(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Commercial fisheries review"

,7 -N 

COMMERCIAL 
FISHERIES 




Vol. 14, No. 10 



OCTOBER 1952 



FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE 

United States Department of the Interior 
Washington, DC — 



UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
OSCAR L. CHAPMAN, Secretary 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

ALBERT M DAY, Director 



.^ COMMERCIALDCl 
'W FISHERIESnt 

A REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENTS AND NEWS OF THE FISHERY INDUSTRIES 
PREPARED IN THE BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

A. W. Anderson, Editor 

R. T. Vhiteleather, Associate Editor 

J. Pileggi, Assi stant Editor 

Applications for COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW, which is mailed free to 

members of the fishery industries and allied interests, should be 

addressed to the Director, Fish and Wildlife Service, 

U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D.C. 

The contents of this publication have not been copyrighted and may be 
reprinted freely; however, reference to the source will be appreciated. 

The Service assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of material fron 
outside sources. 
The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director 
of the Bureau of the Budget, December 15, 194-9. 

CONTENTS 

cover: on the ATLANTIC COAST, MORE HARD CLAMS ARE 
TAKEN WITH TONGS THAN ANY OTHER TYPE OF GEAR. 
(see page 1 OF THIS ISSUE.) 



HARD-CLAM FISHERY OF THE ATLANTIC COAST, BY R. E. TILLER, 



B. GLUDE, AND L. D. STRINGER 1 



RESEARCH IN SERVICE LABORATORIES: 

PROGRESS ON PROJECTS, SEPTEMBER 1952 .. 

TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRAM CHANGES 

PROJECT REVIEWS: 
FREEZING FISH AT SEA, DEFROSTING, FIL- 
LETING, AND REFREEZING THE FILLETS-- 
REVIEW FOR THE PERIOD DEC. 1950-SEPT. 

1 952 

TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS: 

ADDITIONS TO THE FLEET OF U.S. FISHING 

VESSELS 

ATLANTIC STATES MARINE FISHERIES COM- 
MISSION HOLDS ANNUAL MEETING 

FEDERAL PURCHASES OF FISHERY PRODUCTS: 
FRESH AND FROZEN FISH PURCHASES BY 

DEPT. OF THE ARMY, AUGUST 1952 

NO CANNED SALMON FROM 1952 PACK RE- 
QUIRED BY ARMED FORCES 

FISHERY MARKETING SPECIALIST EXAMINA- 

T I ON ANNOUNCED 

NEW ENGLAND TUNA EXPLORATIONS: 
MARJORI E PARKER ENCOUNTERS BEST TUNA 
FISHING OFF MASSACHUSETTS ON FISHING 

CRUISE NO. 6 

POOR FISHING PLAGUES MARJORIE PARKER 

ON FISHING CRUISE NO. 7 

NORTH PACIFIC EXPLORATORY FISHERY 
PROGRAM: 
ALBACORE TUNA EXPLORATION BY JOHN N. 

COBB (cruise no. 12) 

PACIFIC COAST STATES CONDUCTING EXPERI- 
MENTAL BOTTOM FISHING AT GREAT DEPTHS 
PACIFIC OCEANIC FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS: 
RESEARCH VESSELS RETURN FROM FISHING 

AND HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS 

PROPOSALS INVITED FOR LEASE OF A FISH 

CANNERY IN TUTUILA, AMERICAN SAMOA 

SHRIMP EXPLORATIONS CONTINUED OFF THE 
CARIBBEAN COASTS OF HONDURAS AND 
N I CARAGUA 



TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (cO 

UNITED STATES FISHERY PRO 

ING PROSPECTS (OCT.-DEC. 

LOOK FOR 1953) 

WHOLESALE AND RETAIL PR I C 
WHOLESALE PRICES, AUGUST 
RETAIL PRICES, AUGUST 19 

foreign: .. . 

INTERNATIONAL: 
SOUTH PACIFIC FISHERIES 
INTER-AMERICAN TROPICAL 
FOURTH SESSION HELD IN 
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORG 
ADMISSION OF MONACO TO 
FISHERIES COUNCI L . . . . 
ANGLO-EGYPTIAN SUDAN: 

FISHERIES DEVELOPMENTS . 
BRAZI L: 

FISHING BOATS ORDERED FR 
CANADA: 
FISHERIES OUTLOOK FOR 19 
FILLETING IS PREFERRED T 
SALTING IN NEWFOUNDLAND 
SHRIMP FOUND IN NEWFOUND 
LONG-LINERS PROVE SUCCES 

FOUNDLAND 

NEWFOUNDLAND TO BUILD Fl 

ING PLANT 

CEYLON: 

AIDS TO FISHERIES, 1951 
COLOMBIA: 
PRESERVED OR CANNED FISH 

ULATED 

SPECIAL IMPORT DUTY EXEM 
EQUIPMENT TO ESTABLISH 
DUSTRIES .............. 

FISH CANNERY ESTABLISHED 
ECUADOR: 
TERRITORIAL WATERS SOVER 
FIRMED 



NTD. ): 

DUCTS MARKET- 
1952 AND OUT- 



54 

CONFERENCE ... 54 
TUNA COMMISSION: 

SAN JOSE 55 

ANIZATI on: 
MEDITERRANEAN 
55 



OM DENMARK 



DRYING AND 



SH-OI L HARDEN- 



IMPORTS REG- 



PTION FOR 
FISHING IN- 



EIGNTY REAF- 



CONTENTS CONTINUED ON PAGE 93 



COMMERCI 



October 1952 



Washington 2S,D.C. 



Vol.14 No. 10 



HARD- CLAM FISHERY OF THE ATLANTIC COAST 

By Richard E. Tiller,* John B. Glude,** & Louis D. Stringer** 
(Prepared at the request of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission) 

INTRODUCTION 

This report supplements biological studies being conducted by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service's Clam Investigations, and deals with the present status and 
past trends of the fishery for the hard clam or quahaug ( Venus mercenaria ) ,1/ the 
types of gear employed, and the particular problems facing the industry in each 
of the Atlantic coastal states. 



The information on which the s tudy is based was obtained from personal inter- 
views during 1949, 1950, and 1951 with clam fishermen, dealers, and state conser- 
vation personnel in all of the 
Atlantic Coast states; and from 
the Service's catch statistics. 
The results of these surveys 
have been used in planning and 
establishing the clam research 
program authorized by Congress 
in 1948, 

Members of state conserva- 
tion agencies, universities, and 
research groups contributed in- 
formation used in this report. 
Dealers and fishermen have been 
thoroughly cooperative in de- 
scribing the industry and its 
problems. The first part of this 
report is a consideration of the 
general aspects of the fishery, 
including data pertaining to 
volume and value of production, 
location of the fishing grounds, and a description of the types of gear employed. 
The second part includes state summaries, and deals more in detail with theproduc- 
tion and problems of the individual states. Catches statistics have been taken 
from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Administrative Reports or Statistical 
Digests, 




■|G. 1 - TOTAL CATCH OF HARD CLAMS FOR ATLANTIC COAST 
STATES, 1931-48. WHEN STATISTICAL SURVEYS WERE INCOM- 
PLETE, THE ANNUAL TOTALS WERE CALCULATED FROM AN AVER- 
AGE OF PRECEDING AND SUCCEEDING YEARS. 



GENERAL ASPECTS OF THE FISHERY 

CATCH AND VALUE ; Although Atlantic Coast catch statistics for hard clams from 
1931 to 1948 show a steady upward trend in production to a level above previous 
peak years (table 1 and figure l) . the total annual production and value are small 

» FORMERLY FISHERY RESEARCH BIOLOGIST, U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, BOOTHBAY HARBOR MAINE; 

NOW FISHERY BIOLOGIST, MARYLAND DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH AND EDUCATION SOLOMONS MD . ' 
1H»FISHERY RESEARCH BIOLOGISTS, CLAM INVESTIGATIONS BRANCH OF FISHERY BIOLOGY U.'s. FISH AND 

WILDLIFE SERVICE, BOOTHBAY HARBOR, MAINE. ' 

I/THIS DOES NOT INCLUDE THE OCEAN QUAHAUG (aRCTICA ISLANDICA ). 



COMI-IERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



* * * 

* * * 
I oinco oj 
I Win CO « 
I incr> ^ to 

I coo^ in lo 



* * * 

* * * . 

■* r-ltD ^ ^ 

en CO CO o- ^ 
•* O 05 <£i cs 

to d CT> rH c\2 



CO ojco ■* to 
to CO C-- w cn 
'0 CO H ^ o 



M '^O CO 

<r> O M CO 

in CO u3 CO 



^ ^^ ID CO 

CO O IN M 
t£> ^O rH cr> 



CO ^ to -* C- 
yD ^ 00 «3 
CO 00 i£) to 



in rH -^IN cn 
o in COCO ,H 
IN i>- 1^ in tjD 



■ <y> in 

'i-H CS 



sT 



H * -X- * * CO 



in# ,H ":i< 
c\j a> 



^^ * * CO 



**■)(■* cs 



cS> 



* # * * I 



* * * * I 



I I I I ^ 



Oh(- * * rH 



•r 



*■)(■■»* CO 



* * * * I 



I I I cvj* 



• ,# # » OJ 



**■)<■>• O 



Cn COO c?* 



I * * * *■ in 



IN a> CT> ( 

,tr>iN cs , 

tolinco oi ( 



■** M to ^ 

IN UD o 

u3 in IN 



in OrH in 

c\) r-i CO :ro - 

O CO tn yj tc 

CC) CJ rH Oa rH 



co» ■^ a> c\3 
in CO in 
in to CO 



^ -^CD to 
U3 U3 ^ in 

to CvJ CO 03 



_,0 CO 

g pin CO 



cr> o* o M Oi 



CO o CM in CO 



CO CD CO* ■* 



in CO coc^ CO 



X- oj IN in 



^ to CM* 

en to o 
o cr> CO 



^l^to ^ 



cQ inco* ■* 

-* CJCJ 

CO cnin 



CD to ^ 
IN in in 
^ to to 



^ lO I 
CO ^ I 



I tN CO 

I CO ^ 



CM o OJ 
CM 0.2 CO 



en H'** en 

CMCM 



CM to O 
O O CM 
H CM iH 



00 to en* o 



.CMCJ5 in f 

HCO to , 

LO.-IO < 



CM in ■** 00 

CM O O 

in to o 



in ^rH* 
rH toco 

O HCM 



00 CM in 
in i-iuD 
rH to in 



^ c^ c^ ^ 

>-( CM CO CM 

iH 00 c- in 



c^ ■* o* t- 



<0 CO CO I CTi 
toco CO 
CMH CM 



C-- to CM 

to u3 in 

.HH CM 



colinc^ IN to 
mien to c- ct> 
rtl-^en CM 0.1 
SI - - • 

HrH CM CM 



OO ^-I 
^ -O ^ 

CD in 00 



Oi to CO 
<0 O CM 
IN CO 0> 



00 rH to in 
tN en to IN 
■sji in to to 



o incp* to 



CM to o* CO 
in to iH 

to CM rH 



I into* CM 



COIN to in 
en 05 C75 05 

>-(.H rH rH 



^ « OJ rH g 
en en en CT> en 



3^-tOin -^COCMrH 

itotoco tocococo 
CT; a> en en en |cti en o^ <n 

-{•-{•-\ H|rH r-\ r-tr-{ 



I c^ to in 

I .<di ^ ^ 

CTi en (n en 



r-i ,-t H r-t r-i 



en 00 c-uD in 

CO to toco to 
en en <n en 05 

r-\ rH rHrH rH 



■"^ CO OJ rH -P 

CO CO CO tol " 
en en en cnl 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



when compared with other shellfish resources of the Atlantic States, In value 
per pound of shucked meats, however, hard clams outrank all others except lobsters, 
A summary of the production 
and value of the shellfish 
resources based on Fish and 
Wildlife Service catch statis- 
tics for 1945 (the most re- 
cent year for which complete 
data are available) is pre- 
sented in table 2, 



Table 2 - Shellfish Resources of 


the 


Atlantic Coast State 


3, i?45 










Avg. Price 


Species 


Quantity 


Value 


per Pound 


Blue crab (in shell) 


1,000 Lbs. 


$1,000 
4,293 


i 

7 


60,258 


Shrimp (heads on) 


55,947 


4,227 


8 


Dyster (meats) 


52,920 


19,383 


37 


Lobsters (Northern, 








in shell) 


22,727 


9,460 


42 


Hard clam (meats) 


15,332 


5,923 


39 


Soft clam (meats) 


8,875 


1,954 


22 


Scallop (meats) 


6,619 


2,399 


36 



LOCATION OF TIffi FISHERY ; 
Hard clams occur in nearly 
every sheltered bay, cove, or 
inlet along the entire Atlantic 
Coast, but the fishery is cen- 
tered largely in the southern 
New England and Middle Atlantic States, New York leads in production, followed 
in descending order by New Jersey, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts. On the basis 
of a five-year average (1944-48), these four states produced 85 percent of the 
hard clams caught on the entire coast (figure 2). Virginia, Florida, and North 
Carolina are the ranking southern states and account for an additional 13 percent. 

The locations of the commercially-fished areas "along the Atlantic Coast are 
shown in figures 3, 6, 8, and ICt The coast has been divided into the four sections 
as follows: 

New England - Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 

and Connecticut o 
Middle Atlantic - New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. 
Chesapeake - Maryland and Virginia 

South Atlantic - North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and 
Florida, 



TYPES OF GEAR AND PRODUCTION METHODS ; The usual habitat of the hard clam is 
in relatively shallow water, and the fishery therefore lends itself quite well to 
hand-operated gear. Where the beds are exposed at low tide, or covered by only 
very shallow water, short-handled hoes or rakes are used almost entirely. Typically 
a New England gear, hoes are rarely used south of Rhode Island, The design varies 
somewhat from one locality to another, but the usual style is about two feet in 
length and is provided with four or five flattened tines 8 to 10 inches long as 
shown in figure 5, Forks and picks replace hoes in the southern states. These 
are basically the same in design, but have somewhat longer handles, and picks usu- 
ally have only two or three closely spaced short tines. 

In deeper water, long-handled rakes and tongs are employed. Rakes are used 
in all of the coastal states, and vary in pattern from one area to another, depend- 
ing on the depth of water, type of bottom, and preferences of the local fishermen. 
Bull rakes, typically used in New England, are provided with detachable heads, 3 
to 4 feet in width, fitted with closely-spaced curved teeth which form a horizontal 
basket. Spacing of the teeth varies according to the minimum legal size in the 
different states (figure?). 

Long sectional wooden handles or stales are fitted to the rake heads, the 
length depending on the depth fished, and the strength and skill of the fishermen. 
Occasional reports were obtained of stales over 50 feet long, although 36 feet is 
usually the maximum length. In fishing, the rake is shoved out and away from the 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. U, No. 10 



anchored boat, and then worked through the bottom in a series of short tugs to a 
vertical position, from which it is hauled up. The long curved teeth force a 

roll of bottom soil ahead of 
them as the rake is pulled, 
and the clams are held, while 
the soil is washed through. 
Generally, the use of rakes is 
restricted to softer bottom 
than that which can be fished 
with tongs. 

Basket rakes, on which the 
ends are closed by wire mesh 
are used in some localities, 
particularly where clams are 
abundant. They are very popu- 
lar in Massachusetts for the 
recovery of planted clams from 
privately-leased grounds. 

Tongs (figure 9) are ex- 
tensively used in all states 
except Florida, and accounted 
for over 60 percent of all the 
hard clams caught in the coastal 
states during the period from 
194A to 1948. Basically, tongs 
3 are a basket formed by two op- 
posing sets of teeth, which are 
opened and closed by means of 
long scissor-like handles. The operating principle of tongs restricts their use 
to more shallow water than that which can be fished with rakes. Tong shafts over 
28 feet in length are rarely used and in most cases do not exceed 18 to 20 feet. 

Dredges are more varied in their design than any other type of clam gear. 
Different types are used in the power-boat fishery of Massachusetts and Rhode Is- 
land, as shown in figure 4, than in the sail fishery of New Jersey* Themodified 
crab and oyster dredges used in lower Chesapeake Bay are of a still different pat- 
tern. Conservation laws in the different states regulate the size, weight, spacing 
and length of teeth and other features in the design of dredges. 

The five-year (1944-48) average annual production and value by gear and by 
state are shown in table 3 and figure 11. 




FIG. 2 - AVERAGE HARD-CLAM PRODUCTION BY STATES, 
EXPRESSED IN PERCENT. 







Table 3 - 


riie-Yoar (1944-48 


) Average Annual Catch of Hard clamn By Gear and State 






1 


3tate 


TONGS 


RMES 


DHEDGE 


BY HAND 


HOES 


CRABS 


TOTAL 1 


Quantity 


Talus 


tiuantity 


Value 


ftuantlty 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quantity 


Value 


Quant ity 


Value 


Maine 


1,000 Lbs. 


$1,000 


1,000 Lbs. 


Jl.OOO 


1,000 Lbs. 


tl,000 


1,000 Lbs. 


11,000 


1,000 Lbs. 


41,000 


1.000 Lbs. 


51.000 


1.000 Lbs. 


$1,000 
50 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 246 


50 


- 


246 


Hass, 


279 


81 


1,149 


353 


473 


124 


_ 


_ 


67 


18 


_ 


_ 


1,968 


576 


3. I. 


1,405 


396 


366 


105 


853 


210 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


2,624 


711 


Conn. 


26 


9 


24 


a 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


. 


50 




N. Y. 


7,312 


2,840 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


7,312 


2,840 


N. J. 


1,158 


405 


1,104 


397 


147 


55 


424 


149 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


2,833 


1,006 


Del. 


5 


2 


20 


8 


20 


7 


_ 


_ 


- 


_ 


_ 


_ 


45 




M. 


76 


42 


84 


47 


2 


1 


25 


13 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


187 


103 


\fa. 


503 


266 


341 


181 


53 


29 


157 


83 


_ 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1,054 


559 


». C. 


- 


- 


96 


29 


- 


- 


4 


1 


- 


- 


- 




100 


30 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


_ 


3a. 


- 


- 


- 


. 


- 


- 


_ 


- 


_ 


- 




_ 


_ 




FXa. 


- 


- 


1 


- 


103 


26 


- 


- 


9 


2 


25 


6 


138 


34 


Total 


lS,f64 


4,041 


3,185 


1,128 


1,651 


452 


610 


246 


322 


70 


25 


6 


16.557 


5.943 


Per- 




























centage 65.0 


68.0 


19.2 


19.0 


10.0 


7.6 


3.7 


4.1 


2,0 


1.2 


0.1 


0.1 


100,0 


100.0 


of Total 





























October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



GENERAL REGULATORY MEASURES ; It would be impractical to attempt a detailed 
discussion of conservation laws dealing with the hard clam in this report. The 



Table 4 - Sunmary of General State or Local Regulations Governing the Hard-Clam 
Fishery of Atlantic Coast States 


State 


Minimum Size 


Gear 


Season 


Maine 


2" longest diameter 


Regulated by each county 
or town. 


Regulated by each 
county or town. 


Massachusetts 


2" longest diameter 


Regulated by each town. 


Regulated by each 
town. 


Rhode Island 


Nothing that will 
pass through a Ig" 
ring. 


Power dredges limited to 
Sakonnet River. No limit 
on hand gear. 


Power dredges from 
Dec.l to Mar. 31. No 
season on hand gear 


Connecticut 


Nothing that will 
pass through a 1^" 
ring 


No power gear on public 
grounds. 


None 


New York 


1" thickness 


No power gear on public 
grounds . 


None 


New Jerse/ 


1^" in length 


No power-operated vessel. 


None 


Delaware 


None 


No dredge more than 5 ft. 
2 in. wide or with rings 
less than 2" in diameter. 


None 


Maryland 


None 


May be taken by rakes, 
tongs, patent tongs, 
dredges, or hand scrapes, 
as defined, and by no other 
means. 


None 


Virginia 


None 


Regulated in specific 
counties and sections. 


None 


North Carolina 


li" from hinge to 
mouth 


Only with clam dredges, 
hand rakes, or by hand. 


None 


South Carolina 


None 


No dredging in less than 
12' at low water. 


Closed May 1 to 
Oct. 1. 


Georgia 


None 


None 


None 


Florida 


2" from hinge across 
widest part 


None 


None 



general regulations regarding size limits, gear limits, and closed seasons now in 
effect are summarized in table 4. These vary considerably from one state to an- 
other, and even within a single state, where individual townships have jurisdiction 
over the clam-producing areas within their boundaries. It should be understood 
that this table is simply a summary to aid the reader in understanding the meaning 
of sub-legal clams and to present some idea of the conservation measures being em- 
ployed. It should not be used as a reference for state regulations, 

TRADE CATEGORIES : Considerable variation in marketing procedures and size 
categories is encountered in different areas along the Atlantic Coast. A few gen- 
eral rules, however, apply to all areas. 

The smallest legal-size hard clams — termed "necks," "little necks," or "steamer 
necks" — command the highest price in all areas. These small clams are used princi- 
pally in restaurants, where they are served freshly opened on the half shell, or 
steamed and served with drawn butter. 



The term "cherrystone" originated in the Chesapeake area in the vicinity of 
Cherrystone Creek, and refers to a clam slightly larger than the "little neck" 
classification common in New England. This size, too, is popular in most areas 
when served raw or steamed. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Volo U, No. 10 



Clams larger than the cherrystone size are nearly always used in the prepa- 
ration of chowders or in canned whole or minced clams, and are classed as "mediums" 
and "chowderSo" These larger sizes command a considerably lower priceo 

The manner in which clams are bought from the fishermen varies also from one 
area to another. Throughout New England and part of the Middle Atlantic area, 
clams are sold by weight or by bushel measure, although the weight of a bushel 
varies slightly from one state to another. This variation is due to the factthat 
the yield in shucked meats of clams from upper New England is greater than from 
lower New England and the Middle Atlantic. In the Chesapeake and southern states 
the small, medium, and large clams are separated and sold according to the number 
per bushelo 

MAINE 

LOCATIO N OF THE FISHERY : Although small quantities are harvested for home 
consumption elsewhere along the coast, commercial fishing for hard clams is limited 
to a small area in upper Casco Bay, bounded on the east and west by theHarraseeket 
and New Meadows Rivers, respectivelyo Maquoit Bay leads in production, and smaller 
amounts are taken from Quahaug Bay and sections of the New Meadows River o 

GEAR AND METHODS : With the exception of entries for "dredges" in 1940 and 
1942, "hoes" are the only gear listed in Fish and Wildlife Service records for the 
period 1931-48 « Nearly all digging is in the intertidal zone, on beds exposed at 



/' 


/ 


/ 


^ 


/ 


/ 


1 

/ 
j 


{ 




VERMONT 1 


\ 


/ 


^ 


> N. H 


■J ^ 


/ 




NEW ENGLAND 



FIG. 3 - LOCATION OF HARD-CLAM FISHERY IN THE NEW ENGLAND STATES SHOWN BY STIPPLED AREAS. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEiV 7 

lomr tidCo Records of the Maine Department of Sea and Shore Fisheries show only 
four men fishing with tongs during 1950 in Maquoit Bay, A law passed in 1946 
prohibits dredging from the flats or waters of Maquoit Bay. 

GENERAL CONDITIONS OF THE FISHERY AND PROBLEMS ; Sharp fluctuations in the 
annual catch have apparently occurred during the period from 1931-50, although 
catch records before 1942 are unreliable. According to the Maine Department of 
Sea and Shore Fisheries, an all-time peak was reached in 1949 and 1950, when the 
catch was nearly twice that of any previous year. This peak is based on a fish- 
ery for clams of one- or two-year classes. 

The outlet for little necks and cherrystones is principally in the market 
areas of Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, and large chowders are sold to can- 
neries in the southern New England and Middle Atlantic States. 

Maine hard clams are considered particularly desirable for cannery use by 
some New England dealers, because the yield of shucked meats is greater than from 
clams in other areas « 

During 1950, the Maine Department of Sea and Shore Fisheries undertook exper- 
imental transplantings of young quahaugs which had become established in such 
heavy concentrations that stunting and excessive mortality were occurring. Local 
fishermen volunteered assistance, and funds were made available by local buyers 
and dealers. In eighteen days, 3,012 bushels were moved to nearby commercially- 
depleted areas. Studies are being conducted by t he State of Maine to determine 
if productive flats can be developed in other parts of the State. 

Considering the relatively small area in which fishing is profitable, and 
the high level of production during the past three years, it appears that thehard- 
clam resources of Maine are being exploited to nearly their fullest extent. Un- 
less successful techniques of restocking or farming are developed it is doubtful 
whether the fishery can expand much beyond its present production, 

MASSACHl'SF.TTS 

LOCATION OF THE FISHERY ; The southern shore of Cape Cod, Buzzards Bay, and 
the waters surrounding Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and the Elizabeth Islands 
support nearly the entire hard-clam fishery of Massachusetts. Wellfleet Harbor, 
near the northeast tip of the Cape, Barnstable Harbor, and Plymouth Bay also con- 
tribute to a lesser extent, 

GEAR AND METHODS ; Rakes are the m.ost numerous and m.ost productive gear in 
Massachusetts, followed in descending order by dredges, tongs, and hoes. Bull 
rakes, basket rakes, and tongs are used from small boats in shallow bays and coves 
along the entire Cape, on the shores of Buzzards Bay, Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, 
and the Elizabeth Islands, 

Dredges are restricted by law to deeper offshore waters, while hoes are used 
only on intertidal flats which are exposed at low tide. The Fall River or Nan- 
tucket dredge is typically a New England gear, and is rarely found in the Middle 
or South Atlantic States. The average dredge weighs about 450 pounds. The width 
of the blade, which varies from slightly less than two feet to about four feet, is 
usually expressed in terms of the number of teeth. Small dredges carry as few as 
9 teeth, while large ones may have up to 24. The length and angle of teeth, as 
well as the amount of ballast attached to the dredge frame, depend largely on the 
nature of the bottom. The bag of the dredge is composed of iron rings and connect- 
ing links, the diameter and length of which are determined by local minimum-size 
limits and by the nature of the bottom. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 14, No. 10 



GENERAL CONDITIONS OF TFffl FISHERY AND PROBLEMS : Individual tovmships assume 
the responsibility for their shellfish resources. The issuance of licenses and 




FIG. 4 - FALL RIVER DREDGES OPERATED BY POWER BOATS ARE USED PRINCIPALLY 
AND RHODE ISLAND AND ON LEASED GROUNDS IN NEW YORK. 



N MASSACHUSETTS 



grants for holding grounds, establishment of closed areas or seasons, and regula- 
tions of the daily catch llirit for hand or power fishing are all under the control 
of the tovm selectmen or board of aldermen. State health officials work with the 
towns in prohibiting fishing in contaminated waters, and State conservation per- 
sonnel assist in transplanting and re-seeding projects. 

Nearly all of the dealers and town shellfish warden reported evidence of de- 
pletion. In nearly every instance, failure of setting combined with overfishing 
were believed the cause. This apparent depletion is noticeable, particularly in 
the scarcity of "necks," the highest-priced, and consequently most heavily fished 
size. Statistical records for the period from 1931-48 show periodic fluctuations 
in the catch, which may indicate alternate periods of successful and unsuccessful 
spawning. The reported decline may be, therefore, only a temporary condition, 
caused (as suggested by the men interviewed) by heavy cropping of recent year 
classes without recruitment. Nearly all of the clam-producing areas in the State 
are said to be good natural seeding areas, but none is characterized by successful 
sets every year. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 9 

With the exception of one or two areas in which pol]ution has reduced the 
size of the grounds, and thereby increased the fishing pressure on other areas, 
fishermen and dealers believe that the stocks of clams can still support the same 
number of meno 

Marketing is no problem in Massachusetts. Demand reportedly exceeds supply, 
particularly for little necks, and some dealers have found it necessary to buy 
from Rhode Island to fill their orders. Canneries and restaurants provide a good 
outlet for chowder clams, and summer residents supplem.ent the already heavy de- 
mand for the smaller little necks and cherrystones. 

Records of the catch for each town are compiled annually, and the daily limits 
are adjusted when necessary to prevent overexploitation. Transplanting projects 
are considered very important in maintaining the productivity of the clam bedSo 

Fluctuations in the total catch for the State have been of about the same 
amplitude over a period of years. The peaks of 1931, 1938-39, and 1945-46 were 
surprisingly similar, and the low years of 1935-37, 1943, and 1948 were alsonearly 
equal o 

It appears that the fishery in its present condition is limited in potential 
production, and is being exploited to about its fullest extents 

RHODE ISLAND 

LOCATION OF Tfffi FISHERY ; Hard clams are restricted to the upper two-thirds 
of Narragansett Bay, and are rarely found in commercial abundance beyond a depth 
of 25 feet. The most productive beds occur in the more shallow inshore areas. 

GEAR AND METHODS : Bull rakes and tongs, similar to those employed in Massa- 
chusetts, are the most productive gears in Rhode Island. 

Dredging is restricted to the lower half of the Sakonnet River, and is permitted 
only from December 1 to March 31. The Fall River dredge, already described for 
Massachusetts, is generally used, but in the last few years it has been supplanted 
in some areas by a hydraulic- jet dredge. This gear employs high-pressure stream.s 
of water directed into the bottom just in front of the dredge blade, and greatly 
increases the efficiency of dredging in firm, sandy bottom. 

GENERAL CONDITION OF Tfffi FISHERY AND PROBLEMS : No serious problems of deple- 
tion or marketing were reported by any of the persons interviewed in Rhode Island. 
Consistently favorable comments were obtained with respect to the present supply, 
the success and frequency of setting in the past several years, and the number of 
fishermen who find clam fishing profitable. 

The present intensity of the fishery by hand methods and the possible expan- 
sion of power dredging have raised the question of the effect of increased fishing 
pressure on the clam population. This basic problem faces the conservation depart- 
ment of every state having a hard-clam fishery. Each must know how many clams can 
be harvested each year without causing depletion. Greenwich Bay, which supports 
30 to 50 tongers and rakers, was chosen recently by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
for productivity studies to determine the number of bushels of clams which can 
safely be removed each year. Records of commercial production are balanced against 
information concerning growth rate, setting, predators, and natural mortality. 
A clam census is taken once each year to determine what the fishery is doing to 
the population level. The results of these studies should help the states todeter- 
mine whether their fishery is too intensive or if it can safely be expanded. 



10 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Volo 14, No. 10 



Considerable concern was expressed by all dealers interviewed regarding the 
capture and out-of-state shipment of sub-legal clams. This business has expanded 
greatly during the last several years, and dealers believe that severe depletion 
of the clam resources of the State will result unless this practice is curtailedo 

Several men interviewed (all of whom are dredge operators or who depend on 
the dredge fishery for their supplies of clams) mentioned another problem. Legal 




FIG. 5 - THE CLAM HOE IS USED PRINCIPALLY IN NEW ENGLAND. 

dredging in Rhode Island is restricted to a comparatively small area. This area 
has been open to dredging since 1927, and has been depleted until at present it 
supports only 5 boats instead of the former fleet of nearly 40. Even when equipped 
with "jet dredges," which can harvest clams from beds which are too hard to be 
fished with the regular dredges, the fishermen report that it is almost impossible 
for a boat to fish profitably in the dredging area. They believe firmly that un- 
less additional grounds are opened to them, it is doubtful whether the dredge fish- 
ery can survive another season. 

Pollution is a problem in some areas of Narragansett Bay, according todealers, 
but is not serious enough to prevent the Rhode Island clam fishery from reaching 
high levels of production. Fishermen report no evidence that predators are a ser- 
ious threat to any of the Rhode Island clam beds. Unless setting is unsuccessful 
for several years, or over-intensive fishing for sub-legal sizes is permitted, 
there is apparently little danger of depletion. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 11 



CONNECTICUT 

The coast line of Connecticut, slightly over one hundred miles long, has 
practically no sheltered water. There are no barrier beaches to break the force 
of ocean waves, and practically no bays or coves typical of the productive areas 
in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and New Jersey. 

The waters of Fairfield County are sheltered to a limited extent by Long 
Island, and together with the few small coves and inlets near New London and 
Mystic produce nearly the entire catch of hard clams in the state « 

Tongs are the most numerous and most productive gear, and rakes rank second 
in catch. Power dredges are illegal on natural beds, but probably account for a 
considerable part of the catch of clams taken from privately-leased shellfish 
grounds . 

Hard-clam fishing is of minor importance in Connecticut. The diggers do not 
depend on clams for their entire annual income, and work at this only when other 
fishing is unprofitable. Dealers stated there is no apparent depletion and re- 
port that hard clams never have been very abundant in this State. 

Unpolluted waters are limited, and are occupied largely by privately-leased 
oyster grounds. These grounds yield small quantities of hard clams, but not enough 
to support a fishery. During World War II, one fisherman located a small bed near 
Milford, leased the ground, and dredged it until it became unprofitable, at which 
time he dropped his lease. 

Commercial oyster growers make no effort to cultivate clams on their grounds, 
but do market those taken in their oyster-dredging operations. 

