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Full text of "The commercial Dutch grammar (superseding the Practical Dutch grammar), a grammar for private students, civil servants, business men, and for use in colleges and the higher classes in schools"

Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




PRACTICAL DUTCH GRAMMAR AND ANALYSIS. 



First Edition Published Jan. 1885. 



Second Edition 
Third Edition 
Fourth Edition 
Fifth Edition 
Sixth Edition 
Sixth Edition 
(extended) 



July 1885. 
Nov. 1887. 
April 1889. 
Jan. 1891. 
May 1892. 

Jan. 1894. 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Fikst Edition Published Jan. 1895. 
Second Kdition „ Jan. 1896. 



THE COMMERCIAL 

DUTCH GEAMMAE 

(Superseding the Pbactical Dutch Gbammab), 

A GEAMMAE FOE PEIVATE STUDENTS, CIVIL 

SEEVANTS, BUSINESS MEN, AND FOE USE 

IN COLLEGES AND THE HIGHEE 

class: S IN SCHOOLS. 



BY 

HUBERTUS ELFFERS, 

AUTHOR OP THE "ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR OF THE DUTCH LANGUAGE," "COURSE OF 

DUTCH COMPOSITION," "LKESUOEK VOOR Zl'ID-AFRIKA," KTC. 
SWORN TRANSLATOR FOR THE HI TCH, ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN LANGUAGES 




J. C. JUTA & CO., 

CAPE TOWN. | JOHANNESBURG 

POBT ELIZABETH. 

1896. 



WORKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



AN ELEMENTARY GRAMMAR of the DUTCH 
LANGUAGE, for the use of Lower Classes in Schools. Sixth 
Edition. 2s. 

PRACTISCHE HOLLANDSCHE SPRAAK- 

KUNST voor de Yolkssckohn van Zuid-Afrika. Third Edition. 
3». 

LEESBOEK VOOR ZUID-AFRIKA, a Dutch Bead- 
ing Book in Five Parts, from Monosyllables to Selections. With 
Dutch-English Vocabularies. 

Part I. 42nd-52nd Thousand. 8d. 

Part II. 28th-38th Thousa-id. lOd. 

Part HI. 28th Thousand, la. 

Part IV. 3rd Edition. 1«. 3d. 

Part V. 2nd Edition. 1«. Gd. 

COURSE of DUTCH COMPOSITION, comprising 
Translation and Parallel Exercises, Conversations, Idiomatic 
Phrases, and Forms for Correspondence. 2s. Gd. 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN LETTER-WRITER. 

A Bi-Lingual Letter- Writer. 2s. 

LEESBOEK VOOR ZUID-AFRIKA. (Tafelberg 
Serie.) Illustrated. 
Part I., 8d. | Part II., lOd. | Part III., Is. 

BLOEMEN IN HET KAAPLAND GEPLUKT. 

Contents: I. Varia; II. Godsdieustige Gedichten; III. Schetsen 
naar het Leven ; IV. Kindergedichten. — Original Poetry. Edition 
de Luxe. Quarto. :>s. 

DEBORA. Drama in Two Acts. 1«. Gd. 

KEY TO PRACTICAL GRAMMAR AND 
ANALYSIS. Editions I.-VI. 2». 6d. 



PREFACE. \l\ 

' /Sib 

The Practical Dutch Grammar has had a run of ten 
years. In that time the author has seen its extended 6th 
(i.e. 7th) Edition. Its record has all along been so 
satisfactory and encouraging, that it shall be preserved 
on the fly-leaf of the book which supersedes it. 

The present volume is issued under another name. The 
disappearance of the word "• Practical " from the title, 
however, does not affect the practical side of the book. On 
the contrary, this will be found increased to such an 
extent, as to render comparison between the two a matter 
of difficulty. The " Practical Grammar " was the writer's 
first attempt ; a further experience of ten years of lan- 
guage teaching in South Africa should to some extent be 
a warrant for the superiority of the present work above 
its predecessor. 

Not only that, — but Africa's actual wants were not 
fully revealed to the young author of the " Practical 
Grammar." While it, however, ran its course, the fairest 
opportunities were furnished him for using eye and ear, — 
and the " Commercial Grammar " is issued as the 
embodiment of hints kindly furnished. 

Provision has been made for schools. English children 
have the " Elementary Dutch Grammar," Dutch children 
the "Practische Hollandsche Spraakkunst," while one 
series of Dutch Headers has been issued with English 
vocabularies annexed. But another class of students must 
be reached. Young men reading for the Matriculation 
or the Civil Service examinations, men in business, 
merchants and agents, those are they for whom this book 
has been compiled, and to whom the author inscribes it 
with the fervent hope that they may find it what they 
need. 

H. E. 

"The Translation Office," Cape Town, 
1 Jan. 1895. 



A /> 4 t\k»4C\\*i 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/commercialdutchgOOelffiala 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

The Alphabet 1-8 

Vowels, 1; Consonants, 2; Diphthongs, 3; Spoiling and 
Pronunciation, 3-4 ; Ex. on Pronunciation, 4-6 ; Division 
of words in Syllables, 6-7 ; Syllables open and closed, 7 ; 
Ex. on Syllables, 7-8. 

CHAPTER II. 

Spelling ... 9-24 

Final Consonants, 9-10; Single and double a and «, 10; 
Single i and double ie, 11 ; Single and double e and o, 
11-12 ; Choice between ei and ij, 13 ; Homonyms with e 
and ee, 13 ; Homonyms with o and oo, 14 ; Homonyms with 
ij and ei, 14 ; Ex. on the use of single and double vowels, 
15-20 ; Spelling of Compound Nouns, 20-21 ; Compound 
forms joining parts by e or en, 21-22 ; Ex. on same, 22-24. 

CHAPTER III. 

Parts of Speech. — The Article 25-34 

Classification of the Article, 25; Forms of the Article, 26; 
Declension, 26-27; Omission and Repetition, 27-28; Used 
in Dutch when omitted in English, 28-29 ; Transl. Ex. 
and Gr. Ex. on the Article, 29-33; Conversation about 
Time, 33-34. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Formation of the Pltjbal 35-50 

Plural in 8, 35 ; in 's, 35 ; in en, 35-36; either 8 or en, 36; 
Words in ie, 36 ; Plural in ers or eren, 37 ; Different 
meanings of homonyms brought out by their plural, 37-38 ; 
Irregular plural forms, 38-39 ; Words having no plural 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



forms, 39 ; List of words having synonymous plural forms, 
39-40 ; Words having no singular forms, 40 ; Sing, form 
used with plural meaning, 40 ; Final consonants with 
regard to the formation of the plural, 41-42 ; Gr. Ex. on 
plural forms of nouns, 42^13 and 48 ; Transl. Ex. on 
Present of "liebben" and " zijn," 43-45; Gr. and Transl. 
Ex. on formation of Plural, 45-49 ; Conversation about 
Meals, 49-50. 

CHAPTER V. 

The Gendeb of Substantives 51-73 

Eules to ascertain the Gender of Nouns, 51-57 ; The Com- 
mon Gender, 57-58 ; The Gender of Compound Nouns, 58; 
List of words with different meaning according to their 
gender, 59 ; Natural Gender, 59-60 ; Synopsis of Rules on 
Genders, 60-62 ; Gr. Ex. on Genders, 62-64 ; Conjugation 
of " hebben " and " zijn," 64-65 ; How to translate the 
Second Person, 65-66 ; Transl. Ex., 66-68 ; Gr. Ex. on 
Genders, 69- 71 ; Conv. about Forms of Greeting and 
Address, 72-73. 

CHAPTER VI. 

Declension 74-101 

Definition, 74; Nom., Gen., Dat., and Ace. Cases, 74-76; 
Obs. on Use of Cases, 76-77 ; Declension of the Attributive 
Adj. and of the Demonstrative Pron. (deze, die, etc.) and 
the Poss. Pron., 77-81 ; Form of two or moro adjectives 
preceding one noun, 81-82 ; Adj. not declined when pre- 
ceded by een, geen, eenig, etc., 82 ; Obs. on Declension, 
82-83; Attrib. Adj. not preceded by defining word, 83-84 ; 
Attrib. Adj. in titles, 84 ; Strong and Weak declension, 
81-85; Gr.Ex.on Declension, 87-90 ; Comparison between 
Book, Corresp. and Colloq. Dutch, 90-91; Conj. of " foarefi " 
and "etelen," 91-94 ; Transl. Ex. 95-99; Conv. about tlio 
Weather, Shopping, 99-101. 

CHAPTER Vn. 

The Adjective . . . . . .102-129 

Adjectives used attributively and prodicatively, 102; Agree- 
ment of Attrib. Adj., 103; Difference in meaning between 
inflected and anin fleeted form after een, geen, etc., 10:j; 
Adj. not declined, 103-104 ; Adj. ending in a not wh, 104; 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Degrees of comparison, 105-106; Gr. Ex. and Trans. Ex. 
on the Adjective, 107-111 ; Conj. of "dansen" and "lezen," 
111-114; Transl. Ex. 115-117; The Numeral Adjective, 
Classification, 117-118; Cardinals €€n and beide, 118-119; 
Plural forms of Cardinals (Indef.) and Ordinals, 119; 
Idiom, renderings of "some" and "any," 120; Idiom. 
Expressions, 121 ; Num. Adj. compounded with voudig, 
lei, hande, maal, etc. and the compound " anderhalf,'' 122; 
List of Card, and Ord. Numbers, 123-124 ; Gr. and Transl. 
Ex. on Numeral Adj. 124-126; Transl. Ex., 126-128; 
Conv. about Kelations, 128-129. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Pronoun . .130-155 

Classification, 130; Pers. Pron. 130-134; Reflex. Pers. 
Pron., 132 ; Declension of zelf, 133 ; The Poss. Case of 
Pers. Pron., 133-134; Poss. Pron., 134-135 ; Interrog. 
Pron., 135-136 ; Compound forms " erin," " emit," etc., 
136; Indef. Pron., 136-138; The Pron. "men," 137; 
Transl. of " whoever," etc., 138 ; Correl. Pron., 138-139 ; 
Demonstr. Pron., 140-141 ; The use of " er," 140 ; Rel. 
Pron., 141-143 ; Gr. Ex. and Transl. Ex. on the Pronoun, 
143-148; Transl. Ex., 148-153; Conv. about Travelling 
by Land and Railways, 154-155. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Verb .156-224 

Stem, 156-157; Conjugation, weak and strong, 157; Form 
of Conj., 158-159; Use of "liebben" and "zijn," 160; 
Complete Conj. of " hebben," 161-162 ; of " zijn," 162-163 ; 
Conj. of "zullen," .163; of "warden," 164-165; Voice, 
Comp. between Act. and Pass, voice of " bijten," 165-167 ; 
Examples illustrating the forms of the simple and com- 
pound tenses of the Pass. Voice, 167 ; Cemp. between the 
same forms of " zijn " used as a Copulative and an 
Auxiliary of the Pass. Voice, 168 ; Obs. on the Act. and 
Pass. Voices, 168-169; Transposition of same, 169 ; Conj. 
of Aux. Verbs of Mood, 170-171 ; Moods, 172 ; Transl. of 

_ the Inf. Mood, 172-174; Transl. of Gerund, the Pres. and 
Past Part., 174-176; Tenses, 176-177 ; Obs. on Use of 
Tenses, 177-178 ; Number and Person, 178-179 ; Trans, and 
Intrans. verbs, 179 ; Reflex. Verbs, 179-182 ; Mixed Verbs, 

b 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



182-183; Anomalous Verbs, 183-185; Impers. Verbs, 
185-186 ; Caus. Verbs, 187 ; Frequent. Verbs, 187 ; Com- 
pound Verbs, 187-190 ; List of Strong Verbs, 191-196 ; 
Gr. Ex. and Transl. Ex. on the Verb, 196-215; Transl. 
Ex., 215-222 ; Conv. about Travelling by Sea, 222-224. 

CHAPTER X. 

The Adverb 225-241 

Some Verbs followed by Adj., not Adv., 226 ; Classification, 
226-227 ; Examples of the various classes of Adv., 227- 
229; The ending "lijk" not to be affixed to Adj. of 
manner, 229-230; Comparison of Adv., 230; Note on 
"fee* eerst" or u eerst," etc., 230-231; Obs. on some Adv., 
231-233; Use of «af" and "neer," 233; Gr. Ex. and 
Transl. Ex. on the Adverb, 234-235 ; Transl. Ex. on the 
Adverb, 234-235; Transl. Ex. 235-240; Conv. about 
Various Artisans, 240-241. 

CHAPTER XI. 

The Preposition 242-272 

Place of "halve" and " wegen," 242; Prep, formerly gov. 
other Cases besides the Ace., 243 ; Different relations 
pointed out by Prep., 243-244 ; Prep, indicating different 
relations, 244-246 ; List of Prep, verbs using differ, prep. 
in Dutch and English, 249-267; Transl. Ex., 268-270; 
Conv. about Trades and Occupations, 271-272. 

CHAPTER XII. 

The Conjunction 273-285 

Classification, 273; Subdivisions and Examples, 274-278; 
Observations, 278-279; Transl. Ex., 279-283; Conv. 
about Teaching and Schools, 283-285. 

CHAPTER XIII. 
The Interjection 286-287 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Etymology 288-305 

Classification of words, 288 ; Words derived from same root, 
288-289; Formation of Nouns, 289-290; Fern, names of 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Pers., etc., 290; Names of instruments, etc., 291; Diminu- 
tives, 291-292 ; Formation of Abstract Nouns, 293-294 ; 
of Verbs, 294-297 ; of Adverbs, 297 ; of Compound Words, 
297-298 ; List of Words requiring explanation, 299-301 ; 
Where to place the accent, 301-302 ; Trausl. Ex., 303-305. 

CHAPTER XV. 

Construction 306-317 

Construction of Principal Sentence, 306-309 ; When Predi- 
cate consists of more than one word, 306-307 ; Place of 
Object, 307; Place of Adverbial extensions, 308-309; 
Place of "niet," 309; Constr. of Sub-ordinate Sentence, 
310-311; Place of verbal forms at the end of Sub-ord. 
Sent., 310-311; Inversion of the Princ. Sent., 311-313; 
Inversion of the Sub-ord. Sent., 313-314; Transl. Ex., 
315-317. 

CHAPTEE XVI. 

Parsing and Analysis 318-325 

List of Abbreviations, 318 ; Example of Parsing, 319-322 ; 
Analysis, 322-325. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

Correspondence 326-336 

Ways of beginning and closing letters, 326-332 ; Notes, 332 ; 
List of Terms, etc., 333-336. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Official and Documentary Language . . , .337-357 

CHAPTER XIX. 
List op Cape Idioms .358-383 

English-Dutch Vocabulary 384-396 



( xii ) 



LIST OF EXEECISES ON SPECIAL POINTS 
OF GEAMMAK AND IDIOM. 

PAGE 

On the Present of " hebben " and " zljn " . 43-45 

,, First Eule of Construction . , . . ... 66 

„ Second ,, ,, ..... 67 

„ Third „ „ 67-68 

On How to transl. the Interrog., Neg., and Neg.-lnterrog. Forms 68-69 

On the Fourth Kule of Construction . . . . . 95 

„ Transl. of Present Participle 96 

„ „ "to like to" and "to want to '\ . . 97 

„ „ "hij hooptte zullen," etc.. . . . 97-98 

„ „ the Progressive Form . . . . . 98 

„ „ "when" 99 

„ "if" ...... 115 

„ - „ "then" 115-116 

„ Fifth Eule of Construction 116-117 

„ Sixth „ „ 126 

„ Transl. of Pres. Part. II 127 

„ „ "may," "might," "should" . . .148-149 

„ " will," *' would " 149-150 

"if," "as if" . . . . . 151 

"to know" . . . . . . 151-152 

„ "used to" 152 

„ Seventh Kule of Construction 153 

„ Transl. of "to mean" . 215-217 

,, „ " I can give it," eto. .... 217 
„ „ "will he give it to me? "etc. . . .217-218 

„ „ " should," " ought to " . . . . 218-219 

„ „ " to have to," etc 219-220 

„ „ " we make him say it," etc. . . . 220 

„ „ "I have the floor washed," etc. . . 221 

„ „ " he likes doing it," etc. . . . « 221-222 
„ „ "na,""nadat;'«daarna" . . .286-237 

„ „ "to put" 237-239 



THE 

COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER I. 

I.— THE ALPHABET. 
(Set Alfabet.) 

1. The Dutch alphabet consists of the same letters as 
the English, hut the letters c, q, x, and y are not used in 
words of Dutch origin. 

2. The following are the vowels (lclinhers) in use : A, 
pron. like in Eng. as& ; E, pron. like in Eng. convey ; I 
(written " ie " for double " i "), pron. like in Eng. knee ; 
0, pron. like in Eng. woe; U, pron. like in French mur ; 
OE, pron. like in Eng. pool ; EU, like in German ode. 

Note. — For the correct pronunciation of 0, OE, JJ, and ETJ, it is 
necessary to bring the lips forward. This done, for the 
O-sound leave a larger, and for the 02?-sound a small round 
opening ; for the i?C7-soimd a broad slit, and for the ?7-sonnd 
a narrow slit between the lips. 

3. Five vowels, viz. a, e, i, o, u, have each a double 
sound. When written with the double sign, aa, ee, ie, oo, 
uu, or when occurring (whether double or single) at the 
end of a syllable, or when forming a syllable by them- 
selves, their sound is full, as indicated in § 2; but when 
single, and enclosed between consonants, their sound 
becomes imperfect: man (as in Germ. Mann) ; les (as in 
Eng. test) ; lip, pr. like English ; hop, pr. like English ; 
rust (slightly less broad than u in Eng. rust). 

B 



2 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Note. — The ehas a third sound, approaching that of the imperfect 
u. It occurs in the article de ; in the flexion endings of the 
adjective ; in the verbal prefixes be, ge, and ver, and suffix en ; 
in the plural ending en of nouns, and in unaccented syllables 
before m, n, I, p, r, t. The sound of this e is heard in the 
second syllable of the English word bundle. 

4. Of the consonants (inedeTdinTcers), B is pronounced 
as in Eng. "bailiff; D, as in Eng. dainty ; K, as in Eng. 
Caprice ; P, as in Eng. paZe ; E, as in Eng. error ; T, as 
in Eng. t&lce; and Z, pron. zett, like in French; F, L, M, 
N, and S, like in English ; H, like English ha ! J, like 
Eng. yea; G, like ch in Scotch nicht and loch ; V, like a 
very soft Eng. /; and W, materially like Eng. v. 

Note. — G is always a guttural, except when occurring after v, when it sounds 
like in the English word ring. 

5. The English Y, when found in foreign words, used 
in Dutch, is pronounced like Eng. ee. The Dutch IJ is 
originally a double i, now written i and j combined. The 
sound represented by this combination, which is foreign 
to the English language, lies close to the sound of ay in 
the Eng. word pay, the teeth, when pronouncing the 
Dutch word "pij," being less widely apart than for the 
pronunciation of Eng. pay. 

Note. — The tj-sound changes into Dutch i in the word bijzonder (particular), 
and into a toneless u in dikwijls (often), and in the ending lijk (ling. ly). 

G. The letters c, q, and x are only met with in words of 
foreign origin, and are there pronounced like in English ; 
/, in such words, occurring before the ending ie, is pro- 
nounced like 8, e.g. natie, nation, pr. na-sie. 

7. C occurs in Dutch in combination with H, ch being 
1he representation of a guttural sound, sharper than that 
of g. SCH, when found at the beginning of a word, or 
as the initial letters of a stem after a prefix, should bo 
pronouncod as a combination of 8 and the guttural ch ; 
when otherwise found, its sound is 8 only. 

8. Til is pronounced as single t, and PHlikof. 

Notb.— The tch is sounded in the suffix tchap. 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



9. The Dutch language has the following diphthongs : 
Ei, formerly" ai (ag), pron. exactly like ij ; Au, pron. like 
in Engl, stout ; Ou, pron. softer than au, rather more like 
o in below • Ui, no equivalent in English, softer than 
German eu, pronounced in a line with u and eu (see Note, 
par. 2), hut with a wider opening of the mouth ; Aai, 
like ay in Scotch pronunciation of ilfckay ; Ooi, full Dutch 
o-sound with i-sound attached, like 6h-y ; Eeu, full sound 
of Dutch e, ending in the sound of to ; leu, full sound 
of Dutch i, ending in that of w. 

Note. — Many people make no difference between Au and Ou, pronouncing them 
both like the latter of the two. 



II.— SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 

(Spelling en Uitspraak.) 

Broadly speaking, Dutch should be pronounced as it is 
spelled. The following are the cases in which pro- 
nunciation differs from spelling : 

1. The sound of ij sometimes changes to that of i, and 
at other times to that of u (see I, 5, Note). 

2. The sound of sch is sometimes that of a single s (see 
I, 7). 

8. The sound of th is that of a single t (see I, 8). 

4. The w is left out in the pronunciation of erivt (Eng. 
pea). It is pronounced ert. 

5. Final t is many times left out before the diminutive 
ending je, as in nestje (little nest), pronounced nesje. 

6. The t before final ie in words of French origin, is 
pronounced like s (see I, 6). 

7. The guttural sound of g is lost whenever n precedes 
it (see I, 4, Note). 

8. Final b, d, and g, are respectively pronounced like 
p, t, and ch. 

9. The initial z of zestig, sixty, and zeventig, seventy, is 
pronounced like 8. 

B 2 



4 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

10. The diminutive ending je is colloquially pronounced 
ie, except when preceded by d or t ; e.g. koppie (for kopje), 
boekie (for boekje) ; hut mannetje, and handje. 

11. The pronunciation of the endings de, der, and den, is 
often je, jer, and jen in colloquial speech. De goede man 
(the good man), is pronounced de goeie man; likewise 
does breeder (broader) sound breejer, and sleden (sledges), 
slejen. 

This is the case in : — ■ 

(Adjectives) goede, goeie (good), breede, breeje (broad), 
roode, rooie (red), doode, dooie (dead), Tcwade, lewaaie 
(angry), &c. ; whereas, oude (old), and koude (cold) 
change their d into a w, ouwe, kouwe. 

(Nouns) laden, laaien (drawers), leden, lejen (mem- 
bers), kleeden, kleejen (carpets), smeden, smejen 
(smiths), sneden, snejen (slices), &c. 

(Verbs) laden, laaien (to load), snijden, snijen (to cut), 
lijden, lijen (to suffer), leiden, leien (to lead), rijden, 
rijen (to ride), &c. 

12. In loose speech the final n of the ending en of 
nouns and verbs, and of inflected articles and adjectives, 
is dropped. 

Exercise ok Pronunciation. 

Pronounce according to the hints in the undermentioned 
paragraphs of section I. 

2. 

Paar, taal, haas, maat, va-der, ma-len, ta-fel, za-dol ; 
meel, reet, geel, lc-pcl, ze-dig, le-ven, we-zel ; diep, stier, 
sliep, iets, ieder, vie-ren, hie-len, wie-den ; kool, roos, 
pook, trcon, mo-len, wo-nen, ko-por, sto-ven ; uur, muur, 
uw, sluw ; vu-ren, ju-bel, ^du-wen, mu-ziek ; koek, woest, 
poel, troep, moe-der, loe-ren, woe-dend, roo-ren; neus, 
heup, deur, kneu, sleu-ren, leu-zo, steu-nen, kleu-rig. 



SPELLING AND PRONUNCIATION. 



3. 

(Full Vowels.) Baat, ba-ten, aap, a-del ; zoef, sto- 
len, eer, e-del, vee ; dienst, wie-len, iep, ie-ren, drie ; roof, 
do-ren, oor, o-pen, stroo; stuur, stu-ren, u-ren, ruw. 

(Imperfect Vowels.) Kar, slap, plat, man, stam, land, 

stal, want, plan, lam ; vel, mes, wet, test, net, spel, ren, 

stem, pen, kers ; dik, mis, lip, ik, bril, stil, kin, pit, krimp, 

dirk; mul, hulk, rum, kunst, lust, hurk, muts, dun, ruk, 

wuft. 

§ 3. Note. — Bree-de, ka-le, laf-fen, de, ge-loop, vcr-haal, be-derf, 
koo-pen, ee-ren, val-len, rom-mcl, de-det, dce-sem, re-ten, 
loo-pen, wan-de-len, krab-be-lcn, re-gee-rcn. 



Baas, bas, buur, bus, boel, boek, bok, beek, bek ; daar, 
dorp, deur, doel, dek, dak, dwaas, dwars, diep, dik, dis-tel; 
kaal, kap, koor, kor, kwee, kwast, kist, kiel, ko-ren; 
peer, paard, pronk, proest, pis-tool, pest, pret ; raam, 
ram, roes, rust, rank, rit-se-len, riet ; teer, turf, troep, 
toorn, to-ren, trap-pe-len ; zak, zaak, ziek, zink, zulk, 
zool, zeem, zoet, zwal-ken ; haan, hoop, hop, hak, haal, 
help, hulp, hoed, heup ; jaar, jas, jood, jank, joel, jeuk, 
jong; goot, grot, geul, gaas, gas, groef, gist, grim-men; 
vaas, vroom, voelt, vleug, vlag, vlok, vin-nen ; waan, 
woest, wier, wraak, wrok, worst. 

5. 

(Foreign Words.) Synode, tyrannie, hypocriet. 
(Dutch Words.) Kijm, vijl, stijf, grijp, wrijven, lijvig, 
blijken, wijzen. 

G. 

District, concept, examen, exceptie, promotie, delicaaf, 
garantie, inconsequent (also spelled " inJconselcwent "). 

7. 

Lach, kuch, zucht, kracht, licht, ge-zicht, ver-licht, ge- 
lucht, macht, wacht, ge-dacht, schaap, schip, schut, schop, 



6 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

schoni-mel, schim, schat, schol, scliram, schrik, schrijn, 
ge-schaamd, ver-scho-len, her-schapen, ont-scliie-ten, blijd- 
schap; (pronounced like s) mensch, men-schen, wasch, 
was-schen, niuscb, mus-schen, tus-sohen, steedsch, steed- 
sche. 

8. 

Thee, thuis, thans, althans; nimph (also spelled nimf), 
philosophen (filosofen), photographie, telegraphisch (pr. 
telegrafiei). 

9. 

Lei, wei-de, reis, stei-ge-ren, fontein, lei-den, stei-ler, 
rein ; paus, kous, saus, lauw, flauw, rouw, dauw, vrouw, 
flauw; Luis, rui-ken, tuin, wui-ven, dui-nen, muis, ruini, 
pruik ; taai, zaai-en, haai, maai-en ; kooi, niooi-er, strooi-eu, 
tooi-en, dooi ; eeu-wig, leeu-wen, sproeuw, geeu-wen ; 
nieuw, nieu-we, krieu-wen. 



III.— SYLLABLES. 

(Letter grepen.~) 

1. The pronunciation of Dutch words is a simple and 
easy matter, after the sounds have been mastered. On 
the pronunciation depends the division of words into 
syllables. 

2. This division has no connection with etymology. 
No matter how a word has been derived, compounded, 
contracted or abridged, its syllables depend on the way of 
opening and closing the mouth when it is pronounced. 

3. Perfect articulation gives perfect division into 
syllables. There is no other rule. 

4. Foreigners may observe : — 

(a) That one consonant found between two vowels goes 
with the vowel which follows it : liazen = lia-zen, leven = 
le~ven, ademen = a-de-men. 



SYLLABLES. 



(b) That of a combination of two or more consonants, 
one is retained by the first vowel, whereas the remainder 
go with the vowel following tbem : dampig = dam-pig, 
8chande = schan-de, Jcorsten = Jcor-sten, dorschen = dor-schen, 
— unless such division should stand in the way of pro- 
nunciation : ernstig = ernstig, instead of er-nstig, ambten = 
amb-ten, and not am-bten. 

Note 1. — These rules do not include compound words, which 
naturally keep their parts intact : plaatskaart = plaats-kaart, 
slagaar = slag-oar. Likewise do the suffixes aard, achtig, 
and rijk retain their own letters; blauw-achtig, gunst-rijk, 
laf-aard. 

Note 2. — The compositions ch, sch, and ng are not divided '■ 
lachen = la-chen ; ruischen = rui-selien ; angstig — ang-stig ; 
Ttoningin = ko-ning-in. 

Syllables — open and closed. 

In Dutch a syllable is termed a) open (open), when it 
ends in a vowel ; 6) closed (gesloten), when it ends in a 
consonant. 

Examples of a) vre-de, be-te-ren, ga-de-loo-ze. 
Examples of &) lan-den, won-der-daad, on-ein-dig-heid. 

Exercise on Syllables. 

Break the words of the following exercises into 
syllables, noticing wnich of the syllables are open, and 
which closed : — 

1. 

Laken, monster, paarden, stallen, dochters, zonen, 
handen, paneel, kapstok, brandwacht, kapoen, vinger, 
plan ten, struiken, boomen, pennen, hazen, eenden, vinden, 
stokpaard, ketting, wartaal, ganzen, spiegel, vragen, 
denken, klinken, mengen, marktplaats, slokdarm, 
waschmand. 

2. 

Bederven, gedenken, ontvangen, stamelen, regeeren» 
vergelden, hagelen, hergeven, oorlogen, droefenis, latafel, 



8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

ouderdom, gestorven, scbrijfbureau, schuifgordijn, akelig, 
inktkoker, plaveien, instrument, onttrekken, uitvinding, 
overlast, blikslager. 

3. 

Betooveren, gedachtenis, goedhartigheid, nauwkeurige, 
bedelende, nadmkkelijk, onloochenbaar, monsterachtig, 
wellevendheid, anderhalve, onaangenaam, milddadigheid, 
havelooze, tandenpoeder, borlogekast, overmachtig, 
voorwerelcttijk, ontstentenis, kompagnieen, vergiffenis, 
dialektiek, professoraat, regulatie, landarbeid, Zaterdag, 
blijmoedige, bruiloftsdiech, edelmoedigheid. 

4. 

Keukengereedscbap, kousenfabriek, katoenspinnerij, 
overeenkomstig, houtzaagmolen, koninginnemantel, 
Israelitismo, spoor wegmaatschappijen, testamentbezorger, 
philosophicen, genealogie, onderwijzersvereenigingen, 
horlogemakerswinkel, primitiviteit, invalideninstituut ? 
zeilenniakerswerkplaats. 



( 9 ) 



CHAPTER It. 

SPELLING. 

(Spelling.) 

I. Dutch spelling compares very favourably with English 
spelling. In the pronunciation of Dutch words every 
letter is sounded. (See the exceptions to this rule in 
Chap. I, Section II.) A word pronounced, therefore, is a 
word spelled. This holds good but for the choice of a 
single or double letter for the representation of full- 
sounded vowels. In this respect there are obvious dis- 
crepancies and striking anomalies, which should, as early 
as possible, be removed. There is a movement on foot 
aiming at thorough reform. When such reform shall 
have reached its object, the present chapter will have lost 
most of its significance. Then every full-sounded a will 
be written aa ; every full-sounded e, ee ; every full i, 
either w, or ie ; o, oo ; and u, uu ; while either ei or ij 
will be abolished. That change will render Dutch spell- 
ing well-nigh perfect, and remove every difficulty which 
now remains in it. However, seeing that the said reform 
is at the present moment little beyond the stage of a 
strong and healthy wish, and considering how slowly 
changes in languages are brought about, it is incumbent 
on the writer to furnish the following rules pro tern. 

II. Words without inflexion take their final consonant 
according to pronunciation : met, zich, noch. 

Kote. — Noch is neither, nog is yet. This difference in spelling is likely to be 
removed by the new rules spoken of under $ I. 



io THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

III. When the final consonant of a word is a hard one, 
the last hut one should he hard also ; likewise is a soft 
final consonant preceded by a soft one : nacht has cli, hecause 
it ends in t ; deugd has g, hecause it ends in d. 

Note 1. — This rule gives way to elymology, and is therefore not applied in the 
conjugation of verbs : hij legt keeps its g before the t, seeing the g forms a 
part of the stem of the verb. 

Note 2. — Exceptions to the rule are : reed*, already ; steeds, always ; sinds, 
since ; bereids, already. 

IV. Neither words nor syllables can end in douhle 
consonants. The English endings ff and ss, and the 
German tt and nn can, therefore, not he met with at the 
end of a syllahle of any Dutch word. 

V. Words or syllables oannot end in either a v or a z. 
Where such endings would he demanded hy derivation, 
the v is made an /, and the z an s : vreezen, to fear ; ik 
vrees, I fear ; sterven, to die ; hij slier f, he died. 

VI. Touching declinable words, the question whether 
they end in d or t must be settled by declining them : 
paard, horse, sounds paart, but is written with d because 
its plural is paarden. Vraag, question, sounds vraach, but 
is written with g because the plural is vragen, in which g, 
not being final (vra-gen), is pronounced soft. So also 
vreemd, strange, with d, because of vreemde ; groot, large, 
with t, because of groo-ter. 

Koie. — Further reference to this matter will be found in the chapter on the 
Plural and that on the Verb. 

VII. Eules about single and double a and a. 

1. The double sign aa or uu is used — 

(a) When the full sound of the vowel opens a syllable : 
aar, vein ; uur, hour. 

(6) When the full sound is closed up between con. 
sonants : daad, duur. 

2. The single a or u is used — 

{a) When the full sound constitutes a syllable in itself: 
a-dcl, noble ; u-rcn, hours. 



SPELLING. 



(b) When the full sound is heard in an open syllable : 
vra-gen, to ask ; du-ren, to last. 

(c) Whenever the sound is imperfect : ar-moe-de, 
poverty ; urn, nrn ; dak, roof ; hut , hut. 

(d) When the full-sounded u is followed hy w : ruw, 
rough ; sluw, sly. 

VIII. Rules about single and double I. 

1. The double sign (ie) is used — 

(a) When the full sound occurs between consonants : 
dienst, service ; mier, ant. 

(fe) In open syllables, when accented, or final : mie-ren, 
ants ; ver-drie-tig, sorrowful ; foe-lie, mace. 

(c) When the full sound constitutes a syllable in itself 
in purely Dutch words : ie-mand, some one ; ie-der, every 
one. 

2. The single sign (i) is used — 

(a) When the sound is imperfect between consonants : 
dik, thick ; mih-Jcen, to aim. 

(b) In open syllables, unaccented and not final : 
mu-zi-Jcant, bandsman ; fa-hri-kant, manufacturer. 

(c) In words taken from foreign languages : i-de-aal, 
ideal ; i-di-oot, idiot ; i-dee, idea. 

IX. Eules about single and double e and o. 

1. In very many words the question about spelling 
with double or single e or o is settled by comparison 
with corresponding words in English, German, or French, 
a double vowel in these languages pointing to the use of 
the double sign in Dutch, and a single vowel to the single 
sign. In some cases comparison is possible between one 
Dutch word and another. 

Examples of Double Vowels : 

Bleelcen, to bleach ; sclieede, sheath ; breede, broad j 

heelen, to heal. 
Gelooven, to believe ; hoopen, heaps ; droomen, to 

dream ; stroomen, streams ; berooven, to bereave. 



12 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Examples of Single Vowels: 

Leven, to live ; peluio, pillow ; schepen, ships ; Jcetel, 

kettle ; degen, dagger. 
Blozen, to "blush ; hopen, to hope ; drogen, to dry ; 
goten, gutters. 

Examples of comparing Dutch with Dutch: 

Scheede with scheiden ; heelen with heilzaam ; breede 
with verbreiden ; wegen with weg ; hemel with 
hemd ; schepen with schip ; degen with dagge ; 
edel with adel ; blozen with bios; oorlogen with 
oorlog, and this again with uitleggen. 

Note 1. — When searching for corresponding words, regard should be had to 
form and not to meaning, which may be different. 
Examples: loom, tree, is compared to Eng. oeam though different in 
meaning. On the contrary no comparison is possible between Dutch 
vrede and Eng. peace. 

Note 2. — This rule is difficult of application, because of words now having to he 
compared to an English cognate, and now to a German one : ueken is in 
Eng. weeks, but in German Wochen, and takes its one e from its German 
cognate. 

2. "Words of one syllable ending in the e-sound or 
o-sound have the double vowels : 

Tliee, tea ; vee, cattle ; zee, sea ; wee, woe ; Ttwee, 
quince ; twee, two ; mee, with ; stroo, straw ; zoo, 
so ; vloo, flea. 

3. In contracted syllables the e-sound and o-sound are 
represented by the double sign : 

Leeg (ledig), empty ; veer (yeder), feather ; weer 
(weder), weather ; preelcen (prediJcen), to preach. 

Boom (bodem), bottom ; door (dojcr), yolk ; vroolijh 
(vrodelijJi), merry. 

4. The endings eelen, eezen, eesclie, and eeren, have the 
double e ; the endings loozen and genooten have the 
double o : 

Houweelcn, pick-axes ; jaweelen, jewels; Portugeezen, 
Portuguese (noun) ; Soendaneezen, Sundanese 
(noun) ; Fjuropeesche, European ; Japaneesche, 
Japanese (adjective); noteeren, to note; braveeren, 
to brave ; lianteeren, to handle. 



SPELLING. 13 



JBoomlooze, treeless ; moederlooze, motherless ; sjpeel- 
genooten, playmates ; reisgenooten, travelling-com- 
panions. 

Note. — The ending eeren forms a number of Dutch verbs from French (Latin) 
etems. The original Dutch ending even, which has a single e, is only 
found in teren, to live on, verteren, to consume, deren, to hurt, bcuieren, 
to maintain, ontberen, to lack, verweren, to defend. 

X. Rules as to the choice between ei and ij. 

1. Like in the case of e and 0, a corresponding word in 
English or German having two vowels, points to the use 
of ei in Dutch ; likewise, if the foreign cognate has one 
vowel, the ij takes its place in Dutch : 

Feilen, failings ; fontein, fountain; spreiden, to spread; 

meid, maid ; zeide, said. 
Rijst, rice ; prijs, price ; lijst, list ; dozijn, dozen ; 

paradijs, paradise ; wijn, wine ; rijzen, to rise. 

2. When contraction has taken place, ei must be used : 
Zeil (zegeT), sail; dwell (dwegel), clout; Jceil (kegel), 

wedge. 

3. Ei is used in the endings heid, teit, and lei : 
goedheid, goodness ; majesteit, majesty ; allerlei, all 

kinds of. 

4. IJ is used in the endings ij, ijn, ijs, and lijh : 
Bakkerij, bakery ; galerij, gallery ; dolfijn, dolfin ; 

radijs, radish ; eerlijk, honest. 

XI. The meanings of the following words of like 
pronunciation should be acquired. 

(a) Homonyms with e and ee : 

helen, to hide. heelen, to heal, to cure. 

keren, to sweep. keeren, turns, times. 

hnen, to lean (also pr. leunen). leenen, to lend. 

rede, speech. reede, roadstead. 

slepen, to trail along (intrans.). deepen, to drag (trans.). 

veren, pi. of veer, ferry. veeren, feathers. 

verweren, to defend. verweeren, to become weather- 
beaten. 

iveken, weeks. iveeken, to soak. 

wezen, to be. weezen, orphans. 



14 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



(V) Homonyms with, o and oo , 



genoten, enjoyed (infin. genie- 
ten). 

hopen, to hope. 

horen, horn. 

kloven, ravines. 

kolen, coals. 

koper, copper. 

kozen, chose (infin. kiezen). 

lover, one who praises. 

poten, to plant. 

roken, smelled (infin. ruikeri). 

roven, scurfs. 

schoten, shots. 

schoven, shoved (infin. schuiven). 

sloven, drudges. 

slopen, to level, also past tense 
of sluipen. 

sloten, locks. 

tonen, tones. 

tronen, thrones. 



genooten, fellows. 

hoopen, heaps. 
hooren, to hear. 
klooven, to cleave. 
koolen, cabbages. 
kooper, purchaser. 
koozen, to caress. 
loover, foliage. 
pooten, legs. 
rooken, to smoke. 
rooven, to rob. 
schooten, laps. 
schooven, sheaves. 
slooven, aprons. 
sloopen, pillow-cases. 

slooten, ditches. 
toonen, to show. 
troonen, to allure. 



(c) Homonyms with ij and ci : 



bij, bee. 

berijden, to ride on. 
ijk, stamp, assizer's mark. 
fijt, whitlow. 
hij, he. 

lijden, to suffer. 
mij, me. 
mijt, mite. 
pijl, arrow. 
rij, row. 

rijken, rich people, also king- 
doms. 
Rijn, Ithine. 

rijs, young twigs (collective). 
atifl, style, also door-post. 
vijl, file. 

vlijen, to lay flat. 
wij, we. 

wijden, to consecrate. 
wijten, to impute. 
zijde, silk. 



bei, berry. 

bereiden, to prepare. 
et&, oak. 
feit, fact. 

tat or Aez'^e, heath. 
hiden, to lead, 
jlfei, May. 
meid, servant. 
peil, water-mark. 
rei, choir. 
reiken, to reach. 

rein, pure, 
rets, voyage. 
sietV, steep. 
veil, for sale. 
vleien, to flatter, 
wei or weide, meadow. 
weiden, to graze. 
weiten, pi. of wheat, 
m'rfe, said. 



SPELLING. 15 



Exercise I. 



Fill up the blanks with single or double a : 

V-n w-r Ttw-m de m-n, dien ik d-r z-g ? Hij 
From where came the man whom I there saw? He 

kw—m v— n den k-nt v-n de st-d. W-t z-l ik hem 
came from the side of the town. What shall I him 
r—den, —Is hij rnij vr-gt ? B-d hem zijn -rmen v-der 
advise when he me asks ? Advise him his poor father 
10-t te helpen. Wie &— » dit r—dsel r-den : w—t w—s 
a little to help. Who can this riddle guess : what was 

w-s, eer w—s w—s w—s ? De m-st v—n d—t schip is —f, de 
wax, ere wax was wax ? The mast of that ship is off, the 

kr-cht v—n den storm heeft hem den voorl-lsten n—cht —f 
force of the storm has it the previous night down 

gesl—gen. Ik z—l u voor uioe str—f v—n —vond 
struck. I shall you for your punishment this evening 

l-ten w—ter dr—gen. De j—ger is op de j—cht geg—n, en 
let water carry. The hunter is on the hunt gone, and 

heeft twee h—zen en drie fez-nten thuis gebr-cht. 
has two hares and three pheasants home brought. 

2. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double u : 

Aan den m-r in zijne st-deerkamer hing een r-10 kruis. 
On the wall in his study hung a rude crucifix. 

Zijn die vr—chten — niet te z-r ? neen, ik houd 
Are those fruits (for) you not too sour ? no, I like 

van z-re vr-chten, meer dan — . D-w de l—cifersdoos 
sour fruits, more than you. Push the match-box 

open met —wen vinger, S—zie. St-r -wen knecht om het 
open with your finger, Susie. Send your servant the 

paard van —wen b—rman te h—ren. Gij z—lt het zelf 
horse of your neighbour to hire. You will it yourself 



16 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

moeten gaan h-ren : ik Jean den knecht n— niet st-ren. 
must go (and) hire : I can the servant now not send. 

Het zal niet veel —ren meer d-ren, of die m-r zal 
It will not many hours more last, before that wall will 

om liggen. Die vreemde hond, die daar zoo valsch ligt 
down lie. That strange dog, which there so false lies 

te gl-ren, heeft n— en dan vreemde It— ren. 
to lurk, has now and then strange whims. 

3. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double e : 

H-ft de kl-fpleister de wond in het b-n van uwen 
Has the sticking-plaster the wound in the leg of your 

n-f g-n-z-n t Ik h-b h-t br-de papier aan smaUe r-p-n 
cousin healed ? I have the wide paper in narrow strips 

g-sn-d-n. Br-ng mij h-t n—t, dat d— Jcn-cht h-d—n 
cut. Bring me the net which the servant to-day 

v-rst-ld h-ft ; ik zal h-t ov-r d— h-g l—gg-n. D— h—m~ls 
mended has ; I shall it over the hedge lay. The testers 

d-r b—dd-n zijn n-tj—s afg—v—gd. B—rg h-t g—ld in uw 
of the beds are neatly dusted. Put the money in your 

v-st w-g, and-rs wordt h-t uitg-g-v-n. Br-ng 

waistcoat by, or else (will) be it spent. Bring 

lir-t sch-rp— m-8 bij d—n Jcn-cht, —n z—g Ji-m, dat hij h-t 
the sharp knife to the servant, and tell him, that he the 

h-ft moet vastz-tt-n. D- 10-t van Ji-t g-w-t-n van 
handle must fix. The law of tho conscience of 

—Ucen m—nsch z—gt h—m, dat st-l—n onr-cht is. 
every man tells hiui that to steal wrong is. 

4. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double o : 

Tk heb geh-rd, dat de r—ver den k-pman verm-rd 
I have heard, that the robber the merchant murdered 

Jieeft. Het kind dr—mde van sp—Jcen, die in den t-ren 
has. Tho child dreamt of ghosts, which in the tower 



SPELLINC. 17 

w-nden. De t-venaars en g—chelaars k-nden den k-ning 
lived. The magicians and conjurors could (to) the king 

zijnen dr^m niet uitleggen. —nze v—rouders leefden in 
his dream not explain. Our ancestors lived in 

b-sschen, en droegen —ssenhuiden met de h-^rens —p hunne 
woods, and wore ox-hides with the horns on their 

h-fden. Hij geh—rzaamt u -p belr-fte dat gij 

heads. He obeys you on (the) promise that you 

hem zult bel—nen. W-nen er —k memchen -p b— men ? 
him will reward. Live there any people on trees? 

Ja, en er zijn -k s—mmige menschens—rten, die in 
Yes, and there are also some kinds of people, who in 

h-len en spelr^nken w—nen. De vr—lijhe z—n t-vert 
holes and caves live. The bright sun throws (by 

eenen sch-nen b—g tegen de d-nkere w-lken. 
magic) a pretty arch against the dark clouds. 



5. 

Fill up the blanks with ei or ij : 

Z-t g— ber-d m— te leeren r-den f W-s m- de 
Are you ready me to teach to ride? Show me the 

r— boomen, die g- geplant hebt. Z-ne bl—dschap is 
row (of) trees, which you planted have. His mirth is 

maar sch—n ; h— is niet waarl—k wool- Jc. W-n wordt uit 
but pretence ; he is not really merry. Wine is from 

druiven ber-d, en az-n uit 10—n. Het m—sje zal 
grapes prepared, and vinegar out of wine. The girl will 

de r— harer vriendinnen op eene I- schr-ven, en u de 
the row of her friends on a slate write, and you the 

l-st dan is-zen. Ik ben bl—, dat g— die schilder— kr—gt. 
list then show. 1 am glad, that you that painting get. 

De h—ning scli-dt Tiet ic—land van m—nen tuin. 

The fence separates the pasture-ground from my garden. 

AJs to- eerl-k en vl-tig z—n, lev en w— vr- en bl-. 
^Vhen we honest and diligent are, live we free and happy. 



l8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

G— moet niet te veel t-d aan r-den 10—den ; dat zou 
You must not too much time to riding devote ; that would 

niet w—s z—n. De berg is te st-l om af te gl—den. 
not wise be. The mountain is too steep to down slide. 



1. a. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double a : 

De bekw—me tuinier is bezig, de t-hhen v-n de boomen 
The skilful gardener is busy, the branches of the trees 

te Tc-ppen. J-n, geef mij mijn regenm—ntel eens -n. In 
to chop. John, hand me my waterproof just (on). In 

een huis vindt men Ic—mers, r—rnen, k—sten, tr—ppen, 
a house finds one rooms, windows, presses, staircases, 

en ojp een huis een d-Jc. Kl-dden m—lcen is j—mmerlijh 
and on a house a roof. Blots (to) make is exceedingly 

slordig. Wij lew— men n— —clit uur des —vonds 
untidy. We came after eight o'clock in the evening 

-». W—t een n-cht vol b—nge zorgen I De m-wen 

(on). What a night full (of) anxious cares ! The manes 

onzer p-rden zijn zw—rt. De m—n schijnt ih—ns —lie 
of our horses are black. The moon shines now all 
n-chten en de zon -lie d-gen. 
nights and the sun all days. 



2. a 

Fill up the blanks with single or double u i 

Ged-rende die paar -ren hadden wij heel wat te verd-ren 
During those few hours had we a good deal to endure 
van onze b-ren. Het g—re weder heeft ons belet, 

from our neighbours. The cold weather has us prevented, 

de meid om vr-chten te st—ren. De m-sschen en 
the servant for fruit to send. The sparrows and 
zwal—wen zijn nooit r—stige nab-ren. H—r mij een rijtuig 
swallows are never quiet neighbours. Hire mo a vehicle 



SPELLING. 19 

voor een — r, en vraag hoe d-r Tiet zal leomen. D—nne 
for an hour, and ask how expensive it will be. Thin 

stof is niet zelden d—rzamer dan grove en 
material is not seldom more lasting than coarse and 

r-toe . Gij z—lt -we st—rsche k-ren eenmaal 

rough (ones). You will (for) your sour whims once 

bez—ren. Geen m—ren verd—ren der —ren geweld. 

sorry be. No walls endure of the hours (the) force. 

3. a. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double e : 

Niet t— l-y—n om t- —t-n, maar t — t-n om t— l-v-n, is —n 
Not to live for to eat, but to eat for to live, is a 

gulden r-g-l. In d- Midd-l-uic-n l-fd-n d- -d-l-n in 
golden rule. In the Middle Ages lived the nobles in 

trotsch— least- 1- n. Ond-r h—t sp—l-n bl—h h-t, dat 
proud castles. During the playing appeared it that 

er v-l ont—vr—d-nen war—n. De sch-p-n der 

there many discontented (ones) were. The ships of the 

z—var—nd— vnog-ndh—d-n —v—nar-n —Ihand-r in st—rld-. 
sea-faring powers equal each other in strength. 

— cht— witt— b-r-n word-n all—n in houd- str—h-n aang-troff-n. 
Eeal white bears are only in cold regions found. 

R-m-l -n ham— I zijn nam-n m—t g-lijh— b-t-k-nis. 
Camel and camel are names with like meaning. 

4. a. 

Fill up the blanks with single or double : 

Wie -ren heeft — m te h-ren, die h-re. L-pend —f 
Who ears has for to hear, let him hear. Flowing or 

str-mend water is net gez—ndst. De vr—lijhe spr-ngen 

streaming water is (the) wholesomest. The merry bounds 

der eekh-rntjes in de Ti-ge b-men vermaahten -ns alien. 
of the squirrels in the high trees amused us all. 

Hoe Tc-mt het, dat de g—ten z— slecht l-pen : wat Jean de 
How comes it, that the gutters so badly run : what can the 



20 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

—rzaaJc zijn van zulk eene d-rl—pende verst-pping ? De 
cause be of such a regular obstruction? The 

d-rn heeft de -pene w—nd —ntst-ken. Gel-f hem niet 
thorn has the open wound inflamed. Believe him not 

weer ; —p mijn w-rd gij beh—rt hem niet te gel-ven. 
any more ; upon my word you ought him not to trust. 

Abrih—zen, framb—zen en st—fperen zijn -verheerlijke 
Apricots, raspberries and stewing pears are delicious 

vruchten. 
fruits. 

5. a. 

Fill up the blanks with ei or ij : 

Z—ne r—s langs den R~n heeft h— in v—f weken ten 
His trip along the Rhine has he in five weeks to (an) 

— nde gebracht. H—ne vreugde en ware bl-dschap hunnen 
end brought. Pure joy and true gladness can 

b-de in pal—zen en hutten gesmaalct worden. W— ber—kten 
both in palaces and huts tasted be. We reached 

den top de» bergs juist b—t-ds, om de zon boven 

the top of the mountain just in time, for the sun above 

den gezichts-nder te zien r-zen. M-d vl-taal: zij voert 

the horizon to see rise. Shun flattery : it leads 

nxeestent-ds tot v-nzer—. Tot zulke r—melar— ia hij 

mostly to hypocrisy. Of such bad verses is he 

evenmin in staat, ah het p-nzend br—n z—ns vaders tot 
as little capable, as the pensive brain of his father of 

het vooribrengen van dergel-ke zottern-. 
the production of such like foolery. 



Spelling of Compound Nouns. 

Xll. Most compounds combine their constituent parts 
without altering the form of either part, and causing 
them to appear as one word, no hyphens being used : stal 
en deur form staldeur, stable-door : schroef en draaier form 
schroefdraaier, screw-driver. 



SPELLING. 



In some cases, however, slight changes in the first part 
of the compound may be noticed ; 

1. If the first part ends in e, this e is generally dropped ; 
aarde and appel form aardappel, potato. 

2. Principally to facilitate pronunciation, some words 
drop their final d when compounded : rijtoer, from rijdtoer, 
drive ; zijraam, from zijdraam, side- window ; leiband, from 
leidband, leading-strings. 

3. Words which take the double plural ending ers or 
eren (see page 37), drop the additional 8 or en, and 
retain their original plural form in er when compounded ■ 
hoenderhok, fowl-house ; eiermand, egg-basket. 

4. The first part of a compound frequently takes the 
letter s either a) as a sign of the genitive case, or 6) to 
bring out a plural meaning, or c) for the sake of 
euphony. 

Examples : 

a) Timmermansgereedschap, carpenter's tools; bruids- 
Meed, bridal dress ; dorpsschool, village school. 

6) Meisjesschool, girls' school ; jongensboeJc, book for 
boys. 

c) Scheidsrechter, arbiter ; schutsheer, protector. 

The compound forms which join their two parts 
together by e or en require more attention. The letter e 
represents a singular meaning, but changes into en, when- 
ever the second word commences with a voivel or an h. 
Where this is not the case, en represents a plural. Com- 
pounds with the word boom (tree), or the name of any 
part of a tree, necessarily have e, and not en (as they are 
not uncommonly spelled), except when the second part 
begins with a vowel or an h. 

Examples of Singular Forms : 

Paardestaart, tail of a horse ; lampeglas, lamp-chimney ; 
opeldelnnp, pin's head ; pereschil, peel of a pear. 



22 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Eikeboom, oak-tree ; eiketak, "branch of an oat-tree ; 
vijgeblad, fig-leaf; tulpebol, tulip-bulb; rozestruik, rose- 
bush ; but eikenhout, oak-wood ; hondenhok, dog's kennel ; 
ganz&nei, egg of a goose ; brillenhuis, spectacle-case. 

Examples of Plural Forms : 

Boekenkast, book-case ; vrieiidenkring, circle of friends ; 
lamp&nmagazijn, store for lamps ; bijenbrood, bee-bread. 

Note. — In a few cases en is added to the first part of the word to express : o) a 
masculine name of ao animal ; ft) a position in society. 

Examples : o) 6e?-enpoot, bear's paw ; openfcwur, monkey's trick; 
b) boerenknecht, farm-servant. 



Exercise II. 

1. 

Fill up the blanks with e or en: 

JTeeft hij boek-planken in zijne learner, of is er een boek- 
Has he book-shelves in his room, or is there a book- 

l-ast ? Koopt men lamp-glazen in een kleer-winhel ? Ziet 
case ? Buys one lamp chimneys in a tailor's shop ? Sees 

men ooit eene paard-lcrib in eenen Jcoei—stal ? De tulp- 
one ever a borse-m anger in a cow-stable ? The tulip- 

bollen 8taan in den grond. Hij heeft de per-schillen en 
bulbs are in the ground. He has the pear-peels and 

de pruim-pitten in de vuilnismand gegooid. Met 
the plum-stones into the waste-basket thrown. With 

naald-punten moet men voorziclitig zijn. Hij heeft zijn 
needle-points should one careful be. He has his 

brill-hui8 in zijnen zak gestoken. Zijn die brill- 
speotacle-case in his pocket put. Are those spectacle 

glazen groen of blauw ? In de eik—laan staat een jonge 
glasses green or blue ? In the oak avenue is a young 

per—boom, die verplant moet worden. De vriend— 

pear-tree, which transplanted should be. The friendly 

kring komt van avond bijeen. 
circle comes to-night together. 



SPELLING. 23 



2. 

Do the same with : 

Die haren zijn van een paard-staart afkomstig. De goeder— 
Those hairs are from a horse's tail come. The goods 

trein vertrekt een half uur later dan de person— trein- 
train leaves a half-hour later than the passengers' train- 

Hij heeft zich als een boer—knecht verhuurd. Die 
He has himself as a farm-servant hired out. That 

soldat-^rok past hem goed, Hij draagt een heer—hoed 
soldier's frock fits him well. He wears a gentleman's hat 

bij zijn jongenspak. Een voss-kop is spits, en een 
with his hoy's suit. A fox's head is pointed and a 

ber—klauw is plat. Eend-eieren zijn duur. Hij gebruikt 
bear's paw is flat. Ducks' eggs are expensive. He uses 

eenen eend-vleugel bij het teekenen. Hij schrijft met 
a duck's wing with the drawing. He writes with 

stolen pennen, en zijn vader met ganz-veeren. In het 
steel pens, and his father with quills. In the 

hond-hok ligt een koei—horen. Mannen behooren geene 
dog's kennel lies a cow's horn. Men ought no 

vrouw-kleeren te dragen. 
women's clothes to wear. 

3. 

Do the same with : 

De roz-struiken moeten in Juni gesnoeid worden. Eik-hout 
The rose-bushes must in June cut be. Oak wood 

geeft meer hitte dan wilg-hout. Pauw-weeren 

gives more heat than willow wood. Peacock's feathers 

zijn mooier dan pauw-oogen. Zwan-dons is heer- 
are prettier than peacock's eyes. Swan's down is delight- 

lijk zacht in kussens. De kerk-muur is vol z'waluio- 
fully soft in pillows. The church wall is full swallow's 

nesten. Paard-ooren staan op, maar hond-ooren hangen. 
nests. Horse's ears stand up, but dog's ears hang. 

Konijn-staarten zijn kort en gekruld. De Vrijstaat heeft 
Rabbits' tails are short and curled. The Free State has 



24 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

steenJcool—mijnen. Het arme kind had drie speld—hnoppen 
coal-mines. The poor child had three pin's-heads 

ingesliht. De stijppen op dit blad zijn zoo fijn als speld— 
swallowed. The dots on this leaf are as tine as pins' 

punten. Die pijp-Jcop is van meerschuim gemaaht. De 
points. That pipe-bowl is of meerschaum made. The 

lamp— leap is gebarstcn. Het mol-rad wordt door water 
lamp-shade is cracked. The mill-wheel is by water 

gedreven. 
driven. 



( 25 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

PARTS OP SPEECH. 

(Rededeelen.) 

There are ten classes of words, called Rededeelen, Parts 
of Speech. 

They are: 1. Het Zelfstandig Naamwoord, the Noun 
Substantive ; 2. Het Lidwoord, the Article ; 3. Het 
Bijvoegelijh Naamiooord, the Adjective ; 4. Het Voornaam- 
woord, the Pronoun ; 5. Het Telwoord, the Numeral 
Adjective ; 6. Het Werhiooord, the Verb ; 7. Het Bijwoord, 
the Adverb ; 8. Het Voegwoord, the Conjunction ; 9. Het 
Voorzetsel, the Preposition ; 10. Het Tusschenwerpsel, the 
Interjection. 

Note.— The above names are for the greater part literally translated from the 
original Latin. 

The Article. 
(Het Lidwoord.') 

I. The Article, het Lidwoord, is a word which is placed 
before a Noun to indicate whether the noun has a definite 
or an indefinite meaning. 

Note. — English grammars no longer take the article a8 a separate part o' 
speech, but call It a "distinguishing adjective." This term, however, Is 
not applicable to the Dutch article, it having a declension which differs 
from that of the adjective. 

II. There are two articles: the definite, het bepalenda 
lidwoord, and the indefinite, het niet-bepalende lidwoord. 



26 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR 



Forms of the Article. 

III. The definite article is : for the Singular Number 
of the Masculine Gender, " de " ; for the Singular Number 
of the Feminine Gender, "de" ; for the Singular Number 
of the Neuter Gender, " het " ; for the Plural Number of 
every Gender, " de." 

The indefinite article is : for the Masculine Singular, 
11 een " ; for the Feminine Singular, " eene " ; for the Neuter 
Singular, "een" 

TV. Articles can never be used without a noun which 
they qualify. They are declined as followp : — 



Masculine. 
Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 



(fen 



Dat. 



Ncvn. de man, the man. 
Gen. des manB (or van 

man), of the man. 
den man (or aan 

man), to the man. 
Ace. den. man, the man. 

Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 

Nom. een man, a man. 

Gen. eens mans (van eenen 

man), of a man. 
Pat. eenen man (aan eenen 

man), to a man. 
Ace. eenen man, a man. 



Mannelijh. 



Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 



Nom. de mannen, the men. 

Gen. dev mannen (van de man- 
nen), of the men. 
den. Dat. den. mannen (aan de man- 
nen), to the men. 

Ace. de mannen, the men. 



Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 

Nom. mannen, men. 

Gen. van mannen, of men. 

Dat. aan mannen, to men. 

Ace. mannen, men. 



Feminine. 
Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 

Nom. de vrouw, the woman. 
Gen. der vrouw(van de vrouw), 

of the woman. 
Dat. der vrouw (aan de vrouw), 

to the woman. 
Ace. de vrouw, the woman. 



VrouweUjh. 

Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 

Nom. de vrouwen, the women. 

Gen. der vrouwen (van de vrou- 
wen), of the women. 

Dat. den vrouwen (aan de vrou- 
wen), to the women. 

Ace. de vrouwen, the women. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 



27 



Feminine. 
Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 

Nom. eene vrouw, a woman. 
Gen. eerier vrouw (van eene 

vrouw), of a woman. 
Dat. eener vrouw (aan eene 

vrouw), to a woman. 
Ace. eene vrouw, a woman. 



Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 

Nom. het kind, the child. 
Gen. dea kinds (van het kind), 

of the child. 
Dat. het kind (aan het kind), 

to the child. 
Ace. het kind, the child. 



Vrouwelijk. 

Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 

Nom. vrouwen, women. 

Gen. van vrouwen, of women. 

Dat. aan vrouwen, to women. 

Ace. vrouwen, women. 



Neuter. Onzijdig. 



Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 

Nom. de kinder en, the childre;.. 

Gen. dev kinderen (van de kin- 
der en), of the children. 

Dat. den kinderen (aan de kin- 
deren), to the children. 

Ace. de kinderen, the children. 



Singular. 
(Enkelvoud.) 

Nom. een kind, a child. 

Gen. eens kinds (van een kind), 

of a child. 
Dat. een kind (aan een kind), 

to a child. 
Ace. een kind, a child. 



Plural. 
(Meervoud.) 

Nom. kinderen, children. 

Gen. van kinderen, of children. 

Dat. aan kinderen, to children. 

Ace. kinderen, children. 



V. Nouns may reject the article, when such omission 

causes no ambiguity : De Jcoeien, paarden en schapen zijn 

alle verkocht, the cows, horses, and sheep have all been 

sold. 

Observation 1. — The article may never be omitted when its 
form is not exactly like that of the article expressed. It 
is wrong to write : Ik heb den vader en moeder van onze 
meid gezien, I saw the father and mother of our servant- 
girl ; since the masculine form den becomes de before the 
feminine moeder. 

Obs. 2. — The article must always be left out before the second 
of two nouns which refer to one and the same person ; 
Hij werd de vriend en verzorger dier arme kinderen, He 
became the friend and guardian of those poor children. 



28 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 3. — The definite article is left out after the words alle, 
all, and beide, both : Alle menschen moeten sterven, all men 
must die; Beide ^vogels zijn ontsnapt, both the birds have 
escaped. 

Obs. 4. — It is customary to repeat the article, though its form 
be like that of the first article : (1) if one noun is singular 
and the other plural : Be moeder en de docJiters zijn heden 
aangekomen, the mother and the daughters have arrived 
to-day ; (2) in emphatic expressions : Beide de goeden en 
de hwaden zullen er onder lijden, both the good and the 
bad will suffer by it. 

Obs. 5. — The article is omitted before the names of professions : 
The boy wants to be a carpenter, dejongen wil timmer- 
man worden. 

Note. — Poets often make use of the abbreviated form d' for de and even for den, 

VI. The article is required in Dutch where it is not 
used in English : 

1. With Nouns representing a class : — 

Man is mortal, de mensch is sterfelijk. 

The language of animals, de taal der dieren. 

2. Before the names of s— 

Meah: — We were at breakfast, icij zaten aan het 

ontbijt. 
Diseases : — He has had small-pox, hij heeft de pohhen 

gehctd. 
Seasons: — Spring is a happy time, de lente is een 

vroolijke tijd. 

Streets : — He lives in Burg street, hij woont in de 
Burgstraat. 

Mountains : — We ascended Table Mountain, wij 

klommen den Tafelberg op. 
Heligious sects : — He was converted to Christianity, 

hij werd tot het Christendom beheed. 

Arts and sciences : — He studios history, hij bestudeert 
de geschiedenis. 






PARTS OF SPEECH* 29 

3. Before proper nouns preceded by adjectives : — 

Little Charles is ill, de Heine Karel is ziek. 

4. Before abstract nouns when taken in their whole 
extent : — 

Youth, de jeugd; old age, de ouderdom; life, liet 
leven; death, de dood ; eternity, de eeuwigheid ; 
nature, de natuur ; creation, de schepping. 



EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Note 1. — The gender of the nouns used in the exercises is 
indicated by m. for the masculine, v. for the feminine, and 
0. for the neuter gender. 

Note 2. — After prepositions use the Accusative (Objective) case. 

Note 3. — The sentences of the Exercises for Translation are 
meant to be committed to memory after correction. 







Exercise III. 






bird, 


vogel, m. 


cage, 


kooi, v. 


stable, 


stal, ill. 


cupboard, 


, kast, v. 


pencil, 


potlood, 0. 


plate, 


bord, o f 


book, 


boek, 0. 


sun, 


zon, v. 


table, 


tafel, v. 


house, 


huis, 0. 


garden, 


tuin, m. 


stick, 


stok, m. 


room, 


Tcamer, v. 


lamb, 


lam, 0. 


lion, 


leeuw, m 


forest, 


woud, 0. 


mine, 


van mij, 


sty, 


lucht, v. 


is, 


is. 


in, 


in, 


on, 


op. 


large, 


groot. 


broken, 


stuk, 


small, 


klein. 



The bird is in the cage. ' The plate is in the cupboard. 
The pencil is on the table. The book is mine. The sun 
is in the sky. The house is in the garden. The house is 
small, the garden is large. The stick is broken. The 
lamb is in the stable. The lion is in the forest. The 
pencil is in the cupboard. The lamb is in the garden. 
The cupboard is in the room. The pencil is in the room. 
The plate is small ; the table is large. 



30 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Exercise IV. 

horse, paard, o. carriage, rijtuig, o. wheel, wiel, o. 

bonnet, hoed, m. cap, muts, v. hat, hoed, m. 

umbrella, paraplu, v. child, kind, o. dog, hond, m. 

street, straat, v. summer, zomer, m. door, deur, v. 

not,] niet, never, nooit, red, rood. 

ill, ziek,* often, dikwijls, and, en. 

always, altijd, warm, warm, round, rond. 

expensive, duur, study, studeerhamer, v. 
my, mijne, it, het. 

A stable and a horse. A carriage and a wheel. A 
carriage is expensive. A wheel is round. A bonnet and 
a cap. A bonnet is not a cap. A hat and a stick. An 
umbrella is never red. A child is ill. The dog is often 
in my study. The house is in (the) Humbert-street. It 
is always warm in (the) summer. 

Exercise V. 

mother, moeder, v. boy, jongen, m. window, venster, o. 
town, »tad, v. tree, boom, m. heat, hitte, v. 

long, lang. great, groot. high, hoog. 

The cage of the bird. The bonnet of the mother. The 
wheel of the carriage. The child's cap (cap of the child). 
The door of the stable. The pencil of the boy. The 
boy's umbrella. The door of the study is small. The 
window of the room is large. The street of the town is 
long. The heat of the summer is great. The tree of 
the forest is high. The wheel of the carriage is round. 

Exp:rcise VI. 

paw, hlauw, m. page, bladzijde, v. beam, straal, m. 
sore, zeer. dirty, vuil. hot, heet. 

winter, winter, m. 

The mother's umbrella (the umbrella of the mother) is 
broken. The lion's paw is sore. The page of the book is 
dirty. The sun's beam is long. The boy's cap is dirty. 



PARTS OF SPEECH. 31 

the bird's cage is not round. The mother's child is often 
ill. The door of the cupboard is small. The sun is hot 
in (the) summer. The child is always ill in (the) winter. 
The cap of the boy is on the table. The book is on the 
table in the study. The horse in the stable is mine. 

GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise VII. 
1. 
Fill up the blanks with the definite article : 

— boer (to) beploegt — veld (0). Zij plukt — schoonste 
The farmer ploughs the field. She picks the finest 

bloemen (v) af. Leg — zadel (0) op — paard (0) en rijd 
flowers off. Put the saddle on the horse and ride 

naar — markt (v). — hek (0) om — huis (0) is van 
to the market. The railing round the house is of 

— beste ijzer (0) gemaakt. Hij lieeft moedicilUg — blad (0) 
the best iron made. He has on purpose the leaf 

uit — boeJc (0) gescheurd. — oven (to) will niet branden : 
out (of) the book torn. The oven will not burn: 

— vuur (0) gaat gedurig uit. — jplaag (v) breidt zicJi 
the fire goes continually out. The plague spreads itself 
over — gansche land (0) uit. — vogels (m), welke '« 
over the whole country out. The birds which in 

winters naar — warme zuiden (0) vertrehJcen, zijn talrijk. 
winter to the warm south depart, are numerous. 

— wagen (to) is nieuw, — wielen (0) ervan zijn oud. — 
The waggon is new, the wheels of it are old. The 

schoenmalcer (to) lieeft — reJcening (v) van — vorige 
shoe-maker has the account of the previous 

maand (v) gezonden. 
month sent. 

2. 
Fill up the blanks with the indefinite article : 

— vogel (to) zingt, — muis (v) piept, — Tcoe (v) loeit, — 
A bird sings, a mouse squeaks, a cow lows, a 



32 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

petard (o) MnniJct, — leeuw (m) bruit, — beer (ni) bromt, — 
horse neighs, a lion roars, a bear growls, a 

wolf(m) huilt, — hond (m) blaft, — schaap (o) blaat. Ois 
wolf howls, a dog barks, a sheep bleats. Yes 

teren school ik — Jconijn (o) en ving — rat (v). Welk — 
terday shot I a rabbit and canght a rat. "What a 

vreugde (v) voor — armen man (m). Wat — gewoel (o), 
joy for a poor man. What a commotion, 

wat — drulcte (v), wat — gejuich (o) op straat. Blijf 

what a bustle, what a shouting in (the) street. Stay 

toch — oogenblih (o), ik moet u nog — geschiedenis (v) 
just a moment, I must you yet a story 

vertellen. — kikvorsch (m) en — pad (v) behooren tot — ■ 
tell. A frog and a toad belong to a 

diersoort (v), die men schuwt. - — jong (o) van -— 
class of animals which one shuns, A young of a 

varken (o) noemt men — big (v). 
pig calls one a young pig, 

3. 

Fill up the blanks with the definite or indefinite 
article : 

— rad (o) — machine (v) is stuk. — straat (v) loopt 
The wheel of the machine is broken. The street runs 

rechtuit naar — zee (v). — zee («) is — deel (n) van — 
straight to the sea. A sea is a part of an 

oceaan (m). — fabrielc (y) op — hoek (m) — markt (») is 
ocean. The factory at the corner of the market is 

afgebrand. Heeft u — kapitein (m) van — oorlogschip (o) 
burnt down. Have you the captain of the man-of-war 

gezien, dat in — baai (v) ligt. Neen, maar ik heb eenigen, 
seen, that in the bay lies. No, but I have some 

— ojjicieren (m) en — matrozen (m) gezien. — 
of the officers and of the sailors seen. (The) 

Kaapstad (y) ligt aan — voet (m) van — Tafelbcrg. 

Cape-Town lies at the foot of (the) Table-mountain,, 



PARTS OF SPEEClt. ^ 



— beide torentjes (n) van — hasteel (n) aan — overzijde (v) 
The both turrets of the castle at the other side 

— rivier (v) zijn afgeicaaid. Aan — ingang ( m) van 
of the river are blown down. At the entrance of 

— Tafelbaai (v) ligt Bobbeneiland. — zoon (ni) — 
the Table bay lies Eobben Island. The son of the 

dokters (m) is naar Sehotland gegaan om in — medicij- 
doctor has to Scotland gone in order (in the) medi- 

nen te studeeren. — beiden spoorwegbeambten (in) 
cine to study. (To the) both railway officials has 

i$ — zicare boete (v) opgelegd, omdat zij bij — 

been a heavy fine imposed, because Ihey at the 

naderen (n) van — trein (ni) niet op hunnen post (m) war en. — - 

approach of the < rain not at their post were. (The) 

Buddhisme (o) lieeft veel aanhangers (m) in — Ghineesche 
Buddhism has many adherents in the. Chinese 

rijk (o). — bewoners (ni) van vele — Zuidzee 

empire. The inhabitants of many of the South Sea 

eilanden zijn tot — Christendom (o) bekeerd. — 

Islands are to (the) Christianity converted. The 

heer (m), dien u van morgen in — museum (o) 
gentleman whom you this morning in the museum 

ontmoet heeft, is leeraar in — mathesis (v). 
met have, is profe-sor of mathematics. 





COMVERSATIE. 






Conversation. 




Tijd. 






Time. 


1. 


Hoe laat is het ? 




1. 


What time is it ? 


•J. 


Het is tien uur. 




2. 


It is ten o'clock. 


■"'. 


Het is kwart voor vijf, 




3. 


It is a quarter to five. 


•!. 


Het is half zeven. 




4. 


It is half past six. 


5. 


Het is tien minaten over 


5. 


It is ten minutes past eight. 




acht. 








6, 


Hoe laat staat u op ? 




6. 


What time do you rise ? 


7. 


Ik ben altijd op tegen 
uur. 


zes 


7. 


I am always up by six 
o'clock. 


8. 


Hoe laat ontbijt uf 




8. 


What time do you take 
breakfast ? 



34 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



9. 






10 



12 



13 



15 



16 



17 



Wij onthijten nooit na acht 

uur. 
Tegen twee uur zal ik bij 

u aankomen. 
11. De stoomboot vertrekt om 

twaalf uur vandaag. 
Gaan zij iederen dag naar 

school ? 
Zij gaan dagelijks behalve 's 

Zaterdags. 
14. Aanstaande week zal ik 

vertrokken zijn. 
Mijn verjaardag valt in de 

eerstkomende rnaand. 
Wij hebben reeds veertien 

dagen op u gewacht. 
Kom over drie dagen terug. 

18. Mijn vader is juist vijftig 

jaar oud. 

19. Be zon gaat in den winter 

laat op. 

20. l)e zon gaat in den winter 

vroeg onder. 

21. Na zonsondergang komen 

de sterren te voorschijn. 

22. Wij begonnen onze reis vudr 

litt aanbreken van den 
dag. 

23. Toen ik een half uur weg 

was, kwam mijn broeder 
thuis. 

24. De veldslag werd den zeven 

en twintigsten Maart ge- 

leverd. 
Ik verjaar op den laatsten 

Februari. 
Londen, 2 Mei 1884. 
Na mijnen dood zal u allcs 

duidelijk worden. 
Oncrmorgen hoop ik u tceer 

te zien. 
J/,- ben ccrgistercn gcvallen. 



.30. 7.s u te laat aan den trein 
gekomen ? 

31. Ik vas juist bijtijds, maur 
de trein was te vroeg. 



9. We never breakfast later 
than eight o'clock. 

10. 1 shall come to you about 

two o'clock. 

11. The steamer sails at noon 

to-day. 

12. Do they go to school every 

day? 

13. They go every day but 

Saturday. 

14. Next week I shall be gone. 

15. My birthday is next month. 

16. We have been waiting for 

you a fortnight. 

17. Come back in three days. 

18. My father is just fifty years 

of age. 

19. The sun rises late in winter. 

20. The sun sets early in 

winter. 

21. After sunset the stars make 

their appearance. 

22. We started on our journey 

before daybreak. 

23. Half an hour after I had 

left, my brother came 
home. 

24. The battle was fought on the 

twenty- seventh of March. 

25. My birthday is on the last 

day of February. 
2G. London, May 2nd, 1881. 

27. After my death every thin : 

will become clear to yon. 

28. The day after to-xnottow I 

hope to see you again. 

29. I had a fall the day lief. .re 

yesterday. 

30. Were yon too late for the 

train ? 

31. I was just in time, but the 

train was too i-arly. 



( 35 



CHAPTER IV. 
FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 

(Meervoudsvorming.') 

I. ,The endings of the plural in Dutch are, », 'a, en, n, 
ers, eren. 

II. In 8 ends — 

1. The plural of all diminutives : huisjes, small houses ; 
boompjes, small trees ; deurtjes, small doors. 

2. The plural of words ending in el, em, en, er, aar, ier, 
and aard : eilcels, acorns ; bezems, brooms ; varlcens, pigs ; 
blakers, candlesticks ; handelaars, merchants ; loinkeliers, 
shopkeepers ; dronkaards, drunkards. 

3. The plural of foreign words used in Dutch, except 
when they end in a, o, or u : bah, balls (dances) ; datums, 
dates; dames, ladies ; horloges, watches; tantes, atmts. 

Note. — Tho6e words are regarded as foreign which have not either through long 
use, or through change of spelling, actually been taken up in the language as 
Dutch words. 

III. Iii '* end the plural forms of all foreign words 
which have their original spelling, and end in a, o, or u ; 
massa, mass, massa's ; echo, echo, echo's ; paraplu, umbrella, 
paraplu's. 

IV. In en ends the plural of — 

1. All Dutch monosyllables, with the exception of the 
following: U,^A/K>W 

ra, pi. raas, T^0tf*-yard ; via, pi. vlaas, custard; hole, 
pi. hols, male cook; oom, pi. ooms, uncle; maat, 

C 2 



36 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



pi. maats, ' comrade ; man, pi. mans or mannen, 
man ; hnecht, pi, knechta or Jcnechten, male 
servant; zoon, pi. zooms or zonen, son. See § IX. 

2. Most of the words taken from foreign languages, but 
Eutchified through long use, which do not end in a vowel : 

Avonturen, adventures ; advolcaten, advocates ;presenten, 
presents ; figuren, figures ; rivieren, rivers. 

3. All other Avords, except those which fall under the 
rules below. 

V. In n ends the plural of— \^^ JUj J^\ 

1. All Duich words ending in e i\l^ : gedaante, shape, 
gedaanten ; ziekte, illness, zielden. 

VI. Either in « or en ends the plural of some words in 
el, er, en, em, and of many derivatives in aar, or, eur, 
and those in ier which express the names of persons. 

Examines : vogels, birds ; bezems, brooms ; dienaars, 
servants ; directeurs, directors ; officiers, officers ; 
•professor, professors ; or vogelen, bezemen, etc. 

Xote 1. — Of words which alliw of loth endings, only the form in s U colloquial : 
Drie vogels vliegen boven ons huis, three birds are flying above our house ; I e 
vogelen des kernels hebben nesten, the fowls of the air have nests. The latter 
express! ,n is bit lj language. 

Note 2. — Mark that professional names which end in or take the accent on the 
last syllable but one, both in the singular and the plural ; professor, plural 
professors, professdren. 

VII. Words ending in ie require special attention. 
Those which have the accent on the last syllable but one, 
form their plural in n or sometimes s : natie, nations, 
nation, or naties; lelie, lily, lelien, or lelies ; provinciei 
province, provinrien ; Jcanarie, canary, hanaries. 

The following, however, which have the accent on the 
final ie, take en: 



knie, 
drie, 


Knee, 
three, 


knieen. 
drieen. 


copie, 
genie, 
theorie } 


copy, 

genius, 

theory, 


copteen. 
genieen. 
theorieen, 



FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 



37 



melodie, 

harmonie, 

menagerie, 

profttie, 

philosophic, 

photographie, 

galanterie, 



tnelodieen. 

harmonieen. 

menagerieen. 

profetieen. 

philosophiee' n. 

photographieen. 

galanterieen. 



melody, 

harmony, 

rnenagery, 

prophecy, 

philosophy, 

photography, 

fancy article, 

Mark the diaeresis on the last e, which these words have 
in common with those ending in ee : zee, sea, zeeen ; wee, 
woe, weeen. 

VIII. The double plural ending ers or eren, is adopted 
by the following nouns of the neuter gender : 

See § IX. 



blad, 


leaf, 


bladen or bladeren. S 


ei, 


e gg» 


eiers or eieren. 


gelid, 


rank, 


gelederen. 


gemoed, 


mind, 


gemoederen. 


goed, 


goods, 


goederen. 


hoen, 


fowl, 


hoenders. 


half, 


calf, 


kalvers or kalveren. 


kind, 


child, 


hinders or kinderen. 


lam, 


lamb, 


lammers or lammeren. 


lied, 


song, 


liederen. 


rod, 


wheel, 


raderen. 


rund, 


cow or ox, 


runders or runderen. 


spaan, 


chip, 


spaanders. 


voile, 


nation, 


volken or volkeren. 



Note. — This double ending is not an original one. As in German, so also in Dutch, 
the plural of neuter nouns was formerly formed by er. To this plural ending 
it has become customary to add the endings used for the other genders, viz., 
« and en, which custom has created the double forms ers and eren now in use. 
In compound words the old ending er still expresses a real plural : kinder- 
kamer, nursery : Jioenderhok, fowl-bouse; eiermand, eg,; -basket. 

The old plural is used with a singular meaning in spaander, chip, and in 
the Cape Dutch forms een hoender, een eier. 

IX. Some homonymous words bring out their different 
meanings in the plural. Such are — 



Singular. 


First 
- Plural. 


Meaning. 


Second 
Plural. 


Meaning. 


been, 


beenen, 


legs. 


beenderen, 


bones. 


blad, 


bladen, 


leaves of 
books. 


bladeren, 


leaves of 
trees. 


deken, 


dekens, 


blankets. 


dekenen, 


deacons. 


heiden, 


heidens, 


gipsies. 


heidenen, 


heathen. 


hemel, 


hemels, 


canopies. 


hemelen, 


heavens. 


kleed, 


kleeden, 


carpets. 


kleederen, 


clothes. 



38 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Singular. 
Jcnecht, 

Utter, 

man, 

middel, 

reden, 

spel, 

studie, 

tafel, 

vader, 
teeken, 
vwrtel, 
zoon, 



First 
Plural. 

knechts, 

letters, 

mans, 

middels, 

redens, 

spellen, 

studies, 

tafels, 

vaders, 
teeken s, 
wortels, 
zoons, 



Me aning. 

men-serv- 
ants, 
letters, 
husbands, 
waists, 
ratios, 
booths, 
sketches, 
tables. 

fathers, 
signs, 
roots. 

children of 
one family. 



Second 
Plural. 

knechten* 



Meaning. 

slaves. 



letteren, 

mannen, 

middelen, 

redenen, 

spelen, 

studien, 

tafelen, 

vaderen, 
teekenen, 
wortelen, 
zonen. 



* Note. — In composition knechten only should be used: to 
diinstbnechtcn, male servants, 



literature. 

men. 

means. 

reasons, 

games. 

studies. 

tables (of the 
law) 

ancestors. 

miracles. 

carrots. 

natives of the 
same coun- 
try. 
ijgsJcnechten, soldiers; 



8mid, 


smith, 


smeden. 


split, 


slit, 


spleten. 


stad, 


town, 


steden. 


vloo, 


flea, 


vlooien. 


rede, 


speech, 


redenen, 



X. A few words have an irregular plural form : 

lid, limb and member, leden. 
schif), ship, schepen. 

koe, cow, hoeien. 

zoo, sod, zooien. 

vleesch, meat, flesh, vleezen, 
(old Dutch vlees, vlcys.) 

Note 1. — Smids, smiths, and zoden, sods, are likewise used. 
Note 2. — The i in the plural forms of koe and vloo is the h of their German 
cognates. 

2. Words ending in held (old D. liede) take heden : 
waarheid, waarheden, truth ; zaligheid, zaligheden, bliss. 

Note. — This ending corresponds to the old English head : Godhead, Godheid ; and 
the modern hood ; childhood, kindsheid. 

3. Words compounded with man commonly take the 
plural lieden, the colloquial form of which is lui : timmerman, 
carpenter, timmerlieden (timmcrluf) ; jonlcman, bachelor, 
jongelieden (lui). The plural mans or mannen, is, however, 
used as well. Engehchman, Englishman, has Engelschen; 
likewise Framchman, Frenchman, Franschen. Bnurman, 
neighbour, takes Imren. 

4. The plural of armvol, armful, and handvol, handful, is 



FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 



39 



armvollen and handvollen. The EDglish "spoonful" lias 
no equivalent in Dutch : two spoonfuls = twee lepels vol. 

The words asch, ashes, leven, life, and bod, bid, are 
always used in the singular : He has had two bids for his 
house, hij Tieeft tweemaal een bod voor zijn huis geliad. 

Notice also : They have lost their lives in it, zij hebben er 
het leven bij verier en. 

Note. — Cbserve.however — It has cost many lives, Het hee/tveel menschenlevens gekost 

XI. The following words have no plural form : 

1. Proper Nouns, except when they designate different 
individuals of the same family names : de Hugo's, members 
of the Hugo family. 

2. Names of Materials, except when they express 
particular kinds, or certain specified quantities or pieces : 
wateren, rivers or seas ; brooden, loaves ; zouten, chemicals ; 
icijnen, wines. 

3. Abstract Nouns, except when they express a variety : 
deugden, virtues; schoonheden, beauties; bevalligheden, 
graces. 

4. The following, which, having no plural form of their 
own, borrow that of synonymous words : 



Words. 


Synonyms. 


Meanings. 


Plural Forms. 


UdithoiJ, 


aanbieding, 


offer, 


aanbiedingen. 


bedrog, 


belriegerij, 


deceit, 


bedriegerijen. 


Meg, 


lelegering, 


siege, 


belegeringen. 


doel, 


doeleinde, 


purpose, 


doeleinden. 


genot, 


genieting, 


pleasure, 


genictingen. 


gevoel, 


gcvoelen, 


feeling, 


gevoelens. 


hoop, 


verivachting, 


hope, 


verwuchtingen. 


in leg, 


inlage, 


deposit, 


inlagen. 


kunde t 


kundigheid, 


knowledge, 


kundigheden. 


leer, 


leering, 


doctrine, 


leeringen. 


oordeel, 


oordeeivelling, 


judgment, 


oordeeivelling en. 


raad, 


raadgeving, 


advice, 


raadgevingen. 


roof, 


rooverij, 


robbery, 


rooverijen. 


troost, 


vertroosting, 


consolation, 


lertroostingen. 


twijfd, 


twijfeling, 


doubt, 


tibijfelingen. 


verdritt, 


verdrietelij/ch e id, 


sorrow, 


verdrietelijkheden. 


zege, 


zegepraal, 


victory, 


zegepralen. 


zegen, 


zegenipg, 


blessing, 


zegeningen. 



4<J 



THE COMMERCIAL tiUTCII GRAMMAR. 



XII. The following words have no singular : 


gebroeders, 


brothers (in a com- 


manieren, 


manners. 




mercial firm). 


mazelen, 


measles. 


hersenen, 


brains. 


cnkosten, 


expense. 


inkomsten, 


revenue. 


ouders, 


parents. 


kolen. 


coal. 


pokken, 


small-pox. 


kosten, 


cost. 


toebereidselen, 


preparations. 


ledematen, 


limbs (of the body). 


voorotiders, 


ancestors. 


lieden, 


people. 


zeden, 


customs. 


manen, 


mane. 


zemelen, 


bran. 



And the names of several mountain ranges and groups of 
islands : 

de Pyreneeen, the Pyrenees ; de Apennijnen, the Apennines. 

Note. — There are in Dutch no such combinations as " a pair of scissors," " a 
pair of compasses," by which one object only is meant. A " pair of scissors " 
is simply eene schaar, plural scharen. A "pair of spectacles'' is ecne bril, 
plural brillen. Naturally, " a pair of boots " is eenpaar sckoenen. 

XIII. Of some words the singular form is used with a 
plural meaning : 

(a) To express measure, weight or number : 

de voet, the foot ; 
het pond, the pound ; 
hetpaar, the pair; 
het dozijn, the dozen ; 



vier voet lang, four feet long. 

vijftig pond zwaar, weighing fifty pounds. 
twee paar schoenen, two pairs of shoes. 
tien dozijn pennen, ten dozen nibs. 



(b) In the following idioms : 

op de been (for beenen) brengen, 
onder de voet (for voeten) geraken, 
slaag (for slagcii) krijgen, 



to raise (of an army), 
to be trampled over, 
to be thrashed. 



