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Full text of "Commercial fisheries review"



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COMMERCIAL DtUiriil 
FISHERIESnLf iLfl 







Vol.17, No. 5 



MAY 1955 



FISH and WILDLIFE SERVICE 

United States Department of the Interior 
Washin3ton,D.C 



XINITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

DOUGLAS MCKAY, SECRETARY 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 

JOHN L. FARLEY, DIRECTOR 




COMMERCIAL FISKEI 



5 icuiriii 

a Rtffit 




A review of developments and news of the fishery industries 
prepared in the BRANCH OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 

A. W. Anderson, Editor 
J. Pileggi and J. J. O'Brien, Assistant Editors 

Mailed free to members of the fishery and allied industries. Address correspondence and requests to 
the: Director, Fish and Wildlife Sei-vice, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 25, D. C. 

Publication of material from sources outside the Service is not an endorsement. The Service is not 
responsible for the accuracy of facts, views, or opinions contained in material from outside sources. 

Although the contents of this publication have not been copyrighted and maybe reprinted freely, refer- 
ence to the source will be appreciated. 

The printing of this publication has been approved by the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, Novem- 
ber 5, 1952. 



CONTENTS 



COVER: The pound net is one of the most important fishing gears in Virginia. Fish- 
ermen are preparing to lift the net. So proficient are these men at their work that 
the catch may be landed in the boat in as little as ten minutes, even when the sea 
is rough. In the spring of some years considerable numbers of shad are caught in 
pound nets. (See page 1 of this issue.) 



The Pound-Net Fishery in Virginia, Part 1 - History, Gear Description, and Catch, by George K. Reid, Jr. 



Page 
1 



RESEARCH IN SERVICE LABORATORIES: 16 

Determination of OU in Fish Meal, by M. E. 

Stansby, and Wm. Clegg 16 

TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS: 20 

Additions to the Fleet of U. S. Fishing Vessels . 20 
California: 
Yellowfin and Skipjack Tuna Tagged by N. B. 

Scofield (Cruise 55-S-l) 20 

Pacific Herring Spawning Schools Observed from 

Air (Airplane Spotting Flights 55-1 and 55-2) . 21 
Pacific Herring Spawning Intensity Checked with 
Aid of Aerial Observations (Aircraft Spotting 

Flights 55-3, 55-4, and 55-5) 22 

YeUowtaU Freezing Shrinkage Tests by Yellow- 
fin (Cruise 55-Y-l) 23 

Canned Tuna Promotion Campaign 24 

Cans — Shipments for Fishery Products, January 

1955 26 

Chesapeake Bay: 

Fisheries Trends, 1954 26 

Federal Purchases of Fishery Products 28 

Fish-Stick Plant Opened in Mobile by U. S. Dis- 
tributor of Norwegian Fish 28 

Gear Research and Development: 
Underwater Listening Tests for Shrimp Con- 
tinued by Pompano (Cruise 7) 29 

Hawaii: 

Commercial Fish and SheUfish Catch, 1954 . . 30 
Gulf of Mexico: 
Additional Continental Shelf Areas Nominated 

for Oil and Gas Lease Sale 31 

Maryland: 
Surf-Clam Industry at Ocean City Expands ... 31 

Facts on Striped Bass Fishery 32 

Newly-Designed Outboard-Powered Oyster Boat 33 
North Atlantic Fisheries Investigations: 
Haddock Egg Concentration Found on Northern 
Edge of Georges Bank by Albatross III 

(Cruise 58) 34 

North Carolina's Commercial Fisheries Produc- 
tion, 1954 34 



TRENDS AND DEVELOPMENTS (Contd.): 

North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program: 
Petrale Sole Tagged in "Esteban Deep" by John N. 

Cobb (Special Cruise) 

Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations: 
Oceanographic Observations North of Hawaii by 
Hugh M. Smith Indicate Possible Albacore Tuna 

Fishing Area (Cruise 27) 

Saltonstall-Kennedy Act Fisheries Projects: 
Advisory Committee Holds First Meeting .... 
Service Establishes New Market Development 

Field Offices 

South Carolina's Commercial Fisheries Produc- 
tion, 1954 

"Shrimp Please" Film Wins Recognition 

Survey Reveals Breaded Fish Sticks and Shrimp 

Popular 

U. S. Foreign Trade: 

Edible Fishery Products, January 1955 

Selected Fishery Products, January 1955 .... 
Fish-Oil Exports Continue at Record Level in 

1954 

United States Per-Capita Consumption of Fishery 

Products up in 1954 

Wholesale Prices, March 1955 

Fishery Products Marketing Prospects, April- 
June 1955 

FOREIGN: 

International; 
United States, Canada, and Japan to Make Oceano- 
graphic Survey of North Pacific in 1955 .... 

World Supply of Fats and Oils in 1955 

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Commission: 

Annual Meeting in Ottawa, June 6-11 

Activities for December 1954-February 1955 
Trade Agreements: 
Norwegian-Finnish Trade Protocol Includes 

Fishery Products 

Australia: 

1955 Whale Quota Cut 

More Pearl-shell Divers Needed in 1955 .... 



Page 



Contents Continued Page 87 



May 1955 



Washington 25,D.C. 



Vol.l7,No.5 



THE POUND-NET FISHERY IN VIRGINIA 

Part I - History, Gear Description, and CatchA' 

By George K. Reid, Jr.* 



The pound net is one of the most important fishing gears in Virginia. Recent declines in the catch 
of certain economically- important species have pointed to the need for study of the fishes and the fish- 
ery and its methods. The General Assembly of Virginia has requested that the Virginia Fisheries 
Laboratory conduct experiments to determine the proper size mesh for nets in fixed fishing devices. 

A preliminary study of the pound net, embodying historical development, construction and methods 
of operating, and the catch trends from 1930 through 1951, was undertaken during the summer of 1953. 

Although the introduction of the pound net into Virginia waters about 1870 was marked by opposition 
and conflict, the gear was adopted and has gained importance. Little change has been made in the basic 
design and method of fishing, although materials and preservatives have been improved. 

Studies of the effects of preservatives and use of the component nets indicate variation in stated 
mesh sizes and the resultant need for further appraisal of definitions relative to mesh sizes and legal 
sizes of fishes. 

Of the fish species taken inpound nets, a few comprise the bulk of the catch and constitute the eco- 
nomically-important fishes. Alewives, gray sea trout, croaker, spot, shad, and butterfish have long 
been the principal food species, and menhaden the important nonfood Item, in the catch. 



BACKGROUND 



Of all the fishing gears employed in the coastal waters of Virginia, pound nets 
land the greatest weight of food fishes. More pounds of fish are caught by purse 




Fig. 1 - Fishing a pound net. These fishermen have placed their boat over the funnel of the head (fig. 6) and are raising 
the floor of the net. This will result in the pocketing of the net on the opposite side of the head (fig. 7). The hedging, 
little bay, and big bay are seen in the background. 



I' Contributions from the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory, No. 57. 
"* Assistant Professor, Department of WQdlife Management, Texas A. & M. College, College Station, Tex. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 17, No. 5 



seines, but the catch consists almost entirely of menhaden, which are not used as 
food. Of the 89.6 million pounds of fishes landed in Virginia in 1951 by gear other 
than purse seines, pound nets accounted for 45.5 mUlion pounds, or slightlymore 
than 50 percent of the total catch. 

Recent declines in the availability of the major migratory food fishes in Chesa- 
peake Bay, notably the croaker or hardhead ( Micropogon undulatus ) and the gray sea 

trout or weakfish ( Cynoscion regalis ), 
have affected the pound-net fishery 
in Virginia seriously. Associated 
with the catastrophic declines in 
availability of these species has 
been a marked reduction in the av- 
erage size of fishes in the catch, 
so that now a large fraction of the 
catch consists of small, immature 
fishes. In recent years alarm has 
been expressed that by catching im- 
mature fishes in large numbers the 
present nets may be hindering re- 
covery of the fishery, and perhaps 
may be contributing to its ultimate 
collapse. Many of the pound-netters 
themselves have expressed misgiv- 
ings as to the future effects of the fish- 
ery of the mesh-sizes currently In use, 
and are willing to subject themselves 
to drastic curtailment of their fishing 
operations, if necessary, to rehabili- 
tate the industry. 

At the 1952 session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Virginia the fol- 
lowing law was passed (Title 28-25, 1 
of the Code of Virginia) : 




Fig. 2 - The catch is concentrated in a pocket of the head prior 
to brailing. 



"The Commission of Fisheries and the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory 
shall conduct experiments to determine the proper size mesh for nets in 
fixed fishing devices. In making such determination the Commission and 
Laboratory shall balance the interest of conservation and a suitable catch. " 

Although the Legislature failed to realize the magnitude of this problem and fail- 
ed to appropriate additional funds to conduct the investigation, the Virginia Fisher- 
ies Laooratory was able, in the summer of 1953, to provide funds for a preliminary 
study of the problem. This report covers some historical aspects of the pound-net 
fishery, describes the present construction of the nets and methods of fishing, and 
surveys the available records of the catch since 1920. 

HISTORICAL 

The origin of the pound net is doubtless obscured in the antiquity of man's de- 
sire for food. Refinements of the original impounding device in order to increase 
the catch were certain to be added as the barter value of fishes increased. 

However early the pound net or its forerunner might have been used, it was not 
introduced into Virginia waters until about 1870, R. Edward Earll in his descrip- 
tion (1887) of the Spanish mackerel fishery has given an interesting account of the 
introduction of the pound net into Virginia. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Pound nets apparently were first used in the fisheries of New England at West- 
brook, Conn., in 1849, and from that area their use spread rapidly to other regions. 
They were introduced at Sandy 
Hook, N. J., by George Snediker of 
Gravesend, L. I., about 1855. It 
was from Snediker that the fisher- 
men of New Jersey and the Chesa- 
peake and Delware Bays obtained 
their first idea of pound nets. 

The first pounds fished in New 
Jersey were small, and, being 
placed along the inner shore of San- 
dy Hook, were hardly successful, 
as the fishes were much less abun- 
dant there than along the outer shore. 
Similarly styled pounds were, how- 
ever, fished with varying success 
until about 1873, when larger de- 
vices were placed along the ocean 
shore; then, for the first time, their 
importance in connection with the 
Spanish mackerel fishery was dis- 
covered. Most of the mackerel se- 
cured about Sandy Hook were taken 
in this way. One hundred fish con- 
stituted an average daily catch for 
the fishing season of 1879, and 100 
to 140 for 1880, although much 
larger catches were occasionally 
made. The best day's fishing for 
a pound net in that locality took 
place in the summer of 1879, when 
Robert Potter took 3, 500 pounds, 
valued at $700, in a single lift. 




Fig. 3 - Fishes of all sizes make up the pound-net catch, including 
occasional monsters, like this huge channel bass. 



Captain Henry Fitzgerald made an effort as early as 1858 to introduce the pound 
net into the waters of Chesapeake Bay, but his net was not properly constructed and 
was so unsuccessful that it was soon taken up. No other attempt was made to use 
pound nets in this region until about 1870, when Snediker and Charles Doughty of 
Fairhaven, N. J., came to the area and located on the banks of the James River, a 
few miles above its mouth. They fished primarily for shad and alewives, and con- 
tinued their work for about three years, after which they disposed of their property 
and returned to the North. In 1875 Snediker went to New Point Comfort, Va. , and 
constructed a large pound in the waters of Mobjack Bay for the purpose of taking 
shad and other species. 

As described by Earll (op. cit. Sec. V., p. 548), "The fishermen of the neigh- 
borhood, being wholly unacquainted with the pound-net, were very jealous of the 
stranger that came among them with such destructive apparatus. They watched Mr. 
Snediker's movements closely for several weeks, and, after seeing the enormous 
quantities of fish taken by him, at once informed him that he must take his 'traps' 
and leave the country. Refusing to comply with their demands, a number of them 
sawed off the stakes of the pound even with the water and carried the netting to the 
shore, assuring Mr. Snediker that if he attempted to put it down again they would 
destroy it. Seeing it was useless to continue the fishery here, he decided to seek 
some more favorable locality. " 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 17, No. 5 



Prior to leaving, he sold the stakes that remained in the water to a local fish- 
erman, who secured from the stakes the design of the pound, and in a short time 
had one properly arranged for fishing. This was also destroyed by the local fisher- 
men, but not until enough had been learned to convince them that pound nets could 
be used with great profit, and within a year from that time 12 pounds were fished in 
Mobjack Bay. In 1879 the number had been more than doubled, and by 1880 every 
available site was taken up. Often three, or even four, nets were placed in line, 
the leader of one being attached to the outer end of another, for the purpose both of 
economizing on space and of securing the fish that might be passing at a distance 
from the shore. 



Snediker, on leaving New Point Comfort, went to the eastern shore of the Chesa- 
peake, and became associated with one of the most popular fishermen of the region, 

in this way hoping to prevent any 
organized opposition on the part of 
the resident fishermen against the 
use of the pound. By this means he 
avoided any open hostilities, and 
soon others became interested in 
the use of pounds. 

Although the pound net was in- 
troduced into the Chesapeake against 
the prejudice of the fishermen, it 
revolutionized the fisheries of Vir- 
ginia. Before 1870 the fisheries 
of the region were of little impor- 
tance, the business being largely 
in the hands of the farmers who 
fished with hand lines and drag seines 
for a few weeks in the spring and 
fall. The main purpose of the farm- 
er-fishermen was to secure a sup- 
ply of fish for themselves and their 
neighbors. Today the Chesapeake 
is the center of one of the most im- 
portant shore fisheries in the Unit- 
ed States, The pound net not only 
more than doubled the catch of ordi- 
nary fishes, but also brought to the 
attention of the fishermen many com- 
mercially-valuable species which 
were previously almost unknown to 
them, the most important of these 
being the Spanish mackerel. In 1880, 
162 pound nets were fished in Vir- 
ginia waters, with two others located at Crisfield, Md., just above the Virginia line; 
by 1952 the number had reached 1, 216, although this is considerably less than the 
2,262 nets reported for 1930. 

Interviews with some of the fishermen of long experience in Virginia revealed 
that there have been few changes in the construction or methods of operating pound 
nets within the past 30 to 40 years. The use of copper paint somewhat replaced tar- 
ring as a preservative and antifouling compound. During the early part of the cen- 
tury and subsequently, the spacing of stakes which support the nets has been in- 
creased, resulting in savings on the costs of the supports, A continuous length of 
net in the hedge has replaced the use of many single panels hung from stake to stake. 
A refined funnel opening into the impounding "head" of the pound net also represents 
a change and advance in pound-net construction, and appears to have been introduced 
about 40 years ago. 




Fig. 4 - The pound-net catch is sorted according to species, and each 
kind of fish is weighed separately. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



MATERIALS USED IN THE FISHERY 



MESH SIZES : The openings enclosed by knotted twine of net fabric are refer- 
red to as the mesh (locally pronounced "mash") of the net. 

Mesh is measured and defined in terms of bar, or square, and/or stretched 
measure. Bar, or square measure, is the linear dimension of one side of a square 
mesh, being measured between the 
knots. Stretched measure is the 
distance between two diagonally- 
opposite knots of a mesh when the 
mesh is closed under tension ap- 
plied to these opposite knots. The 
measure may be from the center 
of one knot to the center of its op- 
posite, or may be the "inside 
measure" between the knots. Vir- 
ginia State law is stated in stretch- 
ed measure, although it is not de- 
fined to whether measured inside 
or from the centers of the knots. 
In some nets this difference could 
amount to one- eighth of an inch 
and more. The inside measure 
provides a true measure of the 
escapement area for small fishes 
regardless of the size of the twine 
used in the manufacture of the net. 




Fig. 5 - Biologists from the Virginia Fisheries Laboratory ex- 
amine samples of the pound-net catch at regular intervals, to 
follow trends in length and age of croakers, sea trout, shad, 
and other fishes. 



The actual working measure 
of a net in use involves several 
rather intricate factors. Ten- 
sion applied to a new cotton net 
may increase the stated mesh size 
by stretching the twine and tight- 
ening the knots. Opposing the stretch factors, however, are the effects of treat- 
ment of the net with various preservatives. Tanning, dipping into hot tar, and oth- 
er methods cause shrinkage of the twine, thereby decreasing the mesh size. Where 
accurate dimensions are desired, these stretch and shrinkage factors must be con- 
sidered. Actually, the manner of use of the net may influence the mesh size and 
cause variation within a single net. The differing amounts of strain on different 
parts of the net while in use, frequency of treatment with preservatives, and mend- 
ing are some of such "use factors." 

In one new laboratory net of No. 15 untreated cotton twine of two-inch stretched 
measure, the stretched dimension shrunk four- sixteenths of an inch after 48 hours 
of submergence in salt water. In measurements of random pieces of unused net list- 
ed as two-inch mesh, and treated with copper paint, the stretched measure was, on 
the average, one and one-half inches. Two-inch-mesh tarred net when examined 
measured, on the average, one and eleven-sixteenths of an inch stretched measure. 
Untreated, used cotton net showed an average stretching of from three- sixteenths to 
four -sixteenths of an inch, which somewhat offsets the early shrinkage described 
previously. 

TWINE SIZES: All of the pound-net fabrics examined were made of cotton twine. 
The twine is composed of cotton threads which have been twisted together to form a 
"strand," Three strands are then twisted together to form a cord, or twine. "Hard- 
ness" or "lay" of the twine depends upon the degree of twist in the threads and strands. 
Net manufacturers recognize four grades of lay: soft, medium, medium hard, and 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



hard, although the grade most widely used locally is medium lay. The size of twine 
is determined by the number of threads used. From size 6 to size 36 the increase 
is in intervals of three threads, one to each of the strands. From twine size 42 to 
size 60, the increase is in increments of six, or two threads per strand. 

The twist of the strands in cotton-net twine is usually right-handed or "plain- 
laid. " Cable-laid twine is twisted toward the left. The intricacies of the lay of the 
strands and yarn become more involved, however, as the twist of the strands may 
be opposite to that of the yarn. 

Cotton fibers are graded as to the diameter of the fiber and then gauged. Gauge 
10 is quite widely used, although frequently a finer 20 gauge is utilized. The gauged 

fibers are then twisted into strands 
and three strands twisted together 
form the finished twine. In des- 
cribing the twine, the form 20/6 or 
20-6 is used, indicating the twine 
is composed of 20-gauge fibers with 
two threads in each of the three 
strands. The gauge has become 
standardized to the extent that local 
fishermen seldom refer to it and 
frequently are unfamiliar with the 
designation, referring to the twine 
simply as "number twelve," etc., 
and writing it as #12. 

PRESERVATIVES : The use of 
thinned copper paint as both a pre- 
servative and antifouling compound 
is quite widespread among the pound- 
net fishermen. There appear to be 
variances in opinions, however, as 
to the preserving quality. The paint 
used is basically the same as that 
used in painting boats and other gear 
used in salt water. Although used 
primarily during the summer months 
to inhibit fouling by marine organ- 
isms, it was found that the paint al- 
so prolonged the life of the net. All 
of the nets in the components of the 
pound nets fished during the warm 
months are thus treated with the 
paint. After from four to six weeks 
in the water, the nets are taken up 
and allowed to dry and then given a- 
nother application of paint. 

In cooler weather, nets are 
preserved by tarring. In pound nets 
set for shad in the spring, the head 
is usually tarred although the other 
components may be left untreated. 







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C 

KING 


STAKE 


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BIG BAY 


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\ LITTLE / 


7 








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HEjAD 


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Fig. 6 - Schematic representation of pound net of the size and design 
used at present in the lower Chesapeake Bay. Based on personal 
observations and on dimensions given by local pound-net fishermen. 



It might be added that copper naphthenate, a treating compound developed dur- 
ing World War II, has been given some trial in this area but apparently has not been 
accepted by the fishermen. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF POUND NETS 

The principle of construction of the pound net is simply that of providing some 
sort of device for the entrapment of fishes and a means of directing the fishes into 
the impounding structure. Throughout the years since the introduction of the pound 
net into Virginia, the basic pattern or design has remained rather constant. The 
fundamental principle is that of a large bag of netting for impounding, and a series 
of nets hung from poles to divert the fish into the pound. Most of the refinements of 
the early pound have consisted of improved techniques for hanging the various com- 
ponents, with economy as the primary factor, or modifying the components toward 

greater efficiency in capturing fish. 

Adaptations have also been made > -. . . ; 

to the bottom contours, currents, 
etc., of the area in which the nets. 
are used. 

The basic components of a 
pound net (fig .6) consist of a rec- 
tangular or squared bowl, or 
"head, " which is the actual im- 
pounding structure, heart-shaped 
"bays" which concentrate and di- 
rect the fish toward the head, and 
finally, a leader, or "hedging, " 
which turns the fish toward the 
bays and head. 

The head is constructed of 
small-mesh net suspended from 
poles or "stakes" usually set in 
a square pattern ranging from 
20-42 feet on the side, although 
frequently the head may be rec- 
tangtdar and approximately 40 x 
42 feet. A single opening form- 
ed by an inwardly directed "fun- 
nel" permits the fish to enter and 
inhibits their escape. The size 
of the head varies, depending on 
the water or other factors. The 
broad bowl- shaped net is made 
fast to upright stakes by ropes 
which may be loosened to permit 
working the net or removing it. 
In the pound nets examined by the 
author, the mesh size generally used in the head ranged from 2 inches to 2j inches 
(4j inches in shad pounds) stretched measure. It was found that frequently nets of 
different twine size were used in the construction of the head. Usually nothing small- 
er than #12 twine is used inthefunnel, #15 in the bottom, and #18 in the walls. These 
differences are doubtless out of consideration for areas of strain differential. The 
area of the head varied with the location of the net and the personal ideas of the build- 
er, although, in most of the nets visited, the head approximated 36 feet square or 
40 by 42 feet in the rectangular heads. 

Fishes are directed into the head through a funnel which projects inwardly ap- 
proximately one-third of the side dimension of the head. The funnel is usually con- 
structed of net of three-inch stretched mesh. Where the funnel enters the head, its 
width is nearly one-third the side dimension. At the free end, inside the head, the 
fuimel tapers to about 3 by 6 feet, the 6-foot dimension being the vertical distance. 




Fig. 7 - Boating the catch. The crew has concentrated the catch a- 
long the back wall of the head and now empties the catch into the 
skiff. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



In pound nets set for shad, the funnel is frequently made of net with six-inch stretch- 
ed-measure mesh. The funnel is held in place and in shape by lines attached to hor- 
izontal poles on the upper and lower sides of the small end. The lines are secured 
to a single line made fast to the vertical stake opposite the niouth of the funnel. 

Leading toward the funnel opening in the head may be one or two roughly heart- 
shaped bays. The bays are constructed of nets of heavier twine and larger mesh (6 
to 12 inches stretched measure). The twine size varies from #30 to #42. This net 
is suspended from stakes sunk or driven into the bottom of the river. One or two 
bays may be used, and their dimensions vary considerably. Some single bays proj- 
ect approximately 150 feet from the head. The greatest width of a single bay (or of 
the outer bay when double) is approximately 125 feet. 

The leader, or hedging, consists of a net of heavy twine and large mesh hung 
from stakes in line with the openings of the head and the bay or bays. The stakes 
are set approximately 18 feet apart and may cover a linear distance as great as 1,000 
feet, depending upon the location of the net. The mesh size of the hedging net ap- 
proximates 16 inches stretched, although considerable diversity, from 14 to 18 inch- 
es, was observed. Twine sizes #30, #36, or #42 may be used in the net of the hedg- 
ing. In some localities, a "string" hedging is used in shad pounds. This hedging 
consists of an upper (surface) and lower (bottom) rope with twine tied vertically be- 
tween at intervals of approximately six inches, and reaching from the surface to the 
bottom. In addition to the vertical twines, longitudinal twines, spaced from 4 to 6 
feet across the vertical elements, are frequently employed. The number of hori- 
zontal twines depends upon the depth of the water. 

To date, all of the net used in the construction of pound nets is made of cotton. 
The twine is described as medium and cable-laid. 

The entire assembly is usually placed with the head in deeper areas or along 
the edges of channels, with the bay and hedging directed toward shallow water, or 
at a right angle to the direction of shoreline or channel. Thus, fishes moving along 
shore or in shallow water would encounter the hedging and be directed toward the 
head. 

The initial cost of a pound net, such as those used in the vicinity of the mouth of 
the James River, ranges from $2, 000 to $3, 000. This figure includes the net, stakes, 
ropes, and labor. Naturally, a boat and crew must be considered also in the capital 
outlay. Although there is a prohibitive law, once the stakes are in place they are 
left from one season to the next, thus subsequent costs are considerably lower than 
the original outlay. 




Fig. 8 - Design of early pound net (from Earll 1887). 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



1 — I — r 

HARVESTFISH 



i'Tr^ped bass 



BUTTERFISH 



In working the pound net, a crew, usually of five or six men, approaches the 
head in a skiff which has been towed behind a larger boat. The crew in the skiff 

makes the rounds of the _^_^^_ 

stakes, slacking off the 
downhauls, or lines, 
which hold down the 
bowl-shaped net. Aft- 
er the net lines have 
been loosened, the boat 
is made fast in a posi- 
tion lengthwise across 
the opening from the 
bay. The funnel, or 
opening, is then drawn 
up by men working 
from one side of the 
boat. After the funnel 
end has been raised, 
blocking the escape of 
the fishes, the end is 
secured and the rais- 
ing of the floor begins. 
All the crew members 
pull the net onto the 
gunwale of the skiff. 
Minor mends of net 
damage are made dur- 
ing the raising opera- 
tion. As the floor is 
raised, the boat, hav- 
ing been untied, is pull- 
ed toward the side op- 
posite the entrance to 
the head, where the 
larger boat is tied up. 
The continued raising 
of the floor and ac- 
companying movement 
of the skiff have form- 
ed a pocket in the head 
on the side opposite 
the funnel. In this 
pocket the fish are con- 
centrated and are then 

scooped, or brailed, from the pocket into the skiff or the larger boat. The brailing 
is generally done by means of a dip net, although one operating unit observed had a 
winch-lifted brailer with purse rings, similar to the brailers used by purse seiners, 
which greatly facilitated the removal of fishes from the head of the pound net and 
their transfer to the boat. After the fishes have been removed, the head of the net 
is allowed to sink and the crew again makes the rounds of the stakes, securing the 
head, lining up the funnel, and securing the line which holds the funnel open. On 
three occasions, the time required by a five-man crew to complete the entire opera- 
tion, using the winch-lifted scoop, was ten minutes for each net. Obviously the 
greatest time-consuming process is that of removing the fishes from the head, and 
where small dip nets are handled manually, or the catch is large, or rough weather 
prevails, the time required is increased. 

The pound-net fishermen actively engaged in the work normally visit the nets 
once every 24 hours when fishing is good. These visits are made on the slack of 




Fig. 9 - Average annual catch of nine species per licensed pound net, 1929-1951. 
Catch shown in thousands of pounds except for harvestfish and striped bass which 
are shown in hundreds. Dotted lines indicate no data. 



10 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



low tides occurring between about 4:00 a.m. and about 9:00 a.m. As the time of 
low water slack passes 9:00 a.m. the fishermen start again at the earlier slack 
water. They seldom work the nets during later daylight hours. The nets are work- 
ed during slack water since currents impede progress and make the handling diffi- 
cult. 

Little change in the method of working the net has taken place since Earll's ac- 
count (op. cit. , pp. 548-549). Figure 2 demonstrates the general construction of 
the nets used about 1890 on the shores of Northhampton County, Va. All the early 
nets were constructed on a similar pattern, although they differed in size and shape 
in various states throughout the region. A few were provided with pockets (fig. 2) 
in which the catch could be kept. This pocket is apparently omitted from present- 
day pound nets. Many of the early nets were similar to present-day models in that 
they contained only one bay. 

THE POUND-NET CATCH 

Fishery Statistics of the United States for 1951 , published by the U. S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, lists and gives catch data for 36 kinds of fishes taken in pound nets 
in Virginia waters. Many of these fishes are caught in small quantities and individ- 
ually play small parts in the economy and commercial take of the pound-net fisheries, 
but the catch of each of five kinds amounts to over one million pounds yearly. Sub- 
stantial catches of other species and the total of all kinds make the pound net the 
most important gear for food fishes in Chesapeake Bay. 



Table 1 - Quantity Landed and Average Catch Per Net for Twelve of the Most Abundant Fishes ir 


Virginia 


Pound-Net Catches in Recent Years 1 


Year 


Alewlfe 


Perlie\ Bl-f'^" Ipi'/L, |Butlerfish | 


Peflkl^-«i="Ur^-etl ^--^" 1 


Avg. 1 
Per Netl 


Flounder 


Avg. 1 
Per Netl 


Harvestfish 


Avg. 
Per Net 








503, 100 


■ 416' 


48,900 40 1 


1,170,400 


969 


279.000 


231 


194, 500 


161 








179,900 


136 


758,200 


573 


153,600 


116 




1.465 


343,800 


260 


185,700 


140 






15,925 


200,400 


155 


765 200 


592 


224, 700 


174 


4,103,800 


3, 174 


447,400 


346 


525,300 


406 






11.550 


169,200 


120 


1, 1021000 


740 


169,400 


114 


7,983, 100 


5,358 


413,900 


278 


576,100 


387 








167,000 


119 


1,371,400 


979 


327,000 


233 


5,369,600 


10,970 


417,500 


298 


732,600 


523 






7,661 


125,500 


96 


1,582,400 


1,207 


137,900 


105 


8,397,900 


14,033 


396,000 


302 


554,600 


423 




2,685,200 


9,523 


88,900 


67 


1,686,200 


1,266 


229,900 


173 


27,601,700 


20,721 


399,700 


300 


368.400 


277 


^IV^I 


6,113.500 


11,822 


21!, 500 


IB 


2,0ba, OUU 










15,531 


249, 300 














7,600 


, 


1,780,400 


1,554 


61,100 


53 


17,937,800 


15,652 


125,000 


109 


38,400 


33 








18, 100 


12 


1,914,500 


1,264 


113.400 


74 


.6,478,600 


10,877 


220,500 


146 


60, 900 


40 






6.927 


7,500 


5 


2,881,600 


1,772 


109,000 


67 


24,865,600 


15,292 


193,100 


119 


65. 400 


40 










27 


2,399,800 


1,242 


157,500 


81 


29,938,200 


10,211 


188,700 


98 


260,400 












103 


2,850,900 


1,524 


177,900 


95 


33,080,800 


17,681 


298, 200 


159 


448,500 


240 








344, 000 


208 


1,866,000 


1,127 


159,200 


96 


25,133,300 


15, 177 


313, 100 


189 


1,076,600 


650 








266,900 


140 


1,607,700 


845 


74,600 


39 


21,316,400 


11,207 


153,400 


80 


235,600 


124 








308,700 


154 


2,241,200 


1,120 


122,700 


61 


16.567.400 


8.283 




119 














434 


3,308,500 


1,827 


210,700 


116 


15,700. 100 








160,050 












316 


2.220,455 


1,181 


202,855 


108 


10,881,977 


5,788 


281,890 














228 


2,887,760 


1,430 


213,741 


106 


12,358,846 


6, 121 


















138 


4,808, 106 


2,177 


40,000 


18 


11,542,648 


5,227 














6,728 


206, 166 


91 


3,668,698 


1,621 


32,300 


14 


14,492,421 


















443,943 


202 


5,519,892 


2,502 


34. 600 


16 


13,079,985 








" 






14,998,345 


7,969 


109,475 58 


3,012,997 


1,600 


137,025 


73 14.628,950 








- 




Year 


Menhaden 


Avg. Gray 1 Avg. 
Per Net Sea Trout IPer Net 


Shad 


Avg. 
Per Net 


Spot 


Avg. 1 Striped 
Per Net I Bass 


Avg. 
Per Net 


White 
Perch 


Avg. 
Per Net 


Nets 










'l,'65o', 800 


1,366 


ds) . . . 
931,800 


771' 


' 3'64.'50*o' 


302' 


96, 100 


79 


1,208 
1,323 
1,293 
1,490 
1,401 
1,311 
1,332 














253 


1,573,700 


1,189 


1,468,60C 


1,110 




















1 


481 


1,220,600 


944 


3,246,90C 


2,511 












1948 












1,763, 100 


1,183 


1,466,60C 


984 


418,500 














11,063,100 


7 


783 


2,708,700 


1,933 


1,573,90C 


1, 123 


696, 500 






113 
112 










13.449,000 


in 


258 


1,994,700 


1,521 


2,035,100 


1,552 
























2.304 


1.952. 50( 


1.466 










1944 , 
1943^' 


5.598,700 


4.108 


8,857,600 


6 


499 


3,250,900 


2,385 


2.206.600 


1,619 


576, 300 












2.242 


4.788,500 


4 


161 


2,032,900 


1,774 


337.300 


294 


293.200 


256 


120,800 


105 
58 
53 
44 
89 
60 
39 
52 


1,146 
1,515 
1,626 
1,932 
1,871 
1.656 
1.902 
2.000 








1,286 


5,583,400 


3 


685 


1,652, 70C 


1,091 


590.000 


389 




















362 


2,435, IOC 


1,498 


782, 20( 




















5 


377 


3,183, lot 


1,648 


1,263,900 


654 










1938 
1937 


1,408,500 
2,202.000 


753 
1.330 


10.577.400 
11.108,000 


5 
6 
4 


653 
708 

775 


3,242, 100 
2,782,400 
1,374,700 


1,733 

1,680 

723 


1.601,20C 

1,702,000 

643,700 


1,028 
338 


624. 100 
335,200 


377 
176 


98,900 
74, 500 




_„ 












2.490.801 


1.245 


277.801 


138 
















12!950,8O( 


7 




3,543,30( 


i;957 


1,101,40C 


609 


181.800 




82,069 
102,047 


44 
50 
25 
26 
19 
32 


1,880 
2,019 
2,208 


1933 


647.400 


344 


11,754,54C 
11,336,81' 


6 

5 


252 
615 


3,902,955 
3,818,541 


2,076 
1.891 


358,59 
606,994 


190 
300 


327,037 


162 




1931 


1.537,975 


69 


9,996,04C 


' 


,527 


6,122,383 


2,772 


307.39 


139 




85 
67 


58, 100 
41.050 
59,966 




1930 


888, OOC 


393 14,660,36 
458 


6 


,481 


4,639,844 
6,672,034 


2.051 
3.046 


481,42 


219 


147,900 


2,190 
1.882 




1920 


6.233,92( 


3,312 - 1 


5.524.82 


2.935 


490,47 


1 260 1 221.773 









































May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



11 



Alewives ( Pomolobus pseudoharengus and P. aestivalis) have for many years 
been one of the most important items taken in pound nets, and since 1947 they have 
been the most important fish in terms of total catch; the decline in croaker and sea 
trout catch probably being responsible for the rise in position, although the catch 
of alewives has in itself, generally increased. Alewives, processed mostly for 
canning, salting, and pickling, and used in the extraction of pearl essence, con- 
stituted approximately two-thirds of the total pound-net catch for 1951, although 
they represented only about 30 percent of the total value. Table 1 indicates a fair- 
ly steady increase in the alewife catch. 

