you which will much oblige Sir Your very 

humble Servants t t t-» 

Jos. AND Jno. Rogers 

W. I. Rum £21. Boston, common proof £27 here 20 per Ct. over proof. 

N. England Do. £13.10/ Boston. Charge £80 for hhds. 

Molasses £12. to £13. Boston. £13. to £14.2/ here. 

Bohea Tea 70 to 75 Dollars Boston, £22.10 to £24 here. 

Coffee 9 to 10 Dollars Boston, 10 to 11 Dollars here. 

Dry Goods a genteel Assortment of English Goods in this Town at about £300 
L. Money for £100 Sterling prime Cost in Europe. A Merchant with a good Capital 
may make an advantageous purchase. 

i02 commerceof [ 1780 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Q • Amsterdam, 22th August, 1780. 

Our last we had the pleasure of writing you was the 21th 
May per Capt. Haydon, by which we inclosed you Invoice 
and Bill of Loading for the sundries we had shipped you on 
board of his Vessel the brig Hannah amounting to £929.5. 
Since we have been favored with your sundry letters under 
date of the 17 April 10, 25 and 29 May their verious con- 
tents we have duly noted, we have your following bills 
vizt. Benjamin Wrights draft on John Pitt at 60 days 
sight for £40 Stg. and three bills on the Commissioners at 
Paris together Dolls. 108. these have meet due honor and 
your Account has been creditted with. 

In regard to the further contents of your letter and the 
Consignment you've made us per the Ship Rambler Capt. 
Lovet,^ her entering into Marstrand ^ has brought us in to 
many difficulties, first it is not permitted for any Swedish 
Vessel to bring us any other produce here but those of the 
Growth of that Country, and there being no dutch Vessel 
at Marstrand your Goods must remain there untill one offers, 
and to have them sold there will not answer, it being a very 
poor country, and Ashes is one of the principal returns they 
make to this country, besides as they must be brought 
here freight free Mr. Sigourney has put them under the care 
of one Mr. Henry Crugh, who has promised to forward us 
the whole as soon as a Vessel offers, which hope will be soon, 
we can neither make any calculation on the Indigo, a sale 
depends on its quality it being worth from 20 to 60 St. and 
upwards. Regarding sending you the Goods from hence, 
we found no less difficulties, as there is seldom or no dutch 
Vessels a going there and the quantity of Goods you had 
ordered was not sufficient to engage one except to have paid 
half their Value in freight, we had however the promise 
of a Swedish one and in consequence we purchased and made 

^ Captain Benjamin Lovet. 

2 A seaport of Sweden, on an island in the Cattegat. 


ready your order except sundry Goods which we could not 
get here and were obhged to order in London. In the 
interim these preparations were making the Swedish Vessel 
decHned the Voyage, but soon after another offered, tho' 
in the interim we were also informed that no China Articles 
were permitted to be imported at Marstrand. So that we 
found ourselves obliged to leave out the 4 Boxes China and 
the 12 ps. Bandanna Handkerchiefs, wich must now remain 
with us untill we receive your further directions, as to the 
Perlong Sattins they were not to be met here, the other 
articles are now a shipping on board of the Catharine Capt. 
Pieter Stostrom who departs next Saturday, we shall 
address the same to Mr. Sigourney or in his absence to Capt. 
Lovat, with order to take them on board of his Ship to your 
Consignment and to send you and us a bill of Loading, we 
have constantly advised Mr. Sigourney how matters stood 
that they might detain the Vessel untill the arrival of your 
Goods, which hope will prove the case, as to the regulating 
of the Freight Mr. Sigourney has wrote us. 

You'll please to ship the whole amount of Mr. Lopez 
effects, or as near as you can and the 28 per Ct. and 12 per Ct. 
may be settled in America with the owners of the Rambler. 

as it is impossible for us to make any calculations regarding 
the Value of your Effects, untill they are sold, no other 
method is left but its being settled between you, on our 
transmitting you the Acct. Sales, when we shall calculate its 
amount and bulk in Tea, as likewise let you know the bulk 
of the Goods shipped, we are very sorry that it is not in 
our power to act more consistent to your directions but 
doubt not your self will be convinced we coud not do other- 
wise, when your Effects per the Rambler are safe deliver'd 
to us we shall then discharge in course your draft on us for 
£3333.6. in favor of Nath'l Tracy Esqr. and debit your 
Account with. We have receiv'd per Capt. Davis the Cask 
of Indigo which is only valued at 45 St. this has made us 
determine to put it at public Vendue to see if some thing 
more coud be obtained, as the same will yield by far less 
than you expected and we can get no Insurance effectuated 

I04 COMMERCEOF [ 1780 

here on any American Vessel, we resolved to make the 
purchase of one Chest of Tea and to send it you in return of 
said Cask of Indigo per said Vessel as per inclosed bill of 
Loading and Invoice which amounts to £334:9. the same 
we've pass'd to your debit, when we've sold the Cask we 
shall transmit you the sales and so whatever difference there 
may be, you can more easily settle it than we with the 
person whose property it is. we flatter our selves you'll 
approve what we've done as otherwise it had been impossible 
for us to have made you its return by this Vessel, we are 
sorry to mention you that to this day the Brigantine Pallas 
Hector McNeill is not yet arrived, so that in all appearance 
said Vessel is fallen into wrong hands, shoud she yet appear, 
you can depend on our attention to comply to your orders. 
We are very sensible at the many marks of friendship you've 
been pleased to give us by recommending to us Messrs. 
Hopkins and Bradford to whom we shall with pleasure 
render all the services in our power We intend to address 
you further in a few days, in the interim we remain very 
respectfully, Sir, Your most obedient Servants 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

P. S. none but the fine copper colour'd Indigo will sell 
to advantage here and_no flower can be admitted. 

John De Neufville and Son to 
Christopher Champlin 

Q. Amsterdam, 2d Sept., [1780.] 

The foregoing is Copy of what we had the honour of 
writing to you the 20th July per Capt. Lamprell, and having 
just received from Mrs. George Hayley in London the two 
trunks you prevented us of, marked © No. i and 2 we 
have shipped them directly as follows 

No. I. per the Brigg Dolphyn, Edward Davis, M'r. bound 

for Boston directed to Mr. Jarvis and Russell. 
No. 2. per the Brigg Betzey, Joseph Cooke, bound for 
Rhode Island and directed to your good self. 


inclosed you have the account there on amounting to £73.16 
Currency, for which your account is debitted. we send one 
bill of Lading to Mr. Jarvis and Russell of the trunk No. i, 
and inclose you the other, desiring very much it may both 
come safe to hand. You'll also find hereby a letter Mrs. 
Hayley desired us to forward, but as we have no duplicate 
there of we send it only by Capt. Cooke tho' this our letter 
goes by both Vessels. 

By what we wrote you at severall times we suppose you 
have been fully acquainted with the loss of the Brigg Amelia 
near Madeira whereby we shipped one Chest Tea for you to 
the Amount of 313.4, the Ballance of £26.18. due to you on 
the remitted bill of £.st.30. remains still at the Creditor on 
you account, and what may be your share in the salvage 
which we calculate will go to about 20% will be added 
thereto, but we are not able yet to make up the generall ac- 
count by want of some papers which have been lost by the 
vessell they came in from Madeira, we wrote sundry times 
for the duplicates and hope they may at length reach us. 
after this matter is settled we will lay out what may be 
due to you in good white Lead and ship it for Boston ac- 
cording to your directions, we have the honour to be most 
respectfully, Sir, Your Most obedient humble Servants, 

John de Neufville and Son 

Daniel Pitkin to Aaron Lopez 

7-v ^j • Hartford, September 14th, 1780. 

I HAVE sent on 2 Teams for Capt. Wileys Goods, Ens. 
Joseph Hurlburt and G. Roberts. Roberts you will please 
to give 3000 lb. in full as per agreement of Capt. Wiley. 
You was pleased to ask my opinion on the Sail of Salt, the 
Inhabitants round here are but poorly supplyed with this 
artickle now but say their is a plenty in Boston. The 
Teamsters go down and fetch it and return for 100 wt flower 
I Bushell of Rock Salt, their is likely to be considerable 
pork to be salted on the River but cannot say how Salt will 

I06 COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

come in. I fancy that the Market in Hartford will be much 

governed by the Market in Boston. I wish that the Salt 

might be sold for Continental Bills if Silver or flower cannot 

be obtained for it. Bohea Tea retails at 120 Doll's i li. 

Pray Sir have you any Scarlet Br'd Cloth. Mrs. White a 

Lady which I am Administrator with on her late Husbands 

Estate wants i^ yard for a Cloak for her Daughter of a 

pretty good Quality not the most superfine, the price she 

wishes to know, if you would please to give a Shred to the 

Teamsters will pay in Continental Money or she will take 

out of the office next month Bill on France at 30 days sight 

to the amount of 96 Doll's. Will have them to dispose of 

and perhaps they will suit in payment and as all men wish 

to get the most so the Women wish for the same. 50 can be 

had at the office and I believe that it is the highest price they 

are sold at and as they will fall into my hands to dispose of 

must do the best for the Widdow and fatherless: If the 

Cloth and price suit will be glad to take it and will send if 

in the course of any Buisiness we should have and will serve 

our mutual Interest will be glad to save the Bills for you 

Sir if you are inclined to purchase them. I am with Respect 

Your Humble Obedient Servant, j-v ry 

Daniel Fitkin 

N. B. The News of Generall Gate Defeat may be relyed 
on as fact. 

John Rogers to Christopher Champlin 

Q. Providence, 19th September, 1780. 

On the presumption of your intentions to remit some Bills 
to Europe this Fall I take this opportunity to inform you I 
purpose going in 6 or 8 weeks myself. My plan is at present 
to go to France and negotiate m,y Bills, as that cannot be 
accomplish'd in Holland without 10 per Ct. discount, whereas 
there is only 4 or 5 in France, and proceed by Land with the 
Cash to Amsterdam where I expect to lay it out, unless there 
shou'd be previously a Treaty of peace on foot between this 
Continent and Great Britain, in which case I shall proceed 


immediately to England from the assurance of laying in 
Goods to greater advantage, particularly Hard Ware of all 
kinds. I purpose shipping my own Effects for St. Eustatia, 
if I purchase in Amsterdam and the War continues, but those 
of my Employers shall be punctually laid in and ship'd 
agreeable to their directions, if it is your inclination to 
ship any Bills by me, I shall be happy Sir, in being honor'd 
with your Commands and will execute the same to the best 
of my knowledge on as reasonable terms as any person and 
flatter myself you will not think me incapable, as I have 
serv'd 12 or 14 years in that particular branch of Business 
which was always my delight to aspire after a perfect knowl- 
edge of the same, and have the vanity to think I have ac- 
quir'd it to as great a degree as most Young Fellows educated 
in that line. 

Your mentioning and recommending me to those Gentle- 
men in the Mercantile Line in Newport who you think 
probable wou'd send any Bills and any Letters of Recom- 
mendation you can consistent with your own feelings give 
me to Merchants either in France, Holland, or England, 
will lay me under the greatest obligations and it is not 
improbable if only to the latter kingdom, be of infinite 
service to me. French Bills can now be procur'd at 55 for 
one or 20 per Ct. under par; permit me to recommend them 
as the best thing now to purchase on the principle of specula- 
tion as I am well convinc'd they will be nearly at Par in a 
very few weeks. Any of your favours in the operation of 
this my intended Tour will be gratefully acknowledg'd by 
Dear Sir Your affectionate Friend and very humble Servant 

John Rogers 

Agreement for Exporting Flour ^ 

Christopher Champlin of Newport having assign'd 
and indorsed over to Ebenezer Gracy of Darby in Connecti- 
cut as his agent, his Permission from Governor Trumbull 
of s'd Connecticut, to export by water from s'd Darby to 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

I08 COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

Newport Two hundred Barrils of Flour for use of the French 
Army, upon the conditions, viz. 

1st. said Gracy promises without chargeing any Com- 
mission, to receive from said ChampHn by any boat he may 
ship it. Two hundred and forty Bushels of Salt and see 
it deliv'd at Darby landing to Mr. Daniel Shearman , of 
Woodbury, and his Associates as per engagement with Mr. 
Hinman of said Woodbury and his Associates Fine Wheat 
Flour well bolted and packed in barrils deliverd at said 
landing by them at the time of delivering the salt viz. one 
hundred and one quarter of a hundred Gross Weight, for 
every bushel of Salt so delivered, said Champlin paying the 
customary price for the barrils. And ship the said Flour at 
the lowest Freight to said Champlin, at Newport. 

2ndly. what effects said Champlin may consign to said 
Gracy, (money excepted), to purchase the remainder of the 
200. barr's contained in s'd Permission said Gracy shall 
charge a customary Commission upon the sale. 

3dly. What Flour or other articles said Gracy may ship 
to the adress of said Champlin over and above s'd 200 barr's 
shall be sold without Commission and the first price of s'd 
Goods made good to s'd Gracy out of the sales, and the 
remainder equally divided between said Gracy and 
Champlin, and any Goods which said Champlin may send 
to said Gracy for payment of such flour and other goods 
so shiped, shall be sold without any Commission. 

4thly. any Goods shiped by said Gracy for Newport on 
the joint account of him self and said Champlin; or any 
Goods shiped by said Champlin to Darby, on the joint 
account of him self and said Gracy shall be considered at 
their joint account and risk having due regard to advice 
rec'd from each other from time to time, and the apparent 
Danger of the Enemy. Receipts must be taken by each 
Party at each place at the time of shiping any Goods, on 
their joint Account to vouch that the same is on their joint 

Chris Champlin 

Newport, September 20th, 1780. Eben'r GrACY 

1780] rhode island io9 

Daniel Pitkin to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Dear Sir Hartford, 26th Sept'r, 1780. 

Having an Oppertunity to pay my Respects and as you 
have formerly desired me to let you know the Markets in 
Hartford the Exchange for hard Money is 72 Salt hath 
been sold lately Rock for 4 hard Doll per Bushell, first White 
Sugar by the Hdd, for 10 Dolls, perhaps on ac't of the 
Scaircity of Continental Money may have occasion[ed] a 
fall on artickle and the plenty of the New Emis[sio]n of 
State Money which in generall is sleighted by most people, 
the Scarlet Br'd Cloth will not sute Mrs. White. I am with 
much Respect Your Humble Obedient Servant, 

Daniel Pitkin 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Dear Sir Newport, October sth, 1780. 

By what Mr. Brinley wrote you last week, you'll be in- 
form'd that he had applied to me for money on your order 
and the result of that application, he this day requested 
he might have what money I had in hand of yours as he 
cou'd get it exchang'd for Specia at 70 and saying that he 
wou'd settle the exchange with you, who he did not doubt 
wou'd allow it at that, this I judg'd myself not warranted 
to do and therefore rejected it, but ofFer'd to let him have it 
at 60 for one. he accepted my offer and I have paid him 
seven thousand two hundred Cont. Dollars and taking his 
rec't for the same, which hope will not be disagreable unto 
you. Your Currants and Peas remain unsold and have 
only sold but 2 p'r Breeches at 8 Doll's per p'r. The 3 
boxes of Sugar from Smithfield I received last week, that 
article is so plenty and low now that I see no prospect of 
getting rid of ours soon, except at a great disadvantage. 
Mr. Channing again applied for the use of the Synagogue. 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 
* The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

no COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

I availed myself of the impropriety of letting him having 
it, whilst I had not Mr. Rivera and your sense on the occasion 
and which had been requested by his and Mr. Merchants 
desire. Since then Doct'r Stiles is come here on a Visit, 
and I made it my business to converse with him on the 
matter, he express'd much concern and amazement at the 
application, assur'd me it wou'd not have been made had he 
been here, that he was well convinc'd we cou'd not acceed 
to it, without violating our religious principles, and that all 
that lay in his power shou'd be done to remove any unfavor- 
able impressions that a refusal might create amongst his 
congregation, and on the whole express'd a very friendly 
feeling for us. notwithstanding all which I think it highly 
necessary that both you and Mr. Rivera furnish me with your 
Opinion respecting the matter. My Parents, Mrs. Seixas, 
her Parents, and all my Connection combine with me in 
wishing you, Mrs. Lopez, Mr. and Mrs. Rivera, Mr. and Mrs. 
Mendes and every individual of your worthy family the 
Compliments of the season and am with great Respect, 


Doct'r Coninta is not got here yet. I am told he is ex- 
pected and has been so for these 2 weeks past, his Brewery 
has fell thro' as his brave Countrymen dont abide unto 
contracts unless it suits them. Should he come you may 
rely on my attention to your order. Mr. Hays just now 
arrived from Phil'a. 


Mathew Robinson to Christopher Champlin 

^' Hopewell Farm, October 30th, 1780. 

Agreeable to the Advice of an ancient Sage of the 
Eastern part of the World one Solomon to use Prudence 
and Discretion in our Journey thro' Life, and finding that 
one Grain of Caution is worth a Pound of Medicine, I am 
by these Cogitations and some heavy threats on the Face of 
the Waters driven to suspect that the French may (before I 
see you again) take a Start and go off; as all things and per- 
sons seem startish among us now-a-daies, therefore send this 
to pray you to apply to the 2 Generals Viomenil at the late 
Governor Wanton's House for my Clock and Key to wind 
it up withal (the Key of the door is lost) upon Condition 
they should at any time of a sudden be going away; and 
desire you hereby to take it into your Custody and take 
care of it for me; The other Household Goods I lent them 
I shall write to our Neighbour Capt. Buckmaster to take 
charge of, and not trouble you with them. My Regards 
attend you and Mother Wife and Family, and believe me 
to be as I am. Sir, Your Friend and humble Servant, 

M. Robinson 
Paper is scarce. 

Nicholas Garrett to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Q, . Northamton, November the 7, 1780. 

I HAVE but a moment to wright you concerning our 
busenness. I have procurd three hundred Bushels of wheat 
agreeable to your request in your letter at Newport for six 
and six pence per Bushel, the money must be paid in five 
or six weeks from this, the Rum and Salt I have disposed 
of part a hhd Rum for 100 Bushels wheat Salt foer Bushels 
wheat for one of Salt which is the best Exchange can be made 
hear at present which I am much deceived in the Exchange 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

112 COMMERCE OF [ 1780 

but however I have not exchanged but for three hundred 
Bushels wheat but hope to do better with the rest of the 
Goods. Salt is plenty and pon the fall Rum is like to be a 
good articel. this busenness will detain me hear this winter. 
I shall exert my self to our best advantage in this busenness. 
flower will be high next sumer. I shall acomplish the hul 
busenness this winter and git the flower ready to go by 
warter in the spring. Excuse my horrey. I hope this will 
find your famely well not forgitting your self, the Teamsters 
Bills runs away with everey thing. I shall come and see 
you in foer or five weeks. I should be glad to write you 
moer poticuler on this sircumstance but have not time. 
No more at preasent. I remane your frend and Sarvent, 

Nicholas Garratt 

Joseph and John Rogers to Christopher Champlin 

Q. Providence, ist December, 1780. 

You may be assur'd our Jno. R. will obtain Recom- 
mendatory Letters in the fullest manner from Gentlemen 
of Influence in this State, particularly from the first Magis- 
trate for one, to Doctor Franklin, the greatest American 
public Character in Europe, he has assurances of many 
Letters to that Gentleman from his Friends and Connections 
and is sensible of standing at least an equal Chance, in the 
procuring a sett of papers to proceed to England to use in 
case of Emergency, he has no Expectations if Application 
is made of procuring a permitt from the Authority of this 
Continent or State for such a procedure unless under such 
restrictions as to render the plan very inconvenient, those 
who have already accomplish'd getting English Goods in, 
have had no Authority from this Continent for the same, 
believe they have either proceeded without any other but 
British papers, or procur'd additional ones from Doctor F. 
Our J. R. purpose conversing with the Governor and see you 
in Newport with the other Gentlemen and discuss the Mat- 


ters fully at which time wish Matters may be so far deter- 
min'd with you as to draw some final Conclusions. 

We are Sir Your most Obedient and very humble Servants, 

Jos. AND Jno. Rogers 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

^> , Amsterdam, the 18 Xber., 1780. 

We beg you'll be referr'd to the prefix'd 3d Copy of our 
last respects under date of the 9th November, have now 
to acknowledge the receipt of your esteemed favors of the 
25 September 4, 5 and 10 October: their various contents 
we have duly noted; but the want of time does not permit 
us at present to enter into all their particulars; so shall 
only mention you the most necessary of what offers. 

On the receipt of your said letters by which you ordered 
us to get £1500. Insurance on your 4 Casks of Indigo per 
Capt. Haydon; we had the same covered tho' with much 
difficulty at 35 per Ct. and for which your account has been 
debitted vizt. 

£1500 at 35 per Ct £525. -.- 

Policy £2. -.- 
Commission | per Ct. 7.10.- 9.10.- 


about five days after we had effectuated said Insurance we 
had the agreeable account of the Juno Capt. Haydon's safe 
arrival at the Flee; he is come up since and has delivered 
us your four Casks of Indigo; with which we shall do the 
needful; by him we have also receiv'd the Copy's of your 
favors unto the 4th October. 

We have sold your Pearl Ashes from 60 to 90 St. but the 
mayor part at the last price; and your Indigo at 68 St. 
which is a very high price for Carolina Indigo. 

When opportunity offers v/e shall send you the Tea and 
pins you've desired. We remain very Respectfully, Sir: 
Your most Obedient Servants, 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

114 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

David Lopez, Jr., to Aaron Lopez 

rk J TJ JO' Providence, January 2d, 1781. 

Dear and Honored bir, . j / . / 

I HAD the honor by return of the Teamsters last Friday 
to acknowledge with brevity receipt of your most esteem'd 
and kind favor of the 26th ulto. the late hour at which they 
arrived deprived me the pleasure of replying to its contents 
so fully as it required; I then proposed to improve this 
days post for that purpose, but recolecting since, that other 
teams will probably be forwarded this week with the re- 
mainder of the Flour for Mr. Breck, whose return will not 
much exceed the arrivall of the post at Leicester, have 
deliberated to anticipate their Comming and make one of 
them the bearer of this, permit me, my dearest Sir, to 
reiterate with a heart felt gratitude, the sincere acknowl- 
edgments that so justly is due for your great benevolence 
in negotiating a plan for my Establishment, which I esteem 
so beneficial; and in which, your most excelent and liberal 
heart, I am fully convinced was purely actuated from motives 
of benignity towards me. this additional instance joined 
to the many and repeated marks of your goodness, and 
favour, which from my youth upwards I have experienc'd 
at your benevolent hands, claims more than the fullness of 
my heart, or my pen can express, binds me for ever by the 
strongest ties of gratitude and affection, which to my latest 
day will continue indelibly engraved in my mind, and which 
the study of my life shall be to evince the sincerity of by 
acceptable actions. 

I have conformable to your instructions this day address'd 
Mr. Hastings on the subject; assuring him of my ready 
assent to the proposed connection; but not being apprised 
the particulars that has passed between your honored self 
and him (which I refer'd him to) and wishing to have the 
concurrent advice of my benevolent patrons in this important 
affair, which their great benignity has so far led them to 
promote and transact; I assum'd the liberty of proposing 
to him our meeting at Leicester whenever it would prove 


convenient to him, for the purpose of closing the Contract; 
and shall on receiving his reply, endeavor to be on the spot 
a few days before the appointed time to consult your honored 
selves on the subject. 

Respecting the propositions agitated to our friend Benson 
upon considering his seeming indifference and slow deter- 
mination, I cannot but readily confess the judicious propriety 
of your Observations and conduct thereon, and join in pre- 
fering this new Connection, the advantage of an excelent 
stand; the income of the Post office; the difference of Stock 
in Trade; added to the high oppinion you entertain of the 
person, and its being a plan dictated by your benevolent 
self, combine to render it to me more agreeable and pleasing, 
and raise my highest gratitude to its blessed author. I pray 
indulgent heaven may in a tenfold measure reward the 
goodness of your liberal Soul, conceed your every blessing 
its bountifuU hand is capable of dispencing, or that can 
tend to render you as truely happy as the fervent wishes of 
my gratefuU heart: may it inspire me with its devine 
guidance to trace the paths of your inimitable footsteps, 
that thereby I may prove a pious observer of its devine 
precepts, an ornament to society, and an honor to a Name 
which by the wisdome and rectitude of your virtuous prin- 
ciples, is render'd so highly respected throughout the Land. 

I note with pleasure your approbation, on the sale of the 
3 Barrells Beef, and cannot but still repeat my regret at the 
unfortunate alteration in the price of the Salt, which did not 
come to hand untill Thursday last; I was not insensible 
kind Sir of the motives that induced you to address me that 
article, and shall gratefully endeavor to render its sales as 
favourable to your interest as posible; at present the season 
being over for the demand, and the adventurers from Nan- 
tucket having crouded in such quantitys, the markets are 
greatly overstock'd, yet I hope some means will offer by 
which I shall be enabled before my removall to put of what 
I have on hand. Mr. Young has still by him, and complains 
sadly at his hard luck, but promises with Bacon to discharge 
their Bills in a day or two when I will improve the first safe 

Il6 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

hand to forward that amount with what other money I may 
have for your account to Mr. Sears of Boston. The sundries 
for our mutual friend Seixas are ship'd to him by a carefull 
person. I wish they may reach his hands in safety, and 
meet an advantageous vent, the half barrell with the few 
goods for my account came in good order, proved right and 
are passed to your Credit in conformity, for your kind 
attention to which I beg you will be pleased to accept the 
Tribute of my best thanks, among them I find three peices 
Silk of which no mention is made; I presume they must 
have been intended for our friend Moses, and escaped your 
mind, to give me directions to forward them. I shall enquire 
of him by the first Boat wither they are missing in his 
Invoice, should they be otherways designed on receiving 
your orders, they shall be faithfully attended to. I hope 
the Hhd. Rum, with the Barrel Coffee transmitted by 
return of the Teams reached you in good order. I have 
only an ullage Cask of Spirits, which as it now becomes scarce 
flatter myself will command a speedy and good sale. The 
CoflFee continues moving off slowly by the hundred etc. 
at 57/ per Ct. I have about five or 6 Ct. left that am in 
expectation of finishing in the course of this week at same 
rate, there is also one hhd. New England Rum, the price 
of which having continually since its receipt been under 
your stipulated orders, still remains without a prospect of 
its arriving thereto, they are now selling at 4/3, therefore 
it must attend your further pleasure. Tea is also selling 
as low as 5/8 which will prevent my obtaining the prefix'd 
price for the Chest received from Boston. I have not at 
present any empty Casks, or the Teams should have carried 
them, if those from Newport reach here in time for the next 
Conveyance I will with pleasure attend your orders to for- 
ward them on. 

I am with the truest Sentiments of duty gratitude and 
esteem, very respectfully, Dear Sir, Your ever gratefull and 
obedient Nephew, 

David Lopez, Junior 


JosiAH Hewes to Aaron Lopez 

Q. Philadelphia, 8 January, 1781. 

Last post I was favoured with yours of the 226. ulto. and 
this day, with that of the 29 ulto., contents observed. 

My last was of the 27 ulto. by Colonel Peck of Providence, 
by whome I sent a bill for 400 dollars, I purchased of the 
Commissioner of Loans, on Doctor Benj'n Franklin, Minister 
at the Court of Versails, at 90 days sight Exchange at 75 
for I, to your Debit 30.000 dollars, allso an Intrest bill for 
42 dollars Exchange 6/3 in Solid Coin £13.2,6. Col. Peck 
gave me a Receipt for said bills, to deliver them to your Store 
keeper, or Agent in Providence, and tould me he expected 
to sett of next day, but was detained several days after, and 
will likely be detained at Camp a day or two. I mention 
this, as this letter may come to hand as soon, or sooner than 
the bills, the post being twice robed of his Male, and no 
other oppertunity offering, thought it most prudent to send 
the bills by Colonel Peck a Gentleman well recommended 
from Providence. I had applyed to Mr. Holker on his 
return to this City, he could not draw; I indeed took every 
step to lay out your Money in bills, had often applyed at 
the Loan office, and had the officers promise to let me know 
if any bills came, on the 15 ulto. he sent for me, and tould 
me Congress had sent him a few bills of 400 dollars to sell 
and that they had all been applyed for. I was a witness 
that the bills ware immediately taken up, tho at 90 days and 
75 for I but as he had promised I might have one or two, I 
took but one fearing if I bought more, they would not answer 
and now am extreamly glad I took no more, and sorry I 
took that but it is too late to repent, and hope you will think 
I did intend for the best. When I receved yours of the 22d 
ulto. I supposed Ben Seixas and Co'yhad a bill on me, and 
would present it, but hearing nothing from them, I this 
morning waited on them to know if they had not a bill on 
me, they tould me they ware to receve such sums of me, but 
they expected 100 dollars in Solid Coin, you mentioned 
as much as would purchase it which I offered them, they 

Il8 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

sayed they would try to purchase the 100 dollars and call 
on me. thus we parted, the post did not come in til this 
evening, when I receved yours of the 29 ulto. as above. I 
find you mention £37.10 in Solid Coin and refering me to 
your last. I had not time again to wait on those Gentlemen, 
least should miss the post but will to morrow and if they have 
not purchased the Solid Coin as mentioned will pay them 
100 hard Dollars and as soon as posable remit you the 
ballance of 10.320 dollars in my hands takeing out the £129 
you mention which will be more for your Intrest than buying 
Gold at 100 for i which is the case here tho' a severe Law 
lately past, that no more than 75 shall be given, which is the 
lowest price any bills can be had for here. Should I send 
bills by post shall observe your directions, have not time 
to add by this post but as soon as can get a bill on Boston 
or an oppertunity to send the Cash will again wait on you. 
Mean time am Most Sincerely yours, 


P\rice\ C[urrent.] flour s. fine i4o£ Common ii5£ bread icx)£ Beef 5So£ 
Pork 75o£ Jam'a Rum £42.10 Windwar[d] £34 Raw Sugars £400 to £440 
Havana box Sugars 10 to 11 dollars per lb. CoflFee 16 dollars Loaf Sugar 26 to 
28 dollars Melasses 22 to 25£ Pimento £20 falling has been £30 Tobacco 
I25£ to i5o£ as in quallity wheat £30 Indian Corn £15 Russia duck 7So£ 
Cordage 75o£ whale oil 75 to 8o£ tanners oil £75 per Gal. bohea tea £35 bills 
of Exchange 75 and 76 for Specie 6/3 to 6/6 on London 50 per Ct. Specie. 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

T^ o • Newport, January 12th, 1781. 

Dear otr, 

Last friday I had the pleasure of receiving your acceptable 
favor of the 26th Ulto. to the Contents of which have duly 
attended, the Goods specified in Invoice No. 5 came to 
hand in good order, but am sorry to inform you that nothing 
is sold therefrom but the spectacles, spoons and Ink pots, 
as the shopkeepers have become fearful of purchaseing by 
reason of Goods daily arriveing from all Quarters and sold 


in general Cheaper the next day than they was the days 
before, neither have I been able to sell any more Baizes, 
which I attibute to the mildness of the Season. Flour is 
contrary to every Opinion hitherto found amazingly plenty, 
the nominal price for cash is 5I dollars but I dare say it may 
be bought for 5, oweing to the large Quantities that are 
daily comeing in and the little demand there is for it. the 
French buy at 7 and pay in Bills at parr, at the going 
price that they give I make no doubt but I cou'd get them 
to take yours, as their Treas: General who is the drawer 
of their Bills quarters with us and has promised to assist 
me in the disposal of any Articles that I might want to 
sell unto them. Pepper is sold at 5/6 L. Mo. by the dozen 
at which rate have sold about 40 [ ] of yours, Nutmegs 
5 dollars. Cinnamon 6, in short every thing is very plenty, 
low aiid dull. The 9th Current Captain Story paid me for 
the Baizes and Hairbines and on that day I paid Charles 
Handy (who is very ill). Two hundred pounds Law: Money 
on your Account, thinking it better to let Mr. Brinley tarry 
untill next week for his money, which suits him as well. 
Handy paid me for the pepper which you sent him which 
please to note, the Ginger you sent Mrs. Hunter will not 
sell at any rate which is a great disappointment. She will 
be glad of a small Cask that is good. I thank you for the 
information respecting my Brother Hiam.^ it is beyond 
a doubt to me that there must have been Letters from him 
unto his Wife and me and that he imprudently sent them 
without putting them under Cover of some friend and that 
some Villian has intercepted them besides my having no 
Letter even from Messes. Crommeline in answer to what 
I wrote them convinces me that it must be so. I this day 
send your empty Casks unto my good friend D. Lopez, as 
at foot. I have also sent 2 Keggs Cosher Tallow, which as 
I had no scales handy, I beg the favor of you to weigh and 
inform me the weight, it cost 6d Sterling li. rough which 

1 Benjamin Mendez Seixas and his wife Zipporah Levy had sixteen children, 
of whom Moses was the eldest, born in 1780. Hyman L. Seixas was born 

I20 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

suppose brings it at 8^. tried. I have also sent your Good 
Lady's pickle pot, but we take shame to ourselves that 
after detaining it so long, now to return it empty, not so 
much as a bitt of Fish to be had to put in it. I forwarded 
your Letter unto Mr. Robinson, and a few days after he 
came to Town, inclosed you have his reply. I cannot at 
present write my much esteem'd friend Mr. Rivera, but if 
I might presume to advise him, it shoud be that Mr. Robin- 
son be obliged to take the Bill up and give his note for the 
Amount and not let it lay in the manner it now does. A few 
days ago, I run the prong of a sharp fork into my right 
thumb which makes it very sore and painfull and can hardly 
hold a pen. you'll therefore be pleas'd to excuse this scrawl 
and the brevity which I use in replying to your favor. My 
Mother, Mrs. Seixas and all friends unites with me in usual 
Salutations, and am Respectfully, Dear Sir, Your most 
Affectionate humble Servant, 

Moses Seixas 

Jonathan Hastings, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

p. Q' Boston, 15th February, 1781. 

The following is an Extract of Mr. Green's Letter relative 
to the Shop: "Your favor of the 25 Ulto. came to hand yes- 
terday containing some further proposals which simply 
considered I would entertain no unfavourable Opinion of 
them, nor am I unwilling to extend the time as you desire 
on the condition mentioned of wanting it myself; and there- 
fore in order to comply with your Request, say, that I wo'd 
confirm your Expectation of the three years from the last 
Settlement (on the above Condition,) at the rate of £40 per 
year (in quarterly payments as usual) as I suppose you do 
and I should in other times look upon it as a sufficient Offer: 
but tho' I have given an answer as I have, yet I shall still 
leave it to your further Consideration whether considering 
the superior advantages of Scituation etc. etc. and the rate 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. Lopez had gone to 




Others are now set at and only let, or the price fixed quar- 
terly, whether it ought not to be something more, this I 
can assure you I could have had a great deal more had I 
hearkned to the proposal, but I rest this intirely in your 
own Breast, after making any proper Inquiry to satisfy 
yourself about it. I have wrote as I have to save time, 
depending you will not let me, as I am perswaded you would 
not be willing that I should be a sufferer by the Bargain, as 
we cant transact at this distance altogether as if I was 
present, which being the needfull on the subject I remain 
yours" — thus he: 

Tho' Mr. Green has been very prolix, yet it is beyond my 
Expections of having so definitive an answer, which for 
him is exceeding full, and sufficient in my opinion to engage 
it me for 3 years at £40 per ann. this is also his Brother 
Edward's mind on the matter. 

The inclosed is the prices current 

New England Rum 45 dollars 
W. I. . . do. . . 80 do. 

Sugar in Barrell 

CoflFee. . . 


L. Sugar . 

Cotton wool . 

. 600 do. 
. 8 do. 

70 do. 

16 do. 


Dry Goods of the best quality 

Bills on France 

Hard . . . 

Port Wine . 

Iron . 

Steel . . . 

Iron and Steel fa 

. 2^ for I. 

3/6 hard. 
£200 per C. 
18 do. per li. 

1 rapidly. 

We have accounts from the West Indies of great Success, 
of which the inclosed paper will inform you, of the Ships 
and Transports taken by Count De Estaing's Squadron. 

You know my haste on Post Mornings, must therefore 
conclude that I am yours sincerely, 

Jon'a Hastings, jun. 

[On the outside of the letter: ] Just arrived a Confirmation 
of C. D. Estain[g's] Success of the Western Islands, by a 
Vessell arrived at Dartmouth, which left Martinico after 
one of the Count's Ships had arrived there. 7 Capital Ships 
are taken and 45 Transports only.^ 

1 "Ever since you left Boston Goods have been falling. Vendue olHces opening 
every week much to the disadvantage of the shopkeeper." Jonathan Hastings, Jr., 
to Aaron Lopez, February 26, 178 1. Ms. 

122 commerce of [ 1781 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

Dear Sir, Newport, February 18, 1781. 

The next day after I rec'd your favour of the 226. Ulto, 
I sold your flour for the use of the French forces at 7 dollars 
per Cwt. payable in their bills at par, and altho nothing has 
been wanting on my part to compleat the matter before 
this, yet the tedious manner of their purchasers has prevented 
the same being effected, for even now I am waiting for the 
bills, the Quantity sold was 35 Casks (in which is included 
the 2 specified in Invoice No. 6) which weigh'd here 96.3.20 
Nt. so that it fell short 1.0.7 frorn what you sent it at. not- 
withstanding this sale being so disadvantageous, yet you may 
depend the purchase was made to oblige me. I am very 
sorry that your Baizes will not sell here, and of the damage 
that has accrued unto you by their being here, but I cannot 
help it. every effort of mine has been exerted (equally the 
same as if they were my own) to facilitate the sale of them, 
the same has likewise been extended unto every other 
Article of yours that remains on hand, and it wou'd give me 
much pleasure cou'd I inform you of any Capital ones being 
sold, but there is no forceing a market here. The 22d Ulto. 
I took up your draft in- favor Mr. Brinley. you ask me my 
Advice respecting the debt due unto you from Mr. Robinson, 
which is to compel him to give you a Mortgage on his Farm 
if it is unincumber'd, for I am firmly of Opinion that neither 
you nor Mr. Rivera will get any payment in England, nor 
money from him. I have repeatedly by Mr. Rivera's desire 
reminded Geo: Tabor of the promise that he made unto you 
of paying me some money on Account of his arrears unto 
you. he tells me of disappointments etc. but promises 
that it shall not be long now before he pays some. I have 
the pleasure of my Friend D. Lopez's Company, he was 
here when he received yours from Boston dated 30th Ulto. 
and show'd me the paragraph therein directed unto me, and 
to which I have paid all due attention, as I have no favor- 
able Opinion of your speculation in french Bills at Phila- 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND I23 

delphia, knowing that the Treasurer General sent his Clerk 
there a few weeks ago on purpose to negociate Bills to a 
large Amount, I therefore did not think it prudent to retake 
any money from Charles Handy for to purchase bills with, 
nor to pay your order unto John Carter, the latter I effected 
the 13th Inst, by adding some of my money unto some of 
yours that I had in hand, hope my determination may 
prove agreable. I have open'd your Crate of Cream Col. 
ware the Cups are soo large that they are rather unsaleable 
and the Quantity falls short, the Brandy that D. Lopez 
sent was so very low that I have been glad to get rid of it 
at "] Id L. My. per Gallon, some Flour of an equal Quality 
to that which was contain'd in the hhds. that weigh'd 8 
Cwt. wou'd sell at 5I dollars, and I do suppose I cou'd get 
a Quantity off among the Mons. for their Bills at the price 
that they give. 

The attention that I was necessarily oblig'd to give unto 
my Sister Bilhah Levy during her sickness, her death, the 
want of an Opportunity unto Leicester, the supposition of 
your being gone forward and on your journey to Philadelphia 
all combin'd to prevent my writing you untill now, which 
I hope will find you safely arrived at Philadelphia in good 
health, this moment the bills for the amount of the flour 
are brought me and inclosed you have the first and second 
bills of two setts, one sett for 2400 Livers, and the other for 
1 162.2.6. the other remainder of the setts shall send tomorrow 
unto you at Philadelphia by the post as it appears obvious 
unto me that it is there you want them. Accept the kind 
salutations of my Mother, Mrs. Seixas, and of, Dear Sir, 
Your most affectionate humble Servant, 

Moses Seixas 

JosiAH Hewes to Aaron Lopez 

Dear Sir Philadelphia, 13 February, 1781. 

I AM this minute favored with yours of the 2d Inst. 
encloseing four Setts of Exchange vizt. No. 59 for 400 dollars 
No. 312 for 600 dollars No. 52 for 5901 livers, and No. 35 

124 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

for 3801 livers, those being the first bills of each sett would 
be glad the others ware allso come, have jest sold the 600 
dollar bill at 72^ for one, and am in hopes to obtain that 
for the others except the 90 day bill, which will gladly 
take 70 for, as bills are falling here, will sell as soon as 
posable on the terms you mention, giveing time to collect 
the Continental or York State money. Could soon sell 
them for Penna. State paper, but fear could not readaly 
change it. 

I note the whole of your letter, but the post comeing in 
so late and going out again allmost immediately have not 
time so fully to answer you as could wish, but will send you a 
few lines to fish kill next post. Se price current and believe 
me most sincerely yours ., tt 


P[rice] C[urrent] flour i2o£ windward rum £32 Jamaica ditto £45 Molasses 
£22.10 to £24 Raw Sugars £350 to 40o£ loaf do. £9. to io£ Coffee 16 dollars 
Chocolat 18 dollars pepper 98 dollars Nutmeggs 500 dollars bohea tea 90 
Dollars plenty Dry goods or rather European Goods what cost i liver in france 
about 30 Dollars Irish linnens that cost 1/ Sterling about 3/ to 3/6 State paper 
Specie at 75 for i Gold not to be purchased under 100 to 1 10 for i . 

Charles Sigourney to Aaron Lopez 

Amsterdam, March 6th, 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

The Arrival of your Goods at Marstrand from Amsterdam, 
just as I had got the Rambler ready to clear out, and the many 
avocations which then took place, prevented my taking out 
my Letter to you, to add, your Goods were come to hand 
and shipd. Since which I have the agreeable satisfaction 
to hear of the safe arrival of the Ship with you, and hope 
you've received 'em free of any damage. I have to acquaint 
you of the arrival of the Indigo and Pearl Ashes here, which 
came in the Rambler, but on examining them found two 
barrells fill'd with Coarse Sand instead of Pearl Ashes. I 
cannot think it could possibly have been done on board the 
Rambler, as so gross an Embezzlement could not but have 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND 125 

been discovered by some of the Officers. I have wrote 
several Letters to Mr. Ekstrom of Marstrand about it 
(under whose care it was stored) and have received for answer 
that he does not believe it was done while the Goods were 
under his Care; and he can do nothing about it. Messrs. 
Crommelin's have had the deposition of the Dutch Captain 
taken, wherein he declares it was not done on board his 
Vessel. We have taken every method to find out the 
iniquity, but without the least prospect of Success. Please 
to accept my sincere thanks for your polite letter to those 
Gentlemen, from whom I've receiv'd every mark of Civility, 
am with all due esteem and respect 

George Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, 6th March, 1781. 

I AM favoured with yours of the 17th December, by which 
have the pleasure of seeing that the Goods sent you via 
Amsterdam were safe arrived, and enclosing a Memorandum 
for more to be sent thro' the same Channel which should have 
been immediately complied with, but unhappily we are now 
engaged in a Dutch War and of course all communication 
between this Country and Holland is shut up.^ I am 
therefore under the necessity of deferring the execution of 
this order till I have your further instructions. Your 
demand on Mr. Brymer is in a disagreeable situation. He has 
paid the whole money into the Court of Chancery, from 
whence it will be difficult for him or any body else to recover 

1 The goods were shipped to Amsterdam, through De Neufville and Son, in the 
Lady Elizabeth, Captain Doom. 

126 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

it. If it is possible for you to settle it on your side the 
Water, I would recommend your doing so. I am etc. 

George Hayley 

Jonathan Hastings, Jr. to Aaron Lopez 

Boston, 7th March, 1781. 

Dear Sir^ 

I AM happy to inform you that I have committed the letter 
for Daniel Crommelin and Sons to the Care of Mrs. Ingram 
who expects to sail very soon for Holland. She has engaged 
to take due care of it. 

Since you left Boston a quantity of Spices has arrived in 
the Ship Mars, 11 11. of Nutmegs, 11 do. of Cinnamon, 11 do. 
of Cloves and 4 do. of Mace, are offered me at 30/. a pound, 
french weight, which I suppose is 10 per cent difference. I 
did not chuse to engage them untill I had your advice. I 
have sincerely repented that I was so inattentive to your 
Offer of sending the Nutmegs to Philadelphia. But I must 
live and learn. 

Your two Nephews left this place last Lord's-day. I 
expect a line from them this Evening per post. Mr. Ben- 
jamin Hammett has just given me a letter for you directed 
at Leicester, which I sh'all accordingly inclose to your Son 
Joseph to do with it as he shall think proper. 

The prices current are much the same as when you left 
Boston. Except the article of Rum which is on the rise. 
Goods are sold at Auction lower than what they sold for 
before the War. The Court have now limited the number 
to six only. 

I refer you for News to the inclosed paper of the day. 

March 8. The post arrived and no letter from Leicester. 
I am, dear Sir, yours sincerely 

Jonathan Hastings, Jun. 

1781 ] rhode island i27 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez 

Leicester, Match i6th, 1781. 

Dear and Honored Sir, 

Your last esteem'd favor under date of 30th January 
I had the pleasure to receive while at Newport, where the 
prospect of disposing of my few remaining Goods prompted 
me to go; in which plan I have the sattisfaction to tell you 
I succeeded, tho' not equall to my expectations; my greatest 
Object being those Goods bought with your honored self 
of John Brown, they were such as were much wanted, 
and would have commanded a reasonable profit, but the 
advantage that the Company of Powers and Rogers had in 
their purchace of those same articles, enabled them to offer 
theirs at what mine cost, and their want of Cash dispos'd 
them also to improve every opportunity of availing thereof, 
this being the case, w4th the continual and progressive fall 
at the eastw^ard, I deliberated to content myself with very 
light Gains, and after continuing there 4 weeks, with much 
assiduity and pains I brought the greatest part of them to 
neat me from 10 to 15 [per] Ct. profit, with the advantage 
of the Solid Coin for their proceeds. I have a few still 
remaining which have left in the hands of our friend Seixas, 
who am in hopes will be able to put them of at same rate, 
having while there an offer of 8/ per Gallon for the residue 
of your Jamaica Rum being 46 Gallons, I thought proper 
to accept it, as also for what I had of my own, which hope 
will prove pleasing. 

On my return to Providence I was call'd upon by Jno. 
Brown to enquire in what manner you had order'd his Note 
to be discharg'd, the term of which had then expir'd 10 days, 
and his call for moneys being very urgent I ventured to place 
in his hands 90 hard Dollars, the sum I was in Cash for your 
account and have the pleasure since my arrival here to find 
it conformable to your wishes. Mr. Francis Brinley having 
occasion for some paper Currency, I also supply'd him 
for your account £189 at 72 for one for which have taken 
his receipt for £2.12.6 Silver Lawful money. My last 

128 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

respects to you inclosd Invoice of what Goods I had retain'd 
for my own account from those bought of Jno. Brown 
amounting to £92.17.7! with a minute of the moneys de- 
livered you on account and a particular State of that affair, 
by which there appears a ballance in my favor 2/4!. your 
last favor which was some time after this cover'd an Invoice 
formed at this place without any reference to mine amount- 
ing to £103.19.4!. 

I have questioned Cousin Moses respecting his comparing 
them particularly with the originall Invoice who assures 
me he did it with much deliberation and accuracy. / can 
also say with safety that my account is free from error, 
having compared, examin'd, and re-examind what I retaind 
before moving a single article from my Shop, therefore 
the deficiency must have arisen in receiving them from Jno. 
Browns. I shall in consequence after having again compared 
my account with Moses, apply to him, that it may be recti- 
fied. Just at my arrivall here this day week I found my dear 
Aunt closing her Letter to you, in which I requested her to 
tender my respectfull and affectionate Salutations, and to 
advise you [of] the sudden rise of Foreign Bills, from 52 to 
60 for one, being occasion'd by the arrival of a sum of Money 
to the french in a Frigate into Boston, which intelligence 
I hope will reach you in- time to profit thereby in what you 
have on hand. I have this moment received a line from 
Moses Seixas under date of the 8th Current, wherein he 
tells me they were not to be had at Newport for less than 60. 
I am sorry the prospect of your Tea Speculation does not 
promise a more favourable result. 

May Heaven prosper your wishes and undertakings, and 
return you again in Safety, are the fervent prayers of. My 
dear Sir, Your gratefull and affectionate Nephew 

David Lopez, Junior 

1781] rhode island 1 29 

Joseph Gardoqui and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Bilbao, the zzd March, 1781. 


We gladly embrace this very agreable and wish'd for 
opportunity to acknowledge ourselves indebted to your 
exteemed favours of the i8th and 20th December last and 
after a due returne of our most sincere thanks to our worthy 
and mutual freind Mr. Tracy for his kind recommendation 
of this our House to your good self have to informe you that 
your two remmittances on Paris for Livers 5313 and 13 12 
have duelly reached our hands therefore haveing been 
punctually forwarded by us for acceptance should they as 
we hope, meet with no demmour in their discharge your 
Account with us will be creditted at the actuall Exchange 
of 78 souls per every current dollar of 18 riales and 2 
maravedies ^ with riales 20514 and 25 ms. for the former 
and with riales 5065 and 32 ms. for the latter boath which 
Sums if right be pleased to place to our debitt. 

We have taken due and proper memorandum of the orders 
you are pleased to committ to our care and in full hopes of 
your placing in our hands per the vessells destined to this 
port sufficient funds for the purpose we willingly agree to 
ship on your account the full compleament of your orders 
for Hand Kerchiefs in the first four vessells that may saile 
from hence to your or any of your neighbouring ports. 
Accordingly we now transmmitt you herein Invoice and bill 
of loading of your first adventure shipt on the Schooner Suc- 
cess Captain Philipe Trask bound to Newbury ammounting 
to rs. 20514 and 25 ms. of Vellon which beg you would order 
to be examined and if free from Errors place the same to 
our Creditt. We very cordially wish the Bearer a prosperous 
Nevigation home when doubt not that you will reape a 
very agreable profit in your returns as have paid the required 
reggard and attention boath to quality and price as such 
flatter ourselves with the pleasing hopes of keeping up with 
your good self a very lasting and mutually beneficiall Cor- 

^ An imaginary coin, of which seventeen were reckoned to a rial vellon. 




respondence. Our Insurers are retired to such a degree 
that since the Warr they have hardly oppned a PoHcy ther- 
fore we are firmly assured that even if we were to offer 
them 45 per Ct. they would not insure from hence to America 
as such be pleased to effect it with you. 

Hope soon to be able to pay our respects to you mean while 
saluteing you respectfully subscribe with Esteem, 


/ ^ 

^^^yo/^:>6 yy^^^f^^ 

JosiAH Hewes to Aaron Lopez 

Philadelphia, 24 April, 1781. 

Mr. Aaron Lopez, 

I WROTE you pretty fully with price current, and on the 
2ist Inst. I wrote you by Mr. Benj'n Seixas who left this the 
22d for Newport, by him I sent you 32.000 dollars for two 
barrels pepper I sold at 130 dollars per lb. being offered 
that price the day before all in Continental Money and so 
good an opportunity of sending it immediately induced me 
to sell, tho could got sumwhat more in State money which I 
could not change, for further perticulars refer you to mine 
by Mr. Seixas. Late on Saturday Evening I received from 
Mr. Ellison the other three Chest of tea and two Barrels 
pepper for which paid freight 2500 dollars, this was brought 
me by Peter Mason waggon'r who informs me he received 
it about the 19 ulto. (the date of Mr. Ellisons letter) but that 


when he got home to Eastown about 55 Miles from this was 
pressed in to the Continental Service sum weeks which pre- 
vented his bringing it sooner, it came, apparently in good 
order, except the out side Caskes a little shattered, the 
barrels are full etc. I am last evening favoured with yours 
of the 13th Inst, covering fourth bill of a Sett of Exchange 
for 300 dollars, your Letter from Fishkill I have never 
received, that no doubt it went into york as informed you 
last post, for want of the first bill cannot sell them. 
Neither have I your orders for selling, there is no Vessel 
here for Europe, or should wrote the Commissioners at 
parris hope are this you have had an oppertunity of writeing 
them to prevent payment of the first bill, should be glad 
to hear from you on this head etc. I am very happy I have 
so well hit your judgment respecting the Tea. I have the 
six Chest on haveing refused all offers for it being clear it 
would soon bring 10/ Specie, it is dayly riseing, and I 
am well informd there is no orders gone for Tea, to Europe, 
a long time that it will soon be very scarce. My Neighbour 
tels me he has 5 Chests which he holds at 12/6 Specie per lb. 
the pepper I thought was nearer the Mark at 130 dollars, tho 
I observe I quoted it at 150 in my last which was the retail 
price, the two barrels on hand shall keep with the tea, til 
further orders. I note your intention of sending an other 
load on which is verey agreable; price of Ginger se price 

I observe you failed in Boston, of laying out the Money 
on our joint account in Specie. Should you not be able to 
do it at Newport, think bills will answer here shortly, as the 
holders of them seem determined to get them up to 6/ and 
6/6 Specie. I am once more pleased with my own Judgment 
in not chainging your Specie ballance and sending it by Mr. 
Seixas. Some inteligence I received from Boston soon after 
you left me, put me on reconsidering that matter, when I 
thought best to wait til I heard from, and am glad it turns 
up agreable to you. a Carrage setts out in a few days for 
Newport, for Mr. Seixas's Mother by which intend forward- 
ing the old Acct. 

132 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

Mr. Samuel Johnson a particular friend of mine is here 
in Congress from Edenton North Carolina, on acquainting 
him a friend of mine desired me to inquire after him he 
immediately guest it was you saying Mr. Polock had often 
mentioned you to him etc. he expects to leave this about 
the last of May for home, and said if you choose to forward 
any letters he could at any time give them safe conveyance, 
which he would do with pleasure, the three fifty dollar bills 
will endeavour to get exchange, and carry to your Credit, 
we have had a great arrival from the Havannah, Martinico 
etc. say 10 or 12 Sail small Vessells. they have brought 
a vast quantity Coffee which has fell the price of that article 
to 20 dollars and will be lower, this being at present the 
needfull am most Sincerely yours 

JosiAH Hewes 

Price Current, bills at no for i. Specie 170 for I. Tea 8/ riseing, Ginger 
35 dollars, most kind of Goods jise with the money except Coffee, tho but little 
odds since my last. 

[Memo.] N. B. on the 4th May ordered him to stop the sale of the Bill. 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

[Amsterdam,] 25th Aprill, 1781. 

The Copy preceding is what we had the honor of address- 
ing you per the Mars, which we hope got safe to hand. We 
have since to acknowledge your esteemed favours of 19 
and 28th December 4. 9 and 22d January last. we duly 
received inclosed per the same your sundry Remittances 

per 19th Dec. £2956: --6. 
28 do. 2544: 6: 8. 

4 Jan'y. 8048 : — : - 

on the Treasurer Gen'l of 
the Royal Army France. 
Negotiated Exchange at 

51I Bco. £2360: 11: 8 

Agio 4 p Ct. 94: 8. — 

£13548: 7: 2 Tourns which we have 

Negotiated Exchange at 

Sif Bco. £3445: II- -- 

Agio4l p Ct. 142: 2: 8 

Forwhich we have given you Credit in Account in Currency £6542: 12:- 


We have taken due note of your sundry orders contained 
in the aforementioned but suppose you made a Mistake in 
quoting us the prices of the China and Tea the best Hyson 
being higher then 80/. We have shipped your first order 
per the Juno Captain Haydon, and you have herewith bill 
of Lading and Invoice of said goods amounting to £1740: i: 
for which you will please give us Credit in account in Con- 
formity if found free from Error. 

Your remaining orders we will expedite by different good 
Opportunities as you prescribe, as well as the goods when 
received from Mr. Hayley, which we expect will be sent by 
some remaining dutch vessell in the Thames, which being 
there when they published their Manifesto, had since been 
detained untill it should be known whether we should 
permit the English Vessells here also to depart, which our 
States have granted. 

We therefore gave directions to Mr. Hayley to avail him- 
self of said Opportunity to ship the goods you had order'd, 
as our friends in London had done the same, with the like 
orders for America, adding that we understood the £400 
Sterling you order'd us to pay him was on account of the 
same. Accordingly said Gentleman who before had wrote 
us it was not in his power to comply with your orders for 
want of means of conveying the Goods to us, wrote us he 
would follow our directions and ship them immediately. We 
shall of course also immediately comply with your Orders by 
paying the aforesaid sum to said Gentleman and will forward 
the Goods we receive from him on your Account, as before 
mentioned. Interim we remain with very great regard, 
Sir, your most Obedient Humble Servants, 

John de Neufville and Sons 

P. S. We also shipped per Haydon the white lead 
amounting to f. 105.13. 

Mr. Hayley having sent us the goods for your account 
as per his inclosed letter of advice, and accounts, we have 
shipped per the Brigg Gates, Captain Newman Two Cases 
and two Trunks of which we send you Bill of Lading here- 

134 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

with, also account of Charges on said goods amounting to 
f. 380: 12: which please to not in our Conformity. 

Joseph Gardoqui and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

rv r. • [Bilbao,] the 27th April, 178 1. 

Dear bir, 

We have the pleasure to hand you above duplicate of 
our last salutations to you per the Schooner Success, Captain 
Trask, where with haveing forwarded you Invoice and bill 
of Loading for the Hand Kerchiefs you was pleased to order 
we flatter ourselves that they will safely reach your hands 
as we have the satisfaction to informe you that said Vessell 
departted hence the 25th of March; therefore deprived 
since of your very agreable and esteemed lines have to 
transmmitt you herein duplicates of said Invoice and bill of 
Loading with the agreable Information that your bills on 
Paris have mett with punctuall Acceptance and that we hope 
there will be no demmour in their payment at maturity. 

As the Brigg Phenix, Captain Robert Rentoul, is bound 
to Sallem we have agreable to your dispositions shipt on 
her your second adventure, accordingly you will find herein 
Invoice and bill of loading thereof ammountting to riales 
9295 and 25 ms. of Vellon, which request the favour of 
your ordering it to be examined and if free from Errors to 
place the same to our Creditt and as she is one of your new 
Construction fast sailling vessells we fully expect that she 
will successfully compleatt her Passage in 30 days, when 
doubt not that the goods by her will come to a very ad- 
ventadgeous Markett. 

The Ship Commerce, Captain Ignatius Webber,^ is also 
putting up for Boston therefore in order to fullfill your kind 
orders shall also ship on her on your Account an equall quan- 
tity and hope that your next will produce us the reimburs- 
mment of our advances in Expectations whereof have the 
pleasure to subscribe very respectfully. Sir, your most 
obedient humble Servants, 
Joseph Gardoqui and Sons 

1 In company with the Commerce sailed the armed ship Grand Monarque, David 
Coats, master. 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND 135 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

Friday, May nth, 1781. 
S oClock P.M. 

Dear Sir, 

This moment an Express arrived unto my Bro. Ben 
from Philadelphia which he left this day week, his errand 
was to inform my Brother that the Governor and Council 
there had fix'd that state money equal to 175 for One in 
Old Continental which had put an entire stop to the Circu- 
lation of the Old Continental.^ My Brother is advis'd 
that if he cant invest what he had with him to put it into 
the Treasury, to be diligent and by no means bring it back, 
this information I thought might be of essential service 
unto you. therefore have not hesitated to dispatch the 
Bearer immediately unto you for which am to give him 15 
silver dollars, not doubting but that you'll chearfully approve 
of my intention. My Brother and Mr. Hays got here yes- 
terday from Boston, the Waggon for my Mother is not 
yet come will be here next week, the Express is a going on 
to Boston to carry the like information unto Sam: Myers. 
Excuse this scrawl and accept of the kind salutations of 
my self and family, and extend the same unto the good ones 
around you. I am Respectfully, Dear Sir, Your affectionate 
humble Servant 

Moses Seixas 

please to tell your good Nephew David that I have his 
of the 2d Inst, that Jas: Richardson will give 1/6 Sterling 
li. for heart and Club German Steel. Since the arrival of 
the french frigate at Boston it has been suggested to me that 
the payment of the french Bills had been protracted in 
France, how true this is can't pretend to say. 

1 Writing from Boston, May 24, Jonathan Hastings, Jr., said : " I cannot describe 
to you my dear Sir, how monstrously the Old money is disregarded, the New has 
some Credit remaining. The Streets look more like Days devoted to the Worship 
of the Deity, than Days of Business." 

136 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

Newport, June 12th, 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

Mr. Jacobs handed me your acceptable favor of the 3d 
current and with pleasure observe that you got well home 
and found your dear family in good health, as also that 
my friend David reached you in perfect health, a circum- 
stance that I was very glad to be inform'd of, as was fearful 
the fatigue of the ride wou'd cause a relapse of his late 
disorder. I notice that you had rec'd a Letter from Messrs. 
Crommeline that it was a duplicate of what they had wrote 
by Haydon and that the Ori[gina]l inclos'd me one from my 
Brother Hiam, the arrival of which I am very anxious for, 
as have had no Letter from him since March, 1780, but that 
wou'd not have been the case had he before availd himself 
of this safe Channel to convey his Letters unto me. I 
join with you that no Goods are shipt with Haydon by 
Messrs. Crommeline for me, but yet the saving disposition 
of Hiam which is very great, must have induc'd him to 
commit that matter to an Acq[uaintanc]e for to transact 
that wou'd do it without any Commission and the Goods 
may be on board of Haydon, for it is beyond a doubt that 
Goods were shipt me in November that the Insurance thereon 
was 5 per Ct. this Sim wrote me in an Open Letter by a 
flag, in a stile that nobody can understand except myself 
which I plainly do. I always expected Messrs. Crommeline 
woud have the shipping any Goods that might be sent me 
via Holland and the premium of Insurance made me very 
apprehensive that they were shipt from thence unto Eustatia 
(contrary to my order), but now I find that Messrs. Crom- 
meline have no knowledge of the Goods by their not mention- 
ing any thing unto you or Mr. Rivera concerning them gives 
me great hopes that the matter has been conducted as I 
suggest and that the Goods are on board of Haydon. the 
only doubt that now remains is whether any Vessell is miss- 
ing that left Holland since November. If I am disappointed 
in receiving the Goods God knows what will be the con- 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND 137 

sequences. I have lately had an Opportunity of writing 
Hiam by a safe and speedy way which is the reason of my 
not embracing your kind offer to forward my Letters from 
Boston, but pray do you imagine Letters can be now sent 
from Holland unto London without being first inspected in 
Holland. The paper money that I paid Mr. Brinley is 
included in the payment of your draft in his favor for £100 
L. Mo. As soon as am in Cash will pay him the sum you 
direct. I have only sold about 4 Cwt. of your flour at 
5 dollars. Mr. Hunter has not yet taking any. I am of 
opinion flour will be very dull here now the French Army 
are gone from hence, all except about 400 which are to remain 
for the present. Amongst the gone are those which held 
your House, etc. which was evacuated this Morning. I 
have been since to take a View of the house but such a 
collection of straw, dirt, and nastiness, I never before saw 
in any house that was occupied by any that professed Gentility 
and all that they have left poor Margeret towards cleaning 
it, is about a Cord of Wood, they stript the Garret of about 
20 or 30 boards, most of the keys of the Stores they have 
carried off, with the Shelves and some of the Glass and some 
Timber from the Wharf. About 2 Weeks ago John Mal- 
bone ^ call'd on [me] with a petition (couch'd in decent terms) 
to sign in your Behalf, unto General Rochambeau for the 
payment of Rents contracted for, telling me he had some en- 
couragements for adopting that mode, it was signd by all 
that had any claim on that principle which was several. 
I got Mr. Taber to sign it in your behalf as the properest 
person, and it was presented, but without any good effect, 
as you will perceive by the inclos'd Copy of the General's 
Reply, which I have just obtain'd. You may depend on 
having your Account by the next conveyance wou'd have 
done it by this, but did not imagine Mr. Jacobs wou'd have 
left so soon. Mrs. Seixas unites with me in affectionate 
Salutations unto your good self, dear Mrs. Lopez, and family. 

* Died October, 1795, a merchant and the father of the miniature painter, 
Edward G. Malbone. 

138 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

I am with great Respect, Dear Sir, Your affectionate humble 

Moses Seixas 

Margeret just now tells me she had 6 dollars left her. 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Amsterdam, June 25th, 1781. 


Since we wrote what precedes Original of which we send 
you per the Juno Captain Haydon, Duplicate per Becky 
and Harriot, Captain Grinnel, Triplicate per the Gates, 
Captain Newman of Newbury Port, we are favoured with 
both your favours of 3d February and ist April last in reply 
to the first of which we can only say that with respect to 
the freight the Captain having taken advantage of the 
times, and at the high terms that goods have been shipp'd 
we should have thought ourselves happy to have been able 
to ship more, so few Vessels having been here for the Quan- 
tity of goods there was to ship, that they have pick'd the 
Goods they chose to take in. many they will not take in. 
for any freight whatever. Yarns we are ask'd 50 per Ct. 
In short had we not the advantages of having Ships consign'd 
to us, we fear our friends -would have much more room to 
complain though with as little reason against us, of which 
they would be satisfied did they know how studious we are 
in attending to their Interest, when times changes, or we 
have Vessels to chuse, on board of which we like to ship, 
they will, as ourselves, have more satisfaction by the expedi- 
tion of their Orders, and to answer your esteem'd of the 
first April we find we acted right in the manner we proceeded, 
with respect to Mr. Hayley, who having sent the Goods 
as before mentioned, there remains nothing to be said 
further on that Subject, except that we having divided the 
goods as nearly as we could guess, (not having any Duplicate 
or Copy of the Invoice) in three parts the first of which we 
shipp'd per the brig Gates Captain Newman, for Newbury 
Port, as per our preceeding. the 2d per the Snow Four 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND I39 

friends Captain Wm. Gibbons for Boston who goes down 
tomorrow to our roads, to take also the benefit of the Convoy 
of a fine frigate of 41 Guns, which part consists in one Bale 
I Trunk and i Chest mark'd © the bill of Lading we 
send also agreeable to your directions to Messrs. Jarvis 
and Russel, and I inclose herein account of the Charges of 
f. 102: I. the Captain chose the freight to be paid in 
Boston, we left it to be settled accordingly by Messrs. 
Jarvis and Russel, at the same rate the last was paid of 
I2§ per Cent, the third and last part we ship'd by the 
Rohyn Captain Cazneau, of which we will in time give you 
also an account that you may credit us accordingly for the 
Charges. The Rohyn will probably sail by herself, in 3 
or 4 weeks, but as she goes under Neutral Colours, we appre- 
hend the risque by her cannot be great, we have debitted 
your account for the remittance made Mr Hayley, £400 
Stg. exchange 34 R per £ Stg. £4080. Commission | per 
Ct. 20: 8 Brokerage 4., total Currency £4104.8 which after 
having examin'd if found free from Errors, please to pass in 
our Conformity, this being all that offers for the present, 
we remain with particular esteem most truly, Sir, Your 
most obedient and humble Servants 

John de Neufville and Son 

[Endorsed,] Per Liberty Captain Deboer. 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

Newport, July 9th, 1781. 

Dear Sir^ 

A FEW days after I received your esteem'd favor of the 
19th Ulto. I was so fortunate as to procure a Tenant for 
your Estate in this Town for the particulars of the Terms, 
I crave leave to refer you to the inclos'd Agreement, to which 
I have only to add, that Whitney is a refugee from Charles- 
town, So. Carolina, a native of Norwich, Connecticut, to 
whence he now goes to fetch his Wife and 2 Children which 
with a Brother and Servant composes his family, that he 
is a sober quiet man, and altho without knowledge, figure, 

140 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

or address has kept a considerable shop here for this 3 
Months past of European Goods which he procures in Bos- 
ton, he depends on letting the Stores (a small part of which 
he has already done at the rate of 120 dollars a year) and 
the advantages ariseing from the WharfF to reduce his Rent, 
but as the WharfF is in bad order he has requested me to ask 
your permission for his repairing it, at your cost, only just 
so, as to make it more convenient than it at present is, which 
he means to do by laying and securing a few plank on it. 
I am much pleas'd to find that my Friend David is now fixt 
in so eligible situation as to afford a promising prospect of 
success, as he is really a cleaver fellow and one whom I sin- 
cerely esteem, I readily unite my sanguine wishes to those 
of yours for his attainment of Madam Fortunes best favors. 
Notwithstanding my best endeavours have been exerted to 
dispose of your Flour of both sorts, I yet find it impracti- 
cable, nor does the least probability appear of vending the 
Rye. Mason and Malbone sold 30 Bbls Wheat flour last 
week of equal Quality to yours at 3 dollars. My dear Mrs. 
Lopez may depend on having a reinforcement of Cosher fat 
as soon as possible, but Mr. Judah's commendable conscience 
and superlative knowledge of the Bedika ^ has prevented our 
having any chance as yet to make a begining in procuring 
some for her. Inclos'd you have your several account sales 
and hard money account current but it not only has increas'd 
my sufferings to an enormous degree when I reflect that 
since February last I have been imperceptiblely making 
use of your money, but in short it has been my severest 
trial and mortification. All that I can say in my Vindica- 
tion, is that even before February I was in daily expectation 
founded on rational and human probabilitys of receiving 
succours amply sufficient to answer all my engagements and 
necessities, but therein I have been most bitterly disap- 
pointed, and all that I have now to offer is a solemn promise 
to discharge your balance as soon as possible. You know 
my views and therefore it is needless to repeat them. Edward 

1 The inspecting cattle after being killed as distinguished from Shechita, the 


Hazard has not yet heard any thing from his father Cran- 
ston, if he does not hear from him in a day or two, I shall 
write him, as Hazard assures me that he knows he has the 
money by him, but it appears to me that in directing him, 
to pay me £46.16.6. there must be a mistake, as the Account 
you sent me against him with Interest calculated to the 2d 
April last amounted unto £48.9.3. Mrs. Hunter has had 
2 Bbls. of your flour the 19th Ulto. weighing 4.1.3. neat. 
I am with the usual afi^ectionate Salutations of Mrs. Seixas 
and family unto your good self, Mrs. Lopez and family very 
Respectfully, Dear Sir, Your affectionate humble Servant, 

Moses Seixas. 

In my next I shall inclose you a small Bill that Whitney 
has against the house, for some small Repairs that I allow'd 
him to make, such as making a pair counters, mending 
Windows and Locks, the boards for the Counters I took 
from the Garret floor as the french had taken many, and 
what is left are now nail'd down. 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Amsterdam, the 17 July, 1781. 


You've here the Copys of sundry letters we wrote you 
last Month as also original of the 20th ulto. which we intend'd 
to go by Capt. Cazeneau; but after he had your goods on 
board, he resolved to postpone yet a while his departure, so 
that we are yet uncertain when he will go; which prevents 
us to inclose you the Invoice and Bill of Loading; This 
delay and that of Capt. Haydon and Grinel who are yet 
detained at the Texel proves very disagreeable; we hope 
however that in a few days they will sail. We intend shoud 
there be a possibility to ship you yet a few articles by the 
Brig Robin nearly to the first value mentioned, and shall 
make use of such other opportunitys as will offset to make 
you the further Shippements desired; but can as yet say 
nothing positive on the subject. We have now to hand you 
the Copy of the Invoice of the two Chests of Tea which our 


friend Mr. Henry Greig of Gotenburg have shipped you by 
our directions etc. conformable to your orders on board the 
Brig Amsterdam Capt. Magee amounting to £150: 16. — 
which sum we shall pass to your Debit. We hope they will 
come safe to hand and prove to your satisfaction. As Mr. 
Greig has not shipped the 50 Packs of Pins we suppose he 
coud not get them: by his letter of the 4th Instant Capt. 
Magee was still detained on account of the numbers of 
Cruizers in the North Seas. Contrary to expectation your 
Remittance draft of Ab'm Redwood on Apthorp and Tre- 
coteck has been paid and your Account creditted for the 
same vizt. 

Amount of the Bills 

£ "lo. — . — 

Charges in London Commission | per Ct. 

Brokarage at i per M 

. I. 

I . — 


£49.14 Stg. at the Exchange of 34i£ is Bo. 
Agio 4f per Ct. . . 

£ 4914-- 
. . 24. 5. 

Our Commission \ per Ct. 
Postage to and from London 

£534- 18 
3 14 

£531- 4- 

The same be pleased to note in conformity. 

We have desired Mr. Greig to continue to make you 
Shippements of Teas when any further opportunities oJfFered. 
The article is here still on the rise at 26 St., Tobacco from 
12 to 13 St. Affairs continues here much in the same situa- 
tion and as yet no prospect of a peace. We remain very 
respectfully, Sir: Your most Obedient Servants, 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

P. S. as we have by us the Invoice of the Goods already 
shipped on board of the Brig Robin, you've here the same 
inclosed: but are yet unacquainted if she will go out under 
that Name and if Capt. Cazneau will himself be the Com- 
mander.^ This for your Governo. 

^ "We will ship per the Robyn Captain Cazneau, now the young Peder Captain 
Gram the remainder of Mr. Hayley's goods, we suppose as she is now under a 
Danish flag and with a Danish Crew, you will be able to effect the Insurance on 
your risk per said Vessell at a low premium, as it will not sail we suppose this 

i781 ] rhodeisland i43 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Boston, August 9th, 1781. 

Dear Sir^ 

I rejoice that the goods forwarded last week arrived 
safe, and that you already had commenced their Sales with 
Success, may that good fortune ever attend your every 
undertaking equall to my unfeigned wishes, with us the 
buisness of selling goes on heavily, want of money and 
plenty of goods has sadly cloged the Springs, tho I beleive 
we have during the past week made out as well as our good 
neighbours by taking from 10 to 20 hard dollars per day and 
hope when we get a little more settled to do better, you 
are pleased to ask the predicament of the Paper Currency. 
I must realy confess myself at a loss to give you a just idea 
of it. The Interest is certainly paid and there is a Tax out 
for a great proportion of it which must be paid in that or 
Silver equall to i and ^ths for one, yet we see none worth 
mention'g in circulation and what little there is am told has 
been run up as high as from 6 to 8 for one. from these 
Circumstances I beg you will be pleased to judge for I dare 
not offer my oppinion on the subject, all whome I have asked 
appear at a loss to account for this strange manuvre. . . . 

I am with every Sentiment of Gratitude and Esteem, 
Dear Sir, Your most Obed. Nephew and hble Servant, 

David Lopez, Jun. 

Joseph Gardoqui and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Bilbao, the 21st August, 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

The foregoing is Triplicate of what mollestted your 
atention last with per Edmmands and Tracy who departted 
hence with a fine wind on the 8th Current as such flatter 

Month, we thought you would receive advice of it in good time to insure if you 
thought proper." John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin, July 25, 
1781. Ms. 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

144 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

ourselves will boath obtaine safe and prosperous passages 
and that the former will effect the delivery in good order of 
the Barrell of Hand Kerchiefs transmmitted you on board 
his Ship Defence which shall in Time be proud to hear. 

By the safe appearance in our River of the Portt Packett 
Captain George Rapall we have had the pleasure to receive 
your handing us therein your remittance in two bills value 
5100 Livres esteemed and agreable lines of the 6th June 
on Paris which have the satisfaction to informe you have 
been punctually forwarded to our Banker there for accept- 
ance therefore when in Cash your account with us will have 
Creditt for the same at the Exchange of 76 Souls per current 
dollar in riales 20210 and 7 ms. of Vallon which if without 
errors be pleased to place to our debitt. 

We are exceedingly obliged to you for the punctuality 
wherewith you have been pleased to pass to our Creditt the 
amount of the Invoice per Trask and flatter ourselves with 
hopes that the quality of the Hand Kerchiefs shipt per him 
will prove agreable as our uttmost Study for our friends 
Interest extends itself not only to this particular butt that 
of equity in price in which are sorry to say that have of late 
experienced to great an allteration on account of the enor- 
mous quantitys that have been exported, however have 
the pride to say that with Cash in hand we have preventted 
their being higher a governo. 

We have now likewise agreable to your kind former 
Instructions to hand you herewith Invoice and bill of Loading 
for one Barrell thereof shipt on board the Portt Packett 
Captain Rapall whom sincerely wish a safe and pleasing 
Navigation home when request the favour of your ordering 
the same to be examined and if free from errors to place its 
amount to our Creditt in riales 10119 and 25ms. of Vallon 
which you stand duelly debited for by those who have the 
satisfaction to subscribe with the highest reggard and 

Joseph Gardoqui and Sons 


David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Boston 5th Sept'r 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

The inclosed was intended per Mr. Ter Bush, but before 
I could convey it to his Lodgings he had left the Town. I 
am since pleasured with your favor under yesterday's date 
per post, with 6 peices Chintz you are pleased to address our 
Company for sale which we beg you to rely Sir, shall not 
want our zealous endeav'rs to be effected to the best advan- 
tage, the two hundred silver dollars remited us by him was 
also safely handed, and compar'g right is passed to your 
Credit with our best thanks. Mr. Jones del'd me this 
Morning, your esteem'd favor inclosing the protested New- 
foundland Bill of Exchange etc. on enquiry I find the 
Vessell now bound to that place was one sent from thence 
as a Cartel from the British, is commanded by an officer of 
theirs, and will not, nor any person on board, return here 
again; Mr. Hopkins the Commissary of prisoners for this 
departm't, tells me he shall dispatch a Flag to that place in 
the course of six or eight weeks, have therefore thought best 
to hold it for that Conveyance, unless you should deliberate 
to order it into the hands of Mr. Dolbear. . . . 

Wishing your hon'd self, with my dear good Aunt, a 
pleasant and propitious Journey to Hartford, am with a 
reiteration of my best respects very asuredly. Dear Sir, 
Your most Obedt. Nephew, 

David Lopez, Jun. 

Please to caution the good Shopkeepers of Mount pleasant, 
to beware of Counterfeit Eight Dollar Bills of the New 
Emission, large quantitys am told by Mr. Henry Gardner, 
are now circulating; Severall persons lately from New York 
were yesterday detected in endeav'ing to pass it. they 
confess that a large Sailors Chest was sent out by the insid- 
ious Britons, to give the finall Stab to what they fondly 
believed, was the last recources this Country could devise 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 




to maintain the War, a person yesterday going to pay into 
the Treasury his tax, found 29 Bills out of 40 of that stamp 
which he had bought for Silver at 4 and 5 for one. the only 
distinguishing mark I can as yet be able to give you, is in 
the Bills sign'd by R. Cranch. those that are true, you will 
find the Letter a, in Cranch to terminate at top in a sharp 
point thus, a^ while the false ones are quite open thus, a 
nearly like the Vowel u. 

DV S^V, 

John Nazro to Aaron Lopez ^ 

Worcester, nth Sep'r, 1781. 

Doubtless you have heard of the Brittons burning part 
of New London.^ Can't by any means see thro' their Policy 
in burning commercial towns. For should they subjugate 
the Country it will be their Loss; if finally the Belligerant 
Powers should settle the War, and leave the Country free 
from every except a commercial connection with them; still 
it will be their Loss, as by such conduct they impoverish the 

I am with great Respect, Sir, 


^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 
2 Arnold's expedition against Groton and New London. 

1781 ] rhodeisland i47 

Bredel and Ward to Christopher Champlin 

London, nth September, 1781. 

We are very sorry to inform you of the Death of our 
Worthy Patron George Hayley Esquire, which event we 
think it necessary to give you the earHest intelHgence of, and 
that Mrs. Hayley is left Sole Executrix. Your Account 
Current with the Estate will be transmitted to you as soon 
as possible, the Interest on which will be made up to the 
30th August last, the day of his Death after which no 
Interest will be allowed. 

We embrace this opportunity to inform you that having 
lived many years with Mr. Hayley and had the principal 
management of his business for some years past, we there- 
fore mean to establish ourselves in Trade with his former 

We beg leave to assure you that we are fully enabled to 
execute any Commissions we may be favoured with, having 
a perfect knowledge of Commerce in general; Permit us 
therefore to solicit your valuable Correspondence. Rest 
assured that the utmost attention shall be paid to your 
interest in every transaction committed to our care and hope 
shortly to have an opportunity of proving ourselves with 
the greatest respect, Sir, Your most Obedient Servants, 

Bredel and Ward 

Josiah Hewes to Aaron Lopez 

Philadelphia, 9 October, 1781. 

Mr. Aaron Lopez, 

Since my last am favoured with yours of the 7 and 29 
ulto. the former should have answered before this, had it 
not been Duty to an aged Mother, of near 80 years being ill 
in the Country and thrice sent for me, by which mist two 

I note the Contents of yours of the 7th and am now sorry 
to informe you the Spanish fame ran on shore, on an Island 
near the Mouth of the Chesepeak, and lost all her Salt, and 

148 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

I believe the Vessel allso. this I had from a person a few 
days past who saw the Captain on shore, and who tould me 
they saved only the Riggen, Stores, some Race Ginger, etc. 
unfortunate he did not put in here, as our Cape has been 
intirely open a long time, as to the tea I have sold onley 
one Chest last week, at two weeks Credit for 6/3. The 
Cash price for some time 6/, which I could not bare to take, 
that will not sell more, til a better price can be obtained, or 
receive your further orders, when I wrote you on the fourth 
ulto. I could purchase bills at 1/ per Liver, they gradually 
rose last week to 5/9 for 5 livers, this is chiefly owing to a 
ship sailing for france (which ship sailed last Saturday) one 
other reason, when the french armey came to this City it 
was expected bills would be drawn for their Account, that 
the possessors of bills here sold at 1/ per Liver and some 
under but to our great Surprise, not a bill has been sold 
here, of theirs, since, that the Intrest bills have rose as 
above, the above ship being gone expect they will fall. 
G. Benson informs me bills at Boston are to be purchased at 
30 to 33 discount, as soon as can get aney, (and I receve the 
Money for the Chest of tea) will remit you in bills agreable 
to yours of the 29 ulto. 5/3 for 5 livers is about the price 
with you; this being our great Election day for Represen- 
tatives, cannot be so full as I wish. Meantime am with 
great Sincerity, yours, 

JosiAH Hewes 

Jamaica Rum 11/ to 12/ windward 9/ Melasses 3/4 raw Sugars 60/ to 
65/ loaf 1/6 bohea tea 6/ to 6/3 Coffee 13d Cocoa 100/ pepper 10/ pymento 
2/6 Ginger ground 2/ to 2/6 Race Ginger 1/6 best Salt 20/dayly arriveing, 
that I think will fall to 15/ fine flour 21/ to 22/ Common 18/. 

N. B. have not sold the Ginger nor any more Coffee. 

Cornelius Ter Bush to Aaron Lopez 

Fishkill, November ith, 1781. 
Dr. Sir, 

I BEG you will possess your self with patience a few days 
and I will be with you if god spares my Health. I am colect- 
ing Cash as fast as possible I can, as I mentioned to you 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND I49 

before. I find no line from you by this post, so hope you 
have sent no Teams on, for Salt will not command more 
then 30/. and it is like to be very plenty, you likely see the 
Advertisements in the papers as Mr. lowden ^ tells me he 
sends yours on. I will not be able to tarry with you long as 
my Bissiness requires my close attention at this place. I 
onely rite you a small scetch so as to let you no my thoughts 
are not absent although obliged to forfit my word to you as 
I was to be with you. by gods permission hope to set out 
for you on Tuesday next. 

I beg leave to congratulate you of the late Serender of 
Cornwallos and his army, all here in raptures of Joy the 
houses have been aluminated two nights here and at Pough- 
keepsie firing of Cannon sky rackets and burn fires are con- 
tinualy kept up. Rejoiceing here I think is to extream. if 
so hope to god theay may be forgiven, please to give my 
best Respects to your good family perticularly to your little 
branch. I want to see you all. So I must conclude wishing 
us all a direct guide. 

Your Assured Friend and Humble Servant, 

Corn's Ter Bush 

John Nazro to Aaron Lopez 

Worcester, 9th November, 178 1. 

Dear Sir, 

By return of J. Soley I am favour'd with yours of 8th 
instant, acknowledging the receipt of seven pounds sixteen 
shillings, also enclosing Invoice No. 4 of Woolen Goods 
etc. consigned to me for sale, amounting to £31.7. which in 
coarse have passed to your credit in accompt sales. In 
measuring the goods, find that there's the Thumb wanting 
in the whole; as it has been a custom in this State to allow it, 
in all woolens etc. except Silks and a few other articles, I 
imagine it will be attended with great difficulty to break it. 

1 Samuel Loudon, printer of the New York Packet, issued at Fishkill from Octo- 
ber I, 1776, to the close of the war. 

150 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

Please to say how I must do in this case. The worth of the 
Thumbs being added to the price I think would be best. 
Please to send me one Bundle of the heavy No. 4 Pins and 
I dozen (heavy) black Barcelo[na] Handkfs. dont doubt 
but you will put them as low as they are sold in Boston, for 
prompt pay. if the price is such as will answer, will send 
the money per very next conveyance. I am, with every 
sentiment of esteem and respect. Your very humble Servant, 

Jno. Nazro 

P. S, You'l please to look into Invoice No. 4 in the 
article Hairbine is an error of 27/. 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Amsterdam, 20 November, 1781. 


Confirming the sundry letters we had the pleasure of 
writing you per sundry opportunities in August last, partic- 
ularly by the Gates, Captain Newman, on board of whom we 
shipp'd you sundry goods which 'tis needless to mention, 
said Vessel we hear having now safe arrived we should have 
been happy to have been informed also of the safe arrival 
of the Snow four friends Gibbons, which was taken off North 
Faro, in September last,' and carried into Scotland, as we 
had shipped you on board of said Brig one Case, one Bale, 
and one Trunk marked © No. 2, 4 a 6, Value £234: 4. 
which we hope you may have insured, on the arrival of the 
Vessels in America which sailed from hence in company. 

We have also shipped you on board the Rohyn Isaac 
Cazneau Mr. under Danish Collours, i Case, i Trunk and 
I Bale of the same mark, No. i, 3 a 5, Value £172: 8 Stg. 
said Vessel has laid a long time in our roads in hopes of sail- 
ing in company with a fleet of our west India men, but has 
been so long disappointed, that we suppose he will soon 
sail at any rate, by the aforementioned Letters your es- 
teemed favor of 17 April is answered, waiting your further 
commands we in the meantime remain. 

[John de Neufville and Son] 

1781 j rhode island i5i 

Moses Seixas to Aaron Lopez 

Newport, November 26, 1781. 

Dear StV, 

I WAS duly favor'd with your kind and acceptable Letter 
under date of the 4th current and tribute you my cordial 
thanks for the friendly assertions therein contain'd. It 
would afford me pleasure cou'd I now inform you, that I 
had effected a Settlement of your accounts with Geo: Sears, 
but this I can say, that I think he shows a disposition to 
adjust them, for which purpose he has taken them for 
examination and tells me that as soon as possible he will 
compleat the matter and to your satisfaction, you may 
rely on my attention to urge his speedy compliance. Whit- 
ney still persists in decHning to sign your Memorandum and 
says that you are certainly mistaking. Am much oblig'd 
for your care in forwarding one of my Letters, and Mrs. 
Levy thanks you for doing the same with hers, her Husband 
was to set out for Amsterdam the begining of August but 
as he has been agoing week after week ever since the 8: 
May, I think there is but little dependance to be made on 
his movements, which have hitherto been such a series of 
blunders, inconsistencies, and inattention, that I am much 
afraid they will eventually prove a fatal Stab to my Charac- 
ter and reputation, in short I see no way to ward off that 
additional severe and bitter blow, unless I submit to the 
extortionable terms that Handy demands of me for the 
Loan of about 500 dollars, which is 10 per Ct. thereon untill 
April only, then if he should not want the money, and I did, 
he wou'd renew the note again for a few Months at the same 
Interest of 24 per Ct. per annum which I suppose he wou'd 
work up by renewals unto 30 per Ct. per annum, I really 
dont know what to do, the Nantucketers pressing hard for 
payment, and no one here from whom I can get the money 
but him. My friend Hadwen who gave me some encourage- 
ment that he would supply me, has been disappointed in 
receiving his money, so that there is no hopes left of his 
being able to furnish me with any. perhaps as Cazneau 

152 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

was not to leave Amsterdam untill September he may bring 
me some relief. ... I am with great Regard and Respect, 
Dear Sir, Your very Affectionate humble Servant 

Moses Seixas 

HiAM Levy and Samson Marcus to Aaron Lopez 

Amsterdam, December 4th, 1781. 


I now assume to take the liberty to address you on a 
subject of business, and with your permition I shall be as 
brief on the matter as possible, since my coming here to 
this metropolis, I am convinced from substantial proof that 
there is a considerable business transacted to America with 
success, which has terminated to a great advantage, and 
with that view I have thought proper to establish myself 
in order to partake together with my friends some share, 
and to facilitate such undertaken, I have form'd a connection 
with one Mr. Samson Marcus a native of this place, and with 
the greatest propriety I can say that he is a person of repu- 
table character, but if you think it necessary to have a 
further information, please to inform yourself from Mr. 
Isaac Moses of Philadelphia with whom he has a concern, 
and from whom we now expect to be largely connected with, 
from those circumstances we have mutually agreed to trans- 
act business to North America, as extensive as our ability 
will admit, on which occasion we heartily wish to be the 
means to adopt any agreeable mode of business, which may 
prove reciprocal, to which we sincerely offer our best services, 
and shall think ourselves extreem happy to have the honour 
to execute any commands from so worthy a Gentleman, be 
assured it is in our power to comply with any orders for 
goods, on as good terms as any Merchant in this City, but 
must observe to you, there being a great impediment to 
ship coarse goods on freight, owing to the Merchant to whom 
the vessel is addressed to, and the captain, they always 
endeavour to obtain as valuable goods on that occasion as 
possible, from this motive we are induced, if agreeable to 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND I53 

you to send us a proper suitable fast sailing vessel of about 
150 tuns, ready fited, to our address, at the same time we 
shou'd be extreem glad to be interest in the same, either a 
quarter or an eight, to be paid here in whatever you please 
to order, but must observe, we decline to run any risk, in 
that case you will please to insure the amount with you, 
such a vessel of that burden, we make no doubt of succeed- 
ing to obtain a freight either for Boston or Philadelphia to a 
great advantage. I must beg leave further to add that we 
intended to have ship'd to your address to the amount of 
One thousand pounds per the bearer Captain Trowbridge, 
but he declined to take them. I believe he is intirely loaded 
by his Merchant, his vessel is about one hundred and 
seventy tuns, and says he makes about three thousand 
pounds sterling freight. I mention this circumstance for 
your government, however you may rely on us, that as 
soon as an oppertunity offers to Boston, and we can ship 
goods on freight, we will chearfully embrace the same with 
the greatest pleasure, the inclosed letter please to deliver 
to my brother Mr. Seixas to whome I have fully communi- 
cated my plan business, and flatter myself he will be very 
glad to corroborate in any measures that you may think 
proper and appears eligible to execute, permit me at this 
time to have the honour to subscribe myself. Sir, Your most 
humble Servant, 

Hi AM Levy 

December 6, 1781.' 


Altho' I am a stranger and unknowing to you, I have now 
taking the freedom, thro' Mr. Hiam Levy introduction to 
informe you that since his writing the foregoing letter, 
Captain Trowbridge came to let us know he wou'd take two 
trunks goods, but they must be valuable, notwithstanding 
his sudden notice, we immediately eff"ected the same, as 
you will observe by the inclosed bill lading and Invoice 
amounting to /. 3523.6. to your address, on the recivel 

^ On the same sheet. 

1^4 COMMERCEOF [ 1781 

please to dispose of them to best advantage, out of the pro- 
ceeds we must beg of you to pay Mr. Moses Seixas about 
one hundred pounds sterling, the remainder please to remit 
us in good bills of Exchange as soon as possible, we expect 
when oppertunity offers for your place to inlarge our business 
with you. in the interum we sincer wish to cultivate a 
mutual and beneficial plan of Buseness on a permanent 
footing, we are most respectfuly, Your most obedient 
humble Servants, 

S. Marcus and Co. 

David Lopez, Jr. to Aaron Lopez* 

Boston, 13th December, 1781. 