Obs. — The following should be noticed: dric guldens, three florins, 
means three coins, each a florin — whereas drie gulden means 
any number of coins which together represent the value of 
three florins; vijf ellen laken, five yards of cloth, means live 
different pieces of cloth eaeli measuring one yard — whereas 
vijf el laken means one piece of dotl) measuring live yards. 



FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 



4i 



XIV. — Final Consonants with regard to the 
Formation of the Plural. 

Rules for changing final / and s into v and z. 

1. A final consonant, occurring after a full vowel or a 
diphthong, is not doubled before a plural ending : boeJc, 
book, boehen ; ruit, pane, ruiten. 

The same rule applies when an imperfect vowel becomes 
full in the plm*al, as in the following 27 : 



bad, 


bath, 


laden. 


verdrag 


, treaty, 


verdragev. 


blad, 


leaf, 


bladen. 


bevel, 


command, 


bevelen. 


dag, 


day, 


dagen. 


gebed, 


prayer, 


gebeden. 


dak, 


roof, 


daken. 


gebrek, 


fault, 


gebrekcn. 


dal, 


valley, 


dalen. 


spel. 


game, 


spelen. 


fiat, 


bole, 


gaten. 


tred, 


step, 


treden. 


glas, 


glass, 


glazen. 


weg, 


way, 


ivegen. 


<jraf, 


grave, 


graven. 


god, 


god, 


goden. 


pad, 


path, 


paden. 


hof, 


court, 


hoven. 


rad, 


wheel, 


raderen. 


Jwl, 


den, 


holen. 


slag, 


blow, 


sfagen. 


lot, 


lot, 


loten. 


staf, 


staff, 


staven. 


oorlog, 


Avar, 


oorlogen. 


va', 


1 arrel, 


vat en. 


schol, 


shot, 


schoten. 






slot, 


lock, 


tlot en. 





2. Nouns ending in a consonant, preceded by a short 
vowel, which retains its imperfect sound in the plural, 
double their final consonant: boh, goat, bokhen ; hale, heel, 
hakken; bloJc, block, bloMcen ; hat, cat, Icatten. This 
doubling of the consonant serves to close the first syllable 
and to open the second, thereby preserving the imperfect 
vowel-sound. 

Exceptions : 

1. Ch (final) is never doubled, and sch only doubles its s: 

glimlach, smile, glimlachen ; musch, sparrow, musschen. 

2. When the final consonant is preceded by an unaccented i 

or e, it is not doubled, so as not to change the accent: 
joerzik, peach, pe'rziken (not perzikken) ; rnonnik, monk, 
raonniken (nor monnikken) ; dreumes, dwarf, dreumesen 
(not dreumessen) ; havik, hawk, haviken (not havikken). 

The ending m, however, does not fall under this rule : secre- 
tdris, secretary, secretarissen ; vonnis, sentence, vonnissen. 

Ous. — Rules 1 and 2 apply to the formation of the infinitive forms 



42 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

of verbs, whose stem has a short vowel : baliken, to bake (stem 
bah) ; alsj to the flexion-forms of adjectives : dom, stupid, 
domme. 

3. Nouns ending in / or s, change / and s into v and z : 

(a) When preceded either by a diphthong, a full vowel, or one 
which becomes full in the plural, e.g. duif, pigeon, duiven ; haas, 
hare, hazen. Except — philosofen, philosophers, photografen, photo- 
graphers, Icousen, stockings, Jcruisen, crosses, struisen, ostriches, 
pausen, popes, spiesen, spears. 

(b) When preceded by a consonant,/ changes into v, except in 
the two foreign words triomfen, triumphs, and nimfen, nymphs. 

The s only changes into z when preceded by I, m, and r: 
halzen, necks; gemzen, chamois; laarzen, boots; — and in 
the following words in ns : 

Bonzen, bounces; ganzen, geese ; trenzen, snaffles; grenzevt 
boundaries ; grijnzen, grins ; cijnzen, tributes ; donzen, 
downs (feathers) ; likewise the verb glanzen, to shine. 

Walser), walses; polsen, pulses; hoarsen, candles; leer sen, 
cherries; koersen, courses; persen, presses; schorsen, 
barks (of trees); floersen, veils (figurative), are excep- 
tions. 

Note. — The cause of ibis change of final letters must be found in the original form 
of these w ords. They formerly ended in ve and ze but dropped their final e : 
duive, roze (the plural of which was naturally duiven, rozeri), became duiv, 
rooz, and afterwards duif, roos, the hardening of final t> and z tending to 
facili'ate the pronunciation. 



GKAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 

EXKRCISE VIII. 

Write the plural forms of : 
1. 

Paard, horse; merrie, marc; half, calf; huihen, chicken; 
hoen, fowl ; haan, cock ; hen, hen ; schaap, sheep ; ooi, ewe ; 
ram, ram; volh, nation; man, man; wind, wind; storm, 
storm ; schip, ship ; ei, egg ; mand, basket ; zoon, son ; 
vader, father ; last, burden ; lepel, spoon ; vorh, fork ; mes, 
knife ; lade, drawer ; bord, plate ; inhtpot, inkpot ; pen, 
pen ; papier, paper ; vloeipapier, blotting-paper ; boeh 
book ; bladzijde, page ; halender, calendar ; maand, month ; 
weeh, week ; jaar, year ; dag, day ; minuut, minute • 



FORMATION OT THE PLURAL. 43 

hoartier, quarter ; klok, clock ; wijzer, hand ; slinger, pen- 
dulum ; muur, wall ; learner, room ; tafel, table ; stoel, 
chair; lamp, lamp. 

2. 
Paal, pole ; draad, wire ; schroef, screw ; sjoijher, nail ; 
hamer, hammer; boor,- gimlet ; beitel, chisel; zaag, saw; 
timmerman, carpenter ; metselaar, mason ; troffel, trowel ; 
schietlood, plummet; JiaaJc, square; waterpas, water-level ; 
kruiwagen, wheelbarrow ; schojp, shovel ; graaf, spade ; 
hark, rake ; schoffel, hoe ; bloem, flower ; struilc, bush ; 
Jieester, shrub ; grond, soil ; perk, plot ; bed, bed ; pad, 
path; boom, tree; blad, leaf; knop, bud; ticijg, twig; tak, 
branch; wortel, root; huis, house; dale, roof; raam, 
Avindow ; learner, room ; waranda, verandah ; keuken, 
kitchen; stal, stable; bad, bath; gang, passage; portaal, 
lobby; trap, staircase; leuning, rail; trede, step; zolder, 
loft ; plafond, ceiling. 

EXERCISES FOR TRANSLATION.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

ik ben, I am. ik heb, I have. 

glj zijt, thou art. gij hebt, thou hast. 

hij is, he is. hij heeft, he has. 

zij is, she is. zij heeft, she has. 

het is, it is. het heeft, it has. 

u is (form of address), you u heeft (in address), you 

are. have. 

teij zijn, we are. wij hebben, we have. 

gij zijt, you are. gij hebt, you have. 

zij zijn, they are. zij hebben, they have. 

Kotb. — Words, if not given above the exercises, will be found in the forego ing 
Gr. Ex., or in the Transl. Ex. pp. 29-31; 

Exercise IX. 
My, mijn (m and 0), mijne (y) ; his, zijn (m and o), 
zijne (v) ; her, haar (m and 0), hare (v~) ; your, uw (mi 
and 0), uwe (v) ; our, onze (m and v), ons (0) ; their, hun 
(>/t and 0), hunne (v). 

I have a pencil. You have a carriage and a horse. Wo 
have a house. The study has a door and a window. Tho 



44 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH' GRAMMA ti. 

child has a book and an umbrella. The horse has a stable. 
You have a cupboard in your house. He is in the room. 
You are in your study. Are they in the carriage ? They 
have a table in their room. The lion has a cage in the 
garden. His stick is on his bock. Our horse is in the 
street. The sun has heat in (the) summer. 

Exercise X. 

Lady, dame, f; this, deze (m and v), dit (o) ; that, die (wi 
and v), dat (o) ; or, of. 

Is this carriage mine ? Have you her bonnet or her 
cap ? We have his pencil and his book. Are you in her 
room? He is in his room. Is mother in her room ? That 
lady is in her study. Child, you are dirty. He has the 
wheel of our carriage in the stable. The dog is in their 
garden : it (he) is mine. The lady and the child are in 
their room. The mother and the boy have a bird in a 
ca<;e. The door of our stable is broken. A door of a 
cupboard is never large. We have a child : it is often ill. 
Jo (the) summer the days are long. 







Exercise XI. 






school, 


, school, v. 


longer, langer. 


yes, 


ja. 


slate, 


lei, v. 


many, veel. 


also, 


ooJc. 


two, 


twee. 


on, aan. 


there, 


er. 


iivo, 


™>y. 


hundred, honderd. 


thousand. 


, duizend. 


than, 


dan. 


those, die. 







Noth.— Words in square brackets [ ] are not to be translated. 

The chickens are in the garden. Two of our hens have 
chickens. In the school we have inkpots, books, and 
slates. On the table there are forks and knives. Have 
you [got] blotting-paper in your books? Years are longer 
than months, and months are longer than days. Are 
there leaves on the trees, and buds on the shrubs ? These 
books have many pages. Wo have two windows in our 
kitchen. The lobbies in those houses are large, and tlio 
staircases high. The boy has many eggs in his basket. 



FORMATION OF Ti/E PLURAL. 



45 



ttis father lias [a] thousand sheep, and my uncle has five 
hundred ewes. Have you [any] screws or nails for me ? 
Yes, and also a hammer, and a gimlet. 



Exercise XII. 

sister, zuster, v. why, waarom. me, mij. 

brother, broeder, m. only, maar. no, neen. 

bedroom, slaapJcamer, v. good, goed. more, meer. 

parents, ouders, m. very, zeer, heel, but, maar. 

one, een, eerie, een. all, al. for, voor. 

where, toaar. these, deze. 

You have two horses in your stables. Why only two ? 
Staircases have steps and railings. We have more flowers 
in our garden than you. Yes, but I have more shrubs in 
mine. How many (hoeveel) bedrooms are there in your 
house ? One for my sister, two for my brothers, one for 
my parents, and one for me. Have ihe children [got] 
rakes and hoes? No, but the boys have spades. Car- 
penters use (gebruiken) chisels, saws, and hammers, and 
masons use trowels, squares, and a plummet. The buds 
on the trees are large. I am on the roof of our house. 
Where are you, mother? I am in the kitchen, my boy. 
Is the soil in his gardon good? Yes, the soil in all theso 
gardens is very good. 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise XIII. 



wet—. 
meadows. 



Eill up the blanks, Using nouns in the plural : 

Onz- hoe- en onz- schaap- loopen in de 
Our cows and our sheep run in the 

Waar zijn d- mensch-, die gisteren Jiier war en ? Eend- 
Where are the people, who yesterday here were ? Ducks 

en gans- zijn zwemvogel—. Leeuw—, beer—, tijgei-, 

and get se are swimming birds. Lions, hears, tigers, 



46 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

wolf—, vos—, en Teat- zijn alle dieren, die vleesch eten. 
wolves, foxes, and cats are all animals that flesh eat. 

Olifant—, Jcameel—y os—, bok— en schaap— eten geen 
Elephants, camels, oxen, goats and sheep eat no 

vleesch, maar plant—. Op onz— reis— hebben wij stad-, 
flesh, but plants. On our journeys have we towns, 

dorp-, rimer—, beek—, sluts—, brug-, markt-, herk — , 
villages, rivers, brooks, sluices, bridges, markets, churches, 

tor en— , schip—, en zoo voorts (enz.) gezien. De voornaamste 
• towers, ships, and so forth (etc.) seen. The principal 

deel- van liuis— zijn de fondament—, de muur—, de 
parts of houses are the foundations, the walls, the 

venster-, de deur—, de schoorsteen—, en de dak—. Schip— 
windows, the doors, the chimneys, and the roofs. Ships 

hebben kiel—, roer—, mast—, anker—, zeil—, vlag—, ra—. 
have keels, helms, masts, anchors, sails, flags, yards. 



tSXEROSi XIV. 

Dez— visch— wonen in de noordelijke zee—. Op punt- 
These fishes live in the northern seas. On points' 

icaar de golf- van twee oceaan— elkander ontmoeten, 
where the waves of two oceans each other meet, 

zijn die golf— zeer hoog. Hebt gij muis— of rat— in 
are those waves very high. Have you mice or rats in 

de vol— gezien ? De bosch- zijn vol eekhorentje— en 

the traps seen ? The woods are full (of) squirrels and 

aap—. De eekhoren— stelen de ei— uit de nest— 

monkeys. The squirrels steal the eggs out (of) the nests 

der vogel— in de hooge boom-. Meerkat— leven in gat— 
of the birds in the high trees. Marmosets live in holes 

in het- veld. Wij ontdekten gisteren drie echo- in de 
in the field. We discovered yesterday three echoes in the 

berg-. De dal- zijn vol bloem-, en al de 

mountains. The valleys are full (of) flowers, and all the 
8truik- hebben knop~, De land— zijn in provineie— 
shrubs have bud«. The countries are in provinces 



FORMATION OF THE PLURAL. 47 

verdeeld, en die weder in wijlc-. De dame— hebben de 
divided, and those again in wards. The ladies have tho 

photographie— in album— gezet. Dez- Jcind— zijn in 
photographs in albums put. These children are in 

hunne hoop- teleurgesteld. Ik Tcan uio- aanbod— niet 
their hopes disappointed. I can your offers not 

aannemen. Drie stoomboot- zijn vergaan, en honderden 
accept. Three steamers are wrecked, and hundreds 

mensch- omgehomen. 
(of) people perished. 



TE ANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise XV. 

sugar, suiher, v. tea, thee, v. coffee, hoffle, v. 

oats, haver, v. journey, reis, v. tie, das, v. 

glove, handschoen, m. shirt, hemd, o. hat, hoed, m, 

one, Sen, taller, grooter, give, geef. 

for sale, te hoop. 

NOTE. — Words given as examples to special rules are n t repeated. 

How many loaves have you [got] ? I have five loaves. 
Have you [got] two spoonfuls of sugar for me? A 
handful, if you like (ah gij wilt). Those Englishmen 
are taller than these Frenchmen. My neighbours are 
carpenters and masons. Our horses have oats, and our 
cows bran and water. Give me five pounds [of] tea, and 
two pounds [of] coffee. The boys have two dozen nibs- ' 
These walls are [a] hundred feet high. One child ha 
(the) small pox, and two children have (the) measles. 
There are great (fjroote~) preparations for his journey. 
Shirts, stockings, ties, gloves, and hats are for sale at 
Scott brothers (bij de Gebroeders Scott) in (the) I'lein 
Street. 



40 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



woman, vrouw, v. 
shop, icinkel, m. 
girl, meisje, o. 
sea, zee, v. 
rabbit, Jconijn, o. 
tooth, tand, m. 



Exercise XVI. 

land, land, o. 
key, sleutel, m. 
boot, schoen, m. 
rat, rat, v. 
mole, mol, m. 
strong, sterh 
broken, gebroken. 



carpet, tapijt, o. 
mouse, muis, v. 
outside, buiten. 
new, nieuio. 
on, in. 

along, langs. 



We have two uncles, two aunts, and five nephews. The 
women are in the shop, and their husbands are outside. 
The roots of the trees are long and strong. The tree has 
[a] thousand leaves, and my book has only [a] hundred 
leaves. The bones of his legs are broken. All the rooms 
have new carpets, and the girls have new clothes. The 
songs of your children are new to me (mij nieuio). The 
watch has many wheels. We have [a] hundred lambs, 
and many fowls also. The ships are on the sea, and the 
towns are on (op) the land. There are two kinds of meat 
(two meats) on [the] table. We have sods along the paths 
in our garden. These doors have locks and keys. 
Children have many faults. There are holes in those 
walls. The heels of my boots are high. Cats, rats, mice, 
rabbits, and moles have sharp teeth. 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise XVII. 

1. 

Write out the plural forms of: 

Toestel, apparatus ; sclwp, spado ; haard, hearth ; Jcachel, 
stove; blaJcer, candlestick; Tcandelaar, candlestick; tropee, 
trophy ; evangelie, gospel ; knie, knee ; zee, sea ; lijf, body ; 
corzet, corset ; lens, motto; ei, egg; blad, leaf; dak, roof ; 



if%. 



FORMATION OFWHE PLURAL. 49 

bol, globe ; lea, lesson ; mombakkes, musk ; vonnis, sentence ; 
schijf, disk ; laars, boot ; slof, slipper ; pantoffel, slipper ; 
zool, sole ; dans, dance ; Itrans, wreath ; varhen, pig ; Icoe, 
cow; half, calf; big, young pig; 08, ox; giraffe, giraffe; 
tobbe, tub ; sclians, trench ; duif, dove ; doffcr, male pigeon ; 
staatsman, policeman ; ambachtsman, artisan ; perzik, peach ; 
druif, grape ; peer, pear ; liavik, hawk ; musch, sparrow ; 
kolibri, colibri ; raad, advice or council ; genot, pleasure ; 
zege, victory ; bedrog, deceit ; goedheid, goodness ; gebcrgte, 
mountain range; studie, study ; lidmaat, member or limb ; 
rif, reef, carcass ; vleesch, meat ; tin, tin ; ijzer, iron ; smid, 
blacksmith ; xcortel, root, carrot ; kernel, heaven, tester (of 
a bed); genie, genius ; tonrnooi, tournament ; dame, lady ; 
dokter, physician ; doctor, doctor ; horloge, watch ; gelid, 
rank ; berin, she-bear ; via, custard ; kanarie, canary ; 00m, 
uncle ; been, leg, bone ; papegaai, parrot ; spel, game ; 
philosoof, philosopher ; struis, ostrich ; nimf, fair}' ; neus, 
nose ; eh, awl ; hertog, duke ; graaf, count ; koningin, 
queen; zoon, son; domoor, dunce; vlag, flag; glas, glass; 
teen, toe, osier ; warande, verandah ; bies, rush ; menagerie, 
menagery ; Jiypotheek, bond ; mikroskoop, microscope ; idee, 
idea ; telegram, telegram ; piano, piano ; harmonium, har- 
monium ; twee, two ; drie, three ; zes, six ; negen, nine ; vijf, 
five ; zeven, seven ; nul, zero ; opstel, composition ; dictaat, 
dictation ; preek, sermon ; rcden, reason. 



CoNVERSATIE. CONVERSATION. 

Maaltijden. Meals. 

1. Heeft u ontbeten ? 1. Have you had breakfast ? 

2. Nog niet ; wij oribijten ge- 2. Not yot, we usually break- 

woonlijk om 9 uur. fast at 9 o'clock. 

3. Wil u nil een hop kojjie 3. Will you take a cup of 

gebruiken ? coffee now ? 

4. Dank u; ik wacht lievcr 4. No, thanks; I prefer wait- 

tot het ontbijt. iug till breakfast time. 

5. Wil u bij mij komen di- 5. Will you come and dine 

neeren? 'with me? 



5° 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



G. Dank u ; ik ben reds uit- 6. 
gevraagd. 

7. Kom dan morgen ioch 7. 

Jcoffie drinlcen om 1 uur, 
of soupeeren om 9 uur. 

8. Geef mij een bord soep. 8. 

9. Geef mij een stuhje gebra- 9. 

den vleesch en wot radijs. 

10. Is de biefstuh malsch ? 10. 

11. Kan ik u dienen met wat 11. 

gestoofd schapenvleesch f 

12. Mag ik u een stukje gebra- 12. 

den beestenvleesch geven ? 

13. Ik wil graag iets van dien 13. 

gebraden eend en wat 
groene ervden nemen. 

14. Wat groente mag ik u aan- 14. 

bieden f 

15. Gesto'fde aardappelen en 15. 

bloemkool, als H u blieft. 

16. Zal u wijn of bier gebrui- 1G. 

ken ? 

17. Geef mij een glas stout. 17. 

18. Er zijn poddingen, taarten 18. 

en pastijen ; wat mag ik 
u zeriden . ? 

19. Wat appeltaart en via. 19. 

20. Voor dessert zijn er rozijnen 20. 

en amandelen, gember, 
appelen, sinaasappelcn, 
ananassen en vijgen. 

21. Blieft u thee of kqffie na den 21. 

eten f 

22. Een klein kopje sterke koffic, 22. 

ah 7 u blieft. 
2">. Vcrkiest u het zonder melk 23. 
en suiker ? 

24. Chocolade gebruik ik zonder 24. 

suiker, maar nooit thee of 
kojfie. 

25. Geef mij het brood cens 25. 

'/'in, als H xi blieft. 

26. Ik houd van ham met cieren 26. 

voor ontbijt. 

27. Zou u mij de kaas willen 27. 

passeeren ? 

28. Met genoegen. 28. 



1 am invited out, thanks 

very much. 
Well, then come to luncheon 

to-morrow at 1 o'clock, or 

to supper at 9 o'clock. 
Give me a plate of soup. 
Give me some roast beef 

and some radish. 
Is the beefsteak tender. 
Can I help you to some 

mutton stew ? 
May I give you some roast 

beef? 
I should like some roast 

cluck and green peas, 

please. 
What vegetables can I offer 

you? 
Boiled potatoes and cauli- 
flower, please. 
Will you take wine or 

beer ? 
Give me a glass of stout. 
There are puddings, tarts 

and pies; which shall I 

send you ? 
Some apple-tart and custard. 
For dessert there are raisins 

and almonds, preserved 

ginger, apples, oranges, 

pineapples and figs. 
Will you take tea or coffee 

after dinner ? 
A small cup of strong coffee, 

please. 
Do you prefer it without 

milk and sugar? 
I take chocolate without 

sugar, but never tea or 

coil'ce. 
Pass me the bread, please. 



and 



for 



I like ham 

breakfast. 
May 1 trouble you for thg 

cheese ? 
With pleasure. 



( 5< ) 



CHAPTEE V. 
THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

(Het Geslacht der Zelfstandige Naamwoorden.~) 

I. The gender of a noun is the way in which it is declined. 
. There being three different ways of declining a noun, there 
are accordingly three genders, called the Masculine, the 
Feminine, and the Nenter gender (het Mannelijk, Vrouwe- 
lijh en Onzijdig geslacht). It should he apparent from this 
definition, that the names of inanimate objects must be 
treated like the names of persons and animals, and are 
therefore not Neater on account of things having no sex, 
but are Masculine, Feminine, or Neuter, according as 
they are declined. 

Kotk to the Stcdent. — To fort igners there is perhaps nothing more difficult 
in the Dutch language than the genders. Even to born Dutchmen they are a 
great drawback to correct writing. In speaking only two genders are observed, 
Neuter nouns being by instinct felt to be neuter, while all other substantives, 
even those that are most obviously feminine, are used with the masculine 
gender. The rules below are indispensable for correct writing. However, 
after having acquired them, the student will find that he is by no means able 
to determine the gender of every Dutch word. More rules might be added, 
but the difficulty would remain.-- The only way to acquire the ganders is to 
make it a practice to observe them with the nouns as ofien as they occur. A 
good reliable dictionary, besides, is indispensable for reference. 

II. Rules to ascertain the Gendep of Nouns. 

1. Names of male persons and male animals are 
Masculine, as : honing, king ; broeder, brother ; leeuw, lion ; 
8 tier, bull. 

2. Names of female persons and female animals are 
Feminine, as: heizerin, empress; waschvrouv, washer- 
woman ; berin, she-bear ; hoe, cow. 

Exceptions: het itijf, the woman (term of contempt), is Ncnt. 
Het arme menst-h, the poor creature, is heard of women, 
tliouirh mensdt is Mate. 



3* THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GkAMMAk. 

3. When the male and the female animal have only one 
name, that name is Masculine for the larger animals, 
and Feminine for the smaller, as (Masculine) : struts, 
ostrich ; kameel, camel ; and (Feminine) : Teat, cat ; mnis, 
mouse. 

Exceptions: rnol, mole; spreeuw, starling; nachtegaal, nightin- 
gale ; vink, finch ; kikvorsch, frog, are Mase. Giraffe, giraffe, 
is Fern. 

4. When the male and the female animal have each a 
separate name, but there is a third name for the two 
together, this third name is Neuter, as: ram, ram, 
Masculine ; ooi, ewe, Feminine ; schaap, sheep, Neuter ; 
Haun, cock, Masculine; lien, hen, Feminine; and hoen, 
foivl, Neuter. 

Exception : hond, dog, is Masc, though it has reu for the male 
and tee/ for the female animal. 

5. Names of trees are Masculine, as : eik, oak ; wilg, 
willow. 

Exceptions: Uncle, lime-tree, tamarisk, and tamarinde, tamarind- 
tree, are Fern. 

6. Names. of shrubs, plants, and flowers are Feminine, 
as : jasmijn, jessamine ; geranium, geranium ; rogge, rye ; 
perzilc, peach ; 'peer, pear. 

The word slruik, shrub, is Masculine. 

Exceptions : The names of plants and fruits eliding in oen, ier, 
ing, er, and el are Masc. : meloen, melon ; anjelier, pink ; 
Zuring, sorrel ; eikel, (aker), acorn ; komkommer, cucumber ; 
mispcl, medlar ; klaver, clover. 

7. Names of the parts of trees and plants are Feminine, 
as : scJiors, bark ; schil, peel ; twijg, twig. 

Exceptions : tronk, trunk ; etam, stem ; tak, branch ; vcortel, root ; 
and bast, bark, are Masc. ; blad, leaf, is Ncut. 

8. Names of mountains and large rivers are Masculine, 
as : de Mont Blanc, the Mont Blanc ; de Nijl, the Nile. 

9. Names of small rivers and brooks are Feminine, as: 
de Jordaan, Jordan ; de Kidron, Kidron* 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES, S3 

10. Names of seasons, months and days are Masculine, 
v.s : herfst, autumn ; Maart, March ; Zaterdaj, Saturday. 

Exception : lente, spring, is Fern. 

Note. — Dag, day, is Masc. ; eeuw, century, maanJ, month, andjweefc, wefikj are 
Fern. ; jaar, year, seizoen, season, and uur, hour, are Neut. 

11. Names of ships are Masculine, when they end in er, 
as : driemaster, three-masted ship. 

12. Names of ships are Feminine, when they do not 
end in er, as : sloejp, sloop ; boot, boat. 

Exceptions : fregat, frigate, and jacld, yacht, are Neut. 
Note. — The word schip, ship, is Neut. Pi opsr names of ships are Feminine. 

13. Monosyllabic names of the parts of ships are 
Feminine, as : ra, yard ; slang, bar ; Mel, keel. 

Exceptions : boeg, bow, and mast, mast, are Masc. Roer, helm ; 
text, sail ; ruim, hold ; del;, deck, are Neut. 

14. Names of coins are Masculine : stuiver, penny ; 
gulden, florin. 

Exception : het pond, the sovereign. 

15. Names of precious stones are Masculine, when they 
indicate single pieces, as: De diamanl in dezen ring, the 
diamond in this ring ; but when they have a collective 
meaning, they are Neuter: Het diamant van Zuid-Afrika, 
the diamond of South Africa. 

16. Stems of verbs expressing an action are Masculine, 
as : slaap, sleep ; glimlach, smile ; val, fall. 

Note. — Many words derived from verbal stems are Feminine because they used to 
have the ending e. Such are : eer, honour ; wraak, revenge ; spraalc, speech ; 
maat, measure; praal, splendour; vraag, question; vrees, fear; leer, doc- 
trine; straf, punishment; reis, journey ; hoop, hope; zorg, care; huur, ren f ; 
spijt, sorrow ; liulp, help ; break, breach ; keus, choice ; teug (fern, tijgen =z 
to draw), draught. 

17. Stems of verbs meaning an instrument or tool are 
Feminine, as : val, trap ; zaag, saw ; boor, gimlet. 

Exception : ploeg, plough, is Maso. 

18. Stems of verbs ending in st, in which st cannot be 
removed, are Masculine, as : twist, quarrel ; oojst, harvest ; 
dorst, thirs.t ; troost, consolation ; last, burden. 

Exception : rust, rest, is Fem. 



54 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

19. Stems of verbs to which st is added, and from which 
it can he separated, are Feminine, as : hunst, art ; Tcomst, 
coming. 

Exceptions ; dienst, service ; angst, anxiely; ernst, seriousness, 
are Masc. 

20. Stems of verbs with the unaccented verbal pre- 
fixes, he, ge, ver, and ont, are Neuter, as : hedrag, amount ; 
verlof, leave ; onthijt, breakfast. 

Exception : verJcoop, sale, is Masc. 

21. Names of the letters of the alphabet, of the figures, 
and of musical notes, are Feminine, as : eene o, an o ; eene 
vij'f, a five ; eene do, a do. 

22. Monosyllabic names of the parts of the human 
body are Feminine, as : heup, hip ; long, lung ; Ian, chin ; 
maag, stomach. 

Exceptions: arm, arm; news, nose; rug, back; voct, foot; hul, 
hi el; teen, toe; nek, neck; hals, neck; tund, tooth; moiul, 
mouth ; baard, beard, are Masc. 

Oor, car; oog, eye; vzl. skin; been, leg; lioofd, head; hart, 
heart ; lijf, body, arc Neuter. 

23. Names of musical instruments are Feminine, as : 
irompet, trumpet ; harp, harp ; viool, violin. 

Exceptions : triangel, triangle, is Masc. ; hlavier, piano, and orgd, 
organ, are Neuter. 

24. All diminutives are Neuter, as : hindje, little child ; 
raampje, small window. 

25. Names of materials, especially metals, are Neuter, 
as : goud, gold ; Icatoen, cotton. 

Exceptions: zijdc, silk; franje, fringe; hant, lace; teatten, 
wadding; mellc, milk; boter, butter; haas, cheese; tiroop, 
syrup; snuif, snuff; suilcer, sugar; lcool, coal; thee, tea; 
icol, wool; zeep, soap; ztoavel, sulphur; hamfer, camphor; 
gom, gum ; hars, resin^etc, are Fern 

Aluin, alum; azijn, vinegar; wijn, wine; halk, lime ; most* >■<}, 
mustard; tubal;, tobacco; room, cream; honincf, honey, etc., 
are Masc. 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 55 

26. Words expressing a collection of objects are Neuter, 
as : leger, army ; dozijn, dozen ; geld, money ; bosch, bosch. 

Exceptions : zwerm, swarm ; stoet, train ; troep, troop, are Muse. 
Bende, band ; vloot, fleet ; Indcle, flock ; schaar, crowd, 
are Fem. 

27. Words which begin with ge and end in te are 
Neuter, when they express a collection, as : gevogelte, all 
the birds ; gebeente, all the bones belonging to a skeleton. 

28. Names of countries, towns and villages are Neuter, 
as : het oude Borne, old Eome ; Jiet machtige Engeland, 
mighty England. 

Note. — Stad, town, ia Fem. ; land, country, and dorp, village, are Neut. 

29. The names of the young of animals are Neuter, as ; 
luiken, chicken ; veulen, colt ; lam, lamb ; half, calf ; welp, 
whelp. 

Exception : big, young pig, is Fem. 

30. Infinitive verbs, and further all parts of speech used 
as nouns, are Neuter, as : het leven, life, het voornemen, the 
intention ; het voor en tegen, the pro and con. 

31. Names of instruments ending in el, er, and aar, are 

Masculine, as : sleutel, key ; hamer, hammer ; Jessenaar, 

desk. 

Exceptions : griff el, slate-pencil ; sclioffel, hoe ; sikhel, sickle ; 
goffel, pitchfork; ladder, ladder; and hluister, fetter, are 
Fem. 

Note. — The endings er and el merle the Muse, render for essentially Dutch words. 
Words of foreign origin having these, endings are Neut., as: artikel, article; 
orgel, organ; offer, saciifice ; venstar, window; cijfcr, figure; klootta; 
convent ; meubel, piece of furniture. 

32. Words in m, em, rm, Im, end, and ond, are Masculine, 
as : riem, thong ; bezem, broom ; worm, worm ; zalm, 
salmon; ochi end, morning; avond, evening. 

Exceptions : bloem, flower ; Idem, germ ; and uniform, uniform, 
are Fem. Baam, window ; scherm, screen, are Neut. 

33. Words in dom, when expressing a state, or condition, 
as ; icasdom, growth ; adeldom, nobility (also as a collec- 
tive) ; rijlcdom, riches ; ovderdom, old age, are Masculine. 



56 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR, 

All the others are Neuter, as : Christendom, Christianity ; 
mcnschdom, human race ; Jiertogdom, dukedom. 

Notice that Christendom, Christianity, moans the creed of Chris- 
tians, while Eng. Christendom (the collective boJy of Chris- 
tians) is Dutch Christenheid. 

Heidendom, means both "heathenism" and "heathen" in a 
cullective sense. 

'( 34. Words in scJiap, indicating a profession or an estate, 
as priesterscJiap, priesthood ; graafscJiap, earldom ; landschap, 
province — and the words : gezantschap, embassy ; genoot- 
scJiap, society ; gereedscliap, tools ; and gezelschap, company, 
are Neuter. 

All the others are Feminine, as; blijdscJiap, joy; bood- 
schap, message; buurtschap, neighbourhood; rehenscliap, 
(rendering of) account; manscliap, crew. 

35. Words in ing, not derived from verbs, are Masculine, 
as : Jcctting, chain ; rotting, cane ; ring, ring. 

3G. Words in ing, derived from verbs, are Feminine, 
as : teeJcening, drawing ; bedoeling, meaning. 

37. Words ending in d, cht, t, e, ij, ie, uw, nis, heid, teit, 
uur, ier, are Fern., as : deugd, virtue ; kracht, strength ; 
mar Jet, market ; vreugde, joy ; Jicerschappij, dominion ; Jcnie, 
knee ; seliadnw, shadow ; begrafenis, funeral ; waarJieid, 
tiuth; majesteit, majesty ; natuur, nature ; rivier, river. 

Exceptions : in d — vloed, flood ; ecd, oath ; rand, border ; draad, 

thread ; raad, advice ; gloed, glow ; hoed, hat, are Muse. 

Jlemd, shirt ; zwaard, 6\vord ; leed, grief; lid, member (limb) ; 

and land, country, are Neut. 
In cht and t — echt, matrimony : plicht, duty ; nacht, night ; held, 

journey; geest, spirit, are Masc. Licht, light; icicht, babe; 

reeht, right ; ambi, profession ; amhacht, trade ; schrij't, writing, 

are Neut. 
In de — vrede, peace, is Masc. Gelcide, escort ; gctifcde), tide ; 

eind(e), end ; and leebbe, web, are Neut. 
In ie — concilie, council; evangelic, gospel; and genie, genius, 

and land, country, are Neut. 
In nis — vonnis, sentence ; and vuilnis (vidlis), dirt, are Neut. 

38. All words ending in sel and derived from Verbs are 
Neuter, as : deJcsel, lid ; handvatseJ, handle. 



ft/E GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES-. 57 

39. Foreign words in aan, ant (and'), aard and ont' 
are Masc, as : orkaan, hurricane ; oceaan, ocean ; foliant, 
book in folio ; tulband, turban ; standaard, standard ; 
tabbaard, gown ; horizont, horizon. 

40. Foreign words ending in as, eet, ot, iek, ier, text, uut, 
and uur, are Fern., as : matras, mattress ; Jcomeet, comet ; 
Jcalot, cap ; republiek, commonwealth ; rivier, river ; majes- 
teit, majesty ; natuur, nature ; minuut, minute. 

Exceitions: schavut, scaffold; ltoliek, colic; harnas, armour; 
hompas, compass; rnoerax, swamp; formulicr, formulary, 
heartier, quarter; papier, paper; avontuur, adventure, and 
Jinuur, shape, are Neuter. 

41. Foreign words in aal, aat, eel, ent, et, oen, oor, are 
Neut., as : portaal, portal ; hanaal, canal ; Mimaat, climate ; 
Icaraat, carat ; Jcasteel, castle ; prieel, summer-hou>e ; 
parlement, parliament; talent, talent; Jcorset, corset; 
harpoen, harpoon; Jcantoor, office; plantsoen, plantation; 
seizoen, season ; musJcet, musket ; belckeneel, skull. 

Exception : Icaneel, cinnamon, is Fcm. 

III. Rules FOR THE Common Gender. — Words which 
according to their signification, may either be Masculine 
or Feminine, are said to have a common gender (Gemeen 
geslaclif). They are : 

1. Names of persons and animals ending in ling: 

lieveling, darling ; vreemdeling, stranger ; neste- 
ling, nestling. 

2. Names of persons ending in noot or genoot : edit- 

genoot, consort; landgenoot, fellow-countryman; 
speelgenoot, playfellow. 

8. The following words : bode, messenger ; dienstbode, 
servant ; gids, guide ; getuige, witness ; wees, 
orphan; lidmaat, member of a congregation; 
erfgenaam, heir. 



58 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Besides these names of persons, a few other words have 
a double gender. They are : 

1. Words, metaphorically used to indicate persons ; 

ondeugd, Fern, with the meaning " vice " ; Masc. 
with the meaning " a naughty boy " ; and Fein, 
again, with the meaning " a naughty girl " : 
bloed, Neut., means " blood," Masc. " wretch." 

2. Names of fruits which apply also to trees pro- 

ducing the fruit. In that case the word is Fern, 
when it indicates the fruit, and Masc. when it is 
used for tho tree : leers, Fern, cherry, Jeers, Masc. 
cherry-tree. 

3. Names of materials which at the same time may 

indicate a separate piece. When the word is 
used for the material as such, it is either Neut. 
or Fern. ; when it indicates a piece, it is either 
Masc. or Fein. : 

Diamant, diamond, may be either Neut. or Masc. ; 
Turf, peat, is Fern, or Masc. ; 
Kurh, cork, is Neut. or Fein. 

In like manner visch, fish, is Masc. and Fem. : Ik huh 
eenen visch (Masc.) gcvangen, I caught a fish ; and Wij 
zullen visch (Fem.) voor oris middagmaal hebben, we shall 
have fish for dinner. 

IV. EULES FOR THE GENDER OF COMPOUND NOUNS. — All 

compound nouns follow the gender of their last part. 
Examples : huis is Neut., and deur is Fem., therefore 
huisdeur Fein.; Uifel is Fem., and Meed is Neut., there- 
fore ta/elkleed Neuter. 

There arc a few words, however, whose gender changes 
in composition : blik is Masc, but oogenblik, moment, is 
Neut. ; slip is Fem., but tijdstip, date, is Neut. ; kant is 
Masc, but vierkant, square, is Neut.; ho/ is Masc, but 
kerkhif, churchyard, is Neut. 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



59 



V. Words which have changed their Gender. — Tijd is 
now Masc. ; naclit is now Masc. ; feest is now Neut. ; oog 
is now Neut. ; hart is now Neut. ; oor is now Neut., whereas 
all these words were once Feminine. 



VI. Mark the following list of words 



Bal, ball, globe, Masc. 
Blik, look, Masc. 
Das, badger, Masc. 
Deken, deacon, Masc. 
Gang, passage, Fem. 
Graaf, count, Masc. 
Hof, court, Neut. 
Hoop, heap, Masc. 
Kant, edge or side, Masc. 
Loods, pilt>t, Masc. 
Maal, time, Fem. 
Morgen, acre, Neut. 
Palm, palm-tree, Masc. 
Patroon, cartridge, Fem. 
Post, post-office, Fem. 
Punt, subject, Neut. 
Slag, blow, Masc. 
Stof, material, Fem. 
Traan, tear, Masc. 
Trap, kick, Masc. 
Val, fall, Masc. 
VIek, stain, Fem. 
Vorst, prince, Masc. 
Zucht, sigh, Masc. 



Bal, dance, ball, Neut. 
Blik, tin, Neut. 
Das, neck-tie, Fem. 
Deken, blanket, Fem. 
Gang, gait, Masc. 
Graaf, spade, Fem. 
Hof, garden, Masc. 
Hoop, hope, Fem. 
Kant, lace, Fem. 
Loods, barn, Fem. 
Maal, meal, Neut. 
Morgen, morning, Masc. 
Palm, palm of the hand, Fem. 
Patroon, pattern, Neut. 
Post, situation, Masc. 
Punt, point and full-stop, Fem 
Slag, trap and kind, Neut. 
Stof, dust, Neut. 
Traan, whale-oil, Fem. 
Trap, staircase, Fem. 
Val, trap, Fem. 
VIek, hamlet, Neut. 
Vorst, frost and roof-ridge, Fem. 
Zucht, strong desire, or disease, 
Fem. 



VII. Natural Gender. — Natuurlijk Geslacht. — The 
Natural Gender of persons and animals is indicated by 
their names. 

The ending es makes Feminine names of persons of 
Masculine ones : dichter, poet ; dichteres, poetess ; zanger, 
singer ; zangeres, lady singer ; dienaar, servant ; dienares, 
(female) servant. 

The ending in docs the same: lconing, king; koningin, 
queen ; keizer, emperor ; heizerin, empress ; gemaal, con- 
sort, (Fem.) gemalin. 

It also derives names of female animals from those of 



6o 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



male: leeuw, lion, leeuwin; wolf, wolf, wolfin; beer, bear, 
berin. 

The ending ster makes Feminine names of the stems of 
verbs, where the male appellation is er : bakker, baker, 
balcster ; naaister, needle-woman; schoonmaakster, char- 
woman. 

The same ending ster is added to male appellations 
ending in aar : ioovenaar, magician, toovenaarster ; bedelaar, 
beggar, bedelaarster. The Feminine of dief, thief, is 
dievegge. 

Notice further tbe following distinctions : 



Masculine. 

man, man. 
man, husband. 
vader, father. 
zoon, son. 

bruigom, bride- 
groom. 

oora, uncle. 

neef, nephew, 
cousin. 

monnik, monk. 

heer, gentleman. 



Feminine. 

vrouw, woman. 
vrouw, wife. 
moeder, mother. 
dochter, daugh- 
ter. 
bruid, bride. 

tante, aunt. 
nicht, niece, 

cousin. 
non, nun, 
dame, lady. 



Masculine. Feminine. 



knecht, man-ser- 
vant. 

hengst, stallion. 

kater, he-cat. 

haan, cock. 

ram, ram. 

doffer, cock- 
pigeon. 

bul{stier), bull. 

bok, buck. 

bok, he-goat. 

woerd, drake. 

beer, male pig. 



meid, maid. 

merrie, mare. 
kat, she-cat. 
hen, hen. 
ooi, ewe. 
duif, hen- 
pigeon. 
koe, cow. 
hinde, doe. 
geit, she-goat. 
eend, ducV. 
zmg, sow. 



The animals are further distinguished as mannetje, 
male, wij/je, female, as : 

Mannetjes olifant, male elephant ; wijfjes kameel, female camel. 



VIII. Synopsis of Kules on the Gender. 

1. Animals. 

Special names of males are Masculine. 

Special names of females are Feminine. 

Names common to either sex, each having a special name besides, 

are Neuter. One exception. 
Names common to either sex, when no special names are used, are 

Masculine for Urge, and Feminine for small animals, Six 

exceptions, 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 61 

2. Ships. 

Names ending in er are Masculine. 

Names not ending in er are Feminine. Two exceptions. 

3. Stems of Verbs. 

Masculine when indicating an action. 

Feminine, when indicating an instrument. One exception. 

4. Words in dom. 

Masculine when indicating a state or condition. 
Neuter, all the others. 

5. Words in schap. 

Neuter when indicating profession, or estate. 
Feminine, all the others. Three exceptions. 

6. Words in st. 

Masculine when inseparable from stem. One exception. 
Feminine when separable from stem. One exception. 

7. Masculine only. 

Names of trees. Three exceptions. 

Names of mountains and large rivers. 

Names of seasons, months, and days. One exception. 

Names of coins. One exception. 

Names of precious stones. 

8. Feminine only. 

Names of shrubs, plants, and flowers. Exceptions. 

Names of small rivers, and brooks. 

Names of letters, and figures in arithmetic. 

Names of parts of trees. Six exceptions. 

Names of parts of the human body. Eighteen exceptions. 

Names of the parts of ships. Six exceptions. 

Names of musical instruments. Three exceptions. 

9. Neuter only. 

Names of countries, and towns. 

Names of collections. Seven exceptions. 

Names of materials. Exceptions. 

All diminutives. 

Names of collections with prefix ge, and auffix te. 



62 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Names of the young of animals. One exception. 
Stems of verbs, with inseparable accented particles. 
Stems of verbs, with unaccented prefixes. One exception. 
Infinitive forms of verbs and other parts of speech used as nouns. 

10. Masculine Endings. 

El, er, aar, (instruments ; six exceptions, and Neuter rule) ; ing 
(not derived from verbs) ; oen, ier, ing, er, el (fruits) ; m, lm, 
rm, ond, end. 

Aan, ant, (and), aard, ont (foreign words). 

11. Feminine Endings. 

D (eleven exceptions), clit (eleven exceptions), e (five exceptions), 
ie (three exceptions), nis (two exceptions), ing (derived from 
verbs). 

As, eet, ot, ielc, ier, teit, uut uur (foreign words, ten exceptions). 

12. Neuter Endings. 

Je, tje, pje and other diminutive endings. 

Sel (derived from verbs). 

Aal, aat, eel, ent, et, oen, oor (foreign words, one exception). 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloe/eningen. 

Exercise XVIII. 

1. 

State the genders of the following words : 

Duif, pigeon; muis, mouse; xoalviscli, whale; tijger, 
tiger ; hulje, little hut ; noot, nut ; Jcaravaan, caravan ; 
ochtend, morning ; loop, course ; icedren, race ; Woensdag, 
Wednesday ; Maart, March ; zivaluw, swallow ; blijdseliap, 
gladness ; goedheid, goodness ; geweer, gun ; meisje, girl ; 
jongen, boy ; honingin, queen ; hoest, cough ; scliaaf, plane ; 
lade, drawer ; hamer, hammer ; dorp, village. 

2. 

Haan, cock; Icuihen, chicken; stier, bull; half, calf; 
ladder, ladder; sleutel, key; vreugde, joy; slag, blow or 
trap; vol, fall or trap; spinnehop, spicier; bark, barque; 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 63 

trap, kick or staircase ; toevoegsel, addition ; menscMom, 
human race ; hyena, hyena ; plooisel, frilling ; vriend, friend ; 
gevangenis, prison ; paard, horse ; gros, gross ; last, burden ; 
geboomte, collection of trees. 

3. 

Hoop, hope ; bal, ball ; rijst, rice ; visch, fish ; lente, 
spring ; aap, ape ; zes, six ; herfst, autumn ; schaclit, 
shaft; leven, life; ouderdom, old age; dienst, service; 
schoffel, hoe ; getuigenis, testimony ; vriendschap, friend- 
ship ; Tcolieh, colic ; gedans, dancing ; geivicht, weight ; 
ontvangst, reception. 

4. 

Vierkant, square ; hart, heart ; maal, meal ; tooneel, 
scene ; smeersel, unguent ; minuut, minute ; kurk, cork ; 
fregat, frigate ; morgen, morning ; rust, rest ; horizont, 
horizon ; zalm, salmon ; kaneel, cinnamon ; Oostenrijk, 
Austria ; droom, dream ; gebed, prayer ; vlek, stain ; watten, 
wadding; gids, guide; landschap, landscape; schavot, 
scaffold. 

5. 

Express the Feminine form of the following Masculine 
words : 

Vijand, enemy ; ondericijzer, teacher ; vink, cock-finch ; 
kameel, male camel ; bruigom, bridegroom ; raadsman, 
counsellor ; meester, master ; dienaar, servant ; haan, cock ; 
boekhouder, book-keeper ; monnik, monk ; beschermer, pro- 
tector ; spreker, speaker ; ram, ram ; leugenaar, liar ; das, 
male badger ; slaaf, slave ; vriend, friend ; metgezel, com- 
panion ; 00m, uncle; hengst, stallion; woerd, drake; bok, 
he- goat ; aap, male monkey. 

6. 

Voogd, guardian ; wandelaar, walker ; voetganger, pedes- 
trian ; beer, boar ; beer, he-bear ; broeder, brother ; bakker, 
baker; graaf, count; doffer, male pigeon; meerkat, malo 



64 The commercial dutch grammar. 



marmoset ; tijger, male tiger ; bedrieger, deceiver ; zanger, 
singer; wolf, wolf; musch, cock-.sparrow ; heizer, emperor; 
neef, nephew; reiziger, traveller; Jcnecht, man-servant; 
peetoom, godfather; gemaal, consort; bole, buck; stier, 
bull; heer, gentleman ; schrijver, author ; dichter, poet. 

CONJUGATION OF TIJE VERBS " hebben," to have, 
and " zijn " to be. . 

Aantoonende Wijs. Indicative Mood. 

Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. Present Tense. 
Ik heb, I have. Ik ben, I am. 

Gij liebt, thou hast. Gij zijt, thou art. 

llij (zij, het) hceft, he (she, it) Ilij (zij, lief) is, he (she, it) is. 

has. 
Wij hebben, we have. Wij zijn, we are. 

Gij hebt, you have. Gij zijt, you are. 

Zij liebben, they have. Zij zijn, they are. 

XoTii. — Each of these verbs 's its own auxiliary. See next tense. 

Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. Perfect Tense. 

lie heb gehad, I have had. Ik ben geweest, I have been. 

Gij hebt gehad, thou hast had. Gij zijt geweest, thou hast been. 

Hi} heeft gehad, he has had. llij is geweest, he has been. 

Wij hebben gehad, we have had. Wij zijn geiveest, we have been. 

Gij hebt gehad, you have had. Gij zijt geweest, you have been. 

Zij hebben gehad, they have had. Zij zijn geweest, they have been. 

Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd. Imperfect Tense. 

Ik had, 1 had. Ik ivas, I was. 

Gij hadt, thou hadst. Gij waart, thou wast. 

llij had, he had. Hij was, he was. 

Wij hadden, we had. Wij waren, we were. 

Gij hadt, you had. Gij waart, you were. 

Zij hadden, they had. Zij waren, they were. 

Volmaakt Verleden Tijd. Pluperfect Tense. 

Ik had gehad, I had had. Ik was geiveest, I had been. 

Gij hadt gehad, thou hadst had. Gij waart geweest, thou hadst 
llij had gehad, lie had had, been. 

Wij hadden gehad, we had had. Ilij ivas geweest, he had been. 
Gij hadt gehad, you had had. Wij waren geweest, we had been. 

Zij hadden gehad, they had had. Gij waart geweest, you had been. 

Zij waren geweest, they had 
be<n. 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



65 



Aantoonende Wijs. 
Onvolmaakt Toekomende 

Ik zal hebben, I shall have. 
Oij zult hebben, thou wilt have. 
Hij zal hebben, he will have. 
Wij zullen hebben, we shall have. 
Oij zult hebben, you will have. 
Zij zullen hebben, they will have. 



Indicative Mood. 
Tijd. Future Tense. 

Ik zal zijn, I shall he. 
Oij zult zijn, thou wilt he. 
Hij zed zijn, he will be. 
Wij zullen zijn, we shall he. 
Oij zult zijn, you will be. 
Zij zullen zijn, they will be. 



Volmaalct Toekomende Tijd. Future Perfect Tense. 



Ikzalgehad hebben, I shall have 

had. 
Oij zultgehad hebben, thou wilt 

have had. 
Hij zal gehad hebben, he will 

have had. 
Wij zullen gehad hebben, we 

shall have had. 
Oij zult gehad hebben, you will 

have had. 
Zij zullen gehhebbad en, they 

will have had. 

Gebiedende Wijs. 
Enkelvoud. Singular. 



Ik zal geweest zijn, I shall have 

been. 
Gij zult geweest zijn, thou wilt 

have been. 
nijzal geweest zijn, lie will have 

been. 
Wij zullen geweest zijn, we shall 

have been. 
Gij zult geweest zijn, you will 

have been. 
Zij zullen geweest zijn, they will 

have been. 



Laat mij hebben, 

Heb, 

Laat hem hebben, 

Meervoud. 
Laat ons hebben, 
Hebt, 
Laat hen hebben, 



let me have, 
have (thou), 
let him have. 

Plural. 
let us have, 
have (ye), 
let them have. 



Imperative Mood. 
Enkelvoud. 
Laat mij zijn, 
Wees, 
Laat hem zijn, 



Singular. 
let me be. 
be (thou), 
let him be. 



Meervoud. Plural. 

Laat ons zijn, let us be. 

Weest, zijt, be (ye). 

Laat hen zijn, let them be. 



HOW TO TRANSLATE TIIE SECOND PERSON. 

In correspondence and public speaking " gij hebt, gij zijt," 
etc., are u ed with both singular and plural meaning. 

In prayer, also, " gij hebt, gij zijt," etc., are the only 
forms in vogue. 

In conversation " u heeft, u is," etc., should be used, 
though the forms " u hebt, u zijt," etc., are heard as well, 
especially when a plural meaning is to be conveyed. 

D 



66 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

In loose and familiar talk "je hebt, je zijt " are the 
singular, and "jullie hebt, jullie zijt" the plural forms in 
use. 

Parents to children, close friends to friends, children to 
children, masters to servants, use the pronoun "je " and 
"jullie." 

Foreigners should use " u " throughout, except when 
speaking to small children, or servants. 

Note.— These observations apply to the conjugation of all verbs. 

TRANSLATION EXERCISES.*— Vertaaloefeningen. 
Exercise XIX. 

First Rule of Construction. — When in a principal sentence 
the verb consists of two parts (auxiliary and past participle), 
the auxiliary is retained in the position occupied by the 
English verb, and the past participle forms the last word 
of the sentence. 

This rule may only be broken when various extensions, or a 
subordinate sentence intervening, the distance between 
the two parts of the verb is rendered greater than is 
consistent with clearness. 

Note. — For the words of these and all the following translation 
exercises the student is referred to the English-Dutch 
Vocabulary. 

I have a friend. I have [had] a friend (had). I had a 
friend. I had [had] a friend (had). I shall [have] a friend 
(have). I shall [have had] a friend (have had). You are my 
friend. You have [been] my friend (been). You were 
my friend. You had [been] my friend (been). You will 
[be] my friend (bo). You will [have been] my friend 
(have been). Lot us [bo] friends (be). Be (sing.) my 
friend. Be (plur.) my friends. Let him [have] a book 
(have). Let me [have] a hat (have). Let us [have] 
courage (have). Thou hadst [had] a sister (had). You 
had [been] to (naar) Cape-Town (been). They will 

* In these and all further translation exercises words given In square [ ] brackest 
are meant to be left out, whereas those in common ( ) brackets arc supplied lor 
translation. 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 67 

[have] the pleasure (have). She had [had] a message 
from her uncle (had). My aunt had [been] to Wynberg 
(been). Be quiet, children. 

Exercise XX. 

Second Rule of Construction. — In infinitive phrases the 
verb stands last. 

[To be] young (to be). [To have] parents (to have). 
[To have been] in the street (been to have). [To have 
had] a horse (had to have). To be obedient, is good. 
It is good [to be] obedient (to be). To have brothers, is 
pleasant. It is pleasant [to have] brothers (to have). To 
be obedient is to be good. To have parents is to be rich. 
To have a friend is to have a treasure. To have been 
rich is to have had friends. To be sickly is to be much 
at home. To have been ill was painful to (voor) him. To 
have health and to be diligent is to be rich. It was difficult 
for the boy to be obedient. It was good of you to be in 
the street. It was kind of him to have bread and tea 
for us. 

Exercise XXI. 

Third Rule of Construction. — In subordinate sentences 
the verb stands last. When such a sentence has a 
lengthy extension, the verb may be placed in front of it, 
but may never be in front of the direct object. 

The child is happy, because it [is] obedient (is). One 
{Men) has friends, if one [is] rich (is). I asked (vroeg) 
the girl why she [had] so little work (had). The boy 
would (zou) work in the garden, if he [had] a spado 
(had). 1 am rich, because I [have] parents (have). The 
girl was poor, because she [had been] ill (had been). I 
should have gone out (uitgegaan zijn), if I [had had] a 
horse (had had). He would be tired, if he [had been] at 
(op) school (had been). I asked the man where he was 
going (Jieen ging). He answered (antwoordde) me that he 
[was going] to Cape Town (was going = ging). The 

D 2 



68 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

harvest is small, as the weather [has been] bad (has 
been). Ask (Vraag) the boy, whether he [had] a 2 horse 
jyesterday (had). She told (zeide) me that she [was] 2 veiy 
{erg') tired x last night (was). I told my brother that the 
cows [were] very thin (were). He asked me if I [had 
had] a message from my uncle (had had). She told me 
that she [had been] 2 sickly a [for] a long time (had been). 
My brother told me that the poor man [could] not work 
(could = Icon), because he [had] no (geen) tools (had). 

how to translate the interrogative, negative, and 
Negative-Interrogative Forms. 

No auxiliary being used for the rendering of these 
forms, they are for all verbs as simple, as in English they 
are with the verb " to be." 

Do I have ? = have I ? = heb ik ? 
I do not have = I have not = ik heb niet. 
Do I not have ? = have I not ? = heb ik niet ? 
Are you ? = zijt gij ? or, is u t 

You are not • = gij zijt niet, or, u is niet. 
Are you not ? = zijt gij niet ? or, is u niet ? 

The same rule applies to all verbs. 

Note. — Tho Interrogative ' did ' followed by an infinitive ia 
frequently translated by the perfect tense ; eg , Did you see 
him ? = have you Been him ? See p. 177, Observations. 



Exercise XXII. 

Have you an uncle ? Yes, I have two uncles and two 
aunts. Are you young, my boy ? Yes, sir, quite young. 
How old are you? I am twelve. Are ) r ou not older, 
John ? No, sir, I am just twelve. Have you had break- 
fast afterwards? Did you have a horse yesterday ? No, 
I had a bicycle. Were you not tired last night? A 
little, yes, but not much (erg). Did his uncle have (the) 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 69 

fever? His uncle had (the) fever, and his aunt too. 
Will he not (yet) have had a (not a,=geen) message [yet] ? 
He will not have had a message before twelve o'clock. 
Did she not have much pain ? No, not very much Are 
you obedient to your parents? I am always obedient 
to my parents aud teachers. Will you be in school 
to-morrow? I shall bo in school at nino o'clock. 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 

Exercise XXIII. 

Fill up the blanks in the following exercises, assigning 
genders to all nouns. 

1. 

— Jcoper van Zuid-Afrika wordt in Wales gesmolten. — 
The copper of South Africa is in Wales smelted. Tho 

Vrijstaat is — republiek. — haver zal in — midden (0) 
Free State is a republic. The oats will in the middle 

van — zomer rijp zijn. Deze man Jclaagt altijd over 
of the summer ripe bo. This man complains always of 

— gebrelien van — ouderdom. Lulcas, ■ — schrijver van 
the infirmities of (the) old age. St. Luke, the author of 

— derde evangelie, was — deleter. He han u — juiste 
the third Gospel, was a physician. I can you the exact 

tijdstijp van — gebeurtenis niet zeggen. — genootschap van 
date of the event not tell. The association of 

schoone Jcunsten heeft — prijs voor — beste teehening 
fine arts has a price for the best drawing 

uitgeloofd. — kerJchof ligt aan — voet van — berg. 
offered. The churchyard lies at the foot of the mountain. 

Bij — tijding van — aankomst harer moeder straalde 
At the news of the arrival of her mother streamed (to) 

— Heine meisje — blijdschap uit — oogen. 
the little girl the joy out of the eyes, 



70 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Na — dood van Koning Willem — derde werd — 
After the death of King William the Third was the 

Groot-Hertogdom Luxemburg van — Tcroon van Holland 
Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg from the crown of Holland 

gescheiden. Er is — groote zwerm sprinkhanen over 
separated. There has a large swarm of locusts over 

— eigendom van — magistraat getrolchen ; ze hebben al 
the property of the magistrate passed ; they have all 

■ — ■ gras (o) en — mielies afgevreten, zoo dat — vee 
the grass and the mealies eaten off, so that the cattle 

nu geen voedsel heeft. Toen — Melrose gisteren middag 
now no food has. As the Melrose yesterday afternoon 

— haven van Liverpool uitstoomde, is — tegen 
the harbour of Liverpool was steaming out, has she with 

— Australische boot aangevaren, die daar voor anlcer 

the Australian boat collided, which there at anchor was 

lag ; liet is aan — tegenwoordigheid van geest van — 
riding ; it is to the presence of mind of the 

eersten stuurman te danlcen, dat — beide schepen er zonder 
first officer owing, that (the) both ships without 

groote schade afgelwmen zijn. 
great injury come off have. 



Deze schrijf- heeft met haar cerste boch grooten opgang 
This authoress has with her first book great success 

gemaakt. — opera-zanger- zal zichzelve op — piano 
had. The opera-singer will herself on the piano 

begeleiden. Door — val uit — boom heeft — 

accompany. Through the fall out (of) the tree has tho 

man zich aan — been verivond. Hagar, — dienst- van 
man himself on the leg wounded. Hagar, tho servant of 
Sara, trolc met haren zoon — woestijn van Arabie in. Ik 
Sarah, wont with her son tho desert of Arabia in. I 

hcb met — zicarten draad — patroon van — leant op — 
have with a black thread the pattern of tho lace on the 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 71 

witte zijde aangegeven. Door — omvallen van -- 
white silk indicated. Through the capsizing of the 

olielamp (v) is er — groote vlek op — marmeren vloer (?«") 
oil-lamp is a large stain on the marble floor 

van — gang gelcomen. — schip is onder geleide van — 
of the passage come. The ship is under guidance of an 

ervaren hods veilig in — haven aangeland. Er 
experienced pilot safely in the harbour arrived. There 

bestaat — groote overeenhomst tusschen — hlimaat en — 
exists a great similarity between the climate and the 

voortbrengselen van — Kaap Kolonie en — Zuiden (0) van 
productions of the Cape Colony and the South of 

Europa. Bij — onlangs gehouden schietwedstrijd heeft — 
Europe. At the recently held shooting-match has the 

zoon — oude baron- — palm — overwinning 

son of the old baroness the palm of the victory 

weggedragen. — — , die men van St. Helena 

carried off. The servants, which one from St. Helena 

invoert, zijn niet altijd van — beste slag. • — — van 
imports, are not always of the best sort. The Queen of 

Groot Britannie draagt tevens — titel (m) van 

Great Britain bears at the same time the title of 

— van Indie. — bedelaar- die van morgen 
Empress of India. The beggar-woman who this morning 

aan — dear (v) was, deed zulk — roerend verhaal van — 
at the door was, did such a touching account of the 

dood van liar en — , dat mime — — tranen in — 
death of her husband, that (to) my mother the tears in the 

oogen sprongen. — glas voor — ramen (n) is met — 
eyes came. The glass for the windows is with a 

diamant gesneden. 
diamond cut. 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



OoNVERSATIE. 

Wijze van groeten en 
aanspreken. 

1. Ooeden morgen, mijnheer, 

2. Ooeden avond, nievrouw. 

3. Hoe gaat het u ? 

4. Hoe vaart u f 

5. Zeer wel, dank u. 

6. Zoo tusschenbeide, dank u. 

7. Ik ben vandawj niet zoo 

heel wel. 

8. Ik voel mij heel onwel. 

9. Ik voel mij erg ziek. 

10. Wat scheelt u ? 

11. Ik lieb zware hoofdpijn. 

12. Dat spijt me. 

13. Adieu ; tot weerziens. 

14. Mag ik het genoegen hebben, 

u te vergezellen ? 

15. Hoe heerlijk zijn de avon- 

den dezer dagen, vindt u 
niet f 
1G. Zullen we niet nog een 
eindje verder wandelen f 

17. Met genoegen: de wande- 

ling dott mij goed. 

18. 7s u van plan, naar den 

schouwburg te gaan van 
avond ? 

19. Neen, mij dunkt, het stuk 

zal niet amumnt zijn. 

20. Waar zullen we dan heen- 

gaan f 

21. Naar de opera; hoe lean u 

nog tivij/elen ? 

22. Heeft u van den dood van 

mevrouw B. gehoord f 

23. Ja, ik ben daar vandaag 

gaan condoleeren. 

24. Heeft u een prettigen dag 

gehad bij mijnheer A. t 

25. Hoe zou het anders kunnen ? 

26. Ikfeliciteer u wel met uw 

geboortedag 1 

27. Veel heil met het nieuvw 

jaar .' 



Conversation. 

Forms of greeting and 

address. 

1. Good morning, sir. 

2. Good evening, madam. 

3. How are you ? 

4. How do you do ? 

5. Quite well, thank you. 

6. Middling, thank you. 

7. I am not so well to-day. 

8. I feel very unwell. 

9. I feel quite ill. 

10. What is the matter? 

11. I have a had headache. 

12. I am sorry for you. 

13. Good-hye; I hope I shall 

see you again. 

14. May I have the pleasure of 

accompanying you? 

15. We are having delightful 

evenings, don't vou think 
so? 

16. Shall we not go a little 

farther ? 

17. With pleasure : the walk is 

doing me good. 

18. Do you intend going to the 

theatre to-night? 

19. No, I don't think the play 

will he an amusing one. 

20. Where shall we go then ? 

21. To the opera, how can you 

be in doubt ? 

22. Did you hear of the death 

of Mrs. B. ? 

23. Yes, I called there to-day to 

express my sympathy. 

24. Did you spend a pleasant 

day with Mr. A. ? 

25. How could it be otherwise ? 

26. I wish j'ou many happy 

returns of your birthday ! 

27. A happy new year to you ! 



THE GENDER OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



73 



28. Hartelijk dank. 

29. Ik ben u zeer verplicht. 

30. Zeer verplicht. 

31. Zou u mij eene gunst willen 

bewijzen ? 

32. Van harte gaarne, dls ik het 

kan. 

33. Doe het toch vooral rn'et I 

34. Heeft u mijnheer C. eene 

visite gemaakt ? 

35. Ik heb mijn naamkaartje 

achtergelaten, want hij 
was niet thuis. 



28. Many thanks. 

29. I am much obliged to you. 

30. Much obliged. 

31. Would you do me a favour ? 

32. I shall be most happy if I 

can. 

33. Pray, don't do it ! 

34. Have vou called upon Mr. 

C? 

35. I left my card, he was not 

at home. 



74 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER VI. 
DECLENSION. 

(Verbuiging.^) 

I. The changes of form to which Articles, Nouns, 
Adjectives and Pronouns are subject, are together called 
their declension. 

Declension expresses gender, geslacht ; number, getal; 
and case, naamval. 

There are three genders : masculine, mannelijk; feminine, 
vrouwelijJc ; and neuter, onzijdig. 

There are two numbers : singular, enJcelvoud, and plural, 
meervoud. 

There are four cases : nominative, nominatief ; genitive, 
genitief; dative, datief ; and accusative, accusatief — more 
commonly called : eerste, tweede, derde, en vierde naamval, 
first, second, third, and fourth case. 

II. Nominative Case. 

1. The subject of a sentence is in the nominative 
case : 

De hond blaft, the dog barks. 

2. The name of a person or thing addressed, de aange- 
sproken persoon — Latin vocative— is in the nominative 
case : 

Jongens, let op ! Boys, pay attention ! 

3. The verbs zijn, to be, worden, to become, heeten, to 
be called, blijven, to remain, schijnen, to seem, lijken, to 



DECLENSION. 75 



seem, and blijken, to appear to be, take the nominative 
case before and after them. 

Hij is mijn vriend=he is my friend. 

Hij lijlct een vreemdeling = he seems a stranger. 

Hij ivordt soldaat = he becomes a soldier. 

Note. — The student should notice that the subject and the person 
named by the predicate of which these verbs form part, are 
the very same. 

4. A noun in apposition to a Nominative case is like- 
wise in the Nominative case : Jakob, de oude tuinier, is 
gelcomen, Jacob, the old gardener, has come ; Hij woont bij 
mij als vriend, he lives in my house as a friend. 

III. Genitive Case. 

The genitive case expresses possession, relation, descent, 
or part of some whole. 

Example : — 

Possession : Mijns vaders hnis, my father's house. 
Relation : De stralen der zon, the sun's rays. 
Descent : De Icinderen onzer tante, our aunt's children. 
Part of a whole : Ecne bete broods, a bit of bread. 

IV. Dative Case. 

1. The person or thing profiting or losing by an action, 
is in the dative case : Geef mij dat mes, give me that knife ; 
Gij doet mij verdriet aan, you cause me grief. 

2. The personal pronoun when used instead of a 
possessive pronoun, is in the dative case : Hij wascht zich 
de handen, he washes his hands, for: hij tcascht zijne handen. 

V. Accusative Case. 

1. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the 
accusative case : De metselaar bouicde een huis, the mason 
built a house. 

2. The verbs : noemen, to call, heeten (trans.), to call, 
schelden, to call (names), malcen, to make, prijzen, to praise, 
bevinden, to find to be, achten, to consider, zich betoonen, to 



76 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

show one's self, zich gevoelen, to feel one's self, zich teekenen, 
to sign one's self, are followed by two accusative cases. 
Ik teelcen mij uicen dienaar, I sign myself 3-our servant ; 
Hij noemt mij zijnen vriend, he calls me his friend. 

Note. — Observe that the personal pronoun and the following 
noun are in apposition. 

3. Every noun governed by any preposition is in 
the Accusative case. 

Ors. — In old Dutch some prepositions governed the genitive 
nnd others the dative case. This fact is traceable 
in the following expressions : — 

Genitive : binnenehuis, inside the house, 

buitenstijds, unseasonably ; 
Dative : rnettertijd {met der tijd), in time. 

ter oore Tcomen {te der oore), to come to one's 
ears, to hear. 

4. Nouns expressing time, tijd, weight, gewicht, measure, 
maat, or value, waarde, are in the Accusative case: De 
appel Icost eenen stuiver, the apple costs a penny. Het 
jpakje weegt een pond, the parcel weighs one pound. 

5. A noun in apposition to an Accusative case is like- 
wise in the Accusative case: Ik roepWillem, den koetsier, 
I am calling William, the driver. De naam van Alexander 
den Grooten, als veroveraar is alom bekend, the name 
of Alexander the Great, as a conqueror, is universally 
known. 

Important Observations on the Use of the Cases. 

1. The Possessive and Dative cases are being discarded 
more and more. Their places aro supplied by the 
objective (Accusative) case with prepositions. This is 
indicated in Chapter III., where the first forms of declen- 
sion are shown. Thus : 

Of the father, des vaders, is now van den vader. 
To the father, den vader, is now aan den vader, or voor 
den vader. 



DECLENSION. 77 

The reason why the Possessive and Dative cases are 
retained, is, because they are met with in books. In 
correspondence, however, they are becoming rare, so that 
the student, while writing correct Dutch, may dispense 
with them, though for reading purposes he must bo 
acquainted with them. 

2. In speaking there is practically no case but the first 
(Nominative). Conversationally, the declensions of p. 26 
would be : de man, the man ; van de man, of the man ; 
aan de man, to the man ; de man, the man. And again, 
een man, a man ; van een man, of a man ; aan een man, to 
a man ; een man, a man ; — and so on through the threo 
genders. 

3. The student will have noticed before this, and will 
here observe again the disparity which exists between 
Dutch spoken and Dutch written. The reason may be 
looked for in the gradual wearing away of grammatical 
forms, which by some is hailed as the only natural com- 
promise between the speech of the learned and that of the 
uneducated, while others deplore it as tending to rob the 
language of its beauty. It is almost needless to say that 
the absence of declension-forms in the Cape patois 
makes it desirable to have as few in the correct medium- 
Dutch of South Africa as is consistent with the elements 
of grammar generally, which, as far as the subject of the 
present chapter is concerned, means, that the Possessive 
and Dative cases should only be used where they are 
found to bo unavoidable. See here p. 82, IX. 

VLThe Demonstrative Pronouns pe2e\(Neuter[d{<j), this, 
and[die/(Neuter &atj that, and the Possessive Pronoun onze 
(Neuter ons), ouiy follow the declension of the definite 
article de (Neuter het), the. 

The Attributive Adjective is declined according to the 
changes in the word by which it is preceded. The follow- 
ing examples will indicate these changes : 



78 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Mannelijk. 
Enhelvoud. 

1 nv. De, deze, die, onze gocde 

vader. 

2 nv. Des, dezeB, dienB, onzes 

goeden vadera. 
or Van den, dezen, dien, 
onzen goeden vader. 

3 nv. Den, dezen, dien, onzen 

goeden vader. 
or Aan den, dezen, dien, 
onzen goeden vader. 

4 nv. Den, dezen, dien, onzen 

goeden vader. 

Meervoud. 

1 nv. De, deze, die, onze goede 

vaders. 

2 nv. Der, dezer, dier, onzev 

goede vaders. 
or Van de, deze, die, onze 
goede vaders. 

3 nv. Den, dezen, dien, onzen 

goeden vaders. 
or Aan de, deze, die, onze 
goede vaders. 

4 nv. De, deze, die, onze goede 

vaders. 



Masculine. 
Singular. 

Nom. The, this, that, our good 

father. 
Gen. Of the, this, that, our good 

father. 



Dat. To the, this, that, our 
good father. 



Ace. The, this, that, our good 
father. 

Plural. 

Nom. The, these, those, our 

good fathers. 
Gen. Of the, these, those, our 

good fathers. 



Dat. To the, these, those, our 
good fathers. 

Ace. The, these, those, our 
good fathers. 



Vbouwelijk. 
Enhelvoud. 

1 nv. De, deze, die, onze oude 

tante. 

2 nv. Der, dezer, dier, onzer 

oude tante. 
or Van de, deze, die, onze 
oude tante. 

3 nv. Der, dezer, dier, onzer 

oude tante. 
or Aan de, deze, die, onze 
oude tante. 

4 nv. De, deze, die, onze oude 

tante. 



Feminine. 
Singular. 

Nom. The, this, that, our old 

aunt. 
Gen. Of the, this, that, our old 

aunt. 



Dat. To the, this, that, our old 
aunt. 



Ace. The, this, that, our old 
aunt. 



DECLENSION. 



79 



Vkouwelijk. Feminine. 

Meervoud. Plural. 

1 nv. Be, deze, die, onze onde Nom. The, these, those, our old 

tantes. aunts. 

2 nv. Ber, dezer, diev, onzer Gen. Of the, these, those, our 

oude tantes. old aunts. 
or Van de, deze, die, onze 
oude tantes. 

3 nv. Ben, dezen, dien, onzen Bat. To the, these, those, our 

ouden tantes. old aunts. 
or Aan de, deze, die, onze 
oude tantes. 

4 nv. Be, deze, die, onze oude Ace. The, these, those, our old 

tantes. aunts. 

Onzijdig. Neuter. 

Enkelvoud. Singular. 

1 nv. Het, dit, dat, ons, kleine Nom. The, this, that, our small 

kind. child. 

2 nv. Bea, dezea, diens, onzea Gen. Of the, this, that, our 

kleinen kinds. small child, 
or Van het, dit, dat, ons 
kleine kind. 

3 nv. Ben, dezen, dien, onzen Bat. To the, this, that, our 

kleinen kinde (obso- small child, 
lete). 
or Aan het, dit, dat, ons 
kleine kind. 

i nv. Het, dit, dat, ons kleine Ace. The, this, that, our small 

kind. child. 



Meervoud. Plural. 

1 nv. Be, deze, die, onze kleine Nom. The, these, those, our 

kinderen. small children. 

2 nv. Ber, dezer, dier, onzer Gen. Of the, these, those, our 

kleine kinderen. small children, 
or Van de, deze, die, onze 
kleine kinderen. 

3 nv. Ben, dezen, dien, onzen Bat. To the, these, those, our 

kleinen kinderen. small children, 
or Aan de, deze, die, onze 
kleine kinderen. 

4 nv. Be, deze, die, onze kleine Ace. The, these, those, our 

kinderen. small children. 

VII. The Possessive Pronouns mijn, my, uvo, your, zijn, 



8o 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



his, haar, her, zijn, its, hun, their, have, in the singular, 
the declension of the indefinite article een, a (an), while 
in the plural they go according to the plural forms of 
par. VI. 



Hannelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

1 nv. Een,mijn,uw,zijn,haar, 

hun groote hond. 

2 nv. Eena, mijna, uwa, zijna, 

haara, huna grooten 
honda. 
or Van eenen, mijnen, 
uiven., zijnen, haren, 
hunnen. grooten. hond. 

3 nv. Eenen, mijnen, tnven, 

zijnen, haven., hunnen. 
grooten. hond. 
or Aan eenen., mijnen, 
uiven, zijnen., haren, 
hunnen. grooten. hond. 

4 nv. Eenen, mijnen, uiven, 

zijnen, haren, hunnen. 
grooten. hond. 



Masculine. 
Singular. 

Nom. A, my, your, his, her, 
their large dog. 

Gen. Of a, my, your, his, her, 
their large dog. 



Bat. To a, my, your, his, her, 
their large dog. 



Ace. A, my, your, his, her, 
their large dog. 



Vrouwelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

1 nv. Eene, mijne, uwe, 

zijne, hare, hunne 
ivitte muts. 

2 nv. Ecner, mijner, uivev, 

zijner, harer,hunner, 
witte muts. 
or Van eene, mijne, uwe, 
zijne, hare, hunne 
witte muts. 

3 nv. Ecner, mijner, uiver, 

zijner, harer, hunner 
witte mute. 
or Aan eene, mijne, uive, 
zijne, hare, hunne 
witte muts. 

4 nv. Eene, mijne, uwe, zijne, 

hare, hunne witte 
muts. 



Feminine. 
Singular. 

Nom, A, my, your, his, her, 
their white cap. 

Qen. Of a, my, your, his, her, 
their white cap. 



Bat. To a, my, your, his, her, 
their white cap. 



Ace. A, my, your, his, her, 
their white cap. 



DECLENSION. 



8 1 



Onzijdig. 
Enkelvoud. 

1 nv. Een, mijn, uw, zijn, 

hoar, hun oud(e) huis. 

2 nv. Eena,mijn8,uwa, zijne, 

haara, huna ouden 

huizea. 
or Van een, mijn, uw, zijn, 

haar, hun oud(e) huis. 
o nv. Eenen, mijnen, uiven, 

zijnen, haren, hun- 

nen. ouden huize (ob- 
solete), 
or Aan een, mijn, uw, 

zijn, haar, hun, oud(e) 

huis. 
4 nv. Een, mijn, uw, zijn, 

haar, hun oud(e) huis. 

(see § VIII.) 



Neuter. 
Singular. 

Nom. A, my, your s his, her, 
their old house. 

Gen. Of a, my, your, his, her, 
their old house. 



Bat. To a, my, your, his, her, 
their old house. 



Ace. A, my, your, his, her, 
their old house. 



1 nv. 



1 nv. 



1 nv. 



Meeevoud. 

Mannelijk. 

— , mijne, uwe, zijne, 
hare, hunne, groote 
honden, enz. 

Vrouwelijh. 

— , mijne, uwe, zijne, 
hare, hunne witte 
mutsen, enz. 



Onzijdig. 

-, mijne, uive, 
hare, hunne 
huizen, enz. 



zijne, 
oude 



Plural. 

Masculine. 

Nom. — , my, your, his, her, 
their large dogs, etc. 

Feminine. 

Nom. — , my, your, his, her, 
their white caps, etc. 

Neuter. 

Nom. — , my, your, his, her, 
their old houses, etc. 



Exactly like the plural forms of par. VI. 

Obs. — When two or more attributive adjectives are joined 
to a noun, each one is declined separately like the first 
(as shown above). Such adjectives should be separated 
by commas : 

1 nv. Deze oude, trouwe hond, this old and faithful dog. 

2 nv. Dezes ouden, trouiven honds — and so on. 



82 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

When, however, the adjectives together convey one idea only' 
the last one alone is declined : 

Eenc rood, wit en hlauwe vlag, a red, white, and blue flag ; 
plural — rood, wit en blauive vlaggen, red, white, and 
blue flags. 

VIII. The Adjective has no e (i.e. it is not declined) in 
the Neuter gender, Singular number, when preceded by 
one of the following eight words : — een, a (an) ; geen, no ; 
eenig, some ; elk, each ; ieder, every ; zeher, a certain ; 
menig, many a ; welk, which. 

Note. — This is likewise the case after the Numeral Adjective 
veel, wat, and sommig. 

Example. 

1 nv. Een, geen, elk, ieder, Nom. A, no, each, every, many 

menig, welk klein a, which small child, 

kind, enz. etc. 

1 nv. Watfrisch water. Some fresh water. 

IX. The following observations may be a guide to 
correct declension. 

1. The Masculine Singular is distinguished by an n in three 

cases out of four. Besides, the 4th case is like the 3rd. 

2. The distinguishing letter of the Feminine Singular is e ; the 

1st case is like the 4th ; the 2nd case like the 3rd ; it bears 
great resemblance to the plural. 

3. The Neuter Singular has no declension of its own; its 1st, 

3rd, and 4th cases are equal, and its 2nd case is a borrowed 
Masculine Genitive. 

4. The distinguishing letter of the Plural is e again ; its 1st case 

is like the 4 th. 

5. In Plural forms there is no distinction of gender; all Plural 

forms are equal. 

6. When the Article or other first word ends in e or r, the 

Adjective must end in e ,- when the first word ends in s or 
en, the Adjective must end in en. 

7. For correspondence purposes, discarding the 2nd and 3rd cases, 

we may note : — 

that the Masculine Obj. has n ; 
that in the Feminine Singular there are no changes ; 
that in the Neuter Singular there are no changes ; 
that in the Plural forms there are no changes. 



DECLENSION. 



83 



8. The Adjective, whenever placed hefore a 1101m, ends in e, 
whether it be used in the Masculine, Feminine or Neuter 
gender, Singular or Plural ; the only case of absence of this 
e being in the Neuter Singular, after the words enumerated 
in § VIII. 

9. Nouns take s in the 2nd case Masculine and Neuter Singular. 

It should be observed that no apostrophe may there be used. 
The only use of the apostrophe in Dutch is in the Plural 
forms of a few words (see p. 35, § III.) and for indicating 
the Possessive case of proper nouns ending in s, e.g., Pawns' 
ssendbrieven, St. Paul's Epistles. 

10. When Masculine and Neuter Nouns end in s or sch, their 
2nd case is expressed by means of the Preposition van, of: 
e.g., de os, the ox, van den os (not des osses) ; de wensch, 
the wish, van den wensch (not des wensches) ; het glas, the 
glass, van het glas (not des glasses). The Possessive cases 
of huis, house (des huizes), and vleesch, flesh (des vleesches), 
are occasionally met with. 

X. Nouns may take an adjective which is not preceded 
by any defining word. In this case the adjective, being 
the first word, should take the declension of the article. 
The following examples will show that this does take 
place, but in a modified form. 



Mannelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

1 nv. Oude wijn. 

2 nv. Ouden wijns (or van 

ouden wijn). 

3 nv. Ouden (or aan ouden) 

wijn. 

4 nv. Ouden 



Masculine. 

Singular. 

Nom. Old wine. 
Gen. Of old wine. 

Bat. To old wine. 

Ace. Old wine. 



Meervoud. 

1 nv. Oude wijnen. 

2 nv. Oudev (or van oude) 

wijnen. 

3 nv. Ouden (or aan oude) 

wijnen. 

4 nv. Oude wijnen. 



Plural. 

Nom. Old wines. 
Gen. Of old wines. 

Bat. To old wines. 

Ace. Old wines. 



8 4 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 





Vrouwei.ijk. 




Feminize. 




Enkelvoud. 




Singular. 


1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 


Fijne kant. 
Van fijne kant. 
Aan fijne kant. 
Fijne leant. 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Bat. 
Ace. 


Fine lace. 
Of fine lace. 
To fine lace. 
Fine lace. 




Meervoud. 




Plural. 


1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 


Fijne kanten. 

Fijner kanten, or van 

fijne kanten. 
Fijnen kanten, or aan 

fijne kanten. 
Fijne kanten. 


Nom. 
Gen. 

Bat. 

Ace. 


Fine laces. 
Of fine laces. 

To fine laces. 

Fine laces. 




Onzijdig. 




Neuteb. 




Enkelvoud. 




Singular. 



1 nv. LTelder licht. 

2 nv. Van helder licht. 

3 nv. Aan helder licht. 

4 nv. Helder licht. 

Meervoud. 

1 nv. Ileldere lichten. 

2 nv. nelderer lichten, or van 

heldere Ivhtcn. 

3 nv. Helderen lichten, or aan 

heldere lichten. 

4 nv. Ileldere lichten. 



Nom. Bright light. 
Gen. Of brisht light. 
Bat. To bright light. 
Ace. Bright light. 

Plural. 

Nom. Bright lights. 
Gen. Of bright lights. 

Bat. To bright lights. 

Ace. Bright lights. 



XI. In titles, Attributive Adjectives are placed after the 
nouns whioh they qualify. Their declension, however, is 
not affected thereby, e.g. ; — 



Mankelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

1 nv. Peter de Groote. 

2 nv. Peters dea Groolen. 

3 nv. Peter den Grooten. 

4 nv. Peter den. Grooten. 



Masculinb. 
Singular. 

Nom. Peter the Great. 
Gen. Of Peter the Great. 
Bat. To Peter the Great. 
Ace. Peter the Great. 



XII. By far the most Masculine and Neuter nouns take 
i as a sign of the Possessive (Genitive) case, as asserted 



DECLENSION. 



85 



above. These are said to belong to the Strong Declension 
(Sterlce Verbuiging). Of some few, however, the Possessive 
case ends in en. Such are : — 

1. The masculine words : mensch, man ; heer, gentleman ; 
vorst, sovereign ; graaf, count; prins, prince; liertog, duke; 
profeet, prophet ; and nar, clown. 

2. The Neuter word : hart, heart. 

3. All Adjectives, and Adjective Pronouns, when used 
as Nouns: de icijze, the wise man; de goede, the good 
man ; de mijne, mine. 

Their declension is as follows : — 





MaNxeLUK. 




Masculine. 




Enhelvoud. 




Singular. 


1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 


De vorst. 
Dea vorsten. 
Den vorst. 
Den vorst. 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


The sovereign. 
Of the sovereign. 
To the sovereign. 
The sovereign. 


1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 


De goede. 
Dea goeden. 
Den goede. 
Den goede. 


Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 
Ace. 


The good or.e. 
Of the good one. 
To the good one. 
The good one. 




Meervond. 




Plural. 



1 nv. De vorsten. 

2 nv. Der vorsten. 

3 nv. Den vorsten 

4 nv. De vorsten. 

1 nv. De goeden. 

2 nv. -Der goeden. 

3 nv. Den goeden. 

4 nv. De goeden. 






Nom. The sovereigns. 

Gen. Of the sovereigns. 

Dat. To the sovereigns. 

Ace. The sovereigns. 

Nom. The good. 

Gen. Of the good. 

Dat. To the good. 

Ace. The good. 



De mijne, mine, or mine own ; de uwe, yours, or your 



86 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



own; de onze, ours, or our own, etc., are declined as 
follows : 



Mannelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 



Vrouwelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 



Onzijdig. 
Enkelvoud. 



1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 



De mijne. 
Dea mijnen. 
Den. mijne. 



1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 



4 nv. Den mijne. 4 nv. 



De mijne. 
Dev mijne. 
Dev (or 
mijne). 
De Mijne. 



de 



1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 



Het mijne. 
Vanhet mijne. 
Het mijne. 



4 nv. Het mijne. 



Meervoud voor alle geslackten. \ 
(Plural for the three genders.) 

(Meaning Persons.) (Meaning Things.) 

De mijnen. 1 nv. De mijne. 

Dev mijnen. 2 nv. Der mijne. 

Den mijnen. 3 nv. Den mijnen. 

De mijnen. 4 nv. De mijne. 



nv. 
n v. 
nv. 
DV. 



Obs. — The above difference in the plural forms the student should 
mark. Other words — like de anderen, the others ; sommigen, 
some ; eenigen, some ; dezen, these ; genen, the others ; velen, 
many ; weinigen, few, etc., — take n when they refer to persons, 
and drop it whenever they refer to things. 
De mijnen, de uwen, etc., are used in the peculiar sense of my 
(your) people (or family). 

XIII. Compound Pronouns (i.e. pronouns, the first part 
of which is the definite article) likewise follow the weak 
declension. They are: degene, he, or whoever; dezelfde, 
the same ; dezullce, such an one. Example : — 



Mannelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

nv. Dezelfde. 

nv. DeBzel/den. 

nv. Denzelfde. 

nv. Denzelfde. 



1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 



Vrouwelijk. 
Enkelvoud. 

Dezelfde. 
Derzelfde. 
Derzelfde. 
Dezelfde. 



1 nv. 

2 nv. 

3 nv. 

4 nv. 



Onzijdig. 

Enkelvoud. 

Hetzelfde. 
Deazelfden, 
Hetzelfde. 
Hetzelfde. 



Meervoud voor alle geslacldcn. 
(Meaning Persons.) (Meaning Things.) 

1 nv. Dczelfden. 1 nv. Dezelfde. 

2 nv. DcTzelfden. 2 nv. Derzelfde. 

3 nv. Denzelfden. 3 nv. Denzelfden. 