The only nonfood component of any importance in the pound-net catch is the 
menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus) . In 1951 this fish was second in quantity taken, 
representing 15 percent of the total pound-net catch but only about 2.5 percent of 
the total value. Table 1 indicates the increased importance of menhaden during 



Table 2 - Order of 


Importance by Weight of the Principal Species Landed 


from Pound Nets in Virginia, 1929, 


1949, 


and 1951 | 


1951 


1949 


1929 1 


1. Alewife 


1. Alewife 


1. 


Croaker 


2. Menhaden 


2. Menhaden 


2. 


Alewife 


3. Shad 


3. Sea trout 


3. 


Sea trout 


4. Sea trout 


4, Croaker 


4. 


Shad 


5. Croaker 


5. Spot 


5. 


Butterfish 


6. Spot 


6. Shad 


6. 


Menhaden 


7. Swellfish 


7. Butterfish 


7. 


Spot 


8. Butterfish 


8. Harvestfish 


8. 


Bluefish 


9. Striped bass 


9. Striped bass 


9. 


Flounder 


10. Flounder 


10. Flounder 


10. 


Striped bass 


11. Harvestfish 


11. Catfish 


11. 


Bonito, etc. 


12. Hickory shad 


12. Bluefish 


12. 


Scup, porgies, etc. 


13. White perch 


13. White perch 


13. 


Mackerel 


14. Bluefish 


14. Mackerel 


14. 


White perch 


15. Eels 


15. Bonito, etc. 


15. 


Catfish 


16. MuUet 


16. Drum 


16. 


Drum 


17. Carp 


17. Scup, porgies, etc. 


17. 





and following World War II, As for alewives, the gain in prominence of menhaden 
may be a reflection of the decline in catches of sea trout and croakers. Table 1 
shows an over-all increase in the menhaden catch from 1929 to 1951, with a peak 
during 1945. Table 2 indicates the rise in position of the catch from 1929 to 1951. 

Gray sea trout or weakfish ( Cynoscion regalis ) and the spotted sea trout (Cy- 
noscion nebulosus) are both taken in pound nets, although the first is by far the 
more abundant and important of the two. In 1951 the catch of gray sea trout was 
reported as 1, 252, 100 pounds, while only 37, 900 pounds of spotted sea trout were 
caught. The gray sea trout catch remained generally constant and high (except 
1941-1944) until a decline began in 1948 (table 1). The decrease in catch has been 
rapid, and in 1951 the catch was the lowest in the history of the fishery. It is in- 
teresting that in 1929 gray sea trout ranked third in quantity taken by pound nets 
and held the same position in 1949, despite the conspicuous decline in catch (table 
2). In 1951 gray sea trout had been replaced by shad in order of importance. In 
the same year, gray sea trout made up approximately 3 percent of the total pound- 
net catch and yet represented 13 percent of the commercial value of the catch for 
that year. 

The catch of croaker ( Micropogon undulatus ) in pound nets has been irregular 
but showed considerable over-all increase from 1929 to 1945. The decline in catch 
since 1946 has been sharp, from 18, 397, 900 pounds in 1946 to 1, 170, 400 pounds 



12 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



for 1951. Although in 1951 the croaker catch amounted to only about 2. 5 percent of 
the total pound-net catch, the value of the species represented approximately 13 per- 
cent of the total worth. 

The catch of spot ( Leiostomus xanthurus ) showed a conspicuous increase from 
1944 to 1949. Table 1 demonstrates that prior to 1935 the catch usually amounted 



«80 



'72 



= 64 



-156- 



40l 



Legend : 
rri TOTAL ANNUAL CATCH 

I AVERAGE PER NET 



fll 



i 



m. 



30 '31 '32 '33 '34 '35 '36 '37 ^8 39 40 '^l "42 '43 '44 •46 46 47 '48 '49 '50 "51 
YEAR 



- 609 



52 « 



-44b 



-36. 



-28« 



20 



Fig. 10 - Total annual fish catch and average catch per pound net in Virginia, 1929-1951. 

to approximately 500, 000 pounds or less, whereas in 1944 the catch was 2, 206, 600 
pounds, and in 1949 over 3 million pounds. However, the 1951 catch of spot was 
only 931,800 pounds. 

In 1951 the catch of swellfish ( Sphoeroides maculatus) increased significantly. 
Table 2 shows that this species was ranked seventh in order of importance by weight 
landed during 1951--515, 400 pounds were reported. 

Although the catch of butterfish ( Poronotus triacanthus ) has declined consider- 
ably since 1948, it has been an important part of the pound-net catch--503, 100 pounds 
were caught in 1951. Fishery Statistics presents data separately for the butterfish 
and a similar species, the harvestfish ( Peprilus alepidotus) , yet personal observa- 
tions in local fish houses revealed that both are lumped together in receiving the 
fishes from the fishermen. 



Striped bass ( Roccus saxatilis) , flounders (mostly Paralichthys dentatus), cat- 
fishes ( Ictalurus catus and 2. punctatus ) . and bluefish ( Pomatomus saltatrix ) com- 
plete a list of the more important species in the pound-net catch. Each of these was 
represented by less than 500, 000 pounds in 1951. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



13 



Figure 9 illustrates graphically the average pound-net catch of the nine species 
taken in greatest quantities, based on the yearly catch data from table 1 and the num- 
ber of pound nets reported in Fish - 
ery Statistics . The over-all trends 
and fluctuations follow closely the 
total catch data from table 1 anda- 
gain point up the decline in the 
catches of croaker, sea trout, and 
shad since about 1945. The reli- 
ability of the figures in terms of 
catch per unit of effort is open to 
conjecture, however, and such in- 
terpretation should be approached 
cautiously. The number of nets 
per year are those reported by 
Fishery Statistics and are based 
on licenses granted by the State. 
Obviously, some of the nets are 
used solely for shad in the spring 
of the year and perhaps contribute 
little to the take of other fishes. 
Also, although the license maybe 
granted, the nets may be fished 
with varying degrees of intensity. 

By way of providing a test of 
the results indicated from the Fish - 
ery Statistics data, information on 
the catches of three species and 
the numbers of nets fished was obtained from a local fisherman (table 3). These data 
may present a more reliable picture of the catch per unit of effort of pound-net fish- 
ing. The local catches often are considerably greater than the averages in table 1 
and figure 4. Again, various factors such as local abundance of the species, skill 
of the fishermen, location and construction of the nets, and like elements may ac- 
count for the differences between Fishery Statistics data and the local report rather 




Fig. 11 - Making fast the down-haul lines at the end of a day's 
fishiiig. 



Table 3 - Quantity Landed and Average Catch Per Net for Three 






Species 


, from Personal Records of a 


Virginia Fisherman 




Year 


Cr 


Daker 


S 


pot 


Sea 


Trout 


Number 
of Nets 


Total 


Catch 


Total 


Catch 


Total 


Catch 


Catch 


Per Net 


Catch 


Per Net 


Catch 


Per Net 


1951 


(Pounds) - - _ . 


3 


5,091 


1, 697 


6,627 


2,209 


26, 728 


8, 909 


1950 


5,908 


1,477 


16,041 


4,010 


43,265 


10,816 


4 


1949 


952 


238 


4,954 


1,238 


11,814 


2,953 


4 


1948 


15,800 


3,950 


9,276 


2,319 


81,680 


20,420 


4 


1947 


141,205 


35,201 


5,017 


1,254 


59,408 


14,852 


4 


1946 


174,274 


43,568 


8,220 


2,055 


89, 188 


22, 297 


4 


1945 


162,214 


32,443 


13,641 


2,728 


112,639 


22,528 


5 


1944 


190,329 


38, 066 


9,882 


1,986 


100,469 


20,094 


5 


1943 


263,973 


65,993 


3,213 


803 


74,982 


18, 746 


4 



than the general nature of the reported numbers of nets mentioned earlier. The fluc- 
tuations in yearly catch, shown in the local records, correspond rather closely to 
those shown in table 1, particularly in depicting the decrease in trout and croaker 
catches. The local data do not agree, however, with table 1 in showing an increase 
in the catch of spot in 1949. 



14 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



Figure 10 illustrates the total annual catch tn pounds of fish with the average 
catch per net superimposed. The raw data are given in table 4. It appears that, 
since 1941, the catch per unit of effort has increased and that fewer nets are catching 
more fish. Such a trend may be a reflection of increased efficiency of the gear. 




Table 4 - Number of Pound Nets Operating in | 


Virginia Water 


s, 1920, and 1929 through 


1951, 


Their Total Annual Catch, 


Average Catch 




and Total Landed Value of Catch 




Year 


Number 
of Nets 


Total Catch 


Average 
Per Net 


Value 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


i 


1951 


1,208 


45,612,100 


37,758 


1,440,664 


1950 


1,323 


45,758,700 


34,587 


1,822,838 


1949 


1,293 


44,888,600 


34,716 


2,093,306 


1948 


1,490 


50,966,300 


34,205 


2,651,221 


1947 


1,401 


63,142,000 


45,069 


3,612,293 


1946 


1,311 


59,654,900 


45,503 


3,875,896 


1945 


1.332 


78.750,300 


59,121 


6,329,996 


1944j, 
194ji' 


1,363 


62, 170,900 


45,613 


2,575, 154 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1942 


1,146 


40,171,100 


35,053 


909,638 


1941 


1,515 


42,246,900 


27,885 


917,032 


1940 


1,626 


61,884,900 


38,059 


1,067,306 


1939 


1,932 


65,260,500 


33,778 


1,203,126 


1938 


1,871 


73,923,900 


39,510 


1,265,750 


1937 


1,656 


63,418,600 


38,296 


1,117,732 


1936 


1,902 


46,328,500 


24,357 


662,258 


1935 


2,000 


48.892.900 


24.446 


784.050 


1934 


1,810 


46, 103,200 


25,471 


963,924 


1933 


1,880 


51,405,955 


27,343 


991,771 


1932 


2,019 


48,966,629 


24,252 


1,103,661 


1931 


2,208 


53,900,463 


24,411 


1,669, 155 


1930 


2,262 


58,526,725 


25,873 


2,136,738 


1929 


2, 190 


48,848, 188 


22,305 


2,405,507 


1920 


1,882 


59,554,037 


31,644 


2,448,853 


1/ Not ava 


dable. 








"Note; Data 


for 1920. 1929 


1938. from Fishery Industries of the U 


S., U, S.Bureau 


of Fishe 


ies, Washijigto 


.D. C. 






Data 


for 1939-1952 


from Fishery Statistics. U. S. Fish and WUdlife Service. I 


Washing! 


on. D. C. 






1 



Fig. 12 - Unloading the day's catch. In April, shad are 
an important item. 

fluctuations in abundance of fishes, more intensive and sustained fishing, the man- 
ner in which statistical data are compiled and reported, competition between units 
of gear, or combination of these and other factors; at any rate a most interesting 
question is posed. 

The size ranges of the different fishes taken in 8 pound nets in July 1953 in 
Virginia waters appeared, in general, to be rather consistent. Obviously the size 
range of a given species caught in the pound net is, to some extent, representative 
of seasonal and local size variations. Thus, the length frequencies presented in 
table 5 are those of fishes taken in a particular locality and in July; such data are 
not necessarily representative of the total seasonal catch. From these data it ap- 
pears that, in this catch at least, the smallest fishes caught ranged from 108 mm., 
total length, upward. In table 5 it is seen that the smallest sizes (standard lengths) 
of commercially-important species were about 170 mm. for trout, 110 mm. for 
spot, 115 mm. for butterfish, 205 mm. for croaker, and 135 mm. for menhaden. 

One method by which the selectivity of the gear could be examined would be to 
compare the sizes of fishes in the pound nets with sizes of fishes caught by trawl or 
other gears in the vicinity. For example, it was established by exploratory collect- 
ing that spot smaller than 108 mm. were abundant in the general vicinity of the pound 
nets examined, yet the small fish did not appear in the pound-net catch. This might 
mean that fish smaller than 108 mm. escaped through the pound-net mesh, or that 
the smaller individuals did not react in the same manner as larger fish to the different 
types of gear. Similarly, croakers much smaller than those in the pound-net catch 
were present in various parts of the Bay. Most of the trout in the catch ranged 
from 168 mm. to 342 mm. in total length. Where the legal size limit for trout is 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



15 



nine inches (229 mm.), it would appear thatmajay undersized fish were being caught . 
The legal size for butterfish is six inches (152 mm.), thus the catch generally ap- 
peared to be in order. The seven-inch (178 mm.) limit for croaker was well ob- 
served in the pound-net catch examined. 





Table 5 - 


- Length-Frequency 


Distributions of Five Species Caught by 


Three 








Pound Nets in July 


1953 in the 


Lower York River, Virginia 






Sea Trout 


Croaker 


Menhaden 


Spot 


Butte 


rfish 


Lengths 


Number 


Lengths 


Number 


Lengths 


Number 


Lengths 


Number 


Lengths 


Number 


(mm. ) 


of Fish 


(mm.) 


of Fish 


(mm.) 


of Fish 


(mm. ) 


of Fish 


(mm.) 


of Fish 


168-72 


2 


203-07 


1 


133-37 


1 


108-12 


1 


113-17 


1 


178-82 


1 


208-12 


3 


183-87 


1 


198-02 


1 


143-47 


1 


183-87 


1 


213-17 


1 


188-92 


3 


203-07 


1 


148-52 


3 


188-92 


1 


218-22 


6 


193-97 


4 






153-57 


3 


193-97 


4 


223-27 


4 


198-02 


3 






158-62 


6 


198-02 


1 


228-32 


5 


203-07 


8 






163-67 


8 


203-07 


3 


233-37 


7 


208-12 


8 






168-72 


4 


208-12 


2 


238-42 


10 


213-17 


1 






173-77 


3 


213-17 


2 


243-47 


3 


218-22 


2 






178-82 


3 


223-27 


1 


248-52 


9 


223-27 


3 






183-87 


2 


233-37 


2 


253-57 


7 


233-37 


2 






188-92 


1 


243-47 


2 


258-62 


4 


243-47 


2 






193-97 


1 


323-27 


1 


263-67 


2 


248-52 


1 










338-42 


1 


278-82 
283-87 


1 
1 


253-57 
263-67 
268-72 


4 

1 
1 










Note: AU len 


jths are total le 


•ngths. 













ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

Grateful acknowledgment is expressed to the staff of the Virginia Fisheries 
Laboratory, Gloucester Point, Va,, for their cooperation and help. Particular ap- 
preciation is expressed to Dr. J. L. McHugh, Director, and to WUliam Massmann, 
for editorial criticisms. Dexter Haven generously gave of his time in introducing 
the author to the area. 

LITERATURE CITED 

EarU, R. Edward 

1887. The Spanish Mackerel Fishery. In the Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States, by George Brown 
Gcode and Associates. U. S. Comm. Fish and Fisheries. Sect. V, Pt. VIII: 545-552. 

Radcliffe, Lewis 

1922. Fishery Industries of the United States. U. S. Bur. Fish. Doc. 932: 136 pp. 

Various Authors 

1929-1952. Fishery Statistics of the United States. U. S. Dept. Int., Fish and WUdlife Service. 




SEAL HUNTING BY AIR 

A veteran sealing captain is the eyes of Newfoundland's sealing expeditions . 
From an airplane he searches the ice floating southward from the Arctic waters 
for seals. Upon sighting the seals and their pups he broadcasts their position to 
the ships of the sealing fleet, saving hours of search by the vessels themselves. 
The captain has been sealing for 60 years, since he first joined the fleet at the 
age of 12 . 

--Trade News, March 1954 



16 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 




DETERMINATION OF OIL IN FISH MEAL 



The method for the determination of oil in fish meal which is given by the As- 
sociation of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC) (1950) entails considerable ma- 
nipulation, since two extractions of the meal with solvent are required. That is, 
the meal is first given an acetone extraction, and the extracted meal is digested 

with hydrochloric acid and thenre-ex- 
__J||l* tracted with acetone. Such a procedure 
_ IL is much more time-consuming than are 
l|) most of the methods for the determina- 
tion of oil in other feedstuffs. Conse- 
(^ quently, a number of feed-testing labo- 
' ratories have been using a simple one- 
step ethyl-ether extraction for fish meal 
in spite of the fact that this method may 
give oil-content values that are more 
than 75 percent too low. 

Although the AOAC acetone determi- 
nation yields far more accurate results 
than does the one-step ethyl-ether ex- 
traction, the AOAC method does tend to 
give values that are a little low if the 
samples of fish meal have been in stor- 
age for more than a year. 

The objective of the present project 
is to develop a modified procedure for 
oil in fish meal which will be simpler and 
less time-consuming than the AOAC meth- 
od. Efforts are also being directed to- 
wards improving the accuracy of results 
when the procedures are used on meals 
which have been in storage for protracted 
periods of time. 




Fig. 1 - Apparatus for refluxing experiments with fish meal. 
The meal and solvent are heated by means of heating man- 
tles the temperature of which is controlled by continuously 
adjustable transformers. The flasks, provided with stand- 
ard taper glass joints, are connected to water-cooled con- 
densers. 



In the AOAC method, two extractions 
are required because the first extraction 
of the meal with acetone removes only 
that portion of the oil which is loosely 
bound to the meal. A second portion of the oil is held to the meal in such a way that 
it can be solvent- extracted only after some sort of hydrolysis has taken place, such 
as is brought about by the refluxing of the meal with acid. This portion of "bound" 
oil in the meal is greater, the longer the meal has been held in storage. The a- 
mount of bound oil ranges from practically nothing in meals just as they emerge 
from the dryer of the reduction plant to 75 percent or more of the oil in certain meals 
which have been stored for periods of a year or more. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 17 

The increase in the proportion of bound oil with storage time takes place at a 
greater rate, the more unsaturated is the oil in the meal. Thus, in the case of 
meals made from cod or flounders (the oil of which species is, for fish oil, rela- 
tively low in unsaturation), the increase in binding of the oil to the meal occurs at 
a very slow rate. With herring meal, the increase in the rate of binding is consid- 
erable, and with pilchard meal (which contains oil that is highly unsaturated), the 
rate is very high. 

In previous experiments (Stansby 1953), it was shown that when pilchard meal 
is refluxed (rather than extracted) with acetone containing a little (8 percent) water, 
the solvent not only extracts the loosely-held oil but also hydrolyzes that which is 
bound tothemeal, releasing the oil and at the same time dissolving it. In such a 
procedure, it is possible to extract all of the oil in a single step. There is no cer- 
tainty, however, whether this procedure might not also extract considerable quan- 
tities of substances other than oils. The experiments at present under way are set 
up to determine whether the refluxing offish meals with 92-percent acetone plus 8 per- 
cent water extracts any significant amount of material which is of a non-lipid nature. 

In previous work on this problem, the solubility of the extractive in ethyl ether 
has been taken as a criterion of whether the extractive was oil. Recent experiments 
have shown that, for freshly-prepared meals, all of the material extracted by ace- 
tone is completely soluble in ethyl ether. This is true, however, only if the meals 
have really been freshly prepared. Meads which have aged for as short a time as 
12 hours may have undergone some change in the oil such that the extractives re- 
moved by acetone are no longer completely soluble in ethyl ether. 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 

Regular commercial meal is quite coarse and contains large particles of bone. 
Consequently it is so nonhomogeneous as to make a very unsatisfactory sample for 
analysis. Accordingly, the samples taken at the fish-meal plants were immediately 
ground in a laboratory milll.' adjusted to grind the meal to a fineness such that at 
least 99 percent of the meal passed through a 30-mesh screen and at least 85 per- 
cent through a 35-mesh screen. 

Wherever possible the meal was obtained immediately as it emerged from the 
dryer of the fish-meal plant. The ground (but not sieved) meal was mixed thorough- 
ly. Immediately, thereafter, samples of about 3 to 5 grams were accurately weigh- 
ed into glass-stoppered refluxing flasks, and other samples of about 4 to 5 grams 
were accurately weighed into thimbles held in small bottles fitted with leak-proof 
covers. The samples in the refluxing flasks were then covered with 92-percent ace- 
tone, and the samples in the thimbles were covered with 100-percent acetone. Cover- 
age of the samples with solvent prevented any oxidative changes from taking place 
while the samples were being conveyed to the laboratory for analysis. 

The samples in the flasks were refluxed (see equipment in fig. 1) for 18 hours 
with a total of 80 ml. of the 92-percent acetone. The mixture of the meal and sol- 
vent was then filtered through a sintered-glass funnel; the meal residue was washed 
several times with the solvent; and the total filtrate was evaporated just to dryness 
and then placed for one hour in a vacuum oven at 80 C. and 24-25 inches of vacuum. 
After being cooled for 45 minutes in a desiccator, the samples of oil were finally weighed. 

In the analysis of the thimble samples, which had been transported to the labora- 
tory in small bottles with leak-proof covers, the thimbles were transferred from the 
bottles to Sohxlet- extraction apparatus, and the samples were extracted for 16 hours 
with 100-percent acetone. The acetone used to protect the sample was a part of that 
used for the extraction. The residue was then hydrolyzed with acid and again given 
a 100-percent acetone extraction. A complete description of this procedure can be 
found in the methods of the AOAC (19 50). 
1/ Laboratory Construction Co. 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 17, No. 5 



Excess samples of the meals were stored in glass-stoppered bottles. At inter- 
vals of time these samples are being analyzed by the two procedures described a- 
bove. 

Experiments have been started in this way on two types of meals. One is a 
meal prepared from cod-fillet waste by commercial dry rendering; the other is a 
meal prepared from whole herring by commercial wet rendering (Butler 1947) and 
obtained from two different plants, which in this report are called plant 1 and plant 
2. 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 

The values in table 1 under the column headed "AOAC procedure (initial value)" 
represents the "true" oil content of the meals. In previous work it has been shown 
that all extractives obtained from strictly fresh meed by the AOAC procedure are 
soluble in ethyl ether. In order for the reflux procedure, using 92 percent acetone 
plus 8 percent water as solvent, to be practical, values obtained by it should not be 
greater (or much greater) than those obtained by the AOAC method. As can be seen 



Table 1 - Comparison of Analytical Data Obtained on the Oil Content of Various Fish Meals 
by the AOAC Procedure and by the Reflux Procedure 


Species of Fish 

from Which Meal 

Was Made 


Plant Producing 
Meal 


Oil Content of Meal 1 


AOAC 

Procedure 

{Initial Value) 


Reflux Procedure Using 92-Percent Acetone 1 


Initial Value 


Value after 

Meal Was Stored 

X Month 


Value after 

Meal Was Stored 

1 Month 


Cod 

Herring 

Herring 


Number 
1 
1 
2 


Percent 

8.5 

13.1 

12.1 


Percent 

8.3 

13.3 

13.5 


Percent 

13.0 
12.8 


Percent 

13.3 
12.1 



from table 1, both procedures gave similar values with the cod meal and with the 
herring meal from plant 1. Herring meal from plant 2 had a somewhat higher oil 
content as determined by the reflux procedure (13,5 percent) than by the AOAC pro- 
cedure (12. 1 percent). The value by the reflux method for this meal, however, de- 
clined quite rapidly with storage so that after the meal had been stored for one month 
no difference existed between the value obtained by the AOAC procedure on the fresh 
meal and by the reflux procedure on the one-month-old meal. Values on oil content 
of herring meal from plant 1 as determined by the reflux procedure showed no chcinge 
with storage over the one-month period. 

The two plants from which the herring meal was obtained were quite similar, 
both being of the wet-rendering type. Furthermore, the samples were obtained on 
the same day, and the herring used as the source of the meals were presumably 
identical, since all were taken from the same fishing ground. Hence, no explana- 
tion can be given for the difference in analytical results obtained with the two her- 
ring meals. 

Had all the results turned out like that for the cod and for the herring meal from 
plant 1, there would be good reason to believe that the reflux method employing 92- 
percent acetone extracted only oil and that it could therefore be used in place of the 
AOAC method. Because of the rather peculiar results obtained on herring meal from 
plant 2, however, it will be necessary to repeat the analyses with other herring 
meals. If most of the analyses by the reflux method deviate but little from those of 
the AOAC method and if, in the analyses that do deviate, the deviation is not great- 
er than occurred with the herring meal from plant 2, it may still be possible to use 
the reflux method with fish meals. Because of the small discrepancy occurringwith 
herring meal fronn plant 2, however, it will be necessary to obtain considerable 
data on other meal samples before this procedure can be adopted. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 19 

It is now planned to make comparative analyses on pilchard meal, which con- 
tains oil of a considerably greater degree of unsaturation than does herring oil. In ad- 
dition to such new experiments, work will, of course, continue in following the change, 
with storage time, in the extractives obtained on the three meals reported here . 

SUMMARY 

A rapid simple extraction method for the determination of oil in fish meal is 
being tried on different types of meals. This procedure involves a single extraction 
in which the meal is refluxed with a solvent composed of 92-percent acetone and 8- 
percent water. Experiments are under way to determine whether this procedure 
can replace the more complicated two-stage extraction method of the Association of 
Official Agricultural Chemists (1950). Preliminary experiments give considerable 
promise that this simple reflux method may be developed into a practical procedure, 
but additional work remains to be done before it can be recommended. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 

1950. Official and Tentative Methods of Analysis. Seventh Edition, Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, P. O. 
Box 540, Benjamin Franklin Station, Washington 4, D. C, p. 346. 

Bulter, C. 

1947. Fish Reduction Processes. U. S, Fish and WUdlife Service, Fishery Leaflet 126 (May 1947). 

Stansby, M. E. 

1953. Report on Fat in Fish Meal, Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 36, #2, pp. 202-8 (May 
1953). 

--M. E. Stansby, Chief, 

Pacific Coast and Alaska Technological Research, 

and Wm. Clegg, Chemist, 

Fishery Technological Laboratory, 

Branch of Commercial Fisheries, 

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Seattle, Wash. 



FRENCH-FRIED SHRIMP INCREASING IN POPULARITY 

With the advent of the electric deep-fat fryer, many hostesses can now fry 
shrimp right in the dining room, terrace, patio, or wherever they are entertaining. 
The shrimp may be crumb-coated or batter-coated; the coating may be lightly 
seasoned or highly seasoned. But, regardless of coating or seasoning, fishcook- 
ery experts say that French-Fried Shrimp are here to stay. Like the popcorn 
habit, you can't stop eating them as long as the supply holds out. 

The home economists of the Fish and Wildlife Service offer the following 
recipes as popular ways of preparing this appetizing, nutritious, and plentiful 
shellfish. 

FRENCH - FRIED SHRIMP 

, 1 

H POUNDS SHRIMP, FRESH OR FROZEN a CUP FLOUR 
2 EGGS, BEATEN i. CUP DRr BREAD 

1 TEASPOON SALT ^ CRUMBS 

Peel shrimp, leaving the last section of the shell on if desired. Cut almost 
through lengthwise and remove sand veins. Wash. Combine egg and salt. Dip 
each shrimp in egg, and roll in flour -and-crumb mixture . Fry in a basket in deep 
fat, 350 F ., for two to three minutes or until golden brown. Drain on absorbent 
paper. Serve plain or with a sauce. Serves 6. 



20 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 






n^KENDS 



AND 



^^DEVELOPMENTS 

Additions to the Fleet of U. S. Fishing Vessels 




A total of 24 vessels of 
craft during February 1955 
This was 41 vessels less 
than during the same month 
of last year--a decrease of 
63 percent. 

In the Gulf section only 
5 vessels were documented 
for the first time as fishing 
craft, compared to 32 dur- 
ing the same period a year 
ago. The New England 
States, Chesapeake States, 
and Gulf States each had 5 
additions to their fishing 
fleets followed by the Pa- 
cific section with 4, Alaska 
with 3, and the South At- 
lantic section with 2. 

During January- Feb- 
ruary 1955 only 42 vessels 
were documented as fishing 
period in 1953- -a decrease 



5 net tons and over received first documents as fishing 
(see table), according to the U. S. Bureau of Customs. 



U. S. Vessels Obtaining First Documents as Fishing 
Craft, February 1955 and Comparisons 


Section 


February 


Jan. -Feb. 


Total 


1955 1 1954 


1955 1 1954 


1954 




. . - - - fNumber) 1 


New England . 
Middle Atlantic 
Chesapeake Ba;; 
South Atlantic 
Gulf ..... 
Pacific . . . 
Great Lakes . 
Alaska .... 


f 


• 


5 

5 
2 

5 
4 

3 


1 

11 
12 
32 

7 

1 
1 


5 

I 

6 
8 
6 

7 


1 

19 
17 
67 
11 
2 
4 


23 

15 

93 

119 

313 

117 

6 

27 

1 

2 

1 


Hawaii .... 

Puerto Rico . 

Unknown . . . 

Total . . 






24 ^ 


65 


42 


121 


717 


Note: Vessels have been assigned to the various sections on the basis of their 
home port. 



craft, compared to 121 vessels for the corresponding 
of 65 percent. 



California 

YELLOWFIN AND SKIPJACK TUNA TAGGED BY "N. B. SCOFIELD" ( Cruise 



55-S-i): A total of 549 yellowfin tuna, 28 skipjack tuna, and 1 


yellowtail was tagged 


Fish Tagged by N. B. Scofield, January 5- March 1, 1955 ] 


Area 


Yellowfin Tuna | Skipjack Tuna i YellowtaU 


Total 


Baja California 




(Number of Fis 


a). 




- 




1 


1 


Mexico . 


237 


- 


- 


237 


Nicaragua 


16 


- 


- 


16 


Costa Rica ......... 


97 


7 


- 


104 


Cocos Island 


- 


2 


- 


2 


Panaxaa . . 


199 


19 


- 


218 


Total 


549 


28 


1 


578 



offshore from Mexico and Central America by the California Department of Fish and 
Game's research vessel N. B. Scofield . The 2-months' cruise, completed March 1, 
was also designed to further delineate the spawning range of yellowfin and skipjack; 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



21 



collect small yellowfin and skipjack for age determinations and stomach analysis; 

collect postlarval tunas for aquarium observations; make limited oceanographic 

observations; and collect speci- 
mens of other species for further 
study. 

Extensive night light collec- 
tions were made and among the 
specimens identified were several 
postlarval yellowfin tuna. Further 
studies were to be made on these. 

Several small yellowfin were 
preserved whole for age analysis 
and scale samples were saved from 
others. Stomach samples andmor- 
phometric measurements were tak- 
en from various sizes of yellowfin 
and skipjack. 

Postlarval yellowfin were suc- 
cessfully kept alive in an aquarium 
for as long as two weeks. A rapid 
rate of growth caused them to outgrow the aquarium and death resulted. 

Surface temperature observations were made during the entire cruise and nine 
bathythermograph casts were made off Mexico. 

Several hundred other specimens were saved alive or preserved frozen or in 
formaldehyde. These were to be identified and disposed of to various interested in- 
stitutions and agencies. 

***** 




MA' N. B. Scofield Cruise 55-S-l , January 5-March 1, 1955. 



PACIFIC HERRING SPAWING SCHOOLS OBSERVED FROM AIR ( Airplane Spot- 
ting Flights 55-1 and 55-2 ): Five schools of Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasi ) were 
located in the Tomales Bay area by a California Department of Fish and Game plane 
on January 27 (Flight 55-1), and estimates were made of their volume. The one in- 
shore school at the mouth of the Bay was not seen due to high water turbidity outside 
the breaker zone. Seals and shore birds were extensively working the localized area 
and gave evidence that a school was present. 

The flight was made (1) to determine if the potentied spawning schools of Pacif- 
ic herring known to be present in Tomales Bay would be visible from the air; (2) to 
locate the visible schools and estimate the approximate size of the school; and (3) 
to make observation as to the feasibility of using aerial methods in spawning-popu- 
lation estimation and tracing the movements of the major schools of fish. 