Nearby cities provide a ready outlet for Connecticut clams, and marketing is 
never a problem. Dealers requiring large quantities for restaurant or hotel con- 
tracts often find it necessary to buy from New York or Rhode Island, particularly 
during the summer when tourist trade increases the demand. Even the many roadside 
stands which open during the summer are dependent almost entirely on out-of-state 
clams to supply their needs „ 

Highly efficient and practical methods of seeding, transplanting, andharvest- 
ing oysters have been developed by Connecticut oyster growers, and it is possible 
that clam farming may also be attempted if practical techniques are developed. 
Some of the dealers who were interviewed expressed interest in clam farming, but 
felt that a sufficiently rich source of seed was not available. None of themcould 
recall having seen a heavy set of clams in Connecticut waters. 

NEW YORK 

LOCATION OT; THE FISHE RY : The hard-clam fishery of New York is concentrated 
principally on the southern shore of Long Island in the sheltered bays, protected 
by the barrier of beaches extending from the mainland nearly to the eastern tipof 
the island. 

There is considerable production on the northern shore of Long Island, but the 
clam-producing areas are limited to a few relatively small bays and harbors, some 
of which are polluted. 

Three areas of productivity may be delimited on Long Island. These are, in 
descending rank, as follows: 



12 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Volo 14, No„ 10 



1. Great South Bay — in which the western portion is more pro- 

ductive than the eastern portion, 

2. Port Jefferson to Cold Spring Harbor on the northern shore. 

3. Greenport to Peconic Bay. 

GEAR AND METHODS : The following types of gear are employed and have been 
arranged in descending order of their production, 

1. Tongs are employed on hard bottoms to a depth of about 20 feet, 

2. Bull rakes and scratch rakes are used in New York. The former 

have already been described in the section dealing with gear 
and methods. Scratch rakes are shorthandled, used by fisher- 
men who wade in shallow areas and tread for clams with bare 
feet or search for siphon holes in shallow water or on exposed 
beds. 



3. Dredges are essentially the same as those described for New 
England, and may be used legally only on privately-leased 
grounds, 

GENERAL CONDITIONS ^ Tm FISHERY AND PROBLEMS : The fishery is in excellent 
condition at present, production is high, and with the exception of Great South 

Bay duck-farm pollution, 
few problems were reported 
by the dealers and fisher- 
men interviewed. 

Until about fifteen 
years ago Shinnecock and 
Great South Bays were the 
most consistent clam-produc- 
ing areas, but in more re- 
cent years clams have been 
found in nearly every bay 
or cove on both north and 
south shores. 

The opening of the in- 
tra-coastal waterway around 
1930-31 with channels to 
harbors for the coastal towns 
(Babylon, Bay Shore, Linden- 
I hurst, etc.) was followed 
by greatly increased clam 
production. It is the gen- 
eral opinion of local dealers 
and watermen that increased salinity tripled the clam-producing area of Great South 
Bay, Eel grass began to disappear about 1931, and also is believed to have in- 
creased the clam-producing bottom by permitting good circulation of previously 
choked shallow flats. 

Fishermen report sets are not regular, but frequent enough to maintain a good, 
constant supply of clams. The most recent heavy set appearing in the fishery oc- 
curred in 1941. This set was good along both north and south shores, with the re- 
sult that the north shores are at present more productive than ever. 




FIG. 6 - LOCATION OF HARD-CLAM FISHERY 
STATES SHOWN BY STIPPLED AREAS. 



N MIDDLE ATLANTI C 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 13 

Dealers in the eastern part of Long Island (Orient Harbor, Peconic Bay, 
Shinnecock Bay, and Moriches Bay) reported depletion of clam stocks and believed 
overfishing and failure of setting to be the principal causes. This apparent de- 
pletion is probably not as serious asthe dealers reported. Two influences are pres- 
ent which can produce a reduction in yield without actual depletion. First, fewer 
men are employed in the fishery, resulting in lower production. The second in- 
fluence is the inability of the individual dealer to compete as effectively as 
in the past for the limited supply of clams. The consistently higher prices which 
have prevailed for the past several years and the proximity of the New York market 
have lured many more small buyers into the business. These small buyers can op- 
erate with low overhead, and can therefore pay a slightly higher price than the 
established companies. 

Further west on Long Island, dealers reported the fishery to be in excellent 
condition. They did not recognize any depletion, and although some of them be- 
lieved that there are fewer fishermen in the business, they felt this is due to 
lack of recruitment rather than a shortage of clams. 

Dealers believe pollution is more serious than depletion in New York. State 
health authorities have closed a number of productive areas on Long Island because 
of sewage pollution. Some of these are closed all year; others are closed only 
during the summer months when the influx of tourists increases the sewage problem. 
The State conducts extensive transplanting projects to reclaim clams from areas 
closed because of pollution. The reclamation is mandatory and consists of super- 
vised removal, sale, and replanting of the clams in approved waters. Usually the 
clams are sold at about one-half the current market price, but are abundant enough 
to make the work profitable to the fishermen. 

Another type of pollution is becoming increasingly serious in southern Long 
Island, and in time may have very damaging effects, A number of duck farms on the 
shore of Moriches Bay discharge large quantities of duck excreta into the watero 
This material is said to increase the phosphate content of the water and when pre- 
vailing easterly winds during the summer carry this water into eastern Great South 
Bay, blooms of a Chlorella -like organism frequently occur. Unpublished results 
of studies conducted by biologists working for shellfish companies have reported 
that the organism becomes sufficiently abundant to clog the gills of clams and 
inhibit feeding, resulting in "poorness" and a reduced yield in shucking. This 
problem has not seriously affected the Great South Bay fishery, although canneries, 
buying for the greatest possible yield in shucked meats, will occasionally buy 
elsewhere when these clams are in poor condition. The restaurant and raw-bar 
trade for the smaller, higher-priced clams is unaffected. A complete biological 
and hydrographical survey of this problem was undertaken in 1949 through coopera- 
tive efforts of the State of New York, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 
and dealers in the affected area. Preliminary reports on this study are being 
prepared, and are expected to be released in the near future. 

Marketing was not reported as a serious problem by any of the dealers inter- 
viewed on Long Island, The proximity of the New York market makes it the best 
outlet, and most Long Island clams are shipped there, where they may be sold and 
reshipped. Some, however, are shipped directly to western New York State, Connect- 
icut, and to more distant markets in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. 

Tabular and graphic data already presented have shown New York ranks first in 
hard clam production, and it appears that the State's clam resources are in no 
immediate danger of overexploitation. 



14 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



LOCATION OF THE FISHERY: 



NEW JERSEY 

Hard clams are caught along almost the entire coast 



from Sandy Hook Bay to Cape May. Barrier beaches and islands shelter nearly all 
of the shore line, and clams occur abundantly in the harbors and bays behind these 
barriers. 

According to some of the dealers interviewed, New Jersey's most productive 
clam groiinds extend from the southern part of Barnegat Bay to Cape May, and Fish 
and Wildlife Service records of the catch by counties for the period 1931-47 sup- 
port this idea. The best areas are Little Egg Harbor and Great Bay. 

GEAR AND METHODS : With the exception of local modifications of dredges and 
rakes, the gear employed is similar to that used in New York, and is listed below 
in descending order of production: 

1. Tongs. 

2. Rakes include bull rakes; jig rakes, which are simply bull 




FIG. 7 - BULL RAKES ARE EQUIPPED WITH SECTIONAL STALES OR HANDLES FOR FISHING IN WATER 20 TO 
2b FEET DEEP. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 15 

rakes vd.th sectional handles composed of 5-foot lengths 
of steel pipe; and short-handled rakes used in shallow 
areas. 

3. Dredges of two types are used. One similar to that de- 
scribed for the Massachusetts fishery may legally be 
em.ployed only on private grounds. The other, a gang- 
rig, consisting of three or four short-handled bull 
rakes fastened to towing lines, is operated from sail 
boats in public waters, 

GENERAL CONDITION OF Ttffi FISHERY AND PROBLEMS ; Fish and •Vildlife Service 
catch records for New Jersey indicate no depletion in the State's hard-clam re- 
sources. In fact, 1948 was considerably above the average annual production for 
all years since 1931. Dealers, however, reported a decrease in the supply of 
clams, especially those of smaller size, and little evidence of a successful re- 
cent set. All of the men interviewed who believed depletion has occurred, felt 
that overfishing and failure of setting were the principal causes. 

Some of the fishermen were more optimistic about the condition of the inous- 
try, and felt that if small clams are somewhat more scarce than in recent years, 
it is a temporary problem which has occurred periodically in the past. Success- 
ful sets are said to occur only occasionally, but support the fishery for several 
years. Temporary scarcity of small sizes may occur between the periods of success- 
ful setting, but this condition is not believed to be indicative of a permanent 
decline in the fishery. 

Marketing presents only a minor problem in New Jersey, There is a constant 
demand for small clams to be served as "half-shells" or "steamers," particularly 
during the late summer when clambakes are most popular. The demand is so great 
for very small "steamers" in some localities that a considerable amount of under- 
sized clams are taken, and in some areas this illegal fishing is considered a con- 
tributing factor in the apparent depletion. Canneries provide a lower-priced out- 
let for medium and large clams which are used in preparing chowder, minced, and 
canned clams. 

The principal markets for New Jersey clams are in New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Ohio, Many dealers maintain leased beds on which they hold clams bought during 
periods of depressed prices on glutted summer markets. These men have found that 
bedded clams are subject to high mortality if held for more than one season unless 
planted more thinly than is desirable for easy recovery. Usually fishing is re- 
duced during the winter, and demand exceeds the supply, so the bedded clams may be 
probitably sold later in the same year in which they were purchased. 

Pollution is a problem in only a small portion of the clam-producing areas of 
New Jersey, and most of it occurs in the less productive northern part of the coast, 
With the exception of areas near Atlantic City and vVildwood which are closed dur- 
ing the summer when the population is greatly increased by vacationists, the shores 
of the most productive bays and harbors are so sparsely populated that sewage pol- 
lution is no problem. 

Apart from the reports of dealers cited previously, there is little evidence 
of depletion of New Jersey clam resources. Production has been at a very high 
level for the past several years, and unless increased market demands intensify 
the fishing effort, it seems unlikely that depletion from overdigging will occur. 



16 COMMERCIAL FISHERIKS REVIEW Vol. lA, NOo 10 



DELAWARE 

The clam-fishing grounds of Delaware are very limited, and the production, 
when compared to New York and New Jersey, is so small as to be almost insignifi- 
cant » The western shore of Delaware Bay in the vicinity of Little Creek supports 
a dredge fishery which accounts for the major part of the production, and the 
sheltered waters of Rehoboth Bay and Indian River Bay maintain a very small tong- 
ing fishery. 

Dredges are the only gear used in the Delaware Bay fishery, since the water 
is too rough for the small boats used by tong-and-rake fishermen. The dredges are 
simply modified oyster dredges equipped with teeth from 6 to 9 inches in lengtho 

The clam-dredging fishery, which accoimts for almost the entire catch in Del- 
aware, developed as a sideline of the oyster business of Delaware Bay. Boats op- 
erated in, the Little Creek area dredge small quantities of clams from nrivately- 
leased oyster beds, but their largest catches are taken from adjacent natural 
grounds. Ordinarily, clam fishing stops at the end of the oyster season because 
the price of clams is lowest during the summer, and they must be sold promptly to 
avoid loss by spoilage. Good market conditions in 1949 and 1950, however, have 
encouraged some of the dredgers to continue operations during the summer. No ef- 
fort has been made to maintain holding beds, since dredging is typically a winter 
fishery, and mortality is high in winter plantings, according to dealers. 

Almost all of the dredged clams are large enough to be used by canneries, 
since the 2^-inch rings used in the dredge pockets allow most small clams to escape. 

Clam production in Delaware Bay has been increasing steadily for about three 
yearso Dealers interviewed reported 1950 catches at an all-time high level, and 
believed the last similar peak of production occurred in about 1932,, 

The Indian River and Rehoboth Bay areas were described by local shellfish 
dealers as unproductive when compared with Chincoteague Bay, which lies a fewmiles 
south. Only about seven men in the vicinity of Oak Orchard dig clams commercially, 
and the largest individual shipper in the area handles only about 2, 500-5, 000 clams 
per week. A State law limits a fisherman' s daily catch in the Indian River to 
1,000 clams, but the scarcity of clams makes it difficult to reach this limit. 

There seems to be no problem of marketing the available supply, and no evi- 
dence of depletion. The supply is limited to a small area, and is simply not great 
enough to maintain a large fishery. 

Pollution is not serious with respect to the Delaware clam fishery, since the 
limited areas in which fishing is profitable are free from pollution. 

It appears that the fishery of Delaware is being exploited to nearly its full- 
est extent. Continuation of dredging through the summer may increase production, 
but if the clams are cyclic in abundance, the particular size groups in which the 
dredges are most effective will probably be diminished until another successful 
period of recruitment occurs, 

MARYLAND 

LOCATION OF THE FISHERY ; Although Pocomoke Sound, located in the southeastern 
part of Chesapeake Bay yields small quantities of clams, nearly the entire catch 
comes from the protected bays on what is locally called the sea side of Maryland. 
Chincoteague, Sinepuxent, Assawoman, and Isle of Wight Bays form a continuous body 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



17 



of water along the entire east coast. The whole area is very shallow, rarely ex- 
ceeding 12 feet in depth at high water, and the bottomis largely composed of soft, 
sandy mud, with scattered areas of shell formed by natural oyster beds. 

GEAR AND METHODS : With the exception of small quantities taken by dredges 
working on the lower Chesapeake oyster beds, tongs and rakes account for the en- 
tire catch of clams in Maryland wa- 
ters. Rakes are used principally 
in the summer when fishermen can 
wade and tread clams, or locate 
them by "signing" at low tides when 
the bottom conditions are right. 
This method is used by skilled 
fishermen who can recognize the 
"sign," which may be a mound, de- 
pression, or any hole in the bot- 
tom indicating the position of the 
clam. Tongs, which produce about 
the same as rakes, are used in both 
summer and winter in deeper water, 
and are particularly effective on 
the natural oyster beds where clams 
are abundant . 

GENERAL CONDITION OF THE FISH - 
ERY AND PROBLEMS : Catch records 
for the period from 1931-^+8 show 
a steady increase in production, 
with only occasional minor regres- 
sions. Although somewhat less 
than 1947, the catch for 1948 is 
still well above any other preced- 
ing year. 

Depletion was considered a 
major problem only in the Chesa- 
peake Bay clam fishery. Dealers 
in Crisfield reported that former- 
ly productive beds in Focomoke 
Sound have become so depleted dur- 
ing the last fifteen years that 
they nowproduce virtually no clams. 






■'{(^'" / 


BoHimore '^ 


^\Vv^ / 


WdsA/nofon >/ K 


> ' V, 


J MD. C ^ 


M . 1 "^"-ijl 


VA. ^ 


tjf 


^ 


^ \P 


^ 


^ CHESAPEAKE 
X|^ BAY 




\ *"'" 




.4^ 10 20 si io 





va ^ 



FIG. 8 - LOCATION OF HARD-CLAM FISHERY IN CHESA- 
PEAKE BAY STATES--STI PPLED AREAS. 



Members of the Maryland shellfish industry who were interviewed almost univer- 
sally agreed that marketing is the major barrier confronting the Maryland clam 
fishery. The greater volume of production in New England offers serious competi- 
tion to a year-round market. Nearly all Maryland dealers depend largely on "bed- 
ding" — clams bought at low prices during the summer and on the re-sale of the clams 
during the winter. In normally severe winters, the New England fishery is consid- 
erably restricted, and "bedding" is quite profitable. A number of dealers stated 
that they have bought and held clams from New York, New Jersey, Rhode Island, and 
North Carolina to augment their local supply. Mild winters during the last few 
years have made this practice risky, and several dealers reported that the poor win- 
ter m.arket had forced them to reduce or abandon "bedding" operations. 

The outlet for Maryland clams is almost entirely out-of-state. Regular markets 
are found in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Florida, and even Texas. The peaks of 



18 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. U, No. 10 

demand occur during late summer for small clams used in clambakes, and during the 
winter for large chowder clams. 

Two firms within the State produce canned chowder, and very recently another 
company has begun freezing clsrnis with satisfactory results. 

Pollution presents no problem to the Maryland clam fishery since most of the 
clam-producing area of the Eastern shore is sparsely populated. 

The steady increase in production, despite a reported reduction in fishing 
effort, indicates that the industry is growing even though marketing problems are 
severe. These problems may be overcome with the development of efficient techni- 
ques of freezing and processing, Long-distsnce shipment at minimum cost could 
provide new outlets, and offer better competition to the New England clam fisher- 
ies. 

VIRGINIA 

LOCATION OF TFE FISHERY : Virginia's hard-clam fishery is centered along the 
eastern peninsula. The sheltered bays from Cape Charles to Chincoteague Bay are 
most productive, but considerable quantities are also taken from the lower Chesa- 
peake Bay, 

The western shore of Chesapeake Bay from Mobjack Bay to Cape Henry is also 
quite productive. Broad shallow flats cover much of the area, and small coves 
and creeks provide excellent holding grounds, 

GEAR AND METHODS : Tongs and rakes are the most productive gears, and dredges 
account for only a small part of the catch. Hand tongs are most numerous, but in 
some areas in Chesapeake Bay the use of power-operated patent tongs is permitted, 
and in those areas, this gear is very important. Patent tongs are exactly the 
same in design as hand tongs, except that the shafts are shorter, and made of iron 
instead of wood, and that the head or basket is much larger. Wire ropes replace 
the shafts, but the tongs are worked into the bottom by tne same scissor-like 
action. This gear was originally developed for use in oyster fishing, but has 
proved very efficient in catching hard clams. 

The type of hand-operated gear varies with the season. In winter, tongs are 
used almost exclusively, while in the summer rakes are used very extensively by 
fishermen who take clams by treading and "signing," 

No dredges are licensed for clam fishing in Virginia, and the catches listed 
are taken incidentally in dredging for oysters and crabs. Clams are seldom dredged 
from privately-leased holding grounds, principally because these grounds are often 
in very shallow areas. 

GENERAL CONDITION OF THE FISHERY AND PROBLEMS : Although the annual catch 
during the period from 1944-48 was not as high as in previous years since 1931j 
the lower production should not be interpreted as evidence of a serious decline or 
depletion. Only one of the many dealers interviewed believed that the stocks of 
clams were reduced. In all other instances, overproduction and marketing were con- 
sidered the most serious problems. 

The planting of clams on privately-leased grounds is one of the most important 
parts of the industry. It is very difficult for Virginia dealers to compete prof- 
itably with the great production from the New England and Middle Atlantic States. 
There is a steady year-round demand, but prices are depressed during the slimmer 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



19 



when clams are plentiful and Virginia dealers consider winter trade most profit- 
able. In severe winters when New England clam fishing is restricted, Virginia 




FIG. 9 - TONGS ACCOUNT FOR OVER 60 PERCENT OF THE ANNUAL HARD-CLAM CATCH. 

dealers can profitably sell clams bought during the previous summer and held on 
leased beds. Unusually mild winters during the past few years have made holding 
clams unprofitableo A number of men reported serious losses from holding clams 
for two years» The heavy losses from holding beds reported by some dealers may 
have been due to overcrowding, and the development of better farming techniques 
might be of great value during periods when depressed prices necessitate long hold- 
ing periods. 

Local markets consume some of the catch, but Pennsylvania, New York, and Ohio, 
and even Florida, provide the principal outlets,, There is at present no large- 
scale effort being made to process clams, and practically all are sold in the shell. 
There is only a very limited local market for shucked clams, principally for res- 
taurant and retail trade. 



Pollution occurs only in a comparatively small area around Norfolk and is not 
a serious problemo State health laws permit the sale of clams from contaminated 
water, if they are transplanted to a pure area and held for one month. 



20 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. U, No, 10 

Predation is usually not a serious problem, but occasionally skates invade 
the holding beds in the Chincoteague Bay area. One man reported the loss of 600 
bushels of small clams in two nights during 1948, and said it was necessary to 
fence his holding beds to exclude these predators. Fortunately, skates do not 
come into the Bay every year, and the 19A-8 invasion was the first serious attack 
to occur in five years, 

NORTH CAROLINA 

Hard clams are found in nearly all of the sheltered coastal waters of North 
Carolina, but the commercial fishery is centered principally in Carteret and New 
Hanover counties. Statistics of the Service reveal that smaller quantities are 
also caught in Brunswick, Dare, Hyde, Onslow, and Pender counties. 

Rakes, used by fishermen wading in shallow water or on beds exposed at low 
tide, account for almost the entire hard-clam catch. Tongs are used, but except 
in Carteret County, these are so few that their contribution to the catch is neg- 
ligible. Dredging began about December 1949 in Carteret County and now accounts 
for almost the entire catch of this county. 

The opinion of dealers and biologists interviewed in North Carolina was that 
the principal problem facing the hard-clam fishery is market development, although 
some concern was expressed over the effect of the new dredge fishery. 

Clams are abundant, but the distance to markets makes transportation very 
costly. Most of the clam diggers work only part time, and turn to other fisheries 
whenever it appears more profitable. 

It is possible for southern clam diggers to work during winter months when 
weather curtails the New England fishery, and North Carolina men find the winter 
season profitable. Maryland and Virginia have similar advantages of weather, how- 
ever, with a further advantage of being closer to the northern markets. 

"Bedding" of clams bought cheaply during the summer is a common practice, but 
is considered risky, particularly during the mild winters of the past several years. 
In "bedding','" as in the fishery for native clams, Virginia and Maryland offer sharp 
competition. 

Contracts with northern canneries for large chowder clams provide one good 
outlet, and the technique of freezing shucked meats and liquor separately had re- 
duced transportation costs by increasing the pay load. Only a few dealers ship 
directly to northern markets. Most clams are sold in the shell through dealers in 
Virginia and Maryland, 

Pollution and predation are of no importance to the North Carolina fishery. 
Fishermen and dealers believe the supply of clams greatly exceeds the demand at 
present. It seems improbable that the resource will be fully exploited unless the 
market is expanded to offer profitable full-time employment to fishermen or unless 
a more intensive dredge fishery develops, 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Catch statistics indicate that the hard-clam fishery is concentrated in Horry 
and Georgetown Counties, but fishermen insist that Charleston and Beaufort Counties 
also have extensive clam beds. A sea-food producer of Beaufort reported that the 
hurricane of August 1940 exposed a three-quarter mile bed at Trenchard's Inlet "on 
which clams were so thick that there was not a hand's breadth between them." 



October 1952 



COMIffiRCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



21 



Rakes account for most of the catch, a considerable part of which is dug on 
exposed flats at low tide. Although dredges used in the oyster fishery also catch 
a few clams, the catch is insignificantly small. Dredge production is limited 
further by a State law which prohibits dredging for clams in less than 12 feet 
of water. 



Marketing is apparently the greatest problem in the hard-clam fishery of 
South Carolina. All of the dealers and conservationists interviewed agreed that 
hard clams offer an almost unexploited source of wealth, but the problem of find- 
ing a profitable outlet has retarded the development of the fishery. Only during 




FIG. 10 - LOCATION OF HA-^D-CLAM FISHERY IN THE SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES SHOWN BY STIPPLED AREAS. 



22 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVlEii Vol. 14, No. 10 

severe winters, when Mew England waters are inaccessible, can the Southern clams 
be dug and marketed at a price high enough to defray the expenses of packing and 
shipping to northern markets. 

The oyster business is of much more importance, and extensive individually- 
leased areas are devoted to oyster farming. Holders of these leases are not greatly 
concerned with the development of a clam, fishery, and at present there is little 
interest in clam farming. Clams occur on the leased oyster beds but are more a- 
bundant on public grounds. 

South Carolina has 11 laws relative to clams some of which inhibit the devel- 
opment of an industry. One law specifies a closed season between May 1st and Au- 
gust 1st, which prevents marketing of clams during the period of peak demand from 
the raw-bar and clam-bake trade. Another law prohibits the out-of-state shipment 
of clams in the shell. This second law prevents shell-stock shipments to North- 
ern canneries which use large quantities of clams for chowder or minced clamprod- 
ucts. Local consumption is small, and unless an out-of-state outlet is found and 
a profitable method of shipping developed (perhaps as a frozen product), the in- 
dustry shows little promise of developing. 

GEORGIA 

There is no commercial clam fishery in Georgia. Clams are found in most of 
the intra-coastal waters, but they are reported taken only for home consumption, 
and are believed not to be sufficiently abundant to support a fishery. The Serv- 
ice's records show no clam catch since 1932, when a total of 600 pounds was taken 
commercially^ 

There is virtually no local demand, and the distance from northern markets 
presents a serious barrier to the development of a fishery. 

The introduction of efficient freezing techniques might be of value in de- 
veloping a market, but at present there is little evidence that a fishery forhard 
clams can be built up in Georgia. 

FLORIDA 

LOCATION OF TFffi FISHERY : Clams are found along both coasts of Florida, but 
the greatest concentrations are on the west coast from Ten Thousand Islands to 
Tampa Bay. The beds in this area are reported to extend from Shark Point to Coon 
Key Light, a distance of about thirty-five miles. The inner edge is about one- 
eighth mile from shore; the outer edge about five miles. The total area of the 
beds is at least 150 square miles. The shore line slopes very gradually, and the 
depth 4 to 5 miles offshore is less than 12 feet in many places. 

GEAR AND METHODS : Rakes, hoes, and grabs are the only types of hand-operated 
gear, and are few in number. Reliable records of the number of units of these 
gear are not available, but on the basis of interviews it may be stated that the 
number of men is small, compared to the numbers employed in other fisheries. Clam 
digging is usually a part-time occupation pursued when other fishing is unprofit- 
able. 

A conveyor-belt dredge was introduced into the Ten Thousand Islands clam fish- 
ery about 1913, and this type of dredge was used, with some modification and im- 
provement, until 1947 when operations became unprofitable. All clams taken by the 
dredge were shucked and used for canned chowder, minced clams, and clam juice » 

The dredge was essentially a large wooden scow, about 30 by 80 feet, with a 
rectangular opening in the bottom through which the dredge belt operated. Clams 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEifll 



23 



were washed from the bottom by high pressure jets of water, and brought to the 
surface by a conveyor belt. The earlier models of this dredge were self-propelled. 
An anchor was set and the dredge was allowed to drift or was towed to the end of 
the cable — a distance of about 1,C00 feet. The dredge then hauled itself back to 
the anchor by means of a winch. The scoop of the dredge was about 31 feet in 
width, and a single set could therefore cover about 3,500 square feet. It was 
reported that the dredge operated 21+ hours per day and could make about eight sets. 

The most recent modification of this device is smaller in size, measuring 
16 by 40 feet, and can operate in shallow water. It dredges a 24-inch swath, and 
may either be operated on an anchor cable, or towed by a power boat. Facilities 
are also provided for shucking and refrigeration, thereby minimizing the expense 
for shore installations needed to pack the clams. 

The regular Fall River dredge used in the New England fishery has been tried 
in Florida, but although good catches were reported, it has never been used com- 
mercially. 



GENERAL CONDITION OF TJffi FISHERY AND PROBLEMS ; The status and potential pro- 



duction of the Ten Thousand Islands clam beds 
1943. 



Mere reported in 1920, 1938, and 



The first report, prepared by W, C. Schroeder of the U„ S„ Bureau of Fisher- 
ies, emphasized the great abundance of clams. The second report was by JoR. Kelly 
of the Florida State Board of 
Conservation who attempted to 
determine whether dredging op- 
erations were dam.aging or de- 
stroying the clam beds. This 
report contained affidavits ob- 
tained from a number of local 
waterm.en who claimed that ser- 
ious, depletion had occurred in 
the years the dredge has been 
operating. Overfishing, break- 
ing of shells, smothering, re- 
moval of grass, and destruction 
of the habitat were cited as 
the principal damaging effects 
of the dredge. 

In 1943, C. H. Chilton, a 
fishery marketing specialist 
for the U, S. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, visited the area and 
estimated the potential produc- 
tion of the fishery to be al- 
most unlimited. He reported an 
estimated abundance of one bush- 
el of clams per six square yards 
dredged. fig. ii - gear used in hard-clam fishery maine to Florida 

SHOWN in percentage OF AVERAGE CATCH 1944-48. 

The contradictory nature of these reports makes analysis of the available 
catch records for the area somewhat difficult. Service statistics are available 
by county and gear for only seven years between 1931 and 1947, but they do show a 
somewhat smaller catch for the Ten Thousand Islands area in 1947 than in any ore- 
ceding year except 1934 o 




24 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol, 14, No. 10 

The men interviewed during the 1950 survey (upon which this report is large- 
ly based) felt that serious depletion had occurred, but that it was the result 
of an unusual natural mortality, and not the result of dredging. 

One fisherman sampled the area with a Fall River dredge during 1948 and 
found clams sufficiently abundant to build another conveyor-belt dredge. In No- 
vember 1949, he found that almost the entire population of clams had died<, In 
eight days of dredging from Coon Key to Wood River, he found only eight live clams; 
the remainder of his catch consisted of empty shells. Areas untouched byprevious 
dredging yielded only dead clams. 

The annual catch of the dredge from 1943 to 1946 was 30,000, 50,000, 78,000, 
■and 25,000 bushels. In the year 1947, clams were so scarce that operations were 
halted. It is very difficult to trace and evaluate the trends of the TenThousand 
Islands fishery. Although intensive dredging may have contributed to a reduction 
in the stocks of clams, the fishermen we interviewed believed that a destructive 
natural phenomenon also contributed to the depletion. 

At present there is no fishery reported in the area, and unless natural res- 
toration rebuilds the population to its former abundance, it is doubtful whether 
any further effort will be made to develop a clam industry in the Ten Thousand 
Islands. 

Interviews with dealers and conservation research personnel indicated that 
only limited stocks of clams have ever been found outside of the Ten Thousand Is- 
lands. Sufficient numbers for home consumption occur in many areas along both 
coasts, but commercial fisheries have been attempted in only a few places, 

A small fishery existed at one time near Matanzas Inlet, and although a small 
stock of clams is still present, no effort is made toward commercial harvesting. 
Limited quantities occur in the inland waters from Edgewater through the Indian 
River, but there is no fishery. Clams are reportedly less abundant than before 
the opening of the intra-coastal waterway, 

Charlotte Harbor and adjacent inshore waters near Englewood supported a small 
fishery, but during the last few years heavy mortalities have so depleted the 
stocks that fishing is no longer profitable. 

Lower Tampa Bay provides a limited supply for local use, and a few large clams 
are taken near Clearwater. The upper limit of clam production is in the area of 
Cedar Key, where clams were reported to be fairly plentiful, but no attempt has 
been made to develop a fishery. 

Florida dealers are faced with serious problems of marketing. With the ex- 
ception of Miami, there is little or no demand except in the tourist season, and 
even then northern clams present a barrier to local marketing, Florida clams were 
reported by some dealers as being too large, too full of sand, and too difficult 
to ship without heavy mortality. These dealers find a more dependable supply and 
a better product from northern markets. One dealer reported buying 2 to 3 tons 
per week from northern markets during the November-March tourist season. 

At present there is practically no hard-clam fishery in Florida. Restoration 
of the Ten Thousand Islands stocks might offer an opportunity for the development 
of a market for .shucked frozen clam meats to be used by northern canneries, or 
perhaps for locally-canned clam products. It is doubtful, however, whether the 
industry could ever be developed sufficiently to offer effective competition to 
the big northern clam resources. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 25 

CONCLUSIONS 

The hard-clam fishery of the Atlantic Coast rresents no picture of general 
depletion such as that observed in the soft-clam fishery. Stocks of hard clams 
in most areas are adequate and fishermen and dealers are often worried more about 
demand than supply. Local exceptions to this statement are found — the most not- 
able being the disappearance of the hard clams in the Ten Thousand Islands area 
in Florida. This area, once described as the greatest bed of hard clams in the 
country, now supports no commercial fishery. The cause of the disappearance of 
hard clams in Florida is a worthy subject for biological research. 

The intensive tong-and-rake fishery in Rhode Island, together with the possi- 
bility of using more efficient power dredges, causes concern over the ability of 
the clam population to withstand increased fishing pressure. The Service's in- 
vestigations in this State are designed to determine the productivity of Green- 
wich Bay in terms of the number of quahuags which can safely be removed each year. 
These studies present a unique opportunity to observe a commercial fishery before 
it has been dangerously depleted. 

Pollution is a serious problem only in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New 
York. Both Massachusetts and New York salvage their clams from polluted waters 
by transplanting them to clean beds for a specified time before marketing. Ef- 
fective disposal systems would reduce sewage pollution, enlarge the fishing area, 
and increase clam production. 

Marketing was reported to be an important problem by all states from Maryland 
to Florida. These states must compete with the Middle Atlantic and New England 
States, but are handicapped by their distance from the centers of population. 