Dear Sir^ 

I HAVE the pleasure of your most esteem'd favor under 
yesterdays date, anouncing your safe return from Hartford, 
after a very fatigueing Jaunt, and without the Sattisfaction 
of determining the final issue of your vexatious Suit. I 
pray the almighty may incline the hearts of those partial 
judges, to what is just and equitable, that they may compel 
their voracious brethren to make ample restitution for what 
they have unjustly deprived you of; I wish I could say, that, 
I feel myself flatter'd of their doing justice, but the despi- 
cable opinion I entertain of that State, and their Laws, 
leaves me but little room to hope, it is indeed peculiarly 
unfortunate, that every attempt from that quarter should 
be attended with such perplexing circumstances. I was in 
hopes, that you would have been able to reach this, before 
Colo. Pope left Town, and thereby save a Journey at this 
inclement Season, to Bedford; he tarried here untill Sunday 
evening last, and by what I could collect from him before 
he went I judged he could bear great sway, with the Captors, 
and prove very instrumental in favourably compromising 
the matter with them, which Step, I am advised will be the 
most eligible to pursue for the salvation of any part of that 
property, as the Law is so explicit against it, that, no Jury 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1781 ] RHODE ISLAND I55 

who are sworn to regulate their verdict by its tenor can do 
otherways than condemn it, altho their Conscience may 
dictate to them from a point of equity, that it aught to be 
restored to you. what Congress may determine respecting 
this case if appeal'd to, is uncertain, or whether there is a 
posibihty of refering the matter to them after the decission 
of this Court, is equally so; Mr. Jno. Cushing thinks that 
in all Maritime Causes, where the Captors and Claimant, 
are both residents of the State, there is no apeal. yet be 
that as it may, I am confident your disposition will be to 
avoid the Law if practicable, and from what I this day could 
learn by Jno. Lowell it appears to be very much so; he saw 
me at the Shop door this morning, and under pretext of 
enquiring the price of some articles, came in, and finding 
me alone, he told me he came to apprize me, that he had 
been apply'd to for Councill in a Case, which he since was 
inform'd you was interested in, tho he could not beheve it 
from many circumstances that appeared, such as the vessell's 
being reported from Cura^oa, and his not hearing of your 
being either at the place of her arrivall, or here, before this 
to claim her, that should it prove yours, he should feel 
very unhappy, as he was engaged by the other party, and 
must faithfully do his duty, and was very certain that it 
would be imposible to get the least part of the vessell or 
Cargo clear. I was cautious of saying much to him least 
his design might be to pump me, therefore let him have all 
the talk to himself, and only told him after he had finish'd, 
that I had heard of this vessell before and had had it sug- 
gested to me from Colo. Pope, that it was suposed to be 
yours, which I thought might probably be, and in conse- 
quence had requested of him, to suspend the matter where it 
then was, untill I could hear from you, as you was out of 
the State; he then said that he was extreemly glad the Colo, 
was so favourably disposed, and that he knew there would 
be no great difficulty in settling it without law, as the Colo, 
had told him after taking his opinion, that, altho' the Law 
was so pointed in favor of the Captors, yet as there was a 
surmise of the propertys being yours, he could heartely wish 

156 COMMERCE OF [ 1781 

to be Instrumental if so, in making matters as favourable 
as posible and that he thought they would be disposed to 
make better terms with you than with any other person on 
the Continent, he then said he could wish if the property 
was realy yours, that you might be able to attend to it 
speedely, as the delay of every day, might alter the dispo- 
sition of the Captors by giving them time to listen to the 
persuations of the many evil minded persons there is in 
the world, from this, I think we may draw a favourable 
Conclusion, and trust, that the almighty will be yet pleased 
to terminate this affair to your wishes, the which, I fervently 

You will have observed, that since your absence I have 
forwarded the whole of what was left to my care, which I 
hope has arrived in good order, and may merit your appro- 
bation. I have still some Moneys remaining on hand, not 
being able to purchace Bills at what you was pleas'd to 
stipulate, they are now from 12 to 15 per Ct. discount 
only, and very scarce even at that. I have the pleasure to 
advise you our having finish'd Sales of what suppose Super- 
fine Flour has been transmited. the last (I mean what was 
good of it,) went at 27/. as Christmas is now approaching, 
more will command a ready sale. I wish what may be sent, 
may be properly attended to as much of the last was mis- 
erable, and many of the Bar'ls very iniquitiously tare'd. I 
am very respectfully, Dear Sii:, Your Obedient Nephew 

D. Lopez, Jr. 

JosiAH Hewes to Aaron Lopez 

Philadelphia, 24 December, 1781. 

Dear Sir, 

My last was of the nth Inst, since which have none of 
your favours. 

This chiefly, is to give you price current, and some account 
of Trade. Not one Vessell arrived from Holland this fall, 
and now navigation [is] sumwhat interupted. Last week it 
was totally stopt a few days, but opened again on Sunday. 

lySl ] RHODE ISLAND ' 157 

a fall of snow last evening, I expect will cause a nother 
Imbargo. tea has rose to i jG and likely will be much higher 
soon, that I still keep the four Chest left, after forwarding 
the two to fishkill. there is the greatest probability at 
present of tea being 9/. as most of the glutt of that article 
which arrived in August and September is gone East and 
West, that it is become scarce, and much sought after. I 
wish to watch this matter to get the highest price, and yet 
am somewhat fearfull, I shall not hit it. you are very sence- 
able of this difficulty, however will do my utmost for your 
intrest. bills rose to 7/i|(/, but now are falling, have been 
sold this day at 6/9 for five livers, and by the best informa- 
tion, will rather fall yet. European goods rather on the 
rise say 2/6 and 2/9 to 3/ per Liver, this is owing to several 
vessels from France lately lost and some gone into other 
ports, and not one of the Gottenburg or Amsterdam Vessels 
arrived. The Congress pas'd an Ordanance etc. that no 
English goods be imported into the thirteen States after the 
first of March, 1782, which you will likely soon see published 
in the News papers.^ this being at present the needful! 
am with the Most Sincere Regard yours, 

JosiAH Hewes 

Price Current. Jam. Rum 13/ Windward 11/ Country 8/ fine flour 24/ 
common 21/ bread 16/6 beefF £6.10 pork £8 Raw Sugars 80/ loaf 2od 
Melasses 7/6 CofFe 17 and i8d pepper 7/6 Race Ginger 22d Ground 2/6 
Pymento 3/4 Rock Salt 22/6 to 25/ Cotton 2/4 Cordage £7 Russia duck £8 
ditto Sheeting £9 tar 35/ pitch 80/ turpentine 90/ Madeira wine of first 
quallity and fitt for use 17/6 to 20/ common low new ditto 10/ to 11/ port 12/6 
Lisbon 9/ TeneriefF 8/6 fiall "j jS Indigo 7/6 Barr Iron £40 whale bone in 
slabs 8/ and none at market. I wish I could get a few Sable Skins am tould their 
plenty in Boston at 2/6 and here worth 12/ but I want a few for Muff's and Tippets 
for our family. 

N. B. I have made perticular enquiry but cannot learn 
what was saved out of the Spanish jame. 

1 Journals of the Continental Congress (L. of C. ed.), xxi. 1 154. The ordi 
nance was passed December 4, and was issued as a broadside. 



[ 1781 

0^l^Z''7tJ, a/^i'i^ ^■.^irrej\yotir7i(nj ^Chua/K^-'^l^'Tft^ 

United States of c/^iE^G^ ^ ^ajf of ^^^"-^^^ i ySZ 
T "TSirtjf Udp Sidjt^tSifJecond Ml, "firjl. Third and Jourth] 

or Order, Eighteen DoUars, in Ninety Livresr Tournois, for %terefi 
due on SWonej Sorrowed 6ji tde United States, 

To tfre Qonmi fl^sTier or Q. rnni ^icfrjerf of the j ( ^-^ j'^ 

! ^'-^ 

ionmiJfi.sTLer or Q. ■nmi^\oTjert of the 
^nttei Stitef of finericttf at 'Pint. 

State of 

le Cov.t'J[ci[tal Loan-OJict 


United States of Jim^f.^C^^y^^aif of 

AT Thirty ^s Siak'^ofthis JhirdmC, 9Irj!, Second a^dTourth 
not paid, ^a\j to Q^/^^T^:^ -^/^fZ^r 
y or Order, Eighteen jDoHars, w Ninety Livres Tonrnois, for ^nterej! 
\^ due on Monej/ Sorrowed Sj tfje United States. 


To the Gomnt^ioner br Q nm'Jficiiert of the > 
^mlted St^fCT cf 'llmericj^, at S^ir/r. J 

Counterfic^ned %^ J/Z/J^ 
Qc Commifiioner cf the Continaft^Loan-OJio 
^ State of^^^^^w^„^X^^:^-^__^^ 


United States of Am03Q4^'^^ ^a/tf ^^/^:i^>uu.ccy i y%X, 

TWrtyl}aj/^Mjt'of- tMs IFoimbMr, . njL Second and %ird% 
^ j^ not£aid, fd^ t^C^^^f^^Zu^^ i^^adi^ fi 

or Order, Eighteen Dollars, in Niffcty Livres Tournois, for ^nterefh 
due on ^Moneif Sorrowed by tfje United States, ^ 

S^onejf borrowea !ji/ 

To the Qcv.ntfficner or (?omTiit£ionerT of the 1 
'^wtei'StatCT cf ^meruc, :it Pttrir. i 

« j^ Cpmmiffioner of the ContitJn/nl Lonn-OJftce in the 
State of :2-^^,*^^^:.,^^^ii^-X~ 


1782] RHODE ISLAND 1^9 

Agreement between Benjamin Peirce and 
Christopher Champlin 

Whereas Mr. Christopher Champlin on his particular 
account and risk, and upon his account and Mr. Geo. Gibbs, 
hath shiped on board the Brigantine Minerva (myself 
Master) upon Freight for the Havannah sundry Merchan- 
dize upon conditions of Freight as is expressed in each bill of 
Lading signed for said Goods it is hereby agreed and under- 
stood that I am to sell said Merchz. at the Havannah at 
five per Cent commission and bring back the neat proceeds 
thereof in cash on board said Brig. Minerva free from Freight 
or commission provided it is the custom so to do at Phila- 
delphia in similar cases where Goods have been shiped to 
the Havannah. If it is customary, to receive Freight for 
money so returned. In that case I am to receive the cus- 
tomary Freight charged at Philadelphia in similar cases. 

Should it so happen that I do not return direct to New 
England, that I have liberty to ship home the neat proceeds 
of said Merchz. by any arm'd Vessell of equal Force as to 
men and guns as my Brig, bound either to Boston Newport 
or Connecticut, upon the best terms in your power. 

Consented and agreed to, Newport, 6 March, 1782, by 

Chris. Champlin 
Benj. Peirce 

Christopher Champlin to Josiah Hewes ^ 

Newport, 9th April, 1782. 


Your favor of [blank] March to Mr. Gibbs hands us the 
agreeable advice of the Lark's Arrival with you, your 
market much lowered. We were short in our Instructions 
by the Lark, respecting Insurance round. 

We therefore request that you make for our joint account 
Insurance on the Sloop Lark and Cargo Robert Champlin 
Master from Philadelphia to the Havannah on the Island 

1 The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

l6o COMMERCEOF [ 1782 

of Cuba during her tarry there and from thence to the 
Harbour of Newport and there safely moored twenty-four 
hours, viz. Two thousand dollars upon the Hull, Sails, 
Riging, etc. and Two thousand dollars on her Cargo. As 
the Sloop must have departed from your River, near a month 
before this may reach you and consequently if captured on 
this Coast you will be informd of it, therefore if not heard 
of, the presumption is clear, she has escaped the Cruisers 
upon your Coast, as also ours as we hear nothing of her. We 
therefore flatter ourselves you will be able to eff^ect the 
Insurance at 33I per C. taking into consideration the difi^er- 
ence between her returning to Newport instead of Philad'a 
which is much less, at any rate, do not exceed Forty per 
C. as we mean to risk her rather than exceed that premium. 
5 /6th of the Premium place to the Rum Account the i/6th 
to Capt. Caleb Gardners Account. 

We are, with much respect. Sir, Your most humble 

Chris. Champlin^ 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Amsterdam, the 22 April, 1782. 


The preceding is Copy of our last respects under date of 
the 29 Ulto. per Captain Deshon, to its Contents we beg 
you'll be referr'd. Said Vessel left the Texel some days ago 
with a very favorable wind, so flatter ourselves of her having 
got safe from our Coast and that this will meet her arrivd at 
Boston. We have now also to acknowledge the receipt of 
the Original of your favor of the 30th October on which have 
at present nothing further to reply except that we shall 

1 "I could not get the Lark insured at your limitation, and she left the Delaware 
Bay the 20th of April; and now have pleasure to inform you I have not heard of 
her since that, doubt not she got clear of this coast, and hope she arrived safe at the 
Havanna. . . . While our trade was open I could sell almost any thing for 
cash; but the stoppage of the Havanna trade by the English cruisers prevents the 
best men in the city being punctual." Josiah Hewes to Christopher Champlin, 
Philadelphia, June 5, 1782. 

1782] RHODE ISLAND 161 

cause the two enclosed letters to be delivered to Mr. Hiam 
Levy who we expect daily here. To our concern the Brig 
Robin Captain Cazneau is still in port, what is the Occasion 
thereof we are at a loss to say. The other concerned in her 
Cargo and we are occupied to see what can be done in this 
affair, in order either to force him to go to sea, or to return 
us our goods. We observed by your last favor of the i8th 
December your desire to have your account currant, the 
same we shall make out at the first leizure moment. 

With the utmost satisfaction we can now acquaint you 
that last Friday the 19 Instant our States General acknowl- 
edged the Independance of the United States of America 
and admitted John Adams Esqr. as Minister Plenipotentiary 
of said States on which we heartily congratulate you, not 
doubting but it will be attended with the most happy Conse- 
quences to both Countrys. The late alteration in the British 
Ministry offers also a pleasing prospect of the Blessing of 
Peace being restored to your Country as likewise to this 
provided Great Britain should also determine these in France 
and Spain which however as yet seems to suffer difficulties.^ 
We remain, etc. 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons to Aaron Lopez 

Amsterdam, the 4th June, 1782. 


Our last respects were under date of the 22d April to 
which we beg you'll be referr'd. Have now to acquaint 
you that a few days came to hand the Original of your favor 
of the 26 February; its contents we have duly noted, it 
is well you've passed in Conformity the Sundry Sums 
advised you; as likewise the Amount of the different Invoices 
which is well: tho' we no less than you are very sorry at the 
ill success of these various Shippement: As to your two 
Chests of Tea laying at Christiansand you'll before now be 

1 Lord North announced his resignation of office in the House of Commons, 
March 20, 1781. He was succeeded by Lord Rockingham. 

l62 COMMERCE OF [ 1782 

informed of the cause thereof. And as we have reason to 
beheve our friend at Gotenburg has not been able to dispose 
of them which we had wished he had done, we have desired 
him to forward you them by the first Occasion, and shoud 
there be two opportunities, than by each Vessel one, and to 
continue to ship you by the Six following Vessels, one Chest 
agreeable to your desire; but nothing is more difficult than 
to get orders well executed in these parts, and is attended 
with much trouble. As to the Brig Robin Captain Cazneau, 
we have agreeable to our last protested against him and his 
Owners. But as this can answer to no great purpose, a 
general Meeting was held amongst the principal Shippers in 
her. by whom were appointed Mr. John Hodshon and 
Messrs. De la Lande and Fynje; to take such steps in this 
affair as they judged wou'd be the best for the general Con- 
cern, in consequence of this they have ordered the Vessel 
up to Town, where she now lays; but are ignorant what 
steps they will further pursue and in which we believe they 
are themselves much at a loss. What ever will be resolved 
we shall in time acquaint you with.^ By the Certificates 
you send us concerning the Queens Ware we are well per- 
suaded the person who delivered us the same did not act 
well with us, but we dare say the Errors will have been occa- 
sioned by his Servants; jvho will never acknowledge the 
same; therefore to expect any further Satisfaction from him 
we despair off, having before allready met with so much 
trouble to obtain the return he made us, and to go at law 
on this Account woud be throwing away money to little 
purpose: we must say that we are very sorry to find this 
matter so situated, and wish'd it was in our power to give 
you satisfaction you require. We are much obliged to you 
for the care you've been pleased to take of the case of goods 
for Mr. Wessel Van Schaick: We observe the reason of 
your having deferr'd to make us remittances on the expecta- 

^ "They ordered the Brig up to town and after having in vain tryed to recover 
the goods with the freight and primage, have compromised to take back the goods 
on half the freight and primage being repaid. Accordingly the goods are now 
unloading." Ingraham and Bromfield to John Wheelwright, July 12, 1782, 

1782 ] RHODEISLAND 163 

tion of receiving your Account Currant, which it concerns 
us we have not yet been able to forward you occasion'd by 
our having of late had a multiplicity of very pressing business 
on hands: but intend to make use of the first leisure moment 
to draw it out and transmit you the same, but by looking 
over your Account the last Invoice per Captain Deshon 
nearly closed the same. We are now agoing to ship you by 
the Brig Sukey Captain Moses Grinell one Chest of Tea, of 
which our next will transmit you the Bill of Loading and 
Invoice. This Vessel is a remarkable fine Sailor so hope she'll 
arrive safe. 

We remain with much regard very respectfully, Sir: 
Your most Obedient Servants, 

Daniel Crommelin and Sons 

P. S. Pray give us your Opinion concerning the prohibi- 
tion of the import with you of British goods. 

We wrote you some time past regarding the demands of 
our friend Webster Blount Esquire on Captain Hector 
MacNieP and that Messrs. Jno. and Andrew Cabot ^ of 
Beverley had this matter in hands; but as said Gentleman 
continues to be without any advices from them he has most 
pressingly desired us, that an enquiry shoud be made at 
Messrs. Cabot, how this matter stands and proper remit- 
tance made, to which purpose he has sent us open the 
enclosed letter, that you may see the nature of this affair. 
As we have a high regard for Mr. Blount, your serving us in 
this, will greatly oblige. 

1 A captain in the Continental Navy, October 10, 1776, and given as coming 
from Boston. Journals of the Conthiental Congress (L. of C. ed.)j vi. 861. See 
also Mass. Hist. Soc. Proceedings, xii. 276. 

"^ Andrew Cabot (1750-1791), m. Lydia Dodge of Salem, and engaged in the 
unfortunate Penobscot expedition. John removed later from Beverley to Salem. 
The name of his wife was Hannah Dodge. 

164 COMMERCEOF [ 1782 

John de Neufville and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Amsterdam, 5 July, 1782. 

Your most esteemed favor of 10 April last per Firebrand, 
is just come to hand. To reply of what you say about our 
not giving you sooner intelligence of shipping you some goods 
per Gibbons, but if you consider the impossibility we were 
in of doing it, and that we at that time had reason to think 
ourselves happy to have an Opportunity for shipping them, 
there was such a Scarcity of vessells in proportion to the 
trade. We shall follow your orders with respect to shipping 
you tea when we can obtain it at your Limits which unless 
peace takes place soon or more appearances than is yet, 
(particularly as the New ministry in England are again gone 
out of office), we fear we shall not be able to effect it very 
soon. The Robin is to be unloaded by the perversness of 
some of the Shippers. We shall certainly not ship any 
unacceptionable goods that are liable by the act of Congress, 
without the particular orders of our friends for that purpose, 
by the return of the Firebrand, we hope to be able to advise 
you, of our having another opportunity for our reshipping 
the greatest part of those goods, till then we beg leave to 
assure you of the perfect esteem and great regard with which 
we remain Sir Your Most Obedient Humble Servants. 

John de Neufville and Son 

Moses Seixas to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, July 17th, 1782. 

Dear Sir, 

My last Respects was by Captain Davis to which please 
to be reffer'd. I have this day sold my 5 Chests Tea at 
12/6 payable next week at the Option of the purchaser, in 
Bills at 1/3 per Livre (which is I2| per Cent under par) or 
else in Cash, which I hope will meet your approbation, as 
have obtaind 6d in all more than any as yet has been sold 
since I have been here. You'll please -to communicate this 

1782] RHODE ISLAND 165 

unto Mr. Vernon and Mr. Seixas, as also that I expect to 
leave this place next Sunday week. Shou'd you think of 
making any further adventure here, I hope you'll delay it 
until I get home, so as I may take a concern with you, if 
agreable. The price of Tea in all probability will not be 
reduced unless the 3 Vessells, which are expected in here 
from Amsterdam shou'd be fortunate enough to arrive, of 
which no dependance can be made, as this harbour is closely 
blockaded by British Cruizers, notwithstanding the Ship 
General Monk got in the River yesterday, but from whence 
is not yet known.' the last Eastern mail that went from 
hence was taken from the Post Rider betwixt Bristol and 
Trenton about 25 Miles from this City, by the same party 
which took the Southern mail a few weeks ago, and this 
[was dojne at Midday, by this you may imagine how 
dangerous it is for Travellers with money. I am very 
Respectfully, Dear Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Moses Seixas 

please to tell Captain Minturne that I have not sold any of 
his Candles yet. 

Brenton, Shattucks and Jarvis to 
Christopher Champlin 

St. Pierre, Martinico, July 28th, 1782. 


We take the Liberty of acquainting you and our Friends 
in general, that a House is established at St. Pierre, in the 
Island of Martinico, by Silas G. Brenton, William and John 
Shattuck and Benjamin Jarvis, by the Firm of Brenton, 
Shattucks and Jarvis, under which Firm beg leave to 
tender our Services. Those who please to honor us with 
their Business, may depend on our utmost Exertions for 

^ "Business very dull here owing to the River being so closely blockaded, by the 
Enemy. Yesterday a Ship from Cadiz was taken after being 48 hours in the 
River. Bills of Exchange on France 1/3 for a Livre, in which I believe I shall 
invest my Money, in order to avoid the risk of transportation which is great." 
Moses Seixas to Christopher Champlin, July 8, 1782. 

l66 COMMERCEOF [ 1782 

their Interest. We trust those who have favour'd our Mr. 
Brenton with their Commands, will have no Cause to with- 
draw their Favours. We are Your most obedient Servants, 

Brenton, Shattuck and Jarvis 

Prize Money 

Value Received We the Subscribers jointly and severally 
promis to pay Howland and Coit of Norwich the Sum of 
Three Hundred Forty three Pounds, Five shillings Lawful 
Money in Ten Days from this date with Intrest from that 
time untill paid it being for the proportion of Prize Brigan- 
antine Adventure allowed to the Officers and Men of the Ship 
Alliance^ which we promise to pay in behalf of the Claimers 
of said Brigantine and Cargo, as Witness our hands in New 
London this i6th August 1782. 

Chris. [Champlin] 
W. S[tewart] 

Dudley Saltonstall 

Russell Hubbard, Junior 

Wills Cowper and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Nansemond, Virg'a, August 2nd, 1782. 


Inclosed is your Account Sales and the quantity of 
Tobacco arising therefrom. The Tobacco shall be deliver'd 
pointedly to your Order. Our Trade here is in a very declin- 
ing state there appears to be a total Inability in both the 
Merchant and Planter to discharge their Contracts which 
renders business very disagreeable, this added to the great 
risque of our Navigation makes the prospect very gloomy, 
to this hour we have not received one pound of Tobacco for 
your box of Goods and we at the time thought we had dis- 
posed of them to a good and punctual hand, however this 
shall not make us delay a moment in paying you up. New 
England Rum is worth 6/8 per gallon and we beleive will 

1782] RHODE ISLAND 167 

continue at that the barter price of Tobacco 20/ per Ct. 
Flour 15/ per Ct. Our Cape is closely watched by the 
Enemys Cruisers, it will be safer in October and thro' 
the winter months than at present. We are with much 
Respect Your Obedient Servants 

Wills Cowper and Co. 

William Gumbes, Jr. to Christopher Champlin 

St. Martins, ist September, 1782. 


Your Captain, Mr. Joshua Rothburn, on his arrival here 
apply'd to me for advice respecting his loading etc. which I 
candidly gave him, and am happy to inform you that through 
his attention to your interest he has procur'd a load of Salt 
cheaper than it has yet been sold for since the commencement 
of this Crop. 

I take the liberty to acquaint you that I am settled here 
in the mercantile line in co-partnership with my Brother 
Ben: Gumbes Junior and Mr. George Dromgoole, under 
the firm of Ben: Gumbes Junior and Co., and should you 
send any vessels this way we shall be happy in executing 
your orders. 

At foot you have the prices current. Mrs. Gumbes, (for- 
merly Miss Sally Mardenbro') desires her compliments to 
your Lady, Miss Peggey and all your family, and please 
to accept the same from. Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

William Gumbes, Junior 

Retail prices current. 
Superfine flour 2 Joes per bbl. Rum 3/ per Gallon. 

White Oak Staves 10 Joes per M. Sugar, from 48/ to 51/ per Cwt. 

Hoops . . . 8 Do. . do. Salt, rising in price daily. 

Lumber . . 7 to 8 Joes per M. Pork, 3 Joes per bbl. 

good Horses will sell from 14 to 18 Joes. 


Invoice of sundry Merchandize ship'd by Geo: Gibbs, 
Chris: Champlin, James Robinson, William Minturn and 
Geo: Champlin as Cargo on board the Brigg: George, 

l68 COMMERCE OF [ 1782 

Robert Champlin, bound to Surranam on their Account and 
Risk and consignd to said Master, viz. 

29 hhds. and 2 Tierses Tobacco W[eight] 23947 N[et]. 

5 hhds. and i bbl. Codfish . . . 36.2.0. 

115 bbls. Shadds. 1800 Hoops. 

5000 Ropes Onions. 8 bbl. Beef 1 

100 Shooks for hhd. 4 bbl. Pork f Provition. 

193 hhds. for Moloss. iioo lb. of Bread J 

Received all the above mention'd Goods and Merchandize 
on board the Brigg: George myself Master bound to Sura- 
nam, on Account of Geo: Gibbs, Chris: Champlin, James 
Robinson, William Minturn and Geo: Champlin owners of 
said Brigg: which T promise to dispose of agreeable to their 
orders and render them a proper Account of the same. 
Newport 28 December 1782. 

Robert Champlin 

Timothy Burr to Christopher Champlin 

Invoice of Flower on Bord of the Sloop Samuel Kilbourn Master, belonging to 
Timothy Burr and Samuel Burr, in Com. 


II Casks marked C. O. containg 28.1. 12 

13 Ditto marked T. B. O. contg 25.0.22 

24 Ditto marked T.B. contg 53-3- S 

107. I. II 

Hartford, December 13, 1782. 

SzV, the above flower we have on bord of Captain Kilbon 
who has bin taken and retaken, these air to beg the favour 
of you to settel the Salvedg as resonabel as you can in order 
for that we have sent 15 half Joes: if it shold be short if 
you wold [be] so kind as to settel the Same and send the 
Receipt by Mr. Olcott, you may depend on the Cash to be 
sent as soon as poserabel. your Complyance will much 
oblige your Humbel Servant, 

TiMO. Burr 

N. B. please to deliver within to Captain Kilbourn 
master of said Sloop, yours etc. 

T. B. 

1782] rhode island 169 

Sailing Orders of Robert Champlin 

Newport, 31st December, 1782. 
Captain Robert Champlin, 

You being Master of our Brigantine George now lying at 
anchor in the Harbour of Newport, are to observe the follow- 
ing orders and instructions, viz. To proceed from hence, 
with all convenient Dispatch, to Surrinam, where upon your 
safe arrival dispose of your Cargo at the best terms the 
market will admit. Invest the net proceeds thereof in 
Molosses and compleatly load the Brig with the same on our 
Account, after which return to Newport as soon as possible. 
If the Net proceeds of your Cargo shoud exceed the sum 
required to load the Brig with molosses in that case lay out 
the money which may remain, in bills of Exchange drawn 
by merchants of Property upon their Friends at Amsterdam, 
with good Endorsers, the first and second bills of each set 
reindorse to Mr. John De Neufville Junior, Merchant at 
Amsterdam, write him a few lines by two different ships 
enclosing a bill of tlie different sets in each letter, and request 
him to obtain Payment of them and place the amount to the 
Credit of Messrs. George Gibbs, William Minturn, Chris- 
topher Champlin, James Robinson and George Champlin, 
Merchants at Newport Rhode Island, untill he may receive 
their further orders, a copy of which letter you must be 
careful to keep to deliver us at your return to Newport, and 
also to secure the third and fourth bills of each set in such 
manner as to bring them with you to Newport. Should 
you by any accident whatever fall to Leward of Surrinam, 
it is our orders that you proceed to Dimeraro or Isaac Cape, 
where dispose of your Cargo, on the best terms that market 
will admit, loading the Brig, with Rum. Close your sales 
and purchase there without attempting to proceed to any 
other port from whence return direct to Newport. 

lyo COMMERCE OF [ 1783 

We wish you a successful! Voyage and are your Friends 
and Owners, 

Chris Champlin, for himself 
Geo. Gibbs 
William Minturn 
James Robinson 
Geo. Champlin 

The above Is a Copy of my orders received from the own- 
ers of the Brig George myself master, 

Robert Champlin 

Mary Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

^j- London, ist February, 1783. 

I beg leave to offer you my sincere congratulations on the 
fair prospect of an approaching Peace, which I hope may be 
settled between Great Britain and America on the firm 
basis of perpetual amity, sincere friendship and mutual 
Interests. This happy event being so near I think it right 
to inform you of my intention to pursue in a moderate way 
the business usually carried on by Mr. Hayley in his life 
time, connected with a very few friends of tried honor and 
character in America, of this number permit me to consider 
your name and to make you the offer of my best services. 
My Countinghouse must necessaryly be kept open and the 
experienced assistance I have there under my direction, with 
the superior advantages of my situation in life leaves no 
doubt in my mind of your commands being duly and faith- 
fully executed with the greatest satisfaction to you: I mean 
not to convey an Idea of going into an extensive trade or 
of forming any new connexions, this is contrary to my inten- 
tions, a small share of business among a few old friends is 
all I shall aim at, or be willing to engage in and I trust such 
friends as may be inclinable to accept my offer will explain 
the nature and probable extent of what they may wish in 
the connexion with me, in order as much as possible to avoid 


any dissatisfaction that may arise from what may appear to 
be a deviation from the principles on which we may set out. 
I am with great regard, Sir, your 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

London, ist February, 1783. 

Dear Sir, 

Since my last letter of which you will receive a copy 
herewith, I have had a meeting with Mr. Brymer upon the 
subject of your freight, who informed me that it was paid 
into Chancery, by order of that Court, in a connected state 
with the Cargo of your ship, in order to satisfy some claim 
of capture laid against a principal concerned in the said 
Cargo where it still remains in an undetermined state and 
perhaps may forever but as I see no reason why your Freight 
should not be seperated from this predicament, there being 
no charge against you I will make you an offer of my services 
on your sending me a sufficient power of attorney to act 
under and I will then try with as little expence as possible 
if an order cannot be obtained from the Lord Chancellor 
for the seperate payment of your Freight. It is a perplexed 
piece of business and has slept so long that it is a very difficult 
thing to open an enquiry into it without a proper authority. 
I heartily congratulate you upon the peace and am with 
great regard Dear Sir 

172 COMMERCEOF [ 1783 

Thurston and Jenkins to Christopher Champlin 

Providence, 25th February, 1783. 


Your favor with the Ten bbs. Coffee came to hand the 
22(1 Inst. Before its arrival the Brigantine Commet dis- 
charg'd her Cargo in which is a quantity of the first Quahty 
Coffee which is seUing per Bl. at i6d. we are inform'd Coffee 
is not plenty in Boston and the current price from 2od to 
22d lb. As this Market is somewhat gluted at present we 
think it will be most for your Interest to send it there shall 
wait your Advice. 

The Candles are at 1/6 lb. mould and diped. Cheese 
not any that we have seen of a good Quality we are waiting 
for the Price to fall as no Purchasers at present. The full 
confidence all Ranks of People puts in this News of Peace 
has stagnated Business exceedingly. Your further Com- 
mands will be readily attended too by Your Most Humble 

Thurston and Jenkins 

William Tonkin to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, the 12th March, 1783. 


The finalization of my Partnership as mentioned on the 
other side gives me an opportunity to address you seperately, 
and thanking you for the favours which you was pleased to 
conferr on that estabHshment I embrace this first opportunity 
to make you a tender of my services in this place, and express 
my hopes that you will favor me with your commands when- 
ever you have any business to do this way, and should it be 
agreeable to you to make me any consignment I offer per 
return of your Vessel to ship you the Value per Estimate in 
Wine Salt and Fruit, and in due course I will make as much 
of your goods as the quality of them and the state and nature 
of the Market will admit. 

For your government Rice and Flour are prohibited here 
from all parts. Our last harvest of wheat was a great one 


and the succeeding promises to be equally abundant, so that 
it is too dangerous for you to engage in that article. In 
regard to Indian Corn it is too late in the Season, the months 
of May and June being the proper time, and is before this 
Country Crop comes in. 

Staves I fear will not meet a ready sale as we have had 
three scanty Vintages following, and our last safFra of Oil 
was the same, and these are the articles which give consump- 
tion to Staves. 

Codfish is an article which meets a Consumption here 
without the Year and used to be a steady trade from the 
Ports to the Northward of your Port; the Quality of that 
fish is also liked here; it will nevertheless be adviseable that 
every Vessel which comes here with Codfish should report 
that they are bound to some other place and demand a 
Franguia, which is for the purpose of effecting a sale on 
board, free of Duty to the Seller, which is preferable to 
landing for proprietors Account, besides the great chance 
under Franguia of selling for exportation also; on receiving 
a Consignment of this kind I am ready to ship you immediate 
returns in the articles I have mentioned in the foregoing 
part of this Letter. 

The late sales of Codfish here have been from 4^000 to 
4^400 per Portuguese Quintal free on board, but as Peace 
is reinstated the prices hereafter will lower, as a natural 
Consequence. I am very respectfully, Sir, Your most 
obedient Servant, 

William Tonkin 

Lisbon white wine . . . 62$ per Pipe 

Lemons 3$ per Box 

Salt 1^700 per Moy. 

Ingraham and Bromfield to Christopher 
Champlin and George Gibbs 

Amsterdam, March 27th, 1783. 


We wrote you Sept. 17th last at which time we expected 
the Betsey to arrive here every day, but owing to a variety 

174 COMMERCE OF [1783 

of adverse circumstances such as were not to be guarded 
against by us, she did not leave Bergen till 22d February 
and was drove on shore in a violent Gale about ist Inst, 
upon the Schelling Island. As we have given Mr. Daniel 
Parker all the particulars of this unfortunate Voyage we 
beg leave to refer you to him. The Brig is now ready to 
load and will be ready for Sea next week, the extra Expences 
and unfortunate detention of this Vessel can only be placed 
to the Account of Error in sending her to Bergen a place so 
distant from here that the Post who rides night and day is 22 
days in performing it. The winter has been such an one 
as we never knew, almost a continual Storm, and if it will 
be any consolation for the bad voyage we assure you that it 
is our opinion that the Brig would not have liv'd thro' a 
winters passage to America as the weather has been. As 
soon as the Brig is dispatch'd we shall attend to the making 
up her Accounts which will be a General Average and what- 
ever Money may come to your share we shall ship you in 
the articles of your Memorandum by the first Vessel after, 
we are extreemly sorry that our first Bussiness together 
should prove so unfortunate and hope it may not discourage 
you from persuing Bussiness to this place which we think 
may be conducted to good advantage, we remain with 
Esteem Gentlemen your most obedient humble Servants, 

Ingraham and Bromfield 

(Copy) Original per the Cato, Tappin. 

Robert and Nathan Hyde to Christopher Champlin 

Manchester, 9 April, 1783. 

The present is to inclose your a/current ballance in our 
favour £7.3.8 which we hope you will find to be right and 
will remit the amount on receipt of this not doubting but it 
wou'd have been done long since but for the late unnatural 
War. We hope to have the pleasure of hearing from you 
soon with orders for our Manufactures as formerly, in which 
case you may depend on being supplied with those of the 


best quality and charg'd on the lowest terms, this we shall 
make a point of doing, waiting the favour of your Commands 
we remain with much esteem, Sir, Your most obedient 

Robert and Nathan Hyde 

P. S. We thank you for your remittances before the 
unhappy troubles commenced, the small ballance now due 
you may either remit us or pay to Mr. Jno. Glover of New 
York, and are oblig'd for all past favours. 

Antony Johnson to Christopher Champlin 

You was always my good frend. I want you should 
write to me by the next flag whether you can geet Leave 
for me and my Wife to com home again to leaf with our 
Children. I shall be glad you will gett Leaf for my Wife as 
shee wants to goo to her Mother and Children if you can 
gett Leave for this favour I shall always acnowlege I am 
Sir Yours to Serve 

Antony Johnson 

N. York, April 14, 1783. 

[Memo.] Negro Antonii Johnstons letter. 

Hewes and Anthony to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, i6th April, 1783. 

Dear SzV, 

Your favour of the ist Instant came to hand on Monday 
last, the Contents fully noted; and in order to relieve your 
anxiety, about your arrangements to the Southward, we 
tell you that whenever your bills appear they will be honour'd 
there is plenty of time, and a Variety of ways may be pointed 
out, to place funds in our hands before it will be wanted, but 
at present we can advise no method so elligeable and safe 
as sending the money either round by water, or through 
New York, of this you can best judge, and make it most 
convenient to yourself, but in the meantime should any 

176 COMMERCE OF [ 1783 

better plan present to our view, we will without delay com- 
municate it to you. it is impossible to dispose of bills; 
there are so many now that want to draw money from that 
Quarter; and Molasses is not much wanted at present, there- 
fore we could not advise much being sent to this Market 
till the Distillers get underway, we shall be happy to hear 
of the Arrival of that Vessel. She will make a noble freight 
in time of Peace, and they are fortunate who have such a 
Vessel left. Trade is in a very unsettled State, people are at 
a loss what to do, and till we have the Commercial Treaty, 
cant tell what to carry, or where to go. we would wish to 
give you every Information in our Power, but at present 
we must wait for light, a few months will put us upon a 
regular footing. Command us whenever you think we can 
be of Service, and believe us with Sentiments of the highest 
Esteem, Your Friends and Very Humble Servants, 

Hewes and Anthony 

Mary Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, 22nd May, 1783. 


I HAVE received the favor of yours dated the 4th of April 
inclosing two bills on Psrris amounting to 28,000 Livres 
which are gone forward for acceptance, and I hope will be 
returned in a few days agreeable to our wishes.^ I under- 
stand the Court of France have ordered lately that no more 
bills for the supply of their Army in America shall be paid 
as usual, and indeed it is said by some that they will not be 
paid at all, or at least untill all Accounts of a public nature 
are hquidated between that Court and the United States of 
America, which if true will amount to nearly the same 
thing; but I expect the fact as it respects these bills will 

^ "Your bills were negotiated on France at the rate of 314/ 1/16 Sterling for 
every French crown of three Livres which you will find answer to the sum 
creditted you, there will be a small brokerage at the rate of two shillings in 
every hundred pounds settled at the end of the year." Mary Haley to Chris- 
topher Champlin, July 11, 1783. 


turn out to be a prolonging of the time from thirty days 
after sight to twelve months after sight which will prevent 
their negociation on the Change of London without a heavy 
discount of perhaps more than ten per Cent. I am very 
sorry to be obliged to give you so unpleasant an account of 
this remittance; if it was my own I think I should be inclined 
to get clear of them and all future responsibility on their 
account, upon the best terms — believing there is reason 
to apprehend that those engagements between France and 
America that look most like money matters will hardly be 
soon settled to the satisfaction of both parties. My last 
Letter to you I have no doubt will be satisfactory as it re- 
spects the subject of future business. The Intercourse 
between Great Britain and America being now quite open 
your Commands, when I have the honor to receive them will 
be duly attended to. 

The desire that prevails among many of almost all ranks 
of people in this Country for visiting America will no doubt 
occasion many applications from Gentlemen to me for 
introductory Letters to my Friends — in order to prevent 
any misconstruction of expressions that politeness may re- 
quire in favour of such who do apply, I only wish my friends 
may generally understand that if I mean more than personal 
civilities I will take care to mention it in a manner that 
cannot be mistaken. I am with great respect. Sir, Your 
Obedient and humble servant, 

Mary Hayley 

Ebenezer Shearman to George Champlin and Co. 

Chanel of England, June the loth, 1783. 


This may serve to inform you Shearman his Crew and 
Pasingers are in good helth and my Idol the Brig Richmond 
is tite strong in good order and sails like fish, have spoke 
a number of Vessels and pass them, as if they ware at anker. 
Amongst them one Ingia Ship bound to Copenhagen from 
the Cape of Good hope. Just 9 M[orning ?] the Isl of White 

178 COMMERCE OF [ 1783 

hairing North dist. 4 Leagues. I have not received aney 
pasage Money from Captain Clark nor Captain Sheffield, 
as some of my owners was for and others against it: and 
for my part they are welcome from me. that Point can be 
setled at there Arrival at Newport amongst your selves. 
have received the 10 Guinnas from the other Passenger 
Richard Baxbee. at 7 clock afternoon expect to land the 
Passingers in one hour from this Blithmeston about 16 
Leagues to the Eastward of the Isle of White. Jentelmen 
Adue, I remain Yours to Serve. 

Ebenezer Shearman 

N. B. if either Captain Minturn or Mr. G. Champlin 
would be kindanuf to acquaint Mother Rider I am well 
I would be much obleaged to them. 


[Endorsed,] Per favour Captain P. Clark. 

Mary Haley to Christopher Champlin 

2 July, 1783. 

Above is copy of my last to you via Boston in which you 
will find the present prices of sundry articles. Trade is 
at present so very unsettled in regard to those articles that 
it is impossible to form any true judgment of what the 
future prices may be. I mention this that you may not be 
led into an error in speculation as it respects these articles. 
All Europe seem at present to be much engaged in an at- 
tention to their Commercial Interests and the Idea of 
abolishing all exclusive trade is gaining ground. What 
events this may produce cannot as yet be seen. I am etc. 

Mary Hayley 

1783] rhode island i79 

William Engs, Jr. to George Champlin and Co. 

p J Hobbs Hole on Rappahanock, 23d July, 1783. 

AS I wrote you not a Letter but aVollume by Captain 
Read least you should think I am too fond of scribling will 
be a little more concise, but have inclos'd a Letter from Mr. 
Cooper for your Perrusal by wich you will be able to see 
what I have to expect from Messrs. Cowper; since I wrote 
per Captain Read have taken on board 9 or 10 Hhds which 
makes in all 23. now Gentlemen was I to give my opinion 
positively I do not expect to get any more for 3 weeks to 
come and you will naturally think there is but little to expect 
from James river by the inclos'd Coppy, for Tobacco cannot 
be bought except for Cash and perhaps not once a week 
then and the Price for it at Fredricksburg is not yet setled 
for it is every day dearer and none will sell that can avoid 
it. I have flatter'd myself for 2 or 3 weeks past with hopes 
of haveing my orders countermanded but wether you intend 
that or not am sure that I shall not be able to load here with 
this Crop Tobacco and the one that is now planted will 
not be fit untill the ensuing Winter, as for freight there is 
but verry few men who would wish to ship and those who do 
seem determind to do it for England and they are deter'd 
from it for fear the State will not oblige the people who owe 
money there to pay it so are loth to trust their Property 
for fear of reprisal, the Method of Freighting here in 
peacable times is most extraordinary, it is call'd £8 Sterling 
per Ton and 4 hhds to the Ton and them they git as large 
as possible so that you have 40/ Sterling perhaps for carrying 
14 C. or more of Tobacco to London but I have no freight 
offers for they still continue saying the old Traders will be 
here by and by and will sell what we want at low rate to get 
our freight but I do not believe there is Tobacco enough 
to load the Vessels that are here except what is been paid 
in for Taxes which belongs to the Country and to be shipd 
for France some time or other by the Legislature, there 
is now in this river 2 french ships a Brigantine and Cutter 
one American Ship, vizt. Captain Hayden of Boston 
an English Cutter and my self after Tobacco and an EngHsh 

l8o COMMERCEOF [ 1783 

Brig arriv'd below to day from St: Thomas's and I verily 
believe that for many days together the whole does not get 
a hhd. the price talk'd of at Fredricksburg at present is 
28/, but at that you can purchase no Quantity nor perhaps 
a single hhd: indeed Gentlemen I dispair of giveing you 
any tolerable Idea of things they are so confus'd as yet in 
this Country I mean of the Tobacco Trade, for the Peoples 
Expectations are beyond probability, for my part and I 
am not singular in my opinion I think who ever sails from 
here from this time to next year will find on the Eastern 
side the Atlantic what we do here that the people will not 
buy because they expect to get cheaper, pardon me Gentle- 
men I do not mean to dictate to you but take it as you will 
I can asure you nothing but your Interest makes me say 
what I do. I therefore beg you would by some means or 
other let me know how I am to conduct for was the Vessel 
my own I should instantly sell what Tobacco I have; get 
some Flour wheat or Corn and return to find a better Market 
than going with Tobacco at this time. I mention'd you by 
Captain Read that Mr. Cowper wrote me he had received 
advice of payment being made of the greater part of your 
Debt to Hews and Antony and did not doubt ere that time 
the ballance was paid, as I promis'd not to be so long as 
my last must conclude with beging you to remember you 
pay 100 dollars Portage Bill per Month besides Provisions 
Cabbm stores etc. a Ship saild the other day whose bill 
of disbursements was £600. mine shall be as small as I 
can make it with Propriety but you must prepare for the 
worst for a long one will be a large one and if I eat all my 
salt Provisions can buy no more here at present. I am with 
the greatest Sincerity gentlemen your most Obedient 

1783] RHODE ISLAND 181 

P, S. please to tell Mr. Slocum I have not yet sold his 
rum but am striveing to retail it at 3/ per Gallon. 

P. S. Captain Ambrose informs me he has no letters 
from Messrs. Hunters for you which surpris'd me. pray 
Gentlemen think of something new if possible and not oblige 
me to lye here till the fever and ague which will soon begin 
puts it out of my Power to do anything. 

Ebenezer Shearman to Christopher Champlin and Co. 

Gothenburg, July the 26th, 1783. 


With pleasure imbrace this Opertunity to inform you of 
the saif Arrivel of the Brig Richmond, at Marstrand, the 
2 1 St of June, and at Gothenburg, the 8th of July, in good 
helth, likewise the holl Crew. Yesterday cairn on the 
Sailes of our Tobacco, sold at pubhck Oction from four 
Shillings to six and eight Ronsticks per lb. it is not in my 
Power to inform you what it will everage at present, as part 
of the Tobacco is to pay a duty. Therefore shall refer that 
matter to a more convenient Opertunity. Two of the East 
India Ships has arriv'd, one yesterday the other whilst 
I'm righting this, the other Ship is on her Pasage, but was 
seperrated from thoes two in a Gail of Wind, in the East 
Indias, but ourly expected, if the other Ship dont arrive 
soon, I emagin it will retard the Sailes of thoes all reedey 
arriv'd. Shall refir that Point to Mr. Soderstrom, Like- 
wise in regard to the Price Currant here. I'm in hopes 
Jentelmen you'll consider Shearmans great Perquisits on 
this present Voige, which he has agree'd to. You made 
the Proposall and 2 and | Persent I agreed to strike of. 
Change the Propossall and you'll obleage Shearman and put 
2 and ^ on. Captain Magee from Boston is here loaded 
with Tobacco from Virginnia in a Ship of 500 hhds his 
Perquisits are 5 per Cent on the Tobacco deliver'd him here, 
f of all Passage Money, ^ Crown Starling per day in Poart, 
Cabbin stoars found him, and one hundred Guinnias paid 
him here. Shearman has put his hand to the plow, and will 

l82 COMMERCE OF [ 1783 

go thro with his Buisness the saim as if his Perquisits ware 
eaquel to other People. Jentelmen Adue. I remain yours 
to serve, 

Ebenezer Shearman 

N. B. My Tobacco was verry good and but verry little 
Loss when inspected. Pleas to deliver the inclos'd to Mother 

27th July. I have the agreeable News to inform you the 
third India Ship has just arriv'd and this day carrean'd my 
Ship to Baytop her found the Stuff of her Bottom so low 
down could not come at it therefore have hall'd in to the key 
to heave her keal out and grave, it gives me pain to find 
that I shall be at more expense here than I expected, but 
must submit to your Judgments when the Bills are pre- 
sented. Adue. 

Ebenezer Shearman 

Mary Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, 2nd August, 1783. 


I CONFIRM the foregoing copy of my last respects to you 
dated nth July since which I am without any further favors 
from you. Inclosed you have an Invoice of a few pieces of 
Cloths and Velverets which to save expence I have had 
packed with some of Mr. Fowler's goods which I hope will 
not prove disagreeable to you. The amount being £60.9.1 
when the goods are received you will please to note in 
conformity. Your order being now compleated I have only 
to hope that the Goods may all come out agreeable and that 
your future orders may give more time, which is a very 
material thing and will make a great saving in the expences 
of carriage and other charges attending the shipping of 
Goods from this Country; I will just mention for your in- 
formation that Interest Bills on Franklin at Paris as Com- 
missioner to the united States have just been accepted but 
not without repeated applications. Rochambeau's Army 

1783] RHODE ISLAND 183 

Bills are regularly paid. The French squadron Bills I fear 
will be subject to the Kings Edict of prolongation. I have 
some of the latter kind lying in France and can get no answer 
to them. I am etc. 

Copy. Original per the Eleanor, Henderson. 

London, 20th August, 1783. 
Sir f 

Since the within copy of my last respects I am favoured 
with yours dated the 15th of last month acknowledging 
mine dated 22nd May which was soon followed by another 
containing a more agreeable account of your French bills. 
The french navy bills mentioned in the Copy for your 
information are since accepted payable in twelve months 
from the day they would become due with an allowance 
of jfive per Cent interest, but such bills cannot be negociated 
on the 'Change of London for less than 10 or 11 per Ct. 
discount which occasions a loss of 5 or 6 per Ct. just as the 
course of Exchange and the price of such things happen to 
be. The definitive treaty is not yet signed, nothing can 
be done in the affair of your freight untill the month of 
October in the mean time all the necessary preparation will 
be made. 

I am Sir with great respect Your obedient and most 
humble Servant, 

Mary Hayley 

[Endorsed,] By the Minerva, Pearce. 

Wills Cowper and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Suffolk [Virginia], August 28th, 1783. 


Inclosed is Mr. John Walkers Draft in your favour for 
66f I dollars the ballance due you as per Account inclosed 
we shou'd have been glad to have sent you this Balance per 
Captain Engs but his laying in Rappahannock made it ill 

The rum and oyl ship us by Captain Cooke, we have not 
to this moment collected one shilling from, the oil remains 

184 COMMERCE OF [ 1783 

an open Account, the rum is bonded in Tobacco which we 
have commenced suit for and may probably recover next 
May payment, when Tobacco may again be at 20/ per Ct. so 
that we are very considerably in advance on account of your 
small Sales. Shou'd you see Mr. Walker he can well inform 
you of our distressed Situation in this Country, he has met 
with a very full share of disappointments in this State tho' 
on the Spot the whole time to transact his own business. 
Tobacco has been as high as 35/ but has fallen within 10 
days to 28/. below you have the prices current, we have 
only to assure you of our best wishes to render you any 
services in this State and are very Respectfully, Sir, Your 
Most Obedient Humble Servants, 

Wills Cowper and Co. 

Prices Current 

Jas. River Tobacco 28/ Turpentine 12/1015/. 

Rappahannock do 22/6 Dry goods 65 to 75 per Ct. on Sterling 

Flour fine . . 32/6 per bll. 196 lb. Exchange 33I per Ct. on London. 
Tar 8/. to 10/. with France 5/7 to 5/9 for 5 Livres 


William Green to Christopher Champlin 

My dear Sir, 

The happy termination of the peace enables me to open 
a correspondence with you, from which I promise myself 
both pleasure and advantage; the critical nature of the War 
hath hitherto prevented it but I am now at full liberty to 
felicitate both you and myself upon my marriage with your 
niece and you may receive my Letters without any treason- 
able imputation. Tho an event of some standing, it hath 
all the charms of novelty to me, and I am sure will preserve 
its complexion as long as we live. 

I receive a particular degree of satisfaction from the 
agreeable accounts your good Lady has given of your family; 
and I hope the settlement of the two eldest, in a manner 
perfectly agreeable to your most sanguine expectations is 

1783] RHODE ISLAND 185 

not far distant, and my dear Tempe unites with me in our 
earnest wishes that the Almighty may crown them with 
the blessing of happiness and the choicest gifts of 

I feel myself a little disposed to speculate in American 
property, and particularly in the province of New York; 
But at the same time am so ignorant of its value, or price, 
that I am utterly at a loss concerning the purchase. I 
apprehend the sale of the late Coll. Philips Estate at Philips- 
burgh will speedily take place, and in case his Dwelling house 
upon the Manor, and ten thousand acres round it (no part 
being more than three miles distant from Hudson's River) 
could be bought for 20,000 Spanish Dollars or five thousand 
pounds Sterling I would make the purchase. I suppose 
that two thirds of the Land would be fit for arable and I 
believe a good part of it is let on lease. I mean by arable 
fit for Wheat, Flax or Indian Corn. There is no person 
in America that I would trust with this intention, or the 
execution but yourself, in whom I repose the greatest con- 
fidence and entertain the greatest respect and regard. If 
you have the goodness to accept this Commission from me, 
and on my part, to make this purchase provided it be ad- 
vantageous, you will be pleased to draw on me for either of 
the beforementioned sums at 100 days sight. I understand 
the Estate to be freehold and a good title to be made out 
by the Province. 

Affairs in this Country are going on as usual. Industry 
which is the very soul of prosperity pervades every part, 
and none but the idle and profligate want comfort and ease. 
The Girls are made easy by the circumstances of their 
brothers, and nothing is wanting to render them entirely 
happy, but the reflection that the friends of their infancy 
and youth are left behind. 

I feel the most perfect affection for Mrs. Champlin, your 
Son and Daughters. Impress them I entreat you with the 
sentiments they should entertain for me, and my Tempe 
who joins in duty to her Grandmama and love to your 
family and friends. Remain with a very sincere attach- 



[ 1783 

ment, My dear Sir, Your faithful Friend and Most humble 

Harpur Street, London, Sept. sth, 1783. ^^^^ GrEEN 

P. S. I would have my name remain a secret throughout 
the whole affair. 

Duncan Ingraham, Junior to Christopher Champlin 
AND George Gibbs 

p, 1 Amsterdam, l8th September, 1783. 

Your favor of June loth is receiv'd and am verry sorry 
that Mr. Daniel Parker has not acquainted you with the 
Steps my late House took with the Betsey and their Reasons 
for it, all of which he was furnish'd with in a very ample 
manner. And in a Letter I lately received from Messrs. 
Guild and Co. who conducts Mr. Parker's Business; they 
say, "That we have shewn the Papers to all the Owners 
of the Betsey and they appear perfectly satisfied with your 
Conduct." You may see by the Papers sent Mr. Parker 
why she did not arrive here sooner. 

The Idea of getting 100 per Cent more for her Cargo in 
Bergen than it brought here must have been taken from the 
2nd Mates Account who was not capable of his Duty as a 
Seaman, much less so to give an Account of Markets. 
F Our House did their Duty and, being Owners, suffer'd 
equally with you. There is a Balance due me by the Owners 
of /3 1 54. 14 Cy which Account Mr. Parker has. I regret 
the bad Voyage the Vessel made but am persuaded that no 
Person could do more than was done to prevent it. I am 
Gentlemen with esteem and respect 

1783] RHODE ISLAND 187 

George Rome to Christopher Champlin 

^' London, 24th October, 1783. 

After my congratulatory Compliments on the return of 
Peace and Ratification of the Definitive Treaty with Amer- 
ica, I embrace the earliest opportunity to transmit the 
annexed Letter from Mr. Stead and his Assignees/ by which 
you will discover all Mr. Steads Estates and Effects in 
America have fallen into my hands, and that I must sub- 
mit to the final Event of them: And as there is a Ballance 
due to Mr. Steads Estate by your Brother-in-Law, 
Robert Jenkins Junior, Deceased, per Note, which, with 
Interest thereon, amounts now to upwards of £70 Stg. I 
have to desire you will pay to my attorneys at Newport, 
or to Stephen Greenleaf Esqr. of Boston, on my account, 
Mr. Steads proportion of such Devidends as already have, 
or may hereafter arrise from Mr. Jenkin's Estate; and should 
Mr. Greenleaf be of opinion that a Quitclaim from, or a re- 
conveyance by Mr. Jenkins's Heirs, or Executors, etc., 
will be necessary to secure me in the Rutland Mortgage 
as described in Mr. Stead and his Assignee's Letter, I am 
to desire you will conform to whatever he may find necessary 
to be done therein. Address me to the care of Messrs. 
Lane and Frazer, and in the hope of hearing from you in 
course, I remain, with Compliments to Mrs. Champlin, 
Respectfully Sir, Your Most Obedient, and Most Humble 
Servant Geo. Rome 

Elkanah Watson ^ to George Gibbs and Christopher 


/-I .7 London, 30th December, 1783. 

Gentlemefiy •^ » / j 

From the probability that this will be the last letter I 
shall do myself the honour of writing from Europe, I am 

1 Page loo, supra. 

2 Elkanah Watson (1758-1842) came from Plymouth, Mass., served under John 
Brown of Providence and went abroad during the War of Independence, when he 
lost his property. He returned to the United States in 1784 and settled in Albany, 
N. Y. See his Men and Times of the Revolution. 

l88 COMMERCEOF [ 1783 

induc'd to claim your indulgence for a moment, to com- 
municate my present unpleasant situation, and the ex- 
traordinary train of hard fortune that has precipitated us in 
it. In short Gentlemen we are inevitably ruin'd, and both 
our European establishments crushd into non-existence; 
we have struggled hard with many of our countrymen since 
the event of peace, and defended ourselves to the last; but 
rigorous destiny determin'd upon our fall overpowr'd every 
effort, and oblig'd us sullenly to submit to her rash 

For this nine months we have scarcely receiv'd a letter 
from any quarter of the world where our operations extended 
but what contain'd a fresh Hnk to add to our chain of un- 
parralleld misfortunes; from the months of August to 
November our Nantes establishment alone sustain'd a dead 
loss of three hundred and sixteen thousand livers; whether 
from the natural effects of peace; from the failure of the 
public bank at Paris; our own bankers; or private mer- 
chants; the number of which is frightful, and what at no 
period of the existence of France was ever known to equal, 
within the same time. 

As to my establishment in this City, I had resources for 
continuing yet for several months; but notwithstanding our 
house at Nantes is protected by the kings edict, yet our 
french creditors threatned'to pursue me in London; which 
obliges me to fly to a place of assylum to avoid an arrest; 
the creditors of both houses have been call'd together, and 
we find their demands are about one million of livers, equal 
to about £40,000 Sterling; we are in hopes however to secure 
them a handsome dividend; and are determin'd in the course 
of the winter to wind up with honour; after which I mean 
to return to my native country early in the spring; and 
begin the world again with no other capital but integrity; 
industry, and dear bought experience which is the bitter 
fruits of several years unremitted application: however I 
do not despair, knowing the field in which I am to act is 
copious, and holds out inviting prospects even for naked 
industry to build on. 

[783 ] 



I am well aware of the general stigma that falls upon fail- 
ures; in some cases it is just, in others cruel. I am sure 
no generous mind after reading this letter will suffer such an 
impression to penetrate his breast to my prejudice; if so, 
what I at present suffer is a bubble in comparison to the 
sickening idea of being receiv'd into the bosom of my country 
under such colours: a liberal merchant will generously divest 
himself of ancient prejudice, spurn the idea, and rather 
commiserate my fate; which at least ought to be our reward, 
for considerable sums we have liberally distributed in our 
prosperity to deviate the distresses of our unfortunate coun- 
trymen in captivity. 

Hoping to present my personal respects some day upon 
the other side of the Atlantic, I am most respectfully, Gentle- 


Received and forwarded by Your Friend, 

Welcome Arnold 

Policy of Insurance 

Be it Remembered, That Messrs. Sam'l Fowler, and Chris- 
topher Champhn of Newport Merchants as well in their 
own Name as for and in the Name and Names of all and 

^ Watson's son was named Winslow Cossoul Watson. 

190 COMMERCEOF [ 1783 

every other Person or Persons to whom the same doth, may, 
or shall appertain, in Part or m all, doth make Assurance, 
and causeth themselfs, and them, and every of them, to be 
insured, lost or not lost, the Sum of Eight Hundred Pounds 
Law. Mo. on Merchandize on Board the Brigantine, Don 
Galvez at and from Newport, Rhode Island, to Dublin in 
Ireland, whereof is Master, for this present Voyage, Charles 
Swain, or whosoever else shall go for Master in the said 
Vessel, or by whatsoever other Name or Names the said 
Vessel or the Master thereof is or shall be named or called; 
beginning the Adventure upon the said Merchandize, from 
Newport, Rhode Island, as aforesaid, and to continue and 
endure the Voyage aforesaid, and until said Vessel shall be 
arrived and moored at Anchor Twenty-four Hours in safety, 
at Dublin in Ireland. And it shall be lawful for the Vessel, 
&c. in this Voyage, in Case of Extremity and Distress, to 
proceed and sail to, and touch at any Ports or Places what- 
soever, without Prejudice to this Insurance: Touching the 
Adventures and Perils which we the Assurers are contented 
to bear, and do take upon us in this Voyage; they are of 
the Seas, Men of War, Fire, Enemies, Pirates, Rovers, 
Thieves, Jettizons, Letters of Mart and Counter-Mart, 
Surprizals, Takings at Sea, Arrests, Restraints and De- 
tainments of all Kings, Princes and People, of what Nation, 
Condition, or Quality soever; Barratry of the Master (unless 
the Assured be Owner of said Vessel) and Mariners, and of 
all other Perils, Losses and Misfortunes that have, or shall 
come to the Hurt, Detriment or Damage of the said Mer- 
chandize or any Part thereof. And in ^Case of any Loss or 
Misfortune, it shall be lawful for the Assureds, their Factors, 
Servants, and Assigns, to sue, labour and travel for, in and 
about the Defence, Safeguard, and Recovery of said Mer- 
chandize or any Part thereof, without Prejudice to this In- 
surance; to the Charges whereof the Assurers will contribute 
each one according to the Rate and Quantity of his Sum 
herein assured. And that in Case of an Average Loss not 
exceeding ten per Cent, the Assurers, by Agreement with the 
Assured, are not to pay or allow any Thing towards such 



Loss. And in Case of any Loss the Money to be paid in 
Thirty Days after Proof of the same. And it is agreed by us 
the Insurers, that this Writing or PoHcy of Assurance shall 
be of as much Force and Effect as the surest Writing or Policy 
of Assurance heretofore made in Lombard-Street, or in the 
Royal-Exchange, or elsewhere in London. And so we the 
Assurers are contented, and do hereby promise and bind our- 
selves, each one for his own Part, our Heirs, Executors and 
Goods, to the Assureds, their Executors, Administrators, and 
Assigns, for the true Performance of the Premises, confessing 
ourselves paid the Consideration due unto us for this Assur- 
ance by the Assureds, at and after the Rate of Three Pounds 
per Cent. And in Case of any Dispute arising hereupon, the 
Matter in Controversy shall be submitted to, and decided 
by Referees chosen by each Party, agreeable to the Rules 
and Customs in London. 

Bread, Corn, Flax-Seed, Fish, Salt, Hemp, Hides, Skins, 
and such Goods as are esteemed perishable, are warranted 
free from Average, unless a general Average, or the Vessel 

In Witness whereof. We the Assurers have subscribed our 
Names and Sums assured, in Boston in the Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts, January the 29, 1784. 

N. B. The above Merchandize is Flaxseed. 

£300 Isaiah Doane, Three hundred pounds L. My. 

300 John Coffin Jones, Three hundred pounds L. My. 

100 Crowell Hatch, One hundred pound 

100 Simeon Mayo, One hundred pounds L. My. 
£800 Lawfull Money Solid Coin. 

[On the back of the sheet] 

Newport 18 February 1784 rec'd of Chris. Champlin, Twelve pounds 3/. in full 
of his half within premium. £12:3. Sam'l Fowler, 

[Memo.] No. 299. 

Messrs. Fowler & Champion, etc. 

Prem'o 3 per Cr £24. — 

Policy .6 

£24. 6 
Pay Mr. Jacob Rd. Reivere 
Rec'd Boston, Janu[ary] 29, 1784. 
M. M. Hays. 

192 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

WiNTHROP, Tod and Winthrop to Christopher Champlin 

^ . Charleston, So. Carolina, February lOth, 1784. 


We should have ourselves the honor to have addressed 
you long before this day, had it not happened that altho' 
our J. Tod sail'd from Philadelphia on the 23rd October he 
did not reach us earlier than the 6th Inst, owing to the 
extreme bad and tempestuous weather which the vessel he 
was aboard of, experienced upon this Coast, and by it 
compell'd to desist from the attempt of getting here, and to 
repair to the West Indies; during this time our J. Winthrop 
was much busied in the making of Shipments to Europe 
for account of our Friends. These circumstances we beg 
leave to offer to you, for our apology in not addressing you 
earlier, and we shall hope, that you will not impute our 
silence to any other cause. 

There is supposed to be from 80 a 100,000 Barrels Rice 
and about a million of pounds weight of Indico of the present 
Crops made, and but little of either shipp'd off — the former 
still supports the extravagant price of 13/6 a 14/6 per Cwt. 
and the latter 3 a 4/8 per lb. 

Freights to Europe are from 50 a 65/. Stg. per Ton, say 
for 2240 li. of neat Rice and few Vessels now in port to 

You will please to notice that the Currency of this State 
is now reduced to Sterling, and a half Johannes passes for 
37/4, and English Guinea 21/9, a French do. 21/5, and a 
Dollar 4/8. 

We shall be happy in being favoured with the pleasure of 
hearing from you as often as agreeable, and in return we will 
with much pleasure avail ourselves of every convenient 
conveyance to furnish you with the state of this market for 
your government. At the same time we take the liberty 
to tender you our best services here, with assurances of 
making it our study to prove ourselves worthy of your 
confidence. Being very respectfully. Sir, Your Most Obe- 
dient Servants, Winthrop, Tod and Winthrop 




Charlejloufn, {Sgulh-CaroVina) July \JI, ij^l 

WE tale the Liberty to inform you, that we have, eflablijbei 
oHoufeln this City, niAth Intent to execute the Commands which our Frlendt may ds 
pleafed to honour us with, whether tit the Sales ofConfignments ; Pur chafes of Cargoss', 
or the procuxlngFr eight} for Veffels, 

^nd, we Jhall ejleemourfelves happy in an early Opportunity of proving to you, by the 
mpfl ajfiduous Exertions and flrtSleft Pun^uality, hjw much we wlfj to merit your Con' 

Underneath you have our different Signatures, to which we crave your Attention, 
and am with Ejlcem, 

Your mojl obedient^ humble Servart: 

^ he following are the Signatures of 
your moft humble Seii'ants, 




./.^i^ ^iC...^^^ ^- ^^^^- ^^- 

194 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

P. S. Pray make my respectful compliments acceptable 
to your good Lady, Mrs. Grant, Miss Champlin and family. 
I hope you will excuse my sending you a Postcript only and 
not a letter, but this vessel is on the wing of departing for 
Boston. I am Yours respectfully, 

J. Tod 

Reuben Harvey to Christopher Champlin 

Cork, February i8th, 1784. 

Esteemed Friendy 

I wrote to thee and Partners the 14th via Hallifax 
acquainting of Captain Sheffield's arrival here. He is now 
ready to embrace the first fair wind for London. At present 
it is quite contrary. No price is yet broke for Flaxseed, and 
until we know how the North of Ireland will be supply'd, 
there can't be a true judgment formed of the prices here; 
I shall keep you regularly inform'd of my proceedings in the 
sale of the cargoe per Enterprize, and shall do my utmost to 
give thee and the other Owners entire satisfaction. I have 
not time by this opportunity to answer fully thy Querys, 
nor indeed are our Laws yet compleat with respect to Trade 
with America, however an Act of Parliament has lately 
pass'd allowing your Vessels and Cargoes to be enter'd at 
our Custom Houses and discharged, without producing any 
Clearance Document or other paper whatever. Your 
Ships can be sold without any Duty, but they are not per- 
mitted in the West Indies to land Irish produce or manu- 
factures, tho' they may load such articles in Ireland. We 
can export all kinds of Woollen and other goods to America 
either in the Vessels of that Country or of Britain. Rum 
from America can be imported here at the same duty payable 
on Rum from the British West Indies, viz. 2/1 1 per gallon; 
If ever thou or thy friends shou'd ship any here, let it be 
of superior strength to the general run of New England 
Rum, which is too weak and ill flavour'd for this Market; 
besides, it is a loss to import weak Spirit which pays as high 
a duty as the strong. I fear our Parliament will not grant 
Bountys on Flaxseed or Naval Stores. There is a Bounty 


of i^d per yard on all Linnens of the value of 13 (/ or under 
18^ per yard, exported to America. They are made in the 
North of Ireland and can be purchased to most advantage 
at the Linen Hall in Dublin, from whence we get them 
bro't here by land at a small expence. American Flaxseed 
commands a preference of sale. 

The Manufactures of this place and neighbourhood consist 
chiefly of coarse Woollens, Serges, Flannels, Blanketting, 
common Stockings, Cottons, Jeans, Fustians, Sail Cloth, 
Canvas, Coarse Linnens, Oznabrugs, Shoes and Boots, 
with many other articles. Very good Loaf Sugar can be 
exported on as cheap terms as from England. I am with 
great regard 


New Mess Beef 42/I , , 

Do. Do. Pork 39/ r'' '''"■''• 
Butter 60/ per Ct. 
Mold Candles i\d per lb. 

Tames River Tobacco zod to 2/ per lb. 1 t-. , •• 

/-> 1- T^ I J ^ > Duty iirf per lb. 

Urdinary lobacco 14a to 16. J 

Mary Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, nth March, 1784. 

I DULY received your favours of the 30th October and 
3rd November last, the former of which contained an order 
for sundry Goods which are shipp'd on board the Mary 
Captain Macy. and I hope will come out more to your satis- 
faction than those shipp'd the last year. I have directed 
that every attention be paid to all the particulars you have 
thought right to mention, and I shall think myself unfor- 
tunate if you have cause a second time to complain. With 
respect to an increase of the terms of credit from 9 to 12 

196 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

months, it is a thing I shall always object to and upon this 
principle that Mr. Hayley I think I may say gave as much 
satisfaction to his Correspondents as any Merchant in Lon- 
don could do, and I have set out with no other profession 
but that of doing business upon the same terms that he did, 
and this principle I must beg leave to be permitted to adhere 
to, with this observation only that there is no Country where 
the value of good pay among tradesmen is better known or 
understood than in this. My situation makes it unneces- 
sary for me to yield to any house whatever in this particular 
consequently it will be very difficult for me to believe, 
knowing my intentions and conduct to be fair and honourable 
that any house in this City can ship Goods or serve their 
Friends with more ultimate advantage to them than I can. 
It is my intention to leave England in a few days in the 
United States, Captain Scott, for Boston and among the 
arrangements that are to take place during my absence I 
can with pleasure inform my Friends that Mr. Alexander 
Champion, Junior, of this City has accepted the principal 
Agency and conducting my affairs while I am abroad. This 
Gentleman is eldest Son of the Senior of the present house 
of Champion and Dickason; his knowledge and abilities 
stand in need of no comment here. I am sure my Friends 
will find the greatest satisfaction in him. With respect to 
your Freight Mr. Rotch has proceeded in Chancery for the 
recovery of it the opposite party have taken all the time 
the Law will allow them; but the Attorney who conducts 
the business assures Mr. R. that the money is safe and must 
be paid and he hopes before long. It is impossible to say 
what system may be adopted by this Country relative to 
Commerce with America a friendly or unfriendly adminis- 
tration in the Government here makes the whole difference. 
The contest which has subsisted between the two great 
parties for some months has in fact put a stop to almost 
all public business, appears at present not so violent as it 
was, but how it will end it is impossible to say. I am with 
great respect. Sir, Your obedient and most humble Servant, 

Mary Hayley 


Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 13th March, 1784. 


This day I was favord with your esteemed Letter of the 
26th January inclosing me bill Lading for 319 Casks of 7 
Bushels each 4 do. of 5 do. 4 do. of 3I do. Flaxseed per the 
Brigantine Dungahiz, Captain Swain, with directions to 
remit the Nett Proceeds to Mrs. Mary Hely in London to 
whose recommendation I am indebted for the favor of your 
Correspondence. You may rest assured that I shall dispose 
of this consignment to the best advantage for your Interest 
and as the proceeds comes in Cash shall remit the same as 
you direct. This letter I send under cover to Mrs. Healey 
to forward you and in a few days shall reply more particularly 
to the Contents of your letter. 

There are several Cargoes of Flaxseed already arrived here 
from America and one Vessell came in this day with Seed 
from New York and if the quantity arrives that is expected 
from America I fear there will be money lossed by it. There 
has been a few Hhds sold at 60/ and some at 65/, yet its 
impossible to say now how the price may rule; it intirely 
depends upon what may come to Market. All the products 
of America are admitted in here. Tobacco at iid per lb. 
duty, The price of Virginia is from 17^ at 2od per lb. Mary- 
land Tobacco dont answer well here, fine white pearl 
Ashes at 47/6, Pott Ashes of Grey at 48/ to 50/ per Ct. 
Ashes pay no duty and the other american products very 
small duties. Your Rum wont answer here. Barrel Staves 
£5.10 to £6.10 per Thousand. Referring you to my Next 
I am Gent. Your Most Obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

198 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, loth April, 1784. 


I have now the satisfaction to inform you that I have 
sold all your Flaxseed, except (25 Hhds and the 8 small 
Casks;) at 58/ 60/ and a few at 63/ per hogshead — a better 
price then any have been sold at hitherto in any Port in the 
Kingdom, and expect in a few days to put off the remainder, 
the small Casks are not quite so saleble as Hhds, and let 
me recommend to you not to ship any Seed in any Casks 
that do not contain either 7 Bushels, or 3I bushels. I must 
get your 5 Bushel Casks put into Hhds. your Seed looks 
as well as any that came here this Season indeed better then 
any that came from Philadelphia, therefore let me reccom- 
mend to you in future to ship the best kind and have it well 
cleaned, for in a Glutted market Good Bright well Cleaned 
Seed will always have a prefFerence. as Messrs. Carey and 
Green did not send me Certificate for their Seed being of 
last years, sold it on Condition to return the money if it 
did not grow, yet theirs look'd as well as yours; but if it 
did not Grow and that I sold it for Sowing, I should be 
lyable to pay a Penalty t)f £3 per hhds, so Severe are the 
Laws, and as it look'd as well as yours I thought it most 
for their interest to do as I did then sell it at Auction where 
it would not have fetched more than 25/ to 30/ per hhds 
for oil. I am well pleased with myself for selling so quick 
as I did, as Philadelphia Seed is to day at 56/ and two Ves- 
sels hourly expected from New York with 1800 hogsheds. 

The principal part of what I sold is at one and two months 
Credit, what Cash I have received will not amount to the 
freight, and as soon as I come in Cash you may depend I 
shall punctually remit conformable to your orders to Mrs. 
Mary Heyley of London. Captain Swain the night after he 
arrived drag'd his Anchors and got on a bank where the 
vessel strained and made much water, however fortunately 
only a few Casks got damage which I had opend and the 


wet fill'd half a barel. his Vessel is now repaird and will 
proceed for Lisbon in a few days. She is too sharp for this 
Harbour. I should have sent some of your seed to the 
Outports but the Markets hitherto was under our's. As 
your State is now as free and independant as our own, I 
hope our Commercial intercourse will increase daily, and on 
my part I shall you may depend studdy to promote it. Our 
infant Manufactures of every kind are daily improving 
and increasing, which consist of all sorts of Goods made as 
in Manchester, Coarse frizes, flanels, Rateens, Shallons, 
Durants, and Morains and Worsted and Silk Goods the 
best in Europe, and our Linnens I need not tell you are 
rivald by none, and cheaper then can be shipt from London 
from whence hitherto America was supply'd. but one 
Great barr to our enlargeing our Trade with you, is, our 
Poverty in not being able to give the long Credits the Man- 
ufacturers do in England, here however the prices are 
proportionably low, and for ready money there is a discount 
for 2, 4 and 6 Months given at the rate of 6 per Ct. per 
annum. We have also an extensive Glass Manufacture here 
and Window Glass in particular is i/2d per foot cheaper then 
at Bristol and flater myself will be found equal in quality 
indeed some kind is id a foot cheaper. 

Our Parliment is desirous to give the American States all 
possible Encouragement to trade with us, and as an instance 
they lowered the duty on Tobacco to iid, in England 15^ 
is paid, and all your Goods and products are allow'd to be 
imported and remain here for a Market 6 Months without 
paying any other Expence or Charge then that of Storage. 
But by the English Navigation Act, which is adopted, here 
your Vessels will not be allow'd to bring West india produce 
nor the Produce of any Foreign Nation, but that of America, 
say the Products of the Thirteen United States may be 
brought in any of your Vessels, and there is No duty paid 
on any of America Produce, except iid on Tobacco and 2d 
per barel (of 4I Bushels) of Wheat, this latter article will 
be allow'd only to be sold here when the price of our own 
Wheat exceeds 30/ a barel that weighs 280 pounds, tho' 

200 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

It may be stored as I before observed in the King's Stores, 
untill the price here exceeds 30/, when it may be sold or 
sent to a better Market, as to Flour it will not be allow'd 
to be imported, this is done by Parliment to encourage 
the Mills, which are numerous here, and are principally 
owned by their Members. There is expectation that a 
treaty of Commerce will shortly be concluded between the 
United States and Great Britain in which this Kingdom will 
no doubt be included, and untill this Buisiness is finally 
concluded its impossible to say what further privilages will 
be allow'd the Shiping of the United States, but the General 
opinion here is, that your Vessels will be allow'd the same 
privilages as when you were under the Dominion of Britton. 
however a little time will tell us more of this buisiness. in 
the interim I beg leave to conclude. Gentlemen, Your most 
humble Servant, 

Edw'd Forbes 

[Endorsed,] Via New York. 

New York, June 10, 1784. 

Rec'd and forwarded by Gentlemen your very humble 

Murray Mumford and Bowen 

Reuben Harvey to Christopher Champlin 
AND Others 

Cork, 15 April, 1784. 

Esteemed Friends^ 

I ACQUAINTED you wIth Capt. Sheffield's arrival here the 
14th February by way of Philadelphia, and may now inform 
that he got to London early last Month, having been supply'd 
by me with 70 Guineas and some Provisions for the Enter- 
prize amounting to £97.11.11 as per Invoice furnish'd him. 
Flaxseed is a bad article this year owing to too great quan- 
titys being poured in upon us from various parts of America, 
which has reduced the price so low as 48/ per hhd. and I'm 
inform'd that some Seed from New London is sold still lower; 
I have disposed of about 150 hhds. at 50/ and 49/. per hhd., 
and 38 hhds. of damaged Seed ar 42/ which is a great price 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 201 

for such, it being generally sold at 30/ per hhd. only; You 
may depend that my best endeavours shall be used to get 
off the whole of your Cargoe this season, and not keep any 
'till the next, but indeed I fear some Seed must remain un- 
sold. Referring to my next I remain with regard, Your 
real Friend, 

Reuben Harvey 

New Mess Beef . . . 43/ 

Cargo Do. . . . 36/ 

Mess Pork ... 45/ 

Cargo Do. . . . 40/ 

No new Butter yet come in. 

MoldCandles ... 5/6 1 

T-,. r,. , > per dozen pounds 

Dipt Do s/3} 

There has been lately a Glass Manufactory established at 
Waterford about 60 Miles from hence, which for goodness 
of Metal and Cheapness of prices is allowed to equal if not 
excel those in England. I am constantly supplied with that 
article for the convenience of American Vessels to my 

Memorandum of the "Hydra" 

More especially to equip and fit our [my] Ship the Hydra 
(now lying in the River Thames in Great Britain) completely 
for the Sea, with Provisions and Stores requisit for the 
prosecution of her intended Voyage to the Kingdom of 
Bengal in India. And also to procure and purchase in Great 
Britain or else where a complete assorted Cargo, of such 
Merchandise, as with the advice of experienced Merchants, 
may be judged most saleable at Bengal. And with said 
Ship and her Cargo so equip'd, proceed to such Port of the 
Kingdom of Bengal in India as he may be admitted to an 
entry, and from thence to the port of Canton in China, and 
at both or either of those Dominions to sell and dispose of 
said Ships Cargo of Merchandise, in as full and effectual 
manner as I the said Constituent might do were I personally 
present, the Proceeds whereof to be invested in such mer- 
chandise Produce or Manufactures of said Countreys, as 
upon the best information he shall judge most profitable 

202 COMMERCE OF [1784 

for the American Market, to where he must return with said 
Ship and Cargo, Conformable to Instructions received from 
the Constituent. 

Memo. Copy of Special Clause in my Letter Attorney to Mr. Green. April 
29, 1784. 

N. B. the full Power is recorded in the City Records by 
Peleg Barker Junior. 

The Ship "Hydra" 

Articles of Agreement between Christopher Champlin Esq. 
of Newport in the State of Rhode Island in America, and 
William Green Esqr. of the City of London. Witnesseth: 
That the said William Green, proposing to send a certain 
Ship of his called the Hydra^ to Bengal in India, (now lying 
in the River Thames) burthen by Register three hundred 
Tons, — means to perform the same, under cover of an 
American house, whose name must be used for the Proforma, 
through the whole Transaction, and the Ship of course to 
be navigated under American Colors, has therefore sold, 
and conveyed the said Ship Hydra, with all her equipage, 
unto the said Christopher Champlin, by a certain bill of 
Sale executed for that end x>n the Twenty fifth day of April, 
One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty four, in conse- 
quence of which, he the said Christopher Champlin has, 
in his own name, as sole Owner thereof, taken out a Register 
for the said Ship, at the Intendants Office of Trade, in New- 
port aforesaid; and has also executed a Letter of Attorney 
to the said Wm. Green, in due form, authorizing him to 
equip and load the said Ship, with a properly assorted Cargo 
for Bengal in India, where the said Ship is to proceed, under 
the Sole Direction of the said Wm. Green as Supercargo, 
and who is authorized to dispose of the said Ship Hydra, 
and her Cargo, and invest the proceeds thereof, in such Mer- 
chandize of that Country, or of China, as may best suit the 
American Market, to which she must Return; or for which 
the proceeds must ultimately be shipped. 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 203 

Wherefore the said Christopher Champlin, for and in 
consideration, that the said WilHam Green, his heirs and 
assigns, causes the said Ship HydrUy with her Cargo, that 
may be purchased at Bengal, or elswhere, be conducted to 
Newport aforesaid, without entering either of the harbors 
or Ports, of any of the American States, except in case of 
absolute Distress, and also paying unto the said Christopher 
Champlin, his heirs or assigns, two and one half per Cent, 
upon the full amount of the said Ships outward bound Cargo, 
purchased in Great Britain, or Madeira, within six Months 
after the said Ships arrival in America, and, also the said 
William Green indemnifying and exonerating the said Chris- 
topher Champlin, his heirs and assigns, from paying any 
Costs or Damages which may arise from the prosecution of 
any legal process, relative to the said Ship Hydra or her 
Cargo, during her said intended Voyage. The said Christo- 
pher Champlin therefore, in consideration of the above re- 
cited causes, for the preservation of the said Ship and Cargo, 
to the real and sole Owner William Green aforesaid, doth 
hereby promise and agree, to avow and claim the said Ship 
and Cargo, as his the said Christopher Champlin's property, 
in full right, as a freeborn Citizen of the United States of 
America, under every contingency that may happen, in the 
course of the said Voyage, as far as the Rights of a Freeborn 
American Subject of the United States, can Authorize, War- 
rant or enable him to do, in Courts, or out of Courts of law, 
or otherways, for effectually securing the property of the said 
Ship Hydra, and her outward, and homeward bound Cargo, 
for the sole use, benefit, and right of the said William Green, 
his heirs, Executors, Administrators or assigns, saving and 
excepting, the Commission of Two and one half per Cent, 
before stipulated; hereby the said Christopher Champlin 
disclaiming, as well for himself, as for his heirs Executors, 
Administrators, and Assigns, any right or property in the 
said Ship Hydra, her Cargoes, or the Profits which may arize 
from her said intended Voyage, except the Commission 
aforesaid. In testimony whereof, each of the Subscribing 
Parties have hereunto set their hands and Seals, this first 



204 COMMERCEOF [1784 

day of May, One thousand Seven hundred and Eighty 

four at the town of Newport in the State of Rhode Island 

in North America. 

Chris Champlin 
Will Green 

We the Subscribers do hereby 

certify our being present at the 

Signing and Seahng the above Agreement, 
Sam'l G. Fowler, Christ. Fowler. 

The said WilHam Green farthermore agrees to exonerate, 
and indemnify, the said Christopher Champhn, from 
the payment of all Imposts, Duties, and Customs on 
said Ship and Cargo, Seamens Wages, and all other 
Expenditures that may arise on the prosecution of the 
said Voyage. 


Chris Champlin 
Will Green I seal 


Sam'l G. Fowler 
Christopher Fowler 

John Powell to Christopher Champlin 

London, 3 May, 1784. 

Dear Sir, 

I WROTE you last summer by Mr. Welch who I was in- 
formed had married Betsey Gordon which I hope came same 
to your hands with other Letters from my Daughters and the 
family here. Long since I doubt not you have had the 
pleasure of seeing and knowing Mr. W. Green who went to 
N York in the february packet from whom you will have 
learnt the situation of the several families more perticularly 
than by any other, my Son William left me this day week 
for Boston, in his way to Canada, the late accounts from 
the Tzvo Brothers from India, were agreeable, perticulars 
will be better conveyed to you by Jessee B Waugh I am 
greived to learn is and I fear in a declining way has been 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 205 

expected in Town some time. By Capt. Sheffield on my 
coming to Town was happy to learn the continuance of 
health of our Good Mama and your Wife and Children. 
May the continuance of that and every Blessing attend you 
all. I rest most affectionately Dear Kit Yours, 

A. Brymer spent the winter in London, is lately gone to 
France the winter not agreeing with his health. 

I trouble you with inclosed to forward my son as occasion 
may require. 

HoRNE AND Sill to Fowler and Champlin 

Lisbon, 12th May, 1784. 


Having loaded the Peggy Captain William Wigneron for 
Rhode Island belonging to our much esteemd friends Messrs. 
Geo: Gibbs and Co. of said place, we would not omitt the 
opportunity of making you a tender of our services in this 
Country, before the late events in America we had very 
large transactions there and we are happy the troubles 
that have so long existed there, are so happily terminated, 
a field is now open for extensive commercial engagements, 
and we shall think it a felicity to participate of them, assuring 
you no house is more capable of conducting any business 
committed to our management. The shipping price of 
Lisbon Wines is at present 70^000 per pipe a very high 
one indeed, but our late Vintages have been very scanty; 
Salt is at 1^700 rs per Moy, at St. Ubes 1^760 rs; Lemmons 
at 2^400 rs. per Chest, all kinds of Teas and India Goods 
are very cheap. If you determine to send any Ship this 
way we would advise you to send her direct to this port, for 
though the Salt at St. Ubes is much superior in Measure, 
yet the delays that must necessarily attend loading Vessels 
there, is attended with great Inconveniences and more par- 
ticularly if they are to carry Wines or India Goods which 
must be sent round from this consequently attended with 
expense and delay. 

206 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

Salt and India Goods are ready Money articles therefore 
it will be necessary you give us a Credit on London for their 
amount, we could allow you a Credit if necessary of Six 
Months for Wines. 

Wheat, Indian Corn, and Staves are in general good 
articles for Sale, and our next harvest will be very indiffer- 
ent, therefore foreign supplies will be wanted. Rice, Flour 
and Tobacco are prohibited. 

We shall esteem the preferrence of your commands being 
Respectfully, Gentlemen, Your most humble Servants, 

r- T J ^ 1 ij A/ri • HORNE AND SiLL 

Ex. on London 67J to |d per Milreis. 

[Endorsed,] Per favor of Capt. Wm. Wigneron, Q. D. C. 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

If I can lay my hand upon it in time, I will send you by 
this Conveyance, the Copy of a pass given by Congress to 
their India Ships, and which may be procured without much 
difficulty. It will be unnecessary to insert the name of any 
Captain in it and I shall be glad if you will endeavor to pro- 
cure it. My name as the Supercargo will be sufficient. I 
have no reason to complain of the Hospitality of the Boston 
people, unless it should injure my health. They are in gen- 
eral exceedingly kind and polite. I have dined but once at 
home since I came here. The Inman's are extremely civil. 
Mrs. Powell is rather unwell, but I hope will be soon up 
again. She has a slight fever the consequence of a fatigue 
in nursing her little boy who has been much indisposed. 

I have only to add a hint or two at present. Pray throw 
your ideas on paper respecting the terms on which you will 
do the business in case I send the Hydra from India, and 
remain there myself, and send me the draught of a mutual 
Agreement on that head signed by yourself, that if I like 
them, I may execute it on my part. Your Son should be 
made acquainted with the whole of this affair in due 


Whenever that Law passes your house of Assembly, etc. 
to enable your Mayor, etc. to admit Individuals to the 
Rights and privileges of Citizens, I do not think my admis- 
sion to be impracticable altho absent. Money may effect 
it and you may use my Credit in any manner to secure me. 
I shall after I get home open a channel of Correspondence 
with you direct to India. . . . 

Yours ever most Sincerely. 

Will Green 

Boston, 18 May, '84. 


As the United States are not provided with any factories 
or places in the East Indies where their vessels may put in 
to refit or receive supplies of provisions etc. His Most 
Christian Majesty in order to facilitate their trade with 
China and other parts of the East Indias has been pleased 
to order that the ships or vessels of the United States of 
America be received and treated in the most friendly manner 
in the ports of the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius or the 
isle of France.^ 

Memo. Permission for Americans to enter French Ports at India. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 26 May, 1784. 


My last respects was the 23 ulto. to which refer. You 
have now inclosed Sales of your Flaxseed per the Dungalviz, 
Ct. Swain, Nt. Proceeds being £723.3. to your Credit without 
my prejudice for outstanding debts. I hope upon examining 
youl find them right and that you will be persuaded I con- 
sulted your Interest in the Sale to the best of my Judgment. 
Only three days ago did I receive your favor of the 26 
December from Cork which you wrote me was sent by the 
Enterprize Capt. SheflSeld. had you been so fortunate as 

1 This document is in the writing of Charles Thomson. 

2o8 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

to have addressed that Vessels Cargo to me here, it would 
have turned out much better for your Interest, having 
yesterday rec'd a payment on Account your Flaxseed I 
have this day rem'd Mrs. Mary Hayley on your Account 
£427.13.3 St. Ex[change] 9I per Ct. makes £466.13.8 at 
your debit, and the end of next month when the remainder 
of the Notes fall due I will remit the Ballance. the Ex- 
change is most extravagantly high and such as has not been 
these some years past. Wheat is now 34/ a barrel of 20 
Stone equal to 280 lbs. in consequence our ports are opened 
at the small duty of 2d per Barrel and will continue so untill 
the loth August. White Pearl Ashes 46/ and best Pott 
Ashes 47/6 per Ct. Barrel Staves White Oak if good, at £6 
per M. the few Capt. Swain brought were so very bad that 
they did not fetch near the cost, your Barrel Staves should 
be at least \ an inch thick at the featheredge, 32 inches long, 
and as broad as possible never under 5 inches. Should you 
think of sending any flaxseed here the ensuing Season let 
me recommend to you to clean it well, and if any of your 
Friends want a Correspondent here I will thank you to intro- 
duce them to, Gentlemen, 

P. S. May 31st. Please to receive payment for the 
inclosed bill myself on Mr. N'l Goodin for £0: 19: 7 Irish. 
Ex'e 4/9 Irish per Dollar, in London they are only 4/4. 

[Endorsed,] Via Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia 13 Sept. 1784 Reced. under cover and for- 
warded by Your obedient Servants, 

Haynes and Crawford 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 209 

Mark Pringle to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, 4th June, 1784. 
Dear Sir, 

I had the pleasure of writing you a few lines under the 
13th April in answer to yours of the 25 February. My 
being much from home since that period, and Mr. Hopkin's 
residing out of Town, prevented me from an interview with 
him untill a few days ago, which produced nothing more 
satisfactory than the inclosed letter. I really believe he is 
disposed to pay your Claims, but I believe also, what he 
says in his letter, that he cannot do it at present, and was I 
to give you advice, it woud be, to wait till December rather 
than commence a Suit, which he might protract for a much 
longer time. Nevertheless, if it is your desire, I shall put 
his note into the hands of a Lawyer. By the inclosed price 
current you'll perceive that N. England Rum has taken a 
start, but I am of opinion it will not support its present 
price longer than the demand of supplies for harvest con- 
tinues. I should be very happy in rendering you acceptable 
services, whenever your views and business extend this way, 
for which purpose give me leave to recommend to your 
friendly notice, Ridley and Pringle, who will at all times shew 
due attention to your Interest, or to that of your friends. 
I cannot however recommend, or point out, any beneficial 
speculation to this market at present, which is already over- 
stockd with almost every article of importation; money 
is scarce, and produce high, but the very favourable 
appearance of Crops, I hope, will have an agreeable effect. 

I shall be very glad to learn from you, when you have 
leisure, how Mrs. Bell and her family are, what events have 
taken place since their removal to England, and the death 
of my Uncle. Be so good. Sir, as to present my best respects 
to Mrs. Champlin and your family, and believe that I am, 
with very great regard, Dear Sir, Your most Obedient 

Mark Pringle 

2io commerceof [ 1784 

Robert Champlin to George Gibbs and Co. 

Wilmountown June the 6th 1784. 

Dear Sirs, I am sorry to in form you that I never saw so 
much olteration in so Httle tim as there is at this, when I 
left this thare was only 5 Sail of Vessels and the Shores lind 
with Lombor and know thare is 64 larg Sail mos of them 
English, at this tim thare is not 3 Hoghh. of Tobaco nor 
Rice in this Country and not one Foote of Lombor can be 
bough for those forren Ships has swept everthing and ar 
not I loaded. I cannot sell the Brig. Rum I cannot sell 
at more than 2/6 this mony. the River is so lo that the 
Lombor cannot come down for thare has ben no rains here 
this long time. I dont think that I can get a Load of 
Lombor till August, my Rum will not half load me Boards 
is at £6.10 hard mony so what to do God noes. The Jenteele 
men that I expect to sell the Brig to say now thay have no 
yous for a Vessell for they have nothing to put in them, 
to brake my orders I darnt due and to stay here till August 
and then only get a | Load of Lomber must sink every- 
thing for Mr. Walker will not pay any Lomber becaus he 
can sell that for hard mony. I no not what to due. I 
woush I could have a Line from you. I am Your damd 
onluckkey Sarvant. 

I rot you by the way of Boston. 

RoBT. Champlin 

I have ben here ever sence the i day of June only had one 
offer of the Brig £500 and that to be payd in tobacco in 
October the man is good and my be depended upon but I 
think the price too small. 

To Mesures George Gybbs and Comp. Marchants in Rhode Island. 