4 nv. Dezelfden. 4 nv. Dezelfde. 



DECLENSION. 87 



GEAMMAK EXEBCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise XXIV. 

Note. — In the declension of adjectives the rule holds good that 
■when the last syllable contains an imperfect vowel which is 
to bo preserved, the final consonant must be doubled : stil, 
quiet, stille ; dilt, thick, dikke. 
It should be understood that dashes are sometimes placed where 
there i3 no omission, to test the pupil's knowledge of the 
rules of declension. 

Eill up the blanks in the following sentences : 

Uc heb een— lang— brief (m) van mijn— trouw- vriend 
I have a long letter from my faithful friend 

ontvangen. Op d- eerst— avond na d— slag, 
received. On the first evening after the battle, 

bezochten wij — tooneel van di— vreeselijk— strijd. 
visited we the scene of that terrible conflict. 

In — dicht- bosch onder d— dor— bladeren (0) verborgen, 
In the dense bush under the dry leaves hidden, 

lag een— giftig- adder (y~). D— Jwog-, prachtig- huis (0) is 
lay a poisonous adder. This high, beautiful house, is 

door d— beroemd— Engelsch— architect gebouwd. Er 
by that famous English architect built. There 

Hep een arm- kind (0) langs d- stil- straten (v) ; d— rijh— 
went a poor child along the quiet streets ; the rich 

dame gaf het geld. In — schoon- hlimaat d- 
lady gave it money. In the beautiful climate of the 

zuidelijlc— landen is het gemalchelijk, gezond te zijn. — 
southern countries is it easy, healthy to be. The 

fraai- rijtuig^o') van d- honing was met zes prachtig- 
fine carriage of the king was by six splendid 

paarden bespannen. Ik wil u dez- schrikhelijk- afgrond (m\ 
horses drawn. I want you this terrible abyss, 

dez- ontzaglijk— Jcloven (1?), dez— snel- stroom (in), en 
these tremendous gorges, this quick stream, and 

dez- trotsch- bergspitsen (v) toonen. Menig- onschuldig- 
these proud mountain peaks show. Many innocent 

hart is verleid geworden door slecht— gezelschap. 
heart has seduced been by bad company. 



88 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Exercise XXV. 
Decline in full (singular and plural) : — 

1. Masculine : 

De oude tuinman, the old gardener. 

Die groote loom, that large tree. 

Een slimme jongen, a sharp boy. 

Willem de derde, William the Third. 

Mijn trouwe, lieve Tiond, my faithful and dear dog. 

De brave, the honest one. 

Dezelfde jonge knecht, the same young servant. 

Een mooie, vette os, a pretty fat ox. 

Deze geel en zwarte tijger, this yellow and black tiger. 

Alexander de Groote, Alexander the Great. 

Onze atom beminde hertog, our universally beloved duke. 

Lekkere, zoete wijn, nice and sweet wine. 

Haar pas aangestelde secretaris, her newly-appointed secretary. 

2. Feminine: 

De oude bank, the old bench. 

Deze kleine kamer, this small room. 

Eene nieuwe japon, a new dress. 

Die goede, brave vrouw, that good and honest woman. 

Mijne arme, oude vriendin, my poor old friend. 

Eerlijke verdeeling, honest division. 

Eene zeer groote weide, a very large meadow. 

Deze uitstekend goede koffie, this exceedingly good coffee. 

Maria de Katholieke, Mary the Catholic. 

Die oude, rood bonte koe, that old red-and-whitc cow. 

Dezelfde trotsche zwaan, the same proud swan. 

De met klimop bedekte warande, the ivy-roofed verandah. 

3. Neuter: 

Het speelsche dier, the playful animal. 

Dit heidensche gebruik, this heathen custom. 

Dat heete vuur, that hot fire. 

Een oud en vervallen Jiuis, an old and decaying house. 

Sterk bier, strong beer. 

Hetzelfde lange gesprek, the same lengthy conversation. 

Dat jonge, sterkepaard, that young and strong horse. 

Haar zwarte, doordringende oog, her black and penetrating eye. 

Dit lange, groene gras, this long green grass. 

Eenfraai geslepen glas, a beautifully-cut tumbler. 

Menig nu vergeten spreekicoord, many a now-forgotten 

proverb. 
Een zckcr vergelegen gebergte, a certain far-distant range of 

mountains. 



DECLENSION. 89 



Exercise XXVI. 

Fill up the blanks in the following exercises, assigning 
genders and cases to nouns. 

1. 

Om d— inhoud (m) van e— lichaam (0) te bereJcenen, is het 
For the contents of a body to calculate, is it 

noodig d- lengte, d— breedte, en d— Tioogte ervan 
necessary the length, the breadth, and the height of it 

te hennen. In welk- landen vindt men d- hoogst— 
to know. In which countries finds one the highest 

bergen, d— snelst- rivieren, en d— grootst- 

mountains, the most rapid rivers, and the largest 

meren ? Hoe oud was d— man, die gisteren door zulh 
lakes? How old was the man, who yesterday by such 

ee— groot— stoet (m) van menschen ten grave gedragen werd ? 
a large crowd of people to the grave borne was ? 

Hij was d— oudst- man uit d— gansch- stad (y), en moet ver 
He was the oldest man of the whole town, and must far 

in d— negentig geweest zijn. Als gij M— koeien naar d- 
in the nineties been have. If you your cows to the 

weide zendt, zal ik d- mijne- oolc zenden. Eenig- jaren 
field send, shall I mine also send. Some years 

geleden hebben d- Franschen ee- vreeselijh- oorlog(m) 
ago have the French a terrible war 

gevoerd tegen d- Duitschers, dock d- laatst- hebben ee— 
carried on against the Germans, but the latter have a 

scliitterend— overwinning beliaald. 
brilliant victory gained. 

2. 

H- tempel (m) van Salomo, di- groot-, wijz- honing, is 
The temple of Solomon, that great and wise king, has 

door ee— van d— Jconingen van — Babylonische rijk (o) 
by one of the kings of the Babylonian empire 

verwoest geworden. D— Tcameel icordt in — noordelijh— deel(o) 
destroyed been. The camel is in the northern part 



90 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

van Afrika, en in vel- landen van Azie gevonden ; hij is 
of Africa, and in many countries of Asia found; he is 

ee— van d— nuttigst— huisdieren. D— hard—, 

one of the most useful domestic animals. The hard, 

drog— stammen d- boomen zijn met frisch-, loeeJc-, groen- 
dry trunks of the trees are with fresh, soft, green 

mos (o) bedeJct. Zal ik u opnoemen, wat ik op 

moss covered. Shall I for you enumerate what I on 

di— lang— reis (v) gezien heb ? Groot— steden, prachtig- 
that long journey seen have ? Large towns, beautiful 

dor pen, veel- wild- dieren (o) opgesloten in eng— kooien (v), 
villages, many wild animals locked up in narrow cage^, 

breed-, snel stroomend- rivieren, waar rijk versierd— 
broad, rapidly flowing rivers, where richly decorated 

bootjes op ronddreven, tallooz— groen- weivelden(o), 
boats on floated about, numberless green meadows, 

heerlijk schoon- kerken, ee— stalen brug (y) van meer 
delightfully beautiful churches, a steel bridge of more 

dan ee- mijl(v) lang, en meer dergelijk— iconderlijk— ding en (o), 
than a mile long, and more such wonderful things, 

tvaarvan men zoo menig- verhaal in d— schoolboeken (o) 
of which one so many an account in the school books 

leest. 
reads. 

The student is recommended to study the following 
examples : — 



English . 
Book Dutch . 
Corresp. Dutch 
Colloq. Dutch 

English . 
Book Dutch . 



The Welter of the river trickles through the 

hard ground. 
Jlct water der rivier zijpelt door den harden 

grond, 
J let water van de rivier zijpelt door den harden 

grond. 
Jlct water van de rivier zijpelt door de harde 

grond. 

No one has ever trodden the bottom of this 

terrible abyss. 
Nicmand heeft ooit der, bodem dezes vreeselijken 

a/gronds betreden. 



DECLENSION. 



9i 



Corresp. Dutch . Niemand heeft ooitden bodem van dezen vrcesc- 

lijken afgrond betreden. 
Colloq. Dutch . Niemand heeft ooit de bodem van deze vreesc- 

lijhe afgrond betreden. 

English . . . Have you considered the action of the sun's 

heat on the leaves of this tree ? 
Book Dutch . , Hebt gij de werhing der zonnewarmte op de 

bladeren dczes booms nagegaan ? 
Corresp. Dutch . Hebt gij de werhing van de zonnewarmte op de 

bladeren van dezen boom nagegaan ? 
Colloq. Dutch . Heeft u de werhing van de zonnewarmte op de 

blaren van deze boom nagegaan ? 

English ... I have intimated the king's pleasure to your old 

father. 
Book Dutch . . Ih heb uiven ouden vader den wil des honing s 

behend gemaaht. 
Corresp. Dutch . Ih heb den wil van den honing aan uwen ouden 

vader behend gemaaht. 
Colloq. Dutch . Ih heb uw oude vader de wil van de honing 

behend gemaaht. 

Note 1. — The last example will show that the dative case is in 
colloquial language indicated not by endings, but by position, 
which is more efl'ective, and corresponds to the way in which 
the dative case of the personal pronoun is used. 

Note 2. — The indication of differences between Correspondence 
and Colloquial Dutch should not lead the student to suppose 
that the exercises of this book might be translated into the 
latter. Colloquial Dutch serves merely for speaking purposes, 
and should not be made a written language of, seeing that 
even the easiest and loosest correspondence between educated 
people adheres to grammatical forms on the lines of the 
present chapter. 



CONJUGATION OF THE WEAK VERB "leeren," to 
learn, and the STRONG VERB " stelen," to steal. 

Indicative Mood. Aantoonende Wijs. 
Present Tense. Onvolmaaht Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Ih leer, I learn. Ik steel, I steal. 

Gij leert, thou learnest. Gij steelt, thou stealest. 

Hij leert, he learrs. Hij steelt, he steals. 

Wij leeren, we learn. Wij stelen, we steal. 

Gij leert, you learn. Gij steelt, you steal. 

Zij leeren, they learn. Zij stelen, they steal. 



92 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Indicative Mood. Aantoonende Wijs. 
Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 



Ik heb gelecrd, I have learned. 
Gij hebt gelcerd, thou hast 

learned. 
Ilij heeft gelecrd, he has learned. 
Wij hebben gelecrd, we have 

learned. 
Gij hebt geleerd, you have 

learned. 
Zij hebben geleerd, they have 

learned. 



Ik heb gestolen, I have stolen. 
Gij hebt gestolen, thou hast 

stolen. 
Ilij heeft gestolen, he has stolen. 
Wij hebben gestolen, we have 

stolen. 
Gij hebt gestolen, you have 

stolen. 
Zij hebben gestolen, they have 

stolen. 



Imperfect Tense. Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd. 



Ik leerde, I learned. 
Gij leerdet, thou learnedst. 
Hij leerde, he learned. 
Wij leer den, we learned. 
Gij leerdet, you learned. 
Zij leer den, they learned. 



Ik stal, I stole. 
Gij staalt, thou stolest. 
Hij stal, he stole. 
Wij stolen, we stole. 
Gij staalt, you stole. 
Zij stolen, they stole. 



Pluperfect Tense. Volmaakt Verleden Tijd. 



Ik had geleerd, I had learned. 
Gij hadt geleerd, thou hadst 

learned. 
Ilij had geleerd, he had learned. 
Wij hodden geleerd, we had 

learned. 
Gij hadt gelecrd, you had 

learned. 
Zij hodden gelecrd, they had 

learned. 



Ik had gestolen, I had stolen. 
Gij hadt gestolen, thou hadst 

stolen. 
Ilij had gestolen, he had stolen. 
Wij hadden gestolen, we had 

stolen. 
Gij hadt gestolen, you had 

stolen. 
Zij hadden gestolen, they had 

stolen. 



Future Tense. Onvolmaakt Tockomcnde Tijd. 



Ik zal leeren, I shall learn. 
Gij zult lecrcn, thou wilt learn. 
Hij zal leeren, he will learn. 
Wij zullen leeren, we shall 

learn. 
Gij zult leeren, you will learn. 
Zij zullen leeren, they will learn. 



Ik zal stelen, I shall steal. 
Gij zult stelen, thou wilt steal. 
Hij zal stelen, he will steal. 
Wij zullen stelen, we shall steal. 

Gij zult stelen, you will steal. 
Zij zullen stelen, they wjll steal. 



DECLENSION. 



93 



Indicative Mood. Aaxtoonende Wijs. 
Future Perfect Tense. Vohnaakt Toehomcnde Tijd. 



Ik zal geleerd hebben, I shall 

have learnrd. 
Gij zult geleerd hebben, thou 

wilt have learned. 
Hij zal geleerd hebben, he will 

have learned. 
Wij zullen geleerd hebben, we 

shall have learned. 
Gij zult geleerd hebben, you will 

have learned. 
Zij zullen geleerd hebben, they 

will have learned. 



Ik zal gestolen hebben, I shall 

have stolen. 
Gij zult gestolen hebben, thou 

wilt have stolen. 
Hij zal gestolen hebben, he will 

have stolen. 
Wij zullen gestolen hebben, we 

shall have stolen. 
Gij zult gestolen hebben, you will 

have stolen. 
Zij zullen gestolen hebben, they 

will have stolen. 



Subjunctive Mood. Aanvoegende Wijs. 
Future Tense. Onvolm. ToeTc. Tijd. 



He zou leeren, I should learn. 
Gij zoudt leeren, thou wouldst 

learn. 
Hij zou leeren, he would learn. 
Wij zouden leeren, we should 

learn. 
Gij zoudt leeren, you would 

learn. 
Zij zouden leeren, they would 

learn. 



He zou stelen, I should steal. 
Gij zoud stelen, thou would>t 

steal, 
Hij zou stelen, he would steal. 
Wij zouden stelen, we should 

steal. 
Gij zoudt stelen, you would 

steal. 
Zij zouden stelen, they would 

steal. 



Future Perfect Tense. Volm. Toek. Tijd. 



He zou geleerd hebben, I should 

have learned. 
Gij zoudt geleerd hebben, thou 

wouldst have learned. 
Hij zou geleerd hebben, he would 

have learned. 
Wij zouden geleerd hebben, we 

should have learned. 
Gij zoudt geleerd hebben, you 

would have learned. 
Zij zouden geleerd hebben, they 

would have learned. 



Ik zou gestolen hebben, I should 

have stolen. 
Gij zoudt gestolen hebben, thou 

wouldst have stolen. 
Hij zou gestolen hebben, he 

would have stolen. 
Wij zouden gestolen hebben, we 

should have stolen. 
Gij zoudt gestolen hebben, you 

would have stolen. 
Zij zouden gestolen hebben, they 

would have stolen. 



94 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Imperative Mood. Gebiedekde Wijs. 
Singular. Enhelvoud. 

Laat mij leeren, let me learn. Laat mij stelen, let me steal. 

Leer, learn (thou). Steel, steal (thou). 

Laat hem leeren, let him learn. Laat hem stelen, let him steal. 

Plural. Meervoud. 

Laat ons leeren (leeren wif), let Laat ons stelen (stelen wij), let 

us learn. us steal. 

Leert, learn (ye). Steelt, steal (ye). 

Jjaat hen leeren (leeren zip), let Laat hen stelen (stelen zif), kt 

them learn. them steal. 

Infinitive Mood. Onbepaalde Wijs. 
Present Tense. Onvolmaaht Tegenwoordige Tijd. 
(Te) leeren, to learn. (Te) stelen, to steal. 

Perfect Te'nse. Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Geleerd (te) hebben, to have Gestolen (te) hebben, to have 
learned. stolen. 

Future Tense. Onvolmaaht Toelcmende Tijd. 

(Te) zullen leeren (no equiva- (Te) zullen stelen (no equiva- 
lent; see Exercise XXXI). lent ; see Exercise XXXI). 

Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toehomende Tijd. 

(Te) zullen geleerd hebben (no (Te) zullen gestolen hebben (no 
equivalent). equivalent). 

Present Participle. Tegenwoordig Deelwoord. 
Leerende, learning. Stelende, stealing. 

Past Participle. Verleden Deehvoord. 
Geleerd, learned. Gestolen, stolen. 

Like " leeren " conjugate the weak verbs : spelen, speelde, 
gcspeeld, to play; deelen, decide, gedeeld, to divide, to 
share ; leven, leefde, geleefd, to live ; bouicen, bouwde 
gcbomod, to build ; vertellen, vertelde, vcrteld, to tell • 
vragen, vraagde, gevraagd, to ask. 



DECLENSION. 95 



Like " stelen " conjugate the strong verbs : slapen, sliep, 
geslapen, to sleep ; nemen, nam, genomen, to take ; roepen, 
riep, geroepen, to call ; geven, gaf, gegeven, to give ; meten, 
mat, gemeten, to measure ; wegen, tooog, gcwogen, to weigh. 



TRANSLATION JSXERCISES.—Vertaaloefeningen. 
Exercise XXVII. 

FourthRule of Construction. — When a subordinate sentence 
precedes the principal one, the construction of the latter is 
inverted, i.e., the verb is placed before its subject. If the 
verb consists of two parts, the auxiliary only precedes 
the subject, and the principal verb closes the sentence 
(see First Rule). 

Notice here the need of the comma, for separating two verbs 
which belong to different sentences. 

If you [have learned] that long lesson (have learned), 
(can = Tcan) you [can] go. If he had a book, (would) he 
[would] learn the alphabet. When I asked your uncle 
to tell that story, (said) he [said] that ho had told it 
(ze) already. When dogs [are] young (are), (are) they [are] 
ively. If the man has stolen the money, (is) he [is] a 
thief. After (nadaf) he weighed the parcel, (gave) he 
[gave] it to the boy. If my sister has no pain, (sleeps) 
she [sleeps] very well. Because the man was ill and 
poor, (was) he [was] miserable. W r hen I was rich, (had) 
I [had] many friends. As I had no horse, (could = Icon) I 
[could] not go. If I had had a garden behind the house, 
(would) I [would] [have been] glad (blij) (have been). 
As the boy had a spade, (worked) he [worked] in the 
garden. When my uncle's horses (the horses of my uncle) 
had much grass, (were) they [were] fat. If the child had 
been at (op) school, (would) it [would] have been tired (have 
been). If he asks for (oni) the inkpot, (will) my mother 
[will] give it (him) (give). W T hen the child has played 
[for] an hour, (will) it will [be] satisfied (be). 



96 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Exercise XXVIII. 

Translation of Present Participle. — Present participles 
are rarely used. They are translated in various ways. 
The following rendering should he noted first : 

Having a book, the boy is happy = as the boy has a 

book, he is happy = daar de jongen een hoeh hee/t, 

is hij gelukkig. 
Being ill, the child was at home = as the child was ill, 

it was at home = daar het kind ziek was, was het 

tliuis. 

Having parents, (is) the child [is] happy. Having 
books, (was) the boy [was] contented. Being small, the 
girl had little work. Having a spade, the boy worked 
(werlcte) in the garden. Being obedient, the child was 
happy. Having been ill (as he had been sick), the man 
was poor. The poor man being ill, was (he) miserable. 
The boy, having tools, was (he) happy. The child having 
been (as the child had been) at (op) school, was (it) 
tired. The weather having been bad, the harvest was 
small. Having had rain, the trees had leaves. Having 
no bread, the children were hungry. The cat having had 
milk, was (she) contented. My horses were fat, having 
had much grass. Your cows were thin, having had no 
forage. 

Exercise XXIX. 

Let us build three houses here. Why three ? There is 
room for four. There is no room for four houses on this 
small bit of ground. Would he have stolen the old horse 
if there (er) had been a young [one] ? If you tell me this, 
I shall not ask you again. What will ho ask me ? He 
will ask you io give up the key which he gave (has 
given) you This is the little bird that built its pretty 
nest among the green twigs. How long did the dog 
live? It (he) lived five years, I had a horse once which 
was twenty years old. If your uncle built (has built) on 
the new piece of ground, I will build on the old [one]. 
He has not built yet ; but he will build on the large now 



DECLENSION. 97 



piece of ground next to the old inn. Because he wantel 
to (wilde) play in the afternoon, he learned his lessons in 
the morning. You have had the money in your pocket ; 
why did you play (played you) with it (ermee) ? 

Exercise XXX. 

Note. — " To like to," and " to want to," are both rendered by 
" willen, wilde, gewild." 

The hoy wants to learn those difficult words. Yes, hut 
he does not want to (wil .... nief) [learn] his lesson for his 
teacher (not learn). I should like to (zou .... willen) ask 
you for (ora) the paper. The old man did not want to ask 
for money. Would you like to have a large house and a 
pretty garden? I should like to have many good hooks. 
He wants to give all his money to the poor. Give me 
those roses ! No, I do [not] want to (toil .... nief) 
[give] you those roses (not give) ; they are too pretty and 
too fresh. Do you want to have more ink? Who would 
not [like to he] rich and happy (like to he) ? I should 
not [like to huild] in this street (like to huild) ; there are 
already too many large houses. He wanted to call his 
father, hut he was not in his room. The carpenter wants 
to measure the table. Let him first measure the height of 
the door. 

Exercise XXXI, 
Observe : 

Hij hoopt te zullen slapen = he hopes that he will sleep. 
Hij verwacht te zullen bouwen = he expects that he will build. 
Hij denkt te zullen komen = he thinks that he will come. 
Hij gelooft morgen beter te zullen zijn = he believes that he 

will be better to-morrow. 
Hij zegt om een uur daar geweest te zullen zijn = he says 

that at one o'clock he will have been, there. 
Hij belooft zijne lessen dan geleerd te zullen hebben = he 

promises that then he will have learned his lessons. 

Note. — The latter part of these sentences may also be literally 
translated from the English. 

She hopes that she will live. I expect that I shall call 
you. They think that they will come to-morrow. He 

E 



98 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

promises that be will have given the money. She believes 
that she will be ill to-morrow. Having slept, the child 
was much better. Let the bird live, boys ! Having built 
a strong castle, the king was safe. John and Henry, share 
the marbles ! Let them also share the money ! Let us 
tell the story of that fearful fire to our parents. The 
carpenter expects that he will build three large houses. 
The girl believes that she [willj once [be] very rich (will 
be). Let us measure these sticks; they are long and 
strong. Do not always play, children ! Let them play 
now; they will (the next hour) learn their spelling 
(spelles, v.~) [the next hour]. Charles, call the servant, I 
want to [ask] him something (ask). Yes, father, I shall 
call him. 

The Pkogkessive Fokm. 

The Dutch language has no Progressive Form. Phrases in 
that form are therefore expressed in the corresponding tense of the 
verb, without indicating continuance of action. 

He is writing a letter = He writes a letter = Eij schrijft eenen 

brief. 
He was reading the paper = He read the paper = Ilij las de 

courunt. 
I shall be going to-morrow = I shall go to-morrow = Ik z<d 

morgen gaan. 

When it is necessary to give prominence to the continuous 
character of an action, another kind of expression is used : 

He is always writing = Ilij is altijd aan het schrijven. 
Do not speak to him, lie is reading = Spreek niet tot Item, hij 
is aan het lezen. 

Exercisk XXXII. 

The woman is weighing the meat. He was calling his 
father. The child was sleeping all (the whole) day. He 
was telling me about (van) his mother, who [is] dead (is). 
Wo have been learning our spelling, and wo have been 
playing in the room. The thief has been stealing again. 
The good dog was still living. Did you call me ? No, I 
was calling your brother. How long did your sister 



DECLENSION. 99 



sleep? She slept [for] three hours. She is always 
sleeping when (ah) I want to go out (uitgaan). Will you 
be measuring the carpet? I have measured it already, 
but I shall measure it again. Was the mason building 
the house ? He has been building two houses on the main 
road, and [now] he is building (now) a third. Were you 
telling him about that crow with the large wings ? Tell 
me that too. I shall tell you by and by. 

Exercise XXXIII. 

Note. — The word " when " is translated by " toen," when an 
action is expressed in the Past Tense, purporting to name 
a fact which has occurred once. 
In sentences, the verb of which is in the Present or Future 
Tense, or in the Past Tense, when a habit or regularly- 
occurring event is expressed, the word " when " is rendered 
by " ivanneer," or " als." 

You were sleeping when (toen) I called. My father 
was measuring the door when (toen) I gave him the letter. 
You play when (wanneer) you must learn (must = moef). 
He had the letter in his hand when (toen) he was playing. 
When (wanneer) will you call the cat ? I called the cat 
when I was in the passage. When you divide the 
marbles, you must (moet) call me. When the postman 
had weighed the book, he gave it to me. Were you 
building the wall when I [saw] you (saw, zag) ? Yes, I 
was building the wall when you called me to (om te) 
measure the door. When did the thief steal the money? 
He stole the money at (om) 5 o'clock. Were you sleeping 
when he stole it? He took it when we were in [the] 
house, but we were all sleeping. Was he dividing the 
marbles when you asked him to play ? He always gives 
me his books when he plays. 



CONVERSATIE. 


Conversation. 


Het Weder. 


The Weather. 


Boodschappen doen. 


Shopping. 


1. De lucht is bewolkt. 

2. We zullen donderweer 

hrijgen. 


1. The sky is cloudy. 

2. We shall have a thunder- 

storm. 

E 2 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



9. 

10. 

11. 



12. 
13. 
14. 

15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 

23. 

24. 

25. 

26. 



f J7 



Be donder ratelt ; het on- 3. 

weert. 
Het licht ; heeft u den blik- 4. 

sem gezien f 
Bie bliksemstraal was heel 5. 

fel. 
Het weer hlaart op ; het zal 6. 

morgen mooi weer zijn. 
Wat een prachtige regen- 7. 

boog ! 
Welk weer heeft u op uwe 8. 

reis gehad f 
Ouur, stormachtig weer. 9. 

Er heeft een, harde, door- 10. 

dringende wind geiuaaid. 
Be wind heeft een aantal 11. 

schoorsteenen afgewaaid. 

Be wind is gaan liggen. 12. 

Het regent hard. 13. 

Het is erg Jcoud ; het hagelt, 14. 

sneeuwt, vriest. 
Be sneeuw smelt. 15. 

Be rivier is bevroren. 16. 

Het vriest dat het kraakt. 17. 
Het is buitengewoon Jcoud. 18. 
Be vorige winter was bij- 19. 

zonder slreng. 
Het is nu zacht weer. 20. 

Be zon schijnt. 21. 

Be moan gaat van avond 22. 

om acht uur op. 
We hebben heerlijk, bekoor- 23. 

lijk, mooi weer. 
Oisteren was het triestig, 24. 

somber, onaangenaam, 

veranderlijk. 
Het is hier vochtig en naar 25. 

in den winter. 
Be hitte in den zomer is 26. 

vreeselijk op de vlakten. 



The thunder rolls ; it thun- 
ders. 

There is lightning ; did you 
see the lightning ? 

That flash of lightning was 
very vivid. 

The weather is clearing up ; 
it will be fine to-morrow. 

What a splendid rainbow ! 

What sort of weather did 
you have on your journey ? 

Rough, stormy weather. 

There has been a strong 
piercing wind. 

The wind has blown a 
number of chimneys 
down. 

The wind has abated. 

It rains hard. 

It is very cold; it 
snows, freezes. 

The snow is melting. 

The river is frozen. 

It freezes very hard. 

It is extremely cold. 

Last winter was particularly 
severe. 

This is mild weather. 

The sun shines. 

The moon rises at eight to- 
night. 

We have delightful, charm- 
ing, fine weather. 

Yesterday it was gloomy, 
dull, disagreeable, change- 
able. 

It is damp and dismal here 
in winter. 

The heat is terrible in the 
plains in summer. 



hails, 



Laat ons dicn winkel bin- 27. 
nengaan — ik Jieb verschei- 
dene ding en noodig. 
28. Ik zou graag wat hoeden 28. 
willen zien. 



Let us go into that shop — 
there are several things I 
want. 

I should like to see some 
hats. 



DECLENSION. 



29. Beze zijn naar den laatsUn 

smaak, mijnheer. 

30. Laat ons wat zwart laken 

zien, als H u blieft. 

31. Bit is nietfijn genoeg. 

32. Watkosthet? 

33. U heeft geene keus. 

34. Be prijs is te hoog. 

35. Ik moet een paar glace 

handschoenen hebben. 

36. Bit paar is te groot : ik 

draag nummer 7. 

37. Heeft u sterke leeren schoc- 

nenl 

38. Bie zijn te lang, te nauiv, 

te kort. 

39. Be houd van lage hakken. 

40. Het fatsoen bevalt me niet. 

41. Laat me eens wat zak- 

doeken en dasfen zien. 

42. Wil u mij uwe beste zijden 

paraplu's wijzen ? 

43. Wat kost deze ? 

44. Vijftien shilling, mijnheer. 

45. Ik zou graag witte linnen 

boorden en manchetten 
zien. 

46. Zoo is het genoeg ; dank u. 



29. These are the newest stylo, 

sir. 

30. Show us some black cloth, 

please. 

31. This is not fine enough. 

32. What is the price? 

33. You have no choice. 

34. The price is too hinh. 

35. I want a pair of kid gloves. 

36. This pair is too large: I 

wear no. 7. 

37. Have you strong leather 

boots ? 

38. Those are too long, too 

narrow, too short. 

39. I like low heels. 

40. I don't like the shape. 

41. Show me some handkerchiefs 

and some ties. 

42. Can I see some of your best 

silk umbrellas ? 

43. What is the price of this 

one? 

44. Fifteen shillings, sir. 

45. I wish to tee some white' 

linen collars and cuffs. 



46. That fa enough ; 
you, 



thank 



102 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE ADJECTIVE. 

(Het Bijvoegelijhe Naamwoord?) 

I. Adjectives denote distinguishing attributes or quali- 
ties of persons and things : I)e trouwe vriend, the faithful 
friend ; Het witte papier, the white paper. 

II. Adjectives may be used attributively and predica- 
tively. An adjective used attributively, Attributief Bijvoe- 
gelijJc naamwoord, is connected directly with its Noun : de 
warme koffie, the warm coffee. 

An adjective used predicatively, Predicatief Bijvoege- 
lijh naamwoord, is connected with its noun by means of 
some form of one of the Copulative Verbs : zijn, to be ; 
worden, to become ; blijven, to remain ; heeten, ' to be 
called ; schijnen, to seem ; blijlcen, to appear : Hij is 
goed, he is good ; Zij blijft trouw, she appears faithful ; 
Bat Jieet mooi, that is called pretty. 

Obs. 1. — The adjective, when used predicatively, is not 
declined, but it may be inflected to express the degrees of 
comparison : Die boom is hoog, maar deze is hooger, that 
tree is high, but this one is higher. 

Obs. 2. — Other verbs besides those mentioned above may be 
accompanied by an adjective used predicatively, when, 
namely, such adjective refers to a noun, and not to the 
action expressed by the verb: e.g., De deur is bruin 
geschilderd, the door has been painted brown. Here 
obviously, " brown " does not refer to the action of 
painting, but qualifies " door " ; it is therefore, not an 
adverb, but an adjective. 

III. The Attributive Adjective agrees with the noun 



THE ADJECTIVE. 103 



to which it is attached in gender, number, and case. (See 
Chapter on Declension.) 

In a few particular cases, however, it remains un- 
altered : 

Case 1. — When it follows its noun directly, instead of 
directly preceding it. This was often the case in older 
Dutch, but rarely occurs now. Vaderlief = dear father ; 
leindlief = dear child; Staten-Generaal = General States 
(House of Assembly), are surviving examples. 

Case 2. — When the Indefinite Article "een" stands between 
the noun and its adjective : Hoe wijs een man, how wise 
a man ; Te groot een verlies, too great a loss ; Zoo vroom 
eene vrouw, so pious a woman. 

IV. After ,the words een, a; geen, no; eenig, any; elk, 
every ; ieder, each ; menig, many ; zelcer, certain, and 
well; when, occurring before the name of a male person, 
the adjective, by its being either declined or retaining 
its original form, applies the same quality with a different 
meaning to the person, to whose name it is attached. 

The uninflected adjective in such a case refors to those 
qualities which pertain to the state or title of the per- 
son ; the inflected adjective refers to his inner quali- 
ties as a man, irrespective of the name he bears : een 
goed honing, a good king ; een goede honing, a good-hearted 
king ; een hnap schoenmaher, an able shoemaker ; een hnappe 
8choenmaher, a good-looking shoemaker ; een groot hoopman, 
a merchant who has a large business ; een groote hoopman, 
a tall merchant ; een oud soldaat, a soldier who has been 
long in the service ; een oude soldaat, an old man who is a 
soldier. 

Note. — Een oudsoldaat means a former soldier ; likewise does een 
oudleerling mean a former pupil. 

V. The following kinds of Attributive Adjectives are 
not declined : 

1. Adjectives denoting a material, and which end in 
en; e.g. eene zijden japon, a silk dress; gouden korloges, 
gold watches. 



104 Ttik Commercial dutch grammar. 

2. Adjectives of three or more syllables, when tbey end 
in en ; e.g. eene afgelegen plaats, a lonely place. 

3. Adjectives which by means of the ending er are 
derived from the names of places, villages or towns ; e.g. 
de Kamper boot, a steamer plying between Kampen and 
some other town ; de Botterdammer marht, the market of 
Rotterdam. 

Note — The ending er is not the usual ending for Adjectives derived from names 
of plices. The common ending is sch : Beaufortsche schapen, Beaufort sheep ; 
Wellingtcnsche wijn, Wellington wine. 

4. The comparative degree of adjectives, because in it 
they take the ending er : Nooit had ik schooner Jeans, I 
never had a better chance ; Ik heb meer bloemen dan gij, I 
have more flowers than you. 

5. Adjectives which end in lei or hande : allerlei vee, 
all kinds of cattle ; allerhande boeken, all kinds of books. 

6. The two adjectives rechter, right, and linker, left, 
because they never stand alone, but always form part of 
the noun which they qualify : mijne rechterhand, my right 
hand ; zijn linkerbeen, his left leg. 

7. The adjective " eigen," when it is taken in the mean- 
ing of dezelfde, the same : Hij stierf op den eigen dag, 
waarop zijn broeder geboren werd, he died on the same day 
on which his brother was born. 

Note. — If eigen is taken In the usual meaning of " own," it is declined in the 

ordinary way : mijne eigene zuiter, my own sister. 
Note 2. — If two or more adjectives are attached to one noun, together expressing 

but one quality, the last of these adjectives is declined and the others remain 

unchanged : Holland heeft eene rood,, wit en blauwe vlag, Holland has a red, 

white and blue flag. 

Obs. — Adjectives ending in sch may for the greater part be 
used as adverbs, but then they drop the ch : Ik zie hem 
dagelijks, 1 see him daily ; Voorivaarts komen, to come to 
the front. There are a few adjectives, however, which 
claim special attention, because though ending in a 
hissing sound, they simply take s and not sch. These 
are : dwars, across ; wars, averse ; hits, tart ; flets, faded ; 
paars, violet; sits, chintz; vuns, musty; vies, dirty; 
dras, marshy ; voos, spongy ; spits, pointed ; kras, strong; 
los, loose; bros, brittle; ros, ruddy; wis, sure, and 
gewis, certain. Examples : een geioiese dood, a certain 
death ; een drasse grond, a marshy ground; vooze radijs, 
spongy radishes ; rasse schreden, quick stops. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 105 



VI. Degrees of Comparison (Trappen van Vergelijhing). 
Objects may possess a quality absolutely or compara- 
tively. Absolute possession is expressed by the Positive 
degree, Stellende trap, i.e., the unchanged form of the 
adjective : Mijne les is lang, my lesson is long. 

Comparative possession, i.e., possession in comparison 
with other objects having the same quality, is expressed 
in two ways : 

1. By the Comparative degree, Vergrootende trap, which 
indicates that an object possesses the like quality with 
another, only in a higher degree : Het paard is grooter dan 
de hoe, the horse is taller than the cow. 

2. By the Superlative degree, Overtreffende trap, which 
indicates that one object possesses some quality in a 
higher degree than any other object to which it is com- 
pared; Onder alle bloemen is deze de mooiste, among all 
flowers this is the prettiest one. 

The Comparative degree is formed by adding er to tho 
unchanged form of the adjective : groot, grooter, great, 
greater. 

The Superlative degree is formed by adding st to the 
unchanged form of the adjective : groot, grootst, great, 
greatest. 

Note. — In forming the comparative of adjectives ending in / or t, take note of 
the rules for the formation of the plural of nouns ending in those letters. 

Obs. 1. — Adjectives ending in r form their comparative hy 
adding der, instead of er. The comparative of na, near, 
is likewise nader, and of moe, tired, moeder. 

Obs. 2. — Adjectives in s or sch form their superlative by 
adding t, instead of st: wijs, wise, ivijzer, ivijst (not 
wijsst). 

Obs. 3. — Meer, more, and meest, most, may not, as a rule, be used 
in Dutch for the formation of the degrees of comparison. 
The endings er and st are added, irrespective of the 
number of syllables. In one special case, however, the 
ending st of the superlative stands in the way of easy 
pronunciation, namely in woestst, most desolate, which 
should therefore be meest woest. 

Obs. 4. — There is a case in which the word meer must invari- 
ably be used to indicate the Comparative degree, viz., 



106 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

when two qualities attributed to one and the same object 
are compared, e.g., Deze tafel is meer eenig dan mooi, 
this table is more unique than pretty ; Eene koe is meer 
nuttig dan gezellig, a cow is more useful than sociable. 

Note. — Meer and meest must also be employed in the comparison 
of Past Participles used as predicative adjectives : Zij is meer 
vermoeid dan haar breeder, she is more tired than her brother ; 
Mijne schoenen zijn het meest versleten van alle, my boots are 
the most worn-out ones of all. 

Obs. 5. — In using superlatives, the student should be careful 
about the article that precedes the adjective. When 
we speak of different objects among which one stands 
prominent, the article must be chosen according to the 
gender of the noun employed, and the superlative ends 
in ste: Be mooiste stad van den ganschen omtrek, the 
finest town of the whole neighbourhood ; Het nieuwste 
boek, dot ik bezit, the newest book I possess. When, 
however, parts of the same thing are compared, the super- 
lative ends in st, and the article preceding it is "het" 
in all cases : Aan de zuidzijde is de stad het mooist, 
the town is prettiest on the south side; De zieke is 's 
morgens het zwakst, the patient is weakest in the morning. 

Obs. 6.— Some adjectives from their nature can have no 
degrees of comparison. Such are : 

(a) Adjectives which indicate a material : eene zijden japon, 

a silk dress. 
(V) Adjectives whose meaning is complete in the positive 

degree : dood, dead ; stom, dumb ; ledig, empty ; 

luchtdicht, air-tight; splinter nieuw, brand-new; 

gitzwart, jet-black ; ontelbaar, innumerable ; over- 

altegenwoordig, omnipresent ; drieeenig, triune ; 

bloedrood, blood-red ; almachtig, almighty; aardsch, 

earthy ; Engelseh, English , Fransch, French, etc. 
(c) Adjectives derived from adverbs : voormalig, former ; 

dadelijksch, daily ; trapsgeiuijze, gradual ; schrifte- 

lijk, in writing ; mondeling, verbal. 

Oiis. 7. — A few adjectives have an irregular comparison : 



Positive. 




Comparative. 


Superlative. 


goed* 


good, 


beter, 


best. 


kwaad, 


bad, 


erger, 


ergst. 


veel, 


much, 


meer, 


meest. 


weinig, 


little, 


minder, 


minst. 


vroeg, 


early, 


vroeger (eerder), 


vroegst (eerst). 



*Note. — The old positive degree is bet or bat = goed, which is still found in the 
word JBetuwe (bat ouwe, good soil), a part of Uelderland ; also in betovergroot- 
vadtr, grandfather's grandfather, and in betweter, wiseacre. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 107 



Obs. 8. — After comparatives " dan," than, must be used, and 
never "als" the latter being a Germanism : Eij is rijker 
dan ik, he is richer than I. 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise XXXIV. 

Write out the degrees of comparison of the following 
Adjectives. 

1. 

Groot, great ; zwart, black ; glad, slippery ; klein, small 
hoog, high ; laag, low ; rond, round ; dik, thick ; lang 
long ; diep, deep ; bont, gaudy ; vlaJc, level ; krom, crooked 
vuil, dirty ; bleek, pale ; droog, dry ; mooi, fine ; breed 
broad ; steil, steep ; dicht, close ; drtik, busy ; vroeg, early 
dun, thin; laf, insipid; wit, white; heet, hot; koel, cool 
edit, real ; dood, dead ; vroom, pious ; Jcoud, cold ; ^'wfc, 
thorough. 

2. 

Boos, angry ; gelijlc, even ; oro/, coarse ; geleerd, learned ; 
vies, dirty ; dor, dry ; stevig, firm ; valsch, false ; gouden, 
gold; Zie/, dear; 6roos, frail; gek, mad; belcend, known; 
duur, expensive ; beroemd, celebrated ; doof, deaf ; levend, 
alive ; kostbaar, costly ; dioars, cross ; wijs, wise ; fraai, 
pretty ; erg, bad ; sr.huinsch, oblique ; glanzig, glossy ; 
8cheef, awry ; moe, tired ; lui, lazy ; bemind, loved ; pikzwart, 
pitchblack ; vlijtig, diligent ; hras, firm ; angstig, anxious ; 
schiw, shy ; spits, pointed ; mager, thin ; braaf, good. 

3. 

Versleten, worn out ; landelijk, rural ; zijden, silken ; 
aardsch, earthly ; aangenaam, agreeable ; verteerbaar, 
digestive; naar, disagreeable; bloo, timid; levenloos, life- 
less ; doornat, wet through ; behaard, hairy ; blozend, 
blooming ; geeerd, honoured ; klaar, clear ; vroolijk, merry ; 
ijsclijk, frightful ; sneeuwwit, snow-while ; laat, late ; 



10S TttE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

getand, indented ; levenslustig, merry ; na, near ; oppassend, 
respectable; bekwaam, clever; woest, wild; almaclitig, 
almighty ; veerkraclitig, elastic ; veriest, faded ; stulc, 
broken ; oprecht, sincere ; menschelijk, human ; begrensd, 
bounded ; gemeten, measured ; beproefd, tried ; schitterend, 
brilliant ; akelig, dismal ; glooiend, sloping ; verheven, 
raised ; breedgerand, broad-brimmed. 



Exercise XXXV. 
Fill up the blanks in the following exercises. 

1. 

— paars- lint (o) van mijn- hoed (ni) ziet er flet- uit. 
The violet ribbon of my hat looks faded. 

Toen ik te Aliwal-Noord was, nam ik dagelijlcs een- 
When I at Aliwal North was, took I daily a 

bad(o~) in — warm- bron-. D- taal(v) van — 
bath in the hot springs. The language of the 

dagelijk- leven noemt men — omgangstaal. — 

everyday life calls one the colloquial language. The 

loit- en zwart- paard van — postrijder heeft zijn- 
white and black horse of the postrider has its 

poot (rri) gebroTcen. Amsterdam is op paal- gebouwd, die 
leg broken. Amsterdam is on piles built which 

door d— dras- grond (m) tot op d— onderliggend- vast- 
through the marshy soil on to the underlying firm 

laag (v) heengedreven zijn. Ik lean niet zooveel in d— man 
layer driven down are. I can not so much in the man 

zien, mij lijkt hij — zeer alledaag— mensch (m). JSij d- 
sce, to me looks he a very common person. In the 

ros- gloed (m) dien d- brand verspreidde, Hep d- 

ruddy glow which the fire cast, ran (about) the 

arm- man wanhopig naar de zijn— te zoeken. 

poor man in despair for his wife and children to look. 

Mijn— vader is— kras- man ; ofschoonhij- tijdgenoot 
My father is a vigorous man, though he a contemporary 



the adjective. 109 

van Willem — Tweed- is, wandelt hij nog elh— dag 
of William the Second is, walks he still every day (for) 

een— uur. Ah — j on g- menscli— zich op — 

an hour. When these young people (themselves) on the 

bro8— ijs (0) wagen, gaan zij een— gewis— dood (m) 
brittle ice venture, go they a certain death 

tegemoet. 
to meet. 

2. 

D- woorden — wijz— zijn ah goud- appel- op 
The words of the wise are like golden apples on 

zilver— schaal-. Van — plafond (0) hingen groot— 

silver dishes. From the ceiling were hanging large 

Icristal- kroonlampen af, die d— zaal (y) met — 
crystal candelabra down, which the hall with a 

tooverachtig— licht vervulden. D- vreemdeling droeg — zwaar- 
fairy-like light filled. The stranger wore a heavy 

goud— ring aan d- middelvinger zijn— reclit— hand. 
gold ring on the middle finger of his right hand. 

Zet d— beid— raam— wijd open, er is een vuns— 
Throw (the) both windows wide open, there is a stuffy 

lucid in d- learner («). D— groot- steen- vaas- op d- 
smell in the room. The large stone vases on the 

stoep (y) voor ons— huis(o) zijn van — jijnst- 

verandah in front of our house are of the finest 

aardewerk. Sinds uw— neef naar d— universiteit gegaan 
earthenware. Since your cousin to the university gone 

is, is Mj een- verwaand— —weter geworden, met men He 
is, has he a conceited wiseacre become, with whom I 

lief— niets meer te doen icil liebben. 
rather nothing more to do will have. 

3. 

— paard behoort tot een- edelef- diersoort (v) dan 
The horse belongs to a nobler kind of animals than 

d- hoe. D- vroeg- bezitter van — landgoed (o) 
the cow. The former owner of this estate 



no THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

stamde in d— recht— lijn (v) van Lodewijk d— Eerstr- af 
descended in the direct line from Lewis the First. 

D— jong— boer ontving ons met d- eigen— gastvrijheid, 
The young farmer received us with the same hospitality 

die zijn- vader gekenmerht had. Bij — onderzoeh 
which his father characterised had. At the investigation 

bleeh, dat d— Compagnie — schip aan een— 
(it) appeared, that the Company the vessel to an 

onervaren— hapitein had toevertrouicd. Bij — flauw— 
inexperienced captain had entrusted. By the faint 

schijnsel mijn— lantaarn (v) zag ih een— man met ras- 
glimmer of my lantern saw I a man with quick 

schreden dioars- — veld (o) overstelcen ; en tocn hij naderbij 
steps athwart the field cross; and when he nearer 

hwam, herhende ih d— stap van mijn- eigen- vader. 
came, recognised I the step of my own father. 

TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise XXXVI. 
(On § IV.) 

The good-looking son of our schoolmaster has become 
an able carpenter. Louis the Sixteenth of France was a 
good man, but not a good king. The blacksmith in the 
village is a former soldier. There is a very old soldier in 
the hospital. The captain who called (eene visite maalcte) 
last night, is a soldier of long standing. There is not a 
good doctor in the town. Any good-hearted doctor would 
have had pity on that poor woman. No bad clerk ever 
makes a good manager. Many [a] great man is not duly 
appreciated until (dan) after his death. My uncle Henri 
is such a tall man that he goes by the name of Goliath. 
This poor man was a great merchant once, but he failed 
in business and sinco then has never been able (heeft . . . 
Jcunnen) to get on. Of late years Austria has been a 
faithful ally to (voor) Germany. This young man is but 
(nog maar) a young mason. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



Exercise XXXVII. 
(On § VI.) 

The soap-manufactory is the highest house in the 
town. Your brother is more diligent than mine (de 
mijne). The river was deepest where we attempted to 
cross it (ze). Colonial coal is not so dear as foreign 
coal. In many parts of South Africa the scenery is moro 
grand than pretty. The almond-tree blossoms first of 
all the trees in our garden. This bread is the least 
palatable which (dat) I have tasted for a long time (in 
langen tijd). A more faithful dog than mine I have never 
seen. Your dress looks more worn than your cloak. This 
young barrister is the most learned of all his colleagues. 
Our dog barked loudest as (toen) we neared the gorge. 
King Solomon was the wisest man of bis time. The horse 
is liveliest when it has been in the stable (op stal gestaan 
heeft) [for] a few days. The wildest (tooesf) parts of the 
country are the least fertile (sup. of onvruchtbaar). Figs 
are among (behooren tot) the most wholesome [of] fruits. 
Of all these lamps this [one] is the least expensive. 
[A] cheaper cloth than the one (hetgeen) you have, is 
no good (deugt niet). A more terrific thunderstorm than 
yesterday's (die van) I have never witnessed. 



CONJUGATION of the WEAK VERB "dansen," to dance, 
and the STRONG VERB "lezen," to read. 

Indicative Mood. Aantooxende Wns. 
Present Tense. Onvolmaaht Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Ik dans, I dance. Ik lees, I read. 

Gij danst, thou dancest. Oij leest, thou readest. 

Hij danst, he dances. Hij leest, he reads. 

Wij dansen, we dance. Wij lezen, we read. 

Gij danst, you dance. Gij leest, you read. 

Zij dansen, they dance. Zij lezen, they read. 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Indicative Mood. Aantoonende Wijs. 



Perfect Tense. Volmaaht Tegenwoordige Tijd. 



Ik heb gedunst, I have danced. 
Gij hebt gedanst, thou hast 

danced. 
Hij heeft gedanst, he has danced. 
Wij hebben gedanst, we have 

danced. 
Gij hebt gedanst, you have 

danced. 
Zij hebben gedanst, they have 

danced. 



Ik heb gelezen, I have read. 
Gij hebt gelezen, thou hast read. 

Uij heeft gelezen, he has read. 
Wij hebben gelezen, we have 

read. 
Gij hebt gelezen, you have read. 

Zij hebben gelezen, they have 
read. 



Imperfect Tense. Onvolmaaht Verleden Tijd. 



Ik danste, I danced. 
Gij danstet, thou dancedst. 
Hij danste, he danced. 
Wij dansten, we danced. 
Gij danstet, you danced. 
Zij dansten, they danced. 



Ik las, I read. 
Gij laast, thou readest. 
Hij las, he read. 
Wij lazen, we read. 
Gij laast, you read. 
Zij lazen, they read. 



Pluperfect Tense. Volmaaht Verleden Tijd. 



Ik had gedanst, I had danced. 
Gij hadt gedanst, thou hadst 

danced. 
Hij had gedanst, he had danced. 
Wij hadden gedanst, we had 

danced. 
Gij hadt gedanst, you had 

danced. 
Zij hadden gedanst, they had 

danced. 



Ik had gelezen, I had read. 
Gij hadt gelezen, thou hadst 

read. 
Hij had gelezen, he had read. 
Wij hadden gelezen, we had 

read. 
Gij hadt gelezen, you had read. 

Zij hadden gelezen, they had 
read. 



Future Tense. Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 



Ik zal dansen, I shall dance. 
Gij zult dansen, thou wilt dance. 
Hij zal dansen, he will dance. 
Wij zullen dansen, we shall 

dance. 
Gij zult dansen, you will dance. 
Zij zullen dansen, they will 

dance. 



Ik zal lezen, I shall read. 
Gij zult lezen, thou wilt read. 
Hij zal lezen, he will read. 
Wij zullen lezen, we shall read. 

Gij zult lezen, you will read. 
Zij zullen lezen, they will read, 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



"3 



Indicative Mood. Aantoonende Wijs. 
Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 



Ik zal gedanst hebben, I shall 

have danced. 
Gij zult gedanst hebben, thou 

wilt have danced. 
Hij zal gedanst hebben, he will 

have danced. 
Wij zullen gedanst hebben, we 

shall have danced. 
Gij zult gedanst hebben, you 

will have danced. 
Zij zullen gedanst hebben, they 

will have danced. 



Ik zal gelezen hebben, I shall 

have read. 
Gij zult gelezen hebben, thou wilt 

have read. 
Hi} zal gelezen hebben, he will 

have read. 
Wij zullen gelezen hebben, we 

shall have read. 
Gij zult gelezen hebben, you will 

have read. 
Zij zullen gelezen hebben, they 

will have read. 



Subjunctive Mood, 
Future Tense. 

Ik zou dansen, I should dance. 
Gij zoudt dansen, thou wouldst 

dance. 
Bij zou dansen, he would 

dance. 
Wij zouden dansen, we should 

dance. 
Gij zoudt dansen, you would 

dance. 
Zij zouden dansen, they would 

dance. 



Aanvoegkxde Wijs. 
Onv. Toek. Tijd. 

Ik zou lezen, I should read. 
Gij zoudt lezen, thou wouldst 

read. 
Hij zou lezen, he would read. 

Wij zouden lezen, we should 

read. 
Gij zoudt lezen, you would read. 

Zij zouden lezen, they would 
read. 



Future Perf. Tense. 

Ik zou gedanst hebben, I should 

have danced. 
Gij zoudt gedanst hebben, thou 

wouldst have danced. 
Hij zou gedanst hebben, he 

would have danced. 
Wij zouden gedanst hebben, we 

should have danced. 
Gij zoudt gedanst hebben, you 

would have danced. 
Zij zouden gedanst hebben, they 

would have danced. 



Volm. Toek. Tijd. 

He zou gelezen hebben, I should 

have read. 
Gij zoudt gelezen hebben, thou 

wouldst have read. 
Hij zou gelezen hebben, he would 

have read. 
Wij zouden gelezen hebben, we 

should have read. 
Gij zoudt gelezen hebben, you 

would have read. 
Zij zouden gelezen hebben, they 

would have read. 



U4 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Imperative Mood. Gebiedende "Wijs. 
Singular. Enhelvoud. 

Laat mij dansen, let me dance. Laat mij lezen, let me read. 

Bans, dance (thou). Lees, read (thou). 

Laat hem dansen, let him Laat hem lezen, let him read. 
dance. 

Plural. Meervoud. 

Laat ons dansen, let us dance. Laat ons lezen, let us read. 

Danst, dance (ye). Leest, read (ye). 

Laat hen dansen, let them Laat hen lezen, let them read, 
dance. 

Infinitive Mood. Onbepaalde Wijs. 
Present Tense. Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 
(Te) dansen, to dance. (Te) lezen, to read. 

Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Gedanst (te) hebben, to have Oelezen (te) hebben, to have 
danced. read. 

Future Tense. Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 

(Te) zullen dansen (no equiva- (Te) zullen lezen (no equivalent, 
lent, see Exercise XXXI) see Exercise XXXI) 

Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 

(Te) zullen gedanst hebben (no (Te) zullen gelezen hebben (no 
equivalent). equivalent). 

Present Participle. Tegenwoordig Deelwoord. 
L) amende, dancing. Lezende, reading. 

Past Participle. Verleden Deelwoord. 
Gedanst, danced. Gelezen, read. 

Like " dansen " conjugate the weak verbs : Moppcn, 
Jclopte, geklopt, to knock ; straffen, strafte, gestraft, to punish ; 
gissen, giste, gegiet, to guess ; blaffen, blafte, geblaft, to bark ; 
haklcen, hakte, gehakt, to chop; missen, miste, gemist, to 
miss, to spare. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 115 



Like " lezen " conjugate the strong Yerbs : wijzen, wees, 
geicezen, to show, to point out ; verliezen, verloor, verloren, 
to lose ; genezen, genas, genezen, to cure ; prijzen, prees, 
geprezen, to praise ; vriezen, vrovr, gevroren, to freeze ; rijzen, 
rees, gerezen, to rise. 

Exercise XXXVIII. 

Note. — Translate "if" by "indien" or "ah" the shorter 
word being sometimes preferred. 

Can you spare [me] one of these new pencils ? Yes, I 
shall give you one (er . . . eeri), because you ask me for it 
(er . . . om). If these girls dance in their room, they will 
be punished. Did you call (Have . . . called) your own dog 
or (the) mine ? I have called mine three times, but he does 
not hear, for he is barking at (tegen) another dog. If you 
lose your books, will the teacher punish you ? He praised 
the little boy when he had learned that long verse. If 
the man had chopped the wood, I should have asked him 
nothing. Can you guess why he called me? Would she 
lose all these plants if it should freeze (froze)? Head, 
children, and tell me what is (staat) in the letter. Let us 
knock at (aari) the door. If you give me the medicine, it 
(she) will cure me. If they had shown the money, the 
thief would have stolen it. If you had guessed the con- 
tents of the letter, would you have read (voorgelezen) it to 
your friend? Do not bark so, old dog, your voice is 
hoarse with it (er van). 

Exercise XXXIX. 

Note. — " Then " is translated by " dan," when introducing a 
conclusive sentence, following a conditional one : 

If he goes, then I must stay, ah hij gaat, dan moet ik 

blijoen. * 

Suppose he had said so, then you would have answered, 

veronderstel dat hij dit gezegd had, dan zoudt gij 

geantwoord hebhne. 



u6 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR \ 

"Then," when an adverb of time, is translated by " dan" for 
the Present and Future tenses, and by "toen" for the 
Past tense. 
I go to the baker, and then to the butcher, ik ga naar den 

bakker en dan naar den slager. 
He will come, and then I shall hear it, liij zal komen, en dan 

zal ik het liooren. 
She ran to her mother and then fainted, zij Hep naar hare 
moeder toe, en viel toen flauw. 

In the latter meaning it may usually be translated by 
" daarna * as well, especially when there is a clear succes- 
sion of events in point of time. 

The boy asked his friends (om) to play with him, and 
then they ran about in the field. I shall miss you when 
you are gone (weg), for then I shall have no one to (om . . . 
te) play with me. Were they all praising the girl that 
night (avond) ? They praised her very [much], and showed 
me her beautiful prizes. When the shopkeeper weighed 
the sugar, he found out his mistake. He will measure 
the ground first, and then he will build a large dwelling- 
house on it (er op). Were the children sleeping when 
you called them ? No, they were not sleeping any more, 
they were playing ; the girls had dolls, and the boys had 
marbles. One boy was chopping wood for his mother in 
the yard, and the eldest boy was sitting reading (te lezen) 
in a corner of the dining-room. Would you like to go to 
the post-office first (eerst), and then to the station ? I 
would rather (liever) go to the station first. You want 
to show me the pictures, my little boy ? Having lost her 
money, the poor woman was in great distress. 

Exercise XL. 

Fifth Rule of Construction". — When the object (direct or 
indirect), or an adverbial extension stands first in a 
principal sentence, the subject is placed after the 
predicate. 

Yesterday (showed) my brother [showed] me the new 

house. Five pounds (gave) the man [gave] for the old 

donkey. Him (called) he [called], not you. To dance 



Tim ADJECTIVE. it? 



(Rule 2) [on] that night (avond), would have been [a] 
shame. (It) to have missed [it], would have been to have 
lost it. Now that my mother is gone (iceg), my all {piles) 
is gone. The passage (would) you [would] not measure 
for me, (said) you [said] ; why not ? (The) life on earth 
is pleasant to (voor) some people, but miserable to many. 
In the school I learn, in my bed I sleep ; when I am at 
table, I eat, and when (I am) in the garden, I play. That 
you must (moei) not ask me, for how can (Jean) I tell it 
you ? Would the thief have stolen the money, if you had 
given him some bread ? Work [you] must (you) whether 
(of) you are rich or (of) poor ; all people must work. 
After the battle the soldiers divided the spoil amongst 
(onder) them (zich). Behind the house is a large garden 
with many precious fruit-trees. 

VII. THE NUMERAL ADJECTIVE.— Set Telwoord. 

Numeral Adjectives, though taken in Dutch as a 
separate part of speech, are real adjectives expressing a 
quantity. That quantity may be defined or not, hence 
the distinction between Bepaalde Telwoorden, Definite 
Numeral Adjectives, and Onbepaalde Telwoorden, Indefinite 
Numeral Adjectives. Besides expressing a quantity, these 
Adjectives may also point out the place a certain object 
takes in a series, hence the distinction between Hoofdge- 
tallen, Cardinal Numbers, and Banggetallen, Ordinal Num- 
bers. The place or order may again be defined or not. 
The distinctions are shown in the following table : — 

Telwoobden. Numeral Adjectives. 

1/Hoofdgetallen a. Bepaalde (definite). 

(Cardinals). b. Onbepaalde (indefinite). 

2. Banggetallen a. Bepaalde (definite). 

(Ordinals). b. Onbepaalde (indefinite). 

Examples : 

1. a. een, one; twee, two; twintig, twenty ; beide, both; 

etc. 



Ii8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

1. b. Veel, much, many; alle, all; eenige, some, any; 

wat, some ; toeinig, little, few ; sowmige, some ; 
geen, no, etc. 

2. a. eerste, first ; derde, third ; vijfligste, fiftieth, etc. 

2. b. hoeveelste, which (in the order) ; zooveelste, such an 
one (in the order) ; laatste, last ; middelste, the 
middle one. 

Sentences on 1. b. 

Deze man heeft eenige huizen te hoop, this man has some 

houses for sale. 
Hij heeft veel nieuwe boeken, he has many new looks. 
Sommige dagen heb ik te veel iverk, on some days I have too 

much work. 
Er zijn geene apjoelen aan den boom, there are no apples on 

the tree. 
Heeft u alle (al de) eieren in die mand f have you got all 

the eggs in that basket ? 

Note. — If the word alle is followed by the definite article or a 
demonstrative pronom), its form is undeclined, i.e. al (not 
alle), e.g., ih heb al de huizen geteld, I have counted all the 
houses. 

Sentences on 2. b. 

De hoeveelste plaats heeft uw broeder in de Mas, which place 

has your brother got in class ? 
U zegt, dat dit het twintigste bock is? ik wist niet dat het al 

het zooveelste was, you say that this is the twentieth 

book ? I did not know we had had so many. 
Het middelste huis in de straat is het mijne, the middle one 

of the houses of this street is mine. 

Obs.— Num. Adj. both definite and indefinite, like all adjectives, 
may be used as nouns of the weak declension (see p. 85) : 
Vcle eersten zullen de laatsten zijn, m:iny (that are) first 
shall be last ; Sommigen radcn dit aan, anderen wat anders, 
some advise this, others something else. 

VIII. Cardinals are not declined except een, one (written 
with a double accent to distinguish it from the indefinite 
article een), and beide. 

Een, moreover, is not declined when it occurs in 
combination with another cardinal : een en twintig jaren, 
twenty-one years. In this case some write eencntwintig. 
Een, used by itself, is declined like the indefinite article, 



THE ADJECTIVE. 119 



except that it has no form for the genitive case. When 
preceded by the definite article or a demonstrative pronoun, 
it is declined like an adjective, and even has a plural : 
Aan den eenen leant zou ih er wel lust in hebben, on the one 
hand I should rather like it ; De eenen zeggen dit, de 
anderen dat, some say this and others that. 

Note. — All Cardinals have a plural form when used as the names 
of arithmetical figures : Schrijfvier vijven op uwe lei, put down 
four fives on your slate. 

Obs. — Eonderden and duizenden, real substantives, though 
treated as adjectives, never change their form : Eonderden uren 
ver, hundreds of hours distant. 

Beide, meaning " both," has of course only a plural 
form, and is declined : beide, beider, beiden, beide. Used 
by itself and referring to persons, the nom. and ace. case 
of it is beiden : Ik heb van beiden evenveel vriendelijhheid 
ondervonden, I have experienced equal kindness from both. 
But when referring to things, or when used to qualify a 
noun, these cases (not the dative) are beide : Licht en 
duisternis zijn mij beide even welJcom op hunne beurt, light and 
darkness are both equally welcome to me in their turn ; 
Mijne beide broeders zijn dood, both my brothers are dead. 

IX. The indefinite Cardinals, as well as the definite and 
indefinite Ordinals, are all declined like common adjectives. 
When used separately, and referring to persons, they all 
take n in every case of the plural, like nouns of the weak 
declension, but they drop this w, when they refer to 
things. 

Veel and weinig, when occurring before plural nouns, convey 
the idea of quantity, whereas vele and weinige mean different 
kinds: 

Mijn vriend heeft veel boeJcen, en ih heb er weinig, my friend 
has many books, and I have few. 

Er groeien vele appelen in onzen tuin, hoewel het getal onzer 
boomen niet groot is, we have many kinds of apples grow- 
ing in our garden, though the number of trees is not large. 

Note. — Usually the word soorten, kinds, is added, to facilitate 
comprehension. 



:o THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR, 

X. Notice the following idiomatic renderings : — 

(a) Of the word " Some." 

1. Before names of materials, or collective nouns : some tea, 

wat thee ; some fuel, wat brandhout ; some money, ivat 
geld ; — likewise before plural nouns (in colloquial style) : 
some apples, wat appelen. 

Note. — Een beetje, literally " a little bit," is likewise used before 
materials : some (a little) water, een beetje water ; some cake, 
een beetje Jcoek ; — and een paar, a few, or een stuk of wat, before 
plurals : some (a few) stones, een stuk of wat steenen. 

2. Before plural words : some houses, eenige (een paar) 

huizen ; some cows, eenige (een paar) hoeien. 

3. With the meaning of " a little " : May I give you some (a 

little) of this ? mag ik u hiervan iets (ivat) gevenf 

4. "With the meaning of " a few " : Some (a few) of these birds 

are green, enhele van deze vogcls zijn groen. 
6. To bring out " kind " or " sort " : Some flour is good, and 
some is not, sommig meel is goed en ander niet ; Some 
(kinds of) people can do that, and others not, sommige 
mensvhen kunnen dat, en anderen niet. 

Note. — The principal idea of eenige is number, and cf sommige, 
various kinds, 

6. Signifying " several " : We tarried there some days, wij 

vertoe/den daar verscheidene dagen. 

7. In its most indefinite signification : I should like to give 

him some (kind of) reward, ik zou hem graag de eene of 
andere belooning geven ; Some day I hope to see you 
again, den eenen of anderen dag hoop ik u weer te zien. 

(b) Of the word "Any." 

1. In questions: Have you any books? heeft u ook boeken? 

Are there any children in the lane? zijn er ook kinderen 
in de laan 1 

2. In negations : Have you got these pears ? No, not any, 

Ileeft u die per en f Neen, geen enkele ; He had not any 
money with him, hij had volstrekt geen geld bij zich. 

3. With emphasis, before a singular noun : You must come in 

any case, gij moet in elk geval komen. 
With emphasis, before a plural noun : I expect you under 
any circumstances, ik zal u onder alle omstandigheden 
verwachten; the safe is proof against any attacks by 
thieves, de brand/cast is bestand tegen alle aanvallen van 
dieven. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 12 1 



4. In a general sense : He did as well as any boy could have 

done, hij deed het zoo goed als een jongen het maar kan. 

5. Before an Adjective : Any other horse would have kicked, 

ieder ander paard zou geschopt hebben. 

XI. Mark further the following expressions : 

1. At one o'clock, om een uur. 

2. At half-past two, om half-drie (remember the hyphen). 

3. At about five o'clock, omstreeks vijf uur. 

4. Some six pounds, een pond of zes {een unaccented). 

5. Some twenty years, een jaar of twintig (this way of 

expression is not customary for sums higher than 
twenty). 

6. Some hundred books, een honderd boeken. 

7. Some few sheep, een schaap of wat. 

8. Some fifteen young trees, een stuk of vijftienjonge boomen. 

(Use " ongeveer " before large quantities.) 

9. About a fortnight, een. veertien dagen (een dag of veertien). 

10. About four weeks, een vier weken (eene week of vier). 

11. About fifty bags of rice, een vijf tig zakken rijst. 

12. Some eight days, een acht dagen (een dag of acht). 

13. Chapter fourth, hoofdstuk vier, or het vierde Jwofdstuk. 

14. The tenth verse, vers tien, or het tiende vers. 

15. London, the twelfth of May, Londen, twaalf Mei (no 

other form is used). 

16. Manchester, December 31st, 1821, Manchester, 31 Decem- 

ber, 1821. 

17. William the Third, Willem de Derde (no other form is 

used). 

18. This paper is sold at ten shillings a ream, dit papier wordt 

verkocht tegen tien shillings per (or den) riem. 

19. Pens for sale, four a penny, pennen te koop, vier voor een 

stuiver. 

20. The two of us, wij tweeen. 

21. The whole of us, wij alien. 

22. I saw all four of them, ik zag hen alle vier. 

23. Only the three of them are going, zij gaan maar met hen 

drieeen. 

24. We four were alone, wij vieren waren alleen. 

25. Twenty of them will climb the mountain, zij gaan met 

hen twintigen den berg op. 

XII. Common adjectives are formed from Cardinal 
Numbers by the addition of voudig or vuldig, meaning 
" fold." Such adjectives are called Verdubbelgetallen ("mnl- 
tiplicatives) : tweevoudig, twofold ; viervoudig, fourfold ; 



122 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

menigvuldig, manifold ; veelvoudig, manifold. They are 
declined like ordinary adjectives. 

XIII. By means of the endings lei and hande (both 
obsolete Dutch words, meaning " kind " or " sort "), Adjec- 
tives are formed from Cardinal Numbers ; these, however, 
are indeclinable. On account of their meaning they are 
called Soortgetallen (variatives) : eenerlei, of the same kind ; 
velerlei, of various kinds; allerlei, all sorts of; tweerlei, of 
two kinds ; zesderlei, of six different kinds ; honderderlei, 
duizenderlei, etc. 

Obs. — Since the endings lei and hande mean " kind" or " sort," it 
is obviously incorrect to speak of velerlei soorten (literally 
many kinds of kinds). Every grammar warns against this 
pleonasm, but colloquial language defies grammar in not only 
sometimes adding the word soort to a soortgetal, but even 
making it a rule to do so. 

XIV. There are also a few Adverbs derived from 
Cardinal Numbers by means of the endings maal, werf, 
and keer, all meaning " time " or " turn." In Dutch they 
are called Herhalingsgetallen ; in English, Adverbs of Num- 
ber : driemaal, driewerf, drielceer, three times ; eenmaal, 
once, etc. 

Note 1. — Maal and Iceer are also used as Substantives : Ik zie hem 
drie malen op Ce'n dag, I see him three times in one day ; Ik 
heb hem voor den derden keer gewaarschuwd, I have warned 
him for the third time. 

Note 2. — Like maal and keer, the word reis was formerly used to 
express time or turn. It is very seldom heard now but in one 
contraction, which the student must needs be acquainted 
with, viz., era's, pronounced erus, a contraction of een reis, 
once. It is often heard in children's tales. 

XV. "One and a half" is translated anderhalf (not, as 
in Cape Dutch, een en een half). The meaning of this is 
" one whole (not expressed) and the other half." In the 
same manner derdehalf, two and a half; vierdehalf, three 
and a half; vijfdehalf, four and a half; and zesdehalf, five 
and a half, are made use of, though seldom. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



123 



XVI. List of Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 


Cardinals. 


Meaning. 


Ordinals. 


een, 


one, 


deox het eerste. 


twee, 


two, 


jj 


jj 


tioeede. 


drie, 


three, 


» 


jj 


derde. 


vier, 


four, 


» 


jj 


vierde. 


™jf, 


five, 


» 


jj 


vijfde. 


zes, 


six, 


» 


jj 


zesde. 


zeven, 


seven, 


JJ 


jj 


zevende. 


acht, 


eight, 


JJ 


jj 


achtste. 


negen, 


nine, 


J) 


jj 


negende. 


tien, 


ten, 


)J 


jj 


tiende. 


elf, 


eleven, 


JJ 


jj 


elfde. 


twaalf, 


twelve, 


JJ 


jj 


twadlfde. 


dertien, 


thirteen, 


n 


jj 


dertiende. 


veertien, 


fourteen, 


j> 


jj 


veertiende. 


vijftien, 


fifteen, 


» 


jj 


vijftiende. 


zestien, 


sixteen, 


>» 


jj 


zestiende. 


zeventien, 


seventeen, 


j> 


jj 


zeventiende. 


aclittien, 


eighteen, 


>> 


jj 


achttiende. 


negentien, 


nineteen, 


jj 


jj 


negentiende. 


twintig, 


twenty, 


» 


jj 


twintigstc. 


een en twintig, 


twenty -one, 


)> 


jj 


een en twintigste. 


twee en twintig, 


twenty-two, 


j) 


jj 


twee en twintigste. 


drie en twintig, 


twenty-three, 


» 


jj 


drie en twintigste. 


dertig, 


thirty, 


)> 


jj 


dertigste. 


veertig, 


forty, 


» 


jj 


veertigste. 


vijftig, 


fifty, 


»> 


jj 


vijftigste. 


zestig, 


sixty, 


j, 


jj 


zestigste. 


zeventig, 


seventy, 


» 


>j 


zeventigste. 


tachtig, 


eighty, 


»> 


jj 


tachtigste. 


negentig, 


ninety, 


>> 


» 


negentigste. 


honderd, 


a hundred, 


jj 


jj 


honderdste. 


honderd een, 


a hundred and 
one, 


)> 


jj 


honderd en eerste. 


honderd twee, 


a hundred and 
two, 


>> 


jj 


honderd en tweede. 


honderd tien, 


a hundred and 
ten, 


V 


jj 


honderd en tiende. 


twee honderd, 


two hundred, 


n 


jj 


twee honderdste. 


twee honderd een, 


two hundred 
and one, 


h 


jj 


tweehonderd en 
eerste. 


twee honderd tien, 


two hundred 
and ten, 


» 


j» 


tweehonderd en 
tiende. 


drie honderd, 


three hundred, 


» 


j» 


driehonderdste. 


vier honderd, 


four hundred, 


j> 


>j 


vierhonderdste. 



124 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Cardinals. 


Meaning. 






Obdinals. 


duizend, 


a thousand, 


de or het duizendste. 


duizend en een, 


a thousand 
and one, 


ii 


ii 


duizend en eerste. 


duizend en twee, 


a thousand 
and two, 


ii 


" 


duizend en tweede. 


duizend en tien, 


a thousand 
and ten, 


ii 


ii 


duizende en tiende. 


duizend Sen hon- 


one thousand 


i> 


31 


duizend een hon- 


derd, 


one hun- 
dred, 






derdste. 


twee duizend, 


two thousand, 


>» 


)» 


tivee duizendste. 


tien duizend, 


ten thousand, 


ii 


>} 


tien duizendste. 


een millioen, 


a million, 


ii 


II 


millioenste. 



Note 1. — Millioen is a noun of the neuter gender : een millioen 
sterren, a million of stars. 

Note 2. — Be careful not to write achttien with one t. Its compo- 
sition demands a double t. 

Note 3. — Mark aclit, achttien, and tachtig. The t in this latter 
word is prefixed. 

Note 4. — A (or one) hundred, and a (or one) thousand should 
simply be translated honderd (not een honderd), and duizend 
(not een duizend). 

Note 5. — In summing up, translate first, second, third, fourth, 
fifth, sixtli, etc., only by ten eerste, ten tweede, ten derde, ten 
vierde, ten vijfde, ten zesde. 
The Cape custom of writing eerstens, tweedens, derdens, vierdens, 
etc-, is a Germanism, and not to be enoouraged. 



Exercise XLI. 
(On Writing out Numbers.) 

Write out in words the numbers given below, noticing 
specially the following points : 

Unlike the English : 
(a) Vijf honderd twee ; drie honderd twintig = five hundred 



and two ; three hundred and twenty. 

(b) Vijf en twintig = twenty-five. 

(c) Duizend = one thousand ; honderd — one hundred. 

Like the English : 



(a) Duizend en een, duizend en twintig = a thousand and 
one, a thousand and twenty, 



THE ADJECTIVE. 125 

(b) De honderd en eerste, de honderd en twintigste = the 

one hundred and first, the one hundred and twentieth. 

(c) Een millioen en Sen = a million and one. 

5340; 3003; 525; 1,000,001; 720,540; 4400; 505; 
8808; 7,070,070; 6,006,006; 9,900,099; 1,001,100. 

Write out the Ordinal forms of the Cardinal Numbers 
above. 

TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise XLII. 

Some ten of our young rose-trees are frostbitten (dood- 
gcrijpi). Give the child some hot milk to drink. The battle 
of Waterloo was fought on the eighteenth of June, eighteen 
hundred and fifteen. A party of twenty young men 
went up the mountain together. Some few sheep among 
the lot were poor, but all the rest were in splendid 
condition (zagen er bijzonder goed uii). I would like to 
give this poor boy some reward for his honesty. The 
merchant showed me a few samples [of] Java coffee, the 
best of which (waarvan) is (toordt) sold at (yoof) eighteen 
pence a (the) pound. After we had spent about a fort- 
night at (aari) the strand, my mother was taken (became) 
so ill that all of us had to (must) return home (naar huis). 
I did not have any mistakes in my dictation to-day. The 
last house in the street is my brother's (that of — ). There 
are two kinds of seed in this bag. This man has 
received a fourfold reward. 

Exercise XLIII. 

This parcel weighs a pound and a half. The child has 
been punished twice to-day. There are various kinds of 
books in our school library. The painter painted the 
wall three times. For some reason or other the child had 
not done her work. May I give you some of this meat ? 
Yes, thank you (if you please = ah 't u belief t). In less 



126 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

than ten minutes there were hundreds [of] people on the 
scene of the fire. What day of the month was (it) 
yesterday? It was the twenty-fifth. The letter was 
dated : Rotterdam, June 22nd, 1894. Are there any 
children that have got no pens ? Some of the fowls had 
their wings clipped (loerden gehorticieht). Some of the 
sugar (which) we have had from that shop has been very 
bad. I gave the child some cake and sent her home. 
Some advise me to go by rail (per spoor), others to take 
the steamer, and being a stranger (as I am — ) I do not 
know what will be best. 

Exercise XLIV. 

Sixth Rule of'Construction. — If a negative sentence con- 
tains an object, whether direct or indirect, the adverb 
" niet " is placed after such object. For the rest the 
position of " niet " in negative sentences does not 
materially differ in Dutch from the one it holds in 
English, and is scarcely definable by rules. 

Did he not tell you a story? He did not take the 
money from my eldest brother. Wo did not play in the 
garden, but in the dining-room. Lions do not live longer 
than elephants. When we travel in the mountains, wo 
do not sleep in tents, but in caves. Did the medicine cure 
your poor mother ? Did the children learn all their lessons 
in an hour and a half? Did ho have any stories to tell ? 
He told (er) some (een paar) but not many. Did you not 
ask him to weigh the meat? The boys did not play 
(with) marbles, when they were in the field. Did not 
your grandfather live till (tot) the house was built? The 
teachers did not praise the children when they had 'done 
(gedaan) their work, but they punished them whenever it 
was not done. I should not have taken the books, if I 
had not asked him. The clogs would not have barked at 
(legem) the boys, if they had not played in the street. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 127 



Exercise XLY. 

Translation of Present Participle. II. — Present Participles 
(see Ex. XXVIII., p. 96) are secondly translated by 
means of the conjunction " terwijl " while : — Take care, 
she said, laying her hand on his shoulder, pas op, zei 
zij, terwijl zij hare hand op zijnen schouder legde. (See 
p. 175, Obs. 3, c.) 

Do not make a mistake in telling him (while you tell 
him) the story. The dog barked at (tegen) me, showing 
(while he showed) (liet zien) his teeth in between (tusschen 
in). Asking the shop-keeper to show him some boots, he 
stole the laces. Dividing the apples amongst (onder) her 
children, the mother lost (er) one. She walked 2 up and 
down jher room, learning her lesson. Coming up to me 
(naar mij toe), the stranger handed me this letter. 
Eeading over the sentence, I discovered my mistake. 
Playing with the hatchet, the little boy hurt his hand. 
Looking for shells on the beach, I found this pretty gold 
ring. Oh, my brother, she cried (riep) (she), running 
towards him and embracing him. Taking up her bundle 
of sticks, the old woman walked off. 

Exercise XLVI. 

An Irishman was in (had once) want of money. He 
thought he would go [and] steal. Looking about in his 
house, he found an old rusty pistol. He took the weapon 
and went to a spot where (the) farmers used to (jplachten) 
pass on [their] way (naar) home from (the) market. 
Placing himself behind a large tree, he waited (transl. he 
placed . . . and waited) till someone came past. After 
half an hour a cart appeared, in which [there] sat an old 
farmer. The thief jumped [from] out his hiding-place 
(te voor8chijri), and made for (ran towards) the horse. 
Grasping the reins, he levelled the pistol at the farmer's 
head, and cried, " Your money or your life ! " The 
farmer replied, " Do not kill me ; let us rather make an 



128 



THE COMMERCIAL DVTCH GRAMMAR. 



agreement. I give you my money, and you give me 
that pistol." Hereupon the thief handed over his weapon, 
and the farmer handed over his purse. The thief ran off 
with his prize, hut the farmer jumped down from his cart 
and ran after him (hem achterna). He soon overtook him, 
and seizing him hy his collar, exclaimed (he), " Now my 
money, or your life ! " " Oh," cried the Irishman, " shoot 
away (schiet maar toe), there is no powder in my pistol ! " 



CONVEBSATIE. 

Pamiliebetrekkingen. 

1. Deze oude heer is het hoofd 

der familie. 

2. Leven uwe ouders nog t 

3. Mijn vader leeft nog, maar 

mijne moeder is reeds 
eenige jaren dood. 

4. Heeft u veel familiebetrek- 

kingen ? 

5. Zeer weinig nabestaanden. 
C. Ik heb een oom in Amerika 

en verscheidene neven in 

Indie. 
7. Hoe is diejonge man aan u 

verwant ? 
Hij is mijn nee/, en dit 

jonge meisje is mijne 

nicht. 
Mijne tante en nichten 

komen vandaag. 
Onze dochter en schoonzoon 

zijn gisteren aangekomen. 
Mijn oom schrijft iedcre 

week aan zijne kinderen. 
Mijn schoonvader gaf mij 

dit boek, en mijne schoon- 

moeder zond mij een 

horloge. 
Wanneer zullen mijnheer 

M. en mejuffrouw K. 

trouwen. 



8 



10, 



11 



12 



13 



Conversation. 
Relations. 

1. This old gentleman is head 

of the family. 

2. Are your parents still 

living? 

3. My father is living, hut my 

mother died some years 
ago. 

4. Have you many relations ? 

5. Very few near relatives. 

6. I have an uncle in America 

and several cousins in 
India. 

7. How is that young man 

related to you ? 

8. He is my nephew and this 

young girl is my niece. 

9. My aunt and cousins como 

to-day. 

10. Our daughter and son-in- 

law arrived yesterday. 

11. My uncle writes to his 

children every week. 

12. My father-in-law gave me 

this hook, and my mother- 
in-law sent me a watch. 

13. When are Mr. M. and Mian 

K. to be married ? 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



129 



14. Be geboden zijn verleden 

Zondag qfgelezen. 

15. Hare grootouders hebben 

kostbare geschenken gezon- 
den. 

16. Mijne overgrootouders leven 

nog. 

17. Is die heerfamilie van u 1 

18. Hij is een verre bloedver- 

want van mij. 

19. Met wien is uwe tante 

getrouwd ? 

20. Met kapitein Innes, haar 

achterneef. 

21. 7s u op de bruiloft geweest ? 

22. Neen, maar mijn schoon- 

zuster is er geweest. 

23. Zij zal eene uiUtekende 

vrouw zijn. 

24. Mijne broeders en zusters 

zijn alien getrouwd, en 
wonen in Londen. 

25. Hebben zij kinderen * 

26. Mijn oudste broeder heeft 

vijf zoons en twee twee- 
lingdochters. 

27. Mijne moeder houdt heel 

veel van hare kleinkin- 
deren. 

28. Is mijnheer H. weduw- 

naarf 

29. Ja, zijne vrouw is verleden 

jaar gestorven, en heeft een 
dochtertje van vier jaar 
en een kindje van pas een 
paar maanden nagelaten. 



14. The banns were published 

last Sunday. 

15. Her grandfather and grand- 

mother have sent valuable 
presents. 

16. My great-grandparents are 

still living. 

17. Is that gentleman a relation 

of yours ? 

18. He is distantly related to 

me. 

19. Whom has your aunt 

married ? 

20. Captain Innes, her second 

cousin. 

21. Were you at the wedding ? 

22. No, but my sister-in-law 

was there. 

23. She will make an excellent 

wife. 

24. My brothers and sisters are 

all married and live in 
London. 

25. Have they any children ? 

26. My eldest brother has five 

eons and two twin 
daughters. 

27. My mother is very fond of 

her grand-children. 

28. Is Mr. H. a widower ? 

29. Yes, his wife died last year, 

and left one little girl of 
four years and a baby 
of only a few months old. 



130 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE PRONOUN. 

(Het Voornaamwoord.) 

I. A Pronoun, Voornaamwoord, as the name indicates, 
stands for a noun, that is, takes the place of a noun. 

II. The kinds of Pronouns are — 

Persoonlijke (Personal). 

Betrekkelijke (Relative). 

Vragende (Interrogative). 

Onhepaalde (Indefinite). 

Bepaling aankondigende (Correlative). 

Aanwijzende (Demonstrative). 

Bezittelijke (Possessive). 

III. Personal Pronouns. The Personal Pronouns are — 

1st Person. 2nd Person. 

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 

Ik, J. Wij,we. Oij, jij, thou. Qij, jullie, you. 

3rd Person. 
Singular. Plural. 

Ilij, zij, het, he, she, it. Zij, they. 

IV. The pronouns of the first and second persons have 
no distinction of gender, but those of the third person 
have. Their declension is accordingly as follows: 

T^rsoon. Geslacht. Enkelvoud. Meervoud. 

1 nv. I, ik. We, wij. 

, ,. 2 nv. Mine, mijner, Ours, onzer, ons. 

Eerste iy,*^. mijn. 

v 8 nv. Me, raij, me. Us, ons. 

4 nv. Me, mij, me, Us, ons. 



THE PRONOUN. 



Persoon. Geslacht. 



Tweede i Mann., 
lweeae '\Vr.or Onz. 



Derde. Mannelijh. 



Derde. Vrouwelijh. 



Derde. Onzijdig. 



Enkelvoud. 
lnv. r Hho\\,gij,ge;jij, 
je. 

2 nv. Thine, uwer, uw ; 
van jou. 

3 nv. Thee, u ; jou, je. 

4 nv. Thee, u;jou,je. 

1 nv. He, hij. 

2 nv. His, zijner, zijn. 

3 nv. Him, hem. 

4 nv. Him, hem. 

1 nv. She, zij, ze. 

2 nv. Hers, harer, 

haar. 

3 nv. Her, haar, ze. 

4 nv. Her, haar, ze. 

1 nv. Tt, het. 

2 nv. Its, zijns, zijn. 

3 nv. It, het. 
. 4 nv. It, het. 



Meebvoud. 
You, gij, ge ; jullie. 

Yours, uwer-van 

jullie. 
You, u ; jullie. 
You, u ; jullie. 

They, zij, ze. 
Theirs, hunner, 

hun. 
Them, hun, ze. 
Them, hen, ze. 

Like 

the 

Singular. 



Like 

the 

Masculine 

Plural. 



Obs. 1. — The old form of the 2nd Person Singular, du (thou), 
possessive case dijn (thine), is ohsolete. The apparent 
difficulty resulting therefrom has been hinted at before. 
The following rules should be adopted : — 

(a) In books, correspondence, and public speaking use gij, 

or ge, singular and plural, with verb in 2nd person ; 

(b) In polite speaking use u, singular and plural, with verb 

in 3rd person (sometimes the 2nd). 

(c) In familiar talk to children, brothers, sisters, and close 

friends, use je (with emphasis jij) singular, and jullie 
plural, with verb in 2nd person. (See p. 65.) 

Obs. 2. — Ik is usually pronounced '&, and often written so. 
Hij is often pronounced i, especially after words ending 
in t, but in writing remains hij. Ge, je, and we are soft 
forms for gij, jij, and wij, and are very commonly used, 
both inj speaking and writing, when no emphasis is 
required. 

Obs. 3. — Personal Pronouns agree with the natural and not 
with the grammatical gender of the nouns to which they 
refer : Bat meisje heeft haar (not zijn) boek verloren, that 
girl has lost her book. 

F 2 



132 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 4. — Personal Pronouns also agree in number with the 
nouns for which they stand, and this is the' case even 
with collective nouns : Toen de menigte dit hoorde, ging 
zij (singular) uiteen, when the crowd heard this, they 
dispersed. 

Obs. 5. — Mkander or elkaar, mekander or mekaar, meaning 
" each other " or " one another," are called Eeciprocal 
Pronouns, wederkeerige persoonlijke voornaamwoorden, 
because their meaning indicates that the action of the 
verb with which they stand passes continually from one 
person to another : Zij slaan elkander, they beat each 
other ; Zij bedriegen elkander, they deceive one another. 

Note. — When used as above, these pronouns have neither nomi- 
native nor possessive case. They may, however, be used as 
adjective pronouns indicating possession, in which case they 
take a genitive form : Wij verheugen ons in elkanders gezel- 
schap, we are glad of each other's company. 

Obs. 6. — Zich, one's self, is the Eeflexive Pronoun, terugwerkend 
voornaamwoord, of the 3rd person, masculine, feminine, 
and neuter, only used in the 3rd and 4th cases, while for 
the Reflexive Pronouns of the 1st and 2nd persons the 
objective cases of these pronouns are used. 