Severe winter weather restricts the northern diggers, but southern fishermen 
seldom face this problem and usually find winter fishing profitable. Mild winters 
during recent years have permitted digging most of the year in New England and 
have thereby reduced sales from the South. 

Another factor reducing the market for southern clams is the latter' s lower 
yield of meats per bushel as compared with northern clams. Catch statistics in- 
dicate that hard clams from the New York-Maine area average about 11.5 pounds of 
meats per bushel; New Jersey and Delaware about 9.0 pounds; whereas Maryland- 
Florida clams averaged only 7.5 pounds per bushel. It is apparent from these fig- 
ures that southern clams must be obtainable at a lower price to compete with those 
from northern waters. 




26 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Volo 14, No. 10 




LABORATORIES 

Progress on Projects, September 1952 

REFRIGERATION ; Freezing Fish at Sea, Defrosting , Filleting , and Refreezing 
the Fillets : The research trawler Delaware completed test cruises 14 and 15 o 
Approximately 21,000 pounds of scrod haddock were caught on Georges Bank and were 
brine-frozen aboard the vessel. These fish were placed in commercial cold stor- 
age and will be used for further testing by the laboratory. (Boston) 

Freezing and Storing Alaska Shrimp and Dungeness Crab : Organoleptic tests 
were made on seven experimental packs of frozen Alaska shrimp after 31 weeks of 
storage at 0° F. One lot of commercially-packed frozen shrimp was included for 
comparison. The purpose of the project is to determine the effect of processing 
and packaging methods on the flavor, texture, shrinkage, and keeping quality of 
the shrimp meats. The 31-week examination was made during the month and the ex- 
perimental work on this phase of the project was concluded. Some of the tentative 
conclusions were: 

1. The texture of cooked Alaska pink-shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) meats varied 
widely within any given lot. 

2o The toughening of cooked pink-shrimp meats occurred during the initial 
processing and did not increase materially during frozen storage at 0° F. 

3. Flooding the cooked shrimp meats with brine (2-percent salt solution) prior 
to freezing and storage produced a product more tender than the shrimp meats packed 
dry in the usual commercial manner. 

4o Pink-shrimp meats cooked from 1 to 4 minutes in 10-percent brine prior to 
packaging and freezing apparently had absorbed an excessive amount of salt as 
judged by taste testing. The flavor, from the standpoint of salt content, of 
shrimp meats cooked 1 minute in 10-percent brine and then flooded with 2-percent 
brine prior to freezing was satisfactory, as was the flavor of the shrimp meats 
cooked 1 minute in 5-percent brine, 

5. Use of monosodium glutamate (3 percent by weight) in the frozen dry-packed 
shrimp did not improve the flavor or keeping quality of the product. 

6. The storage life of frozen, dry-packed Alaska pink shrimp meats packed in 
moisture-vaporproof containers is from 6 to 8 months at 0° F. The storage life 

of frozen shrimp meats packed in dilute brine is greater than 8 months. (Ketchikan) 

***** 



BYPRODUCTS ; Vitamin Content and Nutritive Value of Fishery Byproducts ; Nia- 
cin and vitamin B]^2 assays of samples of 23 lots of pilchard meal and 1 lot of 
tuna meal were completed. The niacin content of the lots of pilchard meal ranged 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



27 



from 61 to 125 micrograms per gram of meal on the moisture-and-oil-free basis, 
and the vitamin B]_2 content from 0,20 to 0,38 micrograms. The niacin content of 
the lot of tuna meal was 174 micrograms per gram of moisture-and-oil-free meal; 
the vitamin B]^2 content was 0.26 micrograms. (Seattle) 



* rf «• * * 



ANALYSIS AND COMPOSITION : Composition and Cold-Storage Life of Fresh - Water 
Fish : The proximate composition was deterniined for four additional samples of 
Lake Michigan chub and of 16 samples of sheepshead from the upper Mississippi 
River. The results are presented in the following table: 



Composition o 


r Edible Port 


ion of 


Lake Mic 


;higan Chub and Sh 


leepsheac 






Sample 
No. 


Length 


Weight 


Fillet 
Yield 


Proximate Composition 


Species 


Moisture 


Fat 


Protein 


Ash 




13 


Centimeters 


Grams 


Percent 


Percent 
79.2 


Percent 


Percent 


Percent 


LakeMichigan 


22 


110 


45 


8,10 


13.8 


0,84 


chub 


U 


20 


85 


33 


78,7 


4,38 


15,6 


1.04 


(Leucichthys 


15 


21 


95 


32 


80,9 


3.92 


15,3 


0,97 


sp.)l/ 


16 


20 


88 


37 


75,1 


9.18 


14,5 


0.77 




1 


34 


520 


31 


77.1 


6.93 


19,4 


1,22 




2 


33 


512 


35 


73.6 


8.21 


18,7 


1.04 




3 


31 


412 


32 


74.1 


7.00 


19,1 


1,20 




4 


28.5 


320 


30 


74,1 


6.43 


19.1 


1.09 




5 


27.5 


280 


31 


79.0 


3.48 


18.6 


1.25 




6 


27.5 


305 


34 


76.0 


4.73 


19.3 


1.25 


Sheepshead 


7 


30,5 


380 


34 


75,3 


7.90 


18,1 


1.12 


(Aolodinotus 


8 


29 


395 


34 


69,4 


9.92 


18.2 


1,07 


grunniens)i^ 


9 


35 


635 


38 


68.2 


11.35 


17,9 


1.04 




10 


36 


735 


35 


70,4 


13,09 


17,2 


0.99 




11 


34.5 


600 


33 


73.7 


7.89 


17,7 


1,08 




12 


31.5 


445 


30 


77.0 


4,81 


18,6 


1,15 




13 


28 


330 


32 


72.1 


8,74 


17.6 


1,02 




14 


28 


310 


33 


74.1 


8,25 


18.2 


1.00 




15 


26.5 


235 


32 


76.2 


3.80 


19.3 


1.14 




16 


33 


410 


26 


80,0 


1.87 


17.6 


1.10 



l/CAUGHT IN JULY 1952, 
2/CAUGHT IN MAY 1952. 



EVISCERATED WITH HEADS ON (dRAWn). 
ROUND (whole) fish. 



(Seattle) 



^^ 



Technological Program Changes 

Three new projects were initiated at the Seattle Fishery Technological Labora- 
tory: (l) the cold-storage life of Pacific Coast halibut and (2) salmon, and 
(3) freezing, thawing, and glazing salmon for canning. This information is needed 
to provide the technical data to substantiate the changes recommended by the fish- 
ing industry in the Federal specifications for fresh and frozen fish and for canned 
saliTion. 

REFRIGERATION : (l) Cold-Storage Life of Halib ut: The objective is to deter- 
mine the length of time frozen halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis ) will remain in 
good condition in commercial cold-storage warehouses. Frozen and ice-glazed dressed 
whole halibut were obtained at three commercial fish-packing plants. The samples 



28 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Volo Ik, No„ 10 

were handled in the usual commercial manner by placing the fish in paper-lined 
boxes and storing at 0° F. or below. At intervals of storage, steaks will be cut 
from the dressed fish and the steak samples glazed, packaged, and further stored 
at 0° Fo These whole dressed fish and steak samples will be examined organolep- 
tically by a qualified taste panel 'at periodic intervals to determine their keep- 
ing quality. 

(2) Cold-storage Life of King and Silver Salmon : The objective is to deter- 
mine the length of time frozen king ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ) and silver (O. 
kisutch) salmon will remain in good condition in commercial cold storage „ Drawn 
(heads on) king and silver salmon were plate-frozen, ice-glazed, and stored in 
paper-lined boxes at about 0° Fo At periodic intervals steaks will be cut and 
the steak samples will be glazed, packaged, and stored. The dressed fish and 
steak samples will be examined organoleptically to determine the cold-storage 
keeping quality. 

(3) Freezing , Glazing , and Thawing Salmon for Canning : At the present time 
a substantial portion of the salmon caught in certain areas of Alaska are frozen 
in brine aboard the vessel, and transported to the State of Washington where the 
frozen fish are thawed and canned. Technological problems on handling the frozen 
fish have arisen. These affect the quality of the final canned product. The pur- 
pose of this investigation is to determine the effect of methods of freezing, hold- 
ing in refrigerated brine, glazing, and thawing of the salmon upon the quality of 
the subsequently canned product. 

Since this project was initiated after the season for sockeye salmon (O. nerka ) 
had closed, the tests for the year will be carried out on sockeye salmon frozen 
aboard commercial freezer ships. Consequently, no tests during this year are con- 
templated on methods of brine freezing. Representative samples of brine-frozen 
sockeye salmon were obtained from a commercial packer. Tests are currently being 
carried out to (l) determine feasibility of glazing the brine-frozen fish to pre- 
vent possible changes during storage, and (2) to determine the effect of various 
thawing methods on the salt content of the subsequently canned fish. 

Project Reviews 

FREEZING FISH AT SEA, DEFROSTING, FILLETING, AND REFPEEZING THE FILLETS- - 
Review for Period December 1950 - September 1952 

The following is a summary of the over-all status of the project for the peri- 
od from December 1950 to September 1952, presenting an inventory of the accom- 
plishments, an evaluation of the original objectives in light of more recent and 
actual operating experiences, and plans for the continuation of research. 

RESEARCH TRAa^F.R OPERATIONS ; Vessel : The M. V. Delaware was in a run-down 
condition when received by the Service in December 1950. Repairs and alterations 
to the vessel, over and above normal maintenance, during the past 21 months in- 
cluded: 

(a) Complete rebuilding of the main propulsion engine; 

(b) Replacement of the trawl-winch Diesel engine; 

(c) Enlargement and improvement of the galley, and of the forecastle 

and cabin quarters; 

(d) Replacement of the air-compressor unit. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



29 



The vessel's basic fishing equipment was restored to the current New England 
trawler style by the alteration or replacement of non-standard equipment, includ- 
ing the echo sounder, compass, loran, radar, and heating and lighting system. The 
deck gear likewise was re- 
stored and most of the ex- 
pendable items replaced, in- 
cluding trawl-winch brake 
system, trawl warps, trawls, 
and fish-hoist equipment. 
The crew (7 fishermen, 1 
cook, and U officers) were 
indoctrinated both for gov- 
ernment employment condi- 
tions and the project's 
scientific research approach, 
each a significant depar- 
ture from their customary 
commercial fishing-vessel 
routine. 




THE DELAWARE EN ROUTE TO FISHING GROUNDS. 



Fishing operations are carried out at approximately half-scale as compared 
to commercial practice, to allow for proper testing of the refrigeration equipment 
during the developmental stages. Georges Bank has been the locale for al] the test 
cruises, which average about six days each. The catch landed consisted of iced, 
gutted fish for control purposes; and the round brine-frozen fish as material for 
experimental work, quality-control tests, and for sale to commercial firms inter- 
ested in testing the brine-frozen round fish. Sufficient sales have now beenmade 
to demonstrate an active interest in the product and to indicate the handling 
techniques that may be necessary for a larger-scale freezing-at-sea operation. 

Refrigeration Equipment : A total of 15 test cruises have been undertaken, 
with catches up to 25,000 pounds of whole round fish jDer cruise. These fish, pre- 
dominantly scrod haddock, ware frozen at sea in sodium-chloride brine and stored 
in the refrigerated hold of the Delaware . The purposes of the cruises were: 

(a) To obtain a supply of fish frozen at sea for use in the laboratory and 
pilot plant, and to provide frozen fish to interested commercial processors; 

(b) To study the operation of the experimental refrigeration equipment under 
working conditions with a view to developing it to the point where similar equip- 
ment could be recommended to the industry. 

Of special interest has been the operation of the absorption-refrigeration 
machine. Relatively new to this type of application, the absorption machine is 
claimed to have certain inherent advantages over the compressor system. Tests of 
the plant's efficiency, operating costs, and characteristics under full-rated load 
have been delayed, however, by the low capacity of the brine-cooling evaporator, 
and we are, therefore, not yet in a position to attest to the plant's performance 
under full load. 



RECENT CHANGES AND ADDITIONS: Since the publication of the report "Freezing 
Fish at Sea— New England: Part 3 - The Experimental Trawler Delaware and Shore 
Facilities " ( Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 14, no. 2, February 1952, pp. 16-25), 
in which the vessel installation was described, a number of changes and additions 
have been made. These are: 

(a) Additional cold-storage space for frozen fish has been provided by con- 
struction of an insulated bulkhead located two pen sections forward of the existing 



30 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. lA, No. 10 



cold-storage roomo This new room also is equipped with cooling coils designed 
to keep the room temperature at 0° F„ 

(b) A brine make-up and storage tank of 50 cubic feet capacity has been in- 
stalled next to the brine-freezer tank. 

(c) The brine and storage-room coolant (or "antifreeze") circulating pumps 
were moved from the freezing-tank room to the refrigeration-machinery room to pro- 
vide more storage space in the former, and to facilitate better maintenance of 
pumps and motors » The hold cooling coils were split into four parallel banks, 
one on each side of the center line of the two storage rooms. The flow of "anti- 
freeze" to each bank is controlled by conveniently located valves, providing flex- 
ible control of the storage-room temperatures. 

(d) Additional refrigeration controls and temperature-recording instruments 
were installed. 

Operating Data and Observations : FREEZER PERFORMANCE: It was found that by 
loading the freezing tank approximately every 105 minutes with about 960 pounds 
of scrod haddock, the brine temperature rose about 4° F. and was then pulled down 
close to its original temperature in time for the next loading. Thus, the aver- 
age freezing rate was about 550 pounds an hour. 

STORAGE-ROOM TEMPERATURE: All-night operation of the room cooling system 
usually lowered the temperature to about 5° F, Opening of the bulkhead door dur- 
ing the storage of frozen fish caused the room temperature to rise five or more 
degrees, depending on the period the door was open. 

HANDLING OF FISH: It has been found convenient to fill nylon mesh bags (flat 
dimensions 40 x 20 inches) with about 40 pounds of fish on deck, and to slide 
these bags down a chute rigged from the after hatch to the freezer rotor. In un- 
loading the freezer, the bags are lifted out by hand and passed forward into the 

storage room where the 
frozen fish are emptied 
from the bags into the 
pens. The bags are then 
re-usedo 

FROZEN-FISH STORAGE: 
Measurements were made of 
the available space for 
storing frozen fish in 
the two refrigerated holds. 
After deducting working 
space, machinery (and 
access) space, and an 18- 
inch loading space be- 
tween the ceiling and top 
of the fish, the net vol- 
ume of the forward and 
after holds were found to 
be 985 cubic feet and 
1,705 cubic feet, respec- 
tively. Using a factor 
of 33 pounds per cubic 
foot for loose-frozen fish, 
found to apply in loading 




REMOVING FROZEN FISH FROM THE BRINE FREEZER ABOARD THE DELAWARE. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 31 

large boxes, the carrying capacities of these two rooms are 32,500 and 56,500 
pounds, respectively. 

Comments on Results : The freezing rate of 550 pounds an hour, about 55 per- 
cent of the anticipated rate, can be increased by raising the brine-cooler capa- 
city and by reducing the loss of refrigeration in the freezing room. The first 
of these measures will also be necessary in order to apply a full load to the ab- 
sorption machine. 

Failure to maintain at 0° F. the storage-room temperature, as originally 
planned, is attributed to frequent door openings and to the manner in which the 
ammonia-vapor lines from the two evaporators (i. e., coolers) are connected. Im- 
proved fish-handling procedures and a change in piping design, incorporated into 
the brine-cooler modifications, can be expected to improve the storage-room tem- 
perature. 

Operation of the present brine freezer, while very effective in transferring 
heat from fish to brine, is rather inefficient in its man-power requirements. 
The lack of standing space and headroom over the tank makes handling the fish bags 
an arduous task. Also, if sufficient fish were caught and frozen to warrant the 
use of the after-storage room, wherein the fre";zer is located, the men would be 
alternately working in the low temperature room and the relatively warm outside 
air. Their necessarily frequent passage from deck to freezing room and return 
would throw an excessive load on the room cooling system. These points have been 
amply demonstrated during the early cruises. 

The data given for the present carrying capacity clearly show the need for 
the utmost efficiency in use of available storage space. Efficient construction 
of insulated linings and bulkheads is essential, along with the elimination of 
any equipment in the hold that could be installed elsewhere. 

Under the "Pilot Plant and Shore-Processing" section of this report, observa- 
tions of vessel unloading are noted. The desirability for development of an im- 
proved unloading method is indicated by the comparison with fresh-fish unloading 
rates. The rapid transfer of frozen fish from vessel to cold storage ashore is 
obviously desirable in maintaining high quality. 

Outline of Future Vessel Work ; BRINE COOLER: By modification or replacement 
of existing unit, increase cooler capacity to 20 standard refrigeration tons, 

ABSORPTION MACHINE: Run tests to determine the machine's ability to handle 
rated freezing load, its efficiency, and cost of operation. This will require in- 
stallation of metering equipment in steam-condensate and boiler-fuel lines, 

BRINE FREEZER: Develop brine-freezing mechanism which can be loaded and un- 
loaded at deck level. 

STORAGE SPACE: Study the construction of refrigerated holds with a view to 
improving on the capacity of the existing installation. Considered in the study 
would be the insulating materials, construction details and materials, and cooling 
methods, 

VESSEL UNLOADING: Develop improved methods and equipment to facilitate rapid 
unloading and transfer of frozen fish to cold storage. 

PILOT -PLANT AND SHORE PROCESSING : The objectives of the Pilot Plant and 
Shore Processing section of this project as outlined in the original proposals have 



32 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol, 14, Mo, 10 

been modified and elaborated as the investigations have progressed. Therefore, 
it might be well first, to summarize the major objectives and then, evaluate the 
progress made on each. In this portion of the report these objectives primarily 
within the scope of the laboratory or vessel-operations sections are not consid- 
ered. Also, several minor incidental objectives are not mentioned. 

Outline of Objectives — Original and Supplemental Combined ; 

A. Pilot-Plant Freezing Studies 

1. Variety of freezing methods, possibly suitable for vesseloperation. 

2, Freezing rates of fish in brine. 

3„ Ratio of brine to fish necessary for optimum freezing. 
4. Effect of different methods of dispersal (agitation) of fish in 
brine-freezing tank. 

B. Pilot-Plant Thawing Studies 

1. Factors affecting rate of thawing fish, especially in fresh water. 

2. Commercial thawing methods and equipment, 

C. Shore-Processing Studies 

1. Problems of unloading and storing frozen fish. 

2. Problems of handling, scaling, and filleting thawed fish. 

3. Effect of prolonged storage of round-frozen fish prior to defrost- 

ing and filleting. 

4. Fillet and viscera yields from round fish. 

5. Changes in weight of fish during thawing. 

6. Preparation of steaks from round- frozen fish. 

A. Tentatively, at least, the four investigations under "Pilot- Plant Freezing 
Studies," are considered completed. Final reports on the bulk of the results have 
been prepared and accepted. One report has already been published ("Freezing Fish 
at Sea — New England: Part 2 - Experimental Procedures and Equipment," Commercial 
Fisheries Review , vol. 14, no. 2, February 1952, pp. 8-15), and the second has 
been accepted for publication ("Part 5 - Freezing and Thawing Studies and Sugges- 
tions for Commercial Equipment" — in press.) 

The few pilot-plant trials conducted since the submission of these papers 
have simply confirmed the data and conclusions already reported. 

On the basis of the pilot-plant studies, several recommendations were made 
for the design and operation of a freezing mechanism for the Delaware . In general, 
these recommendations were followed in the designing and construction of the equip- 
ment first installed on the vessel. When the equipment was operated, and as the 
mechanical details were modified, the pilot-plant staff was frequently called upon 
to supply data and advice on the effect of various factors on the rates of freez- 
ing of fish. 

It is now apparent from actual operation of the equipment that major modifi- 
cations are desirable to cut down on the labor below decks. The proposed changes, 
which would permit the bulk of the operations to be conducted on deck, are still 
in accordance with the initial recomnendations. However, if possible, this time 
the moderate-size pilot-plant scale models of the freezing equipment should be 
given thorough trial before the final equipment is constructed and installed on 
the vessel, 

B. The original objectives under the "Pilot-Plant Thawing Studies" have been 
considered from most of the major angles. A moderate amount of data has been ac- 
cumulated on the factors affecting the thawing of fish in fresh water. Satisfactory 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 33 

methods and equipment for commercial use have been devised. The data and recom- 
mendations are in the two reports already cited. Some of the practical informa- 
tion on equipment and methods was included in a short report, "Technical Note No. 
21 — Equipment and Procedure for Thawing Fish Frozen at Sea" ( Commercial Fisheries 
Review , vol. 14, no. 5 (May 1952), pp. 18-19), which was based largely on the 
second of the larger reports o 

Since submission of the above reports, the experimental work has simply 
tended to substantiate the conclusions and recommendations already made. 

There are certain factors that have not been adequately considered and fur- 
ther experiments are planned for study: 

1. Methods of thawing frozen fish other than in water, 

2. The effect of very rapid thawing of frozen fish in water at high tem- 

peratures, for example, near 100° F, 
3o The effect of very slow thawing of frozen fish in water of near- 
freezing temperatures. 

4. The effect of holding the fish in water for long periods, even after 

thawing is complete. 

5. The effect of icing the fish after thawing. 

6. The effect of using sea water in place of fresh water for thawing 

the fish. 

As the determination of the exact effect on the fish of most of these factors 
will be difficult, some time has been devoted to assisting the laboratory in the 
development of taste-panel testing methods. It is not possible to detect some of 
these effects without more refined testing procedures, 

C. The classification "Shore Processing Studies" covers a variety of investi- 
gations, some more or less overlapping into the first two classifications. None 
of the six studies listed in this group has been pursued far enough to warrant a 
full-scale final report. The results of the first experiments on commercial proc- 
essing of fish which had been frozen in brine at sea were reported in "Freezing 
Fish at Sea — New England: Part 4 - Commercial Processing of Brine-Frozen Fish" 
( Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. 14, no. 2, February 1952, pp. 26-29). After 
over 10 months of storage, the fillets prepared from the brine-frozen haddock com- 
pare favorably with fillets from iced haddock from the same trip. 

1. The study of methods of unloading and storing fish frozen at sea has 
been limited to the use of available handling equipment. Improvements have been 
made each time the Delaware has been unloaded. However, the law of diminishing 
returns is evident. It is unlikely that any further marked improvement in unload- 
ing rate or conditions is possible until brine-frozen fish are delivered in larger 
quantities. The loads delivered by a single vessel are not large enough to war- 
rant the installation of expensive new handling equipment by cold-storage companies 
or by anyone else. The latest system followed in unloading the Delaware employed 
a vessel crew of 8 men — 4 in the hold, 2 on deck, and 2 on the dock. A sustained 
unloading rate of about 25,000 to 30,000 pounds per half day is the most that can 
be expected. This is about 50 to 60 percent of the rate normal to unloading of 
iced fish. The handling of the frozen fish by the cold-storage crew is still 
highly inefficient, but as this operation is not under our control, it is not a 
simple matter to experiment. No unusual ideas have been developed on the storage 
of the fish. The cold-storage operators consider the handling of the fish in very 
large boxes more or less impractical. Therefore, the frozen fish are simply 
stacked in piles. 



34 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, Noo 10 



2. The handling, scaling, and filleting of the thawed round haddock has 
so far offered no special problem. Therefore, after making further observations 

on these operations, 
the information will be 
included in reports on 
another subject. So 
far, in all commercial 
trials in standard com- 
mercial processing 
plants, the thawed fish 
have been reported to 
handle, scale, and fil- 
let at least as easily 
as iced, gutted fish. 
The presence of the vis- 
cera appears to simplify 
scaling with mechanical 
hand scalers. Also, with 
round fish it should be 
practical to scale the 
fish well with a rota- 
ting drum scaler. The 
filleters noted that 
there was less slime on 
the fish; this is anad- 
vantage to some and a 
disadvantage to others, 
apparently depending on 
The filleters were all pleased with the "fresh," firm 




REMOVING FROZEN FISH FROM DELAWARE'S COLD-STORAGE HOLD. 



their filleting styles, 
feel of the meat. 



3. The first study of the effect of prolonged storage of round brine-frozen 
fish was begun in May 1952. The best controlled series were begun in August and 
September 1952, No con- ^Kw^...f 

elusions can yStbe drawn lHi||^ii 
on any of these experi- VtfH *>-.^ 
ments. Brine-frozen had- 
dock held for up to 31 
months by private con- 
cerns have looked as 
though moderate drying 
had occurred during the 
storage period. However, 
after the fish were thaw- 
ed, they were found 
to look good and to han- 
dle well. The fillets 
prepared from this had- 
dock in storage a few 
months compared wellwith 
fillets prepared from 
iced haddock currently 
being delivered. 

4. The data thus 
far accumulated on yields 
of fillets have been high- unloading frozen fish from the Delaware into boxes on temporary 
ly encouraging — 35 to 44 loading platform. 




October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 35 

percent on the basis of skin-on fillets from round fish. The variation is partly- 
due to differences in the condition of the fish (which vary somewhat according 
to the season) . Another reason for variation is the disparity in the skills of 
different filleters. In order to compare fillet yields from round fish with fil- 
let yields from iced, gutted fish, the weight of the viscera must be known. Only 
twice has it been possible to secure this data. In each case, on scrod haddock 
caught in October, the viscera recovered amounted to 10 percent of the total round 
weight. The contents of viscera appears to be higher in spring and summer-caught 
fisho Arrangements are being made to secure more complete data as often as pos- 
sible. 

5o In most thawing trials, the weights before and after thawing have been 
noted. When the fish had been in storage for less than a week and the storage 
temperatures and conditions had been "good," there was no significant change in 
weight. Brine-frozen round scrod haddock stored for one to two weeks gained ap- 
proximately one percent during water-thawing at 60° F. These data must be checked 
in additional trials, especially after several months of storage, 

6. The preparation of steaks directly from frozen round fish has been tried 
in an incidental way. A thorough study of this possibility is contemplated. It 
is also planned to investigate the possibility of preparing wrapped dressed fish 
or chunks. 

LABORATORY : The work in the testing laboratory has been confined largely to 
the application of various methods that might be of value in determining and com- 
paring the quality of frozen haddock fillets that have been prepared from brine- 
frozen and thawed fish in the round, and from iced, gutted fish. Test procedures 
have involved the use of organoleptic examinations as well as physical and chemi- 
cal methods such as press drip, free drip, dry-matter content of press drip, tex- 
ture, salt content, and trimethylamine content of the fillets. A somewhat detail- 
ed description of the testing procedures has been reported previously ("Freezing 
Fish at Sea — New England: Part 2 - Experimental Procedures and Equipment," Com - 
mercial Fisheries Review , vol, 14, no, 2, February 1952, pp. 8-15). The results 
of some of the preliminary laboratory tests, obtained prior to actual semi-commer- 
cial production of fillets from brine-frozen fish, have also been reported ("Tech- 
nical Note No. 22 — Fish Frozen in Brine at Sea: Preliminary Laboratory and Taste- 
Panel Tests," Commercial Fisheries Review , vol. H, no, 7, July 1952, pp. 20-23). 

In addition to various routine tests that, in the aggregate, consume an ap- 
preciable amount of time but which nevertheless are necessary in the over-all con- 
duct of the project, considerable time has been spent in examining the possibili- 
ties of using freezing media containing certain organic compounds and salts, other 
than sodium chloride, for freezing fish. Some work has been done on the histology 
of haddock flesh in relation to changes in cellular structure that might occur as 
a result of freezing once, and of thawing and refreezing. Effect of freezing on 
the formation of trimethylamine in fish after thawing has been given some atten- 
tion. These side projects will be discussed in more detail later in this report. 

Quality Evaluation of Stored Samples : Some long-range studies on quality 
evaluation of haddock fillets prepared from brine-frozen fish and iced fish, and 
held in commercial storage at -10° to 0° F, have now been under way for over 10 
months. Three lots of fillets are being examined, namely those prepared from: 
(1) iced, gutted fish; (2) fish frozen in the round in brine, followed by thawing 
in water at 53° F. for 3-3/4 hours; and (3) fish frozen in the round in brine, 
followed by thawing in water at 72° F. for 1-3/4 hours. Examinations of the fil- 
lets have been made at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks over this storage period, Palat- 
ability tests have been made by a panel of laboratory personnel, with test samples 



36 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Volo 14, Noo 10 



prepared mostly by steamingo Other tests have been made on the uncooked fillets. 
A random selection of three 5-pound cartons of fillets from each lot are used as 
the source of samples for each test in order to obtain reasonably representative 
results. 



The results to date have indicated some changes in the quality of the three 
lots over the period during which they have been in storage. The changes, how- 
ever, have veen practically the same for each lot — a slight decrease in palatabil- 
ity scores, a rather definite increase in press drip, and an increase in tendero- 
meter readings (indicating decreased tenderness). Very little over-all change 
has occurred in free drip, total solids in press drip, and trimethylamine content 
for the three lots. At this time, the fillets are considered to be of nearly 
equal quality in all three lots and show no adverse effects due to refreezing. 

Freezing Media Studies ; During the past year, compounds to be used as sub- 
stitutes for or additives to sodium-chloride brines, to enable freezing operations 

to be carried out at a 
lower temperature, have 
been tested. A large 
number of compounds were 
investigated. For rea- 
sons of toxicity, vis- 
cosity, hydrolysis ef- 
fects, etc., the number 
of possibilities was re- 
duced to a relative few. 
These compounds are both 
inorganic, such as var- 
ious salts, and organic, 
such as carbohydrates, 
alcohol, and glycerol. 
They may be used alone 
or in combination with 

PREPARING BRINE-FROZEN FISH FOR SALT ANALYSIS. SOdium chloride 




In addition to possible toxic properties of the additives, factors which de- 
termine the cost of the brine must be considered. To be efficient as a freezing 
medium, a brine must afford maximum depression of the freezing-point for minimum 
quantities of solid substance added. Such a requirement implies that the freezing 
curve for the resulting medium should exhibit little or no horizontal portion or 
"plateau effect" with increasing concentration. Ionization or splitting of a dis- 
solved substance into two or more charged particles, tends to increase the effec- 
tiveness of the substance. Ionization is a characteristic of inorganic, but does 
not occur in organic compounds (other than salts of organic acids), so that the 
freezing point is reduced more, per molecular weight, by inorganic than by organic 
additives. 



The "plateau effect" is most characteristic of carbonhydrate syrups and is 
noticeably present in other organic media. Highly concentrated solutions are re- 
quired for effective reduction of freezing points. For example, various sugar 
syrups require concentrations in water in the range of 50 to 60 percent (by weight) 
to permit low freezing temperatures to be attained. 

Inorganic brines, to be commercially practical, appear to be limited to sodiiim 
chloride, magnesium chloride, or calcium chloride. The last, due to its deteriora- 
tive effect upon the meat of fish, would require some modification. These brines 
are characterized by efficient and relatively great reduction in freezing points, 
as shown in the table on page 37. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



37 





Percentage 


Eutectic freez- 




present in 


ing temperature 


Compound 


rater solution 


of solution 


Sodium chloride 


23.3 


-6" F. 


Calcium chloride 


38.0 


-36° F. 


(73 percent) 






^gnesium chloride 


22.0 


-27° F. 



The feasibility of using calcium chloride or magnesium chloride is still be- 
ing investigated. Of the two, magnesium chloride appears the most promising. 
Fish frozen in a eutectic (22 
percent by weight) magnesium- 
chloride brine at temperatures 
of -10° F. and -20° F. are in- 
distinguishable visually from 
the normal iced product. The 
few organoleptic tests perform- 
ed thus far have evidenced no 
taste differences from control 

samples frozen in sodium-chloride brine. A sample of approximately 5»000 pounds 
of haddock frozen in magnesium-chloride solution is to be placed in commercial 
cold storage (-10° F. to 0° F.). This sample will be regularly tested chemically 
and organoleptically during a period of approximately one year in storage for 
changes in flavor, appearance, and texture. 

The solubilities of other chlorides, when added to eutectic sodium-chloride 
brines, are greatly reduced, and any further depression in freezing point caused 
by the addition of the other chlorides is negligible. It is possible, however, 
to bring about a more substantial decrease in freezing point by decreasing the 
concentration of sodium chloride and thereby permitting increased quantities of 
the more efficient magnesium chloride to be added. Mixtures of this type are 
under investigation. Fish frozen in a mixture (15 percent by weight each of so- 
dium and magnesium chlorides) at -10° F. have been tested organoleptically and 
chemically. No differences in flavor, texture, or appearance could be noted. Chem- 
ically, the penetration of salt into the meat of the fish as indicated by an in- 
crease in the chloride concentration when using the mixture was markedly reduced 
as compared to that for fish frozen in sodium-chloride brine. Storage of large 
quantities of fish frozen in these mixtures is not at present contemplated. It 
is felt that the results to be obtained from storage tests of fish frozen in mag- 
nesium-chloride brines will indicate whether magnesium chloride, as a substitute 
for or an additive to sodium-chloride brine, is usable. 