1784] rhode island 211 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

As Thursday next is now determined to be the day of the 
Active's saihng, I embrace the present opportunity by Mr. 
Brattle, to bid you and your good family a temporary adieu; 
and to wish you all imaginable happiness and success. If 
the expectations you entertained of the time of your Mem- 
bers return from Congress are just, you must ere now have 
learnt from him the means by which a pass for the Hydra 
is to be obtain'd, from that body, and I trust have put the 
affair in a proper train to obtain it without any loss of 
time; this pass is so indispensable an Instrument to cover 
the real nature of the Voyage, that I cannot proceed without 
it. I do not apprehend that any letter from you on this 
subject is likely to reach me here, therefore if you write by 
the June and July Packets, addressing me as usual in Harpur 
Street, or under the cover of Mr. Wilkinson, I shall have 
hopes of receiving your letters in good time, and without the 
uncertainty of private Conveyance; I do not at this moment 
see, why the Pass itself may not be sent by the July packet, 
and a Duplicate or attested Copy should follow by the next 
conveyance, which will obviate the Inconveniences that may 
arise from the accidental miscarriage of the first. If a 
Duplicate cannot be easily had, a Copy will do if publickly 
attested by any State Officer. You must be sensible that 
this form is of so much importance, that nothing can be done 
without it, and I shall be put to terrible Inconveniences if 
after having fitted and loaded my Ships I do not get it. It 
will half ruin me, and totally destroy the whole plan of my 
Voyage. Give a moment's scope to reflection and you will 
see as I do the necessity of a prompt and decisive exertion. 
The June Mail will be dispatcht the first Wednesday in 
July from New York, and the succeeding Mail the same day 
in August. I rely entirely on the pleasure of hearing from 
you by every opportunity. There are two Vessels will sail 
from this port for London early in July from the 1st to the 
loth. I saw our friend Kit yesterday he is well. 

212 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

Repeat my assurances of regard to my good Grandmama, 
Mrs. C. and your dear Girls and believe me, with sincere 
Esteem, Your Obliged and Most Humble Servant, 

Will Green 

Boston, 14 June, '84. 

John Greene to Christopher Champlin 

Gothenburg, June i6th, 1784. 


I have the pleasure to inform you of the arrival of your 
Brig Richmond at Marstrand after a passage of thirty four 
days, ware I lay one day and then proceeded to Gothenburg, 
at my arrival I found by strick inquiry that Mr. Soderstrom 
was adoing business and in good Creadit. he gives me in- 
couragement of the sales of Tobacco, as he has lately sold a 
cargo of Capt. Heagersons at about 5|^ Stg. and does not 
in the least doubt but ours will fetch as much, the Candles 
he is in hopes to sell as before, and promises me with great 
Despash we shall begin to discharge to morrow. 

Mr. Soderstrom has not received the Ballance of Mr. 
Black for Mr. Gibbs as yet. I shall write more perticulars 
by Capt. Skinner who sails for New York in about a fort- 


P. S. The Captains Lane and Heagerson are arrived 
hear and there cargoes sold as above. We are all well on 

Tea i per IL 

1784] rhode island 213 

Carl Soderstrom to Christopher Champlin 

Gothenburg, i6th June, 1784. 


Referring you to my last Respects the 14th Aprill the 
present serves to congratulate you on the safe arrival of 
your Brig Richmond, Captain John Green who delivered me 
the 14th Instant your esteemed Favours of the loth and 7th 
ulto. the former accompanying Account Sales of my Hemp 
and Junk the Neat Proceeds whereof £247.5 Lawful Money 
or £185.8.9 Sterling I have placed to the debit of Richard 
Soderstrom^ as you have ordered him to value on you for 
the same. This adventure turns out but a losing one to 
me, though I suppose you have done the best you could. 
Respecting the Sales of your 106 Hogsheads Tobacco and 50 
Boxes of Spermacetti Candles I can only say that no assidu- 
ity shall be wanting on my part to render them as profitable 
as possible, much will depend on the quality of the Tobacco, 
but the demand is greatly slakened owing to a supply of 
upwards of 400 Hhds which were sold by Auction last Week 
and averaged a price of about 4/6: the Quality was as good 
as what came by your Brig last Year. 

I have noted the returns you wish to be made for the Neat 
Proceeds of this Cargo which as closely as possible shall be 
attended to. The Iron shall be ship'd agreeable to Assort- 
ment, but of Pettersburg Hemp and Russia Duck there is 
none at present in Town, an supply however may arrive 
in time but the price of the latter will certainly go higher 
than 8| R£ per piece, and as War was as much at end last 
Year as this there is no ground to suppose that the price of 
either article will be lower. Tea is also got a little up, and 
no great deal on hand. I shall however be able to supply 
you with the requisite quantity and at the lowest price, 
though if not to be got at the price you limit the alternative 

^ Richard Soderstrom was, in 1785, recognized by the governor of Massachu- 
setts as Swedish consul at Boston, thus raising a question whether such recogni- 
tion pertained to a State or to the Continent. See Life and Correspondence of 
Rufus King, i. 75. 

214 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

you propose is impracticable. If I detain your Brig 'till 
the India Ships arrive I must also keep her 'till the Sales 
commence, if she is to be loaded with part of their Cargoes 
as it is impossible to get a single Chest from the Company 
before hand. I shall therefore make the dispatch of the 
Vessel the principal object of my attention, filling her up 
with Bohea if there is a difficiency in any other articles. I 
shall assist Captain Green in the purchase of a Trunk of 
Copenhagen Callicoes as well as [in ev]ery other case wherein 
my help may be necessary. With much Respect I remain. 
Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Carl Soderstrom 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

June 19th, 1784, Saturday 4 oclock. 

My dear Sir, 

I have this moment had the pleasure of receiving yours of 
the 17th and Mrs. Champlin's of the loth Inst. The form 
of the pass I request is general, and I apprehend may be 
granted by the Comittee. It would be sufficient if agreeably 
to their form, tho only signed by a Member of the Comittee. 
My project must in a great degree be abortive of profit unless 
I am enabled to sail before the Middle of October, and 
I cannot pretend to load her, unless I have your assur- 
ance that the pass may be procured from the Comittee of 
Congress (who during the Vacation possess all their powers) 
and forwarded to me so as to arrive by the ist of that Month 
in England. If the Comittee decline to give it, which I 
do not apprehend is hkely, a similar Instrument, under the 
Signature and Seal of his Excellency my Namesake,^ will 
answer my purpose, so as to enable me to proceed on my 
Voyage. I authorize you to assure His Excellency that I 
am half an American, but such Instrument must be counter- 
signed by the State Secretary. The pass from Congress may 
then follow me to India. I think you should give me 
Introductions to Messrs. Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson 

* William Greene, governor of Rhode Island. 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 215 

who are your Ministers in Europe, and these may be accom- 
panied by letters from your Delegates in Congress. Per- 
haps, your Assembly may be now sitting, and your powers 
as a Corporate body ascertained. Do not fail, I pray you, 
so soon as you can, to send me a Certificate, that I am a 
Member of the American Union. ^ I continue to think the 
object worth the expense of sending your Delegates Son to 
Annapolis, and whatever may be the charge pray let me know 
as soon as it is determined, and I w411 pay to your Corre- 
spondent in London. Let him not lose a Moment for they 
are precious at present. 

You see my dear friend that I have thrown together a 
few hints to exercise both your Imagination and Judgment, 
I have not power to expatiate. With respect to a pass from 
the Governor of Rhode Island, I am entirely serious, it may 
answer all the effects of the other from the Congress or its 
Comittee. And if we succeed in obtaining both they may 
be of collateral service. The Brig Hope and the Ceres will 
sail from here in about 8 days. Let me have your opinions 
by them and by every opportunity. We shall certainly sail 
tomorrow or Monday. 

Mr. Powell talks of setting off tomorrow to see you. Kit 
is well. I spent part of Thursday with him. I beg my 
respects to your good family and that you will believe me 
ever Yours 

Will Green 

Pray present my respects to Sir Peyton Skipwith.^ 

^ Not until May, 1786, did the Rhode Island General Assembly pass an act for 
naturalizing William Greene, "a native of Great Britain, and a subject of His 
Britannic Majesty." Rhode Island Col. Rec, x. 197. 

2 He is mentioned in Hayden, Virginia Genealogies, 217. He lived at Prestwould, 
Mecklenburg Co., Va., and was descended from Sir Gray Skipwith, who emigrated 
to Virginia, from Prestwould, Leicesterhire, during the Protectorate. He mar- 
ried sisters Anne and Jane Miller, daughters of Hugh and Jane (Boiling) Miller. 
A daughter, Lillia Skipwith, was the second wife of St. George Tucker. fVilliam 
and Mary Quarterly, xxiii. 281. 

2l6 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

John Greene to Christopher Champlin 

Gothenburg, June 25 th, 1784. 


I WROTE you of my Arrival by way of London wherein I 
informd you of my arriving at Marstrand on the 14th Inst, 
after a passage of thirty four days and the day following 
arriv'd at Gothenburg, were I found the Captains Lane and 
Heggerson from Virginia (the two Vessels I informd you of). 
I made strick inquiry in regard to Mr, Soderstrom and found 
he was doing business, and had Capt. Heggersons Cargo 
which he sold before I arrived. Mr. Grieg had the other 
which was allso sold at about 5^ Stg. our Tobacco turns 
out very good and is to be sold the 6th of July. Mr. Soder- 
strom informs me he has a cargo ready to put on board 
which I shall begin to take in the first of next month, as 
we are now at the key to clean the Cash I expect to exchange 
Dollar for Dollar which is the most I can get for them and 
shall lay them out to the best advantage, in Bohea tea which 
is about 15J penc Stg. li. Mr. Soderstrom has wrote to 
Copenhagen in regard to Mr. Gibbs callocoes but has not 
an answer yet. 

the India Ships arived on the 17th Inst, there sails begins 
the 6th of September. I hope to be at home by the latter 
end of August, but shall inform you by Capt. Heggerson who 
only waits for hemp and duck which is expected every 
moment, from Sir Your humble Servant 

John Greene 

[Endorsed,] Per Capt. Lane of Boston. 

Memorial to the Continental Congress^ 
To etc. 

The Memorial of Christopher Champlin of Newport in the 
State of Rhode Island Merchant, Most Humbly Sheweth, 

That your Memoriahst having obtained from the Hon- 
orable Committee of Congress in the Month of July last 

1 [Endorsed] " Sketch of a Memorial." The final form follows. 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 217 

Letters of Navigation from this Ship the Hydra then fitting in 
the River Thames, whereof his Nephew Wm. Green was 
Supercargo, and John Clark Master, and intended for 
Bengal and China has since under its encouragement and 
authority compleated her equipment and loading to a large 
amount with the various articles of American and European 
produce, and that she sailed from Great Britain for India 
in the Month of January last. 

That the object of this undertaking is to endeavor to open 
an advantageous Trade between the United States and the 
different Parts of India, as well as of China That the Captain 
John Clark having been taken ill just before her sailing Mr. 
Wm. Green the Supercargo was obliged on the part of your 
Memorialist to put in Mr. John Haggey, to command her in 
his stead. 

Your Memorialist therefore prays most humbly that the 
Honorable Congress will be pleased to furnish him with 
Letters of Navigation similar to those granted to the Ship 
Empress of Chi?ia, and that he may be enabled by the first 
opportunity to expedite it after her to India. And your 
Memorialist as in Duty bound etc. 

Copy of the Sea Letters. 

Most serene, serene, most puissant puissant high illustrious 
noble honorable, venerable, wise and prudent Emperors 
Kings RepubHcs, Princes, Dukes, Earls, Barons, Lords, 
Burgo Masters Counsellors, as also Judges Officers Justici- 
aries and Regents of all the good cities and places, whether 
ecclesiastical or secular who shall see these presents or hear 
them read. 

We the United States of America in a Committee of the 
States assembled make known that John Clark Captain of 
the Ship called the Hydra and William Green Supercargo 
on board her, are Citizens of the United States of America 
and that the ship which the said John Clark commands, 
belongs to Citizens of the said United States and as we 
wish to see the said John Clark and Wm. Green prosper 
in all their lawful affairs our prayer is to all the before- 





2l8 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

mentioned and to each of them separately when the said 
John Clark and Wm. Green shall arrive with their Vessel 
and Cargo that they may please to receive them with good- 
ness and treat them in a becoming manner, permitting them 
upon the usual tolls and expences, in passing and repassing 
to pass navigate and frequent their Seas, to the end to trans- 
act their business where and in what manner they shall 
judge proper, whereof we shall be willingly indebted. 

In testimony whereof we have caused the Seal of the 
United States of America to be hereunto affixt 
Witness the Honorable Samuel Hardy Chairman this 
8th day of July in the Year of our Lord, one thous- 
and seven hundred and eighty four and of our 
Sovereignty and Independance the ninth. 

(Signed) S. Hardy 
Chas. Thomson Secretary. 

Memorial to the Congress 

[July, 1784.] 

To the Honorable the Committee of the States appointed 
to sit in the recess of Congress. 

The Memorial of Christopher ChampHn of Newport in 
the State of Rhode-Island etc. Merchant. Humbly sheweth, 
That he is at present the sole owner, and John Clark at 
present master of the Ship called Hydra, and that she is of 
the burthen of about three hundred tons, as appears by an 
authenticated copy of the Register of said ship which accom- 
panies this Memorial: 

That WilHam Green is Super-cargo of said Ship; that she 
is navigated with about twenty five men, and is bound to 
the Kingdom of Bengal in India, and from thence to the 
Port of Canton in China; That as your Memorialist wishes 
to obtain every possible security for the said Ship during 
her voyage, he earnestly requests your honorable body to 
grant to the said supercargo, William Green, Sea letters of 
the same form, or a form similar to those granted by Congress 




the last January for the Ship United States belonging to 
Philip Moore. ^ When your Memorialist considers the dis- 
position which the Great Council of the United States 
hath manifested to encourage, extend, and protect the 
commerce of the United States, he confidently expects that 
your honorable body will readily grant this request, a com- 
pliance with which will induce him, if possible, more ardently 
to pray for the prosperity of the United States. 

If this memorial should suit him Mr. Champlin will tran- 
scribe it fairly, and inclose it with the copy of the register in 
a wrapper, directed in the following manner The Honorable 
The Chairman of the Committee of the States appointed 
to sit in the recess of Congress. 

[Memo.] Copy of Memorial presented Committee of Congress, July, 1784.^ 

Carl Soderstrom to Christopher Champlin 

Gothenburg, 29th July, 1784. 

Deprived of your esteemed Favours since my last of 22nd 
Ulto. the present serves solely to hand you Account Sales of 
96 Hhds and a parcel of loose Tobacco received per the Brig 
Richmond Capt. John Greene producing Specie Rp 8447.26.5 
at your Credit. This though not so much as the last I hope 
will not be dissatisfactory for I have been obliged to lay up 
two Cargoes of my own which arrived since Captain Greene 
as were they to be sold they would not sell nearly so high. 
Inclosed are Bill of Lading for and Invoice of sundry Goods 
ship'd you by the above Vessel amounting to Rp 9997.43.5 
at your debit, all which are as conformable to your Orders 

* Journals of the Continental Congress, January 2, 1784. 
2 This memorial is in the writing of William Ellery. 



[ 1784 

as possible and the lowest price charged for each Article, 
therefore I hope the same will give as great satisfaction as 
my exertions have been to render it for I have spared no 
pains to procure the Goods ordered as soon as they could be 
got and to give the Vessel all possible dispatch. I shall 
therefore be glad to hear of their safe and quick arrival and 
of their meeting your approbation. 

The Spoermacoeti Candles could not be sold at any reason- 
able price. I have therefore sent them to Amsterdam from 
whence when I get Account Sales I shall transmit you the 


Inclosed is an Account of the disbursements for the Ship 
being Rp 188.20.10 placed to your debit in Account Current 
enclosed balancing in my favour with Rp 1890.27.9 which if 
right please to note in conformity. 

I have ship'd 4 Chests Bohea Tea No. 73 to 'jG on my own 
Account which please to land and hold at the disposal of the 
Bill of Lading. Wishing for a continuance of your Com- 
mands I remain with thanks for those I have received most 
respectfully, Sir, 

P. S. I was obliged to allow 6 Months Credit on the 
Tobacco or I should not have been able to have sold any 
at all. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 
AND Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 31st July, 1784. 


I wrote you the 30th ulto. adviseing of my having remit- 
ted the Ballance of the Produce of your F:seed being 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 221 

£236.2.1 Sterling to Mrs. Mary Hayley of London, and 
hearing this Lady is now in your Country, I beg leave to 
trouble you with the inclosed letter for her which please 
deliver or forward where ever she may be. There is a pros- 
pect of a very fine Harvest all through the Kingdom. The 
Bearer of this the Lord Charlemount for New York and two 
other Vessels who sails in co: for Philadelphia are loaden 
intirely with the Manufactures of this Country, which is 
improving suprizeingly. Our Linens, all sorts; Stuffs 
Flannells, Serges, Morains, Campblets and Durants and 
Silk HandkerchiefFs excell any Country in Europe. We are 
also greatly improved in Checks, all kinds of Cotton Goods, 
Coarse Woolens, say Coatings, Blankets, and 6/4 wide 
coarse Cloths at 5/ to 6/ per yard, and we have the annex'd 
bounties on the Export of Linnens etc. which I mention for 
your Government, should you want any. but our Manu- 
facturers are too poor to give longer Credits then 2 Months 
on Coarse Linens and 4 Months on fine Ditto and 4 and 6 
Months on most other Goods, but many will not give any 
Credits but take off a discount of 2| to 3 per Ct. 

Our Glass Manufacture is cheaper then in England I 
think, particularly Window-Glass, 7 by 9 is only 3^^ per 
foot, 6 by 8, 3 J, and 10 by 8, 4^ per foot, being what offers. 
I remain Gent., Your most humble Servant 

Edward Forbes 

1/2 per yd. Bounty on Buckram and all Linens 25 Inches broad under s,d per yd. 

id per yd. on all do. under 6 1/2 per yd. 

I 1/2 on all do. above 6 1/2 and under 1/7 1/2 per yd. 

1/2 on Checks, Huccabacks and Sheetings 25 Inches broad not under jd per yd. 

nor exceeding 1/7 1/2 per yd. 
I 1/2 do. on do. on every square yard do. upwards of a yard in breadth. 
Same on Linens and Cottons. 
6 1/2 for every 3 ells of sail Canvas. 


Instructions for my Nephew Mr. William Green for 
his Conduct as Supercargo of my Ship the Hydra, during 
her present intended Voyage. 

Having loaded and equipped my Ship the Hydra, agreeably 



to the Invoices with which I have furnished you; and 
manned her with as many able bodied Seamen, as you may 
deem sufficient for her navigation from Great Britain to the 
Indian Seas; you are to clear her out, or cause her to be 
cleared out, at the Custom House of the Port of London, for 
the Island of Madeira, in the Atlantic Ocean; and for this 
Port; and upon your arrival at the former, you are to receive 
on board of her, on my Account, as many pipes of the Wine 
of the Island, as you may be able to stow, in addition to the 
Cargo you will then have; and you are not to lose a moment, 
after your outfit shall have been compleated in the River 
Thames, in proceeding to that Island, making the best of 
the winds and weather, and availing yourself of every 
circumstance that may tend to accelerate your passage 

You are to compose your Crew of as many Seamen as 
you can procure, of the subjects of the United States; or of 
the Nations, or States, with whome the United States have 
concluded and agreed Treaties of Amity and Commerce. 

You are to cause your Insurance to be done in the first 
instance, agreeably to the terms of your Clearance, from 
Madeira and Rhode Island; but you are to give instructions 
to the Insurance broker you may employ, to continue it 
upon the same Policies (if possible) as soon as he judges the 
Hydra to have reached the Limits of the Channel of England ; 
for the Port of Chinsurah, in the Kingdom of Bengal, in 
India, for which Port you are to make the best of your way, 
after you quit the Island of Madeira, touching only, for as 
short a time as possible, for the necessary purpose of refresh- 
ment at the Cape of Good Hope. 

Upon your arrival in Bengal, you are to conduct yourself 
in such manner, as may best avoid giving embrage to any 
European power, who may have settlements there; and you 
are to exercise the same precautions, with respect to the 
Officers and Seamen under your direction, that they comport 
themselves peaceably and humanely to all such persons, or 
people, whether Indians, or others, with whom you or they 
may have occasion to deal. 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 223 

You are on your arrival at Chinsurah, to expose your 
papers; if required, to the Chief of the Dutch Factory: 
and endeavor to obtain his permission to sell your Cargo, or 
at least such part thereof, as is best suited to that Market, 
or for the Coin of the Country, or by way of barter, for the 
Manufactures of Bengal; in doing which you are to exercise, 
and exert, all the Judgment and Discretion you are possessed 
of, to promote the advantage of the Concern: and you are 
to avail yourself, in the prosecution thereof, of all, or any 
of the stipulations contained in the Treaty of Commerce 
concluded between these United States and their High 

Having disposed of the Cargo you are intrusted with, to 
the best advantage, and loaded the Hydra, with such returns 
as you are able or permitted to purchase, and which are the 
best calculated for consumption, and of course for sale, in 
the American Market, and at the lowest prices, you are to 
make the best of every circumstance of wind and weather 
that will accelerate your speedy return therewith, to this 
Port, touching however, at such friendly ports on your 
homeward bound Passage, either in Asia, in Africa, or 
America, as you may think necessary to refresh your crew 
at, for the sake of preserving their Healths; or to which 
stress of weather, or any unforeseen accident, or event, may 
oblige you to have recourse. 

But, in case you meet with any obstructions to your 
Trading at Chinsurah, in the manner I have directed in the 
foregoing, you are then to proceed with her to the Factory of 
His Most Christian Majesty at Chandernagore, in the neigh- 
borhood thereof, and availing yourself of the Treaties of 
Alliance and of Commerce subsisting between America and 
France, you are there to endeavor by every fair and legal 
means, to carry the several purposes herein before directed 
into full and compleat effect. 

However at this distance of time it may be impossible to 
guard by instruction, against all the events, that may happen 
in the course of your Voyage; as many changes may take 
place in the Commercial and Political World, before the 

224 COMMERCEOF [ 1 784 

final accomplishment thereof, therefore in any dilemma, 
you are to consult your own Judgment and act for the best; 
availing yourself of all the several powers vested in you, by 
my Power of Attorney, bearing date in this City, the Twenty 
ninth day of April last, and registered in the book of Land 
Evidence in this State (No 2) since the Evacuation of the 
British Forces, Pages the 142 and 143. 

If a continuity of difficulties should prevent your trading 
in either of the Factories above mentioned; you are to avail 
yourself of any other Ports, that may be opened to you; 
whether Indian, or European, in the Bay of Bengal, or Coast 
of Coromandel; preferring however, in all cases the two I 
have already named. 

His Most Christian Majesty, in the benevolence of his 
Royal Heart, having opened the Ports of the Isles of Bourbon 
and Mauritius, to all the ships and vessels belonging to the 
United States, which may be engaged in the purposes of 
trade and commerce, in the Indian Seas; you are made 
acquainted therewith, that in case of Necessity, you may 
make your rendezvous there. 

The affairs with which I intrust you, being happily accom- 
plished at the Ports of Chinsurah, or Chandernagore; or at 
any other Ports in the Bay of Bengal, and Coast of Coro- 
mandel, and such of yout homeward bound cargo, as is to 
consist of the Manufactures of that Country, laid in, you are 
to proceed with all the dispatch consistent with your safety 
to the River, and Port of Canton in China; where you are to 
dispose of that part of your remaining Cargo, as may be laid 
in, or best calculated for the Chinese Market; if at the expira- 
tion of your time, upon the first part of your Voyage, any 
should remain undisposed of in your hands, and you should 
deem such a farther continuance of the Voyage Hkely to turn 
out to advantage, so as upon the whole, taking into careful 
estimate the profit and loss thereupon, a considerable 
ballance is likely to accrue in my favor, and there, that is at 
Canton, to sell and bargain for the same, in the most bene- 
ficial manner for my Interests; and compleat your invest- 
ment for your return, in the coarsest kinds of Bohea Teas, 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 225 

Nankins, and such other of their coarser Stuffs for Cloath- 
ing, as may best answer our market. You are, however, 
at all times, to consider the continuation of your Voyage to 
China, as collateral only to that to Bengal; under the above 
circumstances; and at the regular accomplishment thereof, 
you are to follow the Instructions contained in page the 
third, and fourth, in the event of your voyage to Bengal; 
and in the same manner from China; not to lose any time 
in returning to this City and Port. 

But whereas, I think it fitting that, in case your arrange- 
ments for the outward bound Cargo, in respect of Bargain, 
Sale, and Payment, should not be accomplished so soon, or 
in so short a space of time, as you might otherways have 
reason to expect, and the Expences of the Ship in the mean 
time must necessarily be very considerable; you be, and 
you are therefore authorized to let her upon freight, provided 
you can do so upon terms sufficiently advantageous, and 
also, in case that she is not to carry Merchandize, nor to be 
employed in any European or American Seas, nor the period, 
for which she is to be hired, to exceed Twelve Calendar 
Months, from the date of her Sailing upon such Voyage 
from the place of your Settlement, or Residence, until the 
day of her return to the same Port. And you are previous 
to her departure, to have her Hull, Masts etc. including all 
her Equipage, appraised, estimated, and valued, by proper 
and capable persons, so that in case of loss, or damage, the 
necessary Compensation may be therefore made, on the part 
of the Freighters, and upon her return, and discharge from 
such adventure; you are to expedite your affairs as much as 
possible, to the end, that no delay may be had in your final 
return to Rhode Island. 

In your correspondence with me, which you are to keep 
up by every oppertunity, you are to be extreemly particular 
in describing the reception you meet with, from the several 
powers, whether native or foreign, in India, that I may regu- 
larly lay the same before the Honorable Congress of the 
united states, that they may be made acquainted with the 
respect paid to their pass, and to the American Flag. 

226 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

You are to take particular care, that all the subordinate 
officers of the Hydra as well as the Captain, be punctually 
obedient to all the orders and directions you may give them, 
as far as may be agreeable to the Laws and customs which 
regulate trade and trading vessels, and you are in all your 
expences of stores, and other articles; as well as of provisions, 
to be particularly frugal so that every thing be managed in 
the best order, and with the greatest possible Acconomy. 
and if all, or any of them, fail in either of these respects, you 
are hereby particularly authorized and required to hire and 
appoint others in their place, discharging the faulty and 
incorrigible without delay. 

In testimony of my desire and intentions in all the several 
particulars herein before stated I have hereinto set my hand 
and seal, this fifteenth day of August anno domini one 
Thousand seven Hundred and Eighty four at the City of 
Newport in the state of Rhode Island and Providence 
plantation in North America. 

Christopher Champlin 

[Memo.] Copy of Instructions given William Green Esquire, August 1784. 

Mary Hayley to Christopher Champlin 

London, 26th August, 1784. 

Herewith you have Copies of my last since which I have 
receivd your esteemd favour of nth July which came to 
hand the 14th Inst, too late to counter order your India 
Goods, however the greatest part you will have seen were 

I can give you no hope of the duty on Oil imported from 
America being taken ofF, but on the contrary the Legislature 
of this Country seem determined to continue it, for the 
express purpose of encouraging the Fishery from Great 
Britain in preference to that of America, which is now 
become an Independent State, the same principle of 
encouraging and strengthening our own Navy also operates 
in preventing your Ships visiting our West India Islands. 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 227 

I would therefore recommend you avoiding any speculation 
in Oil, with the hope of its being imported here free of Duty. 
Our Friend Mr. Rotch can explain this Business to you as I 
have frequently wrote him my sentiments upon it. 

Inclosed I now hand you Invoice and Bill of Loading of 
the remainder of the Goods you ordered shipd on board the 
Hope, Capt. Whipple for Rhode Island, amounting with 
£315 Insurance thereon to £306.17.1 which sum is passd 
to your Debit, and I hope they will arrive in season and to 
your approbation. I am with respect, Sir, Your most 
humble Servant Per procuration from Mary Hayley, 

Alex. Champion, Jun. 

Christopher Grant Champlin^ to 
Christopher Champlin 

Cambridge, Septemb. 6th, 1784. 

Dear Sir, 

After being detained two days at Providence and having 
an agreeable Journey to Boston, I arrived at Cambridge 
the Saturday after the Vacation was up. I have been in 
College about a week.^ the room which I have got is in the 
Southwest corner of Hollis College, the prospect is good and 
the Chamber handsome with the addi[tion] we have made to 
it of papering and painting, and you cannot imagine how 
much preferable my Situation in College is, to what it was 
when out not only with regard to many little Inconveniences, 
but likewise with respect to my Studies, as I can now study, 
with much more ease and Satisfaction than before. As to 
the diet at Commons, though it is not quite so good as I 
cou'd wish, yet there is always plenty, and — the goodness 
of my Appetite amply compensates for it's deficiency in 

Mrs. Wendell set out for Barnstable last week upon a 

^The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

2 He was of the class of 1786. Born at Newport, April 12, 1768, he was a Sena- 
tor from Rhode Island, 18 10-16, and died March 28, 1840, He fought a duel 
with James Asheton Bayard. 

228 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

Visit to her Daughter, as she left her house entirely vacant, 
except an old negro Woman to take care of it, and desired 
me to let my bed and bedstead remain there until it was 
convenient to remove them to Boston or elsewhere, or, if 
I chose, to let them remain there all the time I was at College, 
but at the same time refused taking any pay for the room 
which they wou'd take up, I thought it best to let them stay 
there, only for the pres[en]t until I cou'd get somebody 
in Cambridge to keep them [for] me at some small considera- 
tion, a Quarter, or Year, or else send them to Mrs. Leverett, 
who will keep them as long as I please. 

I shoud have wrote you before had I not been so entirely 
engrossed with removing and geting my room in order, that 
I have scarce had a Moment to myself, we have just began 
our course of Mathematical Lectures and as this branch 
includes arithmetic I mean to pay particular attention to it, 
and consequently find my time pretty well employ'd with 
this and reading the Books which I take out of the Library, 
together with the other common exercises which we are 
obliged to perform, therefore cannot always devote such a 
share of my time to you as my inclination prompts me to, 
and your paternal kindness demands from your affectionate 
and dutiful Son, 

C. C. 

Mark Pringle to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, the 7th September, 1784. 

Dear Sir, 

I HAVE your esteem'd favour of the 24th June, and, I 
hope, in return for your indulgence, Mr. Hopkins will observe 
punctuality in the discharge of his obligation. I shall take 
care to remind him, and to receive Interest etc. 

The late Accounts of the decline of Tobacco in England, 
and Holland, and the favourable appearance of abundant 
Crops, have had some effect on the price here, and I am per- 
suaded, in the course of two months it will be considerably 
lower. The Crop of Wheat has also been very plenty and 
it is expected the price will be about 6/ to 6/6 per bushell. 


\_ajteT St. Memin^ 




With respect to West India Goods etc. please to refer to 
the inclosed price current. I am sorry the one promised in 
my last was omitted. Fall Goods, from England, sell at 
100 to no per Ct. advance. I am very sincerely. Dear 



Benjamin Peirce to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler 

St. Lucia, October 2d, 1784. 


I WROTE the 28th September (via Martinica) of my 
arrival at Barbados after a passage of 42 days of bad weather, 
but could not get admitted with the Ship without delivering 
my Cargo to every Merchant in that Island, for if I sold to 
one the others wou'd inform against the Vessel, after laying 
off and on part of two days I bore away for this place which 
I prefer'd to Martinica on account of the sizures that were 
made in that place eight days before I arrived here, the 
difference of the port charges and the goodness of the Har- 
bour. I have sold the lumber (Boards) for Sixteen Dollars 
per M, the Shingles for twenty five livres per M. The 
Staves are on hand yet. Expect to sail from this in six 
days for Turks Island as there is no Salt at Bonaire, will 
give every dispatch in my power, as I wrote fully the 28th 
September 'tis needless now to enter into particulars again, 
I am. Gentlemen, your Obedient Servant, 

Benj. Peirce 

Price Current 

Boards 133 livres per M. 

Shingles pine 20 to 24 Livres per M. 


Horses 8 to 15 Johannes 

Flour 56 Livres per bbl. 

Rice 80 Livres per Ct. 
Sugar 33 to 40 Livres per Ct. 
Cotton 190 livres per Ct. 
CofFee 20 Sols per li. 
Melasses 20 Sols per Gal. 

230 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

Please to communicate this to Messrs. Champlin and 
Fowler with all possible Dispatch. 

B. Peirce 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

6 October, 1784. 
My dear Sir, 

I had the pleasure of receiving your favor of the 22d of 
July and its duplicate on the nth ultimo, but the pass from 
Congress for the Hydra did not reach my hand until the 
29th, owing I presume to the packet having been detained 
a more than ordinary time at New York. 

From that moment however I have set seriously to work 
and I have strong hopes of getting away by the beginning 
of December, previous to her sailing I shall forward to 
you Copies of the Invoices Accounts, Policy of Insurance, 
and of all and several such other papers as may be deemed 
necessary for your guidance in case of Accident. 

The importance of the trust I repose in you, I know you 
are well aware of, as all my property now is under your 
Name, you may therefore openly avow your having fitted 
and loaded a Ship for India, but keep her destination in other 
respects a Secret, because, it yet depends on circumstances, 
whether the Voyage will be extended to China, or whether 
I shall return to Newport directly from Bengal, but of this 
I will take care to apprize you in due time. 

I have determined to abridge the amount of my out- 
ward Investment which now will not exceed the amount of 

It is in vain that I have endeavored to prevail on Mrs. 
G. to remain behind me, she is determined to visit India and 
has proposed to take Jenny Bell with her, but the thing is 
not yet resolved upon. Mrs. Waugh has also thoughts of 
going with her husband to her brothers but that also depends 
on circumstances, and requires a little more time for deliber- 
ation before he throws himself out of the Army. 

My remembrance of Betsey will be signified by the piano 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 23 1 

forte, which is now making for her, and which with the 
Music that accompanies it, she will have the kindness to 
accept for my sake. If I have time I mean to write Peggy, 
in particular to request she will have the goodness to accept 
as a mark of my respect and esteem a gold Watch, Chain 
and trinkets, which I have ordered to be made for her. 
Many very pretty things might be said upon this occasion 
by a Man of Words, but I will only recommend to them 
briefly, but most aflPectionately, to diligent employment of 
their time and a constant attention to the advantages of 
Harmony in Life and Conversation. I cannot tell by what 
Ship I shall send them, but it will be by the way of Boston 
and to the care of Mr. David Sears. 

I have not yet determined upon a Captain, a Captain 
Clark is fitting her but does not go out in her. 

You are not to imagine that Lforget Kit — he has a very 
high rank in my esteem. I mean if I can lay my hand upon 
them, to send him a compact edition of the best latin authors 
but they are difficult to get and require time. I have written 
to Glasgow for them. 

I shall take care to comply with your desire by paying Mr. 
Champion Mrs. Hayleys Attorney the Sum you mention to 
have disbursed for me. 

Robert Grant has been all the summer in Scotland and is 
not yet returned. I shall be mindful of your commission. 

With pleasure I often call to mind your hospitality and 
kindness to me whilst at Newport, the attention and kind- 
ness of your good Lady I shall always remember with respect, 
as well as the warm regard of our venerable Grandmother. 
Tempe joins me in every wish for both your happiness and 
in our best regards to the Young Gentleman at College and 
the Young Ladies her Cousins. 

I am ever with great regard and true Esteem Your faithful 
friend and servant 

Will Green 

P. S. Our little one is well and grows quite a Beauty. 

232 commerceof [ 1784 

Alexander Keith to Christopher Champlin 

Nantes, 15th October, 1784. 


Now that peace is restored to the Continents of Europe 
and America on a permanent footing and that trade begins 
to recover from the many misfortunes that were the con- 
sequence of the war and still more of the peace, in quality 
of an old estabhshed Merchant in this flourishing City and 
well acquainted with every one of the branches of its trade, 
I take the liberty to make you a tender of my best services 
here, assuring you that by my intimate Connections with 
most of the principal manufactures in France, and my 
experience in the disposal of every article of the produce 
of your Continent, I have it in my power to serve you on the 
most advantageous footing in every respect. This you will 
acquire ample and sufficient proofs of when you may be 
pleased to make a trial, and I think prudent Merchants 
may venture now to do something with a fair prospect of 
success, as the frenzy of many adventurers immediately 
after the peace pouring immense quantities of goods into 
your ports not at all adapted to their wants or con- 
sumpt[ion] seems to their, cost, pretty well subsided. For 
my part, I continually stood aloof till now that I look 
upon trade as pretty well purged and as I confine my- 
self entirely to the commission branch and have made it 
an invariable rule to ship no goods for any quarter unless 
with Funds in hands either in Consignments, good bills or 
a confirmed credit on one of the principal cities in Europe. 
I have it by that means in my power to serve my friends 
on the very lowest terms and infinitely better than your 
Countrymen have been since the commencement of their 
connections with France. The considerable concern I hold 
in one of the principal Callico and Chintz Manufactures 
of this City enables me to serve you with that essential 
article for your market in a manner respecting patterns, 
taste, stuflF and price much superior to most others, being 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 233 

intimately acquainted with what is suitable for your 

The moment I receive value either in goods, bills, freights, 
vessels ordered for sale etc. I a[m re]ady to return the full 
amount in such goods as may be ordered and with the 
utmost Dispatch. 

The present low prices of french manufactures in general 
especially the remarkable low rates of brandies and wines 
occasioned by a very plentiful vintage, still more so of all 
sorts of teas and other East-India goods will I hope engage 
you to do something this way and favour me with your 
orders which I repeat to you will be executed to your utmost 
satisfaction and in such a manner as to insure me their 
Continuance, meanwhile, in expectation thereof, I enclosed 
hand you the price current of our principal Exports and 
Imports from your quarters and remain in all your com- 
mands, Sir, Your most obedient Servant 

Alex. Keith 

Henry Greig to Hunter, Gibbs and Champlin 

Gottenburg, the 23d [?] October, 1784. 


Being without any of your esteemed favours I embrace 
this opportunity of transmitting you a price current of our 
Imports and Exports at this market for your and friends 
information, prices that will be found upon the whole more 
encouraging than any in Europe, in case you should incline 
to speculate the ensuing Winter or Spring, and if you are 
pleased to favour me with your Commands I make no doubt 
of rendering you so favourable an account of them as to 
merit a continuance of your favours. A Cargo of the best 
St. James or York River Tobacco, joined with 40: 50,000 
li. good middling Domingo or Martinico Coffee small green 
bean about as much rice, with 10: 20,000 li. of purple and 
common Copper Carolina Indigo will next Spring, or indeed 
in general, find a very good Market with us, and what is 
singularly encouraging, our charges on every commodity 

234 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

are remarkably low, being only 4: 5 per Cent Commission 
included. I am in all your Commands, Sirs, Your most 
obedient Servant, 

Henry Greig 

JosiAH Watson to Christopher Champlin 

Alexandria, 31st Nov., 1784. 


I wrote you the loth and 17th instant to which please 
refer. Your favour of the 9th instant I am to acknowledge 
the receipt of and note the contents. Tobacco has not sold 
under 28/ with us and little has yet been purchased at that 
price, nor is there the quantity offered I had reason to expect, 
indeed as high as 30/ has been given within these 8 days 
past, however money is scarce and I flatter myself the cur- 
rent cash price will not exceed 28/. during the winter I am 
of opinion it will be under that price. As I before observed 
doubt not but the business of your Brig will be transacted 
by me in such a manner as to meet your approbation. In 
reply to what you mention respecting the purchase of 100 
Hogsheads on your own private a/c I can at any time draw 
Bills on Philadelphia provided they are at sight and some 
times at 20 or 30 days, but as the produce of the Southern 
States draws a considerable sum of Money from the North- 
ern, it very seldom happens that Bills can be negotiated 
further North than Philadelphia. 

Since Peace took place Tob'a has been a cash article, and 

1 have found it impossible to purchase on any Credit without 
giving 2 or 3/ per Ct. more than the current price, even for 

2 months, therefore I think you would find it your interest 
to make immediate payment. I will however purchase it 
in any manner you think proper. 

In my former letters I informed you of my Establishment 
of Watson and Urquhart at Fredericksburg on the Rappa- 
hannock. Should your Brig not have sailed before this 
reaches you I should wish you would order her up that 
River, where I can load her full as low if not lower than on 

1784] RHODE ISLAND 235 

this, as Tobacco seems to come in faster to the Inspection on 
that River than ours, however on either I shall endeavour 
to give you the necessary dispach. during the winter months 
for several years past Tobacco and almost every kind of prud- 
uce has fell and I think will this year, therefore it will be a 
favourable time to purchase. Annexed you have our price 
current. And am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant 

JosiAH Watson 

Tob'o 28/ W. I. Rum 3/ to 3/3 

Flour 33/ Con'l do 2/ to 2/2 

Wheat 5/6 to 6/ Molasses 18 to 2od 

Corn 2/ to 3/ Bro Sugar 36/ to 45/ 

Coffee none at markett 

John Burgwin to George Gibbs and 
Champlin and Co. 

Wilmington, No. Carolina, 25th December, 1784. 

Gentlemen : 

THE long and disagreable passage I had from your place 
of 30 days put it out of my power to give you that early 
intelligence you wished to receive respecting the Cargo you 
depended on my House preparing for your Brigantine. On 
my Arrival I made every enquiry and find our Market 
extreamly high and Produce very scarce. Tobacco is as 
high as 7 Dollars per 100 lb. and nothing but the Hard Cash 
will command any quantity. Rice is not to be had at any 
rate, N. E. Rum is a Drug and will not fetch but little more 
than the first Cost, and the Dutys are exacted to a penny, 
that is the Original Invoices must be exhibited at the Custom 
House. Coffee and Molasses are the only articles that will 
yield any profit and a small quantity of each will stock the 

If my advice is taken it will be to send the Vessell to 
Charles Ton or Virginia, where I think you will just now do 
better than at this place, and I sincerely wish this may reach 
you in time to prevent a disappointment which must un- 
avoidably happen. 

236 COMMERCEOF [ 1784 

I shall write you again by some other oppertunity should 
this miscarry, and am Gentlemen Your Most Obedient 

j. burgwin 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

My dear Sir^ 

Being upon the point of embarking with my dear little 
Woman, the Young one, and Jane Bell in the Hydra, I have 
only to request in as few words as possible, that you, and 
your good Lady will remember us constantly in your prayers 
and endeavor to procure us at least by your good wishes all 
the winds that will accelerate our passage to Bengal, and a 
quick and happy return to Newport. 

A variety of circumstances not necessary at present to 
detail, induced me to prefer fitting out the Ship, and loading 
her for you, in the manner agreed upon, by my Agent Mr, 
William Robertson of Towerhill, than by myself, and I 
have desired him to forward to you. Duplicates of the In- 
voices, and of the policies of Insurance, which you may expect 
to receive by the first opportunity. In the first instance, as 
she is cleared out for Madeira and Rhode Island, the Insur- 
ance extends no farther than that Island. She could not 
be cleared out from Great Britain for India, but as soon 
as I may be presumed to have reached the Limits of the 
Channel, the Insurance will be continued (if possible) on 
the same Policies to Chinsurah in Bengal which is a Dutch 
Factory, within a few miles from Calcutta, where I shall 
endeavor to enter her, or, at least, make such arrangements 
with our friends as to get rid of my Cargo, by means of the 
Country Ships, to advantage and to receive from them my 
homeward bound Cargo. 

At this period I do not imagine I shall extend my voyage 
to China. The discretionary powers received from you, 
leave me entirely at liberty, to act for our general welfare, 
as circumstances may require and I shall avail myself of 
them to the fullest. I shall subjoin at the end of this a 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 237 

schedule of my Cargo, as it now stands in addition to which I 
shall receive at Madeira about seventy pipes of the Wine 
of the Island and then make the best of my way to the Cape 
of Good Hope, where it will be necessary to stop for refresh- 
ments a few days. 

I shall during my absence correspond with you constantly, 
from every place where there is a probability of my letters 
reaching you so as to have any effect; from the Cape of 
Good Hope, and from Chinsurah the moment of my arrival 
there in particular. My letters will doubtless pass by way 
of London, unless I have an oppertunity of addressing you 
directly from India. 

The jealousy of the English East India Company has been 
excited upon occasion of this equipment, but I do not beleive 
they suspect she is going for Bengal. All Companies, are, 
however, so arbitrary in their measures, that upon any 
opening, a great deal of trouble might be given us, and I 
assure you there is a great deal of caution necessary but I 
trust my judgment and experience will surmount all the 
difficulties I may meet with. 

If you chuse to hazard writing me in India, you must 
write covertly to me; Direct your letters under cover to 
Suetonius Heatly Esqr. Calcutta, Bengal and send them to 
be forwarded to me, to the care of Mr. Wilkinson, London; 
never failing to address me as your Supercargo, because if 
the letters are intercepted no mischief can ensue. The late 
Revolution has embittered the minds and spirits of many, 
and made them attentive to all our motions. I say all our 
motions, because Congress having pronounced me a Subject 
of the United States, I am ipso facto become so, and look 
forward with hope and with pleasure, to the many happy 
days I am to spend with you at Rhode Island. If, however, 
you can get a bill brought into your House, to naturalize 
me more formally as a subject of your State, it will not be 
amis. Indeed I think it will be better, and you may sign my 
name to any Memorials, or in any manner, you may deem 
proper to obtain it. You may urge that your own interest, 
if you choose to make such a plea, is involved. Perhaps 

238 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

Channing can assist you effectually in the business. If 
money is wanting do not spare it, but use it with your wonted 
skill and discretion, towards the attainment of the proposed 
end. Perhaps all circumstances considered, the probability 
of my remaining long enough in India to receive your letters 
is not great. I think however you had better attempt it. 
At my return I shall stop at the Cape of Good Hope for re- 
freshment, or at St. Helena, but I think as the Spring Season 
until after the month of April, renders the Coast difficult of 
access, or at least is attended with danger, in America, I 
shall put into St. Eustatia and remain there until the com- 
mencement of May. 

If my letters from India do not regularly reach you, you 
must not accuse me of inattention because they may mis- 
carry, and in case my letters reach any of my friends in Lon- 
don, I shall desire them to let you know, how I am disposed 
of The letters written by the Packet I shall direct to be sent 
to the care of Isaac Sears Esqr. at New York, as I think I 
have heard him spoken of, as a Correspondent of yours, and 
therefore suppose it likely that he will charge himself with 
the conveyance of your letters, and that you may the more 
securely depend upon receiving them. But as I have already 
mentioned, that you are avowed in London to be the Owner of 
both Ship and Cargo, and that every thing relative to the one 
or the other, and to the adventure in toto, is made absolutely 
by you, or on your Account, and it may appear surprizing 
that from the failure of letters, or any other cause, you may 
be misinformed or ignorant of any circumstances, that may 
be inquired of you, for there are impudent people who love to 
question in every quarter of the world. You have only to 
wrap yourself up in the air of Mysterj^, worn by all Great 
Men in modern times, declare that secrets are sacred, and 
that the affair is of that Nature, as cannot admit of discourse, 
any more than any other affair of Commerce, That you de- 
pend upon your Nephews prudence to do every thing for you, 
that is right, and you flatter yourself, that you will not be dis- 
appointed in the issue. I know your good sense, will excuse 
my making these suggestions to you, because my name may 

1784 ] RHODEISLAND 239 

be used in authority to you, but I declare to you that I 
never mentioned my intention to any person in America 
except yourself and Wm. Powell, nor in Europe to any person 
except Mr. Tracey; the first confidentially and to the latter, 
I mentioned simply^ that I was going out Supercargo of 
your Ship the Hydra to India, because as we have been 
very much together of late, and very intimate, the con- 
cealing a circumstance that must necessarily be notorious 
in a few days, was a ridiculous piece of affectation. I 
bound him however to privacy not chusing to have it 
publickly spoken of. 

It was an observation frequently made by you during my 
stay at Rhode Island, that you were sure great changes would 
take place in the regulation of trade in America before my 
return. Of this I would have you advise me, by writing me 
to St. Eustatia because it will be absolutely necessary for 
my guidance, the moment of my arrival there, I shall let 
you know of it by the first American Vessel that sails there, 
and you may answer me accordingly, or indeed you may 
lodge letters for me there, to the care of one of the best 
Houses, and to be delivered on my arrival, or returned to you 
agreeably to any directions, you may subsequently send 
there, in case I should not get back so soon as I now hope 
for, which is some time in the winter, or Spring of the year 
1786, that is to the West Indies, for I would not near the 
American Coast in these doubtful seasons, but remain there 
until the approach of Summer, should it be the year after 
you may recal easily your letters, or add from time to time 
by the same means, any other information that may be 
necessary to convey to me. 

You may be sensible that the family connection which 
unites us in a certain degree to one another, formed one prin- 
cipal inducement for my application to you, in preference 
to many other Merchants of capital influence, but, another 
was the character that you have been happy enough to 
preserve, from your youth to the present day, and which 
I place the utmost reliance upon, as in fact I have given you 
the most solid proof. I need not now indulge myself in any 

240 COMMERCE OF [ 1784 

flattering description of the pleasure, both me and Tempe 
promise ourselves from the mutual improvement of this 
beginning, but we both perfectly rely upon its having the 
happiest effects. 

It is rather unlucky that a Frost just now delays the last 
shipping of our Goods, which has filled the River and put 
an end to all Navigation by lighters or boats, but I trust it 
Will not last long, for as there appears a prospect of a 
Southerly wind I hope the business will go on as quickly as 

I think the pass you have sent me from the Committee of 
Congress is by no means explicit respecting the property of 
the Cargo. Perhaps in the stage of the business when it 
was given more could not be said, at least upon the grounds 
of the Memorial, neither do I think myself accurately enough 
described in the Pass, being stated to be a Subject of the 
United States, which I cannot well comprehend unless calling 
myself so, and having their affirmation of it in my pocket, 
could make me so. Your power helps me out greatly in 
this respect, because it is as explicit as possible, with re- 
spect to the power of outfit and lading her myself or ap- 
pointing any other to do it, but then it describes me as of 
London in the Kingdom of Great Britain, which may be 
said, by men disposed to quibble, to militate against the 
Terms of the Committee's pass. 

I have made these remarks to you my dear friend with 
the view of letting you see clearly my situation with respect 
to it. It is too late now I believe to procure any Identifica- 
tion from Congress. If however you think necessary, or 
prudent, to make the application to them, whether it reaches 
me or not, so that it remains on record in their Journals, 
will be of as much consequence. When you receive the 
Copies of the Invoices the apphcation may be made to them, 
and they will furnish you with a fresh variety of information 
to state in your Memorials. 

If as I have hinted in a former page it were possible to get 
a Bill of Naturalization past during my stay in the prosecu- 
tion of the Voyage, it will reconcile these seeming contra- 


dictions, set both me and you at ease, and save us the 
apprehension of many inconveniences. It is at all times 
more proper to guard against the consequences of any 
mistakes, or neglects we may have committed in the begin- 
ning than lament them hereafter. This indeed is so much 
the more necessary, as the India Captains are as jealous of the 
voyage of the Hydra as their Directors fearing that it may 
militate against their profits and they do not scruple to say 
that every possible obstruction will be thrown in our way. 
My letters from Mr. Robertson state this as the curent talk 
of the day but at the same time adds, that he does not think 
there is any foundation in authority for it, but that it pro- 
ceeds entirely from the India Captains, who are fearful of 
being cut out in their private trade. 

I reserve the list of the Officers and other matters to a 
future letter. 

The last two months I have spent at Paris being desirous 
to shew Tempe a little of this celebrated Kingdom before 
we bid a final adieu to Europe. She likes France much as 
I do, and if I had time should like to have spent a year there. 
The Hydra will hover off this Port, which is opposite the 
Downs, and we shall embark upon her appearance, which is 
hourly expected. The Watch and Fortepiano were shipt 
in the Hero Captain Youngs the i6th of November. 

I remain my dear Sir with the greatest regard and most 
unlimited confidence Your most faithful and obliged Friend 
and Servant Will Green 

Boulogne Sur Mer in France, December the 26th, 1784. 

WiNTHROP Tod and Winthrop ^ to 
Christopher Champlin 

o- Charleston, So. Carolina, December 31st, 1784. 

Since our last respects to you, none of your esteemed 
favours have reach'd us. 

1 Joseph Winthrop (1757-1828) was born in New London, Conn., a son of John 
Still Winthrop. He removed to Charleston, S. C, and married Mary, daughter 
of Alexander Fraser, of that place. 

242 COMMERCE OF I 1784 

We give you the present interruption merely to hand the 
prices current, to which we are to add, that Rice is at 12/6 
per Ct. and on the decline: the few Vessels in port will 
greatly operate in behalf of the Merchants to reduce it still 
more. Indico (as in quality) is at 3 to 5/ and at these prices, 
we presume it will continue without any sensible variation. 

This being the season of congratulation, we are to offer 
our best wishes for the prosperity of yourself and friends, 
and that you and them may always be surrounded with 
pleasing objects and the most solid happiness is the earnest 
wish of, Sir, Your Most Obedient and respectful humble 

WiNTHROP, Tod and Winthrop 

P. S. It is computed there are about 80,000 Barrels 
Rice, 1 1000 hhds of Tobacco, and a \ Million pounds weight 
of Indico of the last Crops made of which very little is yet 


John Green to Christopher Champlin 
AND Company 

Alexandria, January 4th, 1785. 


I WROTE you of the 29th of last month informing you of 
my Arrival at this place, of the dull Sale of our Cargo, of 
Markets etc. our Cargo is still on board as there is no Vent 
for it at presant. Mr. Watson informs me he has the 
Quantity of Tobacco allready purchased that we shall want 
to load us, and expects to store the Cargo we have on board 
as he sees no Prospect of disposeing of it. the River last 
Night froze over which perhaps may be of Advantage to us 
as there can be no more Supplyes of those Articles whilst the 
River remains shut up. but had not the Ice prevented Mr. 
Watson informs me he would have got us away very soon, 
but the Tobacco chiefly laying down the River it can not be 
got up whilest the River remains froze, which in general is 
not of long duration. So that we shall begin to take on 

1784 ] RHODE ISLAND 243 

board directly after the River breaks up. the Price of 
Rum is 2/2 by the Hogshead but no buyers Molasses 1/6 
per ditto. Coffee 1/3 quick Sale. Chocolate dull Sale. 
Tobacco at 28/ per Ct. flour at 30/ a bb. Wheat at GIG 
bush, and Pork at 40/6 per Ct. etc. from Gentlemen Your 
Obedient Humble Servant, 

John Green 

[Endorsed,] Per Mr. James of Providence. 

BuRGWiN, Jewkes and London ^ TO Christopher 

North Carolina, Wilmington, nth March, 1785. 


Our last (a Copy of which is on the other side) was by the 
Sea flower Captain Dyer via New York, which we hope has 
reached your hands. 

The difficulty of procuring the Cargo wanted for the 
Nancy, particularly Rice, has hitherto prevented us from 
making any progress in loading her, but we shall begin in 
three or four days, and hope to give her every dispatch that 
the situation of our Market will permit, tho' it will be near 
the middle of next Month before we shall compleat what 
we expect to ship. 

We have applied to Messrs. Malletts and Mumford^ and 
are assured of their payment, unless any disappointment 
arises about the proportion of Rice. They have offered us 
the Turpentine, but as it is impossible to exchange it at this 
time for Tobacco, we are not very anxious about receiving 
it at present in hopes we may receive further directions from 
you before the Nancy leaves this. Produce of all kinds 
continue in demand, very little Rice is made in this State 
for Exportation. Naval Stores will fall immediately tho 
Tobacco will not. Lumber is a considerable export, and 
we shall have both this Article and Naval Stores on hand to 
supply our friends. We take the liberty to mention these 

1 See State Records of North Carolina, xvi. 968. John Burgwin and John London. 

2 Peter Mallett and Roberson (?) Mumford. 

244 COMMERCE OF [1784 

circumstances for your government should you incline to 
favor us with any further commands. We shall at all times 
be anxious to merit a continuance of your correspondence, 
and Remain with great Respect, Gentlemen, Your most 
humble Servants 

BuRGWiN, Jewkes and London 

Price Current 

Tar 16/ 1 Tobacco 56/ per 100 lbs. 

Turpentine 32/ \ per barrell Rice 32/ to 34/ per do. 

Pitch 26/ J N. E. Rum 3/10 to 4/ per Gallon: very dull sale 

Lumber 120/ per thousand Molasses 2/6 per Gallon. 

22 inch Shingles 24/ Sugar according to quality 70/ and 80/ per 100 

18 do. do. 20/ lb. 

Charter of Vessell 

The Owners of the Schooner Enterprize vizt. Stephen 
Smith, Samuel Wardwell, and Shearjashub Bourne,^ of Bris- 
tol, in the State of Rhode Island, Merchants, do agree to char- 
ter the said Schooner to Christopher Champlin and Samuel 
Fowler of Newport Merchants, on the following Conditions 
— The Owners are to grave and caulk said Schooner and 
equip her in a proper manner to perform a Voyage to Europe, 
and deliver her at Newport by the tenth day of April next, 
ready to take her Cargo on board. The Schooner to be 
estimated at five hundred pounds Lawful mony, which sum 
in case of a Loss said Champlin and Fowler are to pay to 
the Owners of said Schooner, the Owners in that case to 
relinquish all right and claim to the Charter party of the 
Schooner previous to the loss, the Schooner to be at ninety 
Spanish Mill'd Dollars per Month during the time she is 
in said Champlin's and Fowler's service, the hire of the said 
Schooner to commence the day she is delivered in Newport 
and the Owners to take delivery of her in Bristol when she 
returns, said Champlin and Fowler to appoint a Master, 
victual and man her at their expence. 

Notwithstanding the foregoing the Owners are to furnish 

'The last two were in 1792 associated in distilling rum at Bristol, a product 
which found a ready market in Africa. 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 245 

the said Schooner with a Mainsail fore sail jib and fore 
topsail which sails are to be deem'd sufficient and the 
Owners are also to furnish dishes and plates, knives and 
forks, a teakettle, etc. 

Bristol, March 29th, 1784. 

Stephen Smith 
Samu'll Wardwell 

Dimensions: 48 feet Keel, i8| feet Beam, 7 feet 8 inches hold. 

BuRGwiN, Jewkes and London to Christopher 
Champlin and Co. 

No. Carolina, Wilmington, April, 1785. 


Our last was the 19th inst. per the Schooner Two Brothers 
Captain Skinner, which we hope has reached your hands. 
We have now the pleasure to inclose an Invoice and Bill of 
Lading for Sundries shiped in your Brigantine Nancy amount 
£2663.3.8 I our Currency, dollars at 8/. Inclosed is Messrs. 
Malletts and Mumfords Account Sales for Captain Champ- 
lins four Hhds. Rum, also our account sales for the Rum 
and Molasses received per the Nancys Nett proceeds to your 
Credit in account current £1070.17.7. We have made every 
exertion in our power in the sale of this consignment for 
your interest, but the scarcity of Money and the little 
demand at this time for Rum, has kept the price down. 
What remains unsold we have taken ourselves, in order to 
close the Sales, and allowed the Owners 4/ per Gallon, which 
is above the current price, and to the extent of what we 
expect to gett for it, as we have no motive but a sincere 
desire to give every possible encouragement to your cor- 
respondence, it will be a great satisfaction to receive your 
approbation. Our last informed you of the difficulty we 
found to procure in time the quantity of Tobacco required 
to load the Nancy, and we are very sorry your last Letter 
did not come to hand sooner, which would lessen the Ship- 
ment of Rice, but our apprehensions of your Market has 

246 COMMERCE OF [ ly^S 

occasioned us to withhold a part of what we have actually 
purchased for the Brigantine and to prefer filling her up 
with Naval Stores. 

We refer you to Captain Cozens for the prices of our 
produce at this place, which for your satisfaction we have 
desired him to be particular in. We here inclose our account 
current balance in our favour £[blank] Currency and shall 
in our next advise you, in what manner we wish it to 
be paid. 

We have applied for the payment of Mr. Quinces Note, 
but as he is at present in Europe, his Attorneys will not 
settle it. they expect him here in two or 3 Months. 

The prices charged in the Nancy's Invoice are the shipping 
ones, in Gold and Silver or Bills of Exchange on Europe. 
Malletts and Mumford are delivering to Captain Ross of 
Salem, owned by Mr. Gray at the same. Sincerely wishing 
the Nancy safe to you We remain very Respectfully, Gentle- 
men, Your most Obedient Humble Servants 

BuRGWiN, Jewkes and London 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 3 April, 1785. 


I HAVE to refFer you to my last respects of the i6th March 
and now to acknowledge receipt [of] your esteemed favor 
of the 27th January delivered me yesterday per Captain 
Sheffield who is arrived at Newry. its a pitty his owners 
were so misinformed as to our Harbour. Vessels that are 
American built and draw 15I feet water can come here, we 
take out j in Lighters and then the Ships come into Poolbegg 
and lye always afloat, and we are now laying down Mooreing 
Chains, as in London. Had she come here I would have 
sold the flaxseed in one week from £4.7.6. to £4.11. per hhd. 
I have not now a Cask on hand having finished my last 
Cargo from Newyork 6 days ago, and at Newry they have 
not yet sold a Cask. 

1785 ] RHODEISLAND 247 

I send my Clerk there in the morning to ship ^ yours and 
I Messrs. Casey & Co. Seed here, and I go to Newry myself 
this day week to sell the remainder there if I find the Market 
tollerable. I offerd Captain Sheffield 2/6 per hhd to come 
here with his Ship, but he is in a hurry to go away to Lisbon. 
I am in haste Gentlemen your most humble Servant, 

E. Forbes 

John Bulkeley and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, the 21st April, 1785. 

It is a long time since we had the pleasure of hearing from 
you and fearing our last respects of 12th Jan'y 1776 with 
the Account Sales of Flour per the Peggy Capt. Barron never 
reached you, we now send you copies of the same with your 
Account Current with our late society up to the 15th Novem- 
ber 1777, and we now inclose you your Account Current of 
this date with our present firm, by which you will find we 
are in Cash on your Accounts Rs. 46^004. which we hold at 
your disposal not knowing whether Messrs. Hayley and 
Hopkins of London are now your Agents. 

You will please observe both Flour and Rice are pro- 
hibited in Portugal, so that nothing but Wheat Indian Corn 
Fish, Lumber and Naval Stores are enterable from the 
United States and only the three former articles at present 
in demand. 

We are expecting several Indiamen from Asia in the course 
of three Months when all kinds of India Goods will be very 
cheap. We have a large parcel of choice old Wine on hand, 
should you incline to speculate to Lisbon we shall be happy 
to receive your commands and refering you to our prices 
at foot remain with sincere regard. Sir, Your obedient humble 
Servants John Bulkeley and Son 

Lisbon Wine 17^000 1 n P t Lemons 2$6oo per box 

Carcavello Do. 20^000 J ^ ^ ' ' Bohea Tea 240 1 „ 

Salt 2$CXD per Moy Hyson Do. 850/ 

Exchange 645^ per $. 

[Endorsed,] Per the Tyger, Capt. Pheneas Gilbert. 

248 COMMERCEOF [ 1785 

David Sears to Christopher Champlin 

Boston, May ist, 1785. 

I HAVE received your favours of the 25th ult. and note 
the contents. 

I have Hkewise the pleasure to inform you that Captain 
Young has this day sent me a very small Box about | foot 
square and a letter from Mr. Green dated Brighthelmstone 
loth September wherein he says I have address'd to your 
care a forte piano and a watch which I beg you'l forward 
to our Newport friend, by first Conveyance. 

Captain Young makes an apoligy for not delivering me 
the Box (which is directed to Miss Margaret Champlin) 
and the letter of Mr. Greens, by saying that they were at 
the bottom of his Chest under his Cloths that he overlook'd 

Captain Young while in England loaded and unloaded 
and loaded again some of his packages may have been 
roughly handled, but the Box which contains the forte 
piano seems to be in good order. It is in one of my dry 
Stores where nothing shall be upon it or touch it untill I 
receive Miss Betsy's orders or if you would chuse to have it 
sent up to my house and there taken out of the Box and 
examin'd by Mr. Selby and repack'd again it shall be done 
carefully. The little box which is directed to Miss Peggy 
is in perfect order and cannot have received any injury, 
it is carefully lodg'd at my house. I shall be happy to receive 
her orders respecting it, but if a good opportunity offers that I 
can depend upon I shall hazard the Box for Miss Peggy. 
Please make my best Compliments to Mrs. ChampHn and 
the young ladies. I am Sir Your Humble Servant, 

David Sears 
P. S. My CompHments to Mrs. Grant. 

1785 ] RHODEISLAND 249 

Caspar Voght and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Hambourgh, the 24th May, 1785. 

We have your much esteemed private Favor of the 5th 
April, together with 40 Crowns handed us by Captain Green 
which we shall convert in our Money as high as possible 
and procure the desired set of blue and white China with the 
most careful Choice, sending it packed up in Box by the 
Brigs Return, all according to your Directions. We shall 
at the same time in the best adapted Manner satisfy to 
your Intents relating to the Article of Callicoes, which indeed 
from this Market deserves much Reflexion for your Parts. 
Good Pistol Powder we can allso procure you with the best 
Conveniency; the superior kind of it rates at 34 R [ix dollars], 
per cwt., equalling about 6j L sterling for 100 wt. Allmost 
every European Article excepted English Manufactures and 
the products of the Southern Countries of Europe, will 
answer with you from hence, and we hope with the greatest 
Reason our Intercourse to become consequent and useful. 
Your kind Confidence enlivens out utmost Aims for cor- 
responding to it and we shall be happy in cultivating your 
worthy Friendship by all Means possible. We remain with 
perfect Esteem, Sir, Your most obedient humble Servants 

Caspar Voght and Co. 

Caspar Voght and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

AND Co. 

Hamburgh, the 24th May, 1785. 


Your Brig Richmond, Captain John Green, safely arrived 
here the 21st instant. Ship and Cargo in perfect good Estate. 
It is with the greatest pleasure we red your much esteemed 
favours of the 5th April, observing that by Recommendation 
of Mr. Soderstrom, to whom we are highly obliged for this 
Token of Friendship, you pleased to consign us Captain 

250 COMMERCE OF [ 1785 

Green's Cargo of 116 Hgshds, best Virginia Tobacco, to- 
gether with Two Thousand Spanish Silver Dollars; ordering 
Returns by the Vessel as per Memorandum, of which we 
take due Note. The Captain allready handed us the 2000 
Dollars, which we shall make Cash of to the best of your 
Advantage and we are now discharging the Tobacco, in 
Order readily to dispose of it at the highest Price the Quality 
will bear; being sound and superior it won't fail to turn 
profitably, as this Article is allways a very current one and 
this Market the best for it in Europe, but very much depends 
on good and fine Quality. You will see by the Current in- 
closed how each kind stands in price, said Current allso 
contains your Southern Productions, together with the 
Prices of Linnen Wares and other Details for your Govern- 
ment. The Prices of Teas generally have much raised since 
about Six Months, there being no where abundance and 
continual Purchases made by the English E. I. Company 
pushing it up at every part: Common good Quality of 
Bohea Tea now is paid i6| to 17 Sh. of our Currency which 
equals about 16/ sterhng a li; the prices at Gothenburgh 
stand in the same proportion, You may depend on our 
acting for the best of your Interest with regard to this 
Article as well as to all those of your Demand, giving a Dis- 
patch to the Business as ready as possible. We shall exactly 
advise you of the succeeding. We hope in full Assurance, 
this Trial will turn so as to induce you to a lasting and 
consequent Continuance. We dare say your Concerns will 
be managed by our Hands to the greatest Advantage 
possible, and all our Endeavours shall tend to deserve your 
worthy Friendship and Confidence the more and more. 

We are with great Truth and Esteem, Gentlemen, Your 
most obedient humble Servants, 

Caspar Voght and Co. 

1785] rhode island 25i 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 24th May, 1785. 


I wrote you the 3d ulto. adviseing the arrival of the Ship 
Belle Captain Sheffieldat Newry Part of her Cargo address'd 
to me by your Good selfe and Messes. Casey Son and Green 
I brought round here, some I disposed of at Newry at 75/. 
and the remainder I sent into the inland parts of the Country 
to be disposed of when I get the sales and remittances shall 
furnish you sales of your flaxseed, it was latterly so dull 
owing to the arrival together of several vessels from America 
that the price fell at Newry to £3.2.6 and here to £3.10. I 
last year inform'd you that this was the earliest market 
in the Kingdom and that what came early had in general 
sold much better then that which came in late. My friends 
Messrs. Jenkins and Gelston of New Hudson experienced 
this in a small cargo I sold of theirs in March and early in 
April having averaged above £4.6 per Hhd. Whereas yours 
will not reach £3.16. I fear but cant yet tell untill I get 
the sales from the Country. Your Seed was not near so 
well cleaned as Mr. Gibbs's, and let me particularly recom- 
mend it to you to pay more attention to this Matter, as 
the Clean Seed always commands not only a prefFerence in 
the Sale but often 2/. per Hhd more then the other, this was 
experienced this year in a most astonishing degree, the 
Dutch Seed that seldom sold for more then 10/ per Hhd more 
then the America, this year fetch'd £5 and £5.15 per Hhd 
when yours would only sell for £3.15 to £4. and many of the 
Country Farmers preferd the Dutch even at this high price 
as they had last year more then i /3d more of Good Flax from 
a Hhd that Seed then they had from the America, this 
should make your People exert themselves to send it as well 
cleand as possible to Market. 

No doubt Mrs. Haly's Attorney advised my having 
already remitted him your Accounts £255.3. ^^id as fast as 
I come in Cash depend it shall be remitted to London. 

252 COMMERCE OF [ 1785 

When I went to Newry I had several of your F:seed 
Casks measured with those of Messrs. Casey Son and 
Green's and realy found theirs as large as yours, so that no 
surcharge of freight could be made against you, tho' let me 
tell you the long flat bulge Casks the Country People are 
not fond of buying immagining they do not contain the 
Quantity of 7 Bushels, and the Round bulge Casks they 
always prefFer. the more they are made so the better, as 
the people here being more used to the New York and 
Philadelphia made Hhds which are all round or high bulged, 
they preff'er them, reffering you to my next I remain, 
Gentlemen, Your most humble Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

Exchange on London 8| per Ct. and was lately up at 9 per Ct. 
[Endorsed,] via N. York. New York Aug. 10. 1785, received under Cover and 
forwarded by Gentlemen Y. M. H. S. 

Nicholas Low. 

Caspar Voght and Co. to Christopher Champlin and Co. 

Hamburg, the 3d June, 1785. 


Since our above gone in triplicate by way of London, 
we sold your Spanish Dollars at 27 & 11/ banco per Mark 
fine silver, for which as per inclosed account sales your ac- 
count is credited with B'co Mks. 5674. — . — . 

We unloaded your 116 Hhds Tobacco whose quality 
unluckely disapointed our eager wishes to give you satis- 
factory Account sales of them. We hoped to see fine, heavy, 
sweet-scented Virginia, that would readily have sold 6 pence 
sterl. per li. and we found it to be most comon Tobacco, not 
cured at all, quite green and smelling like Grass. We 
showed it to Capt. Green, who can tell you that at the same 
time we showed him Tobacco that sells from 5 to 6d here, 
and proved to him yours to be inferior to any common 
Tobacco in town. So as it was no higher price then 3I/. 
could possibly be obtained for this Cargo; we consulted 
Capt. Green, who advised us to sell, as the expected arival 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 253 

of some other Cargo still would lessen the small prospect 
of a better market. 

In consequence we concluded the Sale as per inclosed 
Account for which we credit you with B'co Mks. 
16680.15. — . 

Give us leave to tell you that we think you were very ill 
served by your Corespondents in Virginia, who certainly 
never should have admited such Tobacco to be charged for 
your account. 

We think it our duty to make you observe how unprofitable 
it is to send to this, or indeed to any other Port in Europe, 
comon sorts of tobacco, since the charges and expenses upon 
good and bad are nearly the same, and the difference in the 
proceeds so very material. 

Your 116 Hhds. have neated ab't ii£stg. per Hhd. 
if they had been of a tolerable good quality they would 
have sold at least 5/. and neated i'j£ sterl. and you would 
have got in return for £800 Sterl. more Goods. Please to 
add to this reflection, that in Virginia the difference of the 
best and common quality is at most 10 shl. currency per 
hundred weight and makes no more then 2 or 3£ stg. per 

We wish therefore that if you find any inducement to 
continue your expeditions to our port, you might always 
chose the best quality possible, and then we make bold to 
assure you of an advantageous sale. 

Rice from Charlestown is a very good article with us. 
it's present price here at 16M per Cwt. makes good 18 sh'l 
Sterl. The prime Cost at Charlestown now is 11 to 12s 

All kind of furrs are equaly a very valuable article, and 
sell readily according to quality from 10 to 30 per Ct. Profit; 
the only unsaleable article are Deerskins, which you must 
avoid sending. 

Another material observation in regard to expeditions 
to our port is that in order to meet a quick dispatch the 
Vessel must not draw more then 12 feet water; for in the 
contrary case, the unloading and loading part of the Cargo 

254 COMMERCE OF [1785 

30 Miles from hence makes aditional expences and ocasions 
great loss of time. 

You must farther never venture a Ship hither when you 
cannot calculate its arival before the 15th October, for from 
medio November till the Month of March our River is froze 
up, and a Ship ariving later then at the mentioned 15th 
Octob. runs great risk to freeze in here, and lose 6 Months 
time at prodigeous Expences. This being the most impor- 
tant points relating to importation here, we now have to 
give you the necessary Explanations about our exportings 

Being desirous to make up by the quickness of dispatch, 
the bad price of your Tobacco, we used all our endeavours 
to get the Cargo ready, and we are happy to tell you that 
this moment all the Goods are on board of the Vessell, and 
that she may sail with the first easterly wind. You'll see 
the particulars by the inclosed Invoice for the amount of 
of which your account is debited B'coM 21253.13. 

The proceeds of the Tobacco falling so much short of your 
expectations and even of ours too, by its inferior quality, 
we have been obliged to make a proportional diminution 
on several articles of the returns, in doing which we hope to 
have met with your approbation. 

We supressed ten Chests of Teas, because the price at i6d 
is 3(i higher then you expected. The immense wants of the 
english East india Company, since the smugling trade has 
been so efFectualy destroyed, are the cause of this rise; but 
it is thought that on the arival of their first large suplies, 
and the first returns of the french and Spanish E. I. Com- 
panys, which will be in 15 months hence. Tea will be as low 
as ever, and then possibly Tea bohea may be had again at 
a shiUing Sterling. 

Rushia duck is indeed very cheap at this moment, and we 
hope you'll be well satisfied with the parcel you receive. 

We would not stick to the black mark, as there are but 
two sorts of this mark in town, one too cours and one too 
fine for your purpose. The best manufactures of all is 
Gotcharoffs and of the blue mark; the prices this moment 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 255 

is 36 Mks., with all the rest this mark signifies nothing as 
there are of every color good and bad qualities. 

We sent you only 20 Reels of Ropeyarn, not being quite 
sure if it is exactly the quality and the price you intended. 

The Ravensduck and Tecklenburgs are of a regular price, 
we expect to hear from you, if the quality of the latter did 
answer, or if you want them of a coarser or finer sort equaly 
to be had. The hemp is not dear now, and there is a more 
comon quality called Outschott which is to be had at 45M. 
The Iron you will find assorted according to your order. 

The Chalets and Creas are dear this year. You may 
expect a diminution of 10 per Ct. probably next year upon 
this article and every other kind of Silesia linnens. 

With the Diaper and Tablecloths we wish to have en- 
countered your taste; it will be easier the second time, 
when your observations upon the Invoice can point out 
more exactly to us the very thing you would wish to 

Besides the Articles contained in our Invoice, all other 
kinds of Linnens, Calicoes, coarse Cloth, and our very 
cheap bohemia Glassware, may deserve your attention, and 
it may perhaps not be amiss to make a tryal with them the 
first time your ship comes here again. 

The Port Charges of Capt. Greens Ship have been Mks 
626.9. Current money, according to the inclosed Copy of 
the Brokers note. 

Your Tobacco is sold at 3 Months time, and will hardly 
be paid before 4 or 5 months hence; all our purchases for 
you are ready money, we thus remain in some months 
disburse for about the Sum of B'co Mks. 17000, for which 
we charge you only i per Ct. Interest with B' co Mks. 170, 
and we doubt not but you'll find it reasonable. 

All these Sums are brought in your account current in- 
closed the ballance of which you will find on foot of this not 
being able to state it before we know exactly how much 
Capt. Green will want. 

There is now nothing more left, then to express to you 
Gentlemen our earnest wish, that we may have been happy 

256 COMMERCE OF [^7^5 

enough to give you Satisfaction, and so do honor to the 

recommendation of our mutual friend Mr. Soderstrom. We 

[Remainder of letter missing.] 

Caspar Voght and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

[Hamburg] the 3cl June, 1785. 

Captain Green is now ready to sail, so you must own 
we have made all possible dispatch. It merely now depends 
upon on easterly wind that he may fall down our River, and 
then we wish him a prosperous voyage. The cargo we dare 
say you'll find quite to your liking and satisfactory, since we 
endeavoured to pick and chuse all of the best. 

As to your own private Commission, we are sorry it has 
not been in our power to give you content; the blue and 
white China being entirely out of fashion here and no demand 
for it it has been impossible to compleat your order so as to 
match, therefore by Capt. Greens advice we left it unexe- 
cuted alltogether, and in lieu of it send you, for the amount 
of the 40 Crowns, 5 pieces of choice Chintz and Calicoes, in a 
Box markd C C of all which the Account inclosed. 

You will also find in the same Box a parcel of Samples of 
this kind, of which you'll have the measures at foot; however 
its possible, that when you send us your orders for a particu- 
lar pattern, not a piece of it may be left, but then it allways 
may be matched as near as practicable, and very likely more 
elegant, for we change our patterns here every six months, 
and great pains are taken allways to bring them to greater 

We shall be very happy if this first tryal with Capt. 
Greens cargo encourages you to enlarge the business this way, 
and be an inducement to estabhsh a Lasting correspondence 
between us of consequence, and to our mutual advantage. 
We shall not fail at all times to use our utmost endeavours 
to contribute towards it as much as in our power, and make 
matters as easy as possible. A pitty it is your Tobacco did 
not prove of better quahty, then if that had been the case, 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 257 

all would have been well; henceforward you must never 
send such thrash to our market. Superior good Tobacco 
will allways fetch a good price here, and somewhat more than 
either in London or Amsterdam but yours is all green and of 
a bad smell, so that we have been very glad to get rid of it 
at that rate. 

Your new Brigg will be very welcome to us, and you may 
depend that upon all occasions we shall consider your 
Interest as our own, and act accordingly, being very sincerely. 
Sir, Your most obedient humble Servants. 

The Width and Length of the Pieces of Callicoes is allways 
the same and just so as the five pieces you receive per Capt. 
Green, the prices from i to 4.5 shillings sterl. our Ell. We 
shall be very happy to see you become a large Customer for 
this comodity as our Manufacturs do exceedingly well and 
are the cheapest in Europe — but even for that same reason 
they can and do not give long Credits and must be paid 
ready Money or in 4 weeks time. We expect your further 
orders by your Brig and remain very sincerely, Sir, Your 
most obedient humble Servant, 

Benjamin Peirce to Samuel Fowler and Son 

Gottenburg, June 8th, 1785. 


I ARRIVED at Marstrand yesterday after a passage of 47 
days bad weather, the Vessel appears strong but my sails 

258 COMMERCE OF [ 178S 

are in very bad order. As to Markets here I can say but 
little not having had time to inform myself. Bohea Tea 
sold at i^d Sterling per lb. at the salesi. there is no duck at 
Market, Iron £12:10 per Ton. have Liberty to land rny 
rum but there is no demand for it. shall do every thing in 
my power. I expect to proceed to Copenhagen in 3 days 
where I am inform'd Tea is scarce but can't learn the price. 
Rice is 21S Stlg. per Cwt. Tobacco ^.d Stlg. per lb. I shall 
write in a few days more particular. Shall give all the 
dispatch possible. I am, Gentlemen, Servant, 

B. Peirce 

Benjamin Peirce to C. Champlin, Samuel Fowler 
AND Son, and George Champlin 

Copenhagen, June 20th, 1785. 


I WROTE you from Sweeden of the State of the Markets 
there which I imagine has prepared your minds for dis- 
agreeable inteligence. I also wrote you at Elsinore that I 
had sold 25 Hhds Rum at Marstrand for 2/3 Sterling per 
Gal. and 19 Casks of Rice for 8 Stivers per H., that I was 
bound to this place with the remainder, where I find Rice 
at 20/ Stlg per Cwt. and Rum i/io per Gal. loaded with 
every imposition that the Genious of the people are capable 
of. there is not 20 Chests of Bohea tea in Copenhagen of 
the last years importation, the last was sold for 1/8 per 
li. Stlg. Iron is £14 Stlg per Ton Russia Duck 40/ to 48/ 
Stlg per piece. Ravens Duck 25/ to 30/ per piece, Hemp 28£ 
to 30 per ton. 

They have four India men arrived within the last week 
and their Cargoes are to be sold the 27th of August but think 
the Tea's will go high as the Swedes India men did not arrive 
at Canton the last year and one of the Danes fail'd. 

Upon enquiry I found Messrs. J. J. Frolich and Comp'y 
to be one of the best Houses in this place and have valued 
myself upon them. Mr. FroHch has petition'd the India 
Comp'y for the Tea we want but the result God knows, if 

1785 ] RHODEISLAND 259 

I shou'd be obliged to wait the Charter of the Vessel with 
other expences will ruin my Voyage, if the Tea shou'd sell 
for 1/6 per li which is the lowest price thought of here, except 
Tea shou'd rise in America, if it shou'd rise (which I think 
is probable as one of our India men fails) and I shou'd return 
without I shou'd be liabel to censure. I shall determine 
as soon as we know the result of the petition and inform 
you by first conveyance if I stay, if I shou'd determine to 
come without the tea I shall sail in 20 days. Capt. Gardner 
has not arrived. I am Gentlemen in a disagreeable Situa- 
tion. Your Obedient Servant, 

Ben Peirce 

June 2 1 St. P. S. Since the above have some faint 
hopes of obtaining the Tea. shall take the greater part of 
the Iron from Sweeden as it is lower in price and of a better 
quality. I have a bad inflamation in my right hand which I 
am afFraid will prevent my writing in a few days. I am as 

B. P. 

Eberhard Christo and [Koll?] to Benjamin Peirce 

' Libau in Courland, the i8th July, 1785. 

I AM much obligated to Mr. John Gabriel Hay of Dantzick 
for the particular Recommendation to your good selfs. 
Your Commands shall at all times be executed with due 
care and integrity beneficial to your Interest, untill I get 
the honour to be personally acquainted with your good 
self's: in order to make you an ample description of our 
Place and its Trade, I am going to reply [to] your most 
esteem'd favour of the ist instant. 

Respecting the Article of Tobacco I am not able to en- 
courage you to send any, because we don't know how to 
dispose our Tobacco in leaves, besides are largely supplied 
with ready cut Tobacco from Hambro' and Holland, but 
small blew or green CofFe beans you may send as much as you 
choose, as we can run the same of to advantage, concerning 

26o COMMERCE OF [ 1785 

the Other Spices as Rice, Indigo Tea Bohea etc. the Quan- 
tity ought not to exceed above Five thousand pound weight, 
to which you may add 6 per Ct. for duties. Relative our 
Weight 115 Hb. our weight render 100 Hb. at Hamburg and 
One Hundred Rixdollar our money ruling at present equal 
to 100 Rixdollar Hamburger Banco. The price per CofFe 
rules now 64 Rixd Alberts per Ship pound of 400 lib. Rice 
Rx 20 Alberts per Ship pound. Indigo Rixdollar 100 till 
200 per Ship pound. 

We exporte from hence all kind of Grains, Flaxes, Lineseed, 
Skins and Hemp, how the present Prices ruling now you'll 
be pleased to take notice of the inclosed Account Current 
of Prices for your Gouvernment. We have no material 
Trade with Sail, Cloth, it being sold after the rate of Rx 
7 a 10 a piece, according to the Quallity. Pass Hemp rules 
Rx 9 a 10 Alberts per Ship pound. The Duties upon these 
Articles are not above 6 per Cent. We have the Liberty to 
importe all kind of Merchandize as well as to exporte it. 
You may calculate our Port Charges at about 2/5 Rix- 
dollars Alberts upon a Last. 

When ever you are induced to make a tryal to our Port 
with a small Cargoe, you'll be pleased to import different 
kind of your produce by taking our Goods in return, in that 
case you'll be a Judge iiow it will answer. We make 11 
to 14 Feet water upon our Bar, according to what kind of 
weather, our Port being reckoned of one of best Harbour's 
in the whole Baltick. I conclude very Respectfully, Sir, 
Your most Obedient and Humble Servant, 

Eberhard Christo [and] Koll 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

Providence, 25 July, 1785. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor dated the 23rd inst. came to hand last even- 
ing. The money mentioned therein Mrs. Hayley requests 
you will be so good as to send to her here by some safe hand. 
The papers respecting the business in Chancery are inclosed 

1785 ] RHODEISLAND 261 

in a box M H No. i by the Mentor Captain Nichols lately 
arrived at New york directed to Mrs. Hayley to the care 
of Murray, Mumford and Bowen at New york. I am sorry 
to inform you the box has not yet come to hand. I have 
seen Murray this morning here and he informs me it is 
probable the Mentor will unload at Amboy in order to avoid 
a double impost duty which has just taken place at N. York. 
I shall write by the first opportunity to them about it. I 
beg you will be so good to do the same if any packet should 
happen to be going directly from Newport. 

I regret the more the delay of this box from your having 
so good an opportunity to return the papers by Crawford 
in Messrs. Russells Ship who is to sail on Thursday next. I 
hope it will come in time to save this conveyance, if you 
should receive it in time pray open it and take out your 
papers, and afterwards send it here to Mr. Nichols in Mrs. 
H's absence. 

Mrs. Hayley requests her Compliments to be presented 
to you Mrs. Champlin and all the family. She is not yet 
quite recovered from one of her most violent headacks. My 
Compliments also. I am. Dear Sir, Yours, 


Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 27th July, 1785. 


I BEG leave to refer you to my last of the 24th May advise- 
ing my having remited Mr. Alexander Champion of London 
your Account £255.3.10. Stg. 

Have now to hand you Sales of your 190 Hhds Flaxseed 
per the Ship Belle Capt. Sheffield neat proceeds £672.6.0. 
at your Credit in Account Current and tho' the Cash is 
not yet all rec'd yet have remited the Ballance of your 
Account Current this day as you'l see by the same which is 
now enclosed and which with the Sales on examining I hope 
will be found free from error. 

262 COMMERCEOF [ 1785 

I have charged no freight on your Seed, as I think your bill 
ladeing mentioned having been paid in Rhode Island and 
when I was at Newry in my hurry I gave up the same to 
Capt. Sheffield and paid him his Primage of ^^d per Hhd. 
but if you have not already done it you can pay the freight 
to Messrs. Casey and Son and Green, as Messrs. Casey and 
Co. and your Seed was mixed and in one Vessel the sales 
of the Whole were kept together and the averige setled in 
proportion. There is no aditional Charge to you on account 
of the Seed being consigned me at Newry. Indeed I am 
sorry the Sales did not turn out better, assure yourselves 
I did my utmost for your Interest therein as if it was my 
own that up the Country did badly, but I charged no com- 
mission on it. 

Our Harvest on account of the great drought we had in 
May June and part this month has been much injured as 
well as the Flax Crop, and I apprehend there will be little 
or none of the Seed saved so that I make no doubt this article 
will answer equaly as well the ensuing year, and if you ship 
any do it as early as you can and let the Casks be made 
like those of Newyork round bulged and not so long as 
yours, the people being so much more used to the Phila- 
delphia and Newyork casks they do not like those made in 
any other way, which I mention for your Goverment. 

There is no new duties laid on any articles of American 
products nor bounty given; good Barel Staves, square 
Oak timber, inch boat boards. Ashes and all other your 
products will do here, and if a glut of any should happen 
they can always be exported to another market, inclosed 
is an abstract of our Imports and Exports to and from your 
ports for your goverment, but how the prices of your prod- 
ucts may be, is impossible to determine at a future day, 
and let me reccommend what ever article you ship here 
let it be of the b[es]t kind, the Staves from your place are 
the worst I ever saw, not worth 40/ per thousand. I sold 
Newyork Staves in March last 50 M. and averiged £5.15., 
and Philadelphia which is still better at £6. and to £6.10 
per M. and they would now fetch £6. Square Oak timber 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 263 

£5. per ton the longer and larger the better, let it be well 
squared sound and clear of sap. Beaver Skins, Fox Skins 
and Deer Skins in the hair also do well, Tobacco very dull 
at 13 J per li and duty 10^, Rice also dull and little quantity 
gluts this market, the duty is 8/ per Ct. the other duty 
on your exports are very trifleing. Observe Barel Staves 
must be all white Oak, 30 inches long 5 @ 6 broad and at 
least half an inch thick on the small or fether edge and shaved 
as the Phila. Staves are that is the roughness taken off. a 
few large pipe Staves 7 inches broad and 2 thick would also 
do, and some broad thick Barel heading, but as free from 
Sap as possible and at least full half inch thick. 

Shiping Goods of an inferior quality does not answer. I 
am, Gent, Your mo: hu: Servt. 

Edw'd Forbes 

Fish Oil for Curriers and Lamps sell from 2/2 to 2/6 per 
call, there is not much Spermacitie sells here. I have a 
parcel and sells slow at 3/3 to 3/4 per Gallon, duty on 
Oil only 13/ per Ton. Ship Treenels, a Guinea to 40/m 
per thousand, as in quality. 


Lisbon, 23d August, 1785. 

Hitherto we have not had the pleasure of paying you our 
respects. We now take the Liberty to tender you an offer 
of our best Services, whenever you find it eligible to speculate 
to this place, simply assuring that we have it in our Power 
and have always made it our study to give every Satisfaction, 
of which a single Essay will convince you effectually, in 
case you should be unacquainted with the Character of our 
House. Your Fish is a very current article for this Market 
and generally meets a speedy Sale, as the consumption 
thereof is very great, the first Cargoes especially in fall 
and spring of the year will do well, the Price had govern'd 
here this Summer 4I to 5 Spanish Dollars per our Quintal 

264 COMMERCEOF [ 1785 

of 128 li. free from Board, but commonly in fall commands 
a higher Price. Our Crops of Grain have also this Year 
renderd but very poorly so that it may be expected our 
Prices will get up very soon. If you could therefore ship 
some Ind: Corn, or cause the same to be shipd or Wheat 
from any of the Southern States, as has been this Year 
frequently the case, we have no doubt but you would find 
your Account by it provided it arrives good conditiond and 
is laid in reasonable, the Wheat at farthest not higher then 
a Spanish Dollar, and the Indian Corn about ^ Dollar 
per Bushell with you on Board, however there is no stipu- 
lation as to a little more or less. Our Crop of Oil looks very 
promising, which may have some Influence on Staves, which 
have been a great Drug of late, the last good Pipe Staves 
from 55 to 56 inches we disposed of at 50^000 v.^ Barrel 
ditto may be quoted about 20^000 and Hogsheads 30^000 
V. per mil. Duties and Charges thereon are very high and 
amount from 30 to 35 per Ct. The Prices of our India 
Produce may be expected lower at the public Sales, which 
are now commencing of those Ships which are come in of 

We refer you for more particulars to the annexed Prices 
and at all times happy to render you or Friends agreeable 
Services. We subscribe -with great Respect, Sir, 

Late under the Firm of H. Cremervan Celler and Dohrman. 

1 Vellon 




Amsterdam 49 

London 65! 

Genoa 695 

Paris 438 

Lemons very scarce 3600 v. 1 per Box will be in Season 
Oranges out of Season J and lower 6/w or i Mth. hence. 

Lisbon White Wine per Pipe 70^000 v. 

Carcavella do. 8o$ooo 

Oil per Almud 2700 v. 

Salt per Moy 2800. 3200 v. 


good American Wheat 400 to 420 v. 
Indian Corn . . . 230. 260 v. 

per Alquer free from Board 
or clear of all Corn Market 
Charges which are from 50 to 
60 V. per Alquer. 

N. B. 2^ Alquer are computed to a Bushell, but we experience the Measure 
generally falls short from 2 to 3 per Ct. 

This Day we had the first pubHc Sales of Teas, from one 
of the Ships returnd of late, greatest part of which were 
rebought by the Proprietors at the following Prices vizt. 

Bohea Tea 200. 220 v. per li. 
















Pearl Tea 1600. 1700 v. 

these and all other 
India Goods have a 
" Drawback of 8 per Ct. 
on Exportation, if 
ship'd from the 
Lisbon River. 

Nankeens stand yet at 900. 960 v per Piece. 
Ginsang plenty here and dull Sales. Naval Stores the same. 
One Spanish Dollar 800 v. 

Premium for the Risk of Algereens to the Moorish Powers ij to 2 per Ct. and 
probably will be lower yet during Winter. 

[Endorsed,] favored by Capt. Wilson Jacobs. 

John Bulkeley and Son to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, the 14th October, 1785. 

We have now before us your esteemed favour of 22nd 
June, and glad to find you had received the Account Sales 

266 COMMERCEOF [ 1785 

of the Peggy's Cargo of Flour, as also your Account Current, 
which you have noted in our conformity. 

We have remitted the Rs. 46^004 that we were in Cash for 
your Account to your friend Mr. Alexander Champion of 
London at the Exchange of 65^^ per $ and ordered him to 
place the amount to your credit advising you thereof. We 
are very glad to see Congress was going to regulate Foreign 
Commerce and hope they will be able to settle a treaty with 
Portugal to mutual advantage.^ 

Our Market promises to support good prices for Wheat 
untill next Harvest and we believe the medium price will be 
about 440 per Alquer on board. 

Good dry Codfish sells at 4^200 to 4^400 per Quintal on 
board and we think 4^000 per Do. will be supported till 

The Truce between Spain and the Algerines is now at 
an end, so that our Coast will not be infested with their 
Cruisers and your Colours may now navigate to Portugal 
without any risk all which we mention for your government 
and remain, Sir, Your obedient Humble Servants 

John Bulkeley and Son 

[Endorsed,] Per Captain Power, Q. D. C. 

Caspar Voght and Company to Christopher Champlin 
AND Company 

-,. Hamburg, the i November, 1785. 


Since our last of the 22d June which together with the 
duplicates we hope are safely come to hand, we did not 
think it worth while to trouble you with any of our advices, 
but now having a direct oportunity per the George and Patty 
Washington^ we embrace the same to give you some notice 
of the present state of our market. 