The Bay water was turbid and visibility in the water was restricted to a few feet 
below the surface. Due to their tendency to migrate to greater depths during the 
midday hours (negative phototrophism), the number of herring present was probably 
far in excess of the number seen. The persistent morning fog restricted operations 
to the midday hours but early morning and late evening flights are planned for the 
future for further tests on this method of fishery survey. 

Flight 55-2 was made in two parts on February 4 to observe and estimate the 
extent of herring spawning schools in the Tomales and San Francisco Bay areas. 
Also to observe the extent of inshore fish life in the area from Bodega Bay to Mon- 
terey. 



22 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



On the first section of the flight (0800-1130 P.S.T.), no schools were seen in 
the areas of N. San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Carquinez Straits. Ex- 
treme turbid water conditions exist in these areas, making only 2 or 3 feet below 
the surface visible from the air. Seals and birds were observed working the area 
between Line Pt. and Belvedere in the Angel Island area. Little seal or bird activ- 
ity was observed in Tomales Bay and no schools of fish were spotted. 





Airplane Spotting Flight 55-1, Beechcraft 4758 N , Janu- 
ary 27, 1955. 



Airplane Spotting Flight 55-2, Beechcraft 4758 N, Febru- 
ary 4, 1955. 



On the inshore flight from Bodega Head to Halfmoon Bay no schools, or evi- 
dences of birds or seals working any localized areas, were found. 

An inshore flight covering Monterey Bay was made in the second section of the 
flight (1330-1630 P.S.T.), and resulted in the spotting of 6 schools of anchovies and 
74 basking sharks. 

Four schools of anchovies were observed off Moss Landing and two just south 
of Santa Cruz, All schools off Moss Landing were accompanied by bird activity. 
The two schools south of Santa Cruz were over 100 tons each and were well below 
the surface. All 74 basking sharks were counted between Aptos and Moss Landing, 
within 1-| miles of shore. 

Eight schools of herring were seen in Tomales Bay and all schools observed 
evidenced rapid movement as none of the schools would stay in the visible range for 
any period of time. 



PACIFIC HERRING SPAWNING INTENSITY CHECKED WITH AID OF AERIAL 
OBSERVATIONS ( Aircraft Spotting Flights 55-3 , 55-4 , and 55-5 ): After spawning 
along rocky shore lines, the eggs of the Pacific herring ( Glupea pallasi ) are ex- 
posed at the low-tide level and suffer heavy predation by shore birds. This results 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



23 



in concentrations of birds in the areas where spawning has taken place and enables aerial 
observers to locate the spawning areas and estimate their shoreline extent. This infor 
mationis relayed to ground per- 
sonnel who then make a spawn- 
ing-intensity check of the area. 

In February, California 
Department of Fish and Ganne 
aircraft made three flights to 
shorelines of San Francisco, 
San Pablo, and Tomales Bays 
to observe the Pacific herring 
spawning areas . Carquinez 
Straits and Drake's Estero 
were covered on two of the 
flights only . 

On Flight 55-3 (February 4), 
heavy concentrations of birds 
were spotted in the Belvedere, 
T ibur on. Bluff Pt. area. Light- 
er concentrations were off 
Sausalito, Richmond-San Pablo 
areas . In Tomales Bay light 
concentrations of birds and 
three schools, possibly of her- 
ring , were spotted . No activity 
in any other observed areas . 

Heavy bird concentrations 
were noted on Flight 55-4 on 
February 17 off Tiburonand 
Bluff Pt. Light off Sausalito 
and Richmond, San Pablo area . 
Heavy concentrations off Hog 
Island in Tomales Bay. (See 
map.) 

Flight 55-5 on February 22 showed heavy concentrations east of Tiburon and 
off Richmond, San Pablo area; light concentration in other areas. No shoreline bird 
activity was observed in Tomales Bay or Drake's Estero. 

YELLOWTAIL FREEZING SHRINKAGE TESTS BY " YELLOWFIN " ( Cruise 
55-Y-l ): An experiment to determine the shrinkage of yellowtail due to freezing 
was one of the objectives of a 34-day cruise completed at Los Angeles on February 
13 by the California Department of Fish and Game's research vessel Yellowfin . In 
addition, 367 yellowtail were tagged; specimens were collected from the Gulf of California 
for comparision with yellowtail from Southern California and the west coast of Baja Cal- 
ifornia; and an unsuccessful attempt was made to collect yellowtail juveniles . 

Shrinkage resulting from freezing can only be determined by first measuring 
fish on board ship where freshly-caught specimens are available. Seventy-four yel- 
lowtail were used in an experiment to determine this loss. Fresh fish were meas- 
ured, frozen for periods of from one to ten weeks, thawed, andremeasured . At least one 
fish from each 100 -mm. -size group was frozen and thawed twice . Significant shrinkage 
appears evident although the experiment is not yet completed. This information is nec- 
essary to complete the yellowtail growth studies . 

A total of 76 yellowtail specimens was saved frozen. Of these, 31 from the Gulf 
of California represent the first specimens obtainable for racial studies. 




Aircraft Spotting Flights 55-3, 55-4, and 55-5, February 4, 17, and 22, 
1955. 



24 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17. No. 5 



Tagging resulted in 367 fish marked: 18 in the Gulf of California and 349 on the 
Pacific side of Baja California. Noyellowtail were found north of latitude 26 21.6' N. 
Viny lite -tubing tags with a monofilament -nylon center were used on all fish. An ex- 
perimental tag attached through the roof of the mouth was tried on four fish. 

Ye Uowtail fishing by trolling, with hand lines, or with rod and reel was attemptedat 
26 stations along the west coast of Baja California and in the GuK of California along the 
east side of the peninsula as far north as Coronado Island. The weather was unfavorable 
much of the time with strong north or northwest winds of gale force . 

No small yellowtail were seen. With the exception of bait species (anchovies, jack 
and Pacific mackerel, jack smelt, thread herring, andflatirons ( Harengula) , veryfew 
fish were attracted to the night light which was used at every opportunity. Using the 
blanket net, bait was taken under the night light at five localities . Sardines taken at San 
Juanico Bay were sampled in accordance with standard survey cruise procedure . 

A total of 108 boney fish and three sharks representing 35 different species, 
which were taken in the course of yellowtail fishing, were saved frozen. A few 
more small preserved specimens were still to be identified. The fish will be given 
to persons or institutions engaged in fisheries work. 

Surface temperatures and bathythermograph casts were taken at each station 
where yellowtail were found. Water temperatures were generally cold with a maxi- 
mum of 18.5° C . (65 .3° F .) north of Geralbo Island and a minimum of 15 .3 C . 
(59.5 F.) west of San Juanico Point. 



Canned Tuna Promotion Campaign 

SERVICE TO COOPERATE IN JOINT INDUSTRY - GOVERNMENT CAMPAIGN: 
In response to requests from the Pacific Coast tuna canning industry. Secretary"^ 



SPECIAL M^!M5!^ BULLETIN 
MARKETING 




IQQ4 






in^CP^ 




TWO GOVtRHHliHT-TtSJlD RtCIPiS 

ESPECIALLY FOR SCHOOL LUNCH USE 



MOLDED TUNA 



too Porrimu 


,n^,«,u 


Porti™ 


C^ 


IT 7-oniiM cuu 


Ton. 






SDmcaidcup) 


CdmtlD 






IV, t>llo>» 


TuulsJnla'T 






H«[> 


ViBtgU 






8 DODca (1 cop) 


G»l«l ObI« 






S «in« (1 cft) 


Sdiu- 






1 [.tdfpMU 


Silt . 






"•alTjL, 


3.™W«.C«™c 






^."^lon) 


ShrtddnlCibtare 






S omicn (1 cup) 


Choppnl Cr«B Pcppci 






l<,..rt 


"iJr'^.ir"^'** 






"^7^ ' ™bFr"'°"'*''' '*°* Cort p« p«.Uon 

TUNA A lA KD 


100 Portia 


I.<»rf<»i. 


/--"^ 


C~i 


U 7.«w»<ut 


Tdu 






(I quiU) 


a«VP«iCtltrj 






1 (sllon 


Water 






«ff^) 


aifUdFV»>T 








3dl 






'^(.■TS^) 


DrjMUk-t 






iHr.n™ 


';ir„S^'=^ 






Ido^n 


Chopped 






"TmSt.) 


Chopprt Plalenlo 










In cdcry, eg^' plinieii 
e on split blacujt, tot 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



25 



the Interior McKay announced April 11 that the Fish and Wildlife Service would co- 
operate in a joint industry-Government promotion campaign designed to move into 
trade channels the liberal supplies of canned tuna now on hand. The nationwide cam- 
paign got under way early in April and was geared to reach its peak during the peri- 
od of June 2-11 . 



TWO GOVlRNfUtm-TtSTtD RfC/PfS 

ESPECIALLY FOR SCHOOL LUNCH USE 



TVNA WI«CIJB 



too PortJuu 


.-^-.«. 


--- C-ti-. 


C-. 


Sll-i.^,.^ 


T.U 






II...<.<ltl.ll 


Cba(i»cdOniM 






iriM 


W.ln 






"i.TS^., 


Slrifd Flwt 






l,™i 


D„«l,l,-, 






"SSI.U, 






V: «.IIon. 


W.I.,- 






1., ,.11.™ 


Ca>k.d r.... DralBM t 






•*"S,.i^. 


'"~~ 


TUNA PIK 


100 r««l<Mu 




P It, 










MT.«ii«*(u* 


Tom 






"ri",»ru> 


SltUd Floor 






», cup 


Skit 






".'I'r;^ 


T««01l.,ll*-R.l 






lV,fll<m. 


Woltt 






1 qaarti 


CMkid Slk>d ObIm 






Iqurti 


C»kad 0x199** C*l>rT 






J4U>Mi 


Cookfd Sll»d Camli 






I',|.llou 


C«kt4 Dln4 Potalac* 






*'""* 


P„.r,H.. 







rivo GovfRNMENr-rfsrcD rec/pes 

SUGGESTED FOR RESTAURANT I INSTtTUTATIONAL USE 



TUNA SALAD 



YIELD: 100 PORTIONS 



PORTION: 5 OUNCES 



INGREDIENTS 



6 pounds 
I J pounds 
3 pounds 



MEASURES 



) and mayonnaiS' 



Place salad on lett 



coop (2/3 cup) to t 



TUNA AND NOODLE CASSEROLE 


YIELD: 100 PORTIONS PORTION: 9 J OUNCES 


INGREDIENTS 


WEIGHTS 


MEASURES 


Tuna 


42 cans(7«. «ch) 




Noodles 


S pounds 




Tuna oil & melted shorlemng 




Ij quarts 




ij pounds 


1^ quarts 






3 gallons 




li ounces 


3 tablespoons 


Green peppers, chopped 


2/3 pound 


1 pint 


Onions, chopped 


2/3 pound 


1 pint 


Cheese, grated 


2 pounds 


2 quarts 


1. Drain tuna, save oil for while aauce, and flake, | 


2. Cook noodles according to directions. 




3. Heat fat, stir in flour and mix until smooth. 


Remove from heat. 


Add this fat-flour mixture slowly to the hot n 


ilk, stirring 


constantly with a wire whip until mixture is e 


mooth. Cook 5 to 10 


minutes or until thickened. 




4. Cook pepper and onion in salted water until te 


nder, drain Add to 


white sauce 




5. Combine tuna, noodles and white sauce. 




6 Pour into weU-greased baking pans. 




7. Sprinkle with cheese. 




8, Bake in a moderate oven. 3^5° F.. for 40 lo 45 minutes, | 



Although record stocks of canned tuna were available, leaders of the industry 
were confident that this high inventory can be substantially reduced during the cam- 
paign, since canned tuna fits so well into warm-weather menus. With a stock of this 
versatile canned food on her pantry shelf, the housewife can provide her family with 
a variety of quick and easy-to-prepare summer meals. With the low prices now 
prevailing, canned tuna presents an especially good bargain for summer use. 

In order to move the canned tuna stocks as rapidly as possible, the campaign 
will be directed toward both the institutional and home -consumer markets. The in- 
dustry is planning the preparation of point-of-sale and other merchandising aids 
for use in encouraging increased consumption of canned tuna. 

The Fish and Wildlife Service will aid the industry's promotional efforts through 
special work with schools, institutions, and food-trade groups. In addition, informa- 
tional and educational activities will be increased so as to attract greater consumer 
attention. The Service will also work closely with the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture in this campaign. 

Canned tuna is available in a number of styles of pack. The solid pack con- 
sists of tuna loins packed in oil; the chunk pack, as the name implies, is a pack of 
chunks in oil; the grated pack is the grated or shredded portion of the tuna loin; the 
flake pack is the broken or mixed seginents of the loin. Many specialty packs are 



26 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



also available, such as "tonno" consisting of solid-meat tuna packed in olive oil; tuna 
paste, which is excellent for hors d'oevres and canapes; and baby-food packs. For 
the past several years a "dietetic" pack has been put up for those persons who must 
avoid salt in their diets. Practically all of these styles of pack are available in white 
meat, light meat, or dark meat. The imported stocks, which come primarily from 
Japan, are generally packed in brine rather than in oil. 



Cans- -Shipments for Fishery Products, January 1955 

Total shipments of metal cans for fish and sea food during January 
1955 amounted to 4,743 short tons of steel (based on the amount of steel 
consumed in the manufacture of cans), compared to 4, 131 short tons in 
the same month a year earlier. This represents stocking for future 
fish canning operations since canning activity in January 1955 was at a 

low level. 

Note: Statistics cover all commercial and captive plants knovm to be producing metal cans. Reported in base boxes of steel 
consumed in the manufacture of cans, the data for fishery products are converted to tons of steel by using the factor; 23.0 
base boxes of steel equal one short ton of steel. 




Chesapeake Bay 

FISHERIES TRENDS . 1954 : Finfish: The most important development in the 
Chesapeake Bay fisheries in 1954 was the exceptionally good season enjoyed by the 
menhaden industry. The catch of 
294 million pounds of menhaden was 
an all-time record for the number 
of boats involved. There were less 
than 20, several of which worked 
only part time. Much credit for 
this success was given to the scout- 
ing planes. . If doubts existed as to 
their efficiency, they were dispelled 
in 1954. Their future as an indispen- 
sable adjunct to the boats for scout- 
ing purposes seemed assured. 

Next in abundance were ale- 
wives, which arrived in such quan- 
tities at the canners' docks that 
some had to be refused for lack 
of handling space. These were 
processed by the menhaden plants. 
When all catch records are tabu- 
lated it is expected that 1954 will 
be an exceptional year for ale- 
wives also. The alewtfe industry, however, was not cheered by this abundance as 
markets have been steadily shrinking. Aside from unpredictable and temporary al- 
leviations like the last war or the recent pilchard shortage on the West Coast, the 
packers have found the going difficult and profits small. During 1954 five addition- 
al plants closed down. 

Other commercial finfish like shad, striped bass or rockfish, croaker, sea 
trout, spot, flounder, and butterfish followed their usual pattern of abundance in one 




Iced boxed sea bass, scup, and fluke ready for loading on a truck at 
Hampton, Va. Fish is destined for New York Fulton Fish Market. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 27 

area and scarcity in another. For example, the Potomac, normally a good shad 
river, suffered one of its poorest seasons; the York, not noted for overwhelming 
catches, one of its best. 

Croaker appeared in random catches, but sold at low prices. Ten years ago the 
demand was such that croaker was the money fish of the Chesapeake. With persis- 
tent scarcity during ensuing years it has become virtually the forgotten fish. 

Striped bass or rockfish catches although not overabundant managed to keep 
that species a fairly dependable standby in the Chesapeake Bay during 1954. Prices 
were among the highest for any fish, especially during the cold weather. Striped 
bass support one of the few winter fisheries of the Chesapeake. 

Spot and sea trout were last on the list of fish --aside from those brought infrom 
the ocean by trawlers --to be present in quantity. But they were as usual subject to 
sporadic runs and did not support organized fishery, 

Scup or porgy was the leading ocean fish landed at Chesapeake Bay ports in 1954. 
Next in abundance was sea bass, but in only one-third the volume. Other species, 
generally, were landed in the same volume as the previous year. Mackerel gill- 
netting shrank to a mere token of its size of a few years ago. 

Clam Fishery : One outstanding ocean fishery, surf-clam dredging, continued 
unabated, even increasing its yield to the limit the market would allow. The beds, 
which lie off Ocean City, Md. , showed no sign of exhaustion. 

Fresh - Water Fish: In the fresh-water areas of Chesapeake Bay in 1954 some 
lessening of the carp supply was noted but no distress resulted. There is a demand 
for only a limited quantity of carp shipped alive during certain periods like the Jew- 
ish holidays. Catfish remained in adequate supply for its specialized markets, as 
was the case with eels. Snapping turtles increased in value as the fishing pressure 
on the slow-growing animal produced its inevitable results. Demand was spurred 
for a short while by the introduction of a nationally-distributed frozen canned snap- 
per soup. 

Crabs : Crabs were plentiful enough to enable crab-meat pickers to surpass 
their production of the previous year, which was a good crab year. Soft crabs, 
though glutting the market briefly, settled down to a rather sparse yield for the bal- 
ance of the season. 

Oysters : Oyster production in the fall of 1954 was good after rather limited 
activity in the spring. Although the October hurricane damaged oyster beds, boats, 
and plants, there was swift recovery. In addition, in most of the producing areas 
the industry was favored by the prime condition of the oyster meats which enabled 
packers to get greater yield. Prices toward the year's end reached all-tiine highs, 
possibly aided by the entry into the Chesapeake market of the frozen-oyster-stew 
manufacturers . 

The great Ja-mes River seed bed continued to produce pretty much as before, 
with nearly 2 million bushels caught by the nearly 1,000 tongers working there. 
Cut off from this market by an official Virginia ruling, Maryland interests endeav- 
ored to spur development of seed areas in their own state. Some of them formed 
corporations in Virginia in order to take up leaseholds for oyster growing there. 

Processed Fish : No new fish processing or producing enterprises were set up 
in the Chesapeake Bay area during 1954, althour^h several established firms em- 
barked on new lines, among which fish sticks predominated. Other specialties, 
either newly introduced or continued from a previous year, were breaded oysters, 
crab meat in various forms, frozen-canned packs of raw oysters, cooked shrimp. 



28 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



oyster stew, and clam soup. Scrap fish canned as animal food showed an increase, 
but a factory newly equipped to produce this item in the Hampton Roads area hesi- 
tated to start operations because of threatened price cutting in the industry as a 
whole. 

Summary : If the Chesapeake Bay fisheries lacked dynamic qualities in 1954 it 
also failed to show evidence of serious recession. The losses and close-downs in 
some segments were pretty well balanced by advances in others. No strong progres- 
sive tendencies appeared, though a few minor ones offered reassurance. 

--James Wharton, Fishery Marketing Specialist, 
Branch of Commercial Fisheries, 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Weems, Va. 



Purchases of Fresh and Frozen Fishery Products by 

Department of Defense (February and the First 2 

Months of 1955 and 1954) 



QUANTITY 



February 



Jan. -Feb. 



1955_XJ.954_ 



1955T"T95^. 

. . (Millions of Pounds) 
1.8 2.4 I 3. 8 I 3. 



VALUE 



February 



1955 I 1954 



Jan, 



1955 



-Feb. 
I 1954 



. (Millions of Dollars) . 
0. 8 I 1.0 I 1.6 I 1.6 



Federal Purchases of Fishery Products 

FRESH AND FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS PURCHASED BY DEPARTMENT 
OF DEFENSE , FEBRUARY 1955 : Fresh and frozen fishery products purchases for 
the military feeding of the U. S. Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force by the 
Army Quartermaster Corps in February 1955 amounted to 1,8 million pounds, val- 
ued at $0. 8 million (see table). This was a decrease of 15.4 percent in quantity and 

12.5 percent in value as 
compared with January 
purchases, and lower by 
27.4 and 25.5 percent, 
respectively, than Febru- 
ary 1954 purchases. 

Army Quartermaster 
Corps purchases of fresh 
and frozen fish and shell- 
fish during the first 2 
months in 1955 totaled 3.8 million pounds Cvalued at $1.6 million) as compared with 
purchases of 3.8 million pounds (valued at $1.6 million) for the similar period a 
year earlier. 

Prices paid for fresh and frozen fishery products by the Department of the Army 
in February 1955 averaged 42.8 cents per pound as compared with 41.4 cents in Jan- 
uary and 41.8 cents in February 1954. 

In addition to the purchases of fresh and frozen fishery products indicated above, 
the Armed Forces generally make local purchases which are not included in the a- 
bove figures. Therefore, actual purchases are somewhat higher than indicated, but 
it is not possible to obtain data on the local purchases made by military establish- 
ments throughout the country. 

<^?^^ 

Fish-Stick Plant Opened in Mobile by U. S. 
Distributor of Norwegian Fish 

A Jersey City, N. J., distributor of Norwegian frozen fillets recently opened 
a fish-stick plant at MobUe, Ala., according to a March 17 bulletin from the Nor- 
wegian Information Service. Initially producing some 100, 000 fish sticks a day, the 
plant can readily be expanded to meet the demand. The Jersey City corporation, 
which maintains permanent stocks in 20 United States cities, is U. S. sales repre- 
sentative for 35 fish-filleting plants in Norway. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 29 

Founded in 1946, the Norwegian parent company is a cooperative sales and 
marketing organization, comprising most of the filleting plants launched in Norway 
since World War II. In 1954 about 18, 600 metric tons of frozen fillets, with an ex- 
port value of some Kr. 51 million (US$7. 1 million), was sold to 16 countries, with 
the bulk going to the United States. Other major buyers included Austria, Switzer- 
land, Israel, and the Netherlands. Meanwhile, new markets are being developed in 
Australia and Africa. 

The Norwegian fillet production consists mainly of cod, wolffish (ocean catfish), 
ocean perch, halibut, and some pollock. Cod fillets make up the major share of the 
total frozen fillet output, with haddock and ocean catfish ranking about equal as next 
in importance in quantity produced. The composition of the Norwegian exports to the 
United States, however, is somewhat different. In 1952 exports consisted of about 
75 percent haddock and ocean catfish fillets, 20 percent cod fillets, and 5 percent 
ocean perch fillets. Most of the cod fillets were sold in European markets. 

Approximately 99 percent of Norway's frozen fillet exports are handled by this 
sales and marketing organization which consists of primary producers operating on 
a share basis according to the production capacity. The association pays plants an 
agreed price for fillets produced, and furnishes wrappings, cartons, and labels, all 
imprinted with one trade name. The price may be adjusted in accordance with changes 
in the cost of raw materials. 




Gear Research and Development 

UNDERWATER LISTENING TESTS FOR SHRIMP CONTINUED BY " POMPANO " 
( Cruise J): Further tests with underwater sound gear to determine the practicability 
of detection or location of commercial species of shrimp by means of passive listen- 
ing devices were carried out by the Service's gear research vessel Pompano . The 
vessel made these tests on the Key West shrimp grounds from January 12 to March 
18, after which the vessel returned to Miami, Earlier experiments with shrimp in 
tanks had established that these shrimp do make discernible sounds apparently as- 
sociated with feeding activities. 

Thirty- six tape recordings were made at 11 different stations on the shrimp 
grounds adjacent to Key West and also in known bad bottom areas northeast of Key 
West where normal dragging operations are not possible. A 20 -foot try net was 
systematically employed to verify the presence of shrimp in conjunction with the re- 
cording work. An analysis and report of these recordings is nearing completion in 
cooperation with the University of Miami Marine Laboratory, 

Attempts to observe shrimp in their, natural habitat were hampered by hydro- 
scopic conditions unfavorable to work with underwater lamps at night. It is felt that 
the presence of the underwater lamps may have had some effect on the activities of 
the shrimp. Some observations of captive specimens of Pandalus duorarum have 
shown the shrimp buried in the sand with only the eyes protruding in daylight hours. 
They would emerge to feed in late afternoon and were seen to again bury themselves. 
While most shrimp in the tank were observed to be swimming during the hours of 
darkness, not all shrimp emerged from the sand. No regular pattern could be as- 
certained for the behavior of the captive shrimp during the period of observations. 

During the period March 12-16, with the assistance of the chartered shrimp 
trawler Miss Ethel W, the underwater television unit was used to observe shriinp 
trawls in operation. Despite less than optimum water conditions for underwater 
television operation, reasonably good views from several angles of observation were 
obtained of a 70-foot semi-balloon trawl and a 40-foot flat trawl. Some photograph- 
ic record was made of these observations. 



30 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



From time to time, as opportunity permitted during the work in the Key West 
area, experiments were conducted with four different types of shrimp traps. Only 
skeletal evidence was obtained of shri mp having entered some of the traps. 
Note: Also see Commercial Fisheries Review, June 1954, p. 14. 



Hawaii 



COMMERCIAL FISH AND SHELLFISH CATCH, 1954 : The commercial fish 
landings for ocean fisheries in the Territory of Hawaii in 1954 totaled 20,5 million 
pounds, valued at $3.7 million ex-vessel (see table), according to a report from the 
Hawaiian Division of Fish and Game, This was an increase of 9,2 percent in quan- 
tity as compared with the previous year. This increase was largely due to the ex- 
ceptionally large skipjack tuna (aku) catch by boats operating from the islands of 
Hawaii and Maui, However, there was a slight decrease in value of $105,000 or 2,8 
percent. This was due mostly to the price of skipjack tuna which sold for an aver- 
age of 12,6 cents per pound in 1954, compared to 13,2 cents per pound in 1953. 



Hawaiian Commercial Fish Catch and Value by Species, 1954 and 1953 | 




Species 


1954 


1953 1 


Quantity 


Ex-vessel Value 


Quantity 


Ex-vessel Value 


English 


Hawaiian 


1,000 Lbs. 


1,000 $ 


1,000 Lbs. 


1,000 $ 


Dcean Catch: 


kahala 


68 


13 


95 


18 


Amberjack 


Big- eyed scad 


akule 


324 


205 


314 


202 


Dolphin 

r 


mahamahi 
weke-ula 


236 

1 


77 


163 

] 


67 

1 


Goatfish J 


weke 

moana 

kumu 


\ 169 


100 


\ 164 


I 110 


Jack crevalle 


ulua 


215 


63 


297 


94 


Mackerel 


opelu 


274 


88 


249 


93 


Sea bass 


hapuupuu 


40 


12 


74 


21 


Snapper: 












Gray 


uku 


66 


24 


74 


30 


Pink 


opakapaka 


175 


71 


215 


87 


Swordfishes | 


kalekale 
a'u 


1,052 


183 


953 


220 


Tuna and tunalike fishes: 










Albacore 


ahipalaha 


29 


5 


49 


8 


Big-eyed \ 
Yellowfin J 


ahi 


2,759 


672 


2,826 


761 


526 


137 


622 


157 


Skipjack 


aku 


14,021 


1,761 


12,059 


1,594 


Bonito 


kawakawa 


23 


4 


25 


5 


Miscellaneous 
Total Ocean Catch 


- 


548 


238 


620 


291 


20,523 


3,653 


18,799 


3,758 


Pond Catch: 












Clam 


olepe 


13 


3 


10 


2 


Crabs 


- 


4 


2 


4 


2 


Milkfish 


awa 


16 


7 


10 


4 


Mullet 


amaama 


41 


37 


30 


26 


Tenpounder 


awaawa 


2 


1 


3 


1 


Miscellaneous 
Total Pond Catch 


_ 


9 


5 


7 


5 


87 


55 


64 


40 


Grand Total 


- 


20,609 


3,708 


18,863 


3,798 



In the flag-line fishery, landings of large tuna (ahi), swordfishes (a'u), and oth- 
er pelagic fishes such as wahoo (ono) and dolphin (mahimahi) totaled 4. 6 million 
pounds, valued at $1.1 million. This is a decrease of 1.0 (percent) in volume and 
12, 1 percent in value as compared with 1953. The disproportionate decrease in val- 
ue is largely due to the price of tuna (albacore, big-eyed, and yellowfin) which sold 
for an average price of 24. 6 cents per pound, compared to 26. 5 cents per pound in 
1953. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



31 



Gulf of Mexico 

ADDITIONAL CONTINENTA L SHELF AREA S NOMINATED FOR OIL AND GAS_ 
LEASE SALE : Eleven operators have nominated 595, OOOacres of certain submerged 
lands in the outer-continental shelf off the coast of Louisiana and Texas as potential 
oil and gas areas they would like to see put up for future bonus bidding, it was an- 
nounced on March 30 by Secretary of the Interior Douglas McKay. 

The nominations, submitted to the Bureau of Land Management in response to 
a February 8 call, were being studied to determine if another public-lease sale is 
advisable in the near future, the Secretary stated. 

The previous sales, on October 13, 1954, for lands off Louisiana and on Novem- 
ber 9, 1954, for Texas, brought bonusbids andfirst-year rentals totaling $142.4 mil- 
lion for 114 oil, gas, and sulphur leases embracing 462, 000 acres of outer-continental 
shelf land. 

Some 20 million acres in all have been mapped by the Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment's cadastral engineers for potential leasing in the outer-continental shelf area. 

Bonus bids are the means provided in the law by which the right to lease is de- 
termined in areas where there is competition. 



Maryland 

SURF - CLAM INDUSTRY AT OCEAN CITY EXPA NDS: The Maryland surf-clam 
fishery, only about five years old, is a new and thriving offshore industry in the Ocean 
City area, states the March 1955 Maryland Tidewater News of the Maryland Depart- 
ment of Research and Education. The surf clam, Spisula (Mactra) solidissima , is 




larger than the hard-shell clam, Mercenaria (Venus) mercenaria , andhas a muchthin- 
nershell. The meat, which is white and firm but not too tough to make good chowder, has 
many and varied uses. Much of the canned clam chowder as well as other canned clam 
products suchas deviled clam and clam juice are now made from this species. The clam 
is also used extensively as fish bait after being salted or pickled in brine . Cod and cer- 
tain sport fish are said to feed heavily on them. 

The surf clam is distributed in the Atlantic Ocean along the coast from Rhode Is- 
land to Virginia in commercial quantities, and in recent years has been exploited ex- 
tensively. In the northern part of its range there are indications that it is already being 
depleted and a shift in the fishing from New England to New Jersey and to recently- 
discovered beds in Maryland, has taken place. These clams are found in sandy beds 
from 3-70 miles off the coast and in water depths of 20-100 feet or more. 

Clams are harvested by dredges of a special type, which are equipped with 2 to 
6 jets connected by a fire hose to a powerful water pump on the boat. Water is pump- 
ed through these jets as the dredge is being dragged along the bottom. The water 



32 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 17, No. 5 



loosens the clams from the sand and the dredge scoops them from the bottom. The 
widths of the various dredges range from 3P to 60 inches across, and the dredges 
weigh up to a ton and a half. 



The larger dredges may catch as many 
Eight dredge boats were operating out of Oc 



Table 1 - Surf Clam Production (Meals) 
at Ocean City, Md. , 1952-54 


Year 


Quantity 1 / 


Value 


Avg. Price 


1954 
1953 
1952 


1, POP Lbs. 
1, 346 
, ,1,586 
-' 624 


1, POP $ 
168 
185 
78 


1? Per Lb. 
12 
12 
12 


1/ Based on 12 pounds of meat per bag. 
2/ Records lacking from two boats. 



are reported now in bags instead of bushels 



as 20 bushels of clams at a single drag, 
ean City in 1952 and many more were 
working from New Jersey ports. In 
May 1954 records from 11 boats were 
received by the Chesapeake Biological 
Laboratory. The vessels, most of 
which were formerly in the otter trawl 
fishery off Ocean City, were converted 
to clam dredges, and for the past five 
years have been landing in Ocean City. 
The best records available for 1951 in- 
dicate that the total number landed was 
80, 000 bushels. Later statistics which 
are shown in table 1. 



The skippers of some of the dredge boats already feel that the beds off the Mary- 
land coast are becoming depleted. They base this belief on the fact that it takes 
them longer to catch a load, and that they are now working beds farther offshore 
than they did in 1953. Apparently the clams cannot stand heavy exploitation and are 
declining appreciably in numbers. 

The boats are not equipped to work in water deeper than about 100 feet, so there 
may be beds of clams farther offshore which are as yet unexploited. Also, they may 
range and occur in commercial quantities farther south than is now known. It is be- 
lieved by some of the boat captains that the type of dredges currently employed de- 
stroy many young clams which are dug out of the sand and crushed by the dredge. 

Observations indicate that clams caught closer to shore have much heavier 
shells than those caught farther out in the ocean. Some fishermen believe this to be 
an adaptive device as the inshore clams need a heavier shell to protect them from the 
wave action while the offshore ones do not. On the other hand, it may indicate a 
lack of calcium in the bottom waters farther offshore. Virtually nothing is known 
about the spawning development, age and growth, mortality rates, feeding habits, 
and other important aspects in the biology of this species, information that is need- 
ed for the formulation of future policies of management. 



Striped bass 



FACTS ON STRIPED BASS FISHERY : The heated controversy between commer- 
cial and recreational fishing interests, which occurred prior to and during the cur- 
rent session of the Maryland General As- 
sembly, points out the need for addition- 
al basic knowledge of the State's fisher- 
ies. The need is great not only for more 
biological information but for knowledge 
of the economic and sociological aspects 
of its fisheries, reports the March 1955 
Maryland Tidewater News, a Maryland 
Department of Research and Education 
publication. 