Organic compounds, due to the "plateau effects" found in the freezing curves, 
due to their lack of ionization, and also because of relatively high costs, have 
not been extensively studied in this project. Much higher concentrations of or- 
ganic compounds in water are required to attain a given reduction in freezing 
point than is the case with the more efficient inorganic salts. For example, while 
a 20-percent solution of sodium chloride will reach a temperature of approximately 
0° F. before freezing, a 64-percent solution of sucrose is required to reach the 
same temperature. Not only is cost a factor in this case, but asolution of a much 
higher viscosity results, which retards heat transfer. 

It is possible to add alcohol or glycerine to eutectic sodium-chloride brines 
without having the sodium chloride precipitate. Here again, however, the "plateau 
effect" of the freezing curve is observed. While reasonably low temperature-freez- 
ing solutions may be obtained from these mixtures, the temperatures reached are not 
sufficiently low, as compared to some other substances, to justify the additional 
cost unless found to be the only usable methods. 

The addition of glucose to inorganic-salt brines has given promise of usable 
brines. A mixture of 12. 5- percent sodium chloride and 34- percent glucose in water 
freezes at -10° F. Calcium chloride (25 percent) when mixed with glucose (25 per- 
cent) in water will freeze at -25° F. This solution does not cause the usual de- 
teriorative effect upon the meat of fish found in solutions in which calcium chlo- 
ride is the single dissolved component. No eutectic points have yet been found in 



38 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEIV Vol„ Ih, No,. 10 

these calcium chloride-glucose solutions. The degree to which the temperature 
may be lowered is limited only by viscosity effects. 

In siuimary, the following general statements may be made regarding immersion 
freezing media. The costs of sodium-chloride brine substitutes cannot possibly 
compete with the costs of sodium chloride. It is probable, however, that such 
low-temperature brines will be usable for longer periods since, for several rea- 
sons, contamination of the brine will be reduced. The possibility of the brine 
freezing in the heat-exchanger tubes will be minimized since the freezing point 
of the brine approaches the minimum temperature of the vaporizing ammonia sur- 
rounding the tubes. Lower brine temperatures will lower the degree of penetration 
of fish by the brine. Freezing-rates at -10° F. are approximately twice those at 
+10° F. Immersion periods will be proportionately shortened. Since penetration 
occurs, to a limited extent, even after freezing of the surface has taken place, 
the shortened immersion period will operate to reduce penetration of the brine 
into the fish. 

Trimethylamine in Frozen and Thawed Fish ; In developing the technique for 
determining the content of trimethylamine nitrogen in haddock, some results were 
obtained which indicated that fillets which had been previously frozen and then 
thawed produced trimethylamine at a much lower rate than did previously unfrozen 
fillets (both samples were held at above-freezing temperatures) . Since the tri- 
methylamine test is being used in this project in making quality-evaluation com- 
parisons, it was thought advisable to conduct a side project of short duration to 
go further into these findings. Some samples of fresh haddock fillets and gutted 
haddock were held in crushed ice and removed at intervals as freshness decreased 
for plate-freezing and storage at 0° F. Other samples were plate-frozen immedi- 
ately, without any holding period in crushed ice, and stored at 0° F., while a 
third series was brine-frozen and placed in 0° F. storage. After freezing and at 
different intervals of frozen storage, samples were placed in a household refrig- 
erator at a temperature of about 40° F. for holding until spoilage of the samples 
occurred, as judged organoleptically. Trimethylamine-nitrogen deterirdnationswere 
made initially and at appropriate intervals during the test. 

The samples held in crushed ice showed a progressive increase in trimethyla- 
mine nitrogen during the holding period, reaching a value of about 27 mg. per 100 
gm= of the meat of the fish for the last of the fish that were removed from the 
ice to be frozen. Immediately after freezing, the values dropped to about 10 mg. 
Upon removal of the samples after various periods of storage up to three weeks at 
0° Fo and placing in the household refrigerator, no appreciable rise in trimethyla- 
mine nitrogen occurred even though the fish became badly spoiled. Similar results 
were obtained during spoilage of the samples that had been frozen immediately and 
then placed in the household refrigerator. The results indicate that trimethyla- 
mine nitrogen values used as an index of spoilage for unfrozen haddock do not ap- 
pear to be valid when the fish have been previously frozen, then thawed and allow- 
ed to spoil at above freezing temperature. Under these conditions values did not 
rise much above 10 mg. per 100 gm. of the meat of the fish even when the fish had 
reached an advanced spoiled stage. A detailed report of this side project is be- 
ing prepared. 

Histology ; Another side project which ha^ been under way for some time is 
the preparation and study of sections of the meat from fish frozen once and twice. 
These histological studies were to be made originally to supplement the findings 
of other tests in evaluating the quality of the fish prepared and stored in the 
course of this project. At first we thought that as a result of refreezing some 
quality differences would occur, but none showed up. Therefore, the histological 
studies will be terminated shortly. Considerable difficulty has been encountered 



October 1952 COMMEfiCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 39 

in preparing satisfactory sections and the results obtained thus far have not 
been sufficiently encouraging to warrant further action at this timeo 

Actomyosin : Some preliminary results, at least insofar as developing the 
technique is concerned, have been obtained on the determination of extractable 
actomyosin in fish muscle. It is thought that by following changes in solubility 
of this substance, an indication of the degree of denaturation of the fish protein 
due to freezing may be obtained and these indices may, in turn, be of some value 
in showing possible effects of refreezing on protein breakdown. Because of the 
press of other work and the delay in delivery of essential laboratory equipment, 
very little progress has been made in conducting accurate determinations of acto- 
myosin until quite recently. These determinations are now under way and should 
progress more smoothly than in the past. 

Consumer Acceptance Tests : To supplement the findings in the quality-evalu- 
ation tests made in the laboratory and, more particularly, to obtain the reactions 
and opinions of consumers regarding the quality of fillets prepared from brine- 
frozen fish and from iced fish, large-scale consumer acceptance tests have been 
planned. Approximately 200 letters were sent out through the Massachusetts Divi- 
sion of Marine Fisheries, explaining the purpose of the tests and asking whether 
the recipients would be interested in cooperating in such tests. Although the re- 
sponse was less than anticipated, a sufficient number expressed a desire to par- 
ticipate in these tests, A number of the potential participants were visited and 
arrangements made to start the tests. The tests will be made in the participants' 
homes on samples delivered by us^ the samples to be prepared for the table by the 
participants in any desired manner. Generally, fillets from brine-frozen fish 
and fillets from iced fish will be tested and compared simultaneously. A simple 
questionnaire signifying the preference, if any, will then be filled' out andmailed 
to the laboratory. Plans are being discussed to expand the consumer tests to 
neighbors of the laboratory personnel, and to organized groups that might serve 
to give a representative cross-section of the consumer public. 

Future Laboratory Studies ; Among some problems planned for future study are 
organoleptic tests for seasonal effect on quality of fish frozen at sea, and of 
commercially-iced fish. While this, in effect, has been and is being done in con- 
nection with the various cruises made by the Delaware , the scope will of necessity 
be limited due to the laying-up of the boat at certain times during the year. 

Another problem is to investigate procedures to reduce drip in fillets when 
they are thawed. It is planned, at first, to determine the effect of dipping the 
fillets in sodium-chloride brines of various strengths, holding the time constant. 
Variations of this procedure may then be tried. 

Although some data have been collected on relative tenderness of the meat 
of brine-frozen and air-frozen fish, it is planned to supplement these findings 
with further data of this type. 

Considerably more work should be done in developing recommended procedures 
for reducing brine penetration into the fish during the brine-freezing process. 
Factors such as temperatures of the brine, length of time the fish are held in the 
brine both prior to and after freezing, and possible effect of freezing before 
rigor and during rigor are to be considered. 

Further work may possibly be done on developing freezing media that permit 
lower temperatures to be used in immersion freezing of the fish, 

(Boston) 



40 



coMJ-:Eaci;si fisheries review 



Vol. 14, No. 10 




^TRENDS 




AND 



DEVELOPMENTS 

Additions to the Fleet of U. S. Fishing Vessels 

A total of 41 vessels of 5 net tons and over received their first documents 
as fishing craft during August 1952 — 11 less than in August 1951. California led 
with 6 vessels, followed by Louisiana with 5 vessels, and Alaska and Texas with 4 
vessels each, the Bureau of Customs of the Treasury Department announced. 



Vessels Obtaining Their First Documents as Fishing Craft, August 1952 | 


Section 


August 


Eight mos. ending with August 


Total 
1951 


1952 


1951 


1952 


1951 


New England 

Middle Atlantic 


Number 


Number 
1 
1 

8 
15 
21 

2 

3 

1 


Number 
23 
22 
43 
57 
88 
187 
77 
80 


Number 

26 

28 

19 

76 

129 

247 

11 

60 

3 


Number 

36 

34 

36 
118 
173 
284 

25 

71 
3 


n 

1 

3 

6 

15 

9 

4 


South Atlantic 

Gul-" 


Pacific Coast 


Alaska .... - 

Hawaii 


TotPl 


41 


52 


507 


599 


780 


note: vessels HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED TO THE VARIOUS SECTIONS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR HOME PORT. | 



Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission 
Holds Annual Meeting 

The 11th Annual Meeting of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission 
concluded a three-day session at Boston on September 5- Ninety- four Commissioners, 
Federal and state fishery administrators, scientists, and staff members attended 
the general session on September 4. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service reported 
on research undertaken in a variety of fields for the Commission. 

The Commission discussed ways of defining "inland" marine waters to facili- 
tate the regulation of out-of-state boats and the need for better state catch sta- 
tistics to aid both research and administration. 

The Commission adopted the recommendations of its striped bass committee for 
the establishment of a cooperative Federal-state research program relating to 
striped bass and immediate opposition to the Clemente Bill, H. R. 8067, which would 
transfer the regulation of striped bass to the Federal Government, and would make 
it a Federal offense to catch striped bass anywhere in the marine waters of the 
U. S. except by hook and line. The Committee found and the Commission agreed that 
there was no evidence of over-all striped bass depletion, that the states were a- 
ble and ready to enact any measures needed, that the Clemente Bill is contrary to 
precedent and without justification, and that its penalties are preposterous. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



a 



After the general sessions on September k, the Chesapeake Bay and South At- 
lantic Sections met, and September 5 was devoted to meetings of the North and 
Middle Atlantic Sections of the Commission, 



The four Sections repiorted to the Sep- 
tember 5 afternoon closing session at which 
the Commission approved three recommenda- 
tions from the North Atlantic Section, to 
request continuation by the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service of the clam study and of 
the yellowtail study, and to urge the recon- 
struction of the obsolete Fish and Wildlife 
Service Laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass. 



The various Section meetings received 
detailed reports on many special problems 
relating to their particular areas. 




BRINE-FROZEN FISH BEING INSPECTED ABOARD 
THE RESEARCH TRAWLER DELAWARE Br MEMBERS 
OF THE ATLANTIC STATES MARINE FISHERIES 
COMMISSION AND VISITING SCIENTISTS. THE 
ONE-DAY CRUISE WAS TO DEMONSTRATE THE 
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE'S EXPERIMENTS 
ON FREEZING FISH IN THE ROUND AT SEA. 



On September 6 members of the Commis- 
sion and visiting scientists participated 
in demonstrations staged by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service of freezing fish in the round at sea on board the motor trawl- 
er Delaware and of Japanese long-line fishing methods for catching tuna on the 
Mar.lorie Parker , both of which sailed from the Service's East Boston docks for a 
full day's cruise. 




Federal Purchases o£ Fishery Products 

FRESH AND FROZEN FISH PURCHASES BY DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY . AUGUST 1952 ; For 
the military feeding of the U. S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, the 
Army Quartermaster Corps this August purchased 3,999,589 pounds (valued at 
$1,676,9A2) of fresh and frozen fishery products (see table). This was an in- 
crease of 75.4 percent in quantity and 52.8 percent in value as compared with 
the previous month, and 33.5 percent in quantity and 50.2 percent in value over 
August 1951. 



Purchases of Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products by Department of the Army 
(AUi-rust and the First Eight Months, 1952 and 1951) 


QUANTITY 


VALUE 1 


August 


January -August 


August 


January-.iiugust | 


1952 


1951 


1952 


1951 


1952 


1951 


1952 


1951 


Lbs. 
3,999,589 


Lbs. 
2,996,287 


Lbs. 
22,504,070 


Lbs. 
20,270,207 


i 

1,676,942 


1,116,243 


i 

10,245,608 


8,335,084 



January-August purchases this year rose 11.0 percent in quantity and 22.9 per- 
cent in value, compared with the corresponding period in 1951. The average cost 
per pound was 45.5 cents for the first eight months this year as compared with 41.1 
cents for the same period a year earlier. 

In addition to the purchases of fresh and frozen fishery products indicated 
above, the Armed Forces generally make some local purchases which are not included 
in the above figures. Therefore, actual purchases are somewhat hip;her than indicat- 



A2 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

ed, but it is not possible to obtain data on the local purchases made by military 
installations throughout the country. 

* * * * -K- 

NO CANNED SALMON FRCM. 1952 PACK REQUIRED BY ARMED FCECES ; "Due to condi- 
tions prevailing in the Far East Command and because stocks on hand are suffi- 
cient to meet the needs of the Armed Forces during the next 12 months, the Army 
Quartermaster Corps does not plan to purchase any canned salmon from the 1952 
pack," states a September 8 Department of Defense news release. 

The announcement was made to inform industry of the Armed Forces' position 
in reference to its needs for canned salmon so that industry may plan according- 
ly. For the past several months, according to the release, troops in Korea have 
been supplied mostly with fresh foods. This reduced the requirement for canned 
foods — one of the chief components of operation rations which are served when 
fresh foods are not available. 

Although the Department announced that canned salmon is occasionally served 
with the fresh-food rations supplied to troops both overseas and in the Continen- 
tal United States, it is expected that requirements through calendar year 1953 
can be met from stocks on hand. 



Fishery Marketing Specialist Examination Announced 

FISHERY MARKETING SPECIALIST EXAMINATION ANNOUNCED ; An examination for Fish- 
ery Marketing Specialist (GS-5, $3,410 a year) was announced by the U. S. Civil 
Service Commission on September 16, 1952 (Announcement No. 336). The register es- 
tablished from this examination will be used to fill positions in the Fish and 
Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior in Washington, D.C., and 
throughout the United States. However, this same examination may be used to fill 
positions in other Federal agencies in Washington, D. C, and vicinity. The clos- 
ing date for this examination is November 18, 1952. 

Except for the substitution of education for experience as provided, appli- 
cants must have had 3 years of responsible experience in any position involving (a) 
the collection and compilation of market information and statistics on fishery 
products and the preparation from such data of analytical articles or bulletins 
for publication; or (b) marketing research requiring an intimate knowledge of com- 
mercial methods and practices in producing, processing, transporting, or marketing 
of fishery products. Study successfully completed at an accredited college or 
xmiversity with specialization in fisheries may be substituted for experience at 
the rate of one (l) academic year of education for 9 months of experience, up to 
a maximiim of 3 years of the required experience; study successfully completed at 
a college or loniversity with specialization in economics or marketing may be sub- 
stituted for experience at the rate of one academic year of education for 6 months 
of experience, up to a maximum of 2 years of the required experience. 

All competitors will be reqxiired to take a written test consisting of ques- 
tions on paragraph reading, meaning of words, English usage, graph and table in- 
terpretation, and arithmetic reasoning. Examinations will be held at the places 
listed on the examination announcement. 



October 1952 COMNERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 43 

Announcement No. 336 (dated September 16, 1952) vjhich gives full details 
and information, and application blanks are obtainable from the U. S. Civil 
Service Commission, Washington 25, D. C., from any of the Commission's regional 
offices, or from any first- or second-class post office. 



New England Tuna Explorations 

" MARJORIE PARKER " ENCOUNTERS BEST TUNA FISHING OFF MASSACHUSETTS m FISHING 
CRUISE NO . 6: A catch of approximately 2,000 pounds of bluefin tuna was made by 
the schooner Mar.jorie Parker on the sixth cruise of this year's New England blue- 
fin tuna exploration. This vessel, which has been chartered by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, for this cruise left Portland, Maine, on August Ik and re- 
turned to the same port on August 29. Adverse weather and a breakdown of the 
Japanese line hauler resulted in the loss of six fishing days during the cruise. 

A total of 28 long-line sets was made during the trip and resulted in a 
catch of 56 tuna, averaging 35 pounds (round weight) each. Three tuna were 
caught with surface trolling lines, and two were captured on hand lines. Catches 
of blue sharks greatly outnumbered the tuna catch. Considerable time was lost 
in repairing the damage to the main and branch lines caused by the sharks. 

Operations were conducted in four general areas: west southwest of Mt. 
Desert Light, Maine; east southeast of Cape Ann, Massachusetts; southeast of 
Cape Cod Light, Massachusetts; and southeast of Pollock Rip Lightship. The best 
results were obtained in the latter area where a set of 10 baskets (70 hooks) 
produced 13 tuna on the afternoon of August 25. Schools of tuna were sighted on 
four separate occasions in the waters southeast of Cape Cod Light, and another 
school was observed on Stellwagen Bank, about 10 miles northeast of Race Point 
on August 27. One small school of tuna was chimmed alongside the vessel, using 
alewives for bait, but only two fish were taken with hand lines. 

Landings were made at Gloucester and Provincetown, Massachusetts, and the 
catch was sold to commercial fish companies for $240 and $220 per ton. 

***** 

POOR FISHING PLAGUES " MARJORIE PARKER " ON FISHING CRUISE NO. ^t On Fishing 
Cruise No. 7 the schooner Marjorie Parker encountered and caught only a fewtuna. 
Long lines and trammel nets were used. The vessel left Portland, Maine, on Sep- 
tember 3 and completed the trip at Boston on September 23. Some fishing time 
was lost due to unfavorable weather. Fishing was conducted in five generalareas: 
southeast of Portland Lightship, Maine; Boon Island, Maine; southeast of Cape Ann, 
Massaschusetts; southeast of Cape Cod Li^t, Massachusetts; and southeast of No 
Mans Land, Massachusetts. Results were poor in all areas fished, 

A total of 198 baskets of long-line gear was set, which resulted in a catch 
of approximately 850 pounds of bluefin tuna. A set of three trammel nets was 
xinsuccessful. One bluefin tuna was captured with surface-trolling gear. Over 
180 sharks (mostly blue sharks) were caught on the long- line gear. 

Most sets produced sharks but no tuna. No surface schools were observed, 
although small scattered tuna were seen jianping south of No Mans Land. On Septera- 



44 COflMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

ber 21, a few unusually small tuna were taken on the long line about 50 miles 
south of Block Island, They ranged in size from about 7 to 12 pounds and were 
the smallest tuna yet taken in- the Service's two years of tuna explorations in 
these waters. 

The tuna catch was sold to commercial fish firms for $240 per ton. 

The vessel left Boston, Massachusetts on September 26 on Fishing Cruise No. 
8 and was scheduled to return about October 4. Using long lines, gill nets, 
trai:mel nets, surface -troll lines, and hand lines, the vessel expected to fish 
on Cashes Ledge, Tobins (southeast of Cape Cod Light), and on the northern edge 
of Georges Bank. 



North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program 

ALBACORE TUNA EXPLORATION BY " JOHN N. COBB " ( CRUISE NO. 12): An eight- 
week albacore tuna exploration off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and the 
northern part of California was conducted by the John N. Cobb in June and July. 
This exploratory fishing vessel is operated by the Service's Branch of Commer- 
cial Fisheries in the North Pacific. 

To secure information concerning surface ocean currents in waters off Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and northern California, a total of 5,000 drift cards were re- 
leased on a course commencing 50 miles west of Cape Flattery, Washington, and 
terminating 500 miles west of Cape Blanco, Oregon, on June 19. 

After release of the cards, trolling for tuna commenced and the first alba- 
core of the trip was caught on June 24, approximately 525 miles west of Trinidad 
Head, California. Scattered tuna were taken in the same general area until 
June 28. Although trolling was carried on continuously, no more albacore were 
taken until July 11 and 12 when several were caught from 180 to 250 miles off 
the coast of southern Oregon. Small scattered schools were encountered between 
July 24 and July 28 between Cape Meares and Cape Falcon, Oregon, about 45 miles 
offshore, during which time the best single day's catch (89 fish) was made. 
Fishing results for the remainder of the cruise were poor, with only a few scat- 
tered fish being found. 

Surface water temperatures from June 20 to July 1 varied from 56° F. to 
58° F. in the area from Trinidad Head to Cape Blanco at distances from 235 to 
600 miles offshore. A surface water temperature of 60° F. was encountered for 
the first time on the trip about 110 miles west of Heceta Head, Oregon, on 
July 2. The best fishing of the trip occurred in surface water temperatures of 
59° F. to 60° F. about 45 miles offshore between Cape Meares and Cape Falcon 
from July 24 to July 28. 

Experimental gill nets were fished twice, catching only 2 tiina. A total of 
147 albacore were tagged with streamer-type tags. During most of the cruise the 
prevailing winds were north and northwest, frequently strong, with choppy to 
rough seas. 



October 1952 COMKERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW U5 

Pacific Coast States Conducting Experimental 

Bottom Fishing at Great Depths 

The deepest experimental bottom fishing ever conducted on the Pacific Coast 
is now under way as a joint project of the three coastal states, according to an 
August 27 news release from the California Department of Fish and Game. 

California, Oregon, and Washington fish and game agencies each assigned 
marine biologists to participate in the bottom-fish research cruise of the Cali- 
formia Department of Fish and Game vessel, N. B. Scofield, which started August 
12 and was expected to end September 12. 

The tri-state cruise which began at Eureka and was scheduled to wind up at 
Cape Flattery or Tatoosh Island off the Washington coast, is the first made by 
the N. B. Scofield since installation of new deep-sea exploratory gear. New, 
remote-controlled winches will pay out 1,600 fathoms of cable, and allow mile- 
deep drags of heretofore unknown ocean bottoms. 

The cruise objectives were to test fishing nets to determine the "escape 
sizes" for various deep-sea species. 

Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations 

RESEA.1CH VESSELS RETURN FROM FISHING AND HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS ; " John R. 
Manning": The return on September 15 of the Service's Pacific Oceanic Fishery 
Investigations (POFI) vessel John R. Manning from an exploratory and experimental 
fishing cruise in equatorial waters has added further to the Service's knowledcre 
of tuna resources and habits in that vast ocean region. The best fishing along 
the 150th meridian occurred, as usual, north of the equator, but the tuna yield 
was low. The vessel started on the cruise August 6. 

The catching rate dropped to 5 tunas per hundred hooks as compared to over 
10 tunas per hundred hooks for the last year's cruise of the Hugh M. Smith (anoth- 
er POFI vessel) to the same locality. Biological and hydrographic data which 
were collected simultaneously may, upon study, uncover reasons for the poor fish- 
ing which plagued the chartered vessel Cavalieri early in September when it at- 
tempted to catch a load of tuna in the same equatorial region. 

A special experiment of 2h hours' fishing by setting and hauling long-line 
gear every 4 hours produced catches composed entirely of yellowfin tuna during 
the day and entirely of bi^-eyed tuna at night. Further similar experiments must 
be carried out to check this striking difference indicated by one full day's fish- 
ing. 

" Cavalieri ": After undergoing considerable repair, the Cavalieri departed 
Honolulu on August 13 for its second atterpt to obtain a commercial load of tuna 
by means of long-line gear, August radio reports indicated that fishing was ex- 
cellent. The catch rate in the "rich zone" was 9 to 12 tuna per hundred hooks 
with 70 baskets of gear set. This amounts to 2 or 2^ tons of tuna per day. How- 
ever, early September reports stated that fishing fell off considerably. 

" Hugh M. Smith "; The vessel Hugh M. Smith returned to Honolulu on August 29, 
after completing a 38-day hjrdrographic cruise (No. 16) for the purpose of making 
special observations on surface and subsurface currents in the region of the equa- 



46 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. U, No. 10 

tor and on the vertical distribution of zooplankton in respect to the thermocline. 
At the equator the water was moving strongly to the northwest at the surface and 
strong to the east at depths of about 200 to 300 feet. While a northerly compon- 
ent at the surface was expected on the basis of earlier indirect evidence, it was 
not expected to be as strongly toward the north as observed on this occasion. 
Drifts at several levels in the count ercurrent confirmed the earlier indirect 
evidence on the lack of transverse circulation. 

The Hugh M. Smith on September 15 returned to Honolulu from a 10-day hydro- 
graphic cruise (No. 1?) in island waters. The trip was occasioned by recent poor 
skipjack catches by the local sampan fleet. Physical, chemical, and biological 
data obtained on this cruise will be compared to similar data collected during 
the exceptionally good skipjack season of last summer in the hope of revealing a 
casual change in the environment. Only 8 schools of tuna were sighted in the 10 
days of observation; 7 of these were identified as skipjack tuna. Trolling lines 
only yielded 4 dolphin. 



s^Wu^ 



Proposals Invited for Lease of a Fish Cannery 

in Tutuila, American Samoa 

The Government of American Samoa will entertain proposals for the lease of a 
fish cannery which it owns, together with the equipment and facilities, located 
at Tutuila, American Samoa. Bidders must be citizens or nationals of the United 
States, or if the bidder is a corporation or company, at least 75 percent of the 
stock of or interest therein must be helijby citizens or nationals of the United 
States. 

American Samoa is a territory of the United States and under existing laws 
its products may enter the United State? duty free. It is located 2,276 miles 
south of Hawaii and, according to the results of recent studies by the Pacific 
Oceanic Fisheries Investigations of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 
is within less than a thousand miles from one of the richest sources of tuna in 
the Pacific. 

The Tutuila cannery is a well-planned, modern installation consisting of 4 
buildings with 2 roofed-over areas between the buildings. Each building is about 
200 feet long and 50 feet wide. The buildings are designed to promote an orderly 
and efficient flow of materials from the fresh or frozen tuna receiving room to 
the canned tuna storage space. They contain the newer devices and material for 
hand packing tuna. The plant is also equipped with a steam-jacketed rotary drier 
in which waste products of a solid nature, such as heads, bones, viscera, and 
skin, may be processed into fish meal. Combustible gases from this drier are 
burned in the boiler fire boxes to minimize the odors discharged into the outside 
air. The plant is capable of handling 21 tons of tuna and of producing 1,000 
cases of canned tuna each eight-hour day. The cold-storage area, with a Freon 
refrigeration system, is capable of freezing and/or storing approximately 240 tons 
of tuna. The carmery also contains several items of equipment under lease from 
the American Can Company at an aggregate annual rental of $892.40. A lease of 
the cannery vfill not include this equipment. The successful bidder will probably 
have to make his own arrangements with the American Can Company if he wishes to 
use this equipment. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 47 

Dock facilities at the plant are adequate for use of the fishing vessels in 
unloading their catch and in outfitting for the next trip. Highway facilities 
from points around the bay to these docks are adequate for transport of supplies 
and materials by truck. The standard utilities of electric power, potable water, 
and telephone services are available. Although the water supply may not now be 
adequate for year-round operation of the cannery, the Government of American 
Samoa is presently taking steps to increase the local water-storage capacity. 

The supply of local workers for the cannery crew is said to be satisfactory 
on the basis of the short trial runs made to date. 

Transportation facilities are available for ocean shipments to and from the 
mainland of the United States and Tutuila via Mat son Lines freighters and via 
Union Steamship Lines. Scheduled trips to Samoa are made monthly. Vessels stop 
at Tutuila en route to the mainland about seven times a year, i.e., whenever a 
minimum of 350 tons of cargo is available for shipment to the mainland. 

No airplane service is in operation in American Samoa at the present time. 
The New Zealand National Airlines now make flights about once weekly between 
British Samoa and Fiji where airlines stop en route to and from Hawaii and New 
Zealand or Australia. There is a good possibility that an air link between A- 
merican Samoa, Western Samoa, and Canton Island (which is a regular stop for air- 
lines traveling between Hawaii and Fiji) will soon be established. 

The chief concern of the Government of American Samoa is that the facilities 
of the fiph cannery be operated successfully in order to improve the civilian 
economy of American Samoa by developing technical skills among the Samoans, and 
providing local income through wages and through ancillary enterprises. Accord- 
ingly, in evaluating the proposals submitted, primary consideration will be given 
to that part of the proposal which outlines a plan and contains detailed infor- 
mation upon which the Government can determine that the prospective lessee has 
the necessary financial resources, experience, and the qualifications that would 
ensure a continuance and successful operation of the cannery. Proposals submitted 
should contain an offer of the annual rental fee which the bidder would be willing 
to pay. 

Each proposal must be accompanied by a certified or cashier's check in the 
sum of $1,000 drawn to the order of the Treasurer of American Samoa, These checks 
will be returned to the unsuccessful bidders. The check of the successful bidder 
will be forfeited if he refuses or fails to execute the lease of the cannery but 
will be returned if he accepts an award and executes the lease. The Government 
of American Samoa reserves the right to reject any and all proposals. 

The proposed lease will be for a period of three years and the lessee shall 
have an option to renew for an additional three-year term on the same terms and 
conditions as the original lease. The lessee will be required to provide all 
maintenance, repairs, and replacements, to carry insurance covering loss by fire 
and other loss included under extended coverage policies (but not including loss 
by act of God, hurricane, flood, war, or other cause beyond the lessee's control 
as may be specified in the lease). The lessee will be required to pay all valid 
taxes, assessments, license fees, or other levies imposed by the Government of A- 
merican Samoa or by the Government of the United States. 

Proposals must be submitted to the Governor of American Samoa at Tutuila, A- 
merican Samoa, with a copy to the Director, Office of Territories, Department of 
the Interior, Washington 25, D. C, not later than January 15, 1953, and should 
state clearly and in detail: 



4B COIMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

1. Identity of the bidder, including citzenship and previous ex- 
perience and that of any associates in the proposed venture. 

2. Plans for operation of the cannery, including number of Samoans 
to be employed and number and nationality of non-Samoans to be employed. 

3. Plans for obtaining sufficient fish to keep the cannery in op- 
eration. 

4. Plans for transporting and marketing the product of the cannery. 

5. Financial resources and ability to maintain a continuing and 
successful cannery operation. 

Further inquiry regarding American Samoa and the leasing of the fish cannery 
in Tutuila should be directed to the Director, Office of Territories, Department 
of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C. The award of the lease to the successful 
bidder will be made by the Governor of American Samoa, after consultation with 
the Director, Office of Territories, Department of the Interior, no later than 
60 days after the closing date for receipt of proposals. 



Shrimp Explorations Continued off the 

Caribbean Coasts of Honduras and Nicaragua 

Exploration of new shrimp groimds off the Caribbean coasts of Honduras and 
Nicaragua was continued by the M/V Antillas, an experimental shrimp trawler. 
Owned and operated by the Gibbs Corporations, this trawler was used for the ex- 
ploration under a cooperative agreement with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
The vessel left late in June and returned late in July from a second exploratory 
trip in search of commercial quantities of shrimp in international waters off 
Central America. 

Grooved shrimp of mixed sizes from about 25 to 60 count per pound (heads off) 
were found to be widely distributed from Cabo Honduras, Honduras, to Wana Lagoon, 
Nicaragua, at distances of from 5 to 20 miles offshore. Some indications of white 
shrimp were found off Wana Lagoon as far as 8 miles offshore. These signs improv- 
ed as the 3-mile limit was approached, but it appeared that there would be little 
chance to make commercial-scale catches of white shrimp at distances in excess of 
h miles offshore at this season. 

Upon arrival at Belize, British Honduras, the Colonial Fishery Officer advis- 
ed that the Colony was anxious to develop new industries and that concessions 
might well be made to outside interests provided some local employment was in- 
volved. The coastal mainland of British Honduras is relatively low and numerous 
lagoons and rivers discharge a substantial flow of fresh water to the sea. The 
color of the water to the landward of the barrier reef changes from light blue, 
through turbid blue, to turbid green, and is quite muddy near the flats of the 
rivers and lagoons. An extensive flat, about 80 miles in length, lies to the 
northward of Belize and several large rivers empty into the area. This flat is 
thought to be predominantly mud bottom, but many sections are too shallow for free 
navigation of medium-sized shrimp trawlars. A streak of mud bottom varying from 
about 2 to more than 10 miles in width extends for a distance of about 60 miles 
south of Belize. Below this mud streak coral heads are quite common and the area 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 49 

is generally unsuited for shrimp trawling. Another area of relatively smooth 
bottom lies below the coral head area and somewhat south of the Snake Island 
group. 

Upon departure from the Gulf of Honduras, the Antillas proceeded along the 
Coast of Honduras and the automatic depth recorder was kept in constant opera- 
tion. The major portion of the course was over depths between 5 and 100 fathoms 
and the sounding pattern was very irregular, indicating unsuitable bottom for 
trawling, until Cabo Honduras was reached. From there to Wana Lagoon, south of 
Cape Gracias A Dios, as was the case during the trip in May, relatively smooth 
bottom was found between depths of 5 and 20 fathoms over a distance of about 200 
miles. The coast of Honduras, Cabo Honduras to the vicinity of Cabo Camaron, 
is relatively mountainous with a few lagoons and rivers discharging into the sea. 
Southeastward from Cabo Camaron along the coast of Honduras and south along the 
coast of Nicaragua, the land is low and large rivers and lagoons are common. 
These geographical conditions, together with the presence of mud bottom and tur- 
bid water, should be conducive to populations of shrimp. 