With common Sorts of Tobacco, we are abundantly over- 
stockt, and is at 3/ in a manner unsaleable, and those of a 

1 The first treaty between the United States and Portugal was made in 1840. 

1785] RHODE ISLAND 267 

somewhat better quality go hard at 3^ to 4. None but best 
York River which would fetch 6| and fine yellow Maryland 
7/ are in demand, but none of them in town. 

Rice keeps up at 17 Mk which yields a reasonable profit. 
Whale oil and finns are chief articles at present, and would 
meet with an excellent market; if they could be provided 
at reasonable prices you would find it worth while to consign 
us such a Cargo. At all events we expect to see Captain 
Green here again soon, or at least early in the Spring, with 
a Cargo of some article or other, since we make no doubt 
but the Returns by him must have met your approbation. 
Should any thing have been amiss, it may be rectified in 
future, and your perscriptions shall be allways punctually 
obeyed, since we will every way strive to please you to the 
utmost in our power. 

In hopes of being soon favored with your commands, we 
referr to the inclosed Price current, by which you'll see 
Linnens are grown somewhat cheaper, and most sincerely 
remain, Sirs, Your most obedient humble Servants, 

Caspar Voght and Co. 

Christopher Champlin to Waugh 

Dear Mr, Waugh, ^^"^P""' November 3d, 1785. 

About two months past Mrs. Grant delivered me your 
letter inclosing your letter of Attorney, the want of which 
prevented my applying in behalf of Mr. Bells ^ Heirs for 
restoration of his Estate confiscated and sold by act of this 
State, having employed Council and inquired into Facts, 
find Mr. Bell is charged in the Libel filed by our State At- 
torney against his Estate in 1779, December, of having 
withdrawn himself from this Country after Hostilities were 
commenced at Lexington 1775, and joining the King of 
Great Britains Fleets and Armies, and levying War against 
this Country, and dying in arms against the same, which 
comes in the fullest Description under an Act made in 1777, 

' Richard Beale. Rhode Island Col. Rec. ix, 139. 

268 COMMERCEOF [ 1785 

by this State, of confiscation, added to which Mr. Bell's 
name is enroled in the journals of our Secretarys office as a 
Free Citizen of this State, and did use that Privilege by 
voting in our elections for our Civil officers, which effectually 
forecloses any Plea we can establish to make a British 
Subject of him. it therefore rests on the Clemency of our 
General Assembly, my Counsel having applyed without any 
hope, many others, whose Estates have been confiscated 
and sold, have applyed in vain, and no charge coud be 
exhibitted against them of being in arms against this Coun- 
try, this was my opinion two years ago when I wrote you 
to lay in your Claim, with others at London. Mr. Bells 
Heirs having lost their Fathers Estate from his being in 
arms for the King gives them the first Claim to His Majestys 
Favour. your Claim upon the line of justice can be sup- 
ported for £1200 Sterling being the sum it cost including 
repairs etc. If you require proof it can be sent. You say 
I am named in Mr. Bells Will as an Executor, this Country 
being independent places me in the line of Forreigner with 
respect to British Laws, of course incomparable to act. I 
therefore, hereby utterly refuse to accept the Trust and 
appointment of Executor as ordained by the last Will and 
Testament of John Bell Esquire late of Newport Rhode 
Island, in America Deceas'd, and renounce all pretention to 
the same, as Witness my hand and seal at Newport Rhode 
Island this third day of November A. D. 1785. 

Christopher Champlin 


Christopher Champlin and Samuel Fowler and Son 


Inclosed you have your Account Sales of 179 Hhds. of 
flaxseed consigned to us per the Ship Faithful Steward the 
Nt. Proceeds four hundred and thirty four pounds 1/6, 
ballanced by our remittance to Mr. Alexander Champion 
Atty to Mrs. Mary Hayley, as you directed, being four 

1785 ] RHODEISLAND 269 

hundred and four pounds fourteen shillings Brittish Money 
Ex, 97j per Ct. 

We apprehend on examination you will find the Sales 
equal to your expectation and in amount more than many 
who adventured in the trade this year and you have an 
advantage in the remittance of upwards of one per Ct. 

Our letters per the Stezvard being all lost when that vessel 
was wrecked near the Delaware, prevented your being earlier 
informd of these Sales or of the cause why you had not an 
immediate remittance as you required but the large importa- 
tion of flaxseed this season and the prospect in consequence 
of a low price in the market induced us to sell on Credit 
rather than run the chance of having the Seed lye over untill 
next year and we were right in our opinion as large quantitys 
are now on hand and in one House alone there is one thousand 
Hhds. belonging to some American Speculators, which they 
must feel and alltho you are remitted the whole amount we 
can assure you with great truth considerable outstanding 
Debts remain and which must remain for some time to come, 
therefore we flatter ourselves that you will approve of our 
conduct in as much as we have by giving time for the pay- 
ment been enabled to close the transaction we believe equal 
in point of amount to any Sales made here or in Ireland and 
we can assure you that the closing sales of many who coud 
not run oflF their parcels was as low as 38/ and some said to 
be lower, we cannot avoid remarking your measure and 
cask is smaller than the Philadelphia which proves highly 
injurious to yourselves, but your flaxseed stands well in 
repute and we recommend your attention to the foregoing 
circumstance. Flaxseed, white oak plank, large knees, 
keel pieces, or large lumber, pot and pearl ashes, a little 
spermacaeti oyl, and a few boxes of spermacaeti candles 
woud answer here; but never attempt Tobacco or Rum — 
the former is imported in large quantitys from Virginia, the 
quality of the latter will not aff'ord our high Duty and the 
risk otherways is too great and in point of export we fear it 
will not do in other markets. 

Shoud this transaction meet your approbation we shall 

270 COMMERCE OF [1785 

be satisfied and with an offer of our best services remain, 
Gentlemen, your most Humble Servants, 


Rob't Campble 

Streen Hill near Newtown Limavady, izd December, 1785. 
[Memo.] near London Derry. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 

Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 24th December, 1785. 


I LAST wrote you the 27th July handing Sales of your 
flaxseed per the Belle Captain Sheffield. By the Bearer 
Captain Haynes of the Happy-return, I received your favour 
of the 15th September and have duely noted its Contents, 
I forwarded your Letter inclosed to the Gentlemen near 
L: Derry who I hope has ere this forwarded your friends 
in London remittances for proceeds your f:seed. The 
Sale of this article in the Northern Ports was very late last 
Season oweing to the long drought, and probably it was that 
which occaisioned remittances not having been so soon made. 

I have got the inclosed Paper Printed for the information 
of my friends in America, and wish it may be usefull to you. 
Oak Bark will if sent of a Good Quality and the rough rind 
well paird off be an Article of considerable Consumption here 
and our Dublin Society have granted a Premium of twenty 
Shillings for the first One hundred Tons and Ten Shillings per 
Ton for the next first Eight Hundred Tons imported into this 
Kingdom, of which Information I wish you and your friends 
may avail yourselves off by sending some here as early in 
the Summer as you can, together with Pott Ashes of the 
first Quality and some first White Pearl ashes, with which 
and some Good Barel, Hhd and Pipe Staves a Vessel might 
be soon loaded in June or July next. Pot Ashes are an 
Article of great consumption here, as well as Staves. I 
remain Gentlemen Your most humble Servant 

Edward Forbes 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 271 

P. S. for your further Information I inclose you a printed 
paper relative the Bounty on Bark, there are few Men in 
Business here that can give their friends this information 
but having a friend at the Society I get the earhest Inteli- 
gence. Wishing you many happy returns of the Season, 
we have also a considerable Consumption for fish and Train 
Oil for Lighting Lamps and Curriers use and sells at 26 to 
£29 per Ton, fine White Spermacitie Oil is worth 3/ to 3/6 
per Gallon and hope next Winter there will be a good con- 
sumption for it. I sincerely wish you many happy returns 
of the season. 

Nathaniel Russell to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 21st January, 1786. 

Dear Sir, 

In consequence of your Letter and power of Attorney 
from Messrs. J. J. Frolich and Company I waited on Mr. 
Legare ^ and have received from him £100.9.6 which I have 
invested in a bill of Exchange drawn by Messrs. Vose and 
Graves on Messrs. Graves and Company at 60 days sight, 
payable Messrs. J. J. Frolich and Company, for 1028 
Guilders, exchange 10 Guilders 13 Stivers for one pound 
sterling, which is the rate of exchange fixed here, and 2 per 
Ct. Pem. as Accounts below. Mr. Legare returns the 
Ballance outstanding and says he will pay it when received, 
enclosed is a Letter from him to Messrs Frolich & Co. 

I am exceeding sorry that it will not be in my power to 
comply with your Request with respect to the shipping you 
80 bbls. Rice. I have not received one shilling on your 
Brother's Account, his Debt is due from the Estate of 
Wm. Stitt and General Green,^ neither of which have paid 
any thing, had not Stitt unfortunately died he would have 
paid me this year punctually, and now I shall receive only 
in proportion with the other bond Creditors which will be 

^ Samuel Legare. 

* Nathanael Greene, who had become security for the Mercantile house of 
Hunter and Banks, and remained embarrassed until his death in June, 1786. 

272 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

about £500 out of £2600 this year. General Green promised 
to pay punctually the ist January, but his affairs are so 
embarrassed that I am afraid I shall get but little from him 
this Crop, and bills cannot be negotiated on you at sixty 
days sight, my friends to the Eastward have given me 
orders to pay here four times as much as I shall receive this 
year. I am with great Regard, Dear Sir,^ 


Bill of Exchange 1028 Guilders at 10. G. 13 Stiv. is £96.10.7 

2 per Ct. prem 1.18.7 

Commissions for Receiving and Remitting 2.10.- 


By Cash of S. Legare £100.9.6 

Balance due N. R 9.8 100.19. 2 

Protheroe and Claxton to Christopher Champlin 

Bristol, 23d January, 1786. 


We are favored with yours of the ist November, enclosing 
an Order for a few Articles to be shipped you by the first 
opportunity, for New York, Boston or Philadelphia, at 
present there is none offering for either of those Ports, but 
whenever there is. We shall comply with your Orders, and 
attend very particularly to the directions you have given 
us. Numberless have been the Applications made to us 
to ship Goods to different parts of America, but hitherto 
we have declined executing a single Order, knowing the 
difficulty people there must labour under of making their 
Remittances, however well inclined they might be; but the 

^ He married, in 1788, Sarah Hopson. 

1786 ] RHODEISLAND 273 

knowledge we have of Mr. Wright, and the great regard we 
know he has for our Interest, will occasion our executing 
with much pleasure the Order you have sent us. The pre- 
mium of Insurance all through the last Year on American 
Bottoms was from three guineas and a half to Six Guineas 
per Cent.; on British Bottoms 2 per Cent.; much will depend 
on the knowledge the Underwriters have of the Vessell and 
Master, and whether many Captures have been made by the 
Algerines about the time we may want your Insurance made; 
but you may be assured that we shall take Care to get the 
premium full as low as it can be done in London, and it is 
possible we may be able to get it done at 3 Guineas per Cent., 
but we do not think it probable. 

We wish you had favored us with the Names of your 
Correspondents at the different Ports you have ordered us 
to ship your Goods to, as we do no Business with any House 
at either of the places you have mentioned, nor indeed at 
any Port in America, Our Market is at present rather 
bare of American Produce. At foot you have the Current 
Prices, And We remain, Sir, Your very obedient Servants 

Protheroe and Claxton 

Pot Ashes 18/ to 25/ per C Free 

Pearl Ashes 29/ to 32/ Do. 

Bees Wax £8 to £8.15 per C Duty 2i<^ per C. 

Pig Iron £5 to £7.10 Free 

Bar Do £16 to £17 Do. 

Carolina Indigo 2od to 5/ per C Do. 

Cod Oil. £22. Seal £26 to £30 1 Spermaceti £36 to £41 per Ton. If taken by 
Free if British Fishery. ... [ Natives and imported in British Bottoms, 
J Duty 9/10 4/5 per Ton. 

If in American Ships pays a Duty of 13/2 2/5 per Ton 

Sassafrass 7/ to 8/ per C Duty 4/4 4/5 per C. 

Tar 13/ to 14/ 1 per bbll i/. 3/8 per bbl 

Turpentine 10/ to 10/6/ per C. J 2/2 2/5 per C. 
Tobacco. . . igd. to zid. per C. Duty 1/3 per C. 

274 commerce of [ 1786 

Nathaniel Russell to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 6th March, 1786. 


Enclosed you have Messrs. Vose and Graves third bill 
of Exchange for 1028 Guilders and i Stiver in favor of Messrs. 
J. J. Frolich & Co. of Copenhagen on Messrs. Graves and 
Co. of Amsterdam at 60 days sight, the two first I forwarded 
you by Captain Hull. I would have sent you the 80 bbs. 
Rice by this opportunity, but could not sell a Bill of Ex- 
change on any Terms, and Rice cannot be bought at one 
days Credit, and no prospect of receiving a shilling on your 
Brothers account, the Legislature are now sitting and have 
continued to shut up the Courts until January next. I have 
not received £200 for all his Cargoe of Negroes and I see 
very little prospect of any payments, it will be out of my 
power to ship you any Rice. I am with Respect, Sir, Your 
most Obedient Servant, 

Nathaniel Russell 

Lane Son and Eraser to Christopher Champlin 

London, 30 March, 1786. 

Our Friend Geo. Gibbs Esqr. of your place has acted 
with so much integrity and punctuality in the course of his 
business with us and has shewn himself so extremely ready 
to do us any Service in his power that it is impossible for 
us to refuse putting up the Goods you have ordered from 
us, notwithstanding we have made a determination to Open 
no new account with any person in America that requires 
any Credit whatever and we actually wrote to Mr. Gibbs 
sometime ago to recommend no new person to us. Your 
Punctuality with the late Mr. Hayley's house we presume 
was equal to his with us, or he no doubt would not have 
written to us on the subject, if we find it so we shall think 
ourselves under obligations to him for it and look upon it as 
an additional mark of his Esteem. We have seen Mr. A. 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 275 

Champion, Jun'r. who confirms the whole of what you say 
and tells us he has since received some of the Money you 
speak of, so that the balance due from you to Mrs. Hayley 
is less than you quote and will no doubt be intirely settled 
in a few months, as we observe the Funds for that purpose 
are all of this side the Atlantic. Your Friend Mr. Forbes has 
also sent us word he shall remit us 5oo£ out of the proceeds 
of the Flax Seed consigned to him and you may depend we 
shall forward advice of the receipt of it as soon as it comes to 
hand, and we shall immediately put your order for Goods in 
hand and forward them to you via Boston or New York 
in an American bottom, and shall in other respects follow 
your directions as punctually as we can but do not think 
we shall effect the Insurance you order on them on the 
terms you mention but shall get it done as low as any one 
will who pays equal attention to the goodness of the persons 
who subscribe their policies, the Algerines have been very 
troublesome and continue so unless the United States will 
buy them off as all other powers are obligd to do that find 
it their Interest to keep well with them. 

We are very Respectfully, Sir, Your most humble Servants 

Lane Son and Fraser 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin, 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 19 April, 1786. 


I began the Sales of Flaxseed at £4.10 to £4.5 per hhd 
and had sold about one half the Quantity consigned me last 
week to my country Customers, when some Persons who 
had Seed consigned them, finding they were not selling so 
fast, or apprehending more would arrive, lowerd the price 
to 82/6 and down at £4, at which I have been selling some 
days and am now determind to stand rriy Ground, as our 
whole Import of Dutch and American is not more than 
6000 Hds which am certain we might have disposed of at 

276 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

£4.5, had not Gentlemen who had Seed from your Place, 
etc., been intimidated. For I am confident all thats im- 
ported will be wanted. Its astonishing the People give such 
a PrefFerance to the Dutch which keeps up at £5.2.6 to £5.5. 
here we dont sell above 800 or 1000 Hhds of it, but in the 
Ports of Derry, Newry, and Belfast, they have imported 
1 1000 Hhds from Rotterdam this Year which has been mostly 
all sold there before they began to buy the American Seed, 
the prices of which by my letters this days post was £4 per 
hhd at Derry and Newry, and at Belfast only 75/ per hhd 
when the Dutch was £5. indeed the Dutch Seed is much 
better cleand and a larger Grain than yours. I have the 
Pleasure to tell you that what you sent me was cleaned as 
well as any that came here and I hope you'll continue to do 
so, but I do not think its so well fannd as it might be. the 
running it thro' the Fann should be the last Operation as 
it takes out all the Dust and faulty Seeds, which is the 
Mode they pursue in New York and that Seed is remarkably 
well cleand. if you can do yours better^ it will make it 
command a prefFerance in the Market; I have dispatchd 
some your Seed to my friends at Drogheda and some into 
the inland Country about 50 Miles off, which I thought better 
than to let it go at £4. upon the whole I hope to hand you 
agreable Sales and you may both depend that your respective 
orders shall be duly complyd with in making Remittances as 
fast as I am in Cash for the Produce, indeed to support the 
Price was obliged to give two and three Months Credit for 
the greater Part of it but to safe good Men I think. I am 
very respectfully, Gent, Your most obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

I refFer you to the inclosd Printed Paper of our Imports 
and Exports which I had purposely printed for the use of 
my American friends, the directions if attended to will be 
serviceable and at all times of the Year you may thereby 
see how to assort a Cargo for this Market as all your products 
are saleable here. 

[Endorsed,! Per the Hope, Captain Gyles. 

1786 ] rhodeisland 277 

Agreement with Joseph Foster 

It is agreed on by, and between Richard Downing 
Jennings and Co. for and in behalf of William Green Esqr. 
Super Cargo of the Ship Hydra on the one part and Joseph 
Foster of the State of Mary Land on the other part, 
to wit. 

The said Joseph Foster engages to go on board the Ship 
Hydra and to take the command of the same in Quality of 
Captain and to manage, oversee and direct the said Ship 
during her residence in the West Indies, and from thence 
that is to say from one of the West India Islands as the said 
William Green, or some one acting for him shall direct, to 
conduct and navigate the same to the Port of New Port in 
Rhode Island with out any deviation from such Destination 
as by express orders for that purpose might be described 
but what is rendered necessary and unavoidable by stress 
of Weather, or any other of those accidents to which all 
adventures by Sea are exposed, and that he will faithfully 
and truly acquit himself of the Trust so reposed in him and 
the said Richard Downing Jennings and Co. acting for the 
said William Green, on their part do engage to pay the said 
Joseph Foster for and in consideration of such service to be 
performed by him, one hundred Spanish Dollars in Specie, 
and further to allow him on board the said Ship Hydra all 
the Room he might want or have occasion for under the 
Description of Privilege and do further engage that the said 
Ship shall sail wind, weather and unforseen accidents only 
accepted, from the West Indies, on or before the tenth day 
of June next ensuing, and that for all the time he the said 
Joseph Foster might by accident or any other unforeseen 
cause be detained on the said Ship beyond the sixth day of 
July next, he shall be allowed at the Rate of two Dollars per 
day always provided no new Agreement takes place between 
the Parties in the mean time and it is further agreed to allow 
the said Joseph Foster the usual and customary considera- 
tion of one dollar per day for his expences while in the West 

278 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

Anno. 1786. St. Eustatius May the fifth, this Agreement 
signed and interchangeably passed. 

Joseph Foster 
In presence of R. D. Jennings and Co 

RoBT. Hodge 

Jno. Cadell 

Orders to Captain Foster from William Green 

You are to proceed with the Ship Hydra under your com- 
mand direct to Newport, Rhode Island, where upon your 
arrival, you are to deliver her up to Christopher Champlin 
Esqr. her Owner, and on whose account and risk she is laden. 
You are to be extremely careful not to deviate from your 
route, under any pretence and to take the utmost care of all 
her Stores, of every denomination, which may be or are 
committed to you, and to deliver the same, with the Ship in 
good order. 

You receive herewith the Ships Sea letters of Navigation 
from the Honorable the Congress of the States, and her 
Register, which you are to deliver upon your arrival to Mr. 

And whereas a considerable article in the Ships Cargo is 
Salt petre, Which is as dangerous as common Salt in case of 
the Ships making any water, you are particularly advised 
to sound her Pumps every four hours, and to pump her out 
every watch, or four hours, that the cargo may not be Hable 
to damage. 

On your arrival at Newport it is understood that you see 
the Ship cleared of all running Rigging, Sails, Topmasts, 
Topsail and other yards, sparrs, boats, etc., etc., and every 
thing of the kind quality, and denomination of Stores, with 
which you are encharged, agreeable to the instructions you 
may receive from the aforesaid Christopher Champlin 
Esqr. before you quit her. 

Wishing you a good Voyage I remain. Sir, Your most 
humble Servant, 

or- L ivyr o^ W. Green, Supercargo 

St. Eustatius sth May, 86. > i' 6 

1786 ] rhodeisland 2/9 

Reuben Harvey to Christopher Champlin 

Cork, 17th May, 1786. 

Esteemed Friendy 

I DULY received thy very acceptable letter dated the 6th 
of December whereby I find that my advices respecting 
Flaxseed were too late for thee to fix on a Plan the past 
Season, which I am sorry for, as I believe Money wou'd 
have been made by Seed sent here from your Place. I sold 
500 to 600 hhds. this Spring at £4. to £4.8 per hhd., which 
I believe exceeded the prices at most of the Northern 
Markets; Have not yet heard how the Season closed in 
Dublin. We have none left here. When thou finds it 
convenient to ship a Cargoe to my adress I shall be willing 
to accommodate thee by accepting thy Bills as before 
mention'd, and am with regard Thy sincere Friend 

Reuben Harvey 

Staves are declined here in price owing to great quantitys lately landed from 
Philadelphia. Barrel Staves sell at £7.10 to £6. per M as in quality. Pearl and 
Potash 28/ to 30/ per Ct. Oak Timber £3.10 per Tun. Boat Boards 15/ per 100 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

St. Eustatius, May 20, 1786. 
Dear Sir, 

It is to be understood that the Condition on which this 
Consignment is made as to Commission; is, that it is not 
to exceed on the Sales Two and a half per Cent, and Two 
and a half per Cent, on the Receipts. 

That no part of the Goods is to be transported out of the 
place of your residence under any subordinate Consignment 
and not at all without the best Guarantee. 

That no longer Credit is to be given than Six months, and 
that not without an ample security being given for the 
accomplishment of the engagement. 

The Charges of Merchandize to be added to the foot of 
the Invoice. Whatever Articles they may consist of. 

As Trade is carried on now a days, I am sure that no 

280 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

Consignment will bear so great a Commission as five per 
Cent. Nor any purchases, that the United States can pro- 
duce, bear a Commission of five per Cent thereon. The 
American Merchant will soon feel himself under the necessity 
of conforming in this respect to the practice of Europe or he 
must give up his profession. The Terms I have already 
stated are those I have made here, with this Addition that 
the Commission of Two and a half includes all Storage, 
Porterage, boathire, etc. etc. and Terms which shall regulate 
my business not only in Newport but in every part of 

Wishing you health and Prosperity I remain. Dear Sir, 
Your most humble Servant, 

Will Green 

Bryan and Willcocks to Christopher Champlin 

Cork, 20 June, 1786. 


We are favored with your address by our friend Captain 
Aron Sheffield, and embrace this opportunity to make you a 
tender of our services; as no House in this place is more 
capable in all respects to serve their friends, we flatter our- 
selves that in all your Commands we will be able to give 
you Satisfaction. The prices of Lumber daily decline, we 
sold Philadelphia Barrel Staves three Months ago for £8 
to £8.15 per M. and are now selling a Cargo at £7 but we 
think they can't come much lower. Oak Timber, plank, and 
Boat boards, are very slow sale, at low prices. 

What Flaxseed we had this spring from Boston sold at 
saving prices, after paying Freight and Charges it neated 
69/ per Hhd. on an average; that from Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore, was not so well liked, and only neated 64/9 per 
Hhd : Good Wheat 26/ per Barrel of 2^ Ct. Wt. Prime 
James River Wrapper Tobacco 14J to i^^d per lb. Duty 
lod; Pot Ashes 28/ per Ct. for first Quality. Our Revenue 
OflScers seize vessels on the slightest appearances, you will 
do well to warn all Captains of your acquaintance coming 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 281 

this way, against selling any goods on the Coast or they will 
be seized as the Revenue Cruisers have a very sharp look 
out. We remain very respectfully, Sir, Your Obedient 

Bryan and Willcocks 

P. S. The dutch Flaxseed failing, this year will cause a 
great demand for yours. 

Thompson and Gordon to Christopher Champlin 

Newry, 14th July, 1786. 


We wrote to you last Season respecting flaxseed and your 
other exports, to which received no reply, yet expect the 
present wont be unacceptable, all the flaxseed that arrived 
here last year sold and averaged about £4. a hhd. of which 
our house sold above three thousand hhds. shoud you 
adventure next season hence, be assured of our attention to 
your Interest. 

Ashes and Oil as last quoted, and we advise your dennaging 
only with Barrell Staves, all other kinds of Lumber being, 
overdone here, of Linens plain and printed. Cotton and 
Linen mixed Corderoys, flannells, and other kinds of coarse 
Woolens with Sail Cloth, you can have cheaper here than in 
En[gland] and situated so contiguous to Liverpool can ship 
Salt and C[ ] thence at a mere trifling extra expence, 
all of these goods, we shall ship to the estimated amount of 
any Consignments you may make our house, by return 
of the vessell without waiting sales, or on arrival of such, 
shall advance Bills on London for half value and on event 
of Sales, remaining half. Flaxseed is an article that gen- 
erally proves a good remittance, by your ordering insurance 
thro us, it may be saved, by arrival of the property before such 
gets to hand, if you prefer a freight to loading on your own 
account, tis very likely we can get one of passengers and 
servants to some part of the Continent. We remain truly, 
Your Obedient Servants, 

Thompson and Gordon 

282 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

Silas Talbot^ to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 21st July, 1786. 


Messrs. Hews and Anthony called on me this day and 
made a demand of seventy Guineas on your account. I 
told them you must be very much mistaken and that I did 
not at any rate stand indebted to you in so large a some. 
Theirfore request you will recollect your agrement with me 
and give them orders accordingly. When I left Providence 
in consequence of a vile and wicked persecution and which 
was as unprovoked as it was cruel and malitious, I desird 
a friend of mine to pay you the mony at the time it should 
become due and I was not a Httle supprised to find by your 
letter this day that it was not dun, as I lodged the money 
with him for that purpose. I have wrote to him by this 
post and if you do not receive it in a fiew days plese to for- 
ward me a letter and the money shall be paid imediately 
say twenty guineas to your order. I have the honor to be, 
Sir, Your most obedient and most humble Servant, 

Silas Talbot 

Bartholomew Horace Burges to Christopher Champlin 

Ipswich, 5th August, 1786. 


Recommended by Lord Clive to the Court of Directors 
in London for an Establishment in the Honorable East 
India Company's Service abroad I went in the Northington 
to Fort William in Bengali, and remain'd in the Country 
7 or 8 years in which time I acquir'd a Fortune of 70,000 
pound Sterling, but my Fortunes fluctuating (without 
entering into any further Minutia) after having been at 
the Reduction of Pondicherry ^ on the Coast of Coromandel 
I return'd to Europe in the Valentine, and what I had was 

1 Silas Talbot (1751-1813), well known for his long and capable service in the 
American Navy. Towards the end of the War for Independence, he became in- 
volved in litigation over some prizes, and removed to Philadelphia. 

2 In 1778. 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 283 

lost in her on the Sark Rock in the Channel of England 
coming home, etc., etc., etc., and at present here I am; but 
finding the Country destitute of Cash and no Trade or open- 
ing for an Enterprising Genius and willing to try my luck 
in India again, and hearing that your Folks had left your 
Ship in Bengali, and that She had returned with Lascares 
to America I determined on writing to you on the occasion 
to know Gentlemen from you whether you will give me a 
Station on board your [ship] to India again. 

I can speak the Indostan Language as well as English and 
work a Ship in the Lascar Tongue. Can likewise Write 
Read and Speak the French currently having learnt it from 
Professors, and by a long residence in the Country have 
acquir'd a Local and Competent knowledge of India in 
general being acquainted both on the Mallabar Coast and 
the Bay of Bengali and been at most of the Settlements 
from the River Sinde down to Tillecherry and Ceylon and 
up to the Northward again to Chellagan, etc., etc. 

Should you think then I might be useful to you in your 
present undertaking, favor me with a Line by the Return 
of the Post and I will regulate my self accordingly having 
the pleasure to Remain Gentlemen, Your most Obedient 


p. S. Brought up to the Sea and having commanded 
Ships exclusive of his having learnt regularly Navigation, 
it may be presumd Mr. Burges is capable of a Station in 
an Indiaman. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 20th August, [1786.] 

I NOW am to acknowledge receipt of your sundry favors of 
the loth and 17th April and 29th May, the latter only came 
to hand a few days past, their respective contents have 
made due not of. 

284 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

I refer you to my letter this date to self and Mr. Samuel 
Fowler and Son handing Sales of the Flaxseed consigned me 
per the Ship Hope Captain Gyles for your one half Neat 
proceeds being £1611.6. i| you have Credit in the inclosed 
Account Current which is Ballanced by my remittance to 
Messrs. Protheroe and Claxton of Bristol, on examining 
whereof I hope it will be found free from Error and entered 
accordingly in your Books. Your bill to Captain Pierce 
was duly honored. 

I shall have no Objection to honor your bills for three or 
four hundred pounds Sterling at 40 days sight, on giving me 
orders to make insurance on the Flaxseed you intended to 
ship here. We have an insurance Company with a Capital 
of above One hundred and twenty thousand pounds Sterling 
who has manner of insurance on the like terms of the Royal 
Exchange insurance Co. in London and have made it for 
several Houses in America this spring and winter at 3I to 
3I per Ct. on American Ships without passes. It is usual 
to charge 1/2 per Ct. Common on eflPecting the insurances, 
as in London and Policies cost only 5/6J Irish in the Winter 
I really think there is very little risk of the Algerines, but 
its said there are many Renegadoes now in their Vessels of 
all Countries, so that for the small additional premium, its 
more adviseable to be covered against those Pirates, when 
there is Bills drawn on Europe for Property consigned it's 
usual to accompany them with Bills of ladeing that in case 
of loss the Acceptor may be enabled to recover the loss, in 
my joint letter you'l find a price current, the article of 
Bark if attended to will be a considerable object, having 
lately sold America Bark at £5 and it now would fetch 
£5.10 /or £6, so much is it liked, but it must be well dried 
and the outer rhind paired ofF. the consumption of 
Potashes is considerable in this place, but of Pearl ashes 
not near so much. I have a very large Parcel of white 
Pearls on hand, and little demanded. I am with the 
Greatest Respect and Esteem, Sir, Your most humble 

Edward Forbes 

1786] rhode island 285 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 20th August, 1786. 


I BEG leave to refer you to my last respects of the 19th 
April. Since none of your esteemed favors. 

Having got Sales from the Country of some Flaxseed sent 
there to sell, annexed you have Sales of that consigned me 
per the Hope Captain Gyles. Neat proceeds £3222.12.3 
the half of which being £1611.6.1^ is placed at the Credit 
of your respective accounts, youl see these Sales are reduced 
by the Robbery of an unfortunate man who had bought 25 
of them. The Statute has been taken out against him, but 
I do not think he will pay a Shilling in the pound whatever 
is received your respective Accounts shall receive Credit for 
the same, by accounts from the Country there is a most 
plentiful crop of all sorts of Grain, as well as of Flax and the 
Growers of it I am informed has not been able to save any of 
the seed, so that I make no doubt this article will turn out 
well the ensuing spring, referring you to the inclosed price 
current, I remain most Respectfully, Gent, Your most 
humble Servant, Edward Forbes 


I DO hereby certify to all whom it may Concern that the 
Gross Amount of the Ship Hydra s Cargo, from London in 
the Kingdom of Great Britain to Bengal and shipt by Wil- 
liam Robertson Esqr. of the said City, on the apparent 
account of Christopher Champlin Esqr. of Newport in the 
State of Rhode Island in North America, under a Consign- 
ment to Mr. William Green as Super Cargo, is Twenty one 
Thousand, Two hundred and Eighty six Pounds one shilling 
and seven pence halfpenny Sterling Money of Great Britain. 
Witness my hand in the State aforesaid this 23d day of 
August 1786. William Green ^ 

' From an account of disbursements on account of the Hydra, June-August, 1786, 
some interesting items may be drawn. Import duties on the cargo were paid at 

286 COMMERCE OF [ 1786 

Sailing Orders 

Having chartered the Brigantine Betsey whereof you are 
present Master at the Island of St. Eustatius to proceed in 
case I should think it fitting to this Port and from hence to 
any Port or Ports in Europe, if I should deem it inexpedient 
to discharge her here, and whereas I have determined that 
she should proceed on with the Cargo she has now on board 
to Ostend in Flanders, you are therefore with the first fair 
Wind to proceed with the said Brigantine from this Port to 
that at Ostend aforesaid. But having resolved for the 
better Security of the Cargo, and for the discharge thereof 
to its due Consignment, to put on board Mr. William 
Greene at this place as Super-Cargo, you are to take care in 
all things so long as the said William Greene shall remain on 
board in that Quality to obey him in all things, but more 
particular upon your arrival at the said Port of Ostend, and 
untill your final delivery of the Cargo. 

Upon your Arrival in the Downs you will please to write 
your Owner Mr William Robertson of London to acquaint 
him thereof, and take a Pilot on board to take charge of the 
Brigantine untill she shall safely be moored at her destined 
Port, where you are to wait on the house of Messrs. William 
Herries, George Keith and Co., where Mr. William Robert- 
son will lodge directions for your farther proceedings. 

Chris. Champlin 

Newport, Rhode Island, 23rd of August, 1786. 

I acknowledge the foregoing to be a Copy of my Instruc- 
tions receivd from Christopher [Champlin] Esquire. 

John Adamson 

Newport to the amount of £330.17.7, but the nature of the cargo was not stated. 
In addition duties of £11.18 were paid on pepper, arrack and shrub, valued at 
£474; and on salt petre of £187.10.0, which was reexported. Payment was made 
in the paper medium of the state, which then bore a discount of three for one. Fif- 
teen "China seamen" were paid wages at the rate of 25/ sterling a month, and the 
boatswain received wages of £4 sterling a month. 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 287 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 2 September, 1786. 


Above you have copy of what I had the Pleasure to write 
you the 20th ulto. it is with much Satisfaction I have now 
the pleasure to inform you that I have received advice from 
several Parts of the Kingdom and from my country friends 
that your flaxseed grew exceedingly well and in many Parts 
better than the Dutch and in general full as well so that I 
have no doubt of the American Seed being in as great demand 
here next Spring as ever it was known and I hope it will com- 
mand as good a price as the Dutch which since the Peace 
sold on an Average from 20/ to 30/ per hhd higher. I 
am, Gent. Your most humble Servant 

Edward Forbes 

[Endorsed] Per Happy Return, via Providence. 

Joseph Russell, Junior, to Christopher Champlin 

Boston, September 17th, 1786. 

I received your Favour of the nth Instant, am happy 
to hear your Goods came to hand in good order the several 
Letters which you inclosed I will forward per first opportu- 
nity. I have seen Captain Smith he tells me Captain Peirce 
had not arived at St. Petersburg, but had passed Elsenore 
before he came down,^ therefore you have no Letters, your 
Arrack I think will not sell here, the Pepper will fetch i /lo per 
li. by the Quantity, the Impost is only 2| per Cent, this 
Price can be obtained redely for the Quantity you mention, 
do you mean Perce should come to this Town with his hemp 
and Duck? the Cash might be had for the Hemp and Duck, 
if I knew that she would come I would prevent several of 

^A letter from Russell, dated October 2 states: "Captain Hodge tells us he 
[Peirce] was to sail in a day or two for Copenhagen, where he intended waiting for 
the India sales." 



[ 1786 

the Rope makers from purchasing elsewhare. Please to 
give me a Line and let me know if you shall want any seed 
at 6/ per Bushell. I am with due regard your assured 
Friend and Very Humble Servant 

Joseph Russell, Jun. 


HIPPED, in good Order and well-conditioned, JjvMurray, 
MuMFORD 6? BowEy, in and upon the good ©s^^^j^ called the 
^^;f^^ whereof is Mailer for the prefent Voyage 
^^ now riding at Anchor in the Harbour of iVtw- 
nd bound for v-^J^j^^jjiJ^k^ 

Being marked and numbered as per Margin, and are to be deliver^ in the^ y' 
like good Order and well-conditioned at the aforefaid Port of < — ^^jij-'^^^^^r^^r-^ 
'. — «.._-. (theDangeppf the Seas only excepted) yiXi\o/^ii^^^^~/^^j>,y/C^J^0/^ 
. Of to jC*^ Afligns, he of they paying Freight for faid Goods 

rith Primage andAverage accu^jomed. In Witnefa whereof the fakl 
»daftcr has figaed AU^-^ , Bills of Lading of the fame Tenor and Date, 


Maftcrl _^ ,, , 

one of which ^'C^ Bills being accomplilhed the other 

toftandVoid. ^^,7.*^" ^ 

Dated in L-^^^^^-^ ^^/^y^^^- 
Year of our Ikdxpendencs the L^^*'^^^^^:^ 

-and in the 


DeBauque Brothers to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 5 October, 1786. 

Sir : 

From a confidence in the recommandation of our par- 
ticular friend Mr. Francis Rotch we take the liberty to 
apprise you of our intention to send our large ship called 

1786 ] RHODEISLAND 289 

Le Dauphin under the command of Cap. William Haydon 
from this port to St. Ubes, there to load salt and from thence 
to proceed to Rhode Island, where on her safe arrival we 
desire to commit the cargo to your care to be sold to the 
best advantage and to request your assistance to Cap. 
Haydon in all such objects of his expedition as he may stand 
in need of. we shall give to said Captain our most particular 
directions in all things relating to the present undertaking 
amoung which will be to give you the earliest intelligence 
of his progress in the voyage before his arrival if possible, 
in order that you may be able to make such preparations 
for his reception and dispatch as the necessity of the voyage 
may require. This ship being destined for the Fishery in 
the greenland seas and wanting much preparation for that 
purpose, we have been induced to follow the advice of our 
friend before mentioned to send her to America as the least 
expensive mode of compleating what is wanted, and we 
rely much on the judgment and exertion of capt. Haydon 
with your kind assistance to effect in proper season every 
thing necessary for her intended expedition that may be 
wanted in America, we must therefore beg leave to refer 
you to the foot of this letter for an enumaration of the 
articles we may want, to be engaged only on condition of 
the safe arrival of the ship with you. 

Our house is a long established in Dunkirk and we trust 
your and our Friend Mr. Rotch will satisfy you that you 
are perfectly safe in whatever you may do for us in the 
reparation and outfit of Le Dauphin. 

We shall also add a price current of sundry articles the 
produce of America at our market, that if you or your 
friends should see a prospect of advantage in any consign- 
ments by return of our ship that you may have an oppor- 
tunity of benefitting by it. We shall be happy on all 
occasions to render your Service and are, Sir, Your obedient 
and most humble Servants, 

Brothers DeBauque 

Tobacco 3 to 3|j- per Pound ] 

Rice 15 to 16/ per Hundred. \ sterling Money. 

Potash 17 to 19/ per do. J 

290 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

2000 feet of three inch Oak plank for doubling the Ship under her wales. 

50 thousand good white oak staves of all sorts chiefly hogshead, and large 

staves thick. 
50 barrels, best Connecticut Pork. 
20 thousand feet cedar boat boards. 

timbers and kiels for 20 boats. 
2 Whale boats built in the best manner. 

20 thousand inch pine boards half eastern and half other kinds. 
5 thousand hogshead hoops in bundles. 
50 Barrels Cyder of the best quaUty. 

small spars assorted. 
50 Setts of best ash whale boat oars. 
ICX3 hoop Poles. 

10000 feet of best white oak plank from 2| to three inches. 
200 Bushels Indian Corn. 

100 bbls. tar \ .. , , , , 

, . , , > u to be had cheap. 

100 bbls. patch j ^ 

Agreement with Captain Jeremiah Clarke 

Whereas Captain Jeremiah Clarke having agreed to 
command the Ship Hydra on a Voyage from Newport to 
Ostend in Flanders and from thence to the India Seas — 
It is therefore understood and agreed too, that shoud any 
unforseeen Event take place after said Ships Arrival at 
Ostend or before whereby she does not proceed to India as 
intended, and the Agent at Ostend shoud discharge the 
Captain Officers, and Seamen from any further Service on 
board said Ship and not make Provision for employing them 
in any other Vessel for India in that case its understood that 
Captain Clarke shall be paid his full Wages up to the day 
of discharge with the addition of One hundred pounds 
Sterling as a Compensation for his Expences and return 
home without any further Claim upon said Ship or the Owner 
of her. 

It is also understood that Edward Dillingham Chief Mate 
of said Ship shall be paid his Wages that may be due to the 
day of his discharge at Ostend, or account for what may be 
overpaid, with the addition of Thirty Pounds Sterling as a 
Compensation for his Expences to return home etc. without 
any further Claim upon said Ship or her Owners. It is 
likewise understood that all the other officers and Searnen 


belonging to said Ship of every description shall be paid 
their Wages at Ostend to the day of their discharge with an 
addition of three Months Wages to each of them as a Com- 
pensation for their Expences to return home without having 
any further Claim upon said Ship or her Owners. 

Its further understood that neither the officers or the 
Seamen shall be entitled to any of the aforementiond Gratu- 
itys provided they quit the Service of said Ship at Ostend out 
of their own free will or Choice, or refuse to proceed in said 
Ship to India or some other Vessell that may be appointed 
for that Service to sail from Ostend under the Command of 
said Captain Clarke. 

It is furthermore agreed that Captain Clarke shall receive 
over and above his Wages four Shillings and Sixpence Sterling 
money per day during the Ships being in the Port of Ostend, 
to support his Pocket Expences. 

And its finally understood and agreed too that the Owners 
or Agents of said Ship shall not charge Captain Clarke or his 
Mate any Freight for whatever they have shipped on board 
the Hydra, to all which Christopher Champlin in behalf of 
the Owners or Agents for said Ship at Ostend, promises on 
his part shall be complyed with, and Captain Jeremiah 
Clarke on his part agrees to comply with and promises to 
carry into execution as far as lays in his power as respecting 
said Ship, all the aforesaid agreement of which. In Testimony 
each of us has at Newport Rhode Island this 6th day of 
October 1786. have affixed our hands, 

Chris : Champlin 
Jer'h Clark 

N. B. Its also understood that the Conditions upon 
which Captain Clarke is to perform the Voyage from Ostend 
to India in the Hydra, or any other Vessell appointed for 
that purpose, are to be settled between him and William 
Greene Esqr. before his departure from Ostend. 

Chris Champlin 
Jer'h Clark 

292 commerce of [ 1786 

DeBauque Brothers to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkerque, 9 8ber, 1786. 


We have the honour to forward the inclosed our letter of 
the 5th Inst, since having received advices from St. Ubes 
that Salt was very scarce there, we have determined to fitt 
out the Dauphin directly to your port, and have loaded on 
board of her the following goods according to the annexed 
bill of Loading : 

15CX) pounds clean Hemp. 
25,000 do. second sort. 
24,200 do. Iron by assortiment. 
3,000 do. or there about Cordages. 

of which goods, all insured, we beg the favour of your utmost 
care for the best disposal : the proceeds of which you'll 
be so kind as to apply to the repairs of our vessell and cargo 
back. We have the honour to be, Sir : Your most obedient 

Brothers DeBauque 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 9th October, 1786. 

Dear Sir, 

My Friends Messrs. DeBauques of this Town having 
bought the Ship United States, that was Mrs. Hayley's, 
and meaning to repair her in order to go into the Greenland 
Fishery, I have advised them to send her to America for 
that purpose. They have given the Command of her to 
Captain William Haydon and at my recommendation she 
goes to your address. You will receive from them a small 
quantity of Hemp and Iron which is to be sold and the 
proceeds applied to the repairs and Cargo back. If it should 
not be sufficient, or if Captain Haydon should be short of 
money, either your or his draft on Messes. DeBauques 
freres here made payable in Paris you may be sure will be 

1786 ] RHODEISLAND 293 

punctually paid. The Exchange between London and 
Paris is almost as much above par in Paris as 'tis in America 
or at least from 5 to 6 per Cent and sometimes more just as 
the fluctuations are. If a premium of 8 per cent can be 
obtained by drawing on them payable in London there will 
be no objection to it in that way. the time it will take for 
the Bills to come here, to be accepted and sent back to 
London is but one week in the ordinary course of Post, it 
will not be worth their while to pay in London at a less 
premium. I mention this for your government knowing 
you like to have all matters of business made clear. The 
article of Hemp has risen in London to the enormous price 
of £35 Sterling per ton and is still rising. The exportation 
from Russia has failed in quantity five thousand tons this 
year so that Hemp must inevitably be very high till the 
next years exportation. I know not from what cause this 
has happened but I understand the fact is so. 

In regard to the repairing and fitting the ship for her 
intended purpose Captain Haydon I believe is well 
acquainted with the usual method in such cases and his 
activity I have no doubt will be shewn in a manner adequate 
to the occasion. The time allowed him to stay abroad is 
very short and should you find a difficulty in providing a 
return Cargo of Lumber in season for him to leave America 
by the middle of January it will not do for him to wait for 
it. If by any unforeseen accident we should be deprived 
of the services of Captain Haydon I must recommend it to 
you to give the earliest notice of it to my Brother William 
Rotch at Nantucket if he should arrive safe otherwise to 
his sons or to the former Captain of this Ship Benjamin 
Hussey requesting them to provide a suitable Captain and 
men for the Fishery if possible in time to save the season 
for Greenland, should any accident happen to the ship of 
consequence enough to make an application to the Under- 
writers you will be so good to have the vouchers well ar- 
ranged authenticated and sent by two conveyances to 
Messrs. Alexander and Benjamin Champion New Lloyds 
London who are the Agents of my Friends Messrs. 

294 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

DeBauques and who have done the Insurance on Ship and 
Cargo to the amount of £3500, say £2500 on Ship and £1000 
on Cargo in the office of the London Assurance Company, 
these Gentlemen or rather this Company are rather particular 
in respect to vouchers either for an average or loss. I 
mention this only as a trait of their Character well knowing 
it is not necessary to be mentioned to you in any other light. 
Captain Haydon's time after his arrival at Rhodeisland will 
most likely be much taken up in seeking and collecting such 
men as will best answer his purpose, the burthen of the 
repairs, etc. I fear will fall heavier upon you from this cause 
than it otherwise would do. I would recommend as the 
first step to heave the ship out as soon as possible to examine 
her bottom and if necessary nail the Sheathing over again 
and to get her upon her legs again as soon as can be in order 
for the doubling and other strengthnings to go on. this 
I fear will be the most difficult part of the business, it being 
absolutely necessary she should be kept afloat and by no 
means suff'ered to touch the ground upon her side. I have 
no doubt that every possible care will be taken according to 
circumstances. I shall have the pleasure of writing to you 
again soon, in the mean time, I am Dear Sir, with my 
best Compliments to Mrs. Champlin the young Ladies and 
Gentleman your Sincere Friend and obedient Servant, 


I have put on board Captain Haydon 12 Westphalia 
Hams and 20 doz. of Burgundy which I wish may be divided 
into four parts one of which I beg you to keep, two to be 
sent to Mrs. Jeffrey without her knowing of their coming 
from me and the other at the disposal of Captain Haydon. 
pray write to Messrs. DeBauques freres here by all oppor- 
tunities advising them of the progress from time to time 
you make with the Ship and inclose any Letter you may have 
for me to them. 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 295 

Lane Son and Fraser to Christopher Champlin 

London, the 16 October, 1786. 


Your favor of the 28th July is before us, note the contents 
and are sorry to find the Legislature of your State had 
pass'd a Law which would infallibly hurt the credit of it. 
it was a wise measure in you in preventing your Goods from 
being sent to Newport whilst the Paper Money was circulat- 
ing, in the mean time we thank you for your kind promise 
of sending us a Remittance by way of Ireland and remain 
Respectfully, Sir, Your most humble Servants 

Lane Son and Fraser 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

I shall not detain your patience with any dull detail of 
the length and nature of my passage here. It was lucky I 
came, my affairs requiring very much my presence to keep 
them in order. What think you of a public sale here, of a 
part of the goods I sent home in a schooner from St. Eustatia 
having taken place, so very irregular and unprofitably, as, 
tho all bear the same comparative value, some of them were 
sold at a loss of Twenty per Cent, while others retain a 
profit of Forty on the first price. By the first price I must 
be supposed to mean the Calcutta price, without any Charge 
of freight or Insurance etc. 

I am hourly impatient for the arrival of the Hydra, the 
season for her outfit approaches fast. I am not yet however 
absolutely bent on sending her, in case a plan of association 
for the Voyage, with some others, which I have now upon the 
tapis does not take place. 

I have since paid my Compliments to all my friends in 
London, and have since brought some of them here to render 
the time light and easy while I am away from my family. 

Pray make my Compliments to your good Lady, and my 
charming Cousins, and I beg you will make a thousand 

296 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

efforts to remit as much as possible to Mr. Wilkinson early 
in the spring. I am much prest to accomplish my engage- 
ments and rely on your doing every thing in your power to 
assist me. 

I mean to write you again soon. I cannot be particular 
just now, but as the South West winds prevail much at this 
Season and the packets are sometimes detained here a 
fortnight, I send this off, that it may be certain of reaching 
you by the November packet. 

Continue to believe me always faithfully yours, 

yvV<rj/fyLAA.^i^>^^~^'^^'^^ /i^-y-'tMX^tx^ 

Ostend, the 19th October, '86. 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

London, ist November, 1786. 

Dear Sir, 

My last Letter to you was dated the loth of last month 
by Captain Wm. Haydon in Le Dauphin who sailed the day 
after from Dunkirk Roads for Rhode island to your address 
with a small parcel of Hemp and some Iron and a few Cur- 
rants. My friends at Dunkirk have at my recommendation 
sent this Ship to you to be doubled and otherwise prepared 
for an expedition to Greenland. Should Captain Haydon 
not arrive no notice is to be taken or provision made on 
this account, if he comes to you safe he is possessed of all 
necessary instructions for the purpose, which aided by your 
kind assistance I have not the smallest doubt will fully 
answer the expectations of his Owners, dispatch is the most 
essential point to be aimed at, and to gain this point I am 
sure no time will be lost or exertion be wanting. 

1786 ] RHODEISLAND 297 

Hemp has risen very much here, the price is not less than 
£36 Stg per Ton and is still rising. 

I must beg the favor of you to forward the inclosed Letters, 
one to my Brother at Nantucket and the other to Captain 
Haydon wherever he may be, if he should not arrive safe 
pray return it to me here, there is nothing new here except 
a Commercial treaty with France, which will not take place 
before it comes under the consideration of Parliament. I 
hope it may lead to a treaty with America but I see no 
ground for such a hope in the disposition of the present 
Administration of this Country. I beg Mrs. Champlin's 
and the young Ladies to accept my best Compliments and 
you to believe me your sincere friend and obedient Servant, ^ 

F. RoTCH ,.-J^ 

John Collier to Samuel Fowler and Son 

November the 2d, 1786. 


You together with Mr. Christopher Champlin, I give my 
Respects to, and am to acquaint you. Gentlemen, that I 
have been lately made many Offers for my Flaxseed, but as 
Gratitude always obliges every thinking person to be sacred 
to their Word the same Obligation takes hold of me Gentle- 
men towards you, and therefore am willing to let you know 
that I have been offer'd Seven Shilling and Six pence Sterling 
deliver'd at my House from the Liver Pool Vessel that went 
up the River for Providence the last Week past, and also 
have been ofFerd Seven and Six pence from Captain Sheffield 
who trades from Connecticutt to New Yorke. [Ho]wever 
Gentlemen you will let me know the most you will give 
taking the Seed at my House and makeing prompt payment 
therefor the Bearer Mr. Nathan Tucker will receive your 
Answer for me. Which is all from. Gentlemen, Your most 
Obedient and Humble Servant 

John Collier 

298 COMMERCE OF [1786 

Harrison G. Otis and Thomas English to 
Christopher Champlin 

Boston, November 8, 1786. 

I PRESUME upon my acquaintance with you to request 
your attention to a power of attorny forwarded you herewith. 
The Circumstances which give Rise to it are the following : 
Mr. Geoghegan charter'd a vessell, the Sloop Friendship, 
belonging to Ebenezer Smith of Taunton; she was to be 
subject to Geoghegan's orders, and saild for the West Indies, 
Geoghegan and Smith being on Board. Smith contrary 
to Geoghegan's Command carried the Vessell into Eustatia, 
and afterwards ran away with her and Cargo leaving the 
Freighter on Shore, who has not yet been able to detect the 
Villain. Should he put in to Newport or Providence I shall 
place much dependence on your kind attention to employ 
some Gentleman of the law, (Mr. Channing is mention'd) 
and to have him arrested, and his Vessell detaind, untill 
you can give me Intelligence, at which time you shall be 
furnish'd with all the Documents and powers relative to the 
transaction. The Cargo is valuable, to the amount of £500 
or £600, besides the Damages and Expences undergone in 
pursuing the fugitive. The Lawyer you employ may think 
proper to commence an action for "mony had and receiv'd," 
merely to detain him untill further and more precise measures 
may be adopted. I have the honor to be. Sir, Your most 
obedient Servant Harrison G. Otis 

You will please to keep the matter, as much within your 
own Breast [as] possible. Perhaps an AppHcation to the 
naval Officer might ensure success. 


Thro' the Introduction of Mr. Otis (in the absence of 
Lowell,) I take the liberty to request your friendly attention 
to the inclos'd Power of Attorney. Shou'd Smith or his 
Vessell fall in your way I shall immediately forward you 
full Powers and every necessary paper relative to this trans- 

1786] RHODE ISLAND 299 

action, in the Interim remain with CompHments to your 
Son and Daughter, Your most obedient Servant 

Tho. English 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir: 

I HAVE very little to add to my Letter by the October 
packet, except the expression of my wishes for your health 
and happiness and that the good Citizens of Rhode Island 
may have come to a sense of their interest which they were 
murdering at so cruel a rate when I left you. 

I must press you for a remittance to Mr. Wilkinson in the 
spring in order to support effectually my Credit. I hope 
my goods will come to a good sale in particular the Chintzes, 
as Cottons since the conclusion of the Commercial Treaty 
with France have risen in the white Fifty per Cent., the 
coarsest white Manchester Cottons which formerly sold, 
and indeed sold four months since at i^^d per yard, having 
risen to 2od. Cotton is at four shillings the pound. 

I beg my Compliments to Christo., and the Ladies and 
am, Dear Sir, Yours most faithfully 

Will Green 

London, 17 November, '86. 

Joseph Russell, Junior, to Christopher Champlin 

Boston, November 26th, 1786. 


I received your Favour of the 23d Instant, give you 
Joye on the arival of Captain Peirce, hope he has made you a 
good Voyage, the Muslins and Hyson Tea are not yet sold, 
they complain of the formers being to great a Price and the 
latter I do not think is of so good a Quality as is now selling 
in Boston, but hope to get the Tea of some how or other the 
Muslins I wish your Direction respecting, Mrs. Jones has 
not taken any — Mr. Jones think them too extravigant for 
the times. Please to give my best respects to your amiable 
Family in which Mrs. Russell joins and likewise that good 

300 COMMERCEOF [ 1786 

Mrs. Green comes in for my good wishes and believe me to 
be with Sentiments of Esteem your assured Friend and Very 
Humble Servant Jos. Russell. Jun. 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

London, 6 December, 1786. 
Dear Sir, 

I hope Le Dauphin Captain Haydon belonging to my 
Friends Messrs. DeBauques is 'ere this safe arrived with 
you and that she will meet with every possible dispatch 
back again. My Friends have requested me to communi- 
cate to you and Captain Haydon whatever may occur to 
me as being benefitial to their Interest, but I know of nothing 
material which has not been written by them or me by 
Captain Haydon and since by the November packet. I 
fear his passage has been long, two ships bound to Halifax 
and Newfoundland have been obliged to return to England 
after being at sea 10 and 11 weeks without being able to 
gain their passage and a ship is also lately arrived from 
Philadelphia in 25 days, other ships have been obliged to 
lay too with strong westerly winds in coming this way. 
these accounts alarm me not only for Le Dauphin, but for 
my Brother William Rotch and his son who left England on 
the 14th of October in the Penelope Captain Mores for Boston 
and I am much afraid must have had a distressing passage. 
I shall be glad to hear any account of these ships from you. 

I am sorry to find things in America proceeding so rapidly 
to a state of Confusion, whatever may be the event I hope my 
Friends may be among the least sufferers. Pray give my 
Complements to Captain Haydon and inform him I have 
received Mr. Vignerons money of Mrs. Williams at Dunkirk 
which I beg of him to account with Mr. Vigneron for. the 
sum I think was 58 Crowns but my papers being at Dunkirk 
I am not sure, both Captain Haydon and Mr. Vigneron 
know. I shall be obliged to you to forward the inclosed 
to my Brother at Nantucket. . . . 

Your sincere friend and obedient Servant, 

F. Rotch 

1787] rhode island 3oi 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

I HAVE received your Favor dated the 14 of November, 
and give its contents every needful attention; 

What Mr. Jennings says requires great allowances, nor 
shall I even pay the smallest attention to the sense of that 
House, where their Interest is concerned when it militates 
with my own Judgement. 

You will think my demurring against Newport as a Depot 
for any sort of Merchandize, extreemly natural, so long as 
by our present Laws, the late paper emission shall continue 
to be a legal tender in payment of Debts, or discharge of 
obligations of any kind. However I will give your Proposi- 
tion due attention in the mean time. At present I have 
thought it is true, of withdrawing part of my Goods from 
St. Eustatias to Wilmington on the Delaware, which is a 
free port and consigning a small parcel for sale to Phila- 
delphia, and I beg you will lodge there for me under cover 
to Mr. Thomas Fitzsimons an exact account of my Sales, 
and remains as far down as you have made any, and let me 
know the probabilities conserning your Sales of the remain- 
der, and if there is any Chance of having Newport made a 
free Port. 

I dont think the Prices you mention for Bandannas, any 
encouragement for Importation, as at the East-India Com- 
pany's Sales in December, they sold of a similar quality for 
Thirty Shillings; 

I beg my Compliments and Regards to Mrs. C. and my 
young Friends, and desire you be persuaded of the Regard 
and Esteem of. Dear Sir, Your most Humble Servant. 

W. Green 

London, 24 January, 1787. 

P. S. I would have you sell the Hyson if you can get 
6/6 sterling per pound. 

302 COMMERCE OF I 17^7 

William and Jno. P. Jones to Christopher Champlin 


Your favour of the i8th we have before us and in reply- 
thereto just observe that as our Wilham Jones has very 
latly been both at N. York and Boston we are sufficiently 
acquainted with the state of Hemp and know the quantity 
at Market as well as the demand for it, and you may rest 
assured Sir that we can yet obtain it at £45 and under; 
but calculating the difference of freight etc. it will bring 
yours to £46 per ton almost which is our ultimate and we 
will furnish you what melasses we have at ijd taking the 
amount in Hemp now and for the ballance of what Hemp 
you mention particularly as you urge the falling of the 
Melasses we should chuse it might remain at our Option 
when we take the Hemp either to pay you in Melasses at 
i6d or the Cash, probably we may make up sufficient for 
two tons now and the other by the time you mention we 
beg you will be kind enough to let us know by the first con- 
veyance if you agree to these terms as we shall purchase 
other ways if we do not contract with you. We are Sir 
very respectfully Your Humble Servants 

William and Jno. P. Jones 

Providence, January 24th, 1787. 

Nathaniel Russell to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 12th February, 1787. 

I rec'd your favor of the 28th December and am sorry to 
tell you I have not received one shilling from Stitts or 
General Greene's Estates this year, the former has sent about 
60 barrels of Rice to market but not any of it has come into 
my hands, the person who has the Administration of that 
Estate in his hands has been a long time sick, it was for 
some time expected he would die, but am informed he is 
getting better, if he had died I should have again taken 
the Administration and would have immediately sold the 
Negroes and not subjected myself to any further disappoint- 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 303 

ment. I am in expectation of receiving a payment and when 
I do I will remit your Brothers proportion of it. I cannot 
give you any information with respect to General Greene's 
Estate her Brother is in Georgia but do not know what he 
is doing. I do not learn that any part of the Debts have 
been paid nor what they mean to do with the Estate. I 
am very Respectfully, Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Nath'l Russell 

DeBauque Brothers to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 27 February, 1787. 


Your very esteemed of the 30 Xber last came us to hand 
on the 18. Inst, by which we see the arrival of the Ship Le 
Dauphin, in a very wrecked condition by a tedious passage 
and continual gales of wind which hurted the vessell in all 
points. We hope that you shall have been soo kind as to 
have the necessary protests dressed to make the Insurance 
Compagny liable to pay if it happen to be the case: we 
further observe what you are pleased to mention concern- 
ing the prices of hemp and Iron, as the first article has 
extraordinary advanced in Russia and in London being now 
at 38 lb. Ster. per ton, we hope that the prices shall equally 
increase at your market and that you shall be able to render 
pleasant accounts. 

Having considered the state of Le Dauphin you describe, 
and your further observations, we think it more adviseable 
to request you to forego all the expenses of doubling and 
preparing the Ship for Greenland but to repair her as much 
as may be necessary of her damage particularly if it was 
received by the breaking in of the Sea upon her or in any 
extraordinary way so as to make the Insurance Compagny 
liable to pay otherwise the most Economy must be used in 
every kind of repair; when they are finished captain Haydon 
must proceed to the most convenient port, and load the 
Ship with all kind of staves particularly of that kind which 
are the cheapest and return as soon as possible to Dunkirk. 

304 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

we hope that the proceeds of the Iron and hemp shall be 
sufficient to pay the repairs and procure the necessary quan- 
tity of Staves. 

You'll be so obliging as to keep us exactly advised of every 
deviation that may take place from the old project by any 
new arrangement in order to keep up the validity of the 
Insurance with the Compagny. We are respectfully, Sir: 

/a^^TtS^X/ . ^e^^yV 

A^fc/^w-e^^^e^ ^e^^v^'Lyty^v'yS^ 

'^T/yir?j -<X^/^^:Z^^. 


Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

London, ist March, 1787. 

Dear Sir, 

I HAVE received your Letter giving an Account of the 
arrival of Captain Haydon and the awkward circumstances 
the Ship is in. The Object of his expedition so far as relates 
to the Voyage to Greenland this Season being defeated; it 
will require consideration how far it will be proper to proceed 
upon the original Instructions given to Captain Haydon and 

I have recommended it to my Friends Messrs. DeBauques, 
to forego all the intended preparations for Greenland for 
the present; and you will receive their Directions to this 
purpose: but all other Repairs necessary to put the ship in a 
proper State to return may go on, and when compleated, 
I know it will be their wish and directions for you to provide 
no other part of the Cargo already order'd, but such articles 
as shall be decidedly cheap with you, but that the ship may 
not return empty, Captain Haydon will receive Orders to 
proceed to the best port for White Oak Staves, there to fill 
up with all kinds of this article, giving a preference to that 
sort which are cheapest; provided there is not too great an 
inferiority in the Quality: should the consideration of what 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 305 

port may be best direct your Attention to Virginia, it is 
possible to guard against a Disappointment in some Degree 
by taking on board Tobacco on Freight for the Farmers 
General in France; which may be an Object not unworthy 
your attention. I do not mean positively to direct it but 
to leave it at your Discretion and the Captains only request- 
ing in a very particular manner that whatever port the ship 
proceeds to or whatever Deviation may take place from the 
original Instructions may be made known to my Friends 
Messrs. DeBauques at Dunkirk and Messrs. Alexander 
and Benjamin Champion in London in order that everything 
may be perfectly understood by the Company of Insurers 
on this Ship in proper Season. I have met with an Accident 
which deprives me at present of the [use of m]y right Hand 
in writing, a Friend is so obliging as to write this for me 
to which I shall subscribe and very truly, Dear Sir, Your 
sincere Friend and obedient Servant, 


Pray inform Capt. Haydon I have received his Letter and 
approve much of his consulting with my Brother in all such 
matters as are not attended to in this Letter. -^ 

[Endorsed,] Per Mary, Capt. Barnard. 

DeBauque Brothers to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 6th March, 1787. 

Above Copy of what we had the honour to write you the 
27th past forwarded by the ship Mary Captain Barnard 
bound from London to Boston; we have nothing to add, but 
to desire you to be soo kind as to employ all means if neces- 
sary to procure to the ship Dauphin a freight of tobacco for 
Europe on account of the french Farmers and in the event 
of success, or what ever deviation may take place from the 
original instruction we may directly be informed of it in 
order that every thing should perfectly be understood by 
the Company of Insurers on said ship in proper Season: we 

306 COMMERCE OF [ 1787 

have the Honour to be, Gentlemen, Your most obedient 

Brothers DeBauque 

[Endorsed,] London 8 March 1787, received and forwarded by, Sir, Your most 
obedient Servant, Alex. Champion Jun. 

Hewes and Anthony to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 9th, March 1787. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favor of the 28th ultimo came safe to hand, with the 
Arrack and Schrub agreable to Invoice, we lament you did 
not consult us before you ship'd them, because we think 
we never shall be able to dispose of them for a price that 
will give Satisfaction, or near it, and we are unhappy when 
we receive such a consignment. Old Cogniac Brandy (of 
which we have plenty and cheap) makes such an excellent 
substitute, they seldom make use of Arrack, We know 
a quantity of the best kind, in Casks of 20 Gallons each, that 
has been two years in this City, which the Gentleman offers 
at 12/6, and can get no offer, and the Schrub is never 
made use of, when fruit can be got, which in time of Peace 
is plenty enough, therefore upon the best information we 
can get, you will be under the necessity of ordering them 
back or to some more promising Market. 

Inclos'd you have Invoice of the Flour and wine, both 
which we think excellent, we give you a price current, and 
remain your Obedient Humble Servants, 

J. Hewes and Anthony 

Brothers DeBauque to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 20 March, 1787. 

Gentlemen : 

We beg leave to refer to our precedent Letters dated 
the 27th past and 6th instant : we have only to add that in 
case the proceeds of the goods ship'd per the Dauphin should 
balance her repairs, our intentions are always that you 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 307 

should be soo kind as to fill her up with hhds. and pipes 
staves at the cheapest price possible to draw the amount of 
your advances on us paiable in London : in case her whole 
cargo can be procured in such kind of staves as mentionned, 
the greatest share in hhds. sort and at low rate, we think it 
more convenient to load her entirely for our account than 
to take any freight, to which success, several deviations to 
the original policy should be indispensable : we rely on all 
your care and hope that you shall favour us with your exact 
advises, that we may timely be informed of your further 
transactions. We have the honour to be, Gentlemen : 
Your most obedient Servants 

Brothers DeBauque 

Nathaniel Russell to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 5th April, 1787. 

Enclosed you have Invoice and bill Lading of 25 bbl. Rice 
on board the Sloop Rainbow John Bissell Master for Newport 
on Account of Capt. Robt. Champlin amounting to £106.10.9 
which is £50 more than I have rec'd on his Account. Gen- 
eral Greene's Estate has not paid a shilling nor I do not know 
when it will and I have only received 70 Barrels of Rice from 
Stitts Estate out of £2600 Stlg. The Legislature have 
passed a Law obliging Debtors to pay their Debts by three 
installments, the first third part in March '88 the next in 
March '89 the remainder in March '90, and at the same time 
prohibited the importation of Negroes for three years. I 
am very apprehensive your Brother will not get any thing 
more this Crop, but should I unexpectedly receive any thing 
further I will remit by first opportunity. I am with Respect, 
Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Nath'l Russell 

Your Rice is marked W No. 25 to 49. 

308 commerce of [ 1787 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 5th April, 1787, 


I BEG leave to refer you to my last of the 27th February 
per Ship to Philadelphia under covers of Messrs. Hews and 
Anthony adviseing of the progress I had then made in the 
sale of your Flaxseed, since which received your favour of 
the 24th January with Bill Lading for 200 Hhds and 6 
barels F[lax] Seed per the Fame Captain Sheffield who 
arrived here safe the 8th ulto. Altho you observe I have a 
larger quantity of seed addressed me this season yet it has 
been my good fortune to have disposed of more than any 
other House here, and had I had treble the quantity I could 
have sold them with equal facility, and no more remains in 
my warehouses than about 160 Hhds and 96 of them belongs 
to your Neighbour Mr. Handy remainder yours and other 
friends so that you need not fear of any of yours remaining 
over year, as I am certain from my country connexions I need 
never fear of having any left on my hands. If I sell as others 
do as I can command a prefFerence from many good Country 
Customers provided the seed is good, and I could have sold 
every grain I have yesterday if I had taken 3£, the price 
others were selling at, but held off selling in hopes of geting 
£3.2.6, but the arrival last night of a Brig from London with 
650 Hhds will now oblige me to sell for 60s and I have reason 
to expect a Vessel from Hudson (formerly Cleverack) a port 
in the north river. Upon the arrival of Captain Sheffield 
I proposed to Mr. Norris to send her to Londonderry but 
the accounts he had from thence did not incourage him to 
agree with me in sending her there, however I thought it 
for your Interest to ship 125 Hhds of yours to Sligo a port 
that has usually been supplied from Derry and hope it will 
do well, have also at Drogheda 195I Hhds. when the 
sale begins there, which will be next week, I shall go there to 
sell it among my Customers there and its vicinity where 
I hope it will do as well as here, if it should not, as I have 

1787 J RHODE ISLAND 309 

done it purely for your Interest I hope you'l not censure me 
as it is your good I have in view. By the unfortunate acci- 
dent which happened to the Hope there were 85 Hhds much 
wet. however upon opening them and separateing the 
wet from the dry there were 63 of dry seed and the twenty 
two filled 25^ Hhds which I sold at ^2s per Cask payable in 
4 Months to one of our Oil Mills. Indeed what seed I have 
sold is payable 3 and 4 Months and it went at £3. to £3.5 per 
Hhd as by our PoHcys F[lax] Seed pays no averige under 5 
per Ct. I did not therefore sell the damaged at auction as 
is usualy done, but took with it the method I have mentioned 
by so doing I served you, or the underwriters if you are 
insured. I had the 85 Casks survey'd by Captain Rathbone 
and Mr. Norris that in case of need they can certifie it. the 
Protest Captain Gyles carries with him. there would not 
have been any [of] your Seed unsold, had it been as well 
cleaned as what I had from Providence, or what Captain 
Handy brought, which the Country people run upon in 
prefFerence : this circumstance should induce you to be 
exceedingly careful to have the Flaxseed well cleaned nor 
did yours look so bright, and upon enquiry I find the reason 
is, that you fann your Seed before you run it through the 
Bolt which is very rong, as the Fann should be the last 
operation, to this I request your attention, it is the 
method they practice in Newyork and it is the cleanest that 
comes here. I remain most respectfully, Gentlemen, Your 
Most Humble Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

P. S. Captain Gyles delivered a barrel more then was 
in his bill ladeing. 

My advices from Newry today is they continue selling 
there at 60/ and at Derry their Sales have not yet com- 
menced they however arrived there 10,400 Hhds which is 
1000 Hhds more then their annual sales tho have no doubt 
they will sell all as I am certain the Country will sow more 
this year by 4 or 5000 Hhds then they did the last. 

April 1 2th. All the Seed I had here is sold and on Satur- 

310 COMMERCE OF [ 1787 

day I go for to spend a few days in the Vicinity of Droghed 
when I shall attend to the sale of hats there. I am truely 

E. Forbes 

[Endorsed,] Per the Happy Return Captain Iring. 

Hewes and Anthony to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 9th April, 1787. 

Dear Sir^ 

Your esteemed favors of the 19th and 24th ultimo are 
to hand, when our People begin to drink Punch, we will 
try what can be done with the Arrack and Schrub, as yet 
we have no Encouragement. 

We have been with Mr. Morris respecting the ship, he 
will agree to load her with Tobacco, on the same Terms, he 
has taken up several others, vizt. 36 Livers per hhd Freight, 
and one Liver per hhd to the Captain in lieu of Primage, 
he has a large quantity of Tobacco ready in Virginnia and 
has no doubt of giving her immediate dispatch, tho he will 
not subject himself to pay Demurage, and you must allow 
thirty working days for the delivery of the Tobacco in 
France, if you conclude to send the ship, Mr. M. wishes 
to have the earliest Notice, and you must instruct the Cap- 
tain to call on Messrs. Harrison Nicolls & Co. at Portsmouth; 
for orders, it is probable she will load there, this being 
the needful we conclude Your Obedient Servants 

Hewes and Anthony 

Lanchon Freres et Ce. to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, 25th April, 1787. 


On the 20th December last we had the honor of addressing 
you by Circular in giving you the prices of our Market, 
which have varied but little since that time, except in the 
Articles of Teas and peper that have rais'd about 10 per Ct. 
the first of them, owing to one of the Company's Ships having 
missed last Year her Voyage to China, which will cause a 


less Quantity to arive this. And there has also arived less 
peper this year in Europe than was expected. 

Although we have since the above none of your esteem'd 
Letters, we will not let any Opportunity escape us whereby 
we can recall ourselves to your remembrance, and repeat 
that we are ever devoted to your and your friends Com- 
mands. In expectation of them we remain with dis- 
tinguished Sentiments of regard and respectfully, Sir, 

P. S. Should Captain Rathbone Commander of the 
Ship Mary, owned by George Gibbs Esqr. of your port, 
stay's a day or two longer we shall furnish you with fresh 
prices current. 

William Willcocks to Christopher Champlin 

Cork, 28th April, 1787. 


I REFER you to the Circular letter of my late Partnership, 
adviseing its dissolution, am about forming another, and my 
Son is to be one of the House, which he justly merits, from 
his long experience and attention, when finally agreed on, 
you shall be informed, in the interim I do business under 
my present firm, and will be extremely thankful for the favor 
of your Commands, which shall be attended to with all 
diligence, good Barrel Staves are worth £7 per M. a Cargo 
arrived to my late firm yesterday from Philadelphia, for 
which I expect that price, the same Vessel brought in about 
40 Tuns of Pitch, Tar and turpentine, which will be tedious 

312 COMMERCE OF [ 17^7 

in the sale. Flaxseed 58 to 60/ per hhd. first quality Pot- 
Ashes 30/ per Ct. Virginia Tobacco 13I to 15^ per lb. Deer 
skins about 15^, in little demand, and Oak Timber 60 to 
70/ per Tun, slow sale. I am respectfully. Sir, Your humble 

Will : Willcocks 

When I was in Dublin the begining of last Month, I had 
the pleasure of meeting Captain Sheffield, Captain Rathbone 
and other Gentlemen from your Neighborhood, at my good 
friend Mr. Edward Forbes'. 

Moses M. Hays to Christopher Champlin 

Boston, April 30th, 1787. 


Your favor of the 26th lays now before me. I have 
communicated its contents to the underwriters, who would 
sign a Policy were it now before them at 6 per cent, 
for the risque you mentioned on the Brig Elizabeth, and 
not under, and if nothing happens to alter their opinion, 
by the time I may here from you again the Premium will 
I suppose be the same, tho' underwriters never hold them- 
selves bound to write at any certain Premium unless the 
Policy is immediately filled up. I feel much for your situa- 
tion, respecting publick matters. Perhaps they may mend 
soon; We have no Paper money underwriters. No Business 
is done at the Treasury occasioned by the death of our late 
Treasurer.^ a new one is appointed, and Business will soon 
take place, when I shall be able to tell you, how your Interest 
on Consolidated notes can be obtained, I am with respect 
Your Hble Servant, 

M. M. Hays 

1 Thomas I vers was Treasurer of the Commonwealth in 1787 and Alexander 
Hodgdon in 1787-88. 

1787] rhode island 313 

Brothers DeBauque to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 8 May, 1787. 


We are favoured with your esteemed of loth March, since 
our last respects of the 20th do. to which we refer : we are 
sorry to observe the bad state of your Market for our hemp 
and iron, that it had not been in your power to command any 
Money for either; the Prices in Russia and through the whole 
Baltic are soo greatly advanced for the Hemp, that we have 
a great expectation to hear from you soon in much better 
terms, we desire the favour to clear that shipment with all 
speed : 

We have honoured your Draft for £120 St. and it shall 
timely be paid, the amount carried to your debit. 

We observe the Carpenters were to begin the Repair of 
the Dauphin, we shall be glad to receive your further 
advises concerning her situation and the Period you esteem 
the ship shall be ready to return : we are well persuaded that 
you shall care our interests as your own and we rely entirely 
on you for all the Particulars concerning that Matter, we 
are respectfully, Gentlemen : Your most obedient Servants, 

Brothers DeBauque 

Edward Forbes to Samuel Fowler and 
Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 15 May, 1787. 


To close a most unfortunate Concern in the Brig Fame, 
Aaron Sheffield, Master, (formerly the Queen of France) 
inclosed you have my Power of Attorney to dispose of my 
one fourth of her on arrival after discharging her Cargo from 
Copenhagen at Rhode Island, and in Conjunction with the 
other Owners in Rhode Island namely Mr. Welcome Arnold, 
Coll Samuel Ward and Samuel Vernon Junior, finally to 
settle all accounts with Captain Sheffield, and you'll be 
pleased to concur with the said Gentlemen in sending the 

314 COMMERCE OF [ 1787 

vessell to discharge at Providence or for sale there should 
they desire it, as I would wish her to be disposed of to the 
best advantage for the Benefit of all concernd. hitherto 
we have been unlucky in the Plans that have been pursued, 
and my not agreeing with them in the voyage they had 
proposed for her to Copenhagen has made the Business 
very unpleasant indeed, as you'll see by the inclosed Protest, 
the Copy of my letter to Mr. Ryberg, and the note sent Cap- 
tain Sheffield from Drogheda in reply to a letter he wrote 
me to that Place, you'll also please to receive from the other 
f Owners my Quarter of the Vessells freight from hence to 
Copenhagen, and thence to Rhode Island, which they must 
pay as they sent the vessell on said voyage without my 
Approbation. I askd Captain Sheffield what he thought it 
would be worth, who told me £6 Eng per ton for Hemp and 
in proportion for Iron, and the Gentlemen with you wrote 
me they thought she would carry 72 tons Hemp and about 
25 or 30 of Iron, however this Matter may be easily 
settled by two intelligent and indifferent Persons to be 
chosen by you and them, wishing for what is fair and just 
only, and all Matters settled in an amicable Manner if its 
possible. You'll likewise be pleased to adjust and settle 
with Captain Sheffield my account for the cost of the Ship, 
he not having furnished me with the Particulars thereof 
untill his arrival here this Voyage, having only given me 
the amount lump'd in the Account Current he furnished 
me, of which you have Copy herewith, together with the 
Account he produced me this Voyage from Messrs. Mason 
and Malbone. my reason with troubling you therewith is, 
that Mr. Arnold wrote me his reason for breaking with him 
for a vessell that he and Coll Ward had agreed for, was that 
he paid for the half of the Fame in dry Goods, and indeed 
Mr. Vernon in a letter I had lately from him informs me he 
thought she might have been purchased for £250 less had 
she been paid for in Cash, and I do presume this is agreable 
to the Practice with you as well as throughout all America, 
if it is so its but fair, that as my \ was drawn for in favor of 
his London correspondents, that I should be allowed a 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 315 

proportionable Part of what Profit he had on the dry Goods 
he gave Messrs. Mason and Malbone in Payment. I spoke 
to him on this Subject, and all the Satisfaction he gave me 
was that the Vessell would not have been purchased for less 
had the Money been paid for her, but into this I must request 
you'll be so good to enquire, and if Mr. Arnold and Mr. 
Vernon are right you'll please to oblige Captain Sheffield to 
make me a proper Allowance for the same, the Persons from 
whom she was bought would be proper to enquire of and 
Coll Ward. 

By the inclosed Copy of my Letter to Messrs. Arnold, 
Ward and Vernon you'll perceive the footing Captain Shef- 
field and I parted upon, the Morning of the day of the 
Protest being made say the 20th April, I told Captain 
Sheffield in presence of the Notary I would go to Drogheda 
that Evening, and requested he would determine where he 
would go to with the Vessell. his Answer was he would 
consult some Persons, the next day the 21st he protested 
against me for going out of town and not leaving any Letters 
for him, tho' the same day he wrote me to Drogheda that 
I should return as soon as possible that he might take the 
Opinion of two Persons where he should proceed to. his 
Behaviour to me obliged me to write him the Note I did from 
Drogheda, and on my Return to Dublin I told him I could 
have no Conversation with him but in Presence of a third 
Person, but he never afterwards came to speak to me, and 
sail'd without letting me know where he would proceed to 
which I afterwards found out was to Copenhagen, as you'll 
see by my Letter to Mr. N. Ryberg; sorry and concerned I 
am to have Occasion to trouble you on so very disagreeable a 
Business, but as I would do the same and more to serve you, I 
hope you'll act in this Affair for me as if it was your own, 
which will truly oblige, Gentlemen, Your most humble 

Edward Forbes 

I will send you next Opportunity the Copy of my letter 
to the other Owners if I have not time to do it now, to whom 

3l6 COMMERCE OF I ^7^7 

I have wrote that Captain Sheffield being purchased out I 
should hold my Concern in her with them, which you'll 
please to observe, for really Captain Sheffields Conduct has 
been such that it gives me pain to be forced to be explicit, 
and have no more Connection in ships with him, hopeing 
he will be more fortunate in his future Pursuits. 

Edward Forbes to Welcome Arnold, Samuel Ward 
AND Samuel Vernon, Junior 

Dublin, 15 May, 1787. 


I refer you to the Letter I wrote you the 2nd Ulto. with 
Copy of one of same date which I then intended to have 
sent per the Fame to Mr. Ryberg of Copenhagen, but did 
not, having, a few days previous to the Wind coming fair 
for either Captain Handy or Captain Sheffield to depart 
for that Place, received Information that Hemp was scarce 
at St. Petersburgh and advanced in Price, so that there 
was no Prospect of making a Freight for the Ship if she 
loaded this article for Dublin for Owners account, as was 
proposed by Captain Sheffield and mentioned to you in my 
said Letter, but on the contrary had the Appearance of 
leaving a loss to the concerned and the great Improbability 
from the same cause of being able to procure a freight for the 
Ship for any Port in Europe, determined me not to concur 
in sending her on the said proposed plan to St. Petersburgh 
from Copenhagen, provided Mr. Ryberg should not have 
loaded her. there were Letters from London to Captain 
Handy as well as to Captain Sheffield also informing of the 
Scarcity of Hemp at Copenhagen, and even if any could be 
got there it would be at such a high price as must have left 
a loss at Rhode Island, which with the Circumstance of 
Captain Sheffields informing me that he would not have 
wherewithal to pay for so much goods as would load his 
Part of the vessell, made me use all the influence I could to 
persuade him from proceeding to Copenhagen, and strongly 
recommending his proceeding to L'Orient to load Salt for 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 317 

Newport. In consequence of his and my disagreeing on this 
point I entered the Protest which I now send to Messrs. 
Samuel Fowler and Christopher ChampHn, to the former of 
whom Mr. Vernon in a Letter I lately received from him 
recommended my sending a Power of Attorney in order that 
an End may be put to this unfortunate Concern, which I 
now more than ever see the Necessity of doing, and have 
accordingly empower'd said friends to dispose of my Share 
of her and concur with you if you desire it in letting the 
Vessell be sent to Providence, either to sell or discharge, 
and the sooner the better, as I am resolved to be no longer 
connected with Captain Sheffield, whose Conduct I before in- 
formed you I was perfectly dissatisfied with, and his recent 
Behaviour obliged me to communicate to him my Sentiments 
very freely, as you'll see by the Copies of a letter I received 
from him at Drogheda and my Note to him in reply, you'll 
also see by the Copy of my letter 25th ulto. to Mr. Ryberg, 
that he left this without acquainting me where he intended 
to proceed with the vessell. Mr. Vernon in his Letter to me 
very properly notices the loss of a Cable and Anchor, the 
Circumstance of their being stole is rather extraordinary 
as they were not of so light Carriage, the Charge of Coll. 
Wards Expences at Virginia he has given me Credit for, 
as well as for a short Credit in Exchange, which when I 
formerly complained of he absolutely refus'd to allow me 
for, and likewise obliged me to give him Credit for the one 
half of 750 Bushells of Salt at f amount £84.7.6, stopt from 
him by Mr. Arnold for Breach of Contract made by Coll. 
Ward and Captain Sheffield for a vessell they had bargained 
with him for, and upon my telling him this Voyage that I 
could only be liable for a fourth of this Sum we left it to a 
refference, which was given against me by the Refferees, 
before whom and in the Presence of Captain Handy Junior, 
he made use of the most improper Language respecting Mr. 
Arnolds conduct, and declared that tho' he had exonerated 
both Coll Ward and himself from their Agreement yet he 
retained the amount of the Salt from him. I askd him to 
give me a letter to Mr. Arnold on this subject, that if it 

3l8 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

was a fact that he releas'd him from said agreement I might 
apply to have the half of the above Sum of £84.7,6 repaid 
me by that Gentleman, he did accordingly write the draft 
of a letter and told me he would make a fair Copy and leave 
it with me, but did not; on the said Subject have only to 
remark that from the high Character Captain Sheffield (on 
asking me to be concerned in a vessell) gave me of Mr. 
Arnold and Coll Ward, made me conclude they and him in 
Conjunction would have purchased a vessell on the cheapest 
and best Terms from the mutual Benefit of all concerned, 
but I find from Captain Sheffields Language he has changed 
his opinion of Mr. Arnold, tho' its probable his Vindication 
of himself on the Occasion made him say what he afterwards 
was sorry for, however be this as it may, I must unless Mr. 
Arnold considers me, be a further Loser of £42.3.9 in addition 
to the other large Sums lost by the Imprudence of Captain 
Sheffield, who seems to me determined (let his Owners sink 
or swim) to make all the Money he can out of them, and what 
evinces this is his attempt to make them pay his Son 2nd 
Mates Wages, a boy that had not been a Month from School, 
and was only fit to be put an Apprentice, his other Appren- 
tice he makes act as chief Mate, which from his Youth and 
inexperience is very improper, and am surprized you allowd 
it, his wages should be but small, on looking into his 
Account of Overcharges you sent me he has given me Credit 
for my Part of them, except those Charges for Expences in 
Virginia Cove and St, Eustatius amounting to £15.2.4! 
which he absolutely refus'd saying he would have a Refi^er- 
ence with you on the same at his Return, when I trust and 
hope you'll oblige him to settle all accounts in a fair and 
proper Manner, and act with Messrs. Fowler and Champlin 
for my j Ballance, my Part should be deducted as he 
charged me Commission on every Transaction at each 
place; the Staves sent to Waterford remain unsold, would 
not bring more there than here from their indifferent Quality 
and plenty at Market, herein is the Ships disbursements 
and the Freight account, if possible you shall have the Sales 
of flaxseed. 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 319 

Mr. Reuben Harvey of Cork a few days ago wrote me that 
the Solicitor of the Revenue had appHed to him for Payment 
for £100 the amount of the Bill of Costs for the Crowns 
Expences in the Condemnation of the Fame and Goods, for 
which amount he joined Captain Sheffield in a Bond. I 
wrote him in answer to petition the Commissioners of the 
Revenue setting forthe the Hardship of his being obliged to 
pay the same, when Captain Sheffield lost his all etc. and 
hope it will have a proper effect, tho' from what the Solicitor 
told me I beheve it will be insisted on, if so I shall not have 
sufficient in my hands out of the Proceeds of the Staves to 
pay Mr. Harvey, the difficulty of course must be made 
good by all concerned, you will please settle for my \ of the 
vessells freight on Voyage to Copenhagen and Rhode Island 
with Messrs. Fowler and Champion, wishing for nothing 
more than is just and all matters be settled in an amicable 
manner; I can have no Objection to continue concernd with 
you in this vessell (provided Captain Sheffield is purchased 
out) if continued in Trade between this Place and yours or 
Providence, and as freight of Ashes are generally to be had 
there or to be purchased with red Oak Bark etc. on Owners 
account, she might make two Voyages in the year if we are 
active on both sides, it has given me great Concern that 
we should differ in Opinion about the Copenhagen Voyage 
which I dare say were you here you would disapprove of. 
I am Gentlemen Your most humble Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

Christopher Champlin to Brothers DeBauque 

Newport, May 30, 1787. 


I have had the pleasure to receive several of your Favours 
and in particular that of March 20th. it gives me pleasure 
that the mode pursued in repairing the Dauphm is conform- 
able to your request as the Greenland Voyage was at an 
end for the Season, and that the articles purchased for your 
a/c are such as will afford great profit and intirely useful 

320 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

in the whale fishery. Inclosed you have account sales of 
your Hemp, Iron, Cordage and Currants net amount 
£1012.4.8 to your Credit also Invoice of sundry articles 
shiped per the Dauphin on your a/c amounting to £792.12.7, 
and likewise my account of expenditure for repairing the 
Ship and equiping her for her Voyage to Dunkirk including 
money advanced to Captain Haydon amounting to £1351.7.6 
both sums to your Debit, my account current is also 
inclosed ballanced by sundry Draughts on you vizt. 

I. in favour of Murray Mumford and Bowin £120. 

I. ditto fav. Benjamin Peirce 250. 

I. ditto fav. Alexander Champion 100. 

I. ditto fav. Prothero and Claxton 200. 

I. ditto fav. Lane Son and Fraser 147.8.8 

Sterling £817.8.8 

which bills I flatter myself you will duly honour, the 
situation our public affairs are under and the Paper Cur- 
rency emitted having operated much against commercial 
matters has rendered your business very difficult to nego- 
tiate. I am happy to have closed it without having any 
outstanding Debt at risk, and I flatter self to your satis- 
faction, as we have not deviated from your Policy of 
Insurance and Captain -Haydon having his Protest and 
Survey of the Ship duly authenticated, I doubt not of your 
adjusting the Damages with the Underwriters amicably. 
Captain Haydon merits your thanks for his very great 
attention to your business throughout the whole equipment, 
and to him I beg leave to refer you for a number of Particu- 
lars. I am with Tenders of my future Service and Esteem, 
Gentlemen, Your most humble Servant, 

C. C. 

[Memo.] Rough Copy of letter to Messrs. Brothers DeBauque at Dunkirk. 


Brothers DeBauque to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 3 July, 1787. 


We received timely your esteemed favour of i6th april 
24th and 30th may contents duely observed : the last handed 
by captain Wm. Haydon safe arrived after a short passage 
of 22 days; we have found inclosed the several documents 
of sales, repairs and Invoice of sundry articles shipped per 
the Dauphin, which after examination shall be written in 
conformity so as your account current balanced by your 
five drafts together £817.8.8 in order several which have 
meet with due acceptance; we say you much thanks for 
your great attention to our business, which we claim again 
as we intend to send back said Ship in about three weeks 
when we shall have the pleasure to write you more fully in 
the mean while we are with all regard, Sir: Your most 
obedient Servants 

Brothers DeBauque 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Benjamin Peirce 

, St. Petersburgh, 6th July, 1787. 


It was a particular pleasure to me, to be informed of your 
safe arrival at Copenhagen, wishing that your return home 
may be like successfull. 

From Mr. Ryberg you'll have learned, that the Sailcloths 
and Ravenducks intended on board of your Ship, had been 
shipt of already, like I am buisy to do with the hemp, upon 
which I hope to be able to inlarge next post and I hope that 
both these Consignments will arrive in time so as to make a 
sutable Stowage for your Ship. But a pitty 'tis, that from 
our great distance, we are prevented of a regular Correspond- 
ence to America, which becomes a detriment to trade, like 
'tis the present case that on the arrival of several ships from 
that part, the prices of the russ Goods have got up amazingly 
high, that of clean hemp advanced to Ro. 21 and is held at 

322 COMMERCE OF [ 1787 

present upon Ro. 22. which by all probability it will come to, 
as we are rather short of that article, the inferior sorts of 
hemp are rather more reasonable outschott Ro. i8| to 19 
and half clean Ro. 17^ to 18. Tallow has been driven up 
likewise very high and for the best candle Ro. 37. has been 
paid. Iron stands from 112 to 115 Co. the new Sable and 
115 to 122 Co. the old Sable. The linnen manufactories 
have been greadily bought up of late, by which the price 
of Flems went up to Ro. ii| to 12 and the Ravenducks from 
Ro. 7 J to 7f Drillings 18 Co. Sailcloths are the only ones 
that continue on their former rate from Ro. 7 to 10, according 
to Quality. 

Both Capt. Simmons of the JViU'in and Henry, as well as 
Capt. Benjamin Hodges of the Active, are safe arrived at 
this port and are loading for Salem. I expect also the Hind 
Capt. McComb, on board of whom I am orderd to ship a 
Cargo of Goods on account of Mr. WiUiam Gray Junior,^ 
and being told by Capt. Simmons, that Mr. Gray addressing 
himself to my house, was to be attributed to your friendly 
recommendation in favour of the same, I thought it therefore 
incumbent upon me, to accept of the earliest opportunity, 
to return you my warmest thanks for this kind mark of 
friendship, assuring you at the same time, that I'll in 
particular exert my best. Endeavours to do honour to your 
friendly recommendation and shall be happy in the oppor- 
tunity of making you sutable returns. 

I inclose within a List of our last years Exports by which 
you'll find all the articles specified that are to be had from 
hence, which may serve for your Govern and begging to 
be remembred to both Mr. Christo. Champlin and Mr. 
George Champlin as well as Messrs. Sam'l Fowler and Son I 
remain with the most perfect Regard, Sir : Your most 
obedient humble Servant, 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

1 Of Salem. 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 323 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 20th July, 1787. 


I wrote you last the 15th May relative my concern in the 
Brigantine Fame and to settle accounts with her Master 
Aaron Sheffield to which please be referr'd. Inclosed you 
have sales of F. Seed per the Ship Hope Nt. Proceeds 
£2455.17.9 the ^ being £1227.18.10! is placed at the 
Credit your respective Accounts holding you accountable 
should any of the Outstanding debts prove bad. I have 
not yet received Sales of the 125 Hhds. f. seed sent to Sligo 
tho am in daily expectation of them but have as yet rec'd 
only 7o£ in part of their proceeds, as soon as them sales 
come to hand you shall have the Account Sales of the 203 
Hhds. per the Fame Capt. Sheffield, it gives me real con- 
cern these sales have not returned out so profitable to you 
as I could have wish'd tho every exertion on my part was 
made to render them on my part as advantageous as possible. 
Our crop of Grain promises well; from the accounts received 
from the country there will be no f : seed saved. The 
unsettled state of Holland does not promise that we shall 
have much seed from that country but the price of it here 
depends upon the Quantity imported from your Continent. 
Pot Ashes have advanced to 32 per Ct. Pearl Ashes 38/ to 
40 per Ct. referring you to my letter to you and respectfully 
I remain Gent., Your most humble Servant, 

Edw'd Forbes 

[Endorsed,] Per the Dublin Packett, via Philadelphia. 