Examples : 

Ik . . a . . mij, I myself. 
Gij . . £ . . u, you yourself. 
Hij ..*».. zich, he himself. 
Zij ..'".. zich, she herself. 
Ilet . . •« . . zich, it itself. 
Men . r |j . . zich, one oneself. 
Wij. . > . . ons, we ourselves. 
Gij • • .-£ . . u, you yourselves. 
Zij . . ^ . . zich, they themselves. 

Note 1. — Notice particularly that "I myself" is translated by 
ik zelf, and not ih mijzelf, e.g. I go myself, ik ga telf; She 
will do it herself, zij zal het zelve doen. The addition of the 
pronoun zelf serves only to accentuate the meaning, so that 
in the use of reflexive verbs it should only be added where 
emphasis is required. " Must I go and wash myself? " should 
therefore be rendered, Moet ik mij gaan wasschen ? unless there 
is question of * not washing some one else,' in which caso 
alone it should be : Moet ik mijzelf gaan wasschen ? 

Note 2. — When the reflexive pronoun forma the preposition- 
object of the verb, the Dutch expression corresponds with the 
English one : 

He said to himself, hij zeide bij zichzelf: 
I thought to myself, ik dacht bij mijzelf. 



THE PRONOUN. 133 



Obs. 7. — Declension of the Personal Pronoun with the word 
"zelf": 

Mannelijk. Vrouwelijk. 

1 nv. Ik, gij, hij zelf, I myself, etc. Ik, gij, zij zelve. 

2 nv. Van mijzelven, or mijzelf, etc. Van mijzelve, etc. 

[3 nv. Mijzelven, uzelven, hemzelven, Mijzelve, uzelve, haarzelve. 

or or or 

[4 nv. Mijzelf, uzelf, hemzelf. Mijzelve, uzelve, haarzelve. 

Onzijdig. 

1 nv. Ik, gij, hetzelf. 

2 nv. Van mijzelf, van hetzelf, etc. 

3 nv. Mijzelven, uzelven, hetzelf. 
or or or 

4 nv. Mijzelf, uzelf, hetzelf. 

Meervoud voor de drie Geslachten. 

1 nv. Wij, gij, zijzelven (of persons) — zijzelve (of things). 

2 nv. Van onszelven, etc. 

3 nv. Ons, u, hunzelven, „ „ 

4 nv. Ons, u, henzelven, „ „ — zezelve. 

Not only personal pronouns, but also nouns may take 
this word zelf to render their meaning more emphatic : 

Mannelijk. Vrouwelijk. Onzijdig. 

1 nv. De broeder zelf, Be zuster zehie, Ilet kind zelf. 

2 nv. Des broeders zelven, Der zuster zelve, Des kinds zelven. 

13 nv. Den broeder zelven, Der (of de) zuster Het kind zelf. 
or zelve. 

4 nv. Den broeder zelf. De zuster zelve. Het kind zelf. 

Meervoud voor de drie Geslachten. 

1 nv. De broeders, zusters, kinderen zelven, zelve. 

2 nv. Der broeders, zusters, kinderen zelven, u. |f> zelve, 

3 nv. Den broeders, zusters, kinderen zelven, * ^ zelven, 

4 nv. De broeders, zusters, kinderen zelven, "^ zelve. 

Note. — Mark the difference between this word and the word 
zel/s, meaning " even," which is often confused with it. 

Obs. 8. — The Possessive case of personal pronouns is now 
Tarely used, but is met with in some time-established 
expressions (geijkte termen), such as: gedenk mijner, 
think of me; erbarm u zijner, have pity on him; de 
meesten hunner, most of them; velen uwer, weinigen 
uwer, many of you, few of you. 



134 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Sometimes the Possessive case of personal pronouns is found 
compounded with another word, so as to form an 
Adverbial phrase : Ik doe het uwentwege, om uwentwil, 
uwenthalve, I do it for your sake. The t in these 
compositions is inserted for the sake of facilitating pro- 
nunciation. 
Note. — Write : Ik ben u beider vriend, I am a frieud of both of 
you, (not — uwer beider vriend, nor — uw beider vriend): 
Hun aller broeder, a brother of them all (not : hunner aller 
broeder). 
Note 2. — The English double possessive is not used in Dutch. 
" A friend of mine " is translated een vriend van mij, or een 
mijner vrienden. 
" At my aunt's " should be rendered : bij mijne tante aan huis. 

V. Possessive Pronouns, Bezittelijke Voornaamwoorden. — 
For the possessive case of personal pronouns, two different 
forms have "been given (see IV). The second of those 
forms is that of the possessive pronoun, with a slight 
modification in the ending of ons (1st pers. plur.). Hence 
we have : 

Possessive Pronoun of the First Person before a — 
Masc. N. Fern. N. Neut. N. 
Singular (of ik) mijn, mijne, mijn. 

Plural (of wij) onze, onze, ons. 

Possessive Pronoun of the Second Person : 

Singular (of gij) uw, uwe, uw. 

Singular (of gij) uw, uwe, uw. 

Plural (pijij) jouw, jouwe, jouw. 

Plural (of jullie) jullie, jullie, jullie. 

Possessive Pronoun of the third Person, Masc. and 

Neut. : 

Singular (of hij and het) zijn, zijne, zijn. 

Plural (of zij) hun, hunne, hun. 

Possessive Pronoun of the third Person, Fern. : 

Singular (of zij) haar, hare, haar. 

Plural (of zij) haar, hare, haar. 

Note 1. — For the declension of the possessive pronouns, see 

p. 78, and following. 
Note 2. — The possessive pronouns may bo used as nouns, and 

then follow the weak declension (see pp. 85, 86.) When 

so used they take tho definite article : de mijne, mine; de 

uwe, yours ; de zijne, his. 



THE PRONOUN. 135 



Obs. 1. — Possessive Pronouns may be used as adverbial 
phrases of place in connection with the preposition te 
(ten) : Zal ik u ten mijnent of ten uwent ontmoeten ? 
shall I meet you at my house or at j'ours ? 

Note. — Considering that the preposition here mentioned is a 
contraction of te den, and that this den is the old 3rd case, 
neut. gend., of the definite article, it is obvious that in expres- 
sions like the above the possessive pronouns were once used 
as nouns of the neuter gender. These expressions are not 
used in colloquial language. 

Obs. 2. — Possessive Pronouns referring to more than one 
person, must be in the plural : Mijn Iroeder en mijne 
zuster doen hun jaarlijksch reisje, my brother and sister 
are making their yearly trip; Gij en ik hebben ons werk 
klaar, you and I have finished our work. Gij en hij hebt 
beiden uw zin, you and he have both what you wanted. 

It will be seen from these examples that in such cases the 1st 
person is preferred before the 2nd, and the 2nd before 
the 3rd; likewise the masculine gender over the feminine. 

VI. Interrogative Pronouns, Vragende Voomaamwoorden. 
-These are : icie, wat, welk, hoedanig een, wat voor een. 

Wie, who, enquires after persons ; 

Wat, what, enquires after things ; 

Welk, translates ' which ' in the expression " which 
of"; 

Welle, which, or what,<is an Adjective Pronoun en- 
quiring into the nature of its noun ; 

Hoedanig een, (plur. hoedanige) and teat voor een (plur. 
wat voor) translate " what kind of," " what sort 
of." 

Examples : 

Wie is daar ? who is there ? 

Wat valt daar ? what falls there ? 

Welk van de boeken icil u hebben ? which of the books 

will you have ? 
Welke boomen toorden omgehakt? which trees are being 

cut down ? 
Wat voor een (Jwedanig een) mensch is hij? what kind 

of a man is he ? 



136 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Obs. 1.— Declension of Interrogative 


Pronouns :— 


Mannelijk. 


Vrouweluk. 


Onzddig. 


Meervoud der 
drie geslachten 


Enkelvoud. 


Enkelvoud. 


Enkelvoud. 




1 nv. wie, 


ivie, 


wat, 


wie. 


2 nv. wiens, van 


van wie, 


waarvan, 


wier, van v ie. 


wien, 








3 nv. wien, 


aan wie, 


waaraan, 


wien. 


4 nv. wien, 


wie, 


wat, 


wie. 


1 nv. welke, welk, 


welke,] 


welk, 


welke. 


2 nv. van welken, 


van welke, 


van welk, 


van welke. 


3 nv. welken, 


welke, aan 
welke, 


welk, 


welken. 


4 nv. welken, 


welke, 


welk, 


welke* 




Mannelijk. 




Enkelvoud. 


Meervoud. 



1 nv. wat voor een man, 

2 nv. van wat voor eenen man, 

3 nv. aan wat voor eenen man, 

4 nv. wat voor eenen man, 



1 nv. wat voor mannen. 

2 nv. van wat voor mannen. 

3 nv. aan wat voor mannen. 

4 nv. wat voor mannen. 



Obs. 2. — Notice that het (Pers.), dit and dat (Demon.), and 
tvat (Interr.) can never be used after Prepositions. New 
compositions are therefore formed as follows : 

With het, the word becomes er and the Preposition annexed : 

erin, eruit, etc. 
With dit, the word becomes Tiier and the Preposition 

annexed : hierin, hieruit, etc. 
Likewise those with dat become daarin, daaruit, etc. 
And those with wat become waarin, waaruit, etc. 

Whenever things, and even animals, are referred to, these 
compound forms are used rather than the separate pro- 
nouns, as : Het paard, waarover, etc. (not over hetwelk) 
ik sprak, the horse of which I spoke ; Be bloemen, waar- 
van (not van welke) ik zooveel houd, the flowers, of which 
I am so fond. 

VI. Indefinite Pronouns, Onbepaalde Voornamwoorden. — 
Indefinite Pronouns give a name to what is either unknown 
or too little defined to receive any special name. They 
refer to persons as well as to things, to names of objects 



The pronoun. 137 



as well as to names of materials. Most of thorn stand alone, 
and one requires a noun after it. To the former belong : 
men, one, iemand, somebody, niemand, nobody, sommigen, 
some people, iets, anything, niets, nothing, eew,one, someone, 
geen, no one, alwie, any one, and, alwat, anything ; — the 
latter is zeker, a certain. Notice also the following : 

Deze en gene, one and another (some people) ; 

Deze of gene, some one or other ; 

Be een of ander, some one or other ; 

De een of de ander, one or the other ; 

Het een of ander, something or other; 

Het een of het ander, (the) one thing or the other 

(another) ; 
Het een en ander, some things. 

In the following examples, the different translations of 
" men " should be specially noticed : 

Men moet daar altijd lang wacliten, one has always to 

wait a long time there ; 
Men moet oppassen voor natte voeten, you should beware 

of damp feet ; 
Men epreekt gewoonlijlc te veel, people usually speak too 

much; 
Men zegt wel eena, dat oorlog goed is, they say sometimes 

that war is a good thing ; 
Men heeft mij hceemaal bedrogen, I have been twice 

deceived ; 
Men zegt, it is said. 

Obs. L— The pronoun " men " can only be used in the 
110m. case, and is consequently the subject of the 
sentence in which it is found. Being a pronoun of the 
3rd person, the Possessive and Reflexive Pronouns referring 
to it must be those of the same person, as : 

Door zicli te veel aan koude en nattigheid Moot te stellen, 
benadeelt men zijne gezondheid, by exposing oneself 
too much to cold and damp weather, one injures one's 
health. 



138 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 2. — Notice that the pronoun one, occurring after an 
adjective, is not translated : 

I have a dog, and a good one, ik heb een hond, en een 

goeden ; 
litre are two hooks, hoth new ones, hier zijn twee boekcn, 

beide nieuw. 

Obs. 3. — " Whoever " and "whatever" are translated hy wie 
00k and wat 00k, likewise " which(so)ever " by welke 00k, 
"ho\v(so)ever" by hoe 00k, and " where(so)ever " hy waar 
00k, the place of the word "00k" being after the subject 
and object of the sentence : 

Wat hij 00k doet, whatever he does ; 

Wie hem dat 00k zegt, whoever tells him that. 

Obs. 4. — The Indefinite Pronouns iemand, niemand, iets, 
niets, and ivat, together with the Adjectives weinig, veel, 
eenig, geen, and heel wat, when followed by an adjective 
of quality, cause this adjective to end in s (genitive), as : 

Iemand vreemds, any strangers ? 

Niemand vreemds, no strangers ; 

lets goeds, anything pood ? 

Niets bijzonders, nothing particular ; 

Weinig nieuivs, little news ; 

Veel kwaads, much evil ; 

Eenig nieuws, anything new? 

Geen goeds, nothing good ; 

Heel wat slechts, a good deal of bad (things). 

VIII. Correlative Pronouns, Bepaling aanhondigende 
Voornaamwoorden, which are distinguished from all other 
pronouns by the necessity of their being followed by a 
complement in the form of an Adjective Sentence, in order 
to render their meaning complete. 

1. They are collected from among the Personal, In- 
definite, and Demonstrative Pronouns, but applied to 
perform a distinctly different function. 

Hij, die tevreden is, is gelukhig, he, who is content, is 
happy. Here the person represented by the pronoun hij 
only becomes known to the hearer, after the adjective 
sentence defining that person has been added. Hij ia here 
no Personal, but a Correlative Pronoun. 



THE PRONOUN. 139 



The pronouns belonging to this class are : hij, die, deze, 
dat,degene, hetgene, diegene, datgene, dezelfde, hetzelfde, zulhen 
and zoodanigen (the latter two are only used in the plural). 

Examples : 

Degenen, die schuldig bevonden werden, zijn alien gestraft, 

those that were found guilty, have all been 

punished. 
Dezelfden, die we gisteren ontmoetten, zijn daareven 

voorbij gelcomen, the same people whom we met 

yesterday, have just come past. 
Laat degenen onder u, die zien ivillen, achter blijven, let 

those among you, who wish to see, stay behind. 
Die hunnen alien rustig zijn, die er geen deel aan genomen 

hebben, all those may feel at ease, who have taken 

no part in it. 
Dezen zijn het, die ons verleid hebben, these are thoy 

who have seduced us. 

Obs. — Declension of the pronouns degene and dezelfde : 

Enkelvoud. 
MannelijTc. [ Vrouwelijk. 

1 nv. degene, dezelfde ; degene, dezelfde ; 

2 nv. desgenen, deszelfden; dergene, derzelfde ; 

3 nv. dengene, denzelfde ; devgene, derzclfde ; 

4 nv. dengene, denzelfde ; degene, dezelfde ; 

Onzijdig. 

1 nv. hetgeen, hetzelfde. 

2 nv. desgenen, deszelfden. 

3 nv. hetgeen, hetzelfde. 

4 nv. hetgeen, hetzelfde. 

Meervotjd voor de drie Geslachten. 

1 nv. degenen, dezelfden. 

2 nv. dergenen, derzelfden. 

3 nv. dengenen, denzelfden. 

4 nv. degenen, dezelfden. 

Note. — Degene (sing. & plur.) is only used for persons. Dezelfden 
(plur.) loses its n when used for things. 



140 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

IX. Demonstrative Pronouns, Aanwijzende Voornaam- 
woorden. These define the place of persons and objects 
spoken about, indicating whether the distance between 
them and the speaker is greater or smaller. They are : 
deze, (neut.) dit, this ; die, (neut.) dat, that ; gene, (also) 
gindsche, (neut.) gindsch, yonder. 

Obs. 1. — For the declension of these Pronouns, see pp. 78, 79. 

Obs. 2. — In the Genitive singular, masculine and neuter of 
die, an n is inserted. This was formerly not the case, the 
2nd case being dies, as may be seen from the expression 
"tvat dies meer zij" (what there be more of it) for "et 
cetera." 

Obs. 3. — There are other old forms of the second case singular 
of die, in the masculine and feminine, viz., des and der, 
which are now principally found in compound words : 
een deskundige, a person knowing about it (an expert) ; 
desgelijks, likewise; deswege, on account of; desniet- 
temin, yet ; desniettegcnstaande, notwithstanding ; der~ 
halve, therefore ; dergelijke, such. 

Obs. 4. — Both of these forms (des and der) may occur as 
separate words : Wij zijn des gewis, wc are certain of it ; 
Hoeveel uwer hinderen licit gij verloren f Wij hebben er 
(der) reeds vier verloren, How many of your children 
have you lost ? We have already lost four (of them). 
This er (uneducated people will make it der) stands for a 
noun understood after a numeral adjective. 

Note. — On the use of er : 

Er (pronoun) takes the place of the logical subject in sentences 
which have an intransitive verb, thereby rendering such 
sentences more fluent: Er gebeurde heel wat dien acond, many 
tilings happened that evening. 

It occurs before numerals, when the noun by which they should 
be followed is understood : Ileeft u veel boehen f Ik heb er 
tien. Have you many books ? I have ten (books). 

As an adverb of place, it is the translation of Eng. " there " : la 
u in de Icerk geweest 1 Ja, ih ben er geweest. Have you been 
in church? Yes, I have been there. When emphasis is 
necessary, this "there" is translated by daar. 

Er is used in the verb er uitzien, to look, and in expressions like 
tho following : 

Er is mij gezegd, I havo been told ; 
t.r wordt geschoten, there is shooting going on ; 
Er wordt daar goed gewerht, there is some good work done 
there. 



THE PRONOUN. 141 



Obs. 5. — The 2nd case of deze occurs in two expressions : 
schrijver dezes, the author (of this) ; brenger dezes, the 
bearer (of this"). 

Obs. 6. — The 'old 3rd case of die and deze, neuter gender 
(i.e., of dot and dit) is found before many nouns of the 
neuter gender governed by those prepositions which in 
old Dutch required the dative : te dien opzichte, in that re- 
spect ; van dezen huize, of this family ; te dien einde, to that 
end (for that reason) ; uit dien hoof 'de, on that account. 

Obs. 7. — The dative case of die and deze, feminine gender, is 
found in : te dier (dezer) ure, at that (this) time ; in dier 
voege, after that fashion. 

Obs. 8. — Whenever the demonstrative pronouns and the 
personal pronoun of the 3rd person, used as such, are not 
immediately followed by their noun, but separated from it 
by one of the Copulative Verbs (zijn, worden, heeten, 
blijven, schijnen, Ujken, blijkeri), they take the form of 
the neuter gender singular, irrespective of the gender 
and number of the noun they point out : That was a 
pleasant meeting, dot (not] die) was eene aangename 
vergadering ; This is my own father, dit (not die) is mijn 
eigen vader ; Those were hard words, dat (not die) war en 
Jiarde woorden ; They were bad trees, het waren slechte 
boomen. 
This rule applies equally in the inverted construction : Are 

these all the books, zijn dit (not deze) alle boeken ? 
The Cape language overlooks this important rule. 

X. Eel ati ve Pronouns, BetrehJcelijJce Voornaamiooorden. — 
Adjective sentences which define or extend the meaning of 
nouns or pronouns, are introduced by pronouns, which, 
because they refer to a noun or pronoun already men- 
tioned in the principal sentence, are called Eelativo 
Pronouns. 

They are : wie, wat, welke, lietwelk, and hetgeen. 

Obs. 1. — Touching the declension of the relative pronouns, it must 
be remarked that none of them has its forms of declension 
complete, but that one lielps to complete the cases of the other. 
The following is the declension : 

Enkelvoxjd. 
Mannelijk. Vrouwelijk. 

1 nv. die, welke, die, welke. 

2 nv. wiens, wier, welker. 

3 nv. wien, welken, (aan wie, aan welke). 

4 nv, dien (wien), welken, die (wie), welke. 



142 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Enkelvoto. Meervoud. 

Onzijdig. Voor alle Geslachten. 

1 nv. dat, wat, lietwelh, die, welhe. 

2 nv. — waarvan, welks, wier, welher, 

3 nv. — waaraan, wien, welhen. 

4 nv. dat, loot, hetwelh, die (wie), welhe. 

Obs. 2. — Die and welhe (neuter, dat and hchvelk) are used 

indiscriminately for persons and things, though die (dat) 

is most commonly used. 
Wie is used to make up the missing case of die, and after 

prepositions. 
Wie likewise translates " he who." 
Wat is used as a relative after alles and al, and in compounds 

with prepositions (see p. 136, Obs. 2). 
Wat also translates "what" (that which), which, however, 

may likewise he rendered by hetgeen. 

The specific use of hetgeen is to translate the relative 
pronoun " which," referring back to a sentence, and not 
to a noun. 

Notice the following examples : 

1. Hij, die dat gedaan heeft, is een kwade jongen, he who has done 

this thing, is a bad boy. 

2. De boomen, welhe in dat bosch groeien, zijn alle hoog, the trees 

which grow in that forest, are all of them high. 

3. De man, wiens vrouw onlangs overleden is, the man whose wife 

died a short while ago. 

4. Elk dier (neut.) welks lioeven gesplcten zijn, herkauwt, every 

animal whose hoofs are divided, ruminates. 

5. Dat is eene lamp (fern.), wier Held u de oogen bederven zal, that 

is a lamp whose light will spoil your eyes. 

6. Toon mij den man, wien zij die beleediging hebben aangedaan, 

show me the man, whom they have insulted in that manner. 

7. Mijne jongste zuster is het, aan wie ik dat geschenk gegeven heb, 

it is my youngest sister, to whom I have given that present. 

8. Breng mij naar het plekje (neut.) waaraan zooveel herinneringen 

verbonden zijn, take me to the spot, to which so many memories 
cling. 

9. Hier is de jongen, naar wien gij gevraagd hebt, here is the boy 

for whom you have enquired. 

10. Zij is eene vrouw, die men vertrouicen Jean, she is a woman 

whom one can trust. 

11. Was het een oud schaap, dat (hettcelk) de slager vandaag 

geslacht heeft? was it an old sheep the butcher killed to-day. 

12. Wie steelt, is een die/, he who steals is a thief. 

IS. Dit is allcs (or al) wat ik te zegacn heb, this is all I have to say. 



THE PRONOUN. 143 



14. Denk aan de zaalc, waarvan ik gesproken heb, think of the matter 

I spoke of. 

15. Gij behoort niet te aarzelen om te zeggen icat Qietgeeri) waar is, 

you should not hesitate to say what (that which) is true. 

16. Zij zijn niet gekomen, lietgeen beteekent dat zij ziek zijn, they 

have not come, which means that they must be ill. 

Obs. 3. Kelative "Pronouns must be used, whether expressed or 
not in English : This is the man he spoke of, dit is de 
man, van wien hij sprak ; There stands the house I want, 
daar stoat het huis, dat ik Jiebben wil. 

Obs. 4. The Eelative Pronoun must agree with its antecedent 
both in number and gender (not in case). In number it 
always does agree, but with regard to gender, the Pronoun 
follows the natural and not the grammatical one : Mijn 
arm nichtje, wier (not welks) arm gebroken is, my poor 
little niece whose arm is broken. 



GRAMMAR EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 

Exercise XL VI I. 

In the following sentences substitute pronouns of the 
third person for those of the first. 

Toen ik jong teas, nam mijn vader mij dihwijls mede, als 
hij uit rijden ging. In het gras onder het raam mijner learner 
heb ik dezen steen gevonden. Waarom heb ik niet naar den 
raad mijner onders geluisterd. Had ik het gedaan, dan 
bevond ik mij nu niet in deze moeielijkheid. Uc kan mij niet 
herinneren, dat ik dezen man ooit gezien heb. Ik ben mij niet 
bewust deze uitdrukking gebruikt te hebben. Uc maak mij 
zeer bekommerd over den toestand van mijnen vader. Ik heb 
mijne bezigheid verkocht en toil mijne laatste dagen nu stil op 
mijn landgoed gaan doorbrengen. Ik ben van morgen mijne 
plants rondgereden om te zien, of mijne veewachters mijn bevel 
nagekomen zijn. Mijn vader antwoordde mij, dat ik mij niet 
verbeelden moest, dat ik mijzelf rechtvaardigen Icon. Ik ben 
er van overtuigd, dat mijn vriend zich mijner ontfermen zal, 
als ik mij in mijnen nood tot hem wend. 



144 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Exercise XL VII I. 

In the above change the pronouns of the first person 
singular into (1) the first person plural, and (2) the third 
person plural. 

Exercise XLIX. 

Fill up the blanks in the following exercise : 

Zijn — al d- peer-, — u gekocht heeft ? Met 
Are these all the pears, which you bought have ? With 

— sprak u daareven ? Met — heer, 

whom spoke you just now? With the same gentleman, 

over — wij deze— rnorgen spraken. — die 

about whom we this morning were speaking. Those who 

— werk (o) af hebben, kunnen keen gaan. Waar 
their work finished have, can away go. Where 

icoont d- vrouio, — kind gisteren gestorven is f 
lives the woman, whose child yesterday died has? 

Er gaat een- lijst (v) rond voor d- man, — 

There goes a subscription-list round for the man, whose 

Jiuis afgebrand is. Onthoud al — ik — gezegd 
house burnt down is. Remember all that I you told 

heb. Zijn — — kinderen — er vroeger zoo 

have. Are those the same children that formerly so 

gezond uitzagen? De knecht heeft — paard — 
healthy looked ? The servant has the horse whoso 

lwefijzer los is, naar d- hoe/smid gebracht. Zoover ik 
shoe loose is, to the farrier taken. As far as I 

— herinneren Jean, gebeurde er die— avond 
myself remember can, happened there that evening 

niets bijzonder-. Weet gij nog — gij — geld (o) 
nothing particular. Know you still whom you the money 

gegeven hebt ? De dame met — ik van avond zat 
given have ? The lady with whom I this evening sat 

te praten, is de dochter van een oud vriend — — . Weet 
talking, is the daughter of an old friend of mine. Know 



THE PRONOUN. 145 



gij — linnen gemadkt toordt ? Ja, — onderwijzcr 
you of what linen made is ? Yes, my teacher 

heeft — — verteld. — is een — boeren, — 
has it me told. This is one of the farmers, whose 

landerijen door d- overstrooming verwoest zijn. 

lands by the flood devastated have been. 

— jonge man behoort tot — — onwillekeurig ver- 
This young man belongs to those who involuntarily con- 

trouwen inboezemen. 
fidence inspire. 

Exercise L. 

Bij °— lezing gaf — gehoor (0) door luid applaudiseeren 
At the lecture gave the audience by loud applause 

— tevredenheid te Jcennen. -— twee honden hebben zo( 
their satisfaction to know. Your two dogs have so 

met — — gevochten, dat — bloed — langs — 
with each other fought, that the blood (to) them along the 

hop Hep. — buur— doen niets ander— dan 
head ran. My neighbours do nothing else but one 

— goed— naam belasteren. Ik heb — jongen gezegd 

another's reputation run down. I have the boy told 

— te gaan wasschen. — honden zijn — — 
himself to go (and) wash. What dogs are they about 

— u spreekt? — zijn — — — wij van 
which you speak ? They are the same that we this 

morgen gezien hebben. Gij en uw vader hunt morgen 
morning seen have. You and your father can to-morrow 

— geld homen halen. — der meisjes hebben 

your money come (and) fetch. Which of the girls have 

— • les- gekendl Ik heb van deze— en gene— 
their lessons known? I have from one and another 

gehoord, dat er veel goed- van het nieuic- ministerie te 
heard, that much good of the new ministry to (be) 

verwachten is. — — zal gedaan moeten 

expected is. Something or other will have to be 



146 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

worden voor — arme vrouw — — omgekomen 

done for this poor woman whose husband killed has 

is bij — spoorweg ongeluh, — gisteren bericht 

been in the railway accident, of which yesterday news 

ontvangen is. — zaak— moesten in — raad 

received has been. Such cases should in the council 

liever met gesloten— deuren beliandeld warden. — beid- 
rather with closed doors discussed be. The parents 

ouder8 zijn dood. 

of both of them are dead. 



Exercise LI. 

Translate into English (no reference to vocabulary). 

Bij heeft mij het een en ander gezegd. 

Hij Tieeft mij een en ander laten zien. 

Gij zult wel (you are sure to) den een of ander vinden. 

Zal u niet het een of ander gebruiken (take) ? 

De een of de ander moet vertrekken. 

Het een of het ander moet waar zijn. 

Deze en gene Tieeft mij oj>gezocht (come to see ) 

Deze of gene zal zich wel over het hind ontfermen (to have 

pity on). 
Er wordt in dit land reel gerooht (roohcn = to smoke). 
Men vermoedt (yermoeden= to suppose) dat de man gcTc 

(insane) is. 
Deze Ttoeien zien er beter uit dan de mijne. 
Dergelijke zaTcen Tcomen altijd aan het licht (to light). 
Waaraan dacht u, tocn He u stoorde (disturbed) ? 
Een deskundige zou nooit zulJc eenen raad gegeven hebben. 
De beide meisjes zijn met hare gouvernante (governess) gaan 

wandelen. 
Welken weg He ook insloeg (turned into), ik Teon geenen 

uitweg (way out) vinden. 
Al teat mijn vriend onderneemt (undertakes), gelukt hem (he 

is successful in). 



THE PRONOUN. 147 



TEANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise LII. 

This young girl has her hat full [of] fresh roses. Those 
that have told you so (dif), have misled you. These are 
the books which I returned to you last night. Which, of 
the two sisters is to sing (zal . . .) to-night? What kind 
of a flower is this ? It is a flower that grows wild (in het 
ioild) in the Tulbagh (Tulbagsche) district, but of which I 
do not know the name. That must be the same gentleman 
I met at my uncle's tbis (van) morning. (About) what 
were these ladies talking [about]? They were talking 
about what had been discussed at the meeting. These 
men are always sober and at their work, it is (zijri) such 
that never lack employment (zonder werk zijri). These 
pears are the same (which) I have had at Mrs. Johnson's 
(bij Mevrouw J.). We met an old friend of ours yesterday, 
and asked him to have dinner with us (bij ons te Ttomen 
dineereri) this (van) evening. Some one or other must have 
used my scissors. Either the one or the other must go. 
Please, give bearer the parcel I left at your house (bij u). 
Your father and yourself have both been mistaken. If 
you will call this evening, I will tell you some things 
that will interest you. 

Exercise LIII. 

Being afraid (see Ex. XXVIII, p. 96) to be late (te 
laat) for breakfast, I dressed myself 2 in a quarter of an 
hour ^his morning. Not having a nurse, my little nieces 
are accustomed to dress themselves. Being ashamed of 
his dirty hands, the boy would not come in. It is said 
that (er) a 3 railway accident(has) occurred in the Hex River 
Pass 2 early x this morning. Any one hearing (hears) my 
case will say that I am right (gelijk Jieb). Whoever comes 
this way (hierheeri) must beware of the dogs; they are 
very fierce [ones]. Whatever you do, you will never get 



148 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

(er toe Jcrijgen) that child to apologise (excuua te vragen). 
As long as one is not faultless oneself, one should (behoorde) 
not find fault with one's neighbour. How many fowls do 
you have ? I have twenty-five, and some of them are 
very good [ones]. There was a good deal of heavy 
betting at the races yesterday. My vines look so sickly 
that I will have to (moeten) consult an expert about them. 
I myself told the man that unless he applied himself (zich 
aanpakJceri) better, I would dismiss him. 



Exercise LI V. 

" May " and " might " are translated by " mogen" and its past 
tense " mocht " when they imply permission. 

You may come to me now, U mag nu bij mij komen. 
You said, I might go with you, U zeide, dat ik met u meegaan 
mocht. 

If they imply possibility, they are translated by " kunnen " and 
its past form "zou kunnen (kon)" ; or by the colloquial phrases: 
" hst kan {zou kunnen) dat,'" it may (might be) that, especially to 
bring out the idea of probability, as : 

He might have done the work, if etc., hij had het werk kunnen 

doen {zou . . . hebben kunnen doen) als, etc. 
He may come yet, hij mag nog komen, or het mag zijn, dat 

hij nog komt. 
They might see you from there, zij zouden u van daar kunnen 

zien. 
The rain may have come down, het kan zijn dat de regen 

neergekomen is, or de regen mag neergekomen zijn. 

1. u Should " is translated by "zou " if futurity is implied. 

2. "Should",, „ „ "zou" if dependent on a con- 

dition. 

3. " Should " „ „ „ " behoorde " or " moest " if equiva- 

lent to "ought to." 

4. " Should " „ „ „ " mocht " (had moeten), if equiva- 

lent to " might." 

1. I told him that I should go into town, ik zeide hem, dat ik 

naar de stad zou gaan. 

2. I should go to see her, if she were at home, ik zou haar 

gaan zien, als zij thuis was. 



THE PRONOUN. 149 



3. You should have learned your lessons, gij liadt uwe lessen 

moeten (behooren te) leeren. 

4. If you should meet the man, tell him, etc., als gij den man 

ontmoeten mocht, zeg hem, enz. 

May I go out when my work is finished? I cannot 
give you permission, you should have asked your father, 
before he went out. The boy might finish his lessons in 
time, if he would only come in (binneri) earlier. My 
uncle told me this morning that I might buy that fine 
dog. That accident might have been prevented, if the 
driver had been more careful. I may have seen that man 
before, but I do not recollect his face. If there were a 
doctor at hand, the child's life might be saved. I was 
always of opinion that they might have shown that young 
man some kindness. These plants should be planted 
before the sun gets hot. Should you see my brother 
when he comes home, tell him we may (permission) go to 
the concert this evening. You might have saved yourself 
all this trouble if you had heeded your uncle's warnings. 
We should not have left our friend alone, if we had 
known he was in trouble. My aunt felt sure (was er 
zeker van) that I should not like those people (would not 
please me) ; she may have been right, at all events I am 
glad she told me I should not accept the situation. You 
should have taken better care of the little girl, could you 
not see she was ill? If Mr. B. should call while I am 
gone, ask him to wait till my return (I return), I shall 
not be long (be = uitblijven). These children should be (do) 
more careful [about] their work, every one of these words 
might have been translated correctly, if they had turned 
to the vocabulary (if they had looked them up in, etc.). 

Exercise LV. 

" Will " and " would " are frequently used in English by way of 
idiom. In sentences as " Boys will always do mischief," and 
" The bird would sometimes come and eat from her band," the 
forms "will" and "would" express neither futurity, nor 



ISO THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

determination. When thus used, they are not translated, but 
the tenses of the principal Verbs, which they help to express, 
are used instead. " Boys will always do mischief," becomes, 
" Boys always do mischief," jongens doen (maar) altijd katten- 
hwaad; and "The bird would sometimes come and eat from 
her hand," Be vogel kwam somtijds uit hare hand eten. 

A little girl had a bird that she kept locked up (opge- 
sloten Meld) in a cage. Now and then, however, she would 
let it out. It would then fly about, and would sit on her 
shoulder. How is (Jcomt) it, that this child will always 
take so much ? The boy would say, Basket, Tiny (naar je 
mand, Tiny), and then the little lap-dog would steal away 
to her basket (with the) tail between her hind legs. This 
horse will always put his nose into one's (iemands) face, if 
one (men) goes near him. You may (hunt) do what you 
like, these children will always boast. 

" Will " and " would," expressing wish, are translated by the verb 
willen, wilde, gewild. 

Will you help me, Charles ? Yes, certainly. He would 
(wanted to) say something, but he could (kon) not get it 
out. Will you come (meekomen) with me? This way 
(kant), please. The boy said (that) he would not do it. 
Did he say that he would not (geene) have [any] milk in 
his coffee ? He said (that) he wanted (would) no sugar 
(have). Does he not want to (will) answer you, or can 
(kari) he not answer you? The girl said positively that 
she did not want to (would not) come. And what did 
you answer ? I said " Very well (heel goed), if you do 
not want to (will not) come, you may (can) stay away." 

" Will " and " would," expressing futurity or determination, are 
translated by the future tenses (Ind. and Subj.) of the verb, 
(see Conjugation). 

He won't go, unless you speak to (met) him. The girl 
would have read it, if her eyes had been good. Will he 
meet you at the office ? He would meet me, if he knew 
that I would bo there. I shan't take the medicine, said 
tho naughty boy. 



THE PRONOUN. 151 



Exercise LVI. 

The conjunction " if," when equivalent to " whether," is translated 
by " of," and not by " indien " or " ah." 

Tell me, if you will write. He asked if his father 
would come. He doubted (lief) whether it would not be in 
vain. If you have the courage for it (er . . . toe), it is still 
the question if you have the required ability. If a man 
sliould come with a revolver in his hand, would you open 
the door to (yoor) him ? 

" As if" is rendered by "ah of," or sometimes "of." 

He looked as if he was hungry (had hunger). He spoke 
to me as if he were (was) my master. The lion licked 
Androcles' hands as if to thank him (as if he would thank 
him). The robber did as if he wanted to kill me. If you 
want the doctor to cure (that the doctor cures) you, you 
must not speak as if you were quite well. The boy knelt 
down, as if he were going to (would go) pray. The sun rose 
(Jcwam op) with such splendour, as if there had never been 
a storm. If the boy had not thrown (yegooid) the stone 
with so much force, as if he wanted to kill the pig, I 
should ask his father if he would not forgive him this 
time. 

Exercise LVII. 

The verb " to know " is translated by weten and kennen. Weten 
implies the being aware of a lact. Kennen implies acquaint- 
ance with, or knowledge as the result of learning. 

Examples: I know when he came, ik weet, wanneer hij kwam. 
He did not know, that I was ill, hij wist niet, da ik 

ziek was. 
Do you know that man ? Kent gij dien man ? 
I know my tables by heart, ik ken mijne tafels van 
buiten. 

Whither I go, you know, and the way you know. "We 
do 2 not x even know the man ; how should we know his 
whereabouts (where he lives) ? It is a thing (jets) (that) 
we all know, that winter is the cold, and summer the hot 



1 52 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

time of the year. When do you think you will know the 
result[s] of your examination ? We shall know them in a 
fortnight, I believe. There is a difference between knowing 
(te kennen) the road, and knowing something about (van) 
the road. Have you learned your poetry, Charles ? Yes, 
sir, but I cannot say that I know it. How long will it 
be before you know French, John? Oh, father, a long 
time yet. My teacher says I am beginning to know 
something about it, but that is not knowing it. Did your 
sister know that you were here? Whether you have 
heard it or not, you must know it. The soldiers knew 
that the enemy was behind the hill. Know yourself, I 
said to someone, but he could (kon) not, for he was nobody. 
To know oneself (zich) leads to great humility. If I had 
only (maar) known that you had done the work, I should 
(it) have let (laten) him know. I knew yesterday that 
he would not live. The last fortnight the boy has known 
all his lessons. 

Exercise LVIII. 

"Used to" followed by an Iufinitive Verb, is either translated by 
" was (were) accustomed to," or by the Past Tense of the 
following verb, strengthened by an adverb of time. 

Examples : The boy used to sit there, de jongen was gewoon 
daar te zitten, or, de jongen zat gewoonlijk, or 
altijd, or dikwijls daar. 

The man always used to say that he was very poor, 
He used to go round to (bij) his friends, and tell them of 
his misery. We used to see him often, but he does not 
visit us any (in het geheel niet) more now. The old man 
used to tell me about this daughter, when I took (deed) a 
walk with him. When we were in Paris, we used to go 
to a concert nearly every night. If the boy were used to 
speak the truth, he would not have said this. Why not? 
Because this is decidedly a falsehood. And he knew 
that! 
" To be used to " is translated by " gewoon zijn aan.'" 



THE PRONOUN. 153 



I am used to his bad temper. She is used to being ill 
(aan ziek zijn). Are you used to that kind of treatment ? 
I have been used to hard words all my (my whole) life. 
The donkey is used to drawing (het trekken van) that 
heavy load, Poor beast ! and to beating (slaan) too. 



Exercise LIX. 

Seventh Rule of Construction. — Amongst the extensions of 
the predicate, that of time takes the first place in the 
sentence, as : I saw him with his sister in church yes- 
terday, ik zag hem gisteren met zijne zuster in de kerk. 

When you were in London yesterday you (have) missed 
Mr. Bran, did you not (niet waar) ? Yes, I missed him, 
that is to (toil) say, I did not wait for him. I should 
have (had . . . moeten) seen him at (aan) his house last night, 
but I was afraid to go out in the cold so late. I received 
a letter from my father yesterday. Where is he now ? He 
was at Paris two days ago, and must now be at Lyons 
according to (naar) what he writes. Has there been any 
(nog een) great war in Europe since the year eighteen 
hundred and seventy? No, there have been rumours of 
wars many times, but it has never come to an open breach 
of the peace. He was (is) born at Baarn, a village in the 
province [of] Utrecht, Holland, on the sixth of March, 
eighteen hundred and fifty one. At Smithfield in the 
Orange Free State, a rumbling noise underground 
frightened some of the inhabitants yesterday. There 
was (has been) an explosion in the mine last week, 
whereby twenty-six workmen lost their lives (het leven). 
It is rrot so easy to be faithful to one's (zijneri) duty, what- 
ever (wat 00k) happens, and at all times (te alien iijde). 



154 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CONVERSATIE. 

Reizen op het Land en 
per Spoortrein. 

1. Waar gaat gij heen ? 

2. Ik ben op reis naar Londen, 

Brussel en Venetie. 

3. Wanneer vertrekt uwe zus- 

ter? 

4. Zij vertrekt de volgende week 

naar Europa. 

5. Op welke wijze reist zij? 

0. Per trein van Port-Eliza- 
beth naar Kaapstad, en 
van daar per boot. 

7. Mijn vriend heeft per dili- 

gence gereisd. 

8. Hij heeft plan te paard 

terug te komen. 

9. Welken weg heeft hij geno- 

men? 

10. Na het tolhek te zijn door- 

gegaan, is hij rechts afge- 
draaid, en heeft den groo- 
ten weg naar Beaufort 
genomen. 

11. Bat was een groote omweg. 

12. Welken weg zal u nemen ? 

13. Ik zal den eersten weg aan 

de linkerhand nemen. 

14. I foe vcr is het naar het 

spoorwegstation ? 

15. Een kwartier per tram. 

16. Be zal eene vigilante nemen. 

17. Waar is uwe bagage ? 

18. Be heb het grootste deel er 

van in het goedcrenkan- 
toor gelaten. 

19. Mijn handkoffertje is in de 

wagon. 

20. Zal ik den portier vragen, 

uwe zware bagage per goe- 
dercntrein te laten zenden ? 



Conversation. 

Travelling by Land and 
Railways. 

1. Where are you going ? 

2. I am on my way to London, 

Brussels, and Venice. 

3. When does your sister 

leave ? 

4. She departs for Europe next 

week. 

5. How does she travel ? 

6. By rail from Port-Elizabeth 

to Cape-Town, and from 
there by steamer. 

7. My friend has travelled by 

coach. 

8. He intends returning on 

horse-back. 

9. Which road did he take ? 

10. After passing the toll-gate, 

he turned to the right, 
and took the high-road to 
Beaufort. 

11. That was a very round- 

about-way. 

12. Which road will you take ? 

13. I shall take the first road to 

the left. 

14. How far is it to the railway- 

station ? 

15. A quarter of an hour by 

tram. 

16. I shall take a cab. 

17. Where is your luggage ? 

18. I left most of it in the cloak- 



19. My small portmanteau is in 

the carriage. 

20. Shall I ask the porter to 

have your heavy luggage 
sent on by goods-train ? 



THE PRONOUN. 



155 



21. Neen, zie er naar, dat het 

in den goedereniuagen 
komt, als H u blicft. 

22. Wenk even om eene vigilante. 

23. Wat host het van hier naar 

Woodstock ? 

24. Eene halve Tcroon de enkele 

rit. 

25. Houdt deze trein op hij alle 

tusschenliggende stations f 
2G. Neen, het is de sneltrein van 
Londen naar Edenburg ; 
hij houdt alleen hij de 
voornaamste stations op. 

27. Houdt u van reizen per 

trein f 

28. Ik verkies het boven dili- 

gence, kar of ossenwagen. 

29. Heeft u uw kaartje ? 

30. Neen,ik wil er nu omgaan. 

31. Geef rnij een biljet eerste 

Masse, enkele reis naar 
Victoria- West. 

32. De trein vertrekt om vier 

uur. 

33. Geef mij retour tweede 

Masse naar Wellington. 

34. Dat is een extra trein. 



21. No, see it put in the van, 

please. 

22. Just hail a cab. 

23. What is the fare from here 

to Woodstock ? 

24. Single fare half-a-crown. 

25. Does this train stop at all 

intermediate stations ? 

26. No, this is the express from 

London to Edinburgh ; it 
only stops at the prin- 
cipal stations. 

27. Do you like travelling by 

rail? 

28. I prefer it to coach, cart, or 

bullock-waggon. 

29. Have you got your ticket ? 

30. No, I'll go and get it now. 

31. Give me one first-class 

single fare to Victoria- 
West. 

32. The train starts at four 

o'clock. 

33. Give me a return second* 

class to Wellington. 

34. That is a special train. 



156 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER IX. 
THE VERB. 

(Het Werkwood.') 

I. Definition : — An action may be expressed in two 
different ways : 1. By a real Verb ; 2. By a Verbal Noun. 

Examples : — 

1. I saw the enemy besiege tbe fort, ik zag den vijand 

de stad belegeren. 

2. I read about the siege of the city, ik las over het 

beleg (de belegering, het belegeren) der stad. The 
verbal Noun belegeren has the very same form 
as the Infinitive Present of the Verb belegeren. 
Hence the necessity arises of marking how the 
action is expressed, before a correct translation 
can be given. 

II. Stem : — The Infinitive form of Dutch verbs ends in 
en (in six cases n). These six are the irregular mono- 
syllabic verbs : doen, gaan, slaan, staan, zien, and zijn. 

The stem of a verb is found by removing this ending 
en. To determine the stem is a matter of importance, as 
will be seen from the conjugation-form in the next para- 
graph. Many times the stem, so found, is different from 
what may be termed the working-stem, the latter receiv- 
ing its shape (spelling) from pronunciation. To deter- 
mine this spelling, the following rules should be observed. 

1. Of the six monosyllabic verbs mentioned above, the 
stems are respectively doe, ga, sla, sta t zie, and zij (or 
wees). 



THE VERB. 157 



2. If the ending en is preceded by a single consonant, 
before which there occurs a single vowel, this vowel is 
doubled so as to preserve its full sound : huren, stem liuur, 
to hire. 

3. If the ending en is preceded by a double consonant, 
the stem takes a single consonant : straffen, stem straf, to 
punish. 

4. If the ending en is preceded by v or z, the stem takes 

/ or 8 : leven, stem; leef, to live ; vreezen, stem vrees, to 

fear. 

Note.— This / of the stem changes back into the v of the 
Inf. form, and likewise s into z, whenever the stem takes 
one of the endings e, et, or en in the course of the con- 
jugation, in which cases also the double vowel assumed 
under Rule 2, is changed back into the single one of the 
Infinitive. 

III. Conjugation, Weak and Strong: — Two different 
ways of conjugation are distinguished : 

(a) The Weak Conjugation, marked by 

1. Unchanged vowel-sound throughout; 

2. Formation of past tense by adding to the stem te, 

when the last letter of such stem is one of the 
sharp consonants t, 1c, f, s, ch, and p (all of 
which are found in the composition, 't kofschip), 
and de in all other cases ; 

3. Formation of the past participle by prefixing ge 

to the stem, and adding t or d to it according to 
the particulars of No. 2. 

(b.) The Strong Conjugation, marked by 

1. Change of vowel-sound in Past Tense, or some- 

times there and in Past Participle ; 

2. Formation of Past Participle by prefixing ge to 

the stem (original or modified), and adding en. 
The full list of Strong Verbs is given on p. 191. 

Note. — In (a) 2 and 3, the letters / and s of the working 
stems, which aro v and z in the Infinitive forms, are 
followed by de and d, and not by te and t. 



i 5 8 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



III. — A Complete Form of Conjugation, Vorm van 
Vervoeging : 

Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. 

(Aantoonende Wijs.) (Aanvoegende Wijs.) 

Present Tense. Onvolmaalct Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

1 p. (Inf. less final n). 

2 „ ( „ „ „ y. 

" >> \ )> !) )) J' 

1 „ (full Inf. form). 

2 „ (like 2nd pers. sing.). 

3 „ (like 1st pers. plur.). 

Obs. — The 3rd pers. sing. pres. tense ends in t in every verb, 
the ending being dt when the verb-stem ends in d. 



lp. 

2 „ 

3 „ 


stem. 

— (. 

— t. 


1 „ 

2 „ 


— en 

— t. 


3 n 


— en 



Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 



1 p. heb or ben 

2 „ hebt „ zijt 

3 „ heeft „ is 

1 „ hebben „ zijn 

2 „ hebt „ zijt 

3 „ hebben „ zijn ; 






1 p. hebbe or zij 

2 „ hebbet „ az) - 

3 „ hebbe „ zi)' 



1 „ hebben „ zi/» 

2 „ hebbet „ zi)'£ 

3 „ hebben „ zyn 



Pasi Tense. Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd. 
For Weak Verba. 



1 p. stem with te or cfe. 



1 p. stem with te or de. 



2„ 
3 „ 


>> 
>> 




iti „ det. 
te „ de. 


2 
3 






£e£ „ e?e£. 
te „ de. 


1 „ 

2 „ 

3 „ 


>> 




tfen „ den. 
tet „ <Ze£. 
ten „ den. 


1 

2 
3 


» >» 


» 
>> 
>> 


£en „ den. 
tet „ cZe£. 
ien „ den 








For Strorjg 


Verbs. 






lp. 


modified stem. 




lp. 


modified stem e. 


2 „ 


>i 




„ t. 




2 „ 


n 


., e£. 


3 „ 


» 




» 




3 „ 


>» 


„ e. 


1 „ 

2 „ 
3„ 


>» 




„ en. 
„ t. 
„ en. 




1 H 

2„ 
3„ 


>> 


„ en. 
„ e*. 
„ en. 



Obs. — The 3rd pers. sing. Past Tense docs not end in a t. 



THE VERB. 



*39 



Indicative Mood. 
Pluperfect Tense. 
1 p. had or was 



hadt 
had 



waart 
was 



1 „ hadden „ ware 

2 „ hadt „ waart 

3 „ hadden „ waren 

Future Tense. 



Ph 



Subjunctive Mood. 
Volmaaht Verleden Tijd. 

1 p. hadde or ware 

2 „ haddet „ viaret 

3 „ hadde „ ware 

1 „ Imdden „ waren 

2 „ haddet „ waret 

3 „ hadden „ waren* 



Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 



1 


V- 


zal 


2 




zult 


3 


n 


zal 


1 




zullen 


2 




zult 


3 


>) 


zullen 


1 


1* 


Futu 
zal 


2 




zult 


3 


M 


zal 


1 




zullen 


2 




zult 


3 




zullen 



with Infinitive Pres. 



1 p. zou 

2 „ zoudt 

3 „ zou 



with Infinitive Pres. 



zouden 

zoudt 

zouden 



Future Perfect Tense, 
hebben or zijn. 






Volmaaht Toekomende Tijd. 

1 p. zou hebben or zijn. 

2 „ zoudt ^ „ „ „ 

3 „ zou 



zouden g 
zoudt P- 1 
zouden 



Imperative Mood. 
Singular (Enkelvoud) — stem. 

Infinitive Mood. 
Present. 
Name of the Verb. 



Future. 

( Te) zullen with 
Present. 



Infinitive 



CrEBIEDENDE WlJS. 

Plural (Meervoud) — stem with t, 

Onbepaalde Wijs. 

Perfect. 

Past Participle with hebben or 
zijn. 

Future Perfect. 

(Te) zullen with Participle and 
hebben or zijn. 



Participles. Deelwoorden. 

Present (Tegenwoordig) : Infinitive form with ending de or d. 
Past ( Verleden) : 

For weak Verbs — prefix ge, stem, and ending t or d. 
For strong Verbs — prefix ge, stem, and ending en. 



160 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

IV. Auxiliaries. Use of " Hebben " and " Zijn " : — 
All verbs require the aid of auxiliary verbs to complete 
tbeir conjugation. 

Auxiliaries (hulpwerhooordeii) are of three different 
kinds : 

1. Of Tense: hebben, to have, zijn, to be, zullen, shall or 
will. 

2. Of Voice : worden, to become, used for Eng. " to be " 
as auxiliary of the Passive Voice. 

3. Of Mood: Jcunnen, can; moeten, must; laten, let; mogen, 
may ; tcillen, to be willing to ; durven, to dare to. 

The Auxiliaries of Tense (Hulpwerkwoorden van den Tijd), 
help to form the Perfect, Pluperfect, and Future Perfect 
tenses in the various moods. 

In Dutch a verb is conjugated with " zijn," " to be" : 

1. When Intransitive, and indicating change of place 
or condition : 

Be Teat is van het dak gevallen, the cat has fallen from 

the roof. 
Be sneeaw is gesmolten, the snow has melted. 

2. The following verbs : zijn, to be ; blijven, to remain ; 
worden, to become ; ontstaan, to originate ; gebeuren, to 
happen, geschieden, to happen ; voorvallen, to take place. 

Note on (1). — Some intransitive verbs may or may not indicate 
an actual change. If they do not, they take the auxiliary 
hebben : 

Ik ben de learner uitgeloopen, I have walked out of the room 

(change of place). 
Ik lieb in de learner randgeloopen, I have walked about in the 

room (motion confined to the space of a room — no actual 

change). 

Note on (2). — It is worthy of note that the verbs bestaan, to 
exist ; plaats hebben, to take place ; and gloats vinden, to take 
place, are conjugated with hebben. 

V. Complete Conjugation of the " Auxiliary Verb of 
Tense," " hebben," " to have." 



THE VERB. 161 



Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. 

(Aantoonende Wijs.) (Aanvoegende Wij's.) 

Present Tense. Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Ik heb, I have. He hebbe, if I have. 

Oij hebt, thou hast. Gij hebbet, if thou have. 

Hij heeft, he has. Hij hebbe, if he have. 

Wij hebben, we have. Wij hebben, if we have. 

Gij hebt, you have. Gij hebbet, if you have. 

Zij hebben, they have. Zij hebben, if they have. 

Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Tegenw. Tijd. 
Ik heb gehad, I have had, etc. Ik hebbe gehad, if I have had, etc. 

Past Tense. OnvolmaaJct Verleden Tijd. 

Ik had, I had. Ik hadde, if I had. 

Gij hadt, thou hadst. Gij haddet, if thou had. 

Hij had, he had. Hij hadde, if he had. 

Wij hadden, we had. Wij hadden, if we had. 

Gij hadt, you had. Gij haddet, if you had. 

Zij hadden, the}' had. Zij hadden, if they had. 

Pluperfect Tense. Volmaakt Verleden Tijd. 

Ik had gehad, I had had, etc. Ik hadde gehad, if I had had, 

etc. 

Future Tense. Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 

Ik zal hebben, I shall have. Ik zou hebben, I should have. 

Oij zult hebben, thou wilt have. Oij zoudt hebben, thou wouldst 

have. 
Hij zal hebben, he will have. Hij zou hebben, he would have. 

Wij zullen hebben, we shall have. Wij zouden hebben, we should 

have. 
Gij zult hebben, you will have. Gij zoudt hebben, you would 

have. 
Zij zullen hebben, they will have. Zij zouden hebben, they would 

have. 

Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 1 

Ik zal gehad hebben, I shall have Ik zou gehad hebben, I should 
had, etc. have had, etc. 

Imperative Mood. Gebiedende "Wijs. 

Singular (Enkelvoud), heb, have Plural (Meervoud), hebt, have 
(thou). (ye). 

Q 



l62 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Infinitive Mood. Onbepaalde Wijs. 
Present Tense. Perfect Tense. 

Hebben, to have. Gehad hebben, to have had. 



Future Tense. 



Future Perfect Tense: 



Tezullen hebben, (no equivalent). Te zullen gehad hebben, (no 

equivalent). 

Participles. Deelwoorden. 
Hebbende, having. Gehad, had. 



VI. Complete Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb of 
Tense, " zijn," " to be." 

Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. 

(Aantoonende Wijs.) (Aanvoegende Wijs.) 

Present Tense. Onvolmaakt Tegenwoordige Tijd. 



Ik ben, I am. 
Qij zijt, thou art. 
Hij is, he is. 
Wij zijn, we are. 
Qij zijt, you are. 
Zij zijn, they are. 



Ik zij, if I ha. 
Qij zijt, if thou be. 
Hij zij, if he be. 
Wij zijn, if we be. 
Gij zijt, if you be. 
Zij zijn, if they be. 



Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Tegenw. Tijd. 



Ik ben geweest, I have been, etc. 



Ik zij geweest, if I have been, 
etc. 



Past Tense. Onvolm. Verleden Tijd. 



Ik was, I was. 
Gij waart, thou wast. 
Hij was, he was. 
Wij waren, we were. 
Gij ivaart, you were. 
Zij waren, they were. 



Ik ware, if I were. 
Gij waret, if thou were. 
Hij ware, if ho were. 
Wij waren, if wo were. 
Gij waret, if you were. 
Zij waren, if they were. 



Pluperfect Tense. Volmaakt Verleden Tijd. 



Ik was geweest, I had been, etc. 



Ik ware geweest, if I had been, 
etc. 



THE VERB. 



163 



Future Tense. Onvolm. Toekomende Tijd. 



Ik zal zijn, I shall be. 
Gij zult zijn, thou wilt be. 
Hij zal zijn, he will be. 
Wij zullen zijn, we shall be. 
Gij zult zijn, you will be. 
Zij zullen zijn, they will be. 



Ik zou zijn, I should be. 
Gij zoudt zijn, thou wouldst be. 
Hij zou zijn, he would be. 
Wij zouden zijn, we should be. 
Gij zoudt zijn, you would be. 
Zij zouden zijn, they would be. 



Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toek. Tijd. 

Ik zal geweest zijn, I shall have Ik zou geweest zijn, I should 
been, etc. have been, etc. 

Imperative Mood. Gebiedende Wijs. 

Singular (Enkelvoud), wees, be Plural (Meervoud), weest or zijt. 
(thou). be (ye). 



Infinitive Mood. Onbepaalde Wijs. 
Present Tense. Perfect Tense. 

Zijn, to be. Geweest zijn, to have been. 



Future Tense. 
Te zullen zijn, (no equivalent). 



Future Perfect Tense. 

Te zullen geweest zijn, (no 
equivalent). 



Participles. Deelwoorden. 
Zijnde, being. Geweest, been. 



VII. Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb of Tense, 
zullen," " shall " or " will." 

Indicative Mood. Aantoonende Wijs. 



Present Tense. Onvolm. Teg. 
Tijd. 

Ik zal, I shall. 
Gij zult, thou wilt. 
Hij zal, he will. 
Wij zullen, we shall. 
Gij zult, you will. 
Zij zullen, they will. 



Past Tense. Onvolm. Verl. 
Tijd. 

Ik zou, I should. 
Gij zoudt, thou wouldst. 
Hij zou, he would. 
Wij zouden, we should. 
Gij zoudt, you would. 
Zij zouden, they would. 



a 2 



164 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

VIII. Conjugation of the verb " warden" to become. 

Indicative Mood. Subjunctive Mood. 

(Aantoonende Wijs.) (Aanvoegende Wijs.) 

Present Tense. Onvolm. Tegenwoordige Tijd. 

Ik word, I become. Ik worde, if I become. 

Gij wordt, thou becomest. Gij wordet, if thou become. 

Hij wordt, he becomes. Hij worde, if he become. 

Wij worden, we become. Wij worden, if we become. 

Gij wordt, you become. Gij wordet, if you become. 

Zij worden, they become. Zij worden, if they become. 

Perfect Tense. Vohnaakt Tegenw. Tijd. 

Ik hen geworden, I have be- Ik zij geworden, if I have be- 
come, etc. come, etc. 

Past Tense. Onvolm. Verl. Tijd. 

Ik werd, I became. Ik werde, if I became. 

Gij werdt, thou becamest. Gij werdet, if thou becamest. 

Hij werd, he became. Hij werde, if he became. 

Wij werden, we became. Wij werden, if we became. 

Gij werdt, you became. Gij werdet, if you became. 

Zij werden, they became. Zij werden, if they became. 

Pluperfect Tense. Volmaakt Verl. Tijd. 

Ik was geworden, I had become, Ik ware geworden, if I had 
etc. become, etc. 

Future Tense. Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 

Ik zal worden, I shall become. Ik zou worden, I should be- 
come. 
Gij zult worden, thou wilt Gij zoudt worden, thou \vouldst 

become. become. 

Hij zal worden, he will become. Hij zou worden, he would be- 
come. 
Wij zullen worden, we shall Wij zouden worden, we ahould 

become. become. 

Gij zult worden, you will be- Gij zoudt t worden, you would 

come. become. 

Zij zullen worden, they will Zij zouden worden, they would 

become. become. 

Future Perfect Tense. Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd. 

Ik zal geworden zijn, I shall Ik zou geworden zijn, I should 
have become, etc. have become, etc. 



THE VERB. 165 

Imperative Mood. Gebiedende Wijs. 

Singular (Enkelvoud), word, be- Plural (Meervoud), wordt, be- 
come (thou). come (ye). 

Infinitive Mood. Onbepaalde Wijs. 

Present Tense. Perfect Tense. 

Worden, to become. Qeworden zijn, to have become. 

Future Tense. Future Perfect Tense. 

Te zullen worden, (no equiva- Te zullen geworden zijn, (no 
lent). equivalent). 

Participles. Deelwoorden. 

Teg. : wordende — Pres. : be- Verl. : geworden — Past : be- 
coming, come. 

IX. Voice: — The Dutch verb, like the English one, 
has two voices, the Active Voice ( Actieve or Bedrijvende 
Vorm), and the Passive Voice (Passieve or Lijdende Vorrri). 
The form of the Passive Voice is more pronounced, for 
the reason that its Auxiliary verb is " worden," to become, 
and not " zijn," to be, like in English. 

X. Comparison between the Active and Passive Voices 
of the verb " bijten" to bite. 

Infinitive Mood. 

Present Tense. 
Active Voice. Passive Voice. 

Bijten, to bite. Qebeten worden, to be bitten. 

Perfect Tense. 

Qebeten hebben, to have bitten. Qebeten (geworden) zijn, to have 

been bitten. 

Future Tense. 
Te zullen bijten. Te zullen gebeten worden. 

Future Perfect Tense. 

Qebeten te zullen hebben. Qebeten te zullen (geworden) 

zijn. 



i66 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Indicative Mood. 
■ Present Tense. 
Active Voice. J. Passive Voice. 

Ik bijt, I bite. Ik ivord geheten, I am bitten. 

Imperfect Tense. 
Ik beet, I bit. Ik werd gebeten, I was bitten. 

Perfect Tense. 

Ik heb gebeten, I bave bitten. Ik ben gebeten (geworden), I 

have been bitten. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

Ik had gebeten, I had bitten. Ik was gebeten (geworden), I 

had been bitten. 

Future Tense. 

Ik zal bijten, I shall bite. Ik zal gebeten worden, I shall 

be bitten. 

Future Perfect Tense. 

Ik zal gebeten Tiebben, I shall Ik zal gebeten {geworden) zijn, 
have bitten. I shall have been bitten. 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Present Tense. 

Ik bijte, if I bite. Ik worde gebeten, if I be bitten. 

Imperfect Tense. 

Ik bete, if I bit. Ik werde gebeten, if I were 

bitten. 

Perfect Tense. 

Ik hebbe gebeten, if I have Ik zij gebeten (geworden), if I 
bitten. have been bitten. 

Pluperfect Tense. 

Ik hadde gebeten, if I had Ik ware gebeten (geworden), if I 
bitten. had been bitten. 

Future Tense. 

Ik zou bijten, if I should bite. Ik zou gebeten worden, I should 

be bitten. 



THE VERB. 167 



Subjunctive Mood. 

Future Perfect Tense. 

Active Voice. Passive Voice. 

Ik zou gebeten hebben, if I should Ik zou gebeten (geworden) zijn, 
hare bitten. I should have been bitten. 

Imperative Mood. 
Present Tense. 

Sing, bijt, bite (thou). Word gebeten, be (thou) bitten. 

Plur. bijt, bite (ye). Wordt gebeten, be (ye) bitten. 

Participles. 

Present. 

Bijtende, biting. Gebeten wordende, being bitten. 

Past. 

Gebeten, bitten. Gebeten (geworden), having been 

' bitten. 

X. A. Notice carefully the following examples : 

Het paard wordt vandaag verJcocht, the horse is being 

sold to-day. 
Het paard is vandaag verJcocht, the horse has been sold 

to-day. 
De bloemen werden gisteren geplant, the flowers were 

planted yesterday. 
De bloemen waren gisteren geplant, the flowers had 

been planted yesterday. 
De schapen zullen morgen geschoren worden, the sheep 

will be shorn to-morrow. 
De schapen zullen morgen geschoren zijn, the sheep will 

have been shorn to-morrow. 
De learners zouden veranderd worden, the rooms would 

be altered. 
De hamers zouden veranderd zijn, the rooms would have 

been altered. 



1 68 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR, 

X. b. Comparison between the same forms of the verb 
" zijn " used as a Copulative and as an Auxiliary of the 
Passive Voice. 

Cop. Het brood is gaar gebakken, the bread is tho- 
roughly baked. 
Pas. Het brood is gisteren niet gebakken maar vandaag, 

the bread has not been baked yesterday but 

to-day. 
Pas. & Cop. De tuin was wel aangelegd, maar was 

geheel verwilderd, the garden had been laid out, 

but had grown completely wild. 
Cop. Ik ben verwonderd geweest over uw antiooord, I 

have been surprised at your answer. 
Pas. Ik ben bedrogen (geworderi) door mijnen tuinman, 

I have been deceived by my gardener. 
Cop. De sneeuw zal gauw gesmolten zijn, the snow will 

soon be melted. 
Pas. Het orgel zal goed bespeeld worden, the organ will 

be played well. 
Cop. Het water, zou bevroren geweest zijn, als, enz., the 

water would have been frozen over, if, etc. 
Pas. Het geheele bosch zou verbrand (geworderi) zijn, als, 

enz., the whole wood would have been burned 

down, if, etc. 
Cop. Deze oefening was verbeterd, toen ik ze terugkreeg, 

this exercise was corrected when I got it back. 
Pas. De oefeningen waren door den onderwijzer ver- 
beterd, the exercises had been corrected by the 

teacher. 

X. c. Observations on the Active and Passive Voices. 
The fact that in English the verb " to be " is used both 
as a copulative verb to express "state or condition," and 
as the aux. verb of the Passive Voice, whereas in Dutch 
there are two separate verbs, viz., " zijn " as the Copu- 
lative, and "worden" as the Auxiliary of the Passive 
Voice, makes it difficult to English students to acquire 



THE VERB. 169 



the use of the correct Passive forms, which should there- 
fore be made a subject of thorough enquiry and practice. 
The following observations should receive special at- 
tention. 

1. " Am," " was," " have been," etc., are translated by " ben" 

" was," " ben geweest," etc., when Copulatives ; and by 
" word" " werd," " ben geworden" etc., when Auxiliaries 
of the Passive "Voice. 

2. Where in a Perfect, Pluperfect, or Future Perfect Tense 

the word " geworden " is given in brackets, it is commonly 
left out. This omission leads to the following comparison : 

Present : Ik word gebeten, I am bitten. 
Past: Ik werd gebeten, I was bitten. 
Perfect : Ik ben gebeten, I have been bitten. 
Pluperfect : Ik was gebeten, I had been bitten. 

from which it will be noticed that the Dutch Perfect 
Tense is like the English Present, and the Dutch Plu- 
perfect like the English Past. 

3. It follows, then, that in the Passive Voice the English " is " 

and "was" are rendered by the Dutch " wordt" and 
"werd," and the Dutch "is" and "loas" are rendered 
by the English " has been " and " had been." 

4. Notice the peculiar use of the Passive form in Dutch in 

connection with the pronoun er (see Ch. VIII., p. 140). 

5. (a.) Transposition of an Active sentence into the 

Passive Voice is only possible when such Active 
sentence has a Direct Object. 
(6.) This Direct Object (Active) is taken as the Subject of 
the Passive sentence ; the verb agrees with the new 
subject, and the Subject of the Active sentence furnishes 
an Indirect Object to the Passive sentence : 

Active : Be hond beet den man, the dog bit the man. 
Passive : De man werd door den hond gebeten, the man 
was bitten by the dog. 

(c.) Active sentences, having as their Subject the indefinite 
pers. pron. " men" lose this pronoun when they are 
made Passive : 

Active: Men heeft mij eene boodschap gebracht, they 
brought me a message. 

Passive: Eene boodschap is mij gebracht (geworden), a 
message has been brought to me ; (or rather) or it 
mij eene boodschap gebracht (geworden). 



170 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

(d.) On the contrary, in bringing back a Passive sentence to 
its Active form, the Indirect Object (Passive) becomes 
the Active Subject, and the Passive Subject, the Direct 
Object (Active) : 

Passive: Be vos is door den boer gevangen (geworden), 

the fox was caught by the farmer. 
Active : De boer heeft den vos gevangen, the farmer has 

caught the fox. 

(e.) In Passive sentences, where the action is not assigned 
to any particular agent, and consequently no Indirect 
Object is expressed, the indefinite pers. pron. " men " 
becomes the Subject of the Active sentence : 

Passive : Het boek is gisteren gevonden (geworden), the 

book was found yesterday. 
Active : Men heeft gisteren het boek gevonden, they found 

the book yesterday. 

(/.) The same rule holds for sentences as referred to in 
Obs. 4 : 

Passive : Er is mij gezegd, I have been told. 
Active : Men heeft mij gezegd, they have told me. 
Passive : Er wordt hier geschoten, there is shooting going 

on here. 
Active : Men schiet hier, they are shooting here. 

XL Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verbs of Mood 
" mogen," may, " kunnen," can, " moeten" must, " laten," let, 
11 durven," to dare, " willen," to be willing to. 

Aantoonende Wijs. Indicative Mood. 
Onvolmaakt Tegenw. Tijd. Present Tense. 

Ik mag, kan, moet, laat, durf, wil, I may, can, must, let, dare, will. 

Oijmoogt, kunt, moet, laat, durft, wilt, thou mayest, canst, must, etc. 

Hij mag, kan, moet, laat, durft, wil, he may, can, must, etc. 

Wij mogen, kunnen, moeten, laten, durven, willen. 

Oij moogt, kunt, moet, laat, durft, wilt. 

Zij mogen, kunnen, moeten, laten, durven, willen. 

Volmaakt Tegenw. Tijd. Perfect Tense. 

Ik heb , I have been allowed to. 

Oij hebt gekund, thou hast been able to. 
Hij heeft gemoeten, he has been obliged to. 

Wij hebben , we have let (allowed). 

Oij hebt gedurfd, you have dared. 

Zij hebben geivild, they have been willing to. 



THE VERB. 171 



Onvolmaakt Verleden Tijd. Imperfect Tense. 

Ik mocht, Icon, moest, liet, dorst, won, I might, could, had to, lef, 

dared, wanted to. 
Gij mocht, Jcondt, moest, liet, dorst, woudt, thou mightest, couldst, 

hadst to, etc. 
Hij mocht, kon, moest, liet, dorst, wou. 
Wij mochten, konden, moesten, lieten, dorsten, wilden. 
Oij mocht, kondt, moest, liet, dorst, woudt. 
Zij mochten, konden, moesten, lieten, dorsten, wilden. 

Volmaakt Verleden Tijd. Pluperfect Tense. 

Ik had , gekund, gemoeten, , gedurfd, gewild, enz., I had 

been allowed to, had been able to, etc. 
(See Perfect Tense.) 

Onvolmaakt Toekomende Tijd. Simple Future Tense. 

Ik zal mogen, I shall be allowed to. 
Gij zult kunnen, thou wilt be able to. 
Hij zal moeten, he will be obliged to. 
Wij zullen laten, we shall let (allow). 
Gij zult durven, you will dare. 
Zij zullen willen, they will be willing to. 

Volmaakt Toekomende Tijd. Future Tense. 

Ik zal hebben , gekund, gemoeten, , gedurfd, gewild, enz., 

I shall have been allowed to, been able to, been obliged to, etc. 

Obs. — The above verbs, it will be seen, are to a far larger 
degree complete than their English equivalents. The 
use, however, of their compound tenses in the above form 
is limited to the cases in which they are not followed by 
an Infinitive verb. Example : 

Ik heb het niet gedurfd, I did not have the courage (to do) it 
Zij hebben niet gewild, they have not been willing. 
Hij zal niet kunnen, he won't be able to. 

In most cases an Infinitivejverb is made to follow, and then 
the Past Participles of these verbs themselves assume the 
Infinitive form, as : 

Zij hebben niet willen hoorcn, they did not want to hear. 
Hij heeft niet kunnen komen, he has not been able to come. 
Zij heeft niet mogen gaan, she was not allowed to go. 
Wij hebben hem niet laten spelen, we have not let him play. 

XII. Mood. — Mood is the form of a verb by which is 
expressed in what mannc r the action is done. 



172 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

There are four moods : a. Indicative, Aantoonende icijs ; 
b. Subjunctive, Aanvoegende wijs ; c. Imperative, Gebie- 
dende wijs ; d. Infinitive, Onbepaalde wijs. 

(a.) The Indicative Mood represents an action as a 
fact, a reality, a truth. The use of it is alike in English 
and Dutch. Examples : Dit papier is wit, this paper is 
white ; Be aarde wentelt om hare as, the earth rotates 
round its axis. 

(6.) The Subjunctive Mood represents an action as a 

wish, a possibility, or as depending on something else : 

Kicame liij sleclits, if he would only come ; Haddet gij uioen 

plicht gedaan, gij, enz., if you had only done your duty, 

you, etc. 

Note. — The use of the Subjunctive Mood is now very limited in 
the Dutch language. It is never heard of in speaking, and 
may be taken a3 confined to pulpit oratory and poetry. A 
very few time-honoured expressions form exceptions to this 
rule, as : 

Hoe dat zij, however that be. 

Het ga zooals het wil, let it go as it may 

(c.) The Imperative Mood expresses a command, but at 
the same time a request or advice. 

Command : Jan, breng mij wat water, Waiter, bring me 
some water. 

Bequest : Kom eens bij mij, do come to me. 

Advice : Gedraag u goed, mijn kind, behave yourself, my 
child. 

Note. — The form of request here indicated is intensified by the 
use of the adverb "<oc/t" : Kom toch eens bij mij, kleintje, do 
come to me, little one. 

XIII. Translation of the Infinitive Mood: — The 
Infinitive Mood does not express any action, but merely 
gives the name of the verb. For the correct translation 
of it the following rules should be observed : 

Rule 1. — The English Infinitive preceded by " to " is 
rendered in Dutch in like manner : 

Sta mij toe, u te vragen, permit mo to aslc you ; 



THE VERB, 173 



Zij waren niet in staat te komen, they were unable to 

come; 
Ik beveel u, het te doen, I order you to do it ; 
Denk eraan, het mij te laten zien, remember to let me 

see it. 

Kulb 2. — This "te" is strengthened by " om" (Eng. 

"for"): 
(a.) When " purpose " is expressed : 

Ik zond hem om te vragen, I sent him (for) to ask. 

(6.) After Nouns or Pronouns naming or indicating an 
object which serves a purpose : 

ffler is een hamer om dien spijker in te slaan, here is a 

hammer for knocking (to knock) in that nail ; 
Geef mij iets om erbij te klimmen, hand me something 
to reach it. 
(c.) After the word " genoeg " (enough) : 

Ik heb niet genoeg om te betalen, I have not enough to 
pay. 

(d.~) After predicative Nouns and Adjectives, implying 
fitness : 

Heeft hij kracht om dat werk te doen ? has he strength 

to do that work ? 
Is die melk goed om te drinken ? is that milk good for 

drinking (to drink) ? 

(e.) After " te " (too) followed by a predicative 
Adjective : 

Hij is te lui om te werken, he is too lazy to work. 

Eule 3. — The Dutch Infinitive rejects both " om " and 
"te": 

(a.) When it forms the subject, object, or predicate of a 
sentence : 

Wandelen is gezond, walking (to walk) is pleasant; 



174 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Niet antwoorden beteekent hem beleedigen, not to answer 

means to offend him ; 
Liegen is bedriegen, to tell lies means to deceive. 

(6.) After the Auxiliary Verhs of Mood. (See § IV. 3) : 

Ik mag u niet alleen laten, I may not leave you alone ; 
Ik durf het hem niet vragen, I dare not ask it of him. 

(c.) After the verhs : doen (to do), helpen (to help), gaan 
(to go), hooren (to hear), voelen (to feel), komen (to come), 
zien (to see), leeren (to learn and to teach) : 

Ik leer hem schrijven, I teach him to write ; 
Ik kom het huis zien, I come to see the house ; 
Hij gaat baden, he goes to bathe. 

XIV. Translation of the Gerund, the Present Par- 
ticiple, and the Past Participle : — 

Obs. 1. — Besides the Infinitive form pure and simple, 
the following are taken as forming parts of the Infinitive 
Mood : the Gerund, the Present Participle, the Past 
Participle. 

Obs. 2. — The English Gerund is in every case trans- 
lated by the Dutch Infinitive form. It occurs 

(a.) As a Noun, when likewise in Dutch it is a noun of 
the neut gender : 

Eiding is pleasant, rijden is prettig ; 

The regular bathing did it, het geregeld baden heeft 
het gedaan ; 

That screaming is annoying, dat schreeuwen is verve- 
lend : 

mid (b~) as a Gerundial Infinitive after a Preposition, when 
it is rendered by the Dutch Infinitive with " te " : 

Bread is good for ea.ting (to eat), brood is goed om te 

eten. 
By working hard, door hard te werken. 



THE VERB. 175 



Obs. 3. — Present Participles, with a common ending de 
or d, are of rare occurrence in Dutch. Their frequent and 
varied use in English renders translation a difficult 
matter. 

(a.) Occurring in an adjectival enlargement it is trans- 
lated by the rel. pron. with whatever tense of the verb 
fits in with the context : 

Do you know of an} r one going that way ? Weet u van 

iemand, die dien Tcanl uitgaat ? 
I saw a man holding a child by the hand, Ik zag 
eenen man, die een kind bij de hand hield. 
(b,) In sentences like the following, " I saw the king 
sitting on his throne," where it takes the place of the 
Infinitive, e.g., Ik zag den koning ojp zijnen troon zitten. 

Of these three forms the first] only is common, the 
second being antiquated, and the third used in poetical 
language only. 

(c.) In case a finite verb, preceded by " as," " while," or 
" when," can take the place of the Present Participle, this 
rendering is preferred to the use of the Pres. Part, as 
being more colloquial: (See pp. 96, 127.) 

Having a garden (as he has a garden), the man is 

content, daar hij eenen tuin heeft, is de man tevreden ; 

He got giddy crossing (while he crossed) the bridge, 

hij werd duizelig, terwijl hij de brug overging ; 
Seeing (when he saw) his master, the dog ran up to 
him, toen de hond zijnen meester zag, Hep hij naar 
hem toe. 
In other cases (e.g. where " because " is understood) the 
Pres. Part, is more common : 

He spoke about it, thinking I did not know it, hij 
sprak erover, denkende dat ik het niet wist. 
The same custom prevails for short phrases : 

Saying this, he left the room, dit zeggende, verliet hij 

de kamer ; 
On hearing this, she cried, dit hoorende, schreide zij. 



176 * THE COMMERCIAL DVTCH GRAMMAR. 

Obs. 4. — The formation of Past Participles is explained 
on p. 157. In their nse, they do not differ from their 
English equivalents. It should, however, be observed as 
a rule of great importance, that a Past Participle, followed 
by an Infinitive, assumes the form of the Infinitive, with- 
out altering its nature, as : 

He is gone to work in the garden, hij is in den tuin 

gaan werJcen; 
He has come to see me, hij is mij komen bezoeken. 

(See § XI. Obs.) 

XV. Tenses. — Tense is a change in the form of a verb 
by which time is expressed. 1 

An action may be represented to bo performed in the 
Present, to have been performed in the Past, or to be 
going to be performed in the Future. Hence there ai'e 
three principal tenses : a Present, a Past, and a Future 
tense. Each of these three may represent the action as 
complete, done, or as incomplete, still being done, from 
which it follows that there is : 

1. A tense which represents the action as being done at 
the present time : I read and my brother writes, ik lees en 
mijn broeder sclirijft. This tense is called the Present 
Tense, de onvolmaakt tegenwoordige tijd. 

2. A tense which represents the action as done, com- 
pleted at the present moment : I have read and my brother 
has written, ik heb gelezen en mijn broeder heeft geschreven. 
This tense is called the Perfect Tense, de volmaakt 
tegenwoordige tijd. 

3. A tense which represents the action as being done in 
a time which is past : When I visited him, he read (was 
reading), etc., toen ik Item bezocht, las hij, enz. This tense 
is called the Imperfect (Past) Tense, de onvolmaakt 
verleden tijd. 

4. A tense which represents the aotion as done, com- 
pleted before another action took place ; He had departed 



THE VERB. 177 

before I arrived, hij icas vertrokken voor ik aankwam. This 
tense is called the Pluperfect Tense, de volmaakt 
verleden tijd. 

5. A tense which represents an action as going to take 
place at a future time : The small tree will some time be 
large, de kleine boom zal eenmaal groot zijn. This tense 
is called the Future tense, de onvolmaakt toeko- 
mende tijd. 

6. A tense which represents the action as completed at a 
certain future time : When you return, we shall have 
written our letters, bij uwe terugkomst zullen wij onze brie- 
ven gescJireven hebben. This tense is called the Future 
Perfect Tense, de volmaakt toekomende tijd. 

Observations. — The English Imperfect (Past) Tense is trans- 
lated by the Dutch Imperfect only : 

1. When two simultaneous actions or conditions are expressed : 

He saw me as soon as I entered the house, hij zag mij, 

zoodra ik het huis inkwam. 
He seemed an old man when I was yet young, hij scheen 

een oude man, toen ik nog jong was. 

2. In all narratives and history : 

Once there lived a king, er leefde eens een koning. 

The Zulus defeated the English at Isandula, but were soon 
afterwards subjected, de Zulus versloegen de Engelschen 
bij Isandula, maar werden spoedig daarna onder- 
worpen. 

3. In all other cases, and especially in easy colloquial style, it 

is preferable to translate the English Past Tense by the 
Butch Perfect : 

This morning I gathered fresh roses, van morgen heb ik 

versche rozen geplukt. 
Last summer we travelled in France, verleden zomer hebben 

wij in Frankrijk gereisd. 

4. The Present Tense is idiomatically used for the Future 

Tense : 

Over eenigen tijd zien wij elkander weef om nooit weer te 
scheiden, after some time we shall meet again never to 
part any more. 






178 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

5. In describing an event, when the speaker wants to place 

the scene vividly before the mind of his hearer, he 
suddenly changes the Past Tense he was using into the 
Present : 

Toen wij op deze wijze het einde des wouds bereikt hadden, 
hoorden wij plotseling een luid geraas achter ons. V66r 
wij ons konden omkeeren om te onderzoeken wat het 
was, vliegt er een koningstijger op uit het dichte struik- 
gewas aan onze linkerzijde, grijpt een der paarden bij 
de keel en werpt het met zijnen ruiter ter aarde. When 
we had thus come to the end of the forest, all at once 
we beard a loud noise from bebind. Before we could 
turn round to ascertain what it was, a royal tiger darts 
out from the dense brush-wood on our left, seizes one 
of the horses by the throat and flings it to the ground 
together with its rider. 

This change of tenses is very common among the Dutch, 
who as a rule are more emphatic in their speech than the 
English. 

6. The Perfect Tense, Volmaakt tegenwoordige tijd, represents 

the action as complete at the present moment : 

Ik heb mijnen brief geschr even, laat ons hem nu op de post 
doen, I have written my letter, now let us post it. 

7. In the same way as the Present Tense sometimes takes the 

place of the Future Tense, so may the Perfect Ter^e take 
the place of the Future Perfect Tense : 

Be volgende week om dezen tijd heb He het zwaarste at gehad, 
next week about this time I shall have had the worst 
(the worst will be over for me). 

XVI. Number. — Verbs have two numbers : the Singu- 
lar, het Enkelvoud, and the Plural, het Meervoud. 

A Verb must agree in number with its Nominative. 
Notice the following differences in idiom : 

It is I. Ik ben het. 

It is we. Wij zijn het. 

Is it you ? • Zijt gij het ? (Is u het f) 

The council have decided. De raad heeft uitgemaakt. 

It is the cows that did the Het zijn de Jcoeien, die dat 
mischief. hcaad hebben gedaan. 



THE VERB. 179 



Obs. 1. — After two words joined by " and " the verb must be 
in the Plural; after two words joined by "or" or " nor" 
the verb must be in the Singular. Examples : 

Gij en ik moeten vaarwel zeggen, you and I mu3t say 

good-bye. 
Gij of ik moet het doen, you or I must do it. 
Hij noch ik kan gaan, he nor I can go. 

Obs. 2. — When a verb has two subjects in different persons, 
the verb agrees with the 1st person in preference to the 
2nd, and with the 2nd in preference to the 3rd : 

Hij of ik heb het gedaan, he or I did it. 

Gij en hij kunt beiden gaan, you and he may both go. 

XVII. Person. — The Dutch verb has three persons, 
called the first, second, and third person, de eerste, de 
tweede, de derde persoon, each with a singular and a plural 
form. The endings which mark them may be seen from 
the Conjugation Form (p. 158). 

XVIII. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. — For com- 
pleting the meaning of a verb, an Object is often added, 
such Object indicating the person or thing which is 
either created or changed by the action of the verb. 
The sentence, "The man builds," cannot be regarded as 
complete, until the object of his building, the creation of 
it — a house, church, bridge, shed, etc. — has been added. 
In the complete sentence, " The man builds a house (de 
man bouwt een huis), " huis " is the Direct Object of the 
verb "bouwen," and "bouwen" figures as a Transitive 
(Overgankelijk, or Transitief) verb. 

2. All other verbs, i.e., all those whose meaning is not 
completed by the addition of a Direct Object, are called 
Intransitive (Onovergankelijk, or Intransitief). 

XIX. 1. Eeflexive (Terugwerkende, or Eeflexieve) 
Verbs, whose action returns to the agent, or whose Sub- 
ject and Direct Object are one and the same person, are 
manifestly Transitive. In conjugation they take the 
Eeflexive Pronouns, mentioned under Chap. VIII, p. 132. 



1 8b 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



The particulars of this conjugation are as follows : 

Infinitive Present : Zicli (te) wonden, to wound oneself. 

Infinitive Perfect : Zich gewond (te) hebben, to have 
wounded oneself. 

Indicative Present : Ik wond mij, I wound myself. 

Gij ivondt u, thou woundest thy- 
self. 

Hij wondt zich, he wounds him- 
self. 

Wij wonden ons, we wound our- 
selves. 

Gij wondt u, you wound your- 
selves. 

Zij wonden zich, they wound 
themselves. 

2. Reflexive Verbs are subdivided into : 

a. Those which are of necessity reflexive, noodicen- 

dig terugwerkende werkw. Ex. zich schamen, to be 
ashamed ; zich vergissen, to be mistaken ; zich 
inbeelden, to fancy ; zich erbarmen, to have pity. 
From these the reflex, pron. is inseparable. 

b. Those which may be either reflexive or not, 

toevallig terugwerhende werkw. Ex. zich bezeeren, 
to hurt oneself; zich wasschen, to wash oneself; 
zich bejproeven, to try oneself. With these the 
reflex, pron. is only used when required. 

3. The following verbs are Reflexive in Dutch, and not 
so in English : 

Zich aanmatigen, Hij matigt zich te veel vrijheid aan, he takes 

too much liberty. 
Zich baden, Be jongens baadden zich in de rivier, the 

boys bathed in the river. 
Zich bedenken, Bedcnk u wel, consider (the matter) well ; 

Ik heb mij bedacht, I have changed my 

mind. 



THE VERB. 



Zich bedienen van, 

Zich bedroeven over, 
Zich begeven naar, 
Zich begrijpen, 
Zich behlagen, 
Zich belasten met, 

Zich beroemen op, 

Zich beroepen op, 

Zich bewegen, 

Zich beijveren, 

Zich erbarmen, 
Zich ergeren over, 

Zich getroosten, 

Zich haasten, 

Zich herinneren, 

Zich hoeden voor, 

Zich keeren, 

Zich neerzetten, 

Zich onderhoitden 
met, 

Zich ontfermen over, 

Zich ontzien, 

Zich schamen over, 



Men bedient zich van dynamiet om dit hout 

te splyten, dynamite is used for split- 
ting this wood. 
Wij bedroeven ons over uw slecht gedrag, we 

are grieved at your bad conduct. 
Hij heeft zich naar Afrika begeven, he has 

gone to Africa. 
Ik lean mij die zaak niet begrijpen, I cannot 

understand that matter. 
Hij zal zich niet over mij te beklagen hebben, 

he won't have to complain about me. 
Hij heeft zich met de uitvoering van mijnen 

wensch belast, he has taken upon himself 

to carry out my wish. 
De man beroemt zich op zijne daad, the 

man boasts of his deed. 
Ik beroep mij op uw gezond verstand, I 

appeal to your common sense. 
De man beweegt zich moeielijk, the man has 

difficulty in moving about. 
Dejongen beijvert zich om knap te ivorden, 

the boy tries his best to become clever. 
Erbarm u mijner, have mercy on me. 
De onderwijzer ergert zich over de onver- 

schilligheid der leerlingen, the teacher is 

vexed at the indifference of the pupils. 
Ik moet mij die uitgave getroosten, I must 

put up with the expense. 
Haast u, anders komen wij te laat, hurry up, 

else we shall be too late. 
Ik herinner mij dat hij mij dat zei, I 

remember him having told me. 
Hoed u voor de vriendschap van dien man, 

beware of the friendship of that man. 
Hij keerde zich naar mij, en sprak, he turned 

to me, and said. 
De advokaat zal zich te Pretoria neerzetten, 

the barrister will settle down at Pretoria. 
Wij hebben ons aangenaam met hoar onder- 

houden, we had a pleasant conversation 

with her. 
Ont/erm u over den armen man, have pity 

on the poor man. 
Ik ontzie mij dien man te vragen, I hesitate 

asking that man. 
De vader schaamde zich over het gedrag van 

zijnen zoon, the father was asham d of 

the conduct of his son. 