A total of 39 drags with a standard try net and 2 with a large shrimp trawl 
were made at distances from 4 to about 60 miles offshore, but chiefly between 
distances of 5 and 15 miles offshore. Shrimp were taken in small quantities in 
25 of the drags, but none of the locations that were prospected offered suffi- 
cient returns in the try net to warrant setting a large trawl. Grooved shrimp, 
pink in color, were encountered between depths of 6 and 25 fathoms with the best 
catches being made at depths between 14 and 19 fathoms. During May no white 
shrimp were foiind at depths in excess of 4 fathoms, but during the latter part 
of July they were found in small quantities in depths between 6 and 8 fathoms. 
It is possible that white shrimp would have been found in greater quantity had 
drags been made within 4 miles of shore. Two try-net tows were made about 70 
miles north-northeast of False Cape, Honduras, in depths of 28 and 30 fathoms 
on mud bottom in the hope of finding an offshore schooling ground for grooved 
shrimp, but no signs of shrimp were encountered. The try-net drags were made 
throughout a 24-hour day, but there seemed to be little difference in the catches 
during darkness or daylight. 

The fishing results were much the same in July as they were in May in that 
grooved shrimp were found over a large area, but they appeared to be thinly 
scattered or else the schooling areas were missed during the exploratory work. 
There was some evidence that the white shrimp were moving farther offshore. How- 
ever, the results of the two trips tend to indicate that the schooling of grooved 
shrimp, if such occurs, is a seasonal condition. Circumstances prevented any 
search to the southward of Wana Lagoon during the trip in July and it is regret- 
ted that the extensive area shown to have mud bottom to the south of Bluefield, 
Nicaragua, could not have been investigated. While the bottom as shown on the 
existing charts between Wana Lagoon and Bluefield is largely coral and sand, it 
is quite possible that mud patches can be found in the area, for several substan- 
tial rivers and lagoons discharge there. It is planned to explore these more 
southerly areas, in addition to a resurvey of the areas already covered, during 
September, October, or November. 

A variable pitch propeller of British design was installed in the Antillas 
and has been under test for more than six months. During this time it has per- 
formed very well and has been quite valuable for exploratory work wherein a wide 
range of power has been required. During the past voyage the lubrication seals 
on the thrust bearing failed and caused a loss of the lubricant. Seals of differ- 
ent materials are now being tested. The reversible pitch propeller could be used 
to advantage in shrimp trawling and should be particularly valuable on oceanograph- 



50 COMMERCIAL FI31ERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

ic vessels where wide variations in power are required for certain phases of 
the work, particularly when towing p lankton-collecting devices. 

NOTE: SEE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW ^ JULY 1952, PP. 31-2. 

--BY C. B. CARLSON, FISHERY ENGINEER, 

EXPLORATORY FISHING AND GEAR DEVELOPMENT SECTION, 
BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES, U. S. FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE, CORAL GABLES, FLORIDA. 



United States Fishery Products Marketing Prospects 

(October-December 1952 and Outlook for 1953) 

Consumption ; Civilian consumption of fishery products in the U. S. during 
the last quarter of 1952 probably will be sli^tly larger than a year earlier. 
Supplies, especially of frozen fish, are likely to be somewhat greater than last 
year, and retail prices may not average quite as high as in the last quarter of 
1951. 

Freezings and Cold - Storage Holdings ; Commercial fishing and fish-freezing 
operations will decline seasonally as the year comes to a close. On September 1, 
stocks of frozen fishery products in the continental United States were substan- 
tially above those of a year earlier. Cold-storage holdings will continue to 
rise until November or December and probably will set a new record high for each 
of the remaining months. 

Canned Fish ; Canned fish supplies will be seasonally large during the last 
quarter of the year as the 1952 packs of salmon and Maine sardines move into dis- 
tribution channels in large volume. This year's pack of canned salmon is approx- 
imately the same as last year's, and that of Maine sardines is larger than the 
unusually small output in 1951. The production of canned tuna may not exceed the 
corresponding 1951 total, but supplies both at the packer level and in distribu- 
tion channels are substantial. Processors have recently reduced the price of 
the lower grades of canned light-meat tuna in an attempt to encourage increased 
sales of this product. 

Outlook for 1953 ; Supplies of fishery products in 1953 are expected to be 
plentiful. Probably as much fresh and frozen fishery products will be available 
as this year and, with a decline in military procurement from the 1952 packs in 
prospect, the civilian market most likely will have about as much canned fish. 
Through mid-1953, when the current marketing period ends, the supply of canned 
salmon and Maine sardines will be larger and that of canned tuna about equal to 
a year earlier. The per-capita civilian consumption of all fishery products 
(fresh and processed combined) in 1953 is expected to be a little higher than 
this year, reflecting in part the continued expansion of the domestic market for 
frozen fish and shellfish. With meat and poultry products likely to be in slight- 
ly larger supply and prices slightly lower than in 1952, retail prices of fishery 
products for 1953 as a whole may be somewhat lower than in 1952. 

The pattern of foreign trade of the United States in fishery products in 1953 
is expected to follow that of this year. Imports, especially of frozen fillets, 
probably will be above the record level reached in 1952 and will continue to fur- 
nish an important part of our total supply of frozen fishery products. Exports 
from the United States are likely to continue close to this year's relatively low 
level. The export market for our fishery products probably will continue to be 
limited by restrictions which were established by some countries in order to con- 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



51 



serve their relatively small dollar resources. In addition, our exportable sup- 
ply of pilchards (California sardines) — a popular commodity abroad — may not be 
as large as in 1952. 

This analysis appeared in a report prepared by the Bureau of Agricultural 
Economics, U. S. Department of Agriculture, in cooperation vfith the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, and published in the former agency's October-December 1952 
issue of the National Food Situation. 



Wholesale and Retail Prices 

WHOLESALE PRICES , AUGUST 1952 ; From July to August there was a downward 
trend in the wholesale prices of fishery products. The wholesale over-all index 
for edible fish and shellfish (fresh, frozen, and canned) for August was 99.8 



Tablo 1 - Aoleailj Avera^s Prl:es and RaTisad Index33 for Edible Fish jnd Sholirish, AuOTjt 195L 


, wi t h Conpv 

Ind 

(i947- 


irative Data 


Group, Subgroup, 
and Item Specification 


Point of 
Pricing 


Unit 


Averi !a Prices 
(«) 




9 = 100) 








Au£.1953l/IJuly 19b:: 


Au;;. 1952 
99.8 


July 195:; 
10"2.9 


June 1952 
102.8 


«UK. 1951 


ALL FLSH AND JIIELLFIJH (Fra3h, Fposan, and Canned) 





101.4 


Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products: 


102.2 


107.1 


105.1 


105.6 


Drsvm, Dressed, or ^ole Finfish: 


101.8 


111.6 


107.9 


109.6 
104.6 

99.1 

118.6 

116.5 

103.6 

108.6 

141.2 


Haddock, large, offshore, drawn, fresh 

Halibut, Western, GO/80 lbs., dressed, fresh 


Boston 

New York City 

Chicago 

New York City 

Chicago 

New York City 


lb. 


.09 
.31 

.49 
.43 
.49 
.59 
.53 


.11 
.35 
.49 
.35 
.47 
.58 
.71 


95.5 
96.0 
108.5 
106.6 
99.1 
119.9 
123.1 


113.4 
10B.3 
110.2 
86.7 
94.0 
117.8 
166.5 


102.5 
102.2 
120.9 
96.7 
38.0 
107.8 
106.7 


Saliaon, fclng, Ige. it. med. , dressed, fresh or 


Jliitefish, mostly LaJte Superior, drawn 


■.^itefish, mostly Lake Erie pound or gill 


Lake trout, domestic, mostly Uo, 1, drawn 


Yellow pike, mostly Kiohigan ILakea Michigan 
& Huron), round, fresh 


Processed, Fresh (Fish end Shellfish) : 


103.0 








Fillets, haddock, small, skins on, EO-lb. tins 
Shrimp, Ige. (26-30 count ) , headless, fresh 


Boston 

New York City 
Norfolk area 


lb. 
t;al. 


.26 

.56 

5.00 


.27 

.60 
4.50 


88.5 

88.5 
123.7 


90.2 

94.9 
111.3 


93.6 

93.3 
111.3 


95.3 

83.8 
120.6 


OysterSj^ shuckedj standards 




102.2 


102.6 


104.0 


101.8 


Fillets: Flounder (yellowtail) , skinless, 


Boston 

Cloucester 
Chicago 


lb. 


.36 
.23 

.23 
.65 


.36 
.24 

.23 
.64 


124.4 
83.7 

108.3 
99.5 


124.4 
67.4 

108.3 
98.7 


129.7 
89.3 

108.3 
99.5 


147.2 
87.4 

110.2 
87.9 


Haddock, small, 10-lb. cello-pack . 
Ocean porch (rosefish), 10-lb. 

eel lo-pa ok 

ShrimD. ige. (C6-30 count ) . 5-lb. package .... 




96.3 


96.8 


99.4 


95.3 


Salmon, pink, No. 1 tall (16 oz.), 48 cans 


Seattle 
Jos Angelas 

New York City 




19.95 
14.50 
9.38 
5.95 


19.95 
14.50 
9.38 


104.4 
90.5 

109.4 
63.3 


104.4 
90.5 

109.4 
68.6 


109.6 
89.6 

109.4 
71.3 


109.6 
79.6 
78.8 
79.4 


Tuiia, light meat, solid pack. No. | tuna 


Sardines [pilchards), California, tomato pack. 

No. 1 oval (15 oz.), 48 cans per case 

Sardines, Maine, keylesa oil. No. J drown 






-' ""oEXEs'stNCrTHE-pR^cfs'SsErroS'lMirP^PO^E ^^""Bi.EO o" ' io^^-i MC ! H^t ""Ice"""" "' '"" ' "' ' '""" '" ""' '"' "'"" """ """ '" """"" '"' | 



percent of the 1947-^9 average (see table) — 3.0 percent below the previous month 
and 1.6 percent lower than in August 1951, the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the 
Department of Labor reports. 

Landings throughout the country were liberal in August and demand fell off 
due to hot weather. Basically due to lower prices for fresh haddock, halibut, 
and salmon, the drawn, dressed, or whole finfish subgroup index this August was 
8.8 percent lower than the previous month and 7.1 percent below the same month 
last year. From July to August, prices dropped 15.8 percent for fresh offshore 
drawn haddock, 11.4 percent for fresh or frozen dressed halibut, and 1.5 percent 
for fresh or frozen dressed king salmon. All of these items were quoted consider- 
ably below the same period last year. In August most fresh-water fish prices rose, 
except for yellow pike prices at New York City which dropped substantially. 



52 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



Fresh processed fish and shellfish prices from July to August rose 1.9 per- 
cent and were 2.8 percent above August 1951. Fresh haddock fillet prices in 
August rose 1.9 percent above July, but were 7.1 percent lower than in the same 
month in 1951. Because of greater production along the South Atlantic Coast, 
fresh headless shrimp prices dropped 6.7 percent from July to August, but were 
still 5.6 percent higher than in August a year ago. 

Frozen processed fish and shellfish prices this August dropped 0.4 percent 
below July, but were 0.4 percent above August 1951. From July to August lower 
prices were quoted for most varieties of frozen fillets, but frozen shrimp was 
quoted 0.8 percent higher. Compared with August 1951, prices were lower for 
frozen flounder fillets by 15.5 percent, for haddock fillets by 4.2 percent, and 
for ocean perch fillets by 13.2 percent, but frozen shrimp prices were 13.2 per- 
cent higher. 

Canned fishery products prices in August continued to drop due to a decline 
(7.7 percent) in Maine sardine prices. The month's index for this subgroup was 
0.5 percent lower than in July, but 1.0 percent above August 1951. Compared with 
August last year, prices for canned salmon were 4.7 percent lower and for Maine 
sardines 20.3 percent lower, while prices were higher for canned tuna (13.7 per- 
cent) and for canned California sardines (38.8 percent). 



RETAIL PRICES . AUGUST 1952 : Retail prices of all foods purchased bymoderate- 
income families continued to climb (0.3 percent) from July 15 to August 15 and 
were considerably higher (3.7 percent) than during the same period a year earlier. 
On the other hand, all finfish (fresh, frozen, and canned) prices during this same 
period continued to drop (0.7 percent), and compared with the same period in 1951 
were 4.7 percent lower (see table). There has been a steady decline in all fin- 
fish prices since March this year. 



Table 2 - Adjusted Retail Price Indexes for Foods and Finfish, 
August 15, 1952, with Comparative Data 


Item 


Ease 


INDEXES 1 


All foods 


1935-39 = 100 
do. 


Aug. 15. 1952 


July 15, 1952 


Aug. 15, 1951 


235.5 
339.8 


234.5 
342.1 


227.0 
356.4 


All finfish (fresh, 
frozen and canned) .. 

Fresh and frozen 
finfish 


1938-39 - 100 
do. 


290.7 
448.8 


291.8 
454.2 


292.5 
508.2 


Canned salmon: pink . 



Fresh and frozen fishfish prices from July 15 to August 15 dropped 0.4 per- 
«cent and were 0.6 percent lower than in mid-August 1951. Canned pink salmon 
prices, i4iich have been steadily dropping since June 1951, went even lower and in 
mid-August this year were 1.2 percent below the previous month and 11.7 percent 
below mid-A.ugust 1951. 



Table 3 - Average Retail Prices and Price Ranges of Individual Finfish Products, 

August 15, 1952 


Product 


Unit 


UNITEDSTATES | 


Range of Prices 
Aug. 15. 1952 


AveragePricesI 


Aug. 15. 1952 


July 15, 1952 


Frozen Finfish Fillets: 
Ocean perchi/ 


lb. 

lb. 

16-oz. can 


30-69 
33-75 

39-79 


45.7 
50.3 

55.5 ___ 


45.9 
50.1 

_ 56.2 


Haddock^/ 


Canned Finfish: 
Salmon, pink 


I/, PRICED IN 46 CITIES OUT OF 56. 
S/' PRICED IN 47 CITIES OUT OF 55. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



53 



The average retail price for frozen ocean perch fillets in mid- August this 
year was 45^7 cents and for frozen haddock fillets, 50.3 cents per pound. A year 
earlier the average retail price for frozen ocean perch fillets was 46.1 cents 
and for frozen haddock fillets, 50.5 cents per pound. Canned pink salmon in mid- 
August this year retailed at an average of 55.5 cents per l6-oz. can, compared 
with 62.9 cents per can in mid-August 1951. 



NEW ENGLAND SINK GILL NET 

The gill net is a type of gear for catching fish which can be traced 
back to prehistoric times and yet still maintain a place of importance in 
world fisheries today. 

The sink gill net Is used in New England to catch groundfish (cod, 
haddock, and pollock). These fish are caught near the floor of the ocean 
on the New England fishing banks at a depth of 20-40 fathoms and up to 
10-35 miles offshore. 




ROTATION OF NETS IS SHOWN. 

Gill-net operations are carried out during periods of fair weather. 
The season starts in early April and continues until late June. It is 
again resumed in September and generally lasts through December. 

Gill-nettint5 on the northeastern seacoast of New England had its in- 
ception back in the late 1870 's. In the years 1908 and 1910 gill-netting 
formally got under way. At one time Gloucester operated over 54 gill- 
netters. Today only six remain in operation. 

—Fishery Leaflet 379 



54 



comm;rgial fishEx^ies reviEiiJ 



Vol. l4, No. 10 





FOREIGN 



aaaittBriSBaMa 



International 

SOUTH PACIFIC FISHERIES CONFERENCE 

A conference called by the Chilean Government to discuss conservation and 
preservation of natural resources in the South Pacific Ocean was held at Santiago, 
Chile, August 11-19« Chile, Ecuador, and Peru participated with official delega- 
tions, and an observer was present representing the Colombian Government » 

Although no official reports have been issued as ret on the results of the 
conference. El Telegrafo of Guayaquil, Ecuador, published the following report: 



CHILE, ECUADOR, AND PERU RESOLVE TO PROCLAIM SOVEREIGNTY OVER THEIR JURISDICTIONAL WATERS 



They adopt various measures for the preserva- 
tion of the riches they have and they will study 
means to increase thenio 

Sovereignty proclaimed over maritime lands in 
territorial waters and a fishing commission of per- 
manent character will be created to watch over the 
riches of the sea. 

A regulation will be drawn up for whale fish- 
ing based on the agreements of the Whaling Confer- 
ence held in the U. S. A. 

Santiago de Chile, August 19, (AP): 

Chile, Ecuador, and Peru resolved to proclaim 
the sovereignty over their Jurisdictional seas and 
adopted different measures for the conservation of 
the riches they contain as well as studies as to 
how they can be increased. 

The said agreements were made in a closed ses- 
sion of the Conference on conservation and exploi- 
tation of the maritime riches of the South Pacific. 
Delegates from the three countries were present, 
and an observer from Colombia. 

The agreements adopted must be ratified bythe 
parliaments of the respective countries: 

The conference approved: 

1. The creation of a permanent fishing commis- 
sion for the South Pacific which will be charged 
with watching over the maritime riches and complet- 
ing a study on fishing in general. 

2. The proclamation of sovereignty over mari- 
time lands and submerged lands in territorial waters. 

3. The creation of technical offices, with ro- 
tating chairmanship for whale fishing and fishing 
in general. These offices will gatlier industrial, 
scientific, and governmental data concerning the 
riches of the seas, and will submit a report at a 
time yet to be determined. 



U. Regulation of species protected in open and 
closed areas, fishing seasons, etc. 



5. Agreeing to draw up a 
whaling. 



egulation regarding 



Juan Ruiz of Chile, who presided over the con- 
ference, declared that the resolutions adopted have 
as their object the protection of the flora and 
fauna of the seas of the respective countries, and 
systematic exploitation of these riches. 

Ruiz said that the measures approved by the 
Conference were based on the agreements passed at 
the whaling conference held in Washington in 1946, 
but added that they eliminate the articles that 
prejudice the countries with a scarcity of ships, 
factories, and other resources to take full advan- 
tage of maritime exploitation. 

Referring to the jurisdictional waters, Ruiz 
indicated that the proclamation of sovereignty is 
adapted to the new norms already accepted by the 
JVmerioan republics and rejects the archaic concept 
of three miles from the coast which dates from the 
17th century. 

He added that the new precept was established 
by the President of the United States in 1945 and 
laterbythe governments of Mexico, Argentina, Peru, 
Chile, and others. 

He added that the new doctrine was adopted by 
the Privy Council of Great Britain in 1950 with re- 
gard to the Falkland Islands. 

Ruiz pointed out that the objective of the con- 
ference has been to avoid incursions of modern fac- 
toryships of foreign enterprises which "only hoist 
the flag of profit notwithstanding the good faith 
of their governmentSi The intervention of Ecuador 
and Peru has proved the brotherhood of our nation," 

"These countries" — he added — "have not a na- 
tionalistic criteria, but have as a goal the right 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 55 



of our countries to live and grow. We are disposed 
to accept maritime exploitation by those who have 
legitimate intentions," 



The delegate from Ecuador, Charge d'Affsires 
Jorg Fernandez Salazar, speaking on behalf of the 
foreign delegations, acknowledged the hospitality 
of Chile and said that the conference signaled new 
norms of American cooperation. 



INTER-AMERICAN TROPICAL TUNA COMMISSION 

FOURTH SESSION HELD IN SAN JOSS ; Members of the Inter-American Tropical 
Tuna Commission met in San Jose, Costa Rica, August 13, 1952, for the Fourth Ses- 
sion of the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, an American Embassy dispatch 
dated August 14 from that city reports. 

There were, in addition to the opening ceremonies, a morning session devoted 
primarily to administrative matters and an evening session devoted largely to a 
review of the scientific investigations of the tuna population in the eastern Pa- 
cific. No major problems presented themselves for discussion, and no new policy 
decisions were made. The Commission adjourned the same day, 

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION 

ADMISSION OF MONACO TO MEDITERRANEAN FISHERIES COUNCIL : Provisional arrange- 
ments for Monaco to attend the meetings of the Mediterranean Fisheries Council 
will be considered at the Sixteenth Session of the Council of FAO, which will con- 
vene on November 17, 1952. A formal decision on Monaco's application as a non- 
member of FAO to join the Mediterranean Fisheries Council will be rendered by the 
FAO Conference in November 1953 o The Mediterranean Fisheries Council has already 
unanimously voted to accept Monaco's application. 




Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 

FISHERIES DEVELOPME^JTS : The successful introduction of rainbow trout in the 
forest reserve in the Imatongs was reported in the July 28, 1952, issue of Sudan 
Press Apjency , an American consular dispatch from Cairo states. In 1949, finger- 
ling trout were supplied by the Kenya Game Department and put out in the upper 
Kinyeti River, Catches this year have proven that the trout have established 
themselves and are breeding. Future plans call for additional stocking of other 
streams by the Forestry Department utilizing trout caught from the Kenyeti River, 

Concerning fishing developments in the Red Sea, analysis of samples of fish 
meal and shark oil have given promising results, and it is planned to conduct full- 
scale shark-fishing activities in the Mohammed Gul area. Shark liver oil is re- 
ported to bring about US$360 per metric ton and fish meal about US$130 per ton. 

It is also proposed to declare a closed area on the Dongonab Bay-Mohammed Gul 
coast and that a Beja cooperative society will develop this area in the future. 
The Marine Fisheries Ordinance is to be enforced in the future and all foreign 
vessels which have been fishing these waters without permission using illegal-sized 
nets are to be stopped. 



56 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. U, No. 10 

Brazil 

FISHING BOATS ORDERED FROM DENMARK : A Danish shipyard has received an order 
to deliver 50 small fishing boats to Brazil by May 1953, according to Dansk Fisk - 
eritidende (July 18, 1952), a Danish trade paper. The boats are to be 22 feet 
long with a pilothouse, engines, and electrical equipment. 



Canada 

FISHERIES OUTLOOK FOR 1952: World economic conditions seem to be growing 
more stable and sudden changes are less to be expected than in the recent past. 

Easing of inflationary pressure in North America, together with the growth 
of trade restrictions in the sterling area and other "soft" currency countries, 
is making 1952 less of a seller's year than 1951. On the other hand, maintenance 
of high levels of economic activity points to a continuation of generally pros- 
perous conditions. 

Against this generally favorable backgrotmd, the various branches of the Ca- 
nadian fishery industry will view their prospects in the light of the particular 
factors of demand and supply, competition, restrictions, etc., that are revelant 
to their markets. 

The market for fresh and frozen fish and shellfish lies almost entirely in 
Canada and the United States. Here consumer spending at high, perhaps record, 
levels will provide a great oppor- 
tunity for increased sales, but 
these will have to be made in the 
face of increased competition from 
other suppliers, more ample sup- 
plies of other foods, opposition 
to some fishery imports by certain 
groups in the United States, and 
a somewhat anomalous food market- 
ing situation in Canada due to the 
embargo on cattle imports into the 
United States. These difficulties must, however, be seen against the fact that 
very large groups of the population in both Canada and the United States are po- 
tential, but not yet actual, consumers of fish and that the market for Canadian 
fresh and frozen fish and shellfish therefore can yet be substantially expanded. 

It is the canned fish trade which will feel most keenly the newly imposed im- 
port restrictions in overseas markets; and a considerable readjustment of its 
market pattern will be necessary. Here again the domestic and some important for- 
eign markets are by no means saturated, but canned fish is in close competition 
with other foods and success will depend on the ability of the industry to meet 
competition in both price and promotion. 

For salted dried groundfish, which constitutes the bulk of the cured types, 
the prospects are good. World supply is likely to be somewhat short and demand 
is strong. The dollar shortage is not expected to affect Canadian salt-fish ex- 
ports to the British West Indies o While the special arrangement under which New- 
foundland fish has been sold for sterling in certain Mediterranean markets has 
come to an end this year, Portugal, Spain, and Italy are believed to be in a posi- 
tion to make sufficient dollars available to allow the movement of normal quantities 




October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 57 

into these areas. No significant change is forseen in other cured fish markets, 
but the prospects for dried salted herring are still obscure because of the sit- 
uation in the Far East. 

In the byproducts market, meals will be strengthened by the high consumption 
of feeds in the United States; but the oil market may be kept depressed by heavy 
production of vegetable and animal fats without a corresponding increase in ef- 
fective demand. 

NOTE: THIS IS AN EXTRACT FROM THE PUBLICATION; CANADIAN FISHERY MARKETS ( OUT LOOK FOR 195 2: 
REV I EW OF 1 j'j 1 1 , MARKET BULLETIN NO. e, ISSUED IN jUlV 1952 BY THE CANADIAN DEPARTMENT OF 
FISHERIES, OTTAWA, CANADA. 

FILLETING IS PREFERRED TO DRYING AND SALTING IN NEWFOUNDLAND : The uncertain- 
ty of drying and salting fish in Newfoundland, particularly in hot humid weather, 
consumes more of the fishermen's time than supplying fish for filleting plants. 
The latter allows fishermen more time for fishing or other occupations, states an 
August 28 American consular report from St. John's. A fairly strong market for 
fillets is reported, and the tendency toward a gradual but sure transf orm.ation in 
fishing methods continues, since more fish at less cost and work with greater 
financial returns to fishermen is bound to be the goal. On the other hand, only 
those Newfoundlanders who feel that their destinies are tied to the sea are going 
to stick to their nets in the face of more remunerative employment ashore, now 
that the industrialization of the island is relatively under way. 

SHRIMP FOUND IN NEWFOUNDLAND yVATERS: Shrimp have been found recently in New- 
foundland waters, an August 28 American consular report from St. John's states. 
It is reported that shrimp have also been found near the northern edge of the 
Grand Banks, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and off the coast of Labrador. 

It is rumored that certain United States and Canadian mainland interests are 
looking into the matter of shrim.p fishing off the east and west coast of Newfound- 
land, where shrimp of marketable size were discovered about a year ago by a gov- 
ernment exploratory vessel. 

Shrimp sell in Montreal for C$2. 50 per pound and in St. John's, whenavailable 
from the Mainland, for C$0.75 per quarter pound. (Editors' note: It is believed 
that shrimp referred to are cooked and peeled and that quotations are at retail.) 

The local press has recently declared that two United States fish-packing 
fir.T.s are now engaged in investigating the possibility of undertaking shrimp fish- 
ing in Labrador waters; so far, however, no information of value can be secured 
from either official or commercial sources. One daily paper claims that explora- 
tion has established that the bottom of Lake Melville (Labrador) in certain areas 
is literally encrusted with large jambo shrimp. Inquiry directed to the Newfound- 
land Fisheries Research Station, St. John's, confirms the existence of shrimp in 
many Newfoundland waters; the size is generally large and often suited to commer- 
cial purposes, but the frequent presence of large boulders and other obstructions 
would be likely to make shrimp fishing difficult in a number of areas. 

* » * « « 

LONG-LINERS PROVE SUCCESSFUL IN NEWFOUNDLAND : Long-liner fishing is readily 
becoming more popular in Newfoundland, according to an August 28 American consular 
report from St. John's. Four long-liners, operating experimentally this year off 
the Northeast Coast under the direction of the Canadian Federal Department of Fish- 
eries, met with good success. Commercial fishing by this method should prove prof- 
itable. 



58 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

The use of the "Cape Island" type of fishing boat, with which the government 
has been experimenting for some time and which appears suitable for fishing in 
Bonavista, is reported generally unsuitable for Newfoundland needso In Bonavista 
harbor, this type of craft rarely has to go out more than 30 miles from shore to 
make catches; in most other areas, however, trips up to 50 miles are often re- 
quired and the "Cape Island" craft is not suited to deep-sea fishing under all 
conditions. This type of boat, from which much was expected, resembles a glorified 
harbor craft or cabin cruiser with an open well aft, and Newfoundland fishermen 
are reported to hold that, whereas the vessel may be seaworthy enough under normal 
conditions, they definitely want a full-decked job in which they can make long 
trips with reasonable safety » 

In any event, government experimentation with this proposed type of craft has 
served a good purpose in that it has focused attention of the industry on effi- 
cient boat design, and through experimental operation at sea has shown the advan- 
tages of long- lining. The old style banker and "Labrador floater" had practically 
no superstructure; hence the problem of building craft superstructures never arose 
until now that additional designing is called for. The use of aluminum instead 
of wood in building deck houses is receiving attention and in the future may be 
put into general use in constructing both long-liners and seiners. 

NEWFOUNDLAND TO BUILD FISH - OIL HARDENING PLANT ; The Newfoundland Provincial 
Government has announced final plans for the early erection of an oil-hardening 
plant at Harbour Grace — one of the last of the GoverraLent' s industrialization proj- 
ects. Work is expected to begin on the plant, within the next few weeks, reports 
an August 28 American consular dispatch from St. John's. An agreement between the 
Newfoundland Government and a German industrial firm was signed in London tov/ards 
the latter part of August, A Canadian cement and machinery firm will construct 
the hardening plant under contract „ 

Some of the machinery for oil hardening has already arrived, and other equip- 
ment will reach St. John's by October, according to reports. 

The German industrial firm is called upon by agreement to invest C$1,200,000 
in the establishment of the plant, this amount to be in the form of machinery, 
equipment, and structural steel from Europe. This equivalent will be matched by 
the Province in the form of a ten-year interest-bearing loan to be utilized in con- 
structing the building and as working capital. 

The plant will make use of marine oils (mainly whale, seal, and herring, with - 
some caplin) which will be deodorized, bleached, homogenized, and hydrogenated to 
a lard-like ingredient for the manufacture of soap, margarine, cosmetics, etc. 
The plant will import vegetable oils for manufacturing purposes, principally peanut 
oil, cottonseed oil, and soybean oil. 

About 120 men are expected to be on the payroll at first, with the possibility 
of more help later » The plant's use of oils from the various fisheries, sayreports, 
"is expected to have a marked stabilizing effect on the Island's economy, particu- 
larly with regard to the seal fishery and the caplin and herring fisheries." 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 59 

Ceylon 

AIDS TO FISHERIES , 1951 : Mothership towing has brought hitherto inaccessible 
grounds within the daily reach of Ceylon fishermen using indigenous craft, accord- 
ing to the July 1952 Current Affairs Bulletin , issued by the Indo-Pacific Fisher- 
ies Council Secretariat, FAO Regional Office, Bangkok, Thailand. Efforts have 
also been made to popularize the use of hand winches in shore-seining operations. 

In the past year, the Government of Ceylon voted a sum of Rs. 3,000,000 (about 
US$630,000) for assistance to fishermen's cooperativeso 

With a view to relieving fisherman's distress due to seasonal unemployment 
during the monsoons, a Fishermen's Provident Fund is being created with the coop- 
eration of the local leaders of the Catholic Church on the basis of a partial re- 
fund of the tithe collected in certain areas » 



Colombia 

PRESERVED OR CANNED FISH IMPORTS REGULATED : With the principal objective of 
stimulating Colombian exports (other than coffee), the Government on August 1 
issued Decree 1830, which authorizes unrestricted exports of rice, sugar, corn, 
potatoes, salt, unmanufactured tobacco, tanned hides, beer, cigars and cigarettes, 
cement, textiles (cotton, wool or synthetic fibers), and gold manufactures. The 
exchange proceeds from these exports are convertible at 2o50 pesos per US$1 {kO 
US cents per peso), in addition to which the exporters receive a negotiable "right" 
to import up to .the same value certain items on the Prohibited List, Preserved 
or canned fishi/ are among the items specified. As distinct from the other items 
specified, however, preserved or canned fish imports under Decree 1830 must come 
from the country purchasing the export products giving rise to the exchange, re- 
ports an August 14 American consular dispatch from Bogota, 

The Government is authorized to extend these privileges to other export com- 
modities as well as to suspend shipments of any items if the export price drops 
"notably" below the domestic price, or if shipments of these commodities threaten 
to create a domestic scarcity, 

1/ FULL SPECIFICATIONS ARE: ITEM 1 20-A .- PRESERVED OR PREPARED FISH OTHER THAN SALTED, SMOKED 
OR DRIED, IMPORTED IN CANS, TERRINES OR HERMETICALLY SEALED CONTAINERS: 1. SARDINES. 
2. OTHERS (iNCLUD NG SALMON). ITEM 1 20-B .- PRESERVED OR PREPARED FISH OTHER THAN SALTED, 
DRIED OR SMOKED, IMPORTED IN OTHER FORMS. 