Hewes and Anthony to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 27th August, 1787. 

Dear Sir, 

We have labour'd in vain through the Summer to dispose 
of the Arrack and Schrub. Limes and Lemmons have been 
so plenty, that the latter will not sell at any price and the 

324 COMMERCE OF [^7^7 

former is so little made use of here that we have only been 
able to dispose of about 30 Gallons at a low price, the 
Casks are old and rather leakey; the hoops some times 
start, being rusty and rotten, that they often call our 
attention for fear of great and sudden Loss, we wish you 
could direct us what to do with them, for from the Tryal 
we have had they will not sell here, we remain affection- 
ately, your Friends, 

J. Hewes and Anthony 

Certificate relating to the Paper Medium 
OF this State 

We the Underwritten Merchants and Traders of Newport 
and State of Rhode Island do hereby certify to Whom it 
may Concern that the late paper Emission of Money issued 
by this State hath depreciated in the proportion set against 
each Month, in which paper Money all Duties and Imposts 
of every kind of Imports either by Citizens or Foreigners 
is customarily paid at the specified values on the face of 
the bill altho depreciated vizt. 

1786. July 8j- to I2J for I Spanish Milled Dollar. 

August dull at 12. for i do. 

Sept '. . . 3 Dollars for i do. 

Oct 3 and 4 for i do. 

Nov 4 and 5 for i do. 

Dec 5 for I do. 

1787. January 5 and 6 for i do. 


March . 

April . . 

May . . 

June . . 

July . . 

> 6 for I do. 

6 and 7 for i do. 

No. B. Most Current at six for one of late supposed 
owing to the demand for a Tax just finishing the Collection. 

Jno. L. Bass 
Thos. Rowland 
Jos'h Bass, Jun. 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 325 

Brothers DeBauque to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, 28th August, 1787. 


Since our last respects of the 3d past the destination of 
the Dauphin has been changed and she proceeded for the 
whale fishery at the Brazils coast under the command of 
Uriah Swain. Your very esteemed letter of the 14th July 
by the Dunkirk safe to harbour directed to F. Rotch esqr. 
has been handed to us by said friend who intends to sett off 
for America in very short days, he shall have the pleasure 
to satisfy him self upon your several demands and inform 
you fully of all articles which might be imported and exported 
from both places at mutual advantage, at the foot you shall 
find the price current of the tobacco, Rice, Molassis etc. 
for your regulation. We are Respectfully, Sir : Your most 
obedient Servant, 

Brothers DeBauque 

Tobacco from £33 to £45 [i. e. livres^ per centum according to the quality. 
Rice £21 per Centum. 

Molasses £18 per Centum. Our Weight is almost the same as yours, we allow 
17 per Ct. deduction upon the Tobacco, for the Cask, Nails, good weight etc. 13 
per Ct. upon the Rice, 18 per Ct. upon Molasses, all charges Commission in- 
cluded does not exceed 8 per Ct. We shall write you per the Hope Captain 
Gyles, who intends to sail for Newport in about ten days. 

Edward Forbes to Welcome Arnold, Samuel Ward 
AND Samuel Vernon, Jr. 

Dublin, 30 August, 1787. 

I had the Pleasure to write you fully the 15 May per the 
Brownlow via New York who I find arrived safe. I am since 
favor'd with yours of the 21st June its Contents have made 
due Note of. You'll find the Fame Captain Sheffield in 
pursuance of your Orders proceeded to Copenhagen, and 
left that Place the 17th May for Newport where I hope she 
has long since arrived, am concerned to see by your letter 
that you were much disappointed as well as dissatisfied, 

326 COMMERCE OF [178? 

that I did not agree to load my 4 of the Fame at Copen- 
hagen with Hemp agreeable to the Plan you had laid down, 
however when you come to be informed that none could be 
procured and that the vessell was obliged to return without, 
you'll find my Information respecting that article was not 
premature as you alledge but too well founded, and cannot 
doubt upon reflection you will blame yourselves for having 
plann'd that Voyage, without leaving me at liberty in 
Concurrence with the Captain to have sent her upon some 
other; with Respect to what you say of the remoteness of 
my situation at the time you planned said Voyage, that it 
was out of your Power to consult me on her future Employ- 
ment without loosing the Freight of flaxseed that then ofFer'd 
for Dublin, yet surely as she was to come here, it must have 
been supposd altho' so distant from America, that I was 
nearer at hand to procure the necessary Information of the 
price of Hemp at Copenhagen, and consequently be left to 
judge for the mutual benefit of the concerned whether the 
Voyage was eligable or likely to leave a profit, supposing 
Hemp to be generally sold with you at £42 Currency per 
ton, nor did you say this price was to be paid in Specie as 
your Letter will shew, besides with much defferance to your 
greater Experience, I conceive that I was to be intitled to 
an Option whether I would pursue such a Scheme or not, 
particularly when my Interest was so materially concerned. 
I do however find a Majority of Owners hath a Power to 
fix upon a Voyage, yet they are bound to make the dissenting 
Owner proper Recompence for his Share of the Vessells 
Freight, which you never propos'd to me in case that I did 
not choose for to load my part at Copenhagen, tho' am 
pleased to find by your last letter that in this Point you agree 
with me, as you say you expected I should be benefited my 
part of the Freight whether I was a shipper or not, and 
sincerely hope the Goods shipt by Mr. Ryberg for your 
accounts will make you a good Voyage; as I cannot doubt of 
your getting a freight of Seed for the Fame to this place if 
you should incline to do it, apprehend she would fetch a 
better price here than with you, as a Mediteranean Pass 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 327 

could be procured for her if owned by Residents in conse- 
quence of her unfortunate Condemnation. 

I have not been informed by Mr. Harvey if he has paid the 
Bond he was join'd in by Captain Sheffield, but suppose at 
November Courts it will be enforced, when the Sales of the 
Staves are made they will fall far short of paying Messrs. 
Arnold and Wards Part, as the deduction for the Deficiency 
in their flaxseed (which has fallen short half a bushell in 
each Cask) will be considerable, besides attended with 
heavy Expences of Affidavits and Measuring, and I must 
add such Practices are not only a Discredit to the Seller but 
also to your State, and greatly hurt its Reputation and makes 
it difficult to sell. If Complaints are made to our Linen 
Board a Law may be pass'd to confiscate such as may be 
found difficient of proper Measure, or else Officers will be 
appointed to measure it on arrival, which will be attended 
with a heavy Expence, therefore am to intreat that you will 
inform your friends, and desire them not to ship any flaxseed 
in future that hath not its full Compliment in each Cask, as 
well as being properly cleand, which was not the Case with 
what came here last Season, the New York Seed by its being 
so well cleand, Neatness of Casks and having good Measure 
has always commanded a preff'erance in every Port in the 
Kingdom. Our Crop of Flax and Grain is good and plenti- 
fuU, but do not learn there will be any of the Flaxseed saved, 
the price of which next Spring will depend upon the Quantity 
that may come to Market. I do not think we shall have 
any from Holland, at least it will be very little. Pot Ash 
1st Quality 30/ to 32/, best white Pearl Ashes 38/ to 40/, 
Oils in plenty and poor prices. I am, Gentlemen, Your 
most humble Servant 

E. Forbes 

328 commerceof [ 1787 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, August 31st, 1787. 


Since my last respects of the 20th ulto. handing sales of 
your Flaxseed per the Hope, have not received any of your 
favors. Having at last received Sales of that shipt to Sligo, 
above you have the account Sales of what you shipt per the 
Fame Captain Sheffield, Neat proceeds £427.11.11 the | 
being £213.15.11!, is placed at your respective Credits, 
in Account Current, it gives me much concern that this 
adventure has turned out so very poorly, in shipping what 
I did, however for Sligo was done with the best intention 
for your Interest, and flatter myself you will view it in that 
light, it would certainly have neated you £3.10/ there 
but for the immense Quantity poured in from all parts of the 

Your having suffered by this article should induce you to 
purchase it this Season with caution, I mean as to price, keep- 
ing in view that the Consumption of this Kingdom should 
be estimated at 32 m to 35.000 Hhds, allowing for what may 
miscarry for Losses at Sea in coming from America, last 
spring about 2400 Hhds were lost; and our prices are regu- 
lated by the Quantity tliat comes to Market, as it should 
yours by the Quantum of the Crops which I hear is very 
considerable with you. Our oil mills have given from 45/ 
to 50/ for such seed as they have hitherto purchased which 
I mention for your government. Mr. Norris told me he had 
several complaints of his seed not holding out the usual 
Measure of 7 bushells. I had also of some from Messrs. 
Arnold and Ward, whose casks were deficient ^ a bushel 
each and of course deductions and charges etc. is the 
consequence, besides the discredit to the Seller as well as to 
the province from whence it is imported, such very im- 
proper practices will I fear if continued cause our Legislature 
to pass severe laws — if not to confiscate, they will appoint 
Officers to measure it at importation, which will be adding 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 329 

to the heavy expences already laid on it; I hope I shall have 
no complaints of any of yours, however let me intreat your 
attention in having what you ship better cleaned, a good 
Measure in each and the Cask made to a proper guage, 
such as are made at New York and providence. What I 
had from Mr. Handy and Messrs. Russels were the best 
cleaned brightest seed and neatest casks that came from 
your state, the casks are made to the New York size to 
which assure you our country people are often very attentive. 
you should discourage your Country Coopers from con- 
tinuing to make their Casks so long as they do, and brand 
your Name on the head of the Cask with Rhode Island. 
The New Yorkers have so well supported their character 
in all these respects that their seed in general is preferred in 
every port in Ireland, and as I am persuaded what comes 
from your place and New England States to be equal if not 
prefferable, am convinced if its properly attended to in the 
beforementioned matters it will be as much sought after 
as any other; having often mentioned to you before these 
circumstances that you should be attentive thereto, excuse 
me for I have no view in it but your good and remain most 
respectfully, Gent., Your most humble Servant, 

Edw'd Forbes 

P. S. Capt. Sheffield inform'd me Mr. Ward and Arnold's 
seed was cleaned at Newport, so that in fact they are not 
to blame. Indeed it would be well done to have your friends 
inform'd of the necessity of putting good Measure into the 
Casks, and have it better cleaned and remember the Fann 
should be the last operation, of which circumstance you'll 
oblige me to communicate to Mrs. Cath. Easton and Mr. 
Handy, as I should to your Neighbour Mr. Gibbs were I 
in correspondance with him. I am perswaded he will take 
it kind in you to inform him about the Fann. It will make 
the seed look a great deal brighter which should be attended 
to as it is in N. York. The Fame Capt. Sheffield sail'd 
from Copenhagen for your place the 17th May, and hope 
she is long since arrived safe, have by this packet wrote 

330 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

Messrs. Arnold, Ward and Vernon in answer to a letter of 
theirs dated 21st June, by next opportunity will send you 
the Copy, as she is a fast sailer hope these Gent have 
bought her in for their and my Account as a Medittareanen 
Pass could be procured for her if owned here, think she 
would sell as well if not better than at Newport, you no 
doubt received my letter of the 15th May via New York. 

September nth, 1787. 

P. S. I do not send Copy of my Letter to Messrs. Arnold, 
Ward and Vernon. The only matter in theirs worth com- 
municating is. That they write me "That they expected me 
to be benifited my part of the Freight whether I was a Ship- 
per or not," which Sentiments corroborates the Opinion 
I've of those friends and no doubt they will pay you a 
reasonable freight for the Copenhagen Voyage. Most 
respectfully I remain Gent, your obedient Servant 

Edw'd Forbes 

[Endorsed,] Per the Phenix, via New London. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 1st September, 1787. 


I HAD this pleasure the 3d Ulto advising you of Captain 
Pierces bill on me from Copenhagen for your account for 
£250 in part of your bill on me in his favor for £425 Brit: 
By the Ship Hope Capt. Gyles lately arriv'd at London I 
received your always esteem'd favor of the 7th July repeating 
your request that I would honor your bill before mentioned 
in favor of Captain Pierce, which I once more beg leave to 
inform you I should have done at the time of its presentation 
were it not that I was then under some heavy engagements 
and Advances for consignments from America which drained 
me of all my ready cash, the Credits given on its products 
being generally 4 and 6 Months and the sale often so tedious 
that its a considerable time frequently before the Money 
comes round. However tho it's even now exceedingly 


inconvenient I have this post written to Mr. Ryberg if he 
shipt you goods per Capt. Pierce's Vessel for Amount of the 
remainder of said bill being £175 that I would honor his 
draft for the same, wishing thereby to convince you that 
I would strain a point to serve and oblige you, all in my 
power. I must however remark, it is not here as it is in 
London where the Bankers and monied men are glad of 
opportunitys to lend money on goods or other securities, 
here no Bankers will lend a shilling to any person in trade 
or otherwise. Undeniable good bills only at 60 days will 
they discount; from this circumstance together with the 
long Credits they get on dry goods the Merchants in London 
have it more effectually in their power to serve their friends 
than we in this kingdom can do, from the great scarcity of 
cash as well as the short credit obtained for our dry goods 
owing to the poverty of our Manufacturers, and tho I have 
wrote Mr. Ryberg I would honor the remainder of your 
bill yet I believe its very unusual for Merchants in America 
to ask their correspondents here to advance Money for them 
when they have no effects in their hands, and when you 
come to reflect also upon the Scarcity of Cash in this King- 
dom and that people in trade can make double Interest upon 
their Capitals you will I am persuaded think it unreasonable 
to expect Money can be advanced to Persons so remote for 
bare Interest, in fact I always charge 2| per Ct. Commission 
besides, where even by accident that I have been obliged to 
do the like as is the case at present with Messrs. Fowlers 
and Mr. Handy by reason of my having shipt them goods 
exceeding the value of their property put in my hands in 
estimating of which I find I overrated what they produced, 
nor do I make it a practice to do so in any case where I 
have not property in my hands and I have the vanity to 
say no person here hath done more for to serve their cor- 
respondants by my punctuality and attention to their 
concerns. You will please also to observe I am now in 
advance for Messrs. Fowler's sales and yours above £230 
notwithstanding I remitted your London friends the sums 
you respectively desired even without waiting to be in cash 

332 COMMERCE OF [1787 

for the same, (which indeed them friends are general very 
pressing for and for which Messrs. Lane Son and Frazer re- 
turned me their thanks) exclusive of which you will find 
by the inclosed abstract of your Account Current that you 
are now indebted to me £70.10.6 without any charge being 
made for the Interest. It gives me much satisfaction to 
find the Linens shipt you by the Hope met with your appro- 
bation so much as that you say you will be induced to order 
larger Quantities next year, you may rest assured of my best 
attention to your Interest in all your commands and hope 
as opportunity offers to experience your kind influence with 
such of your acquaintances as may be sending consignments 
here, with the greatest truth and sincerity I remain, Sir, 
Your most Obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

P. S. If Mr. Ryberg advanced the Amount of the 
beforementioned sum of £175 Stg. you'll of course not remit 
him but me referring you to my letter to your good self 
and Messrs. Fowlers and Son per packet with sales of your 
Flaxseed per Fame. 

Thompson and Gordon to Christopher Champlin 

Newry [Ireland], 9th September, 1787. 


The present serves to advise you that pot ashes have 
been demanded price 30/ per Ct. flaxseed sold last Season 
from 60/ to 65/ and tis now certain We shall require full as 
great a Supply ensuing one, as then, on sending any hence 
advise dinnaging [dunnaging] with Barrell Staves, we 
confirm that [on] arrival of such Consignments, we shall 
advance [in] full supposd value in our Manufactures by 
return of vessell without waiting Sale of f by bill on Lon- 
don, remitting balance on event of Sale, our Linens are 
rather cheaper than last year, are respectfully Your 
Obedient Servants, 

Thompson and Gordon 

1787 ] RHODEISLAND 333 

Francis Rotch to Christopher Champlin 

Dunkirk, nth September, 1787. 

Dear Sir, 

I have received your several favors relating to the 
Dauphin, you must 'ere this reaches you be informed of her 
safe arrival after a short passage of 22 days. She is since 
sailed upon the Southern Fishery from this port. Your 
bills for the repairs of that ship have all been duly honored. 
I expected more premium in the Exchange, there being 
but the course of post which makes only one weeks difference 
of time on bills drawn on this place or London, which if 
payable in London, ought to fetch the highest premium. 

My friends have written to you occasionally, to their 
advices respecting the markets here, I beg leave to refer you, 
being with great esteem, Dear Sir, Your sincere friend and 
obedient Servant, 

F. Rotch 

I beg your care of the inclosed to my Brothers house at 


[Endorsed,] Per the Hope, Captain Giles. 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Christopher Champlin 

St. Petersburgh, ist October, 1787. 


Having been favourd with a Letter of worthy Capt. Ben 
Peirce from Copenhagen in date the 9th August last, by 
which this friend desired of me, to be inform'd of the State 
of our market for russ products, I accept of this opportunity 
to pay you my respects at the same time, and flatter myself 
you'll be pleased with my Advices concerning matters of 
trade, that you may be the better ineabled to take your 
direction accordingly next season. 

Our this years prices for russ products, have been driven 
up extravagantly high and still continues that of clean hemp 
upon Ro. 25. Outshott hemp Ro. 21. half clean hemp Ro. 

334 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

19. and hemp codilla Ro. 9 to 10 per Berq't Tallow from Ro. 
40 to 41, and notwithstanding the season is pasd thus far, 
nevertheless there is all likelyhood that the Stock remaining 
upon the spot will be exported intirely, the same being but 
of little consequence. 

The like case is it with the russ Linnen manufactories, 
particularly the Flems and Ravenducks that have been 
greadily bought up, the former at Ro. 12, and the latter 
from Ro. 7j to Ro. 7I per piece Drillings 18 Cop. per Arschin, 
our Market has been swept likewise of 15000. pieces Sail 
cloths that were bought by order of Goverment and by this 
prices have advanc'd about a half ruble per piece. 

Regarding our contracting business for the insuing Season, 
the same will be much influenced by the affairs in Holland 
that has such a dangerous appearance but of late and 
t[h]reatened a rupture to all Europe, but tydings being come 
in by the last mail, that by the assistance of the King of 
Prussia, the Stadholder had been reinstated and installd 
again, there are great hopes that matters will remain quiet 
and easy on that score, and as to the war with the Turks, 
that has been declared, but of late 'tis thought that the two 
imperial powers only will have their hands therein. In 
case matters remain in this Situation one should think that 
the prices of naval Stores must undergo a decline and as far 
as there is to be judged of present appearance, my opinion is 
that clean hemp may be contracted at about Nineteen 
Rubles per Berqowitz all the money advanced before hands 
and the hemp deliverable in June and July next, in propor- 
tion of which, the price of Cordage may run from 220. to 
230. Copecks per pud duty comprehended. But Tallow 
and of course the like Candles 'tis thought to continue dear 
in price for some time to come, as the very dry weather in 
one part and the heavy rains in others, that have had this 
season, have destroyed the Grass, by which the Catties have 
sufFer'd very much, like we fall short of corn throughout this 
Impire, the price of which is run up to a hight never experi- 
enced before. For these very reason the prices of Iron may 
maintain also, as the works in the mines have been stopd 

1787] RHODE ISLAND 335 

for want of sufficiency of water, the present rates run from 
112. to 125. Co. per pud according to quality and as to the 
russ Linnens, I do not suppose that their prices will lower, 
particularly as a great deal of Flems and Ravenducks is 
wanted for the Army, which on the present occasion is 
much augmenting. 

My only wish being to become of service to your good 
selves and to incourage your trade as much as possible I 
beg leave to observe further, that as you lay so near to the 
West Indies, your Ships could be imployd that way during 
the winter to fetch from thence those Goods sutable for this 
markett, which I am told to be made practicable and by 
which not only a duble freight may be gaind, but this trade 
become lucrative to you in some other respects, as this 
meight form a direct Importation, when hitherto all West 
Indigo Goods are come hither by a second hand. 

The most properest articles from thence sutable at this 
market, are St. Domingo Sugars of a bright and white grain 
that's substancial, also small blew beamd Coffee and 
best St. Domingo Indigo, which sells readily here and I 
would have no objections to make you direct returns for 
the same in russ products. Cochineal of a darkisch 
colour is likewise an important article imported hither and 
some boards of Mahogany wood would do likewise for a 
tryall. Rice is also made use of here and about twenty 
Casks on board of a Ship would do at a time, from the 
bay of Hunduras [Hudson] we are used to get furrs by the 
way of London, such as beavers, wolves and sable skins or 
small fox skins, if you have a chance of getting at them, 
they may sell likewise and on your having once tryd these 
articles, a scheme could be laid for increasing these branches, 
as any Goods which you are able to give in return for your 
wants of russ products, must be more to your Interest, than 
the providing of Cash. But on the first occasion I would 
not advice you to extend the value of your Consignment 
to more than four to five thousand Pounds Sterling and 
even that to consist of a variety of the articles mentioned, 
till you experience the success thereof, and whatever Goods 

336 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

you destine for this place, I must recommand in particular, 
that they may be of the very best sorts in their respective 
kind, as our people are very nice and wont touch at any 
indifferent ones. 

I hope this detail will be agreeable to you, to which I add 
the List of our this years exports for America, by which you'll 
find in what manner trade to your parts is increasing. I 
have said already and beg leave to repeat, that it will be a 
particular satisfaction to me to become of service to you 
and the trade to your country, to which I am the more apt 
from the capacity I am in and being a subject to this 
Empire I enjoy all the prerogatives and priviledges of a 
Native, which 111 gladly make my friends partake of, to 
forward their interest as much as there lays in my 
power, our mutual good friend Mr. Ryberg at Copenhagen 
will confirm this to you, and on your writing me by 
the packetts over London, I should be glad if you would 
inclose your letters by Messrs. John Wm. Anderson and 
Comp'y at that place, which is likewise a capital house 
and may become of service to you. like I should be glad 
to know before hands, what kind of Goods you'll stand in 
need of next season, that preparations may be made for the 
same, which is chiefly the case when cordage and tallow 
candles are wanted. Recommanding myself to your favours 
and friendship I remain with the most perfect regard, Sir: 
Your most obedient humble Servant 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

Amsterdam 37J. London 39^. 

Frolich and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

[Copenhagen,] the 6th of October, 1787. 


We crave your reference to what our Mr. Frolich did him- 
self the Honor to write per Captain Pierce and have now 
the pleasure to wait on you with the annexed Circular re- 
questing at the same time a renewal of our former Connec- 
tions, which by our facultys we are able to maintain, your 




^^^.^-^ C^^ Cofenfiagtn tit i{* of Offolier 1787 



he poytinrtlilp bilwecn me (ind Mi . ENf ANUEL BOZENHARD under ihe Urm 
of J. J. FRCJLICH & Comp. hecams di/iolvcd tie 3 Dili of /ipnll last Tear, jtnc^ 
which the j^ffairs of said Estabtishinerit aye so far arranged, that ^ am now enablti' 
to take the Liquidation upon my sett ""d fettle thesame undlr my private Sipnatiire. 

Bein^ thus in Capacity to continue the Euf/uicft of my House , which during 
the last seventeen JIffontfif f.cnie been cnrried on in Siiccefsiun by Mefrj_ FALKNEH 
& MEYER. ^' J beg leave to aeqiutint Ton, that 1 hat/e formed a Partnerswp with 
snid friends which from this day begins wider the Firm o/FROLTCK & Comp. 

ff^e intend chiefly to confine ounelces in executing, Commlfsions and shall 
jointly enforce our zeal for the Interest of our Employers, which on every Occasion 
shall be handled with the stri£lest Honour and Integrety. 

Please to take Notice of our respeSitve Signatures as at foot, Retommending 
my Rouse to Tour favors andfrtendsjiip I remain with the most perfeSi Consideration: 


Tmr most obedient humble Servant 

Who will subscribe in future. 

Sigiiature of ToHr oh* h'' Scrv^ 

Signature of Tour ob* h'^ Serv* 

338 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

Interest with that Ardour as any other House here. 
Notwithstanding our prior partner mentioned to you that 
the Sale for the Teas here upon the Spot would not be held 
till next Spring; yet the same has since been published to 
take place the 17th Instant, but it is still probable that the 
Vendue may be put of till next Year, as the Troubles in 
Holland are now come to their utmost Crises and unless 
decided by that time, no Auction will be held of said Article 
this Season. We expect another Vessell from China dayly, 
but dread some Accident has happened to her, which detains 
her in some port or other. Hemp and Sail Cloth maintains 
their prices in Petersburg and as a declaration of War is 
issued by the Turks against the Russians, there is very little 
prospect that the prices will be lower in the course of next 
year, particularly Hemp we have reason to believe will 
advance, as the Theater of War will be near the Ukraine, 
from whence the greatest part is brought down to Peters- 
burg. Should you resolve to have any of those articles 
next year we request your timely orders, that our friend 
may watch the best Opportunity to provide what may be 

We remain respectfully, Sir, Your obedient humble 

Frolich & Co. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler 

Dublin, 22d October, 1787. 


By this conveyance who is still detain'd, I had the pleasure 
of writing Messrs. Samuel Fowler and Son in reply to a letter 
I had lately from them and the greater part relateing to my 
unfortunate concern in the Fame^ take leave to refer you 
thereto with the inclosures. This day I received via Cork 
your esteem'd favor of the 12th September, of its contents 
have made due note. Am satisfied with your having con- 
firmd the Sale of my Share of that Vessel tho' sold for so 

1787 ] RHODEISLAND 339 

small a price, sincerely hopeing Captain Sheffield and his 
new Connections may be more fortunate then his late Owners 
were. Better had it been for me to have presented him 
with 600 Guineas the day I first saw him and have had noth- 
ing further to say to him, for exclusive of the Loss should 
have been saved an immensity of pleague and trouble for 
which have had only ungratefull returns from him. 

Observe the settlement you have made of the Vessels 
freight for the Copenhagen Voyage, whereby you have paid 
£21.17.3^ for my j of the Portige bill and am to receive 
only £9.0.11 Sterling for my Share of the freight, without 
takeing notice of my Part of her Outfitt from hence for that 
Place, consequently am a considerable looser. From this 
mode of settlement the custom in the like case under simular 
circumstances would have been done in a different manner 
here; as I am inform'd I should have been if settled in this 
place awarded, if not full freight for my Fourth at least 
have had that much of what freight she should have made 
as if the other Owners had actually laden the f of the Vessel 
— for this reason, that she was sent on the Voyage contrary 
to my approbation (as my protest with you will shew) the 
other owners having done so with a View of loading her on 
their own Accounts (and not to look for a freight as none 
could be expected there), with an article that one of them 
the Master was well informd before he proceeded could not 
be procured, and if it was, he declared he had not wherewith- 
all to pay for his own. Neither did the other Owners send 
sufficient funds to load their respective parts, which in such 
a Case they ought to have provided for. their not doing so 
would here subject them to pay the dissenting Owners part 
of what they were bound to have laden in her. But I 
presume you did not see the affair in this light, or I must 
have got more. 

Previous to the receipt of your letter and by this Opor- 
tunity I furnished Messrs. Arnold, Ward and Vernon with 
their respective Accounts Current of which Copies are 
inclosed, by which you will see they owe me the Ballances 
following: Mr. Arnold £7.1.8; Mr. Ward . . 

340 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

. . . £14.14.10!; and Mr. Vernon £0.18.9. 

which I wrote them to remit me by some of the Flaxseed 
Ships bound to this Kingdom, which be so good to know from 
them if they intend doing, if they do not, then please to 
receive from them said Ballances with their proportion of 
the Sum of £9.0.11 Brit. Stg. my part of the Ships freight. 
Captain Sheffield's Account Current is inclosed in my letter 
to Messrs. Fowler ballance due to me thereby is £1.5.1 
Irish exclusive of the £4.7.8! received of my Candles per 
your letter, also j freight for the lof Hhds Flaxseed being 
£5.19.7! Irish with j of £2.6.8 received from Mrs. Cooke 
all which you'l be pleased to receive from him with any other 
sums you may think me intitled to receive from him as I 
have no Correspondance with him. 

In mine to Messrs. Fowlers I requested you to dispose of 
my share of the Candles and invest their produce in new 
well cleaned flaxseed and in case you cannot barter them 
for this article in time to ship the same early in the Season, 
then endeavour to barter them for Pot Ash fds in first 
Quality and 3 in the Second Sort, or in best white Pearl- 
ashes, but if you cannot do either then please to dispose of 
them to best advantage as if they were your own (Tobacco 
excepted.) There is still £68.15 debt due by Wm. Edgar 
on Sales your flaxseed, tho have his draft accepted by 
another person from the two hope to be paid, very truely 
I remain, Gentlemen Your obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Christopher Champlin 

St. Petersburgh, 29th October, 1787. 


I had the honour of paying you my respects the first 
Inst., which I doubt not will be come safe to hands, and by 
the present I think it as needful to inform you, that the 
news of a rupture betwixt Great Brittain and France being 
apprehended, has occasioned some revolutions in our trade 


The principal effect which this has had, has been upon the 
new prices of hemp for next season, which have broke as 
early as high; clean hemp being contracted at Ro. 23. with 
all the money advanced before hands, the hemp to be de- 
livered in June and July next, as also at Ro. 25. with Ro. 
5 per Berk'z down the remainder payable at the delivery, 
which is likewise about midsummer. Sailcloths continue 
to be looked for, several thousand pieces have been laid in 
to answer any future demand, by which the prices of the 
same are advanced from 10. to 15. per Cent. The other 
russ Linnen manufacturies are almost ingaged, the Flems 
from Ro. 11^ to 12. Ravenducks from Ro. 7^ to 7! per 
piece and Drillings from 18. to 18^ Cop. per Arschin. Flax 
has also been contracted at Ro. 24. with all the money 
advanced before hands. Iron maintains its price likewise 
from 112 to 125. Co. per pood; notwithstanding the parcell 
laying upon the spot may be computed at a milHon and a 
half of poods. 

As uncertain as matters are, from the many clouds 
gathering in the political hemisphere, nevertheless 'tis not 
to be supposed, that the prices of these Goods will undergo 
any decline for the time to come, as the first purchases of 
the same in the interial parts of the country, have been made 
extraordinary high, besides carriage and Labourage are 
become so very dear, on account of the scarcity of all kinds 
of food, which has its natural effect upon every article in 
trade; and so all the clean hemp that's laying upon the 
spot, has been ingaged at Ro. 24I per B'z to be deliver'd 
either at present, or early next Spring. Tallow is the only 
article that's undergone a rapid decline, the price of the 
same being fallen to Ro. 35. per B'z owing to the intire stop 
of any further purchases on brittish account. 

I thought it the more needful to give you this timely 
information, that you may be the better ineabled to take 
you directions accordingly, with what Goods you may 
happen to have upon hands, which from the prices they have 
been laid in at may offer'd you the more advantage. 

Both Coffee and Sugars are likewise rising, particularly 

342 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

the former, upon which great Speculation is made, our 
whole stock being laid hold of by almost one hand, by which 
the price is advanc'd to Ro. 15. per pood, good substantial 
white St. Domingo Sugar of a bright grain may fetch from 
Ro. 6| to 7. per pood. Cochineal is demanded hkewise at 
Ro. 190. to 200. per pood, with Indigo our markett is rather 
provided yet. whosoever any of the first class early in 
Spring will always obtain its price. I should be glad if 
you could get at these articles, as according to what I wrote 
you before, they may leave a good profitt. within I inclose 
a dupplicat of the List of our this years Exports for America 
that you may become the better judge of the nature of your 
trade and recommanding myself to your favours and friend- 
ship I remain most respectfully. Sir : 

Amsterdam 38/, London \o\d. 

F. Baudin to Ethan Clarke and Co. 

St. Martin's, Isle of Rhe, November 2d, 1787. 

I AM indebted to Captain Joseph Gardiner of your Sloop 
Industry for the honour of an Introduction to you. he 
came here from Rochelle for a Cargo of Salt which I supply'd 
him with together with four pipes of our common low proof 
Brandy and 18 Casks of prime quality white wine Vinegar, 
the amount of which he pay'd me in Cash and in the pro- 
ceeds of a parcel of hhds. Staves he had on board, the 
Invoice of the Cargo and Sales of the Staves he is bearer of 
and will communicate both to you. the Staves were sold 
at a high price and Liv : 50 per Thousand more than the 

1787 ] RHODEISLAND 343 

like could sell again unless there was a great scarcity. I 
shall be happy if this begining would induce you to more 
considerable dealings in our quarters, especially in sending 
back Captain Gardiner with an assorted Cargo of the same 
produce he brought this Voyage, the Tar fetch 'd a good 
price and will keep up if as it is very likely we have war 
with England. Pipe and Barril Staves have more demand 
here than the hhd. but the other kinds will sell in preffer- 
ence. if you were to send the Industry to Carolina for such 
an other Cargo, she might take some Buck and deer Skins, 
the last imported from Mississipy fetch'd Liv. 3 to 3I per 
lb. Some Casks of Rice, a small parcell of Indigo and other 
products from Carolina but no Tobacco as all our Marlets 
are now glutted with that Commodity which the holders 
can find no Sale for tho' they offer it at £28. Liquors 
and wines are much higher in price on account of the bad 
wine Crop we have had. the Augumentation has been of 
30 per Ct. on Brandys within three months, which must 
undoubtedly influence on the prices with you. Captain 
Gardiner has taken the cheapest in prefFerence. he could 
have had some of a higher proof but the price rises in pro- 
portion from £4.10 per velt for the common sort to £6 for 
the London Standard Cognac. The price of Salt is also in 
proportion to the quality from £360 per 28 Moys to £500 
for the whitest kind, that which Mr. Gardiner loaded at 
£430 is of a good quality and clear colour'd large grain no 
doubt answerable for your market. You may Gentlemen 
if you think proper keep the Industry constantly employ'd 
to this port, being a small vessell you will always be sure of 
a good and quick Sale for her imports which as much as 
possible must be assorted in the different articles your Coun- 
try affords. 

Should any of your friends have dealings to transact here 
in the Salt, wine or Liquor Branches, I beg you will recom- 
mend my house to 'em and be assur'd that your or their 
Interests will be taken care of as my own. I most sincerely 
am, Sirs, Your very humble Servant, 

F. Baudin 

344 commerceof [ 1787 

John Freebody to Christopher Champlin 

Newbern, 12th November, 1787 

These will inform you with my safe arrival here, but find 
markets exceedingly dull, as yet have not dispos'd of any 
of your Goods, excepting about 50 Lbs. of Nails, which I 
have sold at 2/6 per lb. your goods I cannot sell as low as 
the Merchants from Philadelphia and New York sell theirs, 
their Goods are laid in lower than yours, and they sell at 4. 
for one from the Sterling Cost, the most I have been ofFer'd 
for the Rum is 7/. per Gallon you may be assur'd that I 
do the utmost in my power to dispose of them to the best 
advantage, should be glad of a Line from you, respecting 
them. I am, Sir, Your most Obedient Humble Servant, 

John Freebody 

W. India Rum 6/6 to 7/ N. E. Do. 5/6 to 5/9 

Molasses 3/4 to 3/6. Brow [n] Sugar 100/ to 120 per Cwt. 

Loaf Sugar 3/ per lb. CofFe 4/ Chocolate 3/. 

Corn 25/ per bbl. Tarr 12/ Turpentine 12/ Pitch 14. 

Tobacco 57/6 to 60/ Tallow 1/6 Beeswax ^/Sd. 

Flaxseed 12/ per bushel. Exchange from 14/ to 16/ per Dollar. 

Terms For Covering Freight 

It is to be engaged to procure American registers and other 
essential documents to establish compleatly and effectually 
not only the property of the vessel or vessels so covered, 
but also the Cargo or Cargoes, they may be laden with, as 
American property altho' they may bona fide, belong to 
individuals of the British or French nation, and the Vessel 
or Vessels, and also their Cargoes be British or French 
property during their navigation, in the American, European 
or other Seas. 

This business is performed compleatly in the Neutral 
Governments of Europe for a small Commission on the 
freight, the bona fide proprietors paying exclusively the 
expence of fees, and other expances officially incurred in 
America. W. Green 

Norfolk, Virginia, 21 November, 1787. 

1787 ] RHODEISLAND 345 

I have fully considered the business above stated and 

unless there should be more difficulties, for the future in 

procuring the necessary papers and Documents for this 

purpose than we have hitherto experienced or than I at 

present foresee, I will engage to comply fully with the above 

for the undermentioned rates vixt. 

If the freight the vessel makes be one 1 ^ , 

, 11-1 r ^ne and a 

thousand pounds without any rererence \ ^ ^ 

. 1 ri r^ Uuarter per Lent, 

to the value ot her Largo J 

If freight be above Two thousand 1 Two and a half per 

pounds or two thousand pounds . . J Cent. 

and this without any other charge unless for expences bona 

fide in America and paid by me. 

And in case in the course of her voyage it should be 

necessary to adopt any other Cover, and to relinquish the 

American no charge shall be made at all. 

Patrick Macau lay 

Norfolk (Virginia) 20 November 1787. 

In case any business should come into my hands in con- 
sequence of the above, I agree to charge no more than Two 
and a Half per Cent Commission. 

P. Macaulayi 


Nathaniel Russell to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 30th November, 1787. 


I RECEIVED your favor of the 12th Instant covering 
Captain Grants bill on Messrs. Lawson Price and Co. for 
610 Spanish Mill'd dollars at Twenty days sight which was 
accepted the 26th Instant. The price of New Rice is not 
yet broke they ask 13/6 I imagine it will break at about 
12/6. I will make the purchase for you when I think 
it at the Lowest and endeavour to ship it agreable to your 
directions, the premium on Specie is from 10 to 12^ per 

^ A similar agreement was signed with Thomas Fitzsimons in Philadelphia, De- 
cember 7, 1787. 

346 COMMERCEOF [ 1787 

I hope to receive part of Stitt's Debt this winter, whatever 
I do receive I shall remit in proportion on Account of your 
Brothers Estate, not one shilling has been paid on Account 
of General Green's Bond. I am with Respect, Sir, Your 
most Obedient Servant, 

Nathaniel Russell 

Rice 13/6 Muscovado Sugar. . .38/1045/ 

Tobacco 21/ Load do lod 

Indico bests/ Coffee 1/4 

Northern Rum 2/ 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Christopher Champlin 

St. Petersburgh, 30th November, 1787. 


I CRAVE referrence to my respects of the 29th ultimo when 
I advised you the occurrences of our Markett and the present 
being meant for that same purpose, as such I have to inform 
you that since the news of a pacific convention being con- 
cluded upon betwixt Great Brittain and France reached 
this place, our contracting business have been put to 
almost an intire stop and there has nothing been going 
forward in the Article of hemp, the price of which however, 
the Russes are endeavoring to maintain, by keeping the 
same upon Ro. 22. all the money advanced before hands 
and Ro. 24. with Ro. 4. per Berkowitz down the remainder 
payable at the delivery in June and July, at which rate 
however nothing has been bought yet, and untill a certain 
price is fix'd for that comodity, none can take place for that 
of Cordage. The Russ Linnen manufactories are also at a 
stand, however having perfect Winter and sledge way, we 
may soon expect fresh supplies, when the new prices will be 
open'd. Tallow maintains its price upon Ro. 35. and no 
further decline likely to be expected, as that article is rather 
scarce in the interial parts of the country, where prices have 
been driven up very high. Iron seems also to maintain its 
rate from 112 to 125 Co. per pood according to quality, which 
all may serve for your govern. 

1787 ] RHODEISLAND 347 

I had a Letter of late from our mutual good friend Mr. 
Niels Ryberg of Copenhagen and upon further considering 
of the proposal which I made you in regard to the sending of 
West India products to this place, it will be most needful, 
that you direct the Captains to touch at Copenhagen to 
have their cargoes landed there, particularly the Sugars as 
there is a clause in our Toll ordinance, that all rough Sugars 
imported hither must be accompanied with a Certificate 
that they are the real produce of the West Indies, upon which 
a duty of 20 Co. per pood is laid, but in want of such an 
attestation the Sugars are liable to 100 Co. per pood duty. 
As such a Certificate can't be procured by you, above that 
any Importation from the French West Indies in american 
bottoms occasioning some reflections, (our Court having a 
Treaty of Commerce with that of France : ) to prevent this 
and what might prejudice you in some other respects, the 
best would be to have your Goods landed at Copenhagen, 
where they will be weight and reshipt on board of your 
own Vessells again, and provided with the necessary Cer- 
tificates, by which they will be freed of all reflections what- 
soever. This will at the same time serve another end yet 
and prevent any Article to come hither, that perhaps is 
not fit for our markett, which Mr. Ryberg is perfect Master 
to judge of, particularly as great care ought to be taken in 
respect to the quality of the Sugars as well as of that of the 
Indigo, upon all of which I have inlarged to said friend and 
who will join with me in promoting your Interest, which 
being my only View and wish, I beg leave to assure you 
anew that I am most respectfully. Sir, Your most obedient 
humble Servant Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

Amsterdam 375J". London 39|i. 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Christopher Champlin 

St. Petersburgh, 2ist December, 1787. 


The 30th Ulto. I had the honour to wait upon you, to 
which beg leave to be referred, and by the present I have to 

348 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

inform you, that at last the contracting prices of clean hemp 
for the insuing Season have been broke a new, both at Ro. 
21. all money advanced before hands and at Ro. 23. with 
Ro. 2 per Berkowitz down, the remainder payable at the 
delivery in May and June, at which rates considerable pur- 
chases have been made both for England as well as France 
and 'tis computed that till this time near one third of the 
whole quantity of hemp has been contracted, that may be 
expected next Season, with Tallow it is rather slackening, 
since prices are declining on the foreign markets and may 
be bought at present the Candle Tallow for Ro. 32, and the 
Soap Tallow for Ro. 30 per Berq't. all money advanced 
before hands. Flax maintains its rate from Ro. 26 to 26^ 
all money down, like 'tis with Iron from 115 @ 125 Co. per 
pood, our winter continues with frost and perfect Sledge 
way, so that we may soon expect fresh Supplies of the russ 
Linnen manufactories. I inclose within a List of our this 
years Exports and remain with true Regard, Sir : Your 
most obedient humble Servant, 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

Amsterdam 38/. London 39fi. 

Hary Grant to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 23 January, 1788. 

Dear Sir, 

I have to acknowledge your favors of the 8 Ulto; I am 
obliged to go in the Country for 10 days and I understand 
a Vessel will be going for your place before my return. I 
shall leave Orders to ship you 20 Tierces Rice with the 40 
Mr. Russel sends will answer your demands for the present. 
Were I in Cash for you I should decline laying it out at 
present, for Rice must fall. I am sory to find the goods you 
sent by me will not answer, at present the Town is full of 
every species of Goods. I have only sold the Candles and 
part of the Rusia duck. The India Goods I have shewn to 
most of the merchants in Town zvho all agree they are too 
high by ^o to 50 per Ct. how fortunate I was I made no pur- 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 349 

chase from our friend Green : I have sent them to Vendue 
to give them a fair chance and sell them off. when sold the 
Account Sales shall be sent you. Our Legislator is now 
setting debating on our New Government which will cer- 
tainly be adopted, No Soul paying a farthing of their 
debts till they see whether the Asembly will not prolong 
the Installment Act. I shall not be surprized if they do, 
the 1st March 1st payment becomes due. I long much for 
it, bad as you think R. Island we are as bad. 

We have made great Crops shiping will be scairse. the 
new ship sails for London next week with a freight from 8 to 
900 Guineas. 

You may rely I will do the best with your goods and would 
have pincht my own remittance to have sent you 50 Bll had 
Mr. R. not been sending them rather then sacrifice your 
goods at present. 

Please make my affectionate Compliments to Mrs. 
Champlin and your family in which Mrs. Grant unites. I 
wish it may be in my power to spend a few weeks next sum- 
mer with you. I am with great Esteem, Dear Sir, 

Rice 12/ Ct. Rusia duck 63/ 65/ 

Tobacco 20/ Ct. Oil Sper. 3/ Gall. 

Indigo 2/ 5/ li. Candles Do. 2/10 lb. 
Bohea Tea 1/8 i/io lb. 

Silas Brenton is here with me. I am giving him a Cargo 
Lumber etc. for the Cape, his sister Mrs. McClahlan is 
quite recoverd. 

My Compliments to Ben Brenton and family. 

Be so good as [to] tell Mr. Bourse I have wrote to New 
Providence concerning Keiths Affairs. Nothing can be 
done till Answers from their. 

350 commerceof [ 1788 

Ant*o. Fr. Thiringk to Benjamin Pierce 

St. Petersburgh, 4th February, 1788, 


My last respects to you was the 21st December l[ast] 
y[ear] and by the present I have the honour to inform you, 
that since that time the contracts of hemp have continually 
been carry'd on brisklly, so that 'tis computed near one 
million and three hundred thousand puds to be bought 
already, the prices have continued very steady the clean 
hemp from Ro. 21 to 2o| all money down and from Ro. 23 
to 22I with Ro. 3 per Berkovitz advanc'd, the remainder 
payable at the deHvery in June and July, upon which very 
conditions Outschott hemp has fetch'd Ro. i8| and 20, 
and half clean hemp Ro. i6| and 18, and there appears at 
present a particular demand for these inferior sorts of 
hemp for France, where the Marketts are quite drained of 
that Article by a demand for their Navy board, which seems 
to make great preparations, hke a considerable quantity 
of clean hemp has been contracted for the same at this 
place. The quality of hemp that's to be expected this season 
being reported to be so very good, I should think you would 
do as well, to have your wants supplied with Outschot 
hemp, as the same stands in so much lower in price and will 
sute the better for your light Cables, from the high prices 
of hemp our ropemakers have advanc'd that of cordage to 
250. Cop: per pud duty comprehended and whenever you 
do stand in need of any I'll be glad to have your orders in 
time, that proper preparations can be made for the same, 
our wharfs being almost empty at present. Iron maintains 
its price from 115 to 125 Cop. per pud according to quality, 
but Tallow is slackening and ofFerd out the candle at Ro. 3 1 
and the Soap Tallow at Ro. 29 per Berkovitz all money 
advanc'd beforehands and the Tallow deliverable in May 
and June. The prices of the russ Linnen manufactories 
have not broke yet, the supplies thereof having been rather 
scantly till this time, 'tis supposed however, that the flems 
Linnens will come upon Ro. 1 1 Ravenducks upon Ro. 7 to 


7I per piece and the drillings at about 17^ to 18 Cop. per 
Arschin, Sailcloths may run from 7I to 11 Ro. per piece 
according to quality. 

Our winter is rather mild but lasting, now and than there 
are very cold days and a great quantity of Snow is fallen, 
by which the roads are become rather heavy. I shall be 
glad to be favour'd with your Commands and remain very 
truely, Sir : Your most obedient humble Servant 

Ant'o. Fr. Thiringk 

Amsterdam 365^. London 38I to ^d. 

Douce and Rivington to Christopher Champlin 

Fenchurch Buildings, [London,] 13th February, 1788. 


Owing to the various Claims of different Parties to the 
Money received by Mr. Brymer from Goverment, for the 
Cargo of the Peggy seized by Order of General Gage, 
the Cause in the Court of Chancery relating to that Affair, 
has experienced uncommon delay. But there is at length a 
certain prospect, of its receiving the decision of the Court, 
in the ensuing Term, which will begin early in February 
next; when we have every reason to hope, that ample 
Justice will be done to your demand. We have made use 
of every exertion to hasten the Progress of the Cause, and 
no pains shall be spared to secure a favorable termination 
of it. We are. Sir, Your very humble Servants 

Douce and Rivington 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 2Sth February, 1788. 


I WROTE Messrs. Samuel Fowler and Son the 30th Ulto. 
and 4th inst. since received your favor of the 31st Decem- 
ber per the Hope Captain Wall handing bill lading for 770 
whole and 200 half hhds. of Flaxseed on your joint Account, 

352 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

which you may be assur'd I shall dispose of to the best 
advantage the Market will admit, and your respective orders 
shall be duly attended to. the Ship is about § discharged 
and is up at the Quays, depend I shall give her every 
possible dispatch having a ship ready to go alongside with 
the coals and hope by the loth March to get her away at 
furthest. I am sorry to inform you the very great quantity 
of Seed expected from America with what is arriv'd has 
induc'd many people to attempt forcing a Sale at Auction, 
when the Proprietors for want of Bidders kept the price 
to 50/ and 51/ and bought it in. this Step has been the 
means of keeping down the price and it is now selling at 
50/ and some say it has gone so low as 48/, which indeed 
am not surprized at and do not doubt it will be yet so low 
as 45/6, especially if all arives from New York that is 
expected. Wherefore I have been induced to miss no 
offer from any of my Customers above 50/ and have disposed 
about 850 Hhds of different friends at 51/ to 54/, very few 
at the latter price, and am shipping 250 of yours to Drogheda 
in expectation of selling them to my friends in that Neigh- 
borhood. My letters from Cork say the price there is 45/6 
and at Newry they have commenced at 49/. you may be 
assur'd I shall do all in my power to sell yours, for there must 
be a deal left over yearr Our Oil Mills now offer only 30/ 
to 40/ per Cask for it and many even talk of less. Am 
concerned I have not a more pleasing account to give you 
of that article and am, very sincerely and respectfully, 
Gentlemen, Your most humble Servant. 

Edward Forbes 

P. S. There has been very little sold yet to the farmers 
in the Country it will be a most miserable trade indeed to 
all concerned. I am unfortunate I think in having sold so 
much as I did and am sorry yours did not arrive as soon as 
Captain Rathbone indeed I never knew the ships to come 
in so early as this year. I am just inform'd Seed has been 
sold this day at 47/. 




Account No. 2 
Christopher Champlin Esqr. in account with William Green 

To Conditional Credit in Account 
No. 3 £354- 174 



By an allowance to Christopher Cham- 
plin Esqr. for services rendered by him 
in the affairs of the Ship Hydra, ex- 
ceeding in amount the terms offered 
Mr. Green by several American Mer- 
chants of the first Credit, and being 
also agreeable to the stipulations be- 
tween them: Mr. Champlin on the 
one hand, having declared that he did 
not think himself able, and did not 
affect to cover more than her block, as 
American property: and Mr. Green 
on the other, having found it expedient 
to relinquish the American Cover in 
India and assume the French (at the 
expence of 2500 Sicca ^ Rupees). 


Newport, Rhode Island, March the 1st, 1788. 
Errors Excepted, W. Green. 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

Herewith you receive the modification of our account, 
with various documents connected with it, and on which a 
ballance may be struck, when Mr. Russel remits the proceeds 
of his Boston Sales. 

A Commission of Two and a half per Cent is allowed on 
your Sales and SuppHes, as well to Mrs. Green as to the 
Ship and Brig, that being a stipulation with you and the 
rate at which my business has hitherto been done on every 
part of the Continent, and in the West Indies. 

There is a considerable difference between my account and 
yours, as to the proportionate value of Public Securities, 
and specie, at the time the Hydra s duties were payable, 
but my estimate is founded, and the amount of that charge 

^ Newly carried. 

354 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

Stated in your Credit, upon a Certificate, of which a Copy 
is inclosed, as after the emission of paper Money, every 
State Security became graduated in its value by that Scale 
of Depreciation. 

You have also the terms of Cover, upon which my 
business has been volunteered not only here but in various 
parts of America, the Originals are at your inspection at 
pleasure, and you will then observe, that independant of 
my shifting my Colours in India, and taking those of France, 
your Conditional Credit in Account No. 2, is much higher, 
than the service might have been done for elsewhere. 

At any moment after your examination I shall be ready 
to come to an amicable Settlement, being with great regard. 
Dear Sir, Most truly yours, W. Green 

10 March, 1788. 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

Since receiving your note of yesterday evening, I have 
been engaged in tracing the difference between your account 
and mine, that I might communicate my observations. 

The three first articles to your debit in account No. I, 
differ only from yours in the charge of Commission, mine 
giving it according to the present custom of the Continent, 
at two and a half per Cent, at which rate your Commission 
business is done at New York, and mine everywhere; and 
it would indeed be singular, were I to pay you more than 
a stranger, or that agreeably to your doctrine, the poverty 
of the place should operate as an Argument in your favor, 
for where there is little Trade, the charges should be low 
to encourage its increase, and if your choice is to take all 
the trouble of your business on yourself, without the ex- 
pence of a Clerk, that circumstance ought not to enhance 
the value of your labor, the other Articles to your debit, 
agree with your own Account excepting Daniel Pearce's 
note, which I presume you have received at least it ought 
to have been stopt out of his Wages. 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 355 

A Commission of 2| per Cent is also allowed in this account 
on the gross amount of all your supplies to the Ship the 
Brig and to Mrs. Green, and that is certainly a reasonable 
Commission since most of your charges to my debit, it is 
to be presumed were taken out at your Store, agreeable to 
the Custom of the place at your own price, and of course 
to your own considerable advantage, and the Alterations 
in diminution of your Credits proceed from the difference 
in our estimate of the discount to be allowed on paper 
Money or public Securities, paid at the Impost office. 

In my account No. 2 a gross Sum is placed to your Credit 
for the various Services you profess to have rendered in the 
affairs of the Ship Hydra, and thence carried on to your 
Credit in Account No. 3, in which the debits and Credits 
are founded on your own documents, for it is to be imagined 
you regulated your price of pepper here by your own Sales 
at New York. I shall forbear on this occasion to dwell on 
the misconduct, with which she was managed, in consequence 
of your letters and advice, for doubtless had she gone either 
to New York or Philadelphia, I should have avoided a dead 
loss of at least Five Thousand pounds Sterling. 

The constant tenor of your language haveing ever been, 
to avoid a reference and that the account should be left to 
my own Settlement has little prepared me for such a proposi- 
tion, particularly at so late a period, and when you knew 
that the divided and embarrassed State of my affairs compels 
me to an immediate absence, which renders it impossible 
to give my personal attendance upon the referees, yet having 
now traced what I conceive to be the main difference between 
your claims and my allowance in my Account No. i and 3, 
I am willing on these points vizt. the rate of Commission 
and that of the Discounts upon any paper Medium payable 
at the Impost office, to yield to Arbitration, you chusing one 
Merchant of Character and I another, and if the two cannot 
agree upon the Case, they to chuse a third whose award 
shall be final, but I will not submit my Account No. 2 to 
any reference or Arbitration whatever. 

I have hitherto carefully avoided giving any Character 

356 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

of the Accounts you have tendered me, and it is with regret 
I am now compelled to observe, that I believe it is the first 
instance in North America, where the Charges of Com- 
mission and Duties upon an importation of East India Goods 
exceed the amount of Sales it was to have covered. I 
remain. Dear Sir, Your most humble Servant, 
TVT L A/r u 00 W. Green 

Newport, 1 2th March, 1788. 

Christopher Champlin to William Green 

Dear Sir^ 

Your letter of yesterday I received in the Evening, as 
to my commission of five per Cent it is no more than I have 
charged others for negotiating business far less complicated, 
and more profitable than yours; and without advancing 
monies in the first instance and waiting the event of the Sale 
to reimburse me, till the commissions were sunk, it is also 
a commission that the Merchants of this Town have generally 
charged, and with propriety: because in other places where 
business is done upon a large scale 2| per Ct. is better than 
7I at Newport. From S. Carolina have just receiv'd an 
Invoice of Rice with 5 per Ct. at the bottom. My terms 
at an early period were given you — if you did not approve, 
you were not compelled- to consign me any goods, nor did 
I solicit any. Had you ordered the ship and goods reported 
for N. York or Philadelphia and ordered her to your 
Consignee, most surely I should have done it. 

As to Peirce's note, which you charge me with, viz. in 
Account No. I £26: 13 : 4, it remains unpaid, except the 
nine pounds Sterling to your credit in my Account, nor was 
it possible to obtain any more from him, unless I had 
arrested him, and taken paper money in the event. And 
he might have libelled the ship for his wages. You deduct 
from my Account against Brigantine Betsey, the light 
money and office fees for clearing at the Intendant's office 
which I paid in hard cash, as per Certificate from said 
office. As to the price of goods out of my Store, they are 
charged to you, as to others I deal with. Your presumptive 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 357 

charge against me of fifty pounds 2/ in your Account No. 3 
is very extraordinary, when you have actual credit for it 
in the Account Sales, at the price I disposed of twenty casks 
to Mr. Deblois of said pepper; from whom I have, under his 
hand, the price he gave for it. And above all, that you 
should wish to destroy your stipulation of two and half 
per Cent on the Hydra s outward bound cargo, made in your 
own writing, under your hand and Seal, by a misterious 
Account you have stated, viz. No. 2 which Account you 
positively refuse to submit to any reference whatever. As 
to the impost duty upon entering the Hydra s cargo etc., I 
shall not find it impossible to prove that I paid it in impost 
orders, and have given you the credit for the medium of 
discount on those orders, at the period I bought them. As 
to the reflection on me for conducting the business, I shall 
presume to say, it cou'd not be better done under the 
embarrassed situation of every man of business at that 
period, with penal Laws hanging over his head to work his 
ruin. And if you try me by events, I presume you are not 
free of error by the same rule. It would have given me great 
pleasure to have closed the business to our mutual satis- 
faction; but from the statement of your Account (if adhered 
to) I see no probability of it; unless I sacrifice every claim 
of right to my commission on the Hydra s outward bound 
cargo, by excluding it from the reference, which you cannot 
expect from. Sir, Your most humble Servant 

Chris. Champlin 

Thursday Evening, March 13, 1788. 

William Green to Christopher Champlin 

Dear Sir, 

It is not with any degree of pleasure that I have engaged 
with you in Commercial Discussions, nor without a deep 
regret that I have thought myself compelled to object to 
your accounts, but I have hitherto suflPered so much from 
the indulgence of a liberal spirit in business, that now, 
almost too late, I am obliged to retrench and reform it; 

358 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

and having offered to submit what I conceive to be the main 
points in our dispute to Arbitration, I shall cease, on such 
any farther animadversion. 

My mind is open to the force of your remark on my account 
No. 2. I acknowledge the stipulation agreed upon between 
us, at a period when the American Flag was looked up to as 
a Cover of a free and independent Commerce, by Individuals 
of every Nation : but in the progress of my voyage and its 
event, so very far from that flag being useful to any purpose 
of mine, that in India I was constrained to relinquish it 
entirely: and at the instance of my friends, and by the 
exertion of their interest in that Country I was permitted 
as a special favor, and even then at a heavy expense to 
assume the French. What then became of your Cover 
and Commissions. Was it of any avail in St. Eustatius, 
where I was obliged to smuggle my Cargo, being formally 
prohibited from any open traflSc. Has it been of any 
material service here, since independent of you or me, 
Mrs. Green in her own right could have introduced infi- 
nitely many more Goods than appear to have been adequate 
to the demands of the market. 

I am persuaded you are too reasonable not to agree, that 
the stipulation which you very properly dwell upon, was 
to have been a reward- for correspondent services, but if 
the nature of your Government, or a combination of foreign 
powers, destroy the sources from whence these services were 
to have been drawn, do they not at the same time annihilate 
the eventual profits. 

It would be easy to me to prove by fifty testimonies, that 
my entry in Bengal was as a Frenchman, that measure was 
dictated by necessity not by choice. Would not that proof 
dissipate your Commission claim in toto, for it certainly 
in case of an accident would have removed your possibihty 
of Cover. Here then and only here, were you in the capacity 
of utility to me, and I think you have very reasonably es- 
timated the value of that to be one hundred and thirty three 
pounds, in lieu of which my account No. 2 gives you a Credit 
of Three hundred and fifty. 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 359 

I doubt not that what I have urged herein, will have a 
proper [weight] and influence upon your mind, which will 
then be divested of its present prejudices respecting the 
accounts now pending with, Dear Sir, Your faithful Humble 

W. Green 

Newport, 14 March, 1788. 

Hary Grant to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, 14 March, 1788. 

Dear Sir, 

I HAVE to acknowledge both your favors. I was in the 
Country a dunning, when Hulls Schooner left this, but to 
little purpose, since ever I knew this place, people never was 
so backward in their payments, nor trade at such a stand. 
You may believe me, when I tell you that for ether old or 
new debts I have not received the Value of One Hundred 
H Your Tea remains unsold, and cannot get above 1/8 for 
it, and cannot think of parting with it. Since I wrote you 
last I have sold nothing but a few peaces Russia duck, as 
to the India Goods nobody would touch them. I tried 
them at every Vendue in Town. You will see by the 
Account Sales the horid Prices they brought. I wish I 
had returnd them but never had an Idea they would be so 
very far under the mark. 

I am thankful I had nothing to do with Mr. Green with 
respect to purchases. 

By the return of Captain Hulls Schooner shall endeavour 
to close the sales, as much for your advantage as possible, 
and I do asure you it gives me pain our first Conection in 
Business will not prove so fortunate as I wish. I go for 
Savanah in a few days, but will be return'd by Hulls arrival. 
Pray make my best respects to your good family in which 
Mrs. Grant joins. I am with Esteem, Dear Sir, Your 
most obedient Servant, 
Hary Grant 

1 Illegible. 

360 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Benjamin Pierce 

St. Petersburgh, 21st March, 1788. 


I HAD the pleasure of writing you last the 4th Ulto. since 
which no great variations have happened in the prices of 
the russ products, but of late the demand for hemp has 
been increasing, so that for clean hemp has been paid Ro. 
2i§ to 22 all money down and Ro. 22| ro 23 with Ro. 2 per 
Berkowitz advanced, the inferior sorts of hemp are likewise 
much demanded and have fetchd the outschott hemp Ro. 
19 all money down and Ro. 20 to 2o| with Ro. 2 per Berko- 
witz advanced, as also the half clean hemp Ro. 18 and 19 per 
Berkowitz. the price of Iron continues also from 115 to 
125 Co. per pud, but those of the russ Linnen manufactories 
have got up very high, and the whole Stock that was brought 
hither this winter, has been ingaged already, flems Linnen 
from Ro. II I to 12. Ravenducks from Ro. 7I to 8 per piece 
and Drillings from 17I to i8| Co. per Arschin, and there is 
no decline from prices to be expected of those parcells that 
may come by the Barks, as the Supply will be but scantly, 
great quantities being ingaged for the use of our Army and 
fleet. Sailcloths however continue from Ro. 7I to 11 per 
piece according to quality and there is rather less demand for 
the same. Tallow is the only Article that underwent a 
further decline, the price of which being falln to Ro. 28 per 
Berkowitz without any demand, and may go yet lower 
if matters continue in the present Situation. 

Our Courses of Exchange stand low and there is no 
particular Rise of the same to be foreseen as the maintaining 
of our Army and fleet abroad will require large supplies of 
money that are partly provided for with Remittances from 
hence. The weather is at present very mild and if it con- 
tinues so, our Rivers may be navigable in about three Weeks 
time. I have not had the pleasure yet of hearing from you. 
I flatter myself however to be favourd with your Commands 
by some or an other ship thats coming our way this Season, 
and you may depend upon that my utmost endeavours will 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 361 

be excerted to serve you to full Satisfaction like I remain 
with the most perfect Regard, Sir : Your most obedient 
humble Servant, 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

Amsterdam 35! to 36/. London 37I to fi. 

Niels Ryberg to Christopher Champlin 

r- • . Copenhagen, the 25th March, 1788. 

I AM honoured with your much esteemed favour of the 
28th December 1. y. of which I observed with great pleasure 
that Capt. Peirce was safe arrived and his Cargoe found in 
good order. I hope same met a favourable Markett, and 
that the Expedition on the whole turn'd out satisfactory, 
altho' I must allow the high Price of Hemp and duty on the 
Rice lessened the Profit you may have reaped. 

I am much obliged to you for your kindness in again load- 
ing the Elisabeth Capt. Peirce and intending to address 
same to me. you may rely upon that I in return shall do 
my utmost to procure you agreable Sales on arrivall. I have 
made repeated Applications to our College of Commerce 
for procuring an Abatement of the Dutyes but same is not 
yet agreed upon, and the Reason which has hindered this is, 
that a commercial Treaty must be made betwixt you and 
this Kingdom for to bring same on the lowest footing, 
yet I flatter meself that before Capt. Peirces arrival some 
Alteration and Resolution will have taken place. 

The Letter you inclosed for Messrs. Edward James Smith 
& Co. in St. Petersburg have forwarded and at the same 
time recommended them your Interest in the best manner, 
the Prices of Hemp being so very high at present 21 Ro. per 
B'w'z and no Signs of declining I have intirely left it to their 
own Consideration to act in consequence of your order as 
they might think it most advantageous for your Interest, 
informing them at the same time, that as you expected the 
price of Hemp to be low and it being now the reverse it was 
a question if you chused to have so large a Parcell purchased 
as if the Price had been moderate; to buy now and sell after- 

362 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

wards may be as well connected with Loss as Profit, as the 
Prices are very high at present, and such instances as you 
are pleased to mention where the Price with the advance 
of the year increased so considerable, is very rare to meet 
with and sometimes the contrary, depending of the great 
or small Purchases and Speculations in spring and occur- 
rences afterwards happening unforseeen. I will now be 
informed of Mess. Smiths Resolution and on Capt. Peirces 
arrival know how to act in consequence, not doubting these 
Friends will observe your Interest in the best manner. 

I have reason to hope your Comodities will sell as well 
this as last year, and in regard of Rice our dealers in that 
Comodity will surely order none from abroad when they can 
purchase here, and this will occasion a ready demand: at 
present no Prices can be noted of your Commodities our 
navigation being still shut by Ice. 

By Letters sent you the 14th November and to which 
desire your referance you'll have observed that Mr. Thiringk 
is no more in Partnership with Mess. E. J. Smith and Co. 
but as your letter was directed to Mr. Smiths Firm I for- 
warded same to him, and if in future you should be willing 
to favour Mr. Thiringk with your Commands, you'll know 
by his own informations his Establishment. 

I recommend meself-to your Favour and remain respect- 
fully. Sir, Your most obedient humble Servant, 


Hamburg 43I per Ct. 
Amsterdam 35^ per Ct. 
London 6.26/ per £ 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 363 

P. S. Sail Cloth has no great Demand yet at Petersburg 
and no fixed Prices, a Ro. is 37 st. holl[and] Cry. 

William Willcocks to Christopher Champlin 

Cork, sth April, 1788. 


Your much esteemed favor of 29th February was handed 
me the 21st ult. by Capt. Wardwell of the brig Patty for 
which am much obliged, by it I perceive you have ordered 
Messrs. Hewes and Anthony of Philadelphia to ship to my 
address 100 Hhds. of Flaxseed per ship Hannibal Capt. 
Conynham who is not yet arrived but daily expected. I 
am sorry to inform you, that this Market is greatly overdone 
with Flaxseed already near 5,000 Hhds arrived but being 
divided into many hands has reduced the price so low as 
41/6 per Hhd. which some sold for at auction the 2d Inst. 
I have written to Belfast and if the Hannibal soon arrives 
and goes thither I think it best to let your seed go if the 
price is any thing tolerable. I am exceedingly vex'd that 
this beginning that you are pleased to make with me promises 
so little advantage to you, another time I hope it will be 
otherwise when I will be happy to be honoured with your 
commands. Pot Ashes is in great demand and none at 
Market, they'd readily sell for 34/ to 35/ per Ct. Barrel 
Staves £6.10 Hhd £9 to £9.10 and Oak boards white 16/ 
per 100 feet. I remain with respect Your Obedient Servant, 

Will : Willcocks 

None but White Oak Staves will sell here. 
Protheroe and Claxton to Christopher Champlin 

Bristol, 9th April, 1788. 


We did ourselves this pleasure the 6th February last, 
since which we have not received any of your esteemed 
Favors; We now hand you Invoice and Bill of Lading for 
sundry Goods shipped on your Account by the Bristol, 

364 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

the amount of which £236.15.6 is to your debit. Notwith- 
standing this Ship has been detained so long, we have not 
been able to get near the quantity of Crown Glass you 
ordered; indeed it has been with very great difficulty we 
have got what is shipped. The remainder is getting ready 
and shall be sent you by the first opportunity that offers 
after we get it. We gave the Shot Maker your Order with 
your limit of 18/ per C. but you will observe that it is charged 
at 24/. per C. without attending to the limit we gave him, 
he put the Shot on board, and charged it at the current 
price, but we have objected to it, and he says he is contented 
to submit it to you, and if you are not perfectly satisfied, 
he will lose his trouble of making, or more. The Lead 
cost him we know 21/. per C. besides the expence of bringing 
from Wales, and all the Shot we have shipped by this 
Vessell is charged at 24/. per C. but as you gave a limit, we 
should not have thought ourselves justified in exceeding it. 
We have got the Freight of these Goods considerably 
under the usual rate. Many articles are at half freight. 
We hope the whole will arrive safe and afford you satisfac- 
tion, the premium of Insurance we have also got lower. 
We are with Esteem, Sir, Your very obedient Servants 

Protheroe and Claxton 

Eliz'a Jenkins to Christopher Champlin 

Charlestown, April loth, 1788. 

Dear Brother, 

I HAVE lately received a letter from Congo, and he informs 
me his troubles are so great that they are not to be bourn 
with any lounger, occationed by his being sepperated from 
his Wife. I ever intended to give him his freedom and the 
reason why I have not done it before, was the fear of not 
haveing enought to support me, without his Labour, my 
Infermity rendering me unable to do but little towards it 
my self. And these objections still remain, but as I am very 
sencable all self intrust ought to be given up in points of 
Duty, have come to a fixed resolution to make the trial 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 365 

and set him at Liberty. Accordingly have wrote him when 
his year is out he is his own Man. as he is so uneasy I 
suppose he will have a mind to quit your service, if that 
shoud be the case have desir'd him to stay till you git 
other help (if you want him). 
from your Affectionate Sister 

E. Jenkins 

Hary Grant to Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, i6th April, 1788. 
Dear Sir, 

I HAVE to acknowledge the receipt of your favor, of the 
29 february by Cahoon, and inclose you prices current 
acording to your desire. I could have wisht to [have] acom- 
panied this with a remittance for your Tea, but cannot get 
it off at near the Mark: I shall indeavour to get small empty 
Chests, etc. started into for they never will sell in the present 
pacages — by far too large. Indeed every thing at present 
is dull, and for payments worse this year then I ever experi- 
enced. You may believe me when I tell you, that out of 
60 to 70 Thousand Sterling my friends in London have out 
here, I have not yet received one Thousand this year. I 
have given over all hopes untill we have a Government will 
not do justice till compeld. I wish I may be able to spend 
a few Weeks this Sumer with you. Mrs. Grant joins me 
in best respects to you and family. She begs Mrs. Champlin 
and Mrs. Greens Acceptance of Cask Grow Nuts and some 
Vinison Hams. I am with respect. Dear Sir, Your Most 
Obedient Servant, 

Hary Grant 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Forbes and Son 

Dublin, 17 April, 1788. 


I BEG leave to refer you to the preceding Copy of my 
Letters of the 25 February and 4th ulto. which I confirm. 

366 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

The detention of the Hope enables me to inform you I have 
disposed of all your flaxseed by her except about 30 hhds. 
and a few half Barrels, indeed it would have been all sold 
long since if it had been well cleaned, but there was a deal 
of it that had much black Grains in them and many false 
seeds and chaff owing to its not being well cleaned. I never 
experienced so much difficulty in disposing of this article 
as this year, such an immense Quantity as 14,400 hhds 
arrived here (exclusive of two Ships with 1800 hhds from 
Philadelphia missing but now supposed to be lost) and in 
so many different Hands who had People retailing it in all 
parts of the City and underselling each other that the Price 
has been for some days past down to 45/ per hhd and still 
looking down. I assure you I miss'd no Opportunity of 
putting off yours, many of my old country Customers 
after bargaining for Parcells and giving a shilling earnest 
(as is usual) were inveigled away and bought at a cheaper 
rate. Notwithstanding I have sold more than any other 
House here and have no doubt of putting off the Remainder 
of yours, altho' above 3000 Hhds must remain after the sow- 
ing season and its thought above 10,000 hhds will remain 
unsold throughout the Kingdom, at Newry the price is 
42/, Belfast 47/, and at L'Derry 2 Guineas, indeed a ship 
belonging to Boston came from thence yesterday with 600 
Casks that would not be landed so much have they [at] 
Market, its a shocking bad Trade and am truly sorry you 
are heavy Sufferers, that of yours which I sent to Drogheda 
not yet all sold; the Newry and Cork People sent several 
parcells there which retarded the Sale and reduced the price, 
have press'd my friends in that Vicinity to take from my 
friend there what they may want, which they have promised 
me to do but indeed they complain of its being the dirtiest 
Seed at that Market, nothing else I am perswaded will 
retard its Sale, and in a glutted Market as is the Case every 
where this Season its very difficult to put off indifferently 
cleaned Seed. I shall go there next week and use my utmost 
endeavours to close the Sale, I am sincerely. Gentlemen, 
Your most obedient Servant Edward Forbes 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 367 

P. S. 18th. Flaxseed has been sold today at 44/ the 
Arrival this Boston Vessell has made a great alarm on 
account of her coming from Derry. 

April 23d. My Advices from Newry yesterday F: seed 
was at 38/ to 40/, same at Cork, in short every place glutted 
and two Coasters have come in here from Derry and Newry 
which has reduced the price at 42/6 and it will be lower. 
Shocking work. 

Christopher and George Champlin to 
Anthony F. Thiringk ^ 

Newport, Rhode Island, April 22nd, 1788. 


Having been favour'd with your letters of October 29th 
and November 30th last conveying to us sundry useful 
informations respecting Russian Exports and Imports for 
which we are much oblidged and shall take occasion to 
write you more particular upon those heads. We wrote 
your late house of Smith and Co., December 28th under 
Cover to Nicholas Ryberg Esqr. of Copenhagen, requesting 
they wou'd procure a quantity of clean Hemp on our Account 
against the Arrival of our Brigantine. We therefore have 
the pleasure of confirming said letter to you as the remaining 
Branch of said house by our Brigantine Elizabeth Captain 
Benjamin Peirce who will wait upon you with a letter of 
Credit from Mr. Nicholas Ryberg to furnish him for our 
Account with Forty Tons clean Hemp, Three hundred 
Pieces of Russia duck and Forty eight Pieces of Ravens 
Duck all good in kind and such as Capt. Peirce shall approve 
of as suitable to our Market. At Writing 28th December 
we had no Idea of Hemp rising to the extravagant price 
you noticed but are happy to find by your letter to Capt'n 
Peirce of December, it has fell and we flatter our selves it 
may still be lower at the hour you purchase ours as all the 
speculation had ceas'd oweing to the expected Warr. We 

* The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

368 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

place the utmost confidence you will purchase the goods 
we require on the lowest terms possible and give Capt'n 
Pierce the utmost dispatch, handing us the State of your 
Markets and your opinion what they may be another year 
to come, and which is the best method for us to proceed in 
fixing a Credit that you may buy in for us Forty Tons of 
hemp next Winter at the lowest price in like manner as the 
London Merchants do. With Sentiments of Respect, We 
are, Sir, Your most humble Servants 

Chris: Champlin 
Geo: Champlin 

Benjamin Peirce to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Copenhagen, June 2d, 1788. 


I arrived here the last day of May having a passage of 
36 days of very disagreeable weather, the Brigantine is 
certainly a good vessel or she never cou'd supported the 
sail I carried without complaint, the old sails brought me 
here and expect they will carry me half the way home, have 
expended i| bbls. meat and 3 Cwt. Bread, the running 
rigging fail'd more than expected which am affraid will 
oblige me to buy some. I found Mr. Ryberg in as good credit 
as any man in Europe as a Merchant and have accordingly 
deliver'd the letters and shall the Cargo in 3 days. I find 
Tea at 30^/ Danish per lb. the Chinaman mention'd by 
Mr. Ryberg arrived two days before me but the Sales of her 
Cargo is not announced and it is generally thought it will 
be in September, they expect two more this season, there 
is no tea at Gottenburg, but they expect two ships. Rum 
is from 32I Rxd. to 33 for the Hhd of 63 Gal. Rice 7 Rxd. 
per Cwt. Tobacco los to 12 Danish if the Quality be good. 
Hemp at St. Petersburg 22 Rubles per Burkovitz, but they 
were in expectation of its falling in consequence Mr. Ryberg 
has advised Mr. Thiringk not to purchase 'till I arrive in 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 369 

Russia for which place I expect to sail in ten days. The 
Swedes have twelve ships of the line and six frigates ready 
for Sea the expence of which is paid by the Porte. The 
Danes are also equiping a fleet of the same force. I shall 
write you again before I leave this, there has no vessel 
arrived from St. Croix this Season, Please to inform Mrs. 
Peirce. I am, Gentlemen, your obedient Servant, 

Ben Peirce 

Exchange with London Rxd. 6.22^ per £ Sterling. 

Nicholas Ryberg to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Copenhagen, the 3 June, 1788. 


I BEG your Referance to my respects of the 25th March 
via London and had yesterday the pleasure to receive your 
Favour of the 22d April, by Capt. B. Peirce who arrived safe. 

I am much obliged to you for your kindness in addressing 
him to me, and assure you of my greatest Care for your In- 
terest in disposing of his Cargoe, Bills and Cash; he has 
begun to unload to day. About the end of this week he will 
be ready for going to Petersburg when I shall furnish him 
with the needfull letters, if Messrs. Smith and Co. in conse- 
quence of your request have purchased the ordered Goods 
will be difficult to transfer the order on Mr. Thiringk, there- 
fore shall furnish Capt. Peirce with such papers as either case 
may require. Hemp by the last accounts was still Ro. 22^. 
I realy wish it may be declined against his arrival. Agreable 
to your order I shall on his return from Russia supply him 
with Bohea one box Hyson and i ditto Souchong for 
the remainder of the effects, and a Chinese cargoe being 
already arrived and two yet expected I hope the Sales will 
come on before his return and that the Purchase may be made 
at a moderate price. When the Sales are held of his Cargoe 
shall have the honor to inform you of the obtained Prices. 

A great Armament is made at Sweden in favour of the 
Turks and said to hinder the Russien fleet passing the Sound 

370 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

on the way to the mediteranean, but as this is expected by 
the Russiens, accounts from Stockholm and Gottenburg say 
it looks very warlike, and that there prevails a Rapport, that 
hostilities will be or are declared by the Russiens against 
the Swedes if a disarmament be not directly agreed to by the 
latter. My next shall acquaint you of the result, and [in] 
Denmark we hope to enjoy Peace. I recommend meself 
to your favour and am with great Regard, Gentlemen, Your 
most obedient humble Servant, 

N. Ryberg 

Hamburg Bo. 43^ ] 
Amsterdam Cy. 34 } 
London per £6 rxd 22 J 

F. Baudin to Ethan Clarke and Company 

St. Martin's Isle of Rhe, 6 June, 1788. 


Deprived of your favours since mine of 2 gbre inclosing 
Invoice of Salt and Brandy per Captain Gardiner this serves 
to repeat my offers of best Services and to inform you that 
our wine crop has a beautiful prospect, the actual Cur- 
rency of Brandy is L. 115 per 27 Velts. it was L. 135, 3 
weeks ago and it is expected to be under L. 90 in the fall and 
perhaps L.70, so that you can't have a better opportunity 
to be cheaply supply'd with that Commodity than this year. 

Our Salt Season has begun pretty favourable and if we 
have two months of fair weather without interruption that 
Comodity now at L. 370 per 28 Moys may come down to 
L. 300 or L. 320. 

A Velt of Brandy is much about 2 English Gallons and a 
Moy of Salt nigh equal to one English Tun. 

If you send Capt. Gardiner or any other vessal this way 
you might load 'em with assorted Oak and Firr Timber, 
Staves, 2 inch Planck, i| inch Pine boards, floor Timbers 
and others for small 40 to 50 Tuns Vessalls, a parcell of Pitch 
and Tar and other such Lumber, these articles will fetch a 
good price here and the returns will be made in Salt and 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 371 

Brandy. I shall be happy in yours or your friends Com- 
mands due attention to which will be payed by, Sirs, 


Benjamin Peirce to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, June nth, 1788. 


I HAD the pleasure of addressing you the 3d instant over 
London as above, since which nothing material has turned 
up. the cargo come out in exceeding good order and think 
the prospect of the market is more favorable than when I 
wrote and will continue to mend 'till the sales (if no vesel 
arrives with the like goods) which is the 25 of this month, 
it cou'd not be sooner and allow time for the Merchants to 
write their correspondents in the trading towns to get orders 
to purchase as no Dane seems to be willing to speculate. 

The sales of the Tea Ships cargo is not yet advertised for 
sale nor no other ship arrived but daily expected, and there 
is a scarcity of that article at present to be bought here. 
'Tis the opinion of my friends here the Tea will go much 
lower at the auction than 30I Danish which has induced me 
to omit purchaseing 'till my return from Russia for which 
place I am now ready to sail. Russia goods continues the 
same. I shall give every dispatch in my power and expect 
on my arrival at Cronstadt to have an opportunity to write 
you by some of the American Vessels there being several 
there, the warHke preparations continue the same, the 

372 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

Swedish fleet have left Carlscroon [Carlscrona] and gone 

up the Gulf of finland. I am Gentlemen your Obedient 

Servant r> r> 

Ben Peirce 

N. B. the Spanish Dollars sold for 8 marks 4 skillings 
or 5/6 Danish; Exchange Rxd 6.20s per £ Sterling. 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the 23CI June, 1788. 


We had the honour to waite upon you the 4th April last 
under cover of Messrs. Lane Son and Eraser of London and 
in Reply to your esteemed Favour of the 28th December last 
year. We have now to confirm the Contents of said our 
Letter, beg leave to refer to it and the pleasure to acquaint 
you with the safe arrival here of your Brig the Elizabeth, 
Captain Benjamin Peirce, which was yesterday at Cronstadt. 
Said Captain is not come up yet, when does, shall consult 
with him about the Cargo and acquaint you further. 

Clean Hemp stands upon Ro. 23 1 and 23 per Berkovitz, 
Outshott Ro. 23, and half clean Ro. 22, 12 heads Novgorod 
Flax Ro. 30 per Berkovitz, Candle Tallow Ro. 29 to 30, and 
Soap Tallow Ro. 27 to 28 per Berkovitz, Sail Cloth from Ro. 
7 to io|, Ravenduck from Ro. 7I to 8, Flems Linnen Ro. 11^ 
to Ro. 12.30 Co. per piece. Drillings 18 to i8| Co. per arsheen, 
first Sort Bristles Ro. 12.85 Co., 2d Sort Ro. 6| per pood, 
Yellow Wax Ro. 15I per pd. Tarred Cordage Ro. 2f per pd. 

Our next will acquaint you what we have determined with 
Captain Peirce, in the meantime we are most respectfully. 
Gentlemen : Your most Obedient humble Servants, 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

Ams[terdam] 34 to 33jj. London 34! to 34^^. 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 373 

Hewes and Anthony to Christopher Champlin 

Philadelphia, 23d June, 1788. 

Dear Sir, 

We received your favor of the 23d ultimo by your worthy 
son, who we esteem, sensible, discreet, and agreahle; and it 
affords pleasure to tell you that all who was so happy as to 
be acquainted with him, was much pleas'd with his Society, 
we made him a Tender of what money he requir'd, but he 
accepted of only Forty Dollars, and set out on Wednesday 
last for Baltimore, Alexandria, and perhaps Richmond, 
on his Return we hope for more of his pleasing conversation, 
and shall then tender him what further sum he may require, 
we hope before this reaches you that you will have Accounts 
of the New Constitution ratified by the Commonwealth of 
Virginnia; but by late accounts from thence, it appears more 
douhtfull then we once expected, with an anxious desire to 
see this Federal Government once organiz'd (which promises 
much Happiness to Posterity,) we Remain with Esteem and 
Respect, Your Very Obedient Humble Servants, 

Hewes and Anthony 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the 27th June, 1788. 


Last Post we only advised the safe arrival of the Elizabethy 
Captain Benjamin Pierce at Cronstadt, to which refer. 
Since Captain Pierce is come up, of whom we understand, 
that on account of said Captains having received some 
Letters of our former Partner Mr. Anthony Frederic Thiringk 
in his private Name, mentioning nothing of our Partnership 
to be disolved and afterwards by the last of being, by which 
as well you as Captain Pierce (who knowing him as our Part- 
ner) either thought of our having left Trade or departed 
this Life, that in consequence of not hearing any thing of our 
firm you had given said Captain Orders to apply for the 

374 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

Goods he is to take at present from this Place, to our former 
Partner Mr. Thiringk. The Reason of your not receiving 
any Circular Letters about the Dissolution of our Society, 
was : that as we had not the honour before to correspond 
with you direct and the Goods you received from us last 
year, were through the Management of our mutual Friend 
Nicholas Ryberg Esqr. at Copenhagen, we did not know 
how to address direct to your good selves, nor a safe way to 
conduct our Letters, till we received your Favour of the 
28th December last year which answered the very day it 
came to out hands Vizt. the 4th April last, by the way 
you've ordered us, which is under Cover of Messrs. Lane 
Son and Fraser of London. Our partnership with Mr. 
Thiringk was dissolved in Harmony the 30th September last 
year not expecting he would have wrote any thing beforehand 
in his own Behalf without mentioning of our Dissolution to 
be. But all this now being past, we wont enter into any 
more and further particulars, and only acquaint, that on 
account these Circumstances, Captain Peirce has resolved 
to divide the Shipment of the Goods now to be loaden per 
the Elizabeth, between our former Partner and us. Mr. 
Thiringk is to provide the Iron and the Sail Cloth, and we 
the Clean Hemp, the quantity of the Hemp to be about poods 

In consequence hereof we have purchased for your account 
said quantity of the best clean Hemp at Ro. 23 per Berkowitz 
in Bank Notes and shall send the same down to Cronstadt 
as soon as possible to be loaden on board the Elizabeth, and 
when done all the Vouchers will be made up and conducted 
in the same manner as last year and our Reimboursement 
we take upon our mutual Friend Ryberg Esqr. at Copen- 
hagen, of all which we shall not miss to advise you in course. 

Now knowing the Channel perfectly to conduct our 
Letters, we shall take the Liberty of waiting oftener upon 
you and to keep you advised from time to time with what 
passes, in the meantime we recommend ourselves in the 
favour of your future Commands, wherein you may allways 
depend on our Zeal and our utmost Care for your Interest, 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 375 

not doubting to give you in every thing full Satisfaction and 
to serve you as well as any house in this place. 

Though we had your prior orders for the present Cargo 
per the Elizabeth we don't blame Captain Pierce in the least 
for having shared the same, nor do we in the least envy our 
late Partner; on the contrary we approve very much of the 
Steps taken by Captain Pierce and agreed to it without any 
hesitation like we are glad the other share is fallen to Mr. 
Thiringk, who we dare say will serve you well. For the 
Future leave it to your own Discretion whom of us you will 
please to favour with your worthy Commands, should 
esteem ourselves very glad if the Scale would turn on our 
side and happy to receive your Commands, wherein you 
will allways find us ready devoted and most respectfully, 
Gentlemen : 


Nicholas Ryberg to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Copenhagen, the 28th June, 1788. 


I DESIRE your referance to my respects of the 3d inst. by 
which I had the pleasure to acquaint you of Capt. Peirces 
safe arrival. He sailed from here the 12th and would have 
proceeded sooner on his Voyage to St. Petersburg, but calms 
prevented him. I furnished him with two letters of Credit 
one for Messrs. Edward James Smith and Co. and the other 
for Mr. A. F. Thiringk, that he according to circumstances 
may make use thereof. His Cargo was sold the 25th and I 
am glad to inform you of having received agreable Prices, 

376 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

the Rice being paid with 7 rx : 52/ to 8 rx : 92, per medium above 8 rx 
" Rum " " " 32 rx " to 33 : 24 per 60 Gallon 
" Tobacco " " " 10/ to 13/ per li 

with which Prices I flatter meselt you'll be pleased. I can 
likewise have the pleasure to inform you that the Price of 
Hemp at St. Petersburg is expected to decline and likely 
Capt. Peirce may be supplyed at R 20 Exchange ^^d St. per 
Ro. The day after the mentioned Sales, Capt. Handy and 
Lawton arrived. 

I recommend meself to your favour and am with great 
Regard, Gentlemen, Your most obedient humble Servant 

By Proc. of N's Ryberg, 


Benjamin Peirce to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, July 6th, 1788. 


I arrived here 2 days ago after a tedious passage of 22 
days. I find the Hemp ready purchased by Mr. Smith in 
consequence of your letter over Ireland last winter, which 
I must take, the duck and Iron I shall take from Mr. 
Thiringk, Hemp (of which article there is a large crop and 
of an excellent quality)- is at 23 Rubles per Bur'z Sailcloth 
and Iron the same as when Mr. Thiringk wrote. But the 
Exchange is 35*^ sterling per Ruble, so much in our favor 
that it reduces the price of Hemp free on board at Cronstadt 
to £24 per ton. I hope to be at Copenhagen by the first 
of August and shall give every dispatch in my power. Hemp 
will undoubtedly fall in autumn after the contracts are 
fulfill'd, unless there shou'd be a war between the maritime 
powers of Europe, the Swedes have 15 sail of the line 
cruizing in the Gulf about 150 miles from this and yesterday 
the Russ fleet of the same force left Cronstadt. there is 
no declaration yet and it is expected that the Swedes will 
not commence hostilities. 

Paul Jones is made a Vice Admiral and a Compte of Russia 
and gone to take a Command on the Black Sea. if another 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 377 

Vessel shou'd sail before me I shall inform you of my progress. 
Capt. Page is here in Mr. Brown's Brig't. I am Gentlemen 
your Obedient Servant, 

Ben Peirce 

[Endorsed,] Per the Good hope Capt. Forester. 


St. Petersburgh, the 7th July, 1788. 
Invoice of Two Bales with Forty-five pieces Ravenducks shipt on board the 
Brig Elizabeth Captain Benjamin Peirce for Newport in Rhode Island America, to 
the Consignment and for Account and Risk of Messrs. Christopher and George 
Champlin of said place, vizt. 

2 Bales containing 

No. I. I Bale 20 pieces measuring 1000. Arshins 
2. I do. 25 " " 1250 do. 

2 Bales 45 pieces measuring 2250 Arshins 

Ravenducks at Ro. 8 per ps Ro. 360. 


Duty at 40 Co. per piece 

Town duty. . . . at 1 p Ct 

Customehouse Charges. . . .at4pCt 

24 Arshins Crash for wrappers with duty at 4 Co. . . . 
receiving Matts ropes, packing and shipping at 8 Co. per 


Lighterage to Cronstadt 

Brokerage and Extra Charges . . .at I5 p Ct 

Commission at 2 p Ct 





- -.96. 






Amount in Bank Notes Ro. 398.18. 

Errors Excepted 
Anto. Fr. Thiringk. 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the 8th July, 1788. 


This goes by Captain Benjamin Peirce of your Brig the 
Elizabeth, in which have loaden and sent for your Account 

378 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

and Risk as per inclosed duplicate Bill of Loading and 
Invoice, forty Bundles Clean Hemp weighing pds. [poods] 
2425.20 lb. and amounting to Ro. 6346.47 Copecks, which 
sum shall draw on our mutual Friend Nicholas Ryberg 
Esqr. at Copenhagen and advise you off by post, whereby 
you will receive also duplicate Bill of Loading and Invoice 
with further Advices. We doubt not this Hemp will give 
Satisfaction, also that Captain Pierce w411 be intirely con- 
tented with the dispatch he met with from our part and we 
flatter ourselves to be favoured next year again with your 
worthy and wellcome Commands, in which and your Friend- 
ship we recommend ourselves. We beg leave to refer you 
to our Letter of the 27th past by Post under Cover and 
Care of Messrs. Lane Son and Fraser at London, wherein 
explained you fully how it is come, that we ship only your 
Hemp and our late Partner Mr. Anthony Frederic Thiringk 
the Iron and other Goods. 

The price of good Hemp keeps yet on Ro. 23 per Berkowitz 
and may remain so for a while, old Sable Iron from 123 to 
127 Co. and new Sable from 115 to 122 Col per pd. assorted 
Iron in proportion higher according to their Sorts and 
Dimensions, Sail Cloth from Ro. 7 to Ro. io|, Ravenducks 
Ro. 8^ to f, Flems Ro. I2| to | per piece. Outshott and half 
Clean Hemp are this year above their usual Proportion to 
the clean, so high in prices that the Outshott is paid with 
Ro. 22| to 23, and the half clean with Ro. 2i| to 22 per 
Berkowitz. The reason for it is : that these two Sorts are 
very much sought for France. 

We wish Captain Peirce a happy and quick passage and 
the Hemp well to receive and to a good Market, being in all 
your further Commands most respectfully. Gentlemen : 
Your most obedient humble Servants, 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

We have advanced Captain Peirce for Ships Use Ro. 
380. for which shall forward his Receipt to Mr. Ryberg and 
draw for also on him. 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 379 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the lith July, 1788. 


On the 27th past we had the Honour to waite upon you 
last with ample Advices about your Ship the Elizabethy 
Captain Benjamin Peirce and the Goods to go by the same 
for your Account, which confirm and to which beg leave to 
refer. Herewith have the pleasure to advise, that said your 
Ship is intirely dispatched from hence and will sail with first 
fair Wind for Copenhagen. 

Of the 40 Bundles Clean Hemp loaden by us for your Ac- 
count we inclose hereby Bill of Loading and Invoice, amount- 
ing to Ro. 6346.47 Co. We have advanced Capt. Benjamin 
Peirce for the use of the Ship as per inclosed Receipt the 
Sum of Ro. 380. Of course our advances are vizt. 

above Amount of Invoice Ro. 6346.47. 

and the Money furnished for Ships use 380. — 

to which comes yet 

Postage Ro. 11.24. 