1. There is no biological or statis- 
tical evidence of depletion of striped bass or "rockfish. " The striped bass popula- 
tion apparently is in a normal period of recession between dominant year classes-- 
which may originate from small parent stocks. The trend is steadily upward since 
earliest records . 




May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 33 

2. The amount of gear has decreased since 1951 and all gears are below the 
1944-1952 average except for anchor nets. 

3. The catch during January-February 1953 of drift gill nets was 5 percent of 
total 1953 catch; all gears operating during January and February caught 10. 7 per- 
cent of the total. The fish command a high price and are in peak market demand. 

4. No change in catch per yard of netting since 1947 (nylon is cleaner, more 
rot-resistant, lighter--but no stronger in water--actually loses some of breaking 
strength). 

5. Striped bass move into deep water to a stable winter habitat which is rela- 
tively unaffected by the sudden temperature changes characteristic of shallow water 
in winter. Striped bass feed actively during the winter; stomachs examined contain- 
ed croaker, menhaden, spot, shrimp, and crabs. 

6. No systematic collection of records of the sport fisherman's catch of striped 
bass is currently being made, but fragmentary data indicate it to be quite consider- 
able, and in some cases it has been reported equal to or in excess of the catch of 
commercial gears. The sport fisherman has a tremendous stake in the fishery re- 
sources of the Bay, as indicated by a preliminary economic survey by the Depart- 
ment (Resource Study Report No, 4). Value may be traced through bait, tackle lodg- 
ing, food, special clothing, and miscellaneous other expenditures. 

7. Records of commercial fishing indicate only the "dock-side" value--and do 
not include the "associated" values--(cordage companies, boatyards, marine hard- 
ware, truckers, refrigeration plant, wholesale merchants, etc.), 

8. In addition to the licensed commercial fishing and the sportsman, a large 
unlicensed fishery with "short nets" is taking a considerable number of fish. In 
some areas this fishery is sufficiently extensive to exceed in volume and restrict 
the operations of licensed gears, and was the subject of a survey during 1954 pre- 
sented in a report to Maryland Board of Natural Resources by Departments of Re- 
search and Education and Tidewater Fisheries. The magnitude and effects of this 
fishery for striped bass, which is conducted for the most part on the spawning 
grounds, is currently being studied as a part of a 3 -year program financed by the 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service with Dingle -Johnson funds. 

9. At present we have no data indicating a need for any change in the regulatory 
measures governing striped bass, other than the initiation of a program for the com- 
pilation of data on the magnitude and value of the unlicensed net fishery and the sport 
fishery. The problem is basically one of economic and sociological nature, which is 
usually outside the field of our research, but which must be studied and given fullest 
consideration in the future development of sound conservation practices. 



Newly-Designed Outboard-Powered Oyster Boat 

A specially designed 26-foot 
outboard-powered oyster boat will 
be used when the oyster sequence 
of the Outboa rd Mot^or motion pic- 
ture, produced by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service in coopera- 
tion with Evinrude and Johnson, 
Division of the Outboard Marine 
and Manufacturing Company, is 
filmed at Menchville, Va., begin- Side view of outboard-powered oyster boat. 




34 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



nlng April 5. This boat has possibilities not only for oystering, but for many other 
segments of commercial fishing. 

WIHB* 

Powered by a 25-horsepower 
outboard motor, the boat will trav- 
el about 16 miles an hour, unload- 
ed. The outboard motor is located 
in a well in the stern, A small 
house forward provides shelter in 
bad weather. The boat, with an 8- 
foot beam, has a large carrying 
capacity. 

The boat was an outgrowth of 
research conducted during the course 
of producing a fishery educational 
motion picture. The cost wasun- 
stern view of outboard-powered oyster boat. derwritten by the manufacturer of 

outboard motors, who are also financing the motion picture. The new boat will al- 
so be used for the crab sequence of the same motionpicture tobefilmed at Crisfield, 
Md. After the filming, the boat will be used in various typical commercial fishing 
operations. 

The builder says that the boat, including the 25-horsepower outboard motor, 
can be purchased for approximately $1, 500. 




North Atlantic Fisheries Investigations 

HADDOCK EGG CONCENTRATION FOUND ON NORTHERN EDGE OF GEORGES 
BANK BY " ALBATROSS m" ( Cruise 58): On a cruise in an area of the GuK of Maine, 
Georges Bank, and Browns Bank the Service's research vessel Albatross III f ound 
the greatest concentration of haddock eggs on the northern edge of Georges Bank, 
Very few haddock eggs were found on Browns Bank. The 13-day cruise, completed 
at Woods Hole, Mass., April 1, was made to determine the distribution of haddock 
eggs and larvae, temperature and salinity, and the general circulation pattern in the 
Gulf of Maine and Georges Bank area. Haddock, cod, rockling and plaice eggs, pol- 
lock, herring, wrymouth, and mud eel larvae were found. 

Approximately 2, 500 miles of continuous plankton tows were made at the sur- 
face and 10-meter depths with Hardy Plankton Recorders. A total of 214 bathyther- 
mograph lowerings, 150 salinity samples, and 15 surface tows with the standard 
meter net were made. Thirteen samples of eggs were hatched out for identifica- 
tion purposes. A total of 800 drift bottles was released throughout the area. 



North Carolina's Commercial Fisheries Production, 1954 

The over-all production of fishery products in North Carolina in 1954 declined 
from that of the previous year both in quantity and ex-vessel value. For the individ- 
ual species there are a few exceptions to the decline in catch--such as in the white 
perch and the alewife fisheries of the Albemarle region and in the production of blue 
crabs. The North Carolina Department of Conservation and Development, Division 
of Commercial Fisheries, reports the production for 1954 and 1953 in table 1. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



35 



Table 1 - North Carolina Fishery Products Production, | 




1954 and 1953 






Unit 


Quantity | 






1954 


1953 


Finfish: 


Pounds 


32,003,874 


38, 898, 522 


All fish for food 


Menhaden 








for reduction 


Number of fish 


202,997,700 


198,559,333 


Shellfish: 


State bushels 


126,782 


160,379 


Oysters 


Shrimp 


Pounds, heads off 


5,202,049 


8,970,964 


Clams 


Bushels 


48,332 


32,837 


Crabs, soft 


Dozen 


37,971 


16,727 


Crabs, hard 


Barrel 


43,646 


39,233 


Scallops 


Gallon 


5,315 


5,450 



In some cases the State arrived at the figures for 1954 through different methods 
than in 1953. Effective January 1, 1954, taxes were reinstated on slirimp, scallops, 
clams, and crabs, 
and the tax on oys- 
ters was extended 
to include those 
taken from private 
grounds. The tax 
receipts were then 
used as a measure 
of production. In 

1953 only the oys- 
ters (from public 
grounds) were tax- 
ed and all other in- 
formation on pro- 
duction was obtain- 
ed from sea food 
dealers by State In- 
spectors. 

SHRIMP : The season for taking shrimp from waters under control of the State 
of North Carolina was opened on May 19 (except for New River which opened June 
15). In contrast to the early and marked success of the 1953 season, 1954 shrimp 
production got off to a slow start. The Department of Conservation and Develop- 
ment reported a catch of 1.0 million pounds (heads off) for the first six months of 

1954 as compared to 3.5 million pounds during the same period the year before. 
However, during the last half of the year catches returned more closely to normal. 
State figures record 4. 2 million pounds (heads off) for the last half of 1954, com- 
pared to 5.5 million pounds for the same period in 1953. But it is well to note that 
1953 production was above the average for recent years; the 1954 shrimp catch in 
North Carolina will appear as having been more successful when compared with 
years prior to 1953. 

In addition to a decline in quantity of shrimp caught in 1954 as compared to 1953, 
the average ex-vessel price was much lower. Shrimpers were getting as little as 6 
cents per pound for small heads -on shrimp (over 50 count), and up to about 25 cents 
for 21-25 count shrimp. An estimate of the average prices for mixed sizes would 
be within the range of 15-20 cenis (heads on) ex-vessel. In 1953 the returns to the 
fishermen were at least 50 cents per pound for mixed sizes. 

HARD CRABS : Hard crabs were apparently in good supply Eind readily avail- 
able to crabbers in North Carolina in 1954. But the market exerted its influence on 
fishing effort expended. This market factor may have been a more effective regula- 
tor of production than was abundance--it is often the important factor in North Caro- 
lina's hard-crab production. In the spring of 1953 crabs became scarce in crab- 
meat picking centers in Virginia and other areas. Buyers and trucks went long dis- 
tances to pick up hard crabs at prices that went as high as $10,50 a 100-pound bar- 
rel in Carteret County and in some instances even higher. In 1954 fishermen re- 
ceived $4 a barrel at the most in March and the average was $3.50, For the first 
six months of 1953 the North Carolina Division of Commercial Fisheries reported 
a production of 28,676 barrels of hard crabs; in 1954 for the same period State re- 
ports show 9, 902 barrels produced. The difference in market is certain to have 
been one of the important factors in the variance in production during the two peri- 
ods considered. According to the State report, many more hard crabs were brought 
in during the latter half of 1953 (33, 744 barrels in 1953 as compared to 10, 557 bar- 
rels in 1954). 



36 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

ALE WIVES: The alewife run in 1954 was again abundant for the pound-net fish- 
ermen of the Albemarle region. In the Chowan River the run started on April 8 and 
lasted until April 26. As the season began the herring were bringing fishermen $15 
per thousand fish. Early in the run the prices began to drop and went as low as 
$2/1000. Just as was the case in 1953, there were times when more herring were 
available than the processing plants could utilize. The production could have been 
higher in 1954 if fishing effort had not been restricted by limited demand and plant 
capacity. 

WHITE PERCH : The Albemarle region also had a tremendous white perch run 
in 1954. Dealers in the Chowan River area reported there were more white perch 
available than there were for many years in the past. In mid- March the fishermen 
were getting 15 cents a pound. Then the abundance of the white perch caused the 
market to go down to 2 cents a pound, and then to no market at all. Again, as in the 
case of the herring, there were more white perch available than could be sold. Fish- 
ing effort was curtailed by oversupply. 

OTHER FOOD FINFISH AND SHELLFISH : The 1954 production of allfoodfinfish 
was less, generally, than it was in 1 953. State figures give a total of 32 .0 million pounds 
in 1954, compared to 38.9 million pounds the previous year. In looking back another 
year the fish harvest in 1953 was considerably below that of 1952 because most fish- 
ermen concentrated on the shrimp fishery in 1953. Therefore, it can be seen that 
the 1954 harvest was not a high yielding one. The weather was also a contributing 
factor in keeping the production down. High winds in January, February, and March 
limited the number of days the fishermen could work their gear. The unfavorable 
weather continued throughout the year and included three hurricanes --the last of 
these (October 15) caused an estimated $l| million in damage to the commercial fishing 
industry. The usualhighly productive fallbeach fishery was badly disrupted by the 
storm when in some cases complete rigs (boats and nets) were destroyed. In ad- 
dition to the direct effects of the weather, the fish did not appear to be as abundant 
as in some years. After a summer of low production, the usual rise in abundance 
in North Carolina waters during the autumn months was not as great as expected. 
The mullet and spot harvest did not measure up to those of previous years. 

MENHADEN : As in recent years the North Carolina menhaden catch in 1954 was 
close to that of an average successful season. The industry reported, however, that 
menhaden were very plentiful but once again the production was limited by foul weath- 
er. 

OYSTERS: Oyster production was low in 1954. The decline was attributed most- 
ly to storm damage. In August 1953 a hurricane caused a high mortality rate in the 
oyster beds and in October 1954 a severe hurricane again caused similar damage. 
Due to a good demand at the shucking plants for available oysters during the fall sea- 
son the price paid for shell oysters was above average in 1954. 

CLAMS: According to State figures the clam harvest was somewhat better than 
it was in the low production year of 1953, but it was still low compared to previous 
years. Early in the 1954 season hard-clam production was at a very low level. One 
of the reasons for this was that a Carteret County firm, which in past years supplied 
shucked clams to a major soup company, did not get contract renewal. This tem- 
porarily caused a decrease in demand and price. However, later the demand for clams 
increased, the poor early shrimping caused some vessels to change over to clamming, 
and the clam production increased for a time. 

STATE REGULATIONS AND ACTIVITIES : On March 27, 1954, the North Caro- 
lina Board of Conservation and Development adopted a proposal to tighten regulations 
for the taking of shrimp from State-controlled waters. Under the resolution, any 
person, firm, or corporation taking shrimp out of State- controlled waters in trawlers 
or any other type vessel will be punished by fine and have their catches confiscated. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 37 

unless the trawlers or boats in question owned by nonresidents pay the State for the 
usual licenses, taxes, and fees imposed on North Carolina shrimpers. Also, shrimp- 
ing privileges would not be extended to any nonresident shrimper seeking to operate 
in the inland commercial waters of North Carolina if the State of which he is a resi- 
dent and in which his trawler or boat is registered prohibits North Carolina shrimp- 
ers from operating in the inland waters of that State, 

Departing from a policy of planting only oyster shells on oyster grounds in 
North Carolina, the Department of Conservation and Development extended the oys- 
ter rehabilitation program in 1954 to include the planting of seed oysters. Over 
50, 000 bushels were planted early in the year. 

In an opinion from the State's Attorney General it was held that: commercial 
fishing taxes must be paid by owners and operators of all boats using trawl nets for 
the taking of shrimp in State-controlled waters. Also, no tax shall be levied or col- 
lected from bona fide residents or citizens of North Carolina who take fish, oysters, 
clams, scailops, or crabs other than with dredges for his own personal or family's 
use and consumption, 

--Alfred A. Swanson, Fishery Marketing Specialist, 
Branch of Commercial Fisheries, 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Beaufort, N. C. 



North Pacific Exploratory Fishery Program 

PETRALE SOLE TAGGED IN " ESTEBAN DEEP " BY " JOHN N, COBB" ( Spe- 
cial Cruise ): Although rough seas hampered the handling of live fish, 2, OOOpetrale 
sole from the "Esteban Deep" were tagged with either United States or Canadian 
tags and released in good condition by the Service's exploratory fishing vessel John 
rj. Cobb on an 11-day cruise completed April 1. Most of the tagged petrale sole 
were released on the surface . However, in an effort to determine a means of reducing 
the high mortality rate experienced in previous tagging operations, some of them 
were lowered to the bottom of the sea in a metal cage which automatically released 
the fish on the bottom . 

This cruise was conducted in cooperation with the State of Washington Depart- 
ment of Fisheries and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada to obtain informa- 
tion on the migratory habits of petrale sole. Such information would assist the agen- 
cies responsible for regulating this fishery in determining the need for giving petrale 
sole regulatory protection. 

Since the discovery of petrale sole in "Esteban Deep" at depths as great as 
1, 200 feet in 1953, record catches, of this highly-prized bottom fish have been taken 
from there by United States fishermen. It is believed by fishermen and scientists 
alike that petrale sole congregate in this area to spawn and are a part of stocks fish- 
ed on other grounds during other times of the year. 

An additional 450 petrale sole were tagged in an area about 45 miles southwest 
of Cape Flattery. These fish are also a congregation of spawners and are likely to 
represent stocks of petrale sole fished on other grounds. 




38 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investigations 

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS N ORTH OF H AWAII BY " HUGH M. SMITH " 
INDICATE POSSIBLE ALBACORE TUNA FISHING AREA ( Cruise 27): Detailed 
oceanographic observations in waters north of Hawaii by the Service's research ves- 
sel Hugh M. Smith gave evidence of potentially rich ocean waters lying between 30° 
and 35° N. latitude, about 600-1,000 miles north and northwest of Hawaii. The ves- 
sel was searching for clues to the location of potential fishing grounds for albacore 
tuna. This cruise lasted over 1-|- months, covered 6, 500 miles of the central North 
Pacific, and was completed February 21 at Pearl Harbor. It is still too early to 
tell how abundant albacore might be in this region, but the temperature and other 
characteristics of the waters are favorable over a large area, and the experimental 
fishing done to date has demonstrated that albacore occur there in some quantity. 




170°E 



180 



170°W 



160°W 



Station locations are indicated by number. A "T" following a number indicates a midwater trawl station. Location of fish 
caught is also indicated. Area between dashed lines shows region of higher biological activity based on field observation 
of the plankton and midwater trawl hauls. Hugh M. Smith Cruise 27, January 5-February 2, 1955. 

In addition to the oceanographic studies, live-bait surveys were made of Mid- 
way and Laysan Islands, both of which are in the Leeward Group of the Hawaiian 
Archipelago. The discovery of new bait resources in the Leeward Islands would be 
of great assistance to the Hawaiian tuna industry because the catch of skipjack tuna 
(aku) is limited at times by the inadequacy of the supply of small live-bait fish in 
the waters around the main islands. Such a discovery would also enable the skip- 
jack fishery to expand its operations over a much broader area than is fished at 
present. At Midway about 15 schools of iao, 10 schools of aholehole, and 5 schools 
of piha, all of sizes suitable for use as live bait, were found. At Laysan, however, 
only 4 schools of aholehole and iao were seen, which means that although Hawaiian- 
style skipjack tuna sampans would have been able to bait successfully at Midway, 
they would have failed to do so at Laysan. 



Five trolling lines were kept out during daylight hours and a total of 12 fish 
were caught- -2 albacore tuna, 7 skipjack tuna, and 3 dolphin. During' daylight hours 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 39 

a careful lookout was maintained and records kept for ,tuna schools, bird flocks, 
scattered birds, and mammals. 

A total of 23 trawl stations were occupied with a 6-foot Isaacs-Kidd trawl. On 
3 of these stations (Nos. 23, 25, and 28) an additional haul was made with a larger 
10-foot Isaacs-Kidd trawl. All trawls were made approximately two hours after 
sunset. Two night light stations were occupied during hydrographic stations 61 and 
66. A 30-minute 100-meter plankton haul was made on each hydrographic station. 

Preliminary study of the surface temperatures and the BT data reveals that the 
region of higher biological activity is closely associated with a region of temperature 
discontinuity. This latter can be identified by irregularly decreasing surface tem- 
peratures and rapid change of temperature both at the surface and at a depth of 900 
feet. Tne temperature discontinuity can also be identified by a change in type of the 
BT trace. Proceeding south to north, when the trace showing a typically homogene- 
ous surface layer 300-400 feet deep changes to one in which the temperature seem- 
ingly changes linearly with depth from 0-900 ft. by about 3 to 4 F., then the re- 
gion of temperature discontinuity has been reached. A 30-minute 100-meter plank- 
ton haul was made on each hydrographic station. 

A count was made of the Hawaiian monk seal, a species which is found only in 
the Leeward Hawaiian Islands. This rare mammal, once thought to be heading for 
extinction, now appears to be holding its own, with 105 counted on Laysan and 26 on 
Midway. Of special interest were 11 young seal pups observed on Laysan Island. 
The monk seal is known to give birth to its young sometime during the winter, but 
there are few records which indicate the exact time of birth. One of the pups seen 
at Laysan had evidently been born on the morning of the survey and looked like a 
large, dark-brown, woolly teddy bear as it huddled against the 500-pound bulk of its 
mother. 




Saltonstall-Kennedy Act Fisheries Projects 



ADVISORY COMMITTEE HOLDS FIRST MEETING : Broad policy recommenda- 
tions adopted by the Fisheries Advisory Committee at its first session on April 28 
and 29 were submitted to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Secretary of the In- 
terior McKay announced May 2. 

The Committee recommended continuance of the program launched last year by 
the Fish and Wildlife Service after the 83rd Congress passed the Saltonstall-Kennedy 
Act to promote increased production and marketing of domestic fishery products. 

Continued emphasis on research and marketing activities in the Service program 
was urged. The Department's policy of contracting for as much research as possible 
by educational institutions and private research organizations was indorsed by the 
Committee. 

The Committee after reviewing applications for allocations for Saltonstall-Ken- 
nedy funds in the current fiscal year and in the fiscal year beginning July 1, advised 
against committing substantial amounts for major construction projects. 

Assistant Secretary of the Interior Lewis presided over the initial Advisory 
Committee session which was attended by 16 of the 19 members. He outlined the 
program of research and marketing development already under way with some 
$2, 500, 000 of Saltonstall-Kennedy funds. He urged the Committee not to become 
entangled in detailed discussion of individual projects, but to recommend "broad 
boundaries" for the use of Saltonstall-Kennedy funds. 



40 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

"it is my belief," Lewis said, "that the greatest good can be accomplished if 
we gather around the conference table as good partners to discuss with our operat- 
ing officers--the experts of the Fish and Wildlife Service--the broad outlines of the 
objectives all of us want to reach. We shall expect you to speak your minds freely." 

Senator Saltonstall of Massachusetts, co-author of the Act, urged the Commit- 
tee to recommend a policy which will see the United States fishing industry go for- 
ward well prepared to meet competition from any source. 

The Committee recommended that the following criteria be considered by the 
Department in passing on applications for Saltonstall-Kennedy projects: 

Degree of emergency of extent of distress. 

National scope or degree of application to more than local areas of problems. 

Extent of large scale capital investment. 

Substantiality in value, volume, and employment . 

Extent to which fishery is affected by imports. 

Extent to which results can be obtained in a reasonable time. 

Relative need to fill gaps in knowledge. 

Degree to which industry or states could do the work. 

Relative need for the work and prospects for successful achievement. 

Relation of costs to benefits. 

Effect on balance among major categories of work. 

The following members of the Committee were in attendance: 

Harold R. Bassett, Salisbury, Md. ; Lawrence Calvert, Seattle, Wash. ; James 
S. Carlson, Boston, Mass. ; Mark L, Edmunds, Garibaldi, Ore. ; David H. Hart, 
Cape May, N. J.; Leon S. Kenney, St. Petersburg, Fla. ; Donald P. Loker, Termi- 
nal Island, Calif. ; J. W. Mendenhall, Ketchikan, Alaska; J. Richards Nelson, Madi- 
son, Conn.; Moses B. Pike, Eastport, Maine; H. F. Sahlman, Fernandina Beach, 
Fla. ; Arthur Sivertson, Duluth, Minn. ; Lawrence W. Strasburger, New Orleans, 
La.; George R. Wallace, Morehead City, N. C. ; Earl B. Webster, Brownsville, 
Tex.; Alphonse J. Wegmann, Pass Christian Isles, Miss. Three members, E. M. 
Concannon, Chicago, 111,; Thomas F. Sandoz, Astoria, Ore.; and A, H. Mendonca, 
San Francisco, Calif. ; were unable to attend. 

The next meeting of the Committee is tentatively scheduled for the early fad.1 of 
1955, 

Designed to strengthen the United States commercial fishing industry as a whole, 
the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act provides that cin amount equal to 30 percent of duties 
collected under the customs laws on fishery products shall be transferred annually 
for three years from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Inte- 
rior. Expenditures for any one year may not exceed $3 million. 

Some of the major projects already undertaken with funds made available by the 
Act are: 

1. Studies to determine racial characteristics of salmon on the high seas. 

2. Research on fluctuation of the California sardine. 

3. Study of causes and control of toxic red tide off the Florida coast. 

4. Development of voluntary Federal grades and standards for fishery products . 

5. Development of chemical index and nutritive value of fish meal and 

development of new uses for fish oils. 

6. Exploration of deep-water fishing grounds in the North Atlantic. 

5[c 5j; sj: :^ 5j: 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



41 



SERVICE ESTABLISHES NEvV MARKET DEVELOPMENT FIELD OFFICES : 
Four new market development offices for the promotion of fishery products by the 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service under the Saltonstall-Kennedy Act (68 Stat. 376) 
were opened in April, Secretary of the Interior McKay announced April 14. 

Established in accordance with the Act's aim "to promote the free flow of do- 
mestically-produced fishery products in commerce, " these offices are located in 
Seattle, Wash. ; San Pedro, Calif. ; New Orleans, La. ; and College Park, Md. Each 
office is headed by a Fishery Marketing Specialist, as follows: Seattle, RoyStevens; 
San Pedro, S. Ross Hatton; New Orleans, Michael Weissman; and College Park, 
Hall P. Mefford. 

The Seattle office will supervise work done in the states of Washington, Oregon, 
and Idaho. Work in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona will be directed from 
the San Pedro office. The New Orleans office will have charge of a working area 
composed of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Kentucky, and Tennessee. From 
College Park the work in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Delaware, Pennsylvania, 
and New Jersey will be supervised. 

The new offices will work to develop markets for fishery products through close 
contact with: school-lunch programs; locker-plant operators; private and public in- 
stitutions; restaurants; hotels; press, radio, and television food editors; and other 
similar interests concerned with the marketing and consumption of fish and shellfish. 



South Carolina's Commercial Fisheries Production, 1954 

SHRIMP : Shrimp in 1954 were produced in South Carolina in about the same 
quantity as in 1953. According to the State Division of Commercial Fisheries in 
Charleston, a tally early 
in February 1955 of in- 
complete reports from 
the industry showed that 
2.8 million pounds of 
heads-off shrimp were 
taken by fishermen in 
South Carolina in 1954 
(table 1). It is believed 
that a final figure would 
approximate the 2.9 
million pounds of heads- 
off shrimp reported by 
the State for the previ- 
ous year. 

Although the quan- 
tity of shrimi- caught 
was about the same dur- 
ing the last two years, 
there can be no compar- 
ison of the net financial 
return to the shrimpers. The price decline in 1954 to much below that of the high- 
level returns of 1953 was, of course, as effective in reducing the successfulness of 
the season to the industry in South Carolina as in North Carolina and elsewhere. Af- 
ter the 1955 season the fishermen generally were disappointed in the 1954 returns. 



Table 1 - South Carolina Shr 


imp (Heads off) Production [ 




by 


Months 


^1949-54 






Month 


1954^'' 


1953^^ 


1952 


1951 


1950 


1949 


January 




(Ij 


000 Pounds) . 






- 




14 


- 


- 


28 


February 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


March 


28 


4 


20 


60 


- 


58 


April 


20 


12 


10 


5 


2 


4 


May 


124 


47 


173 


3 


212 


393 


June 


395 


253 


203 


36 


357 


569 


July 


Y, 377 
■j'l 762 
T/ 515 
1/ 134 
i' 28 


582 


260 


224 


605 


448 


August 


553 


267 


304 


672 


449 


September 


612 


554 


717 


862 


653 


October 


476 


484 


569 


664 


512 


November 


271 


189 


124 


303 


433 


December 
Total 


56 


57 


30 


23 


192 


2,789 


2, 866 


2, 231 


2,072 


3,700 


3,799 


1/ Preliminary. 












2/ The sounds a 


nd rivers in Bf 


jaufort Coun 


ty were opened to shr 


imp trawli 


ig in the 


" faU of 1953 


for the first t 


me since Wc 


)rld War 11. 







42 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



FINFISH: It is believed the over-all production of food finfish in 1954 was con- 
siderably below that of the previous year. Although there are as yet no data avail- 
able, the conclusion is based on the destruction and damage done to the haul- seine 
fishery of Horry and Georgetown counties by the hurricane of October 15. The haul- 
seine crews on the beaches of these two South Carolina counties usually produce 
quantities of mullet and spot which in some years run into millions of pounds. The 
most productive period is usually October-December and in 1954 fishing in this area 
was almost nil. In Beaufort County a haul-seine crew had considerable success with 
spotted sea trout catches which may have brought finfish production in that county to 
a relatively high figure, 

HARD CRABS : There seems to have been no scarcity of crabs, but here again 
the low prices resulted in less effort and, although there are no production figures 
available at this time, it is probable that the total production of crabs from South 
Carolina waters during 1954 will be less than in 1953. 

--Alfred A. Swanson, Fishery Marketing Specialist, 
Branch of Commercial Fisheries, 
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Beaufort, N. C. 



"Shrimp Please" Film Wins Recognition 

The Service's most recent motion picture. Shrimp Please , produced in coopera- 
tion with the shrimp industry of Louisiana and Mississippi, has been awarded a Cer- 
tificate of Acceptance 
by the Film Council of 
America. A jury of 
motion picture experts, 
viewing the best in sales 
and public relations mo- 
tion pictures produced 
in the United States in 
1954, has selected the 
industry-Government 
produced film Shrimp 
Please as an outstand- 
ing example of a film 
that accomplishes its 
public relations and 
sales purpose. Shrimp 
Please will be shown 
during the Golden Reel 
Assembly on April 4-8 
at the Waldorf Astoria 
Hotel in New York City 
in final competition for 
the "Golden Reel" a- 
ward. 

Shrimp Please has 
also been selected by 
the Interdepartmental 
Committee on Auditory and Visual Materials as a United States entry in the Edin- 
burgh International Film Festival and the Venice International Exhibition of Cinema- 
tographic Art, both to be held this summer. 




Filming a drive-in scene for Shrimp Please. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 43 

Essentially an educational film. Shrimp Please depicts: Gulf of Mexico shrimp- 
ing operations; shrimp canning, breading, drying, and freezing processes; and the 
many methods of preparing shrimp for the dinner table. It is a Government-indus- 
try production, sponsored jointly by the Fish and Wildlife Service and the shrimp 
industry of Louisiana and Mississippi. The filming was supervised by a motion- 
picture specialist for the Service's Branch of Conimercial Fisheries. The picture 
has been shown more than 100 times on television, and has proven popular with 
clubs, schools, and similar groups throughout the Nation. 

Shrimp Please , a 20-minute sound, color, 16 mm . motion picture is available on loan, 
free of charge, from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service or from 75 film libraries. 



Survey Reveals Breaded Fish Sticks and Shrimp Popular 

A recent survey sponsored by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service revealed an 
upswing in domestic consumption of breaded fish and shellfish. 

Fish sticks--a new breaded item--and breaded shrimp are popular withfamilies 
through the Nation, the survey showed. 

Of 1, 797 housewives responding to questions concerning meals and snacks served 
in their homes between November 1953 and the same month last year, nearly 37 per- 
cent stated they had used precooked fish sticks, while about 10 percent said they had 
purchased uncooked sticks and fried them in their own kitchens. Most of these home- 
makers said their families preferred the largest size fish sticks, and the 12-ounce 
package. Most also indicated that their families liked the fish sticks moderately 
seasoned. The favorite time for fish sticks was mealtime as compared withbetween- 
meal snack periods. 

The Northeast showed more interest in precooked fish sticks than did any other 
section of the country. More than 54 percent of the housewives responding to the 
survey there said they had served this item during the year. In the South precook- 
ed fish sticks were served in 29 percent of the homes accounted for. 

Breaded shrimp showed a somewhat different pattern in the survey. More than 
21 percent of the housewives responding, nationwide, stated they had purchased this 
item uncooked, while about 18 percent said they had bought the breaded shrimp in 
precooked form. Consumers showed a preference, in most cases, for medium- 
size shrimp cooked to a light golden brown. 

Nearly 2 6 percent of the southern homemakers reported they had purchased un- 
cooked breaded shrimp during the year, while about 16 percent of the northeastern 
housewives claimed they had bought this item during the period. 

The survey showed that about 30 percent of the homemakers serving fish sticks 
were using them to some degree as a substitute for other fishery products. A slight- 
ly smaller percentage said they were using breaded shrimp for the same purpose. 
A large majority, however, indicated that their use of these items represented a net 
addition to their usual fish and shellfish consumption. 




44 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



U. S. Foreign Trade 

EDIBLE FISHERY PRODUCTS , JANUARY 1955 : United States imports of fresh, 
frozen, and processed edible fish and shellfish in January 1955 totaled 54. 9 million 
pounds (valued at $14. 2 million), according to a Department of Commerce summary 
tabulation (see table). This was an increase of 11 percent in quantity and 1 percent 
in value as compared with December 1954 imports of 49.4 million pounds (valuedat 
$14. 1 million). But compared with a year earlier, January imports were down?. 3 
percent in quantity and 6 percent in value. 



United States Foreign Trade in Edible Fishery Products, January 1955 
with Comparisons 


Item 


Jan. 1955 


Jan. 1954 


Year 1954 


Quantity 1 Value 


Quantity | Value 


Quantity | Value 


Imports: 


/....... (Tn 


Millions of Lbs. & $) 1 


54.9 


14.2 


59.2 


15.1 


801.7 


202.8 


Fish & shellfish: 
fresh, frozen & 
processed_l/ .... 


Exports: 


12.2 


2.3 


4.2 


1.0 


50.8 


13.2 


Fish & shelKish: 
processed J^/ only (ex- 
cluding fresh and 
frozen) 


1/ Includes pastes, sauces, clam chowder and juice, and other specialties. 1 



Exports of processed edible fish and shellfish (excluding fresh and frozen) in 
January 1955 amounted to 12. 2 million pounds (valued at $2.3). This is the largest 
month's exports for some time because there were substantial exports of canned 
California sardines as a result of the increased pack last year. Exports of proces- 
sed edible fishery products in January 1955 rose 97 percent in quantity and 77 per- 
cent in value as compared with December exports of 6.2 million pounds (valued at 
$1.3 million). This January's exports were up 190 percent in quantity and 130 per- 
cent in value as compared with a year earlier. 



SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS, JANUARY 1955 : Imports : United States 
imports in January 1955 of frozen tuna, canned tuna, canned crab meat, frozenlob- 
ster, frozen salmon, frozen swordfish, and fish meal were substantially larger thaji 
during January 1954, according to data collected by the Bureau of the Census. Jan- 
uary imports of canned bonito, canned salmon, canned sardines, fresh and frozen 
shrimp and fillets, and blocks of groundfish and ocean perch were considerably less 
than a year earlier. (See chart 7, p. 79 of this issue.) 