SPECIAL IMPORT DUTY EXEMPTION FOR EQUIPMENT TO ESTABLISH FISHING INDUSTRIES : 
A special exemption for one year from customs duties for imports of machinery, 
laboratory, and other equipment for the first three companies to establish fishing 
industries in Colombia was renewed by a decree of July 1, The original legislation 
on which this exemption is based was approved in 1938, but up to the present time 
only one company has availed itself of the exemption, 

4t * * « » 

FISH CANNERY ESTABLISHED : A canning factory was officially opened at Santa 
Marta, July 29. The first products to be canned will be sardines, shrimp, mullets, 
and tuna. Later it is planned to include salmon, oysters, and other fish, with a 
possible production of fruits and fruit juices. Starting production is estimated 
at 720 cans per hour (size not indicated). 



60 



COM'IsKCIAL FISH3RES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



Ecuador 

TSRRITGRIAL 'AAT^uRS SOVERSiai-JTY RSAFFIRI^BD : The Ecuadoran Congress in a joint 
session on August 20 passed a resolution reaffirtning the law of November 6, 1950, 
concerning territorial v/aters, an August 25 American Embassy dispatch from Quito 
points out. 

The resolution reasserts Ecuador's claim to a 12-mlle limit drawn from a base 
line as provided by the law of November 6, 1950. Ho.vever, that law has been inter- 
preted in effect to claim a36-mlle 
limit since it claims 12 miles at 20 
to a degree, whereas, there are ac- 
tually 60 miles in a degree , and the 
maps prepared by the Ministry of Na- 
tional Defense, which were submitted 
with the despatches under reference, 
show a 35-mile limit. 

However, the Chief of the Ec- 
uadoran Navy informed an officer of 
the Embassy that the law of Novem- 
ber 6, 1950, vras confusing and that 
apparently the phrase "20 to a de- 
gree" had something to do with Span- 
ish leagues, and that, in any event, 
the resolution passed by Congress 
on August 20 represents a clarifi- 
cation and interpretation of the 
law. He stated that he had confer- 
red with Congressional leaders and 
those congressmen particularly re- 
sponsible for the resolution of Au- 
gust 20, 1952, and that on the basis 
of these conversations it vras clear 
that the intent of Congress both in 
the law of November 6, 1950, and the 
: resolution of August 22, 1952, was 
: to assert and claim territorial wa- 
iters 12 miles out from the baseline 
1 provided by the law, and that the 
: apparent claim to a 36-Eile limit 
: was incorrect and resulted from a 
■ faulty drafting or interpretation 
of the 1950 law. The Chief of the Ecuadoran Navy added that therefore the 36-Eile 
limit shovm on the maps under reference is to be disregarded and the maps will be 
redrawn vaithout this line. 

The resolution as passed states: 

"THE CONGRESS OF THE REPUBLIC OF ECUADOR CONSIDERBTG: 




"That the territorial sea is an integral part of the national territory, according 
to Article 4 of our Political Constitution; 

"That by Law of November 6, 1950, published in the Registro Oficlal No. 756 of the 
6th of March, 1951, there was declared the minimum extension of our territorial wa- 
ters, in the zones surrounding the continental coastlines of Ecuador as vrell as the 
zones relative to the Archipielago de Colon; 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BEVlEfi 61 



"That there has arisen the problem of interpretation regarding the various 
resolutions relative to the territorial waters and to navigation rights, a prob- 
lem which should not exist by virtue of the categorial declarations contained in 
the Constitution of the Republic and the Law under reference; 

"That it is necessary to reaffirm Ecuadoran sovereignty over the national 
territory, which includes the territorial waters; 

"AGREES: 

"To reaffirm the Law passed by the Congress of the Republic on November 6, 
1950, regarding national dominion over the territorial waters, which shall include 
a distance of twelve marine miles counted from the outermost points of the Ecua- 
doran coastline in the Pacific Ocean, as well as the interior waters of the gulfs, 
bays, straights, and canals included within a line drawn between these points. 
At the same time, to ratify Ecuadoran sovereignty over the interior waters in- 
cluded within a perimeter of twelve marine miles counted from the outermost points 
of the outermost islands of the Archipielago de Colon. 

"Given in the Sala de Sessiones of the National Congress in Quito, the twen- 
tieth of August, 1952o" 



Fiji Islands 

TUNA VENTURE ASSETS SOLD : The tuna fishing fleet (except the Isa Lei) owned 
by a fishery company of Suva and the cannery in American Samoa (owned by another 
firm of that Island) have been sold, according to the Australian Fisheries News - 
letter of July 1952. 

The joint interprise was organized by a former world flier for the purpose 
of catching tuna in Fijian waters and canning them in American Samoa, which would 
enable the product to be admitted into the United States duty free. Unfortunately 
the Fijian company was unable to catch tuna in sufficient quantity. 

The clipper, Senibua, which pioneered pole fishing with live bait in Austra- 
lia, returned to San Pedro, California, where it was purchased. The two other 
clippers, Senirosi and Senileba, have been sold to the Indonesian Government, and 
two 48-ft. bait boats to the Ceylon Government. 

The cannery was sold by a San, Francisco-New York firm. The cannery was pur- 
chased by the Samoan Governor's office for US$40,000 to prevent it being removed 
to foreign territory. 

NOTE: SEE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW , MAY 1952, P. 18; JUNE 1951, PP. 56-7; FEBRUARY 1951, 
PP. 47-9; OCTOBER 1950, P. 41, SEPTEMBER 1950, P. 52; FEBRUARY 1949, PP. 58-9. 



French Morocco 

SARDINE FISHING POOR : This year's fishing season in French Morocco, accord- 
ing to informed sources, was unfavorable because the sardine schools traveled 
northward to waters off Portugal. The fishing season is almost over, states a 
September 5 American consular dispatch from Tangier. Present inability of most 
Moroccan fishermen to navigate farther north than the entrance to the Mediterranean 



62 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. lA, No. 10 



is a source of anxiety for future seasons, and contributes to the present serious 
crisis facing the fishing and canning industry in that countryo 



German Federal Republic 

ELECTRICAL-FISHING EXPERIMENTS IN SALT WATER REPORTED SUCCESSFUL : The much- 
discussed electrical fishing equipment developed by Dr. Konrad Kreutzer in Ham- 
burg, Germany, was seen by the author on June 3, and the experimental work done 
to date was discussed with Mr. Ho Peglow,, Peglow has been associated with Kreutzer 
in developing the equipment and in carrying out the experiments. 

Two small units and one large unit have been developed. One of the small 
units is for use in fresh water and the other for use in stunning tuna or other 
large fish after they have taken a hook. The large unit is that used on the ves- 
sel R-96 for experimental use in salt water. 

In all three units, power is conserved by using a pulsating direct current 
with a very high amperage peak. The duration of the discharge of current is ex- 
tremely short and the period between pulses is much longer than the duration of 




AN artist's conception of how electrical-fishing experiments were conducted at sea. 

the discharge. The controlling switches are designed in such a manner that they 
do not carry any current at the time that the switch is opening or closing. This 
prevents the usual burning of the contact points and allows the use of very small 
switches for the size of the current carried. 



The fresh-water unit is designed to operate from 24-volt storage batteries 
and weighs about 2k pounds without the batteries. It is capable of putting out 
120 amperes and is supposed to be able to cover an area 30 meters in diameter. A 
number of these units have been manufactured and sold to various European govern- 
ment agencies and research institutions. The unit is said to be selective as to 
the size of fish, with larger fish responding to the current more readily than 
smaller fish. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 63 

The shocking unit for tuna is somewhat larger than the fresh-water unit, and 
is made to handle four tuna lines. As soon as the tuna takes the hook and the 
hook is set, the button controlling that line is pressed and the fish is paralyzed. 
It can then be landed without difficulty. If the fish begins to revive before 
being landed, it can be given another "shot." Consequently, one person canhandle 
several lines if necessary. The average size of tuna on which the device was 
tested was approximately 275 pounds. 

The large unit, which is being used for experimental salt-water work, is on 
the former German Navy mine sweeper R-96 . This vessel originally had two 900 
horsepower Diesel engines. One of the engines has been removed and the electrical 
apparatus installed in its place. The equipment consists of a 400-kilowatt DC 
generator, a large bank of inductance coils, a large bank of condensers, a con- 
trol apparatus, and a mechanical impulse switch. In the recent experiments, the 
cathode consisted of large curved steel plates fastened to the hull near the stern 
of the vessel and the anode was a large steel plate which could be suspended from 
floats at a distance from the vessel. The area of the cathode was estimated to 
be approximately 45 square feet and that of the cathode 25 square feeto 

An experimental cruise was made at sea during April of this year. Peglow 
emphasized that they had not caught fish with the device, and that they had not 
tried to catch fish with it. He stated that they were anxious to first prove that 
fish could be led in the direction desired with electrical equipment and then to 
find a means of applying this knowledge to fishing apparatus. On this cruise it 
was proven that in salt water fish could be made to travel towards the anode with 
the equipment on the vessel. Live herring were released between the vessel and 
the anode. The anode was reported to be approximately 18 m.eters (about 59 feet) 
from the vessel. The current was then turned on and off at varying intervals. 
Whenever the current was on, the fish injnediately swam toward the. anode. When the 
current was turned off, the fish began swimming in the direction that they were 
traveling before the current was turned on. 

Now that it is known that the fish can be made to swim toward the anode, work 
will be begun on finding the specific frequency for various types and sizes of 
fish and on practical applications of the method. In general, larger fish respond 
to lower current impulses than do smaller fish. Experiments indicate that flat- 
. fish do not respond to electrical stimulation in the same manner as do other fish, 
and that they probably cannot be controlled as can other fish. 

In the salt-water equipment, the pulse shape is very high and narrow, with a 
peak pulse current of as high as 25,000 amperes and a duration of 2 milliseconds. 
The rate of pulsation can be varied from to 100 pulses per second. The rate of 
pulsation is correlated with the type and size of fish attracted by the anode. 

The formula for determining the area over which the equipment may be effec- 
tive is as follows: 



V^ 



2Tr 

In this formula, R is the radius of the area over which the current will be 
effective in attracting fish; I is the peak impulse current (expressed in amperes); 
F is the length of the fish; W is the specific resistance of the sea water which 
varies with salinity and temperature; G is the "anatomic voltage drop" between the 
head and tail of the fish. If the anode is placed at a point away from the surface 
or bottom, the 2TT is changed to 4TTas the field affected by the current will be 
changed to a sphere rather than a hemisphere. The "anatomic voltage drop" of most 



64 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. U, No. 10 

salt-water species is usually betureen 0.5 and 0.3 volts. However, it will vary 
from one species to another, (in this formula all distances should be expressed 
in the same unit. For instance, if R is desired in meters, F should be in meters 
and G should be in ohms per cubic meter.) 

In connection with the experiments in electrical fishing in salt water, it 
has been discovered that when a cable conducting the pulsating direct current is 
run through the water, a field is set up around the cable that fish will not pen- 
etrate. Based on this phenomenon, Peglow suggested that in conjunction with their 
equipment it may be possible to use a single cable set in a circle, as an electric 
purse seine. However, additional experim.ental work is needed on this phase of 
the project. 

Because of limited financial resources, the experiments are proceeding very 
slowly but, at the present time, they give every indication of ultim,ate success 
for the salt-water equipment. The other two devices seem to be already proven 
and are in limited commercial producti on. 

NOTE: SEE COMMERCIAL F ISHERI ES REVIEW . JUNE 1952, P. 39; OCTOBER 19S1, P. 2b; JANUARY 19bl, 
P. 53; DECEMBER 1950, P. 36; AND P . 75 OF THIS ISSUE. ALSO FISHERY LEAFLET 348 (GERMAN COM- 
MERCIAL ELECTRICAL FISHING DEVICE). 

C. E. PETERSON CHIEF, STATISTICAL SECTION 

BRANCH OF COMyERC I AL F I SHER I ES, 

U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 



DEVELOPMENTS DJ INTERZONAL TRADE IN FISH; On May 5, 1952, a new West German- 
East German barter agreement was signed providing for the delivery to the Soviet 
Zone of fishery products valued at DM7,500,000 (US$1, 736, 000) , according to an 
August 5 American consular report from Bremerhaven, The shipments will be predom- 
inantly canned fish, but will include also fresh fish and small quantities of 
pickled (marinated) fish. No salted herring is to be shipped, much to the disap- 
pointment of the West German fishing industry which still has on hand large stocks 
of salted herring set aside for delivery to the Soviet Zone under the 1951 inter- 
zonal trade agreement which became inactive on November 30, 1951o Bremerhaven 
alone has on hand 30,000barrels of salted herring valued atDMl,800,000 (US$428,000) 
originally set aside for that purpose. 

The disadvantage of this barter agreement to the West German fishing industry 
is that the West German fish merchants must wait for payment until counter-ship- 
ments are received from the Soviet Zone and thus have no control over the terms or 
rate of paymento The advance payments made by the Bank Deutscher Laender under 
the official interzonal trade agreement do not apply in the barter agreement. 
This has the effect of restricting interzonal trade to those larger firms that are 
not dependent on immediate payment for their products « The West German fishing 
industry feels, however, that in spite of the financial difficulties, deliveries 
to East Germany must be made in order to avoid losing the market to Holland and 
Scandinavia. 

A further difficulty for interzonal trade in fish was an order issued by the 
East German authorities in the first week of July 1952 stopping all fish shipments 
by truck to the Soviet Zone, Whereas previously all West German fish deliveries 
to the Soviet Zone were by truck, nov/ only rail shipments are to be allovfedo 

In the first week of May 1952 representatives of the West German fishing in- 
dustry sent a memorandum to the West German Federal Government requesting a resump- 
tion of interzonal trade in the volume set in the Berlin agreement or the conclu- 
sion of a barter agreement providing for DM35,000,000 (US$8, 333, 000) worth of fish- 
ery products and fish meal. To emphasize the danger of losing the East German 
market to other West European countries, the memorandum pointed out that Holland 
had sold large quantities of salted herring to East Germany, that Great Britain 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 65 

also exported salted herring to the Soviet Zone, and that Denmark had concluded 
a barter agreement providing for the delivery of US|7, 143,000 worth of fish to 
East Germany,, Also, Norway was to deliver 160,000 barrels of salted herring to 
the Soviet Zone of Germany during 1952. In addition, the memorandum demanded an 
agreement embodying a guarantee of financial aid to the fish industry in the case 
of a politically-caused interruption of interzonal trade. 

In support of their demand for increased interzonal trade in fish. West Ger- 
man fish merchants state that the Soviet Zone is willing to import DM35,000,000 
to DM50,000,000 (US$8, 333, 000-US$ll, 905, 000) worth of fishery products, including 
60,000 barrels of herring, from West Germany. The West German Federal Economic 
Ministry, however, opposes an increase in fish shipments to the Soviet Zone on 
the grounds that West German's food supply situation requires that food products 
should be traded only for food products. 



Hong Kong 

NEW ARTIFICIAL FISH DRIER INSTALLED : A modest but useful plant capable of 
drying 6,000 pounds of fish in 30 hours has been installed close to the new Aber- 
deen Fish Market in Hong Kong, according to the July 1952 Current Affair s Bulletin. 
issued by the Indo-Pacific Fisheries Council Secretariat. After being gutted, 
washed, and salted, fish are loaded into trays which fit into upright trolleys 
which can be wheeled into drying chambers. Each of the 12 trolleys can support 
12 trays bearing 500 pounds of fish. A draught of air blows through the chamber 
at 3i miles per hour. The temperature is raised to 78° F. inside the chamber 
while humidity is reduced to 50 percent and water is extracted from the fish at 
56 pounds an hour. Attached to the plant, there are also two cold-storage rooms 
each with a capacity of 125 metric tons for storing the fish. 

Italy 

WHALE FACTORYSHIF ALMOST READY ; Italy's first whale factoryship(the Trinacria ) 
will be ready in September, according to the August 9 issue of The Fishing News , 
a British periodical. The vessel is expected to leave for the Antarctic grounds 
in November, Of 22,500 tons, the vessel is reported able to process a whale every 
50 minutes. 



Japan 

CONTINUATION OF TUNA IMPORT CONTROLS FAVORED : Important segments of the Jap- 
anese tuna industry are in favor of continuing limitations on the export of tuna 
to the United States, reports an August 19 American Embassy dispatch from Tokyo. 
The Japanese press ( Kyodo , August 16) reported that Japanese exporters of canned 
tuna have announced "they will continue the voluntary control on export of their 
products to the United States," These exporters are included in the important 
Council for Tuna Exports, This Council also includes exporters of frozen tuna. 
Ebcports of tuna to the United States are limited by Japanese Government regulations 
to 1,000,000 cases of canned tuna (brine and oil) and 12,000 tons of frozen tuna. 
These limitations are for the period April 1, 1952, to March 31, 1953. 



66 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. lA, No. 10 

Because of an unusually large run of albacore in June, the Government is be- 
ing subjected to heavy pressure by some units of the industry to raise the quota 
on frozen tuna. The proponents for relaxation of the control refer to consistent 
demands from United States importers for more Japanese frozen tuna. Increased 
demands for frozen tuna are also coming from Canada and Hawaii, 

This comment was made after the publication of a "foreign dispatch from 
Washington that American food canners have asked the Japanese Government for an 
increase in shipments of Japanese canned tuna goods to the United States." 

The Council for Tuna Exports "suggested that due considerations will be paid 
on the issue if the U. S. Government formally asks for removal of the controlo 

It added, "Japan exported to the United States 11,500 tons (metric) of frozen 
tuna by mid-August since the beginning of this year. This figure represents an 
increase of 4,500 tons over the target for the period. Total volume to be export- 
ed to the United States during this year is 12,000 tons." 

TUNA EXPORTS TO CANADA INCREASE ; Exporters of Japanese frozen tuna are re- 
ceiving an increased number of inquiries from firms in Canada. This activity was 
reported in the Suisan Shimbun on August 8. The Japanese Ministry of International 
Trade and Industry (MITI) is concerned with the possibility of tuna reaching the 
United States from Japan through Canada by a three-way trade. Some individuals 
have charged that three-way trading is being done to bypass the Japanese quotas 
on export of tuna to the United States. Authorized exports to Canada in 1952 to 
August 18 were reported to total 2,555 short tons as compared to 1,527 tons for 
the entire year of 1951, states an August 18 American Embassy dispatch from Tokyo. 

Following press item states in part: 

"Exports to Canada may jump to 3,000 tons; suspect of three-way trading in 
frozen tuna dissipated.... 

"These Canadian inquiries are not only for large quantities but conditions 
and price are the same as those of American inquiries. It is causing the industry 
to be very enthusiastic, naturally..,." 

***** 

TUNA EXPORT QUOTAS TO U. S. MAY BE INCREASED ; Japanese tuna export quotas 
and check prices to the United States were the subject of a meeting of Japanese 
Government officials on September 15, according to an unconfirmed report published 
on September 16 by the Japanese press. 

Tuna allocations and the check price system on exoorts to the United States 
will be continued according to the press report, states an American Embassy dis- 
patch from Tokyo. However, an additional 6,000 metric tons of frozen tuna will be 
authorized as part of the frozen tuna export quota. This means that the frozen 
tuna export quota of 12,000 metric tons for the quota year April 1, 1952, through 
March 31, 1953, will be increased to 18,000 metric tons. 

The quota for canned tuna is 1,000,000 cases at the present time, andthe press 
item pointed out that an increased allotment for canned tuna exports will be con- 
sidered separately. 



October 1952 



•COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



67 



The press item also stated that United States approval is to be sought by- 
Ambassador Araki for these actions o 



* * « » » 



FISHERMEN BUILDING LARGER TUNA BOATS : Japanese tuna fishermen are showing 
interest in larger boats for operations in distant parts of the Pacific. Plans 
have been completed to construct a 500-gross-ton boat which will be the largest 
boat of its kind in the Japanese tuna fishery. Several 300-gross-ton vessels are 
already in operation and several more of the same class are nearing completion, 
reports an American Embassy dispatch from Tokyo dated September 8. 

The tuna-bonito fleet as of the end of 1951 (latest available published sta- 
tistics of the Japanese Fisheries Agency) consisted of 1,698 boats, aggregating 
approximately 104,000 
gross tonso Of this 
total, 1,437 (64,633 
gross tons) were wooden 
boats, many of which 
fish principally for 
bonito (skipjack). The 
balance of 261 were 
steel boats (39,345 
gross tons) engaged in 
tuna and some skipjack 
fishing. Most of the 
wooden boats were less 
than 100 gross tons. 
Most of the steel boats 
(232) were in the 100- 
to 199-gross-ton class 
and only 8 in the 200- 
to 500-gro3s-ton class . 
Actually the largest 
tuna boat in 1951 was 
314 gross tons. 




'-'^>c?fci'r38tt£:r 



THE FRAMEWORK OF A SMALL JAPANESE TUNA BOAT. 



According to the Japanese press (Minato Shinbun, August 28), the proposed 
500-ton tuna ship will be a converted vessel — the Akagi Maru now engaged in trans- 
porting ice to Korea, The new vessel will have a 550 horsepower engine, capable 
of 9 knots. Conversion of the vessel will begin in September. October 20 is 
scheduled as the sailing date for her first tuna trip. 

Tuna boats of this 500-ton class are arousing special interest of Japanese 
tuna-boat operators as a basis for determining whether boats of this type can ef- 
ficiently and profitably replace the mothership-type tuna fleet. 

Successful fishing by large-size Japanese tuna boats (300-gross-ton class) in 
waters south of Hawaii has stimulated interest in the construction of larger ves- 
sels. The Japanese press ( Nihon Keizai, August 13) reported: 

"A number of large-size fishing craft, with a tonnage of 300, or twice the 
average thus far used in fishing operations, are showing good results in their 
fishing activities in waters south of Hawaii, chiefly because of their longcruising 
range and excellent cold-storage equipment. Stimulated by these excellent fish- 
ing craft, as many as 7 fishing vessels are now under construction, and the build- 
ing of 3 others has already been authorized by the Government, in addition to the 
previous applications filed with competent government authorities for several of 
these craft. 



68 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



"On the other hand, since the total tonnage of tuna-fishing craft is pegged 
at a certain limit, fishermen desiring to build new vessels must purchase an au- 
thorized tonnage from others. An increasing number of fishermen who possess small- 
type vessels of 40 to 50 tons and inefficient craft of the lOO-ton class that 
were built increasingly in postwar years, are selling their authorized tonnage. 
The quotation of such transactions, which was about 10,000 yen per ton (US$28) 
at the beginning of this year, recently rose by several thousand yen per ton." 

« « » * * 

NORTHERN PACIFIC SALMON EXPEDITION EXCEEDS CATCH GOALS ; The Japanese salmon 
expedition operating in the Northern Pacific has exceeded the catch goals set by 
the Japanese Fisheries Agency and the three participating companies. Asof July 31, 
the expedition's salmon catch totaled approximately 2,000,000 fish against the 
Fisheries Agency target of 1,500,000 fish and the companies' goal of 1,830,000 
fish. The expedition began fishing about May 10. 

Following is a Japanese press item ( Kyodo of August 4) : 

"Fourteen ships, part of Japan's first postwar salmon and trout expedition 
to North Pacific, returned to Hakodate yesterday with over-target catches. 

"The 14 ships belong to a Japanese fishery firm, but two other companies also 
took part in the fishing. The ships consisted of the mothership Tenryu Maru , 10 
catcher boats, two survey ships, and one patrol boat. 

"The skipper of the mothership said the first expedition shows salmon and 
trout fishing in North Pacific is a paying enterprise. He warned against a rush 
of ships to this fishing region for salmon and trout as it would be detrimental 
to preservation of the fishing resources. 

"He said most of the catch boats had their nets worn out by the time the ex- 
pedition ended. Therefore, if boats carry more spare nets, catches would in- 
crease. ..." 

» » » * « 



NORTH PACIFIC SALMON EXPEDITION CATCH ; The Japanese Fisheries Agency has 
issued a final tabulation (see table) of the catch of salmon by the Japanese ex- 
pedition which recently operated in the North Pa- 
cific, states an August 18 American Embassydispatch 
from Tokyo. The expedition consisted of 3 fleets 
with a total of 50 catcher boats. Fishing began 
on May 10 and ended on August 6. The fleet oper- 
ated south and west of the Aleutians (west of 177° 
E. longitude) until July 3, then shifted to better 
fishing grounds off Kamchatka and northern Kurile 
Islands. 



North Pacific Salmon 
j^pedition Catch 



Species 



No. of Fish 



Red Salmon • . . 
White Salmon . 

Trout 

King Salmon . . 
Silver Salmon 
Total 



737,489 

638,571 

701,157 

1,365 

24,205 



2.102.787 



One fleet left the fishing grounds on August 6, 
a second on July 30, and the last on July 28. 



» » * » * 



ADDITIONAL GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PLANNED FOR FISHERIES ; The Jap- 
anese Government is planning additional financial assistance to the Japanese fish- 
eries. A special credit fund is expected to be created. This fund will be used 



October 1952 



COMMRCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



69 



for the financial relief of smaller fishery firms. The plan was publicized in 
the press ( Kyodo , July 22) and confirmed by the Japanese Fisheries Agency, reports 
a July 30 dispatch from the American Embassy at Tokyo. 

The plan is to establish a fund in the amount of 2 to 4 billion yen (US$ 
5,555,000 to $11,100,000). This fund will be created by deposits from fishermen's 
federations, and prefectural governments. The fund will guarantee repayment of 
loans borrowed by the members of the fund from the Agricultural and Forestry Cen- 
tral Bank (Government institution) and other financial institutions. The Govern- 
ment will in turn guarantee payments made from the fund. The fund will be admin- 
istered by the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry (which includes the Fisheries 
Agency) and the Minister of Finance. 

A bill to provide proper legislative measures to establish and operate this 
fund will be introduced in this next session of the Diet which was expected to 
reconvene in September. 

«**««■ 

REPORT ON NORTHERN PACIFIC WHALING : The Japanese whaling expedition to the 
northern Pacific has caught Uh whales in 10 days since it started fishing July 19, 




A TYPICAL JAPANESE WHALE CATCHER OR KILLER BOAT (385 GROSS METRIC T ONS ) USED IN ANTARCTIC 
WHAL ING. 

according to a report received by the Japanese Fisheries Board (Fisheries Agency). 
This was reported in the Japanese press ( Kyodo , July 29) and was confirmed by an 
official of the Japanese Fisheries Agency, states an August 5 American consular 
dispatch from Tokyo, 

The Japanese whalers have resumed fishing in this part of the world after an 
11-year suspension. The catches are slightly lower than the target of 5.5 whales 
a day. But the Fisheries Board expects the hauls will increase if the weather im- 
proves. 

The expedition is being undertaken jointly by three leading fisheries compan- 
ies. The whaling team consists of one mothership, four catcher boats, and eight 
transports. 

* * * » « 



70 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 




FISHE RMEN SEEK PROTECTION AGAINST BOAT SEIZURES BY RUSSIA AND RED CHINA : 
Japanese fishermen have petitioned the Diet and the Japanese Fisheries Agency for 
protection of Japanese fishing boats against sei- 
zure by Russia and Red China, declares an Au- 
gust 14 American Embassy dispatch from TokyOo 

The Nippon Times (August 12) reports: "ap- 
proximately 280 Japanese fishing boats with 
some 2,700 fishermen engaged in fishing in the 
East China Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk (north 
of Hokkaido) have been captured by Communist 
patrol boats during the past seven years o" 

The news item states that Russia captured 195 Japanese boats, of which 134 
have been released. Approximately 1,700 Japanese fishermen were captured, but 
only 1,536 have been released. 

Red China has captured 84 Japanese fishing boats and has returned all but 
one wooden boat. (Note: An official report of the Fisheries Agency shows 87 
boats seized by Red China.) Japanese fishermen captured by Red China number 1,040. 
To date 890 have been released and returned home. 

At the present time, Japan has no armed vessels conducting fisheries patrols 
in any region where Japanese fishing boats are operating. 



PLANS FOR RESUMING PEARL FISHING IN THE ARAFURA SEA ; Japanese pearl fisher- 
men are anxious to resume prewar operations in the Arafura Sea between Northern 
Australia and Dutch New Guinea. Reportedly, negotiations are under way for the 
formation of a Japanese firm to engage in this pearl fishing. Presumably, proposed 
areas of fishing are under the territorial jurisdiction of Australia. Permission 
of Australia's authorities would have to be obtained under such circumstances. 
Permission of the Japanese Government would also have to be obtained by Japanese 
to engage in such a fishing enterprise. No request for such permission has been 
received to date by the Japanese Fisheries Agency, according to the American Em- 
bassy at Tokyo in an August 27 dispatch, 

A Japanese press item ( Kyodo , August 21) reported: 

"Japan will shortly resume pearl fishing in the Arafura Sea, between Northern 
Australia and Dutch New Guinea, pending permission from the Australian Government, 
the Nihon Keizai reported today. 

"Preparations are being made for the resumption of the operations, which have 
been suspended since the war, by several Japanese firms, the economic daily said. 

"If permission is obtained from the Australian authorities, a firm capitalized 
at ¥200 million will be set up with operations slated to be commenced within this 
year, the paper said, 

"Plans at present call for the extracting of 500 tons of pearls annually, 
which will be exported to the United States, the journal reported, 

"Before the war, an average of some 4,000 tons annually were gathered by the 
Japanese operating from Palau Island, which then was under Japanese mandate, the 
paper said. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



71 



"These were mainly exported to America for use in making buttons and orna- 
ments o 

"Operations after the warwere halted because of a loss of the base of oper- 
ation, ships, and adverse international conditions, the journal reported, 

"Improvement in various conditions since Japan's independence, however, 
prompted these interested to work for the resumption of the pearl operations, the 
journal said," 



Mexico 

XffiST COAST SHRIMP SEASON DISAPPOINTING ; The Mexican west coast shrimp fish- 
ing season this year ended by the middle of July and was disappointing, reports 
an American Embassy dispatch from Mexico dated August 25 « 

Fishing fleets were being overhauled and shrimp freezing plants closed down 
towards the latter part of July. 

« » « » » 



GUAYMAS ' SHRIMP INDUSTRY OUTLOOK FOR 1952/ 53: August and September are the 
two months constituting the closed season on shrimp fishing for the Guaymas fleet, 
and the port during August was filled with boats moving in and out of shipyards 
as their owners prepared them for the coming season. The shrimp freezing plants 
also took advantage of the lull to inspect and repair their equipment, reports a 
September 5 American consular dispatch from Guaymas. 

According to data issued by the Institute de Pesca del Pacifico, the Guaymas 
shrimp fleet landed during the 1951-52 season (October-July) 3,455 metric tons of 
shrimp (see table). 

It is reliably reported that only five of Guaymas' s seven shrimp-freezing 
plants will be in a position to begin operations in October. The firm operating 

the remaining two has evidently been so weakened by the 
industry's financial reverses of the past two seasons 
(largely a result of overrapid expansion) that without 
an "angel" from outside the industry it cannot make 
the necessary outlay to ready both its fleet and plant 
for operation. 



Shrimp Landings by Guaymas 
Fleet. 1947/48-1951/52 



Season 



1951-52 
1950-51 
1949-50 
1948-49 
1947-48 



'^ant ity 



Metric Tons 



3,455 
5,257 
5,430 
4,586 
2.867 



Though it is expected that all or nearly all of 
the Guaymas boats will sail on the opening day of the 
season (October 1), many will not be properly refitted 
and equipped to begin a new season. They will not be 

able to work through the season unless early trips provide the necessary funds for 

further repairs. 



72 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



Netherlands 

FROZEN FISH INDUSTRY: Packaging of frozen fish, which had its inception in 
the Netherlands late in 1950, progressed considerably within the past year, ac- 
cording to a July 15 American Embassy report from The Hague. 

At present there are two plants engaged in processing frozen fish, both lo- 
cated at Ijmuiden. Their combined capacity is estimated at 500 metric tons of 
fish per eight-hour working day« 

Domestic sales of packaged frozen fish are large and stable, even though 
there is considerable competition from adequate supplies of fresh fish= On the 
other hand, exports are erratic, and before there can be any real improvement in 




FISH AUCTION AT IJMUIDEN, NETHERLANDS 

foreign sales, existing difficulties will have to be worked out. At the present 
time the two Ijmuiden plants process frozen fish on a customs basis for a variety 
of Dutch exporters, according to demand., As a result of this system, poor-quality 
products have sometimes been processed, and packaging has occasionally been sub- 
standard. However, the industry has now asked the Netherlands Control Board for 
Fisheries for its cooperation in limiting the number of firms licensed for such 
exports. In this way the packers hope to eventually standardize their packing 
methods and streamline the marketing system. 



STABILIZATION OF HERRING MARKET ATTEMPTED : Fishery fleet owners in Scheven- 
ingen and Ijmuiden (two important Netherlands fishery ports) are attempting to 
stabilize the herring market by setting up a fund from which subsidies can be paid 
to ship owners. When cargoes do not come up to the guaranteed minimum auction 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



73 



price of fldl per 50 kilos (a little over 2^ US cents per pound) the shipowners 
association will take the herring out of the market and sell it to the fish-ir.eal 
factories at fl,6 per 50 kilos (almost l| US cents per pound) c Individual ship 
owners will receive the difference from the subsidy fund. Capital for the sub- 
sidy fund will be raised by a ten percent levy on all auction sales, declares an 
August 27 American Embassy dispatch from The Hague. 