Commission and Brokerage of Drafts f p Ct. . . . S°-9^- o^-^5 

in all ■ ■ Ro. 6788.62 

for which we have debited your account; to ballance the 
same, we have drawn this day said Sum of Ro. 6788.62 Co. 
on our mutual Friend Nicholas Ryberg Esqr. at Copenhagen 
at 65 days date payable in Amsterdam, Exchange 33 
Stuyvers holland Currency per Ruble making f. 11 201. 4 s. 
half Currency, wherewith closed your account and doubt 
not our Draft will meet with punctual honour; we beg you 
will note every thing with us in Conformity. 

By the Dates of the Bills of Loading and Invoice you will 
please to observe we have dispatched Captain Peirce from 
Town the 8th Instant. We have given him that day a letter 
for you containing duplicate Bill of Loading and Invoice, 
to which we beg also to referr. 

We flatter ourselves you will be satisfied with our man- 
agement in all this piece of Business as Captain Peirce we 

380 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

dare say is, and we hope to be favoured next year again with 
your worthy and welcome Commands assuring you of our 
utmost Care, Attachment and Attention to your Interest 
and being intirely devoted to the same, we subscribe with 
the greatest Regard and Esteem, Gentlemen : Your most 
obedient humble Servants 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

We shant fail to advise you when great alterations happen 
in the prices of Goods, at present none. 

Thompson and Gordon to Christopher Champlin 

Newry, 12 July, 1788. 

It may not be unacceptable to inform you how our flax- 
seed market turn'd out, which proved a miserable one indeed, 
above 50 M hhds, arrived in this Kingdom, of which about 
20 M hhds. remain on hand, our House sold about 4 M 
hhds. at 40/ and were fortunate enough to close so. what 
remains is now selling to the Oyl mills from 30/ to 34/ and 
demand sufficient for all that remains, when your quantity 
exceeds 35 M hhds. it ought not to stand you more than 
40/ a hhd. Pot and Pearl ashes have both been demanded, 
and we have made considerable sales of each at 35/ prices 
will rate according to the quantity thrown in from America. 
We cou'd make ready sale of a Cargo of best Pot ashes, and 
doubtless produce for them as much as any other market 
wou'd, at present they are scarce. We sell and guarantee 
Debts at 4 per Ct., and on arrival shall advance half Value 
in London bills, remainder on sale, or by return of Vessell 
remit full value in Linen Cloth, which is very cheap, none 
can export the article on better terms, being situated in the 
center of the manufacture, neither loaded with carriage or 
factorage as those bought in London and Dublin are, and 
being confined to the sale of these articles on Commission 
have nothing to interfere. Barrell Staves serve best for 
Dennage, boat boards being 2d per foot square oak 80/ a 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 381 

ton but no considerable quantity of either wou'd sell here, 
not exceeding forty Tons. 

Remain Respectfully Your Obedient Servants 

Thompson and Gordon 

Messrs. Lane Son and Frazer, London can satisfie you as to 
our House as can Mr. George Gibbs Newport. 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, 28th July, 1788. 


This day three weeks I had the honour of writing you by 
the post over England when provided you with Bills of 
Loading and Invoices of my Shipment by the Brig Elizabeth, 
Capt. Ben Peirce amounting to £558. Sterling which at the 
same time advised to have reimbursed myself for upon 
Mr. Nich. Ryberg at Copenhagen, which by this confirm and 
crave your kind referrance to. 

Captain Peirce being sail'd on the 15th I hope he will have 
made Copenhagen road by this time, the winds having been 
fair ever since and having an opportunity of shipping to 
Mr. Ryberg I would not fail to inclose within the dupplicates 
of said Shipment by Captain Peirce and to inform you at 
the same time that our trade is become very dull within 
these ten days, by starting up the prices of most of our 
staple commodities, that of Hemp has advanced to Ro. 
25§ to 26, Tallow to Ro. 34 to 35, and Flax to Ro. 38. the 
reason for these sudden risings may be attributed, to some of 
the winter speculatores falling short of the quantity of Hemp 
they had contracted for and which they are now under the 
necessity to supply from the market, besides several pur- 
chases being made for Ships that have dropt in of late. 
Tallow has advanced on account of the dry Season in Eng- 
land and of Flax we really fall short, a particular demand 
offering for the same from Scotland, how prices will rule 

382 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

towards the close of our Navigation, and what further 
passes in trade, shall have the honour to keep you informd 
of at its time. 

I have conversed with good Captain Peirce about the mode 
of stricking out a Line of business with your country and in 
particular upon those articles that may be imported from 
America to this country, but to my knowledge there are 
but few whereto any attention can be paid it be[tter] than 
Furrs Leather and Cotton, the former we import from 
England and this being second hand, I think might do best 
from your port, we chiefly do take black Canada Bear 
Skins, the lighter the better, Canada Fishers Skins, large 
Canada Racoon Skins and dark sprin[g] coney Skins, all to 
be well dressed when they will meet with a ready Sale. We 
get also from London Calf and Seal Skins besides Butts 
Leather and your Cattle being so good I should think this 
would become likewise an object worth reflecting provided 
the Leather is properly dressed. Cotton I hear is likewise 
to be got with you, in case the same is in any way like with 
that which comes from Smirna, it will do very well. 

The quality of your Treacle or Molasses being unknown 
here, I would advise to have but a few Casks sent for tryal, 
like I would recommend to be rather limitted by sending 
Cotton, Indigo CoflFe and Sugar, till these articles are first 
try'd and experience acquired for the future, a matter of 
about one thousand hundred weights English of good Rice 
in small Barrills would likewise do at a time. I inclose for 
your further speculation a List of our last Years Imports 
that was published but of late and at the fall shall give you 
my opinion, which articles may be the most promissing for 
next Season. 

Recommanding myself to the continuance of your favours 
and friendship I remain most respectfully, Gentlemen, 
Your most obedient humble Servant, 

Anto. Fr. Thiringk 

The opportunity by which this was intended to you having 
been detaind untill the ist August, I find needful to add, that 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 383 

the price of clean hemp has started up to Ro. 26f and is now 
held at Ro. 27. The taking of Trinconomale by the French 
affords great Speculations and many are of opinion that a 
war amongst the maritime powers is avoidable. I'll have 
the pleasure of writing you further at the fall. 

William Willcocks to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Cork, 1st August, 1788. 


Annexed is Copy of what I had the pleasure of writing to 
you the 5th of April, the i8th of the same Month arrived 
the Hannibal which brought me a letter with bill of Lading 
for 100 Hhds. of Flaxseed shipt for your Account by Messrs. 
Hewes and Anthony, a few of which were damaged by Salt 
Water, but not much. Previous to the Ships arrival, I had 
collected information from Dublin and several parts of the 
North, where I fou'd there was as great a glut of Flaxseed if 
not greater than here, which determined me in landing yours, 
to avoid a greater loss and additional expence. I since 
engaged them at 40/ per hhd. and six months Credit, the 
price fell so rapidly that he drew away only a few, and seeks 
an abatement on the remainder, which I will not give him. 
Agreeable to order, as soon as I am in Cash I will remit the 
Net Proceeds to Messrs. Lane Son and Frazer, and Mr. Alex- 
ander Champion Junior, of London. 

Pot Ashes have been a good article. I lately run off a 
parcel all at 37/ per Ct. Pearl Ashes are not much used in 
these parts. The Polly from Hudson, in the North River, 
arrived here about a fortnight ago with 127 barrels Pot 
Ashes and 60 M very good barrel Staves, the Pot Ashes 
sold at 33/ per Ct. and the Staves at £6.10. per M. a few 
days before arrived to me the Ship Donnegal from Baltimore 
with 150 M Hhd. and barrel Staves, and 429 barrels Tar. 
the Staves I have mostly sold at £6.12 to £6.16.6 the barrel, 
and £11 per M the Hhd. but am only offered 11/4^ per 

384 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

barrel for the Tar. Oak plank and boards are worth about 
16/. per 100 feet. I respectfully am, Gentlemen, 

Benjamin Peirce to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, August 8th, 1788. 


I THIS day arrived here after a passage of 13 days from 
St. Petersburg having procured the goods you order'd the 
Sail Cloth at 29/ Stlg. per piece the Hemp £22.15 ^tlg. per 
ton, the Iron at £12.15 P^^ ton all good in quality, have 
had a consultation with Mr. Saabye upon the article of Tea 
and shall determine in the morning whether I give the same 
price that Handy and Lawton give or not, if shou'd shall 
be soon after them if not you must not look for me 'till the 
last of November as the Sales are the loth September, upon 
the whole I shall be governed by the judgement of Mr. 
Ryberg who I am sure is my friend. I am, Gentlemen, 
your obedient Servant, Ben Peirce 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Sons 

Dublin, I2th August, 1788. 


Having none of your esteem'd favors unanswered, the 
present is to hand you Sales of the Flaxseed received per 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 385 

the Hope Captain Wall. Neat proceeds when in Cash 
£1895.10.5 the one half whereof is carried to the Credit of 
your respective Accounts Current without my prejudice 
in case any of the outstanding debts proove bad; at same 
time lament truely this Adventure has not turn'd out more 
profitable to you, tho' think myself very fortunate that I 
got it all sold so soon as I did, the price having fallen the 
latter end of the Season down to 32/6, and a deal is left on 
hand both here and in all the out ports particularly at Derry 
and Newry; The Oil Mills in this Vicinity has bought up 
a good deal from 30/ and 32/ and now give £34/ i\d per 
Hhd for it. upon the whole flater myself yours will turn out 
as well as your Neighbours and the Quantity I sold was 
much more then any other House here. Our Harvest prom- 
ises a most abundant Crop of all kinds of Corn, of Flaxseed 
do not apprehend any will be saved; its impossible to form 
any Idea how this Article will rule next Season, the price 
always is govern'd by the Quantity that comes to Market, 
so that if there is an abundant Crop with you, you should 
buy it in proportion Cheap, and you may calculate the 
Consumption of this Kingdom to be 36,000 Hhds tho' believe 
from the Great Parliamentary Bounty given for sowing 
this Article, that nearer 40,000 Hhds were sown, and its 
expected the same Encouragement will be continued the 
ensueing Spring. 

There is a bad Debt made on the Sales of your Seed last 
year. I have had the Man William Edgar in Geoal these 
10 Months, I've now some prospect of geting his Father in 
Law to join in Security to pay half the debt in one, two and 
three years, all that prevents its being compleated is waiting 
to hear from a friend in the Country if he is a Solvent Man. 
I dont know what effect the War between Sweden and Rusia 
may have on the Politicks of the other European Powers, 
but if matters are not accommodated during the Winter I 
fear others will be brought into the Quarrell. 

In the letter which I had the pleasure to write you the 
4th of March I requested you to ship me Pot ashes of first 
quality for the proceeds of the Spermacitie Candles etc. 

386 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

which you'l be so good as to attend to. I am most respect- 
fully, Gentlemen, Your obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

P. S. If the Northern Powers continue the War next 
Summer Your Naval Stores will be wanted; I think Pitch 
and Tar must answer if bought cheap. Pot ashes 34/ 
White Pearl ashes 33/ to 34/ per Ct. both of first Quality. 

Joseph Lawrence to Christopher Champlin 

Providence, August 19th, 1788. 


I HAVE been apply'd to by one of the Committee for Build- 
ing a Meeting house in Franklin (State of Massachusetts)^ 
for 10 Boxes of 8 by 10 Window Glass, and Painters Colours 
sufficient to paint the same for which he ofi^ers to pay in 
good merchantable Flaxseed at the going price when he re- 
ceives the Glass which he wants in September, if you have 
the Glass and Painters Colors and the pay will suit please to 
let me know by the boat, the price of Seed is not broke 
here a small Quantity has been brought in and sold at 3/6 
and the last at 3/. I am Sir yours, 

Joseph Lawrence 

Benjamin Peirce to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Copenhagen, August, 20th, 1788. 


I sail this day in company with Capt. Page, I have 
on board 40 tons clean hemp 300 pieces Sail Cloth, 45 do. 
Ravens duck 58 Chests Bohea, 2 Boxes Green Tea and 8| 
tons of Iron as cargo which fills the Elizabeth full, there is 
a ballance of 16 Chests of tea due which will be shipp'd in 
the Ship Hope Capt. Jacob Westcot for providence. She 
will sail in all September. I am. Gentlemen, Your Obedient 

^^"='"' Ben Peirce 

^ See Blake, History of Franklin, 54. 




388 COMMERCE OF [ 1788 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 29th August, 1788. 

I REFER you to my letter of the 12th instant via New 
York. Since received your always esteem'd of the i6th 
ulto. via Cork handing Sales of the Spermaceti Candles in 
which account you debit me £4.7.8! ballance of Candles 
returned per Captain Sheffield out of my part of the Candles 
received for the | of the Ship, in your and Messrs. 
Fowlers letter of 12 September (last,) you desire me for to 
charge Captain Sheffield with that Sum which I did with 
other Items and sent the account to his wife and if I recollect 
under cover and open to you fully persuaded the Amount 
or Ballance you would of course have received for me so that 
if you have repaid this Sum to her its against me having no 
property of his in my hands to have stopt that Sum and 
wrote her to pay the whole Amount as furnished into your 
and Mr. Fowlers hands — so that I think you should at least 
receive the same back. I made a mistake in debiting Mr. 
Ward Arnold and Vernon for the | of the Copenhagen freight 
as Currency in place of British Money tho indeed your Letter 
was very explicit on this point, you have my thanks for 
settling my account so properly with Mr. Ward and have 
charged the other Gentlemen with the difference, and you 
have both my best thanks for your good Sales of the Candles 
as well as for the Settlement of that unfortunate Vessels 
accounts. In my letter of the 12th instant to you and 
Messrs. Fowlers I sent Sales of your Flaxseed per the Hope 
and tho there are some of the debts yet due shall take them 
all on myself to ease your minds and this post remitted 
Messrs. Lane Son and Frazer £110 Brit: which will nearly 
ballance your accounts, and by a ship to sail for New York 
in a few days your Account Current will be furnished, with 
respect to the unfortunate bad debt made on Sales of youre 
Neighbours, Mr. Handys Flaxseed, it was not my fault, for 
I did enquire the Mans Character before I delivered him the 
same and was inform'd he was safe and if your Seed has been 

1788] RHODE ISLAND 389 

as clean and as well looking as youre Neighbours probably 
he would have had more of yours. My making this and 
another bad debt made me use every precaution possible 
this Spring and it gives me inexpressible pleasure on your and 
other friends Accounts that I am not likely to make any 
this year at least tho all is not received yet as I before wrote 
you I take them on myself and flatter myself upon a review 
of the whole of the Sales and bad debts they will appear as 
good and the bad ones as few as my Neighbours. If they do 
not turn out so I can only assure you its not my fault con- 
vinced no man endeavours to do more in every sense of the 
word to serve his friends than I do. were the property my 
own I could not do more. I am told that in consequence 
of a bad debt made for Mr. Gibbs that he has got Mr. 
Norris to guarantee the Sales of his goods, if you desire it 
I shall do yours on the like terms. I know two Years ago 
a Gentlemen who had Flaxseed consigned him from New 
York was so unlucky as to have made two or three heavy 
ones and his friends afterwards agreed to allow him 4 per 
cent. Commission and for insuring debts this Commission 
he tells me he has charged ever since and I can have no 
objection to act by you and other friends as my Neighbours 
do; and then you'll be on a certainty that the produce of 
your goods will be secured. 

The bad debt made on your Sales by Thomas Dungan who 
was robb'd I expect a dividend next November it will be 
about 15^ per pound. I cannot help it as you mentioned 
Mr. Handys name to say that he has treated me very ungen- 
erously after the promise [his] Son made me of punctual 
Remittance. I sent his account to Messrs. Russells of 
Providence as I knew one [of] their Daughters married his 
Son, so I thought they would have been more likely to influ- 
ence him to remit me. Its such behaviour sours Men from 
assisting their friends and tends to destroy confidence 
between Man and Man. I am, Sir, Your most humble 

Edward Forbes 

390 commerceof [ 1788 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the 5th September, 1788. 


It was the 21st July we had the Pleasure to write you last, 
when we chiefly advised that your Brig the Elizabeth^ 
Captain Benjamin Peirce was sailed from hence for Copen- 
hagen. We have got now lately the News from our mutual 
Friend Nicholas Ryberg Esqr. of Copenhagen, that said your 
Brigg is not only dispatched there, but sailed also from 
thence, of which doubt not our mutual Friend has advised 
you. We have likewise very gladly observed in the Sound 
Lists he is safely passed Elsineur and we hope will be safe 
arrived with you before receipt of this, which we heartily 
wish, and then we flatter ourselves the Hemp we shipt for 
your account will give satisfaction, also as Capt. Peirce was 
satisfied with our Management, that we shall have the honour 
of executing all your Commands at this place in the next 
year, for which purpose we recommend ourselves in your 
favours and Friendship, requesting to be assured of our 
utmost Endeavours for your Interest and to merit the 
Continuance of your Commands. The inclosed for Captain 
Benja Peirce beg to -deliver. By his Recommandation 
we dispatched from hence a Brig the Hope^ commanded 
by Captain Benjamin Page belonging to Messrs. Brown 
and Francis of Providence, and upon a Letter of Credit 
supplied this Captain with what Goods he wanted from 
hence for account said Gentlemen; But as this Captain did 
not take" his full Cargo here and wanted yet Goods from 
Copenhagen, for which he had no Credit with him, we 
furnished him with a Letter of Credit for that purpose on 
our Friend N. Ryberg Esqr. and recommended said Gentle- 
man to provide Captain Page with the Goods he might want, 
which has been done to the Amount of £1050. Sterling, for 
which said Captain passed his Drafts upon his Owners 
Messrs. Brown and Francis at Providence Rhode Island, 
at 6 Months date in favour of our Friends Messrs. John 


William Anderson and Co. payable in London. Mr. Ryberg 
acquaints us of having sent you said Draft to procure the 
acceptance and domiciliation and afterwards to forward it 
Messrs Anderson and Co. of London; also that he forwarded 
through your hands the Bills of Loading and Invoices for 
which this Draft is passed and desired you in case the Draft 
should not be properly accepted to take in your possession 
the Goods and to dispose of them for our account remitting 
afterwards the Net proceeds to said our London Friends. 
We hope all these precautions will have proved unnecessary, 
as we gott the best intelligence about the Solidity and 
Character of Messrs. Brown and Francis, and as no doubt 
these Gentlemen will be well known to you, we beg you will 
kmdly interfere with them in our favour for their further 
Business at this Place, in which you will greatly oblige us, 
also our mutual Friend N. Ryberg Esqr. of Copenhagen, 
whom we recommend them for their Business at that place. 
Clean Hemp is now already as high as Ro. 29 per Berko- 
witz, Outshott or 2d Sort Ro. 25, and half clean or 3rd Sort 
Ro. 24, 12 heads white Flax Ro. 39 and 40, — all monstrous 
high prices, and whether they will be as high next year or 
how they are likely to be, is not possible to judge as yet, but 
we shall not fail to advise you in its time how the first Con- 
tracts will open, also to provide you at the close of shipping 
with a List of the Goods exported from hence to America. 
Sail Cloth from Ro. 7 to Ro. ii| Ravenducks Ro. 8| to |, 
Flems Ro. izj to I2| per piece. Drillings 2o| to 21 Co. per 
arsheen. Candle Tallow from Ro. 33 to Ro. 35, and Soap 
Tallow from Ro. 26 to 30 per Berkowitz, but no good Tallow 
more at Market. The prices of Iron stand, old Sable from 
123 to 125 Co., new Sable from 115 to 120 Co. per pd, the 
assorted sorts in proportion to their demensions dearer. 
We are in all your Commands most respectfully. Gentlemen: 
Your most obedient humble Servants, 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

Amsterdam 33 to 32fj. London 34 to 33|i. 

392 commerceof [ 1788 

Memorandum ^ 

Memorandum upon what conditions Chris : ChampHn 
will furnish Messrs. Lawson, Price and Co. with Sundry 
articles for Equiping and putting to Sea their new Schooner 
now in this Harbour, vizt. 

For Russha Duck, Ravens Duck and Cordage, Barr Iron, 
for the Smith, Provisions, including every other Article 
where money is paid either to Tradesmen, Labourers, Capt. 
and Seamen, Clearing at the Custom house etc. shall be con- 
sidered as Solid Coin, which said Price and Co. shall stipulate 
to pay said Champlin or his order in Solid Coin at Charleston 
South Carolina, by the Fifteenth of January, 1789, or in 
Rice at the Market Price at said Charleston, on January 
15th, 1789, Allowing and Creditting said Champlin in 
Account with the difference of Exchange between the paper 
Currency of said Charleston, Carolina, and Solid Coin, 
provided the Amount is paid in Rice. But for the Amount 
of such parts of Tradesmens Bills and all other articles fur- 
nished for said Equipment without money being paid, said 
Champlin will receive of said Price and Co., at said Charles- 
ton on January 15th, 1789, in good Rice at the Market 
price for which said Price and Co. must stipulate to pay. 

A Commission of three per Cent must be allow'd said 
Champlin upon the Advance for contexting with the different 
persons — collecting, paying, and adjusting — the whole 
Accounts. A like Commission of three per Cent said Price 
Co. agrees to charge said Champlin upon any Merchandize 
which said Champlin may ship to their Address also they 
agree to charge said Champlin three per Cent upon any 
Merchandize which they may purchase and ship for his 
Account at Charleston aforesaid. 

Newport, September i8th, 1788. 

N. B. Shoud said Champlin ship to our adress at Charles- 
ton per our new Schooner aforesaid, it is agreed the Freight 
thereof shall be at one Silver Dollar per Hhhd. 

Lawson Price and Co. 
Chris. Champlin 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 393 


Hamburg, the 7 October, 1788. 

Favored with your much esteemed of the zzd July, we 
have the pleasure to wait on you with the desired informa- 
tion relating to the East india Cotton wool. 

This article may be imported here without any restraint, 
but as the Cotton trade commonly depends on the Wool 
imported from Smirna and there adjaicent quarters, which 
together with the West india Cotton generaly supply the 
European Manufactures, we find them from East india to 
be little known. However parcels of whatever consequence 
may be run off at a price adequate to quality compared with 
the Smirna Cotton. Here a parcel of Surate Wool was im- 
ported some Years ago, the quality of which was like to the 
inferior Smirna Cotton, and then sold at 22 to 2/\.d, Smirna 
Cotton of common quality standing at the same price. This 
price since rose up, and is now at 27. to zSd. but with appear- 
ance of a fall again, demand having remarkably relapsed 
some Time since. Thus it appears that the East india Wool 
alike in quality to the common Smirna, such as the above 
mentioned might fetch between 24 and 2yd Banco a li, with 
8f per Ct. Discount, any unforeseen revolution excepted. 
This price of 24 to 2yd is equal Exchange at 35 Shil. a £ 
sterling, to I2f to 141V pence Sterling a pound. 

Inclosed a performa Account Sales, which will further 
enable you to make an exact Calculation. You will easily 
conceive that without seeing the quality of the Wool, we 
cannot be fully possitif to the price, but what we said will 
be sufficient to give you an Idea of the market. We may 
add that ours must allways offer better Sales then the Dutch, 
as this place is nearer to provide the Northern manufactories, 
which are our constant Customers, and this article will 
allways command a ready sale in as much as the price of 
what you send can sustain an equality with the Cottons 
before mentioned. Depend upon our activity and care for 
your interest, and remain fully assured that they will be 
managed to the best advantage possible. 

394 COMMERCEOF [ 1788 

We are sorry to have been deprived of your worthy com- 
mands ever since your Brigg Richmond Captain Green was 
here. It would aford us a deal of pleasure to see you dispose 
of our Services on more frequent Ocasions. 

Tobaccos allways command a current sale; prices running 
at 3 to 3I/ the common young Maryland, sound brown 3! to 
4I/ colored 4I to f/. Yellow 5 to 5I/. fine yellow 6/. 
sweet scent 3I to 5/. according to quality. Hemp is in 
demand; Petersburg clean 71 to 72 M. Outcast 65 to 66 M. 
half clean 61 to 62 M. per 280 H. Tea Bohea 14I to |, with 
some apearance of rising. Further particulars please to be 
referred to the inclosed Price current. We most respectfully 
remain, Sir, Your most obedient and humble Servants 


[Endorsed,] Per Captain Whippy. 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the 28th November, 1788. 


On the 5th September we had the honour to waite upon 
you last, and at large; all which confirm and are in expecta- 
tion of your kind reply-, hoping the Draft of Captain Ben- 
jamin Page for £1050 upon Messrs. Brown and Francis at 
Providence has been duely accepted and forwarded to 
London before receipt of this. We also hope to hear soon, 
that Captain Benjamin Peirce is safe arrived with you and 
flatter ourselves, the Hemp sent you by him has given 
Contentment as likewise that we shall be honoured with 
your worthy Commands next year, in which you may depend 
on our utmost Endeavours for your Interest and to gain 
your satisfaction. Herewith take the Liberty to waite upon 
you with List of this years Exports by British and American 
Ships for your Amusement and Speculations, and as soon 
as the general Exports are to be had shall not fail to 
provide you with it. 

Since the 6th Instant our Rivers are shutt up with Ice. In 

1788 ] RHODEISLAND 395 

Trade and Contracts of Russ Goods not very brisk yet; 
The price of Clean Hemp on Contract stands at Ro. 2o| 
with all the Money down now, and at Ro. 22| with Ro. 2| 
per Berkowitz beforehand the Hemp deliverable in June 
and July next; For Clean Hemp remaining after shipping 
and laying on the Spot is paid Ro. 23I per Berkowitz and 
all the Money now. If any stronger demand should appear, 
it is very likely the prices may rise. Twelve heads Flax 
has been bought on Contract at Ro. 29, with all the Money 
beforehand, but no more Sellers at this price. Of the other 
Sorts Hemp and Flax cannot be said any thing as no pur- 
chases nor offers have been made yet. For Candle Tallow 
on Contract is paid Ro. 35 and for Soap Tallow Ro. 31 per 
Berkowitz all the Money beforehand. Of Yellow Wax, 
Wax and Tallow Candles no prices yet. Old Sable Iron 
from 130 Co. to 133 Co. and new Sable Iron from 118 to 125 
Co. per pood. We have here no Manufactory Goods left 
at Market after shipping. New Supplies will come by Sledge 
Way, but no prices to be noted, it is however not to be 
expected they will be lower as the last at Shipping which 
have been for Flems from Ro. 11 to I2f, for Ravenducks from 
Ro. 8 to 9 per piece, for Drillings from 19 to 21 Co. per 
arsheen for broad plain Linnen from Ro. 120 to Ro. 180, 
for narrow plain Linnen from Ro. 80 to 95, for broad 
Diaper from Ro. no to 125, and for narrow Diaper from Ro. 
85 to 95, for Crash Ro. 42 to 50, all per 1000 arsheens. Of 
Sail Cloth we have 7300 pieces at Market of sundry sorts, 
the last prices have been from Ro. 8 to 1 1 per piece, how the 
prices of all these Linnens and Manufactory Goods may be 
when we gett supplies and against and during next year, 
is not possible to tell, but hardly to be expected lower than 
the above mentioned. We shall not fail to waite upon you 
with our further Advices, in the mean time recommend 
ourselves in the Continuances of your Favours and Friend- 
ship and remain in all your Commands most respectfully. 
Gentlemen, Your most obedient humble Servants, 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

Amsterdam 31 to 3IjJ. London 32 to ^ild. 

396 COMMERCEOF [ 1789 

The inclosed for Captain Benjamin Peirce beg to deliver 
with our best Compliments. 

Edward James Smith and Co. to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

St. Petersburg, the i6th February, 1789. 


We had the honour to waite upon you last the 28th 
November last year the Contents of which confirm and beg 
leave to refer to. 

Last British mail brought us your much esteemed Favour 
of the 15th December last with Copys of your Letter to our 
mutual Friend Nicholas Ryberg Esqr. at Copenhagen, and 
of the acceptance made by Messrs. Brown and Francis at 
Providence upon the Drafts for £1050. Sterling of Captain 
Benjamin Page on them; We have duely observed all you 
please to mention with regard this Business as well in your 
Letter to said our Copenhagen Friend, as in that to us. We 
are very sorry for the Trouble you have had with this 
Affair, and not only approve intirely your management and 
the care for our Interest, but beg you will also accept of our 
sincerest thanks for all; we hope the acceptance of Messrs. 
Brown and Francis will be punctually respected by Peter 
Whiteside Esqr. at Lontlon, and in its time the Money paid 
there to our Friends Messrs. John William Anderson and Co. 
of whom expect by the next mail their Advice and whether 
the Drafts are accepted by P. Whiteside Esqr., by which 
then every thing will run off in good order. 

It gives us much pleasure to observe in your favour, the 
Hemp we sent you last year by Captain Benjamin Peirce 
reached you in good condition, has given satisfaction and is 
come to a good Market. We flatter ourselves to give you 
allways the same in any Commands you will please to favour 
us with, as also that Captain Peirce will come next summer to 
our house and we shall have to execute all your Commands 
per your Brig the Elizabeth^ which we observe you are pre- 
paring sending out again; You may depend, we shall observe 

1789 ] RHODEISLAND 397 

your Interest in every respect as our own, as nothing gives 
us more pleasure than serving our Friends to their satis- 
faction to which we spare no pains nor trouble of which we 
hope Captain Peirce has fully convinced you. We are glad 
our Advices of Trade have been of Service and we shall not 
miss continuing giving you the same further from time to 
time. Herewith for your Curiosity and Speculations a 
List of last years Exports from hence by American and 
British ships, also a List of general Exports. And as to the 
prices of Russ Goods, great Quantities of Iron are bought 
up; old Sable Iron from 130 to 135 Copecks and new Sable 
from 118 to 125 Co. per pood; the assorted Iron of each 
sort, is according to their Dimensions dearer in proportion. 
Clean Hemp on Contract deliverable in June and July next, 
stands now at Ro. 20 per Berkowitz with all the Money 
beforehand, and at Ro. 2i| with Ro. 2 per Berkowitz down 
the remainder on delivery. If no great demands from Great 
Britain should come, which according to present circum- 
stances seems not to be the case, this article won't rise and in 
summer then to be expected not higher, if not lower, how- 
ever much will depend what turn political affairs may take, 
as yet not to be said, whether Peace will be in the Baltic 
Sea. Outshott and half clean Hemp are much demanded, 
and contracted for France above their proportion to the 
Clean; Outshott at Ro. 19^ all the Money and half clean 
on the same condition at Ro. i8|, and the former at Ro. 
20^ with Ro. 5, and the latter at Ro. 19I with Ro. 4^ per 
Berkowitz beforehand. Flax is also in great demand and 
on Contract paid 12 heads with Ro. 36 all money and Ro. 
39 with Ro. 3 per Berkowitz down. Bristles first sort con- 
tracted last at Ro. i6| per pood all Money advanced, 
Tarred Cordage will not be had next Summer under Ro. 
2.80 Co. per pood. All Linnens and Manufactory Goods 
not cheap expected next shipping season, as there is paid 
for Goods of midhng qualities on the spot, vizt. for Flems 
Linnen Ro. I2| and Ravenducks Ro. 8.90 Co. to Ro. 9, Sail 
Cloth from Ro. 8 to 11 per piece. Drillings at 21 Co. per 
arsheen; broad plain Linnen from Ro. 120 to Ro. 180, nar- 

398 COMMERCEOF [ 1789 

row from Ro. 81 to 95, broad Diaper from Ro. 128 to 130, 
narrow from Ro. 88 to 90, and Crash from Ro. 45 to 55, all 
per 1000 arsheens. When this reaches you most surely 
Captain Peirce will be saild, think it needless to write him 
and hope to see him in our house next Summer. Recom- 
mending ourselves in the Continuance of your Friendship, 
we remain very respectfully, Gentlemen: Your most Obe- 
dient Humble Servants, 

Edward James Smith and Co. 

Amsterdam 31/. London 31 !«/• 

We find you have got already the Exportations by Ameri- 
can and British ships, of course only herewith the general 
Exports. Messrs. Brown and Francis have not wrote us 

Samuel Spragg for Patrick Jeffrey to 
Christopher Champlin 

London, 19th February, 1789. 

I duely received your favor of the 26th November last 
via Ireland, and in consequence I appHed to Mr. Douce, who 
informs me, the Money for your Claim is paid in to the 
Accountant General of the Bank hands, and invested in 
the 3 per Ct. Consols, b'earing an interest of 3 per Ct. from 
the time it was ordered in by the Chancellor, which he 
thinks is about 6 years ago, so that you will receive an interest 
from that time, but the sum is not absolutely fixed, so as to 
tell you with a certainty, the greater part of the Lawyers 
bill paid will be returned you; when the Cause of the differ- 
ent Claimants is tryed at Comon Law, which am told by 
one of the Attorneys claiming will be heard the Sitting after 
the present term, of which he will inform me, when this 
is settled it will be referred back to the Master in Chancery 
to settle the whole with the Costs, which apprehend will 
cause a delay of receiving what you may be entitled to full 
12 months longer; respecting any further charge in the 
matter of Law, there will arise some but not much; but what 

1789 ] RHODEISLAND 399 

can't say, which will be fully compensated when the Master 
ascertains the accounts. You will not be any more money 
out of pocket. I truely wish could afford you greater satis- 
faction, but really cannot be done at present; it shall have 
my due attention, and when settled and received you may 
depend shall advise you; I feel myself much obliged in your 
intentions of investing what may be received in articles you 
may order. 

Inclosed is your Account Current made up to the 31st 
december last Balance due to me £88.0.9 is placed to your 
debit in a new account and doubt not you will find right and 
am with due respect. Your most Humble Servant 

Sam'l Spragg 
per procuration from Patrick Jeffrey 

[Endorsed,] Per Capt. Barnard via Boston. 

Moses M. Hays to Christopher Champlin 

Boston, February the 23d, 1789. 

Dear Sir^ 

I should have replied to your favor of the 21st Ulto. 
before this, had you not apprised me, that you was not in 
haste on the subject, for I could as well at that moment 
given you my sentiments as now, on the articles that I pre- 
sume will best accommodate such a Vessell as you speak of, 
and not endanger an over stock of the Market. 

10 Hhds good Tobacco 

30 Casks Rice 

SM Pipe 1 

5M- Barrell > Staves best white oak. 

SfftHhds J 

Some small Sparrs and Merchantable Boards for Dunnage. 

Spermaceti Candles are inadmissable. 

100 Barrells Naval Stores. 

800 Kentalls good merchantable dry Fish, well cured and dry. 

30 Barrells beef. No Pork. 

10 Kegs Hogs Lard 

1000 C. Tried Tallow. 

4 Tons Pot ashes. 

American oyl, we are told, and I believe with Certainty is at 
present prohibited in France. Indeed all foreign oyls; but 

400 COMMERCEOF [ 1789 

if the Importation was free, that Article never affords much 
advantage. I cannot with propriety recommend any 
particular Port for a market for you, but presume Lorient 
or any of the Free Ports would be most illegible. 

Bayonne is a market that would not promise you much 
Advantage, it is a small Port, its Inhabitants chiefly Fisher- 
man and very little frequented. If I receive any advices 
that indicate any thing worth your Notice will inform you, 
and am with Regard, Dear Sir, Your most obedient Humble 

M. M. Hays 

N. E. Rum sells 1/6 and perhaps 1/5I per Gn. 
Bohea Tea, 1/7 per lb. 4 Months Credit. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son ^ 

Dublin, 25th February, 1789. 


The above is copy of my letter of the 30th Ulto. It 
gives me great concern to inform you the Hope owing to the 
insufficiency of her Cables, which she parted, was drove on 
a Sand Bank in Poolbeg^and tho' she has got off apparently 
without much damage yet she must go into Dock to be 
examined and get such repairs as may be necessary. She 
came to the Quay yesterday and will have the remainder of 
her Cargo discharged as soon as possible and Messrs. Fowlers 
may be assured she shall be dispatch'd with all expedition, 
but the expence of New Cables, etc., will come heavy, very 
luckily the Insurance was effected as the Underwriters will 
bear a part thereof. Have commenced Sales of the Flaxseed 
at 44/. to 45/6 per Hhd. at which price hope if we have not 
an overglut to sell the remainder; There are two Vessels 
missing from Newyork bound here which has given some of 
the Holders more Courage, for there has been a quantity 
sold as low as 42/. Newyork Seed; Depend I will act in 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 


lent. I am Gem 
Edw'd Forbes 

the Sale of yours to the best of my Judgement. I am Gent., 
Your mo : humble Servant, 

[Endorsed,] Per Two Brothers via Philadelphia. 

Clark and Nightingale to Christopher Champlin 

Providence, March 4, 1789. 

Dear Sir, 

Your favour of the 24th ulto. did not reach us till last 
evening when we immediately sent your letter to Captain 
Graves; but he being out of town can give no answer to that 
part of your letter till he returns which we expect will be 
the last of the week, the articles you propose in barter for 
New England rum will not suit in payment, as they are to be 
had on rather better terms here, and indeed do not find so 
quick a market as the rum, which at this season appears 
in demand. 

We have set up a new Manufactory of Geneva should you 
be in want of any of this article for your trade to the West- 
ward, we should be glad to supply you with some equal 
to any imported. So soon as Captain Graves returns we 
will again apply to him and let you know the result thereof 
by the first opportunity, we are in the mean time. Sir, 
Your most Obedient Servants, 

Clark and Nightingale 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 4th April, 1789. 


I AM this moment favored with your always esteem'd 
of the 17th February per Captain Wood with Bill Ladeing 
for 169 Hhds Flaxseed, which I shall dispose of to best 
advantage, and if I find it will yeild more in Newry then 
here will send the whole or a part there. Have already sold 
near 2000 Hhds from 43/6 to 45/6, but the arrival of the 
William and three others expected from New- York will 
overstock this Market I fear. I followed your reccom- 

402 COMMERCEOF [ 1789 

mendation in selling as fast as I could and think it has turn'd 
out lucky for you and other friends that I did so. 

At Newry the Price have been pritty much the same as 
here, yet I fear it will be overstockt likewise, at Derry 
price is 40/ to 42/6. Belfast it has broke at 42/6 to 44/ 
and at Cork little yet sold I hear. Your letter will be 
forwarded to Bristol this nights Post and will write the 
Gentlem[a]n there what you desire. I remitted Lane and 
Co. £400 your account exchange 8| is £432.10/ at your debit. 
The Bearer is bound for Newyork, is cleard out and sails 
in an hour, which prevents my sending your Linens by him. 
had I got Captain Woods letters last night your Linens 
would have been sent by this conveyance. I remain with 
great regard. Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

[Endorsed,] Per Revolution, via New York. 

Samuel Rodman to Christopher Champlin 

N. Bedford, 5 month, 19th, 1789. 

Respected Friend, Christopher Champlin, 

Agreeable to the encouragement I gave thee, at my 
leaving Nport, I embrace the first opportunity that has 
presented, since my geting here and my brother's return 
from Boston, to acquaint thee that, we shall not have 
occasion for the Hemp upon the terms, thou ofFer'd it. As 
we have a sufficiency on hand to supply our demand, until 
we can furnish ourselves from Europe. 

Thou hast no doubt received information by the late 
London arrivals, that, that Article can or could be had there 
at the time the Ships saild, at £30 per Ton, which with the 
draw back, will reduce it to about £27. Its lower than we 
expected it would be, probably owing to the great quantities 
that have been stor'd, to qualify that provident government 
to take a part in the European War, should their treaties 
impel that Measure. The apprehension of which having 
subsided for the present, its now selling perhaps as low as 
the Russia price. 


Should'st thou wish a bill for Specie, my brother WiUiam 
Rotch, Junior will draw, for £100 Sterling or 2400 Livres 
60 days at par, which thou may have by applying to him 
here, which will be a more speedy [way] of geting it than 
through our house at Nantucket. With much respect, I 
am Sir, Thy Assurd friend, ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 


New London, June 15th, 1789. 

Your favour of the 9th Inst, wee have received covering 
Capt. Culver Receipt's for Twenty four Certificates signd 
Oliver Wolcott amount One hundred and Sixty three pounds 
Seven shillings and five pence L. Money, also for five Chests 
Bohea Tea. Your orders respecting the Certificates will 
be attended to, but are sorry to advise that wee were under 
the Nessisity of refusing to receive the Tea as by misconduct 
it was damaged as by the inclosed Certificate will appear, 
wee withold Culvers Bill Loading untill he makes his Peace 
with you. at the same time your future orders resspecting 
this matter shall be duly attended to. the Tea I indulged 
Culver to put in our Store for separating the damaged, where 
it now remains on his Account. Wee are Your Most humble 
Servants, t^ ,-^ 


Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 3d August, 1789, 

My last Respects was the 6th April via N. York with In- 
voice of a Box Linens addressed Messrs. Murray, Mumford 
and Bowen which I find had arrived there. Since I received 
your Favour of the 28th March advising your draft in favour 
of Captain Benj. Pierce for £170 Eng. which is placed to 
your Debit, as is £200 English remitted Messrs. Protheroe 
and Claxton Bristol, Hkewise £100 remitted this day to 
Messrs. Lane, Son and Frazer. Inclosed is Sales of your 

404 COMMERCEOF [ 1789 

Flaxseed per the William Capt. Wood neat proceeds when in 
Cash £230.11.9 at your Credit. I also credit you for fds 
Proceeds of Flaxseed per the Hope £1083.15.8. you have 
likewise herein your Account Current. Ballance in your 
favour £26.2.6 is carried to your New Account holding you 
accountable in case any of the outstanding Debts shou'd 
prove bad. the seed sold Jno. Classon for Oil is not payable 
till the end of October, so that I am in advance for you 
which I don't mind as I think the Debts will prove good. 
I was very cautious indeed of the Persons I dealt with. I 
averaged your Seed per Captain Wood with the General 
Sales tho' did not sell for so much, and it will give me very 
great pleasure if my Sales meet your Approbation, as I assure 
you I made every [effort] in my power for the Interest of 
my Friends. The Settlement of the g[eneral] Averige on 
the Hope's Cargo with Copy of Protest shall be sent Lane 
Son and Co. as they wrote me they made Insurance on 
your Part of her Cargo, you'll therefore have to pay 
Messrs. S. Fowler and Son your Part thereof. 

You demand my best Thanks for the Trouble you have 
had with my very unlucky Concern in the Fame, the Ashes 
proved very good have debited your private Account with 
the little ballance of 9/4 and assure yourself shou'd I ever 
have any Business to do in your place I shall trouble you 
therewith and no other Person, and it will give me Pleasure 
on all occasions to serve you or your Friends, and am with 
great Regard and Esteem, Sir, Your most obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

P. S. I debit your new account £6.15.9 for your Propor- 
tion of ship Hope's General Averige on the Cargo. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin and 
Samuel Fowler and Son 

Dublin, 3 August, 1789. 


Inclosed you have Sales of the Ship Hope's Cargo of Flax- 
seed Neat proceeds £1625.13.6 which is carried to the Credit 

1789 ] RHODEISLAND 405 

of your respective accounts, holding you accountable shou'd 
any of the Debts prove bad, which I do not expect looking 
upon all very safe as I was very cautious about whom I 
trusted, the few that remained I sold to a proprietor of 
one of the Oil Mills payment 3 Months at 36/ per hhd. 
which I thought better to do than keep in expectation of 
getting more for. there is about 2500 hhds left on hands and 
am apprehensive will not fetch more. I fully expected at 
the beginning of the Sales I should have averiged your 
Seed at above 43/ per hhd. but a much greater Quantity 
having arrived than was expected the Price fell rapidly, 
which affected the Sales at Drogheda and other out ports. 
However upon the whole, flatter myself I did full as well as 
my Neighbours, tho' I sold double the Quantity of any one 
here and at the end had only 97 hhds — the refuse of all 
left. Assure yourselves I m[ade every] exertion [to prjomote 
the Interest of my Employers in the Sales, w[hich] make me 
very happy to hear meets your Approbation. 

The continued Rains we have had ever since the beginning 
of July, has greatly injured the Crop of Flax, no Seed will 
be saved, which makes me hope more will be sown next year 
and the article prove more profitable than it has done this, 
indeed the Seed in general was very faulty and badly cleaned. 
Your Accounts are credited your proportion of the dividend 
coming from the Estate of Thos. Dungan £2.2.4 each, as 
to Wm. Edgars Debt it is total Loss, having sworn himself 
not worth a Groat, he got the Benefit of the insolvent Act 
and was liberated from Gaol. I have debited Messrs. 
Fowler and credited Mr. Champlins Account for the differ- 
ence in the Freight of Flaxseed per the Hope £19.19.5. I 
remain with great Regard and Esteem, Gentlemen, Your 

most humble Servant, t? t? 

' Edward Forbes 

Prices Current. 
first Pot Ash 29/ 

Pearl. 38 to 40/ but expected lower when new arrives. 

Spermaceti Oil, fine white sort and free from smell and sediment 4/ a Gallon. 

Common Whale Oil .... £17 per Ton. 1 Duty on all 

Cod or Liver Oil £20 per do. <. oils i8j per 

Seal Oil 2/3 to 2/6 per Gallon J Ton only. 

4o6 COMMERCE OF [ I790 

Rice 24/ per Ct. Duty 8 per Ct. 

Beeswax iSd per lb. 

Winter Deer Skins in hair .... 22d per lb. 

Carrolina Indigo Copper . . . . 3/ to 4/6 per lb. as in Quality. 

French 6 to 7/6 per do. 

Tar 11/ to 12/ per Barrel Pitch 13/ to 14/ per Barrel. 

Red Oak Bark £4.6 per Ton. 

Newyork and Philadelphia Barrel Staves £5.10 to £5.13.9. 

Lanchon Freres et Cie to Christopher Champlin* 

L'Orient, 15 Mais, 1790. 


The effect of our late glorious revolution, Operating on 
Commerce as well as politicks, and some material Changes 
having already taken place in consequence; We embrace 
this as a favorable moment to renew our respects, and 
acknowledgments, to our Correspondents at large, when 
we can have any interesting information to give them, as 
well concerning the general trade of the Kingdom, as what 
relates to this port in particular, whose superior Advantages 
justly entitle it to a preference over others, from its Vicinity 
to the main Ocean, the Convenience and safety of its harbour, 
and the trifling Charges Vessels are liable to on entry, as 
mentioned in our Price Current which we annex for your 
information and government. 

The Changes we have to announce are, 
The Suppression of our East India Company, 
The Abolition of the freedom of this Port, and, 
The Emission of Government notes. 

The first met with much Opposition, but was notwith- 
standing Decreed; so that the trade to India is now laid 
Open, to the general benefit of the Nation, and we think the 
particular advantage of this town, which, joining to its other 
Conveniences, that of having the proper Warehouses and 
offices compleatly established, and the face of that trade 
already turned towards it, must command a preference, and 
continue the fixed mart for the sale of East India Goods, 

^ A printed circular letter. 


which we presume will be more reasonable in future than 

The Abolition of the Freedom of this Port met with less 
Opposition, as it was a measure sought for by the inhabitants, 
who found it only served as an encouragement to smugling, 
to the prejudice of the fair Trader, whose intercourse with the 
rest of the Kingdom was restrained, as no article that once 
came into the town, could return by land, or be received at 
any other of our ports, without paying duties, as tho' the 
town were foreign; and here we must observe, lest an Idea 
should go abroad to the contrary, that the taking away this 
freedom does not at all prejudice our trade with America 
your Resident at our Court was consulted on the Business, 
and nothing being altered respecting the treaty of 1778, 
our intercourse with you will be carried on as usual, without 
any encrease of duties or Charges, the only difference is the 
Goods must now be as it were Bonded. 

The Emission of Government Notes, or Assignats as they 
are called, was to supply the want of the Circulation of 
Specie, which was either hoarded up by the monied people, 
or sent out of the Kingdom from interested Motives, to the 
great prejudice and even Stagnation of trade; the amount is 
limited to four hundred millions of livres, and they are so 
much preferable to Bank Notes, that they bear interest at 
the rate of 3 p^. p. An. are equally transferable, being pay- 
able to Bearer, and are guarantied by, and to be paid from, 
a property of above eight hundred millions, late belonging to 
the Clergy, and wich is now on sale. 

Our illustrious National Assembly, to perfect the great 
work it has begun, has many other improvements in agita- 
tion, one in particular, to fix a common standard for Weights 
and Measures, in which the Cooperation of England is 
sought for; but these are the most interesting Changes that 
have as yet taken place; there is however another in the 
restrictions they laboured under, being taken off the Tan- 
neries; Soap, and Starch manufactories, which tho, seem- 
ingly of little consequence to you, we mention, in the hope 
that it may encrease our Connection with your states, by 

408 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

Opening a new Branch of Commerce, in the exportation of 
Bark, Green-hides, Tallow, and Kelp, if those articles abound 
with you; it may also encrease the Consumption of Fish 
Oil, which, as well as Whale, are at present of very slow 
demand, owing to the quantities Imported last season, and 
every Port being over stocked, Whale bone is likewise slack 
from the same reason, but Pot and Pearl Ashes on the 
contrary are in high demand, nor can we get enough for the 
Consumption; Tabacco, Rice, Wheat, Flour, and good 
Ship timber are also good articles here, and we hope next 
season your flax seed will sell currently, as essays have been 
made this year, and the last; but your provisions, Pitch, 
Tar, or Turpentine, have not as yet recovered the disrepute 
they fell into by being badly made up, very foul, and short 
in weight. 

After this detail which we hope will not be unacceptable, 
it only remains for us to express the ardent wish we form, 
that in this new arrangement of things, and from the regula- 
tions which we understand are taking place in your Con- 
stitution; the result may insure the freedom and happiness 
of each, and perfectly cement the union of both Countries; 
in this wish, and one for your particular prosperity, with 
reiterated offers of service, to wich we beg leave to add those 
of our house in Havre, we remain truly and Sincerely, Sir, 
Your Obedient humble Servants, 

Lanchon freres et Cie 

Committee on Convention 

Providence, January 12, 1790. 
12 oClock A.M. 


We have not as yet made a Lower house and are doubtfull 
wheather we shall 'till tomorrow. 

We are informed that Messrs. Haszard Champlin and Til. 
Almey of the Lower house, and Joseph Tweedy Esqr. of 
the Upper house, are not like to attend this Session. We 
think we can carry the Question for a Convention if the 




above Gentlemen attend in season; if not we are afraid all 
will be lost. 

We hope you will not omit any Exertions to get the above 
Gentlemen to come on so as to be hear on Thursday Fore- 
noon; on which day we expect the important Question will 
be taken. 

We are Gentlemen with Esteem your most Humble 


To Messrs. Christopher Champlin and Geo. Gibbs. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Cape franfols, February 13 th, 1790. 

This will give you the earliest Information of my arrival 
which was on the 5th of this month, meeting with no material 
accident on my passage but had very hard Southerly winds 
untill I past bermudas. on my arrival I enquired particular 
into the merchants characters here and found I could not 
connect myself with a better than the house of Forrest where 
I have accordingly fixed, giving him 5 per Cent on the Grose 


Sales of my Cargo. They have keept the duty on fish untill 
yesterday. I made matters very easy and did not enter 
a single fish but gave the Searchers six Joes to keep clear of 
[m]e. You would be surprized was you here to see how 
exceedingly the markets are fluctuated with Provisions, 
Beef and pork, in a particular manner with flour and fish. 
Not a Store but what is fiU'd with those articles. There 
is about fifty Sail of american Vessels now lying here and 
others arriving daily, this day a Vessel arriv'd of the har- 
bour with a load of flour, but I dont think she will come in. 
I have here inclos'd a price current as likewise a copy of what 
part of my Cargo is already sold. I am in hopes that flour 
and mackerel will be in better demand in a few days, and 
expect that molasses will fall from the present price it now 
sells for, as it begins to grow more plenty. I shall make the 
greatest dispatch I possibly can to get away from here, and 
shall write you more minutely of my departure by Capt. 
Hicks who sails in a fortnight for Newport while I remain. 
Sir, Your most Obedient Servant 

Ben : Bailey 

P. S. Yesterday Capt. Read of Providence arriv'd from 
Martinico with part of his Cargo, who informs me that 
markets are much lower there than at Cape fran9ois. 

I hurry'd the sales of my dry fish, more on account of the 
hogsheads being very damp, owing to the Staves being not 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Cape franfois, February 23d, 1790. 

This comes by Capt. Bernard of Newyork, to advise you 
of my proceedings since I wrote by Capt. Simmons of Provi- 
dence. I began my loading on the 20th of this month with 
14 Hhds of molasses, purchased at 55 Souce per Velt deliv- 
ered along side, on the 21st took in 30 Hhds. purchas'd at 
52 Souce per Velt at the plantation, and shall continue to go 
on as fast as circumstances will admit of. The Goods of 


my Cargo remaining for Sale are as follows, vizt. 50 Barrels 
of mackerel, 15 of beef, 33 of flour, 62 boxes of Candles, the 
Sales of which I flatter myself will be compleated by the 
loth of next month. The markets appear to be more 
fluctuated at present than at my arrival, 25 sail of americans 
have arriv'd within 18 days. Dry fish sells at present for 
20 Livres per 100 Ct., Pork may be purchas'd at 7 dollars per 
Barrel, and Beef at 6, by the Quantity. I cannot inform 
you any thing about political affairs, here they seem to 
imitate our majority of members at the assembly by making 
Laws this week and on the next anulling the same, which 
makes the business of the town very much stagnated. You 
may depend on my utmost exertion to make the greatest 
Dispatch thats possible while I remain, Sir, Your most 
Obedient Servant 

Ben : Bailey 

[Endorsed,] Via New York. To the care of Messrs. Murray, Mumford and 
Bowen. By Capt. Bernard. 

Benjamin Peirce to Christopher Champlin 

London, February 26th, 1790. 


after a passage of 28 days I arrived at Falmouth 270 
miles from this place which we travel'd in two days, the 
county of Cornwall is badly cultivated the farm houses 
miserably poor, and the countenances of the farmers declare 
extreem indigence. Nearer the Capital the face of country 
grows better but the Situation of the Husbandman is not 
desireable in any part of the Kingdom. The winter has 
been uncommonly mild, pease and beans are up in the gar- 
dens and the lots as green as in May with us. 

Wheat is 7/ per Bushel, Beef and mutton ^jd per li Pork 
and Veal 6d per li. from Copenhagen and Russia we have 
favorable accounts as to markets, at Russia Hemp is 23 
Rubles per Berkowitz Sail Cloth 20 per Ct. cheaper than last 
year and the Winter so favorable that the canals have not 
been froze which will enable them to get their Hemp early 
to market and of consequence prevent the arrival of Spring 

412 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

Ships from raising the price. Iron is very high. Messrs. 
Lane Son & Fraser can better in[form] you of the markets 
here than I and will no doubt do it. Russia and Sweeden are 
making every preparation for war and it seems there will 
be another Campaign. 

Francisco C. Sarmento and Co. to 
Christopher Champlin ^ 

New Port, April 4th, 1790. 
Dear Sir, 

I HAVE looked over your Memorandum and at Foot have 
set down the most proper Articles for the Teneriffe Market, 
and should you send a Cargoe composed of such as is there 
marked consigned to our House in Teneriffe, I will engage 
that on their Arrivel there, my Partner Mr. Wm. Mahony, 
shall immediately advance to the Amount of the cargoe at 
the current whole sale prices then going for such articles when 
the same may arrive in good Cargoe Wines at the current 
shipen price of £12 St. per Pipe and Particular Wine a £15 
St. free of expence on board. Altho it is customary to take 
the Cargoes to our own Act. at the current whole sale prices 
on their Arrival, yet to oblige you and encorage a farther 
Connextion I agree to leave it at your Option, either to direct 
us to do so, or we will sell your Cargo out on your Act. and 
retail it so as to bring the highest Current Prices that can 
be got and give you Credit for the Nt. proceeds and only 
charge the customary Commission of 4 per Ct. on the Sales 
but none on the Shipment of the wines. 

If Advice is given in time of the Vessel and Cargoe that 
you may think proper to send by the present Opp'y of Mr. 
Gibbs Vessel, the wines will be ready and your vessel may 

^ The original is in the Newport Historical Society. 

1790 ] RHODEISLAND 413 

be dispatched in Eight Days after her arrival at TenerifFe 
and if no Advice is given it seldom takes more tha[n] a fort- 
night to unload and load as we always keep a stock of wines 
on hands. I am, Dear Sir, Your Most Obedient Servants 

Fran'co C. Sarmento and Co. 

Memorandum of the Cargo 

India Corn as much as posible. 

Rye . . do do. 

Some Common Flour. 
About 20 bar'ls Pork. 
Do. . . 12 do . . Beef. 
Do. . .12 Tierces Rise. 
Do. . . 20 Boxes of sperma Candles. 
30 Boxes of Mould Tallow Candles. 
Bar Iron flat and wide is the best. 
Russia Cordage from i to 5 inches. 
Do. a few Hawsers. 

Do. Duck and all kind of Brown and Corse Linens, this last Articles are very 
saleable all times. 

Jacob Dohrman and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Lisbon, 8th June, 1790. 


We hope the Liberty we take in availing ourselves of an 
opportunity which now offers of transmitting you inclosed 
a price current, will not prove disagreeable, for altho' the 
prices of Grain with you are such as to put a stop to all 
speculation at present yet whenever they shall come down 
to the accustomed rate you will find that there is no Market 
in Europe where that article will in general answer better 
than in Lisbon, The last Wheat sold free from board at 
520 rs. per Alquer equal to a Dollar per Bushel, and 2 Cargoes 
of Indian Corn which we have had to our address in the 
course of the last Month were disposed of at the very high 
price of 320 rs. per Alquer equal to a Dollar per Bushel and 
which left a neat proceed of | of a Dollar after deducting all 
expences. It is true it is hardly to be expected these prices 
will continue longer than until our ensuing Harvest, but 
nevertheless whenever Wheat can be shipt with you for a 

414 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

Dollar and Indian Corn for a trifle more than one third of a 
Dollar per Bushel we are enabled to assert from a long course 
of experience that they will seldom fail to render here pleas- 
ing Accounts. We always hold ourselves ready to advance 
in Cash the Value of such Cargos immediately upon their 
Arrival here, and we trust you will judge favorably of our 
Mode of dispatching Business when we assure you that of 
the above 2 Vessels with Corn the one was entirely dis- 
patched, with the Balance of her Account on board in Dollars 
in six and the other in eight days after their arrival. 

White Oak Pipe Staves to fetch the price quoted ought 
to be of the full length of 58 inches, 4 to 5 inches broad and 
f to I inch thick. 

Should you have no Connections in Cadiz we beg leave 
to recommend our very good Friends Maurice Roberts and 
Co. who we can assert are capable of executing in the best 
manner any business you may have there. 

Whenever you should have occasion to speculate this 
way and think proper to intrust us with the Management 
of your business you may rest assured of our exerting our- 
selves for your Interest in such a manner as may insure a 
continuance of your favors. We are, Sir : Your obedient 
humble Servants, 

Jacob Dohrman and Company 

Amsterdam 52. London 67. 

Received and forwarded by Sir Your obedient humble Servant, 

Chs. Augs. Busch. 
St. Ubes, 17th June, 1790. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Cronstad, July 9th, 1790. 


THIS may inform you of my safe arivel here from Copen- 
hagen in seven days, the wind has blown a long time from 
the westward that has detaind us some but notwithstanding 
we have got on board all our Iron and half the hemp likewise 
and the rest is along side. I came from petersbourg yester- 

I790 ] RHODE ISLAND 415 

day and the Duck was all shipt and the first fair wind I shall 
exspect it down, if the [weajther should prove good I 
exspect to sail for Copenhagen by the i8th of July at furdest. 
I shall make all the dispach possible you may depend on. 
I write this by Capt. Pirce who will be able to inform you 
more perticaler concerning the market here, as for my 
hemp it cost 25 Rubels and half Berkowitz and the freights 
down from Petersbourg here is five and five and half Rubels 
per Tun. my Ducks cost Ten Ru. and 70 and 10 and 75 
per Bolt, the Letter I wrote at Copenhagen informing you 
of my arivel in 54 days I hope has come to hand. Sir I 
Remain your humble servant g^^,^ Lawton 

Negro Congo to Chris Champlin, Dr. 

July loth. To Cash in full of Six months Wages £7. 10. 

Aug. 31st. To Castor hat i. — 

Sept. 3d. To 4 Yds Fustian at 2/6 10 

thread 6d buttons 10^ 1.4 


Jan. 21st. To John Remingtons Account Shoes up to October 14th 1790. .19. — 

£10. 0.4 
Jan. 2ist. To Cash in full of your Account of Wages up to December 

3d 1790 .... 4. 19.8 


Supra Cr. 


Jan. 2ist. By one years Wages due December 3d 1790 £15. — . — 

Newport, Jan. 21st 1791 
Reed of Mr. Chris. Champlin four pounds Nineteen Shillings and eight pence in 
full of my monthly wages up to December 3d 1790. 


Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

TenerifFe, July 23d, 1790. 

1 arriv'd here on the 8th Inst, after a very tedious passage 
attended with light winds and calms for the most part of 

4l6 COMMERCE OF [ 1790 

the time. I was very uneasy for fear the corn would be 
damag'd, but it was landed in good order as likewise the 
remainder part of the Cargo all of which was landed at Port 
Orotava by the choice of Mr. Mahony. It was very unlucky 
your not writing expressly by Capt. Fry what gauge I was 
to take whether that of this Island or the madeira gauge, 
the consequence was they had no Pipes ready made of the 
Madeira gauge which is the only size that are ship'd for the 
India Market. Mr. Mahony purposes to load me with 120 
Pipes of genuine wine 75 of which I have on board and 
expect to be compleated by the 27th when I shall im- 
mediately proceed as directed. I cannot inform you any 
particular price current of Goods at this Island, the mar- 
kets are very dull to appearance and prices variable accord- 
ingly. I shall advise you all opportunities. In the mean 
time I remain Sir your most 

P. S. They have been making great preparations in Spain 
for a war with England and are putting their forts in the best 
defence in all the Canary Islands. Mr. Sarmento and Co. 
has a brig laying here ready for Sea but dare not send her out 
untill the next Packet arrives from the Groyne which will 
be by the 15th of next month. 

[Endorsed,] Via Philadelphia. To the care of Messrs. Hughes and Anthony 
Merchants. By Capt. Kitts. Rec'd per Gladding from Philadelphia. Sept. 
27, 1790. 

Francisco C. Sarmento and Co. to 
Christopher Champlin 

Tenerife, 29 July, 1790. 


My Uncle Mr. Wm. Mahony being confined to his bed for 
some days past of a slight fever, and prevented of course 
from attending to business, has directed me to address you 

1790] RHODE ISLAND 417 

these few lines, the purport of which is to inclose you Bill 
of Lading and Invoice of 80 pipes 40 Hoggshds. and 80 
Quarter Casks making together 120 pipes of choice Vidonia 
Wine, shipp'd on the Brigg Baione Capt. Benjamin Bailey 
in virtue of your order at £12 Stg. per pipe, also 2 Quarter 
Casks of particular wine at £15 per pipe and 2 Quarter 
Casks of sweet Mamzy £40 per pipe for all which you are 
debitted in Account with Messrs. Francisco C. Sarmento 
and Co. £ Stg. 1467.10. as you are also with [£] 15.12.5I 
amount of sundry disburses and Port Charges of said Brigg 
as per Account deliver'd Capt. Bailey. 

The Abocado you call'd for is not to be found at present: 
the heavy rains we had all last Vintage made it impossible for 
the Planters to make any, consequently the sweet Mamzy 
goes as a substitute, tho' superior in quality, and my Uncle 
hopes you'll approve of the same. 

The moment my said Uncle is recover'd in his health, he 
will embrace the first opportunity to write you at large; 
being what offers I remain very respectfully etc. 

[William McDaniell.] 

Francisco C. Sarmento and Co. to 
Christopher Champlin 

Tenerife, 13 August, 1790. 

We had the pleasure of addressing you under 22 and 29 
of last month whereof the foregoing are Copys. On the 30 
ulto. Capt. Bailey saild for L'Orient with 121 pipes wine 
we ship'd on his Brigg Bayonne agreeable to your directions 
as per duplicate Invoice and Bill of Lading herewith, for 
whose amount you are debitted £1467.10 Stg. as mention'd 
in said last letter and £15.12.5! for supplys made said Ves- 
sell. As for the quality of the wine we have no doubt it will 
be liked, having selected the whole quantity from some 
hundreds of pipes we had purchased from the best growths. 
Capt. Bailey had some few days delay on account of the 
Madeira Casks, with which we were not provided, for want 

4l8 COMMERCE OF [ I790 

of previous advice; bating this circumstance he had every 
other dispatch that cou'd possibly be given him. He 
flatter'd us with returning hither on our encouraging him to 
bring 15 to 20 pipes French Brandy for which we ofFer'd him 
2 Gallons wine for i of Brandy. 

His Cargo as already hinted will not begin to sell before 
the fall, as yet it remains untouched; however you may rely 
upon our utmost exertions in disposing of it for the most the 
Market will afford, and allowing you every advantage that 
circumstances will permitt, being equally desirous with our 
F. C. S. to render your dealings to this Island as encourag- 
ing as possible. We cou'd wish however that the Assortment 
had been better chosen : a quarter part at least of the Iron 
shou'd have been square Barrs, less Beef, and more Pork 
wou'd have answer'd better; the Corn as already mention'd 
to you has a bad collour, a larger quantity of pipe staves 
wou'd have also answer'd well; but above all, the Assortment 
of Cordage is the worse that cou'd have been thought on; 
of this article Hawsers from 4 to 6| in. are the most vendible, 
and you sent only 2, so that the remaining 94 ps. are all run- 
ning rigging from i| to 3 inches, so very unsaleable here that 
years may pass over before they can be disposed of. its 
our wish therefore you woud order said parcell back (the 
greatest part at least) by first Vessell you may order this way 
and send in their stead Hawsers of the dimensions pointed 

We have at present a great scarcity of Butter. 60 Casks 
of a good quality to arrive here in November or December 
next wou'd sell readily and to advantage, as wou'd also a 
dozen Casks Hoggs Lard, Rye and Rye Meal are good 
articles, as is also flax if you cou'd hit upon the dutch method 
of dressing and packing it up. 

We remain very truely. 


1790] RHODE ISLAND 419 

TO Christopher Champlin 

Charleston, August 19th, 1790. 


The duplicate of your esteemed favour of 28th June last 
was duly handed by Captain Haskell, the Original (owing 
to the Betseys long passage from New York) came to hand 
but yesterday. 

Madeira Wine of the London Market quality has been 
sold from £32 to £40 but is not a ready sale as there is 
sufficient here to supply our Markets for a long time to 
come; it is sometimes sold on a short Credit say i to 6 
months, but is so slow a sale in general that it would be 
inconvenient to advance Rice or other Cash articles on re- 
ceipt of it. TenerifFe in general is more saleable altho' 
seldom a quick sale, it is usually sold £15 to £18 and some- 
times £20. but seldom higher than £18. a few say 10 or 
12 pipes if very good might sell but not a large Quantity 
unless it should wait a Market. Northward Rum has been 
scarce and in great demand but is now more plenty, this 
article is in great demand with the Planters in Autumn when 
the Crops come in, but the prices of this and other Goods 
are governed by the quantity in Market, we think it prob- 
able it will be 1/8 to i/io yet if there is not an over supply 
it will keep its present price say 2/2 to 2/3. there is a con- 
siderable Sale of Train Oil to the Indigo Planters but their 
season for purchasing is nearly over as they are now about 
cutting, they generally lay in their supplies by the first 
of August after which the sales are very slow thro' the year. 
Spermaceti Oil is at present 3/6, Spermaceti Candles usually 
sell I /id to 2/. and except the Market is much over stocked 
meet a ready sale, they are in demand at present and sell 
at 2/4. W. India goods in general are high and will we 
imagine answer well between this and Christmas, after which 
the Country trade slackens, loaf Sugar is now very scarce 
and in great demand, Exchange on Specie (which is regarded 
here as an article of Merchandize all business being trans- 
acted in Paper) is at present 10 to I2| per % but when the 

420 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

crops come, it will probably be as low as five. Exchange 
on London or other ports in England and France is usually 
at par for specie and seldom over 5 per %. Northward 
produce in general sells well when it is scarce, but the articles 
being mostly perishable are very dull sale when they are 
plenty and there is perhaps no principal Market in America 
where the prices of goods are so entirely governed by the 
quantity as in this. We enclose the present state of our 
Markets and are Sir respectfully Your Most Obedient 


Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 26th August, 1790. 

I REFER you to my letter of the 9th April per the Mary 
Captain Davis for Providence with Invoice of a Bundle 
Linens. Since am without any of your favors. 

The present hands Abstract of your Account Current 
Ballance due me to your debit in a new account £0 : 10 : lod. 

Our Crop of Corn and Flax prooves good, all Idea of 
saving the Seed is given up in this country, its impossible 
to say at this distance what the price of this Article may be 
next Spring, that will depend on the Quantity [that] arrives. 
I must beg leave to inform you that the [seed from] Rhode 
Island was complained of as being very dirty, when that 
from Philadelphia (that formerly sold for 2/ to 2/6 per Hhd 
less then either the Newyork Seed or yours) sold for 2/ 
more by reason of it's being so much better cleand. If I 
thought the Pot and Pearl ashes of the first Quality could be 
purchased as cheap with you as at Boston I would give you 
an order for two or three hundred Barels next Summer. I 
am, Sir, Your most humble Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

1790 ] rhodeisland 421 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, September loth, 1790. 

I arriv'd here from TenerifFe on the 5th Inst, after a long 
tedious Passage of 37 days, on my arrival received your 
favour of the 19th of July. I am very sorry to inform you 
that my Cargo of wine cannot be sold at L'Orient, although 
it is of an excellent quality. Mr. Lanchon has effectually ap- 
ply'd to every person whom he thought would purchase but 
without the least success, the last an only alternative he 
has immediately wrote to his Correspondents at Paris and St. 
Maloes offering the wine for sale requesting an answer by 
the next Posts which will be here in the course of six days, 
when if nothing proves favorable towards the Sale of the wine 
I shall immediately depart for the West India Islands. I 
imagine you have not been inform'd of all private Companys 
of Merchants being dissolv'd in France since the Revolution, 
which is really the case, there is now only one Ship a fitting 
for India at this Port, and they have not any Inclination to 
buy wine, the four hogsheads of Tobacco would have been 
sold yesterday at 42 Livres per 100 li. if it had suited the Irish 
market but the Quality did not suit the purchaser. 

I advised Mr. Christopher Grant Champlin immediately 
after my arrival, and expect an answer by next Post if he 
does not come himself. Brandy cannot be bought at 
L'Orient for less than 7 li. los per Velt as they import it 
from Bordeaux. I have inclos'd a Price Current for your 
Government and shall by the next Opportunity advise you 
of my future Proceedings from this date. In the Interim 
I am, Sir, Your most Obedient Servant, 

Benjamin Bailey 

P. S. They have received orders from Government, at 
Brest to equip 45 Ships of war ready for sea. their destina- 
tion remains a profound Secret, there are 36 English men 
of war of[f] Ushant and 38 Spanish men of war of Cape St. 
Vincent, by a Vessel just arriv'd from the Baltic I am 

422 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

inform'd the Russian fleet have captur'd 7 Swedish men of 
war of[f] Hoogland among which was the Swedish Admiral. 

Lanchon Freres et Cie. to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, loth September, 1790. 

The 5th Inst. Captain Bailey in your Brigantine the 
Bayonne arrived safe here and handed us your much esteemed 
favour of 17th May last consigning said Brig and her Cargo 
to our care for which preference we beg you will accept our 
sincere acknowledgements. We could wish to add that we 
succeeded in the Sale of the Wine but our best endeavours 
are frustrated for want of a demand for that article at the 
moment and we are afraid Captain Bailey must try a better 
market. The late Suppression of our India Company which 
we did ourselves the pleasure of informing you by Circular 
under the date of 15th May, has deranged that trade, and 
the Individuals have not as yet taken it up here, so that we 
have at present no Armaments, had Captain Bailey been 
more fortunate in his Voyage, and arrived about six weeks 
sooner we should have had an opportunity of disposing 
of his entire Cargo to a friend who fitted out a Vessel and 
was obliged to send Ker to TenerifFe for a Cargo for the 
India Market, but regrets that cannot be remedied are 
useless, however as there may be a demand in some of 
our neighboring Ports and in hopes of having an answer 
before the Captain can be ready to leave this, we have written 
to our friends in Nantes, St. Malos, etc., in hopes of doing 
something, we have even written to Paris to a house late 
in the direction of the Company and who still continues its 
Connections in India and fitts out Vessels on its own account 
Messrs. Monneron Brothers, Bankers, making them an offer 
of the Cargo and we mention very moderate terms to tempt 
their acceptance, this Letter we have inclosed to your good 
Son as he sent us his address some time ago, and we request 
of him to deliver it himself that he may have the opportunity 
of backing our proposals and if possible encouraging a 


bargain. We hope this will have effect and that the return 
of the Post will bring us a favourable answer, we expect 
at same time that Mr. Grant ChampHn will fix the time of 
his departure for this place, that we may be expecting the 
pleasure of seeing him, be assured it will be a sincere one to 
us and to render him every Service in our power. We have 
landed the four hhds of Tobacco, which we have no doubt 
of selling tho' they are far from being a best Quality, did 
the whole Cargo consist of prime Tobacco we could easily 
dispose of it as the demand is brisk for the Irish Market and 
none to be had. however the Scarcity will sell yours. The 
Pot ashes we shall also place without difficulty and we are 
only sorry there were not 200 instead of two Barrels for the 
Consumption is great for that article above the Import, 
the price we expect for it is 38 li per % and for the Tobacco 
36 li to 38 li per % . for the Net Proceeds of those we shall 
account with your Son Mr. G. C. when sold, and shall ad- 
vance him the [sum of ] hundred Livres you direct us 
whether we sell them immediately or not. Inclosed you will 
find a Price Current of our articles of import and export for 
Information and Government by which you will observe 
the articles most likely to sell well and to encourage Specula- 
tion we hope it may induce you to extend your Concerns 
this way and give us many opportunities of shewing you our 
attention to your Interest and proving how much we are, 
Sir, Your obedient humble Servants, 

Lanchon Freres et Cie. 

We have sold 2 Hhds of the Tobacco at 40 li per % usual 
term of 4 Mo. 

Francisco C. Sarmento and Co. to 
Christopher Champlin 

Tenerife, 17 September, 1790. 


The foregoing is copy of our last 13 August, to whose 
contents pray be referr'd. 

We now have the pleasure to acquaint you of the arrival 

424 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

of our F. C. S. the 20 ulto. at Santo Cruz, with his family 
all in good health, and returns you many thanks for the civil- 
itys you shew'd him whilst there. Since his arrival every 
exertion has been used to run off the Bayons Cargo, which 
we at length effected at such prices as we flatter our selves 
you'll not be displeased with, at least we can assure you 
none better cou'd possibly be obtain'd. The Nt. proceeds 
£1195.2.9 as per Account Sales herewith are pass'd to your 
credit in Account. You'll find also inclosed an Abstract 
of y/a current ballanced by £287.19 in our favour, both 
which you'll please to examine, and if without error note in 
in conformity. We were excessively glad to get rid of the 
Cordage and Corn, expecially the former article, of which 
kind very little is used here a circumstance that obliged us 
to lower somewhat of the current price : the Corn tho' 
sound, had a dark collour, which is bad recommendation, 
and considering the great quantitys at Market, think it 
did not sell amiss. 

As you mean to continue this trade, the only articles we 
wou'd recommend you to send here are those mention'd 
in our last, to which may be added 80 ps. Russia Sail duck, 
800 to 1000 bushells round Corn, 40 barrels Pork and fill up 
with pipe Staves. A small Cargo of such articles to arrive 
here in all the present year, or begginning of next, wou'd 
we doubt [not] answer your account especially if the price 
of wines, as we expect, from the appearance of the present 
Vintage, lowers in price. 

You may rely we shall on all occasions consult your interest 
the same we wou'd our own, and shew you the sincere esteem 
with which we are. Gentlemen Your Most Obedient 

Servants, Francisco C. Sarmento and Co. 

Assortment of Hawsers 

8 . 

. 6| inches . 

. 120 fathom 

16 . 

. si do. . . 

. do. 

8 . 

. 5 do. . . 

. do. 

8 . 

. 4I do. . . 

. do. 

5 • 

. 4 do. . . 

. 60. 



Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, September 22nd, 1790. 

Since I wrote you by Capt. DIckason via Boston Mr. 
Lanchon has receiv'd answer from the Letters he wrote for 
St. Maloes and Nantz offering my Cargo for sale wherein 
no offers are made for any part of it. In the interim three 
mails have arriv'd from Paris and no answer to the Letter 
we have wrote Mr. Christopher Grant Champlin, which 
makes us suppose your Son must certainly be in the Country, 
as Mr. Lanchon inclos'd the letter directed to his Correspond- 
ent in one for Mr. Christopher G : Champlin, thinking his 
offer for the sale of the wine with the Letter would have more 
effect, there has been an offer made at this Port at 320 
Livres the Pipe, payable in three and six months, which by 
the first Cost of the wine freight and Commission of 4 per 
Cent, which Mr. Lanchon requires to furnish the Brandy, 
and the uncommonly high price of Brandy at Bordeaux, 
makes Mr. Lanchon think it will be sacrifising too great a 
part to indulge so unreasonable an offer, therefore if the 
wind proves favorable to morrow I shall leave this port for 
the Islands. I have been detain'd by winds this six days, 
am in hopes to morrow to meet with a fair gale. By the last 
accounts from Bordeaux Brandy is up to 220 Livres the 32 
Velts and soon was like to be as high as 250 li. to 270 li. 
owing to the great Scarcity and bad vintages for wine for 
this two years past. I shall advise you immediately on my 
arrival in the Islands. In the Interim, Remain Sir Your 
most Obedient Servant, 

Benjamin Bailey 

P. S. I have sent by Capt. Sheffield those six Charts I 
had belonging to Capt. Benjamin Pierce. 

426 commerceof [ 1790 

Lanchon Freres et Cie. to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, 29th September, 1790. 

Our last respects were of the 20th Inst, per Captain Bailey 
who sailed from hence the 24th with fair Wind and Weather, 
as we could not dispose of the Wine to advantage, the only 
offer we had being 320 Livres per pipe payable in 3 and 6 
Mo. which Captain Bailey thought too low particularly as 
Brandy could not be got less than from 8 li to 8 li los per 
Velt. we sincerely hope that he will meet with better Success 
where he is going to and that your further Consignments 
to this place will be more fortunate, which they cannot fail 
of being if you send us Pot and Pearl ashes, good Tobacco, 
or good Ship Timber lit for Men of War, a few Barrels of 
good Tar and good Provisions may also sell, but we would 
not advise you to send much as they are not yet in the best 
repute. In our said Letter was the Account of disburse- 
ments for the Bayonne, amount £440.17.6 to your debit 
as per duplicate inclosed, to which we must add £3.8 for 
Surplus of Outward Pilotage, paid since Captain Bailey's 
departure and per his order, which Surplus appears to be 
occasioned by the extra attendance of the Pilot by contrary 

We mentioned having sold two of the Hhds of Tobacco 
No. 2 and 3 and 40 li per % and that we should have sold the 
other two had they been of equal Quality, we also informed 
you of the two Barrels of Pot ash being damaged, all which 
we confirm. We have not as yet had an answer to a letter 
we had the pleasure of writing to Mr. Grant Champlin at 
Paris, on arrival of Captain Bailey. We therefore suppose 
him to have left that City, and we indulge ourselves in the 
hope of soon seeing him here. We remain very truly. Sir, 
Your obedient humble Servants 

Lanchon Freres et Cie. 

i790 ] rhodeisland 427 

Fenwick Mason and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Bordeaux, i November, 1790. 


In complyance with the promise made you by our J. F. 
who had the pleasure to make your acquaintance last summer 
and who now begs to repeat his thanks for your civihty to 
him while in Newport. This covers a letter from your Son 
whose address you was kind enough to give us and we with 
pleasure announce to you the satisfaction we have had in 
making his acquaintance, were we not afFraid of the im- 
putation of flattery as it is Father and Son in question we 
coud say much more than assure you that we think no Ameri- 
can ever travelled in Europe to more advantage and with 
more credit to himself than he has. It gives us pleasure to 
have it [in] our power to show him some attention and sorry 
his stay here is intended so short — he proposing to go for 
Nantes in a few days. 

Whale oil is now worth here 30 li per Ct. a gallon will net 
about 7 pounds wight, sperm oil 50 li per Ct. Cod fish Oil 
in demand at 170 to 175 per hhd of 64 gallons, it is impos- 
sible to see how long these prices will last but latterly our 
Market has been scantily supplyed with them. Beef is 
dull sale at 33 to 40 li per barrel, American pork in high 
repute and demand at 65 to 70 li per barrel. Tallow also at 
70 to 78 li per Ct. There is very little Pot and Perl ash and 
flaxseed consumed here therefore cannot recommend ship- 
ment of those articles. Grain is demanded tho' no scarcity, 
and we are satisfyed if wheat can be shiped at 5/. your 
Currency per Bushel, Rye 2/. and Indian Corn 1/6 and Flour 
24/. They may be sent to this market to a very good 

We are in daily expectations of having our new system of 
commerce published which from its freedom and liberality 
we have reason to expect our market and port will have 
resources in trade equal at least to any in Europe for the 
products of America. 

Preparations for war are going on with vigor and alacrity 

428 COMMERCEOF [ 1790 

a little time must certainly unfold their issue, should war 
take place which is now thought inevitable it will greatly 
enhance the price of American produce particularly grain 
and provisions, we cover you a price current and remain 
with assurances of attention to any commands you may 
please to impose on us, Sir, Your most Obedient and Humble 
Servants Fenwick Mason and Co. 

[Endorsed,] Per Mary Davis, Q. D. C. 

Ebenezer Shearman to Christopher Champlin 
AND Thomas Wickham 

Charleston, South Carolina, November 1st, 1790. 


This my first Opertunity may serve to inform you of the 
saif arrival of Sloop Peggy, at this Port, the 22nd of October 
without receiving aney Axedent. have disposed of the 
greatest part of my Cargo as follows Rum all sold at 2/4 
per Gallon Strained Oile 2/ do. Common Oil at 1/6 Loaf 
Shugar at i/id. per lb Mainhaden from 9/ per bbl to 11 /8 
Apples from 4/8 per bbl. to 9/ Potatoes at 2/ per bushel 
Mackril at 20/ per bbl Spr. Candles at 2/3 to 2/4 per lb. 
Cyder from 8/4 to 11 /8 to 14/ Cheese at 4^ to 6d. 

Have on hand the following articles, viz. 15 bbr Cyder 
dull Sail, 63 Cheeses do., 11 Boxis Spr. Candles do. 5 Barrils 
Mainhaden and Tenn of the smalles Cask of Oile. the Oile 
Candles and Cheese I mean to carrey to the Westindias 
if not sold in 3 or 4 days. I expect to sail for the Windward 
Islans by that time, with Rice and Tobacco for Cargo. 
Rice is at 11/ per 100 lb Tobacco at 15/ per 100 ditto at this 
Poart; it would have given me great Pleasure to have dun 
better, but we shall be on the rite sid of Pounds Shillings and 
Pence at this Markit; Westindia Produce is high and very 
little at Markit at my return here I'm in hopes to give you 
a better Account of Markits. Pleas to except of my best 
Wishis for your Helth hapiness and Prosperity. I'm with 
due Respect Your Most Humbel Servant, 

,^ , „ ^ . , ^,,. , Ebenezer Shearman 

[Endorsed,] Per Captain I. Tillinghast, 


Ebenezer Shearman to Christopher Champlin and 
Thomas Wickham 

Charleston, So. Carolina, November 4th, 1790. 


This my second opertunity per Captain Burden the other 
per Tillinghast will serve to inform you the Sloop Peggy is 
reedey for the Seas. Shall imbrace the first fair Wind for 
the Westindia Windward Islands, with a Cargo now on board 
on account of C. Champlin Tho. Wickham and Eben Shear- 
man, one third eaquil Consern, viz. 

Tenn hhds. Tobaco N 5 to N 14 at 15/ per 100 Sterling 

Eighty five Tearsis Rice . . . at 11/ . .do. do. mo. 
10 bbl. Common Oil at35/perbbl. do. mo. 

43 Cheesis of the best resurved out of them I brought here 
Freight 5 Tearsis Rice only. Could have carrey'd about 
twenty moar freight, but could not git them without wating 
some time. Shall make all possable Dispatch to return to 
this Port; I mean to make St. Eustatia my Port for Sailes, if 
answerable, as the Chargis there is light, and the french 
Ports high, and all in Confewtion. Since my last per 
Tillinghast have sold viz. 

13 bbl. Cyder at 5/4 to 6/ per bbl. 
5 bbl. Mainhaden at 10/ to 10/6 per bbl. 
342 \h.\ Cheese at 3I per lb to /[\d do. 
II Boxis Spr. Candles at 2\d per lb. 

Should have sent you an account of Sailes and an Invoice 
of the Cargo, the Time cant be spaird unless I let my other 
buisness suffer. Adue my good friends. Fm with due Re- 
spect Your Most Humbel Servant 

Ebenezer Shearman 

430 commerceof [ 1790 

Ebenezer Shearman to Christopher Champlin 
AND Co. 

St. Eustatia, November 24th, 1790. 


This my firs opertunity from St. Eustatia may serve to 

inform you of my Arrival at this Poart the 19th Instant 

had an agreable Pasage of 13 days, but had the Misfortin 

to Carrey away two of my Shrouds on said Pasage. finding 

them not sufficient to perform my voige, without great risk, 

have purchas'd Roap for new Shrouds, which will detain me 

two or three days to fix, and put my Vessil in order for 

sailing, the detention of doing this Jobb is not agreable 

to me, nither will the Expence be to you, Rigin at tenn 

Dollars per C. have sold my Rice at 3 dollars per C Tobacco 

at 3 and | do. Oile at 12 dollars per bbl. Cheese at one bitt 

and J to i§ bit per lb. have purchas'd Salt at 4 bits per 3 

Bushels or bbl Powderd Sugars from 10 to 11 1 Ps Eight per 

C. Coffee at 1 1 bit per lb. Shall take some Genneva if 

my money holds out. I have been so crouded with buisness 

at Charleston and this Port pervented me from giveing 

pertickeler accounts, but at my arrival at Charleston shall. 

shall sail by the 27th or 28 Instant. I flater myself the Penn 

will come right. Adue t? c 

^ Ebenezer Shearman 

Captain Baly has arriv'd at St. Bartolee was on bord me 
yesterday. Ship is under sail. Adue. 

Lanchon Freres et Cie. to Christopher Champlin 

L'Orient, 15 January, 1791. 

We had the pleasure of writing to you the 29th September 
a. p. per the States Captain Sheffield, confirming the de- 
parture of Captain Bailey the 24th of same month to a better 
market, and inclosing you Duplicate Accounts of his dis- 
bursements here amount L. 444. 5.6 to which beg to refer. 
Your good Son Mr. C. Grant Champlin has since, say the 

1791 RHODE ISLAND 43 1 

1st December relieved our long expectation of seeing him, 
but the stay of a few days which he made here was too short 
to leave it in our power to pay him in its full extent the 
Civility we could have wished and which his engaging man- 
ner, independent of his connection to you would have de- 
manded at our hands, we acquitted ourselves however as 
well as we could and furnish'd him with our draft on Paris at 
Sight for L.800. Tour[noi]s to your debit agreeable to his 
desire and with Letters of introduction to our different friends 
in the several towns he meant to pass thro' on the Road he 
took to Dunkirk where we understand he means to take 
Shipping for Holland, he was much disappointed in not 
meeting Captain Bailey here, as was the Captain in not 
seeing him, but his having left Paris previous to our letters 
reaching there and going to Bordeaux before he came here 
was the cause, we hope he is by this time at, or near, his 
Journey's end, say Dunkirk, tho' we have not heard from 
him since he left this, he delivered us your letter of 8th 

Your two Hhds of inferior Tobacco remain yet on hands 
and are likely to do so for some time on account of the 
Quality and as the farmers General are stocked, but the Pot 
ashes tho' damaged are disposed of at Nants at [blank] per 
% this shows you how that article is sought for when even 
what's damaged goes off so well, our demand is very consid- 
erable for it here and none to be had, nor is there a danger of 
glutting the Market by over importation therefore we stren- 
uously recommend it to you to extend your Speculations in 
that article and send a Cargo as soon as possible, of which 
we engage you a good account, this and Pearl ashes which 
is equally sought after and scarce, and good Tobacco are the 
best articles for this Market. Rice would also sell well, so 
would good ship Timber and Staves, a few Barrels of cleane 
well inspected Tar, and a few of good Provisions might also 
sell, but we cannot recommend deep Speculation in those 
articles as they are not (say the American) in good repute 
here. Whale and Fish Oil and whale fins are articles of our 
consumption likewise and generally of good account, for 

432 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

your further Government we inclose you a price current, to 

which craving reference it only remains for us to wish you 

the Compliments of [the] Season which we do very sincerely 

and many happy returns of this new year, assuring you of 

the perfect attachment with which we are. Sir, Your most 

obedient humble Servant, t t? - r> 

Lanchon treres et Cie. 

Our National Assembly has just passed a Law prohibiting 
the importation of all foreign oils except American, which 
may be imported under a Duty of 12 li per % wt. We hope 
this may encourage your fisheries as the french are as yet 
incompitent for the Consumption. 

21 February, 1791. 

By the delay of the packet we have the opportunity of 
informing you that the farmers General are suppressed and 
the importation of Tobacco made free without any duty if 
reexported within a year otherwise or if used in the Country 
to pay a duty of 25 per % Wt. which is not half what the 
farmers General heretofore imposed on the consumer. We 
had a letter from your good Son dated at Dunkirk 29th ulto. 
by which it appears he was then well and preparing for his 
Trip to Holland. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Cape franfois, February i8th, 1791. 


These may inform you of my safe arivel in 16 days three 
days before Capt. Engs. I find here a great number of Amer- 
icans and every thing very lowe. I had some thoughts of 
going to Porterprince, but on inquiring find it as bad there as 
here, fish is much lower there, as for my Oil I could do 
nothing with it there such a quantity going down in one 
Vessel. I had some prospect here at first but after I had 
enterd there was two sail come in the next day chiefly with 
Candels and Oil and flower, there is no end to it this day 
the best of Philadelphia superfine is sold for six Dol. what I 


shall do with my Oil I no not, the People from the eastward 
would be glad to get 40 sue per gal for 20 Cask together. I 
have got mine all on board yet. I have sold my fish for 33 
Liver, my flower I was glad to get 55 Livers being stoad 
among the [Oil?] the Barrels was as black as if they had 
bin stoad in a oil house in the midst of summer. I have 
sold some of my candels at 3 Liv. 5 sous hering what I have 
sold from 28 to 30 Liv. rice very dul here I have sold a few 
Cask at 20 to 22 Liver per mound .f* Long staves 190 Liver 
mackril going from 4I to 4I Dol. sammon 8^ Dol. dull, 
minhaden no price fixt. the Onions sold at 10 sue per 
Bunch, molasses very scarce and high so much rains up as 
high as 78 and 80 sue. I expect it will be something lower, 
sugers very high. Tis not in my power to make dispatch. 
Capt. Shearman saild a few days ago for Porterprince with 
90 Cask of rice. Dennis likewise with 100 besides flower 
and Vessels going down every day and coming in here. I 
shall write again soon by Capt. Arnold or Minro bound for 
Providence. I remain yours. 

Plese to acquaint my family of my arivel. 

[Endorsed,] favoured by Capt. Deming. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Cape Francois, March 4th, 1791. 


Sir this my second letter the first by Captain Deming by 
the way of Newlondon informing you of my arivel in 16 days 
days and likewise of the markets here, they still remain 
much the same. I have sold of all my fish as I wrote you 
before for 33 Livers flower at 55 Livers sence that I have sold 

434 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

about third of my Oil at 45 Livers and about half of my 

Candels from 3 Livers five to 3 Livers ten. I have got on 

hand now the remainder of the Oils and Candels the two 

thirds of the minhaden and about one third of my salmon. 

the herings sold from 28 to 30 Livers Salmon from 8 Dol to 

8| mackrel very musty from 4I to 4^ minhaden what sold 

from i^ Dol. to 2 Dol. very dull sail, molasses keepes up 

to eighty sue per Velt yet the first quality of sugers at 8 

Dollers. I am in hopes Molasses will be some thing lower 

but it is very uncertain so many Vessels comeing in. Capt. 

Engs and my self will wait a few weekes longer before we 

shall begin t[o buy] it for if it comes plentier it will be better 

then [now.] Mr. Stonsong and Shafre are the_merchants 

I have aply['d to] to assist me with my Cargo, so I remain 

Your humble servant. c > t 

Sam l Lawton 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 15 April, 1791. 

The bearer being bound for your place, giving me an 
opportunity of paying my respects, and acquaint you that 
Flaxseed has been sold here this Season at various prices, 
from 42/6 to 62/6 per Hhd. and this day 66/. and £3.8.3 is 
is asked^ but believe not given; the rise has been owing to 
the quantity of Flaxseed lost from America, not less than 
from 4000 to 5000 Hhds. Early this Month, a Ship bound 
here from Philadelphia with near 1000 Hhds on board was 
wrecked near Limerick, which with two other Vessels now 
kept out by the Easterly Winds, (which generally I think 
prevails about this Season) hath occasioned it. The prepara- 
tions making in England to send a large Fleet into the Baltic, 
against the Russians, has occasioned a rise in Naval Stores, 
etc. Lumber has also advanced, as well as every other 
article imported from the Baltic. Respectfully I remain. 
Sir, Your obedient Servant, ^^^^^^ P^^^^^ 

[Endorsed,] Per Patty Capt. Mosher. 

i79i ] rhode island 435 

Fenwick Mason and Co. to Christopher Champlin ^ 

Bordeaux, le 30 April, 1791. 


Not doubting it of sufficient consequence to be interesting, 
we make it a duty to give you the earliest information of 
the important reform just made in the tobacco trade to this 
kingdom, by a late decree of the national asembly. 