Exports : United States exports of canned sardines during January 1955 were 
equivalent to about one-half the quantity exported during the entire year 1954. Prin- 
cipal country of destination was the Philippines. January exports of fish oils were 
slightly below those of that month a year ago. 



FISH - OIL EXPORTS CONTINUE AT RECORD LEVEL IN 1954: United States 
exports of fish oils reached a new record volume in 1954 of 70, 817 short tons, an 
Increase of 31 percent from the previous high of 1953 (see table), according to the 
March 21 Foreign Crops and Markets, a Department of Agriculture publication. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



45 



Most of the oil, as in previous years, went to Western Europe but a notable increase 
occurred in exports to Canada. Exports to the Netherlands were nearly five times 
the 1953 level, but the bulk of this oil probably was transhipped to Western Germany. 
Exports of United States fish oils to Switzerland and the United Kingdom were up 
from the year before. 



U. S. Fish-Oil Exports by Country of Destination, 1954 and Comparisons 




Destination 


1954^^ 


1953^^ 


1952 


1951 


Average 
1935-39 




NORTH AMERICA: 




.... ( 


Short Tons 

488 

100 

122 

3 


) . . . . 






7,481 
105 
107 


2, 108 

87 

114 

1 


113 

1,734 

71 

63 

5 


12 

458 

155 

45 

59 




British West Indies 

Canada 




Cuba 








Other 




Total 


7, 693 


2,310 


713 


1,986 


729 




SOUTH AMERICA 


143 


63 


38 


110 


96 




EUROPE: 


10,481 

85 

43,692 

1, 102 

5,797 

1,376 

27 


764 

7 

36, 155 

28 

8,913 

1,606 

3, 115 

299 

23 


8 

149 

6,232 

220 

11,967 

3,140 

43 


282 
1, 162 
6,050 
14 
6,024 
4,514 
4,027 


8 
19 
126 
15 
15 
10 
15 
77 
15 




Belgium-Luxembourg .... 




West Germany 

Italy 




Netherlands 








Switzerland ......... 




United Kingdom 

Other 




Total 


62,560 


50,910 


21,759 


22,073 


300 




ASIA: 


229 
51 


860 
37 


546 
20 


744 
7 


66 
24 




Philippines, Republic of . . 
Other 






280 


897 


566 


751 


90 




OTHER 


-./ '^0 


53 


3 


- 


19 






1/70, 817 


54,233 


23,079 


24,920 


1,234 




XI Preliminary. 




2/ In 


;ludes 71 tons n 


ot tiesignated by destination. 





United States Per-Capita Consumption of 
Fishery Products Up in 1954 

Persons in the United States ate one-third of a pound more fish and shellfish each 
in 1954 than in 1953, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service reported April 1. Service 
and Department of Agriculture statisticians, who cooperated in assembling the data, 
estimated that total consumption of commercial fishery products in the United States 
amounted to 1. 8 billion pounds, or 11.1 pounds (edible-weight basis) per capita in 
1954. This compares with 10.8 pounds per capita in 1953 when our civilian popula- 
tion was almost 3 million less. 

The total increase in consumption of fishery products over 1953 amounted to 
80 million pounds--equivalent to 150 -200 million pounds round weight. Both do- 
mestic landings and imports of edible fishery products in 1954 were larger than a 
year earlier. 

Consumption of fresh and frozen fishery products in 1954 increased about 53 
million pounds over 1953. Canned products were up 27 million pounds. On a per- 



46 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



capita basis, the use of fresh and frozen fish and shellfish amounted to 6. 1 pounds- - 
a small increase as compared with the previous year. Canned products accounted 
for 4.4 pounds per person, likewise a slight increase over 1953. The edible use of 
cured products, estimated per capita at 0.6 pound, remained the same as in 1953. 

The increase over 1953 in the consumption of fresh and frozen fish reflects in 
part the rapid growth in the demand and production of fish sticks. Civilian demand 
for canned fish was also maintained at a high level in 1954. The tuna pack was the 
largest in history, that of canned Pacific sardines was up significantly, and increases 
also occurred both for salmon and Maine sardines. 



Wholesale Prices, March 1955 

Wholesale prices for edible fish and shellfish dropped from February to March 
because of the seasonal increase in catch. The over-all index for edible fish and 
shellfish (fresh, frozen, and canned) in March 1955 was 100.7 percent of the 1947-49 
average (see table) — 1. 1 percent less than in February and 6. 3 percent below March 
1954. 



Table 1 - Wholesale Average Prices and Indexes for Edible Fish and Shsllfish, March 1955 and Comparison; 






Point of 




Avg. Pricesl/ 


Indexes 




Group, Subgroup, and Item Specification 


Pricing 


Unit 


($ 




(1947-49=100) 










Mar. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Mar. 








1955 


1955 


1955 


1955 


1955 


1954 


ALL FISH & SHELLFISH (Fresh, Frozen, & Canned) . . 










100.7 


101.8 


105.7 


107.5 




Fresh & Frozen Fishery Products: 


101.1 


103.0 


111.6 


112.3 


Drawn, DiTessed, or Whole Finfish; 


96.3 


100.4 


123.9 


111.4 


Haddock, Ige., offshore, draw.i. fresh 


Boston 


lb. 


.06 


.08 


60.3 


30.3 


159.3 


95.4 


Halibut, West., 20/80 lbs., drsd., fresh or froz. 


New York 


lb. 


.24 


.26 


74.8 


79.4 


85.6 


97.0 


Salmoi. king, Ige. & med., drsd., fresh or froz. 


New York 


lb. 


.53 


.53 


U8.0 


119.7 


125.6 


125.8 


Wliitefish, L. Superior, drawi, fresh 


Chicago 


lb. 


.63 


.65 


167.3 


161.1 


125.2 


161.1 


Whitefish, L. Erie pound or gill net.rnd., fresh 


New York 


lb. 


.65 


.48 


131.4 


96.0 


143.5 


126.4 


Lake trout, domestic. No. 1, drawi, fresh. . . 


Chicago 


lb. 


.63 


.65 


133.3 


1,33.2 


103.5 


133.2 


Yellow pike, L. Michiga.i& Huron, rnd., fresh . 


New York 


lb. 


.69 


.53 


161.8 


123.1 


117.3 


146.6 


Pro=essed,Fresh (Fish& Sbsllfishj: 


104.2 


104,3 


106.3 


114.9 


Fillets, haddock, sml., skins on, 20-lb. tins . . 


Boston 


lb. 


.23 


.30 


78.3 


100.4 


153.1 


113.1 


Shrimp, Ige. (23-30 count), headless, fresh . . . 


New York 


lb. 


.62 


.53 


93.0 


91.7 


83,8 


113.0 


Ch'Sters, shucked, standards 


Norfolk 


gal. 


4.75 


4.88 


117.5 


120.6 


123.7 


117.5 


Processed, Frozen (Fish& Shellfish): 


96.8 


97.4 


89.2 


110.5 


Fillets: Flouider (yellowtaU), skinless, 1-lb. 


















pka 


Boston 


lb. 


.41 


.40 


106.0 


104.7 


98.2 


98.2 


Haddock, sml., skins on, 1-lb. pkg. . . 


Boston 


lb. 


.29 


.29 


39.4 


89.4 


90.2 


105.1 


Ocean perch, skins on, 1-lb. pkg. . . 


Boston 


lb. 


.23 


.28 


111.3 


111.8 


111.8 


117.8 


Shrimp, Ige. (26-30 count), 5-lb. pkg 


Chicago 


lb. 


.56 


.56 


85.6 


86.8 


72,5 


113.0 


Canned Fishery Products: 


100.0 


100.0 


97.2 


100.4 


Salmon, pink. No. 1 tall (16 oz.), 48 can/cs. . 


Seatde 


case 


20.70 


20.70 


109.6 


109.6 


104.4 


99.1 


Tuna, It. muit, chunk. No. 1/2 tuna (8-1/2 oz,), 


















43 cans/cs., 


Los Angeles 


case 


12.90 


12.90 


93.0 


93.0 


93.0 


102.4 


Sardines, Calif., torn. pack. No. 1 ova:^ (15 oz.), 




















Los Angeles 


case 


7.30 


7.30 


85.2 


85.2 


85.2 


2/ 


Sardines, Maine, keyless oil. No. 1/4 drawn 


(3-1/4 oz.), 100 cans/cs 


New York 


case 


7.20 


7.20 


76,6 


76.6 


71.3 


92.6 


1/Represent average prices for one day (Monday or Tue- 


;day) during 


he we 


sk in wti 


ich the ] 


5th of the mont 


1 occurs 


. These 


prices are published as indicators of movemeit and 


rat necessan 


ly abs 


)lute le 


/el. Dai] 


ly Market News . 


Jervice 


"Fishery 


Products Reports" should be referred to for actual I 


rices. 














2/Not available. 

















May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



47 



Prices for large offshore haddock at Boston continued to drop sharply from Feb- 
ruary to March (down 25.4 percent) and the drop was the main factor accounting for 
the 4.1 -percent decline in 
the drawn, dressed, or whole 
finfish subgroup index. West- 
ern halibut and salmon prices 
at New York City were also 
lower in March, but prices 
for all fresh-water varieties 
at both New York and Chicago 
were higher than in February. 
Compared to March 1954, 
prices for haddock, halibut, 
and salmon were down con- 
siderably, while fresh-water 
fish prices were up. The in- 
dex for the drawn, dressed, 
or whole finfish subgroup this 
March was 13.6 percent low- 
er than a year earlier. 

Fresh haddock fillet 
prices again dropped sharp- 
ly from February to March 
and offset a substantial rise 
in shrimp prices. Higher 
shrimp prices were brought 
about by the drop in produc- 
tion. C3yster prices were down slightly from the previous month. The March 1955 
index for the fresh processed fish and shellfish subgroup was down 0, 1 percent from 
February and 9.3 percent from March 1954. 

There was practically no change in the index for frozen processed fish and shell- 
fish from February to March. Prices for all items remained the same except that 
a slight increase for flounder fillet prices was more than offset by a slight drop in 
shrimp prices. However, March 1955 prices were 12.4 percent below a year ear- 
lier because of lower prices for all items except flounder fillets which were slight- 
ly higher. 

Prices for all items in the canned fishery products subgroup remained the same 
from February to March in spite of liberal supplies of canned tuna. Stocks of canned 
salmon, Maine sardines, and California sardines were light. March 1955 canned 
fishery products prices, however, were down slightly from a year earlier, with high- 
er prices for canned salmon more than offset by lower prices for tuna and Maine 
sardines. California sardine prices were not quoted in 1954 as the pack was negli- 
gible. 




Boxes of iced dragger fish (mosUy scup and sea bass) ready for loading on 
trucks at Hampton, Va., for shipment to New York City. 




Fishery Products Marketing Prospects, April- June 1955 

Markets for fishery products during this year's second quarter are expected to 
be generally steady with some weakness due to local oversupply, according to the 
Commercial Fisheries Outlook , April-June 1955 , issued April 23 by the U. S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service. 



The market for salmon — fresh and frozen- -is expected to be steady; supply will 
be light, and demand good. A firm market is seen for canned salmon, with supply 
light and demand good. 



48 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

The market for canned sardines is expected to be steady, with supply moderate 
and demand good. 

A firm market is seen for canned shrimp, with a light-to-moderate supply and 
a good demand. Fresh and frozen shrimp are expected to have fairly steady markets, 
moderate supplies, and good demands. 

Steady markets are seen for the three leading groundfish species: cod, had- 
dock, and ocean perch. Cod and haddock fillet supplies are expected to be liberal, 
while the supply of ocean perch fillets will be moderate-to-liberal. Good demand 
is seen for cod and ocean perch fillets, while demand for haddock fillets will be 
moderate -to -improving. 

Fish sticks, the popular new breaded item, will have a fairly steady market, a 
liberal supply, and a good demand. 

A firm market is seen for frozen swordfish, with supply moderate-to-liberal 
and demand good. 

The market for canned tuna is expected to be unsettled, with liberal supply and 
a moderate demand. 

Firm markets are seen for fresh crabs, fresh crab meat, northern lobsters, 
spiny lobsters, and scallops. Fresh crabs and crab meat will have light-to-mod- 
erate supplies and good demand. The supply of northern lobsters will be moder- 
ate-to-liberal, with demand good. Spiny lobsters will show a moderate supply and 
a good demand. Moderate-to-liberal supply and a good demand is seen for scallops. 

Steady markets are seen for fresh-shucked and canned oysters and for fresh 
clams. Supply for fresh-shucked oysters will be very light and demand will be light. 
Both supply and demand for canned oysters will be moderate. Fresh clams will 
show a moderate supply and a good demand. 

Fish meal and fish oil are expected to show firm markets throughout the quar- 
ter. For both supply will be moderate and demand good. A steady market is seen 
for fish solubles, with supply and demand both moderate. 

Commercial Fisheries Outlook , Fishery Leaflet 336x, may be obtained free 
from the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 
25, D. C. 



NEW COELACANTH FIND 

A female coelacanth--the prehistoric "fish with hands"- -carrying more 
than 60 eggs has been caught off the island of Anjouan in the Indian Ocean, says 

Renter from Madagascar, The body of 
the fish, the fifth to be caught in the re- 
gion, is in perfect condition and scien- 
tists expect to gain considerable infor- 
mation on the coelacanth's reproductive 
system. 

Before the recent discoveries, 
scientists believed the coelacanth, which lived in the sea in large numbers 60 
million years ago, was virtually extinct. 

-- The Fishing News , March 25, 1955, 




May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



49 




International 

UNITED STATES, CANADA, AND JAPAN TO MAKE 
OCEANOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF NORTH PACIFIC IN 1955 

The Government of Japan will cooperate with the United States and Canada in 
making a large-scale oceanographic survey of the North Pacific Ocean in 1955, ac- 
cording to a recent State Department dispatch. The area to be covered by Japan 
will be that north of 20° N. and west of 180 . 



The basic purpose of the survey is a study of ocean currents but collateral 
studies will be made of radioactivity, migration of fish, and meteorological con- 
ditions. The Japanese expedition will be staffed with scientists from the Maritime 
Safety Board, Central Meteorological Observatory, Fisheries Agency, Tokyo Fish- 
eries College, Hokkaido University, and Kagoshima University. 

Four Maritime Safety Board patrol boats and two hydrographic survey boats 
will carry the expedition, which expects to depart in mid-July and devote two 
months to the survey. 

WORLD SUPPLY OF FATS AND OILS IN 1955 

The world will have plenty of fats and oils in 1955, although supplies will not 
be excessive, according to an article in the February 1955 issue of Foreign Agri- 
culture , U. S. Department of Agriculture publication. Both edible and industrial 
fats and oils will be in ample supply. Moreover, demand is expected to continue 
steady, and prices in world markets seem likely to remain relatively stable. 

Production of animal fats--lard, tallow, greases, and butter--is expected to 
be as large as in 1954. And while output of the marine oils--whale, sperm, and 
fish--may not come up to last year's high level, production probably will be ample. 

The United States, the world's leading exporter, will set a new record in the 
production of fats and oils in 1954-55. The major United States export items are 
soybeans and soybean oil, cottonseed oil, linseed oil, lard, tallow and greases, and 
fish oils; and the principal markets for them are Western Europe, Japan, and North 
and South America. With the output of fish oil expected to surpass last year's 
volume. United States exports of this commodity may approach the record of 1954, 

Western Europe's output in 1955 of animal fats--butter, lard, and tallow and 
greases--probably will equal or slightly exceed that of 1954. But whether produc- 
tion of fish oil will come up to last year's favorable level is doubtful, although out- 
put of whale oil by the various expeditions in the Antarctic during the pelagic sea- 
son that began January 7 may not differ greatly from the levels of recent years. 




50 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

NORTHWEST ATLANTIC FISHERIES COMMISSION 

ANNUAL MEETING IN OTTAWA , JUNE 6-11 : The 1955 Annual Meeting of 
the International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries will be held 

in Ottawa, Canada, June 6-11. It will be preceded 
by meetings of the groups of advisers to Panels 3, 
4, and 5 on June 3-4. 

The meetings will take place in the Hotel 
Chateau Laurier, where the participants will be 
accommodated and where offices for the Commis- 
sion's Secretariat will be established. The opening 
of the first Plenary Session will take place in the 
House of Commons, Parliament Buildings. The 
Prime Minister of Canada and the Minister of Fish- 

eries for Canada will address the opening session. 

Canadian government institutions, the Embassies, 
and Legations of the ten participating countries, as well as of other countries 
interested in fisheries, are being invited to attend the opening session. 

ACTIVITIES FOR DECEMBER 1954- FEBRUARY 1955: The groups of advisers 
to Panels 3, 4, and 5 held meetings at the Atlantic Biological Station, St. Andrews, 
N. B. , Canada, during December 7-10. 1954. Present were experts from Canada, 
Spain, and the United States. 

The main problems considered during the meeting were some minor amend- 
ments to the haddock regulations in Subarea 5 (New England waters), the need 
for or the advisability of introducing a similar regulation for the trawl fishery 
in Subarea 4 (Nova Scotian waters and Gulf of St. Lawrence), and the possibility 
of extending of such a regulation to Subarea 3 (the Grand Banks of Newfound- 
land) . 

Reports were delivered on the beneficial effects of the regulations in Sub- 
area 5 and on research work carried out in Subarea 5 to control the effects of 
the regulation. 

Reports were also given concerning the cod and haddock in Subarea 3 and 
4, these being the species mainly affected by a possible regulation. The ocean 
perch was also considered. 

Plans for future research work to be carried out in the three subareas 
were discussed and elaborated. 

The groups of advisers were scheduled to meet again in St. John's, New- 
foundland, during the week following March 15, 1955. 

A tagging poster in the English language has been issued. It advertises the 
fact that extensive taggings of various species of important commercial fishes 
(especially cod, haddock, and certain flat fish) have been carried out in the Con- 
vention Area, and that more are planned for the future. The poster explains 
that these taggings aim at investigating the wanderings and growth of the fish 
and the effects of fishing on the stocks. Finally, the poster gives instructions 
for the reporting of recaptured tagged fish. It is planned to issue the poster 
also in other languages. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 51 

An experiment in the use of motor-powered dories is being carried out on board 
a Canadian dory schooner fishing off Nova Scotia and on the Grand Banks. Four 
powered dories are being used instead of the usual 12 dories rowed by two-man 
crews. The powered dory is expected to treble the catch taken by present methods, 
not only because of the general facilitating of the work in the dory but also through 
making it possible to fish at depths greater than with the usual dory where lines 
are hauled in by hand. It is also known that experiments with motor-powered dories 
are planned to be carried out by the Portuguese fleet. 

TRADE AGREEMENTS 

NORWEGIAN - FINNIS H TRADE PROTOCOL INCLUDES FISHERY PRODUCTS: 
The Norwegian Foreign Office announced that a protocol to the Norwegian-Finnish 
Trade Agreement of March 11, 1953, was signed in Helsinki on Deceinber 17,1954. 
Respecting Norway's exports to Finland, should the production of herring meal in 
the agreement period be the same as in 1954, the Norwegian authorities will grant 
export licenses for 500 metric tons of herring meal in excess of the stipulated quota 
(also 500 tons). Other fishery products to be shipped from Norway to Finland in 
the period include herring, dried fish, canned fish, alginates and products thereof, 
cod-liver oil, industrial fish-liver oil including seal oil, and refined seal oil (in- 
cluding canned oil). No fishery products will be shipped from Finland to Norway, 
according to a January 7 U. S. Embassy dispatch from Oslo. 



Australia 

1955 WHALE QUOTA CUT: The quota of humpback whales allocated to Aus- 
tralian whaling stations has been reduced from 2,040 whales in 1954 to 1,840 
whales in 1955, reports the U. S. Embassy at Canberra. The reduction of 200 
has been effected by reducing the quotas of the two largest stations in Western 
Australia by 100 each. The quotas for the 3 West Coast stations for 1955 are 
500, 500, and 120, while the quotas for the 2 East Coast stations remain at 600 
and 120 whales. 

WHiale stocks on the west coast of Australia are showing unmistakable 
signs of depletion. This has been announced by the Minister for Commerce 
and Agriculture who said this conclusion had been reached following close study 
by the Fisheries Division of the Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research 
Organization and the Department of Commerce and Agriculture of biological and 
scientific data collected over a number of whaling seasons. 

According to the survey by the CSIRO and the Department of Commerce, 
East Coast stocks are just about constant. They are, however, being closely 
watched and the quotas will be subject to annual review. 

Production of whale oil by 3 of the 5 shore stations operating in Australia 
in 1954 amounted to some 12,000 short tons. Total production of whale oil by 
4 stations in 1953 was 19,100 tons and in 1952 around 17,000 tons. 

MORE PEARL - SHELL DIVERS NEEDED IN 1955 : West Australian pearlers 
have asked the Federal Government to admit additional Japanese divers for the 
1955 season scheduled to start in April, as crews would be needed to man seven 



52 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol, 17, No. 5 

additional luggers operating this year. Pearl-shell shipments from Broome for 
the 1954 season totaled 3,311 cases, valued at tA340,000 (US$758,000). 



Barbados Island (British West Indies) 

STATUS OF THE FISHERIES : Over the last 5 to 8 years, the Barbados 
Island's fishery has shown a development brought about through the introduction 
of loans to boat owners for building and refitting their boats, a November 8, 
1954, U. S. consular dispatch from Barbados reports. Within the last 10 years, 
over 1,200 small loans have been made to some 350 boat owners. The total 
expenditure to October 30, 1954, was BWI$159,000 (US$93,000) while BWI$102,000 
(US$60,000) has been recovered. 

Increase in Vessels : To a very large extent this loan scheme has played 
a very important part in the development as the number of fishing vessels in- 
creased from 487 in 1948 to 603 in 1954. 

Within the last three years, 18 small powered boats have been introduced 
to the industry. These boats have proved very satisfactory and have increased 
the value of catches many times over the sail-type boat. The number of boats 
owned by individual fishermen is estimated at 70 percent of the total number. 
It is also estimated that about 1,760 fishermen are engaged in the Island's deep- 
sea fisheries, while an additional 450 are engaged in inshore work. 

Market and Beach Shelters : Three main fish markets and five beach shelters 
have been built. These sheds or shelters cater for fish landed at five other 
points along the coast. 

Fish is landed at 32 points around the coast, and large quantities of fish 
are handled by a number of hawkers (men and women), most of whom are 
itinerant pedestrian hawkers. There are also hawkers who use bicycles and 
a smaller number of jitney hawkers. Approximately 1,200 persons are engaged 
in the distribution of fish in Barbados . 

Landings at Three Main Markets : Statistical returns taken at the three main 
markets indicate that the fishing industry in 1948/49 doubled the production of 
1947/48, and in 1949/50 doubled that again. There was a decrease in catches in 
1950/51 and again in 1951/52; both of these years were considered poor, although 
the production was double that of 1947/48. In 1952/53 the catch increased again 
33 percent over 1949/50, and up to the present stands as the greatest year of 
fishery production. The 1954/55 year is developing favorably, but does not prom- 
ise to exceed the 1952/53 production. 

The catch for the 1953/54 season was approximately 10.7 million pounds, 
with an all-time record of over 11 million pounds taken in 1952/53. The figure 
of 10.5 million pounds is now taken as the Island's average and represents an 
increase of 300 percent over 1947/48. 

Of the 10.7 million pounds produced in the 1953/54 fishing year, 6.1 million 
pounds was flying fish. This quantity places the fishing industry at an estimated 
value of BWI$2.0 million (US$1.2 million). A break down is shown in the table. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



53 



Research: The Research ves- 



Boat Crews' Share. 
Boat Owners' " 
Fish Mongers' " 
Hawkers' Share 



Total . 



1,000 
BWI$ 
1.053 



527 

43 

410 



$S,033 



1,000 
US$ 

308 

25 

240 



TTl 



% of 
Total 

26 

2 

20 



TW 



Value of Barbados Island's Fisheries, 1953 /54f sel Investigator was launched in 

1949 and by 1951/52 the gill net 

or drift net was introduced for the 
capture of flying fish, and now 
represents approximately 60 per- 
cent of the Island's fishery. 

In 1952/53 the fisherman had 
accepted the gill net as an added 
means of capturing the flying fish 
and returned the best catch ever (11 million pounds) of fish of all kinds. Further 
research with wire lines for the trolling of wahoo has also been developed. These 
lines have been weighted and have proved very successful. Research continues 
on flying fish and plans are ahead for the development of the bonito fishery. 

As a result of these improved methods, large gluts of fish, especially flying 
fish, present problems for the fisherman and fish mongers at the height of the sea- 
son, April-June. To meet this difficulty, plans to establish a cold-storage plant 
under Government auspices have been presented to the Minister for the considera- 
tion of the Government. 

It is felt that with cold storage, and with a fixed minimum guaranteed price 
for all species, the fisherman will in turn do his best to land larger catches, knowing 
beforehand its value and ultimate destination. Conditions at present are only specu- 
lative . 



In turn the cold-storage plant will play its great part in storing the fish for 
consumption during the hurricane season, August-October, when fish is in very 
short supply. 

It is hoped that the cold-storage development will be in operation in 1956/57, 
if the local Government can finance the scheme in that year. 

Powered Vessels : Plans have been forwarded to the Ministry suggesting ways 
and means for the gradual turnover from sail-type boats to small power -driven 
boats . 

This scheme has received the favorable consideration of the Legislature, and 
it is planned that the first instant Government loans should be extended to assist 
with the building of 25 small powered boats each year for the next 5 years. 

--D. W. Wiles, Fisheries Officer, 
Barbados Island, 
British West Indies. 

^ ^r ^ 5fr: ^ 



MORE FISHING BOATS TO BE ME CHANI ZED: Of the approximately 600 
boats operating in the Barbados fishing industry, only 17 were motor driven at 
the beginning of 1954. However, money has been voted to help finance gradual con- 
version of the fishing fleet to motor power . The Government will pay part of the 
cost of the engines. 

The pickling of flying fish in Barbados has been investigated and it is believed 
that production and marketing can be expanded considerably. There is still the 
problem of refrigeration, which at present is inadequate for preserving surplus 
stocks, reports the March 19 Foreign Trade , a Canadian Government publication. 



54 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



McGILL UNIVERSITY FISHERY RESEARCH INSTITUTE: A research institute 
of the McGill University of Canada will be established at Sandacres, St. James, Bar- 
bados, to investigate marine life and fishery problems for the benefit of the Island. 
Construction of a laboratory will start shortly, reports the January 1955 issue of 
The Caribbean , a periodical of the Caribbean area. The institute will also conduct 
research on more basic scientific experimental work. 



Brazil 

FRENCH AND SPANISH VESSELS CONTRACT TO FISH IN BRAZILIAN WATERS : 
A Santa Caterina, Brazil, fishing company has been authorized to contract for four 
French fishing vessels to operate in Brazilian waters for a two-year period. Two 
Spanish vessels will also be allowed to operate during the same period, says an 
economic report on Brazil. The report adds that the annual Brazilian fish catch has 
greatly diminished since foreign participation (then Portuguese) was suspended a 
few years ago, states the February 11 issue of The Fishing News, a British fishery 
magazine . 



Canada 




A. Three-bowMiminegashtrap, iron frame, steel 
rod cover. 




B. Four-bow PortMaitland trap, iron frame, steel 
or aluminum wiremesh cover. 




C. Four-bowPort Maitlandtrap.ironframe, steel 
rod cover. 



WOOD AND METAL LOBSTER TRAP 
Can the lobster distin- 



EXPERIMENT£ 
guish between wood and metal traps ? 
This, in effect, is what scientists of the 
Atlantic Biological Station of the Fisheries 
Research Board of Canada at St. Andrews, 
N. B., are trying to find out, reports the 
January 1955 Trade News, a Canadian 
Department of Fisheries publication. 

The results of these experiments be- 
ing carried out with the help of many lob- 
ster fishermen may have a far-reaching 
effect on the economy of the industry, be- 
cause losses of wooden traps run as high 
as half -a -million a year in the Maritime 
provinces . 

With the average value of these traps 
approximately C$5 each, the destruction 
represents a staggering loss to the lob- 
ster-fishing industry. When the Fisher- 
men's Indemnity Fund was established in 
1953 under the Federal Department of 
Fisheries to provide low-cost insurance 
for fishing vessels, provision was also 
made to insure lobster traps against ab- 
normal storm losses. It has also stimu- 
lated experiments by the Fisheries Re- 
search Board to find a more durable trap. 

The scientists naturally turned to 
designing traps of metal, and in 1953 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



55 



carried out a preliminary experiment; followed this up in 1954 with more extensive ex- 
periments, and are continuing this in 1955. To date the results have not provided con- 
clusive evidence, but "are encouraging," according to the scientist in charge . He points 
out also that their work with the metal traps is still very much in the experimental stage. 

In general the metal traps have been of conventional design, patterned after the wood- 
en traps most popular in the experimental areas, and differing chiefly in the materials 
used and the methods of construction. Most of the metal traps tested have been construct- 
ed of |-inch steel rod welded to -g -inch steel bows (or frames) . In attempts to simplify 
construction, and thus reduce labor costs, traps iron-framed and bolted, and covered 
with aluminum mesh are being tried. More recent models are being strengthened with a 
framework base of | or 1 -inch angle iron . 

A striking feature of the metal traps--aside from their fishing ability--has been 
their relative lightness in air and heaviness in water as compared to the conventional 
wooden traps, making even the 
lightest metal traps more dif- 
ficult to haul. This difference 
in weights was demonstrated 
in traps tested at Port Mait- 
land, N. S., and the results ob- 
tained are shown in table 1 . 



Table 1 -Comparative Weights ot Wood and Metal 
Lobster Traps, Port Maitland, N. S. 


Type 


Weight 1 


In Air 


In Water 


Soaked wooden traps with 

fixed stone ballast 

Metal Traps--Model 1. . . . 
Metal Traps--Model 2. . . . 


Lbs. 

109 
52 
56 


Lbs. 

29 

46 
50 



The number of market- 
size lobsters caught in the 
conventional wooden traps and in the two models of metal traps during the Port Mait- 
land's experiments are shown in table 2. 



During this experiment four metal traps were fished from November 2-6, 1953, 
and 15 metal traps were fished from December 1, 1953, to March 29, 1954. From 

,— ,— , March 24 -May 28, 

Table 2 - Comparative Catch of Market Lobsters by Wood and" 



Metal Traps, Port Maitland, N. S. 

ICatch of Market Lobsters 



Date of Tests 



Nov. 2, 1953-Jan. 14, 1954 
Jan 16, 1954-Mar. 29, 1954 
Mar. 24. 1954-May 28, 1954 



Trap 
Hauls 



No. 

248 
473 



Wooden 
Traps 



Metal Traps 



Model 1 



(Number of Lobsters) 



351 
285 
326 



345 
141 



Model 2 



234 



1954, the experi- 
ment was contin- 
ued with 14 new 
metal traps of 
slightly different 
design. 



In the first 
stage the metal 
traps caught 2 
percent fewer lobsters than the wooden traps in the same number of hauls. During 
the second phase metal traps caught 51 percent less, making the average for the 
entire period 24 percent less. In the third phase, with the modified trap, the metal 
traps caught 28 percent fewer lobsters than the wooden traps. 



However, during this test period the storm damage to the wooden traps was 
quite significant, while the metal traps went unharmed. 

Two of the most severe storms struck in December. On December 9, 11 of the 
15 wooden traps were destroyed and three others damaged. The second storm 5 days 
later destroyed 7 of the wooden traps and damaged two others. In order that the ex- 
periment continue on a proper basis, wooden traps destroyed or damaged were re- 
placed as quickly as possible after the storms abated. No metal traps were destroy- 
ed, damaged, or shifted in either of the above or subsequent storms. 



After completion of the Port Maitland experiment, the model 2 traps were fished 
at Fourchu, N, S. Since the metal traps were larger and of a somewhat different 
design, results were not strictly comparable (see table 3). 



56 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol, 17, No. 5 



Table 3 -Comparative Catch of Market Lobsters by Wood and 
Metal Lobster Traps, Fourchu, N. S. 


Date of Tests 


Trap 
Hauls 


Catch of Market Lobsters | 


Wooden 
Traps 


Metal Traps, 
Model 2 


June 9-July 13, 1954 


No. 
17S 


(Number of Lobsters) 
223 1 190 



The metal traps caught 15 percent fewer lobsters than the wooden traps, but the 
individual catches were so variable as to make the difference statistically insignifi- 
cant. No storms se- 
vere enough to de- 
stroy either type of 
trap were encounter- 
ed. 

The third experi- 
mental area chosen 
was Miminegash, 

P. E. I., and 15 new metal traps comparable in size and design to the standard trap 
fished in this area were built for the experiment . The weights of these traps are 
compared in table 4. 

The catch in the Miminegash area is shown in table 5 . 

This was the first experiment in which the metal traps fished as well as the 
wooden traps throughout the test period, catching 4 percent more than the wooden 

traps. In this experiment special 
precautions were taken in rigging 
and setting the metal traps to in- 
sure settlement to the bottom 
right side up. In earlier experi- 
ments there was evidence that the 
metal traps sometimes settled on 
their sides, and this undoubtedly 
contributed to their poorer catches. 