% 

Norway 

RECORD TUNA LANDINGS REPORTED: Record quantities of tuna have been landed 
during ttie latter part of July and August by Norwegian fishermen off the coast of 
western Norway, south of Bergen, according to an August 28 news item from the 
Norwegian Information Service o Large catches have been made off the northern 
Helgeland district, too. Most of the fishing is done with purse seines, rather 
than with harpoons and trawl, as in former days. 

The unprecedented catch of tuna has strained cold-storage and transport fa- 
cilities to the limits In fact, from time to time, supplies have exceeded shore 
and shipping facilities to the point that tuna fishing has been temporarilybannec 
as authorized under the Fisheries Act. 

The tuna is largely going to Italian canneries, some of which are located as 
far south as Sicily. Altogether, the Norwegian State Railways have delivered 
about 550 carloads of frozen tuna to Italy. Other shipments have been made by 
refrigerated transport vessels. 

***** 



LUKPFISH FISHERY INCREASING IN IMPORTANCE : The lumpfish (steinbit) fishery 
has in the last few years played an increasingly important role in the Norwegian 
fisheries, according to information released by the Norske Frossen-Fisk Technolog- 
ical Department, Bodo, Norway, 
The catch of 5,000 to 6, 000 metric 
tons in spring and early summer 

gives work to fishermen and pack- „_^__ 

ers in this usually slack season BMIIili" ^ ^^^^^S^^t,'^"' J^^^^^Rk^ * 
in Norway. 

The frozen fish industry has 
developed the lumpfish from an al- 
most unknown species to a fairly 
important one. Both in quality 
and appearance lumpfish yieldwhite- 
meated fillets which look good in 
a cellophane package. 

Since the lumpfish is fatty 
and becomes rancid rather quickly 
in cold storage, special care is 
taken in handling the fish. The 
fish are gutted, bled, "and the 

blood close to the backbone removed by the fishermen aboard the boat. They are 
washed several times until the final wash water remains clean, and then carefully 
packed in boxes with ice. This preliminary processing is done within one hour 
after the fish is brought aboard. The fish are filleted ashore and the fillets 
packaged and frozen. 

* » » » * 




LUMPFISH ( CYCLOPTERUS L UMPUS ) IS A BOTTOMFISH WHICH 
REACHES A MAXIMUM LENGTH OF 23 INCHES AND A MAXIMUM 
WEIGHT OF 14 POUNDS. THE AVERAGE WEIGHT I S 6 TO 8 
POUNDS . 



74 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIE^f Vol. U, No. 10 

HELICOPTER TO BE USED IN WHALING OPERATIONS : The managers of one of the 
Norwegian whaling expeditions have ordered a helicopter from England, reports the 
August 1952 issue of The Norwegian Whaling Gazette . The helicopter will be used 
in the Antarctic during the 1952/53 whaling operations. 



Peru 

NO BAIT-FISHING PERMITS : There have been some reports of the possibility 
of United States tuna-fishing vessels obtaining bait-fishing permits for the ter- 
ritorial waters of Peru. However, according to the latest information available, 
there is no provision in Peruvian law for issuance of bait permits to foreign 
fishing vessels o Also, there does not seem to be any possibility that a law per- 
mitting the issuance of bait permits will be enacted in the near future « 



Republic of the Philippines 

REQUEST FOR HIGHER CEILING PRICES ON IMPORTED CANNED SARDINES REJECTED BY 
GOVERNMENT ; A request by a Philippine food importers association for higher ceil- 
ing prices on imported canned sardines was rejected by the Philippine President. 
Importers stated that prices charged or quoted by foreign suppliers were higher. 
The President expressed the belief that non-importation would force consumers to 
resort to dried and fresh fish, thereby giving impetus to the development of the 
local fishing industry, states a September 5 American Embassy dispatch from Manila 
referring to a news item which appeared in a recent issue of the Bulletin . 



Portugal 

TWO Uo S. VESSELS PURCHASED FOR TUI^IA FISHING ; An Aveiro (Portugal) fishing 
company has purchased two American submarine chasers for use in tuna fishing, re- 
ports an August 29 American Embassy dispatch from Lisbon. Press reports indicate 
that the vessels are equipped with two 900 hp, motors, and have refrigerated com- 
partments with a capacity of 450 metric tons of fish. 

One of these vessels completed a successful trial run on August 26 and both 
are expected to leave shortly to fish with lines in the area off the Canary Islands. 

Except for a few small boats operating from the Cabo Verde Islands, Portu- 
guese tuna fishing has been limited to about three months a year (May-August) when 
tuna are caught by traps off the Algarve coast. These fish, with dark meat, are 
sold mainly to Italy, Use of powerful fishing craft and line fishing should make 
possible a year-round supply of tuna, of which a major proportion would be of the 
white-m.eat variety acceptable to the American market. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 75 

Sweden 

ELECTRIC TUNA FISHING SUCCESSFUL : Electric tuna fishing in Scandinavian 
waters has now been successfully tried by Swedish fishermen,, It is considered 
such a success that it may revolutionize tuna fishing, reports an August 27 dis- 
patch from the American Embassy at Gotebergo 

The method used originates from an invention made by three German scientists 
who, after some years of experiments, have succeeded in reaching a satisfactory 
method for electrical fishing o'f tuna. 

The tuna caught in Scandinavian waters can reach a weight of about 800 pounds 
and are difficult to boat after they are hooked. It is estimated that nine out 
of ten fish are lost while being hauled on board, but with this new method all 
hooked fish can easily be hauled on board. 

The equipment used is very simple. It consists of one motor converter re- 
ceiving its current from an accumulator. Small hooks are used. When the fish 
has been hooked it generally turns around and, when lying parallel with the line, 
starts running out to free itself. When it turns, it comes into an electric field 
developed by poles in the hook and the line. The fish becomes temporarily uncon- 
scious and can easily be hauled on board. The equipment is easy to manage. It 
generally consists of three lines with small hooks baited with mackerel and kept 
at the required depth by floats. When the floats show that a fish has beenhooked 
the current is turned on and the fish hauled in. The fish has to be killed immed- 
iately when on board as it does not remain unconscious very long after the current 
has been cut off. 

This electrical method appears to save manpower as two men can fish with 
three lines and haul one fish on board simultaneously, whereas by the old method 
it required at least four men on a boat and still only one fish could be hauled 
aboard at a time. In addition, the number of fish lost was very large. 

The price of this equipment is not known, but it is stated to be low and 
within the range of all fishermen engaged in tuna fishing. It is reported from 
Norway that electrical tuna-fishing equipment can be fully paid for in a short 
time. 

note: see pp. 62-4 IN THIS ISSUE. 

» « * * » 

NE^ FISH PACKAGING AND MERCHANDISING METHOD : In Sweden extensive use is be- 
ing made of a new method of packaging and merchandising fishery products. The new 
method consists of cutting frozen fish in portions. These are packed in plastic 
bags with all the ingredients necessary for cooking. The package is then vacuum 
sealed. When the contents are to be used, the whole package is heated in boiling 
water, reports the November 8, 1951, issue of Fiskets Gang . When sufficiently 
heated, the fish is ready for eating. 



Union of South Africa 

CANNED FISH PRODUCTION , FISCAL YEAR 1951 : The total canned fish and shell- 
fish pack in the Union of South Africa reached 44,533,000 pounds in the year ended 
October 31, 1951, of which approximately 25, 000, 000 pounds were pilchards, 10,000,000 
pounds maasbankers, and 6,300,000 pounds spiny lobster. 



76 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

The total catch of pilchards and maasbankers was reported as 800,000,000 
pounds. Data are not available on the catch of rock lobsters. 

Domestic consumption of canned fish and shellfish during that year totaled 
about 19,540,000 pounds and exports were approximately 25,530,000 pounds. Exports 
of spiny lobster were widely scattered throughout the world. Exports of canned 
fishery products other than spiny lobsters totaled 20,794,000 pounds in 1951 and 
reflect the phenomenal growth of this segment of the industry, as only 542,396 
pounds were exported in 1946„ 

« * * * » 

SPINY LOBSTER EXPORT QUOTA FOR 1952 ESTABLISHED : Pending results of investi- 
gations by the South African Marine Biological Laboratories, 1952 quotas for the 
South African spiny lobster industry have been set at 5,300,000 pounds of canned 
and 2,140,000 pounds of frozen tails. Exports of these products are subject to 
quota control for conservation purposes, according to the August 23 Foreign Trade 
of the Canadian Department of Trade and Commerce, and the purpose of the investi- 
gations is to determine whether the existing system of control ensures conserva- 
tion of the country's spiny (rock) lobster resources. 

***** 

FISH MEAL FOR HUMAN FOOD ; Although fish meal is used in most countries only 
as a food supplement for animals and is highly successful when fed to cattle, pigs, 
and poultry, the South African Government is planning to introduce it into the 
nation' s bread, and the idea has been received with enthusiasm, by all parties of 
the House of Assembly, according to the September 6 issue of The Fishing News , a 
British fishery periodical. 

The natives do not get enough protein, vitamins, minerals, and fats in their 
diet, and their health suffers accordingly. To combat this the South African Gov- 
ernment intends to introduce into bread a small proportion of a highly purified 
and palatable white fish-meal flour. 

Announcing this development, the Minister of Health said that successful ex- 
periments at Capetown, Pretoria, and Witwatersrand Universities had indicated that 
the addition of fish meal to bread and mealie meal would go far to curing tubercu- 
losis and blindness among South Africa's population. The Minister added: "I am 
now in a position to feed 20,000 children in institutes of my department, and we 
will give them this foodo" 



United Kingdom 

TRAWL FOR USE AT PRE-SET DEPTHS : Experiments are in process in Hull and 
Grimsby with a type of trawl which will keep off the sea bottom and which is ex- 
pected to catch many fish which go over the top of the ordinary trawl, reports 
The Fishing News , a British fishery periodical, in its August 23 issue. In addi- 
tion, since the new type of trawl will operate off the bottom, it should be possi- 
ble to avoid tearing the net on rocks or rocky bottoms. 

Icelandic fishermen have used this type of trawl and have considerably in- 
creased their catches. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIKS REVIEW 77 

.Vhite fish — round as well as flat — spend the greater part of their lives on 
or near the sea bottom, but there are times when round fish leave the bottom and 
school in upper waters. However, to trawl for them in mid-water blindly would 
not be worth while. Recently, because of the rapid improvement in the sensitivity 
of the various types of echo-sounding devices, it is now possible to locate schools 
in mid-v/ater. Frequently skippers report markings on their echo-sounding charts 
which are believed to indicate clearly schools of fish in mid-water. If a net 
can be towed with a wide-open mouth at any desired depth and if that depth is cap- 
able of rapid adjustment, it seems likely that on some fishing grounds it will be 
possible to take fish in mid-water. 

Reports indicate that the bottom of the fishing grounds near the Westman Is- 
lands is so rough that it has never been possible to tow an otter trawl in that 
area. The general practice was to fish as close as possible to the rocks. This 
spring it was observed that Icelandic trawlers were sailing right over the rough- 
est of this ground and catching large quantities of cod. Because of this, several 
enterprising firms in Grimsby and Hull have been carrying out experiments recently, 
but so far nowhere have conditions been found where results can be obtained compa- 
rable rfith the mid-water fishing on the fishing grounds near the Westman Islands. 
The English firms have obtained from Iceland full information as to the gear and 
the methods used by the Icelandic vessel which pioneered mid-water trawling and 
successfully used it. Therefore, the English experiments are based on the Ice- 
landic mid-water trawling method. 

The mid-water trawl is an old idea brought up to date. Net-making farms have 
been working in cooperation on it and it is based on sketches which were drawn in 
1895. Net makers believe that it will be cheaper than the normal tyj)e because it 
needs no "reels" and "bobbins." A net maker was quoted in a daily newspaper as 
saying: "The nets, which will billow out under the water like huge aerodrome 
windsocks, will be drawn through the water above the sea bed at any depth required. 
The net — its secret is in its hauling gear — has already proved successful in trials." 

It is essentially a cod tra»^;l for seasonal use when fish school in mid-water. 
Even if it should be adopted, the present type of trawl would still be needed for 
flounders and at times when other fish stay close to the bottom. The trawl has 
not yet been thoroughly tested at sea. 

The net maker is also reported to have said: "The net will result in bigger 
catches, quicker and cheaper trips, and better-quality fish. Skippers of ships 
equipped with apparatus for indicating fish shoals will now be able to set a depth 
indicator and their floating nets will go down to the level of the shoal." 

» « « » » 

HERRING PRESERVATION METHODS : A summary of tjie experiments carried out on 
herring preservation by the Food Investigation Organization of the British Depart- 
ment of Scientific and Industrial Research appeared in the periodical Food Manu- 
facture for September 1952, reports a September 15 American Embassy disnatch from 
London. This summary as it appeared in the periodical follows: 

"Successful preservation of fresh herring should prevent rancidity in the fat 
and also changes in the texture of the flesh. Rancidity can be prevented by glaz- 
ing the frozen fish with a thin coat of ice by dipping them in water or bj' spraying 
them and storing at -4° F. to -22° F. Fish so treated will keep in good condition 
for three to six months or more. Changes in flesh texture can be avoided by quick 
freezing before storing under the same conditions. 



78 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. Ik, No. 10 



"A recently published report describes pilot-scale trials on the freezing 
and cold storage of herring. Some 137 tons of fish were quick frozen and cold 
stored at about 0° F. and -17° F. under commercial conditions. Two methods of 
freezing were used, some of the herring being frozen in a multi-plate freezer, 
the rest in an experimental air-blast freezer. On examination, it was found that 
fish frozen by either method and stored at -17° F. were suitable for kippering or 
distribution as fresh herring after as long as nine months in store, but at 0° F. 
the storage period was cut to six months or less,, 

"To maintain a supply of kippers throughout the year, the herring can be 
frozen and cold-stored immediately they are landed; they can then be withdrawn 
from storage and kippered as required, to keep the smoke-curing plant working 
steadily through the year. This method produces the best kipperso Alternatively, 
the herrings may be kippered on landing and the kippers stored before release to 
the market. The kippers will remain in good condition for about three months at 
-4° F. or five months at -22° F„ Good kippers can be produced in this way, and 
the simple freezing process involved may sometimes be preferred to the freezing 
of herring as a means of spreading seasonal supplies over the yearo" 




Venezuela 

CANNED FISH MARKETS SOUGHT : Venezuelan fish canners are asking that the Gov- 
ernment act to prevent unusually large importations of United States canned sar- 
dines during the period before the revised trade agreement takes effect, states a 
September 15 American consular dispatch from Caracas » 




FINAL PROCESSING OF CANNED SARDINES IN A VENEZUELAN CANNERY. 



October 1952 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 79 

The canners are looking forward to the date when the duty of 2 bolivares 
per gross kilogram (27o3 US cents per pound) can be applied to United States can- 
ned sardines. At the same time, they are complaining of oversupplies which they 
cannot market in the United States because of high duties. 

The canners want the Government to negotiate agreements with the countries 
of the Far East for Venezuelan canned fish. They believe they can supply fish to 
Indonesia, the Philippines, and other densely-populated Far Eastern countries. 
In fact, their only hope for a good market lies in that region, according to the 
canners. 

NOTE: SEE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW , SEPTEMBER 1952, PP. 57-9. 

»«*«■» 

ROVING SCHOOL TO TEkCH METHODS FOR SALTING FISH : A roving school to acquaint 
fishermen with modern methods of salting fish has been established by the Vene- 
zuelan Ministry of Agriculture, reports an American Embassy dispatch dated Sep- 
tember 18 from Caracas. 

The school is housed on a special launch that will visit all the coastal and 
river points where fish are salted. The Chief of the Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 
nomics, which administers the fisheries, states that at present 80 percent of the 
fish catch in Venezuela arrives at the market in poor condition. 

The system being taught stresses the use of clean water, refined salt, and 
the use of a press. The Ministry of Agriculture has the presses for sale. In 
those cases where the fishermen lack funds to purchase these, arrangements have 
been made with the Banco Agricola y Pecuario to advance them credit for this pur- 
pose. 

The question is being studied of limiting the marketing of salt fish from 
those places where the school has taught the new system to the type "bacalao" 
(salt cod), thus giving the plan impetus. 

Venezuela production of salt fish for the calendar year 1951 was 9,875 
metric tons, and for the first six months of 1952 it amounted to 8,782 metric tons. 



THE MEXICAN FISHERY INDUSTRY 

Mexico has practically no offshore fishing fleet. The greater part 
of all offshore fishing done in Mexican 'waters is by United States boats. 
Mexican fish canning plants even contract Unitsd States boats to supply 
their needs for offshore species. 

The Mexican fishing industry is dedicated almost entirely to coastal 
waters, estuary, and lagoon fishing. The average Mexican motor-driven 
vessel is not equipped for extensive sea voyages and fishermen seldom stay 
out over 36 hours. 

—Fishery Leaflet 339 



80 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 14, No. 10 




FEDERAL 

ACTIONS 




Department of Commerce 

NATIOVAL PRCMJCriOV AUTHORITY 

TEMP.ORARY UNRESTRICTED USE OF CANS MADE FROM EMERGENCY TIN PLATE AUTHORIZED : 
Direction 5 to NPA Order M-25 gives temporary permission to make unrestricted use 
of cans or parts of cans made from emergency purchases of tin plate by can manu- 
facturers « This change, issued on September 9, is effective from October 15 
through December 31 o 

This action permits can manufacturers to make and sell cans made of tin plate 
acquired by a can manufacturer for a specific purpose during the recent work stop- 
page in the steel industry and not commercially usable for the purpose for which 
it was acquired. Packers are permitted to use these cans for packing any product 
irrespective of the can material specifications and quantity-use limitations of 
M-25. In order to identify the shipments coming under this exemption from M-25, 
the can manufacturers must furnish certificates to their packer customers. 

Direction 4 to M-25, which was issued June 30 and amended July 18, was re- 
voked by NPA on September 9. 

For details see: Dir. 5 (Temporary Authority for Manufacture and Use of Cans 
Made from Emergency Purchases of Tin Plate) dated Sept. 9, 1952, to M-25 (Cans). 
Dir. 4 (Emergency Packing of Perishable Food Products) Revocation, dated Sept. 9, 
1952, to M-25. 




Economic Stabilization Agency 

OFFICE OF PRICE STABILIZATION 

NEW CEILING PRICES FOR SALTED COD SALES IN PUERTO RICO : Ceiling prices for 
salted cod in Puerto Rico were increased by $1,20 per hundredweight for sales by 
importers to wholesalers, by $1.30 per hundredweight for sales at wholesale, and 
by 1^ cents per pound for sales at retail. These new prices (effective September 19) 
were established by Amendment 6 to CPR 51 issued by OPS on September 16. The text 
of the amendment follows: 



NEW PRICES FOR THE SALE OF CODFISH 

Pursuant to the Defense Production 
Act of 1950, as amended, Executive Order ulati 
10161, and Economic Stabilization 
Agency General Order No. 2, this Amend- 
ment 6 to Ceiling Price Regulation 51, Is 
hereby issued. 



STATEMENT OF COMIItDEBATIONS 

This amendment to Ceiling Price Reg 
Ion 51 establishes new ceiling prices 
for the sale of salted codfish In Puerto 
Rico at aU levels of distribution. 

About 95 percent of the codfish con- 
sumed in Puerto Rico is imported from 



iNewfoundland, under contracts extend- 
ing from July 1 to June 30 of the succeed- 
ling year. The present contract with the 
Newfoundland Association of Pish Ex- 
porters Ltd., otherwise known as 
NAFEL, expired on June 30, 1952. Under 
suppliers' present asiiing prices and at 
existing ceiling prices, Puerto Rico im- 



October 1952 



COMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



81 



porters of codfish will not be enabled to 
receive margins equivalent to those re. 
ceived by them in the pre-Korea period. 
The increase in ceiling price to importers 
and in turn of the ceiling price at whole- 
sale and retail should enable these im 
porters to continue to import the codfish 
and at the same time receive their nor- 
mal markups in accordance with section 
402 ik) of the Defense Production Act. 
This amendment increases the ceiling 
prices of codfish by $1.20 per hundred 
weight for sales by Importers to whole, 
salers. by $1.30 per hundredweight for 
sales at wholesale and by 1 Vi cents per 
pound for sales at retail. 

In formulating this amendment, the 
JJirector has consulted with the Industry 



Advisory Committee for Codfish to the 
fullest extent practicable prior to the 
Issuance of this amendment and has 
given due consideration to its recom- 
mendations. In the judgment of the 
Director, this amendment is necessary to 
effectuate the purposes of Title IV of the 
Defense Production Act of 1950, as 
amended. 

AMENDATORY PROVISIONS 

Paragraph (b) of section 2.1 of Ceiling 
Price Regulation 51 is amended to read 
as follows: 

(b) Ceiling prices. Ceiling prices for 
salted codfish are established as follows 



Salted codnsh: 

Sales to wholesalers (per 100 

pounds) $19.50 

Sales at wholesale (per 100 

pounds) 20. 50 

Sales at retaU : 

1 pound .24 

2 pounds .47 

(Sec. 704, 64 Stat. 816, as amended; 50 U. S. C. 
App. Sup. 2154) 

Effective date. This Amendment 6 to 
Celling Price Regulation 51 Is effective 
September 19, 1952. 

TiGHE E. Woods, 
Director of Price Stabilization. 

September 19, 1952. 



For details see: Arrdt . 6 (New Prices for the Sale of Codfish) to CPR 51 
(Food Products Sold in Puerto Rico), dated Sept. 16. 



Department of the Interior 

SETON THOMPSON APPOINTED TO INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COmiSSION ; The Secre- 
tary of the Interior announced in September that Seton H. Thompson, Chief of the 
Fish and wildlife Service's Branch of Alaska Fisheries, has been appointed by 
President Truman as one of the two United States members of the International Fish- 
eries Commission. Thompson succeeds Milton C. James who retired on March 31 as 
Assistant Director of the Service. 



The International Fisheries Commission is responsible for the regulation of 
the halibut fishery of the North Pacific Ocean. It was established by a conven- 
tion between the United States and Canada which was 
signed on March 2, 1923, and subsequently revised on 
May 9, 1930, and January 29, 1937. This convention was 
the first one in the history of the world designed to 
save a high-seas fishery. The Commission is composed 
of two r.embers appointed by the United States and two 
appointed by the Dominion of Canada. 




Mr. Thompson has been associated with the U. S. 
Fish and .vildlife Service and its predecessor agency, 
the Bureau of Fisheries, since 1926. From 1929 to 
1931 he was engaged in research on the life history 
of salmon and mollusks of Alaska, seeking methods to 
protect them. In 1931 he was promoted to Assistant 
Chief of the Branch of Alaska Fisheries and served seton h. Thompson 

until 1941 when he was called to active duty in the Navy. In March 1946 he was 
released to inactive duty with the rank of Commander, and returned to his former 
position with the Service. In 194? he became Chief of the Branch of Alaska Fish- 
eries. 



^^ « « ft <- 



TUNA INDUSTRY STUDY BY FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE : A comprehensive study of 
the Nation's tuna inaustry was begun by the Fish and ..'ildlife Service, the Acting 
Secretary of the Interior announced early in October. The purpose of the study is 
to seek information to help the industry "achieve and maintain a sound position in 
the domestic econoniy." 



82 . . COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol, 14, No, 10 

A crisis in the domestic tuna industry arose last year when duty-free imports 
of frozen tuna from Japan and Latin America and increased imports of brine-packed 
canned tuna from Japan reached unprecedented proportions. Domestic markets were 
oversupplied with tuna. Particularly on the '.Vest Coast, this forced United States 
fishermen to keep their vessels tied up and cannery operators to close several 
plants. 

As the crisis developed, a bill calling for a three-cents per pound duty on 
imports of fresh or frozen tuna was considered by Congress. The bill passed the 
House of Representatives but was turned down by the Senate. 

The Senate Finance Committee directed the Tariff Commission on June 26 of 
this year to investigate the tuna situation, particularly from the standpoint of 
foreign competition. The study being made by the Fish and Wildlife Service isthe 
result of a petition sent to Secretary of the Interior Chapman on July 5 by six 
West Coast Senators, The Service study supplements the Tariff Commission investi- 
gation, and stresses the long-range position of the domestic industry. Specific 
subjects being covered by the Service's fishery specialists working on the project 
include consumption, distribution and marketing, production, and processing. 

The follo-«dng is the letter sent to the Secretary of the Interior by six 
West Coast Senators: 

UNITED STATES SENATE 
COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS 

5 JULY 1952 

DEAR MR. SECRETARir: 

THE SENATE RECENTLY HAD BEFORE IT A BILL (h.R. 5693) WHICH WOULD HAVE PLACED A 
TEMPORARY IMPORT DUTY OF 3 CENTS PER POUND ON FRESH OR FROZEN TUNA AND WOULD HAVE 
DIRECTED THE TARIFF COMMISSION AND THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE TO INITIATE INVESTI- 
GATIONS OF THE TUNA FISHING INDUSTRY. THIS BILL PASSED THE HOUSE BUT FAILED OF PASS- 
AGE IN THE SENATE. THE POINT OF ISSUE WAS ENTIRELY THE 3 CENT DUTY AND THERE WAS NO 
OBJECTION TO THE CONCURRENT INVESTIGATIONS WHICH THE BILL WOULD HAVE ORDERED. 

SUBSEQUtNTLY THE SENATE FINANCE COMMITTEE UNANIMOUSLY PASSED A RESOLUTION DI- 
RECTING THE TARIFF COMMISSION TO MAKE THE INVESTIGATION OUTLINED IN THE BILL. THE 
TARIFF LAW PROVIDES FOR SUCH PROCEDURE, AND THE LETTER OF THE CHAIRMAN OF THE COMMIT- 
TEE, SENATOR GEORGE, TO THE CHAIRMAN OF THE TARIFF COMMISSION SPELLED OUT THE REASON 
FOR THE RESOLUTION. THAT REASON, PRIMARILY, WAS TO ASSIST CONGRESS IN ANY FUTURE 
LEGISLATION CONCERNING TUNA FISH. 

A NUMBER OF THE SENATORS HAVE EXPRESSED CONSIDERABLE INTEREST IN THE INVESTIGA- 
TION PROPOSED BY THE BILL INVOLVING THE FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, AND WE THE UNDER- 
SIGNED ARE PETITIONING YOU TO HAVE SL(CH A STUDY INITIATED AND CARRIED OUT. WE ARE 
NOT SUGGESTING ANY TIME LIMIT ON SUCH A STUDY, BUT FEEL THAT ONE WOULD BE IN THE 
BEST INTERESTS OF THE COUNTRY AND HOPE THAT IT CAN BE STARTEjD AND CONCLUDED REASON- 
ABLY EARLY. THE FINANCE COMMITTEE DIRECTED THE TARIFF COMMISSION TO REPORT BY 
MARCH 1, 1953. 

A COPY OF H. R. 5593 IS ENCLOSED. IN IT YOU WILL FIND THE DETAILS OF THE IN- 
VESTIGATION REQUESTED. 

YOUR KIND ATTENTION IN THIS MATTER WOULD BE DEEPLY APPRECIATED. 

SI NCERELY YOURS, 

(sGD) WILLIAM F. KNOWLAND 
RICHARD NIXON 
WARREN G. MAGNUSON 
HARRY P. CAIN 

WAYNE MORSE 

GUY CORDON 

HONORABLE OSCAR L, CHAPMAN 
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



October 1952 . COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 83 

This letter from the Acting Secretary of the Interior was addressed to each 
of the six Senators: 

UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY 
PRS NO. 2851 WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 



JULr 23, 1952 



MY DEAR SENATOR 



I AM GLAD THAT YOU AND THE FIVE OTHER SENATORS FROM THE PACIFIC COAST 
STATES BELIEVE THERE IS A NEED FOR A FULL STUDY OF THE TUNA INDUSTRY AND ITS CURRENT 
PRODUCTION AND MARKETING PROBLEMS. I APPREC I ATE , ALSO, THE RECOGNITION IN YOUR 
LETTER OF JULf 5 THAT THE DEPARTMENT'S FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE IS THE PROPER AGENCY 
TO INVESTIGATE THOSE PHASES OF THE PROBLEM WHICH WOULD NOT COME WITHIN THE SCOPE OF 
THE TARIFF COMMISSION'S STUDY. 

A PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION OF THE SERVICE'S FUTURE PROGRAM WITH RESPECT TO 
PERSONNEL AND FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR SUCH AN INVESTIGATION INDICATES THAT, IN THE 
ABSENCE OF SPECIFIC FUNDS, IT CAN BE MADE ONLY BY DEFERRING SOME OTHER PHASES OF 
PROJECTS OF CONSIDERABLE INTEREST TO THE FISHING INDUSTRY. IN OUR OPINION, HOWEVER, 
THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE SITUATION CONFRONTING THE TUNA INDUSTRY JUSTIFIES SUCH A 
COURSE. 

A FURTHER, DETAILED REVIEW OF THE SERVICE'S ORIGINAL ECONOMICS PROGRAM, AS 
WELL AS A CONFERENCE WITH THE TARIFF COMMISSION, WILL BE NECESSARY BEFORE IT WILL BE 
POSSIBLE TO INFORM YOU MORE FULLY OF THE SCOPE OF SUCH A STUDY AND THE DATE ON WHICH 
IT CAN BE COMPLETED. INFORMATION IN THIS REGARD WILL BE FORWARDED TO YOU BEFORE THE 
END OF JULY. 

SINCERELY YOURS, 

(sGD) MAST in G. white 

ACTING SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

The Director of the Fish and Wildlife Service addressed this letter to the 
six Senators, giving more details' on the tuna study which was being undertaken by 
the Service: 

UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

AUGUST 12, 1952 
MY DEAR SENATOR : 

IN THE ACTING secretary's LETTER OF JULY 23, HE INFORMED YOU THAT THE SCOPE 

and date of completion of the proposed study of the long-range position of the tuna 
industry by this department could not be determined until representatives of the fish 
and wildlife service and the tariff commission had conferred. three conferences have 
now been held in order to determine whether the work to be done in this field by the 
service would overlap the study requested of the tariff commission under the resolu- 
tion of the senate finance committee dated june 26. 

from these conferences it appears that, although the request made of the 
tariff commission is very broad, there are phases with respect to the long-dange po- 
sition of the industry which can be undertaken by the service without duplicating 
any work contemplated by the tariff commission. 

accordingly, the service will limit its study to those problems which will 
supplement the tariff commission study and do its utmost to complete its report by 
march 1, 1953, at which time the tariff commission is scheduled to file its report 
with the finance committee. 

sincerely yours, 

(sgd) albert m. day 

director 



84 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 14, No. 10 

Since neither additional funds nor personnel were made available to the Fish 
and Wildlife Service for conducting the tuna study, it became necessary to uti- 
lize existing funds and personnel. Present activities had to be rearranged and 
some dropped in order to conduct the study. Although no time limit was set by 
the Senators for completion of the study, the Service will make every effort to 
conclude the study by March 1 — the date set for completion of the Tariff Commis- 
sion tuna investigation requested by the Finance Committee of the Senate. 



INTERIOR SECRETARIAL FUNCTIONS RELATING TO PUBLIC LAND MANAGEMENT INCLUDE 
FISH AND WILDLIFE ; Joel D. Aolfsohn is designated Assistant Secretary for Public 
Land Management, according to Order No. 2702 issued by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior on August 29. The Assistant Secretary for Public Land Management is author- 
ized to discharge the duties and perform the functions assigned to this position, 
including the exercise of Secretarial direction and supervision of the following 
bureaus: 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS 
FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE OFFICE OF TERRITORIES 
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

This change is in accordance with Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1950. 

Department of State 

REVISED UNITED STATES - VENEZUELAN TRADE AGREEMENT IN FORCE : The President of 
the United States on September 19 signed a proclamation stating that the supple- 
mentary trade agreement between the United States and Venezuela would enter into 
force on October 11, 1952. This revised agreement results in an increase in the 
Venezuelan import duties on three fi shery items in that nation's tariff schedules. 

NOTE: SEE COMMERCIAL FISHERIE S REVIEW ^ SEPTEMBER 1952, PP. 57-9. 

SAFETY -OF -LI FE - AT-SEA CONVENTION : On September 10, 1952, the President issued 
his proclamation of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 
1948. This Convention was signed at London on June 10, 1948. The Convention pro- 
vides for improved standards for safety of life at sea in the fields of ship con- 
struction, fire protection, lifesaving appliances, radio equipment, dangerous car- 
goes, and navigation generally. 

In accordance with its terms, the Convention will enter into force on Novem- 
ber 19, 1952. It will replace the convention of May 31, 1929, of the same charac- 
ter, as between parties to the 1929 convention which have also accepted the 1948 
convention. 

In addition to the United States, countries which have accepted the Convention 
to date are: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Japan, 
Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Portugal, Sweden, Union of South Africa, 
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Yugoslavia. 