The Farme, and all exclusive priveledges and abuses, in 
purchase, sale and manufacture of Tobacco, are from the 
15 day of this month abolished; since which date all Ameri- 
can Tobaccoes are admissable as before, (coming in leaf and 
in Cask directly from America in French or American Bottoms 
only) and stored in the national magazines, where they have 
the right of entrepot for 12 months, without duty; and may 
at any time during that period, be reshipped equally free : 
When taken out for consumption, they are subject to a duty 
of 25 1. p. cwt : imported on American, of 18 1. 15 s. p. cwt. : 
on French bottoms. 

We beg leave to remark that this article is sold as before in 
the stores of Entrepot; and as it is the consumer who pays 
the duty on taking it out, it is not felt by the Importer; 
that the number of private manufactures, establishing all 
over the country and beginning their purchases, has already 
occasioned a competition favorable to the sellerr, and before 
unknown here, which has considerably augmented the price 
of Tobacco (for this refer to our current adjoind); that in 
future the natural consequence of individual emulation, 
will make our market much more nice in qualities : those 
prefered and most demanded, will be the large, strong, 
black scented Tobacco, proper for snuff, which forms a very 
great proportion of our consumption. 

We must not omit to advise, that the same decree permits 
the cultivation of Tobacco throughout the Kingdom, but are 
of opinion that so little land can be spared from the present 
culture, and that our soil is so improper for the one in ques- 
tion, little is to be feared by the American planter from any 

^ A printed circular letter. 

436 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

rivalship in this country; at all events nothing for some years 
to come. 

The great difference made between french and American 
Bottoms, we can but lament; But are given to hope by M. 
Short, charge des affaires, of the U. S. at Paris, the question 
will be reconsidered, and the two nations more equally taxed. 

We flatter ourselves our port will offer a more advan- 
tageous general Market than any in the Kingdom, as well 
from its water communication with the interior country, 
quite to the medeterannean; as from the orders that may 
result from the north of Europe, in consequence of the great 
commerce that is done with that quarter. And we beg to 
assure you of our unremitted attention to your interest and 
greatest exertions to give satisfaction when ever you may be 
pleased to intrust any thing to us. 

Hoping this very favourable change may influence happily, 
in general, on so important a Branch of American commerce, 
and give you, in particular, room to many, and profitable 
adventures. With the greatest respect. We are. Sir, Your 
most obedient and very humble servants. 

Fenwick Mason and Co. 

Below is a tariff of the other new duties as yet passed by 
our Government and which we suppose may be acceptable. 

Whale and all other fish oil directly from America on French or American bot- 
toms 6 1. p. cwt. (all other foreign oil prohibited). Whale bone 15 1. p. cwt. — Bees 
wax yellow 3 1. p. cwt. — Indigoe ij 1. p. cwt. — Flax seed 7 s. p. cwt. — Butter 
50 s. p. cwt. — Turpentine 35 s. p. cwt. — Tar p. barril of 240 a 300 pounds 15 s. 
— Beef & pork 5 1. p. cwt. — Iron in Barrs 20 s. p. cwt. — Deer skins half drest 
45 1. p. cwt. — Whole drest 75 1. p. cwt. — Bear skins 5 s. p. piece — Squirrel 20 
s. p. hundred. — Beaver, musk-rat rabbit, and hair skins nothmg. — All skins raw 
in hair for tanning or dressing, as cow, veal, seal, deer, goat, sheep etc. nothing. — 
Pot and Pearl ashes. Tallow, Hemp, Pig-iron, nothing. — Wheat, Rye, Rice and 
all sorts of grain, flour and biscuit nothing. — All sorts of timber, masts, staves, etc. 

Note all duties here after, will be paid on the nett weight. 
N. B. Beef and Pork may be stored on Entrepot and sold 
free of Duty as before for Exportation. 

i79i ] rhode island 437 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Elsingore, June i6th, 1791. 


I arriv'd this morning three miles below Elsingore where 
I am now waiting for a fair wind to proceed on for Copen- 
hagen, and shall embrace the first that offers. I presume 
the Goods on board is not damaged, as I have had quite a 
moderate passage and made Norway in thirty four days 
from my sailing. Captains Pierce and Greene [have] not 
arriv'd yet. Captain Wood past Elsingore on the nth Inst. 
I shall immediately advise you on my arrival at Copenhagen. 
In the Interim I am Sir your most Obedient Servant 

Ben: Bailey 

P. S. I am now on shore at Elsingore where I shall meet 
with no detention as the ship is clear'd. I presume the 
Original Invoice of the Cargo must be produc'd as they seem 
scrupulous at the Custom house about the weights of the 
Goods, owing to Capts. Brown and Woods Invoice which 
gives a check and suspiscion. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, June i8th, 1791. 


I arriv'd yesterday morning but have advis'd you from 
Elsinore where I arriv'd on the i6th Inst, my outward Pas- 
sage was very mild. I made Norway in thirty four days 
from my sailing, I presume theres none of the Goods on 
board are damaged as the Ship does not make much water. 
I shall begin to discharge on Monday next if the weather be 
good and shall with all dispatch proceed on for St. Peters- 
burg, the Ship William s cargo is unsold. Mr. Saabye 
proposes to sell both our Cargoes together which will be in 
the course of six weeks. I presume the original Invoice 
must be produc'd to regulate the Entry at Elsinore as they 
seem'd suspicious of the Invoice I produc'd them, owing to 
the Entrys made by Captains Wood and Brown. Captains 


Pierce, Greene, and Bentley is not arriv'd yet. The Prices 
of our Exports of Concern are as follows 

Rice from 7 to 7 J C. Tobacco from 95 to 11 Skillins per lb. 

Rum at 54 dollars per 60 Gallons quick sale. 

Coffee 12 skillins per lb. 

St. Petersburg Imports, hemp 20 Rubles per Birquet. [Berkovitz?] 

Duck 9 to 14, Iron from 140 to 150 Copecks the Pode. 

Tea at Copenhagen 30 skillin per lb. 

difference of Exchange at Copenhagen, 
6 dollars and 4 skillings the £ Sterling. 
Rubles at St. Petersburg 295. 

I shall immediately advise you on my arrival at St. 

Petersburg. In the Interim I remain, Sir, Your most 

Obedient Servant, t^ r, 

Ben: Bailey 

P. S. The English fleet of 30 Line of Battle Ships now are 
waiting at Spithead for the Ratification of the Proposals 
made by the King of England towards the Empress of Russia. 
The freight of hemp given in American Bottoms from St. 
Petersburg and Riga to London has been up to ^£ sterling 
per Ton occasion'd by the object of a war betwen the two 

Price Current at present 
Norward rum 2/8 very dull. sugars from 48/. to 56. 

whale oil 1/2, duller Cheese from ^.d and ^d. 

Iron in Barrs 20/ pr. Ct. ' Tobacco 12/ 

Duck II and 12 Dollers. Rice great Plenty supos'd to brake from 

9/ to 9/6. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Cronstadt, July 13th, 1791. 


By Capt. James Brown of the Ship Hope, I have the pleas- 
ure to inform you that I arriv'd at Elsinore on the i6th of last 
month and on the 17th got up to Copenhagen, from which 
I sail'd on the 25th and arriv'd in Cronstadt on the ist Inst. 
My Cargo was all landed at Copenhagen in very good order, 
except one hogshead of Tobacco which came out something 
wet. Mr. Saabye proposed selling my Cargo with the Ship 


Williams the sale of which was to commence in the course 
of ten days, his sudden expectations of more arrivals 
occasion'd the Time and Method of the Sale. I have advis'd 
you from Elsinore and Copenhagen by way of London, of 
my different arrivals but have not follow'd then with Copies 
as my passages have been very fortunately attended with 
favorable winds. 

The prices of Exports of our Concern at Copenhagen are 
as follows vizt. 

Rum at 54 dollars per 60 Gallons Quick Sale. 

Rice at 7 to 7I per C. 

Tobacco at 9 and | to 11 Skillin per lb. 

Coffee at 24 do. per do. 

Imports. Tea at 30 Skillin per lb. 

Bills on London 6 dollars and 4 skillins the £. 

I have advis'd you on the 5th Inst, from St. Petersburg by 
way of London, a Copy of which I herewith transmit for 
your perusal. 

Sir, I sail'd from Copenhagen on the 25th of June and 
arriv'd at St. Petersburg on the ist Inst, the Goods are all 
purchas'd according to your Order as to Quality the prices 
are as follows vizt. 

28 Tons of good clean hemp at 19 Rubles per Birquet. 

N. Sable 492 Pds. of Assorted Iron 2^ by j at 180 Copecks 

do. 63 do. of Square Iron of i inch square at 180 do. 
O. Sable 169 do. of flat do. of 2f to 3 inch at 155 do. 
N. Sable 410 do. of do. do. of 2 to 25 do. at 180 do. 

1 134 Pds. equal to 18 Tons. 
Which are as nigh the dimentions as possibly could be procur'd untill the ist of 

320 Pieces of Sail Cloth at II R. 40 Copecks 
40 do. of do. do. at lOj R. 
100 do. of do. do. at II R. 25 Copecks 
460 Pieces. 

50 Pieces Ravens duck at 1O7 Rubles. 
Diaper sells from 50 to 80 Copecks the asheen. 

I have now all my Sail Cloth on board, and one quarter 
part of my hemp stow'd. If the weather proves favorable 
and the wind comes fair I shall leave Cronstadt by the 21st 

440 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

of this month for Copenhagen, from thence I shall make all 

possible dispatch. I still remain Most truly, Sir, Your 

friend and Obedient Servant, r» d 

' den: Bailey 

P. S. The Captains Pierce and Greene is not ariv'd yet. 
The americans which now lay in the mole are Captains 
Fuller of N. york; Greene of Salem; Wood of Newport; 
Brown of providence; Bailey of Newport. 

hemp was yesterday up to 20j Quick Sale, difference of 
Exchange 29I. 

[Endorsed,] Via Providence. By Capt. Brown of the Ship Hope. 

May and Payson to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, 27th November, 1791. 


We have to acknowledge Receipt of your favor under 
date of 14th Inst, per Post, and observe the Contents. We 
can not advise your shiping to this Market a further Quantity 
of Russia Duck, for the purpose of an immediate sale, we 
find it a much duller article than we expected, since ours to 
you of 20th Inst, we have not sold a peice, however we 
still hope to compleat your sales before our Navigation closes 
with Ice. after this there will be little demand for it, and 
were you to make a further shipment, the probability is, 
that it would arrive at about that time, when all Business 
is stagnated, as respects a communication by Water, in the 
Spring we suppose there will be a demand but generally 
speaking we have ever found it to be an article of but slow 
sale, the present value of Ravens Duck is from 65/ to 6y /6 
per piece and in rather more demand than Russia, are of 
opinion that the Quantity you mention might readily be 
dispos'd of. We have made the necessary enquieries 
respecting Bills on London, find the present Exchange is 
72I per Ct. that is to say £172.10/ find this Currency for 
£100 Sterling, about 3I per Ct. above par, the Bills at Sixty 
Days after Sight, the general opinion is that they will 


continue at about this price, referring to our former Letters, 
very Respectfully, we are Your Obedient Humble Servants 

May and Payson 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher and 
George Champlin 

Charleston, December ist, 1791. 


Troubling you with my third letter I make use of this 
oppertunity to inform you, I have sold a few hoghds. of 
rum at 2/8 but goes of very dull, as so many Vessels coming 
from the Eastward, and all bringing some makes it very dull 
sail here, as for the Oile if not sold for more then offerd at 
at present, I shall leve with Hazard and Robinson without I 
should have your orders to the contrary, as I shall apply to 
them for assistance in the sale of my Cargo, as it is impossible 
to sell any quantity without Credit; and it is difficult to 
trust here with out you are well acquainted with those 
People. I mean to do everything in my power for your In- 
trest, and by giveing up part of my Commision here is to 
your Intrest I dont doubt your Cargo will meete with no Dis- 
advantage by it, so I shall rely on your generosity, and I 
flater my self you v/ill be satisfied at my Return. Markets 
here much as when Capt. Tillinghast saild, rice 10/ at present 
Tobacco 12/ to 13/. Rice is thought to be lower after 
Christmas as ther is great Plenty this season. I remain your 

humble servant, c- t 

Samuel Lawton 

P. S. I hope the Certificates will come before I sail. 

[Endorsed,] favour'd by Capt. Minro. 

Sailing Orders 

Newport, December i, 1791. 

Capt. Benjamin Bailey, 

You being Master of my Brigantine Bayonne now in the 
Harbour of Newport are to observe the following instruc- 
tions. Proceed from hence with the first favourable wind 

442 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

to Port au prince on Hispaniola, where dispose of your 
Cargo on the best terms you can, without giving any Credit, 
if it is possible, and invest the Nett Proceeds in a Cargo of 
good Molasses at least 130 Hhds. but if your Cargo amounts 
to more than you can bring in Molasses, in that case invest 
so much of it in Sugar as will improve the whole of the Nett 
Proceeds of your outward-bound Cargo, so that the Brig : 
may be fully loaded, when this is done return to Newport 
with all dispatch, from the situation of Hispaniola difficul- 
ties may arrise to counter act your intentions and these 
Instructions, in that case you must act as circumstances 
will admit, from time to time as you find them most for 
my Interest, from the deranged state of their trade, you 
may obtain permission to sell some of your goods at Leogan, 
St. Marks etc. and by Sugar and Molasses there, if so you 
must do it if safe, and advantage will arrise from it. from 
the distress of Trade many persons circumstances have been 
injured, be very cautious in whose hands you place any of 
your Cargo, and that your business be negotiated at seven 
and one half per Cent including your Commission, as your 
Cargo is well assorted, some of your goods must be in de- 
mand, push the sale if they are so, as many Cargoes may 
be on your back. If more Molasses Hhds. and Teirces is 
required your Cooper must make them, as from the present 
prospect it will be requisite to save every expense possible 
to prevent a loosing voyage. Write me often and always 
send Copies of your letters, remember to bring good Sugar 
if to be had, as they pay no more duty than bad. confiding 
in your prudence and that you run no risks unavoidable, I 
wish you Success. Your Friend and Owner, 

Chris: Champlin 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, December 26th, 1791. 


I HAVE just now arriv'd here leaving my vessel 9 miles 
below this port, and have horrid news to tell you. the 


greater part of this place was consumed by fire on the third 
of this month by the mulatoes. Nothing sells here at any 
rate, the policy I have made use of was to come on shore in 
my boat to gain information of trade, if I should have come 
in my vessel permission would have not been given me to 
go out. 

I have consulted many masters from our Continent who 
advise me by all means for your interest not to come in. 
Likewise have consulted Mr. Stiles a worthy Gentleman who 
advises me to go to some of the out ports and sell what I 
can of my cargo. I shall try St. marques first then intend 
going to a place below call'd St. Jeremy from thence to the 
au Cayes (If I can here any thing favorable from there), 
produce may be got here for ready cash, there are now 
several Vessels here with fish and flour but there has not 
been to the amount of 40 Barrels of flour nor 12 hhds of dry 
fish sold here this three weeks, all the americans are filld 
with blacks and whites to the amount of 15 or 20 each, the 
mulatoes are encamp'd 9 miles from here. 150 Troops 
arriv'd here last night from france but thats a mere handfull 
to the mulatoes whose camp consists of upwards of 2000. 
assuring you I shall consult every proceeding that I under- 
take for your Interest I remain Your Obedient Servant 

Ben : Bailey 

P. S. there is a great deal of provision here on hand, 
nothing is in demand but hoops and poultry, the Vessels 
now here w4th provision would be glad to leave but cannot 
get permission to depart at any terms. 

[Memo.] Rec'd via N Y February 17. 1792. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, December 26th, 1791. 

I arriv'd here this day have horrid News to tell you. The 
greater part of this place was consum'd by fire on the 3d 
Inst, and it is now in the greatest confusion. Nothing sells 
except Poultry and Lumber, all communication between 

444 COMMERCEOF [ 1791 

the town and Country stop'd and no expectation of a Recon- 
ciliation between them very soon, from 20 to 30 Sail of 
americans in this port and no demand for any produce except 
such as I have mention'd. a Captain from Portland tells 
me he hant sold but 4 hhds. of fish for three weeks past. 
Three captains who have flour tell me they all have not sold 
but 37 barrels in 14 days. 

Over 2000 Mulatoes encamp'd within 9 miles of this place. 
Last night 150 Troops were landed from on board a frigate 
lately from france. 

The policy I made use of was to go on shore in my Boat 
otherways I could have not come away as there is now an 
Embargo. I shall sail immediately for St. Marc. Intend 
trying to sell some of my Cargo and from thence call at 
Jeremie (a port to leward) from thence go to Aux Cayes. 
Assuring you of my attention and the greatest towards your 
Interest I am, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, 

Ben: Bailey 

The Original I wrote by way of N. york. cannot assure 
you this is exactly word for word as I was in great haste to 
get on board my Vessel it being 10 miles below. 

15 January. 

A frigate arriv'd this day from Port au prince with orders 
for all Strangers in this port to sail for Port au prince. We 
have sollicited the Captain to permit us to stay being in 
number four, he says we must comply with his orders. 
We carry our permissions along with us which were given 
by the authority of this place permitting us to trade there- 
fore the censure will not be greater than if we had been 
at Port au prince our Entrys being legal. The Captain of 
the Frigate appears very polite on the occasion. I have 
therefore thought proper to leave some of my Goods in the 
hands of Mr. Louis de Tollenace for sale which are 

10 hhds. fish 10 Tierces mackarel 

2 Tierces Rice 8 do. Oil 

2 do. pork II Boxes Candles. 
4 do. herring 

1792 ] RHODEISLAND 445 

My reasons for the above are thus — Port au prince is 14 
leagues from St. Marc, so situated that we may pass safe in 
our Boats without the least Risk and I am afraid Goods are 
very dull at port au prince. I shall endeavour to force the 
sales of what I carry along with me, and take all my empty 
hogsheads which are made striving to make all the dispatch 
I possibly can. I am most truly Sir Your Obedient Servant 

B. B. 

Molasses 17 to 18 Cotton 180 li per Cwt. 

Sugar at 70 to 73 Indigo at 10 li to 14 li per lb. 

Coffee at 1 8s per lb. 

I shall sail for port au prince to morrow, by a Vessal 
from the cape we are told ther's a ship arriv'd from france 
who had sail'd before a fleet which had 18000 troops on board 
bound for this Island. 

I have seen a Gentleman who left au Cayes the 15th Ulto. 
he tells me they were in the greatest confusion but had 
plenty of provisions of all kinds, it was thought the town 
would run great risks of being burn'd. 

St. Marc, January 21st, 1792. 

Sir I arriv'd of this port on the 28th Ultimo, went on shore 
and was positively assur'd by what was told me that I could 
sell my herrings Oil and Candles to a profit which was an 
object of attention for selling some other articles which 
consists my Cargo. I accordingly anchor'd by the per- 
mission of the authority in writing, and commenced business 
putting some of my Goods in the hands of Mr. Louis de 
Tollenace a reputable Merchant recommended by two 
Captains who are at the same house. 

I am much disappointed in regard to the dull sales but 
God knows where and in what part of this Island our produce 
is worth any thing as every port is fill'd with provisions of 
all kinds and Cash exceeding scarce. 

The Goods sold are as follows viz. 

76 barrels herrings at 3 to 3§ dollars. 
9 Boxes Candles at § . . do. per lb. 
8 Barrels Beef at 7 to 8 . do. 

44^ COMMERCEOF [ 1792 

3 hhds. Tobacco at 4I to 5 do. per Cwt. 
10 do. [Codjfish at 3 to 2f do. per do. 

4 Barrels mackarel at 45 . do. 
I do. pork . . . at 13 . do. 

40 do. flour . . . at 7 . do. 
900 Staves .... at 450 li per M. 
A small proportion of onions which was in bad order being badly made up. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, January 28th, 1792. 

Sir, I left St. marc's the 23 arriv'd here on yesterday 
found Marketts as dull as when I left here and but little 
business a doing, have got my Vessel legally enter'd and must 
now submit to patience as there is a prospect of trade when 
the troops arrive which are expected daily. Young Mr. 
Forbes is here whom I would recommend to your particular 
attention he having been very kind to render me many little 
services, there will be plenty of produce to be got when the 
Country opens and our Goods will be in great demand. The 
standing Troops have made a number of sorties out and 
kill'd a number of Mulatoes. there is not one to be seen 
in the streets, they have lately establish'd the martial law 
to quell the mobs which have been very riotous. I shall 
begin my purchase as soon as in my power lies, can't inform 
you when I shall sail. I am Sir Your Obedient Servant 

B. Bailey 

Our Goods no particular price being in no demand. 

Molasses 18 li on board 

Sugar 70 li to 75 li. 

Coffee 1 8s per lb. 
42 Sail of americans in port. Captains here from Newport Boss and Huntington. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, February ist, 1792. 

I WROTE you last via Newburyport which you'll receive 
before this comes to hand. I remain in the same disagree- 
able situation as when I wrote. Nothing but destruction 

1792] RHODE ISLAND 447 

and murder are the politics of this Colony. Yesterday a 
brig arriv'd from au Cayes with her outward Cargo and to 
day another both americans. the negroes and mulatoes are 
killing all the white people whose habitations lay within 
their command, trade is as dull as at this place, Jaquemel 
is burn'd and a part of the buildings along the coast (to 
leward). This day there is a ship arriv'd from the cape. 
The advices are that a frigate is at the cape lately from franca 
who sail'd in company with 2 Ships of the line 3 frigates 5 
transports 6000 Troops bound for this Island having on 
board 40,000 dollars. 

Molasses is exceeding scarce and hard to be got as none 
can be purchas'd only what comes in by water. Goods of 
our Country still in no demand. I have sold only i hhd. of 
fish since I arriv'd from St. Marc. Mr. Forbes's with many 
other opinions are that as soon as the troops arrive the coun- 
try will be open'd and trade will flourish rapidly for some 
time after. 

However it is exceeding tedious to be so confin'd and do 
no business, but as soon as an opportunity offers to my 
advantage I shall eagerly embrace it striving to make all the 
dispatch I can. I am most truly, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, 

Ben : Bailey 

P. S. there is a number of Vessels here with provisions 
who have not broke bulk. 

American Goods no price being in no demand. 

Sugar 68 li to 70 li (Molasses 17 li to 19 li los at the plantations). 

Coffee 20s. Cotton 190 li per Cwt. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, February 8th, 1792. 

I HAD forwarded the inclos'd but unfortunately the Vessel 
which had the advices on board was brought in again by a 
Revenue Cruiser, in consequence of having some Goods on 
board that were not legally clear'd at the oflSce. 

448 COMMERCE OF [ 1792 

We Still remain neuter and Commerce as dull as hereto- 
fore. I was down to Leogane last week but met with no 
success in regard to purchasing molasses. I intend going to 
St. marc's very soon to settle my affairs, at my return shall 
at once more effectually endeavour to expend what monies 
I may have to part with. 

I had forgot to mention the commissary who arriv'd from 
the Cape on the 30th Ultimo, he is commission'd by the 
National assembly at home to settle a Treaty of peace in this 
Colony, which gives us great hopes that he will accomplish 
his business to the satisfaction of both Parties. No Pass- 
ports have been handed out to day. the reason are not 
accounted for. as soon as the municipality renews those 
liberties I shall immediately apply to go to St. marc's as I 
think what Goods I left there must be dispos'd of. This 
day has been the most peacable of any I have experienced 
since I arriv'd. to day two Vessels are clear'd to depart 
with their Cargoes consisting of Beef pork fish etc. in ballast 
the highest price for dry fish at Martinaco was 20 li other 
Goods in proportion. 

I have sold from on board since my arrival 

3 hhds. fish at 2^ dollars per Cwt. 
2 Tierces Oil at 55 Sou per Gallon. 

landed to a store, since sold 4 Barrels herring at 3 dollars. 
Assuring you of my utmost attention towards your Interest 
I am Sir, Your Obedient Servant 

Benjamin Bailey 

Boss has not sold to the amount of 100 dollars of his in 
board Cargo. 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au Prince, February 24th, 1792. 

Since my last advice I have been to St. Marc found my 
Goods were all sold except 2 Tierces of Rice 6 Casks of oil 
which I dispos'd of at the following prices viz. 

1792] RHODE ISLAND 449 

I Tierce of Rice at Lo. 28. 17.6 per Cwt. 
I do. . of do. . at 30. — .- per do. 

3 do. . of Oil at 2. 5.- per Gallon 

I do. . of do. at 2. 9.- per do. 

The Other two Tierces unsold brought here in my boat. My 
Goods which were already sold commanded the following 
Prices, viz. 

9 hhds. fish . . at Lo. 24. 15.- per Cwt. 

II boxes s. candles at 4. 2.- per lb. 
2 barrels pork . at 94. 17.6 per bbl. 
4 do. herring . . at 28. 17.6 .... 

II do. mackarel . at 33. — .- 
2 Tierces oil . . at 2. 10.- per Gallon 

Onions to the amount of 24. 15.-. 

Since I first arriv'd at port au prince from St. marc I 
have sold 

IS hhds. offish at Lo. 20.12.6 to 24.15. per C[wt.] 

35 barrels herring at 24.15 per bbl. 

6 do. Mackarel at 33. to 35.1.3. 

4 Tierces of Oil at 2.15 per Gall. 

6 Boxes of candles at 3i5- to 4 li per lb. 

and the remainder of my Onions. I have begun to load with 
II hhds. of molasses, in the course of 10 days shall have 
40 more. 

Molasses has got up to 19 li in consequence of a number of 
Vessels which are come here from other ports to load. 

Lighterage is very high and hard to be commanded. Our 
situations are discouraging in regard to commerce, since 
the arrival of the commissary they have been very quiet 
both sides. There still remains a number of Vessels with 
provisions which have not broke bulk. If I can obtain 
permission I shall go down the coast and endeavour to sell 
my pickled fish in order to shorten my Voyage which will 
be much longer than I expected. Mr. Boss still remains with 
his cargo unsold and but a trifle more prospect of selling 
than what has been, the plains are open to bring in molasses 
and sugar but no Goods are allow'd to be transported from 
hence as yet. 

450 COMMERCEOF [ 1792 

Striving to make all the dispatch I can I am most truly 

Sir Your Obedient Servant r> r> 

Benjamin Bailey 

[Endorsed,] By Capt. Tew. 

May and Payson to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, 3d March, 1792. 

Dear Sir, 

We shou'd long since have advis'd you of haveing made a 
sale of your Russia Duck 30th December last, but the person 
to whom we sold leaveing town immediately after, and 
knowing a part of the Duck to be staind, we wish'd to have 
the Business perfectly setled before we advis'd you. the 
price sold at was ten and half Dols. on a Creddit of ninety 
days. Mr. McCreery the person to whom we sold, is now 
in Town, and have examin'd the Duck, find say, thirty 
Bolts out of fifty to be staind, and injur'd, so as to prejudice 
the Sale, have not yet perfectly setled the Business but 
hope to in a few days and will advise you the result. Your 
esteem'd Favors of 23d January and ist February were 
duly received and the Contents noted, our Mr. Payson 
haveing wrote you from Boston, and the foregoing reasons, 
will excuse our not replying to them before, we observe the 
rapid rise of Russia Duck at your Market, and cou'd now 
wish we had not made so early a sale of yours, but cou'd 
not foresee the present scarcity and demand, we have 
annex'd you the present state of our markets, but they are 
not accurate, business is exceeding dull and markets are 
very unsettled, goods vary in price as particular Necessaty 
may render a sale unavoidable, it is expected that altera- 
tions will take place as soon as our Navigation opens, which 
from present appearances will be in a few days, there are 
many Vessels below and no doubt we shall have a fresh 
supply of different kinds of Goods, with much Respect 
We are Your Obliged and Obedient Servants 

May and Payson 

1792 J 


ISLAND 45 1 

Flour Superfine . . 36/ to 37/ 

do. Hemp . . 

6d. dull. 

do. fine . . . 

• 34/ to 35/. 

Whale Oyl . . 

2/2 to 2/4 per Gallon. 

Wheat . . 


Tanners do . . 

9 Dols. per Bbl. 

Indian Corn 

. 3/6 to 3/8 

Candles Dip'd 

9§ to lod. 

Bar Iron 

. 33 £ per Ton. 

do. Mould . . 

1 2d 

W. I. Rum 

6/6 to 7/3 

do. Sperm Ceti 

3/ to 3/3. dull 

N. E. do. . . 

4/8 to 4/1 1 

Sole Leather . 

15 to i6d. 

Sugars . . 

5.10 to S,6.T.6 

Cotton . . . 

2/3 to 2/6. very scarce 

Molasses . . 

3/8 to 3/9 

Raisins . . . 

7i Dollars. 

Bohea Tea 

2/8 to 2/9 

Pepper . . . 

3/6 to 3/9. 

Coffee . . . 

18 to zod. 

Pymento . . . 

iSd. to 17^. dull 

Chocolate . 


Cheese, Country 7 to id. if good. 

Beef . . . 

50/ to 52/6 

Flax .... 

none at market. 

Pork, Northern 

II to 12 Dols. 

Barley . . . 

5/ scarce. 

do., Southern 

9 Dols. 

Bees Wax . . 


Russia duck 

• 90/. 


Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, March lOth, 1792. 

Since my last advice by Capt. Tew I have the pleasure 
to inform you that I have sold all my Goods except 4 barrels 
mackarel 7 do. herrings 3 Boxes S. Candles 4 Casks Oil, 
have on board 48 hhds. Molasses and have sent out 26 more 
to fill. To morrow if I can procure a permit I shall embark 
with 14 hhds. more where I am sure to get them fill'd with 
molasses and shall load as fast as possible. Molasses is 
scarce the price remains at 19 li per C, The politics of this 
Island still remain in a confus'd state. No Troops arriv'd 
here yet. The Commissary is now at Leogane in order to 
treat with the mulatoes he is expected to return to morrow. 
The Negroes about Leogane are revolted and God knows 
what will be the final Issue. You may easily suppose I 
am anxious to depart assuring you I shall make all dispatch 
I am Sir your Obedient Servant 

Benjamin Bailey 

P, S. If no ill consequence happens I shall sail by the 
25th of this month. 

[Endorsed,] Via Newbedford. By Capt. Jenny. 

452 commerceof [ 1792 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Port au prince, March i6th, 1792. 


Since my last advice of the Date of the 15th Inst, by 
Capt. Jenney of the Brig Polly belonging to Newbedford 
fresh difficulties have occur'd which are, on the 12th the town 
of Leogane was closely besieg'd by the Negroes from the 
Mountains but were repuls'd by the whites and Mulatoes 
(after burning 5 houses). They then retreated to the plains 
setting fire to all the plantations and burning every thing 
before them. On the 13th at 4 in the morning they made 
the second attack but were driven back again, the Loss 
on both sides according to the best informations which are 
not regular are over 2 thousand, we have learned nothing 
new to day. the consequences of this fatal stroke are all 
pasports have been stop'd this five days and we understand 
none are to be given only to the french merchants, for the 
future. Molasses is up at 20 li per C. The people at 
the helm of Government affairs seem determin'd on the 
Ruin of this Colony and Island. I have 60 hhds. of good 
Molasses on board have 30 more empty in the country to 
fill. I wrote you in my last letter that I should embark 
the next day with 14 empty hhds. to fill but my designs are 
frustrated, in consequence of what has happen'd since. 
If the plains of port au prince should meet the fate with those 
at Leogane the Island is ruin'd, which God grant may not 
be the case as it will be exceeding hard for the poor planters 
who deserve pity by all who have the least sentiment of 
feeling for their Distresses. 

What Goods I have on board unsold are 3 boxes of^S. 
Candles, 4 Casks of oil, and 8 barrels of herrings. You may 
rely on my utmost exertions to make all the dispatch I 
possibly can for sailing and if I am not defeated in my inten- 
tions I shall depart from this disagreeable port by the last 
of this Month. I am most truly, Sir Your Obedient Servant, 

Benjamin Bailey 

[Endorsed,] Via Newyork. By Capt. Worth. 

1792 ] rhodeisland 453 

Sailing Orders 

Newport, May 22th, 1792. 

Capt. Benjamin Bailey. 

You being Master of my Brig Bayonne, are to observe the 
following Instructions. Proceed with all Dispatch to Copen- 
hagen, when you arrive, deliver your Cargo into the hands 
of Messrs. Ryberg and Co. Merchants there, to whom you 
are consigned. Balast your Vessel with dispatch, and 
proceed to St. Petersburg, taking with you Messrs. Ryberg 
and Co. letter of Credit upon the House of Messrs. Edward 
James Smith and Co. to furnish you on my account with 
Russian goods, conformable to my Memorandum, enclosed 
them, a Copy of which you have herewith, pay the greatest 
attention to choosing the articles, as Peace is restored I 
flatter my self Duck may be had, very good at 11. Rubles, 
procure all the narrow flat Iron you can. some of 2f Inch 
will be required, when you stow the Brig let all the Duck 
be put under the lower Deck, and, when your Business is 
finished return to Copenhagen with dispatch, where take 
on board such Tea as Messrs. Ryberg and Co. may deliver 
you to balance my account, which quantity you may nearly 
fix upon by the price your Rum and other articles may sell at 
according to the last Sale. I would have you converse with 
Mr. Saaby, respecting the time of Selling, my Cargo being 
small I have requested it sold alone, as I suppose it best. 
large quantities up for sale at a time often reduces the price, 
besides I think your Rum much better than any Rum shipped 
from Boston or Providence, take the utmost care in chusing 
new Tea and good, as we have received some rotten and 
mouldy Tea in Lawtons voyage from thence. 

By no means omit having three correct Manifests of 
home Cargo made out soon after your Sailing from Copen- 
hagen to be in readiness for the Custom house boats. Run 
no risks of Seizure, be frugal in your expences. fail not 
to obtain from Mr. Saaby Certificates for landing the rum 
and Coff'ee, to cancell our bonds. 

Buy me at Copenhagen Two oval dishes deep blue and 

454 COMMERCEOF [ 1792 

white China, 21. inch. long. Two ditto 19. inch, long or as 
near them lengths as possible, and deeper blue than the 

Write me by every opportunity. Wishing you Success, I 
am. Your Friend and owner 

Chris : Champlin 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Elsinore, July 5th, 1792. 


I HAVE the pleasure to inform you that I arriv'd below 
Elsinore in the Sound to day, the wind being a head I was 
oblig'd to anchor and am now on Shore at Mr. Fenwicks 
to clear, a prospect of having a wind very soon offers which 
I shall immediately embrace at the first opportunity. Noth- 
ing material has happened during my passage in regard to the 
Ship, the tenth day after my leaving Newport John South- 
wick fell from the Mast head which fall broke his left thigh 
but he is in a fair way to recover (the accident.) My 
prospect of being here in 36 days was good when I first came 
out but having contrary wind was retarded. I am the 
twentieth and eight American that has enter'd the Baltic 
this season. Mr. Feawick tells me hemp is at 19 Rubles at 
St. Petersburg, the price of canvas he is not inform'd. I 
cannot inform you in regard to the price of american Goods 
at Copenhagen but shall advise you with the price thereof 
on my arrival there, assuring you of my greatest exertions in 
regard to dispatch. I am Sir Your most Obedient Servant, 

Benjamin Bailey 

the Bayonne proves very tight by no means leaky. 
P. S. The wind now begins to veer Westward, so I am 
in hopes of getting to Copenhagen to morrow. 

1792] RHODE ISLAND 455 

Benjamin Bailey to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, August 27th, 1792. 

I NOW have the pleasure to inform you of my arrival from 

St. Petersburg on the 24th Inst, and am now awaiting for 

40 Chests of Tea the greater part of which is purchas'd at 

28ls per lb. am in hopes to have it all on board to morrow. 

My hemp was bought at i8| R : 

Iron at 160 Co. Ravens duck at 10^ R : 
156 ps. Sail cloth good at i8| R : 
52 do. do. at 16 R : No more Sailcloth could be ob- 
tain'd although the prices were so exceeding high, although 
if I could have procur'd the whole which was order'd I could 
not consistent with your Interest have taken it as it was 
merely throwing money away to buy at such exorbitant 
prices, my Cargo remains unsold in consequence of the 
Quantity of Goods at market and low prices, however 
Mr. Saabye thinks the next sales will command better prices 
than the last. I am in hopes to get away on Thursday next. 
In expectation of being with you by the first of November 
I remain, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, 

Benjamin Bailey 

[Endorsed,] Via Providence. By Captain Read. 

Port Charges. 
For Captain Benjamin Bayley here at Copenhagen, Vizt. 
AO. 1792. Rds. St. 

July 6. 

To Stamp Paper 18. 

" Haven Duty of 43 Last at 24 St 21.24. 

" Custom House OflBcers fees 46. 

" Ston Dolphin and Accise at 3 St 2.33. 

" The Light of the Netz 2.-- 

" The Controleurs and OflScers 1.20. 

" The Commandant and Clarck 32. 

" Sundry Expends in all The Offices 2.8. 

" The Boatsvain and People at the Boom 24. 

" Town House Clearing and Officers 3.- - 



[ 1792 


To Stamp Paper 

" The Controleurs and Officers 

" The Commandant and Clarck . . . . 
" Sundry Expends in all the Offices . . . 
" The Boatsvain and people at the Boom 

" The Admiral for Mustering 

" a Man to Dragoe for a Pillot 

" Our Brokerage 

Copenhagen, the 28 Aug't, 1792. 



2. 4. 




Rds. 46.15 St. 


John Bartlett to William Ellery 

Nantucket, 14 September, 1792. 

Dear Sir, 

I received your kind favour of the loth Inst, by Miss 
Cady, for which and your attention to my affair I heartily 
thank you. On October 22d 1777 I left the Army at Albany 
in order to return home for the winter for the recovery of 
the use of my arm which was badly fractur'd, by a formal 
written permit from General Gates, who also ordered me a 
Waggon for my Baggage and gave me an order to call on any 
and every body for such assistance as I should need on the 
Road. Early the next, Spring I wrote to Doctor Potts, the 
Deputy Director General for the N. Department; wishing 
his orders. I received no answer. I sat out therefore 
without any particular orders and joined the Army at the 
White Plains, at which place and at Harrison's Purchase 
near by I spent that season in the flying Hospital, 

In the Summer following, that is in 1779 you brought a 
letter from Doctor Shippen, ordering me to repair to Fish 
Kil and superintend the Hospitals in that vicinity which I 
immediately complied with. From that time to the time of 
the new arrangement I held myself in readiness to comply 
with, and execute any orders that I might receive. From 
that time to this, I have received no orders altho' I have 
repeatedly wrote to Dr. Shippen from the Army, wishing to 
know if he had any new commands for me. I used to join 

1793 ] RHODEISLAND 457 

the Army on summons and apply for orders but received 
none, but the answer was this, viz. that there were so many 
Doctors since the three divisions of the Army were joined, 
that it was difficult to assign districts to them all. 

I never was broke, reprimanded or so much as blamed for 
any misconduct in my public capacity during the war. 

There was a Thomas Tillotson, whom Doctor Potts had 
put to act in my room, before that I joined the Army in 1777, 
who was always my secret enemy, and wished me out of the 
way that he might be Physician and Surgeon General in 
my room. This man practiced every mischief in his power 
against me. 

In the new arrangement I was amongst the deranged. Up 
to which time I claim a right to my Wages and Rations, 
The date of that period I cannot exactly tell, without advert- 
ing to the Journals of Congress, which I am not possessed of. 

As soon as I can come at the date of the new arrangement, 
I can make out my account properly, which I shall do and 
forward it to Congress, accompanied with the petition. In 
the mean time I wish my compliments to be made to Mrs. 
Ellery and you Sir, may rest assured, that I remain your 
sincere Friend and very Humble Servant, 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Charlston, January 24th, 1793. 


I AM all ready for sailing only wate for a wind to get under 
way. I have taken on board 97 whole and 6 half Cask of 
Rice and 12 Barrels of Tarr on your account, as for the 

458 COMMERCE OF [1793 

Lumber I could not get it unless I gave from 14 to 15 Dollers 
per thousand, as for Beans there is none to be bought in 
Charlston at present so that with the Rice and five hogh'ds 
Tobacco and the Tarr with the cargo brought out I shall 
sail as soon as I can get out. by the latest accounts from 
Highspanola the times are very dull there. I shall endeaver 
to do the best I can. I wrote by Capt. fry the price of rice. 
I must refer you to Mr. Robinsons letter comes with this 
about the goods I had of him here. I remain yours, 

Sam'l Lawton 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Porter Prince, February 15, 1793. 


These may inform you of my arivel here in 17 days from 
Charlston and am sorry to inform you the badness of the 
times here on acount of the Blacks revolting from their 
masters and have burnt a great number of Plantations a 
few days ago. I inform'd a few days before I got in that the 
Cape was all up in arms and the armey gone out and no 
business done there so I came here and find [all] full as bad 
here or wors and the south side [in] as much Confusion as here 
the armey went out hece a few days ago. the Blacks burnt 
a great many Plantations here a few days ago and what we 
all shall do here God only noes, not one Vessel is allow'd 
to go from here that has got any Provisions on board and 
nothing scarsely will sell here, here is now in Port 68 sail 
of Americans. I have sold but one Cask of Rice yet all 
that I have sold is the chief of the Tobacco for 5 and sh 
Dollers and the few bbls. Tarr for 4 and 4I Dollers not one 
box Candels nor any thing else on board is sold and when I 
shall sail from here I no not no more then the Dead, if I 
could sell my Cargo I shall not trouble you with any molasses 
it being so scarce and high, bring chiefly Coffe and a little 
suger and take in ballast . I have oflFerd my rice for 22 Levers 
to take a quantity, no boddy will buy. Sir, I remain yours, 

Sam'l Lawton 

1793 ] RHODEISLAND 459 

Price Current 
Good when sold 

Rice from 22 to 26 Livers Plenty 
Spermicetia Candles from 4I to 6 Livers Plenty 
Oil from 50 to 55 sou. Plenty and dull. 
Beef from 6 to 7 Doll. Plenty and dull. 
Tobacco from 5 to 45 scarce. 
Tarr from 5 to 45 scarce. 
Lumber, 13 Dollar Plenty and dull 
Mackrel if good 35 Dol. dull 
Long staves 14 and 18 Dol. do. 

Produce at Present 
Molasses 31 Livers hogd. 3 dol. scarce. 
CofFe from 16 to 19. 
Sugar from 60 to 78. 

[Endorsed,] favourd by Cap. Church. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Porter prince, March 2d, 1793. 


I FURTHER inform you by this oppertunity of the two 
letters I wrote before one dated the i6th and one the 27th 
of my arivel here and the dullness of Trade likewise all kind 
of amarican produce very plenty indeed as for my Cargo the 
rice is chiefly sold and glad to get 22 Livers per Ct. there is 
now in Port 600 Cask for sale some of the Oil on hand and 
the chief of the Candels not sold. I shall begin to ballast 
soon. I shall try to sail by the 20th if possible or the last of 
this month, my Tobacco all sold and Tarr, some Beef on 
hand yet. as for molasses I think it so high that the last 
accounts from home will not do to purchase here at 30 and 
31.10 besides the Cask. Plenty of poor Coffe and sugar for 
sail Coff from 16 to 19 sou sugar from 66 to 78. I shall 
endeavour to get some of the Candles sold before I sail, a 
very dull place here for Candels and what Rauthbone 
brought here has suply'd the market and now here is in Port 
Minro and Pirce from Providence with a great quantity of 
them. Sir I remain your humble Servant 

Sam'l Lawton 

460 COMMERCEOF [ 1793 

Prices Current 

BeefyDol. Oil 52.12.6 dull. 

Pork 12 to 125 Tobacco 5 to 5I 

flour super. 7 Dol. Tarr 4 to 4^ 

Rice 21.10 to 22 Liver dull Molasses 30 to 31.10 

Spermiceti Cand. J Dol. Sugar 66 to 78. 

Mackrel 3I to four Dol. CofF. 16 to 19 sou. 

[Endorsed,] favored by Cap. Baker. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Porterprince, March 11, 1793. 


I IMBRACE this oppertunity as this Vessel sails for Newyork 
I acquaint you I am in hopes to sail in about 10 or 12 days as 
my cargo is mostly sold times are very dull here yet and 
great Plenty of American produce from all parts coming in 
daily. I shall bri[n]g you about 10 or 12 hogst. Molasses 
by way of ballast that will cost 3 1 Livres per C. and the cask 
3 Dollers the remainder of the cargo in CofFe I have sold 
the Chief of the rice as I wrote you before for 22 Livres by 
Capt. Baker dated 2d Inst, since that most all the oil at 
50 Sue. 30 boxes Candles sold at Luegan for £3.15. I 
would a ballast with salt but I think the Brig makes to much 
water to venture with it. I have got on board a few hogh'd 
molasses a bout 7000 wt CofFe cost from 16 to 18 sue. the 
remainder I shall purchase in a few days and some stone 
ballast, there is more or less Plantations burning every 
night by the Negroes while I am now writing there is two 
on fire not many miles of. I shall be very glad to get away 
from here. I may write once more before I sail, as for the 
Price Current much the same or wors then the last. Sir 
I remain your humble Servant 

Sam'l Lawton 

Sir, Plese to inform my family we are all well on board. 

S. L. 

[Endorsed,] favourd by Capt. Barnad. 

1793 ] RHODEISLAND 461 

oTb. 7Viilia7n z^enwic^^T\ Cr. 

For Portcharges in the Sound viz. 

Lightmoney for the Ship and Cargo ^^''J^, "St 

Pafsmoney and Cuftomhoufe Officers fees Z^. /g 

Tj^^'^^ator ^ ^^^ 

Searcher •%••».. ^ / ^^ 

Guard Ship . . • . ^ _ _^ y 

British Poormoney and Church . , 

Commisfiou *-•.... ,^^ 

Extra »•••,., 

Crowns * . /^,,/o. 
Agio Current a 3 Stivers -.— « ^/ 

Danish CnrrzTii ^/C^. ji^i^ 

462 commerceof [ 1793 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Elsinore, July loth, 1793. 

These may inform you of my safe arivel here in forty three 
days and a very unpleasant Passage we had of it for Easterly 
weather with rain and fog for 28 days. I dont think I shall 
go further then Copenhagen by what I can larn from Peters- 
bourg it will be so much later and my Vessel not so fit to come 
home that time of year for she is not quite tight yet. I shall 
wright more perticular soon. I spoke with Capt. Beckford 
as I come in bound for Salem, will write you of my being 
here likewise, Sir, I remain yours 

Sam'l Lawton 

Please to acquaint my family we are all well on board. 

S. L. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, July 17th, 1793. 


I inform'd you by Capt. Bickford bound for Salem of 
my arivel in 43 days passage. I have got all my Cargo 
landed and have concluded to load here as the Brig proves 
somwhat leakey and my coming on the Coast so much 
later in the fall I think it most prudent to make what 
dispach I can. as for the markits of Goods here and Peters- 
bourg is no great object for a small Vessel and she growing 
old I can perceve when blowing hard she begins to complain. 
I have made a Calculation and find I can load here at the 
following Prices Swedish Iron £13 to 15 sterling Ton, Duck 
from 12I to 13I Rix Dollars Ravins Duck about 9I hemp 
16 and 17 skd. I think to fall short in the Canvas as the 
Duck has rizen in the price more then the other goods. I 
have received a letter from Mr. Smith concerning the CofFe. 
he wrote in april and there is a great quantity gone up sence 
that here. I think it will fetch 28 or 29 sk. rum no sail 
yours unsold last year. Mr. Tobey has got 500 hoghd. on 

1793 ] RHODEISLAND 463 

hand. Tobacco at about 6 and 7 sk. no rice to market, 
the last sold sence I bin here for 6| and 6f . I shall begin to 
take in tomorrow. I shall write soon and be able to inform 
you the Quantity I shall purchace. 

the last sails of rum sold a few days ago as low as 38 Rix 
Dollers for 60 gallons. I shall write again in a few days by 
Capt. Dexter bound for Philadelphia. Sir, I remain your 
humble servant 

Sam'l Lawton 

[Endorsed,] honrd Capt. Bartlet. 

Ryberg and Co. to Christopher Champlin 

Copenhagen, the 31st July, 1793. 


We beg your kind referance to our respects of the i6th 
Inst, of which please to receive inclosed duplicate, and Capt. 
Lawton will hand you Triplicate of the Certificates of the 
Rum and Coffee by him. We transmit you this by him and 
wish the Bayonne may have a prosperous Voyage and the 
Cargo come to a favourable markett. You'll please to in- 
form yourself from the inclosed Bill of Lading and Invoice 
of the goods shipt on board and we beg you'll please to credit 
us the amount Rix 8897.65s dcry [Danish currency.^] likewise 
Rix 98.55s dcry furnishd Capt. Lawton for Ships use. 

The goods we hope will give satisfaction with respect to 
Quality and we flatter ourselves it will be agreable that the 
Bayonne loaded here, we have used our utmost exertions 
for purchasing good quality articles at the lowest Prices. 
We have already found opportunity to dispose of your 
Coffee at 28s[killings] per li. which we hope will leave you 
a good advantage and as soon as possible we shall wait upon 
you with account Sales, likewise of Capt. Baileys Rum from 
a p as we shall endeavour to dispose of what remains the 
9th next month. It is quite contrary to our wishes that the 
demand for your Goods is this year so small, rice is the only 
article demanded and we think the price will raise. Capt. 
Lawtons Tobacco from a p is now delivred the Purchasers 

464 COMMERCEOF [ 1793 

and we shall send you a/s [account sales] by the very first 
opportunity. You were pleased last year to order by Capt. 
Lawton a piece of muslin and Handkerchiefs, till of late we 
have not been able to procure it Capt. Lawton has now 
received it, and we hope it will find Approbation, it costs the 
muslin and the Handkerchiefs Rix 54.8 but the diaper you 
direct'd Capt. Lawton to get could not be procured so wide, 
and he thought therefore best not to buy any narrow. We 
have credited your account for the Freight of the 12 Hhds. 
Tobacco shipt by the Bayonne £27.12 at 6 Rix 12/. and 
when your goods are sold we hope the Ballance either 
way will be not great. Having nothing further to add we 
remain very respectfully, Sir, Your most obedient humble 

Ryberg and Co. 

Edward Forbes to Christopher Champlin 

Dublin, 14th August, 1793. 

Having none of your esteemd favors to reply to, in order 
to Ballance your Account I have drawn on you for the same 
at sight to the order of Messrs. Samuel Fowler and Son being 
£0.19.4 Irish to pay them a little Ballance in their favor. 
The unparraleld failures througout G. Britain with some in 
this Country, together with the War with France hath had 
a very bad Effect on our Trade, which caus'd a great Scarcity 
of Money and much diffidence amongst traders and manu- 
facturers, and in place of riseing, has had the contrary effect, 
and lowerd the Prices of Ashes in particular, and our Linen 
trade has in particular received a considerable Shock and 
reduced the prices of the lower kinds to ig\d and under full 
2d per yard and the finer is fallen in proportion, nor do I 
think they will mend untill there is Peace, which at present 
appears very distant. Annexd are the prices current of 
your products and am, Sir, Your obedient Servant, 

Edward Forbes 

1794 ] RHODEISLAND 465 

1st Pot Ashes 33/ to 34/ per Ct. 1 a great quantity of both on hands and expected 
Pearls in no Demand so ever. j still lower. 

Tar 20/. Pitch 25/. per bbl. but will lower when there is peace. Turpentine 
9/ per Ct. Beeswax 2od to zzd per lb. 

Lumber, say pine boards 14/ per 120 feet. Oak Timber £4 per Ton. Good 
inch Oak Boards well squared and free from Sap 20/ per Ct. Oak Bark is in no 
estimation particularly the Ground our Tanners now decline to buy it on account 
of there finding former parcells much adulterated. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Cape Francois, February 9th, 1794. 

AFTER informing you by sundry letters before of my arivel 
here in 18 days passang I am still laying here yet my cargo 
bemg all sold that will sell here and the Cash on board except 
the 140 Barrels flower and 7 Cask of rice administration has 
taken away by the force of arms from me. I have got noth- 
ing for it as yet and I am afraid I never shall for they are in 
such confusion there is very little prospect from them. I 
shall lay here a while longer to se what I can do. I have 
got all my Cask sot up and fild with salt water for ballast 
and [sails] and have bin ready to sail this five weekes if they 
had paid for my flower and I dont se no more prospect nay 
not so much as a month ago as fort Dolphin is in possession 
of the Spanyard. I am not concluded yet what to do to go 
to Leward or not but I believe I shall sail for home in ballast. 
I remain yours, 

Sam'l Lawton 

Plese to inform my family we are all well on board. 

[Endorsed,] Per Capt. Carver. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Cape Francois, February the 19th, 1794. 

I MUST trouble you once more, to inform you of my laying 
here yet wating for my pay for the Rice and flower the ad- 
ministration took away from me, by the force of arms, as 
I inform'd you by sundry letters wrote you before, and of 

466 COMMERCEOF [ 1794 

my being ready to sail this five weekes had they paid me. 

I have concluded rather then leve it behind to take old Iron 

for pay, for that is all the pay I can get and that at £25 Livers 

per hundred, which will amount to 14 or 15 Ton at least. 

I mean to sail as soon as I can get that, what time that will 

be I no not perhaps 10 days or 15 days. I am not concluded 

as yet where to go, as times are so very dificult here there is 

not one in port can conclud on any thing. I beleve I shall 

sail for home but what port I shall arive to God only noes 

for I dont, I am sure. I have got pay for 70 Barrels of flower 

in Cash at 8 Doller, the remainder due will amount to the 

qu[a]ntity above of Iron and bad anough it is. Nothing 

more at present. I remain yours, c > r 

^ ■' Sam l Lawton 

Plese to inform my family we are all well. 

[Endorsed,] favored by Cap. Gilbert. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Kingston, Jamaica, March i6th, 1794. 

I AM sorry to inform you of my being here. I saild from 

Cape Fran9ois the 3d 'nst. and fell in with the Hound sloop 

of war a few Leagues from the Cape who took out all my 

Cash and ordred me for'the mole, from there sent here after 

taken out 3 of my people and sent a Prize master with 4 

hands with me and I ariv'd here the nth. what they will 

do with me I no not. my Papers are all very clear and plain. 

I am in hopes I shall not be libeld. if I am I must proceede 

[for] home as passanger as she will not be try'd till August] 

next, allmost all the Amaricans in port are [used the] 

same way and Captains going home without their Vess[els] 

leveing them here to take their fate as they turn us out when 

libel'd as for the Amaricans in general we can find very few 

friends here with our money and that they have taken from 

us and what to do we no not. I shall write again soon by 

Capt. Barker who goes Passanger to Newyork. so I remain 

your most humble Servant c » t 

^ Sam l Lawton 

1794 ] RHODEISLAND 467 

Plese to inform my family we are all well that is on bord 
mate my son Boy and Bennet on board the rest on board 
man of war. 

S. L. 

They have got from the Brig on your account 3944 Dollers 
Cash which is all yours. 
[Endorsed,] Honor'd by Capt. Carver. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Kingston, Jamaica, March the 22th, 1794. 


I IMBRACE one more oppertunity as I have wrote you sev- 
eral letters before of my being here and sent by the sloop 
of war Capt. Serrage wating to se what they mean to do with 
me as I am in ballast I am in hopes they will not libel me. 
I shall no in a few days the determination of the Judge, 
if libel'd I mean to wate for the arivel of the Packet from 
England as she is expected in a few days, if not cleard then 
I mean to leve my Vessel on them and take out a Protest 
and proceede home the first oppertunity as there seems to 
be neither Law nor Justice here and they have got all my 
Cash from me therefore it is impossible to find friends here, 
there is now in port forty od sail here and the chief of them 
libel'd and their tryals wont come on this four months, by 
that time their Vessels will not be fit to proceede home, as 
for further perticulers I refer you to Capt. Bowler and Capt. 
Barker who has left there Vessels behind. I remain your 
humble Servant 

Sam'l Lawton 

All well on board. I have wrote you three letters sence I 
arived here. 

S. L. 

[Endorsed,] honor'd by Capt. Bowler. 

468 COMMERCEOF [ 1794 

Capture of Martinique ^ 

[March-April, 1794.] 

Landing was attempted in vain at Case navire and [torn] 
Case pilote. The troops and their boats repulsed by the 
Batteries on the shore were obUged to draw off and land lower 
down at the bottom. 

The Enemy proceeding without opposition into the 
Country took the best ground, and established without diffi- 
culty their line round the forts. The investment was made 
the nth of February, the next day the 12th [blank ] 

bombarded and [assaulted] by land and sea was obliged 
to surrender after a vigorous resistance and having lost 38 
men by the explosion of the powder magazine which took 
fire from one of the enemys bombs. 

The 13 and 14 the Bomb Ketches and Battering Challops 
pointed all their fire upon the town and fort and continued 
it all the night. 

Their intrigues were at this moment in the greatest 
activity. Cowardice and treason combined to accelerate 
the progress of the Enemy. On the 15 Elie and Pierre Milet 
came to assasinate the General, they were arrested confined 
and judged. 

The 1 8th the Post Sjurirey was delivered to the English 
Bellegard and Pelauque had the address to render serviceable 
to their designs the committee of public safety and the 
municipality in concert with them without the knowledge of 
the General who could not be a dupe to the military move- 
ment to cover their perfidy. Under the specious pretence 
of going to attack the enemy in their Lines the Post was 
abandoned only 50 men being left to guard it. The rest 
marched forward by one rout while the Enemy seeing such 
fine play came on by another. [Torn.] Discretion all the 
stores have been confiscated even those belonging to Citizens 

^ A fragment giving an account of the capture by the British, March 20, 1794, of 
Fort Royal on the island of Martinique. Fort Royal was situated on the south 
side of the island, near the Pointe des Negres and on the Cul de Sac Royal. Case 
Pilote and Case des Navires lay to the west of the town, but Port or Post Surirey 
is not mentioned on a French map of the island of 1764. 

1794 ] RHODEISLAND 469 

which have been embarked. The Vessels and Cargoes of 
americans have shared the same fate they have been ignomin- 
iously imprisoned and treated in a manner the most cruel, 
about 3 or 400 Patriots the Municipahty some members of 
the assembly and the Committee of public safety have been 
embarked. A conduct which inspires horror and displays 
the cruelty of the English is the barbarous manner with which 
they treat the sick and wounded french and americans who 
were in the Hospital. They turned them out doors and 
left them in the middle of the street during the whole night 
and all the next day without care or succour to make room for 
the sick and wounded english who were immediately carried 
to this Hospital. 

The English on being established at port Surirey before 
they opened trenches which took place on the 226. of Febru- 
ary, summoned General Rochambeau to surrender. 

The Generals Grey and Jervis wishing to prevent the 
effusion of Blood, they declared their having under their 
command a Body of choice Troops of 15 thousand men 
independent of reinforcements they yet expected, resistance 
would be vain. Without hope of being succoured from 
France, without engineers, or men for the Artillery without 
troops to oppose to such an effective force as were about to 
attack him, his constancy and courage and that of his troops, 
which consisted (for the guard of two forts and the t[torn] 
men troops of the Line 30 Cannoneers 150 [torn] armed 
[torn] Laconic It is no time to ask counsel when we ought 
to fight, from that time the Town and Fort of Martinico 
was constantly exposed to an almost incessant fire of Cannon 
and Bombs. Finally the 7th of March the different Batteries 
of Mortars and Cannon pointed at Fort Constitution un- 
masked their fire it began at sunrise and never ceased to be 
warm and well served. Our Cannoneers always sustained 
it well and those of our Bastions above all the two in front 
of the attack, which were the best served and answered their 
fire with much life. The 12th of March to a new summons 
from the English Generals, Rochambeau made answer that 
resigned to the last events of War he and his Garrison were 

470 COMMERCEOF [ 1794 

determined to defend themselves in a manner to deserve 
the thanks of France and the esteem of the Enemy. The 
redout was pierced Hke a Sieve the inner wall absolutely 
leveled and all the works destroyed the Forts were hardly 
in a better state, there no longer remained a single building. 
Fort Convention above all had suffered much almost all the 
Batteries were dismounted and the Carriages broken. The 
explosion of four or five powder magazines which had taken 
fire at difi^erent [ti]mes in the two forts had killed and 
wounded for us many men. We availed ourselves of the 
armistice which was prolonged until the evening to repair our 
works and reestablish our Batteries. The fire then com- 
menced with the same warmth from both sides. The Enemy 
had seventeen Batteries mounted with 87 pieces of Cannon 
which [torn] and battered us on [torn], perhaps from 3 to 400. 
The 20th of March the Town and Fort Republic were 
taken, a Deputation of the Constituted Authorities and 
Citizens of the Town was sent to the General to oblige him 
to capitulate. The demand was accepted, and Commis- 
sioners named on both parts met at the habitation of Dillon 
designated by General Rochambeau as the place of con- 
ference. They lasted two days and the Capitulation was 
signed by the respective Generals the 23d of March. 

Your friend etc. 

J. L. M. P. 

P. S. I learn this instant that General Rochambeau 
does not go directly to France, reasons of a public nature 
cause him to go to the United States there to wait the orders 
of the Executive Council of the French Republic who a[re] 
informed [of] the place of his destination; this information 
is positive. 

Samuel Lawton to Christopher Champlin 

Kingston, Jamaica, April ist, 1794. 

I HAVE to inform you once more of my being here yet and 
not libeld. the Packet not being ariv'd is the means of our 


detention. I shall apply to morrow for my Papers and Cash 
they have plunderd me of which is now in the hands of 
James Kingston the Agent, we are here in a most shocking 
situation with out mony and of cours with out friends and 
of cours without advise what to do for the best, they have 
opend the ports of this Island for all kind of Amarican prod- 
uce of provisions and lumber for six months and all produce 
of this Island free as in British ships and the ports not shut 
again under six mont[h's] notice. I have wrote you by so 
many Vessels before I have but little to write but remain 

Sam'l Lawton 
all well on board, 

[Endorsed,] favor'd by Capt. Merihew. 


Robert Northam to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, August 3, 1794. 

I arived hear yesterday in the afternoon had 9 day to the 
Capes and nothing meterel hapned on the Passage, the winds 
southerly most part of the passage. 4 days after I sail'd 
I spoke a 40 gun Ship. I judged her to be English and the 
day following a Schooner from Carrolina with 14 Guns 
show'd English Cullers, the 9 day came in the Capes took 
Pilot, when I arived hear I apply'd to Mr. Sears but he is 
not able to tell what sucses he may meet with in the Sale 
till she is advertiz'd for Sale but by the next poste I am in 
hopes to give you a more particular account, freights are lo 
at present and flour very high but on the fall from 48s to 50s 
Currency and other provisions in proportion, small Vessels 
from 50 to 70 tons commands a good price but large ones is 
not so much wanted as I have not been able to lern the par- 
ticulars owing to my being hear so short a time and you will 
pleas to except this and excuse your Most obeadient and 

Humble -n -NT 

Robert Northam 

Pleas to let the family know that I and all on board is In 
perfect helth. 

472 commerceof [ 1794 

Robert Northam to Christopher Champlin 

Baltimore, August the 10, 1794. 


I AM sorry to inform you that we have remained here so 
long without one applycation not one person has offered to 
purchace and but that one that I mentioned in my last has 
ever offered to freight and he has never made a second 
applycation. at this time buisness is very dul and a great 
number of Shiping hear for freight charter or sail of different 
sizes but none of them is taken up except for Europe and a 
lo freight is given there from 2| to 2f of a dollar to Spain and 
Portugal. I wish I could write more to your satisfaction but 
I think it my duty to inform you of the situation that we 
are now in as near as I possibly can and if no offer is made 
soon, Mr. Sears proposes to get a freight if possible as laying 
hear idle would soon comsume all the freight that a Vessel 
of this size woul[d] make, you was much decieved by the 
information that you had, and you are not the only one that 
was missinformed by Mr. Easterbrooks. Capt. Childes in 
a brig from Warren came hear with the same view that we 
did mearly from the information that he had from the same 
man but hartyly repents his comeing as he is much dis- 
apointed. indeed there is vessels from all quarters flocking 
in, but it is expected that in the cours of a few days that 
buisness will be more brisk as flour is falling and in con- 
sequence of that people will be incouraged to ship it off. 
there does not appear to be any established price for freights 
to the West Indies at present, for the last week not one 
vessel has been taken up for that Voyage but it is expected 
from the number of vessels hear that freights will be very 
lo. I have done nothing as yet with the Goods I brought 
out but engaged part of the wood at 3I dollars a cord, he 
is to take it the begining of the week. Mr. Sears will write 
you by this post and may give perhaps more intillegence 
what you may expect as he being better acquainted 
with the Buisness of the place than I am. if any thing 
further should present I shall write you which I am 

1794 ] RHODEISLAND 473 

dayly in hopes of. Untill then you will please to accept 
this from 

N. B. it has been very sickly hear for some time past 
more or less dieing every day with the same feavour that 
raged in Philadelphia the last season but a northerly wind 
has prevail'd for 2 or 3 days past, which has in some measure 
cooled the Aure and made great alteration in the climate as 
it has been excesive warm hear but we are all well on board 
but anxious to be in some buisness that might turn to your 
advantage. Yours, 

R. N. 

Charter Party 

Articles of agreement enter'd in to this Second day of 
Feb'y 1795, between Chris : Champlin and Geo : Champlin, 
Merchants on the one part and Thomas Dennis, Marriner, 
on the other part, witnesseth — that it is agreed by and 
between the said partis that said Chris : and Geo : Champlin 
hire or charter of the said Thos. Dennis the half part of a 
Certain Sloop called the good Intent^ to be employed on a 
Voyage to the West Indias, said Dennis is to properly equip 
said Sloop for the Voyage fit for the Seas, at his expence, 
said Chris : and Geo : Champlin are to bear their propotion 
of maning and victualing said Sloop during her voyage, and 
allso to pay said Dennis at the rate of Seven Shillings and 
Sixpence a Ton a Month for the hire of the half of the said 
Sloop, and it is agreed by the parties that the hire or charter 
shall commence Nine days before the sailing of said Sloop 
from Newport and it is allso agreed that if the Sloop shou'd 
be lost on the Voyage, that in that case Chris : and Geo : 
Champlin is to pay unto the said Thomas Dennis One thou- 


[ 1794 

de Recette. J^Vl ^'0 2)5> — 

II est du par <?2L-/ ^^y2 o^bZ^ZZr/ca-i^i^^^i^L^T^U^ 

jaugeaut /^<5 t!fPuvt/f-'^£/ ,^venant dt^r^^^U^l^yt^iuM^ 
e litre en ce Port, k ^_J^^ ^^t^^v^ZHU ^ O <^^-^^ 
^our h'S droits, ci-apres de tallies , conformement a la Loi du 
Siy Vendemlaire , an -2/^4 /t/«^^ ^^^^ ^ <i^ tn4.<.^<^ 

S A V O I R : y^ 
Droit de tonnage , a raison de P i^''^ <iAy* . 
$uivant I'art.^^ ^- f . .c . • 

Frais d'cxpedition d'entrec et de sortie, art. 

Permis de debarquer, art. -37 . 

Expedition du present acquit, meme article 
Kemboucsement du prix du Timbre. .... 

M O N T A N T 

D E S D R: O I T S. 

T O T A 




Je soussigne , Receveur de ladite Douane , reconnals avoir refu la 
samme de ^fe^^j^w^ CS^'*-*'^ «iuK^ ^^j^^^^a^ V-i-t^I^--^,*^:^ 
pour les droits d 'dessus^detailles ; dont quittance, A ^^^^^tr^^t^'^ 

1798 ] RHODEISLAND 475 

sand dollars in full compensation for the one half of the said 
Sloop and the hire of her, and furthermore it is agreed 
between the parties that if the Sloop shou'd be more than 
four months in performing the voyage, then in that case said 
Chris : and Geo : Champlin shall have it in their option, 
to become Owners of the half part of said Sloop and her 
appurtenences from the time of her sailing from Newport, 
they paying said Dennis One thousand dollars, for the half 
of said Sloop, or other way continue the Charter as above 
stipulated. In witness of the above agreement we have each 
of us set our hands the day and date above. 

Thomas Dennis 
Geo : Champlin 
Chris : Champlin 

Newport, Feby 2, 1795. 

Christopher Champlin to Robert Robinson 

Newport, January 16, 1798. 

Cap. Robinson, 

Shou'd the amount contained in the above memo, not be 
sufficient to pay your Port Charges at Charleston you can 
make use of the nett proceeds of Mr. Lyons Plank give him 
an order on me at 30 Days for the amount. 

If from any unforseen delay more money should be re- 
quired, you must draw on me at 30 Days in favour of Roger 
Barker and Lord or any one who may want a draft. 

The hour you have agreed for your Freight — 

Write me by Post and different conveyances, informing me 
the Terms of Freight, by almeans to what port the Freight 
must be delivered. 

That I may kno' in what manner to make Insurance. 

Also, write me, the Day of the Month hour and minute you 
last git under weigh to go over the bar. Send it to Barker 
and Lord to forward it. 

I hope your Freighters will permit you to go Northabout. 
if so mention it in your letters from Charleston. 

If you proceed to Europe a Mediterranean Pass must be 
procured from the Custom House without fail. 

47^ COMMERCEOF [ 1798 

Also, procure the Presidents Sea letter or General Pass 
which gives a General Description of the Cargo. 

The Shippers no doubt will obtain Certificates from the 
different Consuls to prove the Cargo to be American 

Let Copies of your bills of Loading be annexed to your 
Certificates to prove the property, sign them and allways 
keep one, to secure your Freight. 

Shoud our Commissioners be dismissed by the French 
Government and in consequence a War between France and 
the U. States appears unavoidable, I think it adviseable to 
return to Newport, unless a Freight can be obtained to New 
York worth accepting then take that rout home. 

If you shoud meet an offer to sell half, two thirds or even 
all the ship do it, if the pay is good, and undoubted security 
can be given for the money not paid. 

She cost me, put to Sea 15 : thousand Dollars. I woud 
take 14 thousand Dollars, — great has been the expence of 

In all cases consult Mr. N. Russell. Perhaps a great pros- 
pect may appear to some money'd men to load with Tobacco 
and Rice, and proceed finally up the baltic and return to 
Charleston in which case they may buy the Ship, or freight 
her out and home. 

Circumstances must direct. 

Chris Champlin 

Sailing Orders 

Newport, Rhode Island, January 17th, 1798. 

You being Master of my Ship Hope are to observe the 
following Instructions, viz. 

With the first favourable wind proceed to Charleston, 
South Carolina, upon your arrival advertise for Freight, 
to Hambourg, Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and consult with 
the Gentlemen to whom I have wrote, upon the best method 
of obtaining one, to Hamburg I shou'd wish it. a mixed 
Freight is most profitable. 

1798 ] RHODEISLAND 477 

Remember the Charter party, in which the Condition of 
Freight is stipulated, to have a clause inserted permitting 
you to detain the Goods, untill the Freight is secured, this 
provided any doubts arrise respecting the punctual payment 
of it. upon this head consult Mr. N. Russell. 

When you have discharged your outward Freight, use 
every endeavour to procure a return'd Freight to this Coun- 
try, to N York or Philadelphia I shou'd wish it. to whatever 
port you take it for, advise me by two or more Conveyances 
that I may in time meet you with Instructions how to dispose 
of Ship and Freight. If your return'd Freight shou'd be 
for New York, invest my outward Freight in Russian Goods 
— say Hemp, Iron and duck agreeable to a memorandum 
given you. If no return'd Freight can be obtained worth 
accepting, then remit in bills my outward Freight to Messrs. 
Thomas Dickason and Co. of London, the validity of the 
Drawer and Indorser of the bills must be strictly attended to, 
and the remittance must be through a Channel where the 
exchange is in my Favour, out of which Freight reserve 
as much money, invested in proper goods, as may load the 
Ship with Salt, at the Isle of May, to which place proceed, 
and take in as much as the Ship can bring without being 
deep, and from thence return to New York, or Newport as 
the Season of the year will permit. 

As my object in the Voyage is profitable Freights, shou'd 
a General Peace take place at or before your Arrival in 
Europe and nothing turn up hostile to our Commerce, you 
may obtain a Freight from the port your deliver your 
outward Freight at, to some other part of Europe, and from 
thence, return home with Freight or Salt, as Circumstances 
may turn up. Make regular Protests in all Cases where 
required. Sign three or 4 bills of loading for all Merchandize 
taken on board the Ship on my account, keep one and remit 
me two by different conveyances, keep me constantly 
advised of all your proceedings, furnish me from Charleston 
a Copy of your Charter Contract for Freight and close your 
account of Port Charges, Freight, Passage Money, Wood, 
etc. etc. and inclose them to me per different conveyances. 

478 COMMERCEOF [ 1798 

In Hamburg, Casper Voght; London, Thomas Dickason 
and Co.; in Copenhagen, Ryberg and Co.; in St. Petersburg, 
Edward James Smith and Co. — are safe Houses in whom 
you may confide. In Bourdeaux you are acquainted with 
one or two Houses; and I beHeve one in Havre, at Lisbon, 
Bulkley and Co. is a respectable House, who has done 
business for me. For your Government I shall furnish you 
in a Memo, the price of particular merchandize which may 
answer to bring to this Country. 

Such is the deranged situation of Commerce in Europe 
no Calculation can be made, your judgement and prudence 
must direct, in all cases keep in view my Interest; the great 
expense attending the equipment of the ship requires frugal- 
ity in all your movements, undertake nothing which may 
hazard my Property, keep me advised by every conveyance, 
wishing you a prosperous voyage, and safe return, I am 
Your Friend and Owner, 

Christopher Champlin 


Aaron, 1, 314, 350, 360, 373, 388. 

Abercrombie, James, 1, 142. 

Abercrombie, Ralph, 1, 142 n. 

Abigail, 1, 319, 360, 366; 2, 40. 

Abraham and Jonah, 1, 21. 

Ackland, P., 1, 194. 

Active, 2, 211, 322. 

Adams, John, 2, 161. 

Adams, Nathaniel, captain, 1, 52, 94. 

Adamson, John, sailing orders, 2, 286. 

Adlam, John, 1, 120. 

Adventure, 1, 163, 397, 402, 428, 473; 
2, 7, 14, 166. 

Africa, trade with, 1, 59 n., 96, 117, 
175, 242, 397, 398, 402, 411, 419, 
494, scx); 2, 7, 22. 

Africa, 1, 203, 501. 

Alden, Abner, 1, 497. 

Alewives, Jamaica, 1, 202, 206, 208, 

Alexander, Robert, 1, 415, 416. 

Alexandria, Va., market, 2, 234, 242. 

Algiers, 2, 31, 266. 

All, Isaac, captain, 1, no, 203, 205, 
209, 212. 

Allen, Benjamin, 1, 293, 297, 329, 363, 
410, 416, 488, 493, 499; letter, 359. 

Allen, Joseph, 2, 52 n. 

Allen, , 1, 73. 

Allen, , captain (of New Lon- 
don), 1, 93, 256. 

Allen, , captain, R. N., 1, 120. 

Allen and Marlar, 1, 427. 

Alliance, 2, 166. 

Allison, , captain, 1, 76. 

Almy, Til., 2, 408. 

Ambrose, Israel, captain, 1, 75, 329; 2, 

Amelia, 2, 105. 

America, 1, 118, 123, 124, 127, 153, 
157, 164, 172, 184, 186, 189, 220, 
223, 230, 239, 260, 351. 

Amsterdam, prices, 1, 106; trade regu- 
lation, 2, 102; market, 113. 

Amsterdam, 2, 142. 

Anamaboe, 1, 46. 

Anchor stocks, 1, 125. 

Anderson, John, 1, 120. 

Anderson, John William, 2, 336, 391, 

Anderson, Robert, and Co., 1, 502. 

Andrews, John, 2, 75. 

Andrews, , captain, 1, 230, 231, 

260, 263. 
Anguilla, 1, 6. 
Ann, 1, 392, 433, 443, 455, 457, 461, 

467, 494; 2, 17. 
Anthony, Joseph, 1, 440, 447, 452, 

4S9> 469. 47i» 481. SiS> 520; letters, 

319, 324; 2,49. 
Anthony, William, 1, 275. 
Anthony, Hewes and, letter, 2, 175. 
Antigua, market, 1, 6, 41; imports 

and exports, 7; droughts, 12, 20, 34, 

35; meaning, 20 n.; port charges, 21; 

hurricane, 56; reputation for sugars, 

81, 84. 
Antigua Planter, 1, 84. 

Antrobus, , captain, 1, 130. 

Apthorp, , 1, 69. 

Apthorp and Trecothick, 2, 142. 
Arbitration, 2, 355. 

Arey, , captain, 1, 68, 70, 71. 

Arnold, Welcome, 2, 55, 189, 313. 

Arnold, ,2, 433. 

Arrack, 1, 13 n.; 2, 306, 323. 
Ash, Thomas, 1, 382. 
Ash, pot and pearl, 2, 432. 

Ashmead, , captain, 1, 176. 

Assignats, French, 2, 407. 
Atkinson, Joseph, 1, 114. 
Atlantic, 1, 94. 
Attwood, Anthony, 1, 75. 
Attwood, Thomas, 1, 75. 
Auctions, Boston, 2, 126. 
Average, in insurance, 1, 113. 
Ayrault, Ann (Bours), 1, 52 n. 
Ayrault, Daniel, 1, 42, 52 n., 64. 
Ayrault, Marie (Robinson), 1, 42 n. 
Ayrault, Mary, 1, 47 n.; 191 n. 
Ayrault, Pierre, 1, 42 n. 
Ayrault, Samuel, letter book, 2, vi. 
Ayrault, Stephen, 1, 52. 
Ayscough, , captain, 2, 3. 

Bacon, , 2, 95, 97, loi. 

Bailey, Benjamin, 2, 417, 430; letters, 
409, 410, 416, 421, 425, 437, 438, 
442, 444, 447, 448, 451, 452, 454, 
455; signature, 416; sailing orders, 
442. 4S3- 

Baker, Jesse, 1, 220, 239. 



Baker, , 1, 54; 2, 460. 

Baldwin, Boo (Loone), 1, 103. 

Baldwin, Ebenezer, 2, 34. 

Baldwin, John, 1, 103. 

Ball, John, 1, 75. 

Baltimore, markets, 1, 131, 163, 171, 

202, 458, 4S9, 471, 472. 

Banch, , 1, 209. 

Banks, Hunter and, 2, 271 n. 
Bannister, John, letter books, 2, vi. 
Bannister, Thomas, 1, 68; letter books, 

2, yi. 

Bannister, , 1, 54. 

Bannit, , 1, 168. 

Barbadoes, market, 1, 312, 320, 450. 

Bardin, Charles, 1, 272. 

Bardin, Stephen, 1, 432. 

Bardine, Wilham, 1, 217, 226, 402, 


Bardwine, , captain, 2, 58. 

Bark, oak, 1, 159, 171; 2, 465. 

Barker, Jesse, 1, 98. 

Barker, Robert, 1, 98. 

Barker, Roger, 2, 475. 

Barker, , captain, 2, 466, 467. 

Barkly and Sons, 1, 180. 

Barnard, Nathaniel, 1, 274. 

Barnard, , 2, 305, 399, 460. 

Barnett, Wilham, 1, 427. 

Barney, , 2, 15. 

Barrell, Joseph, 1, 246 n. 

Barrett, S., 1, 427. 

Barron, William, captain, 1, 376, 463, 
471, 475> 477> S07; 2, 6, 19, 32, 247; 
letters, 462, 469; 3, 22; signature, 
22; congress on, 33 n. 

Bartlett, John, letter, 2, 456; signa- 
ture, 457. 

Bartlett, , captai?i, 2, 463. 

Barton, William, 2, 74. 

Bass, Henry, 2, 52 n. 

Bass, John L., 2, 324. 

Bass, Joshua, Jr., 2, 324. 

Bates, James, 1, 451. 

Battey and Cort, 1, no. 

Baudin, F., letters, 2, 342, 370; signa- 
ture, 371. 

Bay risks, 1, 253, 254. 

Bayard, Stephen, 1, 48. 

Bayard, Jackson and Co., 1, 482. 

Bayonne, 2, 417, 422, 424, 442, 453, 

Beads, 1, 44. 
Beale, Richard, 2, 267. 
Bean, Samuel, 1, 415. 
Beaufort, capture of, 2, 75. 
Beaver, 1, 310, 346. 
Beckford, William, 1, 502. 

Beckford, , captain, 2, 462. 

Beckford and James, 1, 502. 
Becky and Harriet, 2, 138. 

Bedika, 2, 140. 

Beef, Antigua, 1, 41; for navy, in, 
221; Jamaica, 198; Philadelphia, 319, 


Beekman, David, letter, 1, 338; signa- 
ture, 339. 

Beekman, Gerard G., 1, 113. 

Beekman, Son, and Goold, 1, 466. 

Beer, 1, 166. 

Belcher, Jonathan, footman, 1, 23 n. 

Belcher, William, 1, 92. 

Belchier, , 1, 130. 

Bell, J., 1, 282. 

Bell, William, captain, 1, 2. 

Bell, , 1, no, 120, 150; 2, 95. 

Bellamy, Joseph, 1, 502. 

Belle, 2, 251, 261, 270. 

Bellegarde, 2, 468. 

Benjamin, 1, 368. 

Bennett, , captain, 1, 16, 38. 

Benson, George, 1, 466; 2, 115, 148. 

Benson, , captain, 1, 344. 

Benson, Davis and, letter, 2, 88. 

Bercly, Heyett and, 1, 303. 

Bermond, , letter, 2, 59. 

Bernard, , captain, 2, 410. 

Bernon, Hester, 1, 113 n. 

Berthon Brothers, letter, 2, 35. 

Betsy, 1, 117, 285; 2, 104, 173, 186, 
286, 356, 419. 

Betsy Ann, 1, 223, 229. 

Bevan, Timothy, Jr., 1, 254. 

Bewick, C, 1, 185. 

Bewickes, Timerman and Romero, 1, 

445. 452. . 
Bigg, Jeremiah, 1, 283; letter, 286. 
Bilboa, markets, 1, 303. 
Bill of exchange, 1, 241, 288; 2, 69, 

106, 128. 
Bill of lading, 1, 64; 2, 26, 288, 387. 
Bills of credit, value, 2, 89, loi, 106, 

118, 124, 130, 135, 143; counterfeit, 


Bishop, , captain, 1, 135. 

Bissell, John, 2, 307. 

Bissett, , 2, 17. 

Black, William, 1, 185. 

Black, , 2, 212. 

Black Ann, 1, 51, 53, 55. 

Blair, , captain, 1, 39, 40. 

Blake, , 2, 67. 

Blaxbee, Richard, 2, 178. 
Blount, Webster, 2, 163. 

Blyzard, , 1, 81. 

Bolan, 1, 51. 

Bonbonous, James, 1, 152. 

Bonner, , captain, 1, 26. 

Bonnin, Henry, letter, 1, 6; signature, 7. 
Bordeaux, market, 2, 427; port 

charges, 474. 
Borden, Thomas, 1, 75. 



Borden, , captain, 1, 214. 

Bordley, John Beale, 1, 163 n. 
Boscawen, 1, 92. 
Bosleys, William, 1, 381. 
Boss, Jacob, 1, 117. 

Boss, , captain, 2, 446, 448. 

Boston, prices, 1, 65; 2, 97, 121, 126; 

sons of liberty, 1, 240; tea, 246; 

disturbances, 294; 2, 22; slave 

trade, 1, 398 n.; post office account, 

424; evacuated, 2, 41. 
Bounties, crapes, 1, 26; hemp and flax, 

33 n.; boards, 146, 160 n., 186, 220, 

317; malt, 156 M.; potash, 186. 
Bourk, William, captain, 1, 392. 
Bourn, Benjamin, signature, 2, 409. 
Bourne, Shearjashub, 2, 244. 
Bours, Ann, 1, 52 n. 
Bours, John, 1, 217, 224, 230. 
Bours, Peter, 1, 47. 

Bours, , 2, 349. 

Boven, Jabez, signature, 2, 409. 

Bowen, , governor, 2, 67. 

Bowers, Henry and Caleb, letter, 1, 

Bowers, Henry, Jr., 2, 92. 
Bovvers, I., 1, 320. 

Bowers, , captain, 1, 155. 

Bowler, Ann (Fairchild), 1, 72 n. 
Bowler, Metcalf, 1, 72. 

Bowler, , 2, 72, 467. 

Bowly, Daniel, 1, 201. 
Bowman, John, 1, 427. 
Bozenhard, Emanuel, 2, 337. 
Bradfield, Francis, captain, 1, 182, 185, 

192, 196, 197. 
Bradford, Hopkins and, 2, 103. 
Bradshaw, John, 1, 185. 
Bradstreet, John, 1, 185. 
Brasier, James, letter, 1, 336. 
Brassier and Bermond, 2, 59. 

Brattle, , 2, 211. 

Brayton, Israel, captain, 1, 231, 396; 

letter, 176, 178. 

Brayton, , captain, 1, 35, 57. 

Bread, 1, 163; for navy, 2, 24. 

Breck, , 2, 114. 

Bredel and Ward, 2, 146. 

Breeches, leather, 2, 56, 58. 

Brenton, Benjamin, 2, 349. 

Brenton, Samuel, 1, 200. 

Brenton, Silas, 2, 165, 349. 

Brenton, Shattucks and Jarvis, 2, 165. 

Brett, Richard, 1, 75. 

Brew, , 1, 402. 

Bricks, English, 1, 24. 
Briggs, Nathaniel, 1, 117, 222, 398; 
letters, 314, 317, 318; signature, 319. 
Briggs, Samuel, 1, 496. 
Bright, Henry, 1, 120. 
Brimmer, John Baker, 2, 41, 46. 

Brimmer, Martin, 2, 41. 

Brinley, Francis, 1, 430; 2, 109, 119, 

122, 127, 137. 
Bristol, England, 1, 117 n.; market, 2, 

Bristol, 2, 363. 
Britannia, 1, 32, 518; 2, 7. 
Bromfield, Ingraham and, 2, 162 n.; 

letter, 173. 
Brown, James, signature, 2, 409. 
Brown, James, captain, 2, 438. 
Brown, Jeremiah, letter, 1, 352. 
Brown, John, 1, 75, 92, 100. 
Brown, John, 1, 242; 2, 54, 127, 409. 
Brown, Joseph, 1, 92. 
Brown, Moses, 1, 92, 100. 
Brown, Nicholas, 1, 92, 100, 295, 466. 
Brown, Obadiah, and Co., 1, 90, 92. 
Brown, Robert, 1, 343, 356. 
Brown, Roger, 1, 75. 
Brown, Samuel, 2, 84. 
Brown, Thomas, captain, 1, 146, 148, 

154, 170, 173, 184; sailing orders, 

Brown, William, 1, 265; letter, 496. 

Brown, , captain, 1, 444. 

Brown and Francis, 2, 390, 394, 396. 
Brown, Lawton and, 2, 19. 
Browne, John, captain, 1, i, 2, 9, 32. 
Brownlow, 2, 325. 

Bruce, , captain, 1, j6, 130. 

Bryan and Willcocks, letter, 2, 280. 

Bryant, , captain, 1, 283. 

Brymer, Alexander, 1, 451, 465, 475; 

2, I, 19, 22, 99, 125, 171, 205, 351. 
Buchanan, Archibald, 2, 18. 19; letter, 

Buchanan and Co., 2, 29. 
Buckley, John, captain, 1, 45, 363, 

365, 418, 445, 488, 494, 499, 507; 

2, 3. 30- 

Buckmaster, — ■ — , 2, iii. 

Bulkley, John, signature, 2, 60; let- 
ter, 247, 265. 

Bulkley, , 2, loi, 478. 

Bull, Nathan, 1, 47. 

Bulley, Robert, 1, 406, 409, 417, 445, 

Burges, Bartholomew Horace, 2, 282. 

Burgwin, J., letter, 2, 235. 

Burgwin, Jewkes and London, letter, 
2, 243, 245. 

Burke, James, 1, 20, 23, 258, 404, 436, 

Burnell, Jonathan, 1, 98. 

Burr, Samuel, 2, 168. 

Burr, Timothy, 2, 168. 

Busch, Charles Augustus, 2, 414. 

Bush, Cornelius Ter, 2, 85, 145; let- 
ter, 148. 

Bute, see John Stuart. 



Butler, , captain, 1, 60. 

Butler and Brown, 1, 343. 

Byam, Edward, governor, 1, i n., 3, 4, 

6, 10, 13, 24, 37; letter, 20, 21. 
Byam, George, 1, 7, 21. 

Cabot, Andrew, 2, 163. 

Cabot, Hannah (Dodge), 2, 163 w. 

Cabot, John, 2, 163. 

Cabot, Lydia (Dodge), 2, 163 n. 

Cadell, John, 2, 278. 

Cady, Mm, 2, 456. 

Cahoone, John, Jr., letter, 1, 46. 

Cahoon, , 2, 365. 

Calef, Robert, captain, 1, 95, iii, 136. 
Calico, 2, 257. 
Campbell, James, 2, 29. 
Campbell, Robert, 2, 268. 

Campbell, , 1, 455; 2, j. 

Canada, episcopacy, 1, loi, 107. 
Candles, Antigua, 1, 6, 35, 38, 41 

Boston, 65; St. Domingo, 82 

Monte Christo, 88; Dominica, 168 

Jamaica, 208, 224. 
Candles, spermaceti, manufacturers' 

agreements, 1, 88, 97, 137. 

Cannon, , captain, 1, 414. 

Cape Francois, 1, 50; market, 2, 61, 

410, 411, 432, 466. 
Captain Serrage, 2, 467. 

Card, , 1, 321. 

Carey, , captain, 1, 17, 30, 40, 344. 

Carey and Green, 2, 198. 
Carleton, Guy, 1, 440. 

Carpenter, , captain, 1, 60. 

Carr, Robert, captain, 1, 6, 7, 11, 14, 

IS, 20, 21, 56. 

Carrington, , 1, 523. 

Carson, , 1, 471, 481. 

Carter, John, 2, 123. 

Cartwright, , captain, 1, 428. 

Carver, , captain, 2, 465. 

Casey, Moses, 2, 46. 

Casey, , captain, 1, 32. 

Casey and Co., 2, 247, 251, 262. 
Cask, sugar, contents, 1, 5 «.; quality, 

116, 199, 201; sale, 344; flaxseed, 

2, 198, 252, 329. 

Casson, , 1, 479. 

Catharine, 1, 278; 2, 103. 

Catian, WiUiam, 1, 75. 

Catlin, Alexander, 2, 81. 

Cato, 2, 174. 

Cazneau, Isaac, 2, 139, 141, 142, 150, 

151, 161, 162. 
Cecilia, 1, 362. 
Cedar, 1, 153, 166. 
Celler, H. Cremervan, 2, 264. 
Ceres, 2, 215. 
Chadirac, 2, 95. 
Chaloner, , 1, 430. 

Chamberlain, Samuel, letter, 1, 348. 

Chambers, , captain, 1, 404. 

Chamier, Daniel, 2, 41. 
Champion, Alexander, 1, 185. 
Champion, Alexander, Jr., 2, 196, 227, 

231, 261, 266, 268, 27s, 293, 30s, 

Champion, Benjamin, 2, 293, 305. 
Champion, George, 1, 120, 136, 148, 

149- . 
Champion and Dickason, 2, 196. 
Champion and Hayley, letter, 1, no. 
Champlin, Asa, 1, 457 n. 
Champlin, Christopher, St., letters, 1, 

III, 215. 
Champlin, Christopher, Jr., 1, 74; mar- 
riage, 103 n.; orders, 398; vessel 

seized, 2, 19; letters, 1, 490, 513; 

2, 19, 24, 32, 159, 267, 319, 356; 

Hydra, 2, 202; memorial, 216, 218; 

signature, 219; letter books, 2, vi. 
Champlin, Christopher and George, 2, 

167; saiUng orders, 14; letter, 367. 
Champlin, Christopher Grant, 2, 421, 

423, 425, 426, 430; letter, 227; 

praise of, 427; portrait, 2, 228. 
Champlin, George, 1, 171; letters, 

105, 131, 133, 143, 167, 256, 258, 

263, 265; orders, 398. 
Champlin, Margaret, 2, 248. 
Champlin, Oliver, letter, 1, 78. 
Champlin, Robert, 1, 474; 2, 159, 168; 

sailing orders, 14, 169; letter, 210. 
Chance, 1, 274. 
Chaney, Abial, 2, 34. 
Channing, John, 1, 365, 369, 373, 387, 

Channing, Gibbs and, letter books, 2, 

Charleston, markets, 1, 176, 256, 377; 

2, 192, 242, 345, 348, 359, 419, 428, 

429, 441. 
Charlestown, 1, 325. 
Charlotte, 1, 117, 126, 146, 148, 155, 

162, 164, 165, 169, 170, 173, 183, 

184, 195, 208, 213, 221, 237, 243, 

248, 255, 261, 266, 271, 291, 295, 

298, 301, 302, 315, 326, 354, 364, 

366, 397, 431, 442, 502; 2, 24. 
Charming Fanny, 1, 119. 
Charming Nancy, 1, 25. 
Charming Polly, 1, 61, y6. 
Chase, John, 1, 75. 
Chase, William, letter, 1, 361. 
Cheese, Antigua, 1, 41. 

Cheesborough, , 2, i. 

Cheeseborough, Mrs., 1, 113. 

Cheeseman, , captain, 1, 480. 

Chestnut, 1, 46. 

Chew, Samuel, 1, 163. 

Child es, , captain, 2, 472. 



Chitty, , captain, 1, 200. 

Christo, Eberhard, and KoU, letter, 2, 


Church, , captain, 2, 459. 

Citron water, 1, 13. 

Clarissa, 2, 12, 17, 25, 27. 

Clark, James, 2, 27. 

Clark, James, and Co., 1, 343. 

Clark, John, 1, 343, 390; 2, 217. 

Clark, John I., 2, 409. 

Clark, Peleg, 1, 133, 398, 411, 433; 

letter books, 2, vi. 

Clark, , captain, 2, 178, 231. 

Clark and Nightingale, 2, 72; letter, 

Clarke, Jeremiah, 2, 290. 
Clarke, John, 1, 185. 
Clarke, Joseph, 1, 94. 
Clarke, Samuel, 1, 33 n. 
Clarke, John, captain, 1, 19, 36, 359, 


Classon, John, 2, 404. 