1 82 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Zich storen aan, 

Zich verheelden, 

Zich verblijden over, 

Zich vergeivissen 

van, 
Zich vergissen, 

Zich verheugen over, 

Zich vermeten, 

Zich verslikken, 

Zich verspreiden, 
Zich vestigen, 

Zich voedcn met, 

Zich voelen, 

Zich voorbcreiden 
voor, 



Zij stoort zich niet aan de waarschuwingen 

harer vrienden, she does not mind the 

warnings of her friends. 
Hij verbeeldt zich heel knap te zijn, he fancies 

that he is very clever. 
Verblijdt gij u niet over zijn geluh ? are you 

not glad of his good fortune ? 
Hij heeft zich van hare vriendschap vergewist, 

he has made sure of her friendship. 
Vergeef mij, ik heb mij vergist, pardon me, I 

have made a mistake. 
Wij verheugen oris over die tijding, we rejoice 

at those tidings. 
Wie zou zich vermeten, dien man te be- 

schuldigen, who would he hold enough 

to accuse that man ? 
Het kind heeft zich verslikt, daarom hoest 

het, the child is choking, that's why it 

coughs. 
De ziekte verspreidt zich over het land, the 

disease is spreading in the country. 
Mijne ouders zullen zich te Kaapstad vesti- 
gen, my parents are going to live 'at 

Cape Town. 
Tijgers vocden zich met vleesch, tigers live on 

flesh. 
Hij voelt zich beter van morgen, he feels 

better this morning. 
Ik bereid mij voor twee examens voor, I am 

preparing for two examinations. 



XX. 1. Mixed Verbs :— Midway between the two 
kinds of conjugations enumerated under par. Ill, we find 
a small number (27) of verbs which half partake of the 
nature of the Weak conjugation, and half of that of the 
Strong. These are called Mixed (Gemengd). 

2. They arc the following: 



Infinitive. 



Past Tense. Past Participle. 



Bakken, 


to bake, 


bakte, 


gebakken. 


Bannen, 


to banish, 


bande, 


gebannen. 


Barsten, 


to burst, 


barstte, 


gebarsten. 


Braden, 


to roast, 


braadde, 


gebraden. 


Brouwen, 


to brew, 


brouwde, 


gebrouwen, 


Durven, 


to dare, 


dorst 
(durfde), 


gedurfd. 





THE 


VERB. 


] 


Infinitive. 


Past tense. Past Participle. 


Heeten, 


to be called, 


heette, 


geheeten. 


Jagen, 


to bunt, 


joeg {jaagde), 


gejaagd. 


Kunnen, 


can (to be 
able), 


kon, 


gekund. 


Lachen, 


to laugh, 


lachte, 


gelachen. 


Laden, 


to load, 


laadde, 


geladen. 


Leggen, 


to lay, 


lei Qegde"), 


gelegd. 


Malen, 


to grind, 


rnaalde, 


gemalen. 
' ontvouwd 
(explained) 


Ontvouwen, 


to unfold, 


ontvouwde, 


1 ontvouwen 
(proper 
^ sense). 


Baden, 


to advise, 


raadde, 


geraden. 


Scheiden, 


to separate, 


scheidde, 


gescheiden. 


Spannen, 


to stretch, 


spande, 


gespannen. 


Spouwen, 


to split, 


spouwde, 


gespouwen. 


Stooten, 


to push, 


stootte, 


gestooten. 


Vouwen, 


to fold, 


vouwde, 


gevouwen. 


Vragen, 


to ask, 


vroeg 








(yraagde), 


gevraagd. 


Waaien, 


to blow, 


woei 








(ivaaide), 


gewaaid. 


Wasschen, 


to wash, 


(waschte), 


gewasschen. 


Weven, 


to weave, 


weefde, 


geweven. 


Wreken, 


to revenge, 


wreekte, 


gewroken. 


Zeggen, 


to say, 


zei, 


gezegd. 


Zouten, 


to salt, 


zoutte, 


gezouten. 



183 



Note. — Of these twenty-seven verbs, twenty have a weak past 
tense and a strong past participle, whereas seven have a 
strong past tense and a weak past participle. 

XXI. 1. Anomalous Verbs : — Where the irregularity 
of conjugation extends to the consonants of the stem, a 
verb becomes out and out Irregular, and hence is no 
longer called Sterk, but Onregelmatig (Anomalous). 

The number of these being small (20), and that of the 
pure Strong verbs considerable (170), the former will be 
given here, and the " List of Strong Verbs " at the end of 
the present chapter. 



1S4 



the Commercial dutch grammar. 



2. List of Anomalous (Onregelmatige) verbs : 


Infinitive. 


Past Tense. 


Past Part. 


Points of Irregularity. 


Brengen, to 


bracht (old 


gebracht. 


Syncope of n from 


bring, 


D. bran- 




stem ; t in 3rd Pers. 




gede), 




Sing. Past Tense. 


Denken, to 


dacht (old D. 


gedacht. 


Syncope of n from 


think, 


dankede), 




stem; t in 3rd Pers. 
Sing. Past Tense. 


Dunken, to 


docht, 


gedocht. 


Syncope of n from 


seem, to 






stem ; t in 3rd Pers. 


imagine, 






Sing. Past Tense. 


Koopen, to 


Jcocht (old D. 


gekocht. 


Change of p into ch ; 


buy, 


koopede), 




t in 3rd Pers. Sing. 
Past Tense. 


Zoeken, to 


zocht (old D. 


gezocht. 


Change k into ch; 


seek, 


zoekede), 




3rd Pers. Sing. Past 
Tense. 


Plegen, to 


placht (old 


(ivanting). 


Change of g into ch; 


be accus- 


D.#%), 




t in 3rd Pers. Sing. 


tomed. 






Past Tense. 


Jlebben, to 


7iad (old D. 


gehad (old D. 


Syncope of v in Past 


have (old 


havede), 


gehaved). 


Tense and Past Part. 


D. haven), 








Weten, to 


wist (old D. 


gewetem 


Change of t into s in 


know, 


witte,witste] 


1, 


Imp. Tense. 


Moeten, to 


moest (old D. 


gemoeten. 


Change of t into s; t in 


be obliged, 


moette, 




3rd Pers. Sing. Past 




moetste), 




Tense. 


Ilouden, to 


Meld, 


gehouden. 


Insertion of I before 


hold, 






ending of Past Tense. 


Mogen, to 


mocht (old 


(wanting). 


Change of g into ch ; 


be allowed, 


D. ma^), 




former Imp. now 
Pres. (see observ.). 


Zullen, shall, 


zou (contr. 


(wanting). 


Former Imp. now Pre- 


will, (old 


of zolde) 




sent (see observ.). 


D. zollen), 


(u\dl>. zal), 






Willen, to 


ivilde, 


gcwild. 


Former Pres. Subj. now 


be willing 


(colloquial 




Pres. Ind. (see ob- 


(old D. 

wollen), 

Doen, to do 


wou). 




serv.). 


deed, 


gedaan (old 


Irregular form of Inf. ; 


(old D. 




D.gedaden). 


contracted Past Part. 


daden), 








Oaan, to go, 


ging, 


gegaan (old 


Contracted Infin. and 


(p\d~D.gan- 




D. gegan- 


Past Part. 


-jen), 




gen). 





THE VERB. 



185 



Infinitive. 

Slaan, to 
beat, (old 
D.slagen), 

Staan, to 
stand, 
(old D. 
standen), 

Zien, to sec, 
(old D. 
zegen), 

Komen, to 
come, 
(old D. 
Jcvjemen), 

Zijn, or we- 
zen, to be. 



Past Tense. 



Past Part, 
geslagen. 



Points of Irregularity. 
Contracted form of Inf. 



stond, 



zag, 



Tcwam, 



gestaan (old 
D. gestan- 
den). 

gezien (old 
D. gezegen). 



Contracted forms of Inf. 
and Past Part. 



Contracted forms of Inf. 
and Past Part. 



gehomen (old Altered forms of Inf. 
D. gekwe- and Past Part. 

men). 



5, geweest (old Mixture of different 

D. gewezen roots (see observ.). 
audgeweesd). 

Obs. — Besides the irregularities referred to in these lists, notice that 
zijn, kunnen, mogen, zullen, en willen omit the t of the third 
pers. sing. ind. pres. : Hij is, lean, mag, zal, wil. 
Note. — A few of the above verbs have an incomplete conjugation, 
and may hence be called Gebrekkige Werkwoorden, 
Defective Verbs, viz. : 
Plegen, leunnen, mogen, zullen have no form for the imperative. 
Plegen, zullen have no past participle. 

Zijn and wezen, both defective, together m;»ke up one complete 
verb, viz. to be. 

XXII. 1. Impersonal Verbs: — Most verbs have their 
first, second, and third persons sing, as well as plural, 
complete in every tense, and are called Personal, Per- 
soonlijk ; there are a few, however, viz., those which indi- 
cate an action that cannot be ascribed to any particular 
person or thing, which are called Impersonal (Onpersoon- 
lijlc), and are only used in the third person singular (of 
every tense) : het regent, sneeuwt, vriest, enz., it rains, 
snows, freezes, etc. 

2. The name "Impersonal" is extended to certain 
expressions, which are only met with in the third person 
singular. Such are : 

Het is Jcoud, it is cold. 

Het ica8 winderig, it was windy. 

Het zal drukhend zijn, it will be close. 



iS5 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Bedroeven, Het bedroeft mij, u zoo te zieh, I am sorry to see 

you like this. 
Behagen, Het heeft den honing behaagd, it has pleased the 

king. 
Believen, Geef mij dat boek, ah het u blieft, give me that 

book, if you please. 
Berouiven, Het berouwt hem, dat hij het gezegd heeft, he is sorry 

that he said so. 
Betamen, Het betaamt u niet zoo te spreken, you have no 

right to speak like that. 
Bevreemden, Het zal u zeker bevreemden mij hier te zien, you will 

no douht be astonished to see me here. 
Dunken, Mij dunkt (het dunkt mij) dat het goed is, I think 

it is all right. 
Heugen, Het heugt mij niet u tevoren gezien te hebben, I do 

not recollect having seen you before. 
Opvallen, Het valt mij op, dat hij bleek ziet, it strikes me that 

he looks pale. 
Schelen* Het kan mij niet schelen, I don't care. 

Smarten, Het smart hem, u verdriet te doen, it pains him to 

grieve you. 
Spijten, Het spijt ons, dat gij zieh zijt, we are sorry that you 

are ill. 
Verdrieten, Laat het u niet verdrieten, dat ik weg moet, don't 

let it trouble you that I must leave. 
Verwonderen, Het verwondert mij zeer, dat te hooren, I am very 

much surprised to hear it. 
Vrijstaan, Het stoat u vrij, hoar uit te noodigen, you are at 

liberty to invite her. 

3. Likewise are brought under this head certain expres- 
sions in the Passive Voice, by which an action is ascribed 
to an agent or agents, whose name is not mentioned 
(see pp. 140, 169) : 

Er wordt daar gedanst, they are dancing there ; 
Er werd goed gescJioten, the shooting was good ; 
Er zal heel wat over gesproJcen worden, the matter will 
bo much talked about. 

* Note.— Observe the different meanings of the verb " schelen " : 

Niets kan hem tchelen, he does not care about anything. 

Wat tcheelt er aan t what is the matter ? 

Het scheelde weinig of ik was gevallen, I very nearly fell. 

Het scheelt heel wat dat deze weg korter is, this way is shorter by a good deal. 

net zal mij veel schelen alt ik ten paard heb, it will make a great difference to 
me, when I have a horse. 

In the two latter sentences the idea of " difference " underlies the meaning of the 
verb ' tchelen," and with this meaning it also occurs as a personal verb : Mijn 
horloge scheelt weinig bij het uwe, my watch differs little from yours. 



THE VERB. 187 



XXIII. Causative Verbs : — Some verbs, derived from 
existing ones by a change in their radical vowel, indicate 
that their subject is the cause of an action performed by 
the object. They are called Causative Verbs (Causatieve, 
OorzahelijTce Werkwoorden). Among them the following 
are some of the most common : 

Original Verbs. Derivatives. 

Drinhen, to drink. Drenken, to cause to drink. 

Liggen, to lie. Leggen, to cause to lie. 

Vallen, to fall. Vellen, to cause to fall. 

Waken, to be awake. Wekken, to cause to wake up. 

Zitten, to sit. Zetten, to cause to sit. 

XXIV. Frequentative Verbs : — Another kind of Verbs, 
called Frequentative (Frequentatieve, Herlialings-WerJc- 
woorden), because they indicate a constant repetition of 
the action, are formed from existing ones by adding the 
ending elen or eren to their verbal stems, with an occa- 
sional change of the stem-vowel : 

Original Verbs. Derivatives. 

Bidden, to pray, ask. Bedelen, to ask continually, to 

beg. 
Druipen, to drip. Droppelen, to drip constantly. 

Huppen, to hop. Huppelen, to continue hopping, 

to skip. 
Wenden, to turn, to move. Wandelen, to take a walk, to he 

constantly moving. 
Stooten, to dash, to push. Btotteren to stammer. 

Kikken, to utter a sound. \Kekkelen) to cac ^ e - 

Obs. — Mark that Verbs in elen aDd eren belong to the class of 
Frequentatives only when they indicate a repetition of the 
action. Many other verbs have tbe same endings, being 
derived from nouns which end in el and er : 

Orendelen, to bolt (from grendel, a bolt) ; hameren, to 
hammer (from hamer, a hammer). 

XXV. Compound Verbs (Samengestelde Werkwoorden) 
are of two kinds — first, those in which the first part is 
inseparably connected with the verb-stem; second, 



188 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

those whose first part is occasionally separated from 
the stern. The following rules assist the student in over- 
coming the apparent difficulty which arises from this 
fact. 

KtiLE 1. — All Verbs compounded with a Noun are sepa- 
rable : houthakken, to chop wood ; leerlooien, to tan 
leather ; Jiuishouden, to manage a household. 

Eule 2. — All Verbs compounded with an Adjective are 
separable, except those with " vol," and " mis," when 
unaccented : grootspreken, to boast ; vrijlaten, to set free ; 
inseparable : volhdrden, to endure ; voldoen, to satisfy ; 
mishdgen, to displease ; misdoen, to do wrong. 

- Note. — Vdlhouden, to continue, is separable, as are also those 
verbs in which vol has the meaning of *' full," and has the 
accent. 

Rule 3. — When verbs are compounded with an Adverb 
or preposition, the pronunciation must decide the case. 
When the accent lies on their first part, they are sepa- 
rably compounded ; when the accent is on their second 
part, they are inseparably compounded. 

Examples : — 

Separable are, danlachen, to smile at; dchterhouden, 

to keep back ; oraloopen, to take a round-about 

way ; nddenken, to reflect upon. 
Inseparable are : overdenken, to consider ; aaribiddcn, 

to adore; weerkdatsen, to reflect; ontgadn, to 

escape. 

Eule 4. — Verbs derived from existing ones by means of 
the verbal prefixes, be, ge, er, her, ont, and ver, are insepar- 
able, as : beginnen, to begin ; geleiden, to lead ; erkennen, to 
acknowledge; herroejpen, to recall; ontvangen, to receive; 
vergeten, to forget. 

Obs. — The difference in conjugation between the inseparably 
compounded verbs and those separably compounded is so 
marked that attention should be given to it here. 

Separably Compounded Verbs, when conjugated, separate 



THE VERB. 189 



themselves from their prefix throughout the entire con- 
jugation, and in their Past Participles insert the prefix 
"ge" between their two parts. 

Inseparably Compounded Verbs, on the other hand, remain 
intact, and their Past Participles reject the prefix "ge." 

Examples : 

1. Verbs separably compounded : ndloopen, to follow ; 

Inf. ndloopen ; Pies. Part, ndloopende ; Past Part. 
nageloopen, Pres. ik loop na ; Imp. ik Hep na ; Perf. 
ik heb nageloopen ; Plup. ik had nageloopen ; Fut. ik 
zal ndloopen; Fut. Perf. ik zal nageloopen hebben; 
Imperative, loop na ; Inf. with Prep, na te loopen. 

2. Verbs inseparably compounded : volhdrden, to 

endure; Inf. volhdrden; Pres. Part, volhdrdende 
Past Part, volhard ; Pres. ik volhard; Imp. ik volhardde ; 
Perf. ik heb volhard ; Plup. ik had volhard ; Fut. ik zal 
volharden ; Fut. Perf. ik zal volhard hebben ; Imperative, 
volhard ; Inf. with Prep, te volharden. 

Note 1. — Derived verbs (referred to under Kule 4) having one of 
the verbal prefixes (be, ge, er, her, out, or ver) likewise reject 
the participial prefix ge : 

Infinitives : beginnen, geleiden, erhennen, herroepen, ontvangen, 

vergeten. 
Past Participle: begonnen, geleid, erhend, herroepen, ontvangen, 

vergeten. 

Note 2. — The verbs antwoorden, to answer ; argwanen, to suspect ; 
dagvaarden, to summon ; glimlachen, to smile ; handhaven, to 
maintain ; waarborgen, to guarantee ; zegepralen, to triumph ; 
beeldhouicen, to sculpture ; zegevieren, to triumph ; evenaren, 
to equal ; wanhopen, to despair, which are derived from 
compound nouns, are inseparable, but take the prefix ge in 
their past participle : geantwoord, gezegepraald. 

Note 3. — The following verbs change their meaning according 
to the way their accent is placed : 

Ddordringen, Be vijand is in het bosch ddorgedrongen, the enemy 

has penetrated into the wood. 
Doordringen, Ik ben van de waarheid uwer woorden door- 

drbngen, I am impressed with the truth of 

your words. 
Ddorloopen, Het kind is de kamer ddorgeloopen, the child has 

gone through the room. 
Doorlbopen, De boden hebben de stad in alle richtingen door' 

loopen, the messengers have traversed the 

town in every direction. 



190 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Doorreizen, Deze man is door Perzie naar Palestina gereisd, 

this man has travelled through Persia on his 

way to Palestine. 
Doorreizen, Mijn vader heeft de geheele Kaap-Kohnie door- 

reisd, my father has travelled all about in 

Cape Colony. 
Ddorsteken, Ik heb de naald hier ddorgestoken, here I have put 

the needle through. 
Doorsteken, De soldaat werd doorstbken met eene lans, the 

soldier was stahhed with a lance. 
O'ndergaan, De maan is zooeven dndergegaan, the moon has just 

set. 
Ondergaan, LJij ondergaat zijn lot met kalmte, he submits to 

his fate with calmness. 
'nderhouden, Hij heeft zijne woede lang dndergehouden, he has 

long suppressed his rage. 
Onderhbuden, De ouders worden door hunnen zoon onderhbuden, 

the parents are provided for by their son. 
0' verdrijven, Het onweder is dvergedreven in de richting van de 

zee t the thunderstorm passed over us in the 

direction of the sea. 
Overdrijven, Mijn broeder heeft de zaak gewis overdriven, my 

brother has no doubt exaggerated the matter. 
O'verwegen, Hij heeft de pakjes dvergewogen, he has weighed 

the parcels again. 
Overwegen, Men heeft het voorstel overwbgen, the motion has 

been considered. 
O'verwerken, Ik heb het geheele opstel ovcrgewerkt, I have done 

the composition all over again. 
Overwerken, Zijne zuster heeft zich verleden maand overtverkt, 

his sister overworked herself last month. 
O'verzien, De onderwijzer heeft het huisiverk dvergezien, the 

teacher has looked over the homework. 
Overzien, Van hier overziet men de geheele stad, from here 

one has a view of the whole town. 
Vvorkomen, Er komen vecl ongelukken vdor, many accidents 

happen. 
Voorkbmen, Men had dien ramp kunnen voorkbmen, that 

calamity might have been prevented. 
Vdorzeggen, Het kind heeft zijn zusje de les vdorgezegd, the 

child has prompted his sister in saying the 

lesson. 
Voorzeggen, De val van Jeruzalem was voorzegd (geworden), 

Jerusalem's fall had been predicted. 









THE VERB. 


191 


XXVI. List 


OF S'J 


:rong Verbs 


• 






Class I. 




Infinitive Past Tense 


Past Part. 








oy). 


(,-). 


00. 


1. ! 


To confess, 




belijden, 


beleed, 


beleden. 


2. 


„ succumb, 




bezwijken, 


bezweek, 


bezweken. 


3. 


„ bite, 




bijten, 


beet, 


gebeten. 


4. 


„ appear (to 


be), 


blijken, 


bleelc, 


gebleken. 


5. 


„ remain, 




blijven, 


bleef, 


gebleven. 


6. 


„ drive, 




drijven, 


dreef, 


gedreven. 


7. 


„ resemble, 




gelijken, 


geleek, 


geleken. 


8. 


» glide, 




glijden, 


gleed, 


gegleden. 


9. 


„ seize, 




grijpen, 


greep, 


gegrepen. 


10. 


„ hoist, 




hijschen, 


heesch, 


geheschen. 


11. 


„ look, 




kijken, 


iCGGiCt 


gekeken. 


12. 


„ pinch, 




knijpen, 


kneep, 


geknepen. 


13. 


a get, 




krijgen,(l) 


kreeg, 


gekregen. 


14. 


„ croak, 




Jcrijschen, 


Jcreesch, 


gekreschen. 


15. 


„ acquit oneself, 


kwijten,(2,) 


kweet, 


gekweten. 


16. 


„ suffer, 




lijden, 


leed, 


geleden. 


17. 


„ seem (to be),' 


lijken, 


leek, 


geleken. 


18. 


„ avoid, 




mijden, 


meed, 


gemeden. 


19. 


„ incline (bow), 


nijgen. 


neeg, 


genegen. 


20. 


„ pass away 


(die), 


overlijden, 


overleed, 


overleden. 


21. 


„ praise, 




prijzen,{3') 


prees, 


geprezen. 


22. 


„ ride, 




rijden, 


reed, 


gereden. 


23. 


„ lace, 




rijgen, 


reeg, 


geregen. 


24. 


„ tear, 




rijten, 


reet, 


gereten. 


25. 


,, rise up, 




rijzen, 


rees, 


gerezen. 


26. 


„ seem, to shine, 


schijnen, 


scheen, 


gesclienen. 


27. 


„ saunter, 




schrijden, 


schreed, 


geschreden. 


28. 


„ write, 




schrijven, 


schreef, 


geschreven. 


29. 


„ sharpen, 




slijpen, 


sleep, 


geslepen. 


30. 


„ wear out, 




slijten, 


sleet, 


gesleten. 


31. 


» fli»g» 




smijten, 


smeet, 


gesmeten. 


32. 


„ cut, 




snijden, 


sneed, 


gesneden. 


33. 


„ be sorry, 




spijten,(£) 


speet, 


gespeten. 


34. 


„ split, 




splijten, 


spleet, 


gespleten. 


35. 


„ ascend, 




stijgen, 


steeg, 


gestegen. 


36. 


„ starch, 




stijven,(5') 


steef, 


gesteven. 


37. 


„ strive (fight), 


strijdcn, 


streed, 


gestredcn. 


38. 


„ iron, to skim over, strijken, 


streek, 


gestreken. 


39. 


„ disappear, 


t 


verdwijnen, 


verdween, 


1 verdwenen. 


40. 


„ give way, 


to yield, wijken, 


week, 


geweken. 


41. 


„ impute, 




wijtcn, 


weet, 


geweten. 


42. 


„ show, 




wijzen, 


wees, 


gewezen. 


-43. 


„ rub, 




wrijven, 


wreef, 


gewreven. 


44. 


„ sink, to filter, 


zijgen, 


zeeg, 


gezegen. 


45. 


„ be silent, 




zwijgen, 


zweeg, 


gczwegen. 



192 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR, 



Notes. — 1. Krijgen, to wage war, is weak. 

2. Kwijten is reflexive : ik heb mij van mijnen plicht 

gekweten, I have fulfilled my duty. 

3. Prijzen, to price, is weak : hij heeft het linnen geprijsd, 

he has marked the price on the linen. 

4. Spijten is impersonal : het spijt mij, I am sorry. 

5. Stijven, to encourage (harden 1 , is weak : hij stijfde mij 

in het kicade. 



Class II. 

(a) 1. To begin, 

2. „ bind, 

3. „ shine, 

4. „ strive for, 

5. „ urge, 

6. „ drink, 

7. ,, force (coerce), 

8. „ gleam, 

9. „ climb, 

10. „ sound, 

11. „ shrink, 

12. „ fallow (to open), 

13. „ get startled, 

14. „ diminish in size, 

15. „ spin, 

16. „ jump, 

17. „ stink, 

18. „ devour, 

19. „ vanish, 

20. „ find, 

21. „ wind, 

22. „ win, to gain, 

23. „ wring, 

24. „ sing, 

25. „ sink, 

26. „ meditate, 

(6) 1. „ put by, 

2. „ delve (dig), 

3. „ be worth, 

4. „ carve, 

5. „ milk, 

6. „ call names, 

7. „ violate, 

8. „ make a present, 

to pour, 

9. „ melt, 
10. „ hit, 



Infinitive Past Tense 
(a)i,(b)e. (o). 

beginnen, begon, 

binden, bond, 

blinken, blonk, 

dingen, dong, 

dringen, drong, 

drinken, dronk, 

dwingen, dwong, 

glimmen, glom, 

klimmen, Mom, 

klinken, klonk, 

krimpen, kromp, 

ontginnen, ontgon, 
schrikken,(l') sclirok, 

slinken, slonk, 

spinnen, spon, 

springen, sprong, 

stinken, stonk, 

verslinden, verslond, 
verzwinden, verzwond, 

vinden, vond, 

winden, wond, 

winnen, won, 

wringen, wrong, 

zingen, zong, 

zinken, zonk, 

zinnen, zon, 

bergen, borg, 

delven, dolf, 

gelden, gold, 

kerven, korf, 

melken,(2) molk, 

schelden, schold, 

schenden, schond, 

schenken, schonk, 



smelten, 
treffen, 



smolt, 
trof, 



Past Part. 
(o). 

begonnen. 

gebonden. 

geblonken. 

gedongen. 

gedrongen. 

gedronken. 

gedwongen. 

geglommen. 

geklommen. 

geklonken. 

gekrompen. 

ontgonnen. 

geschrokken. 

geslonken. 

gcsponnen. 

gesprongen. 

gestonken. 

verslonden. 

verzwonden. 

gevonden. 

gewonden. 

gewonnen. 

gewrongen. 

gezongen. 

gezonken. 

gezonnen. 

geborgen. 

gedolven. 

gegolden. 

gekorven. 

gemolken. 

gescholden. 

geschonden. 

geschonken. 

gesmolten. 
getroffen. 



THE VERB. 



*93 



Class II. 
11. To pull, to journey, 



12. 


>) 


fight, 


13. 


» 


plait, 


14. 




send, 


15. 




swallow, 


16. 


»» 


swell, 


17. 


» 


swim, 



Infinitive 
(a) r, (b) e. 

trekken, 

vechten, 

vlechten, 

zenden, 

zivelgen, 

zwellen, 

zwemmen, 



Past Tense 
(p). 

trok, 

vocht, 

vlocht, 

zond, 

zwolg, 

zwol, 

ziuom, 



Past Part. 

getrokken. 

gevochten. 

gevlochten. 

gezonden. 

gezwolgen. 

gezivollen. 

gezivommen. 



Notes. — 1. Schrilclcen, to startle (trans, 
replaced by verschrikken : 
verschrikt. 
2. Melken is also used weak. 



), is weak. It is usually 
I>e tijding lieeft <m$ alien 



0)1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 

0)1. 

2. 
3. 

001. 
0)1. 

2. 
3. 

4. 
5. 
G. 

7. 
8. 



Class III. 

To deceive, 

,, offer, 

» enjoy, 

„ pour, to water, 

„ choose, 

„ tell lies. 

„ shoot, 

„ grieve, 

„ loose, 

„ flee, 

„ %, 

„ flow, 

„ freeze, 

„ boil (seethe), 

„ shave (shear), 

„ weigh, 

„ ulcerate, 

„ spit, 

„ bend, 

„ drip, 

„ dive, 

„ whistle, 

„ gnaw (a bone), 

„ wheel (on a 

barrow), 

„ creep, 

„ close, 



Infinitive 

(a) ie, (b) e, 

(c) u, (d) ui, 

(e)ij. 

bedriegen, 

bieden, 

genieten, 

gieten, 

kiezen, 

liegen, 

schieten, 

verdrieten, (1) 

verliezen, 

vlieden, 

vliegen, 

vlieten, 

vriezen, (2) 

zieden, (3) 

scheren, 

ivegen, 

zioeren, 

spugen, (4) 



jen, 
druipen, 
■ duiken, 
fluiten, 
kluiven, 
kruien, (5) 

kruipen, 
luiken, (6) 



Past Tense 
(o). 

bedroog, 

bood, 

genoot, 

goot, 

koos, 

loog, 

schoot, 

verdroot, 

verloor, 

vlood, 

vloog, 

vloot, 

vroor, 

zood, 

schoor, 

woog, 

zwoor, 

spoog, 

loog, 

droop, 

dook, 

floot, 

kloof, 

krooi, 

kroop, 
look, 



Past Part, 
(o). 

bedrogen. 

geboden. 

genoten. 

gegoten. 

gekozen. 

gelogen. 

geschoten. 

verdroten t 

verloren. 

gevloden. 

gevlogen. 

gevloten. 

gevroren. 

gezoden. 

geschoren. 

gewogen. 

gezworen. 

gespogen. 

gebogen. 

gedropen. 

gedoken. 

gefloten. 

gekloven- 

gekrooien. 

gekropen. 
geloken. 



194 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 









Infinitive 










CZass JTZZ. 


(a) ie, (b) e, 
(c) u, (d) ui, 

(«) if- 


Past Tense 


Past Part. 
(5). 


9. 


To ravel out, 


pluizen, (7) 


ploos, 


geplozen. 


10. 


» 


smell, 


ruiken, 


rook, 


geroken. 


11. 


j» 


take shelter, 


schuilen, (8) 


school. 


gescholen. 


12. 


>) 


move (shove) 


schuiven, 


scJwof, 


geschoven. 


13. 


>> 


smuggle, 


sluihen, 


slook, 


gesloken. 


14. 


» 


sneak, 


sluipen, 


sloop, 


geslopen. 


15. 


»> 


lock, 


sluiten, 


shot, 


gesloten. 


16. 


»> 


blow (the nose), 


snuiten, 


snoot, 


gesnoten. 


17. 


» 


sniff (take snuff). 


snuiven, 


snoof, 


gesnoven. 


18. 


» 


sprout, 


spruiten, 


sproot, 


gesproten. 


19. 


» 


spout, 


spuiten, 


spoot, 


gespoten. 


20. 


» 


raise dust, 


stuiven, 


stoof, 


gestoven. 


21. 


» 


suck, 


zuigen, 


zoog, 


gezogen, 


22. 


!) 


tipple, 


zuipen, 


zoop, 


gezopen. 


(e)l. 


>> 


go (journey), 


tijgen, (9) 


toog, 


getogen. 



Notes. — 1. Verdrieten is impersonal: het verdriet mij, it grieves 
me. 

2. Vriezen is likewise conjugated : vroos, gevrozen. 

3. Zieden is rarely used. 

4. Spugen is also used weak. 

5. Kruien is also used weak. 

6. Luiken is only used of flowers and the human eye. 

7. Pluizen is used for picking out (as wool), and examin- 

ing (any matter) closely ; it is used both strong and 
weak. 

8. Schuilen is also used weak. 

9. Tijgen has a complete conjugation, but tho present 

tense is rarely used. 





Class 17. 


Infinitive 

(a) e, (b) », 

(c) e. 


Past Tense £"*%?: 
v r (c) 0. 


(a)l. 


To eat, 


eten, 


at, 


gegeten. 


2. 


„ cure, 


genezen, 


genas, 


genezen. 


3. 


n give, 


geven, 


wft 


gegeven. 


4. 


„ read, 


lezen, 


las, 


gelezen. 


5. 


„ measure, 


meten, 


mat, 


gemeten. 


6. 


„ tread (step), 


treden, 


trad, 


getreden. 


7. 


„ forget, 


vergeten, 


vergat, 


vergeten. 


8. 


n gorge, 


vreten, 


vrat, 


gevrelen. 


0)1. 


„ Fay, 
„ lie down, 


bidden, 


bad, 


gebeden. 


2. 


liggen, 


lag, 


gelegen. 









THE VERB, 




195 






C?ass 7F. 


Infinitive 

(a) e, (b) X, 

(c) e. 


Past Tense , N . ,,s '. 

(«). («);»(&)«» 

v J (c) 0. 


3. 


To be sitting, 


zitten, 


zat, 


gezeten. 


(c)l. 
2. 


» 

>> 


command, 
break, 


bevelen, 
breken, 


beval, 
brak, 


bevolen. 
gebroken. 


3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 


» 

»> 

)) 


take, nemen, 
speak, spreken, 
stab (put through), steken, 
steal, stelen, 


nam, 
sprak, 
stak, 
stal, 


genomen. 
gesproken. 
gestoken. 
gestolen. 






Class V. 


Infinitive 
(a) a, (b) a, 
(c) 6, (d) oe, 
(e) ou, (f) e, 
(9) e, (h) e. 


Past Tense 
(le). 


Past Part. 
(a) a, (b) a> 
(c) 6, (d) oe> 
(e) ou, (/) e, 

fa) % (h) a. 


2. 
3. 


To blow, 
„ let, 
m sleep, 


blazen, 

laten, 

slapen, 


Mies, 

liet, 

sliep, 


geblazen. 

gelaten. 

geslapen. 


(6)1. 
2. 


n 

» 


fall, 

grow (wax), 


vallen, 
wassen, (1) 


viel, 
wies, 


gevallen. 
geivassen. 


ooi. 


n 


run (walk), 


loopen, 


liep, 


geloopen. 


0*)i. 


>) 


call, 


roepen, 


riep, 


geroepen. 


(e)l. 


5> 


hew, 


houwen, 


hieuWy 


gehouwen. 


C/)i. 


)) 


lift, 


heffen, 


hief, 


geheven. 


(01. 
2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 


» 

M 

» 
1) 


corrupt (spoil), 

help, 

die, 

throw, 

recruit, 

wander, 


bederven, 

helpen, 

sterven, 

werpen, 

werven, 

ziverven, 


bedierf, 
hielp, 
stierf, 
wierp, 
. wierf, 
zwierf, 


bedorven. 

geholpen. 

gestorven. 

geworpen. 

geworven. 

gezworven. 


C*)i. 


» 


create, 


sclieppen, (2)schiep, 


geschapen. 






Notes. — 1. Wassen, to cover with wax, is weak. 
2. Scheppen, to scoop or dip out, is weak. 






Class VI. 


Infinitive 
(a) a, (b) e. 


Past Tense 
(oe). 


Past Part. 
(a) a, (b) 6. 



(a) 1. To carry (bear), dragen, 

2. „ dig, graven, 

3. „ navigate (sail), varen, 

(Jb) 1. „ swear (take oath), zweren, 



droeg, 
groef, 
voer, 

zwoer, 



gedragen. 
gegraven. 
ge varen. 

gezworen. 
11 2 



196 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Class VII. 


Infinitive 
(a). 


Past Tense 

00- 


Past Part. 
(a). 


* 1. To hang, 


hangen, 


king, 


geliangen. 


2. „ catch. 


vangcn, 


ving, 


gevangen. 


Class VIII. 


Infinitive 


Past Tense, 


Past Part. 
(o). 


1. To become, 


ivorden, 


werd, 


geworden. 



GRAMMAR EEBBCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise LIX.* 

1. Determine the stems of the following verbs. 

DenTcen ; doen ; vragen ; blijven ; zoelcen ; leven ; zien ; 
hangen ; zagen (to saw) ; liggen ; brengen ; drogen ; voelen ; 
gaan ; onderwijzen (to teach) ; proeven (to taste) ; lesschcn (to 
quench) ; visschen ; suizen (to rustle) ; ruischen (to rustle) ; 
halchen ; schoppen (to kick) ; dwalen (to wander) ; pochen 
(to brag) ; bogen (to boast) ; zuchten ; lachen ; wczen ; 
bedelen (to beg) ; verblinden (to blind) ; ontdoen (to strip) ; 
reJclcen (to stretch) ; tornen (to unpick) ; naaien ; mazen (to 
darn) ; breien (to knit) ; halcen (to crochet) ; zoomen (to 
hem) ; stihJcen (to stitch) ; bedragen (to amount to) ; 
gebeuren ; voorvallen (to take place) ; lezen ; vreezen ; Jciissen 
(to krss) ; kitchen (to cough) ; stoven (to stew) ; lcoeren 
(to coo) ; kweelen (to warble) ; fjilpen (to chirp) ; slaan ; 
piepen ; gichelen (to giggle) ; oorlogen (to wago war) ; 
vuren (to fire) ; schietcn ; vellen (to fell) ; villen (to skin) ; 
vallen ; bespotten (to mock) ; verbreJcen (to break) ; verhurcn 
(to hire out). 

2. Write out the singular and the plural form of the 
Imperative Mood of all the above verbs; and the first 
person, singular and plural, of the Indicative Present. 



THE VERB. 197 



Exercise LX. 

1. Write out tho first person, singular, of the Indicative 
and Subjunctive Present of the following verbs. 

Besteden (to spend) ; vertellen ; ergeren (to vex) ; spitten 
(to dig) ; raden (to guess) ; overreden (to prevail upon) ; 
duwen (to push) ; duren (to last) ; zetten ; plaatsen ; missen ; 
fronsen (to frown) ; heelen (to heal) ; verhelen (to hide) ; 
gedijen (to thrive) ; ontleden (to analyse) ; verschepen (to 
ship) ; temmen (to tame) ; laven (to refresh) ; zalven (to 
anoint) ; inenten (to vaccinate) ; mesten (to manure) > 
landen ; rusten ; planten ; dulden (to endure); troosten (to 
comfort); branden ; roosten (to roast); braveeren (to brave); 
ontbercn (to do without) ; geschieden (to happen) ; kwaken 
(to croak) ; schroeven (to screw) ; gooien (to throw) ; 
sclirobbcn (to scrub) ; schuren (to scour) ; beletten (to pro- 
vent) ; draven (to trot) ; verlaten (to leave) ; ontzetten (to 
set free) ; Jcruisen (to cross). 

2. Of tho above verbs write out the stem, the Past 
Tense (first person, singular) and the Past Participle. 

Exercise LXI. 

In tho following exerciso write the words in italics in 
tho plural. 

Hoe laat is uw broeder aangekomen? Het paard Jean 
den wagen niet trekken ; de jongen zal het moeten uit- 
spannen : zulk een dier is veel te zwak voor die vracht. 
Waarom hec/t de man het gat zoo diep gegraven? Ik 
vertelde hem dat het boek niet gedrukt Icon worden; maar 
Jiij wilde mij niet gelooven. Kind, kind, wat zal er toch 
van je groeien ? Hoe dikwijls heb ik je niet gewaar- 
schuwd ! Ik had mij gewasschen voor ik in de kamer 
kicam. Wie is vandaag hier geweest ? Wanneer wordt 
mo vriend verwacht ? Mijn vader zeide mij, dat ik mij in 



198 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

dien persoon vergist moest hebben. Denk aan wat ik u 
zoo dikwijls gezegd heb : bet is de slechtste perzik niet 
waaraan de wcsp hnaagt. De timmerman zaagt het hout. 
Het jonge meisje hood mij eenen Jcleinen ruiker aan. Hoe 
dikwijls baadt hij zich gewoonlijk? De ooievaar kuiert 
langs de shot, om te zien of hij er geen TcikTcer uit kan 
halen, dien hij dan lekker opsmult. De telegraafpaal staat 
eenzaam in het veld. De adelaar bouwt zijn nest op den 
top van eenen hoogen berg. 

Exercise LXII. 

Of the following verbs write out the third person, 
singular and plural, of the Indicative Present. 

Binden ; delven (to dig) ; spelen ; straff en ; beloven (to 
promise) ; icasschen ; bepalen (to decide) ; vragen, snijden ; 
onthalen (to treat) ; lezen ; gaan ; scheiden (to separate) ; 
weven (to weave) ; schrijven ; vreezen ; streven (to strive) ; 
beseffen (to realise); oorlogen (to wage war); staren (to 
stare) ; zaaien ; voeden ; heeten (to be called) ; zich herinneren 
(to remember) ; bewijzen (to prove) ; bidden (to pray) ; 
antwoorden, si aan. 

Exercise LXIII. 

Of the following sets of verbs write out the Stem, Past 
Tense (first person, singular), and Past Participle. 

1. 

Strong verbs (§§ III and XXVI) : 

Bieden (to offer) ; blijhen (to appear) ; bergen (to put 
aside) ; drinken ; eten ; genezen (to cure) ; breken ; jiuiten (to 
whistle) ; kiezen (to choose) ; vriezen ; hangen ; glimmen (to 
gleam) ; lezen ; loopen ; nemen ; scheiden (to call names) ; 
meten (to measure) ; schrijven ; sluiten ; slijten (to wear out) ; 
schenken (to give or pour); stelen ; spreken ; smelten; 
vangen; vechten. 



THE VERB. 199 



2. 

Strong, Mixed, and Anomalous verbs (§§ XX, XXI, 
XXVI) : 

Houden; sluipen (to steal); raden ; zoeken; zeggen; 
vergeten ; plegen ; verliezen; lachen ; wassen ; dunken; wezen; 
werven (to levy an army) ; zitten ; jagen ; bahhen ; zullen i 
zweren (to swear) ; moeten ; wasschen ; laden ; zwijgen ; 
wrijven; Jcoopen ; brouwen; weven; zweren (to ulcerate) 
sterven ; wreken ; begraven ; denlcen ; zien ; komen, 

3. 

Compound and Derivative verbs (§ XXV) : 

Leerlooien; losmahen; beeldhouwen (to sculpture); lief- 
hebben ; volhouden ; vclharden ; volgieten ; volbrengen (to 
accomplish.) ; ontvangen ; antwoorden ; dagvaarden ; over- 
werken ; ondergaan; herroepen ; grootsprehen ; vrijlaten; 
ndloopen; doorreizen; zegevieren; wanhopen: mishagen ; 
misschieten (to miss aim in shooting); volloojpen (to run 
full); veroveren (to conquer); onderwerpen (to subdue); 
doorbladeren (to peruse) ; evenaren ; voorkomen ; uitloopen 
(to sprout) ; ontluiken (to open, of flowers) ; overdrijven ; 
voorzeggen. 

Exercise LXIV. 

Write out the following exercise, first in the third 
person, singular ; then in the second person, singular ; and 
lastly in the third person, plural, using throughout the 
tenses as they are given. 

Ik sprak met mijnen vader en wees hem den brief, dien ik 
geschreven had. Ik vertelde mijnen 00m wat mij op den weg 
overkomen was, en hoe ik bijna een ongeluk had gekregen. Op 
school hoorde ik van mijnen onderwijzer, dat ik de eerste op de 
lijst stond en dat ik dus eenen prijs zou krijgen. He schreef 
het blad vol, en vouwde toen den brief op, en deed hem in een 
envelop. Ik riep den postbode toe, dat ik hem zou verklagen, 



200 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

indien ik weer zoo iets merhte. Ik zal het aannemen, als ik 
mag, maar ik weet niet, of mijn vader het mij zal toelaten 
Ik geloof niet, dat ik mijzelf zooveel kwaad doe, als Jiij mij 
wijs loil maken. Ik kan het niet helpen, dat ik niet eerder 
gekomen ben: mijn vader heeft mij om eene boodschap gezonden, 
en daardoor moest ik wel later komen. Ik ben van morgen 
vroeg op geweest, maar nu ga ik ook vroeg naar bed. Ik wil 
het hem niet zeggen, want ik houd er niet van, geheimen te 
verraden. Het zal mij wezenlijk veel genoegen doen, ah ik 
morgen door dit werk heen kom. Ik behoef mij daarover niet 
te schamen, dat ik met mijne eigcne handen mijn brood 
verdien. Ik kan ervan zeggen, wat ik ivil; gehoorzaamd 
word ik toch niet. Ik zou wel graag naar de kerk gaan, 
maar ik ben bang dat ik erg verkouden worden zal. Heb ik 
mij niet altijd fatsoenlijk gedragen ? Heb ik mij ooit aan die 
familie opgedrongen ? Had ik mij niet kunnen verrijken ten 
koste van mijne vrienden, en heb ik ooit iemand te kort 
gedaan ? Wil ik eens gaan rijden, dan zadel ik zelf mijn 
paard, want ik houd er niet van den knecht altijd lastig te 
vallen voor mijn plezier. 

Exercise LXV. 

In the following exercise change the Infinitive form of 
the verb into the required form of (1st) the Present Tense, 
(2nd) the Past, and (3rd) the Future of the Indicative 
Mood. 

Mijne tante (geven) les aan vier kinderen ; zij (doen) hun 
best en (maken) goede vorderingen. Er (zijn) eene zware 
wolk op den berg ; het (duren) niet meer lang of het (regenen). 
He trein (razen) en (rommelen), terwijl hij ons (yoorbijvliegen). 
De mannen (werken) vandaag aan den weg ; zij (rusten) en 
(gebruiken) hun middagmaal. Met welke boot (vertrekken) 
uw vriend naar Australia? Eenjager (loopen) over het veld 
en (dragen) zijn geweer onder den arm. De kinderen (baden) 
zich eerst in den dam en (kleeden) zich daarna aan. De 
zwaluw (zitten) op eenen tak en (Jluiten) een vroolijk deuntje 



THE VERB. 



terwijl zijn wijfje de eieren (broeden). Waarom (laden) de 
soldaat zijn geweer ? Een hevig onweer (losbreken) over de 
stad. De zon om zeven uur (ondergaan). De man (graven) 
diep in den grond. De wind (suizeri) door de boomen en (doen) 
de dorre bladeren ritselen. De generaal (handhaven) de eer 
der republiek. Het gedrag van mijnen neef (mishagen) onzen 
rector. Onze tuinman (leiden) water in den tuin. Het 
koper (verscheept worden) te Port Nolloih. De luie Jcinderen 
(gcstraft worden) door den onderwijzer, Na een uur de pijn 
overgaan. 

Exercise LXVI. 

Fill in the endings and complete the verbal forms in 
the following exercises. 

De bocr ploeg-, zaai- en eg- het land, en hoop- dan op 
regen om het zaad te laat- groei-. De man en zijn zoon zat— 
in de Tear en reed- ons voorbij zonder ons te merken in. Toen 
icij ons van morgen in de rivier wild— baad-, zaag— wij er 
een- groot- slang in rondzicem-. Houd- u van warm- melh ? 
De metselaar- heb- de muur- gepleister-. Wanneer word- 
dit meel gemaal- ? Had- uw neef zich nict zoo ver geioaag-, 
hij zou zijn been niet gebroolc— heb—. Hoor— u die twee vogels, 
icelh- daar boven in den boom zit- te zing- ? Hij ga- morgen 
verneem-, of hij Jeans heef- de betrekhing te krijg-. Wij hon- 
uw— broeder niet overreed- met ons mede te horn-. Deze 
boelten zou- al uitgegeef- zijn, als de hist vroeg- bezorgd teas. 
Uw— ouders waar- zeer ongerus-, toen zij niets van u hoor—. 
De boom- word- dit jaar niet gesnoei-. Door wien zul- de 
proef— van dit werh gelees- wor— ? Heef- hij niet beloof— u 
te help- als gij in nood waar- f Waarom horn- hij nu zijn 
belofte niet na ? Hoelang waar- vader en zoon gescheid- 
gewees- ? Al de pad- in ons- tuin zijn gegruis-. Het kind 
heef- maar drie uur- geleef-, nadat het geval- was. 



202 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Exercise LXVII. 

In the following exercises change the Infinitive form of 
the Verb into (1st) the Present Perfect, and (2nd) the 
Future Perfect. 

(Mind the use of the Auxiliaries hebben and zijn, § IV.) 

Mijn vader — mij niet (straffen), maar — mij (zeggen) 
dat het niet loeer gebeuren moet. De vogels — een rustig 
plekje (uitzoeken) en — daar een nestje (bouwen) waarin zij 
hunne eieren — (leggen). De kinderen — zich vlug 
(loasscheri) en (aankleden) en — nu den tuin (ingaan). De 
vleermuis — den geheelen nacJit in de Jcamer (rondvliegen), hij 
— door het open raam (inkomen). Al de leerlingen — een 
halven dag mij (hebben) en — dien iijd (gebruiken) om de 
brieven te beantwoorden, die zij van huis (ontvangen) — . Dit 
hind — lang zieh (wezen), en al dien tijd — hare onderwijzeres 
liaar geregeld (opzoehen). — er zooveel ongeluhJcen op dit 
pad (gebeuren) ? Neen, de municipaliteit — het in orde latcn 
brengen (see § XI, Obs.). De Heine varJcens — onder 
de heg (doorkruipen), en — veel schade in den tuin (doen). 
Hoe lang — het Bomeinsche JRijk (bestaan) ? Mijn broer — 
ziek (icorden), nadat hij — (vallen). Om hoe laat — de les 
(beginnen) ? Onze beste koeien — dezen winter (sterven). 
Men — dat ongeluk niet (kunnen voorkomen). Wanneer — 
de begrafenis (plaats hebben). Ik — er niet bij tegenwoordig 
(zijn). Door ivien — deze per en (geplukt worden) ? Deze 
vaas — (breken), omdat de kat erop (springen) — . Het ijs 
in de shot — (ontdooien), zoodra de zon warm — (worden). 

Exercise LXVIII. 

Express the following in the Passive Voico (§ X, 
c. 5). 

De dager slacht de koe. De os trcht den ploeg. De ezel 
heeft de kar getrokken. De man had, den hond geslagen. Ik 
schreef eenen brief. Waarom heeft mijne moeder mij geroepen. 



THE VERB. 203 



Had het onweer veel schade gedaan ? In ticee uren leer ik al 
mijne lessen. De Jwnd zal zijnen meester gevonden hebben. 
Set menschelijk lichaam kan veel ziehte verdragen. Men 
vindt in sommige deelen van dit land nog olifanten. De wet 
bcschermt den secretarisvogel. Verscheidene malen Jieb ik 
aan uwe deur geklopt, maar niemand heeft mij gehoord. 
Waarom had men hem niet gezegd, dat men hem zijn verzoek 
niet kon toestaan? Wij zullen onze reis voortzetten, zoodra 
de zware regens ophouden. Waarin vangt men het regenwater 
op? — heeft u dat al ooit onderzocht ? Napoleon de Groote 
won den slag bij Austerlitz. Men speelde in dat hotel veel 
biljart. Mijn 00m zou dien man vertrouwd hebben, als ik hem 
niet gewaarschuwd had. De goudmijnen hebben Zuid-Afrika 
in menig opzicht voordeel aangebracht. Wie heeft de boek- 
drukkunst uitgevonden ? De Duitschers zeggen, dat Gutenberg 
haar uitgevonden heeft. Men heeft de luiheid des duivels 
oorkussen genoemd. Men kan dien man niet overreden zijn 
testament te maken. Zouden de kinderen hunnen vader niet 
hebben kunnen weerhouden van zulk een dioazen stap f Men 
zegt, dat de vijand den bergpas bezet heeft. 

Exercise LXIX. 

Express the following in the Active Voice (§ X, 
c. 5). 

Het huis zou door dien metselaar gebouwd (geworden) zijn, 
indien ik eerder van dien man gehoord had. De haas is door 
den jager neergeschoten (geworden), nadat hij door den hond 
opgejaagd was (jjeworden). Werden de paarden in vroegere 
eeuwen 00k beslagen, of werd hun hoef toen niet beveiligd tegen 
de ruwe steenen, die toch altijd op de wegen gevonden warden ? 
De muizen zouden in de vol gevangen kunnen worden, indien 
er een stukje spek ingelegd werd. Er wordt gezegd, dat de 
mijn gesloten zal worden. Er werd gisteren avond laat aan 
de deur geklopt. Er is mij vandaag eenen brief gezonden 
(geworden) door iemand, die mij geheel onbekend is. Door 
zulke hulp zal deze vrouw niet veel gebaat worden. Den 



204 TtiE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

geheeten dag loerd daar piano gespeeld. Alle boomen waren 
door den tuinman verplant (geworden) zonder dat hem daarvan 
door mijnen vader lets gezegd was (geworden). Het geld, dat 
door u verlttcist wordt, zou gebruikt hunnen worden tot leniging 
van den nood der armen, die in den omtrek gevonden 
voorden. Dit onrecht zou u niet aangedaan (geioorden) zijn, 
ah ik liier geweest was. Er zijn hier in den laatsten tijd veel 
paarden van edel ras ingevoerd (geworden). Door wie zijn 
deze woorden in mijn boek gesclireven (geworden) ? Door wie 
wordt nog aan zulke dwaasheden geloofd ? 

Exercise LXX. 

In the following exercises put the verbs in the tenses 
indicated. 

De dief — niet (inbreken, Subj., Put., Perf.), als 

mijn vader tlmis (wezen, Pluperf.). Set huis, dat ik 

— (laten bouioen, Perf.), is nu — (verhuren, Past 

Part.). — (hebben, Subj., Past) ik maar eenen vriend tot 
wien ik mij — — (wenden kunnen, Past) ! Gisteren — ik 
eenen brief — (schrijven, Perf.), en morgen — ik er twee — 

(schrijven, Fut.). Al de melk — (overkoken, Subj., 

Put., Perf.) als ik niet in de keuken (komen, Pluperf.). 

— (weien, Subj., Pluperf.) ik — , dat mijn vader zoo ziek — 
(icezen, Past), ik — dadelijk — (terugkeeren, Sul>j., Pluperf.). 
In minder dan eene maand tijds — (verliezen, Past) deze 

man het gehcele fortuin, dat hij met speculeercn (maken, 

Pluperf.) — (leven, Subj., Past) mijn goede vader nu nog 
maar ! Deze dame — al hare kinderen — (verliezen, Perf.) ; 
zij — alien jong — (sterven, Perf.) ; nu — ook haar echtgenoot 

— (overlijden, Perf.), en — (achterblijven, Pres.) zij geheel 
alleen — . Als alles goed — (gaan, Pros.), — (weerzien, 
Pres.) u mij vandaag over vecrtien dagen — . Het — van- 
nacht zoo zwaar — (regenen, Perf.), dat de geheele tuin — 

— dnderloopen, Perf.) Waarom — u niet aan den heer B. 

— (schrijven, Perf.) ? Dc — hem — (schrijven, Put.), zoodra 
ik tijd — (krijgen, Pres.). Deze jongc dames — (besteden, 



THE VERB. 205 



Past") al haren tijd aan muziek en teelcennen, toen zij op 
school — (zijn, Past). Het schip — (Jcomen, Past) gisteren 
avond in de baai, en — (landen, Past) van morgen. Juist 

toen wij (yerhuizen, Pluperf.) — (worden, Past) mijne 

moeder zoo zicaar ziek, dat de dokter het ergste (yreezen, 
Past) ; — (zijn, Subj., Pluperf.) Maria toen niet bij mij — , 

ik — niet (weten, Subj., Fut. Perf.) wat (doen, 

Inf.). Het hof - — gisteren — (zitten, Perf.), en de zaak van 
den heer A. — voor — (wezen, Perf.) ; de rechter — echter 
nog geene uitspraak (doen, Perf.). Roe lang — de ver- 
gadering — (duren, Fut.). 

Exercise LXXI. 

Use all verbs reflexive and in the tenses indicated 
(§ XIX). 

Mijn paard — (bezeeren, Perf.) door — ■ tegen den post 

van de staldeur — (stooten, Inf.). — (vergissen, Pies.) 

gij — niet, als gij zegt, dat al die menschen — (yer- 

Jdeeden, Pluperf.) — (yerbeelden, Imperative) — , dat men 

mij vertelt, dat hij — in dien man (bedriegen, Perf.). 

Mijn vriend — (storen, Pres.) — niet aan wat men van hem 
zegt, hierdoor — (benadeelen, Pres.) hij — dikwijls. Toen de 
zon opging — (wasschen, Past) de vogels — in het beekje, en 

— (strijken, Past) — toen de veertjes glad. De kinderen — 
(aanmatigen, Past) — te veel vrijheid — . — (bedenken, 
Imperative) — wel, eer gij — tot zoo lets — (verbinden, 

Pres.). Deze vrouw niet — (ontzien, Perf.) — op 

mijne vroegere vriendschap (beroepen, Inf.). Vroeger 

geloofde men, dat de zon — om de aarde — (bewegen, Past). 
Ik — (schamen, Pres.) — niet alleen over mo gedrag, maar 

— (bedroeven, Pres.) er — over. Wij gisteren avond 

zeer aangenaam met dat jonge meisje — (onderhbuden, Perf.). 

Wij — (zullen, Past) — op die partij (amuseeren, 

Perf.), als wij de gasten wat beter gekend hadden. Ik — 
(kunnen, Pres.) — niet — (J)egrijpen, Inf.), dat gij — over deze 
handelwijze — (beklagen, Pres.); gij — (kunnen, Pres.) — 



206 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

toch niet — — (verbeelden, Inf., Perf.), dat ik — met de 

geheele zorg (belasten, Subj., Fut.), zoodat er niets voor 

u te doen overhleef. — (her inner en, Pres.) zij — den naam 

niet meer ? Als gij — niet (liaasten, Pluperf.), waart 

gij den trein misgeloopen. Heb ik u niet gezegd, dat gij — 

voor dien man (hoeden moeten, Past) ? Voor hem — 

(kunnen, Past) ik — al die moeite niet — (getroosten, Inf.). 
Als ivij — niet over dat arme mensch (ontfermen, Plu- 
perf.), icas zij zeker van gebrek omgekomen. 



Exercise LXXII. 

Substitute for the Infinitive forms whatever tense fits 
in with the context. 

De bijbel (zeggen), dat die (Sing.) niet icerken (loilleri) ook 
niet eten (moeten). Al (zijn) de leugen nog zoo snel, de 
waarheid (achterhalen) haar wel. Het oog des meesters 
(makeii) het paard vet. De ware wijsheid (wegen) hare 
looorden ; de zot (jlappen) ze gedachteloos uit. Gisteren 
(lezen) ik een mooi boek. Van morgen (zeggen, § XV, 
Obs. 3) mijn vader mij, dat hij een nieuw paard (koopen). 
Home (verwoesten) Karthago. Julius Caesar (zijn) een 
Homeinsch veldheer. Als het morgen nog zoo (regenen), ik 
t'huis (moeten blijven). Waarom (zeggen) u hem niet, dat u 
het niet (doen) ? Verleden jaar (dragen) onze vruchtboomen 
zoo veel dat wij meer vruchten (hebben) dan wij gebruiken 
(kunnen). Waaraan (sterven) uwe koe ? Komen de dokter 
toch maar. Door wien (teekenen) deze kaart ? Mijne moeder 
hoopt, dat zij u nog (zien). Ah hij het doet, ik hem (straffen). 
Ah zij het deed, ik haar (straffen). De dienst in de kerk 
gisteren lang (duren). Wat hij ook (zeggen), (gelooven) hem 
niet. Zij vroeg of ik haar nu betalen (kunnen). Ah gij 
uwen plicht (doen), gij niet in moeielijkheid (raken). Als 
mijn vader mij roept, (komen) ik. Als hij mij riep, (komen) 
ik. Ah hij mij roepen zal, ik (komen). Ah hij mij geroepen 
had, ik (komen). Tocn de Hollanders zich aan de Kaap 



THE VERB. 207 



(vestigev), (worden) het land door wilde stammen bewoond. 
Nadat hij het telegram (lezeii), (overhandigen) hij het aan 
mij. (Mogen) deze vreeselijke gebeurtenis u tot waarschuwing 
strekken. (Lmsteren) mijn zoon maar naar mijne vermaningen ! 
Toen de vogel (zien), dat het deurtje van de Tcooi open (zijn), 
(vliegen) hij er uit. Ah het paard (voelen), dat het los (zijn), 
het (wegloopen). 

Exercise LXXIII. 

Fill up the blanks and complete the verbal forms in 
the following exercises. 

Beide de aarde en de maan word- door d- zon verlich-, 
en laat- dm schaduw vol- in d- ruimte achter zich. Kom- 
de maan nu bij haa— omloop juist achter d— aarde dan word- 
zij verduister-. Goed— Jcinderen heb— het altijd druk. Een 
verstandig kind zorg- voor tijd tot slaap-, eet-, speel- en 
leer-. Gij verbeuzel- de oogenblik-, en uur- en dag- zijn 
uit oogenblik- samengestel—. Het waar— te wensch- dat hij 
eindelijk naar mijn— raad luister-. Gij en uw broer kun— 
beid— gaan. Hij of zijn vader moet d— boom omhak-. 
Vroeger voerd— door d— vorsten een- overgroot- macht uit- 
geoefen-, toen d- gemeen- man geloof-, dat de edellieden van 
ander- bloed gemaak— waar— dan zijzelv—. Wij baad— ons 
gisteren tweemaal in d— dam. Zijwormen leef- van moerbei- 
blad—. Louw Wepeners mannen had— d- berg bestorm—, maar 
waar- teruggeslaag- : hij zou hem neem-. Toen d— verrader- 
lijk — kogel hem vel-, ent- zij hun- bloed met het zijn- en 
bewees— op heidensch- wijze hem de grootst— eer. Zuid— 
Afrika, hij behoor— tot uw- dapperst— zoon- ! Kostbaar 
blijf— zijn— voorbeeld aan alien. Neen, gij stierf— niet ver- 
geef- : uwr- volk volg— uio- voorbeeld, en strijd- als gij, tot- 
dat all- hinderpaal- uit d- weg geruim- zijn. De arm- 
boer geloof— d- schelmerij en reed- verheug- naar huis, om 
er zijn- vrouw van te vertel—. D- oneerlijk— telegrafist had- 
d— nieuw- schoenen gestool— en zijn- eigen- oud- aan d— 
draad gehang—. 



2o8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefevingen. 

Exercise LXXIV. 
(On § XIII, the translation of the Infinitive.) 

Tell the waiter to bring me a glass of water. Can you 
lend me some money ? I have not got enough with (Jbij) 
me to pay this hill. The distance is too long to walk, wo 
will have to (moeten) drive there (er heen). To have told 
(if one had told) the girl of her friend's death in her 
present weak state, might (it) have caused a serious 
relapse. But one man escaped alive to tell the fearful 
tale. Go and tell Mr. B. that I (bij hem) will call at (op) his 
office at three o'clock this afternoon. To read good books 
(see Rule II, p. 67) improves the mind. It would have 
been pleasant to take a ride before sunrise this morning. 
Why don't you come to see me oftener ? You know it is 
too cold now for me to go out. To (voor) that poor woman 
to live would have been to suffer. Since my friends have 
gone to live in (the) town, I feel very lonely. Why did 
(are) you not come and tell me that you had no money to 
pay your tram fare ? Can't you teach that boy to speak 
properly ? To try is to succeed. 

Exercise LXXV. 

(On § XV, the use of Tenses, and § IV, the use of the 
auxiliaries hebben and zijn.) 

While I was sweeping the room this morning, I found 
the lost ring. Did you tell the man not to go to the front 
door ? I wonder (zou wel eens willen weten) what (er) has 
become of my cousin, who left for America two years ago. 
When shall I see you again (Present tense). To-day 
(over) fortnight. The French havo gradually extended 
their power in Madagascar. My brother has just arrived 
in time for the concert. I have been walking about the 



THE VERB. 209 

whole morning, and feel very tired. Did you walk or 
drive to the station ? I walked, because I found I had 
plenty of time. To-day week (over eene week) we intend 
leaving for Natal. How did the fire originate ? By the 
carelessness of a man who lit his pipe in the workshop, and 
dropped the burning match among the shavings. I have 
crossed the brook without the least trouble. There have 
been poor people at all times. How long has this company 
been in existence (existed) ? It was (is) founded in 1886. 
These girls have grown very much since last I saw them. 
The accident would not have happened, if the guard 
had remained at his post. Since the boy's father died he 
has had to (moeten) provide for himself. 

Exercise LXXVI. 
(On §§ IX, X, a, b, c, the use of the Passive.) 

The flowers are being planted by the gardener this morn- 
ing. Has he been told where to plant them ? Yes, I told 
him (that) they should be planted along the grass border. 
All these exercises were (have been) corrected by the 
teacher this morning. This child is (being) punished for 
the second time to-day. If I had been warned in time, I 
would not have got into trouble. My room will be 
papered to-morrow. Did you think the child would be 
punished for not knowing (because he did not know) his 
lesson? He certainly ought to (behoorde') have been 
punished. I was present when the names of the applicants 
were (being) read out. If the new town-hall had been 
built of hewn stone, it would look more imposing. If the 
murderer were found out, he would be hanged. The 
carnal is found in the desert regions of Africa and Asia. 
Heavy firing was going on when I left the camp. Flowers 
should (behooreri) not be picked while the sun is hot. Is 
enough wheat raised in this country to meet the demands 
of consumption ? Was the boy told (had — been told) to 
attend to the horse ? 



210 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Exercise LXXVII. 
(On § X, a, b, and c, the use of zijn and worden.~) 

Translate into English : — 

Zou u tevreden geweest zijn, ah men u de helft van uw loon 
(earnings) onthouden (kept back) had ? Waarom werd de 
kerkklok van middag geluid (to ring). Omdat een der oudste 
bewoners van het dorp, die gestorven is, begraven werd. De 
boot zou gisteren avond al aangekomen zijn, ah de icind niet 
zoo tegen (contrary) geweest was. De boomen zijn van hunne 
laatste bladeren beroofd (deprived) door den ivind en regen 
der laatste dagen. De lichten in de kerk waren om zes uur 
al aangestohen (lit). De Jcracht van den stoom is op zeer 
eenvoudige wijze door Sir Isaac Newton ontdeht. Is uw 
broeder reeds vertrokken ? Is uw oom tot magistraat benoemd 
(appointed) ? Is uw vriend bevoegd (qualified) tot het 
vervullen van zulh eene gewichtige (important) betrekking 
(post)? Gcschiedenis wordt in die school niet uit boeken 
geleerd, maar alles wordt den Tcinderen verteld. Zijn al uioe 
paarden beslagen (shod) ? De boomen waren niet omgehaht, 
toen ik den grond kocht. Ik zou niet zoo angstig geweest zijn, 
ah mij niet verteld was, dot de spoorlijn door de zware regens 
op verscheidene plaatsen weggespoeld (washed away) was. 
De haas is door den jager neergeschoten, nadat hij door den 
hond opgejaagd was (had startled him). Was de man niet 
ziek geworden, dan zou dit werk al lang klaar zijn. 

Exercise LXXVIII. 

(On § X, A, B, and c, the different renderings of " to he " 
as a Copulative and an Auxiliary of Voice.) 

Do not take the broad out of the oven, it is not suffi- 
ciently baked yet. All the cake has been eaten by the 
children. If there had been time, these boxes would have 
been labelled. The peculiar properties of the loadstone 
were known to the Chinese long before the compass was 



THE VERB. 2U 



introduced into Europe by the Venetian traveller Marco 
Polo. If I had been called in time, I would not have been 
late for breakfast. The dictionary has been carefully 
revised, so that the new edition will be much improved. 
The child would have been delighted if she had been 
asked to take part in the entertainment. During that 
severe winter all our rivers were frozen over, and there 
was a good deal of (er werd veel) skating and sledging 
(schaatsen gereden en gesleed). The poor child was so 
frightfully burned that his life was despaired of from the 
first (van net begin af). The poor man would have been 
satisfied if he had only been told that his child was out 
of danger. There have been several fires on the mountains 
round about lately, and it is to be feared (to fear) that the 
wood about some of the fountains has been destroyed. 
Would you have believed this man to be (that . , . was) 
capable of such a vile act ? 



Exercise LXXIX. 

(On § XIV, the translation of the Present and Past 
Part.) 

My father is very fond of walking. I saw the man 
picking up the letter. It is only by working from early 
morning till late at night, that the poor widow has been 
able to provide for her children thus far (tot nu toe). 
Early rising is conducive to (the) health. Thinking the 
child had gone with his father, the mother was not anxious 
at not finding him (when she did not find him) on (bij) 
her return home (tliuislcomst). Crossing this bridge at 
night is very dangerous. Having lost the letter, the boy 
ran home in great distress. The young people spent the 
evening (met) dancing and playing games. Travelling in 
foreign countries is not only pleasant but instructive. 
Walking up St. John's Street this morning, I met an old 
college friend of mine (see Chapter VIII, p. 1 31). Columbus 



212 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

supposed that (he), by sailing due west [he] would reach 
India. The boy not noticing that he kept making (con- 
tinually (steeds) made) the same mistake, spent an hour 
trying to get his sum right. On hearing his father's hard 
accusation the young man left the house in despair. The 
boys, not being aware of the depth of the river, were on 
the point of jumping in, when I called to them. What 
have you been doing this morning? I have been reading 
in my room. Have you ever heard Miss B. recite ? My 
mother asks me to tell you that she will come to see you 
before you leave. As a last resource the poor man has 
gone to work in the mines. 

Exercise LXXX. 

(On § XII, (b), and Notes, the use of the Subjunctive 
Mood.) 

Translate into Dutch, employing the Subjunctive Mood. 

Had you done your duty, you would have been rewarded. 
However that be, I know that I cannot trust him. Were 
he in better circumstances, he would not be so sad. If he 
had done right, he would have no fear. If I were your 
teacher, I should not allow it. Whatever may happen, I 
shall remain true to you. Be that as it may, I consider 
myself free to think as I choose. If he had only had a 
loving mother he would not have been so reckless. If the 
doctor had a larger practice, he would bo happier. That 
would never have occurred, had he had you to advise him. 
If every man were prudent and conscientious there would 
be very little poverty. (The) Heaven grant that I may 
see my native country once more ! God forbid that you 
should ovor steal. May the king grant our urgent 
request! May South Africa once be one large united 
country. 



the Verb, 2*3 



Exercise LXXXI. 

(On § XIX, and Chap. VIII, p. 132, Obs. 6, Reflexive 
Verbs and the use of zelf.') 

My brother has hurt himself on the knee, while chopping 
down the old apple-tree at the back of (achter in) the 
garden. I find I have not been mistaken in the good 
opinion I had of that young girl. Fancy, when I came 
home this morning, I heard that my dog had died. "Why 
do you want me to do (that I should do) a thing which 
you would not do yourself? When we were at the farm, 
we bathed in the large pond every morning before sun- 
rise. Instead of repenting of his misdeeds, this young 
fellow boasts of (it) having (that he has) deceived his 
employer so cleverly. Are you going out this morning ? 
No, I have changed my mind ; I shall rather stay at home 
and prepare for the reading class this evening. You ought 
to be ashamed of yourself ; this is the second time (that) 
you have failed in the examination. The pioneers who 
settled in Mashonaland, have had to put up with many 
hardships. Before going out to a new country, these 
young people ought to have made sure of what oppor- 
tunities they would have there of getting on. Don't you 
remember (that) I told you at the time (that) you should 
hesitate to accept so much kindness from a mere stranger ? 
I cannot understand why your brother did not complain 
of the unjust treatment be was undergoing at school {die 
hem aangedaan werd~). He did not do so, because he would 
rather suffer himself, than bring disgrace to his school- 
mates. 

Exercise LXXXII. 

(On § XXV, Note 3, Compound Verbs changing their 
meaning according to the way the accent falls.) 

Just (toch eens) weigh this letter over again, I am afraid 
it is overweight. My brother has been travelling all over 



214 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMA JR. 

Europe (doorreizen) ; and has "brought a fine collection of 
views and curios from the different countries he has 
visited. Our gardener predicts (voorspellen) fine weather 
for to-morrow, and as the old man very rarely makes a 
mistake, I think we can safely arrange for the picnic. 
All these years this young girl has provided for her 
mother. The man seemed so convinced of the truth of 
my statement that he walked away without uttering a 
(enJcel) word in reply. When I returned to the study, I 
found that the ink-pot had been upset over my work, and 
that the ink had penetrated (door . . . Tieengedrongen) (the) 
most of my papers, so that I had to write the greater 
(greatest) part of my work over again. It was quite 
touching to see the clerk, when my father told him that 
he would overlook his misdeed, and give him a chance to 
undo the past ; the tears rushed to his eyes (him in the 
eyes), and he had the greatest difficulty to keep down his 
emotion. I have carefully considered the contents of this 
letter, but the (hoe) more I think of it (erover) the moro 
(des te) convinced I feel (myself) that the report is 
much exaggerated. Many of the railway accidents that 
have happened in the course of this year might have heen 
prevented, if the responsible persons had simply done 
their duty. The sun was (aan het) setting as we reached 
home. The heavy rain-clouds were dispersing ; the moon 
rose stately behind the pine-wood, and threw her soft light 
over the peaceful earth. 

Exercise LXXXIII. 

(On § XXII, Impersonal Verbs.) 

You must have been surprised not to see me at the 
station, since I made an appointment to meet you there ; 
but as it was very windy and I had a bad cold, I could 
not venture out. I was very sorry indeed, to miss my 
last opportunity of seeing you before your departure. It 
had been raining and blowing all (the whole) night, but 



THE VERB. 215 



in the morning the clouds parted, and the rising sun 
brought rest to nature and joy to man and beast. I have 
been instructed (to me is instructed) to inform you that 
the council have (has) been pleased to accede to your 
request. It did strike me (insert ' wel '), that your friend 
did not look well, but I had no idea he was really ill. Of 
course you are free to do as you please, but it is so misty 
this evening, that I think it would be very risky for you 
to go out. I am grieved to hear you speak so disrespect- 
fully of your teachers ; even if they should be to blame 
(schuld hebberi) in this matter, you have got no right to 
speak like that (so). I was overtaken by such a severe 
thunderstorm on my way to the village, that I had to 
take shelter in a deserted hut that happened to be near 
(die zich geluhlcig in de nabijheid bevond). I do not recollect 
ever to have witnessed such thunder and lightning. It 
struck me that the reading was particularly good at that 
school ; it certainly reflects great credit on the teacher 
who has got (the) charge of that particular branch of 
instruction. I do not know what is the matter with this 
tree, that it will not grow. My watch differs so much 
from the station-clock, that I very nearly missed the 
train. It would have made a great difference to me, if I 
had had some one to show me how to do the work. He 
does not care if he has got to work hard, as long as he 
earns enough to support his family. 



Exercise LXXXIV. 

The English verb " to mean " has various equivalents in 
Dutch. 

1. Meenen: 

Hij meent het goed, lie means well. 

Ik wist niet, wat zij meende, I did not know what she 

meant. 
Meent u wat u zegt f do you mean what you say ? 



216 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

2. Bedoelen, with, the strength of " bringing out the meaning 

of some one's words " : 

Hij bedoelde dat hij zelf wilde gaan, he meant (with what 

he said) that he wanted to go himself. 
U bedoelde het beter dan u het zei, you meant it better than 

you said it. 

3. Beteehenen, with the force of Eng. " to signify " : 

Het opsteken eener witte vlag beteehent vrede, the flying of a 

white flag means peace. 
Het woord " erkentelijkheid " beteekent H dankbaarheid" the 

word "gratitude" means "thankfulness." 

4. Van plan zijn, with the special meaning of " to intend " : 

He was van plan de courant te gaan lezen, I meant to go 

and read the paper. 
Zij is van plan mij dit present te geven, she means to make 

me a present of this. 

5. A special sense in which the Dutch " meenen" is used, is 

that of "being of opinion," on account of which it is 
commonly translated by " to think " : 

Meent gij, dat het ie duur is f do you think it is too ex- 
pensive ? 

The verb "meenen" so used, is always followed by a noun 
sentence (object). 

If lie meant all (that) ho said, he would not be so kind 
to me. Do you mean, that you would rather be in the 
Free State than in Natal ? The girls meant that they 
had not been in your garden, and had therefore not picked 
your flowers. The woman always meant (it) well with 
that ungrateful son of hers (of her). Did he really think 
it was too far for him to walk to Wellington ? No, but 
he meant, I think, that his feet might (would perhaps) 
get (become) sore. I am sure (er zeker van) (that) he did 
not mean (that) his brother to (should) read his letters ! 
It was a shame for him to do so (that he did it) ! What 
did you think the word meant? Oh, I thought it meant 
something wrong, but my brother was of opinion that it 
had quite a different meaning. You knew, that he meant 
it, did you not (nict waar)? What ho means is that it is 
not right for you to (that you) go to such a place. I 



THE VERB. 217 



always meant to ask nry father for the book, hut whenever 
{wanneer . . . ooh) I saw him, I forgot it. It has meant a 
good deal (heel wat) to him, that his brother would not 
share the profit with him. You mean, the potatoes are too 
expensive ? You had better ask your mother (yraag het 
maar eens aan) ; she knows more about (van) these (die) 
things than you do. 

Exercise LXXXV. 
A. 

Commit to memory the following idiomatic expressions. 

I can give it, Ik kan het geven. 

I could give it, Ik kon het geven. 

Ik zou het kunnen geven. 
I can have given it, Ik heb het kunnen geven. 

I could have given it, Ik had het kunnen geven. 

Ik zou het hebben kunnen geven. 
I shall be able to give it, Ik zal het kunnen geven. 

I shall have been able to give'it. Ik zal het hebben kunnen geven. 

I could not get the book, even if I wanted (zelfs niet al 
wou iJc). You can get some (toat) apples for me, I hope ! 
You could have got them yesterday, but now they are al 
gone (weg). I shall not bo able to ask my brother to-day 
because he is not at home. He could send me some money, 
if ho wanted, but I believe (that) he does not want to 
(het niet wil). They cannot finish that work in a day ! 
they could not finish it in a week ! We could have come, 
if we had known that you were in (the) town. 

B. 

Likewise the following idiomatic expressions. 

Will he give it to me ? Zal hij het mij geven f 

Zal hij het mij willen geven ? 
Would he give it to me ? Zou hij het mij geven ? 

Zou hij het mij willen geven ? 
Will he have given it ? Zal hij het gegeven hebben ? 

Zal hij het hebben willen geven ? 
Would he have given it ? Zou hij het gegeven hebben ? 

Zou hij het hebben willen geven « 



218 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Can lie give it to me ? Kan hij het mij geven ? 

Zal hij het mij kunnen geven f 
Could he give it to me ? Kon hij het mij geven ? 

Zou hij het mij kunnen geven ? 
Can he have given it ? Kan hij het gegeven hebben ? 

Heeft hij het kunnen geven ? 

Zal hij het hebben kunnen geven f 
Could he have given it ? Kon hij het gegeven hebben f 

Had hij het kunnen geven ? 

Zou hij het hebben kunnen geven ? 

I could not have shown you the picture, if you had not 
been in the room. Do you think (that) he would give me 
a shilling, if I asked for it (erom) ? Can he help me with 
my exercise ? Yes, he could help you if he would. Would 
you not bring me a glass of water ? Could they not do 
something for the poor woman. They could no doubt sing 
that song if they only wanted to (wilden). How can that 
boy ever have given such a disrespectful answer? How 
could your sisters have gone to (the) church without you ? 
Would you take this letter to the post for me, my child ? 
Yes, I would, if I only knew where the post-office was. 
Would your father give you permission, do you think? 
How could he ? I was (have been) out yesterday, and I 
may never go more than once a week. But, Jane, could 
you not sew on those buttons ? I could even do it myself, 
I think ! Could you ? well then try (het eens). I am sure 
you cannot sew ! 

Exeecise LXXXVI. 

A. 

" Should," * ought to," as translated by the verb " behooren," 
(see Ex. LIV, p. 149). 
Learn the following : 

He should say so, (Present) Hij behoorde het te 

zeggen. 

He should have said so, (Past) Hij behoorde het ge- 

zegd te hebben. 
Hij had het behooren 
te zeggen. 



THE VERB. 219 



We ought to do as you say. You should not speak in 
(op) this way. My brother should have gone this morning. 
The butcher should have called to-day, but he has not 
done so (Jiet). Should he not state why he has been 
absent this morning ? Should we not have said that we 
were very sorry that this had occurred ? Why do you 
answer me like this ? — you ought to be ashamed of your- 
self. A teacher ought to be" careful about (met) praising 
his pupils. You should read that book, my friend ; that 
would be better than to idle away your time in this way. 
Should our neighbours share the expense of building this 
wall, or have we to bear it all alone ? He ought to apply 
to the government for a situation. You should have laid 
out your garden as I have laid out mine. She should not 
have been out on (such) a cold night [like that]. 



B. 

"To have to," "to be to," "to be bound to," synonymous with 
" must," are both translated by the verb " moeten.'" 
Learn the following : 

The boy has to (is to) work, Dejongen moet werlcen. 

The boy had to (was to) work, Dejongen moest werlcen. 

The boy has had to work (is to Dejongen heeft moeten werhen. 

have worked), 

The boy had had to work (was Dejongen had moeten werlcen. 

to have worked), 

The boy will have to work, Dejongen zal moeten werlcen. 

The boy will have had to work, De jongen zal hebben moeten 

werlcen. 

If I am to do all this work before 12 o'clock, you must 
leave me at peace. The gardener will have to clear up all 
the rubbish before he goes. Will the boy have to say his 
lesson this afternoon, or to-morrow morning ? It is hard 
to have to go [all] this (whole) way alone. Were you to 
take the letter to the post, or to the man's private house ? 
I should have taken it to his house, but I put a stamp on 
it and posted it. You will be bound to acknowledge that 
I have done you no wrong. Would it do (go) to make 



220 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

him stay three nights a (per) week ? It wotild hardly 
do, for he would have to go home all alone in the dark. 
You are not to go "beyond the church — mind (Jioor) what 
I say. If people were always to be punished for what 
they do wrong, there would be little pleasure in (the) 
life. You are to accompany your father to Europe, you 
said. Yes, but I do not like leaving mother alone. To 
have to work for one's daily bread is a pleasure to some 
people and a great hardship (verdriet, o.) to others. It 
would have done him good to have had to practise strict 
obedience at the boarding school. Now (that) he is gone, 
I shall be bound to go as well. 

Exercise LXXXVII. 
A. 

Commit to memory the following idiomatic expressions : 

We make him say it, Wij laten het hem zeggen. 

We made him say it, Wij lieten het hem zeggen. 

We have made him say it, Wij hebben het hem laten zeggen. 

We had made him say it, Wij hadden het hem laten zeggen. 

We shall make him say it, Wij zullen het hem laten zeggen. 

We shall have made him say it, Wij zullen het hem hebben laten 

zeggen. 

We made the poor bird sing by whistling to it. Will 
you make the child write his exercise over again-? Ho 
makes me laugh when he looks at (naar) me. If you do 
not lend me your pencil, so that I can put down the namo, 
you will make me forget the message. The sun makes 
the moon shine by night, aud tho moon again makes the 
stars glitter less brightly than they do on (in) clear but 
dark nights. The wind was so violent that he made tho 
forest trees (trees in the forest) [to] tremble Wo shall 
undoubtedly have made him confess before you como 
back. To make him go against his will, would bo both 
unpleasant for him and awkward for us. If you do not 
learn your lessons for to-morrow, my child, I shall make 
you write them out. 



THE VERB. 



B. 

Learn likewise the following idioms : 

I have the floor washed, Ik laat den vloer wasschen. 

I had the floor washed, Ik liet den vloer wasschen. 

I have had the floor washed, Ik heb den vloer laten wasschen. 

I had had the floor washed, Ik had den vloer laten wasschen. 

I shall have the floor washed, Ik zal den vloer laten wasschen. 

I shall have had the floor Ik zal den vloer hebben laten 

washed, wasschen. 

We have had this wall built, because the neighbours 
aunoyed us. I shall have the books taken down and 
cleaned. You will have the watch seen to, will you not 
(niet waar~) ? Yes, I shall have it put right for you. He 
would have had his hair cut very short, if he had not been 
afraid of (yoor) the cold weather. You had the garden dug 
up, you said. Yes, and we had the gardener search it well, 
but no trace of a box was found in the soil anywhere. 
Several countries, but especially France, used to (jplachten) 
have their political criminals work on galleys in former 
times. I hear you have found diamonds on your farm ? 
Will 3 t ou have the ground worked ? I shall have a hole 
drilled, and the ground tested. But would you have a 
drill decide this matter ? If I were you, I should cer- 
tainly have a large hole dug and the soil washed. To- 
morrow about this time we shall have the horses brought 
in, and start on our trip. I have had the boy saddle the 
horses ; so if you care for a ride, we shall go — if not, I 
shall have them taken back to the stable. 

C. 

Learn once more the following idioms : 
He likes (doing) it, Hij heeft er lust in (heeft lust), het 

te doen. 
He does not like doing it, Hij heeft geen lust, het te doen. 

He did not like doing it, Hij had geen lust, het te doen. 

Hij heeft geen lust gehad, het te doen. 

Hij had geen lust gehad, het te doen. 

He won't like doing it, Hij zal geen lust hebben, het te doen. 

He won't have liked doing it, Hij zal geen lust gehad hebben, het 

te doen. 



222 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Charles does that work because he has to, hut he does 
not like doing it. You did riot like writing out the 
exercise, hut you did it nevertheless. I like going on 
(with) reading; may I, mother? Yes, if you like (it), 
you may go on. Oh, I should like so much (zoo'n lust 
hebben) telling that man that he should stop writing me 
such letters ! You would not like studying on, if you 
had spent so many years at school as I have ! "Wait till 
you have heard what I have to say, and then consider 
whether you would not like going. (0/) Would I like it, 
(er . . . in) you ask. Of course, I would. She likes it, 
and that is sufficient reason for me to like it too. We 
did not like letting you (know) that we were going. 
Many a one does not like the work (which) (the) circum- 
stances compel him to do. I should have liked hetter 
(meer) to be your secretary than to be a clerk in the civil 
service. 



CONVERSATIE. 

Roizen op Zee. 

1. lit wensch u goede reis. 

~2. Bank u, maar ik ten een 
slechte op zee. 

3. Ik hoop recht te genieten van 

de reis. 

4. Zijn er veel passagiers ? 

5. Ik hoor dat iedere kajuit 

bezet is. 

6. Wanneer vertrekt de boot? 

7. Van middag om drie uur. 

8. Ik kom om u te zien ver- 

trekken. 

9. Vriendelijk dank ; houd u 

aan uw woord. 

10. H Is een prachtige boot. 

11. Gewis, en de kajuiten zijn 

groot en luchtig. 

12. 7s u al in de salon gewccst ? 



Conversation. 
Travelling by Sea. 

I wish you a pleasant 
voyage. 

Thanks, but I am a very- 
bad sailor. 

I hope to enjoy the voyage 
immensely. 

4. Ave there many passengers? 

5. I hear that every berth is 

taken. 

6. When does the steamer 

leave ? 

7. This afternoon at three 

o'clock. 

8. I shall come and see you 

off. 
Thanks, be sure to keep 

your promise. 
This is a splendid steamer. 
Yes, and the cabins are 

large and airy. 
Have you been in the 

saloon ? 



1. 



8. 



THE VERB. 



223 



13. De tqfel is gedeJct voor tach- 

tig passagiers eerste Masse. 

14. Ik breng het grootste ge- 

deelte van mijn tijd op dek 
of in de roohkamer door. 

15. Is er eene bibliotheek aan 

boord f 

16. Ja, en de hofmeester hee/t er 

den sleutel van. 

17. Wie is de kapitein ? 

18. De kapitein heet Harris, en 

de eerste officier Crutch- 
ley. 

19. Is dat de betaalmeester f 

20. Neen, dat is de scheeps- 

dokter. 

21. Die matrozen zij'n flinke 

menschen. 

22. Laat ons eens kijken, hoe ze 

de zware bagage in het 
ruim neerlaten. 