October 1952 



COMM,RCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 

LANDINGS AND RECEIPTS 



85 



MAINE - LANDINGS 

NOT INCLUDING IMPODTS 




In Millrons o( Pounds 

MASSACHUSETTS - LANDINGS 

BOSTON , GLOUCESTER . NEW BEDFORD , t, CAPE COD 




JA N. FEB, MAR, APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV DEC 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



NEW YORK CITY-RECEIPTS OF FRESH & FROZEN FISH 

SALT-WATER MARKET 




l:il> 



CHICAGO - RECEIPTS OF FRESH & FROZEN FISH 

WHOLESALE MARKET 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



JAN. FEB. MAR, APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC, 



GULF - SHRIMP LANDINGS 

HEADS OFF - FOR ALL USES 




SEATTLE - RECEIPTS OF FRESH & FROZEN F|SH 

WHOLESALE MARKET , LANDINGS , « IMPORTS 




JULY AUG SEPT, OCT NOV. DEC JAN, FEB, MAR APR MAY JUNE 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR, MAY JUNE JULY AUG, SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



160 
140 
120 
100 
80 

60 
40 

20 




CALIFORNIA - PILCHARD LANDINGS 



of Tons 

CALIFORNIA- TUNA AND TUNA-LIKE FISH 





,::.,,,.:,:. 




J 'Vfi' 


1 »V;tv 


'//■\'S 


#\w'\ 


J0 \ ^ 


^s 




^iiis/i iV^ 


|N 


Il 1 1 1 



B KJl. i« - |;-.- 








A 


A 






^^r'i 


X 




. . //^4^" \ ^ 1 


'^"\^^ 


.^ 




^Y-\.\ 


\^r ^-\vi 


^^1 1 1 


1 1 1 


1 


I I 1^ 



JULY AUG, SEPT OCT NOV. DEC JAN FEB MAR, APR MAY JUNE 



JA N FEB, MAR, APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEV; Vol. 14, No. 10 

COLD ITORAGE HOLDINGS and FREEZINGS of FISHERY PRODUCTS 



In Millions of 
U.S. & ALASKA - HOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 

220i ■■ ■ ■■ 



.--•• '*^. 



V 






^ 



^ 



I I I I 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 



U.S. & ALASKA - FREEZINGS 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 



NEW ENGLAND - HOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 

80 



NEW YORK CITY - HOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 









■\^ 


*-v-. 


. 


j^'"" 


■'^^r , 


sV 


/ .<^ 


^ 




.-^' y^ 






1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



CHICAGO - HOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 



GULF - HOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 





JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 



JA N. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



WASHINGTON, OREGON, AND ALASKA - 
HOLDINGS ^F FROZEN FISH 



CALIFORNIA - MOLDINGS OF FROZEN FISH 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



October 1952 



COMKERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 

CANNED FISHERY PRODUCTS 



■87 



Jn Thousands of Standard Cases 
MAINE - SARDINES , ESTIMATED PACK 



UNITED STATES - SHRTmp' 




JA N. FEB. MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV DEC. 







1952/53 SEASON, 
1951/52 SEASON, 
1951/52 SEASON, 






r-^. 


' V. 


-sj^-^ /-"^— ' 


\ ^. / 


1 1 1 1 'l 1 V-f-^l 1 1 


AUG. SEPT. OCT NOV. DEC JAN. FEB, 


MAR. APR MAY JUNE JULY 



240 

210 

180 

150 

120 

90 

60 

30 

P 



CAIIFORNIA - TUNA AND TUNA- LIKE FISH 




q I I I I I I I I I I I I 

JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



CALIFORNIA - PILCHARDS 




JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT NOV. DEC JAN. FEB MAR. APR. MAY JUNE 



CALIFORNIA - MACKEREL 



ALASKA - SALMON 





JAN. FES. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



JA N. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



WASHINGTON - PUGET SOUND SALMON 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG._ SEPT. OCT. MOV. DEC. 





STANDARD 


CASES 




Voriely 


No. Cons 


Can Dasignation 


Net. Wgl. 


SARDINES 


100 


1/4 drown 


3 1/4 oz. 


SHRIMP 







7 oz. 


TUNA 




No. 1/2 lono 


7 oz. 


PILCHARDS 




No. 1 ovol 


IS oi. 


MACKEREL 




No. 3ocr 


15 or. 


SALMON 




■ .pound loll 


16 oz. 



COM>ERCIAL FISHERIES REVIE'/v' 

PRICES . IMPORTS and BY-PRODUCTS 



Vol. U, No. 10 



BOSTON - WEIGHTED AVERAGE PRICE 

ON NEW ENGLAND FISH EXCHANGE IN i PER POUND 




MAINE - 


IMPORTS OF FRESH SEA HERRING 

IN Mi'lLIONS OF POUNDS 






7 "9^- ]lf, 


:'::o 






A... 






/''^ 


iX^' 






fy// 


V\ \ 




1 ^ 


7//^ 


\\\ 


1 1 


.1^ 


■^r 1 1 


iV^U^ 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY. JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 

In Millions of 
U.S. - IMPORTS OF FRESH & FROZEN FILLETS 

OF GROUND FISH, INCLUDING ROSEFISH 



JA N. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV, DEC. 




~S? V^^~F°^ VT ST/" 



I I I I I 



U.S.- IMPORTS 
SHRIMP 


OF FRESH AND FROZEN 
FROM MEXICO 


CUMULATIVE DATA 
12 " 1951 - 3^.1 


/\ 


L\ 


1 






fKs^ 


X 






// '^^ 


NSfe.^VV 


-x. 






'''%~-^rS7 "\ 


nA 






'3>9^^ 


Vi>. 


V 


•v 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 

In Millions of 
U.S.- IMPORTS OF CANNED TUNA 
AND TUNA- LIKE FISH 




JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 

Pounds 

U.S.-IMPPRTS OF CANNED SARDINES 

( Include in ott ond not in oil ) 







JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV DEC. 



U.S. & ALASKA - PRODUCTION OF FISH MEAL 
IN THOUSANDS OF TONS 
40|r 




U.S. & ALASKA - PRODUCTION OF FISH OIL 

IN MILLIONS OF GALLONS . 4. J 




JA N. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC 



JA N. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT OCT NOV. DEC. 



October 1952 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 







RECENT 
FISHERY PUBLICATIONS 




^»^., -, 9.i/C'.- 



Recent publications of interest to the commercial fishing industryare listed 
below. 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PROCESSED PUBLICATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FREE FROM THE 
DIVISION OF INFORMATION, U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, WASH- 
INGTON 25, D. C. TYPES OF PUBLICATIONS ARE DESIGNATED AS FOLLOWS: 

CFS - CURRENT FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES AND 

ALASKA . 
SL - STATISTICAL SECTION LISTS OF DEALERS IN AND PRODUCERS 

OF FISHERY PRODUCTS AND BYPRODUCTS. 
SEP. - SEPARATES (REPRINTs) FROM COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW . 

ssr. - fish. - special scientific r eports- -f i sher i es (limited 
distri but ion) . 



Number Title 

CFS-773 - Massachusetts Landings, May 1952, U p. 
CFS- 782 - Frozen Fish Report, August 1952 Final, 8 p. 
CFS-786 - Maine Landings, June 1952, k p. 

'/•>iolesale Dealers in Fishery Products: 

SL-29 - Ohio (revised), 2 p. 

SL-31 - New York (revised), 2 p. 

SL-32 - Minnesota, 2 p. 

SL-33 - North Dakota, 1 p. 

SL-35 - Illinois, 3 p. 

EL-36 - Iowa, 2 p. 

SL-38 - Missouri, 2 p. 

SL-39 - Tennessee, 1 p. 

SL-tl - Arkansas, 2 p. 

SL-^ - Kentucky, 1 p. 

SL-i3 - Alabama, 1 p. 

SSR-Fish. No. 71 - Establishing Tuna and Other Pe- 
lagic Fishes in Ponds and Tanks, 
February 1952, 23 p. 



Number 



Title 



SSR-Fish. No. 72 



SSR-Fish. No. 75 



Sep. 321 



English Translations of Fishery 
Literature (Additional List- 
ings), March 1952, 3i p. 

Water Temperatures of Califor- 
nia's Central Valley, 19i9-51, 
Kay 1952, 49 p. 



Experiments on the Escape of Undersized 
Haddock Through Otter Trawls. 



Sep. 322 - Preliminary Investigation of the ?outh- 
eastern Alaska Abalone: 

fart I - Exploratory Diving. 

Fart II- Tecnnological Studies on Hand- 
ling Aboard Ship and Preparation A- 
shore, end Acceptability of the Cooked 
Products. 



MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVA I lABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LD - 
Ll FE SERVI CE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE AGENCIES IS- 
SUING THEM. CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING PUBLICATIONS THAT FOLLOW 
SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE RESPECTIVE AGENCIES OR PUBLISHERS MEN- 
TIONED. DATA ON PRICES, IF READILY AVAILABLE, ARE SHOWN. 



Alaska Seafood Recipes (from the Fishery Products 
Laboratory), edited and revised by Charlotte D. 
Speegle and Marjorie Bassett, 79 p., processed. 
Published jointly by the Fisheries Experimental 
Commission, the Agricultural Extension Service, 
and the Alaska Development Board. (Copies are 
being distributed in Alaska by the Agricultural 
Extension Service, College, Alaska; the Alaska 
Development Board, Box 50, Juneau, Alaska; and 
the Fishery Products Laboratory, Ketchikan, A- 
laska.) After being out of print for several 



years the new edition of this popular booklet 
is back with all the old favorite recipes and 
many added new ones. An attractive color cover, 
information on purchasing fish, and notes on the 
various species of fish have been added to make 
the booklet a handy addition to the homemaker's 
cookbook file. All recipes have been tested by 
the home economist at the Ketchikan Laboratory. 
Included in the 80-page booklet are over 100 
recipes for fish and shellfish, outdoor fish 
cookery, sauces and stuffings, and kelp pickles. 



90 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVA I LABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILD - 
LIFE SERVICE , BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE AGENCIES ISSUING 
THEM. 



An Annotated Bibliopiraphy for t he Student of Texas 
Fishes and Fisheries (with Material on the Gulf 
of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea), by J. L. 
Baughman, 213 p., processed. Texas Game and 
Fish Commission, Rockport, Texas. A bibliogra- 
phy with explanatory notes on Texas fishes and 
fisheries and material on the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Caribbean Sea. 

Annual Report of the Fisheries Research Board of 
Canada for the Year 1951 . 185 p., illus., print- 
ed (introduction is in English and French and 
balance of report in English). Fisheries Re- 
search Board of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1952. 
Full reports are presented of the work for 1951 
of the biological and experimental stations of 
the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. The 
scientific and industrial work of the Board is 
organized in three closely coordinated fields 
of study: biology of fish and other marine or- 
ganisms, oceanography, and technology of fish 
processing. Seven laboratories are maintained 
although much of the work is done at sea, at 
fishing ports, and on the rivers. Stations at 
St. Andrews, N.B., at St. John's, Newfoundland, 
at Nanaimo, B.C., and at Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
provide bases for operations in biology and 
oceanography. Stations at Halifax, N.S., at 
Grand River, Quebec, and at Vancouver, B.C., 
are the centers of work on processing, storage, 
and transportation of marine foods and on the 
production of byproducts. For the past five 
years a small party has worked on the biology 
and oceanography of the Eastern Arctic. A list 
of the publications and reports that were pub- 
lished in 1951 by the Board is included. 

(Ceylon) Administration Report of the Acting Dir - 
ector of Fisheries for 1951 . by E.R.A. de Zylva, 
30 p., printed, 75 cents postpaid. Government 
Publications Bureau, Colombo, Ceylon, June 1952. 
Progress reports for the year 1951 are presented 
by the Department of Fisheries' Administration 
Division, Socio— Econondc Division, Development 
Division, and Research Division. Among the sub- 
jects covered are: enforcement of fisheries 
regulations; improvement of harbor facilities; 
cooperative development of the fisheries; loans 
granted to individual fishermen, unregistered 
fishing groups, and registered cooperative fish- 
ing societies; rescue services and relief to 
fishermen in distress; fisheries training school) 
mechanization of local fishing industry; brack- 
ish and fresh-water fisheries; fish marketing; 
curing of fishery products; manufacture of fish- 
ery byproducts; and refrigeration and transpor- 
tation facilities. Statistical data are also 
included on the production of fresh and cured 
fish, and imports and exports of fishery prod- 
ucts and byproducts. 

Fish and Ways to Serve It . by Marie C. Doermann, 
Leaflet 79, 8 p., printed. Extension Service, 
College of Agriculture, Rutgers University — 
the State University of New Jersey, New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. Contains 16 recipes for fish and 
shellfish and a number of recipes for sauces, 
as well as a short discussion on how to select 
fish and amounts to buy. 



Fish For Year ' Round Salads , Consumer Bulletin No. 
k, 6 p., printed. Department of Fisheries, 
Ottawa, Canada (revised June 1952). Tested fish 
and shellfish salad recipes and suggestions for 
salad combinations. 

"How to Mount a Fish," by Gustaf T. Sundstrom, 
article. Popular Homecraft , September-October 
1952, vol. 22, no. 7, p. 61, illus., printed, 
35 cents per issue. General Publishing Co., 
Inc., 154 East Erie St., Chicago 11, 111. (Re- 
prints of this article and the previous one — 
"How to Make Life-Like Model of Your Prize 
Catch" — are available free upon request from 
the Branch of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Washington 25, D. C.) 
This article gives step by step directions on 
how to mount a whole fish or a fish head. It 
is the second of two articles, the first of 
which described the simplest and most practical 
methods of making an artificial model of a fish. 

An Illustrated Check List of the Marine Mollusks 
of Texas . by T. E. Pulley, reprint from The 
Texas Journal of Science , vol. IV, no. 2, 
pp. 167-199, June 30, 1952. Although many au- 
thors have recognized and deplored the lack of 
information concerning the fauna of the northern 
and western Gulf of Mexico, at least 450 species 
of marine mollusks have been recorded in the 
literature as occurring in Texas. Many of these 
records are obviously in error while others are 
extremely doubtful. The purpose of this paper 
is to bring together all of the species reported 
in an attempt to decide which ones are actually 
members of the Texas fauna. For each species, 
the occurrence of which has been confirmed by 
the present author, some remarks are given as to 
its range on the Texas coast. For unconfirmed 
species, the name of the reporting author is 
given, the locality where it is known to occur, 
and wherever possible, a statement is made as 
to whether its presence on the Texas coast is 
likely or doubtful. No attempt has been made to 
include synonyms, and many of the species at- 
tributed here to other authors bear the names 
which are now considered correct rather than the 
names under which they have appeared in lists of 
Texas shells. 

; Japan ) Statistic Tables of Fishing Vessels . 1951 . 
General Report No. k, 226 p. with graphs, print- 
ed, in Japanese and English (not available for 
general distribution). Japanese Fisheries A- 
gency, Tokyo, Japan. This is the fourth annual 
report which lists data on the various types of 
Japanese fishing craft as obtained by a fishing- 
vessel registration system. Statistics are giv- 
en by types of gear, fishery, craft, and princi- 
pal prefectures, together with comparisons for 
former years. 

(MSA) Monthly Report of the Mutual Security Agency 
to the Public Advisory Board (Data as of May 31, 
1952), 81 p., illus., processed. Division of 
Statistics and Reports, Mutual Security Agency, 
Washington 25, D. C. Included are charts and 
tables summarizing important activities under 
the economic assistance and defense support pro- 



October 1952 



cokm:rcial fisheries review 



91 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOl AVAI LABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILD - 
LIFE SERVICE , BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE AGENCIES ISSUING 
THEM. 



graJTiS of tKc Mutual Security Agency and its pred 
ecessorj the Economic Cooperation Administration, 
through May 31) 1952. Charts and appendix tables 
on the European program cover MSA/ECA operationa 
beginning with April 3, 1948, to date. Charts 
and appendix tables on the Far East program cover 
KSA/ECA operations under the Cnina Area Aid Act 
of 1950. A section of the report deals with cur- 
rent economic developnents in Western Europe. 

The N'aticnal School Lunch Program . PA-208, 19 p. , 
illus., printed. Production and Marketing Ad- 
ministration, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington 25, 0. C, June 1952. Report on the 
progress of the National School Lunch Program 
since 194A. The charts presented trace the 
growth of the Program, in terms of the number 
of participating children and the number of 
meals served. The charts also show the extent 
to which the Program is fulfilling its nutrition- 
al and agricultural objectives, the high quality 
of the meals served, and the large quantities of 
food used. 

Report on the TILAPIA and Other Fish and Fisheries 
of Lake Nyasa , 1945-47 . by Rosemary H. Lowe, 
Fishery Publications, vol. 1, no. 2, 137 p., 
illus., printed, t2 net (US$5. 60). Colonial Of- 
fice, London, England. (Available from Her Maj- 
esty's Stationery Office, London, England), 1952. 
A report in three parts on an investigation into 
the life histories, habits, and growth rates of 
certain species of Tilapia and other fish of 
Lake Nyasa. Part One contains a study of the 
general ecology of the Tilapias and suggestions 
for future development and control of the fish- 
ery. Part Two covers the bilogy of the Nchila 
( Labeo mesops ) and development of the fishery; 
fisheries for predatory fish; the Mpasa ( Barilius 
microlepis ) fishery; and the Utaka ( Haplochromis 
cies) fishery. Part Three discusse 



speci 



the gen- 
fish indus- 
There 



eral control and development of th( 
try, and a summary and recommendations 
are a number of appendixes which include reports 
on the fish and fisheries of the River Lilongwe, 
Lake Kazuni, and Lake Chilwa; and a list of sci- 
entific and native names of fish mentioned in 
the report. 

Shellfish Definitions and Standards under the Fed - 
eral Food, Drug , and Cosmetic Act, Service and 
Regulatory Announcements, Food, Drug, and Cos- 
metic No. 2, Part 36, 8 p., printed, 10 cents. 
Food and Drug Administration, Federal Security 
Agency, Washington, D. C, reprinted June 1^52. 
(For sale by Superintendent of Documents, '^'ash- 
ington 25, D. C.) An unofficial print of the 
definitions and standards of identity ai'.d fill 
of container for shellfish issued under the Fed- 
eral Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The shell- 
fishi covered are canned shrimp, car.ned oysters, 
and raw oysters. The standards for these shell- 
fish contained in the pamphlet were all previous- 
ly published in the Federal Register several 
years ago. The Act requires the Federal Security 
Administrator to promulgate reasonable defir.i- 
tions and standai'ds for food tc promote honesty 
and fair dealing in the interest of consumers. 
After a standard goes irto effect, it constitute: 
the official specification for th't food for the 
purpo=cs of enforcem.ent of the Act. To bear the 
name of ttte standardized food, a product may con- 



tain only those ingredients and components list- 
ed in the standard, in the amount specified. 
When optional ingredients are permitted, the 
standard designates those that must be named on 
the label. The common or usual name of standard- 
ized foods must appear on the label, but the Act 
does not compel label declaration of required 
ingredients. In the case of unstandardized foods, 
the labels must name the ingredients. 

The Shrimp Pis he ry . by E. D. McRae, Pulletin no. 32, 
Marine Laboratory Series III, 21 p., i]lus., 
printed. The Texas Game and Fish Commission, 
Austin, Texas, July 1952. Describes the life 
history of the common comirercial white shritnp 
( Penaeus setiferus ), and discusses, in general, 
the biology of the other species of shrimp. 
Conservation, recommendations by the Scientific 
Committee of the Gulf States Marine Fisheries 
Commission for the protection of the shrimp fish- 
ery, and methods of keeping live shrimp are also 
discussed. Includes statistics on the production 
and value of Texas shrimp, and a list of Texas 
shrimp producers, packers, and handlers. 

Statistical Services of the United States Govern- 
ment ^Revised Edition - June 1952), 80 p., 
processed. Office of Statistical Standards, 
Bureau of the Budget, Executive Office of the 
President, Washington 25, D. C. The purpose of 
this booklet Is'to provide a general description 
of the economic and social statistical programs 
of the United States Government — where they are 
located, how the data are collected, and what 
data are available in these areas from Federal 
agencies. Part I describes the organization of 
statistical services within the Federal Govern- 
ment, the methods employed in achieving coordi- 
nation, and some of the general principles and 
practices followed in Federal statistic?l activ- 
ities. Part II presents brief descriptions of 
the principal economic and social statistical 
series. A summary of the statistical responsi- 
bilities of Federal agencies and an annotated 
bibliography of the principal periodical statis- 
tical publications issued by Government agencies 
are presented in appendixes. 



The Commercial Intelligence Branch, Office of 
International Trade, U. ?. Department of Commerce, 
has published the following mimeographed trade lists. 
Copies of these lists may be obtained by firms in 
the United States from that Office or frcm Depart- 
ment of Commerce field offices at $1,00 per list. 



Clommercial Fishing Companies and Fish Export- 
ers - Mexico . 9 p. (June 19527. Lists the 
names and addresses of commercial fishing 
companies and fish exporters in Mexico. 
The size of the firms listed is indicated, 
as well as the type of products handled 
and the type of business each firm conducts. 



Commercial Fishing Companies and Fish Export - 
ers - Denmark, 7 p. (August 1952). Lists 
the names and addresses of commercial 
fishing companies and fish exporters, in 
Denmark. The size of the firms listed is 
indicated, as well as the type of products 
and the type of business each firm "conducts. 



92 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIE.V 



Vol. 14, No. 10 



THESE PUBLICATIONS AR£ MSI AVAI LABLE FROM THE FISH AND Wl LD - 
LIFE SERVICE , BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE AGENCIES ISSUING 
THEM. 



Conmiereial Fishin g; Companies and Fish Export- 
ers - Chile . 10 p., (August 1952). Lists 
th« names and addresses of commercial fish- 
ing companies and fish exporters in Chile. 
The size of the firms listed is indicated, 
as well as the type of products handled 
and the type of business each firm conducts. 

"Trawling vs. Long-Lining in Quebec," article. Trade 
News . July 1952, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5-7, illus., 
processed. Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, 
Canada. Experiments conducted by the Quebec De- 
partment of Fisheries Marine Biological Station 
at Grand-Riviere on the Gaspe Peninsula, which 
may affect fishing technioQes in Quebec waters, 
are described. Two new types of fishing boats, 
a long-liner and a small trawler, were used in 
the tests, and a comparative study was made of 
the cod taken. Trawler catches varied from 25 
to 1^5 cod per hour, while long-liner catches 
ranged from 32 to 105. For the entire fishing 
season, the long-liner's average was 60.5 cod 
per hour, while that of the trawler was 58.9. 
A biological survey of cod populations, migra- 
tory studies, and a crab canning project are also 
described. 

Uses and Preparation of Maine Sardines - America's 
all-round Seafood . 31 p., illus., printed. Maine 
Sardine Industry, Augusta, Maine, The Maine sar- 
dine recipes contained in this booklet are the 
favorites of world-famous chefs, food editors, 
and other food experts. Also included, are down- 
to-earth, money-savir.g recipes from the prudent 
hnmema'Kers of Maine. Some of the recipes are il-. 
lustrated ir. beautiful full color. A history of 
the Maine sardine industry is also included, 

"Vacuum Treatment for Canned Fish," article. Trad 
News , July 1952, vol. 5, nc. 1 pp. 8-9, proces- 



sed. Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, Canada. 
From investigations conducted at the Pacific Fish- 
eries Experimental Station of the Fisheries Re- 
search Board of Canada, Vancouver, the applic - 
tion of vacuum in pre-treatment of some kinds of 
fish for canning appears to have important ad- 
vantages and to be commercially practical. By 
this means it is very simple to achieve the low- 
ered moisture content required for sardine-type 
packs, to remove certain odors, and, in the case 
of tuna, to cool the fish very quickly for the 
further steps in processing before canning. Ex- 
perimental equipment, built to test the process, 
consisted of a small retort and a condenser e- 
quippedwith a two-stage water ejector for removal 
of air and other non-condenslbles. This equip- 
ment was used to prepare experimental packs of 
herring, anchovies, kippered snacks, and tuna. 
In all cases the equipment sufficiently dried the 
product, producing the desired pack containing no 
free liquid water after final retorting. Investi- 
gations made into the industrial application of 
the process indicate that the most suitable equip- 
ment for use in a cannery would consist of a baro- 
metric condenser and steam-Jet ejectors connected 
to several cannery retorts. The retorts, which 
would be evacuated in succession when used in this 
way, would still be available for the customary 
pressure retorting at all time. The condenser 
could operate on either river or sea water. Sug- 
gested equipment connected with three "3-car" re- 
torts, could be used to pre-treat about 1,000 
cases (of iV8 one-pound c=ins each) per eight-hour 
day. It would require 125 imperial gallons (150 
U. S. gallons) per minute of cooling water, /.lO 
pounds of steam per hour, a.nd cost about 55,000. 
Equipment of this size would serve about ten re- 
torts for tuna cooling and cool the tuna in 20 
minutes. 




Editorial Assistant — Ruth V. Keefe Illustrator — Gustaf T. Sundstrom 
Compositors — Jean Zalevsky, Betty Coakley, Irene Mainster 



****** 



Photograpli Credits : Page by page , the following list gives the source or pho- 
tographer for each photograph in this issue. Photographs on pages not mentioned 
were obtained from the Service's file and the photographers are unknown. 



Page 29— C. Butler; pp. 30, 34, and 36— F. T. Piskur; p. 41--G. Butler; 
p. 67 — S. Shapiro; p. 72 — ^Voorlichtingsbureau van den voedingraad; 
p. 78 — R. 0. Smith. 

INTERIOR--DUPLICATING SECTI0N, WASHINGTON 25, D. C. 

JOB #30039 



October 195S 



COrfCHCIAL FISII'IKrSo K3VI2V; 



93 



COSTFNTS, CONTINUED 



PAGE 
FOREIGN (CONTD.): 
FIJI ISLANDS: 

TUNA VENTURE ASSETS SOLD 61 

FRENCH morocco: 

SARDINE FISHING "OOR 61 

GERMAN FEDERAL REIPUBLIC: 
ELECTRICAL-FISHING EXPERIMENTS IN 

SALT WATER REPORTED SUCCESSFUL 62 

DEVELOPMENTS IN INTERZONAL TRADE IN 

FISH 54 

HONG KONG: 

NEW ARTIFICIAL FISH DRIER INSTALLED . 65 
ITALr: 

WHALE FACTORYSHIP ALMOST READY 65 

JAPAN: 
CONTINUATION OF TUNA IMPORT CONTROLS 

FAVORED 65 

TUNA EXPORTS TO CANADA INCREASE 66 

TUNA EXPORT QUOTAS TO U.S. MAY BE 

INCREASED ,... 66 

FISHERMEN BUILDING LARGER TUNA BOATS 67 
NORTHERN PACIFIC SALMON EXPEDITION 

EXCEEDS CATCH GOALS 68 

NORTH PACIFIC SALMON EXPEDITION CATCH 68 
ADDITIONAL GOVERNMENTAL FINANCIAL 

ASSISTANCE PLANNED FOR FISHERIES ... 68 
REPORT ON NORTHERN PACIFIC WHALING .. 69 
FISHERMEN SEEK PROTECTION AGAINST 

BOAT SEIZURES BY RUSSIA AND RED CHINA 70 
PLANS FOR RESUMING PEARL FISHING IN 

THE ARAFURA SEA 70 

MEXI CO: 
WEST COAST SHRIMP SEASON DISAPPOINTING 71 
GUAYMAS' SHRIMP INDUSTRY OUTLOOK FOR 

1 952/53 71 

NETHERLANDS: 

FROZEN FISH INDUSTRY 72 

STABILIZATION OF HERRING MARKET 

ATTEMPTED 72 

NORWAY: 

RECORD TUNA LANDINGS REPORTED , 73 

LUMPFISH FISHERf INCREASING IN IM- 
PORTANCE 73 

HELICOPTER TO BE USED IN WHALING 

OPERATIONS 74 

PERU: 

NO BAIT-FISHING PERMITS 74 

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES: 
REQUEST FOR HIGHER CEILING PRICES ON 
IMPORTED CANNED SARDINES REJECTED 
BY GOVERNMENT 74 



FORE I GN { CONTD. ): 
PORTUGAL: 
TWO U.S. VESSELS PURCHASED FOR TUNA 

FISHING 74 

SWEDEN: 
ELECTRIC TUNA FISHING SUCCESSFUL .... 75 
NEW FISH PACKAGING AND MERCHANDISING 

METHOD , 75 

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA: 
CANNED FISH PRODUCTION, FISCAL YEAR 

1951 75 

SPINY LOBSTER EXPORT QUOTA FOR 1952 

ESTABLISHED 76 

FISH MEAL FOR HUMAN FOOD 76 

UNITED KINGDOM: 

TRAWL FOR USE AT PRE-SET DEPTHS 76 

HERRING PRESERVATION METHODS 77 

VENEZUELA: 

CANNED FISH MARKETS SOUGHT 78 

ROVING SCHOOL TO TEACH METHODS FOR 

SALTING FISH 79 

FEDERAL ACTIONS: 80 

DEPARTMENT OF commerce: 
NATIONAL PRODUCTION AUTHORITY: 
TEMPORARY UNRESTRICTED USE OF CANS 
MADE FROM EMERGENCY TIN PLATE 

AUTHORIZED 80 

ECONOMIC STABILIZATION AGENCY: 
OFFICE OF PRICE STABILIZATION: 
NEW CEILING PRICES FOR SALTED COD 

SALES IN PUERTO RICO 80 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR: 
SETON THOMPSON APPOINTED TO INTERNA- 
TIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION 81 

TUNA INDUSTRi- STUDY BY FISH AND WILD- 
LIFE SERVICE 81 

INTERIOR SECRETARIAL FUNCTIONS RE- 
LATING TO PUBLIC LAND MAflAGEMENT 

INCLUDE FISH AND WILDLIFE 84 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE: 
REVISED UNITED STATES- VENEZUELAN 

TRADE AGREEMENT IN FORCE 94 

SAFETY-OF-LI FE-AT-SEA CONVENTION .... 84 

GRAPHS: 35 

LANDINGS 4 RECEIPTS 85 

CO^O STORAGE HOLDINGS 4 FREEZINGS OF 

FISHERY PRODUCTS 96 

CANNED FISHERY PRODUCTS 97 

PRICES, IMPORTS 4 BYPRODUCTS 88 

RECENT FISHERY PUBLICATIONS: 89 

FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE PUBLICATIONS 89 
MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS 89 



FISH AND SHELLFISH PREFERENCES OF HOUSEHOLD CONSUMERS- - 
Part II - Regional Summary 




3 9088 01018 1444 



Fishery Leaflet 408, Fish and Shellfish Preferences of Household Consumers— 1951 ( Part II - 
Regional Summary ) , summarizes for four regions of the United States the answers of 2,473 persons 
to questions about the fish and shellfish preferences of their households asked them in an October 
1951 survey. The four regions covered, together with the number of respondents in each region, 
are: Northeast 685, North Central 732, South 734, and West 382. The publication is the second 
in a series of summaries being issued as fishery leaflets. Subsequent issues will give analyses 
on a rural and urban basis, income basis, etc. 

The survey was conducted by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Field work was done by a 
private research firm under contract with the Service. The respondents were asked 52 questions, 

some with subparts. The questions pertained 
predominantly to their preferences and desires 
withrespect to fresh and frozen fish and shell- 
fish, although canned and cured fish were covered 
in a few instances. Information on frequency of 
use is given, such as days served, seasons served, 
kind served, etc.; preferences of fresh versus 
frozen fish and shellfish; particular preferences 
withrespect to packaging, grading, cooking, cuts 
preferred, availability of frozen fish and shell- 
fish; and mail order business for frozen fish and 
shellfish. This information is summarized region- 
ally in this Part II. The Initial publication in 
this series. Fishery Leaflet 407, Fish and Shell- 
fish Preferences of Household Consumers — 1951 
(Part I_ - National Su nma ry ) , gave summary data for the United States as a whole. 

The work sheets containing the tabulated data for this particular survey are arranged so that 
various types of summaries may be readily obtained. Only those of general interest will be pub- 
lished by the Service. Anyone Interested in studying these work sheets may inspect them in the 
office of the Branch of Commercial Fisheries, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D. C. 

Free copies of Fishery Leaflet 408 and 407 (Part II and Part I) are available from the Division 
of Information, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington 25, D. C. 




II^H uosmiq-S 
y^goiooz JO •idea 
••Jf ♦sqqTO 'H ^JS^OH 



562 'C - 2^01 - ■BMNH mjoj 
ss3Nisna nvioidjo 



OOES ■30VJ.S0d dO ±N3WAVd 
lOAV OX 3Sn 3XVAlUd HOd XXTV 



O a SZ NOXSNIHSVM 

BDiAHas BdnaniM qnv hsij 

aoiaaxNi bhx dO ±N3wxavd3a 
S3XVXS aaxiNn