Claxton, Protheroe and, see Protheroe. 

Clement, Jeremiah, 2, 42. 

Cleopatra, 1, 462, 467, 501. 

Clinton, Henry, letter, 1, 25. 

Coachman, English, 1, 23, 34. 

Coal, exports, 1, 127 n., 166, 190, 195. 

Coats, David, 2, 134 n. 

Coburn, , 2, 87. 

Cockett, 1, 66. 

Cocoa, Boston, 1, 65, 67, 68, 216; 

Teneriffe, 322. 
Coddington, John, captain, 1, 73, 231, 

Codfish, 2, 173. 
Coffee, Boston, 1, 65; Graiada, 226. 

Coffin, , captain, 2, i. 

Coggeshall, David, 1, 16. 

Coggeshall, Martha, 1, 9. 

Coggeshall, Nicholas, 1, 75. 

Coit, Wheeler, letters, 2, 89, 166. 

Collier, John, letter, 2, 297. 

Collins, Henry, 1, 42, 45, 92. 

Collins and Rivera, 1, 92. 

Collinson, Thomas, letters, 1, loi, 106. 

CoUinson and Pettenger, letter, 1, 94. 

Colshare, , captain, 1, 53, 55. 

Colville, Alexander, baron, 1, 131. 

Comet, 2, 172. 

Commerce, 2, 134. 

Commissions, 1, 61, 64, 435, 441; 2, 

280, 355, 356; on freight, 6. 
Comte and Co., 1, 346. 
Conflans, M., 1, 80. 
Congo, slave, 2, 364; account, 415. 
Congress, continental, 1, 512, 515, 516, 

517; 2, 33, 36, 43, 157; court of 

appeals, 54; ship's pass, 206, 211, 

214, 217, 240, 278. 
Coninta, Dr., 2, no. 

Connecticut, prize courts, 2, 53, 59, 

76, 79, IS4- 
Connell and Co., 1, 498. 
Contraband goods, 2, 5. 
Conway, Henry Seymour, 1, 142. 
Conyngham, Redmond, 1, 477, 508; 

2, 18, 363. 
Conyngham and Nesbit, 1, 109, 481; 

letter, 108. 

Cook, , captain, 1, 87; 2, 183. 

Cooke, Joseph, 2, 104. 

Cooke, Samuel, 2, 91; letter, 70. 

Cooper, Thomas, 1, 75. 

Cooper, see Cowper. 

Cooper, engagement of, 1, 383. 

Cope, , 1, 268. 

Copenhagen, markets, 2, 258, 336, 

375. 438, 439, 462; port charges, 


Cordage, measurements, 2, 418, 424. 

Cordova, , 1, 212. 

Cork, Ireland, markets, 1, 173; 2, 194, 

201, 279, 280, 311, 363, 383. 
Cornell, Daniel, captain, 1, 352, 483. 
Cornwallis, Charles, 2, 149. 
Cort, Henry, 1, 282. 
Cort, Battey and, 1, no. 
Cory, Caleb, 1, 285, 289, 367. 
Cotton, bill of lading, 1, 3; Antigua, 

7; Boston, 65; Bristol, 220, 236; 

East India, 2, 393. 

Coulter, , captain, 1, 76. 

Coupar, captain, 2, 37. 

Cowper, Wills, and Co., 2, 166, 179, 

Cowperthwait, Wiley and, 2, 82. 
Cox, Philip, 1, 438, 455, 468; 2, 37. 
Cozzens, Andrew, 1, 380. 
Cozzens, Matthew, 1, 180, 195. 
Cozzens, William, 1, 380. 

Cozzens, , 2, 246. 

Cradock, , captain, 1, 57. 

Craig, , captain, 1, 122. 

Cranch, R., 2, 146. 

Cranch, Richard, and Co., 1, 88, 92. 
Cranston, Mary (Ayrault), 1, 47 n. 
Cranston, Richmond, 1, 75. 
Craven, John, 1, 185. 

Crawford, , captain, 1, 445. 

Crawford, Haynes and, 2, 208. 
Credit, time of, 1, 169, 282. 

Croker, , captain, 1, 32. 

Crommelin, Daniel, and Sons, 2, 119, 

125, 126, 136; letters, 90, 102, 113, 

141, 160, 161. 
Crooke, Ann (Wickham), 1, 156 n. 
Crooke, Robert, 1, 156. 
Crosswall, George, letter, 1, 87. 
Crucher, Richard, 1, 152, 160. 
Cruger, Henry, Jr., 1, 162, 262; let- 
ters, 117, 123, 124, 127, 139, 14s, 



151, 159, 164, 168, 169, 172, 
193, 219, 226, 234, 236, 237, 
247, 248, 249, 253, 258, 259, 
267, 278, 281, 284, 290, 295, 
302, 314, 326, 350, 359, 360, 
368, 373. 376, 385. 391. 405. 
416, 421; on trade acts, 139; 
nature, 389. 

Cruger, Mrs. Henry, death, 1, 

Cruger, John Harris, 1, 118, 124, 

Cruger, Nicholas, 2, 62. 

Crugh, Henry, 2, 102. 

Cuisack, , captain, 1, 51. 

Culver, , 2, 403. 

Cunningham, Charles, captain, 1, 

Cunningham, David, 1, 360. 

Cunningham, Joseph, 2, 46 n. 

Cupid, 1, 499. 

Curtis, John, 1, 120. 

Cushing, John, 2, 154. 

Custom house, Baltimore, 1, 132; 
ton, 135. 

Cutbert, Lewis, 1, 415. 

Cygnet, 1, 131. 







D., C, letter, 1, 408. 

Dabs, 1, 76. 

Da Costa, Isaac Rodrigues, 1, 192. 

Dauphin, 2, 289, 292, 296, 300, 303, 

304, 313, 319, 321, 32s, 333. 
Davenant, Henry, captain, 1, 383, 392, 

488, 493; letters, 390, 396, 403, 404, 

412, 460. 
Davies, Samuel, 1, 148, 149. 
Davis, Edward, 2, 17, 103, 104. 
Davis, William, 2, 35. 

Davis, , captain, 1, 4, 33, 42, 45, .46, 

76, 84. 

Davis, , 2, 164, 420. 

Davis and Benson, letter, 2, 88. 
Davis, Strachan and Co., 2, 17. 

Dean, , 2, 17. 

Deane, Munckley and Co., 1, 419, 427. 
De Bauque Brothers, 2, 300; letters, 

288, 292, 303, 305, 306, 313, 321, 

325; signature, 304. 
Deblois, Gilbert, 1, 240; letter, 214. 
Deblois, Stephen, 2, 98, 357. 

Deboer, , 2, 139. 

Deborah, 1, 488, 493, 500, 506, 510. 
Deer skins, 1, 291; 2, 343. 
Defence, 2, 144. 

De la Lande and Fynje, 2, 162. 
De Merra, Lorenzo, letter, 1, 303. 

Deming, , captain, 2, 433. 

Deneuville, , 1, 72. 

Denmark, treaty with, 2, 362. 
Dennis, Thomas, 2, 433, 473. 
Deshon, , 2, 160, 163. 

Devall, , captain, 1, 273. 

Devenport and Wintworth, 1, 77. 

Devine, , 1, 241 n. 

De.xter, John, 1, 280. 

Diamond, 2, 91. 

Diana, 1, 185, 237, 266, 291, 362, 365, 

417; 2, 9, 28, 40. 
Dickason, Thomas, and Co., 2, 477. 

Dickason, , captain, 2, 425. 

Dickason, Champion and, 2, 196. 

Dickinson, 1, 482, 486. 

Diligence, 1, 34 n. 

Dillingham, Edward, 2, 290. 

Dixson, James, 1, 60. 

Doane, Isaiah, 2, 191. 

Dodge, Hannah, 2, 163 n. 

Dodge, Lydia, 2, 163 n. 

Dohrman, Jacob, and Co., 2, 264; 

letters, 2, 263, 413; signature, 264. 
Dolbeare, Thomas, 1, 390, 433, 494, 

500; 2, 14s; letters, 1, 438, 454, 

455. .457. 461, 467. 468, 496; 2, 

37; signature, 1, 469. 
Dolphin, 1, 332; 2, 104. 
Dominica, free port, 1, 157 n., 160; 

markets, 167, 345. 
Don Gahez, 2, 190, 197, 207. 
Donnegal, 2, 383. 

Doom, , 2, 125. 

Dorr, Ebenezer, 2, 46 n. 

Dotee, , captain, 1, 211. 

Douce, , 2, 398. 

Douce and Rivington, 2, 351. 

Douglas, John, 1, 472. 

Dove, Michael, captain, 1, 343. 

Dragon, 1, 76. 

Draper, John, captain, 1, 30, 32 «., 33, 

40, 42. 43- 

Draper, 1, 376. 

Drawbacks, linnen, 1, 33; rum, 237. 

Drayton, William Henry, 2, 55. 

Drew, James, 1, 417. 

Drumgoole, George, 2, 167. 

Dry, , 1, 396. 

Duane, James, 1, 83. 

Dublin, evil experience at, 1, 307; 
harbor, 476; market, 2, 197, 199, 
251, 262, 275, 287, 323, 328, 352, 
366, 405, 434, 464; insurance, 284. 

Dublin Packet, 2, 323. 

Duck, English, 1, 126; Russian, 2, 254. 

Dudley, Charles, letter, 1, 348. 

Dudley, Paul, on slave trade, 1, 15 n. 

Dudy, , 1, 430. 

Dunbar, Robert, 1, 75. 

Duncan, Daniel, 1, 75, 88. 

Duncan, James, 1, 82; letters, 72, 85, 
86; captured, 85, 86. 

Duncan, James, Jr. (.''), 2, 55. 

Duncan, John, 1, 85. 

Dungan, Thomas, 2, 389, 405. 



Dunkirk, market, 2, 325. 

Dunmore, Earl of, 2, 39. 

Dunn, Ephraim, 2, 29. 

Dunn, James, 1, 316; letter, 308. 

Dunn, Robert Joseph, 1, 261, 272, 298, 

307, 401. 
Dunnage, 1, 171; 2, 380. 
Dupuy, John, captain, 1, 376, 431, 467. 
Durant, Cornelius, 1, 333. 
Durfee, , captain, 1, 177, 215, 258, 

263, 409, 467. 
Dutch ships, capture, 1, 76. 

Dyer, , 2, 243. 

Dymond, , 1, 95. 

Eagle, 1, 263 ; 2, 62 n. 
Earl, Dorcas, 1, 423. 

Earl, , captain, 1, 358, 426, 447, 

466; 2, 93. 

Earnshey, , captain, 1, 439. 

East Florida, 1, 241. 

East India Company, British, 2, 237; 

French, 406, 422. 
Easton, Catherine, 2, 239. 
Easton, Job, 1, 75. 
Easton, Thomas, 1, 148, 149, 390. 
Easton, William, 1, 75. 
Ecu, 2, 91 n. 

Eddy, , 1, 361. 

Edenton, market, 1, 384. 
Edgar, William, 2, 340, 385, 405. 

Edmands, , 2, 143. 

Edward and Williams, 1, 329. 
Edward Davis, 1, 113. 
Eggleston, Hezekiah, 1, 75. 

Ekstrom, , 2, 125. 

Eleanor, 2, 183. 

Elizabeth, 2, 312, 361, 367, 372, 373, 377, 
379. 38i> 386, 390, 396, 474. 

Elizabeth and Mary, 1, 2 n. 

Elizer, Isaac, 1, 97. 

Ellen, 1, 229, 267, 359, 387. 

EUery, William, 2, 54, 219 n.; letter 
book, vi. 

Elliott, , captain, 1, 244. 

Ellis, , 1, 313, 318, 393, 414. 

Ellis, Mrs., 1, 384. 

Ellison, , 2, 130. 

Elsinore, port charges, 2, 461. 

Elton, Isaac, Jr., 1, 120, 149. 

Empress of China, 2, 217. 

Endeavor, 1, 12 m. 

English, Thomas, 2„ 299. 

English, William, captain, 1, 314, 318, 

384. 395. 396, 4SS. 457. 461, 467; 

letter, 318. 
Engs, William, Jr., 2, 183, 432, 434; 

letter, 179; signature, 180. 
Enterprise, 2, 40, 194, 207, 244. 
Episcopacy in America, 1, loi, 107. 
Estabrook, , 2, 472. 

Estaing, comte d', 2, 71, 121; at 
Beaufort, 75; defeat, 77. 

Eustatia, market, 1, 353. 

Evans, , 1, 327. 

Eveleigh, Samuel, letter, 1, 44; signa- 
ture, 44. 

Ewing, Peter, 1, 427. 

Exchange, 1, 449; 2, 293. 

Fairchild, Ann, 1, 72 n. 

Faithful Steward, 2, 268. 

Falkland, 2, 40. 

Falkner, Emanuel, 2, 337. 

Fame, 2, 308, 313, 316, 319, 323, 325, 

328, 338, 404. 
Fanning, Nathan, 1, 75. 
Fare, Edward, captain, 1, 518; 2, 7. 

Farr, , captain, 1, 76. 

Fay, Joseph, letter, 2, 68. 
Fayerweather, Samuel, letter, 2, 58. 

Fell, , captain, 1, 402. 

Fellowship Club, Newport, 1, 38 n. 
Fenwick, William, 2, 454, 461. 
Fenwick, Mason and Co., letters, 2, 

427. 435- 

Fergus, John, 1, 339. 

Ferguson, , captain, 1, 60, 96 n. 

Ferris, Hannah, 1, 138. 

Field, Mrs. John, 1, 17, 34, 38, 39, 41. 

Filtch, Thomas, 1, 94. 

Fine, John, 2, 26. 

Firebrand, 2, 164. 

Fish, , 1, 82. 

Fish, dried, Jamaica, 1, 202, 206, 208, 
211, 212, 214, 217, 244; for Straits, 
372; casks, 497. 

Fisheries, public, 1, 440. 

Fitch, , 1, 206. 

Fitzgerald, John, 1, 268. 

Fitzgibbon, , 1, 321. 

Fitzsimmons, Thomas, 1, 301, 345 n. 

Flag of truce, 1, 57, 78. 

Flamengo, , 1, 204. 

Flaxseed, export of, 1, 449; prices, 
461, 464, 465, 471, 472, 474, 476, 
481, 515, 520; Rhode Island, 456; 
Ireland, 487, 508, 518, 522; 2, 197; 
Newport, 1, 513; cleanmg, 2, 275, 
309, 329; bounty, 385; see letters 
of Stocker and Wharton, and Ed- 
ward Forbes. 

Flora, 1, 498; 2, 10, 12, 17, 40. 

Florence, Henry, 1, 104. 

Flour, Antigua, 1, 6; Honduras Bay, 
72; Baltimore, 132, 163, 171, 202; 
Dominica, 167; Bristol, 194; Ja- 
maica, 280; Philadelphia, 461, 471; 
export, 2, 107; Newport, 122; see 

Flucker, Thomas, 1, 92. 

Folger, , 1, 66, 68, 69, 70. 



Folger and Gardner, 1, 98. 

Fones, Daniel, captain, 1, 87. 

Footman, English, 1, 23. 

Forbes, Edward, 2, 275; letters, 197, 
198, 207, 220, 246, 251, 261, 270, 
275, 283, 285, 287, 308, 313, 316, 
323. 325, 328, 330, 338, 351, 365, 
384, 388, 400, 401, 403, 404, 420, 
434, 464; signature, 208. 

Forbes, , 2, 446, 447. 

Forrest, , 2, 409. 

Forrester, Thomas, 2, 49. 

Forrester, , captain, 1, 455; 2, 11, 


Forster, , captain, 1, 23. 

Foster, Joseph, agreement, 2, 277; 
sailing orders, 278. 

Foster, Thomas, captain, 1, 445, 453. 

Four Friends, 2, 138, 150. 

Fowler, Christopher, 2, 204. 

Fowler, John, 1, 120. 

Fowler, Samuel, 2, 18, 182, 189, 284, 

Fowler, Samuel G., 2, 204. 

Fowler and Gibb, 1, 459, 519, 520. 

Foxcroft, John, 1, 466; 2, 18. 

Frame, 1, 192, 197. 

France, sugars from colonies, 1, 7 n.; 
war of Polish succession, 42 n.; 
peace, 58, 97 n.; war with England, 
69, 71; prisoners, 78; bills on, 2, 
48, 61, 72, 107, 135, 148, IS7, 176, 
182; reproduction, 158; treaty with 
Great Britain, 297; poHtical and com- 
mercial changes, 406; tobacco regula- 
tion, 435; tariff on imports, 436. 

Francis, 2, 40. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 2, 112, 117. 

Franklin, Thomas, Jr., 1, 177. 

Franklin, William, 1, 80. 

Franklin, Mass., meeting house, 2, 386. 

Eraser, Alexander, 2, 241 n. 

Eraser, Mary, 2, 241 n. 

Eraser, , 1, 298, 328. 

Ereebody, John, 1, 18, 45. 

Freebody, John, Jr., 1, 338; letters, 
371, 383; 2, 344. 

Freeman, , 1, 222. 

Freight, Antigua, 1, 34; Bristol, 299; 
Cadiz, 492. 

French, Mrs., 1, 10 n., 13, 21. 

Friendship, 1, 119, 123, 125, 128, 147, 
153, 164; 2, 298. 

Frolich, J. J., and Company, 2, 258, 
271, 274; letter, 336; signatures, 

Frost, Miller, 1, 75. 

Frost, , captain, 1, 494. 

Fry, , captain, 2, 416, 458. 

Frye, Rowland, letters, 1, 4, 7, 9, 17, 

23, 25; signature, 5. 

Frye, Rowland and Samuel, letters, 1, 

26, 30, 32, 33, 38, 39, 40, 42. 
Frye, Samuel, 1, 18, 24. 

Frye, , captain, 1, 56, 440. 

Fryers, John, 2, 24. 

Fuller, , captain, 2, 440. 

Funeral charges, 1, 158. 
Furnel, William, letter, 1, 48. 
Fynje, De la Lande and, 2, 162. 

Galleon, Spanish, 1, 85 n. 
Gaily, John, 1, 292. 

Gamble, , 1, 20, 381. 

Game fowls, 1, 166. 

Gammadims, 2, 72. 

Gardiner, William, captain, 1, 38. 

Gardner, Caleb, 2, 160. 

Gardner, Daniel, 2, 76. 

Gardner, Henry, captain, 1, 320, 398; 

letter, 523. 
Gardner, Henry, 2, 145. 
Gardner, Joseph, 2, 342; letter, 46; 

signature, 47. 
Gardner, OHver, letter, 2, 62. 

Gardner, , captain, 1, 60, 181, 403. 

Gardner, Folger and, 1, 98. 

Gardoqui, Joseph, and Sons, letters, 2, 

129, 134, 143; signature, 130. 
Garland, 1, 216, 22i. 
Garrett, Nicholas, letter, 2, iii. 
Gaspee, burning of, 1, 408. 

Gassee, , captain, 1, 324. 

Gates, Horatio, 2, 106. 
Gates, 2, 134, 138, 150. 
Gayner, William, 1, 149. 
Gelston, Jenkins and, 2, 251. 
General Monk, 2, 165. 
General Stark, 2, 96. 
Geneva spirits, 2, 401. 

Gensell, , captain, 1, 479. 

Geoghegan, , 2, 298. 

George HI, 1, 141. 

George, Archibald, 1, 427. 

George, 1, 73, 74, 362, 401; 2, 167, 169. 

George and Patty Washington, 2, 266. 

Gerrish, , 1, 45. 

Gibbons, William, 2, 139, 150, 164. 
Gibbs, George, 1, 135, 337, 434; 2, 24, 

159, 167, 169, 205, 274, 311. 
Gibbs and Channing, letter books, 2, vi. 
Gilbert, Nathaniel, 1, 11, 16. 
Gilbert, Phineas, 2, 247. 
Gilbert, Thomas, letter, 1, 327. 

Gilbert, , captain, 2, 466. 

Gildart, Richard, 1, 185. 
Gildart, Thomas, 1, 185. 
Giles, William, 1, 368. 

Giles, , 2, 276, 284, 309, 325, 330. 

Gill, John, 1, 149. 
Gill, Richard, 1, 3. 
Gilston, , captain, 1, 76. 



Ginger, Boston, 1, 65. 

Gladman, , captain, 1, 76, 84. 

Glass, Irish, 2, 201. 
Glover, John, 2, 175. 
Godet, Henry, 2, 70. 

Godfrey, , captain, 1, 352. 

Godfrey, 1, 43. 
Golden Grove, 1, 200. 
Goldthwait, Samuel, 2, 75. 

Gold th wait, , 1, 364, 388. 

Gomez, , 1, 213. 

Goodenough, C, 1, 282. 
Good Hope, 2, 377. 
Goodhue, William, 2, 59 n. 
Goodin, George Robert, 1, 380. 
Goodin, Nathaniel, 2, 208. 
Good Intent, 2, 473. 
Gordon, Betsey, 2, 204. 
Gordon, John, Jr., 1, 148, 149. 
Gordon, Robert, 1, 120, 149. 

Gordon, , 1, 391. 

Gordon, Thompson and, 2, 281, 332. 
Gorham, Nathan, 1, 92. 

Gorham, , 1, 474. 

Gorman, , captain, 1, 46. 

Gorton, Samuel, letter, 1, 344; signa- 
ture, 345. 
Goss, James, 1, 417. 
Goss, John, 1, 417. 
Gottenburg, trade with, 1, 332; 2, 233, 


Gough, , captain, 1, 360. 

Gould, James, Jr., captain, 1, 108; 

letter, 109. 
Goulding, George, 1, 47, 53. 
Goulding, Mary (Ayrault | Cranston), 

1, 47 n. 

Gourdon, , 1, 55. 

Grace, 1, 227, 303. 
Gracy, Ebenezer, 2, 107. 
Grafton, William, 1, 75, 327. 
Graham, John 2, 62. 

Gram, , 2, 142. 

Granada, markets, 1, 263, 265; trade 

privilege, 2, 94. 
Grand Monarque, 2, 134 n. 
Grant, Alexander, 1, 130; 2, i; letter, 

1, 113; signature, 114. 
Grant, Harry, letters, 2, 348, 359, 365; 

signature, 349. 
Grant, James, 1, 427; signature, 241. 
Grant, Jane, 1, 113 n. 
Grant, Nathaniel, 1, 291, 415, 422, 

Grant, Robert, 1, 441, 451; 2, 231. 
Grant, Robert and William, 1, 427. 
Grant, W., letters, 1, 79, 82. 

Grant, , captain, 1, 88; 2, 345. 

Graves, Samuel, 2, 19. 

Graves, , captain, 2, 401. 

Graves and Company, 2, 271, 274. 

Graves, Vose and, 2, 271. 

Gray, Daniel, 1, 75. 

Gray, William, 2, 59 n., 246, 322. 

Great Britain, trade with United 
States, 2, 199. 

Greely, , captain, 2, 70- 

Green, John, 2, 249, 256, 267; letter, 

Green, Reuben, 1, 75, 

Green, Thomas, 1, 94. 

Green, WiUiam, 2, 277, 286; letters, 
184, 206, 211, 214, 230, 236, 279, 
285, 295, 299, 301, 344, 353, 354, 
357; American lands, 185; Hydra, 
202, 218; citizenship, 214, 237; 
saihng instructions, 221; signature, 

Green, , 2, 120. 

Green, , captain, 1, 362. 

Green, Carey and, 2, 198. 

Green, Ford and Curtys, 1, 349. 

Greene, John, 2, 219; letter, 2, 212, 
216; signature, 212. 

Greene, Nathanael, 2, 271, 302, 346. 

Greene, Nathaniel, letter, 1, 116; sig- 
nature, 116. 

Greene, Peleg, letters, 1, 378, 381, 393, 
4CX), 407, 413, 437, 450, 489, 494, 
49S> 524; orders, 379; signature, 

Greene, William, 2, 214. 

Greenleaf, Stephen, 2, 187. 

Greenleaf, Stephen W., 1, 70 n. 

Greenman, , 1, 273, 286. 

Greenwich, 2, 46. 

Greenwood, , 2, 15. 

Greenwood and Higginson, 1, 419. 

Greig, David, 1, 283. 

Greig, Henry, 2, 98, 142. 

Grenville, George, 1, 140. 

Grey, Charles, Earl, 2, 469. 

Grey Hound, 1, 47, 71, 320. 

Grieg, Henry, 2, 216; letter, 233. 

Griffith, Robert, letter, 1, 337. 

Griffiths, Thomas, 1, 120, 148, 149. 

Grinnell, Malekiah, 1, 75. 

Grinnell, Moses, 2, 138, 141, 163. 

Grinnell, Richard, 1, 324; letter, 320, 

Grinnell, William, 1, 289. 
Guild and Co., 2, 186. 
Guion, Isaac, letter, 1, 340. 
Gumbes, Benjamin, 2, 167. 
Gumbes, William, Jr., 2, 167. 
Gunthorp, John, 1, 27; letters, 28, 

30; signature, 29. 
Gurts de Bour, Wurtze, 2, 86 n. 
Gwin, James, 1, 75. 

Hacker, , 1, 223, 334. 

Haddway, Jethro, 1, 99. 



Haggey, John, 2, 217. 
Hake, A., 1, 185, 254. 
Halifax Packet, 1, 150. 
Hall, Ezekiel, letter, 2, 70. 
Hall, William, 1, 349. 

Hall, , captain, 1, 488. 

Hallowell, , 1, 241 n. 

Hamburg, market, 2, 250, 252, 266, 
394; harbor, 253. 

Hamlet, , captain, 1, 60. 

Hammerden, Francis, captain, 1, 5, 42. 
Hammett, Benjamin, 2, 126. 

Hammett, , captain, 1, 46. 

Hammond, John, 1, 75. 

Hammond, Nathaniel, captain, orders, 

Hammond, William, 1, 75. 

Hammond, , captain, 1, 47. 

Hampden, 1, 444. 

Hancock, John, 1, 360. 

Handy, Charles, 2, 119, 123, 151, 308, 

316, 376, 389. 
Hannah, 1, 329; 2, 91, 102. 
Hannars, Walter, 1, 318; letter, 313. 
Hannibal, 2, 363, 383. 
Hanover, 1, 85. 
Happy Return, 2, 88, 270, 287. 
Hardin, Seth, 2, 33. 
Hardy, Sir Charles, 1, 141. 
Hardy, Samuel, 2, 218. 
Harford, Charles, 1, 120. 
Harford and Powell, 1, 180. 
Hargill, Christopher, 1, 347. 

Harper, , captain, 1, 479. 

Harris, Benjamin, captain, 2, 26, 43; 

sailing orders, 44. 
Harris, WilUam, captain, 1, 71. 
Harrison, Gilbert, 1, 185. 

Harrison, , 1, 54, 200, 240. , 

Hart, Abram, 1, 92. 

Hart, Isaac, 1, 92. 

Hart, John, 1, i n. 

Hart, Joshua, 1, 508; letters, 358, 377, 

394, 425, 446; signature, 426. 
Hart, Naphtali, and Co., 1, 6j, 71, 92, 

98, 100. 
Hart, Samuel, 1, 92, 450. 
Harvard College, student at, 2, 227. 
Harvey, Reuben, 2, 319, 327; letters, 

194, 200, 279; signature, 195. 
Harwich, 1, 85. 

Haskel, , captain, 2, 419. 

Hasleton, , captain, 1, 196. 

Hastings, Jonathan, 2, 57, 114; letter, 

120, 126, 135 n. 
Hatch, Crowell, 2, 191. 
Hatch, Samuel, 1, 331. 
Hathaway, Nathaniel, 2, 57. 
Hathaway, Samuel, 1, 212, 347. 
Hats, 1, 367. 
Hawk, 1, 79. 

Hawke, Sir Edward, 1, 80. 

Hay, John Gabriel, 2, 259. 

Haycraft, Samuel, captain, 1, 343. 

Hayden, William, captain, 2, 64, 91, 
102, 113, 133, 136, 138, 141, 179, 
289, 292, 296, 300, 303, 304, 320. 

Hayes, , 1, 139. 

Hayley, George, 1, 181, 190, 191, 195, 
2CX); 2, 133, 138; letters, 1, 136, 
504; 2, 7, II, 17, 24, 28, 29, 98, 
125; death, 147. 

Hayley, Mary, 2, 197, 198, 221, 251, 
261, 275; letters, 170, 176, 178, 182, 
195, 226; signature, 171; letter of 
introduction, 177. 

Hayley, Champion and, 1, no; dis- 
solution of partnership, 136. 

Hayley and Hopkins, 1, 351, 362, 469, 
478; letters, 251, 282, 287, 347, 355, 

357. 370, 397, 402, 419, 427, 435. 

451, 473, 488, 493, 498, 506, sio; 

2, 8; signatures, 1, 252; termination 

of partnership, 504. 

Haynes, , captain, 2, 270. 

Haynes and Crawford, 2, 208. 
Hays, Judah, 1, 68. 
Hays, Moses Michael, 2, 135, 191; let- 
ters, 58, III, 312, 399. 
Hays and Polock, 1, 347. 
Hazard, Benjamin, 1, 54. 
Hazard, Edward, 2, 141. 

Hazard, , 1, 398; 2, 408, 441. 

Head matter, 1, 66, Gy, 68, 69, 70, 71, 

285, 288, 293, 297; purchasing 

agreements, 88, 97. 

Heagerson, , captain, 2, 212, 216. 

Heart, 1, 185. 

Heatley, Suetonius, 2, 237. 
Heatley, il/rj-., 1, 113. 
Heatly, Andrew, 1, 105. 

HefFend, , captain, 1, 319. 

HefFernan, John, captain, 1, 148, 152, 

, i55>323>338. . 

HeflFernan, William, captain, 1, 364; 

letter, 353; signature, 354. 
Heman, John,*l, 412. 
Hemp, 1, 126, 180, 181; 2, 293, 302, 

377. 402. 

Henderson, , captain, 1, 5; 2, 183. 

Hendricks, , 1, 446. 

Hendrixson, Alexander, 1, 189. 

Henry, John, 2, 54. 

Henry, 1, 421. 

Herford and Powell, 1, 195. 

Hero, 1,438,455; 2, 241. 

Herries, William, 2, 286. 

Herring and Foot, 1, 502. 

Hervey, , captain, 1, 442. 

Hewes, Josiah, 1, 177; 2, 19 n., 29, 50; 
letters, 45, 117, 123, 130, 147, 156, 
160 n.; signature, 118. 



Hewes and Anthony, 2, 282, 363; 

letters, 175, 306, 310, 323, 373. 
Heyett and Bercly, 1, 303. 
Hicks, Benjamin, 2, 38. 

Hicks, , captain, 1, 398; 2, 410. 

Hill, Lamar, and Bisset, letters, 1, 93, 

Hill, Richard, 1, 94. 

Hill, , 1, 45- 

Hillegas, Michael, signature, 2, 158. 
Hillhouse, William, 1, 3, 6. 
Hinckley, Charles, letter, 1, 356. 
Hinckley, Gershom, 1, 356 n. 
Hinckley, Mary (Buel), 1, 356 n. 
Hind, 2, I, 322. 

Hinman, , 2, 108. 

Hispaniola, 2, 442. 

Hobbs, , captain, 1, 87, 88. 

Hodgdon, Alexander, 2, 312 n. 
Hodge, Robert, 2, 278. 

Hodge, , 2, 287 n. 

Hodges, Benjamin, 2, 322. 

Hodshon, John, 2, 162. 

Holden, Robert, 1, 75. 

Holker, fils, 2, 95, 117; bill on France, 

48, 61. 
Holland goods, imports, 1, 66; loan 

2, 83; recognizes United States, 161; 

poHtics, 334. 
Holmes, Joseph, captain, 1, 10, 236, 

314, 360; letter, 339. 
Holmes, Peter, 1, 427, 436. 

Homans, , captain, 1, 24, 25, 27, 39. 

Honduras Bay, prices, 1, 72. 

Honeyman, , 1, 395. 

Hood, Zachariah, 2, 5. 

Hood, , captain, 1, 436. 

Hooper, , captain, 1, 76, 84. 

Hope, 1, 106, 113, 273, 337; 2, 81, 

215, 276, 284, 309, 323, 325, 328, 

330, 351. 366, 385- 386, 388, 390, 

400, 404, 438, 440, 476. 
Hope still, 1, 337. 
Hopkins, Edmund, 1, 251. 
Hopkins, Esek, Jr., 2, 75 n. 

Hopkins, , 2, 145, 209, 228. 

Hopkins and Bradford, 2, 104. 
Hopson, Sarah, 2, 272 n. 

Home, , 1, 448. 

Home and Sill, letter, 2, 205. 
Hornet, 1, 132. 

Horses, exports, 1, 14 n.; sales, Anti- 
gua, 16; from England, 23, 26, 32; 

Jamaica, 183, 271. 
Hound, 2, 57 n., 466. 
How, Richard, 1, 51. 
Howard, Boutwell, 1, 75. 
Howard, Sir George, 1, 142. 
Howard, Martin, Jr., 1, 130. 
Howard, Robert, 1, 75. 
Rowland, Joseph, 1, 5 n. 

Howland, Patience, 1, 5 n. 

Howland, , captain, 1, 346. 

Howland and Coit, 2, 166. 
Hubbard, John, 1, 75. 
Hubbard, Russell, Jr., 2, 166. 
Hubbart, T., 1, 424. 

Hubbell, , 1, 294. 

Hughes, , 1, 523; 2, 28. 

Hull, William, 1, 362. 

Hull, , captain, 1, 237; 2, 274, 3S9- 

Hulme, , captain, 1, 253. 

Humphrys, John, 1, 120. 
Hunt, T. and R., 1, 494. 
Hunter, James, 1, 331. 
Hunter, Mrs., 2, 119. 

Hunter, ,2, 181. 

Hunter, , dr., 2, I, 137. 

Hunter and Banks, 2, 271 n. 

Huntington, , captain, 2, 446. 

Hurlburt, Joseph, 2, 105. 

Hurricanes, West Indian, 1, 40, 52, 56. 

Hyde, Robert and Nathan, letters, 2, 

13, 16, 174. 
Hydra, 2, 201, 202, 206, 211, 217, 222, 

230, 23s, 277, 285, 290, 295, 353. 
Hyer, John, captain, 1, 174,231, 243, 

321, 325; orders, 301. 

Impressment, 1, 63, 211, 351, 352. 

India, see Hydra. 

Industry, 1, 148, 149, 174, 207, 208, 

221, 243, 261, 276, 279, 301, 321, 

330; 2, 342. 

Ingersoll, , 1, 411. 

Inglis, John, 1, 370. 

Inglis, , captain, Ij 433. 

IngUs and Blair, 1, 433. 

Ingraham, Duncan, Jr., letter, 2, 186; 

signature, 186. 

Ingraham, , 1, 223. 

Ingraham and Bromfield, 2, 162 «., 

letter, 173. 
Ingram, Mrs., 2, 126. 
Inman, Ralph, 1, 274; letter, 349; 

signature, 350. 
Innis, William, 1, 420, 427. 
Insurance risks, 1, 80, 361; 2, 98, i6o, 

273, 294; Bilboa, 130; policy, 189, 

facsimile of — facing 190; Dublin, 

Interest and credit, 1, 282. 

Ion, , captain, 1, 33. 

Ireland, freight, etc., 1, 485, 487; 

non-exportation, 512, 516 «., 517; 

trade, 2, 194, 221. 
Iron, Jamaica, 1, 496. 

Isaacs, , 1, 370. 

Isle of May, 1, 228, 279. 
Israel, Henry, letter, 1, 338. 
Ivers, Thomas, 2, 312 n. 
Ivory, 1, 184, 234. 



Jack, Spanish, 1, 492. 

Jackson, George, 1, 98. 

Jackson, James, 1, 417. 

Jackson, Richard, 1, 94. 

Jacmel, burning of, 2, 447. 

Jacob, 1, 254, 259, 260, 263, 268, 270, 

296, 329. 378, 383> 390, 392, 403, 

413, 442, 488; 2, 10, II. 
Jacobs, Joseph, 1, 17, 18, 51, 53, 55. 
Jacobs, Wilson, 2, 265. 

Jacobs, ,2,57,136. 

Jacobson, , captain, 1, 92, 94, 106, 

Jacomby, Charles, 2, loi. 
Jamaica, hurricane, 1, 52; markets, 

183, 217, 231, 255, 260, 272, 277, 

434, 469; currency, 2, 37. 

James, , 2, 243. 

James, , captain, 1, 60. 

Jamison, David, 1, 80; letter, 82. 

Jarrett, -, 1, 348. 

Jarvis, Benjamin, 2, 165. 

Jarvis, Leonard, 1, 371; letter, 2, 15. 

Jarvis and Russell, 2, 89 n., 104, 139. 

Jauncey, , captain, 1, 205, 207, 213. 

Jeffrey, Patrick, 2, 398. 

Jenckes, , 1, 420. 

Jenkins, Eliza, letter, 2, 364. 

Jenkins, Robert, 1, 137; funeral 

charges, 158. 
Jenkins, Robert, Jr., 2, 100, 187. 

Jenkins, , captain, 2, 9. 

Jenkins and Gelston, 2, 251. 
Jenkins, Thurston and, 2, 172. 

Jenney, , captain, 2, 452. 

Jennings, Richard Downing, and Co., 

2, 277, 301. 
Jepson, John, 2, 38. 

Jepson, , captain, 1, 60. 

Jervis, John, Earl of St. Vincent, 2, 

Jewkes, London and Burgwin, 2, 243, 

John, negro, 1, 6. 
Johns, Edward, 1, 148. 
Johnson, Antony, 2, 175. 
Johnson, Augustus, 2, 53. 
Johnson, James, and Son, 1, 75. 
Johnson, Samuel, 1, 442. 
Johnson, Samuel, 2, 132. 
Johnson, William, 1, 467. 
Johnson, William Samuel, letter 1, 

410; signature, 411. 
Johnson, , captain, 1, 231, 419, 

486, 524. 
Johnson, 1, 84. 
Johnston, Augustus, 1, 369. 
Johnston, George, 1, 185. 
Joists, 1, 170. 
Jones, John, 1, 54. 
Jones, John Coffin, 2, 191. 

Jones, John Paul, 2, 376. 
Jones, John P., 2, 302. 
Jones, Mathias, letter, 1, 56. 
Jones, Moses, 2, 64. 

Jones, William and John P., letter, 2, 
Jones, Thomas, 1, 120. 

Jones, , captain, 1, 376, 388. 

Jones, , 1, 320, 321, 354, 422, 496. 

Joseph, 1, 46. 

Juno, 2, 13, 17, 25, 27, 113, 133, 138. 

Jupiter, 1, 84. 

Jurgenson and Momsen, 2, 456. 

Justice, , 1, 421. 

Kean, William, 1, 330. 
Keith, Alexander, letter, 2, 232. 
Keith, George, 2, 286. 
Kellet, Robert Cowan, 1, 185. 
Kelly, John O., letter, 1, 456. 
Kender, Mason and Co., 1, 343. 

Kennedy, , captain, 1, 157. 

Kent, , 1, 469. 

Kilbourn, -^, 2, 168. 
King, Robert, letter, 1, 52. 

King, , captain, 1, 33, 232. 

King George, 1, 374. 

Kingston, James, 2, 471. 

Kingston, Jamaica, market, 1, 178; 

American prizes, 2, 466, 467, 470. 
Kirkpatrick and Co., 2, 39. 
Kitty, 2, 91. 
Knox, William, 1, 241. 

Ladd, WiUiam, letter, 1, 283. 

Ladisma, Samuel, 1, 261, 272. 

Lady Amelia, 2, 86. 

Lady Elizabeth, 2, 125 n. 

Lady Washington, 2, 46 n., 84. 

Lanchon Freres, 2, 426; letters, 310, 
406, 422, 426, 430; signature, 311. 

Lane, , captain, 2, 212, 216. 

Lane, Bensons and Vaughan, 1, 147, 
162, 171; letters, 148, 173. 

Lane, Son and Eraser, 1, 287, 494; 2, 
320, 332; letters, 274, 295. 

Langdon, Edward, 1, 66, 67, 92, 98. 

Langford, Eliza, letter, 1, 19; signa- 
ture, 19. 

Langford, Isabella, letter, 1, 14; sig- 
nature, 14. 

Langford, Jonas, 1, 8, 10, 19, 21, 22; 
letters, i, 2, 5, 12; signature, 2; 
marriage, 35. 

Langford, Mehetabel, 1, i n. 

Langworthy, , 1, 135. 

Lansdown, Thomas, 2, 12. 

Lanwarn, Thomas, letter, 1, 343. 

Lark, 2, 159. 

Laroche, James, Jr., 1, 120, 149, 390. 

Lascelles and Daling, 1, 355, 357, 370. 



Lathrop, Elisha, 2, 34. 

Laveal, , 1, 79. 

Lavicount, , 1, "jd. 

Law, Thomas, 1, 222, 282. 

Lawrence, Daniel, 1, 48. 

Lawrence, Joseph, letter, 2, 386. 

Lawrence, William and Roderick, let- 
ter, 2, 81. 

Lawson, John, 1, 451. 

Lawson, Robert, signature, 2, 288. 

Lawson, Price and Co., 2, 345, 392. 

Lawton, Samuel, captain, 1, 376; 2, 
376, 414, 463; letters, 432, 433, 441, 
458. 459. 460, 462, 46s, 466, 467, 
470; signature, 433. 

Lawton and Brown, 2, 19. 

Lazarus, Martha, 1, 250. 

Leach, James, 1, 75. 

Leake, , 2, 92. 

Leather, South Carolina, 1, 114. 

Lechmere, Nicholas, 1, 347. 

Lee, Charles, 2, 36. 

Lee, Widow, 2, 52. 

Lee, , 1, 496. 

Leech, Thomas, 1, 44. 

Leech, , captain, 1, 458. 

Leeward Islands, governor, 1, 8; storm, 

Leffingwell, , 2, 89. 

Legare, Samuel, 2, 271. 

Leily, , captain, 1, 21. 

Leogane, 1, 50; 2, 452. 

Lessly, William, captain, 1, "](), 84. 

Lester, , 2, 89. 

Levett, Francis, 1, 370. 

Levi, Moses, 1, 315. 

Leviathan, 1, 501; 2, 9. 

Levy, Bilhah, 2, 123. 

Levy, Hayman, 1, 68, 72; 2, 119, 136, 
151, 161; letter, 152. 

Levy, Zipporah, 2, 119. 

Lewis, Ebenezer, 1, 115 n. 

Lewis, Francis, 2, 80. 

Lewis, William, captain, 1, 502; letters, 

2, 4, 14. 

Libau, Courland, market, 2, 259. 

Liberty, 2, 139. 

Lignum vitae, 1, 193. 

Lindsay, David, letter, 1, 59; sailing 

orders, 64. 
Lindsay, , captain, 1, 60, 95, 116, 

119, 123, 128, 129. 
Lisbon, charges, 1, 491; markets, 2, 

3, 22, 32, 35, 172, 205, 247, 263, 

Lister, William, 1, 82, 83; letter, 79. 

Little Betsy, 1, 295. 

Little Hart, 1, 192, 196, 197. 

Live Oak, 1, 369. 

Lively, 2, 75. 

Livingston, Peter R., 1, 137; letter, 382. 

Livingston, Ph. Ph., 1, 415, 416, 433. 

Livingston, , 1, 86, 205, 209. 

Livingston and Turnbul, 2, 17. 

Lloyd, Henry, 1, 98, 181; letters, 65 
66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71. 

Logan, James, 1, 58. 

Logwood, 1, 72, 97 n., 361; use, 118 
n.; Bristol, 125, 129, 146, 186, 193, 
220, 234, 299; Jamaica, 232. 

London, John, 2, 243, 245. 

London, 1, 404. 

Londonderry, Lord, 1, 8 n. 

Londonderry, market, 2, 269. 

London Packet, 1, 84, iii. 

Long, Jacob, 1, 35; letter, 34. 

Long and Co., 2, 29. 

Longden, Thomas, 1, 120, 390. 

Loone, Boo, 1, 103. 

Lopez, Aaron, 1, 65 n., 92, 98, ico; 
orders, 162, 296, 301; letters, 2, 
50, 65; signature, 1, 297; at Leices- 
ter, 2, 51; letter books, vi. 

Lopez, Abigail (Rivera), 1, 65 n. 

Lopez, Abraham, 1, 162, 183, 192, 277, 
443; letters, 174, 195, 327, 380; 
signature, 176. 

Lopez, David, 1, 268. 

Lopez, David, Jr., 2, 122, 135, 140; 
letters, 55, 62, 66, 68, 71, 73, 74, 
78, 114, 127, 143, 14s, 154; signa- 
ture, 57. 

Lopez, Joseph, letter, 2, 93. 

Lopez, Moses, 1, 98, icx). 

Lopez, Sarah, 1, 182. 

Lord, , 2, 475. 

Lord Charlemojit, 2, 221. 

L'Orient, market, 2, 310, 421, 423, 
43 1 ; free port, 406. 

Lothrop, , captain, 1, 46; 2, 9; 

death, 31. 

Lottery, 1, 348; ticket, 423. 

Loud, Benjamin, 1, 75. 

Loudon, Samuel, 2, 149. 

Louisburg expedition, 1, 52. 

Lousada, see Ximenes and. 

Lovelace, , captain, 1, 268. 

Lovell, White, 1, 13, 20, 21; letter, 56. 

Lovell, Morson and Co., 1, 343. 

Lovett, Benjamin, 2, 102. 

Low, Nicholas, 2, 252. 

Lowther, , 1, 395. 

Lucena, James, 1, 291, 296; letter, 
242; signature, 242. 

Lucena, Joseph de, 1, 70, 152, 165. 

Lumber, Bristol, 1, 123, 125. 

Lunberry, , captain, 1, 369. 

Lusby, , captain, 1, 81, 84. 

Luther, Martin, 1, 366. 

Lux, Darby, 1, 149 n. 

Lux, William, 1, 134; letters, 149, 163, 
171, 201; signature, 150. 



Lyde, , captain, 2, 8. 

Lyell, Charles, 2, 20; letter, 2, i; 
signature, 3. 

Lyle, , 1, 120. 

Lynde, , 2, 64. 

Lyon, Benjamin, letter, 1, 309. 
Lyon, Enoch, 1, 250. 
Lyon, John, 2, 52. 

Macaulay, Patrick, 2, 345. 

McCausland, Connolly, 2, 268. 

McComb, James, 2, 322; letter, 42. 

McCreery, , 2, 450. 

McDaniel, , captain, 1, 55. 

McDaniell, William, 2, 417. 

Macfarlane, Elizabeth, 1, 131 n. 

Macfarlane, William, 1, 131 n. 

McGuar, Thomas, 1, 75. 

Mackay, Peter, captain, 1, 362. 

Mackerel, Monte Christo, 1, 88; Bos- 
ton, 135. 

McKinzie, George, 1, 103. 

McNeill, Hector, 2, 104, 163. 

Macy, Obed, 1, 98. 

Macy, , captain, 2, 195. 

Macy, Sylvanus, and Co., 1, 98. 

Madeira, prices, 1, 94, 274. 

Magee, , captain, 2, 64, 142, 181. 

Mahan, , 1, 304. 

Mahogany, London, 1, 128; Bristol, 
153, 164, 172, 184, 234, 246, 268, 
291, 386. 

Mahony, William, 2, 412, 416. 

Mahony and Wolfe, 1, 301; letter, 321. 

Maidstone, 1, 120, 131, 199, 201. 

Maitland, Robert, 1, 415, 416. 

Malbone, Edward G., 2, 137 n. 

Malbone, Godfrey, 1, 31, 49. 

Malbone, John, 2, 137. 

Malbone, , 1, 456. 

Malbone, Mason and, 140, 314. 

Malcom, John, 1, 289. 

Mallard, John, letter, 1, 369. 

Mallett, Peter, 2, 243, 245. 

Malt legislation, 1, 81; export, 156. 

Manchester, Gideon, captain, 1, 417, 

* 419- 

Manchester, England, in 1727, 1, 3 n.; 
market, 2, 13. 

Manuel, , 1, 306. 

Manwaring, John, letter, 1, 62; sig- 
nature, 62. 

Maravedi, 2, 129. 

Marchant, , 1, 430, 454. 

Marcus, Sampson, 2, 151. 

Mardenbrough, Christopher, Jr., letter, 


Mardenbrough, Sarah, 2, 167. 

Margetson, James, 2, 29. 

Marie-Galante, 1, 143. 

Markets, uncertainty of, 1, 128. 

Mars, 2, 126, 132. 

Marsh, William, 1, 85, 361. 

Marshall, John, captain, 1, 157 n. 

Marsom, , 2, 12. 

Martha, 1, jG. 
Martin, Linn, 1, 398. 
Martin, Thomas, letter, 1, yj. 

Martin, , major, 1, 29, 49. 

Martin, 1, 84. 

Mardndale, , 2, 15. 

Martinique, capture of, 2, 468. 

Mary, 1, 343, 352, 379, 494; 2, 195, 

305, 311, 420. 
Mason, Benjamin, 1, 98, 191. 
Mason, Mary (Ayrault), 1, 191 n. 
Mason, John, 1, 241. 
Mason, Peter, 2, 130. 
Mason, Fenwick, and Co., 2, 427. 
Mason and Malbone, 2, 140, 314. 
Mather, Joseph, 2, 81. 
Matthew, William, governor, 1, 8 n. 
Matthews, George, 2, 19. 
Matthewson, Richard, letter, 2, 54. 
Maude, Thomas and William, 1, 282. 
Maudsley, John, 1, 92, 264, 494; 2, 

72, 75- 

Maxse, , 2, 29, 30. 

May and Payson, 2, 440, 450. 

Mayn, , 1, 199. 

Mayne, Edward, 2, 38. 

Mayne and Co., 2, 30, 38. 

Mayne and Needham, 1, 427, 436, 

489,501,507, 511. 
Mayo, Simeon, 2, 191. 
Mearns, Robert, invoice, 1, 122. 
Mears, Samson, 2, 78; letters, 83, 94, 

, 99- 

Mein, , 1, 294. 

Melhado, Jacob, 1, 248; letter, 249. 

Melville, Robert, 1, 112 n. 

Mendes, Abraham, 2, 52 n. 

Mendes, Abraham Pereira, 1, 182, 230, 

246, 255, 259, 260, 262, 267, 268, 

270, 277, 278, 291, 329, 340, 400; 

letters, 202, 205, 207, 212, 213, 221, 

231, 243; 2, j6, 77; signature, 1, 

204; sickness, 406. 
Mendes, David, 1, 329. 
Mendes, David Pereira, letter, 1, 399; 

signature, 400. 
Mendes, Isaac Pereira, 1, 329; letters, 

182, 191, 197; signature, 193. 
Mendes, Leah, letter, 1, 340. 
Mendes, Sarah (Lopez), 1, 182. 
Menhaden, 1, 204. 
Mentor, 2, 261. 

Mercier, , 1, 346. 

Mercury, 1, 176. 
Mercy, 1, 3. 

Meredith, , 1, 108. 

Merihew, , captain, 2, 471. 



Meyer, J. R., 2, 337. 

Meyler and Co., 2, 26, 29, 30. 

Middleton, John, 2, 13 n. 

Mifflin, Thomas, 2, 41. 

Mildred and Roberts, 1, 482, 484. 

Miles, William, 1, 427. 

Milet, Elie, 2, 468. 

Milet, Pierre, 2, 468. 

Milford, Ireland, 1, 177, 181, 199. 

Mill, George, 1, 163. 

Millagan, D., 1, 287. 

Miller, James, 2, 29. 

Miller, Nathan, 2, 13; letter, 1, 452. 

Miller, Tilley and, 2, 403. 

Minerva, 1, 123, 171, 436, 498, 501; 
2, 40, 159, 183. 

Minifie, Edward, 1, 502; 2, 28, 29. 

Minis, Philip, letter, 1, 406. 

Minro, , captain, 2, 433, 441, 459. 

Minturn, WiUiam, 2, 88, 165, 167, 169; 

letters, 1,312, 319; signature, 313. 
Mitchell, Richard, 1, 98. 
MofFat, Thomas, 1, 130. 
Molasses, Antigua, 1, 7; Boston, 65, 
67, 68; Monte Christo, 82, 88; duty, 
H3. 157; Jamaica, 225. 
Mole St. Nicholas, markets, 1, 283, 

306, 314, 357, 375, 381. 
Momsen, Jurgenson and, 2, 456. 
Monneron Brothers, 2, 422. 
Moody, Robert, 1, 328. 
Moore, Daniel, 1, 85, 291, 366, 415, 

422, 433. 
Moore, Philip, 2, 219. 
Moore, Stephen, 1, 310. 

Mores, , 2, 300. 

Morgan, , 1, 365. 

Morris, Robert, 2, 310; letter, 1, 49; 
signature, 50. 

Morse, , captain, 1, 402. 

Morton, Samuel and John, 1, 263, 470. 
Moses, Isaac, 2, 152. 
Moses, Samuel, 1, 97. 

Mosher, , captain, 2, 434. 

Mosquito coast, 1, 72; trade, 73. 
Motteux, John and Co., 2, 29. 
Mowatt, Benjamin, 1, 427; 2, 22. 

Mowit, , 1, 398. 

Moy, 1, 487. 

Mules, 1, 432. 

Mumford, John, 2, 82. 

Mumford, Peter, 1, 275. 

Mumford, Roberson, 2, 243, 245. 

Mumford, Thomas, 1, 265; letter, 2, 81. 

Mumford, , 1, 150, 523. 

Munckley, Samuel, 1, 120, 149. 

Munro, , captain, 1, 409, 446, 467. 

Mure, Son and Atkinson, 1, 381. 

Murray, John, 2, 37 n. 

Murray and Wright, 2, 14. 

Murray, Mumford and Bowen, 2, 320. 

Myars, Hayman, 1, 310, 326. 
Myers, Samuel, 2, 135. 

Nails, 1, 190, 223, 342. 
Nancy, 1, 467, 488, 496, 499, 503, 506, 
510; 2, 10, 13, 17, 25, 27, 30, 40, 
243, 245. 
Nansemond, Va., market, 2, 166. 
Nantes, market, 2, 232. 
Nantucket, whale fishery, 1, 66; busi- 
ness keenness, 68. 
Naval stores, London, 1, 128. 
Nazro, John, letter , 2, 146, 149; sig- 
nature, 146. 
Neave, Richard, 1, 185. 
Negro, sale of, 1, 6, 15, 414, 447, 466; 

runaway, 523. 
Neptune, 1, 489, 493, 506, 5 1 1. 
Nesbitt, Conyngham and, 1, 108, 109. 
Neufville, Edward, 1, 120. 
Neufville, John de, 2, 98, 169; ictters, 
64, 70, 86, 104, 132, 138, 142 n., 150, 
164; signature, 86. 
Newbern, market, 1, 393, 414; 2, 344. 
Newberry, Walter, 1, 18, 39, 40. 
New Concert, 1, 93. 

Newdigate, John, 1, 185, 192, 195, 197, 

207, 209, 221, 270, 295, 299, 308, 

315, 320, 326, 335, 336, 344, 354; 

letters, 298, 304, 306, 309. 

Newfoundland, markets, 1, 372, 406, 

444; bill of exchange, 2, 145. 
New Hampshire, exports, 1, 26 n. 
New London, Conn., burning of, 2, 

Newman, Augustus, 2, 84, 133, 138, 

Newport, harbor, 1, 112 n., 195 n.; 
British in, 2, 50, 51 n.; synagogue, 
109; market, 118, 127; French in, 
Newport Packet, 1, 124, 147, 151, 155, 

160, 165. 
New Providence, 1, 49; prices, 103. 
New Race Horse, 1, 517. 
Newry, harbor, 2, 246; market, 281, 

332, 367, 380- 
New York, markets, 1, 383. 
New York, 1, 376, 386, 391, 405, 422. 
New York Packet, 1, 84. 
Nicholas, Edward, 1, 120, 149. 

Nichols, , captain, 2, 261. 

Nicholls, , captain, 1, 271. 

Nickless, John, 1, 75. 

Nightingale, , 2, 54. 

Ninigret, Indian, 1, iii. 
Noble, John, 1, 427. 
Norris, Rowland, 1, 476, 518; 2, 18, 
308, 328, 389. 

Norris, , captain, 1, 376. 

North, Lord, resigns, 2, i6i. 



Northam, Robert, letters, 2, 471, 472; 

signature, 473. 
Northington, 2, 282. 
Norwich, Conn., committee, 2, 32. 
Norwich crapes, 1, 26. 
Nova Scotia, notes, 1, 3 10. 
Nugent, Richard, 1, 21, 25, 27, 29; 

letters, 8, 11, 15; signature, 9. 
Nugent, Walter, 1, 8; letters, 10, 15; 

signature, 12. 

Nugent, , 1, 157 n. 

Nye, T., 1, 275. 

Oak bark, 2, 270, 284. 

Oatmeal, 1, 150. 

Ocean, 1, 392. 

O'Hara, Felix, letter, 1, 439. 

Oil, prices London, 1, 128, 403, 493; 
Bristol, 146, 170, 173, 194, 227, 258, 
300, 314, 326, 350, 359, 364; brown, 
152, 165, 187; glut of, 159, 160, 165; 
adulteration, 236, 247; trade, 2, 226; 
Dublin, 263; favored in France, 432. 

Olcott, — , 2, 168. 

Oliver, Richard and Richard, letter, 1, 
76, 80, 84; signature, 77. 

Oliver, Robert, captain, 1, 33, 48. 

Onions, 1, 208. 

Orion, 1, 397. 

Orr, Hugh, 1, 449 n. 

Orr, ,1,31.1- 

Osborne, Jeremiah, captain, 1, 119, 153, 
159, 164, 187, 220, 228, 234, 260, 
387, 422; character, 124, 129, 279; 
letters, 157, 177, 180, 181, 190, 191, 
19s, 199, 200, 233, 235; death, 250. 

Oswald, Richard, 1, 370. 

Otis, Harrison Gray, 2, 298. 

Paca, William, 2, 54. 

Page, Benjamin, 2, 390, 394. 

Page, Samuel, 2, 67. 

Page, ,2,386. 

Paine, , 1, 135. 

Pallas, 2, 104. 

Palma, don, 1, 73. 

Palmer, Joseph, 1, 92, 98, loo; adver- 
tising card, 304. 

Palmer, , captain, 1, 321. 

Panet, Lodwick, 1, 104. 

Paper money, regulation of, 1, 59. 

Parham Club, 1, 46. 

Parham Galley, 1, 5 n. 

Paris, David, 1, 419; 2, 174. 

Parish, John, 2, 43, 45. 

Parker, Daniel, 2, 186. 

Parker, William, letter, 1, 337. 

Parkinson, John, 2, 29. 

Parkinson, , captain, 1, 438. 

ParUament, meeting of, 1, 131; trade 
acts, 139; 2, 7, 36, 38. 

Parr, Thomas, signature, 2, 60. 

Parr, Bulkel^y and Co., 1, 464, 465, 
472; letters, 477, 479, 483, 503, 507, 
509, 514, 516; 2, 6, 23, 32, 34; sig- 
nature, 1, 504; dissolution of firm, 

Parry, John, 1, 75. 

Parson, Sarah, 1, 3; signature, 4. 

Partridge, Richard, 1, 17. 

Pascall, , 1, 326. 

Passengers, fare, 1, 129, 167, 460. 

Pate, , 1, 66. 

Patterson, John, 2, 5. 

Patterson, Robert, 1, 75. 

Pattin, J., 1, 282. 

Patty, 2, 434. 

Payne, , captain, 1, 51. 

Payson, May and, 2, 440. 

Peace and Plenty, 1, 440. 

Pearce, Daniel, captain, 1, 5, 7, 58. 

Pearce, , 2, 183. 

Pearl ashes, sand, 2, 124. 

Pease, Simon, 1, 41, 42. 

Peatts and Westmorland, 1, 456, 468. 

Peck, John, captain, 1, 95, 374. 

Peck, , 2, 117. 

Peggie, 1, 122. 

Peggy, 1, 463, 470, 473, 475, 477, 483, 
487, 490, 503, 509, 516, 520, 522; 
2, 6, 19, 32, 34, 35, 98, 205, 247, 
266, 351,428. 

Peirce, Benjamin, 2, 159, 299, 320, 
330, 333» 361, 367, 372, 373> 381, 
390, 437; letters, 229, 257, 258, 287, 
368, 371, 376, 384, 386, 411; sig- 
nature, 387, 412. 

Pelauque, 2, 468. 

Penelope, 2, 300. 

Penington, , 1, 139. 

Penmure, Richard, 1, 60. 

Penn, 2, 430. 

Pennsylvania, 1, 107. 

Perry, John, 1, 472. 

Peters, John, captain, 1, 148, 149, 189, 
194, 207, 211, 213, 214, 221, 261, 
263, 279, 317, 330, 392, 393, 404, 
413, 442, 488; 2, 11; letter, 1, 305; 
signature, 306. 

Petrie, Martin, 2, loi. 

Philadelphia, school master for, 1, 58; 
market, 324, 441, 448; 2, 19 n., 
132, 148, 157. 

Phillips, Joseph, 1, 75. 

Phillips, Patience (Howland), 1, J n. 

Phillipsburgh, 2, 185. 

Phoenix, D., 1, 220. 

Phoenix, 2, 134, 330. 

Piece of eight, 1, 82 n. 

Pigott, John, 1, 31. 

Pimento, 1, 164; Boston, 65; Bristol, 



Pinnegar, William, captain, signature, 

Pit, , captain, 1, 115. 

Pitkin, Daniel, 2, 83; letters, 84, 105, 

Pitt, John, 2, 102. 

Pitt, William, 1, 72. 

Pitt, 1, 178, 181, 187, 190, 219, 226, 
227, 234, 237, 239, 248, 258, 266, 
267, 480. 

Plank, sizes, 1, 148, 151, 160 n., 167, 
193, 261, 433; edges, 186. 

Pollard, William, 1, 349. 

Pollock, Myer, 1, 204, 233. 

Pollok, Ann, 1, 385. 

Pollok, Cullen, 2, 132, letters; 1, 384, 
394, 429, 4S4, 492. 

Pollok, George, 1, 454. 

Polly, 1, 92, 360, 365, 460; 2, 383, 452. 

Polock, , 1, 69. 

Pondicherry, 2, 282. 

Pope, Francis, St., 1, 17 n. 

Pope, Francis, captain, 1, 11, 12, 15, 
19, 21, 27, 29, 30, 34, 154; letters, 
16,31, 3S> 37.4I- 

Pope, ,2,154. 

Popeshead estate, Antigua, 1, 10, 13. 

Port au Prince, rising of slaves, 2, 442, 
458, 459, 460. _ 

Port charges, Antigua, 1, 21; Copen- 
hagen, 2, 455;" Elsinore, 461; Bor- 
deaux, 474. 

Portledge, 1, frontispiece, 155 n. 

Port Mahon, 1, 69, 70 n., 73. 

Port Packet, 2, 144. 

Port Royal, 1, 85. 

Portugal, trade to, 1, 435, 441, 453, 
458, 463, 472, 478, 484, 503, 521; 
2, 247; treaty, 266. 

Post, letter, 1, 276. 

Post Office, accounts, 1, i6i, 466; Bos- 
ton's account, 424. 

Potash, 1, 186, 193, 220, 236. 

Pottenger, Collinson and, 1, 94. 

Potter, James, captain, 1, 185, 255, 
291, 296, 319, 320, 323, 338, 369. 

Potter, Nathaniel, 1, 47. 

Potter, Simeon, 1, 311. 

Potter, Thomas, Jr., letter, 1, 347. 

Potter, , captain, 1, 198, 210, 218, 

225, 237, 243. 

Potts, Jonathan, 2, 456. 

Powell, Adam, 1, 113 n. 

Powell, Hester (Bernon), 1, 113 n. 

Powell, Jane (Grant), 1, 113 n. 

Powell, John, 1, 104, 113, 282; let- 
ters, 130, 199, 201, 221, 240, 246, 
294; 2, 204. 

Powell, William, 1, 122; 2, 204, 239. 

Powell, John and William, letters, 1, 
134, 150. 

Power, , 2, 266. 

Power of Attorney, 1, 74. 

Powers and Rogers, 2, 127. 

Price, John, 1, 75. 

Price, Lawson, and Co., 2, 345. 

Prices, regulation of, 2, 63, 69. 

Primage, 1, 32 n., 63, 464, 491. 

Prince George, 1, 96. 

Pringle, Mark, letters, 2, 209, 228; 

signature, 229. 
Privilege, 1, 61, 64, 97, 295, 384, 441, 

458,461; 2,45. 
Prizes, 1, 50, 57; 2, 166; power of 

attorney, 1, 74. 
Protheroe and Claxton, 2, 284, 320, 

403; letters, 272, 363. 
Providence, R. I., market, 2, 56, 71, 

172; destruction of iron furnace, 96. 
Purse, Francis, 1, 75. 
Pyner, John, captain, 1, 202, 207, 232, 

254, 358, 404; letter, 351, 353. 

Queen of France, 2, 313. 
Quincy, , 1, 66, 67. 

Rainbow, 2, 307. 
Rambler, 2, 102, 103, 124. 
Randall, Thomas, 1, 383. 
Ranger, 1, 216, 256, 270, 329. 

Rapall, , 2, 144. 

Rathbone, ,2, 309, 311, 352, 459. 

Rathbun, Samuel, Jr., letter, 1, 333. 
Rathburn, Joshua, 2, 167. 

Ratsey, , captain, 1, 498. 

Ravensduck, 1, 166. 

Read, Seth, 2, 179; letter, 64. 

Read, WiUiam, 1, 78. 

Read, , captain, 2, 410, 455. 

Redwood, Abraham, Sr., sketch, 1, i n. 
Redwood, Abraham, Jr., 2, 142; let- 
ters to, 1, I, 2, 3; garden, 177 n. 
Redwood, Jonas Langford, 1, 5 n., 18, 


Redwood, Martha (Coggeshall), 1, 9. 
Redwood, Patience (Howland | Phil- 
lips), 1, 5 n. 
Redwood, Sarah, 1, 14 n. 
Redwood, William, 1, 18, 34, 38, 39. 
Reed, Abraham, letter, 1, 367. 
Reed, Benjamin, 1, 75. 
Reed, Richard Hugens, 1, 330. 

Reed, , 2, 69. 

Reeve, William, 1, 120, 139, 148, 149. 
Reis, 2, 34 n. 
Remington, John, 2, 415. 
Remington, Thomas, 1, 78. 

Remington, , captain, 2, 37. 

Rentoul, Robert, 2, 134. 
Revolution, 2, 402. 
Reynell, John, letter, 1, 58. 
Reynolds, John, 2, 56, 69. 



Reynolds, William, 1, 427, 435, 473. 
Rhode Island, currency, 1, 348; 2, 

324. .353; British evacuate, 73, 74, 

75; citizenship, 207; credit, 295, 301; 

convention on constitution, 408. 
Rice, South Carolina, 1, 44, 176, 257, 

.325. 446. 

Richards, , captain, 1, 56, 59. 

Richardson, James, 2, 135. 
Richardson, Joseph, 1, 222. 
Richardson, Thomas, 1, 9; letter book, 

2, vi. 
Richardson, William, 1, 92. 

Richardson, , captain, 1, 335. 

Richmond, 2, 177, 181, 212, 213, 219, 

H9, 394- 

Ricketts, W. H., 2, 29. 

Rider, Hugh, 1, 138. 

Ridley and Pringle, 2, 209. 

Ripley, Joseph, captain, 1, 318, 394, 
396, 406, 416, 430, 437, 492, 495. 

Rivera, Abigail, 1, 65 n. 

Rivera, Jacob Rodrigues, 1, 65 n., 92, 
98, 285; 2, 37, 122, 191; at Leices- 
ter, 52; portrait, 2, frontispiece. 

Rivera, P., 1, 100. 

Rivington, Douce and, 2, 351. 

Roach, James, 1, 75. 

Robbins, John, 2, 81. 

Roberts, G., 2, 105. 

Roberts, John, and Son, 2, 29. 

Roberts, Maurice, and Co., 2, 414. 

Robertson, Robert, 2, 474. 

Robertson, William, 2, 236, 285, 286. 

Robin, 2, 139, 141, 142, 150, 160, 162, 

Robinson, James, 2, 167, 169. 

Robinson, John, 1, 159, 215. 

Robinson, Joseph, 1, 92. 

Robinson, Matthew, letter, 2, iii. ' 

Robinson, Robert, sailing orders, 2, 

T. +75- 

Robinson, Thomas, 1, 92, 100. 

Robinson, , captain, 1, 392. 

Robinson, , 2, 120, 122, 441. 

Robyn, 2, 139. 

Rochambeau, Donatien Marie Joseph 

de Vimeur, vicomte de, 2, 469. 
Rodman, Samuel, letter, 2, 402. 

Rodman, , captain, 1, 490. 

Rogers, John, letters, 2, 95, 97, loi, 

106, 112. 
Rogers, Joseph, letters, 2, 95, 97, loi, 


Rogers, Thomas, 1, 397, 402, 412, 419, 

42s, 499; letter, 375, 376. 
Rogers, Powers and, 2, 127. 
Rome, George, 1, 93; 2, 100; letter, 

Romney, 1, 240. 
Rose, 1, 523; supplies for, 2, 4, 14, 

Ross, , 2, 246. 

Rotch, Francis, 2, 196, 288, 325; let- 
ters, 39, 171, 260, 292, 296, 300, 304, 
333; signature, 171. 

Rotch, Joseph, 1, 67, 69, 70, 71, 98. 

Rotch, Joseph, and Son, letters, 1, 
273. 275. 285, 288, 292, 297; sig- 
nature, 274. 

Rotch, William, 1, 67 n., 98; 2, 16, 
293, 300. 

Rotch, William, Jr., 2, 403. 

Rotch, , captain, 1, 371, 511; 2, 


Rowe, John, 1, 115 n. 

Rowland, Thomas, 2, 324.. 

Rum, trade, 1, 36 n.; Antigua, 6, 34; 
Charleston, 176, 258, 377; Milford, 
178; channel, 187; Jamaica, 225, 
229, 235; no drawback, 237; Gra- 
nada, 266; test, 297; Ireland, 2, 194, 

Rumsted, , 1, 95. 

Russell, Caleb, 1, 99. 

Russell, Joseph and William, 1, 257, 
377; letters, 218, 222. 

Russell, Joseph, Jr., letters, 2, 287, 299. 

Russell, Nathaniel, 2, 44, 348, 476, 
477; letters, 1, 325, 447, 466; 2, 
271, 274, 302, 307, 34s; signature, 

Russell, Sarah (Hopson), 2>. 272 n. 

Russell, Thomas, 2, 64. 

Russell, William, 1, 163. 

Russell, , 1, 114, 179. 

Russell, Jarvis and, 2, 89 n., 104, 139. 

Russia, trade with, 1, 332. 

Ryberg, Niels, 2, 314, 316, 321, 326, 
331. 336, 346, 367. 368, 391, 396, 
453, 478; letters, 2, 361, 369, 375, 
463; signature, 362. 

Saabye, , 2, 376, 384, 437, 453. 

Sail cloth, 1, 194. 
Sailing agreement, 1, 60. 
St. Anns, 1, 49. 
St. Croix, market, 1, 338. 
St. Eustatia, market, 2, 99, 430. 
St. Kitts, 1, 20; sugars, 84. 
St. Marc, market, 2, 445, 448. 
St. Martins, 1, 6; market, 2, 167, 342. 
St. Petersburg, markets, 2, 333, 341, 
346, 350, 360, 372, 378, 381, 391, 

^ 395. 397. 415. 439. 455- 
Salem, Rising Sun Tavern, 2, 59. 
Sally, 1, 84, 106, 195, 357; 2, 43, 44. 
Salomons, Levy, 1, 310. 

Salsadas, , 1, 204. 

Salt, Anguilla, 1, 6, 17; Cape de 

Verde, 41; Lisbon, 200, 478, 503, 

507, 514; St. Martins, 301; 2, 343; 

Rhode Island, 1, 347; St. Ubes, 453; 

Hartford, 2, 105, 107, 109. 



Saltonstall, Dudley, 2, i66. 

Saltpetre, 2, 278. 

Sampson, 2, 37. 

Samson, John, 1, 327. 

Samuel, 2, 168. 

San Domingo, market, 1, 82; rising 

of slaves, 2, 442, 444, 446, 451, 452, 

Sanford, Hezekiah, 1, 323. 
Sarah, 1, 46. 
Sarmento, Francisco C, and Co., 2, 

416; letters, 412, 416, 417, 423. 
Sarzedas, Abraham, 1, 306; letter, 

r 374- 

Saunders, Freelove, 1, 364. 
Savanna la Mar, markets, 1, 174. 

Sayer, , captain, 1, 357. 

Scantling, 1, 157. 

Scarlett, Robert, 1, 427, 473. 

Schimmelpennig, Lambert, 1, 120, 148, 

Scipio, 1, 75. 

Scott, John, Jr., letters, 1, 114, 115. 
Scott, Joshua, captain, 1, 38, 41. 
Scott, , captain, 1, 282, 287, 294, 

370; 2, 196. 
Scott and Eraser, 1, 519. 
Seabury, Samuel, 1, 113 n. 
Sea/lower, 1, 502; 2, 243. 
Searle, John, and Co., 2, 86. 
Sears, David, 2, 231; letter, 248. 
Sears, George, captain, 1, 149, 171, 216, 

354, 491, 500; 2, 76, 77, 116, 151; 

letters, 1, 372, 406, 409, 416, 444; 

signature, 445. 
Sears, Isaac, 2, 238. 

Sears, , 2, 471. 

Seixas, Benjamin, 2, ijo, 135. 
Seixas, Benjamin Mendez, 2, 119 n. 
Seixas, Hyman L., 2, 119. 
Seixas, Moses, 2, 116, 128; letters, 

109, 118, 122, 13s, 136, 139, 151, 

164; signature, no. 
Seixas, Zipporah (Levy), 2, 119 n. 
Senegal, 1, 222, 240. 
Senior, Bernard, 1, 380. 
Serocold and Jackson, 1, 427, 503; 2, 


Serzadas, , 1, 306. 

Sesson, Gideon, 2, 53. 

Sewell, , captain, 1, 211. 

Shad, Monte Christo, 1, 88. 

Shafre [Schaeffer?], Stonsong and, 2, 

Shaggs, 1, 151. 

Shakes, 1, 159, cask; 420, 436. 
Shand, , captain, 1, 136, 427, 451, 

474. 499. S06. 
Shattuck, John, 2, 165. 
Shattuck, William, 2, 165. 
Shaw, , 1, 411. 

Shearman, Daniel, 2, 108. 

Shearman, Ebenezer, 1, 431, 442, 457; 
2, 433; letters, 1, 357; 2, 177, 181, 
428, 429, 430; signature, 178. 

Shearman, Levi, 1, 75. 

Shechita, 2, 140 n. 

Sheep, Antigua, 1, 6, 41; Dominica, 
167; Jamaica, 205, 206, 208, 231. 

Sheffield, Aaron, 2, 178, 194, 200, 207, 
246, 251, 261, 270, 280, 308, 313, 
316, 323, 325, 328, 339, 388, 430. 

Sheldon, , 1, 452. 

Shephard, Thomas, 1, 49. 

Sherburne, , captain, 1, 39, 40, 42. 

SherNvood, Joseph, 1, 94, 347, 369. 

Shewell, , captain, 1, 7. 

Shippen, William, 2, 456. 

Ships, cost of, 1, 115; sale in England, 
u8, 125, 128, 151, 157, 267; Prov- 
idence, 218, 223; size, 418; launch- 
ing, 452. 

Sholbred, John, 1, 254. 

Short, William, 2, 436. 

Shot, lead, 2, 364. 

Shrefe, John, 1, 75. 

Shroud junk, 1, 332. 

Sierra Leone, 1, 64. 

Sieveking, Voght and, 2, 393. 

Sieves, 1, 172. 

Sigourney, Charles, 2, 102, 103; letter, 
124; signature, 125. 

Sill, Home and, 2, 205. 

Sim, 2, 136. 

Simmons, , captain, 1, 191; 2, 322, 


Simson, Alexander, 1, 427. 

Sirloues, 2, 38. 

Sisson, , captain, 2, 57. 

Sistare, , captain, 1, 410. 

Skinner, , captain, 2, 212, 245. 

Skins, 2, 382. 

Skipwith, Sir Peyton, 2, 215. 

Slave trade, African, 1, 46, 59, 64, 96, 
203, 205, 209, 213, 339, 343, 346, 
398, 402, 411, 419, 425, 428, 429, 
433. 456, 457. 461, 467. SOI. 521, 
524; 2, 14; agreement, 456, 458, 
462; discontinuance, 517. 

Slocum, James, 1, 25. 

Slocum, John, 1, 92, 100. 

Slocum, ,2, 181. 

Smart, Thomas, letters, 2, 87, 90, 92. 

Smith, Ebenezer, 2, 298. 

Smith, Edward James, 2, 361, 369, 
453, 478; letters, 372, 373, 377, 
379. 390. 394. 396; signature, 375. 

Smith, Ephraim, 1, 331. 

Smith, James, 1, 390. 

Smith, Oliver, 2, 27. 

Smith, Stephen, 2, 244. 

Smith and Atkinson, 1, 437. 



Smith and Loomes Co., 1, 95. 
Smyth, Arthur, 1, loi n. 

Smyth, , captain, 1, 374. 

Snell, Samuel, captain, 1, 353, 398; 

letters, 401, 411, 419. 

Snelling, , captain, 1, 46. 

SnufF, 1, 122. 

Soap, Antigua, 1, 6, 41; Jamaica, 206. 

Soderstrom, Carl, 2, 181, 212, 216, 

256; letters, 213, 219; signature, 

Soderstrom, Richard, 2, 213. 
Solely, J., 2, 149. 
Solomon, Abraham, 1, 329. 
Sons of Liberty, 1, 240. 
Sorsbie, Robert, 1, 343. 
South Carolina, market, 2, 274; debt 

laws, 307, 349. 
Southwick, John, 2, 454. 
Spain, slave trade, 1, 456, 462. 
Spanish Fame, 2, 147, 157. 
Speedwell, 2, 54. 
Spermaceti, 1, 66 n., 69; manufacture, 

65 n., 137; agreement for purchases, 

88, 97; in England, no; see Can- 
Spirits, distilled, 1, 81 n., 84. 
Spragg, Samuel, letter, 2, 398. 
Squirrel, 1, 120. 
Stamford, 1, 72. 
Stamp Act, 1, 119 n., 132, 139, 145; 

in West Indies, 144. 
Stanley, Seth, 2, 81. 
Stanton, N., captain, 1, 283. 
States, 2, 430. 
Staves, Antigua, 1, 31, 34; Jamaica, 

184; Bristol, 193; Dublin, 2, 208, 

263; Lisbon, 413. 
Stead, William, 1, 178, 180, 181, 198, 

282, 417; 2, 187; letters, 1, 92, 106; 

assignees of, 2, 100. 

Steele, , captain, 1, 425. 

Steger, Hans, 1, 45. 
Stelle, Isaac, and Co., 1, 92, 98, loo. 
Stevens, John, letters, 1, 368, 451. 
Stevens, Robert, 1, 159, 167, 199, 250. 
Stevenson and Went, 1, 355, 370, 473; 

letters, 425, 428. 

Stewart, , captain, 1, 30. 

Stewart, , major 1, 50. 

Stiles, Ezra, 2, no. 

Stiles, , 2, 443. 

Stites and Brasher, letter, 1, 342. 
Stitt, William, 2, 271, 302, 346. 
Stocker, Anthony, 1, 108; letter, 341. 
Stoddard, Thomas, and Co., 1, 429. 
Stocker and Wharton, letters, 1, 440, 

447, 452, 458, 460, 463, 464, 470, 

471, 474, 475, 477, 480, 484, 487, 

508, 512, 515, 516, S17, 520, 521, 

523; 2, 18. 

Stone, , captain, 1, 68. 

Stone work from England, 1, 24. 

Stonsong and Shafre, 2, 434. 

Story, Zebadiah, captain, 1, 322, 444, 
501, 506, 511; 2, 10, 119; letters,!, 
31,77, 32s; 2,38. 

Stostrom, Pieter, 2, 103. 

Strachan, Davis, and Co., 2, 17. 

Strange, John, 1, 327. 

Strange, Lord, 1, 139. 

StrickHng, John, 2, 62. 

Stuart, John, Earl of Bute, 1, 141. 

Stuart, John, bill, 2, 2. 

Sturgis, Thomas, captain, 1, 71. 

Success, 1, 46; 2, 129, 134. 

Sugar, legislation against foreign, 1, 
7 n., 143; product and import, 43 
n.; free foreign, 160; Antigua, 7, 
34; Boston, 65; Monte Christo, 82, 
88; Guadeloupe, etc., 144; Domi- 
nica, 168; Jamaica as foreign, 227, 
234, 238; London, 7, 10, 25, 30, 32, 
33, 40, 43, 45, 50, 81, 84; Bristol, 
170; St. Petersburg, 2, 346. 

Sugar cane blasted, 1, 41. 

Sukey, 2, 163. 

Sullivan, James, 2, 56. 

Sullivan, , 1, 131. 

Surinam, 2, 169. 

Susanna, 1, 181. 

SutclifFe, , captain, 1, 30, 33. 

Sutfield, , captain, 1, 94. 

Swain, Charles, 2, 190, 197, 198, 207. 

Swansea, 1, 182, 185, 192, 196, 197. 

Swanson, Thomas, 1, 157 n. 

Sweden, 2, 369, 376, 385. 

Sweet, , captain, 1, 88. 

Sykes, James, 2, il. 

Symes, Richard, 1, 120. 

Synagogue, candlestick for, 1, 195. 

Tabor, George, 2, 122, 137. 

Talbot, Silas, 2, 282. 

Tallow, prices, 1, 65; kosher, 2, 119, 

Talmage, Thomas, letter, 1, 104. 

Tamarinds, 1, 14 n. 

Tanner, James, 1, 325. 

Tanner, John, captain, 1, 264. 

Tappin, , 2, 174. 

Taylor, , 1, 60. 

Tea, Bohea, 1, 27 n.; Boston, 66, 67, 
214, 294; troubles, 246, 358; Rus- 
sia, 332, 519; New York, 340, 383; 
India Company, 451; Philadelphia, 
2, 131, 148, 157, 164; Sweden, 161; 
Hamburg, 250, 254; Copenhagen, 
258, 368, 371; Lisbon, 265. 

Temple, John, 1, 417. 

TenerifFe, market, 2, 412, 416, 417, 
418, 424. 



Tennant, , captain, 1, 442. 

Tew, , captain, 2, 450, 451. 

Thelluson, Peter, 1, 185. 

Thiringk, Anto. Frederick, 2, 373; 
letters, 321, 333, 340, 346, 347, 350, 
360, 381; signature, 342; invoice, 

Thody, William, captain, 1, 12. 
Thomas, John, 1, 149. 

Thomas, , captain, 1, 37, 38. 

Thomlinson, John, 1, 62 n.; letters, 

^ SO, 53, 59- ^ 

Thomlinson, John, Jr., 1, 10, 13, 20, 
22, 29, 31, 35, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43, 51, 
53; letters, 27, 36; death, 62. 

Thomlinson, William, 1, 445, 506, 510; 
2, 10, 13. 

Thompson, John, 1, 75, 149. 

Thompson and Gordon, letters, 2, 281, 
332, 380- 

Thomson, , captain, 1, 393. 

Three Friends, 1, 76. 

Three Sallies, 1, 148, 149. 

Threlfal, P. V., 1, 521. 

Threlfal and Anderson, 2, 14. 

Thumb measure, 2, 149. 

Thurot, Fran9ois, 1, 80. 

Thurston, Jonathan, 1, 32. 

Thurston, William, 1, 75. 

Thurston and Jenkins, 2, 172. 

Tide waiter, 1, 312 n. 

Tiger, 2, 247. 

Tileston, , captain, 1, 460. 

Tilley and Miller, 2, 403. 

Tillinghast,- Daniel, letters, 1, 334, 361. 

Tillinghast, I., 2, 428. 

Tillinghast, John, 1, 47. 

Tillinghast, Thomas, captain, 1, 223, 
229, 231,439. 

Tillinghast and Holroyd, 2, 72; let- 
ters, 1, 420, 421, 436. 

Tillinghast, , captain, 1, 7; 2, 441. 

Tillock, John, 1, 122. 

Tillotson, Thomas, 2, 457. 

Tobacco, methods in Virginia, 2, 179, 
234, 252, 310; Hamburg, 394; 
France, 432, 435. 

Toby, , captain, 1, 395. 

Toby, , 2, 462. 

Tod, John, 2, 192; signature, 193. 

Tollenace, Louis de, 2, 444. 

Toman, , captain, 1, 283. 

Tonkin, William, signature, 2, 60; let- 
ter, 170. 

Tosh, James, 1, 75. 

Townsend, Solomon, 1, 301. 

Townsend, , 1, 322. 

Townson, John, 1, 185. 

Tracy, Nathaniel, 2, 103, 129, 143, 

Trade, illegal, 1, 143. 

Trant, , 2, 99. 

Trask, Philip, 2, 129, 134, 144. 
Trecothick, Barlow, 1, 62 n., 93, 139. 
Trecothick and Apthorp, 1, 274; 2, 

Trevett, Eleazer, 1, 438, 455, 468. 
Trinconomale, 2, 383. 
Tripp, Wait, 1, 54. 
Tristram, 1, 451. 
Trotter, William, 1, 254. 

Trowbridge, , 2, 153. 

Tubs, Isaac, 1, 497. 

Tucker, Nathan, 2, 297. 

Tuell, Samuel, captain, 1, 425, 428; 

letter, 429. 
Turnbull, Livingston and, 2, 17. 

Turner, , captain, 1, 373. 

Turner, John, and Son, letter, 1, 105. 

Turpentine, 1, 170. 

Tweedy, Joseph, 2, 408. 

Two Brothers, 1, 117; 2, 204, 245, 401. 

Udney, Robert, James and Co., 1, 356. 
Underwood, Samuel, 1, 75. 
United States, 2, 196, 219, 292. 
Urquhart, Watson and, 2, 234. 

Valentine, John, 1, 383. 

Valentine, 2, 282. 

Valladares, Manuel de, 1, 410. 

Valnais, de, letter, 2, 95. 

Van Schaick, Wessel, 2, 162. 

Vaughan, John, Jr., 1, 120. 

Venables, John, 1, 75. 

Venus, 1, 62, 501, 507, 511; 2, 38. 

Veratt, , 1, 489. 

Vermont, munitions for, 2, 68. 
Vernon, Samuel, tertius, 2, 84. 
Vernon, Samuel and William, 1, 333 

n.\ 2, 43; letter books, vi. 
Vernon, Thomas, 1, 161, 466. 

Vernon, , captain, 1, 213. 

Vestal, 1, 417. 
Vigneron, John, 1, 323. 
Vigneron, William, 2, 205, 300. 
Villemarais, 2, 95. 

Viomenil, , 2, iii. 

Virginia, and federal constitution. 2, 


Voght, Caspar, and Co., 2, 478; let- 
ters, 249, 252, 256, 266; signature, 

Voght and Sieveking, letter, 2, 393. 

Vose and Graves, 2, 271, 274. 

Wager, 1, 73. 

Wages, 1, 127. 

Waldron, Nathaniel, 1, 242. 

Walker, Charles, letter, 1, 102. 

Walker, John, 2, 183. 

Walker, , 2, 210. 



Walker and McKinzie, 1, 103. 

Wall, ,2,351,385. 

Wallace, StV James, 1, 523; 2, i, 19, 75. 

Wallace, Josias, 1, 75. 

Wallace, Davidson and Johnston, 2, 19. 

Wanner, Ashing, 1, 35. 

Wanton, Benjamin, 1, 74, 200. 

Wanton, Brenton, captain, 1, 360, 365, 


Wanton, Joseph, 1, 180, 328. 

Wanton, Joseph, Jr., 2, 74 n. 

Wanton, Peter, captain, 1, 367. 

Wanton, Philip, 1, 117. 

Wanton, William, 1, 328; 2, 74 n. 

Ward, George, 1, 185. 

Ward, Samuel, 2, 313; letter 1, 414. 

Ward, , 2, 67. 

Ward, Bredel and, 2, 147. 

Warden, James, 1, 122, 135. 

Wardwell, Samuel, 2, 244, 363. 

Warner, , captain, 1, 76, 276, 371. 

Watkins, Gamble, 1, 20. 

Watkins, Giles, 1, 9. 

Watkins, John, 1, 149. 

Watson, Elkanah, letter, 2, 187; sig- 
nature, 189. 

Watson, Jacob, 2, 32; letter, 36. 

Watson, Josiah, letter, 2, 234. 

Watson, Winslow Cossoul, 2, 189 n. 

Watson, , 2, 242. 

Watson and Urquhart, 2, 234. 

Watts, Daniel, carpenter, 1, 363, 365. 

Watts, , captain, 1, 45. 

Waugh, Jesse B., 2, 204. 

Weaver, Peter, 1, 348. 

Weaver, , captain, 1, 70. 

Webber, Ignatius, 2, 134. 

Webster, , captain, 1, 383; 2, 22. 

Weeden, John, 1, 75. 

Weeden , captain, 1, 375, 384, 395. 

Welch, , 2, 204. 

Weldon, Patrick, 1, 304, 307. 

Welshman, , captain, 1, 420. 

Wendell Mrs., 2, 227. 

Went, Jacob King, letter, 2, 21. 

Went, Samuel, letter, 2, 21. 

Went, Stevenson and, 1, 355, 370, 425, 
428; 2, 14. 

Werden, Isaac, 1, 289, 310; 2, 99; 
letters, 1, 345; 2, 26; signature, 27. 

West, Jabez, 1, 356. 

Westcot, Jacob, 2, 386. 

Westgate, John, captain, 1, 163, 171. 

West Indies, French, trade with Brit- 
ish colonies, 1, 36 n. 

Wetmore, George Peabody, 1, v; 2, v. 
Whaleboats and irons, 1, 273. 
Whale fishery, 1, 168 n.; 2, 28. 
Wharton, Thomas, Jr., 1, 342, 463. 
Wheat, Baltimore, 1, 171; export of, 

Wheatley, Nathaniel, 1, 212, 275, 293, 

Whipple, Joseph, 1, 14 n., 47, 77. 
Whipple, Sarah (Redwood), 1, 14 n. 
Whipple, , captain, 1, 40, 42, 264, 

Whippy, , captain, 2, 394. 

White, Hugh, 2, 29. 

White, Nathan, 2, 52 n. 

White, , captain, 1, 287. 

White Brothers, 1, 322. 

Whitehead, Thomas, 1, 120, 149. 

Whitemarsh, , 1, 135. 

Whiteside, Peter, 2, 396. 

Whitman, captain, 1, 324, 465, 470, 

521; 2, 19. 

Whitney, , 2, 139, 141, 151. 

Wicker, , 2, 71. 

Wickham, Ann, 1, 156 n. 

Wickham, Charles, captain, 1, 44, 96 n. 

Wickham, Thomas, 2, 429. 

Wickham, , 1, 398. 

Wilbour, Constant, 1, 117. 

Wiley, John, 2, 82, 84, 105. 

Wiley, , captain, 2, 66. 

Wiley and Cowperthwait, 2, 82. 

Wilkerson, Arthur, 1, 32. 

Wilkes, John, 1, 136 n. 

Wilkinson, Phillip, 1, 60, 64. 

Wilkinson, , 2, 211, 237, 296, 299. 

Wilks, Francis, letter, 1, 43, 45; sig- 
nature, 46. 

Willcocks, William, letter, 2, 311, 363, 
383; signature, 384. 

Willcocks, , captain, 1, 132. 

Willcocks, Bryan and, 2, 280. 

William, 1, 2,71; 2, 401, 404, 437, 439. 

William and Henry, 2, 322. 

Williams, James, 2, 29. 

Williams, John, 1, 131, 135, 150, 200, 
241 n.; letter, 120; signature, 121. 

Williams, Thomas Charles, and Co., 
letters, 1, 434, 458. 

Wilmington, N. C, market, 2, 210, 

23s. 243- , , 
Wilson, Alexander, letter, 1, 335. 
Wilson, James, letter, 2, 80. 
Wilson, John, 1, 15. 

Wilson, , 1, 114, 221. 

Wimble, William, 1, 72. 
Windmill, 1, 78. 
Wines, Madeira, 1, 93. 

Winn, , captain, 1, 92, 456, 458. 

Winslow, , captain, 1, 114, 384. 

Winthrop, John Still, 2, 241 n. 
Winthrop, Joseph, 2, 193, 241 n. 
Winthrop, Mary (Fraser), 2, 241 n. 
Winthrop, Thomas Lindall, 2, 193. 
Winthrop, Tod and Winthrop, letters, 

2, 192, 241. 
Wombwell, , 1, 408. 



Woodman, Richard, letter, 2, 94. 

Woods, , captain, 2, 402, 404, 437, 


WooUery, Edward and William, 1, 276. 

Woolman, Uriah, 1, 426. 

Worth, , captain, 2, 452. 

Wraxall and Hall, 1, 419. 

Wright, Benjamin, 1, 239, 247, 328, 
374. 378, 390. 400, 407. 456, 488, 
494; 2, 9, 17, 25, 28, 29, 40, 53, 
67, 69, 72, 77, 102; letters, 1, 216, 
223, 229, 255, 260, 268, 270, 276, 
279, 281, 329, 336, 360, 362, 365, 
392, 431, 442; 2, 79; order, 1, 379; 
signature, 263. 

Wright, John, letters, 1, 344, 354. 
Wright, Thomas, 1, 344. 

Wright, , 2, 272. 

Wyatt, Lemuel, 1, 232. 
Wyatt, Stutely, 2, 16. 
Wyatt, , 1, 423. 

Ximenes, David, 1, 349. 
Ximenes and Lousada, 1, 266, 267, 

Young, ,2, 115. 

Young, , captain, 2, 241, 248. 

Young Peder, 2, 142. 


3 2"^^^ DDEM5 M3ft M 

Date Due 



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-^^2 1982 


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HF 3161 .R346 v. 2 

Commerce of Rhode Island,