Table 4 - Comparative Weights ot Wood and Metal 
Traps, Miminegash, P. E. I. 


Type 


Weight 1 


In Air 


In Water 


Soaked wooden traps with 

fixed concrete ballast. . . . 
Metal traps --Model 3 


Lbs. 

58 
35 


Lbs. 

18 
30 



Table 5 - C omparative Catch of Legal-Size Lobsters by Wood and 
Metal Traps, Miminegash, P.E.I. 


Date of Tests 


Trap 
Hauls 


Catch ot Legal-Size Lobsters| 


Wooden 
Traps 


Metal Traps, 
Model 3 


Aug.lO-Oct. 4, 1954 


No. 
499 


. . (Number of Lobsters). . 
239 1 248 



The experiments are continuing as the lobster open seasons rotate about the 
thousands of miles of Maritime coastline. Port Maitland is again a base of opera- 
tions, and the 
traps used earlier 
at Miminegash are 
being tried near 
Lunenburg, N.S. 

The 14 traps 
previously fished 
off Port Maitland 

have been supplemented with the addition of 5 more, similar in design except that 
aluminum mesh on 4 and cotton mesh on 1 is being used instead of steel rods. 

During the first 3 weeks of the 1954/55 season at Port Maitland the metaltraps 
caught 146 market lobsters as compared with 148 for the wooden traps. Severe 
storms during the week of December 7 destroyed 14 of the 19 wooden traps and 
badly damaged the remainder . The metal traps came through these storms without 
damage . 

Two problems are yet to be overcome --the cost of the metal traps and the rust- 
ing -out of the metal. 

"We have to know more about the efficiency and the lasting qualities in relation 
to cost before we can recommend their general use. But results to date continue to 
be encouraging," comments the scientist in charge of the experiments. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 57 

Chile 

TERRITORIAL WATERS PATROL TO BE INTENSIFIED : The Chilean Fish and 
Wildlife Office has recommended to the Ministry of National Defense that the recon- 
noitering activities of the Navy and Air Force be intensified within the 200-mile zone, 
due to the supposition that foreign vessels, some of which have been apprehended in 
Peru, have been fishing near the north coast of Chile. A recent State Department 
dispatch pointed out that this appeared in a press report from Santiago. 



Cuba 

CLOSED LOBSTER AND SHRIMP FISHING SEASON : The Cuban Government 
announced that fishing for shrimp and lobster would be prohibited between April 23 
and June 15, 1955 reports a U.S. Embassy dispatch (April 4) from Havana. 



Denmark 

AUTHORIZED IMPORTS OF DANISH FISHERY PRODUCTS : The following im- 
ports of Danish fishery products into West Germany have been authorized, according 
to the February 11 issue of The Fishing News, a British trade periodical: Canned 
fish valued at DM 50,000 (USTTl,900); prepared fish (where not already liberalized), 
DM 10,000 (US$2,400); fresh-water fish, DM 100,000 (US$23,800); fresh sprats, 
DM 500,000 (US$119,000); and sea fish and fish waste, DM 700,000 (US$167,000). 



Greece 

FISHERIES TRENDS , 1954 : The total production of the Greek fishing industry 
in 1954 was estimated at approximately 50,000 metric tons as compared to 43,000 
tons in 1953, reports the December 1954 Aleia , a Greek fishery periodical. Larger 
catches in 1954 of sardines and striped bonito were responsible for the increase. 

Large quantities of bonito were caught in the Gulf of Pagasitico (Volo) by 120 
seiners from all fishing centers of Greece, commencing in October when the fish 
returned from the Black Sea. From October 1 -November 30 a total of 3,000 tons 
were caught. Wholesale prices for striped bonito in Greece ranged from 5 to 8 
drachmas per kilogram (7.5 to 12.0 U. S. cents per pound). None was exported as 
local consumption absorbed all catches. Greek canning factories canned 85 to 90 
tons of striped bonito in 1954. 

The Athenian Fishery Merchants Association signed a contract with a Casablanca 
firm for 400 tons of frozen fish. The first load had already reached Piraeus and was 
being sold. 

SPONGE FISHERY 1954 : Greek production of sponges during 1954 in local and 
foreign waters totaled 120 metric tons, reports the December 1954 Aleia, a Greek 
fishery periodical. Of this, 67.4 metric tons were caught off Cyrenaica, 17.0 tons 
in Egyptian waters, 7.0 tons off Tripolitania, and 15.6 tons in Greek waters. 



58 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

In addition to the above, 13 metric tons were produced at Trikkeri and Symi. 
The Symi sponge -fishing fleet was financed by a Chicago, 111., individual. 

A total of 136 boats operated in the Greek sponge fishery in 1954--68 diving- 
suit boats, 9 fernez, 27 gagaves, and 32 harpoon boats. 

Sponges from Derna and Benghazi Kapadika were sold at 960 drachmas per 
oke (US$11.30 per pound) and Tsimouhes sponges at 665 drachmas per oke (US$7.85 
per pound). Tripolitania sponges--1952 stock--were sold at 845 drachmas per oke 
(US$9.96 per pound), less 16 percent for all grades. A quantity of fernez sponges 
from Tripoli was sold at 820 drachmas per oke (US$9.64 per pound), but the fourth 
and fifth grades remained unsold. 



Greenland 

NORWEGIAN-DANISH FISHERY STATION IN GREENLAND : In the summer of 
1954 work was completed on the first stage of an expansion of facilities at the new 
Norwegian-Danish fishery station at Faeringehavn, West Greenland, a February 17 
U, S. Embassy dispatch from Oslo states. The station is being widely expanded 
with Norwegian, Danish, and Faeroe Island capital to permit increased exploitation 
of Greenland fishing banks which have been described as "the richest in the world.'' 
The station is located in the Godthaap district of Southwest Greenland. 

The new company, Nordafar, has concentrated its efforts on improving the facil- 
ities of the inner part of Faeringehavn where the company holds a 15 -year concession 
from the Danish Government. During the short summer season of 1954 the company 
succeeded in constructing a new salt silo with a 6,000-metric ton capacity, and anew 
freezing plant with a daily capacity of 40 tons and a storage capacity of 750 tons of 
frozen fishery products. In addition, the deep-water quay was extended to a total 
of 720 feet and two large cranes were installed. The station now also includes petro- 
leum storage tanks for supplying fuel to fishing vessels. Together with the older 
facilities of the company which remain in use, the station is capable of storing 6,700 
tons of salt and 1,100 tons of frozen fish. The total investment at Faeringehavn is 
reported to amount to 7 million kroner (US$980,000). 

Future plans call for the extension of the quay to 1,300 feet and the construction 
of a fresh-fish processing plant, a fish-meal factory, and a fish liver-oil- plant . 

The purpose of the expanded installation is twofold: (1) to provision and service 
Norwegian, Danish, Faeroe Island, and other foreign expeditions which fish in West 
Greenland waters, and (2) to process fish caught in West Greenland waters for direct 
sale to various foreign markets . 

The Faeringehavn station is open from April to November. West Greenland 
bank fisheries consist chiefly of cod and normally take place between May and Sep- 
tember . In general, trawling is confined to the months of June and July. In 1954 
the Faeringehavn station was visited by at least 140 fishing vessels including a 
number of British, Spanish, Portuguese, and Icelandic vessels as well as about 70 
vessels from Norway and 40 from the Faeroe Islands. 

As a result of the improved facilities offered by the Faeringehavn station, more 
Norwegian fishing expeditions than ever before operated in West Greenland waters 
in 1954. According to official reports of the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries, 
76 vessels from Norway (67 line vessels and 9 trawlers) were active off West Green- 
land, compared with 54 in the previous season. These vessels produced in 1954 ap- 
proximately 16,000 metric tons of salted cod, compared with about 8,000 tons in 1952 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 59 

and 10,000 in 1953. Four vessels fished halibut exclusively in 1954 and caught ap- 
proximately 500 tons. All of this fish plus the total production of frozen fish prod- 
ucts by Nordafar in 1954 was shipped to Norway for further distribution; the salted 
cod is dried and marketed as klippfish. At least 80 Norwegian vessels are expected 
to participate in the Greenland fisheries in 1955 and the production of salted cod may 
exceed 20,000 tons. 

Beginning in 1955 Nordafar intends to market frozen fish directly in various 
foreign markets. Current plans call for marketing the more expensive frozen cod 
and halibut chiefly in the United States, and the less expensive ocean perch (redfish) 
and ocean catfish (wolffish) in East Germany; efforts will also be made to market 
frozen fish in Greece and Latin America. Direct foreign sales will permit Norda- 
far to make its operation more efficient in that the same ships which deliver salt, 
frozen bait herring, and other supplies to Faeringehavn can carry away the company's 
frozen fish products. 

As the price paid for fresh fish landed at Faeringehavn is considerably less 
than the landed price in northern European fishing ports, e.g. 30 ore per kilogram 
(1.9 U. S. cents per pound) for fresh cod landed at Faeringehavn in 1954 as com- 
pared with an average landed price of 75 ore (4.8 U. S. cents per pound) for Nor- 
wegian Lofoten cod the same year, Nordafar is able to offer serious competition 
to exporters of frozen fish in Norway and other countries. Norwegian exporters 
already have begun to voice apprehension of this development. 

India 

MADRAS OYSTER PEARL FISHING REACTIVATED AFTER 28 YEARS : The Madras 
Government plans to start pearl fishing operations off Tuticorin from March 15 to April 30, 
1955 . The last pearl fishing in this area was in 1927, points out a March 4 U. S. consular 
dispatch frorrf Madras, when 30 million oysters were collected for a net revenue of over 
Rs. 100,000 to the Madras Government. 

The Madras State Fisheries Department has since 1927 been conducting peri- 
odical surveys of the area. In June 1952 it was reported that a large shoal of "spat" 
(unmatured pearl oysters), located 10 miles off the Tuticorin coast three years 
previously, had been found spread over a wide range from Tuticorin to Rameswaram. 
In order not to disturb the growth of the oysters the Department cautioned all ships 
and power boats in the area and restricted fishing. Subsequent investigations by the 
Fisheries Department in March-April and January-February 1955 are reported to 
have shown the presence of about 27 million oysters ripe for taking. 

The prospect for successful pearl fishing off Tuticorin in March-April 1955 were 
considered good. The Madras Government planned to conduct the operation from the 
middle of March to the end of April, utilizing a fleet of 400-500 country boats with 
about 2,000 divers drawn from different parts of the country. The Madras Director 
of Fisheries and the Deputy Director of Fisheries (Marine) will be in charge during 
the 45 -day operation. 



Israel 

FISHERIES TRENDS 1953/54 : Israelis consume an average of 22,000 metric 
tons of fish a year, of which about two-thirds is imported, reports the April 2 For - 
eign Trade , a Canadian Government publication. The bulk of the imports are frozen 
and salted fish and fillets obtained from Northeast Europe under bilateral exchange 



60 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

clearing agreements. Local production from pond, lake, and sea increased by 16- 
percent to 8,605 tons during the year ending September 1954 as a result of new 
equipment, better techniques, and research. A further expansion in sea fishing-- 
surface, net, and deep-sea- -is envisaged in the near future, following the acquisition 
during 1954 of a number of trawlers from the United Kingdom and West Germany. 
Eighteen more ships have recently been ordered from Germany, all to be financed 
from Jewish war reparation funds made available to Israel by West Germany. 

Although a large fish importer, Israel is conscious of export possibilities and 
recently shipped a first consignment of 2,000 tons of stuffed carp to the United States . 
Plans are under way to expand this trade. Carp is the main pond species in Israel 
and production is expected to reach 6,000 tons in 1955, compared with last year's 
total catch of 4,300 tons. 



Jamaica 

SHRIMP TO BE FLOWN TO UNITED STATES : Possibilities of supplying 
10,000 pounds of shrimp monthly by air to a big food concern in New York are now 
being explored in Jamaica, reports The Caribbean (January 1955), a periodical of 
the Caribbean area. 

A representative of the United States concern in Jamaica had talks with the 
Ministry of Agriculture, the Industrial Development Corporation, and private inter- 
ests in this connection. He said: "I am of the opinion that shrimps are here in a- 
bundance, only waiting to be reaped." He added, "I see no reason why something 
could not be worked out for the mutual benefit of the local industry and the importers 
in New York." 

Under the scheme, the shrimp would be flown by plane to Miami in specially- 
designed containers, to be distributed fresh as well as canned through outlets in the 
United States . 

Japan 

LAW FOR PROMOTION OF MARINE PRODUCTS EXPORTS: A Japanese law 
for the promotion of exports oTmarine products (Law No. 154 of June 2, 1954) be- 
came effective December 1, 1954. This is a summary of the law from a digest in 
The Japan Trade News, January 1955, as reported in a February 24 U. S. Embassy 
dispatch from Tokyo: 

Definition of Marine Products : (1) Canned tuna and bonito, in oil or brine; 
(2) frozen tuna,T3onito, and swordfish; (3) canned sardines, in oil, tomato sauce, 
or condiments; (4) canned mackerel, in oil, tomato sauce, or condiments; (5) fish- 
liver oil; (6) canned crab; (7) canned salmon; (8) agar-agar. 

Registration , Inspection , and Control: Enterprises manufacturing marine prod- 
ucts 7OT~export~shaTr"appTy~tb the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, or the Pre- 
fectural Governor, who shall inspect the manufacturer's equipment and, if it con- 
forms to stipulated conditions, shall register the enterprise. 

Export Associations : Registered manufacturers may create a national export- 
ers association on a nonprofit basis with each member having an equal vote, regard" 
less of size. The association may engage in the following activities on behalf of its 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



61 



membership: (1) loaning funds; (2) receiving, warehousing, inspecting, and ship- 
ping of marine products; (3) purchase of materials; (4) research, education, and 
investigation in respect of marine products. 

Marketing Controls : The association, whenever there arises undue competition 
among its members resulting from overproduction or restrictions at destination, 
may exercise controls over quantity, quality, delivery, selling method, time of de- 
livery, and selling price for the purpose of stabilizing the industry and providing 
for the export of marine products in an orderly fashion. 

FISHERY TRAINING VESSELS REPORT TUNA ABUNDANT IN INDIAN OCEAN : 
The master of the Japanese fishery training vessel Shunkotsu~Maru reported that 
the Indian Ocean to the northeast of Madagascar abounds in yellowfin tuna and offers 
excellent opportunities for Japanese fishermen provided a base nearer than Japan 
could be used. The Shunkotsu Maru of the Fisheries Agency Training Institute at 
Shimoneseki, and the Osho Maru of the Hokkaido University fisheries department 
recently returned from training cruises in the Indian Ocean which included explora- 
tory searches for new fishing grounds. The Shunkotsu Maru carried 44 fisheries 
students and, for part of its trip, had on board four officials of the Ceylonese Gov- 
ernment . 

This report, and the presence of Ceylonese Government officials, would seem 
to be part of the effort to arrange for a joint Ceylonese-Japanese fishing corpora- 
tion, which has been widely discussed and seems to have good promise, a March 2 
U.S. Embassy dispatch from Tokyo states. 

***** 



Terutama Maru 



Table 1 -Cargo Vessels BeingConverted 
to Salmon Factorysh ips 



Name 



MORE SALMON AND CRAB FACTORYSHIPS: Japanese fishery firms in 1955 
will build two new salmon canning factoryships and convert nine former cargo ves- 
sels to canning factoryships for salm- 
on and crab production, reports a 
March 10 U. S. Embassy dispatch from 
Tokyo. (See tables.) 

In addition to the above, the Tsuru- 
oka Maru. a tanker of 15,826 deadweight 
tons, is being converted into a whaling 
factoryship. The Kaiyo Maru. of 8,920 
deadweight tons, was purchased for 
conversion into a crab-canning ship but 
the conversion will not be undertaken 
in time for the 1955 season. 



Eiko Maru . 
Kizan Maru 



Nichian Maru 



Kyokko Maru 



Choko Maru . 
Baikal Marui' 



Hakuyo Maru 



Gross 
Tons 



8, 631 
9,325 

12, 336 

8,451 

10, 322 

9, 177 
4,804 
6, 098 



Date 

Built 



1925 
1930 
1925 
1919 
1921 
1932 
1922 
1921 



No. of 

Canning 

Lines 



1/Former whaling mothership. 



All these conversions involve old 

slow vessels of small economic value in ocean trading. As cannery ships this lack 



Table 2 - New Salmon Cannery Factoryships 
Being Built 


Table 3 - Cargo VesselBemgConverted 
to Crab Factoryship 


Name 


Gross 
Tons 


Date 
Built 


No. of 

Canning 

Lines 


Name 


Gross 
Tons 


Date 
Built 


No. of 

Canning 

Lines 


Koyo Maru 


7,400 
5, 700 


1955 
1955 


2 
2 


Yoko Maru. . . . 


8, 380 


1921 


2 


[tsukushima Maru. . 



of speed is immaterial. The conversions therefore will build up a most substantial 
fish-processing fleet and at the same time will relieve the original owners of a num- 
ber of antiquated ships of little value. 



62 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



VoL 17. No. 5 



These conversions are also regarded as evidence that the salmon and crab 
fisheries production will improve, possibly because of easing of the U. S. S. R. 
attitude regarding Japanese fishermen in Okhotsk and Kamchatkan waters, a 
January 21 U. S. Embassy dispatch from Tokyo points out. 



***** 



SALMON PRODUCTION TO ALMOST DOUBLE IN 1955 : Due to a marked in- 
crease in the number of salmon fleets, the Japanese~T955 salmon production is 
estimated at 38.0 million fish, almost 
double the 1954 production of 20.5 mil- 
lion fish (see table). This preliminary 
estimate was made by the leading fish- 
ing companies but not as yet verified 
by the Japanese Fisheries Agency, a 
March 10 U. S. Embassy dispatch from 
Tokyo reports . 

Total production of canned salmon from the 1955 catch is estimated at 1.2 mil- 
lion cases (96 8-oz. cans), of which 1.0 million cases will be produced on board 
ship and 0.2 million cases on shore. It is expected that the floating facilities for 
canning will be 4 or 5 times those available in 1954. 

Exports in 1955 are expected to be between 700,000 and 800,000 cases at the 
following f.o.b. prices: sockeye US$30, pink US$18.50, silver US$24 per case. Pre- 
sumably the bulk of these exports will go to the sterling area as in 1954. 



Species 


1955 Estimate|1954 Catch 


Salmon: 


(Millions of Fish) 


Sockeye .... 


7.3 


3.8 


Chum 


14.6 


9.4 


Pink 


14.2 


5.8 


Silver ..... 


1.9 


1.5 


Totals . . . 


38.0 


20.5 



EARLIER TRAWLING FOR SOLE IN NORTH PACIFIC TRIED : The 933-ton 

Japanese trawler Asama~Maru was expected to sail shortly to engage in trawling 
for sole in Bristol Bay and the North Pacific, a March 16 U. S. Embassy dispatch 
from Tokyo reports. This will be a repetition of the Asama Maru's experimental 
work in 1954, and is intended to determine if this fishing may profitably be com- 
menced earlier than May. It is also intended to give further comparative figures 
as to the relative economy of independent trawling as compared to the mothership 
expeditions also conducted in 1954. 



n 



Republic of Korea 

UNKRA COMPLETES TEN DEEP - SEA TRAWLERS : Two modern deep-sea 
fishing trawlers owned by the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) 
sailed from Hong Kong early in March, flying for the first time in marine history 
the blue -and- white flag of the United Nations, according to a March 9 press release 
from that Agency. An official of the Agency, which built the boats to speed the re- 
covery of the Korean fishing industry, said eight other vessels were scheduled to 
leave after the first two arrived at the Korean port of Pusan. 

Upon arrival in Pusan, the boats were to be registered under the South Korean 
flag and join the Republic's fishing fleet. 

The ten 77-ton trawlers were built for UNKRA by a shipyard at Kowloon, Hong 
Kong, at a total cost of about US$500,000. The Agency spokesman said the shipyard 
delivered them on March 1, at which time the flags were hoisted. 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 63 

The vessels have an over -all length of 75 feet 7 inches, and are equipped with 
British-manufactured 160-hp. marine Diesel engines capable of speeds up to nine 
knots. They will enable fishermen to extend their operations to rich fishing areas 
up to 1,000 miles offshore. Korean Government and fisheries officials joined with 
UNKRA fisheries experts in the design and specifications of the boats. 

The construction of the trawlers is part of UNKRA's over-all program aimed 
at restoring the Republic's fishing fleet and industry. 

The end of the fighting found Korea, formerly one of the six foremost fishing 
countries of the world, almost stripped of boats, gear, and fish-packing equipment. 
Of the 43,834 boats that survived, only 3,295 were powered craft; the remainder 
were either sail or hand operated. Few were seaworthy enough to venture beyond 
the little bays and inlets of Korea's coastline. The big fish in offshore waters 
could not be caught. 

The nation depends upon marine products for 80 percent of its protein diet, 
and fish production dropped from 600,000 metric tons in 1940 to 270,000 tons in 
1954. Nearly 600,000 fishermen and persons directly employed in the industry 
were practically destitute, and some 250,000 engaged in subsidiary industries were 
unemployed. 

To meet this urgent need, UNKRA started a program of aid that has helped 
every branch of the industry. Nets and equipment were bought to enable fishermen 
to go to sea. Canneries and ice plants were repaired. Small business concerns 
were subsidized and fish markets rehabilitated. 

Korean shipyards in operation are also bringing new life to the ports. Under 
an UNKRA program of loans to fishermen, 13 smaller boats are either completed 
or in process of construction, and a further 6 are to be started at an early date. 
UNKRA has already advanced more than 23 million hwan (about US$130,000) to ac- 
celerate this program. The money has enabled fishermen to buy imported timber 
and engines. Repayme'nt is spread over a period of three years. 

INSHORE FISHING VESSELS BUILT WITH UNKRA AID: Five new Korean fish- 
ing vessels, built under a loan fund established by the UNKRA, were launched on Jan- 
uary 28 in Pusan, a report from UNKRA Headquarters announced February 1. The 
boats, along with one completed last November in Kunsan, are the forerunners of a 
fleet of fishing vessels being built in shipyards all along Korea's coastline. 

The 13-ton long liners are suitable for inshore fishing, and mark an important 
stage in the reestablishment of the Republic of Korea's war-ruined fishing industry. 
Boats, nets, fishing gear, and other necessary equipment were lost or damaged in the 
fighting, and the industry, traditionally a source of food second only to rice produc- 
tion, was reduced to a fraction of its capacity. 



Mexico 

EXPORT DUTIES ON SHRIMP AND FILLETS - - CORRECTION : The Mexican 
export tax on frozen shrimp at 30 centavos per 100 kilos plus 5 percent of the value 
was incorrectly converted to U. S. currency on page 69 of the March 1955 Commer- 
cial Fisheries Review. The correct conversion is almost 1 U. S. cent per hundred- 
weight, not 1.1 U. S. cent per pound. 



64 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No, 5 

Norway 

LOFOTEN COD CATCH IMPROVES : The annual cod fisheries on the Lofoten 
banks in North Norway got off to a bad start but were improving after five weeks, 
reports a March 10 bulletin from the Norwegian Information Service. At the half- 
way mark the total landings were 5 percent larger than for the same period in 1954, 
with only a third as many fishermen participating. 

The reason why so many fishermen are not taking a chance on the Lofoten banks 
this year is fairly obvious. Two bad seasons,coupled with predictions that this year's 
prospects weren't too good either have persuaded the fishermen that they might as 
well stay home. 

So far, jiggers and hand liners have made out quite well, while netters have 
lagged behind in their catches. On March 14 the superefficient purse seiners were 
to get the official green light to join the competition. If they are lucky, it would 
have an important bearing on the final result of Norway's northern cod fisheries. 



Pakistan 

RESEARCH VESSEL DONATED BY FQA : The Machhera , a 67 -foot scientific 
boat destined to play a pioneer role in developing Karachi as one of the great fish- 
ing ports of Asia, was presented by the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan to the Pakis- 
tan Agriculture Minister recently, reports a March 11 bulletin from the Pakistan 
Embassy in Washington, D. C. 

The craft is designed to search out and chart the seasonal courses and depths 
of the great shoals of fish believed to teem in the Arabian Sea. It is hoped and ex- 
pected that the new sources of fish discovered will mean better food at lower prices 
and that large-scale exports will earn hard-currency foreign exchange. 

The vessel was purchased for US$108,000 by the U. S. Foreign Operations Ad- 
ministration. It will be operated by the Central Fisheries Department of the Minis- 
try of Food and Agriculture. 

The research findings of the boat will help to develop the fishing industry of 
Karachi in selecting the most efficient type of fishing vessel. The distance from 
shore and the depth in water that the shoals are found will indicate the ideal boat's 
shape, size, horsepower, and type of fishing gear. 

The Machhera is 19 feet wide and has a 60-ton gross weight. The equipment 
includes 150-hp. main engine, a two-way radiotelephone system, berths for a crew 
of 10, and a modern galley. 



Panama 

SHRIMP FISHERY EXPANDING : The shrimp fishery based at Panama City 
has become increasingly important during the past few years, reports the February 
19 Foreign Trade, a Canadian Government publication. This shellfish now constitutes 
the country's second export, exceeded in value only by bananas. From only US$154,000 
in 1950, shrimp shipments have risen to an estimated US$4.1 million for 1954. 

The shrimp fishery is under the control of a Panamanian Government-sponsored 
cooperative which now owns a cold storage and packing plant, a small shipyard, and 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 65 

a fleet of 80 shrimp trawlers. After cleaning and quick-freezing, the shrimp are 
shipped to United States markets. 

Canadian firms exported to Panama fishing nets and lines, which totaled less 
than C$600 for the three years 1949 to 1951, and reached C$27,132 in the first 10 
months of 1954. 



Republic of the Philippines 

UNITED STATES ENTERPRISE EXEMPTED FROM FISHING BOAT EXCHANGE 
TAX: The Philippine Secretary of Justice issued an opinion on February 23, 1955, 
which states that United States citizens and business enterprises may be granted 
exemption from the 17 -percent tax on foreign exchange they bring intobuy fishing ves- 
sels for operation in Philippine territorial waters. 

The opinion came in reply to an inquiry from the acting deputy governor of the 
Central Bank regarding the purchase of two deep-sea fishing vessels by a firnn with 
"100 percent Filipino and American capital." The opinion employed the theory that 
a tax on United States citizens and business enterprises operating public utilities 
and exploiting Philippine natural resources would necessarily place them "in dis- 
parity, not parity" with tax-exempt Filipinos engaged. in similar trades. The opin- 
ion of the justice secretary was an interpretation of Republic Act No. 1175 in rela- 
tion to the so-called parity amendment to the Constitution. 

The Secretary went on to explain that although the law does not specifically 
include the exemption of United States citizens from the payment of foreign ex- 
change tax in the purchase of vessels intended for Philippine registry, he was as- 
suming this exemption since the statute is connected to the parity amendment by 
reason of the presumption that when Congress enacts a statute it acts within the 
scope of its powers . 

The Secretary further clarified the matter by stating that fishing vessels opera- 
ting in Philippine waters are engaged in the exploiting of the natural resources of 
the country since fish are a part of those natural resources. He reasoned further 
that since United States citizens are given the right to exploit the natural resources 
of the Philippines the tax exemption might be extended to them. 

The Secretary qualified his opinion by saying that if the exemption were granted 
that the fishing vessels would have to be used in Philippine waters. 

United States citizens and enterprises who fish or intend to fish partly within 
and partly outside Philippine waters would be denied exemption from the tax because 
of the difficulties of apportioning the price of the vessel to serve the rule of strict 
construction of tax exemption statutes. 



Ryukyu Islands 

FISHERIES TRENDS , JANUARY - JUNE 1954: Thousands of canoes and small 
boats exploit the inshore fisheries inmost areas of the Ryukyus to the saturation 
point, according to Civil Affairs Activities in the Ryukyu Islands for the period end- 
ing 30 June 1954 , published by the U.S. Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands. 
Offshore operations require financial backing beyond the capacity of local individual 
boat owners. For this reason formation of the Ryukyu Fisheries Company by the 



66 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



entire fisheries industry was encouraged. It is the first commercial-fishing com- 
pany ever to operate in these islands. When the company commenced operation of 
the reefer plant, it chartered the two 150-gross-ton refrigerated fishing vessels 
which were built with GARIOA funds, and engaged an expert fisherman from Japan 
to teach local crews how to utilize these craft in the offshore fisheries. In less 
than a year and a half of operation, catches for voyages averaging 37-40 days have 
risen from 30,000 pounds to more than 100,000 pounds per trip. The latest produced 
134,000 pounds, chiefly tuna and spearfish. This compares favorably with the catch 
of Japanese vessels of the same size similarly engaged. 



THE RYUKYU ISLANDS 







The Ryukyu Fisheries Company, Ltd., a joint -stock company owned principally 
by the fishing industry through its federations and cooperatives, operates the Naha 
Reefer Plant under lease, as well as three fishing vessels. When this large cold- 
storage plant commenced operations on February 8, 1953, under Ryukyuan manage- 
ment, it inaugurated a new era in the storage and handling of perishable food prod- 
ucts in the local economy. After more than a year of missionary work, local mer- 
chants are beginning to use the chilled and cold-storage facilities. However, the 
bulk of the fish stored is still caught by the company-operated boats . Only when there 
is a glut on the fresh-fish market do fishermen store fish in the reefer plant until 
prices rise. Amounts in excess of subsistence needs are ordinarily processed in 
the fishing villages. This is chiefly skipjack' tuna which is manufactured into "fish 
sticks" for local use and export to Japan. 

Cold-storage facilities encourage maximum use of the fishing fleet. When 
catches are heavy, vessels can now remain at sea and comie in with full loads. Be- 
fore the reefer plant was in operation, vessels often ceased good fishing in order to 
make port with partial loads hoping to beat heavy landings and the inevitable drop in 
price . 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 67 

The Ryukyu Fisheries Company purchased a 4-year-oId, 55-ton fishing vessel 
built with GARIOA funds in March 1954. The original purchaser employed the craft 
as a common carrier, having neither the knowledge nor financial resources to equip 
the vessel and enter a fishery unknown to local fishermen, and it was too large to 
operate profitably inshore. The company rigged this vessel also for offshore long 
lining, and the new crew had a nucleus of members from the 150-tonners. Working 
in the waters north of Yaeyama, this vessel made two successful trips, bringing in 
some 20,000 pounds of tuna and spearfish on each voyage which averaged two weeks 
in duration. It was believed that development of the local fishing industry depends 
primarily upon further expansion into the rich offshore waters in the East China 
Sea, hitherto monopolized by Japanese vessels and crews. Ice and refrigerated 
storage plus larger vessels have opened these rich areas for the first time to Ryu- 
kyuan fishermen, Their first operating organization, the Ryukyu Fisheries Company, 
must be strengthened and their leaders indoctrinated into commercial-fishing tech- 
niques and business methods. When needed, other fishing companies should be formed 
through the cooperatives and federations of fisheries cooperatives. Since the Ryu- 
kyu Fisheries Company began operating the reefer plant and large vessels in off- 
shore fisheries, the retail price of fish in Naha and environs has been cut in half. 

Lack of abundant low-priced fish for local consumption has always been a para- 
mount problem in Ryukyuan fisheries and the economy of the islands. The greatest 
fish tonnage has always come from the high-priced fishes--tuna and spearfish. Prior 
to World War II most of the tuna was exported to Japan in the form of processed 
"fish sticks." In return low-priced dried and salted fish, such as mackerel and sar- 
dines, were imported from the home islands to feed Ryukyuans . Miscellaneous reef 
and bottom fishes are relatively high in price. They cannot be taken in quantities to 
satisfy the local demand for low-priced fish. 

Deep water surrounds all the islands of the Ryukyus; the sea about each island 
within soundings is quite circumscribed. Overfishing many of these limited grounds 
since the war has resulted in lower catches per boat with the corollary that the fish 
taken command a higher price. This has brought about a local anomaly whereby 
tuna often sells for less on the fresh-fish market than inferior fish because of the 
chronic short supply of the latter and the steadily increasing tuna landings. 

Subsequent to World War II Japanese vessels fishing in the vicinity of the Sen- 
kaku Group in the southern Ryukyus discovered the presence of mackerel in sub- 
surface schools, and their long-line vessels in that area began fishing them for 
tuna bait. With the establishment of the Rhee Line and the loss to Japan of valu- 
able mackerel fishing grounds adjacent to Korea, Japanese began to fish for mack- 
erel comnnercially in Ryukyuan waters. Mackerel fishing is unknown to local fish- 
ermen and none were landed in these islands until May 1954 when a Japanese 39- 
gr OSS -ton vessel, engaged in a joint operation with the Miyako Federation of Fish- 
eries Cooperatives, landed 16.5 metric tons at the Naha Reefer Plant. With 12 in- 
experienced Miyako fishermen in the crew of 42, this vessel has averaged about 11 
tons per week. The Ryukyuans have become interested and a 30-ton boat from Ito- 
man was rigged with the assistance of the Japanese specialists and manned with a 
local crew. It sailed in company with the Japanese craft and fished with them the 
schools located below the surface by their sonar equipment and then chummed to the 
top. Since its initial venture, this Ryukyuan boat has paid expenses. 

This modest venture in mackerel fishing was suspended during July and August, 
the worst typhoon months, to be resumed in September. Several more local boats 
are being prepared to enter this fishery, and two additional Japanese mackerel boats 
and partial crews will assist these vessels by engaging in joint operations for a 
limited period under contract. 