23. Hoe effen is de zee I 

24. H Zal ruw zijn, als we de 

Sond oversteken. 

25. Als we maar geen water 

scheppen, kan het mij niet 
schelen. 

26. Kom mee naar voren ; ik 

zou graag de accomodatie 
zien voor de passagiers 
2de en 3de Masse. 

27. Set dek is te vol daar: kom 

liever mee naar den ach- 
ter steven. 

28. Men mag niet spreken tegea 

den man aan het roer. 

29. Dit is het kompas van het 

schip. 

30. Hoe schommelt en slingert 

het schip \ 

31. Het behoorde meer ballast te 

hebben. 

32. Zie dien man eens in den 

top van den mast. 

33. Vraag den machinist, ons 

de machinekamer te wij- 



13. The table is laid for eighty 

first-class passengers. 

14. I spend most of my time 

either on deck or in the 
smoking-room. 

15. Have they got a library on 

board ? 

16. Yes, and the head-steward 

keeps the key. 

17. Who is the captain ? 

18. The captain's name is Harris, 

and the chief officer is 
Mr. Crutchley. 

19. Is that the purser ? 

20. No, that is the ship's 

doctor. 

21. Those sailors are fine 

fellows. 

22. Let us watch them lower 

the heavy luggage into 
the hold. 

23. How very smooth the sea 

is! 

24. "We shall have it rough 

crossing the Sound. 

25. As long as we do not ship 

seas 1 shall not mind. 

26. Come forward; I want to 

see the accommodation for 
the 2nd and 3rd class 
passengers. 

27. The deck is crowded there : 

come rather to the stern. 

28. You must not speak to the 

man at the wheel. 

29. This is the ship's compass. 

30. How the ship rolls and 

pitches ! 

31. It wants more ballast. 

32. Look at the man at the 

mast-head. 

33. Ask the engineer to show us 

the engine-room. 



224 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



34. Heeft u ooit met een zeil- 

schip gereisdf 

35. Ik hen er eens mee het Ka- 

naal overgestohen, maar 
ik kan niet zeggen dat het 
mij bevallen is. 



34. Have you ever gone by a 

sailing ship ? 

35. I once crossed the Channel 

in one, but I cannot «ay 
that I liked it, 



( 225 ) 



CHAPTER X. 
THE ADVERB. 

(Het Bijwoord.^) 

I. What the Adjective is to the Noun, that the Adverb 
is to the Verb. As Adjectives express attributes and 
qualities of persons and things, so Adverbs express pecu- 
liarities which mark an action. Adverbs are accordingly 
principally meant for modifying (a) Verbs, yet they may 
likewise modify Qi) Adjectives, (c) Adverbs, and (d) even 
Nouns in some particular cases. 

Examples : 

(a) Het hind leest goed, the child reads well. 

Het paard loojpt Sfiel, the horse runs swiftly. 
•*■ » Be vogel zit ginds, the bird sits yonder. 

Mijne dochter belooft veel, my daughter promises 
much. 

(6) Bat is bijzondev goed schrift, that is particularly 
good writing. 
Bit pahje schijnt Oiigemeetl zwaar, this parcel 

teems uncommonly heavy. 
Uwe begeerte wordt te sterh, your desire is becoming 
too strong. 

(c) Be had het latig te voren gedaan, I had done it long 
before. 
Mijne zuster leest bijzotldev moot, my sister reads 

particularly well. 
Be zonnestralen vallen bijutt loodrecht, the sunbeams 
fall almost perpendicularly. 

l 



226 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

(d) De menschen hievachtev zijn zindelijk, the people 
at the hack are cleanly. 
Die steilte daav is gevaarlijk, that steep place there 
is dangerous. 

Note. — The Cape Dutch, which has only one demon- 
strative pronoun, die, avails itself of the adverbs hier 
and daar to indicate that an object is close by or at a dis- 
tance : Hier die boeh en die eene daar ; Dutch : Dit boelc en 
dat, this book and that one. 

Obs. 1. — The copulative verbs, i.e., those which take 
a nominative case before and after them {zijn, blijven, 
worden, Jieeten, schijnen, gelijJcen, blijken), are followed by 
adjectives, and not adverbs : Eij scliijnt rijk, he seems 
to be rich ; Hij blijft trouw, he remains faithful. Here 
the words rich and faithful evidently do not qualify an 
action, biit the doer of the action, and so are adjectives. 

Ons. 2. — Other verbs besides the copulative may be fol- 
lowed by an adjective instead of an adverb : De schilder 
verft het raam groen, the painter paints the window green ; 
Het is die vriend, die hem zoo slecht gemaakt heeft, it is that 
friend, who has made him so wicked. Here the colour 
green, and the quality wicked, evidently have nothing to 
do with the actions painting or making. It is the door 
which is green, and not the painting ; likewiso it is he that 
is wicked, and not the making ; so that green and wicked 
are adjectives, and not adverbs. 

II. The following are the Adverbs in use : 

1. Bijwoorden van wijze, Adverbs of manner. 

2. Bijwoorden van graad, Adverbs of degree. 

3. Bijwoorden van getal, Adverbs of number. 

4. Bijwoorden van plaats, Adverbs of place. 

5. Bijwoorden van tijd, Adverbs of time. 

6. Bijwoorden van oorzaak, Adverbs of cause. 

7. Voegwoordelijke Bijwoorden, Adverbial Conjunc- 

tions. 



THE ADVERB. 227 



8. Module Bijwoorden, Adverbs of mood, divided iato : 

(a) Adverbs of affirmation (Bevestiging). 
(6) Adverbs of negation ( Onthenning). 

(c) Adverbs of doubt ( Twijfet). 

(d) Optative (Wenschende) Adverbs. 

Examples : 

(1) Adverbs of Manner: sleclit, badly, schoon, beauti- 
fully, langzaam, slowly. "Hoe" is an interrog. adv. of 
manner. Every adjective donoting a quality may be 
used as an adverb of manner without any change of 
form. Those, however, which end in lijJcsch, lingsch and 
toaartsch drop their ch when used as adverbs : dagelijks, 
daily (adv.), voorioaarts, onward (adv.). 

(2) Adverbs of Degree : genoeg, enough ; uitermate, ex- 
ceedingly ; overtollig, excessively ; nauwelijlcs, scarcely ; 
bijna, nearly; bijzonder, especially; zoo, so; te, too, vol- 
Jcomen, quite ; zeer, very ; vreeselijJc, terribly ; heelemaal, 
altogether ; erg, very. 

(3) Adverbs of Number : all the Herhalingsgetallen (seo 
p. 122), and further — ten eerste, ten ticeede, ten derde, ten 
vierde, enz., first, second, third, fourth, etc.; ten laatste, 
lastly ; ten slotte, finally. 

(4) Adverbs of Place : af, down ; rond, about ; om, 
round ; henen, away ; voort, on ; heen, towards ; daarheen, 
thither; herwaarts, hither; huiswaarts, home; berg op, 
uphill; berg af, downhill; noordwaarts, northward; nnar 
boven, upstairs ; naar beneden, downstairs ; hier, here ; in, 
into; nabij, near; nergens, nowhere; ergens, somewhere; 
overal, everywhere, ergens anders, elsewhere ; boven, above ; 
beneden, beneath ; achter, behind ; terzijde, aside ; aan 
boord, aboard ; aan wal, ashore ; vooruit, ahead ; ginds, 
yonder ; hier en daar, here and there ; lieinde en ver, far 
and wide. Also the interrog. adv. waar, where ; waar- 
heen, whither ; vanwaar, whence, etc. 

1 2 



228 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Note. — A good many of these words may be used as 
prepositions, but then they invariably take a noun after 
them: Bij Hep den tuin uit en de Jcamer in (uit and in 
adverbs), he walked out of the garden and into the 
room ; l)e vogel zit in den boom (in prep.), the bird is in 
i he tree. 

(5) Adverbs of Time : 

(a) Time, definite or indefinite : nu, now ; dan, then ; 
heden, to-day ; morgen, to-morrow ; 's daags, per diem ; 's 
naclits, by night ; 'sjaars, per annum; maandelijlcs, every 
month; van avond, this evening; thans, now; gisteren,yes- 
terday ; reeds, already ; eens, once upon a time ; ooit, 
ever; nooit or nimmer, never; voorheen, formerly; weleer, 
before ; nauwelijlcs (nauw), scarcely ; straks, just now ; 
intusschen, meanwhile. 

(b) Duration of time : altijd, always ; steeds, con- 
stantly; immer, always; voortaan, henceforward; onder- 
wijl, in the meantime ; van lieverlede, in course of time ; 
sedert, since. 

(c) Repetition of time : dikwijls, often ; vaak, often ; zel- 
den, seldom ; telltem, every now and then ; opnieuw, once 
more ; somtijds, sometimes ; nu en dan, now and then ; 
gewoonlijk, usually ; doorgaans, commonly ; weder, again. 
Wanneer, when, is an interr. adv. of time. 

(6) Adverbs of Cause : daarom, therefore ; derhalve, 
therefore ; dienvolgens, on that account ; vandaar, for that 
reason ; daartoe, for that purpose, etc. 

Interrogative : waarom, why ; waartoe, for what pur- 
pose ; weshalve, on what account, etc. 

(7.) Adverbial Conjunctions: evenwel, however; toch, 
yet ; nicttemin, yet ; nochtans, yet, nevertheless ; dcsnieite- 
gcnstaande, notwithstanding ; integendeel, on the contrary ; 
bijgevolg, consequently ; and the words daarvan, ervan, daar- 
mee, crmee, daarop, erop, daaruit, emit, etc., called Samen- 
gktrokken Bijwoorden (see their formation, p. 136). 



THE ADVERB. 229 



(8) Adverbs of Mood: 

(a) Affirmation : ja, yes; icel, indeed; voorwaar, verily ; 
immers (see the example) ; volstreht (see the example) ; 
inderdaad, indeed ; zeker, certainly ; voorzeher, to he sure ; 
geicis, undouhtedly ; stellig, positively. The way in which 
"wel," " immers," and "volstreht" are used can he hest 
gathered from the following sentences : 

1. Hij heeft het wel gedaan, maar niet zooals ik het 

ivilde, he did it indeed, but not as I wanted it. 

2. Uc heb u immers trouw gediend, I served you faith- 

fully, did I not ? 

3. Hij wilde het volstrekt zoo hebben, he was deter- 

mined to have it so. 

(6) Negation : neen, no ; niet, not ; geenszins, in no wise, 
not at all ; volstrekt niet, not at all. 

(c) Probability or doubt : misschien, perhaps ; mogelijk, 
probably ; wellicht, perhaps ; vermoedelijk, presumably ; 
waarschijnlijk, probably ; wel (see example^. 

Ex. Ik denk wel, dat hij thuis zal zijn, I rather think 
he will be at home. 

(d) Wish : dan and toch. 

Ex. Kom dan, waarom zouden toij wachten, do come, 
why should we wait? Zeg hem toch, dat hij 
haast make, please tell him to make haste. 

Obs. I. — Adverbs of manner (see par. II, 1) are for the 
greater part adjectives used as adverbs, without any 
change of form. The student is ^requested to note this 
fact. The adverbial ending lijk (Eng. ly) exists in Dutch, 
but is now very little used. There are adverbs which 
take it, not because it makes them adverbs, but because 
it has been used in the formation of the adjective from a 
noun or a verb ; e.g., moeielijk is an adverb, signifying 
" with difficulty," but the adjective " difficult " is trans- 
lated likewise by moeielijk : De ov.de man loopt moeielijk, 
the old man walks with difficulty ; Het is een moeielijk 



230 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

geval, it is a difficult case. The student should there- 
fore he ware of placing the ending "lijk " after adjectives 
of manner, in order to make adverbs of them. Formerly 
it was customary to do so; now it is not admitted in 
colloquial language, though in high-flown style and in 
Bible language it is still done, as : Wij hebben goddelooslijk 
gehandeld, we have done wickedly. 

Obs. 2. — Adverbs never change their form. Tho 
Adverbs of manner, however, take degrees of comparison, 
like adjectives. (See on Comparison, p. 105). The 
Superlative degree is always preceded by the def. article 
het. 

Ex. Mijn zoon werJct het vlijtigst, my son works most 

diligently (of all). 
JJwe dochter leert het best, your daughter learns best 

(of all). 
Mijne borst plaagt mij 's winters het meest, my chest 
troubles me most in winter. 

Obs. 3. — The following are irregular in their forms : 



Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative, 


Goed, well, 


beter, 


het best. 


Slecht, badly, 


erger, 


het ergst. 


Veel, many a time, 


meer, 


het meest. 


Weinig, a few times, 


minder, 


het minst. 


Vroeg, early, 


eerder, 


het eerst. 


Dikwijls, often, 


meermalen, 


het meest. 


Gaarne, willingly, 


liever, 


het liefst. 



Note. — Het eerst, or eerst, het laatst, or laatst, het best, or 
best, het liefst, or liefst, aie used with different meanings, 
as follows : 

Compare : Ik was het eerst op school, I was the first at 
school. 

Adv. of time : Ik was eerst op school en daarna in het 
museum, I was first at school, and then at tho museum. 

Compare : Mijn broeder kwam het laatst boven, my 
brother was the last to come upstairs. 



THE ADVERB. 231 



Adv. of time : Mijn broeder bezocht laatst de mijnen, 
my brother visited the mines some time ago. 

Compare: I)it meisje leert het best, this little girl 
learns best of all. 

Adv. of mood : Deze jongen kan best naar het dorp gaan, 
this boy can very well go the village. 

Compare : De man heeft zijn kind het liefst bij zich, 
the man prefers having his child with him. 

Adv. of degree : Ik zou van avond liefst niet uitgaan, I 
would rather not go out this evening. 

Note. — Some Adverbs of manner have been formed from 
adjectives by the diminutive ending je followed by an 
adverbial final s : zoet, sweet ; zoetjes, nicely, softly ; stil, 
quiet ; stilletjes, quietly, etc. Such adverbs do not take 
any degrees of comparison. The Cape expression : Sla 
den bal zoetjester, beat the ball more softly, — is absurd. 

III. The meaning and use of the following Adverbs 
require special notice : 

1 a. Zelden, rarely (seldom), is only an adverb, and 
never an adjective : Wij zien onzen broeder zelden, we 
seldom see our brother. 

1 b. Zeldzaam, rare, wrongly used in the place of zelden, 
is an adjective, and not an adverb : Volkomen zwarte kat- 
ten zijn zeldzaam, perfectly black cats are rare. 

2 a. Heen is an Adverb of place, indicating direction 
towards an object : Waar gaat gij morgen heen ? whither 
do you go to-morrow ? Mijn plan is van middag nergens 
heen te gaan, my intention is, not to go anywhere this 
afternoon. 

2 6. Henen is an adverb, indicating motion away from 
a place : Ga niet henen, voor het donker is, do not go away 
before dark. 

Note. — The difference between the words heen and 
henen is not observed in colloquial Dutch. For either 
meaning heen is used. 



23a THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

3 a. Immer, ever, and nimmer, never, point to a future 
time : Zal ik u immer wederzien ! Shall I ever see you 
back? Hij zal ons nimmer beschamen! he will never put 
us to shame ! 

3 b. Ooit, ever, refers only to the past : Heb ik ooit in 
mijn leven zoo iets gezien ? did I ever see such a thing in 
my life? 

3 c. Nooit, never, may indicate a past or a future time : 
Ik heb mij nooit met zoo iets beziggehouden, en ik zal er mij 
nooit mede bezighouden, I have never occupied myself with 
such a thing, nor shall I ever occupy myself with it. 

4. Wijlen, late, is an Adverb of time taking its place 
before the name of a person : Wijlen de Graaf van Cham- 
bord, the late Count Chambord. 

5. Met, a preposition (the adverbial form of which is 
mede), may be used as an Adverb of time : Met dat hij bin- 
nenkwam, Meld liet geraas op, the moment he came in, the 
noise stopped. 

6. Kwansuis (Cape pronunciation : konsuis), sometimes 
written kwanswijs, a word found in several of the Saxon 
languages, means " as it were," or, " pretending." It is 
commonly used in telling about a trick which has been 
played on anyone : Omdat de jongen lust had in een der lek- 
kere appelen, liet hij kwansuis het geld vallen, om de aandacht 
zijner tante of te leiden, because the boy longed for one of 
the nice apples, he (as it were by mistake) dropped the 
money, in order to divert his aunt's attention. 

7. Averechts (a compound of af, from, and recht, right, 
with an adverbial «) means in the wrong direction. Zij 
breit den eenen toer recht, en de anderen averechts, she knits 
one round plain and the next pearl. 

8. Na, after, is an Adverb of time ; naar, towards, is a 
preposition. Hij kwam daar na mij, he came there after 
me ; Ik vertrek naar Engeland, I am leaving for England. 

9. Af, down, is an adverb; van, from, is a preposition : 
Wij klommen den berg af, we came down the mountain ; Hij 
nam het boek van mij weg, he took the book away from me. 



THE ADVERB. 233 



10. Toe is an adverb expressing direction; tot is a pre- 
position : Waar gaan wij naar toe, where are wo going? 
Wij zullen maar tot daar gaan, we shall only go till there. 

11. The use of the adverbs "a/" and " neer," both 
meaning "down," which are found in composition with 
many everyday verbs, requires special attention. 

1. Use "af" when the "motion from an object" is 

the prominent idea. 

2. Use " neer" when " motion towards an object " 

is the prominent idea. 

Examples of 1 : 

Hij kwam van zijn paard af, be came down from his 

horse. 
Hij viel van hct dak af, he fell from the roof. 
De vogel vliegt van den boom af, the bird flies down 

from the tree. 
De jongen treJct de vlieg een poot af, the boy pulls out 

one of the legs of the fly. 

Examples of 2 : 

Hij kwam op den vloer neer, he came down on the floor. 
Hij volt bij den stoel neer, he falls down at the chair. 
Dejager selwot den boh neer, the hunter shot down the 

buck. 
He trek het gordijn neer, I pull the curtain down. 

Consequently, when separation is to be indicated, af 
should be taken : Hij sloeg hem het hoofd af, he cut his 
bead off. 

When a directly downward motion must be expressed, 
" neer " is used : De regen volt nit de wolken neer, the rain 
falls from the clouds. 

Downward motion, along a slope, is expressed by " af" : 
Hij loopt de trap af, he goes down the stairs. 

Motion resulting in rest upon an object, is expressed 
by " neer " only : Ik legde hem op het bed neer, I laid him 
down on the bed. 



234 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



GEAMMAK EXERCISES.— Taaloefeningen. 
Exercise LXXXVIII. 
Fill up the "blanks with appropriate Adverbs. 

Mijnpaard treJct — dan het uwe. — schreit dat Jcind ? "Deze 
oefening is — (degree) — geschreven, gij moet ze overscJirijven. 
Die man gaat — (time) — (place) voorbij. Wij zijn — den 
berg opgeloopen. Het Jcind is gestraft, — (cause) wil het niet 
binnenJcomen. — (interrog. of time) vertrekt u naar Natal ? 
Zeg hem — (of mood), dat ik — (time) op reis ga. Ik 
sta — (repetition of time) om zes uur op. Kunt gij — (com- 
pound adv.) iets verstaan? Deze klerk schijnt — (degree) 
geschikt voor zijn werk. Ik kan — (place) mijn boek vinden. 
Mijne moeder is nu — (degree) gezond. Wij laten — (repe- 
tition of time) ons goed uit Parijs komen. — (probability) 
regent het morgen, en — (time) kunnen wij — (ueg.) gaan. — 
(interrog. of cause) worden de lichten — (degree) — opge- 
stoken f Zij zouden — (affirmation) bij ons geweest zijn, als 
zij tijd geliad hadden. De man is — (time) ziek geweest, — 
(cause) dat hij er — (degree) slecht uitziet. 

Exercise LXXXIX. 

Give the Dutch Adverb of the English form. 

Als deze man niet so terribly lui was, zouden wij hem cer- 
tainly werk gegeven hebben. Toen het Amcrikaansche schip 
here in de baai lag, ben ik aboard geweest. By night zijn alle 
katten grauw. He ben yesterday ziek geioecst, for that 
reason dat ik mijne lessen not geleerd heb. Het Jcind zal in 
course of time aan zijne nieuwe omgeving gewoon worden. 
Het bericM der overwinning was in weinige uren far and wide 
verbreid. De inspecteur zal one of these days de scJiool be- 
zoeJccn. OfscJioon zijn vader Jiem strictly verboden Jiad to- 
il iglit uit te gaan, deed Jtij Jtet yet. lie Jieb every where 
naar mijne pen gezocJit, iJc Jteb ze this morning somewhere 
neergelegd, maar ik Jean mij not at all Jierinneren where. Ik 



THE ADVERB. 235 



lees usually mijne courant in the evening. Heeft u indeed 
never geweten, why mo vader thither gegaan is f Bit hoeh 
is exceedingly vervelend. For what purpose geeft gij u 
zooveel moeite ? De hinder en vermaalcten zich especially 
well ; en merrily Jcecrden alien home. Henceforward 
zullen de booten every week varen. 



TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 
Exercise XC. 

Translate the following (minding especially § II, (1), 
and Obs. 1, 2, 3, also § III). 

All these roses blossom a long time, hut that one yonder 
blossoms longest of all. Notwithstanding the heavy rains, 
the troops marched courageously onward. I would rather 
not tell you why he prefers going to-morrow. The 
seasons are caused by the annual rotation of the earth 
round the sun. My father visits his old friend daily. 
They will have to act very cautiously in that matter. 
Of all the young ladies that sang last night, I liked (beviel 
mij) your niece's voice best. Whoever comes in last 
should close the door. When I was in (the) town some 
time ago, I called on Mrs. B. This girl can very well 
learn this piece of poetry, but won't recite it best of all. 
Please, let the curtain down a little, the sun is shining 
right in my face (me right in the face). The price of 
wheat has considerably fallen lately. The unfortunate 
man must have dropped asleep near the edge of the 
precipice, and must have fallen down in his sleep. Don't 
jump down from that height; you will hurt yourself. 
The children amused themselves by (met) running up and 
down the sand-hills. The bride is a near relative to the 
late President Brand. I told you, didn't I? that the 
stamp was a very rare one, and that you should not give 
it away ; you will never get such a one again. I got up 



236 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

half an hour after you, and yet I was downstairs earlier 
than you. The children ran up to their teacher, and 
wished him many happy returns of the day (jjeluk met 
zijnen verjaardag). 

Exercise XCI. 

Note. — " Na," " after," is a preposition expressing 
time, and rank or order. 

Zijn broeder is na hem gestorven, his brother died after 

him. 
Na het zingen Jcwam de preek, on the singing followed 

the sermon. 

" Nadat," " after," is an adverbial conjunction, binding 
two sentences : 

Hij laoam nadat zijn broeder vertrokken was, he camo 

after his brother had gone. 
Nadat hij dit gezegd had, ging hij zitten, after he had 

said so, he sat down. 

" Daarna " is the Dutch equivalent for " after that 
(afterwards)" : 

Ik vroeg het hem eerst, en aniwoordde u daarna, I asked 
him first, and answered you afterwards. 

It may be replaced by " dan," with the present and 
futuro tomes, and " toen " with the past tense : 

Ik vraag het hem, en vertel het u dan, I ask him, and 

then tell you. 
Ik zal het hem vragcn, en u dan vertellcn, I shall ask 

him, and then tell you. 
Ik vroeg het hem eerst, en vertelde het u toen, I asked 

him first, and then told you. 

After I had finished my drawing, I packed my box and 
wont (naar) home. The ship arrived after you had left. 
His brother died just after his arrival. After this rain 
wo shall have fine weather. I invited my parents first, 



THE ADVERB. 237 



and afterwards my uncle as well (too). Let me eat first, 
and then I shall speak to (jmet) you. He sat down (ging 
zitten) on that chair there, and shortly after he fainted. 
I promise to take him in after he is discharged from (uif 
(the) prison. Who would first sow, and then plough ? Is i t 
not natural, first to plough, and then to sow ? You saw 
him after he had written his letter. After the rain had 
stopped, we went out for a walk (wandelen). You should 
not say no, after you have once said yes. He told me ot 
all the pain he had suffered, and then he fell into a quiet 
sleep. I shall have the boy wash the floor after he comes 
back from the butcher's (butcher). After my father had 
started for Europe, my mother got very ill. He came to 
East London shortly after the third Kafir war. After 
you, please, madam ! After a day's (day of) hard work it 
is pleasant to have (some) music. Who shall say that 
(er) after this cruel war there won't be a long spell 
(tijdperk, 0) of peaco in these parts (streelc, v). 



Exercise XCII. 

Note. — "To put" is translated by "leggen" " zetten,'" 
" steken" " doen," "plaatsen." 

Use " leggen " whenever an object is to be placed on its 
broad side : 

lie heb dat boeh op de tafel gelegd, I have put that bot k 
on the table. 

Use " zetten " whenever an object is to be placed on end : 

Ik heb het boeh op de plank gezet, I have put the book 
on the shelf. 

Use " steken " whenever an object is passed through a 
close-fitting opening : 

Steele uwen zakdoek in uwen zak, put your handkerchief 

into your pocket. 
Steele den draad door de naald, thread tho needle. 



238 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Use " cloen " for " putting into," " passing through " : 

Hij deed de brieven in een zak, he put the letters into 
a bag. 

Compare : Ik sleek het geld in mijnen zak, I put the 
money into my pocket ; 
to : Ik doe liet geld in mijne beurs, I put the money 
into my purse. 
"To put on," and "to take off," of clothing, should be 
translated by " aandoen" and " afdoen," when there is no 
passing of limbs into or out of such garments : 

Hij doct zijn boord, zijne das, zijnen mantel aan, he puts 
on his collar, his neck-tie, his cloak. 

Hij deed zijne manchetten, zijne happen af, he took off 
his cuffs, his leggings. 

But when there is such passing, " aantrehlcen " and 
" uittrekken " are used : 

Trek uwejas, uwe schoenen aan, put on your coat, your 

boots. 
Hij trekt zijne handschoenen, zijne kousen uit, he takes 

off his gloves, his stockings. 

Of hats, " opzctten " and " afzetten " are used. 

" Plaatsen," English "to place," is used for Dutch 
" zciten " in more formal expressions. 

Fur the many other and varied meanings of "to put," 
a translation of the synonym which applies best to tho 
action, is advisable. 

He put (wrote) it down in tho book, hij schreef het in 

het boek op. 
I put (said) it straight to him, ik zci het hem rcchtuit. 
I shall put (lay) that money by (away) for you, ik 

zal dat geld voor u wegbcrgen. 

Will you put the inkpot on tho table for me? I have 
put tho inkpot there, and I have also put the paper on 
your desk. They put a bucket under the ppout to catch 



THE ADVERB. 239 



up the rain-water. Let us put our clothes into our boxes. 
Put a chair ready for your uncle : he will he here just 
now. The man put the horse into the stable, and put the 
cart into the waggon-house. Have you put sugar in my 
tea? Yes, and I have also put in (it) milk, The boy 
had a number of marbles which he quickly put into his 
pocket. Put on (om) a shawl, it is cold. Must I put on 
a veil too ? No, you need not put on a veil, as long as 
(ah . . . maar) you put on gloves. Don't put sheep and 
oxen into one fold. Take off your hat and your boots 
too. Shall I put on my slippers? Yes, and take off that 
heavy coat ; I shall (er) bring you a light one. Put away 
your books, the teacher is coming. Jane had a bird which 
she had put in a cage. I have put the cups on the tabic 
in the kitchen. And where have" you put the meat ? I 
have put the meat into the sideboard. 



Exercise XCIII. 

What is your salary? I get three hundred pounds 
sterling per annum, which makes exactly twenty-five 
pounds per month. Is the salary paid out monthly? 
We can get it by the month, or at the end of every three 
months, just as we like it best. Every other day (om den 
anderen dag) we drive down to yonder farm ; it is so very 
pleasant to be there. At 7 p.m. (n.m. = in den namiddag) the 
train starts for (naar) Edinburgh, where it is due (7t// 
aankomt) at 5 a.m. (v.m. = indcn roormiddwj). We do not 
intend being (trans., to be) out all (the) morning ; before 
noon (trans., at 12 o'clock) we shall be back. He came 
just in time to see the balloon rise. What a grand sight 
it was ! 1 think I should like to go up some time (eens) ; 
it must be glorious to be drifting about in the air, and to 
see the beautiful earth at such a distance. Last night 
somebody called (trans., has called) on me ; I am so sorry 
that I was not at home. Next week wo have to part, and 
next month, just about this time, we shall be in different 



24° 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



parts of the globe. Will you be back in a fortnight ? I 
can not tell (it) you at present. About a week ago I met 
my uncle and three of my cousins (fern.) at a railway 
station near Dartmouth. 



CoNVERSATEE. 

Over verschillende 
Ambachtslieden. 

1. Er moet eene ruit in dit 

venster gezet worden ; haal 
een glazenmaker om het te 
doen. 

2. Vraag hem, dit stuk hout 

voor mij te zagen, en leen 
mij eene boor om een gat 
te maken. 

3. Heeft u nog andere werk- 

tuigen noodig ? 

4. Ja, breng mij als H u blieft 

een schroefdraaier, een 
hamer, eene schaaf, en wat 
groote spijkers met kope- 
ren koppen ; ook wat tin~ 
nen nageltjes. 

5. Dat uithangbord is slecht 

geschilderd ; de schilder 
was maar een leerjongen. 
G. Laat mij eens wat zinken 
platen zien voor dekking. 

7. Leien of dakpannen worden 

hier zelden voor dat doel 
gebruikt. 

8. Iiieten daken zijn boven alle 

andere te verkiezen. 

9. De metselaar, die dien 

muur gebouwd heeft, moet 
slechte kalk gehad hebben. 

10. Vraag den straatmaker wat 

hij rekenen zou voor het 
bestraten der plaats. 

11. Deze laden moeten naar een 

schrijnwerker gaan om 
nagezien te worden. 

12. De kuiper zal het vat repa- 

reeren, er hoepels om slaan 
en het oversturen. 



Conversation. 

About various 
Artisans. 

1. This window needs a pane 

of glass ; call a glazier to 
put one in. 

2. Ask him to saw this piece 

of wood for me, and lend 
me a gimblet to bore a 
hole. 

3. Do you require any other 

tools ? 

4. Yes, bring me please a 

screw-driver, a hammer, a 
plane, and some large 
brass-headed nails ; also a 
few tin tacks. , 

5. That sign-board is badly 

painted ; the painter was 
only an apprentice. 

6. Show me some corrugated 

iron for roofing. 

7. One seldom uses slates or 

tiles for that purpose here. 

8. Thatched roofs are to be 

preferred to either. 

9. The bricklayer who built 

that wall, must have had 
bad mortar. 

10. Ask the paviour what he 

would charge for paving 
the yard. 

11. These drawers must be 

taken to a cabinet-maker 
to be mended. 

12. The cooper will repair the 

cask, hoop it, and send it 
across. 



THE ADVERB. 



241 



13. Heeft u hem gesproken over 

de duigen en den boom 
(bodem) ? 

14. De smid legde het ijzer op 

het aanbeeld, en smeedde 
het terwijl het heet was. 

15. Deze waterkan lekt ; breng 

hoar naar den blikslager 
en laat hem hoar soldeeren. 
10. De smid kan de kolenschop 
en pook repareeren. 

17. De schelledraad is gebro- 

ken ; waar kan ik een bel- 
leider vinden ? 

18. De heb deze voorsnijmessen 

bij den messenmaker in de 
D-straat gekocht. 1 

19. Hoe mooi zijn de pooten 

van die tafel gedraaid ! 
Heeft u al eene draaibank 
gezien f 

20. Laat ons naar den schrijn- 

werker gaan, en wat lijm 
en een paar krullen 
. vragen. 

21. Die schilder is beroemd; 

prins Alexander heeft zijne 
laatste schilderij gekocht. 

22. Dat houtsneewerk is uit- 

muntend gedaan. Wie is 
de beeldhouwer ? 

23. Mijnheer N ; hij heeft het 

opschrift op dien grafsteen 
gemaakt. 

24. Deze messen en scharen zijn 

niet scherp ; breng ze naar 
een scharenslijper, als H u 
blieft. 



13. Did you tell him about the 

staves and the bottom ? 

14. The blacksmith laid tbe 

iron on the anvil, and 
struck it while it was hot. 
.15. This water-can leaks; take 
it to the tinsmith and ask 
him to solder it. 

16. The blacksmith can repair 

the coal-scuttle and fire- 
irons. 

17. The bell-wire is broken ; 

where can one find a bell- 
hanger ? 

18. I bought these carving- 

knives at the cutler's in 
D-street. 

19. How beautifully the legs of 

that table are turned. 
Have you seen a turner's 
lathe ? 

20. Let us go to the joiner's, 

and ask for some glue and 
a few shavings. 

21. That artist is celebrated ; 

Prince Alexander bought 
his last painting. 

22. That carving is exquisitely 

done. Who is the sculp- 
tor? 

23. Mr. N. ; he did the engrav- 

ing on that tombstone. 

24. These knives and scissors 

are not sharp; please take 
them to a grinder. 



242 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE XI. 
THE PREPOSITION. 

(Het Voorzetsel:) 

I. Prepositions, Voorzetsels, are real particles, i.e. in- 
declinable words. The}-- may have different meanings 
according to the various relations "between actions, persons, 
and objects which they are made use of to express. One 
of the two nouns between which a preposition takes its 
place in a sentence, is the name of the person or thing to 
which attention is chiefly drawn, whereas the other noun 
merely serves to indicate in what relation or position that 
principal person or thing is placed. In the sentence for 
instance : de hond is in zijn hole, the dog is in its kennel, 
the dog is the principal thing spoken about, whereas 
hennel is used to define the place the dog occupies. Any 
such defining noun is under the direct influence of the 
preposition that precedes it, by which preposition it is 
said to be governed. 

II. The usual place of prepositions is before the nouns 
they govern : Wij spcelden op de plants, wo played in the 
yard ; De vogels zaten in de Icooi, the birds sat in tho 
cage. 

Note. — " Halve "and " wegen " are placed after tho noun 
or pronoun with which they stand, forming one word with 
them : mijnentwege, for my sako ; uwentwege, for your sake ; 
zijnenlwege, for his sake; veiligheidshalvc, for the sako of 
safety. 

III. Formerly Prepositions and words used as such, 



T8E PREPOSITION. 243 

governed different cases, i.e., required either the Genitive, 
Dative, or Accusative case of the noun after them. 

Now, however, one common rule applies to every 
Preposition, viz., that it governs the Accusative case — and 
the obsolete use of the Genitive and Dative cases is only 
discernible in some expressions, few in number, yet 
sufficient to remind us of what once has been. 

Examples. — Feminine Dative : uitermate (uit der mate), 
exceedingly ; bij der hand, close at hand ; mettertijd, in 
time ; uitter ooge, uitter herte, out of sight, out of mind ; ter 
oore Jcomen, to come to one's notice ; ter feest gaan, to go to 
a feast. 

Neuter Dative : in den beginne, in the beginning ; van 
goeden huize, ten top stijgen, to reach the highest point ; met 
dien verstande, with this understanding ; bij levenden lijve, 
alive. 

Neuter Genitive : binnenshuis, inside (the house) ; 
buitenslands, outside of the country ; tusschendelcs, between 
deck. 

Masculine Genitive : buitenstijds, out of season ; binnens- 
monds, mutteringly. 

IV. The relations pointed out by Prepositions may bo : 

- . , , . r , la. Eest in a place. 

1. A relation of place < 7 ■** , . , l , n , 

1 \b. Motion to or irom a place. 

2. A relation of time. 

3. An abstract relation expressing a cause, an object in 

view, etc. 

4. A positive or negative connection. 

1. Eest in a place is indicated by : boven, above ; onder, 
under ; buiten, outside ; binnen, inside ; nabij, near ; naast, 
next to ; aan, at ; te, at ; in, in ; op, on ; tussclien, between ; 
tegen, against, etc. 

Motion to or from a place is indicated by : over, over ; 
van, from ; naar, towards ; tot aan, as far as ; langs, along 
rond, round ; rondom, round about ; voorbij, past, etc. 



244 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR, 

Obs. — Notice the following sentences : 

Hij loopt in de school, he walks about in the school (in = 

Prep.). 
Hij loopt de school in, he walks into the school (in — 

Adverb). 
De koeien grazen op de weide, the cows are grazing in the 

meadow (op = Prep.). 
Zij Jclimmen den berg op, they climb the mountain (op = 

Adverb). 
Ik lees nit Homerus, I read from Homer (uit = Prep.). 
Ik las het geheele boek dien avond uit, I read through the 

whole of the book that night (uit = Adverb). 

2. A relation of time is indicated by : in, in ; binnen, 
•within ; omstreeJcs, about ; bij, near by ; om, at ; over, past, 
in ; aan, on ; tegen, towards ; voor, for ; tusschen, between ; 
tot , to ; sedert, since ; gedurende, during. 

3. An abstract relation of cause, etc., is expressed by : 
door, by ; voor, for ; uit kracht van, by virtue of ; ten spijt 
van, in spite of; naar gelang van, according to; in weenoil 
van, in spite of ; aangaande, touching ; wegens, on account 
of; betreffende, touching; aangezien, for as mnch; ter 
oorzake van, on account of; ten gevolge van, in consequence 
of ; in tegemtelling van, in opposition to ; in vergelijking van, 
in comparison to ; ter wille van, for the sake of; instedevan, 
instead of; ten behoeve van, on behalf of; overeenJcomstig 
met, conformably to. 

4. A positive connection is expressed by : met, with ; 
benevens, together with ; a negative connection by : zonder, 
without; uitgenomen, except; behalve, except. 

Note. — Seeing that the same word may occur as an adverb and a 
preposition, or as a preposition and a conjunction, the student 
should notice that every preposition must necessarily bo 
followed by a noun or pronoun in the accusative (objective) 
case. 

VI. Prepositions used for indicating different relations. 

AAN. 
1. liest in a place : De stad Hgt aan zee, the town lies on 
the sea-coast. 



THE PREPOSITION. 245 

2. Indicating a beginning : De vogel gaat aan 't vliegen, 

the bird begins to fly. 

3. Used instead of the Dative case : Geef het boek aan 

uwen broeder, give the book to your brother. 

VAN. 

1. Instead of the Possessive case : Dit is de lei van mijnen 

broeder, this is my brother's slate. 

2. Meaning "from " : He ontving eenen brief van hem, I 

got a letter from him. 

DOOR. 

1. Meaning " through" : De Jcogel ging door het huis, the 

bullet went through the house. 

2. Meaning " by " : Door uw verrnogen zijt gij in staat, veel 

goed te doen, by your fortune you are able to do a 
great deal of good. 

3. Meaning " with " : Door uwe vriendelijhe hulp is het mij 

gelukt, with your kind assistance I have succeeded. 

4. Meaning " throughout " : Door alle landen zal het 

gehoord worden, it will be heard throughout every 
country. 

BIJ. 

1. Meaning " by" : Bij geval, by chance; bij beurten, by 

turns; bij nacht, by night; dicht bij, close by; bij 
lamplicht, by lamplight. 

2. Meaning " near," " nearly " : Set is bij tweeen, it is 

close upon two o'clock ; Zijn huis is bij het Jcerhhof, his 
house is near the churchyard ; Mijne grootmoeder is 
bij de tachtig, my grandmother is nearly eighty 
years of age. 

3. Meaning " with " : Zij logeert eene week bij ons, she is 

staying with us for a week ; Heeft hij geld bij zich f 
has he any money about him ? 

4. Meaning " to": Kom bij mij, lief kind/ come to me, my 

dear child ! 

5. Meaning " about " .• Hij hwam eerst bij twaalven, he only 

came about twelve o'clock. 



246 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



ONDER. 

1. Meaning " among " : Dat is zoo de gciooonte onder 

soldaten, that is the custom among soldiers. 

2. Meaning " during " : Onder het onibijt wordt ons altijd 

iets voorgelezen, during breakfast we have always 
something read to us. 

3. Meaning " under " ; Die hoot Jean geheel onder water 

gebracht worden, that boat can be completely 
brought under water. 

4. Meaning " amongst " : De roovers verdeelden de buit 

onder elkander, the robbers divided the spoil amongst 
them. 

5. Indicating a time : Onder de lange regeering van Keizer 

Wilhelm I., during the long reign of the emperor 
Wilhelm I. 

OP 

M;iy be translated by " upon," " on," " in," " after," " at," 
" with," " but" "into," "to" 

1 . Upon : Hij legt het eene bock op het andere, he places 

one book upon another ; Op mijn woord ih weet het 
niet, upon my word I don't know. 

2. On : Ik ontmoette hem eerst op eenen Maandag en 

daarna op eenen Woensdag, I met him first on a 
Monday and then on a Wednesday. 

3. In : Doe het eens op eene andere manier, just try it in 

a different way. 

4. After : Hij Meedt zich op zijn Duitsch, ho dresses after 

the German style. 

5. At : Op uw verzoeh zal ih gaan, I shall go at your 

request. 
G. With : Mijn vader is waarlijk boos op mij, my father is 
indeed angry with me. 

7. But : Alle Jcinderen op een na zijn dood, all the children 

but one are dead. 

8. Into : Dien fraaien hoed zal ih u op den hoop toegeven, 

I shall throw that pretty hat into the bargain, 



THE PREPOSITION. 2tf 

9. To : Weet ge, dat we op souper (^pron. sou-pe) gevraagd 
zijn ? do you know that we have been invited to 
supper ? 

NAAR 

1. Meaning " to" "towards" : Mijn plan is, morgen naar 

mijn sill dorp terug te gaan, my intention is to 
return to my quiet village to-morrow ; De vogels 
vliegen naar de kust, the birds are flying towards the 
shore. 

2. Meaning "from" : Dat is naar de natuur geteekend, 

that is drawn from nature. 

3. Meaning " according to " : He Jieb gehandeld naar mijne 

overtuiging, I acted according to my conviction. 

4. Meaning " about " ; Hij doet er ondcrzoek naar, he is 

making enquiries about it. 

5. Meaning "for": Hij zoekt naar zijn boeh, he is looking 

for his book. 

6. Meaning " after " ; Hij kleedt zich naar de Duitsche 

mode, he dresses after the German fashion. 

OM. 

1. Indicating a place : Er is eene heining om den tuin, 

there is a fence round the garden. 

2. Indicating a time : Hij gaat om de veertien dagen naar 

huis, he goes home every fortnight ; de vergadering 
begint om zeven uur, the meeting begins at 7 o'clock. 

3. Preceding the Infinitive of a verb : Hij doet het alleen 

om te plagen, he just docs it to tease ; Ik ben gckomen 
om onze rekening te vereffenen, I have come to square 
our account. 

4. Meaning "for " : Om welke reden is hij vertrokken ? for 

what reason did he leave ? Denk eraan om mijnent- 
wil, remember it for my sake. 

5. Meaning " up " : Uw bepaalde iijd is om, your fixed 

time is up. 



248 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

TJIT. 

1. Meaning " out " ; Zal hij ooit uit de moeite Jcomen ? will 

lie ever be out of trouble ? 

2. Meaning "from" : Hij homt uit de kerlc, be is coming 

from cburch. 

3. Meaning " out of" : Uit ojprecMe liefde, out of real 

love. 

VII. Preposition-Verbs requiring for tbe greater part 
different prepositions in Dutcb from tbose whicb tbey are 
followed by in English, a list is here appended from which 
ihose which occur most frequently may be learned. 



THE PREPOSITION. 



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264 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



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THE PREPOSITION. 



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266 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



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THE PREPOSITION. 



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2C8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningcn. 

Exercise XOIV. 

We wish to take a little preserve instead of cheese. 
Before the day dawned we were all up and ready. At 
what time (Hoe laat) do you wish to be called ? My ink 
is done, I shall have to buy a new bottle. Among yonder 
trees there is one which looks particularly pretty. During 
(the) dinner people were continually knocking at our door 
to [the] annoyance of our guests as well as of ourselves. 
We met the travellers on their way to Berlin, and spent a 
couple of hours with them. Not every heart requires a 
large number of friends to be happy. I have known 
persons who had very few true friends, and yet were 
happy and contented. Three of the pupils have failed in 
the examination, on account of many mistakes (that) they 
made in the translation from German into (the) English. 
Forasmuch as the news has reached you, you will be 
obliged to go at once. All the people ran to the market- 
house for (to) shelter, on account of the unexpected shower. 
The bird flew into the church, and went right through it. 
He came to mo about a quarter of an hour after my 
brother had left mo, and stayed for some (a) twenty-five 
minutes. 

Exercise XCV. 

Once upon a time a fox saw a pretty wood-pigeon sitting 
on one of the lowest branches of an oak-tree in a largo 
wood. " Pretty dove," said the fox, " I have been running 
(I have run) about all (the) morning (for) to find 
somebody to have a chat with ; do come down and sit in 
the brushwood, and we shall have a pleasant talk." The 
silly pigeon actually came down and sat in the brushwood, 
close to the ground. Then the fox said : " Why do you 
think (that) it is, that birds are so much prettier than 
four-footed animals?" "Oh," said the pigeon, "I do not 



THE PREPOSITION. 269 

consider (that) they are (that), but this I know, that our 
feathery coat is of much more use to (voof) us than your 
hairy skin is to you." The fox seemed to get interested, 
and replied : " Little creature, where do you get such 
wisdom (vandaan) ? Did I ever hear (have I heard) a wood- 
pigeon speak (such) intelligent words [like those]? Surely, 
if foxes are called cunning, pigeons might (zouden Tcunnen) 
be called wise. But now explain your statement." The 
poor dove, which perhaps had never been flattered before, 
was almost beside (buiteri) herself with (of) joy and pride 
when she gave the following explanation : " 2 You 1 soe, the 
first and most important duty of every living creature, 
whether in the wood or elsewhere, is to protect his head 
against every injury from outside. Nowthatis just (of) what 
(waartoe) you, hairy animals, are not capable [of]. With 
us it is different. From whatever side the wind blows, we 
are always able to shield our head and keep it warm." - 

Exercise XCV1. 

" Suppose for instance (that) the wind should come (came) 
from the south, and I should be sitting (sat) just like at 
present. I would simply lift my right wing and (er) 
cover my head with (mede) it. If the wind blew from tho 
north, I should only require to lift my left wing and do 
the same." "That's well explained," said the fox, " but now 
just (eens) show (it) me." The pigeon thon (toeri) lifted 
first her right wing, and then her left [one], and with either 
(both) covered her head entirely, so that the fox seemed 
quite satisfied. "But now," he added (to it), "that's allright 
(dat is goed en reel) for southerly and northerly winds, but 
what would you do if the breeze should come (came) from 
the west, while you were sitting (sat) like that (zoo) ? You 
see, now I have caught you, that's a thing that you do 
not know, my little dove ! " " What ! " said the pigeon, "do 
not know? Pigeons know everything about (of) that 
matter. Shall I show you how we do ? " "I should be so 



2-jo THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

glad if you would (did it)" replied the fox, " I do like to 
(zoo graag) learn things from wiser people than myself (I 
am)." This answer again stung the poor dove's pride. She 
ventured (it) to come down from her twig in the brush- 
wood, and sat (went to sit) down on the ground right in 
front of (recht voor) the fox. " Now mind," (let nu op) she 
went on (voort), "this is what we do" (so do we). 
Saying this, she buried her pretty head in the soft down 
of her neck. That was (it) what (waar) the fox had been 
looking for (op gewacht had) with all the desire of his cruel 
heart. The very (same) minute (that) the head turned 
round, he seized the poor pigeon with his strong claws, 
ate it (op) and went away. 

Exercise XCVII. 

I dare not go out, for fear (that) I might (zou hunnen) 
catch cold. Let him do it, if he likes (wil). How delight- 
ful ! I shall have you all (geheel) to (voor) myself; we shall 
have a happy fortnight. Evil communications corrupt 
good manners. You won't go out, will you ? I would not 
be able to act against your desire. May I leave the work 
[undone]? What is it that puts you up to (dat er u toe 
brengt) neglecting (neglect) your duties ? He is so anxious 
(desirous) to become acquainted with you. What will (er) 
have become of my poor boy ? The last news (plur.) from 
him was disheartening. All the people (whom) you see 
assembled in that spacious hall are descendants of tho 
lato Duke of A., a man of great physical strength, great 
activity and zeal, and true nohility of heart. What a jiily 
(hoe jammer) (that) you have not been able to (hunnen) 
travel more! To spend a couple of years in (met) (the) 
visiting (of) countries, (the) seeing (of) strange nations, 
(the) observing (of) their manners and customs, and (the) 
inquiring into (of) their religion, affurds more real de- 
velopment than double the time spent in study or in an, 
office. 



THE PREPOSITION. 



271 



CONVERSATIE. 

Ambachten en. Beroepen. 

1. Hij is smid van beroep. 

2. Hij is van alle markten 

thuis. 

3. Deze man heeft een laken- 

winkel in de Langstraat. 

4. Waar han men een exem- 

plaar van dit boek be- 
komen ? 
o. Men kan net, meen ik, 
krijgen bij Mason, boek- 
handelaar, in de George- 
straat. 

6. Als u bij den drogist voor- 

bijkomt, koop dan wat 
citrotnzuur voor mij. 

7. Neem dit recept, en wacht 

bij den apothrker tot de 
medicijnen Waar zijn. 

8. Laat dit bij den blikslager 

repareeren. 

9. Laat den timmerman die 

tafels en banken reparee- 
ren. 

10. Een metselaar moet dien 

muur nazien. 

11. De stoffeerder heeft de 

voorkamer behangen en 
gemeubilcerd. 

12. Wees zoo goed, dit naar den 

slotenmaker te sturen. 

13. Waar kan ik een glazen- 

maker vinden ? 

14. De man, die voor mij werkt, 

wcont dicht bij Johnston, 
den schoenmaker. 

15. Mijne paarden moeten be- 

slagen worden ; breng ze 
naar den hoefsmid. 

1G. Die wagenmaker maakt 
uilmuntende wigens voor 
den transport! 1 andel. 

17. Ga met m>j mte naar den 
goudsmid om een gouden 
ketting te koopen. 



Conversation. 
Trades and Occupations. 

1. He is a blacksmith by 

trade. 

2. He is a jack of all trades. 

3. This man has a draper's 

shop in Long St. 

4. Where can one get a copy 

of this book V 

5. I believe it can be had at 

Mason's, booksellers, in 
George Street. 

6. If you ] ass the cliemiht'.--, 

buy some citric acid for 
me. 

7. Take tbis prcscrip'ion, and 

wait at the apothecary's 
till the medicine is ready. 

8. H*vu this mended at the 

tinsmith's. 

9. Get the carpenter to mend 

these tables and benches. 

10. A mason must repair that 

wall. 

11. The upholsterer has papered 

and furnished the drawing- 
room. 

12. Please have this taken to 

the locksmith's. 

13. Where can one find a 

glazier ? 

14. The man whom I emp'oy 

lives near Johnston, the 
shoemaker's. 

15. My horses must be shod; 

take them to the farrier. 

1G. That w.ifrgon-builder makes 
excellent waggons for 
transport-trade. 

17. Go with me to the jeweller's 
to buy a gold cl'ain. 



2^2 



THE COMMERCIAL' DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



18. De horlogemaker heeft juist 
een nieuwen voorraad ont- 
vangen. 

IP. Zullen wij bij den visch- 
handelaar aangaan en wot 
visch voor het diner be- 
stellen ? 

20. Be slager heeft in den 

laatsten tijd geen heel goed 
schapevleesch gestuurd. 

2 1. Waar koopt u groenten t 

22. Wij koopen er zelden: on- 

ze tuinier voorziet ons. 

23. De boeren zeggen, dat de 

oogst van H jaar slecht zal 
zijn. 
21. Deze man is boekbinder, en 
die heeft een boekenstal- 
letje. 

25. Vraag den drukker, die 

font te verbeteren. 

26. Stuur naar den kruidenier 

om eene kist beste thee. 

27. Heeft u sigaren ? 

28. Neen, maar de tabakslan- 

delaar heeft er zeer goede 
op het oogenblik. 

29. Heeft de kleermaker mijne 

jas gestuurd f 

30. Neen, mijnheer, maar de 

hoedenmaker heeft den 
hoed gestuurd, dien u 
besteld had. 



18. The watch-maker has had 

a fresh supply just lately. 

19. Shall we call at the fish- 

monger's, and order some 
fish for dinner. 

20. The butcher has not been 

sending very good mutton 
lately. 

21. Where do you buy your 

vegetables ? 

22. We seldom buy any; our 

gardener keeps us sup- 
plied. 

23. The farmers say the harvest 

will be bad this year. , 

24. This man is a bookbinder, 

and that one has a book- 
stall. 

25. Ask the printer to correct 

that mistake. 

26. Send to the 1 grocer's for a 

box of his best tea. 
27.- Have you any cigars? ! 

28. No, but the tobacconist has 

excellent ones at present. 

29. Has the tailor sent my 

coat? 

30. No, sir, but the hatter has 

sent the hat you ordered. 



( 273 ) 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE CONJUNCTION. 

(Het Voegwoord.') 

I. As Prepositions express relations between objects, or 
between an object and an action, so Conjunctions establish 
relations between thoughts. Conjunctions are indeclin- 
able words (particles), and have no meaning in themselves. 
They are used for expressing the connection between 
sentences, or different parts of the same sentence. Conse- 
quently they are connective words. To distinguish them 
from Adverbs, which may be connectives as well, it must 
be observed that Adverbs do not derive their meaning 
from the place they take in the sentence, and though used 
as connectives, must always qualify some other word. 
Adverbs, moreover, when used as connectives, aie not 
necessarily placed between two sentences ; they may be in- 
cluded in one of the sentences, which is not the case with 
Conjunctions. 

Note.— The difficulty of distinguishing between adverbs and 
conjunctions is most apparent where the same word is used 
in both qualities : Relten er op, nu zal het gcschieden, be sure 
of it, now it will happen (nu is adv.) ; Al mijne vreugde is 
weg nu mijne oudera dood zijn, all my joy is gone now that 
my parents are dead (nu is conj.) 

II. Conjunctions may be divided into two principal 
classes, viz. A., those which connect two independent 
sentences, Co-ordinative Conjunctions, Nevenschikkende 
Voegwoorden, and B., those which connect sentences of 



274 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

which the one is dependent upon the other, Subordixative 
Conjunctions, Ondergeschikte Voegwoorden. 

Note. — Subordinate Conjunctions remove the verb to the end of a 
clause. Of the Co-ordinate Conjunctions, those that are 
adverbial place the subject after the verb. 

A. Co-ordinative Conjunctions are subdivided into : 

1. those which unite or couple together, Verbindende or 

Aaneenschahelende Voegwoorden. 

2. those which oppose, Tegenstellende Voegwoorden. 

3. those which limit or separate, Scheidende Voeg- 

woorden. 

4. those which express a reason, Itedengevende Voeg- 
woorden. 

Examples of 1. — en, and, ook, also, niet alleen or nict 
slcchts or niet enkel .... maar ook, not only .... hut 
iilso, benevens, and also, alsmede, and also, zoowel .... als 
ook, as well .... as, noch .... noch, neither .... nor, 
and the adverbial conjunctions daarenboven, besides, daarna, 
after that, bovendien, besides, ja zelfs, even. 

Laat mij u zeggen, hoe wij den dag hebben doorgebracht : 
niet alleen hebben we eene lange wandeling gemaakt, maar ioe 
zijn ook wat gaan lezen, en hebben toen gedineerd, vervolgens 
zijn we te paard uit geweest, eindelijk hebben we ons huiswerk 
voor morgen gemaakt. Let mo tell you how we spent the day : 
not only did we take a long walk, but we also read a little, 
and then had dinner, then again we went out on horseback, 
and finally wo did our homework for to-morrow. 

Examples oe 2. — maar, but, dock, but, nu, now that, dan, 
then, and the adverbial conjunctions integendeel, on the 
contrary, echter, however, desniettegenstaande, notwith- 
standing, evenwel, however, intusschen, in the meantime. 

Ik zou het u gaarne geven, doch het is onmogelijk, I should 
like to give it to you, but it is impossible : op die wijze zult 
gij mij niet van u vervreemden, integendeel gij zult mij u meer 
docn achten en lieflicbben, in that way you will not estrange 



THE CONJUNCTION. 275 

me from you, on the contrary yon will canse me to 
esteem and love you more ; Ik heb hem diJcwijls gewaar- 
schuwd, echter heeft hij er geene acht op gestagen, I have 
often warned him, but he has not heeded it. 

Examples op 3. — of, or, of ... . of, either .... or, 
Tietzij .... hetzij, either . . . . or, hetzij ....of, whether 
.... or. 

Hetzij wij werJcen of spelen, ons hoofd moct er bij zijn, 
whether we work or play, our mind must be in it ; Of de 
brief is reeds verzonden, of hij zal van morgen op de post gaan, 
either the letter has been sent already, or it will be posted 
this morning. 

Examples of 4. — want, for, bijgevolg, consequently, dus, 
so, alzoo, so, daarom, so, therefore, hierom, on this account, 
derhalve, for that reason, dan, then, so, toch (see sentence), 
immers (see sentence), all of which may be called adverbial 
conjunctions. 

Wij zullen moeten ophouden, want het begint te regenen, we 
shall have to stop, for it begins to rain ; VerMaar u nader, 
mij toch Tcomt toe, alles te weten, or immers Jcomt mij toe, enz., 
explain yourself further, it is meet for me to know all, or, 
is it not meet for me, etc. ? 

B. Subordinative Conjunctions are subdivided into : 

1. those that express a comparison, Vergelijkende Voeg- 

woorden. 

2. those that express a proportion, Verhoudingaanicijzende 

Voegwoorden. 

3. those that define a time, Tijdbepalende Voegwoorden. 

4. those that define a place, Plaatsbepalende Voegwoor- 

den. 

5. those that express a condition, Voorwaardclijke Voeg- 

woorden. 

6. those that indicate a concession, Toegevende Voeg- 

woorden 



276 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

7. those that express a purpose, Doelaanioijzende Voeg- 

woorden. 

8. those that express the reason of an action, Bedengc- 

vcnde Voegwoorden. 

9. those that join noun-sentences to principal sentence s, 

Verklarende Voegworden. 

Examples of 1. — gelijk, as; evenals, just as; als, as; dan, 
tlran ; zooals, as ; dat, so that ; also/, as if. 

Hij is grooter geworden, dan ik verwacht had, he has grown 
taller than I had expected ; Doe alsof gij tliuis waart, make 
yourself at home. 

Examples of 2. — hoe .... hoe . . . , the .... the ; 

hoe .... des te, the .... so much the ; naarmate or naar 
gelang, according as ; naar, naardat, according as, in propor- 
tion to. 

Hoe minder hoe liever, als ge maar gezond zijt, the less the 
better as long as you are healthy ; Hoe nicer ik hem aanzette 
tot zijn werk, des te meer vertraagde hij, the more I put him 
up to his work, the more ho became lazy ; Naardat gijwerkt, 
zullen uwe vorderingen zijn, your progress will be according 
to your work. 

Examples of 3. — als, if; toen, when ; wanneer, when ; 
zoodra als, as soon as ; zoo dikwijls als, as often as ; voordat, 
before ; nu, now that ; terwijl, whereas. These conjunctions 
nre for the greater part adverbs and prepositions changed 
into conjunctions by the addition of " als" or " dat." 

De haan begon te kraaien, zoodra als wij buiten kwamen, 
the cock began to crow as soon as we came outside ; Het 
uuur ging dadelijk uit, toen de blaasbalg ophield met blazen, 
the fire went out immediately, when the bellows ceased 
blowing. 

Examples of 4. — waar, where ; alwaar, where ; waar- 

heen, whither ; werwaarts, whither ; van waar, from where. 

Wij8 mij de plaats, waar ik gczaaid heb, show me the 



THE CONJUNCTION. 277 



place where I have sown ; Ik reis naar Tietzelfde onbekende 
land, werwaarts mijn vader twee jaren geleden vertrokken is, 
I am travelling to the same unknown country, whither 
my father went two years ago ; Ik herinner mij nog duidelijk 
de lioogte, vanwaar icij u liet laatst vaarwel toewuifden, I 
distinctly remember the height from where we beckoned 
a last farewell to you. 

Examples of 5. — indien, if; in geval dat, in case that ; zoo, 
if; tenzij, unless ; mits, provided ; wanneer, if. 

Ik toil liet niet doen, tenzij gij uwe voile toestemming geeft, 
I don't want to do it, unless you give your full consent; 
Gij kunt oj> mijne liulp rekenen, mits gij zelf al uwe kraclitcn 
inspant, you may be sure of my assistance, provided you 
yourself do everything in your power. 

Examples of 6. — sclwon, Jwewel, alhoewel, ofschoon, al, 
though; niettegenstaande, although. 

Ofschoon dit tooord verouderd mag heeten, wordt liet toch door 
verschillende schrijvers nog gebruikt, though this word may 
be called obsolete, it is still being used by several authors ; 
Hijwaagt zich gedurig nog 's avonds in de luclit,niettegenstaande 
Jiij gewaarseJmwd is, although he has been warned, he still 
often goes out at night; al is de leugen nog zoo snel,dewaarheid 
achterhaalt haar wel, though falsehood be ever so swift, 
truth is sure to overtake it. 

Examples of 7. — opdat> in order that ; dat, that ; teneinde, 
for the purpose of. 

De vader wcrkte wat Mj kan, ojpdat de zoon de vrucliten van 
zijnen arbeid zou plukken, the father worked with all his 
might, in order that the son should gather the fruits of 
his labour ; Eert uwen vader en uwe moeder, opdat uwe dagen 
verlengd worden, honour thy father and thy mother, that 
thy days may be long; Hij spoort zijn paard aan, ten einde 
nog voor zonsondergang thuis te zijn, he spurs on his horse, 
for the purpose of being home before sunset. 

Note. — Mark that adverbial sentences of purpose are not usually 
formed with the words opdat and ten einde. In fact, in collo- 



278 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

quial language, those two conjunctions are rarely used. The 
common expression for the thoughts contained in the first and 
last of the sentences under 7 would be : De cader werlct wat 
hij lean, om den zoon de vruchten van zijnen arbeid te lattn 
plulcken, the father works with all his might, to let the son 
gather, etc. ; Hij spoort zijn paard aan om nog vo'o'r zonsonder- 
gang thuis te zijn, he spurs ou his horse to be home before 
sunset. Foreigners should try to accustom themselves to the 
constant use of the preposition om for the sake of fluency. 

Examples of 8. — omdat, dewijl, naardien, doordien, aange- 
zien, wijl, because ; daar, vermits, since ; om reden (dat), for 
the reason (that) ; op grond (daf), on the ground (that) ; 
nademaal, for as much. 

De verkooping Icon niet doorgaan, omdat het regende, the 
sale could not come off, because it was raining. Ik zal u in 
redden moeten vervolgen, aangezien gij mijnen naam hebt 
trachten te benadeelen, I shall have to take legal steps 
against you, for as much as you have tried to injure my 
reputation. 

Examples of 9. — dat, that ; of, whether, if. These con- 
junctions occur after verbs which express an assertion, an 
assurance, a question, etc. 

Hij verzekert mij, dat hij er geene schuld aan heeft, he 
assures me that it is not his fault ; Gij verlangdet te weten, 
of ik u helpen zou? you wished to know whether I 
would help you ? Zeg mij of alles in orde is, tell me if all is 
right. 

Observations. 

1. Dat, that, may mean omdat, because, opdat, in order 

that, and zoodat, so that : a) ik ben heel dankbaar, dat 
ge gekomen zijt, I am very thankful that (because) you 
have come ; &) He span alle krachten in, dat ik slagen 
rnoge, I do my very best that (in order that) I may 
succeed ; c) het regent, dat hct giet, (literal trans.) it 
rains so that it pours. 

2. Wijl ought to bo taken for dewijl, because, and not for 

icrwijl, while. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 279 



3. Zonder, in jplaats van, behalve, when they are conjunc- 

tions, can never he used without the conjunction 
" dat : " a) Hij zegt zulke dingen, zonder dat hij er bij 
denkt, lie says such tilings without thinking what ho 
says ; b) In plaats van dat hij onmiddcllijh naar hem 
toeging, Jcwam hij eerst bij mij, instead of going to hiin 
straight, he first came to me ; c) Alles bevalt mij, 
behalve dat ge hem zijn verzoek geweigerd hebt, I am 
pleased with everything hut that you have refused 
his request. 

4. After real conjunctions the connective " dat " may not 

he used. 

5. " Now that " may he translated " nu dat," hut " nu " only 

is more common. 

G. " Maar " and " doch " both mean " but." " Naar," how, 
ever, opposes the thoughts, expressed in the sentences 
it connects, in a stronger way than "doch" Hij is 
rijk, maar blind ; wat baat hem zijn rijJcdom ? he is rich- 
but blind; of what good are his riches to him? 
Hij zegt nooit veel, doch als hij spreekt, verraadt ieder 
woord de helderheid zijner gedachte, he never says much, 
but if he does speak, each word betrays the clearness 
of his thoughts. In common speaking, however, 
" doch " is uncommon. 

7. " Good-hearted though he was, many people shunned 
him " may be translated, Goedhartig als hij was, werd 
hij toch door velen gemijd — yet a better translation is, 
Hoewel hij goedhartig was, werd hij, enz. 



TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise XCVIII. 

A thrush, a linnet, and a thistle-finch were once caught 
by a fowler in one day and under the same (een en 
hetzelfde) net. Since they were all equally prctfy, ho did 
not like (icilde hij niet graag) to kill [any] one of the 



28o THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

three ; so he put them together into one large cage. At first 
they were all on very good terms (op zeer goeden voci), 
most (Jieel) likely because none of them liked the fate (to 
none of them was the fate agreeable) (to which) they 
were condemned [to] ; but when 2 after a while! they had 
got accustomed to the small room, (to which) they were 
confined [to], the thistle-finch began to he very dis- 
agreeable. He scolded his two companions either for 
singing (because they sang) loo high or too low, or for 
not keeping time (jnaat, v), when they were trying to 
sing together. At last his temper grew (became) so bad, 
that the other two birds could not bear his company any 
longer. In fact, the little linnet got so nervous from 
being (to be) scolded all day long (the whole day), that it 
(hun) soon became impossible for him (om) to sing. So 
(on) one morning, when the fowler— who on the whole 
was very good to (voor) them — took them out (brought 
them outride) into the sun, the linnet spoho to him on 
this wise (Item aldas aan) : Good man, I am perfectly 
aware (of it) that I am doing a hazardous thing by 
openly complaining about the ihistle-finch here present; 
but yet I must speak out. His temper has grown bad 
beyond measure (uitermate), so much so (zoozeer), that I 
have given up (the) singing for fear of being scolded 
incessantly, and I am oven beginning to hate (the) life. 
I frankly ask you, for my own sake and that (ter wille van 
mijzelven en van) of my good companion, the thrush, to 
relieve us of the company of this miserable thistle-finch, 
and to do it soon, lest (opdat . . . nief) he kill me. 

Exercise XCIX. 

A certain man bad three sons. When he had grown 
(become) old, and was about to die (soon would die) he 
called his sons to (bij) him (zich), telling them (and told 
them) that he wanted to divide his goods. After the 
necessary airangements had been made, he thus spoke to 



THE CONJUNCTION. 281 

(aansprehen) them : " My sons, besides what I have now 
assigned to you, there is in my possession a large 
diamond of great value, which I received from my father 
on the day of his death. This jewel I cannot divide, and 
may (I) not sell. I have therefore made up my mind 
(resolved), that I shall give it to that one of my three 
sons who within three months will give me proof that he 
possesses a better character than his brothers." Upon 
this (Hierop) the sons took leave of their father, and 
separated (uit ellcaar gaan) on the promise of reassembling 
at the old man's sick-bed after a lapse of (na verloop van) 
three months. When the time had arrived (komen), they 
all met (samenJcomen) once again in their old home. And 
this is what they had to. report. "Father," said the 
eldest, "in the course of these three montbs a friend of 
mine (see p. 134) wished to undertake a journey into a 
far-off land. He brought me a large amount (sum) of 
gold, which I undertook (op zicJi nemeri) to keep for him, 
but for which he refused to (would not) take a written 
acknowledgment. "When he came back, I returned all 
the money to him without (er) keeping any of (something) 
[it] back, though there was nothing to show how large 
the sum had b en (which) he had entrusted to me. What 
does my father think of such a character?" — "My son," 
replied the old man, " this was only ordinary honesty ; 
I should not have expected anything (nothing) less of 
my son ! " 

Exercise C. 

Thereupon the second son stepped (came) forward, 
and spoke : " My father, in the course of theso three 
months I came to the shore(s) of a lake, just at (op) the 
moment when (dai) a little child, playing on the bank 
(Jcant, m), happened to (accidentally) fall into the water. 
The poor mother, who stood by (crbij), screamed for (om) 
help, and wildly threw up (in de hoogte gooicn) her arms 



282 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

in despair. I hurried to the spot, sprang (er) in, dived after 
(naar) the sinking child, caught it, brought it up (naar 
boven). swam with it (ermede) to the shore, and Landed it to • 
the distressed mother. Far gone (Jieeri) though (hoe , . . oolc) 
it was, (the) life was not extinct (er . . . uit) and our 
combined efforts brought the poor child back to (tot het) 
life. The mother found (could find) no words with 
which (om) to thank me ; but drawing a purse filled 
with gold from her pocket, she spoke [to] me thus (aan) : 
' Stranger, take this. Though the reward be little 
in comparison to the noble deed, do not despise what I 
offer you from (uit) a heart overflowing with (van) 
gratitude. Take it, and if you will make no personal use 
of it, let it (then) be the price for buying something 
which will remind you of this happy day, and this 
glorious deed ! ' — But I refused the money, saying that 
to see the boy breathe was sufficient reward for me. 
What does my father think of such a character?" — The 
old man replied, " My son, this is nothing but ordinary 
love of man (menschenliefde), and just what I should have 
expected of my son." 

Exercise CI. 

Then the youngest son came to tell his talo, and this is 
what he said : " Father, in tho course of these three months 
I was travelling in the mountains. On a cerl ain day, when 
darkness had set in (de avond gevallen was) and the road was 
but faintly lit up by the glimmer of the stars, my attention 
was attracted by (doordat) my dog sniffing (sniffed) at some- 
thing lying off the roadside (aan den leant van den weg). The 
spot being [a] dangerous [one], I dismounted, and went to 
see what my dog had found. It was a man who was lying 
fast asleep on the very (uitcrst) edge of a fearful chasm. 
I scanned his face, and knew it to be (that it was) 
that of my worst enemy. Now I knew that (if) should 
I leave (I left) him there, he would undoubtedly move 



THE CONJUNCTION. 



283 



about (zich bewegeri) in his sleep, and (er) no more of 
him would be heard ; yea, and (that) even if I should try 
to rouse him, he might (zou Jcunnen) move and drop down, 
so near he lay to (bij) the outermost edge. I therefore 
seized his arm (him by the arm), dragged him away a few 
yards, and then woke him up. He startled when he recog- 
nised my voice, but I spoke reassuringly [to] him (toe), and 
asked him to tell me what had made (bewogen) him lie down 
in such a horrible place. He then told me that he had lost 
his way (verdwalen), and that (he), being overwhelmed with 
(uitgeput van) fatigue at the approach of (the) night, [he] 
had dropped down, not knowing where. I then showed 
him his way (naar) home, and let him go. What does 
my father think of such a character ? " — The eyes of the 
dying man brightened up as the question was put 
(gedaan), and he exclaimed, " Oh my son, that was 
indeed more than common honest} r , more also than 
common love of man — that was magnanimity! You 
have shown to possess the best character, and gladly 
(volgaarne) do I bequeath the jewel to you ! " 



CoNVERSATIE. 

Onderwijs en School. 

1. Onze school zal op den 

23sten April weer begin- 
nen, en gesloten worden 
op den 21sten Juni. 

2. Op welke school is uw zoon ? 

3. Hij is op de Normaalschool, 

op het openbare Gymna- 
sium. 

4. Mijn zoon is op het Athe- 

naeum. 

5. Hij zal H volgende jaar 

naar het Theologisch Se- 
minarie gaan. 

6. Wat onderwijsstaf heeft u ? 



Conversation. 
Teaching and Schools. 

1. Our school re-opens on the 

23rd of April and closes 
on the 21st of June. 

2. What school does your son 

attend ? 

3. He goes to the Normal 

school, to the Public 
Gymnasium. 

4. My son is at the College. 

5. He enters the Theological 

Seminary next year. 

6. What staff of teachers have 

you? 



2§4 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



9. 



Een hoofdonderwijzer en 

vier assistenten. 
Hij is taalonderwijzer, tee- 

kenonderwijzer, enz. 
Bij wien neemt u les ? 



10. Professor Schmidt geeft mij 

muziekles. 

11. Woont u de taalklassen bij? 

12. Neen, ih neem privaatles in 

Fransch en Duitsch. 

13. Mijn onderwijzer komt 

Maandags en Bonder- 
dags. 

14. Hij rekent vijf shillings per 

les. 

15. Mijne zuster gaat naar eene 

kostschool. 

16. Zijis eene leerlinge van eene 

collegiale school. 

17. Hij heeft bij het laatste exa- 

men eene beurs gekregen. 

18. Hij was een schoolkameraad 

van mij. 

19. In welke klasse is u f 

20. In de eerste, tweede, vierde, 

laagste, enz. 

21. Bat kind kent alleen het a, 

b, c. 

22. Hij heeft een certificaat 

gekregen. 

23. Be zomervacantie begint 

in Becember. 

24. Elementair schoolexamen. 

25. Elementair onderwijzers- 

examen. 
20. Toelatingsexamen tot de 
universiteit. 

27. Examen in de Rechten. 

28. Landmetersexamen. 

29. Be bijzondere vakken, in 

dat examen vereischt,zijn: 
Algemeene Oeschiedenis, 
Engelsche Oeschiedenis, de 
Engelsche Taal, Orieksch 
en Latijn. 



7. A head-master, and four 

assistants. 

8. He is a teacher of languages, 

a drawing-master, etc. 

9. With whom do you take 

lessons ? 

10. Professor Schmidt gives me 

music lessons. 

11. Have you joined the lan- 

guage classes ? 

12. No, I take private lessons 

in French and German. 

13. My master comes on Mon- 

days and Thursdays. 

14. The fee is five shillings a 

lesson. 

15. My sister is going to a 

boarding-school. 

16. She is a pupil of a collegiate 

school. 

17. He gained a bursary at the 

last examination. 

18. He was a &chool-fellow of 

mine. 

19. In what class are you ? 

20. The first, second, fourth, 

lowest, etc. 

21. That child only knows the 

alphabet. 

22. He has obtained a certifi- 

cate. 

23. The summer holidays begin 

in December. 

24. School Elementary examin- 

ation. 

25. Elementary Teachers' Exa- 

mination. 

26. Matriculation Examination. 

27. Law Examination. 

28. Survey Examination. 

29. The special Subjects re- 

quired for that examina- 
tion are : General History, 
English History, English 
language, Greek and 
Latin. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 



285 



30. Noem mij de studieboelcen 

eens op voor den graad 
van doctor in de letteren. 

31. Ik lieb mijne Masse kwart 

voor twaalf laten uitgaan. 

32. Iederen morgen wordt de 

present ielijst afgelezen. 

33. Alle drie maanden warden 

er rapporten gepubliceerd, 
waaruit ouders en voogden 
kunnen opmaken, hoe hct 
met de leerlingen onzer 
hihool staat. 



30. Tell me the text-books for 

the M.A. degree in litera- 
ture, please. 

31. I dismissed my class at a 

quarter to twelve. 

32. Every morning the roll is 

called. 

33. Every three months reports 

are published from which 
parents and guardians may 
know how the pupils of 
our school are doing. 



286 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE XIIL 

THE INTERJECTION. 

{Set Tusschenioerpsel.) 

1. Interjections, Tusschenwerpsels, are sounds without 
a definite meaning, which serve to give utterance to some 
momentary emotion of the mind. They are indeclinable, 
and may be placed in a sentence anywhere without ever 
effecting any change in its construction. Some gram- 
marians object to their being called words, on the ground 
of their having no definite meaning. A good many 
Interjections are imitations of sounds. A few nouns, 
verbs in the imperative mood, and adverbs, are used as 
Interjections. The name ' interjection,' as will be easily 
Been from the Dutch equivalent, means " cast in between." 
The following are the most common Interjections : 

1. For the expression of grief: ac/j/ = ah! lielaas! = 

alas! wee !=. woe ! wee mij 1 = woe tome! oHemel! 
= good Heavens ! 

2. For the expression of pain : ai ! au /=oh ! 

3. For the expression of wonder: 7te/=oh! aha /=I 

say! 

4. For the expression of excitement and joy: heisa! 

hoezeel hoera/= hurrah! 

5. For the expression of a wish : och /=oh ! 

C. For the expression of dislike : 6a / aba /=bah ! foei I 

7. For the expression of encouragement: bravo I = well 
done! welaan/=go on! Jcomaan/= come on. 



THE INTERJECTION. 287 

8. For the expression of any emotion whatever : of= 

oh! 

9. For the imitation of sounds: horn, bam (of a tolling 

hell), bim, bam (of a striking clock), tik, tah (of any 
timepiece in motion), pief, paf (of a gun), Itrih, 
JcraJc (of creaking wood), Icukelehu (of a crowing 
cock), toJe, tok, toJc (of a cackling hen), miauw (of a 
mewing cat), boe, boe (of a lowing cow), Mingelin- 
geling (of a common door-hell), flap (of any un- 
expected clap), 60ns (of a heavy object falling). 



288 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE XIV. 
ETYMOLOGY. 

( Woordvorming.') 

I. Etymology treats of the formation of words. Words 
ae of three kinds — Primitive, Compound, and Derivative 

Primitive words (stamwoorderi) are not derived from 
other words. 

Compound (samengestelde) words are made up of two 
other words. 

Derivative (afgeleide) words are derived from primitive 
words, or roots. 

Obs. — Derivation is brought about partly by changes in the 
radical vowels of words, with or without modifications of 
the : r consonants ; and partly by means of prefixes and 
suffixes. In determining the different changes by which 
words have received their present form, we are led 
through the successive stages of the history of the 
language, a field of study and research beyond the limits 
of a concise grammar. As an example, however, of the 
way in which a great number of words have come into 
existence, the following may be given : 

Words derived from the same roots. 



To revenge, 


wreken, 


wraak, 


wrok. 


To smell, 


ruiken, 


reuk, 


ruiker — rieken. 


To split, 


splijten, 


spleet, 


split. 


Tog.ip, 
To break, 


grijpen, 
breken, 


greep, 
breuk, 


begrip. 

brok — bres — bros. 


To dig, 


graven, 


graqf, 


graf — groef—gracJd- 


To drink, 


drinken, 


drank, 


greppel. 
dronk — drenken. 


To give, 


geven, 


gave, 


[/>'/(. 







ETYMOLOGY. 


289 


To wade, 


waden, 


wed, 


ivadde. 


To spring, 
To ride, 
To fly, 
To lock, 


springen, 
rijdcn, 
vliegen, 
sluiten, 


sprong, 
rit, 
vlucht, 
shot, 


spranh. 
ridder. 
vleugel — vlok. 
slot — sleutel. 


To bend, 
To swell, 
To lie, 
To draw, 
To bind, 


buigen, 
dijgen (d 
liegen, 
tiegen, 
binden, 


boog, 
ijen), duig, 
leugen, 
teugel, 
band, 


bocht — beugel. 
deeg — dik. 
logen — loochenen. 
tocht — teug. 
bundel — bond. 


To bite, 


bijten, 


bit, 


bete — bijt. 



II. Formation of Nouns. 

(a) By means of prefixes ( Voorvoegsels) : 

Aarts (meaning eerste, first) : aartsvader, patriarch ; 
aartsengel, archangel. 

On (meaning geen, no) : onmensch, hruto ; onhunde, 
ignorance; ongelonf, unbelief. 

Mis (meaning verheerd, wrong) : misdaad, crime ; 
misdruk, paper wasted in printing. 

Wan (meaning slecht, had) : wanorde, disorder • 
wantrouwen, distrust. 

Oor (meaning uit, out of) : oorsprong, origin ; oorlog, 
war. 

Et (meaning opiieuw, again) : etmaal, period of 24 hours ; 
etgroen, second crop of grass after it has been mown. 

Ant (meaning tegen, against) : anticoord, answer. 

Ge (before nouns " belonging to ") : gebroeders, brethren ; 
gemaal, consort. 

(In connection with suffix te — a collection) : geboomte, 
collection of trees ; gebladerte, foliage. 

(Before stems of Verbs — the product of the action) : 
gebah, confectionery ; geschenk, present. 

(&) By means of suffixes (Aehtervoegsels) : 

Masculine names of persons are formed by the help of 
the suffixes aar (er, ier, enaar, enter), aard (erd), ih 
and and. 

Aar, er, ier form substantives from verbs, and names 
of persons from the proper names of countries and towns. 

L 



290 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Er stands for aar, when the preceding syllable has the 
accent ; ier is rarely nsed ; enaar and enier form names of 
persons from other substantives. 

Examples : leeraar, professor ; dienaar, servant ; schrijver, 
author ; gever, donor ; tuinier, gardener ; kunstenaar, artist ; 
kruidenier, grocer ; hovenier, gardener ; Hollander, Hol- 
lander ; Haarlemmer, inhabitant of Haarlem. 

Aard, erd, ik, and erik, indicate a fulness of the (mostly 
bad) quality expressed by the original verb or adjective : 
grijnzaard, one who grins; veinzaard, dissembler; blufferd, 
boaster; luiaard, idler; gautoerd, one who has a quick 
hand ; slimmerd, cunning person ; vuilik, filthy person ; 
stommerik, dunce. 

And is the old form for end, the ending of every present 
participle, and consequently indicates that the individual 
whose appellation it helps to form, is the doer of the action 
expressed by the verb which forms the first part of the 
word : heiland (de hcilende, de Jieelende, de geneesmeestcr), 
Saviour ; vijand (de vijende, de hatende), enemy (foe) ; vriend 
(yrijand, de vrijende, de beminnende), friend. 

III. Feminine names of persons and animals are formed 
by the suffixes ster, in, es. Ster is placed after the 
stems of verbs : bakster, female baker ; schoonmaakster, 
charwoman, etc. 

If the stem is dissyllabic and has no accent on the last 
syllable, the feminine substantive is derived from the 
masculine by adding ster to the latter : bedelaarster, female 
beggar; toovenaarster, witch. 

Es and in form feminine substantives from masculine 
ones : dienares, female servant ; voogdea, female guardian ; 
dichteres, poetess ; zangeres, professional lady singer; godin, 
goddess ; koningin, queen ; boerin, farmer's wife. 
Note. — Zangster means muse, songstress. 

With ' in ' names of female animals are likewise derived 
from masculine forms: berin, she-bear; leeuwin, lioness; 
tijgerin, tigress ; wolvin, she-wolf. 



ETYMOLOGY. 291 



IV. Er (aar), el (eel, set) are used for the formation of 
names of instruments or tools with modifications of the 
root- vowel before el: stoffer, broom; klopper, knocker; 
tuimelaar, tumbler (kind of pigeon); lievel, siphon; troffel, 
trowel ; beugel (fr. buigen, to bend), iron hoop ; teugel 
(fr. tiegen, trekken, to pull), bridle ; sleutel (fr. sluiten, to 
close), key; vleugel (fr. vliegen, to fly), wing; tooneel 
(fr. toonen, to show), stage ; houweel (fr. houwen, to hew), 
pick-axe ; stijfsel, starch ; schoeisel, shoes ; voedsel, food. 

Note. — The ending sel is, however, principally used for indicating 
the product of an action : balcsel, anything produced by 
baking ; hooksel (product of Itolcen, to boil) ; zaagsel (product of 
zagen, to saw). 

V. Je (tje, etje), he (kijn), elijn, ing, and el form 
diminutives. Je is the most common diminutive ending, 
of which tje, etje, pje, and Jcje are only modified forms 
required in special instances. 

Je occurs whenever a word ends in one of the sharp 
consonants ('t kofschip) or in d or g: kopje, small head; 
vischje, small fish; lesje, small lesson; kuifje, small tuft; 
haalcje, small hook; matje, small mat. Exc. meid (con- 
tracted form of maagd) has meisje, girl. 

Note. — The Cape Dutch rneidje means a little servant-girl. 

Tje occurs after words ending in a vowel or diphthong : 
knietje, little knee ; zeetje, small sea. 

Tje also occurs when the word ends in I, n, r, or w, 
preceded either by a full vowel or diphthong, or sometimes 
by a mute vowel : kooltje, small cabbage ; nageltje, small 
nail; deuntje, ditty; dekentje, coverlet; boortje, small 
gimlet ; kamertje, little room ; pauwtje, young peacock ; 
zioaluwtje, young swallow. 

Words ending ia m preceded by a long or by a mute 
vowel, or by either of the consonants I and r, take je for 
their diminutive ending, inserting p between it and the 
word : boompje, small tree ; bezempje, small broom ; halmpje, 
tiny stalk ; wormpje, little worm. 

L 2 



292 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Etje occurs when a final b, ng, I, m, n, or r is preceded by 
a modified vowel : tobbetje, small tub ; dingetje, small 
thing; rolletje, small roll; Jcommetje, small cup; zonnetje, 
little sun ; karretje, small cart. Nouns in g preceded by a 
modified vowel may take either je or etje ■ mugje, little 
gnat ; ruggetje, little back. 

Some nouns in ng take je while sharpening g into k, in 
consequence of their last syllable being unaccented, which 
would render the addition of mute etje impossible : rottinkje, 
small cane ; koninkje, little king. 

Ke and Jcen were much more frequently used in former 
times than they are now. They render the language 
sweet and tender, as may be felt on reading Jan van 
Beers' poem : " Het broerken." 

Kijn and lijn belong almost exclusively to poetry. For 
examples read Jan van Beers' : " De bloem op het graf." 

Words with final e generally drop that letter before 
a diminutive ending : einde, end, makes eindje ; koelte, 
breeze, makes Jcoeltje. Sometimes, however, the e is 
retained : dieptetje, little hollow ; diktetje, small swelling. 

Ing serves less to derive real diminutives from existing 
words than rather to indicate small objects : krakeling, 
cracknell; hokkeling, calf less than a year old; nesteling. 
nestling. 

El is an obsolete diminutive ending, only to be found 
in a small number of words, in which it has so entirely 
lost its original meaning, that a new ending is now added, 
whenever an actual diminutive is required : kruimel (from 
kruim, crumb), kruimeltje ; eikel, acorn (fr. eik, oak-tree), 
eikeltje ; bundel, bundle, bundeltje. 

Obs. — Tt may here be observed botli that tlie Dutch are fond of 
using diminutives, and that these forms have lost much of 
tlitir original signification, in consequence of which, if a 
thing is actually small, the use of the adjective hlein together 
with the diminutive ending, is not infrequent ; e.g. Daar zit 
een Mein muisje, a tiny little mouse sits there. 

VI. Collective nouns are formed by means of the 
suffixes: age, dom, Tieid, scliap, te and ij; e.g. yplantage. 



ETYMOLOGY. 293 



plantation; pakkage, collection of packages; menschdom, 
mankind ; christenheid, Christianity ; gereedschap, tools ; 
gevogelte, all the birds ; ruigte, shrubbery ; ruiterij, cavalry. 

VII. Abstract Nouns are derived : 

1. From concrete nouns by means of the suffixes schap, 
dom, ij. Ex. : koningschap, kingship ; priesterdom, priest- 
hood ; 8lavernij, slavery. 

2. From adjectives by the suffixes schap, dom, nis, e, 
and te, representing qualities as substantives : blijdschap, 
gladness; adeldom, nobility; droefenis, sadness; Icoude, 
cold ; diepte, depth. 

3. From verbs by the suffixes : schap, dom, nis, ij, age, 
st. Ex. : rekenschap, account ; wasdom, growth ; ergernis, 
annoyance ; razernij, madness ; lekkage, leakage ; Jcunst, art. 

VIII. Formation of Adjectives. 

(a) By means of prefixes ( Voorvoegsels) : 

Aarts (in a high degree, with words having an un- 
favourable meaning) : aartsdom, very stupid ; aartslui, 
very lazy. 

On (not) : onnut, useless ; onioetend, ignorant. 

Wan (bad) : wanschapen, misshapen ; wanstaltig, deformed. 

Be and ge form adjectives from nouns and stems 
of verbs ; behendig, dexterous (from hand) ; bekommerd, 
anxious (from kommer) ; beicust, conscious (from iceteri) ; 
gewoon, accustomed (from wennen). 

(6) By means of suffixes (Aclitervoegsels) : 

Achtig : one suffix "achtig" is accented, another with a 
different meaning is unaccented. The first, which we also 
meet with under the German form ha/tig (haft), expresses 
full possession of what the word to which it is affixed 
indicates: waarachtig, true ; twijfclachtig, doubtful ; krijgs- 
haftig, soldier-like ; manhaftig, manly. 

Achtig, not accented, has the meaning of the English y, 
ish, and indicates a similarity with the meaning of the 
principal word : zwartachtig, blackish ; houtachtig, wood- 
like; winter achtig, wintry. 

Baar (derived from beren, to bear), means a bringing 



294 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

forth, a producing, or a possibility of the action : wonder- 
baar, wonderful; vruchtbaar, fertile; leesbaar, legible. 

En and sch form adjectives which indicate a material: 
zilveren, Jcoperen, houten (unaltered by any inflexion of 
gender, number, or case), duffelsch, lahensch. 

Tg (Engl, y) indicates possession, or, with stems of 
verbs, a repetition of the action : Jcrachtig, Jcundig, begeerig, 
levendig. 

Note. — Eenig is formed of a num. adj. ; innig, overig, and nietig 
are formed of particles. 

Zaam signifies " fitness " or " desire " : buigzaam, 
leerzaam, icerJczaam. 

Lijlc means similitude, belonging to, being of the nature 
of : koninJclijk, vorstelijh, zedelijh, armelijk, liefelijk, vroolijh ; 
— after verbs, a possibility of the action : sterfelijk, 
schadelijJc. 

Loos means " destitute of" : eerloos, naamloos, broodeloos ; 
— after verbs, impossibility of the action : reddeloos, 
stoorloos. 

Isch and sch are used to derive adjectives from proper 
nouns : Aziatisch, Perzisch, Egyptisch, Zweedsch, Deensch, 
Poolsch. It is also found in a good many adjectives of 
foreign origin, and then stands for the English ic: 
grammatisch, alfabetisch. 

In afgodisch and wettisch it has the meaning of lijh. 

Sch likewise forms adjectives from nouns and adverbs : 
wereldsch, buitenlandsch, dagelijJcsch, achterwaartsch. 

IX. Formation of Verbs. 

(a) By direct derivation : 

1. Causatives (Causatievcn), through changes in the 
radical vowel: vellen (from vallen), to fell; zetten (from 
zitten), to put down ; leiden (from lijden), to lead. 

2. Intensives (lntemieven), through changes in the 
radical vowel and final consonant : buhhen (from buigen), 
to stoop; vluchten (from vliegeri), to flee; slachten (from 
elagen, slaari), to kill ; Tcnippen (from hnijpen), to nip. 



ETYMOLOGY. 295 



3. Denominatives (Denominatieven), through suffixing 
the verbal infinitive ending ' en ' to 

Nouns : ademen, to breathe ; Ujmen, to glue ; regenen, 

to rain ; schaven, to plane. 
Adjectives , witten, to whitewash ; drogen, to dry ; 

dooden, to kill ; stijven, to starch. 
Num. adjectives: vereenen, to unite; verdubbelen, to 

double. 
Particles : innen, to collect ; uiten, to utter. 

(b) By means of Prefixes (Voorvoegsels) : 

Be (by) has the meaning of " all round ; " it signifies 
that the action is extended to every part of the object in 
bezien, bedekken, bespreken, beschieten, behandelen, bevoelen ; 
— its meaning is that of the Dutch preposition "bij" in 
bereiken, behooren, bespringen, besparen, bekomen. 

Note. — On account of this meaning be has the power of changing 
any intransitive verb into a transitive one, and of forming 
verbs of substantives which otherwise could not (as in 
English) be used as such : sterven — het vleesch hesterft een 
nacht ; bemannen, to man ; beschijnerT, to shine upon ; 
bevruchten, to fertilize. 

Er originally has the meaning of " obtaining by means 
of the action " : erlangen, erkennen, ervaren, erbarmen. The 
prefix is little used. Its meaning is expressed by be, 
and ver. 

Ge does not materially change the meaning of a verb : 
tcinnen or gewinnen, lukken or gelukken, etc., are alike in 
signification. 

In some cases ge takes the place "of a preposition 
following the verb : gelijken for lijken op, genaken for 
naken tot. 

Of some verbs the original form is no longer in use : 
genezen, geschieden, genieten. 

Of a few verbs this prefix changes the meaning : beuren, 
to lift, and gebeuren, to happen ; raken, to touch, and 
geraken, to get to. 



296 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Wan expresses a negation of the meaning of the stem- 
word : wantrouwen, to distrust; wanhopen, to despair. 

Her means again, anew: herdenken, herhauiven, her- 
eenigen. 

Ont originally meant ant, i.e., back, against, away 
from : ontraden, ontmoeten, onthouden, ontloopen, ontzien. 
But it may also mean a change either from an old con- 
dition, or into a new one : ontsluiten, ontdeJclcen, onttronen, 
ontaarden, ontbinden, ontslapen, ontdooien, ontsj>ringen, ont- 
spruiten. 

Ver, an important prefix, has several distinct meanings: 

1. When prefixed to a verb it expresses the contrary of 
the original meaning of that verb : verachten, verleeren, 
veroordeelen, verleiden. 

2. It expresses a continuation of the action, until a 
complete change is brought about : verdrogen, to die by 
drought; verteren, to consume ; vreten = vereten, to devour ; 
versjpelen, to game away ; verdrinhen, to be drowned ; ver- 
ouderen, to pine away through age ; verpletten, to crush. 

3. It signifies " away from " : verplaatsen, verjagen, 
verwerpen. 

4. It expresses transition or change : verbedden, verharen, 
vertalen, vervellen. 

5. It has the meaning of covering or closing : ver- 
mommen, vergulden, verzilveren, verglazen, vernagelen, ver- 
helen. 

C. It forms verbs from nouns and adjectives, once 
more indicating a change : verbroederen, vergoden, verzxoa- 
geren, vernieuwen, verouderen, verfijnen. 

7. In a few cases it merely stands for the preposition 
" over " : vernachten and overnachten ; vermannen and over- 
mannen. 

(c) By means of Suffixes (achtervoegsels) : 

Elen and eren (with or without change in radical vowel) 
form frequentative verbs (Frequentatieven), those that 
express a repetition of the action, from existing ones : 



ETYMOLOGY. 297 



Tzakelen (from JceMcen), to cackle ; sprenlcelen (from spring en), 
to sprinkle ; bedelen (from bidden), to beg ; bibberen (from 
beven), to shiver ; stotteren (from stooten), to stammer. 

X. Adverbs may have the following suffixes : e, s, lijh 
(lijlcs), ling (lings), waart (waarts), wijs (wijze, gewijs, 
gewijze), jes (pjes, tjes, etjes). 

E changes adjectives into adverbs. It is little used : 
dieht(e)-bij, verre, noode, alreede. 

S changes nouns, adjectives, and present participles 
into adverbs, apocopating final d in the latter: daags. 
dihwijls, ondanlcs, rechts, slechts, willens, wetens. 

Lijh (lijlcs) are suffixes to nouns and adjectives : 
tnaandelijks, schriftelijk, lierhaaldelijlc, gcioisselijlc. 

Ling (lings) converts nouns into adverbs of manner : 
zijdelings, mondelings, blindelings. 

Waart (waarts), with the meaning " in the direction of," 
occurs alter nouns, pronouns and prepositions: hemel- 
waarts, landivaarts, te mijwaart, te uwaart, voorwaarts, her- 
waarts. 

Wijs (wijze gewijs, gewijze), meaning " on this wise," 
occurs after nouns in the genitive case, or after verbs 
with inserted s : trapsgeimjze, steelsgewijze, hivanswijs. 

Jes (pjes, tjes, etjes) makes of adjectives adverbial 
diminutives : zoetjes, lief jes, zachtjes, Jcalmpjes, eventjes. 
These are all used as adverbs of manner. 

XI. Formation of Compound "Words. 
(a) Compound Nouns are formed : 

1. By writing the two parts together, so as to make 
them appear one word : huisdeur, vuurhaard, reisgenoot, 
uitgaaf. In this way by far the greater part of the com- 
pound nouns are formed in Dutch. 

2. By inserting an s between the two parts of the 
compound, as a mark of the genitive case, a plural form, 
or for the sake of euphony : jagerstasch, handelsbank ; 
meisjesschool, jongensboelc ; leidsman, scheidsrechter. 



298 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

3. By inserting e or en between the two parts (see the 
rules, p. 21). 

4. In uncommon compositions, geographical names or 
compounds derived from foreign languages, the hyphen 
is used : vergeet-mij-niet, forget-me-not (the flower) ; 
kruidje-roer-mij-niet, touch-me-not (the sensitive plant) • 
Zuid-AfriJca, Oost-London, Mokka-koffie, Procureur-Gene- 
raal, Luitenant-Admiraal. 

(&) Compound Adjectives are formed — 

1. By writing the two parts together so as to make 
them appear one word : lichtgroen, blauwgrijs, driedubbel, 
doodarm. 

2. When the first part is a verb, by the insertion of s 
between the parts : noemensicaard, werkensmoe. 

(c) Compound Verbs are formed — 

1. By the composition of infinitives with nouns, 
adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions, when the two parts 
are written as one word without undergoing any change; 
schijfschieten, huishouden, doodslaan, wegnemen, ophouden, 
loslaten. 

2. By the composition of two infinitives, the first of 
which loses its final n, or sometimes the entire infinitive- 
ending en: ginnegappen, harrewarren, trekkebekken ; — star- 
oogen, reikhalzen, vrijwaren. 

(d) Compound Adverbs are formed — 

1. Without changing either part of the composition 
bergop, tweemaal, driewerf, achteruit. 

2. By the insertion of a genitive-ending between tho 
parts; blootshoofds, goedsmoeds, geemzins; — langzamerhand, 
middelerwijl. 

3. By the insertion of a dative-ending between the 
parts, strengthened by a t: zijnentwege, om uwentwille, 
liarenthalve. 



ETYMOLOGY. 399 



XII. List op Words which require some explanation on 
account of the altered or obsolete meaning of one of their 
component parts, or on account of the difference between 
their original and present meanings, and alterations in 
their spelling. 

Adelaar, adel aar, noble bird, (now) eagle. 
Adelborst, noble breast, noble youth, (now) navy-cadet. 
Achterbaks, achter den rug, behind one's back, on the sly. 
Balcboord, rugboord, larboard, left hand of a ship. 
Baker (contraction of bakermoeder), baby-nurse. 
Barnsteen, (by common metathesis of r) brandsteen, burnt 

stone, (now) amber. 
Bongerd (boogaard), boomgaard, tree-garden, orchard. 
Bordpapier, plankpapier, board-paper, cardboard. 
Crediet, credit (commercial term); krediet, trust, faith. 
Deemoed* dienaarsmoed, servant's mind, humility. 
Dertien, drietien, thirteen. 
Dokter, physician ; doctor, university degree in literature, 

theology, etc. 
Drempel, dorpel, deurpaal, door-post, threshold. 
Elf, eenlif, overblijvende een, one over, eleven. 
Ellende, ander land, other country, ballingschap, banish 

ment, (now) misery. 
Etmaal, edmaal, nog eens maal(tijd), again (the same) time, 

a period of 24 hours. 
Godsvrucht, godsvurcht (metathesis of r), vreeze Gods, fear 

of God, piety. 
Handhaven, (bij de) hand hebben, to maintain, manu tenere ; 

verdedigen, to defend, hold. 
Heimwee, woning-smart, home-pain, home-sickness. 
Hertog, (met het) heir tiegende, (met het) leger trekkende, 

leider, leader (dux), (now) duke. 
Honingraat, honingratel, honigweefsel, honeycomb (pron. 

distinctly honing-raat). 

* The word moed, found in many compounds, may always be 
translated by " mind." 



306 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

Uoovaardig, Jwogvaardig, trachtende naar hoogheid, desirous 

of being great, proud. 
Huisraad, huisgeraad, huisgereedschap, utensils for house- 
keeping, (now) furniture. 
Juffrouw, jufvrouio, jungvrouw, jonge vrouw, young lady, 

miss (as a form of address). 
Kermis, kerkmis, church-mass, (now) fair. 
Kerspel, kerkspel, kerkspaal, IcerJcelijke grens, parish. 
Kerstfeest, Jcrestfeest (metathesis of r), kristfeest, Christus- 

feest, Christmas. 
Kinds, childish ; kindsheid, childhood ; Mndsch, doting ; 

kindschheid, dotage, childishness of old age. 
Komedie, theatre ; comedie, comedy. 
Kwik, kwikzilver, quicksilver, mercury. 
Kwilcstaart, levende staart, wagtail (a bird). 
Landouw, land aue, goed land, fertile tract of land. 
Landpaal, landgrens, land-mark. 
Lichaam, likhaam, lijkbedekking (from hemen, to cover), 

flesh-covering, body. 
Likdoren, lijkdoren, doren (in hef) vleesch, thorn (in the) 

flesh, corn. 
Litteeken, lijkteeken, teeken (in hei) vleesch, mark (in the) 

flesh, scar. 
Madeliefje, weideliefje, weidebloem, meadow-flower, daisy. 
Maarsclialk, (mare knechi), paardeknecht, groom, (now) 

hoogste generaal, chief officer, marshal. 
Meineed, valsche eed, false oath, perjury. 
Mevrouw, mijne vrouw, my wife, (now) madam. , 

Misdruk, misdruksel, paper wasted in printing. 
Moer, moerschroef, screw-nut. 
Muizenesten, muizenissen, musings, diepe gedachten, deep 

thoughts. 
Nachtvorst, nacJdvrost (metathesis of r), night-frost. 
Namelooa, innumerable ; naamloos, without a name. 
Nooddruft, nooddurft (metathesis of r), groote behoefte, great 
• want, need, from durven (derven), behoeven. 



kT^MOLOGY. 301 



Ooievaar, ode baar (from beren, to bear), schatdrager, 

treasure-bearer, (now) stork. 
Ooglid, oogdeksel, eyelid (the Dutch lid for deksel is some- 
times heard). 
Orde, order (arrangement), rank; order, bestelling, order 

(commercial term). 
Ovcrlijden, overgaan, to pass over, (now) to die. 
Paarlemoer, parelmoeder, niother-of-pearl. 
Practijk, practice, application of rules; praktijk, practice 

of a physician. 
Ruiken, to smell ; rieken, to scent. 
Schauw (in poetry) schaduw, shadow ; aclwuw, chimney, or 

hut. 
Spin, spinnekobbe, apinnelcop, spider. 
Tachtig, (f)achtig, (f)achttig, eighty. 
Twaalf, tweelif, overblijvende twee, two over, twelve. 
Veertien, viertien, fourteen. 
Veertig, viertig, forty. 
Vierschaar, vier scharen, vier banken, four seats (in an 

ancient court), (now) tribunal. 
Vorst, voorste, eerste, gebieder, prince (monarch). 
Wieroo, JcwijrooJc, gewijde or heilige rook, consecrated smoke, 

incense. 
Wissel, wisselbrief, bill of exchange. 
Wijwater, gewijd water, holy water. 
Zinloos, meaningless ; zinneloos, senseless, foolish. 
Zinnelijk, sensual ; zindelijk, clean, neat. 

XIII. Where to place the Accent : — Generally speaking 
the accent lies on the first syllable of a word. 

The following detailed rules may prove useful to 
students : 

(a) Of the prefixes of Ch. XIV, § II, (a), aarts, on, mis, 
wan, oor, et, and ant have the accent : adrtsvader, ongeloof, 
misbaksel, wdntrouwen, oorsprong, etmaal, dntwoord. 

(b) Of the suffixes of § II, (6), only ier is accented i 
tuinier (whereas kunstenaar, schrijver, etc.). 



302 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

(c) Of the suffixes of § III, es and in have the accent : 
zangeres, tijgerin. 

(d) Of the suffixes of § IV, eel takes the accent: 
houweel, tooneel. 

(e) Of the suffixes of § VI, age and ij have the accent : 
lelckage, plantdge, baJclcerij, dieverij. 

(/) Except a few enumerated under (6) to (e) no one 
suffix — whether in nouns, adjectives, adverbs, or verbs, 
has the accent, except " achtig," as explained under 
§ VIII, (6). 

(jf) Of the prefixes of § VIII, (a), aarts, on, and wan 
are accented. 

(Ji) Of the prefixes of § IX, (6), wan is the only one 
which has the accent. The other verbal prefixes, be, ge, 
er, her, ont, and ver, by means of which a great many 
verbs, and nouns derived from them, are made, have no 
accent, but the accent lies on the first syllable after them. 

(f) In verbs, and words derived from verbs, the accent 
lies on the stem-part. 

(j) Separably compounded verbs, however (see p. 188), 
have the accent on the noun, adjective, adverb, or preposi- 
tion with which they are compounded. 

(&) Compound nouns have the accent on their first 
part. 

(I) Non-Dutch words, as a rule, have the accent on 
their last syllable : accent, present, absent, muziek? 
physiek, concert, talent, corset, kanaal, harpoen, kantoor> 
musket, seizoen, schavot — or if they are of more than two 
syllables, on the second last one: kanarie, monopolie, 
kalender, operatic, traditie, piano. 

(m) When such foreign words of three or more syllables 
end in aaf, gram, fie, ment, uut, ist, ant, aan, ieh, ier, or aat, 
they take the accent on their final syllable : telegraaf, 
monogram, photografie, firmament, instituut, telegrafist, 
foliant, oceaan, republiok, formulier, potentaat. 



ETYMOLOGY. 303 



TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 

Exercise OIL 

Very long ago, about the year 550 B.C. (V.C.), Asia had 
two mighty kings, viz.,. Cyrus, King of Persia, a man re- 
nowned for his courage and military skill, and Croesus, 
whose riches surpassed all comprehension. The latter 
once happened to meet (met by chance) the Greek 
philosopher Solon, whom he treated with the greatest 
distinction and to whom he showed all his riches and 
treasures. Then he said : " Solon, I know (that) you have 
seen much of the world — tell me whom you consider (as) the 
happiest of men." Of course the proud king could himself 
have given the answer (that) he expected; he merely 
used the philosopher as an instrument for flattering 
(to flatter) his vanity. How disappointed he must 
have been, when he heard the following reply from 
the mouth of the sage : — " He whom I consider (the) 
happiest among mortals is Tellus, a burgher of Athens, 
a man upright and good, esteemed by all his fellow- 
citizens, a man who spent his life in promoting the good 
of the city of his fathers ; a man who had a happy home, 
healthy, beautiful, strong children, whom he saw grow up 
as dutiful youths, esteemed by (the) society as the father 
leas himself; a man who, when his beard had become 
grey and the hair of his head snow-white, when his eyes 
were getting dim and his knees feeble, went to war for 
the rescue of his country, and died on the battle-field, to 
seal with his blood the glorious victory of the day." 
"Him," Solon repeated, "I certainly consider (as) the 
happiest of all men." 

Exercise CIII. 

"And after him,'" hastily replied the king, who 
had grown (become) indignant at the philosopher's 
boldness of preferring (to prefer) a common citizen 
of Athens to the richest of kings — "after that, tell 



304 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

us, who do you think is happiest ? " " Two Greek 
youths," was the disappointing answer, " Cleobis and 
Biton, both of whom were handsome and strong, and 
they even once gained laurels in the Olympian games. 
Their mother was a priestess, and when one day the 
hour of service in the temple was drawing near (ap- 
proached), and the mother sat ready in her cart, waiting 
in vain for the oxen, which were to pull the vehicle, the 
two sons, lest she should he (too) late, harnessed them- 
selves to the chariot, and conveyed their mother to the 
place of worship. The people looked on (it) in amazement, 
and began to praise the happy priesiess on account of her 
worthy sons. The mother, moved at heart, straightway 
entered the temple, knelt down before the images of her 
gods, and entreated them to reward her sons and (to) do 
to them what they might think best (wat hun het best 
mocht dunhen). Then she called her sons into the 
temple and made them lie down for a while, because she 
saw (that) they were tired, Both fell asleep and neither 
of them ever woke again. The gods had granted the 
mother's request, and translated the youths to the world 
of undisturbed happiness." 

Exercise CIV. 

After having listened impatiently to Solon's second reply, 
Croesus exclaimed : " Stranger from Athens, tell me why I, 
whom everyone acknowledges to be the richest of men, 
should be inferior in happiness to common citizens of 
your native country ! " " O Croesus," was the answer, 
" do not bo offended at my words. I know you are happy 
at present ; but I, who have seen much of life, can only 
call him happy, who continues to be so (Jief) until the 
day of his death. You are young and may have fifty 
more (nog) years to live (may perhaps live, etc.) ; who knows 
what may happen in the course of your days ! " — 
Croesus failed to see (inzien) (could not seo) the sound 
wisdom of the philosopher's reply, and declined speaking 



ETYMOLOGY. 305 

to him (any) more. But let us see what happened : 
Croesus, stung by pride, sent messengers to the celebrated 
oracle of Delphi, in Greece, for the sake of ascertaining 
what would be the result if he should make war with 
Cyrus of Persia. The messengers came back in (on the) 
due time with the following message from the gods — for 
which they had paid a sum as only a man like Croesus 
could offer : — " If Croesus passes the Halys — the eastern 
border of his dominion — a great empire will be destroyed." 

Exercise CV. 

A man (somebody) of common sense would have 
noticed the apparent ambiguity of this answer — every 
answer from the priests at Delphi was ambiguous — 
but Croesus felt sure that the empire whose doom had 
been announced, must be the Persian one. He therefore 
raised a mighty army, crossed the border into Persia, 
and attacked his great opponent. From the very 
(first) beginning the tide of war seemed to turn against 
him, and very soon after (claarna), we find (the) poor 
Croesus fettered to a stake in the market-place of his own 
capital, just on the point of being burned. Suddenly, 
however, he exclaims : " Solon, Solon, Solon ! " — and goes 
on repeating that foreign name until the attention of 
King Cyrus is drawn to it, and he sends an interpreter to 
his enemy to inquire what he wants. Croesus tells about 
Solon's visit to Sardes, and what remarkable words ho 
had spoken to him. Cyrus, to whom every syllable of the 
conversation is translated, is deeply moved. He feels 
himself a human being, weak in himself, great only 
through circumstances. He fancies how an equal fate 
might befall him some day (de eene of andere), and 
commands the Lydian king to be loosed (commands 

that be loosed) from his bonds on the spot. 

Not only (the) life was granted unto Croesus, but he 
became Cyrus's friend and counsellor. 



306 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE XV. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

( Woordschilcking.') 

The Principal Sentence. 
(JDe Hoofdzin.} 

I. The common order of the Assertive sentence, whose 
verb is in a simple tense, is the same in Dutch as in 
English : 

Subject — Predicate — Object — Extension. 
He saw a house in the wood, hij zag een huis in het bosch. 

II. A. When the Predicate consists of more than one 
word, i.e., when it is made up of a verb and its auxiliary, 
or a verb in conjunction with an adverb, noun, or any 
other part of speech, the verb (whichever comes first) 
takes the place of the English verb, whereas the other 
parts of the predicate must be removed to the end of the 
sentence : 

He has seen a house in the wood, hij heeft een huis in 

het bosch gezien. 
He seems to have called the child, hij schijnt het hind 

geroepen te hebben. 
My brother wants a book, mijn broeder heeft een boeJc 

noodig. 
You must have used the knife, gij moet het mes 

gebruiht hebben, or hebben gebruikt. 
He has been obliged to give it, hij heeft het moeten 

geven, not geven moeten. 



CONSTRUCTION. 307 



Obs. — Notice that in the last two sentences the Aux. of time, 
hebben, can either precede or follow the principal verb, 
whereas the Aux. of mood, moeten, cannot follow it. 
Whenever an Aux. of mood, used as a Past Part., takes 
the form of the Infinitive, i.e., when it is used with 
another infinitive verh — it must precede the principal 
verb : 

He has not been allowed to say it, hij heeft het niet mogen 
zeggen. 

Obs. 2. — The only case in which the rule of § II may be broken, 
is when various extensions, or a sub-ordinate sentence 
intervening, the distance between the two parts of the 
verb is rendered greater than is consistent with clearness : 

He did it this morning, as soon as he was up, hij heeft het 
van morgen, zoodra hij op was, gedaan, or hij heeft het 
van morgen gedaan, zoodra hij op was. 

B. Separably compounded verbs in their simple tenses 
follow this rule : 

He travels through the Free State to go to Pretoria, 

hij reist den Vrijstaat door, om . . . . 
The anxiety about his sister keeps him down, de zorg 

over zijne zmter houdt hem onder. 

III. When there are two Objects, one in the Dative 
case (indirect), and the other in the Objective case 
(direct), the indirect object representing a person, and the 
direct object a thing, the person must precede the thing : 

He gave the scholar a book, hij gaf den scholier een 
boeh. 

IV. When two objects (as under III) are represented 
by personal pronouns, the direct object goes first : 

He has given it to him, hij heeft het hem gegeven. 

V. Generally speaking, the place of the adverbial 
extension is in Dutch where it is in English, viz., after 



3o8 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

the object at the end of the sentence. This position is 
taken to emphasize the idea expressed by the adverb : 

He has told him distinctly, yesterday, often, for the 
last time, here, etc., hij Jieeft het hem duidelijk, 
gisteren dihwijh, voor het laatst, hier, enz. gezegd. 

VI. When the object itself requires more emphasis 
than the adverb, the latter (in Dutch) is placed before 
the object, whereas its place in English is between 
Subject and Verb : 

I plainly see the house, but not the window, ik zie 
duidelijk het huis, maar niet het raam. 

VII. "When the object is a noun in the singular, 
preceded by the article een (a, an) or a plural noun 
without any distinguishing word, all adverbs except those 
of manner must precede such an object : 

(I wrote a letter yesterday, ik heb gisteren eenen brief 
geschreven. 
I wrote that letter yesterday, ik heb dien brief gisteren 
geschreven. 

r, (I wrote some letters yesterday, ik heb gisteren brieven 

Compare qescnreven . 

a *= ai (He treats children well, hij behandelt kinder en goed. 

VIII. When the object is a personal pronoun, the 
adverbs cannot precede it ; 

I shall see him often, ik zal hem dikwijls zien. 

I have heard her very well, ik heb haar heel goed gehoord. 

IX. Adverbs must precede the preposition-object : 

He always relies on his memory, hij vertrouwt altijd op zijn 
geheugen. 

(He relied on his memory foolishly, hij vertroutvde op 
eene dwaze manier op zijn geheugen. 
He foolishly- relied on his memory, hij was dwaas genoeg 
op zijn geheugen te vertrouwen. 



CONSTRUCTION. 309 



X. True adverbs must precede adverbial pbrases : 

He saw my brother here in the wood, hij heeft mijnen broeder 
hier in het bosch gezien. 

He will see him for the last time to-morrow, hij zal hem morgen 
voor het laatst zien. 

He will start at seven to-morrow, hij zal morgen om zeven uur 
vertrekken. 

XI. Adverbs of time usually precede the other adverbs : 

The man has been looking for the child everywhere to-day, de 
man heeft het kind vandaag overal gezocht. 

XII. The adverb of negation (niet, not) stands : 

1. After the verb in a single tense : 

The child does not eat, het Jcind eet niet. 

2. Before the principal verb in compound tenses : 

The child has taken no food to-day, het hind heeft 
vandaag niet gegeten. 

3. After the object (direct or indirect, or both) of a 
verb: 

I did not pick those flowers, ih heb die bloemen niet 
geplukt. 

Did he not tell it to you ? heeft hij het u niet verteld ? 

4. If intended to negative the meaning of any other 
word but the verb, its place is immediately before such 
word : 

The child would not eat at once, het kind heeft niet 
dadelijk willen eten. 

My brother, not I, has read the book, niet ik, maar 
mijn broeder, heeft het boek gelezen. 



3to THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

The Sub-ordinate Sentence. 

(JDe OndergeschiJcte Zin.~) 

XIII. The great characteristic of the Dutch sub-ordinate 
sentence is, that the whole of the Predicate is placed at 
the end of the sentence : 

He said, he would have called me at once, hij zei, dat 

hij mij dadelijk zou laten roepen. 
The woman who lives opposite my uncle's house is 

very ill, de vrouw, die tegenover het huis van mijnen 

oom woont, is erg zielc. 

Obs. — When a sub-ordinate sentence has a lengthy extension, 
the verb may be made to precede it, but may never be in 
front of the Direct Object : 

I knew you would never be able to do it, ik wist, dat gij het 

nooit zoudt kunnen doen. 
Do you think I shall see your brother before six o'clock this 

evening ? denkt gij, dat ik uwen broeder zal zien v66r 

van avond zes uur ? 

Note. — An infinitive phrase forming pnrt of a sub-ordinate 
sentence, is not counted an extension, but is (see p. 323) 
analysed as a separate sentence ; hence the verb of the sub- 
ordinate sentence precedes such phrase : 

Ho said he did it to tease you, hij zei, dat hij het deed om u te 

plagen. 
He called to me to stop calling his brother names, hij riep, dat 

ik het laten moest, zijnen broeder uit te schelden. 

XIV, A. When the verb of the sub-ordinate sentence is 
used in a compound tense, or in conjunction with an 
auxiliary of mood, the principal verb and the auxiliaries 
may change places at the end of the sentence : 

(Het boek, dat ik gelezen moet hebben.* 
Het boek, dat ik gelezen hebben moet. 
Het boek, dat ik moet hebben gelezen. 
Het boek, dat ik moet gelezen hebben. 

B. But when the auxiliaries of mood, kunnen, mogen, 
moeten, willen and durven, are joined to the principal verb 

* The second of these four ways is least used. 



CONSTR UCTION. 3 1 1 



in their infinitive form (see p, 171, obs.), they must always 
precede the principal verb : 

He wanted me to let him do it, hij wilde, dat ik het 
hem zou laten doen, not doen laten. 

XV. There are a few cases in which it is preferable to 
keep to one form of construction : 

1. When the subject of a sub-ordinate sentence is a 
Eelative Pronoun, the auxiliary should come after the 
principal verb : 

The lecturer who is expected, de spreker die verwacht 
wordt, rather than wordt verwacht. 

2. The verbs, doen, gaan, helpen, hooren, Tcomen, leeren, 
voelen, zien, take their places in front of their principal 
verb : 

If the boy hears me coming, he will run away, ah de 
jongen mij hoort komen, zal hij icegloopen. 

I felt it as soon as I sat down, ik voelde het, zoodra 
ik ging zitten. 



Inversion in the Principal Sentence. 

XVI. The inversion of Subject and Predicate occurs in 
Dutch as also sometimes in English : 

In Interrogative and Exclamatory sentences : 

Do you see that child playing ? ziet u dat kind spelen ? 
Have you heard that man ? heeft u dien man gehoord f 
If I could only see him ! kon ik hem toch raaar zien \ 
Would that my brother were here ! ware mijn broeder maar 
hier I 

XVII. If, for the sake of emphasis, any other part of 
the sentence but the subject is placed at the beginning of 
the sentence, the subject in Dutch is always placed after 



312 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

the verb, if such verb be in a simple tense, and after 
the first auxiliary, if the verb be in a compound tense : 

There you see him, daar ziet gij hem. 

Yesterday I saw him, gisteren heb ik hem gezien. 

I do not like the book at all, mij bevalt het boek in het geheel 

niet. 
His letter I have not read, zijnen brief heb ik niet gelezen. 
Hate him I do not, haten doe ik hem niet. 

XVIII. In sentences in which " it " — het, is the Subject, 
and a personal pronoun forms part of the Predicate, such 
personal pronoun takes the place of the subject : 

It is he, hij is het. It is we, wij zijn het. 

XIX. When the first word of a principal sentence is 
one of the adverbial conjunctions, toch, yet, niettemin, 
nevertheless, desniettegenstaande, notwithstanding, evenwel, 
yet, intusschen, meanwhile, integendeel, on the contrary, 
daarentegen, on the other hand, ooJc, likewise, daarenboven, 
besides, dus, derhalve, consequently, vandaar, that is why, 
daarom, for this reason, bijgevolg, consequently, daardoor, 
that is why, voorts, further, etc., the Subject and Predicate 
change places : 

It should not be forgotten in the meantime, intusschen 

moet men niet vergeten. 
Further I have to say, voorts moet ik zeggen. 

Obs. — The above sentence also appears in the following form : 
Intusschen, moet men niet vergeten, etc. It should be 
noticed that the inserted comma does away with the need 
of inversion. This comma, however, is not used after ook, 
vandaar, daardoor, voorts. 

XX. The adverbial conjunctions nu, now, and echter, 
however, are usually placed in the body of the sentence, 
in which case they do not influence the construction : 

My parents, however, have decided for me, mijne ouders hebben 

echter voor mij besloten. 
Now the judge was of opinion, de rechter nu meende. 
Now to-morrow there would be a holiday, morgen nu zou er 

vacantie zijn. 



CONSTR UCT10N. 3 1 3 



Toch, yet, is sometimes used in the same way : 

Yet he is not ashamed of his ignorance, zijner 
onwetendheid toch schaamt hij zich niet. 

XXI. When a sub-ordinate sentence precedes a principal 
one, the order of the latter is inverted : 

I have told him all, answered the man, ik heb hem alles gezegd, 

antwoordde de man. 
After having spoken to him a long time, I left him alone*, 

nadat ik lang mei hem gesproken had, liet ik hem alleen. 

Obs. — After sub-ordinate sentences with wie odk, whoever, wat 
ook, whatever, hoe ook, however, and hoe het zij, however it he, 
the order of the principal verb is not inverted. 

Whoever may tell you, I shall not believe it, wie het u ook 

zegt, ik zal het niet gelooven. 
However that may be, I shall rest satisfied, hoe dat ook zij, i'c 

zal tevreden zijn. 

XXII. When verbs like zeggen, to say, antwoorden, to 
answer, hernemen, to go on (speaking), voortgaan, to 
continue (speaking), denken, to think, etc., occur with 
their subject between the two parts of a quotation, such 
subject must be placed after its verb : — 

" Those books," said he, " I shall give you anyway." 
11 Die boeken," zei hij, " zal ik u in elk geval geven." 



Inversion in the Sub-ordinate Sentence, 

XXIII. In conditional sentences, when the conjunction 
ah = if, is omitted, the sub-ordinate sentence takes the 
form of the inverted principal sentence, instead of having 
the whole of its predicate at the end (see XIII). 

Could I but see him, I should ask him, kon ik hem 

inaar zien, ik zou het hem vragen. 
Were I but ten years younger, I should go, was ik 

maar tien jaar jonger, ik zou gaan. 

Obs. — The conditional sentence without the conjunction ah = 



314 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

if, has no influence on the construction of the principal 
sentence (see XXI) ; whereas when als = if, is expressed, 
it has : 

! Could I but see him, I should ask him, kon ik hem maar 
zien, ik zou het hem vragen. 
If I could but see him, I should ask him, als ik hem 
maar zien kon, zou ik het hem vragen. 

XXIV. Sub-ordinate sentences, introduced by als = as if, 
and al = although, take the inverted construction of the 
principal sentence : — 

He speaks as if he knew all about it, hij spreekt, als 
wist hij er alles van (for : also/ hij er alles van 

wisf). 

I shall not understand it, though I read it ten times, 
ih zal het toch niet verstaan, al lees ik het tienmaal 
over (for : ofschoon ilc het tienmaal overlees). 

Obs. — In the sentence, Al hoorde hij u, hij zou toch niet komen, 
even if he heard you, he would not come, the sub- 
ordinate sentence, not having its regular construction 
form, cannot influence the construction of the principal 
sentence (see XXIII, Obs.). 

XXV. In statements and indirect questions beginning 
with who, which, what, or with how and an adjective, in 
English a Noun-subject may folloio the verb to be, whereas 
in Dutch these sentences follow the regular construction 
of the sub-ordinate sentence (see XIII) : — 

He asked what was my opinion of the matter, hij 
vroeg, wat mijn oordeel over de zaak was. 

I know how delicate are her feelings, ik weet, hoe teer 
hare gevoelens zijn. 



CONSTRUCTION, 315 



TRANSLATION EXERCISES.— Vertaaloefeningen. 
Exercise CVI. 

One of the greatest men of (the) old Hellas was the son 
of a sculptor, Socrates by name. When (he was) yet a 
boy, his lofty spirit made him (already) a wonder to (for) 
his parents and friends. (The) Tradition says that his 
father had received a message from (the) heaven, 
instructing him to let the boy have (transl., go) his own 
way in everything, and never to oblige him to do any- 
thing against his own will and conviction, because the 
gods had granted to the young man a sure guide that 
would unfailingly lead him in (op) the right path. (The) 
young Socrates at first seemed to show some inclination 
to become [a] sculptor like his father ; yet he soon found 
out that this occupation did not suit him. No lifeless 
material would he work : he would try his hand at him- 
self and his fellow-men. From that time Socrates, who 
had now grown to manhood, became a philosopher, a teacher 
of profound wisdom, a blessing to his native country, and 
a model to the world at large. After [the] lapse of many 
ages we still find Socrates (transl., Socrates is still) beloved, 
admired ; though generations on generations have ap- 
peared, lived, and acted, yet the people of the present day 
think it an honour to imitate the great sculptor's son on 
account of his purity, his modesty, his love of truth, his 
impartial distribution of justice, his unshaken calmness at 
the approach of (the) death. 

Exercise CVII. 

There can be no doubt (Er valt niet aan te twijfelen), 
that the study of Socrates' character must be profitable 
to every right-minded youth. The beginning of all 
virtue to (for) him was soberness. His doctrine was not, 
to make food and drink as pleasant [as] possible, and take 



316 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

them in the greatest quantity possible — he took food to 
sustain (the) life, and never for any other purpose. Even 
the most exquisite dainties could not induce him to take 
any more than he considered necessary. He likewise 
never drank but (behalve) when he was thirsty, and never 
more than was necessary to quench his thirst. The gods, 
he used to say, know no wants, so (met) the (Jioe) less wo 
are contented [with] the (des te) more we resemble them. 
Naturally quick-tempered, he managed to bring his 
temper under full subjection to his will, and thereby 
acquired an amount of equanimity, as is seldom seen 
(gelijk men . . . aantreft) in (a) man. The inward peaco 
and calm which he enjoyed, became manifest in every 
deed he performed, in every word he said ; his inward joy, 
sprung from an (the) uninterrupted practice of (the) 
virtue, seasoned his speech and shone from his eyes. 

Exercise CVIII. 

(Even) Calm and self-possessed as he was in his life, [so] 
Socrates was in his death. At the age of seventy (years) 
he was accused as one (somebody), whose existence was 
dangerous to the state, seeing that he did not believe in 
the gods of his country and corrupted tho manners of tho 
rising generation by perverted doctrines. He begged the 
judges to take into consideration his public life, and how 
he had devoted himself to the general happiness of his 
fellow-citizens both young and old. The frankness with 
which he defended himself, embittered the judges, and ho 
was condemned to drink the poisonod cup. When (he 
was) in (the) prison, one of his followers brought him an 
elaborate defence, fit to be read in (tho) public. Socrates 
took the document from (uit) his hands, perused it, and 
handed it back with tho reply : " Lysias, if you brought 
me a pair of soft sandals, you would know that I could 
not accept them, because I should think it unmanly. 
Take back your speech and pardon me for refusing (transl., 



CONSTRUCTION. 317 



that I refuse) to make use of it." (On) Another day, one 
of Socrates' dearest friends entered his cell and tried to 
induce him to flee, saying that he had bribed the jailer, 
and that no ill would befall him in (op) the flight. This 
time (ditmaal), however, his answer was decisive and 
firm. " What," he said, " would a true friend induce me 
to disobey the laws of my city ? Many years have I 
enjoyed the just laws of the city of my fathers, and do 
you think that now [that] I am become a martyr by (the) 
misapplication of those laws, I would rebel against 
them?" 

Exercise CIX. 

On the morning of the day of the execution some officials 
entered the prison [and] telling (transl., told) Socrates 
that his last day had come, (and) loosed him from his 
shackles. Shortly after (daarna) his dearest friends, to 
the number of fifteen (vijftien in getal), came in to spend 
the last hours with him. One of these said to him : 
" Master, what will do you leave us, and what can we do 
for you when you are gone ? " "I charge you all," was 
the grave reply, "to live as you have seen me live — more 
you cannot do for me. Moreover, do not speak at my 
grave, here we lay Socrates to rest ; for surely Socrates 
will then have long since departed to the land of eternal 
bliss." Hereupon he began to speak some parting words, 
first to his friends and then to his wife and children. 
This (being) done, he received the fatal draught (transl., 
drink) from an official (who was) present, drank it [off] 
with a smile, and, after having paced the room for some 
time, laid himself down to die. When about (toen hij op 
het punt icas) to breathe his last, he suddenly opened his 
eyes, looked at his friends with a last smile and whispered : 
" I am cured ; sacrifice (bring) a thank-offering to 
Esculapius on my behalf." 



3i8 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTEE XVI. 
PARSING AND ANALYSIS. 

Parsing. — ( Woordontleding.') 

Dutch parsing differs in form materially from English 
parsing. The student should endeavour to make himself 
familiar with the points of dissimilarity. 

Dutch names for tho different parts of speech : — 
Zclfstandignaamwoord, Noun ; Lidwoord, Article ; Bij- 
voegelijknaatnwoord, Adjective ; Telwoord, Numeral Ad- 
jective ; Voornaamwoord, Pronoun ; Werlcwoord, Verb ; 
Bijiooord, Adverb; Voegwoord, Conjunction; Voorzetsel, 
Preposition ; Tusschenwerpsel, Interjection. 

Abbreviations used in Dutch Parsing : 

Zelfstnw. Zelfstandignaamwoord. Noun. 

Lidw. Lidwoord. Article. 

Bijvnw. Bijvoegelijknaamwoord. Adjective. 

Telw. Telwoord. Num. Adject. 

Vnw. Voornaamwoord. Pronoun. 

Ww. Werkwoord. Verb. 

Bijw. Bijwoord. Adverb. 

Voegw. Voegwoord. Conjunction. 

Voorz. Voorzetsel. Preposition. 

Tusschenw. Tusschenwermel. Interjection. 

Overg. Overgankelijlt. Transitive. 

Onoverg. Onovergankelijk. Intransitive. 

Onregm. Onregelmatig. Anomalous. 

Gem. Gemeen. Common. 

Eig. Eigen. Proper. 

Afgetr. Afgetrokken. Abstract. 

Sameng. Samengesteld. Compound. 

Pere. Persoon. Person. 

Mann. Mannelijk. Masculine, 

Vr. Vrouwelijk. Feminine. 

Onz. Onzijdig. Neuter. 



PARSING AND ANALYSIS. 



3*9 



Abbreviations — continued. 

Case. 
Definite. 
Indefinite. 
Plural. 
Singular. 
Indie. Mood. 
Subj. Mood. 
Impcr. Mood. 
Infin. Mood. 
Present Part. 
Past Part. 
Present Tense. 
Pluperfect Tense. 
Future Tense. 

Obs. 1. — In Dutch, such terms as Nominative to, Objective after, 
Qualifying, Modifying, Limiting, etc., are not in use. The 
relations between verbs and their Subjects and Objects, and 
between Nouns and their Articles and Adjectives are 
differently expressed, as will be seen from the examples. 

Ops. 2. — In Dutch parsing each Verb is treated as a separate 
one, except the Auxiliaries of Tense, hebben, zijn, and 
zullen, and the Auxiliary of Voice, worden, which form 
an inseparable part of the Verbs which they help to 
conjugate. 



Nv. 


Naamval. 


Bep. 
Niet-bep. 

Meerv. 


Bepaald. 

Niet-bepalend. 

Meervoud. 


Enk. 


Enkelvoud. 


Aant. w. 


Aantoonende wijs. 


Aanv. w. 
Geb. w. 


Aanvoegende wijs. 
Gebiedende wijs. 


Onb. w. 
Teg. deelw. 
Verl. deelw. 


Onbepaalde wijs. 
Tegenwoordig deelwoord. 
Verleden deelwoord. 


Onv. teg. t. 
Volm. verl. t. 
Onv. toek. t. 


Onvolmaakt tegenivoordige tijd 
Volmaakt verleden tijd. 
Onvolmaakt toekomende tijd. 



EXAMPLES OF PARSING. 

I. 

Sentence : — " Zij werden getroost door de zeJcerheid, dat zij 
het goede gedaan liadden, en zich niet bemoeid hadden met den 
laster, dien men van hunnen buurman verspreid had." 



werden getroost 
door 



de 

zekerheid 
dat 



Pers. Vnw. 3° Pers. Gem. gesl. Meerv. 
l e nv. 

Zwak Onoverg. Ww, Lijdende Vorm. 
Aant. W. Onv. Verl. T. 3 e Pers. 
Meerv. 

Voorz. — wijst de betrekking aan tus- 
schen " werden getroost en " zeker- 
heid." 

Bep. Lidw. Vrouw. Enk. 4 8 nv. 

Afg. Zelfstnw. Vrouw. Enk. 4 e nv. 

Voegw. — verbindt twee zinnen. 



320 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Z1 J 

het 

goede 

gedaan hadden 

en 
zich 

niet 

bemoeid hadden 

met 



den 

lasfer 

dien 

men 

van 



hunnen 
buurman 
verspreid had. 



Pers. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Gem. gesl. Meerv. 

I 8 nv. 
Bep. Lidw. Onz. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Afg. Zelfstnw. Onz. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Onreg. Overg. Ww. Aant. W. Volm. 

Verl. T. 3 e Pers. Meerv. 
Voegw. — verbindt twee zinnen. 
Terugw. Pers. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Gem. gesl. 

Meerv. 4 e nv. 
Bijw. — van ontkenning. 
Zwak Onoverg. Ww. Aant. W. Volm. 

Verl. T. 3 e Pers. Meerv. 
Voorz. — wijst de betrekking aan 

tusscben " bemoeid hadden " en 

" laster." 
Bep. Lidw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Afg. Zelfstnw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Betrekk. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Mann Enk. 

4 e nv. 
Onbep. Pers. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Gem. gesl 

Enk. l e nv. 
Voorz. — duidt de betrekking aan tus- 

schen "verspreid had" en "buur- 
man." 
Bez. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Zwak Onverg. Ww. Aant. W. Volm. 

Verl. T. 3° Pers. Enk. 



Sentence : — 



II. 



" Of het zonnevuur al hlalccr\ 
Of natuur te middag zucht, — ■ 
liij der mane minnetint'ling 
Schept zij nieuioe levenslucht." 

Of (al) Toegevend. Voegw. 

het Bep. Lidw. Onz. Enk. l e nv. 

zonnevuur Sameng. Zelfstw. Onz. Enk. l e nv. 

al (behoort bij "of") 

blaket' Zwak Onoverg. Ww. Aanv. Wijs. On v. 

Teg. T. 3° Pers. Enk. 



PARSING AND ANAL YSIS. 



3 21 



Of 

natuur 

te 

middag 

zuckt' 

Bij 

der 

mane 

minnetint'ling 

Scliept 

zi j 

niexiwe 

levenslucht. 



Toegevend Voegw. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Vrouw Enk. l e nv. 
Voorz. I Bijwooi'delijke 

Gem. Zelfstnw. Mann. V uitdrukking 

Enk. 4 e nv. J van Tijd. 

Zwak Onoverg. Ww. Aanv. Wijs. Onv. 

Teg. t. 3° Pers. Enk 
Voorz. — drukt betrekking uit tusschen 

" schept" en "minnetint'ling." 
Bep. Lidw. Vrouw. Enk. 2 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Vrouw Enk. 2° nv. 
Afgetr. Zelfstnw. Vrouw. Enk. 4 6 nv. 
Zwak Overg. Ww. Aant. Wijs. Onv. 

Teg. t. 3 e Pers. Enk. 
Pers. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Vrouw Enk. l e nv. 
Bijvnw. Vrouw. Enk. 4 6 nv. 
Sameno;. Zelfstnw. Vrouw. Enk. 4° nv. 



III. 



Sentence : 



" Wien Neerlanda bloed in (f aadWen vloeit, 
Van vreemde smetten vrij, 
Wiens hart voor land en honing gloeit 
Verheff' den zang ah wij." 



Wien 



Neerlanda 

bloed 

in 

de 

aderen 

vloeit 

Van 

vreemde 
smetten 
vrij 



Betrekk. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Mann. Enk. 

3 e nv. 
Eig. Zelfstnw. Onz. Enk. 2 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Onz. Enk. l e nv. 
Voorz. — duidt de betrekking aan tua 

schen " aderen " en " vloeit." 
Bep. Lidw. Vrouw. Meerv. 4 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Vrouw. Meerv. 4 e nv. 
Zwak Onoverg. Ww. Aant. w. Onv. Teg. 

t. 3 e Pers. Enk. 
Voorz. — duidt de betrekking aan tua- 

sclien " vrij " en " smetten." 
Bijvnw. Vrouw. Meer. 4 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Vrouw. Meerv. 4 e nv. 
Bijvnw. Onz. Enk. 1° nv. (behoort bij 

" bloed "). 



322 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Wiens 

hart 
voor 

land 
en 

koning 
gloeit 

Verheff* 

den 
zang 
als 
wij. 



Betrekk. Vnw. 3 e Pers. Mann. Enk. 

2 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Onz. Enk. l e nv. 
Yoorz. — drukt de betrekk ing uit tus- 

sclien " gloeit " en " land." 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Onz. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Verbindend Voegw. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Zwak Onoverg. Ww. Aant. w. On v. Teg. 

t. 3 e P. Enk. 
Sterk Overg. Ww. Aanv. w. On v. Teg. t. 

3 e P. Enk. 
Bep. Lidw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Gem. Zelfstnw. Mann. Enk. 4 e nv. 
Vergelijkend Voegw. 
Pers. Vnw. 1° Pers. Gem. Gesl. Meerv. 

l e nv. 



ANALYSIS.— (ZmaontUding). 

The Dutch way of Analysing Sentences is a perfect 
parallel of English analysis, and, as far as principal 
features are concerned, differs from it only in its terms. 

The translation of those terms is as follows : 



Sentence 

Simple Sentence 
( 'omplex Sentence . 
Compound Sentence 
Simple Sentence with compos 

parts 

Principal Sentence . 
Co-ordinate Sentence . 
Sub-ordinate Sentence . 
Complete Sentence . 
Incomplete Sentence 
Elliptic Sentence 
Noun Sentence . 
Adjective Sentence 
Adverbial Sentence 
Of Time . . . 
Of Place . , . 



ite 



Zin. 
Enkelvoudige Zin. 

Samengestelde Zin. 

Enkelvoudige Zin met vcelvoudigt 

deelen. 
JToo/dzin. 

Nevengeschikte Zin. 
Afhankelijke Zin. 
Volledige Zin. 
Onvolledige Zin. 
Elliptische Zin. 
Zelfstandig Afhankelijke Zin. 
Jiijvoegelijk Afhankelijke Zin. 
Bijwoordelijk Afhankelijke Zin. 
Van Tijd. 
Van Plaats. 



PARSING AND ANALYSIS. 323 

Of Manner Van Wijze. 

Of Cause Bedengevende. 

Of Purpose . . Doelaanwijzende. 

Of Comparison Van Vergelijking. 

Concessive Toegevende. 

Copulative Aaneenschakelende. 

Disjunctive Scheidende. 

Adversative Tegenstellende. 

Illative Besluitende. 

Subject Onderwerp. 

Enlargement of the Subject . Uitbreiding van het Onderwerp. 

Understood Subject. . . . Verzwegen Onderwerp. 

Connective Verbinding. 

Predicate Gezegde. 

Object Voorwerp. 

Direct Object Lijdend {Direct) Voorwerp. 

Indirect Object Oneigenlijk {Indirect) Voorwerp. 

Preposition Object .... Voorwerp met een Voorzetsel. 

Extension Bepaling. 

Extension of Time .... Bepaling van Tijd. 

Extension of Place .... Bepaling van Plaats. 

Extension of Manner . . . Bepaling van Wijze. 

Extension of Cause .... Bepaling van Oorzaak. 

The following peculiarities should be noted : 

1. Dutch analysis favours the embodiment in separate 
sentences of phrases, which in English are treated as 
belonging to the main sentence. For example : " Seeing 
his brother, he began to- cry," would in Dutch be analysed 
as, "As (he) saw his brother, he began to cry." 

This custom allows of no exception when an infinitive 
verbis concerned. For example, " I told you to go " should 
be analysed, " I told you (that you should) go." Likewise : 
" I shot the cat (in order that I should) get rid of it." 

2. No distinction in name is made between the Com- 
plex and the Compound Sentences, both going by the 
name of " Samengestelde Zin." 

The Compound Sentence, however, is sometimes called 
" Veelvoudige Zin" 

m 2 



324 THE COMMERCIAL tiUTClI GRAMMAR. 

The following example will illustrate the similarity of 
Dutch and English analysis : 

Examplk of Analysis. 

" Zoo is het genoeg," zeide hij, en Iceerde zich om, om te 
zien, wie het teas, die achter hem dat vreemde geluid maalrte. 
Nooit had hij Jcunnen denhen, dat zijn eigen zoon, wien hij 
jaren geleden wagens schandelijk wangedrag de deur gewezen 
had, op 't onverwachtst was teruggekeerd, om wraah te oefe- 
nen, en in voile wapenrusting nu achter hem stond, gereed, 
hem het leven te benemen. 



ARSING AND ANALYSIS. 



325 



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326 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Correspondentie. 

The difficulties of corresponding in the Dutch language 
lie in the forms of address, which in Dutch are more 
elaborate than in English ; in the phrases preceding the 
correspondent's signature, which are less varied in Dutch 
than in English ; and in the use of certain set terms, of 
which every language has its own stock, and which can- 
not always be literal translations of those used in another 
language. 

The necessary indications for the removal of these diffi- 
culties will here be given. 

I. Ways of Beginning and Closing Letters. 

1. 1. 

To the Governor : 
His Excellency Sir Andrew 
Cosnett, K.C.M.G., etc., etc. 
Governor of the Colony of the 
Cape of Oood Hope. 
May it please your Excellency, 

I have the honour to remain, Sir, 
Your ohedient Servant, 
CD. 

2. 

To a President : 
His Honour President Beitz, 



Bloemfontein. 
Sir, 

1 have the honour to remain, 
Sir, 
Your ohedient Servant, 
CD. 



Aan den Goeverneur : 
Zijne Excellentie, Sir Andrew 
Cosnett, K.C.M.C, etc., etc. 
Goeverneur der Kolonie der 
Kaap de Goede Hoop. 
Excellentie, 

Ik heh de eer te zijn, Excellentie, 
U\v onderdanige Dienaar, 
CD. 
2. 
Aan een President : 
Den HoogEdelen Heer President 
Reitz, 
Bloemfontein. 
IIoogEdele Heer, 

Ik heb de eer, mij te noemen, 
HoogEdele Heer, 
Uw onderdanige Dienaar, 
CD. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



327 



To a Member of Parliament, 
or Cabinet Minister : 

The Honourable A. B. 
Sir, 

I bave the honour to be, Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
CD. 
4. 
To a Chief Justice : 

His Honour the Chief Justice, 
Cape- Town. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obtdient Servant, 
CD. 
5. 
To a Judge, 
T/ie Hon. Mr. Justice A. B. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 

CD. 
6. 
To a Barrister: 
A. B., Esq. 

Dear Sir, 

Believe me, Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

CD. 

7. 
To a Consul : 

A. B., Esq., 

Consul General of Belgium. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to remain, 
Sir, 
Yours obediently, 
CD. 



Aan een Lid van het Parlc- 
ment of Minister : 

Den Edelen Heer A. B. 
Edele Heer, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, Edele Heer, 
U Eds. Dienstw. Dienaar, 
CD. 
4. 
Aan een Hoofdrechter : 

Den HoogEdel Gestrengen Heer 
A. B., Hoofdrechter, 
Kaapstad. 
HoogEdel Gestrenge Heer, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, HoogEdel 
Gestrenge Heer, 
Uw onderdanige Dienaar, 
CD. 

5. 
Aan een Rechter : 

Den HoogEdel Gestrengen Heer 

A.B. 
HoogEdel Gestrenge Heer, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, HoogEdi-1 
Gestr. Heer, 

CD. 
6. 
Aan een Advokaat : 
Den Weledel Gestrengen Heer 

A.B. 
Weledel Gestrenge Heer, 

Geloof mi], Weled. Gestr. Heer, 
Uw Dienstw. Dienaar, 

CD. 
7. 
Aan een Consul : 
Den Weledel Gestrengen Heer, 
A.B., 
Consul Genraal voor Belgie. 
Weledel Gestrenge Heer, 

Ik heb de eer ttrij te noemen, 
"\Vehd. Gestr. Hctr, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien, 
C D. 



328 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



8. 
To a General : 

General Sir Michael Jonstone, 
K.O.M.G., etc., etc. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
CD. 



8. 

Ann cen Generaal : 

Den HoogEdel Gestrengen Beer 
Generaal Sir Michael Jon- 
stone, K.C.M G., etc. etc. 

HoogEdel Gestrenge Heer, 

Ik heb te eer te zijn, Hoo g E del 
Gestr. Heer, 
Uw onderdanige Dienaar, 
CD. 



9. 

To a Colonel : 
Colonel A. B. 

Sir, 

I remain, Sir, 



Yours obediently, 

0. D. 



9. 

Aan een Kolonel : 

Den Weledel Gestrengen Heev 
A.B. 

Weledel Gestrenge Heer, 

Ik verblijve, Weledel Gestr. 
Heer, 
TJEds. Dienstvv. Dien., 
CD. 



10. 
To a Baronet : 
Sir James Cosby, Bart. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
CD. 

11. 

To a Bishop : 

The Bight Beverend W. Clarke, 
D.D. 

Right Ruverend Sir (My lord), 

I have the honour to be, 
Bight Reverend Sir, 

Yours obedientlv, 
B, F, 



10. 

Aan een Jonkhecr : 

Den Hoogedel Geboren Heer 
James Cosby. 

Weledel Geboren Heer, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, Weled. 
Geb. Heer, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien., 

CD. 

11. 

Aan een Bisschop: 

Den Doorluchtigen Hoogwaar- 
digen Heer Dr. W. Clarke. 

Doorluchtige Hoogwaardige 
Heer, 

Ik heb de eer te verblijven, 
Doorl. Hoogw. Heer, 
Uw Dienstw. Dienaar, 
B, F, 



Correspondence. 



V9 



12. 

To a Doctor of Divinity : 
The Rev. W. Williams, D.D. 

Reverend Sir, 

I have the honour to be, Reve- 
rend Sir, 
Yours faithfully, 

R. F. 

13. 

To a Clergyman : 

The Rev. A. R., 

Reverend Sir, 

I have the pleasure to remain, 
Sir, 
Yours faithfully, 

E. P. 

14. 

To a Consistory : 

The Rev. A. Revell, and the 
Gentlemen the Members of 
the Consistory of Trinity 
Church. 

Gentlemen, 

I have the honour to be, Gentle- 
men, 
Youis obediently, 

CD. 

15. 

To a Superintendent of 
. Education : 

The Superintendent General of 
Education, Cape Town. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 



Yours obediently, 



CD. 



12. 

Aan een Doctor in de God- 
geleerdheid : 

Den Weleerw. Zeergeleerden 
Heer, Dr. W. Williams. 

Weleerw. Zeergeleerde Heer^ 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, Weleerw- 
Zeergel. Heer, 
U\v DieDstw. Dieuaar, 
R. F. 

13. 

Aan een Predikant : 

Den Weleerwaarden Heer A. B. 

WoJeerw. Heer, 

Ik heb het genoegen te blijven, 
Weleerw. Heer, 
U\v Dienstw. Dienaar, 
E. F. 

14. 

Aan een Kerkeraad : 

Den Weleerw. Heer, A. Revell, 
en de Heeren Leden van 
den Kerkeraad der Trinity 
Kerk. 

Heeren, 

I heb de eer te zijn, Heeren, 

U\v Dienstwillige Dienaar, 
C D. 

15. 

Aan een Superin'endent van 
Onderwijs : 

Den Superintendent Generaal 
van Onderwijs, Kaapstad. 

Weledele Heer, 

Ik heb do eer te zijn, Welede'e 
Heei, 
Uw Dienstw. DLnaar, 

CD. 



33° 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



16. 

To a Doctor of Literature or 
Laws : 

J. Brink, Esq., M.A., LL.D. 

Sir, 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 



F. M. 



17. 



To a Professor at a Univer- 
sity or College: 

Professor A. Bennett. 

Professor, 

I remain, Professor, 

Yours faithfully, 

CD. 

18. 

To a Phj s'cian : 

J. B. Clarke, Esq., M.B. {Br. 
J. B. Clarke). 

Sir, 

I remain, dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

P.K. 

19. 

To a Town Council : 

The Mayor and Members of tlie 
Town Council of A. 

Gentlemen, 

I have the honour to he, Gentle- 
men, 
Your obedient Servant, 
B.C. 



16. 

Aan een Doctor in deLetteren 
of de Rechtsgeleerdhcid : 

Ben Weledel Zeergeleerden Heer, 
J. Brink. 

Weledel Zeergeleerde Heer, 

Verhlijve hoogachtend, 
Weh'd. Zeergel. Heer, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien., 
F. M. 

17. 

Aan een Professor s an etne 
Universiteit of AtheiiEenm : 

Ben Hooggeleerden Heer Pro- 
fessor A. Bennett. 
Hooggeleerde Heer, 

Verhlijve met hoogachting, 
Hooggel. Heer, 

Uw Dienstw. Dien., 
CD. 

18. 

Aan een Geneesheer : 

Ben Weledel Zeergeleerden Heer 
Dr. J. B. Clarke. 

Weledel Zeergeleerde Heer, 

Verhlijve hoogachtend, Weledel 
Zeerg»l. Heer, 

Uw Dienstw. Dien., 

P. K. 

19. 

Aan een Stadsraad : 

Ben Edelachtbaren Heerert, den 
Burgemeester en Leden 
van den Raad der stad A. 

Edelachtbare Heeren, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, Edelacht- 
bare Heeren, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien, 

B.C. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



33* 



20. 
To a School Board : 

The President and Members of 
the Wellington School 
Board. 

Gentlemen, 

I remain, Gentlemen, 
Your obedient Servant, 
A. B. 



20. 
Aan eene Schoolcommissie : 

Den Voorzitter en Leden van de 
Wellingtonsche School 
Commissie. 

Weledele Heeren, 

Verblijve met hoogachting, 
UEdeler Dienstw. Dien., 
A. B. 



21. 

A Firm to another Firm : 

Messrs. A. B. & E. F. 

Gentlemen, 

We remain, Gentlemen, 
Yours obedientlv, 

C. D. & G. H. 



21. 

Eene Firma aan eene andere 
firma : 

Den Heeren A. B. & E. F. 

Heeren, 

Wij verblijven hoogachtend, 
Uwe Dienstw. Dienaren, 
C. D. & G. H. 



An Individual to a Firm : 

Messrs. A. B. & E. F. 

Gentlemen, 

I remain, 

Geniemen, 
Yours obediently, 

CD. 



22. 

Ecu Privaat Persoon aan eene 
Firma : 

Den Heeren A. B. & E. F. 

Mijne Heeren, 

Ik heb de eer te zijn, Mijne 
Heeren, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien., 

CD. 



23. 

To a Man of Station, or of 
means, (anyone addressed 
as Esq.) : 

A. B., Esq. 
Dear Sir, 

I remain, 
dear Sir, 

Yours truly, 

CD. 



23. 

Aan Iemand uit Hoogeren 
Stand : 

Den Weledelen Heer A. B. 

Weledele Heer, 

Hoogachtend noem ik mij, 
Weledele Heer, 
Uw Dienstw. Dien, 

CD. 



332 THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 

24. 24. 

To a Tradesman or other in Aan een Handwerksman of 

similar social position, iemand van gelijke posi- 

(any one addressed as tie in de maatschappij : 

Mr.). 
Mr. A. B. Den Beer A. B. 

Dear Sir, Mijnheer, 

I remain, dear Sir, Verblijve, 

Yours truly, De Uwe, 

C. D. C. D. 

Notes. — 1. In writing to a gentleman of like social 
standing with the correspondent, and in respect of whom 
he is allowed to make use of terms of intimacy, " Waarde 
Heer " may be substituted for either " Mijnheer" or " Wel- 
edele Heer." 

2. The wife of a man addressed as " Mijnheer " (see 
No. 24) is addressed as " Mejuffrouio." 

3. The wife of a gentleman is addressed as " Mevrouw." 

4. An unmarried lady is addressed as " Mejuffrouw." 
N.B. " Jongejuffrouw," used extensively in the Cape Dutch, 
only applies to girls under the age of sixteen. 

5. A widow is addressed either as "Mejuffrouw de 
Weduwe," or, "Mevrouw de Weduwe." 

6. Ladies do not have the title of their husbands 
added to any form of address : " Mrs. Professor Dummy," 
is simply " Mevrouw Dummy." 

7. Surnames are not excluded in terms of address : 
" Dear Mr. Hancock," should be rendered " Mijnheer," or, 
" Waarde Heer" but not " Waarde Mijnheer Hancock." 

8. The English "My" before the name of a person in 
terms of address, is not translated : " My 'dear sister," 
therefore, becomes "Lieve Zuster." 

9. The adjective "dear" is, in correspondence, only 
translated by " lieve " when friendship or familiarity are 
intended to be indicated. This should be noticed well, 
since a word-for-word translation of, for example, "My 
dear Mr. Goodson," would be an absurdity, when that 
gentleman is not a special friend of the correspondent. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



333 



The term " dear," therefore, commonly remains untrans- 
lated, or is (and at the Cape frequently so) rendered by 
" waarde" the use of which term, however, should neither 
he encouraged, seeing it finds no place in strict corre- 
spondence style. 

II. List of terms and phrases common in ordinary cor- 
respondence. 



Account, 

Acknowledge (to), 
Acknowledgment, 
Address, 
Address (to), 
Advice, 
Advise (to), 
Anticipate (to), 
Anxious, 
Approach (to), 
Anangement, 
Assure (to), 
Assured (feel), 
Attached, 
Attention, 
August 10th, 
Await (to), 
Awaiting, 
Aware (to be), 

Beg (I beg to), 

Beg to say, 

Bill, 

Book (to ... . orders), 

Brand, 

Cash, 

Co. (company) 

Competition, 

Concerns (as), 

Condition, 

Consequently, 

Considerably, 

Consume (to), 

Consumption, 

Contained in it, 

Copy, 

Copy (to), 



Rekening. 

Erkennen. 

Bewijs. 

Adres. 

Adresseeren. 

Advies. 

Aanraden, raden, 

Verwachten . 

Erop gesteld. 

Zich wenden tot. 

Schikking. 

Verzekeren. 

Overtuigd (zich . . . gevoelen). 

Bijgevoegd, nevensgaand. 

Aandacht. 

10 Augustus. 

Afwachten. 

In afwachting van. 

lngelicht zijn (over). 

Ik heb de eer te. 

Heb de eer te doen dienen. 

Wissel. 

Bestellingen aannemen. 

Merk. 

Kontant. 

Co., Cie., (Compagnie). 

Competitie. 

Wat aangaat. 

Voorwaarde. 

Bus, bijgevolg, 

Aanzienlijk, veel. 

Verbruiken. 

Verbruik. 

Daarin vervat. 

Copie. 

Copieeren, 



334 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Correct, 




Correct, in orde, accoord. 


Cwt. 




Centenaar. 


Date, 




Datum. 


Dealer, 




Handelaar, 


Dealings (to have), 


JIandelen. 


Decision, 




Beslissing. 


De dato (d.d.), 




Gedateerd. 


Delay, 




Uitstel. 


Demand (to be i 


n), 


Veel gevraagd worden. 


Despatch, 




Spoed. 


Despatch (to), 




Verzenden. 


Discount, 




Korting, disconto. 


Discount (to), 




Inwisselen, verdisconteeren. 


Docks, 




Dole. 


Due, 




Betaalbaar. 


Duly to hand, 




In orde ontvangen. 


Enclosed, 




Ingesloten. 


Endorse (to), 




Ehdorseeren. 


Enquiry, 




Navraag. 


Enquire (to), 




Navraag doen. 


Error, 




Abuts, /out 


Event (in the), 




In geval. 


Execute (to), 




Uitvoeren. 


Expenditure, 




Uitgaven. 


Expense, 




Kosten. 


Expense (at your own), 


Op uwe eigene kosten. 


Export trade, 




Buitenlandscfte handel. 


Fashion, 




Mode. 


Favour (your), 




De Uwe, Uw brief, Uwe lettcren. 


Figure (the lowest), 


Prijs (de laagste). 


Firm, 




Firma. 


Further, 




Verder. 


Future, 




In de toehomst. 


Glad, 




Blij. 


Goodbye, 




Vaarwel. 


Goods, 




Ooederen. 


Grace, 




Gratie. 


Guarantee (to), 




Garandeeren. 


Hope (to), 




Eopen. 


Intimate (to), 




Melden. 


I.O.U., 




Schuldbeuijs. 


Instant, 




Dezer. 


Institution, 




Inrichting. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



335 



Land '(to), 


Landen, Jossen. 


Last (your), 


Uw laatste schrijven. 


Learn (to), 


Hooren, vernemen 


Liabilities, 


Schulden. 


Limited, 


Beperlct. 


Mail (next — ), 


Per volgende post (mail). 


March 3rd, 


3 Maart. 


Market, 


Markt. 


Matter, 


Zaak. 


Meet (to), - 


Voldoen. 


Merchant, 


Koopman. 


Mistake, 


Fout, vergissing. 


Money, 


Odd. 


Money -niattcr3, 


Geldzaken. 


Oblige (to), 


Verplichten. 


Offer, 


Aauhod. 


Offer (to), 


Aanbieden. 


Opportunity, 


Gelegenheid. 


Order, 


Bestelling. 


Order (to), 


Bcstclleit. 


Original, 


Originecl. 


Overdue, 


A'-htcrstnUiij. 


Pack (to), 


Pakken, inpukken. 


Parcel, 


Pakket, pakje. 


Pay (to), 


Betalen. 


Payment, 


Betaling. 


Payment will be male, 


Betaling zal geschieden. 


Percentage, 


Percent. 


Please find, 


Zult Oij vinden. 


Pound Stg. 


Pond Stg. 


Prepared (to be), 


Oewillig zijn, bereid zij.i. 


Practicable, 


Bruikbaar, doenlijlc. 


Pi ice, 


Prijs. 


Price list, 


Prijscourant. 


Profit, 


Voordeel, Profijt. 


Profit by (to), 


Voordeel trekken uit. 


Promissory note, 


Promesse. 


Prompt (ly), 


Prompt. 


Proximo, 


Eerstkomende (e.k.~). 


Public, 


Publiek. 


Quality, 


Hoedanigheid, kwaliteif. 


Quantity, 


Hoeveelheid, kwantiteit. 


Receipt, 


Kwitantie. 


Receipt (to), 


Voldaan teekenen, ku'ifcercn. 



336 



THE COMMERCIAL EUTCH CA'AMA/AA'. 



Reference (with .... to) 

Remember me to, 

Repairs, 

Reply (in ... . to), 

Request (to), 

Require (to), 

Return (by .... of mail), 

Sample, 
Said, 
Season, 
Secure (to), 
Send (to), 
Send back (to), 
Servant, 
Share, 

Sharp (time), 
Ship (to), 
Shipment, 
Solicit (to), 
Special, 
Stock (in), 
Style, 
Supply, 
Supply (to), 

Ton, 

Trade, 

Tradesman, 

Trial, 

Trifle (a), 

Trip, 

Trust (to), 

Ultimo, 

Understand (to), 
Understanding, 
Undertake (to), 

Want (for .... of), 
Want (to), 
Warrant (to), 
Way, 
Whereas, 
Whole (the), 

Yesterday's date 



Met referte naar, met vericijzhuj 

naar. 
Doe mijne groeten aan. 
Rcparatie. 
In antwoord op. 
Verzoeken. 

Behoeven, noodig hebben. 
Per heerende post. 

Staal, monster. 

Gezegde. 

Seizoen. 

(Zich) verzeheren (van), 

Zenden, sturen. 

Terugzenden. 

Dienaar. 

Aandeel. 

Precies. 

Verschepen. 

Scheepslading. 

Verzoeken. 

Bijzonder, speciaal. 

In voorraad. 

Stijl. 

Voorraad. 

Lever en. 

Ton. 

Handel, bedrijf, ambacJit. 

Ambachtsman. 

Proefneming. 

Een weinig. 

Beisje. 

Vertrouwen. 

Laatstleden, (?.?.). 

Verstaan, vernemen, opmaken. 

Verstandhouding. 

Op zich nemen. 

Oit gebrek aan. 
Noodig hebben. 
Toelaten, gedoogen* 
Manier, ivijze. 
Terwijl, daar. 
Het geheel. 

Van gisteren* 



537 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

Official and Documentary Language. 

List of Words and Phrases used in official correspondence 
and documents, with their Dutch equivalents : 



Accident, 

Accordance (in — with), J 

According to, ) 

Accordingly, 

Account, 

Accountant, 

Account (on — of), 

Accounting Department, 

Act, 

Acting, 

Action, 

Addition, 

Addition (in — to), 

Adjacent thereto, 

Adjourn (to), 

Adjournment, 

Adjoining, 

Administer (to), 

Administer an oath (to), 

Administrate (to), 

Administration, 

Administration of justice, 

Administrator, 

Admit (to), 

Admitted (to be), 

Advance (in), 

Affidavit, 

Aforesaid, 

Aforewritten, 

Agree to (to), 

Agree upon (to), 



Ongeluk. 

Overkomstig met, naar luid van, 

volgens. 
Dienvolgens, dienovereenkomstig. 
Rekening. 

Boekhouder, kashouder. 
Op rekening van, wegens. 
Departement van rekeningen. 
Wet, akte, handeling. 
Ageerend. 
Actie. 

Toevoegsel, bijvoegsd. 
Behalve. 

Daaraan grenzend. 
Verdagen. 
Verdaging. 
Belendend, naast aanliggend, aan- 

grenzend. 
Besturen, beheeren, waarnemen. 
Een eed opleggen. 

Besturen, beheeren, administreeren. 
Administratie, beheer, bestuur. 
Bediening van het recht. 
Administrates. 

Toelaten, inlaten, toegeven, erkennen. 
Toegelaten worden. 
Vooruit. 
Affidavit. 
Voorzegd. 

Voorschreven, voormeld. 
Overeenstemmen, instemmen. 
Overeenkomen. 



333 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Agreement, 

Agriculture, 

Agricultural Department, 

Aid and assist (to), 

Alien, 

Alteration, 

Allow (to), 

Allowed in law, 

Allowable, 

Alluvial, 

Amend (to), 

Amendment, 

Annex (to), 

Annexure, 

Annual(ly), 

Annul (to), 

Annulment, 

Annum (per), 

Ante-nuplial contract, 

Appeal, 

Appeal (to), 

Appear (to), 

Appearer, 

Applicant, 

Application, 

Apply (to), 

Apply to (to), 
Appoint (to), 
Appointment, 
Appraise (to), 
Appraiser, 
Apprehend (to), • 
Apprehension, 
Approval, 
Approve (to), 
Arbitration, 
Arbitrator, 
Area, 

Arrest (to), 

Article, 

Assembly, 

Assembly (House of — ), 

Assent (to — to), 

Assess (to —rates), 

Assets and liabilities, 



Overeenkomst, schikking. 

Landbouw. 

Landbouw departement. 

Helpen en bijstaan. 

Uitlander. 

Verandering. 

Toestaan, toelaten, erkennen. 

Wettiglijk gangbaar, toeyestaan bij 

de wet. 
Oeoorloofd. 
Alluviaal. 

Verbeteren, amendeeren. 
Arnendement, wijziging. 
Aanhechten, annexeeren, insluiten. 
J let aangehechte, ingeslotene. 
Jaarlijks(ch). 
Vernietigen, te niet doen. 
Vernietiging. 
Jaarlijks, per jaar, 
Huiuelijkskon trakt. 
Apel. 

Apelleeren, beroep doen op. 
Verschijnen, compareeren. 
Comparant. 
Eischer. 

Aanvraag, applicatie, toepassing. 
Aanvragen, aanwenden, bezigen, 

gebruiken: 
Van toepassing zij'n. 
Aanstellen. 
Aanstelling. 
Schatten, taxeeven. 
Taxateur, schatter. 
Aanhouden, in hechtenis nemen. 
Aanhouding, in hechtenis neming. 
Goedkeuring. 
Goedkeuren. 
Arbitratie. 

Scheidsrechter, arbiter. 
Deel, district, streek, cirkel, ojyper- 

vlakte. 
Arresteeren, aanhouden. 
Artikel. 
Vergadering. 
Parlement. 
Goedkeuren. 
Belasting opleggen. 
Baten en schulden. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 339 



Assign (to), 

Assignee, 

Assistant, 

Association, 

As such, 

Assume (to), 

Assumption, 

Attend (to — a meeting), 

Attorney, 

Attorney-General, 

Auction, 

Auction duty, 

Auctioneer, 

Audience, 

Audit Office, 

Authorise (to), 

Authority, 

Available, 



Toewijzen, overdragen, assigneeren. 

liechtverkrijgende. 

Assistent, hulp. 

Genootschap, associatie. 

AIs zoodanig. 

Aanvaarden, in bezit nemen. 

Assumptie, op-zich-neming. 

Bijwonen. 

Procureur, zaakgelastigde. 

Procureur- Oeneraal. 

Veiling, au'ctie, verkooping. 

Opgelden. 

Afslager, vendumeester. 

Gehoor, audientie. 

Auditeurs kantoor. 

Authoriseeren, machtigen. . 

Authoriteit, macht, gezag, last. 

Beschikbaar. 



Bail, 

Bail (out on), 

Bailiff, 

Balance, 

Ballot (by), 

Ballot box, 

Ballot paper, 

Banns, 

Bar, 

Barrister, 

Beacon, 

Be it herewith made known. 
Behalf (on my), 
Behalf (on — of), 
Below (the Court — ), 
Bequeath (to), 
Best (to the) of his know- 
ledge, 
Bidder (highest), 
Bill, 
Board, 
Bond, 

Bond (goods in — ), 
Borough-council, 
Bound, 
Boundary, 
Branch, 



Borgtocht. 

Op borgtocht ontslagen. 

Baljuw. 

Balans, soldo. 

Bij ballotage, met stembriefjes. 

Stembus. 

Stembriefje. 

Huwelijksgeboden . 

Balie. 

Bechtsgeleerde, pleitbezorger, advo- 

kaat. 
Baken. 

Zij het mits dezen kennelijk. 
Te mijnen behoeve, om mijnenlwil. 
Ten behoeve van. 
Het lagere hof. 
Vermaken. 
Zoo ver hem bekend is. 

Meestbiedende. 
Wetsontwerp, concept. 
Raad, bestuur. 
Verband, schepenkennis. 
Goederen in entrepot. 
Stadsraad. 
Verplicht, gehouden. 
Grens. 
Tak. 



34Q 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Breach, 

Bring (to — to justice), 

British and Foreign, 

Business, 

Bye-law, 



Verbreking. 

Voor het gerecht brengen. 
Britsch en buitenlandsch. 
ZaJcen, handel, bezigheid. 
Beglement, toevoegsel. 



Cabinet, 

Calendar (within 3 — 

months), 
Cancel (to), 
Candidate, 
Capacity, 
Cargo, 

Case (in the — of), 
Case in point, 
Case in point (to state — ), 
Cash, 

Cash (to pay — ), 
Central, 
Certain, 
Certificate, 
Certificate of Birth, 
Certificate of Death, 

Chairman, 

Charges, 

Charge and command (to), 

Chief (adj.), 

Chief of Police, 

Circuit Court, 

Civil, 

Civil Commissioner, 

Civil imprisonment, 

Civilisation, 

Claim, 

Claim (to), 

Claimant, 

Claim inspector, 

Clause, 

Clear (three — days), 

Codicil, 

Cognisance (with), 

Colonial, 

Colonial Secretary, 

Colony, 

Commence (to), 

Commissary-General, 



Kabinet, ministerraad. 
Binnen 3 maanden. 

Vemietigen. 

Kandidaat. 

Capaciteit, bevoegheid. 

Lading. 

In het geval van. 

Voorbeeld, soortgelijk geval. 

Voorbeeld geven, geval opnoemen. 

Kontant. 

Kontant betalen. 

Centraal. 

Zeker. 

Certificaat, bewijs, getuigschrift. 

Oeboortebewijs. 

iSier/tebewijs, certificaat van over- 

lijden. 
Voorzitter. 
Prijs, rekening. 
Gelasten en bevelen. 
Voornaamste, opper-, hoofd-. 
Huofd der politie. 
liondgaand hof. 
Civiel, burgerlijk. 
Civiele Commissar is. 
Gijzeling. 
Beschaiyng. 
Eisch, delfplek. 
Eischen. 
Eischer. 

Inspecteur van delfplelcken. 
Clausule. 
Brie voile dagen. 
Codicil, aanlumgsel. 
Mel medcweten. 
Koloniaal. 
Koloniale Secretaris. 
Kolonie. 

Beginnen, aanvangen. 
Commissaris- Generaal. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 341 



Commission, 
Commit (to), 

Committed for trial, 

Committee, 

Commonage, 

Comply with (to), 

Compromise, 

Compulsory sequestration, 

Concerning, 

Concession, 

Condition, 

Conditions of sale, 

Conduct (to), 

Confirm (to), 

Confirmation, 

Conformity (in — wit'i), 

Conjunction (in — with), 

Connection (in — there- 
with), 
Connection (in— with), 
Consent, 
Consent (to), 
Consent to (to), 
Consider (to), 
Consignee, 
Consignor, 

Consist (to — with law), 
Consistent with, 
Consolidate (to), 

Constitute (to), 

Constitute and appoint (to), 

Construct (to), 

Construction (for the — of), 

Consul, 

Consulate, 

Consul-General, 

Consumption, 

Contract, 

Contract (to), 

Contracting parties, 

Contract of lease, 

Contrary to, 

Contravene (to), 

Conveniently, 

Convention, 



Commissie, opdracht. 

Bedrijven, zich blootstellen, in staat 

van beschuldiging stellen. 
Nuar de strafzitting verwezen. 
Comite. 

Gemeenteweide. 
Nakomen. 

Compromise, schikking, vergelijk. 
Gedwongen sequestratie. 
Omtrent, aangaande, betreffende. 
Concessie. 

Konditie, toestand, voorwaarde. 
Koopkonditien. 
Leiden, voeren, besturen. ' 
Bevestigen, confirmeeren. 
Bevestiging, confirmatie. 
In overeenstemming met. 
Samengaande met, in verbintcnis 

met, vereenigd met. 
Daarmede in verband staande. 

In verband met. 

Verlof, toestemming, consent. 

Toestaan, inwilligen, verlof geven. 

Bewilligen, toestemmen in. 

Beschouwen, overwegen. 

Geadresseerde, ontvanger. 

Afzender. 

Bestaanbaar zijn met de wet. 

vereenkomstig. 

Consolideeren, vereenigen, mm en- 

smelten. 
Vaststellen, samenstellen, benoemen. 
Kiczen en aanstellen. 
Bouwen, oprichten. 
Tot het bouwen (aanleggen) van. 
Consul. 
Consulaat. 
Con sul- Generaal. 
Verbruik. 

Kontrakt, overeenkomst. 
Kontrakteeren, overeenkomen. 
Kontrakteerende partijen. 
Huurkontrakt, pachtkontrakt. 
Strijdig met, in strijd met. 
Overtreden, inbreuk maken op. 
Behoorlijk, betamelijk. 
Conventie, verdrag. 



342 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Conveyance, 
Conveyance (law), 
Conveyancer, 
Convict, 
Convict (to), 
Convict Department, 
Convict guard, 

Conviction (on), 

Corporal punishment, 

Council, 

Council (Divisional), 

Council (Legislative), 

Council (in); 

Councillor, 

Counterfoil, 

Court, 

Cover (to), 

Credit, 

Creditor, 

Crime, 

Criminal, 

Criminal Session, 

Crown land, 

Crown Prosecutor, 

Current, 

Current (account), 

Customs, 

Customs duty, 

Custom house, 

Custom officer, 
Customs Union, 



Voertuig, rijtuig, expeditie. 

Transport, overdracht. 

Transportbezorger. 

Bandiet, boef. 

Schuldig verhlaren. 

Bandieten-departement. 

Bandietenoppasser, gevangcnbewaar- 

der. 
Schuldigverklaring (bij). 
Lijfstraf. 
Band. 

Afdeelingsraad. 
Wetgevende raad. 
In rade. 
Baadslid. 
Tegenblad. 
Eof, GerecJitshof. 
Dekken. 
Krediet. 

Crediteur, schuldeischer. 
Misdaad. 
Crimineel. 
Strafzitting. 
Kroonland. 
Publieke aanklager. 
Dezer. 

Bekening courant. 
Tol, in- en uitgaande rechCen, 
Invoerende Bechten. 
Tolkantoor, kantoor van in- en 

uitgaande rechten. 
Tolbeambte. 
Tdlverbond. 



Damage, 
Damages, 
Dative, 
Debentures, 
Debt, 
Debtor, 
Decease, 
Deceased, 
Decide (to), 
Declaration, 

Declaration of Insolvency 
Declare, proclaim and 
make known (I), 



Schade. 

Schadevergoeding, 
Datief. 

Scliuldbrieven. 
Schuld. 

Schuldenaar, debiteur, 
Bood, overlijden. 
Overledene. 
Besluiten, beslissen. 
Verklaring, declaratie. 
Insolvent verklaring. 
Verklaar, proclamecr 
bekend (ik). 



en maak 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 343 



Decree (to), 

Decreed (to be — entitled), 
Deed, 

Deed of transfer, 
Deeds' Office, 
Default (in — of), 
Default (judgment by — ), 
Defence Department, 
Defend (to), 
Defendant, 
Delay, 

Deliver (to) up, 
Delivery, 
Demand, 
Demand (to), 
Dependency, 
Deputy sheriff, 
Derelict land, 
Derive (to), 
Design, 
Despatch (to), 
Deviate (to), 
Diagram, 
Diggings, 
Direct (to), 
Directed (I am — ), 
Directions, 
Disallowance, 
Discipline, 
Discount, 
Disposal, 
Dispose (to) of, 
Disposing mind, 
Disqualified, 
Distribution, 
District, 
Divert (to), 
» Division, 

Divisional Council, 

Docks, 

Due (to be — and payable), 

Due to (to be), 

Duly, 

Duly sworn, 
Duty, 

Dwelling-house, 



Bcpalen, verordenen. 
(Aan iemand) toegekend ivordcn. 
Akte, document. 
Aide van transport. 
I'egistratie kantoor. 
Bij gebreke van. 
Vonnis bij verstek. 
Departement van landsverdediging. 
Verdedigen. 
Verweerder. 
Uitstel, oponthoud. 
Afgeven, opgeveil, overgeven. 
Levering. 
Eisch. 
Eischen. 
Aanhoorigheid. 
Ondersherif. 
Verlaten grond. 
Trekken van. 
Plan, teekening. 
Verzenden, afzenden. 
Verleggen ; afslaan ; uiteenloopen. 
Fchets, figuur. 
Dclfplek. 

Last geven, verordenen. 
Mij is gelast (opgedragoi). 
Aamvijzingen. 
u [fkntring, iviigering. 
Tucht. 

Disconto, korting. 
Verkooping. 

Van de hand zetten, verkoopen. 
Wei bij — ver stand. 
Onhevoegd. 

Distributie, uitdceling. 
District, afdeeling. 
Van richting veranderen, afslaan. 
Afdeeling, divisie. 
Afdeelingsraad. 
Dok. 

Vervallen en betaalbaar zijn. 
Schuldig zijn aan, te danken zijn 

aan, vervallen. 
Behoorlijk, in orde. 
Bchoorlijk beeedigd. 
Bclasting, inkomende recliten. 
Woonhuis. 



544 



THE COMMERCIAL b'OTCU GRAMMAR. 



Edict, 

Edictal citation, 
Education, 
Education Office, 
Effect, 

Effect (to Lave), 
Effects, 
Effectual, 

Ejectment (from a house), 
Elaborately, 
Election, 
Elector, 

Electoral division, 
Eligible, 
Employ, 
Employ (to), 
Empower (to), 
Enable (to), 
Enact (to), 
Endorse (to), 
Enter appeal (to), 
Enter into (to — a con- 
tract), 
Entitle (to), 
Entitled to, 
Entitled (to be — to), 
Entituled, 
Equip (to), 
Equitable, 
Estate, 
Estimate, 
Estimate (to), 
Event (in the — of), 
Evidence, 
Evident, 
Exceed (to), 
Exceeding (not), 
Excellency (His), 
Except, 
Except (to), 
Excepting, 
Exception, 

Exception (with the — of), 
Exclusive (of), 
Execute (to), 
Executive Council, 
Executor, 
Exercise, 



Edict, bevelsclirift, plakkaat. 

Edictale citatie. 

Opvoeding, onderwijs. 