Of Japan's fish catch of 3 million metric tons per year, more than 2 million 
tons consist of mackerel and sardines. These constitute the low-priced fish food 



68 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW Vol. 17, No. 5 

of the masses in Japan as well as in nearly all great fishing countries. Mackerel 
and sardines have never been caught in significant amounts in the Ryukyus . 

It is considered that the development of a mackerel fishery by Ryukyuan fish- 
ermen in Ryukyuan waters will have significant and far-reaching effects upon the 
local economy as well as upon the local fishing industry. Operation of the Naha 
Reefer Plant by the fishing industry makes this new fishery possible. A supply of 
frozen bait is now always available, and returning vessels can always sell their en- 
tire catch for storage, or store it themselves. Boatloads of mackerel can be quick- 
ly boxed, quick-frozen, glazed, and stored both for food during the winter months 
when landings are small, as well as for use as bait. Bait has heretofore been scarce 
and expensive over the winter, and the largest source of supply for Okinawa came 
from Amami Oshima which has reverted to Japan. 

Small refrigerated storage plants are to be built on Ishigaki and Yonaguni. The 
Yaeyama Federation of Fisheries Co-Operatives and Ryukyu Fisheries Company 
have ordered equipment to construct jointly a $25,000 five-ton ice and cold-storage 
plant on Yonaguni which will be operated by the Ryukyu Fisheries Company. The 
Yaeyama Federation will finance and operate the contemplated 75 -ton reefer on 
Ishigaki . 

Six licenses have been issued for the culture of pearls and pearl blisters in 
the indigenous black-lipped oyster (Pinctada margaritifera ) . Four companies, all 
joint Ryukyuan- Japanese enterprises, are presently in operation and two are in 
production. Locations are: two each in Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama. The Jap- 
anese technicians are training local personnel in the techniques and science of 
pearl culture. During the past three years, the largest operation, conducted by the 
International Pearl Company of Miyako, has planted 57,000 pearl oysters. They 
planned to harvest 10,000 spherical pearls in the fall of 1954. 

During the first four months of 1954 a total of 253 short tons of button shells 
with a value of US$208,000 was exported to Japan. In addition, about 1 .4 tons of 
locally-cut button blanks valued at US$2,500 were shipped. Seaweed, shark fins, 
and other marine products exported during the first half of 1954 amounted to 
US$64,000. 

Articles from Japanese sources reprinted in local newspapers after the Mar- 
shall Islands thermonuclear bomb tests upset the Ryukyuan fish-consuming public 
with reports of radioactive fish condemned in Japan as dangerous to human health, 
therefore tests were made on all fish caught more than a hundred miles offshore. 
When Japanese newspapers reported fish caught in Ryukyuan waters being condemned 
in Japan as radioactive, fish buying throughout the Ryukyus stopped entirely or was 
drastically curtailed. A system of inspection of all fish landed at the largest auction 
market, plus testing and reporting on samples submitted, together with a newspaper 
and radio education and information program, restored public confidence in time. 
However, the entire fishing industry suffered for several weeks from light sales at 
low prices . 

On May 27, 1954, 29 specimens of Tilapia mossambica , an African importation 
into Southeast Asia, were brought to Okinawa by air. This fish has become quite 
popular with fish culturists from Indonesia to Formosa during the past several 
years. It is a prolific breeder and fast grower in ponds and rice paddies, hardy, 
a promiscuous feeder, and in addition to its value as an additional source of pro- 
tein food, it has been used effectively for mosquito control. Tilapia spawned on 
Okinawa; and within two months after receipt, 5,500 fry and fingerlings had been 
distributed to farmers and placed in community ponds. This is the farthest north 
these fish have been introduced, but it is believed that the subtropical climate in 
these islands will be favorable to their successful propagation. 



''C?*' 



May 1955 COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 69 

U.S.S.R. 

SEALING EXPEDITION IN ARCTIC ALARMS NORWEGIAN SEALERS: Norweg- 
ian sealers who arrived on March 20 at the Western Icefields (north of Iceland and 
east of Greenland) were shocked to discover a Russian sealing expedition already 
on location there. The expedition is reported to consist of at least six catching ves- 
sels accompanied by an icebreaker functioning as a mother ship. This unexpected 
development has alarmed Norwegian sealers who for many years have operated 
virtually without competition in the Western and Greenland ice fields. By Norwegian 
Government regulation the Norwegian sealers were forbidden to commence seal 
hunting before March 23 this year, but at last reports they were prepared to "jump 
the gun" to meet competition from the Russians. 




United Kingdom 

FROZEN FISH EXPORT MARKET BOOMING : The British export market for 
quick-frozen fish is so healthy that a big percentage of production of some firms is 
going overseas, according to the January 14, 1955, issue of The Fishing News , a 
British fishery magazine. 

At one period after the war, Australia was the biggest market for quick-frozen 
consumer packs. Since then other markets have been explored and Grimsby quick- 
frozen fish, in bulk as well as in consumer packs, has gone to many countries, in- 
cluding Hungary and Rumania. But the Iron Curtain markets are handicapped by the 
trading system which prefers barter in goods to cash transactions. 

One Grimsby firm exported more than half of its quick-frozen output in 1954. 
The publicity man for this firm said "The value of those exports was well into six 
figures. Our shipments are extremely varied and our list contains 100 items. It is 
a matter of interest that we were the first firm to export Dover soles to the United 
States in consumer packs. 

"In the past year we have doubled our plate -freezing capacity at Grimsby, and 
our Aberdeen factory has been turned over completely to quick freezing, mostly for 
overseas. We have an office in Australia and we send our products to most of the 
Commonwealth countries. 

"At the moment we are not able to fulfill all the demands made upon us." 

Another plant in 1950 exported only 10 percent of its output but in 1954 half its 
production went overseas, some for British and United States troops. The firm also 
sent the first consignment of British fish to Canada during 1954. 

***** 

EXPERIMENTAL CRUISES FOR HAKE PLANNED : Two experimental fishing 
cruises early in 1955 to carry out research into the hake fisheries on the Northern 
grounds are planned by a Fleetwood trawler chartered by the White Fish Authority. 
This was revealed in a New Year's message issued by the president of the Fleet- 
wood Fishing Vessel Owners' Association. 

During the past few years, the president said, there has been a marked decline 
in the yield of hake from the West Coast grounds and the ever -popular demand for 
this fish makes the success of the venture a matter of high importance to Fleetwood. 



70 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



Many years ago similar voyages were undertaken from Fleetwood through the 
local owners' association in cooperation with the British Government Departments 
concerned and the results were highly satisfactory, reports the December 31, 1954, 
issue of The Fishing News, a British trade paper. 



:^ >|c :{c :^ :^ 



HULL FISH WORKERS GET HIGHER WAGES : Higher minimum rates of pay 
were granted 2,500 fishery shore workers in Hull, England, as the result of negotia- 
tions completed early in January, reports The Fishing News (January 14), a British 
fishery magazine. The agreement was reached by negotiations between employees' 
unions and the dealers association. The new and old Hull minimum weekly rates of 
pay are as follows: 



Type of Worke"r" 



Adult men workers in 
curing houses .... 

Filleters, night 
smokers, and motor 
drivers 

Assistant night 
smokers 

Adult women 

Market men ...,,. 



New Rates Old Rates 



132s. 6d. 



142s. 6d. 

132s, 6d. 

90s. 
137s. 6d. 



UEf 



18.55 



19.95 

18.55 
12.60 
19.25 



125s. 

135s. 

125s. 

85s. 

130s. 



uw 



17.50 



18.90 

17.50 
11.90 
18.20 



Pro-rata increases 
are also included for ju- 
veniles. 

These new rates for 
the Hull market are re- 
ported to be 7s. 6d. (US$1. 05) 
per week higher than the 
revised rates paid at 
Grimsby. 



Venezuela 

TUNA FISHING FIRM BEGINS OPERATIONS : A new Venezuelan fishing com- 
pany, employing Japanese fishing experts, has begun fishing for tuna off the Venezue- 
lan island of Orchilla. Four small boats are involved in this preliminary operation, 
all under the command of Japanese, a U. S.Embassy dispatch from Caracas (March 7) 
reports . 



NORWEGIANS USE RUBBER WORMS AS BAIT 

Norwegian fishermen claim to have "kidded" fish to take rubber worms. 
They use nylon line to which is attached a heavy tin bait . Along the line, at in- 
tervals of about 9 feet, they fasten 30 to 40 rubber worms as bait, says the Nor - 
wegian Fishing News . 



The line with the rubber worms and the heavy tin bait is lowered into the 
water to about 60 fathoms and then, at once, hauled in again. "As soon as a fish 
had taken a particular bait, the other rubber baits were automatically put in 
tempting motion by the kicks and wriggles. And this process accumulated a 
'more the merrier' fashion as further fish took the baits." 

Sometimes the fishermen took haddock on the lower baits, cod on the mid- 
dle ones, and pollock on the upper. It is claimed that 25,000 tons of cod were 
caught last year fishing by this method in Norway. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



71 




FEDERAL 

ACTIONS 




Civil Service Commission 

FISHERY MARKETING 
SPECIALIST EXAMINATION: 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission 
announced on April 26 (Announcement 
No. 6(B)) that unassembled examinations 
would be held for the position of Agri- 
cultural Marketing Specialist with option 
for Fishery Marketing Specialist in 
grades GS-7 to GS-14, for positions in 
Washington, D.C ., throughout the United 
States, and its Territories and posses- 
sions. Entrance salaries range for these 
grades from $4,205 to $9,600 per year. 
Requirements are for 4 or more years 
(depending on the grade) of experience 
in responsible positions in the marketing 
of fishery products. Undergraduates 
study satisfactorily completed in an ac- 
credited college or university, with 
specialization in fisheries, general eco- 
nomics, or marketing may be substituted 
for experience at the rate of 1 full year 
of study for 9 months of the required 
experience, up to a total of 3 years of ex- 
perience. There is no graduate -study 
substitution. 

Qualifying Experience is as follows: 

(1) conducting fishery marketing research; 

(2) collecting, compiling, analyzing, and 
preparing fishery production and market- 
ing information for publication; (3) ad- 
ministrative or supervisory work in the 
field of fishery marketing requiring a 
thorough knowledge of merchandising and 
distribution practices; (4) promoting in- 
creased use and orderly marketing of 
fishery commodities; (5) manufacturing 
or processing fishery products requiring 
an intimate knowledge of all phases of 
processing and production in a particular 
field. 

The registers established for these 
positions will supersede all those estab- 
lished for similar positions under An- 



nouncement No. 257 of 1950. Persons who 
obtained eligibility under that announce- 
ment and who still wish to be considered 
for appointment to a position covered by 
this announcement should file for this 
new examination. 

Fishery Marketing Specialists perform 
duties in the field of fishery production 
and marketing involving the collection, 
analysis, and dissemination of informa- 
tion relating to production, supply, de- 
mand, movement, distribution, prices, 
and other phases of marketing with a 
view of improving marketing methods 
and practices. They conduct investiga- 
tional work and market research relative 
to commercial fisheries or fishery com- 
modities; supervise the work of assistants 
of lower grade; and perform related work 
as assigned. The nature of the duties to 
be performed and the degree of responsi- 
bility to be assumed are progressively 
greater at the higher grade levels. 

For full information on how to apply 
for these examinations, write to the U.S. 
Civil Service Commission, Washington 25, 
D.C, or to any of its field offices. There 
is no closing date for these examinations. 




Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION: 

WEIGHT -CONTENT LABELING FOR 
CANNED OYSTERS CLARIFIED: 

The Food and Drug Administration 
has issued a statement of interpretation 
clarifying its position on the weight-con- 
tent declarations for canned oysters. The 
statement makes it clear that packers of 
canned oysters may market their products 



72 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



with the label declaration of weight refer- 
ring to the total weight of the contents of 
the containers, the liquid packing medi- 
um included. 

This statement of interpretation on 
weight declaration has no effect on the 
fill of container standards for canned 
oysters. As before, the drained weight 
of the oysters taken from each container 
must not be less than 59 percent of the 
water capacity of the container. The 
present announcement by the Food and 
Drug Administration is concerned solely 
with the requirements of Section 403(e) 
(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cos- 
metic Act, which requires that all foods 
in package form bear an accurate label 
statement of the quantity of food in the 
container. 

Following is the text of the interpre- 
tative statement, as published in the Fed- 
eral Register of April 9: 

By authority vested in the Secretary 
of Health, Education, and Welfare by 
the Federal Pood, Eh'ug, and Cosmetic 
Act (sec. 701 (a) , 52 Stat. 1055 ; 21 U. S. C. 
371 (a) ) and delegated to the Commis- 
sioner of Pood and Drugs by the Secre- 
tary (20 P. R. 1996) . and pursuant to 
the provisions of the Administrative 
Procedure Act (sec. 3, 60 Stat. 237, 238; 
5 U. S. C. 1002) , the following statement 
of interpretation is issued: 

§ 3.38 Declaration of quantity of con- 
tents on labels for canned oysters, (a) 
For many years packers of canned oys- 
ters in the Gulf area of the United States 
have labeled their output with a declara- 
tion of the drained weight of oysters 
in the containers. Packers in other areas 
have marketed canned oysters with a 
declaration of the total weight of the 
contents of the container. Investigation 
reveals that under present-day practice 
consumers generally do not discard the 
liquid packing medium, but use it as a 
part of the food. Section 403 (e) (2) 
of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic 
Act and the regulations thereunder re- 
quire food in package form to bear an 
accurate label statement of the quan- 
tity of food in the container. 

(b) It is concluded that compliance 
with the label declaration of quantity 
of contents requirement will be met by 
an accurate declaration of the total 
weight of the contents of the can. The 
requirements of § 36.6 of this chapter, 
establishing a standard of fill of con- 
tainer for canned oysters and specifying 
the statement of substandard fill for 
those canned oysters failing to meet that 
standard remain unaffected by this 
interpretation. 

(Sec. 701, 52 Stat. 1055: 21 U. S. C. 371. In- 
terprets or applies sec. 403, 52 Stat. 1047; 21 
U. S. C. 343) 

Dated: April 4, 1955. 
[SEAL] Geo. p. Larrick, 

Commissioner of Food and Drugs. 



Eighty-Fourth Congress 
(First Session) 

APRIL 1955: 



Listed below are public bills and 
resolutions introduced and referred to 
committees or passed by the Eighty- 
Fourth Congress (First Session) and 
signed by the President that directly or 
indirectly affect the fisheries and allied 
industries. Public bills and resolutions 
are shown in this section when intro- 
duced and, if passed, when signed by the 
President; but also shown from month 
to month are the more pertinent reports, 
hearings, or chamber actions on some of 
the bills. 

FISHING VESSEL SEIZURES BY ECUADOR: The House 



Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs met in executive 
session April 14 with Stale Department representatives in 
connection with the seizure, on Mai-ch 26, 1955, by Ecuador, 
of two United States vessels, with the resulting injury to a 
U. S. citizen. After hearing testimony of witnesses, the Sub- 
committee took note of the action already initiated by the 
Department of State in this matter, and, because of the serious- 
ness with which it regards these incidents, requested a pro- 
gress report at an early date. 

MINIMUM WAGE INCREASE: H. R. 5612 (Celler) . intro- 
duced April 18. A bill to amend the Fair Labor Standards 
Act of 1938 so as to increase the minimum hourly wage from 
75 cents to $1.25; to the Committee on Education and Labor. 

Also, introduced April 20: H. R, 5739 (Frelinghuysen), 
H. R. 5752 (Rhodes of Arizona), sn3 ^R^ 5708 (Clark), simi- 
lar to H. R, 5612 except that thi, amount of wage proposal 
varies between 900 and $1. "5. 

ORGANIZATION FOR TRADE COOPERATION: Both the 
House and Senate received a message from the President on 
AprU 14 recommending enactment of legislation to authorize 
membership of United States in Organization for Trade Coop- 
eration. The Senate referred message to Committee on Fi- 
nance. House referred message to the Committee on Ways 
and Means and ordered printed as a House document (Doc. 
140). 

SURVEY OF NORTH ATLANTIC COASTAL AND TIDAL 
AREAS : H. R. 5873 (Becker), introduced AprU 27. A bUl 
authorizing a preliminary examination and survey of the New 
England, New York, Long Island, and New Jersey coastal 
and tidal areas, for the purpose of determining possible 
means of preventing damages to property and loss of human 
lives due to hurricane winds and tides; to the Committee on 
Public Works. 

Also H. R. 5882 (Forand), similar to H. R. 5873 . 

TARIFF ACT AMENDMENT: H. R. 5550 (Cooper), in- 
troduced AprU 14. A bill to amendlhe Tariff Act of 1930 
with respect to the administration of the General Agreement 
on Tariffs and Trade; to the Committee on Ways and Means. 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



73 



The bill authorizes the President to accept membership 
for the United States in the Organization for Trade Coop- 
eration drawn up by the Contracting Parties to the General 
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade at their ninth session and 
opened for acceptance at Geneva on March 10 , 1955. 

Also S. 1723 (Malone), introduced AprU 18. A bUl to 
amend the Tariff Act of 1930, and for other purposes; to 
the Committee on Finance. The bill provides that the policy 
of the Congress be-- 

(■a) to facUilaie and encourage the importation into 
the United States of foreign goods and products in 
quantities sufficient to supply the needs of the United 
States economy; 

(b) to foster and provide for the export of the prod- 
ducts of American industry and agriculture in quantities 
sufficient to pay for the needed imports. 

(c) to develop and promote a well-balanced, inte- 
grated, and diversified production within the United 
States so as to maintain a sound and prosperous nation- 
al economy and a high level of wages and employment 
in industry and agriculture; 

(d) to provide necessary flexibility of import duties 
thereby making possible appropriate adjustments in 
response to changing economic conditions; 

(e) to assure the accomplishment of these objectives 
by returning to and maintaining hereafter in the United 
States the control over American import duties now 
subject to international agreements. 

TRADE AGREEMENTS EXTENSION : The Senate Com- 
mittee on Finance, in executive session, on April 26 ordered 
favorably reported, as amended, H, R. ], to extend the auth- 
ority of the President to enter into trade agreements S. 
Rept. 232. 

Trade Agreements Extension Act of 1955 ( Senate Report 
232 (AprU 28, 1955), 84th Congress 1st Session), 38 pp., 
printed. The report states H. R. 1 continues to June 30, 
1958, the authority of the President to enter into trade agree- 
ments. The present authority (extended by Public Law 
464, 83rd Cong.) terminates on June 12, 1955. In addition 
to the extension of the trade-agreements authority, the 
principal features of H. R. 1 as reported by the committee 
are as follows: 



1. The President would be authorized to negotiate tariff 
reductions by either of two alternative methods, which may 
not be used cumulatively. 

(a) The first method authorizes the President to re- 
duce, by a total of 15 percent, tariff rates existing on 
January 1, 1955, in stages of not more than 5 percent of 
such rates in each of the 3 years of the authority; 

(b) As an alternative the President is authorized to 
reduce those rates which are higher than 50 percent 

of the value of an import to a rate not less than 50 per- 
cent, in stages of not more than one-third of the re- 
duction in any one year. 

The committee desires to emphasize that this authority 
is subject to all requirements of existing law for full pub- 
lic notice (including a list of products on which concessions 
might be made by the United States), public hearings, peril- 
point determinations, and escape-clause procedures (as 
modified by the committee). 

2. In the case of the proposal for a trade agreement an- 
nounced on November 16, 1954, the bOl authorizes the same 
decreases in rates of duty as are authorized by existing law 
(50 percent of the rate existing on January 1, 1945), even 
though the agreement is signed after June 12, 1955. 

3. The peril-point and escape-clause sections of the law 
were amended to make more specific the definition of what 
constitutes an industry. The escape clause was further amend- 
ed to make more specific the extent to which imports must 
affect an industry before injury can be determined. 

4. The President is given authority to adjust imports 
whenever he finds, after investigation, that an article is being 
imported, in such quantities as to threaten to impair the 
national security. 

5. The President would be required to submit to Congress 
an annual report on the operation of the trade agreements 
program. The bill, as reported, would require the Tariff 
Commission to continue to make the report on the program 
now being made under Executive order. 

6. Reports of the Tariff Commission containing recom- 
mendations for escape-clause action are required to be 
made public upon submission to the President. 

Presented in the report are the amendments to the House 
biU, changes in existing law, technical analysis of H, R. 1^ 

and minority views. 



74 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 




^4L4ilp!lji,ilJ^.^l,U!^^|!l!pi!p^;inin!^^ 



FISHERY 




INDICATORS 



CHART I - FISHERY LANDINGS for SELECTED STATES 

In Millions oi Ponnds 







MAINE 


70 










60 


1 "'^' lUl '- le'l 


A 


40 


/^ 


// \ N^ 




// ^ W 




/ 


y V 


10 


A 


X "^^^l 





FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



140 




NEW JERSEY 








3 ""^' JgS ' I'l 


100 
80 
60 


A 


//V 




// V- \ 


20 


^/ \ 


Z-^ \ 



FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CALIFORNIA?/ 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



MASSACHUSETTS 




N FEB MAP APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



LOraSIANAi/ 




FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



75 



CHART 2 - LANDINGS for SELECTED FISHERIES 



In Millions of Pounds 





(Main 


HADDOCK 
e and Massachusetts) 


i "*■ 11= 


E 0414 










A 


/^ ^ ^ 


^/ ^.^--^-.<_\ 


.=/ -^-^ 





JAW FEB MAR APR MAY JUKE JULY tUG SEPT OCT MOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUKE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Millions of Ponnds 



(Gulf Sta 


tesi/ 


SHMMP 
including Florida West Coast) 


CUMULATIVE DATA 




11 "'^' Ira : 


\"^:l 


/^>\ 






__/ "\ 


//^vy Y 


\^^--,^==-/^ 


^^ 





AN FEB MAB APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



28 




(Mai 


WHITING 
ne and Massachusetts) 




cumjL. 


TIVE DATA 





' ' 


24 


1 "9. 


ig55 - .1 










20 
16 
12 


12 Mi. 


1954 - 65.3 








^A^ 


8 






-yr — ^ 


\ 


4 







// 


^>5^ 


,., .^^ -^1 




B MAR AP 


R MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT 


OCT NOV DEC 1 



In Thousands of Tons 



lULATlVE DATA 



n 1 n 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




NE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



In Thousands of Tons 





PILCHARD 
(California) 










1954/55 SEASON, 
1953/54 SEASON, 
1953/54 SEASON, 




1 \ 




/ \ 










/ \ 




/ \ 




/ V 


Legend: 

1954/55 
1953/54 




^X---— _J\-_ 


" AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY 







TUNA AND TUNA-LIKE FISH 


56 
48 
40 
32 




(California) 


cUMtilL 


S Dili 






S : 2lt:t 




/c:>v 


24 
16 


^^^^ — : 




v*-^ ^v~_/l--^ 


8 



\~-'> — 


T^ X?'^^--^! 


.^ II 


JAN FEB 


MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 1 



76 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



CHART 3 - COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS and FREEZINGS 
of FISHERY PRODUCTS ^ 

In Milliom of Pounds 



U. S. & ALASKA HOLDINGS 




N FEB MAR APR MAY JUME JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



1955 

1954 

1953 



NEW ENGLAND HOLDINGSi' 




0^ 



JAN FEB MAR APR HAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



44 
40 
36 
32 
28 
24 




MIDDLE WEST HOLDINGS^/ 







\\N 


/-— ^ 


\X\ 


y ^^ 


\ _ ^^ ^ 


Vos,-^:^/ 





!^ , 


< 


JAN FEB 


MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



WASHINGTON, 


OREGON, 


AND ALASKA HOLDINGS 







^ \ 


X -^ \ 


\. / \ 


\^\-«.^ 





JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 
•£xc;u 



u. s. & 


ALASKA FREEZINGS 






3 "'°' I'S '- S'? 


.^=-=.^^ 


// v\ 


// ^%>. 


Jl ""^^ 


^^"l.-i^ ^ 




■iin'ffR MAR APB MAY JUNF JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



MIDDLE & SOUTH ATLANTIC HOLDINGS?/ 

— 1 1 1 1 1 1 T 1 1 1— 




28 
24 
20 
16 
12 
8 
4 



GULF & SOUTH CENTRAL HDLDINGsl/ 






^ .-^^ 


\^^>\ /^^^'^^ 


""OJi^^^^^^si::^ 






JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CALIFORNIA HOLDINGS 




:n 



N FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 

oked products . 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



77 



CHART 4 - RECEIPTS and COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS of FISHERY 
PRODUCTS at PRINCIPAL DISTRIBUTION CENTERS 



In Millioni oi Pound 



RECEIPTSi/ AT WHOLESALE SALT-WATER MARKET 
(FRESH AND FROZEN) 




COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGSl/ 



T 1 1 r 




G SEPT OCT NOV 




, , , ^ 



FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULV AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



CHICAGO 



COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 




FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULV AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 







SEATTLE 










BOSTON 










WHOLESALE MARKET RECEIPI 
& IMPORTS (FRESH & f 


\S, LANDINGS, 
BpZEN) 








COLD-STORAGE HOLDINGS 








14 
12 
10 
8 
6 
4 


CUHULATIVE DAT* 
1 "«=• l^g ■ ||-^ 


' ' / \ ' ' 


32 
28 
24 
20 
16 
12 



^ \ 


/ \/A 


y^^-~^'~~~^ 


fy'^ '' \ 


^, y' 


yr \ \ 


^-. // 


^u,_,^Y ^ \\ 


Nn-^'-'v^ 


\y^-— -/ \\ 


^ — "^ 


Legend: 
1955 

1953 


i^,, \, 


4 


N FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT 


OCT 


N0\ 


DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY A 


G SEPT OCT NOV DEC 





CHART 5 - FISH MEAL and 


OIL 


PRODUCTION -U.S and ALASKA 




FISH MEAL 
(In Thousands of Tons) 








FISH OIL 
(In Millions of Gallons) 


48 
40 
32 
24 
16 
8 


CUMULATIVE OAIA 
3 ""*" lis " I'l 




6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 






3 '*^^' J9I! " "2 


/A 




// ^^ 




// V 




// \ 


// \ 


/y \ 


J V 


hsT.^^.f'^ ^^7^ 


^ .-/ ^-^ 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 








1 



78 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



CHART 6 - CANNED PACKS of SELECTED FISHERY PRODUCTS 

In Thousands oi Standaid Cases 




APR MAY JUN£ JULY 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



79 



CHART 7 - U.S. FISHERY PRODUCTS IMPORTS 



In Millions of Pounds 




Ft8 Mas tPR MAY JUNE JULY tUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



, 1955 
• 1954 
■ 1953 




JtN FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



SHRIMP 


FRESH & FROZEN, 


FROM MEXICO 


CUMUIAT 1 VE 

3 '^^' ;,£ 


jm ' ' ■ ' 


A 


3^:9 


/\ 








\ A / N 




^^^il^ 





FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 



LOBSTER & SPINY LOBSTER, FRESH (i FROZEN 





/\ 


3 «fls. |^|5 - 9.e 


/A 








// \ /A 


vkW/ \ / 


x./ V J 


^ \x/ 





JAN FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 





TUNA 


FRESH 8. FROZEN 


CUMULATIVE 0*T* 




3 "'*• !g 


- '. 12319 


A 






/ x\ 


/ ^ — <y \\ 


y y\ J W 


";-'/ " \V\/^ 


_^ V \_j 



AN FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC 



SEA HERRING, FRESH, THROUGH MAINE PORTS 





t"MUHT 1 V 
3 »JS. 195 


_ DAT* 


, , , , , 




/ \ 










/ \ 




M 




K V 




i \\ 








^ ^^ J 



UNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV DEC 




JAN FEB MAP APB MAY JUNE JULY AUG SEPT OCT NOV OEC 



80 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 




RECENT 



:«a.^-^i-.- — ^: ^^.-- ^ 




FISHERY PUBLICATIONS 



FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE 
PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PROCESSED PUBLKATIONS ARE AVAILABLE FREE FROM 
THE DIVISION OF INFORMATION, U. S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERV- 
ICE, WASHINGTON 25, D. C. TTPES OF PUBLUATIONS ARE DESIG- 
NATED AS FOLLOWS: 

CFS - CURRENT FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 
AND ALASKA. 

SL - STATISTICAL SECTION LISTS OF DEALERS IN AND PRO- 
DUCERS OF FISHERY PRODUCTS AND BfPRODUCTS. 

SEP.- SEPARATES (rEPRINTs) FROM COMMERCIAL FISHERIES 
REVIEW . 

ssr.- fish.- special scientific reports-- f i sher i es 
(limited distribution) . 

Number Title 

CFS-1090 - FishMealandOil, December 1954, 2 pp. 

CFS-1092 - New Jersey Landings, December 1954, 

2 pp. 
CFS-1098 - Frozen Fish Report, January 1955, 8 pp. 
CFS- 1100 - New York Landings, December 1954, 

4 pp. 
CFS-1101 - Fish Meal and Oil, January 1955, 2 pp. 
CFS-1103 - New Jersey Landings, January 1955, 

2 pp. 
CFS-1105 - Texas Landings, December 1954, 3 pp. 
CFS-1106 - Massachusetts Landings, November 

1954, 8 pp. 
CFS-1108 - Maine Landings, Annual 1954, 10 pp. 
CFS-1109 - Texas Landings, January 1955, 3 pp. 
CFS-1112 - New York Landings, January 1955, 4 pp. 
CFS-1114 - Mississippi Landings, November 1954, 

2 pp. 
CFS-1116 - Maine Landings, January 1955, 4 pp. 
SL -1 - Wholesale Dealers in Fishery Products, 

Maine, 1954 (revised), 6 pp. 
SL -9 - Wholesale Dealers in Fishery ProductSj 

Delaware, 1954 (revised), 1 p. 

Sep. No. 397 - Use of Underwater Television in 
Fishing-Gear Research (Preliminary 
Report). 

Sep. No. 398 - Bottom Fish and Shellfish Explora- 
tions in the Prince William Sound Area, 
Alaska, 1954. 



Sep. No. 39 



(Oyster-Processing Research tor 
Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. 
Weight Changes During the Cooking 
of Fish Sticks. 



SSR-Fish. No. 128 - Analysis of Catches of Nine 
Japanese Tuna Longline Expeditions to the West- 
ern Pacific Ocean, by Garth I. Murphy and Tamio 
Otsu, 51 pp., illus., processed, December 1954. 
Nine Japanese mothership expeditions fished for 
tuna in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean 
between June 1950 and October 1951. The pur- 



pose of this paper is to summarize the records 
of these expeditions with regard to the abundance 
of the principal species comprising the catch 
(yellowfin tuna, big-eyed tuna, and black marlin), 
and to examine the relation of abundance to fac- 
tors in the environment. Since this type of con- 
sideration involves interpreting catch rates (us- 
ually expressed as catch per 100 hooks) as in- 
dexes of abundance, the observers also examine 
the possibility that the catch rates might be af- 
fected by factors other than abundance, such as 
the type of bait used and vessel efficiency. 

SSR-Fish. No. 136 - Mid-Pacific Oceanography. 
Part V, Transequatorial Waters, May-June 1952, 
August 1952, by Thomas S. Austin, 89 pp., illus., 
processed, November 1954. 

SSR-Fish. No. 137 - Longline Fishing for Deep- 
Swimming Tunas in the Central Pacific, August- 
November 1952, by Garth I. Murphy and Richard 
S. Shomura, 45 pp., illus., processed, February 
1955. Two previous reports cover the results 
of long-line fishing from July 1950 to June 1952 
by the Service's Pacific Oceanic Fishery Investi- 
gations research vessels. This report describes 
the results of four cruises to equatorial waters 
during the period August to November 1952. The 
catches are examined in relation to the environ- 
ment, and a summary is given of the geographi- 
cal and vertical variation in the catch rates. In 
connection with geographical variation a sum- 
mary is given of selected Japanese commercial 
fishing catches. There is included a resume of 
the size distribution of long-line caught yellow- 
fin and big-eyed tuna across the equatorial Pacific, 
and an analysis of the sex ratios of the yellowfin 
tuna. Finally, certain topics of particular inter- 
est to commercial fishermen, such as gear de- 
sign and shark damage are briefly discussed. 
The summarized field data from the foim cruises 
appear in the appendix. 

SSR-Fish. No. 142 - First Year of Mesh Regulation 
in the Georges Bank Haddock Fishery, by Herbert 
W. Graham and Ernest D. Premetz, 31 pp., illus., 
processed, January 1955. The purpose of this 
paper is to report upon the quantities of small 
fish protected by the mesh regulation in the 
Georges Bank haddock fishery, and to present an 
evaluation of the effects of the regulation upon 
the quantities and sizes of fish landed from 
Georges Bank during the first year of regulation. 
According to the authors, "The large-mesh nets 
are more efficient in capturing larger fish. This 
factor has been so effective that it more than 
compensated for the reduced quantities of small 
fish taken during 3 of the 4 quarters of the first 
year of regulation. When the haddock fleet con- 
verted to large-mesh nets, the dominant year- 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



class (1950) was composed of 3-year-old fish 
which were mostly above the selection range of 
the net. Consequently, few fish were lost to the 
industry, while the increased efficiency of the 
net in capturing larger sizes resulted in greater 
landings than would have been made with small- 
mesh nets. This situation prevailed until the last 
quarter of the year when the next dominant year- 
class (1952) entered the fishery. Since this group 
was composed of sizes lying within the selection 
range of the regulation net, and since the fleet 
concentrated on these small fish, there was dur- 
ing this quarter a loss in landings of regulated 
vessels as compared with landings of small-mesh 
vessels set up as a control." The authors further 
state that "It is estimated that 12^ million had- 
dock have been protected by the large -mesh nets 
during the first year of regulation. It is too early 
to measure the benefit to the fishery of the saving 
of these small fish, but the long-term benefit of 
the large mesh is expected to be greater than 
originally estimated." 

SSR-Fish. No. 143 - Effects of Naval Ordnance Tests 
on the Patuxent River Fishery, by R. E. Tiller and 
C. M. Coker, 22pp., illus., processed, January 
1955. 



THE FOLLOWING SERVICE PUBLICATIONS ARE FOR SALE AND 
ARE AVAILABLE ONLY FROM THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS . 



Laws and Regulations for F^rotection of the Commer- 
cial Fisheries of Alaska, 1955, Regulatory An- 



nouncement 45,~B0 pp., printed, January 1955 
25 cents. This publication is divided into two 
sections. One section contains laws for the pro- 
tection of the commercial fisheries of Alaska and 
related information, including the authority for 
regulation, rules regarding oyster culture, Bris- 
tol Bay residence requirements, regulation of 
salmon escapement, fishing-gear restrictions, 
exceptions to weekly closed seasons, etc. The 
second section contains all the regulations for 
the protection of the commercial fisheries of 
Alaska amended to date and which became ef- 
fective February 19, 1955. These 1955 regula- 
tions supersede the regulations published in 
Regulatory Announcement 42 which became ef- 
fective March 22, 1954. 

SSR-Fish No. 139 - Limnological Survey of Western 
Lake Erie, by Stillman Wright, 347 pp., illus., 
processed, January 1955, $2.50. Includes the 
results of a series of limnological investigations 
begun by the Conservation Division of the State 
of Ohio in 1926, and continued in parts of the 
years 1927, 1928, 1929, and 1930. 

MISCELLANEOUS 
PUBLICATIONS 



THESE PUBLICATIONS ARE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE . BUT USUALLY MAY BE OBTAINED FROM THE OR- 
GAMZATION ISSUING THEM . CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING PUBLICA- 
TIONS THAT FOLLOW SHOULD BE ADDRESSED TO THE RESPECTIVE OR- 
GANIZATION OR PUBLISHER MENTIONED. DATA ON PRICES, IF READ- 
ILr AVAILABLE, ARE SHOWN. 



English and Arabic, 10 cents. Department of State, 
Washington, D.C. (For sale by the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington 25, D.C .) 



Aspects cS Deep Sea Biology , by N. B. Marshall, 
380 pp., illus., printed, $10. Philosophical 
Library, New York, N. Y., 1954. The table of 



Agricultural , Forestry , and Fisheries Program A - 

f reement Between the Governmert of the UriTted 
tales oTAmerica aiii? the Government " oT Egypt , 
Treaties and Other International Acts Series 
2840, Publication 5272, 17 pp., processed, in 



contents of this beautifully-constructed book 
suggests how logically the author has developed 
his subject. From opening discussions of the 
growth of interest in deep-sea studies and the 
means available for oceanic exploration, the 
author interestingly explores the deep-sea en- 
vironment, describes plant and animal life, and 
the food chains of the deeps. There are absorb- 
ing and instructive chapters on vertical patterns 
of oceanic organisms, sense organs of the deep- 
sea fishes, sound production, "living light" or 
bioluminescence, and life histories of some 
highly specialized animals little known to the 
ordinary reader. The final chapter on marine 
biogeography, which Dr. Marshall defines as 
the study of the distribution of living organisms 
in the ocean by (1) concentrating on relations 
between species distribution and the physical 
environment and (2) tracing ecological relations 
between the organisms. 

References to related literature are given 
at the end of each chapter. There is a well- 
prepared index. The four beautiful color plates 
and the many black-and-white figures, all pre- 
pared by Mrs. Marshall, add a great deal to the 
book's interest. 

Although the subject matter is highly special- 
ized and the title not particularly attractive, 
most literate persons with an interest in the sea 
will find the book readable and useful. 

--Paul E. Thompson 

(Canada) Journa l of the Fisheries Research Board 
of Canada , vol.lTlI. no. 2. illus.. printed. March 
1955. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 
Ottawa, Canada. Contains, among others, the 
following articles: "Isopleth Diagrams to Pre- 
dict Equilibrium Yields of a Small Flounder 
Fishery," by L. M. Dickie and F. D. McCracken; 
and "Day and Night Characteristics of Spatfall 
and of Behaviour of Oyster Larvae," by J. C. 
Medcof . 

Canned Food (A Summary of Figures of Production, 
Consumption, and Trade Relating to the Principal 
Canned Foods), 106 pp., printed 5s. (70 U. S. 
cents). Commonwealth Economic Committee, 
2 Queen Anne's Gate Buildings, London, S.W. 1, 
England, 1955. This review summarizes recent 
developments in canned food production, consump- 
tion, and trade with particular reference to the 
position in Commonwealth countries. The chapter 
on canned fish gives data on production in certain 
countries during 1938-53; per-capita consump- 
tion; exports; importance of canned fish in ex- 
port trade; distribution of exports; imports; the 
the Commonwealth as a unit; and United Kingdom 
imports . 

C onvention Between the United States of America 
and Canada for the Preservation ofThe Halibut 
Fishery of tTiie~North"ern Pacific Ocean and Bering 
Sea, Treaties and Other International Acts Series 



82 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



2900, publication 5372, 7 pp., processed, 10 
cents. Department of State, Washington, D. C. 
(For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, 
Government Printing Office, Washington 25, 
D. C.) 

Directory of Public Refrigerated Warehouses, 1955, 
142 pp., printed. National Association of Kefrig- 
erated Warehouses, Tower Bldg., Washington 5, 
D.C. Contains complete up-to-date listings of 
the organization, services, and facilities of 
all NARW member companies ( specializing in 
the storage of perishable commodities requiring 
freezer or cooler service), operating throughout 
the United States, its possessions, and various 
foreign countries. 

On the Distribution of the Big - Eyed Tuna . PARATHUN - 
NUSSIBI. inthe Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean T" 
"Ey^eTFM. SETmada, 2 pp., prmted. (Reprinted 
from Pacific Science . April 1954, pp. 234-235.) 
Inter -American Tropical Tuna Commission, 
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La JoUa, 
Calif. 

Economic Survey of Salmon Fishermen in British 
Columbra . 195f Tlnterim Report), by fflake A. 
Campbell and D. R. Buchanan, 57 pp., illus., 
processed. Markets and Economics Service, 
Department of Fisheries of Canada, Vancouver, 
B.C., January 1955. This interim report, based 
on records obtained from 266 salmon fishermen, 
should be of value to those interested in the ac- 
tivities and returns of different types of fisher- 
men in British Columbia in 1953. While it was 
not the primary intention of this report to dis- 
cuss methods of fishing, or species of fish caught 
in British Columbia, or the method employed in 
catching salmon, the report contains a brief 
general description of the main characteristics 
of the commercial fishery. It also contains anal- 
yses of 89 gill-net records, 89 troll records, 51 
assistant salmon purse-seine records, and 37 
captain salmon purse-seine records; and a dis- 
cussion of the effect of changes in receipts and 
expenses on net income. The authors in their 
summary point out that the average total cash 
operating receipt as reported by 89 gill netters 
totaled $3,142 as compared with $2,812 for tr oil- 
ers and $2,410 for assistant salmon purse seiners. 
However, after deducting, cash operating expenses 
from total cash receipts the net cash operating 
receipts for gill netters was lowest of any of the 
four groups and averaged only $1,706 as com- 
pared with $1,810 for trollers and $2,123 for 
salmon seine crewmen. The captain salmon 
purse -seine operators had very much higher 
average receipts and expenditures and showed a 
net cash-operating receipt from fisheries in 
1953 of $4,644. Net income from trollers and 
gill netters before allowing depreciation was 
approximately the same and averaged $2,455 and 
$2,523, respectively. Assistant salmon purse 
seiners averaged $2,936 while captain salmon 
purse seiners were high with a total of $5,270. 
The effect of various factors on net income for 
the various classes of fishermen has been set 
outin detail and indicates that in 1953 there was 
a definite correlation between days fishing, area 
fished, type of operation, size of boat, and net 
cash -operating receipts from fisheries. It was 



also very evident that many of these factors 
were interrelated, but it was not possible with the 
small number of records for certain of the class- 
es to determine the extent of this relationship. 
The effect of changes in the receipt or expense 
structure on net income for each type of fisher- 
man is outlined in detail in the last section of 
the report and provides a basis for determining 
for the average fisherman what would happen to 
net income under any given set of conditions. 

"The European Oyster in American Waters," by V. 
L. Loosanoff, article. Science, vol. 121, no. 3135, 
January 28, 1955, pp. 119-121, printed, single 
copies 25 cents. Science, 1515 Massachusetts 
Ave. NW., Washington 5, D. C. Describes studies 
to determine whether the common European 
oyster, Ostrea edulis , might be introduced into 
this country to occupy eventually a definite ecol- 
ogic niche in areas where the water is too cold 
for the successful propagation of our native oys- 
ter but is still sufficiently warm to be within 
the propagating temperature range of the Euro- 
pean oyster. Among such areas are certain 
bodies of water along the shoreline of Maine 
and some well-protected bays and harbors of 
the Pacific Coast States. The oysters were in- 
tended chiefly for studies to determine whether 
they would survive and propagate under the ecol- 
ogic conditions to which they would be subjected 
in this country. Simultaneously with these studies, 
observations were also made on the seasonal gon- 
adal changes of the oysters kept in different local- 
ities, their rate of growth, artificial propagation, 
and several other aspects of their biology. Ob- 
servations show that the European oyster may _ 
survive, grow, and propagate in New England 
waters and that the young oysters, reared at 
Milford and sent to Washington, grow well there . 
The author suggests that the introduction of this 
oyster in certain areas of the United States and 
possibly Canada may eventually lead to the 
establishment of a new and prosperous shellfish 
industry. 

Fisheries Dynamics and the Concept of Maximum 
Equilibrium Catch, by Milner B. ScHaefer, 11 pp ., 
illus., printeH^ (K^e printed from Proceedings of 
the Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute , 6th 
Annual Session. September 1954.) Inter -American 
Tropical Tuna Commission. La Jolla, Calif. 

"The Fisheries of Newfoundland," article. Trade 
News, vol. 7, no. 6, December 1954, pp. 11-13, 
illus., printed. Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, 
Canada. A review of Newfoundland's fisheries, 
with emphasis on the production, processing, 
and marketing of cod and other major species 
of fish and shellfish. Of extreme importance to 
the Newfoundland fisheries today is the revolu- 
tion that is currently taking place in the three 
branches--catching, processing, and marketing. 
This period of progress began with the construc- 
tion of plants producing frozen fillets which in 
turn called for diversity of production and made 
possible, in fact placed emphasis on. such ground- 
fish as haddock, ocean perch, and various flat- 
fishes which fishermen hitherto had discarded. 
An important byproduct is fish meal from fish 
not suitable for filleting and offal from the plants. 
In the wake of these developments there have been 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



83 



ILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE S ERVICE . BUT USU 



perceptible changes in the fishing fleet. The 
large schooners, which at one time fished the 
banks to the south of the island, have been re- 
placed by powerful draggers and, to a lesser ex- 
tent, by small craft using the Danish seine. An 
even larger fleet of "floaters" manned by East 
Coast fishermen who, in past years, fished the 
Labrador Coast, has faded out of existence. Ex- 
perimental fishing by the Federal and provincial 
governments during the past few years has proven 
the existence of new offshore fishing grounds and 
demonstrated the practicability of the long-lining 
and Danish-seining methods of fishing to such an 
extent that quite a few boats of these types have 
been put in operation and more are steadily being 
added as a new fleet takes shape. 

Fisheries Research Papers , vol. 1, no. 3, February 
1955, 58 pp., illus., printed. Washington Depart - 
rnent of Fisheries, 1308 Smith Tower, Seattle, 
Wash. Contains the following articles: "Studies 
on Columbia River Smelt, Thaleichthys pacificus 
(Richardson)," by Wendell E. Smith and Robert 
W. Saalfeld; "Noteworthy Recoveries of Tagged 
Dogfish," by Donald E. Kauffman; "Introduction 
of the Kumamoto oyster, Ostrea (Crassostrea ) 
gigas to the Pacific Coast," by Charles E . Woelke; 
and "Estimating the Contribution of a Salmon 
Production Area by Marked Fish Experiments," 
by Charles O. Junge and William H. Bayliff. 

(FAO) 1952-53 Yearbook of Fishery Statistics (An- 
nuaire Statistique des Peches, AnuarioEstadistico 
de Pesca), vol. IV, Part 1, 259 pp., printed in 
English and French with preface and general notes 
in Spanish, US$3. Food and Agriculture Organiza- 
tion of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, 1955. 
(Also available from Columbia University F*ress, 
International Documents Service, New York 27, 
N. y.) With this issue, the FAO Yearbook appears 
for the first time in two parts. Part I(F*roduction) 
contains statistics of catch and landings, utiliza- 
tion (disposition), production of preserved and 
processed commodities, and fishing craft. Part 
II (Trade) will present available figures on im- 
ports and exports of fishery products. This di- 
vision of the Yearbook into two parts allows pro- 
duction statistics to be published fairly promptly 
and, if desired, more frequently than in the past. 
The aim of the Yearbook is not to be a substitute 
for national statistical publications, but to group 
and present national data in such a fashion as to 
make global and regional analyses possible, to 
provide a comprehensive background against 
which national fishery statistics can be viewed, 
and to facilitate international comparisons. The 
tables in this issue have been compiled, as usual, 
from national statistical publications and from 
figures supplied by governments in response to 
questionnaires and inquiries. This international 
cooperation, and that of the Bureau of Internation- 
al Whaling Statistics in respect of whaling data, 
has made it possible to revise the data published 
in earlier issues of the Yearbook and to add 
figures, sometimes in preliminary form, for the 
most recent years. In presenting national statis- 
tics in the Yearbook, an effort has been made to 
include totals for groups of species which are as 
far as possible internationally comparable, but at 
the same time to retain an adequate amount of 
detail. Standardized group totals are therefore 



broken down into components which reflect the 
classification used in the national publications 
concerned. This practice will also facilitate 
reference to the national statistics. Most of the 
regional tables still show gaps and, except where 
there is an indication to the contrary, no attempt 
has been made to fill these gaps by estimates. 
In consequence, the regional totals are often not 
directly comparable from year to year. 

Part 1 of the Yearbook includes 4 sections. 
Section 1 deals with catch and landings. In the 
first four tables, the total world catch of fish, 
crustaceans, moUusks, etc., is estimated and 
analyzed by groups of species, fishing areas, 
continents and regions, and countries. The next 
11 tables, one for each of the major groups of 
species, present catch and landings by countries 
and, under each country, by species. Two tables 
show the number of whales caught by countries 
and by area of catch; one summarizes the catch 
data by countries and groups of species; and 
one shows, for selected countries, landing data 
according to various classifications. For each 
continent the final six tables of this section group 
values of landings by countries, in terms of 
national currencies and United States dollars. 
Section 2 deals with utilization. In this section 
1 summary table and 6 tables for the continents 
present data on the disposition of the catch by 
groups of species and countries, and 22 commod- 
ity tables provide data on the output of processed 
commodities. Section 3 deals with fishing craft. 
Six tables show, for the continents, fishing craft 
by characteristic categories in each of the re- 
porting countries, while a separate table is de- 
voted to shore statistics and craft in the whaling 
industry. Section 4 gives historical summaries. 
As an aid to research workers, this Section brings 
together available data on fish landings for the 
44 years 1910-53, arranged in 6 tables, 1 for each 
continent, and 2 for the whale catch. 

(FOA) Operations Report , January 31, 1955, FY 1955, 
Issue No. 1, 67 pp., illus., processed. Statistics 
and Reports Division, Office of Research, Statis- 
tics and Reports, Foreign Operations Administra- 
tion, Washington 25, D. C. In addition to the usual 
tables and data, the report discusses U.S. foreign 
trade developments. 

(FOA) Operations Report . March 25, 1955, FY 1955, 
Issue No. 2, 88 pp., illus., processed. Statistics 
and Reports Division, Office of Research, Statis- 
tics and Reports, Foreign Operations Administra- 
tion, Washington 25, D. C. In addition to the usual 
tables and data, discusses economic developments 
in Western Europe. 

Ice and Chemicals in the Fishing Industry , Their 
Value~and PotentTaFPses , by C . Isaac Camber, 
Contribution No. 138, 3 pp., processed. Marine 
Laboratory, University of Miami, Coral Gables, 
Fla. 

Inorganic Phosphate Measurement in Sea Water, by 



Leonard J. Greenfield and Frederick A. Kalber, 
Contribution No. 133, 13 pp., illus., printed. 
(Reprinted from Bulletin of Marine Science of the 
Gulf and Caribbean , vol. '^^"no. 4, December~Il)B?, 
pp. 323-335.) Marine Laboratory, University of 
Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 



84 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



AND WILDLIFE S ERVICE . BUT USUAL 



The Life Histories of the Steelhead Rainbow Trout 
ISSITMO GAIRDNERI GAIRDNERI) and Silver 
Salmon (ONCORHYNCriUS Kl5UTCg }rvi^ItF~ 
Special Reference to Waddell Creek, California, 
and Recommendations Regarding Their Manage- 
ment, by Leo Shapovalov anu Alan C. Taft, Fish 
Bulletin No. 98, 379 pp., illus., printed, 1954. 
Department of Fish and Game, Printing Division, 
Documents Section, Sacramento 14, Calif. 

"The Long-finned Tunny, Germo alalunga (Bonna- 
terre), in British Seas," by Denys W. Tucker, 
article, Natm-e , January 22, 1955, vol. 175, no. 
4447, p. 174, illus., printed, 2s. (30 U. S. cents 
per issue). Macmillan & Co., Ltd., St. Martin's 
Street, London, W. C. 2, England. 

Note on Correcting G. E. K. Observations of Florida 
Curren t off Miami for Tidal Current, by Frank 
Chew an3Tj. P. Wagner, Contribution No. 131, 
10 pp., illus., printed. (Reprinted from Bulletin 
of Marine Science of the Gulf and Caribbean , 
vol. 4, no. 4, December iW^, pp. 336-345.) 
Marine Laboratory, University of Miami, Coral 
Gables. Fla. 

The Occurrence and Vertical Distribution of the 
Euphausiacea"oF the FloridaTlLLrrent, by JoKh B . 
Lewis, Contribution No. 132, 37 pp., illus., 
printed. (Reprinted from Bulletin gt Marine 
Science of the Gulf and Caribbean , vol. 4, no. 4, 
December 1954, pp. 265-301.) Marine Labora- 
tory, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla. 

On the Offshore Circulation and a Convergence 
Mechanism in the Red Tide Re'gion Otf the West 
Coast of Florida T by Frank Chew, Technical 
Report 55-5, 28 pp., illus., processed. The Ma- 
rine Laboratory, University of Miami, Coral 
Gables, Fla., January 1955. 

"Rapid Determination of Oil in Fish Meal," by G. 
M. Dreosti and R. P. van der Merwe (Fishing 
Industry Research Institute Progress Report 
No. 18), article. The South African Shipping News 
and Fishing Industry Review , vol. 10, no. 2 
(February 1955), pp. 56-63, illus., printed, 2s. 
(30 U. S. cents) per issue. S. A. Trade News- 
papers (Pty.) Ltd., P. O. Box 2598, Cape Town 
South Africa. A modification of a refracto- 
metric method for the determination of oil in 
avacados has been applied to fish meal. Using 
monochlornaphthalene as a solvent, complete 
extraction of oil is obtained in 10 minutes by 
heating the fish-meal sample and solvent together 
in a sealed container immersed in boiling water. 
The refractive index of the cooled oil/solvent 
mixture is determined. From this figure the 
percentage of oil in the sample can be obtained 
directly by reference to a table drawn up from 
a graph plotting the refractive index against fat 
content as determined by Soxhlet extraction. 
Statistical analysis of the results of duplicate or 
triplicate determinations on samples of 35 dif- 
ferent fish meals showed that the refractometric 
method is significantly more reproducible than 
the Soxhlet method. Sources of error and neces- 
sary precautions in performing the test are dis- 
cussed, and data supplied on its success when 
applied to fishery products other than fish meal. 



"Rapid Method for the Routine Determination of 
Crude Protein in Fish meals," by G. H. Stander 
(Fishing Industry Research Institute Progress 
Report No. 19), article. The South African Ship - 
ping News and Fishing Industry Review , vol. 10, 
no. 2 (February 1955), pp. 63-65, printed, 2s. 
(30 U. S. cents) per issue. S. A. Trade News- 
papers (Pty.) Ltd., P. O. Box 2598, Cape Town, 
South Africa. Perrin's modification of the Kjel- 
dahl method for nitrogen determination was 
critically examined for use in routine fish-meal 
analyses. When 2 gm. of fish meal were digested 
with 25 ml. of concentrated sulphuric acid in the 
presence of 20 gm. of K2SO4 and 1.5 gm. ofH„0, 
complete recovery of nitrogen was obtained in 
15-20 minutes. Results by this method and by 
a modification of the A.OA..C. recommended 
method (employed at the Fishing Industry Re- 
search Institute) agreed on average to within 
0.1 percent protein. Duplicates agreed to within 
an average of 0.2 percent protein. 

The Red Tide , by Robert M. Ingle and Donald P. de 
Syiva, Educational Series No. 1, 31 pp., illus., 
printed. State Board of Conservation, Tallahas- 
see, Fla., 1955. A revision of a report original- 
ly issued in 1948, which describes red tide--the 
popular name given to a peculiar discoloration 
of sea water caused by microscopic organisms. 
At certain times these organisms become numer- 
ous enough to kill many thousands of marine 
animals. Since 1844 the Florida red tide has 
occurred at least 13 times in major proportions. 
There are apparently gaps of as much as 14 years 
when no red tides have been reported. Several 
theories concerning the nature and cause of red 
tide are presented as well as its effect on marine 
life. The authors discuss recent outbreaks of red 
tide and the possibility of determining when and 
where it is likely to return. Facts are presented 
which are pertinent to the question of the origin 
of irritant gases commonly associated with the 
red tide. F*resent and future studies on water 
movements, and methods of control and preven- 
tion of red tide are discussed. 

"Refrigeration of Tuna and Sardines by Sodium 
Chloride Brines," by Lionel Farber, article. 
Food Technology , (Published by the Institute of 
Food Technologists), vol. 9, no. 3, March 1955 
pp. 141-147, illus., printed, single copies of 
periodical; domestic US$1, foreign US$1.25. 
The Garrard Press, 119 West Park Avenue, 
Champaign, 111. The refrigeration of tuna, sar- 
dines, and mackerel by salt brines is discussed 
from the points of view of spoilage prevention, 
salt infiltration, and protein denaturation. The 
practical application of the laboratory data was 
tested on board a tuna clipper. Based on the 
available information certain recommendations 
are suggested for the practical use of brine re- 
frigeration for tuna, sardines, mackerel, and 
herring on board fishing boats. 

Report to Congress on the Mutual Security Program 
TForTHe Six MontTTs "Ended December 31, 1954), 
69 pp., illus., printed, 45 cents. Mutual Security 
Agency, Washington, D. C, December 31, 1954. 
(For sale by Superintendent of Documents, Wash- 
ington 25, D. C.) 



May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



85 



THESE PUBLICATIONS *RE NOT AVAILABLE FROM THE FISH AND WILDLIFE S ERVICE . BUT USUAL 



BE OBTAINED FROM THE ORGANIZATIONS ISSUING THEM . 

Trade Agreements Manual (A Summary of Selected 
Data Relating to Trade Agreements that the 
United States has Negotiated Since 1934), 55 pp., 
processed. U. S. Tariff Commission, Washing- 
ton 25, D. C ., March 1955. Designed to provide 
the answers to certain common questions about 
United States trade agreements, the manual is 
i summary of selected data relating to the vari- 
ous trade agreements that the United States has 
entered into imder the authority of the Trade 
Agreements Act of 1934 and the subsequent ex- 
tensions of that Act. 

Part 1 of the manual considers United States 
trade-agreement obligations, present and past. 
Among other things, it includes lists of countries 
with which the United States had trade-agreement 
obligations in effect on March 1, 1955; lists of 
countries with which we have had trade -agree- 
ment obligations in the past; and a list of coun- 
tries from which we have withdrawn trade-agree- 
ment concessions. It also includes a master list 
of all agreements that the United States has con- 
cluded under the Trade Agreements Act, whether 
or not those agreements are still in force, and a 
brief legislative history of the trade agreements 
program. 



Part n of the manual is devoted to informa- 
tion about the General Agreement on Tariffs and 
Trade. Among other things, it includes a list of 
the countries that were contracting parties to 
the General Agreement on March 1, 1955; a list 
of the countries that have withdrawn from the 
agreement; and a list showing the dates of signa- 
ture of the Annecy and Torquay protocols by con- 
tracting parties (as distinct from acceding coun- 
tries). It also includes a master list of all ac- 
cessions to, and withdrawals from, the General 
Agreement between October 30, 1947, andMarch 1, 
1955, and a list of the conferences, sessions, and 
meetings pertaining to the General Agreement 
that have been held since 1947. 

(Union of South Africa) Fishing Industry Research 
Institute Seventh Annual Report of the Director 
(1st Apr il, 1953- -31st March. 1 5r4Tr3 2 pp., 
illus., printed. Fishing Industry Research Insti- 
tute, Portswood Road, Cape Town, South Africa. 
Summarizes briefly: (1) the general activities 
of the Institute; (2) progress on research inves- 
tigations; and (3) the results of routine inspections 
and analyses. Research projects reported upon 
include studies on fresh hake, fish canning, spiny 
lobster, tomato puree, and fish and spiny lobster 
meals. 



TRADE LISTS 



The Office of Intelligence and Services, 
Bureau of Foreign Commerce, U. S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, Washington 25, D. C., 
has published the following mimeographed 
trade lists. Copies of these lists may be ob- 
tained by firms in the United States from that 
office or from Department of Commerce field 
offices at $ 1 per list. 

Canneries - Mexico, 10 pp. (February 1955) - in- 
eludes firms canning fishery products. Lists 
the name and address, size, and type of product 
canned by each firm . In a brief summary of the 
Mexican canning industry the report points out 
that there is a growing trend towards greater 
consumption of canned fish in Mexico. 

Canneries - Egypt , 3 pp. (January 1954). Lists 
name and address, size of firm, and type of 



product canned by each firm. Includes firms 
canning fishery products . 

Oils (Animal, Fish and Vegetable ) - Importers , 
Dealers , Producers, Refiners, anT^xporters - 
Nether lands, 23 pp. ( January 1955) . Lists the 
name and address, size of firm, and type of 
business of each firm. Includes a brief sum- 
mary of the Netherlands imports and exports 
of marine oils for 1953. Firms dealing infish 
and marine oils are listed. 

Oils ( Animal , Fish, and Vegetable ) - Importers , 
Dealers, Producers , ReiinersT and Exporters - 
Spain, 28 pp. (December 1954) . Lists the name 
and address, size of firm, and type of business 
of each firm. Includes firms dealing in marine 
oils . 



86 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



Vol. 17, No. 5 



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May 1955 



COMMERCIAL FISHERIES REVIEW 



87 



CONTENTS, CONTINUED 



Page 
FOREIGN (Contd.): 

Barbados Island (British West Indies): 

Status of the Fisheries 52 

More Fishing Boats to be Mechanized 53 

McGill University Fishery Research Institute 54 

Brazil: 

French and Spanish Vessels Contraa to Fish in 

Brazilian Waters 54 

Canada: 

Wood and Metal Lobster Trap Experiments . . 54 

Chile: 

Territorial Waters Patrol to be Intensified . . 57 

Cuba: 

Closed Lobster and Shrimp Fishing Season .. 57 

German Federal Republic: 

Authorized Imports of Danish Fishery Products 57 
Greece: 

Fisheries Trends, 1954 57 

Sponge Fishery, 1954 57 

G reenland: 

Norwegian-Danish Fishery Station in Greenland 58 
India: 

Madras Oyster Pearl Fishing Reactivated After 

28 Years 59 

Israel: 

Fisheries Trends, 1953/54 59 

Jamaica: 

Shrimp to be Flown to United States 60 

Japam 

Law for Promotion of Marine Products Exports 60 

Fishery Training Vessels Report Tuna Abundant 
in Indian Ocean 61 

More Salmon and Crab Faaoryships 61 

Salmon Production to Almost Double in 1955 . 62 

Earlier Trawling for Sole in North PacificTried 62 
Republic of Korea: 

UNKRA Completes Ten Deep-Sea Trawlers . . 62 

Inshore Fishing Vessels Built with UNKRA Aid 63 
Mexico: 

Export Duties on Shrimp and Fillets--Correction 63 
Norway: 

Lofoten Cod Catch Improves 64 

PaWstan: 

Research Vessel Donated by FOA 64 



Page 



FOREIGN (Contd.): 
Panama: 

Shrimp Fishery Expanding 64 

Republic of the Philippines: 
United States Enterprise Exempted from Fishing 

Boat Exchange Tax 65 

Ryukyu Islands: 

Fisheries Trends, January-June 1954 65 

U. S. S. R.: 
Sealing Expedition in Arctic Alarms Norwegian 

Sealers 69 

United Kingdom: 

Frozen Fish Export Market Booming 69 

Experimental Cruises for Hake Planned 69 

Hull Fish Workers Get Higher Wages 70 

Venezuela: 

Tuna Fishing Firm Begins Operations 70 

FEDERAL ACTIONS: 71 

Civil Service Commission; 

Fishery Marketing Specialist Examination .... 71 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare: 
Food and Drug Administration: 
Weight -Content Labeling for Canned Oysters 

Clarified 71 

Eighty-Fourth Congress (Second Session), April 

1955 72 

FISHERY INDICATORS: 74 

Chart 1 - Fishery Landings for Selected States . . 74 

Chart 2 - Landings for Selected Fisheries 75 

Chart 3 - Cold-Storage Holdings and Freezings of 

Fishery Products 76 

Chart 4 - Receipts and Cold-Storage Holdings of 
Fishery Products at Principal Distribution 

Centers T^ 

Chart 5 - Fish Meal and OU Produaion - U. S. and 

Alaska ^^ 

Chart 6 - Canned Packs of Selected Fishery 

Products '78 

Chart 7 - U. S. Fishery Products Imports 79 

RECENT FISHERY PUBLICATIONS: 80 

Fish and Wildlife Service Publications 80 

Miscellaneous Publications 81 



Editorial Assistant--Ruth V. Keefe Illustrator- -Gustaf T. Sundstrom 

Compositors--Jean Zalevsky, Alma Greene, and Helen Joswick 

Photograph Credits : Page by page, the following list gives the source or pho- 
tographer for each photograph in this issue. Photographs on pages not mentioned 
were obtained from the Service's file and the photographers are unknown. 

Cover--A. Aubrey Bodine; pp. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 13, and 14-- 
Robert S. Bailey; p. 26--Joseph Pileggi; pp. 33, 34, and 42-- 
Elliott A. Macklow; p. 47- -Joseph Pileggi. 



INT.-DUP- SEC, 




3 9088 01018 1774 



Cold Storage Holdings of Fishery Products, 1947 - 1954 



FROZEN FISH, ANNUAL SUMMARY - 1954 

Production of frozen fish and shellfish in the United States and Alaska in 1954 
amounted to 302.7 million pounds, according to Frozen Fish - 1954, C. F. S. 
No. 1085, recently issued by the Service's Branch of Commercial Fisheries. 
This production represented an increase of 27.3 million pounds (nearly 10 per- 
cent), compared with freezings during 1953. 

Representing the reported production of 270 firms throughout the United 
States and Alaska, this bulletin shows that 73 percent of the year's total freez- 
ings occurred during the period 
May-October. Average month- 
ly freezings during this period 
amountedto 36. 8 million pounds 
as compared with 13.7 million 
pounds during the other 6 months 
of the year. 

Of the total 1954 production 
of frozen fishery products, 
142.6 million pounds (47 per- 
cent) was handled in the New 
England area, followed by the 
South Atlantic area (50.0 mil- 
lion pounds). Pacific area (43.0 
million pounds), and Alaska 
(34.6 million pounds). These 
four areas produced 89 percent 
of the total for the year. 

Principal items frozen dur- 
ing the year were shrimp (58. 1 
million pounds), ocean p e r c h 
fillets (44.5 million pounds), 
halibut fillets (35. 2 million pounds), and whiting (33. 4 million pounds). These 
items made up 57 percent of the total freezings and also comprised 57 percent 
of the total in 1953. 

Data are also presented in the report on the production of frozen fishery 
products by months for the years 1920-1954; holdings of frozen fishery products 
by geographical sections and months during 1954; holdings of cured fish by pro- 
ducts and months for 1954; holdings of frozen, fishery products by months, 1917- 
1954; and a special table showing imports of certain fishery products for human 
consumption, 1949-1953. 

Copies of C.F.S. No. 1085 are available free fromi the Division of Infor- 
mation, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington 25, D. C.