Onderwijs kantoor. 

Qevolg, uitwerking. 

Uitwerking hebben. 

Goederen, bezitting, Iiave. 

Doeltreffend. 

LTet uitzetten (uit een huis). 

Uitvoerig. 

Verkiezing, electie. 

Kiezer. 

Kiesafdeeling. 

Verkiesbaar. 

JDienst. 

Oebruihen, huren, in dienst hebben. 

Machtigen. 

In staat stellen. 

Bepalen, vaststelhn. 

Endorseeren. 

Appel aanleekenen. 

Een Icontrakt aangaan. 

Machtigen. 

Bevoegd om (Jot). 

Aanspraah (recht) hebben op, 

GetiMd. 

lnrichten. 

Billijk. 

Bo del. 

Earning, schatting. 

Beramen, schxttea. 

Jn geval. 

Geiuigenis. 

Blijhbaar. 

Te boven gaan. 

Niet te boven gaande. 

Excellentie {Zijne). 

Behalve. 

Uitzonderen. 

Uitgezonderd. 

Uitzondering. 

Met uitzondering van. 

Met uitsluiting van. 

Oefenen, uitoefenen, bekrachtigen. 

Uitvoerende Iiaad. 

Executeur. 

Uitoefening. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTAR V LANG UA GE. 345 



Exercise (in — of), 

Expectancy, 

Expedient, 

Expenditure, 

Expense, 

Expiration, 

Explicit, 

Export (to), 

Export trade, 

Extend (to), 

Extension, 

Facility (greater), 
Failing which, 
Favour (in— of), 

Fee, 

Field cornet, 

Fill (to — a vacancy), 

File (to), 

Fine, 

Fine (to), 

Firm, 

First (the — dying), 

Fix (to), 

Fix (to — up), 

Force (to be in — ), 

Forest Department, 

Forfeit (to), 

Frame (to), 

Furnish (to — names), 

Farther, 

Fulfil (to), 

Fulfilment, 

Funds, 

Further examination, 

Further proof, 

General (noun), 

General (in), 

General information (for), 

Generally, 

General Manager, 

Given under my hand, 

God save the Queen, 

Goods, 

Government, 

Government measure, 



Uitoe/enende. 

Erfenis. 

Raadzaam, dienstig. 

Uitgaven. 

Kosten, onkosten. 

Afloop, einde, verschijning (van een 

Duidelijk. [termijn). 

Uitvoeren, exporteeren. 

Buitenlandsche handel. 

Verlengen, uitbreiden. 

Verlenging, uiibreiding. 

Vergemakkelijking. 

In gebreke waar van. 

Ten gunste van, ten behoeve van, ten 

faveure van. 
Loon, honorarium, leen,fooi. 
Veldkornet. 

Eene vacature opvullen. 
Inzenden, overleggen. 
Boete. 
Be'oeten. 
Fir ma. 

Eerststervende. 
Vaststellen. 
Aanplakken. 
Van kracht zijn. 
Bepartement van houtuesterijen. 
Verbeuren, verliezen. 
Opstellen, optrekken. 
Namen opgeven. 
Verder, voorts. 
Yervullen. 
Vervulling. 
Eondsen. 
Verder onderzoek. 
Verder bewijs. 

Generaal, veldheer. 

In het algemeen. 

Tot algemeen naricht. 

Over het algemeen. 

Algemeen bestuurder. 

Gegeven onder mijne hand. 

God behoede de Koningin. 

Goederen, bezitting. 

G ouvtrnement, regeering, bestuur. 

Maatregel der regeering. 



346 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Government railways, 

Governor, 

Grant, 

Grant to, 

Grazing rights, 

Greeting, 

Guarantee, 

Guarantor, 

Guardian, 

Harbour, 

Harbour Board, 

Harbour works, 

Health Department, 

Hereby, 

Hereinafter, 

Hereto annexed, 

Heretofore, 

High Commissioner, 

Hindrance, 

Hire (to), 

Hire out (to), 

House of Assembly, 

House of Correction, 

House duty, 

Immovable property, 
Imperial Consulate, 
Imperial Government, 
Import, 
Import (to), 
Imprison (to), 
Imprisonment, 
Improve (to), 
Include (to), 
Inclusive of, 

Incorporate (to), 

Indemnify (to), 

Indemnification, 

Ineligible, 

Inevitable, 

Infected (to be), 

Infectious, 

Information (for genera! — ), 

Inheritance, 

I n lieu of, 

Innert (to), 



Gouvernements spoorwegen. 
Gouverneur. 
Toelage. 

Toestaan, toewijzen, geuen. 
Weiderec/tten. 
h'uhiut. 
1 Vuurborg. 
Borg, waarborg. 
Voogd, voogdes. 

Haven. 

Jfavenbestuur. 

Havenwerken. 

Gezondheids departement. 

Hierbij, hiermede, hierdoor. 

Sterna. 

Hier bijgevoegd. 

Vodr dezen. 

Hooge commissaris. 

Verhindering, beletsel, hinder. 

Huren. 

Verhuren. 

Volksvertegenwoordiging, parlemen t . 

Verbeteringslni is. 

Huisbelasting. 

Onroerende goederen, vastgoed. 

Keizerlijk consulaat. 

Rijksregcering. 

Belang. 

Importeeren, invoercn. 

Geuangen zetten. 

Gevangenisstraf. 

Verbeteren. 

Insluiten. 

Jnsluitend, ingesloten, met inbfyrip 

van. 
Inlijoen, incorporeeren. 
Schadeloos stellen. 
Schadeloosstelling. 
Ifiet-verkiesbaar. 
Onvernrijdelijk. 
Besmet zijn. 
BesmetteUjk. 
Tot algemeen narield. 
Erfenis. 
In plaats van. 
Jnvoegen, insereeren. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUA GE. 347 



Insolvency, 


BankroetscJiap, insolvent ie. 


Insolvent (noun), 


Bankroetier, insolvent. 


Insolvent (adj.), 


Bankroet, insolvent. 


Insolvent estate, 


Insolvente (pankroete) boedel. 


Inspector, 


Inspecteur. 


Inspection, 


Inspectie, onderzoek. 


Instalment, 


Paaiement, termijn. 


Instant (inst.), 


Dezer. 


Institute (to), 


Instelhn. 


Instructions, 


Instructies, aanwijzingen. 


Insubordination, 


Insubordinatie, verzet. 


Interested, 


Belanghebbende, betreffende. 


Interested (to be — in), 


Belang hebben bij. 


Interfere (to), 


Zich bemoeien, tusschen beide komen. 


Interference, 


Tusschenkomst, bemoeling. 


Interpreter, 


Tolk. 


Intituled, 


Getiteld, genoemd. 


Invention, 


Uitvinding. 


Inventor, 


Uitvinder. 


Inventory. 


Inventafis. 


Issue, 


Uitgifte. 


Issue (to), 


Uitgeven, in het licht geven, open- 




boar maken. 


Jail, 


Gevangenis, tronk. 


Jailer, 


Gevangenbewaarder, cipier. 


Joint, 


G ezamenlijk. 


Joint lives, 


Beider leven, gemeenschappelijk 




leven. 


Joint stock company, 


Naamlooze vennootschap. 


Journal, 


Joumaal, dagblad. 


Jud^e, 


Bechter. 


Judgment, 


Vonnis, uitspraak. 


Judicial, 


Gerechtelijk. 


Jurisdiction, 


Jurisdictie, rechtsgebied. 


Juror, 


Jurielid. 


Jury, 


Jurie. 


Justice, 


Becht, gerecht, reenter. 


Justice (Court of — ) 


Gerechtshof. 


Justice (to bring to — ) 


Voor het gerecht brengen. 


Justice of the peace, 


Vrederechter. 



Know all men whom it 

may concern, 
Knowledge (to the — of), 

Lands and Mines Deport- 
ment, 
Landlord, 



Zij het mits dezen kennelijk, aan 

alien wien het moge aangaan. 
Zoover het bekend is. 

Departement van landen en mijnen. 
Ihiisbaas. 



34« 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Landowner, 

Late, 

Law, 

Law agent, 

Law Department, 

Lawful, 

Lawful (it shall not be — ), 

Lawful authority, 

Lease, 

Leasehold estate, 

Ledger, 

Legislature, 

Leper, 

Leprosy, 

Lessee, 

Lessor, 

Let (to), 

Letter of demand, 

Letters patent, 

Levy (to — taxes), 

Liable (person — to pay), 

Liable (shall be — to a 

fine), 
Liberation, 
License, 
Licensed to, 

Licensing Court, 

Lieu (in — ol), 

Limit, 

Limit (of weight), 

Limited, 

Liquidation, 

Liquidator, 

Local, 

Local military forces, 

Location (native), 

Lock-up, 

Lodge (to), 

Lot, 

Lunacy Act, 

Lunatic Asylum, 

Lung sickness, 

Magistrate, 
Magistrate's clerk, 
Magistrate's court, 
Maintenance (the — of), 



Landeigenaar. 

Geivezen, vorige, overleden, wijlen. 
Wet. 

Wetsagent. 
Eechtsdepartement. 
Wettig, wettelijk. 
Het is verboden. 
Wettig gezag. 
Huurkontrakt, pacht. 
Pachthoeve, pachtgoed. 
Grootboek. 
Wetgevende macht. 
Melaatsche. 
Melaatschheid. 
Huurder. 
Verhuurder. 
Verhuren. 
Aanmaning. 
Octrooibrief. 
Belasting innen. 
Aansprakelijke persoon. 
Zal beboet kunnen worden. 

Vrijlating, vrijstelling, ontslag. 
Licentie, patent, vergunning. 
Gepatenteerd, gelicentieerd, gemach- 

tigd tot. 
Licentie-hof. 
In plaats van. 
Limite, grens. 
I.'oogste gewicht. 
Beperkt. 

Liquidatie, vereffening. 
Liquidateur, redderaar. 
Plaatselijk, locaal. 
Plaatselijke krijgsmacht. 
Naturellen locatie. 
Bewaarplaats. 
Ingeven, inzenden. 
Perceel. 

Krankzinnigenwet. 
Krankzinnigengesticht. 
Longziekte. 

Magistraat, landdrost, 
Magistraatsklerk. 
Magistraatshof. 
Het luindhaven van. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMMNTAH Y LANG UA GE. 349 



Majesty, 

Majority, 

Make request (to), 

Management, 

Marriage, 

Marriage laws, 

Marriage officer, 

Master of the Supreme 

Court, 
Material (noun), 
Material (adj.), 
Materially, 
Matter, 
May concern, 
Mayor, 

Meaning (within the — of), 
Medical Board, 
Medical examination, 
Meet (to — an amount), 
Meeting, 
Memher, 
Minor, 

Minority, 
Minor heir, 
Minutes, • 
Monthly, 
Mortgaged, 
Mortgage bond, 
Mortgagee, 
Motion, 
Mover, 

Municipal Act, 
Municipality, 
Mutually, 

Nat ives, 

Native location, 

Next, 

Next of kin, 

Nett, 

Norn h; ate (to), 

Nominate and appoint (to), 

'Nomination, 

Nominee, 

Non-fulfilment, 

Notary public, 

Notice, 



Majesteit. 

Meerderheid, meerderjariglieid. 

Verzoek (aanvraag) doen om. 

Bestuur. 

Iluwelijk. 

Iluwelijkswetten. 

Huwelijlcsambtenaar. 

Meester van het hoog gerechtshof. 

Materiaal, houwstof. 

Belangrijk, gewichtig. 

In groote mate. 

Zaak. 

Moge aangaan. 

Burgemeester. 

Naar luid van. 

Oeneeshundige raad. 

Geneeskundig onderzoeh. 

Betalen, vinden. 

Bijeenkomst, vergadering. 

Lid. 

Minderjarig, minder, gering, on- 

mondig. 
Minderheid, minder •jarigheid. 
Minderjarige erfgenaam. 
Notulen. 

Maandelijks (ch). 

Verbonden, onder verband, bezwaard. 
Uypotheek, verband, schcpenJecnnis. 
Verbandhouder. 
Voorstel, motie. 
Voorsteller. 
Municipale wet. 
Municipaliteit. 
Onderling. 

Inboorlingen, naturelhn. 

Inboorlingen locatie. 

Eerstkomende (e.k.). 

Nabestaande. 

Netto. 

Benoemen, nomineeren. 

Benoemen en aanstelhn. 

Nominatie. 

Benoemde, candidaat. 

(Het) niet-vervullen. 

Notaris publiek. 

Kennisgeving. 



3SO 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Notice (to give — ), 
Notice is hereby given, 
Notify for general informa- 
tion (to), 
Notify (to), 



Oath, 

Oath (to put on — ), 

Oath (on), 

Obey (to), 

Observance, 

Observe (to), 

Observation, 

Occupation, 

Occupier, 

Occupy (to), 

Offence, 

Offender, 

Officer, 

Officer (in the army), 

Official (noun), 

Official (adj.), 

Option, 

Order, 

Order (to), 

Order of court, 

Order (by), 

Order, direct, and appoint 

(I), 
Ordinance, 
Orphan chamber, 
Overdrawn, 

Parliament, 

Parliament (Act of), 

Parliamentary, 

Particularly, 

Party, 

Pass (to — a document), 

Payable in advance, 

Payment, 

Penalty, 

Penal servitude, 

Per centum, 

Period (for a-—), 



Kennisgeven, opzeggen. 
Hiermede geschiedt kennisgeving. 
Ter algemeene Jcennis hrengen. 

Melden, aanzeggen, ter Jcennis 
hrengen. 

Eed. 

Onder eede stellen, beeedigeru 

Onder eede. 

Gehoorzamen. 

Naleving, opvolging, gebruik. 

Waarnemen, acht.slaan op, opmerkcn, 

in acht nemen. 
Naleving, opvolging, gebruik. 
In bczit neming, bezetting, beroep. 
Beivoner, inwoner. 
Hebben, vervullen, bezelten. 
Overtreding. 
Schuldige, overtreder. 
Beambte. 
Officier. 

Beambte, arnbtenaar. 
Officieel, ambtelijk. 
Keus. 
Bevel, bestelling ; orde, rangscliik- 

king. 
Bevelen, bestellen; ordenen, schikken. 
Bevelschrift. 
Op last. 
Beveel, gelast en verorden (ik). 

Ordinantie. 
Weeskamer. 
Overtrokken. 

Parlement. 

Wet van het parlement. 

Parlementair. 

In het bijzonder. 

Persoon. 

Passeeren (een document), 

Vooruit betaalbaar. 

Betaling. 

Verbeuring. 

Dwangarbeid. 

Percent, ten honderd. 

Oedurende een tijdperk. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 351 



Periodically, 

Permission, 

Perpetual quitrent, 

Petitioner, 

Place (of this — ), 

Plaintiff, 

Poll, 

Polling officer, ~] 

Polling station, 

Policy, 

Possess (to), 

Possession, 

Post Office, 

Pound, 

Pound master, 

Power of attorney, 

Power and authority vested 

in me, 
Preceding, 
Precisely, 
Precision, 
Premises, 
Premium, 
Prescriptive right, 
Presence (in the — of), 
Presents (by these — ), 
Prevent (to), 
Prevention, 
Prime Minister, 
Prison, 
Prisoner, 
Private (adj.), 
Private secretary, 
Procedure, 
Proceed (to), 
Proceedings, 
Proceeds, 
Proclaim (to), 
Proclaim, declare and make 

known, 
Proclamation, 
Produce (to), 

Produce, 
Profits, 

Promise (noun), 
Promise (to), 
Property, 



Periodiek. 

Vergunving, verlof. 

Eeutoigdurende erfpacht. 

Petitionaris. 

A lh ier. 

Klager. 

Stembus, verkiezing. 

Kiesbeambte. 

Stemplek. 

Polis. 

Bezitten. 

Bezit. 

Postkantoor. 

Schut. 

Schtitmeester. 

Volmacht, procuratie. 

Macht en gazag mij verleend. 

Voorgaande, vorige, tevoren. 

Precies. 

Nauwheurigheid, juistheid. 

Erf. 

Premie. 

Verjaringsrecht. 

In tegenwoordigheid van. 

Bij dcze, hiermtde, Meruit. 

Voorkomen, verhinderen. 

Voorkoming. 
Eerste minister. 

Gevangenis, tronh. 

Gevangene. 

Privaat. 

Privaat secretaris, gehcimsclirijver. 

Procedure, rechtsvervolging. 

Overgaan. 

Verrichtingen, proces. 

Opbrengst. 

Proclameeren, uitvaardigen. 

Proclameer, verldaar en maalc belcend. 

Proclamatie, hennisgeving. 
Op'vrengen, voorlbrengen, pn,- 

duceeren. 
Opbrengst, produkten. 
Profijt, winst, voordeel. 
Belofte. 
Bel oven. 
Eigendom, 



352 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Propose (to), 

Propriety, 

Prorogue (to), 

Prosecute (to), 

Provide (to), 

Provided with, 

Provided, 

Provision (to make — ), 

Provisionally, 

Provisions, 

Proxy, 

Public, 

Public auction, 

Public seal, 

Public works, 

Publish (to), 

Published by authority, 

Publisher, 

Purchase (to), 

Purchase amount, 

Purchase money, 

Purchase price, 

Purchaser, 

Purpose (for the — of), 

Qualified, 
Question (in), 

Railwav, 

Raise (to), 

liaise (to — a loan), 

Raise (to — objections), 

Rank (to), 

Pate, 

Rate (at the— of)» 

Rates, 

Ratepayer, 

Reason (by— of), 

Reasonable, 

Reasonable reward, 

Reasonable wear and t ar, 

Rebate, 

Receipt, 

Reciprocally, 

Recognise (to), 

Recommendation, 

Record, 



Voorstellen. 
Oepastheid. 
Verdagen. 

Vervolgen, doorzetten. 
Voorzien, verschaffen. 
Voorzien van. 
Mils, onder voonvaarde. 
Voorziening maken. 
Voorloopig, provisoir, provisioned. 
Levensmiddelen. 
Volmacht ; gemachtigde, plaatsver- 

vanger. 
Publiek, openbaar. 
Publieke veiling (verkooping), 
Publiek zegel. 
Publieke werken. 
Publiceeren. 
Op last gepubliceerd. 
Uitgever. 

Koopen, aanschaffen. 
Koopschat. 
Kooppenningen. 
Koopprijs. 
Kooper. 
Met het doel om, ten doel hebbende. 

Bevoegd. 
In kwestie. 

Spoorweg. 
Opnemen. 

Ecne leening sluilen. ' 
Objecteeren, tegenwerpingen maken. 
Jiangschikken. 
Bato, bediag, school, koers. 
Tegen. 

Belasting, aanslag. 
Belastingschuldige. 
Wegens, om, om reden van, 
Bedelijk. 

Billijke belooning. 
Billijke slijtagc. 
Babat, korting. 
Kwitantie. 

Wederzijds, over en wcer. 
Erkennen. 
Aanbeveling. 
Oorkonde, kroniek, verhaat. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 353 



Record (to), 
Recover (to— money), 
Recruiting Depot, 
Reduce (to), 
Reduction, 
Reference (with — to), 

Referring to, 
Register, 
Registered, 
Registrar, 
Registration, 
Registrar of Deeds, 
Regulation, 
Relating to, 
Relation (with— to), 
Relation, 
Relet, 
Relict, 
Relative to, 

Remand (prisoner was re- 
manded), 
Removal, 
Remove (to), 
Rent, 
•Repeal, 
Report, 
Report (to), 
Repression, 
Republic, 
Republican, 
Request, 
Request (to), 
Required, 
Required (to be), 

Requisition, 

Reserve to oneself (to), 

Reside (to), 

Residence, 

Resident, 

Resident Magistrate, 

Re3ign (to), 

Respect (in — of). 

Respect (with — to), 

Respectfully, 

Respective, 

Respectively, 



Aanfeekenen, registreeren, notuleeren, 

Inv order en (van geld). 

Werfdepot. 

Verminderen, afbrengen, verlagen. 

Ver m in dering, verlaging. 

Met referte naar, met verwijzing 

naar. 
Refereerende naar. 
Register, lijst. 
Oeregistreerd. 
Oriffier, registrateur. 
Registratie. 

Registrateur van akfen. 
Regulatie, regel, rcglement. 
Retrejfende. 
Met hetrekking tot. 
Retrekking ; verwante (/am."), 

Weder verhuren. 

Weduwe. 

In verband met. 

Het verhoor werd uitgestdd. 

Verplaatsing, verwijdering. 

Vervoeren, verplaatsen. 

ffuur, pacht. 

Herroeping. 

Rapport, verslag. 

Rapporteeren, verslag doen. 

Onderdrukking. 

Republiek. 

Republikeinsch. 

Verzoek, aanvraag, verzoekschrift. 

Verzoelcen, aanvraag doen. 

Noodig, benoodigd. 

Moeten ztfn, benoodigd zijn, ver- 

zoeken. 
Requisitie. 
Zich voorbehouden. 
Wonen. 

Woning, woonplaats. 
Woonachtig. 

Plaatselijke magistraat. 
Opgeven, bedanken voor, resignceyen. 
Wat betreft, ten aanzien van. 
Ten aanzien van. 
Met verschiddigden eerbied. 
Respectieve. 
RespectieveHjk. 



354 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Responsible, 
Returning officer, 
Returns, 
Revenue, 
Revert (to), 
Rights, 

Same (the), 

Sanction (to), 

Sanitary (commission), 

Sanitary officer, 

Savings bank, 

Scab Act, 

Schedule, 

Seal, 

Second (to), 

Seconder, 

Secretary, 

Secretary for Agriculture, 

Secretary for Native 

Affairs, 
Section, 
Security, 
See fit (to), 
Select (to), 
Set forth (to), 
Several, 
Share, 
Share (to), 
Sheriff, 

Shortcomings, 
Sign (to), 
Signatory, 
Signature, 
Signed, 
Signify (to), 
Sinking fund, 
Situated, 
Sole, 
Solely, 

Sole and universal heir, 
Solemn, 

Solemn declaration, 
Solemnise (to — marriages), 
Solemnly declare (to), 
Solitary confinement, 
Sound and disposing mind 

(of), 



Verantwoordelijk. 

Verslaggevend beambte, stemopnemer. 

Staten, opgaven. 

Inkomsten. 

Terugkeeren, terugvallen aan. 

Bechten. 

Dezelve, hetzelve. 

Goedkeuren, toestemmeri. 

Gezondheids (commissie). 

Sanitair beambte. 

Upaarbmk. 

JJrandziektewet. 

Schedule, bijlage. 

Zegel. 

Secondeeren, ondcrsteuncn. 

r'econdant. 

fiecretaris, schrijter. 

Landbouwsecretaris. 

Secretaris voor Naturcllcnzalccn. 

Bedie, deel, afdceling, artikel. 

Securiteit. 

Goeddunhen. 

Kiezen. 

Omsclirijven, Nitleggcn, uiteenzetlen* 

V erschillende, onderscheidene. 

Beet, aandccl. 

Deelen, aandeel hebben (nemen). 

Sherif, kantonrechter. 

Tekortkomingen. 

Teekenen, onderteekenen. 

Onderteekenaar. 

nderteekening, h an dtceken ing. 

Geteekend. 

Te kennen geven. 

Amortisatic. 

Gelegen. 

Kenig. 

Geheel en al. 

Eenige en algemeene er/genaam. 

Pleclitig, solemneel. 

Pleohtige verklaring. 

Huwelijken sluiten. 

Plechtig verklaren. 

Eenzame opsluiting. 

In het genot van alle geestvermogens. 



OFFICIAL AND DOCUMENTARY LANGUAGE. 355 



Spare diet, 
Special, 

Specifications and draw- 
ings, 
Spouse, 
Stamp, 
State (to), 

Statement, 

Stationery Department, 

Statistics, 
Stipulation, 
Stipulate (to), 
Strictly (I — charge), 
Styled (to be—), 
Subdivision, 

Sub-guarantor, 
Subject, 
Subject (to), 
Subjoined, 
Sublet (to), 
Submit (to), 
Subscription, 

Subsequent, 

Substitute (to), 

Substitution, 

Successive, 

Such, 

Sue (to), 

Suit (law — ), 

Summary, 

Summon (to), 

Summons, 

Superintendent General, 

Supervision, 

Supreme Court, 

Surety, 

Surrender (to), 

Surrender (voluntary), 

Surrogation, 

Survey, 

Survey (to), 

Surveyor, 

Survivor, 

Swear (to), 



Water en brood, rijst en water. 
Bijzonder, speciaal. 
Specification en teekeningen. 

Echtgenoot. 

Zegel. 

Opgeven, aangeven, zeggen, te hennen 

geven. 
Opgave, verklaring. 
Departement van nchrijfbenoodigd- 

heden. 
Statistick, opgaven. 
Bedinging, bepaling. 
Vaststellen, bepalen, bedingen. 
Ik gelast u uitdrukkelijk. 
Oenoemd te worden. 
Onderverdeeling, onderafdieliny, 

subdivisie. 
Achterwaarborg. 
Onderwerp, onderdaan. 
Onderwerpen. 

Hier bijgevoegd, hierna volgend. 
Onderverhuren. 
Onderwerpen. 
Inschrijving, subscriptie, abonnc- 

mentsprijs. 
Daarna volgende. 
Substitueeren, in deplaats stellen. 
Substitutie, plaats ver va nging. 
Adder eenvolgend. 
Zoodanig, zulk een. 
Vervolgen. 
Rechtsgeding. 
Uittreksel, korte irtlioud. 
Dagvaarden. 
Dagvaarding, oproeping. 
Superintendent Oeneraal. 
Opzicht, overzicht, supervisee. 
Hoog gerechtshof. 
Borg. 

Zich overgeven, boedel overgeven. 
Vrijwillige overgave. 
Surrogatie, subrogatie. 
Opmeting. 
Opmeten. 
Landmeter. 

Langstlevende, overblijvende. 
Zweren, bezweren. 

N 2 



3S6 



THE COMMERCIAL DU7VH GRAMMAR* 



Sworn (duly)j 

Sworn declaration, 
Sworn translator, 

Tariff, 

Tariff Act, 

Taxes, 

Telegraph, 

Telegraph (to), 

Telegraphist, 

Telegram, 

Tenancy, 

Tenant, 

Tender, 

Tender (to give out by — ), 

Term, 

Terms (in — of), 

Terminate (to), 

Territory, 

Testament, 

Testator, 

Thus done and passed, 

Time table, 

Times (at all — ), 

Title, 

Title deed, 

Town, 

Town-council, 

Trade-mark, 

Tradesman, 

Transfer, 

Transfer (to), 

Transit (in), 

Transit duty, 

Transmit (to), 

Transport, 

Transport (to), 

Treasurer, 

Treasury, 

Trial, 

Trial (the — is postponed), 

Trial (to be put up for — ), 

Trial (to take one's — ) 

Try (to), 

Trustee, 



Behoorlijk gezivoren (bezivoren, 

beeedigd). 
Beeedigde verhlaring. 
Beeedigd vertaler. 

Tarief. 

Tariefwet. 

Belasting. 

Telegraaf. 

Telegrafeeren. 

Telegrafist. 

Telegram. 

Huurbezit, pad ting. 

Huurder, pachter. 

Inschrijving, tender. 

Aanbesteden. 

Termijn, tijd, tijdperk. 

Krachtens, nuar laid van. 

Ten einde brengen, voleindigen, 

afloopen. 
Gebied, grondgebied. 
Tetiiment, wiltbcschikking. 
Testateur. 

Aldus gedaan en gefasseerd. 
Tijdtafel, rooster. 
Te alien tijde. 
Becht, aanspraak. 
Orondbrief. 
Stad, dorp, gemeente. 
Stadsraad. 
Handelsmerk. 
Ilundwerksman. 
Transport, overdracht. 
Transporteeren, o verdragen. 
In transito. 
Doorvoerbelasting. 
Overzenden, toezendcn. 
Transport. 
Transporteeren. 
Thesaurier. 
Thesaurie. 
Onderzoek. 
Be zaak is uitgesteld. 
Voorbrengen. 
Terechtstaan. 
Onderzoeken, gerechtelijk onder- 

zoeken. 
Curator. 



OFFICIAL AMD DOCUMENTARY LAKGU4CE. 357 



Ultimately, 

Ultimo (ult.), 

Umpire, 

Unauthorised, 

Under and by virtue of, 

Under provision of, 

Undersigned, 

Undue, 

Unemployed, 

Upset price, 

Usher, 

Usufruct, 

Vacancy, 
Vacant, 

Valid and effectual, 
Verdict, 
Vest in (to), 
Vested in me, 
View (in — of), 
View (with a — to), 
Village board of manage- 
ment, 
Virtue of the powers (by), 
Void (null and — ), 
Vote, 
Voter, 
Voucher, 

Warehouse (to), 

War Office, 

Ward, 

Warder, 

Warrant, 

Whereas, 

Will Oast), 

Witness, 

Witness (to), 

Writ, 



Ten laatste. 

Laatstleden (I. I.). 

Scheidsrechter. 

Niet-geauthori'eerd, ongemachtigd. 

Onder en uit Icracht van. 

Onder voorziening van. 

Ondergeteeken de. 

Oribehoorlijk, ongepast. 

Buiten werk. 

Inzet. 

Ceremoniemeester, concierge, 

Vruchtgebruik. 

Vacature. 

Vacant. 

Qeldig en van kraclit. 

Uitspraak. 

Verhenen. 

Mij verleend. 

Met het oog op. 

Met het oog op. 

Dorpsbestuur . 

Krachtens de macht. 

Van nul en geener wazrdc. 

Stem. 

Stemmer. 

Bewija. 

Op entrepot leggen. 

Oorlogskan toor. 

Wij'k, afdeeling ; p'Upil.. 

Bewaarder. 

Machtiging, bevelscV.rifi;. 

Nademaal, aangezien. 

Uiterste vril. 

Getuige. 

Ah getuige (n-kenen. 

Lot-brief. 



( 358 ) 



1— I 

X 
W 

H 
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w 









H 
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I 
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bo 
W 



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".2 




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15 w cj S a ss 

N "£,£ rt O *2 



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e 




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JS« 






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^ 


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^ 


^ 



-i 



LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS. 



359 






K 5 P fri 



. P fcfl 
« .p _ 



, « £ «i 

• >-» u 

> » « » n • " 

«* <*> r? «** J2 

a -3 ^ 






a 

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a £ 



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<n rs 






a a 55 



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Ml 



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CJ ,fi 13 *> >> . 

48 ca u .| s 5 ,g 

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•"=-» N O* 

8 -£ i-S 

S2 8 8 •§ © -S> 

ij» <U to to © £} 

8 S » 
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P _2 
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fclj CO 

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J; s^ o 

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• r. <0 

P QJ 
a> p 
aj cp 

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cq, 



pq 



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8 -S 3 ^ p« 8 
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360 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



S W 



bo 

P 
W 






s 2 o <u 

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4-1* & 



.« P ci >4 

OSA'3 






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m * rt g ^ Si d P 

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p B o 

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•»-> P . a 



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a 


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List of cafe idioMs. 



161 




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362 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



CD OT CO , 

• >a ,rt -£ k> 

o ^£ o ^ ^ 

u. -- » « cs — 



5 a -^ 



2rd S ^ be » 

Mo bJJ 

H =1 



£ -n 3 5 _ .* *> 






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wood gffl ^ 

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$ 


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©' 


c 


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i -<>v •* i .• 

§fcr§» ^ | «g 

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19 * si £ | ^ 



•« -a f«fe§S S S E S- » s ^ 

A. « .„ •• a d nd 

M a ,h Oj CD cd o 

3 ogo • 9 ,2 

M tC S SJ O 3 O 

S JS « fl o ^ ._ g 

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ft- MrH ft 3 PP t>M 





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PH 






LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS. 



363 



to Ti 



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f) .OS . 



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CO 



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354 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



e4 JZ ^ <& "3 



s 


cS 


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5 ■£ *^ "■* >? § § 3 S J- 2 

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nil irfilli ill i*« "i 

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i-r 1 G ^ — 
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d • 9? 

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i. c v. ,8,8 e ^ ^^^8 l« 



LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS. 



3&S 



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MS- 

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■" fc ffl I 

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fen* 

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CO . Co 

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CO CO CO 53 









5 s § .2 

r* S £ g 

s g i § 



£g>4 



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fe g g B 

S O; CO S 



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366 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



a "b 1? J3 «« «»•- fcj "^ cs § fcb£ 

» o S T§ £ • s StfS; a *3 o 

.2 i-S 9 2 .5 ., «- ,-, s_ o0 '" H s •** rrt 

5 H "~ lHkS.2^3 "" ° m fl cfia 

bD c3 ^ K ^ crl . n= £ . fe 

t 1 »^g -2§ si-5 b •gfs>lstl 

rH EH C4 i-hMWCD £ r-t r-H 



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LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS. 367 

1 11 ••> O — '-t3 fe .J 

~ o fco^-2 p* a co :r 

■— ' X . •— a> O Em r» o HI »F 



O to 



» tt 






3| 






• /~\ — .H • •— 1 <U QM . ^Cr-10-s 



S.- a5 "dfS-Sl a~~, 5 ®*tf.2 .*'*•§ ~ 

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^> cs co s "sis 

JB . © ~- s o a 

'a *5 .*, *8 e iJi* a 

•ft ,a S a « S . '• ^* .: £ 



. : S *s 



^ a 



^ s| S^l |le I Ǥ gj| & 






^ O 


49 

3 


P4 


O 


<M ffl 


4a 


S a 
3 a 

M 03 


&A 


d 

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:r?'S 


i-H 


KM 



infill 1*1 §1 I Ml il? 

030. <^.2^ P ^ fl M^S 






d 



N ^ bD <M - ^ o * ,2 „ 

i2-Cis ^'-'csSSiSbcg-p^PH o B3 _^'2=.tf 



v:*a 



fc 



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368 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



i 



W 



cs cs §= 
fc 03 9 

03 
£ <D w 

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S c o _ 
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s «i ^ „ g 

If tei-a^J 



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LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS, 





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g bC rS 


t^-d 




gg'3 « 


R 03 


c 

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cattle over 
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keepin 

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370 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



P is 



•r- (D 






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60 ^5«S 



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LIST OF CAPE IDIOMS. 371 

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( 3»4 ) 



VOCABULARY. WOORDENIJJST. 



Norn. — The letters affixed to the nouns indicate their genders; m = (mannelijk) 
masculine, v = (vrouwelijk) feminine, o = (onzijdig) neuter, gsl =s (gemeen- 
slachtig) <ommon gender. 

The letters S and W, affixed to verbs when their principal parts are not "given, 
stand for strong and weak. 



A. 



A ule, in staat, knap. 

Able (to be), in staat zijn. 

Ability, bekwaamheid, v. 

About, van; omtrent, rond (place). 

Absent, afwezig. 

Accede to (to), toestaan, stond toe, toe- 



Accept (to), aannemen, S. 

Accident, ongeluk, o. 

Accidentally, bij ongeluk. 

Accompany (to), vergezellen, W. 

Accusation, beschuldiging, v. 

Accustomed, geuoon. 

Accustomed (to get — ), gcu-oon worden. 

Acknowledge (to), ei kenmn, W. 

Acknowledgment, beivijs, o, 

Account (on — of), uegens. 

Acquainted (to become — ), ken n is maken. 

Acquire (to), verkrijgen, 8. 

Act (to), handelen, handelde, gehandeld. 

A' t, daad, v. 

Activity, werkzaamheid, v. 

Add (to), bijvoegen, W. 

Admired, bewonderd. 

Advise (t"), aanraden, raadde (ried) 

aan, aangeraden ; raden. 
Afford (to), verschaffen, \V. 
Afraid, bang, bevre'esd. 
After, na. 
Afternoon, namiddag, m; this — , van 

middag. 
A I tcrwanls, daarna. 
Again, weer. 
Against, tegen. 
Age, eeuw, v. 

Age (at the — of), in den otiderdom van. 
Ago, geleden. 
Agreement, verslandhouding, v ; to make I 

an — , een verdrag duittn. \ 

Alive, levend. 
All.oJ. 

Allow (to), toestaan, S. 
Ally, bondgenoot, gsl. 
Almond-tree, amanddboom, m. 
AJmost, bijna. 



Alphabet, alphabet, o. 

Already, reeds, 

Also, ook. 

Always, altijd. 

Amazement, verbazing, v. 

Ambiguity, dubbelzinnigheid, v. 

Among, onder. 

Amount, mate, v. 

Amuse (to), vermaken, W. 

Animal, dier, o. 

Annoy (to), hinderen, W. 

Annoyance, verveling, v. 

Another, een ander. 

Anxious, angstig ; verlangend. 

Any, eenige, ook (interrogative). 

Anywheie, ergens. 

Apologise (to), excuns vragen. 

Appai\ ut, in het oog loopend. 

Appear, verschijnen, verschcen, ver- 
schenen. 

Applicant, applicant, m. 

Apply for (to), aamuek doen om. 

Apply (to — oneself), zick aavpahken, 
toe'eggen op. 

Appointment, afspraak, v. 

Appreciated, geschat. 

Approach, naderen, o. 

Arrange (to — for), toebereidselen ma- 
ken voor. 

Arrangement, schikking, v. 

Arrive (to), aankomen, S. ; arrival, aan 
komst, v. 

As, daar. 

As .... as, too ... . als. 

Ascertain (to), te weten komen. 

Ashamed (to be — ), zich schamen, 
scltaamde, geschaamd. 

Asia, Azie. 

Ask (to), vragen, vraagde (yroeg"), ge- 
vraaga. 

Asleep, in slaap. 

Assembled, vergaderd, bijeen. 

Assign (to), dvermaken, W, 

At, te, om (time). 

Alliens,' 4»if«« l o. 



VOCABULARY. 



385 



Attack (to), aanvallen, S. 
Attempted, beproefden, probeerden. 
Attend (to — to), zorgen voor, W. 
Attention, aandacht, v. 
Attorney, procureur, m. 
Appreciated, geschat. 



Aunt, tante, v. 
Austria, Oostenrijk, 0. 
Awake, wakker. 

Aware (to be — ), overtuigd zijn van ; to 
be — of, zich bewust zijn van, kennen. 
Awkward, lastig. 



Back-room, achterkamer, v. 

Bad, slecht. 

Bag, zak, to. 

Bake (to), bakken, bakte, gebakken. 

Balloon, ballon, to, 

Bark (to), blaffen, blafte, geblaft. 

Barrister, advokaat, to. 

Battle, slag, to. ; — field, slagveld, o. 

Beach, strand, o. 

Bear (to), uithouden, S., verdragen, S., 

dragen, (expense). 
Beard, board, to. 
Bearer, brenger dezes. 
Beautiful, mooi. 
Because, omdat. 
Become (has), is gewordenj to — of, 

worden van. 
Bed, bed, 0. 

Bed-room, slaapkamer, v. 
Befall (to), iemands deel worden, weder- 

varen, S. 
Before, tevoren. 

Behalf (on my — ), van mijnentwege. 
Behind, achter. 

Believe (to), gelooven, geloofde, geloofd. 
Beloved, bemind. 
Bequeath (to), vermaken, W 
Berlin, Berlijn, 0. 
Bet (to), wedden, wedde, gened. 
Beware (to — of), oppassen voor, paste 

op, opgepast. 
Beyond, verder dan. 
Betting (there was...), er werd gewed. 
Bill, rekening, v. 
Bird, vogel, to. 
Bit, stuk, o. 
Blacksmith, smid, m. 
Blessing, zegen, to. 
Bliss, zaligheid, v. 



Blossom (to), bloeien, W. 

Blowing, (tu be — ), waaien. 

Boarding-school, kostschool, v. 

Boast, to, grootsprektn, S. 

Boldness, brutaliteit, v. 

Bond, band, to. 

Book, boek, 0. 

Boot, laars, v. ; schoen, m. 

Border, rand, m. ; grens, in, 

B.jth, beiden. 

Bottle, flesch, v. 

Box, doos, v. ; kist, v. 

Boy, jongen, to. 

Brauch, tak, m. ; — of instruction, 

vak (0), van onderwijs. 
Breach of the peace, vredebreuk, v. 
Bread, brood, o. 
Breakfast, ontbijt, 0. 
Breathe (to), ademen, W. ; — one's last, 

den laatsten adem uitblazen, S. 
Breeze, bries, m. 
Bribe (to), omkoopen, S. 
Bride, bruid, v. 
Bridge, brug, v. 

Brighten (to — up), zich verhelderen, W. 
Brightly, helder. 
Brook, beek, v. 
Brother, broeder, to. 
Brown, bruin. 
Brushwood, kreupelhout, 0. 
Bucket, emmer, to. 
Build (to), bouwen, W. 
Bundle of sticks, takkebos, to. 
Burgher, burger, m. 
Butcher, slager, m. 

Bury (to), begraven, begroef, begraven. 
By-and-by, aanstonds. 
Bicycle, tweewieler, to. 



c. 



Cage, kooi, v. 
Cake, koek, m. 
Call (to), roepen, riep, geroepen ; aan- 

komen ; — upon, opzoeken, eene visite 

maken ; — at, aankomen bij iemand. 
Call (to wake), oproepen, riep op, opge- 

roepen. 
Calm (noun), kalmte, v. 
Calmness, kalmte, v. 
Camel, kameel, to. 
Camp, kamp, o. 

Capable (to be — of), in staat zijn tot. 
Cape-Town, Kaapstad. 
Capital, hoofdstad, v. 
Captain, kapitein, m. 
Care, (to — for), lust hebben in ; to take 

— 01, passen op. 



Careful (ly), voorzichtig, zorgvuldig. 

Carelessness, achteloosheid, v. 

Carpet, tapijt, 0. 

Cart, kar, v. 

Case, zaak, v. 

Castle, kasteel, o. 

Cat, kat, v. 

Catch (to), vangen, S. ; — up, opvangen, 

W. ; — cold, kou vatten. 
Cautious(ly), voorzichtig. 
Cave, hoi, o. 
Celebrated, beroemd. 
Cell, eel, v. 

Certain, zeker ; — ly, zeer zeker, stellig. 
Chair, stout, m. 
Chance, kans, to. ,• by—, bij toeval, toe- 

vallig. 





386 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Chanced to be, zith toevaUig bevond. 

Character, karakter, o. 

Charge, zorg, v. 

Charge (to), als plicht opleggen, W. 

Chariot, wagen, m. 

Charles, Karel, m. 

Ch&t,praatje, o j to have a — , ten — maken. 

Chasm, af grand, in. 

Cheap, goedkoop. 

Cheese, kaas, v. 

Child, kind, o. 

Chinese, Chineezen. 

Chop (to), ka]>pen, kapte, gekapt ; — 

down, omhakken. 
Church, kerk, v. 

Circumstances, omstandigheden, v. 
Citizen, burger, w. 
City, Had, v. 
Civil, civiel. 

Clean (to), schoon maken. 
Clear, helder, klaar. 
Clear (to — up), opruimen. 
Clerk, klerk, m. 
Clip (to — wings), kortwieken, kort- 

ii'iekte, gekortwickt. 
Cloak, mantel, m. 
Clock, klok, v. 
Close (to), sluiten, S. 
Close by, dicht bij. 
Clotb, taken, o. 
Clothes, klecderen, o. 
Coal, steenkolen, v. 
Coat, jos, v . 
Coffee, koffie, v. 
Cold (bad — ), zware koude, v. 
Collar, kraag, v. 
Colleague, collega, m. 
Collection, verzameling, v. 
College, academic ; — friend, academie- 

vriend. 
Colonial, Koloniaal. 
Combined, vereenigd. 
Come (to — in), binnenkomen, kivam 

binnen, binnen-gekomen. 
Command (to), bevelen, S. 
Common, gemeen, gewoon ; — sense, ge- 

zond verstand, o. 
Communication, samenspreking, v. 
Companion, kameraad, m, me'gezel, m. 
Company, maatschappij, v. ; gezeltchap, o. 
Comparison (in — to), in vtrgtlijking met. 
Compass, kompai, o. 



Concert, concert, o. 
Condemn (to), \eroordeelen, W. 
Conducive to, bevorderlijk voor, goed 
voor. 

Confess (to), bekennen, W. 

Confined to, opgeslolen in. 

Compel (to), dwingen, duong, gedwon- 
gen. 

Complain (to — of), klagen over, W. 

Comprehension, begrip, o. 

Conscientious, nauwgezet. 

Consider (to), overwegen, S., denken, S., 
beschouwen, W., houden voor, S., be- 
denken, S., overleggen, \V. ; — neces- 
sary, noodig oordeelen. W. 

Considerably, aanmerkelijk. 

Consult (to), raadpUgen, raadpleegde, 
geraadpleegd. 

Consumption, verbruik, o. 

Contented, tevreden. 

Contents, inhoud, m. 

Continually, voortdurend. 

Continue fto — to be), blijven, S. 

Conversation, gesprek, o. 

Convey (to), brengen, S. 

Conviction, overtuiging, v. 

Convinced, aoertuigd. 

Comer, hoek, m. 

Correct, juist. 

Corrupt (to), bederven, S. 

Council, road, m. 

Counsellor, raadsman, m. 

Country, land, o. 

Couple (a — of), een paar. 

Courage, moed, m. 

Courageous (ly), moedig. 

Course, loop, m. 

Course (of — ), natuurlijk. 

Cow, koe, v. 

Creature (little — ), schepseltje, o. 

Criminal, misdadiger, m. 

Cross (to), oversteken, stak over, over 
gestoken. 

Crow, kraai, v. 

Cruel, weed. 

Cry (to), roepen, riep, geroepen 

Cunning, loos. 

Cup, kop, m., kopje, o. 

Cure (to), genezen, genas, genezen. 

Curios, merkwaardigheden, v. 

Curtain, gordijn, o. 

Customs, genvonten, v. 



Dainties, lekkernijen, e. 

Dance (to), dansen, danste, gedanst. 

Danger, gevaar, o. 

Dangerous to, gevaarlijk voor. 

Dare (to), durven, W. 

Dark, danker (noun), o. 

Date (to), dateeren, dateerde, gedateerd. 

Dawn (to), aanbreken, brak aan, aange- 

broken. 
Day, dag, m. 
Dead, dood. 
Deal (a go jd — of ), heel wat. 



Dear, dierbaar. 

Death, dood, m. 

Deceive (to), bedriegen, S. 

Decide (to), bcslissen, besliste, best is t. 

Decidedlyi beslist. 

Decisive, afdoend. 

Decline (to), weigeren, W. 

Deed, daad, v. 

Deep. diep. 

Defence, verdedigingtrede, v. 

Defend (to), verdedigen, W. 

Delighted, verrukt. 



VOCABULARY. 



387 



Delightful, verrukkelijk. 

Depart (to), heengaan, S., vertrekken, S. 

Depth, diepte, v. 

Departure, vertrek, o. 

Descendant, afstammeling, gsl. 

Desert region, woestijn streken. 

Deserted, verlaten. 

Desire, hegeerte, v. 

Desirous, verlangend. 

Desk, lessenaar, m. 

Despair (to — of), wanhopen aan, W. 

Despise (to), verachten, \V. 

Destroy (to), vernietigen, W., vei-woes- 

ten, W. 
Development, ontwikkeling, v. 
Devote (to — oneself), zich toewijden 

aan, W. 
Diamond, diamand, m. 
Dictation, dictaat, o. 
Dictionary, woordenboek, 0. 
Differ (to), verschillen. 
Difference, onderscheid, o. 
Different, anders, verschillend. 
Difficult, moeielijk ; — y, moeite, v. 
Dig (to — up), opgraven, groef op, opge- 

graven. 
Diligent, vlijtig. 
Dim, dof. 

Dinner, middagmaal, 0., diner, 0. 
Dining-room, eetkamer, v. 
Dirty, vuil. 

Disagreeable, onaangenaam. 
Disappointed, teleurgesleld. 
Discharge (to), ontslaan, ontsloeg. ont- 

slagen. 
Discover (to), ontdekken, ontdelcte, ont- 

dekt. 
Discuss (to), verhandelen, verhandelde, 

verhandeld. 
Disgrace (to bring — to), schande bren- 

gen over. 
Disheartening, ontmoedigend. 
Dismiss (to), wegsturen, ontslaan. 
Dismount (to), van eenpaard stijgen. 
Disobey (to), ongehoorzaam zijn aan. 
Disperse (to), overwaaien, uiteengaan. 



Disrespectfully, oneerbiedig. 

Distance, afstand, m. 

Distinction, onderscheiding, v. 

Distress, nood, m. 

Distressed, beangstigd. 

Distribution of justice, rechtsbedeeling, v. 

District, distrikt, 0. 

Dive (to), duiken, S. 

Divide (to), verdeelen, verdeelde, verdeeld. 

Doctor, dokter, m. 

Doctrine, leerstelling, v. 

Document, stuk, 0. 

Dog, hand, m. 

Doll, pop, v. 

Dominion, gebied, 0. 

Done, op. 

Donkey, ezel, m. 

Doom, doem, m. 

Door, deur, v. 

Doubt (to), betwijfelen. 

Dove, duff, v. 

Down, dons, 0. 

Drag (to), sleeper), W. 

Draught, drank, in. 

Draw (to), trekken, S. ; — near, «<z- 

deren, W. 
Drawing, teekening, v. 
Dress, japon, v. 
Dress (to — oneself), zich aankleeden, 

kleedde zich aan, aangekleed. 
Drift (to — about), ronddrijien, dreef 

rond, rondgedreven. 
Drill, boor, v. 

Drink (to), drinken, dronk, gedronken. 
Drive (to), rijden, reed, gereden. 
Driver, koetsier, m. 
Drop (to), laten, vallen, 8. ; — asleep, 

in slaap vallen.; — down, neervallen. 
Due west, vlak west. 
Due (time), bepaald. 
Duke, hertog, m. 
Duly, naar waarde. 
During, gedurende. 
Dutiful, oppassend. 
Duty, plicht, m. 
Dwelling-house woonhuis, 0. 



E. 



Early morning, den vroegen morgen, 's 
morgens vroeg ; — this — , van morgen 
vroeg. 

Earn (to), verdienen. 

Earth, aarde, v. 

Fastern, oostelijk. 

Eat (to), eten, b. 

Edge, rand, m. 

Edition, uitgave, v. 

Effort, poging, v. 

Elaborate, zorgvuldig beweikt. 

Eldest, oudste. 

Elephant, olifant, m. 

Elsewhere, ergens anders. 

Embitter (to), verbitteren, W. 

Embrace (to), omhelzen, omhelsde, om- 
heltd. 

Emotion, aandoening, v. 

Employer, baas, m. 



Empire, iijk, 0. 

End, eind . 

Enemy, vijand, m. 

Enjoy (to), genieten van, S. 

English, Engelsch. 

Enter (to), binnenkomen, S. 

Entertainment, voorttelling, V. 

Entirely, volkomen. 

Entreat (to), smeeken, W. 

Entrust (to), totvertrouwen, \V. 

Escape (to), ontkomen, S. 

Especially, voomamelijk. 

Equal, gelijk; — ly, even. 

Equanimity, gelijkmotdigheid, v. 

Esteemed, geacht. 

Eternal, eeuwig. 

Europe, Europa. 

Eveu, zelfs. 

Ever, ooit. 

2 



3 88 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Events (at all — ), in alle geval. 

Everyone, iederten. 

I'xactly, juist, precies. 

Exaggerated, overdnven. 

Examination, examen, o. 

Exclaim (to), uitro pen. Hep uit, uitg°- 

roepen. 
Execution, voltrekking(y)van het vjmi '*, 
Exercise, oe/ening, v. 
Exist, bestaan, bestond, bestaan. 
Existence, bestaan, o. 



Expect (to), verwachten, verwachtte, ver- 

wacht. 
Expense, onkosten. 
Expensive, duur. 
Expert, deskundige, gsl. 
Explain (to), verklaren, AV. 
Explanation, uitlegging, v., verkla- 

ring, v. 
Explosion, ontploffing, v. 
Kxquisite, uitg>zocht. 
Extend (to), uitbreidm, W. 



Face, gezicht, o. 

Fact (in — ), inderdaad. 

Fail (to), niet slagen, W., druipen, S. 

(examination). 
Failed in business, it bankroet gegaan. 
Faint (to), in zwijm (Jlauw) vallen, S. 
Faithful, trouw. 
Fall (to), (of prices), dalen, W. 
Family, familie, v. 
Falsehood, leugen, v. 
Fancy (to), zich voorslellen, \V. 
Farmer, boer, m. 
Far-off, verafgelegen. 
Fat, vet. 

Fatal, noodlottig, doodelijk. 
Kate, lot, o. 
Fatigue, moeheid, v. 
Fanltle s, zander fouten. 
Fear, vrees ; — ful, vieeselijk. 
Fear (to), vreezen, W. 
Feathery coat, veer en klced. 
Feeble, zwak. 

Feel sure (to), ervan overtuigd zijn. 
Fellow-citizen, medeburger, m ; — man, 

tnedemensch, m. 
Fertile, vruchtbaar. 
Fetter (to), boeien, W. 
Fever, koorts, v. 
Field, veld, o. 
Fierce (of dogs), kwaad. 
Find (to), bevinden, S. 
Find fa.mtviHh{X.o),aanm.erkingmaken op. 
Find out (to), ontdtkken, \V.. heoind'.n, S.. 

uitvinden, vond uit, uUgewnden. 
Finished, of, klaar. 
Fire, brand, m. 
Firm, vastberaden. 
First, het e^rst, etrst. 
Kit, geschikt. 
Five, vijj'. 
Flatter (to), vhien.W .,—{vanity)streehn. 



Flee (to), vluchten, \V. 

Flight, vlucht, v. 

Floor, vloer, m. 

Flower, blo^m, v. 

Fold, kraal, m. 

Follower, volgeling, gsl. 

Following, volgend. 

Fond (to be — of), houden van. 

For, voor ; — asmuch, aangezien. 

Forage, voedtr, o. 

Forbid (to), verhoeden, W. 

Force, kracht, v. 

Foreign, vreemd, uitlandsch. 

Forget (to), vergeten, S. 

Forgive (to), rergeven, vergaf, vergeven. 

Former, oud;. in — times, in vroegere 

tijden. 
Fortnight (a), een veertien dagen. 
Forward, voorwaarts. 
Fought, gelecerd. 
Found (to), oprichten, W. 
Fountain, fontein, v. 
Four, vier; — footed, viervoetig. 
Fowler, vogelaar, m. 
Fowls, hoenders. 
Fox, vos, m. 
France, Prankrijk. 
Frankly, openhartig. 
Frankness, vrijinoeligheid, v. 
Free-State, Vrijstaat, m. 
French, Fransch. 
Fresli, frisch, versch. 
Frighten (to), verschrikken, vtrschrikte, 

verschrikt. 
Frightfully, verschrikkelijk. 
Front-door, voordeur, v. 
Frost-bitten, doodgerijpt. 
Frozen over, bevroren. 
Fruit, vruchten ; — tree, vruchtboom, m. 
Full subjection, algelieele onderworpen- 

hcid, v. 



G. 



Gain laurels (to), louweren behalen, W< 

Galleys, galleien, v. 

Game, spel, o. 

Games (to play — ), spelletjes doen. 

Garden, In in. ni. 

Gardener, tuinier, m. 

General, algemeen. 

Generation, gedacht, o. 

Get (to), worden, S., krijgen, S. ; — on, 
voorait komen, kwam vooruit, vooruit 
gtAnmen ; — into trouble, in moeielyk- 
hrid raken, W (couj. with *#n). 



German, Duitsch. 

Germany, Duitschland. • 

Give (to), seven, gaf, gegeven. 

Girl, meitje, o. 

Glimmer, schijnsel, o. 

Glitter (to), ylinsleren, \V. 

Globe, aardbol, m. 

Glorious, roemrijk, luisterijk, verrukke- 

Hjk. 
Glove, handschoen, m. 
Go out (to), uitgadn.ging uit, uitgegaan ; 

— with, mtdegaan rnet ; — to war, ten 



VOCABULARY. 



389 



strijde uittrekken, S. ; — on repeating, 

gedurig herhalen, W. 
Goes (by the name of), men hem . . . 

noemt. 
Gone, weg. 
Good, goed ; the — , welzijn, o. ; — hearied, 

goedhartig ; — looking, knap. 
Gorge, kloof, v. 
Government, regeering, v. 
Gradually, langzamerhand. 
Grand, grootsch. 
Grandfather, grootvader, m. 
Grant (to), schenken, geven, S., toestaan 

S. 
Grasp (to), grijpen, greep, gegrepen. 
Grass, gras, o, — border, grasrand, m. 



Gratitude, dankbaarheid, v. 

Grave, ernstig. 

Greatest quantity possible, grootst moge- 

lijke hoeveellieid, v. 
Greece, Griekenland, 
Greek, Grieksch. 
Green, groen. 
Grey, grijs. 

Grieve (to), verdiiet doen. 
Ground, grond, m. 
Grown to manhood, man geworden. 
Guard (of a train), conducteur, m. 
Guess (to), raden, raadde, geraden; (to 

surmise) gissen, giste, gegist. 
Guest, gast, gsl. 
Guide, gids, gsl. 



H. 



Hairy, harig. 

H.ill, zaal, v, 

Hand (to), overgeven, gaf over, overgege- 
ven; — back, teruggeven; — over, over- 
handigen, overhandigde, overhandigd. 

Hand (at — ), bij de hand. 

Handsome, mooi. 

Happen (to), gebeuren, W. 

Happiness, geluk, 0. 

Happy, gelukkig. 

Hardly, bezwaarlijk. 

Hardship, ontbering, v. 

Ha'ness (to — to), voorspannen, W. 

Harvest, oogst, m. 

Hastily, haastig. 

Hat, hoed, m. 

Hatchet, bijl, v. 

Hazardous, gewaagd. 

Health, gezondheid, v. 

Hear (to), hooreu. hoorde, gehoord. 

Heart, hart, 0. 

Heavy, zwaar. 

Heed (to), luisteren naar, W. 

Height, hoogte, v. 

Helias, Hellas, o. 

Help, hulp, v. 



Idea, idee, o., denkbeeld, 0. 

Idle away (to), verluiren, W. 

Ill, ziek; — (noun), kwaad. 

Image, beeld, 0. 

Imitate (to), ndvolgen, W. 

Impartial, onpartijdig. 

Impatient ( — lyj, onyeduldig. 

Important, belangrijk. 

Imposing, indrukwekkend. 

Improve (to), ontwikkelen, ontwikkelde, 

ontwikktld ; verbeteien, \\'. 
Incessantly, o-no/ houdelijk. 
Inclination, neiging, v. 
Indeed, inderdaad. 
India, Indie. 

Indignant, verontwaardigd, gebelgd. 
Induce (to) beuegen, S. ; er toe brengen . 
Inferior (to be — to), aehterstaan bij, S. 
Inform (to), mededeelen, deelde mede, 



Hereupon, hierop. 

Hesitate (to), aarzelen, W. 

Hewn, geliouwen. 

Hex River Pass, Hex Rivier pas, m. 

Hiding-place, schuilplaats, v. 

Hill, heuvel, m. 

Hind-leg, achterpoot, m. 

Hoarse, schor. 

Hole, gat, o. 

Home, huis, tehuis ; — (noun), tehuis, o. 

at — f t'liuis. 
Honest}', ee< lijklieid, v. 
Horrible, gruwelijk. 
Hospital, hospitaal, 0. 
Hour (an — and a half), underhalf uur. 
House, Auis, o. 

How, hoe. However, hce . . . 00k. 
Human being, mensch, m. 
Humility, nederigheid. v. 
Hundred, honderd. 
Hunger, honger, m 
Hungry, hongerig. 
Hurry (to), zich haasten, AV. 
Hurt (to), bezeeren, YV. 
Hut, hut, v. 



I. 

Inhabitant, inwoner, m. 

Injury, kwaad, o., beschadiging, v. 

Inkpot, inJctpot, m. 

Ian, herberg, c. 

Inquire (to), vragen, W, 

Inquiring (noun), onderzoeken, o. 
\ Instance (for — ), bij voorbee'd. 
I Instead of, in plaats van. 

Instruct (to), bevelen, S. 

Instructed, opgedragen. 

Instructive, leerzaim. 

Instrument, instrument, 0. 

Intelligent, verstandig. 

Intend (to), van plan zijn. 

Interest (to), interesseeren, interessftrde, 
geinteresseerd ; belang inboezemen, W. 

Interpreter, tolk, m. 

Introduce (to), invoeren, W. 

Inward, innerlijk. 

liishman, Ier, m. 



39Q 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Jaileb, cipier, m. 

Jane, Jans (je). 

Jewel, juweel, o. 

John, Jan, to. 

Joy, vreugde, v., blijdschap, v. 

Jouruey, reis, v. 



Judse, rechter, m. 

Jump (to), springen, sprong, gesprongen. 

June, Juni. 

Just, rechtvaardig. 

Jvatfjuitt. 



Kafik wae, Kaffer oorlog, m. 

Keep (to), bewaren, W. 

Keep (to — down), bedwingen, bedwong, 

bedwongen. 
Key, sleutel, to. 
Kill (to), dooden, W 
Kind, soort, v. 
Kind, vriendelijk. 



Kindness, vriendelijkheid, v. ; wiend- 

schap, v. 
Kitchen, keuken, v. 
Knee, knie, v. 
Kneel down (to), neerknielen, knielde 

neer, neergeknield. 
Knock (to), kloppen, W. 
Know (to), kennen, W., weten, S. 



L. 



Label (to), adresseeren, W. 

Lace (boot — ), refer, w. 

Lady, dame, v. 

Lamp, lamp, v. 

Lap-dog, schoothondje, o. 

Lnp8e, verloop, o. 

Large, groot ; at — , in het algemeen. 

Last, laatst ; — (adv.), 't laatst; — 

night, gisteren avond. 
Late, te laat, laat ; of — years, in de 

laatste jaren ; — at night, den laten 

avond, s' avonds laat. 
Lately, in den laatsten tijd, onlangs. 
Latter (the), laatstgenoemde. 
Laugh (to), laclien, \V 
Law, wet, v. 

Lay out (to), aauleggen, W. 
Lay to rest (to), te rusten neerleggen, W. 
Learned, geleerd. 
Learn (to), leeren, \Y. 
Leaf, biad, o. 
Least, minst. 
Leave (to), nalaten, S. ; — for, ver- 

trekken naar, S. 
Lend (to), leenen, W. 
Less, minder, 
Les-soii, les, v. 
Lest, opdat .... niet. 
Let, laten, S. 
Letter, brief, m. 
Level at (to), aanleggen op, legde aan, 

aangelegd. 
Library, bibliolheek, v. 
Lick (to), likken, W. 



Lie down (to), zich neerleggen, W. 

Lifeless, levenloos. 

Lift (to), qplickten, W. 

Lightning, bliksem, m. 

Like (to), lust hebben in; — best, het 

liefst willen. 
Likely, waarschijnlijk. 
Likewise, ook. 
Linnet, vlasvink, m. 
Lion, leeuw, m. 

Listen (to), luisteren naar, W. 
Lit, aanstak. 
Little, weinig. 
Live (to), leven. 
Lively, levendig, speelsch. 
L'>ad, vracht, v. 
LoadstODe, magneet, m. 
Lofty, verheven. 
Lonely, eemaam. 
Long, lang ; as — as, zoolang ; — since, 

reeds lang. 
Look (to), er . . . uitzien, zag eruit, 

emit gezien ; — up, opzoeken, W. ; — 

for, zoeken naar. 
Looked on, schouwden aan. 
Loose (to), Ins maken, W. ; bevrijden, W. 
Lose (to), verliezen, verloor, verloren. 
I-ot, hoop, m. 
Loud, I a ill. 
Louis, Lodewljk. 

Love of truth, waarheidsliefde, v. 
Low, laag. 
Lydian, Lydisch. 
Lyons, Lyon. 



M. 



Madam, Mevrouw. 
Main road, hoqfdweg, m. 
Magnanimity, grootmaedigheid, v. 
Manage (to), erin slagen, W. 
Manager, direcktear, to. 
Manners, zeden, manieren. 
Manifest, openbaar 
Many, reel. 
Marblu, knikktr, m. 



Market-house, markthuis, o. 

Market-place, markt, v. 

Martyr, slachtoffer, o. 

Mason, mctselaar, m. 

Match, lucifer, to. 

Material, siof, v., materiaal, o. 

Matter, zaalc, v. 

Measure (to), meten, mat, gemeten. 

Meat, vleesch, o. 



VOCABULARY. 



391 



Medicine, medicijn, v. 

Meet (to), ontmoeten, W. ; — demands, 

voldoen aan de eisclien. 
Merchant, koopman, m. 
Mere, puur ; — ly, slechts alleen. 
Message, boodschap, v. 
Messenger, gezant, m. 
Mighty, machtig. 
Military, militair, m. 
Milk, melk, v. 
Mind, geest, m. 
Mine, mijn, v. 
Minute, minuut, v. 

Misapplication, verkeerde toepassing, v. 
Misdeed, verkeerde handeling, v. ; wan- 

daad, v. 
Miserable, naar, ellendig. 
Misery, ellende, v. 
Mislead (to), misleiden, mislsidde, 

mitleid. 



Miss (to), misscn, miste, gemist; ver- 

liezen, S. 
Mistake,/oi*£, v. 
Mistaken (to be — ), zich ver& 

rergiste, rergist. 
Mis y, mistig. 
Model, toonbeeld, o. 
Modesty, zedigheid, v. 
Money, geld, 0. 
Monk, monnik, m. 
More, meer. 
Moreover, bovendien. 
Mortal, stervelinf), gsl. 
Mountain, berg, m. 
Moved at heart, dicp geroerd. 
Murderer, moordenaar, m. 
Music, muziek, v. 
Must, moet. 
My, mijn. 



N. 



Name, naam, m. ; by — , met name. 

Nation, volk, 0. 

Native country, geboorteland, 0. 

Naturally, van nature. 

Nature, natuur, v. 

Naughty, ondeugend. 

Neared, naderden. 

Nearly, bijna. 

Necessary, noodig. . 

Neck, nek, m. 

Neglect (to), verwaarloozen, W. 

Neighbour, naaste, gsl., buur, m. 

Nervous, zenuwachtig. 

Never, nooit. 

Nevertheless, toch, niettemin. 



New, nieuw. 

News, nieuws, o., tijding, v. 

Next, volgend ; — to, naast. 

Niece, nicht, v. 

Night (at — ), in den avond. 

Nine, «e#en. 

Nobility of heart, zielenadel, m. 

Noble, edel. 

Noise, geluid, o. 

North (the), noorden, o. 

Not .... yet, nog niet. 

Nothing, niets. 

Notice (to), bemerken, W., opletten, W. 

Number of, aantal. 

Nurse, kindermeid. v. 



o. 



Oak-tree, eikeboom, m. 

Obedience, gehoorzaamheid, v. 

Obedient, gehoorzaam. 

Oblige (to), dwingen, W, 

Obliged (to be — ), verplicht zijn. 

Observing, opmerken, o. 

O'clock, uur, o. 

Occupation, beroep, 0. 

Occur (to), gebeuren, gebeurde, gebeurd. 

Offer (to), aanbieden, S. 

Offended (to be — at), zichergeren over,\V . 

Office, kantoor, o. 

Official, beambte, m. 

Oftener, meer. 

Old, oud. 

Olympian games, Olympische spelen. 

Once, eenmaal, tens ; — more, nog eenmaal 

Only, slechts. 

Open (to), open doen. 



Openly, openlijk. 

Opinion, opinie, v., oordeel, o. 

Opponent, tegenstander, m. 

Opportunity, gelegenheid, v,, Jeans, m. 

Oracle, orakel, o. 

Ordinary, geicoon. 

Originate (to), ontstaan. 

Other, ander. 

Ought, behoorde. 

Outermost, uiterst. 

Outside, buiten. 

Oven, oven, m. 

Overflowing, overvloeiend. 

Overlook (to), over het hoofd zien. 

Overtake (to), inhalen, haalde in, inge- 

haald ; overvallen, S. 
Overweight, te zwaar. 
Own, eigen. 



Pace (to), op en neer loopen, S. 

Pack (to), pakken, \V. 

Paiuful, pijnlijk. 

Paint (to), schilderen, schilderde, gesch.il- 

derd. 
Painter, schilder, m. 



Palatable, tmakelijk. 

Paper, papier, 0. 

Paper (to), lekangen, behing, behangen. 

Parcel, pak, o. 

Pardon (to), vergeven. 

Parents, ouders. 



392 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Paris, Farijs. 

Part, deel, o. 

Part (to), scheiden, W. 

Part (to take — in), deelnemen aan, S. 

Part (to) (of cli'Uds), zich verdee'en, W. 

Particularly, bijzonder. 

Parting words, afscheidswoorden 

Party, gezelschap, o. 

Pass (to), voorbijkomen ; overtrekken, S. 

Pa-sage, gang, v. 

Past, voorbij ; verleden, o. (n<un). 

Path, pad, o. 

Peace, vrede, m. ; at — , met vrele 

Peaceful, vreedzaam. 

Peculiar, eigenaardig, bijzo dcr. 

Pen, pen, v. 

Pencil, potlood, n. 

Penetrate (to), doordringen, S. 

People, menschen. 

Perform (to), verrichten. W. 

Permission, verlof, o. 

i ersia, Persie. 

Pe.-son, persoon, gsl. 

Teruse, doorzien, S. 

Perverted, verkeerd. 

Philosopher, wijsgeer, a. 

Physical strength, lichaamskracht, v. 

Pick (to), plukken, W. ; — up, oprapen, 

W. 
Picnic, picnic, m., buitenpartij, v. 
Picture, portret, o.,prent, v., schilderij, v. 
Piece, stuk, o. ; — of poetry, gedicht, o. 
Pine-wood, pijnbosch, o. 
Pioneer, voortrekker, m. 
Pipe, pijp, v. 
Pistol, pistool, o. 

Pity(to have — OTi),medeh'jden hebben met. 
Place (to), plaatsen, plaatste, geplaatst. 
Place, plaals, v.; — of worship, phats 

der aanbidding. 
Plant, plant, v. 

Play (to), spelen, speetde, gespeeld. 
Pleasant, aangenaam, plezierig. 
Please, als 't u blieft. 
Please (to), bevallen, beviel, bevallen. 
Pleasure, plezier, o., genot, o. 
Plenty of, ruim, een overvloed van. 
Plough (t<>)> ploegen, W. 
Pocket, zak. m, 
Poetry, poesie, v. 
Point, punt, o. 
Poisoned cup, giftbeker, m. 
Political, politiek. 
Pond, dam, m. 
Poor, arm ; — (of animals), mager. 



Poor (noun), armen. 

Positively, beslist. 

Possession, bezit, o. 

Pi ssible, mogelijk. 

Post, post, m. 

Postman, brievenbode, m. 

Post.ofiBce, postkantoor, o. 

Potato, aardapptl, m. 

Pound, pond, o. ; — sterling, pond 

sterling. 
Poverty, armoede, v. 
Powder, kruit, o. 
Power, macht, v. 

Practice, beoe/ening, v. ; praktijk, v. 
Practise (to), zich oefenen, W. 
Praise (to),prijze»,prees, geprezen. 
Precious, kostbaar. 
Prefer (to), vdortrekken, S. ; — to, ver- 

kiezen boven, S. 
Present, tegenwoordig; at — , op het 

oogenhlik ; — day, huidige dag, tegen- 

woordige tijd. 
Preserve, konfjt, o. 
Pretty, mooi. 
Prevent (to), voorkdmen, voorkwam, voor- 

komen. 
Price, prijs, m. 
Pride, hoogmoed, m. 
Priest, priester, m. 
Priestess, priesleres, v. 
Prison, gevangenis, v. 
Private house, woonhuis, o. 
Prize, prijs, m., buit, m. 
Profit, winst, v. 
Profitable, nuttig. 
Profound, diep. 
Promise, belofte, v. 

Promise (to), beloven, beloofde, beloofd. 
Promoting (in), met het levorderen. 
Pi oof, bewijs, o. 
Proper ly, behoorlijk. 
Property, eigenschap. 
Protect (to), beschutten, W. 
Provide (to — for), zorgen voor, W. 
Province, provincie, v. 
Prudent, voorzichtig. 
Public, openbaar, public':, o. (n a ■). 
Pull (tO. trekken, S. 
Punish (to), Hraffen, strafte, gestraft. 
Punished (to be — ), geslraj't warden. 
Purity, reinheid, v. 
Purpose, doel, o. 
Purse, beurs, v. 
Put down (to), opschrijven, S. 
Put right (to), in orde maken. 



Q. 



Quarter (of an hour), kwartier, o. 
Quench (to) (tbirst), lesschen, W. 
Question, vraag, v. 
Quickly, gauw, vlug. 

Race, wedren, m. 

Rail (by), per syoar. 

.Railway accident, spoorwegongeluk, o. 



Quick-tempered, opvl iegeml, van aard. 
Quiet, rustig, stil. 
Quite, heel ; geheel en al. 



E. 



Rain, regen, m. ; —clouds, regcnwolken, 

v. ; — water, regenwater. 
Raise (to — au army), een leger rp d* 

been brengen. 



VOCABULARY. 



393 



Raise (to — wheat), graan verbouwen. 

Rarely, zelden. 

Rather, liever. 

Reach (to), bereiken, \V. ; — home, 

t'huis komen, S. 
Read (to), lezen, las, gelezen; — out, 

voorlezen, las voor, voorgelezen. 
Reading-room, leeskamer, v. 
Ready, klaar. 
Really, waarlijk. 
Reason, reden, v. 

Reassemble (to), zich hereenigen, W. 
Reassuringly, geruststellend. 
Rebel (to), in opstand kumen. 
Receive (to), ontvangen, ontving, ont- 

vangen. 
Recite (to), reciteeren, W. 
Reckless, roekeloos. 
Recognise, herkennen, W. 
Recollect (to), zich herinneren, W. 
Reflect (to — great credit on), veel eer 

aandoen, S. 
Refuse (to), weigeren, W. 
Rein, teugel, m. 
Relapse, instorting, v. 
Relative, verwante, v. 
Relieve (to), verlossen, W. 
Religion, godsdienst, m. 
Remarkable, merkwaardig. 
Remind (to — of), herinneren aan, W. 
Renowned, beroemd. 
Repent (to — of), berouw hebben van. 
Reply, antwoord, o. 
Reply (to), ' antwoorden, antwoordde, 

geanticoord ; hemtmen, hernam, 

hernomen. 
Report, bericht, o. 



Report (to), berichten, W. 

Request, verzoek, o. 

Require (to), noodig hebben; — d, noodig. 

Rescue, verlossing, v.; for the — , tot ontzet. 

Resemble (to), gelijken op. 

Resolve (to), besluiten, S. 

R source, toevlucht, v. 

Responsible, veranticoordelijlc. 

Rest, rust, v. 

Result, uitslag, in., gevolg, o. 

Return (to), teruggeven, gaf terug, terug- 

gejeven, terugkeer en. W. 
Revise (to), nuzien, zag na, nagezien. 
Revolver, revolver, o. 
Reward (to), beluonen. W. ; n, beloon- 

ing^ v. 
Rich, ripe. 
Riches, rijkdommen. 
Riddle, raadsel, 'o. 

Ride, rit, m.; to take a — , eenen rit maken. 
Right, rezht ; to do — , recht iiandelen ; to 

be — , gelijk hebben ; — minded, recht- 

geaard, weldenkend. 
Rising, opstaan, o. ; — generation, op- 

komend geslacht, o. 
Risky, gewaagd. 

Room, ruimte, v.,plaats, v., kainer, v. 
Rotation, wenteling, v. 
Round about, in den omtrek, in de rondte. 
Rouse (to), icakk r maken. 
Rubbish, vuilnis, o., vuil, o. 
Rumbling, rommelend. 
Rumour, gerucht, o. 
Run (to), loopen, Hep, geloopen; — up 

to, toeloopen naar, S j — off, weyloopen. 
Rush (to), springen, S. 
Rusty, verroest. 



S. 



Sad, treurig. 

Saddle (to), zadelen, \V. 

Safely, veilig. 

Sage, wijze, gsl. 

Sake (for the — of), om, ten einde. 

Salary, salaris, o. 

Sample, monster, o. 

Sandal, sandaal, v. 

Sand-hill, zandheuvei, m. 

Satisfied, tevreden, voldaan. 

Save (to), redden, redde, gered ; — one- 
self trouble, zich moeite besparen. 

Scan (to), aandachtig bekijken, S. 

Scene of the fire, plaats (v.) van den 
brand. 

Scenery, landschap, o., natuur, v. 

S hool, school, v. 

Schoolmaster, schoolmeester, m. 

Scissors, schaar, v. 

Pcold (to), benspen, W, 

Scream (to), gillen, W. 

Sculptor, beeldhouwer, j» 

Seal (to), bezegelen, AW 

Season (to), kruiden, W. 

Search (to), doorzoeken, \V. 

Secretary, secretaris, n. 



See (to — to), nazien, S. 

See (to), zien, zag, gezien. 

Seed, zaad, o. 

Seeing that, aangezien. 

Seem (to), schijnen, S. 

Seize (to), grijpen, S. 

Self-possessed, zich zelven gelijk. 

Send (to), zenden, zond, gezonden. 

Serious, ernstig, gevaarlijk. 

Servant, bediende, m. 

Several, verscheiden. 

Severe, hevig. 

Service, dienst, m. 

Shackle, boei, v. 

Shame, schande, v. 

Share, deelen, W. 

Soare (to), verdeelen, verdcelde, verdeeld. 

Shavings, krullen. 

Shawl, shawl, m., onslagdoek, m. 

Sheep, schapen. 

Shelter (to), schuilen, S. 

Shell, schelp, v. 

Shield (to — from), beschutten voor, \V. 

Shine (to), stralen, \V. 

Suop, win'cel, m.; — keeper, winkelier, m. 

Shore, oever, m. 



394 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



Shortly after, kort daarna. 

Should, zou ; moest ; behoorde. 

Shoulder, schouder, m. 

Show (to), toonen, W. ; laten zien ; wij- 

zen, S. , 
Shower, bui, v. 
Sick-bed. ziekbed, o. 
Sickly, ziekelijk. 
Side, kant. m. 
Sideboard, buffet, a. 
Sight, gezicht, o. 
Simply, eenvoudig. 
Since, aangezien; sedert; — then, sedert 

dien tijd. 
Sir, Mijnheer. 
Sister, zuster, v. 

Situation, betrekking, v. • 

Sixteenth, zestiende. 
Skill, bekwaamheid, v. 
Skin, vel, o. 
Sleep, slaap, m. 

Sleep (to), slapen, sliep, geslapcn. 
Slipper, pantoffel, v. 
Smile, glimlach, m. 
Sniff (to — at), ruiken aan, S. 
Snow-white, sneeuwit. 
Soap manufactory, zeepfabrielc, v. 
Sober, nuchter. 
Soberness, matigheid, v. 
Society, maatschappij, v. 
Soil, grond, m. 
Soldier, soldaat, m. 
Solomon, Salomo. 
Some, eenpaar ; wat ; eenig ; — or other, 

de eene of andere. 
Soon, veldra. 
Sore, zeer. 
Sorrow, verdriet, o. 
Sorry (to be — ), spijten, S. 
Sound wisdom, diepe wijsheid, v. 
South (the), zuiden ; — Africa, zuid- 

Afrika. 
Southerly wind, zuidenwind, m. 
Sow (to), zaaitn, W. 
Spacious, ruim. 
Spade, graaf, v. 
Spare (to), tnissen, Vf. 
Speech, woorden, rede, v. 
Spelling, spelles, v. 
Spend (to), ddorbrenfien, S. ; besteden, 

\V. ; — one's life, zijn, leven slijten, S. 
Spirit, geest, m. 
Splendour, praclit, v. 
Spoil, roof, m. 



i Spot, plek, v. ; plaats, v. 
Spout, goot, v. 
Sprung from, ontstaan uit. 
Stable, stal, m. 
Stake, paal, m. 
Stamp, postzegel, m. 
Standing (of long — ), oud. 
Start on (to), beginnen, S. 
Start for (to), vertrekken nair, S. 
Startle (to), opschrv. ken, \V. 
State (to), verklaren, \V. 
State, toestand, m. ; staat, m. 
Stately, statig. 

Statement, bewering, v. ; gezegde, o. 
Station, station, o. 
Stay (to), blijven, S. ; — away, weg- 

blijven, S. 
Steal (to), steJen, stal, gestolen ; — away, 

kruipen naar, S. 
Steamer, stoomboot, v ; boot, v. 
Stick, stok, m. 
Stiff, slijf. 
Still, nog. 
Sting (to), strken; — by pride, prikkelen, 

W. 
Stop (to), ophouden, S. 
Story, verhaal, o. ; geschiedenis, v. 
Straightway, regelrecht. 
Strand, strand, o. 
Stranger, vreemdeling, gsl. 
Street, straat, v. 
Strict, stipt. 
Strike (to), opvallen, S. 
Strong, sterk. 

Study, studeerkamer, v. ; studie, v. 
Study (to — on), doorga'tn met studeeren. 
Stung, aangezet. 

Succeed (to), slagen, slaagde, geslaagd. 
Such, zulk. 
Suddenly, eensklaps. 
Suffer (to), Ujden, S. 
Sufficiently, voldoemde. 
Sugar, suiker, v. 
Suit (to), bevallen, S. 
Sum, som, v. 
Sunrise, zonsopgang, m. 
Support (to), onderluntden, S. 
Suppose (to), veronderstellen, W. 
Surprised, verwonderd. 
Surely, waarlijk, voorzeker. 
Surpass (to), overtreffen, S. 
Sustain (to), onderhoudeu, S. 
Sweep (to), vegen, W. 
Syllable, lettergi eep, v. ; (here), taoord, o. 



T. 



Tablk, tafel, v. 

Tail, staart. m. 

Take back (to), terugbrengen, S. 

Take care (to), zorgen \zorg dragen) 

voor. 
Take into consideration (to), in aan- 

vierking nemen. 
Take down (to), a/nemen, S. 



Take food (to), voedsel gebruiken, Vf. 
Take leave (to), ufscheld nemen van. 
Take a ride (to), eenen rxt te maken. 
Take shelter (to), schuilen, S. 
Take up (to), opnemen, S. 
Tale, verhaal, o. 
Talk, gesprek, o. 
Tasted, geproefd. 



VOCABULARY. 



395 



Tea, thee, v. 

Teacher, ondenvijzer, m. 

Tell (to), vertellen, vertelde, verteld. 

Temper, humeur, o. 

Temple, tempel, m. 

Tent, tent, v. 

Terms (on good — ), op goeden voet. 

Terrific, vreeselijk. 

Test (to), onderzoeken, W. 

Thank-offering, dankjffer, o. 

That, die, daf. 

Thereupon, daarop. 

Thief, dief, m. 

Thin, mager, dun. 

Think (to) (to consider), het houden voor. 

Think (to — it an honour), het zich eene 

eer rekenen, W. 
Third, derde. 

Thirsty (to be — ), dorst heblen. 
Thistle-finch, putter, m. 
Those, die. 
Three, drie. 
Throw (to), werpen, vrierp, geworpen ; 

gooien, gooide, gegooid. 
Thrush, Ujster, v. 
Thunder, onweer, o. 

Thunderstorm, onweer, o., onweersbui, v. 
Tide of war, krijsgeluk, o. 
Till, totdat. 
Time, tijd, m. ; at the — .destijds; in 

— , bijtijds ; for some — , een tijdlang. 
Tired, vermoeid, moe. 
Tobacco, tabak, v. 
To-day, vandaag. 
Together, bij elkaar, samen. 



To-morrow, morgen. 

To-night, van avond. 

Too, ook, te. 

Tool, werktuig, o. 

Top, tol, m. 

Touching, aandoenlijk. 

Towards, naar. . . . toe. 

Town, stad, v. ; — hall, stadhuis, o. 

Tradition, overlevering, v. 

Tram-fare, tramgtld, o. 

Translate (to), vertalen, W. ; over- 

brengen, S. 
Translation, vertaling, v. 
Travel (to), reizen, reisde, gcreisd- 
Traveller, reiziger, m. 
Treasure, schat, m. 
Treat (to), behandden, W. 
Treatment, behandeling, v. 
Tree, boom, m. 
Tremble (to), beven, W. 
Terrific, vreeselijk. 
Trip, ret*, v. 
Trouble, moeite, v. 

True, waar; to remain — , trou blijven 
Trust (to), vertrouuen, W. 
Truth, waarheid, v. 
Try (to), probeeren, W. ; beproeven, \V. 

— ont-'s hand, de hand, leggen aan. 
Turn (to), zich ketren, W. 
Twelve, tuaalf. 
Twenty, twintig. 
Twice, tweemaal. 
Twig, twijg, v. 
Two, twee. 



TJ. 



Uncle, oom, m. 
Underground, onderaardsch. 
Undertake, ondernemen, S. 
Undisturbed, onverstoord. 
Undo (to), ongedaan maken. 
Undoubtedly, ongetwijfeld. 
Unexpected, onverwacht. 
Unfailingly, onfeilbaar. 
Unfortunate, ongelukkig. 
Ungrateful, ondankbaar. 
United, vereenigd. 



Uninterrupted, onverstoord. 

Unless, tenzij. 

Unmanly, onmannelijk. 

Unshaken, onwrikbaar. 

Up and down, op en neer. 

Upright, oprecht. 

Upset (to), dmgooien. 

Urgent, dringend. 

Use, nut, o. ; gebruik, o. 

Used to say, plackt te zeggen. 

Utter in reply (to), antwoorden, W. 



V. 



Vain (In — ), terergeefs. 

Value, waarde, v 

Vanity, ijdellteid, v. 

Various, verscheiden ; — kinds, allerlei. 

Vehicle, voertuig, o. 

Veil, sluier, tit., voile (•/'>.), v. 

Venetian, Venetiaanscli. 

Venture (to), tvagen, W. ; — out, zich 

buiten wageu. 
Verse, vers, o. 
Very, zeer. 
Victory, overtoinning, v. 



View, photographic, v. 

Vile, laag. 

Village, dorp, o. 

Vine, wijnstok, m. 

Violent, hevig. 

Virtue, deugd, v. 

Visit, bezoek, o. 

Visit (to), bezoeken, bezocht, bezocht. 

Viz., n.l. (namelijk). 

Voice, stem, v. 

Vocabulary, u:oordenlijst, v. 



396 



THE COMMERCIAL DUTCH GRAMMAR. 



W. 



Waggon-house, wagenhuis, o. 

Waiter, bediende, m. 

Wake up (to), wakkermaken, ivekken, W. 

Walk, wandeling, v. 

Walk (to), wandelen, W, 

Walk about (to), rondloopen, Hep rond, 

rondgeloopen ; — off, heenloopen, S. 
Wall, muur, m. 

Want, bekoefte, v. ; — of, gebrek aan. 
Want (to), willen ; noodig hebben ; heb- 

ben willen. [doen. 

War (to make — with), den oorlog aan- 
Warn (to), waarschuwen, waarschuwde, 

gewaarschuwd. 
Warning, waarshuwing, v. 
Watch, horloge, o. 
Weapon, wapen, o. 
Wearily, moe. 
Weather, weder, o. 
Weigh (to), wegen, woog, gewogen. 
Well, bron, v. 

Well, goed, ttel ; as — as, evengoed. 
Were, waren. 
Whatever, wat . . . ook. 
Wheat, kobrn, o. 
When, wanneer, als, toen. 
Whenever, wanneer. 
Whereby, waardoor. 
Whether, of ; — or, of — of. 
While (a), tijd, m. ; for — , een poosje. 



Whisper (to), fiuisteren, W. 

Whistle (to — to a bird), eenen vogel toe- 

fluiten. 
Whither, waarheen. 
Whole (on the — ), over het geheel. 
Wholesome, gezond. 
Whose, welks. 
Why, waarom. 
Wild, wild, in het wild. 
Will, testament, o. 
Will, zullen. 

Will (to), willen, wilde, gewUd. 
Windy, winderig. 
Wing, vleugel, m. 
Winter, winter, m. 
Wisdom, wijsheid, v. 
Wise, wijs. 

Witnessed, bijgewoond. 
Woman, vrouw, v. 
Wonder, wonder, o. 
Wood, bosch, o. 
Wood-pigeon, woudduif, v. 
Word, woord, o. 
Work, werk. 
Work (to), betverken, W. 
Worked (to have — ), laten bevierken. 
AVorkshop, werkplaats, v. 
Worn out, versleten. 
AVould, zou. 
Wrong, verkeerd; (noun), kwaad, o. 



Yaed, achterplaatt v. 
Year, juar, o. 
Yesterday, gisteren. 
Yonder, gindsch. 



Y. 



Young, jong. 

Your, uw. 

Youth, jongeling, m. 



Zeal, ijver, m. 



losdon: printed bt WILLIAM clowes and sons, limited, 

STAMFOED 8TBKET AND CHABIXQ CBOSS. 




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